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Full text of "The world factbook"

entral 

986 COP 2 itelligence 
.gency 



THF UBRARV OF THE 
06 1986 
OF HUMS 



The 

World 

Factbook 

Nineteen Hundred and Eighty-Six 




This publication is prepared for the use of US 
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and content are designed to meet their specific 
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Washington, 
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Central 

Intelligence 

Agency 



The 

World 

Factbook 

Nineteen Hundred and Eighty-Six 



The World Factbook is produced annually 
by the Directorate of Intelligence of the 
Central Intelligence Agency. The data are 
provided by various components of the 
Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense 
Intelligence Agency, the Bureau of the 
Census, and the US Department of State. In 
general, information available as of 1 
January 1986 was used in the preparation of 
this edition, with the following exceptions: 

Population figures are projected estimates 
for 1 July 1986; the average annual 
growth rates listed are projected estimates 
for the period mid- 1985 to mid- 1986. 

Military manpower estimates are as of 1 
January 1986, except the numbers of 
males reaching military age, which are 
projected averages for the five-year 
period 1986-90. 

Major political developments through 14 
April 1986 have been included. 

Comments and queries are welcome and 
may be addressed to: 

Central Intelligence Agency 
Attn: Public Affairs 
Washington, D.C. 20505 
(703) 351-2053 

For information on how to obtain addi- 
tional copies, see the inside of the front 
cover. 



AGRICULTURE LIBRA.;/ 

APR 1 4 1838 

UNIVERSITY OF Ui'jV'Jj? 



041-015-00163-9 
(Supersedes 041-015-00159-2) 
June 1986 



Contents 



Page 



Definitions, Abbreviations, and Explanatory Notes 



Abu Dhabi (see United Arab Emirates) 



Afghanistan 



Ajman (see United Arab Emirates) 



Albania 



Algeria 



Andorra 



Angola 



Anguilla (formerly St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla) 



Antigua and Barbuda 



Argentina 



Aruba 11 

Australia 12 

Austria 13 

Azores (see Portugal) 



B Bahamas, The 15 



Bahrain 16 

Balearic Islands (see Spain) 

Bangladesh 17_ 

Barbados 19^ 

Belgian Congo (see Zaire) 

Belgium 20^ 

Belize (formerly British Honduras) 22 

Benin (formerly Dahomey) 23 

Bermuda 24 

Bhutan 26^ 

Bioko (see Equatorial Guinea) 

Bolivia 27_ 

Bophuthatswana (see South Africa) 

Botswana 28_ 

Brazil 30_ 

British Honduras (see Belize) 

British Indian Ocean Territory 31 

British Solomon Islands (see Solomon Islands) 

British Virgin Islands 32 

Brunei 33^ 

Bulgaria 34 

Burkina (formerly Upper Volta) 36 

Burma 37 

Burundi 38 



Cabinda (see Angola) 



Cambodia (formerly Kampuchea) 40 

Cameroon 41 



iii 



Page 

Canada 12 

Canary Islands (see Spain) 

Cape Verde 44 

Cayman Islands 45 

Central African Republic 46 

Ceylon (see Sri Lanka) 

Chad 48 
Channel Islands (see Guernsey and Jersey) 

Chile 49 

China (Taiwan listed at end of table) ol 

Christmas Island 52 

Colombia 53 

Comoros 55 

Congo 56 

Cook Islands 57 

Costa Rica 58 

Cuba 60 

Cyprus 61 

Czechoslovakia 63 



D Dahomey (see Benin) 



Denmark 64 

Djibouti (formerly French Territory of the Afars and Issas) 66 

Dominica 67 

Dominican Republic 68 
Dubai (see United Arab Emirates) 



Ecuador 



Egypt 71 

Kllk-e Islands (see Tuvalu) 

El Salvador 73 

Equatorial Guinea 74 

Ethiopia 76 



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 77 

Faroe Islands 78 

Fernando Po (see Equatorial Guinea) 

Fiji 79 

Finland 80 

France 82 

French Guiana 84 

French Polynesia S5 

French Territory of the Afars and Issas (see Djibouti) 
Fujayrah, al (see United Arab Emirates) 



Gabon 86 

Gambia, The 88 



Page 

Gaza Strip (see West Bank and Gaza Strip, listed at end of table) 

German Democratic Republic W) 

Germany. Federal Republic of 91 

Ghana 92 

Gibraltar 94 

Gilbert Islands (see Kiribati) 

Greece 95 

Greenland 96 

Grenada 97 

Guadeloupe 99 

Guatemala 100 

Guernsey 102 

Guinea 103 

Guinea-Bissau (formerly Portuguese Guinea) 104 



Guyana 105 



H Haiti 107 



Honduras 108 

Hong Kong 110 

Hungary 111 



Iceland 112_ 

India 114 

Indonesia 1 15 

Iran 117 

Iraq 119 

Ireland 120 

Israel (West Bank and Gaza Strip listed at end of table) 122 

Italy 124 

Ivory Coast 125 



Jamaica 127 

Japan 128 

Jersey 130 

Jordan (West Bank and Gaza Strip listed at end of table) 131 



Kampuchea (see Cambodia) 



Kenya 132 

Kiribati (formerly Gilbert Islands) 133 

Korea, North 134 

Korea. South 136 

Kuwait 137 

Laos 139 

Lebanon 140 

Lesotho 142 

Liberia 113 

Libya 144 



Page 

Liechtenstein 146 

Luxembourg 147 



M Macau 148 



Madagascar 1 49 

Madeira Islands (see Portugal) 

Malagasy Republic (see Madagascar) 

Malawi 151 

Malaysia 152 

Maldives 155 

Mali 156 

Malta 157 

Man, Isle of 159 

Martinique 160 

Mauritania 161 

Mauritius 162 

Mayotte 164 

Mexico 165 

Monaco 166 

Mongolia 167 

Montserrat 168 

Morocco 169 

Mozambique 171 



N Namibia (formerly South- West Africa) 172 

Nauru 174 



Nepal 175 

Netherlands 176 

Netherlands Antilles 178 

New Caledonia 179 

New Hebrides (see Vanuatu) 

New Zealand 180 

Nicaragua 181 

Niger 183 

Nigeria 185 

Niue 186 

Norfolk Island 187 

Northern Rhodesia (see Zambia) 

Norway 188 



Oman 190 



Pakistan 191 

Panama 193 

Papua New Guinea 194 

Paraguay 196 

Pemba (see Tanzania) 

vi 



Page 

Peru 197 

Philippines 198 

Pitcairn 200 

Poland 201 

Portugal 202 

Portuguese Guinea (see Guinea-Bissau) 
Portuguese Timor (see Indonesia) 



Qatar 204 



R Ra's al-Khaymah (see United Arab Emirates) 



Reunion 205 

Rhodesia (see Zimbabwe) 

Rio Muni (see Equatorial Guinea) 

Romania 206 

Rwanda 207 



St. Christopher and Nevis (formerly St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla) 209 

St. Helena 210 

St. Lucia 211 

St. Vincent and the Grenadines 212 

San Marino 213 

Sao Tome and Principe 214 

Saudi Arabia 215 

Senegal 217 

Seychelles 218 

Sharjah (see United Arab Emirates) 

Sierra Leone 219 

Singapore 221 

Solomon Islands (formerly British Solomon Islands) 222 

Somalia 223 

South Africa 224 

Southern Rhodesia (see Zimbabwe) 

South- West Africa (see Namibia) 

Soviet Union 226 

Spain 228 

Spanish Sahara (see Western Sahara) 

Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) 230 

Sudan 231 

Suriname 233 

Swaziland 234 

Sweden 235 

Switzerland 237 

Syria 239 



vii 



Page 

Tanganyika (see Tanzania) 

Tanzania 240 

Tasmania (see Australia) 

Thailand 242 

Togo 2-1 o 

Tokelau 244 

Tonga 245 

Transkei (see South Africa) 

Trinidad and Tobago 246 

Tunisia 248 

Turkey 249 

Turks and Caicos Islands 251 

Tuvalu (formerly Ellice Islands) 252 



U Uganda 253 



Umm al-Qaywayn (see United Arab Emirates) 



United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, al Fujayrah, 254 

Ra's al-Khaymah, Sharjah, Umm al-Qaywayn) 

United Arab Republic (see Egypt) 

United Kingdom 255 

United States 257 

Upper Volta (see Burkina) 

Uruguay 259 



Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) 2(i() 

Vatican City 261 
Venda (see South Africa) 

Venezuela 2li2 

Vietnam 263 



W Wallis and Futuna 265 



Walvis Bay (see South Africa) 



Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) 265 

Western Samoa 266 



Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) 267 

Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of (South Yemen) 268 

Yugoslavia 270 



Zaire 271 

Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia) 27 > 

Zanzibar (see Tanzania) 

Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia) 274 



Taiwan (China listed alphabetically) 275 



West Bank and Gaza Strip 277 



viii 



Page 

Appendixes 



A. The United Nations System 279 

B. Selected UN Organizations 280 

C. Selected International Organizations 281 

D. Conversion Table 283 

E. Country Membership in Selected Organizations 284 

Maps 



I. The World (Guide to Regional Maps II-XIII) 



II. North America 



III. Central America and the Caribbean 



IV. South America 



V. Europe 



VI. Middle East 



VII. Africa 



VIII. Soviet Union, East and South Asia 



IX. Southeast Asia 



X. Oceania 



XI. Arctic Region 



XII. Antarctic Region 



XIII. Standard Time Zones of the World 



ix 



Definitions, Abbreviations, 
and Explanatory Notes 



Fiscal Year: The abbreviation FY stands for fiscal year; all years are 
calendar years unless otherwise indicated. 

GDP and GNP: GDP is the total market value of all goods and 
services produced within the domestic borders of a country over a 
particular time period, normally a year. GNP equals GDP plus the 
income accruing to domestic residents arising from investment abroad 
less income earned in the domestic market accruing to foreigners 
abroad. 

Imports, Exports, and Aid: Standard abbreviations used in individual 
entries throughout this factbook are c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight), 
f.o.b. (free on board), ODA (official development assistance), and OOF 
(other official flows). 

Land Utilization: Most of the land utilization percentages are rough 
estimates. Figures for "arable" land in some cases reflect the area 
under cultivation rather than the total cultivable area. 

Maritime Zones: Fishing and economic zones claimed by coastal 
states are included only when they differ from territorial sea limits. 
Maritime claims do not necessarily represent the position of the 
United States Government. 

Money: All money figures are in contemporaneous US dollars unless 
otherwise indicated. 

Oil Terms: Barrel (bbl) and barrels per day (b/d) are used to express 
volume of crude oil and refined products; a barrel equals 42.00 
gallons, 158.99 liters, 5.61 cubic feet, or 0.16 cubic meters. 

Note: Some of the countries and governments included in this 
publication are not fully independent, and others are not officially 
recognized by the United States Government. 



Afghanistan 



300km 




See regional mip \ 111 



Land 

647,497 km 2 ; about the size of Texas; 75% 
desert, waste, or urban; 22% arable (12% 
cultivated, 10% pasture); 3% forest 

Land boundaries: 5,510 km 

People 

Population: 15,425,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.4%; these estimates 
include an adjustment for emigration to 
Pakistan during recent years but do not take 
into account other demographic 
consequences of the Soviet intervention in 
Afghanistan 

Nationality: noun Afghan(s); adjective 
Afghan 

Ethnic divisions: 50% Pashtun, 25% Tajik, 
9% Uzbek, 9% Hazara; minor ethnic groups 
include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baluchi, 
and others 

Religion: 74% Sunni Muslim, 25% Shi'a 
Muslim, 1% other 

Language: 50% Pashtu, 35% Afghan Persian 
(Dari), 11% Turkic languages (primarily 
Uzbek and Turkmen), 10% thirty minor lan- 
guages (primarily Baluchi and Pashai); much 
bilingualism 

Life expectancy: men 39.9, women 40.7 
Literacy: 12% 

Labor force: 4.98 million (1980 est.); 67.8% 
agriculture and animal husbandry, 10.2% 



industry, 6.3% construction, 5.0% 
commerce, 7.7% services and other; current 
figures unavailable because of fighting (1986) 

Organized labor: government-controlled 
unions are being established 

Government 

Official name: Democratic Republic of Af- 
ghanistan 

Type: Communist regime backed by multi- 
divisional Soviet force 

Capital: Kabul 

Political subdivisions: 29 provinces with 
centrally appointed governors 

Legal system: not established; legal educa- 
tion at Kabul University; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

Branches: Revolutionary Council acts as 
legislature and final court of appeal; Presi- 
dent of Council acts as chief of state; Cabi- 
net and judiciary responsible to Council; 
Presidium chosen by Council has full au- 
thority when Council not in session; Loya 
Jirga (Grand National Assembly) supposed to 
convene eventually and approve permanent 
constitution 

Government leaders: BABRAK Karmal, 
President of the Revolutionary Council and 
head of the People's Democratic Party of 
Afghanistan (since December 1979); Soltan 
Ali KESHTMAND, Prime Minister (since 
June 1981) 

Suffrage: universal from age 18 

Political parties and leaders: the People's 
Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), 
the sole legal political party, has two fac- 
tions the Parchami faction has been in 
power since December 1979; members of 
the deposed Khalqi faction continue to hold 
some important posts; the Sholaye-Jaweid is 
a much smaller pro- Beijing group 

Communists: the PDPA claims 120,000 
members 

Other political or pressure groups: the mili- 
tary and other branches of internal security 
are being rebuilt by the Soviets; insurgency 
continues throughout the country; 



widespread opposition on religious grounds; 
widespread anti-Soviet sentiment 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IDE Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, ITU, NAM, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WMO, WTO, WSG; suspended from QIC in 
January 1980 

Economy 

GNP: $3.0 billion (1985), $160 per capita 
(1984); real growth rate 2.5% (1975-79); cur- 
rent growth rate figures not available (1986) 

Natural resources: natural gas, oil, coal, cop- 
per, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron, 
salt, precious and semiprecious stones 

Agriculture: subsistence farming and animal 
husbandry; main crops wheat, fruits, nuts, 
karakul pelts, wool, mutton; an illegal pro- 
ducer of opium poppy and cannabis for the 
international drug trade 

Major industries: small-scale production of 
textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and 
cement for domestic use; handwoven car- 
pets for export 

Electric power: 472,000 kW capacity (1984); 
1.375 billion kWh produced (1985), 93 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $778 million (f.o.b., 1985); mostly 
fruits and nuts, natural gas, and carpets 

Imports: $902 million (c.i.f., 1985); mostly 
food supplies and petroleum products 

Major trade partners: exports mostly 
USSR and other Eastern bloc countries; im- 
ports mostly USSR and other Eastern bloc 
countries 

Budget: current expenditure Af22.7 billion, 
capital expenditure Af 10.9 billion for FY82 
(est.) 

Monetary conversion rate: 50.6 
afghanis=US$l (official, January 1985) 

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March 



1 



Afghanistan (continued) 



Albania 



Communications 

Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter 
gauge, spur of Soviet line from Kushka 
(USSR) to Towraghondt and from Termez 
(USSR) to Kheyrabad Transhipment Point 
(15 km) on south bank Amu Darya (govern- 
ment owned) 

Highways: 21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km 
hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous treated 
gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km un- 
improved earth and tracks 

Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 
km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles 
steamers up to about 500 metric tons 

Pipelines: natural gas, 180 km 

Ports: 3 minor river ports; largest Shir Khan 

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 41 total, 34 usable; 12 with 
permanent-surface runways; 8 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 16 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: limited telephone, 
telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; tele- 
vision introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones 
(0.2 per 100 popl.); 5 AM and no FM stations, 
1 TV station, 1 earth satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Armed Forces, Air and Defense 
Forces, border guard forces, Defense of the 
Revolution Force, National Police Force, 
Government Information Service, People's 
Militia, operational battalions 

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 
3,657,000; 2,030,000 fit for military service; 
about 149,000 reach military age (22) annu- 
ally 

Supply: dependent on foreign sources, al- 
most exclusively the USSR 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 20 
March 1984, $210 million, about 63% of cen- 
tral government budget 



Adriatic 



Sea 



Ionian Set 
See regional imp V 




Land 

28,748 km 2 ; slightly larger than Maryland; 
43% forest and wood; 21% arable; 19% 
meadows and pasture; 5% permanent crop; 
5% inland water; 7% other 

Land boundaries: 716 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 15 
nm 

Coastline: 418 km (including Sazan Island) 

People 

Population: 3,020,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.0% 

Nationality: noun Albanian(s); adjective 
Albanian 

Ethnic divisions: 96% Albanian; remaining 
4% are Greeks, Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and 
Bulgarians 

Religion: Albania claims to be the world's 
first atheist state; prewar est. 70% Muslim, 
20% Albanian Orthodox, 10% Roman Cath- 
olic; observances prohibited 

Language: Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), 
Greek 

Infant mortality rate: 86.8/1,000(1971) 
Life expectancy: 69 



Literacy: 75% 

Labor force: 584,000 (1978); about 22% agri- 
culture, 40% industry and commerce, 38% 
other (1978) 

Government 

Official name: People's Socialist Republic of 
Albania 

Type: Communist state 

Capital: Tirane 

Political subdivisions: 26 rrethet (districts) 

Legal system: based on constitution adopted 
in 1976; judicial review of legislative acts 
only in the Presidium of the People's Assem- 
bly, which is not a true court; legal education 
at University of Tirane; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 No- 
vember 

Branches: legislature (People's Assembly), 
Council of Ministers, judiciary 

Government leaders: Ramiz ALIA, Chair- 
man, Presidium of the People's Assembly 
(chief of state; since November 1982); Adil 
CARCANI, Chairman, Council of Ministers 
(premier; since November 1982) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18 

Elections: national elections held every four 
years; last elections 12 November 1982; 
100% of electorate voted (with one dissent- 
ing vote) 

Political parties and leaders: Albanian 
Workers Party only; First Secretary, Ramiz 
Alia (since April 1985) 

Communists: 122,600 party members (No- 
vember 1981); 4.5% of population 

Member of: CEMA, FAO, IAEA, IPU, ITU, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WMO; has not participated in CEMA since 
rift with USSR in 1961; officially withdrew 
from Warsaw Pact 13 September 1968 



Algeria 



Economy 

GNP: $2.6-2.8 billion (1985); approximately 

$900 per capita (1984) 

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, chromium 

Agriculture: main crops corn, wheat, pota- 
toes, tobacco, sugar beets, cotton 

Major industries: agricultural products and 
processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, 
and extractive industries (chrome and oil) 

Shortages: spare parts, machinery and 
equipment, some food products and con- 
sumer goods 

Electric power: 1,540,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 4.7 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 584 kWh per capita 

Exports: $290 million (1983 est); asphalt, 
bitumen, petroleum products, metals and 
metallic ores, electricity, oil, vegetables, 
fruits, and tobacco 

Imports: $280 million (1983); machinery, 
machine tools, iron and steel products, tex- 
tiles, chemicals, Pharmaceuticals 

Major trade partners: exports Yugoslavia, 
Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, Poland, 
Austria; imports Yugoslavia, Czechoslova- 
kia, FRG, Romania, Poland, Italy, Greece, 
France 

Budget: (1984 prov.) revenue $1.29 billion, 
expenditure $1.28 billion; state investment 
$709.7 billion (1984 planned) 

Monetary conversion rate: 7.1328 
leks=US$l (February 1984) 

Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic 
data reported for calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 228 km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge, single track, government owned 
(1980 est.); claims over 400 km (1983); line 
connecting Titograd, Yugoslavia, and 
Shkodev, Albania, to be completed in 1986 



Highways: 4,989 km total; 1,287 km paved, 
1,609 km crushed stone and/or gravel, 2,093 
km improved or unimproved earth (1975) 

Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian 
sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and 
Lake Prespa (1979) 

Pipelines: crude oil, 117 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 65 km; natural gas, 64 km 

Freight carried: rail 2.8 million metric 
tons, 180 million metric ton/km (1971); 
highways 39 million metric tons, 900 million 
metric ton/km (1971) 

Ports: 1 major (Durres), 3 minor (1979) 
Civil air: no civil airline 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Albanian People's Army, Frontier 
Troops, Interior Troops, Albanian Coastal 
Defense Command, Air and Air Defense 
Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 806,000; 
667,000 fit for military service; 32,000 reach 
military age (19) annually 

Military budget: announced for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1985, 1 billion leks; 
10.9% of total budget 



Mediterranean Sea 




Sec rtfional map VII 



Land 

2,381,471 km 2 ; more than three times the 
size of Texas; 80% desert, waste, or urban; 
16% pasture and meadows; 3% cultivated; 
1% forest 

Land boundaries: 6,260 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 1,183 km 

People 

Population: 22,817,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2% 

Nationality: noun Algerian(s); adjective 
Algerian 

Ethnic divisions: 99% Arab- Berbers, less 
than 1 % Europeans 

Religion: 99% Sunni Muslim (state religion); 
1% Christian and Jewish 

Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber 
dialects 

Infant mortality rate: 106/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 60 
Literacy: 52% 



Algeria (continued) 



Labor force: 3.7 million (1984); 40% industry 
and commerce, 30% agriculture, 17% gov- 
ernment, 10% services; at least 1 1% of urban 
labor unemployed 

Organized labor: 16-19% of labor force 
claimed; General Union of Algerian Work- 
ers (UGTA) is the only labor organization 
and is subordinate to the National Libera- 
tion Front 

Government 

Official name: Democratic and Popular Re- 
public of Algeria 

Type: republic 
Capital: Algiers 

Political subdivisions: 31 wilayas (depart- 
ments or provinces); 160 dairat (administra- 
tive districts); 691 communes 

Legal system: based on French and Islamic 
law, with socialist principles; new constitu- 
tion adopted by referendum November 
1976; judicial review of legislative acts in ad 
hoc Constitutional Council composed of 
various public officials, including several 
Supreme Court justices; Supreme Court di- 
vided into four chambers; legal education at 
Universities of Algiers, Oran, and Constan- 
tine; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revo- 
lution, 1 November 

Branches: executive; unicameral legislature 
(National People's Assembly); judiciary 

Government leaders: Col. Chadli BENDJE- 
DID, President (since February 1979); 
Abdelhamid BRAHIMI, Prime Minister 
(since January 1984) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18 

Elections: presidential, 12 January 1984; 
departmental assemblies, 2 June 1974; local 
assemblies, 30 March 1975; legislative, 5 
March 1982 



Political parties and leaders: National Lib- 
eration Front (FLN), Secretary General 
Chadli Bendjedid 

Communists: 400 (est.); Communist Party 
illegal (banned 1962) 

Member of: AfDB, AIOEC, Arab League, 
ASSIMER, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, International Lead and Zinc 
Study Group, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, 
NAM, OAPEC, OAU, QIC, OPEC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $51.9 billion (1984 est.), $2,430 per 

capita; 5.0% real growth in 1985 

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, 
iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc, 
mercury 

Agriculture: main crops wheat, barley, 
oats, grapes, olives, citrus fruits, dates, vege- 
tables, sheep, cattle, industrial crops 

Major industries: petroleum, light indus- 
tries, natural gas, mining, petrochemical, 
electrical, automotive plants (under con- 
struction), and food processing 

Crude steel: 842,000 metric tons produced 
(1982) 

Electric power: 3,142,300 kW capacity 
(1985); 11. 148 billion kWh produced (1985), 
506 kWh per capita 

Exports: $12.6 billion (f .o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum and gas account for 98.0% of exports; 
US 39.0%, France 23.0% (1984) 

Imports: $10.0 billion (f .o.b., 1984); major 
items capital goods 35.0%, semifinished 
goods 25.0%, foodstuffs 18.0%; France 
25.7%, US 6.0% 

Major trade partners: US, FRG, France, 
Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Canada 

Budget: $20 billion revenue, $20 billion ex- 
penditure (1984) 



Monetary conversion rate: 5. 1 Algerian 
dinars=US$l (August 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,950 km total; 2,690 km stand- 
ard gauge (1.435 m), 1,140 km 1.055-meter 
gauge, 120 km 1.000-meter gauge; 320 km 
electrified; 193 km double track 

Highways: 78,410 km total; 45,070 km con- 
crete or bituminous, 33,340 km gravel, 
crushed stone, unimproved earth 

Pipelines: crude oil, 6,612 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 298 km; natural gas, 2,948 km 

Ports: 6 major, 6 secondary, 10 minor 
Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 155 total, 149 usable; 56 with 
permanent-surface runways; 28 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 73 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Armed Forces, Army, Navy, Air 
Force, National Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,892,000; 
3,024,000 fit for military service; 248,000 
reach military age (19) annually 



Andorra 




Sec regional map V 



Land 

466 km 2 ; half the size of New York City 

Land boundaries: 105 km 

People 

Population: 49,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 5.1% 

Nationality: noun Andorran(s); 
adjective Andorran 

Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; 61% Span- 
ish, 30% Andorran, 6% French, 3% other 

Religion: virtually all Roman Catholic 

Language: Catalan (official); many also 
speak some French and Castilian 

Literacy: 100% 

Labor force: largely shepherds and farmers 

Government 

Official name: Principality of Andorra 

Type: unique co-principality under formal 
sovereignty of President of France and 
Spanish Bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are rep- 
resented locally by officials called verguers 

Capital: Andorra la Vella 
Political subdivisions: 7 districts 



Legal system: based on French and Spanish 
civil codes; Plan of Reform adopted 1866 
serves as constitution; no judicial review of 
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction 

Branches: legislative (General Council of the 
Valleys) consisting of 28 members; execu- 
tive syndic (manager) and a deputy 
subsyndic chosen by General Council; judi- 
ciary chosen by Co-princes who appoint two 
civil judges, a judge of appeals, and two 
batlles (court prosecutors); final appeal to the 
Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan, 
France, or to the Ecclesiastical Court of the 
Bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain 

Government leaders: head of state Fran- 
cois MITTERRAND (President of France; 
since 1981) and Juan Marti ALANIS (Bishop 
of Seo de Urgel, Spain; since 1971), 
Co-Princes; Syndic Francesc 
CERQUEDA Pasquet (since 1982); Subsyn- 
dic Josep Maria MAS Pens (since 1982); 
head of government Josep PINTAT (Chief 
Executive; since 1986) 

Suffrage: those of 21 or over who are third- 
generation Andorrans can vote for General 
Council members 

Elections: General Council chosen every 
four years; last election December 1981 

Political parties and leaders: political par- 
ties not yet legally recognized; traditionally 
no political parties but partisans for particu- 
lar independent candidates for the General 
Council on the basis of competence, person- 
ality, and orientation toward Spain or 
France; various small pressure groups devel- 
oped in 1972; first formal political party, 
Andorran Democratic Association, was 
formed in 1976 and reorganized in 1979 as 
Andorran Democratic Party 

Communisms.- negligible 
Member of: UNESCO 

Economy 

Natural resources: hydroelectric power, 
mineral water 



Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities 
of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and 
some vegetables (less than 4% of land is ara- 
ble) 

Major industries: tourism (particularly ski- 
ing), sheep, timber, tobacco, and smuggling 

Electric power: 35,000 kW capacity (1985); 
141 million kWh produced (1985), 3,000 
kWh per capita; power is mainly exported to 
Spain and France 

Major trade partners: Spain, France 

Monetary conversion rate: 9.375 French 
francs=US$l (October 1984); 169.96 Span- 
ish pesetas=US$l (October 1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: about 96 km 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: none 

Telecommunications: international landline 
circuits to Spain and France; 1 AM station; 
about 12,800 telephones (43.5 per 100 popl.) 
(1982) 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of Spain and 
France 



Angola 



300km 



Cab 




Scr regional map \ 1 1 



Land 

1,246,700 km 2 ; larger than California and 
Texas combined; 44% forest; 22% meadow 
and pasture; 1% cultivated; 33% other (in- 
cluding fallow) 

Land boundaries: 5,070 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 20 
nm (fishing 200 nm) 

Coastline: 1,600 km 

People 

Population: 8,164,000, including Cabinda 
(July 1986), average annual growth rate 
2.7%; Cabinda, 133,372 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2% 

Nationality: noun Angolan(s); adjective 
Angolan 

Ethnic divisions: 37% Ovimbundu, 25% 
Kimbundu, 13% Bakongo, 2% Mestico, 1% 
European 

Religion: 68% Roman Catholic, 20% Protes- 
tant, about 10% indigenous beliefs 

Language: Portuguese (official); various 
Bantu dialects 

Infant mortality rate: 148/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 40.6, women 42.9 



Literacy: 20% 

Labor force: 2,783,000 economically active 
(mid-1985 est.); 85% agriculture, 15% indus- 
try 

Organized labor: approx. 450,695 (1980) 

Government 

Official name: People's Republic of Angola 

Type: Marxist people's republic 
Capital: Luanda 

Political subdivisions: 18 provinces includ- 
ing the coastal exclave of Cabinda 

Legal system: formerly based on Portuguese 
civil law system and customary law; being 
modified along "socialist" model 

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 
November 

Branches: the official party is the supreme 
political institution; legislative National 
People's Assembly 

Government leader: Jose Eduardo dos 
SANTOS, President (since September 1979) 

Suffrage: to be determined 
Elections: none held to date 

Political parties and leaders: Popular Move- 
ment for the Liberation of Angola-Labor 
Party (MPLA-Labor Party), led by dos 
Santos, is the only legal party; National 
Union for the Total Independence of Angola 
(UNITA), lost to the MPLA in immediate 
postindependence struggle, now carrying 
out insurgency 

Member of: AfDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de 
facto), ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, 
INTELSAT, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, 
UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $4.0 billion (1985 est.), $500 per cap- 
ita, 0% real growth (1985) 



Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, 
iron, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, 
bauxite, uranium 

Agriculture: cash crops coffee, sisal, corn, 
cotton, sugar, manioc, and tobacco; food 
crops cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, 
bananas, and other local foodstuffs; drought 
and disruptions caused by civil war require 
food imports 

Fishing: catch 1 12,000 metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: mining (oil, diamonds), 
fish processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar 
processing, textiles, cement, food processing 
plants, building construction 

Electric power: (including Cabinda) 630,000 
kW capacity (1985); 1.655 billion kWh pro- 
duced (1985), 208 kWh per capita 

Exports: est. $2.0 billion (f.o.b., 1985); oil, 
coffee, diamonds, sisal, fish and fish prod- 
ucts, iron ore, timber, and cotton 

Imports: est. $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1985); capi- 
tal equipment (machinery and electrical 
equipment), wines, bulk iron and ironwork, 
steel and metals, vehicles and spare parts, 
textiles and clothing, medicines, food; sub- 
stantial military deliveries 

Major trade partners: Cuba, USSR, Portu- 
gal, and US 

Budget: (1981) est. revenues $2.0 billion; est. 
total expenditures $3.5 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 30.214 
kwanza=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067- 
meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge 

Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km - 
bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350 km 
crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, 
remainder unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 1,165 km navigable 



Anguilla 



Ports: 3 major (Luanda, Lobito, Namibe), 5 
minor 

Pipelines: crude oil, 179km 

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 351 total, 263 usable; 25 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 12 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 69 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system of wire, 
radio-relay, and troposcatter routes; high 
frequency used extensively for military/ 
Cuban links; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite sta- 
tions; 40,300 telephones (0.7 per 100 popl.); 
16 AM, 13 FM, and 2 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/ Air De- 
fense; paramilitary forces People's Police 
Corps, People's Defense Organization and 
Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,973,000; 
993,000 fit for military service; 83,000 reach 
military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1983, $587 million; 25% of cen- 
tral government budget 



20 k:r 



Sombrero 



Caribbean 
Sea 



Prickly Pear Cays 



Anguilla 




THE VALLEY! 



Blowing Point 



See rcfionil map III 



Land 

Anguilla, 91 km 2 ; about one-half the size of 
Washington, D. C.; Sombrero, 5 km 2 

People 

Population: 6,680 (1984) 

Nationality: noun Anguillan(s); adjec- 
tive Anguillan 

Ethnic divisions: mainly of African Negro 
descent 

Religion: Anglican and Methodist 
Language: English (official) 
Literacy: 80% 

Labor force: 2,000 Anguillans living overseas 
send remittances home; 26.4% unemployed 
(1984) 

Government 

Official name: Anguilla 

Type: British dependent territory 
Capital: The Valley 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution came into effect on 1 April 
1982 

Branches: 1 1-member House of Assembly, 
seven-member Executive Council 



Government leaders: Allistair BAILLE, 
Governor (since February 1984); Emile 
GUMBS, Chief Minister (since March 1984) 

Suffrage: native born; resident before sepa- 
ration from St. Christopher and Nevis; 15 
years residence for "belonger" status 

Elections: general election, March 1984 

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla 
National Alliance (ANA), Emile Gumbs; 
Anguillan People's Party (APP), Ronald 
Webster 

Voting strength: ANA, 6 seats; APP, seats; 
1 independent 

Communists: none 
Member of: Commonwealth 

Economy 

GDP: $6 million (1983 est.), $6,000 per cap- 
ita (1983 est.) 

Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet pota- 
toes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry 

Fishing: inshore and reef fishing 

Major industries: tourism, lobster exports, 
salt, fishing 

Electric power: 1,500,000 kW capacity 
(1984); 2 million kWh produced (1984), 285 
kWh per capita 

Exports: lobsters 

Budget: revenue, $3.7 million (1983); ex- 
penditure, $3.9 million (1983) 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Carib- 
bean dollars=$USl (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: probably calendar 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: approximately 60 km surfaced 
Inland waterways: none 



Anguilla (continued) 



Antigua and Barbuda 



Ports: 1 major (Road Bay), 1 minor (Blowing 
Point) 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfield: 1 with permanent-surface runways 
of 1,100 m at Wallblake Airport 

Telecommunications: modern internal tele- 
phone system; 890 telephones (13.6 per 100 
popl.); 1 FM and 2 AM stations; radio-relay 
link to St. Martin's Island 

Defense Forces 

External defense is the responsibility of UK 

Branches: Police 



Barbuda 




ington 



Caribbean Sea 



SAINT JOHN 



^Antigua 



o Redonda 
See regional mip III 



Land 

280 km 2 ; less than two-thirds the size of New 
York City; 54% arable; 18% waste and built 
on; 14% forest; 9% unused but potentially 
productive; 5% pasture; the islands of Re- 
donda (less than 2.6 km and uninhabited) 
and Barbuda (161 km) are dependencies 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 153 km 

People 

Population: 82,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Antiguan(s); adjective 
Antiguan 

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely of black 
African origin; some of British, Portuguese, 
Lebanese, and Syrian origin 

Religion: Anglican (predominant), other 
Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic 

Language: English (official), local dialects 
Infant mortality rate: 31.5/1,000 (1985) 
Life expectancy: 70 
Literacy: about 90% 



Labor force: 30,000 (1983); 20% unemploy- 
ment (1983); agriculture 11%, industry 7%, 
and commerce and services 82% 

Government 

Official name: Antigua and Barbuda 

Type: independent state recognizing Eliza- 
beth II as Chief of State 

Capital: St. John's on the island of Antigua 

Political subdivisions: 6 parishes, 2 de- 
pendencies (Barbuda, Redonda) 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; British Caribbean Court of Appeal, 
which has exclusive original jurisdiction and 
an appellate jurisdiction, consists of Chief 
Justice and five justices 

Branches: bicameral legislative, 17-member 
popularly elected House of Representatives 
and 17-member Senate; executive, Prime 
Minister and Cabinet; judiciary, Court of 
Appeals 

Government leaders: Vere Cornwall BIRD, 
Sr., Prime Minister (since 1976); Lester 
BIRD, Deputy Prime Minister (since 1976); 
Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS, Governor 
General (since 1967) 

Suffrage: universal suffrage at age 18 

Elections: every five years; last general elec- 
tion 17 April 1984 

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor 
Party (ALP), Vere C. Bird, Sr., Lester Bird; 
United People's Movement (UPM), George 
Herbert Walter; National Democratic Party 
(NDP), Dr. Ivor Heath 

Voting strength: (1984 election) House of 
Representatives ALP, 16 seats; inde- 
pendent, 1 seat 

Communists: negligible 

Other political or pressure groups: Antigua 
Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM), a 
small leftist nationalist group led by 
Leonard "Tim" Hector 



Argentina 



Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, 
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, ISO, 
OAS, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $158 million (1984), $1,990 per capita 

Natural resources: negligible 

Agriculture: cotton (main crop), sugar, live- 
stock 

Major industries: tourism 15.2%, construc- 
tion 7.7%, manufacturing 0.5% 

Electric power: 27,000 kW capacity (1985); 
60.5 million kWh produced (1985), 756 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $41 million (1984 prelim.); cloth- 
ing, rum, lobsters 

Imports: $146.9 million (c.i.f., 1984 prelim.); 
fuel, food, machinery 

Major trade partners: exports 47% Trin- 
idad and Tobago, 8% Barbados, 1% US 
(1983); imports 49% US, 13% UK, 4% Ja- 
maica, 2% Trinidad and Tobago (1983) 

Aid: economic bilateral commitments, 
ODA and OOF (1970-80) from Western 
(non-US) countries, $20 million; no military 
aid 

Budget: (current) revenues, $40 million 
(1984); expenditures, $44 million (1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Carib- 
bean (EC)dollars=US$l (February 1984) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-30 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, 
13 km 0.610-meter gauge, employed almost 
exclusively for handling cane 

Highways: 240 km main 

Ports: 1 major (St. John's), 1 minor 

Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft 



Airfields: 2 total, 1 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: good automatic tele- 
phone system; 6,700 telephones (9.2 per 100 
popl.); tropospheric scatter links with Saba 
and Guadeloupe; 6 AM and 2 FM stations; 1 
TV station; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 sat- 
ellite ground station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Antigua and Barbuda Defense 

Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police 

Force 

Major ground units: Defense Force 
Aircraft: none 



1000 km 




See regional map IV 



Land 

2,766,889 km 2 ; four times the size of Texas; 
57% agricultural (46% natural meadow, 11% 
crop, improved pasture, and fallow); 25% 
forest; 18% mountain, urban, or waste 

Land boundaries: 9,414 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm (continental shelf, including sovereignty 
over superjacent waters); overflight and nav- 
igation permitted beyond 12 nm 

Coastline: 4,989 km 

People 

Population: 31, 186,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.5% 

Nationality: noun Argentine(s); adjec- 
tive Argentine 

Ethnic divisions: approximately 85% white, 
15% mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite 
groups 

Religion: 90% nominally Roman Catholic 
(less than 20% practicing), 2% Protestant, 2% 
Jewish, 6% other 

Language: Spanish (official), English, Italian, 
German, French 

Infant mortality rate: 36/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: 68 



Argentina (continued) 



Literacy: 94% 

Labor force: 16.8 million (1984 prelim.); 
15.9% agriculture, 24.3% manufacturing, 
13.2% commerce, 11.5% transport and com- 
munications, 7.7% finance and banking, 
4.4% utilities, 3.6% construction, 2.7% min- 
ing, 16.8% services and other; 4.6% unem- 
ployment (1984) 

Organized labor: 3 million; about 33% of 
labor force (est.) 

Government 

Official name: Argentine Republic 

Type: republic 
Capital: Buenos Aires 

Political subdivisions: 22 provinces, 1 dis- 
trict (Federal Capital), and 1 territory 

Legal system: mixture of US and West Eu- 
ropean legal systems; constitution adopted 
1853 is in effect; legal education at Univer- 
sity of Buenos Aires and other public and 
private universities; has not accepted com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 
May 

Branches: executive (President, Vice Presi- 
dent, Cabinet); legislative (National Con- 
gress Senate, Chamber of Deputies); na- 
tional judiciary 

Government leaders: Raul ALFONSIN, 
President (since December 1983); Victor 
MARTINEZ, Vice President (since Decem- 
ber 1983) 

Elections: general elections held 30 October 
1983; Senate elections scheduled for 1986 

Political parties: operate under statute 
passed in 1983 that sets out criteria for par- 
ticipation in national elections; Radical 
Civic Union (UCR) moderately left of cen- 
ter; Justicialist Party (JP) Peronist 
umbrella political organization; Movement 
for Industrial Development (MID); Intransi- 
gent Party (PI); several provincial parties 



Communists: some 70,000 members in vari- 
ous party organizations, including a small 
nucleus of activists 

Other political or pressure groups: Peronist- 
dominated labor movement, General Con- 
federation of Labor (Peronist-leaning associ- 
ation of small businessmen), Argentine In- 
dustrial Union (manufacturers' association), 
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' 
association), business organizations, students, 
the Catholic Church 

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDE 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IOOC, ISO, ITU, IWC Inter- 
national Whaling Commission, IWC In- 
ternational Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, 
OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO, WSG 

Economy 

GDP: $74.4 billion (1984), $2,470 per capita; 
80% consumption, 15% investment; 5% net 
exports; 2.0% real GDP growth rate (1984) 

Natural resources: pampas, lead, zinc, tin, 
copper, iron, manganese, oil, uranium 

Agriculture: main products cereals, oil- 
seed, livestock products; major world ex- 
porter of temperate zone foodstuffs 

Fishing: catch 290,000 metric tons (1984); 
exports $139.7 million (1984) 

Major industries: food processing (espe- 
cially meat packing), motor vehicles, con- 
sumer durables, textiles, chemicals, printing, 
and metallurgy 

Steel: 2.6 million metric tons produced 
(1984) 

Electric power: 15,210,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 40.5 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 319 kWh per capita 

Exports: $8.1 billion (f.o.b., 1984); wheat, 
corn, oilseed, hides, wool 



Imports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1984); chemical 
products, machinery, metallurgical prod- 
ucts, fuel and lubricants 

Major trade partners: (1984) exports 15% 
USSR, 11% Netherlands, 11% US, 6% Brazil, 
5% Italy, 4% FRG, 3% Japan; imports 20% 
US, 19% Brazil, 12% FRG, 9% Bolivia, 8% 
Japan, 5% France 

Budget: (1984) general government reve- 
nues $16.9 billion; expenditures $21.7 billion 
at official exchange rate 

Monetary conversion rate: 0.8 
australes=US$l (December 1985); Argen- 
tina introduced a new currency, the austral, 
in June 1985; new currency to be exchanged 
for the peso argentine at 1,000 pesos to the 
austral 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 35,476 km total; 3,086 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, 22,788 km 1.676- 
meter broad gauge, 13,461 km 1.000-meter 
gauge, 403 km 0.750-meter gauge; of total in 
country, 142 km are electrified 

Highways: 208,100 km total, of which 
47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel, 101,000 
km improved earth, 20,300 km unimproved 
earth 

Inland waterways: 1 1,000 km navigable 

Pipelines: 4,090 km crude oil; 2,200 km re- 
fined products; 9,918 km natural gas 

Ports: 1 major, 30 minor 

Civil air: 54 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1,827 total, 1,663 usable; 125 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,695 m, 32 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 327 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: extensive modern 
system; 3.23 million telephones (10.3 per 100 
popl.), radio relay widely used; 2 satellite 
stations with 3 Atlantic Ocean antennas; 163 
AM and 190 TV stations; 30-station domestic 
satellite network 



10 



Aruba 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the 
Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force, 
National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval 
Prefecture, National Aeronautical Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,719,000; 
6,264,000 fit for military service; 255,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: revised defense budget for 
fiscal year ending 31 December 1985, $1.0 
billion; 7% of central government budget 



Caribbean 
Sea 




ORANJESTAD 



regional roip III 



Land 

193 km 2 ; larger than Washington, D.C. 

People 

Population: 67,014 (1986 est.) 

Nationality: noun Aruban(s); adjective 
Aruban 

Ethnic divisions: 85% mixed African; re- 
mainder Carib Indian, European, Latin, and 
Oriental 

Religion: 82% Roman Catholic, 8% Protes- 
tant; also small Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, 
and Jewish minority 

Language: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a 
Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dia- 
lect), English (widely spoken), Spanish 

Literacy: 95% 

Labor force: 30% oil refining; 10% unem- 
ployment 

Government 

Official name: Aruba 

Main town: Oranjestad 

Type: self-governing until complete inde- 
pendence from the Netherlands is granted in 
1996 



Legal system: based on Dutch civil law sys- 
tem, with some English common law influ- 
ence 

Government leader: Felipe TROMP, Gov- 
ernor (since January 1986); Henny EMAN, 
Prime Minister (since January 1986) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Political parties and leaders: People's Elec- 
toral Movement (MEP), G. F. "Betico" 
Croes; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny 
Nisbet; Aruban People's Party (A VP), He- 
nny Eman; Democratic Party of Aruba 
(PDA), Dr. Leo Berlinski; National Demo- 
cratic Action Party (ADN), John Booi 

Economy 

Agriculture: little production 

Major industries: petrochemicals, oil re- 
fining, petroleum transshipment facilities, 
tourism, light manufacturing 

Communications 

Ports: 2 (Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas) 

Airfield: government-owned airport east of 
Oranjestad 

Telecommunications: facilities, which in- 
clude extensive interisland radio-relay links, 
are generally adequate; 49,600 telephones 

Defense 

Defense is the responsibility of the Nether- 
lands until 1996 






11 



Australia 



Indian 
Ocean 



Coral Sea 




+ /Sydney 
CANBERRA 



Indian Ocean 
See regional np X 



Land 

7,686,848 km 2 ; almost as large as the conti- 
nental US; 58% pasture; 6% arable; 2% for- 
est; 34% other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(fishing 200 nm) 

Coastline: about 25,760 km 

People 

Population: 15,793,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Australian(s); adjec- 
tive Australian 

Ethnic divisions: 99% Caucasian, 1% Asian 
and Aboriginal 

Religion: 26.1% Anglican, 26.0% Roman 
Catholic, 24.3% other Christian 

Language: English, native languages 
Infant mortality rate: 10/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 71.2, women 78.2 
Literacy: 98.5% 

Labor force: 7.2 million (March 1985); 30.6% 
industry, 6.5% agriculture; 7.8% unemploy- 
ment (December 1985) 



Organized labor: 55% of total employees 
(Dc.embci 1983) 

Government 

Official name: Commonwealth of Australia 

Type: federal parliamentary state recogniz- 
ing Elizabeth II as sovereign or head of state 

Capital: Canberra 

Political subdivisions: 6 states and 2 territo- 
ries 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution adopted 1900; High Court 
has jurisdiction over cases involving inter- 
pretation of the constitution; accepts com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January 

Branches: bicameral legislature (Federal 
Parliament Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives); Prime Minister and Cabinet re- 
sponsible to House; independent judiciary 

Government leaders: Sir Ninian STEPHEN, 
Governor General (since July 1982); Robert 
HA WKE, Prime Minister (since March 
1983) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18 

Elections: held at three- year intervals or 
sooner if Parliament is dissolved by Prime 
Minister; last election 1 December 1984 

Political parties and leaders: government 
Australian Labor Party (Robert Hawke); 
opposition Liberal Party (John Howard), 
National Party (Ian Sinclair), Australian 
Democratic Party (Donald L. Chipp), Nu- 
clear Disarmament Party (Michael 
Denborough) 

Voting strength: (1984 parliamentary elec- 
tion) House of Representatives Labor 
Party 82 seats, Liberal-National coalition 66 
seats; Senate Labor Party 34 seats, Liberal- 
National coalition 33 seats, Australian Dem- 
ocratic Party 7 seats, Nuclear Disarmament 
Party 1 seat, independents 1 seat 



Communists.- 4,000 members (est.) 

Other political or pressure groups: Austra- 
lian Democratic Labor Party (anti- 
Communist Labor Party splinter group) 

Member of: ADB, AIOEC, ANZUS, CIPEC 
(associate), Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, 
DAC, ELDO, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, 
IATP, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, International 
Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, 
ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC International Whal- 
ing Commission, IWC International 
Wheat Council, OECD, SPF, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WSG 

Economy 

GDP: $173.6 billion (1984), $1 1,172 per cap- 
ita; 60% private consumption, 22% invest- 
ment, 17.1% government expenditure; 2.8% 
real average annual growth (1978-84) 

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, 
copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tung- 
sten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, 
natural gas, oil 

Agriculture: large areas devoted to grazing; 
60% of area used for crops is planted in 
wheat; major products wool, lamb, beef, 
wheat, fruits, sugarcane; self-sufficient in 
food 

Major industries: mining, industrial and 
transportation equipment, food processing, 
chemicals 

Crude steel: 5.6 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1983) 

Electric power: 30,000,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 1 10 billion kWh produced (1985), 
7,040 kWh per capita 

Exports: $24.0 billion (f.o.b., 1984); principal 
products coal, wool, iron ore, lamb, other 
meat, dairy products 

Imports: $26.0 billion (f.o.b., 1984); princi- 
pal products manufactured raw materials, 
capital equipment, consumer goods 



12 



Austria 



Major trade partners: (1983-84) exports 
26% Japan, 11% US, 6% New Zealand, 4% 
North Korea, 4% Singapore, 3% USSR; im- 
ports 22% US, 22% Japan, 7% UK, 6% 
FRG, 4% New Zealand 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $6.3 billion 

Budget: (FY85-86 proj.) expenditures, $48 
billion; receipts, $51.5 billion; deficit, $3.5 
billion 

Monetarsy conversion rate: 1.44 Australian 
dollar=US$l (6 February 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 42,855 km total (1980); 9,689 km 
1.600-meter gauge, 15,783 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge, 17,383 km 1.067-meter 
gauge; 900 km electrified (June 1979); gov- 
ernment owned (except for a few hundred 
kilometers of privately owned track) 

Highways: 837,872 km total (1980); 243,750 
km paved, 228,396 km gravel, crushed 
stone, or stabilized soil surface, 365,726 km 
unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by 
small, shallow-draft craft 

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,400 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 500 km; natural gas, 5,600 km 

Ports: 12 major, numerous minor 

Civil air: around 150 major transport air- 
craft 



Airfields: 1,052 total, 1,009 usable; 221 with 
permanent-surface runways, 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m; 18 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 498 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: very good interna- 
tional and domestic service; 7.4 million tele- 
phones (52 per 100 popl.); 223 AM, 5 FM, 
and 1 1 1 TV stations; 3 earth satellite sta- 
tions; submarine cables to New Zealand, 
Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Malaysia, 
Hong Kong, and Guam 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Australian Air Force, Royal 

Australian Navy, Australian Army 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,194,000; 
3,542,000 fit for military service; 140,000 
reach military age (17) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1986, $4.4 billion; about 9.5% of total 
central government budget 




See regional mip V 



Land 

83,835 km 2 ; slightly smaller than M&ine; 
38% forest; 26% meadow and pasture; 20% 
cultivated; 15% waste or urban; 1% inland 
water 

Land boundaries: 2,582 km 

People 

Population: 7,546,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0% 

Nationality: noun Austrian(s); adjective 
Austrian 

Ethnic divisions: 99.4% German, 0.3% 
Croatian, 0.2% Slovene, 0.1% other 

Religion: 88% Roman Catholic, 6% Protes- 
tant, 6% none or other 

Language: German 

Infant mortality rate: 16/1,000(1983) 

Life expectancy: 73 

Literacy: 98% 

Labor force: 2.9 million (1984); 41. 10% in- 
dustry and crafts, 57.55% services, 1.35% 
agriculture and forestry; 4.5% unemployed 
(average 1984); an estimated 200,000 Austri- 
ans are employed in other European coun- 
tries; foreign laborers in Austria number 
138,700, about 5.4% of labor force (1984) 



13 



Austria (continued) 



Organized labor: 1 ,672,820 members of 
Austrian Trade Union Federation (1984) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Austria 

Type: federal republic 
Capital: Vienna 

Political subdivisions: 9 states (lander) in- 
cluding the capital 

Legal system: civil law system with Roman 
law origin; constitution adopted 1920, re- 
promulgated 1945; judicial review of legisla- 
tive acts by a Constitutional Court; separate 
administrative and civil/penal supreme 
courts; legal education at Universities of 
Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck, Salzburg, and 
Linz; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: 26 October 

Branches: bicameral legislature (Federal 
Assembly Federal Council, National 
Council), directly elected President whose 
functions are largely representational, inde- 
pendent federal judiciary 

Government leaders: Rudolf 
KIRCHSCHLAGER, President (since July 
1974); Fred SINOWATZ, Chancellor (since 
May 1983), leads a Socialist/Freedom Party 
of Austria coalition 

Suffrage: universal over age 19; compulsory 
for presidential elections 

Elections: presidential, every six years (next 
1986); parliamentary, every four years (next 
1987) 

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party 
of Austria (SPO), Fred Sinowatz, chairman; 
Austrian People's Party (OVP), Alois Mock, 
chairman; Liberal Party (FPO), Norbert 
Steger, chairman; Communist Party (KPO), 
Franz Muhri, chairman; Alternative List 
Austria (ALO), no leader; United Greens 
(VGO), Josef Buchner, leader 



Voting strengt h: (1983 election) parliamen- 
tary SPO 47.65%, OVP 43.22%, FPO 
4.98%, VGO 1.93%, ALO 1.36%, KPO 0.66% 

Communists: membership 15,000 est.; ac- 
tivists 7,000-8,000 

Other political or pressure groups: Federal 
Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Aus- 
trian Trade Union Federation (primarily 
Socialist); three composite leagues of the 
Austrian People's Party (OVP) representing 
business, labor, and farmers; OVP-oriented 
League of Austrian Industrialists; Roman 
Catholic Church, including its chief lay or- 
ganization, Catholic Action 

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, 
ECE, EFTA, EMA, ESRO (observer), FAO, 
GATT, IAEA, IDB Inter-American Devel- 
opment Bank, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, 
IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead 
and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, IWC In- 
ternational Wheat Council, OECD, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WTO, WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $64.21 billion (1984), $8,500 per cap- 
ita; 57% private consumption, 22% invest- 
ment, 19% public consumption; 1984 real 
GNP growth rate, 2.2% 

Natural resources: iron ore, petroleum, tim- 
ber, magnesite, aluminum, coal, lignite, ce- 
ment, copper 

Agriculture: livestock, forest products, cere- 
als, potatoes, sugar beets; 84% self-sufficient 

Major industries: foods, iron and steel, ma- 
chinery, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper 
and pulp 

Crude steel: 5.3 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984) 

Electric power: 14,71 1,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 45.11 billion kWh produced (1985), 
5,983 kWh per capita 

Exports: $15.72 billion (f.o.b., 1984); iron 
and steel products, machinery and 



equipment, lumber, textiles, paper products, 
chemicals 

Imports: $19.59 billion (c.i.f., 1984); machin- 
ery and equipment, chemicals, textiles and 
clothing, petroleum, foodstuffs, vehicles, 
office machines, Pharmaceuticals 

Major trade partners: (1984) imports 
39.9% FRG, 8.6% Italy, 6.6% East Europe 
(excluding USSR), 5.0% USSR, 4.4% Switzer- 
land, 3.5% US, exports 29.6% FRG, 9.4% 
Italy, 7.6% East Europe (excluding USSR), 
6.9% Switzerland, 6.4% OPEC, 4.1% US 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $1.3 billion 

Budget: expenditures, $23.2 billion; reve- 
nues, $18.5 billion; deficit, $4.7 billion (1985) 

Monetary conversion rate: 20.01 
schillings=US$l (1984 average); 22.28 
schillings=US$l (first half 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 6,497 km total; 5.857 km govern- 
ment owned; 5,403 km 1.435-meter stand- 
ard gauge of which 3,017 km electrified and 
1,520 km double tracked; 454 km 0.760- 
meter narrow gauge of which 91 km electri- 
fied; 640 km privately owned 1.435- and 
1.000-meter gauge 

Highways: 95,412 km total; 34,612 km are 
the classified network (including 1,012 km of 
autobahn, 10,400 km of federal, and 23,200 
km of provincial roads); of this number, ap- 
proximately 21,812 km are paved and 
12,800 km are unpaved; additionally, there 
are 60,800 km of communal roads (mostly 
gravel, crushed stone, earth) 

Inland waterways: 427 km 
Ports: 2 major river (Vienna, Linz) 

Pipelines: 554 km crude oil; 2,61 1 km natu- 
ral gas; 171 km refined products 

Civil air: 25 major transport aircraft 



14 



The Bahamas 



Airfields: 56 total, 54 usable; 18 with 
permanent-surface runways; 5 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 5 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: highly developed and 
efficient; extensive TV and radiobroadcast 
systems with 9 AM, 669 FM, and 988 TV 
stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT sta- 
tion; 3.47 million telephones (45.9 per 100 
popl.) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Flying Division 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,946,000; 
1,647,000 fit for military service; 65,000 
reach military age (19) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $849 million; about 3.9% of 
the proposed federal budget 



200km 




Great Inagua 



Sec region*! map III 



Land 

13,934 km 2 ; about the size of Connecticut; 
an archipelago of some 700 islands and keys; 
29% forest; 1% cultivated; 70% built on, 
wasteland, and other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(fishing 200 nm) 

Coastline: 3,542 km (New Providence 
Island, 76 km) 

People 

Population: 235,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.8% 

Nationality: noun Bahamian(s); adjec- 
tive Bahamian 

Ethnic divisions: 85% black, 15% white 

Religion: Baptist 29%, Anglican 23%, 
Roman Catholic 22%, smaller groups of 
other Protestants, Greek Orthodox, and Jews 

Language: English; some Creole among 
Haitian immigrants 

Infant mortality rate: 20.20/1,000 (1984) 
Life expectancy: men 64, women 70 
Literacy: 89% 

Labor force: 82,000(1982); 30% govern- 
ment, 25% hotels and restaurants, 10% 



business services, 6% agriculture; 30% unem- 
ployment (1983) 

Organized labor: 25% organized 

Government 

Official name: The Commonwealth of The 
Bahamas 

Type: independent commonwealth recog- 
nizing Elizabeth II as Chief of State 

Capital: Nassau on New Providence Island 

Legal system: based on English common 
law 

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 
July 

Branches: bicameral legislature 
(Parliament 16-member appointed Senate, 
43-member elected House of Assembly); 
executive (Prime Minister and Cabinet); 
judiciary 

Government leaders: Sir Lynden Oscar 
PINDLING, Prime Minister (since 1969); Sir 
Gerald C. CASH, Governor General (since 
1979) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: House of Assembly (June 1982); 
next election constitutionally due in five 
years 

Political parties and leaders: Progressive 
Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. Pindling; 
Free National Movement (FNM), Kendal 
Isaacs, Cecil Wallace- Whitfield 

Voting strength: 73,309 registered voters 
(July 1977); (1982 election) House of Assem- 
bly PLP (55%) 32 seats, FNM (45%) 1 1 
seats, others (3%) seats 

Communists: none known 

Other political or pressure groups: Van- 
guard Nationalist and Socialist Party 
(VNSP), a small leftist party headed by 
Lionel Carey; Trade Union Congress (TUC), 
headed by Leonard Archer 



15 



The Bahamas (continued) 



Bahrain 



Member of: CARICOM, CDB, Common- 
wealth, FAO, G-77, GATT(de facto), IBRD, 
ICAO, IDE Inter-American Development 
Bank, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, 
NAM, OAS, PAHO, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

CNP: $1.8 billion (1984), $7,950 per capita; 

real growth rate 2% (1984) 

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber 

Agriculture: food importer; main crops fish, 
fruits, vegetables 

Major industries: banking, tourism, cement, 
oil refining and transshipment, lumber, salt 
production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuti- 
cals, spiral weld, and steel pipe 

Electric power: 348,000 kW capacity (1985); 
880 million kWh produced (1985), 3,793 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1984); pharma- 
ceuticals, cement, rum, crayfish 

Imports: $3.0 billion (c. i. f . , 1 984); foodstuffs, 
manufactured goods, mineral fuels 

Major trade partners: exports US 90%, 
UK 10%; imports Iran 30%, Nigeria 20%, 
US 10%, EC 10%, Gabon 10% (1981) 

Aid: economic US economic 
commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-80), 
from US, $42 million; ODA and OOF eco- 
nomic commitments (1970-83), $140 mil- 
lion; no military aid 

Budget: (1984 prelim.) revenues, $347 mil- 
lion; expenditures, $363 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Bahamian 
dollar=US$l (September 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 2,400 km total; 1,350 km paved, 
1,050 km gravel 



Ports: 2 major (Freeport, Nassau), 9 minor 
Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 61 total, 56 usable; 29 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 23 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: telecom facilities 
highly developed, including 84,000 tele- 
phones (37.9 per 100 popl.) in totally auto- 
matic system; tropospheric scatter and cable 
links with Florida; 3 AM and 2 FM stations; 
1 TV station; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 
satellite ground station under construction 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (a 
coast guard element only), Royal Bahamas 
Police Force 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1982 $9.2 million, about 2.5% of 
the total budget 



Persian Gutf 




S*e rffionil map VI 



Land 

676 km 2 plus group of 32 smaller islands; 
smaller than New York City; 5% cultivated, 
negligible forest; remainder desert, waste, or 
urban 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 

Coastline: 161 km 

People 

Population: 422,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.5% 

Nationality: noun Bahraini(s); adjective 
Bahrain* 

Ethnic divisions: 63% Bahraini, 13% Asian, 
10% other Arab, 8% Iranian, 6% other 

Religion: Muslim (70% Shi'a, 30% Sunni) 

Language: Arabic (official); English also 
widely spoken; Farsi, Urdu 

Literacy: 40% 

Labor force: 140,000 (1982); 42% of labor 
force is Bahraini; 85% industry and com- 
merce, 5% agriculture, 5% services, 3% gov- 
ernment 

Government 

Official name: State of Bahrain 

Type: traditional monarchy; independent 
since 1971 



16 



Bangladesh 



Capital: Manama 

Legal system: based on Islamic law and 
English common law; constitution went into 
effect in December 1973 

National holiday: 16 December 

Branches: Amir rules with help of a Cabinet 
led by Prime Minister; Amir dissolved the 
National Assembly in August 1975 and sus- 
pended the constitutional provision for elec- 
tion of the Assembly; independent judiciary 

Government leader: Isa bin Sulman Al 
KHALIFA, Amir (since November 1961) 

Suffrage: none 

Political parties and pressure groups: politi- 
cal parties prohibited; several small, clandes- 
tine leftist and Shi'a fundamentalist groups 
are active 

Communists: negligible 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
GATT(de facto), GCC, IBRD, ICAO, 
IDE Islamic Development Bank, ILO, 
IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, 
OAPEC, QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO 

Economy 

GDP: $4.0 billion at current prices (1982 

est), $10,000 per capita; real growth rate 9% 

(1981) 

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonas- 
sociated natural gas, fish 

Agriculture: not self-sufficient in food pro- 
duction; produces some fruit and vegetables; 
engages in dairy and poultry farming and in 
shrimping and fishing 

Major industries: petroleum processing and 
refining, aluminum smelting, offshore bank- 
ing, ship repairing 

Electric power: 1,407,800 kW capacity 
(1985); 6. 166 billion kWh produced (1985), 
14,440 kWh per capita 

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1984); nonoil 
exports $400 million (1984); oil exports $2.7 
billion (1984) 



Imports: $3.5 billion (c.i.f., 1984); nonoil 
imports $1.9 billion (1984); oil imports $1.6 
billion (1984) 

Major trade partners: Japan, UK, US, Saudi 
Arabia 

Budget: (1985) $967 million current expend- 
iture, $556 million capital 

Monetary conversion rate: 0.38 Bahrain 
dinar=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 225 km bituminous surfaced; 
undetermined kilometers of natural surface 
tracks; 25 km bridge-causeway to Saudi 
Arabia is under construction with comple- 
tion scheduled for January 1986 

Ports: 1 major (Mlna' Sulman), 1 minor 
(Mina' al Manamah), 1 petroleum, oil, and 
lubricant terminal (Sitrah) 

Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 16 km; natural gas, 32 km 

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 3 total, 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: excellent interna- 
tional telecommunications; adequate do- 
mestic services; 98,000 telephones (25.4 per 
100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, and 2 TV stations; 1 
Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean, and 1 Arab 
satellite station; tropospheric scatter and 
microwave to Qatar, United Arab Emirates, 
Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar and 
United Arab Emirates 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Naval Wing, Air Wing 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 125,000; 
73,000 fit for military service 

Supply: from several West European coun- 
tries, especially France and UK 




Bey of Bengal 



Set regional map VIII 



Land 

143,998 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Wiscon- 
sin; 66% arable (including cultivated and 
fallow), 18% uncultivated (not available), 
16% forest 

Land boundaries: 2,535 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 580 km 

People 

Population: 104,205,000 (July 1986), aver- 
age annual growth rate 2.7% 

Nationality: noun Bangladeshi(s); adjec- 
tive Bangladesh 

Ethnic divisions: 98% Bengali; 250,000 
"Biharis" and fewer than one million tribals 

Religion: 83% Muslim, about 16% Hindu, 
less than 1% Buddhist, Christian, and other 

Language: Bangla (official), English widely 
used 

Infant mortality rate: 119.4/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 53 
Literacy: 29% 



17 



Bangladesh (continued) 



Labor force: 35. 1 million (FY86); extensive 
export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, 
Oman, and Kuwait; 74% of labor force is in 
agriculture, 15% services, 11% industry and 
commerce (FY81/82); unemployment and 
underemployment 40% (est.) 

Government 

Official name: People's Republic of 
Bangladesh 

Type: republic; under martial law since 24 
March 1982 

Capital: Dhaka 

Political subdivisions: 4 divisions, 21 re- 
gions, 64 districts, 495 thanas (rural town- 
ships consisting of 4,472 unions or village 
groupings) 

Legal system: martial law currently prevails 
and civilian legal system suspended; tradi- 
tionally based on English common law; con- 
stitution adopted December 1972, amended 
January 1975 to more authoritarian presi- 
dential system, and changed by proclama- 
tion in April 1977 to reflect Islamic charac- 
ter of nation; further change, by proclama- 
tion in December 1978, provided for the 
appointment of the Prime Minister, Deputy 
Prime Minister, and other Cabinet-rank 
ministers and defined the powers of the 
President 

National holiday: National Day, 26 March; 
Victory Day, 16 December 

Branches: constitution (currently suspended) 
provides for unicameral legislature (Parlia- 
ment), strong President; independent judi- 
ciary; President has substantial control over 
the judiciary 

Government leaders: Lt. Gen. Hussain 
Mohammad ERSHAD, President (since De- 
cember 1983) and Chief Martial Law Ad- 
ministrator (since March 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: some local elections held in De- 
cember 1983; higher local elections held in 
May 1985; presidential and parliamentary 
elections may be held in 1986 



Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh 
Nationalist Party, Begum Ziaur Rahman; 
Awami League, Sheikh Hasina Wazed; 
United People's Party, Kazi Zafar Ahmed; 
Democratic League, Khondakar Mushtaque 
Ahmed; Muslim League, Khan A. Sabur; 
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (National Socialist 
Party), M. A. Jalil; Bangladesh Communist 
Party (pro-Soviet), Mohammad Farhad; nu- 
merous small parties; political activity 
banned following March 1982 coup; ban 
lifted in March 1984, reimposed in March 
1985, and lifted again in January 1986 

Communists: 2,500 members (est.) 

Member of: ADB, Afro- Asian People's Soli- 
darity Organization, Colombo Plan, Com- 
monwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IRC, 
ITU, NAM, QIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $1 1.6 billion (FY83, current prices), 

$130 per capita; 3.8% real growth (FY85) 

Natural resources: natural gas, uranium 

Agriculture: large-scale subsistence farming, 
heavily dependent on monsoon rainfall; 
main crops are jute, tea, and rice; grain, cot- 
ton, and oilseed shortages 

Fishing: production 751,000 metric tons 
(1984) 

Major industries: jute manufactures, food 
processing, and cotton textiles 

Electric power: 1,1 18,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 4.21 billion kWh produced (1985), 42 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $81 1 million (f.o.b., FY84); raw and 
manufactured jute, leather, tea 

Imports: $2.3 billion (c.i.f., FY84); food- 
grains, fuels, raw cotton, fertilizer, manufac- 
tured products 



Major trade partners: exports Middle East 
29%, US 13%, Italy 8.6%, Japan 7.5%; im- 
ports Middle East 17%, Western Europe 
12%, Japan 1 1%, US 11% (FY84) 

Budget: (FY86) current expenditures, $1.2 
billion; capital expenditures, $1.4 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 32. 15 
takas=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 4,085 km total (1985); 1,912 km 
1.000-meter gauge, 978 km 1.676-meter 
broad gauge; government owned 

Highways: 45,633 km total (1985); 4,076 km 
paved, 2,693 km gravel, 38,864 km earth 

Inland waterways: 7,000 km; river steamers 
navigate main waterways 

Ports: 2 sea (Chittagong, Chalna), 7 inland 
Pipelines: 650 km natural gas 
Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 18 total, 13 usable; 14 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 7 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: adequate interna- 
tional radio communications and landline 
service; fair domestic wire and microwave 
service; fair broadcast service; 100,000 (est.) 
telephones (0. 1 per 100 popl.); 9 AM, 6 FM, 8 
TV stations, and 1 ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramili- 
tary forces Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh 
Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Coastal Po- 
lice 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
24,622,000; 15,144,000 fit for military ser- 



Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1986, $285 million; about 15% of cen- 
tral government budget 



18 



Barbados 




Caribbean 
Sea 



Set regional map III 



The Crane 



Land 

430 km 2 ; about half the size of New York 
City; 60% crop; 30% unused, built on, or 
waste; 10% meadow 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 97 km 

People 

Population: 253,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.5% 

Nationality: noun Barbadian(s); adjec- 
tive Barbadian 

Ethnic divisions: 80% African, 16% mixed, 
4% European 

Religion: 70% Anglican, 9% Methodist, 4% 
Roman Catholic, 17% other, including 
Moravian 

Language: English 

Infant mortality rate: 26.3/1,000(1984) 

Life expectancy: 70.8 

Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 1 12,300 (1985 est); 36.8% ser- 
vices and government; 22.4% commerce; 
21.8% manufacturing and construction; 
9.3% transportation, storage, 



communications, and finanacial institutions; 
8. 1 % agriculture; and 2.1% utilities 

Organized labor: 32% 

Government 

Official name: Barbados 

Type: independent sovereign state within 
the Commonwealth recognizing Elizabeth II 
as Chief of State 

Capital: Bridgetown 

Political subdivisions: 11 parishes and city 
of Bridgetown 

Legal system: English common law; consti- 
tution came into effect upon independence 
in 1966; no judicial review of legislative acts; 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdic- 
tion 

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 
November 

Branches: bicameral legislature 
(Parliament 21-member appointed Senate 
and 27-member elected House of Assembly); 
Cabinet headed by Prime Minister 

Government leaders: H. Bernard ST. 
JOHN, Prime Minister (since March 1985); 
Sir Hugh SPRINGER, Governor General 
(since 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: House of Assembly members 
have terms no longer than five years; last 
general election held 18 June 1981 

Political parties and leaders: Barbados La- 
bor Party (BLP; leader not yet named 
[former leader was Prime Minister Tom 
Adams, who died in March 1985] ); Demo- 
cratic Labor Party (DLP), Errol Barrow 

Voting strength: (1981 election) BLP, 
52.4%; DLP, 46.8%; independent, negligi- 
ble; House of Assembly seats BLP 17, DLP 
10 

Communists: negligible 



Other political or pressure groups: People's 
Progressive Movement, Bobby Clarke; 
People's Pressure Movement, Eric Sealy; 
Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George Bell 

Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, 
FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, 
IDB Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, IWC Interna- 
tional Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, 
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $1,151.7 million (1984), $4,560 per 

capita; real GDP growth rate 0% (1984) 

Natural resources: negligible 

Agriculture: main products sugarcane, 
subsistence foods 

Major industries: tourism, sugar milling, 
light manufacturing, component assembly 
for export 

Electric power: 145,000 kW capacity (1985); 
360 million kWh produced (1985), 1,429 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $390 million (f.o.b., 1984); sugar 
and sugarcane byproducts, electrical parts, 
clothing 

Imports: $656.2 million (f.o.b., 1984); food- 
stuffs, consumer durables, machinery, fuels 

Major trade partners: exports 42% US, 
22% CARICOM, 7% UK; imports 48% US, 
12% CARICOM, 8% UK, 6% Canada (1984 
prelim.) 

Aid: economic US economic 
commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), 
$14 million; ODA and OOF commitments 
from other Western countries (1970-83), 
$107 million; no military aid 

Budget: (FY84 prelim.) revenues, $288 mil- 
lion; expenditures, $323 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.01 13 Barbados 
dollars=US$l (September 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 



19 



Barbados (continued) 



Belgium 



Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 1,570 km total; 1,475 km paved, 
95 km gravel and earth 

Ports: 1 major (Bridgetown), 2 minor 
Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 with permanent-surface run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: island wide automatic 
telephone system with 75,000 telephones 
(30.0 per 100 popl.); tropospheric scatter link 
to Trinidad and St. Lucia; 2 AM stations, 1 
FM station, 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean 
satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Barbados Defense Force, Royal 
Barbados Police Force 

Major ground units: Defense Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 67,000; 
48,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 

Military budget: for fiscal year 1985, $10. 1 
million; 3% of central government budget 



50km 




SrtrtfionilmipV 



Land 

30,540 km 2 ; slightly larger than Maryland; 
28% cultivated; 24% meadow and pasture; 
20% forest; 28% waste, urban, or other 

Land boundaries: 1,377 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone, with equidistant lines 
between neighboring countries) 

Coastline: 64 km 

People 

Population: 9,868,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0. 1 % 

Nationality: noun Belgian(s); adjective 
Belgian 

Ethnic divisions: 55% Fleming, 33% Wal- 
loon, 12% mixed or other 

Religion: 75% Roman Catholic, remainder 
Protestant, none, or other 

Language: 56% Flemish (Dutch), 32% 
French, 1% German; 11% legally bilingual; 
divided along ethnic lines 

Infant mortality rate: 1 1. 15/1,000 (1979) 
Life expectancy: men 68.6, women 75.1 
Literacy: 98% 



Labor force: 4 million (1985); 59% services, 
37% industry, 5% agriculture; 13.6% unem- 
ployed (1985) 

Organized labor: 70% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Belgium 

Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Brussels 

Political subdivisions: nine provinces; as of 1 
October 1980, Wallonia and Flanders have 
regional "subgovernments" with elected 
regional councils and executive officials; 
those regional authorities have limited pow- 
ers over revenues and certain areas of eco- 
nomic, urban, environmental, and housing 
policy; Wallonia also has a separate Walloon 
Cultural Council 

Legal system: civil law system influenced by 
English constitutional theory; constitution 
adopted 1831, since amended; judicial re- 
view of legislative acts; legal education at 
four law schools; accepts compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: National Day, 21 July 

Branches: executive branch consists of King 
and Cabinet; Cabinet responsible to bicam- 
eral parliament (Senate and Chamber of 
Representatives); independent judiciary; 
coalition governments are usual 

Government leaders: BAUDOUIN I, King 
(since August 1950); Wilfried MARTENS, 
Prime Minister (since 1979, with a nine- 
month interruption in 1981) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: held at least once every four 
years; last held 13 October 1985 

Political parties and leaders: Flemish Social 
Christian (CVP), Frank Swaelen, president; 
Walloon Social Christian (PSC), Gerard 
Deprez, president; Flemish Socialist (SP), 
Karel van Miert, president; Walloon Social- 
ist (PS), Guy Spitaels, president; Flemish 
Liberal (PVV), Annemie Neyts, interim 



president; Walloon Liberal (PRL), Louis 
Michel, president; Francophone Democratic 
Front (FDF), Georges Clerfayt, president; 
Volksunie(VU), Vic Anciaux, president; 
Communist Party (PCB), Louis van Geyt, 
president; Walloon Rally (RW), Fernand 
Massart; Ecologist Party (ECOLO- 
AGALEV), loosely organized with no presi- 
dent; Anti-Tax Party (UDRT-RAD), Robert 
Hendrick and Thomas Delahaye, presidents; 
Vlaams Blok (VB), president unknown 

Voting strength: (1985 election) 212-seat 
Chamber of Representatives CVP 49 seats, 
PS 35 seats, PVV 22 seats, SP 32 seats, PRL 
24 seats, VU 16 seats, PSC 20 seats, FDF 3, 
ECOLO-AGALEV 9 seats, UDRT-RAD 1 
seat, VB 1 

Communists: under 5,000 members (est, 
December 1985) 

Other political or pressure groups: Christian 
and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of 
Belgian Industries; numerous other associa- 
tions representing bankers, manufacturers, 
middle-class artisans, and the legal and med- 
ical professions; various organizations repre- 
sent the cultural interests of Flanders and 
Wallonia; various peace groups such as 
Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear 
Weapons and Pax Christi 

Member of: ADB, Benelux, BLEU, Council 
of Europe, DAC, EC, ECE, ECOSOC, EIB, 
ELDO, EMS, ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, 
IDB Inter-American Development Bank, 
IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead 
and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, 
ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $76.3 billion (1984), $7,870 per capita; 

66% consumption, 16% investment, 18% 

government consumption, 0.0% net foreign 

balance (1983); 2.2% real growth rate in 

1984 

Natural resources: coal 



Agriculture: livestock production predomi- 
nates; main crops grains, sugar beets, flax, 
potatoes, other vegetables, fruits 

Fishing: catch 40,580 metric tons (1983); 
exports $29,991 million, imports $25,787 
million 

Major industries: engineering and metal 
products, processed food and beverages, 
chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petro- 
leum 

Crude steel: 17.9 million metric tons capac- 
ity (December 1981); 11.3 million metric 
tons produced, 1,147 kg per capita (1984) 

Electric power: 15,91 1 ,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 55.885 billion kWh produced (1985), 
5,669 kWh per capita 

Exports: (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic 
Union) $51.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984); iron and 
steel products (cars), petroleum products, 
chemicals 

Imports: (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic 
Union) $54.7 billion (c.i.f., 1984); fuels, food- 
stuffs, chemicals 

Major trade partners: 
(Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, 
1984) exports 69.1% EC (19.5% FRG, 
14.3% Netherlands, 14.0% France, 9.8% 
UK), 6.1% US, 2.6% Communist; imports 
67.3% EC (20.0% FRG, 19.0% Netherlands, 
14.8% France, 8.8% UK), 6.1% US, 4.4% 
Communist 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $3.6 billion 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $23. 1 billion; ex- 
penditures, $28.5 billion; deficit, $5.4 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 51.6 Belgian 
francs=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: Belgian National Railways 
(SNCB) operates 3,471 km 1.435-meter stand- 
ard gauge, government owned; 2,563 km 
double track; 1,907 km electrified; 191 km 



1.000-meter gauge, government owned and 
electrified 

Highways: 103,396 km total; approximately 
1,317 km limited access, divided autoroute; 
11,717 km national highway; 1,362km pro- 
vincial road; approximately 38,000 km other 
paved; approximately 51,000 km unpaved 
rural 

Inland waterways: 2,043 km, of which 1,528 
km are in regular use by commercial trans- 
port 

Ports: 5 major, 1 minor 

Pipelines: refined products, 1,115 km; 
crude, 161 km; natural gas, 3,218 km 

Civil air: 47 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 44 total, 43 usable; 25 with 
permanent-surface runways; 14 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: excellent domestic 
and international telephone and telegraph 
facilities; 4. 11 million telephones (41. 7 per 
100 popl.); 7 AM, 37 FM, 32 TV stations; 6 
submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean 
INTELSAT stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,500,000; 
2,1 15,000 fit for military service; 80,000 
reach military age (19) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $2.5 billion; 8.2% of the 
central government budget 



21 



Belize 

(formerly British Honduras) 




Caribbean 
Sea 



Punta Gorda 



Stt rtfiond tnip III 



Land 

22,963 km 2 ; slightly larger than Massachu- 
setts; 46% exploitable forest, 38% agricul- 
tural (5% cultivated); 16% urban, waste, wa- 
ter, offshore islands, or other 

Land boundaries: 515 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 

Coastline: 386 km 

People 

Population: 168,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.2% 

Nationality: noun Belizean(s); adjective 
Belizean 

Ethnic divisions: 51 % black, 22% mestizo, 
19% Amerindian, 8% other 

Religion: 50% Roman Catholic; Anglican, 
Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist, Baptist, 
Jehovah's Witnesses, Mennonite 

Language: English (official), Spanish Maya, 
Carib 

Infant mortality rate: 56/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 66 
Literacy: about 90% 



Labor force: 51,500 (1984); 30.0% agricul- 
ture, 16.0% services, 15.4% government, 
11.2% commerce, 10.3% manufacturing; 
shortage of skilled labor and all types of 
technical personnel; over 14% are unem- 
ployed 

Organized labor: 15% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Belize 

Type: parliamentary; independent state; a 
member of the Commonwealth 

Capital: Belmopan 

Political subdivisions: 6 districts 

Legal system: English law 

Branches: bicameral legislature (National 
Assembly electoral redistricting in Octo- 
ber 1984 expanded House of Representa- 
tives from 18 to 28 seats; eight-member ap- 
pointed Senate; either house may choose its 
speaker or president, respectively, from out- 
side its membership); Cabinet; judiciary 

Government leaders: Manuel A. 
ESQUIVEL, Prime Minister (since Decem- 
ber 1984); Dr. Elmira Minita GORDON, 
Governor General (since December 1981) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18 

Elections: parliamentary elections held De- 
cember 1984 

Political parties and leaders: United Demo- 
cratic Party (UDP), Manuel Esquivel, Curl 
Thompson, Dean Lindo; People's United 
Party (PUP), George Price 

Voting strength: (December 1984) National 
Assembly UDP 21 seats (25,785 54.1%), 
PUP 7 seats (20,97144.0%); before redis- 
tricting, PUP held 13 seats, UDP 4 seats, and 
independents 1 seat 

Communists: negligible 

Other political or pressure groups: United 
Workers Union, which is connected with 
PUP 



Member of: CARICOM, CDB, Common- 
wealth, FAO, GATT, IBRD, IDA, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, G-77, ISO, ITU, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $193 million (1985), $1,200 per capita 

(1985); real growth rate 1.5% (1983) 

Natural resources: arable land, timber, fish 

Agriculture: main products sugarcane, 
citrus fruits, corn, molasses, rice, beans, ba- 
nanas, livestock products, honey; net im- 
porter of food; an illegal producer of canna- 
bis for the international drug trade 

Fishing: catch 1,349 metric tons(1980) 

Major industries: sugar refining, garments, 
timber and forest products, furniture, rum, 
soap, beverages, cigarettes 

Electric power: 23,000 k W capacity (1985); 
56 million kWh produced (1985), 340 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $93 million (f.o.b., 1984 est); sugar, 
garments, seafood, molasses, citrus fruits, 
wood and wood products 

Imports: $126 million (c.i.f., 1984 est.); ma- 
chinery and transportation equipment, food, 
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, phar- 
maceuticals 

Major trade partners: exports US 36%, 
UK 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Canada 
10%; imports US 55%, UK 17%, Nether- 
lands Antilles 8%, Mexico 7% (1983) 

Aid: US economic commitments, including 
Ex-Im (FY70-84), $3.0 million; ODA and 
OOF commitments from Western (non-US) 
countries (1970-83), $160 million 

Budget: revenues, $49 million; expendi- 
tures, $90 million (budget for 1984/85) 

Monetary conversion rate: 2 Belize 
dollars=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 



22 



Benin 

(formerly Dahomey) 



Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 2,575 km total; 340 km paved, 
1,190 km gravel, 735 km improved earth, 
and 310 km unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 825 km river network 
used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navi- 
gable 

Ports: 2 major (Belize City, Belize City 
Southwest), 5 minor 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 41 total, 36 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 8,650 telephones; (4.5 
per 100 popl.); above average system based 
on radio-relay; 5 AM and 5 FM stations; 1 
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: British Forces Belize, Belize De- 
fense Force, Police Department 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 41,000; 
25,000 fit for military service; 1,800 reach 
military age (18) annually; the nucleus of the 
Belize Defense Force (BDF) is the former 
Special Force of the Belize Police, which 
was transferred intact to the new organiza- 
tion; the bulk of the early recruits were 
drawn from the Belize Volunteer Guard, a 
home guard force that had previously acted 
as a police reserve; the BDF currently con- 
sists of full-time soldiers known as the 
"Regulars" and an essentially reserve group, 
which has maintained the "Volunteer 
Guard" name; recruitment is voluntary and 
the terms of service vary 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1986, $3.5 million; 3.3% of central 
government budget 



150km 




PORTO-NOVO 



Set regional map VII 



Bight of Benin 



Land 

112,622 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Pennsyl- 
vania; southern third of country is most fer- 
tile; 80% arable land (11% actually culti- 
vated); 19% forest and game preserves; 1% 
nonarable 

Land boundaries: 1,963 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 121 km 

People 

Population: 4,141,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3. 1 % 

Nationality: noun Beninese (sing., pi.); 
adjective Beninese 

Ethnic divisions: 99% African (42 ethnic 
groups, most important being Fon, Adja, 
Yoruba, Bariba); 5,500 Europeans 

Religion: 70% indigenous beliefs, 15% Mus- 
lim, 15% Christian 

Language: French (official); Fon and Yoruba 
most common vernaculars in south; at least 
six major tribal languages in north 

Infant mortality rate: 45/1,000 (1984) 
Life expectancy: 46.9 



Literacy: 20% 

Labor force: 1.5 million (1982); 70% of labor 
force employed in agriculture; less than 2% 
of the labor force work in the industrial sec- 
tor, and the remainder are employed in 
transport, commerce, and public services 

Organized labor: approximately 75% of 
wage earners, divided among two major and 
several minor unions 

Government 

Official name: People's Republic of Benin 

Type: Soviet-modeled civilian government 

Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (de 
facto) 

Political subdivisions: 6 provinces, 84 dis- 
tricts 

Legal system: based on French civil law and 
customary law; legal education generally 
obtained in France; has not accepted com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: 30 November 

Branches: Revolutionary National Assem- 
bly, National Executive Council 

Government leader: Brig. Gen. Mathieu 
KEREKOU, President and Chief of State 
(since 1972) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: National Assembly elections were 
held in November 1979; Assembly then for- 
mally elected Kerekou President in Febru- 
ary 1980 

Political parties: People's Revolutionary 
Party of Benin (PRPB) is sole party 

Communists: PRPB espouses Marxism- 
Leninism 

Member of: AfDB, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, 
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, Niger River 
Commission, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 



23 



Benin (continued) 



Bermuda 



Economy 

GNP: $974.2 million (1984 est.), $270 per 

capita (1983); 1.6% growth during 1984 

Natural resources: small offshore oil depos- 
its; no other known minerals in commercial 
quantity 

Agriculture: major cash crop is oil palms; 
peanuts, cotton, coffee, sheanuts, and to- 
bacco also produced commercially; main 
food crops corn, cassava, yams, rice, sor- 
ghum, millet; livestock, fish 

Fishing: catch 21,000 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: palm oil and palm kernel 
oil processing, textiles, beverages 

Electric power: 21,000 kW capacity (1985); 
27 million kWh produced (1985), 7 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $172.5 million (f.o.b., 1984 est.); 
palm products, cotton, other agricultural 
products 

Imports: $225.4 million (f.o.b. 1984 est.); 
thread, cloth, clothing and other consumer 
goods, construction materials, iron, steel, 
fuels, foodstuffs, machinery, and transport 
equipment 

Major trade partners: France, EC, franc 
zone; preferential tariffs to EC and franc 
zone countries 

Budget: (1985 est.) revenues $1 19 million; 
expenditures, $1 19 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commu- 
naute Financiere Africaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l (1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 580 km, all 1.000-meter gauge 

Highways: 8,550 km total; 828 km paved, 
5,722 km improved earth 

Inland waterways: small sections, only im- 
portant locally 



Ports: 1 major (Cotonou) 

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 9 total, 8 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system of open 
wire and radio relay; 16,200 telephones (0.5 
per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 2 FM stations; 1 TV 
station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite ground 
station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 
1,814,000; of the 894,000 males 15-49, 
453,000 are fit for military service; of the 
920,000 females 15-49, 465,000 are fit for 
military service; about 41,000 males and 
42,000 females reach military age (18) annu- 
ally; both sexes are liable for military service 



North Atlantic Ocean 




North Atlantic Ocean 



St< re|ionil mip II 



Land 

53.3 km 2 ; about one-third the size of Wash- 
ington, D. C.; consists of about 360 small 
coral islands; 60% forest; 21% built on, waste 
land, and other; 1 1 % leased for air and naval 
bases; 8% arable 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(fishing 200 nm) 

Coastline: 103 km 

People 

Population: 59,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.6% 

Nationality: noun Bermudian(s); adjec- 
tive Bermudian 

Ethnic divisions: 61 % black, 39% white and 
other 

Religion: 37% Anglican, 21% other Protes- 
tant, 14% Roman Catholic, 28% Black Mus- 
lim and other 

Language: English 

Infant mortality rate: 7.1/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: men 69, women 76 
Literacy: 98% 

Labor force: 32,000 employed (1984); 25% 
clerical, 22% services, 21% laborers, 13% 



24 



professional and technical, 10% administra- 
tive and managerial, 7% sales, 2% agricul- 
ture and fishing 

Organized labor: 8,700 members; largest 
union is Bermuda Industrial Union 

Government 

Official name: Bermuda 

Type: British dependent territory 
Capital: Hamilton 
Political subdivisions: 9 parishes 
Legal system: English law 

Branches: Executive Council (cabinet) ap- 
pointed by governor, led by government 
leader; bicameral legislature with an ap- 
pointed Senate and a 40-member directly 
elected House of Assembly; Supreme Court 

Government leaders: Viscount 
DUNROSSIL, Governor (since 1983); John 
William David SWAN, Premier (since 1982) 

Suffrage: universal adult over age 21 

Elections: at least once every five years; last 
general election October 1985 

Political parties and leaders: United Ber- 
muda Party (UBP), John W. D. Swan; Pro- 
gressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick 
Wade; National Liberal Party, Gilbert 
Darrell; PLP Members for Change (infor- 
mal) 

Voting strength: 1985 elections UBP 31 
House of Assembly seats; PLP, 7; National 
Liberal Party, 2 

Communists: negligible 

Other political or pressure groups: 
Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), headed by 
Ottiwell Simmons 

Member of: INTERPOL, WHO 

Economy 

GDP: $1,003 million (1983-84), $18,040 per 

capita (1983-84); real growth rate 1.1% 



(1983-84); average inflation rate 3.8% 
(1984-85) 

Natural resources: limestone (used pri- 
marily for building) 

Agriculture: main products bananas, vege- 
tables, Easter lilies, dairy products, citrus 
fruits 

Major industries: tourism (33%), finance, 
structural concrete products, paints, per- 
fumes, furniture 

Electric power: 1 10,000 kW capacity (1985); 
350 million kWh produced (1985), 6,034 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $40.5 million (1984); semitropical 
produce, light manufactures 

Imports: $41 1.094 million (1984); fuel, food- 
stuffs, machinery 

Major trade partners: 57% US, 9% Carib- 
bean countries, 8% UK, 6% Canada, 20% 
other; tourists, 90% US 

Aid: economic bilateral commitments, 
including Ex-Im (FY70-81), from US $34 
million; from Western (non-US) countries, 
ODA and OOF (1970-82), $252 million; no 
military aid 

Budget: revenues, $159 million; expendi- 
tures, $143 million (FY82/83) 

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Bermuda 
dollar=US$l (September 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 210 km public roads, all paved 
(approximately 400 km of private roads) 

Ports: 3 major (Hamilton, St. George) 
Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 with permanent-surface run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 



Telecommunications: modern telecom sys- 
tem, includes fully automatic telephone sys- 
tem with 46,290 sets (84.6 per 100 popl.); 4 
AM, 3 FM, 2 TV stations; 3 submarine ca- 
bles; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite antennas 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of United King- 
dom 

Branches: The Bermuda Regiment 



25 



Bhutan 



75km 




Lingthi 
Dzong 

THIMPHU 

* 

" Paro Dzong 
Phunchholinfl 




Trad! 1 



Stf regional map VIII 



Land 

46,620 km 2 ; the size of Vermont and New 
Hampshire combined; 70% forest; 15% agri- 
cultural; 15% desert, waste, urban 

Land boundaries: about 870 km 

People 

Population: 1,446,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.0% 

Nationality: noun Bhutanese (sing., pi.); 
adjective Bhutanese 

Ethnic divisions: 60% Bhote, 25% ethnic 
Nepalese, 15% indigenous or migrant tribes 

Religion: 75% Lamaistic Buddhism, 25% 
Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 

Language: Bhotes speak various Tibetan 
dialects most widely spoken dialect is 
Dzongkha (official); Nepalese speak various 
Nepalese dialects 

Infant mortality rate: 162/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 43 
Literacy: 5% 

Labor force: 95% agriculture, 1% industry 
and commerce (1983); massive lack of skilled 
labor 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Bhutan 



Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship 
with India 

Capital: Thimphu; Paro (administrative 
capital) 

Political subdivisions: 4 regions (east, cen- 
tral, west, south), further divided into 18 
districts 

Legal system: based on Indian law and 
English common law; in 1907 the monarch 
assumed full power no written constitution 
or bill of rights; in 1968-69 a separate judi- 
ciary that provided for local, district, and 
national courts with appellate jurisdiction 
was established; has not accepted compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: 17 December 

Branches: appointed ministers; 150-member 
indirectly elected National Assembly con- 
sisting of 1 10 village elders or heads of fam- 
ily, 10 monastic representatives, and 30 se- 
nior government administrators 

Government leader: Jigme Singye 
WANGCHUCK, King (since 1974) 

Suffrage: each family has one vote 

Elections: popular elections on village level 
held every three years 

Political parties: no legal parties 
Communists: no overt Communist presence 

Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist 
clergy, Indian merchant community, ethnic 
Nepalese organizations 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA, IFAD, IMF, NAM, 
SAARC, UNESCO, UPU, UN, WHO 

Economy 

GDP: $300 million (FY84/85), $250 per cap- 
ita; 6.7% real GDP growth in FY84/85 

Natural resources: timber, hydroelectric 
power 

Agriculture: rice, corn, barley, wheat, pota- 
toes, fruit, spices 



Major industries: cement, chemical prod- 
ucts, mining, distilling, food processing, 
handicrafts 

Electric power: 15,720 kW capacity (1985); 
9 million kWh produced (1985), 6 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $15.1 million (FY84/85); agricul- 
tural and forestry products, coal 

Imports: total imports $69.4 million 
(FY84/85); imports from India $61.0 million 
(FY84/85); textiles, cereals, vehicles, fuels, 
machinery 

Major trade partner: India 

Budget: total receipts, $59. 168 million; ex- 
penditures, $66.861 million (FY85/86 est.) 

Monetary conversion rate: both ngultrums 
and Indian rupees are legal tender; 12.882 
ngultrums=12.882 Indian rupees=US$l 
(October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Highways: 1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 
515 km improved, 371 km unimproved 
earth 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft; in Feb- 
ruary 1983 Druk Air began direct flights 
between Paro and Calcutta 

Airfields: 2 total; 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: facilities inadequate; 
1,300 telephones (0.1 per lOOpopl.); 11,000 
est. radio sets; no TV sets; 20 AM stations; no 
TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Bhutan Army 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 357,000; 
192,000 fit for military service; about 17,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Supply: dependent on India 



26 



Bolivia 




See regional map IV 



Land 

1,098,581 km 2 ; the size of Texas and Califor- 
nia combined; 45% urban, desert, waste, or 
other; 40% forest; 11% pasture and meadow; 
2% cultivated and fallow; 2% inland water 

Land boundaries: 6,083 km 

People 

Population: 6,358,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Bolivian(s); adjective 
Bolivian 

Ethnic divisions: 30% Quechua, 25% 
Aymara, 25-30% mixed, 5-15% European 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic; active Prot- 
estant minority, especially Methodist 

Language: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara 
(all official) 

Infant mortality rate: 142/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 49 
Literacy: 63% 

Labor force: 1.7 million (1983); 50% agricul- 
ture, 26% services and utilities, 10% manu- 
facturing, 4% mining, 10% other 

Organized labor: 150,000-200,000, concen- 
trated in mining, industry, construction, and 
transportation; mostly organized under 



Bolivian Woerkers' Central (COB) labor 
federation 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Bolivia 

Type: republic 

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre 
(legal capital and seat of judiciary) 

Political subdivisions: nine departments 
with limited autonomy 

Legal system: based on Spanish law and 
Code Napoleon; constitution adopted 1967; 
constitution in force except where contrary 
to dispositions dictated by governments 
since 1969; legal education at University of 
San Andres and several others; has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 Au- 
gust 

Branches: executive; bicameral legislature 
(National Congress Senate and Chamber 
of Deputies); Congress began meeting again 
in October 1982; judiciary 

Government leader: Victor PAZ Estenssoro, 
President (since August 1985) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 
18 if married, 21 if single 

Elections: presidential elections on 14 July 
1985 did not produce the required majority 
for any of the three leading candidates; 
Victor Paz Estenssoro, center-left leader of 
the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement 
(MNR), placed second in the popular vote to 
center-right Hugo Banzer, head of the Na- 
tionalist Democratic Action (ADN); how- 
ever, the MNR won 94 congressional seats 
compared to the ADN's 51 ; as a result, the 
Bolivian Congress on 5 August chose Paz 
Estenssoro to head the government; he was 
inaugurated on 6 August 

Political parties and leaders: the two parties 
which garnered the most votes in the 1985 
elections, the Nationalist Revolutionary 
Movement (MNR) and the Nationalist Dem- 
ocratic Action (ADN), continue to have a 



tactical alliance; MNR, Victor Paz 
Estenssoro; ADN, Hugo Banzer; Movement 
of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime Paz 
Zamora; Nationalist Revolutionary Move- 
ment of the Left (MNRI), Hernan Siles 
Zuazo; Bolivian Socialist Falange (FSB), 
Mario Gutierrez; Authentic Revolutionary 
Party (PRA), Walter Guevara; Christian 
Democratic Party (PDC), Benjamin Miguel; 
Nationalist Revolutionary Party of the Left, 
Juan Lechin Oquendo 

Voting strength: (1985 election) ADN 
28.11%, MNR 26.66%; MIR 8.86% 

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, 
IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDE Inter- 
American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, 
ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, 
ITC, ITU, IWC International Wheat 
Council, LAIA and Andean Sub-Regional 
Group (created in May 1969 within LAIA, 
formerly LAFTA), NAM, OAS, PAHO, 
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $4 billion (1985 est), $400 per capita; 
94% private consumption, 9% public con- 
sumption, 7% gross domestic investment; 
10.0% current account balance (1983); 
real growth rate -4% (1984) 

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petro- 
leum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron 
ore 

Agriculture: main crops potatoes, corn, 
rice, sugarcane, yucca, bananas, coffee; im- 
ports significant quantities of wheat; an ille- 
gal producer of coca for the international 
drug trade 

Major industries: mining, smelting, petro- 
leum refining, food processing, textiles, and 
clothing 

Electric power: 490,000 kW capacity (1985); 
2 billion kWh produced (1985), 323 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $730 million (f.o.b., 1984 est.); tin, 
natural gas, silver, tungsten, zinc, antimony, 
lead, bismuth, gold, coffee, sugar, cotton 



27 



Bolivia (continued) 



Botswana 



Imports: $477 million (c.i.f., 1984 est.); food- 
stuffs, chemicals, capital goods, Pharmaceu- 
ticals, transportation 

Major trade partners: exports Argentina 
44%, US 24%, EC 19%, FRG 6%, UK 4%; 
imports Brazil 22%, US 16%, EC 16%, Ar- 
gentina 14%, Japan 13%, FRG 4% (1984) 

Budget: $257 million revenues, $1,856 mil- 
lion expenditures (1984 est.) 

Monetary conversion rate: 75,000 
pesos=US$l (August 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,675 km total; 3,538 km 1.000- 
meter gauge and 32 km 0.760-meter gauge, 
all government owned, single track; 105 km 
1,000-meter gauge, privately owned 

Highways: 38,830 km total; 1,300 km paved, 
6,700 km gravel, 30,836 km improved and 
unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: officially estimated to be 
10,000 km of commercially navigable wa- 
terways 

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,670 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 1,495 km; natural gas, 580 km 

Ports: none (Bolivian cargo moved through 
Arica and Antofagasta, Chile, and Matarani, 
Peru) 

Civil air: 56 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 592 total, 527 usable; 9 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 8 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 128 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: radio-relay system 
being expanded; improved international 
services; 144,300 telephones (2.6 per 100 
popl.); 160 AM, 29 FM, 42 TV stations; 1 
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Bolivian Army, Bolivian Navy, 
Bolivian Air Force (literally, the Army of the 



Nation, the Navy of the Nation, the Air 
Force of the Nation) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,416,000; 
927,000 fit for military service; 65,000 reach 
military age (19) annually 

Military budget: estimated for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1984, $273.0 million; 
22.8% of central government budget 



20 km 




Boundary representation is 
not necessarily authoritative 



Set regional map VII 



Land 

600,372 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Texas; 
about 6% arable; less than 1% cultivated; 
mostly desert 



Land boundaries: 3,774 km 

People 

Population: 1,104,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.3% 

Nationality: noun Motswana (sing.), 
Botswana (pi.); adjective Botswana 

Ethnic divisions: 95% Batswana; about 4% 
Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi; about 1% 
white 

Religion: 50% indigenous beliefs, 50% Chris- 
tian 

Language: English (official), Setswana 

Infant mortality rate: about 68.4/1,000 
(1981) 

Life expectancy: 56 

Literacy: about 24% in English; about 35% 
in Tswana; less than 1% secondary school 
graduates 

Labor force: about 400,000 total; 1 10,000 
formal sector employees (1984); most others 
are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence 
agriculture; 40,000 formal sector employees 
spend at least six to nine months per year as 



28 



wage earners in South Africa (1980); 17% 
unemployment (1983) 

Organized labor: 16 trade unions organized 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Botswana 

Type: parliamentary republic; independent 
member of Commonwealth 

Capital: Gaborone 

Political subdivisions: 10 administrative 
districts 

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law 
and local customary law; constitution came 
into effect 1966; judicial review limited to 
matters of interpretation; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Botswana Day, 30 Sep- 
tember 

Branches: executive President appoints 
and presides over the Cabinet, which is re- 
sponsible to National Assembly; bicameral 
legislature (National Assembly with 34 pop- 
ularly elected members and four members 
elected by the 34 representatives; House of 
Chiefs with deliberative powers only); judi- 
cial local courts administer customary law, 
High Court and subordinate courts have 
criminal jurisdiction over all residents, 
Court of Appeal has appellate jurisdiction 

Government leader: Dr. Quett K. J. 
MASIRE, President (since July 1980) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 21 

Elections: general elections held 8 Septem- 
ber 1984 

Political parties and leaders: Botswana 
Democratic Party (BDP), Quett Masire; 
Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth 
Koma; Botswana People's Party (BPP); 
Botswana Independence Party (BIP), 
Motsamai Mpho 

Voting strength: (September 1984 election) 
Legislative Assembly BDP, 28 seats; BNF, 
5 seats; BPP, 1 seat 



Communists: no known Communist organi- 
zation; Koma of BNF has long history of 
Communist contacts 

Member of: Af DB, Commonwealth, FAO, 
G-77, GATT(de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, 
NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $905 million (1984); average annual 

real growth, 9.7% during 1976-84, 2% in 

FY83/84 

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, 
nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal 

Agriculture: principal crops are corn, sor- 
ghum, millet, cowpeas; livestock raised and 
exported; heavy dependence on imported 
food 

Major industries: livestock processing; min- 
ing of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, 
soda ash, potash; tourism 

Electric power: 105,000 kW capacity (1985); 
505 million kWh produced (1985), 472 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $670 million (f .o.b. 1984); 
diamonds, cattle, animal products, copper, 
nickel 

Imports: $690 million (c.i.f., 1984); food- 
stuffs, vehicles, textiles, petroleum products 

Major trade partners: Switzerland, US, UK, 
other EC members of Southern African Cus- 
toms Union 

Budget: (FY84/85 est.) revenues $433 mil- 
lion, expenditures $351 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.88 pula=US$l 
(24 January 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 726 km 1.0 67-meter gauge 

Highways: 1 1,500 km total; 1,600 km paved; 
1,700km crushed stone or gravel; 5,177 km 



improved earth and 3,037 km unimproved 
earth 

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 103 total, 95 usable; 9 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 24 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: the small system is a 
combination of open-wire lines, radio-relay 
links, and a few radiocommunication sta- 
tions; 17,900 telephones (1.8 per 100 popl.); 3 
AM, 2 FM, 2 TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean 
satellite ground station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Wing, Botswana Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 21 1,000; 
1 12,000 fit for military service; 12,000 reach 
military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1984, $26.6 million; 7% of central 
government budget 



29 



Brazil 



North Atlantic 
Ocean 




South Atlantic 
Ocean 



orto Alegre 



See regional map IV 



Land 

8,512,100 k2m; larger than contiguous US; 
60% forest; 23% built-on area, waste, and 
other; 13% pasture; 4% cultivated 

Land boundaries: 13,076 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 7,491 km 

People 

Population: 143,277,000 (July 1986), aver- 
age annual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Brazilian(s); adjective 
Brazilian 

Ethnic divisions: Portuguese, Italian, Ger- 
man, Japanese, black, Amerindian; 55% 
white, 38% mixed, 6% black, 1% other 

Religion: (1980) 89% Roman Catholic (nomi- 
nal) 

Language: Portuguese (official), English 
Infant mortality rate: 92/1,000 (1981) 
Life expectancy: 62.8 
Literacy: 76% 

Labor force: 50 million in 1984; 40% ser- 
vices, 35% agriculture, 25% industry 



Organized labor: about 6 million (1984) 

Government 

Official name: Federative Republic of Brazil 

Type: federal republic; democratically 
elected president since March 1985 

Capital: Brasilia 

Political subdivisions: 22 states, 4 territories, 
1 federal district (Brasilia) 

Legal system: based on Latin codes; dual 
system of courts, state and federal; constitu- 
tion adopted in 1967 and extensively 
amended in 1969; has not accepted compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 
September 

Branches: strong executive with very broad 
powers; bicameral legislature (National Con- 
gress Senate, Chamber of Deputies; pow- 
ers of the two bodies are growing); 1 1-man 
Supreme Court 

Government leader: Jose SARNEY Costa, 
President (since April 1985) 

Suffrage: compulsory over age 18 

Elections: Tancredo Neves indirectly 
elected by an electoral college composed of 
members of congress and delegates from the 
state legislatures, ending 20 years of military 
rule; died before assuming office; municipal 
elections held November 1985; congres- 
sional and gubernatorial elections scheduled 
for November 1986 

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian 
Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), 
Ulysses Guimaraes, president; Liberal Front 
Party of President Sarney's government coa- 
lition, Jorge Bornhausen, president; other 
parties Workers Party (PT), Brazilian La- 
bor Party (PTB), Democratic Labor Party 
(PDT), and Democratic Social Party (PDS); 
Communist parties legalized in March 
1985 Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) 
and Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB) 



Voting strength: (November 1982 federal 
and state elections) 37% then progovern- 
ment PDS; 63% divided among four opposi- 
tion parties (PMDB, PT, PTB, and PDT) 

Communists: 6,000, less than 1,000 mili- 
tants 

Other political or pressure groups: left wing 
of the Catholic Church and labor unions 
allied to leftist Worker's Party were critical 
of military government's social and eco- 
nomic policies 

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IDE Inter-American Development Bank, 
1FAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC 
International Wheat Council, OAS, PAHO, 
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $321.4 billion, $1,610 per capita (1984 
est); 83% consumption, 16% gross invest- 
ment, 2% net foreign balance (1984 est.); real 
growth rate 8.3% (1985) 

Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, 
bauxite, nickel, uranium, tin, gemstones, 
hydroelectric power 

Agriculture: main products coffee, rice, 
corn, sugarcane, cocoa, soybeans, cotton, 
manioc, oranges; nearly self-sufficient ex- 
cept for wheat; an illegal producer of coca 
and cannabis for the international drug 
trade 

Fishing: catch 828,900 metric tons (1982); 
exports, $162 million (f .o.b., 1982); imports, 
$80 million (f.o.b., 1982) 

Major industries: textiles and other con- 
sumer goods, chemicals, cement, lumber, 
iron ore, steel, motor vehicles, other metal- 
working industries, capital goods, tin 

Crude steel: 20.0 million metric tons capac- 
ity; 18.4 million metric tons produced (1984) 

Electric power: 42,000,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 167 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 195 kWh per capita 



30 



British Indian Ocean Territory 



Exports: $25.1 billion (f.o.b., 1985); 
soybeans, coffee, transport equipment, iron 
ore, steel products, chemicals, machinery, 
orange juice, shoes, sugar 

Imports: $12.7 billion (f.o.b., 1985); petro- 
leum, machinery, chemicals, fertilizers, 
wheat, copper 

Major trade partners: exports 29% US, 
23% EC, 11% Latin America, 6% Japan, 31% 
other (1984); imports 36% oil exporters, 
17% US, 16% Latin America, 12% EC, 4% 
Japan, 15% other (1984) 

Budget: (1984) public sector; revenue 64,235 
billion cruzeiros; current expenditure, 
59,997 billion curezeros; capital expendi- 
ture, 18,111 billion cruzeiros 

Monetary conversion rate: 8,900 
cruzeiros=US$l (November 1985), with an 
inflation rate of 230% per year at the end of 
1985; new currency introduced in March 
1986; 13.8cruzados=US$l (March 1986) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 29,300 km total; 25,500 km 1.000- 
meter gauge, 3,500 km 1.600-meter gauge, 
200 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 2,400 
km 0.760-meter gauge; 879 km electrified 

Highways: 1,498,000 km total; 48,000 km 
paved, 1 ,400,000 km gravel or earth 

Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable 
Ports: 8 major, 23 significant minor 

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 465 km; natural gas, 257 km 

Civil air: 176 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 4,188 total, 3,163 usable; 306 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m; 449 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good telecom system; 
extensive radio relay facilities; 2 Atlantic 
Ocean INTELSAT stations with total of 3 



antennas; 64 domestic satellite stations; 9.86 
million telephones (7.3 per 100 pop].); 1,500 
AM, 200 TV stations; 3 coaxial submarine 
cables 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil, 
Brazilian Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
35,989,000; 24,344,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; 1,527,000 reach military age (18) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: estimated for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1986, $3.0 billion; 6.5% 
of central government budget 



Salomon Islands 



Peros Banhos 



Chagos 
Archipelago 

Eagle Islands 



Egmont Islands 

Indian Ocean 



'\Diego Garcia 



See regional map 1 






Land 

60 km 2 ; one-third the size of Washington, 
D. C.; 2,300 islands of the Chagos Archipel- 
ago, including the coral atolls Diego Garcia 
(36 km 2 ), Peros Banhos (29 islands), Salomon 
(11 islands), Eagle, and Egmont 

Water 

Coastline: ranges from less than 1 km to ap- 
proximately 100 km around atoll of Diego 
Garcia 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing) 

People 

Population: no permanent civilian popula- 
tion; formerly about 3,000 islanders 

Ethnic divisions: original inhabitants, 
known as the Hois, evacuated to Mauritius 
before construction of US and UK defense 
facilities 

Government 

Official name: British Indian Ocean Terri- 
tory 

Type: colony administered by United King- 
dom; control disputed by Mauritius 

Capital: none 

Government leader: William N. WENBEN- 
SMITH, Commissioner (since 1982; resident 
in UK); D. H. DOBLE, administrator (since 
1985; resident in UK) 



31 



British Indian Ocean Territory 

(continued) 



British Virgin Islands 



Economy 

Electric power: provided by US military 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: short stretch of paved road be- 
tween port and airfield on Diego Garcia 

Inland waterways: none 
Ports: 1 major (Diego Garcia) 

Airfields: 1 usable with permanent-surface 
runways over 3,659 m on Diego Garcia 

Telecommunications: minimal telecommu- 
nications facilities; US Navy operates 1 AM, 
1 FM, and 1 TV station 

Defense Forces 

United States and United Kingdom defense 
facilities 



North 
Atlantic 
Ocean 



Josl 



Hp > ^~>=O ^ 

- - ** ' ^-_ -To 
ROADTOWN^^^ r 
<Z*!&~^ ^^o a 

Tortola 



Anegada 



Caribbean Sea 



Sre regional map III 



Land 

153 km 2 ; about the size of Wahington, D. C.; 
consists of more than 40 islands; main islands 
are Tortola, Anegada, Virgin Gorda, and Jost 
Van Dyke 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing) 

Coastline: about 80 km 

People 

Population: 12,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Virgin Islander(s); ad- 
jective Virgin Islander 

Ethnic divisions: over 90% black, remainder 
of white and Asian origin 

Religion: majority Methodist; others include 
Anglican, Church of God, Seventh-day 
Adventist, Baptist, and Roman Catholic 

Language: English (official) 
Literacy: 98.3% 
Workforce: 4,91 1(1980) 

Government 

Official name: British Virgin Islands 

Type: British dependent territory 



Capital: Road Town on the island of Tortola 
Political subdivisions: 9 electoral districts 

Legal system: English law; justice is admin- 
istered by the Eastern Caribbean Supreme 
Court; there is a resident puisne judge on the 
islands 

Na tional holiday: Territory Day, 1 July 

Branches: Executive Council (cabinet) con- 
sists of the governor as chairman, four minis- 
ters of the legislature, and an ex officio mem- 
ber who is the attorney general; Legislative 
Council consists of the Speaker (elected from 
outside the Council), nine elected members, 
and an ex officio member who is the attorney 
general 

Government leaders: David Robert 
BARWICK, Governor (since 1982); Cyril B. 
ROMNEY, Chief Minister (since November 
1983) 

Suffrage: universal adult over 18 

Elections: at least once every five years; last 
general election held November 1983 

Political parties and leaders: United Party 
(UP), Conrad Maduro; Virgin Islands Party 
(VIP), H. Lavity Stoutt; Independent, C. B. 
Romney 

Voting strength: 1983 elections UP 4 
seats; VIP 4 seats; Independents 1 seat 

Communists: probably none 
Member of: Commonwealth 



Economy 

GDP: $77.1 million (1983) 

Agriculture: limited livestock (including 
poultry), fish, fruit, and vegetables 

Fishing: 293 metric tons fish, 25 metric tons 
crustaceans (1975) 

Major industries: tourism (over 45%), con- 
struction, rum, concrete block 



32 



Brunei 



Electric power: 5,000 kW capacity (1985); 
22 million kWh produced (1985), 1,833 kWh 
per capita (1985) 

Exports: $2.0 million (1981); fresh fish, 
gravel, sand, fruits, and vegetables 

Imports: $49.8 million (1981); building ma- 
terials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery 

Major trade partners: mostly with neighbor- 
ing US Virgin Islands 

Budget: (1984 est.) revenue, $19.79 million; 
expenditures, $19.0 million 

Monetary conversion rate: US currency 
used; 1 pound sterling= US$1. 443 (October 
1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 106 km motorable roads (1983) 
Inland waterways: none 
Ports: 1 major (Road Town) 

Airfields: 3 total; 3 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways 

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones 
worldwide external telephone service and 
cable communication links; 1 AM and 1 TV 
station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 

Kingdom 



25km 



South China 
Sea 



BANDAR 
SERI BEGAWAN 




See regional map IX 



Land 

5,788 km 2 ; slightly larger than Delaware; 
75% forest; 22% industry, waste, urban, or 
other; 3% cultivable, of which only 10% is 
cultivated 

Land boundaries: 381 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm fishing zone or median line) 

Coastline: 161 km 

People 

Population: 240,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.7% 

Nationality: noun Bruneian(s); adjective 
Bruneian 

Ethnic divisions: 64% Malay, 20% Chinese, 
16% other 

Religion: 60% Muslim (official); 8% Chris- 
tian; 32% Buddhist and indigenous beliefs 

Language: Malay (official), English, and 
Chinese 

Life expectancy: 73.7 
Literacy: 45% 

Labor force: 68, 128 (includes members of 
the Army); 50.4% production of oil, natural 
gas, and construction; 47.6% trade, services, 



and other; 2.0% agriculture, forestry, and 
fishing (1984) 

Organized labor: 2% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: State of Brunei Darussalam 

Type: became independent on 1 January 
1984; constitutional sultanate 

Capital: Bandar Serf Begawan 

National holiday: National Day, 23 Febru- 
ary 

Political subdivisions: four administrative 
districts 

Legal system: based on Islamic law; consti- 
tution promulgated by the Sultan in 1959 

Branches: chief of state is Sultan (advised by 
appointed Privy Council), who appoints Ex- 
ecutive Council and Legislative Council 

Government leader: Sir HASSANAL 
Bolkiah, Sultan and Prime Minister (since 
August 1968) 

Suffrage: universal at 21; three-tiered sys- 
tem of indirect elections; popular vote cast 
for lowest level (district councilors) 

Elections: last elections March 1965; fur- 
ther elections postponed indefinitely 

Political parties and leaders: Brunei Na- 
tional Democratic Party (the first legal polit- 
ical party; it was established on 18 Septem- 
ber 1985), Abdul Latif bin Abdul Hamid, 
Chairman; Brunei National United Party 
(established on 4 February 1986), Anak 
Hasanuddin, chairman 

Communists: probably none 

Member of: ASEAN, ESCAP (associate 
member), IMO, INTERPOL, QIC, UN 

Economy 

GDP: $1.7 billion (1984), $7,300 per capita 

(1984) 

Natural resources: oil, natural gas 



33 



Brunei (continued) 



Bulgaria 



Agriculture: main crops rice, pepper; must 
import most food 

Major industry: crude petroleum, liquefied 
natural gas, construction 

Electric power: 153,000 kW capacity (1985); 
470 million kWh produced (1985), 2,026 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $3.26 billion (1983); 98-99% crude 
oil, liquefied natural gas, and petroleum 
products 

Imports: $701 million (1983); includes ma- 
chinery and transport equipment, manufac- 
tured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, and 
other; most consumer goods imported 

Major trade partners: exports (crude pe- 
troleum and liquefied natural gas) Japan 
68.4%; imports Japan 30%, US 24%, UK 
15%, Singapore 9% 

Budget: (1984) revenues $3,497 million, ex- 
penditures $1,970 million; surplus $1,528 
million; 11% defense 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.119 Brunei 
dollars=US$ 1 (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge 
private line 

Highways: 1,090 km total; 370 km paved 
(bituminous treated) and another 52 km un- 
der construction, 720 km gravel or unim- 
proved 

Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by 
craft drawing less than 1.2 meters 

Ports: 1 major (Muara), 4 minor 

Pipelines: crude oil, 135 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 418 km; natural gas, 920 km 

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 



Telecommunications: service throughout 
country is adequate for present needs; inter- 
national service good to adjacent Sabah and 
Sarawak; radiobroadcast coverage good; 
17,930 telephones (8.0 per lOOpopl.); Radio 
Brunei broadcasts from 6 AM/FM stations 
and 1 TV station; 32,000 radio receivers; 1 
satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces, in- 
cluding air wing, navy, and ground forces; 
British Gurkha Battalion; Royal Brunei Po- 
lice; Gurkha Reserve Unit 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 61,000; 
37,000 fit for military service; about 3,300 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $160.1 million; about 17% 
of central government budget 



125km 




Seeretionil mip V 



Land 

1 10,912 km 2 ; slightly larger than Ohio; 41% 
arable; 33% forest; 15% other; 11% agricul- 
tural 

Land boundaries: 1,883 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 354 km 

People 

Population: 8,990,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.2% 

Nationality: noun Bulgarian(s); adjec- 
tive Bulgarian 

Ethnic divisions: 85.3% Bulgarian, 8.5% 
Turk, 2.6% Gypsy, 2.5% Macedonian, 0.3% 
Armenian, 0.2% Russian, 0.6% other 

Religion: regime promotes atheism; reli- 
gious background of population is 85% Bul- 
garian Orthodox, 13% Muslim, 0.8% Jewish, 
0.7% Roman Catholic, 0.5% Protestant, 
Gregorian-Armenian, and other 

Language: Bulgarian; secondary languages 
closely correspond to ethnic breakdown 

Infant mortality rate: 20.2/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 69, women 74 



34 



Literacy: 95% (est.) 

Labor force: 4,1 13,546 (1983); 34% industry, 
22% agriculture, 46% other 

Government 

Official name: People's Republic of Bulgaria 

Type: Communist state 
Capital: Sofia 

Political subdivisions: 27 okrugs (districts); 
capital city of Sofia has equivalent status 

Legal system: based on civil law system, 
with Soviet law influence; new constitution 
adopted in 1971; judicial review of legisla- 
tive acts in the State Council; legal education 
at University of Sofia; has accepted compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 
9 September 

Branches: legislative (National Assembly); 
judiciary, Supreme Court 

Government leaders: Todor Khristov 
ZHIVKOV, Chairman, State Council (Presi- 
dent and Chief of State; since July 1971); 
Georgi Ivanov ATANASOV, Chairman, 
Council of Ministers (Premier; since March 
1986) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18 

Elections: held every five years for National 
Assembly; last election held on 7 June 1981; 
99.96% of the electorate voted 

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian 
Communist Party, Todor Zhivkov, General 
Secretary; Bulgarian National Agrarian 
Union, a puppet party, Petur Tanchev, sec- 
retary of Permanent Board 

Communists: 825,81 1 party members (April 
1981) 

Moss organizations and front groups: 
Fatherland Front, Dimitrov Communist 
Youth Union, Central Council of Trade 
Unions, National Committee for Defense of 



Peace, Union of Fighters Against Fascism 
and Capitalism, Committee of Bulgarian 
Women, All-National Committee for 
Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship 

Member of: CEMA, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, 
ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study 
Group, IMO, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC Inter- 
national Wheat Council, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO; 
Warsaw Pact, International Organization of 
Journalists, International Medical Associa- 
tion, International Radio and Television 
Organization 

Economy 

GNP: $56.4 billion, 1984 (1984 dollars), 

$6,295 per capita; 1984 real growth rate, 

3.1% 

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, 
zinc, coal, lignite, lumber 

Agriculture: mainly self-sufficient; main 
crops grain, tobacco, fruits, vegetables, 
sheep, hogs, poultry, cheese, sunflower seeds 

Fishing: catch 151,000 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: food processing, machine 
and metal building, electronics, chemicals 

Shortages: some raw materials; scattered 
energy and food shortages in 1985 

Crude steel: 2.9 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 324 kg per capita 

Electric power: 10,200,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 45.8 billion kWh produced (1985), 
5,100 kWh per capita 

Exports: $12.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 48% ma- 
chinery and equipment; 18% agricultural 
products; 11% fuels, mineral raw materials, 
and metals; 10% manufactured consumer 
goods; 13% other 

Imports: $12.0 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 47% 
fuels and minerals, 34% machinery and 
equipment, 5% chemicals, 4% manufac- 
tured consumer goods, 10% other (1982) 



Major trade partners: 57% Soviet Union, 
18.5% other Communist countries, 24.5% 
non-Communist countries 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.016 leva= 
US$1 (September 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 4,278 km total; all government 
owned (1983); about 4,033 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 770 
km double track; 1,994 km electrified 

Highways: 36,292 km total; 2,923 km trunk 
roads, 3,740 km class I concrete, asphalt, 
stone block; 5,915 km class II asphalt 
treated, gravel, crushed stone; 20,064 km 
class III earth; 3,650 km other (1983) 

Inland waterways: 41 1 km (1981) 

Pipelines: crude, 193 km; refined product, 
418 km; natural gas, 1,120km 

Freight carried: rail 83.4 million metric 
tons, 18.1 billion metric ton/km (1985); 
highway 900 million metric tons, 16.9 bil- 
lion metric ton/km (1985); waterway 4.9 
million metric tons, 2.6 billion metric 
ton/km (excluding international transit 
traffic; 1985) 

Ports: 3 major (Varna, Varna West, Burgas), 
6 minor (1981); principal river ports are 
Ruse and Lorn (1984) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Bulgarian People's Army, Fron- 
tier Troops, Air and Air Defense Forces, 
Bulgarian Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,172,000; 
1,822,000 fit for military service; 65,000 
reach military age (19) annually 

Military budget: est. for fiscal year ending 
31 December 1985, 1.2 billion leva; 6.2% of 
total budget 



35 



Burkina 

(formerly Upper Volta) 




Boundary 

not necessarily authontali* 



Srr rriiunm! mp Ml 



Land 

240,200 km 2 ; the size of Colorado; 50% pas- 
ture, 21% fallow, 10% cultivated, 9% forest 
and scrub, 10% waste and other 

Land boundaries: 3,307 km 

People 

Population: 7,094,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.7% 

Nationality: noun Burkinabe; adjective 
Burkinan 

Ethnic divisions: more than 50 tribes; prin- 
cipal tribe is Mossi (about 2.5 million); other 
important groups are Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, 
Bobo, Mande, and Fulani 

Religion: 65% indigenous beliefs, about 25% 
Muslim, 10% Christian (mainly Catholic) 

Language: French (official); tribal languages 
belong to Sudanic family, spoken by 50% of 
the population 

Infant mortality rate: 182/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 42 
Literacy: 1% 

Labor force: 90% agriculture; 10% industry, 
commerce, services, and government; about 
30,000 are wage earners; about 20% of male 
labor force migrates annually to neighboring 
countries for seasonal employment 



Organized labor: four principal trade union 
groups represent less than 1% of population 

Government 

Official name: Burkina Faso 

Type: military; established by coup on 4 
August 1983 

Capital: Ouagadougou 

Political subdivisions: 30 provinces, 250 
departments 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and customary law 

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 
August 

Branches: President is an army officer; mili- 
tary council of unknown number; 
21-member military and civilian Cabinet; 
judiciary 

Government leaders: Cdr. Thomas 
SANKARA, President (since August 1983) 

Suffrage: universal for adults 

Elections: political process suspended; no 
talk of returning to constitutional rule 

Political parties and leaders: all political 
parties banned following November 1980 
coup 

Communists: small Communist party front 
group; some sympathizers 

Other political or pressure groups: commit- 
tees for the defense of the revolution, 
watchdog/political action groups 
established by current regime throughout 
the country in both organizations and com- 
munities 

Member of: AfDB, CEAO, KAMA, EGA, 
EIB (associate), Entente, FAO, GATT, G-77, 
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic Develop- 
ment Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, 
NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, 
OCAM, QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 



Economy 

GDP. $66 million (1984), $160 per capita 

(1984); real growth, - 1.3% (1983) 

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, 
marble, gold, antimony, copper, nickel, 
bauxite, lead, phosphates 

Agriculture: cash crops peanuts, shea nuts, 
sesame, cotton; food crops sorghum, mil- 
let, corn, rice; livestock; food deficiency 

Fishing: catch 7,000 metric tons (1983 est.) 

Major industries: agricultural processing 
plants, brewery, bottling, and brick plants; a 
few other light industries 

Electric power: 55,000 kW capacity (1985); 
134 million kWh produced (1985), 19 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $1 10 million (f.o.b., 1983); livestock 
(on the hoof), peanuts, shea nut products, 
cotton, sesame 

Imports: $230 million (f.o.b., 1983); textiles, 
food, and other consumer goods, transport 
equipment, machinery, fuels 

Major trade partners: Ivory Coast and 
Ghana; overseas trade mainly with France 
and other EC countries; preferential tariff to 
EC and franc zone countries 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-83), $1.6 billion; US authorized in- 
cluding Ex-Im (FY70-84) $196 million; 
Communist countries (1970-84), $62 million; 
OPEC ODA commitments (1974-83), $100 
million 

Budget: (1983) revenue $220 million, cur- 
rent expenditures $148 million, develop- 
ment expenditures $161 million 

Monetary conversion rate: about 475 Com- 
munaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l (1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 



36 



Burma 



Communications 

Railroads: 1,173 km Ouagadougou to 
Abidjan (Ivory Coast line); 516 km 1.000- 
meter gauge, single track in Burkina 

Highways: 16,500 km total; 967 km paved, 
7,733 km improved, 7,800 km unimproved 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 55 total, 51 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: all services only fair; 
radio relay, wire, radio communication sta- 
tions in use; 8,600 telephones (under 0. 14 per 
100 popl.); 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV stations; 1 At- 
lantic Ocean INTELSAT station 

Defense Forces 
Branches: Army, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,582,000; 
797,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 

Supply: mainly dependent on France, FRG, 
and UK 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $26.9 million; about 18.1% 
of central government budget 






Sittwe 



Bay of 
Bengal 



Tavo 

Andaman 
Sea 

Seere|iontl map VIM and IX 




Land 

676,552 km 2 ; nearly as large as Texas; 62% 
forest; 28% arable, of which 12% is culti- 
vated; 10% urban and other 

Land boundaries: 5,850 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (24 nm security zone and 200 nm eco- 
nomic zone, including fishing) 

Coastline: 3,060 km 

People 

Population: 37,651 ,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.0% 

Nationality, noun Burmese; adjective 
Burmese 

Ethnic divisions: 72% Burman, 7% Karen, 
6% Shan, 6% Indian, 3% Chinese, 2% 
Kachin, 2% Chin, 2% other 

Religion: 85% Buddhist, 15% indigenous 
beliefs, Christian, or other 

Language: Burmese; minority ethnic groups 
have their own languages 

Infant mortality rate: 93.2/1,000 (1984 est.) 
Life expectancy: 57 
Literacy: 78% 



Labor force: 14.7 million (1984/85); 63.6% 
agriculture, 12.0% government, 9.5% trade, 
9.4% industry, 5.5% other 

Organized labor: Workers' Asiayone or 
"association" (1.8 million members) and 
Peasants' Asiayone (7.6 million members) 
integrated into the country's sole political 
party 

Government 

Official name: Socialist Republic of the 
Union of Burma 

Type: republic under 1974 constitution 
Capital: Rangoon 

Political subdivisions: seven divisions (pre- 
dominantly Burman population) and seven 
states (based on ethnic minorities), subdi- 
vided into townships, village-tracts (rural), 
and wards (urban) 

Legal system: People's Justice system and 
People's Courts instituted under 1974 consti- 
tution; legal education at Universities of 
Rangoon and Mandalay; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 
January 

Branches: Council of State rules through a 
Council of Ministers; National Assembly 
(Pyithu Hluttaw or People's Congress) has 
legislative power 

Government leader: U SAN YU, President 
and Chairman of Council of State (since 
November 1981) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: National Assembly and local 
People's Councils elected in 1985 

Political parties and leaders: government- 
sponsored Burma Socialist Program Party 
only legal party; U Ne Win, party chairman 

Communists: est. 15,000 .(primarily as an 
insurgent group on the northeast frontier) 



37 



Burma (continued) 



Burundi 






Other political or pressure groups: Kachin 
Independence Army; Karen Nationalist 
Union, several Shan factions (all insurgent 
groups) 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, 
IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP. $6.5 billion (FY84/85, in current 

prices), $180 per capita; real growth rate 

4.5% (FY84/85) 

Natural resources: oil, copper, asbestos, 
some marble, limestone; possibly chromium, 
gypsum 

Agriculture: accounts for 64% of total em- 
ployment and about 29% of GDP; main 
crops paddy, pulses, sugarcane, beans, 
peanuts; almost 100% self-sufficient; most 
rice grown in deltaic land; an illegal pro- 
ducer of opium poppy and cannabis for the 
international drug trade 

Fishing: catch 585,800 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: agricultural processing; 
textiles and footwear; wood and wood prod- 
ucts; petroleum refining; mining of copper, 
tin, tungsten, iron 

Electric power: 818,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.73 billion kWh produced (1985), 48 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $349.3 million (f.o.b., FY84/85); 
teak, rice, pulses, beans, base metals, ores 

Imports: $672.3 million (f.o.b., FY84/85); 
machinery and transportation equipment, 
building materials, oil industry equipment 

Major trade partners: exports Singapore, 
Western Europe, China, UK, Japan; im- 
ports Japan, Western Europe, Singapore, 
UK 

Budget: (FY84/85) $826.5 million est. reve- 
nue, $954 million est. expenditure 



Monetary conversion rate: 8.5586 
kyats=US$l (FY84/85) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 4,353 km total; all government 
owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 1 13 
km narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km 
double track 

Highways: 27,000 km total; 3,200 km bitu- 
minous, 17,700 km improved earth or 
gravel, 6,100 km unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km 
navigable by large commercial vessels 

Pipelines: crude, 660 km; natural gas, 1 1 km 
Ports: 4 major, 6 minor 

Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft (includ- 
ing 3 helicopters) 

Airfields: 89 total, 83 usable; 29 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 37 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: meets minimum re- 
quirements for local and intercity service; 
international service is good; radiobroadcast 
coverage is limited to the most populous 
areas; 49,597 telephones (1982/83; 1 per 
1,000 popl.); 1 AM station, no FM stations, 2 
TV stations (December 1982); 1 ground sat- 
ellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 
17,410,000; of the 8,684,000 males 15-49, 
4,806,000 are fit for military service; of the 
8,726,000 females 15-49, 4,816,000 are fit 
for military service; about 41 1,000 males 
and 401,000 females reach military age (18) 
annually; both sexes are liable for military 
service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1986, $228.29 million; about 22.2% of 
central government budget 



fiD km 




See regional mip VII 



Land 

27,834 km 2 ; the size of Maryland; about 37% 
arable (about 66% cultivated); 23% pasture; 
10% scrub and forest; 30% other 

Land boundaries: 974 km 

People 

Population: 4,807,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Burundian(s); adjec- 
tive Burundi 

Ethnic divisions: Africans 85% Hutu 
(Bantu), 14% Tutsi (Hamitic), 1% Twa 
(Pygmy); other Africans include around 
70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zair- 
ians; non- Africans include about 3,000 Euro- 
peans and 2,000 South Asians 

Religion: about 67% Christian (62% Roman 
Catholic, 5% Protestant), 32% indigenous 
beliefs, 1% Muslim 

Language: Kirundi and French (official); 
Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the 
Bujumbura area) 

Infant mortality rate: 121/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 42.3 
Literacy: 25% 



38 



Labor force: about 1.9 million (1983); 93.0% 
agriculture, 4.0% government, 1.5% indus- 
try and commerce, 1.5% services 

Organized labor: sole group is the Union of 
Burundi Workers (UTB); by charter, mem- 
bership is extended to all Burundi workers 
(informally); figures denoting "active 
membership" unobtainable 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Burundi 

Type: republic; presidential system 
Capital: Bujumbura 

Political subdivisions: 15 provinces, subdi- 
vided into arrondissements and communes 
according to a 1982 redistricting 

Legal system: based on German and French 
civil codes and customary law; has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July 

Branches: executive (President and Cabi- 
net); judicial; legislature (National Assembly) 
reestablished in 1982 

Government leader: Col. Jean-Baptiste 
BAGAZA, President and Head of State 
(since 1976) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: new constitution approved by 
national referendum in November 1981; 
election to National Assembly held in Octo- 
ber 1982 

Political parties and leaders: National Party 
of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), a 
Tutsi-led party, declared sole legitimate 
party in 1966; second national party con- 
gress held in 1984; Col. Jean-Baptiste Bagaza 
confirmed as party president for five-year 
term 

Communists: no Communist party 

Member of: AfDB, KAMA, ECA, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, 



NAM, OAU, UN, UNE SCO, UPU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $963 million (1984 est), $250 per cap- 
ita; 3% real growth rate (1983) 

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare 
earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum 
(not yet exploited) 

Agriculture: major cash crops coffee, cot- 
ton, tea; main food crops manioc, yams, 
peas, corn, sorghum, bananas, haricot beans 

Major industries: light consumer goods such 
as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imports; 
public works construction; food processing 

Electric power: 20,000 kW capacity (1985); 
26 million kWh produced (1985), 5 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $83.5 million (1984); coffee (87%), 
tea, cotton, hides and skins 

Imports: $158 million (1984); textiles, food- 
stuffs, transport equipment, petroleum 
products 

Major trade partners: US, EC countries 

Budget: (1983) revenue $121.4 million, ex- 
penditure $146.4 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 120 Burundi 
francs=US$ 1 (October 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 5,900 km total; 400 km paved, 
2,500 km gravel or laterite, 3,000 km im- 
proved or unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika; 1 lake 
port, at Bujumbura, connects to transporta- 
tion systems of Zaire and Tanzania 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 



Airfields: 8 total, 7 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: sparse system of wire 
and low-capacity radio- relay links; about 
6,000 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 2 
FM, no TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite 
ground station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army (including naval and air 
units); paramilitary Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,095,000; 
569,000 fit for military service; 53,000 reach 
military age (16) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $33.8 million; about 18% of 
central government budget 



39 



Cambodia 

(formerly Kampuchea) 




Cull of 

Thailand 
Scf regional map IX 



Land 

181,035 km 2 ; the size of Missouri; 74% for- 
est; 16% cultivated; 10% built on, waste, and 
other 

Land boundaries: 2,438 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 443 km 

People 

Population: 6,388,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.2% 

Nationality: noun Cambodian(s); adjec- 
tive Cambodian 

Ethnic divisions: 90% Khmer (Cambodian), 
5% Chinese, 5% other minorities 

Religion: 95% Theravada Buddhism, 5% 
other 

Language: Khmer (official), French 
Life expectancy: men 42, women 44.9 
Literacy: 48% 

Government 

Official name: Coalition Government of 
Democratic Cambodia (CGDK; composed 
of three resistance groups deployed along 
the Thai border); People's Republic of 



Cambodia (PRK; pro-Vietnamese, in Phnom 
Penh) 

Type: CGDK is nationalist coalition of one 
Communist and two non-Communist fac- 
tions; PRK is Communist 

Capital: Phnom Penh 

Political subdivisions: 19 provinces 

Legal system: Judicial Committee chosen by 
People's Representative Assembly in Demo- 
cratic Cambodia; no information for PRK 

National holiday: 17 April for both regimes 

Branches: Cabinet, State Presidium, and 
some form of People's Representative As- 
sembly in Democratic Cambodia; People's 
Revolutionary Council, various ministries, 
and a "National Congress" held in early 
1979 and a second held in September 1979 
in PRK 

Government leaders: CGDK Prince 
NORODOM SIHANOUK, President (since 
July 1982); SON SANN, Prime Minister 
(since July 1982); KHIEU SAMPHAN, Vice 
President (since July 1982); PRK HENG 
SAMRIN, President (since January 1979); 
HUN SEN, Foreign Minister (since January 
1979) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Political parties and leaders: CGDK an 
umbrella organization for three resistance 
groups including Democratic Kampuchea 
under Son Sen, Khmer People's National 
Liberation Front (KPNLF) under Son Sann, 
and National United Front for an Independ- 
ent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative 
Cambodia under Prince Norodom 
Sihanouk; PRK Cambodian Peoples Revo- 
lutionary Party, the Communist party in- 
stalled by Vietnam in 1979, and Cambodian 
United Front for National Construction and 
Defense (KUFNCD) 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, 
IRC, ITU, Mekong Committee (inactive), 
NAM, UN, UNE SCO, UPU, WFTU, 



WHO, WMO, WTO for CGDK; none for 
PRK 

Economy 

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some 
iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydroelec- 
tric power (potential) 

Agriculture: mainly subsistence except for 
rubber plantations; main crops- rice, rub- 
ber, corn; food shortages rice, meat, vege- 
tables, dairy products, sugar, flour 

Major industries: rice milling, fishing, wood 
and wood products 

Shortages: fossil fuels 

Electric power: 123,500 kW capacity (1985); 
141 million kWh produced (1985), 23 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: probably less than $10 million 
(1983 est.); natural rubber, rice, pepper, 
wood 

Imports: probably less than $30 million 
(1983); international food aid; Soviet bloc 
economic development aid (post- 1979) 

Trade partners: Vietnam and USSR 

Aid: economic commitments US (FY70- 
84), $714 million; other Western (1970-83), 
$254 million; military (FY70-82) US, $1.2 
billion; Communist data not available 

Monetary conversion rate: 4 riels=US$l 
(1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 612 km 1 .000-meter gauge; gov- 
ernment owned 

Highways: 13,351 km total; 2,622 km bitu- 
minous, 7,105 km crushed stone, gravel, or 
improved earth; and 3,624 km unimproved 
earth; some roads in disrepair 

Inland waterways: 3,700 km navigable all 
year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km 
navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters 



40 



Cameroon 



Ports: 2 major, 5 minor 

Airfields: 33 total, 14 usable; 8 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 5 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: service barely ade- 
quate for government requirements and 
virtually nonexistent for general public; in- 
ternational service limited to Vietnam and 
other adjacent countries; radiobroadcasts 
limited to 1 station; 1 TV station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: CGDK consists of National Army 
of Democratic Cambodia, Khmer Peoples 
National Liberation Front, and Sihanoukist 
National Army; PRK People's Republic of 
Cambodia Armed Forces 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,749,000; 
939,000 fit for military service; about 82,000 
reach military age (18) annually 



B2i"" a ^YAOUNDE 

Sangmelima 




Gull of Guinea 

Stt regional map VII 



Land 

475,439 km 2 ; somewhat larger than Califor- 
nia; 50% forest; 18% meadow; 13% fallow; 
4% cultivated; 15% other 

Land boundaries: 4,554 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 50 
nm 

Coastline: 402 km 

People 

Population: 10,009,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Cameroonian(s); adjec- 
tive Cameroonian 

Ethnic divisions: over 200 tribes of widely 
differing background; 31 % Cameroon High- 
landers, 19% Equatorial Bantu, 11% Kirdi, 
10% Fulani, 8% Northwestern Bantu, 7% 
Eastern Nigritic, 13% other African, less 
than 1% non- African 

Religion: 51% indigenous beliefs, 33% Chris- 
tian, 16% Muslim 

Language: English and French (official), 24 
major African language groups 

In/ant mortality rate: 113/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: 47 



Literacy: 65% 

Labor force: (1983) 74.4% agriculture, 11.4% 
industry and transport, 9.7% other services 

Organized labor: under 45% of wage labor 
force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Cameroon 

Type: unitary republic; one- party presiden- 
tial regime 

Capital: Yaounde 

Political subdivisions: 10 provinces divided 
into departments, arrondissements, districts 

Legal system: based on French civiHaw 
system, with common law influence; unitary 
constitution adopted 1972; judicial review 
by Supreme Court, when a question of con- 
stitutionality is referred to it by the Presi- 
dent; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: National Day, 20 May 

Branches: executive (President), legislative 
(National Assembly), and judicial (Supreme 
Court) 

Government leader: Paul BIYA, President 
(since November 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: parliamentary elections held May 
1983; presidential elections held January 
1984 

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon 
People's Democratic Movement (known as 
the Cameroon People's National Union dur- 
ing 1966-85), Paul Biya, president 

Communists: no Communist party or signif- 
icant number of sympathizers 

Other political or pressure groups: 
Cameroon People's Union (UPC), remains 
an illegal group with its factional leaders in 
exile 



41 



Cameroon (continued) 



Canada 



Member of: AfBD, EAMA, ECA, EIB (asso- 
ciate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDE Islamic De- 
velopment Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, 
ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, NAM, 
Niger River Commission, OAU, OIC, 
UDEAC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WI 
PO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP. $7.3 billion (1983-84), about $800 per 
capita; average annual growth rate, 6.5% 
(1984); average inflation rate, 15% (1984) 

Natural resources: oil, natural gas, bauxite, 
iron ore, timber 

Agriculture: commercial and food crops 
coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber, ba- 
nanas, peanuts, palm oil and palm kernels; 
root starches, livestock, millet, sorghum, and 



Fishing: 23,000 metric tons (1982/83) 

Major industries: crude oil production, 
small aluminum plant, food processing, light 
consumer goods industries; sawmills 

Electric power: 586,600 kW capacity (1985); 
2.241 billion kWh produced (1985), 229 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $855.2 million (f.o.b., 1984); crude 
oil, cocoa, coffee, timber, aluminum, cotton, 
natural rubber, bananas, peanuts, tobacco, 
tea, mineral products, food, alcohol, metal 
and metal products, textiles, wood products 

Imports: $1.101 billion (f.o.b., 1984); con- 
sumer goods, machinery, transport equip- 
ment, alumina for refining, petroleum prod- 
ucts, food, beverages, electrical equipment, 
chemical products 

Major trade partners: most trade with 
France, other EC countries, and the US 

Budget: (1984 est.) revenues $1,777 million, 
current expenditures $1,696 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 417.4 Commu- 
naute Financiere Africaine francs=US$l 
(October 1983) 



Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,173 km total; 858 km 1.000- 
meter gauge, 1 45 km 0.600-meter gauge 

Highways: approximately 65,000 km total, 
including 2,682 km bituminous, 30,000 km 
unimproved earth, 32,318 km gravel, earth, 
and improved earth 

Inland waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing 
importance 

Ports: 1 major (Douala), 3 minor 
Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 62 total, 57 usable; 7 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 24 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good system of open 
wire and radio relay; 47,200 telephones (0.5 
per 100 popl.); 10 AM, 1 FM, no TV stations; 
1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; planned 
TV network 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramili- 
tary Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,223,000; 
1,119,000 fit for military service; about 
92,000 reach military age ( 1 8) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1985, $130 million; 9.1% of central gov- 
ernment budget 




See regional map II 



Land 

9,970,610 km 2 ; slightly larger than the US; 
44% forest; 42% waste or urban; 8% inland 
water; 4% cultivated; 2% meadow and pas- 
ture 

Land boundaries: 9,010 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (fishing 200 nm) 

Coastline: 58,808 km coastline, 243,791 km 
including all islands 

People 

Population: 25,644,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Canadian(s); 
adjective Canadian 

Ethnic divisions: 45% British Isles origin, 
29% French origin, 23% other European, 
1.5% indigenous Indian and Eskimo 

Religion: 46% Roman Catholic, 16% United 
Church, 10% Anglican 

Language: English and French (official) 
Infant mortality rate: 9.1/1,000 (1982) 
Life expectancy: men 71.9, women 79 
Literacy: 99% 



42 



Labor force: 12.6 million (1985 average); 
68% services (37% government, 23% trade 
and finance, 8% transportation), 18% manu- 
facturing, 6% construction, 3.8% agriculture, 
5% other; 10.6% unemployment (1985 aver- 
age); 10.2% unemployment (November 
1985) 

Organized labor: 30.6% of labor force; 
39.6% of nonagricultural paid workers 

Government 

Official name: Canada 

Type: federal state recognizing Elizabeth II 
as sovereign 

Capital: Ottawa 

Political subdivisions: 10 provinces and 2 
territories 

Legal system: based on English common 
law, except in Quebec, where civil law sys- 
tem based on French law prevails; constitu- 
tion as of 1982 (formerly British North 
America Act of 1867 and various amend- 
ments); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, 
with reservations 

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July 

Branches: federal executive power vested in 
cabinet collectively responsible to House of 
Commons and headed by Prime Minister; 
federal legislative authority resides in Parlia- 
ment (282 seats) consisting of Queen repre- 
sented by Governor General, Senate, and 
House of Commons; judges appointed by 
Governor General on the advice of the gov- 
ernment; Supreme Court is highest tribunal 

Government leaders: Brian MULRONEY, 
Prime Minister (since September 1984); 
Jeanne SAUVE, Governor General (since 
May 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: legal limit of five years but in 
practice usually held within four years; last 
election September 1984; 75% voter turnout 

Political parties and leaders: Liberal, John 
Turner; Progressive Conservative, Brian 
Mulroney; New Democratic, Edward 
Broadbent 



Voting strength: (1984 election) Progressive 
Conservative, 50%; Liberal, 28%; New 
Democratic Party, 19%; parliamentary seats 
as of December 1984 Progressive Conser- 
vative (211), Liberal (40), New Democratic 
Party (30), independent (1) 

Communisms: approx. 2,000 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, Common- 
wealth, DAC, FAQ, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAO, ICES, ICO, ICRC, IDA, IDE Inter- 
American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, 
IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and 
Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC 
International Whaling Commission, IWC 
International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS 
(observer), OECD, PAHO, UN, UNCTAD, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $334. 1 billion (1984), $12,940 per cap- 
ita (1984); 61.4% consumption, 19.7% invest- 
ment, 17.2% government, 0.8% net foreign 
trade; 0.4% change in inventories; real 
growth rate 4.7% (1984-85) 

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, 
gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, 
forests, wildlife 

Agriculture: main products livestock, 
grains (principally wheat), dairy products, 
feedgrains, oilseeds, tobacco; food short- 
ages fresh fruits and vegetables 

Fishing: catch 1.34 million metric tons 

(1983) 

Major industries: processed and unproc- 
essed minerals, food products, wood and 
paper products, transportation equipment, 
chemicals, fish products, petroleum and nat- 
ural gas 

Shortages: rubber, rolled steel, fruits, preci- 
sion instruments 

Crude steel: 14.7 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984) 

Electric power: 95,600,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 437.885 billion kWh produced 
(1985), 17,240 kWh per capita 



Exports: $86.244 billion (f.o.b., 1984); prin- 
cipal items transportation equipment, 
wood and wood products including paper, 
ferrous and nonferrous ores, crude petro- 
leum, wheat; Canada is a major food ex- 
porter 

Imports: $70.346 billion (f.o.b., 1984); prin- 
cipal items transportation equipment, ma- 
chinery, crude petroleum, communication 
equipment, textiles, steel, fabricated metals, 
office machines, fruits and vegetables 

Major trade partners: imports 71.5% US, 
5.9% Japan, 2.4% UK; exports 75.6% US, 
5.1% Japan, 2.2% UK, 1.9% USSR (1984) 

Aid: economic (received US, $1.8 billion 
Ex-Im Bank, FY70-81); ODA and OOF eco- 
nomic aid commitments (1970-83), $15.8 
billion 

Budget: total revenues $58.78 billion; cur- 
rent expenditures $80.50 billion; budget def- 
icit $22.8 billion (1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.402 C$=US$1 
(2 January 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 81,607 km total; 80,258 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, 129 km electrified; 
1,171 km 1.067-meter gauge (in New- 
foundland); 178 km 0.914-meter gauge 

Highways: 884,272 km total; 712,936 km 
surfaced (250,023 km paved), 171,336 km 
earth 

Inland waterways: 3,000 km 

Pipelines: oil, 23,564 km total crude and 
refined; natural gas, 74,980 km 

Ports: 25 deep water, numerous minor 
Civil air: 636 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1,472 total, 1,252 usable; 408 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 31 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 324 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 



43 



Canada (continued) 



Cape Verde 



Telecommunications: excellent service pro- 
vided by modern telecom media; 16.6 mil- 
lion telephones (66.4 per 100 popl.); country- 
wide AM, FM, and TV coverage, including 
900 AM, 80 FM, 1,1007V stations; 6 coaxial 
submarine cables; 3 satellite stations with a 
total of 5 antennas and 100 domestic satellite 
stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Mobile Command, Maritime 
Command, Air Command, Communica- 
tions Command, Canadian Forces Europe, 
Training Command 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,961,000; 
6,072,000 fit for military service; 199,000 
reach military age (17) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1985, $6.6 billion; about 10.0% of 
central government budget 



into Antio 



Sio 

Vicente 



Si. *+ 

Nicoltu 



Bo vi 



North Atlantic Ocean 



Mh9 s 



do Sotavento 



SioTitgo 



See refional mip VII 



Land 

4,040 km 2 , divided among 10 islands and 
several islets; slightly larger than Rhode 
Island 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm (200 nm 
exclusive economic zone); maritime limits 
measured from claimed "archipelagic 
baselines" that generally connect the outer- 
most points of outer islands or drying reefs 

Coastline: 965 km 

People 

Population: 318,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.9% 

Nationality: noun Cape Verdean(s); adjec- 
tive Cape Verdean 

Ethnic divisions: about 71% Creole 
(mulatto), 28% African, 1% European 

Religion: Catholicism fused with local 
superstitions 

Language: Portuguese and Crioulo, a blend 
of Portuguese and West African words 

Infant mortality rate: 60/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 61 
Literacy: 37% 



Labor force: bulk of population engaged in 
subsistence agriculture 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Cape Verde 

Type: republic 
Capital: Praia 

Political subdivisions: 14 administrative 
districts 

Legal system: based on constitution 
National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July 

Branches: 56-member National People's 
Assembly; the official party is the supreme 
political organization 

Government leaders: Aristides PEREIRA, 
President (since July 1975); Pedro PIRES, 
Prime Minister (since July 1975) 

Suffrage: universal over age 15 

Elections: National Assembly election held 
December 1985, the second since inde- 
pendence 

Political parties and leaders: only legal 
party, African Party for Independence of 
Cape Verde (PAICV), led by Aristides Per- 
eira, secretary general; PAICV established 
in January 1981 to replace the former ruling 
party in both Cape Verde and Guinea- 
Bissau, the African Party for the Indepen- 
dence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde 
(PAIGC), in protest of the November 1980 
coup in Guinea-Bissau 

Communists: a few Communists and some 
sympathizers 

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), 
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $106 million (1982 prov.); $350 per 

capita GNP (1982); 0% growth rate (1978) 



44 



Cayman Islands 



Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzo- 
lana, limestone, kaolin 

Agriculture: main crops corn, beans, man- 
ioc, sweet potatoes; barely self-sufficient in 
food 

Fishing: catch 13,205 metric tons (1983); 
largely undeveloped but provides major 
source of export earnings 

Major industries: salt mining 

Electric power: 14,174 kW capacity (1985); 
16 million kWh produced (1985); 50 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $1.6 million (f.o.b., 1983); fish, ba- 
nanas, salt, flour 

Imports: $68.1 million (c.i.f., 1983); petro- 
leum products, corn, rice, machinery, tex- 
tiles 

Major trade partners: Portugal, UK, Japan, 
African neighbors 

Budget: $20.4 million public revenue, $26.7 
million current expenditures (1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 89.27 
escudos=US$l (November 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Ports: 2 major (Mindelo and Praia), 2 minor 

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 6 total, 6 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: interisland radio- 
relay system, high frequency radio to main- 
land Portugal and Guinea-Bissau, about 
1,740 telephones (0.6 per 100 popl.); 2 FM 2 
AM, stations; 1 small TV station; 2 coaxial 
submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite 
ground station 



Defense Forces 

Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed 
Forces (FARP); Army, Navy, and Air Force 
are separate components of FARP 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 87,000; 
50,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1980, $15 million; about 5% of 
central government budget 



Caribbean Sea 



Cayman 



Little** 
Cayman 



<7 Grand Cayman 

GEORGE TOWN 



Caribbean Sea 



See regional map 111 



Land 

260 km 2 ; about one-third the size of New 
York City; consists of three low-lying islands 
formed of calcareous rock, with maximum 
elevations of 12 m (Little Cayman), 18m 
(Grand Cayman), and 42.7 m (Cayman 
Brae); about two-thirds of land consists of 
mangrove swamps 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 

Coastline: about 160 km 

People 

Population: 22,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Caymanian(s); adjec- 
tive Caymanian 

Ethnic divisions: 40% mixed, 20% white, 
20% black, 20% expatriates of various ethnic 
groups 

Religion: United Church (Presbyterian and 
Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Roman 
Catholic, Church of God, and other Protes- 
tant denominations 

Language: English 
Literacy: 97.5% 

Labor force: 8,061; 18.7% service workers, 
18.6% clerical, 12.5% construction, 6.7% 



45 



Cayman Islands (continued) 



Central African Republic 



finance and investment, 5.9% directors and 
business managers (1979) 

Organized labor: Global Seaman's Union; 
Cayman All Trade Union 

Government 

Official name: Cayman Islands 

Type: British dependent territory 

Capital: George Town, on the island of 
Grand Cayman 

Political subdivisions: 6 electoral districts 

Legal system: British common law and local 
statutes 

National holiday: Constitution Day, 8 July 

Branches: executive Governor and Execu- 
tive Council (3 appointed "official 
members" and 4 elected "members" chosen 
by the Legislative Assembly from its elected 
members); legislative unicameral Legisla- 
tive Assembly (12 elected members and 3 
appointed by Governor); judicial Sum- 
mary Court, Grand Court, Cayman Islands 
Court of Appeal, Her Majesty's Privy Coun- 
cil 

Government leader: George Peter LLOYD, 
Governor (since 1982); also serves as presi- 
dent of the Legislative Assembly 

Suffrage: universal adult over age 18 
Elections: elections held every four years 

Political parties and leaders: no formal po- 
litical parties 

Communists: none 
Member of: Commonwealth 

Economy 

CNP: $8,333 per capita (1983 est.) 

Agriculture: minor production of vegetables 
and livestock, turtle farming 



Major industries: tourism, banking, insur- 
ance and finance, real estate and construc- 
tion 

Electric power: 29,000 kW capacity (1985); 
90 million kWh produced (1985), 4,110 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $2.4 million (1983); turtle products 
Imports: $140.4 million (1983) 

Major trade partners: exports mostly US; 
imports US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, 
Netherlands Antilles 

Budget: current revenue $41.6 million; cur- 
rent expenditure $31 million (1983) 

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Cayman 
dollar=US$1.20(1985est.) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 160 km of main roads 
Ports: 1 major (George Town), 1 minor 

Airfields: 3 total; 3 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways 1220-2439 m 

Telecommunications: telephone system 
links islands and to worldwide services via 
submarine coaxial cable and new satellite 
ground station; 2 AM and 2 FM radio sta- 
tions 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 

Kingdom 

Branches: police force 




Set rr|lonil mip VII 



Land 

622,984 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Texas; 
80-85% meadow, fallow, vacant arable land, 
urban, or waste; 10-15% cultivated; 5% 
dense forest 

Land boundaries: 4,981 km 

People 

Population: 2,744,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.0% 

Nationality: noun Central African(s); ad- 
jectiveCentral African 

Ethnic divisions: approximately 80 ethnic 
groups, the majority of which have related 
ethnic and linguistic characteristics; 34% 
Baya, 28% Banda, 10% Sara, 9% Mandjia, 
9% Mboum, 7% M'Baka; 6,500 Europeans, 
of whom 3,600 are French 

Religion: 25% Protestant, 25% Roman Cath- 
olic, 24% indigenous beliefs, 10% Muslim; 
animistic beliefs and practices strongly in- 
fluence the Christian majority 

Language: French (official); Sango is the 
lingua franca and the national language 

Infant mortality rate: 142/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: 47 
Literacy: est. 33% 



46 



Labor force: 1,320,000(1983); 90% agricul- 
ture, 4% industry and commerce, 4% ser- 
vices, 4% government; approximately 
64,000 salaried workers 

Organized labor: 1% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Central African Republic 

Type: republic, under military rule since 
September 1981; the president shuffled the 
government in September 1985 and dis- 
solved the Military Committee for National 
Recovery; the president now rules through 
the Provisional Organization of Public 
Powers 

Capital: Bangui 

Political subdivisions: 14 prefectures, 47 
subprefectures 

Legal system: based on French law; consti- 
tution, which was approved in February 
1981 referendum, was suspended after Sep- 
tember 1981 military takeover; judiciary, 
Supreme Court, court of appeals, criminal 
court, and numerous lower courts 

National holiday: Independence Day, 13 
August; National Day, 1 December 

Branches: Gen. Andre-Dieudonne Kolingba 
is Chief of State and President of the Provi- 
sional Organization of Public Powers, which 
replaced the Council of Ministers; no legisla- 
ture; separate judiciary 

Government leader: Gen. Andre- 
Dieudonne KOLINGBA, Chief of State and 
President of the Provisional Organization of 
Public Powers (since September 1985; head 
of government since September 1981) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 
Elections: none scheduled 

Political parties and leaders: political par- 
ties banned in September 1981 

Communists: no Communist party; small 
number of Communist sympathizers 



Member of: Af DB, Conference of East and 
Central African States, KAMA, EGA, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UDEAC, UEAC, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $764 million (1984), $280 per capita, 

-8.7% real growth (1984) 

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, tim- 
ber 

Agriculture: commercial cotton, coffee, 
peanuts, sesame, wood; main food crops 
manioc, corn, peanuts, rice, potatoes 

Major industries: sawmills, brewery, dia- 
mond mining and splitting 

Electric power: 46,000 kW capacity (1985); 
80 million kWh produced (1985), 29 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $114.6 million (f.o.b., 1984); cotton, 
coffee, diamonds, timber 

Imports: $139.6 million (f.o.b., 1984 est); 
textiles, petroleum products, machinery, 
electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chem- 
icals, Pharmaceuticals 

Major trade partners: exports France, 
Belgium, Japan, US; imports France and 
other EC countries, Japan, Algeria, Yugosla- 



Budget: (1984) revenues $93.3 million; cur- 
rent expenditures $90.8 million; official for- 
eign debt $223 million (1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commu- 
naute Financiere Af ricaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l (1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 20,800 km total; 454 km bitumi- 
nous, 7,656 km improved earth, 12,690 km 
unimproved earth 



Inland waterways: 800 km; traditional trade 
carried on by means of shallow-draft dug- 
outs 

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 67 total, 59 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 21 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: facilities are meagef; 
network is composed of low-capacity, low- 
powered radiocommunication stations and 
radio-relay links; 6,000 telephones (0.2 per 
100 pop!.); 1 AM station, 1 FM station, 1 TV 
station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite ground 
station 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 603,000; 
312,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1983; $12.2 million; about 14.5% 
of central government budget 



: 



' 



. 





47 



Chad 




See regional map VII 



Land 

1,284,634 km 2 ; about the size of Texas, Okla- 
homa, and New Mexico combined; 35% pas- 
ture; 17% arable; 2% forest and scrub; 46% 
other use and waste 

Land boundaries: 5,987 km 

People 

Population: 5,23 1,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.8% 

Nationality: noun Chadian(s); adjective 
Chadian 

Ethnic divisions: some 200 distinct ethnic 
groups, most of whom are Muslims (Arabs, 
Toubou, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Kanembou, 
Baguirmi, Boulala, and Maba) in the north 
and center and non-Muslims (Sara, 
Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moudang, 
Moussei, Massa) in the south; some 150,000 
nonindigenous, of whom 1,000 are French 

Religion: 52% Muslim, 43% indigenous be- 
liefs, 5% Christian 

Language: French and Arabic (official); Sara 
and Sango in south; more than 100 different 
languages and dialects are spoken 

Infant mortality rate: 142/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 41.5, women 43.9 
Literacy: about 20% 



Labor force: 85% agriculture (engaged in 
unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and 
fishing) 

Organized labor: about 20% of wage labor 
force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Chad 

Type: republic 
Capital: N'Djamena 

Political subdivisions: 14 prefectures, 54 
subprefectures, 27 administrative posts, 9 
municipalities 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and Chadian customary law; consti- 
tution adopted in 1962; constitution sus- 
pended and National Assembly dissolved in 
April 1975; Fundamental Act, a quasi- 
constitution decreed in October 1982, pro- 
vides juridical framework whereby decrees 
are promulgated by the president; judicial 
review of legislative acts in theory a power 
of the Supreme Court; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 
August 

Branches: presidency; Council of Ministers; 
National Consultative Council, Supreme 
Court and several lower courts 

Government leaders: Hissein HABRE, Pres- 
ident (since June 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 
Elections: none planned 

Political parties and leaders: National 
Union for Independence and Revolution 
(UNIR) established June 1984 with Habre as 
president; numerous dissident groups 

Communists: no front organizations or un- 
derground party; probably a few Commu- 
nists and some sympathizers 

Other political or pressure groups: the de- 
velopment of a stable government continues 



to be hampered by prolonged tribal and re- 
gional antagonisms; ex-President Goukouni 
Weddeye heads a rebel government, with 
Libyan backing, that occupies the northern 
third of Chad 

Member of: Af DB, CEAO, Conference of 
East and Central African States, EAMA, 
ECA, EC (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, 
IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, Lake Chad 
Basin Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, 
QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO 

Economy 

During the last decade droughts and plagues 
of locusts have caused widespread food 
shortages, and years of civil war have devas- 
tated the economy 

GDP: $360 million (1984 est.), $88 per capita 
(1984 est.); real annual growth rate 2.8% 
(1960-82 est.) 

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited 
but exploration beginning), uranium, na- 
tron, kaolin 

Agriculture: commercial cotton, gum ara- 
bic, livestock, peanuts, fish; food crops 
millet, sorghum, rice, sweet potatoes, yams, 
cassava, dates; imports food 

Fishing: catch 1 10,000 metric tons (1983 
est.) 

Major industries: agricultural and livestock 
processing plants (cotton textile mills, 
slaughterhouses, brewery), natron 

Electric power: 25,000 kW capacity (1985); 
32 million kWh produced (1985), 6 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $113. 15 million (f.o.b., 1984); cot- 
ton (80%), meat, fish, animal products 

Imports: $1 14.38 million (f.o.b., 1984); ce- 
ment, petroleum, flour, sugar, tea, machin- 
ery, textiles, motor vehicles 



48 



Chile 



Major trade partners: France and Central 
African Customs and Economic Union 
countries 

Budget: (1978 est.) total revenue $34.1 mil- 
lion, total expenditures $36.6 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commu- 
naute Financiere Africaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l (1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 31,300 km total; 28 km bitumi- 
nous, 7,300 km gravel and laterite, remain- 
der unimproved 

Inland waterways: approximately 2,000 km 
navigable 

t*J i '- 

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 80 total, 70 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 2 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 26 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system of 
radiocommunication stations for intercity 
links; 5,000 telephones (0. 1 per 100 popl.); 1 
FM, 3 AM stations; many facilities, includ- 
ing satellite ground station, inoperative 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary 
Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,194,000; 
616,000 fit for military service; about 49,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Supply: primarily dependent on France 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $8.7 million; about 25% of 
total budget 



South 
Pacific 
Ocean 



Punta Arenas. 
Sec regional map IV 




Conception 






Land 

756,945 km 2 ; larger than Texas; 47% barren 
mountain, desert, and urban; 29% forest; 
15% permanent pasture, meadow; 7% other 
arable; 2% cultivated 

Land boundaries: 6,325 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 

Coastline: 6,435 km 

People 

Population: 12,261,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.8% 

Nationality: noun Chilean(s); adjective 
Chilean 

Ethnic divisions: 95% European and 
European-Indian, 3% Indian, 2% other 

Religion: 89% Roman Catholic, 11% Protes- 
tant 

Language: Spanish 

Infant mortality rate: 27.2/1,000(1981) 
Life expectancy: men 63.8, women 70.4 
Literacy: 90% 

Labor force: 3.0 million total employment 
(1982); 33% industry and commerce; 31% 



services; 9% agriculture, forestry, and 
fishing; 9% mining; 5% construction 

Organized labor: 12% of labor force orga- 
nized into labor unions (1982) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Chile 

Type: republic 
Capital: Santiago 

Political subdivisions: 12 regions plus one 
metropolitan district, 41 provincial subdivi- 
sions 

Legal system: based on Code 1857 derived 
from Spanish law and subsequent codes in- 
fluenced by French and Austrian law; cur- 
rent constitution came into effect in March 
1981; the constitution provides for contin- 
ued direct rule until 1989, with a phased 
return to full civilian rule by 1997; judicial 
review of legislative acts in the Supreme 
Court; legal education at University of 
Chile, Catholic University, and several 
others; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 
September 

Branches: four-man Military Junta, which 
exercises constituent and legislative powers 
and has delegated executive powers to Presi- 
dent; the President has announced a plan for 
transition from military to civilian rule pur- 
suant to Constitution; state of siege lifted 
June 1985; National Congress (Senate, House 
of Representatives) dissolved; civilian judi- 
ciary remains 

Government leaders: Gen. Augusto 
PINOCHET Ugarte, President (since Sep- 
tember 1973); Adm. Jose Toribio MERINO 
Castro (since September 1973), Air Force 
Gen. Fernando MATTHEI Aubel (since July 
1978), Army Lt. Gen. Julio CANESSA 
Roberts (since December 1985), Gen. 
Rodolfo STANCE Oelkers (since August 
1985), Junta members 

Suffrage: none 



Chile (continued) 



Elections: prohibited by decree; all electoral 
registers were destroyed in 1974 

Political parties and leaders: all political 
parties are officially recessed or outlawed 
but have been allowed to function on a very 
limited basis since 1982; National Party 
(PN), Patricio Philips; Independent Demo- 
cratic Union (UDI), Sergio Fernandez; Na- 
tional Unity Movement (MUN), Andres 
Allamand; Movement of National Action 
(MAN), Federico Willoughby; Radical Party 
(PR), Enrique Silva Cimma; Social Demo- 
cratic Party (PSD), Luis Bossay; Christian 
Democratic Party (PDC), Gabriel Valdes; 
Republican Right, Hugo Zepeda; Socialist 
Party, Ramon Silva Ulloa and Julio Stuardo 
(the PR, PSD, PDC, Republican Right, and 
some elements of the Socialist Party form 
the Democratic Alliance [AD] ); Movement 
of Unitary Popular Action (MAPU); Move- 
ment of Unitary Popular Action Workers/ 
Peasants (M APU-OC), Bias Tomic and Oscar 
Garreton Purcell; Christian Left (1C), Luis 
Maira; Communist Party of Chile (PCCh), 
Luis Corvalan Lepe (in exile); Socialist 
Party Almeyda faction (PSCh/Alm), 
Clodomiro Almeyda (in exile); Socialist 
Party Altamirano faction (PSCh/Alt), 
Carlos Altamirano (in exile); Movement of 
the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Andres Pascal 
Allende (in exile); the MIR, PSCh/Alm, and 
PCCh form the leftist Popular Democratic 
Movement (MDP) 

Voting strengt h: (1970 presidential election) 
36.6% Popular Unity coalition, 35.3% con- 
servative independent, 28.1% Christian 
Democrat; (1973 congressional election) 56% 
Democratic Confederation (PDC and PN), 
44% Popular Unity coalition 

Communists: 120,000 when PCCh was legal 
in 1973; active militants now estimated at 
about 20,000-50,000 

Other political or pressure groups: revital- 
ized university student federations at all 
major universities dominated by political 
groups; labor National Workers Command 
(CNT) includes trade unionists from the 
country's five largest labor confederations; 
Roman Catholic Church 



Member of: CIPEC, ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IDB Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, LAIA, 
OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $19.2 billion (1984), $1,590 per capita; 
71% private consumption, 15% government 
consumption; 14% gross investment (1984); 
real growth rate 6.3% (1984) 

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, 
nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum 

Agriculture: main crops wheat, potatoes, 
corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits; net 
agricultural importer 

Fishing: catch 4 million metric tons (1983); 
exports $275.5 million (1984) 

Major industries: copper, other minerals, 
foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, 
pulp, paper, and forestry products 

Crude steel: 765,000 metric tons capacity 
(1980); 700,000 metric tons produced (1980); 
683,000 metric tons produced (1984) 

Electric power: 3,300,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 13 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 094 kWh per capita 

Exports: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1984); copper, 
molybdenum, iron ore, paper products, steel 
products, fishmeal, fruits, wood products 

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum, sugar, wheat, capital goods, vehicles 

Major trade partners: exports 26% US, 
11% Japan, 10% FRG, 6.2% Brazil, 5.4% UK 
(1984); imports 21.5% US, 9% Japan, 8.5% 
Brazil, 7.2% Venezuela, 6.2% FRG (1983) 

Budget: revenues, $6.5 billion; expenditures, 
$7.2 billion (1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 178 pesos=US$l 
(November 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 
50 



Communications 

Railroads: 8,478 km total; 4,257 km 1.676- 
meter gauge, 135km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge, 4,221 km 1.000-meter gauge; electri- 
fication, 1,578km, 1.676-meter gauge, 76 
km 1.000-meter gauge 

Highways: 78,025 km total; 9,365 km paved, 
37,700 km gravel, 32,000 km improved and 
unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 725 km 

Pipelines: crude oil, 755 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 785 km; natural gas, 320 km 

Ports: 10 major, 13 minor 

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 375 total, 339 usable; 50 with 
permanent-surface runways; 13 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 53 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: modern telephone 
system based on extensive radio-relay facili- 
ties; 629,000 telephones (5.4 per 100 popl.); 2 
Atlantic Ocean satellite antennas; 3 domes- 
tic satellite stations; 153 AM, 126 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army of the Nation, National 
Navy, Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros 
of Chile 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,249,000; 
2,445,000 fit for military service; about 
123,000 reach military age (19) annually 



China 

(Taiwan listed 
at end of table) 



1200km 




See rrgional map VIII 



Hainan / 
Da South China 
Sea 



Land 

9.6 million km 2 ; slightly larger than US; 
74.3% desert, waste, or urban (32% of this 
area consists largely of denuded wasteland, 
plains, rolling hills, and basins from which 
about 3% could be reclaimed); 11.0% culti- 
vated (sown area extended by multicrop- 
ping); 12.7% forest and woodland; 2.0% in- 
land water 

Land boundaries: 24,000 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 



Coastline: 14,500 km 

People 

Population: 1,045,537,000 (July 1986), aver- 
age annual growth rate 0.8% 

Nationality: noun Chinese (sing., pi); ad- 
jective Chinese 

Ethnic divisions: 93.3% Han Chinese; 6.7% 
Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, 
Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and numer- 
ous lesser nationalities 

Religion: officially atheist; since even before 
1949 most people have been pragmatic, 
eclectic, and not seriously religious; most 
important elements of religion are Confu- 
cianism, Taoism, Buddhism, ancestor wor- 
ship; about 2-3% Muslim, 1% Christian 



Language: Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or 
Mandarin (based on the Beijing dialect); also 
Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), 
Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien- 
Taiwanese), Xiang, Can, Hakka dialects, 
and minority languages (see ethnic divisions) 

Life expectancy: 68 
Literacy: over 75% 

Labor force: est. 460 million (December 
1983); 74.4% agriculture, 15.0% industry 
and commerce, 10.6% other 

Organized labor: All-China Federation of 
Trade Unions (ACFTU) follows the leader- 
ship of the Chinese Communist Party; mem- 
bership about 77 million 

Government 

Official name: People's Republic of China 

Type: Communist state; real authority lies 
with Communist Party's Politburo; the Na- 
tional People's Congress, in theory the high- 
est organ of government, usually ratifies the 
party's programs; the State Council actually 
directs the government 

Capital: Beijing 

Political subdivisions: 22 provinces, 3 cen- 
trally governed municipalities, 5 autono- 
mous regions 

Legal system: a complex amalgam of cus- 
tom and statute, largely criminal; little os- 
tensible development of uniform code of 
administrative and civil law; highest judicial 
organ is Supreme People's Court, which re- 
views lower court decisions; laws and legal 
procedure subordinate to priorities of party 
policy; regime has attempted to write civil 
and Communist codes; new legal codes in 
effect since 1 January 1980; party and state 
constitutions revised in September and No- 
vember 1982, respectively; continuing ef- 
forts are being made to improve civil and 
commercial law 

National holiday: National Day, 1 October 



Branches: control is exercised by Chinese 
Communist Party, through State Council, 
which supervises ministries, commissions, 
bureaus, etc., all technically under the 
Standing Committee of the National 
People's Congress 

Government leaders: ZHAO Ziyang, Pre- 
mier of State Council (since September 
1980); LI Xiannian, President (since June 
1983); PENG Zhen, Chairman of NPC 
Standing Committee (since June 1983) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: elections held for People's Con- 
gress representatives at county level 

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Com- 
munist Party (CCP), headed by Hu Yaobang 
as General Secretary of Central Committee 

Communists: about 42 million party mem- 
bers in 1984 

Other political or pressure groups: such op- 
position as exists consists of loose coalitions 
that vary by issue rather than organized 
groups 

Member of: ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, ITU, Multifiber Arrange- 
ment, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $343 billion (1985 est.), $330 per cap- 
ita 

Natural resources: coal, iron, petroleum, 
mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manga- 
nese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, 
aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydroelec- 
tric power (world's largest potential) 

Agriculture: main crops rice, wheat, other 
grains, oilseed, cotton; agriculture mainly 
subsistence; grain imports 9.8 million metric 
tons in 1984; grain exports (mostly corn) 3. 4 
million metric tons (1984) 

Major industries: iron, steel, coal, machine 
building, armaments, textiles, petroleum 



51 



China (continued) 



Christmas Island 



Shortages: complex machinery and equip- 
ment, highly skilled scientists and techni- 
cians, energy, and transport 

Crude steel: 43.4 million metric tons pro- 
duced, 42 kg per capita (1984) 

Electric power: 86,220,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 406 billion kWh produced (1985), 
389 kWh per capita 

Exports: $27.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984); manu- 
factured goods, agricultural products, oil, 
minerals 

Imports: $25. 1 billion (f.o.b., 1984); grain, 
chemical fertilizer, steel, industrial raw ma- 
terials, machinery, equipment 

Major trade partners: Japan, Hong Kong, 
US, FRG, Jordan, Canada, Brazil, Singapore 

(1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 3.06 renminbi 
yuan=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: networks total about 52,500 route 
km common carrier lines; about 600 km 
1.000-meter gauge; rest 1.435-meter stand- 
ard gauge; all single track except approxi- 
mately 9,500 km double track on standard 
gauge lines; approximately 4,200 km electri- 
fied; about 10,000 km industrial lines (gauges 
range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters) 

Highways: about 950,000 km all types roads; 
about 240,000 km unimproved natural earth 
roads and tracks, 540,000 km improved 
earth roads, 150,000 km paved roads 

Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 
108,900 km navigable 

Pipelines: crude, 6,500 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 1,100 km; natural gas, 4,200 km 

Ports: 15 major, approximately 180 minor 

Airfields: 325 total; 266 with permanent- 
surface runways; 1 1 with runways 3,500 m 
and over; 80 with runways 2,500 to 3,499 m; 
203 with runways 1 ,200 to 2,499 m; 28 with 



runways less than 1,200 m; 2 seaplane sta- 
tions; 4 heliports, 5 airfields under construc- 
tion 

Telecommunications: domestic and inter- 
national services exist primarily for official 
purposes; unevenly distributed internal sys- 
tem serves principal cities, industrial cen- 
ters, and most townships; services in interior 
and border regions limited; nearly 3 million 
equipped telephone exchange lines, includ- 
ing 30,000 long-distance telephone exchange 
lines with direct, automatic service to 24 
cities; 5.2 million telephones (3-5 telephones 
per 100 pop!, in large cities, 1 telephone per 
200 popl. national average); 50,000 post and 
telegraph offices with about 700 main tele- 
graph centers capable of general message 
service at the county level and above; sub- 
scriber teleprinter exchange (telex) services 
available in 25 main metropolitan areas; 
unknown number of facsimile and data in- 
formation transfer points; domestic audio 
radio broadcast coverage provided by 122 
main AM centers and about 525 transmitter 
relay stations; unknown number of FM ra- 
dio and wired rebroadcast stations with 215 
million receivers; at least 52 TV centers; 
about 400 local and network TV relay trans- 
mitter stations; 7,000 supplementary video 
recorder and redistribution facilities; 40 mil- 
lion monochrome and color TV receiver sets; 
2 major international switching centers; sat- 
ellite communications, long-haul point-to- 
point radio circuits, regional cable and wire 
landlines, directional radio- relay, and sea- 
bed coaxial telephone cable (damaged) per- 
mit linkage with most countries; direct voice 
and message communications with 46 coun- 
tries and regions; TV exchange to major cit- 
ies on 5 continents through INTELSAT Pa- 
cific and Indian Ocean earth satellite; AM 
radio broadcasts in 38 languages to 140 
countries and regions 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Chinese People's Liberation 
Army (CPLA), CPLA Navy (including ma- 
rines), CPLA Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
291,558,000; 162,738,000 fit for military 
service; 13,270,000 reach military age (18) 
annually 



s 



Indian Ocean 

THE SETTLEMENT/ 




Indian Ocean 

Sec regional m "P IX 



Land 

135 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Washington, 
D. C.; mostly tropical rain forest 

Water: 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing) 

People 

Population: 2,965 (as of June 1983), average 
annual growth rate 0.6% 

Nationality: noun Christmas Islanders), 
adjective Christmas Island 

Ethnic divisions: 61% Chinese, 25% Malay, 
11% European, 3% other; no indigenous 
population 

Language: English 

Labor force: all workers are employees of 
the Phosphate Mining Company of Christ- 
mas Island, Ltd. 

Government 

Official name: Territory of Christmas Island 

Type: Australian territory 

Capital: settlement on Flying Fish Cove 
(principal settlement) 

Legal system: Australian territory since 10 
October 1958; administrator appointed by 
Governor General of Australia; Supreme 
Court; legislative, judicial, and administra- 
tive system regulated by the Christmas Is- 
land Act of 1958 



52 



Colombia 



Branches: Advisory Council advises 
appointed administrator 

Government leader: T. F. PATERSON, Ad- 
ministrator 

Communists: none 

Economy 

National resources: phosphates 

Major industries: phosphate extraction 
(near depletion) 

Electric power: 1 1,000 kW capacity (1985); 
38 million kWh produced (1985), 12,900 
kWh per capita 

Exports: about 1.2 million metric tons of 
phosphate exported to Australia, New 
Zealand, and other Asian nations 

Major trade partners: Australia, New 
Zealand 

Monetarsy conversion rate: 1.44 Australian 
dollar=US$l (6 February 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Ports: Flying Fish Cove 

Airfields: 1 usable with permanent-surface 
runway 1,220-2,439 

Telecommunications: 4,000 radio receivers 
(1982) 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of Australia 




San Felipe 



See regional map IV 



Land 

1,138,914 km 2 ; about the size of Texas and 
New Mexico combined; 72% unsettled 
(mostly forest and savannah); 28% settled 
(consisting of 5% crop and fallow; 14% pas- 
ture, 6% forest, swamp, and water; 3% urban 
and other) 

Land boundaries: 6,035 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 2,414 km 

People 

Population: 29,956,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.1% 

Nationality: noun Colombian(s); adjec- 
tive Colombian 

Ethnic divisions: 58% mestizo, 20% white, 
14% mulatto, 4% black, 3% mixed black- 
Indian, 1% Indian 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic 

Language: Spanish 

Infant mortality rate: 65/1,000(1982) 

Life expectancy: 62 

Literacy: 80% 



Labor force: 9 million (1982); 53% services, 
26% agriculture, 21% industry (1981); 14% 
official unemployment (1985) 

Organized labor: 1,418,321 members (1982) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Colombia 

Type: republic; executive branch dominates 
government structure 

Capital: Bogota 

Political subdivisions: 22 departments, 5 
intendancies, 5 commissariats, Bogota Spe- 
cial District 

Legal system: based on Spanish law; reli- 
gious courts regulate marriage and divoice; 
constitution decreed in 1886, with amend- 
ments codified in 1946 and 1968; judicial 
review of legislative acts in the Supreme 
Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, 
with reservations 

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 
July 

Branches: President, bicameral legislature 
(Parliament Senate, House of Representa- 
tives), judiciary 

Government leader: Belisario BETANCUR 
Cuartas, President (since August 1982); term 
ends 10 August 1986 

Suffrage: age 18 and over 

Elections: every fourth year; presidential 
election held May 1986; congressional elec- 
tion held March 1986; municipal and de- 
partmental elections every two years, last 
held 1986 

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party, 
Virgilio Barco; main dissident faction is 
headed by Luis Carlos Galan; Conservative 
Party Alvaro Gomez Hurtado and Misael 
Pastrana Borrero head the two principal 
wings united behind current President 
Belisario Betancur, who leads a small fac- 
tion; Communist Party (PCC), Gilberto 
Vieira White; Communist Party/Marxist- 
Leninist (PCC/ML), Maoist orientation 



53 



Colombia (continued) 



Voting strength: (1982 presidential election) 
Belisario Betancur 46.8%, Alfonso Lopez 
Michelsen 40.7%, Luis Carlos Galan 11.1%, 
Gerardo Molina 1.2%, other 1.2%; 49% 
abstention 

Communists: 18,000 members est, includ- 
ing Communist Party Youth Organization 
(JUCO) 

Other political or pressure groups: Commu- 
nist Party (PCC), Gilberto Vieira White; 
PCC/ML, Chinese Line Communist Party; 
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia's 
Patriotic Union Party (FARC-UP) 

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO.ICO, IDA, 
IDE Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, 
LAIA and Andean Sub-Regional Group, 
NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, 
UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $29 billion (1985 est).; $1,430 per cap- 
ita (1984); 73% private consumption, 19% 
gross investment, 12% public consumption 
(1983); growth rate 2% (1985) 

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, 
coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds 

Agriculture: main crops coffee, rice, corn, 
sugarcane, plantains, bananas, cotton, to- 
bacco; an illegal producer of coca and can- 
nabis for the international drug trade 

Fishing: catch 57,537 metric tons 1983 

Major industries: textiles, food processing, 
clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, 
metal products, cement; mining gold, coal, 
emeralds, iron, nickel 

Crude steel: 300,000 metric tons produced 
(1984), 10 kg per capita 

Electric power: 7,160,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 25.5 billion kWh produced (1985), 
864 kWh per capita 



Exports: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1984); coffee, 
coal, fuel oil, cotton, tobacco, sugar, textiles, 
cattle and hides, bananas, fresh cut flowers 

Imports: $4.5 billion (c.i.f., 1984); transpor- 
tation equipment, machinery, industrial 
metals and raw materials, chemicals and 
Pharmaceuticals, fuels, fertilizers, paper and 
paper products, foodstuffs, beverages 

Major trade partners: exports 34% US, 
15% FRG, 6% Venezuela, 4% Netherlands, 
4% Japan, 3% Italy; imports 35% US, 10% 
Japan, 8% FRG, 7% Venezuela, 4% Brazil, 
4% Netherland Antilles, 3% France, 3% 
Ecuador (1984) 

Budget: (1985 est.) revenues, $4. 1 billion; 
expenditures, $4.8 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 164.58pesos= 
US$1 (November 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,563 km, all 0.914-meter gauge, 
single track 

Highways: 75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 
66,100 km earth and gravel surfaces 

Inland waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by 
river boats 

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,585 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 1,350 km; natural gas, 830 km; natural 
gas liquids, 125 km 

Ports: 6 major (Barranquilla, Buenaventura, 
Cartagena, San Andres, Santa Marta, 
Tumaco) 

Civil air: 106 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 634 total, 618 usable; 65 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,660 m; 10 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 96 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: nationwide radio- 
relay system; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite sta- 
tion with 2 antennas and 1 1 domestic satel- 
lite stations; 1 .89 million telephones (6.5 per 
100 popl.); 404 AM and 85 TV stations 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Army of Colombia, Colombian 
Air Force, National Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,763,000; 
5,504,000 fit for military service; about 
361 ,000 reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 1986, 
$310.6 million; 7% of the central govern- 
ment budget 



54 



Comoros 



SO km 

Indian Ocean 



3RONI 

Grande Comore 



Mohtli 



muduA 

^sT"* \Anjou*n 
-sfomboni ^X } 

ipk.- \J 




Mozambique *dminiMrd by France 
^, claimed by Comoros 

Channel 



See regional map VII 



Land 

2,171 km 2 ; half the size of Delaware; 4 main 
islands; 48% cultivated, 29% uncultivated, 
16% forest, 7% pasture 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 340 km 

People 

Population: 420,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.9% 

Nationality: noun Comoran(s); 
adjective Comoran 

Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Caf re, Makoa, 
Oimatsaha, Sakalava 

Religion: 86% Sunni Muslim, 14% Roman 
Catholic 

Language: Shaafi Islam (a Swahili dialect), 
Malagasy, French 

Infant mortality rate: 92.3/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: 48.8 
Literacy: 15% 

Labo- force: 140,000(1982); 80% agricul- 
ture, 3% government; significant unemploy- 
ment 



Government 

Official name: Federal Islamic Republic of 
the Comoros 

Type: three of the four islands compose an 
independent republic, following local 
government's unilateral declaration of inde- 
pendence from France in July 1975; the 
other island, Mayotte, disallowed declara- 
tion and is now a French territorial commu- 
nity but is claimed by the Comoros 

Capital: Moroni 

Political subdivisions: the three main islands 
are organized into seven regions 

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a 
new consolidated code 

Branches: presidency; 38- member legisla- 
ture (Federal Assembly) 

Government leader: Ahmed ABDALLAH 
ABDEREMANE, President (since October 
1978) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: Abdallah Abderemane won 1984 
presidential election with 99% majority; 
Federal Assembly elected in March 1982 

Political party: sole legal political party is 
Comoran Union for Progress (UCP) 

Voting strength: UCP holds 37 seats in the 
Federal Assembly 

Member of: AfDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA, 
IDE Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, QIC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $92 million (1984 prov.), about $250 

per capita 

Agriculture: food crops rice, manioc, 
maize, fruits, vegetables, coconuts, cinna- 
mon, yams; export crops essential oils for 
perfumes (mainly ylang-ylang), vanilla, 
copra, cloves 

Major industry: perfume distillation 

Electric power: 5,500 kW capacity (1985); 9 
million kWh produced (1985), 22 kWh per 
capita 



Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1984 prov.); per- 
fume oils, vanilla, copra, cloves 

Imports: $27 million (f.o.b., 1984 prov.); rice 
and other foodstuffs, cement, fuels, chemi- 
cals, textiles 

Major trade partners: exports France, 
FRG, US; imports France, Kenya, 
Reunion 

Budget: (1984) domestic revenue, $11 mil- 
lion; external grants, $29 million; current 
expenditures, $14 million; capital expendi- 
tures, $7 million; extrabudgetary expendi- 
tures, $44 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commu- 
naute Financiere Af ricaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l (1985) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 1,110 km total; approximately 
400 km bituminous, remainder crushed 
stone or gravel 

Ports: 1 major (Mutsamudu on Anjouan 
Island); 2 minor 

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 4 total, 4 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: sparse system of 
radio-relay and high frequency radio com- 
munication stations for interisland and ex- 
ternal communications to Madagascar and 
Reunion; 1,800 telephones (0.4 per 100 
popl.); 2 AM stations, 1 FM station, no TV 
stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Presidential Guard, 
Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 93,000; 
55,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1981, $2.9 million; about 16% of 
the central government budget 



55 



Congo 



200km 




BRAZZAVILLE 



Gull ol 

Guinea ^Poinle 
Nan 
Srr regional map VII 



Land 

342,000 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Montana; 
63% dense forest or wood, 31% meadow, 4% 
urban or waste, 2% cultivated (est.) 

Land boundaries: 4,514 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 169 km 

People 

Population; 1,853,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.0% 

Nationality: noun Congolese (sing., pi.); 
adjective Congolese or Congo 

Ethnic divisions: about 15 ethnic groups 
divided into some 75 tribes, almost all 
Bantu; most important ethnic groups are 
Kongo (48%) in the south, Sangha (20%) and 
M'Bochi (12%) in the north, Teke (17%) in 
the center; about 8,500 Europeans, mostly 
French 

Religion: 48% animist, 47% Christian, 2% 
Muslim 

Language: French (official); many African 
languages with Lingala and Kikongo most 
widely used 

Infant mortality rate: 200/1,000(1983) 



Life expectancy: men 63 
Literacy: over 50% 

Labor force: about 40% of population eco- 
nomically active (1983); 75% agriculture, 
25% commerce, industry, government; 
79,100 wage earners; 40,000-60,000 unem- 
ployed 

Organized labor: 20% of total labor force 
(1979 est.) 

Government 

Official name: People's Republic of the 
Congo 

Type: people's republic 
Capital: Brazzaville 

Political subdivisions: nine regions divided 
into districts 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and customary law; constitution 
adopted 1973 

National holiday: National Day, 15 August 

Branches: presidential executive, Council of 
State; judiciary; all policy made by Congo- 
lese Labor Party Central Committee and 
Politburo 

Government leaders: Col. Denis SASSOU- 
NGUESSO, President and party chairman 
(since 1979); Ange Edouard POUNGUI, 
Prime Minister (since July 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: elections for local and regional 
organs and the National Assembly were held 
in July 1979 the first elections since June 
1973 

Political parties and leaders: Congolese La- 
bor Party (PCT) is the only legal party; Party 
Congress held in July 1984 Sassou unani- 
mously elected to another 5-year term as 
president and party chairman 

Communists: unknown number of Commu- 
nists and sympathizers 



Other political or pressure groups: Union of 
Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC), Congolese 
Trade Union Congress (CSC), Revolutionary 
Union of Congolese Women (URFC), Gen- 
eral Union of Congolese Pupils and Students 
(UGEEC) 

Member of: Af DB, Conference of East and 
Central African States, EAMA, ECA, EIB 
(associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, 
ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, 
OAU, UDEAC, UEAC, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: about $1.8 billion (1984), $1,140 per 
capita; real growth rate 2.5% per year 
(1984); 80% of economy is private sector, 
predominantly French owned and operated 

Natural resources: petroleum, wood, potash, 
lead, zinc, uranium, phosphates, natural gas 

Agriculture: cash crops sugarcane, wood, 
coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, peanuts, 
tobacco; food crops root crops, rice, corn, 
bananas, manioc, fish 

Fishing: catch 31,926 metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: crude oil, cement, saw- 
mills, brewery, cigarettes, sugar mill, soap 

Electric power: 175,000 kW capacity (1985); 
306 million kWh produced (1985), 170 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1984); oil (90%), 
lumber, tobacco, veneer, plywood, coffee, 



Imports: $618 million (f.o.b., 1984); machin- 
ery, transport equipment, manufactured 
consumer goods, iron and steel, foodstuffs, 
chemical products, sugar 

Major trade partners: France, other EC 
countries, US 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $721 million; cur- 
rent expenditures, $508 million; develop- 
ment expenditures, $241 million 



56 



Cook Islands 



Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commu- 
naute Financiere Af ricaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l(1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 727 km, 1.067-meter gauge, 
single track 

Highways: 1 1,970 km total; 555 km bitumi- 
nous surface treated; 848 km gravel, laterite, 
5,347 km improved earth, and 5,220 km 
unimproved roads 

Inland waterways: the Congo and Ubangi 
Rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially 
navigable water transport; the remainder of 
the inland waterways are used for local 
traffic only 

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km 
Ports: 1 major (Pointe-Noire) 
Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 55 total, 51 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 21 with runways 
1 ,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: services adequate for 
government use; primary network is com- 
posed of radio-relay routes and coaxial 
cables; key centers are Brazzaville, Pointe- 
Noire, and Loubomo; 18, 100 telephones (1.1 
per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV stations; 1 
Atlantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramili- 
tary National People's Militia 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 410,000; 
206,000 fit for military service; about 19,000 
reach military age (20) annually 



Pukapuka 



Rakahanta, Pamhyn 

'Manihiki 



Nassau 
Island 



South Pacific Ocean 



Palmerston 



A " u '"". Manuaa 



. Mitiaro 
Takutaa 

Mauka 



400km 
See regional map X 



Rarotonga 



*AVARUA 

Mangaia 



Land 

About 240 km 2 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm (200 nm 
exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 120 km 

People 

Population: 17,738 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Cook Islander(s); adjec- 
tive Cook Islander 

Ethnic divisions: 81.3% Polynesian (full 
blood), 7.7% Polynesian and European, 7.7% 
Polynesian and other, 2.4% European, 0.9% 
other 

Religion: Christian, majority of populace 
members of Cook Islands Christian Church 

Lanaguage: English 

Government 

Official name: Cook Islands 

Type: self-governing in "free association" 
with New Zealand; Cook Islands Govern- 
ment fully responsible for internal affairs 
and has the right at any time to move to full 
independence by unilateral action; New 
Zealand retains responsibility for external 
affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands 
Government 



Capital: Avarua, located on Rarotonga 

Branches: New Zealand Governor General 
appoints Representative to Cook Islands, 
who represents the Queen and the New 
Zealand Government; Representative ap- 
points the Prime Minister; popularly elected 
24-member Parliament; 15-member House 
of Arikis (chiefs), appointed by Representa- 
tive, is an advisory body only 

Government leader: Sir Thomas DAVIS, 
Prime Minister (since July 1978) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: every five years, latest in Novem- 
ber 1983 

Political parties and leaders: Democratic 
Party, Sir Thomas Davis; Cook Islands 
Party, Geoffrey Henry 

Voting strength: (1983) Parliament Dem- 
ocratic Party, 13 seats; Cook Islands Party, 
1 1 seats 

Member of: ADB, IDA, IFC, IMF, SPF, 
SPEC, ESCAP (associate member) 

Economy 

GDP: $15.4 million (1977), $860 per capita 

(1978) 

Agriculture: export crops include copra, 
citrus fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, and ba- 
nanas, with subsistence crops of yams and 
taro 

Major industry: fruit processing, tourism 

Electric power: 4,750 kW capacity (1985); 
15 million kWh produced (1985), 840 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $3.0 million (1977); copra, fresh 
and canned fruit 

Imports: $16.8 million (1977); foodstuffs, 
textiles, fuels 

Major trade partners: (1970) exports 98% 
New Zealand; imports 76% New Zealand, 
7% Japan 



57 



Cook Islands (continued) 



Costa Rica 



Aid: Australia (1980-83), $2.0 million; Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand (1977), $6.5 million 

Government budget: $121 million (1977) 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.88 New 
Zealand$=US$l (5 February 1986) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 187 km total (1980); 35 km 
paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km improved earth, 
33 km unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: none 

Ports: 2 minor 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 7 total, 6 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 6 AM, no FM, no TV 
stations; 7,000 radio receivers; 1,186 tele- 
phones (1.3 per lOOpopl.) 




North Pacific Ocean 



Set re|ional map 111 



Land 

50,700km 2 ; smaller than West Virginia; 
60% forest; 30% agricultural (22% meadow 
and pasture, 8% cultivated); 10% waste, ur- 
ban, and other 

Land boundaries: 670 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 1,290km 

People 

Population: 2,7 14,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Costa Rican(s); adjec- 
tive Costa Rican 

Ethnic divisions: 96% white (including mes- 
tizo), 3% black, 1% Indian 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic 

Language: Spanish (official), with Jamaican 
dialect of English spoken around Puerto 
Limon 

Infant mortality rate: 18.8/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 67.5, women 71.9 
Literacy: 93% 



Labor force: 868,300 (1985 est); 34% indus- 
try and commerce, 27% agriculture, 21% 
government and services, 8% other; 6% un- 
employment (1985 official); 10% unemploy- 
ment (1985 unofficial) 

Organized labor: about 15. 1 % of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Costa Rica 

Type: democratic republic 
Capital: San Jose 

Political subdivisions: 1 provinces divided 
into 80 cantons and districts 

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law 
system; constitution adopted in 1949; judi- 
cial review of legislative acts in the Supreme 
Court; legal education at University of Costa 
Rica; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 
September 

Branches: executive President (head of 
government and chief of state), elected for a 
single four-year term; two vice presidents; 
legislative 57-delegate unicameral Legisla- 
tive Assembly elected at four-year intervals; 
judiciary Supreme Court of Justice (17 
magistrates elected by Legislative Assembly 
at eight-year intervals) 

Government leader: Oscar Arias 
SANCHEZ, President-elect (to be inaugu- 
rated May 1986) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory age 18 
and over 

Elections: every four years; last held in Feb- 
ruary 1986 

Political parties and leaders: National Lib- 
eration Party (PLN), Luis Alberto Monge, 
Daniel Oduber, Jose "Pepe" Figueres, Oscar 
Arias Sanchez; the new United Social Chris- 
tian Party (PUSC) comprises the four Unity 
Coalition (UNIDAD) parties Republican 
Calderonista Party (PRC), Rafael Angel 
Calderon Fournier; Democratic Renovation 



58 



Party (PRO), leader unknown; Christian 
Democratic Party (PDC), Rafael Grille 
Rivera; Popular Union Party (PUP), Chris- 
tian Tallenbach Iglesias; the Popular Alli- 
ance (PA) is a coalition comprising two 
parties Marxist Popular Vanguard Party 
(PVP), Humberto Vargas Carbonell, and 
Leftist Broad Democratic Front (FAD), 
Rodrigo Gutierrez; the United People (PU) is 
a leftist coalition comprising four parties 
New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio 
Erick Ardon; Socialist Party (PS), Alvaro 
Montero Mejia; People's Party of Costa Rica 
(PPC), Manuel Mora Valverde; and Radical 
Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose 
Echeverria Brealey 

Voting strength: (1986 election) PLN, 29 
seats; UNIDAD, 25 seats; PVP, 1 seat; PPC, 
1 seat; other, 1 seat 

Communists: 7,500 members and sympa- 
thizers 

Other political or pressure groups: Costa 
Rican Confederation of Democratic Work- 
ers (CCTD; Liberation Party affiliate), Con- 
federated Union of Workers (CUT; Commu- 
nist Party affiliate), Authentic Confederation 
of Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist 
Party affiliate), Chamber of Coffee Growers, 
National Association for Economic Develop- 
ment (ANFE), Free Costa Rica Movement 
(MCRL; rightwing militants), National Asso- 
ciation of Educators (ANDE) 

Member of: CACM, Central American 
Democratic Community, FAO, G-77, 
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IDE Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC Interna- 
tional Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, 
PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, 
WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $3.4 billion (1984 est), $1,280 per cap- 
ita; 62% private consumption, 16% public 
consumption, 23% gross domestic invest- 
ment, 1% net foreign balance; 6% real 
growth rate (1984) 

Natural resources: hydroelectric power 



Agriculture: main products coffee, ba- 
nanas, sugarcane, rice, corn, cocoa, livestock 
products; an illegal producer of cannabis for 
the international drug trade 

Fishing: catch 10,902 metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: food processing, textiles 
and clothing, construction materials, fertil- 
izer 

Electric power: 820,000 kW capacity (1985); 
2.8 billion kWh produced (1985), 1,055 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $956 million (f.o.b., 1984); coffee, 
bananas, beef, sugar, cocoa 

Imports: $1,101 million (c.i.f., 1984); manu- 
factured products, machinery, transporta- 
tion equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, 
fertilizer 

Major trade partners: exports 47% US, 
18% CACM, 9% FRG; imports 40% US, 
12% Japan, 11% CACM, 4% FRG (1983) 

Aid: economic bilateral commitments US 
authorized (FY70-84), including Ex-Im, 
$603 million, other Western countries ODA 
and OOF (1970-83), $333 million, Commu- 
nist countries (1971-84), $27 million; mili- 
tary commitments US (FY70-84), $21 mil- 
lion 

Budget: consolidated public sector (1983) 
$1,009 million total revenues; total expendi- 
tures including debt amortization, $1,058 
million 

Monetary conversion rate: 54 
colones=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

. 

^ .- 

Communications 

Railroads: 800 km total, all 1.067-meter 
gauge; 243 km electrified 

Highways: 15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 
7,010 km gravel, 1,360 km unimproved 
earth 

Inland waterways: about 730 km, seasonally 
navigable 

59 



Pipelines: refined products, 95 km 

Ports: 1 major (Limon), 4 secondary 
(Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas) 

Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 221 total, 212 usable; 28 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: very good domestic 
telephone service; 292,000 telephones (11.8 
per 100 popl.); connection into Central 
American microwave net; 62 AM stations, 
17 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite 
station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Civil Guard, Rural Assistance 
Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 727,000; 
494,000 fit for military service; about 33,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Supply: dependent on imports from US 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $17.0 million for Ministry 
of Public Security, including the Civil 
Guard; about 3.0% of total central govern- 
ment budget; $19.5 million for Ministry of 
Government and Police; 3.4% of total cen- 
tral government budget 



Cuba 



300km 



North Atlantic 
Ocean 




Isla de la 
Juventud 



Caribbean Sea 



See regioni! map III 



Land 

114,471 km 2 ; nearly as large as Pennsylva- 
nia; 35% cultivated; 30% meadow and pas- 
ture; 20% waste, urban, or other; 15% forest 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 3,735 km 

People 

Population: 10,221,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.1% 

Nationality: noun Cuban(s); adjective 
Cuban 

Ethnic divisions: 51% mulatto, 37% white, 
11% black, 1% Chinese 

Religion: at least 85% nominally Roman 
Catholic before Castro assumed power 

Language: Spanish 

Infant mortality rate: 15/1,000(1985) 

Life expectancy: 74 

Literacy: 96% 

Labor force: 3.0 million in 1982; 47% indus- 
try and commerce, 28% services and govern- 
ment, 25% agriculture 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Cuba 

Type: Communist state 
Capital: Havana 

Political subdivisions: 14 provinces and 169 
municipalities 

Legal system: based on Spanish and Ameri- 
can law, with large elements of Communist 
legal theory; Fundamental Law of 1959 re- 
placed constitution of 1940; a new constitu- 
tion was approved at the Cuban Communist 
Party's First Party Congress in December 
1975 and by a popular referendum, which 
took place on 15 February 1976; portions of 
the new constitution were put into effect on 
24 February 1976, by means of a Constitu- 
tional Transition Law, and the entire consti- 
tution became effective on 2 December 
1976; legal education at the Universities of 
Havana, Oriente, and Las Villas; does not 
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revo- 
lution, 1 January 

Branches: executive; legislature (National 
Assembly of the People's Power); controlled 
judiciary 

Government leader: Fidel CASTRO Ruz, 
President (since January 1959) 

Suffrage: universal but not compulsory over 
age 16 

Elections: National People's Assembly (indi- 
rect election) every five years; last election 
held November 1981 

Political parties and leaders: Cuban Com- 
munist Party (PCC), First Secretary Fidel 
Castro Ruz, Second Secretary Raul Castro 
Ruz 

Communists: approx. 400,000 party mem- 
bers 

Member of: CEMA, ECLA, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, lADB(nonparticipant), IAEA, 
ICAO, IFAD, ICO, IHO, ILO, IMO, IRC, 
ISO, ITU, IWC International Wheat 



Council, NAM, OAS (nonparticipant), 
PAHO, Permanent Court of Arbitration, 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

CNP: $14.9 billion in 1974 dollars (1982 
est); $1,530 per capita in 1974 dollars (1982 
est); real growth rate 1.4% (1982 est.) 

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron, cop- 
per, manganese, salt, forests 

- 

Agriculture: main crops sugar, tobacco, 
rice, potatoes, tubers, citrus fruits, coffee 

Fishing: catch 198,400 metric tons (1984); 
exports $102 million (1984 est.) 

Major industries: sugar milling, petroleum 
refining, food and tobacco processing, tex- 
tiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, 
metals, cement 

Shortages: spare parts for transportation and 
industrial machinery, consumer goods 

Crude steel: 338,200 metric tons produced 
(1984); 34 kg per capita 

Electric power: 3,461,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 12.915 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 278 kWh per capita 

Exports: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); sugar, 
nickel, shellfish, tobacco, coffee, citrus 

Imports: $8.1 billion (c.i.f., 1984); capital 
goods, industrial raw materials, food, petro- 
leum 

Major trade partners: exports 72% USSR, 
17% other Communist countries; imports 
66% USSR, 18% other Communist countries 

(1984) 

Aid: from US (FY46-61), $41.5 million (loans 
$37.5 million, grants $4.0 million); economic 
aid from USSR (1961-84), $10.6 billion in 
economic credit and $27.0 billion in subsi- 
dies; military assistance from the USSR 
(1959-78), $1.6 billion 

Budget: $12.1 billion (1984) 



60 






Cyprus 



Monetary conversion rate: 0.9346 
peso=US$l (30 March 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 14,925 km total; Cuban National 
Railways operates 5,295 km of 1.435-meter 
gauge track; 199 km electrified; 9,630 km of 
sugar plantation lines of 0.914-1.435-meter 
gauge 

Highways: approximately 21,000 km total; 
9,000 km paved, 12,000 km gravel and earth 
surfaced 

Inland waterways: 240 km 

Ports: 1 major (including US Naval Base at 
Cuantanamo), 40 minor 

Civil air: 47 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 203 total, 191 usable; 65 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 1 1 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 19 with runways 1,220-2,439 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces, 
Ground Forces, Revolutionary Navy, Air 
and Air Defense Force, Ministry of Interior 
Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Terri- 
torial Militia Troops, Youth Labor Army 

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 
5,519,000; of the 2,896,000 males 15-49, 
1,818,000 are fit for military service; of the 
2,823,000 females 15-49, 1,772,000 are fit 
for military service; 1 17,000 males and 
1 15,000 females reach military age (17) an- 
nually 



Mediterranean Sea 



United Nationi 
Buffer Zone 




Mediterranean Sea 

Sec regional map VI 



Land 

9,251 km 2 ; smaller than Connecticut; 
arable (including permanent crop); 25% 
waste, urban areas, and other; 15% forest 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: approximately 648 km 

People 

Population: 673,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.2% 

Nationality: noun Cypriot(s); adjective 
Cypriot 

Ethnic divisions: 78% Greek; 18% Turkish; 
4% Armenian, Maronite, and other 

Religion: 78% Greek Orthodox; 18% Mus- 
lim; 4% Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and 
other 

Language: Greek, Turkish, English 
Infant mortality rate: 17/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 72.3, women 76.0 
Literacy: about 89% 

Greek Sector labor force: 240,900 (1982); 
42% services, 33% industry, 22% agriculture; 
3.1% unemployed 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Cyprus 

Type: republic; a disaggregation of the two 
ethnic communities inhabiting the island 
began after the outbreak of communal strife 
in 1963; this separation was further solidified 
following the Turkish invasion of the island 
in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypri- 
ots de facto control over the northern 37 per- 
cent of the republic; Greek Cypriots control 
the only internationally recognized govern- 
ment; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cyp- 
riot "President" Rauf Denktash declared 
independence and the formation of a "Turk- 
ish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which 
has been recognized only by Turkey; both 
sides publicly call for the resolution of inter- 
communal differences and creation of a new 
federal system of government 

Capital: Nicosia 

Political subdivisions: 6 administrative dis- 
tricts 

Legal system: based on common law, with 
civil law modifications; negotiations to cre- 
ate the basis for a new or revised constitution 
to govern the island and relations between 
Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held 
intermittently 

National holiday: Independence Day, 
1 October 

Branches: currently the Government of 
Cyprus has effective authority over only the 
Greek Cypriot community; headed by Presi- 
dent of the Republic and comprising Coun- 
cil of Ministers, House of Representatives, 
and Supreme Court; Turkish Cypriots de- 
clared their own "constitution" and govern- 
ing bodies within the "Turkish Federated 
State of Cyprus" in 1975; "state" renamed 
"Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 
1983; new "constitution" for the Turkish 
sector passed by referendum in May 1985 

Government leaders: Spyros KYPRIANOU, 
President (since 1977); Turkish Sector 
Rauf DENKTASH, "President" (since 1975) 

Suffrage: universal at age 18 



61 



Cyprus (continued) 



Elections: officially every five years (last 
presidential election held in February 1983); 
parliamentary elections held in December 
1985; Turkish sector "presidential" elections 
last held in June 1985; "assembly" elections 
held in June 1985 

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cyp- 
riot Progressive Party of the Working Peo- 
ple (AKEL; Communist Party), Ezekias 
Papaioannou; Democratic Rally (DESY), 
Clafkos Clerides; Democratic Party 
(DEKO), Spyros Kyprianou; United Demo- 
cratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos 
Lyssarides; Turkish sector National Unity 
Party (NUP), Dervis Eroglu; Communal 
Liberation Party (CLP), Ismail Bozkurt; Re- 
publican Turkish Party (RTP), Ozker Ozgur; 
New Birth Party (NBP), Aytae Besheshler 

Voting strength: in the 1983 presidential 
election, incumbent Spyros Kyprianou re- 
tained his position by winning 56% of the 
vote; in the 1981 parliamentary election, the 
pro- Western Democratic Rally received 19 
of the 56 seats; Kyprianou 's center-right 
Democratic Party won 16 seats; Communist 
AKEL secured 15 seats; and socialist EDEK 
won six seats; in 1985 "presidential" elec- 
tions in the Turkish Cypriot sector, Rauf 
Denktash won with 70 percent of the vote; 
in the 1985 "assembly" elections the conser- 
vative National Unity Party won 24 of 50 
seats; the Communist Republican Turkish 
Party received 12 seats; center-right Com- 
munal Liberation Party secured 10 seats; 
and the rightwing New Birth Party received 
4 seats 

Communists: about 12,000 

Other political or pressure groups: United 
Democratic Youth Organization (EDON; 
Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus 
Farmers (EKA; Communist controlled); 
Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK; pro- West); 
Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO; Com- 
munist controlled); Confederation of Cyp- 
riot Workers (SEK; pro- West); Federation of 
Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); 
Confederation of Revolutionary Labor 
Unions (Dev-Is) 

Member of: Commonwealth, Council of 
Europe, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 



ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WMO, WTO; Turkish Federated State of 
Cyprus OIC (observer) 

. 

Economy 

GDP: $2.1 billion (1983), $3,210 per capita; 
1983 est. real growth rate 2.6% 

Turkish Sector GDP: $205.9 million (1983), 
$1,344 per capita 

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, 
gypsum, lumber, salt, marble, clay earth 
pigment 

Agriculture: main crops potatoes and 
other vegetables, grapes, citrus fruit, wheat, 
carob beans, olives 

Major industries: mining (iron pyrites, gyp- 
sum, asbestos), manufactures principally for 
local consumption beverages, footwear, 
clothing, cement 

Electric power: 620,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.468 billion kWh produced (1985), 2,210 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $482.8 million (f.o.b., 1984); princi- 
pal items food and beverages, including 
citrus, raisins, potatoes, wine; also cement 
and clothing 

Turkish Sector exports: $46.8 million (f.o.b., 
1984); principal items citrus fruits, pota- 
toes, metal pipes, pyrites 

Imports: $1,195 million (c.i.f., 1984); princi- 
pal items manufactured goods, machinery 
and transport equipment, fuels, food 

Turkish Sector imports: $170 million (c.i.f., 
1984); principal items foodstuffs, raw ma- 
terials, fuels, machinery 

Major trade partners: imports (1984) 
12.1% UK, 12% Japan, 10.5% Italy, 8.3% 
FRG, 5.2% Iraq; exports (1984) 17% UK, 
14.1% Lebanon, 11.4% Libya, 7.5% Saudi 
Arabia, 3.4% USSR 

Turkish Sector major trade partners: im- 
ports (1984) 46% Turkey, 36% EC, 17% 
Arab countries; exports (1984) 61% EC, 
22% Turkey, 16% Arab countries 



Budget: (1983) revenues, $587.2 million; 
expenditures, $697.3 million; deficit, $1 10. 1 
million 

Turkish Sector budget: (1982) revenues, 
$82.3 million; expenditures, $72.2 million; 
deficit, $14.7 million 

Monetary conversion rate: .63 Cyprus 
pound=US$l (October 1984) 

Turkish Sector monetary conversion rate: 
225.46 Turkish liras=US$l (1983 average) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 10,778 km total; 5,169 km bitu- 
minous surface treated; 5,609 km gravel, 
crushed stone, and earth 

Ports: 3 major (Famagusta, Larnaca, Limas- 
sol), 2 secondary (Vasilikos, Kyrenia) under 
development, 6 minor; Famagusta and 
Kyrenia under Turkish Cypriot control 

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 14 total, 13 usable; 1 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 6 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: moderately good 
telecommunication system in both Greek 
and Turkish sectors; 164,000 telephones (25 
per 100 popl.); 10 AM, 6 FM, and 29 TV sta- 
tions; tropospheric scatter circuits to Greece 
and Turkey; 3 submarine coaxial cables; 1 
Atlantic Ocean satellite antenna and 1 In- 
dian Ocean antenna 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Cyprus National Guard; Turkish 
sector Turkish Cypriot Security Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 182,000; 
127,000 fit for military service; about 5,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $60 million; 1 1.6% of cen- 
tral government budget 



62 



Czechoslovakia 




See ref ionil map V 



Land 

127,870 km 2 ; the size of New York; 53% 
agricultural, 36% forest, 11% other 

Land boundaries: 3,540 km 

People 

Population: 15,542,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.3% 

Nationality: noun Czechoslovak(s); adjec- 
tive Czechoslovak 

Ethnic divisions: 64.3% Czech, 30.5% Slo- 
vak, 3.8% Hungarian, 0.4% German, 0.4% 
Polish, 0.3% Ukrainian, 0.1% Russian, 0.2% 
other (Jewish, Gypsy) 

Religion: 77% Roman Catholic, 20% Protes- 
tant, 2% Orthodox, 1% other 

Language: Czech and Slovak (official), Hun- 
garian 

Infant mortality rate: 16/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 70 
Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 7.51 million (1984); 38.1% in- 
dustry; 12.5% agriculture; 49.4% construc- 
tion, communications, and other (1982) 

Government 

Official name: Czechoslovak Socialist Re- 
public (CSSR) 



Type: Communist state 
Capital: Prague 

Political subdivisions: 2 ostensibly separate 
and nominally autonomous republics (Czech 
Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Re- 
public); 7 regions (kraj) in Czech lands, 3 
regions in Slovakia; republic capitals of 
Prague and Bratislava have regional status 

Legal system: civil law system based on 
Austro-Hungarian codes, modified by Com- 
munist legal theory; revised constitution 
adopted 1960, and amended in 1968 and 
1970; no judicial review of legislative acts; 
legal education at Charles University School 
of Law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May 

Branches: executive President (elected by 
Federal Assembly), Cabinet (appointed by 
President); legislative (Federal Assembly; 
elected directly Chamber of Nations, 
Chamber of the People), Czech and Slovak 
National Councils (also elected directly) leg- 
islate on limited area of regional matters; 
judiciary, Supreme Court (elected by Fed- 
eral Assembly); entire governmental struc- 
ture dominated by Communist Party 

Government leaders: Gustav HUSAK, Presi- 
dent (since 1975); Lubomir STROUGAL, 
Premier (since 1970) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: governmental bodies and presi- 
dent every five years; last election June 1981 

Dominant political party and leader: Com- 
munist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC), Gus- 
tav Husak, General Secretary (since 1969); 
Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS) has sta- 
tus of provincial KSC "organization" 

Voting strength: (1981 election) 99.96% for 
Communist-sponsored single slate 

Communists: 1.6 million party members 
(August 1984) 



Other political groups: puppet parties 
Czechoslovak Socialist Party, Czechoslovak 
People's Party, Slovak Freedom Party, Slo- 
vak Revival Party 

Member of: CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, 
ICAO, ICO, ILO, International Lead and 
Zinc Study Group, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, 
ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $127.9 billion in 1984 (in 1984 dollars), 
$8,280 per capita; 1984 real growth rate 

2.3% 

Natural resources: coal, coke, timber, lig- 
nite, uranium, magnesite 

Agriculture: diversified agriculture: main 
crops wheat, rye, oats, corn, barley, pota- 
toes, sugar beets, hogs, cattle, horses; net 
food importer meat, wheat, vegetable oils, 
fresh fruits and vegetables 

Major industries: iron and steel, machinery 
and equipment, cement, sheet glass, motor 
vehicles, armaments, chemicals, ceramics, 
wood, paper products 

Shortages: ores, crude oil 

Crude steel: 14.8 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 960 kg per capita 

Electric power: 20,330,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 79.5 billion kWh produced (1985), 
5,128 kWh per capita 

Exports: $17.398 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 54.8% 
machinery and equipment; 16.2% manufac- 
tured consumer goods; 14.2% fuels, miner- 
als, and metals; 6.7% agricultural and for- 
estry products, 8. 1 % other products (1984 
prelim.) 

Imports: $17.585 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 41.1% 
fuels, minerals, and metals; 33.2% machin- 
ery and equipment; 12.1% agricultural and 
forestry products; 5.7% manufactured con- 
sumer goods; 7.9% other products (1984) 

Major trade partners: USSR, GDR, Poland, 
Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria, Bul- 
garia, Romania; $32,484 million (1982); 71% 
with Communist countries, 29% with non- 
Communist countries (1984) 



63 



Czechoslovakia (continued) 



Denmark 



Monetary conversion rate: 6.65 koronas= 
US$1 (1983 average) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

NOTE: foreign trade figures were converted 
at the rate of 6.9 koronas=US$l (January 
1982) 

Communications 

Railroads: 13,141 km total; 12,883 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, 102km 1.524-meter 
broad gauge, 156 km 0.750- and 0.760- 
meter narrow gauge; 2,866 km double track; 
3,221 km electrified; government owned 
(1983) 

Highways: 74,064 km total; 60,765 km con- 
crete, asphalt, stone block; 13,299 km gravel, 
crushed stone (1983) 

Inland waterways: 475 km (1983) 

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,448 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 1,500 km; natural gas, 7,500 km 

Freight carried: rail 298.8 million metric 
tons (1984); highway 1,376 million metric 
tons, 20.3 billion metric ton/km (1983); 
waterway 1 1.40 million metric tons (1984), 
3.9 billion metric ton/km (excluding inter- 
national transit traffic) (1983) 

Ports: no maritime ports; outlets are Gdynia, 
Gdansk, and Szczecin in Poland; Rijeka and 
Koper in Yugoslavia; Hamburg, FRG; Ros- 
tock, GDR; principal river ports are Prague, 
Dettn, Komarno, Bratislava (1979) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Czechoslovak People's Army, 
Frontier Guard, Air and Air Defense Forces 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,798,000; 
2,924,000 fit for military service; 110,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: announced for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1985, 25.7 billion 
koronas, 7.5% of total budget 



Skagerrak 




See region*! map V 



Land 

43,076 km 2 (exclusive of Greenland and 
Faroe Islands); the size of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire combined; 64% arable, 
11% forest, 8% meadow and pasture, 17% 
other 

Land boundaries: 68 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone or to median line) 

Coastline: 3,379 km 

People 

Population: 5,097,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.1% 

Nationality: noun Dane(s); adjective 
Danish 

Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, 
Faroese, German 

Religion: 97% Evangelical Lutheran, 2% 
other Protestant and Roman Catholic, 1% 
other 

Language: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic 
(an Eskimo dialect); small German-speaking 
minority 

Infant mortality rate: 7.7/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 71.5, women 77.5 



Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 2,713,000(1984); 33.2% govern- 
ment; 20.7% manufacturing; 13.2% com- 
merce; 2.0% agriculture, forestry, and 
fishing; 5.9% construction; 7.8% banking and 
business services; 7.5% transportation; 10.3% 
unemployment rate 

Organized labor: 65% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Denmark 

Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Copenhagen 

Political subdivisions: 14 counties, 275 com- 
munes (88 towns are included in communes) 

Legal system: civil law system; constitution 
adopted 1953; judicial review of legislative 
acts; legal education at Universities of 
Copenhagen and Arhus; accepts compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: birthday of the Queen, 16 
April 

Branches: legislative authority rests jointly 
with Crown and parliament (Folketing); 
executive power vested in Crown but exer- 
cised by Cabinet responsible to parliament; 
Supreme Court, 2 superior courts, 106 lower 
courts 

Government leaders: MARGRETHE II, 
Queen (since January 1972); Poul 
SCHLUTER, Prime Minister (since Septem- 
ber 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: on call of prime minister but at 
least every four years; last election 10 Janu- 
ary 1984 

Political parties and leaders: Social Demo- 
cratic, Anker J0rgensen; Liberal, Uffe 
Ellemann-Jensen; Conservative, Poul Schl- 
ter; Radical Liberal, Niels Helveg Petersen; 
Socialist People's, Gert Petersen; Commu- 
nist, Jorgen Jensen; Left Socialist, Preben 
Wilnjelm; Center Democratic, Erhard 



64 



Jakobsen; Christian People's, Christian 
Christensen; Justice, Poul Gerhard Kristian- 
sen; Trade and Industry Party, Asger J. 
Lindinger; Free Democratic Party, Mogens 
Glistrup; Socialist Workers Party, no chair- 
man; Communist Workers' Party (KAP), 
Benito Scocozza 

Voting strength: (1984 election) 31. 6% So- 
cial Democratic, 23.4% Conservative, 12.1% 
Liberal, 11.5% Socialist People's, 5.5% Radi- 
cal Liberal, 4.6% Center Democratic, 3.6% 
Progress, 2.7% Christian People's, 2.6% Left 
Socialist, 1.5% Justice, 0.7% Communist, 
0.2% others 

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, 
EC, ELDO (observer), EMS, ESRO, FAO, 
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, 
ICO, IDA, IDE, Inter-American Develop- 
ment Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, 
International Lead and Zinc Study Group, 
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, 
ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC International Wheat 
Council, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $52.4 billion (1984), $10,250 per cap- 
ita; 54% private consumption, 18% private 
investment, 26% government consumption, 
investment; 1% net exports of goods and ser- 
vices; 1% increase in stocks; 1984 growth 
rate, 3.9% 

Natural resources: oil, gas, fish 

Agriculture: highly intensive, specializes in 
dairying and animal husbandry; main 
crops cereals, root crops; food imports 
oilseed, grain, animal feedstuffs 

Fishing: catch 1.86 million metric tons 
(1983), exports $756 million, imports $317 
million (1984) 

Major industries: food processing, machin- 
ery and equipment, textiles and clothing, 
chemical products, electronics, construction, 
furniture, and other wood products 

Crude steel: 0.6 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 1 10 kg per capita 



Electric power: 9,493,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 27.464 billion kWh produced (1985), 
5,380 kWh per capita 

Exports: $15.9 billion (f.o.b., 1984); principal 
items meat, dairy products, industrial ma- 
chinery and equipment, textiles and cloth- 
ing, chemical products, transport equip- 
ment, fish, furs, furniture 

Imports: $16.581 billion (c.i.f., 1984); princi- 
pal items industrial machinery, transport 
equipment, petroleum, textile fibers and 
yarns, iron and steel products, chemicals, 
grain and feedstuffs, wood and paper 

Major trade partners: 1984 exports 44.3% 
EC, 18% FRG, 12.7% Sweden, 10.7% UK, 
7.2% US, 5.3% Norway 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83) $3.3 billion 

Budget: (1984) expenditures, $24.8 billion; 
revenues, $18.5 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 9.03 kroner= 
US$1 (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year, beginning 1 Janu- 
ary 

Communications 

Railroads: 2,770 km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge; Danish State Railways (DSB) operate 
2,120 km (1,999 km rail line and 121 km rail 
ferry services); 97 km electrified, 730 km 
double tracked; 650 km of standard-gauge 
lines are privately owned and operated 

Highways: approximately 66,482 km total; 
64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone 
block; 1,931 km gravel, crushed stone, im- 
proved earth 

Inland waterways: 417 km 

Pipelines: crude oil, 110 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 418 km; natural gas, 549 km 

Ports: 10 major, 50 minor 

Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft 



Airfields: 131 total, 116 usable; 25 with 
permanent-surface runways; 9 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 7 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: excellent telephone, 
telegraph, and broadcast services; 3.67 mil- 
lion telephones (7 1.8 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 
46 FM, 34 TV stations; 13 submarine coaxial 
cables; 7 satellite earth stations for domestic 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Dan- 
ish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,312,000; 
1,105,000 fit for military service; 41,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $1.4 billion; 6.7% of central 
government budget 00; 1,105,000 fit for mil- 
itary service; 41,000 reach military age (20) 
annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $1.4 billion; 6.7% of central 
government budget 00; 1,105,000 fit for mil- 
itary service; 41,000 reach military age (20) 
annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $1.4 billion; 6.7% of central 
government budget 



Djibouti 




Golte de Tadjoura 
DJIBOUTI* 



Set regional mip VII 



Land 

22,000 km 2 ; about the size of New Hamp- 
shire; 89% desert waste, 10% permanent 
pasture, less than 1% cultivated 

Land boundaries: 517 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Djibouti 

National holiday: 27 June 

Type: republic 

Capital: Djibouti 

Political subdivisions: 5 cercles (districts) 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system, traditional practices, and Islamic 
law; partial constitution ratified January 
1981 by National Assembly 

Branches: legislative 65-member parlia- 
ment (National Assembly), executive, judi- 
ciary 

Government leader: Hassan GOULED 
Aptidon, President (since June 1977) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: parliament elected May 1982 

Political party and leader: Peoples Progress 
Assembly (RPP), Hassan Gouled Aptidon; 
sole legal party 



Coastline: 314 km (includes offshore islands) Communists: possibly a few sympathizers 



People 

Population: 304,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Djiboutian(s); adjec- 
tive Djiboutian 

Ethnic divisions: 60% Somali (Issa); 35% 
Afar, 5% French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Ital- 
ian 

Religion: 94% Muslim, 6% Christian 

Language: French (official); Somali and Afar 
widely used 

Infant mortality rate: 140/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: 50 
Literacy: 17% 

Labor force: a small number of semiskilled 
laborers at port 

Organized labor: 3,000 railway workers or- 
ganized 



Member of: AfDB, Arab League, FAO, 
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, QIC, 
UN, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $369 million (1983); per capita income 

$1,168(1983) 

Natural resources: none 

Agriculture: livestock; limited commercial 
crops, including fruit and vegetables 

Major industries: transit trade, port, rail- 
way, services; live cattle and sheep exports to 
Saudi Arabia; secondary services to French 
military 

Electric power: 80,100 kW capacity (1985); 
140 million kWh produced (1985), 471 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $88 million (f.o.b., 1984 prelim.); 
hides and skins and transit of coffee; a large 



portion consists of reexports to foreign resi- 
dents of Djibouti 

Imports: $200 million (f.o.b., 1984 prelim.); 
almost all domestically needed goods 
foods, machinery, transport equipment 

Budget: (1983) revenues, $118 million; 
grants, $27 million; current expenditures, 
$120 million; development expenditures, 
$32 million; extrabudgetary expenditures, 
$21 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 177.67 Djibouti 
francs=US$l (October 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Gommunications 

Railroads: the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad 
extends for 97 km through Djibouti 

Highways: 2,800 km total; 279 km bitumi- 
nous surface, 229 km improved earth, 2,292 
km unimproved earth 

Ports: 1 major (Djibouti) 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 12 total, 10 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system of urban 
facilities in Djibouti and radio-relay stations 
at outlying places; 7,200 telephones (2.0 per 
100 popl.); 2 AM stations, 1 FM station, 2 TV 
stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite ground 
station, 1 Arab satellite station, 1 submarine 
cable to Saudi Arabia under construction 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramili- 
tary National Security Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 
66,000; about 39,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $27.8 million; about 22% of 
central government budget 



66 



Dominica 




See regional map 111 



Land 

752.7 km 2 ; about one-fourth the size of 
Rhode Island; 67% forest; 24% arable; 2% 
pasture; 7% other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 148 km 

People 

Population: 74,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.4% 

Nationality: noun Dominican(s); adjec- 
tive Dominican 

Ethnic divisions: mostly black; some Carib- 
Indians 

Religion: 80% Roman Catholic; Anglican, 
Methodist 

Language: English (official); French patois 
widely spoken 

Infant mortality rate: 24. 1/1,000 (1981) 
Life expectancy: men 56.97, women 59. 18 
Literacy: about 80% 

Labor force: 25,000; 40% agriculture, 32% 
industry and commerce, 28% services; 15- 
20% unemployment (1984) 



Organized labor: 25% of the labor force 

Government 

Official name: Commonwealth of Dominica 

Type: independent state within Common- 
wealth 

Capital: Roseau 

Political subdivisions: 21 districts 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; three local magistrate courts and the 
British Caribbean Court of Appeals 

Branches: legislative, 51-member bicameral 
House of Assembly (1 ex-officio member, 9 
appointed members, and 21 members popu- 
larly elected members; executive, Cabinet 
headed by Prime Minister; judicial, 
magistrate's courts and regional court of 
appeals 

Government leader: (Mary) Eugenia 
CHARLES, Prime Minister (since July 
1980); Sir Clarence SEIGNORET, President 
(since December 1983) 

Suffrage: universal adult suffrage at age 18 

Elections: every five years; last held 2 July 
1985 

Political parties and leaders: Labor Party of 
Dominica (LPD, a leftist front group), 
Michael Douglas; Dominica Freedom Party 
(DFP), (Mary) Eugenia Charles 

Voting strength: (1985 election) House of 
Assembly seats DFP 15, LPD 5, inde- 
pendent 1 

Communists: negligible 

Other political or pressure groups: Domin- 
ica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small 
leftist group 

Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, 
FAO, GATT (de facto), G-77, IBRD, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, 
OAS, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 



Economy 

CNP: $85.4 million (prelim.), $1,034 per 

capita; 1984 real growth rate 4.3% (1984) 

Natural resources: timber 

Agriculture: bananas, citrus, coconuts, co- 
coa, essential oils 

Major industries: agricultural processing, 
tourism, soap and other coconut-based prod- 
ucts, cigars 

Electric power: 7,000 kW capacity (1985); 
16 million kWh produced (1985), 216 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $25.6 million (f.o.b., 1984 prelim.); 
bananas, coconuts, lime juice and oil, cocoa, 
reexports 

Imports: $55.8 million (c.i.f., 1984 prelim.); 
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, man- 
ufactured articles, cement 

Major trade partners: (1984) exports 46% 
UK, 16% Jamaica, 15% Trinidad and To- 
bago, 2% US, 0.3% other EC; imports 27% 
US, 13% UK, 8% Trinidad and Tobago, 6% 
other EC 

Aid: economic bilateral ODA and OOF 
(1970-80), from Western (non-US) countries, 
$22.6 million; no military aid 

Budget: revenues, $33.4 million; expendi- 
tures, $38.5 million (FY84) 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Carib- 
bean dollars= US$1 (February 1984) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 750 km total; 370 km paved, 380 
km gravel and earth 

Ports: 1 major (Roseau), 1 minor 
(Portsmouth) 

Civil air: unknown number of major trans- 
port aircraft 



67 



Dominica (continued) 



Dominican Republic 



Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 4,600 telephones in 
fully automatic network (5.6 per 100 popl.); 
VHF and UHF link to St. Lucia; new SHF 
links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; 3 AM 
stations, 1 FM station, 1 cable TV station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Po- 
lice Force 

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year 
1986, $2.9 million; 4.6% of the central gov- 
ernment budget 



100km 



North Atlantic Ocean 



Bahta de Samana 




Caribbean Sea 



See regional map III 



Land 

48,734 km 2 ; the size of New Hampshire and 
Vermont combined; 45% forest, 20% built 
on or waste, 17% meadow and pasture, 14% 
cultivated, 4% fallow 

Land boundaries: 361 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm 
(200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 1,288 km 

People 

Population: 6,785,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Dominican(s); adjec- 
tive Dominican 

Ethnic divisions: 73% mixed, 16% white, 
11% black 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic 

Language: Spanish 

Infant mortality rate: 63/ 1 ,000 (1983) 

Life expectancy: 60 

Literacy: 68% 

Labor force: 1.7 million (1984); 45% agricul- 
ture, 34% industry, 16% services, 3% other 



Organized labor: 150,000(1984); 12% of 
labor force 

Government 

Official name: Dominican Republic 

Type: republic 
Capital: Santo Domingo 

Political subdivisions: 26 provinces and the 
National District 

Legal system: based on French civil codes; 
1966 constitution 

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 
February 

Branches: President popularly elected for a 
four-year term; bicameral legislature (Na- 
tional Congress 27-seat Senate and 120- 
seat Chamber of Deputies elected for four- 
year terms); Supreme Court 

Government leader: Salvador JORGE 
Blanco, President (since May 1982) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory, over 
age 18 or married, except members of the 
armed forces and police, who cannot vote 

Elections: last national election May 1982; 
next election May 1986 

Political parties and leaders: Dominican 
Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jacobo Majluta 
and Jose Francisco Pena Gomez; Reformist 
Social Christian Party (PRSC), Joaquin 
Balaguer (formed in 1984 by merger of Re- 
formist Party and Revolutionary Social 
Christian Party); Dominican Liberation 
Party (PLD), Juan Bosch; Democratic 
Quisqueyan Party (POD), Elias Wessin y 
Wessin; Antireelection Movement of Demo- 
cratic Integration (MIDA), Francisco 
Augusto Lora; National Civic Union (UCN), 
Guillermo Delmonte Urraca; Dominican 
Communist Party (PCD), Narciso Isa Conde, 
Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UFA), Ivan 
Rodriguez; in 1983 several leftist parties, 
including the Communists, joined to form 
the Dominican Leftist Front (FID); how- 
ever, they still retain individual party struc- 
tures 



. 68 



Ecuador 



Voting strength: (1982 election) 74% voter 
turnout; 46.76% PRO, 39.14% PR, 9.69% 
PLD; 4.41% minor parties 

Communists: an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 
members in several legal and illegal factions; 
effectiveness limited by ideological differ- 
ences and organizational inadequacies 

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, 
IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IOOC, IRC, ISO, ITU, OAS, 
PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $11.0 billion (1984 prelim.), $1,090 

per capita; real GDP growth 1.0% (1984) 

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, 
silver 

Agriculture: main crops sugarcane, coffee, 
cocoa, tobacco, rice, corn 

Major industries: tourism, sugar processing, 
nickel mining, gold mining, textiles, cement 

Electric power: 1,439,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 3.286 billion kWh produced (1985), 
497 kWh per capita 

Exports: $866 million (f.o.b., 1984); sugar, 
nickel, coffee, tobacco, cocoa, gold, silver 

Imports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984); food- 
stuffs, petroleum, industrial raw materials, 
capital equipment 

Major trade partners: exports 77% US, 
including Puerto Rico (1984 prelim.); im- 
ports 45% US, including Puerto Rico 
(1980) 

Aid: economic US economic 
commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), 
from US, $598 million; ODA and OOF from 
other Western countries (1970-83), $289 mil- 
lion; military authorized from US (1970-84), 
$40 million 

Budget: revenues, $1.2 billion; expenditures, 
$1.3 million (1984) 



Monetary conversion rate: 3 pesos=US$l 
(September 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 375 km total of 1.435-meter 
gauge, privately owned 

Highways: 12,000 km total; 5,800 km paved, 
5,600 km gravel and improved earth, 600 
km unimproved 

Pipelines: crude oil, 96 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 8 km 

Ports: 4 major (Santo Domingo, Haina, San 
Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata), 17 minor 

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 47 total, 34 usable; 14 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 9 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: relatively efficient 
domestic system based on islandwide radio- 
relay network; 190,000 telephones (3 per 100 
popl.); 126 AM, 18 TV stations; 1 coaxial 
submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite 
station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,686,000; 
1,112,000 fit for military service; 84,000 
reach military age (18) annually 




Setrtfionil mipIV 



Galapagos Islands 



Land 

283,561 km 2 (including Galapagos Islands); 
the size of Colorado; 55% forest; 11% culti- 
vated; 8% meadow and pasture; 26% waste, 
urban, or other (excludes the Oriente and 
the Galapagos Islands, for which informa- 
tion is not available) 

Land boundaries: 1,931 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 2,237 km (includes Galapagos 
Islands) 

People 

Population: 9,647,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Ecuadorean(s); adjec- 
tive Ecuadorean 

Ethnic divisions: 55% mestizo (mixed Indian 
and Spanish), 25% Indian, 10% Spanish, 10% 
black 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic (majority 
nonpracticing) 

Language: Spanish (official); Indian lan- 
guages, especially Quechua 

Infant mortality rate: 76.3/1,000(1978) 
Life expectancy: 62 



69 



Ecuador (continued) 



Literacy: 84% 

Labor force: (1983) 2.8 million; 52% agricul- 
ture, 13% manufacturing, 7% commerce, 4% 
construction, 4% public administration, 16% 
other services and activities 

Organized labor: less than 15% of labor 
force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Ecuador 

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 
August 

Type: republic 
Capital: Quito 

Political subdivisions: 20 provinces includ- 
ing Galapagos Islands 

Legal system: based on civil law system; 
progressive new constitution passed in Janu- 
ary 1978 referendum; came into effect fol- 
lowing the installation of a new civilian gov- 
ernment in August 1979; legal education at 
four state and two private universities; has 
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

Branches: executive; unicameral legislature 
(Chamber of Representatives); independent 
judiciary 

Government leader: Leon FEBRES- 
CORDERO Ribadeneyra, President (since 
August 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18; compulsory 
for literates 

Elections: parliamentary and presidential 
elections held January 1984; second-stage 
presidential election held May 1984; govern- 
ment and legislature took office in August 
1984; an amendment to the constitution in 
August 1983 changed the term of office for 
the president from 5 to 4 years; the 59 depu- 
ties elected by the provinces serve for 2 
years; the 12 at-large deputies serve for 4 
years; next presidential election scheduled 
for 1988 



Political parties and leaders: Social Chris- 
tian Party (PSC, the party of President Leon 
Febres-Cordero), center-right; Popular De- 
mocracy (DP), Osvaldo Hurtado; Christian 
Democratic, Julio Cesar Trujillo; Demo- 
cratic Left (ID), Xavier Ledesma; Social 
Democratic, Rodrigo Borja; Radical Alfarist 
Front (FRA), Cecilia Calderon de Castro, 
populist; Democratic Party (PD), Francisco 
Huerta, center-left; Radical Liberal Party, 
Eudoro Loor Rivadeneira, center- right; 
Conservative Party, Jose Teran, center- 
right; Concentration of Popular Forces 
(CFP), Averroes Bucaram, populist; People, 
Change, and Democracy (PCD), Aquiles 
Rigail Santistevan, center-left; Democratic 
Popular Movement (MPD), Jaime Hurtado, 
Communist; Revolutionary Nationalist 
Party (PNR), Carlos Julio Arosemena, 
center-right; Broad Leftist Front (FADI), 
Rene Mauge, pro-Moscow Communist 

Voting strength: results of May 1984 presi- 
dential runoff election Leon Febres- 
Cordero of the Social Christian Party, who 
headed the coalition National Reconstruc- 
tion Front, 52.2%; Rodrigo Borja of the 
Democratic Left, 47.8% 

Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador 
(PCE, pro-Moscow, Rene Mauge secretary 
general), 6,000 members; Communist Party 
of Ecuador/Marxist Leninist (PCMLE, in- 
dependent), 6,000 members; Revolutionary 
Socialist Party of Ecuador (PSRE, pro- 
Cuba), 100 members plus an estimated 5,000 
sympathizers 

Member of: Andean Pact, ECOSOC, FAO, 
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, 
IDA, IDE Inter-American Development 
Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, LAIA, 
NAM, OAS, OPEC, PAHO, SELA, UN, 
UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $9.9 billion (1984), $1,165 per capita; 
60% private consumption, 21% gross invest- 
ment, 12% public consumption, 7% foreign 
(1984); average annual growth rate 2.7% 
(1978-84) 

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber 
70 



Agriculture: main crops bananas, coffee, 
cocoa, sugarcane, corn, potatoes, rice; an 
illegal producer of coca for the international 
drug trade 

Fishing: catch 307,300 metric tons (1983); 
exports $219.3 million (1984), imports negli- 
gible 

Major industries: food processing, textiles, 
chemicals, fishing, petroleum 

Electric power: 1,700,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 3.575 billion kWh produced (1985), 
380 kWh per capita 

Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum, fish products, coffee, bananas, cocoa 

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1984); agricul- 
tural and industrial machinery, industrial 
raw materials, building supplies, chemical 
products, transportation and communica- 
tion equipment 

Major trade partners: exports (1984) 64% 
US, 13% Latin America and Caribbean, 3% 
EC, 1% Japan; imports (1984) 36% US, 
22% Latin America and Caribbean, 21% EC, 
7% Japan (1984) 

Aid: economic Western (non-US) ODA 
and OOF commitments (1970-83), $589 mil- 
lion; US economic (FY70-84), $279; Com- 
munist countries (1970-84), $51 million; mil- 
itary US (FY70-84) $64 million 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $1,088 million; 
expenditures, $1,140 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 110 sucres= 
US$1 (31 January 1986) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 965 km total; all 1.067-meter 
gauge single track 

Highways: 28,000 km total; 3,600 km paved, 
17,400 km gravel and improved earth, 7,000 
km unimproved earth 



Egypt 



Inland waterways: 1,500 km 

Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 1,358 km 

Ports: 4 major (Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto 
Bolivar, Esmeraldas), 6 minor 

Civil air: 44 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 177 total, 174 usable; 29 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 6 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: domestic facilities 
generally adequate; 1 Atlantic Ocean satel- 
lite station; 318,000 telephones (3.9 per 100 
popl.); 285 AM, 24 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Ecuadorean Army, Ecuadorean 
Air Force, Ecuadorean Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,203,000; 
1,497,000 fit for military service; 101,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: estimated for the fiscal 
year ending 31 December 1986, $345 mil- 
lion; about 10.9% of the central government 
budget 



Mediterranean Sea 




See regional map VI and VII 



Land 

1,001,449 km 2 ; the size of Texas and Oregon 
combined; 96.5% desert, waste, or urban; 
2.8% cultivated (of which about 70% is mul- 
tiple crop); 0.7% inland water 

Land boundaries: approximately 2,580 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 2,450 km (1967) 

People 

Population: 50,525,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Egyptian(s); adjective 
Egyptian 

Ethnic divisions: 90% Eastern Hamitic 
stock; 10% Greek, Italian, Syro- Lebanese 

Religion: (official estimate) 94% Muslim 
(mostly Sunni), 6% Coptic Christian and 
other 

Language: Arabic (official); English and 
French widely understood by educated 
classes 

Infant mortality rate: 69/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: 57 
Literacy: 40% 



Labor force: 12.5 million (official estimate); 
40-45% agriculture, 36% government (local 
and national), public sector enterprises, and 
armed forces; 20% privately owned service 
and manufacturing enterprises; shortage of 
skilled labor; unemployment about 7%; esti- 
mated 2.5 million Egyptians work abroad, 
mostly in Iraq and the Gulf Arab states 

Organized labor: about 2.5 million 

Government 

Official name: Arab Republic of Egypt 

Type: republic 
Capital: Cairo 
Political subdivisions: 26 governorates 

Legal system: based on English common 
law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; per- 
manent constitution written in 1971; judicial 
review of limited nature in Supreme Court, 
also in Council of State, which oversees va- 
lidity of administrative decisions; legal edu- 
cation at Cairo University; accepts compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: National Day, 23 July 

Branches: executive power vested in Presi- 
dent, who appoints Cabinet; People's Assem- 
bly is principal legislative body, with Shura 
Council having consultative role; inde- 
pendent judiciary administered by Minister 
of Justice 

Government leaders: Mohammed Hosni 
MUBARAK, President (since 1981); 'Ali 
Lotfy Mahmoud LOTFY, Prime Minister 
(since September 1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: regular elections to People's As- 
sembly every five years (most recent May 
1984); two-thirds of Shura Council is elected 
for six-year term (first elections were in Sep- 
tember 1980) with remaining members ap- 
pointed by President; presidential election 
every six years; last held October 1981 



71 



Egypt (continued) 



Political parties and leaders: formation of 
political parties must be approved by gov- 
ernment; National Democratic Party, led by 
Mubarak, is the dominant party; legal oppo- 
sition parties are Socialist Liberal Party, 
Kamal Murad; Socialist Labor Party, 
Ibrahim Shukri; National Progressive 
Unionist Grouping, Khalid Muhyi-al-Din; 
Umma Party, Ahmad al-Sabahi; and New 
Wafd Party, Fu'ad Siraj al-Din 

Communists.- approximately 500 party 
members 

Other political or pressure groups: Islamic 
groups are illegal, but the largest one, the 
Muslim Brotherhood, is tolerated by the gov- 
ernment; trade unions and professional asso- 
ciations are officially sanctioned 

Member of: AAPSO, Af DB, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, 
IDB Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC 
International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, 
QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WPG, WSG, WTO; Egypt 
suspended from Arab League and OAPEC 
in April 1979 

Economy 

GNP: $39.7 billion (1984; based on flexible 
bank exchange rate of 1.23 Egyptian 
pounds=US$l), $466 per capita; 5% real 
growth (1984) 

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, 
iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, 
gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc 

Agriculture: main cash crop cotton; other 
crops rice, onions, beans, citrus fruit, 
wheat, corn, barley; not self-sufficient in 
food 

Major industries: textiles, food processing, 
chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement 

Electric power: 6,836,000 kW capacity 
(1984); 35.931 billion kWh produced (1984), 
730 kWh per capita 



Exports: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1985 est); crude 
petroleum, raw cotton, cotton yarn and fab- 
ric 

Imports: $10. 1 billion (c.i.f ., 1985 est.); food- 
stuffs, machinery and equipment, fertilizers, 
woods 

Major trade partners: US, EC countries 

Monetary conversion rate: official rate 0.70 
Egyptian pound=US$l; flexible "bank" rate 
2.35 Egyptian pounds=US$l; parallel or 
"own" exchange market rate 1.80 Egyptian 
pounds=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: July through June 

Communications 

Railroads: 4,857 km total; 951 km double 
track; 25 km electrified; 4,510 km 1,435- 
meter standard gauge, 347 km 0.750-meter 
gauge 

Highways: 28,500 km total; 15,000 km sur- 
faced, 13,500 km unsurfaced 

Inland waterways: 3,360 km (including the 
Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo 
Waterway, the Ismailia Canal, and numer- 
ous smaller canals in the Delta); Suez Canal, 
195 km long, used by oceangoing vessels 
drawing up to 16.1 meters of water 

Freight carried: Suez Canal (1984) 260 mil- 
lion metric tons, of which 98 million metric 
tons were petroleums, oils, and lubricants 

Pipelines: crude oil, 930 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 596 km; natural gas, 460 km 

Ports: 4 major (Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, 
Bur SafSjah); 15 minor; 8 petroleum, oil, and 
lubricant terminals 

Civil air: 43 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 97 total, 80 usable; 64 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 44 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 22 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 



Telecommunications: system is large but 
still inadequate for needs; principal centers 
are Alexandria, Cairo, Al Man;flrah, 
Ismailia, and TantS; intercity connections by 
coaxial cable and microwave; extensive up- 
grading in progress; est. 600,000 telephones 
(1.3 per 100 popl.); 25 AM, 5 FM, 47 TV sta- 
tions; 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean 
satellite station; 3 submarine coaxial cables; 
tropospheric scatter to Sudan; radio-relay to 
Libya 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air De- 
fense Command 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
12,588,000; 8,209,000 fit for military service; 
about 518,000 reach military age (20) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: operating expenditures for 
fiscal year ending 30 June 1985, $3 4 billion; 
13% of central government budget 



72 



El Salvador 



Boundary representation i 
not necessarily authortaii' 




North Pacific Ocean 

See refionil map 111 



Land 

21,041 km 2 ; the size of Massachusetts; 32% 
crop (9% corn, 7% coffee, 5% cotton, 1 1 % 
other), 31% nonagricultural, 26% meadow 
and pasture, 11% forest 

Land boundaries: 515 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm (overflight and navigation permitted 
beyond 12 nautical miles) 

Coastline: 307 km 

People 

Population: 5, 105,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Salvadoran(s); adjec- 
tive Salvadoran 

Ethnic divisions: 89% mestizo, 10% Indian, 
1% white 

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic 
(probably 97-98%), with activity by Protes- 
tant groups throughout the country 

Language: Spanish, Nahua (among some 
Indians) 

Infant mortality rate: 41/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 62.6, women 66.3 
Literacy: 65% 



Labor force: 1.7 million (est. 1982); 40% agri- 
culture, 16% manufacturing, 16% 
commerce, 13% government, 9% financial 
services, 6% transportation (1984 est.); short- 
age of skilled labor and large pool of 
unskilled labor, but manpower training pro- 
grams improving situation; significant un- 
employment and underemployment 

Organized labor: 8% total labor force; 10% 
agricultural labor force; 7% urban labor 
force (1982) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of El Salvador 

Type: republic 

Capital: San Salvador 

Political subdivisions: 14 departments 

Legal system: based on Spanish law, with 
traces of common law; new constitution en- 
acted in December 1983; judicial review of 
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; legal 
education at University of El Salvador; ac- 
cepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with res- 
ervations 

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 
September 

Branches: Legislative Assembly (60 seats), 
Executive, Supreme Court 

Government leaders: Jose Napoleon 
DUARTE, President (since June 1984); 
Rodolfo CASTILLO Claramount, Vice 
President (since June 1984); Abraham 
RODRIGUEZ, First Presidential Designate 
(since September 1984); Rene FORTIN, 
Magana, Second Presidential Designate 
(since September 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: Legislative Assembly (formerly 
Constituent Assembly), 28 March 1982; pres- 
idential election, 25 March 1984; presiden- 
tial runoff election, 6 May 1984 (next sched- 
uled for 1989); Legislative Assembly elec- 
tion, 31 March 1985 



Political parties and leaders: Christian 
Democratic Party (PDC), Jose Antonio 
Morales Erlich; National Conciliation Party 
(PCN), Hugo Carrillo; Democratic Action 
(AD), Ricardo Gonzalez Camacho; Salva- 
doran Popular Party (PPS), Francisco 
Quinonez; National Republican Alliance 
(ARENA), Alfredo Cristiani; Salvadoran 
Authentic Institutional Party (PAISA), 
Roberto Escobar Garcia; Social Democratic 
Party (PSD), Mario Rene Roldan; Patria 
Libre, Hugo Barrera 

Voting strength: Legislative Assembly 
PDC, 33 seats; ARENA, 13 seats; PAISA, 1 
seat; PCN, 12 seats; Independent, 1 seat 

Other political or pressure groups: leftist 
revolutionary movement Unified Revolu- 
tionary Directorate (DRU) and Farabundo 
Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), 
leadership bodies of the insurgency; Popular 
Liberation Forces (FPL), Armed Forces of 
National Resistance (FARN), People's Revo- 
lutionary Army (ERP), Salvadoran Commu- 
nist Party/Armed Forces of Liberation 
(PCES/FAL), and Central American 
Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC)/ 
Popular Liberation Revolutionary Armed 
Forces (FARLP); militant front organiza- 
tions Revolutionary Coordinator of Masses 
(CRM; alliance of front groups), Popular 
Revolutionary Bloc (BPR), Unified Popular 
Action Front (FAPU), Popular Leagues of 28 
February (LP-28), National Democratic 
Union (UDN), and Popular Liberation 
Movement (MLP); Revolutionary Demo- 
cratic Front (FDR), coalition of CRM and 
Democratic Front (FD), controlled by DRU; 
FD consists of moderate leftist groups 
Independent Movement of Professionals and 
Technicians of El Salvador (MIPTES), Na- 
tional Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and 
Popular Social Christian Movement (MPSC); 
extreme rightist vigilante organizations or 
death squads Secret Anti-Communist 
Army (ESA); Maximiliano Hernandez Bri- 
gade; Organization for Liberation From 
Communism (OLC) 

Labor organizations: Federation of Con- 
struction and Transport Workers Unions 
(FESINCONSTRANS), independent; Salva- 
doran Communal Union (UCS), peasant as- 
sociation; Unitary Federation of Salvadoran 



73 



El Salvador (continued) 



Equatorial Guinea 



Unions (FUSS), leftist; National Federation 
of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), left- 
ist; Democratic Workers Central (CTD), 
moderate; General Confederation of Work- 
ers (CGT), moderate; Popular Democratic 
Unity (UPD), moderate labor coalition 
which includes FESINCONSTRANS, and 
other democratic labor organizations 

Business organizations: National Associa- 
tion of Private Enterprise (ANEP), conserva- 
tive; Productive Alliance (AP), conservative; 
National Federation of Salvadoran Small 
Businessmen (FEN APES), conservative 

Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IDE Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ITU, IWC International 
Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, PAHO, 
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $4.36 billion (1985 est), $880 per cap- 
ita 

Natural resources: hydroelectric and geo- 
thermal power 

Agriculture: main crops coffee, cotton, 
corn, sugar, beans, rice, sorghum, wheat 

Fishing: catch 10,500 metric tons (1984 pre- 
lim.) 

Major industries: food processing, textiles, 
clothing, petroleum products 

Electric power: 700,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.5 billion kWh produced (1985), 300 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $760.8 million (f.o.b., 1984); coffee, 
cotton, sugar, shrimp 

Imports: $892 million (c.i.f., 1983); machin- 
ery, intermediate goods, petroleum, con- 
struction materials, fertilizers, foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: exports 33% US, 
15% FRG, 12% Guatemala; imports 39% 
US, 18% Guatemala, 9% Mexico 



Aid: economic authorized from US, in- 
cluding Ex-Im (FY70-84), $907 million; 
ODA and OOF commitments by other 
Western countries (1970-83), $138 million; 
military from US(FY70-84), $412 million 

Budget: (1983) government revenues, $502 
million; expenditures, $582 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.5 colones= 
US$1 (February 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single 
track 

Highways: 10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 
4,100 km gravel, 4,400 km improved and 
unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: Lempa River partially 
navigable 

Ports: 2 major (Acajutla, La Union), 1 minor 
Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 166 total, 138 usable; 6 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: nationwide trunk 
radio-relay system; connection into Central 
American microwave net; 116,000 
telephones (2.3 per 100 popl.); 75 AM, 5 TV 
stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National 
Guard, National Police, Treasury Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,162,000; 
738,000 fit for military service; 60,000 reach 
military age (18) annually 

Military budget: estimated for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1986, $153.6 million; 
about 28.3% of the central government bud- 
get 




ALABO 



Bioko 



Gulf of Guinea 



Island not 
shown in true 
geographical 

position. 



, 
Annobon 

Sec refionil mtp VII 




Bat. 



FtIO MUNI 



Acalayong 



Land 

28,051 km 2 ; the size of Maryland; Rio Muni, 
about 25,900 km 2 , largely forest; Bioko (for- 
merly known as Fernando Po), about 2,072 
km 

Land boundaries: 539 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 



Coastline: 296 km 

People 

Population: 359,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.6% Rio Muni 
269,546 (July 1986), average annual growth 
rate 2.6%; Bioko 89,849 (July 1986), aver- 
age annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Equatorial Guinean(s); 
adjective Equatorial Guinean 

Ethnic divisions: indigenous population of 
Bioko, primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos; of 
Rio Muni, primarily Fang; less than 1,000 
Europeans, primarily Spanish 

Religion: natives all nominally Christian 
and predominantly Roman Catholic; some 
pagan practices retained 

Language: Spanish (official), pidgin English, 
Fang 

Infant mortality rate: 142.9/1,000(1984) 



74 



Life expectancy: men 44.4, women 47.6 
Literacy: 55% 

Labor force: most involved in subsistence 
agriculture; labor shortages on plantations 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Equatorial 
Guinea 

Type: republic 
Capital: Malabo 

Political subdivisions: 6 provinces with ap- 
pointed governors 

Legal system: in transition; constitution ap- 
proved 15 August 1982 by popular referen- 
dum; in part based on Spanish civil law and 
custom 

National holiday: 12 October 

Branches: constitution provides for presi- 
dent with broad powers, prime minister, 
unicameral legislature (Chamber of Repre- 
sentatives of the People), and free judiciary 

Government leader: Col. Teodoro OBIANG 
NGUEMA MBASOGO, President (since 
August 1979) 

Suffrage: universal for adults 

Elections: parliamentary elections held Oc- 
tober 1983 

Political parties and leaders: political par- 
ties suspended; before coup of 3 August 
1979, National Unity Party of Workers 
(PUNT) was the sole legal party 

Communists: no significant number of 
Communists but some sympathizers 

Member of: Af DB, Conference of East and 
Central African States, EGA, FAO, G-77, 
GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, 
OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO 






Economy 

GNP: $75 million (1983); $420 per capita; 
economy destroyed during regime of former 
President Masie Nguema 

Natural resources: timber, petroleum min- 
erals, agriculture 

Agriculture: major cash crops Rio Muni, 
timber, coffee; Bioko, cocoa; main food 
products rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil 
palm nuts, manioc, livestock 

Major industries: fishing, sawmilling 

Electric power: (including Rio Muni and 
Fernando Po) 10,000 kW capacity (1985); 17 
million kWh produced (1985), 50 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $16.9 million (1982 est.); cocoa, 
coffee, wood 

Imports: $41.5 million (1982 est.); foodstuffs, 
chemicals and chemical products, textiles 

Major trade partner: Spain 
Budget: (1976) receipts, $2.8 million 

Monetary conversion rate: ekuele replaced 
by Communaute Financiere Africaine 
(CFA) franc in 1985; 475 CFA francs=US$l 

(1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: Rio Muni 2,460 km, including 
approx. 185 km bituminous, remainder 
gravel and earth; Bioko 300 km, including 
146 km bituminous, remainder gravel and 
earth 

Inland waterways: no significant waterways 
Ports: 1 major (Malabo), 3 minor 
Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 



Airfields: 3 total, 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: poor system with ad- 
equate government services; international 
communications from Bata and Malabo to 
African and European countries; 2,000 tele- 
phones (0.6 per 100 popl.); 2 AM stations, no 
FM stations, 1 TV station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, and possibly Air 
Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 79,000; 
39,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1981, $6.2 million; 21% of central 
government budget 



75 



Ethiopia 




Set regional mip VII 



Land 

1,221,900 km 2 ; four-fifths the size of Alaska; 
55% meadow and natural pasture; 10% crop 
and orchard; 6% forest and wood; 29% 
wasteland, urban, or other 

Land boundaries: 5,198 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 1,094 km (includes offshore is- 
lands) 

People 

Population: 43,882,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.8% 

Nationality: noun Ethiopian(s); adjec- 
tive Ethiopian 

Ethnic divisions: 40% Oromo, 32% Amhara 
and Tigrean, 9% Sidamo, 6% Shankella, 6% 
Somali, 4% Afar, 2% Gurage, 1% other 

Religion: 40-45% Muslim, 35-40% Ethiopian 
Orthodox, 15-20% animist, 5% other 

Language: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, 
Orominga, Arabic, English (major foreign 
language taught in schools) 

Infant mortality rate: 145/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 38 



Literacy: about 35% 

Labor force: 90% agriculture and animal 
husbandry; 10% government, military, and 
quasi-government 

Organized labor: All Ethiopian Trade Union 
formed by the government in January 1977 
to represent 273,000 registered trade union 
members 

Government 

Official name: Socialist Ethiopia 

Type: under military rule since September 
1974; monarchy abolished in March 1975, 
but republic not yet declared 

Capital: Addis Ababa 

Political subdivisions: 14 provinces (also 
referred to as regional administrations) 

Legal system: complex structure with civil, 
Islamic, common, and customary law influ- 
ences; constitution suspended September 
1974; military leaders have promised a new 
constitution by September 1986; legal edu- 
cation at Addis Ababa University; has not 
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Popular Revolution Com- 
memoration Day, 12 September 

Branches: executive power exercised by the 
Provisional Military Administrative Council 
(PMAC), dominated by its chairman and 
small circle of associates; predominantly 
civilian Cabinet holds office at sufferance of 
military; legislature dissolved September 
1974; judiciary at higher levels based on 
Western pattern, at lower levels on tradi- 
tional pattern, without jury system in either 

Government leader: Lt. Col. MENGISTU 
Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the Provisional 
Military Administrative Council (since Feb- 
ruary 1977) 

Suffrage: none 

Elections: none (January 1985) 



Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian 
Workers Party (WPE) founded in Septem- 
ber 1984; headed by Mengistu Haile- 
Mariam 

Communists: government is officially 
Marxist-Leninist 

Other political or pressure groups: impor- 
tant dissident groups include Eritrean Liber- 
ation Front (ELF), Eritrean People's Libera- 
tion Front (EPLF), and Eritrean Liberation 
Front/Popular Liberation Forces in Eritrea; 
Tigrean People's Liberation Front (TPLF) in 
Tigray and Welo Provinces; Western Somali 
Liberation Front (WSLF) in the Ogaden 
region 

Member of: AfDB, EGA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICO, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, 
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, 
ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $5.0 billion (1983/84 est), $120 per 

capita; real growth rate 3.7% (1983/84) 

Natural resources: potash, salt, gold, copper, 
platinum 

Agriculture: main crop coffee; also cereals, 
pulses, oilseeds, meat, hides and skins 

Major industries: cement, sugar refining, 
cotton textiles, food processing, oil refinery 

Electric power: 324,000 kW capacity (1985); 
709 million kWh produced (1985), 16 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $403 million (f.o.b., 1983/84 est.); 
61% coffee, 10% hides and skins 

Imports: $906 million (c.i.f., 1983/84) 

Major trade partners: exports US, FRG, 
Djibouti, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy; 
imports USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US 

Budget: revenues and cash grants, $1.1 bil- 
lion; current expenditures, $1.0 billion; de- 
velopment expenditures, $467 million 
(1983/84) 



76 



Falkland Islands 
(Islas Malvinas) 



Externaldebt: $1.0billion, 1981/82; debt 
service payment, $1.3 billion outstanding 
(1983/84); 11.0% of exports of goods and 
nonf actor services (1982/83) 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.07 Ethiopian 
birr=US$l (31 October 1983) 

Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,089 km total; 782 km 1.000- 
meter gauge, of which 97 km are in Djibouti; 
307 km 0.950-meter gauge 

Highways: 44,300 km total; 3,888 km bitu- 
minous, 8,344 km gravel, 2,456 km 
improved earth, 29,612 km unimproved 
earth 

Ports: 2 major (Aseb, Mits'iwa) 
Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 167 total, 132 usable; 7 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 9 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 49 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air De- 
fense; paramilitary Emergency Strike Force 
Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,941,000; 
5,340,000 fit for military service; 507,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 7 July 
1984, $420.1 million; 25.1% of central gov- 
ernment budget 



Soulli Sandwicli Islands 
Sovit'i Georgia Sl>ag and 
Clerke Rocks are not show 



50km 

South At/antic Ocean 




West 
Falkland 



Administered by U K . 
claimed by Argentina 



Scotia Sea 



See region*! map IV 



NOTE: The possession of the Falkland Is- 
lands has been disputed by the UK and 
Argentina (which refers to them as the Islas 
Malvinas) since 1833. 

Land 

Colony 16,654 km 2 ; about the size of Con- 
necticut; area consists of some 200 small is- 
lands and two principal islands, East 
Falkland (6,680 km 2 ) and West Falkland 
(5,276 km 2 ); dependencies South Sandwich 
Islands, South Georgia, and the Shag and 
Clerke Rocks 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 

Coastline: 1,288 km 

People 

Population: 2,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0% 

Nationality: noun Falkland Islander(s); 
adjective Falkland Island 

Ethnic divisions: almost totally British 
Religion: predominantly Anglican 
Language: English 
Literacy: compulsory education up to age 14 

Labor force: l,100(est.);est. over 95% in 
agriculture, mostly sheepherding 



Government 

Official name: Colony of the Falkland Is- 
lands 

Type: British dependent territory 
Capital: Stanley 

Political subdivisions: Falkland, South 
Georgia, and South Sandwich Islands (the 
latter two are administered from Stanley) 

Legal system: English common law 

Branches: under the 1985 Constitution an 
Executive Council was established; it con- 
sists of three elected members from the 8- 
member popularly elected Legislative 
Counil 

Government leaders: Gordon W. JEWKES, 
Governor (since 1985); Air Vice Marchall R. 
J. KEMBALL, Commander of the British 
Armed Forces (since 1985) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18 

Economy 

Agriculture: predominantly sheep farming 

Major industry: wool processing 

Electric power: 1,250 kW capacity (1985); 
2.2 million kWh produced (1985), 1,100 
kWh per capita 

Exports: to UK, $5.2 million (1982); wool, 
hides and skins, and other 

Imports: from UK, $8.2 million (1982); food, 
clothing, fuels, and machinery 

Major trade partners: exports nearly all to 
the UK, some to the Netherlands and to Ja- 
pan; imports Curacao, Japan, and UK 

Aid: economic commitments (1970-79) 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF, 
$24 million 

Budget: revenues, $5 million (1982); ex- 
penditures, $4.8 million (1982) 



77 



Falkland Islands (continued) 



Faroe Islands 



Monetary conversion rate: .833 Falkland 
Island pound=.833 pound sterling=US$l 
(December 1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 
km gravel, and 400 km unimproved earth 

Ports: 1 major (Port Stanley), 4 minor 
Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 5 total, 5 usable, 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 
1,220-2,439 

Telecommunications: government- 
operated radiotelephone networks providing 
effective service to almost all points on both 
islands; approximately 590 telephones (est. 
24.2 per 100 popl.); 1 AM station, 1 FM sta- 
tion, 1 Atlantic satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 
Kingdom 




Atlantic 


1 


Ocean 


r> - 




\ ^Sudhuroy 


See regional mp V 


_| 



Land 

1,340 km 2 ; slightly larger than Rhode Island; 
less than 5% arable, of which only a fraction 
is cultivated; archipelago consisting of 18 
inhabited islands and a few uninhabited 
islets 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 764 km 

People 

Population: 46,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.7% 

Nationality: noun Faroese(sing., pi.); ad- 
jective Faroese 

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white popu- 
lation 

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 

Language: Faroese (derived from Old 
Norse), Danish 

Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 17,585; largely engaged in 
fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and 
commerce 

Government 

Official name: Faroe Islands 



Type: self-governing province within the 
Kingdom of Denmark; 2 representatives in 
Danish parliament 

Capital: Torshavn on the island of Streymoy 

Political subdivisions: 1 districts, 49 com- 
munes, 1 town 

Legal system: based on Danish law; Home 
Rule Act enacted 1948 

Branches: legislative authority rests jointly 
with Crown, acting through appointed High 
Commissioner, and 32-member provincial 
parliament (Lagting) in matters of strictly 
Faroese concern; executive power vested in 
Crown, acting through High Commissioner, 
but exercised by provincial cabinet responsi- 
ble to provincial parliament 

Government leaders: MARGRETHE II, 
Queen (since January 1972); Atli DAM, 
Lagmand, Prime Minister (since December 
1984); Niels BENTSEN, Danish Governor 
(since 1981) 

Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, 
over age 21 

Elections: held every four years; most re- 
cent, 8 November 1984 

Political parties and leaders: four-party 
ruling coalition Social Democratic, Atli 
Dam; Republican, Erlendur Patursson; 
Home Rule, Tobjorn Poulsen; Peoples, 
Jogvan Sundstein 

Voting strength: (January 1985) four-party 
coalition 17 of 32 seats 

Communists: insignificant number 
Member of: Nordic Council 

Economy 

GDP: $369.3 million (1980), about $8,800 

per capita 

Natural resources: fish 
Agriculture: sheep and cattle grazing 



78 



Fiji 



Fishing: catch 329,900 metric tons (1983); 
exports, $162.3 million (1980) 

Major industry: fishing 

Electric power: 67,000 kW capacity (1985); 
215 million kWh produced (1985), 4,780 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $178.7 million (f.o.b., 1980); mostly 
fish and fish products 

Imports: $222.1 million (c.i.f., 1980); ma- 
chinery and transport equipment, petro- 
leum and petroleum products, food products 

Major trade partners: exports 21.3% Den- 
mark, 13.4% UK, 12.4% FRG, 11.7% US 
(1980) 

Budget: (FY81) expenditures, $98.8 million, 
revenues, $98.8 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 10.80 Danish 
kroner=US$l (November 1984 average) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 200 km 
Ports: 2 major, 8 minor 

Airfields: 1 usable with permanent-surface 
runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good international 
communications; fair domestic facilities; 
20,400 telephones (46.3 per 100 popl.); 1 
AM, 3 FM stations; 3 coaxial submarine 
cables 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of Denmark 

Military manpower: males 15-49 included 
with Denmark 



South Pacific Ocean 



Vanua Levu 



f'Taveuni 



Viti Levu 



Ceva-i-Ra 
Set regional map X 



200km 



Land 

18,376 km 2 ; the size of Massachusetts; con- 
sists of more than 300 islands and many 
more coral atolls and cays; the larger 
islands Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Taveuni, 
and Kandavu are mountainous and volca- 
nic in origin, with peaks rising over 1,210 
meters; land ownership 83.6% Fijians, 
7.2% European, 6.4% government, 1.7% 
Indians, 1.1% other; about 30% of land area 
is suitable for farming 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone); mari- 
time limits measured from claimed "archi- 
pelagic baselines," which generally connect 
the outermost points of outer islands or dry- 
ing reefs 

Coastline: 1,129 km 

People 

Population: 715,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.0% 

Nationality: noun Fijian(s); adjective 
Fijian 

Ethnic divisions: 50% Indian, 45% Fijian; 
5% European, other Pacific Islanders, over- 
seas Chinese, and others 

Religion: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indi- 
ans are Hindu with a Muslim minority 



Language: English (official); Fijian and 
Hindustani spoken among Indians 

Infant mortality rate: 29/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 72 
Literacy: 80% 

Labor force: 176,000(1979); 40% of total 
work force paid employees; remainder in- 
volved in subsistence agriculture; 43.4% ag- 
riculture, 15.6% industry 

Organized labor: about 50% of labor force 
organized into about 60 unions; unions orga- 
nized along lines of work and ethnic origin 

Government 

Official name: Fiji 

Type: independent parliamentary state 
within Commonwealth; Elizabeth II recog- 
nized as chief of state 

Capital: Suva, located on the south coast of 
the island of Viti Levu 

Political subdivisions: 4 divisions 
Legal system: based on British system 
National holiday: Fiji Day, 10 October 

Branches: executive Prime Minister and 
Cabinet; legislative 52-member House of 
Representatives; 22-member appointed Sen- 
ate; judicial Supreme Court, Court of Ap- 
peal, Magistrate's Courts 

Government leader: Ratu Sir Kamisese 
MARA, Prime Minister (since 1966 [as Chief 
Minister during preindependence days] ) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: every five years unless House dis- 
solves earlier; last held July 1982 

Political parties: Alliance, primarily Fijian, 
headed by Ratu Mara; National Federation, 
primarily Indian, headed by Siddiq Koya; 
Western United Front, Fijian, Ratu Osea 
Gauidi; Fiji Labor Party (founded in mid- 
1985), headed by Dr. Timoci Bavadra 



79 



Fiji (continued) 



Finland 



Voting strength: (July 1982) House of Rep- 
resentatives (Alliance Party 28 seats; Na- 
tional Federation Party/Western United 
Front coalition 24 seats 

Communists: some 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, Common- 
wealth, EC (associate), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, 
GATT(de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, SPF, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP.- $1.32 billion (1984), $1,850 per capita; 

annual growth rate, -3.6% (1984) 

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper 

Agriculture: main crops sugar, copra, gin- 
ger, rice; major deficiency, grains 

Major industries: sugar refining, tourism, 
gold, lumber, small industries 

Electric power: 213,000 kW capacity (1985); 
220 million kWh produced (1985), 314 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $236 million (f.o.b., 1984); 70% 
sugar; also copra 

Imports: $472 million (c.i.f., 1984); 24% 
manufactured goods, 20.0% machinery, 
16.3% foodstuffs, 16% fuels 

Major trade partners: Australia, New 
Zealand, Japan, UK, Singapore, US 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries (1980-82), $438 million 

Budget: (1984 est.) revenues, $304 million; 
expenditures, $376 million 

Monetary conversion rate: .9022 Fiji 
dollar=US$l (30 November 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 644 km 0.610- meter narrow 
gauge; owned by Fiji Sugar Corp., Ltd. 



Highways: 2,960 km total (1981); 390 km 
paved, 2,150 km gravel, crushed stone, or 
stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved 
earth 

Inland waterways: 203 km; 122 km naviga- 
ble by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton 
barges 

Ports: 1 major, 6 minor 

Civil air: 1 DC-3and 1 light aircraft 

Airfields: 27 total, 26 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways, 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: modern local, inter- 
island, and international (wire/radio inte- 
grated) public and special-purpose 
telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facili- 
ties; regional radio center; important COM- 
PAC cable link between US/Canada and 
New Zealand/Australia; 37,515 telephones 
(6.0 per 100 popl.); 7 AM, 2 FM , no TV sta- 
tions; 1 ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: integrated ground and naval 

forces 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 187,000; 
103,000 fit for military service; 7,000 reach 
military age (18) annually 




Set ref ionil map V 



HELSINSKI 



Land 

337,1 13 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Montana; 
58% forest, 34% other, 8% arable 

Land boundaries: 2,534 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 4 nm; 
fishing 12 nm; Aland Islands, 3 nm 

Coastline: 1,126 km (approx.) excludes is- 
lands and coastal indentations 

People 

Population: 4,93 1,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.5% 

Nationality: noun Finn(s); adjective 
Finnish 

Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, 
Gypsy, Tatar 

Religion: 97% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.2% 
Greek Orthodox, 1.8% other 

Language: 93.5% Finnish, 6.3% Swedish 
(both official); small Lapp- and 
Russian-speaking minorities 

Infant mortality rate: 6.2/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 70.1, women 78.1 
Literacy: almost 100% 



80 



Labor force: 2.572 million; 23.3% mining 
and manufacturing; 25.8% services; 19.0% 
commerce; 11.4% agriculture, forestry, and 
fishing; 7.1% construction; 7.0% transporta- 
tion and communications; 6.2% unemployed 
(1984 average) 

Organized labor: 80% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Finland 

Type: republic 
Capital: Helsinki 

Political subdivisions: 12 provinces, 377 
communes, 84 towns 

Legal system: civil law system based on 
Swedish law; constitution adopted 1919; 
Supreme Court may request legislation in- 
terpreting or modifying laws; legal educa- 
tion at Universities of Helsinki and Turku; 
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with 
reservations 

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 
December 

Branches: legislative authority rests jointly 
with President and unicameral legislature 
(Eduskunta); executive power vested in Pres- 
ident and exercised through coalition Cabi- 
net responsible to parliament; Supreme 
Court, four superior courts, 193 lower courts 

Government leaders: Dr. Mauno 
KOIVISTO, President (since January 1982); 
Kalevi SORSA, Prime Minister (since Febru- 
ary 1982) 

Suffrage: universal, 18 years and over; not 
compulsory 

Elections: parliamentary, every four years 
(next in 1987); presidential, every six years 
(next in 1988) 

Political parties and leaders: Social Demo- 
cratic Party, Kalevi Sorsa; Center Party, 
Paavo Vayrynen; People's Democratic 
League (Communist front), Esko Helle; Con- 
servative Party, Ilkka Suominen; Liberal 
Party, Kyosti Lallukka; Swedish Peoples 



Party, Christoffer Taxell; Rural Party, Pekka 
Vennamo; Finnish Communist Party, Arvo 
Aalto; Finnish Christian League, Esko 
Almgren; Constitutional People's Party, 
Georg Ehrnrooth; League for Citizen Power, 
Kaarlo Pitsinki 

Voting strength: (1983 parliamentary elec- 
tion) 26% Social Democratic, 22.1% Conser- 
vative, 17.6% Center- Liberal, 14.0% 
People's Democratic League, 9.7% Rural, 
4.9% Swedish Peoples, 3.0% Christian 
League, 1.5% Greens, 0.4% Constitutional 
People's, 0. 1 % League for Citizen Power 

Communists: 28,000 registered members; 
an additional 45,000 persons belong to 
People's Democratic League 

Member of: ADB, CEMA (special coopera- 
tion agreement), DAC, EC (free trade agree- 
ment), EFTA (associate), FAO, GATT, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, 
IDA, IDE Inter-American Development 
Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, International 
Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, 
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC Interna- 
tional Wheat Council, Nordic Council, 
OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $50. 1 billion (1984), $10,270 per cap- 
ita; 54.7% private consumption, 24% gross 
fixed capital formation; 19.9% government 
consumption; 1.4% net exports of goods and 
services; 1984 growth rate 3.0% (1980 prices) 

Natural resources: forests, copper, zinc, 
iron, farmland 

Agriculture: animal husbandry, especially 
dairying, predominates; forestry important 
secondary occupation for rural population; 
main crops cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 
85% self-sufficient; shortages food and fod- 
der grains 

Fishing: catch 157, 1 00 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: include metal manufac- 
turing and shipbuilding, forestry and wood 
processing (pulp, paper), copper refining, 
foodstuffs, textiles and clothing 



Shortages: fossil fuels; industrial raw materi- 
als, except wood and iron ore 

Crude steel: 2.6 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 533 kg per capita 

Electric power: 12, 109,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 44.475 billion kWh produced (1985), 
9,060 kWh per capita 

Exports: $13.5 billion (f.o.b., 1984); timber, 
paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing 
and footwear 

Imports: $12.4 billion (c.i.f., 1984); food- 
stuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, 
chemicals, transport equipment, iron and 
steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics 

Major trade partners: (1984) 36.5% EC 
(1 1.6% FRG; 9.9% UK), 21% USSR, 12.3% 
Sweden, 6.6% US 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $793 million 

Budget (1984) expenditures, $14.4 billion, 
revenues, $12.8 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 5.42 Finnmarks 
(Fim)=US$l (30 December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 6,071 km total; Finnish State 
Railways (VR) operate a total of 6,010 km 
1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are 
multiple track and 1,257 km are electrified 

Highways: about 103,000 km total, includ- 
ing 35,000 km paved (bituminous, concrete, 
bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km 
unpaved (stabilized gravel, gravel, earth); 
additional 30,000 km of private (state subsi- 
dized) roads 

Inland waterways: 6,675 km total (including 
Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for 
steamers 

Pipelines: natural gas, 161 km 
Ports: 1 1 major, 34 minor 



81 



Finland (continued) 



France 



Civil air: 39 major transport 

Airfields: 163 total, 160 usable; 47 with 
permanent-surface runways; 20 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 22 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good telecom service 
from cable and radio-relay network; 2.78 
million telephones (57 per 100popl.);6 AM, 
99 FM, 193 TV stations; 3 submarine cables 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,329,000; 
1,022,000 fit for military service; 35,000 
reach military age (17) annually 

Military budget: fiscal year ending 31 De- 
cember 1984, $785 million; 5.6% of central 
government budget 



300km 



English Channel Jti|** 
PARIS * 




See regional mip V 



Mediterranean ^ 
Sea 



Land 

547,026 km 2 ; four-fifths the size of Texas; 
34% cultivated; 24% meadow and pasture; 
27% forest; 15% waste, urban, or other 

Land boundaries: 2,888 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 3,427 km (includes Corsica, 644 
km) 

People 

Population: 55,239,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.4% 

Nationality: noun Frenchman (men); ad- 
jective French 

Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teu- 
tonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, 
and Basque minorities 

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 2% Protes- 
tant, 1% Jewish, 1% Muslim (North African 
workers), 6% unaffiliated 

Language: French (100% of population); 
rapidly declining regional dialects Proven- 
cal, Breton, Germanic, Corsican, Catalan, 
Basque, Flemish 

Infant mortality rate: 9/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 75 



Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 23.8 million (1984); 61.2% ser- 
vices, 21.7% industry, 7.0% agriculture; 
10.1% unemployed 

Organized labor: approximately 20% of la- 
bor force 

Government 

Official name: French Republic 

Type: republic, with President having wide 
powers 

Capital: Paris 

Political subdivisions: 22 regions with 96 
metropolitan departments 

Legal system: civil law system with indige- 
nous concepts; new constitution adopted 
1958, amended concerning election of Presi- 
dent in 1962; judicial review of administra- 
tive but not legislative acts; legal education 
at over 25 schools of law 

National holiday: National Day, 14 July 

Branches: presidentially appointed Prime 
Minister heads Council of Ministers, which 
is formally responsible to National Assem- 
bly; bicameral legislature National Assem- 
bly (currently 491 members but will expand 
to 577 as of 16 March 1986), Senate (304 
members) restricted to a delaying action; 
judiciary independent in principle 

Government leader: Frangois 
MITTERRAND, President (since May 
1981); Jacques CHIRAC, Prime Minister 
(since March 1986) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18; not compul- 
sory 

Elections: National Assembly every five 
years, last election March 1986; proportional 
representation, with minimum 5 percent of 
the vote; Senate indirect collegiate system 
for riine years, renewable by one-third every 
three years, last election September 1983; 
President, direct, universal suffrage every 
seven years, two ballots, last election May 
1981 



Political parties and leaders: majority coali- 
tionRally for the Republic (RPR, formerly 
UDR), Jacques Chirac; Union for French 
Democracy (UDF, federation of PR, CDS, 
and RAD), Jean Lecanuet; Republicans (PR), 
Francois Leotard; Center for Social Demo- 
crats (CDS), Pierre Mehaignerie; Radical 
(RAD), Andre Rossinot; left opposition 
Socialist Party (PS), Lionel Jospin; Left Radi- 
cal Movement (MRG), Francois Doubin; 
Communist Party (PCF), Georges Marchais 

Voting strength: (1986 election) UDF/ 
RPR/CNIP, 44.9%; PS/MRG 31.6%; Com- 
munist, 9.8%; National Front, 9.7%; diverse 
left, 1.0%; extreme left, 1.5%; extreme right, 
0.2%; other 1.2% 

Communists: 700,000 claimed but probably 
closer to 150,000; Communist voters, 2.7 
million in 1986 elections 

Other political or pressure groups: 
Communist-controlled labor union 
(Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly 
2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist- 
leaning labor union (Confederation 
Francaise Democratique du Travail 
CFDT) about 800,000 members est; inde- 
pendent labor union (Force Ouvriere) about 
1,000,000 members est. ; independent white 
collar union (Confederation Generale des 
Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); Na- 
tional Council of French Employers (Conseil 
National du Patronat Francais CNPF or 
Patronat) 

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, 
EC, EIB, ELDO, EMA, EMS, ESCAP, 
ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, 
ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDE Inter- 
American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, 
IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc 
Study Group, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, 
ITU, IWC International Whaling Com- 
mission, NATO (signatory), OAS (observer), 
OECD, South Pacific Commission, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GDP. $490 billion (1984), $8,890 per capita; 
64% private consumption, 19% investment 
(including government) 17% government 



consumption; 1984 real growth rate, 1.6%; 
average annual growth rate (1975-84), 2.1% 

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, 
fish, forests 

Agriculture: Western Europe's foremost 
producer; main products beef, dairy prod- 
ucts, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine 
grapes; self-sufficient for most temperate 
zone foodstuffs; agricultural shortages fats 
and oils, tropical produce 

Fishing: catch 784,000 metric tons (1983); 
exports (includes shellfish, etc.) $297 million, 
imports $967 million (1984) 

Major industries: steel, machinery and 
equipment, textiles and clothing, chemicals, 
automobiles, food processing, metallurgy, 
aircraft, electronics 

Shortages: crude oil, natural gas, textile 
fibers, most nonferrous ores, coking coal, fats 
and oils 

Crude steel: 19 million metric tons 
produced (1984), 347 kg per capita 

Electric power: 87,246,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 332.016 billion kWh produced 
(1985), 6,026 kWh per capita 

Exports: $93.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); principal 
items machinery and transportation 
equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricul- 
tural products, iron and steel products, tex- 
tiles and clothing 

Imports: $103.6 billion (c.i.f., 1984); princi- 
pal items crude petroleum, machinery and 
equipment, agricultural products, chemi- 
cals, iron and steel products 

Major trade partners: (1984) imports 
50.4% EC, 14.6% petroleum exporting coun- 
tries, 10.3% other West European countries, 
7.7% US, 2.6% Japan, 2.5% USSR, 2.5% other 
Communist countries; exports 48.9% EC, 
13.5% petroleum exporting countries, 11.3% 
other West European countries, 8. 1 % US, 
2.1% USSR, 2% other Communist countries, 
1.1% Japan 



Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $33.2 billion 

Budget: (proposed for 1986) expenditures, 
1,030 billion francs; revenues, 889 billion 
francs; deficit, 141 billion francs 

Monetary conversion rate: 7.67 French 
francs=US$l (17 December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: French National Railways 
(SNCF) operates 34,678 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge; 11,219 km electrified, 
15,132 km double or multiple track; 2,138 
km of various gauges (1.000-meter to 1.440- 
meter), privately owned and operated 

Highways: 1,533,940 km total; 33,400 km 
national highway; 347,000 km departmental 
highway; 421,000 km community roads; 
750,000 km rural roads; 5,209 km of 
controlled-access divided "autoroutes"; ap- 
prox. 803,000 km paved 

Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km 
heavily traveled 

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,458 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 4,344 km; natural gas, 24,746 km 

Ports: 8 major, 16 secondary 

Civil air: 355 major transport aircraft (1982) 

Airfields: 468 total, 454 usable; 248 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 34 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 130 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: highly developed 
system provides satisfactory telephone, tele- 
graph, and radio and TV broadcast services; 
33.0 million telephones (60 per 100 popl.); 38 
AM, 591 FM, 9,300 TV stations; 23 subma- 
rine coaxial cables; 2 communication satel- 
lite ground stations with total of 9 antennas 



83 



France (continued) 



French Guiana 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Army of the Ground, Navy, Army 
of the Air, National Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 

14,034,000; fit for military service 

1 1,895,000; 431,000 reach military age (18) 

annually 

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1984, $20 billion; 
about 18. 1 % of proposed central govern- 
ment budget 



North 

Atlantic 




See regional map IV 



Land 

90,909 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Maine; 
90% forest; 10% waste, built on, inland wa- 
ter, and other, of which .05% is cultivated 
and pasture 

Land boundaries: 1,183 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 378 km 

People 

Population: 88,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 4. 1 % 

Nationality: noun French Guianese (sing., 
pi.); adjective French Guiana 

Ethnic divisions: 66% black or mulatto; 12% 
Caucasian; 12% East Indian, Chinese, 
Amerindian; 10% other 

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic 
Language: French 
Literacy: 73% 

Labor force: 23,265 (1980); services, govern- 
ment, and commerce 60.6%; industry 21.2%; 
agriculture 18.2%; 10% unemployment 
(1980) 

Organized labor: 7% of labor force 
84 



Government 

Official name: Department of French 
Guiana 

Type: overseas department and region of 
France; represented by one deputy in 
French National Assembly and one senator 
in French Senate 

Capital: Cayenne 

Political subdivisions: 2 arrondissements, 19 
communes each with a locally elected mu- 
nicipal council 

Legal system: French legal system; highest 
court is Court of Appeals based in Mart- 
inique with jurisdiction over Martinique, 
Guadeloupe, and French Guiana 

Branches: executive: Prefect appointed by 
Paris; legislative popularly elected 16- 
member General Council and a Regional 
Council composed of members of the local 
General Council and of the locally elected 
deputy and senator to the French parlia- 
ment; judicial, under jurisdiction of French 
judicial system 

Government leader: Bernard COURTOIS, 
Prefect of the Republic (since 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: General Council elections nor- 
mally are held every five years; last election 
February 1983 

Political parties and leaders: Guianese So- 
cialist Party (PSG), Raymond Tarcy (sena- 
tor), Leopold Helder; Union of the Guianese 
People (UPG), weak leftist party allied with 
and reported to have been absorbed by the 
PSG; Rally for the Republic (RPR), Hector 
Rivierez 

Communists: Communist party member- 
ship negligible 

Member of :WT\J 

Economy 

GNP: $120 million (1976), $1,940 per capita 



French Polynesia 



Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold 
(widely scattered), cinnabar, clay, low-grade 
iron ore 

Agriculture: limited vegetables for local 
consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, ba- 
nanas, sugar 

Fishing: catch 1,430 metric tons (1983 est.) 

Major industries: construction, shrimp 
processing, forestry products, rum, gold 
mining 

Electric power: 31,000 kW capacity (1985); 
138 million kWh produced (1985), 1,625 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $35.4 million (1981); shrimp, tim- 
ber, rum, rosewood essence 

Imports: $245.9 million (1981); food (grains, 
processed meat), other consumer goods, pro- 
ducer goods, and petroleum 

Major trade partners: exports 54% US, 
17% Japan, 15% France, 5% Martinique; 
imports 53% France, 15% Trinidad and 
Tobago, 10% US (1981) 

Aid: economic bilateral commitments, 
ODA and OOF (FY70-79), from Western 
(non-US) countries, $700 million, no military 
aid 

Budget: $101 million (1982) 

Monetary conversion rate: 8.66 French 
francs=US$l (September 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 
km improved and unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 460 km, navigable by 
small oceangoing vessels and river and 
coastal steamers; 3,300 km possibly naviga- 
ble by native craft 

Ports: 1 major (Cayenne), 7 minor 



Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 1 total, 1 1 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair open- wire and 
radio-relay system with about 18,100 tele- 
phones (27.2 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 6 FM, 9 
TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite sta- 
tion 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of France 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 21,000; 
15,000 fit for military service 



South Pacific Ocean 



"V* 

'" -.PAPEETE 

.... Je * . 
laSociete T ' hl " 



lies 
Tubuai 



See regional map X 



lie Marquises 



.lies 
Tuamotu 



Land 

About 4,000 km 2 ; larger than Rhode Island 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm (200 nm 
exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 2,525 km 

People 

Population: 181,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.0% 

Nationality: noun French Polynesian(s); 
adjective French Polynesian 

Ethnic divisions: 78% Polynesian, 12% Chi- 
nese, 6% local French, 4% metropolitan 
French 

Religion: mainly Christian; 55% Protestant, 
32% Catholic 

Government 

Official name: Territory of French 
Polynesia 

Type: overseas territory of France 

Capital: Papeete 

Political subdivisions: 48 communes 

Legal system: based on French; lower and 
higher courts 



85 



French Polynesia (continued) 



Gabon 



Branches: 30-member Territorial Assembly, 
popularly elected; 5-member Council of 
Government, elected by Assembly; popular 
election of two deputies to National Assem- 
bly and one senator to Senate in Paris 

Government leader: Alain OHREL, High 
Commissioner and President of the Council 
of Government (since 1983), appointed by 
French Government; Gaston FLOSSE, Vice 
President of the Council of Government 
(since May 1982; highest elected official in 
the territory) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: every five years; last held in May 
1982 

Political parties and leaders: Tahoeraa 
Huiraatira (Gaullist), Gaston Flosse; Ai'a Api 
(New Country Party), Emile Vernaudon; 
Here Ai'a, Jean Juventin; la Mana (Socialist), 
Jacques Crollet; Te E'a Api (Socialist), 
Jacques VII 

Voting strength: (1982 election) Tahoeraa 
Huiraatira, 13 seats; Ai'a Api, 3 seats; Here 
Ai'a, 6 seats; la Mana, 3 seats; Independents, 
4 seats; Te E'a Api, 1 seat 

Economy 

GDP: A$931.3 million (1980), US$6,400 per 

capita (1980) 

Agriculture: main crop coconuts 

Major industries: maintenance of French 
nuclear test base, tourism 

Electric power: 72,000 kW capacity (1985); 
265 million kWh produced (1985), 1,515 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $21 million (1977); principal prod- 
ucts coconut products (79%), mother-of- 
pearl (14%), vanilla (1971) 

Imports: $419 million (1977); principal 
items fuels, foodstuffs, equipment 

Major trade partners: imports 59% 
France, 14% US; exports 86% France 

Aid: France $91 million (1978) 



Budget: $180 million in 1979; ODA and 
OOF commitments from Western (non-US 
countries) 

Monetary conversion rate: 127.05 Colonial 
Francs Pacifique(CFP)=$USl (February 
1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 3,700 km 

Inland waterways: none 

Ports: 1 major (Papeete), 6 minor 

Airfields: 41 total, 41 usable; 25 with 
permanent-surface runways, 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 14 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Civil air: about 6 major transport aircraft 

Telecommunications: 17,302 telephones 
(12.9 per 100 popl.); 72,000 radio and 14,000 
TV sets; 5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV stations; 1 
ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is responsibility of France 




S rffionil mip VII 



Land 

267,667 km 2 ; the size of Colorado; 75% for- 
est, 15% savanna, 9% urban and waste, less 
than 1% cultivated 

Land boundaries: 2,422 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 885 km 

People 

Population: 1,017,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Gabonese(sing., pi.); 
adjective Gabonese 

Ethnic divisions: about 40 Bantu tribes, in- 
cluding 4 major tribal groupings (Fang, 
Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke); about 100,000 
expatriate Africans and Europeans, includ- 
ing 35,000 French 

Religion: 55-75% Christian, less than 1% 
Muslim, remainder animist 

Language: French (official), Fang, ivlyene, 
Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi 

Infant mortality rate: 117/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 50 
Literacy: 65% 



86 



Labor force: 120,000 salaried (1983); 65.0% 
agriculture, 30.0% industry and commerce, 
2.5% services, 2.5% government 

Organized labor: there are 38,000 members 
of the national trade union, the Gabonese 
Trade Union Confederation (COSYGA) 

Government 

Official name: Gabonese Republic 

Type: republic; one-party presidential re- 
gime since 1964 

Capital: Libreville 

Political subdivisions: nine provinces subdi- 
vided into 36 prefectures 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and customary law; constitution 
adopted 1961; judicial review of legislative 
acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Su- 
preme Court; legal education at Center of 
Higher and Legal Studies at Libreville; com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted 

National holidays: Renovation Day, 12 
March; Independence Day, 17 August; ma- 
jor Islamic and Christian holidays 

Branches: power centralized in President, 
elected by universal suffrage for seven-year 
term; unicameral legislature (93- member 
National Assembly, including nine members 
chosen by Omar Bongo) has limited powers; 
constitution amended in 1979 so that Assem- 
bly deputies will serve five-year terms; inde- 
pendent judiciary 

Government leader: El Hadj Omar 
BONGO, President (since December 1967) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: presidential election last held De- 
cember 1979, next scheduled for 1986; par- 
liamentary election last held February 1980, 
next scheduled for 1985; constitutional 
change separates dates for presidential and 
parliamentary elections 

Political parties and leaders: Gabonese 
Democratic Party (PDG) led by President 
Bongo is only legal party 



Communists: no organized party; probably 
some Communist sympathizers 

Member of: Af DB, African Wood Organiza- 
tion, Conference of East and Central Afri- 
can States, BDECA (Central African Devel- 
opment Bank), EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCO, 
ICO, IDA, IDE Islamic Development 
Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, 
OAU, QIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $3.4 billion (1983), $3,690 per capita; 

0.7% annual growth rate (1981) 

Natural resources: oil, manganese, uranium, 
gold, wood, iron ore 

Agriculture: commercial cocoa, coffee, 
wood, palm oil, rice; main food crops pine- 
apples, bananas, manioc, peanuts, root 
crops; imports food 

Fishing: catch 52,638 metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: petroleum production, 
sawmills, petroleum refinery, food and bev- 
erage processing; mining of increasing im- 
portance; major minerals manganese, ura- 
nium, iron (not produced) 

Electric power: 280,000 kW capacity (1985); 
736 million kWh produced (1985), 744 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $2.0 billion (f.o.b., 1983); crude 
petroleum, wood and wood products, miner- 
als (manganese, uranium concentrates, gold) 

Imports: $0.9 billion (c.i.f., 1983); mining, 
roadbuilding machinery, electrical equip- 
ment, transport vehicles, foodstuffs, textiles 

Major trade partners: France, US, FRG, 
Curacao 

Budget: (1982) revenues, $1.4 billion; cur- 
rent expenditures, $0.5 billion; capital ex- 
penditures, $0.6 billion 



Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commu- 
naute Financiere Af ricaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l (1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 970 km 1.437-meter standard 
gauge under construction; 338 km are com- 
pleted 

Highways: 7,393 km total; 300 km paved, 
3,493 km gravel and improved, 3,600 km 
unimproved 

Inland waterways: approximately 1,600 km 
perennially navigable 

Pipelines: crude oil, 270 km 

Ports: 2 major (Owendo and Port-Gentil), 3 
minor 

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 79 total, 73 usable; 9 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 21 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: adequate system of 
open-wire, radio-relay, tropospheric scatter 
links and radiocommunication stations; 
13,800 telephones (1.2 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 
6 FM, 8 TV stations; 2 Atlantic Ocean satel- 
lite stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramili- 
tary Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 241,000; 
125,000 fit for military service; 7,000 reach 
military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $73.4 million; 4.9% of cen- 
tral government budget 



87 



The Gambia 



Nonh 

Atltnlic 

Octtn F.ntnni 




Georgetown 

/ 8t-, 
SintiJ 



Boundary representation is 
not necessarily authoritative 



S. rtfion.lm.pVII 



Land 

1 1,295 km 2 ; twice the size of Delaware; 55% 
upland cultivable, built on, and other; 25% 
uncultivated savanna; 16% swamp; 4% for- 
est park 

Land boundaries: 740 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 80 km 

People 

Population: 774,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.9% 

Nationality: noun Gambian(s); adjective 
Cambian 

Ethnic divisions: 99% African (42% 
Mandinka, 18% Fula, 16% Wolof, 10% Jola, 
9% Serahuli, 3% other); 1% non-Gambian 

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% Christian, 1% 
indigenous beliefs 

Language: English (official); Mandinka, 
Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars 

Infant mortality rate: 250/1,000 (1984) 
Life expectancy: 42 
Literacy: about 15% 



Labor force: 165,000 (1983 est.); 75.0% agri- 
culture; 18.9% industry, commerce, and 
services; 6.1% government 

Organized labor: 25-30% of wage labor 
force at most 

Government 

Official name: Republic of The Gambia 

Type: republic; independent since February 
1965; The Gambia and Senegal in early 1982 
formed a loose confederation of 
Senegambia, which calls for the integration 
of their armed forces and, eventually, their 
monetary union 

Capital: Banjul 

Political subdivisions: Banjul and five divi- 



Legal system: based on a composite of 
English common law, Koranic law, and cus- 
tomary law; constitution came into force 
upon independence in 1965, new republican 
constitution adopted in April 1970; accepts 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reserva- 
tions 

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 
February 

Branches: Cabinet of 13 members; unicam- 
eral legislative branch (43-member parlia- 
ment), in which four seats are reserved for 
tribal chiefs, four are government 
appointed, 35 are filled by election for five- 
year terms, a Speaker is elected by the 
House, and the Attorney General is an ap- 
pointed member; independent judiciary 

Government leader: Sir Dawda Kairaba 
JAWARA, President (since February 1970) 

Political parties and leaders: People's Pro- 
gressive Party (PPP), secretary general, 
Dawda K. Jawara; National Convention 
Party (NCP), Sheriff Dibba 

Suffrage: universal adult over 21 
Elections: general election held May 1982 



Voting strength: PPP 27 seats, NCP 4 seats, 
others 4 seats 

Communists: no Communist party 

Member of: Af BD, APC, Commonwealth, 
ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, 
ICAO, IDA, IDE Inter-American Devel- 
opment Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, IRC, 
ITU, NAM, OAU, QIC, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $125 million (1984), about $170 per 

capita; real growth rate -7.8% (FY84) 

Natural resources: fish 

Agriculture: main crops groundnuts, mil- 
let, sorghum, rice, maize, palm kernels, cot- 
ton 

Fishing: catch 9,600 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: peanut processing, tour- 
ism, brewing, soft drinks, agricultural ma- 
chinery assembly, small woodworking and 
metalworking, clothing 

Electric power: 29,600 kW capacity (1985); 
64 million kWh produced (1985), 85 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $59 million (f.o.b., FY85 est.) pea- 
nuts and peanut products, fish, palm kernels 

Imports: $73 million (f.o.b., FY85 est.); tex- 
tiles, foodstuffs, tobacco, machinery, petro- 
leum products, chemicals 

Major trade partners: exports mainly EC, 
Africa; imports EC, Africa 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-83), $237 million; US(FY70-84), $49 
million 

Budget: (1982-83 est.) revenues $44.2 mil- 
lion, current expenditures $34.90 miliion, 
development expenditures $19.7 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1 dalasi= 
US$0.28 (October 1985) 



German Democratic 
Republic 



218Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 
Railroads: none 

Highways: 3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 
501 km gravel/laterite, and 2,151 km unim- 
proved earth 

Inland waterways: 400 km 

Ports: 1 major (Banjul) 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 usable with permanent-surface 
runways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: adequate network of 
radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones (0.5 
per 100 popl.); 2 FM, 3 AM , no TV stations; 
1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, paramilitary Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 172,000; 
88,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1981, $2.4 million; 6.2% of central gov- 
ernment budget; includes fire and police 
expenditures 




Schwerin 



The final borders of ^^ Wittenbttrg* ^Schwedt 
Germany have r 
been established 



CI3UI ^^ VVIUVIIUtnyw 9 

rr^' C 
\ -"" _. ? 



EUenhuttenstadt 



Sef refinnal map V 




Land 

108,178 km 2 ; the size of Virginia; 43% ara- 
ble, 27% forest, 15% meadow and pasture, 
15% other 

Land boundaries: 2,309 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 901 km (including islands) 

People 

Population: 16,692,000, including East Ber- 
lin (July 1986), average annual growth rate 



Nationality: noun German(s); adjective 
German 

Ethnic divisions: 99.7% German, 0.3% 
Slavic and other 

Religion: 47% Protestant, 7% Roman Catho- 
lic, 46% unaffiliated or other; less than 5% of 
Protestants and about 25% of Roman Catho- 
lics active participants 

Language: German, Serbian 
Infant mortality rate: 10/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 68.8, women 74.7 
Literacy: 99% 



Labor force: 8.916 million; 37.9% industry, 
20.8% services, 10.1% commerce, 10.8% ag- 
riculture, 7.4% transport and communica- 
tions, 6.9% construction, 3.1% handicrafts, 
3.0% other (1984) 

Organized labor: 87.7% of total labor force 

Government 

Official name: German Democratic Repub- 
lic 

Type: Communist state 

Capital: East Berlin (not officially recog- 
nized by US, UK, and France, which 
together with the USSR have special rights 
and responsibilities in Berlin) 

Political subdivisions: (excluding East Ber- 
lin) 14 districts (Bezirke), 218 counties 
(Kreise), 7,600 communities (Gemeinden) 

Legal system: civil law system modified by 
Communist legal theory; new constitution 
adopted 1974; court system parallels admin- 
istrative divisions; no judicial review of legis- 
lative acts; legal education at Universities of 
Berlin, Leipzig, Halle, and Jena; has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; more 
stringent penal code adopted in 1968 and 
amended in 1974 and 1979 

National holiday: Foundation of German 
Democratic Republic, 7 October 

Branches: unicameral legislature (People's 
Chamber Volkskammer, elected directly); 
executive (Council of State, Council of Min- 
isters); judiciary (Supreme Court); entire 
structure dominated by Socialist Unity 
(Communist) Party 

Government leaders: Erich HONECKER, 
Chairman, Council of State (Head of State; 
since October 1976); Willi STOPH, Chair- 
man, Council of Ministers (Premier; since 
October 1976) 

Suffrage: all citizens age 18 and over 

Elections: national every five years; pre- 
pared by an electoral commission of the Na- 
tional Front; ballot supposed to be secret and 
voters permitted to strike names off ballot; 



89 



German Democratic 
Republic (continued) 



more candidates than offices available; par- 
liamentary election held 14 June 1981, and 
local elections held 6 May 1984; next parlia- 
mentary election scheduled for 8 June 1986 

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Unity 
(Communist) Party of Germany (SED), 
headed by General Secretary Erich 
Honecker, dominates the regime; four token 
parties (Christian Democratic Union, 
National Democratic Party, Liberal Demo- 
cratic Party, and Democratic Peasants' 
Party) and an amalgam of special interest 
organizations participate with the SED in 
National Front 

Voting strength: 1981 parliamentary elec- 
tions and 1984 local elections; over 99% 
voted the regime slate 

Communists: 2. 195 million party members 
(1986) 

Other special interest groups: Free German 
Youth, Free German Trade Union Federa- 
tion, Democratic Women's League, Cultural 
League of the German Democratic Republic 
(all Communist dominated) 

Member of: CEMA, IAEA, ICES, ILO, 
IMO, IPU, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, War- 
saw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

CNP: $163.7 billion (1984), $9,800 per cap- 
ita; 1984 growth rate 3.0% 

Natural resources: lignite coal, potash, ura- 
nium, copper, natural gas 

Agriculture: food deficit area; main crops 
potatoes, rye, wheat, barley, oats 

Fishing: catch 299,463 metric tons (1984) 

Major industries: metal fabrication, chemi- 
cals, light industry, brown coal, shipbuilding 

Shortages: grain, vegetables, vegetable oil, 
beef, coking coal, coke, crude oil, rolled steel 
products, nonferrous metals 



Crude steel: 7.6 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), approx. 455 kg per capita 

(1984) 

Electric power: (including East Berlin) 
23,240,000 kW capacity (1985); 114.7 billion 
kWh produced (1985), 6,870 kWh per capita 

Exports: $25.18 billion, est. (f.o.b., 1984) 
Imports: $22.97 billion, est. (f.o.b., 1984) 

Major trade partners: 65.7% Socialist coun- 
tries, 29.6% developed West, 4.7% less devel- 
oped countries 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.45 
ostmarks=US$l (January 1986) 

Fiscal year: same as calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 14,226 km total (1984); 13,933 km 
1.435-meter standard gauge (1984), 293 km 
1.000-meter or other narrow gauge, 3,830 
(est.) km 1.435-meter double track standard 
gauge; 2,321 km overhead electrified (1984) 

Highways: 120,433 km total; 47,380 km con- 
crete, asphalt, stone block, of which 1,887 
km are autobahn and limited access roads; 
over 73,000 km asphalt treated, gravel, 
crushed stone, and earth (1983) 

Inland waterways: 2,319 km (1984) 

Freight carried: rail 338 million metric 
tons, 56.654 billion metric ton/km (1984); 
highway 560.7 million metric tons, 14.491 
billion metric ton/km (1984); waterway 
18.7 million metric tons, 2.642 billion metric 
ton/km (excluding international transit 
traffic) (1984) 

Pipelines: oil, 1,301 km; refined products, 
500 km; natural gas 1,700 km 

Ports: 4 major (Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, 
Sassnitz), 13 minor; principal inland water- 
way ports are E. Berlin, Riesa, Magdeburg, 
and Eisenhttenstadt 

Telecommunications: 3.527 million tele- 
phones in use (1984) 



Defense Forces 

Branches: National People's Army, Border 
Troops, Ministry of State Security Guard 
Regiment, Air and Air Defense Command, 
People's Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,299,000; 
3,447,000 fit for military service; 121,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: announced for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1986, 14.05 billion 
marks; 5.79% of total budget 



90 



Germany, Federal 
Republic of 



200km 




The final borders of 
Germany have not 
been established 



Sec regional map V 



Land 

248,577 km 2 (including West Berlin); the 
size of Wyoming; 33% cultivated, 29% for- 
est, 23% meadow and pasture, 13% waste or 
urban, 2% inland water 

Land boundaries: 4,232 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 
nm the FRG territorial sea extends at one 
point to 16 nautical miles in the Helgolander 
Bucht; (fishing to median lines) 

Coastline: 1,488 km (approx.) 

People 

Population: 60,734,000, including West 
Berlin (July 1986), average annual growth 
rate 0.4% 

Nationality: noun German(s); adjective 
German 

Ethnic divisions: primarily German; Danish 
minority 

Religion: 45% Roman Catholic, 44% Protes- 
tant, 11% other 

Language: German 

Infant mortality rate: 11/1,000(1983) 

Life expectancy: men 67.2, women 73.4 



Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 27.612 million (1984); 41.6% 
industry, 34.7% services and other, 18.2% 
trade and transport, 5.4% agriculture (Feb- 
ruary 1985) 

Organized labor: 28% of total labor force; 
35% of wage and salary earners (1984) 

Government 

Official name: Federal Republic of Ger- 
many 

Type: federal republic 
Capital: Bonn 

Political subdivisions: 10 Laender (states); 
Western sectors of Berlin are ultimately con- 
trolled by US, UK, and France; Eastern sec- 
tor by USSR; the four countries share special 
rights and responsibilities in Berlin 

Legal system: civil law system with indige- 
nous concepts; constitution adopted 1949; 
judicial review of legislative acts in the Su- 
preme Federal Constitutional Court; has not 
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

Branches: bicameral parliament 
Bundesrat (Federal Council, upper house), 
Bundestag (National Assembly, lower 
house); President (titular head of state), 
Chancellor (executive head of government); 
independent judiciary 

Government leaders: Richard von 
WEIZSACKER, President (since July 1984); 
Dr. Helmut KOHL, Chancellor (since Octo- 
ber 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: national election generally held 
every four years; last held on 6 March 1983; 
next scheduled for January 1987 

Political parties and leaders: Christian 
Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut Kohl, 
Gerhard Stoltenberg, Ernst Albrecht, Alfred 
Dregger, Lothar Spaeth; Christian Social 
Union (CSU), Franz- Josef Strauss, Gerold 
Tandler, Heiner Geissler, Walter Wollman, 
Kurt Biedenkopf, Friedrich Zimmermann, 



Theo Waigel; Free Democratic Party (FDP), 
Martin Bangemann, Hans-Dietrich 
Genscher, Wolfgang Mischnick, Helmut 
Haussmann; Social Democratic Party (SPD), 
Willy Brandt, Hans-Jochen Vogel, Johannes 
Rau, Hans Apel, Horst Ehmke, Hans 
Koschnik; National Democratic Party 
(NPD), Martin Mussgnug; Communist Party 
(DKP), Herbert Mies; Green Party (Greens), 
Rainer Trampert, Otto Schily, Lukas 
Beckmann, Joschka Fischer 

Voting strength: (1983 election) 48.8% 
CDU/CSU (CDU 38.2%, CSU 10.6%), 38.2% 
SPD, 6.9% FDP, 5.6% Greens, .5% other 

Communists: about 40,000 members and 
supporters 

Other political or pressure groups: expellee, 
refugee, and veterans groups 

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, 
EC, EIB, ELDO, EMS, ESRO, FAO, GATT, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, 
IDA, IDB Inter-American Development 
Bank, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, Interna- 
tional Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, 
ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $616.1 billion (1984), $10,670 per cap- 
ita (1982); 56.3% private consumption, 
20.2% investment, 20% public consumption, 
0.6% inventory change, 2.9% net foreign 
balance; real growth rate 2.7% 

Natural resources: iron, coal, potash 

Agriculture: main crops grains, potatoes, 
sugar beets; 75% self-sufficient 

Fishing: catch 293,170 metric tons, $112.1 
million (1984); exports $192 million, imports 
$589 million (1984) 

Major industries: among world's largest 
producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemi- 
cals, machinery, ships, vehicles, machine 
tools 



91 



Germany, Federal 
Republic of (continued) 



Ghana 



Shortages: fats and oils, pulses, tropical 
products, sugar, cotton, wool, rubber, petro- 
leum, iron ore, bauxite, nonferrous metals, 
sulfur 

Crude steel: 60 million metric tons capacity 
(est); 39.4 million metric tons produced 
(1984), 645 kg per capita 

Electric power: (including West Berlin) 
96,228,000 kW capacity (1985); 401.94 bil- 
lion kWh produced (1985), 6,595 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $171 billion (f.o.b., 1984); manufac- 
tures 85.2% (including machines and ma- 
chine tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron 
and steel products), agricultural products 
5.5%, fuels 3.2%, raw materials 2.8%, other 
3.2% 

Imports: $153 billion (c.i.f., 1984); manufac- 
tures 55.9%, fuels 20.4%, agricultural prod- 
ucts 12.2%, raw materials 8.7%, other 2.8% 

Major trade partners: (1984) EC 47.8% 
(France 11.6%, Netherlands 10.3%, UK 8%, 
Italy 7.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 6.8%), 
other Europe 16.7%, less developed coun- 
tries 14.5%, US 8.4%, Communist 6.5%, 
OPEC 5.7% 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $41.1 billion 

Budget: (1984) federal government expendi- 
tures, $89 billion; revenues, $57 billion; def- 
icit, $10 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.64 marks= 
US$1 (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 32,555 km total; 28,533 km 1.435- 
meter government owned, standard gauge, 
12,491 km double track; 1 1,272 km electri- 
fied; 4,022 km nongovernment owned; 3,598 
km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 214 km 
electrified, 424 km 1.000-meter gauge; 186 
km electrified 

Highways: 466,305 km total; 169,568 km 
classified, includes 6,435 km autobahn, 



32,460km national highways (Bundesstras- 
sen), 65,425 km state highways (Landesstras- 
sen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 
296,737 km of unclassified communal roads 
(Gemeindestrassen) 

Inland waterways: 5,222 km, of which al- 
most 70% usable by craft of 990-metric-ton 
capacity or larger 

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,343 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 3,389 km; natural gas, 95,414 km 

Ports: 10 major, 1 1 minor 

Civil air: 194 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 477 total, 440 usable; 232 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 33 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 42 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: highly developed, 
modern telecommunication service to all 
parts of the country; fully adequate in all 
respects; 35. 1 million telephones (57. 1 per 
100 popl.); 96 AM, 432 FM, and 5,995 TV 
stations; 6 submarine coaxial cables; 2 satel- 
lite stations with total of 8 antennas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
16,488,000; 13,769,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; 522,000 reach military age (18) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $21.2 billion; 22.4% of the 
proposed central government budget 



Seerecional mtp VII 




Gulf of Guinea 



Land 

238,538 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Oregon 
60% forest and brush, 19% agricultural, 21 
other 

Land boundaries: 2,285 km 

Water 

Coastline: 539 km 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 20C 
nm 

People 

Population: 13,552,000 (July 1986),averai 
annual growth rate 4.1% 

Nationality: noun Ghanaian(s); 
adjective Ghanaian 

Ethnic divisions: 99.8% black African (ma 
jor tribes Akan, Ewe, Ga), 0.2% European 
and other 

Religion: 38% indigenous beliefs, 30% Mu 
lim, 24% Christian, 8% other 

Language: English (official); African lan- 
guages include 44% Akan, 16% Mole- 
Dag"bani, 13% Ewe, and 8% Ga-Adangbe 

Infant mortality rate: 97/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 49 
Literacy: 30% 



Labor force: 3.7 million; 54.7% agriculture 
and fishing; 18.7% industry; 15.2% sales and 
clerical; 7.7% services, transportation, and 
communications; 3.7% professional; 400,000 
unemployed 

Organized labor: 467,000 or approximately 
13% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Ghana 

Type: republic; 31 December 1981 coup 
ended two-year-old civilian government and 
suspended constitution and political activity 

Capital: Accra 

Political subdivisions: 8 administrative re- 
gions and separate Greater Accra Area; re- 
gions subdivided into 58 districts and 267 
local administrative districts 

Legal system: based on English common 
law and customary law; legal education at 
University of Ghana (Legon); has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 
March 

Branches: executive authority vested in 
seven-member Provisional National Defense 
Council (PNDC); on 21 January 1982 PNDC 
appointed secretaries to head most minis- 
tries 

Government leader: Fit. Lt. (Ret.) Jerry 
John RAWLINGS, Chairman of PNDC 
(since December 1981) 

Suffrage: none 

Elections: elections held in June 1979 for 
parliament and president; presidential 
runoff election held in July; none scheduled 
since 1981 coup 

Political parties and leaders: political par- 
ties outlawed after 31 December 1981 coup 

Communists: a small number of Commu- 
nists and sympathizers 



Member of: Af DB, Commonwealth, EGA, 
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, 
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, 
ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, World Confederation of Labor, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $10.5 billion (1982 est); real growth 

rate -7.2% (1982 est.) 

Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial 
diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish 

Agriculture: main crop cocoa; others in- 
clude root crops, corn, sorghum, millet, 
coffee, peanuts; not self-sufficient but can 
become so 

Fishing: catch 241,000 metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: mining, lumbering, light 
manufacturing, fishing, aluminum 

Electric power: 1,200,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 2.628 billion kWh produced (1985), 
200 kWh per capita 

Exports: $856.9 million (f.o.b., 1982); cocoa 
(about 60%), wood, gold, diamonds, manga- 
nese, bauxite, aluminum (aluminum regu- 
larly excluded from balance-of-payments 
data) 

Imports: $668.7 million (f.o.b., 1982); tex- 
tiles and other manufactured goods, food, 
fuels, transport equipment 

Major trade partners: UK, EC, US 

Budget: revenues, $1.8 billion; expenditures 
and net lending, $3.5 billion (1981/82) 

Monetary conversion rate: 50 cedis=US$l 
(December 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 
km double track; diesel locomotives gradu- 
ally replacing steam engines 



Highways: 32,250 km total; 6,084 km con- 
crete or bituminous surface, 26,166 km 
gravel or laterite 

Inland waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and 
Tano rivers provide 168 km of perennial 
navigation for launches and lighters; Lake 
Volta reservoir provides 1,125 km of arterial 
and feeder waterways 

Pipelines: refined products, 3 km 
Ports: 2 major (Tema, Takoradi) 
Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 10 total, 9 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 6 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system of open- 
wire and cable, radio-relay links; 68,900 
telephones (0.6 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 9 TV 
stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite ground 
station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramili- 
tary Palace Guard, paramilitary People's 
Militia 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,917,000; 
1,624,000 fit for military service; 140,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1984, $75.8 million; 5.5% of central 
government budget 



93 



Gibraltar 




Mediterranean 
Sea 



Strait of Gibraltar 
See regional map V 



Lighthouse 



Land 

6.5 km 2 ; smaller than Washington, D. C. 

Land boundaries: 1.6 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 

Coastline: 12 km 

People 

Population: 30,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.8% 

Nationality: noun Gibraltarian; adjec- 
tive Gibraltar 

Ethnic divisions: mostly Italian, English, 
Maltese, Portuguese, and Spanish descent 

Religion: 75% Roman Catholic, 8% Church 
of England, 2.25% Jewish 

Language: English and Spanish are primary 
languages; Italian, Portuguese, and Russian 
also spoken; English used in the schools and 
for official purposes 

Literacy: illiteracy is negligible 

Labor force: approx. 14,800, including non- 
Gibraltar laborers 

Organized labor: over 6,000 

Government 

Official name: Gibraltar 

Type: British dependent territory 



Capital: none 

Legal system: English law; constitutional 
talks in July 1968; new system effected in 
1969 after electoral inquiry 

Branches: parliamentary system comprising 
the Gibraltar House of the Assembly (15 
elected members and 3 ex officio members), 
the Council of Ministers headed by the 
Chief Minister, and the Gibraltar Council; 
the Governor is appointed by the Crown 

Government leaders: Air Chief Marshal Sir 
Peter TERRY, Governor and Commander 
in Chief (since 1985); Sir Joshua A. HASSAN, 
Chief Minister (1964-69 and since 1972) 

Suffrage: all adult Gibraltarians, plus other 
UK subjects resident six months or more 

Elections: every four years; last held in Jan- 
uary 1984 

Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar La- 
bor Party/Association for the Advancement 
of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR), Sir Joshua 
Hassan; Democratic Party of British Gibr- 
altar (DPBG), Peter Isola; Socialist Labor 
Party, Joe Bossano 

Voting strength: (January 1984) House of 
the Assembly GCL/AACR, 8 seats; Social- 
ist Labor, 7 seats 

Communists: negligible 

Other political or pressure groups: House- 
wives Association, Chamber of Commerce, 
Gibraltar Representatives Organization 

Economy 

Economic activity in Gibraltar centers on 
commerce and large British naval and air 
bases; nearly all trade in the well-developed 
port is transit trade and port serves also as 
important supply depot for fuel, water, and 
ships' wares; recently built dockyards and 
machine shops provide maintenance and 
repair services to 3,500-4,000 vessels that 
call at Gibraltar each year; UK military es- 
tablishments and the civil government em- 
ploy nearly half the insured labor force, and 
a recently announced decision to close the 
Royal Navy dockyard will significantly add 
to unemployment; local industry is confined 
to manufacture of tobacco, roasted coffee, 
ice, mineral waters, candy, beer, and canned 



fish; some factories for manufacture of cloth- 
ing are being developed; a small segment of 
the local population makes its livelihood by 
fishing; in recent years tourism has increased 
in importance 

Electric power: 60,000 kW capacity (1985); 
210 million kWh produced (1985), 7,000 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $47.8 million (1983); principally 
reexports of tobacco, petroleum, and wine 

Imports: $136.8 million (1983); principally 
manufactured goods, fuels, and foodstuffs; 
65% from UK 

Major trade partners: UK, Morocco, Portu- 
gal, Netherlands 

Budget: (FY82) revenues, $89 million; ex- 
penditure, $84.2 million 

Monetary conversion rate: .833 Gibraltar 
pound=.833 pound sterling=US$l (Decem- 
ber 1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: 1.000-meter gauge system in 
dockyard area only 

Highways: 50 km, mostly good bitumen and 
concrete 

Ports: 1 major (Gibraltar) 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 usable with permanent-surface 
runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: adequate interna- 
tional radiocommunication facilities; auto- 
matic telephone system serving 9,400 tele- 
phones (31.5 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 6.FM, 4 
TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite sta- 
tion 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 

Kingdom 



Branches: Gibraltar Regiment 



94 



Greece 



150 Km 



\1 



Sea 




& 

C<. 
PelopSi 



Aegean Sea 

*7ttf,~ s 



cySimos 



Mediterranean Sea ^ - ^-~-i~n * 



Srr refionil map \ 



Land 

131,944 km 2 ; the size of New York; 40% 
meadow and pasture; 29% arable and per- 
manent crop; 20% forest; 11% waste, urban, 
and other 

Land boundaries: 1,191 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm 

Coastline: 13,676 km 

People 

Population: 9,954,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.3% 

Nationality: noun Greek(s); adjective 
Greek 

Ethnic divisions: 97. 7% Greek, 1.3% Turk- 
ish; 1.0% Vlach, Slav, Albanian, Pomach 

NOTE: The Greek Government states that 
there are no ethnic minorities in Greece. 

Religion: 98% Greek Orthodox, 1.3% Mus- 
lim, 0.7% other 

Language: Greek (official); English and 
French widely understood 

Infant mortality rate: 13.8/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 72, women 75 



Literacy: 95% 

Labor force: 3.7 million (1981 census); ap- 
proximately 39% services, 31% agriculture, 
30% industry; urban unemployment is esti- 
mated at 10%; substantial unreported unem- 
ployment exists in agriculture 

Organized labor: 10-15% of total labor 
force, 20-25% of urban labor force 

Government 

Official name: Hellenic Republic 

Type: presidential parliamentary govern- 
ment; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 
December 1974 

Capital: Athens 

Political subdivisions: 51 departments 
(nomoi) constitute basic administrative units 
for country; each nomos headed by officials 
appointed by central government and policy 
and programs tend to be formulated by cen- 
tral ministries; degree of flexibility each 
nomos may have in altering or avoiding pro- 
grams imposed by Athens depends upon 
tradition and influence that prominent local 
leaders and citizens may exercise vis-a-vis 
key figures in central government; the de- 
partments of Macedonia and Thrace exer- 
cise some degree of autonomy from Athens 
since they are governed through the Minis- 
try of Northern Greece 

Legal system: new constitution enacted in 
June 1975 

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 
March 

Branches: executive consisting of a Presi- 
dent, elected by the Vouli (Parliament), a 
Prime Minister, and a Cabinet; unicameral 
legislature consisting of the 300-member 
Vouli; and an independent judiciary 

Government leaders: Dr. Andreas 
PAPANDREOU, Prime Minister (since 
1981); Christos SARTZETAKIS, President 
(since 1985) 

Suffrage: universal age 18 and over 



Elections: every four years; Papandreou's 
Panhellenic Socialist Movement defeated 
the incumbent New Democracy govern- 
ment of George Rallis in elections held on 18 
October 1981; PASOK was reelected in June 
1985 

Political parties and leaders: Panhellenic 
Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas 
Papandreou; New Democracy (ND), 
Constantine Mitsotakis; Democratic Re- 
newal (DR), Constantine Stefanopoulos; 
Communist Party-Exterior (KKE-Ext), 
Kharilaos Florakis; Communist 
Party-Interior (KKE-Int), Leonidas Kyrkos 

Voting strength: Parliament Panhellenic 
Socialist Movement, 157 seats; New Democ- 
racy, 111 seats; Democratic Renewal, 10 
seats; Communists (Exterior), 10 seats; Com- 
munists (Interior), 1 seat; independents, 11 
seats 

Communists: an estimated 60,000 members 
and sympathizers 

Member of: EC, EIB (associate), EMA, FAO, 
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, 
IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, IWC Interna- 
tional Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $33.5 billion (1984), $3,380 per capita; 

real growth rate 2.89% (1984) 

Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magne- 
site, oil 

Agriculture: main crops wheat, olives, 
tobacco, cotton, raisins, fruit; nearly self- 
sufficient; food shortages livestock prod- 
ucts 

Major industries: food and tobacco process- 
ing, textiles, chemicals, metal products 

Crude steel: 1.3 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984 est.), 132 kg per capita 

Electric power: 10,553,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 26.572 billion kWh produced (1985), 
2,680 kWh per capita 



Greece (continued) 



Greenland 



Exports: $4.40 billion (f .o.b., 1984); principal 
items tobacco, minerals, fruits, textiles 

Imports: $9.8 billion (c.i.f., 1984); principal 
items machinery and automotive equip- 
ment, petroleum and petroleum products, 
manufactured consumer goods, chemicals, 
meat and live animals 

Major trade partners: (1983 est.) imports 
16.7% FRG, 9.7% Italy, 7.6% Japan, 6.9% 
France, 6.8% Saudi Arabia; exports 19.6% 
FRG, 13.5% Italy, 8.6% France, 8.3% US, 
6.3% UK 

Aid: economic commitments US, includ- 
ing Ex-Im, $525 million (1970-81); other 
Western bilateral (ODA and OOF), $1.1 
billion (1970-83); Communist countries 
(1970-84), $360 million; military US, $2.6 
billion (FY70-84); Communist countries 
(1970-84), $110 million 

Budget: (1984) central government revenues 
$9. 1 billion, expenditures $12.5 billion, $3.4 
billion deficit 

Monetary conversion rate: 154.04 Greek 
drachmas=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, of which 36 km elec- 
trified and 100 km double track, 889 km 
1.000-meter gauge; 22 km 0.750-meter nar- 
row gauge; all government owned 

Highways: 38,938 km total; 16,090 km 
paved, 13,676 km crushed stone and gravel, 
5,632 km improved earth, 3,540 km unim- 
proved earth 

Inland waterways: system consists of three 
coastal canals and three unconnected rivers, 
which provide navigable length of just under 
80km 

Pipelines: crude oil, 26 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 547 km 

Ports: 2 major, 12 secondary, 37 minor 
Civil air: 39 major transport aircraft 



Airfields: 81 total, 78 usable; 57 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 21 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: adequate, modern 
networks reach all areas on mainland 
islands; 3.31 million telephones (33.5 per 100 
popl.); 28 AM, 37 FM, and 292 TV stations; 6 
submarine cables; 1 satellite station with 2 
Atlantic Ocean antennas and 1 Indian 
Ocean antenna 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, 

Hellenic Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,357,000; 
1,906,000 fit for military service; about 
77,000 reach military age (21) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $2.7 billion; 18.8% of cen- 
tral government budget 



Arctic Ocea 



SOQkm 




Ammaaaalik 
Denmark Strait 



Qaqort 

See regional map II 



Land 

2,175,600 km 2 ; larger than contiguous US; 
84% permanent ice and snow, less than 1% 
arable (of which only a fraction is 
cultivated), 16% other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
fishing zone (200 nm) 

Coastline: approx. 44,087 km (includes mi- 
nor islands) 

People 

Population: 54,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.1% 

Nationality: noun Greenlander(s); adjec- 
tive Greenlandic 

Ethnic divisions: 86% Greenlander (Eskimos 
and Greenland-born whites), 14% Danish 

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 
Language: Danish, Eskimo dialects 
Infant mortality rate: 37/1,000 (1976-80) 
Life expectancy: men 59.7, women 67.3 
Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 21,378; largely engaged in 
fishing, hunting, and sheep breeding 



96 



Grenada 



Government 

Official name: Greenland 

Type: self-governing province of Kingdom 
of Denmark; two representatives in Danish 
parliament; separate Minister for Greenland 
in the Danish Cabinet (Ministry to be phased 
out during 1986-87) 

Capital: Godthab (Nuuk) 

Political subdivisions: 3 counties, 18 com- 
munes 

Legal system: Danish law; transformed 
from colony to province in 1953; limited 
home rule began in spring 1979 

Branches: legislative authority rests jointly 
with the elected 25-seat Landsting and Dan- 
ish parliament; executive power vested in 
Premier and four-person council; 19 lower 
courts 

Government leaders: MARGRETHE II, 
Queen (since January 1972); Jonathan 
MOTZFELDT, Prime Minister (since May 
1979) 

Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, 
over age 21 

Elections: held every four years; most re- 
cent, 6 June 1984 

Political parties: Siumut, 1 1 seats (moderate 
socialist, advocating more distinct Green- 
land identity and greater autonomy from 
Denmark); Atassut Party, 1 1 seats (more con- 
servative, favors continuing close relations 
with Denmark); Inuit Ataqatigiit, 3 seats 
(Marxist-Leninist party favoring complete 
independence from Denmark rather than 
home rule) 

Economy 

GNP: included in that of Denmark 

Natural resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, 
molybdenum, cryolite, uranium, fish 

Agriculture: arable areas largely in hay; 
sheep grazing; garden produce 



Fishing: catch 105,830 tons (1982); exports 
$108.6 million (1980) 

Major industries: mining, fishing, sealing 

Electric power: 84,000 kW capacity (1985); 
168 million kWh produced (1985), 3,170 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $168.4 million (f.o.b., 1980); fish 
and fish products, metallic ores and concen- 
trates 

Imports: $259.4 million (c.i.f., 1980); petro- 
leum and petroleum products, machinery 
and transport equipment, food products 

Major trade partners: (1980) Denmark 
49.4%, Finland 9.5%, FRG 8.1%, US 6.3%, 
UK 2.9% 

Monetary conversion rate: 8.915 Danish 
Kroner=US$l (December 1985 average) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 80 km 

Ports: 1 major, 9 minor, 7 secondary 

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 10 total, 7 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: adequate domestic 
and international service provided by cables 
and radio relay; 17,900 telephones (31.0 per 
100 popl.); 7 AM, 24 FM, 9 TV stations; 2 
coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean 
satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is responsibility of Denmark 

Military manpower: included with Den- 
mark 



^TCarriacou 



Caribbean A 

& . 




Caribbean 
Sea 



.SAINT GEORGE'S 

^Grenada 



See regional mip III 



Land 

344 km 2 (Grenada and southern 
Grenadines); twice the size of Washington, 
D. C.; 44% cultivated; 17% unused but po- 
tentially productive; 12% forest; 4% pasture; 
23% built on, waste, and other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 121 km 

People 

Population: 86,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.5% 

Nationality: noun Grenadian(s); adjec- 
tive Grenadian 

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African 
descent 

Religion: largely Roman Catholic; Anglican; 
other Protestant sects 

Language: English (official); some French 
patois 

Infant mortality rate: 16.7/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: 69 
Literacy: 85% 

Labor force: 36,000 (1985); 31 % services, 
24% agriculture, 8% construction, 5% 



97 



Grenada (continued) 



manufacturing, 31% other; 35-40% unem- 
ployment (1985) 

Organized labor: 80% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Grenada 

Type: independent state; recognizes Eliza- 
beth II as Chief of State 

Capital: St. George's 

Political subdivisions: 6 parishes 

Legal system: based on English common 
law 

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 
February 

Branches: bicameral legislature (15-member 
elected House of Representatives and 13- 
member appointed Senate); executive is 
Cabinet led by the Prime Minister; judiciary 
consists of Grenada Supreme Court, com- 
posed of the High Court of Justice and two- 
tier Court of Appeals 

Government leaders: Sir Paul SCOON, 
Governor General (since 1978); Herbert 
BLAIZE, Prime Minister (since December 
1984) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: last general election held 3 De- 
cember 1984 

Political parties and leaders: the New Na- 
tional Party (NNP) is the ruling party and is 
a three-party centrist coalition composed of 
the Grenada National Party (GNP), the Na- 
tional Democratic Party (NDP), and the 
Grenada Democratic Movement (GDM); 
former Prime Minister Sir Eric Gairy re- 
vived his Grenada United Labor Party 
(GULP) in 1984; Grenada Democratic Labor 
Party (GDLP) formed by Marcel Peters, the 
only opposition member of parliament, who 
was elected as a GULP candidate but 
changed parties after he assumed his seat in 
the House of Representatives; the Maurice 
Bishop Patriotic Movement (MBPM) was 
formed in May 1984 and is composed of 



pro-Cuban Socialists; the New Jewel Move- 
ment (NJM) consists of supporters of Bern- 
ard Coard and other hardliners accused of 
killing Bishop in 1983 

Voting strength: (1984 election) NNP 59%, 
GULP 36%, MBPM 5%; parliamentary 
seats NNP, 14; GDLP, 1 

Communists: the New Jewel Movement, 
which is currently trying to revitalize, and 
the less hardline Maurice Bishop Patriotic 
Movement 

Other political or pressure group: Grenada 
Democratic Labor Party (GDLP) is the of- 
ficial opposition 

Member of: CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT 
(de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, 
ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO 

Economy 

GDP: $86.8 million (1984 est), $940 per cap- 
ita; real growth rate 0.6% (1984 est.); average 
inflation rate 5% (1984 est.) 

Agriculture: main crops cocoa, nutmeg, 
mace, and bananas 

Electric power: 1 1,000 kW capacity (1985); 
23 million kWh produced (1985), 261 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $18.9 million (f.o.b., 1983); cocoa 
beans, nutmeg, bananas, mace 

Imports: $55.6 million (c.i.f., 1983); food, 
machinery and transport equipment, oil, 
building materials 

Major trade partners: exports 35% UK, 
9% FRG, 6% Netherlands, 6% US, (1984 
est); imports 17% US, 17% Trinidad and 
Tobago, 20% UK (1983) 

Budget: (1984 est.) revenues, $32 million; 
expenditures, $61 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Carib- 
bean dollars=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 



Communications 
Railroads: none 

Highways: 1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 
300 km otherwise improved; 100 km unim- 
proved 

Ports: 1 major (St. George's), 1 minor 
Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways, 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: automatic, 
islandwide telephone system with 5,650 tele- 
phones (5.1 per 100 popl.); new SHF links to 
Trinidad and Tobago and St. Vincent; VHP 
and UHF links to Trinidad and Carriacou; 1 
AM station, 1 TV station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Grenada Police Force 



98 



Guadeloupe 




Caribbean 
Sea 



lies des Saintes 

off 



See regional map III 



Mane-, 
Galan1e\ 



St Martin and St Barthelemy 
are not shown 



Land 

1,779 km 2 ; more than twice the size of New 
York City; area consists of two islands; 47% 
waste and built on, 24% crop, 16% forest, 9% 
pasture, 4% potential crop 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 306 km 

People 

Population: 334,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.5% 

Nationality: noun Guadeloupian(s); adjec- 
tive Guadeloupe 

Ethnic divisions: 90% black or mulatto; 5% 
white; less than 5% East Indian, Lebanese, 
Chinese 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Hindu 
and pagan African 

Language: French, Creole patois 
Infant mortality rate: 18.6/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 67 
Literacy: over 70% 

Labor force: 120,000; services, government, 
and commerce 53.0%; industry 25.8%; agri- 
culture 21.2%; significant unemployment 



Organized labor: 1 1 % of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Department of Guadeloupe 

Type: overseas department and region of 
France; represented by three deputies in the 
French National Assembly and two senators 
in the Senate; last Assembly election, 21 June 
1981 

Capital: Basse- Terre 

Political subdivisions: 3 arrondissements; 34 
communes, each with a locally elected mu- 
nicipal council 

Legal system: French legal system; highest 
court is a court of appeal based in Marti- 
nique with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe, 
French Guiana, and Martinique 

Branches: executive, Prefect appointed by 
Paris; legislative, popularly elected General 
Council of 36 members and a Regional 
Council composed of members of the local 
General Council and the locally elected dep- 
uties and senators to the French parliament; 
judicial, under jurisdiction of French judi- 
cial system 

Government leader: Robert MIGUET, Pre- 
fect of the Republic (since 1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: General Council elections are 
normally held every five years; last General 
Council election took place in June 1981 ; 
regional assembly elections held in February 
1983 

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the 
Republic (RPR), Gabriel Lisette; Communist 
Party of Guadeloupe (PCG), Henri Bangou; 
Socialist Party (MSG), leader unknown; Pro- 
gressive Party of Guadeloupe (PPG), Henri 
Rodes; Independent Republicans; Federa- 
tion of the Left; Union for French Democ- 
racy (UDF); Union for a New Majority 
(UNM) 

Voting strength: (1981 election) French Na- 
tional Assembly MSG, 1 seat; PCG, 1 seat; 
UDF, 1 seat 



Communists: 3,000 est. 

Other political or pressure groups: Popular 
Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe 
(UPLG), Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance 
(ARC), Popular Movement for Independent 
Guadeloupe (MPGI), Union for the Libera- 
tion of Guadeloupe (UPLG), General Union 
of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG), General 
Federation of Guadeloupe Workers 
(CGT-G) 

Member o/.-WFTU 

Economy 

GDP: $1.18 billion (1980), $3,760 per capita; 

real growth rate 15.7% (1979-80 average) 

Natural resources: scenery, cultivable land 

Agriculture: sugarcane, bananas, pine- 
apples, vegetables 

Major industries: construction, cement, 
rum, light industry, tourism 

Electric power: 80,000 kW capacity (1985); 
273 million kWh produced (1985), 820 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $89.2 million (1981); bananas, 
sugar, rum 

Imports: $560 million (1981); vehicles, food- 
stuffs, clothing and other consumer goods, 
construction materials, petroleum products 

Major trade partners: exports 88% franc 
zone; imports 73% franc zone, 3% Italy 
(1981) 

Aid: economic bilateral ODA and OOF 
commitments (1970-79) from Western (non- 
US) countries, $2.4 billion; no military aid 

Budget: $198 million (1981) 

Monetary conversion rate: 8.66 French 
francs=US$l (September 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: privately owned, narrow-gauge 
plantation lines 



Guadeloupe (continued) 



Guatemala 



Highways: 1,954 km total; 1,600 km paved, 
340 km gravel and earth 

Ports: 1 major (Pointe-a-Pitre), 3 minor 
Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 9 total, 9 usable, 8 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 
1,220-2,439 

Telecommunications: domestic facilities 
inadequate; 57,300 telephones (17.4 per 100 
popl.); interisland radio-relay to Antigua and 
Barbuda, Dominica, and Martinique; 2 AM, 
3 FM, 9 TV stations; 1 INTELSAT satellite 
station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is responsibility of France 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 89,000 




North 

Pacific 
Ocean 
See regional mtp III 



Land 

108,780 km 2 ; the size of Tennessee; 57% for- 
est; 14% cultivated; 10% pasture; 19% other 

Land boundaries: 1,625 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 400 km 

People 

Population: 8,600,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.0% 

Nationality: noun Guatemalan(s); adjec- 
tive Guatemalan 

Ethnic divisions: 56% Ladino (mestizo and 
westernized Indian), 44% Indian 

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; 
also Protestant, traditional Mayan 

Language: Spanish, but over 40% of the 
population speaks an Indian language as a 
primary tongue (18 Indian dialects, includ- 
ing Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi) 

Infant mortality rate: 66/1,000 (1982) 
Life expectancy: 60 
Literacy: 50% 



Labor force (1985): 2.5 million; 57.0% agri- 
culture, 14.0% manufacturing, 13.0% ser- 
vices, 7.0% commerce, 4.0% construction, 
3.0% transport, 0.8% utilities, 0.4% mining; 
unemployment and underemployment 40% 

Organized labor: 10% of labor force (1985) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Guatemala 

Type: republic 

Capital: Guatemala 

Political subdivisions: 22 departments 

Legal system: civil law system; constitution 
came into effect 1966 but suspended follow- 
ing March 1982 coup; Constituent Assembly 
elected in July 1984 completed drafting new 
constitution and other electoral laws in June 
1985; elections held 2 November and 8 De- 
cember 1985; the new President, Marco 
Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo, inaugurated 14 Jan- 
uary 1986; judicial review of legislative acts; 
legal education at University of San Carlos 
of Guatemala; has not accepted compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 
September 

Branches: traditionally dominant executive; 
new 100-member congress installed 14 Janu- 
ary 1986; power vested in Office of Presi- 
dent; seven-member (minimum) Supreme 
Court 

Government leader: Marco Vinicio 
CEREZO Arevalo, President (since January 
1986) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18, compulsory 
for literates, optional for illiterates 

Elections: last congressional election held 3 
November 1985; presidential runoff election 
held 8 December 1985 

Political parties and leaders: Christian 
Democratic Party (DCG), Marco Vinicio 
Cerezo Arevalo; National Centrist Union 
(UCN), Jorge Carpio Nicolle; National Lib- 
eration Movement (MLN), Mario Sandoval 



100 



Alarcon; Institutional Democratic Party 
(PID) in coalition with MLN; People's Dem- 
ocratic Force (FDP) in coalition with MLN; 
Democratic Party of National Cooperation 
(PDCN), Jorge Serrano Elias; Revolutionary 
Party (PR) in coalition with PDCN; Social 
Democratic Party (PSD), Mario Solarzano 
Martinez; National Renewal Party (PNR), 
Alejandro Maldonado Aguirre; National 
Authentic Center (CAN), Mario David 
Garcia; Anti-Communist Democratic Front 
(DUA) in coalition with PUA; emerging 
Movement for Harmony (MEC) in coalition 
with PUA; 14 political groups participated 
in national election for a civilian president, 
congress, and mayoralties; in runoff elections 
between Vinicio Cerezo (DCG) and Jorge 
Carpio (UCN), Cerezo won by a 2 to 1 mar- 
gin 

Voting strength: (November 1985) DCG 
648,681 (38.65%), UCN 339,522(20.23%), 
PDCN/PR 231,397 (13.78%), MLN/PID 
210,806 (12.56%), CAN 105,473 (6.28%), 
PSD 57,362 (3.41%), PNR 52,941 (3.15%), 
PUA/FUN/MEC 32,1 18 (1.91%); (Decem- 
ber 1985) DCB 51 seats, UCN 22 seats, MLN 
12 seats, PDCN/PR 11 seats, PSD 2 seats, 
PNR 1 seat, CAN 1 seat 

Communists: Guatemalan Labor Party 
(PGT); main radical left guerrilla groups 
Guerrilla Army of the Poor (EGP), Revolu- 
tionary Organization of the People in Arms 
(ORPA), Rebel Armed Forces (FAR), and 
PGT Dissidents 

Other political or pressure groups: Feder- 
ated Chambers of Commerce and Industry 
(CACIF), Mutual Support Group (GAM) 

Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IDE Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, 
IWC International Wheat Council, OAS, 
ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, 
UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $9.2 billion (1985), $1,150 per capita; 
26% commerce, 25% agriculture, 9% finan- 
cial services, 7% transportation and commu- 
nication, 6% government, 27% other; 



average annual real growth rate (1975-80), 
5.7%; real growth rate 1985, - 1.0% 

Natural resources: oil, nickel, rare woods, 
fish, chicle 

Agriculture: main products coffee, cotton, 
corn, beans, sugarcane, bananas, livestock 

Fishing: catch 4,300 metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: food processing, textiles 
and clothing, furniture, chemicals, nonme- 
tallic minerals, metals 

Electric power: 815,000 kW capacity (1985); 
2.1 billion kWh produced (1985), 250 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1983); coffee, 
cotton, sugar, bananas, meat 

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1984); manufac- 
tured products, machinery, transportation 
equipment, chemicals, fuels 

Major trade partners: exports (1985) 35% 
US, 17% El Salvador, 6% Honduras, 5% 
Costa Rica; imports (1983) 33% US, 10% El 
Salvador, 8% Netherland Antilles, 7% Mex- 
ico, 7% Venezuela 

Aid: economic commitments US, includ- 
ing Ex-Im (FY70-84), $325 million; from 
other Western (non-US) countries, ODA and 
OOF (1970-83), $6.5 billion; military assist- 
ance from US (FY70-80), $22 million 

Central government budget: (1986 est.) ex- 
penditures, $1.710 billion; revenues, $975 
million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1 quetzal=US$l 
(official; December 1985); 3.30 quetzals= 
US$1 (unofficial; December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 870 km 0.914-meter gauge, single 
track; 780 km government owned, 90 km 
privately owned 

Highways: 26,429 km total; 2,868 km paved, 
11,421 km gravel, and 12,140 unimproved 



Inland waterways: 260 km navigable year 
round; additional 730 km navigable during 
high-water season 

Pipelines: crude oil, 48 km 

Ports: 2 major (San Jose East [Puerto 
Quetzal], Santo Tomas de Castilla), 3 minor 

Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 498 total, 452 usable; 1 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 21 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fairly modern 
telecom network centered on Guatemala; 
97,670 telephones (1.6 per lOOpopl.); 93 
AM, 24 TV stations; connection into Central 
American microwave net; 1 Atlantic Ocean 
satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,985,000; 
1,347,000 fit for military service; about 
77, 000 reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1985, $198.4 million; 
15.5% of central government budget 



101 



Guernsey 



Alderney 



English Channel 



Guernsey, 




Sark 



Set regional map V 



Land 

194 km 2 ; larger than Washington, D. C.; 
part of the Channel Islands; includes de- 
pendencies of Guernsey Alderney, Br- 
ecqhou, Sark, Little Sark, Herm, Jethou, and 
Lihou Island 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing) 

Coastline: about 50 km 

People 

Population: 53,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.1% 

Nationality: noun Channel Islander(s); 
adjective Channel Islander 

Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French 
descent 

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Pres- 
byterian, Baptist, Congregational, Methodist 

Language: English, French; Norman- 
French dialect spoken in country districts 

Literacy: universal education 

Government 

Official name: Bailiwick of Guernsey 

Type: independent British crown depend- 
ency 



Capital: St. Peter Port 

Political subdivisions: 10 douzaines or par- 
ishes 

Legal system: English law and local statute; 
justice is administered by the Royal Court 

Branches: the Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief is the personal repre- 
sentative of the Crown and is entitled to sit 
and speak in the States of Deliberation (par- 
liament); parliament is composed of the 
Bailiff (President ex officio), 12 Conseillers, 2 
nonvoting Law Officers of the Crown, 33 
popularly elected People's Deputies, 10 
Douzaine Representatives, 2 representatives 
of the States of Alderney; States of Election 
(electoral college) elects Jurats and Con- 
seillers it is composed of the Bailiff, 12 Jur- 
ats, 12 Conseillers, 2 Law Officers, 33 
People's Deputies, 34 Douzaine Representa- 
tives, and 4 Alderney representatives (for 
election of Conseillers only); Alderney has its 
own popularly elected President and States 
(12 members) and its own Court; Sark has 
mixture of feudal and popular government 

Government leader: Lt. Gen. Sir Alexander 
BOSWELL, Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief (since 1985); Sir 
Charles Frossard, Bailiff and President of 
the States (since 1982) 

Suffrage: universal adult over 18 
Communists: none 

Economy 

Agriculture: principal crops tomatoes and 
flowers (mostly grown under glass); sweet 
peppers, eggplant, plants, other vegetables 
and fruit; Guernsey cattle 

Major industries: tourism, banking 

Electric power: 160,000 kW capacity (1985); 
508 million kWh produced (1985), 9,585 
kWh per capita 

Exports: tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet 
peppers, eggplant, other vegetables, plants 

Imports: coal, gasoline and oil 



Major trade partners: UK (regarded as in- 
ternal trade) 

Budget: (1983) total revenues for Guernsey 
and Alderney, 63,836 million pounds; total 
expenditures for Guernsey and Alderney, 
65,708 million pounds 

Monetary conversion rate: 0.833 pound 
sterling=US$l (December 1984) 

Fiscal year: 1 January-31 December 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Ports: St. Peter Port, St. Sampson's 

Airfields: airport at La Villiaze, Guernsey, 
has tarmac runway of 1,463.04 m; there is 
also an airport on Alderney 

Telecommunications: 1 AM radio station, 
which broadcasts 24 hours a week; 1 TV sta- 
tion; 41,900 telephones (74.8 per 100 popl.) 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 
Kingdom 



102 



Guinea 



200km 




CONAKRY* 

North 
Atlantic 
Ocean 



See regional map VII 



Land 

245,957 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Oregon; 
10% forest, 15% under cultivation; 60-70% 
unused 

Land boundaries: 3,476 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 346 km 

People 

Population: 5,734,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.4% 

Nationality: noun Guinean(s); adjective 
Guinean 

Ethnic divisions: Fulani, Malinke, Sousou, 
15 smaller tribes 

Religion: 75% Muslim, 24% indigenous be- 
liefs, 1% Christian 

Language: French (official); each tribe has 
its own language 

Infant mortality rate: 165.3/1,000(1980) 
Life expectancy: 45 

Literacy: 20% in French; 48% in local lan- 
guages 



Labor force: 2.4 million (1983); 82.0% agri- 
culture, 1 1.0% industry and commerce, 
5.4% services, 1.6% government 

Organized labor: virtually 100% of wage 
labor force loosely affiliated with the Na- 
tional Confederation of Guinean Workers 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Guinea 

Type: republic 
Capital: Conakry 

Political subdivisions: 33 provinces, divided 
into 36 prefectures 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system, customary law, and decree; 1958 
constitution suspended after military coup 
on 3 April 1984; legal codes currently being 
revised; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 Oc- 
tober; Anniversary of Committee for Na- 
tional Redressment, 3 April 

Branches: coup on 3 April 1984 established 
the 25-member (currently 20 members) Mil- 
itary Committee for National Redressment 
to determine government policy; the highest 
ranking CMRN member became President, 
with other CMRN assuming most Cabinet 
portfolios; precoup unicameral legislature 
has been abolished 

Government leaders: Gen. Lansana 
CONTE, Head of Government (since April 
1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: none scheduled but CMRN has 
promised to create a true and viable democ- 
racy 

Political parties and leaders: following 3 
April 1984 coup all political activity banned 
and only party, Democratic Party of Guinea 
(PDG), dissolved 

Communists: no Communist party, 
although there are some sympathizers 



Member of: AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, 
G-77, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB 
Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, 
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, 
Mano River Union, Niger River Commis- 
sion, NAM, OAU, OATUU, QIC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.546 billion (1984), $300 per capita; 

real growth rate 1.3% (1984 est.) 

Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, dia- 
monds, gold, uranium, hydroelectric power, 
fish 

Agriculture: cash crops coffee, bananas, 
palm products, peanuts, citrus fruits, pine- 
apples; staple food crops cassava, rice, mil- 
let, corn, sweet potatoes; livestock raised in 
some areas 

Major industries: bauxite mining, alumina, 
diamond mining, light manufacturing and 
processing industries 

Electric power: 100,600 kW capacity (1985); 
220 million kWh produced (1985), 38 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $537 million (f.o.b., 1984 est.); 
bauxite, alumina, diamonds, coffee, pine- 
apples, bananas, palm kernels 

Imports: $403 million (f.o.b., 1984 est.); pe- 
troleum products, metals, machinery and 
transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles 

Major trade partners: imports France, 
USSR, US; exports US, USSR, France, 
Spain 

Budget: (1983) public revenues, $444 mil- 
lion; current expenditures, $330 million; 
development expenditures, $104 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 25.1 sylis=US$l 
(December 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,045 km; 806 km 1.000-meter 
gauge, 239 km 1.435-meter standard gauge 



103 



Guinea (continued) 



Guinea-Bissau 

(formerly Portuguese Guinea) 



Highways: 30,000 km total; 1,087 km paved, 
13,013 km gravel or laterite, 16,000 km un- 
improved earth 

Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable by 
shallow-draft native craft 

Ports: 1 major (Conakry), 2 minor 
Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 17 total, 17 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 9 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army (ground forces), Navy (acts 
primarily as a coast guard), Air Force, para- 
military National Gendaramerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,282,000; 
645,000 fit for military service 



100km 




>, "" , f 
Arquipelagd 
dos Btfagos 

North Atlantic Ocean 

Se regional map VII 



Land 

36,260 km 2 (includes Bijagos archipelago); 
about the size of New Hampshire and Con- 
necticut combined 

Land boundaries: 740 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 274 km 

People 

Population: 875,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.9% 

Nationality: noun Guinea-Bissauan(s); 
adjective Guinea- Bissauan 

Ethnic divisions: about 99% African (30% 
Balanta, 20% Fula, 14% Manjaca, 13% Man- 
dinga, 7% Papel); less than 1% European and 
mulatto 

Religion: 65% indigenous beliefs, 30% Mus- 
lim, 5% Christian 

Language: Portuguese (official); Criolo and 
numerous African languages 

Infant mortality rate: 250/1,000(1982) 
Life expectancy: 42 
Literacy: 9% 



Labor force: 90% agriculture; 5% industry, 
services, and commerce; 5% government 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Guinea-Bissau 

Type: republic; highly centralized one-party 
regime since September 1974 

Capital: Bissau 

Political subdivisions: 9 regions, 3 circum- 
scriptions (predominantly indigenous popu- 
lation) 

Legal system: new constitution approved 
May 1984 

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 
September 

Branches: president and cabinet; 
150-member National Popular Assembly, 
overseen by 15-member Council of State 

Government leaders: Brig. Gen. Joao 
Bernardo VIEIRA, President, Council of 
State (since November 1980); Paulo 
CORREIA, First Vice President, Council of 
State (since May 1984); lafai CAMARA, 
Second Vice President, Council of State 
(since May 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 15 

Elections: legislative elections held March 
1984; legislature elected Vieira to serve a 
five-year term as President in May 1984 

Political parties and leaders: African Party 
for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and 
Cape Verde (PAIGC), led by President 
, Vieira, only legal party; Guinea-Bissau 
decided to retain the binational party title 
despite its formal break with Cape Verde 

Communists: a few Communists, some sym- 
pathizers 

Member of: AfDB, CEAO, FAO, G-77, 
GATT(de facto), IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IDB Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, ISCON, ITU, NAM, 
OAU, QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WMO 



104 



Guyana 



Economy 

GDP: $154 million (FY83), $180 per capita, 

real growth rate -5.1% (1983) 

Natural resources: potential petroleum, 
bauxite, phosphates 

Agriculture: main crops rice, palm prod- 
ucts, root crops, coconuts, peanuts, wood 

Fishing: catch 6,000 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: agricultural processing, 
beer, soft drinks 

Electric power: 22,200 kW capacity (1985); 
38 million kWh produced (1985), 44 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $8.6 million (1983); principally 
peanuts; also palm kernels, shrimp, fish, 
lumber 

Imports: $57.1 million (1983); foodstuffs, 
manufactured goods, fuels, transport equip- 
ment 

Major trade partners: mostly Portugal, 
Spain, and other European countries 

Budget: (1983 est.) revenues, $12.2 million; 
current expenditures, $27.4 million; invest- 
ment expenditures, $27.9 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 83.528 Guinea 
Bissauan pesos=US$l (November 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: approx. 3,218 km (418 km bitu- 
minous, remainder earth) 

Inland waterways: scattered stretches are 
important to coastal commerce 

Ports: 1 major (Bissau) 

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 



Airfields: 54 total, 46 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 6 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: limited system of 
open-wire lines, radio-relay links, and 
radiocommunication stations; 3,000 tele- 
phones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 1 AM station, 1 
FM station, no TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed 
Force (FARP); Army, Navy, and Air Force 
are separate components 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 201,000; 
1 17,000 fit for military service 



North At /antic 




See regional mip IV 






Land 

214,970 km 2 ; the size of Idaho; 66% forest; 
22% water, urban, and waste; 8% savanna; 
3% pasture; 1 % cropland 

Land boundaries: 2,575 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 459 km 

People 

Population: 771,000(July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.3% 

Nationality: noun Guyanese (sing., pi.); 
adjective Guyanese 

Ethnic divisions: 51% East Indian, 43% 
black and mixed, 4% Amerindian, 2% Euro- 
pean and Chinese 

Religion: 57% Christian, 33% Hindu, 9% 
Muslim, 1% other 

Language: English, Amerindian dialects 
Infant mortality rate: 41/1 ,000 (1985) 
Life expectancy: 70 
Literacy: 85% 



105 



Guyana (continued) 



Labor force: 200,000(1983); 44.5% industry 
and commerce, 33.8% agriculture, 21.7% 
services; 64% public sector employment; 
approximately 25% unemployed (1984) 

Organized labor: 34% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Cooperative Republic of 
Guyana 

Type: republic within Commonwealth 
Capital: Georgetown 

Political subdivisions: 6 government dis- 
tricts 

Legal system: based on English common 
law with certain admixtures of Roman- 
Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Republic Day, 23 Febru- 
ary 

Branches: Executive President, who ap- 
points and heads a cabinet; unicameral legis- 
lature (53-member National Assembly) 
elected by proportional representation every 
five years 

Government leader: Hugh Desmond 
HOYTE, President (since August 1985); 
Hamilton GREEN, Prime Minister (since 
August 1985) 

Suffrage: universal adult over age 18 
Elections: last held in December 1985 

Political parties and leaders: People's Na- 
tional Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond 
Hoyte; People's Progressive Party (PPP), 
Cheddi Jagan; Working People's Alliance 
(WPA), Rupert Roopnarine, Clive Thomas, 
Walter Omawale, Eusi Kwayana, Moses 
Bhagwan, Kenneth Persand; United Force 
(UF), Feilden Singh; Vanguard for Libera- 
tion and Democracy (VLD; also known as 
Liberator Party), Ganraj Kumar, Dr. J. K. 
Makepeace Richmond; Democratic Labor 
Movement (DLM), Dr. Paul Tennassee 



Vot ing strength: ( 1985 election, unofficial 
returns) 78% PNC (42 seats), 16% PPP (8 
seats), 4% UF (2 seats), 2% WPA (1 seat) 

Communists: est. 100 hardcore within PPP; 
top echelons of PPP and PYO (Progressive 
Youth Organization, militant wing of the 
PPP) include many Communists, but rank 
and file is conservative and non-Communist; 
small but unknown number of orthodox 
Marxist-Leninists within PNC, some of 
whom are PPP turncoats 

Other political or pressure groups: Trades 
Union Congress (TUC); Working People's 
Vanguard Party (WPVP); Guyana Council 
of Indian Organizations (GCIO); Civil Liber- 
ties Action Committee (CLAC); the latter 
two organizations are small and active but 
not well organized 

Member of: CARICOM, CDB, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IADB, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IDE Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, 
IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), 
PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

CNF: $399 million (1984), $510 per capita; 

real growth 4.0% (1984) 

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, 
hardwood timber, shrimp, fish 

Agriculture: main crops sugarcane, rice, 
other food crops; food shortages wheat 
flour, cooking oil, processed meat, dairy 
products 

Major industries: bauxite mining, sugar and 
rice milling, timber fishing (shrimp), textiles, 
gold mining 

Electric power: 200,000 kW capacity (1985); 
485 million kWh produced (1985), 630 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $212 million (f.o.b., 1984 prelim.); 
bauxite, sugar, rice, shrimp, molasses, tim- 
ber, rum 

Imports: $222 million (c.i.f., 1984 prelim.); 
manufactures, machinery, food, petroleum 



Major trade partners: exports 29% UK, 
17% US, 17% CARICOM, 6% Canada; im- 
ports 33% CARICOM, 21% US, 11% UK, 
3% Canada (1983) 

Budget: est. revenues, $167 million; expend- 
iture $366 million (1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: G$4.15=US$1 
(September 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 187 km total, all single track 
0.914-meter gauge 

Highways: 7,665 km total; 550 km paved, 
5,000 km gravel, 1,525 km earth, 590 km 
unimproved 

Inland waterways: 6,000 km total of naviga- 
ble waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and Es- 
sequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing 
vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km, re- 
spectively 

Ports: 1 major (Georgetown), 6 minor 
Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 70 total, 67 usable; 6 with 
permanent-surface runways; 12 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair telecom system 
with radio-relay network and over 27,000 
telephones (3.3 per 100 popl.);-tropospheric 
scatter link to Trinidad; 3 AM, 3 FM, no TV 
stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Guyana Defense Force (including 
Maritime Corps and Air Corps), Guyana 
Police Force, Guyana People's Milita, 
Guyana National Service 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 199,000; 
158,000 fit for military service 



106 






Haiti 



North Atlantic Ocean 



lie de la Torluga 




Caribbean Sea 



See rffionil map Ml 



Land 

27,749 km 2 ; the size of Maryland; 44% un- 
productive, 31% cultivated, 18% rough pas- 
ture, 1% forest 

Land boundary: 361 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 1,771 km 

People 

Population: 5,870,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.9% 

Nationality: noun Haitian(s); adjective 
Haitian 

Ethnic divisions: 95% black, 5% mulatto and 
European 

Religion: 75-80% Roman Catholic (of which 
an overwhelming majority also practice 
Voodoo), 10% Protestant, est. 10% other 

Language: French (official) spoken by only 
10% of population; all speak Creole 

Infant mortality rate: 107/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 45 
Literacy: 23% 



Labor force: 2.3 million (1982); 66% agricul- 
ture, 25% services, 9% industry; significant 
unemployment; shortage of skilled labor; 
unskilled labor abundant 

Organized labor: less than 1% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Haiti 

Type: republic 
Capital: Port-au-Prince 

Political subdivisions: five departments (de- 
spite constitutional provision for nine) 

Legal system: based on Roman civil law 
system; constitution adopted 1964 and 
amended 1971 and 1983; legal education at 
State University in Port-au-Prince and pri- 
vate law colleges in Cap-Hai'tien, Les Cayes, 
Gonai'ves, and Jeremie; accepts compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 Jan- 
uary 

Branches: interim government following the 
end of 29 years of Duvalier family rule; uni- 
cameral legislature (59-member National 
Assembly) suspended following coup; judi- 
ciary appointed by President before coup 

Government leader: Lt. Gen. Henri 
NAMPHY, President, National Council of 
Government (CNG; since February 1986), 
two other CNG members, and 12-member 
cabinet 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: constitution as amended in 1983 
named Jean-Claude Duvalier President for 
Life and granted him authority to name his 
successor; most recent legislative election 
held February 1984; talk of new elections in 
18 to 24 months, following coup and 
Duvalier 's self-imposed exile 

Political parties and leaders: Haitian Chris- 
tian Democratic Party (PDCN), Sylvio 
Claude; Haitian Social Christian Party 
(PSCH), Gregoire Eugene; Haitian Demo- 
cratic Action (ADH), Alexandre LeCouge; 



National Rallying Democratic Party 
(PADRANA), Constant Pognon 

Voting strength: (1984 legislative elections) 
Assembly comprised of regime loyalists be- 
fore coup 

Communists: United Party of Haitian Com- 
munists (PUCH), Rene Theodore (party in 
exile in the Dominican Republic); Haitian 
Workers Party (PTH; pro-Chinese Marxist), 
Sergio Gilles 

Other political or pressure groups: none 

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, 
IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDE 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, OAS, PAHO, 
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $1.8 billion (FY84), $240 per capita; 

real growth rate 1984, 2.0% 

Natural resources: bauxite 

Agriculture: main crops coffee, sugarcane, 
rice, corn, sorghum 

Major industries: sugar refining, textiles, 
flour milling, cement manufacturing, baux- 
ite mining, tourism, light assembly indus- 
tries 

Electric power: 193,000 kW capacity (1985); 
325 million kWh produced (1985), 56 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $167.6 million (f.o.b., 1983); man- 
gos, coffee, light industrial products, essen- 
tial oils, sisal, sugar 

Imports: $284 million (f.o.b., 1982); con- 
sumer durables, foodstuffs, industrial equip- 
ment, petroleum products, construction ma- 
terials 

Major trade partners: exports 59% US; 
imports 45% US (1978) 

Aid: economic US commitments, includ- 
ing Ex-Im (FY70-84), $363 million; ODA 



107 



Haiti (continued) 



Honduras 



and OOF from other Western countries 
(1970-83), $362 million; military US(FY70- 
84), $5 million 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $283 million; ex- 
penditures, $357 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 5.00 
gourdes=US$l (September 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September 

Communications 

Railroads: 40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, 
single-track, privately owned industrial line 

Highways: 4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 
900 km otherwise improved, 2,150 km un- 
improved 

Inland waterways: negligible; less than 100 
km navigable 

Ports: 2 major (Port-au-Prince, 
Cap-HaTtien), 12 minor 

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 15 total, 1 1 usable; 3 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: domestic facilities 
barely adequate, international facilities 
slightly better; 36,000 telephones (0.5 per 
100 popl.); 31 AM, 32 TV stations; 1 Atlantic 
Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Corps 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,317,000; 
733,000 fit for military service; about 63,000 
reach military age (18) annually 



150km 



Puerto Cone 



Caribbean Sea 



Islas de la Bahia 




Boundary representation 19 
not necessarily authoritative 



See regional map III 



Land 

1 12,088 km 2 ; slightly larger than Tennessee; 
36% waste and built on, 30% pasture, 27% 
forest, 7% crop 

Land boundaries: 1,530 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 820 km 

People 

Population: 4,648,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.3% 

Nationality: noun Honduran(s); adjec- 
tive Honduran 

Ethnic divisions: 90% mestizo (mixed Indian 
and European), 7% Indian, 2% black, 1% 
white 

Religion: about 97% Roman Catholic; small 
Protestant minority 

Language: Spanish, Indian dialects 
Infant mortality rate: 78/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 58.7 
Literacy: 56% 

Labor force: 1.3 million (1985); 62% agricul- 
ture, 20% services, 9% manufacturing, 3% 



construction, 5% other; 25% unemployed; 
25% underemployed 

Organized labor: 40% of urban labor force, 
20% of rural work force (1985) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Honduras 

Type: republic 

Capital: Tegucigalpa 

Political subdivisions: 18 departments 

Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish 
civil law; some influence of English common 
law; new constitution became effective in 
January 1982; the nine Supreme Court jus- 
tices are appointed by Congress; legal educa- 
tion at University of Honduras in 
Tegucigalpa; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with 
reservations 

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 
September 

Branches: constitution provides for elected 
President, unicameral legislature 
(134-member National Congress), and na- 
tional judicial branch 

Government leader: Jose AZCONA Hoyo, 
President (since January 1986) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18 

Elections: national election for president 
and legislature held every four years; last 
election held November 1985; legislature 
chosen by proportional representation; 282 
county councils 

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party 
(PLH) party president, Romualdo Bueso 
Penalba; faction leaders, Roberto Suazo 
Cordova (Rodista faction), Jose Azcona Hoyo 
(Azconista subfaction), Jorge Bueso Arias 
(ALIPO faction), Jorge Arturo Reina 
(M-Lider faction); National Party (PNH) 
party president, Rafael Leonardo Calleias; 
faction leaders, Juan Pablo Urrutia (MUC 
faction); Ricardo Zufiiga Augustinus 
(Officialista faction), Mario Rivera Lopez 



108 



(Riverista subfaction), and Rafael Leonardo 
Callejas(MONARCA faction); National In- 
novation and Unity Party (PINU) Miguel 
Andonie Fernandez; Christian Democratic 
Party (PDCH) Ef rain Diaz Arivillaga 

Voting strength: (1985 election) 1.6 million 
out of 1.8 million eligible voters cast ballots; 
PLH51%, PNH 45%, PINU 1.5%, PDCH 
1.9%, legislative seats PLH 67, PNH 63, 
PINU 2, PDCH 2 

Communists: up to 1,500; Honduran leftist 
groups Communist Party of Honduras 
(PCH), Communist Party of 
Honduras/Marxist-Leninist (PCH/ML), 
Morazanist Front for the Liberation of Hon- 
duras (FMLH), People's Revolutionary 
Union/Popular Liberation Movement 
(URP/MPL), Popular Revolutionary Forces- 
Lorenzo Zelaya (FPR/LZ), Socialist Party of 
Honduras Central American Workers Revo- 
lutionary Party (PASO/PRTC) 

Other political or pressure groups: National 
Association of Honduran Campesinos 
(ANACH), Honduran Council of Private 
Enterprise (COHEP), Confederation of 
Honduran Workers (CTH), National Union 
of Campesinos (UNC), General Workers 
Confederation (CGT), United Federation of 
Honduran Workers (FUTH) 

Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDE 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, OAS, PAHO, SELA, 
UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $3.2 billion (1984), $750 per capita; 
real growth rate average 3.1% (1980-83); 
real growth rate 2.8% (1984) 

Natural resources: forests, gold, silver, cop- 
per, lead, zinc, iron, antimony, coal, fish 

Agriculture: main crops bananas, coffee, 
corn, beans, sugarcane, rice, tobacco 

Fishing: catch 8,400 metric tons (1983) 



Major industries: agricultural processing, 
textiles, clothing, wood products 

Electric power: 580,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.4 billion kWh produced (1985), 320 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $675 million (f.o.b., 1983); bananas, 
coffee, lumber, meat, petroleum products 

Imports: $705 million (f.o.b., 1983); manu- 
factured products, machinery, transporta- 
tion equipment, chemicals, petroleum 

Major trade partners: exports 54% US, 8% 
CACM, 6% Japan, 5% FRG (1983); 
imports 47% US, 11% CACM, 6% Japan, 
5% Trinidad and Tobago (1983) 

Aid: economic commitments US, includ- 
ing Ex-Im (FY70-84), $980 million loans; 
other Western (non-US) countries, ODA and 
ODF (1970-83), $333 million; OPEC ODA 
commitments (1974-83), $15 million; mili- 
taryassistance from US (FY79-84), $190 
million 

Budget: (1983) revenues, $389 million; ex- 
penditures, $605 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2 
lempiras=US$l (1 January 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,207 km total; 444 km 1.067- 
meter gauge, 763 km 0.914-meter gauge 

Highways: 8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 
5,000 km otherwise improved, 2,250 km 
unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 465 km navigable by 
small craft 

Ports: 1 major (Puerto Cortes), 4 minor 
Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 195 total, 179 usable; 7 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 



Telecommunications: improved, but still 
inadequate; connection into Central Ameri- 
can microwave net; 35,100 telephones (0.9 
per 100 popl.); 160 AM, 67 TV stations; 2 
Atlantic Ocean satellite ground stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Armed Forces, Naval Forces, Air 
Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,021,000; 
608,000 fit for military service; about 51,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for the fiscal year ending 
31 December 1986, $67.5 million; about 7% 
of the central government budget 



109 



Hong Kong 




Lema Channel 

See regional map VIII 



Land 

1,060 km 2 ; about one and one-third times 
the size of New York City; 14% arable, 10% 
forest, 76% other (mainly grass, shrub, steep 
hill country) 

Land boundaries: 24 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 

Coastline: 733 km 

People 

Population: 5,465,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.9% 

Nationality: adjective Hong Kong 
Ethnic divisions: 98% Chinese, 2% other 

Religion: 90% eclectic mixture of local reli- 
gions, 10% Christian 

Language: Chinese (Cantonese), English 
Infant mortality rate: 9.9/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 75 
Literacy: 75% 

Labor force: (June 1985) 2.64 million; 37.3% 
manufacturing; 22.1% commerce; 18.4% 
services; 7.6% construction; 7.6% transport 
and communications; 6.8% financing, insur- 
ance, and real estate; 1.2% agriculture, 



fishing, mining, and quarrying; 0.4% other; 
unemployment (seasonally adjusted) 3.0% 

Organized labor: 15.2% of 1984 labor force 

Government 

Official name: Hong Kong 

Type: British dependent territory; sched- 
uled to revert to China in 1997 

Capital: Victoria 

Political subdivisions: Hong Kong, 
Kowloon, and New Territories 

Legal system: English common law 

Branches: Governor assisted by advisory 
Executive Council, legislates with advice 
and consent of Legislative Council; Execu- 
tive Council composed of governor, four 
ex-officio senior officials, and 1 1 nominated 
members; Legislative Council composed of 
governor, three ex-officio members, 10 of- 
ficial members, 22 appointed unofficial 
members and 24 unofficial members elected 
indirectly by functional constituencies and 
by an electoral college; Urban Council, con- 
sisting of 15 elected members and 15 ap- 
pointed by Governor, responsible for health, 
recreation, and resettlement in urban areas; 
Regional Council (established 1 April 1986), 
comprising 12 directly elected members, 9 
indirectly elected, 12 appointed, and 3 ex 
officio, has similar responsibilities in 
nonurban areas; independent judiciary 

Government leader: Sir Edward YOUDE, 
Governor and Commander in Chief (since 
May 1982); Chief Secretary Sir David 
AKERS-JONES (since 1985) 

Suffrage: limited to 450,000 to 550,000 pro- 
fessional or skilled persons 

Elections: on three- year cycle for Urban and 
Regional Councils; last held March 1986; 
indirect elections for Legislative Council 
held for first time in September 1985 and 
planned for three-year intervals 

Political parties: no significant parties 



Communists: an estimated 4,000 cadres 
affiliated with Communist Party of China 

Other political or pressure groups: Federa- 
tion of Trade Unions (Communist 
controlled), Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade 
Union Council (Nationalist Chinese domi- 
nated), Hong Kong General Chamber of 
Commerce, Chinese General Chamber of 
Commerce (Communist controlled), Federa- 
tion of Hong Kong Industries, Chinese 
Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong, 
Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union 

Member of: ADB, ESCAP (associate mem- 
ber), IMO, INTERPOL, Multifiber Arrange- 
ment, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: (1985 est.) $33.3 billion, $6,064 per 

capita; real growth, 4.0% 

Agriculture: agriculture occupies a minor 
position in the economy; main products rice, 
vegetables, dairy products; less than 20% 
self-sufficient; shortages rice, wheat, water 

Major industries: textiles and clothing, tour- 
ism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, and 
clocks 

Shortages: industrial raw materials 

Electric power: 6,142,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 17.830 billion kWh produced (1985), 
3,290 kWh per capita 

Exports: $28.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984), includ- 
ing $10.7 billion reexports; principal prod- 
ucts clothing, plastic articles, textiles, elec- 
trical goods, wigs, footwear, light metal 
manufactures 

Imports: $28.6 billion (c.i.f., 1984) 

Major trade partners: (1984) exports 32% 
US, 18% China, 8% Japan, 5% UK, 5% FRG; 
imports 25% China, 24% Japan, 1 1% US 

Budget: (1984/85) $4.7 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 7.76 Hong Kong 
dollars=US$l (July 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 



110 



Hungary 



Communications 

Railroads: 35 km 1.435-meter standard 

gauge, government owned 

Highways: 1,160 km total; 794 km paved, 
306 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth 

Ports: 1 major (Hong Kong) 

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 2 total; 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: modern facilities pro- 
vide excellent domestic and international 
services; 62 telephone exchanges, 1.5 million 
telephones; 5 AM and 9 FM radiobroadcast 
stations with 1 1 transmitters; 5 TV stations; 
2.5 million radio and 1.1 million TV receiv- 
ers; 10,100 Telex subscriber lines with direct 
connections to 47 countries; 2 INTELSAT 
ground stations with access to Pacific and 
Indian Ocean satellites; coaxial cable to 
Guangzhou (Canton), China; 3 international 
submarine cables; troposcatter to Taiwan 
available but inactive 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of United King- 
dom 

Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, 
Gurkha Field Forces, Royal Navy, Royal Air 
Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air 
Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,620,000; 
1,274,000 fit for military service; about 
53,000 reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: est. for fiscal year ending 
30 June 1984, $195.3 million; about 4.3% of 
central government budget and 1% of GDP 




Sec regional mip V 



Land 

93,030 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Indiana; 
70.5% agricultural and pastureland, 17.6% 
forest, 11. 9% other 

Land boundaries: 2,242 km 

People 

Population: 10,624,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.2% 

Nationality: noun Hungarian(s); adjec- 
tive Hungarian 

Ethnic divisions: 96.6% Hungarian, 1.6% 
German, 1.1% Slovak, 0.3% Southern Slav, 
0.2% Romanian, 1.2% other 

Religion: 67.5% Roman Catholic, 20.0% 
Calvinist, 5.0% Lutheran, 7.5% atheist and 
other 

Language: 98.2% Hungarian, 1.8% other 
Infant mortality rate: 19/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 65.6, women 73.5 
Literacy: 98% 

Labor force: 4,940,000 (1984); 31% industry; 
22% agriculture; 7% construction; 40% ser- 
vices, trade, government, and other 



Government 

Official name: Hungarian People's Republic 

Type: Communist state 
Capital: Budapest 

Political subdivisions: 19 megyes (counties), 
5 autonomous cities in county status 

Legal system: based on Communist legal 
theory, with both civil law system (civil code 
of 1960) and common law elements; consti- 
tution adopted 1949 amended 1972; Su- 
preme Court renders decisions of principle 
that sometimes have the effect of declaring 
legislative acts unconstitutional; legal educa- 
tion at Lorand Eotvos University Faculty of 
Law in Budapest and two other schools of 
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: Liberation Day, 4 April 

Branches: executive Presidential Council 
(elected by parliament); unicameral legisla- 
ture National Assembly (elected by direct 
suffrage); judicial Supreme Court (elected 
by parliament) 

Government leaders: Pal LOSONCZI, Pres- 
ident, Presidential Council (since April 
1967); Gyorgy LAzAR, Premier, Council of 
Ministers (since May 1975) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: every five years (last election June 
1985); national and local elections are held 
separately 

Political parties and leaders: Hungarian 
Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party 
(MSZMP), sole party; Janos Kadar, General 
Secretary (since November 1956; his title 
was changed from First Secretary to General 
Secretary in March 1985) 

Voting strength: (1985 election) 7,700,000 
(94%) turnout for multiple-candidate elec- 
tion, with only some leading figures running 
without opposition 

Communists: about 870,992 party members 
(January 1985) 






111 



Hungary (continued) 



Iceland 



Member of: CEMA, Danube Commission, 
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 
ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study 
Group, IMF, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $77 billion in 1984 (at 1984 US dol- 
lars), $7,200 per capita; 1984 growth rate, 
1.3% 

Natural resources: bauxite, brown coal, nat- 
ural gas 

Agriculture: normally self-sufficient; main 
crops corn, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, 
wine grapes 

Major industries: mining, metallurgy, engi- 
neering industries, processed foods, textiles, 
chemicals (especially Pharmaceuticals) 

Shortages: metallic ores (except bauxite), 
copper, high grade coal, forest products, 
crude oil 

Crude steel: 3.8 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 355 kg per capita 

Electric power: 6,530,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 29.315 billion kWh produced (1985), 
2,754 kWh per capita 

Exports: $16.3 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 38% 
fuels, raw materials, and semifinished prod- 
ucts; 25% machinery and equipment; 23% 
agricultural and forestry products; 14% 
manufactured consumer goods 

Imports: $15.6 billion (c.i.f., 1984); 67% 
fuels, raw materials, and semifinished prod- 
ucts; 16% machinery and equipment; 10% 
manufactured consumer goods; 7% agricul- 
tural and forestry products 

Major trade partners: 30% USSR, 9% FRG 
(1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 48.244 
forints=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 



Communications 

Railroads: 7,869 km total; 7,620 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, 214 km narrow gauge 
(mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.524-meter 
broad gauge, 1,1 19 km double track, 1,807 
km electrified; government owned (1983) 

Highways: 29,684 km total; 25,922 km con- 
crete, asphalt, stone block; 3,213 km asphalt 
treated, gravel, crushed stone; 549 km earth 

(1982) 

Inland waterways: 1,622 km (1983) 

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,160 km; natural gas, 
3,732 km (1984) 

Freight carried: rail 124 million metric 
tons, 23. 1 billion metric ton/km (1983); 
highway 235 million metric tons, 6.5 bil- 
lion metric ton/km (1983); waterway est. 
3.2 million metric tons, 1.7 billion metric 
ton/km (public and private use)(1983) 

River ports: 2 principal (Budapest, 
Dunaujvaros); no maritime ports; outlets are 
Rostock, GDR; Gdansk, Gdynia, and 
Szczecin in Poland; and Gala(i and Braila in 

Romania (1978) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Hungarian People's Army, Fron- 
tier Guard, Air and Air Defense Command 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,588,000; 
2,074,000 fit for military service; about 
75,000 reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: announced for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1985, 23.3 billion 
f orints; 3. 8% of total budget 



Greenland Sea 




H.fn.rl,ordh U f 



North Atlantic Ocean 

See regional mp V 



Land 

102,845 km 2 ; the size of Virginia; arable and 
forest negligible, 22% meadow and pasture, 
78% other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 4,988 km 

People 

Population: 244,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Icelanders); 
adjective Icelandic 

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of 
descendants of Norwegians and Celts 

Religion: 95% Evangelical Lutheran, 3% 
other Protestant and Roman Catholic, 2% no 
affiliation 

Language: Icelandic 
Infant mortality rate: 6.1/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 73.9, women 79.4 
Literacy: 99.9% 

Labor force: 114,000(1984); 18.6% com- 
merce, finance, and services; 12.2% 
construction; 9.0% agriculture; 8.0% fish 



112 



processing; 6.3% transportation and commu- 
nications; 5.4% fishing; 16.8% other manu- 
facturing; 23.7% other (1983); 1.3% unem- 
ployment (1984 average) 

Organized labor: 60% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Iceland 

Type: republic 
Capital: Reykjavik 

Political subdivisions: 23 counties, 200 par- 
ishes, 23 incorporated towns 

Legal system: civil law system based on 
Danish law; constitution adopted 1944; legal 
education at University of Iceland; does not 
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Anniversary of the Estab- 
lishment of the Republic, 17 June 

Branches: legislative authority rests jointly 
with President and parliament (Althing); 
executive power vested in President but ex- 
ercised by Cabinet responsible to parlia- 
ment; Supreme Court and 29 lower courts 

Government leaders: Vigdis FINN- 
BOGADOTTIR, President (since August 
1980); Steingrimur HERMANNSSON, 
Prime Minister (since May 1983) 

Suffrage: universal over age 20 but not com- 
pulsory 

Elections: parliamentary every four years, 
last held 23 April 1983; presidential held 
every four years; last held August 1984 

Political parties and leaders: Independence 
(conservative), Thorsteinn Palsson; Progres- 
sive, Steingrimur Hermannsson; Social 
Democratic, Jon Baldvin Hannibalsson; 
People's Alliance (left socialist), Svavar 
Gestsson 

Voting strength:( 1983 election) 38.7% Inde- 
pendence, 19.5% Progressive, 17.3% 
People's Alliance, 11.7% Social Democratic, 
12.8% other 



Communists: est. less than 100, some of 
whom participate in the People's Alliance, 
which drew 22,489 votes in the 1983 parlia- 
mentary elections 

Member of: Council of Europe, EC (free 
trade agreement pending resolution of 
fishing limits issue), EFTA, FAO, GATT, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICES, IDA, IFC, IHO, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IPU, ITU, IWC International Whaling 
Commission, NATO, Nordic Council, 
OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, 
WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $2.17 billion (1984), $9,040 per capita; 
59% private consumption, 22% private in- 
vestment, 17% government (1981); 0.6% 
net export of goods and services (1981); 
change in stockbuilding 1.0%; growth rate 
-5.5% (1983) 

Natural resources: fish, hydroelectric and 
geothermal power, diatomite 

Agriculture: cattle, sheep, dairying, hay, 
potatoes, turnips 

Fishing: catch, 1,519,000 (1984) metric tons; 
marine product exports, $500 million (1984) 

Major industries: fish processing, aluminum 
smelting, diatomite production, hydroelec- 
tricity 

Shortages: grains, sugar, vegetables and 
vegetable fibers, fuel, wood, minerals 

Electric power: 913,000 kW capacity (1985); 
4.332 billion kWh produced (1985), 17,975 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $743.3 million (f.o.b., 1984); fish 
and fish products, animal products, alumi- 
num, diatomite 

Imports: $843.8 million (c.i.f., 1984); ma- 
chinery and transportation equipment, pe- 
troleum, foodstuffs, textiles 

Major trade partners: (1984) EC 41.8% 
(FRG 11.8%, UK 10.7%, Denmark 6.2%, 
Netherlands 5.7%), US 16.9%, CEMA 10.3%, 
Japan 4.2% 



Aid: economic authorizations, including 
Ex-Im from US, $19.1 million (FY70-81) 

Budget: (1984) expenditures $577.2 million, 
revenues $530.5 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 41.47 kronur= 
US$1 (October 1985 average) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen 
and concrete; 1,284 km bituminous treated 
and gravel; 10,893 km earth 

Ports: 1 major (Reykjavik), 3 secondary 
(Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, 
Seydhisfjordhur), and numerous minor 

Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 98 total, 91 usable; 3 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: adequate domestic 
service, wire and radio communication sys- 
tem; 125,000 telephones (52.5 per 100 popl.); 
4 AM, 33 FM, and 129 TV stations; 2 subma- 
rine cables; 1 satellite station with 2 Atlantic 
Ocean antennas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Police, Coast Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 64,000; 
55,000 fit for military service (Iceland has no 
conscription or compulsory military service) 



113 



India 



ese line 
^ o , con , ro | 

Srmagar" Clndian 
~* claim 




Ahmadabad 



Arabian (Bombay 
Sea 

% Mydr 



Calicut 





Laccadive 

Set 
Stt regional map VIII 



Nicobar": 
Islands '* 



Land 

3,287,590 km 2 (includes Jammu and 
Kashmir, the Indian-annexed part of the 
former state of Jammu and Kashmir); one- 
third the size of the US; 50% arable; 22% 
forest; 20% desert, waste, or urban; 5% per- 
manent meadow and pasture; 3% inland 
water 

Land boundaries: 12,700km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 7,000 km (includes offshore is- 
lands) 

People 

Population: 783,940,000, including Sikkim 
and the Indian-held part of disputed Jammu 
and Kashmir (July 1986); average annual 
growth rate 2.1% 

Nationality: noun Indian(s); adjective 
Indian 

Ethnic divisions: 72% Indo-Aryan, 25% 
Dravidian, 3% Mongoloid and other 

Religion: 83.5% Hindu, 11.0% Muslim, 2.6% 
Christian, 2.0-2.5% Sikh, 0.7% Buddhist, 
0.2% other 

Language: Hindi, English, and 14 other of- 
ficial languages; 24 languages spoken by a 
million or more persons each; numerous 



other languages and dialects, for the most 
part mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the 
national language and primary tongue of 30 
percent of the people; English enjoys 
"associate" status but is the most important 
language for national, political, and com- 
mercial communication; Hindustani, a pop- 
ular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is spoken 
widely throughout northern India 

Infant mortality rate: 1 16/1,000 (1984 est.) 
Life expectancy: 54.9 
Literacy: 36% 

Labor force: (84/85) about 284.4 million; 
67% agriculture; more than 10% 
unemployed and underemployed 

Organized labor: less than 5% of total labor 
force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of India 

Type: federal republic 
Capital: New Delhi 

Political subdivisions: 22 states, 9 union ter- 
ritories 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution adopted 1950; limited judi- 
cial review of legislative acts; accepts com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January 

Branches: bicameral parliament Council 
of States, House of the People; relatively 
independent judiciary 

Government leader: Rajiv GANDHI, Prime 
Minister (since October 1984); Zail SINGH, 
President (since July 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: national and state elections ordi- 
narily held every five years; may be post- 
poned in emergency and may be held more 
frequently if government loses confidence 



vote; last general election in December 
1984; state elections staggered 

Political parties and leaders: Indian Na- 
tional Congress, controlled national govern- 
ment from independence to March 1977; 
split in January 1978 and 1979; party cur- 
rently headed by Prime Minister Rajiv 
Gandhi; the Dalit Mazdoor Kisan Party 
(DMKP), formed in late 1984 by Charan 
Singh of the Lok Dal Party, also absorbed 
the Democratic Socialist Party, a breakaway 
faction of the Janata Party, and Sharad 
Pawar's Congress (S) Party; Janata Party led 
by Chandra Shekhar; Bharatiya Janata 
Party, L. K. Advani; Communist Party of 
India (CPI), C. Rajeswara Rao; Communist 
Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), E. M. S. 
Namboodiripad; Communist Party of 
India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), 
Satyanarayan Singh; All-India Anna 
Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK), a 
regional party in Tamil Nadu, led by 
M. G. Ramachandran; Akali Dal, led by 
Surjit Singh Barnala, representing Sikh reli- 
gious community in the Punjab; Telugu 
Desam, a regional party in Andhra Pradesh 
led by N. T. Rama Rao; National Sanjay 
Front (SVM), led by Maneka Gandhi; Na- 
tional Conference (NC), a regional party in 
Jammu and Kashmir, split into factions led 
by Farooq Abdullah and G. M. Shah 

Voting strength: India Congress, 74%; 
Telugu Desam Party, 5%; CPM, 4%; Janata, 
1.8%; CPI, 1.1%; DMKP, 0.5%; BJP, 0.4%; 
other, 6.6%; 34 seats vacant as of January 
1985 

Communists: 466,000 members claimed by 
CPI, 270,000 members claimed by CPI/M; 
Communist extremist groups, about 15,000 
members 

Other political or pressure groups: various 
separatist groups seeking reorganization of 
states; numerous "senas" or militant/chauvi- 
nistic organizations, including Shiv Sena (in 
Bombay), Anand Marg, and Rashtriya 
Swayamsevak Sangh 

Member of: ADB, AIOEC, ANRPC, Co- 
lombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 



114 



Indonesia 



ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, Interna- 
tional Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, 
ITC, ITU, IWC International Wheat 
Council, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, 
WTO 

Economy 

GNP. $193 billion (FY84/85 at current 
prices), $240 per capita; real growth 8% 
(FY83/84 est.) 

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, manga- 
nese, mica, bauxite, chromite 

Agriculture: main crops rice, other cere- 
als, pulses, oilseed, cotton, jute, sugarcane, 
tobacco, tea, coffee; an illegal producer of 
opium poppy and cannabis for the interna- 
tional drug trade 

Fishing: catch 2.85 million metric tons 
(1984); exports $337 million (1982) 

Major industries: textiles, food processing, 
steel, machinery, transportation equipment, 
cement, jute manufactures 

Crude steel: 10.0 million metric tons of in- 
gots (1983) 

Electric power: 43,400,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 154 billion kWh produced (1985), 
202 kWh per capita 

Exports: $8.8 billion (f.o.b., FY84/85); engi- 
neering goods, textiles and clothing, tea 

Imports: $13.3 billion (c.i.f., FY84/85); ma- 
chinery and transport equipment, petro- 
leum, edible oils, fertilizers 

Major trade partners: US, UK, USSR, Japan 

Budget: (FY84/85) central government rev- 
enue and capital receipts, $40 billion; dis- 
bursements, $58 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 12.028 
rupees=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 



Communications 

Railroads: 61,950 km total (1985); 31,750 km 
1.676-meter broad gauge, 25,550 km 1.000- 
meter gauge, 4,650 km narrow gauge (0.762- 
meter and 0.610-meter); 12,617 km double 
track; 6,078 km electrified 

Highways: 1,633,400 km total (1979); 
515,300 km mainly secondary and about 
1,1 18,000 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth 

Inland waterways: 16,000 km; 2,575 km 
navigable by river steamers 

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,497 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 1,828 km; natural gas, 260 km 

Ports: 9 major, 79 minor 

Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 345 total, 299 usable; 192 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 54 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 96 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair domestic tele- 
phone service where available, good internal 
microwave links; telegraph facilities wide- 
spread; AM broadcast adequate; interna- 
tional radio communications adequate; 2.6 
million telephones (0.4 per 100 pop!.); about 
174 AM stations at 80 locations, 17 TV sta- 
tions; domestic satellite system for commu- 
nications and TV; submarine cable extends 
to Sri Lanka 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast 
Guard, Paramilitary Forces 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
204,005,000; 124,477,000 fit for military 
service; about 9,107,000 reach military age 
(17) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1986; est. budget $7.1 billion; 17.3% 
of central government budget 



North 
Pacific 
Ocean 




Java 



Indian Ocean 



See regional map IX 



Land 

2,027,087 km 2 ; about the size of Alaska and 
California combined; consists of an archipel- 
ago of more than 13,000 islands, of which 
about 1,000 are inhabited; 64% forest; 24% 
inland water, waste, urban, and other; 12% 
small holding and estate (8.6% cultivated) 

Land boundaries: 2,736 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 54,716 km 

People 

Population: 176,764,000, including Timor 
Timur and Irian Jaya (West Irian; July 
1986), average annual growth rate 2.1% 

Nationality: noun Indonesian(s); adjec- 
tive Indonesian 

Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock 
comprising 45.0% Javanese, 14.0% Sundan- 
ese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% coastal Malays, 
26.0% other 

Religion: 88% Muslim, 6% Protestant, 3% 
Roman Catholic, 2% Hindu, 1% other 

Language: Indonesian (modified form of 
Malay; official); English and Dutch leading 
foreign languages; local dialects, the most 
widely spoken of which is Javanese 



115 



Indonesia (continued) 



Infant mortality rate: 95/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 54 
Literacy: 62% 

Labor force: 67 million (1985 est); 55% agri- 
culture, 10% manufacturing, 4% construc- 
tion, 3% transport and communications 

Organized labor: 3 million members 
(claimed); est. 5% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Indonesia 

Type: republic 
Capital: Jakarta 

Political subdivisions: 28 first-level adminis- 
trative subdivisions or provinces, which are 
further subdivided into 282 second-level 
areas 

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, 
substantially modified by indigenous con- 
cepts and by new criminal procedures code; 
constitution of 1945 is legal basis of govern- 
ment; legal education at University of Indo- 
nesia, Jakarta; has not accepted compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 
August 

Branches: executive headed by President 
who is chief of state and head of Cabinet; 
Cabinet selected by President; unicameral 
legislature (DPR or House of Representa- 
tives) of 460 members (96 appointed, 364 
elected); second body (MPR or People's 
Consultative Assembly) of 920 members 
includes the legislature and 460 other mem- 
bers (chosen by several processes, but not 
directly elected); MPR elects President and 
Vice President and theoretically determines 
national policy; judicial, Supreme Court is 
highest court 

Government leader: Gen. (Ret.) 
SOEHARTO, President (since March 1968) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 and married 
persons regardless of age 



Political parties and leaders: Golkar (quasi- 
official "party" based on functional groups), 
Lt. Gen. Sudharmono; Indonesia Democ- 
racy Party (federation of former Nationalist 
and Christian Parties), leader unknown; 
United Development Party (federation of 
former Islamic parties), John Naro 

Voting strength: (1982 election) Golkar 
64.1%, Unity Development 28%, Indonesia 
Democracy 7.9% 

Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was 
officially banned in March 1966; current 
strength est. at 1,000-3,000, with less than 
10% engaged in organized activity; 
pre-October 1965 hardcore membership has 
been estimated at 1.5 million 

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Associ- 
ation of Tin Producing Countries, CIPEC, 
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB Islamic De- 
velopment Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, 
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, 
IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, NAM, QIC, OPEC, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $90.3 billion (1985 est.), about $540 
per capita; real average annual growth, 5.9% 
(1980-84); real annual growth rate 3.5% 
(1985 est.) 

Natural resources: oil, tin, natural gas, 
nickel, timber, bauxite, copper 

Agriculture: subsistence food production, 
and smallholder and plantation production 
for export; main crops rice, cassava, rub- 
ber, copra, other tropical products; an illegal 
producer of cannabis for the international 
drug trade 

Fishing: catch 2.2 million metric tons (1984); 
shrimp exports $194 million (1984), imports 
$4 million (1984) 

Major industries: petroleum, textiles, min- 
ing, cement, chemical fertilizer production, 
timber 

Electric power: (including Timor Timur and 
Irian Jaya) 10,200,000 kW capacity (1985); 



28.5 billion kWh produced (1985), 164 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $22.2 billion (1984); petroleum and 
liquefied natural gas ($15.0 billion), timber 
($1.2 billion), rubber ($0.9 billion), coffee 
($0.6 billion), tin ($0.3 billion), palm oil ($0.8 
billion), tea ($0.2 billion), copper ($0. 1 bil- 
lion) 

Imports: $15.3 billion (1984); rice ($1.02 bil- 
lion); wheat flour, wheat grains, and other 
cereals and cereal products ($0.3 billion), 
textiles ($0.3 billion), chemicals ($1.5 billion), 
iron and steel products ($0.7 billion), ma- 
chinery ($1.3 billion), transport equipment 
($0.7 billion) 

Major trade partners: (1984)exports 47% 
Japan, 21% US, 9% Singapore; imports 
23% Japan, 18% US, 12% Singapore, 11% 
Saudi Arabia, 4% FRG 

Budget: (1984/85) expenditures, $17.4 bil- 
lion; receipts, $14.5 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 1,125 
rupiahs=US$l (31 December 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067- 
meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter gauge, 78 
km 0.600-meter gauge; 211km double 
track; 101 km electrified; government 
owned 

Highways: 93,063 km total; 26,583 km 
paved, 41,521 km gravel or crushed stone, 
24,959 km improved or unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 21,579 km; Sumatra 
5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Borneo 
10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, and Irian Jaya 
4,587 km 

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,450 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 456 km; natural gas, 450 km - 

Ports: 15 ocean ports 

Civil air: approximately 150 major transport 
aircraft 



116 



Iran 



Airfields: 416 total, 393 usable; 95 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 1 1 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 68 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: interisland micro- 
wave system and HF police net; domestic 
service fair, international service good; 
radio-broadcast coverage good; 392,563 tele- 
phones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 251 AM, 1 FM, 14 
TV stations; 1 international ground satellite 
station (1 Indian Ocean antenna and 1 Pa- 
cific Ocean antenna), and a domestic satel- 
lite communications system 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National 
Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
44,809,000; 26,513,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; about 1,955,000 reach military age (18) 
annually 




Gulf 



See region*! map VI 



Strait of 
Hormul 



JBMW 
Gull Behoihi 
of 
Oman 



Land 

1,648,000 km 2 ; smaller than Alaska and 
Washington combined; 51% desert, waste, or 
urban; 30% arable (16% cultivable with ade- 
quate irrigation; 14% agricultural; 11.5% 
cultivated); 11% forest; 8% migratory graz- 
ing and other 

Land boundaries: 5,318 km (including areas 
belonging to Iran and now occupied by Iraq 
during continuing border war) 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (fishing 50 nm or median line) 

Coastline: 3,180 km, including islands, with 
676km 

People 

Population: 46,604,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3. 1 %; figures do not take 
into account the impact of the Iran-Iraq war 

Nationality, noun Iranian(s); adjective 
Iranian 

Ethnic divisions: 63% ethnic Persian, 18% 
Turkic, 13% other Iranian, 3% Kurdish, 3% 
Arab and other Semitic, 1% other 

Religion: 93% Shi'a Muslim; 5% Sunni Mus- 
lim; 2% Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and 
Baha'i 



Language: Farsi, Turki, Kurdish, Arabic, 
English, French 

Infant mortality rate: 100/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 54 
Literacy. 48% 

Labor force: 12.0 million, est. (1979); 33% 
agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of 
skilled labor; unemployment may be as high 

as 35% 

Government 

Official name: Islamic Republic of Iran 

Type: theocratic republic 
Capital: Tehran 

Political subdivisions: 24 provinces, subdi- 
vided into districts, subdistricts, counties, 
and villages 

Legal system: the new constitution codifies 
Islamic principles of government 

National holiday: Shi'a Islam religious holi- 
days observed nationwide 

Branches: Ayatollah ol-Ozma Ruhollah 
Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, pro- 
vides general guidance for the government, 
which is divided into executive, unicameral 
legislature (Islamic Consultative Assembly), 
and judicial branches 

Government leaders: Ayatollah ol-Ozma 
Ruhollah KHOMEINI, "Guardian 
Jurisprudent" (since February 1979); Ali 
KHAMENEI (cleric), President (since Octo- 
ber 1981); Mir Hosein MUSAVI- KHAME- 
NEI, Prime Minister (since October 1981); 
Ali Akbar HASHEMI RAFSANJANI 
(cleric), Speaker of Islamic Consultative As- 
sembly (since July 1980); Ayatollah Hosein 
Ali MONTAZERI, Designated Successor to 
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (22 Novem- 
ber 1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 15 



117 






Iran (continued) 



Elections: elections to select a president held 
in August 1985; those to select an Assembly 
of Experts to name Khomeini's successor 
held in December 1982; parliamentary elec- 
tions held in 1984; next presidential election 
to be held during the summer of 1989; next 
parliamentary elections to be held in 1988 

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Re- 
public Party (IRP), Ali Khamenei 

Voting strength: reliable figures not avail- 
able; supporters of the Islamic Republic 
dominate the parliament 

Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 
15,000 to 20,000 est. sympathizers; crack- 
down in 1983 crippled the party; trials of 
captured leaders began in late 1983 and re- 
main incomplete 

Other political or pressure groups: People's 
Strugglers (Mujahedin), People's Fedayeen, 
and Kurdish Democratic Party are armed 
political groups that have been harshly but 
not completely repressed by the govern- 
ment; other ethnic minorities, local leaders, 
and Islamic Committees enforce their politi- 
cal views through armed militia 

Member of: Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, 
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, 
NAM, QIC, OPEC, Economic Cooperation 
Organization, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO; continued par- 
ticipation in some of these organizations 
doubtful under the new Islamic constitution 

Economy 

GNP: $80.4 billion (1984) 

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, 
coal, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manga- 
nese, zinc, barite, sulfur, coal, emeralds, tur- 
quoise 

Agriculture: wheat, barley, rice, sugar beets, 
cotton, dates, raisins, tea, tobacco, sheep, 
goats; an illegal producer of opium poppy 
for the international drug trade 



Major industries: crude oil production (2.4 
million b/d in 1985) and refining, textiles, 
cement and other building materials, food 
processing (particularly sugar refining and 
vegetable oil production), metal fabricating 
(steel and copper) 

Electric power: 1 1,907,600 kW capacity 
(1985); 41.724 billion kWh produced (1985), 
923 kWh per capita 

Exports: $16.2 billion (est., 1985); 98% petro- 
leum; also carpets, fruits, nuts 

Imports: $16.5 billion (est., 1984); machin- 
ery, military supplies, foodstuffs, pharma- 
ceuticals, technical services 

Major trade partners: exports Japan, Tur- 
key, Syria, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, 
France, FRG; imports FRG, Japan, Tur- 
key, UK, Italy 

Budget: (FY85) proposed expenditures of 
$42 billion; projected deficit of $4 billion 
actual deficit likely to be higher 

Monetary conversion rate: 93 rials=US$l 
(official rate) 

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km 1.435- 
meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter gauge 

Highways: 85,000 km total; 36,000 km 
gravel and crushed stone, 15,000 km im- 
proved earth, 19,000 km bitujninous and 
bituminous-treated surfaces, 15,000 km un- 
improved earth 

Inland waterways: 904 km, excluding the 
Caspian Sea, 104 km on the Shatt al Arab 
(closed since September 1980 because of 
Iran-Iraq conflict); 3 inland coastal ports on 
Caspian Sea 

Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 3,900 km; natural gas, 3,300 km 

Ports: 5 major (Abadan [closed], Bandar-e 
'Abbas, Bandar-e Khomeynl, Bandar 
Beheshtl, and Bandar-e Bshehr), 12 minor 
(Khorramshahr closed) 



Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 165 total, 139 usable; 77 with 
permanent-surface runways; 14 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 16 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 67 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Islamic Ground Forces, Navy, Air 
Force, and Revolutionary Guard (includes 
Basij militia), Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
10,789,000; 6,629,000 fit for military service; 
about 462,000 reach military age (21) annu- 
ally 



118 






Iraq 




See region*) map VI 



Persian 
Gulf 



Land 

434,924 km 2 ; larger than California; 68% 
desert, waste, or urban; 18% cultivated; 10% 
seasonal and other grazing; 4% forest and 
wood 

Land boundaries: 3,668 km (including areas 
belonging to Iraq and now occupied by Iran 
during continuing border war) 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 58 km 

People 

Population: 16,01 9,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2%; figures do not take 
into account the impact of the Iran-Iraq war 

Nationality: noun Iraqi(s); adjective 
Iraqi 

Ethnic divisions: 75% Arab, 15-20% Kurd- 
ish, 5-10% Turkoman, Assyrian, and other 

Religion: 95% Muslim (55% Shi'a, 40% 
Sunni), 5% Christian or other 

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official 
in Kurdish regions); Assyrian, Armenian 

Infant mortality rate: 76/1,000 (1980) 
Life expectancy: 56. 1 



Literacy: about 50% 

Labor force: 3. 1 million (1977); 30% agricul- 
ture, 27% industry, 21% government, 22% 
other; severe labor shortage due to war; ex- 
patriate labor force est. at 1,250,000 

Organized labor: 1 1% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Iraq 

Type: republic; National Front government 
consisting of Ba'th Party (BPI), weak nation- 
alist parties, and proadministration Kurds 

Capital: Baghdad 

Political subdivisions: 18 provinces under 
centrally appointed officials 

Legal system: based on Islamic law in spe- 
cial religious courts, civil law system else- 
where; provisional constitution adopted in 
1968; judicial review was suspended; legal 
education at University of Baghdad; has not 
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holidays: anniversaries of the 1958 
and 1968 revolutions are celebrated 14 July 
and 17 July; various religious holidays 

Branches: Ba'th Party of Iraq has been in 
power since 1968 coup; unicameral legisla- 
ture (National Assembly) 

Government leaders: Saddam HUSAYN, 
President (since July 1979); Izzat IBRAHIM, 
Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary 
Command Council (since July 1979) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: National Assembly elections held 
October 1984; Legislative Council for the 
Autonomous Region held September 1980 

Communists: est. 2,000 hardcore members 

Political or pressure groups: political parties 
and activity severely restricted; possibly 
some opposition to regime from disaffected 
members of the regime, army officers, and 
religious and ethnic dissidents 



Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, 
OAPEC, QIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $27 billion (1984 est.) 

Natural resources: oil, natural gas, phos- 
phates, sulfur 

Agriculture: dates, wheat, barley, rice, live- 
stock 

Major industry: crude petroleum 1.4 mil- 
lion b/d (1985 est.); petroleum revenues, 
$11. 4 billion (1985 est.) 

* 

Electric power: 6,874,800 kW capacity 
(1985); 21.078 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1,359 kWh per capita 

Exports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1985 est.); from 
nonoil receipts, $300 million est. 

Imports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1985 est); 14% 
from Communist countries (1980) 

Major trade partners: exports France, 
Italy, Brazil, Japan, Turkey, UK, USSR, 
other Communist countries; imports FRG, 
Japan, France, Italy, US, UK, USSR, other 
Communist countries (1985) 

Budget: public revenues, $13.6 billion; cur- 
rent expenditures, $17.5 billion; develop- 
ment expenditures, $22.8 billion (1981 est.) 

Monetary conversion rate: .3109 Iraqi 
dinar=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 2,145 km total; 1,645 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, 520 km 1.000-meter 
gauge 

Highways: 20,800 km total; 6,490 km paved, 
4,654 km improved earth, 9,656 km unim- 
proved earth 



119 



Iraq (continued) 



Ireland 



Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab 
navigable by maritime traffic for about 104 
km (closed since September 1980 because of 
Iran-Iraq war); Tigris and Euphrates naviga- 
ble by shallow-draft steamers (of little im- 
portance); Shatt al Ba$rah canal navigable by 
shallow-draft vessels 

Ports: 3 major (Al Ba$rah [closed], Umm 
Qa$r, Al FSw); none in operation due to war 

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,950 km; 725 km re- 
fined products; 1,360 km natural gas 

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 103 total, 94 usable; 56 with 
permanent-surface runways; 6 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 50 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good network consists 
of coaxial cables, radio-relay links, and 
radiocommunication stations; about 632,000 
telephones (4.3 per 100 popl.); 9 AM, no FM, 
81 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian 
Ocean, and 1 Intersputnik satellite station; 
coaxial cable and radio-relay to Kuwait, Jor- 
dan, Syria, and Turkey 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Border 
Guard Force, mobile police force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,662,000; 
2,105,000 fit for military service; about 
177,000 reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: estimated for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1983, $14.0 billion 




ighan 



Irish 
Sea 



North 
Atlantic 
Ocean 



See regional map V 



Land 

70,282 km 2 ; larger than West Virginia; 51% 
meadow and pasture, 27% waste or urban, 
17% arable, 3% forest, 2% inland water 

Land boundaries: 360 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(fishing 200 nm) 

Coastline: 1,448 km 

People 

Population: 3,624,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Irishman(men), Irish 
(collective pi.); adjective Irish 

Ethnic divisions: Celtic, with English mi- 
nority 

Religion: 94% Roman Catholic, 4% Angli- 
can, 2% other 

Language: Irish (Gaelic) and English (of- 
ficial); English is generally spoken 

Infant mortality rate: 11/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 73 
Literacy: 99% 



Labor force: about 1,314,000(1984); 27.5% 
manufacturing and construction; 16.4% ag- 
riculture, forestry, fishing; 20.4% services; 
6.6% government; 6.2% transportation; 
other 22.9%; 17.0% unemployment (October 
1985) 

Organized labor: 36% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Ireland, Eire (Gaelic) 

Type: republic 

Capital: Dublin 

Political subdivisions: 26 counties 

Legal system: based on English common 
law, substantially modified by indigenous 
concepts; constitution adopted 1937; judicial 
review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdic- 
tion 

National holiday: St. Patrick's Day, 17 
March 

Branches: elected President; bicameral par- 
liament (Seanad, Dail) reflecting propor- 
tional and vocational representation; judi- 
ciary appointed by President on advice of 
government 

Government leaders: Dr. Patrick J. 
HILLERY, President (since 1976); Dr. Gar- 
ret FITZGERALD, Prime Minister (since 
1982); Richard SPRING, Deputy Prime 
Minister (since 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: Dail (lower house) elected every 
five years last election November 1982; 
President elected for seven-year term last 
election October 1983 

Political parties and leaders: Fianna Fail, 
Charles Haughey; Labor Party, Richard 
Spring; Fine Gael, Garret FitzGerald; Com- 
munist Party of Ireland, Michael O'Riordan; 
Workers' Party, Tomas MacGiolla; Sinn 
Fein, Gerry Adams; Progressive Democrats, 
Desmond O'Malley 



120 



Voting strength: (1982 election) Dail 
Fianna Fail, 75 seats; Fine Gael, 70 seats; 
Labor Party, 16 seats; independents, 3 seats; 
Workers' Party, 2 seats 

Communists: under 500 

Member of: Council of Europe, EC, EMS, 
ESRO (observer), FAO, GATT, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICES, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC International 
Wheat Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $16.0 billion (1984), $4,440 per capita; 
64.5% consumption, 23.3% investment, 
21.0% government, 2.4% inventories; 
11.0% net foreign demand; 2.4% real 
GNP (1984) 

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, 
barite, copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, 
peat, silver 

Agriculture: 70% of agricultural area used 
for permanent hay and pasture; main prod- 
ucts livestock and dairy products, turnips, 
barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; 85% 
self-sufficient; food shortages grains, fruits, 
vegetables 

Fishing: catch 197,000 metric tons (1983); 
exports of fish and fish products $97 million 
(1982), imports of fish and fish products $36 
million (1982) 

Major industries: food products, brewing, 
textiles and clothing, chemicals and pharma- 
ceuticals, machinery and transportation 
equipment 

Crude steel: 200,000 metric tons produced 
(1984); 330,000 metric ton capacity (1984) 

Electric power: 4,087,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 11.938 billion kWh produced (1985), 
3,325 kWh per capita 

Exports: $9.64 billion (1982); foodstuffs (pri- 
marily dairy products), computers, live ani- 
mals, machinery, chemicals, clothing 



Imports: $9.58 billion (c.i.f., 1984); machin- 
ery, petroleum and petroleum products, 
chemicals, semifinished goods, cereals 

Major trade partners: exports 68.7% EC 
(34.4% UK, 10.2% FRG, 8.4% France), 9.8% 
US, 1.0% Communist (1984); imports 
64.6% EC (43% UK, 7.4% FRG, 4.8% 
France), 16.5% US, 1.8% Communist (1984); 

Budget: (1985 est.) expenditures, $7.98 bil- 
lion; revenues, $6.69 billion; deficit, $1.29 
billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 0.8541 Irish 
pound=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: Irish National Railways (CIE) 
operates 1,942 km 1.600- meter gauge, gov- 
ernment owned; 485 km double; 38 km elec- 
trified track 

Highways: 92,294 km total; 87,422 km sur- 
faced, 4,872 km gravel or crushed stone 

Inland waterways: limited for commercial 
traffic 

Pipelines: natural gas, 225 km 
Ports: 2 major, 6 secondary, 38 minor 
Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 41 total, 37 usable; 16 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: small, modern system 
using cable and radio-relay circuits; 824,000 
telephones (23.5 per 100 popl.); 24 AM, 20 
FM, 84 TV stations; 4 coaxial submarine 
cables; 1 satellite ground station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Naval Service, Army Air 
Corps 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 852,000; 
698,000 fit for military service; about 27,000 
reach military age (17) annually 



Major ground units: 4 infantry brigades and 
2 independent battalions 

Supply: UK and France are the principal 
suppliers of army materiel; UK provides 
105-mm light guns and Scorpion light tanks, 
and France provides MILAN antitank mis- 
siles and Panhard reconnaissance vehicles; 
Sweden also provides weapon systems, in- 
cluding RBS-70 surface-to-air missiles, re- 
coilless rifles, and armored personnel carri- 



Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $256.955 million; about 
2.5% of the central government budget 



121 



Israel 

(West Bank and Gaza Strip 

listed at end of table) 



Haifa. 



Naiar 

Mediterranean 
Sea 



T.I Aviv Ya' 
Ashdod 



Boundary fepttsntal 
nol necessarily author 



See refional map X' 




Late 
Tiberias 



'dead Sit 



NOTE: the Arab territories occupied by 
Israel since the 1967 war are not included 
in the data below; as stated in the 1978 
Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by 
the President's 1 September 1982 peace 
initiative, the final status of the West Bank 
and Gaza Strip, their relationship with 
their neighbors, and a peace treaty be- 
tween Israel and Jordan are to be negoti- 
ated among the concerned parties; Camp 
David further specifies that these negotia- 
tions will resolve the location of the re- 
spective boundaries; pending the comple- 
tion of this process, it is US policy that the 
final status of the West Bank and Gaza 
Strip has yet to be determined (see West 
Bank and Gaza Strip "Factsheet"); on 25 
April 1982 Israel relinquished control of 
the Sinai to Egypt; statistics for the Israeli- 
occupied Golan Heights are included in 
the Syria "Factsheet." 

Land 

20,720 km 2 ; the size of Massachusetts; 40% 
pasture and meadow; 29% unsurveyed 
(mostly desert); 20% cultivated; 4% forest; 
4% desert, waste, or urban; 3% inland water 

Land boundaries: 1,036 km (before 1967 
war) 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm 

Coastline: 273 km (before 1967 war) 



People 

Population: 4,208,000, excluding West 
Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem (July 
1986), average annual growth rate 1.9% 

Nationality: noun Israeli(s); adjective 
Israeli 

Ethnic divisions: 83% Jewish, 17% 
non-Jewish (mostly Arab) 

Religion: 83% Judaism, 13. 1 % Islam, 2.3% 
Christian, 1.6% Druze 

Language: Hebrew official; Arabic used of- 
ficially for Arab minority; English most 
commonly used foreign language 

Infant mortality rate: 14.1/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 72. 1 
Literacy: 88% Jews, 70% Arabs 

Labor force: est. 1,400,000 (1984); 29.5% 
public services; 22.8% industry, mining, and 
manufacturing; 12.8% commerce; 9.5% fi- 
nance and business; 6.8% transport, storage, 
and communications; 6.5% construction and 
public works; 5.5% agriculture, forestry, and 
fishing; 5.8% personal and other services; 
1.0% electricity and water (1983); unem- 
ployment about 6.7% (1985) 

Organized labor: 90% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: State of Israel 

Type: republic 

Capital: Jerusalem; not recognized by US, 
which maintains the Embassy in Tel Aviv 

Political subdivisions: six administrative 
districts 

Legal system: mixture of English common 
law, British Mandatory regulations, and, in 
personal area, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim 
legal systems; commercial matters regulated 
substantially by codes adopted since 1948; 
no formal constitution; some of the functions 
of a constitution are filled by the Declaration 
of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of the 



Knesset (legislature) relating to the Knes- 
set, Israeli lands, the president, the govern- 
ment and the Israel citizenship law; no 
judicial review of legislative acts; legal edu- 
cation at Hebrew University of Jerusalem; in 
December 1985 Israel informed the UN Sec- 
retariat that it would no longer accept com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holidays: Israel declared inde- 
pendence on 14 May 1948; because the Jew- 
ish calendar is lunar, however, the holiday 
varies from year to year; all major Jewish 
religious holidays are also observed as na- 
tional holidays 

Branches: president has largely ceremonial 
functions, except for the authority to decide 
which political leader should try to form a 
ruling coalition following an election or the 
fall of a previous government; executive 
power vested in Cabinet; unicameral parlia- 
ment (Knesset) of 120 members elected un- 
der a system of proportional representation; 
legislation provides fundamental laws in 
absence of a written constitution; two dis- 
tinct court systems (secular and religious) 

Government leaders: ; Chaim HERZOG, 
President (since May 1983); Shimon PERES, 
Prime Minister (since September 1984); in 
October 1986 Vice Prime Minister and For- 
eign Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR and Peres 
are to trade government positions 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: held every four years unless re- 
quired by dissolution of Knesset; last election 
held in July 1984; next scheduled for No- 
vember 1988 

Political parties and leaders: Israel 
currently has a national unity government 
comprising 8 parties that hold 97 of the 
Knesset's 120 seats; members of the unity 
government Labor Alignment, Prime 
Minister Shimon Peres; Likud Bloc, Yitzhak 
Shamir; Shinui Party, Minister of Communi- 
cations Amnon Rubenstein; National Reli- 
gious Party, Minister of Religious Affairs 
Yosef Burg; SHAS, Minister of Interior 
Yitzhak Peretz; Agudat Israel, Menachem 
Porush; Morasha, Chaim Druckman; 
Ometz, Yigael Hurwitz; opposition parties 



122 



Tehiya-Tzomet, Yuval Ne'eman; MAPAM, 
Eliezer Granot, Citizens' Rights Movement, 
Shulamit Aloni; RAKAH (Communist 
party), Meir Wilner; Progressive List for 
Peace, Muhammad Mi'ari; TAMI, Aharon 
Abuhatzeira; Kakh, Meir Kahane 

Voting strength: Labor Alignment, 40 seats; 
Likud, 41 seats; MAPAM, 6 seats; Tehiya- 
Tzomet, 5 seats; Citizens' Rights Movement, 
4 seats; RAKAH, 4 seats; SHAS, 4 seats; Na- 
tional Religious Party, 4 seats; Shinui Party, 
3 seats; Morasha, 2 seats; Agudat Yisrael, 2 
seats; Progressive List for Peace, 2 seats; 
Ometz, 1 seat; Kakh, 1 seat; TAMI, 1 seat 

Communists: RAKAH (predominantly Arab 
but with Jews in its leadership) has some 
1,500 members 

Other political or pressure groups: Black 
Panthers, a loosely organized youth group 
seeking more benefits for oriental Jews; 
Gush Emunim, Jewish rightwing nationalists 
pushing for freedom for Jews to settle any- 
where on the West Bank; Peace Now critical 
of government's West Bank/Gaza Strip and 
Lebanon policies 

Member of: FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDE Inter-American 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, IOOC, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IPU, ITU, IWC International Wheat 
Council, OAS (observer), UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $25.9 billion (1985, in 1985 prices), 
$6,270 per capita; 1985 growth of real GNP 
2.0% 

Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bro- 
mide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, bitumen, 
manganese 

Agriculture: main products citrus and 
other fruits, vegetables, cotton, beef and 
dairy products, poultry products 

Major industries: food processing, diamond 
cutting and polishing, textiles and clothing, 
chemicals, metal products, transport equip- 
ment, electrical equipment, miscellaneous 



machinery, potash mining, high-technology 
electronics 

Electric power: 4,750,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 15.504 billion kWh produced (1985), 
3,755 kWh per capita 

Exports: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); major 
items polished diamonds, citrus and other 
fruits, textiles and clothing, processed foods, 
fertilizer and chemical products, electronics; 
tourism is important foreign exchange 
earner 

Imports: $8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1984); major 
items military equipment, rough 
diamonds, oil, chemicals, machinery, iron 
and steel, cereals, textiles, vehicles, ships, 
and aircraft 

Major trade partners: exports US, UK, 
FRG, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy; 
imports US, FRG, UK, Switzerland, Italy, 
Belgium, Luxembourg 

Budget: public revenue $1 1.5 billion, ex- 
penditure $15.5 billion (FY82/83) 

Monetary conversion rate: the Israeli pound 
was allowed to float on 31 October 1977; the 
shekel became the unit of account on 1 Oc- 
tober 1980(1 shekel = 10 Israeli pounds); 
293.2 shekels=US$l (average conversion 
rate for 1984); 1, 500 shekels= US$1 (official 
exchange rate year end 1985); new shekel 
introduced in September 1985 (1,000 old 
shekels=l new shekel) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 516 km 1.435-meter gauge single 
track; diesel operated 

Highways: 4,500 km; majority is bituminous 
surfaced 

Inland waterways: none 

Pipelines: crude oil, 708 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 290 km; natural gas, 89 km 

Ports: 3 major (Haifa, Ashdod, Elat), 5 minor 

Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft 
123 



Airfields: 66 total, 52 usable; 27 with 
permanent-surface runways; 6 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 
1 ,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: most highly devel- 
oped in the Middle East though not the larg- 
est; good system of coaxial cable and radio 
relay; 1,500,000 telephones (34. 7 per 100 
popl.); 11 AM, 24 FM, 54 TV stations; 2 sub- 
marine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite 
stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Israel Defense Forces; historically 
there have been no separate Israeli military 
services; ground, air, and naval components 
are part of Israel Defense Forces 

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 
1,999,000; of 1,008,000 males 15-49, 635,000 
fit for military service; of 991,000 females 
15-49, 621,000 fit for military service; 
38,000 males and 36,000 females reach mili- 
tary age (18) annually; both sexes liable for 
military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1985, $4. 1 billion; about 24% of cen- 
tral government budget 



Italy 



300km 




C.gli 



Mediterranean 
Sea 

Sc ref ionil map V 



Land 

301,223 km 2 ; slightly larger than Arizona; 
50% cultivated, 21% forest, 17% meadow 
and pasture, 9% waste or urban; 3% unused 
but potentially productive 

Land boundaries: 1,702 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 4,996 km 

People 

Population: 57,226,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.2% 

Nationality: noun Italian(s); adjective 
Italian 

Ethnic divisions: primarily Italian but popu- 
lation includes small clusters of German-, 
French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north 
and of Albanian-Italians in the south 

Religion: almost 100% nominally Roman 
Catholic 

Language: Italian; parts of Trentino-Alto 
Adige region (for example, Bolzano) are pre- 
dominantly German speaking; significant 
French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta 
region; Slovene-speaking minority in the 
Trieste-Gorizia area 

Infant mortality rate: 11.3/1,000(1984) 



Life expectancy: 73 
Literacy: 93% 

Labor force: 23,083,000 (1984); 30.5% indus- 
try, 10.5% agriculture, 48.6% services (1984); 
10.4% unemployment (1984) 

Organized labor: 40-45% (est.) of labor force 



Government 

Official name: Italian Republic 

Type: republic 
Capital: Rome 

Political subdivisions: constitution provides 
for establishment of 20 regions; five with 
special statutes (Sicilia, Sardegna, Trentino- 
Alto Adige, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and Valle 
d'Aosta) have been functioning for some 
time, and the remaining 15 regions with reg- 
ular statutes were instituted on 1 April 1972; 
95 provinces, 8,081 communes 

Legal system: based on civil law system, 
with ecclesiastical law influence; constitu- 
tion came into effect 1 January 1948; judicial 
review under certain conditions in Constitu- 
tional Court; has not accepted compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Anniversary of the Re- 
public, 2 June 

Branches: executive President empowered 
to dissolve Parliament and call national elec- 
tion; he is also Commander of the Armed 
Forces and presides over the Supreme De- 
fense Council; otherwise, authority to gov- 
ern invested in Council of Ministers; bicam- 
eral legislature popularly elected Parlia- 
ment (315- member Senate, 630-member 
Chamber of Deputies); independent judicial 
establishment 

Government leaders: Francesco COSSIGA, 
President (since July 1985); Bettino CRAXI, 
Premier (since August 1983) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 (except in 
senatorial elections, where minimum age is 

25) 



Elections: national election for Parliament 
held every five years (most recent, June 
1983); provincial and municipal elections 
held every five years with some out of phase; 
regional elections every five years (held June 
1980) 

Political parties and leaders: Christian 
Democratic Party (DC), Ciriaco DeMita 
(political secretary); Communist Party (PCI), 
Alessandro Natta (secretary general); Social- 
ist Party (PSI), Bettino Craxi (party secre- 
tary); Social Democratic Party (PSDI), 
Franco Nicolazzi (party secretary); Liberal 
Party (PLI), Alfredo Biondi (secretary gen- 
eral); Italian Social Movement (MSI), Giorgio 
Almirante (national secretary); Republican 
Party (PRI), Giovanni Spadolini (political 
secretary) 

Voting strength: (1983 election) 32.5% DC, 
30.5% PCI, 11.3% PSI, 6.6% MSI, 5.2% PRI, 
4.0% PSDI, 3.0% PLI 

Communists: 1,673,751 members (1983) 

Other political or pressure groups: the Vati- 
can; three major trade union confederations 
(CGIL Communist dominated, CISL 
Christian Democratic, and UIL Social 
Democratic, Socialist, and Republican); Ital- 
ian manufacturers association (Confindus- 
tria); organized farm groups 

Member of: ADB, ASSIMER, CCC, Council 
of Europe, DAC, EC, ECOWAS, EIB, 
ELDO, EMS, ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDE 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, 
IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead 
and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, 
ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GDP: $348.4 billion (1984), $6,096 per cap- 
ita; 63.5% private consumption, 18.0% gross 
fixed investment, 20.0% government, 
2.1% net foreign balance, 0.7% change in 
stocks; 1984 growth rate -2.6% (1980 con- 
stant prices) 



124 









Ivory Coast 



Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, 
sulfur, dwindling natural gas reserves, fish 

Agriculture: important producer of fruits 
and vegetables; main crops cereals, pota- 
toes, olives; 95% self-sufficient; food short- 
ages fats, meat, fish, and eggs 

Fishing: catch 478,350 metric tons (1983); 
exports $94 million (1984), imports $709 
million (1984) 

Major industries: machinery and transpor- 
tation equipment, iron and steel, chemicals, 
food processing, textiles 

Shortages: coal, fuels, minerals 

Crude steel: 24 million metric tons 
produced (1984), 420 kg per capita 

Electric power: 51,868,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 183.377 billion kWh produced 
(1985), 3,209 kWh per capita 

Exports: $73.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984); principal 
items textiles, chemicals, footwear 

Imports: $84.3 billion (c.i.f., 1984); principal 
items petroleum machinery and transport 
equipment, foodstuffs, ferrous and nonfer- 
rous metals, wool, cotton 

Major trade partners: (1981) 44% EC (16% 
FRG, 13% France, 6% UK, 4% Switzerland), 
13% OPEC (3% Libya), 8% US, 4% USSR, 
3% Eastern Europe 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $8.9 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 1,785.4 
lire=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 20,085 km total; 16,140 km 1.435- 
meter government-owned standard gauge, 
8,812 km electrified; 3,945 km privately 
owned 2,100 km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge, 1,155 km electrified, and 1,845 km 
0. 950-meter narrow gauge, 380 km electri- 
fied 



Highways: 294,410 km total; autos trade 
5,900 km, state highways 45,170 km, provin- 
cial highways 101,680 km, communal high- 
ways 141,660 km; 260,500 km concrete, bi- 
tuminous, or stone block, 26,900 km gravel 
and crushed stone, 7,010 km earth 

Inland waterways: 1,600 km for various 
types of commercial traffic 

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,703 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 2,148 km; natural gas, 16,660 km 

Ports: 9 major, 1 1 secondary, 40 minor 
Civil air: 132 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 148 total, 141 usable; 84 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 34 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 38 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: well engineered, well 
constructed, and efficiently operated; 23 
million telephones (40. 4 per lOOpopl.); 140 
AM, 1,837 FM, 1,367 TV stations; 20 subma- 
rine cables; 2 communication satellite 
ground stations with a total of 6 antennas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
14,206,000; 11,976,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; 462,000 reach military age (18) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $9.6 billion; about 4.7% of 
central government budget 




Gulf of Guinea 



See region*! map VII 



Land 

322,463 km 2 ; slightly larger than New Mex- 
ico; 52% grazing, fallow, and waste; 40% 
forest and wood; 8% cultivated; 322 km of 
lagoons and connecting canals extend east- 
west along eastern part of the coast 

Land boundaries: 3,227 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coast line: 515 km 

People 

Population: 10,500,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 4.0% 

Nationality: noun Ivorian(s); adjective 
Ivorian 

Ethnic divisions: 1 major indigenous ethnic 
groups; no single tribe more than 20% of 
population; most important are Agni, 
Baoule, Krou, Senoufou, Mandingo; approxi- 
mately 2 million foreign Africans, mostly 
Burkinabe; about 70,000 to 75,000 
non- Africans (30,000 French and 25,000 to 
30,000 Lebanese) 

Religion: 63% indigenous, 25% Muslim, 12% 
Christian 

Language: French (official), over 60 native 
dialects; Dioula most widely spoken 



125 



Ivory Coast (continued) 



Infant mortality rate: 127/1,000(1980) 
Literacy: 24% 

Labor force: over 85% of population en- 
gaged in agriculture, forestry, livestock rais- 
ing; about 1 1 % of labor force are wage earn- 
ers, nearly half in agriculture and the re- 
mainder in government, industry, 
commerce, and professions 

Organized labor: 20% of wage labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of the Ivory Coast 

Type: republic; one-party presidential re- 
gime established 1960 

Capital: Abidjan (capital city changed to 
Yamoussoukro in March 1983 but not recog- 
nized by US) 

Political subdivisions: 34 prefectures subdi- 
vided into 161 subprefectures 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and customary law; constitution 
adopted 1960; judicial review in the Consti- 
tutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; 
legal education at Abidjan School of Law; 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdic- 
tion 

National holiday: 1 December 

Branches: President has sweeping powers, 
unicameral legislature (175-member Na- 
tional Assembly), separate judiciary 

Government leader: Felix HOUPHOUET- 
BOIGNY, President (since 1960) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: legislative and municipal elec- 
tions were held in October 1985; 
Houphouet-Boigny reelected in October 
1985 to his fifth consecutive five-year term; 
next round of national elections scheduled 
for October 1990 

Political parties and leaders: Democratic 
Party of the Ivory Coast (PDCI), only party; 
Houphouet-Boigny firmly controls party 



Communists: no Communist party; possibly 
some sympathizers 

Member of: AfDB, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, 
ECOWAS, EIB (associate), Entente, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, 
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, Niger 
River Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $6.1 billion (1984), $780 per capita 
(1983); real average annual growth rate, 
4.0% (1985 est.) 

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, 
manganese 

Agriculture: commercial coffee, cocoa, 
wood, bananas, pineapples, palm oil; food 
crops corn, millet, yams, rice; other com- 
modities cotton, rubber, tobacco, fish 

Fishing: catch 92,469 metric tons (1982); 
exports $44.7 million (1979), imports $71.9 
million (1979) 

Major industries: food and lumber process- 
ing, oil refinery, automobile assembly plant, 
textiles, soap, flour mill, matches, three small 
shipyards, fertilizer plant, and battery fac- 
tory 

Electric power: 987,600 kW capacity (1985); 
2.162 billion kWh produced (1985), 214 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $3.5 billion (1985 est.); cocoa (30%), 
coffee (20%), tropical woods (11%), cotton, 
bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton 

Imports: $1.6 billion (1985 est.); manufac- 
tured goods and semifinished products 
(50%), consumer goods (40%), raw materials 
and fuels (10%) 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) ODA and OOF (1970-83), $3.0 
billion; US authorizations, including Ex-Im 
(FY70-81), $340 million 

Major trade partners: (1984) exports 
France, Nigeria, FRG, Netherlands, US 



Budget:(lS84 est.), revenues, $1.4 billion; 
current expenditures, $1.4 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commu- 
naute Financiere Af ricaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l (1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 657 km of the 1,175 km Abidjan 
to Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, line, all sin- 
gle track 1.000-meter gauge; only diesel 
locomotives in use 

Highways: 46,600 km total; 3,600 km bitu- 
minous and bituminous-treated surface; 
32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite, 
and improved earth; 11,000 km unimproved 

Inland waterways: 740 km navigable rivers 
and numerous coastal lagoons 

Ports: 2 major (Abidjan, San-Pedro), 2 minor 

Civil air: 25 major transport aircraft, includ- 
ing multinationally owned Air Afrique fleet 

Airfields: 49 total, 45 usable; 3 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 13 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: system above African 
average; consists of open-wire lines and 
radio-relay links; 87,700 telephones (1.3 per 
100 popl.); 3 AM, 17 FM, 11 TV stations; 2 
Atlantic Ocean satellite stations; 2 coaxial 
submarine cables 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramili- 
tary Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,531,000; 
1,300,000 fit for military service; 98,000 
males reach military age (18) annually 



126 



Jamaica 



Caribbean Sea 




Caribbean Sea 



See regional map 111 



Land 

10,991 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Connecti- 
cut; 23% meadow and pasture; 21% arable; 
19% forest; 37% waste, urban, or other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 1,022 km 

People 

Population: 2,288,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Jamaican(s); 
adjective Jamaican 

Ethnic divisions: 76.3% African, 15.1% 
Afro-European, 3.4% East Indian and Afro- 
East Indian, 3.2% white, 1.2% Chinese and 
Afro-Chinese, 0.8% other 

Religion: predominantly Protestant (includ- 
ing Anglican and Baptist), some Roman 
Catholic, some spiritualist cults 

Language: English, Creole 

Infant mortality rate: 16.8/1,000(1984) 

Life expectancy: 65 

Literacy: 76% 

Labor force: 728,700 (1984); 32% agricul- 
ture, 28% industry and commerce, 27% 



services, 13% government; shortage of 
technical and managerial personnel; 30% 
unemployment 

Organized labor: about 33% of labor force 
(1980) 

Government 

Official name: Jamaica 

Type: independent state within Common- 
wealth, recognizing Elizabeth II as head of 
state 

Capital: Kingston 

Political subdivisions: 12 parishes and the 
Kingston-St. Andrew corporate area 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: Independence Day, first 
Monday in August 

Branches: Cabinet headed by Prime Minis- 
ter; bicameral legislature 21-member Sen- 
ate (13 nominated by the Prime Minister, 
eight by opposition leader, if any; currently 
no official opposition because of People's 
National Party boycott of December 1983 
election; eight non-Jamaica Labor Party 
members appointed to current Senate by 
Prime Minister Seaga), 60-member elected 
House of Representatives; judiciary follows 
British tradition under a Chief Justice 

Government leaders: Edward Philip George 
SEAGA, Prime Minister (since November 
1980); Sir Florizel A. GLASSPOLE, Gover- 
nor General (since 1973) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18 

Elections: at discretion of Governor General 
upon advice of Prime Minister but within 
five years; last held 15 December 1983 

Political parties and leaders: Jamaica Labor 
Party (JLP), Edward Seaga; People's Na- 
tional Party (PNP), Michael Manley; 
Workers' Party of Jamaica (WPJ), Trevor 
Munroe 



Voting strength: in the 1983 general elec- 
tions 54 seats were uncontested; in 6 con- 
tested seats the JLP won overwhelmingly 
against several small fringe parties; the PNP 
and WPJ boycotted the election; in 1980 
general elections approx. 58.8% JLP (51 seats 
in House), 41.2% PNP (9 seats) 

Communists: Workers' Party of Jamaica 
(Marxist-Leninist) 

Other political or pressure groups: New 
World Group (Caribbean regionalists, na- 
tionalists, and leftist intellectual fraternity); 
Rastafarians (Negro religious/racial cultists, 
pan-Africanists); New Creation Interna- 
tional Peacemakers Tabernacle (leftist 
group); Workers Liberation League (a Marx- 
ist coalition of students/labor) 

Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, 
FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDE Inter-American 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS, 
PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $2.0 billion (1984), $890 per capita; 

real growth rate 1984, 1.0% est. 

Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, lime- 
stone 

Agriculture: main crops sugarcane, citrus 
fruits, bananas, pimento, coconuts, coffee, 
cocoa, tobacco; an illegal producer of canna- 
bis for the international drug trade 

Major industries: tourism, bauxite mining, 
textiles, food processing, light manufactures 

Electric power: 1,080,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 1.8 billion kWh produced (1985), 790 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $706 million (f.o.b., 1984); alumina, 
bauxite, sugar, bananas, citrus fruits and 
fruit products, rum, cocoa 

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1984); fuels, ma- 
chinery, transportation and electrical equip- 
ment, food, fertilizer 



127 



Jamaica (continued) 



Japan 



Major trade partners: exports US 48%, 
Canada 14%, UK 13%, Norway 3%, 
imports US 46%, Netherlands Antilles 
13%, Venezuela 8%, UK 5% (1984) 

Budget: revenues, $1.0 billion; expenditures, 
$1.6 billion (1982) 

Monetary conversion rate: 5.50 Jamaican 
dollars=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 370 km, all 1 .435-meter standard 
gauge, single track 

Highways: 18,200 km total; 12,600 km 
paved, 3,200 km gravel, 2,400 km improved 
earth 

Pipelines: refined products, 10 km 

Ports: 2 major (Kingston, Montego Bay), 10 



Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 42 total, 39 usable; 15 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 5 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fully automatic do- 
mestic telephone network with 127,000 tele- 
phones (6.0 per 100 popl.); 2 Atlantic Ocean 
INTELSAT stations; 9 AM, 13 FM, 8 TV 
stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes 
Coast Guard and Air Wing) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 546,000; 
403,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion; 32,000 reach minimum volunteer age 
(18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1985, $22.6 million; about 2.8% of 
central government budget 



500km 




Pacific 
Ocean 



Philippine 
Sea 



? Okinawa 
S region*) mip VIII 



Land 

372,313 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Califor- 
nia; 69% forest; 16% arable and cultivated, 
12% urban and waste, 3% grass 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm except 3 nm in five "international 
straits" (200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 13,685 km 

People 

Population: 121,402,000 (July 1986), aver- 
age annual growth rate 0.6% 

Nationality: noun Japanese (sing., pi.); 
adjective Japanese 

Ethnic divisions: 99.4% Japanese, 0.6% 
other (mostly Korean) 

Religion: most Japanese observe both Shinto 
and Buddhist rites; about 16% belong to 
other faiths, including 0.8% Christian 

Language: Japanese 
Infant mortality rate: 6/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 74.54, women 80.18 
Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: (1985) 59.3 million; 53% trade 
and services; 33% manufacturing, mining, 
and construction; 9% agriculture, forestry, 



and fishing; 3% government; 2.68% unem- 
ployed (1985 a ve.) 

Organized labor: about 30% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Japan 

Type: constitutional monarchy 

Capital: Tokyo 

Political subdivisions: 47 prefectures 

Legal system: civil law system with English- 
American influence; constitution promul- 
gated in 1946; judicial review of legislative 
acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 
29 April 

Branches: Emperor is merely symbol of 
state; executive power is vested in Cabinet 
appointed by the Prime Minister, chosen by 
the lower house of the bicameral, elective 
legislature Diet (House of Councilors, 
House of Representatives); judiciary is inde- 
pendent 

Government leaders: HIROHITO, Em- 
peror (since December 1926); Yasuhiro 
NAKASONE, Prime Minister (since Novem- 
ber 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 20 

Elections: general elections held every four 
years or upon dissolution of lower house, 
triennially for half of upper house 

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Demo- 
cratic Party (LDP), Y. Nakasone, president; 
Japan Socialist Party (JSP), M. Ishibashi, 
chairman; Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), 
S. Tsukamoto, chairman; Japan Communist 
Party (JCP), T. Fuwa, Presidium chairman; 
Clean Government Party (CGP), Y. Takeiri, 
chairman; New Liberal Club (NLC), 
Y. Kono; Social Democratic Federation 
(SDF), S. Eda 



128 



Voting strength: (1983 election) Lower 
House 45.8% LDP, 19.5% JSP, 10.1% 
CGP, 9.3% JCP, 7.3% DSP, 2.4% NLC, 0.7% 
SDF, 5% independents and minor parties; 
Upper House 35.3% LDP, 24.3% JSP, 
10.5% JCP, 7.8% CGP, 5.7% DSP, 1.2% 
NLC, 1 1.8% independents and minor 
parties 

Communists: approximately 470,000 regis- 
tered Communist Party members 

Member of: ADB, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, 
DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDE 
Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, 
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead 
and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, 
ITC, ITU, IWC International Whaling 
Commission, IWC International Wheat 
Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $1,233 billion (1984, at 237.52 
yen=US$l); $10,200 per capita (1984); 59% 
personal consumption, 28% investment, 10% 
government current expenditure, negligible 
stocks, and 2% foreign balance; real growth 
rate 5.7% (1984); average annual growth rate 
4.3% (1980-84) 

Natural resources: negligible mineral re- 
sources, fish 

Agriculture: land intensively cultivated; 
rice, sugar, vegetables, fruits; 72% 
self-sufficient in food (1980); food 
shortages meat, wheat, feed grains, edible 
oils and fats 

Fishing: catch 11.2 million metric tons 

(1983) 

Major industries: metallurgical and engi- 
neering industries, electrical and electronic 
industries, textiles, chemicals 

Shortages: fossil fuels, most industrial raw 
materials 

Crude steel: 105.6 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984) 



Electric power: (including Ryukyus) 
175,000,000 kW capacity (1985); 650 billion 
kWh produced (1985), 5,385 kWh per capita 

Exports: $170. 1 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 97% 
manufactures (including 25% machinery, 
18% motor vehicles, 9% iron and steel) 

Imports: $136.5 billion (c.i.f., 1984); 47% 
fossil fuels, 22.4% manufactures, 12% food- 
stuffs, 8% machinery 

Major trade partners: exports 29% US, 
23% Southeast Asia, 16% Western Europe, 
12% Middle East, 6% Communist countries, 
imports 27% Middle East, 22% Southeast 
Asia, 19% US, 8% Western Europe, 6% Com- 
munist countries 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic com- 
mitments (1970-83), $35.6 billion 

Budget: revenues, $216 billion; expendi- 
tures, $270 billion; deficit, $54 billion (pro- 
posed general account for fiscal year ending 
March 1987) 

Monetary conversion rate: 198.5 yen=US$l 
(2 January 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 21,387 km total (1982); 1,835 km 
1.435-meter standard gauge, 19,552 km pre- 
dominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge, 
5,690 km double- and multitrack sections, 
8,830 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge electri- 
fied, 1,804 km 1.435-meter standard gauge 
electrified 

Highways: 1,113,388 km total (1980); 
510,904 km paved, 602,484 km gravel, 
crushed stone, or unpaved; 2,579 km na- 
tional expressways, 40,212 km national high- 
ways, 43,907 km principal local roads, 
86,930 km prefectural roads, 939,760 km 
municipal roads 

Inland waterways: approx. 1,770 km; sea- 
going craft ply all coastal inland seas' 

Pipelines: crude oil, 84 km; natural gas, 
1,800 km; refined products, 322 km 

Ports: 17 Japanese Port Association specifi- 
cally designated major ports, 1 10 other ma- 
jor ports, over 2,000 minor ports 



Civil air: 265 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 180 total, 160 usable; 126 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m; 26 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 49 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: excellent domestic 
and international service; 64.0 million tele- 
phones (53.0 per 100 popl.); 318 AM stations, 
58 FM stations plus 436 relay stations; about 
12,350 TV stations (196 major 1 kw or 
greater), and 2 ground satellite stations; sub- 
marine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines, 
China, and USSR 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Japan Ground Self- Defense Force 
(army), Japan Maritime Self- Defense Force 
(navy), Japan Air Self- Defense Force (air 
force), Maritime Safety Agency (coast guard) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
31,702,000; 26,438,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; about 870,000 reach military age (18) 
annually 

Personnel: Ground Self- Defense Force, 
156,000; Maritime Self-Defense Force, 
42, 100 (including 1 1 ,900 air arm); Air Self- 
Defense Force, 43,400; Maritime Safety 
Agency, 11,200 

Missiles: 6 operational NIKE-Hercules 
groups, 8 operational HAWK groups (NIKE 
in air force, HAWK in ground force) 

Supply: defense industry potential is large, 
with capability of producing the most so- 
phisticated equipment; manufactured 
equipment includes small arms artillery, 
armored vehicles, and other types of ground 
forces materiel, aircraft (jet and prop), naval 
vessels (submarines, guided missile and other 
destroyers, patrol craft, mine warfare ships, 
and other minor craft, including amphibi- 
ous, auxiliaries, service craft, and small sup- 
port ships), small amounts of all types of 
army materiel; several missile systems are 
produced under US license, and a vigorous 
domestic missile development program 
exists 

Military budget: actual for fiscal year end- 
ing 31 March 1987, $16.7 billion; 7.8% of 
total budget 



129 



Jersey 



English Channel 




English Channel 



Set rr|ionsl map V 



Land 

1 17 km 2 ; more than half the size of Wash- 
ington D. C.; part of the Channel Islands; 
about 58% of land under cultivation 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing) 

Coastline: about 70 km 

People 

Population: 80,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.9% 

Nationality: noun Channel Islanders); 
adjective Channel Islander 

Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French 
descent 

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Bap- 
tist, Congregational New Church, Method- 
ist, Presbyterian 

Language: English and French (official), 
with the Norman-French dialect spoken in 
country districts 

Literacy: probably high 

Government 

Official name: Bailiwick of Jersey 

Type: British crown dependency 
Capital: St. Helier 



Political subdivisions: 12 parishes 

Legal system: English law and local statute; 
justice is administered by the Royal Court 

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 
June 

Branches: the Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief is the personal repre- 
sentative of the Crown and is entitled to sit 
and speak in the Assembly of the States (leg- 
islature) but not vote; the Assembly is pre- 
sided over by the Bailiff who has a right of 
dissent and a casting vote; it consists of 12 
senators (elected for six years), 12 constables 
(triennial), and 29 deputies (triennial); the 
Crown is ultimately responsible for the 
island's "good" government 

Government leaders: Adm. Sir William 
PILLAR, Lieutenant Governor and Com- 
mander in Chief (since 1985); Peter GRILL, 
Bailiff, President of the Assembly of the 
States and the Royal Court (since 1975) 

Suffrage: universal adult 
Communists: probably none 

Economy 

Agriculture: principal crops potatoes, cau- 
liflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle farming 

Major industries: tourism, banking and 
finance 

Electric power: 50,000 kW standby capacity 
(1985); power supplied by France 

Exports: 19.8 million pounds sterling (1983); 
light industry, electrical manufacturing, 
textiles 

Imports: machinery and transport equip- 
ment, manufactured goods, food, mineral 
fuels, chemicals 

Major trade partners: UK 

Budget: (1983) revenue 143,680 million 
pounds; expenditure 115,902 million pounds 



Monetary conversion rate: 1 Jersey pound, 
which is at par with the pound sterling; 1 
pound sterling=US$l. 42 (November 1985) 

Fiscal year: 31 April-lMay 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Ports: St. Helier, Corey, St. Aubin 
Airfields: airport at St. Peter 

Telecommunications: telephones in service, 
61,400 (80.9 per 100 popl.); radio station, 
independent TV station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 
Kingdom 



130 



Jordan 

(West Bank and Gaza Strip 
listed at end of table) 




NOTE: the war between Israel and the 
Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel 
in control of the West Bank; as stated in 
the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaf- 
firmed by the President's 1 September 
1982 peace initiative, the final status of the 
West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relation- 
ship with their neighbors, and a peace 
treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be 
negotiated among the concerned parties; 
Camp David further specifies that these 
negotiations will resolve the location of the 
respective boundaries; pending the com- 
pletion of this process, it is US policy that 
the final status of the West Bank and Gaza 
Strip has yet to be determined (see West 
Bank and Gaza Strip "Factsheet"). 

Land 

90,650 km 2 ; larger than Minnesota; 88% 
desert, waste, or urban; 11% agricultural; 1% 
forest 

Land boundaries: 1,770 km (1967) 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 

Coastline: 26 km 

People 

Population: 2,756,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.3% 

Nationality: noun Jordanian(s); adjec- 
tive Jordanian 



Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% Circassian, 
1% Armenian 

Religion: 95% Sunni Muslim, 5% Christian 

Language: Arabic (official); English widely 
understood among upper and middle classes 

Infant mortality rate: 62/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: 61.7 
Literacy: about 71% 

Labor force: 580,000 (1983 est); 20% agri- 
culture, 20% manufacturing and mining 

Organized labor: about 10% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jor- 
dan 

Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Amman 

Political subdivisions: eight governorates 
under centrally appointed officials 

Legal system: based on Islamic law and 
French codes; constitution adopted 1952; 
judicial review of legislative acts in a spe- 
cially provided High Tribunal; has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 
May 

Branches: King holds balance of power; 
Prime Minister exercises executive authority 
in name of King; Cabinet appointed by King 
and responsible to parliament; bicameral 
parliament with House of Representatives, 
dissolved by King in February 1976, and 
reconvened in January 1984, following na- 
tional elections; Senate last appointed by 
King in January 1984; secular court system 
based on differing legal systems of the 
former Transjordan and Palestine; law 
Western in concept and structure; Sharia 
(religious) courts for Muslims, and religious 
community council courts for non-Muslim 
communities; desert police carry out quasi- 
judicial functions in desert areas 



Government leader: HUSSEIN I, King 
(since August 1952) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 20 

Political parties and leaders: political party 
activity illegal since 1957 

Communist: party actively repressed, 
membership estimated at less than 500 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, 
NAM, QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $4.9 billion (1984), $1,900 per capita; 

real growth rate (1984), 2.0% 

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale 
oil 

Agriculture: main crops vegetables, fruits, 
olive oil, wheat; not self-sufficient in many 
foodstuffs 

Major industries: phosphate mining, petro- 
leum refining, cement production, light 
manufacturing 

Electric power: 691,400 kW capacity (1985); 
2.422 billion kWh produced (1985), 910 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $756 million (f.o.b., 1984); fruits 
and vegetables, phosphates, fertilizers; Com- 
munist share 13% of total (1984) 

Imports: $2,789 million (c.i.f., 1984); crude 
oil, petroleum, textiles, capital goods, motor 
vehicles, foodstuffs; Communist share 6% of 
total (1984) 

Aid: economic commitments US, includ- 
ing Ex-Im (1970-84), $1.3 billion; Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-83), $816 million; Communist coun- 
tries (1970-84), $70 million; military US 
(FY70-84), $1.2 billion; Communist coun- 
tries (1970-84), $590 million; OPEC ODA 
commitments (1974-83), $5.5 billion 



131 



Jordan (continued) 



Kenya 



Budget: (1984) total revenue, $1,836 million; 
current expenditures, $1,267 million; capital 
expenditures, $675 million 

Monetary conversion rate: .384 Jordanian 
dinar=US$l (1984 average) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 817 km 1.050-meter gauge, single 
track 

Highways: 6,332 km total; 4,837 km paved, 
1,495 km gravel and crushed stone 

Pipelines: crude oil, 209 km 
Ports: 1 major (Al 'Aqabah) 
Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 21 total, 19 usable; 14 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 13 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 



Telecommunications: adequate system of 
radio-relay, cable, and radio; 81,500 tele- 
phones (3 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 2 FM, 24 TV 
stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station, 1 
Indian Ocean satellite station; 1 Arab satel- 
lite station; coaxial cable and radio-relay to 
Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria; radio-relay to 
Lebanon inactive 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Jordan Arab Army, Royal Jorda- 
nian Air Force, Royal Jordanian Coast 
Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 621,000; 
439,000 fit for military service; 39,000 reach 
military age (18) annually 



Lodww^ X iflurfoff MovTi. > 




Indian 
Ocean 



Set regional map VII 



Land 

582,646 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Texas; 
64% mainly grassland adequate for grazing; 
21% forest and wood; 17% arable, 13% suit- 
able for agriculture 

Land boundaries: 3,368 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 536 km 

People 

Population: 21,044,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 4.1% 

Nationality: noun Kenyan(s); adjective 
Kenyan 

Ethnic divisions: 21% Kikuyu, 14% Luhya, 
13% Luo, 11% Kalenjin, 11% Kamba, 6% 
Kisii, 5% Meru, 1% Asian, European, and 
Arab 

Religion: 38% Protestant, 28% Catholic, 26% 
indigenous beliefs, 6% Muslim 

Language: English and Swahili (official); 
numerous indigenous languages 

Infant mortality rate: 59/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: men 53, women 58. 1 
Literacy: 47% 



Labor force: 7.4 million; about 1.1 million 
wage earners; 50% public sector, 18% indus- 
try and commerce, 17% agriculture, 13% 
services 

Organized labor: about 390,000 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Kenya 

Type: republic within Commonwealth 
Capital: Nairobi 

Political subdivisions: 1 provinces plus 
Nairobi area 

Legal system: based on English common 
law, tribal law, and Islamic law; constitution 
enacted 1963; judicial review in Supreme 
Court; legal education at Kenya School of 
Law in Nairobi; accepts compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional 
amendment in 1982 made Kenya a de jure 
one- party state 

National holiday: Jamhuri Day, 12 Decem- 
ber 

Branches: President and Cabinet responsible 
to unicameral legislature (National Assem- 
bly) of 170 seats, 158 directly elected by con- 
stituencies and 12 appointed by the Presi- 
dent; High Court, with Chief Justice and at 
least 1 1 justices, has unlimited original juris- 
diction to hear and determine any civil or 
criminal proceeding; provision for system of 
courts of appeal 

Government leader: Daniel T. arap MOI, 
President (since 1978) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: Assembly at least every five years; 
present National Assembly and President 
elected September 1983 

Political party and leader: Kenya African 
National Union (KANU), Kenya's sole legal 
political party, Daniel arap Moi, president 

Voting strength: KANU holds all seats in the 
National Assembly 



132 



Kiribati 

(formerly Gilbert Islands) 



Communists: may be a few Communists 
and sympathizers 

Other political or pressure groups: labor 
unions 

Member of: Af DB, Commonwealth, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, 
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, 
IWC International Wheat Council, NAM, 
OAU, UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $4.5 billion (1985), $280 per capita; 

real growth rate, 3.5% (1985 est.) 

Natural resources: gold, limestone, dioto- 
mite, salt barytes, magnesite, feldspar, sap- 
phires, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife, land 

Agriculture: main cash crops coffee, tea, 
sisal, pyrethrum, cotton, livestock; food 
crops corn, wheat, sugarcane, rice, cas- 
sava; largely self-sufficient in food 

Major industries: small-scale consumer 
goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, 
soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural process- 
ing, oil refining, cement, tourism 

Electric power: 550,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.686 billion kWh produced (1985), 83 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $1,034 million (f.o.b., 1984); reex- 
porting of petroleum products, coffee, tea, 
sisal, livestock products, pyrethrum, soda 
ash, wattle-bark tanning extract 

Imports: $1,549 million (c.i.f., 1984); ma- 
chinery, transport equipment, crude oil, 
paper and paper products, iron and steel 
products, and textiles 

Major trade partners: EC, Japan, Middle 
East, US, Zambia, Uganda 

Budget: (1982 percent of GDP) revenues 
and grants 24%; total expenditure and net 
lending -28%; debt service ratio (1985) 30% 
(est.) 



External public debt: $2.9 billion (1982 est.); 
debt service payment 23% of exports 

Monetary conversion rate: 16.75 Kenya 
shillings=US $1 (30 September 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge 

Highways: 55,400 km total; 7,000 km paved, 
4,150 km gravel, remainder improved earth 

Inland waterways: part of Lake Victoria 
system is within boundaries of Kenya; prin- 
cipal inland port is at Kisumu 

Pipelines: refined products, 483 km 

Ports: 1 major (Mombasa) 

Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 217 total, 197 usable; 14 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 4 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 47 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: in top group of Afri- 
can systems; consists of radio-relay links, 
open- wire lines, and radiocommunication 
stations; 231,000 telephones (1.3 per 100 
popl.); 11 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV stations; 1 Atlan- 
tic and 1 Indian Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Air 
Force; paramilitary General Service Unit 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,185,000; 
2,576,000 fit for military service; no con- 
scription 



North Pacific Ocean 



1* TARAWA 



Kiribati 
(Gilbert 
Islands) 



Kiritimali 
(Christmasl 



Rawakt 
(Phoenix 
Islands) 



South Pacific Ocean 



Set regional map X 



Land 

719 km 2 ; slightly smaller than New York 
City 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm (200 nm 
fishing zone) 

Coastline: about 1,143 km 

People 

Population: 63,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.3% 

Nationality: noun Kiribatian(s); adjec- 
tive Kiribati 

Ethnic divisions: Micronesian 
Religion: Roman Catholic, Protestant 
Language: English (official), Gilbertese 
Literacy: 90% 

Labor force: 15,921 (1973); general unem- 
ployment rate 4.9% 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Kiribati 

Type: republic 
Capital: Tarawa 



133 



Kiribati (continued) 



Korea, North 



Branches: unicameral legislature 
(35-member House of Assembly); nationally 
elected President 

Government leader: leremia T. TABAI, 
President (since July 1979) 

Political parties and leaders: Gilbertese Na- 
tional Party, Christian Democratic Party 

Member of: ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP 
(associate member), GATT (de facto), ICAO, 
SPF 

Economy 

GDP: $25 million (1984 est), $417 per capita 

Agriculture: limited; copra, subsistence 
crops of vegetables, supplemented by do- 
mestic fishing 

Industry: formerly phosphate production; 
supply exhausted by mid-1981; tuna fishing 
licenses to USSR fishing fleet within 
Kiribati's 200 nm fishing zone, excluding 
12-nm territorial zone 

Electric power: 2,750 kW capacity (1985); 8 
million kWh produced (1985), 129 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: phosphate, formerly 80% of ex- 
ports, exhausted in 1981; copra accounted 
for 80% (A$1.45 million) in 1982 

Imports: $15 million (1979); foodstuffs, fuel, 
transportation equipment 

Aid: Western (non-US) commitments ODA 
and OOF (1970-83), $192 million; Australia 
(1970-83), $25.7 million committed 

Budget: $15.2 million (1979) 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.0392 
Australian$=US$l (23 February 1983) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 483 km of motorable roads 

Inland waterways: small network of canals, 
totaling 5 km, in Line Islands 



Ports: 3 minor 

Civil air: 2 Trislanders; no major transport 
aircraft 

Airfields: 19 total; 16 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways, 4 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 1 AM broadcast sta- 
tion; 1,400 telephones (2.33 per 100 popl.) 



150 k 




Sea of 
Japan 



Sea 
Set retionil mip MM 



Land 

121,129 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Missis- 
sippi; 74% forest, scrub, and brush; 17% ara- 
ble and cultivated; remainder waste and 
urban 

Land boundaries: 1,675 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone; 50 nm 
"military boundary line" from which all 
foreign vessels and aircraft without permis- 
sion are banned) 

Coastline: 2,495 km 

People 

Population: 20,543,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.3% 

Nationality: noun Korean(s); adjective 
Korean 

Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous 

Religion: Buddhism and Confucianism; reli- 
gious activities now almost nonexistent 

Language: Korean 

Infant mortality rate: 32/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 63, women 67 
Literacy: 95% est. 



134 



Labor force: 6. 1 million (1980); 48% agricul- 
tural, 52% nonagricultural; shortage of 
skilled and unskilled labor 

Government 

Official name: Democratic People's Repub- 
lic of Korea 

Type: Communist state; one-man rule 
Capital: P'yongyang 

Political subdivisions: nine provinces, four 
special cities (P'yongyang, Kaesong, 
Namp'o, and Ch'ongjin) 

Legal system: based on German civil law 
system with Japanese influences and Com- 
munist legal theory; constitution adopted 
1948 and revised 1972; no judicial review of 
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: 9 September 

Branches: Supreme People's Assembly theo- 
retically supervises legislative and judicial 
functions; State Administration Council 
(cabinet) oversees ministerial operations 

Government leaders: KIM Il-song, President 
(since December 1972); KANG Song-san, 
Premier (since January 1984) 

Suffrage: universal at age 17 

Elections: election to SPA every four years, 
but this constitutional provision not neces- 
sarily followed last election February 1982 

Political party and leaders: Korean 
Workers' Party (KWP); Kim Il-song, General 
Secretary, and his son, Kim Chong-il, Secre- 
tary 

Communists: KWP claims membership of 
about 2 million, or about 1 1 % of population 

Member of: FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IPU, 
ITU, NAM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO; official ob- 
server status at UN 



Economy 

GNP: $23 billion (1984 in 1984 dollars), 

$1,170 per capita 

Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, 
graphite, magnesite, iron, copper, gold, 
phosphates, salt, fluorspar, hydroelectric 
power 

Agriculture: main crops corn, rice, vegeta- 
bles; food shortages meat, cooking oils; 
production of foodstuffs adequate for do- 
mestic needs 

Major industries: machine building, electric 
power, chemicals, mining, metallurgy, tex- 
tiles, food processing 

Shortages: advanced machinery and equip- 
ment, coking coal, coal, petroleum, electric 
power, transport 

Crude steel: 4.0 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 204 kg per capita 

Electric power: 5,910,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 40 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 992 kWh per capita 

Coal: 52 million tons (1984) 

Exports: $1.59 billion (1984); minerals, met- 
allurgical products, agricultural products, 
manufactures 

Imports: $1.36 billion (1984); petroleum, 
machinery and equipment, coking coal, 
grain 

Major trade partners: total trade turnover 
$2.95 billion (1983); 55% with Communist 
countries, 45% with non-Communist coun- 
tries 

Aid: economic and military aid from the 
Soviet Union and China 

Monetary conversion rate: 2 wons=US$l 
(December 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 



Communications 

Railroads: 4,535 km total operating in 1980; 
3,870 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 665 
km 0.762-meter narrow gauge, 159 km dou- 
ble track; about 3,175 km electrified; gov- 
ernment owned 

Highways: about 20,280 km (1980); 98.5% 
gravel, crushed stone, or earth surface; 1.5% 
concrete or bituminous 

Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly naviga- 
ble by small craft only 

Pipelines: crude oil, 37 km 
Ports: 6 major, 26 minor 

Defense Forces 

Branches: North Korean People's Army 
(consists of the army, navy, and air force) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,748,000; 
2,909,000 fit for military service; 260,000 
reach military age (18) annually 



135 



Korea, South 



Ullung do 




.. 3 



Cheju-do^- > 
Srr regional map Mil 



Land 

98,500 km 2 ; slightly larger than Indiana; 
66% forest, 23% arable (22% cultivated), 10% 
urban and other 

Land boundaries: 241 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm 3 nm 
in Korea Strait (200 nm exclusive economic 
zone) 

Coosf/<ne:2,413km 

People 

Population: 43,285,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.5% 

Nationality: noun Korean(s); adjective 
Korean 

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous; small Chi- 
nese minority (approx. 20,000) 

Religion: strong Confucian tradition; vigor- 
ous Christian minority (28% of the total pop- 
ulation); Buddhism; pervasive folk religion 
(Shamanism); Chondokyo (religion of the 
heavenly way), eclectic religion with nation- 
alist overtones founded in 19th century, 
claims about 1 .5 million adherents 

Language: Korean; English widely taught in 
high school 

Infant mortality rate: 29/1,000(1983) 



Life expectancy: men 64, women 71 
Literacy: over 90% 

Labor force: 15.4 million (1985 est.); 47% 
services and other; 30% agriculture, fishing, 
forestry; 21% mining and manufacturing; 
average unemployment 4.1% (1985 est.) 

Organized labor: about 10% of nonagri- 
cultural labor force in government- sanc- 
tioned unions 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Korea 

Type: republic; power centralized in a 
strong executive 

Capital: Seoul 

Political subdivisions: nine provinces, four 
special cities; governors/mayors centrally 
appointed 

Legal system: combines elements of conti- 
nental European civil law systems, Anglo- 
American law, and Chinese classical 
thought; constitution approved 1980; has not 
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 
August 

Branches: unicameral legislature (National 
Assembly), judiciary 

Government leaders: CHUN Doo Hwan, 
President (since August 1980); LHO Shin 
Yong, Prime Minister (since February 1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 20 

Elections: under new constitution of Octo- 
ber 1980, President elected every seven 
years indirectly by a 5,000-man electoral 
college; last election February 1981; four- 
year National Assembly, elected in Febru- 
ary 1985, consists of 276 representatives, 184 
directly elected and 92 appointed on propor- 
tional basis by major parties 

Political parties and leaders: major party is 
government's Democratic Justice Party 
(DJP), Chun Doo Hwan, president, and Roh 



Tae Woo, chairman; opposition parties are 
New Korea Democratic Party (NKDP), Lee 
Min-woo; Korean National Party (KNP), Lee 
Man-sup; several smaller parties 

Communists: Communist activity banned 
by government 

Other political or pressure groups: Council 
for the Promotion of Democracy; Korean 
National Council of Churches; large, poten- 
tially volatile student population concen- 
trated in Seoul; Federation of Korean Trade 
Unions; Korean Veterans' Association; Fed- 
eration of Korean Industries; Korean Trad- 
ers Association 

Member of: ABD, AfDB, Asian- African Le- 
gal Consultative Committee, Asian Parlia- 
mentary Union, APACL Asian People's 
Anti-Communist League, ASPAC, Colombo 
Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, Geneva 
Conventions of 1949 for the protection of 
war victims, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, 
IWC International Whaling Commission, 
IWC International Wheat Council, UN- 
CTAD, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UN- 
IDO, UN Special Fund, UPU, WACL 
World Anti-Communist League, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WTO; official observer status 
at UN 

Economy 

CNF: $90.1 billion (1984, in 1984 prices), 
$2,000 per capita; real growth 7.5% (1984); 
real growth 4.7% (1980-84 average) 

Natural resources: coal (limited), tungsten, 
graphite 

Agriculture: 9.0 million people (22% of the 
population) live in farm households, but ag- 
riculture, forestry, and fishing constitute 
15% of GNP; main crops rice, barley, veg- 
etables, and legumes 

Fishing: catch 2,909,81 1 metric tons (1984) 

Major industries: textiles and clothing, food 
processing, chemicals, steel, electronics, ship 
building 



136 



Kuwait 



Shortages: heavily dependent on imports of 
iron ore, crude oil, base metals, lumber, and 
certain food grains 

Crude steel: 13.0 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984) 

Electric power: 15,560,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 56.49 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 325 kWh per capita 

Exports: $29.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); textiles 
and clothing, electrical machinery, foot- 
wear, steel, ships, fish 

Imports: $30.6 billion (c.i.f., 1984); machin- 
ery, oil, steel, transport equipment, textiles, 
organic chemicals, grains 

Major trade partners: exports 36% US, 
16% Japan; imports 25% Japan, 22% US 
(1984) 

Aid: economic US, including Ex-Im 
(1970-83), $3.9 billion committed; Japan 
(1965-75), $1.8 billion extended; military- 
US (1970-84) $3.8 billion committed 

Budget: planned expenditures, $15.4 billion 
(1986) 

Monetary conversion rate: 892 won=US$l 
(2 January 1986) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,106.5 km operating in 1983; 
3,059.4 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 
46.9 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, 712.5 
km double-track, 417.9 km electrified; gov- 
ernment owned 

Highways: 53,936 km total (1982); 13,476 
km national highway, 49,460 km provincial 
and local roads 

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted 
to small native craft 

Freight carried: rail (1983) 51 million metric 
tons; highway 126 million metric tons; air 
(1983) 47,000 metric tons (domestic) 

Pipelines: 294 km refined products 



Ports: 1 1 major, 32 minor 

Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 121 total, 109 usable; 67 with 
permanent-surface runways; 23 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 12 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: adequate domestic 
and international services; 4.8 million tele- 
phones (121 per 100 pop!.); 79 AM, 46 FM, 
256 TV stations (57 of 1 kW or greater); 1 
ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Naval 
Marine Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
12,055,000; 8,129,000 fit for military service; 
464,000 reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1986, $4.7 billion; 
about 31.2% of central government budget 



Bubiyan 




See regional map VI 



Land 

1 7,81 8 km 2 (excluding neutral zone but in- 
cluding islands); slightly smaller than New 
Jersey; nearly all desert, waste, or urban; 
insignificant forest; 1% cultivated 

Land boundaries: 459 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 499 km 

People 

Population: 1,77 1,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.5% 

Nationality: noun Kuwaiti(s); adjective 
Kuwaiti 

Ethnic divisions: 39% Kuwaiti, 39% other 
Arab, 9% South Asian, 4% Iranian, 9% other 

Religion: 85% Muslim, 15% Christian, 
Hindu, Parsi, and other 

Language: Arabic (official); English widely 
spoken 

Infant mortality rate: 26. 1/1,000 (1985) 
Life expectancy: men 69, women 74 
Literacy: about 71% 



137 



Kuwait (continued) 



Labor force: 566,000 (1985); 45.0% services, 
20.0% construction, 12.0% trade, 8.6% man- 
ufacturing, 2.6% finance and real estate, 
1.9% agriculture, 1.7% power and water, 
1.4% mining and quarrying; 70% of labor 
force is non-Kuwaiti 

Organized labor: labor unions, first autho- 
rized in 1964, formed in oil industry and 
among government personnel 

Government 

Official name: State of Kuwait 

Type: nominal constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Kuwait 

Political subdivisions: 4 governorates (Ku- 
wait City, Hawalli, Ahmadi, Johra), 25 vot- 
ing constituencies 

Legal system: civil law system with Islamic 
law significant in personal matters; constitu- 
tion took effect in 1963; popularly elected 
50-man National Assembly (the 15 cabinet 
members can also vote) reinstated in March 
1981 after being suspended in 1976; judicial 
review of legislative acts not yet determined; 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdic- 
tion 

National holiday: National Day, 25 Febru- 
ary 

Branches: Council of Ministers; 
legislature National Assembly 

Government leader: Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir 
Al SABAH, Amir (since December 1977) 

Suffrage: adult males who resided in Kuwait 
before 1920 and their male descendents (eli- 
gible voters, 8.3% of citizenry) 

Elections: National Assembly elected in 
February 1985 

Political parties and leaders: political par- 
ties prohibited, some small clandestine 
groups are active 

Communists: insignificant 



Other political or pressure groups: large 
(350,000) Palestinian community 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IDE Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, 
QIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $21.8 billion (1984), $13,620 per cap- 
ita GNP (1984); 5% annual growth rate 
(1984) 

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp 

Agriculture: virtually none; dependent on 
imports for food; approx. 75% of potable 
water must be distilled or imported 

Major industries: crude petroleum produc- 
tion average for 1984, 1.1 million b/d; petro- 
leum refining (capacity approximately 0.5 
million b/d); other major industries include 
petrochemicals, retail trade, and manufac- 
turing; water desalinization capacity 618 
million liters per day (1983 prelim.) 

Electric power: 5,335,300 kW capacity 
(1985); 18.694 billion kWh produced (1985), 
10,930 kWh per capita 

Exports: $1 1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1985), of which 
petroleum accounted for about 85% 

Imports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984); major 
suppliers Japan, US, FRG, UK 

Major trading partners: exports Japan, 
US, FRG, Italy; imports Japan, FRG, UK, 
US 

Budget: (1984/85 actual) revenues, $10.6 
billion; expenditures, $12.9 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: .29 Kuwaiti 
dinar=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: none 



Highways: 2,600 km total; 2,300 km bitumi- 
nous; 300 km earth, sand, light gravel 

Pipelines: crude oil, 877 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 40 km; natural gas, 121 km 

Ports: 3 major (Ash Shuwaykh, Ash 
Shu'aybah, MlnS' al Ahmadi), 6 minor 

Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 9 total, 4 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: excellent interna- 
tional and adequate domestic telecommuni- 
cation facilities; 258,000 telephones (16 per 
100 popl.); 2 AM, 2 FM, 3 TV stations; 1 In- 
dian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite 
stations, 1 INMARSAT satellite station; 1 
Arab satellite station; coaxial cable and 
radio-relay to Iraq and Saudi Arabia 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National 
Police Force, National Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 
438,000; about 266,000 fit for military ser- 



Military budget: operating expenditures for 
fiscal year ending 30 June 1985, $865 mil- 
lion; 7.3% of central government budget 









138 



Laos 




Src regional map l\ 



Land 

236,804 km 2 ; slightly larger than Utah; 60% 
forest; 8% agricultural; 32% urban, waste, or 
other; except in limited areas, soil is poor; 
most of forested area is not exploitable 

Land boundaries: 5,053 km 

People 

Population: 3,679,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.0% 

Nationality: noun Lao (sing., Lao or Lao- 
tian); adjective Lao or Laotian 

Ethnic divisions: 48% Lao; 25% Phoutheung 
(Kha); 14% Tribal Tai; 13% Meo, Yao, and 
other 

Religion: 50% Buddhist, 50% animist and 
other 

Language: Lao (official), French, and Eng- 
lish 

Infant mortality rate: 159/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 42, women 45 
Literacy: 85% 

Labor force: about 1-1.5 million; 80-90% 
agriculture 

Organized labor: only labor organization is 
subordinate to the Communist Party 



Government 

Official name: Lao People's Democratic 
Republic 

Type: Communist state 
Capital: Vientiane 

Political subdivisions: 16 provinces subdi- 
vided into districts, cantons, and villages 

Legal system: based on civil law system; has 
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: 2 December 

Branches: President; 37-member Supreme 
People's Council; Cabinet; Cabinet is totally 
Communist but Council contains a few 
nominal neutralists and non-Communists; 
National Congress of People's Representa- 
tives established the current government 
structure in December 1975 

Government leaders: SOUPHANOU- 
VONG, President (since December 1975); 
KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN, Chairman 
(since December 1975) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: elections for National Assembly, 
originally scheduled for 1 April 1976, have 
not yet been held 

Political parties and leaders: Lao People's 
Revolutionary Party (Communist), Kaysone 
Phomvihan, party chairman; includes Lao 
Patriotic Front and Alliance Committee of 
Patriotic Neutralist Forces; other parties 
moribund 

Other political or pressure groups: non- 
Communist political groups moribund; most 
leaders have fled the country 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, 
IMF, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mekong 
Committee, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, 
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, 
WTO 



Economy 

GNP: $765 million, $220 per capita (1984 

est.) 

Natural resources: tin, timber, gypsum, hy- 
droelectric power 

Agriculture: main crops rice (overwhelm- 
ingly dominant), corn, vegetables, tobacco, 
coffee, cotton; formerly self-sufficient; food 
shortages (due in part to distribution defi- 
ciencies) include rice; an illegal producer of 
opium poppy and cannabis for the interna- 
tional drug trade 

Major industries: tin mining, timber, green 
coffee, electric power 

Shortages: capital equipment, petroleum, 
transportation system, trained personnel 

Electric power: 175,100 kW capacity (1985); 
905 million kWh produced (1985), 250 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $36 million (f.o.b., 1984 est.); elec- 
tric power, forest products, tin concentrates; 
coffee, undeclared exports of opium and 
tobacco 

Imports: $98 million (c.i.f., 1984 est.); rice 
and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, 
machinery, transportation equipment 

Major trade partners: imports Thailand, 
USSR, Japan, France, China, Vietnam; ex- 
ports Thailand, Malaysia 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries ODA and OOF 
(1970-83), $386 million; US(FY70-79), $276 
million; military US assistance $1.1 billion 
(1970-75) 

Budget: (1979 est.) receipts, $100 million; 
expenditures, $191 million; deficit, $91 mil- 
lion 

Monetary conversion rate: official 10 
kips= US$1; commercial 35 kips=US$l; 
inward remittances 108 kips=US$l (De- 
cember 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30June 



139 



Laos (continued) 



Lebanon 



Communications 

Highways: about 21,300 km total; 1,300 km 
bituminous or bituminous treated; 5,900 km 
gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 
14,100 km unimproved earth and often im- 
passable during rainy season mid-May to 
mid-September 

Inland waterways: about 4,587 km, pri- 
marily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 addi- 
tional kilometers are sectionally navigable 
by craft drawing less than 0.5 m 

Pipelines: 136 km, refined products 
Ports (river): 5 major, 4 minor 

Airfields: 66 total, 50 usable; 9 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: service to general 
public considered poor; radio network pro- 
vides generally erratic service to govern- 
ment users; approx. 10 AM stations; 1 TV 
station; over 5,000 telephones; 1 ground sat- 
ellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Lao People's Army (LPA, which 
consists of an army with naval, aviation, and 
militia elements), Air Force, National Police 
Department 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 878,000; 
469,000 fit for military service; 43,000 reach 
military age (18) annually; no conscription 
age specified 



50km 




Land 

10,360 km 2 ; smaller than Connecticut; 64% 
desert, waste, or urban; 27% agricultural; 9% 
forest; 400,000 hectares under cultivation 

Land boundaries: 551 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 225 km 

People 

Population: 2,675,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.1% 

Nationality: noun Lebanese (sing., pi.); 
adjective Lebanese 

Ethnic divisions: 93% Arab, 6% Armenian, 
1% other 

Religion: 57% Muslim (Sunni and Shi'a) and 
Druze, 42% Christian (Maronite, Greek 
Orthodox and Catholic, Roman Catholic, 
Protestant), 1% other (official estimates); 
Muslims, in fact, constitute a majority 

Language: Arabic (official); French is widely 
spoken; Armenian, English 

Infant mortality rate: 48/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 63, women 67 
Literacy: 75% 



Labor force: 650,000 (1985); 79% industry, 
commerce, and services, 1 1 % agriculture, 
10% goverment; high unemployment 

Organized labor: about 65,000 

Government 

NOTE: Between early 1975 and late 1976 
Lebanon was torn by civil war between its 
Christians then aided by Syrian troops 
and its Muslims and their Palestinian allies. 
The cease-fire established in October 1976 
between the domestic political groups gener- 
ally held for about six years, despite occa- 
sional fighting. Syrian troops constituted as 
the Arab Deterrent Force by the Arab 
League have remained in Lebanon. Syria's 
move toward supporting the Lebanese Mus- 
lims and the Palestinians and Israel's grow- 
ing support for Lebanese Christians brought 
the two sides into rough equilibrium, but no 
progress was made toward national reconcil- 
iation or political reforms the original 
cause of the war. 

Continuing Israeli concern about the Pales- 
tinian presence in Lebanon led to the Israeli 
invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Israeli 
forces occupied all of the southern portion of 
the country and mounted a summer-long 
seige of Beirut, which resulted in the evacua- 
tion of the PLO from Beirut in September 
under the supervision of a multinational 
force made up of US, French, and Italian 
troops. 

Within days of the departure of the multina- 
tional force (MNF), Lebanon's newly elected 
president, Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated. 
In the wake of his death, Christian militia- 
men massacred hundreds of Palestinian ref- 
ugees in two Beirut camps. This prompted 
the return of the MNF to ease the security 
burden on Lebanon's weak army and secu- 
rity forces. In late March 1984 the last MNF 
units withdrew. 

Lebanon continues to be partially occupied 
by Syrian troops. Israel withdrew the bulk of 
its forces from the south in 1985, retaining a 
10-km deep security zone just north of the 
1949 Armistice Line. Israel continues to arm 
and train the Army of South Lebanon (ASL), 
which opposes the return of Palestinian 



140 



ghters to South Lebanon. The ASL has in- 
creasingly been involved in confronting 
Shi'a as well as leftist militias sponsored by 
Syria. 

Syria maintains troops in the Riyaq area of 
the Bekaa, while Special Forces units are 
stationed in the Matn, and in the Tripoli ar- 
eas, north and northeast. In late 1985 the 
Syrian regime successfully negotiated a tri- 
partite agreement among the three major 
rival Christian, Druze, and Shi'a militias, but 
implementation remains a distant possibil- 
ity. The Christian and Muslim communities 
are deeply split from within over specific 
points in the agreement. 

Israel and Lebanon signed a withdrawal 
agreement on 17 May 1983. The agreement 
was never implemented and was 
subsequently voided. A partial Israeli with- 
drawal and government attempts to extend 
authority have led to renewed factional 
fighting. The following description is based 
on the present constitutional and customary 
practices of the Lebanese system. 

Official name: Republic of Lebanon 

Type: republic 

Capital: Beirut 

Political subdivisions: 4 provinces 

Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, 
canon law, and civil law system; constitution 
mandated in 1926; no judicial review of leg- 
islative acts; legal education at Lebanese 
University; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 
November 

Branches: power lies with the President, 
who is elected by unicameral legislature 
(National Assembly); Cabinet appointed by 
President, approved by legislature; indepen- 
dent secular courts on French pattern; reli- 
gious courts for matters of marriage, 
divorce, inheritance, etc.; by custom, the 
President is a Maronite Christian, the Prime 
Minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the presi- 
dent of legislature is a Shi'a Muslim; each of 



nine religious communities are represented 
in the legislature in proportion to their na- 
tional numerical strength 

Government leader: Amine Pierre 
GEMAYEL, President (since September 
1982); Rashid KARAMI, Prime Minister 
(since May 1984) 

Suffrage: compulsory for all males over 21; 
authorized for women over 21 with elemen- 
tary education 

Elections: National Assembly held every 
four years or within three months of dissolu- 
tion of Chamber; security conditions have 
prevented parliamentary elections since 
April 1972 

Political parties and leaders: political party 
activity is organized along largely sectarian 
lines; numerous political groupings exist, 
consisting of individual political figures and 
followers motivated by religious, clan, and 
economic considerations; most parties have 
well-armed militias, which are still involved 
in occasional clashes 

Communists: the Lebanese Communist 
Party was legalized in 1970; members and 
sympathizers estimated at 2,000-3,000 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, 
IWC International Wheat Council, NAM, 
QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $5.3 billion (1983 est.) 

Natural resources: limestone, iron 

Agriculture: fruits, wheat, corn, barley, po- 
tatoes, tobacco, olives, onions; not 
self-sufficient in food; an illegal producer of 
opium poppy and cannabis for the interna- 
tional drug trade 

Major industries: service industries, food 
processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, 
chemicals, some metal fabricating 



Electric power: 1,047,300 kW capacity 
(1985); 13.761 billion kWh produced (1985), 
5,254 kWh per capita 

Exports: $595 million (f.o.b., 1984) 
Imports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1984) 

Budget: (1985 est.) public revenues, $500 
million; public expenditures, $1.5 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 18 Lebanese 
pounds=US$l (November 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 390 km total; 305 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge, 85 km 1.050-meter gauge; 
all single track; system almost inoperable 

Highways: 7,370 km total; 6,270 km paved, 
450 km gravel and crushed stone, 650 km 
improved earth 

Pipelines: crude oil, 72 km 

Ports: 3 major (Beirut, Tripoli, Sidon), 5 mi- 
nor 

Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 10 total, 9 usable; 6 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m; major military airfields are 
Riyaq, Kleiat, and al-Fidar Air Strip 

Telecommunications: rebuilding program 
disrupted; had fair system of radio relay, 
cable; approx 150,400 telephones (5.0 per 
100 popl.); 3 FM, 5 AM, 15 TV stations; 1 
Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean statellite 
station, both inactive; 3 submarine coaxial 
cable (inactive); radio-relay to Jordan and 
Syria inoperable 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 



141 



Lesotho 




Quthmg 
Srf regional mip \ II 



Land 

30,460km 2 ; slightly larger than Maryland; 
15% cultivable, 13% arable, largely moun- 
tainous 

Land boundaries: 805 km 

People 

Population: 1,552,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Mosotho(sing.), Basotho 
(pi.); adjective Basotho 

Ethnic divisions: 99.7% Sotho; 1,600 Euro- 
peans, 800 Asians 

Religion: 80% Christian, rest indigenous 
beliefs 

Language: Sesotho (southern Sotho) and En- 
glish (official); also Zulu and Xhosa 

Infant mortality rate: 104.3/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 51.5 
Literacy: 60% 

Labor force: 426,000 economically active 
(1976); 87.4% of resident population 
engaged in subsistence agriculture; 
150,000-250,000 spend from six months to 
many years as wage earners in South Africa 

Organized labor: negligible 



Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Lesotho 

Type: constitutional monarchy under King 
Moshoeshoe II; independent member of 
Commonwealth 

Capital: Maseru 

Political subdivisions: 10 administrative 
districts 

Legal system: based on English common 
law and Roman- Dutch law; constitution 
came into effect 1966; judicial review of leg- 
islative acts in High Court and Court of Ap- 
peal; legal education at National University 
of Lesotho; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: 4 October 

Branches: executive and legislative author- 
ity nominally vested in King; real power 
rests with 6-man Military Council, estab- 
lished after military coup January 1986; 20- 
member Council of Ministers responsible for 
administrative duties; judicial 63 Lesotho 
courts administer customary law for Afri- 
cans, High Court and subordinate courts 
have criminal jurisdiction over all residents, 
Court of Appeal at Maseru has appellate 
jurisdiction 

Government leaders: MOSHOESHOE II, 
King (since 1966); Maj. Gen. Justinus Mets- 
ing LEKHANYA, chairman of Military 
Council and Minister of Defense and Inter- 
nal Security (since January 1986); other 
members of council Col. E. T. 
RAMAEMA, Col. A. K. MOSOEUNYANE, 
Col. M. K. TSOTETSI, Lt. Thabe LETSIE, 
Lt. Col. Joshua Sekhobe LETSIE (since Jan- 
uary 1986) 

Suffrage: universal for adults 

Elections: elections scheduled for Septem- 
ber 1985 were boycotted by all opposition 
parties because of procedural irregularities; 
ruling BNP won all 60 parliamentary seats 
by default 



Political parties and leaders: Basotho Na- 
tional Party (BNP), Leabua Jonathan; Basu- 
toland Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu Mokh- 
ehle; Basotho Democratic Alliance (CDA), 
C. D. Molapo; National Independent Party 
(NIP), A. C. Manyeli; Marematlou Freedom 
Party (MFP), B. Khaketla 

Voting strength: National Assembly inoper- 
ative as of 20 January 1986 

Communists: diplomatic relations with So- 
viet Union, Romania, North Korea, and Yu- 
goslavia established in 1983; Soviet Union, 
China, and North Korea maintain diplo- 
matic presence in Maseru 

Member of: Af DB, Commonwealth, FAO, 
G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, 
NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $300 million (1983) 

Natural resources: some diamonds and 
other minerals, water, agricultural and graz- 
ing land 

Agriculture: exceedingly primitive, mostly 
subsistence farming and livestock; principal 
crops are corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, bar- 
ley 

Major industries: none 

Electric power: 1,660 kW capacity (1985); 1 
million kWh produced (1985), 0.7 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: labor to South Africa (deferred re- 
mittances $94 million est. in 1983); $29 mil- 
lion (f.o.b., 1984), wool, mohair, wheat, cat- 
tle, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins, tourism, 
diamonds 

Imports: $476 million (f.o.b., 1984); mainly 
corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, 
machinery, medicines, petroleum, oil, and 
lubricants 

Major trade partner: South Africa; member 
of Southern African Customs Union 



142 



Liberia 



Budget: (FY84/85) revenues, $160 million; 
current expenditures, $130 million; develop- 
ment (capital) expenditures, $50 million 

Monetary conversion rate: the Lesotho 
maloti exchanges at par with the South Afri- 
can rand; 2.3 maloti=US$l (29 January 
1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 1.6 km; owned, operated, and 
included in the statistics of the Republic of 
South Africa 

Highways: approx. 4,221 km total; 508 km 
paved; 1,585 km crushed stone, gravel, or 
stabilized soil; 946 km improved, 2,128 km 
unimproved earth 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 28 total, 28 usable; 1 with perma- 
nent surface runways; 1 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: system a modest one 
consisting of a few land lines, a small radio- 
relay system, and minor radiocommunica- 
tion stations; 5,920 telephones (0.3 per 100 
popl.); 2 AM, 2 FM stations; 1 TV station 
planned; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Army Air Wing, Police 
Department 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 353,000; 
189,000 fit for military service 




Buchana 



North Atlantic Ocean 



f regional map VII 



Harper* 



Land 

111,370 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Pennsyl- 
vania; 40% forest, 30% jungle and swamp, 
20% agricultural, 10% other 

Land boundaries: 1,336 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
200 nm 

Coastline: 579 km 

People 

Population: 2,307,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.3% 

Nationality: noun Liberian(s); adjective 
Liberian 

Ethnic divisions: 95% indigenous African 
tribes, including Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, 
Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, 
Kissi, Vai, and Bella; 5% descendants of re- 
patriated slaves known as Americo- 
Liberians 

Religion: 75% traditional, 15% Muslim, 10% 
Christian 

Language: English (official); more than 20 
local languages of the Niger-Congo language 
group; English used by about 20% 

Infant mortality rate: 153/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 54 



Literacy: 24% 

Labor force: 510,000, of which 220,000 are 
in monetary economy; non-African foreign- 
ers hold about 95% of the top-level manage- 
ment and engineering jobs; 70.5% agricul- 
ture, 10.8% services, 4.5% industry and com- 
merce, 14.2% other 

Organized labor: 2% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Liberia 

Type: republic under military rule from 
April 1980 until January 1986, when it re- 
turned to civilian rule 

Capital: Monrovia 

Political subdivisions: country divided into 
13 counties 

Legal system: new constitution approved by 
nationwide referendum in July 1984 and 
implemented in January 1986); judicial 
powers invested in People's Supreme Court 
and lower courts 

National holiday: National Redemption 
Day, 12 April; Independence Day, 26 July 

Branches: executive powers held by Presi- 
dent, assisted by appointed Cabinet; legisla- 
tive powers held by bicameral legislature; 
independent judiciary 

Government leader: Gen. Samuel Kanyon 
DOE, President and Commander in Chief 
of the Armed Forces (since April 1980) 

Suffrage: universal at age 18 

Elections: presidential and legislative elec- 
tions held October 1985; Doe was 
proclaimed winner of presidential election 
and took office in January 1986 

Political parties and leaders: 4 parties par- 
ticipated in elections in October 1985; Na- 
tional Democratic Party of Liberia, headed 
by Samuel Doe; Liberian Action Party; 
Liberian Unity Party; and Unity Party 



143 



Liberia (continued) 



Libya 



Communists, no Communist Party and only 
a few sympathizers 

Member of: AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, 
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, 
IPU, IRC, ITU, Mano River Union, NAM, 
OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.14 billion (1984), $490 per capita; 

2% real annual growth rate (1984) 

Natural resources: iron ore, rubber, timber, 
diamonds, gold 

Agriculture: rubber, rice, oil palm, cassava, 
coffee, cocoa; imports of rice, wheat, and 
live cattle and beef are necessary for basic 
diet 

Fishing: catch 13,553 metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: rubber processing, food 
processing, construction materials, furni- 
ture, palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, 
diamonds) 

Electric power: 374,200 kW capacity (1985); 
491 million kWh produced (1985), 219 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $432 million (f.o.b., 1984); iron ore, 
rubber, diamonds, lumber and logs, coffee, 



Imports: $366 million (c.i.f., 1984); machin- 
ery, transportation equipment, petroleum 
products, manufactured goods, foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: US, FRG, Nether- 
lands, Italy, Belgium 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US), ODA and OOF (1970-83), $560 
million; US authorizations (including Ex-Im) 
(FY70-84), $443 million; Communist 
(1970-84), $73.0 million; military commit- 
ments US (FY70-84), $57 million 

Budget: (FY84-85) revenues, $192 million; 
current expenditures, $238 million; develop- 
ment and nonbudgetary expenditures, $151 
million 



Monetary conversion rate: uses the US dol- 
lar and the Liberian dollar, which trades 
officially at par 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 487 km total; 342 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge, 145 km 1.067-meter narrow 
gauge; all lines single track; rail systems 
owned and operated by foreign steel and 
financial interests in conjunction with Liber- 
ian Government 

Highways: 10,087 km total; 603 km bitumi- 
nous treated, 2,848 km all-weather, 4,313 
km dry-weather 

Inland waterways: no significant waterways 
Ports: 1 major (Monrovia), 4 minor 
Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 80 total, 75 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 5 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: telephone and tele- 
graph service via radio- relay network; main 
center is Monrovia; 7,700 telephones (0.5 per 
100 popl.); 3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV stations; 1 At- 
lantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Armed Forces of Liberia, Liberia 
National Coast Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 498,000; 
269,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 



JRIPOLI 



Mediterranean Sea 




S*t regional mip VII 



Land 

1,759,540 km 2 ; larger than Alaska; 93% 
desert, waste, or urban; 6% agricultural; 1% 
forest 

Land boundaries: 4,345 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (except for Gulf of Sidra where sover- 
eignty is claimed and northern limit of juris- 
diction fixed at 3230'N) 

Coastline: 1,770 km 

People 

Population: 3,876, 000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2% 

Nationality: noun Libyan(s); adjective 
Libyan 

Ethnic divisions: 97% Berber and Arab with 
some black stock; some Greeks, Maltese, 
Jews, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, 
Indians, and Tunisians 

Religion: 97% Sunni Muslim 

Language: Arabic; Italian and English 
widely understood in major cities 

Infant mortality rate: 84/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: men 56, women 59 
Literacy: 50-60% 



144 



Labor force: 1 million, of which about 
280,000 are resident foreigners; 31 % indus- 
try, 27% services, 24% government, 18% 
agriculture 

Government 

Official name: Socialist People's Libyan 
Arab Jamahiriya 

Type: republic; major overhaul of the consti- 
tution and government structure in March 
1977 established a system of popular con- 
gresses, which theoretically controls the 
General People's Committee, or cabinet 

Capital: Tripoli 

Political subdivisions: 46 municipalities 
closely controlled by central government 

Legal system: based on Italian civil law sys- 
tem and Islamic law; separate religious 
courts; no constitutional provision for judi- 
cial review of legislative acts; legal education 
at Law School at University of Libya at 
BanghazI; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 
September 

Branches: officially, paramount political 
power and authority rests with the General 
People's Congress, which theoretically func- 
tions as a parliament with a cabinet called 
the General People's Committee 

Government leaders: Col. Mu'ammar Abu 
Minyar al-QADHAFI (no official title; runs 
country and is treated as chief of state); Mi- 
ftah al-Ista 'UMAR, Secretary of the General 
People's Congress (chief of state in theory 
but not treated as such) 

Suffrage: mandatory universal adult 

Elections: representatives to the General 
People's Congress are drawn from popularly 
elected municipal committees 

Political parties: none 

Communists.- no organized party, negligible 
membership 



Other political or pressure groups: various 
Arab nationalist movements and the Arab 
Socialist Resurrection (Ba'th) party with al- 
most negligible memberships may be func- 
tioning clandestinely 

Member of: AfDB, Arab League, FAO, 
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Is- 
lamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, 
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IOOC, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, QIC, 
OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GDP: roughly $26 billion (1985 est), $7,180 

per capita 

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, 
gypsum 

Agriculture: main crops wheat, barley, 
olives, dates, citrus fruits, peanuts; 65% of 
food is imported 

Major industries: petroleum, food process- 
ing, textiles, handicrafts 

Electric power: 4,070,100 kW capacity 
(1985); 12.478 billion kWh produced (1985), 
3,325 kWh per capita 

Exports: $10.0 billion (f.o.b., 1985); petro- 
leum 

Imports: $7.0 billion (f.o.b., 1985); manufac- 
tures, food 

Major trade partners: imports Italy, FRG; 
exports Italy, FRG, Spain, France, Japan, 
UK 

Budget: (1985 est.) revenues, $10 billion; 
expenditures, $9.9 billion, including devel- 
opment expenditure of $5.7 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: .2961 Libyan 
dinar=US$l (February 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 



Highways: 19,300 km total; 10,800 km bitu- 
minous and bituminous treated, 8,500 km 
gravel, crushed stone and earth 

Pipelines: crude oil 3,893 km; natural gas 
938 km; refined products 443 km (includes 
217 km liquid petroleum gas) 

Ports: 4 major (Tobruk, Tripoli, BanghazI, 
Misratah), 2 secondary, 15 minor, and 6 pe- 
troleum terminals 

Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 118 total, 107 usable; 37 with 
permanent-surface runways, 8 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 24 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 36 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab 
Jamahariya (including Army, Arab Air 
Force, Air Defense Command, Arab Navy) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 936,000; 
551,000 fit for military service; about 39,000 
reach military age (17) annually; conscrip- 
tion now being implemented 



145 



Liechtenstein 



RuggeU 



Sff regional map V 




5 km 



Land 

160 km 2 ; the size of Washington, D. C. 

Land boundaries: 76 km 

People 

Population: 28,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.8% 

Nationality: noun Liechtensteiner(s); ad- 
jective Liechtenstein 

Ethnic divisions: 95% Alemannic, 5% Italian 
and other 

Religion: 82.7% Roman Catholic, 7.1% Prot- 
estant, 10.2% other 

Language: German (official), Alemannic 
dialect 

Infant mortality rate: 6.3/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: men 65, women 74 
Literacy: 100% 

Labor force: 12,258; 5,078 foreign workers 
(mostly from Switzerland and Austria); 
54.5% industry, trade, and building; 41.6% 
services; 4.0% agriculture, fishing, forestry, 
and horticulture; no unemployment 

Government 

Official name: Principality of Liechtenstein 



Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy 

Capital: Vaduz 

Political subdivisions: 11 communes 

Legal system: principality has its own civil 
and penal codes; lowest court is county court 
(Landgericht), presided over by one judge, 
which decides minor civil cases and sum- 
mary criminal offenses; criminal court 
(Kriminalgericht), with a bench of five 
judges, is for major crimes; another court of 
mixed jurisdiction is the court of assizes 
(three judges) for misdemeanors; Superior 
Court (Obergericht) and Supreme Court 
(Oberster Gerichtshof) are courts of appeal 
for civil and criminal cases (five judges each); 
an administrative court of appeal from gov- 
ernment actions and the State Court deter- 
mine the constitutionality of laws; accepts 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reserva- 
tions 

Branches: unicameral legislature (Diet) with 
15 deputies elected to four-year terms, 
hereditary Prince, independent judiciary 

Government leaders: FRANZ JOSEF II, 
Prince (since 1938); Hans BRUNHART, 
Head of Governrnent (Prime Minister; since 
May 1978); the Prince transferred most of 
his executive powers to his son, Prince 
HANS ADAM, in August 1984 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: every four years; last election 
1986 

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland 
Union (VU), Dr. Otto Hasler; Progressive 
Citizens' Party (FBP), Dr. Herbert Batliner; 
Christian Social Party, Fritz Kaiser 

Voting strength: (1986) VU 50.2% (8 seats), 
FBP about 4 1.9% (7 seats) 

Communists: none 

Member of: Council of Europe, EFTA, 
IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, 
UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNICEF, UPU, 
WIPO; considering UN membership; has 
consultative status in the EC; under several 



post-World War I treaties Switzerland han- 
dles Liechtenstein's customs and represents 
the principality abroad on a diplomatic and 
consular level whenever requested to do so 
by the Liechtenstein Government 

Economy 

NOTE: Liechtenstein has a prosperous econ- 
omy based primarily on small-scale light 
industry and some farming; metal industry 
is by far the most prominent sector; high- 
frequency installations, boilers for central 
heating, hardware, small machinery, canned 
goods, furniture and upholstery, chemical 
and pharmaceutical goods, vacuum installa- 
tions, optical and measuring instruments, oil 
tanks, artificial teeth, ceramics, and textiles 
are the principal manufactures, intended 
almost entirely for export; industry accounts 
for 54% of total employment, service sector 
42%, and agriculture and forestry 4%; live- 
stock raising and dairying are the main 
sources of income in the small farm sector; 
the sale of postage stamps to foreign collec- 
tors, estimated at $10 million annually, pro- 
vides for 10% of state expenditures; compa- 
nies incorporated in Liechtenstein solely for 
tax purposes provide a further 30% of the 
state budget; low business taxes (the maxi- 
mum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation 
rules have induced between 20,000 and 
30,000 holding companies, so-called letter 
box companies, to establish nominal offices 
in the principality; economy is tied closely to 
that of Switzerland in a customs union; no 
national accounts data are available 

GNP: approximately $15,000 per capita 
(1984) 

Natural resources: hydroelectric power 

Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, 
wheat, potatoes, grapes 

Major industries: electronics, metal manu- 
facturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuti- 
cals, food products 

Electric power: 23,000 kW capacity (1985); 
150 million kWh produced (1985), 5,357 
kWh per capita 

Exports: (1984) $440 million; 39% EC, 32% 
EFTA (24% Switzerland), 29% other 



146 



Luxembourg 



Budget: (1983) revenues, $108 million; ex- 
penditures, $86 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.17 Swiss 
francs=US$l (October 1985) 

Communications 

Railroads: 18.5 km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge, electrified; owned, operated, and 
included in statistics of Austrian Federal 
Railways 

Highways: 130.66 km main roads, 192.27 
km byroads 

Civil air: no transport aircraft 
Airfields: none 

Telecommunications: automatic telephone 
system serving about 20,020 telephones (77.0 
per 100 popl.); no broadcast facilities 

Defense Forces 

Defense is responsibility of Switzerland 

Branches: Police Department 



Troiivierget 



Scr rtf ionil mtp V 




Land 

2,586 km 2 ; smaller than Rhode Island; 43.9% 
arable, 33% forest, 27% meadow and pas- 
ture, 15% waste or urban, negligible inland 
water 

Land boundaries: 356 km 

People 

Population: 367,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0. 1 % 

Nationality: noun Luxembourger(s); ad- 
jective Luxembourg 

Ethnic divisions: Celtic base, with French 
and German blend; also guest and worker 
residents from Portugal, Italy, and Euro- 
pean countries 

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 3% Protes- 
tant and Jewish 

Language: Luxembourgish, German, 
French; most educated Luxembourgers also 
speak English 

Infant mortality rate: 12/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 70, women 76.7 
Literacy: 100% 

Labor force: (1983) 160,800; one-third of 
labor force is foreign, comprising mostly 
workers from Portugal, Italy, France, Bel- 
gium, and FRG (1981); unemployment 1.5% 



(1985 average); 45% services, 39% industry 
and commerce, 15% government, 0.7% agri- 
culture 

Government 

Official name: Grand Duchy of Luxem- 
bourg 

Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Luxembourg 

Political subdivisions: unitary state, but for 
administrative purposes has 3 districts (Lux- 
embourg, Diekirch, Grevenmacher) and 12 
cantons 

Legal system: based on civil law system; 
constitution adopted 1868; accepts compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: 23 June 

Branches: parliamentary democracy; seven 
ministers compose Council of Government 
headed by President, which constitutes the 
executive; it is responsible to the unicameral 
legislature (Chamber of Deputies); the 
Council of State, appointed for indefinite 
term, exercises some powers of an upper 
house; judicial power exercised by indepen- 
dent courts; coalition governments are usual 

Government leaders: JEAN, Grand Duke 
(since 1964); Jacques SANTER, Prime Min- 
ister (since June 1984) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18 

Elections: every five years for entire Cham- 
ber of Deputies; latest elections June 1984 

Political parties and leaders: Christian So- 
cial Party, Jacques Santer, parliamentary 
president, and Jean Spautz, party president; 
Socialist Workers Party, Ben Fayot, party 
president; Social Democrat, Henry Crava- 
tte, party president; Liberal, Colette Flesch; 
Communist, Dominique I'rbany; Indepen- 
dent Socialists, Jean Gremling, party presi- 
dent; Green Alternative, Jean Huss; Enroles 
de Force 



147 



Luxembourg (continued) 



Macau 



Voting strength: (1984) Chamber of 
Deputies Christian Social Paarty, 25; So- 
cialist Workers Party, 21; Liberals, 14; Com- 
munists, 2; Green Alternative, 2 

Communists: 500 party members (1981) 

Other political or pressure groups: group of 
steel industries representing iron and steel 
industry, Centrale Paysanne representing 
agricultural producers; Christian and Social- 
ist labor unions; Federation of Industrialists; 
Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation 

Member of: Benelux, BLEU, Council of 
Europe, EC, EIB, EMS, FAO, GATT, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, 
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, 
ITU, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $4.2 billion, $1 1.350 per capita (1983); 
53.2% private consumption, 22.4% invest- 
ment, 14.6% government consumption, 
0.7% stockbuilding, 10.4% net foreign 
balance; 1.6% real GDP growth (1983) 

Natural resources: iron ore 

Agriculture: mixed farming, dairy products, 
and wine 

Major industries: banking, iron and steel, 
food processing, chemicals, metal products 
and engineering, tires, and banking, 

Crude steel: 3.98 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 10.8 metric tons per capita; 6.4 
metric ton capacity (1982) 

Electric power: 1,497,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 956 million kWh produced (1985), 
2,605 kWh per capita 

Exports, imports, major trade partners: 
Luxembourg has a customs union with Bel- 
gium under which foreign trade is recorded 
jointly for the two countries; Luxembourg's 
principal exports are iron and steel products, 
principal imports are minerals, metals, food- 
stuffs, and machinery; most of its foreign 
trade is with FRG, Belgium, France, and 
other EC countries (for totals, see Belgium) 



Budget: (1984 est.) revenues, $1.18 billion; 
expenditures, $1.17 billion; surplus, $0.13 
million 

Monetary conversion rate: 51.6 Luxem- 
bourg francs=US$l (December 1985); under 
the BLEU agreement, the Luxembourg 
franc is equal in value to the Belgian franc, 
which circulates freely in Luxembourg 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: Luxembourg National Railways 
(CFL) operates 270 km 1 .435-meter stan- 
dard gauge; 162 km double track; 163 km 
electrified 

Highways: 5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 
57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about 80 km 
limited access divided highway 

Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River 
Pipelines: refined products, 48 km 
Port: (river) Mertert 
Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 2 lotah 2 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: adequate and effi- 
cient system, mainly buried cables; 210,000 
telephones (55 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 3 FM, 3 
TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 96,000; 
80,000 fit for military service; about 2,000 
reach military age (19) annually 



llha de Coloane 



ginnal map VIII 




2 km 



Zhujiang 
Kou 



llha de Taipa 



Land 

15.5 km 2 ; smaller than Washington, D. C.; 
90% urban, 10% agricultural 

Land boundaries: 201 m 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm 
(12 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 40 km 

People 

Population: 404,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Macanese (sing, and 
pi.); adjective Macau 

Ethnic divisions: 98% Chinese, 2% Portu- 
guese 

Religion: mainly Buddhist; 17,000 Catho- 
lics, of whom about half are Chinese 

Language: 98% Chinese, 2% Portuguese 

Literacy: almost 100% among Portuguese 
and Macanese; no data on Chinese popula- 
tion 

Government 

Official name: Macau 

Type: Chinese territory under Portuguese 
administration 



148 



Madagascar 



Capital: Lisbon (Portugal) 

Political subdivisions: municipality of 
Macau and two islands (Taipa and Coloane) 

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system 

Branches: 18- member Legislative Assembly, 
with Governor and 5 appointed, 6 nomi- 
nated, and 6 elected representatives 

Government leader: vacant since resigna- 
tion of former Governor, Rear Adm. Vasco 
Fernando Lecte da Almeida e COSTA, on 7 
January 1986 

Suffrage: Portuguese, Chinese, and foreign 
residents over 18 

Elections: conducted every four years 

Political parties and leaders: Association to 
Defend the Interests of Macau; Macau Dem- 
ocratic Center; Group to Study the Develop- 
ment of Macau; Macau Independent Group 

Other political or pressure groups: wealthy 
Macanese and Chinese representing local 
interests, wealthy pro-Communist 
merchants representing China's interests; in 
January 1967 Macau Government acceded 
to Chinese demands that gave Chinese veto 
power over administration of the enclave 

Member of: Multifiber Agreement 

Economy 

GNP: $640 million (1980 est.) 

Agriculture: main crops rice, vegetables; 
food shortages rice, vegetables, meat; de- 
pends mostly on imports for food require- 
ments 

Major industries: textiles, toys, plastic prod- 
ucts, furniture 

Electric power: 123,000 kW capacity (1985); 
335 million kWh produced (1985), 852 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $755.9 million (f.o.b., 1983); textiles 
and clothing 



Imports: $722.4 million (c.i.f., 1983); food- 
stuffs 

Major trade partners: exports 27% US, 
22% Hong Kong, 12% FRG, 10% France; 
imports 39% Hong Kong, 28% China 

(1983) 



: (1982) expenditures, $140.4 million 



Monetary conversion rate: 8 patacas=US$l 
(June 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Highways: 42 km paved 

Ports: 1 major 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: none; 1 seaplane station 

Telecommunications: fairly modern com- 
munication facilities maintained for domes- 
tic and international services; 13,000 tele- 
phones; 4 AM and 3 FM radio broadcast 
transmitters; est. 75,000 radio receivers; in 
international high frequency radio commu- 
nication facility; access to international com- 
munications carriers provided via Hong 
Kong and China 

Defense Forces 

Defense is responsibility of Portugal 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 109,000; 
63,000 fit for military service 




ToemMinaj Indian 
ANTANANARIVO / Ocean 



See rtfionil map VII 



Faradofay 



Land 

592,900 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Texas; 
58% pasture, 21% forest, 8% waste, 5% culti- 
vated, 2% rivers and lakes, 6% other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 4,828 km 

People 

Population: 10,227,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Malagasy (sing, and pi.); 
adjective Malagasy 

Ethnic divisions: basic split between high- 
landers of predominantly Malayo- 
Indonesian origin, consisting of Merina 
(1,643,000) and related Betsileo (760,000) on 
the one hand and coastal tribes collectively 
termed the Coders with mixed Negroid, 
Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry on 
the other; coastal tribes include 
Betsimisaraka 941,000, Tsimihety 442,000, 
Antaisaka 415,000, Sakalava 375,000; there 
are also 10,000-12,000 European French, 
5,000 Indians of French nationality, and 
5,000 Creoles 

Religion: more than half indigenous beliefs; 
about 41% Christian, 7% Muslim 

Language: French and Malagasy official 



149 



Madagascar (continued) 



Infant mortality rate: 177/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 46 
Literacy: 53% 

Labor force: about 4.8 million (1984), of 
which 90% are nonsalaried family workers 
engaged in subsistence agriculture; of 
175,000 wage and salary earners, 26% agri- 
culture, 17% domestic service, 15% industry, 
14% commerce, 11% construction, 9% ser- 
vices, 6% transportation, 2% miscellaneous 

Organized labor: 4% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Democratic Republic of 
Madagascar 

Type: real authority in hands of the Presi- 
dent, although Supreme Revolutionary 
Council is theoretically ultimate executive 
authority 

Capital: Antananarivo 

Political subdivisions: 6 provinces 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and traditional Malagasy law; consti- 
tution of 1959 modified in October 1972 by 
law establishing provisional government 
institutions; new constitution accepted by 
referendum in December 1975; legal educa- 
tion at National School of Law, University of 
Madagascar; has not accepted compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 
June 

Branches: executive a 19-member 
Supreme Revolutionary Council (made up 
of military and political leaders); assisted by 
cabinet called Council of Ministers; unicam- 
eral legislative Popular National Assem- 
bly; Military Committee for Development; 
regular courts are patterned after French 
system, and a High Council of Institutions 
reviews all legislation to determine its consti- 
tutional validity 

Government leader: Adm. Didier 
RATSIRAKA, President (since June 1975); 
Lt. Col. Desire RAKOTOARIJAONA, 
Prime Minister (since 1977) 



Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: referendum held in December 
1975 gave overwhelming approval to gov- 
ernment and new constitution; elections for 
Popular National Assembly held in June 
1977 and in August 1983; only one political 
group allowed to take part in the election, 
The National Front for the Defense of the 
Revolution, which presented a single list of 
candidates; a presidential election in No- 
vember 1982 returned President Ratsiraka 
with an 80% majority; the challenger, Monja 
Jaona, received 20% and was later arrested 
after leading demonstrations to protest elec- 
tion fraud 

Political parties and leaders: seven parties 
are now allowed limited political activity 
under the national front and are represented 
on the Supreme Revolutionary Council: Ad- 
vance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution 
(AREMA), Didier Ratsiraka; Congress Party 
for Malagasy Independence (AKFM), Pastor 
Richard Andriamanjato; Movement for Na- 
tional Unity (VONJY), Dr. Marojama 
Razanabahiny; Malagasy Christian 
Demcratic Union (UDECMA), Norbert 
Andriamorasata; Militants for the Establish- 
ment of a Proletarian Regime (MFM), 
Manandafy Rakotonirina; National Move- 
ment for the Independence of Madagascar 
(MONIMA), Monja Jaona; Socialist Organi- 
zation MONIMA (VS MONIMA), Remanin- 
dry Jaona 

Voting strength: 4.8 million registered vot- 
ers (1982); in 1977 local elections, President 
Ratsiraka 's AREMA captured approxi- 
mately 89.5% of the 73,000 available posi- 
tions on 1 1,400 local executive committees; 
AKFM won about 7.3% of the seats, 
MONIMA 1.7%, and VONJY 1.4%; 
UDECMA won only about 45 seats; in the 
1983 legislative election AREMA won 117 
out of the 137 seats in the Popular National 
Assembly 

Communists: Communist party of virtually 
no importance; small and vocal group of 
Communists has gained strong position in 
leadership of AKFM, the rank and file of 
which is non-Communist 

Member of: Af DB, EAMA, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 



INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, 
OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $2.4 billion (1984), about $250 per 

capita; real growth rate 2.1% (1984) 

Natural resources: graphite, chrome, coal, 
bauxite, ilmenite, tar sands, semiprecious 
stones 

Agriculture: cash crops coffee, vanilla, 
cloves, sugar, tobacco, sisal, raffia; pepper; 
cocoa; food crops rice, cassava, cereals, 
potatoes, corn, beans, bananas, coconuts, 
and peanuts; animal husbandry widespread; 
imports some rice, milk, and cereal 

Fishing: catch 54,500 (1983); marketed out- 
put 22,150 metric tons fish (1984 prov.); 
6,695 metric tons shellfish (1984 prov.) 

Major industries: agricultural processing 
(meat canneries, soap factories, brewery, 
tanneries, sugar refining), light consumer 
goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement 
plant, auto assembly plant, paper mill, oil 
refinery 

Electric power: 1 14,000 kW capacity (1985); 
402 million kWh produced (1985), 40 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $350 million (f.o.b., 1985 est); 
coffee, vanilla, sugar, cloves; agricultural 
and livestock products account for about 
85% of export earnings 

Imports: $353 million (f.o.b., 1985 est.); raw 
materials, intermediate goods, foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: France, other EC, 
US, Saudi Arabia; trade with Communist 
countries remains a minute part of total 
trade 

Budget: 1984 overall government operations 
(1984) total revenues, $420 million; cur- 
rent expenditures, $300 million; capital ex- 
penditures, $150 million; other expendi- 
tures, $90 million 

External debt: (1984) $2.2 billion disbursed; 
debt service payment 33% of exports after 
rescheduling 



150 



Malawi 



Monetary conversion rate: 621.12 Malagasy 
francs=US$l (October 1984) 
Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge 

Highways: 40,000 km total; 4,694 km paved, 
811km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized 
soil; remainder improved and unimproved 
earth (est.) 

Inland waterways: of local importance only; 
isolated streams and small portions of Canal 
des Pangalanes 

Ports: 4 major (Toamasina, Antsiranana, 
Mahajanga, Toliary) 

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 152 total, 125 usable; 28 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 42 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system includes 
open-wire lines, coaxial cables, and radio- 
relay links; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station; 
38,200 telephones (0.4 per 100 popl.); 14 
AM, no FM, 24 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Popular Army, Aeronaval Forces 
(includes Navy and Air Force), paramilitary 
Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,260,000; 
1,383,000 fit for military service; 93,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $60,000; about .01% of cen- 
tral government budget 



Lake 
Nyasa 



See regional map VII 




Chtsefnula Island 
Likoms Island 



^~\ 

{ Zombi 



Land 

1 18,484 km 2 ; the size of Pennsylvania; 34% 
of land area arable (of which 86% is culti- 
vated), nearly 25% forest, 6% meadow and 
pasture, 35% other 

Land boundaries: 2,881 km 

People 

Population: 7,292,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.3% 

Nationality: noun Malawian(s); adjec- 
tive Malawian 

Ethnic divisions: Chewa, Nyanja, 
Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, 
Ngoni, Asian, European 

Religion: 55% Protestant, 20% Roman Cath- 
olic, 20% Muslim; traditional indigenous 
beliefs are also practiced by some members 
of these groups 

Language: English and Chichewa (official); 
Tombuka is second African language 

Infant mortality rate: 14/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 47 
Literacy: 25% 

Labor force: 344,052 wage earners 
employed in Malawi (1982); 52% agricul- 
ture, 16% personal services, 9% manufactur- 
ing, 7% construction, 6% commerce, 4% 



miscellaneous services, 5% other perma- 
nently employed 

Organized labor: small minority of wage 
earners are unionized 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Malawi 

Type: one-party state 
Capital: Lilongwe 

Political subdivisions: 3 administrative re- 
gions and 24 districts 

Legal system: based on English common 
law and customary law; constitution 
adopted 1964; judicial review of legislative 
acts in the Supreme Court of Appeals; has 
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Republic Day, 6 July 

Branches: strong presidential system with 
Cabinet appointed by President; unicameral 
National Assembly of 87 elected and up to 
15 nominated members; High Court with 
Chief Justice and at least two justices 

Government leader: Dr. Hastings Kamuzu 
BANDA, President (since 1966) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: President Banda designated Pres- 
ident for Life in 1970; parliamentary elec- 
tions last held June 1983, next scheduled for 
1988 






Political parties and leaders: Malawi Con- 
gress Party (MCP), Robson Chirwa, adminis- 
trative secretary 

Communists: no Communist party 

Member of: Af DB, Commonwealth, EC 
(associated member), FAO, G-77, GATT, 
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, 
NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 



151 



Malawi (continued) 



Malaysia 



Economy 

GDP: $1.34 billion (1982), $210 per capita; 

real growth rate 3.0% (1982) 

Natural resources: limestone, uranium po- 
tential 

Agriculture: cash crops tobacco, tea, sugar, 
peanuts, cotton, tung oil, maize; subsistence 
crops corn, sorghum, millet, pulses, root 
crops, fruit, vegetables, rice; self-sufficient in 
food production 

Electric power: 174,000 kW capacity (1985); 
458 million kWh produced (1985), 65 kWh 
per capita 

Major industries: agricultural processing 
(tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement, 
consumer goods 

Exports: $259.9 million (c.i.f., 1984); 
tobacco, tea, sugar, peanuts, cotton, corn 

Imports: $303 billion (c.i.f., 1984); manufac- 
tured goods, machinery and transport 
equipment, building and construction mate- 
rials, fuel, fertilizer 

Major trade partners: exports UK, FRG, 
US, Netherlands, South Africa; imports 
South Africa, UK, Japan, US, FRG 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-83), $1.2 billion; US authorized (FY70- 
84), $55 million 

Budget: 1983 revenues $211.9 million, ex- 
penditures $231.9 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.67 Malawi 
kwacha=US$l (June 1984) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 789 km 1.067-meter gauge 

Highways: 13,135 km total; 2,364 km paved; 
251 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized 
soil; 10,520 km earth and improved earth 

Inland waterways: Lake Nyasa, 23,300 km 2 ; 
Shire River, 144 km, 4 lake ports 



Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 50 total, 49 usable; 6 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system of open- 
wire lines, radio-relay links, and radio com- 
munication stations; 36,800 telephones (0.5 
per 100 popl.); 7 AM, 13 FM, no TV stations; 
1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean satel- 
lite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Army Air Wing, Army 
Naval Detachment, paramilitary Police Mo- 
bile Unit 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,548,000; 
about 883,000 fit for military service 



500km 




South 
China 

Sea to" Kimbllu 




See refionil map IX 



Land 

NOTE: established on 16 September 1963, 
Malaysia consists of Peninsular Malaysia, 
which includes 1 1 states of the former Fed- 
eration of Malaya, plus East Malaysia, which 
includes the two former colonies of North 
Borneo (renamed Sabah) and Sarawak 

Peninsular Malaysia: 131,313 km 2 ; larger 
than New Mexico; 26% forest reserve, 20% 
cultivated, 54% other; 

Sabah: 76,146 km 2 ; smaller than Nebraska; 
34% forest reserve, 13% cultivated, 53% 
other 

Sarawak: 125,097 km 2 ; larger than New 
Mexico; 24% forest reserves, 21% cultivated, 
55% other 

Land boundaries: 509 km Peninsular Ma- 
laysia, 1,786 km East Malaysia 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 2,068 km Peninsular Malaysia, 
2,607 km East Malaysia 

People 

Population: 15,820, 000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.3% 

Peninsular Malaysia: 13,002,000 (July 
1986), average annual growth rate 2.1% 



152 



Sabah: 1,293,000 (July 1986), average annual 
growth rate 3. 9% 

Sarawak: 1,525,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Malaysian(s); adjec- 
tive Malaysian 

Ethnic divisions: 50% Malay, 36% Chinese, 
10% Indian, 4% other 

Religion: Peninsular Malaysia: Malays 
nearly all Muslim, Chinese predominantly 
Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu 

Sabah: 38% Muslim, 17% Christian, 45% 
other 

Sarawak: 35% tribal religion, 24% Buddhist 
and Confucianist, 20% Muslim, 16% Chris- 
tian, 2% other 

Language: Peninsular Malaysia: Malay 
(official); English, Chinese dialects, Tamil 

Sabah: English, Malay, numerous tribal dia- 
lects, Mandarin and Hakka dialects predom- 
inate among Chinese 

Sarawak: English, Malay, Mandarin, numer- 
ous tribal languages 

Infant mortality rate: 25/1,000 (1985) 
Life expectancy: 67.7 

Literacy: 72% overall Peninsular Malaysia: 

75% 

Sabah: 58% 
Sarawak: 55% 

Labor force: Malaysia: 5.95 million (1985); 
33% agriculture; 22% manufacturing, 15% 
government 

Organized labor: 620,000 (1985), about 10% 
of total labor force; unemployment about 
6.2% of total labor force (1985), but higher in 
urban areas 



Government 

Official name: Malaysia 

Type: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 
1963 Malaysia: constitutional monarchy 
nominally headed by Paramount Ruler 
(King); a bicameral Parliament consisting of 
a 58-member Senate and a 154-member 
House of Representatives 

Peninsular Malaysian states: hereditary 
rulers in all but Penang and Melaka where 
Governors appointed by Malaysian Govern- 
ment; powers of state governments limited 
by federal constitution 

Sabah: self-governing state within Malaysia 
in which it holds 16 seats in House of Repre- 
sentatives; foreign affairs, defense, internal 
security, and other powers delegated to fed- 
eral government 

Sarawak: self-governing state within Malay- 
sia in which it holds 24 seats in House of 
Representatives; foreign affairs, defense, 
and internal security, and other powers are 
delegated to federal government 

Capital: Peninsular Malaysia: Kuala Lum- 
pur 

Sabah: Kota Kinabalu 
Sarawak: Kuching 

Political subdivisions: 14 states (including 
Sabah and Sarawak) 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution came into force 1963; judi- 
cial review of legislative acts in the Supreme 
Court at request of Supreme Head of the 
Federation; has not accepted compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction 



National holiday: 
Day 



August, Independence 



Branches: nine state rulers alternate as Para- 
mount Ruler for five-year terms; locus of 
executive power vested in Prime Minister 



and Cabinet, who are responsible to bicam- 
eral Parliament (Senate, House of Represen- 
tatives); following communal rioting in May 
1969, government imposed state of emer- 
gency and suspended constitutional rights of 
all parliamentary bodies; parliamentary 
democracy resumed in February 1971 

Peninsular Malaysia: executive branches of 
1 1 states vary in detail but are similar in de- 
sign; a Chief Minister, appointed by heredi- 
tary ruler or Governor, heads an executive 
council (cabinet), which is responsible to an 
elected, unicameral legislature 

Sarawak and Sabah: executive branch 
headed by Governor appointed by central 
government, largely ceremonial role; execu- 
tive power exercised by Chief Minister who 
heads parliamentary cabinet responsible to 
unicameral legislature; judiciary part of Ma- 
laysian judicial system 

Government leader: Dr. MAHATHIR bin 
Mohamad, Prime Minister (since July 1981) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: minimum of every five years; last 
elections April 1982 

Political parties and leaders: Peninsular 
Malaysia: National Front, a confederation 
of 1 1 political parties dominated by United 
Malay National Organization (UMNO), 
Mahathir bin Mohamad; major opposition 
parties are Democratic Action Party (DAP), 
Chen Man Hin; and Pan Malayan Islamic 
Party (PAS), Yusof Rawa 

Sabah: Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohamad 
Noor Haji Mansodr; Bersatu Sabaj (PBS), 
Joseph Pairin Kitingan; United Sabah Na- 
tional Organization (USNO), Tun Datuk 
Mustapha 

Sarawak: coalition Sarawak National Front 
composed of the Party Pesaka Bumipatra 
Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Abdul Taib; the 
United People's Party (SUPP), Wong Soon 
Kai; and the Sarawak National Party 
(SNAP), Datuk James Wong; opposition is 
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Leo 
Moggie 



153 



Malaysia (continued) 



Voting strength: Peninsular Malaysia: 
(1982 election) lower house of parliament; 
National Front, 132 seats; DAP, 9 seats; PAS, 
5 seats; independents, 8 seats 

Sabah: (April 1985 election) State Assem- 
bly Berjaya Party, 6 seats; USNO, 16 seats; 
PBS, 26 seats 

Sarawak: (1979 election) State Assembly 
National Front controlled about 30 of 46 
seats 

Communists: Peninsular Malaysia: approx- 
imately 2,000 armed insurgents on Thailand 
side of Thai/Malaysia border; approxi- 
mately 200 full-time inside Peninsular Ma- 
laysia 

Sarawak: less than 100, North Kalimantan 
Communist Party 

Sabah: insignificant 

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Associ- 
ation of Tin Producing Countries, Colombo 
Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE 
Islamic Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, 
ITC, ITU, NAM, QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $28.4 billion (1984), $1,870 per capita; 

annual growth 5.0% (1984) 

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, 
copper, iron 

Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysia: natural 
rubber, oil palm, rice; 10-15% of rice re- 
quirements imported 

Sabah: mainly subsistence; main crops 
rubber, timber, coconut, rice; food deficit 
rice 

Sarawak: main crops rubber, timber, pep- 
per; food deficit rice 

Fishing: catch 741,000 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: Peninsular Malaysia: 
rubber and oil palm processing and 



manufacturing, light manufacturing indus- 
try, electronics, tin mining and smelting, 
logging and processing timber 

Sabah: logging, petroleum production 

Sarawak: agriculture processing, petroleum 
production and refining, logging 

Electric power: Peninsular Malaysia: 
2,732,000 kW capacity (1985); 10.382 billion 
kWh produced (1985), 808 kWh per capita 

Sabah: 430,000 kW capacity (1985); 1,252 
million kWh produced (1985), 1,010 kWh 
per capita 

Sarawak: 350,000 kW capacity (1985); 1,019 
million kWh produced (1985), 685 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $16.6 billion (f.o.b., 1984); natural 
rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum, 
light manufactures 

Imports: $14.1 billion (c.i.f., 1984) 

Major trade partners: exports 22% 
Singapore, 20% Japan, 15% EC, 13% US; 
imports 25% Japan, 16% US, 14% EC, 14% 
Singapore (1983) 

Budget: 1985 operating expenditures, $9. 1 
billion; development expenditures, $2.8 bil- 
lion; deficit, $2.7 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.371 
ringgits=US$l (September 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: Peninsular Malaysia: 1,665 km 
1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double track; gov- 
ernment owned 

East Malaysia: 136 km 1.000-meter gauge in 
Sabah 

Highways: Peninsular Malaysia: 19,753 km 
total; 15,900 km hard surfaced (mostly bitu- 
minous surface treatment), 3,000 km 
crushed stone/gravel, 883 km improved or 
unimproved earth 



East Malaysia: about 5,426 km total (1,644 
km in Sarawak, 3,782 km in Sabah); 819 km 
hard surfaced (mostly bituminous surface 
treatment), 2,936 km gravel or crushed 
stone, 1,671 km earth 

Inland waterways: Peninsular Malaysia: 
3,209 km 

East Malaysia: 4,200 km (1,569 km in Sa- 
bah, 2,518 km in Sarawak) 

Ports: Peninsular Malaysia: 3 major, 14 mi- 



East Malaysia: 3 major, 12 minor (2 major, 3 
minor in Sabah; 1 major, 9 minor in Sar- 
awak) 

Civil air: approximately 28 major transport 
aircraft 

Pipelines: crude oil, 707 km; natural gas, 
379km 

Airfields: 136 total, 134 usable; 30 with 
permanent-surface runways; 7 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 19 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: Peninsular Malaysia: 
good intercity service provided mainly by 
microwave relay; international service good; 
good coverage by radio and television broad- 
casts; 609,288 telephones (5. 13 per 100 
popl.); 26 AM, 1 FM, 20 TV stations; 
IOCON submarine cables extend to India; 
connected to SEACOM submarine cable 
terminal at Singapore by microwave relay; 2 
international ground satellite stations; 1 do- 
mestic ground satellite station 

Sabah: adequate intercity radio-relay net- 
work extends to Sarawak via Brunei; 43,000 
telephones (3. 94 per 100 popl.); 14 AM, 1 
FM, 7 TV stations; SEACOM submarine 
cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore; 1 
ground satellite station 

Sarawak: adequate intercity radio-relay 
network extends to Sabah via Brunei; 64,512 
telephones (4.65 per 100 popl.); 5 AM sta- 
tions, no FM, 6 TV stations 



154 



Maldives 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Malaysian Army, Royal 
Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air 
Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,037,000; 
2,560,000 fit for military service; 176,000 
reach military age (21) annually 

External defense dependent on loose Five 
Power Defense Agreement (FPDA), which 
replaced Anglo- Malayan Defense Agree- 
ment of 1957 as amended in 1963 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1986, $1.8 billion; about 14% of 
central government budget 






& 

'V Male Atoll 



Arabian );;," V_ 
Sea ?4 ';' 



Laccadive 
Sea 



See regional map VIII 



"f 



' ! Gan 



Land 

298 km 2 ; twice the size of Washington, D. C; 
2,000 islands grouped into 19 atolls; about 
220 islands inhabited 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): the 
land and sea between latitudes 79'N and 
045'S and between longitudes 7230'E and 
7348'E; these coordinates form a rectangle 
of approximately 37,000 nm; territorial sea 
ranges from 2.75 to 55 nm; fishing, approxi- 
mately 100 nm; 37 to 310 nm exclusive eco- 
nomic zone 

Coastline: 644 km (approx.) 

People 

Population: 184,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3. 1 % 

Nationality: noun Maldivian(s); adjec- 
tive Maldivian 

Ethnic divisions: admixtures of Sinhalese, 
Dravidian, Arab, and black 

Religion: Sunni Muslim 

Language: Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script 
derived from Arabic); English spoken by 
most government officials 

Infant mortality rate: 88/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 46.5 



Literacy: 36% 

Labor force: total employment is approxi- 
mately 66,000; fishing industry employs 80% 
of the labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Maldives 

Type: republic 
Capital: Male 

Political subdivisions: 19 administrative 
districts corresponding to atolls, plus capital 
city 

Legal system: based on Islamic law with 
admixtures of English common law prima- 
rily in commercial matters; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holidays: Independence Day, 26 
July; Republic Day, 1 1 November 

Branches: popularly elected unicameral 
national legislature, People's Council (mem- 
bers elected for five-year terms); elected 
President, chief executive; appointed Chief 
Justice responsible for administration of Is- 
lamic law 

Government leader: Maumoon Abdul 
GAYOOM, President (since 1978) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Political parties and leaders: no organized 
political parties; country governed by the 
Didi clan for the past eight centuries 

Communists: negligible number 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, Common- 
wealth (special member), ESCAP, FAO, 
G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IDE Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, QIC, SAARC, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $74 million (1982), $462 per capita; 

real growth rate (est. 1983), 10% 

Natural resources: fish 



155 



Maldives (continued) 



Mali 



Agriculture: crops coconut, limited pro- 
duction of millet, corn, pumpkins, sweet 
potatoes; shortages rice, sugar, flour 

Fishing: catch 38,500 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: fishing, tourism, some 
coconut processing, garment industry, wo- 
ven mats, shipping, coir (rope) 

Electric power: 4,690 kW capacity (1985); 9 
million kWh produced (1985), 51 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: US$ 17.3 million (1982) 
Imports: US$46.0 million (1982) 

Major trade partners: Japan, Sri Lanka, 
Thailand 

Budget: (1983 est.) revenues, $22.7 million; 
expenditures, $41.65 million (at official rate 
of5.50rufiyas=US$l 

Monetary conversion rate: 5.50 Maldivian 
rufiyas=US$l, official rate; 7.05 Maldivian 
rufiyas=US$l, market rate (August 1983) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: none 

Ports: 2 minor (Male, Can) 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: minimal domestic 
and international telecommunication facili- 
ties; 1,060 telephones (0.7 per 100 popl.); 1 
TV, 1 FM, 2 AM stations; 1 Indian Ocean 
INTELSAT station 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, about $1.8 million 




See region*) mip VII 



Land 

1,240,000 km 2 ; larger than Texas and Cali- 
fornia combined; 75% sparse pasture or 
desert, about 25% arable, negligible forest 

Land boundaries: 7,459 km 

People 

Population: 7,898,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.3% 

Nationality: noun Malian(s); adjective 
Malian 

Ethnic divisions: 50% Mande (Bambara, 
Malinke, Sarakole), 17% Peul, 12% Voltaic, 
6% Songhai, 5% Tuareg and Moor 

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% indigenous be- 
liefs, 1 % Christian 

Language: French (official); Bambara spo- 
ken by about 80% of the population 

Infant mortality rate: 152/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 45 
Literacy: 10% 

Labor force: 3. 1 million (1981); 80% agricul- 
ture, 19% services, 1% industry and com- 
merce 

Organized labor: National Union of Malian 
Workers (UNTM) is umbrella organization 
over 13 national unions 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Mali 

Type: republic; single-party constitutional 
government 

Capital: Bamako 

Political subdivisions: 8 administrative re- 
gions 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and customary law; constitution 
adopted 1974, came into full effect in 1979; 
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitu- 
tional Section of Court of State; has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 
September 

Branches: until 1979 executive authority 
exercised by Military Committee of Na- 
tional Liberation (MCNL) composed of 1 1 
army officers; now Cabinet composed of 
civilians and army officers; unicameral legis- 
lature (National Council); judiciary 

Government leader: Gen. Moussa 
TRAORE, President (led Mali as President 
of MCNL during 1968-79; President since 

1979) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Political parties and leaders: Democratic 
Union of Malian People (UDPM) is the sole 
political party; under civilian leadership 

Elections: constitutional elections took place 
June 1979 

Communists: a few Communists and some 
sympathizers (no legal Communist party) 

Member of: Af DB, APC, CEAO, EGA, 
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, Niger 
River Commission, NAM, OAU, OIC, 
OMVS (Organization for the Development 
of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO 



156 



Malta 



Economy 

GDP: $1.0 billion (1982), $140 per capita; 

annual real growth rate 4.4% (1982) 

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, 
salt, limestone; bauxite, iron ore, manganese, 
lithium, and uranium deposits are known or 
suspected but not exploited 

Agriculture: main crops millet, sorghum, 
rice, corn, peanuts; cash crops peanuts, 
cotton, livestock 

Fishing: catch 33,000 tons (1983 est.) 

Major industries: small local consumer 
goods and processing 

Electric power: 92,000 kW capacity (1985); 
161 million kWh produced (1985), 20 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $145.8 million (f.o.b., 1982); live- 
stock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins 

Imports: $232.6 million (f.o.b., 1982); tex- 
tiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machin- 
ery, sugar, cereals 

Major trade partners: mostly franc zone 
and Western Europe; also with USSR, China 

Budget: (1982) revenues, $154 million; ex- 
penditures and net lending, $169 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commun- 
aute Financiere Af ricaine (CFA) francs= 
US$1 (1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 642 km 1.000-meter gauge 

Highways: approximately 15,700 km total; 
1,670 km bituminous, 3,670 km gravel and 
improved earth, 10,360 km unimproved 
earth 

Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable 
Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft 



Airfields: 38 total, 31 usable; 8 with 
permanent-surface runways; 6 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 9 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: domestic system poor 
and provides only minimal service; radio- 
relay, wire, and radio communications sta- 
tions in use; expansion of radio relay in 
progress; 8,000 telephones (0. 1 per 100 
popl.); 2 AM, 2 FM, no TV stations; 1 Atlan- 
tic and 1 Indian Ocean satellite ground sta- 
tion 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Force; paramilitary, 
Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National 
Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,727,000; 
872,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $24.8 million; about 22.2% 
of central government budget 




Mediterranean 
Sea 



See regional map \ 



Land 

313 km 2 ; twice the size of Washington, 
D. C.; 45% agricultural; negligible forest; 
remainder urban, waste, or other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (fishing 25 nm) 

Coastline: 140 km 

People 

Population: 354,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.2% 

Nationality: noun Maltese (sing, and pi.); 
adjective Maltese 

Ethnic divisions: mixture of Arab, Sicilian, 
Norman, Spanish, Italian, English 

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic 
Language: Maltese and English (official) 
Infant mortality rate: 11.2/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 73 
Literacy: 83% 

Labor force: 121,686(1984); 30% services 
(except government), 24% manufacturing, 
21% government (except job corps), 8% con- 
struction, 5% utilities and drydocks, 4% agri- 
culture; 8.3% registered unemployed 



157 



Malta (continued) 



Organized labor: approximately 40% of la- 
bor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Malta 

Type: parliamentary democracy, indepen- 
dent republic within the Commonwealth 
since December 1974 

Capital: Valletta 

Political subdivisions: 2 main populated 
islands, Malta and Gozo, divided into 13 
electoral districts (divisions) 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution adopted 1961, came into 
force 1964; has accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction, with reservations 

Branches: executive, consisting of Prime 
Minister and Cabinet; unicameral legisla- 
ture (65-member House of Representatives); 
independent judiciary 

National holiday: Freedom Day, 31 March 

Government leaders: Agatha BARBARA, 
President (since February 1982); Karmenu 
MIFSUD BONNICI, Prime Minister (since 
December 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18; registration 
required 

Elections: at the discretion of the Prime 
Minister, but must be held before the expira- 
tion of a five-year electoral mandate; last 
election December 1981 

Political parties and leaders: Nationalist 
Party, Edward Fenech Adami; Malta Labor 
Party, Karmenu Mifsud Bonniei 

Voting strength: (1981 election) House of 
Representatives Labor, 34 seats (49% of 
the vote); Nationalist, 31 seats (51% of the 
vote) 

Communist*: less than 100 (est.) 



Member of: Commonwealth, Council of 
Europe, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, 
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, 
IWC International Wheat Council, NAM, 
UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.0 billion (1984), $3,010 per capita 
(1984); 68.9% private consumption, 27.4% 
gross investment; 17.4% government con- 
sumption, 15.2% net foreign sector; 
change in stocks 1.0%; in 1984 real GDP 
growth was 1.2% 

Natural resources: limestone, salt 

Agriculture: overall, 20% self-sufficient; gen- 
erally adequate supplies of vegetables, poul- 
try, milk, and pork products; seasonal or 
periodic shortages in grain, animal fodder, 
fruits, other basic foodstuffs; main prod- 
ucts potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, 
barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green 
peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs 

Major industries: tourism, ship repair yard, 
clothing, building industry, food manufac- 
turing, textiles 

Shortages: most consumer and industrial 
needs (fuels and raw materials) must be im- 
ported 

Electric power: 157,000 kW capacity (1985); 
766 million kWh produced (1985), 2,158 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $393.7 million (f.o.b., 1984); cloth- 
ing, textiles, ships, printed matter 

Imports: $717.8 million (c.i.f., 1984) 

Major trade partners: 74% EC (24% Italy, 
22% FRG, 17% UK); 6% US 

Budget: (1984) projects $486 million in ex- 
penditures, $475 million in revenues 

Monetary conversion rate: 0.43 Maltese 
lira=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 January-31 December 



Communications 

Highways: 1,292 km total; 1,179 km paved 
(asphalt), 77 km crushed stone or gravel, 35 
km improved and unimproved earth 

Ports: 2 major (Valletta, Marsaxlokk [under 
development] ), 1 secondary, 1 minor 

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 usable with permanent-surface 
runways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: modern automatic 
telecom system centered in Valletta; 113,000 
telephones (34.6 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 5 FM, 
2 TV stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Armed Forces, Police, Task 

Force, Paramilitary Dejima Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 89,000; 
73,000 fit for military service 

Supply: various facilities and equipment 
turned over by the UK in 1965; has received 
2 patrol boats, helicopters, small arms, and 
mortars from Libya; vehicles and engineer 
equipment from Italy; patrol boats and heli- 
copters from FRG 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $12.2 million; about 2.5% 
of central government budget 



158 



Man, Isle of 




Irish Sea 



:astletow 
See regional map V 



Land 

588 km 2 ; smaller than New York City; ex- 
tensive rural arable land and forests 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing) 

Coost/ine:113km 

People 

Population: 65,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.2% 

Nationality: noun Manxman, adjective 
Manx 

Ethnic divisions: native Manx of Norse- 
Celtic descent; British 

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Meth- 
odist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of 
Friends 

Language: English, Manx Gaelic 

Literacy, compulsory education between 
ages of 5 and 15 

Labor force: 25,864; manufacturing 3,467, 
construction 2,921, transport and communi- 
cation 2,300, retail 2,687, professional and 
scientific services 3,737 (1981); unemploy- 
ment 8% (1984) 



Organized labor: 22 labor unions patterned 
along British lines (1971) 

Government 

Official name: Isle of Man 

Type: self-governing British dependent ter- 
ritory 

Capital: Douglas 

Political subdivisions: 6 sheadings and 7 
constituencies 

Legal system: English law and local statute 

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 
June 

Branches: the Tynwald (parliament) consists 
of the Lieutenant Governor, appointed by 
and representative of the Crown; the Legis- 
lative Council (upper house), which includes 
members indirectly elected by the House of 
Keys and certain ex officio members; and the 
elected 24-member House of Keys (lower 
house); an Executive Council carries out ad- 
ministrative actions; the Crown has ultimate 
responsibility for the island's "good" govern- 
ment 

Government leader: Maj. Gen. Laurence 
NEW, Lieutenant Governor (since 1985) 
who is appointed by the Lord of Mann, 
Queen Elizabeth II, Head of State; J. C. 
NIVISON, President of the Legislative 
Council (since 1985) 

Suffrage: universal at age 21 

Elections: every five years, next general 
election slated for November 1986 

Political parties and leaders: there is no 
party system and members sit as indepen- 
dents; affiliations Manx Labor Party, Alan 
Clague, chairman; Manx National Party, 
Audrey Ainsworth, chairman; Mec Vannin 
(Sons of Man), Lewis Crellin, chairman 

Communists: probably none 



Economy 

GNP: 195 million pounds (1983/4); financial 
services 21%, manufacturing 13.7%, tourism 
10.8%, construction 10.4% (1984) 

Natural resources: lead, iron 

Agriculture: cereals and vegetables; cattle, 
sheep, pigs, poultry 

Fishing: 8,300 metric tons with a value of 
170,934 pounds sterling (1983) 

Major industries: the Isle of Man is an im- 
portant offshore financial center; financial 
services, light manufacturing, tourism 

Electric power: 61,000 kW capacity (1985); 
185 million kWh produced (1985), 3,025 
kWh per capita 

Exports: tweeds, herring, processed shellfish 
meat 

Imports: timber, fertilizers, fish 
Major trade partners: UK 

Budget: (FY 1984/85 est.) revenues, 108,214 
million pounds; expenditures, 94,949 million 
pounds 

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Isle of Man 
pound (at par with the pound 
sterling)= US$1. 42 (November 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 36 km electric track, 24 km steam 
track 

Highways: 640 km motorable roads 
Ports: 3 minor (Douglas, Ramsey, Peel) 
Airfields: airport at Ronaldsway 

Telecommunications: radio station; 24,435 
telephones 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 
Kingdom 



159 



Martinique 



Caribbean x FORT DE FRANCEC. 




La Vauclin 



Sec regional map III 



Land 

1, 100 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Rhode Is- 
land; 31% crop, 29% forest, 24% waste or 
built on, 16% pasture 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 290 km 

People 

Population: 328,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0. 1 % 

Nationality: noun Martiniquais (sing, and 
pi.); adjective Martiniquais 

Ethnic divisions: 90% African and African- 
Caucasian-Indian mixture, 5% Caucasian, 
less than 5% East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Hindu 
and pagan African 

Language: French, Creole patois 
Infant mortality rate: 12.6/1,000(1981) 
Life expectancy: 68 
Literacy: over 70% 

Labor force: 100,000; 31.7% service indus- 
try, 29.4% construction and public works, 
13.1% agriculture, 7.3% industry, 2.2% fish- 
eries, 16.3% other; 14% unemployed 



Organized labor: 1 1 % of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Department of Martinique 

Type: overseas department and region of 
France; represented by three deputies in the 
French National Assembly and two senators 
in the Senate 

Capital: Fort-de-France 

Political subdivisions: 3 arrondissements; 34 
communes, each with a locally elected mu- 
nicipal council 

Legal system: French legal system; highest 
court is a court of appeal based in Marti- 
nique with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe, 
French Guiana, and Martinique 

Branches: executive, Prefect appointed by 
Paris; legislative, popularly elected council 
of 36 members and a Regional Council in- 
cluding all members of the local general 
council and the locally elected deputies and 
senators to the French parliament; judicial, 
under jurisdiction of French judicial system 

Government leader: jean CHEVANCE, 
Prefect of the Republic (since 1981) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: General Council election nor- 
mally held every five years; last General 
Council election took place in June 1981; 
regional assembly elections held February 
1983 

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the 
Republic (RPR), Edmond Valcin; Progres- 
sive Party of Martinique (PPM), Aime Ce- 
saire; Communist Party of Martinique 
(PCM), Armand Nicolas; Democratic Union 
of Martinique (UDM), Leon-Laurent Valere 

Voting strength: RPR, 1 seat in French Na- 
tional Assembly; UDF, 1 seat; Socialist 
Party, 1 seat 

Communists: 1,000 estimated 



Other political or pressure groups: Proletar- 
ian Action Group (GAP), Socialist Revolu- 
tion Group (GRS), Martinique 
Independence Movement (MIM), Caribbean 
Revolutionary Alliance (ARC), Central 
Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM) 

Member o/.- WFTU 

Economy 

GDP: $1.38 billion (1980), $4,540 per capita 

Natural resources: scenery, cultivable land 

Agriculture: bananas, pineapples, vegeta- 
bles, flowers, limited sugarcane for rum 

Major industries: construction, rum, ce- 
ment, oil refining, light industry, tourism 

Electric power: 66,000 kW capacity (1985); 
319 million kWh produced (1985), 976 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $123 million (1981); refined petro- 
leum products, bananas, rum, pineapples 

Imports: $703 million (1981); petroleum 
products, foodstuffs, construction materials, 
vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods 

Major trade partners: exports 56% France 
(1978); imports 62% France, 28% EC and 
franc zone, 4.5% US, 5.5% other (1977) 

Aid: economic bilateral ODA and OOF 
commitments (1970-81) from Western (non- 
US) countries, $3. 1 billion; no military aid 

Budget: (1981) expenditures, $215 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 7.71 French 
francs=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 1,680 km total; 1,300 km paved, 
380 km gravel and earth 

Ports: 1 major (Fort-de-France), 5 minor 



160 



Mauritania 



Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 4 total; 3 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: domestic facilities are 
adequate; 68,900 telephones (21.5 per 100 
popl.); interisland radio-relay links to Guad- 
eloupe, Dominica, and St. Lucia; 2 Atlantic 
Ocean satellite antennas; 1 AM, 5 FM, 10 
TV stations 



Defense Forces 
Defense is responsibility of France 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 84,000 




See regional map VII 



Land 

1,030,700 km 2 ; the size of Texas and Califor- 
nia combined; almost 90% desert, 10% pas- 
ture, less than 1 % suitable for crops 

Land boundaries: 5,118 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 70 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 754 km 

People 

Population: 1,691, 000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.1% 

Nationality: noun Mauritanian(s); adjec- 
tive Mauri tanian 

Ethnic divisions: 40% mixed Moor /black; 
30% Moor, 30% black 

Religion: nearly 100% Muslim 

Language: Hasaniya Arabic (national); 
French (official); Toucouleur, Fula, Sarakole, 
Wolof 

Infant mortality rate: 136/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 44, women 47 
Literacy: 17% 

Labor force: total labor force 465,000 (1981 
est.); about 45,000 wage earners (1980 IMF); 



47% agriculture, 29% services, 14% industry 
and commerce, 10% government; consider- 
able unemployment 

Organized labor: 30,000 members claimed 
by single union, Mauritanian Workers' 
Union 

Government 

NOTE: Mauritania acquired administrative 
control of the southern third of Western (for- 
merly Spanish) Sahara under a 1975 agree- 
ment with Morocco and Spain. Following an 
August 1979 peace agreement with Polisario 
insurgents fighting for control of Western 
Sahara, Mauritania withdrew from the terri- 
tory and renounced all territorial claims. 

Official name: Islamic Republic of Maurit- 
ania 

Type: republic; military first seized power in 
bloodless coup 10 July 1978; a palace coup 
that took place on 12 December 1984 
brought the President to power 

Capital: Nouakchott 

Political subdivisions: 12 regions and a capi- 
tal district 

Legal system: based on Islamic law; military 
constitution April 1979 

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 
November 

Branches: executive, Military Committee 
for National Salvation rules by decree; Na- 
tional Assembly and judiciary suspended 
pending restoration of civilian rule 

Government leader: Col. Maaouiya Ould 
Sid Ahmed TAYA, President and Prime 
Minister (since December 1984) 

Suffrage: universal for adults 

Elections: in abeyance; last presidential 
election August 1976 

Political parties and leaders: suspended 

Communists: no Communist Party, but 
there is a scattering of Maoist sympathizers 



161 



Mauritania (continued) 



Mauritius 



Member of: AfDB, AIOEC, Arab League, 
CEAO, CIPEC (associate), EAMA, EIB (as- 
sociate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, 
IDA, IDE Islamic Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, QIC, 
OM VS (Organization for the Development 
of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: about $730 million (1982 est), $460 

per capita 

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish 

Agriculture: most Mauritanians are nomads 
or subsistence farmers; main products 
livestock, cereals, vegetables, dates; cash 
crops gum arabic 

Fishing: catch, 353,800 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: mining of iron ore and 
gypsum, fish processing 

Electric power: 131,000 kW capacity (1985); 
114 million kWh produced (1985), 68 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $275 million (f.o.b., 1984); iron ore, 
processed fish, and small amounts of gum 
arabic and gypsum; also unrecorded but 
numerically significant cattle exports to 
Senegal 

Imports: $215 million (f.o.b., 1984); food- 
stuffs and other consumer goods, petroleum 
products, capital goods 

Major trade partners: France and other EC 
members, Senegal, and US 

Budget: $225 million budgeted in 1984; 
$184 million revenues (planned 1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 61.4 
ouguiyas=US$l (30 July 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 740 km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge, single track, privately owned 



Highways: 7,540 km total; 1,350 km paved; 
710 km gravel, crushed stone, or otherwise 
improved; 5,480 km unimproved 

Inland waterways: 800 km 

Ports: 2 major (Nouadhibou and 
Nouakchott) 

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 31 total, 31 usable; 10 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: poor system of cable 
and open-wire lines, minor radio-relay links, 
and radio communications stations; 5,200 
telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM 
or TV stations; 2 satellite ground stations 
under construction 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramili- 
tary Gendarmerie, paramilitary National 
Guard, paramilitary National Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 369,000; 
179,000 fit for military service; conscription 
law not implemented 

Supply: primarily dependent on France; has 
also received material from Algeria, UK, 
Spain, and Romania; West Germany fur- 
nishes unspecified military cooperation/aid; 
military students being trained in France, 
Algeria, Libya, US, Morocco, Canada, Saudi 
Arabia, Iraq, Senegal, Burkina, and Zaire 



Agalega Islands Cargadcv 
Cataios Shoals and 
flixjngues are not shown 




Sff rcfionil map VII 



Land 

1,865 km 2 ; smaller than Rhode Island (ex- 
cluding dependencies); 50% agricultural, 
intensely cultivated; 39% forest, wood, 
mountain, rivers, and natural resources; 5% 
lakes; 3% built on; 2% roads and tracks; 1% 
waste 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 177 km 

People 

Population: 1,020, 000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.9% 

Nationality: noun Mauritian(s); adjec- 
tive Mauritian 

Ethnic divisions: 68% Indo-Mauritian, 27% 
Creole, 3% Sino-Mauritian, 2% 
Franco-Mauritian 

Religion: 51% Hindu, 30% Christian (mostly 
Roman Catholic with a few Anglicans), 17% 
Muslim 

Language: English (official), Creole, French, 
Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori 

Infant mortality rate: 28/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: 67 
Literacy: 79% 



162 



Labor force: 335,000; 29% government ser- 
vices, 27% agriculture and fishing, 22% man- 
ufacturing, 22% other; 20% are unemployed 

Organized labor: about 35% of labor force, 
forming over 270 unions 

Government 

Official name: Mauritius 

Type: independent state, recognizing Eliza- 
beth II as Chief of State 

Capital: Port Louis 

Political subdivisions: 5 organized munici- 
palities and various island dependencies 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system with elements of English common 
law in certain areas; constitution adopted 6 
March 1968 

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 
March 

Branches: executive power exercised by 
Prime Minister and 19-member Council of 
Ministers; unicameral legislature (Legisla- 
tive Assembly) with 62 members elected by 
direct suffrage, 8 specially elected under 
"best loser" system 

Government leader: Aneerood JUG- 
NAUTH, Prime Minister (since June 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 
Elections: legislative August 1983 

Political parties and leaders: the govern- 
ment is currently controlled by a coalition 
composed of the Militant Socialist Move- 
ment (MSM), A. Jugnauth, and the Maurit- 
ian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), G. 
Duval and the Mauritian Workers' Assem- 
bly (RTM), Beergoonath Ghurburrun; the 
Mauritian Labor Party (MLP) faction, led by 
party head S. Boolell, voted to leave the coa- 
lition in February 1984; the main opposition 
parties are the Mauritian Militant Move- 
ment (MMM), P. Berenger, and the Rodr- 
igues People's Organization (OPR) 



Voting strength: MSM, 30 of 70 seats in the 
Assembly; MMM, 21; MLP, 11; PMSD, 4; 
OPR, 2; and independents, 2 

Communists: may be 2,000 sympathizers; 
several Communist organizations; Mauritius 
Lenin Youth Organization, Mauritius 
Women's Committee, Mauritius Commu- 
nist Party, Mauritius People's Progressive 
Party, Mauritius Young Communist League, 
Mauritius Liberation Front, Chinese Middle 
School Friendly Association, Mauritius/ 
USSR Friendship Society 

Other political or pressure groups: various 
labor unions 

Member of: Af DB, Commonwealth, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, 
ISO, ITU, IWC International Wheat 
Council, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.0 billion (1984/85 prov.), $1,000 

per capita; real growth rate, 4.2% (1984/85 

prov.) 

Agriculture: sugar crop is a major economic 
asset; over 90% of cultivated land area is 
planted in sugar; also sugar derivatives, tea, 
tobacco; most food imported 

Shortage: land 

Major industries: mainly food manufactur- 
ing (largely sugar milling); textiles and wear- 
ing apparel; chemical and chemical prod- 
ucts; and metal products, transport equip- 
ment, and nonelectrical machinery 

Electric power: 237,000 kW capacity (1985); 
416 million kWh produced (1985), 411 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $387.8 million (merchandise, f.o.b., 
1984/85 prov.); sugar (48%); Export Process- 
ing Zone exports 

Imports: $406 million (f.o.b., 1984/85); 
food, petroleum products, manufactured 
goods 



Major trade partners: all EC countries and 
US have preferential treatment, UK buys 
almost all of Mauri tius's sugar export at sub- 
sidized prices; small amount of sugar ex- 
ported to Canada, US, and Italy; nonoil im- 
ports from UK and EC primarily, also from 
South Africa, Australia, US, and Japan; some 
minor trade with China 

Budget: central government (1984/85 
prov.) revenues, $217 million; external 
grants, $10 million; current expenditures, 
$247 million; capital expenditures, $40 mil- 
lion 

Monetary conversion rate: 14.557 Maurit- 
ian rupees=US$l (31 October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Highways: 2,000 km total; 1,200 km paved, 
800 km earth 

Ports: 1 major (Port Louis) 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 5 total, 4 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: small system with 
good service; new microwave link to Re- 
union; high-frequency radio links to several 
countries; 2 AM, no FM, 4 TV stations; 
48,000 telephones (5.0 per 100 popl.); 1 In- 
dian Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: paramilitary Special Mobile 
Force, Police Riot Units, and Police Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 272,000; 
142,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1983, $13.45 million; 3.2% of central 
government budget 



163 



Mayotte 



s//0 M'Zambourou 




SecrctionilmipYM "Mottmbique Channel 



Land 

375 km 2 ; more than twice the size of Wash- 
ington, D. C.; part of the Comoro archipel- 
ago; the main island is within an offshore 
coral reef with many breaks and passages 
and is surrounded by at least six small satel- 
lite islands 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 165 km (not including is- 
lets) 

People 

Population: 63,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Mahorais(sing., pi.); 
adjective Mahoran 

Religion: 99% Muslim; remainder Christian, 
mostly Roman Catholic 

Language: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), 
French 

Literacy: probably high 

Government 

Official name: Mayotte 

Type: French overseas territority 



Capital: Dzaoudzi 

Legal system: represented in French Parlia- 
ment by one deputy in the National Assem- 
bly and one member in the Senate; superior 
court of appeal 

Branches: elected 17-member general coun- 
cil; appointed commissioner 

Government leader: Christian PELLERIN, 
Commissioner of the Republic (since 1983); 
Younoussa BAMANA, President of the Gen- 
eral Council (since 1976) 

Political parties and leaders: Mahoran Pop- 
ular Movement (MPM), Zha M'Oere; Party 
for the Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM), 
Daroueche Maoulida; Mahoran Rally for the 
Republic (RMPR), Abdoul Anizizi 

Communists: probably none 

Economy 

Aid: from France, 84 million francs (1983) 

Agriculture: vanilla, ylang-ylang, coffee, 
copra 

Fishing: annual catch, about 2,000 tons 

Major industries: newly created lobster and 
shrimp industry 

Exports: 5 million francs (1982); 
ylang-ylang, vanilla 

Imports: 116 million francs (1982); building 
materials, transport equipment, rice, cloth- 
ing, flour 

Major trade partners: imports France 
57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Paki- 
stan 8%; exports France 79%, Reunion 
19%, Comoros 10% 

Budget: 144.3 million francs (1982) 

Monetary conversion rate: 8.40 French 
francs=US$l (January 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 



Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 85 km tarred 
Inland waterways: none 
Ports: none 
Airfields: none 

Telecommunications: small system admin- 
istered by French Department of Posts and 
Telecommunications; includes radio-relay 
and high-frequency radiocommunications 
for links with Comoros and for international 
communications; 450 telephones (9 per 100 
popl.); 1 AM station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of France 



164 



Mexico 



1000km 



Tijuana 




Land 

1,972,547 km 2 ; three times the size of Texas; 
40% pasture; 22% forest; 12% crop; 26% 
other, including waste, urban areas and pub- 
lic lands 

Land boundaries: 4,220 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 9,330 km 

People 

Population: 81,709,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Mexican(s); adjective 
Mexican 

Ethnic divisions: 60% mestizo (Indian- 
Spanish), 30% Amerindian or predominantly 
Amerindian, 9% white or predominantly 
white, 1% other 

Religion: 97% nominally Roman Catholic, 
3% Protestant 

Language: Spanish 

Infant mortality rate: 55.9/1,000(1980) 

Life expectancy: 65.4 

Literacy: 88.1% 



Labor force: 24,000,000(1985); 31.4% ser- 
vices; 26% agriculture, forestry, hunting, 
fishing; 13.9% commerce; 12.8% manufac- 
turing; 9.5% construction; 4.8% transporta- 
tion; 1.3% mining and quarrying; 0.3% elec- 
tricity; 10% unemployed, 40% underem- 
ployed 

Organized labor: 35% of total labor force 

Government 

Official name: United Mexican States 

Type: federal republic operating in fact un- 
der a centralized government 

Capital: Mexico 

Political subdivisions: 31 states and the Fed- 
eral District 

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional 
theory and civil law system; constitution 
established in 1917; judicial review of legis- 
lative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdic- 
tion, with reservations 

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 
September 

Branches: dominant executive, bicameral 
legislature (National Congress Senate, 
Federal Chamber of Deputies), Supreme 
Court 

Government leader: Miguel DE LA 
MADRID Hurtado, President (since Decem- 
ber 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18; compulsory 
but unenforced 

Elections: next presidential election to be 
held in 1988 

Political parties and leaders: (recognized 
parties) Institutional Revolutionary Party 
(PRI), Adolfo Lugo Verduzco; National Ac- 
tion Party (PAN), Pablo Emilio Madero; 
Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Jorge 
Cruickshank Garcia; Unified Socialist Party 
of Mexico (PSUM), Pablo Gomez Alvarez; 
Mexican Democratic Party (PDM), Ignacio 
Gonzalez Gollaz; Socialist Workers Party 
(PST), Pedro Etiene; Revolutionary Workers 



Party (PRT), Ricardo Pascoe Pierce; Mexi- 
can Workers Party (PMT), Heberto Castillo 
Martinez; Authentic Party of the Revolution 
(PARM), Carlos Enrique Cantu Rosas 

Voting strength: (1985 congressional elec- 
tion) 66% PRI, 15% PAN, 3% PSUM, 3% 
PDM, 2% PST, 2% PPS, 2% PARM, 2% 
PMT, 1% PRT, 4% other parties or annulled 

Other political or pressure groups: Roman 
Catholic Church, Confederation of Mexican 
Workers (CTM), Confederation of Industrial 
Chambers (CONCAMIN), Confederation of 
National Chambers of Commerce (CON- 
CANACO), National Peasant Confederation 
(CNC), National Confederation of Popular 
Organizations (CNOP), Revolutionary Con- 
federation of Workers and Peasants (CROC) 

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDE 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc 
Study Group, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC Inter- 
national Whaling Commission, LAIA, OAS, 
PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $176.0 billion (1984), $2,200 per cap- 
ita; 60% private consumption, 10% private 
investment, 10% public consumption, 7% 
public investment (1983); net foreign bal- 
ance 14%; real growth rate 1984, 3.7% 

Natural resources: petroleum, silver, cop- 
per, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber 

Agriculture: main crops corn, cotton, 
wheat, coffee, sugarcane, sorghum, oilseed, 
pulses, and vegetables; an illegal producer of 
opium poppy and cannabis for the interna- 
tional drug trade 

Fishing: catch 1,200,000 metric tons (1984); 
exports valued at $481 million, imports at 
$21.9 million (1982) 

Major industries: processing of food, bever- 
ages, and tobacco; chemicals, basic metals 
and metal products, petroleum products, 
mining, textiles and clothing, and transport 
equipment 



165 



Mexico (continued) 



Monaco 



Crude steel: 10 million metric tons capacity 
(1984); 7.5 million metric tons produced 
(1984) 

Electric power: 21,492,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 83.7 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 051 kWh per capita 

Exports: $23.727 billion (f.o.b., 1984); cot- 
ton, coffee, nonferrous minerals (including 
lead and zinc), shrimp, petroleum, sulfur, 
salt, cattle and meat, fresh fruit, tomatoes, 
machinery and equipment 

Imports: $11. 870 billion (f.o.b., 1984); ma- 
chinery, equipment, industrial vehicles, and 
intermediate goods 

Major trade partners: exports 53% US, 
10% EC, 6% Japan (1984); imports 60% 
US, 16% EC, 5% Japan 

Aid: economic commitments, US, including 
Ex-Im (FY70-84), $2.9 billion; (ODA and 
OOF) Western (non-US) countries (1970-83), 
$3.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-84), 
$97 million; military commitments, US 
(FY70-84), $7.8 million 

Budget: (at controlled rate of exchange) 
1984 public sector, budgeted revenues, 
$54.5 billion; budgeted expenditures, $63.7 
billion 

Monetary conversion rate: dual exchange 
rates controlled rate 364 pesos=US$l; 
"free" rate 454=US$1 (both rates as of 
1 January 1986, set daily by the Mexican 
Government 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 20,680 km total; 19,950 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge; 730 km 0.914-meter 
narrow gauge 

Highways: 210,000 km total; 65,000 km 
paved, 30,000 km semipaved or cobblestone, 
60,000 km rural roads (improved earth) or 
roads under construction, 55,000 km unim- 
proved earth roads 

Inland waterways: 2,900 km navigable riv- 
ers and coastal canals 



Pipelines: crude oil, 5,134 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 6,875 km; natural gas, 9,490 km 

Ports: 1 1 major, 20 minor 

Civil air: 174 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1,928 total, 1,741 usable; 182 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 28 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 276 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: highly developed 
telecom system with extensive radio-relay 
links; connection into Central American 
microwave net; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite 
ground antennas; 6.41 million telephones 
(8.9 per 100 pop!.); 650 AM, 120 TV, and 
about 180 low-power TV relay stations; 120 
domestic satellite terminals 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine 
Corps 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
19,372,000; 15,361,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; 905,000 reach military age (18) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: for year ending 31 Decem- 
ber 1985, $1.16 billion (proj.); expenditures, 
including support of parastatals, 3.4% of 
central government budget 




Mediterranean 
Sea 



See regional map V 



Land 

1.9 km 2 ; about one-tenth the size of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Land boundaries: 3.7 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 4.1 km 

People 

Population: 28,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Monacan(s) or Mone- 
gasque(s); adjective Monacan or Mone- 
gasque 

Ethnic divisions: 47% French, 16% Mone- 
gasque, 16% Italian, 21% other 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholicism 

Language: French (official), English, Italian, 
Monegarque 

Literacy: 99% 

Government 

Official name: Principality of Monaco 

Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Monaco 



166 



Mongolia 



Political subdivisions: 1 commune com- 
posed of 4 communal sectors 

Legal system: based on French law; new 
constitution adopted 1962; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: 19 November 

Branches: legislative branch is composed of 
the Prince and National Council of 18 mem- 
bers; executive consists of the Prince as 
Chief of State, the Minister of State as Head 
of Government (senior French civil servant 
appointed by Prince), and the Council of 
Government as Cabinet; judicial authority is 
delegated by the Prince to the Supreme Tri- 
bunal 

Government leader: Prince RAINIER III, 
Chief of State (since November 1949) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: National Council every five years; 
national election held January 1983; munici- 
pal election held February 1983 

Political parties and leaders: National and 
Democratic Union (UND), Democratic 
Union Movement (MUD), Monaco Action, 
Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM) 

Voting strength: (1978) National Council- 
UNO 18 seats 

Member of: IAEA, ICAO, IHO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, UN 
(permanent observer), UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WIPO 

Economy 

GNP: 55% tourism; 25-30% industry (small 
and primarily tourist oriented); 10-15% reg- 
istration fees and sales of postage stamps; 
about 4% traceable to the Monte Carlo ca- 
sino 

Major industries: chemicals, food process- 
ing, precision instruments, glass making, 
printing 

Electric power: 8,000 kW standby capacity 
(1985); power supplied by France 



Trade: full customs integration with France, 
which collects and rebates Monacan trade 
duties; also participates in EC market system 
through customs union with France 

Monetary conversion rate: 8.40 French 
francs=US$l (4 January 1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: 1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge 

Highways: none; city streets 

Ports: 1 minor 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 usable airfield with permanent- 
surface runways 

Telecommunications: served by the French 
communications system; automatic tele- 
phone system with about 34,600 telephones 
(123.6 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV sta- 
tions 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of France 




Sec regional map VIM 



Land 

1,564,619 km 2 ; more than twice the size of 
Texas; almost 90% of land area is pasture or 
desert waste, varying in usefulness; 10% for- 
est; less than 1 % arable 

Land boundaries: 8,000 km 

People 

Population: 1,942,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Mongolian(s); adjec- 
tive Mongolian 

Ethnic divisions: 90% Mongol, 4% Kazakh, 
2% Chinese, 2% Russian, 2% other 

Religion: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, 
about 4% Muslim, limited religious activity 
because of Communist regime 

Language: Khalkha Mongol used by over 
90% of population; minor languages include 
Turkic, Russian, and Chinese 

Life expectancy: 63 
Literacy: about 80% 

Labor force: primarily agricultural; over 
half the adult population is in the labor 
force, including a large percentage of 
women; shortage of skilled labor 

Government 

Official name: Mongolian People's Republic 

Type: Communist state 



167 



Mongolia (continued) 



Montserrat 



Capital: Ulaanbaatar 

Political subdivisions: 18 provinces and 3 
autonomous municipalities (Ulaanbaatar, 
Darhan, and Erdenet) 

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, 
and Turkish systems of law; new constitu- 
tion adopted 1960; no constitutional provi- 
sion for judicial review of legislative acts; 
legal education at Ulaanbaatar State Univer- 
sity; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: People's Revolution Day, 
11 July 

Branches: executive Council of Ministers; 
legislative unicameral People's Great 
Hural; judicial court system; Supreme 
Court elected by People's Great Hural 

Government leaders: Jambyn BATMONH, 
Chairman of the Presidium of the People's 
Great Hural (since December 1984); 
Dumaagiyn SODNOM, Chairman of the 
Council of Ministers (since December 1984) 

Suffrage: universal at age 18 and over 

Elections: legislative election theoretically 
held every four years; last election held June 
1981 

Political party and leader: Mongolian 
People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), 
Jambyn Batmonh, General Secretary (since 
August 1984) 

Communists: estimated MPRP member- 
ship, 81,000 (1984) 

Member of: CEMA, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, 
ILO, IPU, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.20 billion (1976 est.); average an- 
nual real growth, 1.6% (1970-77) 

Natural resources: coal, copper, molybde- 
num, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, 
wolfram, fluorspar, gold 

Agriculture: livestock raising predominates; 
main crops wheat, oats, barley 



Major industries: processing of animal 
products; building materials; mining 

Electric power: 645,000 kW capacity (1985); 
2.2 billion kWh produced (1985), 1,150 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: livestock, animal products, wool, 
hides, fluorspar, nonferrous metals, minerals 

Imports: machinery and equipment, petro- 
leum, clothing, building materials, sugar, 
tea, chemicals 

Major trade partners: nearly all trade with 
Communist countries (approx. 80% with 
USSR); total turnover about $1.0 billion 
(1977) 

Aid: heavily dependent on USSR 

Monetary conversion rate: 3.3555 tugriks= 
US$1 (February 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,600 km (1981); all 1.524-meter 
broad gauge 

Highways: 46,700 km total; 700 km hard 
surface; 46,000 km other surfaces (1981) 

Inland waterways: 397 km of principal 
routes (1981) 

Freight carried: rail 10.7 million metric 
tons, 3,609 million metric ton/km (1981); 
highway 27.8 million metric tons, 1,624 
million metric ton/km (1981); waterway 
0.04 million metric tons, 4.7 million metric 
ton/km (1981) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Mongolian People's Army, Air 
Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 454,000; 
296,000 fit for military service; 21,000 reach 
military age (18) annually 

Supply: military equipment supplied by 
USSR 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1977, 405 million tugriks, 12% of 
total budget 




Caribbean 
Sea 






See regional map III 



Land 

102 km 2 ; a little over half the size of Wash- 
ington, D. C.; part of the Leeward Islands 
group of the Lesser Antilles in the Eastern 
Caribbean; entirely volcanic, consisting of 
three main mountain ranges; some arable 
land with 5,000 acres of forest 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 40 km 

People 

Population: 12,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.2% 

Nationality: noun Montserratian(s); adjec- 
tive Montserratian 

Ethnic divisions: mostly black with a few 
Europeans 

Religion: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Cath- 
olic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist, 
other Christian denominations 

Language: English 

Literacy: 77% 

Infant mortality rate: 124/1,000(1983) 

Labor force: 5,100 (1983 prelim.); 40.5% 
community, social, and personal services, 



168 



Morocco 



13.5% construction, 12.3% trade, restau- 
rants, and hotels, 10.5% manufacturing, 
8.8% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 
14.4% other; 7.0% unemployment (1984) 

Organized labor: 3 trade unions with 1 ,498 
members; about 30% of work force (1984) 

Government 

Official name: Montserrat 

Type: British dependent territory 
Capital: Plymouth 
Political subdivisions: 1 districts 
Legal system: English common law 

Branches: Executive Council presided over 
by governor, consisting of two ex-officio 
members (attorney general and financial 
officer) and four unofficial members (chief 
minister and three other ministers); Legisla- 
tive Council presided over by speaker cho- 
sen from outside the Council, seven elected, 
two official, and two nominated members 

Government leader: A. C. WATSON, Gov- 
ernor (since 1984); Dr. J. A. OSBORNE, 
Chief Minister (since 1978) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: at least once every five years; last 
election held February 1983 

Political parties and leaders: People's Liber- 
ation Movement (PLM), John Osborne; Pro- 
gressive Democratic Party (PDF), P. Austin 
Bramble; United National Front (UNF), Dr. 
George Irish; National Development Party 
(NDP), Bertram Osborne 

Voting strength: July 1984 elections PLM, 
4 seats; PDF, 3 seats 

Communists: probably none 

Economy 

GDP: $32.4 million (1983); $2,760 per capita 

(1983); real GDP growth rate 2% (1984); 15% 

tourism 



Agriculture: main crops cotton, limes, po- 
tatoes, tomatoes, hot peppers; livestock 
cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, poultry 

Fishing: catch 150 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: tourism; light manufac- 
turing plastic bags, textiles, electronic ap- 
pliances 

Electric power: 3,900 kW capacity (1985); 
12 million kWh produced (1985), 1,000 per 
capita 

Exports: $1.6 million (1983); plastic bags, 
electronic parts, textiles; hot peppers, live 
plants; cattle 

Imports: $20 million (1983); machinery and 
transport equipment, foodstuffs, manufac- 
tured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related 
materials 

Major trade partners: UK 

Budget: (1984 est.) revenue $10.6 million; 
expenditure $10.7 million 

Monetary conversion rate: $2.70 East 
Caribbean = US$1 (1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 200 km total; approximately 200 
km paved, 80 km gravel and earth 

Inland waterways: none 
Ports: 1 major (Plymouth) 

Airfields: 1 with permanent-surface runway 
1,036.32 m 

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones, 26 
telex (1984); 3 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 
Kingdom 



300km 



Mediterranean Sea 

uta |Sp.) 

l.(Sp) 



Art. 




See regional mip VII 



Land 

446,550 km 2 ; larger than California; 51% 
desert, waste, or urban; about 32% arable 
and grazing; 17% forest and esparto grass 

Land boundaries: 1,996 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 1,835 km 

People 

Population: 23,667,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.4% 

Nationality: noun Moroccan(s); adjec- 
tive Moroccan 

Ethnic divisions: 99. 1 % Arab- Berber, 0.7% 
non-Moroccan, 0.2% Jewish 

Religion: 98.7% Muslim, 1.1% Christian, 
0.2% Jewish 

Language: Arabic (official); several Berber 
dialects; French is language of business, gov- 
ernment, diplomacy, and postprimary edu- 
cation 

Infant mortality rate: 117/1,000(1978) 
Life expectancy: 54 
Literacy: 28% 



169 



Morocco (continued) 



Labor force: 7.5 million (1985); 50% agricul- 
ture, 26% services, 15% industry, 9% other; 
at least 20% of urban labor unemployed 

Organized labor: about 5% of the labor 
force, mainly in the Union of Moroccan 
Workers (UMT) and the Democratic Con- 
federation of Labor (CDT) 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Morocco 

Type: constitutional monarchy (constitution 
adopted 1972) 

Capital: Rabat 

Political subdivisions: 36 provinces (does not 
include Western Sahara) and 2 prefectures 
(Rabat-Sale and Casablanca, which consists 
of 5 divisions) 

NOTE: Morocco acquired administrative 
control in 1976 over the northern two-thirds 
of the former Spanish Sahara under an 
agreement with Mauritania, but the legal 
question of sovereignty over the area has yet 
to be determined. Spain's role as coadminis- 
trator of the disputed territory ended in 
February 1976. Morocco moved to occupy 
and assert administrative control over the 
former Mauritanian-claimed (southern) sec- 
tor of Western Sahara in August 1979, 
thereby establishing a fourth additional 
province in the Sahara. 

Legal system: based on Islamic law and 
French and Spanish civil law system; judi- 
cial review of legislative acts in Constitu- 
tional Chamber of Supreme Court; modern 
legal education at branches of Mohamed V 
University in Rabat and Casablanca and 
Karaouine University in Fes 

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 
November 

Branches: constitution provides for Prime 
Minister and ministers named by and re- 
sponsible to King; King has paramount exec- 
utive powers; unicameral legislature (Cham- 
ber of Representatives), of which two-thirds 
of the members are directly elected and one- 
third are indirectly elected; judiciary inde- 
pendent of other branches 



Government leaders: HASSAN II, King 
(since March 1961); Mohamed KARIM 
LAMRANI, Prime Minister (since Novem- 
ber 1983) 

Suffrage: universal over age 20 

Elections: provincial elections held 10 June 
1983; elections for National Assembly held 
14 September 1984 

Political parties and leaders: Morocco has 
14 political parties; the major ones are 
Istiqlal Party, M'Hamed Boucetta; Socialist 
Union of Popular Forces (USFP), 
Abderrahim Bouabid; Popular Movement 
(MP), Mahjoubi Aherdan; National Assem- 
bly of Independents (RNI) formed in Octo- 
ber 1978 is progovernment grouping of pre- 
viously unaffiliated deputies in parliament, 
Ahmed Osman; National Democratic Party 
(PND), a splinter group from the RNI 
formed July 1981, Mohamed Arsalane 
El-Jadidi; Party for Progress and Socialism 
(PPS), legalized in August 1974, is front for 
Moroccan Communist Party (PCM), which 
was proscribed in 1959, Ali Yata; new 
promonarchy party the Constitutional 
Union (UC), Maati Bouabid 

Voting strength: progovernment parties 
hold absolute majority in Chamber of Rep- 
resentatives; with palace-oriented Popular 
Movement deputies, the King controls over 
two-thirds of the seats 

Communists: 2,000 est. 

Member of: Af DB, Arab League, EC (associ- 
ate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic Development 
Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead 
and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITU, 
NAM, QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $1 1.9 billion (1984 est.), about $500 
per capita; average annual real growth 6-7% 
during 1973-77, 3-4% during 1978-80, 2.0% 
in 1984 (est.), 2.5% in 1985 (est.) 

Natural resources: phosphates, iron, manga- 
nese, lead, zinc, fish 



Agriculture: cereal farming and livestock 
raising predominate; main products 
wheat, barley, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, 
olives; some fishing; an illegal producer of 
cannabis for the international drug trade 

Fishing: catch 440,000 metric tons (1983); 
exports $165 million (1983) 

Major industries: mining and mineral pro- 
cessing, food processing, textiles, construc- 
tion and tourism 

Electric power: 1,930,100 kW capacity 
(1985); 6.763 billion kWh produced (1985), 
290 kWh per capita 

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 24% phos- 
phates, 76% other 

Imports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 25% pe- 
troleum products, 75% other 

Major trade partners: France, FRG, Italy, 
Saudi Arabia 

Budget: (1984 est.) revenues, $4.5 billion; 
current expenditures, $3.6 billion; develop- 
ment expenditures, $2.0 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 10.06 
dirhams=US$l (average 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,785 km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge, 161 km double track; 708 km electri- 
fied 

Highways: 58,000 km total; 25,750 km bitu- 
minous treated, 32,250 km gravel, crushed 
stone, improved earth, and unimproved 
earth 

Pipelines: 362 km crude oil; 491 km (aban- 
doned) refined products; 241 km natural gas 

Ports: 10 major (including 
Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla), 14 
minor 

Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft 



170 



Mozambique 



Airfields: 79 total, 75 usable; 26 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 14 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 29 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good system com- 
posed of wire lines, cables, and radio-relay 
links; principal centers Casablanca and Ra- 
bat, secondary centers Fes, Marrakech, 
Oujda, Tangier and Tetouan; 270,100 tele- 
phones (1.3 per 100 popl.); 14 AM, 6 FM, 47 
TV stations; 5 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic 
Ocean satellite stations; radio-relay to Gibr- 
altar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial 
cable to Algeria 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Moroccan Army, Royal 
Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,222,000; 
3,225,000 fit for military service; 256,000 
reach military age (18) annually; limited 
conscription 




ualimana 

Mozambique 



Channel 



Chicualacua 



See regional map VII 



'ilanculos 

Inhambana 
APUTO 



Land 

783,030 km 2 ; larger than Texas; 56% wood 
and forest; 30% arable, of which 1% culti- 
vated; 14% waste and inland water 

Land boundaries: 4,627 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 2,470 km 

People 

Population: 14,022,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.8% 

Nationality: noun Mozambican(s); adjec- 
tive Mozambican 

Ethnic divisions: majority from indigenous 
tribal groups; approximately 10,000 Europe- 
ans, 35,000 Euro- Africans, 15,000 Indians 

Religion: 60% indigenous beliefs, 30% Chris- 
tian, 10% Muslim 

Language: Portuguese (official); many indig- 
enous dialects 

Infant mortality rate: 109/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 44, women 47 
Literacy: 14% 
Labor force: 85% engaged in agriculture 



Government 

Official name: People's Republic of Mozam- 
bique 

Type: people's republic 
Capital: Maputo 

Political subdivisions: 10 provinces subdi- 
vided into 112 districts; administrators are 
appointed by central government 

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law 
system and customary law 

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 
June 

Branch: unicameral legislature (People's 
Assembly; last convened in December 1985) 

Government leader: Samora Moi'ses 
MACHEL, President (since June 1975) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: general elections announced for 
1986 

Political parties and leaders: the Mozam- 
bique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), led by 
Samora Machel, is only legal party 

Communists: FRELIMO is a Marxist orga- 
nization and maintains close ties to the So- 
viet Union and its allies but has recently 
taken steps to improve relations with the 
West and neighboring South Africa 

Member of: AfDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de 
facto), IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $2 billion (1985 est), about $150 per 
capita; average annual growth rate 1 % 
(1971-84 est.) 

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, natural 
gas, copper, heavy minerals, bauxite, possi- 
bly petroleum 



171 



Mozambique (continued) 



Namibia 
(South-West Africa) 



Agriculture: cash crops raw cotton, 
cashew nuts, sugar, tea, copra, sisal, rice; 
other crops corn, wheat, peanuts, potatoes, 
beans, sorghum, cassava; imports corn and 
wheat 

Fishing: 13,500 metric tons (1984) 

Major industries: food processing (chiefly 
sugar, tea, wheat, flour, cashew kernels); 
chemicals (vegetable oil, oilcakes, soap, 
paints); petroleum products; beverages; tex- 
tiles; nonmetallic mineral products (cement, 
glass, asbestos, cement products); tobacco 

Electric power: 228,700 kW capacity (1985); 
2.998 billion kWh produced (1985), 217 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $95 million (1984); cashews, 
shrimp, sugar, tea, cotton 

Imports: $539 million (1984); refined petro- 
leum products, machinery, transportation 
goods, spare parts, consumer goods 

Major trade partners: exports US, West- 
ern Europe; imports Western and Eastern 
Europe 

Budget: (1982) current expenditures, $500 
million; revenues, $600 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 43 meticais= 
US$1 (January 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,436 km total; 3,288 km 1.067- 
meter gauge; 148 km 0.750-meter narrow 
gauge 

Highways: 26,498 km total; 4,593 km paved; 
829 km gravel, crushed stone, stabilized soil; 
21,076 km unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: approx. 3,750 km of nav- 
igable routes 

Pipelines: crude oil, 306 km (not operating); 
refined products, 280 km 

Ports: 3 major (Maputo, Beira, Nacala), 2 
significant minor 



Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 239 total, 210 usable; 28 with 
permanent-surface runways; 6 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 31 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system of 
troposcatter, open-wire lines, and radio re- 
lay; 57,400 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 9 
AM, 3 FM stations; 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic 
Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Mozambique Armed Forces (in- 
cluding Army, Border Guard, Naval Com- 
mand, Air Force) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,084,000; 
1,823,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $240 million; 38% of cen- 
tral government budget 




Swakopmund 

South 
Atlantic 

Ocean \ |(Mtmn>hoop 
liUntuf m 

K.ratburo 



See regional map VII 



Land 

824,296 km 2 ; twice the size of California; 
mostly desert except for interior plateau and 
area along northern border 

Land boundaries: 3,798 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm 
(fishing 12 nm) 

Coastline: 1,489 km 

People 

Population: 1,142,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.1% 

Nationality: noun Namibian(s); adjec- 
tive Namibian 

Ethnic divisions: 85.6% black, 7.5% white, 
6.9% mixed; approximately half the Afri- 
cans belong to Ovambo tribe 

Religion: whites predominantly Christian, 
nonwhites either Christian or indigenous 
beliefs 

Language: Afrikaans principal language of 
about 60% of white population, German of 
33%, and English of 7% (all official); several 
indigenous languages 

Literacy: 100% whites, 16% nonwhites 



172 



Labor force: about 500,000 (1981); 60% agri- 
culture, 19% industry and commerce, 8% 
services, 7% government, 6% mining; 15- 
17% unemployment 

Organized labor: 6 trade unions, whose 
membership is almost exclusively white and 
mulatto 

Government 

Official name: Namibia 

Type: former German colony of South- West 
Africa mandated to South Africa by League 
of Nations in 1920; UN formally ended 
South Africa's mandate on 27 October 1966, 
but South Africa has retained administrative 
control 

Capital. Windhoek 

Political subdivisions: 10 tribal homelands, 
mostly in northern sector, and zone open to 
white settlement with administrative subdi- 
visions similar to a province of South Africa 

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law 
and customary law 

Branches: since September 1977 Adminis- 
trator General, appointed by South African 
Government, has exercised coordinative 
functions over zone of white settlement and 
tribal homelands, where traditional chiefs 
and representative bodies exercise limited 
autonomy; veto power over legislation pro- 
posed by National Assembly; interim gov- 
ernment established June 1985 with 
8-member Cabinet, 16-member Constitu- 
tional Council and 62-member National 
Assembly 

Government leader: Louis A. PIENAAR, 
Administrator General (since July 1985) 

Suffrage: universal white adult suffrage at 
territorial level; lower level elections open to 
blacks 

Elections: last election of Namibian Na- 
tional Assembly, December 1978 

Political parties and leaders: approximately 
45 political parties; member parties of the 
interim Multi- Party Conference govern- 



ment Multisocial Democratic Turnhalle 
Alliance (DTA), Dirk Mudge; South- West 
African National Union (SWANU), Moses 
Katjiuongua; South- West African People's 
Organization Democrats (SWAPO-D), An- 
dreas Shipanga; South-West African Na- 
tional Party (SWANP), Kosie Pretorius; Col- 
ored Labor Party, David Bezuidenhout; 
Rehoboth Free Democratic Party (RFDP), 
Hans Diergaardt; other parties United 
Democratic Party, formed in September 
1985 after merger of 2 Capri vi parties, 
Mishake Muyongo; Federal Party, largely 
white, English-speaking, liberal; Christian 
Democratic Action Party, a primarily 
Ovambo party formed in early 1982 as a 
result of a split in the DTA, Peter Kalangula 

Voting strength: (1978 election) Namibian 
National Assembly DTA, 22 seats; 
SWANP, 8 seats; SWANU, 8 seats; 
SWAPO-D, 8 seats; CP, 8 seats; RFDP, 8 
seats; Assembly appointed in June 1985 

Communists: no Communist Party; 
SWAPO guerrilla force is supported by So- 
viet Union, Cuba, and other Communist 
states as well as OAU 

Other political or pressure groups: South- 
West African People's Organization 
(SWAPO), led by Sam Nujoma, maintains a 
foreign-based guerrilla movement; is pre- 
dominantly Ovambo but has some influence 
among other tribes; is the only Namibian 
group recognized by the UN General Assem- 
bly and the Organization of African Unity 

Member of: FAO, ILO, UNESCO, WFTU, 
WHO 

Economy 

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, ura- 
nium, lead, tin, zinc, salt, vanadium 

Agriculture: livestock raising (cattle and 
sheep) predominates; subsistence crops (mil- 
let, sorghum, corn, and some wheat) are 
raised, but most food must be imported 

Fishing: est. catch 341,000 metric tons 
(1983); processed mostly in South African 
exclave of Walvis Bay 



Major industries: (nearly all for export) 
meatpacking, fish processing, dairy prod- 
ucts, copper, lead, zinc, diamond, and ura- 
nium mining 

Electric power: 400,000 kW capacity (1985); 
700 million kWh produced (1985), 631 kWh 
per capita 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.3 SA 
rands=US$l (January 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 2,340 km 1.067-meter gauge, sin- 
gle track 

Highways: 54,500 km; 4,079 km paved, 
2,540 gravel, remainder earth roads and 
tracks 

Ports: 2 major (Walvis Bay and Lderitz) 
Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 151 total, 141 usable; 21 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 63 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good urban, fair rural 
services; radio relay connects major towns, 
wires extend to other population centers; 
57,400 telephones (6.0 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 
13 FM, 3 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Defense is responsibility of Republic of 
South Africa; however, a SouthrWest Afri- 
can Territory Force was established 1 Au- 
gust 1980 (includes an air element) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 
256,000; about 153,000 fit for military ser- 
vice 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1984, $128.3; 8% of central govern- 
ment budget 



173 



Nauru 




South 
Pacific 
Ocean 



Set regional map X 



Land 

20.7 km 2 ; less than one-eighth the size of 
Washington, D. C.; insignificant arable land, 
no urban areas 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 24 km 

People 

Population: 8,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.3% 

Nationality: noun Nauruan(s); adjective 
Nauruan 

Ethnic divisions: 58% Nauruan, 26% other 
Pacific Islander, 8% Chinese, 8% European 

Religion: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, 
one-third Catholic) 

Language: Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island 
language (official); English widely under- 
stood and spoken 

Literacy: 99% 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Nauru 

Type: republic 

Capital: no capital city per se; government 
offices in Yaren District 



Political subdivisions: 14 districts 

National holidays: Independence Day, 31 
January; Constitution Day, 17 May; Angram 
Day, 26 October 

Branches: President elected from and by 
Parliament for an unfixed term; popularly 
elected 18-member unicameral legislature 
(Parliament); four-member Cabinet to assist 
the President appointed by him from Parlia- 
ment members 

Government leader: Hammer 
DEROBURT, President (since May 1978) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: last held in December 1983 

Political parties and leaders: governing fac- 
tion, President DeRoburt; opposition Nauru 
Party, Lagumot Harris 

Member of: Commonwealth (special mem- 
ber), ESCAP, ICAO, INTERPOL, ITU, 
South Pacific Commission, SPF, UPU 

Economy 

CNP: over $160 million (1984), $20,000 per 
capita 

Natural resources: phosphates 

Agriculture: negligible; almost completely 
dependent on imports for food and water 

Major industries: mining of phosphates, 
about 2 million tons per year 

Electric power: 13,250 kW capacity (1985); 
48 million kWh produced (1985), 6,000 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $93 million (f.o.b., 1984) 

Imports: $11 million (c.i.f., 1979); food, fuel, 
water 

Major trade partners: exports 75% Austra- 
lia and New Zealand; imports Australia, 
UK, New Zealand, Japan 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.0778 Austra- 
lian dollars=US$l (February 1984) 



Fiscal year: 1 July-30June 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: about 27 km total; 21 km paved, 
6 km improved earth 

Inland waterways: none 
Ports: 1 minor 

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft, one on 
order 

Airfields: 1 usable with permanent-surface 
runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: adequate intraisland 
and international radio communications 
provided via Australian facilities; 1,500 tele- 
phones (20.8 per 100 popl.); 3,600 radio re- 
ceivers, 1 AM, no FM or TV stations; 1 
ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

No formal defense structure and no regular 
armed forces 

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 
1,800; fit for military service, about 1,000; 
about 100 reach military age (18) annually 



174 



Nepal 




Stt rtiionil map VIII 



Land 

140,791 km 2 ; the size of North Carolina; 
38% alpine land (nonarable), waste, or ur- 
ban; 32% forest; 16% agricultural; 14% per- 
manent meadow and pasture 

Land boundaries: 2,800 km 

People 

Population: 17,422,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Nepalese (sing, and pi.); 
adjective Nepalese 

Ethnic divisions: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, 
Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais, 
Limbus, Sherpas, as well as many smaller 
groups 

Religion: only official Hindu kingdom in 
world, although no sharp distinction 
between many Hindu (about 88%) and 
Buddhist groups; small groups of Muslims 
and Christians 

Language: Nepali (official); 20 mutually 
unintelligible languages divided into numer- 
ous dialects 

Infant mortality rate: 143/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 47, women 45 
Literacy: 20% 



Labor force: 4. 1 million; 93% agriculture, 
5% services, 2% industry; great lack of 
skilled labor 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Nepal 

Type: nominally a constitutional monarchy; 
King Birendra exercises autocratic control 
over multitiered panchayat system of gov- 
ernment 

Capital: Kathmandu 

Political subdivisions: 75 districts, 14 zones 

Legal system: based on Hindu legal con- 
cepts and English common law; legal educa- 
tion at Nepal Law College in Kathmandu; 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdic- 
tion 

National holiday: Birthday of the King and 
National Day, 28 December 

Branches: Council of Ministers appointed by 
the King; Rastriya Panchayat (National As- 
sembly; 1 12 directly elected, 28 appointed 
by King) 

Government leaders: BIRENDRA Bir 
Bikram Shah Dev, King (since 1973); 
Nagendra Prasad RIJAL, Prime Minister 
(since July 1984) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: village, town, and district councils 
(panchayats) elected by universal suffrage; a 
constitutional amendment in 1980 provided 
for direct elections to the National Pancha- 
yat, which consists of 140 members (includ- 
ing 28 appointed by the King), who serve 
five- year terms; Nepal's first general election 
in 22 years was held in May 1981; general 
elections are scheduled for 12 May 1986 

Political parties and leaders: all political 
parties outlawed but operate more or less 
openly; Nepali Congress Party (NCP), 
Ganesh Man Singh, K. P. Bhattarai, G. P. 
Koirala 

Communists: Communist Party of Nepal 
(CPN); factions include V. B. Manandhar, 



Man Mohan Adhikari, Bharat Raj Joshi, Rai 
Majhi, Tulsi Lai, Krishna Raj Burma, Sahana 
Pradhan 

Other political or pressure groups: numer- 
ous small, left-leaning student groups in the 
capital; Indian merchants in Terai and capi- 
tal 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, 
ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $2.4 billion (FY84/85 current prices), 

$142 per capita; 9% real growth in FY84/85 

(est.) 

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, 
hydroelectric potential, scenic beauty 

Agriculture: over 90% of population en- 
gaged in agriculture; main crops rice, 
corn, wheat, sugarcane, oilseeds; an illegal 
producer of cannabis for the international 
drug trade 

Major industries: small rice, jute, sugar, and 
oilseed mills; match, cigarette, and brick 
factories 

Electric power: 160,000 kW capacity (1985); 
395 million kWh produced (1985), 23 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $157 million (FY84/85 est.); rice 
and other food products, jute, timber, manu- 
factured goods 

Imports: $450 million (FY84/85); manufac- 
tured consumer goods, fuel, construction 
materials, fertilizers, food products 

Major trade partner: India 

Budget: (FY84/85 revised est.) domestic 
revenues, $290 million; expenditures, $485 
million 

Monetary conversion rate: 20.40 Nepalese 
rupees=US$l (November 1985) 

Fiscal year: 15 July-14 July 



175 



Nepal (continued) 



Netherlands 



Communications 

Railroads: 169 km (1985), all 0.762-meter 
narrow gauge; all in Terai close to Indian 
border; 10km from Raxaul to Blrganj is gov- 
ernment owned 

Highways: 5,270 km total (1985); 2,322 km 
paved, 556 km gravel or crushed stone, 
1,829 km improved and unimproved earth; 
additionally 241 km of seasonally motorable 
tracks 

Civil air: 5 major and 1 1 minor transport 
aircraft 

Airfields: 38 total, 38 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 8 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: poor telephone and 
telegraph service; fair radiocommunication 
and broadcast service; international 
radiocommunication service is poor; 10,000 
telephones (less than 0.1 per 100popl.);3 
AM, no FM or TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Ne- 
palese Army Air Service, Nepalese Police 
Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,186,000; 
2, 114,000 fit for military service; 196,000 
reach military age (17) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 15 
July 1986, $62.0 million; 9.6% of central 
government budget 




Sec regional map V 



Land 

40,844 km 2 ; the size of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, and Rhode Island combined; 70% 
cultivated, 8% forest, 8% inland water, 5% 
waste, 9% other 

Land boundaries: 1,022 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 451 km 

People 

Population: 14,536,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.4% 

Nationality: noun Netherlander(s); adjec- 
tive Netherlands 

Ethnic divisions: 99% Dutch, 1% Indonesian 
and other 

Religion: 40% Roman Catholic, 31% Protes- 
tant, 24% unaffiliated 

Language: Dutch 

Infant mortality rate: 8.4/1,000(1983) 

Life expectancy: 76 

Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 5.9 million (1984); 57% services, 
30% manufacturing and construction, 6% 



transportation and communications, 5% ag- 
riculture; 12.5% unemployed, September 
1985 


Organized labor: 33% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of the Netherlands 

Type: constitutional monarchy 

Capital: Amsterdam, but government re- 
sides at The Hague 

Political subdivisions: 1 1 provinces and 4 
special municipalities governed by centrally 
appointed commissioners of Queen 

Legal system: civil law system incorporating 
French penal theory; constitution of 1815 
frequently amended, reissued 1947; judicial 
review in the Supreme Court of legislation 
of lower order rather than Acts of Parlia- 
ment; legal education at six law schools; ac- 
cepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with res- 
ervations 

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April 

Branches: executive (Queen and Cabinet of 
Ministers), which is responsible to bicameral 
parliament (States General) consisting of a 
First Chamber (75 indirectly elected mem- 
bers) and a Second Chamber (150 directly 
elected members); independent judiciary; 
coalition governments are usual 

Government leaders: BEATRIX Wilhelm- 
ina Armgard, Queen (since April 1980); 
Ruud LUBBERS, Prime Minister (since No- 
vember 1982) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: must be held at least every four 
years for lower house (next scheduled for 21 
May 1986); following an amendment to the 
constitution that took effect in 1983, elec- 
tions are held for the upper house every four 
years (most recent August 1983) 

Political parties and leaders: Christian 
Democratic Appeal (CDA), Chairman Pieter 
Bukman; Labor (PvdA), Max van den Berg; 
Liberal ( VVD), Jan Kamminga; Democrats 



176 



66 (D'66), Jacob Kohnstamm; Communist 
(CPN), Henk Hoekstra; Pacifist Socialist 
(PSP), Bram van der Lek; Political Reformed 
(SGP), Hette G. Abma; Reformed Political 
Union (GPV), Jan van der Jagt; Radical 
Party (PPR), Herman Verbeek; Democratic 
Socialist 70(DS'70), Z. Hartog; Rightist Peo- 
ples Party (RVP), Hendrik Koekoek; Re- 
formed Political Federation (RPF), P. 
Lamgeler; Center Party (CP), H. Janmatt; 
Evangelical People's Party (EVP), J. Renes 

Voting strength: (1982 election) 30. 8% 
PvdA (47 seats), 29.3% CDA (45 seats), 23% 
VVD (36 seats), 4.3% D'66 (6 seats), 2.3% PSP 
(3 seats), 1.9% SGP (3 seats), 1.8% CPN (3 
seats), 1.7% PPR (2 seats), 1.3% RDF (2 seats), 
0.8% GPF (1 seat), 0.8% CP (1 seat); 0.7% 
EVP (1 seat); two members of the CDA were 
expelled from the party in 1984 and are now 
serving as independents 

Communists: CPN claims about 27,000 
members 

Other political or pressure groups: large 
multinational firms; Federation of Nether- 
lands Trade Union Movement (comprising 
Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a 
Protestant trade union; Federation of Catho- 
lic and Protestant Employers Associations; 
the nondenominational Federation of Neth- 
erlands Enter prises; and IKV Interchurch 
Peace Council 

Member of: ADB, Benelux, Council of Eu- 
rope, DAC, EC, ECE, EIB, ELDO, EMS, 
ESCAP, ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDE Inter- 
American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, 
IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INRO, 
INTELSAT, International Lead and Zinc 
Study Group, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, 
ITU, IWC International Wheat Council 
(with respect to interests of the Netherlands 
Antilles and Suriname), NATO, OAS (ob- 
server), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $123.8 billion (1984), $8,500 per cap- 
ita; 59.3% consumption, 18.4% investment, 
16.8% government, 0.5% inventories, 5.0% 
net foreign demand, 1.7% real GNP growth 
(1984) 



Natural resources: natural gas, oil 

Agriculture: animal husbandry predomi- 
nates; main crops horticultural crops, 
grains, potatoes, sugar beets; food 
shortages grains, fats, oils 

Fishing: catch 328,000 metric tons (1983); 
exports of fish and fish products, $416. 1 mil- 
lion (1982); imports, $150.2 million (1982) 

Major industries: food processing, metal 
and engineering products, electrical and 
electronic machinery and equipment, 
chemicals, petroleum products, natural gas 

Shortages: crude petroleum, raw cotton, 
base metals and ores, pulp, pulpwood, lum- 
ber, feedgrains, oilseeds 

Crude steel: 8.0 million metric ton capacity 
(1984); 5.7 million metric tons produced, 394 
kg per capita (1984) 

Electric power: 19,546,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 63.632 billion kWh produced (1985), 
4,398 kWh per capita 

Exports: $65.8 billion (f.o.b., 1984); food- 
stuffs, machinery, chemicals, petroleum 
products, natural gas, textiles 

Imports: $62.3 billion (c.i.f., 1984); machin- 
ery, transportation equipment, crude petro- 
leum, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw cotton, base 
metals and ores, pulp 

Major trade partners: (1984) exports 
71.9% EC (29.8% FRG, 13.8% Belgium- 
Luxembourg, 10.5% France, 9.4% UK), 5.0% 
US, 1.9% Communist; imports 53.3% EC 
(21.8% FRG, 11.4% Belgium-Luxembourg, 
8.7% UK), 8.8% US, 5.3% Communist 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $11.0 billion 

Budget: (1985 est.) revenues, $47.4 billion; 
expenditures, $56.4 billion; deficit, $9.0 bil- 
lion 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.9820 
guilders=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 
177 



Communications 

Railroads: Netherlands Railways (NS) oper- 
ates 2,867 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 
3,033 km total trackage; 1,810 km electri- 
fied, 1,800 km double track; 166 km pri- 
vately owned 

Highways: 108,360 km total; 92,525 km 
paved (including 2,185 km of limited access, 
divided highways); 15,835 km gravel, 
crushed stone 

Inland waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% 
is usable by craft of 900 metric ton capacity 
or larger 

Pipelines: 418 km crude oil; 965 km refined 
products; 10,230 km natural gas 

Ports: 8 major, 10 minor 

Civil air: 98 major transport air craft 

Airfields: 29 total, 28 usable; 19 with 
permanent-surface runways; 12 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: highly developed, 
well maintained, and integrated; extensive 
system of multiconductor cables, supple- 
mented by radio- relay links; 8.27 million 
telephones (57.5 per 100 popl.); 7 AM, 38 
FM, 29 TV stations; 9 submarine cables; 1 
satellite station with 2 Atlantic Ocean and 2 
Indian Ocean antennas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal 
Netherlands Navy/Marine Corps, Royal 
Netherlands Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,004,000; 
3,397,000 fit for military service; 132,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $4.1 billion; about 9.2% of 
central government budget 



Netherlands Antilles 



Islands not shown in true 
geographical position 



Caribbean Sea 



Sabana * V - N . 
westpunt L \Curacao 



Sfint Martin 

I M 

Philiplburg* 



Sab, 



Stnt Eustatius. 



^-V~ 

V,r\ 
MSTADt~ -^ 



Kralendij 



WILLEMSTAD 



Se rrfional map III 



Bonaire 



Land 

1,821 km 2 ; more than one and one-half 
times the size of New York City; 95% waste, 
urban, or other; 5% arable 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 364 km 

People 

Population: 236,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.3% 

Nationality: noun Netherlands Antill- 
ean(s); adjective Netherlands Antillean 

Ethnic divisions: 85% mixed African; re- 
mainder Carib Indian, European, Latin, and 
Oriental 

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; 
Protestant, Jewish, Adventist 

Language: Dutch (official); Papiamento, a 
Spanish-Portuguese- Dutch-English dialect 
predominates; English widely spoken; Span- 
ish 

Literacy: 95% 

Labor force: 89,000 (1983); 65% govern- 
ment, 28% industry and commerce, 1.5% 
agriculture; unemployment about 16% on 
Curapao and about 10% on Aruba (1984 est.) 



Organized labor: 60-70% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Netherlands Antilles 

Type: autonomous territory within King- 
dom of the Netherlands, enjoying complete 
domestic autonomy 

Capital: Willemstad on Curacao 

Political subdivisions: three island territo- 
ries Bonaire, Curacao, and the Windward 
Islands St. Eustatius, southern part of St. 
Martin (northern part is French), Saba; 
Aruba, formerly part of the Antilles federa- 
tion, assumed separate status (under Prime 
Minister Jan Hendrik Albert Eman) within 
the Kingdom of the Netherlands on 1 Janu- 
ary 1986 

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law sys- 
tem, with some English common law influ- 
ence; constitution adopted 1954 

Branches: federal executive power rests 
nominally with Governor (appointed by the 
Crown); actual power exercised by eight- 
member Council of Ministers or cabinet pre- 
sided over by Minister-President; legislative 
power rests with 22-member Legislative 
Council; independent court system under 
control of Chief Justice of Supreme Court of 
Justice (administrative functions under Min- 
ister of Justice); each island territory has is- 
land council headed by Lieutenant Gover- 



Covernment leaders: Domenico Felip 
MARTINA, Prime Minister (since January 
1986); Dr. Rene ROMER, Governor (since 
1983) 

Suffrage: universal age 18 and over 

Elections: federal elections mandatorily 
held every four years, last regular held 22 
November 1985; island council elections 
every four years, last held 25 April 1983 

Political parties and leaders: political par- 
ties are indigenous to each island: 

Curasao: Movement for a New Antilles 
(MAN), Domenico Felip Martina; 



Democratic Party (DP), Augustin Diaz; 
People's National Party (PNP), Maria 
Liberia-Peters; Frente Obrero de Liberacion 
(FOL), Wilson "Papa" Godett; Social Demo- 
cratic Party (PSD), Efraim Cintje 

Bonaire: Union Party of Bonaire (UPB), 
Charles E. R. Ellis; Democratic Party of 
Bonaire, Jopie Abraham; New Democratic 
Action (ADEN) 

Windward Islands: Windward Islands 
Democratic Party (DPWI), Leo Chance and 
Claude Wathey; United Federation of Antil- 
lean Workers (UFA); Windward Islands 
People's Movement (WIPM); and others 

Voting strength: in June 1984 the govern- 
ment of Prime Minister Don Martina lost its 
majority in the Legislative Council; an in- 
terim coalition government was appointed 
by the Governor; the coalition controls 15 of 
22 seats in the Council and consists of mem- 
bers of the PNP, DP, MEP, DPWI, and UPB 
parties 

Communists: small leftist groups 

Member of: EC (associate), INTERPOL; 
associated with UN through the Nether- 
lands; UPU, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $1.35 billion (1983), $9,140 per capita; 
real growth rate, 1.0% (1984) 

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao 
only), salt (Bonaire only) 

Agriculture: corn, pulses 

Major industries: petroleum refining on 
Curacao (refinery currently closed but may 
start up again); petroleum transshipment 
facilities on Curacao, Aruba, and Bonaire; 
tourism on Curacao, Aruba, and St. Martin; 
light manufacturing on Curacao and Aruba 

Electric power: 433,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.312 billion kWh produced (1985), 5,560 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1983); 98% pe- 
troleum products, phosphate 



178 



New Caledonia 



Imports: $4.5 billion (c.i.f., 1983); 64% crude 
petroleum, food, manufactures 

Major trade partners: exports 46% US, 2% 
Canada, 1% Netherlands; imports 35% 
Venezuela, 11% US, 4% Netherlands (1977) 

Aid: bilateral ODA and OOF commitments 
(1970-79), economic Western (non-US) 
countries $353 million 

Budget: (1984) central government reve- 
nues, $616 million; central government ex- 
penditures, $656 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.8 Netherlands 
Antillean florins (NAF)=US$1 (September 
1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 950 km total; 300 km paved, 650 
km gravel and earth 

Ports: 4 major (Willemstad, Oranjestad, 
Philipsburg, Kralendijk); 6 minor (of which 4 
are significant ports for petroleum tankers) 

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 total, 7 usable; 7 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: generally adequate 
telecom facilities; extensive interisland 
radio-relay links; 65,000 telephones (24.6 
per 100 popl.); 12 AM, 7 FM, 3 TV stations; 2 
submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite 
antennas 

Defense Forces 

Defense is responsibility of the Netherlands 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 58,000; 
33,000 fit for military service; about 2,400 
reach military age (20) annually 



Coral Sea 



lies 



Loyaute 




New 
Caledonia 



NOUMEA 



Coral Sea 



Set regional map X 



// des Pins 



Islands of Huon and 
Chesterfield are not shown. 



Land 

22,139 km 2 ; larger than Massachusetts; 22% 
pasture, 15% forest, 6% arable, 57% waste or 
other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 2,254 km 

People 

Population: 152,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.2% 

Nationality: noun New Caledonian(s); 
adjective New Caledonian 

Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 42.5%, Euro- 
pean 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 
3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6% 

Religion: over 60% Roman Catholic, 30% 
Protestant 

Language: French; Melanesian-Polynesian 
dialects 

Labor force: 50,469 (1980 est); Javanese and 
Tonkinese laborers were imported for plan- 
tations and mines in pre- World War II 
period; immigrant labor now coming from 
Wallis and Futuna, Vanuatu, and French 
Polynesia; est. 8% unemployment 



Government 

Official name: Territory of New Caledonia 
and Dependencies 

Type: French overseas territory; represented 
in French parliament by two deputies and 
one senator 

Capital: Noumea 

Political subdivisions: 4 islands or island 
group dependencies He des Pins, He 
Loyaute, He Huon, Island of New Caledonia 

Legal system: French law 

Branches: administered by High Commis- 
sioner, responsible to French Ministry for 
Overseas France and Council of Govern- 
ment; 46-seat Territorial Assembly 

Government leader: Fernand WIBAUX, 
French High Commissioner and President 
of the Council of Government (since 1985); 
Kanak Provisional Government 
Jean-Marie TJIBAOU, President (since De- 
cember 1984) 

Suffrage: universal 

Elections: Assembly elections every five 
years, last in November 1984; referendum 
on New Caledonian independence sched- 
uled for 1987 

Political parties: white-dominated Rassem- 
blement pour la Calrdonie dans la Republ- 
ique (RPCR) Conservative; Melanesian 
proindependence Kanak Socialist National 
Liberation Front (FLNKS); Melanesian 
moderate Kanak Socialist Liberation (LKS) 

Voting strength: (1984 election) Territorial 
Assembly RPCR, 34 seats; LKS, 6 seats; 
splinter groups, 2 seats; FLNKS boycotted 
the election 

Communists: number unknown; Palita ex- 
treme left party; some politically active 
Communists deported during 1950s; small 
number of North Vietnamese 

Member of: EIB (associate), WFTU, WMO 



179 



New Caledonia (continued) 



New Zealand 



Economy 

GNP: $637 million (1979), $4,000 per capita; 

1.0% growth (1977) 

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, co- 
balt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper 

Agriculture: large areas devoted to cattle 
grazing; major products coffee, maize, 
wheat, vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef 

Industry: mining of nickel 

Electric power: 400,000 kW capacity (1985); 
2. 1 billion kWh produced (1985), 14,000 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $257.4 million (f.o.b., 1980); 95% 
nickel metal (95%), nickel ore 

Imports: $318.2 million (c.i.f., 1980); fuels 
and minerals, machines and electrical 
equipment 

Major trade partners: (1980) exports 
54.9% France; imports 32.5% France 

Budget: (1981) revenues, $187.1 million; 
expenditures, $168.3 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 127.05 francs 
CFP=US$1 (December 1982) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 5,399 km total (1979); 558 km 
paved, 2,251 km improved earth, 2,639 km 
unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: none 

Ports: 1 major (Noumea), 21 minor 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 31 total, 30 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 23,000 telephones (17 
per 100 popl.); 5 AM, no FM, 7 TV stations; 1 
earth satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of France 



Kermtdtc 

Islands ' 



Nw Plymouth 



yVj 
^ 




South 
Pacific 
Ocean 



Tismin * 

Set T+$, North Island 

Auckland 



OChrtstchurch 

I South Is/and 

<P 

Dunedin 



* l>nd ' 



S regional map X 



Land 

268,676 km 2 ; the size of Colorado; 50% pas- 
ture; 16% forest; 10% park and reserve; 3% 
cultivated; 1% urban; 20% waste, water, or 
other; 4 principal islands, 2 minor inhabited 
islands, several minor uninhabited islands 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 15,134 km 

People 

Population: 3,305,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality, noun New Zealander(s); ad- 
jective New Zealand 

Ethnic divisions: 87% European, 9% Maori, 
2% Pacific Islander, 2% other 

Religion: 81% Christian, 18% none or un- 
specified, 1 % Hindu, Confucian, and other 

Language: English (official), Maori 
Infant mortality rate: 12.5/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 70.5, women 77.0 
Literacy: 98% 

Labor force: 1,371,000(1984); 22% manu- 
facturing; 22% public service; 16% whole- 
sale and retail trade; 10% agriculture, 



hunting, and fishing; 8% transportation and 
communications; 7% finance; 5.7% regis- 
tered unemployed (February 1984) 

Organized labor: 588,000 members; 48% of 
labor force (1981) 

Government 

Official name: New Zealand 

Type: independent state within Common- 
wealth, recognizing Elizabeth II as head of 
state 

Capital: Wellington 

Political subdivisions: 241 territorial units 
(128 boroughs, 90 counties, 10 town and dis- 
trict councils); 579 special-purpose bodies 

Legal system: based on English law, with 
special land legislation and land courts for 
Maoris; constitution consists of various docu- 
ments, including certain acts of the UK and 
New Zealand Parliaments; legal education 
at Victoria, Auckland, Canterbury, and 
Otago Universities; accepts compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 Febru- 
ary 

Branches: unicameral legislature 
(92-member House of Representatives, com- 
monly called Parliament); Cabinet responsi- 
ble to Parliament; three-level court system 
(magistrates and courts, Supreme Court, and 
Court of Appeal) 

Government leader: David LANGE, Prime 
Minister (since July 1984) 

Suffrage: universal age 18 and over 

Elections: held at three- year intervals or 
sooner if Parliament is dissolved by Prime 
Minister; last election July 1984 

Political parties and leaders: New Zealand 
Labor Party (NZLP; government), David 
Lange; National Party (NP; opposition), Jim 
McLay; Social Credit Political League (So- 
cred), Bruce Beetham; New Zealand Party, 
Bob Jones; Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro- 
Soviet), G. H. "Bill" Andersen 



180 



Nicaragua 



Voting strength: (1981 election) 
Parliament National Party, 47 seats; Labor 
Party, 43 seats; Social Credit, 2 seats 

Communists: CPNZ about 300, SUP about 
100 

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, ASP AC, Co- 
lombo Plan, Commonwealth of Nations, 
DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAO, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IPU, ISO, ITU, OECD, SPF, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GDP: $21.7 billion (year ending March 
1985), $5,060 per capita; real average annual 
growth (1975-85), 1.1% 

Natural resources: natural gas, iron sand, 
coal, timber 

Agriculture: fodder and silage crops, 10% of 
land in use is planted in field crops; main 
products wool, meat, dairy products; food 
surplus country 

Fishing: catch 138,000 metric tons (1983); 
exports 130,000 metric tons valued at $300 
million (1984) 

Major industries: food processing, wood and 
paper products, textile production, machin- 
ery, transport equipment 

Electric power: 7,473,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 26.307 billion kWh produced (1985), 
8,040 kWh per capita 

Exports: $5.5 billion (f.o.b., year ending 
June 1985); principal products beef, wool, 
dairy 

Imports: $6. billion (c. i. f . , year ending June 
1985); principal products petroleum, cars, 
trucks, machinery and electrical equipment, 
iron and steel, petroleum products 

Major trade partners: (trade year 1982/83) 
exports 15% Japan, 16% Australia, 15% 
US, 9% UK; imports 20% Japan, 19% Aus- 
tralia, 17% US, 9% UK, 5% FRG 



Aid: ODA and OOF economic aid commit- 
ments (1970-83), $406 million 

Budget: (1984/85) expenditures, $7.3 bil- 
lion; receipts, $6.0 billion; deficit, $1.3 bil- 
lion 

Monetary conversion rate: NZ$1.88=US$1 
(5 February 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 4,716 km total (1980); all 1.067- 
meter gauge; 274 km double track; 113 km 
electrified; over 99% government owned 

Highways: 93,137 km total (December 
1980); 47,236 km paved, 45,901 km gravel or 
crushed stone 

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; of little impor- 
tance to transportation 

Pipelines: natural gas, 1,000 km; refined 
products, 160 km; condensate, 150 km 

Ports: 3 major 

Civil air: about 40 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 205 total, 197 usable; 26 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 51 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: excellent interna- 
tional and domestic systems; 1.7 million tele- 
phones (55 per 100 popl.); 64 AM, no FM, 14 
TV stations, and 129 repeaters; submarine 
cables extend to Australia and Fiji Islands; 1 
ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal New Zealand Air Force, 
Royal New Zealand Navy, New Zealand 
Army 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 881,000; 
633,000 fit for military service; about 30,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1986, $500 million; about 5. 1% of 
central government budget 




North 

Pacific *'""' 

Ocean 

Sec regional map III 



Land 

130,000 km 2 ; about the size of Iowa; 50% 
forest; 7% arable; 7% prairie and pasture; 
36% urban, waste, or other 

Land boundaries: 1,220 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
200 nm 

Co<w</im?:910km 

People 

Population: 3,342,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.3% 

Nationality: noun Nicaraguan(s); adjec- 
tive Nicaraguan 

Ethnic divisions: 69% mestizo, 17% white, 
9% black, 5% Indian 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic 

Language: Spanish (official); English- and 
Indian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast 

Infant mortality rate: 84/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 56, women 60 
Literacy: 66% 

Labor force: 1,047,000 (1985); 46% service, 
41% agriculture, 13% industry; 22% unem- 
ployment 



181 



Nicaragua (continued) 



Organized labor: 35% of Nicaragua's labor 
force is organized; of the seven confedera- 
tions, five are Sandinista or Marxist 
oriented the government-sponsored Sandi- 
nista Workers' Central (CST), 115,000 mem- 
bers, including state and municipal employ- 
ees; the Association of Campesino Workers 
(ATC), 130,000 members; the General Con- 
federation of Independent Workers (CGI-I), 
approximately 15,000 members; the Work- 
ers Front, about 100 members; and the Cen- 
tral for Labor Action and Unity (CAUS), 
about 3,000 members; the other two unions 
are the Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN), 
25,000 members, and the Confederation of 
Labor Unification (CUS), 50,000 members 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Nicaragua 

Type: republic 
Capital: Managua 

Political subdivisions: one national district 
and 16 departments; in 1982 the Sandinistas 
established six regions and three special 
zones, which both the government and the 
Sandinista National Liberation Front 
(FSLN) increasingly use for administrative 
purposes 

Legal system: the Sandinista-appointed 
Government of National Reconstruction 
revoked the constitution of 1974 and issued a 
Fundamental Statute and a Program of the 
Government of National Reconstruction to 
guide its actions until a new constitution is 
drafted by the National Assembly, which 
was elected in November 1984 

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 
September; Anniversary of the Revolution, 
19 July 

Branches: executive and administrative re- 
sponsibility formally reside in the President, 
Vice President, and Cabinet; in reality, the 
nine-member National Directorate of the 
Sandinista National Liberation Front 
(FSLN) shares power with and dominates 
the executive; National Assembly was 
elected in November 1984 and inaugurated 
in January 1985 with a mandate to draft a 
new constitution; the country's highest 



judicial authority is the Sandinista- 
appointed Supreme Court, composed of 
seven members 

Government leaders: Cdte. (Jose) Daniel 
ORTEGA Saavedra, President (since 10 Jan- 
uary 1985); Sergio RAMIREZ Mercado, Vice 
President (since 10 January 1985) 

Elections: national elections were held on 4 
November 1984 for president and vice presi- 
dent (elected for a six-year term), and a 96- 
member National Assembly 

Political parties and leaders: the Sandinista 
National Liberation Front (FSLN) is the rul- 
ing party and dominates political life; the 
FSLN has 61 seats in the National Assembly; 
only the Liberal Party, because of its ties to 
the Somoza family, has been specifically 
banned; the government prohibited most 
political activities by opposition parties un- 
der the state of emergency in March 1982 
and expanded the emergency decree in Oc- 
tober 1985; the main opposition parties boy- 
cotted the elections on the grounds that the 
regime had not provided them with suffi- 
cient political guarantees; the democratic 
opposition parties include the Social Demo- 
cratic Party (PSD), Luis Rivas Leiva; the 
Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick Ramirez; 
the Democratic Conservative Party of Nica- 
ragua (PGDN), Mario Rappaccioli; the Con- 
stitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC), Alfredo 
Reyes Duque Estrada; the Independent Lib- 
eral Party (PLI), Virgilio Godoy; the Popular 
Social Christian Party (PPSC), Mauricio 
Diaz; and the Democratic Conservative 
Party (PCD), Eduardo Molina; the PSD, 
PSC, PGDN and PLC, as well as opposition 
business and union organizations form the 
Democratic Coordinating Board Eduardo 
Rivas Gasteazoro, president; the PPSC and 
PLI were allied with the FSLN in the Patri- 
otic Front of the Revolution (FPR) until 
early 1984 but fielded their own candidates 
in the elections; a pro- FSLN faction domi- 
nates the PCD; the PCD has 14 seats in the 
National Assembly, the PLI 9, and the PPSC 
6; two additional relatively obscure parties, 
the Central American Unionist Party 
(PUCA) and the Revolutionary Party of the 
Workers (PRT), were founded in late 1984 



Communists: the Nicaraguan Socialist Party 
(PSN), Luis Sanchez Sancho, founded in 
1944, has served as Nicaragua's Moscow-line 
Communist party; the Communist Party of 
Nicaragua (PCdeN), Eli Altamirano Perez, is 
an ultraleft breakaway faction from the 
PSN; and the Popular Action Movement 
Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro Tellez; 
only the PSN was a member of the FPR alli- 
ance with the FSLN, but all three have sup- 
ported the revolution; the PCdeN and 
MAP-ML have criticized the Sandinistas for 
moving too slowly toward consolidation of a 
Marxist-Leninist regime; each of the three 
Communist parties has two seats in the Na- 
tional Assembly 

Other political or pressure groups: the Supe- 
rior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) 
is an umbrella group comprising 1 1 different 
chambers of associations, including such 
groups as the Chamber of Commerce, the 
Chamber of Industry, and the Nicaraguan 
Development Institute (INDE) 

Member of: CACM, CEMA (observer), 
FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, 
OAS, ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN, 
UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $2.9 billion (1985), $960 per capita; 
real GDP growth rate 1985, -7.1% (Note: 
conversion from national currency made at 
50 cordobas=US$l, a highly overvalued 
official exchange rate) 

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tung- 
sten, arable land, timber, livestock, fish 

Agriculture: main crops cotton, coffee, 
sugarcane, rice, corn, beans, cattle 

Major industries: food processing, chemi- 
cals, metal products, textiles and clothing, 
petroleum, beverages 

Electric power: 400,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.14 billion kWh produced (1985), 350 kWh 
per capita 



182 



Niger 



Exports: $320 million (f.o.b., 1985); cotton, 
coffee, chemical products, meat, sugar, sea- 
food 

Imports: $850 million (f.o.b., 1985); food 
and nonfood agricultural products, chemi- 
cals and Pharmaceuticals, transportation 
equipment, machinery, construction materi- 
als, clothing, petroleum 

Major trade partners: exports 41% EC, 
13% US, 8% CACM, 24% Japan, 7% CEMA, 
7% other; imports 10% Mexico, 14% US, 
9% CACM, 21% EC, 32% CEMA, 14% other 

(1984) 

Aid: economic commitments US, includ- 
ing Ex-Im (FY70-82), $290 million; Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-83), $540 million; Communist coun- 
tries (1970-84), $760 million; military US 
commitments (FY70-79), $20 million, Com- 
munist countries (1970-84) $515 million 

Budget: 1984 expenditures, $1.1 billion; rev- 
enues, $0.7 billion; converted at 50 
cordobas=US$l, at highest official exchange 
rate 

Monetary conversion rate: multiple 
exchange policy; official rates vary from 
1 0-50 cordobas= US$1 (January 1986); free 
market 1,200 cordobas=US$l (January 
1986) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 344 km 1.067-meter gauge, gov- 
ernment owned; majority of system not op- 
erating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at 
Puerto Cabezas (does not connect with 
mainline) 

Highways: 23,585 km total; 1,655 km paved, 
2,170 km gravel or crushed stone, 5,425 km 
earth or graded earth, 14,335 km 
unimproved 

Inland waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 
large lakes 

Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km 
Ports: 1 major (Corinto), 7 minor 



Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 296 total, 261 usable; 8 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: low-capacity radio- 
relay and wire system being expanded; con- 
nection into Central American microwave 
net; Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 60,000 
telephones (2.2 per 100 popl.); 42 AM, 6 TV 
stations; Intersputnik communications satel- 
lite facility planned 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Sandinista People's Army, Sandi- 
nista Navy, Sandinista Air Force/Air De- 
fense, Sandinista People's Militia 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 678,000; 
419,000 fit for military service; 33,000 reach 
military age (18) annually 

Military budget: estimated for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1985, $1.4 billion; 50% 
of central government budget (includes both 
defense and security expenditures) 



500 km 




Lake 
Chad 



Sre|ionlmipVII 



Land 

1,267,000 km 2 ; almost three times the size of 
California; 7.6% permanent meadow and 
pasture, 2.6% arable, 2.3% forest and wood- 
land, .02% inland water, 87% other 

Land boundaries: 5,745 km 

People 

Population: 6,715,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.4% 

Nationality: noun Nigerien(s) adjective 
Nigerien 

Ethnic divisions: 56% Hausa; 22% Djerma; 
8.5% Fula; 8% Tuareg; 4.3% Beri Beri 
(Kanouri); 1.2% Arab, Toubou, and 
Gourmantche; about 4,000 French expatri- 
ates 

Religion: 80% Muslim, remainder indige- 
nous beliefs and Christians 

Language: French (official); Hausa, Djerma 
Infant mortality rate: 136/1,000 (1984) 
Life expectancy: 45 
Literacy: 10% 

Labor force: 2.5 million (1982) wage earners; 
90% agriculture, 6% industry and 
commerce, 4% government 

Organized labor: negligible 



183 



Niger (continued) 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Niger 

Type: republic; military regime in power 
since April 1974 

Capital: Niamey 

Political subdivisions: 1 departments, 32 
arrondissements 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and customary law; constitution 
adopted 1960, suspended 1974; committee 
appointed January 1984 to "reflect" on a 
new national charter; has not accepted com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holidays: Independence Day, 3 
August; Republic Day, 18 December 

Branches: executive authority exercised by 
President Seyni Kountche in the name of the 
Supreme Military Council (SMC), which is 
composed of army officers; office of prime 
minister created January 1983; since No- 
vember 1983, civilians have held all cabinet 
portfolios except Defense and Interior, 
which are held by President Kountche 

Government leader: Brig. Gen. Seyni 
KOUNTCHE, President of Supreme Mili- 
tary Council, Chief of State (since 1974); 
Hamid ALGABID, Prime Minister (since 
November 1983) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: popular elections currently al- 
lowed only for choosing representatives for 
village Development Councils, which advise 
on local economic development 

Political parties and leaders: political par- 
ties banned 

Communists: no Communist party; some 
sympathizers in outlawed Sawaba party 

Member of: AfDB, APC, CEAO, KAMA, 
ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE 
Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, 
ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, 
ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, Niger 



River Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, 
OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.2 billion (1985 est), $240 per capita 

(1985); annual real growth rate -3.1% (1985 

est.) 

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron, tin, 
phosphates 

Agriculture: commercial cowpeas, groun- 
dnuts, cotton; main food crops millet, 
sorghum, rice 

Major industries: cement plant, brick fac- 
tory, rice mill, small cotton gins, oil presses, 
slaughterhouse, and a few other small light 
industries; uranium production began in 
1971 

Electric power: 101,700 kW capacity (1985); 
133 million kWh produced (1985), 20 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $319.1 million (1985 est.); uranium, 
livestock, cowpeas, onions, hides, skins; ex- 
ports understated because much regional 
trade not recorded 

Imports: $351.9 million (1982 est.); petro- 
leum products, primary materials, machin- 
ery, vehicles and parts, electronic equip- 
ment, Pharmaceuticals, chemical products, 
cereals, foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: France (about half), 
other EC countries, Nigeria, UDEAC coun- 
tries; US (3.8%, 1981); preferential tariff to 
EC and franc zone countries 

Budget: (1986 est.) revenue $173 million, 
(1986 est.) $364.6 million expenditures 

Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commun- 
aute Financiere Af ricaine (CFA) f rancs= 
US$1 (1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September 

Communications 

Railroads: none 



Highways: 36,500 km total; 2,800 km bitu- 
minous, 10,700 km gravel and laterite, 
23,000 km tracks 

Inland waterways: Niger River navigable 
300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin 
frontier from mid-December through 
March 

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 63 total, 58 usable; 7 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 18 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: small system of wire 
and radio-relay links concentrated in south- 
western area; 9,800 telephones (0.2 per 100 
popl.); 9 AM, 2 FM, 12 TV stations; 2 Atlan- 
tic Ocean satellite stations, 4 domestic anten- 
nas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary 
Gendarmerie, paramilitary Republican 
Guard, paramilitary Presidential Guard, 
paramilitary National Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,456,000; 
785,000 fit for military service; about 66,000 
reach military age (18) annually 



184 



Nigeria 




Bight of 
Benin 



Gulf of Guinea 
See retfonll map VII 



Land 

923,768 km 2 ; more than twice the size of 
California; 35% forest; 24% arable (13% of 
total land area under cultivation); 41% 
desert, waste, urban, or other 

Land boundaries: 4,034 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 30 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 853 km 

People 

Population: 105,448,000 (July 1986), aver- 
age annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Nigerian(s); adjective 
Nigerian 

Ethnic divisions: of the more than 250 tribal 
groups, the Hausa and Fulani of the north, 
the Yoruba of the southwest, and the Ibos of 
the southeast comprise 65% of the popula- 
tion; about 27,000 non- Africans 

Religion: no exact figures on religious break- 
down, but about 50% Muslim, 30% Chris- 
tian, and 20% indigenous beliefs 

Language: English (official); Hausa, Yoruba, 
Ibo, Fulani, and several other languages also 
widely used 

Infant mortality rate: 157/1,000(1981) 



Life expectancy: men 45.9, women 49.2 
Literacy: 25-30% 

Labor force: est. 35-40 million (1984); 56% 
agriculture; 17% industry, commerce, and 
services; 15% government 

Organized labor: 3.52 million wage earners 
belong to one of 42 recognized trade unions, 
which are under a single national labor fed- 
eration, the Nigerian Labor Congress (NLC) 

Government 

Official name: Federal Republic of Nigeria 

Type: military government since 31 Decem- 
ber 1983 

Capital: Lagos 

Political subdivisions: 19 states, headed by 
appointed military governors 

Legal system: based on English common 
law and Islamic and tribal law 

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 Oc- 
tober 

Branches: Armed Forces Ruling Council; 
National Council of Ministers and National 
Council of States; judiciary headed by Su- 
preme Court 

Government leader: Ibrahim BABAN- 
GIDA, President and Commander in Chief 
of Armed Forces (since August 1985) 

Suffrage: none 

Elections: last national elections under civil- 
ian rule held August-September 1983 

Political parties and leaders: all political 
parties banned after 31 December 1983 

Communists: the pro-Communist under- 
ground comprises a fraction of the small 
Nigerian left; leftist leaders are prominent in 
the country's central labor organization but 
have little influence on government 



Member of: AfDB, APC, Commonwealth, 
EGA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, 
IMO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, 
ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC International Wheat 
Council, Lake Chad Basin Commission, 
Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, 
OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $63 billion (1984), $630 per capita; 
-0.6% growth rate (1984 est.); 40% inflation 
rate (August 1985) 

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, colum- 
bite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc 

Agriculture: main crops peanuts, cotton, 
cocoa, rubber, yams, cassava, sorghum, palm 
kernels, millet, corn, rice; livestock; an ille- 
gal producer of cannabis for the interna- 
tional drug trade 

Fishing: catch 512,000 metric tons (1982); 
imports nonprocessed and processed fish 

Major industries: mining crude oil, natu- 
ral gas, coal, tin, columbite; processing in- 
dustries oil palm, peanut, cotton, rubber, 
petroleum, wood, hides, skins; manufactur- 
ing industries textiles, cement, building 
materials, food products, footwear, chemi- 
cal, printing, ceramics 

Electric power: 3,732,900 kW capacity 
(1985); 8. 175 billion kWh produced (1985), 
80 kWh per capita 

Exports: $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); oil (98%), 
cocoa, palm products, rubber, timber, tin 

Imports: $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1984); machin- 
ery and transport equipment, manufactured 
goods, chemicals, wheat 

Major trade partners: UK, EC, US 

Budget: (1985) revenues, $12.3 billion; cur- 
rent expenditures, $6.0 billion; capital ex- 
penditure $6.4 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: .98 naira=US$l 
(December 1985) 



185 



Nigeria (continued) 



Niue 



Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge 

Highways: 107,990 km total 30,019 km 
paved (mostly bituminous surface treat- 
ment); 25,411 km laterite, gravel, crushed 
stone, improved earth; 52,560 km unim- 
proved 

Inland waterways: 8,575 km consisting of 
Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers 
and creeks 

Pipelines: 2,042 km crude oil; 120 km natu- 
ral gas; 3,000 km refined products 

Ports: 6 major (Lagos, Port Harcourt, Cala- 
bar, Warri, Onne, Sapele), 9 minor 

Civil air: 72 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 89 total, 85 usable; 30 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 14 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: above-average sys- 
tem limited by poor maintenance; major 
expansion in progress; radio-relay and cable 
routes; 155,000 telephones (0.2 per 100 
popl.); 37 AM, 9 FM, 34 TV stations; satellite 
station with Atlantic and Indian Ocean an- 
tennas, domestic satellite system with 19 
stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramili- 
tary Police Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
22,607,000; 12,999,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; 1,081,000 reach military age (18) annu- 
ally 




Sff regional map X 



Land 

259 km 2 ; about twice the size of Washing- 
ton, D. C.; 20% forest 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 64 km 

People 

Population: 2,672 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 4.4% 

Nationality: noun Niuean(s); adjective 
Niuean 

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian, with some 200 
Europeans, Samoans, and Tongans 

Religion: 75% Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean 
Church) a Christian Protestant church 
closely related to the London Missionary 
Society, 10% Morman, 5% Roman Catholic, 
Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventist 

Language: Polynesian tongue closely related 
to Tongan and Samoan; English 

Literacy: education compulsory between 5 
and 14 years of age 

Labor force: approx. 1,000(1981); most 
Niueans work on family plantations; paid 
work exists only in government service, 
small industry, and the Niue Development 
Board 



Government 

Official name-.nO Niue 

Type: (since 1974) self-governing territory 
"in free association with New Zealand"; 
Niueans retain New Zealand citizenship 

Capital: Alofi 

Political subdivisions: 14 village councils 

Legal system: English common law 

Branches: Executive consists of a Cabinet of 
four members the Premier (elected by the 
Assembly) and three ministers (chosen by the 
Premier from among Assembly members); 
Legislative Assembly consists of 20 members 
(14 village representatives and 6 elected on a 
common roll); if requested by the Assembly, 
New Zealand will also legislate for the island 

Government leaders: Sir Robert R. REX, 
Premier (since early 1950s); John 
SPRINGFORD, New Zealand Representa- 
tive (since 1974) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: every three years; last election 
held March 1984 

Member of: ESCAP (associate member), 
SPF 

Economy 

GNP: $3 million (1984), per capita GDP 

$1,080(1984) 

Agriculture: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, 
limes; subsistence crops tare, yams, cassava 
(tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef 
cattle 

Fishing: 930,000 metric tons (1982) 
Major industries: small tourist industry " 

Electric power: network completed in 1977, 
with all villages linked to service 

Exports: $301,224 (f.o.b. 1983); canned co- 
conut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit 
products, pawpaw, root crops, limes, foot- 
balls, handicrafts 



186 



Norfolk Island 



Imports: $l,504,180(c.i.f. 1983); food and 
live animals, manufactured goods, machin- 
ery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs 

Major trade partners: exports New Ze- 
aland, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia; 
imports New Zealand, Fiji, Japan, West- 
ern Samoa, Australia, US 

Budget: revenues (including New Zealand 
subsidy of $2.3 million) $3.2 million; expen- 
ditures, $3.8 million (FY83/84 est.) 

Monetary conversion rate-, uses New Ze- 
aland currency; NZ$1.88=US$1 (5 February 
1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 123 km all-weather roads, 106 
km access and plantation roads 

Ports: no harbor; open roadstead offers an- 
chorage offshore from Alofi, from where 
servicing is by small boat 

Airfields: 1 with permanent-surface runway 
of 1,650 m capable of taking intermediate- 
size jet aircraft 

Telecommunications: single-line telephone 
system connects all villages on island; est. 
1,000 radio receivers in use (1983); 1 radio 
station; no TV service 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of New Zealand 




South 
Pacific 
Ocean 



Sec regional map X 



QNepean 



--^Philip I 

\r 



Land 

34.5 km 2 ; less than one-third the size of 
Washington, D. C.; consists of Norfolk, Ne- 
pean, and Philip Island (the last two are un- 
inhabited); 400 hectares arable land 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 32 km (mostly inaccessible cliffs) 

People 

Population: 2,473 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Norfolk Islander(s); ad- 
jective Norfolk Islander 

Ethnic divisions: descendants of the 
"Bounty" mutiny families; more recently, 
Australian and New Zealand settlers 

Religion: Church of England, Roman Cath- 
olic Church, Uniting Church in Australia, 
and Seventh-day Adventists 

Language: English (official); "Norfolk" a 
mixture of 18th Century English and an- 
cient Tahitian 

Literacy: probably high 

Government 

Official name: Territory of Norfolk Island 

Type: Australian territory 
187 



Capital: Kingston (administrative center), 
Burnt Pine (commercial center) 

Political subdivisions: external territory of 
Australia 

Legal system: wide legislative and executive 
responsibility under the Norfolk Island Act 
of 1979; Supreme Court 

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day 
Anniversary, 8 June 

Branches: 9-member elected Legislative 
Assembly; chief executive is Australian ad- 
ministrator named by governor general 

Government leader: David E. BUFFETT, 
Chief Minister of Norfolk Island (since 1983) 

Suffrage: proportional representation; all 
persons born on the island are Australian 
citizens 

Elections: last held 18 May 1983; every 
three years 

Economy 

Agriculture: Kentia palm seed, cereals, veg- 
etables, fruit 

Major industries: tourism ($10 million) 

Electric power: 7,000 kW capacity (1985); 8 
million kWh produced (1985), 3,300 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $2.9 billion (1982-83); seed of the 
Norfolk Island pine; Kentia palm seeds, 
small quantities of avocados 

Imports: $15.1 million (1982-83) 

Major trade partners: imports Australia 
and Pacific Islands, New Zealand, Asia, Eu- 
rope; exports Australia and Pacific Islands, 
New Zealand, Asia, and Europe 

Budget: revenue, $2.7 million; expenditure, 
$3.3 million (1983); main source of income is 
sale of postage stamps and customs duties; 
expenses administrative $1.2 million, edu- 
cation $0.5 million, health $0.5 million, wel- 
fare $0.2 million, maintenance $0.4 million 



Norfolk Island (continued) 



Norway 



Monetary conversion rate: 1.44 Australian 
dollars=US$l (5 February 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 80 km of roads, including 53 km 
of sealed roads; remainder are earth formed 
or coral surfaced 

Inland waterways: no water on Neapean 
and Philip 

Ports: none; loading jetties at Kingston and 
Cascade 

Airfields: 1 (Australian-owned airport) with 
runway 1,220-2,429 m 

Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers 
(1982); radio link service between island and 
Sydney; 987 telephones (1982) 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of Australia 




Jan Mayen and Svalbard 
are not shown. 



See ref ionil map V 



Land 

Continental Norway, 324,219 km 2 ; slightly 
larger than New Mexico; Svalbard, 62,160 
km 2 ; Jan Mayen, 373 km 2 ; 21% forest; 3% 
arable, 2% meadow and pasture; 74% other 

Land boundaries: 2,579 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 4 nm 
(200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: mainland 3,419 km; islands 2,413 
km (excludes long fjords and numerous small 
islands and minor indentations, which total 
as much as 16,093 km overall) 

People 

Population: 4,165,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.3% 

Nationality: noun Norwegian(s); adjec- 
tive Norwegian 

Ethnic divisions: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, 
Baltic) and racial-cultural minority of 
20,000 Lapps 

Religion: 94% Evangelical Lutheran (state 
church), 4% other Protestant and Roman 
Catholic, 2% other 

Language: Norwegian (official); small 
Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities 

Infant mortality rate: 7.9/1,000(1983) 



Life expectancy: men 72.7, women 79.5 
Literacy: 100% 

Labor force: 2.031 million (1984); 30.9% 
services; 19.6% mining and manufacturing; 
16.7% commerce; 8.8% transportation; 7.6% 
construction; 7.2% agriculture, forestry, 
fishing; 5.7% banking and financial services 
(1983); 3.9% unemployed (1984) 

Organized labor: 66% of labor force (1985) 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Norway 



Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Oslo 






Political subdivisions: 19 counties, 407 com- 
munes, 47 towns 

Legal system: mixture of customary law, 
civil law system, and common law tradi- 
tions; constitution adopted in 1814 and mod- 
ified in 1884; Supreme Court renders advi- 
sory opinions to legislature when asked; legal 
education at University of Oslo; accepts 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reserva- 
tions 

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May 

Branches: legislative authority rests jointly 
with Crown and parliament (Storting 
Lagting, upper house; Odelsting, lower 
house); executive power vested in Crown but 
exercised by Cabinet responsible to parlia- 
ment; Supreme Court, 5 superior courts, 104 
lower courts 

Government leaders: OLAV V, King (since 
1957); Rare WILLOCH, Prime Minister 
(since September 1981) 

Suffrage: universal at age 18 but not compul- 
sory 

Elections: held every four years (next in 
1989) 

Political parties and leaders: Labor, Gro 
Harlem Brundtland; Conservative, Rolf 
Presthus (in April 1986); Center, Johan J. 



188 



Jakobsen; Christian People's, Kjell Magne 
Bondevik; Liberal, Odd Einar Dorum; So- 
cialist Left, Theo Koritzinsky; Norwegian 
Communist, Hans I. Kleven; Progressive, 
Carl I. Hagen 

Voting strength: (1985 election) Labor, 
40.8%; Conservative, 30.4%; Christian 
People's, 8.3%; Center, 6.6%; Socialist Left 
(Socialist Electoral Alliance), 5.5%; Progres- 
sive, 3.7%; Liberal, 3.1%; Red Electoral Alli- 
ance, 0.6%; Liberal People's Party (antitax), 
0.5%; Norwegian Communist, 0.2%; other 
0.4% 

Communists: 15,500 est.; 5,500 Norwegian 
Communist Party (NKP); 10,000 Workers 
Communist Party Marxist-Leninist (AKP- 
ML, pro-Chinese) 

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, 
EC (Free Trade Agreement), EFTA, ESRO 
(observer), FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA (associ- 
ate member), IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, Interna- 
tional Lead and Zinc Study Group, IPU, 
ITU, IWC International Whaling Com- 
mission, IWC International Wheat Coun- 
cil, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $53.15 billion in 1984, $12,838 per 
capita; 48.0% private consumption; 19.4% 
government consumption; 26.4% gross fixed 
investment; 0.7% change in stockbuilding; 
net exports of goods and services 10.0%; 
1984 growth rate 3.8%, in 1980 prices 

Natural resources: oil, copper, gas, pyrites, 
nickel, iron, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydro- 
electric power 

Agriculture: animal husbandry predomi- 
nates; main crops feed grains, potatoes, 
fruits, vegetables; 40% self-sufficient; food 
shortages food grains, sugar 

Fishing: catch 2.48 million metric tons 
(1984); exports $766 million (1984) 



Major industries: oil and gas, food process- 
ing, shipbuilding, wood pulp, paper prod- 
ucts, metals, chemicals 

Shortages: most raw materials except tim- 
ber, petroleum, iron, copper, and ilmenite 
ore; dairy products and fish 

Crude petroleum: 35.0 million metric tons 
produced (1984), exports $6.3 billion (1984) 

Crude steel: 915,000 metric tons produced 
(1984), 228 kg per capita 

Electric power: 23,035,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 119.082 billion kWh produced 
(1985), 28,626 kWh per capita 

Exports: $18.9 billion (f.o.b., 1984); principal 
items oil, natural gas, metals, chemicals, 
machinery, fish and fish products, pulp and 
paper, ships 

Imports: $13.9 million (c.i.f., 1984); princi- 
pal items machinery, fuels and lubricants, 
transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, 
clothing, ships 

Major trade partners: 59.4% EC (25.3% UK, 
16.2% FRG, 12.9% Sweden), 6.7% US (1984) 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic com- 
mitments (1970-83), $2.1 billion 

Budget: revenues, $29.0 billion; expendi- 
tures, $25.7 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 7.69 kroner= 
US$1 (23 December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 4,257 km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge; Norwegian State Railways (NSB) op- 
erates 4,242 km (2,443 km electrified and 94 
km double track); 16 km privately owned 
and electrified 

Highways: 78,1 16 km total; 17,699 km con- 
crete and bitumen; 19,277 km bituminous 
treated; 41,140 km gravel, crushed stone, 
and earth 



Inland waterways: 1,577 km; 1.5-2.4 m 
draft vessels maximum 

Pipelines: refined products, 53 km 

Ports: 9 major, 69 minor 

Civil air: 62 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 96 total, 95 usable; 54 with 
permanent-surface runways; 12 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 14 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: high-quality domes- 
tic and international telephone, telegraph, 
and telex services; 2.39 million telephones 
(57.9 per 100 popl.); 8 AM, 843 FM, 1,744 
TV stations; 4 coaxial submarine cables; 6 
domestic satellite stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Norwegian Army, Royal 
Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air 
Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,049,000; 
852,000 fit for military service; 33,000 reach 
military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $1.6 billion; 10.6% of cen- 
tral government budget 



189 



Oman 




M, sir ah 



Set rrfionil map VI 



Land 

About 212,380 km 2 ; about the size of New 
Mexico; negligible amount forested; remain- 
der desert, waste, or urban 

Land boundaries: 1,384 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 2,092 km 

People 

Population: 1,27 1,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.4% 

Nationality: noun Omani(s); adjective 
Omani 

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Arab, with 
small Baluchi, Zanzibar!, and Indian groups 

Religion: 75% Ibadhi Muslim; remainder 
Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, some Hindu 

Language: Arabic (official); English, 
Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects 

Infant mortality rate: 121/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy, men 51, women 54 
Literacy: 20% 

Labor force: 500,000; 50% are non-Omani; 
est. 60% agriculture 



Government 

Official name: Sultanate of Oman 

Type: absolute monarchy; independent, 
with strong residual UK influence 

Capital: Muscat 

Political subdivisions: 1 province (Dhofar), 2 
governorates (Musandam and Muscat), and 
numerous districts (wilayats) 

Legal system: based on English common 
law and Islamic law; no constitution; ulti- 
mate appeal to the Sultan; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

Branches: executive Sultan, who appoints 
45-member State Consultative Assembly to 
advise him; legislative none; judicial 
traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil 
court system 

National holiday: National Day, 18-19 No- 
vember 

X 

Government leader: Q ABOOS bin Said, 
Sultan (since July 1970) 

Political parties: none 

Other political or pressure groups: outlawed 
Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman 
(PFLO), based in South Yemen 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GCC, 
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic Develop- 
ment Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OIC, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $7.7 billion (1984), $6,300 per capita 

(est.) 

Natural resources: oil, copper, asbestos, 
some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum 

Agriculture: based on subsistence farming 
(fruits, dates, cereals, cattle, camels), fishing 

Major industries: crude petroleum produc- 
tion in 1984, 415,000 b/d 



Electric power: 950,900 kW capacity (1985); 
2.082 billion kWh produced (1985), 1,695 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1984), mostly 
petroleum; nonoil consist mostly of 
re-exports, processed copper, and some agri- 
cultural goods 

Imports: $2.7 billion ( c.i.f., 1984), machin- 
ery, transportation equipment, manufac- 
tured goods, food, livestock, lubricants 

Major trade partners: exports 52% Japan, 
30% Europe, 8% US (1983); imports 21.3% 
Japan, 16.6% UK, 17.8% UAE, 7.6% US 
(1984) 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $5.1 billion; expen- 
ditures, $6. 1 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: .3454 rial=US$l 
(October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 16,900 km total; 2,200 km bitu- 
minous surface, 14,700 km motorable track 

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 
1,030km 

Ports: 2 major (Mlna' Qabus, Mma' 
Raysut), 5 minor 

Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft, includ- 
ing multinationally owned Gulf Air Fleet 

Airfields: 125 total, 1 19 usable; 6 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 4 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 58 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system of open- 
wire, radio-relay, and radio communications 
stations; 23,000 telephones (2.2 per 100 
popl.); 3 AM, 3 FM, 11 TV stations; 1 Indian 
Ocean satellite station, 8 domestic satellite 
stations, 1 Arab satellite station 



190 



Pakistan 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal 
Oman Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 285,000; 
162,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $2.075 billion; 37.4% of 
central government budget 



400km 




Set rttionilmip VIII 



Land 

803,943 km 2 (excludes Northern Areas and 
Azad Kashmir, the Pakistani-controlled 
parts of the former state of Jammu and 
Kashmir); larger than Texas; 40% arable, 
including 24% cultivated; 34% probably 
mostly waste; 23% unsuitable for cultivation; 
3% forested 

Land boundaries: 5,900 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 1,046 km 

People 

Population: 101, 855,000, excluding 
Junagadh, Manavadar, Cilgit, Baltistan, and 
the disputed area of Jammu and Kashmir 
(July 1986); average annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Pakistani(s); adjective 
Pakistani 

Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushtan 
(Pathan), Baluchi 

Religion: 97% Muslim, 3% Christian, Hindu, 
and other 

Language: Urdu and English (official); total 
spoken languages 64% Punjabi, 12% Si- 
ndhi, 8% Pushtu, 7% Urdu, 9% Baluchi and 
other; English is lingua franca 



Infant mortality rate: 119/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 51, women 49 
Literacy: 24% 

Labor force: 25.24 million (1982 est); exten- 
sive export of labor; 52% agriculture, 21% 
industry, 8% services, 19% other 

Organized labor: negligible 

Government 

Official name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan 

Type: parliamentary with strong executive, 
federal republic; military seized power 5 
July 1977; President Mohammed Zia-ul- 
Haq lifted martial law and restored 1973 
Constitution on 30 December 1985 but re- 
tained his position as Army Chief of Staff; 
parliament, elected in February 1985, serves 
5-year term 

Capital: Islamabad 

Political subdivisions: four provinces 
(Baluchistan, North- West Frontier, Punjab, 
Sind), 1 territory (Federally Administered 
Tribal Areas) 

Legal system: based on English common 
law but gradually being transformed to cor- 
respond to Koranic injunction; accepts com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; 
President Zia's government has established 
Islamic Sharia courts paralleling the secular 
courts and has introduced Koranic punish- 
ments for criminal offenses; martial law 
courts abolished 30 December 1985, and all 
cases, including those concerning national 
security, now require due process 

National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March 

Government leader: Gen. Mohammed ZIA- 
UL-HAQ, President and Army Chief of 
Staff (since July 1977); confirmed as Presi- 
dent through March 1990 in special referen- 
dum in December 1984; Prime Minister 
Mohammed Khan JUNEJO (since March 
1985) 

Suffrage: universal from age 18 



191 



Pakistan (continued) 



Elections: opposition agitation against rig- 
ging elections in March 1977 led to military 
coup; military promised to hold new na- 
tional and provincial assembly elections in 
October 1977 but postponed them indefi- 
nitely; elections for municipal bodies were 
held in 1979 and 1983; nonparty national 
elections were held in February 1985; many 
outlawed political parties boycotted polling 

Political parties and leaders: relegalized in 
December 1985 under legislation requiring 
parties to register and open books for inspec- 
tion; government still has wide authority 
under civil code to restrict political activity; 
law requires disqualification of any parlia- 
mentary delegate who changes party affili- 
ation; majority party in parliament is Paki- 
stan Muslim League (PML), Mohammed 
Khan Junejo; principle opposition party is 
secular socialist; Pakistan People's Party 
(PPP), Benazir Bhutto (major leader); others 
include Tehrik-i-Istiqlal, Asghar Khan; Na- 
tional Democratic Party (NDP), Sherbaz 
Mazari (formed in 1975 by members of out- 
lawed National Awami Party NAP of 
Abdul Wali Khan, who is de facto NDP 
leader); all the aforementioned are in the 
Movement for Restoration of Democracy 
(MRD), formed in February 1981; Pakistan 
National Party (PNP), Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo 
(Baluch elements of the former NAP); 
Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI), Fazlur Rah- 
man 

Communists: party membership very small; 
sympathizers estimated at several thousand; 
party is outlawed 

Other political or pressure groups: military 
remains dominant political force; Ulema 
(clergy), industrialists, and small merchants 
also influential 

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, 
ICAO, IDA, IDB Islamic Development 
Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, 
IWC International Wheat Council, NAM, 
OIC, Economic Cooperation Organization, 
SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 



Economy 

GNP: figures reflect impact of rupee devalu- 
ation in 1982; $31 billion (FY85 est); $300 
per capita (FY85); real growth 8.4% (FY85) 

Natural resources: land, extensive natural 
gas, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, 
iron ore 

Agriculture: extensive irrigation; main 
crops wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton; an 
illegal producer of opium poppy and canna- 
bis for the international drug trade 

Fishing: catch 343,400 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: cotton textiles, steel, food 
processing, tobacco, engineering, chemicals, 
natural gas 

Electric power: 5,187,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 20.42 billion kWh produced (1985), 
206 kWh per capita 

Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., FY85); primarily 
rice, cotton, and textiles 

Imports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., FY85); petro- 
leum (crude and products), cooking oil, and 
defense equipment 

Major trade partners: FY85 exports Japan 
12%, US 10%, Saudi Arabia 7%, UK 7%, Iran 
2%; imports Japan 13%, US 12%, Saudi 
Arabia 11%, UK 6%, Malaysia 6%, China 
3%, Iran 1% 

Budget: FY85 current expenditures, $4.9 
billion; development expenditures, $1.3 bil- 
lion (reflects impact of rupee devaluation) 

Monetary conversion rate: 15.89 
rupees=US$l (FY85 average); in January 
1982, the rupee was delinked from the US 
dollar and floated 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: ( 1984) 8,822 km 1.676-meter 
broad gauge, 535 km 1.000-meter gauge, 
and 610 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge; 
1,037 km broad gauge double track and 286 
km electrified; government owned 



Highways: 98,000 km total (1984); 40,000 
km paved, 23,000 km gravel, 29,000 im- 
proved earth, and unimproved earth road 
sand tracks 

Inland waterways: negligible 

Pipelines: 250 km crude oil; 2,269 km natu- 
ral gas; 750 km refined products 

Ports: 2 major, 4 minor 

Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 17 total, 98 usable; 69 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 29 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 41 with runways 1,200-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good international 
radiocommunication service over micro- 
wave and INTELSAT satellite; domestic 
radio communications poor; broadcast ser- 
vice good; 314,000 telephones (0.3 per 100 
popl.); 27 AM, no FM, 16 TV stations; 1 
ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Civil 

Armed Forces, National Guards 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
24,519,000; 16,686,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; 1 ,234,000 reach military age (17) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1986, $2. 19 billion; about 26% of cen- 
tral government budget s, National Guards 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
24,519,000; 16,686,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; 1,234,000 reach military age (17) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 20 
June 1986, $2. 19 billion; about 26% of cen- 
tral government budget 



192 



Panama 



Caribbean Sea 




North Pacific Ocean 



Sec regional mip III 



Land 

77,080 km 2 ; slightly larger than West Vir- 
ginia; 24% agricultural land (11% pasture, 
9% fallow, 4% crop); 20% exploitable forest; 
56% other forest, urban or waste 

Land boundaries: 630 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 2,490 km 

People 

Population: 2,227,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.1% 

Nationality: noun Panamanian^); adjec- 
tive Panamanian 

Ethnic divisions: 70% mestizo, 14% West 
Indian, 10% white, 6% Indian 

Religion: over 93% Roman Catholic, 6% 
Protestant 

Language: Spanish (official); 14% speak En- 
glish as native tongue; many Panamanians 
bilingual 

Infant mortality rate: 20.1/1,000 (1984) 
Life expectancy: 71 
Literacy: 90% 



Labor force: est. 680,471 (1984); 45% com- 
merce, finance, and services; 29% agricul- 
ture, hunting, and fishing; 10% manufactur- 
ing and mining; 5% construction; 5% trans- 
portation and communications; 4% Canal 
Zone; 1.2% utilities; 2% other; unemployed 
estimated at 20% (January 1985); shortage of 
skilled labor but an oversupply of unskilled 
labor 

Organized labor: approximately 15% of la- 
bor force (1982) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Panama 

Type: centralized republic 
Capital: Panama 

Political subdivisions: 9 provinces, 1 inten- 
dancy 

Legal system: based on civil law system; 
constitution adopted in 1972, but major re- 
forms adopted in April 1983; judicial review 
of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; le- 
gal education at University of Panama; ac- 
cepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with res- 
ervations 

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 No- 
vember 

Branches: under April 1983 reforms, a Presi- 
dent, two Vice Presidents, and a 67-member 
Legislative Assembly are elected by popular 
vote for 5-year terms; nine Supreme Court 
Justices and nine alternates serve 10-year 
terms; two justices and their alternates are 
replaced every other December by presi- 
dential nomination and legislative confirma- 
tion 

Government leaders: Eric Arturo 
DELVALLE Henriquez, President (since 
September 1985); Roderick ESQUIVEL, 
First Vice President (since October 1985); 
Second Vice President, unfilled 

Suffrage 18: universal and compulsory over 
age 18 

Elections: seven electoral slates made up of 
14 registered political parties were on the 



May 1984 ballot with the president and 
other winners decided by simple pluralities; 
mayoral and municipal elections were held 
in June 1984 

Political parties and leaders: (registered for 
1984 presidential and legislative elections) 
National Democratic Union (UNADE; gov- 
ernment coalition) Democratic Revolu- 
tionary Party (PRD, official government 
party), Romulo Escobar Bethancourt, Carlos 
Ozores Typaldos; Republican Party (PR), 
Eric Arturo Devalle Henriquez; Liberal 
Party (PL), Roderick Lorenzo Esquivel; La- 
bor Party (PALA), Ramon Sieiro Mungas 
and Carlos Eleta Almaran; Panamenista 
Party (PP), Luis Suarez; Popular Broad 
Front Party (FRAMPO), Alvaro Arosemena; 
Democratic Opposition Alliance (ADO, op- 
position) Christian Democratic Party 
(PDC), Ricardo Arias Calderon; Authentic 
Panamenista Party (PPA), Arnulfo Arias 
Madrid; Nationalist Republican Liberal 
Movement (MOLIRENA), Alfredo Ramirez, 
Sr.; other opposition parties Popular Na- 
tionalist Party (PNP), Olimpo A. Saez 
Maruci; Popular Action Party (PAPO), 
Carlos Ivan Zuniga; People's Party (PdP, 
Soviet-oriented Communist), Ruben Dario 
Sousa Batista; Socialist Workers Party (PST), 
Jose Cambra; Revolutionary Workers Party 
(PRT), leader unknown 

Voting strength: in the May 1984 elections 
the government coalition received 300,748 
votes, narrowly defeating the opposition 
alliance, which received 299,035 votes; 
UNADE won 45 seats in the 67-member 
Legislative Assembly, and ADO won the 
remaining 22 seats 

Communists: People's Party (PdP), progov- 
ernment mainline Communist party, did not 
obtain the 3 percent of the total vote in 1984 
elections to retain its legal status 

Other political or pressure groups: National 
Council of Organized Workers (CONATO); 
National Council of Private Enterprise 
(CONEP); Panamanian Association of Busi- 
ness Executives (APEDE) 

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IDE 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFC, 



193 



Panama (continued) 



Papua New Guinea 



ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IRC, ITU, IWC International Whaling 
Commission, IWC International Wheat 
Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, 
UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $4.4 billion (1984), $2,159 per capita; 

real growth (1984), -1.0% 

Natural resources: copper, mahogany for- 
ests, shrimp 

Agriculture: main crops bananas, rice, 
sugarcane, coffee, corn; self-sufficient in ba- 
sic foods; an illegal producer of cannabis for 
the international drug trade 

Fishing: catch 143,000 metric tons (1983); 
exports $53.2 million (1984) 

Major industries: food processing, bever- 
ages, petroleum products, construction ma- 
terials, clothing, paper products 

Electric power: 1,200,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 3.1 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1, 420 kWh per capita 

Exports: $419 million (f.o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum products, bananas, shrimp, sugar 

Imports: $1.34 billion (f.o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum products, manufactured goods, ma- 
chinery and transportation equipment, 
chemicals, foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: exports 59. 1 % US, 
17% Central America and Caribbean, 16% 
EC, 8% other; imports 30% US, 19% Cen- 
tral America and Caribbean, 10% Mexico, 
8% Japan, 8% Venezuela, 6% EC, 15% other 
(1984) 

Aid: economic US, including Ex-Im com- 
mitments (FY70-84), $394 million; Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-83), $468 million; Communist coun- 
tries (1970-84), $5 million; military US 
(FY70-84), $37 million 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $886 million; ex- 
penditures, $1.175 billion 



Monetary conversion rate: 1 balboa=US$l 
(January 1986) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter 
gauge, 160 km 0.914-meter gauge 

Highways: 8,530 km total; 2,745 km paved, 
3,270 km gravel or crushed stone, 2,515 km 
improved and unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 800 km navigable by 
shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal 

Pipelines: crude oil, 130km 

Ports: 2 major (Cristobal and Balboa), 8 mi- 



Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 132 total, 128 usable; 42 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: domestic and inter- 
national telecom facilities well developed; 
connection into Central American micro- 
wave net; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite anten- 
nas; 220,000 telephones (10.5 per 100 popl.); 
80 AM, 12 TV stations; 1 coaxial submarine 
cable 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Defense Forces of the Republic of 
Panama (formerly known as the National 
Guard) includes military ground forces (still 
designated National Guard), Panamanian 
Air Force, National Navy, Panama Canal 
Defense Force, police force, traffic police/ 
highway patrol, National Department of 
Investigation, Department of Immigration 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 571,000; 
393,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 

Military budget: for fiscal year beginning 1 
January 1985, $99 million; 3.6% of central 
government budget 



500 fcm 



South Pacific Ocean 




Coral Sea 



Sre regional mip X 



Land 

461,691 km 2 ; slightly larger than California; 
70% forest, 3% cultivated, 2% pasture, 25% 
other 

Land boundaries: 966 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone); mari- 
time limits measured from claimed "archi- 
pelagic baselines," which generally connect 
the outermost points of the outer islands or 
drying reefs 

Coastline: about 5,152 km 

People 

Population: 3,395,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.1% 

Nationality: noun Papua New Guinean(s); 
adjective Papua New Guinean 

Ethnic divisions: predominantly Melanesian 
and Papuan; some Negrito, Micronesian, 
and Polynesian 

Religion: over half of population nominally 
Christian (490,000 Catholic, 320,000 Luth- 
eran, other Protestant sects); remainder in- 
digenous beliefs 

Language: 715 indigenous languages; pidgin 
English in much of the country and Motu in 
Papua region are lingua franca; English 
spoken by 1-2% of population 



194 



Infant mortality rate: 102/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: 50 
Literacy: 32% 

Labor force: 1.66 million (1980); 732,806 
(1980) in salaried employment; 54% agricul- 
ture, 25% government, 9% industry and 
commerce, 8% services 

Government 

Official name: Papua New Guinea 

Type: independent parliamentary state 
within Commonwealth recognizing Eliza- 
beth II as head of state 

Capital: Port Moresby 

Political subdivisions: 20 provinces 

Legal system: based on English common 
law 

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 
September 

Branches: executive National Executive 
Council; legislature House of Assembly 
(109 members); judiciary court system 
consists of Supreme Court of Papua New 
Guinea and various inferior courts (district 
courts, local courts, children's courts, 
wardens' courts) 

Government leaders: Sir Kingsford 
DIBELA, Governor General (since March 
1983); Paias WINGTI, Prime Minister (since 
November 1985) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: preferential-type elections for 
109-member House of Assembly every five 
years, last held in June 1982 

Political parties: Pangu Party, People's 
Progress Party, United Party, Papua Besena, 
National Party, Melanesian Alliance 

Communists: no significant strength 



Member of: ADB, ANRPC, CIPEC (associ- 
ate), Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, 
GATT(de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ITU, South Pacific Commis- 
sion, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $2.2 billion (1984), $660 per capita; 
real growth (1984) 2.2% est; 8.5% inflation 
rate (1985 est.) 

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, gas 

Agriculture: main crops coffee, cocoa, 
coconuts, timber, tea 

Major industries: sawmilling and timber 
processing, copper mining (Bougainville), 
fish canning 

Electric power: 750,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.7 billion kWh produced (1985), 511 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $840 million (f.o.b., 1983); gold 
($206 million), copper ($149 million), coffee 
($123 million), palm oil ($84 million), logs 
($78 million), cocoa ($74 million), copra ($54 
million), coconut oil ($43 million), tea ($17 
million) 

Imports: $906 million (f.o.b., 1983); machin- 
ery and equipment ($259 million), fuels and 
lubricants ($186 million), food and live ani- 
mals ($50 million), chemicals ($71 million), 
other manufactured ($67 million) 

Major trade partners: Australia, UK, Japan 

Aid: economic Australia, commitments 
(1970-83) $4.0 billion; US, including Ex-Im 
(FY70-84), $219 million; other Western 
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commit- 
ments (1980-84), $6.0 billion 

Budget: (1984) total revenue $518 million- 
tax revenue $441 million, non-tax $77 mil- 
lion; total expenditures $698 million, capi- 
tal $165 million 

Monetary conversion rate: .9009 kina= 
US$1 (February 1984) 



Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 19,200 km total; 640 km paved, 
10,960 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabi- 
lized soil surface, 7,600 km unimproved 
earth 

Inland waterways: 10,940 km 

Ports: 5 principal, 9 minor 

Civil air: about 15 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 534 total, 433 usable; 15 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 36 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: Papua New Guinea 
telecom services are adequate and are being 
improved; facilities provide radiobroadcast, 
radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio,, 
aeronautical radio and international 
radiocommunication services; submarine 
cables extend from Madang to Australia and 
Guam; 45,274 telephones (1.5 per 100 popl.); 
31 AM, no FM, or TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Papua New Guinea Defense 
Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 817,000; 
about 452,000 fit for military service 

Supply: dependent on Australia 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $33.4 million; about 3% of 
central government budget 



195 



Paraguay 




S rrt'onil m>p IV 



Land 

406,750 km 2 ; the size of California; 52% for- 
est; 24% meadow and pasture; 22% urban, 
waste, and other; 2% crop 

Land boundaries: 3,444 km 

People 

Population: 4, 11 9,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2% 

Nationality: noun Paraguayan(s); adjec- 
tive Paraguayan 

Ethnic divisions: 95% mestizo (Spanish and 
Indian), 5% white and Indian 

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic; Mennonite 
and other Protestant denominations 

Language: Spanish (official) and Guarani 
Infant mortality rate: 64/1,000(1981) 
Life expectancy: 68 
Literacy: 81% 

Laborforce: 1.1 million (1983 est); 44% agri- 
culture; 34% industry and commerce, 18% 
services, 4% government; unemployment 
rate 15% (1984) 

Organized labor: about 5% of labor force 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Paraguay 

Type: republic; under authoritarian rule 
Capital: Asuncion 

Political subdivisions: 19 departments and 
the national capital 

Legal system: based on Argentine codes, 
Roman law, and French codes; constitution 
promulgated 1967; judicial review of legisla- 
tive acts in Supreme Court; legal education 
at National University of Asuncion and 
Catholic University of Our Lady of the As- 
sumption; does not accept compulsory ICJ 

jurisdiction 

< 

National holiday: Independence Day, 14 
May 

Branches: President heads executive; bicam- 
eral legislature (Senate, Chamber of Depu- 
ties); judiciary headed by Supreme Court 

Government leader: Gen. (Ret.) Alfredo 
STROESSNER, President (since May 1954) 

Suffrage: universal; compulsory between 
ages of 18 and 60 

Elections: President and Congress elected 
together every five years (last election Feb- 
ruary 1983) 

Political parties and leaders: Colorado 
Party, Juan Ramon Chaves; Authentic Radi- 
cal Liberal Party (PLRA), Miguel Angel 
Martinez Yaryes; Christian Christian Demo- 
cratic Party (PDC), Alfredo Rojas Leon; 
Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), 
Fernando Vera; Liberal Party (PL), Joaquin 
Burgos; Popular Colorado Movement 
(MOPOCO), Waldino Lovera; Radical Lib- 
eral Party (PLR), Emilio Forestieri 

Voting strength: (February 1983 general 
election) 90% Colorado Party, 5.6% Radical 
Liberal Party, 3.2% Liberal Party; 
Febrerista Party boycotted elections 

Communists: Oscar Creydt faction and 
Miguel Angel Soler faction (both illegal); est. 



3,000 to 4,000 party members and sympa- 
thizers in Paraguay, very few are hard core; 
party in exile is small and deeply divided 

Other political or pressure groups: Popular 
Colorado Movement (MoPoCo) led by 
Epifanio Mendez, in exile; National Accord 
includes MoPoCo and Febrerista, Radical 
Liberal, and Christian Democratic Parties 

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDE 
Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IPU, IRC, ITU, LAIA, OAS, SELA, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GDP: $4.8 billion (1985), $1,020 per capita, 
depending on exchange rate (1984); 7% pub- 
lic consumption; 66% private consumption 
(1983), 28% gross domestic investment; real 
growth rate 1985, 4.5% 

Natural resources: iron, manganese, lime- 
stone, hydroelectric power, forests 

Agriculture: main crops oilseeds, 
soybeans, cotton, wheat, manioc, sweet pota- 
toes, tobacco, corn, rice, sugarcane; self- 
sufficient in most foods 

Major industries: meat packing, oilseed 
crushing, milling, brewing, textiles, light 
consumer goods, cement, construction 

Electric power: 1,675,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 1.1 18 billion kWh produced (1985), 
280 kWh per capita 

Exports: $361.3 million (f.o.b., 1984); cotton, 
oilseeds, meat products, tobacco, timber, 
coffee, essential oils, tung oil 

Imports: $649.1 million (f.o.b., 1984); fuels 
and lubricants, machinery and motors, mo- 
tor vehicles, beverages and tobacco, food- 
stuffs 

Major trade partners: exports 21% Brazil, 
14% Netherlands, 12% Argentina, 12% FRG, 
9% US, 7% Switzerland, 2% Japan; 
imports 28% Brazil, 19% Argentina, 7% 
FRG, 6% US, 5% Japan, 5% UK (1983) 



196 



Peru 



Aid: economic bilateral commitments, US 
(FY70-84) $154 million, other Western 
countries, ODA and OOF (1970-83), $596 
million; military commitments (FY70-84), 
US $18 million 

Budget: (1983 est.) revenues, $494 million; 
expenditures, $741 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 240 
guaranies=US$l (January 1986) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge, 60 km 1.000-meter gauge, 
470 km various narrow gauge (privately 
owned) 

Highways: 21,960 km total; 1,788 km paved, 
474 km gravel, and 19,698 km earth 

Inland waterways: 3, 100 km 

Ports: 1 major (Asuncion), 9 minor (all river) 

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 880 total, 770 usable; 6 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 29 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: principal center in 
Asuncion, fair intercity microwave net; 
78,300 telephones (2.3 per 100 popl.); 40 
AM, 6 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite 
station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Paraguayan Army, Paraguayan 
Navy, Paraguayan Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 979,000; 
778,000 fit for military service; 48,000 reach 
military age (17) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $76.4 million; 17.2% of 
central government budget 



500 kr 




Land 

1,285,216 km (other estimates range as low 
as 1,248,380 km); five-sixths the size of 
Alaska; 55% forest; 14% meadow and pas- 
ture; 2% crop; 29% urban, waste, or other 

Land boundaries: 6,131 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 2,4 14 km 

People 

Population: 20,207,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Peruvian(s); adjective 
Peruvian 

Ethnic divisions: 45% Indian; 37% mestizo 
(white-Indian); 15% white; 3% black, Japa- 
nese, Chinese, and other 

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic 

Language: Spanish and Quechua (official), 
Aymara 

Infant mortality rate: 80/1,000 (1985) 
Life expectancy: 56.5 
Literacy: est. 80% 



Labor force: 4.9 million (1981); 40% govern- 
ment and other services, 41% agriculture, 
19% industry (1981); unemployment about 
10.9% (1984); underemployment 54.2% 

Organized labor: about 40% of salaried 
workers (1983 est.) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Peru 

Type: republic 
Capital: Lima 

Political subdivisions: 24 departments with 
limited autonomy plus constitutional Prov- 
ince of Callao 

Legal system: based on civil law system; 
1979 constitution reestablished civilian gov- 
ernment with a popularly elected president 
and bicameral legislature; legal education at 
the National Universities in Lima, Trujillo, 
Arequipa, and Cuzco; has not accepted com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 
July 

Branches: executive, judicial, bicameral 
legislature (Senate, Chamber of Deputies) 

Government leader: Alan GARCIA Perez, 
President (since July 1985); Luis ALVA Cas- 
tro, Prime Minister (since July 1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: elections for president and con- 
gress held every five years; election for presi- 
dent and congress held 14 April 1985; new 
government inaugurated 28 July 1985 

Political parties and leaders: American Pop- 
ular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Alan 
Garcia; United Left (IU), Alfonso Barrantes; 
Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis Bedoya 
Reyes; Popular Action Party (AP), Fernando 
Belaunde Terry 

Voting strength: (1985 presidential election) 
48% APRA, 23% IU, 14% PPC, 5% AP 



197 



Peru (continued) 



Philippines 



Communists: Communist Party of Peru 
(PCP), pro-Soviet, 2,000; pro-Chinese (2 fac- 
tions) 1,200 

Member of: Andean Pact, AIOEC, 
ASSIMER, CIPEC, FAO, G-77, GATT, 
IADB, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, 
IDA, IDE Inter-American Development 
Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, INTERPOL, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, International Lead and 
Zinc Study Group, ISO, ITU, IWC Inter- 
national Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, 
PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $17 billion (1984), $980 per capita 
(1984); 72% private consumption, 15% pub- 
lic consumption, 13% gross investment; 1% 
net foreign balance (1983); real growth rate 
(1985), 2.5% 

Natural resources: minerals, metals, petro- 
leum, forests, fish 

Agriculture: main crops wheat, potatoes, 
beans, rice, barley, coffee, cotton, sugarcane; 
imports wheat, meat, lard and oils, rice, 
corn; an illegal producer of coca for the in- 
ternational drug trade 

Fishing: catch 1.450 million metric tons 
(1983); exports oil, other products, $137 
million (1984); meal, $202 million (1982) 

Major industries: mining of metals, petro- 
leum, fishing, textiles and clothing, food pro- 
cessing, cement, auto assembly, steel, ship- 
building, metal fabrication 

Electric power: 3,720,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 13.1 billion kWh produced (1985), 
67 IkWh per capita 

Exports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1984); fishmeal, 
cotton, sugar, coffee, copper, iron ore, gold, 
refined silver, lead, zinc, crude petroleum 
and byproducts 

Imports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1984); food- 
stuffs, machinery, transport equipment, iron 
and steel semimanufactures, chemicals, 
Pharmaceuticals 



Major trade partners: exports 38% US, 
20% EC, 11% Japan, 9% Latin America, 4% 
UK (1984); imports 29% US, 22% EC, 17% 
Latin America, 7% Japan, 5% FRG (1984) 

Budget: 1984 revenues, $2.7 billion; ex- 
penditures, $3.6 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 13,943 soles= 
US$1 (November 1985); new currency, the 
inti, has been in circulation since January 
1986; 1 inti= 1,000 soles (January 1986) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,876 km total; 1,576 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, 300 km 0.914-meter 
gauge 

Highways: 56,645 km total; 6,030 km paved, 
11,865 km gravel, 14,610 km improved 
earth, 24,140 km unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable 
tributaries of Amazon River system and 208 
km Lago Titicaca 

Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; natural gas and 
natural gas liquids, 64 km 

Ports: 7 major, 25 minor 

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 246 total, 228 usable; 32 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 25 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 43 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fairly adequate for 
most requirements; nationwide radio-relay 
system; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite stations, 12 
domestic antennas; 544,000 telephones (2.9 
per 100 popl.); 250 AM, 138 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Peruvian Army, Peruvian Navy, 
Peruvian Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,843,000; 
3,282,000 fit for military service; 188,000 
reach military age (20) annually 



500km 



Philippine 
Sea 




Mindanao 



See regional map IX 



Land 

300,440 km 2 ; slightly larger than Nevada; 
53% forest, 30% arable, 5% pasture, 12% 
other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): up to 
285 nm, based on limits described in the 
Treaty of Paris, 10 December 1898, the US- 
Spain Treaty of 7 November 1900, and the 
US-UK Treaty of 2 January 1930, are con- 
sidered to be the territorial sea (200 nm ex- 
clusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 22,540 km 

People 

Popu/aon:58,091,000(July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.2% 

Nationality: noun Filipino(s); adjective 
Philippine 

Ethnic divisions: 91.5% Christian Malay, 4% 
Muslim Malay, 1.5% Chinese, 3% other 

Religion: 83% Roman Catholic, 9% Protes- 
tant, 5% Muslim, 3% Buddhist and other 

Language: Filipino (based on Tagalog) and 
English (both official) 

Infant mortality rate: 59/1,000 (1982) 
Life expectancy: 64 
Literacy: about 88% 



198 



Labor force: 20.0.61 million (1985 prelim); 
47.0% agriculture, 20% industry and com- 
merce, 13.5% services, 10.0% government, 
9.5% other; 6.2% unemployment rate (1984 
prelim.) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of the Philippines 

Type: republic 

Capital: Manila (de facto), Quezon City (des- 
ignated) 

Political subdivisions: 74 provinces and 61 
chartered cities 

Legal system: based on Spanish, Islamic, 
and Anglo-American law; parliamentary 
constitution passed 1973; constitution 
amended in 1981 to provide for French- 
style mixed presidential-parliamentary sys- 
tem; judicial review of legislative acts in the 
Supreme Court; legal education at Univer- 
sity of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila 
University, and 71 other law schools; accepts 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reserva- 
tions 

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 
June 

Branches: constitution provides for unicam- 
eral legislature (Batasang Pambansa) and a 
strong executive branch under President and 
Prime Minister; judicial branch headed by 
Supreme Court with descending authority in 
a three-tiered system of local, regional trial, 
and intermediate appellate courts 

Government leader: Corazon AQUINO, 
President (since February 1986); Salvador 
LAUREL, Vice President, Prime Minister, 
and Foreign Minister (since February 1986) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory 

Elections: presidential election held on 7 
February 1986; Ferdinand Marcos initially 
declared winner; following civil unrest and 
military rebellion, he left office and Aquino 
assumed presidency; provincial and legisla- 
tive elections may be scheduled for late 1986 

Political parties: national parties are New 
Society Movement (KBL); United National- 
ist Democratic Organization (UNIDO); and 
the Liberals, Nacionalistas, and PDP-Laban; 



prominent regional parties include the Mi- 
ndanao Alliance and the Pusyon Visaya 

Communists: the Communist Party of the 
Philippines (CPP) controls about 16,000 full- 
time insurgents; not recognized as legal 
party; a second Communist party, the pro- 
Soviet Philippine Communist Party (PKP), 
has quasi-legal status 

Member of: ADB, ASEAN, ASPAC, Co- 
lombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $33.590 billion (1985 prelim.), $590 
per capita; 3.8% real growth, 1985 prelim. 

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, 
nickel, iron, cobalt, silver, gold 

Agriculture: main crops rice, corn, coco- 
nut, sugarcane, bananas, abaca, tobacco 

Fishing: catch 1.8 million metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: textiles, Pharmaceuticals, 
chemicals, wood products, food processing, 
electronics assembly 

Electric power: 6,290,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 22 billion kWh produced (1985), 387 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $4.636 billion (f.o.b., 1985 prelim.); 
coconut products, sugar, logs and lumber, 
copper concentrates, bananas, garments, 
nickel, electrical components, gold 

Imports: $5.085 billion (f.o.b., 1985 prelim.); 
petroleum, industrial equipment, wheat 

Major trade partners: (1983) exports 36% 
US, 20% Japan; imports 23% US, 17% Ja- 
pan 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $3. 1 billion; expen- 
ditures, $2.8 billion, deficit, $0.3 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: (floating) 18.8 
pesos=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 



Communications 

Railroads: 378 km operable (1982); 34% gov- 
ernment owned 

Highways: 152,800 km total (1980); 27,800 
km paved; 73,000 km gravel, crushed stone, 
or stabilized soil surface; 52,000 km unim- 
proved earth 

Inland waterways: 3,219 km; limited to 
shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels 

Pipelines: refined products, 357 km 
Ports: 10 major, numerous minor 

Civil air: approximately 53 major transport 
aircraft 

Airfields: 331 total, 284 usable; 70 with 
permanent-surface runways; 10 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 48 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good international 
radio and submarine cable services; domes- 
tic and interisland service adequate; 707,000 
telephones (1.28 per 100 popl.); 267 AM sta- 
tions, including 6 US; 55 FM stations; 33 TV 
stations, including 4 US; submarine cables 
extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, 
Taiwan, and Japan; tropospheric-scatter link 
to Taiwan; 2 international ground satellite 
stations; 11 domestic satellite stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Constab- 
ulary Integrated National Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
14,553,000; 10,315,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; about 610,000 reach military age (20) 
annually 

Supply: limited small arms and small arms 
ammunition, small patrol craft production; 
licensed assembly of transport aircraft; most 
other materiel obtained from US; naval ships 
and equipment from Australia, Japan, Si- 
ngapore, US, and FRG; aircraft and helicop- 
ters from FRG, US, Italy, Australia, and the 
Netherlands 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1986, $569 million; about 15.7% 
of central government budget 



Pitcairn Islands 



Oeno 



.. .ADAMSTOWN 

Pitcairn 



South Pacific Ocean 



See rtfionilmap X 



Land 

47 km 2 ; about one third the size of Washing- 
ton, D. C.; Pitcairn (5 km 2 ), plus four unin- 
habited islands (Oeno 5 km 2 , Ducie 5 
km 2 , Henderson 31 km 2 , Sandy 1 km 2 ); 
volcanic, fertile land 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: Pitcairn 10 km; Oeno 5.5 km; 
Ducie 8 km; Henderson 26 km; Sandy 1.5 
km 

People 

Population: 62 (July 1986), average annual 
growth rate 5.0% 

Nationality: noun Pitcairn Islanders); 
adjective Pitcairn Islander 

Ethnic divisions: descendants of "Bounty" 
mutineers 

Religion: 100% Seventh Day Adventists 

Language: English (official); also a Tahitian/ 
English dialect 

Literacy: probably high 

Labor force: no business community in the 
usual sense; some public works; subsistence 
farming and fishing 



Government 

Official name: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, 
and Oeno Islands 

Type: British dependent territory 
Capital: Adamstown main settlement 

Legal system: Island Court; provisions for a 
Supreme Court 

Branches: administered locally by Island 
Council consisting of four elected island of- 
ficers, a secretary, and five nominated mem- 
bers 

Government leader: Terence D. O'LEARY, 
Governor and UK High Commissioner to 
New Zealand (since 1982); B. YOUNG, Is- 
land Magistrate and Chairman of the Island 
Council (since 1985) 

Suffrage: 18 years old and 3 years residency 

Elections: annual; Island Magistrate elected 
for a 3- year term 

Communists: none 

Economy 

GNP: expenditure $NZ91 1,000(1981/82); 

bartering important part of life 

Natural resources: re-afforestation of miro 
trees (used for handicrafts) 

Agriculture: local use citrus, sugarcane, 
watermelons, bananas, yams, taro, beans, 
pumpkin, coconuts, wild goats, poultry 

Fishing: plentiful 

Major industries: postage stamp sales 

Electric power: 25 kW capacity (1985); .05 
million kWh produced (1985), 1,850 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: fruits, vegetables, curios 

Imports: fuel oil, machinery, building mate- 
rials, flour, sugar, other foodstuffs 

Budget: revenue $NZ8 12,639, expenditure 
$NZ1, 119,882 (1983/84 est.) 



Monetary conversion rate: NZ$1.88=US$1 
(5 February 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 



Communications 

Railroads: none 






Highways: 6.4 km dirt roads 

Ports: boat harbor and jetty at Bounty Bay 

Airfields: none 

Telecommunications: party line telephone 
service on the island; radio station at "Taro 
Ground"; diesel generator provides electric- 
ity 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 
Kingdom 



200 



Poland 



Baltic Sea 




See regional map V 



not necessarily authoritative 



Land 

312,612 km 2 ; smaller than New Mexico; 49% 
arable, 27% forest, 14% other agricultural, 
10% other 

Land boundaries: 3,090 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (6 nm contiguous zone claimed in addi- 
tion to the territorial sea; 200 nm fishing 
zone, with lateral limits based on geographic 
coordinates) 

Coastline: 491 km 

People 

Population: 37,546,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.8% 

Nationality: noun Pole(s); adjective Pol- 
ish 

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% Polish, 0.6% Ukrai- 
nian, 0.5% Byelorussian, less than 0.05% 
Jewish, 0.2% other 

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic (about 75% 
practicing), 5% Uniate, Greek Orthodox, 
Protestant, and other 

Language: Polish, no significant dialects 
Infant mortality rate: 19.3/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy. 71.6 



Literacy: 98% 

Labor force: 17.54 million; 44% industry 
and commerce, 30% agriculture, 11% ser- 
vices, 8% government (1985) 

Organized labor: new government trade 
unions formed following dissolution of Soli- 
darity and all government unions in October 
1982 

Government 

Official name: Polish People's Republic 

Type: Communist state 

Capital: Warsaw 

Political subdivisions: 49 provinces 

Legal system: mixture of Continental 
(Napoleonic) civil law and Communist legal 
theory; constitution adopted 1952; court 
system parallels administrative divisions 
with Supreme Court, composed of 104 jus- 
tices, at apex; no judicial review of legisla- 
tive acts; legal education at seven law 
schools; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 
22 July 

Branches: unicameral legislature (Sejm), 
executive, judicial system dominated by 
parallel Communist party apparatus 

Government leaders: Zbigniew MESSNER, 
Chairman of Council of Ministers (Premier; 
since November 1985); Army Gen. Wojciech 
JARUZELSKI, Chairman of Council of 
State (President; since November 1985) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18 

Elections: parliamentary and local govern- 
ment every four years; last election held Oc- 
tober 1985 

Political party and leader: Polish United 
(Communist) Workers' Party (PZPR), Wojci- 
ech Jaruzelski, First Secretary (since October 
1981) 



Voting strength: (March 1985 election) 
78.86% voted for Communist-approved can- 
didates 

Communists: 2.2 million (1984) 

Other political or pressure groups: United 
Peasant Party (ZSL), Democratic Party (SD); 
powerful Roman Catholic Church, Patriotic 
Movement of National Rebirth (PRON) 

Member of: CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, 
ICAO, ICES, IHO, ILO, Indochina Truce 
Commission, IMO, International Lead and 
Zinc Study Group, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, Ko- 
rea Truce Commission, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WFTU, WHO, Warsaw Pact, WIPO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $228.5 billion in 1984 (1984 dollars), 

$6,190 per capita; 1984 growth rate 3.4% 

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, nat- 
ural gas, silver 

Agriculture: self-sufficient for minimum 
requirements; main crops grain, sugar 
beets, oilseed, potatoes, exporter of livestock 
products and sugar; importer of grains 

Fishing: catch 672,000 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: machinebuilding, iron 
and steel, extractive industries, chemicals, 
shipbuilding, food processing 

Crude steel: 16.5 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), about 445 kg. per capita 

Electric power: 30,020,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 143.5 billion kWh produced (1985), 
3,854 kWh per capita 

Exports: $17.448 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 47.8% 
machinery and equipment; 29.2% fuels, 
minerals, and metals; 11.8% manufactured 
consumer goods, 8.5% agricultural and for- 
estry products; 2.7% other (1984) 

Imports: $16.197 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 27.2% 
machinery and equipment; 41.0% fuels, 
minerals, and metals; 14.0% agricultural and 
forestry products; 10.0% manufactured con- 
sumer goods, 7.8% other (1984) 



201 






Poland (continued) 



Portugal 



Major trade partners: $32.726 billion 
(1984); 66% with Communist countries, 24% 
with West, 10% with less developed coun- 
tries 

Monetary conversion rate: 148ztotys=US$l 
(December 1985) 

Fiscal i/ear. calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 27,176 km total; 23,969 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, 397 km 1.524-meter 
broad gauge, 2,810 km narrow gauge; 8,843 
km double track; 8,307 km electrified; gov- 
ernment owned (1984) 

Highways: 254,000 km total; 57,353 km con- 
crete, asphalt, stone block; 97,561 km 
crushed stone, gravel; 99,086 km earth 
(1983) 

Inland waterways: 4,017 km navigable riv- 
ers and canals (1984) 

Pipelines: 4,500 km for natural gas; 1,986 
km for crude oil (1984); 322 km for refined 
products 

Freight carried: rail 425.5 million metric 
tons, 123.5 billion metric ton/km (1985); 
highway 1,420 million metric tons, 36.5 
billion metric ton/km (1985); inland water- 
way 15.45 million metric tons, 1.44 billion 
metric ton/km (1985); ocean 193.4 billion 
metric ton/km (1985) 

Ports: 4 major (Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, 
Swinoujscie), 12 minor (1979); principal in- 
land waterway ports are Gliwice, Wroclaw, 
and Warsaw (1979) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Ground Forces, National Air De- 
fense Forces, Air Force Command, Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,392,000; 
7,454,000 fit for military service; 258,000 
reach military age (19) annually 

Military budget: announced for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1985, 307 billion 
ztotys; 7.7% of total budget 




_8iJ* Azores and Madeira 
j Islands are not shown 



S regional map Vtnd VII 



Land 

Portugal, 92,082 km 2 , including the Azores 
and Madeira Islands; slightly smaller than 
Indiana; 49% arable; 31% forest; 6% 
meadow and pasture; 14% waste, urban, 
inland water, or other 

Land boundaries: 1,207 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 860 km; excludes Azores (708 km) 
and Madeira Islands (225 km) 

People 

Population: 10,095,000 (July 1986), includ- 
ing the Azores and Madeira Islands; average 
annual growth rate 0.5% 

Nationality: noun Portuguese (sing, and 
pi.); adjective Portuguese 

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterra- 
nean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira 
Islands; citizens of black African descent 
who immigrated to mainland during de- 
colonization number less than 100,000 

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 1% Protes- 
tant sects, 2% other 

Language: Portuguese 

Infant mortality rate: 19.8/1,000(1982) 



Life expectancy: 71 
Literacy: 80% 

Labor force: 4.5 million (1984); 37% services, 
36% industry, 27% agriculture; unemploy- 
ment, 10.6% (December 1984) 

Organized labor: about 45% of Portuguese 
labor is organized; the Communist- 
dominated General Confederation of Portu- 
guese Workers Intersindical (CGTP-IN) 
represents about half of the unionized labor 
force; its main competition, the General 
Workers Union (UGT), is organized by the 
Socialists and Social Democrats and repre- 
sents a little less than half of unionized labor 

Government 

Official name: Portuguese Republic 

Type: republic, first government under new 
constitution formed July 1976 

Capital: Lisbon 

Political subdivisions: 18 districts in main- 
land Portugal; Portugal's two autonomous 
regions, the Azores and Madeira Islands, 
have 4 districts (3 of them in the Azores); 
Macau, Portugal's remaining overseas terri- 
tory, was granted broad executive and legis- 
lative autonomy in February 1976; Portugal 
has not officially recognized the unilateral 
annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indone- 



Legal system: civil law system; constitution 
adopted April 1976 and revised October 
1982; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews 
the constitutionality of legislation; legal edu- 
cation at Universities of Lisbon and Coim- 
bra; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, 
with reservations 

National holiday: 25 April 

Branches: executive with President and 
Prime Minister; unicameral legislature (pop- 
ularly elected 250-seat Assembly of the Re- 
public); independent judiciary 



202 



Government leaders: Mario SCARES, Presi- 
dent (since March 1986); Anibal Cavaco 
SILVA, Prime Minister (since November 
1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: national elections for Assembly of 
the Republic normally to be held every four 
years; Assembly elections held October 
1985; national election for President to be 
held every five years (scheduled for 29 Janu- 
ary 1986), second constitutional president 
elected in December 1980; local elections to 
be held every three years, last elections in 
December 1985 

Political parties and leaders: Social Demo- 
cratic Party (PSD), Anibal Cavaco Silva; Por- 
tuguese Socialist Party (PS), Mario Scares; 
Party of Democratic Renewal (PRD), Her- 
minio Martinho; Portuguese Communist 
Party (PCP), Alvaro Cunhal; Social Demo- 
cratic Center (CDS), Adriano Moreira 

Voting strength: (1985 parliamentary elec- 
tion) Social Democrats, 29.87%; Socialists, 
20.77%; Democratic Renewal, 17.92%; 
Communists (in a front coalition called the 
United Peoples Alliance APU), 15.49%; 
Center Democrats, 9.96% (1985 local elec- 
tions) PSD, 34.02%; PS, 27.39%; APU, 
19.44%; CDS, 9.7%; PRD, 4.74% (unofficial 
results) 

Communists: Portuguese Communist Party 
claims membership of 200,753 (December 
1983) 

Member of: Council of Europe, EC, EFTA, 
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAC, 
ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDE Inter-American 
Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IOOC, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC Internationa] 
Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $19.2 billion (1984); 15% government 
consumption, 71% private consumption; 
23% fixed capital formation; 0.7% change 
in stocks; 8% net exports; real growth rate 
-1.7% (1984) 



Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tung- 
sten, iron, uranium ores 

Agriculture: generally underdeveloped; 
main crops grains, potatoes, olives, grapes 
for wine; deficit foods sugar, grain, meat, 
fish, oilseed 

Fishing: catch 243,423 metric tons (1984) 

Major industries: textiles and footwear; 
wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; 
oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine 

Crude steel: 690,675 tons produced (1983), 
69 kg per capita 

Electric power: 5,124,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 16.829 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1,675 kWh per capita 

Exports: $5.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); principal 
items cotton textiles, cork and cork prod- 
ucts, canned fish, wine, timber and timber 
products, resin, machinery, and appliances 

Imports: $7.8 billion (c.i.f., 1984); principal 
items petroleum, cotton, industrial ma- 
chinery, iron and steel, chemicals 

Major trade partners: 58% EC, 9% US, 2% 
Communist countries, 18% other developed 
countries, 11% less developed countries 

Aid: economic authorizations US, includ- 
ing Ex-Im, $1.5 billion (FY70-84); other 
Western countries (ODA and OOF), $749 
million (1970-82); military authorizations 
US, $475 million (FY70-84) 

Budget: (1984) expenditures, $7.0 billion; 
revenues, $4.5 billion; deficit, $2.5 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 163.31 
escudos=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,630 km total: state-owned Por- 
tuguese Railroad Co. (CP) operates 2,858 km 
1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 
426 km double track), 760 km 1.000-meter 
gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge) electri- 
fied, double, nongovernment owned 



Highways: 57,499 km total; 49,537 km 
paved (bituminous, gravel, and crushed 
stone), including 140 km of limited-access 
divided highway; 7,962 km improved earth; 
plus an additional 4,100 km of unimproved 
earth roads (motorable tracks) 

Inland waterways: 820 km navigable; rela- 
tively unimportant to national economy, 
used by shallow-draft craft limited to 297- 
metric-ton cargo capacity 

Pipelines: crude oil, 1 1 km 

Ports: 1 major, 34 minor 

Civil air: 34 major transport aircraft 

Airfields (including Azores and Madeira 
Islands): 69 total, 66 usable; 35 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 9 with runways 2,440- 
3,659 m, 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: facilities are gener- 
ally adequate; 1.68 million telephones (16. 6 
per 100 popl.); 50 AM, 52 FM, 66 TV sta- 
tions; 6 submarine cables; 3 Atlantic Ocean 
satellite antennas (on mainland and Azores) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,430,000; 
1,989,000 fit for military service; 90,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $652 million; about 10% of 
central government budget 



203 



Qatar 



Hawar Islands ar 
disputed betwee 
Bahrain and Oat, 




Persian 
Gulf 



S regional map VI 



Land 

About 1 1 ,000 km 2 ; smaller than Connecti- 
cut; negligible forest; mostly desert, waste, 
or urban 

Land boundaries: 56 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(exclusive economic zone to median line) 

Coastline: 563 km 

People 

Population: 305,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 4.2% 

Nationality: noun Qatari(s); adjective 
Qatar! 

Ethnic divisions: 40% Arab, 18% Pakistani, 
18% Indian, 10% Iranian 

Religion: 95% Muslim 

Language: Arabic (official); English is com- 
monly used as second language 

Life expectancy: 72 
Literacy: 40% 

Labor force: 104,000(1983); 85% non-Qatari 
in private sector 

Government 

Official name: State of Qatar 



Type: traditional monarchy; independence 
declared in 1971 

Capital: Doha 

Legal system: discretionary system of law 
controlled by the ruler, although civil codes 
are being implemented; Islamic law is signif- 
icant in personal matters; a constitution was 
promulgated in 1970 

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 
September 

Branches: executive Amir and Council of 
Ministers; legislature State Advisory Coun- 
cil 

Government leader: Khalifa bin Hamad Al 
THANI, Amir and Prime Minister (since 
February 1972) 

Suffrage: no specific provisions for suffrage 
laid down 

Elections: constitution calls for elections for 
part of State Advisory Council, a consulta- 
tive body, but no elections have been held 

Political parties and leaders: none 

Other political or pressure groups: a few 
small clandestine organizations are active 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
GATT(de facto), GCC, IBRD, ICAO, 
IDE Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
ITU, NAM, OAPEC, QIC, OPEC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $7.6 billion (1983); $27,000 per capita 

(1983) 

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, 
fish 

Agriculture: farming and grazing on small 
scale; commercial fishing increasing in im- 
portance; most food imported; rice and dates 
staple diet 

Major industries: oil production and re- 
fining; crude oil production averaged 
399,000 b/d (1984); oil revenues accrued 
$3. 1 billion (est.) in FY85, representing 95% 
of government revenue 



Electric power: capacity 1 ,304,200 kW 
(1985); 4.569 billion kWh produced (1985), 
15,650 kWh per capita 

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1984), of which 
petroleum accounted for $4.2 billion 

Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., 1984) 

Budget: (FY85) revenues, $2.7 billion; ex- 
penditures, $4.3 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 3.64 Qatar 
riyals=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: none 



Highways: 840 km total; 490 km bitumi- 
nous; 350 km gravel; undetermined mileage 
of earth tracks 

Pipelines: crude oil, 235 km; natural gas, 
400km 

Ports: 2 major (Doha, Musay'ld), 1 minor 
Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 2 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: modern system cen- 
tered in Doha; 96,000 telephones (37 per 100 
popl.); 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean 
satellite station; 1 Arab satellite station un- 
der construction; tropospheric scatter to 
Bahrain; radio-relay to Saudi Arabia; sub- 
marine cable to Bahrain and UAE; 2 AM, 1 
FM, 3 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Sea Arm, Air Force, Police 
Department 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 130,000; 
70,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1978, $157 million; 7.3% of cen- 
tral government budget 



204 



Reunion 




Indian Ocean 
See regional map VII 



Land 

2,512 km 2 ; about three times the size of New 
York City; two-thirds of island extremely 
rugged, consisting of volcanic mountains; 
48,600 hectares (less than one-fifth of the 
land) under cultivation 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 201 km 

People 

Population: 539,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.0% 

Nationality: noun Reunionese (sing, and 
pi.); adjective Reunionese 

Ethnic divisions: most of the population is of 
thoroughly intermixed ancestry of French, 
African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, and 
Indian origin 

Religion: 94% Roman Catholic 

Language: French (official); Creole widely 
used 

Literacy: over 80% among younger genera- 
tion 

Labor force: primarily agricultural workers; 
high seasonal unemployment 



Government 

Official name: Department of Reunion 

Type: overseas department of France; repre- 
sented in French Parliament by three depu- 
ties and two senators 

Capital: Saint-Denis 
Legal system: French law 

Branches: Reunion is administered by a Pre- 
fect appointed by the French Minister of 
Interior, assisted by a Secretary General and 
an elected 36-man General Council; in 1974 
France created an elected 45-member Re- 
gional Assembly to coordinate economic and 
social development policies; in 1981 both the 
General Council and the Regional Assembly 
received greater authority for fiscal policy 

Government leader: Michel BLANGY, 
Commissioner of the Republic (since Febru- 
ary 1984) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: last municipal and General Coun- 
cil elections in 1983; parliamentary election 
June 1981; Regional Assembly election Feb- 
ruary 1983 

Political parties and leaders: Reunion Com- 
munist Party (RCP), Paul Verges; Popular 
Movement for the Liberation of Reunion, 
Georges Sinamale; other political candidates 
affiliated with metropolitan French parties, 
which do not maintain permanent organiza- 
tions on Reunion 

Voting strength: (parliamentary election 
1981) Union for French Democracy - Rally 
for the Republic coalition elected two depu- 
ties; the Socialists elected one; in the 1983 
Regional Assembly election, leftist parties 
received 45.7% of the vote 

Communists: Communist Party small but 
has support among sugarcane cutters and the 
minuscule Popular Movement for the Liber- 
ation of Reunion (MPLR)and in Le Port 
District 

Member of: WFTU 



Economy 

Agriculture: cash crops almost entirely 
sugarcane, small amounts of vanilla and per- 
fume plants; food crops tropical fruit and 
vegetables, manioc, bananas, corn, market 
garden produce, some tea, tobacco, and 
coffee; food crop inadequate, most food 
needs imported 

Major industries: 12 sugar processing mills, 
rum distilling plants, cigarette factory, 2 tea 
plants, fruit juice plant, canning factory, a 
slaughterhouse, and several small shops pro- 
ducing handicraft items 

Electric power: 180,000 kW capacity (1985); 
551 million kWh produced (1985), 1,026 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $128 million (f.o.b., 1980); 90% 
sugar, 5% rum and molasses, 4% perfume 
essences, 1% vanilla and tea 

Imports: $871 million (c.i.f., 1980); manu- 
factured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, 
machinery and transportation equipment, 
raw materials, and petroleum products 

Major trade partners: France and Mauritius 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-81), $4.0 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 7.974 French 
francs=US$l (31 October 1983) 

Fiscal year: probably calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 2,800 km total; 2,200 km paved, 
600 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized 
earth 

Ports: 1 major (Port de la Pointe des Galets 
at Le Port) 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 



205 



Reunion (continued) 



Romania 



Telecommunications: adequate system for 
needs; modern open- wire line and radio- 
relay network; principal center Saint-Denis; 
radiocommunication to Comoros Islands, 
France, Madagascar; new radio-relay route 
to Mauritius; 71,500 telephones (14.0 per 
100 popl.); 2 AM, 9 FM stations; 1 TV station 
with 17 relay transmitters; 1 Indian Ocean 
satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of France 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 156,000; 
81,000 fit for military service; 7,000 reach 
military age ( 1 8) annually 



200 fcm 




See regional mip V 



Land 

237,499 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Oregon; 
44% arable, 27% forest, 19% other agricul- 
tural, 10% other 

Land boundary: 2,969 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm 

Coastline: 225 km 

People 

Population: 22,830,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.4% 

Nationality: noun Romanian(s); adjec- 
tive Romanian 

Ethnic divisions: 88.1% Romanian; 7.9% 
Hungarian; 1.6% German; 2.4% Ukrainian, 
Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 

Religion: 80% Romanian Orthodox; 6% Ro- 
man Catholic; 4% Calvinist, Lutheran, Jew- 
ish, Baptist 

Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German 
Infant mortality rate: 23.9/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 69.3, women 71.8 
Literacy: 98% 



Labor force: 10.5 million (1983); 37.8% in- 
dustry, 29.2% agriculture, 33.0% other non- 
agricultural (1983) 

Government 

Official name: Socialist Republic of Roma- 



Type: Communist state 
Capital: Bucharest 

Political subdivisions: 40 counties; city of 
Bucharest has administrative status equal to 
a county 

Legal system: mixture of civil law system 
and Communist legal theory that increas- 
ingly reflects Romanian traditions; constitu- 
tion adopted 1965; legal education at Uni- 
versity of Bucharest and two other law 
schools; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Liberation Day, 23 
August 

Branches: Presidency; Council of Ministers; 
Grand National Assembly, under which is 
Office of Prosecutor General and Supreme 
Court; Council of State 

Government leaders: Nicolae 
CEAUS. ESCU, President of the Socialist Re- 
public (head of state; since 1967); Constantin 
DASCALESCU, Prime Minister (since May 
1982) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18 

Elections: elections held every five years for 
Grand National Assembly deputies and local 
people's councils; last election held March 
1985 

Political parties and leaders: Communist 
Party of Romania only functioning party, 
Nicolae Ceausescu, Secretary General (since 
March 1965) 

Voting strength: (1985 election) overall par- 
ticipation reached 99.99%; of those regis- 
tered to vote (15,733,060), 97.73% voted for 
party candidates 



206 



Rwanda 



Communists: 3,400,000 (November 1984) 

Member of: CEMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $1 17.6 billion in 1984 (1984 dollars), 

$5,200 per capita; 1984 real growth rate, 

4.3% 

Natural resources: oil, timber, natural gas, 
coal 

Agriculture: net exporter; main crops 
corn, wheat, oilseed; livestock cattle, hogs, 
sheep; consumer and food supplies weak 

Fishing: catch 244,000 metric tons (1982) 

Major industries: mining, forestry, con- 
struction materials, metal production and 
processing, chemicals, machine-building, 
food processing 

Shortages: energy, iron ore, coking coal, 
metallurgical coke, cotton fibers, natural 
rubber 

Crude steel: 14.4 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 635 kg per capita 

Electric power: 18,768,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 76.313 billion kWh produced (1985), 
3,35 IkWh per capita 

Exports: $12.6 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 32.0% 
machinery and equipment; 28.0% fuels, 
minerals, and metals; 16.0% manufactured 
consumer goods; 12.0% agricultural materi- 
als and forestry products; 12.0% other (1984) 

Imports: $10.3 billion (f.o.b. 1984); 24.7% 
machinery and equipment; 52.6% fuels, 
minerals, and metals; 10.8% agricultural and 
forestry products; 4.2% manufactured con- 
sumer goods; 7.7% other (1984) 

Major trade partners: $23.0 billion in 1984; 
48% non-Communist countries, 52% Com- 
munist countries (1984) 



Monetary conversion rate: 17.1 lei=US$l 
(September 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 1 1,106 km total; 10,589 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge, 472 km narrow 
gauge, 45km broad gauge; 3, 113 km electri- 
fied, 2,642 km double track; government 
owned (1983) 

Highways: 73,369 km total; 29,233 km con- 
crete, asphalt, stone block; 38,880 km as- 
phalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 5,256 
km other (1983) 

Inland waterways: 1,724 km (1984) 

Pipelines: 2,800 km crude oil; 1,429 km re- 
fined products; 6,400 km natural gas 

Freight carried: rail 270.5 million metric 
tons (1985), 72.3 billion metric ton/km 
(1983); highway 469.2 million metric tons 
(1983), 8.3 billion metric ton/km (1983); wa- 
terway 14.6 million metric tons (1983), 2.3 
billion metric ton/km (1983) 

Ports: 4 major (Constanta, Galati, Braila, 
Mangalia), 7 minor; principal inland water- 
way ports are Giurgiu, Turnu Severin, and 
Or$ova 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Romanian People's Army, Secu- 
rity Troops; Patriotic Guard, Air and Air 
Defense Forces, Romanian Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,630,000; 
4,758,000 fit for military service; 202,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: announced for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1985, 12.3 billion lei; 
about 3.4% of total budget 



50km 



Kagiliimba 




Lac 
Kivu 



See regional map VII 



Land 

26,338 km 2 ; the size of Maryland; almost all 
arable land; about 33% cultivated; about 
33% pasture; 9% forest 

Land boundaries: 877 km 

People 

Population: 6, 489,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.8% 

Nationality: noun Rwandan(s); 
adjective Rwandan 

Ethnic divisions: 85% Hutu, 14% Tutsi, 1% 
Twa (Pygmoid) 

Religion: 65% Catholic, 9% Protestant, 1% 
Muslim, rest indigenous beliefs 

Language: Kinyarwanda, French (official); 
Kiswahili used in commercial centers 

Infant mortality rate: 102/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: 48 
Literacy: 37% 

Labor force: 3.6 million (1985); 92% agricul- 
ture, 2% industry and commerce, 7% gov- 
ernment and services 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Rwanda 



207 



Rwanda (continued) 



Type: republic; presidential system in which 
military leaders hold key offices; new consti- 
tution adopted 17 December 1978 

Capital: Kigali 

Political subdivisions: 10 prefectures, subdi- 
vided into 143 communes 

Legal system: based on German and Belgian 
civil law systems and customary law; judicial 
review of legislative acts in the Supreme 
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: National Day, 1 July 

Branches: executive (President, 16-member 
Cabinet); unicameral legislative (National 
Development Council); judiciary (4 senior 
courts, magistrates) 

Government leader: Maj. Gen. Juvenal 
HABYARIMANA, President and Head of 
State (since 1973) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: national elections, including con- 
stitutional referendum and presidential 
plebiscite, held December 1978; National 
Development Council elected and President 
reelected in December 1983 

Political parties and leaders: National Revo- 
lutionary Movement for Development 
(MRND), General Habyarimana (officially a 
"development movement," not a party) 

Communists: no Communist party 

Member of: AfDB, KAMA, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, 
NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.6 billion (1984), $257 per capita; 

real growth rate (1984 est), 5.5% 

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite, 
wolframite 



Agriculture: cash crops mainly coffee, tea, 
some pyrethrum; main food crops 
bananas, cassava; stock raising; self- 
sufficiency declining; country imports 
foodstuffs 

Major industries: mining of cassiterite (tin 
ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin fac- 
tory, cement factory, agricultural process- 
ing, and production of beer, soft drinks, 
soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, 
cigarettes 

Electric power: 42,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1 10 million kWh produced (1985), 17 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $147.9 million (f.o.b., 1984 est.); 
mainly coffee, tea, cassiterite, wolframite, 
pyrethrum 

Imports: $204.9 million (c.i.f., 1984 est.); 
textiles, foodstuffs, machines, equipment, 
capital goods, steel, petroleum products, 
cement and construction material 

Major trade partners: US, Belgium, FRG, 
Kenya 

External debt: $225 million (1983), external 
debt ratio 4.5% (1983) 

Budget: (1983 est.) revenues, $161.5 million; 
current expenditures, $164.3 million; devel- 
opment expenditures, $30.6 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 100.96 Rwanda 
francs=US$l (August 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 5,000 km total; 460 km paved, 
1,725 km gravel and/or improved earth, 
2,700 km unimproved 

Inland waterways: Lake Kivu navigable by 
shallow draft barges and native craft 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 



Airfields: 8 total, 8 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system with low- 
capacity radio-relay system centered on 
Kigali; 4,600 telephones (0.1 per 100popl.);2 
AM, 5 FM, no TV stations; SYMPHONIE 
satellite station, 1 Indian Ocean satellite sta- 
tion 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, paramilitary, Gendar- 
merie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,386,000; 
702,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1983, $34.4 million; 14% of cen- 
tral government budget 



208 



St. Christopher and Nevis 



10 km 



ndy Point TownV Saint 

\Christopher 




Caribbean Sea 



Set refloni) map III 



Land 

261 km 2 ; about one-third the size of New 
York City; 40% arable, 33% waste and built 
on, 17% forest, 10% pasture 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 135 km 

People 

Population: 40,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.2% 

Ethnic divisions: mainly of African Negro 
descent 

Nationality: noun Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s); 
adjective Kittsian, Nevisian 

Religion: Anglican, other Protestant sects, 
Roman Catholic 

Language: English 
Literacy: 80% 
Labor force: 20,000 (1981) 
Organized labor: 6,700 

Government 

Official name: Federation of St. Christopher 
and Nevis 



Type: independent state within Common- 
wealth, recognizing Elizabeth II as Chief of 
State 

Capital: Basseterre, St. Christopher; Charl- 
estown, Nevis 

Political subdivisions: 11 districts 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution of 1960; highest judicial 
organ is Court of Appeal of Leeward and 
Windward Islands 

Branches: legislative, 11 -member popularly 
elected House of Assembly; executive, Cabi- 
net headed by Prime Minister; separate 
Nevis Island Legislature and Nevis Island 
Assembly headed by Premier 

Government leaders: Dr. Kennedy 
AlphonseSIMMONDS, Prime Minister 
(since 1980); Sir Clement ARRINDELL, 
Governor General (since 1981) 

Suffrage: universal adult suffrage 

Elections: at least every five years; last elec- 
tion held June 1984 

Political parties and leaders: St. Christopher 
and Nevis Labor Party (SKNLP), Lee 
Moore; People's Action Movement (PAM), 
Kennedy Simmonds; Nevis Reformation 
Party (NRP), Simeon Daniel 

Voting strength: (June 1984 election) House 
of Assembly PAM, 6 seats; SKNLP, 2 seats; 
NRP, 3 seats 

Communists: none known 

Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, 
FAO, IBRD, IMF, ISO, OAS, UN 

Economy 

GNP. $61.9 million (1983), $820 per capita; 

4.1% real growth in 1984 

Agriculture: main crops sugar on St. Chris- 
topher, cotton on Nevis 

Major industries: sugar processing, tourism, 
cotton, salt, copra 



Electric power: 12,000 kW capacity (1985); 
32 million kWh produced (1985), 780 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $30.6 million (1983); sugar 

Imports: $47.3 million (1983); foodstuffs, 
manufactures, fuel 

Major trade partners: exports 50% US, 
35% UK; imports 219? UK, 17% Japan, 
11% US (1973) 

Aid: economic bilateral commitments, 
including Ex-Im, from Western (non-US) 
countries (1970-81), $15 million; no military 
aid 

Budget: (1982) revenues, $19 million; expen- 
ditures, $26 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Carib- 
bean dollars=US$l (December 1985) 

Communications 

Railroads: 58 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge 
on St. Christopher for sugarcane 

Highways: 300 km total; 125 km paved, 125 
km otherwise improved, 50 km unimproved 
earth 

Ports: 1 major Basseterre, St. Christopher, 
and 1 minor Charlestown, Nevis 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: good interisland 
VHF/UHF/SHF radio connections and 
international link via Antigua and Barbuda 
and St. Martin; about 2,400 telephones (5.0 
per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 4 TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal St. Christopher and Nevis 
Police Force 



209 



St. Helena 




See regional map V II 



Land 

122 km 2 St. Helena; smaller than Washing- 
ton, D. C.; 88 km 2 Ascension Island; 104 km 2 
Tristan da Cunha; 243 hectares cultivable 
land; islands are of volcanic origin and in- 
clude St. Helena, Ascension Island (no wa- 
ter), and the Tristan da Cunha island group 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: about 60 km 

People 

Population: 7,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.3% 

Nationality: noun St. Helenian(s); adjec- 
tive St. Helenian 

Religion: Anglican majority; also Baptist, 
Seventh Day Adventist, and Roman Catho- 
lic 

Language: English 

Infant mortality rate: 22.37/1,000(1982) 

Literacy: probably high 

Labor force: large proportifrom employed 
overseas, particularly on Ascension 

Organized labor: St. Helena General 
Workers' Union, 472 members; 10% profes- 
sional and technical, 9% mangement and 



clerical, 5% sales, 9% farming and fishing, 
6% transport, 17% crafts, 10% service, 1% 
security, and 33% other 

1 

Government 

Official name: St. Helena 

Type: British dependent territory 
Capital: Jamestown 

Political subdivisions: Ascension and 
Triston da Cunha are dependencies of St. 
Helena 

Legal system: Constitution in effect since 
1967; Supreme Court 

Branches: Executive Council, 12-member 
elected Legislative Council 

Government leader: Francis BAKER, Gov- 
ernor and Commander in Chief (since 1984) 

Elections: general elections held in October 
1984 

Political parties and leaders: St. Helena La- 
bor Party, G. A. O. Thornton; St. Helena 
Progressive Party, leader unknown 

Voting strength: both political parties inac- 
tive since 1976 

Communists: probably none 

Economy 

Natural resources: Ascension sea turtle 
and sooty tern breeding ground; no minerals 

Agriculture: maize, potatoes, vegetables; 
timber production being developed; 
crawfishing on Tristan da Cunha 

Fishing: 453 metric ton catch (1982) 

Major industries: crafts (furniture, 
lacework, fancy woodwork) 

Electric power: 1 ,700 kW capacity (1985); 3 
million kWh produced (1985), 428 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: fish (frozen skipjack, tuna, salt- 
dried skipjack), handicrafts 



Imports: food, drink, tobacco, fuel oils, ani- 
mal feed, building materials, motor vehicles 
and parts, machinery and parts (198 1/82) 

Major trade partners: imports 59% UK, 
29% South Africa 

Aid: development aid from UK 8 million 
pounds sterling (1982 est.) 

Budget: revenue, 5,656,518 pounds sterling; 
expenditure, 5,681,933 pounds sterling 
(1981/82) 

Monetary conversion rate: UK currency; 1 
pound sterling=US$1.235 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 87 km bitumen sealed roads, 20 
km earth roads on St. Helena; 80 km sealed 
on Ascension; 2.7 km sealed on Tristan da 
Cunha 

Ports: Jamestown on St. Helena, George- 
town on Ascension, and St. James Bay 

Airfields: none on St. Helena; airstrip 
(Miracle Miles) near Georgetown on Ascen- 
sion; 1 permanent-surface runway 
2,440-3,659 on Tristan da Cunha 

Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers; 
no television service; wireless service to 
Cape Town and Ascension; telephones 310 
(1982); coaxial cable relay point between 
South Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 
Kingdom; United Kingdom Royal Air Force 
and United States NASA bases on Ascension 

Military manpower: St. Helena Constabu- 
lary 



210 



St. Lucia 




Caribbean 
Sea 



ux Fort 



See regional map III 



Land 

619 km 2 ; about one-fifth the size of Rhode 
Island; 50% arable, 23% wasteland and built 
on, 19% forest, 5% unused but potentially 
productive, 3% pasture 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(fishing 12 nm) 

Coastline: 158 km 

People 

Population: 123,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1 . 1 % 

Nationality: noun St. Lucian(s); adjec- 
tive St. Lucian 

Ethnic divisions: 90.3% African descent, 
5.5% mixed, 3.2% East Indian, 0.8% Cauca- 
sian 

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 7% Protes- 
tant, 3% Church of England 

Language: English (official), French patois 
Infant mortality rate: 27.4/1,000 (1984) 
Life expectancy: men 68.3, women 72.4 
Literacy: 78% 

Labor force: 43,800 (1983 est.); 43.4% agri- 
culture, 38.9% services, 17.7% industry and 
commerce; 30% unemployment (1984) 

Organized labor: 20% of labor force 



Government 

Official name: St. Lucia 

Type: independent state within Common- 
wealth, recognizing Elizabeth II as Chief of 
State 

Capital: Castries 

Political subdivisions: 16 parishes 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution of 1960; highest judicial 
body is Court of Appeal of Leeward and 
Windward Islands 

Branches: bicameral legislative (Senate, 
House of Assembly); executive, Cabinet 
headed by Prime Minister 

Government leaders: John G. M. COM- 
PTON, Prime Minister (since February 
1975); Sir Allen LEWIS, Governor General 
(since December 1982) 

Suffrage: universal adult over age 18 

Elections: every five years; last election held 
May 1982 

Political parties and leaders: United 
Workers' Party (UWP), John Compton; St. 
Lucia Labor Party (SLP), Julian Hunte; Pro- 
gressive Labor Party (PLP), George Odium 

Voting strength: (1982 election) House of 
Assembly UWP, 14 seats; SLP, 2 seats; 
PLP, 1 seat 

Communists: negligible 

Member of: CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT 
(de facto), IRRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, NAM, OAS, PAHO, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP. $148.1 million (1984), $1,105 per cap- 
ita; 5.0% real GDP growth (1984) 

Natural resources: forests, beaches, minerals 
(pumice), mineral springs 

Agriculture: main crops bananas, coco- 
nuts, sugar, cocoa, spices 



Major industries: garments, electronic com- 
ponents, beverages, corrugated boxes, tour- 
ism, lime processing, tropical agriculture 

Shortages: food, machinery, capital goods 

Electric power: 20,000 kW capacity (1985); 
75 million kWh produced (1985), 615 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $49.7 million (f.o.b., 1983); 
bananas, cocoa 

Imports: $106.8 million (c.i.f., 1983); food- 
stuffs, machinery and equipment, fertilizers, 
petroleum products 

Major trade partners: exports 58% UK, 
16% US, 24% CARICOM; impcrts 37% 
US, 13% UK, 17% CARICOM, 9% Trinidad 
and Tobago (1984 est.) 

Aid: economic bilateral commitments, 
ODA and OOF, Western (non-US) countries 
(1970-81), $34 million; no military aid 

Budget: (FY84) revenues, $61 million; ex- 
penditures, $64 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Carib- 
bean dollars=US$l (December 1985) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 760 km total; 500 km paved; 260 
km otherwise improved 

Ports: 1 major (Castries), 1 minor 
Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways, 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 
1,220-2,439 

Telecommunications: fully automatic tele- 
phone system with 9,500 telephones (8.0 per 
100 popl.); direct radio-relay link with Mar- 
tinique and St. Vincent and the Grenadines; 
interisland troposcatter link to Barbados; 3 
AM stations, 1 cable TV station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal St. Lucia Police Force 



211 



St. Vincent and 
the Grenadines 



Chateaubelaijj 

/ '(Georgetown 

Saint 



Caribbean 
Sea 



Union Island 
Set regional map III 



Land 

389 km 2 (including northern Grenadines); 
about twice the size of Washington, D. C.; 
50% arable, 44% forest, 3% pasture, 3% 
waste and built on 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(fishing 12 nm) 

Coastline: 84 km 

People 

Population: 103,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.9% 

Nationality: noun St. Vincentian(s) or 
Vincentian(s); adjectives St. Vincentian or 
Vincentian 

Ethnic divisions: mainly of African Negro 
descent; remainder mixed, with some white, 
East Indian, Carib Indian 

Religion: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Cath- 
olic 

Language: English, some French patois 
Literacy: 82% 

Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.); about 40% 
unemployed (1984) 

Organized labor: 10% of labor force 



Government 

Official name: St. Vincent and the Grena- 
dines 

Type: independent state within Common- 
wealth, recognizing Elizabeth II as Chief of 
State 

Capital: Kingstown 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution of 1960; highest judicial 
body is Court of Appeal of Leeward and 
Windward Islands 

Branches: bicameral legislature (13-member 
elected House of Representatives and 
6-member appointed Senate), judiciary (Su- 
preme Court) 

Government leaders: James "Son" MITCH- 
ELL, Prime Minister (since 1984); Sir Joseph 
EUSTACE, Governor General (since Febru- 
ary 1985) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18 

Elections: every five years; last held 18 July 
1984 

Political parties and leaders: New Demo- 
cratic Party (NDP), James "Son" Mitchell; 
St. Vincent Labor Party (SVLP), Hudson 
Tannis; United People's Movement (UPM), 
Renwick Rose and Oscar Allen; Movement 
for National Unity (MNU), Ralph Gonsalves 

Voting strength: (1984 election) House of 
Assembly NDP, 9 seats; SVLP, 4 seats 

Member of: CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT 
(de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, 
IMO, OAS, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO 

Economy 

GNP: $88.9 million (1983), $781 per capita; 
3% real growth in 1984 

Agriculture: bananas, arrowroot 
Major industries: food processing 



Electric power: 16,000 kW capacity (1985); 
32 million kWh produced (1985), 314 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $42.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 prelim.); 
bananas, arrowroot, copra 

Imports: $71.4 million (c.i.f., 1983 prelim.); 
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, 
chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and fuels 

Major trade partners: exports 32% UK, 
57% CARICOM, 34% Trinidad and Tobago 
(1983); imports 11% UK, 33% US, 32% 
CARICOM, 24% Trinidad and Tobago, 6% 
Canada (1983 est.) 

Aid: economic bilateral economic commit- 
ments, ODA and OOF, from Western (non- 
US) countries (1970-81), $25 million; no mili- 
tary aid 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $32 million; expen- 
ditures, $32 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Carib- 
bean dollars=US$l (December 1985) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: approx. 1,000 km total; 300 km 
paved; 400 km improved; 300 km unim- 
proved 

Ports: 1 major (Kingstown), 1 minor 
Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 6 total, 6 usable; 3 with 
permanent-surface runways, 1 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: islandwide fully au- 
tomatic telephone system with 6,500 sets (4.6 
per 100 pop!.); VHF/UHF interisland links 
to Barbados and the Grenadines; new SHF 
links to Grenada and St. Lucia; 2 AM sta- 
tions 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal St. Vincent and the Gre- 
nadines Police Force 



212 



San Marino 




Sr regional map V 



Land 

62 km 2 ; about one-third the size of Washing- 
ton, D. C.; 74% cultivated, 22% meadow and 
pasture, 4% built on 

Land boundaries: 34 km 

People 

Population: 23,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.9% 

Nationality: noun Sanmarinese (sing, and 
pi.); adjective Sanmarinese 

Religion: Roman Catholic 

Language: Italian 

Infant mortality rate: 9.6/1,000 (1983) 

Literacy: 97% 

Labor force: appro*. 4,300 

Organized labor: Democratic Federation of 
Sanmarinese Workers (affiliated with 
ICFTU) has about 1,800 members; 
Communist-dominated General Federation 
of Labor, 1,400 members 

Government 

Official name: Republic of San Marino 

Type: republic (dates from 4th century 
A.D.); in 1862 the Kingdom of Italy con- 
cluded a treaty guaranteeing the indepen- 
dence of San Marino; although legally 



sovereign, San Marino is vulnerable to pres- 
sure from the Italian Government 

Capital: San Marino 

Political subdivisions: San Marino is divided 
into 9 "castles" Acquaviva, Borgo Maggi- 
ore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, 
Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, 
Serravalle 

Legal system: based on civil law system with 
Italian law influences; electoral law of 1926 
serves some of the functions of a constitu- 
tion; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: Anniversary of the Liber- 
ation of the Republic, 5 February 

Branches: the Grand and General Council is 
the legislative body elected by popular vote; 
its 60 members serve five-year terms; Coun- 
cil in turn elects two Captains-Regent who 
exercise executive power for term of six 
months, the Congress of State whose mem- 
bers head government administrative de- 
partments, and the Council of Twelve, the 
supreme judicial body; actual executive 
power is wielded by the Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs and the Secretary of 
State for Internal Affairs 

Government leaders: Giordano Bruno RE- 
FFI (Socialist), Secretary of State for Foreign 
and Political Affairs and for Information 
(since July 1978); Alvaro SELVA (Commu- 
nist), Secretary of State for Internal Affairs 
and Justice (since July 1978); Dr. Emilio DE- 
LLA BALDA (Unitary Socialist), Secretary 
of State for Budget, Finance, and Planning 
(since July 1978) 

Suffrage: universal (since 1960) 

Elections: elections to the Grand and Gen- 
eral Council required at least every five 
years; last election was held 29 May 1983 

Political parties and leaders: Christian 
Democratic Party (DCS), Clara Boscaglia; 
Social Democratic Party (PSDS), Alvaro 



Casali; Socialist Party (PSS), Remy Giacom- 
ini; Communist Party (PCS), Gilberto 
Ghiotti; Unitary Socialist Party (PSU), Em- 
ilio Delia Hah la; Committee for the Defense 
of the Republic (CDR), leader unknown 

Voting strength: (1983 election) 42. 1 % DCS, 
24.4% PCS, 14.8% PSS, 13.9% PSU, 2.9% 
PSDS 

Communists: approx. 300 members (num- 
ber of sympathizers cannot be determined); 
the PCS, in conjunction with the PSS, PSU, 
and PSDS, has led the government since 
1978 

Other political parties or pressure groups: 
political parties influenced by policies of 
their counterparts in Italy; the two Socialist 
parties are not united 

Member of: ICJ, International Institute for 
Unification of Private Law, International 
Relief Union, ITU, IRC, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WTO; observer status in 
NAM 

Economy 

Principal economic activities of San Marino 
are farming, livestock raising, light manu- 
facturing, and tourism; the largest share of 
government revenue is derived from the sale 
of postage stamps throughout the world and 
from payments by the Italian Government 
in exchange for Italy's monopoly in retailing 
tobacco, gasoline, and a few other goods; 
main problem is finding additional funds to 
finance badly needed water and electric 
power systems expansions 

Natural resources: building stones 

Agriculture: principal crops are wheat (av- 
erage annual output about 4,400 metric ton- 
s/year) and grapes (average annual output 
about 700 metric tons/year); other grains, 
fruits, vegetables, and animal feedstuffs are 
also grown; livestock population numbers 
roughly 6,000 cows, oxen, and sheep; cheese 
and hides are most important livestock prod- 
ucts 

Electric power: power supplied by Italy 

(1985) 



213 



San Marino (continued) 



Sao Tome and Principe 



Manufacturing: consists mainly of cotton 
textile production at Serravalle, brick and 
tile production at Dogana, cement produc- 
tion at Acquaviva, Dogana, and Fiorentino, 
and pottery production at Borgo Maggiore; 
some tanned hides, paper, candy, baked 
goods, Moscato wine, and gold and silver 
souvenirs are also produced 

Foreign transactions: dominated by tour- 
ism; in summer months 20,000 to 30,000 
foreigners visit San Marino every day; sev- 
eral hotels and restaurants have been built in 
recent years to accommodate them; remit- 
tances from Sanmarinese abroad also repre- 
sent an important net foreign inflow; com- 
modity trade consists primarily of exchang- 
ing building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, 
wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceram- 
ics for a wide variety of consumer manufac- 
tures 

Monetary conversion rate: 1704.0 Italian 
lire=US$l (January 1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: about 104 km 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: none 

Telecommunications: automatic telephone 
system serving 7,700 telephones (25.7 per 
100 popl.); no radiobroadcasting or televi- 
sion facilities 



I/ha de 
Sao Tome 



Gulf 

of 

Guinea 



O TOME 



Santa Cruz 



Pedrts 

Jmhosas 



See regional map VII 



Land 

963 km 2 (Sao Tome, 855 km 2 and Principe, 
109 km 2 ; including small islets of Pedras 
Tinhosas); slightly larger than New York 
City 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm (200 nm 
exclusive economic zone); maritime limits 
measured from claimed "archipelagic 
baselines," which generally connect the out- 
ermost points of outer islands or drying reefs 

Coastline: estimated 209 km 

People 

Population: 108,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.0% 

Nationality: noun Sao Tomean(s); adjec- 
tive Sao Tomean 

Ethnic divisions: mestico, angolares (descen- 
dents of Angolan slaves), forros (descendents 
of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers 
from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape 
Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on 
the islands), and Europeans (primarily Por- 
tuguese) 

Religion: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Prot- 
estant, Seventh-Day Adventist 

Language: Portuguese (official) 
Infant mortality rate: 63/1,000(1983) 



Literacy: est. 50% 

Labor force: (1981) 21,096; most of popula- 
tion engaged in subsistence agriculture and 
fishing; some unemployment; labor short- 
ages on plantations and for skilled work 

Government 

Official name: Democratic Republic of Sao 
Tome and Principe 

Type: republic 

Capital: Sao Tome 

Political subdivisions: seven counties 

Legal system: based on Portuguese law sys- 
tem and customary law; constitution 
adopted December 1975; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holidays: Martyr's Day, 4 Febru- 
ary; Independence Day, 12 July; Armed 
Forces Day, first week in September (varies); 
Farmer's Day, 30 September 

Branches: President heads the government 
assisted by a cabinet of ministers; unicam- 
eral legislature (elected National Popular 
Assembly) 

Government leader: Dr. Manuel Pinto DA 
COSTA, President (since 1975) 

Suffrage: universal for age 18 and over 

Elections: da Costa reelected by Popular 
Assembly May 1980 and September 1985; 
Assembly elections in September 1985 

Political parties and leaders: Movement for 
the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe 
(MLSTP), Manuel Pinto da Costa 

Communists: no Communist party, proba- 
bly a few sympathizers 

Member of: Af DB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de 
facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, 
IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WMO 



214 



Saudi Arabia 



Economy 

GDP: $30 million (1981 est); per capita in- 
come $260 (1983 est.); average annual 
growth rate 10% (1981 est.); average infla- 
tion rate 10% (1981) 

Natural resources: agricultural products, 
fish 

Agriculture: cash crops cocoa, copra, coco- 
nuts, coffee, palm oil, bananas 

Fishing: catch 4,050 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: light construction, shirts, 
soap, beer, fisheries, shrimp processing 

Electric power: 4,300 kW capacity (1985); 7 
million kWh produced (1985), 67 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $8.8 million (f.o.b., 1981 est.); 
mainly cocoa (90%), copra (7%), coffee, palm 
oil 

Imports: $20.0 million (f.o.b., 1981 est.); 
food products, machinery and electrical 
equipment, fuels 

Major trade partners: main partner Nether- 
lands, followed by Portugal, US, and FRG 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-81), $583 million; US(FY77-84), $93.7 
million; Communist countries (1970-84), $23 
million 

Budget: (1981 est.) central government bud- 
get $22.0 million; (1979 est.) revenues, $15.7 
million; current expenditures, $10.4 million; 
capital expenditures, $9. 1 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 46.2051 
dobras=US$l (December 1984) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 300 km, of which two-thirds is 
paved; roads on Principe are mostly 
unpaved and in need of repair 



Ports: 1 major (Sao Tome), 1 minor 
Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: minimal system; 
2,200 telephones (1.7 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 2 
FM, no TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satel- 
lite ground station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy 




JTzan 



Sec rclionil map VI 



Land 

Estimated at about 2,149,690 km 2 (bound- 
aries undefined and disputed); one-third the 
size of the US; 98% desert, waste, or urban; 
1% agricultural; 1% forest 

Land boundaries: 4,537 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (6 nm "necessary supervision zone") 

Coastline: 2,510 km 

People 

Population: 11,519,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2% 

Nationality: noun Saudi(s); adjective 
Saudi or Saudi Arabian 

Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 10% Afro- Asian 

Religion: 100% Muslim 

Language: Arabic 

Infant mortality rate: 118/1,000(1983) 

Life expectancy: 54 

Literacy: 52% 

Labor force: about one-third (one-half for- 
eign) of population; 45% commerce, ser- 
vices, government, and other; 30% agricul- 
ture; 15% construction; 5% industry; 5% oil 
and mining 



215 



Saudi Arabia (continued) 



Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 

Type: monarchy 
Capital: Riyadh 
Political subdivisions: 14 provinces 

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several 
secular codes have been introduced; com- 
mercial disputes handled by special commit- 
tees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction 

National holiday: 23 September 

Branches: King rules in consultation with 
royal family and Council of Ministers 

Government leader: FAHD bin 'Abd al- 
'Aziz Al Sa'ud, King and Prime Minister 
(since 1982) 

Communists: negligible 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GCC, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, International Maritime 
Satellite Organization, INTERPOL, ITU, 
IWC International Wheat Council, NAM, 
OAPEC, QIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $108 billion (FY84 est), $10,335 per 
capita; annual growth in nonoil GDP in con- 
stant 1969/70 prices approx. 7% (1981-84) 

Natural resources: oil, natural gas, iron ore, 
gold, copper 

Agriculture: dates, grains, livestock; not self- 
sufficient in food except wheat 

Major industries: crude oil production 3.6 
million b/d (1985); oil revenue payments to 
Saudi Arabian Government, $28 billion 
(FY85); petroleum refining, basic 
petrochemicals, cement production and 
small steel-rolling mill; several other light 
industries, including factories producing 
detergents, plastic products, furniture 



Electric power: 18,997,500 kW capacity 
(1985); 49.925 billion kWh produced (1985), 
4,476 kWh per capita 

Exports: $40 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 98% petro- 
leum and petroleum products 

Imports: $35 billion (c.i.f., 1984); manufac- 
tured goods, transportation equipment, con- 
struction materials, and processed food 
products 

Major trade partners: exports Japan, US, 
France; imports US, Japan, FRG 

Budget: FY85 proposed appropriations, $55 
billion; current expenditures, $21.5 billion 
(est.); capital expenditures, $33.5 billion (est.) 

Monetary conversion rate: 3.65 Saudi 
riyals=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: follows Islamic calendar months 
Rajab through Jumada II; the Saudi fiscal 
year covers 21 March 1985-10 March 1986 

Communications 

Railroads: 886 km 1 .435-meter standard 
gauge 

Highways: 67,000 km total; 28,000 km bitu- 
minous, 39,000 km gravel and improved 
earth 

Pipelines: 6,400 km crude oil; 150 km re- 
fined products; 2,200 km natural gas, in- 
cludes 1,600 km of natural gas liquids 

Ports: 7 major (Jiddah [Jeddah], Ad 
Damniam, Ras Tanura, JlzSn, Al Jubayl, 
Yanbu' al Bahr, Yanbu' as. S.ina'iyah). 17 mi- 
nor 

Civil air: 181 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 202 total, 170 usable; 59 with 
permanent-surface runways; 10 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 25 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 96 with runways 1,220- 
2,439m 

Telecommunications: good system exists, 
major expansion program completed with 
extensive microwave and coaxial cable sys- 
tems; 960,000 telephones (14.0 per 100 



popl.); 21 AM, 2 FM, 63 TV stations; 2 Atlan- 
tic and 2 Indian Ocean satellite stations, 1 
Arab satellite control station; radio-relay to 
Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, and 
Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait; submarine 
cable to Djibouti under construction 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Saudi Arabian Land Forces, 
Royal Saudi Naval Forces, Royal Saudi Air 
Force, Air Defense Force, Saudi Arabian 
National Guard, Frontier Force, Coast 
Guard, Special Security Force, Public Secu- 
rity Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,079,000; 
1,760,000 fit for military service; about 
106,000 reach military age (18) annually 



216 



Senegal 




' See regional map VII 



Land 

196,192 km 2 ; the size of South Dakota; 40% 
agricultural (12% cultivated); 13% forest; 
47% built up, waste, or other 

Land boundaries: 2,680 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
12 run 

Coastline: 531 km 

People 

Population: 6,980,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.3% 

Nationality: noun Senegalese (sing, and 
pi.); adjective Senegalese 

Ethnic divisions: 36% Wolof, 17% Fulani, 
17% Serer, 9% Toucouleur, 9% Diola, 9% 
Mandingo, 1% European and Lebanese 

Religion: 92% Muslim, 6% indigenous be- 
liefs, 2% Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) 

Language: French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, 
Diola, Mandingo 

Infant mortality: 140/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 45.5 
Literacy: 10% 



Labor force: 2,509,000; 77% subsistence ag- 
ricultural workers; 175,000 wage earners 
40% private sector, 60% government and 
parapublic 

Organized labor: majority of wage-labor 
force represented by unions; however, dues- 
paying membership very limited; major 
confederation is National Confederation of 
Senegalese Labor (CNTS), an affiliate of gov- 
erning party 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Senegal 

Type: republic under multiparty demo- 
cratic rule; (early in 1982, Senegal and The 
Gambia formed a loose confederation 
named Senegambia, which calls for the 
eventual integration of their armed forces 

Capital: Dakar 

Political subdivisions: 8 regions, subdivided 
into 28 departments, 95 arrondissements 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system; constitution adopted 1960, revised 
1963, 1970, and 1981; judicial review of leg- 
islative acts in Supreme Court, which also 
audits the government's accounting office; 
legal education at University of Dakar; has 
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 
April 

Branches: government dominated by the 
President; unicameral legislature (120- 
member National Assembly), elected for five 
years; President elected for five-year term 
by universal suffrage; judiciary headed by 
Supreme Court, with members appointed 
by President 

Government leaders: Abdou DIOUF, Presi- 
dent (since January 1981) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: presidential and legislative elec- 
tions held February 1983; Socialist Party 
holds 111 of 120 seats 



Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party 
(PS), Abdou Diouf; Senegalese Democratic 
Party (PDS), Abdoulaye Wade; 13 other 
small uninfluential parties 

Communists: small number of Communists 
and sympathizers 

Other political or pressure groups: students, 
teachers, labor, Muslim Brotherhood 

Member of: AfDB, APC, CEAO, KAMA, 
ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate), FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 
IDE Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, 
QIC, OMVS (Organization for the Develop- 
ment of the Senegal River Valley), UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $2.3 billion (1984), $360 (1984) per 

capita; real growth 4.2% in 1983 

Natural resources: fish, phosphates 

Agriculture: main crops peanuts (primary 
cash crop); millet, sorghum, manioc, maize, 
rice, livestock; deficit production of food 

Fishing: catch 230,000 metric tons (1984); 
exports $120 million (1984) 

Major industries: fishing, agricultural pro- 
cessing plants, light manufacturing, mining 

Electric power: 187,000 kW capacity (1985); 
737 million kWh produced (1985), 109 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $525 million (f.o.b., 1984); peanuts 
and peanut products, phosphate rock, fish, 
petroleum products (reexport) 

Imports: $805 million (f.o.b., 1984); food, 
consumer goods, machinery, transport 
equipment, petroleum 

Major trade partners: France, other EC, 
and franc zone 



217 



Senegal (continued) 



Seychelles 



Budget: (1984/85) public revenues, $467 
million; current expenditures, $489 million; 
capital expenditures, $75 million 

Monetary conversion rate: about 475 Com- 
munaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) 
francs=US$l (1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; 70 
km double track 

Highways: 13,898 km total; 3,461 km paved, 
6,741 km gravel or graded earth, 3,696 km 
of unimproved roads 

Inland waterways: 1,505 km 
Ports: 1 major (Dakar), 2 minor 
Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 25 total, 21 usable; 10 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 16 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: above-average urban 
system, using radio-relay and cable; 40,200 
telephones (0.8 per 100 popl.); 8 AM , no FM 
stations; 1 TV station; 3 submarine cables; 1 
Atlantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramili- 
tary Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,551,000; 
782,000 fit for military service; 72,000 reach 
military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1985, $66.9 million; about 8.8% of cen- 
tral government budget 



300km 



Amirantg 
Islts 



VICTORIA*^ ., 
Mahe 
Island 



Indian Ocean 



Aldabra 
^.Islands 

t:i Cosmoiedo 
. Group 



See regional map VII 



' Farquhar 
... Croup 



Land 

280 km 2 ; less than two-thirds the size of New 
York City; 54% arable land, nearly all culti- 
vated; 17% woods and forest; 29% other 
(mainly reefs and other surfaces unsuited for 
agriculture); 40 granitic and 50 or more 
coralline islands 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone); mari- 
time limits measured from claimed "archi- 
pelagic baselines," which generally connect 
the outermost points of outer islands or dry- 
ing reefs 

Coastline: 491 km (Mahe Island 93 km) 

People 

Population: 67,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.2% 

Nationality: noun Seychellois (sing, and 
pi.); adjective Seychelles 

Ethnic divisions: Seychellois (mixture of 
Asians, Africans, Europeans) 

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 8% Angli- 
can, 2% other 

Language: English and French (official); 
Creole 

Infant mortality rate: 26/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 66 



Literacy: 60% 

Labor force: 1984 (prelim.) formal employ- 
ment (all sectors) 38.4 government, 30.7% 
parastatal, 30.8% private; formal employ- 
ment (by sector) 49.0% industry and com- 
merce, 39.0% services, 11.5% agriculture, 
forestry, and fishing 

Organized labor: 3 major trade unions 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Seychelles 

Type: republic; member of the Common- 
wealth 

Capital: Victoria, Mahe Island 

Legal system: based on English common 
law, French civil law, and customary law 

National holidays: 5 and 29 June 

Branches: President, Council of Ministers, 
People's Assembly 

Government leader: France Albert RENE, 
President (since June 1979) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: general election held June 1979 
gave 98% approval to Rene as only presiden- 
tial candidate on yes/ no ballot; reelected in 
June 1984 with 92% of vote 

Political parties and leaders: Rene, who 
heads the Seychelles People's Progressive 
Front, came to power by a military coup in 
June 1977; until then he had been Prime 
Minister in an uneasy coalition with then 
President James Mancham, who headed the 
Seychelles Democratic Party; Rene banned 
the Seychelles Democratic Party in March 
1978 and announced a new constitution in 
March 1979 that turned the country'into a 
one- party state 

Communists: negligible, although some 
Cabinet ministers espouse pro-Soviet line 

Other political or pressure groups: trade 
unions, church 



218 



Sierra Leone 



Member of: Af DB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de 
facto), IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTERPOL, NAM, OAU, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $150 million (1983 prelim.); $2,320 
per capita (1984 est.); real growth rate 
-1.895 (1984 prelim.) 

Natural resources: fish, copra, spices 

Agriculture: islands depend largely on coco- 
nut production and export of copra; cinna- 
mon, vanilla, and patchouli (used for per- 
fumes) are other cash crops; food crops 
small quantities of sweet potatoes, cassava, 
sugarcane, and bananas; islands not self- 
sufficient in foodstuffs and the bulk of the 
supply must be imported; fish is an impor- 
tant food source 

Major industries: tourism is largest industry; 
processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing, 
small-scale manufacture of consumer goods, 
coir rope factory, tea factory 

Electric power: 20,000 kW capacity (1985); 
58 million kWh produced (1985), 878 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $4.4 million (f.o.b., 1984 prelim.); 
fish, copra, cinnamon bark 

Imports: $72.7 million (f.o.b., 1984 prelim.); 
manufactured goods, food, tobacco, bever- 
ages, machinery and transport equipment, 
and petroleum products 

Major trade partners: exports Pakistan, 
France, Reunion, UK, Mauritius; imports 
Bahrain, UK, South Africa, Singapore, 
Japan, France 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1978-83), $216 million; US(FY78-84), $11 
million; Communist countries (1970-84), $32 
million 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $61 million; grants, 
$4 million; current expenditures, $64 mil- 
lion; capital expenditures, $11 million; net 
lending, $3.5 million 



Monetary conversion rate: 6.80 Seychelles 
rupees=US$l (31 October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 215 km total; 145 km bitumi- 
nous, 70 km crushed stone or earth 

Ports: 1 port (Victoria); development under- 
way will double capacity 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 14 total, 14 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: direct radio commu- 
nications with adjacent islands and African 
coastal countries; 9, 1 00 telephones (14.1 per 
100 pop!.); 2 AM, no FM stations; 1 TV sta- 
tion; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station; USAF 
tracking station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 16,000; 
8,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $8.5 million, 9.5% of cen- 
tral government budget 



75km 




Morth \f< 



Atlantic 
Ocean 



Sec rcfionil map VII Suh 



Land 

71,740 km 2 ; slightly smaller than South 
Carolina; 65% arable (6% cultivated), 27% 
pasture, 4% swamp, 4% forest 

Land boundaries: 933 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
200 nm 

Coastline: 402 km 

People 

Population: 3,987,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.6% 

Nationality: noun Sierra Leonean(s); ad- 
jective Sierra Leonean 

Ethnic divisions: over 99% native African 
(30% Temne, 30% Mende, 2% Creole), rest 
European and Asian; 13 tribes 

Religion: 30% Muslim, 30% indigenous be- 
liefs, 10% Christian, 30% other or none 

Language: English (official); regular use lim- 
ited to literate minority; principal vernacu- 
lars are Mende in south and Temne in north; 
"Krio," the language of the resettled exslave 
population of the Freetown area, is lingua 
franca 

Life expectancy: 46 
Literacy: about 15% 



219 



Sierra Leone (continued) 



Labor force: about 1.5 million; most of pop- 
ulation engages in subsistence agriculture; 
only small minority, some 65,000, earn 
wages 

Organized labor: 35% of wage earners 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Sierra Leone 

Type: republic under presidential regime 
since April 1971 

Capital: Freetown 

Political subdivisions: 3 provinces and the 
Western Area; divided into 12 districts with 
146 chiefdoms, where paramount chief and 
council of elders constitute basic unit of gov- 
ernment; plus Western Area, which com- 
prises Freetown and other coastal areas of 
the former colony 

Legal system: based on English law and cus- 
tomary laws indigenous to local tribes; con- 
stitution adopted 1978; highest court of ap- 
peal is the Sierra Leone Court of Appeals; 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdic- 
tion 

National holiday: Republic Day, 19 April 

Branches: executive authority exercised by 
President; unicameral parliament consists of 
104 authorized seats, 85 of which are filled 
by elected representatives of constituencies 
and 12 by Paramount Chiefs elected by fel- 
low Paramount Chiefs in each district; Presi- 
dent authorized to appoint up to seven 
members; independent judiciary 

Government leader: Gen. Joseph MOMOH, 
President (since 28 November 1985); Francis 
MINAH, First Vice President (since Novem- 
ber 1985); A. B. KARMARA, Second Vice 
President (since November 1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: the Constitution of Sierra Leone 
Act, 1971, has been replaced by the Consti- 
tution of Sierra Leone, 1978, which provides 
for one-party rule 



Political parties and leaders: All People's 
Congress (APC), headed by Momoh 

Communisms: no party, although there are a 
few Communists and a slightly larger num- 
ber of sympathizers 

Member of: AfDB, AIOEC, Common- 
wealth, EGA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IDE Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, 
IRC, ITU, Mano River Union, NAM, OAU, 
QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GDP: (current factor cost) $1 billion. 

(1983/84 est); real growth rate 0.5% 

(1983/84) 

Natural resources: diamonds, rutile, baux- 
ite, iron ore, gold, chromite 

Agriculture: main crops palm kernels, 
coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, millet, ginger, cas- 
sava; much of cultivated land devoted to 
subsistence farming; food crops insufficient 
for domestic consumption 

Fishing: catch 53,000 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: mining diamonds, iron 
ore, bauxite, rutile; manufacturing bever- 
ages, textiles, cigarettes, construction goods; 
1 oil refinery 

Electric power: 65,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1 13 million kWh produced (1985), 29 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $104 million (f.o.b., 1983/84); dia- 
monds, iron ore, palm kernels, cocoa, coffee 

Imports: $126 million (f.o.b., 1983/84); ma- 
chinery and transportation equipment, 
manufactured goods, foodstuffs, petroleum 
products 

Major trade partners: UK, EC, US, Japan, 
Communist countries 

Budget: (1983/84) revenues, $109 million; 
current expenditures, $146 million; develop- 
ment expenditures, $68 million 



Monetary conversion rate: (official) 2.5 
leones=US$l (October 1983) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: about 84 km 1.067-meter narrow 
gauge privately owned mineral line oper- 
ated by the Sierra Leone Development 
Company 

Highways: 7,460 km total; 1,225 km bitumi- 
nous, 490 km laterite (some gravel), re- 
mainder improved earth 

Inland waterways: 800 km; 600 km naviga- 
ble year round 

Ports: 1 major (Freetown), 2 minor 
Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 14 total, 1 1 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair telephone and 
telegraph service; 16,000 telephones (0.5 per 
lOOpopl.); 1 INTELSAT Atlantic Ocean 
satellite ground station; 3 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV 
stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 876,000; 
425,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 






220 



Singapore 




Singapore Strait 



Sff rpfionil mip l\ 



Land 

618 km 2 ; smaller than New York City; 31% 
built on, roads, railroads, and airfields; 22% 
agricultural; 47% other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(fishing, as defined by treaties and practices) 

Coos*/ine:193km 

People 

Population: 2,584,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.1% 

Nationality: noun Singaporean(s), adjec- 
tive Singapore 

Ethnic divisions: 76.4% Chinese, 14.9% 
Malay, 6.4% Indian, 2.3% other 

Religion: majority of Chinese are Buddhists 
or atheists; Malays nearly all Muslim; minor- 
ities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, 
Taoists, Conf ucianists 

Language: Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and 
English (official); Malay (national) 

Infant mortality rate: 9.4/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 69, women 74 
Literacy: 84.2% 

Labor force: 1,174,827 (June 1984); 29.2% 
services, 27.4% manufacturing, 22.6% trade, 



10.4% transport and communication, 8.5% 
construction, 0.8% agriculture and fishing; 
2.7% unemployment (June 1984) 

Organized labor: 18.6% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Singapore 

Type: republic within Commonwealth 
Capital: Singapore 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution based on preindependence 
State of Singapore constitution; legal educa- 
tion at University of Singapore; has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: 9 August 

Branches: ceremonial President; executive 
power exercised by Prime Minister and Cab- 
inet responsible to unicameral legislature 
(Parliament) 

Government leaders: WEE Kim Wee, Presi- 
dent (since September 1985); LEE Kuan 
Yew, Prime Minister (since June 1959) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
20 

Elections: normally held every five years; 
last held 1984 

Political parties and leaders: government 
People's Action Party (PAP), Lee Kuan Yew; 
opposition Barisan Sosialis (BS), Dr. Lee 
Siew Choh; Workers' Party (WP), J. B. 
Jeyaretnam; United People's Front (UPF), 
Harbans Singh; Singapore Democratic Party 
(SDP), Chiam See Tong; Communist Party 
illegal 

Voting strength: (1984 election) PAP won 
77 of 79 seats in Parliament and received 
63% of the vote; WP and SDP won one seat 
each 

Communists: 200-500; Barisan Sosialis infil- 
trated by Communists 

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Co- 
lombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, 



GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IHO, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IPU, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $17.6 billion (1984 est.), $7,000 per 

capita; 8.7% average annual real growth 

(1973-83), -1.7% (1985) 

Agriculture: occupies a position of minor 
importance in the economy, self-sufficient in 
pork (but pig farming outlawed as of 1985), 
poultry, and eggs; must import much of its 
other food requirements; major crops rub- 
ber, copra, fruit and vegetables 

Fishing: catch 22,763 metric tons (1984), 
imports 97,976 metric tons (1984), exports 
55,666 metric tons (1984) 

Major industries: petroleum refining, elec- 
tronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber pro- 
cessing and rubber products, processed food 
and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, 
financial services, biotechnology 

Electric power: 3,388,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 9.865 billion kWh produced (1985), 
3,860 kWh per capita 

Exports: $24.1 billion (f.o.b., 1984); manu- 
factured goods, petroleum, rubber, electron- 



Imports: $28.7 billion (c.i.f., 1984); major 
retained imports capital equipment, man- 
ufactured goods, petroleum 

Major trade partners: exports US, Malay- 
sia, Japan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Australia, 
FRG; imports Japan, US, Malaysia, Saudi 
Arabia 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries (1970-83), $562 million; 
US, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $575 mil- 
lion; military US (FY70-84), $2 million 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $5.4 billion; expen- 
ditures, $3.9 billion; lending minus repay- 
ment, $0.5 billion; surplus, $1.0 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.13 Singapore 
dollars=US$l (5 February 1986) 



221 



Singapore (continued) 



Solomon Islands 



Fiscal year. 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 38 km of 1.000-meter gauge 

Highways: 2,314 km total (1980); 2,006 km 
paved, 308 km crushed stone or improved 
earth 

Inland waterways: none 

Ports: 3 major, 2 minor 

Civil air: approx. 30 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 6 total, 6 usable; 6 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 2 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 1,220- 
2,439m 

Telecommunications: good domestic facili- 
ties; good international service; good radio 
and television broadcast coverage; 700,000 
telephones (26.5 per 100 popl.); 13 AM, 4 
FM, 2 TV stations; submarine cables extend 
to Hong Kong via Sabah (Malaysia), Philip- 
pines; 1 ground station to Hong Kong via 
Sabah (Malaysia); 1 ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Army 
Reserve, Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 771,000; 
604,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: announced for fiscal year 
ending 31 March 1986, $1.1 billion; about 
1 1.4% of central government budget 



~Choiseut 
' 



South 
Pacific 
Ocean 



Yandina 
HONIARA 



Santa 
Crui 

'. Islands 



Coral Sea 



See regional map X 



Land 

NOTE: This archipelagic nation includes 
the southern Solomon Islands, primarily 
Guadalcanal, Malaita, San Cristobal, Santa 
Isabel, and Choiseul; the northern Solomon 
Islands constitute part of Papua New 
Guinea. 

Land 

About 29,785 km 2 ; slightly larger than 
Maryland 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 5,313 km 

People 

Population: 283,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.5% 

Nationality: noun Solomon Islanders); 
adjective Solomon Islander 

Ethnic divisions: 93.0% Melanesian, 4.0% 
Polynesian, 1.5% Micronesian, 0.8% Euro- 
pean, 0.3% Chinese, 0.4% other 

Religion: almost all at least nominally Chris- 
tian; Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Meth- 
odist churches dominant 

Language: English (official), local languages 
Infant mortality rate: 46/1,000(1980) 



Life expectancy: 54 
Literacy: 60% 

Labor force: 20,631 economically active 
(1980); 30.0% forestry and fishing 28.2% so- 
cial services, 10.8% manufacturing, 9.6% 
commerce, 7.7% construction, 7.1% trans- 
portation and communications 

Government 

Official name: Solomon Islands 

Type: independent parliamentary state 
within Commonwealth 

Capital: Honiara on the island of 
Guadalcanal 

Political subdivisions: 4 administrative dis- 
tricts 

Legal system: a High Court plus Magistrates 
Courts; also a system of native courts 
throughout the islands 

Branches: executive authority in Governor 
General; unicameral legislature (38-member 
National Parliament) 

Government leaders: Sir Baddeley 
DEVESI, Governor General (since July 
1978); Sir Peter KENILOREA, Prime Minis- 
ter (since November 1984) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 21 

Elections: every four years; last held Octo- 
ber 1984 

Political parties and leaders: United Party, 
Sir Peter Kenilorea; People's Alliance Party, 
Solomon Mamaloni, National Democratic 
Party, Bartholemew Ulufa'alu 

Member of: ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, 
G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, IDA, 1FAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, SPF, UN, UPU, WHO 

Economy 

GDP: $131 million (1982), $520 per capita 

Natural resources: forests, agricultural land, 
marine shell, some minerals, water 



Somalia 



Agriculture: largely dominated by coconut 
production with subsistence crops of yams, 
taro, bananas; self-sufficient in rice 

Electric power: 15,000 kW capacity (1985); 
30 million kWh produced (1985), 1 10 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $93.7 million (1984); copra, timber, 
fish 

Imports: $79.2 million (c.i.f., 1984) 

Major trade partners: exports Japan 37%, 
UK 11%, Australia 3%; imports Australia 
31%, Singapore 16%, Japan 15%, UK 9% 
(1981) 

Aid: economic commitments from Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA (1979), $13.3 mil- 
lion 

Budget: (1979) million revenues, $22.45 mil- 
lion; expenditures, $37.3 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1. 44 Australian 
dollars=US$l (6 February 1986) 

Communications 

Railroad: none 

Highways: 834 km total; 241 km sealed or 
all-weather 

Inland waterways: none 

Ports: 5 minor (including Honiara, Gizo, 
Yandina) 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 24 total, 22 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 2,000 telephones; 4 
AM, no FM, no TV stations; no TV sets; one 
ground satellite station 



300km 



Gulf of Aden 




Bakfoa / Indian Ocean 
MOGADISHU 



' Chitimayu 
See regional map VII 



Land 

637,657 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Texas; 
32% grazing; 14% scrub and forest; 13% ara- 
ble (0.3% cultivated); 41% mainly desert, 
urban, or other 

Land boundaries: 2,263 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 3,025 km 

People 

Population: 7,825,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.0% 

Nationality: noun Somali(s); adjective 
Somali 

Ethnic divisions: 85% Somali, rest mainly 
Bantu; 30,000 Arabs, 3,000 Europeans, 800 
Asians 

Religion: almost entirely Sunni Muslim 

Language: Somali (official); Arabic, Italian, 
English 

Infant mortality rate: 150/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 43.9 
Literacy: 60% 



Labor force: about 2.2 million; very few are 
skilled laborers; 70% pastoral nomad, 30% 
agriculturists, government employees, trad- 
ers, fishermen, handicraftsmen, other 

Organized labor: General Federation of 
Somali Trade Unions, a 
government-controlled organization, estab- 
lished in 1977 

Government 

Official name: Somali Democratic Republic 

Type: republic 
Capital: Mogadishu 

Political subdivisions: 18 regions, 60 dis- 
tricts 

National holiday: 21 October 

Branches: President dominates political sys- 
tem; Cabinet carries out day-to-day govern- 
ment functions; unicamera! legislature (Na- 
tional People's Assembly) exists but has little 
power 

Government leader: Maj. Gen. Mohamed 
SIAD Barre, President and Commander in 
Chief of the Army (since October 1969) 

Political party and leader: the Somali Revo- 
lutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), created on 1 
July 1976, is the sole legal party; Maj. Gen. 
Mohamed Siad Barre is general secretary of 
the SRSP 

Elections: parliamentary elections held 31 
December 1984 

Communists: probably some Communist 
sympathizers in the government hierarchy 

Member of: Af DB, Arab League, EAMA, 
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Is- 
lamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, 
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, 
NAM, OAU, QIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WFTU, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.875 million (1982 est), $380 per 
capita 



Somalia (continued) 



South Africa 



Natural resources: uranium, iron, tin, gyp- 
sum, bauxite 

Agriculture: mainly a pastoral country, rais- 
ing livestock; crops bananas, sugarcane, 
cotton, cereals 

Major industries: a few small industries, 
including sugar refining, tuna, beef canning, 
textiles, iron rod plant, and petroleum re- 
fining 

Electric power: 63,600 kW capacity (1985); 
83 million kWh produced (1985), 10 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $107 million (f.o.b., 1985 est); live- 
stock, hides, skins, bananas 

Imports: $561 million (c.i.f., 1985 est.); tex- 
tiles, cereals, transport equipment, machin- 
ery, construction materials and equipment, 
petroleum products; also military materiel 
in 1977 

Major trade partners: exports Saudi 
Arabia 65.8%, Italy 14.1% (1983); imports- 
Italy 28.1%, Saudi Arabia 15.5%, US 12% 
(1983) 

External debt: $1.5 billion (1985 est.); exter- 
nal debt service 48% of exports of goods and 
services 

Budget: (1983 est. in percent of GDP) reve- 
nues and grants, 13.9%; current expendi- 
tures, 7.2%; investment expenditures, 10% 

Monetary conversion rate: official rate 
40.6 Somali shillings=US$l; legal free mar- 
ket 100 Somali shillings=US$l (October 
1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 17,215 km total; 2,335 km bitu- 
minous surface, 2,880 km gravel, and 12,000 
km improved earth or stabilized soil 

Pipelines: 15 km crude oil 



Ports: 3 major (Mogadishu, Berbera, 
Chisimayu) 

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 63 total, 49 usable; 6 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 5 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m; 19 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: poor telephone and 
telegraph service; radio-relay system cen- 
tered on Mogadishu connects a few towns; 
6,000 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 1 Indian 
Ocean satellite station; 2 AM, no FM sta- 
tions; 1 TV station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Somali National Army (including 
Navy, Air Force, and Air Defense Force), 
National Police Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,528,000; 
825,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 




Cpe Town 



Srr regional map VII 



London 
Elizabeth 



Indian Ocean 



Land 

1 ,22 1 ,037 km 2 (includes excla ve of Wai vis 
Bay, 1,124 km 2 ; Transkei, 44,000 km 2 , and 
Bophuthatswana, 38,000 km 2 ); four-fifths 
the size of Alaska; 86% desert, waste, or ur- 
ban; 12% cultivable; 2% forest 

Land boundaries: 2,044 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm fishing zone) 

Coastline: 2,881 km, including Transkei 

People 

Population: 33,241,000 (July 1986), includ- 
ing Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Kwazulu, 
Lebowa, Transkei, and Venda; average an- 
nual growth rate 2.4%; Bophuthatswana 
1,688,000 (July 1986), average annual 
growth rate 3.9%; Ciskei 781,000 (July 1986), 
average annual growth rate 2.3%; Kwazulu 
4,554,000 (July 1986), average annual 
growth rate 4.6%; Lebowa 2,310,000 (July 
1986), average annual growth rate 4.5%; 
Transkei 3,063,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 3.4%; Venda 423,000 (July 
1986), average annual growth rate 2.7% 

Nationality: noun South African(s); adjec- 
tive South African 

Ethnic divisions: 69.9% African, 17.8% 
white, 9.4% colored, 2.9% Indian 



224 



Religion: most whites and coloreds and 
roughly 60% of Africans are Christian; 
roughly 60% of Indians are Hindu, 20% 
Muslim 

Language: Afrikaans, English (official); Afri- 
cans have many vernacular languages, in- 
cluding Zulu, Xhosa, North and South Sotho, 
Tswana 

Infant mortality rate: whites 14.9/1,000 
(1982), coloreds 80.6/1,000 (1982), blacks 
80.6/1,000(1982), Asians 25.3/1,000(1982), 
Africans unknown 

Life expectancy: whites 70, coloreds 59, 
blacks 59, Asians 66, Africans 55 

Literacy: almost all white population liter- 
ate; government estimates 50% of Africans 
literate 

Labor force: 11 million economically active 
(1985); 34% services, 30% agriculture, 29% 
industry and commerce, 7% mining 

Organized labor: about 7% of total labor 
force is unionized (mostly white workers); 
African unions represent less than 15% of 
black labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of South Africa 

Type: republic 

Capital: administrative, Pretoria; legislative, 
Cape Town; judicial, Bloemfontein 

Political subdivisions: 4 provinces, each 
headed by centrally appointed administra- 
tor; provincial councils, elected by white 
electorate, retain limited powers; numerous 
districts; 10 homelands' administered in 
areas set aside for black Africans 

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law 
and English common law; constitution en- 
acted 1961, changing the Union of South 
Africa into a republic; accepts compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: Republic Day, 31 May 



Branches: state president is chief of state, 
head of government, and chairman of cabi- 
net; tricameral legislature House of As- 
sembly (whites), House of Representatives 
(coloreds), and House of Delegates (Indians) 
elected directly by respective racial elector- 
ates; judiciary maintains substantial inde- 
pendence of government influence 

Government leaders: Pieter Willem 
BOTHA, State President (since September 
1984) 

Suffrage: general suffrage limited to whites 
over 18 (17 in Natal Province) and to 
coloreds and Indians over 18 

Elections: must be held at least every five 
years; last white election April 1981; last 
colored and Indian elections August 1984; 
because of the introduction of a new consti- 
tution in 1984, the next white elections prob- 
ably will be delayed until 1989 to coincide 
with nonwhite elections 

White political parties and leaders: Na- 
tional Party, P. W. Botha; Progressive Fed- 
eral Party, Colin Eglin; New Republic Party, 
Bill Sutton; Conservative Party, Dr. Andries 
P. Treurnicht; Herstigte National Party, 
Jaap Marais 

Colored political parties and leaders: Labor 
Party, Allan Hendrickse (majority party); 
People's Congress Party, Peter Marais 

Indian political parties and leaders: Na- 
tional People's Party, Amichand Rajbansi 
(majority party); Solidarity, J. N. Reddy 

Voting strength: white parliamentary 
seats National Party, 127; Progressive Fed- 
eral Party, 27; Conservative Party, 18; New 
Republic, 5; Herstigte National Party, 1 

Communists: small Communist Party illegal 
since 1950; party in exile maintains head- 
quarters in London; Joe Slovo 

Other political groups: (insurgent groups in 
exile) African National Congress (ANC), 
Oliver Tambo; Pan-Af ricanist Congress 
(PAC), Johnson Mlambo 



Member of: GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, 
IDA, IFC, IHO, International Lead and 
Zinc Study Group, IMF, INTELSAT, ISO, 
ITU, IWC International Whaling Com- 
mission, IWC International Wheat Coun- 
cil, UN, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WSG (membership rights in IAEA, 
ICAO, ITU, WHO, WIPO, and WMO sus- 
pended or restricted) 

Economy 

GDP: $73 billion (1984), about $2,500 per 

capita; 4.5% real growth in 1984 

Natural resources: gold, chromium, anti- 
mony, coal, iron, manganese, nickel, phos- 
phates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, plati- 
num, copper, vanadium 

Agriculture: main crops corn, wool, 
wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, citrus fruits; 
dairy products; self-sufficient in foodstuffs 

Fishing: catch 599,897 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: mining, automobile as- 
sembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, 
iron and steel, chemical, fertilizer 

Electric power: 26,150,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 137.444 billion kWh produced 
(1985), 4,233 kWh per capita 

Exports: $19.6 billion (f.o.b., 1984, including 
gold); gold, coal, diamonds, corn, uranium, 
other mineral and agricultural products; net 
gold output $8.1 billion (1984) 

Imports: $14.9 billion (f.o.b., 1984); machin- 
ery, motor vehicle parts, petroleum prod- 
ucts, textiles, chemicals 

Major trade partners: US, FRG, Japan, UK; 
member of Southern African Customs 
Union 

Budget: (FY1984/85) revenues, $16.4 bil- 
lion; current expenditures, $18.8 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.3 South Afri- 
can rand=US$l (29 January 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 



225 



South Africa (continued) 



Soviet Union 



Communications 

Railroads: 36,499 km total (includes Nam- 
ibia); 35,793 km 1.067-meter gauge, of 
which 6,830 km are multiple track, 16,271 
km electrified; 706 km single track 

Highways: 229,690 km total; 80,796 km 
paved, 148,894 km crushed stone, gravel, or 
improved earth 

Pipelines: 931 km crude oil; 1,748 km re- 
fined products; 322 km natural gas 

Ports: 1 major (Durban, Cape Town, Port 
Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha Bay, East 
London, and Mosselbaai) 

Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 922 total, 829 usable; 112 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 10 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 207 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: the system is the best 
developed, most modern, and highest capac- 
ity in Africa and consists of carrier-equipped 
open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio-relay 
links, and radiocommunication stations; key 
centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, 
Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and 
Pretoria; 3.47 million telephones (13.4 per 
100 popl.); 14 AM, 286 FM, 67 main TV sta- 
tions with 450 relay transmitters; 1 subma- 
rine cable; 1 satellite station with 1 Indian 
Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean antennas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Medical 

Services 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,917,000; 
4,770,000 fit for military service; 286,000 
reach military age (18) annually; obligation 
for service in Citizen Force or Commandos 
begins at 18; volunteers for service in perma- 
nent force must be 17; national service obli- 
gation is two years; figures do not include 
Bophuthatswana. Transkei, and Venda 



2000km 



Mun 



Arctic Ocean 




Sff regional map VIII 



NOTE: The US Government does .not rec- 
ognize the incorporation of the Baltic 
States Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into 
the Soviet Union. 

Land 

22,402,200 km 2 ; nearly two and one-half 
times the size of the US; 35.5% forest, 16.7% 
pasture and hay, 10. 1 % cultivated, 37.7% 
other 

Land boundaries: 20,619 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 46,670 km (incl. Sakhalin) 

People 

Population: 279,904,000 (July 1986), aver- 
age annual growth rate 0.9% 

Nationality: noun Soviet(s); adjective 
Soviet 

Ethnic divisions: 52% Russian, 16% Ukrai- 
nian, 32% among over 100 other ethnic 
groups, according to 1979 census 

Religion: 18% Russian Orthodox; 9% Mus- 
lim; 3% Jewish, Protestant, Georgian Ortho- 
dox, or Roman Catholic; population is 70% 
atheist 



Language: Russian (official); more than 200 
languages and dialects (at least 18 with more 
than 1 million speakers); 75% Slavic group, 
8% other Indo-European, 12% Altaic, 3% 
Uralian, 2% Caucasian 

Infant mortality rate: 27.9/1,000(1982) 
Life expectancy: men 64, women 74 
Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: civilian 148 million (midyear 
1984), 20% agriculture, 80% industry and 
other nonagricultural fields; unemployed 
not reported; shortage of skilled labor re- 
ported 

Government 

Official name: Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics 

Type: Communist state 
Capital: Moscow 

Political subdivisions: 15 union republics, 
consisting of 20 autonomous republics, 6 
krays, 123 oblasts, 8 autonomous oblasts, and 
10 autonomous okrugs 

Legal system: civil law system as modified 
by Communist legal theory; revised consti- 
tution adopted 1977; no judicial review of 
legislative acts; legal education at 18 univer- 
sities and 4 law institutes; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: October Revolution Day, 
7 November 

Branches: executive USSR Council of 
Ministers, legislative USSR Supreme So- 
viet, judicial Supreme Court of USSR 

Government leaders: Mikhail Sergeyevich 
GORBACHEV, General Secretary of the 
Central Committee of the Communist Party 
(since 11 March 1985); Nikolay Ivanovich 
RYZHKOV, Chairman of the USSR Council 
of Ministers (since 28 September 1985); 
Andrey Andreyevich GROMYKO, Presi- 
dent of the Soviet Union (since 2 July 1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18; direct, equal 



226 






Elections: to Supreme Soviet every five 
years; 1,500 seats in 1984; 71.5% held by 
party members 

Political party: Communist Party of the So- 
viet Union (CPSU) only party permitted 

Voting strength: (1984 election) 184,006,350 
persons over 18; allegedly 99.95% voted 

Communists: over 18 million party mem- 
bers 

Other political or pressure groups: 
Komsomol, trade unions, and other organi- 
zations that facilitate Communist control 

Member of: CEMA, ESCAP, Geneva Disar- 
mament Conference, IAEA, IBEC, ICAC, 
ICAO, ICCAT, ICCO, ICES, ILO, IMO, 
International Lead and Zinc Study Group, 
INRO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC Interna- 
tional Whaling Commission, IWC Inter- 
national Wheat Council, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $1,957.6 billion (1984, in 1984 geo- 
metric mean prices), $7,120 per capita; in 
1984 percentage shares were 53% con- 
sumption, 30% investment, 17% government 
and other, including defense (based on 1970 
GNP in rubles at adjusted factor cost); aver- 
age annual growth rate of real GNP 
(1971-84), 3.0%, average annual growth rate 
(1976-84), 2.6%, (1984) 2.5% 

Natural resources: fossil fuels, hydroelectric 
power, timber, manganese, lead, zinc, 
nickel, mercury, potash, phosphates 

Agriculture: principal food crops grain 
(especially wheat), potatoes; main industrial 
crops sugar beets, cotton, sunflowers, and 
flax; degree of self-sufficiency depends on 
fluctuations in crop yields, particularly 
grain; large grain importer over past decade 

Fishing: catch 10.6 million metric tons 
(1984); exports 452,755 metric tons (1983), 
imports 371,237 metric tons (1984); exports 
exclude canned fish, canned crab, and caviar 



Major industries: diversified, highly devel- 
oped capital goods industries; consumer 
goods industries comparatively less devel- 
oped 

Shortages: fertilizer, pesticides, feed, natu- 
ral rubber, bauxite and alumina, tantalum, 
tin, tungsten, fluorspar, molybdenum, and 
finished steel products 

Crude steel: 174 million metric ton capacity 
as of 1 January 1985; 154.2 million metric 
tons produced in 1984, 560 kg per capita 

Electric power: 316,000,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 1,540 billion kWh produced (1985), 
5,549 kWh per capita 

Exports: $91.492 billion (f.o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum and petroleum products, natural gas, 
metals, wood, agricultural products, and a 
wide variety of manufactured goods (pri- 
marily capital goods and arms) 

Imports: $80,352 billion (f.o.b., 1984); grain 
and other agricultural products, machinery 
and equipment, steel products (including 
large diameter pipe), consumer manufac- 
tures 

Major trade partners: $171.8 billion (1984 
total turnover); trade 58% with Communist 
countries, 29% with industrialized West, and 
13% with less developed countries 

Aid: economic total extended to 
non-Communist less developed countries 
(1954-84), $30 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: official, 0.743 
ruble=US$l (1983 average) 

Communications 

Railroads: 144,100 km total; 142,967 km 
1.524-meter broad gauge; 1,833 km mostly 
0.750-meter narrow gauge; 113,315 km 
broad-gauge single track; 47,900 km electri- 
fied; does not include industrial lines (1984) 

Highways: 1,516,700 km total; 439,000 km 
asphalt, concrete, stone block; 354,000 km 
asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 
723,700 km earth (1984) 



Inland waterways: 136,700km navigable, 
exclusive of Caspian Sea (1984) 

Freight carried: rail 3,909 million metric 
tons, 3.64 trillion metric ton/km (1984); 
highways 25.9 billion metric tons, 477 bil- 
lion metric ton/km (1984); waterway 619 
million metric tons, 265 billion metric 
ton/km, excluding Caspian Sea (1984) 

Pipelines: 78,300 km crude oil and refined 
products; 165,000 km natural gas (1984) 

Ports: 53 major (most important Lenin- 
grad, Riga, Tallinn, Kaliningrad, Liepaja, 
Ventspils, Murmansk, Arkhangel'sk, Odessa, 
Novorossiysk, Il'ichevsk, Nikolayev, 
Sevastopol', Vladivostok, Nakhodka); over 
180 selected minor; 58 major inland ports 
(some of the more important Astrakhan', 
Baku, Gor'kiy, Kazan, Khabarovsk, 
Krasnoyarsk, Kuybyshev, Moscow, Rostov, 
Volgograd, Kiev (1984) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air De- 
fense Forces, Air Forces, Strategic Rocket 
Forces 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
68,559,000; 55,173,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; 2,096,000 reach military age (17) annu- 
ally 



227 



Spain 



300km 



Bay at Biscay 




North 

Atlantic 

Ocean Strait of 

Gibraltar 

Stt r< |lon>l map V intf VII 



Mediterranean 
Sea 



Canary Islands. Ceula. 
and Melilla are nol shown 



Land 

504,782 km 2 , including Canary (7,51 1 km 2 ) 
and Balearic (5,025 km 2 ) Islands; the size of 
Arizona and Utah combined; 41% arable 
and crop, 27% meadow and pasture, 22% 
forest, 10% urban or other 

Land boundaries: 1,899 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 4,964 km (includes Balearic Is- 
lands, 677 km, and Canary Islands, 1,158 
km) 

People 

Population: 39,075,000 (July 1986), includ- 
ing the Balearic and Canary Islands and 
Ceuta and Melilla (two towns on the Moroc- 
can coast); average annual growth rate 0.6% 

Nationality: noun Spaniard(s); adjective 
Spanish 

Ethnic divisions: composite of Mediterra- 
nean and Nordic types 

Religion: 99% Roman Catholic, 1% other 
sects 

Language: Castilian Spanish; second lan- 
guages include 17% Catalan, 7% Calician, 
and 2% Basque 

Infant mortality rate: 10.3/1,000(1982) 



Life expectancy: men 73, women 78 
Literacy: 97% 

Labor force: 13.3 million (1985); 44.3% ser- 
vices, 22.9% industry, 15.3% agriculture, 
8.6% construction, 8.8% other; unemploy- 
ment now estimated at nearly 21.9% of labor 
force (June 1985) 

Organized labor: labor unions legalized 
April 1977; represent no more than a quar- 
ter of the labor force (1983) 



Government 

Official name: Spanish State 

Type: parliamentary monarchy defined by 
new constitution of December 1978, that 
completed transition from authoritarian 
regime of the late Generalissimo Franco and 
confirmed Juan Carlos I as monarch, but 
without the exceptional powers inherited 
from Franco on being proclaimed King 22 
November 1975 

Capital: Madrid 

Political subdivisions: metropolitan Spain, 
including the Canaries and Balearics, di- 
vided into 50 provinces, which form 17 au- 
tonomous regions assuming numerous pow- 
ers previously exercised by the central gov- 
ernment; also five places of sovereignty 
(presidios) on the Mediterranean roast of 
Morocco; transferred administration of 
Spanish Sahara to Morocco and Mauritania 
on 26 February 1976 

Legal system: civil law system, with regional 
applications; new constitution provides for 
rule of law, established jury system as well as 
independent constitutional court to rule on 
unconstitutionality of laws and to serve as 
court of last resort in protecting liberties and 
rights granted in constitution; does not ac- 
cept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: 24 June 

Branches: executive, with King's acts subject 
to countersignature, Prime Minister 
(Presidente) and his ministers responsible to 
lower house; bicameral legislature Cortes 



Generates, consisting of more powerful Con- 
gress of Deputies (350 members) and Senate 
(208 members), with possible addition of one 
to six members from each new autonomous 
region; judiciary, independent 

Government leaders: JUAN CARLOS I, 
King (since November 1975); Felipe 
GONZALEZ Marquez, Prime Minister 
(Presidente; since December 1982) 

Suffrage: universal at age 18 

Elections: parliamentary election 28 Octo- 
ber 1982 for four-year term; local elections 
for municipal and provincal councils April 
1983; regional elections staggered 

Political parties and leaders: principal na- 
tional parties, from right to left Popular 
Alliance (AP), Manuel Fraga Iribarne; Popu- 
lar Democratic Party (PDF), Oscar Alzaga; 
Liberal Union (UL), Jose Antonio Segurado; 
Social Democratic Center (CDS), Adolfo 
Suarez; Spanish Socialist Workers Party 
(PSOE), Felipe Gonzalez Marquez; Spanish 
Communist Party (PCE), Gerardo Iglesias; 
chief regional parties Convergence and 
Unity (CiU), Jordi Pujol, in Catalonia; Re- 
publican Left of Catalonia (ERG), Herribert 
Barrera; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), 
Xabier Arzallus; Basque radical coalitions 
Popular Unity (HB) and Basque Left (EE) 
Juan Haria Bandres; Andalusian Party (PA), 
Luis Urufiuela; Democratic Reform Party 
(PRO), Antonio Garrigues Walker 

Voting strength: (1982 parliamentary elec- 
tion in lower house) PSOE 46%, and 202 
seats (26 seats over a majority); AP, POP, and 
UL in coalition 25.4%, 106 seats; UCD 
7.31%, 12 seats; PCE 3.9%, 4 seats; CiU 
3.7%, 12 seats; CDS 2.9%, 2 seats; PNV 1.9%, 
8 seats; HB 1%, 2 seats; EE .47%, 1 seat; ERG 
.47%, 1 seat; PA .33% seats 

Communists: PCE membership has 
declined from a possible high of 160,000 in 
1977 to roughly 60,000 today; the party lost 
64% of its voters and 20 deputies in the 1982 
election; remaining strength is in labor, 
where it dominates the Workers Commis- 
sions trade union (one of the country's two 



major labor centrals), which claims a mem- 
bership of about 1 million; experienced a 
modest recovery in 1983 municipal election, 
receiving 8% of the vote 

Other political or pressure groups: on the 
extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and 
Liberty (ETA) and the First of October Anti- 
fascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) use ter- 
rorism to oppose the government; free labor 
unions (authorized in April 1977) include the 
Communist-dominated Workers Commis- 
sions (CCOO); the Socialist General Union of 
Workers (UGT), and the smaller indepen- 
dent Workers Syndical Union (USO); the 
Catholic Church; business and landowning 
interests; Opus Dei; university students 

Member of: Andean Pact (observer), 
ASSIMER, Council of Europe, EC, ESRO, 
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 
ICES, ICO, IDA, IDE Inter-American 
Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, International 
Lead and Zinc Study Group, INTERPOL, 
IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC International 
Wheat Council, NATO, OAS (observer), 
OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $160.4 billion (1984); 68% private con- 
sumption, 12% government consumption, 
18% gross fixed capital investment; 3% 
change in stocks; 3% net exports; real growth 
rate 2.2% (1984) 

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, 
uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gyp- 
sum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, 
hydroelectric power 

Agriculture: main crops grains, vegeta- 
bles, fruits; virtually self-sufficient in good 
crop years 

Fishing: catch, 1,123,100 metric tons (1984) 

Major industries: textiles and apparel (in- 
cluding footwear), food and beverages, met- 
als and metal manufactures, chemicals, ship- 
building, automobiles 

Crude steel: 13.5 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 348 kg per capita 



Electric power: 38,490,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 122.644 billion kWh produced 
(1985), 3,160 kWh per capita 

Exports: $23.6 billion (f.o.b., 1984); principal 
items iron and steel products, machinery, 
automobiles, fruits and vegetables, textiles, 
footwear 

Imports: $28.8 billion (c.i.f., 1984); principal 
items fuels (40%), machinery, chemicals, 
iron and steel, vegetables, automobiles 

Major trade partners: (1984) 49% EC, 24% 
less developed countries, 12% other devel- 
oped countries, 10% US, 4% Communist 
countries 

Aid: economic commitments US authori- 
zations, $1.9 billion, including Ex-Im (FY70- 
84); other Western bilateral (ODA and 
OOF), $545.0 million (1970-79); military 
authorizations US (FY70-84), $2.0 billion 

Budget: (1984 central government) reve- 
nues, $59 billion; expenditures, $70 billion; 
deficit, $11 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 161.65 pesetas= 
US $1 (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 16,295 km total; Spanish National 
Railways (RENFE) operates 13,556 km 
1.668-meter gauge, 6,156 km electrified, and 
2,295 km double track; FEVE (government- 
owned narrow-gauge railways) operates 
1,821 km of predominantly 1.000-meter 
gauge and 441 km electrified; privately 
owned railways operate 918 km of predomi- 
nantly 1.000-meter gauge, 512 km electri- 
fied, and 56 km double track 

Highways: 150,306 km total; 82,070 km na- 
tional 2,433 km limited-access divided high- 
way, 63,042 km bituminous treated, 17,038 
km intermediate bituminous, concrete, or 
stone block; the remaining 68,326 km are 
provincial or local roads (bituminous 
treated, intermediate bituminous, or stone 
block) 



Inland waterways: 1,045 km; of minor im- 
portance as transport arteries and contribute 
little to economy 

Pipelines: 265 km crude oil; 1,862 km re- 
fined products; 1,130 km natural gas 

Ports: 23 major, 175 minor 

Civil air: 142 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: (including Balearic and Canary 
Islands) 1 18 total, 114 usable; 61 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 21 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 32 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: generally adequate, 
modern facilities; 13.8 million telephones 
(34.5 per 100 popl.); 180 AM, 391 FM, 1,378 
TV stations; 21 coaxial submarine cables; 2 
satellite stations with total of 5 antennas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,417,000; 
7,652,000 fit for military service; 348,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $3.5 billion; 10.2% of the 
central government budget 



229 



Sri Lanka 



100 km 




SMrefionilmipVIII 



am bant ota 
Indian Ocean 



Land 

65,610 km 2 ; about one-half the size of North 
Carolina; 44% forest; 31% waste, urban, or 
other; 25% cultivated 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 1,340 km 

People 

Population: 16,638,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.8% 

Nationality: noun Sri Lankan(s); adjec- 
tive Sri Lankan 

Ethnic divisions: 74% Sinhalese; 18% Tamil; 
7% Moor; 1% Burgher, Malay, and Veddha 

Religion: 69% Buddhist, 15% Hindu, 8% 
Christian, 8% Muslim, 0.1% other 

Language: Sinhala (official); Sinhala and 
Tamil listed as national languages; Sinhala 
spoken by about 74% of population; Tamil 
spoken by about 18%; English commonly 
used in government and spoken by about 
10% of the population 

Infant mortality rate: 37/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: 68 
Literacy: 87% 



Labor force: 6.4 million (1984 est); 45.9% 
agriculture, 13.3% mining and manufactur- 
ing, 12.4% trade and transport, 26.3% ser- 
vices and other; extensive underemploy- 
ment; 12% unemployment (1984) 

Organized labor: about 33% of labor force, 
over 50% of which employed on tea, rubber, 
and coconut estates 

Government 

Official name: Democratic Socialist Repub- 
lic of Sri Lanka 

Type: independent state since 1948 
Capital: Colombo 

Political subdivisions: 9 provinces, 24 ad- 
ministrative districts 

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of 
English common law, Roman-Dutch, Mus- 
lim, and customary law; new constitution 7 
September 1978 reinstituted a strong, inde- 
pendent judiciary; legal education at Sri 
Lanka Law College and University of 
Colombo; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 
May 

Branches: the 1978 constitution established 
a strong presidential form of government 
under J. R. Jayewardene, who haa been 
Prime Minister since his party's election vic- 
tory in July 1977; Jayewardene was elected 
to a second term in October 1982 and will 
serve until 1989 regardless of whether Par- 
liament is dissolved; the current Parliament 
was extended until August 1989 by a na- 
tional referendum held in December 1982 

Government leader: Junius Richard 
JAYEWARDENE, President (since 1978) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: national elections ordinarily held 
every six years; must be held more 
frequently if government loses confidence 
vote; the constitution was amended in Au- 
gust 1982 to permit the President to call an 
early presidential election 



Political parties and leaders: Sri Lanka 
Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo Ratwatte 
Dias Bandaranaike; Sri Lanka Mahajana 
Party, Vijaya Kumaratunga; Lanka Sama 
Samaja Party (LSSP; Trotskyite), C. R. de 
Silva; Nava Sama Samaja Party (NSSP), V. 
Nanayakkara; Tamil United Liberation 
Front, A. Amirthalingam; United National 
Party (UNP), J. R. Jayewardene; Communist 
Party/Moscow, K. P. Silva; Communist 
Party/Peking, N. Shanmugathasan; 
Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (People's 
United Front), M. B. Ratnayaka; Janatha 
Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP; People's Libera- 
tion Front), Rohana Wijeweera; All-Ceylon 
Tamil Congress, Kumar Ponnambalam 

Voting strength: (October 1982 presidential 
election) UNP 52.91 %,SLFP 39.07%, JVP 
4.18%, All Ceylon Tamil Congress 2.67%, 
LSSP .9%, NSSP .27% 

Communists: approximately 107,000 voted 
for the Communist Party in the July 1977 
general election; Communist Party/Moscow 
approximately 5,000 members (1975), Com- 
munist Party/Peking 1,000 members (1970 
est.) 

Other political or pressure groups: Tamil 
separatist groups, Buddhist clergy, Sinhalese 
Buddhist lay groups; far-left violent revolu- 
tionary groups; labor unions 

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, Colombo Plan, 
Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, 
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, 
SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $6.0 billion (1984), $380 per capita; 

real growth rate 5% (1984) 

Natural resources: limestone, graphite, min- 
eral sands, gems, phosphates 

Agriculture: agriculture accounts for about 
25% of GDP; main crops rice, rubber, tea, 
coconuts 

Fishing: catch 170,000 metric tons (1984 

est.) 



230 



Sudan 



Major industries: processing of rubber, tea, 
coconuts, and other agricultural commodi- 
ties; consumer goods manufacture; garment 
industry 

Electric power: 972,000 kW capacity (1985); 
2.352 billion kWh produced (1985), 145 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1984); tea, rub- 
ber, petroleum products, textiles, coconuts 

Imports: $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1984); petro- 
leum, machinery, transport equipment, 
sugar, textiles and textile materials 

Major trade partners: (1984) exports US, 
Iraq, UK, UAR, FRG, Singapore, Japan; im- 
ports Japan, Saudi Arabia, US, India, Singa- 
pore, FRG, UK, Iran 

Budget: (1984) revenues, $1.3 billion; expen- 
ditures, $1.8 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 27.4 
rupees=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 January-31 December 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,868 km total (1985); all 1.868- 
meter broad gauge; 102 km double track; no 
electrification; government owned 

Highways: 66,176 km total (1985); 24,300 
km paved (mostly bituminous treated), 
28,916 km crushed stone or gravel, 12,960 
km improved earth or unimproved earth; in 
addition, several thousand km of tracks, 
mostly unmotorable 

Inland waterways: 430 km; navigable by 
shallow-draft craft 

Pipelines: crude, 14 km; refined products, 
55km 

Ports: 3 major, 9 minor 

Civil air: 8 major transport (including 1 
leased) 



Airfields: 14 total, 12 usable; 11 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 7 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: good international 
service; 75,000 (est.) telephones (0.5 per 100 
popl.); 16 AM, 2 FM stations; 1 TV station; 
submarine cables extend to India; 1 ground 
satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Police 
Force, Special Police Task Force, National 
Auxiliary Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,416,000; 
3,468,000 fit for military service; 193,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1986, $256 million, 9% of central 
government estimated budget 




Set regional mip VII 



Land 

2,505,813 km 2 ; over one-fourth the size of 
the US; 37% arable (3% cultivated); 33% 
desert, waste, or urban; 15% grazing; 15% 
forest 

Land boundaries: 7,805 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
12 nm 

Coastline: 853 km 

People 

Population: 22,932,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.2% 

Nationality: noun Sudanese (sing, and pi.); 
adjective Sudanese 

Ethnic divisions: 52% black, 39% Arab, 6% 
Beja, 2% foreigners, 1 % other 

Religion: 70% Sunni Muslim in north, 20% 
indigenous beliefs, 5% Christian (mostly in 
south) 

Language: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta 
Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo- 
Hamitic, and Sudanic languages, English; 
program of Arabization in process 

Infant mortality rate: 1 18.9/1,000 (1985) 
Life expectancy: 47 



231 



Sudan (continued) 



Literacy: 20% 

Labor force: 6.086 million (1982); roughly 
78.4% agriculture, 9.8% industry and com- 
merce, 6.0% government; labor shortages for 
almost all categories of employment coexist 
with urban unemployment 

Government 

Official name: Republic of the Sudan 

Type: republic under an interim military 
regime since coup on 6 April 1985 

Capital: Khartoum 

Political subdivisions: 9 regions 

Legal system: based on English common 
law and Islamic law; in September 1983 
President Nimeiri declared the penal code 
would conform to Islamic law; some sepa- 
rate religious courts; interim constitution 
promulgated August 1985; legal education at 
University of Khartoum and extension of 
Cairo University at Khartoum; accepts com- 
pulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: 1 January, Independence 
Day 

Branches: Transitional Military Council and 
Provisional Civilian Cabinet; regional mili- 
tary governors 

Government leader: Gen. Abdel Rahman 
SUWAR EL DAHAB, Chairman, Transi- 
tional Military Council (since April 1985); 
Dr. El Gizouli DAFALLA, Prime Minister 
(since April 1985) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: elections scheduled in April 1986 
to select representation to a Constituent As- 
sembly that will draft a new constitution in 
one year and thereafter turn itself into a par- 
liament to serve for three years 

Political parties and leaders: following coup 
in April 1985, more than 30 different politi- 
cal parties declared; most significant include 
the Umma Party (Ansar Muslim Sect), the 
Democratic Unionist Party (Khatmiyyah 



Muslim Sect), the rightist Islamic fundamen- 
talist National Islamic Front (Muslim Broth- 
erhood), the Sudanese Communist Party, 
and the B'ath Party; major southern parties 
include the Sudan African Congress and the 
Southern Sudanese Political Association 

Member of: AfDB, APC, Arab League, 
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 
IDA, IDE Islamic Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, QIC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $7.31 billion at current prices (FY84), 

$350 per capita at current prices (FY83) 

Natural resources: modest reserves of oil, 
iron ore, copper, chrome, and other indus- 
trial minerals 

Agriculture: main crops sorghum, millet, 
wheat, sesame, peanuts, beans, barley; not 
self-sufficient in food production; main cash 
crops cotton, gum arable, peanuts, sesame 

Major industries: cotton ginning, textiles, 
brewery, cement, edible oils, soap, distilling, 
shoes, Pharmaceuticals 

Electric power: 542,700 kW capacity (1985); 
1.188 billion kWh produced (1985), 54 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $409 million (f.o.b., 1984); cotton 
(31%), gum arabic, peanuts, sesame; $40 mil- 
lion exports to Communist countries (FY82) 

Imports: $465.7 million (c.i.f., 1984); tex- 
tiles, petroleum products, foodstuffs, trans- 
port equipment, manufactured goods 

Major trade partners: UK, FRG, Italy, US, 
Saudi Arabia, France, Egypt, Japan 

Budget: (FY84) public revenue $551 million, 
total expenditures $829 million, including 
development expenditure of $203 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 2.45 Sudanese 
pounds=US$l (December 1985) official; 
3.70 Sudanese pounds=US$l free market 
(December 1985) 



Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 5,516 km total; 4,800 km 1.067- 
meter gauge, 716 km 1.6096-meter gauge 
plantation line 

Highways: 20,000 km total; 2,000 km bitu- 
minous treated, 4,000 km gravel, 2,304 km 
improved earth; remainder unimproved 
earth and track 

Inland waterways: 5,310 km navigable 
Pipelines: refined products, 815 km 
Ports: 1 major (Port Sudan) 
Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 89 total, 77 usable; 9 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 29 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: large system by Afri- 
can standards, but barely adequate; consists 
of radio relay, cables, radio communica- 
tions, and troposcatter; domestic satellite 
system with 14 stations; 68,500 telephones 
(0.4 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV sta- 
tions; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air De- 
fense Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,275,000; 
3,224,000 fit for military service; 241,000 
reach military age (18) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1985, $534.1 million; 17.7% of central 
government budget 



Suriname 



North Atlantic Ocean 




Seere|ionl map IV 



Land 

163,265 km 2 ; slightly larger than Georgia; 
negligible arable land, meadow and pasture; 
76% forest; 16% built on, waste, or other; 8% 
unused but potentially productive 

Land boundaries: 1,561 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 386 km 

People 

Population: 381,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.7% 

Nationality: noun Surinamer(s); adjec- 
tive Surinamese 

Ethnic divisions: 37.0% Hindustani (East 
Indian), 31.0% Creole (black and mixed), 
15.3% Javanese, 10.3% Bush Negro, 2.6% 
Amerindian, 1.7% Chinese, 1.0% Europeans, 
1.1% other 

Religion: 27.4% Hindu, 19.6% Muslim, 
22.8% Roman Catholic, 25.2% Protestant 
(predominantly Moravian), about 5% indige- 
nous beliefs 

Language: Dutch (official); English widely 
spoken; Sranan Tongo (Surinamese, some- 
times called Taki-Taki) is native language of 
Creoles and much of the younger population 
and is lingua franca among others; also 



Hindi Suriname Hindustani (a variant of 
Bhoqpuri), and Javanese 

Infant mortality rate: 23/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 64.8, women 69.8 
Literacy: 65% 

Labor force: 104,000(1984); unemployment 
25% (1985); about 10.6% of work force en- 
gaged in agriculture, animal husbandry, and 
fishing 

Organized labor: 49,000 members of labor 
force organized 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Suriname 

Type: military-civilian rule 
Capital: Paramaribo 

Political subdivisions: 9 districts, each 
headed by District Commissioner responsi- 
ble to Minister of Internal Affairs and Local 
Administration; 100 "People's Committees" 
installed at local level 

Legal system: suspended constitution; judi- 
cial system functions in ordinary civil and 
criminal cases 

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 
November 

Branches: civilian government controlled by 
the military 

Government leaders: Lt. Col. Desire 
BOUTERSE, Head of Government, Army 
Commander and strongman (since February 
1980); Lachmipersad Frederick RAMDAT- 
MISIER, Acting President (figurehead; since 
February 1982); Willem Alfred UDEN- 
HOUT, Prime Minister (since February 
1984) 

Suffrage: suspended 
Elections: none planned 

Political parties and leaders: 25 February 
National Unity Movement (November 1983) 



established by Bouterse; regular party activ- 
ity limited; given greater freedom of assem- 
bly in 1985; leftists (all small groups) Revo- 
lutionary People's Party (RVP), Michael 
Naarendorp; Progressive Workers and 
Farmers (PALU), Iwan Krolis 

Member of: ECLA, FAO, GATT, G-77, 
IBA, IBRD, ICAO, IDE Inter-American 
Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAS, PAHO, 
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $1.1 billion (1984); $2,980 per capita 

(1984); real growth rate - 1.0% (1984) 

Natural resources: forests, hydroelectric 
power potential, fish, shrimp, bauxite, iron 
ore, and other minerals 

Agriculture: main crops rice, bananas, 
palm oil, timber 

Major industries: bauxite mining, alumina 
and aluminum production, lumbering, food 
processing 

Electric power: 420,000 kW capacity (1985); 
1.61 billion kWh produced (1985), 4,290 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $356 million (f.o.b., 1984); alumina, 
bauxite, aluminum, rice, wood and wood 
products 

Imports: $346 million (c.i.f., 1984); capital 
equipment, petroleum, iron and steel, cot- 
ton, flour, meat, dairy products 

Major trade partners: exports 26% Neth- 
erlands, 17% US, 13% FRG; imports 30% 
US, 21% Trinidad and Tobago, 9% Nether- 
lands (1983) 

Aid: economic bilateral commitments, 
including Ex-Im US (FY70-83), $2.5 mil- 
lion, Western (non-US) countries, ODA and 
OOF (1970-83), $1.4 billion; no military aid 

Budget: revenues, $261 million; expendi- 
tures, $421 million (1984 est.) 



233 



Suriname (continued) 



Swaziland 



Monetary conversion rate: 1.79 Suriname 
guilders=US$l (September 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 166 km total; 86 km 1.000-meter 
gauge, government owned, and 80 km 
1.435-meter standard gauge; all single track 

Highways: 8,300 km total; 500 km paved; 
5,400 km bauxite gravel, crushed stone, or 
improved earth; 2,400 km sand or clay 

Inland waterways: 1,200 km; most impor- 
tant means of transport; oceangoing vessels 
with drafts ranging from 4.2 m to 7 m can 
navigate many of the principal waterways 
while native canoes navigate upper reaches 

Ports: 1 major (Paramaribo), 6 minor 
Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 42 total, 40 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: international facili- 
ties good; domestic radio-relay system; 
27,500 telephones (6.3 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, 
4 FM stations; 1 TV station; 2 Atlantic satel- 
lite stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: National Army (including Infan- 
try Battalion, Military Police Brigade, Navy 
[company-size], Air Force) 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 72,000; 
43,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: 1983, $41.8 million; 8.2% 
of central government budget 




Sec regional map VII 



Land 

17,363 km 2 ; slightly smaller than New Jer- 
sey; mostly crop or pasture 

Land boundaries: 435 km 

People 

Population: 692,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.0% 

Nationality: noun Swazi(s); adjective 
Swazi 

Ethnic divisions: 96% African, 3% Euro- 
pean, 1% mulatto 

Religion: 57% Christian, 43% indigenous 
beliefs 

Language: English and siSwati (official); 
government business conducted in English 

Infant mortality rate: 156/1,000(1982) 
Life expectancy: men 46.8, women 50.0 
Literacy: 65% 

Labor force: 195,000; over 60,000 engaged 
in subsistence agriculture; 55,000-60,000 
wage earners, many only intermittently, 
with 36% agriculture and forestry, 20% com- 
munity and social services, 14% manufactur- 
ing, 9% construction, 21 % other; 12,000 em- 
ployed in South Africa (1982) 



Organized labor: about 15% of wage earners 
are unionized 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Swaziland 

Type: monarchy; independent member of 
Commonwealth since September 1968 

Capital: Mbabane (administrative); 
Lobamba (legislative capital) 

Political subdivisions: 4 administrative dis- 
tricts 

Legal system: based on South African 
Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi 
traditional law and custom in traditional 
courts; legal education at University of 
Botswana and Swaziland; has not accepted 
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) 
Day, 6 September 

Branches: constitution was repealed and 
Parliament dissolved by King Sobhuza II 
(deceased August 1982) in April 1973; new 
bicameral Parliament (Senate, House of As- 
sembly) formally opened in January 1979; 
80-member electoral college chose 40 mem- 
bers of lower house and 10 members of up- 
per house; additional 10 members for each 
house chosen by King; executive authority 
vested in the King or Queen (with the advice 
of the Supreme Council of State), whose as- 
sent is required before parliamentary acts 
become law; King's authority exercised 
through Prime Minister and Cabinet who 
must be members of Parliament; judiciary is 
part of Ministry of Justice but otherwise in- 
dependent of executive and legislative 
branches; cases from subordinate courts can 
be appealed to the High Court and the 
Court of Appeal 

Government leaders: Head of State, Ntombi 
THWALA, Queen Regent (since September 
1983); Prince Bhekimpi DLAMINI, Prime 
Minister (since March 1983) 

Suffrage: universal for adults 
Communists: no Communist party 



234 



Sweden 



Member of: AfDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de 
facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, 
IMF, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, 
SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO 

Economy 

GNP: approximately $478 million (1984), 
about $900 per capita; real growth 11% 
(1984) 

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, tin, 
diamonds, hydroelelectric power, forests 

Agriculture: main crops maize, cotton, 
rice, sugar, and citrus fruits 

Major industry: mining, pulping 

Electric power: 60,000 kW capacity (1985); 
84 million kWh produced (1985), 125 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $360 million (f.o.b., 1984); sugar, 
asbestos, wood and forest products, citrus, 
and canned fruit 

Imports: $498 million (f.o.b., 1984); motor 
vehicles, chemicals, petroleum products, 
and foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: South Africa, UK, US; 
member of South African Customs Union 

Aid: economic commitments Western 
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF 
(1970-83), $340 million; US (FY70-84), $80 
million 

Budget: 1984/85 (est.) revenues, $204 mil- 
lion; current expenditures, $149 million 

Monetary conversion rate: the Swazi 
lilangeni exchanges at par with the South 
African rand; 2.3 emalangeni=US$l (29 
January 1986) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: 515 km 1.067-meter gauge, single 
track 

Highways: 2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 
1,230 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized 
soil, and 1,1 13 km improved earth 



Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 27 total, 27 usable; 1 with runways 
2,440-3,659, 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: system consists of 
carrier-equipped open- wire lines and low 
capacity radio-relay links; 15,400 telephones 
(2.3 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, 8 FM, 1 1 TV sta- 
tions; Atlantic Ocean satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense 
Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 151,000; 
87,000 fit for military service 



Turnaby, 



Gbteboi 
Kattegat 

Mai mo' 
See regional map V 




Land 

449,964 km 2 ; larger than Calitornia; 55% 
forest, 7% arable, 2% meadow and pasture, 
36% other 

Land boundaries: 2,196 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (fishing 200 nm) 

Coastline: 3,218 km 

People 

Population: 8,357,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0. 1 % 

Nationality: noun Swede(s); adjective 
Swedish 

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white popu- 
lation; small Lappish minority; est. 12% for- 
eign born or first generation immigrants 
(Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, 
Greeks) 

Religion: 93.5% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.0% 
Roman Catholic, 5.5% other 

Language: Swedish, small Lapp- and 
Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants 
speak native languages 

Infant mortality rate: 7/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 75, women 81 



235 



Sweden (continued) 



Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 4.41 million (1984); 32.8% pri- 
vate services; 30.0% government services; 
22.0% mining and manufacturing; 5.9% con- 
struction; 5.0% agriculture, forestry, and 
fishing; 0.9% electricity, gas, and water- 
works; 3. 1 % unemployed (1984 average) 

Organized labor: 90% of labor force (1985 
est.) 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Sweden 

Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Stockholm 

Political subdivisions: 24 counties, 284 mu- 
nicipalities (townships) 

Legal system: civil law system influenced by 
customary law; a new constitution was 
adopted in 1975 replacing the Acts of 1809, 
1866, and 1949; legal education at Universi- 
ties of Lund, Stockholm, and Uppsala; ac- 
cepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with res- 
ervations 

National holiday: no national holiday; 
King's birthday, 30 April, celebrated as such 
by Swedish embassies 

Branches: legislative authority rests with 
unicameral parliament (Riksdag); executive 
power vested in Cabinet, responsible to par- 
liament; Supreme Court, 6 superior courts, 
108 lower courts 

Government leaders: CARL XVI Gustaf, 
King (since September 1973); Ingvar 
CARLSSON, Prime Minister (since March 
1986) 

Suffrage: universal but not compulsory over 
age 18; after three years of legal residence 
immigrants may vote in county and munici- 
pal but not national elections 

Elections: every three years; next scheduled 
for September 1988 

Political parties and leaders: Moderate Coa- 
lition (conservative), Ulf Adelsohn; Center, 



Karen Soder; Liberal People's Party, Bengt 
Westerberg; Social Democratic, Ingvar 
Carlsson; Left Party-Communist (VPK), 
Lars Werner; Swedish Communist Party 
(SKP), Roland Pettersson; Communist 
Workers' Party, Rolf Hagel 

Voting strength: (1985 election) 45.0% So- 
cial Democratic, 21.3% Moderate Coalition, 
12.5% Center (includes votes for Christian 
Democratic Alliance), 14.3% Liberal, 5.4% 
Communist, 1.5% other 

Communists: VPK and SKP; VPK, the ma- 
jor Communist party, is reported to have 
roughly 17,800 members; in the 1985 elec- 
tion, the VPK attracted 293,543 votes; in 
addition, there are 4 other active Commu- 
nist parties, including the SKP, for which 
membership figures are not available; in the 
1985 elections, these parties obtained an 
additional 16,000 votes 

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, 
EC (Free Trade Agreement), EFTA, ESRO, 
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 
ICES, ICO, IDA, IDE Inter-American 
Development Bank.lEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, 
International Lead and Zinc Study Group, 
IPU, ISO, ITU, IWC International Whal- 
ing Commission, IWC International 
Wheat Council, Nordic Council, OECD, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WSG 

Economy 

GDP: $96.0 billion, $1 1,510 per capita 
(1984); 51.9% private consumption, 28.8% 
government consumption, 12.9% private 
investment; 6.0% public investment; 1.0% 
change in stock building; 1.4% net exports of 
goods and services; 1984 growth rate, 3.3% 

Natural resources: zinc, iron, lead, copper, 
silver, gold, forests, hydroelectric power 

Agriculture: animal husbandry predomi- 
nates, with milk and dairy products account- 
ing for 37% of farm income; main crops 
grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100% 
self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% 
self-sufficient in sugar beets 



Fishing: catch 285,000 metric tons (1984), 
exports $77 million, imports $196.0 million 

Major industries: iron and steel, precision 
equipment (bearings, radio and telephone 
parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper 
products, processed foods, motor vehicles 

Shortages: coal, petroleum, textile fibers, 
potash, salt, oils and fats, tropical products 

Crude steel: 4.7 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 564 kg per capita 

Electric power: 38,956,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 129.6 billion kWh produced (1985), 
15,543 kWh per capita 

Exports: $29.0 billion (f.o.b., 1984); machin- 
ery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp 
and wood, iron and steel products, chemi- 
cals, petroleum and petroleum products 

Imports: $26.33 billion (c.i.f., 1984); machin- 
ery, petroleum and petroleum products, 
chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron 
and steel, clothing 

Major trade partners: EC 50.2%, other de- 
veloped 34.9%, non-OPEC less developed 
countries 5.5%, OPEC 4.5%, CEMA 4.9% 
(1984) 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-83), $5.4 billion 

Budget: (1984/85) revenues $31.0 billion, 
expenditures $38.7 billion, deficit $7.7 bil- 
lion 

Monetary conversion rate: 7.8 
kronor=US$l (November 1985 average) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 12,518 km total; Swedish State 
Railways (SJ) 11,179km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge, 6,959 km electrified and 
1,152 km double track; 182 km 0.891-meter 
gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately 
owned railways 511 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge, 332 km electrified; 371 km 
0.891 -meter gauge electrified 



Switzerland 



Highways: classified network, 97,400 km, of 
which 51,899 km paved; 20,659 km gravel; 
24,842 km unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for 
small steamers and barges 

1 Pipelines: 84 km natural gas 
Ports: 17 major and 30 minor 
Civil air: 65 major transports 

Airfields: 263 total, 259 usable; 135 with 
permanent-surface runways; 9 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 88 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: excellent domestic 
and international facilities; 7.41 million tele- 
phones (89.0 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, 345 FM, 
810 TV stations; 9 submarine coaxial cables, 

2 Atlantic Ocean satellite antennas, 1 Eu- 
telsat antenna 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Swedish Army, Royal 
Swedish Air Force, Royal Swedish Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,091,000; 
1,465,000 fit for military service; 62,000 
reach military age (19) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
June 1985, $2.5 billion; 6.5% of central gov- 
ernment budget 



100km 



Base 




Sec regional map V 



Land 

41,228 km 2 ; the size of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, and Rhode Island combined; 43% 
meadow and pasture, 24% forest, 20% waste 
or urban, 3% inland water 

Land boundaries: 1,884 km 

People 

Population: 6,466,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.1% 

Nationality: noun Swiss (sing. & pi. ); ad- 
jective Swiss 

Ethnic divisions: total population 65% 
German, 18% French, 10% Italian, 1% 
Romansch, 5% other; Swiss nationals 74% 
German, 20% French, 4% Italian, 1% 
Romansch, 1% other 

Religion: 49% Catholic, 48% Protestant, 
0.3% Jewish 

Language: total population- 65% German, 
18% French, 12% Italian, 1% Romansch, 4% 
other; Swiss nationals 74% German, 20% 
French, 4% Italian, 1% Romansch, 1% other 

Infant mortality rate: 9/1,000 (1985) 
Life expectancy: men 70.3, women 76.2 
Literacy: 99% 



Labor force: 3.05 million, about 706,000 
foreign workers, mostly Italian; 42% ser- 
vices, 39% industry and crafts, 1 1 % govern- 
ment, 7% agriculture and forestry, 1% other; 
approximately 0.9% unemployed (1985) 

Organized labor: 20% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Swiss Confederation 

Type: federal republic 
Capital: Bern 

Political subdivisions: 23 cantons (3 divided 
into half cantons) 

Legal system: civil law system Influenced by 
customary law; constitution adopted 1874, 
amended since; judicial review of legislative 
acts, except with respect to federal decrees 
of general obligatory character; legal educa- 
tion at Universities of Bern, Geneva, and 
Lausanne and four other university schools 
of law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, 
with reservations 

National holiday: National Day, 1 August 

Branches: bicameral parliament (National 
Council, Council of States) has legislative 
authority; federal council (Bundesrat) has 
executive authority; justice left chiefly to 
cantons 

Government leader: Alfons EGLI, President 
(1986; presidency rotates annually) 

Suffrage: universal over age 20 

Elections: held every four years; next elec- 
tions scheduled for 1987 

Political parties and leaders: Social Demo- 
cratic Party (SPS), Helmuth Hubacher, 
chairman; Radical Democratic Party (FDP), 
Bruno Hunziker, president; Christian Dem- 
ocratic People's Party (CVP), Flavio Cotti, 
president; Swiss People's Party (SVP), Adolf 
Ogi, president; Workers' Party (PdA), 
Armand Magnin, secretary general; Nation- 
al Action Party (NA), Rodolf Keller, presi- 
dent; Independents' Party (LdU), Walter 
Biel, president; Republican Movement 



237 



Switzerland (continued) 



(Rep); Liberal Party (LPS), Gilbert Coutau, 
president; Evangelical People's Party (EVP), 
Paul Gysel, president; Progressive Organiza- 
tions of Switzerland (POCH); Green Party 
(GP); Autonomous Socialist Party (PSA), 
Werner Carobbio, secretary; Progressive 
Swiss Organization (POS), Georg Degen, 
secretary 

Voting strength: (1983 election) 23.4% FDP, 
22.8% SPS, 20.5% CVP, 11.1% SVP, 3.5% 
NA, 2.9% GP, 16.1% others 

Communists: about 5,000 members 

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, 
EFTA, ELDO (observer), ESRO, FAO, 
GATT, IAEA, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDB 
Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, 
IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, I WC Interna- 
tional Wheat Council, OECD, UNESCO, 
UPU, World Confederation of Labor, 
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO; 
permanent observer status at the UN 

Economy 

GNP: $96. 1 billion (1984), $14,300 per cap- 
ita; 58% consumption, 22% investment, 
0.13% government, 1% net foreign bal- 
ance; real growth rate 2.5% (1984) 

Natural resources: hydroelectric power (po- 
tential), timber, salt 

Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; 
less than 50% self-sufficient; food 
shortages fish, refined sugar, fats and oils 
(other than butter), grains, eggs, fruits, vege- 
tables, meat 

Major industries: machinery, chemicals, 
watches, textiles, precision instruments 

Shortages: practically all important raw 
materials except hydroelectric energy 

Electric power: 17,690,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 56.765 billion kWh produced (1985), 
8,790 kWh per capita 

Exports: $25.8 billion (f.o.b., 1984); principal 
items machinery and equipment, chemi- 
cals, precision instruments, metal products, 
textiles, foodstuffs 



Imports: $28.5 billion (f.o.b., 1984); princi- 
pal items machinery and transportation 
equipment, metals and metal products, 
foodstuffs, chemicals, textile fibers and yarns 

Major trade partners: 59% EC, 21% other 
developed, 17% less developed countries, 3% 
Communist 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
committed (1970-83), $1.4 billion 

Budget: receipts, $8.50 billion; expendi- 
tures, $8.75 billion; deficit, $0.25 billion 
(1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 2. 17 
francs=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 5,155 km total; 2,952 km govern- 
ment owned (SBB), 2,879 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge; 74 km 1.000-meter narrow 
gauge; 1,432 km double track, 99% electri- 
fied; 2,203 km nongovernment owned, 710 
km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1,418 km 
1.000-meter gauge, 75 km 0.790-meter 
gauge, 100% electrified 

Highways: 62,145 km total (all paved), of 
which 18,620 km are canton and 1,057 km 
are national highways (740 km autobahn); 
42,468 km are communal roads 

Pipelines: 314 km crude oil; 1 ,046 km natu- 
ral gas 

Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine River 
Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to 
Bodensee; in addition, there are 12 naviga- 
ble lakes 

Ports: 1 major (Basel), 2 minor (all inland) 
Civil air: 89 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 73 total, 71 usable; 42 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways over 3,660 m, 6 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 16 with runways 1,220- 
2,439m 



Telecommunications: excellent domestic, 
international, and broadcast services; 5. 1 1 
million telephones (78.9 per 100 popl.); 6 
AM, 250 FM, 1,253 TV stations; 1 satellite 
station with 3 Atlantic Ocean antennas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,695,000; 
1,465,000 fit for military service; 50,000 
reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1984, $1.9 billion; 
20.6% of proposed central government bud- 
get 



238 



Syria 



150km 




See regional mip VI 






Land 

185,180 km 2 (including 1,295 km 2 of Israeli- 
occupied territory); the size of North Da- 
kota; 48% arable, 29% grazing, 21% desert, 
2% forest 

Land boundaries: 2,196 km (1967); excludes 
2,156 km occupied area 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
35 nm 

Coastline: 193km 

People 

Population: 10,931,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.7% 

Nationality: noun Syrian(s); adjective 
Syrian 

Ethnic divisions: 90.3% Arab; 9.7% Kurds, 
Armenians, and other 

Religion: 74% Sunni Muslim; 16% Alawite, 
Druze, and other Muslim sects; 10% Chris- 
tian (various sects) 

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Arme- 
nian, Aramaic, Circassian; French and 
English widely understood 

Infant mortality rate: 57/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 64.9, women 67.6 



Literacy: about 50% 

Labor force: 2.4 million; 36% miscellaneous 
services, 32% agriculture, 32% industry (in- 
cluding construction); majority unskilled; 
shortage of skilled labor 

Organized labor: 5% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Syrian Arab Republic 

Type: republic; under leftwing military re- 
gime since March 1963 

Capital: Damascus 

Political subdivisions: 13 provinces and city 
of Damascus administered as separate unit 

Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil 
law system; special religious courts; constitu- 
tion promulgated in 1973; legal education at 
Damascus University and University of 
Aleppo; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 
April 

Branches: executive powers vested in Presi- 
dent and Council of Ministers; power rests in 
unicameral legislative (People's Council); 
seat of power is the Ba'th Party Regional 
(Syrian) Command 

Government leader: Lt. Gen. Hafiz 
al-ASSAD, President (since February 1971) 

Suffrage: universal at age 18 

Elections: People's Council election held 
November 1983; presidential election held 
February 1985 

Political parties and leaders: ruling party is 
the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Ba'th) 
Party; the Progressive National Front is 
dominated by Ba'thists but includes inde- 
pendents and members of the Syrian Arab 
Socialist Party (ASP), Arab Socialist Union 
(ASU), Socialist Unionist Movement, and 
Syrian Communist Party (SCP) 



239 



Communists: mostly sympathizers, num- 
bering about 5,000 

Other political or pressure groups: non- 
Bath parties have little effective political 
influence; Communist Party ineffective; 
greatest threat to Assad regime lies in fac- 
tionalism in the military; conservative reli- 
gious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, 
IPU, ITU, IWC International Wheat 
Council, NAM, OAPEC, QIC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, 
WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $20.7 billion (1984), $2,000 per capita; 

real GDP growth rate 2% (1984) 

Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, 
chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron 
ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum 

Agriculture: main crops cotton, wheat, 
barley, tobacco; sheep and goat raising; self- 
sufficient in most foods in years of good 
weather 

Major industries: textiles, food processing, 
beverages, tobacco; petroleum 170,000 
b/d production (1984), 229,000 b/d refining 
capacity 

Electric power: 2,256,700 kW capacity 
(1985); 6.919 billion kWh produced (1985), 
656 kWh per capita 

Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum, textiles and textile products, tobacco, 
fruits and vegetables, cotton 

Imports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum, machinery and metal products, tex- 
tiles, fuels, foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: exports Romania, 
Italy, France, USSR; imports Iran, FRG, 
Italy, Libya 



Syria (continued) 



Tanzania 



Budget: 1985 revenues $6.3 billion (ex- 
cluding aid payments); expenditures $10.9 
billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 3.925 Syrian 
pounds=US$l (official rate, February 1984); 
two other officially sanctioned rates the 
"parallel" and "tourist" rates are deter- 
mined by the government guided by supply 
and demand 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,543 km total; 1,281 km stan- 
dard gauge, 262 km 1.050-meter narrow 
gauge 

Highways: 16,939 km total; 12,051 km 
paved, 2,625 km gravel or crushed stone, 
2,263 km improved earth 

Inland waterways: 672 km; of little impor- 
tance 

Pipelines: 1,304 km crude oil; 515 km re- 
fined products 

Ports: 3 major (Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas), 2 
minor 

Civil air: 1 4 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 95 total, 90 usable; 27 with 
permanent-surface runways; 21 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system currently 
undergoing significant improvement; 
512,600 telephones (5.3 per 100 popl.); 9 
AM, no FM, 40 TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean 
satellite station; 1 Intersputnik satellite sta- 
tion under construction; 1 submarine cable; 
coaxial cable and radio-relay to Iraq, Jordan, 
Turkey, and Lebanon (inactive) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab 
Air Force, Syrian Arab Navy 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,403,000; 
1,347,000 fit for military service; about 
1 1 3,000 reach military age ( 1 9) annually 



300km 




See regional map VII 



Land 

942,623 km 2 (including islands of Zanzibar 
and Pemba, 2,642 km 2 ); more than twice the 
size of California; forest 45%, meadow and 
pasture 37%, inland water 6%, arable 4%, 
crop 1%, other 7% 

Land boundaries: 3,883 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
50 nm 

Coastline: 1,424 km (this includes 1 13 km 
Mafia Island, 177 km Pemba Island, and 212 
km Zanzibar) 

People 

Population: 22,415,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2% 

Nationality: noun Tanzanian(s); adjec- 
tive Tanzanian 

Ethnic divisions: mainland 99% native 
African consisting of well over 100 tribes; 1% 
Asian, European, and Arab; Zanzibar al- 
most all Arab 

Religion: mainland 33% Christian, 33% 
Muslim, 33% indigenous beliefs; Zanzibar 
almost all Muslim 

Language: Swahili and English (official); 
English primary language of commerce, 
administration, and higher education; Swa- 
hili widely understood and generally used 



for communication between ethnic groups; 
first language of most people is one of the 
local languages; primary education is gener- 
ally in Swahili 

Infant mortality rate: 103/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 52 
Literacy: 79% 

Labor force: 208,680 in paid employment 
(1983); 90% agriculture, 10% industry and 
commerce 

Organized labor: 15% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: United Republic of Tanzania 

Type: republic; single party constitutionally 
supreme on the mainland and on Zanzibar 

Capital: Dar es Salaam 

Political subdivisions: 25 regions 20 on 
mainland, 5 on Zanzibar 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; permanent constitution adopted 1977, 
replaced interim constitution adopted 1965; 
Zanzibar has its own constitution but re- 
mains subject to provisions of the union con- 
stitution; judicial review of legislative acts 
limited to matters of interpretation; legal 
education at University of Dar es Salaam; 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdic- 
tion 

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April; In- 
dependence Day, 9 December 

Branches: President Ali Hassan Mwinyi has 
full executive authority on the mainland; 
National Assembly dominated by the 
Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary 
Party); National Assembly consists of 233 
members, 72 from Zanzibar, of whom 10 are 
directly elected, 65 appointed from the 
mainland, and 96 directly elected from the 
mainland (these numbers are slated to be 
changed when amendments to the Constitu- 
tion are approved) 



240 



Government leaders: Ali Hassan MWINYI, 
President (since November 1985); Joseph 
Sinde WARIOBA, Prime Minister (since 
November 1985) 

Suffrage: universal adult over age 18 

Political party and leader: Chama Cha 
Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party), only polit- 
ical party, dominated by Nyerere; has con- 
siderable power over domestic policies and 
the enforcement of them 

Voting strength: (October 1980 national 
elections) close to 7 million registered voters; 
Nyerere received 93% of about 6 million 
votes cast; general elections scheduled for 
late 1985 

Communists: a few Communist sympathiz- 
ers, especially on Zanzibar 

Member of: Af DB, Commonwealth, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 
ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, 
OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $4.2 billion (1984), $210 per capita; 

real growth rate, 0.6% (1984 prelim.) 

Natural resources: hydroelectric power po- 
tential, large unexploited iron and coal, 
gemstone and gold mines, natural gas, nickel 

Agriculture: main crops cotton, coffee, 
sisal on mainland; cloves and coconuts on 
Zanzibar 

Major industries: primarily agricultural 
processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal 
twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, 
cement, textiles, wood products 

Electric power: 372,800 kW capacity (1985); 
816 million kWh produced (1985), 37 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $396 million (f.o.b., 1984); coffee, 
cotton, sisal, cashew nuts, meat, cloves, to- 
bacco, tea, coconut products 



Imports: $831 million (c.i.f., 1984); manu- 
factured goods, machinery and transport 
equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, 
foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: exports FRG, UK, 
US; imports FRG, UK, US, Iran 

External debt: $2.8 billion (1983); debt ser- 
vice ratio 68.1% (1984 not including IMF) 

Budget: (1984/85) revenues, $891.8 million; 
current expenditures, $1.017 billion; devel- 
opment expenditures, $359.5 million 

Aid: economic aid commitments from West- 
ern (non-US) countries (1970-79), ODA and 
OOF, $100 million; US, including Ex-Im 
(FY70-80), $200 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 17 Tanzanian 
shillings=US$l (14 June 1984) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067- 
meter gauge; 2,595 km 1.000-meter gauge, 
6.4 km double track, 962 km Tan-Zam Rail- 
road 1.067-meter gauge in Tanzania; 1 15 
km 1.000-meter gauge planned by end of 
decade 

Highways: total 34,500 km, 3,600 km paved; 
5,600 km gravel or crushed stone; remainder 
improved and unimproved earth 

Pipelines: 982 km crude oil 

Inland waterways: several thousand km 
navigable on Lakes Tanganyika, Victoria, 
and Malawi; principal inland waterway 
ports are Mwanza on Lake Victoria and 
Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika 

Ports: 3 major (Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, 
Tanga) 

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 100 total, 93 usable; 12 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 45 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 



Telecommunications: fair system of open 
wire, radio relay, and troposcatter; 103,800 
telephones (0.6 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, no FM, 
2 TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite sta- 
tion 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Tanzanian People's Defense 
Force includes Army, Navy, and Air Force; 
paramilitary Police Field Force Unit 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,712,000; 
2,706,000 fit for military service 



241 



Thailand 




See rrgionjl map IX 



Land 

514,820 km 2 ; about the size of Texas; 56% 
forest, 24% farm, 20% other 

Land boundaries: 4,868 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 3,219 km 

People 

Population: 52,438,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.7% 

Nationality: noun Thai (sing, and pi.); ad- 
jective Thai 

Ethnic divisions: 75% Thai, 14% Chinese, 
11% other 

Religion: 95.5% Buddhist, 4% Muslim, 0.5% 
other 

Language: Thai; English is the secondary 
language of the elite; ethnic and regional 
dialects 

Infant mortality rate: 51. 4/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: men 59.5, women 65. 1 
Literacy: 84% 

Labor force: 26 million (1984); 73% agricul- 
ture, 11% industry and commerce, 10% 



services, 6% government; 1.5% unemploy- 
ment rate 

Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Thailand 

Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: Bangkok 

Political subdivisions: 72 centrally 
controlled provinces 

Legal system: based on civil law system, 
with influences of common law; legal educa- 
tion at Thammasat University; has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: King's Birthday, '5 De- 
cember 

Branches: King is head of state with nominal 
powers; bicameral legislature (National As- 
sembly Senate appointed by King, elected 
House of Representatives); judiciary rela- 
tively independent except in important po- 
litical subversive cases 

Government leaders: BHUMIBOL 
ADULYADEJ, King (since June 1946); Gen. 
(Ret.) PREM TINSULANONDA, Prime 
Minister (since March 1980) 

Suffrage: universal at age 20 
Elections: last held April 19s3 

Political parties: Social Action Party, Thai 
Nation Party, Thai People's Party, Thai Citi- 
zen Party, Democrat Party, Freedom and 
Justice Party, Nation and People Party, New 
Force Party, National Democracy Party; 
other small parties represented in parlia- 
ment 

Communists: strength of illegal Communist 
Party is probably less than 1,000; Commu- 
nist insurgents throughout Thailand total an 
estimated 1,000 

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, 
ASPAC, Association of Tin Producing Coun- 
tries, Colombo Plan, GATT, ESCAP, FAO, 
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, 
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 



INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $52.4 billion (1984), $1,030 per capita; 

5.4% real growth in 1984 

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, 
tungsten, timber, fisheries products 

Agriculture: main crops rice, sugar, corn, 
rubber, manioc; an illegal producer of 
opium poppy and cannabis for the interna- 
tional drug trade 

Fishing: catch 2.2 million metric tons (1984); 
major fishery export, shrimp, 19,428 metric 
tons, about $117 million (1984) 

Major industries: agricultural processing, 
textiles, wood and wood products, cement, 
tin and tungsten ore mining; world's second 
largest tungsten producer and third largest 
tin producer 

Shortages: fuel sources, including coal and 
petroleum; scrap iron; and fertilizer 

Electric power: 5,826,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 20.7 billion kWh produced (1985), 
393 kWh per capita 

Exports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984); rice, 
sugar, corn, rubber, tin, tapioca, textiles and 
garments, integrated circuits, canned sea- 
food, fruit 

Imports: $10.37 billion (c.i.f., 1984); machin- 
ery and transport equipment, fuels and 
lubricants, base metals, chemicals, and fer- 
tilizer 

Major trade partners: exports US, Japan, 
Singapore, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, 
Malaysia; imports Japan, US, FRG, UK, 
Singapore, Saudi Arabia; about 1% or less 
trade with Communist countries 

Budget: (FY84) estimate of expenditures, 
$7.6 billion; revenues $6.2 billion; deficit 
$1.4 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 27 baht=US$l 
(January 1986) 



Togo 



Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 
km double track 

Highways: 44,534 km total; 28,016 km 
paved, 5,132 km earth surface, 11,386 km 
under development 

Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal wa- 
terways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 
0.9 m or more throughout the year; numer- 
ous minor waterways navigable by shallow- 
draft native craft 

Pipelines: natural gas, 350 km; refined prod- 
ucts, 67 km 

Ports: 2 major, 16 minor 

Civil air: 30 (plus 2 leased) major transport 
aircraft 

Airfields: 131 total, 104 usable; 57 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 13 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 27 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: service to general 
public adequate; bulk of service to govern- 
ment activities provided by multichannel 
cable and radio-relay network; satellite 
ground station; domestic satellite system 
being developed; 496,558 telephones (1.1 
per 100 popl.); approx. 150 AM, 20 FM, 10 
TV transmitters in government-controlled 
networks 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai 
Navy (includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), 
Royal Thai Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
13,536,000; 8,307,000 fit for military service; 
about 631,000 reach military age (18) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 
September 1986, $1.5 million (est); 18.9% of 
central government budget 



Src rffional map VII 




J.OMEJ 

Bight of Benin 



Land 

56,980 km 2 ; slightly larger than West Vir- 
ginia; nearly 50% arable, under 15% culti- 
vated 

Land boundaries: 1 ,646 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 30 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 56 km 

People 

Population: 3,118,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.1% 

Nationality: noun Togolese (sing, and pi.); 
adjective Togolese 

Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most 
important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabye; under 
1% European and Syrian-Lebanese 

Religion: about 70% indigenous beliefs, 20% 
Christian, 10% Muslim 

Language: French, both official and lan- 
guage of commerce; major African 
languages are Ewe and Mina in the south 
and Dagomba and Kabye in the north 

Infant mortality rate: 112/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 47 
Literacy: 18% 



Labor force: 78% agriculture, 22% industry; 
about 88,600 wage earners, evenly divided 
between public and private sectors 

Organized labor: one national union, the 
National Federation of Togolese Workers 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Togo 

Type: republic; one-party presidential re- 
gime with a centralized national administra- 
tion 

Capital: Lome 

Political subdivisions: 21 prefectures 

Legal system: French-based court system 
with a court of appeals 

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 
April 

Branches: strong executive President; uni- 
cameral legislature (National Assembly); 
separate judiciary, including State Security 
Court, established in 1970; a new constitu- 
tion was endorsed by referendum in 1979 
that provided for an elective presidential 
system and a 67-member National Assembly 

Government leader: Gen. Gnassingbe 
EYADEMA, President (since 1967) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: to be held every seven years; last 
held in December 1979; General Eyadema, 
the sole candidate, was elected by almost 
100% of votes cast 

Political party: single party formed by Presi- 
dent Eyadema in September 1969, Rally of 
the Togolese People (RPT); structure and 
staffing of party closely controlled by gov- 
ernment 

Communists; no Communist Party; possibly 
some sympathizers 

Member of: Af DB, CEAO (observer), 
EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, ENTENTE, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, 
ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 



243 



Togo (continued) 



Tokelau 



Economy 

GNP: $950 million (1982 est.), about $340 

per capita; 3.2% real growth in 1982 

Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, 
marble 

Agriculture: main cash crops coffee, co- 
coa, cotton; major food crops yams, cas- 
sava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum, fish 

Fishing: catch 14,556 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: phosphate mining, agri- 
cultural processing, cement, handicrafts, 
textiles, beverages 

Electric power: 47,900 kW capacity (1985); 
83 million kWh produced (1985), 27 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $202 million (f.o.b., 1982); phos- 
phates, cocoa, coffee, palm kernels 

Imports: $390 million (f.o.b., 1982); con- 
sumer goods, fuels, machinery, tobacco, 
foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: mostly France and 
other EC countries 

Budget:(l982 proj.), revenues, $243.1 mil- 
lion; current expenditures, $219 million; 
development expenditures, $89 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 475 Commun- 
aute Financiere Af ricaine (CFA) francs= 
US$1 (1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 570 km 1.000-meter gauge, single 
track 

Highways: 7,562 km total; 1,505 km paved, 
1,257 km improved earth, remainder unim- 
proved earth 

Inland waterways: section of Mono River 
and about 50 km of coastal lagoons and tidal 
creeks 

Ports: 1 major (Lome), 1 minor 



Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 1 total, 1 1 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m 

Telecommunications: fair system based on 
network of open- wire lines supplemented by 
radio- relay routes; 12,000 telephones (0.4 
per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM, 3 TV stations; 1 
Atlantic Ocean satellite station and 1 
SYMPHONIE station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramili- 
tary Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 681,000; 
354,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 







.Ara/u 



South Pacific Ocean 



'.Nukunonu 



Set rrginnil mtp X 



Land 

about 10.1 km 2 ; about one-fifteenth the size 
of Washington, D. C. ; consists of three atolls 
(Atafu 2 km 2 , Nukunonu 5.5 km 2 , and 
Fakaofo 2.6 km 2 ) 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: Fakaofo, about 36 km; 
Nukunonu, about 45 km; Atafu, about 
20km 

People 

Population: 1,538 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 0.2% 

Nationality: noun Tokelauan(s); adjec- 
tive Tokelauan 

Ethnic divisions: all Polynesian, with cul- 
tural ties to Western Samoa 

Religion: 70% Congregational Christian 
Church, 30% Roman Catholic on Atafu, all 
Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; 
on Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on 
Fakaofo, both denominations 

Language: Tokelauan (a Polynesian lan- 
guage) and English 

Literacy: probably high 

Government 

Official name: Tokelau 



244 



Tonga 



Type: New Zealand Associated Territory; 
Tokelauans are British subjects and New 
Zealand citizens; administered under the 
Tokelau Islands Act of 1948 as amended in 
1970 

Capital: no capital each atoll has its own 
administrative center 

Branches: the Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
New Zealand is empowered to appoint an 
Administrator to the region; the powers of 
the Administrator are delegated to the Offi- 
cial Secretary at the Office of Tokelau Af- 
fairs, Apia, Western Somoa 

Political subdivisions: each village has a 
Council of Elders (Taupulega) made up of 
heads of family groups together with the 
commissioner (faipule) and the mayor 
(pulenuku); the commissioner administers 
the law and presides over the court 

Legal system: British and local statutes 

National holiday: 6 February (Waitangi 
Day) 

Government leaders: H. H. FRANCIS, Ad- 
ministrator (since February 1985); A. H. 
MACEY, Official Secretary, Office of 
Tokelau Affairs (since February 1985) 

Suffrage: universal adult 

Elections: elections for a commissioner and 
a mayor from each atoll held at three-year 
intervals 

Communists: probably none 

Economy 

Natural resources: negligible 

Agriculture: coconuts, copra; basic subsis- 
tence crops pulaka, breadfruit, pawpaw, 
bananas; pigs, poultry 

Fishing: ocean and lagoon fish and shellfish 
for local consumption 

Major industries: copra production, wood 
work, plaited craft goods, stamps, coins 



Electric power: 200 kW capacity (1985); .3 
million kWh produced (1985), 187 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $23,648(1982/3); copra, handi- 
crafts 

Imports: foodstuffs, building materials, fuel 
Major trade partner: New Zealand 

Budget: (1983/4) expenditures, $1,358,105; 
revenue, $208,419; New Zealand subsidy, 
$1,149,686 

Monetary conversion rate: New Zealand 
currency and the Tokelau souvenir coin are 
legal tender NZ$1. 88=US$1 (5 February 
1986); Western Samoan currency is also used 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Ports: no harbor facilities; off-shore anchor- 



200km Nuuta'au : Talahl 

Niualopulapu 



Airfields: none; lagoon landings by amphibi- 
ous aircraft from Samoa 

Telecommunications: telephone service 
links islands to each other and to Western 
Samoa (1985) 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of New Zealand 



South 
Pacific 
Ocean 



Vava'u 
Group 



Hl'tpti 
Group * _';/ 



NUKU ALOFA* .j 

Tongatapu 
Group 

Spr regional mip \ 



Minerva Reef not shown 



Land 

997 km 2 (169 islands, only 36 inhabited); 
smaller than New York City; 77% arable, 
13% forest, 3% pasture, 3% inland water, 4% 
other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 419 km (est.) 

People 

Population: 104,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.5% 

Nationality: noun Tongan(s); adjective 
Tongan 

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian; about 300 
Europeans 

Religion: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church 
claims over 30,000 adherents 

Language: Tongan, English 

Infant mortality rate: 6.4/1,000 (1983) 

Life expectancy: 58 

Literacy: 90-95%; compulsory education for 
children ages 6- 14 

Labor force: 75% engaged in agriculture; 
600 engaged in mining 



245 



Tonga (continued) 



Trinidad and Tobago 



Government 

Official name: Kingdom of Tonga 

Type: constitutional monarchy within the 
Commonwealth 

Capital: Nuku'alofa, on Tongatapu Island 

Political subdivisions: three main island 
groups (Tongatapu, Ha'apai, Vava'u) 

Legal system: based on English law 

Branches: executive King, Cabinet, and 
Privy Council; unicameral legislature Leg- 
islative Assembly composed of seven nobles 
elected by their peers, seven elected repre- 
sentatives of the people, eight Ministers of 
the Crown; the King appoints one of the 
seven nobles to be the speaker; judiciary 
Supreme Court, Magistrate's Court, Land 
Court 

Government leaders: Taufa'ahau TUPOU 
IV, King (since December 1965); Prince 
Fatafehi TU'IPELEHAKE), Premier (since 
December 1965) 

Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and 
all literate females over 21 

Elections: supposed to be held every three 
years; last held in April 1978 

Communists: none known 

Member of: ADB, Commonwealth, FAO, 
ESCAP, GATT (de facto), IFAD, ITU, South 
Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation, 
SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO 

Economy 

GNP: $65 million (1984), $580 per capita 

Natural resources: fish 

Agriculture: largely dominated by coconut 
and banana production, with subsistence 
crops of taro, yams, sweet potatoes, bread- 
fruit 

Major industry: tourism 



Electric power: 5,000 kW capacity (1985); 8 
million kWh produced (1985), 75 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: $7 million (1979); 65% copra, 8% 
bananas, 7% coconut products 

Imports: $29 million (1979); food, machin- 
ery, petroleum 

Major trade partners: exports 36% Austra- 
lia, 34% New Zealand, 14% US; imports 38% 
New Zealand, 31% Australia, 6% Japan, 5% 
Fiji (1979) 

Aid: economic commitments $27 million 
(1983); Western (non-US) countries, ODA 
and OOF (1970-81), $77 million 

Budget: (1981-82) revenues, 14,744,237 
pa'anga; expenditures, 14,735,833 pa'anga 

(est.) 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.0778 
pa'anga=US$l (February 1984) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 198 km sealed road (Tongatapu); 
74 km (Vava'u); 94 km unsealed roads usable 
only in dry weather 

Inland waterways: none 

Ports: 2 minor (Nuku'alofa, Neiafu) 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 2,608 telephones (1.4 
per 100 popl.); 65,000 radio sets; no TV sets; 
1 AM station; 1 ground satellite station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Land Force, Maritime Force 



Caribbean Sea 



Scarboroug 




PORT-OF.SPAIN 

Gulf of Paria 



Sc< regional map III 



Sengre Grande 

Trinidad 



Guayaguayare 



Land 

5,128 km 2 ; the size of Delaware; 41.9% farm 
(25.7% cultivated or fallow, 10.6% forest, 
4.1% unused or built on, and 1.5% pasture); 
58.1% grassland, forest, built on, wasteland, 
and other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 362 km 

People 

Population: 1,204,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 1.5% 

Nat ionality: noun Trinidadian(s), 
Tobagan(s); adjective Trinidadian, 
Tobagan 

Ethnic divisions: 43% black, 40% East In- 
dian, 14% mixed, 1% white, 1% Chinese, 1% 
other 

Religion: 36.2% Roman Catholic, 23.0% 
Hindu, 13.1% Protestant, 6.0% Muslim, 
21. 7% unknown 

Language: English (official), Hindi, French, 
Spanish 

Infant mortality rate: 197/1,000(1982) 
Life expectancy: men 65, women 70 
Literacy: 89% 



246 






Labor force: about 470,900 (est. 1984); 16.6% 
mining, quarrying, and manufacturing; 
22.7% commerce; 20.9% construction and 
utilities; 8.3% agriculture; 7.8% transporta- 
tion and communication; 23.7% other ser- 
vices (1983); 12% unemployment rate (1984 
est.) 

Organized labor: 40% of labor force (1984) 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Trinidad and 
Tobago 

Type: parliamentary democracy 
Capital: Port-of-Spain 

Political subdivisions: 8 counties (29 wards, 
Tobago is 30th) 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; constitution came into effect 1976; judi- 
cial review of legislative acts in the Supreme 
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 
August 

Branches: bicameral legislature (36-member 
elected House of Representatives and 31- 
member appointed Senate); executive is 
Cabinet led by the Prime Minister; judiciary 
is headed by the Chief Justice and includes a 
Court of Appeal, High Court, and lower 
courts 

Government leaders: George Michael 
CHAMBERS, Prime Minister (since 1981); 
Ellis Emmanuel Innocent CLARKE, Presi- 
dent (since 1976) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: elections to be held at intervals of 
not more than five years; last election held 9 
November 1981 

Political parties and leaders: People's Na- 
tional Movement (PNM), George Chambers; 
United Labor Front (ULF), Basdeo Panday; 
Organization for National Reconstruction 
(ONR), Karl Hudson-Phillips; Democratic 
Action Congress (DAC), Arthur Napoleon 
Raymond Robinson; Tapia House Move- 
ment, Michael Harris 



Voting strength: (1981 election)55% of reg- 
istered voters cast ballots; House of Repre- 
sentatives PNM, 26 seats; ULF, 8; DAC, 
the 2 Tobago seats 

Communists: People's Popular Movement 
(PPM), Michael Als; February 18 Movement 
(F/18), James Millette; Workers' Revolution- 
ary Committee (WRC), John Poon 

Other political pressure groups: National 
Joint Action Committee (NJAC), radical 
antigovernment black-identity organization; 
Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council, leftist 
organization affiliated with the World Peace 
Council; Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of 
Industry and Commerce; Trinidad and To- 
bago Labor Congress, moderate labor feder- 
ation; Council of Progressive Trade Unions, 
radical labor federation 

Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, 
FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, Interna- 
tional Coffee Agreement, ICAO, ICO, IDA, 
IDB Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, IWC Interna- 
tional Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, 
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

CNP: $8.6 billion (1984), $7,370 per capita; 

real growth rate (1984), -7.4% 

Natural resources: oil, gas, petroleum, as- 
phalt 

Agriculture: main crops sugar, cocoa, 
coffee, rice, citrus, bananas; largely depen- 
dent upon imports of food 

Fishing: catch 4,461 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: petroleum, chemicals, 
tourism, food processing, cement 

Electric power: 1,171,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 2.7 billion kWh produced (1985), 
2,275 kWh per capita 

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); petro- 
leum and petroleum products, ammonia, 
fertilizer, chemicals, sugar, cocoa, coffee, 
citrus; includes exports of oil under process- 
ing agreement 



Imports: $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1984); crude pe- 
troleum (33%), machinery, fabricated met- 
als, transportation equipment, manufac- 
tured goods, food, chemicals; includes im- 
ports under processing agreement 

Major trade partners: (1984 prelim.) ex- 
portsUS 56%, CARICOM 10%, UK 8%; 
imports US 37%, UK 10%, CARICOM 7% 

Aid: economic bilateral commitments, US, 
including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $355 million; 
(1970-83) other Western countries, ODA and 
OOF, $233 million 

Budget: (1984 prelim.) consolidated central 
government revenues, $2.7 billion; expendi- 
tures, $3.4 billion (current, $2.5 billion; capi- 
tal, $889 million) 

Monetary conversion rate: 3.60 Trinidad 
and Tobago dollars=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: minimal agricultural system near 
San Fernando ,-> 

Highways: 8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 
1,000 km improved earth, 3,000 km unim- 
proved earth 

Pipelines: 1,032 km crude oil; 19 km refined 
products; 904 km natural gas 



Ports: 1 major (Port-of-Spain), 8 minor 






Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 7 total, 5 usable; 3 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: excellent interna- 
tional service via tropospheric scatter links 
to Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 
1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 109,000 
telephones (9.6 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 3 FM, 5 
TV stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense 

Force, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 345,000; 
247,000 fit for military service 



247 



Tunisia 



200km 



Buone 



us.h 

AIQ.jr.vi. \ Medaerranean 
Sea 




See regional mp VII 



Land 

163,610 km 2 ; about the size of Missouri; 43% 
desert, waste, or urban; 28% arable and tree 
crop; 23% range and esparto grass; 6% forest 

Land boundaries: 1,408 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
12 nm 

Coastline: 1,143 km (includes offshore is- 
lands) 

People 

Population: 7,424,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.3% 

Nationality: noun Tunisian(s); adjective 
Tunisian 

Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% European, 
less than 1% Jewish 

Religion: 98% Muslim, 1% Christian, less 
than 1 % Jewish 

Language: Arabic (official); Arabic and 
French (commerce) 

Infant mortality rate: 83/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 60, women 63 
Literacy: about 62% 



Labor force: 1.9 million, 32% agriculture; 
15%-25% unemployed; shortage of skilled 
labor 

Organized labor: about 360,000 members 
claimed, roughly 20% of labor force; Gen- 
eral Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), 
quasi-independent of Destourian Socialist 
Party 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Tunisia 

Type: republic 
Capital: Tunis 

Political subdivisions: 18governorat.es 
(provinces) 

Legal system: based on French civil law 
system and Islamic law; constitution pat- 
terned on Turkish and US constitutions 
adopted 1959; some judicial review of legis- 
lative acts in the Supreme Court in joint ses- 
sion; legal education at Institute of Higher 
Studies and Superior School of Law of the 
University of Tunis 

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 
June 

Branches: executive dominant; unicameral 
legislative (National Assembly) largely advi- 
sory; judicial, patterned on French and Ko- 
ranic systems 

Government leaders: Habib BOURGUIBA, 
President (Prime Minister in 1956; President 
since 1957; President for Life since Novem- 
ber 1974); Mohamed MZALI, Prime Minis- 
ter (since April 1980) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Electionss: national election held every five 
years; last election held 1 November 1981 

Political parties and leaders: Destourian 
Socialist Party is official ruling party; two 
small parties Movement of Social Demo- 
crats and Movement of Popular Unity 
legalized in 1983; Communist Party legal- 
ized in 1981 



Voting strength: (1981 election) over 95% 
Destourian Socialist Party; 3.2% Social Dem- 
ocrats, under 1% Movement of Popular 
Unity, under 1% Communist Party 

Communists: a small number of nominal 
Communists, mostly students 

Member of: Af DB, Arab League, AIOEC, 
FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic Development 
Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead 
and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, 
IWC International Wheat Council, NAM, 
OAPEC, OAU, QIC, Regional Cooperation 
for Development, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $9.3 billion (1985 est), $1,280 per cap- 
ita (1985); 57% private consumption, 16% 
government consumption, 29% gross fixed 
capital formation; average annual real 
growth (1980-83), 4% 

Natural resources: oil, phosphates, iron, ore, 
lead, zinc 

Agriculture: main crops cereals (barley 
and wheat), olives, grapes, citrus fruits, and 
vegetables 

Major sectors: agriculture; industry min- 
ing (phosphate), energy (petroleum, natural 
gas), manufacturing (food processing and 
textiles), services (transport, telecommunica- 
tions, tourism, government) 

Electric power: 1,070,300 kW capacity 
(1985); 3.75 billion kWh produced (1985), 
510 kWh per capita 

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1985); 40% 
crude petroleum, 21% textiles, 21% phos- 
phates and chemicals, 18% other 

Imports: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1985) 

Major trade partners: France, Italy, FRG, 
Greece 

Tourism and foreign worker remittances: 
$825 million (1985) 



248 



Turkey 



Budget: (1985 prelim.) total revenues, $3.04 
billion; operating budget, $2.5 billion; capi- 
tal budget, $1.2 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 0.80 Tunisian 
dinar (TD)=US$1 (30 October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 2,089 km total; 503 1.435-meter 
km standard gauge; 1,586 km 1.000-meter 
gauge, 18 km 1.000-meter gauge double 
track 

Highways: 17,700 km total; 9,100 km bitu- 
minous; 8,600 km improved and 
unimproved earth 

Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 86 km refined 
products; 742 km natural gas 

Ports: 5 major, 14 minor; 2 petroleum, oils, 
and lubricants terminal 

Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 29 total, 27 usable; 13 with 
permanent-surface runways; 6 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: the system is above 
the African average; facilities consist of 
open-wire lines, multiconductor cable, and 
radio relay; key centers are afqis, Susah, 
Bizerte, and TQnis; 232,000 telephones (3.4 
per 100 popl.); 18 AM, 4 FM, 14 TV stations; 
4 submarine cables; ARABSAT satellite 
back-up control station under construction; 
coaxial cable to Algeria; radio-relay to Alge- 
ria, Libya, and Italy 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,794,000; 
1,002,000 fit for military service; about 
84,000 reach military age (20) annually 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1985, $284 million; 7.4% of cen- 
tral government budget 



400km 



Black Sea 




Mediterranean 
Sea 



S refionil mip VI 



Land 

780,576 km 2 ; twice the size of California; 
35% crop, 25% meadow and pasture, 23% 
forest, 17% other 

Land boundaries: 2,574 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm, 
except in Black and Mediterranean Seas, 
where it is 12 nm 

Coastline: 7,200 km 

People 

Population: 51,819,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.3% 

Nationality: noun Turk(s); adjective 
Turkish 

Ethnic divisions: 85% Turkish, 12% Kurd, 
3% other 

Religion: 98% Muslim (mostly Sunni), 2% 
other (mostly Christian and Jewish) 

Language: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Ara- 
bic 

Infant mortality rate: 15.3/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 57 
Literacy: 70% 



Labor force: 18. 1 million (1984); 58.8% agri- 
culture, 27.5% service, 11.9% industry and 
commerce; 16.5% surplus of unskilled labor 
(1984); about 1 million Turks work abroad 

(1983) 

Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Turkey 

Type: republican parliamentary democracy 

Capital: Ankara 

Political subdivisions: 67 provinces 

Legal system: derived from various conti- 
nental legal systems; constitution adopted in 
November 1982; legal education at Universi- 
ties of Ankara and Istanbul; accepts compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: Republic Day, 29 October 

Branches: executive President empowered 
to call new elections, promulgate laws 
(elected for a seven-year term); unicameral 
legislature (400-member Grand National 
Assembly); independent judiciary 

Government leaders: Gen. Kenan EVREN, 
President (since 1982); Turgut OZAL, Prime 
Minister (since 1983) 

Suffrage: universal over age 21 

Elections: according to the 1982 Constitu- 
tion, elections to the Grand National Assem- 
bly to be held every five years; most recent 
election 6 November 1983 

Political parties and leaders: military lead- 
ers banned all traditional parties from taking 
part in the parliamentary election of No- 
vember 1983 and banned many prominent 
party leaders from taking part in politics for 
five to 10 years; three new parties allowed to 
take part in the election Motherland Party 
(ANAP), Turgut Ozal; Populist Party (PP), 
Necdet Calp; Nationalist Democracy Party 
(NDP), Ulk Soylemezoglu; additional par- 
ties permitted to take part in local elections 
in March 1984 Social Democratcy Party 
(SODEP), Erdal inon; Correct Way Party 



249 



Turkey (continued) 



(CWP), Husamettin Cinderuk; SODEP and 
PP merged in 1985 to form the Social Demo- 
cratic Populist Party (SHP) under Aydin 
Gr"kan; Democratic Left Party (DLP) 
founded in 1985 under Rahsan Ecevit; 

Voting strength: (1983 election) Grand Na- 
tional Assembly Motherland Party, 211 
seats; Populist Party, 117 seats; Nationalist 
Democracy Party, 71 seats; as of end of 
1985, Grand National Assembly Mother- 
land Party, 207 seats; Social Democratic 
Populist Party, 82 seats; National Democ- 
racy Party, 53 seats; Democratic Left Party, 
4 seats; independents, 46 seats; vacant, 8 
seats 

Communists: strength and support negligi- 
ble 

Member of: ASSIMER, Council of Europe, 
EC (associate member), ECOSOC, FAO, 
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, 
IDB Islamic Development Bank, IEA, 
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, 
ITU, NATO, OECD, QIC, Economic Coop- 
eration Organization, UN, UNESCO, UPU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $50.0 billion (1984), $990 per capita; 
5.9% real growth 1983, 4.6% average annual 
real growth 1974-84 

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chro- 
mium, mercury, copper, borate, oil 

Agriculture: main products cotton, to- 
bacco, cereals, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, and 
livestock products; self-sufficient in food in 
average years; an illegal producer of opium 
poppy for the international drug trade 

Major industries: textiles, food processing, 
mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron min- 
erals), steel, petroleum 

Crude steel: 3.0 million tons produced 
(1984) 

Electric power: 8,685,500 kW capacity 
(1985); 34.238 billion kWh produced (1985), 
667 kWh per capita 



Exports: $7,134 million (f.o.b., 1984); cotton, 
tobacco, fruits, nuts, metals, livestock prod- 
ucts, textiles, clothing, cement, leather, glass, 
ceramics 

Imports: $10,757 million (c.i.f., 1984); crude 
oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals, 
Pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, rubber, min- 
eral fuels, fertilizers, chemicals 

Major trade partners: (1984) exports 
17.9% FRG, 13.1% Iraq, 10.5% Iran, 7.0% 
Italy, 5.3% Saudi Arabia; imports 14.3% 
Iran, 10.9% FRG, 9.9% US, 8.7% Iraq, 6.1% 
Libya 

Budget: (FY84) revenues, $7.55 billion; ex- 
penditures, $10.1 billion; deficit, $2.5 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 551.55 Turkish 
liras=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 8,193 km 1.435-meter standard 
gauge; 204 km double track; 109 km electri- 
fied 

Highways: 49,615 km total; 26,915 km bitu- 
minous; 16,500 km gravel or crushed stone; 
4,000 km improved earth; 2,200 km un- 
improved earth 

Inland waterways: approx. 1,200km 

Pipelines: 1,288 km crude oil; 2,145 km re- 
fined products 

Ports: 4 major, 8 secondary, 16 minor 
Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 120 total, 104 usable; 62 with 
permanent-surface runways; 3 with run- 
ways over 3,660 m, 27 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 26 with runways 1,220- 
2,439m 

Telecommunications: fair domestic and 
international systems; trunk radio-relay net- 
work; 2.66 million telephones (5.5 per 100 
popl.); 16 AM, 27 FM, 252 TV stations; 2 
satellite ground station antennas, 1 subma- 
rine telephone cable 



Defense Forces 

Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, 
Gendarmerie 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
12,685,000; 7,507,000 fit for military service; 
about 533,000 reach military age (20) annu- 
ally 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $2.3 billion; 17% of central 
government budget 



250 



Turks and Caicos Islands 



North Atlantic 
Ocean 



Caicos 

Islands 




CockburrvJ GRAND TURK* 
Harbour* (Cockburnflx' 
Town | J, 



""' 



ri. 
Turks 

Islands 



North Atlantic 
Ocean 



See regional map III 



Land 

430 km 2 ; about two-thirds the size of New 
York City; more than 30 islands, including 8 
inhabited; largest island is Grand Caicos 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm fishing zone) 

People 

Population: 7,436 (1980) 

Ethnic division: majority of African descent 

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Bap- 
tist, Methodist, Church of God, Seventh-day 
Adventist 

Language: English (official) 

Infant mortality rate: 24.4/1,000 (1981/82) 

Literacy: about 99% 

Labor force: some subsistence agriculture; 
majority engaged in fishing and tourist in- 
dustries 

Organized labor: St. George's Industrial 
Trade Union (Cockburn Harbor), 250 mem- 
bers 

Government 

Official name: Turks and Caicos Islands 

Type: British dependent territory; constitu- 
tion introduced in 1976 



Capital: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town) 
Political subdivisions: 3 districts 

Legal system: probably based on English 
common law 

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 31 
May 

Branches: executive, bicameral legislature 
(Executive Council, 14-member Legislative 
Council), judicial (Supreme Court) 

Government leader: Nathaniel FRANCIS, 
Chief Minister (since March 1985); Chris- 
topher J. TURNER, Governor (since 1982) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18 

Elections: last 1984 for 1 1 Legislative Coun- 
cil seats 

Political parties and leaders: People's Dem- 
ocratic Movement (PMD), Oswald Skip- 
pings; Progressive National Party (PNP), 
Nathaniel Francis 

Voting strength: PDM, 3 seats, PNP, 8 seats 
Communist: none known 

Economy 

GDP: $15 million, per capita GDP $2,020 

(1980) 

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch 

Agriculture: corn, beans 

Fishing: catch 1,050 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: fishing, tourism; formerly 
produced salt by solar evaporation 

Exports: $2.5 million (1982); crawfish, dried 
and fresh conch, conch shells 

Imports: $20.9 million (1982); foodstuffs, 
drink, tobacco, clothing 

Major trade partners: US (lobster, conch, 
tourism) and UK 



Budget: revenues, $5.9 million; expendi- 
tures, $7.2 million (1981/82) 

Monetary conversion rate: uses the US dol- 
lar 

Fiscal year: probably calendar 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 121 km, including 24 km tarmac 

Ports: 4 major (Grand Turk, Salt Cay, 
Providenciales, Cockburn Harbor) 

Civil air: Air Turks and Caicos (passenger 
service) and Turks Air Ltd. (cargo service) 

Airfields: 8 total, 7 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 4 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair cable and radio 
services; 1,400 telephones (16.9 per 100 
popl.); 1 AM station; 2 submarine cables, 1 
satellite ground station 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of the United 
Kingdom 

Branches: police 






251 



Tuvalu 

(formerly Ellice Islands) 






Nanurtea 1 50 km 

Niutao 



Nanumanya 
Hui 



, Vailupu 



Nukuleiaug 

FUNAFUTI' -f 

Funafuti 

South 
Pacific 

Ocean Nukulaelae 



S*f regional map X 



NOTE: On 1 October 1975, by Constitu- 
tional Order, the Ellice Islands were for- 
mally separated from the British colony of 
Gilbert and Ellice Islands, thus forming 
the colony of Tuvalu. The remaining is- 
lands in the former Gilbert and Ellice Is- 
lands Colony are now named Kiribati. 
Tuvalu includes the islands of 
Nanumanga, Nanumea, Nui, Niutao, 
Vaitupu, and the four islands of the 
Tuvalu group formerly claimed by the 
United States Funafuti, Nukufetau, 
Nukulaelae, and Niulakita 

Land 

26 km 2 ; less than one-half the size of Man- 
hattan; low-lying atolls composed of coral 
reefs 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 24 km 

People 

Population: 8,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.7% 

Nationality: noun Tuvaluans(s); adjec- 
tive Tuvaluan 

Ethnic divisions: 96% Polynesian 

Religion: Christian, predominantly Protes- 
tant 



Language: Tuvaluan, English 
Infant mortality rate: 42/1,000(1979) 
Life expectancy: men 57, women 60 
Literacy: less than 50% 

Government 

Official name: Tuvalu 

Type: independent state with special 
"membership" in the Commonwealth, rec- 
ognizing Elizabeth II as head of state 

Capital: Funafuti 

Political subdivisions: 8 island councils on 
the permanently inhabited islands 

Branches: executive Prime Minister and 

Cabinet; unicameral legislature 

12- member House of Parliament judicial 

High Court, 8 island courts with limited jur- 

isdication 

Government leaders: Dr. Tomasi PUAPUA, 
Prime Minister (since September 1981); Sir 
Fiatau Penitala TEO, Governor General 
(since October 1978) 

Elections: last general election September 
1985, next scheduled for September 1989 

Political parties: none 

Member of: ESCAP (associate member), 
GATT (de facto), SPF, SPC, UPU 

Economy 

GNP: $4 million (1984), $450 per capita 

Agriculture: limited; coconut palms, copra 
Major industry: copra 

Electric power: 2,600 kW capacity (1985); 3 
million kWh produced (1985), 375 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: copra $26,789 (1981) 

Imports: $2.8 million (1981); food and min- 
eral fuels 



Major trade partners: UK, Australia 

Aid: economic commitments $4.2 million 
(1983); Western (non-US) countries, ODA 
(1970-79), $22 million 

Budget: (1983 est.) revenues, $2.59 million; 
expenditures, $3.6 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.44 Australian 
dollars=US$l (6 February 1986) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 8 km gravel 

Inland waterways: none 

Ports: 2 minor (Funafuti, Nukufetau) 

Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 1 usable with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 1 AM station; about 
300 radio telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 
4,000 radio sets 






Uganda 




Sec regional map VII 



Land 

235,885 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Oregon; 
45% forest, wood, and grass; 21% inland wa- 
ter and swamp, including territorial waters 
of Lake Victoria; about 21% cultivated; 13% 
national park, forest, and game reserve 

Land boundaries: 2,680 km 

People 

Population: 15,158,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.1% 

Nationality: noun Ugandan(s); adjective 
Ugandan 

Ethnic divisions: 99% African, 1% Euro- 
pean, Asian, Arab 

Religion: 33% Roman Catholic, 33% Protes- 
tant, 16% Muslim, rest indigenous beliefs 

Language: English (official); Luganda and 
Swahili widely used; other Bantu and Nilotic 
languages 

Infant mortality rate: 92/1,000(1985) 
Life expectancy: men 48, women 50 
Literacy: 52.3% 

Labor force: estimated 4.5 million; about 
250,000 in paid labor; remainder in subsis- 
tence activities 

Organized labor: 125,000 union members 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Uganda 

Type: republic 
Capital: Kampala 

Political subdivisions: 10 provinces and 34 
districts 

Legal system: government plans to restore 
system based on English common law and 
customary law to reinstitute a normal judi- 
cial system; legal education at Makerere 
University, Kampala; accepts compulsory 
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 Oc- 
tober 

Branches: present government, which as- 
sumed power in January 1986, consists of a 
National Resistance Council headed by the 
President; the constitution has been 
suspended and the unicameral legislature 
(National Assembly) has been dissolved 

Government leader: Yoweri Kaguta 
MUSEVENI, Head of State and Chairman 
of the National Resistance Council (since 
January 1986) 

Suffrage: universal adult 
Elections: none scheduled 

Political parties: Uganda Patriotic Move- 
ment (UPM), Ugandan People's Congress 
(UPC), Democratic Party (DP), Conserva- 
tion Party (CP) 

Voting strength: (December 1980 election) 
National Assembly UPC, 74; DP, 51; other, 1 

Other political parties or pressure groups: 
Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA), 
Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM), Fed- 
eral Democratic Movement of Uganda 
(FEDEMU), Uganda National Rescue Front 
(UNRF) 

Communists: possibly a few sympathizers 

Member of: Af DB, Commonwealth, FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 



ICO, IDA, IDE Islamic Development 
Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, QIC, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $5.9 billion in 1983 (est), approxi- 
mately $220 per capita; real growth rate 
5.0% (1983/84 est.) 

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone 

Agriculture: main cash crop coffee 
(180,600 metric tons produced in 1983/84, 
est.); other cash crops cotton, tobacco, tea, 
sugar, fish, livestock 

Major industries: agricultural processing 
(textiles, sugar, coffee, plywood, beer), ce- 
ment, copper smelting, corrugated iron 
sheet, shoes, fertilizer 

Electric power: 200,000 kW capacity (1985); 
438 million kWh produced (1985), 29 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $380 million (f.o.b., 1983/84 est.); 
coffee (98%), cotton, tea 

Imports: $509 million (c.i.f., 1983/84 est.); 
petroleum products, machinery, cotton 
piece goods, metals, transport equipment, 
food 

Major trade partners: exports 31% US, 
12% UK, 10% France; imports 32% Kenya, 
11% UK, 11%FRG(1983) 

Budget: current receipts 7.7% of GDP 
(FY83/84); expenditures, 6.4% of GDP; cap- 
ital expenditures, 1 . 1 % of GDP 

Monetary conversion rate: 1,400 Uganda 
shillings=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 

Communications 

Railroads: 1,300 km, 1.000-meter gauge sin- 
gle track 

Highways: 30,500 km total; 3,500 km paved; 
7,000 km crushed stone, gravel, and laterite; 
remainder earth roads and tracks 



253 



Uganda (continued) 



United Arab Emirates 



Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake 
Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake 
Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; princi- 
pal inland water ports are at Jinja and Port 
Bell, both on Lake Victoria 

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 39 total, 34 usable; 5 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 3 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: fair system with 
radio-relay and radio communications sta- 
tions in use; 61,600 telephones (0.5 per 100 
popl.); 9 AM, no FM, 9 TV stations; 1 Atlan- 
tic Ocean INTELSAT station 

Defense Forces 

Branches: new government plans to reorga- 
nize national army; formerly, the defense 
forces consisted of the Uganda National Lib- 
eration Army (including army and air force) 
and a paramilitary Police Special Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 
3,316,000; about 1,785,000 fit for military 
service 



Persian Gulf 



R'M.1. 
. Khayrr 

Umm al Qaywayn. 
Aih Shiriq.h,/'Aj min l 




Boundary representation 
not necessarily authonlat 

See rtfionil nup VI 



Land 

83,600 km 2 ; the size of Maine; almost all 
desert, waste, or urban 

Land boundaries: 1,094 km (does not in- 
clude boundaries between adjacent UAE 
states) 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): to 
agreed center boundaries or median lines 

Coastline: 1,448 km 

People 

Population: 1,326,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3. 1 % 

Nationality: Noun Emirian(s), adjective 
Emirian 

Ethnic divisions: Emirian 19%, other Arab 
23%, South Asian 50% (fluctuating), other 
expatriates (includes Westerners and East 
Asians) 8%; fewer than 20% of the popula- 
tion are UAE citizens (1982) 

Religion: Muslim 96%; Christian, Hindu, 
and other 4% 

Language: Arabic (official); Farsi and 
English widely spoken in major cities; Hindi, 
Urdu 

Infant mortality rate: 44/1,000(1983) 

Life expectancy: men 68, women 73 
254 



Literacy: 56.3% est. 

Labor force: 567,000 (1984 est.); 85% indus- 
try and commerce, 5% agriculture, 5% ser- 
vices, 5% government; 80% of labor force is 
foreign 

Government 

Official name: United Arab Emirates (com- 
posed of former Trucial States) 

Member states: Abu Dhabi, 'Ajman, 
Dubayy, Al Fujayrah, Ra's al Khaymah, Ash 
Shariqah, Umm al Qaywayn 

Type: federation; constitution signed De- 
cember 1971, which delegated specified 
powers to the UAE central government and 
reserved other powers to member 
shaykhdoms 

Capital: Abu Dhabi 

Legal system: secular codes are being intro- 
duced by the UAE Government and in sev- 
eral member shaykhdoms; Islamic law re- 
mains influential 

National holiday: 2 December 

Branches: executive Supreme Council of 
Rulers (seven members), from which a Presi- 
dent and Vice President are elected; Prime 
Minister and Council of Ministers; unicam- 
eral legislature Federal National Council; 
judicial Union Supreme Court 

Government leaders: Shaykh Zayid bin Sul- 
tan Al NUHAYYAN of Abu Dhabi, Presi- 
dent (since December 1971); Shaykh Rashid 
ibn Sa'id Al MAKTUM of Dubayy, Vice 
President (since 1971) and Prime Minister 
(since April 1979) 

Suffrage: none 
Elections: none 

Political or pressure groups: none; a few 
small clandestine groups are active 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
GATT (de facto), GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, 
IDA, IDE Islamic Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 






United Kingdom 



INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, QIC, 
OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $28.2 billion (1984 est), $24,000 per 

capita 

Natural resources: oil and natural gas; oil 
production in 1984, 1.1 million b/d 

Agriculture: food imported; some dates, 
alfalfa, vegetables, fruit, tobacco raised 

Electric power: 6,015,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 15.807 billion kWh produced (1985), 
12,300 kWh per capita 

Exports: $14.1 billion (f.o.b., 1984); $12.3 
billion in crude oil, $1.8 billion consisting 
mostly of gas, reexports, dried fish, dates 

Imports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1984); food, con- 
sumer and capital goods 

Major trade partners: Japan, EC, US 

Budget: (1984) current expenditures, $3.7 
billion; development, $0.2 billion; revenue, 
$3.9 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 3.671 UAE 
dirhams=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 2,000 km total; 1,800 km bitumi- 
nous, 200 km gravel and graded earth 

Pipelines: 830 km crude oil; 870 km natural 
gas, including natural gas liquids 

Ports: 7 major, 25 minor 

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 42 total, 31 usable; 19 with 
permanent-surface runways; 5 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 4 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 6 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 



Telecommunications: adequate system of 
radio-relay and coaxial cable; key centers 
are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 281,000 tele- 
phones (25.0 per 100 popl.); 8 AM, 3 FM, 9 
TV stations; 3 INTELSAT stations with 1 
Atlantic and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; Arab 
satellite station under construction; subma- 
rine cable to Qatar and Bahrain; planed sub- 
marine cables to India and Pakistan; tropo- 
spheric scatter to Bahrain; radio-relay to 
Saudi Arabia 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Central 
Military Command, Federal Police Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 549,000; 
381,000 fit for military service 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
December 1984, $1.9 billion; 45% of central 
government budget 






300km 



^'Shetland 
' Islands 



Hgbridts 




English Channel 



See r f f iontl map V 



Land 

243,977 km 2 ; slightly smaller than Oregon; 
50% meadow and pasture, 30% arable, 12% 
waste or urban, 7% forest, 1% inland water 

Land boundaries: 360 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(fishing 200 nm) 

Coastline: 12,429 km 

People 

Population: 56,458,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.1% 

Nationality: noun Briton(s), British (collec- 
tive pi.); adjective British 

Ethnic divisions: 81.5% English, 9.6% Scot- 
tish, 2.4% Irish, 1.9% Welsh, 1.8% Ulster, 
0.8% other; West Indian, Indian, Pakistani 
2% 

Religion: 27.0 million Anglican, 5.3 million 
Roman Catholic, 2.0 million Presbyterian, 
760,000 Methodist, 450,000 Jewish (regis- 
tered) 

Language: English, Welsh (about 26% of 
population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic 
(about 60,000 in Scotland) 

Infant mortality rate: 10.1/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 74 



255 



United Kingdom (continued) 



Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: (1985) 27.58 million; 23% man- 
ufacturing and construction, 49.4% services, 
9.5% self-employed, 10.4% government, 
1.2% agriculture; 13.1% unemployed (No- 
vember 1985) 

Organized labor: 40% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland 

Type: constitutional monarchy 
Capital: London 

Political subdivisions: 54 counties in Eng- 
land and Wales, 12 regions in Scotland and 
islands area, 26 districts in Northern Ireland 

Legal system: common law tradition with 
early Roman and modern continental influ- 
ences; no judicial review of Acts of Parlia- 
ment; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, 
with reservations 

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 
June 

Branches: legislative authority resides in 
Parliament (House of Lords, House of Com- 
mons); executive authority lies with collec- 
tively responsible Cabinet led by Prime 
Minister; House of Lords is supreme judicial 
authority and highest court of appeal 

Government leader: ELIZABETH II, 
Queen (since 1952); Margaret THATCHER, 
Prime Minister (since 1979) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: at discretion of Prime Minister 
but must be held before expiration of a five- 
year electoral mandate; last election held 9 
June 1983 

Political parties and leaders: Conservative, 
Margaret Thatcher; Labor, Neil Kinnock; 
Social Democratic, David Owen; Commu- 
nist, Gordon McLennan; Scottish National, 
Donald Stewart; Plaid Cymru, Dafydd 
Wigley; Official Unionist, James Molyneaux; 



Democratic Unionist, Ian Paisley; Social 
Democratic and Labor, John Hume; Provi- 
sional Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams; Alliance, 
John Cushnahan; Liberal, David Steel 

Voting strength: (1983 election) House of 
Commons Conservative, 394 seats (42.4%); 
Labor, 210 seats (27.6%); Social Democratic- 
Liberal Alliance, 23 seats (18 Liberal, 7 SDP) 
(25.4%); Scottish National Party, 2 seats; 
Plaid Cymru (Welsh Nationalist), 2 seats; 
Ulster (Official) Unionist (Northern Ireland), 
10 seats; Ulster Democratic Unionist (North- 
ern Ireland), 3 seats; Ulster Popular Unionist 
(Northern Ireland), 2 seats; Social Demo- 
cratic and Labor (Northern Ireland), 1 seat; 
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland), 1 seat 

Communists: 15,961 

Other political or pressure groups: Trades 
Union Congress, Confederation of British 
Industry, National Farmers' Union, Cam- 
paign for Nuclear Disarmament 

Member of: ADB, CENTO, Colombo Plan, 
Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ELDO, 
ESCAP, ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, 
ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDE Inter- 
American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, 
IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and 
Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, 
ITU, IWC International Whaling Com- 
mission, IWC International Wheat Coun- 
cil, NATO, OECD, UN, UPU, WEU, WHO, 
WIPO, W?4O, WSG 

Economy 

GNP: $426.3 billion (1984), $7,640 per cap- 
ita; 60.3% consumption, 17.1% investment, 
21.6% government; 0.0% stockholding, 
1.0% net foreign balance, real growth 2.0% 
(1984) 

Natural resources: coal, oil, gas (North Sea), 
tin, limestone, iron, salt, clay, chalk, gyp- 
sum, lead, silica 

Agriculture: mixed farming predominates; 
main products wheat, barley, potatoes, 
sugar beets, livestock, dairy products; 62.1% 
self-sufficient (1983); dependent on imports 
for more than half of consumption of refined 
sugar, butter, oils and fats, bacon and ham 



Fishing: catch 846,535 metric tons (1983); 
imports 707,000 metric tons (1983), exports 
379,000 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: machinery and transport 
equipment, metals, food processing, paper 
and paper products, textiles, chemicals, 
clothing 

Crude steel: 15.2 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984); 267 kg per capita (1984); 23.6 
million tons capacity (1984) 

Electric power: 95,533,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 292.661 billion kWh produced 
(1985), 5,186 kWh per capita 

Exports: $94.2 billion (f.o.b., 1984); manu- 
factured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, 
semifinished goods, transport equipment 

Imports: $105.2 billion (c.i.f., 1984); manu- 
factured goods, machinery, semifinished 
goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods 

Major trade partners: exports 44.8% EC 
(10.6% FRG, 10% France, 8.7% Nether- 
lands), 14.4% US, 2.3% Communist (1984); 
imports 44.7% EC (14.1% FRG, 7.8% 
Netherlands, 7.5% France), 11.9% US, 2.6% 
Communist (1984) 

Aid: donor ODA and OOF economic aid 
commitments (1970-82) $14.4 billion 

Budget: national and local government reve- 
nues (FY85 est), $208.6 billion; expendi- 
tures, $221.2 billion; deficit $12.6 billion 

Monetary conversion rate: 0.701 pound 
sterling=US$l (December 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March 

Communications 

Railroads: Great Britain 17,249 km total; 
British Railways (BR) operates 16,964 km 
1.435-meter standard gauge (3,749 km elec- 
trified, 12,591 km double or multiple track), 
and 19 km 0.597-meter gauge; several addi- 
tional small standard-gauge and narrow- 
gauge lines are privately owned and oper- 
ated; Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) 
operates 332 km 1.600-meter gauge, 190 km 
double track 



256 



United States 



Highways: United Kingdom, 362,982 km 
total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved (in- 
cluding 2,573 km limited-access divided 
highway); Northern Ireland, 23,499 km 
(22,907 paved, 592 km gravel) 

Inland waterways: 3,219 km publicly 
owned; 605 km major commercial routes 

Pipelines: 933 km crude oil, almost all insig- 
nificant; 2,993 km refined products; 12,800 
km natural gas 

Ports: 9 major, 15 secondary, 190 minor 
Civil air: 618 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 548 total, 345 usable; 246 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 37 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 137 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: modern, efficient 
domestic and international system; 29.5 mil- 
lion telephones (52.5 per 100 popl.); excel- 
lent countrywide broadcast systems with 
210 AM, 436 FM, 2,736 TV stations; 35 coax- 
ial submarine cables; 4 earth satellite stations 
with a total of 9 antennas 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Royal Army, Royal Navy, Royal 
Air Force, Royal Marines 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
14,039,000; 11,906,000 fit for military ser- 
vice; no conscription 

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 
March 1985, $24.1 billion; about 19.7% of 
central government budget 



North 
Atlantic 
Ocean 




See regional map II 



This "Factsheet" on the US is provided 
solely as a service to those wishing to make 
rough comparisons of foreign country data 
with a US "yardstick." Information is from 
US open sources and publications and in 
no sense represents estimates by the US 
Intelligence Community. 

Land 

9,372,614 km 2 (contiguous US plus Alaska 
and Hawaii); 32% forest; 27% grazing and 
pasture; 19% cultivated; 22% waste, urban, 
and other 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm 
(200 nm exclusive economic zone); includes 
Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, American 
Samoa, Guam, Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, 
Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, Rowland and 
Baker Islands, Northern Marianas 

Coastline: 19,924 km 

People 

Population: 240,856,000 (July 1986), aver- 
age annual growth rate 0.9% 

Ethnic divisions: 83.1% white; 11.6% black; 
6.448% Spanish origin; 0.622% American 
Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut; 0.357% Chinese; 
0.343% Filipino; 0.31% Japanese, 0.1595% 
other Asian; 0. 156% Korean; 0. 1 15% Viet- 
namese (1980) 



Religion: total membership in religious bod- 
ies 139.604 million; Protestant 76.754 mil- 
lion, Roman Catholic 52.089 million, Jewish 
5.725 million, other religions 5.036 million; 
60% of the population processes a religious 
affiliation (1982) 

Language: predominantly English; sizable 
Spanish-speaking minority 

Infant mortality rate: 10.6/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 71.6, women 76.3 
Literacy: 99% 

Labor force: 115.24 million (includes 1.708 
million members of the armed forces in the 
US); unemployment rate 7.2% ('985); 8,291 
million unemployed (October 1985) 

Organized labor: approximately 17.3 mil- 
lion members; 18% of civilian labor force 

(1985) 

Government 

Official name: United States of America 

Type: federal republic; strong democratic 
tradition 

Capital: Washington, D. C. 

Political subdivisions: 50 states and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia; dependencies include 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, Vir- 
gin Islands, American Samoa, Wake and 
Midway Islands, Johnston Atoll, and King- 
man Reef; under UN trusteeship Caroline, 
Marshall, and Northern Mariana Islands 

Legal system: based on English common 
law; dual system of courts, state and federal; 
constitution adopted 1789; judicial review of 
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ juris- 
diction, with reservations 

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July 

Branches: executive (President), bicameral 
legislature (House of Representatives and 
Senate), and judicial (Supreme Court); 
branches, in principle, independent and 
maintain balance of power 



257 



United States (continued) 



Government leaders: Ronald REAGAN, 
President (since January 1981); George 
BUSH, Vice President (since January 1981) 

Suffrage: all citizens over age 18; not com- 
pulsory 

Elections: presidential, every four years 
(next November 1988); all members of the 
House of Representatives, every two years; 
one-third of members of the Senate, every 
two years 

Political parties and leaders: Republican 
Party, Frank J. Fahrenkopf, Jr., national 
chairman; Democratic Party, Paul G. Kirk, 
Jr., national committee chairman; several 
other groups or parties of minor political 
significance 

Voting strength: 40% voter participation 
(1982 congressional election); 53.3% voter 
participation (1984 presidential election); 
Republican Party (Ronald Reagan), 59% of 
the popular vote (525 electoral votes); Demo- 
cratic Party (Walter Mondale), 41% (13 elec- 
toral votes) 

Communists: Communist Party (claimed 
15,000-20,000 members), Gus Hall, general 
secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 
1,800 members); Jack Barnes, national secre- 
tary (1983) 

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, Bank of Interna- 
tional Settlements, CCC, CENTO, Colombo 
Plan, DAC, FAO, ESCAP, GATT, Group of 
Ten, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, 
ICEM, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDE Inter- 
American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, 
IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and 
Zinc Study Group, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, 
INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, IWC 
International Whaling Commission, IWC 
International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS, 
OECD, PAHO, SPG, UN, UPU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $3,662.8 billion (1984 est); $2,186.5 
billion (65%) personal consumption, $501.0 
billion (14.9%) private investment, $701.8 
billion (20.9%) government, - $25.9 billion 
(-.07%) net exports; $11,338 per capita; 
annual growth rate 6.8% (1984) 



Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, 
molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, baux- 
ite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, sil- 
ver, tungsten, zinc 

Agriculture: food grains, feed crops, oilbear- 
ing crops, cattle, dairy products 

Fishing: catch 4,143 thousand metric tons 
(1983); 13.0 Ib per capita consumption 
(1981); imports $4.173 billion (1981); exports 
$1.156 billion, (1981); est. value, $2.388 bil- 
lion (1981) 

Crude steel: 83.9 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984) 

Natural gas: 18.5 trillion cubic feet pro- 
duced (1984) 

Electric power: (public utilities only) 
705,961,000 kW capacity (1985); 2,679.857 
billion (net) kWh produced (1985), 1 1,220 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $17,034.2 million (f.o.b., 1985); 
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, 
agricultural products 

Imports: $31, 349.1 million (c.i.f., 1985); 
crude and partly refined petroleum, ma- 
chinery, transport equipment (mainly new 
automobiles) 

Major trade partners: exports $4,030 mil- 
lion Canada, $1,925.7 million Japan, 
$1,015.7 rr illion Mexico, $842.8 million UK, 
$651.4 million FRG (1985); imports 
$6,153.8 million Canada, $6,451.8 million 
Japan, $1,479.4 million Mexico, $1,300.1 
million UK, $1,807.5 million FRG (1985) 

Aid: obligations and loan authorizations, 
including Ex-Im (FY82), economic $11.2 
billion, military (FY82) $4.2 billion 

Budget: (1985) receipts, $763.768 billion; 
outlays, $930.635 billion; deficit, $123.3 bil- 
lion 

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September 

Communications 

Rai/roads:270,312km 



Highways: 6,365,590 km, including 88,641 
km expressways 

Inland waterways: est. 41,009 km of naviga- 
ble inland channels, exclusive of the Great 
Lakes 

Freight carried: rail 1,637.0 million metric 
tons, 1,345. 6 billion metric ton/km (1984); 
highways 987.53 billion metric ton/km 
(1984); inland water freight (excluding Great 
Lakes traffic) 582.81 million metric tons, 
358.29 billion metric ton/km (1984); air 
11,495 million metric ton/km (1984) 

Pipelines: petroleum, 883.3 billion metric 
ton/km, 1,049.6 million metric tons carried 

(1984) 

Ports: 44 handling 10.9 million metric tons 
or more per year 

Civil air: 2,960 commercial multiengine 
transport aircraft, including 2,724 jet, 185 
turboprop, 51 piston (1984) 

Airfields: 15,422 in operation (1981) 

Telecommunications: 182,558,000 tele- 
phones (791 telephones per 1,000 popl.); 
4,892 AM, 3,915 FM, 1,285 noncommercial 
FM stations (10,092 total); 796 commercial, 
300 noncommercial (public broadcasting), 
6,200 commercial cable TV broadcast sta- 
tions (7,296 total); 495 million radio and 150 
million TV receivers (1982) 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Department of the Army, De- 
partment of the Navy (including Marine 
Corps), US Coast Guard, Department of the 
Air Force 

Military manpower: 2,135,900 total; 
780,800, army; 594,500, air force; 564,800, 
navy; 196,600, marines (1984) 

Military budget: $266.151 billion (1984 
prop.); 29.1% of central government budget 
(planned, 1985) 



258 



Uruguay 




rtfo 

del* 

Pitta 
See rcfional mp IV 



Land 

176,215 km 2 ; the size of Washington (state); 
84% agricultural (73% pasture, 11% crop); 
16% forest, urban, waste, and other 

Land boundaries: 1,352 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 
nm 

Coastline: 660 km 

People 

Population: 2,947,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.4% 

Nationality: noun Uruguayan(s); adjec- 
tive Uruguayan 

Ethnic divisions: 88% white, 8% mestizo, 4% 
black 

Religion: 66% Roman Catholic (less than 
half adult population attends church regu- 
larly), 2% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 30% 
nonprofessing or other 

Language: Spanish 

Infant mortality rate: 32/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 67. 1, women 73.7 
Literacy: 94.3% 



Labor force: about 1.28 million (1981); 19% 
manufacturing; 19% government; 16% agri- 
culture; 12% commerce; 12% utilities, con- 
struction, transport, and communications; 
22% other services; unemployment more 
than 15% (1984 est.) 

Organized labor: Interunion Workers' As- 
sembly/National Workers' Confederation 
(PIT/CNT) Labor Federation 

Government 

Official name: Oriental Republic of Uru- 
guay 

Type: republic 
Capital: Montevideo 

Political subdivisions: 19 departments with 
limited autonomy 

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law 
system; most recent constitution 
implemented 1967; legal education at Uni- 
versity of the Republic in Montevideo; ac- 
cepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 
August 

Branches: executive, headed by President; 
bicameral National Congress (Senate and 
House of Deputies); national judiciary 
headed by Court of Justice 

Government leaders: Julio M. SANGUI- 
NETTI, President (since March 1985); 
Enrique E. TARIGO, Vice President (since 
March 1985) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: last November 1984; elections 
held every five years 

Political parties and leaders: National 
(Blanco) Party, Wilson Ferreira; Broad 
Front Coalition, Liber Seregni; Colorado 
Party, Julio Sanguinetti, Enrique Tarigo, 
Jorge Pacheco Areco; Communist Party (le- 
galized in March 1985), Rodney Arismendi; 
Civic Union, Humberto Ciganda; Radical 
Christian Union, leader unknown 



Voting strength: ( 1 984 elections) 4 1 % Colo- 
rado, 34.9% Blanco, 21.7% Broad Front, 
2.4% Civic Union, 0.5% Radical Christian 
Union 

Communists: 15,000-18,000 

Other political or pressure groups: National 
Liberation Movement (MLN) Tupamaros, 
leftist revolutionary terrorist group, granted 
amnesty in 1985 

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, 
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDE Inter-American 
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, 
LAIA, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, 
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG 

Economy 

GDP: $5.2 billion (1984), $1,800 per capita; 

89% consumption, 13% gross investment, 

2.0% foreign; real growth rate 1984, 

-1.8% 

Natural resources: soil, hydroelectric power 
(potential), minor minerals 

Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive 
livestock grazing; main crops wheat, rice, 
corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic 
foodstuffs 

Major industries: meat processing, wool and 
hides, textiles, footwear, leather apparel, 
tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining 

Electric power: 1,350,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 5.2 billion kWh produced (1985), 
1,771 kWh per capita 

Exports: $925 million (f.o.b., 1984); wool, 
hides, meat, textiles, leather products, fish, 
rice, furs 

Imports: $732 million (f.o.b., 1984); fuels 
and lubricants (37%), metals, machinery, 
transportation equipment, industrial chemi- 
cals 

Major trade partners: exports 22% LAIA; 
21% EC, 8% US, imports 39% LAIA (13% 
Brazil, 11% Argentina), 15% EC, 7% US 
(1981) 



Uruguay (continued) 



Vanuatu 

(formerly New Hebrides) 



Aid: economic commitments US autho- 
rized, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $78 mil- 
lion; other Western countries, ODA and 
OOF (1970-83) $151 million; Communist 
countries (1970-84), $65 million; military- 
US authorized (FY70-84) $39 million 

Budget: (1983 est.) revenues, $709 million; 
expenditures, $901 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 119.6 new 
pesos=US$l (November 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 3,000 km, all 1.435-meter stan- 
dard gauge (1.435 m) and government 
owned 

Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 
3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km earth 

Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by 
coastal and shallow-draft river craft 

Ports: 1 major (Montevideo), 9 minor 
Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 93 total, 89 usable; 14 with 
permanent-surface runways; 2 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 14 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: most modern facili- 
ties concentrated in Montevideo; new na- 
tionwide radio-relay network 337,000 tele- 
phones (11. 3 per lOOpopl.); 100 AM, 36 TV 
stations; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 682,000; 
554,000 fit for military service; no conscrip- 
tion 



200km 



4' 

a . 



Espiritu 



Malakuli 

Coral Sea 

4 

PORT-VILA 



South 
Pacific Ocean 



See region*! map \ 



TannaQ) 

oAnatom 



Land 

About 14,763 km 2 ; about the size of Con- 
necticut; over 80 islands 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm (200 nm 
exclusive economic zone); maritime limits 
measured from claimed "archipelagic 
baselines," which generally connect the out- 
ermost points of outer islands or drying reefs 

Coastline: about 2,528 km 

People 

Population: 136, 000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2% 

Nationality: noun Vanuatuan(s); adjec- 
tive Vanuatuan 

Ethnic divisions: 90% indigenous Melanes- 
ian; 8% French; remainder Vietnamese, 
Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders 

Religion: most at least nominally Christian 

Language: English and French (official); 
pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama) 

Life expectancy: 55 
Literacy: probably 10-20% 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Vanuatu 

Type: republic, formerly Anglo-French con- 
dominium of New Hebrides, independent 
30 July 1980 

Capital: Port-Vila 

Political subdivisions: four administrative 
districts 

Legal system: unified system being created 
from former dual French and British sys- 
tems 

Branch: unicameral legislature (39-member 
Parliament), elected November 1983 

Government leader: Father Walter Hadye 
LINI, Prime Minister (since 1980) 

Political parties and leaders: National Party 
(Vanuaaku Pati), Walter Lini, chairman 

Member of: ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, 
ITU, NAM, SPF, UN, WHO, WMO 

Economy 

GDP: $77 million (1984), average annual 

growth rate 5.0% (1985 est.) 

Natural resources: manganese, hardwood 
forests, cattle 

Agriculture: export crops of copra, cocoa, 
coffee, some livestock and fish production; 
subsistence crops of copra, taro, yams 

Fishing: catch, 2,470 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: fish-freezing, canneries, 
tourism 

Electric power: 10,000 kW capacity (1985); 
20 million kWh produced (1985), ISUkWh 
per capita 

Exports: $44 million (1984); 24% copra, 59% 
frozen fish, meat 



260 



Vatican City 



Imports: $66 million (1984); 18% food 
Aid: Australia (1980-83), $14.4 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 102.034 
vatu=US$l; 1.44 Australian dollars=US$l 
(6 February 1986) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: at least 240 km sealed or 
all-weather roads 

Inland waterways: none 
Ports: 2 minor (Port- Vila, Santo) 
Civil air: no major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 31 total, 25 usable; 2 with 
permanent-surface runways, 2 with run- 
ways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 2 AM stations; 2,400 
telephones (2.4 per 100 popl.); 1 ground sat- 
ellite station under construction 

Defense Forces 

Personnel: no military forces maintained; 
however, a paramilitary force is responsible 
for internal and external security 



250 meters 




See regional map V 



Land 

0.438 km 2 

Land boundaries: 3 km 

People 

Population: 737 (July 1986), average annual 
growth rate 0.1% 

Ethnic divisions: primarily Italians but also 
many other nationalities 

Religion: Roman Catholic 

Language: Italian, Latin, and various other 
languages 

Literacy: 100% 

Labor force: approx. 1,500; Vatican City 
employees divided into three categories 
executives, office workers, and salaried em- 
ployees 

Government 

Official name: State of the Vatican City 

Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state 
Capital: Vatican City 

Political subdivisions: Vatican City includes 
St. Peter's, the Vatican Palace and Museum, 
and neighboring buildings covering more 
than 100 acres; 13 buildings in Rome and 



Castel Gandolfo, the Pope's summer resi- 
dence, although outside the boundaries, en- 
joy extraterritorial rights 

Legal system: Canon laws of 1929 serve 
some of the functions of a constitution 

National holiday: 30 June 

Branches: the Pope possesses full executive, 
legislative, and judicial powers; he delegates 
these powers to the President of the Pontif- 
ical Commission, who is subject to pontifical 
appointment and recall; the administrative 
structure of the Roman Catholic Church is 
known as the Roman Curia; its most impor- 
tant temporal components include the Sec- 
retariat of State and Council for Public Af- 
fairs (which handles Vatican d'plomacy) and 
the Prefecture of Economic Affairs; the Col- 
lege of Cardinals act as chief papal advisers 

Government leader: JOHN PAUL II, Su- 
preme Pontiff (Karol WOJTYLA, elected 
Pope 16 October 1978) 

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 
years old 

Elections: Supreme Pontiff elected for life 
by College of Cardinals 

Communists: none known 

Other political or pressure groups: none 
(exclusive of influence exercised by other 
church officers in universal Roman Catholic 
Church) 

Member: IAEA, INTELSAT, ITU, IWC 
International Wheat Council, UPU, WIPO, 
WTO; permanent observer status at FAO, 
OAS, UN, and UNESCO 

Economy 

The Vatican City, seat of the Holy See, is 
supported financially by contributions 
(known as Peter's pence) from Roman Cath- 
olics throughout the world; some income 
derived from sale of Vatican postage stamps 
and tourist mementos, fees for admission to 
Vatican museums, and sale of publications; 
industrial activity consists solely of printing 
and production of a small amount of mosaics 
and staff uniforms; the banking and financial 



261 



Vatican City (continued) 



Venezuela 



activities of the Vatican are worldwide; the 
Institute for Religious Works (IOR) carries 
out fiscal operations and invests and trans- 
fers funds of Roman Catholic religious com- 
munities throughout the world; the Adminis- 
tration of the Patrimony of the Holy See 
manages the Holy See's capital assets; the 
Vatican announced an operating deficit of 
$25 million for 1981 

Electric power: 3,000 kW (standby) capacity 
(1985); power supplied by Italy 

Monetary conversion rate: the Vatican is- 
sues its own coinage, which is interchange- 
able with the Italian lira; 1,785.4 lira=US$ 1 
(February 1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: none (city streets) 
Civil air: no major transport aircraft 
Airfields: none 

Telecommunications: 2 AM and 2 FM sta- 
tions; 2,000-line automatic telephone ex- 
change 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of Italy 



400km 



Caribbean Sea 




Boundary represenlal 
not necessarily authoriU 1 



S regional mip IV 



Land 

912,050 km 2 ; more than twice the size of 
California; 21% forest; 18% pasture; 4% 
cropland; 57% urban, waste, or other 

Land boundaries: 4,181 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nirt exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 2,800 km 

People 

Population: 17,791,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.7% 

Nationality: noun Venezuelan(s); adjec- 
tive Venezuelan 

Ethnic divisions: 67% mestizo, 21% white, 
10% black, 2% Indian 

Religion: 96% nominally Roman Catholic, 
2% Protestant 

Language: Spanish (official); Indian dialects 
spoken by about 200,000 Amerindians in the 
remote interior 

Infant mortality rate: 36.2/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 64.0, women 69.0 
Literacy: 85.6% 



Labor force: 5.9 million (1985); 27% services; 
22% commerce; 16% agriculture; 16% man- 
ufacturing; 9% construction; 7% transporta- 
tion; 3% petroleum, utilities, and other; 
13.4% unemployment (1984) 

Organized labor: 32% of labor force 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Venezuela 

Type: republic 
Capital: Caracas 

Political subdivisions: 20 states, 1 federal 
district, 2 federal territories, and 72 island 
dependencies in the Caribbean 

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; 
constitution promulgated 1961; judicial re- 
view of legislative acts in Cassation Court 
only; dual court system, state and federal; 
legal education at Central University of 
Venezuela; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July 

Branches: executive (President), bicameral 
legislature (National Congress Senate, 
Chamber of Deputies), judiciary 

Government leader: Jaime LUSINCHI, 
President (since February 1984) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18, though rarely enforced 

Elections: every five years by secret ballot; 
last held December 1983; next national elec- 
tion for President and bicameral legislature 
scheduled for December 1988 

Political parties and leaders: Social Chris- 
tian Party (COPEI), Godof redo Gonzalez; 
Democratic Action (AD), Gonzalo Barrios; 
Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), 
Pompeyo Marquez (president), Freddy 
Mufioz (secretary general) 

Voting strength: (1983 election) 56.8% AD, 
34.5% COPEI, 4.17% MAS, 4.53% others 

Communists: 10,000 members (est.) 



262 



Vietnam 



Other political or pressure groups: 
FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business 
group 

Member of: Andean Pact, AIOEC, FAO, 
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, 
IDE Inter-American Development Bank, 
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, 
IWC International Wheat Council, LAIA, 
OAS, OPEC, PAHO, SELA, WFTU, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $47 billion (1985), $2,680 per capita 
(1985); 60.4% private consumption, 12.5% 
public consumption, 14.8% gross invest- 
ment, 12.3% foreign (1984); real growth rate 
0.4% (1985) 

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, 
iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hy- 
droelectric power 

Agriculture: main crops cereals, fruits, 
sugar, coffee, rice; an illegal producer of 
coca and cannabis for the international drug 
trade 

Fishing: catch 226,870 metric tons (1983); 
exports $12.4 million (1982), imports $30.0 
million (1982) 

Major industries: petroleum, iron-ore min- 
ing, construction, food processing, textiles, 
steel, aluminum, motor vehicles 

Crude steel: 2.8 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1985), 154 kg per capita 

Electric power: 13,000,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 37 billion kWh produced (1985), 
2, 135 kWh per capita 

Exports: $15.8 billion (f.o.b., 1984 prelim.); 
petroleum (94%) 

Imports: $7.3 billion (f.o.b., 1984) 

Major trade partners: imports 46% US, 
5.2% Japan, 5.2% FRG, 4.8% Italy; exports 
40.9% US, 10.3% Italy, 7% FRG (1984) 

Budget: revised 1984 revenues, $17.4 bil- 
lion; expenditures, $16.9 billion 



Monetary conversion rate: (official) 7.5 
bolivares=US$l (1 January 1986) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 439 km total; 260 km 1.435-meter 
standard gauge all single track, government 
owned; 179km 1.435-meter gauge, 
privately owned 

Highways: 77,785 km total; 22,780 km 
paved, 24,720 km gravel, 14,450 km earth 
roads, and 15,835 km unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco 
and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing 
vessels 

Pipelines: 6,370 km crude oil; 480 km re- 
fined products; 2,480 km natural gas 

Ports: 6 major, 17 minor 

Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 278 total, 254 usable; 107 with 
permanent-surface runways; 7 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 87 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: modern expanding 
telecom system; 1.44 million telephones (9.5 
per 100 popl.); 180 AM, 58 TV stations; 3 
submarine coaxial cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean 
satellite station with 2 antennas, and 3 do- 
mestic satellite stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air 
Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (Na- 
tional Guard), Marines, Coast Guard 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,323,000; 
3,283,000 fit for military service; 193,000 
reach military age (18) annually 



See regional map IX 




Boundary n'pn-senlalron 

not n.-i cs'..triiy antho'ital 



Con Dao 



Land 

329,707 km 2 ; the size of New Mexico; 50% 
forest; 14% cultivated; 36% urban, inland 
water, and other 

Land boundaries: 4,562 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands) 

People 

Population: 61,994,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Vietnamese (sing, and 
pi.); adjective Vietnamese 

Ethnic divisions: 85-90% predominantly 
Vietnamese; 3% Chinese; ethnic minorities 
include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, 
Cham; other mountain tribes 

Religion: Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Ro- 
man Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islamic, 
Protestant 

Language: Vietnamese (official), French, 
Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal languages 
(Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian) 

Infant mortality rate: 53/1,000 (1983) 
Life expectancy: men 62, women 66 



263 



Vietnam (continued) 



Literacy: 78% 

Labor force: approximately 29 million, not 
including military 

Government 

Official name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam 

Type: Communist state 
Capital: Hanoi 

Political subdivisions: 40 provinces, under 
central government control 

Legal system: based on Communist legal 
theory and French civil law system 

National holiday: 2 September 

Branches: bicameral legislature (Council of 
State, National Assembly); highly central- 
ized executive nominally subordinate to Na- 
tional Assembly 

Government leaders: LE DUAN, Secretary 
General, Communist Party (since December 
1976); TRUONG CHINH, Chairman, 
Council of State (since July 1981) 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: pro forma elections held for na- 
tional and local assemblies; last election for 
National Assembly held on 25 April 1976 

Political parties and leaders: Vietnam Com- 
munist Party (VCP), formerly known as the 
Vietnam Workers Party, headed by Le 
Duan 

Communists: probably more than 1 million 

Member of: ADB, CEMA, Colombo Plan, 
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, 
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, 
IRC, ITU, Mekong Committee, NAM, UN, 
UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WFTU, 
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $18. 1 billion, $300 per capita (1984) at 

official exchange rates of 12.1 dong=US$l 



Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manga- 
nese, bauxite, apatite, chromate, possible 
offshore oil deposits, forests 

Agriculture: main crops rice, rubber, 
fruits and vegetables; some corn, manioc, 
sugarcane; major food imports wheat, 
corn, dairy products 

Fishing: catch 539,000 metric tons(1984) 

Major industries: food processing, textiles, 
machinebuilding, mining, cement, chemical 
fertilizer, glass, tires 

Shortages: foodgrains, petroleum, capital 
goods and machinery, fertilizer 

Electric power: 1,800,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 5 billion kWh produced (1985), 83 
kWh per capita 

Exports: $763 million (1984); agricultural 
and handicraft products, coal, minerals, ores 

Imports: $1,823 million (1984); petroleum, 
steel products, railroad equipment, chemi- 
cals, medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain 

Major trade partners: exports USSR, East 
European countries, Japan, other Asian mar- 
kets; imports USSR, East Europe, Japan 

Aid: accurate data on aid since April 1975 
unification unavailable; estimated annual 
economic aid on annual basis is USSR, 
$600 trillion or more; East European coun- 
tries, $150 million; non-Communist coun- 
tries, $50 million; international institutions, 
$50 million; value of military aid deliveries 
since 1975 not available 

Monetary conversion rate: 12.1 dong=US$l 
(June 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 2,834 km total; 2,262 1.000-meter 
gauge, 130 km standard gauge, 230 km dual 
gauge, 212 km unoperable 

Highways: 41,191 km total; 5,471 km bitu- 
minous, 27,030 km gravel or improved 
earth, 8,690 km unimproved earth 



Pipelines: 150 km, refined products 

Inland waterways: about 17,702 km naviga- 
ble; more than 5,149 km navigable at all 
times by vessels up to 1.8-m draft 

Ports: 9 major, 23 minor 
Civil air: controlled by military 

Airfields: 217 total, 128 usable; 46 with 
permanent-surface runways; 12 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 28 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 
14,619,000; 9,290,000 fit for military service; 
687,000 reach military age (17) annually 

Military budget: no-expenditure estimates 
are available; military aid from the USSR 
has been so extensive that actual allocation 
of Vietnam's domestic resources to defense 
has not been indicative of total military ef- 
fort 



264 



Wallis and Futuna 



Western Sahara 
(formerly Spanish Sahara) 



50km 



MATA-UTU 

He (Ae 



South Pacific Ocean 



lie Futuna 

%g~ 

lie Aloli 
See regional map X 



Land 

About 207 km 2 ; about the size of New York 
City 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm (200 nm 
exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: about 129 km 

People 

Population: 14,000 (July 1986) average an- 
nual growth rate 2.5% 

Nationality: noun Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), 
or Wallis and Futuna Islanders; adjective 
Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna 
Islander 

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Polynesian 
Religion: largely Roman Catholic 

Government 

Official name: Territory of the Wallis and 
Futuna Islands 

Type: overseas territory of France 

Capital: Mata-Utu 

Political subdivisions: three districts 

Branches: territorial assembly of 20 mem- 
bers; popular election of one deputy to Na- 
tional Assembly in Paris and one senator 



Government leaders: Mirhel KUHN- 
MUNCH, Superior Administrator and Presi- 
dent of Territorial Assembly (since at least 
1984) 

Suffrage: universal adult 
Elections: every five years 

Economy 

Agriculture: dominated by coconut produc- 
tion, with subsistence crops of yams, taro, 
bananas 

Electric power: 1,000 kW capacity (1985); 1 
million kWh produced (1985), 83 kWh per 
capita 

Exports: negligible 

Imports: $3.4 million (1977); largely food- 
stuffs and some equipment associated with 
development programs 

Aid: (1978) France, European Development 
Fund, $2.6 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 127.05 Colonial 
Francs Pacifique(CFP)=US$l (December 
1982) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 100 km of improved road on 
Uvea Island (1977) 

Inland waterways: none 
Ports: 2 minor 

Airfields: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 148 telephones (1.2 
per lOOpopl.) 

Defense Forces 

Defense is the responsibility of France 



' El Aaiun 



Semara 



North I Bu Cru 

Atlantic / 

Ocean f 


Guelta 

Zemmiff 

4Ad Oakht* 
s Bif Oandus 



See regional map VII 



Land 

266,770 km 2 ; larger than Utah; nearly all 
desert 

Land boundaries: 2,086 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm 
(fishing 1 2 nm) 

Coast/we: 1,1 10 km 

People 

Population: 92,000 (July 1986), average an- 
nual growth rate 1.8% 

Nationality: noun Saharan(s), Moroccan(s); 
adjective Saharan, Moroccan 

Ethnic divisions: Arab and Berber 
Religion: Muslim 

Language: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan 
Arabic 

Literacy: among Moroccans, probably 
nearly 20%; among Saharans, perhaps 5% 

Labor force: 12,000; 50% animal husbandry 
and subsistence farming, 50% other 

Government 

Official name: Western Sahara 



265 



Western Sahara (continued) 



Western Samoa 



Type: legal status of territory and question 
of sovereignty unresolved territory parti- 
tioned between Morocco and Mauritania in 
April 1976, with Morocco acquiring the 
northern two-thirds, including the rich phos- 
phate reserves at Bu Craa; Mauritania, un- 
der pressure from the Polisario guerrillas, 
abandoned all claims to its portion in August 
1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector 
shortly thereafter and has since asserted ad- 
ministrative control there; the Polisario's 
government in exile seated as an OAU mem- 
ber in 1984, while guerrilla activities contin- 
ued in 1985 

Government leader: Muhamad 
ABDELAZIZ, President, Sahara Democratic 
Arab Republic (since October 1982), and 
secretary general, Polisario (since August 
1976) 

Economy 

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore 

Agriculture: practically none; some barley is 
grown in nondrought years; fruit and vege- 
tables in the few oases; food imports are es- 
sential; camels, sheep, and goats are kept by 
the nomadic natives; cash economy exists 
largely for the garrison forces 

Major industries: phosphate, fishing, and 
handicrafts 

Shortages: water 

Electric power: 60,000 kW capacity (1985); 
78 million kWh produced (1985), 857 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: in 1982, up to $5 million in phos- 
phates, all other exports valued valued at 
under $3 million 

Imports: up to $30 million (1982); fuel for 
fishing fleet, foodstuffs 

Major trade partners: Morocco claims ad- 
ministrative control over Western Sahara 
and controls all trade with the country; 
Western Sahara trade figures are included in 
overall Moroccan accounts 



Aid: previously received small amounts 
from Spain; Morocco is now the major 
source of support 

Monetary conversion rate: uses Moroccan 
dirham; 8.9 dirham=US$l (1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 6,100 km total; 1,350 km sur- 
faced, 4,750 km improved and unimproved 
earth roads and tracks 

Ports: 2 secondary (El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla) 

Airfields: 16 total, 16 usable; 3 with 
permanent-surface runways, 3 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 7 with runways 
1,220-2,439 m 



>. Sava/V \ 

\_^^ / ~O Apoltma 



South Pacific Ocean 



See rr t> i onil map X 



South Pacific Ocean 




Land 

2,934 km 2 ; the size of Rhode Island; com- 
prises of 2 large islands of Savai'i and Upolu 
and several smaller islands, including 
Manono and Apolima; 65% forest; 24% culti- 
vated; 11% industry, waste, or urban 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 403 km 

People 

Population: 165,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.8% 

Nationality: noun Western Samoan(s); 
adjective Western Samoa 

Ethnic divisions: Samoan; about 12,000 
Euronesians (persons of European and 
Polynesian blood), 700 Europeans 

Religion: 99.7% Christian (about half of pop- 
ulation associated with the London Mission- 
ary Society; includes Congregational, Ro- 
man Catholic, Methodist, Latter Day Saints, 
Seventh-Day Adventist) 

Language: Samoan (Polynesian), English 
Infant mortality rate: 36/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: 63 
Literacy: 90% 



266 



Yemen Arab Republic 
(North Yemen) 



Labor force: about 37,000 (1983); about 
22,000 employed in agriculture 

Government 

Official name: Independent State of West- 
ern Samoa 

Type: constitutional monarchy under native 
chief; special treaty relationship with New 
Zealand 

Capital: Apia 

Legal system: based on English common 
law and local customs; constitution came 
into effect upon independence in 1962; judi- 
cial review of legislative acts with respect to 
fundamental rights of the citizen; has not 
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 Jan- 
uary 

Branches: Head of State and Executive 
Council; unicameral legislature (47-member 
Legislative Assembly); Supreme Court, 
Court of Appeal, Land and Titles Court, 
village courts 

Government leaders: MALIETOA 
Tanumafili II, Head of State (since 1962); 
Va'ai KOLONE, Prime Minister (since De- 
cember 1985) 

Suffrage: 45 members of Legislative Assem- 
bly are elected by holders of matai (heads of 
family) titles (about 12,000 persons); two 
members are elected by universal adult suf- 
frage of persons lacking traditional family 
ties 

Elections: held triennially; last held in Feb- 
ruary 1982 

Political parties and leaders: no clearly de- 
fined political party structure 

Communists: unknown 

Member of: ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, 
FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, 
South Pacific Commission, SPF, UN, 
UNESCO, WHO 

Economy 

GNP: $50 million (1984), $770 per capita 

Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish 



Agriculture: cocoa, bananas, copra; staple 
foods include coconuts, bananas, taro, yams 

Major industries: timber, tourism, light in- 
dustry 

Electric power: 62,000 kW capacity (1985); 
79 million kWh produced (1985), 485 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $19.5 million (1984); copra 43.3%, 
cocoa 32.3%, timber 2.0%, mineral fuel, ba- 
nanas 

Imports: $57 million (1984); food 30%, man- 
ufactured goods 25%, machinery 

Major trade partners: exports 31% FRG, 
26% New Zealand, 12% US, 2% Australia; 
imports 30% US, 28% New Zealand, 10% 
Australia, 6% UK (1981) 

Aid: economic commitments US (FY70- 
84), $12 million; Western (non-US) coun- 
tries, ODA and OOF (1970-83), $176 million 

Budget: (1982 est.) revenues, $36.9 million; 
expenditures, $37.6 million; development 
expenditure, $34.9 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 1.533 WS tala= 
US$1 (February 1984) 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 784 km total; 375 km bitumi- 
nous, remainder mostly gravel, crushed 
stone, or earth 

Inland waterways: none 

Ports: 1 principal (Apia), 1 minor 

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with 
permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: 3,800 telephones (2.5 
per 100 popl.O; 50,000 radio receivers; 1 AM 
station 

Defense Forces 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 39,000; 
20,000 fit for military service 



125km 




Sgc regional map VI 



Land 

194,250 km 2 (parts of border with Saudi 
Arabia and People's Democratic Republic of 
Yemen undefined); slightly smaller than 
South Dakota; 79% desert, waste, or urban; 
20% agricultural; 1% forest 

Land boundaries: 1,528 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 
12 nm 

Coastline: 523 km 

People 

Population: 6,339,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.9% 

Nationality: noun Yemeni(s); adjective 
Yemeni 

Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 10% Afro- Arab 
(mixed) 

Religion: 100% Muslim (Sunni and Shi'a) 
Language: Arabic 

Infant mortality rate: 152/1,000(1983) 
Life expectancy: men 37.3, women 38.7 
Literacy: 15% (est.) 

Labor force: approximately one-third expa- 
triate laborers; remainder almost entirely 
agriculture and herding 



267 



Yemen Arab Republic 
(North Yemen) (continued) 



Yemen, People's 
Democratic Republic 
of (South Yemen) 



Government 

Official name: Yemen Arab Republic 

Type: republic; military regime assumed 
power in June 1974 

Capital: Sanaa 

Political subdivisions: 1 1 provinces 

Legal system: based on Turkish law, Islamic 
law, and local customary law; first constitu- 
tion promulgated December 1970, sus- 
pended June 1974; has not accepted compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Proclamation of the Re- 
public, 26 September 

Branches: President, Prime Minister, Cabi- 
net; People's Constituent Assembly 

Government leaders: Col. 'Ali 'Abdallah 
SALIH, President (since 1978); 'Abd al-'Aziz 
'ABD AL-GHANI, Prime Minister (since 
1983) 

Communists: small number 

Political parties or pressure groups: no legal 
political parties; in 1983 President Salih 
started the General People's Congress, 
which is designed to function as the 
country's sole political party; conservative 
tribal groups, Muslim Brotherhood, and left- 
ist factions pro-Iraqi Ba'thists, Nasirists, 
National Democratic Front (NDF) 
supported by South Yemen exert political 
influence 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE Islamic Develop- 
ment Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, 
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, QIC, 
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO 

Economy 

GNP: $3.6 billion (1983), $580 per capita 

Natural resources: petroleum, rock salt, 
small deposits of coal and copper, oil 

Agriculture: sorghum and millet, qat (a mild 
narcotic), cotton, coffee, fruits and vegeta- 
bles 

Major industries: cotton textiles and leather 
goods produced on a small scale; handicraft 



and some fishing; small aluminum products 
factory 

Electric power: 254,900 kW capacity (1985); 
446 million kWh produced (1985), 73 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $9 million (f.o.b., 1984); qat, cotton, 
coffee, hides, vegetables 

Imports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1984); textiles 
and other manufactured consumer goods, 
petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour, 
other foodstuffs, and cement (one of the 
worst export/import ratios in the world) 

Major trade partners: China, South Yemen, 
USSR, Japan, UK, Australia, Saudi Arabia 

Budget: (1984) total receipts, $830 million; 
current expenditures, $1.1 billion;' develop- 
ment expenditures, $480 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 6.5 rials=US$l 
(October 1985) 

Fiscal year: 1 July-30June 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 4,000 km total; 1, 775 km bitumi- 
nous; 500 km crushed stone and gravel; 
1,725 km earth, sand, and light gravel 

Ports: 1 major (Al Hudaydah), 3 minor 
Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 20 total, 14 usable; 4 with 
permanent-surface runways; 6 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 5 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 

Telecommunications: system poor but im- 
proving; new radio-relay and cable 
networks; 50,000 telephones (0.9 per 100 
popl.); 3 AM, no FM, 5 TV stations; 1 Indian 
Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean, and 1 Arab satel- 
lite station; tropospheric scatter to South 
Yemen 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,193,000; 
664,000 fit for military service; about 69,000 
reach military age (18) annually 



300km 




Gulf of Aden 

See regional map VI 



Land 

322,968 km 2 ; the size of Nevada; (border 
with Saudi Arabia and Yeman Arab Repub- 
lic undefined); only about 1% arable (of 
which less than 25% cultivated) 

Land boundaries: 1,802 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) 

Coastline: 1,383 km 

People 

Population: 2,275,000, excluding the island 
of Perim for which no data are available 
(July 1986); average annual growth rate 2.9% 

Nationality: noun Yemeni(s); adjective 
Yemeni 

Ethnic divisions: almost all Arabs; a few 
Indians, Somalis, and Europeans 

Religion: Sunni Muslim, some Christian and 
Hindu 

Language: Arabic 

Infant mortality rate: 114/1,000(1980) 
Life expectancy: men 40.6, women 42.4 
Literacy: 25% 



268 



Government 

Official name: People's Democratic Repub- 
lic of Yemen 

Type: republic; power centered in ruling 
Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP) 

Capital: Aden 

Political subdivisions: six governorates 

Legal system: based on Islamic law (for per- 
sonal matters) and English common law (for 
commercial matters); highest judicial organ, 
Federal High Court, interprets constitution 
and determines disputes between states 

National holiday: 14 October 

Branches: unicameral legislature (People's 
Assembly); Supreme Cabinet 

Government leaders: Haydar Abu Baler 
al-'ATTAS, Chairman, Presidium, Supreme 
People's Council (since February 1986); 'Ali 
Salim al-BID, secretary general, Yemeni 
Socialist Party (since February 1986); Yasin 
Sa'id NU'MAN, Chairman, Council of Min- 
isters (since February 1986) 

Suffrage: all citizens age 18 and over 

Elections: elections for legislative body, Su- 
preme People's Council, called for in the 
constitution; none have been held 

Political parties and leaders: Yemeni Social- 
ist Party (YSP), the only legal party, is coali- 
tion of National Front, Ba'th, and Commu- 
nist Parties 

Communists: unknown number 

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, 
GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDE 
Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, 
IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, QIC, UN, 
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, 
WTO 

Economy 

GNP: $792 million (1978 est), $430 per cap- 
ita (1980) 



Natural resources: fish 

Agriculture: cotton is main cash crop; cere- 
als, dates, qat (a mild narcotic), coffee, and 
livestock are raised, and there is a growing 
fishing industry; large amount of food must 
be imported (particularly for Aden); cotton, 
hides, skins, dried and salted fish are 
exported 

Major industries: petroleum refinery at Lit- 
tle Aden operates on imported crude 

Electric power: 235,200 kW capacity (1985); 
446 million kWh produced (1985), 200 kWh 
per capita 

Exports: $800 million (1982) 
Imports: $670 million (f.o.b., 1980) 

Major trade partners: North Yemen, East 
Africa, but some cement and sugar imported 
from Communist countries; crude oil im- 
ported from Persian Gulf, exports mainly to 
UK and Japan 

Budget: (1983) total receipts $452 million, 
current expenditures $455 million, develop- 
ment expenditures $402 million 

Monetary conversion rate: 0.3425 
dinar=US$l (October 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: none 

Highways: 5,600 km total; 1,700 km bitumi- 
nous treated, 630 km crushed stone and 
gravel, 3,270 km motorable track 

Pipelines: refined products, 32 km 
Ports: 1 major (Aden), 5 minor 
Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 41 total, 30 usable; 7 with 
permanent-surface runways; 10 with run- 
ways 2,440-3,659 m, 12 with runways 
1, 220-2,439 m 



Telecommunications: small system of open- 
wire, radio- relay, multiconductor cable, and 
radio communications stations; only center 
Aden; estimated 15,000 telephones (0.6 per 
100 popl.); 1 AM, no FM, 5 TV stations; 1 
Indian Ocean satellite antenna; tropospheric 
scatter to North Yemen 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's 
Militia, People's Police 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 493,000; 
276,000 fit for military service 



269 



Yugoslavia 




Stt regional map V 



Land 

255,804 km 2 ; the size of Wyoming; 34% for- 
est, 32% arable, 25% meadow and pasture, 
9% other 

Lanti boundaries: 3,001 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 



Coastline: 1,521 km (mainland), plus 2,4 14 
km (offshore islands) 

People 

Population: 23,284,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 0.7% 

Nationality: noun Yugoslav(s); adjective 
Yugoslav 

Ethnic divisions: 36.2% Serb, 19.7% Croat, 
8.9% Muslim, 7.8% Slovene, 7.7% Albanian, 
5.9% Macedonian, 5.4% Yugoslav, 2.5% 
Montenegrin, 1.9% Hungarian, 4.0% other 
(1981 census) 

Religion: 50% Serbian Orthodox, 30% Ro- 
man Catholic, 10% Muslim, 1% Protestant, 
9% other or none 

Language: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Mace- 
donian (all official); Albanian, Hungarian 

Infant mortality rate: 30/1,000 (1982) 
Life expectancy: men 68, women 73 



Literacy: 90.5% 

Labor force: 10.1 million (1983); 25% agri- 
culture, 29% mining and manufacturing; 
(est.) unemployment about 14% of domestic 
labor force (January-August 1985) 

Government 

Official name: Socialist Federal Republic of 
Yugoslavia 

Type: Communist state, federal republic in 
form 

Capital: Belgrade 

Political subdivisions: six republics with two 
autonomous provinces (within the Republic 
of Serbia) 

Legal system: mixture of civil law system 
and Communist legal theory; constitution 
adopted 1974; legal education at several law 
schools; has not accepted compulsory ICJ 
jurisdiction 

National holiday: Proclamation of the So- 
cialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 29 
November 

Branches: bicameral legislature (Federal 
Assembly Federal Chamber, Chamber of 
Republics and Provinces); executive includes 
cabinet (Federal Executive Council) and the 
federal administration; judiciary; the State 
Presidency is a collective, rotating policy- 
making body composed of a representative 
from each republic and province, Radovan 
Vlajkovic presides as President of the Re- 
public until May 1986, when he will be re- 
placed by the representative from Kosovo 
Province, Sinan Hasani 

Government leader: Milka PLANINC, Pres- 
ident of the Federal Executive Council 
(since 1982); nonrenewable four-year term 
expires May 1986 

Suffrage: universal over age 18 

Elections: Federal Assembly elected every 
four years by a complicated, indirect system 
of voting 



Political parties and leaders: League of 
Communists of Yugoslavia (LCY) only; lead- 
ers are 23 members of party Presidium se- 
lected proportionally from republics, prov- 
inces, and Yugoslav People's Army, with the 
president rotating on an annual basis and the 
secretary rotating every two years; current 
president is Vidoje Zarkovic, a Montenegrin 
(until June 1986); Party Congress scheduled 
for June 1986, to elect new Central Commit- 
tee 

Communists: 2,167,860 party members 
(December 1985) 

Other political or pressure groups: Socialist 
Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia 
(SA WPY), the major mass front organiza- 
tion; Confederation of Trade Unions of Yu- 
goslavia (CTUY), League of Socialist Youth 
of Yugoslavia, Federation of Veterans' Asso- 
ciations of Yugoslavia (SUBNOR) 

Member of: ASSIMER, CEMA (observer but 
participates in certain commissions), FAO, 
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, 
ICAO, IDA, IDE Inter-American Devel- 
opment Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, 
IMO, INTELSAT, International Lead and 
Zinc Study Group, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, 
ITU, NAM, OECD (participant in some ac- 
tivities), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, 
WIPO, WMO, WTO 

Economy 

CNP: $128.8 billion (1984 est., at 1983 
prices), $5,600 per capita; real growth rate 
-1.7% (1984) 

Natural resources: coal, copper, bauxite, 
timber, iron, antimony, chromium, lead, 
zinc, asbestos, mercury 

Agriculture: diversified agriculture with 
many small private holdings and large agri- 
cultural combines; main crops corn, 
wheat, tobacco, sugar beets, and sunflowers; 
occasionally a net exporter of foodstuffs and 
live animals; imports tropical products, cot- 
ton, wool, and vegetable meal feeds 

Fishing: catch 73,505 metric tons (1984) 



270 



Zaire 



Major industries: metallurgy, machinery 
and equipment, oil refining, chemicals, tex- 
tiles, wood processing, food processing 

Shortages: electricity, fuels 

Crude steel: 4.2 million metric tons pro- 
duced (1984), 184 kg per capita 

Electric power: 19,575,000 kW capacity 
(1985); 77.516 billion kWh produced (1985), 
3,350 kWh per capita 

Exports: $10.3 billion (f.o.b., 1984); 52% raw 
materials and semimanufactures, 31% con- 
sumer goods, 17% equipment 

Imports: $12.0 billion (c.i.f., 1984); 82% raw 
materials and semimanufactures, 13% 
equipment, 5% consumer goods 

Major trade partners: 61% non-Communist 
countries; 39% Communist countries, of 
which 21% USSR (1984) 

Monetary conversion rate: 296.4 
dinars=US$l (November 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year (all data refer to 
calendar year or to middle or end of calen- 
dar year as indicated) 

Communications 

Railroads: 9,399 km total; 9,399 km 1.435- 
meter standard gauge; 890 km double track; 
3,451 km electrified (1983) 

Highways: 116,400km total; 63,100 km as- 
phalt, concrete, stone block; 35,000 km as- 
phalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 18,300 
km earth (1983) 

Inland waterways: 2,600 km (1982) 

Freight carried: rail 89.6 million metric 
tons, 27.9 billion metric ton/km (1983); 
highway 177.2 million metric tons, 19.1 
billion metric ton/km (1983); waterway 
20.9 million metric tons, 4. 1 billion metric 
ton/km (excluding international transit 
traffic) (1983) 

Pipelines: 1,373 km crude oil; 2,760 km nat- 
ural gas; 150 km refined products 



Ports: 9 major (most important: Rijeka, Split, 
Koper, Bar, and Ploce), 24 minor; principal 
inland water port is Belgrade 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Yugoslav People's Army 
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air 
Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial 
Defense Force 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,005,000; 
4,850,000 fit for military service; 184,000 
reach military age (19) annually 

Military budget: announced for fiscal year 
ending 31 December 1985, 391.3 billion di- 
nars; about 4.8% of national income 




See regional map VII 



Land 

2,345,409 km 2 ; one-fourth the size of the US; 
45% forest, 22% agricultural (2% cultivated 
or pasture), 33% other 

Land boundaries: 9,902 km 

Water 

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 
nm (200 nm fishing) 

Coastline: 37 km 

People 

Population: 31,333,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 2.7% 

Nationality: noun Zairian(s); adjective 
Zairian 

Ethnic divisions: over 200 African ethnic 
groups, the majority are Bantu; four largest 
tribes Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), 
and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make 
up about 45% of the population 

Religion: 50% Roman Catholic, 20% Protes- 
tant, 10% Kimbanguist, 10% Muslim, 10% 
other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 

Language: French (official), English, 
Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, 
Tshiluba 

Infant mortality rate: 108/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: men 46, women 49 



271 



Zaire (continued) 



Literacy: 55% males, 37% females 

Labor force: about 8 million, but only about 
13% in wage structure 

Government 

Official name: Republic of Zaire 

Type: republic; constitution establishes 
strong presidential system 

Capital: Kinshasa 

Political subdivisions: eight regions and fed- 
eral district of Kinshasa 

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law 
system and tribal law; new constitution pro- 
mulgated February 1978; legal education at 
National University of Zaire; has not ac- 
cepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 
June; Anniversary of the Regime, 24 No- 
vember 

Branches: President elected originally in 
1970 for seven-year term; Marshal Mobutu 
reelected July 1984; limits on reelection re- 
moved by new constitution; unicameral leg- 
islature (310-member National Legislative 
Council elected for five-year term); the offi- 
cial party is the supreme political institution 

Government leader: Marshal MOBUTU 
Sese Seko, President (since 1965); KENGO 
Wa Dondo, First State Commissioner (prime 
minister; since November 1982) 

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 
18 

Elections: elections for rural collectivities' 
urban zone councils, and the Legislative 
Council of the Popular Movement of the 
Revolution were held June-September 1982; 
presidential referendum /election held July 
1984; presidential election/referendum 
scheduled for 1991 

Political parties and leaders: Popular Move- 
ment of the Revolution (MPR), only legal 
party 



Voting strength: Mobutu polled 99.6% of 
vote in the 1984 election 

Communists: no Communist party 

Member of: AfDB, APC, CIPEC, EAMA, 
EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, 
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, 
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, 
IPU, ITC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UD- 
EAC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, 
WMO, WTO 

Economy 

GDP: $4.5 billion (1983), $200 per capita; 

2.0% real growth (1985 est.) 

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, 
cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem 
diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, 
germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron, 
coal, hydroelectric power (potential) 

Agriculture: main cash crops coffee, palm 
oil, rubber, quinine; main food crops man- 
ioc, bananas, root crops, corn; some prov- 
inces self-sufficient 

Fishing: catch 102,000 metric tons (1983) 

Major industries: mining, mineral process- 
ing, consumer products (including textiles, 
footwear, and cigarettes), processed foods 
and beverages, cement 

Electric power: 2,412,200 kW capacity 
(1985); 5.282 billion kWh produced (1985), 
175 kWh per capita 

Exports: $1.846 billion (f.o.b., 1984); $1.824 
billion (1985 est.) copper (45%), cobalt, dia- 
monds, petroleum, coffee 

Imports: $1. 102 billion (f.o.b., 1984 est); 
$ 1 . 1 1 3 billion ( 1 985 est. ) consumer goods, 
foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, 
transport equipment, fuels 

Major trade partners: Belgium, US, France, 
and West Germany 

Budget: (1985 est.) revenues, $780 million; 
total expenditures, $739 million 



Monetary conversion rate: 55 zaires=US$l 
(December 1985) 

Fiscal year: calendar year 

Communications 

Railroads: 5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067- 
meter gauge (851 km electrified); 125 km 
1,000- meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter 
gauge; 1,025 km 0.600-meter gauge 

Highways: 145,050 km total; 2,350 km bitu- 
minous, 46,230 km gravel and improved 
earth; remainder unimproved earth 

Inland waterways: comprising the Congo, 
its tributaries, and unconnected lakes, the 
waterway system affords over 15,000 km of 
navigable routes 

Pipelines: refined products, 390 km 
Ports: 2 major (Matadi, Boma), 1 minor 
Civil air: 52 major transport aircraft 

Airfields: 335 total, 296 usable; 25 with 
permanent-surface runways; 1 with run- 
ways over 3,659 m, 6 with runways 
2,440-3,659 m, 70 with runways 1,220- 
2,439 m 

Telecommunications: barely adequate wire 
and radio-relay service, 31,200 telephones 
(0. 1 per 100 popl.); 10 AM, 3 FM, 17 TV sta- 
tions; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station and 
13 domestic satellite stations 

Defense Forces 

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National 
Gendarmerie, Logistics Corps, Special Presi- 
dential Brigade 

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,045,000; 
3,560,000 fit for military service 



272 



Zambia 




Livingston 
Srr regional map VII 



Land 

752,614 km 2 ; larger than Texas; 61% scat- 
tered wood and grass, 13% dense forest, 10% 
grazing, 6% marsh, 5% arable and under 
cultivation 

Land boundaries: 6,003 km 

People 

Population: 7,054,000 (July 1986), average 
annual growth rate 3.2% 

Nationality: noun Zambian(s); adjective 
Zambian 

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% African, 1.1% Euro- 
pean, 0.2% other 

Religion: 50-75% Christian, 1% Muslim and 
Hindu, remainder indigenous beliefs 

Language: English (official); about 70 indig- 
enous languages 

Infant mortality rate: 140/1,000(1984) 
Life expectancy: 47 
Literacy: 54% 

Labor force: 2,455,000; 85% agriculture; 6% 
mining, manufacturing, and construction; 
9% transport and services 

Organized labor: approximately 238,000 
wage earners are unionized 



Government 

Official name: Republic of Zambia 

Type: one-party state 

Capital: Lusaka 

Political subdivisions: nine provinces 

Legal system: based on English common 
law and customary law; new constitution 
adopted September 1973; judicial review of 
legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional 
council; legal education at University of 
Zambia in Lusaka; has not accepted compul- 
sory ICJ jurisdiction 

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 
October 

Branches: modified presidential system; 
unicameral legislature (National Assembly); 
judiciary 

Government leaders: Dr. Kenneth David 
KAUNDA, President (since October 1964); 
Kebby MUSOKOTWANE, Prime Minister 

(April 1985) 

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18 

Elections: general el