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Full text of "The World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 / a full description of the buildings and exhibits in all departments : and a short account of previous expositions with an introduction / by Col. George R. Davis ; and an introduction to the Woman's Department by Mrs. Potter Palmer ; with special chapters by Hon. Thomas B. Bryan, ... [et al.]"

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CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



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l/frf '/If 3. 



THE 

UiRLD'S ©LUMBIAN ©(POSITION, 

CHICAGO, 1893. 

BY TRUMBULL WHITE, ato WM. IGLEHEART, 

World's Fair Correspondent. World's Fair Editor of "Chicago Record." 

A Complete History of the Enterprise ; a Full Description of the 

Buildings and Exhibits in all Departments ; and a 

Short Account of Previous Expositions, 

with an Introduction 

By COB. GEORGE R. DJIYIS, 

Director=General of the Exposition. 
And an Introduction to the Woman's Department 

By MRS. POTTER PALMER, 

President of Board of Lady Managers. 

WITH SPECIAL CHAPTERS BY 

HON. THOMAS B. BRYAN, Commissioner-at- Large. 

PROF. F. W. PUTNAM, Chief of Department of Ethnology. 
PROF. JOHN P. BARRETT, Chief of Electrical Department. 

CAPT. J. W. COLLINS, Chief of Fisheries Department. 
FREDK. J. V. SKIFF, Chief of Mining Department. 

FUfcby ILLUSTRATED 

WITH HALF-TONE AND WOOD ENGRAVINGS AND FEN DRAWINGS BY 
THE BEST ARTISTS 



INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING CO. 
Philadelphia, Pa , Chicago, 111., 



Copyright, 1893, 
By J. W. ZIEGI.ER. 



CS3,3I_ 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION n 

By Col. George R. Davis, Director-General. 

CHAPTER I. 
PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS 21 

CHAPTER II. 
PRELIMINARY HISTORY 41 

CHAPTER III. 
THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT 53 

CHAPTER IV. 
ADMINISTRATION 77 

CHAPTER V. 
MANUFACTURES . 95 

CHAPTER VI. 
MACHINERY 139 

CHAPTER VII. 

AGRICULTURE i6r 

Forestry, 

Dairy, 

Live-Stock. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

HORTICULTURE 191 

Floriculture, 

Viticulture, 

Pomology. 

CHAPTER IX. 



FISHERIES 



MINES 



By Capt. J. W. Collins, Chief of Department of Fisheries. 

CHAPTER X. 

By Fredk. J. V. Skiff, Chief of Department of Mines. 



207 



239 



CHAPTER XL 

TRANSPORTATION ....,,,,,,,,.. 263 
Krupp Exhibit, 

Railroad Features. 

(3) 



155023 



4 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIL 

PAGE 

ELECTRICITY 301 

Illumination, 
Fountains. 

By Prof. John P. Barrett, Chief of Department of Electricity. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



FINE ARTS 



531 



CHAPTER XIV. 
LIBERAL ARTS 389 

CHAPTER XV. 

MUSIC 405 

Choral, 
Orchestral. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

ETHNOLOGY 415 

Anthropology, 
Archaeology. 

By Prof. F. W. Putnam, Chief of Department of Ethnology. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT 437 

Introduction by Mrs. Potter Palmer, President qf Board of Lady Managers. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 457 

Naval Exhibits. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

LA RABIDA CONVENT . . 471 

Relics of Columbus and Queen Isabella. 

CHAPTER XX. 
STATE BUILDINGS 495 

CHAPTER XXI. 
FOREIGN BUILDINGS 541 

CHAPTER XXII. 
MIDWAY PLAISANCE 561 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
PUBLIC COMFORT 59 8 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
GENERAL REVIEW 604 

CHAPTER XXV. 

WORLD'S CONGRESS AUXILIARY 619 

By Hon. Thos. B. Bryan, Commissioner-at-Large, and Vice-President of 
the World's Congress Auxiliary, 



List of Illustrations. 



PAGB 

Abundance 161 

Administration 77 

Administration Building, Frontispiece. 
Agricultural Building .... 160 

Agriculture 161 

Algerian Musician .... 577 

Altar of the Chapel . . . .474 
Anthropological Building . . . 416 
Apotheosis of Transportation . . 263 
Arkansas Building .... 505 

Art Institute, The . . . .618 

Art Palace 33° 

Audience at Agrippa's, An . . ., 336 
Auditorium, Chicago, The . . -57 
Automatic Pump for Water Elevator . 148 
Autumn Morning .... 360 

Ballou Ribbed Knitter . . .152 

Bar Lock Typewriter . . . .112 

Bavarian House 571 

Bay Near Where Columbus Landed . 477 

Bicycle Exhibit 286 

Bicycle — Gendron Iron Wheel Co. . 286 

Big Engine, The 146 

Bird's-Eye Map of Chicago . . 53 

Bird's-Eye View of the Fair . 68, 69 

Black Forest House . . . .572 
Blacksmith, Administration Building 81 
Blooker's Cocoa Mill . . . .173 
Bohemian and Bears .... 370 
Boilers in Machinery Hall, The . . 149 
Book-folding Machine .... 156 
British Beam Trawler in a Gale . .221 

British Building 540 

Brookfield Stud 186 

Buffalo and Indian .... 385 

Building Fishing Schooners at Essex, 

Mass 219 

Building of Old Times Distillery Co. . 175 
Bull Buffalo— On Bridges . . .60 

Csesar Augustus, from Vatican . .126 



California Building 

Canada Building . 

Canada Exhibit, Agricultural Building 

Cars Built for Krupp Gun 

Carver, Bread and Cake Knives and 

Parer 

Cathedral at Salamanca • . 
Catholic Educational Exhibit 
Centennial Exhibition, 1876, Agricul 

tural Building 
Centennial Art Gallery 
Centennial Horticultural Building 
Centennial Machinery Hall 
Centennial Main Building 
Ceres Group, Agricultural Building 
Ceylon Building .... 
Chains of Columbus 
Chair and Table in Mahogany 
Chapel of the Convent of Cartuja 
Chicago Street, A ... 

Chiefs of the Departments . 
Children's Building 

Choral Hall 

Choy Cave 

Christ and the Women 

Christ at the Home of Mary and Martha 

Cold-storage Building . 

Colorado Building 

Columbia Bicycles 

Columbian Fountain 

Columbian Fountain — Pedestal . 

Columbian Fountain — The Outriders 

Columbian Guard 

Columbus as a Boy 

Columbus in Solid Silver 

Columbus Quadriga, The 

Columbus Quelling the Mutiny 

Columbus Refuses to have his Chains 

Removed 
Columbus Relating his Adventures to 

Isabella 

Columbus Vase .... 

(5) 



53i 

55i 
177 
291 

154 
476 
398 

29 

30 

28 

34 

33 

166 

548 

487 

400 

490 

75 
90 

447 
412 
277 
358 
361 
158 
529 
274 

307 
302 
305 
91 
479 
107 
408 
484 



489 
124 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Compound Freight Locomotive . .281 
Connecticut Building .... 522 
Convent of La Rabida . . . 473 

Cooking by Electricity . . . 328 

Cork Exhibition, 1853 . . . .23 
Corner of Austrian Section, A . .130 
Corner of French Section, A . . 403 
Corner of German Village . . . 570 
Corner of Hatfield Banqueting Hall, A 123 
Corner of the Organization Room, A . 453 
Corner in the Library, A — Woman's 

Building 448 

Coronado Ostrich .... 580 

Costa Rica Building .... 554 
Country Festival, A 342 

County Building and Court-House, 

Chicago 52 

County Fair in Mora, Sweden . . 338 
County Fair, The .... 343 

Cream Separator 182 

Crystal Palace, London, 185 1 . . 22 
Curious and Fancy Pieces . . .111 

Danville 353 

Daughter of the Rajah . . . 239 

Decoration of Transportation Building 264 
Decoration of Woman's Building . 441 

Dedication Ceremonies, The . . 45 

Defence of the Flag .... 106 
Defence of the Flag . . . .129 
Delaware Building . . . .516 

De Witt Clinton, First Engine on New 

York Central R. R. '. . . 288 
D. H. Burnham, Chief of Construction 42 
Diana, Administration Building . . 79 
Diana, Main Dome Agricultural Build- 
ing 164 

Dickens and Little Nell . . . 363 
Diligence, Administration Building •. 86 
Directors of the Illinois Corporation . 92 
Dome of Government Building . . 462 

Donegal Castle 567 

Double Wheel Hoisting Engine . . 257 
Drive of the Lion Prince . . . 592 
•'Dublin Exhibition, 1853 . . .23 
Duke of Veragua 48 

Eagle Brass Bed 137 

East Side of the Castle . . .570 

Egyptian Temple, The . . . 314 

Electrical Building .... 300 
Electric Fountains and Illumination . 303 



Electric Generator in Power House of 

Intramural Railway . . . 308 

Electricity 301 

Electric Launch at the Fair Grounds . 54 
Electric Light Dynamo Used in Centen- 
nial ...... 301 

Electric Motor Used with Force Pump 320 
Electric Scenic Theatre . . . 563 
Entrance to Fisheries Building . . 208 
Erection of Manufactures Building . 96 
Esquimaux Village .... 596 

Ethnology, Anthropology, Archaeology 415 

Exhibition Clock 105 

Exhibit of American Photographs . 395 
Exhibit of American Waltham Watch 

Co. 113 

Exhibit of C. G. Gunther's Sons . .118 
Exhibit of Christofle & Co. . . . 1 14 
Exhibit of Duluth Imperial Mill Co. . 162 
Exhibit of E. S. Greeley & Co. . . 325 
Exhibit of F. P. Bhumgara & Co. . 133 
Exhibit of Fort Wayne Electric Co. . 319 
Exhibit of Jones & Lamson Machine 

Co 150 

Exhibit of Michigan Stove Co. . .120 
Exhibit of New South Wales — Mines . 243 
Exhibit of Ontario — Mines . . . 245 
Exhibit of Peninsular Stove Co. . . 98 
Exhibit of P. H. Hake Manufacturing 

Co 99 

Exhibit of Purdue University . . 400 
Exhibit of Rockford Furniture Manu- 
factures 116 

Exhibit of Star and Crescent Mills Co. 119 
Exhibit of the Interior Hardwood Co. 97 
Exhibit of Thomas Cook & Son . . 268 
Exhibit of Washburn and Moen Manu- 
facturing Co. . . . •. .121 
Exhibit of Western Electric Co. . . 315 
Exhibit of Westinghouse Electric Co. 317 

Facsimile of the Box in which the 

Remains of Columbus were Found 491 
Father Perez Bidding Farewell to Co- 
lumbus 483 

Ferdinand as a Boy .... 482 
Ferris Wheel, The .... 576 
1,500 Horse-Power Dynamo . . 321 
Figures in Woman's Department . 446 
Figures on Machinery Hall . . 140 . 
Figures on Transportation Building . 266 
Fine Arts 33 1 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fire Uncontrolled — Administration . 79 

First Fish, The 364 

First Press in New Hampshire . .155 
First Steamer on Long Island Sound . 282 

Fisheries 207 

Fishermaid— Administration Building 88 
Fish and Fisheries Building . . 206 

Fish in the Aquarium .... 209 
Fishing Schooner Running for Market 222 
Fish Market, T-Wharf, Boston . .224 
Florence Exhibition, 1S61 . . .25 
Florida Building " . . . . 506 

Flying Dutchman . . ; .170 

Flying Fish 210 

Foreign Buildings . . . . 541 

Forestry and Dairy Buildings . .162 

Fortuny Dead 367 

FourRaces.The — Agricultural Building 167 
Four Seasons — Agricultural Building . 168 
Franklin Watching the Lightning . 310 
Frieze in Vestibule — Horticulture . 192 

" Fuerst Bismarck " .... 275 

General Review 604 

General View of Austrian Section . 101 
George R. Davis, Director-General . 76 

German Building 543 

Germania in Chocolate . . 174 

German Kali Works . . . .176 
German Mining Exhibit . . . 247 
German Section — Liberal Arts . . 402 
Ghost Dance, The . . . .369 

Globe Clock 109 

Gloucester, Mass. . . . . 21S 

Gold Fish, The 335 

Gondolas Near Japanese Pavilion . 613 

Grand Organ 392 

Great Organ, The .... 409 

Group in U. S. Section — Fine Arts . 359 
Group of Silver Cups and Vases . . 108 
Group on Colonnade .... 141 
Group on Colonnade .... 143 
Group on Main Pier — Agricultural 

Building 165 

Group on Main Pier — Agricultural 

Building 169 

Guatemala Building . . . _ . 555 
Gravy Dish 130 

Hamilton 378 

Hard Times 346 

Harness Exhibit — Transportation . 269 



Harpsichord, Made by Kirkman, 1776, 
Head-dress Found on Skull in Mound 

of Hopewell Group 
Hide and Seek .... 
Horticultural Building 
Horticulture .... 

House in Genoa .... 
House Occupied by Columbus at Fun 

chal 

House Where Columbus Died 
Hunt Ball, The .... 
Hunter's Cabin, Wooded Island . 



PAGE 

394 



Ice Railway 

Idaho Building .... 
Illinois Building .... 
Illinois Welcoming the Nations . 
Iowa Building .... 
Iowa Exhibit, Mines . 
Implement Section, Agriculture . 
Implement Section, Horticulture 
Indiana Building .... 
Indian Houses from Vancouver Island 

with Totem Poles . 
Infanta Eulalia .... 
Inscriptions on Chains of Columbus 
Interior of California Building 
Interior of Dairy Barn 
Interior of Forestry Building 
Interior of Fruit Department 
Interior of Kansas Building 
Interior of Krupp Gun Works 
Interior of Moorish Palace . 
Interior of Santo Domingo Cathedral 
Interior of Terminal Station 
Intramural Railway 
Irish Village .... 

Isabella as a Child 
Isabella in Armor 
Isabella Offering her Jewels 



Jamaica Exhibit . 
Japanese Gateway 
Japanese Pavilion, The 
Japanese Singlethorn 
John Bull Train . 



Kansas Building . 
Kentucky Building 
Krupp Gun Works 

Lady Managers of the Fair 



445 



ILLINO' 






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

La Casa Del Campo .... 476 
Landing of Columbus, in Gum Paste . 171 
La Rabida Convent .... 473 
Lasalle Street and Board of Trade, 

Chicago 61 

Lawn Tennis Party .... 347 
Leaden Chest and Casket Containing 

Columbus's Dust .... 480 
Legend of the Desert, A . . .387 

Liberal Arts 389 

Libbey Glass Works . . . .566 
Liberty Bell, The . . . .521 

Linotype Machine, The . . .155 

Lion — before Obelisk . . . .62 
Little Architect, The . . . .365 
Locomotive — Facade, Transportation . 265 
Log-Cabin — Bernheim Brothers . .175 
Looking over Cloth Booths to Clock 

Tower 102 

London School Board . . . 397 

Lorado Taft's Studio in Horticultural 

Hall 193 

Louisiana Building .... 510 
Love's Awakening . . . .401 
Lower Cloister of La Rabida . . 474 
Lundborg Temple . . . .111 
Lyman J. Gage 93 

Machinery 139 

Machinery Exhibit — Mines . . . 258 

Machinery for Manufacturing Textile 

Fabrics 145 

Machinery Hall 138 

Magnolia Vase no 

Maillard's Pavilion . . . .172 

Maine Building 524 

Manchester Exhibition, 1857 . . 25 



Manufactures 



95 



Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building 94 



Map of the Buildings and Grounds 
Marble Bust of Mrs. Potter Palmer 
Marco Polo . 
Maryland Building f 
Masonic Temple — Chicago 
Massachusetts Building 
Mending the Canoe 
Merck Building . 
Mexican Cart 
Michigan Building 
Michigan Logging Camp 
Michigan Section — Mines 
Midsummer Night's Dream 



66,67 
454 
481 
5ii 
59 
525 
354 
136 
287 
539 
185 
254 
38i 



PAGE 

Midway Plaisance .... 561 
Mine Car 298 

Miner — Entrance to Mines Building . 240 

Mines 239 

Mineral Section — Mines . . . 260 
Mines and Mining Building . . 238 

Minnesota Building .... 504 
Missouri Building .... 509 

Model of Indian Fishermen . .214 

Model of 125-Ton Hammer . . 273 

Model of Saint Peter's . . . .586 
Model of Santa Maria .... 276 
Models Exhibited by Cunard S. S. Co. 278 
Monastery of La Rabida as it Appeared 

in 1890 483 

Montana Building . . . .512 

Montana Silver Statue .... 255 
Monument of Oranges, The . . 201 

Moorish Palace 562 

Moorish Palace, The — Dancing Girls in 

the Harem 589 

Moorish Palace, The— In the Garden . 588 
Mountain Goat— On Bridges . . 63 

Mozart as a Child 128 

Mrs. Potter Palmer .... 444 
Mummy from Ancon, Peru, . . 430 

Munich Exhibition, 1854 . . .24 
Mural Decoration in Exhibit of West- 

inghouse Electric Co. . . . 316 
Music, Choral and Instrumental . . 405 
Music Hall, Peristyle and Casino . 407 

Natives in Dahomey Village . .581 

Naval Review in New York, The . 40 

Nebraska Building . . . . 497 
New England Fishing Schooner . .217 
New Hampshire Building . . .524 
New Jersey Building .... 520 
New South Wales Building . . 552 

New White City, The— Jackson Park . 54 
New York Building . . . .517 
New York Central Express Engine . 289 
New York Exhibition, 1S53 . . 24 

Nor'Easter 188 

Norse Ship, A .... 481 

North Dakota Building . . . 538 

North German Lloyd Steamship Co.'s 

Pavilion 280 

Norwegian Building .... 544 
Norwegian Exhibit .... 220 
Norwegian Fisherman . . . .215 
Norwegian Fishing Fleet in Harbor . 231 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Ohio Building 537 

Ohio Exhibit — Mines .... 253 
Oklahoma, Arizona and New Mexico 

Building 51S 

Old Greek Portrait . . . .584 
Old Japanese Tree . . . . 199 

Old Spinning Wheel from Connecticut 1S1 
Old Time Rocky Mountain Stage Coach 267 
Opening Exercises, The . . -49 

Open Sea, The 348 

Oriental Gurnard . . . .212 

Owings Building and Post-Office . 55 

Painting the Lily . . . .192 

Palm Offering 357 

Panorama of Bernese Alps . . . 591 
Panoramic Painting of Kilauea Volcano 578 
Panther and Deer .... 382 

Paris Exposition, 1889— Central Dome 37 
Paris Exposition, 18S9 — Eiffel Tower . 38 
Paris Exposition, 1889 — Night View . 35 
Paris, 1 8S9— Palace of Liberal Arts . 36 
Paris Exposition, 1867 . . .26 

Part of British Section . . . 102 

Part of Cliff Dwellers' Exhibit . . 427 
Part of French Exhibit — Woman's 

Building 449 

Part of Washington Exhibit . . 228 

Part of Westinghouse Electric Co.'s 

Exhibit 318 

Patriotism — Administration Building . 83 
Pavilion of American Bell Telephone Co. 312 
Pavilion of Lyon and Healy . . 393 

Pavilion of Meriden Britannia Co. . 112 
Pavilion of National Wall Paper Co. . 115 

Peddler, The 356 

Pennsylvania Building . . .519 

Pennsylvania R. R. Model Station . 289 
Pennsylvania Section — Mines . . 252 

Persian Ewer 117 

Pineapple 222 

Plow made by Daniel Webster . .180 
Polar Bear— On Bridges . . .58 
Polishing Diamonds .... 249 
Portrait of Aug. St. Gaudens . . 335 
Portrait of M. Boulanger . . . 355 
Preliminary History . . . .41 
President H. N. Higinbotham . . 89 
Previous Exhibitions . . . .21 

Prince Bismarck 345 

Prof. Mommsen 341 

Prof. Von Helmholtz .... 350 



PAGE 

Public Comfort 598 

Puck Building 404 

Pulpit Used by Whitefield, when in 

America 396 

Purse Seine Mackerel Fishing . . 225 

Quadruple Stereotype Printing Machine 15 
Quichua Indian Woman Weaving a 

Shawl ...... 423 



Reading from Homer, A 

Reception of Columbus by Queen Isa 

bella 

Religious Sentiment — Administration 

Building .... 

Reverse, First American Playing Card 
Rhode Island Building 
Rolling Mill, The 
Rotunda of Woman's Building . 
Royal Worcester Lamp 



Sail Car 

Sapphire Gurnard and Armed Bull-hea 

Scene in Fisheries Building 

Scene in Model Theatre 

Science — Administration Building 

Scroll Saw 

Sculpture on Machinery Hall 
Search Light, The 

Secret, The 

Sedan Chair, A 

Serpent Mound Model 

Shakespeare .... 

Shakespeare Vase 

Siamese Pavilion .... 

Shell Sleigh 

Side Delivery Hay Rake 

Sign of the Zodiac 

Signal Service and Lighthouse Exhibit 

Site and How to Reach It, The . 

Skate Fish 

Skeleton of Whale 

Skidegate Village 

Some Consecutive Phases of the Rack 

Soup Tureen .... 

South Dakota Building 

Spanish Building .... 

Spanish Section — Manufactures . 

Spanish Section — Vineculture 

Spanish Section — Woman's Building 

Spray of Hydrangea, A — Australia 

Stacker 



366 
485 



425 
526 
344 
45i 
122 

297 
212 
2 33 
313 
S 4 
153 
139 
3" 
333 
288 
420 
386 
125 
544 
293 
179 
163 
468 

53 
2ir 
213 
426 

575 
127 
52S 
550 
134 
196 
45o 
198 
178 



10 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

State Buildings 495 

Steamer Puritan 283 

Statue of the Republic — Grand Basin . 56 

Steam Shovel 279 

Steam Towing Machine . . . 271 
Street Carrier of Constantinople . 287 

Street in Cairo 573 

Street in Old Vienna . . . .585 
Struggle for Work, The . . .337 

Sturgeon 235 

Sunrise View of the Serpent Mound . 421 
Superintendent of Aquarium . .210 
Swedish Building .... 545 
Sword Fish 211 

Table Centre of Hard Porcelain . .127 
Tally-ho, Briggs Carriage Co. . . 284 
Tally-ho, Studebaker Bros. . . .285 
Tandem Compound Engine . .147 

Terminal Station 72 

Testing Machine 151 

Texas Building 501 

Theodore Thomas, Musical Director . 406 
Thomas W. Palmer, President . . 76 
"Thy Will be Done" . . . .352 
Thorne Typesetting Machine . .156 
Tomb of Columbus .... 492 
"Tower of Light," The . . .322 
Tower Where Columbus Lodged, Bar- 
celona 477 

Tradition— Administration Building . 83 
Transportation Building . . . 262 
Tree Fern — Australia . . . - . 222 
Triumph of Ceres, Pediment of Agri- 
cultural Building . . . .164 
Truth — Administration Building . 82 

Tripod Griffin Jardiniere . . . 104 
Turkish Exhibit in Transportation 

Building 272 

Types of Beauty 565 

Typical Dory, The . . . .216 
Typical Scene on the Plaisauce . . 560 

Under the Dome 197 

United States Army Hospital . .461 
United States Battle-Ship . . .458 
U. S. Cruiser Philadelphia . . . 459 



U. S. Government and Naval Exhibit 457 
United States Government Building . 456 
Upper Section of Cocoanut Palm . 198 
Utah Building 503 



Venezuela Building .... 546 
Vermont Building .... 526 

Vertical Pumping Engine . . . 157 
Vienna Exposition, 1873 . . .27 
View in British Section — Liberal Arts 399 
View in Mining Building — South End 241 
View in North End of Mining Building 246 



View on West Side — Mines 
Viking Ship .... 

Village in Champagne 
Virginia Building 
Vista of Tropical Plants, A 

Walter Baker & Company's Pavilion 
War— Administration Building . 
Washington Building . 
Washington Exhibit — Mines 
Water C o n t r o 1 1 e d — Administration 

Building .... 

Water Uncontrolled — Administration 

Building .... 

Waukesha Hygeia Mineral Water Co 

Oifices and Pump House 
Westphalian Farm House 
West Virginia Building 
Whaler Progress, The . 
Wheelchair .... 

Windmill Exhibit 
Where Columbus was Wrecked . 
William T. Baker ... 

Winter Cod- Fishing on George's Banks 
Wisconsin Building 
Wisconsin Monolith 
Woman's Building 
Woman's Department . 
Woman's Temple, Chicago . 
Wood Carving .... 
World's Congress Auxiliary 

Yucatan Ruins .... 

Zoopraxographical Hall 



259 
270 

340 
515 
195 

601 

78 

527 

251 

85 

80 

602 
572 
5io 
236 

615 

187 
489 

93 
227 

533 
250 
436 
443 
65 
452 
619 

42S 
575 



INTRODUCTION. 

By Col. George R. Davis, 
Director- General of the Exposition. 

When the gates of the World's Columbian Exposition have been 
finally closed it will be time enough to impress its lessons upon the 
world. To attempt to do so now would be premature, and perhaps 
misleading. But since its glories have been unveiled to the 
public gaze, and its success has been assured, it is well enough 
to review the successive steps which have led to that success, and 
to present in a comprehensive way some of the features which will 
make it ever memorable in the annals of International Expositions. 
No one can appreciate fully the magnitude and the significance of 
the microcosm at Chicago in 1893 without some such knowledge as 
is herein presented, of how it came about that on the shores of 
Lake Michigan such wonders have been wrought. 

Chicago possessed many well-supported claims, aside from the 
distance from the sea board, to furnish the ideal site for an ideal 
Exposition. In itself the phenomenal city — so gigantic, so young, 
so rich, strong and powerful — is the very essence of American prog- 
ress. It is so essentially the most distinctively American of the 
great towns of the United States, that many other cities are foreign 
compared with it. To all discerning minds it consequently appeared 
eminently proper that the celebration of our four centuries of un- 
exampled prosperity, of which this marvelous city is itself the 
apotheosis, should be held in Chicago. 

Upon Chicago's own part there was no sort of doubt as to her 
peculiar fitness for the undertaking, and she entered into the com- 
petition to secure it with characteristic energy and enthusiasm, both 
as unlimited as her strength and courage. It is now a matter of 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

history that she won, and it is scarcely worth while to describe in 
detail the heroic measures resorted to, in securing - the prize, over 
her older and subtler sisters. The pledged ten millions and more 
were raised, and a site acceptable to the National Commission was 
found. This was far more difficult than may appear at a glance, 
owing to the characteristically stupendous scale upon which Chicago 
immediately began the formulation of her Exposition plans. It was 
not easy to find commensurate space with improved surroundings. 
Jackson Park", the proposed location, was only partially improved, 
and owing to this fact the proposition of a divided site was made, 
and strange as it now seems, had many supporters. Gradually, 
however, with strenuous efforts, the makers of the World's Fair 
struggled towards the light, and the site problem was finally solved 
by the acceptance of Jackson Park and Midway Plaisance upon the 
proffer of the same by the South Park Commissioners. 

In this way was obtained a location of unexampled beauty and 
extent, stretching nearly three miles throughout its extreme length. 
Along the east front lies Lake Michigan, while in every other direc- 
tion the Exposition grounds are bounded by the fringing tree tops 
of one of the vastest park systems in the world. Yet necessarily 
included in the magnificent site was a considerable amount of unim- 
proved land, comprising a series of swamp and sand hill, and from 
this natural defect grew the most beautifying single feature of the 
entire landscape scheme. Grand basins and broad lagoons ulti- 
mately replaced swamp and unsightly sand hills, and resulted in the 
now famous Venetian effect of the World's Columbian Exposition, 
which fills the beholder with dazzled delight. But this came only 
from months of Titanic toil, and the expenditure of vast sums, and 
following with all possible speed hard upon the preparation of the 
background came the process of actual construction of the main 
buildings. It is not easy to overestimate the stupendous character 
of this portion of the greatest enterprise of modern times. The ut- 
most power of genius and many millions of money were unitedly 
brought to bear upon the execution of the infinite details of the general 
plan. The greatest architects in America designed the structures, 
the most skilled artisans executed their designs, famous artists sup- 



INTRODUCTION. 1 3 

plied the ornamentation, while an army of humbler workers cease- 
lessly toiled still over the soil itself. Only those who were of this 
gigantic enterprise can grasp its immensity, the intricacy of the 
executive machinery of the Fair, the constant enlargement of plans, 
the addition of new structures, the multiplicity of detail, the enor- 
mous daily outlay required to keep in harmonious and perfect rhythm 
the many thousand picks and shovels and hammers, the conflicting 
ideas of the thousands of artists, sculptors, decorators, and finishers. 
Nor can any comprehensive impression be conveyed of the obstacles 
and discouragement from the elements, from wind and water, from 
fire and snow. Cyclones swept away the work of weeks in a 
lightning flash ; Lake Michigan lashed by a furious tempest thun- 
dered threateningly against the very walls of the great Hall of 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts. Sailors, climbing to perilous 
heights which landsmen dared not attempt, laboriously cleared 
snow drifts from crushed roofs, only to find heavier flakes falling 
anew while they toiled. The second spring of Exposition prepara- 
tions witnessed an unprecedentedly wet season, and its last winter 
was one of unexampled severity, yet not for a moment did the 
work flag. Enthusiasm bordering upon heroism, and zeal that was 
genuine inspiration, marked every division of the Exposition. Not 
an officer, not a workman, but subordinated self to the one end. 
There is a long list of names that should be emblazoned on bronze, 
and placed in Jackson Park, testifying to future generations of the 
worth and efficiency and self-sacrifice of men who made the Fair. 
Names of men who sacrificed time, personal ambitions, business 
interests and association with their families in order that the promise 
of the nation should be made good, and the gates of Jackson Park 
thrown open to the .world at the appointed time. 

While the enchanted White City — "The City of Aladdin's palaces" 
— was thus magically springing from the mud of a primeval prairie, 
the national and international character of the World's Columbian 
Exposition had become firmly established. State after State wheeled 
into line, making generous appropriation for buildings, and the col- 
lection of exhibits. I may be permitted in this connection to pay a 
well-deserved tribute to the Board of Lady Managers, which early 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

after its organization gave material aid to the Exposition, in the 
direction of State representation. Indeed in the creation of the 
Board Congress contributed in an extraordinary way to the general 
success of the World's Fair. As a body the Lady Managers have 
been economical and business-like ; as an attraction, their building 
and their exhibits are among the most profitable to the Exposition 
Company. Their building, designed by a woman, is conspicuous 
for its architectural merits among all the beautiful creations of the 
Exposition. Its contents, wholly the work of women, attract and 
fix the attention of the visitor. For the first time in the history of 
international exhibitions, women have secured representation upon 
the Juries of Award. Foreign women have been placed in absolute 
control at Jackson Park, in positions where the sex would not be 
given an opportunity abroad. This is one of the educational 
features which American women at the Columbian Exposition con- 
fidently expect to impress on the sensibilities of Commissioners 
and other representatives of foreign countries. 

As for the educational features of the World's Fair, it is difficult 
to estimate them ; the effect of the whole is so overwhelming. 
Conspicuous in this line is the historical character of several of the 
State buildings, notably the old Mission of California, the John 
Hancock House of Massachusetts, Virginia's Home of Washington, 
Florida's Fort Marion, and so on throughout an almost endless 
list. The typical nature of some of the State structures of the great 
Northwest are also worthy of comment. In fact these States and 
Territories have evidently been keenly alive to the opportunity, and 
have come with their richest offerings of precious metals, corn, and 
wheat. Bringing their superabundance of raw material to the 
departments of Mines, of Agriculture, of Horticulture and Forestry, 
they find its required complement filling the manufacturing sections 
in Machinery Hall, and the division of Manufactures and Liberal 
Arts. 

Mexico, and the Central and South American Republics, our 
foster children, also promptly came forward, accepting the cordial 
invitation to participate, and are now here with handsome and 
interesting special buildings, enriching the entire Exposition with 



INTRODUCTION. 1 5 

their wealth of cereals, precious metals, and priceless gems. Such 
a display of resources must do much to attract the attention of 
eager capital, and to establish advantageous reciprocal relations. 

One after another in rapid succession the important countries of 
Europe, with scarcely an exception, promptly accepted the invita- 
tion to participation in the Exposition, extended by the President 
of the United States. Spain, who gave us Columbus, naturally 
comes first to mind, and occupies a distinguished position towards 
the World's Fair. The splendid exhibits draped by the Spanish 
colors in every department, the quaint caravels anchored outside 
the peristyle, the official visit of the Infanta, are all eloquent of 
Spain's prominence at the World's Fair. While honoring Columbus, 
Italy, the land of his birth, naturally comes next to Spain in our 
consideration, and her cordial participation in the Columbian cele- 
bration is all the more highly appreciated, because it began at a 
time when diplomatic relations between that country and America 
were severed. 

Of Germany's share in the Exposition no praise can be extrava- 
gant. In every division of the classification her exhibits are 
superb ; both comprehensive and magnificent. It is said that Ger- 
many has never before had an opportunity to show what she could 
do in the way of participation in an international exhibition. At 
World's Fairs previous to the Paris Exposition, Germany took part 
only to a very limited extent, and the political situation naturally 
prevented her participation in the latter. At the Columbian Expo- 
sition Germany has covered herself with glory. She has poured 
out her treasures with lavish hands, and has brought us the ripest 
fruits of her finest mechanism, subtlest thought, and highest art. 
The millions of sturdy Germans who have become valuable Ameri- 
can citizens, pursuing lives of honest prosperity in every section of 
the United States, are filled with delight and justifiable pride at the 
honor paid by the Fatherland to the country of their adoption. 

Austria also is here with a splendid display, many fine paintings, 
and the inimitable Old Vienna of Midway Plaisance. The Nether- 
lands have sent us their greatest pictures, and are assisted in the 
general exhibit by many thriving Dutch colonies, Great Britain's, 



1 6 INTRODUCTION. 

colonies also have united to do her honor, Canada, Australia and 
New South Wales being pre-eminent. It is the exhibits of its 
Colonies, indeed, which chiefly distinguish the display of Great 
Britain from that of our own country, which is one with England in 
blood, in temperament, in tongue, and in love of constitutional gov- 
ernment. That we are still one and inseparate is evidenced in 
every corresponding branch of the classification ; the same methods 
appearing in the English and American division of Mechanical 
Arts, and the same sentiments and sympathies glowing from its 
canvases in the palace of Fine Arts. 

France too is here with her treasures of artistic skill,, genius and 
art. A peculiarly close bond has existed between that country and 
ours since she lent us Lafayette in the hour of our desperate need. 

Sweden, Norway and Denmark make magnificent displays. The 
latter was the only foreign country, strangely enough, which declined 
to appoint a committee of women to co-operate with the Board of 
Lady Managers, upon the preferment of a request from the Board 
to that effect. This decision was peculiarly and doubly singular, 
not only from the generally recognized progressiveness of the 
Queen, but because her Majesty's daughters resident in other 
countries had been from the outset enthusiastic advocates of the 
World's Fair, and the prominence of women in the making of it. 
This decision was, however, happily reconsidered, and Danish women 
are most creditable participants in the Exposition. The exhibits 
by these last named governments are of particular interest to the 
large Scandinavian population of the Northwestern States. 

Belgium and Switzerland are brilliantly represented by character- 
istic displays. Indeed it were far easier to mention the nations who 
are absent — because they are so few — than those who participate. 
Russia came with the splendor that characterizes her. Russia has 
ever been the friend of the United States, and the presence of her 
mighty navy in American waters was a bulwark of strength to the 
loyal American heart, in the hour of our country's terrible struggle. 
America in turn did what she could when she sent Russia bread in 
the anguished days of the famine, and Russia bears a tender memory 
of that. Her crops have been bountiful of late, and the vast empire 



INTRODUCTION. ' 1 7 

has expended lavishly from its enormous stores, in sending a grand 
exhibit of its art and industries. 

The Orient has not lagged behind Europe in coming to the 
World's Fair. In truth the blood-red banner of Turkey, with its 
snowy star and crescent, was the first foreign flag unfurled over the 
World's Fair grounds — with all the attendant imposing ceremonies 
of the Mohammedan religion. Japan's snowy ensign with its large 
scarlet disk was also among the earliest colors unfurled. That 
country has indeed distinguished itself by the enthusiasm, the 
munificence, the extent, and the pre-eminent courtesy of its participa- 
tion along all lines of the Exposition. Without question the already 
recognized generosity, amiability and fine breeding of the Japanese 
shine with increasing lustre at the World's Fair. 

It is much to be regretted that the strained diplomatic relations 
between our Government and that of China seem to have pre- 
vented official acceptance of our invitation to participation. But 
the World's Fair management exerted such counteracting influence 
as lay in its power, by securing special legislation favorable to 
Chinese exhibitors, and private firms profited by this effort, although 
the Government did not, and the World's Fair is consequently not 
without the unique attraction of a Chinese exhibit. Burmah and 
Siam have placed in evidence their unrivaled wares, and wondrous 
specimens, wrought in costly threads of gold and silver, of their 
characteristic fabrics. 

It is scarcely necessary to name in turn each of the countries 
contributing to the vastest of World's Fairs. Suffice it to say that 
all the considerable nations of the earth are here. Nor need sepa- 
rate mention be made of its many great divisions. It is now gener- 
ally known that there are thirteen of these, conducted by " Chiefs " 
of eminent ability, whose representatives have ransacked the world 
for the treasures of art, science and industry, for the benefit of the 
Exposition. Nor need the dimensions of the buildings provided 
for the best the world has produced be reiterated, although the 
untechnical mind does not readily grasp the real extent of a bare 
statistical statement. The generality of persons understand more 
fully when told that nearly twice as much steel and iron enter into 



1 8 INTRODUCTION. 

the construction of the giant hall of Manufactures and Liberal Arts 
than was required for the Brooklyn Bridge. Or that the pyramids of 
Cheops might be stowed under its great glass roof — which covers 
nine times as mudi ground as is occupied by the Capitol at Wash- 
ington. Time was, two and a half years ago, while the making of 
the Exposition was yet to be achieved, when these stupendous facts 
needed to be told over and over again in necessary exploitation of 
the enterprise. The Department of Publicity and Promotion — to 
use Tony Lumpkin's words — " kept dinging- it into " the whole 
reading world. Never had any previous Exposition been so ex- 
traordinarily and admirably advertised as was our own. No Depart- 
ment corresponding to that of Publicity and Promotion had ever 
existed before, and its remarkable work was accomplished along 
unexplored lines, without a precedent of any description to guide 
it. But it succeeded in the aim ; it bore the tidings of the great 
work (joiner on at Chicago from Dan to Beersheba, from New York 
to Paris, from Iceland to Egypt. 

But the glowing promises made by the World's Fair writers are 
fulfilled now. There is nothing more to say save to invite visitors 
from far and near to behold the indescribable realization of these 
dazzling prophesies. To gaze upon such a scene of enchantment 
as was never before dreamed of outside oriental tales. A city of 
ivory palaces, embodying architectural dreams. Classic creations 
which stir the appreciative heart, and might have stood pre-eminent 
for their unapproachable beauty in the Athens of Pericles. The 
sculptured facade of the Grand Court, the stately colonnade of the 
Peristyle, through and above which gleam lake and sky as blue 
as the lakes and skies of Italy. On every side are columns and 
statues, the heroic figure of the Republic lifting its graceful propor- 
tions high above the silver waters below. We have covered the 
gigantic figure of the Queen of Freedom with gold, as the Athenians 
did that of Minerva. There are gilded domes also, and flashing 
minarets, the flags of all nations, and gay gonfalons galore. When 
the sun sinks out of sight and shadows creep over the lake, one by 
one the circling line of electric lights outlining the ivory facade 
gleam forth like endless strands of luminous jewels, and the dome 



INTRODUCTION. 1$ 

of the Administration Building glows like the most stupendous of 
exquisite cameos. 

But all this is brilliantly in evidence, and gloriously beautiful 
though it is, represents after all only the material portion of our 
great Exposition. The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 in its own 
modest way showed what an International Exhibition can do for 
the country in which it is held. It put us forward a quarter of a 
century in the cultivation of taste, in the elevation of the standards 
of artistic workmanship, in the adaptation of the methods of older or 
more advanced civilizations to the needs of the newer continent, and 
in raising the masses to a plateau of higher intelligence. The 
benefits conferred by the Chicago Exhibition will exceed those 
of the Centennial in proportion to its greater artistic achieve- 
ments and greater comprehensiveness in every department of hu- 
man activity. These ideal buildings will influence the architec- 
ture of our own country — and indeed of the whole world that gazes 
upon it — for an indefinite period. The treasures of industry, science 
and art forming their contents, will be reflected in the pictures, 
fabrics and manufactures of many subsequent years. This will be 
the visible, artistic and commercial result of the World's Columbian 
Exposition. The subtler, intellectual and spiritual outcome is 
farther to seek and more difficult to foresee. It must, however, 
perforce include the stimulating influences born of the commingling 
of all races of men. Perception of the best each nation has to 
present must direct and invigorate to the elevation of individual 
and national life. The revelations of the World's Fair have already 
corrected many erroneous international opinions. The best thought, 
the most advanced methods of all countries in science, literature, 
reform, education, government, morals, philanthropy, jurisprudence 
— indeed, all those things which contribute to the progress, prosperity 
and peace of mankind — are exhibited in the Exposition itself, or 
discussed in its Auxiliary Congresses. The intense interest aroused 
by the latter has been evidenced by the attendance of many of the 
greatest leaders of thought in both Europe and America. The 
Rulers of other countries have sent special envoys to our Exposi- 
tion; with injunctions to observe our institutions, customs and privi- 



20 



INTRODUCTION. 



leges, with a view to the adoption of the most advantageous. We 
in turn are eagerly scanning the foreigners, alert to learn the best 
they have to teach. From such conditions lasting results of incal- 
culable benefit must certainly come. 





EVIEWING the history of inter- 
national exhibitions, it seems al- 
most incredible that the first 
effort in that direction was insti- 
tuted less than half a century ago. In the forty 
odd years that have intervened the art of exhib- 
iting has grown into a science as exact in its 
general rules and as far-reaching in its effect on 
civilization as its antithesis, the science of war. 

England claims and deserves the honor for the first great gath- 
ering of the nations of the earth in this rivalry of the arts and in- 
dustries ; and to Prince Albert is due the initiative and successful 
culmination of the project — the Crystal Palace exhibition held in 
London in 1851. While the great honor of that enterprise falls 
rightfully to the Britons, its suggestion and the starting-point of all 
competitive exhibitions was in France, where the custom of awards 
for excellence in industrial and artistic displays had been in vogue 
for years. 

The general management of the Crystal Palace has had a pecu- 
liar and significant bearing on all subsequent exhibitions of correl- 
ative scope. In the very outset building plans were selected in 
competition, setting a precedent in selection that has prevailed 
generally ever since. The time allowed for the presentation of 
plans was very short, only a month, and yet there were 233 com- 
petitors, one-sixth of whom were foreigners, about one-half from 
London and its immediate environs, and the rest from provincial 
towns of England. The plans adopted and the character of the 
structure erected according to their specifications are too widely 
known to need elaborate explanation or comment. The contract 
called for a building 1,851 feet long, the numerals corresponding 
with the year, and 450 feet broad. The enormous size of the un- 

(21) 



22 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 




dertaking may be understood 
when it is known that something 
like 20 acres of glass, 205 miles 
of sash-bar, 34 miles of gutter- 
pipe and a correspondingly large 
amount of flooring and walling 
material were required. The 
cost was estimated at about a 
million dollars. 

The number of employees con- 
nected with the Crystal Palace is 
of peculiar interest to those who 
have wondered tiow many em- 
ployees would be required to 
maintain the Columbian Exposi- 
tion to its close. As near as can 
be ascertained, over 10,000 per- 
sons were engaged in the main- 
tenance or furtherance of the 
Crystal Palace. 

On the first of May, 1851, the 
Queen herself opened the doors 
of the exhibition, while the Prince 
made the address of the day, de- 
scribing the purposes of the dis- 
play and the causes that led to the 
undertaking. The historical sig- 
nificance of the occasion requires 
the greatest weight and dignity 
from the personages of fame 
present. The Duke of Welling- 
ton, Lord Palmerston, the Mar- 
quis of Anglesea, and the princi- 
pal lords and ladies of the em- 
pire were there. 

From this auspicious dedica- 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



23 



tion to the last day of the Exhibition there was not a question of 
its tremendous value to the world of commerce and to the pursuits 




DUBLIN EXHIBITION, 1853. 



of peace. What was most remarkable, when one remembers the 
outcome of subsequent exhibitions, was the fact that the finances 




CORK EXHIBITION, 1S53. 



were so well managed that a surplus of nearly a million dollars re- 
mained in the treasury after all the expenses were paid. No such re- 



24 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



turns have been obtained since in proportion to the sources of rev- 
enue on concessions. In the first place, no liquors were allowed to 




NEW YORK EXHIBITION, 1853. 

be sold on the grounds, depriving the Exposition of what has gen- 
erally been a source of the heaviest income in the continental 
exhibitions. The refreshment concession was sold for $27,500, a 
sum that seems ridiculously small in these modern days of finan- 
ciering in such affairs. No cooking was allowed in the Palace, 




KXIUHITION, 



.854. 



and yet the total receipts from refreshments to the holders of the 
concession were estimated at $375,000, 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 25 

When it came to fixing the rates for admission, there was some 




MANCHESTER EXHIBITION, 1857. 

little discussion. It was decided to make the figures for four days 
in the week at a price that would allow the people of moderate 




FLORENCE EXHIBITION, l86l. 

means to take advantage of the educational advantages the Exhibi- 



26 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



tion offered, while the other two days were designed more particu- 
larly for the people who preferred the comparative exclusion that 
would follow from a higher-priced admission. Accordingly, the 
admission on every day but Friday and Saturday was fixed at one 
shilling, or 25 cents ; on Friday, two shillings sixpence (75 cents), 
and on Saturday five shillings, or $1.25. Altogether, $1,780,000 




PARIS EXPOSITION, 1867. 



was taken in at the entrances, of which about $2,500 was counter- 
feit silver. It was estimated at the time that the city of London 
increased its total income by about $20,000,000 during the six 
months of the exhibition. 

It is a fact worthy of notice that although the United States had 
very few exhibitors in attendance, they secured a larger number 
of awards in proportion to the representation than any of the for- 
eign nations that participated. The reapers, pianos, vehicles and 
textile fabrics sent from the United States attracted special atten- 
tion, while Powers' sculpture, "The Greek Slave," was a great sur- 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



27 



prise to the continental and insular critics, who thought at that time 
that America had nothing- of art worth considering. 

In awards there were three grades — a council medal, equivalent 
to a diploma of honor ; the gold prize medal, and certificates of 




VIENNA EXPOSITION, 1873. 

honorable mention. Altogether, 5,248 awards were conferred; of 
which American exhibitors secured 5 council medals, 102 prize 
medals, and 53 honorable mentions. 



THE NEW YORK EXHIBITION. 

Although Dublin held an exhibition in 1853 which made some 
claim to international scope, it was more particularly local in its 
essential features, was initiated and carried on by private capital, 
and was remarkable for nothing except its magnificent collection of 
paintings, which was the finest ever brought together up to that 
time. 

The New York World's Fair was the immediate successor of the 
Crystal Palace, and, indeed, had its origin in the visit of a number 

ILLIN : 

SPRINGFIELD. ILUN 



28 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



of Americans who had seen the wonderful success of Prince Al- 
bert's exhibition, and had thought that even greater things in plan 
might be repeated on the western continent. In the very outset,, 
however, the promoters of the undertaking found themselves at a 
great disadvantage in the absence of government support. They 
found, too, a surprising hostility in the State and City of New York 
from the very merchants and traders whom it was expected to 
benefit most. Some enemies of the scheme even went so far as to 
base their opposition on the argument that the exhibition must 
necessarily injure their commerce both at home and abroad by 
affording competitors a vantage-point in their own territory. In 
the face of this opposition, ground was leased at the corner of 426. 
street and 6th avenue in January, 1852, and a State charter was 




CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, 1876 — HORTICULTURAL BUILDING. 

granted in March of the same year, the capital stock being $200,- 
000. Work was begun on the plans selected in August, but the 
Fair was not formally opened until July 14, 1853. President Pierce, 
some of his cabinet, Horatio Seymour, then Governor of New York, 
the governors of several other States and a number of distinguished 
diplomats were present at the opening ceremonies. 

The classification of exhibits was the same as at the London 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



20 



exhibition. There were only four groups — raw materials, manu- 
factures, machinery, and fine arts. Forty-one hundred exhibitors 
participated, of whom less than one-half were Americans. The 
total expenses were $640,000, receipts about $340,000, leaving a 
deficit of $300,000 to be borne by the stockholders. 

Paris, 1855. — Until 1855, international displays had been chiefly 
directed toward the stimulation of commercial interests, and the 




CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, 1876 — AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. 

development of industrial skill by awards in competition. It remained 
for Louis Napoleon, Emperor of France, to put forward the purely 
artistic phases of exhibition as the most conspicuous and best 
deserving of reward. The French people, artists by inheritance 
and national education, seized the opportunity to emphasize their 
pre-eminence in the arts and co-operated with the government in 
the installation of an exhibition that was the marvel of that day, 
and which served to determine the value of decorative and artistic 
excellence in the success of such undertakings. 

Three main buildings were devoted to the Paris Exhibition of 
1855. The Palace of Industry, a permanent structure which is still 
a feature of the Champs Elysees, was the principal exhibit hall. It 
is rectangular in shape and of solid construction, and contained the 
industrial groups. An annex 4,000 feet long was given over to 
machinery. Still another building, the Palace of Fine Arts, was 



30 PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 

separated from the others by a considerable distance. Between 
the Palace of Industry and the annex was a rotunda in which were 
placed the crown jewels of the empire and a valuable collection of 
tapestries and other works of art belonging to the government. 

In this as in most of the great expositions, the United States had 
very scant representation. Out of 24,000 exhibitors, only 144 were 
Americans. Thirteen of the number were in the department of 
fine arts. Exhibits were subdivided into eight groups, which were 
in turn divided into 31 classes. Jurors to the number of 398 made 




CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, 1876 — ART GALLERY. 

the awards, and 190 of the jurors were from foreign countries. 
One hundred and twelve grand medals of honor, 252 medals of 
honor. 2,300 first-class medals and 4,000 honorable mentions consti- 
tuted the awards. Of these Cyrus H. McCormick was the only 
American to receive a grand medal of honor. Messrs. Healy, 
May and Rossiter were the American artists most conspicuously 
noticed. 

The total number of visitors during the exposition period was 
5,162,330. The price of admission varied from eight cents on 
Sunday to $1.00 on Friday, which was a reserve day, but the 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 31 

general admission on week-days was one franc, about 20 cents. 
The expenses exceeded the income by over $4,000,000, but that 
included the cost of the permanent building, which represented a 
large part of the total expense. Even allowing for this item, the ex- 
position itself was a financial loss, but it was estimated at the time that 
Paris gained about $10,000,000 expended by strangers in the city. 

Several minor displays under the name of international exposi- 
tions, but not so in reality, intervened between this time and the 
second great Universal Exhibition held in London in 1862. This 
was intended to eclipse the one held in Paris, and it very much sur- 
passed all its predecessors. The buildings were of brick, iron and 
glass, and adjoined the gardens of the Horticultural Society at 
South Kensington. The edifices prepared for the exposition were 
very large, and of considerable architectural beauty. The main 
buildings and annexes together covered more than 23 acres. The 
opening ceremonies of this exposition were held May 1, 1862, and 
were considered to form the most elaborate pageant that had been 
seen for many years. England was enjoying great prosperity as a 
direct result of the darkness of civil war in this country, and other 
countries in Europe were sharing in the benefits. Partly on this 
account, and partly on account of the old-time apathy, the United 
States contributed but a beggarly display to the whole. The en- 
tire area occupied by exhibitors from the United States was but 
3,242 square feet. The classification was the same as at the last 
exposition, and the displays were very fine. The total cost of the 
buildings was about $1,605,000, and of the whole exposition about 
$2,300,000. Although the expenditures were liberal and even lav- 
ish, there was no deficit at the close of the enterprise when all ex- 
penses were paid. The total number of visitors was about 6,225,- 
000, or an average daily attendance of some 36,500. In every way 
the affair was a success. 

Without delay the French began the preparation of an exposi- 
tion destined to outshine that of the English. The emperor was 
then at the summit of his glory. Paris had been rebuilt in mag- 
nificence, and was the handsomest city on the globe. The site 
selected for this world's fair was the historic Champs de Mars, about 



32 PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 

3J acres in area. The general design provided an immense oval 
building arranged in twelve concentric aisles, with a small open 
centre garden. This building was 1,550 feet long and 1,250 feet 
wide, and covered about eleven acres. Other smaller buildings 
erected as annexes made the total area under roof about 35 acres. 
There was also an island measuring some 52 acres included in the 
grounds of the exposition, and devoted to agricultural and horti- 
cultural purposes. The whole park was beautifully ornamented, 
and all nations united in praising the exposition as the best there 
had ever been. It was opened by their imperial majesties, Napo- 
leon and Eugenie, April 1st, and closed November 3, 1867. In 
that time it had been open to visitors 1 1 7 days, and they had flocked 
to it to the then unparalleled number of more than 10,000,000. 
There were some 50,000 exhibitors. The receipts were but $2,103,- 
000, and the expenses were never made public, though it is certain that 
they greatly exceeded that amount. France enjoyed unparalleled 
prosperity for the next few years, however, and this was largely 
due to the results of the exposition, in spite of its deficit. 

The Vienna International Exposition was opened in the Imperial 
park at Vienna in May, 1873. There was one great main building 
of enormous size, and numbers of smaller ones and annexes. 
There were some 70,000 exhibitors, of whom but 664 were from 
the United States. These, however, were successful in securing 
442 awards, a pretty good proportion. The total cost of the enter- 
prise was about $7,800,000, and there was a large deficit. Never- 
theless, Austria felt that the indirect profit was very great. 

The Centennial Exposition held at Philadelphia in 1876 is yet 
fresh in the minds of many of our people. In many respects it was 
the greatest that had ever then been held, and its results were very 
far-reaching. In a few weeks it did much to remove the unfavor- 
able impressions existing against this country in the minds of Eu- 
ropeans. The great exposition was located in Fairmount Park, 
which was presented for the purpose, free of charge, by the city of 
Philadelphia. It was beautifully improved, and the space given to 
the fair was some 450 acres, of which more than half was fenced. 
Six large buildings and many small ones housed the exhibits here, 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



33 



and they were all of marked archi- 
tectural merit. In preparation for 
the enterprise, Philadelphia do- 
nated $50,000 for preliminary 
work. Congress passed a bill 
creating- a Centennial Board of 
Finance, authorized to issue stock 
in shares of $10 each, the whole 
amount issued not to exceed $10,- 
000,000. This had to be raised 
by private subscription. After 
persistent effort directed against 
Congress, a loan was made of 
$1,500,000, and this was after- 
wards paid back. The city of 
Philadelphia and the State of 
Pennsylvania each appropriated 
$1,500,000, and other States dealt 
liberally by the exposition. The 
amount spent on the government 
exhibit was $728,500. The total 
number of exhibitors was 30,864, 
a big increase over the 13,000 of 
London in 1851. The character 
and value of the exhibits, too, were 
far above those of previous dis- 
plays. Out of the total, 8,175 
of the exhibits were from the 
United States, and Spain came 
second, with 3,822. The Centen- 
nial opened May 10, 1876. From 
that time until November 10th, 
the day of closing, there entered 
the gates a grand total of 9,910,966 
persons, of whom 8,004,274 paid 
admission fees which amounted to 




34 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 




$3>8 13,726.50. The daily average 
attendance, paid and free, was 62,- 
333. The largest attendance was 
on Pennsylvania Day, September 
28th, when 274,919 entered the en- 
closure. 

The time for a few years before 
the opening of the Centennial had 
been one of great commercial de- 
pression in this country, and the 
date of the opening marked the 
very gloomiest of all the time. 
From that day, however, condi- 
tions began to improve, and that 
day is remembered as the turning- 
point of the financial crisis. The 
results of the Centennial were 
magnificent, and it will ever be re- 
membered as one of the greatest 
events in the history of this coun- 
try. As an exposition of the 
progress of arts, science and in- 
dustry it had not before been 
equalled in the world. 

The French republic showed 
what it could do, when, in 1878, 
was held in Paris another great 
exhibition of the works of art and 
industry of all nations. It was less 
extravagant in expenditure, but in 
every respect was equal to the 
standard of excellence which had 
been established. Again the 
Champs de Mars was the site, and 
this time the space occupied on 
both sides of the Seine covered 



36- 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



more than ioo acres. The United States this time formed one of 
the most interesting sections of the whole display, and included 
1,229 exhibits out of a total of 40,366. This exposition opened 
May 1, 1878, and continued until October 10th. During this time 
the total attendance was 16,032,725, or an average of 82,650 a day. 
There was a large deficit in the running of the exposition, but, as 
before, it was believed that the indirect profits to Paris and to all 
France were great. 

Two expositions were held in Australia within a year, and as first 
attempts both were considered to be highly satisfactory. One was 
at Sydney. It opened September 17, 1879, and closed April 20, 




PARIS EXPOSITION, 1889 — PALACE OF LIBERAL ARTS. 

1880. Of course it was not profitable, but the attendance was 
about 1,200,000, and the success was gratifying. The other was at 
Melbourne and was on a larger scale. Here the buildings were 
pretentious and elegant, the exhibitors numbered more than 12,000, 
and every country of prominence was represented. The United 
States made an excellent showing here, and the result was a oreat 
increase in trade between the countries. 

The greate'st of all the international exhibitions ever seen by the 
world has been that held in Paris in 1889. It is the one with which 
all comparisons of the Columbian Exposition are made, and by its 
measure is the favor or disfavor credited. Its success was marked 
in every particular. In commemoration of the French revolution, 



3* 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 



it was opened to thep 



ublic May 



5 th. The receipts were 



nearly 




EIFFEL 



TOWER. PAWS EXPOSITION, » 



PREVIOUS EXHIBITIONS. 39 

$10,000,000 and the expenses but a little more than $8,000,000, so 
that there was a profit of nearly $2,000,000, something that had 
never been experienced before in the history of international expo- 
sitions. The Champs de Mars was again selected for the site. A 
space of 173 acres was occupied, and this was covered with mag- 
nificent buildings. The Machinery Palace, the largest structure, 
covered eleven acres and cost $1,500,000. The .Palace of Arts 
and the Palace of the French Section were but second to this, and 
were models of architectural beauty. The parks were magnificently 
decorated, and here the Eiffel tower was constructed. Fifty-five 
thousand exhibitors displayed their wares, and out of these no less 
than 1,750 were Americans. American exhibitors were granted 
941 of the awards, and the showing was considered very creditable. 
More than 1,500,000 strangers visited the city of Paris, and the 
money expended by them, and added to the wealth of France and 
Paris, was enormous. All kinds of business prospered, Paris was 
in its glory, all France was proud. The world envied the magnifi- 
cent showing made by the republic. That is the record set before 
the people of the United States to be excelled by the World's 
Columbian Exposition. 




World's Columbian Exposition is 
the record of a battle of munic- 
ipal forces and interests such as 
no other chapter of the civic annals of our country 
can relate. The struggle for location was so strong 
that long months passed before the last twinges of 
jealousy might be said to have vanished from the 
inhabitants of some of the contending cities. The Fair itself is the 
culmination of years of work and planning, which began long before 
the general public was greatly interested in the work. 

It seems impossible to verify any of the claims made by those 
who seek the honor of bein^ named as the ones who first sucjorested 
the holding of an International Exposition to commemorate the 
discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. The claim is 
made by several different ones, and will doubtless never be settled. 
Numerous leading newspapers throughout the country long ago 
advocated the holding of such a quadri-centennial, and about the 
time of the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia sentiment began 
to be formed in favor of the idea. In 1888 the subject began to 
attract serious interest throughout the country. It was soon 
evident that such an Exposition would be held, and the thing to be 
done, preserving the reputation of active American municipalities, 
was to compete for the location. Four great cities, New York, St. 
Louis, Washington and Chicago, were the competitors for the 
honor. 

Similar methods of campaigning were adopted in each of the 
rival cities. In Chicago, the mayor, the Hon, Dewitt C. Cregier, 

(41) 



42 



PRELIMINARY HISTORY. 



called a meeting of citizens to take action to secure the Fair, and 
this was the first official move in the contest that ended with 
Chicago's success. By authority of this meeting committees were 
appointed to assume charge of the organized effort which was to 
be made. Certain ones devoted themselves to the matter of public 
sentiment, and by means of the cordial assistance of the public 
press of the city spread far and wide the arguments why the city 
by the lake was the best of all for the site of the great exposition. 

While this .action was 
being taken, leading citi- 
zens of Chicago formed 
an incorporation under 
the laws of the State of 
Illinois, and this corpora- 
tion, the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition, raised 
the sum of $5,000,000 
in subscriptions of stock, 
besides pledging itself to 
double the sum for ex- 
penditure in building the 
Fair. 

When Congress met in 
December, 1889, the seat 
of effort was transferred 
to Washington. Here 
powerful lobbies of the 
most prominent citizens 
of each of the competing 
cities presented the case to the representatives and the senators 
with every force and influence that could be commanded. Each of 
the four cities concentrated its efforts, and the battle was a fierce 
one. New York had certain claims which could not be overlooked, 
as the metropolis and the chief commercial city of the United 
States. Washington was the seat of government of the nation, 
and so claimed to be the proper place for such a celebration. St. Louis 




From Harper's Weekly Copyright, 1893, by Harper & Brothers. 

D. H. BURNHAM, CHIEF OF CONSTRUCTION. 



PRELIMINARY HISTORY. 43 

demonstrated that there were more people living within the limits 
of a circle drawn with that city as a centre, and a radius of 500 
miles, than in a similar circle drawn from any other city. There- 
fore it was supposed to be more accessible for the greatest number 
of people. Chicago claimed the best facilities and the best financial 
organization for the enterprise. She wanted to display to the 
world an American wonder, a city of a million and a quarter of inhabi- 
tants, and but half a century old. Philadelphia kept out of the 
contest, having had the Centennial but a few years before, but cast 
her influence with New York. The eastern cities all argued that 
people from the old world would not come so far as to Chicago or 
St. Louis, and that the Fair should therefore be kept near the 
ocean. 

Every one knows the result. Chicago's arguments were power- 
ful, and she was successful. The friendship of the country was 
with her, except in the case of the parts directly depending on the 
competing cities, and her superiority in many respects as a place 
for holding the Exposition was generally admitted. On the first 
ballot taken by Congress for location, Chicago led New York by 
more than 40 votes. On the eighth ballot the votes for Chicago 
were 157, for New York 107, for St. Louis 25, and for Washington 
18. 

Senator Daniel, of Virginia, introduced in the Senate, in March, 
1890, a bill to provide for the holding of the Exposition at Chicago. 
A special committee of the two houses reported a bill that passed, 
and the signature of President Harrison was attached to it, so that 
it became a law, on the twenty-fifth of April, the same year. The 
act was entitled: "An act to provide for celebrating the 400th 
anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, 
by holding an International Exhibition of arts, industries, manu- 
factures and the products of the soil, mine and sea, in the City of 
Chicago, in the State of Illinois." This act provided for the appoint- 
ment of a national commission, to be designated as the World's 
Columbian Commission, to be composed of two commissioners 
from each State and each Territory, and from the District of 
Columbia, and eight commissioners-at-large. Those from the States 



44 PRELIMINARY HISTORY. 

and Territories were to be appointed by the governors, and the 
others by the President. Their compensation was to be but $6 
per day, and actual travelling expenses. After all were appointed, 
they were to meet in Chicago, and organize for business. At this 
time they were to accept such site and plans as were submitted to 
them by the local corporation, provided that corporation give 
evidence of the possession of a bona fide subscribed capital stock 
of $5,000,000, and that it can secure the same amount additional. 
This commission was directed to determine the plan and scope of 
the Exposition, allot space for exhibitors, prepare a classification of 
exhibits, appoint judges and examiners, and generally have charge 
of all intercourse with the exhibitors and the representatives of 
foreign nations. It was also required to appoint a board of lady 
managers. The act directed that the buildings should be dedicated 
with proper ceremonies October 12, 1892, and that the Exposition 
should open the first of May, 1893, and continue for the term of 
six months. When the President should be notified by the com- 
mission that the preliminary arrangements were complete, he should 
invite the nations of the world to join in the Exposition. The act 
also provided that there should be a naval review in New York 
harbor in April, 1893, to which ships from all the navies of the 
world should be invited. This outlines to a certain extent the 
scheme for government of the Fair, the more complete description 
of which is found in the later chapter on Administration. 

The act of Congress was fulfilled in every particular. 

The calendar of the Fair thus resolves itself into three notable, 
epoch-marking dates, or periods. The first was the time of dedica- 
tion, the ceremonies on this occasion continuing during three days, 
Thursday, Friday and Saturday, the 20th, 21st and 2 2d of October, 
1892. The second was the great naval review held at New York, 
through several days in the latter part of April, 1893. This was 
provided for in the act of Congress creating the Exposition, and so 
belongs to the history of the great enterprise as part of the prelim- 
inary celebration. The third and most important of all the dates 
in the calendar of the Fair is May 1, 1893, on which day the gates 



46 PRELIMINARY HISTORY. 

were at last thrown open to the public, and the great exhibition 
presented to history. 

The week of dedication was an eventful one in Chicago. For 
a long time before the city had been decking herself in gala attire, 
and when the morning of October 20th dawned on the giant city 
of the west everything was in readiness. All over the city a 
wilderness of flags waved in the wind, and banners and streamers 
made the streets gay with color. Chicago had adopted for a 
municipal flag a graceful design of terra cotta and white, and num- 
bers of these were interspersed with flags of all the nations of the 
globe. On that day all traffic was forbidden in the streets of the 
business centre of the city, so far as it required teams and wagons, 
and so. the stillness was something remarkable-^-as observed by 
one who had been accustomed to the roar and bustle of the great 
city. Throngs of gayly dressed people crowded the streets, from 
curb to curb, and seized on every point of vantage whence they 
might best see the glories of the parade. Hundreds of thousands 
of persons, from within and without the city, cheered and gloried 
when the magnificent procession at last began to pass. The line 
of march was many miles long, and for hours the societies forming 
it passed the reviewing stands. Never since the day of the Chicago 
fire, when every one was in terror and hastening to save life and 
property, had the business of the city been so absolutely suspended. 
Once it was for stern danger and necessity. Now it was to rejoice 
over the progress of the world, shared in so full a degree by that 
once-stricken city. 

This one was the civic parade through the business portion of 
Chicago. The governors of the States and Territories, with their 
staffs, rode at the head of the procession in the order in which the 
States were admitted into the Union. There were symbolical 
floats without number, and everything else that could give interest 
to such a cavalcade. 

The next day was the day of importance at the Fair, as Thursday 
had been in the heart of the city. It was dedication day, the anni- 
versary of the landing of Columbus. A military parade composed 
of the officials and guests taking part in the ceremonies, escorted 



Preliminary history. 47 

by cavalry and artillery, marched to the grounds and entered the 
great building of Manufactures and Liberal Arts, where the exer- 
cises were to be held. The actual ceremonies began at 1 : 30 o'clock 
in this building. The programme was arranged as follows : 

1. "Columbus March," composed by Professor John K. Paine, 
of Cambridge. 

2. Prayer by Bishop Charles H. Fowler, D. D., LL. D., of Cali- 
fornia. 

3. Introductory address by Director-General Davis. 

4. Address of welcome and tender of the freedom of the city of 
Chicago, by the Hon. Hempstead Washburne, Mayor. 

5. Selected recitation from the dedicatory ode, written by Miss 
Harriet Monroe, of Chicago ; music by Mr. G. W. Chadwick, of 
Boston ; reading by Mrs. Sarah C. LeMoyne. 

6. Presentation by the Director of Works of the Master Artists 
of the Exposition, and award to them of special commemorative 
medals. Music : " To the Sons of Art." 

7. Address, "Work of the Board of Lady Managers," Mrs. 
Potter Palmer, President. 

8. Tender of the buildings, on behalf of the World's Columbian 
Exposition, by the president thereof, to the President of the World's 
Columbian Commission. 

9. Presentation of the buildings by the President of the World's 
Columbian Commission to the Vice-President of the United States 
for dedication. 

10. Dedication of the buildings by the Vice-President of the 
United States. 

11. "Hallelujah Chorus" from the "Messiah." Handel. 

12. Dedicatory oration, the Hon. Henry Watterson, of Ken- 
tucky. 

13. "Star Spangled Banner" and "Hail Columbia," with full 
chorus and orchestral accompaniment. 

14. Columbian oration, the Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, of New 
York. 

15. Prayer by His Eminence, Cardinal James Gibbons, of Balti- 
more. 



4 8 



PRELIMINARY HISTORY. 



1 6. Chorus, "In Praise of God." Beethoven. 

17. Benediction by the Rev. H. C. McCook, of Philadelphia. 

18. National salute. 

The arrangements of the great building were such that more 
than 100,000 persons were seated during the exercises, and as 
many more found ample standing room within the walls of the 
ponderous structure. Everything passed off in entire perfection. 

The same evening at the 
Auditorium were held the 
dedicatory exercises of the 
World's Congress Auxiliary, 
that great co-ordinate body 
with the Exposition. On 
this occasion the oration 
was delivered by His Grace, 
Archbishop John Ireland. 

The following day the 
ceremonies concluded with 
the dedication of a number 
of the State Buildings at 
Jackson Park, and military 
manoeuvres in Washington 
Park. 

There were also fine fire- 
works in the evening at 
several of the parks of the 
city. The week had ended 
with nothing to mar the 
pleasure, and it was a 
glorious success. 
Six months later the Atlantic coast was the scene of the greatest 
naval pageant that these waters had ever known. The President 
invited all the nations of the world to participate in it, and the 
invitation was accepted by many of them. Early in the month of 
April the vessels from the navies of the world began to rendezvous 
at Hampton Roads, and when all had gathered, in stately line of 




DUKE OF VERAGUA. 



PRELIMINARY HISTORY. 




-PRESIDENT 



THE OPENING EXERCISES- 

T , x ^EVEtAND TOUCHING THE El ^ 
fHarch th<* m , ^HCTRic BUTTON. 



50 



PRELIMINARY HISTORY. 



of New York bay was reached. Here, for days, they manoeuvred, 
paraded and saluted, until at last, when the review was ended, and 
every ceremony had been completed, they once more dispersed for 
their home stations, and the greatest naval review on American 
waters had passed into history. 

The next epoch in Expo- 
sition history was the date 
that marked its opening, 
May i, 1893. The Presi- 
dent of the United States 
and the Duke of Veragua, 
the lineal descendant of 
Columbus, were the guests 
of honor on this occasion. 
A parade formed and escorted 
these and other distinguished 
personages to the Fair 
grounds, and thence to a 
grand stand that had been 
erected for the purpose to 
the east of the Administra- 
tion Building, facing the 
Grand Plaza and the Basin. 
This was thronged with high 
officials of this and other 
nations, and the array of 
notabilities was astonishing. 
To the east they faced a 
grand sight. A hundred 
thousand persons were crowded into the Plaza, eager to see all that 
was to happen. Praise by song, a prayer, and a poem opened the 
ceremonies. Then the Director-General of the Exposition spoke 
briefly, and he was followed by the President of the United States. 
As he finished his short address he touched an electric button on a 
table before him. Instantly there was a flash of color from a 
thousand staffs crowning the great buildings. From them waved, 




THE INFANTA KUI.AIJA. 



PRELIMINARY HISTORY. 5 1 

as by a miracle, flags of every nation. Bands began to play, 
steam whistles to blow, vessels in the harbor to fire salutes from 
their guns, and from the mighty throng went up that grandest of 
songs that ever rises from earth to heaven, the cheers of a multitude 
for a work that is grand and good. Every wheel of all the great 
machines began to turn as if by magic. The World's Columbian 
Exposition was opened, the preliminary history of it was done. 
All the labors of years were for an instant forgotten in the glorious 
triumph of man's effort, and the payment for toil and anxiety and 
rebuff was all received. Then there was no thought of means and 
plans which had resulted in this success. The multitude only stood 
amazed to see what had been accomplished. So we will leave to 
future chapters the story of the work that was done to make this 
Exposition an accomplished fact. The remaining history of the 
Fair is a record of fete and festival. The visit of royalty in the 
person of the Infanta Eulalia, of Spain, the arrival of the Columbus 
Caravels and the Viking Ship, the celebrations on special days, the 
destruction of the Cold Storage Building by fire, were events of 
more than passing interest. 




F there be one feature of the World's 
Columbian Exposition as it exists to-day, 
in the description of which superlatives 
fail to be strong enough, it is the site of 
the scene of splendor. And the marvel is 
even greater to those who have been familiar with the growth and de- 
velopment of the enterprise fronx beginning to end, than to those who 
now see the beauties for the first time. For the latter know not 
the stupendous undertaking of preparation, while the former re- 
member the sand dunes and the marshes swept by the waves of 
Lake Michigan, which but two short years ago formed the land- 
scape that is now the Mecca for the wanderers of the world. 

To obtain a just idea of the site of the Exposition, it is well that 
one should first know, in a general way, the form of the city of Chi- 
cago itself. This city of more than a million and a quarter inhab- 
itants is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan, near the 
southern extremity of the great body of water. Following the curve 
of the lake, which but a few miles farther meets its eastern shore, 




BIRDS-EYE MAP OF CHICAGO. 



(53) 



54 



THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 



the city broadens toward the south. At the northern end of the 
city it extends seven miles back from the shore, while eighteen miles 



■^5fc*, 




THE NEW WHITE CITY— JACKSON PARK. 

to the south it is nearly twice as wide. From this point southward, 
however, an irregularity of the western boundary again narrows the 
city. From north to south, the total limits of the corporation are 




B{\ 






AN EEECTRIC EAUNCH AT THE FAIR GROUNDS. 

twenty-four miles. The business centre of the city is about one- 
third of the distance from the north end, and close to the lake. At 
this point there flows into the lake the Chicago river, a sluggish 



nasi 



m m m ri , 









r , - J : - J - 



I : * * ; * 



i^Uiff MM7 



mnmnsiM.- 




56 



THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 



stream, in looks little more 
than a huge open sewer, but 
of vast importance to the com- 
mercial life of the great city. 
At a point one mile west of the 
lake the river is formed by two 
branches, one flowing from the 
north and one from the south. 
The sources of these two 
streams are a few miles to the 
northwest and the southwest. 
Thus is explained the divisions 
into which the city has natur- 
ally fallen, the West side, the 
North side and the South side. 
The commercial interests of 
the city then centre in the 
pocket formed by the river, 
and here are the great retail 
stores, the wholesale stores, 
the banks, and the offices. But 
in each of the divisions are 
large business enterprises, and 
in each of them may be found 
magnificent homes and large 
quarters where the best and 
most intelligent of the citizens 
dwell. So that while there is 
some sectional jealousy, or 
more properly pride, among 
the residents of the different 
divisions, each loyal to the side 
on which he lives, there is no 
exclusiveness, and on each side 
of the city are hosts ot attrac- STATuE OF THE r *pubuc-orand basin. 
tions worthy the attention of the stranger within the city. 




58 THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 

Encircling the older portion of the city is a system of parks and 
boulevards which when completed will rival those of any city in the 
world. On the shore of the lake, at a point but a short distance 
north of the business centre, begins the Lake Shore Drive, a mag- 
nificent boulevard, which extends along the water's edge nearly two 
miles to Lincoln Park, the most highly improved of all in the 
system. From this green spot in the heart of the city runs another 
drive; Humboldt Boulevard extends west and south five miles to 
Humboldt Park. This connects by Central Boulevard with Garfield 




POLAR BEAR — ON BRIDGES. (A. P. Proctor.) 

Park, and this by Douglas Boulevard with Douglas Park. These 
three latter parks are all in the western part of the city, in succes- 
sive order from north to south, and some four or five miles from the 
lake. Other boulevards running south and east from Douglas Park 
finally reach, after a course of several miles, Washington Park, the 
oldest and best improved of all on the South side. This is six 
miles from the business centre, and directly south of it, so that the 
visitor has now encircled the city, starting from Lincoln Park two 
miles north of the business centre. At the south end of Washing- 
ton Park there extends eastward,, for a mile, a strip of land 600 feet 
in width, a part of the park system, called Midway Plaisance. At 
its eastern extremity it joins Jackson Park, which lies on the lake 



1< 

1 

I 



6o 



THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 



shore, seven miles from the mouth of the Chicago river and the 
business centre. Here is the World's Columbian Exposition. 

When the site for the Fair was finally selected, those in charge 
of the enterprise looked about them to find how much preparation 
would be needed before the grounds would be ready for the erec- 
tion of buildings. Here is the condition of things as they found 
them. Jackson Park is beautifully situated on the lake shore, in 
shape something like a right-angled triangle. The waters of the 
lake form the hypothenuse, Stony Island Avenue the perpendicular, 





bull, buffalo — on bridgfs. {Edward Kemeys.) 

and Sixty-seventh street the base, the apex being at Fifty-sixth 
street. The park does not, however, come to a point, but at this 
narrowest place is about a quarter of a mile in width. At the base 
line it measures just one mile, on the perpendicular a mile and a 
third, and on the hypothenuse more than a mile and a half. Within 
these limits are contained 526 acres, every inch of which is now 
utilized most perfectly for the purposes of the Exposition. Midway 
Plaisance, a part of the Exposition grounds, contains 80 acres more. 
When control of this area was assumed by the officers of the 
World's Columbian Exposition they found less than one-fourth of 




:ga|i saw a >™ 



P>»~W*» 





1I4 Si 

" '1 fad" 

15 





r/-^ a /-^<"» 



6z 



The Site and how to reach it. 



the whole in a state available for use. This was the northern por- 
tion of the park proper, where the park commissioners had culti- 
vated lawns and constructed driveways, a lake, and a pavilion for 
recreation. This was known as the improved portion of the park, 
in contradistinction to the other or unimproved portion. The 
latter was in a state of nature. Sand hills and vales and marsh 
grass and swamps were the only features of the land and water- 




UON — BEFORE obelisk. [Waagen) 

scapes. For centuries powerful Lake Michigan had met no ob- 
stacle in the attack, and had cast up drift-wood with the sand, until 
there was no semblance of the black soil of the Illinois prairies to 
indicate fertility. Among the sand dunes were sink-holes of quick- 
sand and of swamp, and the careless pedestrian might find himself 
in actual danger in the course of a walk across the tract. 

How different is all this now ! Where once was rank grass of 
the marshes is to be seen the most luxuriant of green turf. Where 
the path was rough with the rise and fall of the shifting sand 



THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. ■ 63 

are level parkways, vistas of sylvan beauty, terraces of most artis- 
tic conception. Where was then a rough and wave-beaten shore, 




MOUNTAIN GOAT— ON BRIDGES. (A. P. Proctor.) 



strewn with the refuse of a generation's drift, is now a sea-wall of 
stone, a pavement of the same unyielding material, and the beauty 
of cleanness and purity. Where was then a marsh, whose stagnant 
waters were divided but by hummocks of mud and sand, are now 
the clear flowing waters of the beautiful system of lagoons, and, 
rising out of them, the walls of a city of white palaces, the arch- 
itectural triumph of modern history. 

What of the minds that planned and the hands that worked to 
accomplish this work of pride ? 

The creation of the design and plan for the Fair, thus including 
the location of all the buildings, was assigned to the men who had 
proven by past work their capacity for such a task. Messrs. Burn- 
ham & Root, one of the largest and most prominent firms of arch- 
itects in Chicago, and Frederic Law Olmstead, the great landscape 
architect of Boston, were thus chosen. The general outlines of the 
grounds were decided upon, and the labor of preparation put under 
way. Mr. Root, a master mind in his profession, died soon after the 
work began, but will always be remembered for the ideas carried to 
completion by his successors. As an instance of the breadth of 



64 ■ THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 

mind with which the preliminaries of the Exposition were carried on, 
it is interesting to note that the drawing of designs for all the large 
buildings of the Fair was assigned to eminent architects in some 
half dozen cities of the United States, and their interests thus en- 
listed in favor of the enterprise. The talent secured was therefore 
of the best. 

With the planning of the buildings thus provided for, the task on 
hand was to prepare the grounds for them. Contracts were let, 
which provided for the grading of the tract, and the dredging of the 
lagoons. Over a large portion of the park there had accumulated, 
by the decay of centuries of vegetation, and the help of the winds, 
a thin layer of rich black soil. This must be preserved, for it was too 
rare to waste. So the whole surface was scraped, and the scrap- 
ings from this inch or two of loam piled in a remote corner of the 
park where it would not be disturbed. Then the dredges and the 
plows and the scrapers went to work, manned by thousands of 
brawny men, and within a few months the face of the park was 
transformed. Hillocks and valleys and lagoons were made, and 
islands in the midst of the system of waters. As fast as the area of 
one building's site was ready construction was begun, and before 
long there arose within the park a wilderness of scaffolds and walls. 
The grading once finished, the piles of earth which had been so 
carefully preserved were again attacked, and the rich soil scattered 
all over the park, at the proper thickness to sustain vegetation, 
though a great quantity of it had to be shipped in from a distance. 

It is impossible and needless to follow the course of construction 
little by little. Railway tracks threaded the grounds from every 
direction ; an army of workmen kept busy day and night ; every 
man whose interests were with the Exposition gave his best thought 
and effort to its advancement. 

Finally came completion, dedication, and opening. What was 
placed before the eyes of the millions of visitors, who view with 
delight the wonders of the Fair, is here recorded. . In other chapters 
each building is given careful description, and the notable exhibits 
contained in it are told. But the outer embellishment of the grounds 
properly belongs in this place. 



68 



THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 



The artistic centre of the whole Fair is the Plaza and the Grand 
Basin, bounded by the Machinery, Agriculture, Manufactures, Elec- 
tricity and Mines Buildings, and the Terminal station and Peristyle. 
In the centre of the Plaza stands the Administration Building, and 
around it are grouped much of the choicest decorative pieces of all. 
Just to the east of this structure is the Columbian Fountain, the gem 
of all, designed by Frederick MacMonnies, and executed by him at 



. .- 




BIRD SEYE VIEW 



his studio in Paris. It resembles closely in symbolical design a 
remarkable sketch alleged to have been made by Columbus him- 
self, and yet preserved. The centre part is designed as a mediaeval 
barge, drawn by huge sea-horses, frothing and spouting foam and 
sea water, and by centaurs bestridden and urged on. Enthroned 
and above all sits Columbia, majestic in dignity and pose, the 
personification of liberty, freedom and power, with Father Time as 
steersman. Assisting in the propulsion of the ship of state are 
four female figures on either side, representing the arts and sciences, 



THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 



6 9 



gracefully pulling huge sweeps or oars. At the bow of the barge, 
Fame, a beautiful female figure, with a herald's trumpet in hand, pro- 
claims the advent and progress of the nation. The motto, " E pluri- 
bus unum," is engraved on the pedestal supporting the principal figure. 
The work is marvellous in conception and in execution. It is snowy 
white, to match the other beauties of the fairy city, and its greatest 
beauty is seen at night, when the electric fountains on either side 




OF THE FAIR. 



ig-hts are cast 



are playing, and the intense rays of the search 
upon it. 

The electric fountains are other decorations whose best beauty is 
at night. Through hundreds of jets the water pours far into the 
air, illuminated by electric light cast through globes of many different 
colors. The effect is dazzling and enchanting. 

Far at the other end of the Basin is the great statue of the Re- 
public, designed by Daniel C. French, of New York. This figure 
is sixty-five feet in height, and of perfect symmetry. The arms and 



70 THE Sift Atft> HOW 1*0 k£AC±H IT. 

hands are upraised above the head. In her right hand she holds a 
globe on which an eagle rests with outstretched wings. The left 
hand carries a staff with a Phrygian cap, the symbol of liberty. On 
the head is a wreath of laurel leaves. The heavy robe is open in 
front, and reveals a breastplate of armor, and a sword half hidden 
by the drapery. The statue is made of plaster and gilded. Inside 
the statue is a stairway, by which the attendant goes to the top, to 
light and care for it. The total weight is thirty-five tons. Its size 
will be seen by the fact that the arms are thirty feet long, the nose 
thirty inches long, and within the hand is room to hold four men of 
ordinary size. So perfectly proportioned to its surroundings is it, 
that one loses sight of its enormous size, and sees but its beauty 
and grace. 

The Grand Basin and the North and South Canals, which extend 
at right angles from it, are treated in terraces, with bevelled lawns, 
and elaborate balustrades of white, massive and classic. On their 
posts are great pots of cacti, and below are roses and other flowers 
and plants. At the southern extremity of the Canal is the Lion 
fountain and Obelisk, a design of great beauty, and one of the most 
artistic conceptions on the grounds. It represents one of the 
ancient obelisks of Egypt, and is guarded by four lions, of which 
M. A. Waagen is the sculptor. Just behind this, and connecting 
the Machinery and the Agriculture Buildings, is the classical Col- 
onnade, designed by C. B. Atwood, as a screen for the intramural 
station, and the Live Stock Pavilion. It is graceful and beautiful. 

Two classes of sculpture are yet to be mentioned, of those encir- 
cling the Basin. They consist of a series of native American wild 
animals, modelled by Edward Kemeys and A. Phimister Proctor, and 
a series of six rostral columns designed and executed by Johannes 
Gelert. The animals surmount the bridges that cross the canals, 
and thus have a location that is unsurpassed. Those of Mr. Kemeys 
are " Old Ephraim," a male grizzly guarding the approach to his 
lair; "A Grizzly. Grave Digger," who is playing with the head of a 
wild sheep she has before buried and has now disinterred; "A 
Prairie Kinor " a bull buffalo walking- around the outskirts of his 
herd, to guard against threatened danger ; " At Sound of the Whoop," 



THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 



71 



guard her 



a cow buffalo, standing at the first signal of danger, to 
calf; " The Still Hunt," the figure of an American panther crouching 
ready to spring ; " At Bay," a female panther ready to defend her 
lair against an attack. All of these beautiful works are so posed 
as to give the appearance of watching the approaches to the bridge. 
The work of Mr. Proctor, which is of equal merit, consists of 
moose, elk and polar bears. Two sullen moose guard the bridge 




hunter's cabin, wooded island. 

leading to the Agriculture Building, and a number of elk are placed 
on bridges in various parts of the grounds. Two polar bears watch 
another bridge, and seem to be looking across an imaginary field 
of ice for seals or explorers. Mr. Proctor is also the sculptor of 
the lions which guard the treasures of the Fine Arts Building. But 
his most important works here are the equestrian statues decorat- 
ing the landing in the lagoon opposite the Transportation Building. 
One is a cowboy, not the eastern ideal but the western reality. He 
sits on a typical bucking broncho which he is curbing, and is in 



7 a 



THE SITE AND HOW TO REACH IT. 



every way a most worthy representative of his kind. His com- 
panion is an Indian, mounted on a pony, which is standing silent 
while the rider gazes from under his shading hand, to see what is 
before him on the prairie. The pose and the details are all perfect. 




TERMINAL STATION. 



Facing the waters of the Basin and Canals, opposite and adjoining 
the Agriculture Building, are oxen and draught horses, beautifully 
sculptured and of large size. 

In addition to the outdoor sculpture already named there are 
other features, such as fountains and ornamental figures, of lesser 
importance, scattered over the grounds, in many places. Every care 
has thus been taken to make a pleasure ground that would be as 
delightful outside the buildings as within them. Beautiful flowers 
and grass plots meet the eye everywhere, and nothing is left un- 
done that can add to the attractiveness of the scene. 

Now all of these splendors would be as naught if they were so 
far from means of communication as to be out of the reach of quick 
and easy travel. It is consequently interesting to note the means 
of communication furnished the public to come to the Fair. The 
transportation facilities are better in every way than have ever been 
provided at any previous exposition. From the Lake Front Park, 



the site and how to reach it. 



73 



which may be termed the down-town entrance of the Fair, there 
are a number of ways to reach the grounds, all safe, speedy and 
pleasant. First comes the express service of the Illinois Central 
railway. Trains start from the down-town station at Van Buren 
street every few minutes, and reach the grounds without any stop, 
after a run of some fifteen minutes. Once at Jackson Park the 
passenger may leave the train at Sixtieth or Sixty-third street, or 
ride directly into the grounds, to be nearest to the Administration 
Building and the centre of the Fair. This last stop is at the en- 
trance to the Terminal station, a grand depot within the Exposition 




INTERIOR OE TERMINAL STATION. 

grounds. This structure lies due west of the Administration Build- 
ing, and forms the western boundary of the Court of Honor. It was 
designed in the mixed Roman-Corinthian style, by Mr. C. B. Atwood. 
The station is divided into three sections, the central portion being 
200 feet long. This forms the great vestibule through which trains 



74 the SiTe And how To reach it. 

are emptied. The eastern and western sections are three stones 
hi^h, and contain the waiting-rooms, check-rooms, lunch counters, 
and genera] railway and custom house offices. On the second floor, 
the full circuit of the central section, is an immense gallery, 25 feet 
wide, and 600 feet long. Above it, a frieze of clock faces, twenty- 
four in number, shows the time in the principal cities of the world. 
Three grand loggia open to the east. There are ladies' parlors in 
this building, and all sorts of comforts for the travelling public. 

The passenger from the city may find within a few hundred yards 
from the Illinois Central Station, the station of the elevated railway 
company, and these trains will also convey one within the walls of 
the Exposition. The station where they unload their passengers is 
on the roof of the annex to the Transportation Building, and adjoin- 
ing the station of the elevated Intramural railway. A line of fine 
steamships furnish another means of communication with the park. 
They sail from a pier adjoining the Illinois Central Station, and land 
at the great pier which extends into Lake Michigan from the Per- 
istyle eastward. The Movable Sidewalk enables one coming to the 
grounds this way to enjoy a novel mode of travel. It runs the 
length of the pier, and is one of the curiosities of the Exposition. 
Last of all, the passenger may take the cable lines from the busi- 
ness centre of the city, and reach the Fair after a ride through the 
residence district. Two lines are in this service, and there is still 
another railway line, running from the west side of the city, and 
supplying service for the residents of that vicinity. Altogether 
the capacity of transportation to and from the World's Fair 
is estimated to be about 110,000 per hour, by these means, and 
many thousands of others who reside or board near the Fair, and 
are within walking distance, may be added to that number. There 
is no difficulty, then, in transporting to the Fair all who may want 
to attend on any day. Thus it is seen that everything that needs 
to be considered has been arranged to give to visitors the greatest 
pleasure, and to do it with greatest ease and comfort to them. 
That is the spirit of the Exposition. 



m*, 



*»j*^v*l§* I;™ 



3«E^ 




|HE tale of the World's Columbian 
Exposition is in great part a 
record of magnitudes. Com- 
parisons wherever made are the 
most certain proofs of the 
enormity of the undertaking. It 
is a fact that the room required 
for the conduct of the business 
interests of the Fair is greater than that occupied by the govern- 
ments of some of the great States of the Union, and the force of 
employes, even outside the army of laborers who performed the 
manual labor of building the Fair, is of astonishing number. Dur- 
ing the period before offices were prepared in the new buildings at 
Jackson Park, when all the work of administration had to be done 
in the business heart of Chicago, offices were secured in the great 
Rand-McNally building on Adams street, and there was a hive of 
industry for more than two years before the last of the transactions 
could be pursued at the park. During the greater portion of this 
time two floors were thus occupied at a rental of some $30,000 a 
year. At the earliest possible moment the offices of the Depart- 
ment of Construction were moved to the park, and in succession, 
as the various buildings were finished, the chiefs of the different 
departments changed their quarters, until by the time when the 
Administration building itself was finished, and ready to be occu- 
pied by the executive officers and for other purposes, the old rooms, 
about which so many memories of the Exposition must always hano-, 
were almost all vacated. At the end of the period of construction 
there were but few representatives of the Exposition remaining 
there, these being the ones who have most frequent occasion to 
transact down-town business. 

It is of course in the Administration Building that the business 

(77) 

ILLINOIS STATE H'3TOR!CAl LlBftAflY 
Ol n STATE rADrrrii 



jS ADMINISTRATION. 

life of the World's Columbian Exposition centres. Here are the 
offices of the most prominent of the executive officers, the ones 




war, administration building. {Karl Bitter.) 

who have the burden of the responsibility on their shoulders. The 
building contains no exhibits, except as the decorations of painting 



ADMINISTRATION. 



79 



and sculpture are exhibits for the visitors to the building itself. 
But its commanding position in the most favorable location within 
the grounds, and its magnificent architectural proportions, com- 
bined with its official importance, act to make it the most prom- 
inent of all the buildings of the Fair, and to secure for it the 




DIANA, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

{Karl Bitter.) 



FIRE UNCONTROLLED, SOUTH EN- 
TRANCE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 
{Karl Bitter.) 



encomiums of architectural experts for its beauty and perfection. 
Such a structure is worthy of extended description. 

The Administration Building stands in the centre of the Grand 
Plaza, and is at the same time the centre of the architectural features 



8o 



ADMINISTRATION. 



of the Fair. This Plaza is a great open space, rectangular, and 
bounded on the north by the Mines and Electricity Buildings, 
on the west by the terminal railway station, and on the south by 
the Machinery Hall. Its eastward aspect is toward the Lake, but 

between the Plaza and Lake 
Michigan lie the clear waters 
of the Grand Basin, central 
feature of the Lagoon system 
as the Plaza is of the land- 
scape system. The view lake- 
wards over the Basin passes 
first the McMonnies fountain, 
one> of the most beautiful orna- 
ments of the Exposition, and 
the electric fountains, with 
their sprays of rainbow-colored 
water. Then at the other ex- 
tremity of the Basin stands 
the Golden Statue of the 
Republic, with the peristyle 
and the Lake for a background. 
Beveled lawns and triumphal 
columns and noble bridges 
with sculptured ornament fill 
the view, and it is enchanting. 
Here then, in the midst of all 
these splendors, is the golden- 
domed crown of the Fair. 

In size the Administration 
Building is a noble edifice, 
though it is dwarfed to some 
extent by the giants around 
it. It is 262 feet square, 
covers an area of more than 
three acres, and cost nearly half a million dollars. One of the 
noblest achievements of modern architecture, it is by many named 




WATER UNCONTROLLED, EASTERN ENTRANCE 
ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. (Karl Bitter.) 



ADMINISTRATION. 



8l 



as the gem of all the buildings of the Exposition, 
in the form of four pavilions, 
each 84 feet square, one at 
each of the four angles of the 
square of the plane, and all 
connected by a great central 
dome, 120 feet in diameter, 
and 250 feet high. The gen- 
eral design of the structure is 
in the style of the French 
renaissance, carried out in the 
academic manner of the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts. The first 
great story is in the Doric 
order, and of heroic propor- 
tions, surmounted by a lofty 
balustrade. At the angles of 
each pavilion the piers are 
crowned with sculpture. Ex- 
ternally the design may be 
divided as to its height in 
three principal stages. The 
first measures 65 feet, to 
correspond with the build- 
ings around it. The second 
stage of the 
continuation 
rotunda, 175 
rounded on 
open colonnade, 
and 40 feet high 
four 
third 



The building is 



same height is a 



the central 



of 

feet square, sur- 
ah 1 sides by an 
20 feet wide 
with columns 
feet in diameter. The 
stage consists of the 




BLACKSMITH, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

{Karl Bitter.) 



base of the great dome, 30 feet high, and the dome itself, rising in 
graceful lines, richly ornamented with moulded ribs and sculptured 
panels. This dome is coated with aluminum bronze, at a cost of 



82 ADMINISTRATION. 

$54,000, and shines out upon the sight from the long vistas that 




TRUTH, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. [Karl Bitter.) 

extend in every direction from the Grand Plaza. The four great 



ADMINISTRATION. 



83 



entrances, one on each side 
of the building, are 50 feet 
wide and 50 feet high, and 
deeply recessed. On each 
side the entrances are embel- 
lished with groups of stat- 
uary, sculptured in emble- 
matical forms. Once within 
the building and under the 
great dome, it is seen that 
the corner pavilions, small 
though they may appear from 
without, are in reality each 
four-story office buildings as to 
capacity and form, each of the 
most modern kind. Elevators 
lead from them to the offices 
above. The rotunda itself is 





TRADITION. 



PATRIOTISM, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

{Karl Bitter.) 



open to the top of the dome. 
The interior of the dome 
is octagonal in shape, the 
first story being com- 
posed of eight enormous 
arched openings. Above 
the arches is a frieze, 27 
feet in width, the panels 
filled with tablets, borne 
by figures carved in relief. 
The interior of the dome 
rises 200 feet from the 
floor, and at the top an 
opening 50 feet square 
admits a flood of light. 
The under side of the 
dome is enriched with 



8 4 



ADMINISTRATION. 



panels filled with sculpture and immense paintings, representing 
the arts and sciences. A mosaic floor is under foot, and settees, 
scattered around for the resting-place of any one who may desire, 
help to make the place one of the- favorite resorts of the Fair. 




science, administration building. {Kart Bitter.) 

The great arched doors are always open, and a constant stream 
of humanity flows from pavilion to pavilion, and from arch to 
arch under the rotunda. 

No other building on the grounds displays such a wealth of elab- 
orate decoration. The edifice was constructed largely for show 
and architectural beauty, and the sculptural beauties of it are a 
constant delight. The groups were designed and executed by 
Karl Bitter, the able sculptor of New York. The decorations con- 
sist of twenty-eight groups of statuary and a number of single fig- 
ures and relievos. Bas-reliefs of large size are especially used for 
adorning the interior of the dome. The most remarkable are 



ADMINISTRATION. 



85 



those groups which are placed at the side of the entrances. They 
are each thirty-four feet high, and represent the four elements, 
"Earth," "Water," "Air" and "Fire." At the one side of the en- 
trance is seen the element in its natural unsubdued condition, and 
at the other it is represented as in the service of man and subdued 
by him. The first group representing 
Earth appears crowned with the figure 
of an old but powerful man, who, rest- 
ing his fist on his sturdy knee, is peer- 
ing forward. It is to allegorize the 
bulk of a mountain, the imposing form 
of a rock. Beneath this figure is 
standing a fierce fellow, who, leaning 
on a chopped mammoth-tooth, looks 
at his wife, who is wrestling with an 
ape for fruit. This is to represent the 
earth in its original relations to man, 
when he had to live like and contend 
with the animals. At the other side 
the stately figure of a woman is proudly 
lifting in the air a crown, and precious 
stones, while the other hand drapes 
her garments in rich folds. She shows 
that man forced from the earth all 
that was exquisite and valuable to 
him. Beneath her is a strong man 
breaking a rock to get at the raw 
materials which, completely manufac- 
tured, she is holding in her hand. At 
her right side is a youth, who, with a smile, carries 
shoulder a basketful of fruit and grain. 

" Fire Uncontrolled " is shown by a female figure pushing for- 
ward, holding- outstretched in her right hand a snake. She is rest- 
ing on the form of a man, who, with full, sensuous face, represents 
the storm, and who seems to force the woman in the direction 
where the arm is pointing. Beneath there is crouched the figure 




water controlled. {Karl Bitter.') 



upon 



his 



86 



ADMINISTRATION. 



of a woman, with a malicious expression, secretly trying to set fire 
to a pile of wood. "Fire Controlled" is shown by a figure of 
" Genius " lifting a torch as a symbol of light, the best gift that fire 
has rendered to man. A smith who has stricken to the feet of 
Genius with his hammer a demon is intended to represent the 

uses of fire in the 
mechanical arts. 

In "Water Un- 
controlled " Nep- 
tune stands as the 
centre figure, and 
rules with out- 
stretched hands the 
agitated waters. 
Beneath him a 
daughter of Nereus 
boldly plays with 
a Triton. She 
emerges from the 
depth to the crest 
of the wave, her 
hair tangling in the 
foam, and grasping 
the locks of the 
Triton, pulls him 
over. His anguish 
shows that he is 
compelled to sub- 
mit. As a counterpart, showing the element in its subdued state, 
is seen a vigorous youth in a boat, carried on the breast of the 
water, which is now forced to lend its strength to carry man, with 
an oar in hand pushing his way onward. Another draws to the 
surface the daughter of Nereus, and tears from her hands the 
pearls which she has so long guarded at the bottom of the sea. 

Two maiden figures in dancing motion between the clouds rep- 
resent "Air Uncontrolled." One of them is turning her body as if 




diligence. {Karl Bitter.) 



ADMINISTRATION. 87 

to show the twirling of the wind. Overhead are two Cupid-like 
figures of children also at play. As a counterpart, a man is holding 
in his hands the model of an air ship, while the expression of his 
features shows triumph for success. The genius which rises be- 
hind him seems to be lifting the ship. Beneath the inventor is a 
youth, the assistant of the aeronaut, who is also delighted with the 



success. 




religious sentiment. {Karl Bitter.) 

The four wings of the building are decorated with three groups 
each, allegorizing the capacities, inclinations and dispositions which 
nature renders to man. Strength, patriotism, religious sentiment, 
diligence, charitableness, love of liberty, satisfaction by pleasure, 
respect for traditions, etc., are thus symbolized. Special regard is 
paid to the principles and character of the American nation. In 
the highest points, at the sides of the four smaller domes, which 
surround the main dome, there are finally placed eight more groups, 
allegorizing the extreme culminating points of human culture, as 



88 



ADMINISTRATION. 



art and science, industry and commerce, war and peace, theology 
and justice. A number of female figures representing Victory are 
placed upon the columns at the entrance to the dome, and bas- 
reliefs of Columbia are on every hand. Just within the east en- 
trance to the building, 
upon the ground, is a great 
statue of Columbus. It is 
modelled by Miss Mary 
T. Lawrence, and is a sim- 
ple, but natural and vig- 
orous, work. 

The mural decorations 
within the dome are mag- 
nificent. In panels be- 
tween the grand arches 
are sixteen huge bronze 
plates, on which are in- 
scribed the names of the 
great countries of the 
earth. Yet above eight 
huge panels bear each a 
slate, supported by two 
winged figures. On these 
are inscribed records of 
H great events and discov- 
B eries in the history of the 
world. Still above these 
^ are inscribed the names 
of the great men of the 
world in discovery and 
invention. Upon the ceiling of the outer dome is painted Dodge's 
great picture, "The Glorification of the Arts and Sciences." A 
volume could be written concerning the elaborate decoration of the 
great structure, but space forbids, and demands attention for the 
men to whom the credit of management is due. 

The scheme of management has already been outlined in brief 




fishermaid. {Karl Bitter.) 



ADMINISTRATION. 



in the chapter on preliminary history. This important feature of 
administration is vested in three organizations, or four, if that co- 
ordinate one, the World's Congress Auxiliary, be included. These 
are as follows: The National Commission, authorized by Congress; 
the World's Columbian Exposition, organized under the laws of 
the State of Illinois, and the Board of Lady Managers, authorized 
by Congress. The officers of the Commission through the period 
of the Fair are: 
President, Thomas 
W. Palmer ; Vice- 
Presidents, Thos. 
W. Waller, M. H. 
de Young, D. D. 
Penn, Gorton W. 
Allen and A. B. 
Andrews ; Secre- 
tary, John C. Dick- 
inson. The World's 
Columbian Expo- 
sition directory is 
composed of thirty- 
five citizens of Chi- 
cago, elected an- 
nually by the stock- 
holders. On this 
body fell the bur- 
den of raising the 
necessary money, 
and the active 

management of the business of the Fair, except intercourse with 
exhibitors. Its officers are : President, Harlow N. Higinbotham ; 
Vice-President, Ferd. W. Peck ; Second Vice-President, R. A. 
Waller; Secretary, H. O. Edmonds; Treasurer, A. F. Seeberger ; 
Auditor, W. K. Ackerman, and Solicitor, W. K. Carlisle. The 
officers of the Board of Lady Managers are : Mrs. Bertha H. 
Palmer, President; Mrs. Ralph Trautman, First Vice-President, 




PRESIDENT H. N. HIGINBOTHAM. 




CHIEFS OF THE DEPARTMENTS. 



i. Eber W. Cottrell— Live Stock. 

2. Willard A. Smith — Transportation. 

3. E. E. Joycox — Traffic Manager. 

4. Walter Fearn — Foreign Affairs. 

5. James Allison — Manufactures. 

6. Moses P. Handy — Publicity and Promotion. 

7. Halsey C. Ives — Fine Arts. 

8. John P. Barrett— Electricity. 

(90) 



9. William I. Buchanan — Agriculture. 
10. Frederick W. Putnam — Ethnology, 
n. John W. Collins — Fisheries. 

12. Frederick J. V. Skiff — Mining. 

13. Lewis W. Robinson — Machinery. 

14. Joseph Hirst — Secretary of Installation. 

15. Selim H. Peabody — Liberal Arts. 

16. John M. Samuels — Horticulture. 



ADMINISTRATION. 



91 



and Mrs.J5usan Gale Cooke, Secretary. The offices of all these 
organizations are in the Administration Building. 

Each great exhibits department has its own offices in the building 
which contains its displays. Another hive of industry properly to 
be named in this chapter is the Service Building, a plain but com- 
modious structure, which contains the offices of the Construction 
Department, the Fire and Police System, the latter of which is that 
semi-military organization, the Columbian Guards, besides barracks, 
stables and other necessary conveniences. The fire and police 
services are excellently organized, and 
are under the best of discipline. 

Throughout the Fair and the period 
of construction D. H. Burnham has 
been the Director of Works, with entire 
authority over the work of construction 
and preparation. The chief executive 
of the Fair has been Col. George R. 
Davis, the Director-General, through 
whose office has been had all assignment 
of space and other intercourse with 
exhibitors. A body of four, containing 
two representatives from each of the 
two great governing forces, the Com- 
mission and the Directory, under the 
name of the Council of Administration, 
has been in active charge of the entire 
enterprise, with authority to settle disputed points. Each depart- 
ment chief is an officer of the staff of the Director-General, and 
this consequently includes the Department of Publicity and Promo- 
tion, that great advertising enterprise under the chieftainship of 
Major Moses P. Handy, which made the Exposition a familiar 
thing in every hamlet of the civilized world. It would be interest- 
ing to follow his processes of action, but that is impossible here. 
In addition to the offices named, there are in the Administration 
Buildings rooms for the Customs House officers of the United 
States, a bank, telegraph and express offices, and accommodations 




COLUMBIAN GUARD. 




DIRECTORS OF THE ILLINOIS CORPORATION. 



. William D. Kerfoot. 
7. Wm. J. Chalmers 



Elbridge G. Keith. 
9. Eugene S. Pike. 
Robert A. Waller. 



I. Charles H. Waclcer. 
6. Alexander H. Revell 

II. Charles Henrotin. 

16. Charles L. Hutchins 

21. Robt. C. Clowry. 2: 

26. Washington Porter. 27. Ed. F. Lawrence. 28. Benj. Butterworth. 29. A.M.Rothschild. 30. Edw. P. Ripley 
31. G. H. Wheeler. 32. John C. Willing. 33. Andrew McNally. 34. George P. Englehard. 35. Edwin Walker 

(92) 



. Charles H. Schwab. 
. Frederick S. Winston 
George Schneider. 13. Edward B. Butler. 1 

7. Thos. B. Bryan. 18. Wm. T. Baker. 19. Lyman J. Gage. 
Arthur Dixon. 23. Ferdinand W. Peck. 24. Charles H. Chappell 



John J. P. Odell. 

>. Adolp Nathan. 

Milton W. Kirk. 
20. Chas. T. Yerkes. 
'.5. Paul O. Stinsland. 



ADMINISTRATION. 



93 




WILLIAM T. BAKER. LYMAN N. GAGE. 

The President and Ex-Presidents of the Illinois Corporation. 

for working newspaper men from all over the world. It is a busy 
place, and the centre of Exposition life, as it is of Exposition 
architecture. 




SsBEElJ 




^VERY great International Exposition, from the first to 
this greatest of all, has had some one feature, the most 
notable of its attractions, which was unique and won- 
derful, which was the principal point of attack every 
sight-seer reached in his campaign of investigation. 
Every Exposition of the past is to-day remembered more for some 
such culminating attraction than for its harmony and its perfection 
as an educational influence. At the Paris Exposition of 1889 that 
piece de resistance was the Eiffel tower. It was such a prominent 
feature of the whole Fair that it is doubtful if one ever thinks of the 
Fair without thinking at the same time of the tower. The corre- 
sponding attraction at the World's Columbian Exposition is as enor- 
mous and as wonderful, but not so exclusive in its merit as that 
great tower that reached a thousand feet into the clouds of heaven. 
It is the Building for Manufactures, or the Main Building, as it is 
popularly called. This building, from its very size, is one of the won- 
ders of the world. It is a standing violation of the rule that statis- 
tics are never interesting. Its name is Leviathan. It is the largest 
house that was ever built. It measures within a few feet of seven- 
teen hundred feet long and eight hundred feet wide. To walk 
around it is to journey a mile. To walk once along each side of 
each main aisle and cross aisle, upon the floor and in the galleries, 

(95) 



9 6 



MANUFACTURES. 



within the structure, is to travel more than fifty miles. At the rate 
of one mile an hour, which is as fast as it will be possible to move 
through the throng, taking even the most cursory glance at the ex- 
hibits, it then requires more th^n a week, working constantly eight 
hours a day, to exhaust this building. This estimate makes no 
provision for careful study of the exhibits. It is an indication of the 
magnitude of the whole Exposition. 

Now for some fio-ures on the construction of this edifice : Its area 




ERECTION OF MANUFACTURES BUILDING. 

is thirty and one-half acres ; while with its galleries it provides more 
than forty-four acres of floor space. The total cost of the building 
was $1,700,000. The great roof is the feature of the structure, 
which makes the strongest impression upon every beholder. The 
roof and the trusses that support it are the largest ever built. The 
span is three hundred and eighty feet, and the height to the ridge 
of the roof from the floor is two hundred and two feet. These 
numbers and the statement that the building covers more than 
thirty acres give but an indefinite idea of its capacity. It is esti- 
mated that five thousand people could live without crowding within 



MANUFACTURES. 



97 



the walls of this monster in one thousand cottages, each 25x50 
feet, which could be built upon the floor. The floor alone con- 
sumed more than 3,000,000 feet of lumber and five carloads of 
nails. There are eleven acres of skylights and forty carloads of 
glass in the roof. 

Now, let us have some comparisons : The building is three 
times larger than the Cathedral of St. Peter's at Rome, and any 
church in Chicago could be placed in the vestibule of St. Peter's. 
It is four times larger 
than the old Roman 
Colosseum, which seated 
eighty thousand per- 
sons. The central hall, 
which is a single room 
without a supporting 
pillar under its roof, 
contains eleven acres, 
and seventy-five thou- 
sand persons can sit in 
this room, giving each 
one six square feet of 
space. By the same 
arrangement the entire 
building will seat three 
hundred thousand peo- 
ple. The Auditorium, which is the most notable building in Chi- 
cago, is so small that twenty of its duplicates could be placed on 
this floor. 

The Manufactures Building is notable not only for its immense 
size, but for its symmetry as well. It is in the Corinthian style of 
architecture, and its details are severely classic. Its facades pre- 
sent an array of columns and arches strictly Corinthian, but re- 
lieved from monotony by elaborate ornamentation. To a great 
extent this ornamentation takes for its subject female figures, sym- 
bolical of the various arts and sciences. There are four great en- 
trances, being one in the centre of each facade. These are de- 
7 




EXHIBIT OF THE INTERIOR HARDWOOD CO. 



98 MANUFACTURES. 

signed in the manner of triumphal arches, the central archway of 
each being forty feet wide and eighty feet high. Above these por- 
tals is the great attic story, ornamented with sculptured eagles, 
o-reat panels with inscriptions and sculptured figures in bas-relief. 
Great arched entrance pavilions are erected also at each corner of 
the main building, and these are designed in harmony with the 
central portals. Some of the greatest artists in the country have 
given their services to the decoration of these portals, and the magnifi- 
cent paintings over one's head as he enters are a source of delight. 
Within the building thirty great staircases from the main floor lead 
to the galleries. A gallery fifty feet wide extends around all four 
sides, and projecting from it are eighty-six smaller galleries twelve 
feet wide. These galleries form a splendid post of vantage from 
which to survey the swaying throng beneath and the wilderness of 
attractive exhibits. To those who enjoy the study of human na- 
ture and the characteristics of a crowd, and desire a rest from the 
constant strain of seeing manufactured wonders, these galleries are 

a delightful place of obser- 
vation, and over their rail- 
ings one may view mate- 
rial enough for a philoso- 
pher's meditations for a 
century. 

This great building oc- 
cupies a position as de- 
lightful as it deserves. 
Longitudinally it faces 
Lake Michigan, with noth- 
ing except promenades 
and green sward separat- 
ing these two embodi- 
ments of greatness. Here 
at the east front of the 
great house is a favorite 
resort during the hot afternoons of summer. The enormous roof, 
a third of a mile in length, casts a shadow even to the water's edge, 




EXHIBIT OF PENINSULAR STOVE CO. 



^EMTGCffl^ 



9!tffcK 



MANUFACTURES. 99 

and the breeze blowing from off the surface of the huge body of 
fresh water gives rest to 
the weary and relief to 
those whom heat has 
burdened. Toward the 
south is the Grand Canal, 
and across its waters onel 
sees the Building for Ag-I 
riculture and its crowning 
object of art, the St. 
Gaudens statue of DianaJ 
Westward across the Ca- 
nal is the Building fori 
Electricity. To the north 
is the United States! 
Government Buildingl 
and the Government 
Plaza. From whicheverl 
of these directions thel 
building is approached,' 
the great roof is that 
which first impresses itself upon the beholder. It is interesting 
now to remember that the building as originally designed was in- 
tended to have an open court in the centre instead of this arched 
roof; but more space was needed for exhibits, and it was decided 
to construct a covering for the court and so utilize it. Mr. George 
B. Post, of New York, the architect, swept a bit of charcoal over 
the plan of the building, marking a curve that bridged the central 
space ; that stroke of the charcoal added a cost of $450,000, but it 
ennobled the structure as none before ever was. 

As one approaches the Park in which the Exposition was reared, 
the first impression justifies that happy characterization which has 
named the exhibit palaces " The White City." The Manufactures 
Building, like its companions, employs for covering a material 
called " staff," which gives this effect of marble whiteness. On all 
the buildings more than two thousand carloads of this material 



EXHIBIT OF P. H. HAKE MFG. CO. 



IOO MANUFACTURES. 

were consumed. In the consideration of this structure, where its 
use was greatest, it is well to know something of the material. It 
is composed chiefly of powdered gypsum, which is mixed with 
alumina, glycerine and dextrine. These are mingled in water 
without heat, and cast in molds in any desired shape, where they 
harden. The natural color of the composition is a murky white, 
but any color may be produced by the application of ordinary 
paints. Brittleness is prevented by casting the material around a 
coarse cloth bagging, or oakum. The casts are shallow, and may 
be in any form in imitation of cut stone, moldings, or the most del- 
icate designs. The material is impervious to water, and is perma- 
nent when used in buildings although its cost is less than one-tenth 
of granite or marble. "Staff" was invented in France about 1876, 
and its first use, where it acquired prominence, was in the buildings 
of the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

It is very proper that the design of the building should be mas- 
sive and beautiful, yet severely simple. If such a one had been 
treated ornamentally as the smaller buildings were it would have 
detracted from its immense size. The motive of its architectural 
inspiration was to impress upon the mind of the beholder its 
solidity and grandeur, and not to subordinate these to considera- 
tions of mere beauty. Were the sight broken and the senses dis- 
tracted by carved balconies, porches and arabesques, the building 
would be seen in parts and not as one gigantic whole, and its im- 
mensity would thus be lost to the spectator. As it is, the eye takes 
in at a glance its chaste, plain exterior, and the mind is thrilled with 
the idea of its stupendous size, solidity and strength. 

Yet it is not to be understood that the structure is free from or- 
namentation. On the contrary, the interior of its domes bear upon 
their surfaces some of the most notable of the mural decorations 
of the Fair. These paintings are as follows : In the dome of the 
north entrance, by Beckwith, four females, symbolical of " Elec- 
tricity as Applied to Commerce ; " by Shirlaw, four figures on nug- 
gets of gold and silver, a branch of coral and a huge pearl, repre- 
senting "The Abundance of Land and Sea." Over the east 
entrance, by Simmons, four nude men, a blacksmith for iron, a 



MANUFACTURES. 



loi 



sculptor for stone, and others ; by Kenyon Cox, a woman bending 
a sword, representing " The Metal-worker's Art ; " a woman hold- 
ing a distaff and weaving, a woman decorating a vase, representing 
" Pottery ; " and " Building," represented by a woman holding a car- 




GENERAL VIEW OE AUSTRIAN SECTION. 



penter's square with a partly finished brick wall at the back. At the 
south entrance, by Reid, three seated figures of women against the 
sky, representing " The Art of Design," and one seated man, a metal- 
worker ; by J. Alden Weir, female figures, representing "Pottery, 
Sculpture, Decoration and Textile Arts." At the west entrance, by 
Blashfield, winged figures allegorical of the arts of the Armorer, 
the Brass-worker, the Iron-worker and the Stone-worker ; by Rein- 
hart, seated figures, representing the Goldsmith's and other decora- 
tive arts, with vases of plants in the arches overhead. The sub- 
jects of Mr. Gari Melcher's panels over the southwest entrance are 
" The Arts of War " and " The Arts of Peace." Two panels, by 



102 



MANUFACTURES. 



Mr. F. D. Millet, are located over the entrance of the northwest 
corner ; they represent the weaving trades, the subjects being 
"Penelope at the Loom" and "The Return of Ulysses." Two 
panels, by Mr. Lawrence C. Earle, are placed over the northeast 
entrance, respectively representing " The Glassblowers " and " Pot- 
tery." Mr. McEwen's panels, placed over the entrance at the 
southeast corner, typify " Music" and "Textiles." The subjects in 
all of the decorations in this building are treated in classical style 
and are very fine. Around the sides in a frieze appear the names 




LOOKING OVER CLOTH BOOTHS TO CLOCK TOWER. 



of the States with their coats-of-arms, and gigantic eagles with up- 
lifted wings are poised on the pediments over the entrances. 

Through the centre of the building, north and south, from entrance 
to entrance, runs a veritable street, Columbia avenue, fifty feet wide 
and studded at the corners of each intersecting street or aisle 
with ornamental lamp-posts bearing electric lights. Across this 



MANUFACTURES. 



IO3 



street at its middle runs another of the same width, thus dividing 
the interior of the building into four immense rectangular spaces, 
which are each further divided by intersecting cross aisles. In the 
centre of the building, at the intersection of the two main streets, 
stands an imposing clock-tower. 

This magnificent clock-tower is 1 20 teet high, with a base of 20 
feet diameter, which is formed of four square towers, rising to a 




PART OF BRITISH SECTION. 

height of 40 feet and each terminating in a dome. The archways 
of these lower towers culminate in a groined dome, over which is 
the first floor of the main tower. An ornamental balcony sur- 
rounds this story, its principal decorations being the shields of the 
States of the Union and the coats-of-arms of the South American 
States. The tower at this point narrows to a diameter of 24 feet, 
and upon the next floor is placed the mechanism of the great 



io4 



MANUFACTURES. 




TRIPOD GRIFFIN JARDINIERE. 

Exhibit by Edwin Bennett Pottery Co. 



clock, whose dials, 
70 feet above the 
floor, mark the 
hours of day 
and night. These 
dials are in the 
fourth story and 
are seven feet 
in diameter. The 
fifth story is a 
round tower, 
whose arches sup- 
port a dome 20 
feet in diameter. 
In this story is 
placed a melo- 
dious chime of 
bells, furnished by 
the Clinton H. 
M e n e e 1 y Com- 
pany, of Troy, N. 
Y. U p o n the 
main floor of the 
building, and un- 
der the very cen- 
tre of the arches 
of the tower, 
stands an obelisk 
madeof silver half- 
dollars, souvenir 
coins, made ex- 
actly in the model 
of the noted monu- 
ment at Washing- 
ton, D. C. This 
column of silver 
is one of the 



io6 



MANUFACTURES. 



greatest attractions to visitors in the entire building. It is some 40 
feet hicrh, and thousands of coins were used in the construction of it. 

Four great nations, France, Great Britain, Germany and the 
United States, occupy the centre of 
the Manufactures Building, and ad- 
join one another facing this great 
clock tower. The United States 
occupies the entire northeast quarter 
of the building, as well as a large 
area in the northwest quarter. Here 
are exhibited everything contained 
in the following classification, De- 
partment H, under the chieftainship 
of James Allison, having the widest 
scope of any Department. Here 
is a list of the groups and exhibits: 

Chemical and pharmaceutical pro- 
ducts, druggists' supplies : Paints, 
colors, dyes and varnishes : Type- 
writers, paper, blank-books, station- 
ery: Furniture of interiors, uphol- 
stery and artistic decorations : Cera- 
mics and Mosaics, monuments, 
mausoleums, mantels, undertakers' 
goods : Art metal work, enamels, 
etc. : Glass and glassware : Stained 
glass in decorations : Carvings in 
various materials : Gold and silver, 
plate, etc. : Jewelry and ornaments : 
Horology, watches, clocks, etc. : Sill 
jute, ramie and other vegetable and mineral fibres : Yarns, woven 
goods, linen and other vegetable fibres : Woven and felted goods 
of wool and mixtures of wool : Clothing and costumes : Fur and 
fur clothing: Laces, embroideries, trimmings, artificial flowers, fans, 
etc.: Hair work, coiffures and accessories of the toilet: Travelling 
equipments, valises, trunks, canes and umbrellas: Rubber goods, 
caoutchouc, gutta-percha, celluloid and zylonite : Toys and fancy 




DEFENCE OF THE FI,AG. 

Exhibit of Monumental Bronze Co. 

and silk fabrics : Fabrics of 



MANUFACTURES. 



107 



articles: Leather and manufactures of leather: Scales, weights and 
measures: Materials of war, apparatus for hunting, sporting 



apparatus and appliances: Heating and cook- 
and appliances : Refrigerators, hollow metal 
tinware, enameled 
Wire goods and 



arms: Lighting 
ing apparatus 
ware 
ware 

screens, perforated 
sheets, lattice work, 
fencing : Wrought-iron 
and thin metal exhibits: 
Vaults, safes, hardware, 
edged tools, cutlery: 
Plumbing and sanitary 
materials : Miscellane- 
ous manufactures not 
heretofore classed. 

Now let us imagine 
that by some means the 
visitor has reached the 
exact centre of the 
building, under the great 
clock tower, to begin 
his sight-seeing. As he 
faces northward the 
whole northeast quarter 
of the building is occu- 
pied by the displays of 
the United States. To 
the northwest is Ger- 
many, to the southwest 
Great Britain, and to 
the southeast France, 
though, of course, none of the three latter nations extend clear to 
the end of the building. The displays of the United States, occu- 
pying more than twelve acres of this building alone, are more won- 
derful and more numerous than those of any other nation, and yet 




COLUMBUS IN SOLID SILVER. 

Exhibit of G or ham Manufacturing Company. 




io8 



GROUP OF SILVKR CUPS AND VASES. 
Exhibit of Tiffany & Co.—U. S. 



MANUFACTURES. 



109 



this space is but one-tenth of what was originally asked for 
by American exhibitors. While it excels in variety, originality, 
ingenuity and mechanical genius all the others, yet it does not have 
the unity of a national display such as those of France and Ger- 
many. The most striking 
exhibit here is the pavilion 
erected by Tiffany, the jew- 
eler, and Gorham, the silver- 
smith, both of New York. 
It faces the central space, 
and thus has to meet for 
rivals the other three great 
nations just named. In its 
central front rises a tall, 
fluted shaft, with a plain yet 
noble base, and a great 
Doric capital, surmounted by 
a globe upon which is poised 
at an elevation of 100 feet 
a golden eagle. On the 
front of the base is the sim- 
ple inscription, "Exhibit of 
the U. S. of America." At 
either side of the main en- 
trance, in the corner, are 
groups of columns bearing 
aloft single tall shafts, ter- 
minating in globes. Arches, 
surmounted with carved and 
sculptured pediments and a 
roof with low, flattened dome 
complete this palatial edifice, 
which cost its builders $100,- 
000. The display in the pavilion is valued at more than $2,000,000. 
It contains gold and silver ware, precious stones, rings, bracelets 
chains, watches, everything rare and beautiful that the jeweler and 




GLOBE CLOCK. 

Exhibit of Tiffany & Co. 



no 



MANUFACTURES. 



silversmith can show. Among the more noteworthy pieces exhib- 
ited is the Globe Clock, an interesting piece of astronomical and 
chronological mechanism. 

The globe and casing of the works are of sterling silver ; the 
lower part, containing the movement, represents a temple of classic 

form, suggested by the 
Roman Pantheon; the 
twelve pillars encircling 
the temple are symbolical 
of the months. Below 
them are marked the 
Roman numerals, upon 
which a hand indicates 
the time of day. On the 
roof of the temple, over 
the pillars, are the signs 
of the zodiac and names 
of the months. Here 
another hand revolves 
indicating the calendar 
month. 

The globe measures 
14 inches in diameter, 
and the clock, complete, 
from the Mexican onyx 
base to the crown of the 
silver owl — the symbol 
of Wisdom on top — 
stands about 30 inches 
high. 

The Magnolia Vase 

represents the pottery of 

the early Americans in 

form, and the various sections of this country in its decorations. 

Its height is 31 inches, and the materials used are silver, gold and 

opal matrix, Nearly a thousand dollars' worth of gold was used 




MAGNOLIA VASE. 

Exhibit of Tiffany & Co. 



MANUFACTURES. 



Ill 



in the representation of the golden rod. The vase weighs about 
65 pounds. 




curious and fancy PIECES. — Exhibit of Tiffany & Co. 



One of the special pieces that wi 
is an incense-burner, in the 
form of a rattlesnake coiled 
around the neck of a duck. 
The snake is life-size and 
modeled from nature, as 
was also the duck. The 
serpent's eyes are of emer- 
alds, while its head and the 
rattles in the tail are formed 
of American pearls; 100 
pearls, 450 opals and deli- 
cate enamel work add to 
the general effect. 

Another noteworthy or- 
namental piece is a minia- 
ture flower-pot and saucer. 
Among other special fancy 
pieces there are toads and 
frogs, life-size, made as bon- 
bonnieres, and studded with 
turquoise matrix, demetoids, 



command universal attention 




IAJNPBQRG TEMPLE. 



112 



MANUFACTURES. 




PAVIWON OF MERIDEN BRITANNIA CO. 



pink topaz, etc. ; bugs and reptiles in great variety. The collection 
of American pearls is also very interesting. 

Far to the north, at the end of 
Columbia avenue, is the space de- 
voted to the exhibit of chemicals, 
perfumery, and toilet articles. One 
of the best of these displays is the 
Lundborg temple, where are shown 
all varieties of perfumeries manu- 
factured by this well-known com- 
pany. It covers a space of 20 x 20 
feet, and has a height of 38 feet. 
Its material is wood, covered with 
ornamental plaster and painted in 
cream and gold. Here perfumes 
are dispensed free throughout the 
Fair, from the silver fountains in the 
pavilions. Some of the show-cases 
are in lavender, some in pink, and others in sage green. The floor 
furnishings are large rugs, while mahogany tables and chairs com- 
bine to make it a pleasant re- 
sort as well as an attractive 
exhibit. 

Another, of the same char- 
acter and also of excellent 
merit, is that of Theo. Rick- 
secker. The pavilion which 
contains it is handsome and 
elaborate, and the wares 
are also beautiful and attrac- 
tive. 

Adjoining these is the dis- 
play of the Rumford Chem- 
ical works. The pavilion 
measures 17 x 20 feet, and it 
is 21 feet in height. On each corner is a spire, in reproduction of 




BAR LOCK TYPEWRITER. 



MANUFACTURES. 



113 



the Merchants' Exchange at Copenhagen. The pavilion is finished 
in ivory and gold with its counter fronts of marble. A great variety 
of the Rumford chemicals are exhibited. 

Between these two points are ranged the wilderness of exhibits 
included in the classification just outlined. It is impossible to do 




EXHIBIT OF AMERICAN WAI.THAM WATCH CO. 

more than name most of the more notable displays, for they are 
bewildering in number and beauty. The rosewood pavilion of the 
Meriden Britannia Company is one of the most attractive. The 
Heath & Milligan Manufacturing Company, of Chicago, has a ma- 
hogany booth 1 5. feet square, and costing more than $3,000, in which 
is a display of finished wood and paints, in packages. It is a place 
where customers are made welcome, and where every one enjoys a 
rest from sight-seeing. The P. H. Hake Manufacturing Company, 
of New York, has a beautiful display of fine stationery, all sizes 
and styles and tints of the fashionable papers being shown, besides 
visiting cards, programs, and other stationery novelties. In the 



H4 



MANUFACTURES. 



section devoted to typewriters are exhibited the Bar Lock, the 
Remington, the Hammond, the Smith Premier, and other leading 
makes. The Brunswick-Balke Billiard Company exhibits fine 
tables, cues, balls, counters, and other accessories. In the pavilion 
of the National Wall Paper Company five of their branches exhibit. 
The furniture exhibits, from leading manufacturers all over the 
country, are unusually fine. The furniture manufacturers of Rock- 
ford, 111., united to make a display that will surpass any other by 
combining their forces and each contributing a large sum of money 
to the cause. Their exhibit is made second to none. The space 
measures 42 x 22 feet. Henry Ives Cobb, one of Chicago's most 
famous architects, drew plans for a model two-story house of this 
size, in which the exhibits are made. Special designs for the fur- 
niture were also made by Mr. Cobb. The first floor of the house 
contains three spacious rooms — hall, parlor and dining-room. The 




EXHIBIT OF CHRISTOFLE & CO. 



hall is finished in oak, the style being modern Gothic, furniture and 
all being designed in the same manner. The parlor is in French 
Colonial style, trimmed in white and gold, the furniture being all 
mahogany. The dining-room is Romanesque, also furnished in 
mahogany. The walls are exquisitely decorated and frescoed, the 



MANUFACTURES. 1 1 5 

floors covered with fine carpets and rugs, while portieres and cur- 
tains drape windows and doors. In the dining-room the table is set 
for dinner. The house is lighted by electricity, and the furniture 




PAVILION OF NATIONAL WAIJ, PAPER CO. 

in keeping with the elegance of the rooms represents an outlay of 
more than $25,000. It has the appearance of a perfectly furnished 
residence in every detail, which has been temporarily vacated by 
the owners in order to visit the World's Fair. To the extreme left, 
in front of the building, is a great mirror, upon which is inscribed 
in letters of silver the names of all the Rockford furniture compa- 
nies. This is the only place on the lower floor where the name of 



n6 



MANUFACTURES. 



an individual concern appears. None of the different pieces of 
furniture are marked, the idea being to bury personal identity and 
advertise Rockford as a whole. 

The second floor is reached by a handsome stairway, leading 
from the hall. This entire floor is used as a store-room, the different 
companies each having here pieces of furniture on exhibit with 
their cards attached. The following are the names of the compa- 
nies which participate in furnishing the house: The Forest City 
Furniture Company; Central Furniture Company; Royal Mantel 




EXHIBIT OF ROCKFORD FURNITURE MANUFACTURERS. 

Company; Union Furniture Company; Skandia Furniture Com- 
pany; Illinois Chair Company; Standard Furniture Company; 
Mantel and Furniture Company; Chair and Furniture Company; 
West End Furniture Company; Mechanics' Furniture Company; 
Co-operative Furniture Company; Desk and Furniture Company; 
Anderson Piano Company, and Rockford Cabinet Company. 

In the furniture section, the Interior Hardwood Company of In- 
dianapolis exhibits a hall in which the floor and stairway are finished 
in parquetry of various design. They also display wood carpets 
of all kinds, and other .interior finishing of handsome character. 



MANUFACTURES. 



"7 



The Bridgeport Wood Finishing Company, of New Milford, Con- 
necticut, includes various specimens of foreign and domestic woods 
in the exhibit. They are placed in the shape of panels set artistic- 
ally side by side in an oak frame, showing the effect produced by 

the various fin- 
ishings manu- 
factured by this 
company, when 
applied to differ- 
ent woods. The 
Gendoon Iron 
Wheel Com- 
pany, of Toledo, 
Ohio, shows a 
fine display of 
reed furniture 
and bamboo 
novelties. 

The exhibit 
of Ceramics in 
the Manufac- 
tures Building 
is separated, 
and while 
France has the 
finest display, 
yet that of 
America is 
highly credita- 
ble. The sec- 
tion includes 
not only fine 
China, plain 
and decorated, but also the coarser manufactures of clay, such 
as brick and other things of the same character. The Hydraulic 
Press Brick Companies of the United States unite in making a dis- 




PERSIan ewer. Exhibited by Edwin Bennett Pottery Co. 



n8 



MANUFACTURES. 



play of hydraulic brick of many colors and fancy designs. They 
have erected a magnificent arch displaying to best advantage the 
beauty of their work, which during the exposition has attracted 
much attention. Of a different character, but included in the same 
vicinity, is the display of the Rookwood Pottery, which is manufac- 
tured at Cincinnati. The ware is a true faience, made of clays from 
deposits in the Ohio valley, while the decorators, with the exception 
of one Japanese, and including the founders of the works, are grad- 




EXHIBIT OF C. G. GUNTHER S SONS. 



uates of the local art schools at Cincinnati. The ware is considered 
to be highly creditable to the factory and to America. 

In the exhibit of glassware which adjoins that of ceramics the 
Libby Glass Co., of Toledo, Ohio, makes a fine display of cut- 
glass. It is this company which has the large factory on the Mid- 
way Plaisance, where the processes of manufacture are shown. 

The exhibits of textile fabrics are very wide, and occupy the 



120 



MANUFACTURES. 



largest space of any one division of the classification. Among the 
more notable exhibitors here are the John W. Slater Mills, of 
Providence, R. I., showing ginghams and cheviots, and the Star & 




EXHIBIT OF MICHIGAN STOVE CO. 



Crescent Mills Co., of Philadelphia, showing an Armenian with a 
hand loom, and a display of Turkish towels, tidies, cloakings, etc. 

In a neighboring pavilion is the display of Knox hats. It is 
built of hardwood, finished with cream white enamel. The trim- 
mings and carved work are all in gold, and the foundations, floors 
and pillars of marble. It contains a display of all kinds of hats 
manufactured by this well-known firm. 

In the exhibit of furs, which is one of the finest ever seen, C. G. 
Gunther's Sons, of New York, display pavilions filled with all sorts 
of fur garments, the sable of Siberia, the seal of the northern 
seas, the rare blue fox, the Persian lamb and scores of others. 
They are manufactured in the finest manner and attract much 
attention. 



MANUFACTURES. 



121 



The Pantasote Leather Co., of New York, exhibits a handsome 
display of this material which is coming so rapidly into prominence. 
For binding' of books and for all kinds of upholstery it is winning 
much favor. The exhibit of pocket-books, bags and leather novel- 
ties made by J. C. Hacker, of New York, is contained in a hand- 
some showcase. The goods are of the most attractive kind, and 
are worthy of attention. 

The little ones never fail to find the display of toys and children's 
furniture and other novelties in the northeast gallery of the great 
buildinor. Among- the best of these is that of Morton E. Converse 
& Co., of Winchendon, Mass. Around the space allotted is a 
water-way, in which boats of the best style of sailing and steam 




EXHIBIT OF WASHBURN & MOEN MANUFACTURING CO. 



vessels voyage, being propelled by invisible machinery. There are 
also toy electric cars in motion, toy furniture and trunks, and 
mechanical toys of all sorts. In the section devoted to lighting 
exhibits, the American Lamp and Brass Co. has a very fine dis- 
play showing their line of manufacture. All the modern fashions 
of heating are here shown in their perfection. Edwin Jackson & 



m 



MANUFACTURES. 



Bro., of New York, have an exhibit of the Jackson grates which is 
worthy of consideration. These grates are particularly noted for 
their heat-saving and ventilating qualities. 

The A. A. 
Griffing Iron 
Co., of Jersey 
City, has a rep- 
resentative dis- 
play of radiators 
of every artistic 
and useful pat- 
tern. A large 
number of them 
are shown, as 
well as valves, 
screens, damp- 
ers, thermome- 
ters and other 
accessories 
manufactured 
bythesamecom- 
pany. Twenty- 
three stoves and 
ranges and one 
furnace are dis- 
played by the 
Peninsular 
Stove Co., of 
Detroit. The 
goods are all 
highly finished, 
and contain the 

modern improvements. One of the most interesting features is 
the exhibit of steel ranges for hotels and other places wherein a 
large amount of cooking is done. There are also novelties in heat- 
ing stoves and small ranges. The representative exhibit of wire 




ROYATv WORCESTER UMP. 

Exhibited by the Royal Worcester Porcelain Co. 



MANUFACTURES. 



123 



is that of the Washburn & Moen Co., of Worcester, Mass. They 
show iron and steel wire, both plain and barbed, in many sizes 
and patterns, and in great quantity. Another display of high 
grade manufactured metal is that of the Claus Shear Co., of Fre- 
mont, Ohio, containing all kinds and sizes of scissors and shears. 

The British 
section in the 
Manufactu res 
building is diag- 
onally opposite 
that of the Unit- 
ed States, at the 
centre of the 
structure. The 
pavilion itself is 
not as elaborate 
as some of the 
others, but the 
displays contain- 
ed therein are 
magn ificent. 
England has 
never before 
made such a dis- 
play out of her f"T y 
own realm as is 
here seen. In 
textile fabrics, 
furniture and in 




A CORNER OE SALISBURY BANQUETING HAU,. 

Exhibit of Hampton & Sons. 



pottery it partic- 
ularly excels. 

The most notable of all is that of Hampton & Sons, of London. 
Their exhibit is a reproduction in solid carved oak of the banquet- 
ing hall of Hatfield House, the seat of the Marquis of Salisbury. 
The coat of arms and all the carvings are reproduced in solid oak, 
and by certain processes the tone of great age is imparted. The 



124 



MANUFACTURES. 



floor is of alternate squares of black and white marble, and the 
furniture and armor are of the Elizabethan era. 

The pavilion of Doulton & Co., of Lambeth, exhibits their mag- 
nificent pottery-wares. It covers a 
space 60 by 30 feet, on Columbia av- 
enue, and comprises two arcaded pavil- 
ions at either side of the site, connected 
in the centre by a domed hall. The 
draperies are of dark green plush, 
and the woodwork is painted in shades 
of light green. The architectural de- 
sign is also very rich. The right hand 
pavilion is devoted to the Burslem 
works, and the left hand to those from 
the works at Lambeth. Beside ex- 
hibits showing the methods of the 
work, there are art wares in the 
nature of vases, which are of remark- 
able beauty. They include the Colum- 
bus vase, the Chicago vase, the Diana 
vase, the Dante vase, and a number 
of others, all in the highest style of the 
art. Daniels, of London, has a display 
which is but second to this. Messrs. 
Brown, Westhead, Moore & Co., of 
Cauldon Place, also display a fine 
selection of the products of their 
Staffordshire factories. 

Facing the British section, on the 
east side of Columbia avenue, is the 
French section, generally conceded to 
be the best of the entire exposition. 
It is in its symmetry and harmony that it wins particular favor. 
There are rooms devoted to bronzes, others to ceramics, others 
to silk fabrics, and so on, with no jumbling together of dis- 
similar wares. Every exhibitor seems to have been willing to 




COLUMBUS VASE OF DOULTON & CO.'S 
EXHIBIT. 







SHAKESPEARE VASE. 
Exhibited by T. C Brown, Westhead, Moore & Co. 125 



126 



MANUFACTURES. 



subordinate his individual prominence to the good of the whole 
display, and the result is very satisfactory. A group of statuary 
provided by the French government fills the central place. It is a 
heroic statue of " La France," and wins much admiration. There 

are three chambers, 
reproductions of the 
salons of the time of 
Louis XIV. and Louis 
XV. These are de- 
voted to the displays 
of silk, cotton, wool- 
len and other fabrics. 
Perfumes, rich sets 
of furniture, stained 
glass, curious results 
in photography, jew- 
elry, and other fea- 
tures, complete the 
display. One must 
not fail to mention 
the show of fancy 
tableware, much of 
it from the cele- 
brated works of Havi- 
land and of other 
manufacturers of 
Limoges. 

Germany occupies 
the last of the four 
corners facing the 
tower. The pavilion 
is made from the de- 
sign of Gabriel Seidel, 
of Munich, one of 
the most famous of German fresco painters and decorators. 
Three great circles touching one another form the ground plan. 




C^SAR AUGUSTUS, FROM VATICAN. GILT BRONZE. 

Exhibited by Leblanc & Barbedienne. 



MANUFACTURES. 



127 




TABLE CENTRE OF HARD PORCELAIN WITH DECORATION IN "FURNACE HEAT" 
COLORS. Haviland Exhibit. 




SOUP TUREEN. Haviland Exhibit. 



The exterior architecture is that of the sixteenth Renaissance. In 



128 



MANUFACTURES. 



front is a German garden enclosed by an ornamental fence, passing 
which one reaches the main entrance. This is through a orand 
arch, with ornamental columns on either side, and great bronze 
gates of intricate and beautiful pattern. Within one finds both 
decorations and exhibits to be very fine. Jewelry and silverware, 

among the latter plate presented 
to the Emperors William I. and II., 
Von Moltke and Bismarck, and 
generally commemorative of some 
battle or other great event ; royal 
wares from various potteries ; tapes- 
tries, porcelains, etc., make a grand 
display. The Bismarck collection 
of cups, medals, vases and decora- 
tions alone represents a value of 
$60,000. Ancient and modern 
wares, a fine school exhibit, and 
the great statue " Germania," loaned 
by the Emperor, show how heartily 
Germany has entered into the 
spirit of this greatest of exhibi- 
tions. 

Austria's pavilion joins that of 
Germany, and is a fine building, 
measuring 120 feet long and 65 
feet high. Thirty-four expert wood- 
carvers from Vienna exhibit their 
artistic work in all its branches. 
There is a splendid display of the 
work of this artistic people in all 
its branches, gold and silver, pottery, 
textile fabrics, vases, statuettes, etc., 
making one of the most interesting 
displays exhibited in the building. 

Next to the north of Austria comes Japan, the unique pavilion 
which represents the " Island Empire " being a constant centre of 




mozart as A child — Sculptor, Barrias 

— Bronze Original Exhibited by 

Leblanc & Barbedienne. 



MANUFACTURES. 



129 



interest. Here are seen ancient and modern pottery, porcelain and 
china wares, from the most delicate cups and saucers, not thicker 
than the shell of a 
pigeon's egg, to the mas- 
sive serpents and dra- 
gon vases and garden 
seats, almost as strong 
as steel. A fine educa- 
tional exhibit, tinctured 
strongly with modern 
progress ; silks and 
other textile fabrics ; 
wonderful paper build- 
ing materials ; decora- 
tions and utensils ; lac- 
quered wares, swords, 
cutlery and other imple- 
ments, and many other 
exhibits displaying rare 
scientific and artistic 
attainments are shown 
here. 

As one enters the 
building at the main en- 
trance to the south, the 
first exhibit to the left is 
that of Italy. The im- 
mense corner pavilion is 
ninetyfeethigh. Bronzes, 
marbles, silken fabrics, 
tapestries.Venetian glass- 
ware, inlaid woodwork 
and cabinet ware are 
the chief portions of this 
display. There is also a 
magnificent collection of Venetian laces, ancient and modern. The 

9 




DEFENCE OF THE FIvAG. 

bronze group. Exhibited by Susse Freres. 



I30 MANUFACTURES. 

Netherlands exhibit and then that of Switzerland follow in suc- 




Gravy dish. Exhibited by Haviland & Abbott. 

cession. The wood-carving shown in the latter is superb. The 



MANUFACTURES. 



131 



Castle of Chillon, the city of Geneva, and several Alpine views are 
presented. The exhibit consists chiefly of watches, watch-move- 
ments, wood-carvings, music-boxes, etc. 

Across Columbia avenue, opposite Switzerland, is the display of 
Norway. The panels surrounding this pavilion have large canvas 
surfaces, upon which are painted beautiful land and waterscapes 
from Norwegian scenery. There is a tourist exhibit, consisting of 
hunting appliances and the conveyances peculiar to Norway, which 
excites much interest. The general displays of silverware, gilt, 
enameled and plain, for ornamental use ; marble, granite and wood- 
carvings, hand-woven rugs, portieres and embroideries and educa- 
tional exhibits are included in the display. 

To the north of Norway is Russia, whose exhibit is one of the 
finest in the whole building. The pavilion is seventy feet high, and 
covers nearly one acre. The workmanship of it is wonderfully 
fine, and attracts much attention. The display consists largely of 
fine silks, jewelry, precious stones, etc. The furniture shown is 
among the best at the Fair, and has universal commendation. 

Next to the Russian display is that of Belgium, another of the 
finest. The facade fronting on the avenue is 140 feet long, and is 
composed of a high central arch and two lower side arches. It 
joins that of France, and is somewhat in harmony with it. The 
structure was built in Belgium, and was brought here and erected 
by Belgian workmen. Among many other magnificent exhibits the 
collection of bronzes and plate glass of large size is noticeable. A 
paint manufacturer exhibits a huge female figure in porcelain, hold- 
ing aloft a zinc tube of artists' colors. Samples of the iron houses 
the Belgians are sending to the Congo country are shown, as are 
exhibits of faience, finely carved furniture, etc. 

Across the aisle from the exhibit of Russia is that of Denmark. 
This pavilion has outer portals on three sides, and from its fourth 
side the spaces of Switzerland and Brazil may be entered. The 
main facade and entrance face Columbia avenue, and represent the 
coat of arms of the city of Copenhagen. It consists of three 
towers, the central being ninety feet high, and the other sixty feet 
high. Over each of the two minor entrances is shown the coat of 



132 MANUFACTURES. 

arms of Denmark. The pavilion is decorated with beautiful land- 
scapes from different parts of Denmark, Iceland, Greenland and its 
West India Colonies. There are also plaster reproductions of the 
famous sculptures of Thorwaldsen. The pavilion is divided into 
three parts, the first devoted to a display of fine gold and silverware, 
and jewelry, the second to a display of porcelain, ceramics and 
terra-cotta decorative articles, and the third to woman's work, such 




JAMAICA EXHIBIT. 

as embroideries, laces, etc. A treat for the children is the faithful 
reproduction of the room in which Hans Christian Andersen, the 
child's author, lived and worked. A life-size statue of the author 
and many relics of him are shown. The great sculptor Thorwaldsen 
also has a room devoted to his relics and works. 

The exhibit of Canada adjoins that of England on the west side 
of Columbia avenue. The display is a large and creditable one, 
and exhibits the resources of the Dominion in a most excellent 



MANUFACTURES. 



133 



manner. It is, however, in other buildings of the Fair that this 
great country makes its best showing. 




EXHIBIT OF F. P. BHUMGARA & CO. 



In the southwest corner of the Manufactures Building are 



134 



MANUFACTURES. 



collected the exhibits of many countries more remote from us than 
these we have named, or of less importance, which have some of 
the most attractive and interesting displays of all at the Fair. 
Collected here are the pavilions of Jamaica, India, Ceylon, New 
South Wales, the Argentine Republic, Corea, Monaco, Turkey, 
Bulgaria, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Siam, Mexico, and Persia. It is 
agreed by many that in proportion to its wealth and prominence in 






Mi 



I U 




SPANISH SECTION. 



the world New South Wales makes the best display of any nation 
represented at the Fair. In this building there are stuffed birds 
and beasts, of species unknown or rare to us, fine photographs, 
rare coins and beautiful paintings in water and oil. Over the 
entrance to the pavilion, beneath the coat of arms of the colony, 
is the photograph of Sidney Harbor, thirty-two feet long. Four 
specimens of the duck-bill platypus, that strange animal, half bird, 
half beast, are displayed. 



MANUFACTURES. 1 35 

Ceylon has an octagonal building with two wings. The style of 
architecture is Dravidian. and the material used is of the rare woods 
of that country, many of them worth $200 to $300 a ton. Carved 
stairways lead to the entrances, which are guarded by cobra-headed 
figures. Other carvings taken from designs found in the ruined 
temples with which the island is so plentifully sprinkled are found 
on the balustrades and other portions of the wood-work. The 
frescos represent scenes in the life of Buddha, and are exact 
copies of those in the ancient temples of the tenth and thirteenth 
centuries. Figures of Buddha also ornament the screen panels, 
and the floors are of inlaid woods. 

In quick succession, following the ones just named, are Jamaica, 
Brazil, Spain, and the Spanish-American countries, with looms and 
fabrics, hammocks, saddles, silverware and exquisite wood-carvings. 
Mexico, India, Turkey, Hungary and China also have creditable 
displays ; the latter showing silks, porcelain, lacquer and metal 
work of rare beauty and value. 

We have now exhausted the displays in the Department of Manu- 
factures, but the same building contains also many of the exhibits 
in the Department of Liberal Arts, which will be treated in a future 
chapter. The Department of Manufactures, however, includes 
exhibits which are not contained in this buildine, but are o-iven 
separate structures. The most notable of these is the Leather 
Exhibit. 

The Leather Building is a very handsome one, 575 feet long, 150 
feet wide and two stories in height. It is located in the southern 
portion of the grounds, facing the Lake front, and between the 
Forestry Building and the exhibit of Krupp guns. The building 
and the exhibits contained in it are so important as to entitle a 
separate chapter if space permitted. Nearly every nation, savage 
and civilized, is here represented by samples* of its leather. To 
foreign exhibits the central space on the first floor is assigned. At 
one end of this floor is seen every variety of leather, and at the 
other every style of its manufactured product, no matter where or 
when produced. Here are the riding-boots of that great warrior, 
Napoleon, and the elaborate ones of Russia's dreaded ruler, Ivan 



136 



MANUFACTURES. 



the Terrible. The second floor contains 180 machines showing the 
processes of manufacturing. Three hundred men are required to 
operate these, and they display some very interesting methods. 
The interior of the building is divided into squares, with passage- 
ways named after noted leather-producing cities. 

Another exhibit properly belonging to that of the Department 




MERCK BUILDING. 



of the Manufactures is contained in the Merck Building. This 
building is situated to the west of the Woman's Building, near the 
entrance to the Midway Plaisance. It is a handsome structure, and 
contains a complete exhibit of drugs and finer chemicals, products 
of every clime, exhibited by Merck & Co., of New York. There 
are also reading and writing rooms, a reference library and other 
public comfort service for visitors and customers of the firm. Thus 



MANUFACTURES. 



137 



it will be seen that the exhibits properly included in the scope of 
this chapter have as great a range of area and distance in the 
grounds as they have in character, and in their source. One might 
spend months profitably studying what is here shown, without then 
exhausting all the benefits which he might derive from the display. 




EAGI.E BRASS BED. 

Exhibit of Hoskins & Sewell. 



/ l. ' .if'fll 





machinist of old were to enter 
World's Columbian Exposition 
believe his dream realized, for he 
ical arts so perfect and so won- 
derful thatitwouldseemasifby 
their united strength the world 
and the solar systems of the 
universe could be overturned 
with the touch of an electric 
button. Here is the most mar- 
velous display which mechanical 
ingenuity and genius has ever 
gathered to be viewed by man. 
Here every nation which can 
ofifer anything in the nature of 
advanced machinery comes in 
competition with every other, 
and the result is bewildering. 
The whir of wheels and the 
clamor of engines is almost 
deafening, and yet in the midst 
of all the noise and confusion 
each machine works hour by 
hour as if with brains of steel 



6ffiNERY= 



RCHIMEDES declared that if he 
but had a place on which to 
rest the fulcrums, he could con- 
struct a lever with which he 
could lift the world. If that 
the building for machinery at the 
he would be amazed. He would 
re are combinations of the mechan- 




SCULPTURE on machinery hall. 



140 



MACHINERY. 



too strong to be dazed or troubled. The immense structure which 
houses the exhibits of machinery is second in cost to none except 
the building for manufactures, and second in size only to the same 
giant. With its annexes, power-house, pumping works and machine 
shop, its total area is more than eighteen acres, and the total cost 
nearly $1,300,000. The dimensions of the main structure are 492 
x 846 feet, and of the annex 490 x 550 feet. The power-house 
measures 100 x 461 feet; the pumping works'77 x 84 feet, and the 




WATER. SCIENCE. FIRE. 

FIGURES ON MACHINERY HALL. [M. A. Waageil.) 

machine shop 146 x 250 feet. The method of construction of the 
building for machinery is somewhat peculiar. The building is 
spanned by three arched trusses, and the interior presents the 
appearance of three railroad train houses placed side by side, sur- 
rounded on all sides by a 50-foot gallery. Each of these three 
divisions of the building, spanned by its own series of trusses, is 
constructed separately, with the intention that they may be taken 
down after the close of the Exposition and sold for use as railway 



MACttiN&ur. Hi 

train houses. The salvage will consequently be very profitable. 




GROUP ON COLONNADE. 

Between Agriculture and Machinery Buildings. (M. A. IVaagen.) 

Running from end to end of each of these three long naves is an 



142 MACHINERY. 

elevated travelling crane. During the installation of exhibits these 
cranes were used for the purpose of carrying into place the enormous 
weights of machinery used during construction as well as for pur- 
poses of exhibit. When the Exposition opened platforms were 
placed upon the cranes, and visitors may now view from this elevated 
station the entire array of wonders upon the floor below. The 
same posts which support these travelling bridges also carry the 
shafting which conveys power from the power plant to the machines 
throughout the building. In the main structure steam power is 
used, and the power-house which supplies it adjoins the south side 
of the building. On this side and the westerly end of the structure 
the exterior is of the plainest description. A strong contrast to 
this description may be observed, however, on the' east and north, 
the two sides adjoining the grand court. Here the exterior is 
ornate and palatial. It harmonizes with the other buildings on this 
grand Plaza, all of which were designed with a view of making an 
effective background for magnificent display. Conforming thus to 
the general richness of the court these two facades are enriched 
with colonnades and other architectural features. The architects 
of this edifice, Messrs. Peabody & Stearns, of Boston, very happily 
chose classical models throughout their design, borrowing the 
detail from the renaissance of Seville and other Spanish towns as 
remarkably appropriate to a Columbian celebration. 

In the assignment to various architects of commissions for 
designing certain buildings there were few restrictions made upon 
them and few regulations which they were instructed to follow. One 
was that all the architects were to adopt a proportion of 60 feet of 
height, 50 being the column height and 10 that of the entablature. 
This was to be kept equal and even, and in perfect accord with the 
top of the line of solid masonry around the Grand Court. It is so 
to-day. Above that 60-foot level are the statues, poles, towers, 
rails, and the rest of the ornamentation of the palaces. Another 
regulation was that, in all buildings on the Grand Court, arcades on 
the first story should permit passage around the building under 
cover. In harmony with these, Machinery Hall then is. 

It is well to exhaust our glance at the construction and plans of 



MACHINERY. 1 43 

the buildings before attempting to discuss the host of exhibits 




GROUP ON COLONNADE. 

Between Agriculture and Machinery Buildings. {M. A. Waagen). 

placed in them. The Annex in which electrical power is used 
adjoins Machinery Hall on the west. It is a very large but 



144 MACHINERY. 

very simple building, constructed of wood in a plain and economical 
manner. While in the main building for machinery the type was a 
railway train house, in the Annex a mill or foundry was considered 
the model for construction. Attached to this great Annex is the 
power-house, convenient to the tracks for coal supply, and contain- 
ing the immense display of boilers. Adjoining is the enormous 
plant of engines and dynamos, the largest and most interesting dis- 
play of electrical power ever made. Hundreds of thousands of 
persons for whom an intricate machine has the strongest fascination 
make this building their Mecca, and every hour spent within its 
walls is a valuable one. Steam machinery, electrical machinery, 
pneumatic and hydraulic machinery — all are exploited here in the 
most exhaustive way. Here are shown the processes and the 
machines whose finished results are to be found at the other 
extremity of the Grand Court in the Manufactures Building. The 
rich fabrics, which are found in the latter structure, are made by 
those looms in the former. In certain instances confusion may 
arise in one's mind over the location of certain exhibits. Certain 
electrical machinery is found in the Building for Electricity. The 
Building- for Mines and Mining contains certain machines for illus- 
trating the processes properly belonging to that department. The 
Building for Agriculture contains certain farm machinery, but with 
these limitations the visitor will not be mistaken in seeking the 
enormous quantity of machinery exhibits in the building erected for 
that purpose. Everything illustrating the application of power is 
found here, and the most interesting mechanical devices are multi- 
plied in bewildering quantity. A review of some of the more 
notable of these exhibits, representing each great division of power 
application — steam, electric, pneumatic and hydraulic power — will 
be of marked interest. 

The decorations and statuary of this structure are also of great 
merit and beauty. The main entrance is in the centre of the north 
side of the building, and six large figures tower above it, each bear- 
ing a shield on which appear the faces of a number of prominent 
inventors. Above these six figures, between the two high towers, 
are placed five other figures thirteen feet high. In the centre is 



MACHINERY. 



145 



" Science," and at her sides are the four elements, " Fire," " Water," 
"Air," and " Earth." Surmounting each of the towers are two large 
figures representing "Victory" holding forth her emblematic laurel 
wreath. To the right and left of the entrance below the cornice 
are inscribed the names of a score of the great inventors. Over 




MACHINERY FOR MANUFACTURING TEXTILE FABRICS. 

Exhibit of Star and Crescent Mills Co. 

the eastern entrance appears a pediment representing " Columbia " 
as the central figure, seated on a throne with a sword in her right 
hand and a palm of peace in her left. To her left is standing 
"Honor" with a laurel wreath ready for distribution. On one of 
the steps of the throne is seated " Wealth " throwing fruits and 
flowers out of a horn of plenty. To the right and left are grouped 
inventors of machinery, and members of an examining jury. The 



146 



MACHINERY. 



corners of the pediment are filled by two groups of lions, showing 
brute force subdued by human genius, which is represented by two 
children. Most of the sculpture work on this building was done 
by M. A. Waagen. 

The exhibits of foreign countries in Machinery Hall are grouped 
in the east end of the building, and those of the United States in 
the west end and in the annex. The classification in Machinery 
Department includes the following groups : Motors and apparatus 
for the generation and transmission of power, hydraulic and pneu- 
matic apparatus : Fire-engines, apparatus and appliances for extin- 




guishing fire : Ma- 
chines for working 
for the manufacture 
clothing : Machines 
Machines and appa- 
ting, printing, stamp- 



THE BIG ENGINE- 

Built by E. P. Allis Co. 



chine tools, and ma- 
metals : Machinery 
of textile fabrics and 
for working wood : 
ratus for typeset- 
insf, embossing and 



for making books and paper working : Lithography, zincography 
and color printing: Photo-mechanical and other mechanical 
processes of illustrating: Miscellaneous hand tools, machines 
and apparatus used in various arts : Machines for working stones, 



MACHINERY. 



147 



clay and other minerals: Machinery used in the preparation of 
foods, etc. 

It is in the first-named group that one finds all the immense 
engines and boilers which create so much power. In the boiler 
exhibit those shown by the Stirling Company are of particular 
interest because of the circumstances under which they were 
installed. A combination of boiler-makers used every effort to 
keep the Stirling Company from exhibiting, and at one time they 
were refused admission to the space for boilers. The Council of 
Administration reversed the decision of the Exhibition Company 
and they were 
awarded the 
contract to in- 
stall two batter- 
ies of boilers 
of 800 horse- 
power each, in 
the main boiler 
room. The re- 
sult was that a 
temporary i n- 
junction was is- 
sued against the Exposition Company, forbidding them to permit 
the Stirling Company to install its boilers. The bill was finally 
dismissed by the United States District Court, and the company 
continued to install its exhibit. The displays, therefore, are the 
result of a determined effort to seek on even terms a comparison 
with the boilers of other make. There are three separate and dis- 
tinct plants, one in the main boiler room, one in the annex and one 
in the exhibit of the Libby Glass Company in the Midway Plais- 
ance. They attract notice from -every one. 

The power plant at the Exposition occupies the south side of 
Machinery Hall and includes the most gigantic force ever accu- 
mulated in one place for any purpose. The engines number forty- 
four, the Allis, which is the largest of all, occupying the space at 
the end of the main aisle. This big engine of the Fair is a 3,000 




TANDEM COMPOUND ENGINE. 

Exhibit of the Ball & Wood Co. 



MACHINERY. 



horse-power Reynolds Corliss horizontal, quadruple expansion, con- 
densing engine. It drives two 10,000 light, Westinghouse dynamos. 
The same manufacturers show several other engine plants, includ- 
ing those that drive the cars of the Intramural Railway, a saw-mill 
plant and a flour-mill plant. There are six other engines of very 
large capacity, a Fraser and Chalmers triple expansion, two West- 

inghouse-C hurch- 
Kerr compound en- 
g i n e s, a Buckeye 
triple expansion, an 
Atlas compound and 
a Mackintosh-S e y- 
mour double-tandem 
compound. The 
others included in 
the display measure 
from one hundred 
and fifty to six hun- 
dred and fifty horse- 
power each, while 
those just named are 
all of 1,000 horse- 
power each. Among these other exhibitors of engines are the 
Ball & Wood Co. of New York, the Erie City Iron Works of Penn- 
sylvania and the Sioux City Engine Co. of Sioux City, Iowa. The 
total horse power represented is about 20,000. 

The boiler plant consists of a continuous battery of huge steel 
boilers of the latest type eight hundred feet long. The boilers are 
those of such manufacturers as Root, Gill, Heine, National, Zell 
and Babcock and Wilcox. They are all of the water tube pattern. 
Their feed water pumps represent Dean, Barr, Knowles, Gould, 
Blake, Davidson, Cameron, Laidlaw, Wilson & Snyder and Canton 
& Snow. Crude oil from the fields of Ohio is used for fuel, and 
there is no smoke, dust or dirt, as there would be if coal were 
burned. The feeding of the oil to the furnaces is controlled by 
automatic pressure gauges regulating the flow so that there can be 




AUTOMATIC PUMP OR WATER ELEVATOR. 

Exhibit of Erwin- Welch Hydraulic Machine Co. 



MACHINERY. 



149 



no danger, as might happen with careless firemen. The oil is 
pumped from Whiting, Indiana. 

West of the batteries of boilers are the machine shops, black- 
smith shops, etc., fully equipped for repairing and keeping in order 
the machinery used in the building. Having examined the motive 
power controlling the exhibits, the visitor will find in the centre of 
the building a very pretty waterfall, and at either end a fountain. 
Here are displayed the various pumps, water elevators, hydraulic, 
hydrostatic and pneumatic apparatus. The Globe Iron Works, of 
Cleveland, Ohio, in their display of marine machinery, show a steam 




THE BOILERS IN MACHINERY HAIJ,. 



steering engine, a steam capstan windlass, and a reversible steam 
capstan. The Stilwell-Bierce & Smith- Vaile Co., of Dayton, Ohio, 
shows a series of Victor turbine wheels and also regular upright 
water wheels of various kinds. The application of water-power 
is one of the worthiest branches of machinery, utilizing one of 
America's^most plentiful possessions. 



ISO 



MACHINERY. 



The Jeffrey Manufacturing Co., of Columbus, Ohio, makes a fine 
display of chain belting, elevating, and conveying machinery. In 




EXHIBIT OF JONES AND SAMSON MACHINE COMPANY. 

this section devoted to the transmission of power, the Reeves Pulley 
Co., of Columbus, Indiana, shows the largest wood split pulley ever 
constructed. It is eighteen feet in diameter with forty-eight inch 
face. Although there are something over four thousand pieces of 
wood in this pulley, yet it admits of the closest inspection in every 
detail ; and from the standpoint of mechanical exactness is one of 
the marvels of the Exposition. The same company also shows a 
large variety of pulleys in regular sizes and styles. 

The display of travelling cranes made by Wm. Sellers & Co., of 
Philadelphia, shows the modern method of handling heavy machinery. 
Without these cranes, and those shown by other companies, it would 
have been impossible to install the great exhibits of the Fair within 
the time which was given. The same company also shows a 



MACHINERY. 



151 



hydraulic testing machine of 200,000 pounds capacity. The Riehle 
Bros. Testing Machine Co., of Philadelphia, shows a screw power 
testing machine of 300,000 pounds capacity, the largest ever built. 
It will pull bars six feet in length with an elongation of three feet, 
will crush columns six feet in height, and bend timbers or other 
transverse specimens eighteen feet long. So much power is almost 
incredible to many visitors. 

Among other exhibitors of machinery 

II jf in operation are the Columbus Bolt 

I i$ Works, which show the manufacture of 

I I bolts and nuts for the same. The mate- 

I I rial enters the first machine in the shape 

of coiled wire, and comes out at the other 
end of the space a finished bolt with 
thread and nut complete. The Jones & 
Lamson Machine Co., of Springfield, Ver- 
mont, display their turret machinery and 
lathes. The Foos Manufacturing Co:, of 
Springfield, Ohio, 
make a display of 
mills and forges. 
Schaum & Uhlin- 
ger, of Philadel- 
phia, have one of 
the largest collec- 
tions of looms in 
the building. 
There are silk rib- 
bon looms for nar- 
row and wide rib- 
bon, stamping ma- 
chines, punching 
machines, lacing machines, and a plan for producing and repeating 
pattern cards. Lewis Jones, of Bristol, Pennsylvania, shows the 
Ballou knitting machinery in operation, making stockings and un- 
derwear. John Best, of Paterson, N. J., shows also a loom, weav- 




TESTing machine. Exhibited by Riehle Bros. 



152 



MACHINERY. 



ing badges, book-marks and souvenirs of various kinds. In 
the section devoted to wood-working machinery is an apparatus 
exhibited by W. W. Grier, of Hulton, Pa., for manufacturing in- 
grained lumber out of pine, bass or other soft wood. It produces 
the effect of oak, rosewood or other fancy lumber at low expense. 

The Fox Machine Co., of Grand 
Rapids, Mich., shows a variety 
of machinery, including borers, 
shapers, trimmers and saws. H. 
L. Beach, of Montrose, Pa., dis- 
plays a fine line of scroll saws. 
The H. B. Smith Machine Co., 
of Smithville, N. J., has also a 
large number of wood-working 
machines displayed. 

One section which attracts 
great attention is that devoted to 
printing presses and kindred ap- 
pliances. The Goss Printing 
Press Co., of Chicago, R. Hoe & 
Co., of New York, and many 
other printing press manufac- 
turers show their wares here, all 
in operation. There are also 
presses devoted to the making 
of lithograph plates and color 
printing of various kinds. Sev- 
eral of the daily papers of Chi- 
cago are printed here, and one 
of the novelties of the Fair is the 
Daily Columbian, issued from 
this building. Its first five pages consist of the first pages of the 
Herald, Inter- Ocean, Record, Times and Tribune, and its three re- 
maining pages are filled with daily programs, official orders, lists 
of officers, exhibitors, etc. 

The companies which manufacture type-setting machinery all 




BALLOU RIBBED KNITTER. 

Exhibit of Lewis Jones. 



MACHINERY 



display work in op- 
eration. Among 
them are the Mer- 
genthaler Linotype 
Machine, which 
produces lines of 
type ready for use 
on the press or 
stereotyping table. 
Another is the 
Thorne Type-set- 
ting Machine, 
which, instead of 
casting the type 
from molten metal, 
sets the type itself 
as the printer does 
by hand. The Sey- 
bold Machine Co., 
of Dayton, Ohio, 
exhibits five ma- 
chines used in 
book-binding and 
paper-cutting. They 
are of the most 
modern character, 
and win favor wher- 
ever shown. The 
Chambers Bros. 
Co., of Philadel- 
phia, also show • 
machinery in the 
same line, which 
appears to be of 
equal merit. The 
W.O.HickokMan- 




scroti, saw. Exhibit of H. L. Beach. 



*54 



MACHINERY. 



ufacturing Co., of Harrisburg, Pa., exhibits ruling machines, signa- 
ture presses, stitching machines and board-cutters of latest design. 




Barnhart Bros. & Spindler, of Chicago, show all the processes of 
type-founding and manufacture. 

Machines devoted to the preparation of food, such as flour mills, 
are shown in the extreme northwest corner of the annex. Ad- 
joining it, the Dodge Manufacturing Co. shows a collection of 
pulleys, large and small. Ventilating machines are also included 




QUADRUPLE STEREOTYPE PERFECTING PRINTING MACHINE, WITH FOLDERS. 

Exhibited by R. Hoe & Co., New York and London. 

in this neighborhood. The Steam Stonecutter Co., of Rutland, Vt., 
shows machinery for working stone in the group devoted to that. 
Going now to the eastern end of the building, we find Great 



MACHINERY. 



155 




Britain, the first of the foreign governments, whose displays cover 
an area of 30,000 
square feet, and 
adjoin those of 
Germany, which 
are even larger. 
In the latter 
space circular 
rope transmis- 
sion, a new sys- 
tem of motive 
power, is practi- 
tically illustrated 
for the first time, 
since one-half 
of the whole 
German machin- 
ery exhibit is 
oroDelled bv it first press in new Hampshire. — 151 years oed. 

A large engine made by Schichau, of Prussia, furnishes the steam, 

and the same firm, too, has a 1,000 
horse-power engine, which moves 
the big Siemens dynamo. Textile 
machinery from Glaubach-on-the 
Rhine is seen in the complete as- 
sortment. From Augsburg, Ba- 
varia, comes a display of rotary 
presses, and a Dusseldorf firm 
exhibits friction calenders with ten 
rollers. The huge Gruson Works, 
near Magdeburg, make an instruc- 
tive exhibit of mining machinery 
and gas-power engines, while Wolf, 
of Magdeburg, shows locomotives, 
some of them constructed according 
to new principles. 




THE EINOTYPE MACHINE. 

Exhibited by Mergenthaler Linotype Co., 



156 



MACHINERY. 



It is impossible to enumerate every article in 
a display so large and various ; but the chief 
ones are gas-engines, water turbine wheels, 
knitting machines, circular saws for cutting iron, 
embroidering machines, printing presses, book- 
binding machines, flour-mill machinery, saw- 
mills, turning lathes, milling and mining ma- 
chinery for ores, sausage machine, textile ma- 
chinery, wire machines and a complete watch 
factory. 

Next to Germany on the right is found the 
display of Spain, and adjoining that the one of 
New South Wales. Italy's exhibit is just west 
of the latter, and then those of France, Sweden, thorne type setting 

T ^.- /r . - . t. ., t» i « i MACHINE. 

Russia, Mexico, Austria, Brazil, Belgium and 

Canada. Of these latter, France has the largest space and a 

splendid display, occupying more than 21,000 feet. Belgium comes 

next in size, and then Austria, Canada and Italy. The others 

have smaller areas and less pretentious exhibits, although all are 

creditable. 





book-fou>ing machine. Exhibit of Chambers Bros. Co, 



MACHINERY. 157 

In certain portions of the great building one would think the 




VERTICAL PUMPING ENGINE — CAPACITY 40,000,000 GAEEONS DAILY. 

Exhibited by Henry R. Worthington, New York. 

din to be deafening, but the very magnitude of it all seems to 
lessen the noise, and as one wanders from engine to loom, and 



i5» 



MACHINERY. 



loom to mill he forgets noise and sees only the wonderful processes 
which man's inventive genius has been able to make. 

At the northwest corner of Machinery Hall, the Fair Grounds 
Pumping Works are located with a capacity of 40,000,000 gallons 
of water every twenty-four hours. The pumping engines used 
are from the works of Henry R. Worthington, of New York city. 
There are four types of engines — a triple expansion vertical, a high 
speed, a vertical duplex and a horizontal high-duty duplex. The 




COLD-STORAGE BUILDING. 



water is obtained from a well in the centre of the building, which 
is connected by a tunnel with the main lagoon. 

On the south side of Machinery Hall, between the machine shop 
and boiler house, and the saw-mill, is an extensive outside exhibit 
of machinery, occupying a space co-extensive in length with the 
inside exhibit of this department. It is as interesting as that con- 
tained within the building, and is worthy of careful attention. The 
saw-mill also adjoins this tract. 

Certain ice-making machines are contained in Machinery Hall, 



MACHINERY. ! rg 

but the greatest exhibit of this apparatus was that contained in the 
Cold-Storage Building, erected by the Hercules Iron Works, of 
Chicago. Early in the month of July this building burned to the 
ground in mid-day ; and, in fighting the fire, seventeen members of 
the City Fire Department and others were burned to death. Ten 
thousand spectators viewed the conflagration and groaned with 
anguish at the horrible scene. The building was 130 x 255 feet in 
size and five stories high. At each corner was an imposing tower, 
one hundred feet high, while the beautiful central tower covering 
the smoke-stack extended 220 feet in the air. Upon a balcony of 
this larger tower, the firemen were imprisoned until the flames 
compelled them to leap to the blazing roof of the main building, a 
hundred feet below. The structure was of the Romanesque order 
of architecture, and was a beautiful building. Its ice-making 
appliances were of the best, and of enormous capacity. The loss 
was many hundreds of thousands of dollars. Chicago's practical 
sympathy with the sufferers who lost their lives was shown by the 
raising of a fund of more than $100,000, which was distributed 
among those dependent upon the firemen. 




5 



EW departments of the World's Columbian Exposition 
have in them exhibits of a more varied character, 
or more important, than Agriculture, Live-Stock, 
Forestry and the Dairy. On the exhibits contained 
in the departments including these, it is probable 
that more of our welfare depends than upon any 
other portions of the Exposition that might be 
named. Recognizing this paramount importance, 
more entire recognition has been given by the offi- 
cials in charge to these departments than in any 
previous Exposition. The same truth, however, 
might be asserted in regard to every other depart- 
ment of this great World's Fair. Four of the great 
buildings are assigned to the occupancy of these de- 
partments of exhibit in addition to a great area of 
stock barns and out-door exhibits. These four 
buildings are those known as Agriculture, Forestry, 
Dairy and the Live-Stock Pavilion. The first of Asri cuul r rai y Buiiding. 
ii ._ (161) 




l62 



AGRICULTURE. 




FORESTRY AND DAIRY BUILDINGS. 



these, and the largest, is almost a twin of Machinery Hall in size 
and magnificence. It faces to the north the Grand Basin, and looks 




EXHIBIT OF DULUTH IMPERIAL Mil,!, CO. 



AGRICULTURE. 



across toward the Manufactures 
Building. The east front is 
toward Lake Michigan, and the 
west looks across the Canal to 
Machinery Hall. These two 
buildings are connected by a 
colonnade, with a cafe at either 
end, and in the centre of this 
colonnade is an archway lead- 
ing to the cattle exhibits, the 
sheds and Pavilion. From this 
connecting colonnade the view 
northward is one of the finest 
of the entire grounds of the 
Exposition. It follows the 
course of the Canal and the 
Lagoon for a mile, passing 
first between the buildings for 
electricityand for manufactures, 
then the sylvan shores of the 
Wooded Island, and termi- 
nates at the Gallery of Fine 
Art. The Building for Agri- 
culture measures 500x800 feet, 
and its Annex toward the south 
is 300x500 feet. The main 
entrance is toward the north. 
On either side of it are mam- 
moth Corinthian pillars 50 feet 
high and 5 feet in diameter. 
Pavilions are reared at each 
corner and at the centre of the 
building. These are connected 
by curtains, forming a continu- 
ous arcade around the top of 
the building. Entering at the 




SIGN OF ZODIAC, AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. 

{Martiny.) 



164 



AGRICULTURE. 



main doorway, one passes 
through an opening 64 feet 
wide into a vestibule, and 
thence into a rotunda 100 
feet in diameter. This is 
surmounted by a mammoth 
glass dome 130 feet high, 
and perched upon the sum- 
mit of this is balanced a 
magnificent statue of Diana, 
now so famous. Through 
the main vestibule statuary 
has been designed illustra- 
tive of the agricultural in- 
dustry. Similar designs are 
grouped about all of the 
grand entrances in the most 
elaborate manner. The 
corner pavilions are sur- 
mounted by domes and 
groups of statuary. The 
design of these domes is 

that of three female figures of herculean proportions supporting a 

mammoth orlobe. 




DIANA, MAIN DOME, AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. 

(Si. Gaudens.) 




TRIUMPH OF CERES, PEDIMENT OF AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. 

(Larkin G, Mead.) 



AGRICULTURE. 



I6 5 



Within the Building for Agriculture are exhibits of a character 
which will attract not only those who are already interested in pur- 




group on main pier, AGRICULTURAL building. {Philip Martiny, Sculp.) 

suits kindred to that science, but beyond a doubt tens of thousands 
of others. Since the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia great 
advancement has been made in all branches of farm work. The 



1 66 AGRICULTURE. 

Department of Agriculture has been given a place in the Presi- 
dent's cabinet, and this was simply the official recognition of the 
increasing importance of this branch of industry. That department 
has become one of the most prominent institutions of the govern- 
ment ; it has attained a firm foothold in the estimation of the peo- 




ceres group, agricui/turai, building. {Martitiy.) 

pie, and it has been productive of most beneficial results to the 
commerce of the country and to every one engaged in farm work. 
The experiment stations which are connected with the agricultural 
colleges of the country, and are supported by the government, 
mark another advance in the last seventeen years. Their work 
reaches out into all the fields of scientific research, seeking to as- 



AGRICULTURE. 



167 




THE FOUR RACES, AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. {Martiny.) 



sist in a practical way the farmers of the country. The subject of 
irrigation and its possibilities has been given its worthiest consid- 
eration during the same period. These suggestions indicate to a 
certain extent what a field there is for exhibits in certain new direc- 
tions, all of which are carefully demonstrated. The Exposition 
presents the subject of irrigation with a care whose educational in- 
fluence is not apt to be overestimated, and the result should be the 
reclaiming of vast areas in the West supposed heretofore to have 



1 68 AGRICULTURE. 

no value for agricultural purposes. Another notable exhibit is 
that in connection with the production of sugar from sorghum and 
the sugar beet. The South destroys the previous supposition that 
its crops were narrowed to rice, cotton and sugar by displaying a 
great variety of products from all portions of that section of our 
country. Another of the most notable features is an experiment 




THE FOUR SEASONS, AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. {Martiny.) 

station in operation. This, with its office, laboratories, etc., illus- 
trates how the in-door work of a station is actually carried on. In 
another portion of the exhibit each station presents, by means of 
maps, diagrams, pictures, sets of publications, etc., a full statement 
of its lines of work, following out in detail the history of its 
career; but the important portion is not this individual showing, 
but a unified exhibit showing the kind of work done by the sta- 



AGRICULTURE. 



169 



tions, the way in which they do it, and some of the more important 
results which they have reached. This exhibit was prepared by a 




GROUP ON MAIN PIER, AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. {Martiny.) 

committee of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges 
and Experiment Stations co-operating with the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

Much of the decorative work on the Agricultural Building 
properly finds its motive in subjects native to America, such as the 
potato, tobacco, maize, etc. The great frieze, showing the turkey, 
is especially happy, and calls forth the frequent remark that that 
bird should have been our national emblem instead of the eagle. 

There are many groups of statuary adorning the exterior of this 
building, some of which have been referred to briefly before. 
Philip Martiny, of Philadelphia, is the sculptor of the following 
subjects : Twenty single " Signs of the Zodiac ; " twenty single 
figures of "Abundance ; " two groups of " Ceres ; " two groups of 
the "Four Seasons;" four'groups of the "Nations," each group 



170 



AGRICULTURE. 



containing- four figures, and four pediments representing "Agricul- 
ture." Over the main entrance is a handsome pediment, modeled 
by Larkin J. Mead, of Florence, Italy, representing Ceres, the 
goddess of agriculture. 

The painted decorations of the Agricultural Building are the 
work of Geo. W. Maynard, of New York, who has chosen the 

Pompeian style as most appro- 
priate for the classic architec- 
ture. 

The main entrance has some- 
thing of the appearance of a 
temple devoted to the worship 
of the deities, under whose 
protection the ancients believed 
agriculture to be. On the 
right, Cybele, the mother of 
Zeus and of Demeter, or 
Ceres, is presented in her 
chariot drawn by young lions, 
and on the left is her special 
protege, King Triptolemus, to 
whom she gave a chariot, 
drawn by winged dragons, with 
which he was sent forth to 
teach the peoples of the earth 
the art of agriculture. Between 
these are figures representing 
"Abundance" and "Fertility." 
Each of the corner entrances 
is decorated with figures on 
either side, symbolical of the 
seasons, and above are friezes in which beasts of burden and other 
bucolic animals figure. 

The groups included in the classification of this department are 
as follows : Cereals, grasses and forage plants ; bread, biscuits, 
pastes, starch, gluten, etc. ; sugars, syrups, confectionery, etc. ; 




THE FRYING DUTCHMAN. 



agriculture:. 



171 



potatoes, tubers, and other root crops ; productions of the farm not 
otherwise classed ; preserved meats and food preparations ; the 
dairy and dairy products ; tea, coffee, spices, hops and aromatic 
vegetable substances ; animal and vegetable fibres ; pure and 
mineral waters, natural and artificial ; whiskies, ciders, liquors and 
alcohol ; malt liquors ; machinery, processes and appliances of 



fermenting, distillim 



bottling and storing beverages; farms and 




THE LANDING OF COLUMBUS, IN GUM PASTE. 

Exhibit of Schall & Co. 

farm buildings; literature and statistics of agriculture ; farming 
tools, implements and machinery ; miscellaneous animal products, 
fertilizers and fertilizing compounds; fats, oils, soaps, candles, etc. ; 
forestry and forest products. 

In the main portion of the Agricultural Building the south half 
is devoted to the exhibits of the States of the Union, and the north 
half to those of foreign governments. The only violation of this 
order is that Russia, France and Italy encroach upon the south 
half of the portion reserved for the States, The American Sugar 



172 



AGRICULTURE. 



Refining Company has an elaborate exhibit contained in the 
pavilion of unusually handsome form, where are exhibited more 
than two hundred samples of various kinds of sugar, as well as 
syrups and other saccharine products. Schall & Co., of New York, 
exhibit a scene to represent the Landing of Columbus, done in 
gum paste. This firm makes a specialty of confectioners' articles 

and ornaments, 
and the present 
exhibit is a tri- 
umph of skill. It 
weighs nearly 400 
pounds, and is 
constructed en- 
tirely of confec- 
tionery, except the 
wooden base. It 
is five feet eight 
inches square, and 
nearly four feet 
high. At the four 
corners rise grace- 
ful statues, repre- 
senting the four 
great continents. 
Other statues at the sides represent Washington and Lafayette, 
the Liberty monument, President Cleveland, the new battle-ship 
" New York," and other vessels. Behind all is the grand effort, 
the Landing of Columbus. The discoverer stands in the fore- 
ground, with drawn sword in his right hand, and his left supporting 
the banner of Spain, while his eyes are cast heavenward. About 
him are men in armor and crouching Indians. In the background 
his ship is seen anchored in the ocean. The modelling is excel- 
lent and the coloring very good. 

In the exhibits of bee culture A. I. Root, of Medina, Ohio, ex- 
hibits all sorts of appliances for caring for these dainty sugar- 
makers, as well as their products, manufactured and natural 




MAILI,ARD'S PAVILION. 



Agriculture. 



m 



In the displays of canned goods Curtice Bros. & Co., of Roches- 
ter, N. Y., have an elaborate display, including their preserved 
fruits, vegetables and meats. 

It is in the gallery of the building that we find the displays of 
food products, such 
as starch, pickles, 
catsup, soups, canned 
goods, preserves, 
flour, mineral waters, 
liquors, cigars, to- 
bacco, chocolates, can- 
dies, condensed milk, 
macaroni, wool and 
kindred things. Va- 
rious chocolate com- 
panies make attrac- 
tive displays, includ- 
ing Walter Baker & 
Co., the W. M. Low- 
ney Co., the Choco- 
lat — Menier Co., Van 
Houten & Zoon, and 
others. Several of 
these have their own 
pavilions scattered 
through the grounds 
outside, where their 
dainty wares are sold in great quantities. Here in the Agricultural 
Building Stollwerck Bros, have a noteworthy pavilion. It is in the 
shape of a temple, of renaissance style, thirty-eight feet in height, 
and composed entirely of 30,000 pounds of chocolate and cocoa 
butter. These are applied over a wooden frame, and a most 
artistic effect is produced. The prominent feature of this exhibit 
is a statue of " Germania," ten feet high, modeled after the cele- 
brated "Niederwald" monument, and sculptured out of a solid 
block of 2,200 pounds of chocolate. The pedestal is decorated 




BROKER'S COCOA Mil,!,. 



174 



AGRICULTURE. 



with reliefs of the Emperors William I., Frederick III. and William 
II., as well as Bismarck and Moltke. The structure rests upon a 




GERMANIA IN CHOCOLATE — GERMAN AGRICULTURAL EXHIBIT. 

foundation formed by massive blocks of chocolate, and above the 
architrave six columns are crowned by flying eagles, solid choco- 
late, while the dome is decorated with the imperial crown of Germany, 



AGRICULTURE. 



175 



Among the leading tobacco exhibitors the showing of F. Garcia 
& Co., of New York, is one of the best. Another is that of Julius 
Ellinger & Co., of Key West 
and New York, and the third 
is that of Jacob Stahl, Jr., & 
Co., of New York. All of 
these are handsomely fur- 
nished, displaying the cigars 
most artistically, and in a 
way to give the best impres- 
sion for the fragrant weed. 

The Agricultural Building 
also houses the display of 
whiskey and beer manufac- 
ture. Messrs. Bernheim Bros., of Louisville, Ky., have, however, 
erected their own building, a log-cabin, where the processes of dis- 
tilling are shown. 




BUILDING OF OLD TIMES DISTILLERY CO. 




LOG-CABIN 



As one stands in the centre of the building, the State of Iowa, 
opposite Germany, catches the eye with a most creditable showing. 



176 



AGRICULTURE. 



Grains, grasses and corn decorate her pavilion in brilliantly beauti- 
ful and varied forms. The columns, arches and pediments are 
decorated with corn, the bases showing flat panels of this grain. 




GERMAN KAU WORKS. 



Stars, flowers and running garlands of floral designs are made of 
colored corn. There are also panels with margins of grains of 
corn, and centres of heads of wheat and rye. The central pagoda 



AGRICULTURE. 1 77 

is similarly ornamented. In succession, to the west, come the 
States of Nebraska, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Facing 
the aisle next southward are Massachusetts, Maine, Montana and 
New Mexico. California, Kansas, North Dakota, New Hampshire, 
Connecticut and Oklahoma complete this quarter of the building. 
Every one of the States has a creditable display that will do much 
to advertise its resources. In the southeast quarter of the building, 
the States in succession are Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky, 
Indiana, New York, North Carolina, West Virginia, Missouri, 




CANADA -EXHIBIT, AGRICUI/TURAI, BUILDING. 



Washington, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Idaho, New Jersey, Florida, 

Virginia, Oregon, Delaware, Maryland, Colorado and South Dakota. 

As one enters the Agricultural Building at the main portal and 



i 7 8 



AGRICULTURE. 



turns to the right he first reaches the exhibit of Spain and the 
Philippine Islands, occupying nearly 4,000 square feet with a charac- 
teristic display. Chili, Cuba, British Guiana, Hayti, Liberia, Curacoa, 
Peru, Mexico, Venezuela, Siam, Brazil and Austria com- 
plete the circle in that corner of the building. It is in 
these remoter countries that visitors find the 
great- ~^B pllbv est: mterest - Their stuffed beasts, birds, ser- 
pents, ^%$ K their magnificent tobaccos, their rubber 
and curious ^^a^s^lil^ valuable woods, their coffees and 



palm oil, fruit, coral, straw work, 
tures, rice and vanilla beans, 
strange to us. Mexico 
showing pulque, 
fee, tobacco and 
displays fine 
is very 
fects in 



cane, dieir nuts, 
native manufac 
almost all bein 
occupies a large area 
aguardiente, sugar-cane, cof- 
cereals\ Japan, just opposite, 
teas, silks, etc. Its rustic pavilion 
unique, and shows some pretty ef- 
bamboo, cane, fibre ropes and twines. 
Honduras, Paraguay, Uruguay and Ar- 
gentine Republic are neighbors of the 
ones just named, and then comes Ger- 
many. 

Germany faces the main central 
and occupies a total 
area of nearly 1 2,000 
square feet. Her chief 
specialty is beer, and 
from every brewing jJJ 
town in every part of 1 
the empire are samples 
of this malt liquor. 

Going back to those foreign countries, which are neighbors of 
the United States in the southwest corner of the building, we find 
Russia with a large display, making wheat her especial exhibit. 
There is also an exhibit of the French Governmental teaching 
system. This is a perfect model of what an agricultural expe/;i- 



isl( 



\i 



"SLACKER. 

Exhibit of Aultman & Taylor Machine Co. 



AGRICULTURE. 1 79 

ment station and agricultural school should be. Italy's chief 
exhibits are those of wine, liquor, oils, olives and fruits. One-half 
of the building has not been covered. On the other side of the 
main aisle is Ceylon, with an exhibit of teas, spices, etc. ; Great 
Britain, with 10,000 square feet and a most creditable display; and 
her colonies, Australia, Canada, the Cape of Good Hope and certain 
islands. Denmark, Sweden, Algeria and the French colonies, 




SIDE DELIVERY HAY RAKE. 

Exhibit of Stoddard Manufacturing Co. 

Holland, Colombia and Ecuador complete the area of the main 
building of agriculture. 

The Dominion of Canada makes as fine a display here as in 
other buildings, Ontario, particularly, winning fame for her immense 
cheese, weighing eleven tons, the largest ever made, 



r 8o AGRICULTURE. 

The great exhibits of agricultural machinery are contained in the 
annex which extends southward from the main building. Among 
the companies which here have fine displays are Aultman, Miller 
& Co., of Akron, Ohio, manufacturers of harvesting machines; 
the Cutaway Harrow Co., of Higganum, Conn., maker of harrows, 
cultivators, plows and cider mills ; the Aultman & Taylor Machinery 
Co., of Mansfield, Ohio, makers of traction engines, saw-mills, 
threshers, and other farm machinery ; and Roberts, Throp & Co., 
of Three Rivers, Mich., makers of hand-car and corn sheller. 
specialties. E. A. Porter & Bros., of Bowling Green, Ky., show 
cattle-feeding machines, and corn and cob crushers ; Haworth & 
Sons, of Decatur, 111., show a collection of those implements 
which have given to that town the name of the " Check-rower 
City." The Geiser Manufacturing Co., of Waynesboro, Pa., and 
Gaar, Scott & Co., of Richmond, Ind., display traction engines. 
The Stoddard Manufacturing Co., Dayton, Ohio, display tobacco 
transplanters and hay-rakes, and the Foos Manufacturing Co., of 
Springfield, Ohio, show mills, shellers, horse-power, etc. The 
Superior Drill Co., of Springfield, Ohio, show feed grain drills and 
fertilizer drills, besides the more ordinary farming implements. 




PLOW MADE BY DANIEL WEBSTER, AND USED BY HIM ON HIS MARSHFIELD ESTATE. 

Some of these are made with wood parts of bird's-eye maple or 
mahogany, with metal parts plated in silver, nickel and gold. One 
drill is made with glass sides and tubes, so that one may see the 
exact course of the grain and seed as it passes through the machine. 
Other exhibitors in this line are the Farmers' Friend Manufacturing 
Co., of Dayton, Ohio ; the Skandia Plow Co., of Rockford, 111. ; the 
McCormick Harvester Co., of Chicago, and Wm. Deering & Co., 
of Chicago. The exhibit of the latter firm covers 2,000 square' 



AGRICULTURE. l8l 

feet. It is largely historical, and shows by means of models the 
stages of development from the primitive first binder to the simple 




IMPLEMENT SECTION. 

and perfect machine of to-day. Old style harvesters and reapers 
are shown in contrast with those of the present. 

In this rapid resume of the contents of the building it has been 
impossible to name but a small portion 
of the worthy exhibits. Taking one more 
swift glance around we find the displays 
of packing companies, including the Swift 
Refrieeratino- Co., the North American 
Packing and Provision Co., the Cudahy p 
and the Armour exhibits. 

Beside the brewing companies already 
named, the Anheuser-Busch Co., of St. 
Louis, and the Pabst Co., and the Best 
Co., of Milwaukee, all make pretentious 
displays. 

Durkee & Co., of New York, display 

..-. . _ ... rrj O^ 13 SPINNING-WHEEL FROM 

their spices in a tine pavilion 01 nana- Connecticut. 




l82 



AGRICULTURE. 



carved wood, and Huckins' soups are shown in a pagoda deco- 
rated with white and gold. The Price Baking Powder Co. has 




INTERIOR OF DAIRY BARN. 

a large pavilion of birch, which makes an effective display. The 
Oswego Starch Co. has a pavilion which is also a gem. The 
American Cereal Co., and the Lorillard Tobacco Co., also have 
creditable displays. Brinker's Cotton Bale Exhibit consists of minia- 
ture bales made from cotton produced 
by slave labor in 1863. They are sold 
to visitors as souvenirs. 

The second feature in this oreat de- 

o 

partment, which is entitled to a building 
of its own, is the Dairy interest. In the 
extreme southern part of the grounds 
of the Fair are the dairy barns for Jer- 
sey, Guernsey, and Short-horn cattle. 
In these barns the cattle entered for the 
butter-making and dairy contests are 
housed, fed, cared for, and can be in- 
spected. 

The Dairy Building is just to the 
west of the Forestry and Leather Build- 
ings, and across the water, southeast from 
the Agricultural Building. It is 200 feet long and 100 feet wide, and 
cost $30,000. In addition to the exhibits from all countries of the world, 




CREAM SEPARATOR. 

Exhibit of P. M. Sharpless. 



AGRICULTURE. 1 83 

there is conducted in this building a dairy school lasting for the six 
months of the Fair, in connection with which a series of tests for 
determining the relative merits of different herds of cattle as milk 
and butter producers is also conducted. Being adjacent to the 
Live Stock Exhibit, yet farther southwest, this building is admirably 
adapted for that purpose. On the first floor, in the most conspicuous 
place, are displayed the butter exhibits, and just in the rear, in a 
space 25 by 100 feet, a model dairy and dairy school are conducted. 
Four hundred spectators can be seated in the amphitheatre which 
surrounds this room. The cheese exhibits are displayed on the 
second floor, and here, too, is found a cafe, in which dairy products 
of various kinds hold a conspicuous place. Among the prominent 
exhibitors here are Cornish, Curtis & Greene, of Fort Atkinson, 
Wis., who show butter and cheese implements of all sorts. P. M. 
Sharpless displays cream separators which skim the cream from 
fresh milk, which runs in a constant stream through a faucet into 
the top of the machine, and comes out at the bottom, the cream 
through one spout and the skimmed milk through another. Mr. 
Sharpless also has a display of his appliances in the Agricultural 
Building. 

Another great feature of this department is contained in the 
Forestry Building, which is, in some respects, the most unique of 
all the Exposition structures. It occupies an area of 208 by 528 
feet and faces Lake Michigan, near the southeastern extremity of 
the Grounds. Its architect was C. B. Atwood, designer-in-chief of 
the Exposition. 

More plainly than any other building on the grounds does this 
one proclaim its uses and purposes. It is, itself, a magnificent dis- 
play of forest products, built entirely of wood and joined together 
with wooden pins ; not a single nail or other piece of metal was 
used in its construction. It is entirely surrounded by a great col- 
onnade, the roof of which is upheld by pillars, each composed of a 
group of three tree trunks, lopped with their branches, but with 
their bark still on them as they stood in their native forest. Va- 
rious States of the Union and many foreign countries contributed 
these columns, and thus is formed one of the most unique colon- 



184 



AGRICULTURE. 



nades ever built. The walls of the building are of slabs of trees 
from which the bark has been removed, and the facings and other 
parts of the building are treated in a similar rustic manner. The 
roof is thatched with tan and other barks. Around the eaves is a 
cornice composed of interlaced timbers of various sizes. The pil- 
lars of the colonnade are ninety in number, composed of 270 tree 




INTERIOR OF FORESTRY BUILDING. 



trunks. Each of these bears a label giving its popular and botani- 
cal name and the locality whence it came. 

The vestibule at the main doorway in the east side was furnished 
and put in place by the Southern Lumber Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion. The vestibule is of cypress and yellow pine, highly polished, 
to show the susceptibility of the woods of this section to use for in- 
terior decorations. The cost of this main vestibule was $10,000. 
About half of the States of the Union and many foreign countries 
exhibit here. Missouri is at the left of the entrance and Washing- 



AGRICULTURE. 185 

ton at the right, the first exhibiting largely deciduous trees and 
the other evergreen varieties. Michigan's display contains the 
largest load of logs ever piled upon a single vehicle; the load 
weighed 300,000 pounds, and was pulled by two horses weighing 
1,700 pounds each. The sled and load are shown just as they were 
in the forest. To the west of the stock pavilion is a typical loggers' 
camp, built as an exact reproduction of the camps in which Michi- 
gan lumbermen lived. There are also loaded log wagons and log 
trains, and a little farther west the great saw-mill which has already 
been mentioned in connection with the machinery exhibit, but is as 
properly referred to that of forestry. Opposite Michigan's display 
is that,of West Virginia, which shows 250 specimens of her forest 
products, polished and finished so as to show the grain, colors and 
characteristics of the different varieties. 




MICHIGAN LOGGING CAMP. 



At the centre of the building all the States and countries have 
contributed large specimens to form an immense pyramid. Pass- 
ing this, one comes to the display of Australia. The island conti- 
nent has enclosed her exhibit in a stockade of planks nine feet 
high, and many of them several feet wide. For six feet up from 
the floor these boards are all polished. In variety there are myrall, 
rosewood, red bean, bloodwood, onionwood, and many others not 
found elsewhere. 

Next comes Mexico, showing violet wood, mountain ebony, and 
many other curious and beautiful products, and then Brazil. The 



i86 



AGRICULTURE. 



pavilion of the latter is composed of trees whose interlocking 
branches form the walls. The entrance is through a beautiful 
rustic archway. Three hundred and twenty-one specimens of dye 
woods and ornamental woods are to be seen here. Across the 
aisle from this display are those of the States of Ohio, North 




BROOKFIELD STUD, LONDON, ENGLAND. 

Property of Burdett Coutts, Esq., M. P. 

Dakota, Wisconsin and Kentucky, all with creditable exhibits ; and 
still to the north are Nebraska, Minnesota, Louisiana, Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. Amid these exhibits of our own States is a section 
devoted to Spain, the Philippine Islands and Cuba. They show 
ornamental woods in unique and beautiful variety. At the extreme 
north end of the building, and facing the centre aisle, is the display 
of Japan. The showing made by this empire is very creditable 
and noteworthy from the fact that it is the first exhibit of native 
wood ever made outside of its own borders. Honduras adjoins 
Japan, and then India comes in the corner of the building. Return- 



AGRICULTURE. 



187 



ing southward we now come to the exhibit of Paraguay, where are 
displayed 321 varieties of timber from twelve inches to four feet in 
diameter. Bark and dye-woods are also shown in abundance. 
Next to the south is Germany, their fine display rendered more 
interesting by the exposition of their tree planting and preserving 
and other scientific forestry displays. Between Germany and Brazil 
is the exhibit of the Argentine Republic, a grand collection of dye, 
building and ornamental woods. 

More than half of the building has not been covered. Crossing 
the main aisle southward and going through the exhibit of Russia, 
one reaches the displays of France and Siam. Oregon and Colo- 
rado are near neighbors, and then Canada, which occupies the 
largest space granted to any foreign country. Every one of her 
provinces is represented most attractively. Still farther south in 




WINDMILL EXHIBIT. 

this building an investigation of the exhibits of Trinidad, Connecti- 
cut, North Carolina, New York, Indiana, California, Utah and Mas- 
sachusetts brings the wayfarer to the section devoted to manufac- 
tured goods. This includes all sorts of wooden ware, both useful 
and beautiful and well worthy of attention. 

A department of its own, but intimately connected with the agri- 
cultural display, is the Live Stock Department. Live Stock forms 
one of the most important displays at the Fair. The competitions 



i88 



AGRICULTURE. 



include a kennel show, a display of fat stock and of horses, mules, 
sheep, swine, poultry, pigeons and pets of all kinds. For these 
purposes there has been erected a great oval pavilion, or arena, 
adjacent to Agricultural Hall. The exterior is of staff and stucco, 
and the interior an open arena 400 feet in length with ten tiers of 



^£*M& 



^r 



\m 




nor'easter. (Painting by Miss S. Turner.) 
Exhibit of Burdett Coutts, Esq., M. P. 

seats and a broad balcony. Fifteen thousand spectators can be 
seated at one time. There are sixty-four stalls for the accommo- 
dation of live stock under the seats of the arena, while the stock 
barns to the south are sufficient to shelter thousands of head of 
cattle. The arena is floored with tan-bark and is the most satisfac- 



AGRICULTURE. 1 89 

tory structure of the kind which has ever been erected. While 
covering this portion of the grounds, the visitor will naturally 
observe the distillery exhibit which has been already mentioned, the 
immense flock of wind-mills, with wheels all whirling, ranging from 
the most modern air motor to the earliest Holland mill ; and the out- 
side exhibit of agricultural implements, all of these latter properly 
belonging to the agricultural department and its accessories. 

No previous Exposition ever paid so much attention to perfect- 
ing the display in the agricultural exhibits, and this fact is appre- 
ciated by the immense rural population of our country. Every 
facility is provided them for investigation and observation, and 
including the buildings of Forestry, Dairy and Live Stock which 
belong to the agricultural department, the space reserved for this 
purpose is second only to that of the leviathan, the Manufactures 
Building. By the relative importance of the agricultural industries 
in the United States it is eminently proper that this is so. 




HERE are four great domes which are notable features in 
the group of World's Fair Buildings — those constructed 
over the centre of the Administration, Government, 
Illinois State and Horticultural Buildings. Of all these, 
the latter rising like a great soap bubble of glass from 
" The White Palace " is the most graceful and the most airy in its 
beauty. The building, of which this is the most prominent feature, 
faces east on the Lagoon, immediately south of the entrance to 
Jackson Park from Midway Plaisance. Across the water is the 
beautiful Wooded Island, and then after another sheet of water the 
Government and Manufactures Buildings. This location, with a 
broad face toward the sylvan scenery of the Lagoon and the 
Island, is an ideal one. It is, at the same time, appropriate that a 
structure for the purposes for which this one is intended should 
have such a location in the portion of the Park where nature holds 
strongest sway. Between the building and the Lagoon are beau- 
tiful lawns and a flower terrace for outside exhibits, including tanks 
for nymphaeas and the Victoria Regia. The front of the terrace, 
with its low parapet between large vases, borders the water, and at 

(191) 



192 



HORTICULTURE. 



its centre forms a boat landing. The edifice measures exactly 
250x1,000 feet, or more than five acres, with eight large green- 
houses as an addition. The total cost was $325,000. The plan 
shows a centre pavilion with the two end pavilions, each connected 
to the centre pavilion by front and rear curtains, forming two in- 
terior courts, each 88 x 270 feet. These courts are beautifully dec- 




FRIEZE IN VESTIBULE OF HORTICULTURAL BUILDING. {Lorado Taft.)' 

orated in color and planted with ornamental shrubs and flowers. 
The crystal dome which roofs the centre pavilion is 113 feet high 
and 187 feet in diameter. Under this are exhibited the tallest 
palms, bamboos and tree ferns that could be procured. In each 
pavilion is a gallery — those of the end pavilions being used for 
cafes. 

Here is the most restful and attractive place of 
all on the grounds for refreshment and recrea- 
tion. Music ripples from plashing waterfalls, the 
odors from sweet flowers and the glow of color 
from the same source are a combination of de- 
lights most conducive to the appetite and pleas- 
ure. The cafes are surrounded on three sides 
by an arcade, from which may be obtained charm- 
ing views of the grounds. 

Here are displayed a myriad variety of Mowers, 
plants, vines, seeds, and everything in the horti- 
cultural world. Those exhibits requiring sun- 
fm shine and light are shown in the rear curtain, 
HorticuituJafBuiidins. where the roof is entirely of glass and not far 




HORTICULTURE. 1 93 

removed from the plants. The front curtains and under the gal- 
leries furnish room for exhibits that require only the ordinary 
amount of light. Under the great dome is to be seen one of the 
most beautiful effects of the whole Exposition. This comes from 
the miniature mountain, 70 feet high in the centre, upon which 
giant tree ferns and palms are growing as if in nature. A moun- 
tain stream dashes down the declivities from miniature crag- to 




LORADO TAKT'S STUDIO IN HORTICULTURAL HALL. 

(Showi?ig Sculpture for the Building Under Way.) 



crag, sometimes hiding- behind the foliage, and again sparkling in 
the light. Beneath this mountain is a cave 80 feet in diameter and 
60 feet high, brilliantly lighted by electricity, where during the 
whole six months of the Exposition the experiment is in progress 
to see whether or not plants will grow as well under electric light 
as under sunlight. Throughout the many months that intervene 
13 



194 HORTICULTURE. 

between the completion of this building and the opening of the 
Fair a magnificent and continuous floral exhibit was made in the 
Horticultural Building and in the Greenhouses adjoining; but this 
exhibit of the past is dwarfed by the horticultural and floricultural 
display that fills every nook and corner of the building since the 
time of the opening of the Fair. 

The Horticultural Building indicates its own purpose more ac- 
curately than any other structure on the grounds except the Forestry 
Building. It has the aspect of an enormous green-house, and im- 
mediately suggests its adaptability for the purposes intended. Its 
long, low galleries with glazed roofs, admitting a flood of light, are 
well adapted to the preservation of growing plants, shrubs and 
trees. At the same time, the building harmonizes entirely with its 
surroundings. The style is Venetian renaissance, of the Ionic 
order, with a broad frieze decorated with cupids and garlands. 
The treatment is gay and joyous to conform to the lightness of the 
structure and the character of the exhibits. In front of the central 
pavilion is a high, ornamental pylon forming the main entrance, the 
recessed vestibule decorated with statuary. On the face of the 
pylon are groups, one on either side, representing the " Sleep of 
the Flowers " and the ''Awakening of the Flowers." 

The sculptor, Lorado Taft, has described the artistic sculpture 
and statuary in a series of lectures on the "Architecture of the 
World's Fair." Aside from the frieze, the sculptural decorations 
of the building consist of six single figures and two large groups. 
On the eastern front of each pavilion, at the ends of the building, 
are two figures placed on the level of the second story. The one 
on the south is called the " Painting of the Lily." The figure of a 
nymph is represented holding the lily and regarding it intently, 
with her brush poised in the air. The ancients attributed to these 
spirits of the wood and field the care of plant life. The next figure 
is symbolic of the cultivation and use of the grape, and represents 
a faun, a joyous, soulless creature, holding in one hand a brimming 
beaker and in the other a bunch of grapes. The drapery of this 
figure is the tiger skin, a favorite costume of Bacchus, the god of 
wine. On the north pavilion is the draped figure of a woman, in- 



HORTICULTURE. 



195 



tended to personify the study of botany. In her hand she holds 
the scroll on which is inscribed the lore of that science. The last 
figure, at the extreme north of the building, represents a gardener 
of the ancient type examining the bursting buds of the vine. 




A VISTA OF TROPICAL PLANTS. 



Just inside the vestibule stand two figures, each ten feet in height. 
The one on the right is a light, airy personification of " Flora." 
She is poised on tiptoe, and with outstretched arms holds aloft a 
flowering branch to which she turns her smiling face. Around her 
feet are plants and blossoms, profusely decking the earth, in re- 
sponse to her glad presence. On th^ opposite side is a figure of 
" Pomona." Her form is a full, matronly one, her smiling face 
suggesting amused disappointment as she struggles with an over- 
flowing basket of fruit, which, in spite of her development, she is 
unable to lift. 

The principal sculptural decoration of the building consists of 



196 HORTICULTURE. 

two large groups just outside the main entrance. On the south 
side is the composition called " The Sleep of the Flowers." It rep- 
resents the artist's conception of autumn. The sculptor endeavored 
to suggest here the quiet, almost melancholy spirit of autumn, and 
with this object in view has kept all lines as harmonious and grace- 
ful as possible. The faces of the two sitting figures suggest sleep, 
and even the standing figure looks mournfully down upon them as 
if she, too, would soon join them in their slumbers. The only 
touch of animation is the single belated " Cupid " who sits con- 
tentedly absorbing a bunch of grapes. This fruit is shown hang- 
ing in abundant clusters from the rocks on either side. At the feet 
of the figures is placed a branch of withered oak. 

On the other hand is the Springtime group, called the " Battle 
of the Flowers," or sometimes the "Awakening." In this the. 
artist has tried to express the vigor and push of awakening 



11 



Jill 



r 




7*S&. , ■'■[ IT 

, W ii,;,,,,, : .,^,,M,,g ^ C| : 'n| 



SPANISH SECTION, VINICULTURE. 

vegetation by means of broken and angular lines, making the 
composition as great a contrast as possible to the Autumn group. 
In the composition are the figures of three nymphs, a faun and two 
cupids, all laughing heartily as they pelt each other with buds 
and blossoms. The faun is engaged in binding a garland around 



198 



HORTICULTURE. 



the waist of the central figure, 
while she, in turn, has her arms 
full of flowers which she uses in 
the mimid warfare. The figures 
in these groups are about eight 
feet in height, and the work 
required several months. The 
artist's principal assistant in the 
execution of this statuary was 
his pupil, Miss Julia Bracken. 

The frieze around the inside 
of the dome was painted by C. 
C. Coleman. It is composed 
of festoons and wreaths of the 
passion vine, while the wreaths 
entwined the names of men 
famous in horticultural and kin- 
dred arts. 

The groups included in the 
classification of this department, 
of which J. M. Samuels is chief, are as follows : Viticulture, manu- 
factured products, methods and appliances; Pomology, manu- 
factured products, methods 
and appliances ; Floricul- 
ture ; Culinary vegetables; 
Seeds, seed-raising, testing 
and distribution ; Arboricul- 
ture ; Appliances, methods, 
etc. 

The south pavilion is de- 
voted to the exhibit of 
wines. Here Australia, 
France, Russia, Austria, Cal- 
ifornia, Canada, Japan, Ger- 
many and Spain occupy 
large areas where all the 




Cocoa isuy in 



UPPER SECTION OF COCOANUT PAEM. 




A SPRAY OF HYDRANGEA— AUSTRALIA. 



HORTICULTURE. 



I 99 



products of the juice of the fruit are shown in their perfection. Some 
of the displays are very elaborate and are worthy of the wide atten- 
tion they attract. The exhibit of Spain extends northward into the 
east curtain, where it joins the displays made by Illinois, Texas, 
Missouri, Massachusetts, Indiana and Pennsylvania. These latter, 
however, are all of growing plants and flowers. Pitcher & Manda, 




OLD JAPANESE TREE, HORTICULTURAL BUILDING. 

of New Jersey, who occupy the north end of this space, adjoining 
Pennsylvania, have very much the largest display of any firm, as 
they transplanted here a special train-load of products from their 
nurseries. 

The visitor has now reached the great central dome. Here 
the miniature fountain dashes its sprays over the rocks of the 
mountain, through valleys blooming with flowers and green with 
rarest palms, ferns, and trailing vines. The cave beneath is a re- 
production of one of the chambers of the Mammoth Crystal Cave 
in the Black Hills of South Dakota, which has been explored for 



200 



HORTICULTURE. 



thirty-four miles. These underground tunnels open and close 
into rooms crlitterinor with diamond-like stalagmites and stalactites. 
The space around the mountain is alfotted to the States of New 




HORTICULTURAL IMPLEMENT SECTION. 



York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Continuing northward into 
the next curtain, we enter the foreign exhibits, a display shared by 
Mexico, Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, Trinidad, Japan, Canada 
and Australia. The tropical countries show to visitors wonderful 
vegetation of rarest beauty. Trinidad has orchids, ferns and 
palms surrounding a great gilt lion of sculptured beauty, which 
guards the north end of the curtain. Australia's plants are as 
strange as her animals and attract universal attention. Japan 
shows a number of the wonderful dwarf trees, oaks, pines and 
others, perfect in every detail, hundreds of years old, yet growing 
in small flower-pots and extending but a few feet in height. The 
trunks are gnarled and rough as those of forest giants, and the 
effect produced is as if one were looking through the small end 
of a spy-glass toward one of our own American monsters. 

In the north pavilion are shown manufactured products properly 
belonging in this department. There are machinery and ap- 



HORTICULTURE. 



20I - 



pliances of all sorts for lawn and flower-garden cultivation, and 
seeds, ornaments and varied other exhibits. 

Returning southward through the west curtain we find a large 
area devoted to the Pomological exhibits. Tray after tray of lus- 
cious fruits are placed before the visitor, including those from 
every clime, tropical, temperate and northern. Spain, Mexico, 
Australia, Great Britain, Colorado, Oregon, Missouri, Canada, 
Italy, France, the Latin-American countries, California, and almost 
every other State 
of the Union, 
show what they 
can produce in 
these tempting 
fruits. It is use- 
less to attempt 
to name them 
all, for it would 
simply be to make 
a list of every 
fruit that the 
world produces. 
In the court en- 
closed between 
the northeast and 
northwest cur- 
tains of the build- 
ing is an orange 
and lemon grove 
from California, 
showing the per- 
fection to which / 
the cultivation of 
these fruits has 
been carried. In the southerly court is a magnificent display of 
aquatic plants, and adjoining this an exact reproduction of an old- 
fashioned German wine-cellar. 




THE MONUMENT OF ORANGES. 



202 



HORTICULTURE. 




pineapple;. 



To attempt to merely mention the 
most beautiful of the exhibits in the Hor- 
ticultural Building would be like placing 
before the reader an immense florist's 
catalogue. It is enough, therefore, to say 
that nearly every flower known to savage 
and civilized man finds in the building a 
representative. Never before in the 
history of flower shows has such a collec- 
tion been gathered together. 

Just west of this building, in its rear, 
are found the greenhouses. As a gen- 
eral thing, they are used only for the 
propagation and forcing of plants and flowers, which are afterward 
removed into the exhibit rooms, or set out in the parterres in front 
of the building, where are also the exhibits of a number of private 
forests. 

The east front of the build- 
ing faces the lagoon, with 
broad lawns between. These 
lawns are intersected with 
flower-beds, where growing 
plants and flowers are changed 
with the months, so that the 
display is always luxuriant. 
New York, Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey share most of 
this space. 

As a matter of fact, how- 
ever, the whole ground occu- 
pied by the Fair amounts to 
one great exhibit of horticul- 
ture. Century plants and 
cacti decorate every balus- 
trade and railing, while every 
available spot is green with 




TREE PERN— AUSTRALIA, 



HORTICULTURE. 203 

the brightness of a lawn or ornamented with trees and shrubbery. 
Around the edges of the lagoons are planted reeds, rushes and 
other semi-aquatic vegetation, so that a most natural effect is pro- 
duced. The Wooded Island is a triumph of the landscape gar- 
dener's art, and throughout the heat of summer is a favorite resort 
for the weary who seek for shade. In the northern portion of it, 
surrounding the Japanese temple, a large space was assigned to 
Japan, and the gardeners of that country have used their best effort 
and have produced a delightful result. This Japanese garden is a 
centre of great interest. In the southeastern portion of the island 
another large tract is devoted to the rose garden, also a favorite. 
The group of little islands to the southwest and those to the east 
of the Wooded Island are not to be reached by visitors, and are 
valuable for their landscape effects. This bit of nature dropped 
down in the midst of the " City of White Palaces " is the final touch 
of perfection. Every writer who has told of the Fair, and every 
artist who has drawn it, has agreed to this, and all tales of its beauty 
end at this point. It is the work of landscape architecture and the 
horticultural department. 

The work of this department is all the better realized when one 
remembers the condition of the Park when it was taken possession 
of by the authorities of the Fair. They found it a wilderness of 
sand dunes and they made it the rival of the most noted pleasure 
grounds of the world. Every tree that decorates the Wooded 
Island and shades the group of State Buildings shows the work of 
the landscape architect and the Horticultural Department. The 
beveled lawns which border the Court of Honor, the Basin and the 
North and South Canal are triumphs of conventional art. Leaving 
this portion of the grounds, the visitor finds in the sedges, rushes 
and other semi-aquatic vegetation along the shores of the Wooded 
Island and of the mainland along the Lagoon, as great a triumph of 
unconventional horticulture. These shores appear as naturally 
wild as do any of the marshes of the Illinois prairies, or as they might 
have hundreds of years before the prow of a white man's boat forced 
a landing among them. 

Nestled among the trees on a small island just to the south of the 



204 



HORTICULTURE. 



Wooded Island, but to which that name would apply just as well, 
are two dwellings characteristic of primitive civilization, the antip- 
odes of one another as truly in structure as in the location from 
which they come. One is an American settler's cabin built of logs 
with the bark still on them, just such a cabin as the backwoods of 




INTERIOR OF FRUIT DEPARTMENT. 

Kentucky or Tennessee can show to-day in their secluded districts. 
It is a reproduction of the cabin of one of America's quaintest 
characters, Davy Crockett. In the cabin are many relics of the 
noble old hunter and of other heroic pioneers of the western 
frontier. Before it stands one of the old-fashioned emigrant 
wagons with canvas cover, while the fittings within are in harmony 
with its exterior. 

But a short distance to the east, and directly opposite from this 
cabin, is the hut of an Australian squatter. It is constructed of 
bark, and is even ruder than the American cabin. In our climate 
it would be but a poor shelter, and one cannot envy those who 
have been compelled to use it as a residence. Within it are seen 
whips, saddles, sheepskins, and all manner of utensils, such as are 
in every day use among the frontiersmen of that country. 

The view looking north down the Wooded Island is possibly the 
most delightful of all in the Fair, or at least second only to that of 



HORTICULTURE. 205 

the Grand Basin. It comprehends all the buildings which line the 
lagoon on either side and terminates with the group of State and 
Foreign Buildings and the classic Art Gallery. The rose garden 
at the south end and the Japanese garden at the north end are 
centres of interest and attraction. 

During the later months of the Fair the Wooded Island has been 
the scene of many illuminations. From the branches of its trees 
thousands of incandescent electric lights, as well as thousands of 
Japanese lanterns, shed their radiance over its natural beauty. At 
such times the walks are always thronged with delighted visitors, 
and it is considered to be one of the most artistic and delightful 
decorative effects of the Fair. 




HE most graceful, and at the same 
time the most unique, of all the 
structures of the Fair is the Fish- 
eries Building. Its architect, 
Ives Cobb, of Chicago, has been called coura- 
geous for adopting a design so unconventional in 
form and ornamentation. But this scarcely does 
justice to the genius that mastered what appeared 
to be unsurmountable difficulties, and wrought out an architectural 
victory where success seemed unattainable. No ordinary building 
would meet the requirements of the Fisheries Exhibit, and the banana- 
shaped islet, which was the original site, would not admit of the 
erection of any conventional structure of suitable size. How was 
it possible to overcome these difficulties? Fortunately the writer 
was able to materially assist in solving the problem. His knowl- 
edge of the requirements, both as to size and form, enabled him to 
roughly sketch out the floor plan and the elevation of the annexes, 
the former being adapted to the peculiar form of the site, and the 
latter essential to the success of the aquarial exhibit. It was, how- 
ever, nothing less than inspiration that enabled the architect to 
grasp the salient points, and, while preserving them absolutely, 
weave into the fabric a grace, a beauty and uniqueness of orna- 
mentation, combined with a fitness for its purpose, that have 
attracted world-wide attention. No, it was not a courageous effort 
on the part of Mr. Cobb : it was something more than that — it was 
the ability to accept conditions that might have dismayed another, 
conditions which he could not control, and to wring from them archi- 
tectural success such as is seldom equalled. 

The building consists of a central structure, rectangular in shape, 
and two polygonal buildings, one at either end of the main struc- 

(207) 



2o8 



FISHERIES. 



ture, with which they are connected by curved arcades. The total 
length of the curved structure is about 700 feet, but the curved arcades 
are narrow and offer no space for exhibit purposes. The central 
structure measures 365 x 165 feet, and the annexes have each a 
diameter of 135 feet. The type which the building copies is the 
Spanish Romanesque, and to many visitors its uncommon form and 
the unique decoration make it the most attractive of all the struc- 




ENTRANCE TO FISHERIES BUILDING. 

tures. The pillars and arches of the colonnades of the building 
are richly and ingeniously decked with marine forms of endless 
variety, turtles, crabs, lobsters, fish of many kinds ; the effects are 
invariably beautiful. The main building is provided with two grand 
entrances. These are through loggias about 80 feet long, project- 
ing 41 feet beyond the line of the main building, and flanked at 
each corner with lantern-like polygonal towers. Surmounting the 
quadrangular first story is a great circular story capped with a 



FISHERIES. 



209 



conical roof. A graceful open turret crowns this roof, and four 
smaller towers surround the base. The double row of engaged 
columns, which form the exterior face of the building, have capitals, 




FISH IN THE AQUARIUM. 



which are formed of yet other varied groupings of marine forms, 
while the delicate open work of the gallery railings display as many 
different fishes. The circular story is surrounded by a broad 
exterior gallery, and the four flanking towers of the entrances and 
14 



2IO 



FISHERIES. 



the four smaller towers of the central roof terminate in open 
turrets from which delightful views of the grounds are obtained. 

The roofs are covered with glazed 
Spanish tile. The east and west 
pavilions, which are reached by 
the curved arcades, are favorite 
resorts for the public, especially for 
those interested in fishing, either 
for sport or commercial purposes. 
The east pavilion is built for 
exhibiting live fish in aquaria. In 
the centre of this building is a 
rotunda nearly 60 feet in diameter. 
It surrounds a basin about one- 
third the width, and this in turn 
contains an irregular-shaped mass 
of rock, that rises from the centre 
to a height of ten or twelve feet. 
From the crevices and projecting 
points of this craggy monument 
ny streams of water fall to the 
basin below. In the pool are 
various kinds of fish ; the black 




SUPERINTENDENT OP AQUARIUM. 



bass, the lake sturgeon and 
the giant cat fish contrasting 
prettily with the more gor- 
geously colored golden 
ides and other ornamental 
species. The larger series 
of aquaria, ten in number, 
surround the pool, with a 
passage-way between sixteen 
feet wide. These have a 
capacity ranging from 7,000 to 27,000 gallons of water, the largest 
being about fifty feet long. In the arched tympana above these are 
wrought out many curious designs of aquatic import — gigantic 




PAYING PISH. 



FISHERIES. 



211 




SWORD FISH. 



dying fish are being pursued by sword fish; alligators are lazily 
disporting themselves on a 
reedy bank or swimming in 
a bayou ; while another 
group represents the spor- 
tive frog engaged in charac- 
teristic gambols, or quietly 
sitting on the oozy shore. 

Another row of smaller aquaria extend around the building, next 
to its outer wall, an arched walk leading between the outer and inner 

row of tanks, and affording 
the visitor an opportunity 
to see a wealth of aquatic 
life, marine and fluvial, such 
as was never before seen at 
a World's Fair. Here the 
royal brook trout, whose 
spotted irridescent sides 
gleam beautifully, and 
whose graceful m&tions 
hold crowds entranced, 
divides honors with the 
plebeian catfish, the carp, the many-hued sea anemone, or the odd- 
shaped horseshoe crab, that carry on their life-work here quite 
indifferent and unconscious 
of the thousands of human 
eyes that gaze upon them 
hour after hour, absorbed 
to such an extent that the 
remainder of the Fair is 
quite forgotten. 

Passing out of the pavil- 
ion and through the curved 
arcade, we enter the main 
hall of the Fisheries Build- 
ing. Here has been 




SKATE FISH. 




JAPANESE SING^ETHORN. 



212 



tflSHERI^S. 




ORIENTAL GURNARD. 



gathered and grouped nearly all that relates to commercial fishing, 
scientific research and fish culture. Distant Australia and Japan 
vie in friendly rivalry with the countries of Europe and North and 
South America in showing to the world what is most interesting in 
their fisheries, or to them most valuable from the standpoint of 

trade. 

Thirteen foreign coun- 
tries are represented. 
These are Norway, 
Sweden, Russia, Germany, 
France, Great Britain, 
Japan, Australia, Brazil, 
Mexico and Canada. 
The inhabitants of two-thirds of the earth's surface, as well as 
of the air, are here in almost endless profusion and variety, 
demonstrating in the most emphatic manner the scientific skill, 
energy and devotion that have been necessary to bring together 
these collections. 

The resources of art, of taxidermy; the naturalist's skill and 
modern methods of 
refrigeration, have been 
fully drawn upon. The 
wonders of aquatic life, 
in all their glorious bril- 
liancy of color and marvel- 
ous variation of form, are 
reproduced in paintings, 
colored lifelike casts of 
plaster and gelatine, in 
mounted specimens, in 
alcohol, in translucent 

. SAPPHIRE GURNARD AND ARMED BULL-HEAD. 

blocks 01 ice and beneath 

the glass fronts of refrigerators. The mind is bewildered. Fish 
of all the earth, corals, sponges, algae; mollusca of all kinds, includ- 
ing oysters, clams and many other forms of shells ; squids of various 
sorts and the great octopus — the devilfish of British Columbia — 




FISHERIES. 



213 



armed with sucking disks on its tentacles ; star fishes, sea urchins, 
holothurians, lobsters, crabs, cray fish, shrimps and other kinds of 
Crustacea ; reptiles, such as turtles, terrapins, frogs and alligators ; 
aquatic mammalia — whales, porpoises, seals, sea lions, white bears, 
otters and beavers — jostle and crowd each other at every turn. 
The baby cod or trout, newly hatched, stands in strong contrast to 
the 82-pound salmon from the Columbia river (sent here by Ore- 
gon in a solid block of ice), or the monster sharks or sword fish of 
the Atlantic. 




SKELETON OE WHALE. 



Aquatic birds also appear in great numbers and in various 
groupings. A family of eider ducks, happy in their Arctic home ; 
an osprey feeding upon a fish ; waders stalking about on oyster 
beds ; the great sooty albatross ; the tiny stormy petrel (or mother 
Carey's chicken) that roams with tireless wing to meet the ocean 
voyager on every sea, and the great herring gull that heralds with 
hoarse screams the approach of schools of fish, are only a few of 
the many specimens gathered here. Even the extinct species are 
not forgotten. The Great Auk (Alca impennis) is pictorially repre- 



214 



FISHERIES. 



sented. It is interesting from the fact that in the early days of 
American colonization it was enormously abundant and furnished 
food to the fishermen of those days, though it finally succumbed to 
the rapacity of the feather hunters. Even the plant life has not 
been neglected, and here and there those interested may get 
glimpses of many beautiful forms that lend additional interest to the 
collection. And who will tell how much of "labor of love" is em- 
bodied in the arrangement of delicate fronds of sea weed ; of the 
grouping of fish, birds and shells, etc., around a beautiful picture 




MODEL OF INDIAN FISHERMEN. PART OF MINNESOTA EXHIBIT. 



of their natural home, as in the case of the exhibit of the High 
School of San Diego, or in the deft arrangement of common beach 
shells,- sea weeds, etc., into groupings that give all the effect of a 
painted picture at a little distance ? Dried specimens, stuffed, cast, 
painted, photographed or even skeletonized, as in the case of a big 
humpback whale from Puget Sound, pass in review, a series of 
object lessons in natural history, not only instructive from a stand- 
point of specific differentiation, but particularly impressive when 
considered in their relation to commerce and the welfare of man- 
kind. 

Maps of fishing grounds, in river, lake or ocean, show where the 
various objects of fishery exist in the greatest abundance. These 



FISHERIES. 



215 



regions are the natural resorts of the toilers who venture out to 
gather the harvests of the deep in all climes. Here, then, we can 
trace the limitation of the work of the fisherman, considered from 
a purely geographical standpoint, though the maps have the ad- 
ditional merit of indicating the principal centres of distribution of 
certain kinds of aquatic animals. 

Even the fishermen themselves are well represented by photo- 




NORWEGIAN FISHERMAN. 



graphs, models and lay figures. The strong-featured Norwegian 
fisherman, clad in appropriate garb, looks lifelike enough to speak, 
as he sits grasping the tiller of his boat; the figures of Cape Ann 
men at the wheel and aloft on the lookout for fish, and the miniature 
fishermen of Holland and Japan are good examples of different 
types. Nor is the angler forgotten. Canada has given him the 
place of honor on the apex of her great " trophy," where, with rod, 
reel and long wading boots he stands in graceful pose, as if going 
to the stream he loves. Here, too, are the homes of the fishermen. 
They show us how he lives. There is a world of difference between 
the temporary rough board cabin of the Norse fisherman, the reed 
hut of the North Carolina mullet fisher — both being full size — and 
the neat and often beautiful cottages which are the homes of sea 



2l6 



FISHERIES. 



toilers in New England. Associated with these are collections of 
antique furnishings of fishermen's homes, in colonial times, nautical 
instruments used centuries ago from Cape Ann, and the school 
houses wherein the children of fishermen are fitted for their life 
work. 

And what possibilities are here for study in naval architecture, 
as applied to the fisheries ! The limits of this article do not permit 
even a list of names of the different types. 

Not only is it possible to trace the development of fishing boats 
from the settlement of America, but here, side by side, may be seen 
many varieties of fishing craft, in use at the present time, of this and 
other countries. The rude, primitive boats of the Amazon region, 
the birch bark and dugout canoes of North America — all of which 




THE TYPICAL DORY. 



are the same in form and construction as those in use when Colum- 
bus made his famous discovery — contrast strongly with the grace- 
ful, swift, and yacht-like schooners of Cape Ann, or the fishing 
steamers and beautiful catboat from Rhode Island. 

Gloucester shows her fishing vessels, by model and photograph, 
from its settlement in 1623 to the latest prize-winning clippers de- 
signed by Edward Burgess, D. J. Lawlor and Capt. George M. 
McLain, the latter a Gloucester fisherman. The old Ketch, the 



FISHERIES. 



217 



schooner of colonial times , the chebacco boat ; the old time pinkey 
and the square stern " hooker " of forty or fifty years ago, stand 
side by side with the creations of modern skill, emphasizing the 




NEW ENGLAND FISHING SCHOONER. 

, Painting in Gloucester Exhibit. 



advance that has been made in this direction since the Puritans 
sought in the New World " a faith-pure shrine " and the opportunity 
to develop commercial fishing. 

What tales of hardship and shipwreck are suggested by these 
models of fishing schooners ! A few years ago, when flat, unsea- 



2l8 



FISHERIES. 



worthy vessels were in vogue, a gale on the banks frequently sunk 
ten or a dozen schooners, which, with their crews, were reckoned 
witlvthe "missing," after weeks of harassing uncertainty and weary 
watching for their return, by widowed women and orphaned chil- 
dren. Woven into the web and woof of the history of each vessel 
are stories of winter gales, of hairbreadth escapes from shipwreck 




GLOUCESTER, MASS. 

Painting in Exhibit of Gloucester. 

on lee shores, of peril in fog and storm from being run down by 
" ocean greyhounds," and of experiences in Arctic weather, when the 
hull, rigging and spars have been coated with ice until progress 
seemed impossible and disaster inevitable. 

One of the Rhode Island models represents the first fishing 
steamer ever built in America, while another is notable for having 
made the largest catch of fish in its fifteen years of service ever 
made by any vessel in the world. A fishing boat that steams twelve 
knots and catches a thousand barrels of fish in a single day is worthy 
of notice. 

There are many curious flat-bottomed boats from Japan, built for 



FISHERIES. 



219 



landing on the shores near the fishing grounds, where as a rule 
there are no harbors. In 1881 it was officially reported that Japan 
had 187,220 fishing boats. Among those exhibited is a model of 
the type called " Kawasaki," which is extensively employed in the 
cod fishery from the island of Yesso in Northern Japan. 

There are no harbors on the coast from which these boats sail, 
and, therefore, it is necessary that they should land upon the open 
shore where the surf often runs very high. For this reason, flat- 
bottomed boats have generally been preferred by Japanese fisher- 
men, and it is said that in beaching their vessels they adopt the same 




BUILDING FISHING SCHOONERS AT ESSEX, MASS. 

Painting in Exhibit of U. S. frish Commission. 



method as that in vogue among the fishermen on the northeast 
coast of England, who run their cobbles stern-first upon the shore. 
Norway is especially rich in fishing boats of full size, and models 
of larger craft, while a model of the ancient Viking ship that was 
exhumed a few years ago at Godstadt, in Norway, not only suggests 
the origin of the smaller fishing craft now used in the "land of the 
midnight sun," but may possibly be intended as a reminder to 



220 



FISHERIES. 



Americans that the descendants of the old Sea Kings have some 
right to the glory that comes from discovery of this continent. It 
may well be a matter of much interest to the antiquarian and naval 
architect that this ship of the ancient Norsemen had a form so sym- 
metrical that it has not been improved upon during the thousand years 
that have passed since it is supposed to have been entombed. 
Nearly all of the smaller fishing craft of Norway now in use are of 

the same general type. 
Fully equipped open 
boats from different 
parts of the coast — 
used for hunting seals 
in the ice floes near 
Spitzbergen, cod boats 
from Lofoten, her- 
ring boats and mack- 
erel boats — are here 
in many forms. There 
are models and pict- 
ures of fish freighters, 
with curious movable 
decks, that can be lifted 
ten or twelve feet high 
in order that the cargo 
of stock fish may be 
stowed beneath. The 
full lined "bankskiote," 
the whaling steamer and many others are here in miniature. One 
is tempted to make something more than a cursory examination of 
these sturdy fishing boats. The eye wanders instinctively from the 
boats and mute fishermen to the magnificent oil painting a few feet 
away — the work of a fisherman, too. There such a craft is seen 
scudding before a gale along a bold, rocky coast, held well in hand 
by the skill and courage that guides its helm, nothing daunted by 
the water that tumbles over the orunwale from the crest of a hissing 
wave, as the boat drives along under her reefed sail, the dark tan 




NORWEGIAN EXHIBIT. 



Fisheries. 



221 



color of* which contrasts beautifully with the green and white of the 
water, but almost blends with the cliffs against which the sea is 
foaming in cataracts of spray. This is a vivid chapter in a fisher- 
man's life, one that thrills us with its realism. 

Canada, too, has a noteworthy exhibit of fishing craft, from the 
birch canoe to the government cruiser that spends its time in the 
so-called "protection service." A full-size " Canso boat," sturdy 




BRITISH BEAM TRAWLER IN A GAEE IN NORTH SEA. 



and strong enough to sail almost any where, attracts much attention. 
No better fishing boat of its size was ever built. Dug-out canoes 
from the Northwest coast, with their colored totems ; cod schooners 
from Nova Scotia, from which province also comes a clinker-built 
" Sambro-Slicker," and lake fishing steamers and sail boats make 
up an instructive collection. 

Clippers and lobster smacks from Boston — including a fine sec- 



222 FISHERIES. 

tional model showing the interior arrangement of a market schooner 




FISHING SCHOONER RUNNING FOR MARKET. 

Painting Exhibited by John R. Neal & Co. 

-whalers from New Bedford ; a pound net boat from North Caro- 



FISHERIES. 223 

lina, and a Chesapeake bugeye are here, and many others to which 
allusion cannot be made. 

Fishing gear of endless variety is seen on every hand — nets, 
lines, bobs, sinkers. In short, one appreciates the force of John 
Bunyan's words, for surely 

" You see the way the fisherman doth take 
To catch the fish, what engines doth he make ! 

Behold how he engageth all his wits, 
Also his snares, lines, angles, hooks and nets." 

It is difficult to comprehend the wide difference (and all the in- 
tervening steps) between the rude wooden hook, carved with 
infinite patience by the Indian, and the finely tempered steel pro- 
ducts of the white man's skill. The Kelp fishing line of the north- 
west coast and the silk, linen and cotton lines made in our factories ; 
the gill-nets laboriously made of strips of whale bone or sealskin 
by the Eskimo, and the great purse seine that catches more than a 
hundred barrels of fish at a single cast; the rude spear of the 
savage and the fishing wheel of the white man — in the Oregon 
exhibit — that works automatically and literally " pumps fish out of 
the river," are contrasts in fishing appliances which are not only 
interesting, but constitute a series of object lessons that need only 
to be understood to attract much attention. 

No part of the fisheries exhibit, however, offers a more interest- 
ing field of study than the methods of fishing, which differ as 
widely as the appliances employed and the habits of the fisher- 
men. No greater extreme in the affairs of men can be imagined 
than that which exists, for instance, between the Eskimo, who 
patiently waits hour after hour, in the biting cold of the long Arctic 
winter night, for the appearance of a seal at its "blow hole " in the 
ice, and the white fisherman of Norway and the Atlantic coasts of 
America, who encircle hundreds of whales and porpoises in a great 
net and drag them to shore, or catch a fare of cod and haddock 
with miles of trawl-line. 

Let us take a glance here and there at the illustrations of 
methods of fishery. A Boston firm, John R. Neal & Co., deserve 



224 



FISHERIES. 



credit for the systematic manner in which it has illustrated the 
different phases of the New England deep-sea fisheries. One 
series of paintings tells the whole story of the voyage of a fish- 
ing vessel from the time the hooks are baited, and the schooner is 




FISH MARKET, T-WHARF, BOSTON. 

Painting Exhibited by John R. Neal & Co. 



towed out of harbor, to the marketing of fish. The arrival on the 
bank, the setting of trawl lines, hauling gear, throwing the fish on 
board the vessel, dressing the catch, running for market, and various 
scenes at T-Wharf, the great fresh fish emporium of New England, 



FISHERIES. 



225 



are depicted with lifelike exactness by large photographs that have 
been retouched and colored in oil. 

One collection depicts the finnan-haddie trade. The fresh evis- 
cerated fish is the first object in this series, and a beautiful paint- 
ing of a smoked finnan-haddie, and the packing of haddies in boxes 
are the last. 




PURSE SEINE MACKEREL EISHING — "BAIUNG-IN" THE FISH. 

From Painting by Paul E. Collins — Exhibit of U. S. Fish Cotnmission. 

Another series, similarly colored in oil, shows all the important 
lighthouses from Cape Cod around Massachusetts Bay to Cape 
Ann, while immediately adjacent is a map, upon which is marked 
the location of these important guides to fishermen. 

Near by is a sort of bas-relief painting illustrating various 
methods of fishing for cod, herring and mackerel, with gill nets, 

trawl lines and purse seines. This is so arranged as to enable one 

15 



226 . FISHERIES. 

to observe, not only what is being done above the surface of the 
sea, but also to look beneath it, where the lines, nets and seines 
appear in their proper place under the water. 

Other photographs illustrate most graphically the hardships 
encountered by the fishermen in pursuit of their calling. These 
are mid-winter views of vessels as they arrive at Boston from the 
Banks. Hull, rigging and spars are covered with ice, and it requires 
no vivid imagination to picture the peril and suffering of those who 
have been exposed in gales, forcing a winter passage against the 
icy blasts, that sweep with almost resistless vigor from the north, 
freezing every drop of spray that flies, and sometimes leaving the 
vessel practically helpless, and almost like a floating iceberg. What 
harrowing tales of shipwreck, of sinking vessels, of wave washed 
decks and drowning fishermen, are suggested by these pictures. 
And with this comes the thought of how few there are who appre- 
ciate the effort it costs to procure those treasures of the sea which 
are so needful to the welfare of mankind. 

Rhode Island tells in a somewhat similar manner, through a 
series of enlarged photographs, the details of her trap fishery for 
scup, sea bass and other species, her scallop industry, and also of 
her great menhaden purse seine fishery, which rivals in importance 
the whale fishery of Nantucket in its palmiest days, as far as its 
product of oil is concerned. It also gives to the farmer a rich 
fertilizer that renders productive many acres that otherwise might 
not be available. Every phase of fishery is shown, from the time a 
steamer sails out of the harbor to the landing of her cargo. There 
is temptation to speak in detail of a fishery, concerning which the 
bare facts are marvelous, and seem like veritable "fish stories." 
The great purse seines, circling around the schools of menhaden 
that swim near the surface of the sea, irequently capture hundreds 
of barrels at a single cast, and instances are on record where 
nearly one thousand barrels have been taken. Gathered together 
in a glittering mass of irridescent, pearly color, they are hastily 
taken on board the vessel, with a great dip net operated by steam. 
The fish that joyously swam the ocean at dawn are ere nightfall 
converted into commercial products for the use of man. 



228 



FISHERIES. 



North Carolina shows the method of her various fisheries, 
prominent among which is the great drag seines — more than a 
mile in length — in use along her coast. 

By similar object lessons Washington and Oregon illustrate 
their salmon industry on the Columbia river and Puget sound. 

Gloucester, too, by models and by photographs, speaks of the 
methods of those fisheries which have made it foremost as a fish- 
ing port in America, and has carried its fame throughout the 
world. 

One model of a- vessel, with its crew at the rail, 

illustrates the method of hand-line fishing for cod 

on George's bank, an industry more perilous, 

perhaps, than any pursued by citizens of 

this country, and associated with which 

is a romance of heroism, blended with 

a solemnity 
that comes 
from great 
isaster 
t? frequently re- 
peated. 
The story of 
the whaleman's encounter 
with the mighty prey which 
he seeks ; also his experi- 
ence in shipwreck ; his struggles in the ice floes, where whole 
fleets have been crushed, are told in a series of illustrations 
which constitute a part of the loan exhibit from New Bedford. 
Here we see him engaged in an encounter with a sperm whale, 
whose mighty fluke sweeps in a great circle, threatening instant 
death .or destruction to anything that it meets. There the 
whaleman is employed in the arduous duty of " trying-out " among 
the ice floes of the far north. Despite the hard work of cutting in, 
trying-out, and cleaning bone, the slipping about on greasy decks, 
and the unsavory odors from the try works, these occasions are 
generally the gala days of the whaleman's life, for he has a " share " 




PART OF WASHINGTON KXHIBIT. 



FISHERIES. _ 229 

in every gallon of oil and every pound of bone that goes into the 
hold. But when the sun has turned on his southward course, the 
short Atlantic summer is passed, and gales of autumn come with 
icy breath, quickly freezing every drop of spray that flies, when 
"young ice " is forming and the ship is perhaps scudding away to 
escape the danger of being caught helpless in its grasp, then 
trying-out becomes a serious and uncomfortable duty that it would 
be difficult to keep men engaged upon were it not for the personal 
interest each has in the proceeds. Peculiar emphasis is added to 
this when we stand on the deck of the whaling bark " Progress " — a 
veritable old "blubber hunter" — which, after hunting the giants of 
nature in all seas and under all climes, rests quietly here in the 
lagoon, completely equipped for an ocean voyage, and one of the 
most instructive object lessons at the Fair. Her full lines, boats 
on cranes, try- works and general outfit not only teach us of that 
great industry which, in former times, built cities along our coast, 
pushed discovery into unfrequented waters and braved all peril in 
pursuit of wealth, but we are reminded of the fact that the Ameri- 
can fla*g was first unfurled in a British port from the masthead of 
an American whaler, and that the noble and daring deeds of the 
" Nimrods of the sea" who have manned our whaling fleet fill a 
proud chapter in our national history. 

The single exhibit of the Netherlands is a most graphic pre- 
sentation of the method of fishing for herring in the 'North sea, 
and suggests the importance of this fishery to the Dutch, which, 
some centuries ago, made Holland commercial mistress of the sea. 
This exhibit consists of a model of a herring logger about ten feet 
long, riding head to a " choppy " sea, with its main mast lowered, 
its bowsprit run in, and a small sail set on its jiggermast at the 
stern. The crew is engaged in taking in nets that are laden with 
the silvery treasures which have always been so highly prized by 
the Dutch. One gang of sturdy fishermen are tramping round and 
round the capstan, heaving in the great warp to which the nets have 
been bound, and by which the vessel rides. The captain stands at 
the bow to untie the small lines which attach the nets to the warp, 
while others pull the net over the side of the vessel. When the 



230 FISHERIES. 

herring season arrives, fleets of these loggers sail out from Dutch 
ports for the North sea ; having reached the fishing ground, gill 
nets are set as night approaches, a single vessel having out about 
two miles of netting-, stretched along the surface of the sea like a 
fence, while she rides at the leeward end by a hawser attached to 
the drifting gear. The nets are usually hauled in the morning. 

Norway is rich in graphic delineation, of her methods of fishery. 
A collection of large photographs, four or five feet in length, 
supplemented by the choicest works of art, tell, in a most effective 
manner, the story of the way in which the descendants of the old 
Vikings brave the perils of sea in summer's sun or Arctic winter, 
and draw from the ocean the tribute which constitutes one of their 
principal commercial products, and has carried the name and fame 
of Norway to the most distant parts of the earth. Here one sees 
a fleet of vessels and boats in one of the harbors at Lofoten, the 
towering, snow-capped mountains around, and the fishermen's huts 
and flake yards fringing the shore. Another picture shows the 
boats gathered in fleets on the fishing ground, where they assemble 
daily to catch the cod that come in countless millions, in winter, into 
the deep fiords and channels that intersect the coast. Repre- 
sentation is made by model and otherwise of that remarkable 
whale fishery which, in recent years, has developed along the 
northern coast of Norway bordering the Arctic ocean. This 
industry is due to the energy, daring and enterprise of Captain 
Svend Foyn, who conceived the idea of capturing the finback whale 
with a bomb harpoon, a device which alone makes possible the 
successful pursuit of this species. To-day Norway employs a fleet 
of iron screw steamers in this fishery, ranging in size from thirty 
to seventy tons. These steamers have a " crow's nest " at the 
masthead, it being a cask so fitted as to afford shelter for the man 
who is on the lookout for whales. At the bow and a little abaft of 
the stem is a mounted gun from which is shot the harpoon that 
fastens the whale, and carries with it the explosive to destroy the 
animal. Forward of the gun, at the extreme bow, is an iron 
bridge, which is so arranged on hinges that it can be turned down 
in a horizontal or elevated to a vertical position. This bridge is 



232 



FISHERIES. 



six feet long fore and aft, and nine feet wide. When a steamer is 
chasing whales, the bridge is turned down, and about twenty 
fathoms of whale warp is coiled on it in front of the gun, this 
amount generally being required to reach the whale when the 
harpoon is shot into it. A steamer usually carries about 300 
fathoms of whale warp, which is of the best Russia hemp ; and, 
ordinarily, this is coiled in the hold. A whale will not always be 
killed at the first shot, and it sometimes happens that nearly the 
whole of this warp is run out. At such times the steamer is 
driven at her full speed — nine to eleven knots — in order that she 
may keep up with the "fish "as nearly as possible, and also to 
afford an opportunity to shoot other harpoons into the whale. 
When a whale has been killed the warp is taken around the steam 
capstan, and hove in until the "fish" is raised to the bow of the 
vessel. A heavy chain strap is then passed around the whale's 
tail, and a hawser is taken from this strap to a rubber accumulator 
at the mast ; this accumulator is used for the purpose of easing the 
strain on the warp and vessel while the whale is towed to the land. 
It is said to be impracticable to fasten the warp to the hull of a 
steamer for the purpose of towing a whale, since in the surge of a 
sea the rope would break. This fishery, carried on among ice floes 
of the Northern seas, is filled with incident and not devoid of peril. 
Notwithstanding the important improvements which have been 
made in recent years in some directions, the one thing, which im- 
presses itself upon the mind in studying the details of the methods 
of fishery, is the fact that in many respects fishing is conducted 
essentially in the same manner that it was many centuries ago. 
This is well illustrated by the following graphic description, written 
more than seventeen hundred years ago by Ossian, who says : 

" By those who curious have their Art defin'd, 
Four Sorts of Fishers are distinct assign'd. 
i The first in Hooks delight ; here some prepare 

The Angle's taper Length, and twisted Hair : 
Others the tougher Threads of Flax entwine, 
But firmer Hands sustain the Sturdy Line. 
A third prevails by more compendious Ways, 
While num'rous Hooks one common Line displays. 
The next with Nets wide-wasting skim the Seas, 



234 FISHERIES. 

But different Forms with diff'rent prospects please: 
Some hurl the leaded Casting-Net around, 
And drag the Circle less'ning from the Ground, 
The wide extended Seine and Trammel sweep 
The shelving beach, the Drag-Net skims the Deep; 
The Hoop-Net's conick Lab'rinth plies the Shore, 
Heave-Nets the Fishes' oozy Beds explore. 
A thousand Names a Fisher might rehearse 
That shun intractable the smoother Verse." 

Perhaps the most important part of that section of the exhibit 
which illustrates the commercial fishing interests is the great 
collection of products, and the representation by models, and 
otherwise, of their utilization and preparation. It is not possible 
to mention these in detail. Suffice it to say that there have been 
gathered samples of those treasures which are sought in every sea, 
lake and river, and the proper utilization of which, in many in- 
stances, has taxed to the utmost the inventive ingenuity of man- 
kind. Fish dried, salted, smoked, tinned, or otherwise prepared for 
food, appear in every form and in countless variety. The stock- 
fish of Norway, the Dutch herring, and the edible seaweed and 
holothurians from Japan, and canned salmon of the Pacific coast of 
America, the dried and boneless cod of New England and Canada 
and the pearl shells of Mexico and New South Wales are all here 
in friendly rivalry with each other. Here also may be found great 
slabs of whalebone, which, in recent years, has become so costly ; 
skins of fur-bearing animals ; rich quilts made of eider down ; and 
wonderfully beautiful creations from ocean shells and fish scales, 
made with woman's deft hands. Here, too, we learn of the utiliza- 
tion of fish skins for leather, for the manufacture of the strongest 
glue known to the world ; while oils of many kinds, used as medicine 
or employed in the arts and sciences, meet us in every turn. 

Innumerable are the uses of fish and other aquatic products. 
Not only do they serve an important purpose as food, but it is a 
product of the whale fishery — ambergris — that alone makes possible 
■the most delicate perfumes on a lady's dressing-case ; the costly 
pearls and gleaming coral that encircle her snowy throat or arms 
come from the sea. Even the richest furs that cover her; the 
wonderful tortoise-shell comb that holds in confinement her wealth of 



FISHERIES. 



235 



hair ; the beautiful cameo on her bosom ; the ivory ornaments that 
grace her home, and many 
other things are products 
drawn from the store houses 
of the deep by the fisher- 
man's skill and patience. 

Passing- throug-h the colon- 
naded arcade, we enter the 
western pavilion, similar in 
form and construction, as 
far as outward appearance 
is concerned, to the aquarial 
building. Two magnificent 
live fish and fish cultural 
exhibits from Pennsylvania 
and Wisconsin, respectively, 
stand side by side, occupy- 
ing about one-third of the 
floor area. In method of 
installation these exhibits 
differ materially, but each 
is beautiful and attractive 
in its way. In a series of 
tanks, varying in length 
from four to six feet, are 
exhibits of game fishes, arti- 
ficially bred and raised. 
Trout of many varieties, 
from four weeks to five 
years old, are here in great 
profusion. Magnificent 
specimens are some of 
these, and probably never 
before in the world's history 
has one been able t o 
see such a collection of spotted beauties, running up to eight 




STURGEON— FROM NEW YORK EXHIBIT. 



236 FISHERIES. 

or ten pounds! They emphasize most forcibly the great work 
which has been accomplished by the State Fish Commissions 
in filling the streams and other waters which have become depopu- 
lated by over fishing or pollution. Black bass, white fish, lake 
herring, lake trout, sturgeon, calico bass, pike, muscalonge and 



THE WHALER PROGRESS. 



many other varieties are here. Models and photographs of fish 
hatcheries ; a model fish-ladder in actual operation in a miniature 
stream ; colored pictures of fish and fishing make up an exhibit 
which is not only attractive but of great educational value, viewed 



FISH£RI£S. 237 

either from the standpoint of natural history, aquarial possibilities, 
or the benefits to be derived from the artificial propagation of fish. 

Near by are exhibits of all the paraphernalia of the angler's art. 
Rods, reels, hooks, lines, flies, etc., crowd each other on every side. 

The manufacture of silk and cotton lines goes on before our 
eyes, while the skilful hands of young girls fashion and tie the flies, 
to beguile from stream or lake those prizes which the angler seeks. 
Near by also are fishing boats of many kinds, together with paint- 
ings and casts of fish ; exhibits of the literature of fishing, trophies, 
and even a collection of old reels, tracing their development from 
early in this century. The disciple of Izaak Walton may well love 
to linger here, for on one side is a collection of tackle to attract 
his interest, and on the other a show of living fish, which cannot 
but remind him of happy days spent by brooksides or on lake, 
which have left with him some of the most pleasant memories of 
his life. 

Associated with this department, as one of its exhibits, is a repro- 
duction of the fishing house of Izaak Walton, which stands in a 
beautiful grove beside the lagoon, a short distance from the Fisheries 
Building. The fact that the 300th anniversary of the birth of " ye 
gentle angler" occurs on August 9th of the present year gives to 
this little house a particular significance, and will undoubtedly make 
it a shrine for the gathering of anglers from all the countries on 
the o-lobe. 



O" 




*e4~L*^ 




By FREDK. J. V. SKIFF, 

Chief of Department. 



human race has delved in the bowels of the earth 
for six thousand years to find its metals. For ten 
centuries expositions have been a part of the history 
of mankind. Yet during all that long period the 
World's Columbian Exposition is the first to recog- 
nize in any conspicuous manner the marvellous development of the 
two allied industries, mining and metallurgy, or the fact that they 
are fundamental to a thousand and one ramifying useful arts and 
the mainspring of material progress. The designers of the Fair, as 
if to atone in some measure for this tardy acknowledgment, have 
conferred upon the mining and metallurgical exhibit the choicest of 
locations, and erected a building that for exposition purposes can- 
not be surpassed. 

Its site is between the attractions of the Wooded Isle and sur- 
rounding waterways to the north and the stately Grand Plaza to 
the south. At a distance it appears to form an extensive main 
wing to the imposing Administration Building, whose dome looms 
up between it and the " Machinery " wing south. On the east rise 
the bell towers of its twin building, Electricity, while on the west 
its rich but simple tint is set in high relief by the effusive and bril- 
liant mural decorations of the Transportation Building. 

The building is in itself one of the most interesting architectural 

(239) 



240 



MINKS. 



commanding. 



exhibits of all the Exposition palaces. Its general style is that of 
the Italian Renaissance. The fronting facades are massive and 
A central arch ninety feet high forms the main 
entrance. This connects with 
the domed pavilions at the 
corners by a series of inter- 
vening bays, permitting of a 
loggia below, and, on the gal- 
lery floor, of a deeply recessed 
promenade that opens out 
upon charming landscapes far 
and near. A profusion of 
sculpture, architectural re- 
lievos, flagstaffs and banners 
give the exterior an animation 
appropriate to the festal occa- 
sion, while the ornamentation 
is suggestive of the varied and 
brilliant exhibits arrayed 
within. 

Beneath the word mining 
over the lofty arched portal 
are colossal half-reclining fe- 
male figures holding aloft 
typical miner's lamps, while 
bas-reliefs of rugged miners 
with pick and pan in hand 
symbolize that all the opu- 
lence of metals and gems dis- 
played within are to be won 
by sturdy toil. 

Entering the building, the 
visitor finds a capacious hall 700 feet long and 350 feet wide, cov- 
ering over five and a half acres, or 345,000 square feet. The entire 
expanse of roof, which is mostly glass, is so suspended as to leave 
the central portion clear and unobstructed, the sole support being 




-ENTRANCE TO MINES BUILDING. 

{R. W. Bock.) 



MINES. 



241 



two rows at the side of huge steel cantilever trusses. This is the 
first example of the successful application of the cantilever system 
to roofs, and may be said to mark an era in roof construction. A 
half million pounds of steel were required for this work. A spa- 
cious gallery sixty feet wide extends entirely around the building, 
greatly increasing the total available floor space. Illumination is 
provided by extensive glazed roof sections, and at night by a full 




VIEW IN MINING BUILDING— SOUTH END. SHOWING PA. COAL SHAFT ON LEFT. 

complement of arc and incandescent lights. Every form of power, 

steam, electric and compressed air, is distributed at convenient 

points. 

At first glance the marvellous exhibits spread upon the floor are 

both bewildering and fascinating. Booths and pavilions, obelisks 

and trophies, shields, bunting and flags, all appear in a profusion 

that captivates and at the same time invites the curious to closer 

investigation and study. Looking down the avenues of this small 
16 



242 MINES. 

city of exhibits the eye is arrested by a number of lofty trophies 
in metals, and at the centre of the building stands a needle of an- 
thracite coal. In various localities are lesser pyramids and obe- 
lisks of mineral that glisten in the sunlight. Flags and other 
decorations give a lightness and gayety to the scene that relieves 
and sets off the solidity of the materials displayed. These avenues 
followed to the centre are seen to mark by their intersection with 
cross transepts four grand divisions, constituting the middle por- 
tion of the building. Lesser areas occupy the space just beneath 
the galleries. Over the territory west of Bullion Boulevard, the 
main central avenue, float the colors of many foreign nations — 
France, New South Wales, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, Mex- 
ico, Japan, Spain, and others. To the east of the same avenue the 
sisterhood of the States vie with each other in the beauty of their 
pavilions and in the elegance with which they have installed the 
exhibits. From the east side of the building comes the whirl of 
moving wheels and the clinking of chains, indicating an operating 
exhibit of mining machinery. 

Reserving the gallery exhibits for a later visit, let us now saunter 
down the Bullion Boulevard on a voyage of discovery, and, 
Columbus-like, explore for the treasures that stock the world's 
coffers. A lofty silvered shaft some thirty feet high, surmounted 
by a stooping Atlas bearing the glistening world upon his shoul- 
ders, is the first to meet our eye's fancy. It is a trophy from New 
South Wales, and represents about the actual yearly output of one 
of the most celebrated silver mines of Australia. Pyramids of 
copper ingots encircled with hoops of burnished copper; stacks of 
white ingots of tin adorned with metal streamers and rosettes; and 
trophies in square cakes of the "Star" pure antimony, form the 
unique and facade of this handsome exhibit. Immediately in the 
rear is arranged the collection of gold nuggets, crystallized gold 
and gem stones. Mounted on handsome blue plush shelves, and 
protected with large glass frame, is the big mass of gold called the 
" Maitland Bar" nugget, containing 313 ounces of fine gold, and 
valued at $6,000. The entire collection of gemstones, such as 
diamonds, sapphires, emeralds, opals, amethysts, garnets, topaz, 



MINES. 



243 



etc. ; the series of silver and silver ores ; pyramids of lead, tin, 
and antimony ores; highly polished purple, red and black marbles, 
and columns 
and arches of 
coals and ker- 
osene shales, 
give some idea 
of the variety 
and extent of 
the colony's re- 
sources, and 
afford a display 
that is con- 
ceded to be 
one of the finest 
in the Mining 
Building. 

The adjoin- 
ing exhibit on 
the south is 
that of Canada. 
Nearly all of 
her provinces 
have taken 
prominent part 
in the mineral 
display. Onta- 
rio's space is 
bordered with 
show stands 
filled with an 
array of graded 
salts and oils 

in glass jars, mineral waters, gypsums, stone and marbles. A bust 
of Sir John MacDonald in paraffine wax illustrates one of the 
products of petroleum. The central feature is the nickel exhibit. 




EXHIBIT OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



244 MINES. 

This is built up in the form of a pyramid, at the summit of which 
rests a huge ingot of nickel containing several thousands of dollars' 
worth of pure metal. The base is formed of heavy masses of the 
pyrrhotite ores, in some cases weighing many tons, while in the 
surrounding cases are arranged the products of concentration, 
refining- and manufacture. 

In the Quebec section a stack of gold bars is the instructive 
method employed to present the statistics of gold production from 
that province. Nova Scotia shows great sheets of mica and 
masses of serpentine rock in which the streak of fibrous asbestos 
occurs. The Dominion Geological Survey has a comprehensive 
display of rocks systematically arranged, as well as a complete 
series of maps and pictures bringing out the geological history of 
the country. 

Great Britain, occupying a prominent position on the central 
court, has attempted no particular architectural effects ; but the 
individual exhibitors have, as a rule, enclosing structures of an 
elaborate nature. The exhibit of platinum and rare metals is made 
by the largest firm in the world manufacturing these interesting 
products. The Sheffield steels and Low Moor irons are samples 
of these celebrated manufactures. A statue of Liberty enlighten- 
ing the world is carved in pure rock salt, a striking instance of the 
adaptiveness of a commercial mineral to artistic purposes. A 
huge block of cannel coal, weighing eleven tons and fourteen hun- 
dred weight, and bound with heavy chains, is one of the largest 
blocks ever mined, and was elevated from a depth of over 1,300 
feet. An exhibit of polished porphyry in the form of statues and 
mosaics is valued at over $12,000. 

At the main north entrance France has installed an interesting 
variety of technical and scientific mining exhibits. Asphalt — its 
mining and uses — is illustrated by maps and pictures of the asphalt 
concessions, prominent among them a large oil painting of men at 
work in the mines, and by sections of pavements, conduits and 
other applications to building. Masses of nickel ores are brought 
from New Caledonia, and carbonate of manganese is exhibited by 
the only mine of that material in the world. The French collieries 



246 ' MINES. 

show by maps, charts and statistics the magnitude of the coal 
mining industry. 

Over there where flies the white flag with the red dot the De- 
partment of Mines for Japan has a presentation of the characteristic 




VIEW IN NORTH END OF BUILDING. 



native minerals and metals. Copper, which is the principal metal, 
is shown in all grades of purity from the black to the electrolytically 
refined. Upon the face of each ingot is a stamp of raised Japanese 
letters, as curious and complicated as a coat-of-arms. Photographic 
views give one an idea of the leading copper, gold, silver and anti- 
mony mines, and show the native method of working and refining 
these metals. Salts, gypsums, graphites and mineral waters are 
all put up in packages and forms peculiarly Japanese. The Impe- 
rial Geological Survey has placed on exhibition not only an exten- 
sive series of oreolooqcal rocks, but has covered the walls with o-eo- 
logical maps framed in bamboo and executed with skill and profi- 



MINES. 



247 



ciency that must surprise the occidental scientist. From several 
reconnoissances made, the areas of the different formations have 
been delineated with surprising exactness of detail. 

Nowhere among all the many imposing and beautiful displays made 
by Germany is the national character for solidity and strength more 
impressively brought out than in the Mining Building. The one 
exhibit that holds the eye from every part of the building, the one 
that elicits general and hearty admiration, is the magnificent iron 
and steel trophy exhibit of the Stumm works, second only to Krupp 
in size. Upon the personal solicitation of his friend, the Emperor, 
Baron Stumm, with admirable loyalty and at an outlay of nearly 
$200,000, prepared this imposing exhibit. Iron and steel of every 




GERMAN MINING EXHIBIT. 



structural shape, beams, girders, bars, rails, pipes, rods, wire and 
bands are built up to a height of nearly one hundred feet like 
branching trees, and assume figures as bewildering in ramification 
as they are graceful in outline. The entrance portal is formed of 



248 MINES. 

split pipes many feet high, with life-sized bronze allegorical figures 
at the summit, and just beneath the word STUMM in letters of 
gilded pipe. Entering the space we are confronted by a beauti- 
ful ornamental fountain embellished with figures in bronze of metal- 
workers and metal-working appliances, such as converters and 
rolls. Palms and other green plants contribute to the attractiveness 
of this centre piece. Lofty obelisks constructed entirely of polished 
sections of girders and rails in continually diminishing sizes mark 
the corners. The background is formed by a solid wall entirely 
covered with mosaic of polished blast furnace slag. By this means 
are worked out in fancy letters and border inscriptions the name 
of the firm, as well as the names of a great variety of products 
manufactured at its extensive establishment. Complete models of 
each separate plant and of the numerous hospitals and schools 
erected by the company are displayed upon the floor. 

Among the other mining and metal exhibits made by Germany 
is a panorama of mountain scenery along the Rhine shown in con- 
nection with the exhibit of metal salts by a gold and silver refining 
company, whose works are located in the midst of this inspiring 
landscape. In the gallery just in the rear of the main German sec- 
tion the great mining- academies and governmental mining- bureaus 
demonstrate the great advancement made by Germany, the classic 
land of mining, in the technical sciences and arts connected with 
mining and metallurgy. Geognostical maps and charts showing 
minutely every feature of landscape geology, as well as the distri- 
bution of mines and mining establishments, cover the walls. In 
addition to this are models exhibiting the methods of coal mining 
and of the apparatus used for hoisting, drainage and ventilation ; 
models for the principal types of furnaces for the reduction of gold, 
silver, iron, lead and copper, with interesting collections of samples 
illustrating their metallurgy ; also many series of the salt and oil 
products and by-products. The display of ambers from the Koen- 
igsberg district is probably the most comprehensive exhibit of this 
kind ever made. It includes every variety from the irregular- 
shaped masses of crude material up to polished specimens of trans- 
parent amber. A collection of "inclusions " illustrates the manner 



MINES. 



249 



in which insects sticking in the soft gum are imbedded and finally 
fossilized with the hardening of the amber. 

Brazil, occupying a position just south of Germany, has a museum 
of minerals and gems from the banks of the Amazon and the flanks 
of the Andes. The grades and varieties of her celebrated diamonds 
are brought into quick comparison with the similar exhibit next 
door made by the famous Kimberley mines of South Africa. The 
Cape Colony commissioners, under whose supervision .this display 
was made here and 
at the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1889, recog- 
nizing what a great 
attraction it has al- 
ways proven to the 
public, decided to 
show at Chicago 
every step and de- 
tail in the process of 
digging and prepar- 
ing diamonds for the 
market. One sees 
the hard blue unat- 
tractive diamond- 
bearing rock go into 
huge pulverizers, 
then into sorting 
screens; which turn 
out smooth, shiny 

pebbles ready for the lapidist. He deftly and quickly gives them a 
touch here and there with his rapidly revolving wheel until they 
sparkle in the sunlight and emerge a finished gem. 

The rich mineral belts of the Mexican table lands and mountains 
are to be found near the main south entrance to the building. 
Here a great cabinet collection of minerals, shown in elaborate 
bronze and glass cases, represents the combined contributions of a 
dozen wealthy provinces, while native mining machinery, both 




POLISHING DIAMONDS. 



250 



ISP 



MINES. 

ancient and modern, is on exhibition in 
different sections of the court. 

The land of the Czars occupies a space 
beneath the gallery, and is represented 
chiefly by the irons and steels for which it 
is so celebrated. Whole pictures in 
uniquely arranged polished sections of 
these metals adorn the walls. A trophy 
at the main west entrance affords some 
conception of its products in mineral and 
metal. 

Spain., that, besides a new world, has 
bequeathed so many of the arts of mining 
and metallurgy, has an extensive series of 
geological maps and large collection of 
economic minerals. The famous Rio 
Tinta copper mines and other great min- 
eral districts of the Pyrenees show a diver- 
sity of ores. Austria has exhibits of ex- 
cellent crucible steel and a panorama of 
the famous Carlsbad mineral water springs. 
Italy carries off honors with the sulphurs 
of Sicily and the fine statuary marbles from 
Carrara. 

The South American States, those lands 
that for so many centuries were the cyno- 
sures of the adventurer for gold, demon- 
strate that their treasure vaults are not yet 
exhausted, and fittingly complete the great 
mineral exhibit of the foreign countries. 

No city avenue ever presented a more 
festive and at the same time substantial 
array of architectural fronts than those on 
Bullion Boulevard illuminated by the west- 
ern sun and adorned with the coats-of-arms 
of the States, 



WISCONSIN MONOLITH, 



MINES. 



251 



The great mineral-producing commonwealths have come out for 
a carnival, and have called in to assist in their entertainment the 
stonemason and bricklayer, the cutter and polisher, the decorator 
and the architect. As a result a solid front of architectural beauty, 
ever varying from pillar to classic temple, from parapet to mono- 
lith, vestibules, arches and turretted battlements, make a line of 
miniature palaces that afford a fitting retreat and appropriate resi- 




WASHIXGTON EXHIBIT. 



dence for the exalted sisterhood of States. Every bit of material 
in its position is pregnant with meaning, every stone and piece of 
clay has a significance attached to it by virtue of its position. 
These massive monoliths that mark the four corners of the Wis- 
consin space are more than sandstone. They are representatives 
of the great areas of sandstone that form a fringe around the great 
solid central core of the State — the Isle of Wisconsin. This arch 
of cannel coal forming the facade of Kentucky has added to it a 



252 



MINKS. 



story of production and use. That tessellated floor of Pennsylvania 
is more than a tile floor. In a fascinating way it tells the variety 
of clays derived from the subsoils of the Keystone State and the 
skill of the potter's art. In this way have monotonous piles of 
stone, ore, sands or clay been transformed into shapes that at once 




PENNSYLVANIA SECTION. 



intensify their beauty and show their adaptability to the uses and 
tastes of mankind. These facades are many of them worthy of 
more than passing notice, and can profitably be studied for their 
own sake, especially those of Colorado, South Dakota, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota, Washington and Ohio. 

If we carefully examine the material exhibited in these pavilions, 
we find that the States have been grouped according to the char- 
acter of their predominant mineral products. Thus all of the pre- 
cious metal States, such as Montana, Idaho, Colorado and Utah, 
are at one end — the south — while the States yielding commercial 
minerals, such as clays, cement, stone, keep the balance at the other 
end. Pennsylvania ranks first in the list of mineral producers, and 



MINES. 



253 



has exhibits in petroleum, coal and iron. A complete working 
model of a coal mine and breaker shows the manner in which the 
coal is brought out on cars from the mine mouth, dumped and 
sorted. In front of the New York structure has been erected a 
geological obelisk giving a lesson on the structural geology of the 
State. Kentucky has a skylight of transparencies of mining 
scenes, and beneath her floor conducts the visitor into a chamber 
reproduced from the Mammoth Cave. Ohio elicits universal ad- 
miration for her beautiful facade of many-colored burnt, unburnt 
and glazed brick, with freestone copings and bays. Within are 
carried on the operations of evaporating salt and preparing it for 




OHIO EXHIBIT. 



the market. Michigan, at the central court, has, through the lib- 
erality of many prominent citizens, erected a triumphal arch of red 
sandstone, surmounted with bronze figures of minerals. Over her 
low parapet are to be seen four obelisks of pure copper, ranging 
in weight from 50 to 500 pounds — massive copper in bars, rods, 



254 MINES. 

sheets, burnished sheets, wire and masses of native copper weigh- 
ing many tons, and just as found in the great Lake Superior copper 
mines. Across the aisle the two largest lead and zinc States of 
the country — Missouri and Wisconsin — tenant pavilions of hand- 
some design, and are brilliant with crystals of calcite and shining 
cubes of lead. Under the central pagoda of Wisconsin, cushioned 
in soft mountings* of plush, is a collection of pearls from Wisconsin 
rivers valued at several hundred thousands of dollars. 




MICHIGAN SECTION. 



Of course the centre of attraction among all of the precious metal 
States is the world-renowned Rehan statue in the Montana section. 
Here the treasure State of our country, the Mountain Queen, has 
symbolized her material wealth in terms of artistic beauty. The 
subject of the statue is Justice, the figure holding in her one hand 
a pair of scales, in the other a silver sword. The value of the 
silver poured into the moulds was estimated at $61,800; the gold 
used for the plinth base at $230,000; while the cost of sculpture 



MINES. 



255 



and founding brings up the total value to over $300,000. The ex- 
hibit of the Montana copper companies is in itself well worthy of 
attention. The mineral exhibit of Utah is exceptionally fine, and 
includes gold, silver, lead, 
copper, zinc, antimony, bis- 
muth, tellurium and quicksil- 
ver ores, with a list of gems 
showing topaz, garnets, opals, 
malachite,- onyx, agates and 
crystal quartz. The collec- 
tive display of California is 
entered through a triumphal 
arch faced with marbles of 
different varieties from the 
quarries of the State. The 
great seal of the State is the 
most conspicuous object in 
the immediate foreground, 
and the rear wall is adorned 
with an oil painting of the 
first discoverer of gold in Cal- 
ifornia, Marshall. The Ari- 
zona and New Mexico ex- 
hibits are in the same relation 
they sustain to each other 
territorially. Arizona revels 
in copper and copper ores. 
A huge oblong- block of beau- 
tiful azurite with streaks of 
malachite, just as taken from 
the mines of the Copper 
Queen Consolidated Com- 
pany, forms a centre piece. At the base are cases filled with a 
great variety of copper combinations, carbonates, oxides, and cop- 
per mixed with gold and silver. The contrast in colors forms one 
of the richest effects imaginable. 




MONTANA SII/VER STATUE. 



256 MINES. 

The petrified wood exhibit from this State is also exceptionally 
fine. A miner's cabin in the centre of the New Mexico space, built 
of varied minerals, calls to imagination the wild scenery of moun- 
tain and canyon of this far western country, and is suggestive of 





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BBMEjfcBHBHBII^BpWf S 



IOWA EXHIBIT. 



its abundant underground wealth. A circle of marble columns of 
native material adorns the Colorado space, and the low parapet is 
faced with new light-colored varieties of Colorado onyx. The 
Breckenbridge collection of gold nuggets and free gold is valued at 
a quarter of a million dollars. The different counties of the State 
have each contributed cabinet collections, so that one may easily 
learn the geographical distribution of Colorado minerals. North 
Carolina is another gold and gem producer, and consequently her 
space luxuriates in jewels and a thousand and one rare and deco- 
rative minerals. West Virginia, Kansas, Indiana, Oregon, Virginia, 
New Jersey, Minnesota, Washington, Wyoming, Tennessee and 
Louisiana also have representative displays on the ground floor. 



MINES. 



257 



A trophy in copper, copper alloy, nickel and steel furnishes a 
variegated effect in colors at the main east entrance. Hard by are 
the heavy exhibits of the great iron and steel firms, one showing 
the first steel converter used by the inventor of the so-called Besse- 
mer process — Kelly, and an object of great interest from a his- 
torical and evolutionary standpoint. In size, as compared with the 
enormous converter, it is as the baby elephant to the Jumbo. The 
whiz and the thud of drills, hoisting engines, concentrators, etc., 
attract our attention, and rapidly we pass through the aisles be- 
tween the rows of giant mechanisms that can drill through and cut 




DOUBLE REEE HOISTING ENGINE— UNITED STATES SECTION. 



out the most solid quartz, lift it by the tons to the surface, crush it 
to powder, and by dozens of ingenious mechanical and chemical 
processes separate the valuable metal ingredients. Here is a huge 
furnace for the smelting and refining of bullion ; over there power- 
ful pumps and fans for ventilating and draining mines, while a 
17 



258 MINES. 

tunnel running beneath the building at the south end is an actual 
representation of a mine gallery, and shows the method of timber- 
ing lighting and underground haulage. This tunnel, by means of a 
wire rope tramway, connects with the ore yard, from whence the 




MACHINERY EXHIBIT. 

ore used by the machines for demonstration purposes is conveyed 
to the space where it is to be utilized in the building. 

Perhaps the most striking display in the gallery is that of the 
Standard Oil Company, the entire north gallery being given up to 
its display of the crude and graded oils and manufactured by-prod- 
ucts, such as wax flowers ; models illustrating the methods of drill- 
ing, for piping, storing and distributing the oils ; also geological 
models showing the relative position of the oil-bearing strata. In 
a series of industrial courts running the entire length of the east 
gallery are assembled mineral materials of the industries, separated 
according to groups of the classification and along lines of affinity. 
From Group 48 to Group 42 one passes through a continual trans- 
formation scene ; the sulphurs, pigments and chemical salts at the 
one end giving place to the black pitches of the asphalt of Trini- 
dad, succeeded by exhibits of graphite in leads, crucibles and clays, 



MINES. 



*59 



and the whole series of abrasives from grindstones to ladies' rouge, 
building and ornamental stone, coals, cokes and mineral combus- 
tibles. This material is shown and arranged with all the skill and 
interest of competing firms and individual effort. 

In building stone and coal a departure is to be noted. A cube 
exhibit of the products of the quarries has been presented by the 
management of the Mining Department itself, and in the place of 
huge blocks of coal from one or two mines, specimens of uniform 
size have been solicited from every coal miner in the country. 




VIEW OX WEST SIDE. 



These dressed specimens have been placed upon aluminum mounts, 
giving the analysis, locality and other valuable information, while a 
large plate glass map upon the floor in the midst of the collection 
shows the distribution of the coal areas, and, by numbered cross 
reference, the source of the specimens. 

An operating departmental laboratory, a mecharical testing 
laboratory, and a chemical assay exhibit are open to the inspection 
of the public at the southwest corner. A mining library, filled with 
books rare and ancient, as well as modern, is at the disposal of 
the public, and a reading-room is provided where they may sit and 



2&0 



MINKS. 



pursue the information of the past and present on matters relating 
to mining and metallurgy. Near at hand the Mining Engineers 
have their headquarters. 

In the metallurgical division complete collections in each metal 
bring out the metallurgy from the ore up to the finished product. 
In the mineralogical division many large dealers, as well as private col- 
lectors, have case after case filled with articles of great intrinsic value 
and of extraordinary interest to the scientist and general public. 

It would, of course, be well-nigh impossible to give a complete 
picture of this great exhibit. The extent of detail is too vast. The 




MINERAL SECTION. 



visitor will with difficulty be able to see the majority of them, and 
from previous exposition experience will learn to select that for 
which he has a natural affinity or that which falls in with his line of 
work and education. 

The commercial man, the practical miner and inventor will con- 
sider the exhibit as more than a huge advertising agency, evanescent 



MINES. 26l 

in influence as a soap bubble. It inventories the progress made in 
the mining and metallurgical industries up to the present time ; it 
indicates adaptability to present needs, and it utilizes the gains of 
the past and will stimulate and guide future investigation and effort. 
The scientist finds complete and classified specimens to aid him in 
his studies of mineralogy, geology and other sciences ; a compen- 
dious text-book illustrated by concrete examples, charts, models, 
maps and schemes. Exploring for beauty, the artist discovers 
beauty of form in the accuracy of shape and fineness of structure 
of a dainty crystal or monumental prism ; beauty of color in the 
prismatic hues and iridescent shades and tints of minerals. He 
here finds in variety and abundance the materials that make his 
paints and the block which his genius can carve into graceful and 
plastic forms. 

But there are other lessons to be gained from the display, leav- 
ing the specialties and judging it from a higher plane and with 
broader and more fundamental standards. A study of the installa- 
tion from the geographical and statistical standpoint reveals many 
interesting facts of economic as well as of national importance. It 
tells how in the formation of the successive envelopes of the earth's 
crust a beneficent providence has placed mineral materials in such 
variety or quantity as delicately adjusts them to the wants of a 
progressive civilization. It tells the story of how this or that region 
of country has become prosperous by the opening up of new and 
inexhaustible stores of fuel or metal, or how the introduction of a new 
process has been the magic touch of Midas to a languishing industry. 

But the full significance conveyed by this exhibit is that of a 
tribute and exemplar of human industry offered by the unseen 
thousands who toil in silence for the comfort and welfare of all. 
The greatest achievement of this display will be to emancipate the 
labor that toils in the perilous surroundings of mine or mill, bring- 
ing to its assistance the improved steam and electrical mechanism 
here exhibited. In quickening the material development and pros- 
perity of the countries taking part in the exposition, the mining and 
metallurgical exhibit will be a forceful factor ; as a promoter of civiliza- 
tion its influence will become a permanent endowment to mankind. 




c^ 





ject 



HIS World's Exposition is noted for its being the first ap- 
pearance of many of the most important features of prog- 
ress. One of these is the great building and department 
devoted to the exploitation of the history of transporta- 
tion. Seventeen acres of Exhibition space for this sub- 
are provided in a building and annex. The building rises 




APOTHEOSIS OF TRANSPORTATION, TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. 

{John J. Boyle.) 



(263) 



264 TRANSPORTATION. 

on the western bank of the main lagoon, nearly in the centre of the 
grounds, half overlapping the Building for Mines and Mining, and 
looking across the water to the Building for Manufactures. It is 
directly south of the Horticultural Building. In general the archi- 
tectural features of the building are very simple, but its details 
and accessories are rich. At the centre it is surmounted by a 

cupola 165 feet high, which 
affords an extensive view of 
grounds, Lake and surround- 
ing country. This point of 
observation is reached by 
eight elevators, which run for 
public use, and properly form 
a part of the transportation 
exhibit. This is the only de- 
partment building thus pro- 
vided. The main entrance 
to the building consists of 
an immense arch decorated 
with carvings, bas-reliefs 
and mural paintings. It 
is treated entirely in gold, 
silver and bronze leaf, and is 
known as the golden door. 
On one side of the arch ap- 
pears in panel an original 
study in ancient transporta- 
tion, and on the opposite side 
the palatial accessories of modern railway travel. The corners 
above the arch are decorated with mural paintings of marine and 
railway scenes. Four minor entrances on this front and other 
elaborate portals at either end of the main building are adorned 
with fountains, and some twenty life-size statues of inventors, whose 
history is identified with that of the science of transportation. 

The interior of the building is treated much after the manner of 
a Roman basilica, with broad nave and aisles. The middle roof 




DECORATION OF TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. 



TRANSPORTATION. 



265 



rises much higher than the others, and its walls are partly open so 
as to form an arcaded clere-story. The dimensions of the build- 
ing are 256 x 960 feet, and of the Annex 425 x 900 feet. The total 
cost was nearly $400,000. It is said that every method of trans- 
portation that history records 
except the back of a mule 
and the foot of man is exem- 
plified in this building, and 
the chief of the department, 
Willard A. Smith, is fond of 
saying that his building con- 
tains everything, from a toy 
tin wagon to a mogul loco- 
motive, and from a two-loo- 

o 

raft to the model of an Atlan- 
tic liner. The development 
of modern transportation has 
been so recent and so rapid 
that its significance has been 
hardly understood. Already 
its early history is in many in- 
stances fading away or utterly 
lost. From the beginning it 
was the intention of this 
department that it should 
fully and fairly present the 
origin, growth and develop- 
ment of the various methods 
of transportation used in all 
ages and in all parts of 
the world. The classification 
may seem to include some things which it is difficult to show in 
an Exhibition of this kind, but the object kept in view has been 
to make so complete the demonstration of the method and means 
employed in every branch of the business of transportation that the 
earnest student of science may here find everything at his hand 




LOCOMOTIVE, FACADE, TRANSPORTATION BLDG. 

(John J. Boyle.) 




FIGURES ON TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. {John J. Boyle, Sculp.) 

i. George Stephenson. 
2. Dennis Papin. 5. Joseph Michael Montgolfier. 3. James Watt. 

4. The Brakesman. 7. Robert Fulton. 6. The Pilot. 

(266) 



TRANSPORTATION. 2 67 

without encountering the difficulties which now beset and environ 
such study and investigation. The result is a grand object-lesson 
presented so clearly and impressively that one may learn in hours 
and days what would otherwise require months and years. It was 
the aim of the department to keep the historical feature clearly in 
view and even to magnify it. By so doing the great exhibition of 
the actual means of transportation employed throughout the world 
to-day and the wonderful achievements of recent years stand out 
in high relief by contrast. 

The first and most noticeable, and not the least interesting, 
feature of the Transportation Building, is the beautiful scheme of 
polychrome decoration which is applied to its exterior. To treat 
the building externally in many 
colors was the original thouq-ht 
of the architects in the concep- 
tion of the design. The archi- 
tecture, therefore, was carefully 
prepared throughout with 
reference to the ultimate appli- 
cation of colors, and many large 
plain surfaces were left to re- 
ceive the final polychrome treat- 
ment. The ornamental designs 

for this work are of great and intricate delicacy. The colors 
themselves comprise nearly the whole galaxy, there being not less 
than thirty different shades employed. These, however, are so 
delicately and softly blended, and so nicely balanced against each 
other, that the final effect suggests not so many colors as a single 
beautiful painting. The general scheme of color treatment starts 
with a light tone for the base of the building. This is kept entirely 
simple and free from ornament in order to serve as a base for the 
more elaborate work above. The culmination of high color effect 
is found in the spandrels between the main arches. Here the work 
is carried to a high pitch of intensity of color, and reliance is placed 
on the main corner of the building, which is very simply treated, 
to act as a balancing and quieting effect in the general composi- 




OL,D TIME ROCKY MOUNTAIN STAGE COACH 
— BUILT IN 1868. 



268 



TRANSPORTATION. 



tion. In the centre of the spandrels is placed a beautiful winged 
figure, representing the spirit of transportation. This figure is 
painted in light colors with a background of gold leaves. It is this 
elaborate color scene which culminates in the golden door. 

At the entrance to the south door of the Transportation Build- 
ing stand, on the right, statues of Stephenson, Barrett, Scott and 
the figure of a pilot, the latter typical of water transportation. On 
the left are statues of Montgolfier, Vanderbilt, Watt, and a brake- 
man, the latter typical of land transportation. These figures are 
duplicated at various points in the circuit of the building. 

The classification of the Department of Transportation includes 




EXHIBIT OP THOS. COOK & SON. 



the following groups: Railways, railway plants and equipment: 
Street car and other street-line systems : Miscellaneous and special 
railways: Vehicles and methods of transportation on common 
roads : Aerial, pneumatic and other forms of transportation : Vessels, 
boats, marine, lake and river transportation: Naval warfare and 
coast defence. 

The displays in this building seem to come closer to the interests 
of every one than do most of the others, and the greatest crowd is 
usually found herein. Entering at the south doorway of the main 
portion of the building one reaches first the German section. It 



TRANSPORTATION. 



269 



occupies this entire end and part of the annex. Its decorative 
exhibits are very fine. The particular features consist of two large 
locomotives, all kinds of cars, including a Red Cross ambulance 
train, interlocking switch system, etc. Certain exhibits of the 
United States come next, although our own country occupies such 
a great portion of the building that its displays may be said to be 
everywhere. On the right side of the main aisle is the exhibit of 
the International Navigation Company, including a fine display of 
models of ocean steamers, and a full size section of one of their 



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HARNESS EXHIBIT. 

ocean liners. This is the celebrated Inman Line so well known in 
ocean navigation. 

This full-sized section of one of the new American Line steamers 
now being built by the William Cramp & Sons' Ship and Engine 
Building Company at Philadelphia is over seventy feet long and 
thirty-five feet wide, or a little more than half the beam and one- 
seventh the length of the ship itself. This is such a novel display, 
and of so much interest to the multitudes of our people who have 
had no opportunity to visit such a ship afloat, that it is worthy of 



270 



transportation. 



extended description. The floor line of the building comes just 
where the twenty-six foot water line of the ship would be, so there 
is as much of it above the floor as there will be above the water at 
her draft on sailing. Therefore if a complete section of the ship 
were shown it would have to go down into the ground twenty-six 
feet, or make the top of the funnel twenty-six feet higher. As it 

is now, the first or 
promenade deck is 
more than twenty- 
five feet above the 
floor, and the top 
of the funnel is yet 
fifty- three feet 
above this. This 
serves to give 
some idea of the 
actual height of 
these great trans- 
atlantic liners. As 
one approaches the 
vessel the black 
iron sides of the 
ship are seen, 
studded with port- 
holes, extending 
along the aisle and 
rising to a height 
of seventeen feet 
above the floor, 
where the plating- 
ends and the railing on the second or saloon deck commences. 
Above this is the first or promenade deck, and yet above rises the 
bridge from which the officers direct the course of the vessel. Just 
aft of the bridge and on top of the deck-house is a life-boat ready 
for launching. 

Passing around the end of the exhibit it can be plainly seen that 




VIKING SHIP 



TRANSPORTATION. 27I 

it is only a section of the ship, as the ends are cut off square and 
left open, so that all four decks, and to some extent what is on each 
one, are visible. The visitor passing through this exhibit will see 
the model-room, steerage compartment, first-class compartment, 
second-class compartment, dining-saloon, promenade deck, library 
and smoking-room. The visitor can thus obtain a perfect idea of 
the size, furnishings and style of the ocean liners. 




STEAM TOWING MACHINE. 

Exhibit of American Ship Windlass Co. 

The American Ship Windlass Co., of Providence, R. I., shows 
windlasses and capstans in great variety. The Harland & Hollings- 
worth Company exhibits a collection of gas engines, naphtha 
launches, etc., and adjoining this is the display of Thos. Kane & 
Co., of Chicago, with a similar field. On the right again is found 
the Austrian display, consisting chiefly of saddlery and carriages, 



272 



TRANSPORTATION. 



but also showing the zone system peculiar to the railway man- 
agement of that country. On the opposite side is the display of 
Japan, showing models of their modern war ships, and in contrast 
the junks that they used in ancient times. Turkey adjoins Japan 
with an entertaining display. 

The sight-seer has now reached the striking- exhibit of the Beth- 




TURKISH TRANSPORTATION EXHIBIT. 



lehem Iron Company. These famous gun and armor works, situ- 
ated at South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, make a showing that never 
fails to draw expressions of astonishment from every visitor. The 
most visible exhibit in the whole building is the great structure 
which bestrides the main aisle like the Colossus of Rhodes. It is 
an exact reproduction of Bethlehem's 125-ton steam hammer, the 
largest in the world, under which the heaviest armor plates are 
forged and shaped. It is appropriately placed amid the models and 
sectional plans of battle and merchant ships, which require the pro- 



TRANSPORTATION. 273 

ducts of the forge. It towers ninety-one feet in height to the very 




MODEL OF 125 TON HAMMER. 



Exhibited by Bethlehem Iron Company. 

roof beams, and so well have the wood and staff been moulded to- 
gether that to all appearances the model is solid iron. The anvil 



274 



TRANSPORTATION. 



blocks could not be shown in place, as it would obstruct the passage 
way. Besides this, the Bethlehem Company shows modern cannon 
of great size ; armor plate which seems impenetrable, and castings 
of enormous size. There is one fluid-compressed steel ingot or 
casting, fifteen feet long and fifty-four inches in diameter, weighing 
forty-eight tons. From a similar ingot weighing sixty-five tons was 
made the shaft of the famous Ferris Wheel in Midway Plaisance. 
The same company also shows steamship shafts, and solid and built 
cranks for vessels. 

After the Bethlehem Works comes a large area devoted to the 
exhibit of France. There are a number of locomotives and other 




COLUMBIA BICYCLES. 

Exhibit of Pope Manufacturing Co. 



railway equipments ; models of ocean steamers, both passenger and 
war ; and all sorts of modern carriages, bicycles and other modern 



TRANSPORTATION. 



275 



transportation appliances. This exhibit not only extends from the 
central aisle to the front of the building, but also reaches well into 
the annex. 

Facing the French exhibit is the model and exhibit of the town 




FUERST BISMARCK.' —HAMBURG AMERICAN PACKET CO. 



of Pullman. It is built to scale and is always a centre of interest 
for the many who are curious to know the plans and accomplish- 
ment of this practical example of a perfect city. Next is a model 
ticket-office fitted up by the firm of Rand, McNally & Co., of Chicago, 
the noted printers of railway tickets, folders and maps. The centre 
of the building is now reached, and here in a circular open space is 
the exhibit of the Otis Company, consisting of eight passenger 
elevators. This vertical transportation department conveys curious 
visitors to the top of the building, whence a splendid view may be 
had. 

Great Britain comes next with her colonies, Canada and Aus- 
tralia, occupying four sections, extending entirely across the building 



2j6 



TRANSPORTATION. 



and annex. The most interesting of the exhibits here is the loco- 
motive, "Lord of the Isles," built in 1851 for the first World's Fair, 
which has been in continuous use ever since. There is also a 




MODEL OF SANTA MARIA. 



complete train of English cars, with the fine compound locomotive, 
11 Great Britain," affording an opportunity for comparing British and 
American railway methods. The marine exhibits of Great Britain 



TRANSPORTATION. 



277 



are especially fine, nearly all of her great ship-building firms being 
represented by models. One model, that of the armored war-ship 
"Victoria," is thirty 
feet long and cost 
$20,000. But half 
of the vessel is thus 
constructed, and it 
is placed against a 
great mirror which 
duplicates it and 
thus makes the 
whole vessel appear. 
Surrounding the 
model at the water- 
line is a plate of 
green rippled glass, 
so that the effect is 
produced that the 
ship is floating in 
the ocean. It is this 
vessel which was 
sunk by her com- 
panion, the " Camp- 
erdown," in the east 
end of the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, when 
hundreds of lives 
were lost. This oc- 
curred during the 
early months of the 
Fair, and from that 
time the magnificent model was heavily draped in black and has 
been the centre of attraction. Many of the finest Atlantic liners 
and other large war vessels are displayed, and a model of the 
great Forth Bridge of Scotland is shown. Australia shows a 
model of the wonderful zig-zag railway in the mountains of New 




CHOY CAVE- 
Mexican Central Railway. 



278 TRANSPORTATION. 

South Wales. The feature of the Canadian exhibit is a train of 
the Canadian-Pacific railway, the woodwork of which is solid 
mahogany. 

The next exhibit is that of the Johnson Railroad Signal Company, 
and across the aisle from it that of Spain. The latter is made up 
chiefly of marine models, models of celebrated fortresses, and a 
model of the Cordova Bridge, whose foundations were laid nearly 
2,000 years ago. A little yet to the east is the display of Brazil. 
In the Mexican section a fine display is seen, consisting largely of 
exquisitely fine saddles and horse trappings. There is also a relief 
map of that republic showing modern systems of transportation. 
The Mexican Central Railway Company shows a number of beau- 
tiful paintings and photographs, among them scenes in the Choy 
cave. 

Argentine Republic is just across the aisle from Mexico, and 
adjoining is the display of the Cunard Steamship Company. Here 
are displayed nine models of their best steamers. There is a won- 
derful contrast between the "Britannia," built in 1840, with a ton- 



MODELS EXHIBITED BY CUNARD S. S. CO., SHOWING COMPARATIVE SIZES OE FIRST 
AND LATEST VESSELS. 

nage of 2,050 and 405 horse-power, and their last, the " Campania," 
built in 1893, with a tonnage of 13,000 and 30,000 horse-power. It 
is the proud boast of this company that never in its long career as 
a carrier of passengers has it lost a single one entrusted to its care. 
The Westinghouse Air-Brake Company and the New York Air- 
Brake Company are neighbors, the former showing the operation 
of air-brakes on a train of one hundred cars, the largest train ever 



TRANSPORTATION. 



79 



operated by a single system of brakes. The visitor now passes the 
exhibits of Austria and Russia, and some other minor displays, and 
reaches that of the Pullman Palace Car Company, a magnificent 
train of cars of their latest style. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railway's historical exhibit deserves 




STEAM SHOVEIv. 

Exhibited by Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

special mention. This is the oldest railway in the world, having 
been opened to general traffic from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills, a 
distance of fourteen miles, May 24, 1827, six months earlier than 
the Liverpool & Manchester Railway, which was the first in Europe. 
The " York," costing $4,000, their first locomotive, is shown ; also 
a strap-rail track and other features of that day, as well as the latest 
improved types of engines, trains and appliances. The Pilot Com- 
mission of New York, in another special display, shows the model 



28o 



TRANSPORTATION. 



of a pilot boat, and oil paintings illustrating the perils of the ser- 
vice. 

Among the marine curiosities is a bateau, found on the bank of 
the Upper St. Croix river, and used before Illinois was organized 
as a Territory. It carried eighteen men and one ton of freight, and 
was employed in Indian trade. Canada's exhibit shows some 
curious boats, birch-bark canoes, large and small, such as were used 
by the Indians and by the Hudson's Bay Company, and dog trains. 

The British section shows the original Stephenson locomotive, 
the " Rocket." The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad exhibits Oliver 
Evan's steamboat on wheels, which was designed to run either on 
land or water. The Chicago & Northwestern Railway exhibit 
contains the old " Pioneer," the first locomotive ever brought to 
Chicago. In the annex several of the English and Irish railways 
make a handsome exhibit of the beautiful scenery along their line. 




NORTH GERMAN EEOYD STEAMSHIP CO.'S PAVILION. 



The North German Lloyd Steamship Company exhibits a globe, 
on the oceans of which the positions of all their various vessels are 
shown daily by small models moved to correspond to the move- 
ments of their original. Jay Gould's passes are framed and make 



282 TRANSPORTATION. 

an unique exhibit. Several locomotive works, including the Brooks, 




the first steamer on i<ong iseand sound. 
Model Exhibited by the Providence and Stonington S. S. Co. 

the Baldwin and the Rogers, make excellent displays in the annex. 
The Sheffield Velocipede Car Company, of Three Rivers, Michigan, 
shows hand-cars, railway velocipedes, sail-cars and other transporta- 



TRANSPORTATION. 



283 




tion novelties. The Griffin Wheel Foundry Company, of Chicago 
has an exhibit of car wheels, chiefly the ones in actual service under" 
various cars. 



284 TRANSPORTATION. 

The Providence & Stonington Steamship Company of New York 
makes an exhibit to illustrate the progress of shipbuilding as ap- 
plied to Long Island Sound steamers from the earliest times of 



tal,i,y-ho. Exhibited by Briggs Carriage Co. 

steam navigation on the Sound to the present. The exhibit con- 
sists of a complete model of the steamer " Fulton," built in 1814 
from designs by Robert Fulton. This was the first steamboat to 
make the trip on Long Island Sound, which event took place in 
181 7. The " Fulton " made a trip from New York to New Haven 
and returned, and afterwards formed, in connection with the Connec- 
ticut, the first line between New York and Providence. A model 
of the steamer Jno. W. Richmond, a famous vessel, built in 1838 to 
run on the Providence line, shows a marked advance in type and 
arrangement from the Fulton. A model of the steamer " Maine," 
one of the twin steamers built by this company in 1892, shows the 
most advanced type of Sound steamers. A series of pictures 
showing many more Long Island Sound vessels, both old and 
new, are exhibited, while company and steamer flags are used as 
decorations. 



Transportation. 



2$5 



The north end of the Transportation Building is taken up by the 
display of wagons, carriages and buggies of every pattern. It is 
impossible to name more than a few of the notable ones. Among 
the exhibitors are Brewster, of New York ; Studebaker, of Chicago ; 
the Glens Falls Buckboard Co. ; Fish Bros. Wagon Co., of Racine, 
Wisconsin ; A. Streich & Bro., of Oshkosh, Wis. ; the Selle Gear 
Co., of Akron, Ohio ; Rattermann & Luth, of Cincinnati ; the 
Favorite Carriage Co., of Storrs, Ohio ; the Fulton & Walker Co., 
of Philadelphia ; and others. Included in these exhibits are the 
finest of carriages, sleighs, and other vehicles of every description. 
The James Cunningham Co., of Rochester, and the Rock Falls 



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tally-ho. Exhibited by Studebaker Bros., Chicago. 



Co., Sterling, 



111., show fine hearses and funeral 



Manufacturing 
cars. 

All the leading bicycle manufacturers of the United States and 
England show their wares, and the display is bewildering to the 
enthusiastic wheelman. Pleasure boats of small size are shown by 
various Canadian, English, and United States exhibitors. The 



286 



TRANSPORTATION. 



cedar canoe is shown in its perfection by J. H. Rushton, of Canton, 
New York. The range of exhibits in this building is something 
enormous, and beside all that we have named includes such as 
stuffed mules, and ox-carts from Mexico, Madeira and Sicily ; Red 

River carts from 
Winnipeg, and 
dug-outs from 
the South Sea 
Islands. There 
are also sedan- 
chairs, walrus 
hide boats, and 
pictures illustra- 
ting the prog- 
ress of aerial 
transportation. 
The New 
York Central & 
Hudson River 
Railway Com- 
pany has a building and large space just to the south of the annex, 
which it shares with the Wagner Palace Car Company. The 
display included here is an elaborate one. 

Across the street yet to the south of this is the model four-track 
suburban passenger station of the Pennsylvania Railway Company. 
It is equipped with interlocking 
switch system and every modern 
appliance of safety that inventive 
genius can suggest. The exhibits 
here are of great interest. The 
original John Bull locomotive, and 
two fifty-seven-year-old passenger 
coaches of the old Camden and 
Amboy Railroad are the most con- 
spicuous. This train ran from 
Philadelphia to Chicago at the opening of the Fair and attracted 




BICYCLE EXHIBIT. 




Exhibited by Gendron Iron 
Wheel Co. 



TRANSPORTATION. 



287 



great attention throughout the route. There is also shown the 
car designed by this railroad for carrying the sixty-two ton Krupp 

gun from the sea-board to 
Chicago. It consists of 
two flat-cars of 100,000 
pounds capacity each, and 
a bridge connecting the 
two cars. It is a triumph 
of mechanical construction 
for handling such enor- 
mous weights. 

The other big gun car, 
which is constructed to 
support a weight nearly 

STREET CARRIER OF CONSTANTINOPLE. twjce ^ gr ^ fa therefore 





MEXICAN CART. 



2 83 



Transportation. 



nearly twice as great a wonder. It has a capacity of 285,000 
pounds, and is built entirely of boiler steel. It consists of a major 
bridge, two minor bridges, and four eight-wheel cars. The gun 
rests in the major bridge on two supports which closely fit it. The 
extreme length of the car 
is ninety feet, and the 
weight of the car, loaded 
with gun and both bridges, 
is 445,000 pounds. 

Nearly a mile from the 
Transportation Building, 
to the southeast, and 
facing the lake shore, is 
the building devoted to 
the exhibit of Herr Krupp, 
of Essen, in Germany. He is the greatest of all cannon manufact- 




A SEDAN CHAIR. 




DE WITT CEINTON. FIRST ENGINE ON N. Y. CENTRAL R. R. 



urers, and this exhibit is a wonder that attracts every one. Here 
is found the largest cannon ever cast, as well as many other won- 
derful evidences of mechanical skill and ingenuity. The weight of 



Transportation. 



289 




N. Y. CENTRAL EXPRESS ENGINE. 

SPEED IOO MILES AN HOUR. RUNS ON 

EMPIRE STATE EXPRESS. 



the articles exhibited amounts 
to nearly 2,000,000 pounds, and 
they are valued at $1,000,000. First in interest is the monster 124- 



■ nun * 

III ti 





PENNA. RAILROAD MODEL STATION. 



19 



TRANSPORTATION. 



ton gun which cost $50,000 to 
manufacture. Its length is 
eighty-seven feet, and its bore 
twenty-five inches. The pro- 
jectile used weighs 2300 
pounds, and the cost of a 
single discharge is $1250.00. 
Its range is from fifteen to 
sixteen miles, and if discharged 
on the lake front, the concussion 
would shatter most of the win- 
dow glass in Chicago. The 
carriage for this monster weighs 
38,500 pounds, the frame 
55,600 pounds, and to manage 
it requires an eighty-five-ton 
traversing crane. There was 
but one place on the Atlantic 
seaboard, Sparrow's . Point, 
Maryland, where there was a 
set of hydraulic shears of 
sufficient power to handle this 
gun. In the exhibit are found 
other guns, large and small, 
and all their accessories. Not 
the least interesting thing is 
an immense steel target, eight 
feet square and sixteen inches 
thick, which shows the effect of 
a gun firing 600-pound balls. 
It is asserted in all seriousness 
by the German engineers ac- 
companying this exhibit that 
if the big gun were fired on 
the grounds the concussion 
would wreck every building in 




292 -TRANSPORTATION. 

the park. Herr Krupp intends to present his monster gun to the 
United States Government for the defence of the great port of 
Chicago. 

An adjunct of the transportation exhibit is the old whaling bark 
" Progress," exhibited by New Bedford, Mass. It lies in the south 
pond not far from the Krupp exhibit. This old craft was built in 
i84i,and has passed through many winters in the whaling industry 
of the Arctic regions. All sorts of articles are shown, such as are 
used in the whaling industry, as well as the products which they 
capture. There are also mementos of the terrible disaster of 187 1, 
when thirty-three whaling ships had to be abandoned in the ice, their 
crews being rescued by the " Progress " and a few other vessels. 

Brewster & Co. exhibit a sleigh which is one of the most elaborate 
examples of wood-carving to be found any place within the Exposi- 
tion, and also one of the most beautiful of vehicles. It represents 
a shell supported by conventionalized forms of sea life with ferns 
and sea-weed for decorations, the color being a sea-green. The 
designs are most intricate, and the carving required more than a 
year to accomplish it. It is luxuriously upholstered, and is held at 
a price which makes it fit only for an Arctic emperor. 

In spite of the length to which this chapter has been drawn, it 
has been impossible to exhaust the list of worthy exhibits contained 
in the transportation department, and there are many more notable 
ones which it would be well to name were that possible. 

One needs but to glance through the hurried lists of exhibits in 
this department to realize the enormous importance of it to every 
man. A quotation from Macaulay above the golden door of the 
Transportation Building informs us on the authority of that great 
essayist and historian that of all the inventions of the world, the 
alphabet and the printing press alone excepted, those inventions 
have done the most to advance civilization and mankind which 
abridge distance. No one can doubt this who studies for an object 
lesson our own American Republic. The United States has been 
singularly favored by transportation facilities of every kind. The 
invention of the steamboat was yet young when prows began to 
divide the waves of every river and lake where civilization had 



TRANSPORTATION. 



293 



spread. Not only our traffic with foreign countries, but also our 
own interior commerce advanced enormously by this means. The 
Hudson River system, the St. Lawrence River system, and the 
immense territory tributary to the great lakes ; the Mississippi 
system, including the Ohio, the Tennessee, the Cumberland, the 




SHEU, sleigh. — Exhibited by Brewster & Co. 

Missouri, the Arkansas and the Red rivers with their millions of 
acres of fertile prairie land, and mighty forests, and mineral wealth, 
all received an impetus never given to so great a region by any 
other influence before. Villages grew from frontier settlements, 
and cities from villages, while States were builded from Territories 
while their pioneers were yet young. This the steamboat did, or 
at least began. 

Then the railroad came, and the iron trails wound over the 



294 - TRANSPORTATION. 

plains and through the mountains where before the earth was 
trodden only by the infrequent passing of the Indian or the trapper. 
Other States grew, out of the reach of water courses, and on every 
hand was heard the whistle of the locomotive. Very often even 
advancing civilization drawn by the steam horse reached the edge 
of the wilderness where fierce animals and fiercer red men disputed 
at every step the advance. 

The record of the country would be called a miracle if demon- 
strated to our ancestors but a century ago, and yet it is no miracle, 
but the product of the force of man's mind and muscle. It is emi- 
nently fitting that in this country should be erected the first great 
building devoted exclusively to a display of transportation exhibits. 

But, in our familiarity with steamboat and steam locomotive, there 
must not be forgotten some of the other means of transportation 
which have aided the advance of our civilization. No one of them 
is insignificant. There was a time when the American clipper ship 
bore the commerce of the world ; when our flag was on every sea, 
and when our voyages circled the globe. Then the American ship 
and the American sailor, and the American captain were the best 
of all. Of late years there has been a degeneration from this 
proud record, and yet there are those who hope yet to see a return 
to this greatness when foreign commerce shall be shared by our 
country in a proportion which its size and wealth justify. 

The pony express and the overland mail are familiar names to 
us, but they seem far away. We do not realize that it is but little 
more than thirty years since those opening wedges into western 
civilization were first instituted. Only thirty years ago, daring 
riders carried letters of tissue paper at a price of five dollars per 
half-ounce from the Missouri river at St. Joseph to San Francisco, 
and the marvellous speed made by these pony riders is yet a matter 
of wonder. Many a time their speed was accelerated by the sound 
of an Indian war-whoop or the whistle of an Indian bullet past their 
ears as they sped away over the alkali plains. Relics of these two 
notable factors in the history of American transportation are 
exhibited here, and there are none of more interest. 

The only country whose exhibits compare in interest with those 



TRANSPORTATION. 



295 



of the United States is our next door neighbor, Canada. Remem- 
bering - as we do the magnificent surface of the trans-continental 
Canadian Pacific Railway, it is difficult to realize that in this country 
there are yet employed some of the most primitive methods of 
transportation, whether for passengers, freight or mail. The Hud- 
son's Bay Company employs the same means of conveyance 
whether by land or water that it did one hundred and two hundred 
years ago, through great portions of its territory. All over the 
northwest portion of British America, extending to Alaska and into 
the borders of the Arctic region, there are posts scattered where 
trappers and Indians secure the valuable furs that protect us in 
winter and spend their lives in the wilderness. To some of these 
the Company is enabled to send communications but once a year, 




KRUPP GUN-WORKS. 



while others receive word from civilization oftener. About the 1st 
of December each year a party of brave and hardy men inured to 
hardship, cold and danger, turn their faces northward from the city 
of Winnipeg to seek their friends in the great lone land of the 



296 TRANSPORTATION. 

north. There is but a small band of men at the beginning. Their 
only living companions are the hardy dogs of that region which 
have been trained to harness and which are hitched to the ereat 
sleds. Upon these sleds are packed the mail-bags, the provisions 
and the other supplies necessary for the long journey. The men 




INTERIOR OF KRUPP GUN-WORKS. 



run along beside the sleds at a rapid gait, because if they should sit 
down on them and be drawn by the dogs they would soon freeze. 
Nothing but constant motion can keep them warm during the more 
northerly part of the journey. They go down the Red river of the 
North on the ice until they reach Lake Winnipeg, and then con- 
tinue northward on its icy surface for more than two hundred miles. 
At a point near its northwest angle the party divides, some of the 
men and sledges continuing northwest and another portion turning 
northeast past Norway House and toward Hudson's Bay. The 
first ones follow their northwestward course, passing numerous 



TRANSPORTATION. 



297 



posts of the great company of fur traders, and at each place leaving 
a portion of the mail and of their party. Reinforcements are taken 
when needed, but at the end, when all but one mail-bag has been 



del i v- 

would 

divid- 

top- 

one 

bear 

lone- 

when 

these 

enlisted 

a gummed 

message will 

ilization or 

Relics of this 

collections of the 

well as the canoes 

which convey the 

fie of the same 

In the 
exhibit j| 
tureof: 



and when a map of all the routes followed 

resemble the great trunk of a tree with its branches 

and subdividing in every direction, then to the 

most branch, far within the frigid zone, but 

solitary man and one lone team of dogs 

and guard the precious freight. It is a 

some journey, and an impressive one, 

we think how easily the service of all 

different methods of transportation are 

to convey our missives. For a few cents 

bit of paper guarantees to us that our 




wherever in the world civ- 
civilization houses our friend, 
service are included in the 
Transportation Building, as 
and other water craft 
summer traf- 
company. 
English 
the fea- 



est in-? 

with 

cep- 

the mag- 

model saii, car. 

sunken 

ria," is the historical craft in which Grace Darling, 



Exhibited by Sheffield Velocipede Car Co 



great- 
terest, 
the ex- 
tion of 
nificent 
of the 
" Victo- 
the English hero- 



ine, rescued so many persons from drowning. It is sea-battered 
and weather-worn, but its timbers are staunch and strong yet, and 
it could ride many a storm should necessity arise. It is an unwieldy 
and heavy craft, and one marvels how a frail young girl could have 



298 



TRANSPORTATION. 

ht side up in the breakers, and 



handled it to propel and keep it n 

to assist those so sorely in need. 

From the South Sea Islands we have all sorts of odd craft, and 

from the Malayan Ar- 
chipelago specimens 
of the flying proa, that 
fastest of all boats, so 
it is said, which flashes 
through the water like 
a beam of light, and 
which, manned by a 
crew of piratical sav- 
ages, has sent many 
an undefended boat 
with her crew to de- 
struction. 

So, in whatever part 
of the world we go, 
we find as the most 
important feature of 
their civilization their 
methods of transporta- 
tion. To-day, Corea, 
the hermit nation, is 
adding to its posses- 
sions a fleet of modern 
and first-class war ves- 
sels. Japan's navy 
contains ships of the 
most formidable char- 

mine CAR. Exhibited by Sheffield J'c/ocipedc Car Co. , , 

acter, and a number 
sufficient to rank her as one of the leading naval powers of the world. 
It is the facility of inter-communication between the various parts 
of the nation and between it and other nations, which measures to 
a large extent the degree of civilization which that nation may 
attain. One is specially impressed by this upon consideration of 















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TRANSPORTATION. 299 

the recent case of Japan. It is doubtful if any country can show 
in its history such a rapid advance in all things that make civiliza- 
tion as Japan displays in the last quarter century. The United 
States opened the doors of Japan to the world. Since then the 
forward movement of the Island Empire has been so rapid that 
she now asks no favor from any one, but only fair treatment. It is 
to the growth of transportation facilities that a great portion of the 
credit for this is due. 

Therefore, in considering the exhibits here displayed in the 
Transportation Department at the World's Fair, the immense effect 
of the science of transportation upon the progress of the world 
should always be in mind, and it should never be forgotten that 
America has been the leader in the invention and improvement 
and adoption of appliances to be utilized for these purposes. 



s«a«»«.»daa4«oa. i 




Prof. JOHN P. BARRETT, 

Chief of Department. 

Columbian Exposition is 
a magnificent triumph of the 
age of Electricity. There 
are few exhibitors, few contractors 
and not many concessionaires 
who do not apply electricity in some form 
in the operation of their enterprises at the 
Fair. With the exception of some of the 
exhibits in Machinery Hall all the exhibits in all the buildings are 
operated by electrical transmission. The Intramural Elevated 
Railway, the launches that ply the Lagoons, the Sliding Railway on 
the thousand foot pier, the great Ferris Wheel, the machinery of the 
Libby Glass Company on the Midway, are all operated by electri- 
cally transmitted energy. 

Beginning with the pressure of President Cleveland's thumb 
upon a " Victor " telegraph key that set the machinery of the Fair 
in motion on the first day of May, and ending at the hundred miles 
of ether pierced by the great German search 
lights on the Manufactures Building, or at 
the remotest terminals of the telegraph and 
telephone lines that keep the world posted 
on the progress and achievements of the Ex- 
position, everything pulsates with quickening 
influence of the subtle and vivifying current. 

All this hardly seems strange to the boy who 
cannot look behind him into even the very 
near past, but to those of us who remember former Expositions 
there appears to have been some radical revolution at work to 

(301) 




ELECTRIC LIGHT DYNAMO 
USED IN CENTENNIAL. 



302 



ELECTRICITY. 



accomplish what we now see before us. At the Centennial the 
Bell telephone was a toy ; there were half a dozen arc lamps 
exhibited as scientific possibilities but not as commercial factors. 
Even at so late a day as the Paris Exposition of 1889 three thousand 
horse-power was the total energy employed, and that only imme- 
diately at the generating plant. 

At the Columbian Exposition the total capacity of the generating 
plant is twenty-five thousand horse-power, utilized over an area of 

s i x hundred acres. 
The plant covers an 
area of one hundred 
and twelve thousand 
square feet. There 
are in operation arc 
lights, incandescent 
lights, power-motors 
for the operation of 
the machinery of ex- 
hibitors, a complete 
telephone service 
coupled to the Chicago 
exchange, a complete 
police and fire alarm 
telegraph system, tele- 
graph lines, the elec- 
tric fountains, the In- 
tramural Elevated 
Railway, the electric 
launches, search lights, the equipment of the battle-ship " Illinois," 
and many classes of apparatus, some of which were given earlier 
in this article. 

The electric lighting at the last Paris Exposition was furnished 
by 1,150 arc and 10,000 incandescent lamps, giving a total of about 
1,600,000 candle-power. The lighting at Chicago comprises about 
90,000 lights of 16 candle-power, or a total of 1,440,000 candle- 
power, and about 5,100 arc lamps, with a total of 10,000,000 candle- 




COLUMBIAN FOUNTAIN— PEDESTAL. 



Electricity. 



303 



power — a grand total of about 11,400,000 candle-power. The 

total capacity of the electric plant is about 5,000 arcs of 2,000 

candle-power each, and 120,000 incandescent lights 

of 16 candle-power. It is significant that while the 

lighting- alone at Paris called for the formation of a 

syndicate of nearly all the leading companies — over 

twenty in all — the lighting at Chicago, with the 

exception of about 500 horse-power, is furnished 

from the standard apparatus of four leading American 

firms. 

Already seventy-five motors, aggregating 1,300 




ELECTRIC FOUNTAINS AND ILLUMINATION. 



horse-power, are placed for the use of the Exposition Company 



304 Electricity. 

alone, and electric power can be obtained by exhibitors in all 
buildings. 

While the subject of electric power transmission is under con- 
sideration it may not be out of place to call attention to the service 
of electricity in building the Exposition. From the very beginning 
of construction the temporary power plant, now no more, ran day 
and night seven days in the week, operating motors in the daytime 
which furnished power for the saw-mills, hoists, pumps and paint- 
ing machines, and at night grinding out light, so that the construc- 
tion could be carried on day and night where necessary, and the 
engineers and draughtsmen could lay out work for other days and 
nights. Electricity helped to prepare the material, to hoist the 
heavy beams and trusses, to paint the buildings, and at the same 
time to prolong the labors of the overworked engineer and me- 
chanic, and light the rough or muddy pathway of the Columbian 
Guard. 

Of the arc lamps used in general illumination, 1,600 are used for 
lighting the grounds and 3,400 for lighting the buildings. Most 
of the arc lamps out on the grounds are hung in the ornamental 
posts, and in most cases those in the buildings are suspended from 
the ceiling and domes. 

The crowning glory of the arc lighting is that of the central nave 
in Manufactures Building. This is undoubtedly the most unique and 
beautiful piece of arc lighting ever attempted. This space, which 
is about 1,300 feet long and 368 feet wide, with a height of 202 
feet in the clear, is lighted by five great coronas. These coronas 
are suspended 140 feet from the floor. The central corona is 75 
feet in diameter, and carries 102 lights; the other four, which are 
equally distributed along the main longitudinal axis, are 60 feet in 
diameter, and carry yS lights each, making a total of 414 two 
thousand candle-power lights. The lamps are hung in two concen- 
tric circles. Although the coronas are in reality hanging galleries 
in which the lamp trimmer can walk at ease, they look light and 
graceful at the great height at which they are suspended, and the 
ladders by which they are reached from the great trusses would 
not be noticed by the ordinary observer. The effect of the lighting 



ELECTRICITY. 



305 



is fine beyond expectation. Opal globes are used on the lamps, as 
upon all the arc lamps in the great plant. These diffuse the light, 
and with the great spread of the coronas and the reflection from 
the arched roof the lighting is so uniform that the eye cannot dis- 
tinguish any variation of intensity upon the floor or the exhibit 
pavilions. 

One of the most direct evidences of the magnificent resources of 
American engineers is given in the conduct of the incandescent 
licrhtino- of the Fair. The Westing-house Electric and Manufactur- 





2> 




\— -^ 



COLUMBIAN FOUNTAIN — THK OUTRIDERS. 



ino; Co., having; secured the contract to furnish this immense service 
at figures far below the cost, as such work had always been done, 
it became necessary to devise a system more economical and at the 
same time more flexible. This was done. They devised and con- 
structed in less than six months larger machines than had ever 
been built for this work before, and on radically different lines, 
embodying the principles of the alternating system of transmission. 
By this system hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of copper 
wire were saved, as it was possible to send the current under high 
pressure to its destination on small wires, and then transform it 



306 KLECTRICITY. 

down at the point of utility. The courts decided that the Westing- 
house people had no right to the use of the Edison lamp about the 
time the company got ready to install the machines, and the whole 
system was a failure unless a new lamp could be made. This was 
also done at once, and thousands of operators were put to work in 
temporary quarters, and the installation was completed at as early 
a date as was necessary on account of the backwardness of the 
steam machinery that was to drive it. In this achievement new prin- 
ciples in electricity were put to work, and what many people deemed 
a wild experiment became the largest and most satisfactory in- 
stallation ever made. 

With the completion of the incandescent service it was pointed 
out that no provision had been made for small motors to operate 
the machinery of exhibitors in the various buildings. At once an 
alternating motor was placed at the service of the Exposition 
authorities, arc lights were run from the same lines, and in obedi- 
ence to a demand on the part of the United States Government a 
system of buoys lighted by incandescent ioo candle-power lamps 
was run along the deep water line from the city to the Exposition 
grounds. 

The electric fountains are among the prominent features at the 
Fair. Thousands of people stand at points of vantage about the 
great court each evening to watch the ever-changing beauties of 
these fountains. They are two in number, located on the lower 
terraces on either side of the McMonnies emblematical fountain, 
and are without a rival in ancient or modern days in hydraulic or 
electrical design. Supplied from the high pressure system placed 
for the fire protection of the World's Fair by the Worthington 
pump people, each of these two fountains requires for its own indi- 
vidual service the full capacity of a 1 6-inch water main under ioo 
pounds pressure. Located as they are upon the lower terraces, 
the necessity arose for operating casemates below the surface level 
of the lake. Altogether thirty-eight 90-ampere projector lamps, 
with burnished silver parabolic reflectors, by their concentrated 
effort, illuminate in the most pleasing manner the ever-varying 
streams of water projected through the nearly 400 apertures pro- 



3o8 



Electricity. 



vided. The entire management of these fountains is directed from 
the northeast tower of Machinery Hall. 

The machinery used for the fountains is also used for charging 
the electric launches. There are fifty of these beautiful little boats, 
averaging forty feet long and having a carrying capacity of thirty 
people. After five or six hours charging each little launch will have 
stored away in its hold about forty horse-power hours of effective 
electrical energy, sufficient for ten or twelve hours continuous run. 
This charging station, located south and east of the Agricultural 




2,500 HORSE-POWER ELECTRIC GENERATOR IN POWER HOUSE OF INTRAMURAL RAIL- 
WAY — BUILT BY GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY. 

Building, is the most extensive ever put in in the United States, and 
probably in the world. 

Upon the United States battle-ship " Illinois " are shown the 
methods of ship lighting and the distribution of electricity for general 
ship uses. Two standard naval direct coupled, iron clad generating 
sets are located between decks. In all her fixtures, her side lights, 
mast-head lights, binnacle lights, lights for cabin, for magazine, for 
coal-bunkers and for all other purposes aboard ship, the best appli- 
ances are shown. Here, also, are actively displayed several search 
light projectors ; one of the largest projectors ever made in the 
United States, a 150-centimeter projector with a 200-ampere lamp. 

Of the Intramural Railway, suffice it to say that this most interest- 



ELECTRICITY. 309 

ing and most valuable demonstration of the applicability of elec- 
tricity to high speed interurban service is looked upon with the 
greatest interest throughout the country. The freedom from smoke 
and dust, from smell and discomfort, from overwrought sympathies 
at brutal treatment and overloading of sensate animals, together 
with the attendant comforts of well-lighted and cleanly cars, will 
do more to assist in the popularizing of suburban life than any 
advance thus far made in the science of transportation. The flexi- 
bility and reliability of its system, the easy extension of carrying 
capacity without a diminution of schedule' time due to overloading 
of engines, the easy extension of capacity without consideration of 
limits of strength of structure, will all be arguments in favor of 
electric traction strongly appealing to those most interested in 
elevated railway service. 

In the line of exhibits that are "the biggest in the world" 
Germany may be credited with two — the 120-ton Krupp gun and 
the six-foot Schuckert search-light. The latter, which is of more 
immediate interest to the electrical fraternity, is mounted on the 
northwestern corner of the promenade about the roof of the 
Manufactures Building, which is reached by four elevators in the 
northern part of the building. There seems to be no doubt that 
this is the largest projector yet constructed, and Mr. Tischendoerfer, 
the World's Fair representative of Schuckert & Co., challenges 
comparison with any search-light in the world operated under like 
conditions. The lamp itself is six feet in diameter, and it is claimed 
that the illuminating strength of the arc is 57,000 candle-power, 
which is increased to 194,000,000 candle-power on the surface of 
the parabolic mirror. This mirror is seven-eighths of an inch thick, 
and six months was consumed in the labor of grinding and polish- 
ing it. After the mirror was completed, great care was necessary, 
of course, in packing it for shipment to Chicago. A padded 
receptacle was made, and this was enclosed in a strong wooden 
frame-work. The mirror was attached in this cage by four chains 
at the corners, and jarring was prevented by lateral springs fastened 
to the sides of the frame-work. In this manner the fragile mirror 
was safely transported by land and sea to its final resting-place on 



3io 



ELECTRICITY. 



the Manufactures Building at Jackson Park. It is claimed for the 
light that it can be seen distinctly for ioo miles if sent from a high 
point. 

While the electrical display at the Exposition is greater in 
quantity outside the Electrical Building, the display inside is more 
varied, and certainly more beautiful. The building itself stands 

between Manufactures and Mines 
and Mining. Its south front faces 
the Grand Plaza, and its north the 
Lagoon. Its dimensions are 345 x 690 
feet ; its area five and one-half acres, 
and its cost $401,000. The archi- 
tects were Messrs. Van Brunt & 
Howe, of Kansas City. The build- 
ing is of Italian renaissance in style, 
and is elaborately finished with many 
towers. The general plan is based 
upon a longitudinal nave 1 1 5 feet 
wide and 114 feet high, crossed in 
the middle by a transept of the same 
width and height. The nave and 
the transept have a pitched roof with 
a range of skylights at the bottom 
of the pitch, and clere-story windows. 
The rest of the building is covered 
with a flat roof. The second story 
franklin watching thk lightning, is composed of a series of galleries 
{Carl Rohi-Smith.) connected across the nave by two 

bridges, and reached by four grand staircases. The exterior walls 
of the building are composed of a continuous Corinthian order 
of pilasters supporting a full entablature and resting upon a stylo- 
bate. At each of the four corners of the building is a pavilion, 
above which rises a light open spire or tower 169 feet high. Inter- 
mediate between these corner pavilions and the central pavilion on 
the east and west sides there is a subordinate pavilion bearing a 
low, square dome upon an open lantern. The building has *an 




312 



ELECTRICITY. 



open portico extending along the whole of the south facade. The 
lower, or Ionic order, forming an open screen in front of it. The 
details of the exterior orders are richly decorated, the general 
tendency of the decorations being to illustrate the purposes of the 
building. The walls of the hemicycle and of the various porticos 
and loggia are highly enriched with color. All of these are most 
brilliantly illuminated. The southern entrance forms one of the 
richest effects to be found in all the buildings of the Fair. A 




PAVILION OF AMERICAN BELL TELEPHONE COMPANY. 



great statue of Benjamin Franklin, modelled by the celebrated 
sculptor, Carl Rohl-Smith, stands in the front of this entrance. 
There are 40,000 panes of glass in this structure, or more than in any 
of the other buildings. Over the various entrances names of such 
electricians as Franklin, Galvani, Ampere, Farraday, Ohm, Morse, 
Siemens, Davy, Volta, Guericke and others. In selecting these 
names it was thought best not to honor thus any electrician who is 
now living. 

Beginning with the south entrance to the building is the exhibit 
of the American Bell Telephone Company. Although there is no 
competition in its line, the company has gone to an expense of 



ELECTRICITY. 



3*3 



more than $150,000 to perfect one of the most unique and interest- 
ing exhibits on the Exposition grounds. Their pavilion is often 
criticised as being more properly adapted to out-of-door service, 
and should have been a permanent structure, as it is worked out in 
wonderful detail of design and architecture. Its central feature is 
a dome of bell shape, which is fitted up for use as an audience 
chamber. In it are given by long distance transmission opera and 
other music, speeches and vocal selections, the newly invented 
microphone being used to magnify the sounds so that the music 
which is borne over the lines from New York can be heard in 
almost any part of the great Electrical Building. Long distance 
connection is constantly established with New York and Boston, 

and through 
these cities 
with all the ad- 
jacent coun- 
try, so a visitor 
may call up a 
friend in al- 
most any part 
of the East and 
hold a very sat- 
isfactory con- 
versation. The 
working part 
of the exhibit 
i s a switch- 
board connect- 
ing all the telephones in the Exposition grounds, numbering some 
three hundred. The " Hello ! " girls are seated in full view of 
passers through the pavilion, so that all the mechanism of connect- 
ing two parties who wish to converse may be clearly seen. Visitors 
have failed to observe in the mild-mannered young ladies any of 
those mulish propensities with which the telephone user ordinarily 
associates them. The photophone is perhaps the newest invention 
shown in connection with the exhibit. Upon a ray of light, with- 




SCENE IN MODEI, THEATRE. 



3H 



ELECTRICITY. 



out any wire or other connection, messages are sent and conversa- 
tion may be held. Fully equipped diving apparatus is a part of the 
exhibit with telephone attachments ; also marine and army tele- 
phones. There are models of more than 500 patents shown. 

The next most prominent exhibit in the building is that of the 
Western Electric Company, of Chicago, immediately to the east of 
the main south entrance. This company has three pavilions, one 
an Egyptian temple paneled on the outside most uniquely with 
Egyptian figures and groups associated with electricity. For 
instance, there is a group of Egyptian maidens, of the time of 
Rameses the Second, operating a telephone board, and another 
group is of men of the same period laying telegraph lines. The 




THE EGYPTIAN TEMPEE. 



conceit is very popular. The two other pavilions are an instrument 
room, serving also to exhibit show case and show window lighting, 
and as a model theatre, one of the most interesting of all the 
exhibits. A firm of scene painters, Sosman & Landis, prepared 
the interior most elaborately, and the most artistic lighting known 



ELECTRICITY. 



315 



is employed to make a moving picture of the (24) hours of the day, 
with all the soft tints of daylight and dusk, the long shadows of 
evening, and the mellow light of the moon, as well as the Mare of 
the mid-day sun. A tower covered with lamps, from the top of 




EXHIBIT OF WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY. 

which are made to shoot in four directions long streaks resembling 
forked lightning, is an exhibit that holds the crowds longer than most 
other exhibits. The line of exhibits by this company is fuller and 
more varied than that of any other company, and they cover almost 
the whole field of commercial electricity. History has not been 
neglected and the early work of one of the greatest electricians, 
Prof. Moses G. Farmer, is shown in model form. An incandescent 
lamp, used with others like it to light his house in 1847, nas a 
platinum filament and a glass case closed at both ends with copper 
plates. The current was generated by a primary battery, as the 
dynamo had not been invented. A railway motor made about the 
same time is also shown. 



3i6 



ELECTRICITY. 



Besides a full line of central station apparatus and railway work, 
the Brush Company, whose exhibit is on the w,est side of the south 
main entrance, matching as to space and pavilion the exhibit of the 
Western Electric Company, has for a central feature a pavilion of 
very pretty design employed to show house and auditorium light- 
ing. The lights are entirely out of view and focus their rays upon 
the ceiling, which is a dome, tinted cream color. This is by far the 
best piece of lighting of its character in the building. 

Under the auspices of this company is also shown the new rail- 
way motor of the Sperry Electric Railway Company, said to be an 
advancement over others on account of its economy in operation. 




MURAL DKCORATTON IN EXHIBIT OF WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY. 



Moving- down the centre of the building- toward the north is one 
of the spaces of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company of Pittsburgh. The Westinghouse people were slow to 
indicate that they would exhibit, as they feared that the great 
incandescent lamp contract would employ all their time and money. 
Their business and standing, financially, was so improved, however, 
with the securing of that contract that they decided to show a full 



3i8 



Electricity. 



line of apparatus, especially artistic lighting with station service and 
railway apparatus. Their presence in the building is emphasized 
on the south wall, by a mural decoration in incandescent lamps, 
showing the figure of Columbus with the names, dates 1 492-1 892, 




PART OF WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY'S EXHIBIT. 

and some beautiful scroll work. Altogether 1988 incandescent 
lamps of 16 candle-power in frosted and plain white and colors are 
employed in this artistic piece of work. On the ground floor a 
special dark building is used to illuminate the recent and absorbingly 
interesting developments made by Nicola Tesla, of the use of high 
tension alternating currents. Lafge glass plates backed with tin 
foil,- on which are outlined, in paper, various figures, are used, and 
on them the play of the electric spark produces effects that are 
dazzling and extremely beautiful. A voltage of 30/000 is used up 
to the condensers, and after it leaves them it is estimated that the 
current has a power of two million volts. Mr. Tesla also shows a 
number of other interesting experiments, some of which are so 
marvellous as to be almost beyond description. The Westinghouse 
Company also has, as an exhibit, almost the entire display of 



ELECTRICITY. 



319 



incandescent lighting on the grounds. To execute this enormous 
work they have built and installed, within the year, twelve generators 
of a total capacity each of 15,000 incandescent lights of 16 candle- 
power each. These are installed in Machinery Hall, adjacent to the 
steam plant, from which point the current is distributed throughout 
the grounds. 

The Fort Wayne Electric Company makes a fine exhibit in Sec- 
tion M, with a commercial lighting station in full operation. It 
shows to the public exactly what should go into a regular station to 
meet any and all demands for service. Direct current dynamos for 
arc lighting, and incandescent alternating dynamos for the same 
service, and lamps of both kinds massed so as to give the investi- 
gator ample opportunity to investigate the workings of both sys- 
tems. The utility of the electric motor for factory service is also 
strikingly illustrated, as, in place of a steam engine, two motors take 
their places and furnish the power to run the machines on exhi- 
bition. One of the features is a new type of alternating machine, 




EXHIBIT OF FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC COMPANY. 



the latest design of James Wood. Its peculiarity and merit is in 

its size, which is very small for its capacity. Its speed is also very 

slow, and these two features alone would commend it to the expert. 

The General Electric Company makes a classified display of its 



320 



Electricity 




EEECTRIC MOTOR USED WITH FORCE PUMP. 



various productions. This company occupies eight distinct blocks 
of space in the centre of the ground floor, and each block contains 
a distinct type of apparatus. In one are shown railway appliances 
and motors under the head of power transmission. Here are 
shown power generators of the latest and largest types, railway 
trucks fitted with motors and electric air brakes ; the various pieces 
of apparatus used for 
equipping a street rail- 
way system, including 
everything from the road- 
bed to the head light for 
the cars ; cranes fitted 
with motors for lifting 
and handling heavy 
freight, and motors for 
every kind of service 
great or small. In an- 
other block is shown an arc lighting station operated by a huge 
motor with an elaborate system of shafting under the floor, and 
which furnishes arc lights for a large portion of the Electricity 
Building. 

In an adjoining block is shown alternating current apparatus, the 
most prominent feature of which is a large direct connected dynamo 
and engine. Search lights of all kinds and marine signaling appa- 
ratus are displayed, together with the latest developments in this 
line made by Prof. Thompson. 

The display in the next block of Mr. Edison's lamps and system 
-of lighting is one of the greatest interest. Incandescent lamps 
ranging from a power of ^ of a candle to 250 candle-power, and 
examples of all his lamps from the very first to the latest, are shown, 
as well as all of the materials for and the various stages of their 
manufacture. In several cases are shown samples of all the fibrous 
materials used in the experiments which led to the adoption of 
Japanese bamboo, as the material to be used for the filament of the 
lamp. These experiments alone cost Mr. Edison a quarter of a 
million of dollars. Here also is shown the first direct connected 



ELECTRICITY. 



321 



engine and dynamo, the design of Mr. Edison. This identical 
machine was exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1890, where it 
created a veritable sensation. It has been in constant use since, 
and is still capable of good service. 

The next block shows the apparatus used for isolated stations, 
such as are found in large hotels and office buildings. Some very- 
fine designs for utilizing the usually very cramped space allowed in 
such buildings are shown. 

The adjoining 
block shows the 
application of elec- 
tricity to mining, 
and exemplifies 
how electricity can 
replace in every 
way the use of 
steam or com- 
pressed air, utiliz- 
ing, by the way, 
what has been a 
source of the 
greatest trouble to 
mine owners, and 
that is the water 
found in mines. 
Here is shown the 
Pel to n wat e r 
wheel operating 
a dynamo which 
produced a cur- 
rent of three hun- 
dred volts. This is transformed to a voltage of 6,000, and at the 
mine is reduced again to whatever voltage is necessary for safe 
use. Mining pumps for draining mines, drills, mining railways, and 
in fact all apparatus used in modern mining practice is shown in 
operation and all operated by electricity. 




1,500 HORSE-POWER DYNAMO. 

Exhibit of General Electric Company. 



322 



ELECTRICITY. 



In the centre of the building the " tower of light " is intended as 
the glorification of the Edison lamp and the Edison system of 
incandescent lighting. It was designed by Luther Stieringer for 
the General Electric Company, and the plans were approved by Mr. 
Edison. The tower is 82 feet 
high and arises from a circular 
pavilion 32 feet in diameter. 
The glass exhibit in this pavilion 
is made by the Phoenix Glass 
Company, of Pittsburg, and is 
grouped in the space between 
the base of the column, which is 
polygonal and faced with mir- 
rors, and the circular row of col- 
umns supporting the roof of the 
pavilion. Above the pavilion is 
a graceful cylindrical shaft of 
staff, ending in an elaborately 
ornamented gilded capital. The 
surface of the shaft is relieved by 
dark lines of moulding, arranged 
in geometrical designs, as shown 
in the illustration, with little six 
candle-power lamps of different 
colors inserted at frequent and 
regular intervals. Surmounting 
the capital of the shaft is the 
crowning feature of the tower. 

_,.... . THE "TOWER OF LIGHT." 

I his is the great prismatic 

bulb, composed of about 30,000 pieces of cut glass, arranged on a 
stout frame work in the shape of an incandescent lamp. The lamp 
is eight feet high and four feet in diameter at its greatest width. 
The prisms are made of cut glass and are only three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter. To place each one in position required the ser- 
vices of two men, one working inside and one outside of the bulb 
frame. The frame is made of ano-le iron and covered with a wire 




ELECTRICITY. 323 

hood, the shape of an incandescent lamp. The prisms were 
attached to the outside of the wire hood, and it took eight men five 
weeks to construct the bulb. Each prism was fastened with copper 
wire in order to avoid corrosion, this being the best metal for such 
purposes. The weight of the bulb completed is 1,000 pounds. The 
tower is handsome and impressive when not illuminated ; but at 
night, with its 5,000 little poipts of light in red, white and blue, and 
the great bulb, lined with incandescent lamps of ordinary size, flash- 
ing and scintillating in every direction, the effect is very striking 
and beautiful. The lamps on the shaft are wired in such a manner 
that the designs formed by the lines of light can be changed at 
will. The " tower of light " will linger in the memory of the visitor 
as one of the beautiful spectacles at the Fair. 

In the German section of the Electricity Building the largest and 
most varied private display is made by the Allgemeine Ellektrici- 
tatts Gesellschaft of Berlin. The exhibit of this firm is on the 
ground floor in Section D, and covers a floor space of about 1,600 
square feet, and is completely filled with the multiform applications 
produced by this important company. An elaborate scheme of 
power transmission is shown beginning with a 60 kilowatt multi- 
pola motor, wound for 500 volts, directly belted to a three-phase 
dynamo. The motor, which is operated by current from Machinery 
Hall, is designed for 500 revolutions a minute, and its field mag- 
nets are of cast iron, cast in one piece with foundation plate. The 
armature is of the drum type, and consists of one layer of copper 
bars of rectangular section. The dynamo driven by this motor 
produced three alternating currents of a phase of 120 degrees dif- 
ference. It has a capacity of 72 kilowatts at 428 revolutions, the 
potential being 120 volts. A conspicuous feature of the exhibit is 
the large stage lighting regulator, by the use of which it is claimed 
that any lighting effect needed on the stage of a theatre can be 
produced. All the mechanism needed for producing light of dif- 
ferent colors and intensity is combined in this appliance. There is 
also a large display of elaborate devices for the charging and dis- 
charging of accumulators, a branch of electrical practice in which 
Europe is far ahead of America. The exhibit of arc and incandes- 



324 Electricity. 

cent lamps, fixtures, house goods, switches, fuses, cut-outs, lightning 
arresters, sockets and other goods entering into the output of a 
general electrical manufacturing house is very large and compre- 
hensive, and cannot here be described in detail. It may be men- 
tioned that the annual production of the company in incandescent 
lamps is said to reach 1,500,000. A special table is devoted to 
showing the processes necessary for, the manufacture of these 
lamps. Among the special electrical applications shown are hair 
curlers, glue pots, cigar lighters and electric clocks arranged for 
connection with ordinary incandescent circuits, by which they may 
be kept constantly wound up and regulated from the central sta- 
tion. At a pillar in the middle of the exhibit several of these 
clocks show the time in different cities. 

In the French section the display of the Bureau de Posts et 
Telegraphes is exceedingly complete and interesting, containing as 
it does many objects of historical interest. Controlling, as the gov- 
ernment does, the telegraph and telephone, every form of apparatus 
used is shown. The Societe Gramme shows M. Gramme's first 
dynamo, exhibited at the Vienna Exposition of 1873. Some very 
fine examples of modern lighthouses are shown in actual operation, 
fixed lights and one lens, the largest ever made for a flash light. 
These lights are shown at night illuminated, and are very attractive. 

The Japanese Government shows its advancement in electric 
science by a display of electro-Seismographic apparatus used in 
recording the direction, force and vibratory movements of earth- 
quakes. It is a noteworthy fact that in this line Japan has taught 
a lesson to the more advanced scientific nations, for they have orig- 
inated the apparatus necessary, and other nations have copied them 
extensively without being able to even suggest any improvements 
thereon. In the matter of artistic forms of electroliers for incan- 
descent lighting the exhibits of bamboo fixtures are unique and 
handsome. 

E. "S. Greeley & Co. make a fine exhibit of telegraph instru- 
ments and appliances for the household. The "Victor" key 
of gold and ivory with which President Cleveland started the 



ELECTRICITY. 



325 



machinery on the opening day of the Exposition is a feature of the 
display. 

Some of the best and most novel displays are located in the 




EXHIBIT OF E. S. GREELEY & CO. 

gallery. Gray's Telautograph, or writing machine, excites great 
interest not only on account of its novelty, but because of its accu- 
rate applicability to uses hitherto undreamed of. Not only can 
autograph messages be sent, but checks can be signed at a dis- 
tance and drawings can be sent for newspaper use with the cer- 
tainty that whatever is written or drawn on the sending instrument 



326 ELECTRICITY. 

it will be faithfully reproduced at the receiving instrument in its 
most trivial detail. 

The North American Phonograph Company makes a fine dis- 
play of Mr. Edison's pet machines, and exhibits a number of his- 
torical instruments which show the development of the machine 
from the beginning. Instruments for use in^ the office to replace 
the stenographer, machines for the school and instruments for the 
house or public entertainment are here in great variety. One type 
of phonograph is capable of giving an entire opera, each act being 
recorded on a separate cylinder. Mr. Edison's Kinetograph, a 
combination of the Phonograph and Stereopticon, will not only 
record and deliver a speech, but shows the speaker on a screen, 
faithfully reproducing his every movement and facial expression. 

The Ansonia Electric Company shows a full line of electric 
household utensils, and has a trained cook to show their practical 
operation. Frying, baking, boiling, stewing, ironing, etc., are shown, 
and the toothsome results are distributed to show that electric 
cooking and heating is not only a possibility, but a process that is 
as cheap, if not cheaper, than the old method, and far more satis- 
factory and cleanly. 

The Western Union Telegraph Company makes a collective 
display, which contains many objects of the highest historical value. 
The receiving instrument of Morse, which he used in 1837, the first 
recording telegraph ever made, is here. A model of the steamship 
Great Eastern, which was used so extensively in completing the 
Atlantic telegraph, the grapnel used to recover the first cable after 
it had parted in mid-ocean, and numerous exhibits from the collec- 
tion of the late Cyrus Field are in this display. 

The Commercial Cable Company also has a unique exhibit of the 
instruments used to operate the modern cable, and visitors can 
send and receive messages over a line which exactly represents 
the largest of the Atlantic cables. 

W. R. Brixey shows in a very handsome manner insulated wires 
and cables of all kinds — deep sea, underground, telegraph and tel- 
ephone. The feature of this display is rubber from the tree to the 



ELECTRICITY. 327 

cable, showing the actual rubber tree growing and crude and man- 
ufactured rubber in every form and stage of process. 

Electric heat applied to the incubator for hatching poultry is 
pleasingly shown by H. W. Axford. Not only does electricity re- 
place the brooding hen, but cares for the motherless chick after 
the process is completed, and does it in a manner that is precision 
itself. A strange fact is that electricity does in 19 days what the 
hen requires 22 days to accomplish, and with more certainty. 

A machine for use in large clothing factories, and which can cut 
with absolute precision through 36 thicknesses of cloth, thus mak- 
ing 36 suits at once, and doing the work of twice that many hands, 
is shown by the Electric Cloth Cutting Machine Company. 

A machine which excites the attention not only of the jewelry 
fraternity, for which it was specially designed, but of other engravers 
as well, is an automatic engraving machine, by which any wood-cut, 
letters, either sunken or raised — in fact, anything in relief or in 
intaglio — can be transferred to metal or other surfaces with abso- 
lute fidelity. It is shown by the National Automatic Engraving 
Machine Company. A pointed metal contact stylus passing over 
the lines of the object to be engraved or transferred by an elec- 
trical device causes a corresponding motion in the graving tool of 
the machine as it passes each line of the object to be reproduced, 
and thus the reproduction is made. 

France shows an electrically operated piano, which consists of an 
attachment that can be placed on any piano, and by turning a 
switch any desired selection will be produced in a masterly 
manner. 

Germany, in the gallery, has a beautifully decorated space show- 
ing the historical features of electricity in Germany, which tell 
largely the life and history of Von Siemens. The first dynamo 
ever made is here shown, as well as numerous other inventions of 
that wonderful genius. The display of the postal, telegraph and 
telephone departments of the German government are strongly 
representative of those branches, and illustrate by means of models 
and diagrams their development. 

Another exhibit that excites interest is a nickel-in-the-slot ma- 



328 



ELECTRICITY. 



chine, operated by motors, that furnish a " shine " for one's boots, 
and does the work very thoroughly. 

Besides these will be found in endless profusion exhibits of wires 
and cables, copper in all forms for electrical purposes, instruments 
for measuring the current in various ways, and motors, push- 
buttons and bells — in fact, every known appliance for any and 
every purpose. In truth, it can be said that a house could, from 
the contents of the Electricity Building, be so completely equipped 
electrically that there would not be the slightest necessity for light- 
ing a match in it from one year's end to the other. Moreover, this 
house would be a marvel of comfort, and would be luxurious 
beyond all desire. 




COOKING BY ELECTRICITY. 



Perhaps another "electrical exhibition" a decade hence would 
show as great an advance over the present one as it does over the 
Centennial. While this seems impossible, every one will admit 



ELECTRICITY. 



329 



that the applications of electricity are still in their infancy, and the 
coming generations will certainly see wonderful advances in 
this science of " chaining the lightning and harnessing the thunder- 
bolt. ,, 





HE Building of all in the World's 
Fair which has received the 
highest encomiums from archi- 
well as laymen, for its classical beauty 
\v * an< ^ g race i s tne Gallery of Fine Arts. It is re- 
garded as having reached the anticipations of 
those who are aware that in all World's Fairs it 
is intended to make the Fine Arts Building a perfect example of 
each nation's taste and progress in architecture. Such a building 
must be more solidly built than the others. It must be as nearly 
fire-proof as possible, or it would be impossible to induce painters, 
sculptors and owners of the finest art works to send their treasures 
to it. As a result it follows that this one among all the buildings 
is oftenest preserved as a memorial of the past Exposition and as a 
permanent monument of the art progress of the nation which has 
managed the Fair. 

The task of designing this building at the Columbian Exposition 
was given to Charles B. Atwood, of New York, the designer-in- 
chief of the Exposition. Out of all the architects participating in 
the construction of buildings his work has been awarded the palm. 
The exterior is of the pure Ionic style, the details having been 
carried out in the strictest and most academical manner. The pro- 
portions of the work have been adapted from those of the famous 
temple of the Erechtheum at Athens, but the composition of the 
general masses of the building has been treated with freedom after 
the manner of the Academie des Beaux Arts ; but though Mr. At- 
wood has made the building as scholarly as possible, it is as im- 
pressive to the layman as to the critic. The main structure is 
500x320 feet, and there are two annexes each 136x220 feet. 
These are connected with the central pavilion by colonnades. The 

33i 



332 FINE ARTS. 

walls are of brick and the roof of iron, so that the edifice may be 
considered of a permanent character, and all risk of harm to the 
works of art is reduced to a minimum. In the colonnades and 
great entrance loggias are sculptured friezes after the manner of 
the frieze of the Parthenon at Athens. On the attic story of the 
great entrances are heroic statues representing the arts and sci- 
ences. Between these and the panels are portrait busts of the 
masters of art, while crowning the dome of the main pavilion is a 
great winged figure of Victory. All about the exterior colonnades 
are replicas in large size of the most celebrated antiques. 

The interior of the main building contains a court ioo feet wide 
running north and south, and crossing one of the same dimensions 
lying east and west. At the point of intersection of these courts is a 
great dome 125 feet high and 75 feet in diameter. In this tribune in 
the centre of the building are displayed a few of the best works of 
sculpture. All the sculptural display is arranged on the ground- 
floor of these great courts. Around these courts run galleries 24 
feet above the floor, 20 feet wide, and lighted by great central sky- 
lights. Under these galleries in alcoves are displayed all the 
sculptural bas-reliefs and casts of architectural remains. In the 
gallery floor, on the walls and on cross screens are displayed all 
the architectural plans, the etchings, photographs and prints shown 
in the building. The picture galleries are all arranged in the four 
angles of the building. They are 30 feet in height, and average 30 
by 60 feet of floor space. In the annexes the easterly pavilion is 
entirely occupied by the French collection. The American section, 
which is in the angle of the main structure nearest the French 
pavilion, exhibits all the notable French paintings owned in America 
in a corridor connecting with the pavilion. The westerly pavilion 
is occupied by several of the foreign peoples whose collections are 
much smaller. In the main structure outside galleries 40 feet wide 
form a continuous promenade. Between the promenade and the 
nave are small rooms devoted to private collections of paintings 
and various art displays. Grand flights of steps lead up to the 
richly sculptured great portals, and the walls of the loggias of the 
colonnades are gorgeously adorned with mural paintings illustrat- 



FINE ARTS. 



333 



ing the history and progress of art. This building has one of the 
most ideal locations of all on the grounds. It is situated at the 
south side of the most highly improved portion of the Park, and 
just south of the group of State buildings. Its south front faces 
directly upon the north Lagoon. It is separated from the Lagoon 
by beautiful terraces ornamented with balustrades, with an immense 
flight of steps. From the main portal there is a landing for boats, 
and the view from these steps is an exact reversal of the beautiful 
one from the colonnade connecting the buildings for Agriculture 




The SECRET. {Sculpture by Theo. Baur.) 



and Machinery, but it differs from that in having for a prospect the 
Wooded Island and the beauties of nature instead of the magnifi- 
cent display of architectural art around the Grand Plaza and Basin. 
To the north of the main structure and between the annexes lies a 
great open lawn, and across it the observer looks toward the group 
of State buildings. The immediate neighborhood of the Gallery 
of Fine Arts is ornamented^with groups of statues, replicas and 
ornaments of classic art. It is a favorite resort. 

Much fear was expressed during the first preparations for the 
Exposition that the department of Fine Arts would be the weakest 



334 FlN £ ARTS. 

of all. It was said that the location of the Exposition at Chicago 
was immensely unfavorable to the prospects for a fine display in 
this line. It was said that Europe would not contribute its art col- 
lections, or any considerable portion of them, for the reason that 
Chicago was generally believed abroad to be a city far removed 
from the centre of education and culture in the United States. 
This point was raised, however, by persons who underrated Eu- 
ropean knowledge of the city chosen for the great Exposition. By 
no class was the selection of Chicago received with more satisfac- 
tion than by those interested in the development of art, and it soon 
became evident that the choice of that city was not only received 
favorably abroad, but actually with more satisfaction than if New 
York had been selected. From the very first the efforts of Halsey 
C. Ives, chief of the department of Fine Arts, have been received 
with encouragement, and have been marked by pronounced suc- 
cess. Interest and cordial co-operation were secured everywhere, 
and the results show in the building. The plans for the annex 
were enlarged, and though nothing except the best have been ad- 
mitted, every available space is crowded with the art treasures of 
the world. 

From the very fact that in this building were to be displayed the 
art treasures of the world, there was less attempt toward orna- 
mentation by mural decorations and sculpture than in some of the 
other buildings. Nevertheless, there are many notable features of 
sculpture and painting designed for ornamentation of the building, 
as well as the host which are exhibited. Surmounting the dome is 
a colossal statue of the famous figure " Winged Victory." Above 
the principal entrances, and upon the exterior frieze, are portraits 
of the old masters, and sculptured bas-relief decorations. Other 
sculptures of Martiny are upon the friezes of the building. "Archi- 
tecture " is a chaste figure with a stern yet not unpleasing face 
denoting intellectuality and study. The lines of her drapery are 
simple, and altogether different from the flowing robes of the volup- 
tuous one representing " Painting," every curve and line of whose face 
and figure speak of gaiety and sensuousness. " Music " is pensive 
and poetic, her beauty somewhat overshadowed by the melancholy 



FIN£ ARTS. 



335 




Kenyon Cox {U. S.). 

cast of her features and the drooping lines of her figure. " Sculp- 
ture " is more vigorous and robust than the other sisters, and her 
face and figure are charac- 
terized by superior strength 
and firmness. On either 
side of these figures are two 
large winged female figures 
holding garlands of flowers. 
There are two female fig- 
ures on each side of the 
main entrances supporting 
the pediments to right and 
left of doorways. These 
entrances are guarded by 
large lions, one on either 
side, designed by Theodore 
Baur and A. Phimister 
Proctor. 

The groups included in 
the classification of the the gold fish. Fred. W. Freer (U. S.). 




336 



FINK ARTS. 




AN AUDIENCE AT AGRIPpa's / ji Z~ il^BHiilffl 

B. L. Alma Tadema [Great Britain) 

FineA MsDepartmentareasfolIows:Scuipture;pa; ^ ino;]; 



PINE ARTS. 



337 



Painting in water-colors ; Painting on ivory, enamel, metal, porcelain 
or other wares ; fresco-painting on walls ; Engravings and etchings ; 
Prints ; Chalk, charcoal, pastel and other drawings ; Antique and 
modern carvings ; Engravings in medallions or in gems, cameos, 
intaglios ; Exhibits of private collections. 

In this building there are such vast numbers of exhibits, all 
worthy of careful inspection, that the visitor needs to be very in- 
dustrious who man- 
ages to see even the 
most noted pictures 
and statuary. There 
have been few pre- 
vious occasions when 
a collection of such 
size and uniform merit 
has been gathered. 
In the main building 
alone there are sev- 
enty-four galleries, va- 
rying in size from 
30x30 feet to 36x120 
feet. The four large 
courts and rotunda of 
the main building and 
the rotundas of the 
annexes are devoted 
to sculpture and archi- 
tecture, so it is com- 
paratively an easy mat- 
ter to locate everything 
of importance in these 
branches. But as the 
wall space is immense, 

there is, of course, a greater difficulty experienced in finding any 
special painting. For the exhibition of architectural designs, en- 
gravings, etc., there are reserved eighty-eight alcoves, twenty- 




the struggle for work. By J. Gelert. 



338 P IN £ ARTS. 

eio-ht fronting on the main floor of the east and west courts, and 
sixty on the second floor gallery. 

The allotments to the different nations are as follows : The space 
in the northwest corner of the building, bounded by the north and 



country fair in mora, Sweden. Anders L. Zorn, {Sweden). 

west courts, has been given to Germany and Austria for statuary 
and oil paintings, with the adjacent gallery space for water-colors 
and drawings. France has the entire space in the east pavilion or 
annex, except the westerly series of galleries contained in it. Italy, 
Sweden, Norway and Denmark occupy the west pavilion or annex. 
Russia, Holland, Japan, Spain and Mexico have the southwest 
corner of the main building, bounded by the west and south courts. 
Great Britain, Canada and other English possessions have the 
southeast corner, bounded by the south and east courts, and the 
United States has the northeast corner, bounded by the north 
and east courts, with space in the southwest gallery for her archi- 
tectural drawings. Miscellaneous paintings and drawings are to 
be found in the galleries other than those mentioned as allotted 



FINE ARTS. 



339 



to German water-colors and drawings, and American architectural 
drawings. 

Keeping in mind this distribution of space, one may easily 
find any statue or 
canvas he may desire 
to examine, as the 
art works of French 
artists are found in 
the French section, 
of German artists in 
the German section, 
etc. Loan collections, 
which consist of the 
works of artists of 
various nationalities, 
are amassed together 
in the space devoted 
to such collections in 
the United States sec- 
tion, regardless of the 
nationalities of the 
artists. 

In the German sec- 
tion many beautiful 
statues and groups 
of statuary are to be 
found, among which 
the following are some 
of the most notable: in 
room 30 in this section 
is the bronze figure, 
" The Messenger from 
Marathon," by Max 

Kruse ; and the " Fish- daughter oe the rajah. Paul Slnibaldi {France). 

erman and Mermaid," 

also bronze, by linger. In room 34 are also several very fine 



"J^Sfc 






' 5 


J . 


* 





34° 



fin£ arts. 



bronzes, and in 33 is " Saved," by Adolph Brutt, representing a 
sailor in his rough garb carrying the figure of a young wo- 
man. This is a bronze. " Eve," by the same artist, represents a 




village in champagne. Ednwnd Petiljean (France). 

woman with two children in her arms (Cain and Abel). "The 
Devil Catching Flies " is particularly Germanesque in treatment. 
The artist is Somner. Herter shows a "Triton Catching a Mer- 
maid." Siemering has a strong figure typifying " Peace." Heider- 
rich exhibits two hunting groups, " In the Open Field," and " Badger 
Hunting." In painting, it is hard, when all are excellent, to select 
one more deserving of mention than another. Still we venture to 
name a few. Schlabitz has a beautiful " Church Interior," and 
Norman a fine lake and mountain view. Wimmer's portrait of 
William II. is excellent, and a large nude figure by Stockinger is 
well drawn and colored. The same can be said of a partially nude 
female figure by Schauss. An " Interior Scene," by Fischer-Corlin, 



FINE ARTS. 



341 



is good, and two marines by Bartels are excellent. Lespering's 
" Sick Girl " is quite a gem, and Von Stettin's " Italian Boys in 
Paris" is particularly strong in color and drawing. A small 
"Interior" by Weimer is a gem, as is another near it by Albert 
Flamm. In room 34 Bohrdt's " Marine " to the right on entering 
is magnificent, and nearly as good is the " View on the Beach," 
hanging just above it. Gude's " Marine " is also fine, but the most 
attractive pic- 
ture in the 
room is 
Pap peritz's 
" Daughter of 
H e rodias." 
Hildeb rand's 
immense can- 
vas " T u 1 1 i a 
Attempting to 
Drive her 
Chariot over 
the Body of 
her Murdered 
F a t h e r," is 
very strongly 
drawn and 
painted. I n 
room 33 per- 
haps the best 
canvas is 
VolzV'Mary," 
thouo-h its set- 
ting in exces- 
sive green de- 
tracts from its 

beauty. "The Nun," by Hoecker, is good, as are the "Death 
of Dante," by Freiderich ; " Flag of Truce," by Speyer ; " Cha- 
mois Hunter" and "Rafting on the Isar River," by Karl Knabl; 




PROF. MOMMSEN. 



Ludwig Knaus {Berlin). 



342 FINE ARTS. 

"Fishing in Norway," by Ekenas — these are all from Munich; 
"Near Naples," by Achenbach ; "Alone," by Alberts; "Village in 
the Spessart," by Andorf ; "Still Life on the Game Preserve," by 




a country festival. Ludwig Kudus {Berlin). 

Arnz; "The Wedding Morn," by Bachman ; "The Martyr's 
Daughter," by Baur ; "The Cigarette Factory," and "On the 
Heights," by Von der Beck; "The Vidette," by Carl Becker; 
" Sinai," by Bracht ; " The Surprise," by J. von Brandt; " Industrious 
Sisters," by Crola ; "On the Brook," by Deiter ; "Summer Even- 
ing," by Duecker; "Italian Women at Fountain," by Flamm ; 
" Vaccinating Office," by Gabl ; " Dante on the Alps," by Hertel ; 
"Queen Louise," by Hildebrand ; "North German Landscape," 
by Malchin ; "Summer Night," by Normann ; "The Flood," by 
Scherres ; " Landscape on the Riviera," by Turecke ; "At the Sick 
Bed," by Vautier ; " The Berlin Congress," by Von Werner ; and 
many portraits. The above-named paintings display the merits of 




-J 



344 



FINK ARTS. 



every school of painting in the empire, nearly every city of note 
being represented. In portraits, that of Professor Virchow, by 
Lehnbach, is probably the best of the collection. " Spinners " is 
excellent. " Sheep," by Zugel, and " Cattle," by Baisch, are fine 
paintings. In room 33 Eranswetter's " Christ " is an exceedingly 
strong painting, as is " The Rolling Mill," by Menzel. Lehnbach's 
portrait of Pope Leo is above criticism. Gysis' " Carnival in 
Greece" is a charming composition. In room 31 the strongest 
works are " The Review," by Schmidt ; " Balancing the Egg," "A 




the rolling mill. Prof. A. flrenzel {Berlin). 

Portrait," by Lehnbach ; "A Winter's Landscape," by Hildebrand, 
and the " Congress of Nations," by A. Von Werner. In room 30 
are a fine marine and river view, a desert scene, and a mountain 
landscape. 

In excellence but few, if any, of the exhibits surpass that of 
Austria. In room 36 are five panels by Hans Makart, representing 
"The Five Senses." These are fine nude female figures, and in 
drawing and colors are unsurpassed. " Never Returns," by Payer, 



FINE ARTS. 



345 



is a strong though sombre canvas. Other fine pictures are : 
" Equestrian Portrait of Washington," by Huber ; Von Bloss' 
" Children with 
Orange ; " Bach- 
er's "Mother of 
Christ;" a "Land- 
scape," by Russ ; 
a " Portrait," by 
Temple ; an " In- 
terior," by Probst; 
" Sunday," by Bro- 
zik, and a " Land- 
scape," by Fischer. 
In room 35 is Bro- 
zik's magnificent 
picture, "The De- 
fence of Prague;" 
Hinchl's " Prome- 
theus ;" Knupfer's 
" Mermaid and 
Man ; " Von Def- 
frigger's "Men 
and Girls Drink- 
ing : " Schmid's 
" Suffer Little Chil- 
dren ; " Werthei- 
mer's " Vinion ; " 
Muller's " Market 
Place at Cairo," 
and Deutsch's 
" Egyptian Interior ; 




PRINCE BISMARCK. 



Prof. Von Lendenbach (Munich). 

The Cemetery in Dalmatia," by Schind- 
ler ; " The Hunting Master," by Canon ; a portrait of William 
Unger, by Temple ; and two portraits by Unger, " Rembrandt " 
and " Reuben's Son." Mme. Wislingen, Austria's most famous 
woman painter, sends " Morning at the Seashore," " Breakfast 
in the Country," and the " Laundress of the Mountains." The 



346 FINE ARTS. 

" First Court of the Hussites," by Brozik, may be seen in the 
north alcove of the Austrian space, close by a heroic statue of the 
Emperor. Portraits of members of the royal family, by Victor 
Tilgner, the court painter, have been sent by the Emperor Franz 
Joseph himself. Hans Makart, the most celebrated painter of 
Austria, contributed five scenes. The microscopically small paint- 
ings of A. Pazmandy, a Hungarian artist, are very curious — one, 
"The Landing of Columbus," is half an inch square, and contains 
seventeen human figures, besides boats, sea, land, etc. They are 
highly finished paintings. 

The French claim, and it seems justly, to be the successors to the 
ancient Greeks in the art of sculpture. In their section the display 
is superb.' One group represents a " Combat between a Lion and 
Crocodile;" "Mercury," a beautiful small bronze; "The First 
Funeral" (Abel's); "The Return," a bronze relief; "Egyptian 




hard timks. Herbert E. Butler (U. S.). 

Harp Player," bronze; "The Suez Canal;" "Jezebel Torn by 
Dogs ; " " David's Triumph ; " "Age of Iron ; " " The Age of Stone ; " 
" Genius of the Grave ; " " Earth ; " " Ninon ; " " The First Sin ; " 



FINE ARTS. 



" Source of the Seine ; " "The First Corn," and "The Blind Carry- 
ing the Paralytic." Probably the most intense work in this exhibit 
is " The Bullet in the Head," an old woman holding in her lap the 

dead body of 
her grandchild, 
killed during 
the Coup d'- 
Etat. Other 
fine ones are 
Aube's " Dan- 
te," a marble 
statuette cop- 
ied from the 
original bronze 
figure which 
stands in front 
of the College 
of France; 
F r e m iet's 
"Jeanne d'- 
Arc," the " Go- 
rilla; " Chapu's 
"Joan of Arc ; " 
Rodin's " Les 
Bourgeois de 
Calais ; " Fal- 
guire's "French 
Republic;" 
Idrac's " Sa- 
lammbo ; " four 
figures from the Lamericiere Monument, by Dubois ; two groups 
by Mercie; Cain's "Attack of the Tigers ; " Berria's famous " Child 
Mozart." 

In the French exhibit there is also a magnificent display of his- 
toric sculptures, consisting of a collection of casts, duplications of 
the most important reproductions of works shown in the Museum 




The open sea. Walter L. Dean (U. S.). 



FinH arts. 349 

of Comparative Sculpture, in the Trocadero Palace in Paris. 




BASH.USSA. Joseph Wenckler {France). 

These casts show portions of the facades of churches and cathedrals, 
grand portals, beautiful galleries, altars, statues, columns, capitals, 



FINE ARTS. 



etc. ' They are as perfect as the highest degree of French art and 
skill can make them, even the time-worn appearance of the originals 
being faithfully reproduced. These replicas are not reduced in 
size, and consequently some of them are very large; one, 41 x 24 
feet, shows a portion of the Church of St. Giles ; one, 20 x 36 feet, 
is from the gallery of Limoges Cathedral ; one from the " Portal of 
the Virgin," from Notre Dame, Paris, is 18 x 25 feet, etc. The 

architecture and sculp- 
tures represented be- 
gin with the art era of 
the twelfth century, 
and are followed down 
to the seventeenth 
century era continu- 
ously, the examples 
chosen as follows : 
The Cathedrals of 
Chartres and Bourges 
(12th) ; Paris, Rheims, 
Amiens, Lyons, Rouen 
andLaon (13th) ; Bor- 
deaux, Nantes and 
Sens (14th) ; Mans 
(15th); Beauvais, Li- 
moges and Tours 
(16th) ; the churches 
of St. Giles, St. Tro- 
phime at Aries; St. 
Martin at Brive; St. 
Euthrope at Saintcs, 
and Notre Dame du 
Port at Clermont-Fer- 
rand (1 2th) ; St. Denis 
and St. Croix at 
Nievre (13th); St. Maclou at Rouen (16th); St. Nicholas and 
St. Jean at Troyes (16th) ; the cloisters of Moissac (12th); the 




von helmhoi/tz. Ludwig Knaus (Berlin). 



FINE AR^S. 



351 



Chapel of St. Germer (13th); the plateau of Lude (15th); 
and Gaillon (16th); the Hotel de Rohan, Paris; the Palace of 




UNITED STATES. — THE HUNT BALL. [Jules /-. Stewart.) 

Versailles, and the Hotel de Ville of Toulon (17th). The "Christ 
of Amiens " shows the height to which the sculptor's art had 
risen in the medieval ages, and though there was later a de- 
cadence from such sublime ideals and execution, yet the gal- 
lery of the Cathedral of Limoges, wrought in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, during the reign of Francis I., shows a Renaissance. The 
tomb of Louis de Breze, husband of the famous Diane de Poitiers, 
and the door and doorways of the Church of St. Maclou, of Rouen, 
are fine examples of the sixteenth century Renaissance.. The 
French government has kindly presented to the American people a 
large number of these casts, with the understanding that they are 
to be placed in some American art museum. This grand collection 
was obtained chiefly through the exertions of Prof. Halsey C. Ives, 
director of the St. Louis Museum of Fine Arts, who is also chief of 
the Department of Fine Arts of the Columbian Exposition. 

In paintings, the artists represented and the subjects treated by 



35* 



fine: arts. 



them would require a catalogue nearly as large as this volume to 
merely name them, and even in the briefest manner note their 
peculiarities and beauties. In the French section are found, among 
hundreds of first-class canvases, the following, of world-wide celeb- 
rity: Dagnan Bouveret's famous "Conscripts;" the "Prisoner" 

and " El Bravo Toro," by Aime 
Morot ; the " Capture of the 
Dutch Fleet by French Hus- 
sars in 1790," by Delort; 
" Love's Captives," by Aubert ; 
"Returning from the Vine- 
yard," by Adan ; " The Death 
of William the Conqueror," 
by Maignon ; "A Baptism," by 
Francois Flemang ; " Miners 
on a Strike," by Latouche ; 
"The Twins," by Madam De- 
mont-Breton ; " A Blessed 
One," by Courtois ; " Presi- 
dent Carnot," by A. Yoon ; 
"The Rehearsal," by Aublet; 
"A Hospital Scene," by Dau- 
ban ; " Returning from Mar- 
ket," by Moreau ; " La Paix,'' 
by Michel ; " La Leda," by 
Souchetet ; " Catharine de 
Russie," by Deloye ; " Judith," 
by D'Aizelim ; the Talleyrand 
" Portrait of Columbus." 
Near the east door is seen 
" Dawn," by Madaline Lenoir ; 
Zuber's " Forest of Fontain- 
bleau ;" Weber's "Flessingue," 
and St. Pierre's " Saadia," gor- 
geous in tone and perfect in drawing. Rozier's " Fish Market," 
Wencker's " Blacksmith," and " Marat," by Saulies, are all good. 




thy wilt, be done. O. D. Grover (U. S.). 



354 



KINK ARTS. 



Guquet's " Madonna and Child," and Rixin's " Portrait of a Lady " 
(in the third room) are fine figure-pieces. Delacroix exhibits a beau- 
tiful nude figure, and Perairie a magnificent " landscape," on a very 
large canvas. Clairin's " Day on the Lagoon ; " Berand's " Dead 
Christ;" " Blessing the Bread;" an old female figure, by Deully ; 
a nude figure, by Axiletti ; a female figure, by Bisson, and one by 
Brouillet; Adan's "Girl and Flowers;" Jules Breton's "Pardon of 
Kergoet;" Virg-inie Demont-Breton's "Bathino-" and "Children 




MENDING THE CANOE. Douglas Volk (U. S.). 



and Dog;" Dantan's "Studio," and Benner's "Bear Hunters" are 
exceedingly fine. In the second room to the left of the entrance is 
Bonnat's " Portrait of Cardinal Lavagierie," the finest portrait at 
the Exposition. A " Girl Martyr," by Cave, in the same room, is 
very fine. 

English artists exhibit numerous very fine portraits and land- 
scapes, prominent among which may be mentioned "The Roll 
Call," by Lady Butler, the greatest English woman artist. This is 
loaned by the Queen, who also sends twenty-two portraits of mem- 
bers of the royal family. The original portrait of Pocahontas, 




France.— portrait op m. boulangpr. {Joseph Wencker.) 



355 



35* 



FINE ARTS. 



painted in 1612, is sent by a descendant of the Indian princess. 
There are " The Sluggard," " Needless Alarm," " Bath of Psyche," 
and "Garden of the Hesperides," by Frederick Leighton ; also 
" Hercules Wrestling with Death " and " Perseus and Andromeda," 
by the same artist. Others in this class are " Halcyon Weather," 
" Lingering Autumn," and " The Ornithologist," by Sir John 
Miller ; " Dedication to Bacchus," " Roman Bath," and " The Sculp- 
ture Gallery," by Alma Tadema ; "The Harvest Moon," "Return 




GREAT Britain.— THE peddler. {A. Chevalier Tayler.) 

from Plowing," "Only a Shower," and "Girls Dancing," by G. H 
Mason ; " The Maiden's Race," by Wegnin 



Love and Life," and 



FINE ARTS. 



357 



"Love and Death," by Watts; "The Church Door," by Burgess 
"The Race for Wealth," by Thrift; "The River Road," by Murray 
" Forging the An- 
chor," by Forbes ; 
"Storm at Harvest," 
by Losinell ; " Por- 
trait of Earl Spencer," 
by Hall ; " The Gen- 
tle Craft," by Marks ; 
" Abington," by Cole ; 
"The Last Muster," 
" Hen and Chickens," 
and portrait, by Her- 
kimer; "Monmouth 
Pleading for His 
Life," by Pettie ; 
" Daniel and the 
Magician's Door- 
way," by Riviere ; 
" Under the Sea 
Wall," by Pointer; 
" Victorious," by Sir 
James Linton ; " Sons 
of the Brave," by 
Morris ; " The Rev- 
erie," by Moore ; "Sea 
of Galilee " and " The 
Palm Offering," by 
Goodall.and numbers 
of others. 

Belgium exhibits 
many notable works 
of art, among which 

there is only space to particularly mention : " The Avenue of Oaks,' 
and " Winter," by Lamoriniere ; " Martyrs," by Verhas ; " Sheep," by 
Courtois; "An Interior with Figures," by Onderaa ; "Nuns," by 




GREAT BRITAIN— PAI,M OFFERING. T. Goodall. 



358 FINE ARTS. 

Tytgadt ; " Girls and Cherries," by Bource ; " Emigrants," by Tara- 
syns, all in Room 63. In 64, "The Last Day of Pompeii," by 
Slingenmeyer; "The Bather," by Fischepet; "Souvenir d'ltalie," 




-CHRIST AND THE WOMEN 



D. Goltz.) 



by Leon Herbo; "Interior with Figures," by Brimm. In Room 65 
the finest are a " Lake Scene," by Kegeljahn, and "Jalousie." 
These are very fine, as are the following in Room 66 : Claus' " Cock 
Fight;" Oom's "Cupid in Ambush;" Bouvier's "Marine," and 
Maeterlinck's " Peace." In Room 6j, Lefebvre's "Arab Encamp- 
ment ; " Verhaert's pictures; Roszman's "Female Figure," and 
Carpentier's "Children and Goat," are excellent. 

Sweden contributes to the art display the following fine canvases : 
"Night on the Swedish Coast," "Evening," "Stockholm by Moon- 
light," " Misty Night on the Oise," River Landscape, " Morning on 
the Oise," and "View on the West Coast of Sweden," by Wahl- 
berg; "The Forest," "Autumn Day," and "The Temple," by 
Prince Eugene; "Lap Running on Snowshoes," "Laps Catching 
Reindeer," and "Landscape with Laps," by Tiren ; " Night," 
" Moonrise," "Dawn," and " Daylight," by Nordstrom. In etch- 



360 FINE ARTS. 

ings, water-colors and engravings there are some very fine pro- 
ductions, and the sculptures are likewise strong. 

In the Danish exhibit, among other paintings are the famous one 
of the royal family, by Tuxen, who also exhibits " Susanne and the 
Elders," and Matthieson's "Teamster and Horses" and "Imprison- 
ment of Chancellor Griffenfeldt," both strong paintings, the latter 
exceedingly fine in drawing and rich in color. The artist is the 
Royal Commissioner at the World's Fair. Other fine ones are: 
Arbo's "Walkyrie; " Hyerdahl's "Bathers," and "Girl and Boy," 
all in Room 71. In Room 74 are Pederson's very oriental "Isaac 
Seeing - Rebecca at the Well," a blaze of color; and "Moses 
Striking the Rock," by Jerndorff. In Room 73 are Zahrtmann's 
"Job and his Friends;" a "Marine," by Lacour; "Night on the 
North Sea," by Locher ; "Marines," by Blacke ; "Portrait of a 
Lady," by Kroger, and a "Marine," by Ornesen. 




united STATES. — autumn morning. ( Walter L. Palmer.) 

In the Norwegian gallery, where forty-five artists are represented 
by one hundred and fifty pictures, a striking one is the very large 
canvas of Krogh, representing "The Discovery of Vineland 



FINE ARTS. 361 

(America)," by Lief Erikson. Dirik's "Winter Scene at Sea," 
Strom's " Interior with Figures," Sindring's " Cattle," Munttie's 
"Winter Scene in the Village," and Wentzel's "First Communion 
Feast " are all good. 

The collection from Italy is not large, but it contains some very 




RUSSIA. — CHRIST AT THE home OF mary and marTha. {Heinrich Siemiradski.) 

fine pictures. The Pope sends four copies of Raphael's master- 
pieces done in mosaic. There are two genuine " Madonnas," 
known since 1548; a portrait of Cardinal del Monte, from the 
Medici gallery; a "Madonna and Child," and "The Saints." 
Among the water-colors is the immense one of Aureli, " The Presen- 
tation of Richelieu to Henri IV." Gabrini sends fourteen canvases, 
the most important one a large painting of " The Landing of 
Columbus." The exhibit of statuary is very fine. " The Republic 
of the United States" and "Companions in Misfortune" are by 
Bistolfi ; "American Mythology," and a statue of "Burns," by 
Appoloni. 

Holland, "the land of Rembrandt," sends a complete and charac- 
teristic collection. The dead painters, Mauve, Bosboom, and Artz 
—the greatest of her modern artists in rendering sheep and shep- 



362 FINE ARTS. 

herds, church interiors and rustic life — are all represented by their 
works. On view are also the following: "At Anchor," "Ready to 
Sail," " In Danger," " Morning on the Shore," and "Summer Morn- 
ing," by Mesdag ; "Moonlight on the Rhine," "A Cottage," 
"Evening on the Heath," and "Still Life," by Mrs. Mesdag; 
"Alone in the World," "Sweet Home," " Fisherwomen at Zand- 
voort," "Summer Day on Shore," and "A Type of Fisherman," by 
Israels; "The Synagogue in Amsterdam," "The Dutch Reformed 
Church, Haarlem," and others by Bosboom ; " Cows Going Home," 
"Carts on the Heath," "Pasture Near the Dunes," and "Plowing 
the Fields," by Mauve ; " Between the Hague and Delft," " Fishing 
Shells," and "Canal at Rotterdam," by Jacob Maris; "Under the 
Willows," "Milking Time," "Dutch Pasture," and "The Duck 
Pond," by William Maris; "Girl Knitting," "The Pet Lamb," and 
"Girl Sleeping on the Dunes," by Artz ; "Landscape with Cattle," 
" Cows on the Dunes," " Donkeys on the Shore," and " Cows 
Resting," by De Haas. Vos, Henrietta Renner, Mrs. Rosenboom, 
and others are represented. The largest canvas is "An Old 
Woman's Almshouse." " Poor People" is another strong canvas. 
Mr. A. Preyer, the Commissioner from this country, shows " The 
Angelus" and " Home Rulers." 

Japan, whose people never made a display in the art section of 
an exposition before, gives one of the most unique displays in 
Chicago. It includes paintings in oil and water-colors on canvas, 
wood and silk, metal work, wood and ivory carving, tapestries, 
embroidery, lacquer work, enamel, and porcelain wares. One piece 
of tapestry, representing "The Gate of Nikko During a Festival," 
contains hundreds of figures and required four years for its comple- 
tion. The Commissioners from Japan told Mr. Ives, the chief of 
the department, that they feared they could not meet the require- 
ments of our classifications, so greatly did their art works differ 
from ours. His reply delighted them intensely. He said that he 
greatly desired them to make a presentation uninfluenced by any 
western rule or limitation, and that they might put any interpreta- 
tion that they wished upon our classification. The result is that the 
Emperor permitted a display of works never seen out of his 



FINE ARTS. 3 5^ 

country before. In delicacy, coloring and novelty these works are 
unexcelled and attract constant interest. 

Brazil displays about one hundred and fifty paintings and a 

number of pieces of 
statuary. Among the 
latter is "The Christ" 
of Branado. 

In the American 
section the display of 
paintings, statuary, 
drawings, etc., is be- 
wildering in its riches 
and the immense 
number of subjects 
shown. American 
artists from Paris, 
Rome, and othercities 
of Europe, and from 
every part of the 
United States, are 
fully represented, and 
it is thus rendered 
extremely difficult to 
select from the innu- 
merable canvases, all 
excellent in their 
lines, the particular 
ones most deserving 
of mention. In sculp- 
ture, Gelert's "Strug- 
gle for Work, " 
"Theseus," and "Lit- 
tle Architect; " Bush- 
Brown's "Indian Buffalo Hunt;" St. Gaudens' "Logan;" Pard- 
ndge's "Shakespeare," "Hamilton," and others; Powers' (son 
of the great American sculpture, Hiram Powers) "Figure of a 




UNITED STATES.— DICKENS AND LITTLE NEW, (BRONZE). 

F. Edwin Elwell, Sculp. 




FINE ARTS. 



FIRST FISH. 

By F. E. Triebel. 



Buffalo ; " Miss Peddle's " Virgin 
Mary ; " Bartlett's bronze " Bohe- 
mian Teaching Bear to Dance ; " 
Tilden's "Bear Hunter;" Dol- 
lin's "Indian Cavalier;" Hart- 
ley's " Pan ; " French's "Angel of 
Death and the Sculptor ; " Ne- 
hau's busts, " Primavera " and 
" Portrait of a Lady ; " Mrs. 
Shaw's "Family Group;" Boyle's 
" Stone Age ; " Calder's " Cor- 
delia " and " Boy with Ribbon ; " 
Elwell's " Dickens and Little 
Nell;" Grafly's "Daedalus;" 
Kretschmar's "Aurora" and 
"Temptation;" Murray's "Bust 
of Walt Whitman." Triebel, a 
young sculptor, shows some fine 
work, " Mysterious Music," a 
bronze ; " The First Fish," "Love 
Knows no Caste," and a bust of 
General Logan, that is excel- 
lent. His low reliefs of Dona- 
tello and Savonarola are very 
strong. 

The architectural drawings, 
models, etc., are in such multi- 
tude that it is impossible to men- 
tion even the best of them, and 
the same is true of the oil-paint- 
ings, water-colors, etc. 

To show the utter impossi- 
bility of giving even mere men- 
tion to the hosts of fine Ameri- 
can paintings and other works 
of art, it is best to give the 



$im arts. 365 

reader some idea of their number, and this can be done by stating 
that, of New York's 1,350 paintings offered, 325 were accepted; 
Philadelphia presented about 600—139 accepted, etc. These 

of oil-paintings alone. 
Most of the noted 
American artists are 
represented, as Chase 
in " Marines ; " J. G. 
Brown, known as 
" Gamin " from his 
paintings of street 
Arabs ; Elihu Vedder, 
distinguished for his 
choice of weird sub- 
jects; E. A. Abbey, 
painter of genre sub- 
jects ; William Hamil- 
ton Gibson, Peter Mo- 
ran, Eastman Johnson, 
Swain Gifford, S. J. 
Farrar, Carl Marr, O. 
L. Warner, Blashfield 
Gari Melchers, George 
Hitchcock, Anna Lea 
Merritt, J. Alden Weir, 
John J. Borglum, Car- 
rie Brooks, Enella Benedict, Fannie E. Duvall, Charles Heberer, John 
H. Frey, Laurie Wallace, Douglass Volk, F. Reagh, Winslow Ho- 
mer, H. F. Farny, E. A. Burbank, Jules Guerin, Charles Corwin, 
Frank Fowler, Dielman, Stewart, Ida Waugh, and others. 

The loan exhibits which have been gathered by Miss Hallowell 
are magnificent, comprising some of the finest works of the best 
masters — ancient and modern, American and European. These 
pictures have not been gathered into national groups, but have been 
hung solely with regard to the best effect of light and surroundings 
upon the paintings. Pictures by Constable, representing the 




THE UTTLE ARCHITECT. By J. Gelert. 



366 



FINE ARTS. 



early English School ; Diaz' " Descent of the Bohemians;" Corot's 
"Evening," from the Jay Gould collection; "Orpheus" and "The 
Flight from Sodom," by the same artist; a "Landscape," by 
Rosseau ; Millet's " Pig Killers ; " Delacroix's " Columbus at the 
Convent of St. Anne; " Decamp's "Job and his Friends ; " From- 
entin's "Audience with a Caliph" and "The Falconer ; " Daubigny's 
" Cooper Shop ; " Troyon's " Cattle and Sheep ; " Meissonier's 
" The Lost Game ; " De Neuville's " Spy ; " Breton's " Colza 
Gatherers ; " Mauve's " The Shepherd's Flock;" Ingre's " Cardinal 
Bompinni Presenting his Niece to Raphael ; " Gerome's " Son 
Emmence Grise; " Tadema's " Reading from Homer," "The Beach 




GREAT BRITAIN. — A READING FROM HOMER. (L. Alma Tadema.) 



at Portici ; " Fortuni's last work (unfinished) ; Puvis de Chavannes' 
" Summer," " Hope," and " Dawn ; " Manet's " Dead Toredor ; " 
Dega's " Ballet Girl ; " Cazin's " Moonlight," and others ; nearly 
every prominent artist in Europe and America being represented 
by his works, secured through the untiring efforts of Miss Hallowell. 
It almost seems invidious to select out of this number a few for 
reproduction, but those which are pictured in the accompanying 
illustration are among the choicest specimens, and are worthy to be 



368 FINE ARTS. 

thus chosen. Everyday of the Fair proves that the American people 
sought such an opportunity for studying the art treasures of the 
world. The Art Building is the destination of thousands of visitors, 
and its galleries are always crowded by those who are thus imbibing 
the refining and intellectual influences. It is with a sense of deep 
gratification that the management of the Fair has observed this. It 
may be said that more enthusiastic appreciation of the department 
of fine arts has been shown than of any other department in the 
great Fair. 

Soon after the Fair opened, steps were taken by the proper 
officials of the city of Chicago to provide a fund for purchasing and 
preserving this building after the Fair ends. At the present writ- 
ing, it seems certain that the task will be accomplished, and that 
the Palace of Fine Arts shall remain as a permanent memorial of 
the World's Columbian Exposition at Jackson Park. 

Now after having outlined this partial catalogue of the more not- 
able exhibits, both in sculpture and painting, contained in the Art 
Gallery, let us retrace our steps and call out from among this exten- 
sive list those yet the most notable, and observe what some critics 
have thought of their qualities. One of the sections which must 
interest us most is that which contains the exhibits of American 
sculpture. In speaking of the United States exhibit of sculpture at 
the Fair, it must be remembered that two of the greatest sculptors 
of this country, Mr. St. Gaudens and Mr. MacMonnies, are not 
representee! at all. That is, they have no individual work in the 
Art Buildinor although the Fountain of the latter and the figure of 
Diana by the former are notable features. Some of the others who 
have done exceedingly fine work in sculptural decorations of the 
buildings and grounds are not represented at all, or only very 
slightly represented, in the United States exhibit in the Art Building. 
There are, however, some figures here which are well worthy of 
careful study. 

The work of Mr. Paul Bartlett deserves and attracts a great deal 
of attention. A figure called " The Ghost Dance" is one of the 
most remarkable studies from the nude in the entire collection. It 
represents an Indian in the wildest imaginable motion, carried away 



FINE ARTS. 369 

by fear and superstition, and more than half crazed by excitement. 
He is balanced on one foot, and bends forward with one lee lifted 
behind him, and both arms straight out in front with the hands 
hanging limp. His mouth is wide open, and the whole expression 
is one of brutal ignorance and fear. A subject like this is by no 
means agreeable, and violates many of the principles of true art, 
not only because it is disagreeable and lacking in beauty, but also 
because the violence of the action is not in the truest harmony with 
the best principles of sculptural work ; nevertheless, there is wonder- 
ful mastery in the 
figure. Its poise is 
perfect, and the ac- 
tion of each muscle 
is rendered with a 
fidelity almost in- 
comprehensible 
when one realizes 
how difficult it must 
have been to get a 
model to pose in any 
such position for 
any considerable 
length of time ; but 
beautiful or not, the 
work is so remark- 
able that few who 
have seen it once 
will ever forget it. 
"Mr. Bartlett's 

Other group, here the ghost dance. Paul Bar(lett,{U. S.) 

called "The Bohemian and the Bears," is also exceedingly interest- 
ing in quite a different vein. It represents a young Bohemian trying 
to teach a bear cub to dance, while another little cub is rolling around 
on the ground at his feet. It is exceedingly well done. There is 
a very charming expression of amusement about the Bohemian's 
face as he watches the awkward antics of the little bear, and notes 
24 




37° 



FINE ARTS. 



his look of perplexity as he vainly tries to find out just what this 
dancing-master wants him to learn. It is a very clever and amus- 
ing group. 

John Donoghue has been favorably known for some time on 

account of his beautiful bas- 
relief and busts. He has 
| three works here, the most 
important of which is called 
" The Young Sophocles 
Leading the Chorus of Vic- 
tory After the Battle of Sal- 
amis." This is a nude figure 
of a young man playing a 
lyre. The carriage is very 
free and erect, his head is 
thrown well back, and the 
j expression is earnest and 
thoughtful. The movement 
I of the figure is exceedingly 
light and graceful, and the 
modeling of the limbs very 
delicate and beautiful. The 
statue well embodies what 
must have been the thought 
of the Greeks after their 
| great victory. Yet it is not 
strictly classic in treatment, 
Paul Bartlett,(u. s.) Dut expresses its meaning 
quite in the modern way, although dealing with the antique in subject. 
In the same room is TriebePs statue, " The First Fish." It 
represents a boy about nine or ten years old who is just taking from 
his hook a fish. The expression on the little fellow's face is very 
interesting. He is somewhat puzzled to know how to hold on to 
the slippery, squirming creature, and yet he is perfectly delighted 
that he has caught it. The anatomy of this figure is exceedingly 
well done, the long, lank limbs and undeveloped muscles of a 




BOHEMIAN AND BEARS. 



Fine arts. 371 

child of that age being suggested with great skill. It is not, how- 
ever, a work of as serious importance as some of those which we 
have been considering. 

It is the opinion of some able critics that Mr. Daniel French's 
group, "The Angel of Death and the Sculptor," has never been 
surpassed in this country. It is certainly one of the most original, 
beautiful, striking and impressive works of sculpture in the entire 
collection. There is a classic dignity in the figure of the angel of 
death which must be seen to be understood or appreciated. There 
is an absolute repose about it, an influence of resistless power, 
without the slightest violence of action ; only the slow, dignified 
movement hardly to be described in words. The power of the still 
figure of this angel is best understood by contrasting it with the 
alert, strong form of the young sculptor, apparently in the very 
prime of youth and health ; yet at one icy touch from that resistless 
outstretched hand his chisel is instantly arrested. No further blow 
comes from the mallet; the work is to be forever unfinished, and 
the young man looks in astonishment, not in fear, on this quiet but 
commanding spirit that has thus with one touch stopped his life and 
his work in an instant. This subject has been used so many times 
by different sculptors all over the world that it has seemed difficult 
and even impossible to make of it something entirely original and 
unlike any other work that deals with the same theme ; and yet Mr. 
French has succeeded in doing this. The more his work is studied 
the better it will be appreciated, and the more true the realization 
of the fact that none but a great man could thus combine the classic 
treatment with the French technique and intense thoughtfulness, 
and the American's poetry and religious thought about the majesty 
of death and its meaning to man both here and hereafter. 

In the section devoted to Swedish sculpture are three pieces 
which are exceedingly interesting. The first is a nude figure called 
"The Snowdrop," which is perfectly charming, both in composition 
and execution. There is a suggestion in it of what is implied by 
falling snow just softly sinking to the ground. There is a yielding 
languor about the whole figure that is beautifully rendered. The 
eyes are half closed, and the arms are raised toward the head as 



372 Fine arts. 

if to support it as it sinks to rest. The whoie figure is charm- 
ingly pure, suggesting not only the beautiful motion of the falling 
snowflake, but also its oblivion, its total loss of identity when it 
joins the others in the white drift toward which it is falling. This 
is by Hesselberg. 

"The Two Brothers," by Borjesson, is also a study from the 
nude. One of the boys is considerably older than the other, and 
stands erect with a manly air of protection about him, while the 
younger one leans against him in perfect confidence and trust. 
The older has a bat and ball, while the younger has a bow and 
arrow, and they are ready for their sport. The subject is a simple 
one, but it is treated with such dignity and seriousness that it be- 
comes really classic and full of meaning and spirit. 

The third piece is Erickson's statue of Carl Von Linne. The 
figure of the great botanist is in bas-relief. He has just plucked a 
flower on which he looks with great curiosity. Other flowers are 
about him, and in a niche above is a familiar figure that may be the 
spirit of the flower come to crown him with a wreath. The ex- 
pression of the famous old man is charming and benignant, as well 
as intellectual. The attitude is graceful, and the whole thing is a 
work of art of a very high order of merit and considerable origin- 
ality of treatment. 

The collection of French sculpture is such an extensive one that 
there must be some selections made out of it if there is to be any 
criticism. There are several works by Fremiet, a sculptor who has 
taken a very prominent place in modern French art. He does not 
always choose very agreeable subjects, and in this, perhaps, he 
transgresses that law laid down by Lessing, that art should always 
seek the beautiful. According to that German writer, if an art 
work is not beautiful it has no reason to exist. The statement is 
perhaps too unqualified. There are many works of art which have 
not for their first and principal aim beauty alone, but it is neverthe- 
less true that without beauty of some kind no really good work of 
art is possible. Fremiet's equestrian statue of Velasquez is a 
masterpiece. 

Another notable piece in the collection is Chapu's " Joan of Arc." 



'FINE ARTS. 3J 3 

All French sculptors and all French painters choose this subject. 
Chapu has chosen to represent her as somewhat older than is 
usually the case in French art. She seems quite a woman in this 
statue, as she sits looking out toward her vision. The figure is not 
in armor, but Chapu has simply taken, not the maid carried away 
in a moment of enthusiasm, but the thinking, serious woman. She 
has been praying long, and her hands are clasped to show by their 
muscular tension the far more intense thought that is back of all — 
what is the strain of the muscles, what the pain that comes to the 
body when the salvation of France is to be thought of, and she is 
the one Whom God has chosen to deliver her country from the foe. 

Boucher, too, is admirably represented here in several pieces of 
peasant life. 

One of the more notable sculptors here represented is Mercie. 
The group, " Even So," is one of the more notable which he shows. 
The group is intended to represent the fall of Alsace and Lorraine 
when the Germans took them. It is a group of very rare power. 
The spirit of the conquered nation is personified by an exceedingly 
beautiful peasant woman of heroic size, and possessed of even more 
strength than beauty. She supports with one arm the dying soldier 
whose life has been lost in her defence, and with the other she 
catches from his dying hand his gun, as if defiantly threatening the 
enemy with it, and inviting another appeal to arms. The figure of 
the soldier is as masterly as is that of the woman. He is almost 
dead, just falling, but he clasps her skirts in a vain effort to resist 
the fall. It is all over with him, but not with the French genius of 
Alsace and Lorraine, according to the sculptor's idea. In harmony 
and grace of position, in fine modeling, and above all in intellectual 
quality, this group is a very superior work. 

There are two large groups in the French exhibit which have the 
same title, " The Blind Man and the Paralytic." One of them is by 
Michel, and the other by Turcan. The idea in both is the same. 
The blind man being able to walk carries the paralytic on his 
shoulder, while the other, being able to see, directs the steps of the' 
blind. The subject is a very interesting one, especially so to the 
sculptor, because of the contrast offered by the two figures both in 



374 FINE ART S. 

modeling and expression. Indeed there is a contrast of expression 
between the head and the body in each one of the two figures. 
Thus, in the blind man is healthy action of the muscles, full of 
power and movement, but in his face is a helpless and most pathetic 
expression which tell plainly that all his strength would avail him 
nothing if the weak sick one whom he carries could not supply the 
place of the eyes he has lost. In the other figure are shrunken 
limbs, no muscular development, but in the face great alertness 
and intelligence as he directs the almost helpless though physically 
strong man who carries him. Both artists have treated the subject 
in very nearly the same way, but on the whole the work of Michel 
is to be preferred, because the action of the directing arm and hand 
of the paralytic in the other group seems a little too powerful for a 
person in that condition. 

Several of the more important groups of French sculpture are 
contained in the rotunda of the French picture gallery. Among 
them are the four celebrated figures by Dubois which are upon the 
tomb of Lamorriciere. One of these is " Charity," a wonderfully 
dignified and beautiful figure of a woman caring for two little 
children. It is full of tenderness and beauty. 

Saint Marteaux's "Spirit Guarding the Secret of the Tomb" is 
another powerful and excellent figure in the same rotunda. The 
spirit is protecting an urn containing the ashes of the dead. One 
hand is over the top of the urn, and the other arm is about it. 
There is little sombreness about this representation of the spirit of 
death ; rather is it bold, unapproachable, and with a certain mys- 
tery about the eyes and brow. The rest of the figure is intensely 
human, however, and is very interesting, as suggesting what is a 
Frenchman's idea to-day of an angel or spirit to whom is entrusted 
the care of the secrets of death. To the Anglo-Saxon the concep- 
tion would not be adequate to the great gravity of such a subject, 
but no one could deny the beauty of the figure and its expressive- 
ness as far as it goes. 

In the same room is a group by Puech, called " The Siren," which 
is a very fantastic or rather fanciful creation illustrating a siren car- 
rying off a very young boy, who, while fascinated by her charms, is 



FINE ARTS. 375 

half frightened by being in her power, and evidently does not know 
where she is taking him. The creature is represented with the 
body of a woman and something like the tail of a mermaid, and 
also with wings. The union of all of these so different forms in 
one body has been very skilfully done. 

Idrac's figure in the same room called "Salammbo " is not so good. 
This is not to mean that it is not beautifully modelled; but there is 
something excessively disagreeable in the thought of a young and 
beautiful woman playing with a snake and allowing it to coil itself 
about her lovely form. For this reason the subject becomes so re- 
pulsive that not even the sculptor's art can make one wish to linger 
with it. 

While no one denies the magnificence of the display in the Art 
Gallery in respect to paintings, and no one denies that days of study 
may be profitably spent in visiting the masterpieces contained there- 
in, yet the compliments are unqualified by criticism. In relation to 
the German, Austrian, Polish, Russian, Spanish and French pic- 
tures it is thought that there is not a fair representation of the best 
men now painting in these various nations. It would not be fair 
to speak unfavorably of the art of any people when the best of it is 
not to be seen, and for that reason it is not well to devote extended 
criticism to the pictures sent here by these nations. As they are 
seen here, they are decidedly inferior on the whole to those sent by 
the other peoples represented. There are a great many pictures 
in the German gallery, but few that command attention and reward 
it. There are a number of large canvases, most of them subjects 
of historic or anecdotal interest, but very few that have real techni- 
cal merit. There are many subjects which are somewhat spectacular, 
and not only the German, but also the Austrians, the Poles and the 
Russians are prone to this fault. It is unnecessary to specify those 
included in this criticism, for they are so numerous that no one can 
fail to notice them. In the Spanish collection, which is a very 
small one, some of the same fault is to be seen. The best 
painters are not represented, or, if they are, they are not seen 
at their best. There is one, however, by Sorolla, of Madrid, called 



376 FINE ARTS. 

"Another Marguerite," which is admirable in its way. The subject 
of the picture is very touching, and the execution is the best. 

In the Austrian exhibit the most notable of these large spectacu- 
lar pictures is Brozik's " Fenstersturz," which represents the Prot- 
estants throwing the emperor's counsellors out of the window be- 
cause they refused to comply with the demand for tolerance toward 
the growing Protestant sect. It is a ghastly subject, the agony of 
the doomed men being rendered with fearful realism ; but there is 
good work in it, especially in drawing and spirited rendition of 
action. 

In the loan collections are many magnificent pictures, which have 
been named earlier in this chapter. Manet's picture of the " Dead 
Toreador" has much to suggest, not only about life in Spain to- 
day but it also takes the thought back to the old Roman times. 
There were gladiators then and there were many martyrs. Those 
who came into the arena, whether forced to come there or coming 
from their own choice, were facing deadly peril. It is true to-day 
that the Spanish bull-fighter has to take his life in his hands. It is 
not possible to deny the picturesqueness of a Spanish bull-fight. 
The Toreadors all wear the costumes of the old time in Spain, and 
these are very splendid and elaborate. The picture might have 
been painted by Velasquez. There is the same simplicity of treat- 
ment, the same absence of accessories that so often mark the work 
of the great Spanish master. One other notable picture in the loan 
collection which must be mentioned at greater length is Fortuny's 
" Beach at Portici, Italy." In the treatment of the sky this is one 
of the most wonderfully beautiful pictures in the entire collection. 
The blue is perfectly exquisite and luminous with the beauty of 
light and atmosphere. The clouds that float in it are as delicate 
and light as swans' down. There are many of these small, fleecy 
clouds, and their brilliant light is well balanced against the deeper 
tone of the blue. The sea below them is bluer yet, and lends still 
another charming note to this harmony of color, while the fore- 
ground, with the beach of glistening sand, the brightly dressed fig- 
ures indistinctly outlined and beautifully mingled with flowers and 



FINE ARTS. 377 

trees about and behind them, is perhaps as charming as any other 
part of the picture. 

The artists of Holland show not a large collection, but the very 
best artists of the country are represented, and the pictures are ex- 
ceedingly fine in quality and in average excellence. It would seem 
as if it would have been wiser for France and Germany and Austria 
to have done the same thing, but they have not done it. In the 
British collection and that of Sweden and the United States also 
the best artists are represented. It is evident at once, in looking 
for the first, time at these pictures of Holland, that there is some- 
thing very unusual about them. The tone of the rooms seems 
different from the others. There is nothing violent, theatrical or 
exaggerated, though there is much of beauty and quaintness. On 
more careful examination it is seen that almost all these pictures 
are very good, and some are masterpieces. The place of honor is 
given to Israels, and very justly so, for great as some of the others 
are, he is the greatest of them all. This masterpiece of Israels' is 
called "Alone in the World." In a small room, dimly lighted, is 
seen a man sitting by a bedside whereon is the dead body of his 
wife. He is not looking at her body. He looks straight away 
from it, out into the world, with an expression of hopelessness, as 
utterly mute and uncomplaining as that of an animal wounded to 
death. There seems no alleviation of his suffering, certainly 
nothing that money could bring, for there is no money, and there 
are no comforts. The plain pitcher and glass on the table by the 
bed tell how little the poor woman had to alleviate her last suffer- 
ing. There seems no comfort from religion either. There is no 
priest, no cross, no ministering servant of the Lord. The man is 
old, and perhaps he might look toward heaven whither his wife has 
gone, but he does not. He looks at nothing and thinks of no one. 
It is the helplessness of human life alone in the presence of death. 
A more pathetic picture could hardly be imagined. One wonders 
whether the stricken man will ever rise from the stool on which he 
sits, and where he will go if he does rise, for one place is like any 
other in the world to him now. Of the technique of this picture it 
is useless to speak, for it is well known that Israels is one of the 

ILLINOIS STATE RARY 

OLD STATE CAPITOL 
SPRINGFIELD. ILLINOIS 62701 



378 



FINE ARTS. 



master painters. His tone is usually, but not always, dark and 
subdued, with deep, mysterious browns in the background, and his 
effects of light and shade are very fine. Certainly it is a manner 
quite of the Dutch school and not resembling that of any other 
painter. 

The same wall on which this great Israels hangs is indeed a study, 
and probably the best in the whole Art Gallery. On either side 
of it is a magnificent marine, by Mesdag, while above is a large 

picture by Hubert Vos. Between 
the Israels and the two Mesdags are 
two exceedingly fine studies by Bos- 
boom, called "Dutch Reformed 
Church, Holland," and "A Syna- 
gogue in Amsterdam." 

Of the works of Mesdag it is hard 
to say enough in praise. No marine 
painter of the time compares with him 
unless it be Alexander Harrison. The 
marked peculiarity of his work is that 
he paints water in violent motion 
without the loss of transparency and 
color, and without the dauby effect 
which is so often seen in the painting 
of the crests of foaming waves. The 
sky is no less wonderful than the 
water in these pictures. Indeed, it is 
the sky that first claims attention, be- 
cause the artist has chosen a low 
horizon line deliberately to give 
room for the showing of those maor- 
nificent masses of clouds with which 
the Dutch painters through their 
daily living become familiar and 
learn to love so dearly. There are several of these marines by 
Mesdag, of which the artist himself prefers the picture called 
"In Danger." It represents a terribly stormy sea, almost black, 




HAMILTON. 

By Wm. O. Partridge. 



FINE ARTS. 379 

under clouds almost as black, the wind blowing dead on shore, and a 
little vessel trying to avoid shipwreck. It is not, at first sight, 
nearly so attractive a picture as the others, but careful study will 
reveal great skill in portraying forms of waves even in the most 
violent action, and the tone, though not so agreeable to the eye as 
in the other pictures, is nevertheless quite suitable for the subject 
the artist has chosen. In the picture called "Ready to Sail Out," 
action is given more beautifully than in the others. The boats 
have been pushed to the edge of the water. They touch the waves, 
and soon will be in the midst of the surf. Their picturesque sails 
are set, and in a few moments the fishermen will be bounding over 
the waves in search of the fishing ground. It is full of life, and in 
the treatment of the sails quite suggestive of Venetian fishing boats. 

The pictures of Vos which are found here are all creditable, and 
their work contains many admirable qualities, but they cannot rank 
with the painting of Israels or Mesdag. The painters of Holland 
do not consider that Mr. Vos is really a Dutch painter. He lives 
in London, and the most casual inspection of his pictures serves to 
show that they are not in the manner of any of the other Dutch 
painters' art. His "Angelus " is an exceedingly quaint and inter- 
esting picture, and has at least this flavor of Holland, that there is 
a great deal of blue in the general tone of the picture, and the 
accessories too are quite Dutch in character. 

Another great Dutch artist is Jacob Maris. He has five pictures 
in the Holland collection and one in the loan collection which are 
exceedingly fine. " The Two Mills " is perhaps his most important 
picture in the Holland collection and is certainly one of the most 
beautiful that hangs there. It is a picture of two Dutch windmills, 
of course, with a canal near them. The chief charm of this picture 
is the sky, which is superbly rendered. 

The last picture to be described here is perhaps the most fasci- 
nating of all in the Holland exhibit. It is " Orphan Girls at Am- 
sterdam," by Miss Therese Schwartze. The orphan asylum which 
this picture represents is under the care of the municipal authori- 
ties. The girls are taken care of there, are dressed alike in red 
and black, which are the colors of the city of Amsterdam. They 



380 FINE ARTS. 

wear white caps and kerchiefs, and the whole effect is exceedingly 
charming. A group of these girls are gathered around a piano at 
which one of them sits playing, and they are singing, some with 
eyes uplifted, some with heads bowed, all with the most reverent 
and even rapt expressions of countenance. Some of the faces are 
exceptionally beautiful. The grouping is so fine that it seems to 
make a complete unit of the picture, and really suggests that these 
young girls are bound together by some common love. It is im- 
possible to escape the exquisite charm of this simple scene, and it 
is so touching, and so poetic, that after looking at it for a while few 
can restrain a tear. The sadness of the bereaved lives, the love of 
Him who cared for the little ones, the trust of these young girls 
whose faces tell no fear, all this, when joined with lovely coloring 
and graceful forms, unite in a picture which is certainly great in 
this collection and would be rare anywhere. 

Enough of the more notable pictures contained in the Art Gal- 
lery have now been reviewed with such critical care that one may 
judge as to the quality of the exhibits ; while it is to be remembered 
that scores of the others named in the completer list are as worthy 
of being thus analyzed and complimented. 

Although the artistic features of the sculpture decorating the 
exterior of the grounds received some consideration in a previous 
chapter, yet it is well here to notice it again from the more strict 
standpoint of art, and to observe the impression made on art 
critics by the outdoor sculpture. Numerous critics, writing in the 
magazines and newspapers, devoted especial attention to this 
statuary, and with almost uniform congratulations to the artist. 
Among others, Walter Cranston Larned made an exhaustive re- 
view of the merits and demerits of the art exhibits at the Expo- 
sition, paying attention to the decorations as well as to those 
pieces brought to the Fair for display only. He tells us some 
interesting facts in regard to the animal sculptures by Mr. 
Kemeys, which guard the bridges surrounding the Court of 
Honor. They are remarkable indeed. Their fidelity to nature 
shows at once that the artist must have loved such sub- 
jects, and must also have had exceptional opportunities to 



FINE ARTS. 3S1 

study them. The great artist, Barye, was forced to study his 
animal forms in menageries because he had not the means to go 
to the desert or jungle in search of his lions and tigers. He 
mastered their forms in the cages at the Zoological Gardens of 
Paris while they were living, and, when one chanced to die, word 
was sent directly to him, and the sculptor mastered their anatomy 




midsummer NIGHT'S dream. By Wnt. O. Partridge. 

by dissection, and the most careful measurements and comparison 
one with another. The forest of Fontainebleau helped him with 
his backgrounds because his artistic mind could find either a 
desert or a jungle there. The great Frenchman had the advantage 
of study in that greatest school of art at Paris, though he did not 



382 FINE ARTS. 

follow its traditions in animal sculpture or painting. Nevertheless, 
he gained a certain finish there that our American artist lacks, 
while the latter, on the other hand, has a certain perfect naturalness 




panther and DEER. By Edward Kemeys,{U. S.) 

which perhaps even Barye's great art could not compass. This much 
may be learned by observing the works themselves, but they do 
not tell where the artist learned to know the animals. Mr. Kemeys 
has an intense fondness for the western life, and has been a great 
hunter. He spent a long time among the Indians. He hunted 
with them and learned their life, and the life of the animals which 
they sought in their chase. He had many a thrilling adventure, 
and the animals he reproduces here were either slain by himself 
or by his Indian friends, so that he was able to study them where 
they lived. 

Mr. Kemey's " Still Hunt " is perhaps the finest piece of animal 



Pin£ arts. 383 

sculpture at the Fair. It is a wonderful animal, instinct with life. 
Every muscle is quivering with eagerness for the coming spring 
upon the prey, yet the crouching attitude and the stern repression 
of action show how the creature is holding back in absolute still- 
ness until the deer, all unsuspecting, comes within sure reach of 
the fatal leap. Another moment and this tragedy of animal life will 
be over. The beautiful deer will be no more — the savage panther 
will be feasting on his blood. So much of a story is not often told 
in sculpture, but is plainly written here. The method of treatment 
greatly resembles Barye's, in that the aim is to use masses rather 
than details in producing effects and expression. In order to do 
this successfully an artist must know his subject well, because it is 
not possible to decide what to leave out unless it is also thoroughly 
known what might have been put in. Let any one stand before 
the " Still Hunt" and study it long enough to master its meaning, 
and he will find that he knows more about the wild animal life of 
the far west than he ever did before. 

The same effect will come from a study of the grizzly bears by the 
same artist. They are simply wonderful in expression, and it is 
not possible to doubt for a moment their absolute truth to life. 
The bear is not so graceful or artistic a subject as the panther, but 
he is equally interesting in his way. His awkward, uncouth 
strength would be more than a match for the agility and high- 
strung muscular power of the panther. The grizzly is a better sub- 
ject than the Polar bear because of the latter's length of neck. 

Mr. A. P. Proctor has also done some animal sculpture to orna- 
ment the grounds, which is worthy of notice both for its beauty and 
for its fidelity to nature. 

Mr. Larned tells us that Mr. Proctor left the work of modeling 
the horses for the two equestrian statues which stand before the 
great doorway of the Transportation Building to his assistant. He 
did not have time to do all himself, and so chose to delegate this 
portion. This explains to us then why the figures are so much 
better than the horses. Both of these, the Indian and the cowboy, are 
spirited and successful. For the former, Red Cloud, one of Buffalo 
Bill's Indians, was the sculptor's model. He became very much 



384 FINE ARTS. 

interested in the work, and posed on his pony in all sorts of posi- 
tions. The attitude finally chosen is one of rest, but the expression 
is full of intense eagerness and repressed action. 

Mr. Martini's work on the Agricultural Building cannot be as 
well seen as the animals just considered, because it is placed so 
hio-h, but enoueh can be seen to show that the work is of a very 
high order of excellence. The various groups are extremely strik- 
ing and original. The horses and the oxen are conceived and 
executed in a grand style, and they are exceedingly effective, 
spirited in action, and altogether appropriate in their place. No 
other building on the grounds is so profusely ornamented with 
sculpture as that of Agriculture, and it might have been better if 
there had been less of it, however admirable the quality may be. 
The groups of the nations on top of the building are rarely beauti- 
ful. Seen as they are, far up against the sky, their lines are most 
graceful, exquisitely harmonious and full of the classic spirit which 
so well emphasizes the beauties of the lovely building they adorn. 

The sculptor of the groups on the Administration Building is 
Carl Bitter, of New York. There are many of these groups, and 
they are exceedingly elaborate in composition ; so much so that 
they are too complicated in their general effect. Nevertheless, as 
a whole, they produce a rich effect, especially at a distance, when 
they serve to accent the splendor of the golden dome above them. 

Mr. Baur's figures of "Eloquence," "Music," " Fisherboy," 
" Navigation," and " Indian Chief," which ornament the Casino, 
Peristyle and Music Hall, are all thoroughly successful, hard as the 
task must have been to produce anything worthy to decorate so 
noble a colonnade as this one of Mr. Atwood's. The work of M. 
Waagen, on Machinery Hall, receives hardly so much praise, the 
winged figures on the pinnacles especially appearing rather too 
large for the position in which they are placed. 

The sculptural work on Horticultural Hall was done by Mr. 
Lorado Taft, and some of it is exceedingly fine. It is noticeable 
how closely in harmony with the architecture this sculpture is, both 
the frieze and the two fine groups of the birth and death of the 
flowers. The architect and the sculptor must have worked together 



FINE ARTS. 



385 



here. Some of the children in the frieze are very lovely. By 
repetition of the design this frieze is carried all around the building 
and the effect is very rich and beautiful. Mr. Taft has probably 
done nothing better than these groups, one guarding either side of 
the main entrance. There is a great deal of sentiment in them, 
and some of the figures are exceedingly beautiful. A more appro- 
priate subject for such a place it would be hard to select, and not 




buffalo and Indian. By H. Bush-Brown. 

only is the meaning suitable, but the treatment exactly suits the 
architecture. 

Of the figures, the principal statue is Mr. Prince's colossal 
" Republic." There are differences of opinion about this work. 
Mrs. Van Rensselaer, who is certainly one of the best American 
critics, praises it very highly, and she especially commends its 
adaptation to the architecture that surrounds it. This would seem 
25 



3 86 



FINE ARTS. 



to be just and well-merited praise, but the query rises, whether or 
not the gilding of the statue helps in this particular quality. The 
buildings are white, meant to be like marble, and what color deco- 
ration there is on them is for the most part back of the colonnades 
and in the dome, thus not giving much effect of color at a distance. 
The gilded " Republic," therefore, stands out in very sharp contrast 
with its surroundings. It is true that the Athenians put statues of 
ivory and gold among their marble temples on the Acropolis, but 

these temples, though 
built of white marble, 
were much more elab- 
orately decorated in 
color on the exterior 
than are those at the 
World's Fair. Indeed 
it is thought that the 
Greeks painted many 
of their statues, both 
single, figures or groups, 
and those used in con- 
nection with architec- 
ture. Probably then 
there was more har- 
mony between those 
statues and the build- 
ings about them than 
there is between the 
"Republic" and the 
buildings which sur- 
brilliant gold of this im- 
mense solitary figure in the midst of the white columns and palaces 
seems hardly in place. It looks better at night when, by reason of 
the yellow light on the building, everything is brought more nearly 
into the same key. Apart from the gilding, the figure itself cannot 
be properly appreciated, except in connection with the architectural 
effects which surround it. The sculptor himself says that he has 




Shakespeare. By Win. O. Partridge. 

round it. Whatever be the reason, the 



FINE ARTS. 



387 



treated the statue in a formal and almost archaic manner on account 
of the almost perfectly symmetrical arrangements of the architec- 
ture around it. It is his triumph that he has succeeded in doing 
this. In line and form, and in dignity too, this figure harmonizes 
well with the stately buildings about the Court of Honor. Taken 
by itself, the figure would not be so agreeable because it would 
seem a little stiff and lacking in that grace which is to be expected 
in the sculptured female form. On the whole, it must be said, that 




A LEGEND OE THE DESERT. F. Mellville Du Mond, U. S. 

there is a grand and severe dignity about the great " Republic " 
that is exceedingly impressive and well emphasizes the grandeur 
of those halls into which she courteously invites the nations of the 
world to enter. 

The other sculptural ornaments about the basin of the Court of 
Honor are numerous, and most of them are exceedingly fine. Per- 
haps the most striking detached sculptures are the horses and 
bulls, by Mr. Potter, with the figures beside them, by Mr. French. 
These animals are really noble and grafid in style, and it would be 



388 FINE ARTS. 

hard to imagine more absolutely appropriate decorative groups for 
the principal entrances before which they are placed. The cart- 
horse is treated with remarkable dignity. The worth of his labor 
is recognized in the statue, and he seems himself to be aware that 
without him the tilling of the fields would be impossible, except as 
savages might attempt it. The proud curve of his neck and his in- 
telligent eye show that he is proud of helping the master who 
stands beside him while they both rest after the work of the day. 
The bulls are equally fine and majestic, and well indeed do they 
symbolize the power of agriculture. The figures beside them are 
as fine as the animals, and the treatment of both is in the closest 
harmony, both in general breadth of method and particular com- 
bination of forms and lines. In symbolic expression, also, the 
figures and animals perfectly agree. It is rare indeed to see groups 
by two sculptors so perfectly harmonious in their central motive 
and in the treatment of it. 

It is this continuous harmony of desire and method that resulted 
in making the whole area of the World's Columbian Exposition as 
truly an exhibit of the Department of Fine Arts as the exhibits 
contained in the Art Galleries themselves. Artists admire the 
architecture and the general decorative effects of the Fair as truly 
as they do the paintings upon canvas, and it is this fact that makes 
the whole view of the Exposition the grandest that the modern 
world offers to man. 




H\ 



ORE vicissitudes have attended the De- 
partment of Liberal Arts, of which Prof. 
Selim H. Peabody is chief, than any other 
of all on the grounds of the Exposition. This 
is solely due to the immensity of scope covered 
by the department, the magnitude of its ex- 
hibits, and the fact that proper appreciation 
of its magnitude did not exist until dire ne- 
cessity drove it home to the offices of the construction officials. 
The greatest building of the Exposition was dubbed the Building of 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts. It was an immense structure as 
originally planned, with two great courts in the centre. When 
pressure for space first began to be felt, it was decided to roof these 
great courts, as related in the chapter on Manufactures, thus secur- 
ing several acres more of floor area. But, as space was assigned, 
it Was seen that unless another great building should be provided, 
the Department of Liberal Arts was going to be sadly cramped. 
The director-general stood firmly by the chief of the department 
in his demand that another building be erected. It was argued, 
however, that there was no suitable site for it, and no time for con- 
struction. Finally the pressure of the educational interests became 
so strong that it could no longer be resisted, and it was decided to 
erect the new building for the Liberal Arts exhibits. After it was 
begun, however, time was short, and it was seen that it would not 
be finished in time to install exhibits satisfactorily for this depart- 

(389) 



390 LIBERAL ARTS. 

ment. Then the new structure was assigned to the Anthropologi- 
cal Department, added space was thus secured in the Manufactures 
Building, and it has therefore gone back to its former purposes, to 
that extent. A great portion of the exhibits of the Liberal Arts 
Department are, however, displayed in the Anthropological Building. 
The space thus provided in the two buildings is ample for all the 
demands that may be made upon it. 

The groups included in the Liberal Arts Department at the Cen- 
tennial Exposition in Philadelphia occupied about 35,000 square 
feet, at Paris in 1878 about 111,000 square feet, and in 1889 in the 
same city about 244,000 square feet. Here the same exhibits 
occupy more than twice as much space as at the last Paris Expo- 
sition. The Manufactures and the Anthropological Buildings are 
each described in other chapters, so in this we may devote ourselves 
entirely to the exhibits and the scope and classification of the great 
department. 

It is interesting to note in this instance the exhaustive scope of 
the classification of the great department, and the list of groups into 
which it is divided is worth inserting here. They are as follows: 

Instruments and apparatus of medicine, surgery and prosthesis ; 
primary, secondary and superior education from elementary instruc- 
tion to government a id i n education, and covering this wide range 
in detail ; literature, books, libraries and journalism, which include 
book printing, illustrated papers, daily papers, trade catalogues, 
library apparatus, directories of cities and towns, and all forms of 
maps ; instruments of precision, experiment, research and photog- 
raphy, including photographs, civil engineering, public works, con- 
structive architecture, including bridge engineering of every char- 
acter, sub-aqueous construction, irrigation, railway engineering, 
mining engineering, and constructive architecture in general ; gov- 
ernment and law, illustrating the various systems of government, 
international law and relations, facsimiles of treaties, protection of 
property in inventions, patent and postal systems, commerce, trade 
and banking, including historical and statistical matter, with reference 
to general commerce, counting-houses, ware-house and storage 
systems, grain elevators, boards of trade, exchanges, insurance com- 



LIBERAL ARTS. 391 

panies and banking houses ; institutions and organizations for the 
increase and diffusion of knowledge, including institutions founded 
for such purposes as the Smithsonian, the Royal Institution, the 
Institute of France, British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, American Association, etc., and covering academies of 
science and letters, museums, collections and art galleries, national 
exhibitions, publication societies and libraries ; social, industrial and 
co-operative associations, covering clubs of all characters, political, 
workingmen's, industrial, co-operative, secret and miscellaneous 
societies and organizations ; religious organizations and systems, 
covering their origin, nature, growth and extent, religious music, 
choirs, hymnology, missionary work, the spreading of religious 
knowledge, systems of religious instruction, charities and charitable 
associations ; music and musical instruments, covering the history 
and theory of music, music of primitive peoples, history, portraits 
of great musicians, self-vibrating instruments. 

In addition to this exhaustive classification, the groups of archae- 
ology and ethnology, charities and corrections, and hygiene are to be 
remembered as being provided with space in the Anthropological 
Building. The ground covered by the department is certainly 
immense. 

Almost all of the displays in the Department of Liberal Arts in 
the main building are contained in the galleries of the structure, 
although a certain portion of the southeast corner on the main floor 
is also devoted to that purpose. Almost all of the States of the 
Union and the foreign countries have displays here. Kindergartens, 
schools for the blind, and deaf and dumb are noticeable. All the 
leading colleges of the United States, and many of foreign nations, 
have strong exhibits of their educational methods and systems. 
Several of the large publishing houses of the country are repre- 
sented. Musical instruments are given a prominent showing, as 
well as instruments of science. 

One interesting exhibit is that of the Pasteur-Chamberland 
Filter Company, of Dayton, Ohio. All sorts of filters are shown in 
operation, illustrating the perfection of each, and their application 
to common use. The greatest organ in the building is that manu- 



392 



LIBERAL ARTS. 



factured by Henry Pilcher's Sons, of Chicago and Louisville. It is 
thirty-three feet in height, twenty-five feet wide, and fifteen feet 
deep. In a building of ordinary size it would present an imposing 
appearance, and even in this great building it is one of the most 




grand organ. Exhibited by Henry Pilcher's Sons. 

attractive exhibits. The case is of quarter-sawed red oak, hand- 
somely finished, and the displayed pipes are arranged in graceful 
groups and are richly decorated. The wood-work of the key- 
boards and accessories is of handsomely polished ebony, while the 



LIBERAL ARTS. 



393 



keys, plates, indicators, pistons, etc., are of genuine ivory. The 
instrument is valued at $12,000. It has hundreds of pipes, includ- 
ing all sorts of combinations known to modern organ building. 
In the display of band instruments, C. G. Conn, of Elkhart, Ind., 




PAVILION OF LYON & HEAU'. 



makes a handsome exhibit. It is contained in a beautifully carved 
and highly polished oak case, eighteen feet long, eight feet wide 
and fourteen feet deep, fitted with French plate glass. The case 
contains Boehm system flutes, metal clarionets, "Wonder" cornets, 



394 LIBERAL ARTS. 

and other valve band instruments, double-bell and helicon instru- 
ments and drums. Some of these are very handsomely finished, 
the gold-plated cornets and saxophones being especially prepared 
by skillful engravers. Some of these are valued at $500 each. 

Lyon & Healy, of Chicago, have a magnificent pavilion, filled 
with everything that is fine in all varieties of musical instruments 
of their own manufacture. These include pianos, organs, harps, 
guitars, band instruments, and all novelty instruments of smaller 
character. Many of the other great piano manufacturers of the 
United States also exhibit here, and the display is a beautiful one. 

Morris Steinert's collection of ancient 
musical instruments, upon all of which 
he plays, is very curious. He has a 
harpsichord, made in 1679. 

The literary exhibits in the north 
gallery of the building are of great 
interest. Charles Scribner's Sons, of 
New York, occupy a space 35x16 feet. 
The booth is of wood the color of the 
magazine, and gilded, with open deco- 
harpsichord, made by kirkman, rated faQade eleven feet in height, its 

LONDON, I776. OWNED BY . * ° 

george Washington. interior fitted with showcases, book- 

cases and screens for the display of 
original drawings. A full set of all their book publications is 
exhibited, classified under the various departments of literature. 
Considerable space is given to art work, with some specimen 
original drawings and water-colors. A special exhibit is also made 
of recent decorative covers, together with the original artist's 
designs, the brass stamps used for transferring the designs to the 
cloth, all illustrative of the latest artistic work in book binding. 
Another branch of the exhibit of particular importance is the exhi- 
bition number of Scribner's Magazine, which the publishers planned 
to make as fine an example of an American magazine as could be 
produced. Besides the original drawings, water-colors and paint- 
ings used in this number, which are framed and hung upon one of 
the walls of the pavilion, there are three cases, covered by glass 




LIBERAL ARTS. 



395 



containing the original manuscripts by W. D. Howells, Bret Harte, 
Thomas Hardy, Henry James, Geo. W. Cable, Thomas Bailey 
Aldrich, Sarah Orne Jewett, and others whose writings appear in 
this number. To show the process of illustrating a modern maga- 



TM& 



' DB --'laSll B Blv.T 



EXHIBIT OF AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHS. 

zine, there are the original drawings, the same reproduced by photo 
engravings, by wood engravings, also the prepared wood block, the 
block upon which the picture has been photographed for the 
engraver, and the block after being engraved, but before being 
electrotyped. In the same way the progress of the preparation of 
literary contents is shown, by the manuscript, the galley-proof, the 
author's revise, the make-up, with the arrangement of illustration, 
the page-proof, the foundry-proof, and finally the printed sheet. By 
the side of these examples of modern magazine making is a copy 



396 



LIBERAL ARTS. 



of The American Magazine for 1797, which was the first magazine 
ever published in America. 

The Century Company occupies a pavilion in the same neighbor- 
hood, of about the same size. The large space between the doors 
on the outside of the pavilion contains a group of eight of the 
remarkable drawings made by the artist, Castaigne, for the World's 
Fair article published in the May Century. Between the two 

doors, as one enters the pavilion, 
is the exhibit of the Century 
Dictionary. On the walls above 
are the original drawings of some 
of the most interesting illustra- 
tions in the dictionary. In the 
case below is an exhibit showing 
how a dictionary is made, with 
copies of some of the earliest 
English dictionaries up to the 
" Century," printer's copy of a part 
of the latter, with proofs in various 
stages showing changes, correc- 
tions, etc. This magazine also 
shows all the processes of illustra- 
tion. There are displayed a great 
number of interesting manuscripts 
and drawings for important illus- 
trations in the Century and St. 
Nicholas. Manuscript poems by 
Tennyson, Longfellow, Whittier and Bryant are shown, together with 
the first chapter of the manuscript of "Little Lord Fauntleroy," by 
Mrs. Burnett, and original stories by other well-known writers. The 
originals of famous letters and documents quoted in Messrs. 
Nicolay and Hay's " Life of Lincoln " are shown, including a 
certificate of a road survey made by Mr. Lincoln in 1834, with a 
bill for his services at three dollars a day. There is also the letter 
of the committee apprising Mr. Lincoln of his first nomination for 
the presidency and his reply, the corrected copy of the inaugural 




PULPIT USED BY WHITEFIEED WHEN IN 
AMERICA. 

Exhibit of American Tract Society. 



LIBERAL, ARTS. 



397 



address from which he read, March 4, 1861, the original draft of his 
proclamation calling for 75,000 men, drafts of important messages 
to Congress, Mr. Lincoln's written speech on presenting Grant his 
commission as Lieutenant-General, and the autograph copy in 
pencil of General Grant's reply. Letters from General Grant to 
the editors of the Century regarding his papers for the war series, 
the last from Mt. McGregor, are exhibited, with original manuscripts 
by General McClellan, Joseph E. Johnston, and others. 

Ginn & Co., of New York and Boston, display a full line 
of their educational publications and text books. Mr. Plimpton, 
of the same firm, makes an interesting exhibit of old school books 
illustrating the growth of education. For instance, he begins the 
subject of arithmetic with two manuscripts which were written 
before the days of printing ; then there is the first arithmetic ever 
printed, which was made in 1478. Then follow others of 1491, 
1 503, the earliest arithmetic printed in English, and so on down to 
the present 
time. After 
the same man- 
ner are exhib- 
ited series of 
geographies, of 
grammars, of 
reading books, 
primers, etc. 

In the relig- 
ious section the 
American 
Tract Society 
makes an inter- 
esting historical exhibit of the progress of its work and the 
extent to which it has spread. The Society shows the chair used 
by the " Dairyman's Daughter," about whom one of the widest 
circulated tracts ever published was written. There is also shown 
the curious movable pulpit used by the famous Whitefield in his 
preaching tours as an evangelist. 




LONDON SCHOOL BOARD. 



398 



LIBERAL ARTS. 



Numbers of school supply houses make interesting displays. 
The Prang Educational Co., of Boston, shows charts, drawings, 
examples of clay modeling, wood-working, paper-folding, etc., illus- 
trating the Prang course in form study and drawing for public 




CATHOLIC EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT. 



schools. There are also charts illustrating exercises in the color- 
course for public schools. These are of great interest as showing 
modern methods of instruction. The Central School Supply 
House, of Chicago, shows all sorts of school apparatus and supplies 
of which they are manufacturers and publishers. The exhibit is a 
novel one and attracts much attention. The Funk & Wagnalls 
Co., of New York, Houghton & Mifflin Co., of Boston, B. Appleton 
& Co., of New York, Harper & Bros., of New York, and other 
noted publishers, make excellent displays. New York shows the 
immigration statistics for forty-five years. 

The College Fraternity's exhibit is a reproduction ten feet 
square at the base and thirty feet high, of the most famous speci- 
mens of Greek architecture, the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. 



LIBERAL ARTS. 



399 



The Catholics of the United States have an exceptionally fine 
educational display, in the preparation of which much interest has 
been taken by the Pope and other Church dignitaries. 

London publishers contribute engravings, fine art publications, 
and a collection of newspapers illustrating the growth of English 
journalism. The American Bible Society has a rare exhibit of 
ancient and modern Bibles, both cheap and costly editions, and 
Bibles printed in three hundred different languages. The big 
Yerkes telescope, though in an incomplete condition, is exhibited 
in the south galleries. 

Harvard University has a large gallery space, and its cabinets 
are particularly interesting to scientists. Among other colleges 
which here exhibit are Amherst, Bryn Mawr, Chautauqua, the 




VIEW IN BRITISH SECTION. 



University of Chicago, Johns Hopkins University, Columbia College, 
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton, the University 
of Michigan, Vassar, Yale, and almost every one of the State 
Universities. A space in the north gallery is occupied by Rand, 
McNally & Co., with an interesting and valuable exhibit of educa- 
tional maps. 

The American Bronze Co., which has its art foundry at Grand 



4oo 



tlBERAL ARTS. 




EXHIBIT OF PURDUE UNIVERSITY. 



Crossing, near Chicago, is engaged in the 




CHAIR AND TABLE IN MAHOGANY. 

Designed and Executed by Pupils of Penna. Museum and 
School of Industrial Art. 



industry of standard 
bronze casting-. In 
their pavilion they 
make a fine display, 
among the exhibits 
of which is shown 
the life mask from 
which was modeled 
the statue of Lincoln, 
at Rochester, N. Y. 
The company makes 
a specialty of casting 
mammoth figures, as 
well as small artistic 
bronzes, and in both 
they claim to equal 




26 



Uoi) 



402 



LIBERAL ARtS. 



the foundries of Europe. In the sections devoted to the display 
of medical, surgical, physical, chemical and other scientific appa- 
ratus, James W. Queen & Co., of Philadelphia, make an elaborate 
and interesting showing. The instruments which they manufac- 
ture are known throughout the world, and the exhibit here receives 
much attention. W. & L. E. Gurley, of Troy, N. Y., make an 
exhibit of field instruments for the use of engineers and surveyors. 
They show- other scientific specialties for architects, draughtsmen 
and engineers in an artistically designed pavilion. 

A. L. Bancroft & Co., of San Francisco, show models and 
charts illustrating Mr. Bancroft's plan for numbering country houses 
by the " Ten-Block System." This system has been established at 
Contra Costa, California, with considerable success, and it is rapidly 




GERMAN SECTION. 



spreading. The exhibit is interesting, and is certain to impress the 
merits of the idea upon all visitors. 

Among the foreign countries represented in the galleries with 



LIBERAL ARTS. 



403 



educational exhibits are Italy, Russia, Mexico, Brazil, Austria, Ger- 
many, Great Britain, New South Wales, Canada and France. 

In the southern part of the Anthropological Building 30,000 
square feet are taken up by two sections of the Liberal Arts 




A CORNER OF FRENCH SECTION. 



Department, the Bureau of Charities and Corrections, and the 
Bureau of Sanitation and Hygiene. Here the great philanthropic 
societies of the world, charitable organizations, prison reform 
societies, societies for the prevention of cruelty, cookery schools, 
etc., all have their exhibits. Societies for physical culture, as well 
as gymnastic apparatus, also have their home here. Anthropo- 
metric systems are displayed, and the sociologist who is seeking 
means of benefiting the human race may find here suggestions for 
work of many lifetimes. 

This department of Liberal Arts comes very close to the welfare 
of every one, and is deserving of immense attention. To some 
extent it is subordinated and hidden by the enormous array of 
exhibits in the Manufactures Building, and visitors do not reach the 
pavilions which contain these exhibits in as great numbers as 



404 



LIBERAL ARTS. 



should be. Those who seek them, in the two great buildings, are 
more than repaid. 

Properly belonging in this department is the exhibit contained in 
the " Puck " Building, the beautiful little pavilion which is located 
just north of the Horticultural Building. This well-known comic 
paper has constructed a dainty edifice where all the friends of the 
publication are made welcome. It is elaborately decorated with 
sculpture and ornamental designs. An artistic group in bronze 
crowns the portico. It was designed by Henry Baerer, the 




PUCK BUILDING. 



celebrated sculptor, and represents Puck standing on an eminence 
from which he commands a view of the world. In one hand he 
holds a mirror, and in the other a crayon. Within the building 
the publishers of the magazine show all the processes of illustration 
and color lithography from beginning to end, and the presses are 
constantly employed in printing a World's Fair edition of the 
publication. 




\S 



HERE is no science and no art 
which is not exemplified in its 
highest sense within the limits 
of the great Exposition. There- 
fore Music, that delight which is at once art and 
science, is here given prominence and distinc- 
tion worthy its deserts. From the beginning 
of plans for the enterprise, the musical inter- 
ests of the world have had consideration. The best minds in the 
musical world have been enlisted in the work of making here a 
musical epoch. The plans have been those of broad-minded and 
energetic men, and the results are magnificent. In the considera- 
tion of the subject in this work it must be divided for best under- 
standing. The musical interests of the Exposition are under the 
control of the Department of Liberal Arts, and all exhibits in con- 
nection with music are made in the buildings of that department. 
Therefore in the chapter on Liberal Arts will be found the descrip- 
tion of all such exhibits as pianos and other musical instruments, 
and literature and other material things pertaining to music. But 
in this chapter it is desired to make plain the scope of the musical 
interests as represented in the actual rendering and production of 
music, vocal and instrumental, within the Exposition itself. There 
is then ample material to engage attention. 

First as to the great auditoriums which house the musical features 
of the Fair. There are two of these, both triumphs of architecture, 
measured by the purposes for which they are intended, thoroughly 

(405) 



406 



CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 



suited to the demands made upon them, and ornaments to the City 
of White, of which they form a part. One is Music Hall, and the 
other Festival, or, as it is sometimes called, Choral Hall. 

Music Hall is one of the buttresses that flanks the great portal 
of the Exposition, the Peristyle. As one approaches the limits of 




THEODORE THOMAS, MUSICAL DIRECTOR. 



Jackson Park from the water side, the Peristyle, Music Hall and 
the Casino form the water gateway. It is one of the architectural 
glories of the whole display. At this point, just to the south of 
the Manufactures Building, there is an inlet from Lake Michigan 



CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 



407 



into the inner Lagoon, by 
way of the Great Basin. On 
the north side of this inlet, at 
the edge of the water, stands 
the temple of Music On the 
south is the Casino, the centre 
of the system of Public Com- 
fort, and connecting them, 
bridging the inflowing waters, 
extends the Peristyle, a com- 
manding array of monolithic 
pillars, supporting a great 
roof, a magnificent arch, and 
the Columbus Quadriga, one 
of the most worthy of all the 
pieces of sculpture on the 
grounds. The location of 
Music Hall is thus an ideal 
one, with the blue waters of 
Lake Michigan almost wash- 
ing its walls to the east and 
north, and the view to the 
westward passing over the 
sparkling basin to the build- 
ings which surround the 
Grand Court. 

This architectural composite 
was designed by Charles B. 
Atwood, the designer-in-chief 
of the Exposition, and perhaps 
is more generally commended 
after the Gallery of Fine Arts 
than any other of the Exposi- 
tion structures. It is all highly 
Roman in the character of the 
architecture, Music Hall, at 




408 CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 

the north end, measures the same as its twin, the Casino, at the 
south end, 246 by 140 feet. It is of simple and chaste design, ex- 
actly suitable for its purposes. The entrances are on the south and 
west sides, into great lobbies and foyers, with all the accessories. of 
a modern and beautiful opera house. The grand vestibule is of 



the columbus quadriga, peristyle. {D. C. French and E. C. Potter. ) 

immense size, and with the foyers and promenades is amply able 
to contain all the people who could be numbered in the largest 
audience. For this reason the hall has the excellent property of 
emptying quickly. Adjoining the vestibule are offices and retiring- 
rooms in sufficient quantity. Music Hall gives seating capacity for 
between 2,000 and 2,500 auditors, an orchestra of 1 20 and a chorus 



CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 



409 



of 300. The stage it will be seen is ample, and the audience-room 
proportionate. In the rear of the stage are accommodations of the 
most modern order for participants in the concerts here given, 
prima donna, chorus singers and orchestra. The dressing and 
wardrobe rooms are commodious and numerous. The acoustic 
properties of the hall were found upon test to be of the best, and 
everything else equally satisfactory. Within the same building is 
another hall large enough to seat about 500 persons, which is 



L,A 




THE GREAT ORGAN — BUII/T BY FARRAND Jb VOTEY CO. 



devoted to chamber music and recitals, in distinction from the more 
elaborate concerts which are given in the main auditorium. 

Festival or Choral Hall is a structure different in everything from 
the one just described, except in its adaptability to the purposes 
intended. It is situated in the centre of the western portion of the 
park, between the north end of the Transportation Building and the 
south end of the Horticultural Building. Here it looks across the 



4IO CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 

inner Lagoon to the Wooded Island, and thence in the distance to 
the great Manufactures Building by the lake. It is simple and 
severe in outline, following the Doric style of architecture, and 
presents a spherical form both within and without, like that of an 
amphitheatre surmounted by a dome. On each of the four sides 
is a portico covering an entrance, that on the side towards the 
Lagoon being the principal one. This is supported by fluted Doric 
columns, six and one-half feet in diameter, and is entered by a 
broad flight of steps, at the foot of which appear two statues, 
reproductions of the celebrated ones of Handel and Bach. On the 
side of the portico are bas-relief panels, representing the progress 
of music, and over the door are relief portraits of Gluck, Berlioz, 
Wagner, Schumann, Mozart, Mendelssohn, Bach, Handel and Beet- 
hoven. The interior arrangement is that of the Greek theatre, 
except that the part assigned to the stage by the Greeks is here 
occupied by the space for the chorus of 2,500. There are no 
galleries of any kind, but a large foyer extends around the build- 
ing, giving ample room for a promenade. The auditorium, which 
seats 6,500, is decorated with plaster relief work and color, with 
symbolic paintings similar in character to those employed in Music 
Hall. Between the immense auditorium and the chorus is the 
orchestra, room being furnished for one of several hundred. In 
the rear of the chorus is one of the largest organs in the world, 
built for the purpose, and a magnificent instrument. The retiring- 
rooms and dressing-rooms are ample here as in the other structure 
for musical purposes. 

When Theodore Thomas was appointed musical director of the 
Exposition, he received the offer as a sacred trust, saying to the 
committee through whom it was tendered: "Gentlemen, if you 
wish me to be responsible for the honor of music at the Exposition, 
I will accept the position and its obligations." The appointment 
of Win. L. Tomlins as choral director followed soon after that of 
Mr. Thomas. Both appointments were worthy in every respect, 
for both leaders are educators in the broadest and noblest sense. 

The two central ideas around which the musical director grouped 
all his work were these; First. To make a complete showing to 



CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 4II 

the world of musical progress in this country in all grades and 
departments, from the lowest to the highest. Second. To bring 
before the people of the United States a full illustration of music 
in its highest form, as exemplified by the most enlightened nations 
of the world. 

The announcement issued by the Bureau of Music read as fol- 
lows : In order to carry out this conception of the unexampled 
opportunity now presented, three co-operative conditions are indis- 
pensable : 

I. The hearty support of American musicians, amateurs and 
societies for participation on great festival occasions of popular 
music, and for the interpretation of the most advanced competition, 
American and foreign. 

II. The presence at the Exposition of many of the representative 
musicians of the world, each to conduct the performances of his 
own principal compositions and those of his countrymen, all upon a 
scale of the utmost completeness. 

III. A provision on the part of the Exposition authorities of the 
means necessary for carrying out these plans, in the erection of 
halls indispensable for successful performances, and in the engage- 
ment of solo artists, orchestras and bands. 

The entire range of the performances proposed may be grouped 
under the following classifications : 

1. Semi-weekly orchestral concerts in Music Hall. 

2. Semi-monthly choral concerts in Music Hall. 

3. Six series of international concerts, choral and orchestral, each 
consisting of from four to six in Festival Hall and in Music Hall. 

4. Four series of oratorical festivals by united American choral 
societies in Festival Hall. 

5. Concerts in Festival Hall under the auspices of German 
sinorino- societies. 

6. Concerts in Festival Hall under the auspices of Swedish sing- 
ing societies. 

7. Concerts in Festival Hall under the auspices of Welsh sing- 
ine societies. 



412 



CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 



8. Six series of popular miscellaneous festival concerts by 
American singers. 

9. Twelve children's concerts by Sunday school, public school 
and specially organized children's choruses. 

10. Chamber music concerts and organ recitals. 

11. Popular concerts of orchestral music given frequently in 
Festival Hall during the six months of the Exposition. 

It will be seen at once that the ideas proposed were most liberal. 
There was no cessation of the effort to accomplish them. The 
World's Columbian Exposition directory, after providing the two 
great music halls, made an appropriation of $175,000. This 
amount provided a permanent orchestra of 114 players for the 
entire period of six months. Mr. Thomas organized this orchestra, 
using; the Chicago orchestra as a nucleus. Since the list of con- 
certs during the Exposition, at which the services of an orchestra 
are required, numbers more than 300, it is at once evident that a 
permanent orchestra was a necessity. 




CHORAL HAIX. 



Provision was also made for the appearance of the representative 
orchestras of New York city and Boston. The programs arranged 
embrace all schools, vocal and instrumental. The popular orchestra 
concerts, which are free to the public, cannot but be educative in 
their influence. Mr. Thomas' idea in them has been to make 
interesting, not trivial, programs of the compositions of representa- 
tive writers of all countries, 



CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 4l$ 

The invitation of the Bureau to choral societies asking them to 
co-operate, because of their love of art and the pride they have, in 
the opportunity the Exposition affords, to show to the world, the 
artistic level of the United States in music, brought many assur- 
ances of support. Inasmuch as it would be manifestly impossible 
for the same chorus to take part in all choral performances, this 
work was divided among choral societies of the whole country. 
The musical director assumed that thousands of singers and music- 
lovers would visit the Exposition in any case, and that they would 
prefer to appear as contributors, thus conferring an importance 
upon their societies and their homes. These forces thus directed 
and guided in combined effort, preparing for their appearance at 
the Exposition, afford intelligent direction to efforts that in some 
parts of the country are now being wasted for want of a command- 
ing object of work. 

In addition to all that has been outlined, there must not be for- 
gotten the daily band concerts in the stands on the Grand Plaza 
and in various other portions of the park. These are given, not 
only at various times of the day, but also throughout the evening, 
and attract thousands of visitors. Several permanent bands are 
maintained, while other noted band organizations from other cities 
have accepted invitations to occupy weeks at the Fair. 

It is useless to attempt to name musicians and vocalists who ap- 
pear at the concerts, for it includes practically all the more notable 
ones of this country and many from Europe. 

Such, in brief, is the outline of a tremendous undertaking. The 
attitude of the Exposition toward the art of music has been most 
liberal, and everything was done that could be done. The best 
influences were, however, not applied, or were at least unavailing, 
because of the high prices charged for admission to most of the 
concerts. A certain short-sighted policy kept the price of tickets 
out of reach of the masses, with the result that many of the best 
entertainments were given before practically empty houses. It 
seemed unreasonable to the layman that he should be charged 
$1.50 for admission to a concert of two hours' duration within the 
Fair grounds, when the whole magnificent display of the Fair was 



4I4 CHORAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. 

open to him for fifty cents. Through the early months of the Fair 
there was continual agitation on this subject, and at the time of 
writing this chapter there is still hope that the prices may be 
lowered. 

A magnificent organ, one of the largest ever constructed, was 
built by the Farrand & Votey Organ Company, of Detroit, Michi- 
gan, for Festival Hall. Its case, which is made of staff, corresponds 
with the general style of the building, and occupies a space thirty- 
eight feet in height, twenty-five feet in depth and thirty-four feet in 
width. It is believed by the builders and by many musicians that 
the qualities of the organ and many of its novel characteristics will 
mark an epoch in organ-building. There are 116 stops and 3,901 
pipes. The specifications for the organ were drawn by Mr. Clar- 
ence Eddy, the noted organist of Chicago, in conjunction with Mr. 
Votey. It is a triumph of the organ-builder's skill. 

By observing the liberality displayed by the Exposition Company 
to music as an art, it is seen that the idea of the World's Fair is to 
show justice to everything in the scope of human culture and 
knowledge. It is gratifying to know that the country appreciates 
these efforts, and that universal voice declares the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition to be the greatest in history. 




NE of the several departments 
of the World's Columbian Ex- 
position in which science and 
education are the main objects 
of the exhibit is Department 
»' M." 

In the fall of 1890, before the site of the Exposition was definitely 
located in Chicago, a plan was conceived, and presented by request 
of the World's Fair Committee, for a department which should 
illustrate early life in America from remote ages before historic 
times down to the period of Columbus. 

The sketch originally outlined has been broadened in so many 
directions that the department may be said to have outgrown its 
name, thus giving rise to the necessity of a more comprehensive 
title for the building in which the department is arranged. The 
legend over the main entrance, ''Anthropological Building, Man 
and his Works," is very comprehensive and indicates the scope of 
the department, which not only treats of the moral, mental and 
physical characteristics of man, but also shows the beginnings of 
his great achievements in art, in architecture and in manufac- 
tures. 

The first rude attempts in human art and industry are here illus- 
trated, and form a striking contrast to the splendors of modern civil- 
ization so lavishly displayed on every side ; and the accumulated 
results of years of scientific investigation in relation to prehistoric 
life on the Continent are here brought together and furnish a study 
which is needful for the full appreciation of the other depart- 
ments. 

(415) 



416 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 



ORIGINAL RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION. 

When the Department of Ethnology was organized in February, 
1891, it was with the understanding that a considerable amount of 
money should be appropriated for original scientific work and that 
the results thus obtained should be retained in Chicago as the 
nucleus of a scientific institution which should be established in the 
city and should be named the Columbus Memorial Museum. It 



j| 1 Ml! IB" 

ai UK 






..*• , 11 1 




P ff c F i 
L.U-L fc 



^'f'H 



1I 11 




ANTHROPOLOGICAL BUILDING. 



is hoped that at the close of the Exposition the friends of science 
will unite in carrying out this plan to endow the city of Chicago 
with a museum of the natural sciences. 

Early in the spring of 1891 expeditions were started out under 
the direction of the Chief of the Department to various parts of the 
country. Within the United States several exploring camps were 
established to obtain new material to represent the archaeology of 
the Ohio valley with its many ancient earthworks, burial-places and 
village sites, and to make explorations in the Delaware valley to 
illustrate in the Exposition whatever can be learned of the earliest 
peoples of the Atlantic Coast of America. Arrangements were 
made for collecting ethnological material at different points in 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHAEOLOGY. 417 

British Columbia to represent the life and customs and particularly 
the religious ceremonies of the different tribes of that region. The 
Northern Crees of the Saskatchewan valley were also called upon 
to contribute everything which could be gathered to give us knowl- 
edge of this little known people. An exploring party was sent to 
South America to collect material illustrative of the different modes 
of burial among the ancient inhabitants of Peru, Chili, Bolivia and 
the island of La Plata, and also to gather articles buried with the 
dead to show us something of their life and customs. The plan 
was conceived and put into execution of having certain typical por- 
tions of the Yucatan ruins reproduced in staff on the Fair Grounds. 
In addition to these special explorations the department joined with 
expeditions to North Greenland, Labrador, Alaska and Siberia, with 
the understanding that a certain amount of material should be col- 
lected for the Exposition. At this time a section of Physical 
.Anthropology was established, and during the seasons of 1 89 1-92 
seventy volunteer assistants were sent out to different parts of 
the United States and Canada to make a study of the physical 
characteristics of the different Indian tribes of America, and to 
gather from them whatever could be obtained to illustrate their life 
in the olden times before white contact. These assistants were 
selected mostly from the universities in America, from " Harvard " 
in the east to " Leland Stanford, jr.," in the west. Many interest- 
ing specimens of costumes, handiwork and trinkets were brought 
back by these assistants, as well as valuable statistics based on the 
measurements of 17,000 individuals for the preparation of charts 
illustrating the physical characteristics of the North American 
Indian. 

GLACIAL EPOCH. 

Included in the Ohio State exhibit is an excellent presentation of 
the glacial deposits of the State, and the earliest traces of man in 
America — the hotly disputed " palaeolithic man." This subject is 
presented by means of boulders with glacial markings ; — maps 
showing the glacial deposits of Ohio, and indicating the localities 
where implements have been found; layers of undisturbed gravel 
from Comerstown and a series of enlarged photographs of the 
27 



418 ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 

gravel pit showing the place where the Mills " palaeolith " was dis- 
covered; photographs of this implement and also of others found 
in Trenton, New Jersey, and in Europe; maps showing the glacial 
phenomena in the eastern part of America and indicating the locali- 
ties where palaeolothic implements have been found east of the 
Mississippi. In the special department exhibit there is one division 
illustrating this subject by a large collection from the Trenton 
valley, made during the last two seasons, and also by specimens 
from the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. This exhibit is 
intended to show the evidence of the existence of " palaeolithic 
man " in America, and to afford an opportunity of study to all who 
are interested in this question of such vital importance to archaeolo- 
gists. 

ANCIENT EARTHWORKS, VILLAGE SITES AND BURIAL-PLACES. 

The special department exhibit includes a large amount of new 
archaeological material obtained by exploration of ancient earth- 
works, village sites and burial-places in various parts of the 
country. 

The remains of these prehistoric peoples, who made their dwell- 
ing places in different epochs and at different points on the Ameri- 
can continent, are so arranged as to afford a comparative study of 
the various peoples, their migrations and interminglings as well as 
their development from one period to another. It is fortunate for 
the student of archaeology that these early peoples, of whom his- 
tory can give us no record, almost universally practised the custom 
of burying with their dead their household utensils, implements, 
ornaments and objects of religious significance, thus affording us a 
clue to their daily life. 

The famous earthworks of the Ohio valley are well represented 
by models and photographs and by the display of the specimens 
found in or near them. Notable among these collections is that 
made at the " Clark Works " or " Hopewell Group " in Ross 
county. Thousands of specimens were taken from these mounds. 
In several cases altars of clay were discovered. On one of the 
largest altars was found a large number of ornaments and imple- 
ments, the greater portion of which were burnt, thus suggesting the 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 419 

thought that these treasures had been thrown on the altar by the 
people as an offering to fire in accordance with the rites of ancient 
fire worship. A sufficient amount of material was secured in good 
condition to make the collection of inestimable importance in the 
study of the ancient peoples of the Ohio valley. It is interesting to 




HEAD-DRESS FOUND ON SKULL IN MOUND OF HOPEWELL GROUP. 

learn of the religion of this people by the evidence of fire worship, 
and also to notice among their ornaments pieces of copper cut in 
the form of the Swastika, the peculiar emblem, common in the Old 
World, to which Schliemann has called particular attention ; to 
observe their love of ornament from the big pile of copper ear- 
rings, the hundreds of shell and bone beads and the ornaments of 
slate, shell, mica, and bone ; to note their striving after the beauti- 



420 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 



ful in the carvings representing animals, and the ornamental 
designs in copper and shell and the delicate etching on pieces of 
bone which would do credit to a modern engraver; to judge of 
their power and the skill of their workmanship not only by the 
objects of their handiwork but also by the large collection of beauti- 
ful obsidian implements and many of copper and stone. Here also 
was discovered a skeleton on the skull of which was found an 
elaborate head-dress shaped like the branching horns of the deer; 
this was made of wood covered with copper and of large copper 
plates. Pieces of fabric interwoven with beads and the large 
quantity of beads found with portions of the skeleton led to the 




SKRPKNT MOUND MODEI,. 

conclusion that the dress had been elaborately ornamented. The 
objects buried with this individual also indicated a person of dis- 
tinction, This collection is especially noted as containing the 
largest number of flint discs ever found in one deposit or store- 
house — about eight thousand. A relief map or model of this group 
of earthworks forms a part of the exhibit. 

Among the earthworks which are shown in model is the famous 
Serpent Mound with the park surrounding it. As the name implies 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 



421 



this earthwork is in the form of a serpent winding in graceful curves 
along the brow of a hill overlooking the waters of Brush Creek in 
Adams county. Everything in connection with this remarkable 
effigy, constructed with such a vast amount of labor and located on 
this elevated point surrounded by the most beautiful scenery, tends 
to the conclusion that this was a sacred spot and probably a shrine 
of serpent worship among these ancient people, whose village sites 
and burial-places were discovered near by. 



Copyright, 1890, by The Century Co. 




SUNRISE VIEW OF SERPENT MOUND. 



The Turner group of earthworks, where ten years' exploration 
was carried on under the auspices of the Peabody Museum, is also 
represented by a model. Many remarkable discoveries were made 
during this exploration, and evidence was collected of an advanced 
state of art among these ancient peoples. Fire worship and crema- 
tion were discovered at this place. Another model is of the forti- 
fied hill in Highland county. 



422 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHAEOLOGY. 



Collections from the State Commissioners of Wisconsin, Ohio, 
Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas and Colorado respectively illustrate 
the archaeology of these States ; and Ontario also has an official 
exhibit of that province. With these and the material specially 




INDIAN HOUSES FROM VANCOUVER ISLAND, WITH TOTEM POLES. 

gathered by the Department, there is in this section a very com- 
plete exposition of American archaeology. 



PERIOD OF COLUMBUS. 

The representation of the period of Columbus is naturally impor- 
tant in connection with the Columbian Exposition. This subject is 
presented in three distinct parts. In the reproduction of the Con- 
vent of La Rabida at Palos, Spain, one scene in the life of 'Columbus 
is* presented. It was within these walls that he found food and 
shelter at a time when his enterprise was rejected by the Spanish 
Court ; here his plans were matured and brought to successful 
issue ; here he offered his prayers on the morning when he sailed 
with his little fleet ; and here he returned after his discovery of the 
New World. This building is filled wifli relics of Columbus — what- 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 423 

ever could be obtained in any part of the world pertaining to his 
life and times. Relics of other early voyagers to America are to 
be found here, and early navigation is shown by charts, models and 
instruments. Progress in geographical knowledge is illustrated, 
and in fact the exhibits in this building furnish an historical record 
of the Latin American Republics and colonies from the discovery 




QUICHUA INDIAN WOMAN WEAVING A SHAWL OR " I,I<IJXUA," CUSCO, PERU. 

to the present time. To make the scene more complete, the repro- 
ductions of the three caravels, Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria, the 
little fleet with which Columbus sailed on his voyage of discovery, 
are anchored near the shore. 

A strip of land bordering on the water and dotted here and there 
with the houses and totem poles of the northwest, the bark houses 
of the eastern tribes, the skin tents, buffalo hide teepees, mat and 
bark houses of the central tribes, the thatched huts from South. 
America and other characteristic habitations of the native peoples 
of America, is intended to present a picture of the actual life on the 



424 ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 

continent at the time when Columbus first landed on its shores. 
These rude dwellings are inhabited by representatives of the 
respective tribes dressed in the costumes of their forefathers and 
engaged in their characteristic industries. Here is the basket 
maker, the blanket weaver, the maker of toy birch bark canoes and 
other trinkets, the silver smith, and skilled workmen in many other 
branches of native handiwork. From time to time within the 
several dwellings can be witnessed the native ceremonies and 
dances from which ethnologists may learn of the strange myths and 
superstitions which prevail among these tribes. This little colony 
of native people is not intended for a side show for the amusement 
of the visitor, but for a scientific study of the first historic people of 
America. Moreover these people are treated with kindness and 
consideration and are allowed every opportunity for improvement 
by observation of the benefits of civilization and education. The 
Indian Schoolhouse near by, which is conducted by the United 
States Government, shows to the world what the Indian is capable 
of when allowed such advantages. 

Within the Anthropological Building this period is illustrated by 
a display of the ethnological material collected by the Department 
from the different tribes in the United States and Canada, and also by 
several important State and individual exhibits. This division con- 
tains much of importance illustrating the daily life of the peoples 
who were living on the' continent at the time of Columbus. 

ANCIENT RELIGIONS, GAMES AND FOLKLORE. 

An attractive feature in ethnology is the study of folklore, includ- 
ing the religious faiths and ceremonies, the household tales, tradi- 
tions and myths, and the evolution of games and toys. 

Shrines, idols, amulets and ceremonial objects gathered from 
different parts of the world are the objects from which we must 
learn of the ancient religions. One important collection from the 
University of Pennsylvania teaches us of the ancient Egyptian re- 
ligion ; another illustrates the religion as well as the folklore of 
China. A private collection from England contains valuable 
objects pertaining to the Buddhist faith. 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHAEOLOGY. 



425 



All countries and all times have contributed to make the exhibit 
of games a very instructive and pleasing- one, especially as this 
division treats of the holiday side of life. The evolution of the 
domino from the dice and the playing card from the domino is illus- 
trated here ; the first playing card ever printed in America is shown, 
as well as all the principal games of the world both old and new. 



TRIBES OF THE EXTREME NORTH. 

The North Greenland Eskimo are well represented in the Ethno- 
logical Section by the material collected by the Peary expedition in 
1 89 1-2. Several skin tents were brought down with all their fur- 
nishings, even to the deer 
skins for bedding and the 
seal intestines to be used for 
windows. The mode of 
dress among this people is 
illustrated by several com- 
plete costumes for men, 
women and children. These 
garments are made of seal 
skin, bear skin and deer 
skin. There are also a num- 
ber of ornaments of seal 
skin, of ivory and of walrus 
tusks. A glimpse of their 
domestic life is shown in the 
children's toys, the rude 
musical instruments, the 
needle cases with thimbles of walrus tusk and deer sinew for thread, 
the stone lamps, and the stone, bone and wooden dishes. The 
occupations and means of livelihood among this people are indi- 
cated by sledges and dog harnesses, and canoes or kayaks with full 
hunting and fishing equipment. Thus by means of this collection 
of ethnological material, together with a number of skulls, photo- 
graphs and anthropological measurements, we are able to gain 




REVERSE, FIRST AMERICAN 
PLAYING CARD. 



426 ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 

much valuable information in relation to this little known people of 
the extreme north. 

The Labrador Eskimo is also represented by material collected 
by the Skiles Eskimo Village Company. This village, although 




SKIDKGATE VILLAGE, QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLAND. 

carried on by concession, is classified as an exhibit in this depart- 
ment, and the company has kindly loaned one family of the Eskimo 
to be living in native fashion on the Ethnographical Grounds. 

Similar collections from Arctic Siberia and northern Alaska offer 
the same opportunity of studying these far-away regions. Among 
the objects which tell of the customs and costumes of the people 
are sinew fish nets, and seal nets, sealskin travelling bags, and rein- 
deer bags, and whole suits of reindeer garments — hoods, "parkas " 
or robes, shirts, leggings, socks and shoes. In the Alaskan collec- 
tions we find many objects which are both novel and interesting as 
well as descriptive of native life, such as full sets of garments, and 
other objects, made from fish skin ; the fish woman's cone-shaped 
hat made of a thin piece of spruce steamed and bent and held in 
position by threads of willow roots ; fish nets made of willow bark 
fibre and of reindeer sinew ; the model fish traps, and the totem 
poles and grave poles with their strange carvings. 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 427 

Coming a little farther south we find a representation of the early 
period in the Dominion of Canada, in a special exhibit from the 
province of Ontario ; also a large collection made by the depart- 
ment, consisting of strange-looking- idols, masks, head-dresses and 
numerous objects connected with the life and religious ceremonies 
of the natives in various parts of British Columbia. Here also is 
a model of the entire village of Skidegate, Queen Charlotte's 
Island, including every house and totem pole arranged with scenic 
background and foreground, making a truthful representation of 

—z: 




part of cuff dwellers' EXHIBIT. Copyright by H. Jay Smith Exploring Co., 1893. 

this old village, so rich in ethnological significance that he who can 
translate the symbolic carvings on the totem poles can read the 
legend connected with each house. 

In the out-door section fourteen Indians from Vancouver Island 



428 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 



in their large wooden house are living in native fashion on the 
borders of South Pond and carrying on their ceremonies and dances. 
One of the house? from the village of Skidegate is set up on the 
Ethnographical Grounds ; here also are two heraldic columns from 
Fort Simpson ; and the canoes of the Indians on the water. 



CLIFF DWELLERS. 

The so-called " Cliff Dwellers' exhibit " is classed with this depart- 




TUCATAN RUINS. 



ment, although carried on by a concession. This exhibit represents 
" Battle Rock," with the cliff dwellings and caves, mummies, and a 
museum of articles obtained by exploration. The Colorado State 
exhibit includes considerable material illustrative of this people, 
and there is a large private collection from the same region, as well 
as several relief maps of the pueblos and cliff dwellings. 

MEXICO, CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA. 

The official exhibit of Mexico affords a representation of the 
archaeology of ancient Mexico, and includes very effective relief 
maps illustrating the time of Cortez, as well as two model thatched 
huts of more recent time. 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 429 

The Department has also an exhibit of Mexican archaeology 
which comprises charts showing the recent discoveries in relation 
to the ancient Mexican calendar system, twenty fac-simile copies of 
ancient Mexican shields of brilliant colors, and photographs and 
objects belonging to the time of the Spanish Conquest. 

Costa Rica displays a large portion of the valuable archaeological 
material which formed part of the recent Madrid Exposition. 
Pottery vessels of various forms, rude images, human heads and 
other objects carved from stone, gold and copper ornaments and a 
number of large paintings constitute the greater part of this 
interesting exhibit. 

The ruined cities of Yucatan, with their massive stone structures, 
symbolic sculptures and hieroglyphic inscriptions, have received 
especial attention. Ten thousand square feet of molds were 
taken by the Department expedition during fourteen months of 
hard labor, with serious risk and some loss of life in the almost 
impenetrable jungles of Yucatan. The results of this work are 
shown in the fac-similes erected on the Exposition Grounds. The 
principal sections which have been chosen as characteristic examples 
of the architecture and sculpture of these old ruins are "The 
Portal of Labna," " The Straight Arch of Uxmal," the famous 
facade of " The Serpent House,'' and three sections of the " House 
of the Nuns." 

Within the building are many separate pieces of sculptured 
heads and hieroglyphs belonging to the Yucatan collection, and 
here also are the reproductions from molds taken during the last 
two seasons by the Peabody Museum Honduras Expedition at 
Copan and Ouiragua, including casts of the huge stone idols or 
monoliths, stone heads and bands of hieroglyphs. The famous 
Charnay collection of casts, and the casts of the sculptured monu- 
ments in Guatemala from the Berlin museum, with a collection of 
large photographs taken by Maudslay during his explorations in 
Central America, and the enlargements of the photographs taken 
on the several expeditions of the Peabody Museum add much to 
the importance of this section, which contains a more complete 
collection of Central American archaeology than ever before avail- 



43° 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY 



able for the study of these old ruins and their unknown builders. It 
is hoped that some student will be able to decipher the hieroglyphs 
and the meaning of the sculptures found in these ancient temples 
or on their associated monuments, and thus be able to tell us some- 
thing more of the people than is yet known. One point which 




MUMMY FROM ANCON, PERU, \VI 



BJKCTS FOUND WITH IT. 



arrests the attention is the resemblance to Asiatic art particularly 
noticeable in several stone heads from Copan ; and the similarity 
to Asiatic customs shown in artificial ornamentation of the human 
teeth found in very ancient graves in Yucatan and Copan. 

Chiriqui and Colombia are represented by loan collections of 
pottery of characteristic designs and many gold and silver objects 
taken from ancient graves. 

British Guiana represents her native tribes by ethnological col- 
lections and by a group of her native people living in thatched huts 
on the ethnographical grounds. Brazil exhibits her Archaeology, 
Ethnology and Natural History, and the Department displays the 
results of exploration along the western coast of South America 
for an area of three thousand miles. Important discoveries are 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 43 1 

shown from the heretofore unexplored region on the Island of La 
Plata, and an immense amount of pottery gathered from different 
points in Chili, Bolivia and Peru show the different shapes and 
styles of ornamentation which prevailed among these ancient 
peoples, who lived and died before the time of Cortez. One unique 
feature of the Peruvian exhibit is a miniature graveyard to show 
the method of burial at Ancon. where one hundred graves were 
opened and many mummies taken out, with the innumerable 
objects buried with them. With these mummies were found cooking 
utensils with fragments of food, from which we learn that these 
ancient peoples included in their diet corn, beans, potatoes, peanuts 
and dried fish. Beautifully ornamented pottery, fish nets, wooden 
and stone implements, work baskets furnished with needles and 
pins made from the spine of the cactus, pieces of fabric, musical 
instruments and toys all tell us of their daily life. 

The Indians of the interior of South America are represented 
by full sets of garments and pottery vessels, and the strange dried 
human heads prepared by the Jivaros Indians. 

The official exhibit from Paraguay contains an excellent collec- 
tion of ethnological specimens, including objects pertaining to 
ancient religious faiths, and specimens of native handiwork. 

COMPARATIVE ETHNOLOGY AND ARCHEOLOGY. 

In order to gain any real knowledge from the study of archaeology 
and ethnology it is necessary that material should be collected 
from different parts of the world for the purpose of comparison, and 
for this reason the foreign exhibits are of the greatest importance. In 
addition to those already mentioned as comprised on the American 
Continent, there are many exhibits, either official or individual, from 
foreign countries. 

The Royal Museum of Vienna contributes largely to this com- 
parative study by sending ethnological material from the South 
Sea islands, a series of weapons from the Sunda islands, musical 
instruments from India, an Austrian collection, and an African col- 
lection. 

The official exhibit from Greece consists of specimens of an- 



432 ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 

cient Grecian art. An interesting display of the archaeology of 
Japan comes from the Imperial Museum of Japan, and several small 
private collections show the toys, musical instruments and house- 
hold utensils of that country. Ethnological specimens from China 
and Siam are arranged in the Folklore Section. Russia displays 
the ethnology of her native tribes, and a large exhibit comes from 
the South Sea islands. New South Wales makes a fine exhibit of 
large photographs, an assortment of weapons of war and the chase, 
and numerous articles of dress and household use from the 
Australasian group. Africa is represented by several private col- 
lections, one of which comprises arms, sceptres and other royal 
insignia of the Zulus on the eastern coast, and silk and feather 
royal mantles from the island of Madagascar. Another illustrates 
the Pangur tribes of the western coast, and still others contain 
articles from the western and central tribes. Two very valuable 
Egyptian collections are among the loan exhibits in this Depart- 
ment, and a sculptured Assyrian winged bull and winged lion guard 
either side of the main entrance to the Anthropological Building. 

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. 

It is useless in this short sketch to attempt even -an outline of 
what is comprehended in the Laboratories of Physical Anthropology 
and the allied sciences of Psychology and Neurology, but it may 
be interesting to touch upon a few points in this section. 

A complete set of apparatus used in research in these sciences 
is exhibited in the laboratories, and the methods of investigation are 
practically illustrated. The physical characteristics of the races, 
and particularly of the North American Indians, are shown in the 
charts and diagrams prepared as the result of original investiga- 
tion by the department, and also in a series of skulls and skeletons 
and models. Among the many interesting deductions to be drawn 
from these charts are those relating to the stature and head indices 
of the tribes. It is ascertained, for instance, that the tallest peoples 
are to be found east of the mountains; and that the shortest are 
the Eskimo, the tribes of the Fraser river, and the Zuni and Moki ; 
also that in the mountainous regions the stature is generally short. 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 433 

In regard to the head indices it has been possible to arrive at certain 
conclusions which are shown by the diagrams. 

A large number of universities both in this country and abroad 
have contributed to this section. The exhibit of the Hemenway 
Gymnasium of Harvard University includes, in addition to a 
complete set of anthropometric apparatus, the statues of the typical 
man and woman which have been made from a series of measure- 
ments and photographs. 

One important exhibit in this section is that bearing on the 
physical characteristics and mental and physical development of 
school-children in America. Charts have been prepared from 
observations on the measurements of 90,000 children of both sexes, 
including Italian, Japanese, Swedish, German, Irish and American. 
One series of these charts shows the results of investigation on 
the relation of social status to growth in stature and weight of boys, 
computed from material obtained by Roberts in England, Bowditch 
in Boston and Key in Sweden. In each of these cases the results 
show in favor of the higher classes. Another series shows the 
results obtained from measurements on over 7,000 school-children 
in Toronto, with the special purpose of investigating the relation 
of mental ability to physical stature and weight, the result in this 
case showing in favor of the scholar of inferior ability. 

The laboratory which is devoted to Psychology will practically 
illustrate the study of mental phenomena. The apparatus, methods 
and results of research in this science are to be seen in the labora- 
tory. Tests are shown of accuracy of movement; sensation of 
touch ; eyesight in relation to light, color and form ; visual judgment 
and distinction; rapidity, accuracy and compass of perception; 
memory, attention ; and many others of similar character. 

These psychological tests as well as the anthropological measure- 
ments are practically applied in the laboratories. 

The laboratory of Neurology contains exhibits illustrating the 
apparatus, methods and results of study on the nervous system and 
brain of man. Included in this section and showing the general 
character of the exhibits are specimens of the central nervous 
system, and the parts into which the brain may be divided ; methods 
28 



434 ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY. 

of recording the weight of the brain and the locality of diseases in 
it ; the anatomy of the brain seen by the naked eye and also by 
the microscope; casts of dissected brains; photographs of a cross 
section of a nerve ; and fifty plaster casts of the interior of the 
cranium of men and animals. 

In connection with this series of laboratories is a library of general 
anthropology, including the current serial publications on this subject. 
On the walls are plans and photographs of the principal anthro- 
pological laboratories, and near by are those of the leading ethno- 
logical and archaeological museums. 

HISTORY. 

History forms an appropriate adjunct to prehistoric study, but 
owing to the fact that nearly all the States have placed their 
historical collections in their State buildings there is only a small 
section devoted to history. The State of Ohio makes a display of 
its pioneer days ; there is a collection of French and German fire- 
arms, and among the individual exhibits the division devoted to 
stamps, coins and medals is the most popular. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

As natural history finds no other appropriate place it is arranged 
in one section on the gallery of the Anthropological Building, and 
as the various branches of anthropology furnish material for the 
study of mankind, so, in like manner, this immense natural history 
museum affords an opportunity for studying the animal kingdom, 
from the sponges all the way up the scale of animal life. From 
away back in the past ages the ichthyosaurus, the mammoth and 
the mastodon have come to join this motley assembly and teach us 
something of life in geologic ages. The birds and mammals native 
to the different portions of North America are represented by dis- 
plays from Canada and from the States of New York, Maine, Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and Missouri, and by several important private 
collections. The land and fresh water shells of New York, the 
insects of Colorado, collections of birds' eggs and birds' nests, and 
the butterflies of all parts of the world are included in this section. 

From this outline sketch of Department M, known as that of 



ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY 



435 



Ethnology, in the World's Columbian Exposition, it is evident that 
the amount of scientific material brought together from all parts of 
the world affords a broad field for the study of man and his surround- 
ings, from the earliest times to the present day ; and it will undoubt- 
edly awaken a new interest in the problems relating to the origin 
of man and to his distribution over the earth ; while the science 
of Anthropology in all its branches can but receive an impetus 
from this comprehensive exhibit. 








INTRODUCTION TO WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. 

By Mrs. Potter Palmer. 



ORIGIN AND PURPOSES OF THE BOARD OF LADY MANAGERS. 

The respect wherein the World's Fair of 1893 most markedly 
differs from all previous Expositions is the participation of women 
in its management. The principal features of all similar enterprises 
are necessarily the same, the striking superiority of the Columbian 
Exposition consisting chiefly in the unprecedented beauty and mag- 
nitude of its site, and the advantage accruing from the progress in 
industry, science and art. 

The one essential point of vantage possessed by the present 
World's Fair has indeed been from the beginning the prominence 
of women in the making of it. Not merely as contributors to the 
marvelous display of genius and skill in its many grand divisions, 
but as a recognized executive factor, invested by Congress with full 
authority and ample funds. Nor does the material exhibit, eloquent 
as it is, so luminously represent the great advance of modern 
thought as does the fact that man's "silent partner" has been in- 
vited by the government to leave her retirement to assist in con- 
ducting a great international enterprise. Official representation 
for women upon so important an occasion is unprecedented. In fact 
no such body as The Board of Lady Managers had ever existed 
before, and it seems peculiarly appropriate that this honor should 
have been accorded women when celebrating the great deeds of 
Columbus, who, inspired though his visions may have been, yet re- 
quired the aid of an Isabella to transform them into realities. 
From its organization the Board has fully realized the seriousness 
of the responsibility resting upon it, and its earnestness at once met 

(437) 



438 



INTRODUCTION TO WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. 



with helpful response. The Directory of the Exposition took the 
initiative in making an appropriation for the Woman's Building, and 




HIDE AND SEEK. 

Sculptural Group in front of Woman's Building. 

in allowing the Board to call attention to the recent work of women 
in new fields and to stimulate to greater efforts by selecting from 



INTRODUCTION TO WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. 439 

their own sex the architect, decorators, sculptors and painters to 
create both the building and its adornments. Then the National 
Commission vied with the Directory in generosity by placing in the 
hands of the Lady Managers all the interests of women in connec- 
tion with the Exposition as well as the entire control of the Woman's 
Building. 

ITS METHODS 

Sustained by such support the Board embarked upon its hercu- 
lean enterprise without a precedent to guide it. 

The influence of this national body of representative women 
soon made itself felt throughout the length and breadth of our great 
country. Through its agency, women in almost every county of 
every State and Territory were made members of World's Fair 
Committees, and thus enlisted in work for the Exposition. Inspired 
by this success at home, the Lady Managers then had the courage 
to attempt the establishment of co-operation with the women of 
foreign countries. The Board officially invited all foreign govern- 
ments participating in the Exposition to appoint committees of 
women to co-operate with it. This effort was greatly aided by the 
active assistance given by the Department of State, and the response 
was eminently gratifying. The result is even more so, and can 
only be justly estimated by observation of the exhibits by women 
of other countries throughout the Exposition, and particularly in 
the Woman's Building. Spain, France, England, Russia, Austria, 
Germany, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Norway, Portugal, Japan, Siam, 
Algeria, Cape Colony, Ceylon, Brazil, Argentine Republic, Cuba, 
Mexico, Nicaragua, Ecuador and Venezuela are all represented 
in the Woman's Building, and the committees of all these countries 
are composed of their most influential and intellectual women. The 
enthusiasm aroused by the efforts of the Board in Europe was ex- 
traordinary. It pervaded all ranks, from the throne to the work- 
shop. In several countries the reigning sovereign became person- 
ally the head of the Women's World's Fair Committee. Her 
Majesty Queen Marguerite of Italy has been especially interested, 
as has also the Queen of the Belgians and the progressive Empress 
of Japan. Her Majesty the Queen of Siam ha-s sent a special 



440 INTRODUCTION TO WOMAN S DEPARTMENT. 

delegate with directions that she put herself under our leadership 
in order to learn what educational and industrial advantages are 
open to women in other countries, so that Siam may adopt such 
measures as will elevate the condition of her women. Many similar 
instances might be enumerated showing the influence of women 
exerted upon the whole civilized world through the Columbian 
Exposition. Is it any idle boasting then to say that no organization 
comparable to this has ever before existed among women? It is 
official ; acting under government authority and sustained by govern- 
ment funds. It is so far reaching that it encircles the globe. 

ITS ACHIEVEMENTS. 

The admirable purpose expressed by the Queen of Siam very 
aptly describes the general outcome of women's work for the 
World's Fair. Through the agency of National and local boards, such 
evidences of woman's skill in the various industries, professions and 
arts have been brought together as must convince the world that abil- 
ity is not a matter of sex. In making this statement the Board dis- 
claims any disposition to place an extravagant or sentimental value 
upon the work of women because of their sex. On the contrary 
there is entire willingness to admit the superiority of men's achieve- 
ments along the lines which have lain for centuries almost wholly 
in their hands, and who have been carefully trained to meet the 
responsibilities devolving upon them. It was in consequence of 
the vivid realization of this that the Board has with ceaseless vigil- 
ance endeavored to secure for women the opportunity to show what 
they also could do, if given the opening. In no other way might 
woman ever hope to receive the proper recompense for her services 
than by actual demonstration that in industry, the professions, the 
sciences and arts, discrimination upon the score of sex was solely 
the result of mutable conditions. Those conditions, the Board de- 
voutly hopes, will have been greatly altered by the close of the 
Exposition. The influence of the Board has been efficient in the 
advantageous installation of exhibits by women, and it has stood as a 
firm defender of their rights between them and giant manufactories, 
with means and power, clamoring for every foot of space, 



INTRODUCTION TO WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. 441 

The provision of the Act of Congress that the Board of Lady- 
Managers appoint a jury of her peers to pass judgment upon 
woman's work was the most significant feature of the innovation of 
the Board's creation, for never before had it been thought necessary 
to apply this fundamental principle of justice to our sex. The 
unusual privilege has been duly valued by the Board, and will be 
exerted to the utmost in the interests of women. And in the same 



DECORATION OF WOMAN'S BUILDING. 



connection may be mentioned an additional privilege, secured 
through the application of the Board to Congress. This is the 
bestowal upon women artisans of duplicate awards. There is no 
precedent for this. Up to the present time, at all former exposi- 
tions, the great firms supplying the materials from which exhibits 
were made had received the reward; and the humble worker, 
whose intelligence and skill had fashioned the beautiful or useful 
thing, remained unrecognized. It is the highly esteemed pleasure 
of the Board of Lady Managers of the World's Columbian Expo- 



442 INTRODUCTION TO WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. 

sition to correct this inequality. Owing- to their precaution in 
obtaining permission to incorporate in exhibitors' blanks an inquiry 
as to the proportion of women's work entering into all exhibits they 
are prepared to ask the name and address of all women whose 
handiwork wins a prize. The bestowal of these duplicate awards 
will not only encourage many women bowed under the burden of 
labor but will be of distinct and very considerable commercial 
value. 

The instances given sufficiently indicate the material benefit 
accruing to women from the World's Fair, but there will be even a 
more lasting and valuable result from the interchange of the best 
thought of the Century between the leading women of all nations, 
who are now for the first time working together with a common 
purpose and an established means of communication. Government 
recognition has bestowed upon these committees of women an 
official dignity ; their work has been magnificently successful, and 
the reports made of existing conditions among women will become 
incorporated as valuable public documents among the archives of 
all countries. 




N no previous Exposition has the work 
of woman been given such entire rec- 
iS * ognition as in this. For the first time a 
great body of representative women has shared 
in the official conduct of such an institution. 
Almost every woman in the land feels per- 
sonal interest and pride in the work which has 
been done. First in importance of all this 
work is the beautiful structure which houses those features included 
in the Woman's Department. From beginning to end the Woman's 
Building, and everything contained in it, has been under the manage- 
ment and design of women. The section of the act of Congress creat- 
ing the World's Columbian Commission required that body to 
appoint a Board of Lady Managers, and this was clone by appoint- 
ing two ladies from each State and Territory, eight lady managers at 
large, and nine others from Chicago. There has been much un- 
favorable comment upon the somewhat ridiculous title of the board, 
and. with justice, but the fault is not with the women. Its member- 
ship comprises as many representative workers in the active indus- 
tries of the country as if it were composed of men. There are doc- 
tors, lawyers, merchants, farmers and many others of equal activity 
in the business world among the members. Mrs. Potter Palmer, 
of Chicago, is the President of the Board, and the tact and great ex- 
ecutive ability which she has displayed, although entering this public 
life from the domain of a rich and prominent society woman, has 
made her justly celebrated. These women, who are also commis- 
sioners, are proud of the fact that they are the first feminine 

(443) 



444 



woman's department. 



officials ever commissioned by Congress. It is said that there was 
never before a building set apart at a World's Exposition for the 
display of woman's work exclusively. 

When the time came to prepare for the construction of the 




"MRS. POTTER PALMER. 



Woman's Building, a large prize was offered to be awarded for the 
successful design in competition. Fourteen women architects, not 
one of them more than twenty-five years of age, submitted designs 
for the structure to the scrutiny of the Board of Architects of the 



woman's department. 



445 



Exposition, and that of Miss Sophia G. Hayden, of Boston, was 
accepted. It is true that not all of the women interested in the 
Woman's Department concur in the choice of the architects, never- 
theless the building has been the subject of very general admiration. 
The same architect also executed the design. 




BOARD OF LADY MANA' 
i. Mrs. M. R. M. Wallace. 3. Mrs. Potter Palmer. 

4. Mrs. Myra Bradwell. 6. Mrs. Susan G. Cook. 

7. Mrs. J. S. Lewis. 



2. Mrs. Matilda B. Carse. 
5. Dr. Frances Dickinson 
Mrs. J. A. Mulligan. 



The building measures 388x199 feet, and its cost was nearly 
$1 50,000. The building is situated north of the Horticultural Build- 
ing, and near the opening into the grounds from the Midway 
Plaisance. Its east front faces the Lagoon, which here opens out 
into a broad bay and forms a beautiful waterscape. From the cen- 
ter of this bay a grand landing and staircase give access to a terrace 
six feet above the water ; crossing this terrace and ascending other 
staircases, one reaches the ground four feet above, on which, about 
100 feet back, the building is situated. The first terrace is designed 
in artistic flower-beds and low shrubs. The style of the building 
is Italian renaissance. The first story, is raised about 10 feet from 
the ground line, and a wide staircase leads to the centre pavilion. 



446 woman's department. 

This pavilion, forming the main triple-arch entrance, with an open 
colonnade in the second story, is finished with a low pediment en- 
riched with a highly elaborate bas-relief. The corner pavilions have 
each an open colonnade above the main cornice. Here are located 
the " Hanging Gardens." Entering the building one finds himself 
in a lobby, forty feet wide, which leads into the open rotunda, 70 x 65 
feet. This reaches through the height of the building, and is pro- 
tected by a richly ornamented skylight. The rotunda is surrounded 
by a two-story open arcade. This arcade is delicate and chaste in 
design, and gives a thoroughly Italian court-yard effect. On the 






^ .. -\m '.•"■.! 



* J 1 f \ I I f il ' f 



,: m 



If ft 1 

I" 







FIGURES IN WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT, ILLINOIS STATE BUILDING. 

Designed by Julia M. Bracken. 

first floor is located a model hospital and a model kindergarten. 
The whole floor of the south pavilion is devoted to the retrospective 
exhibit, and the one on the north to reform work and charity organ- 
ization. The curtain opposite the main front contains the library, 
bureau of information, records, etc. In the second story are located 
ladies' parlors, committee-rooms and dressing-rooms, all leading to 
the open balcony in front. The whole second floor of the north 
pavilion encloses the great assembly-room and club-room ; the 
first of these is provided with an elevated stage for the accom- 
modation of speakers. The south pavilion contains the model 



WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. 



447 



kitchen, refreshment-rooms, reception-rooms and other home-like 
arrangements. 

There were more than a dozen competitors for the sculpture work 
of this building, and Miss Alice M. Rideout, of San Francisco, was 
successful in winning the prize. There are three divisions of this 
work. One is a group of figures in high-relief, which fills the ped- 
iment over the main entrance to the Woman's Building. This ped- 
iment is 45 feet long at the base line and 7 feet high at the centre. 
In addition to the pediment there are two groups of statuary above 
the attic cornice, and these consist of central winded figures, 10 feet 
high, supported by smaller sitting figures. They are typical of 
woman and woman's work in history. The beautiful group illus- 
trative of " Woman's Virtues " includes figures representing 
" Sacrifice," " Charity," " Maternity," and " Love." Other beautiful 
groups are : "Woman as the Spirit of Civilization," and "Woman's 
Place in History." 

A great portion of the material for finishing the interior of the 
building was contributed by women of various parts of the world. 
Fine woods and marbles, with such other materials as could be util- 
ized, were offered and accepted in profusion. 

The decorations of this building were all planned and executed 
by women, with the exception of the mere manual labor of placing 




CHILDREN'S BUILDING. 



44$ 



woman's department. 



the staff upon its exterior, and the plaster and canvases for the 
painting, etc., upon the interior. At the end of the gallery of honor 
are two mural paintings, each fourteen feet wide by fifty-eight feet 
long. Miss Cassat is the artist of one, representing " Modern Wo- 
men," and Mrs. MacMonnies of the other, representing " Primitive 
Women." On each side are two panel paintings, also by women 
artists, and of decided merit. Those on the south side represent 

a group of Puri- 
tan maidens, paint- 
ed by Mrs. Sher- 
wood, and her 
sister, Miss Em- 
mett, while those 
on the north side 
are the work of 
Mrs. Fairchild and 
Mrs. Sewell. The 
drapings between 
the panels and end 
paintings are of 
gold-colored cloth, 
forming an effec- 
tive background for 
the canvases. A 
broad gold frieze 
surrounds the gal- 
lery, and on the 
panels between the 
arches are in- 
scribed the names 

A CORNER IN THE UBRARY— WOMAN'S BUILDING. °* » arnOUS WOmetl - 

The library ceil- 
ing was decorated by Mrs. Dora Wheeler Keith, the central 
group consisting of two male figures and one female figure, 
representing Science, Romance and Imagination. The four cor- 
ner paintings illustrate four departments of literature, while the 




woman's department. 449 

whole design is connected by a band of small winged cupids and 
cherubs, twining orarlanded wreaths of flowers with the flowering 
draperies. In this room are bocks by the women authors of the 
world, and autographs, on screens, of many of the most famous 




PART OF FRENCH EXHIBIT. 



women. On each side of the doorways are canvas panels, 5 by 9 
feet, bearing figures representing the occupations of women. 

Many foreign countries are represented in this building, while 
women's industries are exploited in full. In the southwest corner 
of the first floor is the French exhibit, which contains much of in- 
terest, and adjoining it are the displays of Mexico and Italy. Ger- 
many is in the southeast corner, and near is the display of Ceylon. 
The same curiously carved pillars of beautiful wood are seen here 
which characterize the exhibit of this island in other departments. 
Spain occupies a prominent place in the south end of the building, 
29 



45° 



woman's department. 



with a staff pavilion of Moorish design. In the collection is the 
sword of Her Majesty Isabella of Spain, the patron of Columbus. 
It has been preserved in the Royal Armory at Madrid, and, together 
with a portrait of Isabella and some jewels which belong to her, 
occupies the place of honor in the Spanish women's exhibit. Ad- 
joining Spain are exhibits from the Cape of Good Hope, Siberia, 
Siam, Norway and Sweden. The Japanese exhibit, which is also 
located in this section, contains vases, screens, etc., all made by 
women. Sections devoted to Austria, Belgium, India and Brazil 
complete the southern end of the building. 




SPANISH SECTION. 



Passing- northward through a corridor one enters the main 
rotunda of the structure, where is displayed a loan exhibition of 
paintings and statuary. On the west wall of the rotunda are the 
following, among other fine paintings : " Female Portrait," by A. 
E. Klumpke ; "Female Figure," by Enilda Q. Loomis ; "Oriental 
Female Figure," by K. A. Carl; and "Children Blowing Bubbles," 
by the same artist; "Female Figure," by M. H. Carlisle; "Eury- 
dice Sinking Back to Hades," by H. Roe ; and an "Army Scene " 
and " Female Figure," by Louise Jopling. On the east side are 



woman's department. 451 

the following : " Marine View," by Elodie Lavilette ; a " Female 
Figure," by Louise Addema ; "Flowers," by Jenny Villebesseyx ; 
"Girl and Boat," by Euphemie Murciton ; "Music," by Maxi- 
milienne Guyon, and "An Interior," by I. Buchet. 

Ascending the staircase at the southeast corner, one finds at the 




ROTUNDA OF WOMAN'S BUILDING. 



entresol landing a case of dressed dolls, and at the head of the 
staircase are the board rooms. In these are many portraits and 
some other paintings. A neighboring door admits one to the 
Australian section, where the antipodean women make a fine dis- 
play. In the American section are American female college 
exhibits, among which are represented Smith, Vassar, Wellesley > 
Bryn Mawr, Laselle and others. On the west side of this gallery 
floor are three rooms, the centre one a finely decorated library 
already mentioned. The furnishing of this room was assigned to 
the State of New York. In the northwest corner are the cooking 
school exhibits, and next on the right a fine assembly room. Here is 



452 woman's department. 

a beautiful set of benches, desks, tables, etc., sent from Mobile, Ala. 
There are also some fine portraits displayed. 

On the east side, as one goes toward the southern end of the 

building-, are 
the Japanese 
rooms, deco- 
ratedvvith bam- 
boo screens 
and panels. 
The ceiling is 
also finely de- 
corated. The 
rooms of Cali- 
fornia, Cincin- 
nati, Kentucky 
and Connecti- 
cut come next, 
all handsomely 
decorated. 

Owing to 
the large num- 
ber of displays, 
it is impossible 
to mention 
more than a 
few of them. 
Cincinnati 
makes a strong 
showing in 
paintings and 
ceramics, such 
artists as Miss Low, Miss McLaughlin, Miss Guysi, and others 
being represented. Mrs. Plympton and Mrs. Stover, in ceramics, 
and Mrs. Valentine and Miss Fry in sculpture, show marked 
ability. Mrs. Anna F. Cameron, of Nebraska, is the artist of the 
handsome Electrolier. England's women artists have a splendid 




wood carving. — Exhibited by Mrs. M. E. Tarrant. 



woman's department. 



453 



collection of their works. There are stained glass windows by 
several artists, including Miss Sears, of Boston. 

The exhibits by the women of foreign nations consist of laces, 
embroideries, oil-paintings, water-colors, carvings, books, etc. 
Each country, however, has its peculiarities, as, for instance, Mexi- 
can women contribute fine feather works and similar fabrics ; the 
women of Fayal send delicate needlework on silk and linen ; the 
French display embroideries, raised work, and similar decorations ; 




A CORNER OF THE ORGANIZATION ROOM. 



the Armenian Christian women unique but exceedingly fine work, 
and Turkish women exquisite embroidery. 

In addition to the rooms we have named on the ground floor, in 
the north end are the sections devoted to England, Russia, Austra- 
lia, Ireland and Scotland. There is a stained-glass exhibit, a dress- 
makers' exhibit, a corn palace, a collection of paper flowers, an 



454 



WOMAN S DEPARTMENT. 



educational room, rooms for the display of inventions and discov- 
eries, and the Smithsonian Indian and African rooms. 

The main parlor on the east was decorated and furnished by the 
women of Cincinnati. The assembly room, at the north end of the 

gallery, is the favorite meeting 
place of women throughout 
the Exposition. Here are 
given instructive talks by noted 
women, the daily lectures in- 
cluding subjects embracing 
philanthropy, literature, domes- 
tic science, and indeed every 
topic in which women are inter- 
ested and which is illustrated 
in the Exposition. 

The association room at the 
opposite end of the gallery is 
the headquarters of the strong- 
est and most influential or- 
ganizations of women. The 
Women's Christian Temper- 
ance Union and other noted 
bodies have locations here. 
The loan collection in the main 
gallery includes the priceless 
laces of Queen Marguerite of 
Italy, which were permitted to 
come to the Fair as a mark of 
special favor to the Board of 
Lady Managers. They had 
never before left Italy. 
In various parts of the Woman's Building are booths and rooms 
for the sale of articles produced by women, either of utility or 
beauty. They include fabrics, books and other souvenirs. 

The organization of the Board of Lady Managers was excellently 
chosen, and the officials of the board, from the day of their elec- 




MARBEE BUST OF MRS. POTTER PALMER 
WOMAN'S BUIEDING. 



woman's department. 455 

tion, have been active in everything that would promote the interest 
of the Exposition, of women and of their own display. Their presi- 
dent, whose contribution to this record of the Exposition precedes 
this chapter, has used every means in her power and the great 
opportunities given her to do this work. She is also the president 
of the Woman's Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary, and 
with social duties in the hours of pleasure, and professional duties 
for the Exposition in hours of business, her time has been indeed 
occupied. Her beautiful home has offered constant hospitality to 
prominent guests of the Fair, including the Duke and Duchess of 
Veragua, and the Infanta Eulalia, with their suites, as well as many 
others. She has won fame and favor from the women of our 
country, as well as friendship and admiration. 




E exhibits made at the Exposition by the United States 
Government are of an exceedingly varied character, and 
they include several different structures in addition to 
the one which is known as the United States Govern- 
ment Building. This building, however, is the focussing 
point of the exhibit and should have the first attention. It meas- 
ures 415 x 345 feet, and cost more than $400,000. It is situated 
exactly between the buildings for Fisheries and for Manufactures, 
facing the Lagoon toward the west and Lake Michigan toward the 
east. Between the building and the Lake is that great open lawn 
known as the Government Plaza — the largest area available for 
drills contained within the Exposition grounds. The building is 
classic in style, and bears a strong resemblance to the National 
Museum and other government buildings at Washington. It is 
constructed of iron and glass. The leading architectural feature 
is an imposing central dome, 120 feet in diameter and 150 feet high, 
the floor of which is kept free from exhibits. Toward the north, a 
bridge over the Lagoon connects it with the Fisheries Building, 
which in its nature is semi-governmental in character. The south 
half of the Government Building is devoted to the exhibits of the 
Post Office Department, Treasury Department, War Department 
and Department of Agriculture. The north half is devoted to the 
exhibits of the Fisheries Commission, Smithsonian Institution and 

(457) 



4 5 8 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

Interior Department/ The State Department exhibit extends from 
the rotunda to the east end, and that of the Department of Justice 
from the rotunda to the west end of the building. 

The second of the great structures erected by the United States 
Government, and one which to many is of far greater interest than 
almost anything else on the grounds, is the model Battle-ship for 
the exhibit of the United States Naval Department. This is a 
structure which, to all outward appearances, is a faithful, full-sized 
model of one of the new coast-line battle-ships. It is erected on 




UNITED STATES BATTLE-SHIP. 

piling, on the lake front, in the northeast portion of Jackson Park, 
near the Government Building. Water surrounds the iron-clad 
sides of brick, and the structure has every appearance of being 
moored to a wharf. Upon its decks are all the fittings that belong 
to the actual ship, such as guns, turrets, torpedo tubes, with boats, 
anchors, cables, awnings, etc. Officers, seamen, mechanics and ma- 
rines are detailed by the Navy Department during the Exposition, 
and the discipline and mode of life on our naval vessels are com- 
pletely shown. The crew gives certain drills, especially boat, 
torpedo and gun drills, as in a vessel of war. The dimensions of 
the structure are the same as those of the actual battle-ship of 
which it is a model ; 348 feet in length, 69 feet and 3 inches width 



460 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

amidships, and from the water line to the top of the main deck, 12 
feet. Centrally placed on this deck is a superstructure 8 feet high, 
with a hammock berthing on the same 7 feet high, and above these 
are the bridge, chart house and the boats. At the forward end of 
the superstructure there is a cone-shaped tower called the "military 
mast," near the top of which are placed two circular " tops " as 
receptacles for sharpshooters. Rapid-firing guns are mounted in 
each of these " tops." The height from the water line to the 
summit of this "military mast" is 76 feet, and above is placed a 
flag-staff for signalling. The battery mounted comprises four 13-inch 
breech-loading rifle cannon; eight 8-inch breech-loading rifle cannon ; 
four 6-inch breech-loading rifle cannon ; twenty 6-pounder rapid- 
firing guns; six i-pounder rapid-firing guns; two Gatling guns, 
and six torpedo tubes or torpedo guns. All of these are placed 
and mounted respectively as in a genuine battle-ship. On the star- 
board side of the ship is shown the torpedo protection net, stretch- 
ing the entire length of the vessel. Steam launches and cutters 
ride at the booms, and all the outward appearance of a real ship 
of war is imitated. 

Returning now to the main structure devoted to exhibits of the 
United States Government, we find material worthy of examination 
in the decorations of the dome. Around the interior of the dome 
runs a frieze composed of cupids bearing grain, fruits, flowers, etc., 
emblematic of the productions of the country. On the ground floor 
are panels adorned with national trophies, and on the gallery floor are 
eight panels representing the leading industries of the North, South, 
East and West, and the various industries of each section. The 
North is represented by " Commerce, " the West by " Agriculture," 
the South by " Cotton and Fruits," and the East by " Art and 
Science." Of the other four panels, one represents tapestry work, 
one wood and stone work, one ceramic work, and one metal work. 
Over the south door is a painting representing the cave-dwellers ; 
over the north, one typifying the triumphs of liberty ; over the east, 
a birds-eye view of Chicago in 1893 ; and over the west, Chicago in 
1492. Outside the building, over the east and west entrances, are 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 



461 



two pieces of statuary called the "Liberty Groups," by A. Waagen, 
and huge bronze eagles surmount the pediments of all the entrances. 
While it is true that the architectural beauty of this structure wins 
little favor, and is thought by some to be a minus quantity, yet it can- 
not be denied that it is thoroughly well adapted to the purposes for 
which it is intended. And it is also true that if a vote were taken 
by all visitors as to which building of the Fair contains the most 
interesting exhibits, this one would not fall far behind in the contest. 
Every great department of the United States Government has here 




TT. S. ARMY HOSPITAL. 

objects of immense interest to all, and there is little that is not 
worthy of attention. The War Department occupies the southeast 
corner of the building, and its exhibits are classified in sections as fol- 
lows : Signal Bureau ; engineer section ; ordnance section ; gun-mak- 
ing- machines ; cartridge and stock-making- machines, and relics of 
interest. Here is one of the most interesting displays ever gathered 
of weapons of every kind. Our big guns, such as the new breech- 
loading mortars and huge rifled cannon, 33 1-2 feet in length, 
•attract great crowds. They do not compare with the big Krupp 
gun, though they excel in rapid firing, the largest being loaded and 
fired every two minutes. One of the mortars is ten feet in length 



462 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

and has a twelve-inch bore. Its projectile weighs 630 pounds, and 
its range is seven miles. The largest of the cannon weighs 116,000 
pounds, and requires a charge of 460 pounds of powder to fire its 
1000-pound projectile. Its effective range is ten miles, and every 
time it is fired it costs the Government $1,000. 

The smaller arms used in war, such as rifles, revolvers, sabres, 
bayonets, etc., make an interesting display, and the old discarded 

patterns which were used in 
our early warfare are quite 
unique. 

There are dummies dress- 
ed to display the uniforms 
of the army from its first 
organization to the present 
time, including the uniforms 
of all ranks, from privates to 
generals. Figures of mules 
and horses harnessed to 
wagons, ambulances and field 
pieces may be seen ; but 
the chief display in this line 
is the group composed of 
Major-General Scofield and 
staff, in gorgeous uniforms. 
Historic battle-flags, and a 
complete outfit of every 
species of standard used by the government, are exhibited, as well 
as camp and garrison equipage and furniture, tools, band instru- 
ments, etc. An old forage wagon, originally with the army of 
the Potomac, which has travelled many thousands of miles, is a strik- 
ing feature of the War Department exhibit. There are shown 
cannons captured from the British and the Mexicans, some of them 
very quaint and old-fashioned. The same department includes an 
exhibit of veterinary articles, displaying skulls, bones, etc., indicating 
various diseases to which the horse and mule are subject. 

The Departments of State and Justice occupy but little space, 




DOME OF GOVERNMENT BUILDING, SHOWING 
CALIFORNIA REDWOOD TREE. 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 463 

although what they do show is of most interesting character. There 
are portraits of all the chief-justices of the Supreme Court, including 
Marshall, Taney, Ellsworth and their successors, to the present day. 
All the attorney-generals also appear. There is a large chart show- 
ing in different colors all of the United States judicial districts. 
There are treaties and other important documents in the State 
Department exhibit. A photograph copy of the Declaration of 
Independence is the great centre of attraction. 

The northeast corner of the building is occupied by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Its exhibits include sections devoted to the dis- 
play of vegetable fibres, tobacco, silk, cotton, tea and wool ; the divi- 
sion of ornithology and mammalogy ; cereals ; the bureau of animal 
industry ; the forestry division ; the division of microscopy ; vegetable 
pathology; pomology; botany and chemistry. There is a beautiful 
collection of tree stumps, one of edible and poisonous fungi, and 
one of predatory animals stuffed. There are wax reproductions of 
plants, berries, and harmful and useful insects. A room in the 
corner of the building contains cases and portfolios of botanical 
specimens and photographs and other illustrations. 

The great dome of the building covers what will be to many 
visitors the greatest curiosity of the Exposition. This is a portion 
of one of California's giant redwood trees, which is situated exactly 
in the centre of the rotunda. The section is thirty feet tall and 
twenty-three feet in diameter. This portion of the tree had to be 
cut into three pieces before it could be handled. Two of these are 
each fourteen feet long, and the other one but two feet. The two 
long sections were hollowed out, and the spiral staircase runs from the 
bottom of the lower to the top of the upper one, the two being 
separated by the short section which forms a floor between them. 
Before the tree from which these sections were taken was cut it was 
nearly four hundred feet in height. 

The rotunda itself, in which the tree stands, is a beautiful creation 
of the architect's and painter's art. There are eight entrances to 
it through high arches upheld by groups of pillars on each side. 
These pillars are of steel, but are colored to represent vases of 
chocolate marble streaked with white, from which rise tall fluted 



464 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

shafts of malachite marble topped with gilded capitals. Each arch 
entrance looking inward from the second floor has a balustrade of 
ornamental iron work. The dome is colored a pale blue, and upon 
the panels ornamenting its sides are beautiful figures representing 
the arts and sciences. The general tone of the interior of the dome 
is light brown with a tracing of gold arabesques and other figures. 

The centre of the north side of the building is occupied with the 
exhibits of fishing appliances shown by the United States Fish Com- 
mission. Suspended from the gallery is an Alaskan war canoe 
hollowed out of a solid tree trunk and painted with barbaric designs 
in red, black and white. The model is a fine one, and exhibits for 
the constructors a high degree of skill in marine matters, and its 
decorations, while they evidence the savage, yet show considerable^ 
artistic taste. At the prow, looking inward, is a carved figure to 
represent some deity of fishing or navigation, and at the stern, 
looking outward, is another. The latter has a frog's body with a 
wolfish sort of head, and is repulsive enough to frighten any enemy 
who might be in pursuit. At various other points around this por- 
tion of the gallery canoes are hung, showing all differences of type, 
from the ordinary one to one of walrus hide stretched on a wooden 
frame, and presenting a curious similarity to a structure of thin 
bone. Rising from the highest central point of the gallery is a 
representation of a ship's top-mast, with a lookout holding a spy- 
glass and standing in the rigging. This is to represent the manner 
of watching for whales in the whale fisheries of the north. To the 
right of this figure a bowsprit projects from the gallery, and at its 
extreme end stands a sailor ready to cast a harpoon. To the left, 
the bow of a whale boat seems starting from the gallery, another 
dummy, dressed as a harpooner, aiming his lance for a death 
thrust. 

The first thing one meets in the fisheries exhibit is a representa- 
tion of contrast of a kind familiar to all fishermen. First there is a 
fancifully equipped angler, armed with an elegant split bamboo rod, 
a reel, a landing net, a fly book, a creel, and all other modern appli- 
ances for expert fishing. He is wading along in a trout stream. 
A little farther on is a barefooted negro resting against the stump 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 465 

of a tree, a common willow pole in his hands, to which is tied a 
cotton fishing line with a pin-hook on it. The darkey's head is 
thrown back and he is fast asleep, evidently enjoying the heat of 
the broiling summer sun. It is a frequent remark by those who see 
these dummies that in real life it would be safe to bet that the first 
one would buy all the fish he got, from the second. 

Rods, reels, boats, oars, lines and hooks of every sort and from 
every clime are here displayed. Every species of artificial bait is 
represented, from the mother-of-pearl and walrus ivory minnows, 
of the Alaskan Indians, to those made of feathers, gum and metals 
by their more civilized brothers. In the line of hooks, the carved 
wood halibut hooks of the Alaskans are the most curious. Each 
hook bears the image of a fetich. 

The colored plates of every variety of our food fishes are very 
fine and true to life. There are photographs of fish, rivers and 
fishing scenes, and along the cornice to the south of this display 
are representations of seal rookeries. The seals on the beach 
being driven inland are shown, as well as their killing, and finally 
their skinning. There are photographs of stranded whales, of the 
cleaning, washing and drying of sardines, stuffed water-fowl of all 
kinds, a fully equipped whale boat that has been in actual service, 
and casts of all kinds and sizes, of fish, herrings, mackerel, halibut, 
flounders, narwhals, sharks, porpoises, etc. All of these dummies 
are made of a composition of glue, glycerine and another ingredient 
which is secret. They are much more lifelike than wax or plaster, 
resembling the texture of human flesh, not only in looks, but in feel- 
ing and elasticity. The fish are perfect reproductions, even the 
changing hues of the live ones being represented. In the same 
exhibit is an Alaskan bear trap. It is composed of a piece of 
whalebone about sixteen inches long, sharpened at each end, folded 
four times and tied together with sinews. These are wrapped in 
fat and placed where the bear will find them. They *are eaten 
greedily ; the gastric juice of the bear's stomach dissolves the sinews 
and the whalebone straightens out, piercing the viscera of the bear 
and killing" him. In one section is a row of glass cases showing the 

30 



466 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

different kinds of rigs of every fishing boat used ; also boats with 
wax dummies showing the various methods of fishing. 

The northwest corner of the building is occupied by the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, including spaces devoted to exhibits of the 
patent office, geological survey, census office, land office, and 
bureau of education. In the patent office, models of numerous 
inventions are shown, chiefly interesting from the comparative 
exhibit of the first crude invention, and every intervening link 
between it and the latest improved model. Thus the old-fashioned 
spinning wheel with its single spindle »s shown at one end of the 
line, at the other end of which is the power spinning jenny with its 
one thousand spindles, all in motion at the same time. Along the 
south wall of this display is the most interesting of the exhibit, con- 
sisting of cases of fire-arms, from the old-fashioned flint lock 
muzzle loader to the latest patented repeating rifles. 

The geological survey exhibits include displays of relief maps 
showing sections of the country, with rivers, lakes, elevations of 
mountains, etc., all true to scale. The centre piece is a connected 
and mounted skeleton of the dinoceras, a prehistoric animal which 
partook of the nature of the mammoth and the hippopotamus. 
There are framed glass transparencies upon which are colored 
pictures of the mountain and canon scenery of the far West. Cases 
of geological specimens contain beautiful masses of colored stones 
and jewels, some of great rarity. 

Next south of the Department of the Interior comes the Post- 
Office Department, an exhibit which appeals to every one, so closely 
are its interests connected with our daily life. In the extreme 
southwest corner of the building a large space is devoted to a 
model post-office, which is jp active operation as a branch of the 
Chicago post-office and serves the entire Fair grounds with mail. 
This is no small undertaking when it is remembered that the 
exhibitors, officials and employees number many thousand. Adjoin- 
ing the model post-office is a full-sized modern postal car showing 
all the methods of railway service, including clerks working with 
the most improved appliances. In addition to the mail car there 
are shown all other means of mail transportation. These include 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 467 

paintings of mailing scenes, models of river, lake and ocean steamers, 
old-fashioned stage coaches with mail boots, wagons for transport- 
ing mail from post-offices to trains, etc. Among the dummies in 
this division are represented a city carrier, a railway mail service 
man, a horseback carrier in Western costume, a mountain carrier 
equipped with snowshoes and a dog sledge and team. It is a great 
surprise to most people to find that Uncle Sam employs so many 
varied means of transporting the missives which are committed to 
his care. One drops in a letter-box an envelope bearing a two- 
cent stamp and thinks no more about it until an answer returns to 
him. Yet thousands of men, and immense wealth share the task 
of providing this perfect service. 

The Treasury Department has a Mint exhibit, showing a collec- 
tion of all the coins ever issued by the United States Government, 
including proof coins, dies, designs and appliances of various kinds. 
The Internal Revenue exhibit is also included in the space devoted 
to this department. The Treasury Department also shows an 
interesting display from the offices of the bureau of engraving and 
printing. 

The Smithsonian Institution occupies the centre of the south end 
of the building. It is particularly delightful to all lovers of birds 
and beasts. It seems as if one could find here every species of 
bird and animal, familiar or rare. Most of them are mounted in a 
way so natural as almost to deceive one, and there are many figures 
and groups of artistic character. There are also many displays 
accessory to those contained in the ethnological department, which 
is described elsewhere by Prof. Putnam. Life-size dummies of 
Indians of various tribes clothed in their peculiar costumes, and 
bearing pipes of curious and handsome design, are an attractive 
feature. The most interesting are those of the Navajos, wrapped 
in their hand-woven blankets, the most artistic and durable fabrics 
woven by any savage race. Some of these are held at great price, 
and they are at all times difficult to obtain. 

We must not forget the space devoted to the signal bureau, 
which was mentioned but not described in the account of the War 
Department exhibits. It is one of the most entertaining of all in 



468 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 



the building. There is a panoramic scene which represents a 
notable event in the history of exploration. It reproduces faithfully 
to detail the return of the explorers who have reached the most 
northerly point ever attained by man. Figures representing Lock- 
wood and Brainerd are shown, dressed in their heavy Arctic gar- 
ments, meeting and being welcomed by Lieutenant Greely in the 
midst of a great ice field. The latter has outstripped the body of 
his party who are at a little distance. At the side of Lockwood and 
Brainerd is the dog sledge which bore their supplies on their mar- 
velous trip, and harnessed to it a team of half a dozen canine com- 
panions. Some are lying on the snow resting, and others are 
standing in their traces patiently waiting the word to continue the 




SIGNAL SERVICE, EIFE-SAVING STATION, AND EIGHT-HOUSE EXHIBIT. 

journey, and taking little interest in the welcome which is being 
extended to their masters, or in the achievement which they have 
assisted in making. The scene is so perfectly constructed that no 
one can fail to be impressed by it, and to receive a better idea than 
ever before of the exact circumstances and conditions surrounding 
Arctic exploration. 

The United States life-saving station is located northeast of the 
Government Building. It is a cottage of russet hue, with hip roof 
and gables, surmounted by a lookout tower and a deck structure. 
It covers a site 35 by 70 feet, and is one and a half stories high. The 
interior is fitted up for living purposes, the lower floor having a 
spacious dining-room, kitchen, pantry, closet, and keeper's-room, 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 469 

beside an entrance hall. The second floor, which is reached by a 
wide stairway, contains sleeping apartments, including accommoda- 
tions for the crew of eight persons. The station is in charge of 
Lieutenant McLellan, of the United States Revenue Marine, and is 
manned with the usual complement of men, surf-boats, apparatus, 
etc. During the period of the World's Fair, public exhibitions of 
boat drills, including the use of a life-saving apparatus, are given 
for the benefit of visitors. Boats of various kinds are connected 
with the station, including the English life-boat and surf-boat, and 
other apparatus, such as guns for firing life-lines, life-preservers, etc. 
On the ground floor, at the west end of the building, which opens 
out on the broad lagoon, is a large boat-house connected with a 
broad launch way 120 feet in length. In the boat room, before 
going to the rescue, or for drill, the surfmen are attired in oil-skin 
coats. The boats are easily launched by means of a steel track 
leading into the water. The cost of the building was about $10,000, 
which did not include the boats and apparatus. It has been 
decided to keep the station permanent, and continue it for life-sav- 
ing after the close of the Fair. A regular patrol system of the 
entire beach is kept up day and night. The life-boat used in this 
station is made of mahogany, oak and ash. It is thirty-four feet 
long, eight feet wide and three feet six inches deep. The boat 
weighs four tons, and contains nine air-tight compartments. If 
upset, it rights itself and expels all water in twenty-five seconds. 

The light-house at the Fair, which is near the life-saving station, 
is of modern pattern, built of steel, one hundred feet high, and 
braced with guy rods in every direction. Four men care for it 
during the Exposition, after which it is to be taken down and sent 
to the mouth of the Columbia river on the Pacific coast to warn 
mariners who approach that dangerous bar. It is a revolving light 
of the first magnitude, showing red and white, with the most power- 
ful reflectors made. 

The weather bureau is located near the life-saving station in a 
building of its own. The regular observations incident to a 
weather station are here made twice a day. A weather map is 
prepared and printed, and short lectures on meteorological subjects 



470 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

are given everyday. Among other interesting exhibits here is the 
flag brought back by Lieutenant Peary from his Greenland trip, 
with a record of all his observations there. The bureau also shows 
a complete sec of meteorological instruments in operation, and the 
entire work of forecasting, from the receipt of telegrams to the 
publication and distribution of weather maps, is carried on in the 
presence of any one who may care to study the methods of the 
bureau. 

East of the Government Building stands the United States Naval 
Observatory. It consists of three small buildings, which house 
respectively an equatorial telescope, a transit telescope, and a 
heliostat. The latter is an apparatus for observing the face of the 
sun, reflected upon a mirror in a dark room. In the same house 
Prof. Wm. F. Gardiner shows his time system regulated by astro- 
nomical clocks, and illustrates the manner of sending the standard 
time from Washington all over the Union. Daily at noon, a time 
ball is dropped from the top to the bottom of a post placed on the 
dome of the Government Building. 

The reader will thus see that the exhibit of the United States 
Government, upon which has been expended a total of nearly 
$1,500,000, includes everything in the range of our governmental 
processes, and that the student of our system of political economy 
can learn very much therefrom. The managers of the exhibit are 
veterans in Exposition work, and to that extent possess an advan- 
tage over many who were preparing displays for the World's Fair. 
However that may be, all credit is due to them for the magnificent 
showing made by the United States Government at the Columbian 
Exposition. 



0<> »OC00000|j e 







An 



NOTHERof the special 
features of the Depart- 
ment of Ethnology, 
~" which is considered 
of sufficient interest and importance to be entitled to a building of 
its own, is the magnificent collection of relics of Christopher Colum- 
bus, the great discoverer. The building in which this collection is 
housed stands in a spot somewhat isolated from the other buildings 
of the Exposition. Just south of the Casino, and the long pier, 
there is an inlet from Lake Michigan to the South pond, a body of 
water which extends almost to the southern extremity of the 
grounds, and forming a peninsula just opposite the Agricultural 
Building. At the northern head of this peninsula, and therefore 
almost surrounded by water, is the structure. It is an exact repro- 
duction of the convent of La Rabida, the harbor of refuge and rest 
opened to the discoverer, when well nigh discouraged he was will- 
ing to retreat from the fight with fortune, and lay aside the hope of 
his life. At the convent he was welcomed, his plans were admired, 
he was encouraged, and here the crood friars cared for his son when 
the famous voyage was at length begun. In fact it was largely by 
the influence of the good Franciscan priest, Father De Marchena, 
once the confessor of Queen Isabella herself, that the powers were 

(470 



472 LA RABID A CONVENT. 

induced to equip the expedition, and start Columbus on the voyage 
that opened to civilization the whole western hemisphere. Who 
then can fail to see the justice in thus commemorating the good 
fathers at the same time that we remember Columbus, by thus re- 
producing their home, as the fitting place for the relics of the dis- 
coverer? In its present location is assured safety from fire, for it 
is entirely removed from the danger that might be from close con- 
nection with any other of the structures of the Fair. 

Its isolation is just as complete from the manner and looks of the 
other buildings of the Fair as it is from their location. The con- 
trast is indeed a startling one. On every hand rise the walls of the 
white palaces, showing in their magnificent facades the perfection 
of architectural art from every land possessing classical merit, 
Grecian, Roman, French and Spanish and Italian renaissance, Doric, 
Ionic, Egyptian and all that may be named, while here stands an 
example of the most simple and homely kind of the builder's craft. 
The quaint walls and roof, and the general ensemble, which is that 
of the middle ages, give the visitor a correct idea of the religious 
architecture of old Spain at the time of Columbus. On this account 
also it is of superior interest. 

The interior of the structure is very different from that of any 
of the great neighbors of the convent. Its passages are narrow 
and even dark, its windows are small, its walls bare, and its ceilings 
low. As one passes through some of the old-fashioned doors, it is 
even necessary to stoop. But the contents. It is here that the 
greatest interest lies. No other buildino- of the Fair contains such 
a noble collection of relics and documents of value and interest to 
any student of the past. Every quarter of the globe has been 
searched to secure the best collection possible of objects in the 
nature of relics of Columbus, of Ferdinand and Isabella, of the con- 
vent itself in those days four hundred years ago, and of everything 
that could be conceived of the same sort. Here one stands and 
gazes in awe at things hallowed by age and importance, and even 
the most irreverent of persons is impressed as he lingers within 
these walls. The building is constructed like the others of the 
Exposition, except as to its finishings. The roof is of old-fashioned 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 



473 



tiling, the floors of cement and brick, and the walls of plaster. Even 
the effect of age has been imitated, and the result is astonishing to 
one who is told that the building is but a product of the last year's 
work. Guards are ever present to protect the valuable treasures 
from the touch of any vandal hand, and the fire protection is that 
of unceasing vigilance, for no risk must be taken with these rar- 
ities, which no money can duplicate, and each of which is unique. 

It will be interesting here to glance at the more notable of the 
things thus treasured, though it will be impossible to describe more 
than a few of them. 

This reproduction of the Convent of Santa Maria de La Rabida 
(St. Mary of the Frontier) cost the Exposition Company $50,000, 
but the treasures which it contains are priceless. The idea of 




CONVENT OF I^A RABIDA. 



constructing this edifice, and of collecting in it the relics of Colum- 
bus, was the thought of William Eleroy Curtis, of the Bureau of 
American Republics, who traversed the whole of Europe searching 
for traces of the great Genoese Admiral, and procuring relics, maps, 
etc., for exhibition here. He is probably the best authority on this 
continent concerning everything connected with Columbus. Mr. 
Curtis has written entertainingly of the Convent and its site. He 
tells us that it is located a few miles north of Cadiz, on the Atlantic 
coast of Spain, about half way between the Straits of Gibraltar and 
the boundary of Portugal, on the summit of a low headland between 



474 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 




.OWER CLOISTER OF LA RABIDA 



the Tinto and Odiel rivers. These meet at its base, three miles 

from the sea. Tradition says that the convent was built in the 
reign of the emperor Trajan in the second 
century, while history records that it was 
reconstructed and used for a fortress 
during the Moorish occupation of Spain 
in the eleventh century. It passed into 
the possession of the Franciscan monks 
when the Mohammedans were driven 
from Andalusia. The little village of 
Palos de Moguer is three miles above the 
convent on the Tinto. A bar across the 
mouth of the river forbids the approach 
of vessels, and the place has declined from 
a flourishing commercial city to a lonely 
" hamlet, forsaken by every one except 
farmers and fishermen. At this port, 

where the water is so low that sea grasses and rushes are o-rowino- 

where fleets used to float, was organ- 
ized and equipped the expedition 

that discovered the new world. The 

ruins of the house of the Pinzons, who 

furnished one of the vessels and 

commanded two, are still shown, and 

the descendants of the family are yet 

the leading citizens of the region. A 

Moorish mosque, which was converted 

into a church, is still standing just 

outside the village on a hill. From 

its pulpit, in May, 1492, the Alcalde 

read the proclamation of the sov- 
ereigns, commanding the people of 

Palos to furnish two ships for the use 

of Columbus. Above the altar is 

the image of St. George and the 

dragon, as it was then, and on the altar of the chapel. 




LA RABIDA CONVENT. 



475 




ISABELLA IN ARMOR. 



records of the parish are the names of the sailors who accompanied 

him and received communion the morning 

of their departure. There is also the 

miracle-working imao;e of the virgin of 

La Rabida to which they offered vows. 
Authorities differ as to the time when 

Columbus first appeared at Palos and the 

Monastery of La Rabida. Some assert 

that he came there direct from Portugal in 

1484. At this time he was on his way to 

Moguer, where he intended to leave little 

Diego, then nine years old, with his wife's 

relatives, and obtain from them means to 

pay his way to the court of Ferdinand and 

Isabella to submit his plans for a voyage 

across the western ocean to the strange lands described by Marco 

Polo. Others insist that he did 
not visit Palos until two years 
later, after his propositions had 
been rejected by the sovereigns and 
he was leaving Spain for Genoa 
or Venice. 

At any rate it is certain that Co- 
lumbus approached the monastery 
one evening, weary, hungry and 
penniless, and asked for food and 
water for himself and his little boy. 
The hospitable prior gave him 
shelter and refreshments, and soon 
became interested in his plans and 
theories. From that time La 
Rabida was his asylum until he 
started on his memorable voyage. 
Here, too, he received his welcome 
upon his return from the newly 

discovered world. Thus it was decided, very properly, by the 




HOUSE OCCUPIED BY COLUMBUS AT 
FUNCHAL. 



4/6 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 



Exposition authorities, that no more appropriate building could be 
erected for the shelter of the historical collection and the relics of 
Columbus than a fac-simile reproduction of this ancient and 
picturesque monastery. 

The following classification of the historical 
collection will give a general idea of the 
contents of La Rabida : 

Section A. — Geo- 
graphical knowledge 




CATHEDRAL AT SALAMANCA. 

and the science of navigation at the time of Columbus, i. Maps, 
charts and globes anterior to Columbus. 2. Nautical and astro- 
nomical instruments. 3. Models of vessels. 4. Evidence of pre- 
Columbian discoveries. 5. Arms, 
armor, equipments, etc., of the time. 
6. Books known to Columbus, and 
portraits of their authors. 

Section B. — The court of Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella. 1. Portraits, 
autographs, and relics of the sov- 
ereigns ; pictures of scenes identified 
with their lives, their tombs, and 
la casa dkl campo. monuments. 2. Portraits and relics 

of persons identified with the career of Columbus at court, or 
associated with the discovery. 




LA RABIDA CONVENT. 



477 




Section C. — Youth and early life of Columbus, i. Views of 

places associated with 
his birth and boyhood. 
2. Scenes identified 
with his career in Portu- 
gal and the Madeira 
Islands. 

Section D. — The 
career of Columbus at 
the court of Spain, i. 
Scenes and places at 
Cordova, Granada, Sal- 
amanca, Seville, and 
other cities identified 

BAY NEAR WHERE COLUMBUS LANDED. with ColumbuS. 2. 

The Monastery of Santa Maria de la Rabida ; illustrations of the 
life of Columbus there. 

Section E. — The first 
voyage of Columbus, i. 
Models and pictures of the 
caravels. 2. Fac-similes of 
charts,nautical instruments, 
books, etc., used on the 
voyage, and model showing 
the course of the voyage. 3. 
The discovery and landing 
at Watling's Island. 4. 
Views and relics of Wat- 
ling's Island and other 
places visited on the voy- 
age. 5. The construction 
of the fort at La Navidad. 
Views and relics of the 
place. 6. Views of Lisbon 
and other places visited on TOWERS WHERE columbus lodged, Barcelona. 
the voyage homeward. 7. Reception of Columbus on his return 




478 LA RABIDA CONVENT. 

to Spain ; views of Barcelona. The scene of the egg. 8. Strange 
things seen on the voyage. Fac-similes of relics brought home. 

Section F. — The second voyage of Columbus. 1. Views of 
Cadiz, from whence he sailed. 2. Views of the islands discovered 
on the second voyage, and evidence of cannibalism illustrated by 
old prints. 3. Remains, views and relics of Isabella, the first 
settlement in the new world. 4. Explorations of the mountains of 
Cibao ; El Puerto de los Hidalgos; views of La Vega and Santo 
Cerro ; the cross of Columbus ; Santo Thomas. 5. The discovery 
of Jamaica; Santa Gloria and St. Ann's Bay; illustrations of 




ISABELLA OFFERING HER JEWELS. 

associations with the natives. 6. The return to Santo Domingo; 
adventures with the Indians; "eat gold, Christian, eat gold;" 
founding of the city of Santiago. 7. Queen Anacona, and the 
founding of the city of Santo Domingo ; scenes in that city. 8. 
Return of Columbus and scenes at Burgos when he was received 
by the sovereigns. 

Section G. — The third voyage of Columbus. 1. Views of 
Trinidad and other places visited by Columbus. 2. The mutiny 
at Santo Domingo. 3. The arrest and imprisonment of Columbus; 
the castle in which he was confined ; the admiral in chains. 4. 
Reception by the sovereigns on his return to Spain ; scenes at 
Seville and Seeovia. 




COXUMBUS AS A BOY, 



(479) 



480 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 



Section H. — The fourth voyage of Columbus, i. Scenes in 
Honduras and other places. 2. Wreck at St. Christopher's Cove; 
mutiny at Porras ; views of the place. 3. Return of Columbus. 

Section I. — The last days of Columbus. 1 . ^His home at Seville. 
2. The death and burial ; his will ; the house in which he died. 3. 
Removal of his remains ; the cathedral at Santo Domingo ; the cathe- 
dral at Havana. 4. Monuments erected to his memory. 5. The 
portraits of Columbus. 6. Portraits of his family and descendants 
(genealogy). 7. Relics of Columbus ; autograph letters ; the con- 
tract, commission, and 
instructions received by 
him from the sovereign 
of Spain ; letters from 
Ferdinand and Isabella. 

Section K. — The pub- 
lication of the discovery. 

1. Copies of the first 
books about America; 
maps, manuscripts, fac- 
similes, and illustrations. 

2. Views of St. Die, and 
the persons identified 
with the christening of 

the continent. 3. Relics and portraits of Amerigo Vespucci and 
other explorers. 4. Growth of geographical knowledge during 
the century following the discovery, illustrated by fac-similes, books, 
maps, charts, etc. 

Section L. — The christening of the continent, etc. 

Section M. — The conquest of Mexico and Peru, and the settle- 
ment of other portions of America. 

Section N. — Original papers relating to Columbus; loaned by 
the Duke of Veragua. 

Section O. — Original papers relating to Columbus ; loaned by 
the Duchess of Berwick and Alba. 

Section P. — The Vatican exhibit. 

Section Q. — The John Boyd Thacher collection of valuable works 
relating to Columbus and the discovery. 




LEADEN CHEST AND CASKET CONTAINING 
COEUMBUS' DUST. 



LA kABlDA CONVENT. 



48l 




A NORSE SHIP. 



The classification of the bibliography of Columbus is as follows : 

Section A. — Archaeological and ethnological collections showing 

the condition of the natives. 1. Models of habitations ; implements, 

utensils, and other illustrations of life and customs. 2. Portraits 

and pictures, costumes, canoes, weapons, etc. 

Section B. — The conquest of Mexico. 1. Illustrations of the 
condition of the Aztecs. 2. Arms, armor, etc., of the conquistadores, 
showing how the natives were overcome. 3. Portraits, pictures, 
and relics of Cortez and those who were associated with him. 4. 

Maps, charts, and printed volumes illustrating 

the conquest. 

Section C. — The discovery and conquest 
of other portions of America. 1. Collections 
showing the condition of the natives 
in other parts of the continent. 2. 
Portraits and relics of other discov- 
erers and early voyagers. 3. Maps, 
charts, and printed volumes, showing 
the progress of civilization and the 
growth of geographical knowledge. The specimens included in 
this collection, in the historical portion, omitting the bibliography of 
the period of the conquest, number more than one thousand, and 
of course only the more important can be named. The first one 
is the model of a Norse ship, such as Leif Erikson is supposed to 
have used in his voyage to America. Adjoining it 
are charts and books concerning Erikson's dis- 
covery, and fac-similes of relics that are supposed 
to belong to that period. 

There is a fac-simile of the Zeno chart. About 
1 319 a Venetian navigator named Nicolo Zeno 
started from Venice, passing Gibraltar and sailing 
northward. After various adventures he went as 
far as Greenland, and on his return prepared a 
chart of the lands visited and an account of the adventures. There 
are portraits of Marco Polo, of Claudias Ptolemy, the Latin geog- 
rapher, and other noted early explorers. The earliest globe of im- 
31 




MARCO POLO. 




FERDINAND AS A BOY. 



482 t,A RABID A CONVENT. 

portance was made in 1492 by Martin Beahaim. A fac-simile of it 

is shown here. There are curious 
maps, and charts of various portions 
of the world as they were known 
before the voyage of Columbus ; a 
chart showing the world as it is, and 
as Colum- 
bus thought 
it to be; and 
a map of the 
U n i t e d 
S t a t e s, 
showing the 
numberand 
location of 
places nam- 
ed in honor 
of Columbus. 

In the section relating to the court, 
of Ferdinand and Isabella there are 
numerous portraits of both of these 
taken at various times of their life. 
The original will of Queen Isabella 
is exhibited, which was made at 
Medina del Campo, 
November23,i 504. 
It was loaned by 
the government of 
Spain at the request 
of the President of 
the United States. 
The will is in the handwriting of the Queen's 
private secretary, Gasper de Gricio, and consists 
of four sheets of vellum. In one of the clauses of 
the will Isabella recommends the protection of the 
persons and property of the Indians in the new world. 




HOUSE IN GENOA, IN WHICH COLUMBUS 
IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN BORN. 




ISABELLA AS A 
CHII.D. 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 



483 



The section devoted to the youth of Columbus begins with a 
beautiful view of the harbor and city of Genoa. There are also 
shown pictures of the street and the house in which Columbus is 




MONASTERY OF LA RABIDA AS IT APPEARED IN 1890, BEFORE ITS RESTORATION TO 
ITS CONDITION AT THE TIME OF COLUMBUS. 

said to have been born. Other cities which dispute the honor of 
Columbus' birth-place also show views. There are pictures of 
the University and city of Pavia, where it is said that Columbus 
attended school; of the church at Lisbon in which Columbus 
was married ; of the house in which 
Columbus lived in the Madeira Islands 
and other relics of his life there. 

The ca- 
r e e r of 
Columbus 
in Spain 
is i 1 lu s- 
trated by 
views of 
Huelva, of 
La Rabi- 

da, p O r - FATHER PEREZ BIDDING FAREWELL TO COLUMBUS. 

traits of 

the prior of the monastery, interior views in the cloisters, and the 
chapel ; views of Cordova, and of many scenes in the life of 
Columbus at this period. Some of these are fine paintings of con- 
siderable note. A picture of the once flourishing city of Palos is 





4 8 4 



COLUMBUS QUfcLUWG THE MUTINY. 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 485 

shown, the port at which the expedition was organized. From the 
docks here Columbus set sail on the 3d of August, 1492. In May, 
1528, Cortez landed at Palos, after the conquest of Mexico, and by a 
strange coincidence met there Francisco Pizarro, who was just start- 
ing upon his career of bloodshed and devastation in Peru. The 
town of Palos was selected as a place of departure for Columbus 
because its inhabitants, on account of a disturbance that had taken 
place among them during the war with the Moors, had been con- 
demned to keep, at their own expense, two caravels with crews and 




RECEPTION OF COLUMBUS BY QUEEN ISABELLA. 

arms, at the service of the state for one y~v % and ready for sea on 
receipt of orders. 

The scenes associated with the first voyage of Columbus are 
numerous and of particular interest. Many paintings are here 
included. There are pictures of the caravels ; of Father Perez bid- 
ding farewell to Columbus; of Columbus on the deck of his ship, 
and of the mutiny when the sailors demanded a return to Spain. 
There are charts, and maps, and views of all the disputed islands 
which claim the honor of being; the first discovered land, althoug-h 
Watling Island has by all means the weight of evidence. There 
are scenes on San Salvador, Cuba, Santo Domingo, Hayti and 



486 LA RABIDA CONVENT. 

other places visited on the first voyage. There are also paintings 
showing the reception of Columbus at court when he first appeared 
before Isabella and Ferdinand. One of the strangest pictures is 
from an old engraving in " Philopono's Voyage to the New World 
of the Western Indies." The sailors reported that they had seen 
in the waters of the New World fishes so large that a caravel could 
be floated on their backs, and an altar could be erected and mass 
said upon them. The story was retold with variations, and finally 
the veracious priest, Philopono, related the tale as an actual fact, 
and gave illustrations of how the caravels had been carried about 
by whales and mass celebrated upon their backs. 

The scenes associated with the second voyage of Columbus 
include pictures of his departure from Cadiz ; his arrival in the new 
world ; the present appearance of the ruins of Isabella, Santo 
Domingo, the first civilized settlement in the New World, and relics 
from these ruins. In 1891 Mr. F. A. Zober, the Columbian com- 
missioner to the West Indies, spent a week at the site of Isabella. 
All the cut stone that remained was brought away and shipped to 
Chicago, and is now exhibited here. The stones were taken from 
the last remnants of the old church, the mint, and the public ware- 
house which was known as the " King's House." The site is all 
overgrown with semi-tropical vegetation and now shows little signs 
of its early importance. The first church bell that rang in the. New 
World is here. It is of bronze, about eight inches in height and six 
inches and a half in diameter. It was presented to the church at 
Isabella by King Ferdinand, and is considered one of the most 
precious relics of the early times of Santo Domingo. 

The scenes associated with the third voyage of Columbus are 
fully illustrated with interesting paintings and relics. There is a 
view of Boca del Drago, Trinidad, where Columbus entered to 
reach the South American continent for the first time. On the 4th 
of August, 1498, Columbus anchored off the southwestern extremity 
of the island of Trinidad. Late at night he saw a wall of water 
approaching the fleet from the south. His own vessels were lifted 
up so high by the incoming waves that he was in great danger, 
while the cable of one of the other ships parted under the strain to 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 



487 



which it was subjected, carrying away the anchor by which the 
vessel was held. Many years ago, while some laborers were 
digging a deep trench upon a cocoanut estate near Icaques, where 
this accident occurred, about 350 feet from the sea, they found an 
anchor of antiquated pattern. The land on 
this part of the island has been encroaching 
upon the sea for many years, and it is be- 
lieved that the spot where the anchor was found 
was covered by water at the time of Columbus. 
This anchor is exhibited here. 

The original letter is exhibited which Fran- 
cisco Roldan wrote in 1502 complaining against 
the administration of Columbus. It was this 
letter which caused the King and Queen to 
send Bobadilla to investigate the affair. He 
arrested Columbus and put him in chains. 
The citadel at Santo Domingo in which Co- 
lumbus was imprisoned is shown ; and various 
paintings, showing Columbus in chains^and 
photographs of chains which are claimed to be the same placed 
upon Columbus by Bobadilla. They are now owned by Cav- 
alier G. Baldi. The enlarged fac-similes of the inscriptions upon 
the chains are very interesting. The chains weigh -seven pounds 
and eight ounces, and are divided into four parts: First, a large 
chain to be fastened to the ankle, with an extension to en~ 
circle the waist, six feet three inches in length. Second, a small 




CHAINS OF COLUMBUS. 



XPT) FfflENS 



M-D.VI t J.A M„ 

^ res - oA;; £2JL. 



T» 



// 



. ~ *& d C'. u* 



INSCRIPTIONS ON CHAINS OF COLUMBUS. 



chain with handcuffs, two feet and one inch in length. Third, two 
other links connected together, five and one-half inches long ; and 




COLUMBUS REFUSES TO HAVE HIS CHAINS REMOVED EXCEPT BY ORDER 

OF THE KING. 
488 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 489 

fourth, the lock. On the fetters and handcuffs are inscriptions of 




COLUMBUS RELATING HIS ADVENTURES TO ISABELLA. 

abbreviated words and interpolated signs characteristic of the times, 
which are interpreted by the owner as follows : " The arrow of 
calumny gave three 
shackles to Don 
Christopher Colum- 
bus, the dove that 
carried the tidings of 
Christianity to the 
New World, who 
died at my house, 
Aposento, Valladolid, 
May 1 506, in the 
peace of Christ. Fran- 
cisco M-ro (name of 
inn-keeper) had this 
engraved as a pledge 
of jealous and eter- 
nal remembrance. Christ Bearer, 1499." 

A picture by the noted Spanish artist, Jover, represents Columbus 




WHERE COLUMBUS WAS WRECKED. 



49Q 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 




HOUSE WHERE COLUMBUS DIED. 



relating his adventures to Isabella. It is a fine work and worthy 
of the attention it attracts. 

A large collection of paintings and other pictures commemorate 

the scenes associated 
with the fourth and last 
voyage of Columbus. 
There are scenes in 
Santo Domingo, Trux- 
illo and otner portions 
of Honduras, the Isth- 
mus of Panama, and 
Christopher's Cove, St. 
Ann's Bay, on the Island 
of Jamaica where Co- 
lumbus was wrecked. 
There is also a large 
collection of early pic- 
tures of America from De Bry's voyages. 

The section devoted to the last days of Columbus has paintings 
and engravings 
showing the city 
of Seville, and the 
convent of Cartuja. 
Several paintings 
are shown repre- 
senting the death 
of Columbus, the 
house in which he 
died, the chapel of 
the convent at Car- 
tuja in which Co- 
lumbus was buried, 
and of his tomb. 
There is also a pic- 
ture of the interior of the cathedral at Santo Domingo showing 
the location of the high altar and the Columbus burial vault. 




CHAPEL OF THE CONVENT OF CARTUJA. 



XA RABIDA CONVENT. 



491 




There are shown the steps to the presbytery and tomb of Colum- 
bus, and a fac-simile of the* box In* which the remains were found. 
In this section are portraits 
of Columbus' brothers, his 
sons, and other members 
of his family ; the gene- 
alogy of the Columbus 
family to the present day, 
and portraits of the Duke 
of Veragua, and other mem- 
bers of the family. The 
section devoted to the relics 
of Columbus is a volumin- 
ous one. There are many facsimile of the box in which the remains 
autographs, some of them . OF co ^ MBUS w *re ~ 

mere signatures, and others complete letters and documents of his- 
torical value. 

The section devoted to the publication of the discovery contains 
a fac-simile of the title page of the first book published about 
America, which was a little quarto of four leaves reproducing his 
,. , . ,,s ^ - ^ letter to Sanchez. There 

m 



are also copies of the 
second, third, fourth, fifth 
and sixth editions of the 
letter of Columbus, his 
letter to Sant-angel in va- 
rious editions and fac- 
similes ; and other early 
descriptions of the dis- 
covery. 

The section devoted to 
the christening of the continent includes portraits of Americus 
Vespucius, and volumes and documents relating to the name. Be- 
side all that we have named there are a host of valuable relics, 
documents and maps illustrating the discoveries and explorations 
of other parts of America and of later years than those of Colum- 




INTERIOR OF SANTO DOMINGO CATHEDRAL. 



492 



LA RABIDA CONVENT. 



bus, but of all none attract more attention than the original papers 
pertaining to Columbus, loaned by the Duke of Veragua, the 
Duchess of Berwick and Alba ; by His Holiness, Pope Leo, and by 
John Boyd Thacher of New York. Among the first of these is 
the original commission given to Columbus by Ferdinand and 

Isabella upon his de- 
parture for the first 
voyage. It is dated 
at Grenada, April 30, 
1492, and appoints 
Columbus grand ad- 
miral of the ocean 
seas, and vice king and 
governor-general o f 
all the lands that he 
should discover. Of 
the same date there 
are royal letters patent 
from the sovereigns of 
Spain exempting from 
taxation all supplies 
needed for the fleet ; commanding the inhabitants of Palos to fur- 
nish Columbus with everything necessary to equip the caravels ; 
commanding the inhabitants of Palos to furnish Columbus with two 
caravels; and granting security against arrest or detention for any 
offence to all persons accompanying Columbus on the voyage. 
There are other commissions and royal letters patent from the 
sovereigns to Columbus concerning other voyages. 

The original will of Columbus is shown and is of particularly 
notable interest. There are numerous letters from Columbus to 
the sovereigns of Spain, to the Pope of Rome, to his son, Diego, 
and to Father Cuevas. All of these are original papers and they 
are the most priceless and remarkable documents in existence. 

One may profitably spend many days in the marvellous collection 
without exhausting its interest, and every day is certain to increase; 




TOMB OF COLUMBUS AND STEPS TO THE PRESBYTERY. 



tA RABIDA CONVENT. 493 

the impression of reverence and admiration for the great work of 
discovery begun by Christopher Columbus. 

In the south pond of the Exposition grounds are moored the 
reproductions of the three Spanish caravels which bore the crew of 
Columbus on his first voyage. In a plan for a historical exhibit at 
the Exposition which was prepared by Mr. Curtis, it was proposed 
to reproduce in fac-simile the fleet of Columbus and anchor them 
off the shore at Jackson Park during the Exposition in such a 
manner as to place them in contrast with the model battle-ship which 
represents the naval architecture of this century. The Spanish 
government co-operated in this effort, and after months of study 
plans were prepared by a board of naval architects and archaeolo- 
gists appointed by the Spanish Minister of Marine for the repro- 
duction of the Santa Maria, which was the flagship of Columbus, 
and the Pinta, and the Nina, which composed his fleet. The caravels 
were constructed at Barcelona and Cadiz. The flagship was built 
at the expense of the Spanish government, and the other two at the 
expense of the United States. The ships made their first public 
appearance at Huelva, Spain, on the 12th of October, 1892, and 
were then visited by the Queen and royal family, and by thousands 
of visitors. On the 19th of February the vessels started for 
America, following as near as possible the course of Columbus. 
They were delivered to the Spanish authorities at Havana about 
the middle of March, and were manned and used by them during the 
naval review at Hampton Roads and New York. They were then 
towed to Chicago and anchored off the Exposition grounds, where 
they attract great attention. After the Fair they are to be pre- 
sented by the Spanish government to the United States and will 
remain permanently in this country. 




portion of Jackson Park north 
j^djj|~5 ~ f=7 \ 7 ^^^^^j^ iW ^H of the line of 59th street is in every 
B-'ilfl'* -- ' ^SJ- '* I'P'^^^'jl wa Y different from the great area 

that lies to the south of the same 
line. It comprises what was known as the improved portion of the 
park long before any effort had been made to transform the square 
mile of sand-hills to the south into the City of White. Here in 
this improved portion of forest trees and green sward were assigned 
the locations for the State Buildings and the buildings of foreign 
countries represented at the Exposition. Within the same space 
is included the Art Gallery, but with that single exception it is 
devoted to the purposes named. The entrance to this portion of the 
park for thousands of visitors is the gate at 57th street. Once 
within this gate a magnificent vista greets the eye of the visitor. 
He looks down the magnificent avenue directly east toward Lake 
Michigan, and upon either hand are the beautiful houses estab- 
lished for headquarters by the various commonwealths which form 
the American Union. The first to the left is Nebraska, and in 
front of it passes a curved promenade which circles to the north, 
and forms another grand avenue, upon which face others of the 
State club-houses. Passing along this curved avenue through one- 
fourth the arc of a circle, one sees on the left, after Nebraska, 
North Dakota, Kansas and Texas. On the right of the same ave- 
nue come in succession Minnesota, Arkansas and Kentucky. At 
this point a north and south avenue intersects with the curved 
one which the visitor has been following. Passing southward upon 
this, on the right, are the States of Florida and Missouri, and on 
the left West Virginia, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and 
Pennsylvania. We have now almost completed the circuit, and 
between the States of Minnesota and Missouri, facing again on the 

(495) 



496 STATE BUILDINGS. 

east and west avenues, we find Louisiana. Continuing east at the 
point where we turned south the last time, on the left we find 
Utah, Montana, Idaho, Virginia and Iowa, while on the riorht 
are Maryland, New Jersey, Connecticut, New Hampshire and 
Maine. By this time we have again reached the 57th street avenue, 
and returning westward alone its course we find Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts and New York. Facing another north and south inter- 
secting avenue, which opens between Massachusetts and New 
York, are Delaware and Rhode Island. This exhausts the list of 
State Buildings north of the magnificent avenue. On its south face 
the two Annexes and the main structure of the Art Galleries with 
the great open lawn which they include, but to the west of the 
galleries another grand avenue leading south conducts us to a view 
of the remaining State Buildings. These in turn upon the right 
are South Dakota, Washington, Colorado and California, and upon 
the left, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, Indiana and Illinois. The latter 
is entitled to rank in size with the great buildings of the Exposition, 
and it is equally magnificent, but its purposes are the same as those 
of the other State Buildings, and consequently it should be classified 
with them. It is separated from the Art Galleries by the great 
North Pond, and faces the North Lagoon and the Wooded Island. 
These State buildings, which have been named and located so 
hastily, are of remarkable interest, a fact which is more apt to be 
recognized by foreign visitors than by our own Americans. They 
contain exhibits of the resources of the States, club-rooms and 
retiring-rooms for the people of the States, and rooms for public 
comfort. In almost every instance their architecture is character- 
istic of the State which they represent. It is unquestionably true 
that they will be the headquarters for places of meeting. Appoint- 
ments will be made by visitors from every State in the Union to 
meet at a place such as this, where, by their personal interest in 
the structure and their acquaintance with the people in charge, they 
may feel entitled to use the headquarters at their own freedom. 
Some of them are large and some small, but without exception all 
are worthy representatives of the States which erected them. 
After this hasty glance at the location a somewhat more definite 



498 STATE BUILDINGS. 

description of the more prominent of the State Buildings and of 
the exhibits which they contain should be of interest. 

• Not all of the States to which locations were assigned as already 
named took advantage of the assignment to erect buildings. In 
some instances, appropriations made by legislatures were too small, 
and in others it was thought wiser to expend the money in making 
better displays within the main buildings of the Fair. Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Nevada, North Carolina, Oregon, South Caro- 
lina, Tennessee, Wyoming and four of the Territories are those 
which erected no buildings. 

The Nebraska Building, which is the first one to be reached as 
the visitor enters the Fifty-seventh street gate and turns to the 
left, is built in the colonial style of architecture. It measures 60x100 
feet, and is covered with staff to represent stone. On each side 
of the building is a large portico, with eight massive columns run- 
ning the full height of both floors, and supporting the gables over 
the porticos. Six large rooms open on to these, giving space for 
exhibits. On the first floor is found a large exhibit hall, reception, 
waiting, commission and men's toilet rooms. The second floor is 
reached by a magnificent staircase ten feet wide which is one of 
the features of the building. The janitor's and reading rooms are 
located on the second floor, as are also waiting, reception and toilet 
rooms for ladies. There are some interesting art exhibits in the 
building, as well as displays of the great agricultural resources of 
the State. It is amply equipped with stand pipes and other appa- 
ratus for checking fires. Henry Voss, of Omaha, is the architect 
of the building, and it was erected at a cost of $15,000. Designed 
as the general headquarters for Nebraska people and their friends, 
it is entirely satisfactory for the purpose intended. 

The North Dakota State Building is next on the left after one 
passes Nebraska. It is also in the colonial style of architecture, 
which seems to be particularly appropriate to the State buildings. 
It is dignified, though not severe ; home-like and hospitable, yet not 
trivial. In the North Dakota edifice the solid structure of the 
front elevation is essentially classic, with large exterior colonnades 
or porches carried up to cover two stories, a feature which is useful, 



Sod 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



and which, at the same time, softens and makes attractive the 
severer lines of the classic ideal. The ground-floor colonnade forms 
the porch, and the second story a gallery, doubly attractive by the 
fine situation of the building. The interior offers generous stair- 
ways and hall space, lighting and ventilation. The whole first floor 
is thrown into one room, 60 by 90 feet, affording ample room for dis- 
play of the State exhibits, which include nearly every product of 
the soil found in the temperate zone, whether from field or forest, 




INTERIOR OF KANSAS STATE BUILDING. 



farm, garden or orchard. A feature of this room is a large fire- 
place facing its main entrance, Hanked on either side by stairways 
which meet at a landing, and, merging into one, give access to the 
second floor where are found reception, press and committee rooms, 
and toilet accommodation. The decorations of the building, both 
exterior and interior, are conventionalized representations of the 
natural and agricultural products of North Dakota. Wheat, corn, 
grasses of many kinds, etc., are shown in bas-relief on bands, panels 
and angles, while pedestals are occupied by allegorical figures and 
groups appropriate to the time and place. The material used for 



502 STATE BUILDINGS. 

the structure is wood, covered with staff. The cost of the building 
was $i 1,000. 

The next State in order is Kansas. Its building is unique in 
every way, inside and out, and it never fails to attract great atten- 
tion. The building is of a cruciform plan, and measures 135 feet 
from north to south and 140 feet from east to west. It was one of 
the first State Buildings to be completed, and the first to be dedi- 
cated. The women of Kansas stand out as shining examples of 
progress and independence. They were very largely the promoters 
of the Kansas Building, and the distinctive features to be seen here 
are exhibits made by organizations of women from that State, par- 
ticularly in the line of educational institutions. The rear of the 
building was especially designed for the valuable natural history 
collection of the State University, which is one of the most notable 
exhibits of the Fair. On the same floor are offices for the Board 
of Commissioners ; four flights of stairs lead to the second floor 
where are rooms for the woman's exhibit, and parlors for men and 
women. The bas-reliefs in front of the tower represent the State 
as she was when admitted into the Union in 1861, armed for her 
struggle, and again, under her present prosperous aspect, crowned 
with the wealth of endless resources. Seymour Davis, of Topeka, 
is the architect of the building, which is constructed entirely of 
Kansas material, and cost nearly $30,000. 

The Texas State Building is next in order as one passes north- 
east along the circle. It was provided entirely by the women of 
that State. It is constructed after the style of the old Spanish 
Mission, and is a good example of Spanish renaissance architec- 
ture. It was designed by J. Riley Gordon, of San Antonio. The 
building contains assembly rooms, 56 feet square and 20 feet 
high, provided with a large art glass skylight in the ceiling, with a 
Mosaic Texas star in its centre. The rostrum, ante-rooms, etc., 
are finished in the natural woods of Texas. The administration 
wing contains a register, a bureau of information, and rooms for 
offices and public comfort. There are also toilet rooms, rooms for 
county collective exhibits, a historical museum and a library. The 
main entrances are through vestibules, flanked on either side by 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



503 



niches and colonnades. The main vestibule terminates in a larcre 
auditorium, from which entrance is afforded to the various working- 
departments above mentioned. The building presents a Spanish 
vista, a bower of beautiful Texas foliage, comprising the banana, 
palm, magnolia, pomegranate, Spanish dagger, orange, lemon, and 
other tropical plants. Either corner is flanked by a square tower, 
the intervening curtains consisting of two stories of open arcaded 
loggias. m The towers also have loggias in their top stories. Both 
the main building and the towers are covered with a low, pitched 
roof of brown-red 
Spanish tile. The 
building cost $40,- 
000, and is one of 
the most attractive 
at the Fair. 

Crossing the 
gravel walk the 
visitor now reaches 
the Utah Building, 
a graceful struc- 
ture at the extreme 
north of the Fair. 
It measures 50 by 
90 feet, and cost nearly $20,000. The first floor contains an ex- 
hibition hall extending up through the second story, and forming 
a semi-circular light well and gallery at the intersection of the 
second floor. On the same floor are the secretary's apartment, 
bureau of information, ladies' reception room, toilet rooms, etc. 
The officers' quarters are above, and a large room for special ex- 
hibits. The building is used as a headquarters for Utah people 
and a bureau of information, where people may get reliable statis- 
tics and data regarding Utah and her people. There are also 
some special exhibits of great interest, representative of the indus- 
tries of the State. These include agricultural, manufactured and 
mine products, such as gold, silver and sulphur. With these latter 
are shown plans illustrating the methods ^of reducing sulphur and 




UTAH BUILDING. 



5°4 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



the handling of borax and rock salt found in some parts of the ter- 
ritory, as clear as crystal. A miniature of Great Salt Lake is 
shown in front of the building. Dallas & Hedges, of Salt Lake 
City, are the architects. 

Returning to our starting-point opposite the Nebraska Building, 
as we face north, we find on the ri£ht the building of Minnesota. 

Its ground area is 
80 by 90 feet, and its 
height to the cornice 
line is forty-one feet. 
The frame is of wood, 
covered with staff, 
while the architecture 
is of the style of the 
Italian renaissance. 
On the front portico 
stands a very fine 
sculptural group sym- 
bolizing the Indian 
legends of Hiawatha 
and Minnehaha. It was executed by Jacob Fjielde, and contrib- 
uted by the school children of Minnesota. This beautiful group is 
inspired by Longfellow's poem, and the design finds its motive in 
the lines — 

" Over wide and rushing rivers 
In his arms he bore the maiden." 

After the close of the Fair the group is to be cast in bronze and 
placed in Minnehaha Park, at Minneapolis. The first floor is de- 
voted chiefly to an exhibition hall, where is shown a fine collection 
of the birds and beasts of the State. Here are also specimens of 
her grain, minerals and other products. A drinking fountain of 
Mankato stone is in the centre of the hall, and on the left a relief 
map, 23 by 25 feet, of Duluth and its harbor. In the rear is the 
superintendent's room, with check rooms and post-office. In the 
mezzanine story are sleeping rooms for the officials and the em- 
ployees. On the west side of the second story is the State Board 




MINNESOTA STATE BUILDING. 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



505 



room, and on the east side the Woman's Auxiliary Board room, 
each being equipped with reception, reading and toilet rooms. 
Two guest chambers are in the rear. The interior is decorated in 
plain tints, with elaborate friezes, selected from designs by women 
artists of the State. William Channing Whitney was the architect 
of this building. 

Just to the north is the special building erected by Arkansas, 
which is constructed in the French style of architecture. The 
building measures ninety-two feet deep by sixty-six feet wide. The 
main entrance is through an elaborate circular veranda, with 
granite steps leading up to it, which were cut at the Little Rock 
quarries. From this a triple arcade leads into the rotunda, which 
extends the entire height of the building, rising to a square dome 
thirty feet in diameter. One of the most interesting features of 
the building is a fountain which stands under the dome, and was 
donated by the ladies of Hot Springs. The basin is ten feet in 
diameter, and from a granite foundation in the centre of it rises 
the figure of a boy, holding over his head a passion flower, the em- 
blem of the State. 
Hot Springs crystals 
are grouped around 
the base, while others 
cover the petals of 
the flower. Aquatic 
plants are placed at 
the corners of the 
basin. This feature 
was designed by 
Mrs. P. H.Ellsworth, 
of Hot Springs, and 
when illuminated by 
electric lights is 
very attractive. The 
side of the rotunda, 




ARKANSAS STATE BUILDING. 



three rooms, fifteen feet square, on either 
are used as ladies' reception and exhibit 
rooms, while the large one in the rear, 25 by 65 feet, extends the 
width of the building, and is devoted to general exhibits, Triple 



506 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



arches span it, and one of its handsomest decorations is a man- 
tel twelve feet long, made of Arkansas white onyx. In the sec- 
ond story a broad gallery encircles the hall, affording entrance 
to six rooms, each fifteen feet square. The first floor of the build- 
ing is laid in clear Arkansas pine, donated by the various lumber 
companies of the State. The architect of this building was Mrs. 
Frank Middleton Douglas. She was given the prize for the design 
over all competitors, and was also superintendent of construction 
of the building. 

The Florida Building faces on a walk to the east, but also reaches 

out to the one 
where we are now 
touring. It is one 
of the most note- 
worthy of all within 
the grounds of the 
Fair, and was con- 
structed almost en- 
tirely by private 
subscriptions, apart 
from legislative aid. 
It is distinctively 
southern in idea, 
characteristics and 
material. The design is unique, original and historic. It is an exact 
reproduction of old Ft. Marion, St. Augustine's remarkable Spanish 
Fort. The old fort has figured in the stirring events of three centu- 
ries. It was called by the Spaniards San Juan de Pinos, San Augus- 
tin, San Marco, and by the English St. Mark, the name of Fort Marion 
being given by the United States, in honor of Gen. Francis Marion, 
of Revolutionary fame, in 1825, when Florida came into the Union. 
The fortress was erected in 1565. It witnessed the struggle be- 
tween the Spanish and French ; the destruction of the early Spanish 
settlement by the English, under Sir Francis Drake, in 15S9 ; the 
bitter warfare with the English colonists of South Carolina and 
Georgia under Governors Moore and Oglethorpe, and lastly the rav- 







FLORIDA STATE BUIXDING. 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



507 



ages of the Indians in the Seminole war. Its walls have sheltered 
Spanish garrisons, Indian slaves, English prisoners and convicts. 
Foundations of the fort as it now stands were laid in 1620, and after 
toil for a century and a half it was finally completed in 1 765. It then 
required an armament of one hundred guns, and a garrison of one 
thousand men. It did not figure in the war between the States, but 
has been used as a place of detention for fierce Apache raiders, 
thus separated from their marauding brethren by the width of the 
continent. The re- 
production is faithful ; 
bridge and moat, 
watch-tower, sentry- 
box and parapet, cur- 
tain and bastion are 
exactly as in the orig- 
inal.- In the interior, 
in addition to the 
court are a hall and 
several rooms for the 
convenience of guests 
and others. There is 
also a display of the 
fruit and other resources of the State. 

Kentucky occupies a space between Florida and Texas. The 
architect's idea in this structure was to typify the southern colonial 
style as distinguished from that of New England. The most strik- 
ing feature of the former style is the great pillared porch in front. 
Another object is to suggest the better class of the old Kentucky 
homestead, and at the same time to give enough variety to meet 
the demands of the occasion, and furnish an attractive club house 
where southern hospitality can be dispensed. The exterior of the 
building js colored a rich cream, trimmed with pure white for the 
decorations. The material is staff, as in so many other buildings. 
The edifice, exclusive of porches, measures 75 by 95 feet, with the 
main entrance in the centre of the principal facade, under the cover 
of the porch. This entrance leads into a large central hall from 




KENTUCKY STATE BUILDING. 



508 STATE BUILDINGS. 

which open offices, parcel rooms, and a post-office. The dining 
room is in the rear of the building opposite the front door. On the 
left side of the hall is a great fireplace, and still to the left are the 
ladies' parlors. The dining room measures 20 by 40 feet. The com- 
missioner' room, a private hall, sleeping rooms, bath rooms and 
others, are on the second floor. The three large exhibition rooms 
extend across the entire front of the building and open on to a wide 
gallery. They can all be thrown together when desired. The 
wood-work throughout is finished in white enamel. Maury & Dodd, 
of Louisville, were the architects of this building. 

Just to the south of the Florida Building, and facing the Art 
Gallery annex, across the main avenue, is the building of Missouri. 
It is a massive structure, of the composite order of architecture. 
A long facade, pierced with deeply recessed arches, is two stories 
high, the upper lighted by square windows. At the west end is a 
low, square tower with a steep roof running to a point terminating 
in a flagstaff. At the east end, a taller tower, also square, sur- 
mounted with a lantern, which has a towering flag pole on its sum- 
mits. At each corner of this tower is also a shorter pole, from which 
flags are floating. The interior of the building is divided into large 
halls for displays of women's work, curios, and historical relics, and 
there are also numerous reception halls, toilet and check rooms, 
parlors for men and women, reading and writing rooms, etc. The 
building, as far as practicable, was built of Missouri materials, by 
Missouri mechanics, and its rugs, carpets, curtains, and other fur- 
nishings are largely the products of the labor of the women of this 
State. The wool clipped from the native sheep was carded, spun 
and woven by them. Most of the exhibits of this State are dis- 
tributed among the departmental buildings of the Fair. Neverthe- 
less there is much here of great interest. Specimens of the fruits 
of the Olden farm, in Howell county, the largest orchard in the 
world, show what the State can do in this direction. There are 
also grains, grasses, and fine cabinets of woods and minerals. 

Between Missouri and Minnesota is the beautiful little building 
of Louisiana. It is one of the most artistic constructions of all the 
State edifices, and is built in genuine southern architectural style. 



5 10 



STATE BUILDINGS. 




LOUISIANA STATE BUILDING. 



A veranda of Louisiana woods is the most attractive feature. The 
building is divided into eight rooms, all of which are well utilized. 

One is devoted to 
the Acadian ex- 
hibits, from the 
quaint old French 
colony in the lovely 
Bayou Teche coun- 
try. Another room 
is devoted to the 
relics of the French 
and Spanish days 
of Louisiana ; and 
the third contains 
the richly carved 
antique furniture of 
a former Governor, 
which is usually kept in the museum of the Capitol at Baton Rouge. 
A Creole concert company and a comprehensive exhibit of the schools 
for negro children are f^*t 
worthy of inspection. 
Eleven beautifully 
carved panels, designed 
and executed by wom- 
en of the State, form 
a charming feature of 
the exhibit. The rice 
industry, from the plant- 
ing of the grain, through 
its growth, gathering 
and final use is shown, 
as are also the im- 
mense sugar indus- 
tries. Other agricultural products are not neglected, and the dis- 
play of woods is very fine. Last, but not least, is the Creole 




WEST VIRGINIA STATE BUILDING. 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



5" 



kitchen, where are served all the southern delicacies for which the 
State is noted. 

Returning now to a point just east of the Kentucky Building, we 
find the structure of West Virginia. In this building, as is appro- 
priate for a State of that region, the style is strictly colonial. It is a 
wide-spreading house, with great piazzas, recalling those of the 
historical houses along the Potomac and the James. The broad 
veranda makes almost a complete circuit of the mansion, and on 
the northern and southern fronts forms a semicircular porch. The 
doors and windows, stairways and halls are all of hospitable propor- 
tions. The ornamentation follows the same idea, being carried out 
in classic forms, in the way of festoons, and other graceful arrange- 
ments of flower and leaf. The main entrance is surmounted by the 
arms of the State and bas-relief. On each floor are two fine col- 
onial fire-places, with wood mantels elaborately carved. The main 
floor is entered through a vestibule flanked by committee rooms, 
and after passing 
through this the 
visitor enters the 
large reception 
hall, having par- 
lors with drawing- 
rooms and toilet- 
rooms. Theseconc 
story contains 
other committee 
rooms, and also a 
large assembly 
room, 76x34 feet, 
and thirteen feet 
high. The ex- 
hibits from West Virginia are largely composed of minerals, and 
things beautiful and curious connected with mining and metallurgy. 
Handsome cabinets of various kinds have been constructed for 
this display. The building is of wood, with high pitched shingle 
roof, the outside being weatherboarded and painted. 




MARYLAND STATE BUILDING. 



The interior 



5*2 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



is plastered, with hard wood finishing, and the ceilings are of orna- 
mental iron work. All the material used in the structure is na- 
tive to the State. It is 58 by 1 20 feet deep, and the cost was $20,000. 
Next to the east is the building of Maryland. It is seventy-eight 
feet deep, and one hundred and forty-two feet wide, its architecture 
being of the free, classic Corinthian order. This is the style from 
which the colonial work of the last century developed. The build- 
ing is three stories high. The main entrance is through a Corin- 
thian portico, two stories high, and at each end of the buildings are 
smaller ones. A spacious piazza extends the full length of the 
building, its top having a deck roof. A similar roof covers the two 
wings of the building. The structure is of frame, with iron sup- 
ports, finished exteriorly with staff work. The interior is finished 
in wood and plaster. The front entrance leads into a reception 
hall, 38 by 40 feet, from the centre of which a main stairway, branch- 
ing from a landing into two lesser stairways, leads to the second 
floor. To the left of the hall is the principal exhibition hall, 36 by 26 
feet, extending upward through two stories, with a gallery at the 
second floor level. To the right is another exhibition hall, nearly as 
large, used for the women's display, and adjoining it is a ladies' 
parlor and a toilet room. The second floor contains three parlors 

on the front, and 
an office, reading, 
smokingand toilet 
rooms. On the 
third floor are the 
janitor's rooms, 
and those of the 




commissioners in 
charge. The 
building was de- 
signed by Baldwin 
and Pennington, 
of Baltimore. 

MONTANA STATE BUILDIMG. Next WCSt of 

the Utah Building is that of Montana, which was designed by 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



513 



Galbraith & Fuller, of Livingstone, Montana. It is one-story in 
height, of Roman style, the dimensions being 62 by 113 feet. The 
single story is sixteen feet tall in front, and twenty feet in the 
rear, with a gallery. Its frame is constructed of wood and iron, 
covered with glass and staff. The exterior of the building is or- 
namented with heavy molded and fluted pilasters with Roman 
caps and bases. The two side wings in- front with the main en- 
trance are ornamented with heavy pediments, representing clusters 
of fruit. This main entrance is twenty-eight feet wide and sixteen 
feet high, with a 



large Roman arch 
supported by col- 
u m n s , molded 
caps, and bases 
with balustrades 
between. On 
either side of the 
arch are panels 
containing the sea 
of the State. These 
are 4 by 5 feet, and 
of solid sheet gold. 
Above the arch is 
a pedestal support- 
ing a miniature mountain peak upon 
high, the antlers measuring ten feet from tip to tip. 
building, one passes through a spacious vestibule 
walls and ceilings and floor of marble. From this vestibule are en- 
trances to the ladies' and men's reception rooms and parlors, and 
the lobby. The lobby is twenty-two feet square, and is covered 
with a glass dome thirty-eight feet high. Its walls contain eight 
panels of Georgia pine, recording historical events of the State. To 
the right and left are entrances to reception rooms and parlors. 
The gallery is used for special exhibits of the State. In addition to 
what has been named, the building contains the usual rooms for 
public comfort. The cost was some $15,000. 

' 33 




IDAHO STATE BUILDING. 



which stands an elk, nine feet 
Entering the 
with paneled 



^14 STATE BUILDINGS. 

The building of Idaho is next in order, and it is conceded to be 
one of the most striking and creditable structures of all. The 
building typifies the spirit and conditions of the State. It is three 
stories high, with a foundation of lava and basaltic rock, and is 
made to represent a three-story log cabin. The timbers used are 
cedar logs, stripped of their bark, and presenting the appearance 
of age. Swiss balconies encircle the building, and it is roofed with 
"shakes," held in place by rocks. The chimneys are large and 
rough, to imitate those of actual pioneer days. An arched stone 
entrance opens into a large hall, at the end of which is a stone fire- 
place with log mantel. The remainder of this floor is divided into 
offices, sleeping and toilet rooms. By stairways on either side of 
the fireplace an upper hall is reached, the windows of which are 
glazed with Idaho mica. In front of this hall is the women's recep- 
tion room, representing a miner's cabin. It has a fireplace of rock, 
and its andirons, door-latches, etc., are made in imitation of miners' 
tools. At the rear of the hall, the men's reception room is made 
in imitation of a hunter's and trapper's cabin. Its fireplace is made 
of lava, and the andirons of bear traps and fish spears. The other 
hardware therein represents arrows and other Indian weapons. 
The entire third floor is one large hall for exhibits, receptions, etc. 

The building of Virginia completes this circuit of State club- 
houses. It is the exact representation of Mt. Vernon, the building 
in which George Washington lived and died. It was a present 
from his brother, Lawrence Washington, and was built in the early 
part of the last century by his father. The main building is 94 by 32 
feet, with two stories and an attic, and a two-story portico with 
large columns extending along the whole front. Altogether there 
are twenty-five rooms in the structure. They include the banquet 
hall, the library, Washington's chamber in which he died, and Mrs. 
Washington's chamber in the attic. She removed to this room 
after the death of her illustrious husband, because it was the only 
one in the house which looked out over his grave. Nothing 
modern is seen in the building except the people, and the library 
of books, by Virginia authors. The furniture is all antique. There 
are many heir-looms of old Virginia families, a rare collection of 



5*6 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



relics of colonial times and the Revolutionary war, and other antiqui- 
ties, among which is the original will of George Washington. No vis- 
itor fails to thoroughly investigate this structure and all that it 
contains. 

The Delaware State Building is just to the south of Maryland. 

Like the State itself, 
it is small, though 
handsomely built. It 
is of the southern 
colonial style of archi- 
tecture, and con- 
structed entirely of 
Delaware material. 
The building is 60x58 
feet, and cost $7,500. 
It has arched and pil- 
lared entrances, and 
ornamental balus- 
traded cornices, with 
whose fluted columns 




DELAWARE STATE BUILDING. 



very 



handsome portico on the west end, 
reach the whole height of the building. In the interior are seen 
many characteristic objects worthy of attention. 

The State Building of New York is one of the largest of all, and 
one of the most expensive. It is practically the only State Building 
that has been designed in palatial form. The building is two hun- 
dred and fourteen feet in length and one hundred and forty-two 
feet in depth, while from grade to the apex of the tower it is ninety- 
six feet in height. A magnificent staircase, forty-six feet wide, gives 
access to the terrace on the south from which the loggia is reached. 
At the entrances to the building are casts of the celebrated Bar- 
berini lions, and the four pedestal lamps lighting the terrace are 
reproduced from the best ones in the museum at Naples. The 
porticos east and west of the building have a diameter of fifty feet. 
On either side of the main entrance in the niches outside the 
building are placed the busts of George Clinton and Roswell P. 
Flower, the first and the present Governors of the State. In the 



5x8 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



other niches, in the facade of the second story, are figures of Henry 
Hudson and Christopher Columbus, the four works of art being the 
production of Olin Warner. The exterior of the building is lit by 
electricity. Above the arched entrance is the great seal of New 
York, ten feet high, lighted by myriads of tiny lamps. The interior 
of the building has rooms equipped with everything possible for 
convenience and utility. The mural decorations are exceptionally 
fine and attract great attention. There are historical collections 
and other exhibits of interest. A roof garden is one of the most 
attractive features of the building. It was designed by McKim, 
Meade & White. 

The next-door neighbor to New York at the Fair, as in reality, is 
Pennsylvania. It is a stately edifice, surmounted with a clock tower, 

which reproduces the 
historic clock tower 
of Independence Hall 
in Philadelphia, with 
the old Liberty Bell. 
The first and second 
stories are of Phila- 
delphia pressed brick 
and the floors of na- 
tive marble and wood, 
while the walls are 
ornamented with 
wainscot paneling 
from Pennsylvania 
forests. The front entrance opens into a rotunda thirty feet in 
diameter and forty feet high. In the rear the exhibition room ex- 
tends the entire width of the building, its walls ornamented with 
portraits of distinguished Pennsylvanians. Many rare documents 
and relics of historical interest are displayed, the grandest of which 
is the old Liberty Bell, whose brazen tongue proclaimed to all the 
world the birth of the Republic. There are statues of William 
Penn and Benjamin Franklin, and many historical portraits, maps 
and books. There are also allegorical groups of statuary, one 




OKLAHOMA, ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO'S BUILDING. 



520 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



indicative of mines and mining, and the other of science, manu- 
factures and agriculture. The architect of the buildino- was Thos. 
P. Lonsdale. 

The joint Territorial Building, in the erection of which Arizona, 
New Mexico and Oklahoma shared, is just to the north of Pennsyl- 
vania. It is a modest little structure, but neat and attractive. The 
exhibits are very fine, when it is remembered that these Territories 
are yet in their infancy. Oklahoma, with her grain, grasses, fruits 
and cattle products; Arizona with her minerals, sub-tropical fruits, 
cacti and other flowers 
and the hand work 
of her Indians, such 
as Navajo blankets, 
Moqui water baskets, 
and Apache whips 
and braided work; and 
New Mexico with her 
display of gold, silver 
and mining appli- 
ances, her fruits and 
wines, and her artistic 
gold and silver fila- 
gree work done by 
Indian and Mexican artists are certain to attract attention. Char- 
acteristic views of the dwellings, the scenery and the people of 
these Territories are shown. 

Going now to the extreme northeastern corner of the Park the 
visitor reaches the State Building of Iowa. It is made up of addi- 
tions to a building which already stood there known as the "park 
shelter." The permanent portion is built of brick and stone, with 
the walls open to the roof, and broad projecting eaves. With this, 
and the addition, a very large structure is formed of harmonious 
architectural designs. State, national, and territorial seals are used 
in the decoration. Various industries are portrayed in low relief 
in the columns, and on the main walls, under the porch, are authentic 
relief portraits of the Indian Chiefs, Black Hawk and Keokuk, The 




NEW JERSEY STATE BUILDING. 



State buildings.' 



521 




LIBERTY BELL. 



permanent portion of the building is used for the exhibit of a minia- 



522 STATE BUILDINGS. 

ture reproduction of the Sioux City " Corn Palace." It is unique 
and of remarkable interest. There are also exhibit rooms in the 
other portions of the building, as well as all conveniences of the 
public. 

In the triangle opposite the Iowa Building, New Jersey and all 
the New England States have constructed buildings. That of New 
Jersey is a partial reproduction of the historical building at Morris- 
town which was occupied by General Washington as his head- 
quarters during the winter of 1779 and 1780. It is said that this 
building has sheltered more people celebrated in colonial times 
than any other in America. It is not intended for exhibition pur- 
poses, but rather ^S^**^ 
for the use and con- 
venience of visitors 
as a club-house. 
The architect was 
Charles Ailing Gif- 
ord, of Newark. 

Conn ecticut' s 
building is intended 
to typify the promi- 
nent feature of the 
higrh grade resi- 
dences of this State. 
It is seventy-two 
feet square and two stories high, the exterior being weatherboarded 
and painted white. The roof has five dormer windows and is 
decked on top. It is devoted to social purposes rather than to 
exhibits, its wide balconies and spacious rooms adapting it well 
for this use. There are, however, many interesting relics to be 
seen in the building. 

Its next-door neighbor is the New Hampshire Building, which is 
constructed in imitation of a Swiss chalet. The building is com- 
paratively low, with low pitched roofs and overhanging eaves. The 
first story is of plaster work, the door and window frames being 
surrounded with various kinds of New Hampshire granite. The 




CONXKCTICrT STATE BUILDING. 



524 



STATE BUILDINGS. 




NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE BUILDING. 



second story and gables are covered with heavy siding; of hard 

pine, oiled and left in the natural wood color. The hall is sur- 
rounded by a wide 
balcony on the second 
story and has two 
large fireplaces. 
There is a fine col- 
lection of New Hamp- 
shire views and many 
other exhibits. The 
architect of the build- 
ing was George B. 
Howe, of Boston. 

The Maine Build- 
ing is an octagon in 
shape, sixty-five feet in 

diameter, and two stories high. Its dome is surmounted by a 

lantern over which is a steep roof. The first story is of granite 

taken from the State 

quarries, showing the 

various textures and\ 

colors. The secondj 

story exterior consistsj 

of four balconies sep- 
arated by round bays 

projecting over the^ 

granite below, finished! 

in wood and plaster] 

panels, and covered] 

with a roof of Maine] 

slate. Within tht 

building are maps, 

paintings, and many 

historical curios. The architect was Charles S. Frost. 

of the building was $20,000. 

The Vermont State Building lies just to the west of Maine, facing 




MAINE STATE BUILDING. 



The cost 



526 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



the east annex of the Art Galleries. It is a unique and attractive 
little structure, designed by Jarvis Hunt, of Weathersfield. The 
general idea is that 
of a Pompeian resi- 
dence. White mar- 
ble, which is one of 
the leadingindustrial 
products of Ver- 
mont, is applied to 
the classic forms of 
architecture. Pass- 
ing- through a vesti- 
bule between pillars 
surmounted by em- 
blematic figures the 
visitor enters a n 
open court, having in its centre a white marble fountain. This 
court is flanked by small rooms, while beyond an entrance opens 

__-_.-. -— ^) to a semicircular re- 




VERMONT STATE BUILDING. 



1 







^k*^*4S£C!Sft a n 



ception hall which 
|occupies the rear of 
jthe building. The 
| material of the walls 
i and of most of "the 
1 ornamentation i s 
staff, but considera- 
ble is employed in 
the internal finish 
and decoration. 
Little Rhode Isl- 



RHODE ISLAND STATE BUILDING. 



d d o e s herself 
credit in the struc- 
ture which she dis- 
plays. It is in the style of a Greek mansion, 39 by 34 feet with a 
semicircular porch, 12 by 22 feet. The front entrance is through 
three arched openings through the semicircular porch. The col- 



5 28 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



umns and pilasters are surmounted by Ionic tablets with decorated 
molding-s. A balustrade-surrounds the entire roof with ornamental 
urns over each pedestal. In the centre of the hall is a fireplace 
and marble mantel of historical interest. There are other hand- 
some rooms and many relics which are worthy of the attention 
they attract. 

Massachusetts completes the group of New England States and 
this section of the Park. Its building is a reproduction of the resi- 
dence of John Hancock, which stood on Beacon Hill, in Boston. It 
is three stories high, surrounded in the centre by a cupola, and the 
exterior finished in staff in imitation of cut granite. Above the 
cupola is a flagstaff with a gilded codfish for a weathervane, and a 
liberty pole eighty-five feet high stands in the front porch. The 
house is surrounded by a raised terrace filled in front upon one side 
with old-fashioned 
flowers and foliage. 
The main entrance 
to the building opens 
into a spacious hall 
with a tiled floor, 
and facing it is a 
broad colonial stair- 
way leading to the 
rooms above. The 
front parlor is fur- 
nished by the Essex 
Institute, an old 
historical society. 

The floor of the general reception room is of marble, and its walls 
are covered with tiles, the beams and rafters being bare, and the 
mantel high, as in the old Dutch houses of New York and Penn- 
sylvania as well as of western Massachusetts. Peabody & Stearns, 
of Boston, were the architects of the building, and the cost was 
$50,000. < m 

Returning now to the place where we first began our visit to the 
State Buildings, we find another group of them extending south- 




SOUTH DAKOTA STATE BUILDING. 



530 STATE BUILDINGS. 

ward instead of eastward. Directly opposite the Nebraska Build- 
ing which was the first one visited, is that of South Dakota. It has 
a prominent and commanding location, as it deserves. The build- 
ing measures sixty feet by one hundred feet and is two stories 
high. As far as possible, South Dakota material only was used in 
its construction. The exterior is coated with Yankton cement, 
finished in imitation of cut stone. Mines and minerals, grains and 
grasses, fossils, pottery, clay, etc., have been given due attention, 
and form a large display, showing the diversified interests and re- 
sources of the State. Its dairy, sheep and cattle products have not 
been neglected, and a pomological exhibit is surprisingly fine. The 
educational department also makes an excellent showing. Curious 
fossils from the bed of the Cheyenne river, immense blocks of fine 
coal from her coal fields, and photographic views of her varied 
scenery help to make up the creditable display from this State. 

Many visitors name the Washington State Building, which lies 
next to the south, as the most unique and pleasing of all the State 
Buildings, and as exhibiting in the best degree the resources of 
that State. The foundation is of timber brought from that State, 
the largest logs being fifty-two inches in diameter and one hundred 
and twenty feet long of perfectly clear and sound timber. Much 
larger ones could have been obtained, but the railroads were unable 
to transport them. The dimensions of the building are 140 by 220 
feet. The exterior is covered with Puget Sound lumber, and it is 
roofed with the famous Washington cedar shingles. The building 
consists of a central structure with a wing at each end joined to it 
by a closed colonnade. The exhibits include examples of the 
resources of the State in coal, gold, and other minerals ; in timber, 
grain and fruit, and in all sorts of manufactured wares. The ship- 
ping and fishing industries are also exploited, and no visitor can 
enter the building without being impressed by the magnitude and 
variety of the resources of our most northwestern States. 

Colorado comes next in order with a handsome structure in the 
style of Spanish renaissance. It is one hundred and twenty-five 
feet by forty-five feet, and is crowned with two slender towers 
eighty feet high. A handsome entrance forty feet wide leads to the 



532 STATE BUILDINGS. 

inner rooms, which are rilled with interesting exhibits. It is fitted 
with Tennessee marble %nd onyx in beautiful forms, while the red 
Spanish tiled roof gives a picturesque and pleasing effect. 



INTERIOR OF CALIFORNIA BUILDING. 

The immense California Building which forms the southern 
extremity of this chain of State Buildings is a reproduction of a 
Catholic Mission of the days of the Jesuit regime. It is four hun- 
dred and thirty-five feet long and one hundred and forty-four feet 
wide, and is crowned with a dome one hundred and thirty feet high. 
The walls are a close imitation of the adobe, or sun-dried brick, used 
in the original structures. The roof is covered with tiles similar to 
those covering the old missions. The principal features of the 
building are copied from the beautiful old missions at Santa Barbara. 
The whole mass, otherwise sombre, is relieved by a large central 
dome, around which is an open roof garden filled with semi-tropical 



534 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



plants. These glorious California products add a strong element 
of grace and beauty. The building is further embellished by rich 
molded windows over the arched entrances, while old mission bells 
in its towers ring frequent melodies. The departments for exhibits 
are arranged along the sides of the building on the ground floor, 
while the offices are grouped in the second story. The exhibits 
consist of minerals, petrified wood, native wines, and other viticul- 
tural displays, beside representations of many other industries of 
the State. 

Retracing one r s steps northward, the Illinois Building is reached 
directly opposite the California Building. It is built in the form of 
a Greek cross, of which one axis is four hundred and fifty feet long 
by one hundred and sixty feet wide, 
and the other two hundred and 
eighty feet long and ninety feet wide. 
In size and cost, as well as in mag- 
nificence, it is entitled to take rank 
with the departmental buildings of 
the Fair; but its architecture has 
shared the fate of that of the United 
States Government Building in fail- 
ing to please the critics. At the in- 
tersection of the arms of the cross 
rises a dome with an internal diame- 
ter of seventy-five feet and an inside 
height of one hundred and fifty-two 
feet. The galleries encircle the 
dome, and above all rises a round 
lantern which extends two hundred 
and thirty-four feet above the ground. 
The State has the largest and finest exhibit of all 
the Union, 
school and 




ILUNOIS WELCOMING THE NATIONS, 

iijjnois buieding. {Bracken.") 



the States in 
The departments of display include model public 
kindergarten schools ; exhibits of the public schools, 
the Normal schools, and the University of Illinois ; the exhibit of 
the State Laboratory of Natural History; an exhibit of the fish 
commission, the railroad and warehouse commission, and the ex^ 



536 STATE BUILDINGS. 

perimental station ; and exhibits of agriculture, geology, horticul- 
ture, and woman's work. In the northern wing is a fire-proof 
room called Memorial Hall, which contains historical objects from 
the State capitol at Springfield. The general design of the build- 
ing is very similar to that of the capitol. 

The next building northward is that of Indiana. It is Gothic in 
design, with cathedral windows, turrets and towers. At either end 
a tall spire rises above the roof to a height of one hundred and 
fifty feet. A wide veranda extends entirely around the building 
and the total dimensions of the structure are 53 by 152 feet. It pre- 
sents a massive appearance and is three stories high. The first 
story is Indiana gray stone, while the second and third are wood 
covered with staff. The doors and interior finish are in oak, carved 
and polished, and the floors are laid in mosaic. There are fine 
displays of historical portraits, as well as archaeological, mining, 
manufacturing, agricultural and educational exhibits. On the front 
of the building is a statue of heroic proportions, the work of Miss 
Jeannette Scudder, of Indiana. It represents a typical Indian beauty 
and is called the " Maid of the Wabash." 

The Wisconsin Building is next northward. It is 50 feet deep, 
and has a frontage of 90 feet exclusive of its four great porches. 
It is one of the handsomest of the Fair, and might be taken for a 
magnificent suburban residence. The walls for three feet are of 
Lake Superior brown stone, and the first story is of Menominee 
red pressed brick. The rest of the exterior finish is in shingles. 
The front and rear porches are supported by massive brown stone 
pillars, one at each corner, and one at each side of the main 
entrance. In the angles of the gables is seen the coat of arms of 
the State, modeled by Miss Eunice Winterbotham, of Eau Claire. 
The building is modern in architectural style, and is that generally 
used in club houses and large private residences. The rooms are 
handsomely finished and decorated, and form a delightful place of 
resort for Wisconsin people. 

The building of Ohio, which is next reached is intended as social 
headquarters for people of that State visiting the Fair, and not for 
exhibits of any kind. Its architecture is of the style of the Italian 



533 



STATE BUILDINGS. 



Renaissance, simple and dignified. The dimensions are ioo by 80 
feet, exclusive of bay windows, porticos and terraces, while the two 
stories are about thirty-five feet in height. 

The last of all the State Buildings, which adjoins Wisconsin, is the 
imposing structure of Michigan. It is 104 by 144 feet in ground area, 
and three stories high. There is a veranda across the entire front, 
and from the centre rises a tower pierced with windows and bal- 
conies and 131 feet high. At the summit of the tower are four 



<$fm$*-* 




clock faces. The 
main entrance opens 
into a tiled reception 
hall sixty-two feet 
wide and extending 
the entire depth of 
the building. Wood 
fireplaces with high 
oak mantels adorn 
each room opening 
out from the hall. On 
the second floor is a 
fine assembly hall as 
well as an exhibit room. Here are shown specimens of the fauna 
and flora of the State, and a press exhibit showing sample front 
pages of every newspaper and magazine published in Michigan. 
The pomological display presents five hundred models of the various 
fruits grown in Michigan. The salt exhibit is especially interesting, 
as are also those of woman's work, educational, grains, grasses, 
lumber, etc. 

Now that we have exhausted the list of State Buildings, it is 
easily seen that they are applied to purposes of social entertain- 
ment, and for club house uses rather than for exhibit purposes. It 
is well that this should be so, for the main buildings of the Fair 
provide ample opportunity for all regular exhibit displays. For 
club house purposes they are constantly utilized, and no feature of 
the Fair is more generally admired than this splendid collection of 
representative State edifices. 




i RESIDENT HARRISON, on the 24th of Decem- 
ber, 1890, issued official declaration that the con- 
ditions providing for the holding of an international 
exposition were complied with, and inviting all the 
nations of the earth to take part in the commemo- 
ration of the discovery of America. From that 
day to this throughout the world of nations there 
has been such activity in the preparation of exhibits for the great 
World's Fair as has never been seen before. The countries of Eu- 
rope, Asia and South America with practical unanimity accepted the 
invitation and began work. To-day the results of their efforts show 
in the wonderful display at Jackson Park. In the north portion of 
the park stand a score of buildings erected by the representatives 
of foreign governments and filled with a display of the resources of 
their respective countries. This is entirely independent of the ex- 
hibits made in the various departmental buildings from foreign 
countries. 

The Chicago Exposition can more truly claim to be universal than 
any of its predecessors. The Centennial Exposition, on account of 
the event which it commemorated, could not receive the most en- 
thusiastic official endorsement from the government of Great Britain. 
The expositions which have been held in Europe have always been 
subject to the political and social rivalry and jealousy among the 
nations. Here for the first time all may meet on neutral ground. 
The history of the means by which interest was first awakened in 
foreign countries is interesting, and would include the formation of 

(541) • 



542 FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 

successive commissions to Europe and the return of commissioners 
to this country; but it is in results that our present interest lies. 

Japan leads all foreign countries in the amount of her appropria- 
tion for display at the Fair, and it is probable that in the interest 
excited it will take the same stand. The total amount appropriated 
by the government is nearly $650,000. The most prominent peo- 
ple in the Island Empire were interested in the enterprise which 
has been carried to a magnificent conclusion. The display made 
by this country in the buildings of the various departments has al- 
ready been outlined, but the centre of Japanese attraction is at the 




north end of the Wooded Island. The Japanese government offered, 
if a suitable location should be granted, to reproduce a building of 
the most ancient style of architecture of Japan, and to make the 
city of Chicago a gift of the structure at the close of the World's 
Fair. The offer was accepted, of course, without delay. The struc- 
ture now stands in the middle of two acres of space in the most 
charming location of the whole grounds. It is copied from one of 
the finest specimens of ancient Japanese architecture. The structure 
takes the form of a great temple in three parts, a main body and 
two wings, symbolizing the phoenix, as they declare. The Japanese 
name of the structure is Ho-O-den, and the temple of which it is a 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 543 

fac-simile is said to date back to the year 1052. But two conditions 
were made in offering this magnificent gift to the city of Chicago. 
One was that the building and garden surrounding it shall remain 
permanently at the place of erection and be kept in good repair, 
the other that at least one room be reserved for a display of Jap- 
anese works of art, always to be open to the public. The lumber of 




GERMAN BUILDING. 



which this edifice was constructed was all prepared at Japan 
and was brought here and put together by Japanese workmen. 
Within it are exhibited articles of unusual interest. In one wing 
are old bronzes, arms, armor, pottery and lacquer ; all articles from 
1,000 to 4,000 years old. Some of this illustrates arts which have 
been lost, and includes exhibits of extremely great value. In the 
other wing are shown Japanese products 400 years old and more ; 



544 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 




SIAMESE PAYIUON. 



illustrative of the condition of their people when Columbus set out 
to discover their country, for it was the tales about Cathay and the 
wonderful island near by that strongly influenced Columbus ; indeed 

the discoverer thought when 
he reached Cuba that it was 
the island of Cipango or 
Japan. In the main or mid- 
dle building the Japanese 
show goods characteristic of 
their country at the present 
time. 

Upon the whole north end 
of the Wooded Island Jap- 
anese gardeners have ex- 
pended their skill and ingenu- 
ity in the cultivation of flowers, 
dwarf trees, and those land- 
scape and garden effects in the production of which they are un- 
rivalled. It is only forty years 
since the empire of Japan was 
opened up to traffic with civil- 
ized nations by that notable 
expedition of Commodore 
Perry. Japan practically intro- 
duced herself to the world 
twenty-three years later at the 
Centennial Exhibition, and 
now with more kindly feeling 
toward the American nation 
than toward any other in the 
world, she comes before our 
people with one of the richest 
displays ever made, and leaves 
the most of it as a memorial gift to the city of Chicago. 

Western Europe has found it necessary to be very industrious 
in the effort to excel other parts of the world when Japan is the 




NORWEGIAN BUIEDING. 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



545 



competitor, but nation after nation accepted the invitation from the 
President, and in every instance the displays are creditable, not only 
those included in the departmental buildings but also in their own 




SWEDISH BUILDING. 

structures erected as official headquarters. The intense rivalry be- 
tween the Germans and the French has been fortunate for the Fair, 
for eaeh country has striven to outdo the other, with the result of 
making each exhibit a notable one. The more prominent of the 

35 



546 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



foreign buildings are ranged along die Lake shore from the naval 
exhibit northward, and here as neighbors are the buildings of France 
and Germany ; each one is a magnificent structure of large size and 




VENEZUELA BUILDING. 



cost. The most southerly of this group is the building of Great 
Britain, which stands just to the north of the battle-ship. Just across 
the promenade from the British Building is the one erected for its 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 547 

American colony, Canada. Next to the north is the German Building, 
then the Austrian, then the Ceylonese, and last in the row the French 
Building. Returning southward on a line just west of these are the 
buildings for Ecuador, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Norway, Turkey, 
Denmark, Sweden, Nicaragua, Colombia, Hayti and Brazil. This 
exhausts the list of the principal foreign buildings of an official 
character, though it does not by any means include the countries 
exhibiting in the main buildings of the Exposition, although not 
occupying structures of their own. There are also tea houses and 
other refreshment stands of many foreign nations scattered over 
various portions of the grounds. 

One will very naturally begin his visit to the colony of Foreign 
Buildings, which line the Lake Shore, with the French structure, 
which is situated just to the southeast of the last State Building. 
There are two pavilions in this structure, connected by a semicircu- 
lar colonnade, at the centre of which, and in the court thus made, is 
a very fine fountain elaborately decorated with bronze statuary 
brought over from France. The court of the pavilion thus made 
faces the Lake, the enclosure thus forming a delightful retreat. 
The smaller pavilion is on the south side, and contains the large 
room for the city of Paris. It was fitted up and decorated by the 
merchants of that city, the walls being hung in the finest tapestry, 
and the room containing only works of art and fine bric-a-brac. 
The pavilion on the north contains one very large room elaborately 
decorated in staff, with ornamental ceiling and cornices. The 
panels between the pilasters and walls contain some of the 
best pictures of France. The room of this pavilion is entitled 
" Lafayette," and it contains all the gifts, mementos, historical relics, 
and things of interest regarding the dealings between Lafayette 
and .this country. This pavilion includes also suites of offices for 
the French officials. The sketches for the building were made in 
France, and most of the staff models were made there and sent 
here. The exterior is in the style of the French renaissance, 
entirely of staff and elaborately decorated. There is a very large 
group of statuary on the north facade, and several historical paint- 
ings placed on the exterior of the building. The greatest dimen- 



548 FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 

sions of the building are 2 50 by 175 feet, and it is but one story high. 
In addition to the exhibits already mentioned are models and plans 
of the school, prisons, hospitals and sewerage system of Paris. It 
is thought by many that this building contains more of interest for 
Americans than any other foreign building on the ground, on 
account of the relics of the days when France was our old Revo- 
lutionary ally. 

The next building, as one passes down the Lake Shore, is the 
Ceylon court. It consists of a central octagonal building with two 




CEYLON BUILDING. 



wings, the length of the entire court is 145 feet and the width of 
the central hall is 50 feet. The architecture partakes of the 
Dravidian style as it appears in the ruins of ancient temples 
throughout the islands. The beautiful Sing-halese woods used in 
this building were cut and fitted in Ceylon and shipped here to be 
put together. A projecting basement sustains the entire court, 
which is reached by four highly carved staircases, two leading into 
the central building, and one into each wing. These stairways and 
the general scheme of the court are copied from old ruined temples 
of Ceylon. There are carvings in bas-relief on the doorway and 
many other portions of the structure. The decorations of this 
building are particularly rich and intricate, and are well worthy of 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 549 

careful study. The exhibits within are those of the products of 
that tropical island, such as silks, spices, pearls, ivory and tea. 
There is an air of orientalism about it that is most enchantino- to 
the American visitor, and the court is always crowded. 

The building of Norway is just in the rear of that of Ceylon. It 
is built after the model of the old " Stavkirk," a peculiarly Norwe- 
gian style of architecture which dates back to the twelfth century. 
It is an oddly built cross gabled edifice, the peaks of its gables orna- 
mented with decorations similar to those with which the Norsemen 
of the time of Lief Erikson were wont to embellish the prows of 
their sea-going vessels. In size the building is 60 by 25 feet, and it 
is constructed of Norway pine. It was planned and built in sec- 
tions in Norway and then taken down and sent here and set up by 
Norwegian workmen. 

The German Building occupies a commanding position, on the 
Lake Shore, southeast of Ceylon. It is the handsomest and most 
expensive of all the foreign edifices. The plans were drawn by 
Johannes Radke, of Berlin, the architect for the German Govern- 
ment. It is seventy-eight feet in height, and is crowned with a 
tower which extends 150 feet into the air. In the belfry are hung 
three huge bells of steel. The building is a combination of several 
styles, and though thus contrasting in its parts is not lacking in 
harmony. The centre is in the form of a chapel, rich in decoration. 
Bay windows, projecting balconies and turrets lend it a most 
picturesque appearance, closely resembling an old German city-hall, 
such as may be seen even now in some of the ancient towns of the 
empire. The steep roof is covered with shining glazed tiles 
imported from Germany. The roof corners, water spouts, etc., 
down to the large lantern in front of the tower, are of brass and 
bronze, but the interior of the building is even finer than the 
exterior. After passing through the magnificently decorated recep- 
tion rotunda, to the left of which is the grand reception-room, and 
the office of the imperial German commissioner, privy counsellor 
Adolf Wermuth, the second hall is reached. This, in fact, is a 
separate wing some forty feet in height and divided by an arched 
passage. The pillars everywhere are heavy, short and solid 



55o 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



throughout, and the arches are semicircular, the style being early 
German renaissance. Balconies rise in tiers on all four sides of 
this vast interior space, the heavy timber and castings used in their 
construction being richly painted and decorated. The construction 
of this involved an expenditure of $250,000. Besides being the 
central point for German interests represented at the Fair, there 
are also many exhibits of importance here included. The German 
publishers make a comprehensive general exhibit of their wares ; 
the art of printing being, above all, well illustrated by a large 
assortment of magnificently bound volumes of every kind, especially 
rare scientific works. The second large collective exhibit is placed 
in the chapel, and is one of modern church art. There are very 
fine stained and painted windows, magnificent church vestments, 




SPANISH BUILDING. 

costly and artistic vessels for sacred use, handsome illuminated 
missals and prayer books and Bibles, and, finally, a collection of 
statues, crucifixes, etc. The tiles of the roof, the antique furniture, 
the wooden ceilings, and the handsome carpets and rugs throughout 
the building are all contributed by German manufacturers as 
exhibits. 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



551 



The Spanish Building is a reproduction of a section of the silk 
exchange at Valencia, Spain. The erection of this building was 
commenced in 1492, previous to the departure of Columbus' fleet. 
The section shown represents the column hall and the tower 
wherein all defaulting and bankrupt merchants were confined. 
Eight large columns, two and one-half feet in diameter, support the 
roof of the hall. The building has a frontage of eighty-four feet, 
and it is ninety-five feet deep. It is occupied by the officers of the 
Spanish commission, and as a reception-room for visitors. There 
are not many exhibits, though some relics of Columbus are shown. 




CANADA BUILDING. 



Several of England's colonies have erected buildinors of their own. 
Notable among these is Canada. The Canadian pavilion covers 
nearly 6,000 feet and cost about $30,000. It is two stories high, 
and has a beautiful site facing the Lake. It is almost entirely 
devoted to offices and to rooms for public comfort, there being but 
few exhibits in the building. In order to show the different woods 
indigenous to Canada, the interior walls, ceilings and floors of the 
pavilion are finished in wood highly polished, showing the natural 
grain. Each province furnished the wood required to finish the 
rooms to be occupied by its commissioners. 

Just to the west of this building is that of another English 



552 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



colony, New South Wales, which is called "Australia House." It 
is classical in design and ornamentation, and is sixty feet square, 
with an additional space devoted to porticos. The portico roof is 
supported by Doric columns, and there is a cornice, frieze and 
balustrade around the building. The exterior of the structure is 
staff. The central portion of the building is occupied by a hall 
thirty feet in width, and a central dome surmounts the whole. 

The British Building, better known under the name "Victoria 
House," is the next to be considered, and is the last one in order 
of those on the Lake Shore. It is near the naval pier which 




NEW SOUTH WALES BUILDING. 

shelters the battle-ship. The building is generally characteristic 
of the best type of English half-timber houses of the time of Henry 
VIII. Terra cotta, however, is used extensively in the lower story, 
with red brick facing and mullioned windows. The upper portion 
is constructed of natural oak timber with overhanging gables and 
tiled roof. The centre of the main facade, which is on the inland 
side, is recessed, with steps leading from both sides up to the 
covered porticos which open into a large central hall. The exhibits 
here are numerous and excellent. One of great interest is a large 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 553 

scale map showing the discoveries made by England in America. 
The educational exhibit is interesting as well as that of the post- 
office. The building is largely equipped with handsome offices for 
the British commissioners, and with reception-rooms, etc. 

Returning now to the westward, the visitor reaches the building 
of Hayti. It is in the southern colonial style adapted from the 
Grecian. Broad piazzas flank three sides, while a central dome 
rises above the building. The piazzas are twelve feet wide, and on 
the pediment above the portico is the coat-of-arms of the republic. 
The front entrance opens on a large hall, in the centre of which is a 
beautiful statue, "Reverie," by Laforestrie, a native sculptor. In 
a room in the rear coffee of Haytian growth is served to visitors. 
All the exhibits of this republic are collected here instead of being 
scattered among the main buildings. There are various relics of 
the aboriginal inhabitants of the island and of Columbus, and the 
bust and relics of Toussaint L'Ouverture, the first president. 
Coffee, sugar, liquors, syrups, fibres, minerals, plants and native 
women's work may be seen. 

Across the promenade from Hayti is the building of Siam. It is a 
royal pavilion, erected by the Siamese government, from a design by 
a native architect. Native wood and other material and native labor 
alone were used in its construction. It is a small building, twenty- 
six feet square, with a front elevation of thirty-two feet. The wood 
used is teak, of the fine kind used in the building of the Malay 
proas, and the facade and roof have been beautifully carved and 
gilded. These carvings, all done by hand, are exquisitely beauti- 
ful, and represent the work of the best Siamese artists. Although 
her displays are not confined to this building, Siam here shows 
many exhibits of gems, rosins, dyes, silks, cottons, grains and a 
very fine display of manufactured and leaf tobacco. Some of the 
native boats are wonderful, and the work of the native women is 
very fine. 

Adjoining the Siamese Building is that of Costa Rica. It is 
situated at the northeast corner of the North Pond facing the water, 
and its location is one of the best within the park. The building 
is 103 by 60 feet and 50 feet in height. It is of the Doric order 



554 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



of architecture, with a fine portico supported by large pilasters. 
The inside walls are plastered, and the walls and timber work are 
becomingly frescoed. The building cost $20,000, and its particular 
interest is in a magnificent display of tropical birds and plants. 

Just to the south of Costa Rica is the building of Guatemala. 
The building is square and measures 1 1 1 feet on each side. It is 
in Spanish style of architecture suitable to the country which it 
represents. In the centre of the building is a large court with a 
gallery, and in the court is a fountain from which the water dashes. 
Each corner of the building is surmounted by a decorated tower; 
the ornaments on the walls represent tropical plants and flowers. 
The most interesting exhibit of Guatemala is her coffee, and at a 
distance of thirty-five feet from the main structure is a small rustic 




COSTA RICA BUILDING. 



kiosk where this beverage is served. The space around the build- 
ing was converted into a large garden with coffee, bananas, and 
other tropical plants natural to the country. There are landing 
places on the Lake opposite the principal entrance to the building, 
and the amount spent in the entire work was more than $40,000. 

The Brazilian Building has a splendid location southwest of 
Guatemala, and at the head of a point of land extending into the 
North Pond. The architect of it was Lieut.-Col. Francisco de 
Souzaag-uiar, of the Brazilian army, who is also a delegate to the 
World's Fair. The ground plan of the building is in the form of a 
Greek cross, the outside dimension being 148 by 148 feet. The 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



555 



architecture of the building is French renaissance decorated with 
Indian figures in the bas-reliefs of the facade, and the stylobate of 
the dome. They are allegorical, and representative of the Republic 
of Brazil. The entire height of the building to the top of the dome 
is 1 20 feet. The columns and capitals are Corinthian. The entire 
roof except the dome is flat and surrounded by a balustrade. 
There are four campaniles, each with an open observation deck 
seventy feet above the ground. The interior is in perfect keeping 
with the exterior in all architectural fixtures. The cost of the 
building was $9,000. The Brazilian exhibits are scattered through 
the main buildings of the Fair, but the coffee, diamond and other 
industries are also represented here. 




GUATEMALA BUILDING. 



Eastward from Brazil is the Turkish Government Building, a 
unique structure which cannot fail to attract attention. It is a re- 
production of a fountain in Constantinople, built two hundred years 
ago by Selim the Great. On three sides of the structure are marble 
basins into which flows water, while upon the fourth side is a beauti- 



556 FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 

ful portal for entrance. Intricate carvings adorn the exterior walls, 
which are composed of mucharabia, a Turkish hard wood of great 
beauty. There are also alternate panels of inlaid wood and mother- 
of-pearl work, with here and there a text in Arabic characters taken 
from the Koran. The effect of this dazzling work is magnificent, 
and is enhanced by the gaudy uniforms of turbaned guards who 
night and day patrol the building. Glorious mosaic floors and 
draped and festooned hangings of rich fabrics make up the interior 
decorations, and everything is made more magnificent by the rich 
display of silks, costly jewelry and brilliant gems. There are also 
gums, gold and silverwares, daggers, soft fabrics and other oriental 
goods. Here may also be seen many curios from the Stamboul 
Museum and historic relics of the greatest value. 

The Venezuela Building is next to the east. The graceful little 
structure, and the creditable exhibits of the country's resources, 
are highly commendable to the ambition and energy of this little 
republic when the recent troubles in the State are remembered, 
and the depleted condition of her treasury consequent thereon. 
The building is but one story in height, and is constructed in white 
marble in the Graeco-Roman style of architecture. The graceful 
facade is ornamented with three handsome towers, on the left 
one of which stands a life-size statue of Columbus, and on the 
right one of Bolivar. Pre-historic relics, mineral and vegetable 
products, fine arts and manufactures are displayed. The flag 
carried by Pizarro during his conquest with Peru is shown, with 
many other historic curios. 

A large and pretentious building, erected at a cost of $40,000, 
is that of Sweden. It is in the form of a triangle, to fit the plot 
of ground assigned to it, and is strikingly peculiar. The corner 
spaces of the structure each form a separate room of considerable 
size, while galleries run around the main building. The hexangular 
main hall is sixty feet square, and over the cupola above has been 
constructed a steeple which reaches 150 feet into the air. The 
building was constructed in Sweden, where it was temporarily put 
together and afterwards taken to pieces and shipped here to be re- 
erected in Jackson Park. The design of the pavilion is the product 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 557 

of the personal taste and fancy of the architect, Gustaf Wickman, 
of Stockholm, guided by the style of the Swedish churches and 
gentlemen's country houses of the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, and as far as possible the characteristics of the old Swedish 
architecture have been retained. The material used, brick, terra 
cotta, cement and wood, was all donated from prominent manufac- 
tories in Sweden and forms a portion of the exhibit. Within the 
building are splendid exhibits of the iron mining industries of 
Sweden, as well as of other Swedish minerals. China goods and 
glass products, gold and silver work, wood pulp and paper are also 
shown in great variety. There is also an excellent representation 
of a genuine Swedish home, consisting of four rooms fully fur- 
nished and decorated according to the customs of the country. 
The sport exhibit includes specimens of all the various means of 
transportation used at different seasons and in different parts of the 
country, such as skates, snow shoes, skees, sleighs, canoes, yachts, 
etc. There are busts of many of the Swedish sovereigns, and 
exhibits illustrating the school system and gymnastics. 

The East India Building stands between that of Sweden and 
Siam. It was not erected by the government, but private enter- 
prise, and is most creditable to those who were active in the work. 
It is beautifully fitted up with the East Indian styles of ornamenta- 
tion, and all sorts of Indian materials are sold within. There are 
two tea bars where tea is served to all visitors by Indian servants. 
The exterior of the building is in the East Indian style, modeled 
remotely after the fashion of the Taj Mahal. The building is one 
story high, with a gallery, and consists of but one open room, 
lighted from a central skylight. It is 80 by 60 feet, and its main 
entrance is through a gateway surmounted by minarets. It is 
decorated with oriental colors. 

Just back of this building stands the last of all the foreign struc- 
tures of this character, the building of Colombia. This ornate little 
building is in the style of the Italian renaissance and measures 
forty-five feet square. On each side are conservatories filled with 
rare tropical plants which give it the appearance of much greater 
dimension. The first story is occupied by a remarkable and very 



55« 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 



valuable collection of antiquities exhumed from pre-historic graves 
in Colombia, comprising water-bottles, human images, helmets, 
trumpets, breastplates, necklaces, bangles, anklets, etc., all of pure 
gold. There are also mummies and a large collection of ancient 
pottery. The building is surmounted by a glass dome above which 
is perched a condor, the emblematic bird of Colombia. On each 
side of this dome a group of three figures supports a globe and 
flagstaff bearing the national colors, yellow, blue and red. There 
are other symbolical and interesting decorations, and the little 
building is also favored by many visitors. 




Japanese; gateway. 

This exhausts the list of foreign buildings properly included in 
the exhibits departments, or of official standing. In addition, how- 
ever, in the same vicinity as these we have named, are a Polish 
cafe, a Japanese tea-house, and a Swedish restaurant, and a Cafe de 
Marine, which is under French control. In these restaurants visitors 
from foreign countries may be served their native dishes by native 
waiters, and curious Americans can learn much of the customs of 
other countries. The Japanese tea-house has been a favorite 
resort, throughout the Fair. The tea served is of excellent 
quality, and as one sips it from dainty Japanese ware, surrounded 



FOREIGN BUILDINGS. 559 

by natives of the Flowery Isle, it requires no great flight of the 
imagination to carry one thousands of miles from Chicago. 

This brief account will be sufficient to show that the curious 
visitor may enjoy many of the pleasures of a tour around the world 
within the few hundred yards covered by the Foreign Buildings of 
the World's Columbian Exposition. 



'.J^W* 




:ature of the Ex- 
position which has 
been the subject of 
more levity and more 
irreverent remarks 
than any other, and is yet one of the worthiest of all the features of the 
Fair, is the Midway Plaisance. Sometimes it is called the " church fair 
annex," and sometimes the " side show," but in truth it includes a 
maze of exhibits of the most interesting character, although private 
so far as their relation to the Exposition is concerned, and which 
would never have been heard of in this connection had it not been 
made possible to interest private capital in them. Midway Plais- 
ance is a strip of land 600 feet wide and a mile in length, which 
connects Jackson Park with Washington Park. It extends from 
59th to 60th street, and beginning at a point directly back of the 
Woman's Building, reaches at right angles a mile west of the city. 
Through the centre of this narrow Park-way is a street 100 feet wide, 
and this is lined on both sides with so remarkable a collection of shows 
of one sort or another that one man could never hope to find them 
all in a lifetime were he compelled to search through the world for 
them himself. This is the main avenue to this place of wonders. 
It is a mixture of all foreign lands under the sun which it has been 
thought might interest us. Even to catalogue its wonders with any 
degree of comoletion would require a volume. 

3 6 (561) 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 



562 

First, it may be said that there are no small things, no unimpor- 
tant things, nothing cheap in the whole exhibit. The feature of 
greatest interest to most visitors is the conglomeration of foreign 
people.. Those of each race live in a village of their own, built 




MOORISH PALACE. 



according to plans made by native architects, and arranged in every 
way according to their customs in their native lands. All of these 
institutions cost from $50,000 to $250,000 each. On the north side of 
the Park-way, in the exact corner of the Plaisance, is a fire and 
guard station, which protects the interests of this Congress of Na- 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 



563 



tions from damage by fire. Just to the south of it is a pretty little 
booth of the Diamond Match Company, which here displays its 
wares, the materials from which they are made, and the processes 
by which the raw material is converted into the finished product. 




ELECTRIC SCENIC THEATRE. 



Just to the west is a Workingman's Home, built on the Philadelphia 
model, to show what can be done with a small amount of money. 
It measures 16 by 43 feet, and is plain and unpretentious, with a 
front of Bedford rock and pressed brick. It is a pleasant little 
home, and worthy of the attention it attracts. 

On the first floor are a parlor, eighteen feet seven inches by nine 
feet one inch ; a dining room, ten feet one inch by twelve feet two 
inches ; and a kitchen, nine feet six inches by seven feet four inches. 
The hall-way is five feet wide, and a narrow staircase leads to the 



564 MIDWAY PLAISANC& 

second story, which has a front bedroom, fourteen feet three inches 
by eleven feet ten inches, with walnut mantel and corniced ceiling. 
A second bedroom is eleven feet one inch by nine feet one inch ; 
and next is a bathroom six feet square. A back sitting-room has 
an overhanging bay window four feet deep. There is a basement 
the full length of the house and the total cost is $2,500. On the 
placard which guides the visitor to this house he is told that in Phil- 
adelphia are one hundred and seventy-two thousand of these. It is 
a cozy and comfortable home, and may be duplicated many times by 
those who see it here. 

Next to the westward is a considerable enterprise, the exhibit of 
the International Dress and Costume Company. There are some 
forty-five women here displayed, with a variety of form, face and 
costume, selected from many countries of the world. It is interest- 
ing, as showing varied types of beauty, and the dress of different 
countries. 

The managers of this company journeyed all over the world to 
select those who should be here exhibited, and they claim that the 
young women represent the most beautiful types of each race and 
nationality. There are representatives from England, Scotland, 
Ireland, Wales, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, Poland, Ger- 
many, Holland, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, 
Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Servia, Italy, Spain and Portugal in 
Europe ; from Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, Morocco, Egypt and Cape 
Colony in Africa ; from Palestine, Persia, India, Siam, Burmah, China 
and Japan in Asia, besides those from America, South America and 
Australia, and the Islands of the Pacific. There is a constant throng 
of visitors in attendance here, and it is considered to be one of the 
most profitable of all the enterprises on the Plaisance. The space 
between this building and the Illinois Central Railroad, which here 
crosses the Plaisance, is occupied by a Nursery Exhibit. 

Passing under the railway viaduct the visitor reaches the Electric 
Scenic Theatre. It consists of a display of scenery shown by the 
latest methods of effects by electricity. The scenery was executed 
in Germany, and is considered a triumph of art. It represents " A 
Day in the Alps," and is a great entertainment to many people. 




TYPSS OF PSAVTY 



566 MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 

"The Day in the Alps " begins with sunrise, and over the mountain 
top appears the ruddy glow of early sunlight. Then, as morning- 
advances, and the volume of light increases, the beauties of the 
mountain become more apparent until their full glory flashes upon 
the beholder. The shepherd boys and girls are seen with their 
herds, and every feature of Alpine life is faithfully portrayed. Then 
a storm arises, and the effects here produced by electricity are sur- 
prisingly beautiful. After the storm dies away and the clouds 
vanish Nature smiles again. Then the day begins to fade, and at 
last it is ni^ht, with the stars brooding over all. 



^vs 




UBBEY GLASS WORKS. 



Next to the westward, the Libbey Glass Company of Toledo, 
Ohio, has erected a completely equipped manufactory of cut glass. 
In a handsome building the many processes of glass-making are 
displayed, from the mixing of the sand with oxide of lead, lime and 
alkalis to the latest and most approved methods of cutting, polish- 
ing and finishing. In the glass-blowing department skilled work- 
men make souvenirs of the fragile ware. In the glass-cutting de- 
partment forty men are continuously engaged in cutting upon crys- 
tal the most delicate and intricate patterns. Still another depart- 
ment is that where facile artisans are employed in painting upon 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 567 

glass, which is afterward transferred to kilns and fired to fix the 
designs indelibly. Glass spinning and glass weaving are likewise 
exhibited here. The wheels used for spinning are six feet in di- 
ameter, and draw out threads of glass almost as thin as gossamer, 
which are then woven into beautiful fabrics for dresses, napkins, 
lamp shades, bonnets, etc. Among other things, a dress was man- 
ufactured here for the Infanta Eulalia, of Spain, which was a tri- 
umph of art. Goods of the highest American standard, and of 
every grade and kind, are here made, and the building is ample to 
accommodate five thousand visitors at one time. 

The Irish Village adjoins this on the west, and attracts constant 
attention. As the visitor passes down the Midway Plaisance he 
sees the gray towers of a mediaeval gateway, a faithful reproduc- 
tion of the St. Lawrence gate, of Drogheda, which was built in the 
year 1200. This is now the picturesque approach to a pleasant 
street illustrative of Irish industrial life in the country districts. At 
the end of the street, immediately facing the gate, are the beautiful 



I :/0^mf 



w*sA{ 




DONEGAL CASTLE. 



ruins and banqueting hall of Donegal Castle, beyond which is seen 
the tall, round tower of Antrim, and a fine carved Celtic market 
cross. The interiors as well as the exteriors of the houses are re- 
productions of those of Irish cottages, and the workers are genuine 
Celts brought from Ireland for the purpose. Lace weavers and 



568 MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 

makers of hand lace are seen, as well as linen weavers, wood 
carvers and marble carvers. There are many beautiful Irish pro- 
ducts, paintings, illuminations, tapestry, and other work. In the 
first cottage on the left a man is seen weaving the famous " Kells 
Art Linen." They were introduced by Mrs. Hart, and were 
awarded the gold medal at the Inventions Exhibition in London in 
1885. A girl in the same cottage is embroidering linens in pol- 
ished flax threads from designs adapted from ancient Celtic manu- 
scripts of the seventh century, specimens of which are seen in the 
banqueting hall. In the next cottage are two women employed in 
lace-making, one a very skilful worker, making Limerick lace in a 
tambour frame, and the other making Kells lace on a pillow. In 
the third cottage is found work of another description, viz. : wood- 
carving and drawing designs for the marble carvers, who are found 
at the end of the courtyard. Passing into the banqueting hall of 
Donegal Castle, built from measurements of the original, the an- 
cient seat of the O'Donnells, princes of Tyrconnell, are found em- 
broidered hangings and coverlets, and unequalled homespuns, 
spun, woven and plant dyed by peasants trained in the most remote 
districts in County Donegal. There are also iridescent and col- 
ored linen, Irish and Kells laces, daintily stitched and embroidered 
ladies' underwear and dresses, among which are replicas of articles 
made by order of the Princess of Wales for the trousseau of the 
Duchess of Fife, ecclesiastical vestments, wood-carvings, hammered 
iron, hosiery, handkerchiefs and house linen, all the work of Irish 
hands. Besides these there is a fine collection of Irish marble, bog- 
oak carvings, jewelry, blackthorn sticks, photographs of scenery, 
etc. Among the art works is the great statue of Mr. Gladstone, 
by Bruce Joy, the Irish sculptor, who also shows replicas of his 
Manchester statue of John Bright, and of his charming bust of 
Mary Anderson. Here also is a gallery of portraits of great Irish- 
men taken from engravings in the British Museum, paintings by 
Irish artists and of Irish scenery and history, replicas of the old 
Celtic illuminations, engravings of the Irish carved crosses and re- 
productions of ancient Celtic metal work and jewelry. The pic- 
ture by Begg of " Gladstone Bringing in the Home Rule Bill " is a 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 569 

fine work of art which appeals to all Irishmen. The exhibition is 
illustrative of Irish art of the earliest to the present time, and is 
such as has never before been seen in this country. The court- 
yard, which is reached through the concert and lecture hall, is one 
of great interest to the student of Irish history and art. In the 
centre is a round tower rising to the height of 1 20 feet, which is a 
replica of one of the eighty still standing in Ireland. In the court- 
yard of the tower are found faithful reproductions of Ogham, Bul- 
len and Hole stones of cromlechs and crosses. Chief among the 
latter is a cross twenty-seven feet high, splendidly carved in inter- 
laced Celtic design and made of Irish limestone. The size and 
proportions are exactly the same as those of the great cross of 
Monasterboice. At the end of the courtyard stands a portion of 
the "Wishing Chair" of the Giant's Causeway. It stands on real 
Irish soil, and is a favorite spot of every true Irishman. Passing 
through the archway of the ruined keep of Donegal Castle, one 
reaches the village smithy, where the blacksmith is making souve- 
nirs out of iron. In the next cottage is seen the whole process of 
homespun making as taught and carried out under the auspices of 
the Donegal Industrial Fund. This village, with its street of cot- 
tages, its castle, Roman tower, art and industrial exhibition, was 
designed and carried out by Mrs. Ernest Hart. 

Next to the westward is a Japanese Bazaar, where are shown 
the characteristic exhibits of this ingenious and artistic people, con- 
sisting of screens, fans, lacquer wares, steel, iron and brass work, 
all for sale. 

The village known as the Dutch Settlement, which is the next 
one to the west, occupying a large area, is really a collection of 
South Sea Island villages, mostly Javanese. It occupies a space of 
200,000 square feet on both sides of the main avenue of the Plais- 
ance. There are eighty dwellings, peopled with three hundred 
natives from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand and 
the Sandwich group. There are two theatres in the settlement, 
one erected by the Hawaiians, and the other by the Javanese, who 
largely outnumber the other nationalities. There are dancing girls, 
jugglers, medicine men and acrobats, all of whom give wonderful 



57o 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 



and interesting exhibitions. The Javanese are dainty and attractive 
little people, and are very generally admired. A large cafe in this 




CORNER OF GERMAN VILLAGE. 



village, built after the fashion of Dutch dwelling-houses in these 
islands, is a resort where all sorts of native foods are served. At 
the Javanese Theatre is a gamelung, or band, which belongs to the 

Sultan of Jokjer- 
kata, as do also 
the dancing girls 
who accompany 
it. These danc- 
ing girls are 
young, lithe, 
beautifully 
formed and ex- 
tremely graceful. 
Their dancing is 
a n hereditary 
talent derived 
from long lines 
of dancing an- 
cestors, for there is a caste in this island devoted to this occupation. 
Their brilliant red ballet skirts are semi-transparent, and are made 




EAST SIDE OF THE CASTLE. 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 



571 



of the fibres of a certain kind of tree bark. The Singalese, Malays 
and other South Sea nations also have their iuo-o-lers, medicine 
men, acrobats and dancers, who give exhibitions of their skill, and 
some of their performances are wonderful and pleasing. 

The German Village, which adjoins the Javanese settlement on 
the west, occupies the largest space of any in the Plaisance. The 
buildings are constructed most substantially of German material, 
by German workmen and in German fashion. The village is a 
true representation of German life in all its aspects, social, domestic 
and industrial, as well as an illustration of the development of the 
nation. It is di- 
vided into three 
distinct parts. 
The most promi- 
nent structure is 
the mediaeval cas- 
tle of the six- 
teenth century, 
surrounded by a 
moat fifteen feet 
wide and crossed 
by two draw- 
bridges. The 
spacious halls in the east half of this castle are filled to their utmost 
capacity with an exceedingly interesting ethnographic museum, 
comprising, among other features, the celebrated collection of arms, 
coats of mail, implements of the war and the chase, the property 
of Town Councillor Zschille, of Grossenhain, Saxony. This collec- 
tion alone has a value of $1,000,000. There are other interesting 
collections, and representations of all sorts of German homes. 

Bernhard Mannfeld, one of the leading representatives of the 
art of etching, exhibits here hundreds of his own works in the 
various stages of development. In the main hall of the castle 
an apotheosis of the German empire is shown in the form of a 
group of the most famous heroes of the German nation down to 
William I., and this group is surrounded by a procession of German 




BAVARIAN HOUSE. 



572 MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 

peasants from all sections of the empire in their respective national 
costumes doing homage. The ethnographic collection is so exten- 
sive that another building was required for it, and the Hessian 
town hall had to be given up to it also. In the shadow of the 

castle, to the 
east of this, is 
spread out the 
village proper, 
consisting of 
German typical 
farm houses 
from all sections 
of the empire, 
with a Fair in 
progress in the 
streets. Articles 
of German 
industry, many 
westphalian farm house. of them pro- 

duced on the grounds, are sold to the visitors by natives in their 
national costumes. Passing from the village in front of the castle, 
and to the west side, one reaches the grand concert garden where 
two German military bands, 
in the most picturesque uni- 
forms of the German army, 
give two concerts every day. 
This sfarden, which is covered 
by splendid oak trees and 
surrounded by covered pavil- 
ions, accommodates eight 
thousand people at one time. 
The street in Cairo, which 
had won fame before the 
Exposition was a week old, comes next to the west. It presents to 
the visitor a series of views in the wonderful land of Egypt. In 
addition to the oriental nature of its architecture and decorations, 





BLACK FOREST HOUSE. 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 573 

the resemblance is carried still further by peopling the streets with 




STREET IN CAIRO. 



the identical types of persons and animals one sees in the real 
Cairo. There are Egyptians, Arabs, Soudanese and other Africans, 



574 MIDWAY PLAISANCH. 

besides camels and donkeys with their drivers. There are private 
houses and stores ; an Egyptian theatre, and a mosque. In the 
marts of the street are to be found oriental wares of every kind, 
jewels, daggers, wood carvings, embroideries, silks, shawls, bangles 
and pipes, and everything else found in the bazaars of the far east. 
In the theatre the dancing girls exhibit the famous "danse du 
ventre." 

Entering at the eastern portal one obtains a view of houses, 
mosques and booths similar to those in the old street " Bein el 
Kasrein." The first typical building to the right is a wide hall 
with deep projecting roof and five fine archways to the street, here 
used as a cafe. Looking on beyond the vista presents houses 
decorated with gorgeous colors and constructed with projecting 
bays, stone brackets and overhanging second stories. To the left 
is a fine mosque with tall, graceful minarets girdled with three airy 
balconies, from the uppermost of which the muezzin calls the faith- 
ful to prayer. Both mosque and minaret are reproductions of 
fifteenth century architecture. Across the street from this building 
is one representing the dwelling of a wealthy merchant of the 
seventeenth century ; its interior walls are decorated with marble 
mosaics and its ceilings richly gilded. Still farther on, standing to 
the left of the street, is a faithful reproduction of the " Okala," the 
public warehouse before the advent of railroads and steamers. 
The theatre is next in order. Its interior is richly decorated with 
fine cloth hangings and pendent lanterns and its aspect is decidedly 
oriental. The cafe, where fragrant Mocha coffee is to be had, is 
beautifully built in reproduction of a small mosque. Upon the 
plaza are Egyptians, Arabs, and persons of other nationalities who 
throng the streets of the wondrous city. 

Three smaller concessions lie just to the south of the Egyptian 
village. The first is the Zoopraxiscopic exhibit and lecture room, 
which is. of vast interest to artists and scientists. Animal locomo- 
tion is a new study, pursued chiefly by electro-photographic inves- 
tigation. Instantaneous photographs, taken with the aid of the 
electric shutter, show all preconceived opinions as to the method 
of representing animals in action to be utterly false. Here lectures 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 



575 




ZOOPRAXOGRAPHICAI, HALL. 



on animal locomotion are given, and by an ingenious apparatus 
there is an exhibit of illustrations of the movements of men, 
women and children, and many sorts of animals. The investiga- 
tions which have 
resulted in this 
excellent dis- 
play are those of 
Eadweard Muy- 
bridge, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Adjoining this 
building is the 
pavilion of the 
Turkish con ces- 
sion, where Persian rugs, Damascened scimiters, curious daggers, 
and other famous wares are on sale. A miniature reproduction 

of the great Eiffel 
* r ** tower, of Paris, is 

shown in a build- 
ing in the same 
vicinity. 1 1 i s a 
perfect reproduc- 
tion, one-fiftieth 
the size of the 
original, and it is 
illuminated and 
decorated beauti- 
fully. 

The visitor has 
now reached the 
Ferris wheel, the 
most notable of all 
the concessions, 




SOME CONSECUTIVE PHASES OF THE RACK OR PACE. 

The stride is completed at 10, and n and 12 are reproductions 
of 2 and 3. 



and even of all the exhibits at tne Fair. It stands in the centre 
of the walk, midway of the Plaisance, and towers two hundred and 



57& MIDWAY PLAlSANCEi. 

sixty-four feet into the air. It consists of two skeleton wheels, 
twenty-eight and one-half feet apart, and held together by strong 
steel shafts. Between the outer rims of these wheels are suspended 




THE FERRIS WHEEl,. 



thirty-six passenger coaches, balanced upon great steel pivots. 
These coaches accommodate sixty passengers each, or a total of 
twenty-one hundred and sixty. The two steel towers upon which 
the axle rests and revolves are 137 feet high, five feet square at the 



MIDWAY PLAISANCfi. 



577 



top, and 40 by 50 feet at the bottom. The axle is the largest steel 

forging ever made, being thirty-three inches in diameter, forty-five 

and one-sixth feet long, and weighing fifty-six tons. Six cars can 

be loaded or unloaded at the same time. The time required for a 

round trip is 

about twenty 

minutes. The 

motors which 

revolve the wheel 

are two engines 

of two thousand 

horse-power. 

The village of 
Algeria and 
Tunis, next to the 
west of the Cairo 
street, occupies 
an area 165 by 
280 feet. In 
addition to a 
large concert 
hall, it consists 
of a Moorish cafe, 
Kaby 1 e house, 
an Arab tent 
village, desert 
tents, etc. The 
main building- 
has a Moorish 
dome, towers and 
minarets, and its 
exterior is cov- 
ered with richly colored and glazed tiles. Palms and fountains add 
an oriental air to the scene. Connected with the theatre are fifty 
people, including the native musicians, jugglers and dancing oirls. 
An Indian bazaar adjoins this village, where the natives of the orient 
37 




ALGERIAN MUSICIAN. 



578 



MtDWAY PLAISANCE. 



show and sell their unique and characteristic wares. The L-shaped 
building in the centre shows a street in Algiers, and that immediately 
to its right a Tunisian street. Next to the concert hall, half hidden 
by the cafe, is one of the curious Kabyle Arab houses. The Arab 
Kabyles and negroes are seen about their daily labors and amuse- 
ments, while palms and fountains add an oriental air to the scene. 




panoramic painting of kilauea volcano. Exhibit of Hawaiian Islands. 

The volcano of Kilauea, that great one of the Hawaiian Islands, 
is shown in a cyclorama west of the Algerian Village. It is an 
immense painting, depicting the weird sublimity of the " Inferno of 
the Pacific." Over the entrance portal of the building stands the figure 
of the goddess of fire of Hawaii, Pele. The building which houses this 
panorama is polygonal in shape, one hundred and forty feet in diam- 
eter and sixty feet high. Around its walls hangs a canvas fifty-four 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 579 

feet high and four hundred and twelve feet long, upon whose surface 
the artist has depicted this world's greatest volcano. The actual crater 
is a huge depression or pit about three miles long and two broad. The 
walls are mostly precipitous though quite irregular, and the floor 
is some three hundred feet below the surface of the island at that 
point. In the reproduction, the point of view selected for the visi- 
tor is the centre of the crater. To this point he is transported for 
the time being, and upward and around him he gazes upon bubbling 
and seething pools and lakes of fire, toppling masses of roc"ks and 
outpourings of lava. Fathomless pits yawn below him, huge puffs 
of smoke arise from the earth, and from innumerable rents and 
fissures in the ragged edges of the crater fierce flames and sulphur- 
ous gases escape, intermingled with the long glassy thread which 
the natives call " Pele's Hair," after the dread goddess of the crater. 
At one point he beholds an inky lake of molten lava slowly pulsing 
and throbbing, through whose waves burst forth jets of many-colored 
flame. Beyond this he looks down into a perfect sea of fire, and 
the sight is absolutely indescribable. Of all this the cyclorama gives 
a vivid representation, with its built-up foreground, which blends 
imperceptibly into the painting on the canvas, aided by skilful pyro- 
technic displays, colored electric light and other mechanical means. 
Thus one has in miniature every feature of this grand crater, whose 
circumference is more than nine miles. It is the only volcano whose 
terrific fires never die out and which is ceaseless in its awful activity. 
In the background one sees the snow-capped peaks of Mauna Loa 
and Mauna Kea, each of which is about 15,000 feet high. Opposite 
them is the mighty Pacific, its waves lighted by a full moon, and its 
surface glittering like silver. Over the entrance portal of the 
building stands the figure of Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire. 
It is built of wood, covered with staff to represent stone, and is the 
work of Mrs. Ellen Rankin Copp, of Chicago. The post of this 
awful divinity was suggested by an island legend which tells of a 
race between' the goddess and a native prince. Winning at the 
first trial, he taunted her to try again, and looking back beheld her 
seated on a wave of molten lava in fierce pursuit, her hands bear- 



5 8o 



MIDWAY PLAlSANCg. 



ino- firebrands which she hurls after him as he takes refuse in the 



sea. 

The Chinese Village and Theatre consist of a theatre, joss- 
house, bazaar, restau- 
rant and tea garden. 
The best dramatic 
talent and richest cos- 
tumes have been se- 
cured direct from 
China for the theatre, 
while the joss-house 
is equipped with the 
burning candles, fra- 
grant incense, and 
grotesque idols which 
belong to Chinese 
theology. There is 
a tea garden showing 
a fine collection, some 
priced at $ i oo a pound, 
and requiring but a 
few leaves to make a 
full pot of tea. The 
restaurant here is Con- 
ducted upon both the 
American and Mon- 
golian plans, and fried 
chicken and ham sand- 
wiches may alternate 
with Chinese fruits, 
preserves, sharks' 
fins, birds-nest soup 

and similar delicacies. The bazaar has a fine collection of rich 

silks and embroideries, elaborately decorated table and toilet wares 

and other curiosities. 

The Captive Balloon Park is next to the west. It is handsomely 




CORONADO OSTRICH. 



582 MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 

fitted up and equipped to send large numbers of people a thousand 
feet into the air, in the great air ship which it contains. After a 
few weeks of prosperity the air ship was wrecked in a storm, and 
for a time could not be used, but the park which contained it was 
fitted up for refreshments and concerts, and became a favorite 
resort. 

The last attraction of this character to the west is the Ostrich 
Farm. Here a herd of those immense birds is shown, with their 
eggs, their nests, and other features of interest connected with 
their rearing. There are incubators in operation hatching out 
ostriches, and at stated times the birds are plucked, and their 
magnificent plumes sold to visitors. The birds are exceedingly 
interesting, and never fail to attract attention. 

It shares the east and west space with a Brazilian music hall, and 
an exhibit of the Blue Grotto of Capri. The latter is contained in 
a rough rock mass, 175 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 150 feet high. 
The scene is beautiful, and cannot fail to be interesting to all. It 
is a remarkably exact reproduction, on a smaller scale, of the 
original cavern on that Italian island. 

On entering the mass through a jagged rent in its side a scene 
is presented at once novel and beautiful. A lovely grotto with a 
pool of crystal water in its centre charms the spectator by the 
intensity of its deep blue tint. This water is kept in continual 
agitation by mechanical means, and thus resembles the waves and 
the ebb and flow of the indashing sea. Around the pool is a 
smooth, pebbly beach, circling which are ornamental cases contain- 
ing shells, corals, cameos, b: east-pins, fruits and other productions 
of the island. Historical relics, photographs and other pictures are 
also exhibited. From -this point to the western extremity of the 
Plaisance a military encampment occupies its whole width. 

The first exhibit on the south side of the Plaisance, as the visitor 
returns eastward toward Jackson Park, is the National Hungarian 
Orpheum. The exhibit consists of a cafe and concert pavilion, and 
a roof garden. Concerts are given every half hour, the perform- 
ers being Hungarians direct from Buda-Pesth. The native costumes 
and modes of life of the different nationalities which compose this, 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 583 

empire are shown. The various songs and picturesque dances are 
rendered. The waitresses in the cafe are Hungarian maidens, 
dressed in rich national costumes, and there is also a gypsy band. 

Adjoining this display is the Lapland Village, in which may be 
seen thirty-seven native Laplanders. Among the women are 
artists, musicians and hair-workers. Reindeer and sledges are 
shown, and the peculiar costumes and curios of this far northern 
nation. 

The most exclusive and independent of all the exhibits on the 
Plaisance is the Dahomey Village, next to the east. It consists of 
three houses, one of which is fitted up for a museum, and a group 
of huts for the women, and others for the men. In addition there are 
four open sheds used for cooking. The rustic front of the exhibit 
is constructed of wood brought from Dahomey, and on platforms 
on each side of the gates are seated two sentinel warriors of 
that country attired in their native costume. There are forty 
women and sixty men in the village. The various dances and 
other ceremonials peculiar to these people are exhibited, and their 
songs, chants and war cry are given. They also sell unique products 
of their mechanical skill, such as quaint hand-carved objects, 
domestic and warlike utensils, etc. During the later months of 
the Fair it was found necessary by the management of this enter- 
prise to place a strange placard just outside the entrance. It was a 
request to all visitors that they refrain from questioning the natives 
of the village in regard to the past cannibal habits of themselves 
and their ancestors, as it was very annoying to them. 

The Austrian Village, or street in old Vienna, occupies a large 
space next to the east. It is a reproduction of " Der Graben," a 
portion of Vienna as it existed about one hundred and fifty years 
ago. Its space measures 195 by 590 feet, the greater part of which 
is a court or plaza around which the buildings circle. There are 
thirty-six buildings in all, by far the largest of which is the city-hall. 
There is also a church and thirty-four shops and dwelling-houses. 
One of the buildings is fitted up as a grand restaurant, and there 
are more than five hundred Austrians employed in the village. 

In these shops are sold all sorts of Viennese wares of the present 



5§4 

and early days. 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 

One of the buildings is fitted up with a grand 

restaurant,with seats 
for one thousand 
people. Here fifty 
or more young 
women from Vienna 
serve all sorts of 
delicacies from a 
Viennese bill-of-fare. 
Within this village is 
a branch of the Im- 
perial Royal Bank of 
Austria. It is a prac- 
tical working exhib- 
it, showing the pro- 
cesses of banking 
affairsin theAustrian 
empire. In the Aus- 
trian Village is pre- 
served a magnificent 
collection of old 
Greek portraits, of 
great antiquity, and 
valued at many hun- 
dred thousand dol- 
lars. The collection 
is the rarest of the 
kind that exists, and 
is worthy of the g reat 
attention it excites. 
The picture repro- 
duced here is one of 
the gems of the lot. 
Occupying small 
spaces just to the 
east of Old Vienna are a French cider press, a model of St. Peter's 




OLD GREEK PORTRAIT. 



5 86 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 



Cathedral at Rome, and a Vienna cafe. The French Cider Press 
is an open pavilion where*cider is made from apples in a typical 
French press, by French peasants, and served to visitors by French 
country maidens in Normandy dresses. 

Just to the northward is the Vienna Cafe, a very ornamental 




MODEL OF ST. PETER'S. 

structure, the lower floor of which is devoted to regular meals and 
the upper to cold lunches and wine and beer tables. The rooms 
are decorated with Japanese screens, and a fine orchestra is 
employed. 

East of and adjoining these exhibits is the model of St. Peter's 
Cathedral at Rome. This wonderful masterpiece of workmanship 
represents in its minutest details and upon an exact scale the origi- 
nal structure, which is the most magnificent edifice in the world. 
This model was begun in the sixteenth century from the original 
plaqs and drawings of the famous artists and architects who had 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 



;§7 



desicrned the original. It is of carved wood, coated with a sub- 
stance which perfectly imitates marble, and reproducing the exact 




ICE RAILWAY. 



color of the original structure. It is undoubtedly one of the most 
extraordinary pieces of workmanship ever executed. The minutest 
details of the bas-relief of the facade, the stucco, statues and inscrip- 




INTERIOR OF MOORISH PALACE. 



tions are faithfully reproduced to scale. The model measures 
about thirty feet in length by fifteen feet in width and fifteen in 



5 8S 



MIDWAY TLAISANCE. 




THE MOORISH PALACK— IN THK GARDEN. 



height. The interior of the building- in which it is exhibited also 



MIDWAY PLAISANC3 




THE MOORISH PALACE— DANCING GIRLS IN THE HAREM. 

includes an array of relics and portraits, and some other models. 



59O Midway plAisancE. 

The persons in attendance here are dressed in the exact uniforms 
of the Papal Guard and armed accordingly. 

Just to the south of these exhibits is the Ice Railway, an exhibit 
partaking of the nature of a skating rink and a toboggan slide. 
The surface is kept continually coated with a layer of ice by means 
of ice-making machinery, and on a circular track long sleds carry 
their loads of passengers at a great speed. 

A glass-spinning exhibit in this neighborhood shows all the 
curious processes of spinning this fragile material into fabrics which 
will bear considerable rough handling. 

The visitor now reaches the Moorish Palace. This building is a 
fine one, in the elaborate style of Moorish architecture, surmounted 
by an airy dome ; and the slender pillars of its interior, with their 
graceful stems and richly carved capitals, vastly multiplied in 
number by an ingenious arrangement of mirrors, suggest that 
marvel of Moorish art, the Alhambra. The walls and ceilings are 
decorated with fine paintings. Grottos and fountains illuminated 
by colored electric lights abound, and Arab attendants in native 
costumes wait upon the visitors. Objects of art and various curios 
are sold in the bazaar. One of the most curious exhibits is the 
"Fountain of Youth," representing aged females entering the 
water, and emermnor from it ravishincdy beautiful and returned to 
their teens. This is a practical representation of the idle myth so 
long sought for by the early Spanish explorers. 

Across a street to the east one reaches a kindred structure, the 
Turkish Village. It consists of a street in imitation of one of the 
old streets in Constantinople. A pavilion, said to represent the 
Bagdad kiosk, is a fine specimen of early Turkish architecture. An 
immense tent, formerly belonging to the Shah of Persia, and a silver 
bed weighing two tons, and once the property of a Turkish Sultan, 
are among the curiosities shown. There are about two hundred 
natives in this village, including a priest who looks after their 
spiritual welfare. 

A Panorama of the Barnese Alps, the work of three noted Swiss 
artists, attracts many visitors to this vicinity. This panorama is 
sixty-five feet high and over five hundred feet long. All the charac- 



MIDWAY fcLAlSANdli. 



591 



teristics of an Alpine tableau stretch before one, and so perfect is 
the representation that it is difficult to believe these mountains are 
but creations of the painter's art. Along the horizon are seen 
sparkling- glaciers, great fields of snow, rugged moss-covered rocks 
jutting out into the air, pastures dotted with Swiss chalets, herds 




PANORAMA OF BERNESE ALPS. 



of cows and goats peacefully grazing in the deep valleys ; in short 
everything that makes Alpine scenery fascinating, beautiful and 
grand. The space assigned for a Natatorium next eastward is, 
during- the latter months of the Fair, given over to an American 
variety show. For a time a pugilist, who held the temporary title 
of champion, was the star attraction at this place. This fact is men- 



592 



Midway plai$anC£. 



tioned simply to show what contrasts and variety could be found 
within the limits of the Plaisance. 

Passing here the portion of the South Sea Island Village, which 
extends this side of the Plaisance, the' visitor next reaches the Hagen- 
beck Trained Animal show. For this a lar^e and beautiful build- 



ing was erected, which houses 
erie, and in its centre is an arena 
auditorium with a capacity of 
collection.of animals is one of the 
and the feats which they are 
are truly marvellous. In the last 
ance a group of twenty animals, 
tigers, leopards, bears and 
dogs, are brought into the 
ring at the same time, 
made to take their ap- 



the 

surrounded by an 
4,500 seats. The 
finest in the world, 
trained to perform 
part of the perform- 
includinsf lions, 




DRIVE OF THE EION PRINCE. 



pointed seats with becoming gravity, and afterward put through dif- 
ferent performances, one by one and in groups. Other features of 
these performances are the trained lion on horseback, and the trained 
pigs, which perform remarkably clever evolutions. Carl Hagenbeck 
is renowned the world over as the most successful of.animal trainers, 
and also as the largest dealer in wild animals. From his collections 
have been supplied practically all the zoological gardens of the 
world. In the menagerie here there are twenty lions, two Bengal 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 593 

tigers, one Polar bear, two black bears, a collection of the finest 
boar hounds ever brought to this country, beside a large number 
of young panthers, leopards, tigers, monkeys and parrots. There 
is also a very creditable ethnological exhibit, comprising New Cale- 
donia, British Columbia, the South Sea Islands, Africa and the 
Indies, and contain a vast number of implements, hunting trophies, 
skins, etc. There is also an aquarium representing in miniature an 
imitation of the Indian Ocean, with wonderful plants and fishes in 
their proper places. 

The exhibit of the Venice-Murano Glass Co. is contained in a 
building in the Italian Gothic style, richly decorated with glass 
enamel, and surmounted by the winged lion of St. Mark, the emblem 
of Venice. Here thirty Venetian artists produce the blown glass- 
wares for which their factory is famous. Elegant vases, etchings, 
mosaics, and other decorations in Roman, Byzantine, Middle Age 
and modern styles are to be seen, and the exhibit is well worthy of 
a visit. 

Adjoining this to the east is a small structure devoted to an 
exhibit of submarine diving, and next a very pleasant little New 
England log-cabin where meals are served in the good old-fashioned 
New England way. 

The last village at this end of the Plaisance, and consequently 
just opposite the Diamond Match Company and the Beauty Show, 
is the Village of Irish Industries. This exhibit is under the presi- 
dency of the Countess of Aberdeen, wife of the Earl of Aberdeen, 
formerly viceroy of Ireland and recently appointed governor-general 
of Canada. While in Ireland, Lady Aberdeen founded the Irish 
Industries Association, the members and supporters of which society 
include the most prominent persons in Ireland of all classes, creeds 
and political opinions, and which has for its object the development 
and organization of cottage and home industries throughout Ireland, 
thus providing for the peasantry a permanent means of subsistence 
other than that of agriculture alone. Bad seasons and unfruitful 
land often reduce the people to the verge of starvation ; but when 
another way of earning money is open to them, such as the making 
of underclothing, lace, embroidery, knitting, hand loom weaving and 
38 



594 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 



the like, their prospects are greatly bettered. The Irish Industries 
Association has already been able to do much in making the work 
of the Irish poor known in Great Britain and in finding market for 
it. They now seek through this Irish Village at the World's Fair 
to demonstrate the expertness of the workers, and to find a market 
for their goods on this side the Atlantic ; also to get together capital 




IRISH VILLAGE. 



wherewith further to improve and develop these industries. The 
gateway of the village on the Plaisance is modeled after the entrance 
to King Cormack's chapel, Rock of Chasel, and is of itself enough 
to arouse the pride of the patriotic Irishman. Just beyond the 
entrance is a replica of the cloister from Muckross Abbey, exact in 
every detail. The visitor passes from the cloisters through a suc- 
cession of cottages, in each of which a, home industry is exhibited in 



MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 595 

course of production ; such as the methods of making the different 
kinds of lace produced in different parts of Ireland, embroidery, 
hand-loom weaving, spinning, knitting, and a model dairy in which 
dairy maids of the Munster Dairy School show both old and new 
ways of making the best of butter. Bog-oak and wood-carving are 
also represented, and a most beautiful selection of oak and Galway 
marble goods are exhibited for sale under the care of Miss Goggin, 
of Dublin. Then, too, there is another cottage devoted to a show 
of jewelry in characteristic designs. The special designs are 
replicas of the Tara brooch, the Fingal pin, initials from the book 
of Kells, and the old Celtic traceries, all being made by Irish work- 
men in the village. Besides these attractions the patriotic Irishman 
may once more stand on true Irish turf and carry away a piece of 
it, or a shillaly of true native blackthorn, as a memento. A beautiful 
specimen of an old Irish cross stands in the village square. A 
village concert hall, a museum, a village store and the public house 
are also prominent features, all clustering round the historic castle 
of Blarney. A piece of the genuine Blarney Stone from Ireland 
was brought here and built into the structure of this reproduction 
of the original castle, and here the adventurous or the romantically 
inclined may kiss it and obtain the gift of tongues which belongs to 
every true Irish man or woman. The two Irish villages of the 
Plaisance are rivals for popular favor, and the public is benefited 
thereby, for both strive constantly to secure the best of attractions 
for entertainment, and to each one is drawn a constant stream of 
visitors. 

The scene, as one views it, looking down the long avenue which 
runs through the centre of the Plaisance, is one of striking curiosity. 
Natives of Dahomey, in their scant attire, Algerians, Egyptians, 
Turks, Japanese, Sa'moans, Laplanders and natives of a dozen other 
countries meet the eye at every turn. The street is constantly 
thronged, and visitors in turn may be transported by camel or 
donkey back, by reindeer sledge, by sedan chair or by the ice rail- 
way. It is a place of good nature and gaiety, and, after returning 
from a day spent in investigations of its wonders, one feels indeed 
that he has returned from making a trip around the world, 





.-# 









-■V ; L ' : 

* « 




MIDWAY PLAISANCE. 597 

There are yet a few exhibits scattered through the grounds of 
the Fair not yet named, which by their nature might be included in 
the displays of the Plaisance. Among these one of the more 
notable is the Esquimaux village. It is located exactly in the north- 
west corner of Jackson Park, and contains some fifty natives of 
Labrador, men, women and children. They show their wolfish- 
looking dogs, kayaks or canoes, kometics or sledges, curious carv- 
ings from walrus ivory, and their strange sealskin clothing. 

Another is the French Colonies' exhibit, of two buildings. One 
of these is the exhibit of French colonies in Africa, Tunis and 
Algiers, and the other that of the French colonies in Asia, Annam, 
Tonquin and Cambodia. Both of these are of most artistic con- 
struction, and contain exhibits of remarkable interest. They are 
constructed entirely by private enterprise, and the Tonquin Build- 
ing is the same one that was used at the Paris Exposition of 1889. 




the World's Fair there is intended 
to be no person who may be justly 
grieved or dissatisfied because of 
any failure on the part of the author- 
ities to provide comforts, conven- 
iences, and luxuries for all. Chicago 
and the officers of the Exposition 
have from the first realized and appreciated that the nation and the 
world were for this period to be the guests of the city, and every 
preparation has been with the desire to give hospitable and cordial 
welcome to the millions who might accept the official invitation. 
The city put on its holiday dress. Dingy buildings were furbished 
with fresh color. Streets were paved and cleaned as never before. 
Hosts of outside amusements were provided for the entertainment 
of those who might wish to spend a portion of their time otherwise 
than at the Fair. Hotels by the score were erected, and accommo- 
dations for all who might come were made ample. But with all this 
preparation .in the things of magnitude, the little things were not 
forgotten. It was realized that it was not enough to provide the 
greatest Exhibition of the world. That very delight would of itself 
be most wearing to one who spent hour after hour in studying the 
displays, and there must be provision for the small relaxations and 
the rest that would be needed by every one. There must be pro- 
vision for the proper care and reception and direction of strangers 
in the city, some unable to speak the English language, others unac- 
quainted with city ways, others who might become sick, and so 
careful study was made to decide what might best be done in all 
these directions. The result was the organization of the department 
of Exposition work known as the Bureau of Public Comfort. 

This Bureau of Public Comfort has charge of all the arrangements 

(598) 



PUBLIC COMFORT. 599 

made by the Exposition Company for the accommodation of visitors 
to the Fair outside of the actual exhibit departments. For a time 
there were accusations made by interested parties, that sufficient 
attention was not being paid to matters of small comfort, and these 
circulated to such an extent that it was considered important to 
correct the misapprehensions. For this reason, the President of the 
Exposition, Harlow N. Higinbotham, issued a circular of informa- 
tion for the public, on these subjects. This then is the most author- 
itative statement of what has been done, and is of considerable 
interest. First as to the little things. An abundance of drinking 
water, the best supplied to any great city in the world, is provided 
free to all, and filters of the best system known are established in 
all parts of the grounds. This supply is from that grand body of 
fresh water, Lake Michigan. In addition, water is supplied, to those 
who desire it, from the celebrated mineral springs of Waukesha, at 
one cent a glass. Scattered all over the grounds, out of doors, are 
settees and benches for the use of every one, free of charge. There 
are enough of these to accommodate more than 50,000 people at 
one time, so there can be no doubt that this part of the supply of 
comfort is ample. About 1,500 comfortable and convenient toilet- 
rooms and closets are located at convenient points in the buildings 
and around the grounds, and these are absolutely free to the public. 
This is as large a number in proportion to the estimated attendance 
as has ever been provided in any exposition. In addition to these 
there are also nearly an equal number of lavatories and toilet-rooms, 
of a costly and handsome character, as exhibits, for the use of which 
a charge of five cents is made. To preserve order and prevent 
imposition on visitors, a large and efficient corps of guards, under 
the command of officers of the United States army, is on duty con- 
stantly upon the grounds, and the finest secret detective service 
ever put in operation in the world has been organized. This is 
composed of picked representatives of this service, from all the 
large cities of the world. Free medical and emergency hospital 
service is provided on the grounds by the Exposition management. 
This service was in operation for more than two years during the 
period of construction, and a large amount was spent in perfecting 



OOO PUBLIC COMFORT. 

it, and providing all modern appliances known to the profession. 
The Bureau of Public Comfort has provided commodious free wait- 
ing-rooms, including spacious ladies' parlors and toilet-rooms, in 
various parts of the grounds. Over $300,000 has been expended 
in providing for the comfort of visitors in this branch alone, from 
which there can be no return in money. There is also a building 
provided for the use of children, and parents may leave them here 
with perfect safety, and see the displays unincumbered by tired little 
ones. Besides all these departments of the work, the Bureau 
organized a rooming department on a large scale, where accommo- 
dations of any class could be arranged for in advance. Thus we 
have seen in a rapid glance the scope of the work of this depart- 
ment. Now let us look at the methods of work in some of the 
more interesting of the branches. 

The first and most important necessity in providing public com- 
fort for the millions of visitors to the Exposition was to provide 
suitable, convenient and good places where refreshments and 
meals could be obtained. In furtherance of this idea every single 
one of the great buildings of the World's Fair except the Art Gal- 
leries is provided with lunch-rooms and cafes. This list includes 
all of the departmental buildings, the Government Building, the 
Administration Building, and many others. The Wellington Cater- 
ing Company, of Chicago, purchased for a large sum the privilege 
of installing and controlling these numerous restaurants. In ad- 
dition to the one under the control of this company, many eating 
houses and cafes of various degrees of price and magnificence 
were established in special buildings erected for the purpose. 
Among these are the Cafe de Marine, the Swedish Restaurant, the 
Japanese Tea-house, the Polish Cafe, and the Clam-bake, all of 
which are grouped just north of the Fisheries Building. Many of 
the foreign buildings in the same vicinity have refreshments of 
their own kind which are served to visitors. Other special res- 
taurant buildings to be found farther south are the Hayward Res- 
taurant, just to the west of the Mines Building; the Casino, which 
flanks the south end of the peristyle fronting Lake Michigan ; the 
great White Horse Inn, the Forest King Restaurant,* and the 



PUBLIC COMFORT. 



60 1 



French Bakery exhibit, all of which lie to the south of the Agricul- 
tural Building - . 

Midway Plaisance is a hive of cafes, almost every one of the 
foreign villages having accommodations for thousands of visitors 
who may be served with refreshments of food and drink. 




WALTER BAKER & CO. S PAYII.ION. 



In the northern portion of the Park the thirty State Buildings 
are all provided with refreshment rooms, many serving meals of 
elaborate character to those who care for them. 

After food and drink, the next most important provision for pub- 
lic comfort is a place of rest. The Wooded Island, the Grand 
Plaza, and other open spaces of the Fair are provided with hun- 
dreds of settees which are always occupied by the weary. To 
many it is as great a pleasure to remain seated on one of these 
benches viewing the beauties of the landscape, and the curious 
people who pass, as it is to wander around among the exhibits. The 
lower floor of the great Casino is filled with seats, and every build- 
ing has numbers of places for rest. In the Casino, the Terminal 
Station, the Woman's Building, and other 1-arge structures, beside 
all the State Buildings and Foreign Buildings, there are provided 



6o2 



PUBUC COMFORT. 



parlors for men and for women which are free to all. In the Ter- 
minal Station these are elaborately furnished, and there are couches 
where one may sleep as long as one wishes. 

Scattered in various places over the grounds are band stands 
surrounded by settees where one may rest and listen to sweet 
music at almost any hour of the day. 

The Public Comfort Building, which was constructed during the 
early months of the Fair at a point just north of the Woman's 
Building, is a graceful structure, somewhat unique in shape and 
architecture, with spacious ladies' parlors, toilet rooms, check 
rooms, a cafe, and other necessary accessories. 

The Children's Building, which is to the south of the Woman's 
Building, is a beautiful structure. It is a light, airy, graceful edifice, 




WAUKESHA HYGEIA MINERAL WATER CO.— OFFICES AND PUMP HOUSE- 



two stories high, 150 feet long by 90 feet wide. It is built around 
a court so as to give as much light, air, and out-of-door playroom 
as possible for the little ones ; and to still further increase its 
capacity in this direction there is a playground on the roof fifty 
feet above the ground, with flowers, plants and trailing vines in 



PUBLIC COMFORT. 603 

profusion, and made thoroughly safe by a strong wire netting 
which encloses it. It is a veritable child's world. Its model kit- 
chen has all kinds of miniature furniture, and the children are 
taught to set the table, make beds, etc. In the room for the older 
boys modeling in clay, carving, carpentry, etc., are taught, while in 
the gymnasium physical culture methods are displayed. For the 
babies there is a well-appointed creche, or day-nursery, where they 
are taken care of by competent nurses who will feed and tend 
them while their mothers visit the exhibits. In the library are found 
all manner of children's books, papers and magazines in all of the 
languages ; and in the playroom every species of games, dolls, and 
toys may be seen. The building is beautifully decorated, and in 
every way is perfect of its kind. 

When it is remembered that everything in the way of public 
comfort is provided free, except when something is actually 
served, there can be little criticism upon this department and its 




^FTER the end of the 

p Exposition all the 
world may be divid- 
ed into two great 
//classes, those who have attended 
? the Fair and those who have not. A 
printed record, such as this, has in 
it certain elements which make it 
of interest and value for either 
class. Inasmuch as the latter class 
is enormously larger than the former, in spite of the immense crowds 
which thronged to the gates of Jackson Park, they are entitled to 
first consideration in such a volume as this. 

But those who attend the Fair are also certain to refer frequently 
to their experiences and the sights they saw, whether for their own 
satisfaction or to interest their friends, and at such times it will be 
as welcome to them to find here the outlines of the journeys they 
made, and a record of the important things which they saw. So it 
is well to include in the work a resume of the means of transporta- 
tion to and from the grounds, and within them, as well as the out- 
line of the best walks which may be described. Doing this as if it 
were a series of suggestions to the intending visitor, it will be in 
the most available and interesting form. 

After reading, chapter by chapter, the history of previous Exposi- 
tions, the preliminary history of the Fair and then the general 
description of the exhibits contained in the great buildings and de- 
partments of the Fair, even the entire stranger will know the more 
important -features and be able to appreciate the magnitude and the 
scope of the enterprise; but to give additional interest and compre- 
hension to him there is much of interest that he may obtain by 
making a casual study of the map, almost as if he was preparing to 
attend the Fair himself. For months before the first of May the 
(604) 



GENERAL REVIEW. 605 

newspapers of the country filled their columns with information as 
to the cost of. a journey to Chicago, and the time required to visit 
the Fair properly. But finally, when questions of time and expense 
were settled, the query narrowed down to a simple question into the 
best method of completing the sight-seeing when once it should be 
begun. 

Now let the reader who wishes to form the best idea of the Fair 
and its magnitude follow this system of considering distances and 
routes, and by observing the map earlier in this volume follow the 
course of the most natural and expeditious sight-seeing possible. 
Careful estimates show that the total distance necessary to walk in 
covering all the aisles in every building, and one journey around all 
the walks through the grounds, is considerably more than 150 miles. 
It is certainly to be conceded that in the throng around every exhibit 
it will be difficult to walk at a rate faster than one mile an hour, 
and do the most casual sight-seeing. This then means, for one who 
intends to see the entire Exposition, the expenditure of 150 hours 
of time, or, at the estimate of a fair working day, at least three 
weeks. One who is a specialist in any of the great departments of 
the Exposition will certainly extend the time of investigation. Let 
us write for the average man, the creneralist, the one with two weeks 
at his disposal for constant sight-seeing, and find out in what way 
he may best fill his time to accomplish the most satisfactory results. 

Beyond all question the first thing to be done by the one who is 
a stranger to the fair grounds, and about to make his first visit 
there, is to procure in advance a satisfactory map of the grounds, 
and make himself, as far as possible, thoroughly familiar with a gen- 
eral outline and the location of the buildings and lagoons ; then on 
the first trip to the Park do not enter a single building. One day 
is all too short for anything more than a satisfactory and comfort- 
able walk around the grounds. Even the walk around the grounds 
would be too long to cover in one day were it not for the greater 
freedom of movement outside than there is inside the buildings. 
Let us say that for this first trip you are a passenger on the 
Illinois Central suburban trains running from the heart of the city 
to the fairgrounds. Leave the train at the 57th street or South 



606 GENERAL REVIEW. 

Park station, and enter Jackson Park at the 57th street entrance. 
You will find yourself facing east down a long avenue, upon which 
the State Buildings and the Art Galleries front. Turn to your left on 
the first avenue which crosses this main avenue and follow it in a 
half circle until you approach the Lake shore, now at the east end 
of that same main avenue. Then return directly west to your start- 
ing point. Now follow southward a continuation of the same 
avenue which before you followed on the northward curve, continu- 
ing to a point between the Illinois State Building and the California 
State Building, each of which will be easily recognized, the first by 
its great dome and the second by its similarity to an old Mexican 
mission house. Here turn to the north again, at an acute angle, 
and approach the Art Gallery, passing along the south side of it, then 
the east side, and finally crossing under the elevated railroad you 
will reach the Lake shore again at the same point as before. 

From here follow the Lake shore southward, passing along a suc- 
cession of buildings of foreign governments, until you reach the 
British Building, which will be identified by its flag and its proximity 
to the battle-ship ; then return westward through a winding avenue 
until you reach the front of the Illinois State Building and the north 
shore of the great Lagoon. During the course of the walk thus far 
outlined you will have passed all of the State and Foreign Buildings 
except a few of the least importance ; you will have encircled the 
Art Galleries and obtained a view of the north side of the Fisheries 
Building. This completes the upper third of the grounds, the great 
division which includes the buildings we have named. 

The next division into which a description of the grounds natur- 
ally falls is the central portion, or those main buildings surrounding 
the Lagoon and the Wooded Island. From your station at the 
north end of the Lagoon, follow the avenues along its west shore, 
which will lead you past the Woman's Building, the Horticultural 
Building, the Choral Building and the Transportation Building, to 
the north end of the Mines Building; here turn east to a point mid- 
way between the Mines and Electricity Buildings, whence follow a 
bridge northward across Hunter's Island on to the Wooded Island. 
Walk northward its full length, At the northern end, after passing 



GENERAL REVIEW. 607 

the Japanese Temple or Ho-o-den, cross by a bridge eastward to 
the Fisheries Building and follow along its southerly side to its 
main entrance; here cross by another bridge to the Government 
Building, from the north side of which follow an avenue to the Lake. 
A delightful* walk half a mile southward along the shore of Lake 
Michigan and past the great side of the Manufactures Building will 
bring you to Music Hall, and you will then have ended another of 
the great divisions of the grounds. From Music Hall the third 
division waiting to be attacked is the Grand Court or Plaza, includ- 
ing those buildings which surround the Basin and the Administra- 
tion Building. From Music Hall walk directly west past the 
southerly ends of the Manufactures, Electricity and Mines Build- 
ings. Then turn south, crossing the Plaza between the Administra- 
tion Building and the great Railway Station. Turn eastward along 
Machinery Hall, follow it, cross the Canal, pass the north side of 
the Agriculture Building to its east end. Here, at the Casino, turn 
south along the end of Agricultural, and on a bridge pass to the 
Peninsula, upon which stands the Monastery of La Rabida. A walk 
southward will then lead you past the Krupp Gun Works, the 
Leather exhibit, the Dairy Building and the Forestry Building, at 
which point you have gone far enough toward the extremity of the 
grounds. Here a great avenue will lead you westward past the 
Stock exhibit barns, the Stock Pavilion, the Saw-mill, the Oil exhibit 
and the great Power Houses and Boiler Houses of Machinery Hall. 
At your own choice you may then return to the Grand Plaza beside 
the South Canal which separates Machinery Hall from the Agricul- 
tural Building, or you may reach it by passing around the west end 
of Machinery Annex. Once on the Grand Plaza again, you have 
made complete circuit of the grounds, seeing every structure of 
note ; you have not doubled on your own path, and are ready to enter 
the Central Station and board a train for home again. The total 
length of this walk is about twelve miles. For some persons one 
such trip will be enough; others will find as much enjoyment in 
frequent excursions of the kind, doing a portion of it at once, as in 
the harder work of sight-seeing within the buildings. It may be said, 
too, that for those who are crowded for time this walk has accom. 



608 GENERAL REVIEW. 

plished much that will not need to be repeated. One who does not 
care much for them might easily abandon any further visits among 
the State Buildings, while those whose tastes are different, and who 
care little for the Stock exhibits and out-door Agricultural exhibits, 
need make no other trip south of the buildings which front the Grand 
Court, except one to visit the buildings facing the Lake, beginning 
with La Rabida and ending with Forestry. 

Now let us see how the time may be best applied for in-door sight- 
seeing. 

The person who has read, chapter by chapter, the outline of the 
notable exhibits as they have already been printed in this volume, 
will need no su^o-estion here as to the manner of seeing the inte- 
rior of one of the great buildings after he is inside of it. But some 
suggestions are to be made as to the way of reaching each build- 
ing, and the order in which they may be best visited. To reach 
the Art Galleries, the State Buildings and the Foreign Buildings, it 
is best to patronize the World's Fair express trains of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, or the Wabash and Cottage Grove Avenue 
Cable Cars. The cable cars land one at the Fifty-seventh Street 
entrance, most convenient to everything in this list. The first sta- 
tion of the trains is at Fifty-ninth street, almost as convenient to 
most of these, and with the additional advantage of being within 
reach of the Woman's Building, the Fisheries Building, the United 
States Government Building, the Horticultural Building and the 
Wooded Island. 

If the visitor is going to spend the day among the structures 
farther south, let us say the Manufactures Building, the Electricity 
Building, the Mines Building and the Transportation Building, he 
should continue on the Illinois Central trains to the Sixty-third 
Street Station, or take advantage of the service of the elevated 
railroad, the latter of which runs directly into the grounds of the 
Fair. If Machinery Hall, the Agricultural Building, or the great 
collection of exhibits south of them are the attraction of the day, 
the terminal station of the Illinois Central express train, just in the 
rear of the Administration Building, and within the grounds, is the 
one to take. For Midway Plaisance the Fifty-ninth Street Station 



GENERAL REVIEW. 609 

of the Illinois Central is the landing place, if one intends to enter 
it at the east end. If the attractions for the day are at the other 
end of the Plaisance, the visitor should take the Wabash and Cot- 
tage Grove Avenue Cable Car from the business district, and by 
observing that the car has on it a sign which reads " Oakwoods " 
he may be assured of being carried exactly to the entrance of the 
Plaisance at the end which adjoins Washington Park. 

Probably the most delightful way of all to reach the Fair is by 
steamers which run from the foot of Van Buren Street through the 
waters of Lake Michigan, and land at the immense pier which 
reaches out into the lake from a point just east of the Basin. This 
trip is made in something more than half an hour. By it one gets 
the finest view there is of the White Palaces of the World's Fair, 
sailing slowly past them from north to south, and viewing in turn 
the State Buildings, the Foreign Buildings, the Naval Exhibit, the 
Government Building, the Manufactures Building, with its stupen- 
dous roof, and finally the Peristyle and its kindred architectural 
features, where the journey ends. 

From here, one who lands at the Fair by steamer may employ 
one of the most interesting and curious methods of transportation 
at the Exposition, the Movable Sidewalk, which carries those who 
patronize it from one end to the other of the long pier. It is a com- 
plicated arrangement which runs by electricity. A continuous track 
carries a system of trucks, which have built over them a continuous 
platform. This is divided, and different parts of it move at a 
different rate of speed. It never stops, and the intending passenger 
must mount it while it is in motion. This is not difficult, as the first 
section of the platform is moving at a low rate of speed, while the 
next section is moving more rapidly, and is to be mounted from 
the first. As a novelty it is one of the most noted features of the 
Fair. 

Within the grounds there are many methods of transportation 
which may be utilized. Steam, electricity, and man-power are all at 
the command of the visitor who desires to employ the-m. First of 
all is the Intramural Railway. This is an elevated structure, the 
motive power of which is electricity. Its length, from end to end, 
39 



6lO GENERAL REVIEW. 

is three and one-eighth miles, and its track is double all the way. 
There are ten stations at convenient points. The road begins 
with a loop which encircles the Indian School. It runs southeast, 
encircling the Anthropological Building, and then turns northwest. 
Passino- between the colonnade and the Stock Pavilion, the road 
skirts the south side of the Machinery Building and Annex, and 
then turns northward past its west end. It next crosses over the 
roof of the Perron of the Terminal Station, where connection is 
made with all out-of-town railways. The next station is on the 



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, 




^W^-M««i«^rtTTOy^;^^ 



INTRAMURAL RAILWAY. 



roof of the Annex to the Transportation Building, which is called 
Chicago Junction. Here connection is made on a level with the 
trains of the Elevated Railway which run to the city. From here, 
turning to the western edge of the grounds, the road extends 
directly north to the northwest corner, passing Midway Plaisance, 
the California Building, and through the Esquimaux Village. Here 
a turn is made east along the north fence, and upon reaching the 
Iowa Building a curving course among some of the other State 
structures carries the tracks between the French Building and the 
east Annex to the Art Gallery, through the Foreign Buildings, and 
past the Fisheries Building. Its terminus here is at the United 
States Government Building, where it makes a loop over the waters 
of the lagoon and turns back on its course to retrace its way on 



GENERAL REVIEW. 6ll 

the other track to the starting-point. The road is unique and sub- 
stantial in construction, and in all its details is a triumph of elec- 
trical engineering. Its use is indispensable to the visitor who 
desires to see the great Exposition quickly and with comfort. 
Each train makes the round trip in thirty-five minutes, attaining a 
speed of from twenty to thirty miles per hour between stations. 
From ten to fifteen trains are in operation every hour. Injury to 
passengers by accident has never occurred. The trains cannot be 
derailed, and the block signal system makes collisions impossible. 
One fare of ten cents entitles the passenger to transportation to 
either terminus of the road, from the station where the train is taken. 
The Intramural Railway is in itself one of the greatest exhibits of 
the Exposition. The enormous dynamo, or electrical generator, 
which furnishes the power for operating the road, is the largest 
machine of its kind in the world, and the largest piece of machinery 
on exhibition at the Fair. It supplies three thousand horse-power ; 
it cost $100,000, and weighs 192 tons. It is on exhibition in the 
power house of the road near the Forestry Building. 

One of the most delightful experiences which one may have 
during a visit to the Fair is a voyage around the waters of the 
lagoons in one of the dainty electric launches. Without smoke, 
noise or odor, they plow their way rapidly along through the South 
Canal, the Basin, the North Canal, the Lagoon, and the North 
Pond. The Wooded Island is encircled, and a delightful view is 
had of every building. The architects of the Fair paid great atten- 
tion to the landscape effect of the whole, as it would appear from 
the water, and no one should miss the opportunity to see the dis- 
play from this point of vantage. 

A fleet of more than fifty of these is constantly passing and 
repassing on the lagoons and canals during all the hours that the 
Fair is open to the public. The course over which they run 
measures about three miles for the round trip, and there are land- 
ings at all the large buildings and principal points of interest. The 
boats thus furnish the best communication between different parts 
of the ground and at the same time an excellent means of refresh- 
ing one's self when tired of sight-seeing in the exhibit buildings. 



6l2 GENERAL REVIEW. 

They are about sixteen feet in length over all, with a beam of six 
feet three inches, and a draft of about twenty-eight inches. They 
are elegantly finished in mahogany, are luxuriously cushioned and 
carpeted and carry about thirty passengers each. The motive 
power is furnished by strong batteries manufactured by the Consoli- 
dated Electric Storage Co., and motors especially designed and 
constructed by the General Electric Co. Batteries and motors are 
placed beneath the seats and flooring, so that the utmost carrying 
capacity is availed of and they are absolutely free from smoke, 
grease, offensive odors or vibration. At the normal rate of speed 
the batteries will drive the boats sixty miles without recharging, 
and while the speed of the launches on the lagoons is limited to 
six miles an hour, they can be spurted to a rate of nine to twelve 
miles when desired. The launches are provided with gayly striped 
canopies to protect passengers from the sun, and with side weather 
curtains for use on stormy days, or in case of a sudden shower. 

The same journey may be taken in graceful gondolas propelled 
by Italian gondoliers, direct from Venice. They are gaudily attired, 
as are their crafts, and no one with a touch of romance in his 
nature fails to patronize them. The Gondola Company has twenty 
gondolas and four bissones, or state gondolas. Sixty gondoliers 
are employed to propel them. Their costumes are of bright colors, 
after the style of the fourteenth century, while those for gala days 
and fete evenings are especially handsome. The canopies of the 
gondolas and bissones are of rich, heavy velvet, with linings of deli- 
cate tints to match ; the roofs are covered with heavy satin. Gold 
fringe, tassels and cords are used to ornament these canopies. 

Another boat voyage which may be taken is that in the steam 
launches which travel up and down the water-front of the Exposi- 
tion. They enter the Basin to secure their passengers, and then 
passing out under the Peristyle go up to the North Inlet and the 
Naval Pier, then returning, encircle the Long Pier and enter the 
South Pond. They are staunch little craft and are very desirable 
for one who wishes a ride on Lake Michigan. 

The only other craft on the interior water ways are the occasional 
canoes manned by Indians from the ethnological exhibit, or some 



GENERAL REVIEW. 



613 



special exhibit of small craft by the transportation department. At 
various points along the Wooded Island canoes and odd-shaped 
boats are run up on the shore as purely decorative features. There 
is no connection between the south pond and the rest of the interior 
water ways except a low opening- to admit the passage of the fire 
boat. On the interior water ways there is a uniform depth of six 
feet, although none of the launches draw more than three feet. For 
Exposition officials there is a special fleet of four electric launches. 
One is for the director of works, one for the director-general, and 




GONDOLAS NEAR JAPANESE PAVILION. 

two for distinguished visitors. The steam launches have a pilot, an 
engineer and one deck hand each. The electric launches each have 
a motor man, who guides the craft, and a deck hand. The uni- 
forms of all the officials connected with water transportation at the 
Fair are navy blue in single and double-breasted coat patterns. 
The rank of the official is on his cap and the company to which he 
belongs on his coat collar. 

Every species of craft under World's Fair control flies two flags, 
the American and the Columbian maritime flag. The latter is of 
white bunting with an orange-colored wreath of oak leaves in the 
centre surrounding a blue anchor. Whether on the monster whale- 
back or the trim launch the Columbian colors blend with those of 



6l4 GENERAL REVIEW. 

the nation. The dreamily drifting gondolas have fourteenth cen- 
tury flags in keeping with the illusion that the Middle Ages have 
been transplanted to Chicago to run shoulders with the advanced 
civilization of the nineteenth century. 

There are yet some buildings of interest, and some out-door ex- 
hibits which have not been named or described in the earlier chap- 
ters. One of these is the Merchant Tailors' Building. This struc- 
ture has a delightful location facing the waters of the lagoon, just 
to the southeast of the Illinois State Building. It is fifty-five feet 
square, with uniform porticos, front and rear. The interior of the 
main room is octagonal in shape. There are the usual rooms for 
public comfort. The walls are finished in cream and gold, and 
beautifully decorated with mural paintings on canvas, representing 
the eight great historical periods of dress. The first scene is Adam 
and Eve making aprons of leaves ; second, a barbarian scene; third, 
Egyptian ; fourth, classical Greek ; fifth, Mediaeval ; sixth, Rennais- 
sance ; seventh, Louis XIV. to XVI. ; eighth, Modern. There are 
also six frescos emblematic of the trade. The building is in the 
form of a Greek temple, and is thoroughly artistic in every detail. 

The hospitals were mentioned in the chapter concerning public 
comfort, but in suggesting here how to see the Fair it may be said 
that they are four in number. The first and largest is the general 
hospital in the Service Building. But in addition to this there are 
an Army Hospital, a Homoeopathic Hospital, and a Ducker Hospi- 
tal, the latter of which is a model of those used so extensively in 
army service. The Ducker Hospital is built in interchangeable 
sections which can be easily packed and removed and again set up. 
A hollow shaft between the floor beams admits the introduction of 
fresh air, disinfecting fumes, etc., each room being furnished with 
registers which may be shut or opened at pleasure. 

The White Star Steamship Line has a dainty little building 
facing the Lagoon, just to the north of the Horticultural Building. 
In the southwest and southeast corners of the Park are numerous 
warehouses, carpenter shops, garbage furnaces, sewage cleansing 
works, coal sheds and other necessary structures. It consists of 
a pavilion with a neat little portico and its pillars wrapped with 



GENERAL REVIEW. 615 

rope with a plaited rope capital. This represents the pilot house 
of a steamer and is filled with handsome models of both the old 
and new style boats of this line. These are perfect in every detail. 
In addition are shown reproductions of the smoking, dining and 
reading- rooms of the steamers " Majestic " and " Teutonic." 

In addition to all these we have named, it must not be forgotten 
that the beauty of the ground is greatly enhanced by the scores of 
daintily artistic little structures scattered everywhere for purposes 
of utility. Fire and guard stations, ticket offices, band stands, 
chocolate and confectionery stands, news stands, Hygeia Water 
pavilions, and rolling chair booths in almost every instance assist 

the landscape, rather than mar it. 
No one of these was permitted to 
be erected except by a design 
approved by the Exposition author- 
ities. The result is that there is a 
certain harmony of beauty which 
has never been seen in any other 
undertaking of approximate magni- 
tude before. 

wheel chair. A s a matter of fact, it is appro- 

priate to call the Exposition one grand display to the credit of any 
one of half a dozen of its departments ; for at least half a dozen 
of them share in the credit of the whole in addition to their own 
special displays. For instance, no one could criticise the claim that 
the Exposition is one grand display of Fine Arts. Its architecture, 
its decorations, its statuary, its fountains and the aspect of the 
whole is one delight to the lover of true art. 

Just as truly is it a display of the Horticultural Department, for 
the Wooded Island, the beveled lawns on every hand, the flowers 
which decorate every parterre, and the plants which adorn every 
balustrade are all the work of this department so far as their 
present arrangement, setting and perfection are concerned. 

On every hand there is placed before our eyes some feature 
which belongs to the Transportation Department. All manner of 
boats and of land communication are made available to the visitor 




616 GENERAL REVIEW. 

here. The Electricity Department also shares in this compliment, 
for not only within its own building but every place in the grounds 
its work is apparent. Without the work of this captured lightning 
the beautiful effects of night illumination would be impossible. 
Machinery is another department which must share the same credit, 
for perfected machinery was used in every operation of construc- 
tion of the Exposition. So the glory is to every one. 

The greatest pity of all is that these beauties are to fade. As 
far as it is now prophesied, the main structure of the Art Gallery 
is the only one which is to be preserved. Contracts made with the 
Park Commission by the Exposition authorities, before the grounds 
were given up to this use, provide that within a few months after 
the Fair is closed every building shall be removed and the Park 
left unmarred. This, in itself, will be an immense undertaking, and 
there will be many sad hearts at the thought that so much beauty 
must perish from the earth. 

At the time when the plans were being elucidated for the prob- 
able Exposition it was suggested by the Hon.. Thomas B. Bryan, 
now Commissioner-at-large, that steps should be taken to provide 
a certain number of permanent buildings. His plan provided that 
a tract of some hundred acres should be purchased on the Lake 
Shore on which should be erected some half a dozen or more 
magnificent buildings of permanent character, all of size and kind 
adapted to future exhibitions. Adjoining this tract was to be 
rented another and larger one on which should be erected all the 
necessary temporary structures, the State Buildings, the Foreign 
Buildings, those which have now naturally gone to Midway Plais- 
ance and many others. This done, and the Fair ended, it would have 
been necessary to remove none except the temporary structures, 
while on the remaining property there would have stood a sufficient 
number of magnificent buildings that an Exposition might have 
been given here every year. Had this been done, the Exposition 
would also have been the owner of a fine property of immense 
value, instead of being merely temporary tenant of structures to be 
removed. Judge Bryan was unable to secure the adoption of this 



GENERAL REVIEW. 617 

idea, and the reasons for regret that it was not accepted are now 
apparent to every one. 

The World's Columbian Exposition has enlisted the services of 
writers and artists, the best that the world knows. They are giving 
their efforts to the record of its wonders in newspaper and maga- 
zine and volume. It is the greatest enterprise at present existing 
before the mind and eyes of the world. The judgment that it is 
superior to any previous exposition has been almost unanimous, 
and America has cast a challenge to the world to surpass it if 
possible. The arts and sciences are all here exploited in their 
most advanced perfection, and yet some of them, notably electricity, 
are but in infancy, and every year shows enormous strides. 

The fifth centennial of the discovery of America will find a 
greater nation and a greater city to celebrate the event. Our coun- 
try grows at a rate which, if carried on, will make it by that time 
enormously stronger than any other in the world. Our population, 
and our resources and our capacity grow as necessity demands. 
The limit cannot be foreseen. Who can doubt that it will remain 
for the United States herself to surpass this World's Fair if it is 
ever to be surpassed ? 




By Hon. Thos. B. Bryan, Comviissiouer-at-Large and 
Vice-President of the World's Congress Auxiliary. 



HE World's" Congress Auxiliary 
' , in a sense co-ordinate with 
the World's Columbian Exposition. It is an organization founded 
to work, through the months of the Fair, to provide a mental ex- 
hibit in Chicago as great as the material exhibit within the walls of 
the " White City." It will be interesting to observe something of 
the history, scope and aims of the Congress Auxiliary. 

During the early days of creating the plan of the Fair, when all 
plans we're yet unsettled, the idea was born. At that time every 
man whose energies had been enlisted in the interest of the great 
Exposition was employing all the faculties of his mind to suggest 
features and plans for discussion. Some were of merit ; many, 
while ingenious, lacked practicability. A record of all the strange 
things, chimerical and otherwise, thus proposed for purposes of ex- 
hibition or as means of advertising would be voluminous but inter- 
esting reading. But the World's Columbian Exposition and its 
allied features came to completion by a process of selection before 
construction. The good was chosen to be accomplished, the un- 
available was put aside. 

With so many earnest ones whose first thought was success for 
the Exposition, it is not strange that when the idea, original and 
valuable, which has become an accomplished fact in the Congresses, 

(619) 



620 WORLD'S CONGRESS AUXILIARY. 

was suggested, its immense merit was recognized without delay, 
and it was adopted. 

The originator of the idea of holding the series of meetings 
known as World's Congresses was Charles Carroll Bonney, Esq., 
of Chicago. Judge Bonney for many years had been a lawyer of 
prominence, and a public-spirited man, whose efforts had been em- 
ployed to considerable extent in the cause of popular and higher 
education. His heart was in this work, and no opportunity had 
ever escaped him to do good in this direction. 

He was engaged, as were many others, in thought for what 
might be employed as an accessory to the wonderful exhibits of 
material resources, and accomplishments of the World's Fair. It 
occurred to him that an exposition of every great department of 
mental activity ought to be held, supplementary to the material 
exhibits. Such could take no form save that of meetings of the 
great men of the world, where there should be free discussion of 
the problems offered. The great benefits to be obtained from such 
interchange of views would be undeniable. Furthermore, while the 
presence of the masters of thought would be of immense interest 
to the thousands who would see them, this interest would be subor- 
dinate to the benefit derived by the same throngs from hearing 
their words, and from the inspiration of their present example. 
This, then, was the vague outline of what developed into the 
World's Congress Auxiliary. 

Mr. Bonney went before the Board of Directors of the Exposition 
with the outline of his plans. The recognition of their merit 
was prompt, and he was authorized to proceed with the work 
of their completion, and of organization. The official designation 
of the institution was The World's Congress Auxiliary of the 
World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, and the motto chosen for 
it was " Not things, but men." The orio-inator of the idea was 
chosen president of the formal organization, and was placed in 
active charge of the work. Thomas B. Bryan was made vice- 
president; Lyman J. Gage, treasurer; and Benjamin Butterworth, 
secretary. Offices were opened in the headquarters of the Expo- 



world's congress auxiliary. 621 

sition, and printed outlines of the work as suggested began to be 
circulated in great numbers. 

The first circular issued is interesting as showing how complete 
the plans then were, and how exactly they were carried out, in the 
course of the meetings. It was sent out under date of October 30, 
T890, very soon after the first plans had been formulated. After 
a paragraph in regard to the prospects for a great exposition of 
material progress, the announcement continues as follows: 

But to make the Exposition complete, and the celebration ade- 
quate, the wonderful achievements of the new age in science, 
literature, education, government, jurisprudence, morals, charity, 
religion, and other departments of human activity, should also be 
conspicuously displayed as the most effective means of increasing 
the fraternity, progress, prosperity and peace of mankind. Among 
the great themes which the Congresses are expected to consider 
are the following: 

I. The grounds of fraternal union in the language, literature, 
domestic life, religion, science, art and civil institutions of different 
peoples. 

II. The economic, industrial, and financial problems of the age. 

III. Educational systems, their advantages and their defects ; 
and the means by which they may be adapted to the recent enor- 
mous increase in all departments of knowledge. 

IV. The practicability of a common language, for use in the com- 
mercial relations of the civilized world. 

V. International copyright, and the laws of intellectual property 
and commerce. 

VI. Immigration and naturalization laws, and the proper inter- 
national privileges of alien governments and their subjects or 
citizens. 

VII. The most efficient and advisable means of preventing or 
decreasing pauperism, insanity and crime ; and of increasing pro- 
ductive ability, prosperity and virtue throughout the world. 

VIII. International law as a bond of union, and a means of 
mutual protection ; and how it may best be enlarged, perfected and 
authoritatively expressed. 



622 world's congress auxiliary. 

IX. The establishment of the principles of judicial justice, as 
the supreme law of international relations ; and the general substi- 
tution of arbitration for war, in the settlement of international 
controversies. 

It is impossible to estimate the avdantages that would result 
from the mere establishment of personal acquaintance and friendly 
relations amono- the leaders of the intellectual and moral world, 
who now, for the most part, know each other only through the 
interchange of publications, and, perhaps, the formalities of corre- 
spondence. 

And what is transcendently more important, such Congresses, 
convened under circumstances so auspicious, would doubtless sur- 
pass all previous efforts to bring about a real fraternity of nations, 
and unite the enlightened peoples of the whole earth in a general 
co-operation for the attainment of the great ends for which human 
society is organized. 

This organization is intended to promote the success of the Ex- 
position of the material products of civilization, science and art, 
but will confine its own operations to the Exposition in appropriate 
conventions of the principles of human progress. 

This address, signed by the president of the Auxiliary, carried to 
thinkers all over the world the plan as suggested, and the im- 
mediate co-operation was hearty and encouraging. The next step 
was to subdivide the topics for discussion, and appoint leaders in 
each field, to assume the active conduct, each of his respective di- 
vision. 

Scores of prominent men in every line of human activity were 
thus interested, and the result was that organization was soon 
complete in every detail. Then as the leaders began to give their 
best talents to the work, divisions and subdivisions were arranged, 
dates assigned for the various Congresses, chairmen of committees 
appointed, and speakers invited to participate. A woman's branch 
of the Auxiliary was' organized, of which Mrs. Potter Palmer was 
made president, and Mrs. Charles Henrotin vice-president. One 
month before the opening of the Exposition, the Auxiliary was 



world's congress auxiliary. 623 

enabled to announce the complete programme of Congresses, and 
all other needed information for intending visitors. 

The place provided for the holding of the various sessions was 
in every respect as excellent as could have been desired. Instead 
of one of the great buildings at Jackson Park this place was the 
new Memorial Art Palace, on the Lake Front Park of Chicago, at 
the intersection of Adams street and Michigan avenue. The loca- 
tion, in the heart of the busy city, was thus unsurpassed. This build- 
ing had been erected by the Art Institute of Chicago, in connection 
with the World's Columbian Exposition, which shared the expense, 
and so secured the use of the building during the period of the 
Fair. The total expense was thus about $600,000. Within this 
building were offered thirty-three halls, besides six committee 
rooms, all at the service of the Auxiliary. Between the wings of 
the building proper were erected two large audience halls, each 
seating three thousand people, these to be used for the general pub- 
lic sessions. The equipment was, therefore, all that could possibly 
be asked. 

This last general announcement, better than the first, indicated 
the scope and desire of the Congresses. It said: "The leading 
idea of the World's Congresses of 1893 is to bring the leaders of 
human progress from the various countries of the world together 
at Chicago, during the season of the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, for the purposes of mutual acquaintance and the establish- 
ment of fraternal relations. The chief work of the World's Con- 
gresses of 1893 will be to review the achievements which have 
already been made in the various departments of enlightened life 
and sum up in each Congress the progress of the world, in the de- 
partment involved, to the date of the Congress; to make a clear 
statement of the living questions of the day which still demand at- 
tention, and to receive from eminent representatives of all interests, 
classes and peoples suggestions of the practical means by which 
further progress may be made and the prosperity and peace of the 
world advanced." 

Now as to the subjects of general departments of the Congresses 
and the special or divisional Congresses into which the work was 



624 world's congress auxiliary. 

arranged. This list of subjects will indicate better than anything 
else the scope of the work. They are as follows : 

The Congresses of the Department of Woman's Progress, in- 
cluding more than twenty-five Division Congresses, to set forth the 
progress of woman in education, industry, literature and art, moral 
and social reform, philanthropy and charity, civil law and govern- 
ment, and religion. 

The Congresses of the Department of the Public Press, includ- 
ing discussions of the public press, the religious press, and the 
trade journals. 

The Congresses of the Department of Medicine, including those 
of homoeopathic medicine and surgery, eclectic medicine and sur- 
gery, and medico-climatology. 

The Congresses of the Department of Temperance, including 
those of such participants as the National Temperance Society of 
America, the Independent Order of Good Templars, the Sons of 
Temperance, the Royal Templars of Temperance, the Catholic 
Temperance Societies, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
the Non-Partisan Woman's Christian Temperance Union, the 
American Medical Temperance Association, vegetarian societies 
and social purity organizations. 

The Congresses of the Department of Moral and Social Reform, 
including the International Conference and National Conferences 
of Charities, Correction and Philanthropy, instructors of the feeble 
minded, humane societies, the King's Daughters, Society of St. 
Vincent de Paul, and kindred societies. The Salvation Army. 

The Congresses of the Department of Commerce and Finance, 
including meetings of bankers and financiers, boards of trade, 
merchants and building associations, and Congresses of railway 
commerce, water commerce, and various branches of insurance. 

In the Department of Music, Congresses on musical art and 
musical education. 

In the Department of Literature, Congresses of authors, his- 
torians and historical students, librarians, philologists, and students 
of folk-lore. 

In the Department of Education, Congresses of college and uni- 



world's congress auxiliary. 625 

versity faculties, including university extension, of college and uni- 
versity students, of college fraternities, of public school authorities, 
of representative youth in public schools, on kindergarten educa- 
tion, on manual and art training, on physical culture, of business 
and commercial colleges, of stenographers, of educators of the 
deaf, of educators of the blind, on Chautauqua education, on social 
settlements, and a general educational congress on higher educa- 
tion, secondary education, elementary education, kindergarten in- 
struction, school supervision, professional training of teachers, art 
instruction, instruction in vocal music, technological instruction, in- 
dustrial and manual instruction, business education, physical educa- 
tion, educational publications, rational psychology in education, and 
experimental psychology in education. 

Congresses in the Department of Engineering, on civil engineer- 
ing, mechanical engineering, mining and metallurgical engineering, 
engineering education, military engineering, marine engineering 
and naval architecture, and aerial navigation. 

In the Department of Arts, Congresses on architecture, painting 
and sculpture, decorative art, photographic art, and art museums 
and schools. 

In the Department of Government, Congresses on jurisprudence 
and law reform, civil service reform, suffrage in republic, kingdom 
and empire, government of cities, patents and trade marks, social 
and economic science, weights, measures, coinage and postage. 

In the General Department, Congresses on arbitration and peace, 
Africa, the continent and the people, medical jurisprudence, den- 
tistry, horticulture and chess. 

In the Department of Science and Philosophy, Congresses on 
astronomy, anthropology, chemistry, electricity, geology, Indian 
ethnology, meteorology, pharmacy, philosophy, psychical research, 
and zoology. 

In the Department of Labor, Congresses to consider the condi- 
tion of labor, work and wages of women and children, statistics of 
labor, literature and philosophy of the labor movement, labor legis- 
lation, living questions, and means of progress, arbitration and 
other remedies. 



626 world's congress auxiliary. 

In the Department of Religion, a series of union meetings, in 
which representatives of various religious organizations will meet 
for the consideration of subjects of common interest and sympathy; 
denominational presentations to the religious world as represented, 
in the parliament of religions, of the faith and distinguishing char- 
acteristics of each denomination and the special service it has ren- 
dered to mankind ; informal conferences, in which the leaders of a 
particular denomination will be present to answer inquiries for fur- 
ther information ; denominational Congresses, in which the work of 
the denominations will be more fully set forth and the business of 
the body be transacted ; Congresses of missionary societies ; Con- 
gresses of religious societies, including the Young Men's and the 
Young Women's Christian Associations, the Evangelical Alliance, 
the Society of Christian Endeavor, ethical organizations, and other 
associations of appropriate character. 

Congresses in the Department of Sunday Rest, to consider the 
weekly rest day on physiological, economical, governmental, social, 
moral and religious grounds. 

In the Department of Public Health, sections organized for the 
consideration of sanitary legislation, jurisdiction and work of pub- 
lic health authorities, prevention, control and mitigation of epi- 
demics and contagious diseases, and food inspection and other 
subjects. 

The final Congresses of all, those of the Department of Agri- 
culture, in which are arranged meetings on general farm culture, 
animal industry, fisheries, forestry, veterinary surgery, good roads, 
household economics, food problems, agricultural legislation, agri- 
cultural education and experiment, including agricultural chemistry, 
practical geology, economic climatology, economic entomology, and 
practical botany. 

In the same prospectus is a list of notes of information regarding 
the Congresses, some of which are of interest here. None but the 
leaders of the world's thought are intended to be heard. The offi- 
cial language of the Congresses is to be English. Copies of all 
papers will be preserved, and after the completion of the series of 



world's congress auxiliary. 627 

meetings volumes will be published, containing the full discussions 
on all topics. Finally, it is said, " the object of the Congresses is 
not to attempt the impossibility of settling anything by debate dur- 
ing the Exposition season, but to elicit from the leaders of thought 
in all countries, convened in fraternal assembly, the wisest and best 
thought of the age on the living questions of our time, and the 
means by which further progress may be made. Controversy is 
excluded from the World's Congresses of 1893. Advocates will 
present their own views, not attack the views of others." 

Little elaboration is needed to indicate the immense importance 
of the possible results of the Congresses. The scope as outlined 
in what has been quoted shows the breadth of conception and the 
intentions. At the time of this writing enough of the great con- 
ferences have been held to prove that the anticipations will be all 
justified. Great men have met and considered problems of world- 
wide interest. The public has recognized most fully the dignity 
and importance of the enterprise. At all times the audiences have 
been large and attentive, and the public press has given to the 
larger circle of readers the benefits of what they could not hear in 
person. 

Out of the World's Columbian Exposition has come inspiration 
for many boasts. If the completed enterprise were the result of 
one man's effort of mind and body, or if the one were multiplied 
ten times, those active individuals might rest under modesty's ob- 
ligation to remain silent, except to express gratification and appre- 
ciation for whatever of praise might be given to their work by the 
world. But as the credit for what exists in the comprehension of 
the Exposition and its allied features makes not to the exclusive 
honor of one man or of a score, but to that of a host, the restric- 
tion vanishes. When praise is given to the Exposition and the 
forces which created it, it is praise to the influence of civilization, to 
civilization itself, rather than to any individual, or corporation, or 
municipality, or nation. Therefore any one may be proud of what 
has been done, and may express that pride, with no fear that a 
charge of vanity may lie against him, however close his connection 



628 



world's congress auxiliary. 



may have been with the administration of the enterprises. And 
when the results of the Fair are measured, so far as they may ever 
be, it seems certain that of all its features, co-ordinate and allied, 
none will deserve more credit than the World's Congress Auxiliary 
for the benefit and the strength of its influences. 




ILLINOIS ' 

OLD STAT,: C 
SPRINGFIELD. ILLINOIS 62701 



GEORGE IRVING LUKE II 

Bookbinder 
Rnnklnrrt II II S A