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H 39.0^, JO 

DarvarD Colleae XiDrars 




H 29.02.ab 




AU6 15 1S40 

G>pyright« 1908 

Copyright. 1913 

Copyright 1915 

Copyright. 1916 

Designed. Printed, and Bound at 



Ai). 1911. TO DATE 


The Itauans at Tkipoli (a.d. 1911). Kepi 3081 

The Awakening of China (a.d. 1911)? H. Borel .... 3107 
Revolution in China (a.d. 191 i). J. Ellis Barker . . .3118 
The Net Results of King George's Indian Tour (a.d. 1911). 

Saint Nihal Singh 3139 

The Titanic Disaster (a.d. 1912). E. S 3157 

At the South Pole (a.d. 1912). By One of the Party . . . 3178 
How THE Carbon ARIA Saved the Portuguese Republic (a.d. 

1912). Francis McCuUagh 3187 

The Genius of Pasteur (a.d. 1912). Stephen Paget . . . 3213 
Spontaneous Education: The Montessori Method (a.d. 1912). 

Herbert Burrows 3230 

The Panama Canal (a.d. 1912). St^hen Bonsai .... 3247 

The Tallest Building in the World (a.d. 1912) 3281 

New York's Greater Subway (a.d. 1912). Katharine Whipple 

Strong 3286 

The World's Greatest Aqueduct ( a.d. 1912) . Katharine Whipple 

Strong 3297 

The Presidential Election of 1912 (a.d. 1912) 3309 

The Conquest of the Air (a.d. 1912). Henry Woodhouse . . 3312 

Montenegro (a.d. 1912), Herbert Vivian 3334 

War in the Balkans (a.d. 1912). J. Ellis Barker .... 3353 

The League of the Balkan States (a.d. 1912). Harold Spender 3372 

The Balkan War (a.d. 1912). E. S. . 3378 

The Fall of Vera Cruz (a.d. 1914). Arthur Ruhl .... 3390 

Europe's Colossal Burden (1914). Sir Max Waechter . . . 3395 
The Archduke Francis Ferdinand (a.d. 1914). R. W. Seton- 

Watson 3402 

Gathering of the War Clouds (a.d. 1914). Esther Singleton 3408 

The Great European War (a.d. 1914-1916). Esther Singleton 3416 

Index 3481 

A— Vol. 10 



At the South Polk 

Pkotogratmrt fronti^uu 

From a photograph taken by Captain Anrandsen 

The Imperatqr and the Woolwokth Bunj>iNG 
The largest ocean liner, and the tallest 4>ttilding 

The Wright Bsotheks Making the FntST Aeroplane Fught 

Ever Made, December 17, 1903, 


The "Viktoria Luise/' Zeppeun Dirigible^ 
Which Marks the Advent of the Air>liner 



Glenn Curtiss's Flying Boat 
A Vehicle for Three Elements : Land, Water, and Air 

How THE Army Is Fed 
From a recent photograph received from the Balkans 

After the German Air Raid on. Paris, January 29, 1916 
The Fortress City of Erzerum, Turkey, February i6, 1916 


(AIX 1911) 


ITALY has nursed a sentimental claim upon 
the northern coast-line of Africa for more 
than a generation. Her claim has mainly 
rested upon propinquity and the tradition of 
Roman conquest. The poignancy of this 
claim has been enhanced by the episodes in 
Mediterranean history that have narrowed its 
scope. Egypt on the one hand,Tunisia on the 
other, have passed to England and France, 
leaving to Italy only the Tripolitaine oasis 
ports and the ghosts of a civilization in 

There was also another impetus to Italian JJi^*^ 
military energy. For fifteen years there has^SSy 
hung over the Italian nation a great shadow, — ^^^' 
the shadow of a miserable defeat and national 
degradation suffered without remonstrance. 
Civilians may forget these things, but an army 
never forgets. For fifteen years the "skeleton 
in the cupboard" of Italy's army has been 
Adowa.* No amount of gay cavalry cloaks 
or skilful military horsemanship could eradi- 

♦The Italians were crushingly defeated by the Abyssinians 
at Adowa, and the prisoners of war were said to have been 



8082 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1911 

catc it. No peace excellence in embarkation 
duties could dislodge it. Nothing but a vic- 
tory in blood could destroy it. 

Once a powerful country has turned covet- 
ous eyes upon a weaker land there is one royal 
road that leads to annexation. The covetous 
Power schemes to lay a railway, open a bank, 
or build harbor works in the pborer land. 
As sure as a sleeper is laid, a counter opened, 
or crane erected, the independence of the 
weaker country is doomed. In Tripoli, it has 
' been the Banca di Roma that has furnished the 


Th€j9tu3 necessary (asus belli to precede annexation. 
Again we have the shadow of Adowa per- 
vading Italy's African adventure. Ever since 
that memorable reverse the Porte has treated 
Italy, if not as a negligible quantity, at least 
as a third-rate fighting Power. Though un- 
able to prevent the establishment of the bank, 
yet each Vali of Tripoli has had orders to 
thwart its development. 

Without a doubt, ever since the Young Turk 
revolution, Italy has had in contemplation a 
sudden descent upon Tripoli at the first 
favorable opportunity. It was only the fear 
of European objections that prevented her 
from falling upon Tripoli when Austria 
mulcted the Ottoman empire of Bosnia-Her- 
zegovina and Ferdinand established the com- 
plete independence of Rumelia. Matters had 
therefore to remain in abeyance until a more 
favorable opportunity presented itself. The 


opportunity, strangely" enough, came to the 
present Italian Ministry. I say "strangely 
enough," because it so happens that members 
of the present Ministry are not unconnected 
with the financial fortunes of the Banca di 
Roma. It was the trend of events in Morocco 
this summer that gave to Italy the cue. In 
spite of Socialism and its dwarfing influences, 
Italy is still a patriotic country. If this 
patriotism is somewhat of a hysterical order, 
none the less it proved valuable to the states- 
men who were intent upon robbing Turkey 
of Tripoli. Such an unusual proceeding was 
quite sufficient to influence journalists in their 
judgment. It was insidiously suggested that 
the German occupation of Agadir was but a^a^. 
prelimmary to a German campaign of ag-Xgidir. 
grandizement that destined Tobruk as the next 
probable seizure. Italian public opinion was 
inflamed by a mysterious statement that nego- 
tiations were already on foot by which the 
Porte was ceding the port to Germany. Hav- 
ing manoeuvred public opinion in this way, the 
Italian Government gave its preliminary or- 
ders for the mobilization of an expeditionary 
force. Public sentiment waxed strong in 
their favor, and Italy armed; while neither 
Europe nor Turkey believed that she was in 

It was only about the 25th of October, three 
days before an ultimatum was sent to Turkey, 
that Europe woke up to the realization that 


she was on the brink of a European war from 
an altogether unexpected quarter. Since the 
beginning of September all eyes had been 
glued upon the Franco-German frontier, look- 
ing for that trivial affair of outposts that 
would have rocked the whole civilized world 
to its foundation. There had been no atten- 
tion left for Italy and Tripolitania. The 
Ottoman Government even had not taken the 


warnings too seriously until the beginning of 
October. Then the latter suddenly realized 
that while the first three Ordus of the Otto- 
man army had been placed upon an efficient 
war-footing, the Tripoli detached division was 
hopelessly untended and under strength. To 
send men in the present juncture was impos- 
sible, but it might be practical to send arms 
and ammunition to the local Arabs. The 
Derna, an Austrian-Lloyd steamer, was there- 
. fore chartered. Her hold was filled with 
arms and ammunition, and she was cleared for 
TBegaiiing TripoH. The sailing of the Derna had the 
rfffw. effect of "speeding up" the Italian plans, with 
the result that the declaration of war came 
just a little too soon. As events were to prove, 
it would have been far better for the Italian 
compaign if they had arrested the Derna on 
the high seas, and let this incident establish 
the casus belli, than to have chaperoned her 
with a cruiser all the way from the Darda- 
nelles to Tripoli without action. 
As a result, she was able to disgorge her 


dangerous cargo some days before hostilities 
were begun. 

The Italian ultimatum was presented ondSSa,at!o« 
October 28, and expired on October 29 at 4** '"'' 
P. M. TTie document was couched in 
language which no self-respecting Govern- 
ment, however impotent, could have suffered, 
and it was, therefore, ipse facto, a declaration 
of war. This outbreak of war created one of 
the most curious strategical situations that has 
ever come before the student. It demon- 
strated conclusively the impossibility of em- 
pire unless it be adequately based upon sea 
power. Here we had Turkey, with no navy 
to speak of, yet with a powerful European and 
Asiatic army, practically powerless before 
Italy. The latter Power's fleet while it ren- 
dered Turkey's main armies innocuous, en- 
abled the army to throw its weight upon a de- 
tached portion of the Ottoman Empire. The 
more curious result from this apparently one- 
sided affray is the fact that while Italy could 
not effect any great material damage upon 
Turkey, beyond the destruction of the Otto- 
man forces marooiled in the Tripolitaine, 
Turkey is able to effect considerable economic 
punishments upon her enemy. As the Otto- 
man subjects have already demonstrated on 
several notable occasions, they are wonderful 
agents in the application of a national boycott. 
The Turkish Empire is a great market for 
Italy's small wares. ^This market is now 


completely closed. Over and above the finan- 
cial losses effected by this means, the cost of 
the war, with its large expeditionary force that 
has to be fed entirely from Italy, is a heavy 
drain upon a country that -is not noted in 
Europe for its financial stability. The other 
belligerent, however, has practically no ex- 
penses, as it can do but little to further the 
fortunes of its tiny army detached in the 
Tripolitaine. While the war is costing Italy 
nearly three million sterling a week, it is not 
• costing the Ottoman Empire as many piastres 
a year. The best of battleships cannot go 
over land^ or, for that matter, force the Dar- 
Jilt^bc- '^^^^ disparity between the navies of the 
M^M *pf* belligerents is such that it is barely necessary 
wcJS'**" to enumerate the "strengths" of both countries. 
Italy entered the campaign with a battleship 
squadron of two divisions, and a cruiser 
squadron of similar strength, only that one 
" division was a ship short. 

Against the Italian battleships of 13,000 
tons displacement the Turkish navy could 
only show the two old ships that had recently 
been purchased from Germany, and the two 
small protected cruisers Hamidieh and Med* 
jidieh. In the smaller craft Italy also held a 
big advantage, though there was one division 
of Turkish destroyers that was said to be a 
credit to the British officer who had instructed 
officers and crew« 


When the ultimatum was despatched from 
Rome the Turkish ocean-going squadron was 
on the point of sailing from Beirut, where it 
had put in for coal, after exercising in the 
-flEgean waters. It had been Italy's aim to ar- 
range the expiration of the ultimatum so that 
Admiral Aubrey could send the first battle- 
ship division and first cruiser division to in- 
tercept and destroy the Turkish sea-going fleet 
before it reached the Dardanelles. This was 
to have been the first paralyzing coup by 
which Italy trusted to make the war short 
and decisive. There is little information of 
what happened to the Italian fleet: this much 
is known, that the Turkish squadron, all 
ignorant of the declaration of war, arrived 
safely at the entrance to the Dardanelles. Once The 
the Turks had disappeared into the Darda-Turkith 

* fleet. 

nelles, there was little left for the Italian navy 
to do but to aid in the disembarkation of the 
expeditionary force. There was a tiny affair 
at Prevasa, where the Italian first destroyer 
division swept up a couple of Turkish small 
craft. A Turkish electric launch was also 
captured in a Red Sea harbor. 

The Italian General Staff calculated that 
two divisions would be sufficient for the oc- 
cupation of the Tripolitaine coast towns. It 
was argued that if Italy could put a division 
on shore at Tripoli, a brigade at Benghazi, 
and split up another brigade amongst other 
coast ports, that Turkey, with her fleet de- 


stroyed, would have no choice but to accept 
the inevitable and surrender her claims in 
North Africa at discretion. 

The Italian force was very generally drawn 

from the whole of Italy, though perhaps a 

southem element predominated. To convey 

J^«t«jj»* the force to the coast of Tripoli a great fleet 

uansports. ^^ fransports had been taken up, which was 

gathered in Naples harbor. 

The composition of the Tripoli division 
is returned as 4 field-batteries and 2 mountain- 
batteries, 17 battalions of nizam infantry and 
10 squadrons of nizam cavalry, plus the 10 
battalions of local militia already mentioned. 
At normal peace strength the totals would 
give roughly 10,000 nizams and 5,000 militia. 
It may be taken, however, as practically cer- 
tain that the garrison was starved, and that 
the peace strengths were not up to the estab- 
lishments. The nearest estimate of the troops 
actually found in Tripoli town at the declara- 
tion of war is that based on the review which 
the Vali attended on "Independence Day." 
Then about 4,000 Turkish troops of all arms 
marched past. Although the Tripoli garrison 
had been neglected by Stambul, it must not 
be thought that it was in the decayed state 
that one connects with the Turkish army of a 
few years back. The supply of quick-firing 
field and mountain artillery (Krupp 1908) 
was up to establishment. The men through- 
out the division were equipped with khaki 


uniforms and the new kalpak and backlik. 
There was an adequate supply of small-arm 
ammunition, and, as the Italians were to learn 
to their cost, there was also a fine supply of 
reserve magazine rifles. What Tripoli lacked . 
was land defences: the semi-circle of forts 
that defended the harbor were of ancient con- 
struction, and were furnished with an obsolete 
model of Krupp fortress artillery. Moreover, 
there were no trained fortress gunners to man 
the batteries and to get from them the best of 
their puny powers. At a liberal computation 
the most that Neshet Bey, the chief military 
commander, could count upon in the matter 
of trained Turkish soldiers in the whole vi- 
layet of Tripoli could not have exceeded lo,- 
ocx) men. That he was able to enlist a large 
amount of raw material amongst the Arabs 
and Bedouin came as another great surprise 
to the Italians. 

On the 29th September two divisions of the 
Italian fleet appeared oflF Tripoli and man-TheiuHaa 
oeuvred in a menacing manner in the ofling. i^jjj^* 
The acting Vali, Munir Pasha, had already 
been informed of the ultimatum. Munir 
Pasha is a feeble old gentleman, and the di- 
rection of affairs fell automatically into the 
hands of Neshet Bey, his senior Staff officer, 
and the virtual commander of the garrison. 
Neshet Bey knew that it was hopeless to at- 
tempt to oppose a naval attack with the for- 
tress armament existing in Tripoli. He there- 


fore decided to arm all the Arabs in the Tri- 
poli environment, and to fall back himself 
to one or another of the large oases in the in- 
terior with all the regular troops at his dis- 
posal. To this purpose every camel in the 
Tripoli oasis was commandeered, and all the 
army contractors, under pressure, were in- 
structed to collect as much foodstuffs as 
would be necessary for 5,000 men for three 
months. As many of the local militia as could 
be found were immediately mobilized and 
issued with arms and uniforms. The Regular 
troops left barracks and encamped at the 
Boumelliana pumping-station, on the outskirts 
of the desert, ready to march southward the 
moment the Italians attempted to throw a 
force ashore. 
2h*mS$i" The Turkish troops evacuated Tripoli by 
Tri^iL* detachments between September 30 and Oc- 
tober 2. By the evening of October 2 the last 
echelon had mor^d out into the desert, and 
there were no troops left in the town except a 
few seedy fortress artillerymen who had or- 
ders to man the forts "just to make a show." 
The townspeople had already shown signs of 
panic. The population of Tripoli does not 
differ materially from that of other seaports 
in the Levant. It has a large population of 
those parasitical races that cling to the 
fringe of the Ottoman Empire. These are 
Maltese, Greeks, Levantines, Syrians, and 
nondescripts of no definite nationality. There 


must be ^ome 20,000 of these, with another 
40,000 of the Arabs of the oasis. 

On 3rd October Admiral Faravelli, who 
commanded the two naval divisions before 
Tripoli, bombarded the land defences. TheaiSlcm 
few seedy Turkish artillerymen that were leftb»S«t 
behind, aided by some Arabs, just fired suffi- 
cient rounds from the obsolete Krupps "to 
save the garrison's face," and Tripoli was 
henceforth at the mercy of the Italians. 

Having reduced the batteries on the 3rd, on 
the following day Admiral Faravelli landed 
a naval brigade on the west shore, in the vicin- 
ity of Gilgursh. He still believed the town to 
be hostile, as early in the morning, when he 
had sent in a torpedo-boat under a white flag, 
it had been fired upon from the Hamidieh 
Fort to the east of the harbor. This fort was 
again bombarded. As a matter of fact as has 
already been made clear the entire Turkish 
force except the few artillerymen had evacu- 
ated the town before the date of Faravelli's 
first bombardment. 

The Arabs of the oasis were not slow to 
profit by the evacuation, and on the evening 
of the 3rd and the morning of the 4th of 
October they poured into the town, and began 
to ransack the deserted public buildings. The 
barracks in the oasis, the gendarmerie post- 
houses, the arsenal, and Konak were gutted, 
and on the morning of the 4th the attitude of 
the looters became so threatening that it looked 

8092 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1911 

as if the bazaars and prirate property were 
about to be given over to pillage. The con- 
sular body, therefore, determined to invite 
the Italians to land. A white flag was hoisted 
over the Konak, and an invitation was sent on 
board the flagship to the Admiral to take over 
the town and save it from pillage. A further 
contingent of sailors was immediately landed, 
SSSHd and Tripoli was occupied. In all, the fleet 
t/oopfc" landed a naval brigade of 1,800 men, which 
was commanded by Captain Cagni, the asso- 
ciate of the Duke of Abruzzi in Arctic travel. 
Captain Cagni, having ascertained that the 
Turks had marched off into the desert by the 
Gharian road, established an outpost line that 
cut off about a third of the western end of the 
oasis. The main trace of this outpost line 
followed the fringe of the oasis, where it met 
the desert and included the pumping-station 
of Qoumelliana, which supplied much of the 
water for the town. Its left flank cut through 
the oasis just east of the quarter of Shara 
Shatt and the right flank, in open desert, was 
the group of earthworks already described as 
Gilgursh (Sultaneh). It is necessary to enter 
into this detail here, as the position thus de- 
scribed, as established for less dian 2,000 
sailors, is practically the same trace that Italy 
holds to-day with two infantry divisions. It 
will be seen that the enceinte enclosed by this 
outpost line was about four square miles of 
densely-inhabited palm-grove. The navy held 


Tripoli from the 4th to the loth October. 
Towards the end of this period the sailors be- 
came very anxious, their information being 
diat the enemy were preparing to advance to 
the attack, and they knew that they could not 
deny them the eastern end of the oasis if they 
chose to come and occupy it. On October 8 
the Admiral cabled to Rome for support so 
urgently, that two swift ocean-liners were im- 
mediately despatched from Naples with 
troops. These arrived at Tripoli early in the 
morning of the nth, and the troops were at 
once disembarked and marched to relieve the 
weary sailors in the outpost line. The first 
troops to arrive were the devoted nth Bersa- 
glieri and the 40th Infantry. 

At daybreak on October 12 the Italian Jbe^^^ 
Armada in all its glory arrived from Naples, i;*?;^'*' 
There were twenty-five large army transports 
that had been convoyed across the Mediter- 
ranean by two divisions of warships and a 
cloud of torpedo craft. As they steamed into 
the roadstead in the early light of an African 
morning they made a picture of suggested 
strength that was most impressive to the Arab 
onlookers, who had not yet quite recovered 
from the nerve-shattering effects of the bom- 
bardment The army began to disembark at 

The army of occupation started upon its 
adventure on the hypothesis that the Arabs 
were hostile to the Turks and friendly to Italy. 



Caneva spoke in his proclamations of the 
Turks as "our common enemy." Satisfied 
with this assumption, no effort was made to 
collect from the population the ten to fifteen 
thousand stand of magazine rifles that it was 
known had been distributed to them from the 
hold of the Derna: no adequate measures were 
taken, either to police the town and its en- 
vironment, or to picket the outlying villages 
and hamlets in the palm-groves. 

A descendant of the house of Karamanli 
was appointed as vice-governor of the town, 
and some Moslem as the mayor. With these 
measures the entire staff and army reposed a 
confidence in the Arab population which, 
though engaging enough in the simplicity 
that prompted it, was a culpable weakness in 
the stern path of war. For a time the Italian 
clemency prospered, and the rosiest reports 
were dispatched to Rome of the endearing at- 
titude of the new Arab subjects. There was; 
however, to be a rude awakening. 

The ease with which its troops had occupied 
Tripoli induced the Italian Government to 
proceed forthwith with the occupation of all 
SmSf*^ the chief ports of the Tripolitaine coast. The 
cM^Spied procedure was much the same in each case: 
troops, the fleet blustered up and fired shell into the 
obsolete Turkish defences, and then sailors 
and troops were put on shore. At Tobruk and 
Derna but little opposition, if any, was experi- 
enced, but at Benghazi and Khoms the local 


Turkish garrison, helped by the Arabs, made 
strenuous resistance, — so much so that the Ital- 
ian Government immediately became alarmed, 
and established a censorship of all news from 
Cyrenaica, in the hope of concealing the 
truth. At Benghazi the small Turkish gar- 
rison had so organized the Arabs that they 
showed to the Italians a really stiff opposition^ 
and the fleet had seriously to come into action 
to support the landing. The treacherous sea 
also added to the Italians' difficulties, and rose 
before the landing was completed, thereby 
placing the portion of the force already put 
ashore in a dangerous predicament. The over- 
whelming force that the Italians could bring 
to bear, however, was too much for any re- 
sistance, however brave and devoted, that the 
Turks and Arabs could bring against them. 
The opposition was driven back all along the 
coastline, but not before the Italians had suf- 
fered about 500 in casualities. In no case 
had the opposition been crushingly defeated, 
and the Arabs and Turks, though they had 
perforce to fall back, never lost touch with 
the Italians or ceased to harass them on every 

The expeditionary force at Tripoli was 
therefore very astonished when accurate infor-ThcTuA. 
mation arrived that the Turkish force, aug-«;;;j*^ 
mented by some thousands of Arabs, was™*^^ 
marching towards Tripoli. General Pecori- 
Girardij who commanded the ist Division, 


had with very slight modifications accepted 
the line of resistance which the iiavy had be- 
queathed to him. 

In the meantime the Turks had gained ex* 
pert leaders from Europe, allies from the 
Bedouin and Berber tribes, and confidence 
from the Italian inaction and from the stories 
that were 'in circulation describing Italian de- 
feats at Benghazi and Khoms. The Turks 
were in constant communication with their 
sympathizers in Tripoli. In fact, Turkish 
officers disguised as Arabs were seen con- 
stantly in the town by those who had no wish 
to betray their presence to the Italians. It was 
arranged that a great combined attack by 
every rifle that the Turks could bring against 
the position should be made on the appearance 
of the new moon, and that while this attack 
was being pressed home the Arabs in the town 
and oasis should rise and take the Italian po« 
sitions in the rear. It was a pretty plan, and 
it came within an ace of being successful. 

^ From October 20 it was generally apparent 
that the Turks intended aggression. The 
wropune acroplanc scouts reported groups of Turks and 
Arabs in "thousands" at the oasis of Zanzur, 
twelve miles southwest of Tripoli ; at Ainzara, 
about equidistant to the south; and again at 
the oasis of Azizia, still farther south of Ain- 
zara. Instead of profiting by this information 
and advancing to destroy these Turkish forces 
in detail, the Italians awaited developments 



in their trenches. On the morning of the 23rd 
of October the Turks discovered that two- 
thirds of the Tripoli oasis was open to them. 
They demonstrated along the entire front of 
the Italian position, and pushed up a strong 
posse of Arabs into the eastern extremity of 
the home oasis. Working along this cover 
these Arabs were able to approach to within 
a few yards of the trenches which three com- 
panies of the nth Bersaglieri had cut across 
the palm-grove. When building their de- 
fences on this flank, the Italians had failed to 
clear a field of fire to their front. Their line 
of resistance just cut obliquely through the 
intricate cover of the palm-grove. Walls, 
cacti, fig-trees, and olive-groves masked the 
enemy until they were within a few feet of 
the Bersaglieri trenches. Discovering this 
advantage, the hot-headed Arabs could notj^jlf****^ 
restrain from attacking at once. What 
Neshet Bey intended as a reconnoissance be- 
came in the actual oasis a combat a outrance. 
So fierce was the onslaught that a few of the 
Arabs succeeded in breaking through the 
Italian lines. 

It had been arranged through the emis- 
saries that the Turks had sent into the town, 
that when the Turkish force attacked in earn- 
est, the Arabs of the oasis should rise behind 
the Italian lines and join in the discomfiture 
of the invaders. The Arabs of the quarter 
immediately behind the Bersaglieri lines, not 


unnaturallyy when they saw among them their 
wild-eyed compatriots who had just broken 
through the lines, thought that the moment for 
action had arrived. They snatched their rifles 
from their hiding-places and opened fire up- 
on every Italian they saw. When dealing 
with such inflammable material as Arabs who 
have been hourly expecting to be let loose with 
arms, it does not take long for an outburst to 
gather way. In a few minutes a cloud of 
Arabs were attacking the Bersaglieri in the 
rear. So unprepared were the Bersaglieri 
for such a development, that the oflBicers be- 
lieved the attack from their rear to be a mis- 
take on the part of friendly Arabs, and for a 
time they restrained their men from answering 
to it. Then die full significance of their 
awful predicament burst upon them, and they 
fell in their devoted men back to back. It 
may be said of the two flank companies of the 
nth Bersaglieri, in the words of the historian, 
that they ceased to exist. 
k^o?Se ^^ ^® meantime the rising had spread, and 
^^^ the whole intervening country between the 
Bersaglieri front and the town was alive with 
armed Arabs, who shot every uniformed 
Italian on sight. The roads running from 
the town to the outposts were naturally full 
of men on various fatigues connected with 
supply, and these unsuspecting escorts were 
the first victims. Luckily the mounted Cara- 
binieri had just arrived from Italy. They 

4.B. 191 X 


were occupied in the suburbs partitioning 
their spheres of control when the rising be- 
gan. They were able to hold the ends of the 
streets that radiate from the town into the 
villages. Being a force used to sudden emer- 
gencies, they kept their heads, and prevented 
any considerable contingent of the armed 
Arabs making an entry into the bazaars, or the 
town Arabs from joining their friends outside. 
The rising was so sudden and unexpected 
that it was impossible completely to ring the 
town before some of the wilder spirits made 
their way into it. The Italians say that the 
rising was inaugurated by shots fired from 
a house in town where Turkish subjects await- 
ing expulsion were living. Be this as it may, 
about midday the shooting had communicated 
Itself to the town, and there ensued an hour of 
frightful panic. The Christians of the«^SiJ^ 
Levant, especially those who dwell under theatu49k. 
Star and Crescent, are particularly liable to 
panic. They live always with the fear of 
massacre upon them. The Christian and 
Jewish population of Tripoli is no exception 
to this rule. The cry went up of "The Arabs 
are in the town !" In a moment there was a 
wild rush for the consulates, for the boats, for 
any building that offered the suggestion of an 
asylum. The panic was augmented by the cir- 
cumstance that the market square was filled 
with camel-men in the service of the invaders. 
As shots from the Moslem graveyard fell in 


the market square, the camel-men, feeling no 
doubt that they and their animals were forfeit 
in the eyes of Turks or Bedouins, drove their 
animals into the narrow alleys of the town* 
This added to the block and terror, to be im- 
mediately intensified by the excited action of 
the Italian soldiery. Men working at the 
wharves, hospital orderlies, and the guards 
from the various public buildings, knowing 
nothing of what had caused the panic, unslung 
their rifles, rushed into the streets, and in many 
cases began to shoot. It was during this tur- 
moil that many Arab knives slipped out and 
struck down the uniformed Italians in the 
open highway, thereby showing how pre- 
pared the Arabs were to be hostile, and how 
much the Italians had been saved by this pre- 
mature unmasking of the real feelings of the 
Arab population. It was about an hour be- 
fore * the panic subsided, or rather before 
every one had found shelter behind locked 
w^in^** doors, except the troops that had taken pos- 
S'th?*'" session of the streets. In the immediate sub- 
urbs, however, desultory firing continued un- 
til well into the night. 

Desperate things, however, had been hap- 
pening in the oasis, where the line of the 
Bersaglieri had been broken. The 82nd In- 
fantry carried on the Italian line from 
the right of the Bersaglieri, and owing to the 
demonstration made by the Turks along the 
entire Italian front, the reserves of this regi- 


iiient had been pushed forward in readiness. 
As soon as it was realized what had really 
come to pass in the rear of the Bersaglieri, 
some one suggested to the Colonel command- 
ing these reserves that he should sweep 
through the hamlets concerned and re-estab- 
lish the left of the line. This he proceeded 
to do, and the few armed Arabs that were 
menacing the approaches to the town were 
-driven eastwards along the oasis. The bulk 
of risen Arabs were engaged in the massacre 
of the two flank companies of the Bersaglieri, 
and the 82nd drove them into the unoccupied 
portion of the oasis, across the mutilated bod- 
ies of their own unfortunate conirades. 

It is no exaggeration to say that the events 
of October 23 shocked the Italian army of 
occupation from top to bottom. The rising 
had come as a bolt from the blue. The ter- 
rible losses of the Bersaglieri; the massacre ^J^j^jjJ 
of unfortunates caught in the cactus alley- Sfer-^' 
ways; and the general hopelessness, bred of "^"^ 
inactivity, had an evil effect upon an army 
that had started the campaign with '^a skele- 
ton in its cupboard." The army looked upon 
its dead and apprehended disaster. All the 
lurid legends of Abyssinia, that it had heard 
from childhood, came back to it as facts in 
war about to be repeated. There was only one 
military measure that Caneva could order. 
He had the prospect of an immediate attack 

by the entire force that Neshet Bey could 
B— Vol. 10 


- bring against him. He had been reminded, 
rudely enough, that there were seven to ten 
thousand Turkish rifles still in the hands of 
the Tripoli Arabs that might be turned 
against his soldiers' backs. It was, therefore, 
2rdi?ld^o imperative that the oasis, as far as the Italians 
•f Anbl. held it, should be cleared of Arabs, and that 
reprisals should be taken Against those vil- 
lages in the oasis in which the rising had oc- 
curred. No military commander would have 
been justified in doing less. The orders were 
issued, therefore, that the oasis should be im- 
mediately cleared, and that all male Arabs 
found with arms in their hands, or who were 
dhown, from circumstantial or other evidence, 
to have been implicated in the rising, should 
be summarily executed. The orders were 
sufliciently lax and general to permit of a 
sharp and salutary lesson, as the Arabs had 
already been warned by proclamation that 
the possession of a rifle would be considered 
a capital oflFence. Caneva and his Staff, how- 
ever, had not calculated upon what this order 
meant to troops that had just seen their mu- 
tilated dead, who believed that they were 
again about to be attacked treacherously in the 
rear, and who had ever over them the shadow 
of Adowa. The carrying out of the duty 
necessitated the breaking up of the troops into 
small detachments, which loosed the control 
upon the inflamed passions of the soldiery. 
Nor did the Staff know how or when to place 


a period upon the licence they thus gave the 
troops. The result was a retribution upon the 
Arabs which will live in the nifemory of the 
Tripolitaine for generations, and which will 
react for many a year upon the perpetrators 
themselves. It is not desirable here to go into 
the details of the rays of bloodshed that swept 
through the Italian portion of the oasis. War 
is horrid and merciless, and its horror and 
mercilessness are intensified when killing is 
done by men actuated by terror. This much, 
however, should be said in favor of the Ital- 
ians bpfore this page be turned, — ^many for- 
eign journalists have used the incident of these 
military reprisals as a means to sell their own 
sordid wares, a practice to the mind of the 
soldier far more reprehensible than fitting the 
punishment to the military crime of treach- 

The real attack by the Turks was made 
three days after the demonstration, and when 
the enceinte of palm-groves was practically 
clear of Arabs. In the early morning Turk- 
ish shrapnel began to burst above the date- 
palms, and certain attacking troops threatened 
from the desert front. The main attack, how- '^^'^ 
ever, was reserved for the left flank. The^*'*^^ 
Turkish commander had discovered the vul- 
nerability of the Italians' left — and the mili- I 
tary value of that portion of the Tripoli oasis j 
the Italians could not hold. Here Neshet Bey j 
had massed the majority of his fighting men, j 

■ TN*i 

3104 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1911 

who were now augmented by a considerable 
number of the Tripoli Arabs. The latter nat- 
urally enough, after the rising, had preferred 
the cover of the oasis to the scant security be- 
hind the Italians' lines. Again was the weak- 
ness of the measures of defence on this front 
demonstrated. The Arabs and Turks were 
again able to approach under cover of the 
groves to within a few feet of the trenches, 
which had now been taken over by other com- 
panies of Bersaglieri. Twice in the same 
morning the attack was upon the point of 
overwhelming the defence. The Bersaglieri, 
however, fought with the greatest courage, 
and though the Italian field-gunners were 
driven from the pieces they were serving in 
the trenches, the Bersaglieri swept the exul- 
tant attackers back into the palm-trees with 
levelled bayonets. For three hours a bloody 
contest hung in the balance, until the arrival 
of the reserves at last decided the day. The 
Thepricc pricc of victory, however, had been high — so 

of victory * J i i o 

^*^- high that the Staff at last awoke to the danger 
of this oasis. Instead of bringing up a bri- 
gade and clearing the oasis with the bayonet for 
good and all, as they might easily have done 
that afternoon, they decided to contract their 
front on this flank and retire the line about 
a mile while they cabled to Italy for another 
infantry division. In the circumstances these 
were about the two worst military measures 
that could have been undertaken. The first 


had a still further depressing effect upon the 
troops, and gave opportunity to the Turkish 
commander to report sensational victorfes to 
Stamboul. The second will only swell the 
tale of sickness which must be the lot of this 
great Italian army cooped up in Tripoli. 

[Duke of Connaught becomes Governor- 
General of Canada. Main batteries at Trip- 
oli bombarded by Italian vessels. Turkish 
squadron arrives in the Bosphorus from the 
Dardanelles. * Italians capture Mersa To- 
bruk, 700 miles east of Tripoli. California 
voters adopt constitutional amendments for 
initiative and referendum recall and woman 
suffrage. Revolution in China against thCtocwS?" 
Manchu dynasty. Hanyang captured and 
Hankow occupied. Yuan-Shi- Kai recalled 
from retirement and appointed Viceroy of 
Hunan and Hupeh. Mutual concessions by 
France and Germany in the French Congo 
and Cameroons end the Morocco disputes. 
Chinese Republic proclaimed with General 
Li-Huan-Hung as President. Remarkable 
edict issued from Peking, in which the Throne 
apologized for its past neglect and granted 
an immediate Constitution and free pardon to 
rebels and political offenders. Chi-fu opens 
its gates to revolutionists. Fourteen vessels 
of imperial Chinese fleet join insurgents. 
Chinese rebels take Amoy. Chinese Cabinet 
formed. Japanese troops land at Chi-fu, 



Diplomatic relations severed between Russia 
and Persia. Manchus and missionaries massa- 
cred at Sian-fu. Preaident Cacares of Santo 
Domingo assassinated. New canals found on 
Mars at Lowell Observatory, Arizona. Presi- 
dent Taf t reviews warships in Hudson River. 
Papal Consistory confirms nominations of 
chiiui. ^ new cardinals. Chinese Emperor proclaims 

proclaimed * * 

pubuc. a constitution. Rebels take Shanghai. Chinese 
troops burn Hankow. U. S. S. Chester sails 
for Tripoli to investigate Italian atrocities. 
Russia serves ultimatum to Persia. Chinese 
revolutionists take Foo-Chow. Manchus 
murder i,ooo persons at Nanking. Russian 
advance on Persian capital ordered. Revolu- 
tionists capture Nanking. Independence of 
Mongolia proclaimed. Prince Chun, Chi- 
nese* regent, abdicates. Army and Navy 
Board reports that the battleship Maine was 
blown up from the outside. King George and 
Queen Mary proclaimed Emperor and Em- 
press of India at Delhi. United States, Great 
Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Rus- 
cia unite to assist the Peace Conference at 
Shanghai. China proclaimed a republic by 


(AJ^. 1911) 


THE awakening of China to national 
consciousness is a process suddenly ex-' 
cited by the thunder of Japanese guns 
after a long period of silent brooding, and it 
is beyond the pale of possibility to estimate 
the immense influence it may have on the evo- 
lution of the whole world in the domain of 
politics, economics, science and art. 

Until a few years ago there was, as a matter 
of fact, no Chinese people, in the sense of a 
single conception comprehending all Chinese, 
China was an unwieldy, inert mass of heteror 
geneous provinces and peoples, perhaps only 
kept together by the difficulty of falling asun- 
der. When in 1894 the war in the north was 
waged against Japan, the South Chinese in 
the Fuhkien Province did not concern them- 
selves with it, and it left the Chinese in the 
colonies beyond the seas as cold as a war be- 
tween Bulgaria and Servia might have done. 
Up to the time of the Russo-Japanese War I rS 
hardly ever heard any Chinaman in Singa-'wC? 
pore or Batavia express the slightest interest 
in what might happen in Chinese politics. A 



EffMt <rf 

3108 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a-h. 1911 

Chinese emigrant in the English, American, 
or Dutch colonies might have ancestral tombs 
or prayer-houses somewhere in China which 
might bind him to a certain spot in the land 
of his early life, "but his interest was only asso- 
ciated with that particular place of his origin, 
not with the native country, conceived as a 
national unit. 

A Chinese from Shanghai was, moreover, 
as distinct from one hailing from Canton as a 
Spaniard from a Frenchman, and the same 
applies to a Chinese from Foochow, as com- 
pared with one from Peking, etc., etc. One 
g^ usually speaks of Chinese "dialects," but "lan- 
guages" would be the more correct expression. 
A Chinaman from the north could not under- 
stand one from the south; a domestic from 
Amoy could not talk to a tramping tailor from 
Shanghai. China was a heterogeneous mass 
of peoples who had only one tie in common — 
the written language, but this amounts to no 
more than do the Roman numbers in Europe 
to-day. The number X, for instance, is the 
same all over Europe, but the Englishman 
reads it as Ten, the Frenchman as Dix, the 
Italian as Died, and so oh. In addition there 
is the so-called Chinese of the Mandarins, the 
Kuan hua or Ching yin. This language was 
spoken more or less generally in the north, 
but in the south only by high dignitaries and 
by highly cultured literates. Its slightly dif- 
ferent Pekingese variety was the language of 


the Court and of diplomats, but in the south 
it was not nearly so much used as French is 
in the more refined sets of Europeans. Only 
a select few of the officials and the literates 
knew the Chinese of the Mandarins ; the over- 
whelming large proportion of people, espe- 
cially in the south, did not. ' 

A single popular language — one that could pJ,S^* 
be used among all the civilized middle classes *"«^'***- 
from Canton to Shanghai, from Peking to 
Foochow and Amoy — did not exist. The Chi- 
nese of various southern provinces and dis- 
tricts of China remained foreigners to each 
other; they did not feel themselves as belong- 
ing to one brotherhood, as the possessors of 
one common treasure — the national vernacu- 
lar by which the national mind may give ut- 
terance to its most sacred and intimate senti- 

It is for this reason that I never anticipated 
the possibility of this conception suddenly 
emerging into a reality — one Chinese nation, 
one Chinese language, as^ there is one English 
nation and one English language. 

But the roaring thunder of the Japanese 
guns over Chinese seas and the plains and 
mountains of Chinese Manchuria roused into 
activity the latent forces slumbering in the 
heterogeneous, indolent mass. Exactly how 
it came about no one really knows. At the 
back of the world^s history mystical, spiritual 
powers are at work unseen, raising and lower- 



ing the rhythm of those great movements of 
the world wherein nations and dynasties rise 
to their culmination and then fall into decay. 
It was as if a magnetic current, an electric 
vibration, passed through the body of this gi- 
gantic colossus, this magnificent, huge, prime- 
val creature of prehistoric periods, appar- 
ently dead but in reality only slumbering 
through the centuries, on whose back foreign 
parasites had settled down, stinging and 
wounding and nesting in its skin. Suddenly 
the heavy thick eyelids are half opened, a tre- 
mor of new life shivers through the unwieldy 
frame, the thick flabby skin contracts, the tre- 
mendous legs make the earth resound; and 
with a cry reverberating through the whole 
world, it hails a new day. 

Here we had not only Japan defeating Rus- 
sia on the plains of Manchuria, but a frag- 
ment of the East — the colored — shaking off 
the West — the white — ^which reeled under the 
repulse. This terrific occurrence rang in. a 
Ang^eTE new era for the East, and the Chinese, the 
^^ Hindu, the Mohammedan, awoke trembling, 
divining, with that Eastern intuition which is 
like second-sight, the hardly credible possi- 
bilities of the future. And then the abstract 
idea, so ultra-realistic because it is abstract, 
according to Eastern wisdom, the idea of "the 
East for the East," born in the gore of battle- 
fields and ensanguined seas, saw the light. 
It is tbe idea now hovering over hundreds 


of millions of souls from Benares to Peking, 
from Calcutta to Batavia, and finding an echo 
far away in the hearts of all who are colored, 
yellow and brown — in farthest America, in 
Capetown and the Transvaal, in Australia, in 
Alexandria, in Constantinople. 

Europe is not yet immediately threatened 
Ey the Yellow Peril of bayonets, air-ships, and 
armored cruisers; but there is the much 
greater, much stronger — because spiritual 
and mystical — danger of the Yellow Idea; 
indestructible and irresistible like all spiritual 
forces in the history of the universe, mightier 
than the thickest armor-plates, more far- 
reaching than the monsters of Krupp or 
Creusot. One can level to the ground by 
heavy artillery any armored fort, destroy 
Dreadnoughts by mines and torpedoes, but the 
spiritual idea fermenting among hundreds of 
millions cannot be exterminated by material 

Much has already been written about rail- f„»]'j2^« 
ways and concessions, about loans and the ex- 
ploitation of mines. Many have pondered 
and meditated on the reform of the Chinese 
people and the awakening of the Young Chi- 
nese. But it has not been clearly understood 
that what is really happening in China at the 
present moment is merely the outward symp- 
tom of a single inward idea arising in Eastern 
Asia, a pulse of the rhythm in which the 
whole world moves. European diplomacy 


3112 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ajj. 1911 

and European sinology ought to understand 
in the first place that any appreciation of the 
Young Chinese movement must start from the 
point of view that the idea^ "the East for the 
East," is essentially spiritual, even mystical, 
and will not at all carry with it only the mate- 
rial movements of economical and trading in- 
terests. It involves immensely more than so- 
cial reform and the expansion of trade. 
China with her four hundred millions is now 
moving upward in the world's course, because 
in future she will work mightily towards the 
spiritual and intellectual progress of all hu- 
'^JtgB Stated briefly, the beginnings of reform, 
*""■ as far as outward signs go, were as follows: 
After the defeat of the big, hairy Russian by 
the small brave Japanese, China began to real- 
ize her- own latent power; she began to con- 
sider how it came about that this small David 
had been able to stay this gigantic Goliath. It 
was as simple as the problem of Columbus's 
'egg, but it took centuries after centuries for 
China to see this egg standing on its tnd. 

About three years ago I, with a Chinese 
friend, visited a private Chinese school some- 
where in Java, and opened the desk of an 
urchin scarcely ten years old. I picked up his 
exercise book of compositions, and what I 
read there I may copy here without any com- 
ment, so exactly does it reflect the actual situ- 
ation. He wrote: "Small Japan defeated big 


China^ Afterwards small Japan defeated big 
Russia. How was it able to accomplish this? 
You think by ships and soldiers. But that is 
not so. It defeated Russia by its knowledge, 
by its education. It defeated the stupid Chi- 
nese and Russian soldiers, because education 
is so good in Japan ; because the Japanese peo- 
ple are instructed in the sciences and are no 
longer ignorant There is hardly a Japan- 
ese soldier who cannot read and write. 
China is much bigger than Japan and much 
bigger than Russia or any empire of Europe, 
and it has more than four hundred millions of 
inhabitants. When these people are instructed 
and know, China will be much more powerful 
than little Japan or the strongest peoples of 
Europe. Therefore the first thing China cwnajj^ 
wants is instruction. It must start with that. '^^'^ 
Then China will become the first empire of 
the world." 

This short essay of a ten-year-old child 
from the Dutch colony offers a striking in- 
stance of what now fills the Chinese popular 
mind, of what is taught in Chinese schools. 
Education has been reformed all over China 
and — perhaps forced upon it by public opin- 
ion — education is now the foremost care of 
the Chinese Government. It was initiated by 
an impulse from Japan. Japanese school- 
masters opened in China the first modern Ele- 
mentary School and were followed by Chinese 
scholars who had studied in Japan. After* 


wards the Government took the of&cial lead 
and had schools erected as far as possible all 
over China. The general curriculum of these 
schools is formed on a Japanese model, this 
again being an imitation of a European one 
rendered suitable to Eastern conditions. The 
present governmental programme contains a 
promise of compulsory education. Educa- 
tional appliances, originally from Japan, are 
now being printed and manufactured chiefly 
in China. There is a separate Ministry for 
Education established in Peking, and in- 
spectors of High Schools and Grammar 
Schools are appointed by this department. A 
few schools have already been opened and a 
larger number are provided for. There are 
still not a few Japanese teachers in China, but 
there is a growing tendency to substitute for 
them Chinese who have studied in Japan. 
And in China itself Preparatory Schools are 
being erected for the education of elementary 

But the most important thing is that in all 
Chinese thcsc schools the Chinese of the Mandarins 
^bSig""^ (Ching yin) is being taught. Why? Because 
taught. — ^^^ j^gj.^ jjgg |.j^g central importance of the 

Chinese education question, wherever there 
are Chinese settlements — because the awak- 
ened national sentiment has discerned that 
unity of language is indispensable to national 
unity. What is at present possible to a small 
part only of the present generation in China 


will be possible to the whole of the next 
generation . now attending the Elementary 
Schools: the Chinese people will speak one 
common language — that of the Mandarins. 

Consequently the Chinese of the Man- 
darins has become the greatest good of mod- 
ern China^ because of all means it is the only 
one, the saving measure by which unity of 
State and nation can be accomplished. It is 
impossible to predict what may be the con- 
sequences of this reformed elementary educa- 
tion, soon to be followed by High Schools. 
The* scope is so vast, so comprehensive. 
Everything pertaining to modern civilization 
is praised and explained in the reading*books 
of these schools of the people. A few years 
ago telegraphs, railways, telephones were of 
evil origin, sorceries of foreign devils, tem- 
ples and tombs were obstacles in the way of 
tracks and roads. At the present moment rail- 
ways, telegraphs, telephones, balloons, radio- 
telegraphy, everything that is modern and 
customary in Europe, is expounded in the 
national schools as the indispensable means to 
civilize China and put it on the same footing 
as the European States. Even Buddhist 
and Taoist temples are everywhere being t^^jJ;^^ 
equipped as schools — and it is well to notice*' "*^'*'* 
the symbolic significance thereof. Idols are 
removed from temples : modern science walks 
in. This single fact means the complete men- 
tal revolution of a people of over four hun- 


A.D. 191 1 


drcd millions; and the aspect of the entire 
world will be altered by it. 

Moreover, thousands of Chinese students 
go to Japan and America — a small minority 
come to Europe as well ; they imbibe there the 
milk of modern science and new ideas and 
return tp China, somewhat conceited and 
overbearing, but full of a sublime ideal: to 
devote their lives to the education of their 
native country. Amongst them there are nu- 
merous well-to-do people who become school- 
masters without taking any pay, from pure 
love of their ideal, and who disseminate 
knowledge as the apostles disseminated love. 
chfnese The Chlncsc have always been abused as 
inferior, as dirty, cowardly, and cruel, and 
particularly as materialistic and egotistical. 
Missionaries, and even learned professors 
who ought to know better, joined in, and (as 
happens everywhere through mistaking ex- 
ternal deteriorations for the original, ancient, 
internal essence) they described the Chinese 
as a nation of heathens, full of superstition and 
witchcraft, steeped in materialism and ego- 
tism, too much debased to feel devotion to high 
ideals. Only a few have always known that 
this characterization was untruthful. Those 
who had thoroughly got into touch with Chi- 
nese literature and philosophy, not as dry-as- 
dust philologues but as artists and philoso- 
phers, knew better what was the real essence 
of the Chinese national soul. 


[College of Cardinals ratifies appointments 
made by^the Pope and eighteen Cardinals re- 
ceive ilie Red Hat Diplomatic relations sev- 
ered between Russia and Persia. The "Play- 
boy of the Western World" presented by the 
Irish Players from Dublin in New York oc- 
casions riotous scenes in the theatre. Presi- 
dent of Republic of Santo Domingo assassi- 
nated. Standard Oil Trust passes out of 
existence by Supreme Court decree. General 
Chang and Imperial army arrive at Nanking. 
Persian Cabinet dismisses Morgan Shuster, 
Treasurer General from the United States. 
Martial law declared in Teheran. Russian 
troops occupy Tabriz after nine days' siege. 
Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the revolutionary leader, 
arrives in Shanghai and is elected president 
of the Chinese Republic at Nanking. Revo- 
lutionists attack Hankow. Representatives 
of the government and revolutionists meet in 
Shanghai in a peace conference. General 
Tuan Fang, former envoy to Shan-si, is mur- 
dered by one of his soldiers. Revolutionists 
capture all the forts surrounding the walled 
city of Nanking. Prince Chun, regent andprmce 
father of the infant Emperor Pu Yi, abdi-gj^n^<>« 
cates. Old Chinese calendar dropped and**^"*** 
Roman substituted. 


(A.D. 1911) 


A FEW days ago we received the news 
that suddenly, and almost simultane- 
^ ously, a revolution had broken out in 
Hupeh, Hunan, and Szechuan. These three 
provinces are situated in the very heart of 
China, in the valley of the incomparable' 
Yang-tse-kiang, China's principal highroad 
and trade artery. They have together about 
125,000,000 inhabitants. They contain some 
oi the greatest industrial, commercial, and 
mining centres of China, and they possess an 
importance comparable with that which Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire have for Great Britain, 
and which the States of Massachusetts, Illi- 
nois, and Pennsylvania, with the towns of 
Boston, Chicago, St. Louis, Philadelphia, 
and Pittsburgh have for the United States. 
^iHtion ^^^ position in China is extremely serious, 
•/China ^,^j people are asking themselves. What are 
the causes of this sudden revolution, and what 
are its aims? 

As the character of a revolution depends 
largely on the character of its leader, I would 
give a brief account of the impression which 




I received from my intercourse with Dr. Sun 
Yat Sen. The Doctor is a man of medium Tie 
height, slight but wiry, and is forty-five years ^r'J^g 
old. He speaks good English. He is very 
quiet and reserved in manner, and extremely 
moderate, cautious, and thoughtful in speech. 
He gives one the impression of being rather 
a sound and thorough than a brilliant man, 
rather a thinker than a man of action. He 
does not care to use the dramatic eloquence 
which appeals to the imagination and the pas- 
sions of the masses, and which is usually 
found in political and religious reformers of 
the ordinary kind. But then the Chinese arc 
perhaps not so emotional as are most Eastern 
and Western nations. I have heard Dr. Sun 
Yat Sen addressing a meeting of his country- 
men. He spoke quietly and almost monoto- 
nously with hardly any gestures, but the intent 
way in which his audience listened to every 
word — his speeches occupy often three and 
four hours, and even then his hearers never 
tire of listening to him — showed me the pow- 
erful effect which he was able to exercise over 
his hearers by giving them a simple account 
of the political position in China, of the suf- 
ferings of the people, and of the progress of 
the revolutionary movement. 

The majority of the Chinese in America 
are revolutionaries, and they worship their 
leader. Chinamen are commonly supposed 
to be sordid materialists, devoid of patriotism, 


and interested only in money-making, who 
are always ready to sell their country to the 
enemy. The incorrectness of that widely 
held belief, and the influence of Dr. Sun Yat 
Sen, will be seen from the fact that the Chi- 
nese living outside China have given enor- 
Tbe mous sums to the revolutionary movement. 

enormous *' 

sums given Accordiug to the Doctor's statements, many 
^^^ have given him their entire fortune. Even 

noyement. « « « i « i 

the poorest shopkeepers and laundrymen con- 
tribute their mite. 

Dr. Sun Yat Sen told me that he had mil- 
lions of adherents, and described to me the or- 
ganization of his society, which, with its self- 
supporting branches, its honorary presidents^ 
etc., may be compared with the great political 
associations existing in Anglo-Saxon coun- 
tries. The Doctor has led an agitator's life 
^ for more than twenty years. At first he was 
in favor of reform. He became a revolution- 
ary when, at last, he recognized that all at- 
tempts to reform China by peaceful and or- 
derly methods were quite hopeless. He told 
me that the revolutionary movement had re- 
ceived an enormous impetus when, during the 
short reform period inaugurated by the late 
Emperor, many thousands of students belong- 
ing to the best families had gone abroad, es- 
pecially to Japan — ^in 1905 there were 10,000 
Chinese students in Japan — ^who had come to 
see witfi their own eyes the hopeless back- 
wardness of China, the tyranny of its Govern- 


ment, and the necessity of thorough reform 
in order to save it from utter ruin. Thus, a 
very large number of men belonging to the 
educated, cultured, and privileged classes had 
become his supporters, and had spread the 
gospel of revolt all over the country. The 
Government knew the strength of the revolu- 
tionary party and feared it A "revolution 
would break out within two years. Practi- 
cally the whole of the modern army, that is, ^JSin 
that part of the army which has been drilled JidSy* 

^by Europeans and Japanese, were patriots, t«om«te. 
and were on the side of the revolution. The 

. Government, being aware of this, relied for 
its defence on the ancient and unreformed 
military forces, hired cut-throats without the 
sense of patriotism, who fought merely for 
their pay. These guarded the magazines and 
arsenals, and were provided with plenty of 
ammunition. The modern army was left with- 
out ammunition. To ensure their harmlessness 
only five cartridges per man were allowed for 

; firing practice, and only small parties of men 
were given cartridges at any time. The 
greatest needs of the revolutionaries were 
money and arms. — By the seizure of the im- 
portant Hanyang arsenal and treasury, the 
revolutionaries have obtained both at the out- 
set of their operations, and through their con- 
trol of mines and factories they can manufac- 
ture all the implements, arms, and ammuni- , 
tion which they need 



A.D. I9IX 

to be 
after the 

China has had about twenty dynasties, 
which have been introduced by as many revo- 
lutions, but China has remained unreformed. 
A change of dynasty is therefore no longer 
considered a remedy for China's ills. China 
has hitherto been governed by an absolutism 
which was supposed to be paternal, but which 
has become tyrannical. The people are tired 
of being misgoverned. They wish to govern 
themselves. The revolutionary party desires 
to convert China into a republic. China 
proper is a loose conglomerate of eighteen 
semi-independent provinces ruled by Vice- 
roys. They are to be replaced by republics 
having Parliaments of their own. These lo- 
cal Parliaments will look after purely local 
affairs, while national affairs will be under 
the control of a supreme National Parlia- 
ment The Government of China will be 
modeled on that of the United States or of 
Canada, and all has been prepared for effect- 
ing such a change. In Dr. Sun Yat Sen's 
opinion, the Chinese people are able to gov* 
ern themselves, being industrious, orderly, 
and docile, especially as they have been 
trained in the art of self-government and co- 
operation through their powerful guilds and 
secret societies. He told me that the Chinese 
were revolting not against the foreigners but 
against their corrupt Government, against the 
Manchus. The Europeans dwelling in China 
would be safe. A reformed China would be 


friendly to all nations, but it would expect to 
be treated as a civilized nation when it had 
earned the respect of Europe and could no 
longer be reproached with barbarism. 

The Chinese revolution is caused by thcThc 
mis-government and corruption which arej^^^ 
apparently inseparable from China's present"*"** 
form of government. In China there are 
about 400,000,000 Chinese and 5,000,000 
Manchus. The latter, having conquered the 
country, reserved to themselves all positions 
of power and profit. They rule through a 
host of more or less irresponsible and venal 
officials, most of whom are Manchus. Self- 
preservation is the first instinct in men. Ow- 
ing to their great numerical inferiority it was 
in the interest of the Manchus that the people 
should be weak, ignorant, unwarlike, and dis- 
united. Therefore the chief aim of the Man- 
chu policy was not to maintain the integrity 
of the country and to promote the welfare 
of the people, but to preserve the power of the 
ruling caste and to keep the people in subjec- 
tion. Intercourse with foreign nations would * 
have been profitable to the Chinese traders, 
and it would have enlightened the Chinese 
people. However, the enlightenment of the 
people might become dangerous to the small 
ruling caste. Therefore the Manchu officials 
preached hatred to the foreigners, who were 
excluded from the country. To the Manchus 
a disastrous war was a smaller calamity than 

3124 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. igxi 

the existence of a national army which might 
overthrow them. So the Chinese army was 
neglected, and the country was humiliated 
and despoiled by all nations. Modern in- 
dustries and railways would have increased 
the national prosperity, but as both would 
have increased the power and cohesion of the 
people, the introduction of both was forbid- 
den. The people prayed for good and hon- 
est government. However, as the officials 
were Manchus they had to be humored to en- 
sure their fidelity and support, and thus they 
were allowed to prey upon the people. Dur- 
ing two and a half centuries the Chinese were 
ruled by an absolute and corrupt bureaucracy, 
and their taskmasters were aliens. 
u^hings Confucianism, the prevailing doctrine of 
f^dil^sm. China, is neither a religion nor a system of 
transcendental or cosmic philosophy. It is an 
agnostic system of ethics, and a system of 
practical, and purely temporal, common-sense 
philosophy which sees no further than this 
earth. It takes practically no notice whatever 
of the question of an after-life, of eternity, of 
future rewards and punishments, of God. It 
teaches merely that one ought to do good be- 
cause it is man's duty to do good. Confucian- 
ism is entirely concerned with the relations 
between man and man, and it deals very fully 
with the question of government, with the ad- 
ministration of justice, and other practical 
matters. Confucianism is the moat demo- 

^D. 191 X 


cratic of doctrines. It condemns in the most 
unsparing terms governmental absolutism 
and favoritism, the appointment of incom- 
petent officials, and official tyranny and ex- 
tortion — the very evils which exist in China. 
All Chinese study the Classics as soon as they 
have mastered the alphabet. 

Official appointments have, until lately, 
been made solely on the strength of purely 
literary attainments, although we read in the 
Confucian Analects, "Though a man be able 
to recite the three hundred odes but be in- 
capable as an administrator or an ambassa- 
dor, and cannot work without assistance, of 
what practical use is then his knowledge?" 

Chinese literature is extremely rich in tell- ^{*j^*JS«. 
ing proverbs. Many of these insist on the 
supremacy of the people: "The people's will 
is the will of Heaven." Others emphasize 
the authority of the law, and complain of the 
tyranny of officialdom, the venality of the 
judges, and the necessity of forming secret 
societies for the mutual protection of the peo- 
ple. A proverb says : "The mandarin derives 
his power from the law, the people from the 
secret societies." Another warns us: "The 
doors of the law courts stand wide open, but 
you had better not enter if you are only strong 
in right, but not strong in cash." Another 
tells us: "The friendship of mandarins im- 
poverishes ; that of merchants makes rich." 

The foregoing extracts suffice to show that 

C— Vol. 1^ 



the tyrannical misgovernment, official incom- 
< petencc and obstructive conservatism prev- 
alent throughout China arc not due to the in- 
fluence of Confucianism, as has hitherto been 
believed in the West. They are opposed to 
Confucianism, and are condemned by it. 
wnditjon The condition of the Chinese people has 
chin^ been well described by Dr. Sun Yat Sen, in 

people. r\ • 

1897, ^^ the following words, which inciden- 
tally show his great literary ability and power 
and his wonderful command of the English 
language : 

"The form of rule which obtains in China 
at present may be summed up in a few words. 
The people have no say whatever in the man- 
agement of imperial, national, or even munici- 
pal affairs. The mandarins, or local magis- 
trates, have full power of adjudication, from 
which there is no appeal. Their word is law 
and they have full scope to practise their 
machinations with complete irresponsibility, 
and every officer may fatten himself with im- 
punity. Extortion by officials is an institution. 
It is the condition on which they take office; 
and it is only when the bleeder is a bungler 
that the Government steps in with pretended 
benevolence to ameliorate, but more often to 
complete, the depletion. 

"English readers are probably unaware of 
the smallness of the established salaries of pro- 
vincial magnates. They will scarcely credit 
that the Viceroy of, say, Canton, ruling a coun- 


try with a population larger than that of Great 
Britain, is allowed as his legal salary the pal- 
try sum of £60 a year; so that, in order to live 
and maintain himself in office, accumulating 
fabulous riches the while, he resorts to extor- xb* ^ 
tion and the selling of justice. So with educa- j^JJj,^ 
tion. The results of examinations are the one 
means of obtaining official notice. Granted 
that a young scholar gains distinction, he pro- 
ceeds to seek public emplo3rment and, by brib- 
ing the Peking authorities, an official post is 
hoped for. Once obtained, as he cannot live 
on his salary, perhaps he even pays so much 
annually for his post, licence to squeeze is the 
result, and the man must be stupid indeed who 
cannot, when backed up by the Government, 
make himself rich enough to buy a still higher 
post in a few years. With advancement comes 
increased licence and additional facilities for 
his enrichment, so that the cleverest 'squeezer' 
ultimately can obtain money enough to pur- 
chase the highest positions. 

"This official thief, with his mind warped 
by his mode of life, is the ultimate authority 
in all matters of social, political, and criminal 
life. It is a fatal system, an impertum in im- 
perio, an unjust autocracy which thrives by its 
own rottenness. But this system of fattening on 
the public vitals — the selling of power — is the 
chief means by which the Manchu dynasty 
continues to exist. With this legalized cor- 
ruption stamped as the highest ideal of gov* 

8128 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1911 

ernment, who can wonder at the existence of a 
strong undercurrent of dissatisfaction among 
the people? 


mafaes '^The masscs of China, although kept of&- 
i^orancc. cially in ignorance of what is going on in the 
world around them, are anything but stupid 
people. All European authorities on this mat- 
ter state that the latent ability of the Chinese 
is considerable ; and many place it even above 
that of the masses in any other country, Euro- 
pean and Asiatic. Books on politics are not 
allowed; daily newspapers are prohibited in 
China; the world around, its people and poli- 
tics, are shut out; while none below the grade 
of a mandarin of the seventh rank is allowed 
to read Chinese geography, far less foreign. 
The laws of the present dynasty are not for 
public reading; they are known only to the 
highest officials. The reading of books on 
military subjects is, in common with that of all 
other prohibited matter, not only forbidden 
but is even punishable by death. None is al- 
lowed on pain of death to invent anything new, 
or to make known any new discovery. In this 
way are the people kept in darkness, while the 
Government doles out to them what scraps of 
information it finds will suit its own needs. 

"The 'Literati' of China are allowed to 
study only the Chinese Classics and the com- 
mentaries thereon. These consist of the writ- 
ings of the old philosophers, the works of Con- 
fucius and others. But even of these, all parts 


relating to the criticism of their superiors are 
carefully expunged, and only those parts are 
published for public reading which teach 
obedience to authorities as the essence of all 
instruction. In this way is China ruled— or 
rather misruled — namely, by the enforcement 
of blind obedience to all existing laws and 

"To keep the masses in ignorance is the con- 
stant endeavor of Chinese rule." 

Matters have very slightly improved since 
1897. Still, the position is in the main as it 
was then, and the people are worse off than 
they were fourteen years ago, through the 
very great increase in taxation, and its con- 
stantly growing arbitrariness. 

The revolutionary principles of Dr. SunucM/y"^"' 
Yat Sen were laid down in a^ pamphlet of hisSfOr^sun 
entitled "The Solution of the Chinese Ques- 
tion," which was published in 1904. As far 
as I know there is no English translation of 
that important pamphlet. Some of its most 
important passages are as follows : 

"The Chinese have no real Government. 
The term *the Chinese Government' is a term 
without meaning. The Manchus were a tribe 
of savage nomads who wandered about the 
deserts of the Amur before they came in con- 
tact with the Chinese. Often they made in- 
roads into China and plundered the peaceful 
inhabitants near the frontier. Towards the end 
of the Ming dynasty civil war broke out in 


chSieae China and, taking advantage of the confusion, 
gii|uercd j|^^ Manchus conquered Peking. That was in 
*"*'^"^ 1644. The Chinese did not want to be en- 
slaved by foreigners, and offered a desperate 
resistance. To overcome the opposition, the 
Manchus massacred millions of people, war- 
riors and peaceful inhabitants, old and young, 
women and children. They burned their 
houses and forced the Chinese people to adopt 
the Manchu costume. Tens of thousands of 
people were killed for disobeying their orders 
to wear the queue. After terrible slaughter 
the Chinese were forced to submit to the 
Manchu laws. 

"The first measure of the conquerors was to 
keep the people in ignorance. They de- 
stroyed and burned the Chinese libraries and 
books. They prohibited the formation of so- 
cieties and the holding of meetings for the 
discussion of public affairs. Their aim was 
to destroy the patriotic spirit of the Chinese 
to such a degree that they should in course of 
time forget that they had to obey foreign laws. 
The Manchus number 5,ooo,cxx), whilst the 
Chinese number about 400,ooo,cxx). Hence 
the conquerors live under the constant fear 
that the Chinese should wake up and recon- 
quer their country. 

"It is generally believed among the people 
in the West that the Chinese wish to keep 
themselves apart from foreign nations and 
that the Chinese ports could be opened to for- 


cign trade only at the point of the bayonet. 
That belief is erroneous. History furnishes 
us with many proofs that before the arrival of 
the Manchus the Chinese were in close rela- 
tions with the neighboring countries, and that 
they evinced no dislike towards foreign trad- 
ers and missionaries. Buddhism was intro- 
duced into China by an Emperor of the Han 
dynasty, and the people received the new re- 
ligion with enthusiasm. Foreign merchants 
were allowed to travel freely through the Em- 
pire. During the Ming dynasty there was no 
anti-foreign spirit. The first minister became 
Roman Catholic, and his intimate friend, 
Mathieu Ricci, the Jesuit missionary in Pe- 
king, was held in high esteem by the people. 

"With the arrival of the Manchus the an- 
cient policy of toleration gradually changed. 
The country was entirely closed to foreign 
commerce. The missionaries were driven 
out. The Chinese Christians were massacred. 
Chinamen were forbidden to emigrate. Dis- 
obedience was punished with death. Why? 
Simply because the Manchus wished to ex- 
clude foreigners and desired the people to 
hate them for fear that the Chinese, enlight- 
ened by the foreigners, might wake up to a 
sense of their nationality. The anti-foreign Anu-^ 
spirit created by the Manchus came to its cli- created 
max in the Boxer Risings of 1900, and the^Ln^in. 
leaders of that movement were none other 
than members of the reigning family. 

8132 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1911 

"It is therefore clear that the policy of ex- 
clusion practised by China is the result of 
Manchu egotism. It is not approved of by 
the majority of the Chinese. Foreigners trav- 
eling in China have often remarked that they 
arc better received by the people than by the 

"During the 260 years of the Tartar rule 

we have suffered countless wrongs, and the 

principal are the following: 

JriSdpai "^' '^^^ Manchurian Tartars govern for 

iL'^rtSd the benefit of their race and not for that of 

Mandius. their subjects. 

"2. They oppose our intellectual and ma- 
terial progress. 

"3. They treat us as a subject race and deny 
us the rights and privileges of equality. 

"4. They violate our inalienable rights to 
life, liberty, and property. 

"5. They promote and encourage the cor- 
ruption of officialdom. 

"6. They suppress the liberty of speech. 

"7. They tax us heavily and unjustly with- 
out our consent. 

"8. They practise the most barbarous tor- 

"9. They deprive us unjustly of our rights. 

"10. They do not fulfil their duty of pro- 
tecting the life and the property of the people 
living under their jurisdiction. . . . 

"Although we have reasons to hate theMan- 
chus we have tried to live in peace with them, 


but without success. Therefore we, the Chi- 
nese people, have resolved to adopt pacific 
measures, if possible, and violent ones if neces- 
sary, in order to be treated with justice and to 
establish peace in the Far East and through- 
out the world. ... 

"A new Government, an enlightened and 
progressive Government, must be substituted 
for the old one. When that has been done 
China will not only be able to free herself 
from her troubles, but also may be able to de- 
liver other nations from the necessity of de- 
fending their independence and integrity. 
Among the Chinese there are many of high 
culture who, we believe, are able to undertake 
the task of forming a new Government. Care- 
fully thought out plans have been made for a 
long time for transforming the old Chinese 
monarchy into a republic. 

"The masses of the people are ready to re-Jje^^ 
ceive a new form of Government. They wishncw*^^*' 
for a change of their political and social con-SJS]*' 
ditions in order to escape from the deplorable 
conditions of life prevailing at present. The 
country is in a state of tension. It is like a 
sun-scorched forest, and the slightest spark 
may set fire to it. The people are ready to 
drive the Tartars out. Our task is great. It 
is difficult, but not impossible." 

Dr. Sun Yat Sen's assertions, contained in 
the foregoing, that a reformed China would ' 

^^establish peace in the Far East and through- 



out the world," seems at first sight rather ex- 
aggerated. However, I think there can be no 
doubt that a reform of China, a reform which 
would regenerate the country, would tend not 
only to establish peace in the Far East but 
would also tend to diminish the dangers of 
war threatening Europe and America. The 
greatest danger to the peace in the Far East 
lies undoubtedly in China's weakness. As 
long as China is weak, Russia, Japan, and 
other nations desirous of expansion will feel 
tempted to acquire Chinese territory; and as 
a peaceful partition of China among the nu- 
merous claimants is out of the question, a 
weak China will continue to be a danger, not 
merely to the peace of Asia, but to that of 
SSJKi?s8 Europe and America as well. But for Chi- 
W)^ na's weakness the Russo-Japanese War would 

Japanese ^ 

War. never have occurred. China's weakness has 
caused in the past dangerous friction between 
Russia and England, between France and 
England, between Germany and England, 
and between the United States and Japan, and 
it has more than once raised the spectre of war 
between these countries. The Sick Man of. 
the East is as great a danger to the peace of 
the world as is the Sick Man of the West. 

Dr. Sun Yat Sen states that a reformed China 
"will not only be able to free herself from her 
troubles, but may be able to deliver other 
nations from the necessity of defending their 
independence and integrity." He evidently 


refers to the small nations on the frontiers of 
China, such as Thibet, which used to stand 
under China's protection, and which at pres- 
ent are unable to defend themselves against 
the Powers of the West. 

Many European officers and other compe- 
tent observers who have lived in China — I 
could mention several prominent generals, 
admirals, and administrators, and among them 
General Gordon — are of opinion that the 
Chinese, if properly trained and led, willThe^^ 
make excellent soldiers. Some believe thatpJ25Si'^ 
the Chinese, owing to their extremely hardy SJ^«it 
constitution, their great endurance and**^ *"* 
marching power, and their contempt of death, 
are the best military material in the world. A 
country with 400,000,000 inhabitants can of 
course raise very large armies. The late Sir 
Robert Hart prophesied that China would 
create an army of 30,000,000 men. She could 
undoubtedly do this if she introduced univer- 
sal and compulsory military service on the 
model of Germany and France. But let us 
not forget that large armies provided with 
modern weapons and the numerous and ex- 
tremely costly appliances indispensable in 
modern warfare are very costly luxuries, and 
that China is, and will for many years remain, 
a very poor country. Besides the larger an 
army is, the greater are the difficulties of 
transporting and provisioning it. The Huns 
could travel without baggage when invading 








Europe. Nowadajrs the transport of the im- 
pedimenta of an army offers infinitely greater 
difficulties than the transport of the men 
themselves. The idea of a score of millions 
of Chinamen overrunning and overwhelm- 
ing India, Asiatic Russia, and Europe, cannot 
be seriously discussed except by those who are 
ignorant not only of military affairs but also 
of China's geographical position. The pecu- 
liarities of China's geographical position will 
be clear from the following figures: 

safilfc. Population. 

China proper (18 Provinces).. 1,532,420 407^53,030 

Manchuria 363,610 16,000.000 

Mongolia 1,367,600 2,600,000 

Thibet 463,200 6,500,000 

Chinese Turkestan 550,340 1,200,000 

Totalof the Chinese Empire. 4,277,170 433,553,030 
United Kingdom 121 ,391 45,000,000 

The foregoing table shows that the eighteen 
Provinces of China proper, with their 400,- 
ooo,cxx) inhabitants, occupy only a little more 
than one-third of the gigantic territory of all 
China. If we look at the map we find that 
China is almost isolated from the outer world, 
for those parts of China which do not touch 
the sea are separated from the neighbor na- 
tions by an enormous belt of deserts and moun- 
tains which make an invasion by large foreign 
armies across the land frontiers and an attack 
by large Chinese armies upon her Continental 
neighbors equally difficult if not impossible. 


The populous provinces of China proper arc 
separated from British India by the tremen- 
dous mountain wastes of Thibet, a country 
which is almost four times as large as the 
whole of the United Kingdom, and they are 
separated from Russia by the enormous des- 
erts of Mongolia and Turkestan, which to- 
gether are fifteen times as large as the United 
Kingdom. Yet these countries have together 
cMily 10,000,000 inhabitants. We can best rep- 
resent to ourselves their desolation and the 
sparsity of their inhabitants by imagining that 
the whole of the United Kingdom was inhab- 
ited by 500,000 people, a number which 
would correspond to the population of the out- 
lying portions of China. 

If ever there was a people rightly struggling 
to be free it is the Chinese. The Chinese de- 
serve the sympathy of the world in their strug- 
gle for freedom and for good popular govern- 
ment England and the United States, the 
great protagonists of popular government in 
every country, are considered to be the fairest cwna't 


nations by the people in the Far East, who arejj^Eng.^ 
aware that Great Britain and the United States *sutVf^**^ 
have in the past invariably shown their active 
sympathy for all nations struggling for free- 
dom. Many Chinamen have told me that they 
look to Great Britain and to the United States 


for sympathy and encouragement in their at- 
tempt to rid themselves of an odious tyranny, 
and that they look for their active support and 

3138 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1911 

assistance in the event that other nations should 
try to occupy Chinese territory at a time when 
the Chinese are fighting among themselves. 
Intervention in the present struggle is possible 
only from the sea. No nation, and no combi- 
nation of nations, can interfere in this Chinese 
civil war without England's assent, and her 
toleration of foreign intervention would be 
equivalent to her assent. England has a great 
responsibility in the present struggle, and has 
a great task to perform. 

[Settlement reached between British rail- 
way companies and labor unions. King of 
Nofcei Sweden gives Nobel prizes to Mme. Curie 
(chemistry), Professor Wien (physics). Pro- 
fessor Gullstrand (medicine) and Maurice 
Maeterlinck (literature) . Two hundred Rus- 
sian workmen drowned in Volga by col- 
lapse of a bridge under construction. Aus- 
tralian antarctic expedition under Dr.Manson 
sails from Hobart, Tasmania. International 
Opium Congress held at The Hague. James 
B. McNamara on trial at Los Angeles admits 
that he dynamited the Los Angeles Times 
Building on Oct. i, 1910, causing the death of 
twenty-one persons. Naval experts report that 
the wreck of the Maine in Havana harbor was 
the result of an external explosion. Earth- 
quakes in Nicaragua and in Mexico City. 
Death of John Bigelow, author, diplomat, and 
lawyer (ninety-four years). 




(A.D. 1911) 


WHILE the world at large regarded the 
expedition as a holiday jaunt, from 
the moment the announcement was 
made that the King, accompanied by his Con- 
sort, had determined to grace the Delhi Dur- 
bar of 191 1 with his presence, Indians looked 
upon it as an epoch-making incident, which 
was destined to change the trend of their his- 
tory. Though George V. was only a limited 
Monarch in England, he was the all-powerful 
Emperor of India, and it was said in public 
and. private that his Majesty's pronouncements 
during his sojourn in his Eastern Empire 
would prove in keeping with the momentous 
nature of the visit In reviewing the King- 
Emperor's speeches and proclamations, it isTjc 
necessary to bear these anticipations in mind. gJYndS; 

The most dominant note in his Majesty's In- 
dian utterances was his ecstasy at being in Hin- 
dostan. The phrasing of this sentiment was 
always happy, exuberant, natural, honest, and 
strikingly convincing. 
The King pointed his index-finger at the 



real meaning of his Indian visit in the follow- 
ing passage from his Durbar speech; 

*^. . . By my presence with the Queen- 
Empress I am . . . anxious to show our affec- 
tion for the loyal Princes and faithful Peoples 
of India, and how dear to our hearts is the wel- 
fare and happiness of the Indian Empire. . . . 

"Finally, I rejoice to have this opportunity 
of renewing in my own person those assur- 
ances which have been given you by my re- 
vered predecessors of the maintenance of your 
rights and privileges, and of my earnest con- 
cern for your welfare, peace, and content- 
, ment" 

Here, then, India and the whole world has 
from Royal lips, in so many words, the object 
Jw^tof ^^ objects of the Imperial tour. 

Those who have not paid close attention to 
the development of India during the last dec- 
ade will fail to grasp the utility of the King 
taking a long ocean voyage covering twelve 
thousand miles and lasting three weeks, each 
way, just to outline his policy toward his In- 
dian subjects, especially in view of the fact 
that immediately after he was called to the 
throne of his ancestors, on May 23, 1910, 
George V. issued the following message to the 
people of Hindostan : 

"Queen Victoria of revered memory ad- 
dressed Her Indian subjects and the heads of 
the Feudatory States when she assumed the di- 
rect government in 1858, and Her august son, 

object of 
the tour. 


my father of honored and beloved name, com- 
memorated the same most notable event in his 
address to you fifty-eight years later. These 
are the charters of the noble and benignant 
spirit of Imperial rule, and by that spirit 
in all my time to come I will faithfully 

Nor will these critics realize the usefulness 
of his Majesty iterating and reiterating senti- 
ments, for instance, like this : 

"... It shall ever be our earnest endeavor 
to promote the welfare of our Indian Empire, 
and we fervently hope that the years as they 
pass will ever strengthen the feeling of warm 
attachment that exists between my house and 
n>y Indian people." 

But those who have followed the history of 
what is loosely termed "Indian unrest," and'^^SSt* 
those familiar with the Indian psychology, 
without the least stretch of the imagination 
will understand that it was every bit worth 
his while for King George to go out to his 
Eastern Empire and personally pledge his 
word that all the promises previously made 
guaranteeing that the British will do every- 
thing in their power to develop their Indian 
charges, and that their Sovereign will see to 
it that their inalienable rights as men and 
citizens are in no way usurped. Rightly or 
wrongly — this is not the place nor the occa- 
sion to discuss this point — the impression went 
abroad in educated Indiav toward the middle 


of the last decade, that the English pledges 
which Hindostan had cherished as its consti- 
tution outlining its civil rights, were not being 
and never would be fulfilled. An important 
section of the younger and more impetuous 
generation of Indians, trained in Occidental 
academies, especially, lost all faith in Great 
Britain's intention to carry out its covenants. 
The extreme wing even went to the length of 
declaring that the Proclamations were not 
worth the parchment on which they were writ- 
ten. A bitter agitation — ^waged in a perfectly 
constitutional manner by the majority of the 
educated Indians, but permitted to degenerate 
into an anarchistic ebullition by the impa- 
tient idealists — was the natural outcome of this 
spirit of mistrust of the British intent to fulfil 
what sarcastically were described as their 
"pious" and "generous" resolves. With the 
commencement of the Georgian regime it was 
meet and proper that an attempt should be 
made to deal a final blow to the spirit of sus- 
picion. No one can study the speeches made 
by his Majesty during his stay in India with- ' 
out coming to the conclusion that he embarked 
on this trip with the single-hearted purpose of 
The . delivering a fatal stroke to the agencies which 
fir'SS' ^^^^ ^^^^ working for the separation of India 
J?fndu° from the British Empire — a contingency re- 
Bri^^* garded as a calamity alike by all sane Indians 
and by the English. 
Whatever may have been the motives which 


impelled his Majesty to set his face toward 
India, whatever the remarks of those who 
spoke lightly of his mission, and whatever the 
warnings of the timid councillors who feared 
for the safety of the Sovereign's person, or 
who were apprehensive about the results of his 
mission, now that the King has finished the 
task he undertook to perform in this instance, 
no candid writer can survey the events con- 
nected with the visit without unhesitatingly 
affirming that the Royal progress of India has 
been a tremendous personal triumph for him. 
From the moment he landed in Bombay to 
the instant he stepped off Indian soil he has 
shown an unexcelled sense of proportion and 
responsibility, consummate tact in dealing T^^^m*'* 
with prince and peasant, and a superb grasp 
of the Indian's psychology and Hindostan's 
problems. The most carping critic is unable 
to find fault with what he personally did, or 
what he himself said. Wherever he went he 
received the most loyal and cordial welcome. 
■Whatever he said and did was vociferously 
acclaimed. According to all accounts, never 
has the enthusiasm of India been roused to 
such a high pitch as by King George's prog- 
ress through the country. All reports testify 
that his Majesty has left the most pleasant im- 
pressions behind him. 

An incident hitherto unnoticed by the Brit- 
ish public, probably more than anything else, 
demonstrates the success which has crowned 

mate Uct. 



the King's Indian trip. After the Durbar 
crowd had dispersed and their Majesties de- 
parted, some bare-headed people approached 
the dais and bent themselres double before the 
thrones that, a short time before, had been oc- 
cupied by the King-Emperor and Queen^ 
Empress. Their attitude was so reverent that 
"ihite ^* almost seemed that the "white Maharaja 
Jid**"^* and Maharani" had been included in the 
Hindu pantheon, which already is said to con- 
tain 330,000,000 deities, and that their devo- 
tees were performing their worship before the 
empty chairs — ^which, having been touched 
by the loved god and goddess, partook of 
their very essence, just as the relics of such 
saints as Buddha are venerated. But the curi- 
ous part of it was that the men who w^^re al- 
most prostrate on the floor before the empty 
thrones belonged to the Bengali race, which, 
during recent years, has been depicted in the 
British Press as seeking to wage war upon his 
Majesty, spreading the terrorist movement in 
India, and boycotting English products — a 
community which has been maligned and ex- 
ecrated all over the English-speaking world. 
The conversion of "dangerous agitators" into 
loyal subjects is an accomplishment to be 
highly prized. This incident in itself is con- 
clusive testimony to the effect of the King's 
personal magnetism upon the people of Hin- 
dostan, but if considered together with the ex- 
uberant loyalty displayed by Bengal during 



their Majesties' stay in Calcutta, it assumes a 
still deeper significance. 

Since the days when he went to India as 
Prince of Wales, King George has urged that 
"sympathy" should be made the predominant|r^ 
note of Indian Government. He has taken J^'^^'J^ 
the wise stand that an alien administration, no 
matter how honest and efficient it may be, no 
matter how just, no matter how much it is con- 
ducted in the true and abiding interests of the 
governed, if it lacks the gentle touch of sym- 
pathy, becomes a soul-crushing burden to the 
ruled. Patience born of fatalism may endure 
it without complaint, but it is galling, even 
though quietly borne. An administration 
which permits a dull-sensed bureaucracy to 
interdict all heart-forces from the realm of 
government is bound to be like gall and worm- 
wood to an imaginative, impulsive, emotional 
people like the Indians. To rule them in that 
fashion is sheer folly. King George, since his 
tour through India in 1905, has persistently 
sought to introduce and strengthen the ele- 
ment of sympathy in the Indian domination. 
During his recent visit, especially, he repeat- 
edly and emphatically expressed his warm 
feelings for his Indian subjects, and by his ac- 
tions seared the word "sympathy" on the souls 
of his officials. What wonder that the chords 
in the hearts of all peoples of the Peninsula 
throbbed at his gentle touch, and that Hindo- 
Stan responded to his friendly advances more 

8146 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1911 

cordially than it ever did to a Hindu or Mos- 
lem Emperor? 

The twelfth of December of Anno Domini 
191 1 established the fact, beyond cavil, that 
the Indians were not wrong in their estimate 
of the powers and intentions of their Impera- 
tor, when the following boons were bestowed 
by the generous Royal hand : — 
Jo\x ( ^ ) '^^^ grant of half a month's pay to all 

«^"* soldiers, British and Indian, all sailors of the 
Royal and Indian Marine, and all subordinate 
civilians drawing fees less than fifty rupees 
(£3 6s. 8d.) a month; 

(2) making officers and men of the Indian 
Army eligible for the Victoria Cross ; 

(3) the release of certain prisoners under- 
going sentences for crimes and misdemeanors; 

(4) the discharge of all civil debtors whose 
liabilities were small and due, not to fraud, 
but to real poverty, and the payment of their 
obligations ; 

(5) the setting aside of fifty lakhs (£300,- 
000) for the promotion of education, with the 
promise of further grants in future years on a 
generous scale ; 

(6) the transfer of the seat of Government 
of the Indian Empire from Calcutta to Delhi; 

. (7) the establishment of a Governorship of 
Bengal, with a new Lieutenant-Governorship 
for Behar, Chota-Nagpur, and Orissa, and a 
Chief Commissionership in Assam. 


In this circumstance, it seems strange that 
December 12, 191 1) should be marked on 
the calendar as a day when, so far as India 
was concerned, there existed no British Parlia- 
ment whatsoever. Of course, the Houses of 
Lords and Commons were both promised the 
opportunity of discussing the changes when 
they reassembled. But as Lord Lansdowne 
aptly put it: 

"Nothing that this House can say or do can uLtjowne 
alter what has been announced by his Majesty. """^^ 
. . . The word of the King-Emperor has been 
passed, and that word is irrevocable." 

Not only are the Commoners and Lords de- 
prived of their power to legislate in this in- 
stance, but they cannot, in the circumstances, 
even express their feelings with their accus- 
tomed freedom. 

The first five boons, viz., the grant of half 
a month's pay to all soldiers, sailors of the 
Royal and Indian Marine, and subordinate 
civilians drawing small salaries; making In- 
dians eligible for the Victoria Cross; the re- 
lease of certain prisoners; the discharge of 
civil debtors and the payment of their debts; 
and the grant of fifty lakhs of rupees for the 
promotion of education, call for little com- 
ment. They have been well received. Some 
extremists have shown a disposition to criticise 
the third boon, because his Majesty did not 
order the release of Indians in prison for po- 
litical o£Fences. Others would have liked it 

8148 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.o. i9i» 

better if the Emperor had given a larger ini- 
tial grant-in-aid for education. However, the 
general public in India have considered it 
nfiore graceful to accept the "gift horse" with- 
out "looking it in the mouth." 

The remaining two changes have called 
forth considerable criticism, both favorable 
and unfavorable. 

The change of capital, naturally, is hailed 
or decried, according to whether the vested 
interests of the critics and their friends are 
affected by it or not 

When the fire of contention has spent itself, 
and the -people are able to take a more dis- 
passionate view of the Emperor's Indian visit, 
probably the incident connected with it that 
will loom the largest will be the one which 
has received the smallest attention — the King's 
pronouncement on the expansion of India's 
educational system. Leaving aside the grant of 
The«i'* £300,000, and the promise of further aid "in 
future years on a generous scale," the King's 
declaration of the educational policy which 
hereafter is to be pursued in Hindostan de- 
serves especial attention. In his speech at Cal- 
cutta on January 6th, in reply to the address 
of the Calcutta University, he said: 

"It is my wish that there may be spread over 
the land a network of schools and colleges 
from which will go forth loyal and manly and 
useful citizens, able to hold their own in in- 
dustries and agriculture, and all the vocations 



in life, and it is my wish, too, that the homes 
of my Indian subjects may be brightened and 
their labor sweetened by the spread of knowl- 
edge, with all that follows in its train — a 
higher level of thought, of comfort, and of 
health. It is through education that my wish 
will be fulfilled, and the cause of education in 
India will ever be very close to my heart." 

There is only one other document in exist- 
ence in the whole world to which this passage 
can be compared, and that is the Rescript on 
Education issued by his Imperial Majesty japtn'i 
Mitsuhito, Emperor of Japan. In order topou^.° 
turn the faces of his subjects from the darlcness 
of the Middle Ages to the light of advancing 
civilization, the Ruler of the Sunrise King- 
dom declared his educational policy in the fol- 
lowing words : 

"The acquirement of knowledge is essential 
to a successful life. All knowledge, from that 
necessary for daily life to that higher knowl- 
edge necessary to prepare officials, farmers, 
merchants, artisans, physicians, etc., for their ^ 
respective vocations, is acquired by learning. 
A long time has elapsed since schools were 
first started in this country. But for the farm- 
ers, artisans, and merchants, and also for 
women, learning was regarded as beyond their 
sphere, owing to some misapprehension in the 
way of school administration. Even among 
the higher classes much time was spent in the 
useless occupation of writing poetry and com- 

D— Vol. 10 

8150 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. xgxi « 

posing maxims, instead of learning what 
would be for their benefit or that of the State. 
Now an educational system has been estab- 
lished, and the schedules of study remodeled. 
It is designed that education shall be so dif- 
fused that there may not be a village with an 
ignorant family, or a family with an ignorant 

This Rescript to-day is worshipped by the 
Japanese people — for the achievements of 
Modern Nippon, and its future prosperity, are 
based upon it. 

In the humble opinion of the writer, when 
all else is forgotten, the King's words about 
The ^ the educational policy that the Indian Gov- 
Sl*S£ln ernment should pursue, if his suggestions are 
Sml"' loyally and generously carried out, will be re- 
membered. Posterity, proud of Hindostan's 
intellectual, spiritual, and economical stability 
and progress, will point to the first trip under- 
taken by the "White Maharaja," in 191 1 and 
19 1 2, during the course of which the first defi- 
nite pronouncement was made to accelerate the 
speed and multiply the power of the machin- 
ery which is removing the stigma of ignorance 
and superstition from twentieth-century India. 
If his Klajesty had done naught else but this, 
the money, time, and trouble involved in the 
visit would wisely and well have been spent. 

[191 2: Duke of Connaught visits Mr. 
JWhitelaw Reid in New York, and is received 


by President Taft at the White House. Car- 
dinal Farley arrives in New York after his ele- 
vation to theCardinalate^and impressive cere- 
monies take place in his honor at St .Patrick's 
Cathedral, New York. Cardinal Bourne 
makes a first entry into Westminster Cathe- 
dral, the first of its kind in England since the 
Reformation. The King of Sweden promises 
a bill insuring full political rights to women. 
The Norwegian Storthing passes a measure 
admitting women to public office. First im- 
portant naval engagement of the war occurs in 
the Red Sea, Italian cruisers sinking seven 
Turkish gunboats. Fire in Osaka, Japan, de- 
stroys 5,000 buildings and renders 30,000 per- 
sons homeless. Taft commutes the sentence of 
Charles W. Morse, sentenced two years ago to 
fifteen years* imprisonment for manipulation 
of bank funds. Taft signs proclamation ad- 
mitting New Mexico as the forty-seventh New. 
State. Robert Bacon resigns as American am- adSSJa 

^ as State. 

bassador to France. Fire destroys the build- 
ing of the Equitable Life Assurance, occupying 
one block in New York City, resulting in the 
death of Battalion Chief Walsh and five 
others. Members of the British Miners' Fed- 
eration declare a general strike for March i. 
House committee which investigated Pure 
Food Controversy sustains Dr. H. W. Wiley. 
General strike in Lisbon. Cathedral at Khar- 
toum, a memorial to General Gordon, con- 
secrated. Russian steamer Russ founders in 

8162 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191* 

Black Sea with 172 persons on board, A wage 
reduction in Massachusetts results in strike in 
cotton mills and factories of Lawrence, Mass. 
New world^s speed for aeroplanes (88 miles 
an hour) made by Jules Vcdrines at Pau. 
Death of Rear- Admiral Robley D, Erans. 
United States cruiser Maryland ordered to 
Guayaquil, Ecuador, to protect American in- 
Dn|ttn^te rests. Dr. Sun Yat Sen inaugurated at Nan- 
Hlf^jj?**** king as provisional president of the New Re- 

Slffe P""^^^^- Empress Dowager contributed $2,. 
000,000 to fight the revolutionists. Bomb 
thrown at Premier Yuan Shih-kai at Peking 
kills two of his guards. Key West Extension 
of the Florida East Coast Railway opened. 
King George and Queen Mary return to Eng- 
land after three months^ absence in India. As- 
quith introduces his Irish Home Rule bill into 
Parliament, and it passes its first reading in 
House of Commons. Taf t sends special mes- 
sage to Congress dealing with the high cost of 
living and the relations between capital and 
labor. Taft signs proclamation admitting 
Arizona as the forty-eighth State in the Union. 
Death of Lord Lister, discoverer of ^antiseptic 
treatment in surgical operations (eighty-five 
years) . Manchu dynasty comes to an end with 
abdication of the child emperor Pu Yi and 
the recognition of the republic. Sun Yat Sen 
sends Wong Chung Ting to the United States 
as special representative, and the State De- 
partment is ofiicialiy notified of the formation 


of the Chinese Republic. Dowager Empress 
signs a decree directing the Premier to coop- 
erate with the Republicans at Nanking to es- 
tablish Republic, and National Assembly 
grants Imperial family a pension of $2400,000 
a year. Myron T. Herrick confirmed by Sen- 
ate as Ambassador to France. House passed 
amty appropriation bill, abolishing five regi- 
ments of cavalry and increasing the term of 
enlistment to five years. Norwegian Cabinet 
resigned. Demonstration for Home Rule in 
Ireland participated in by 15,000 people in 
Trafalgar Square, London. Yuan Shih-kai |fi|Saj 
elected President of the Chinese Republic by preSdcnt 
the National Assembly. Corner-stone of the*" 
National Maine Monument laid in New York 
City. Railroad officials and steel-rail manu- 
facturers confer in New York in an effort to 
produce safer rails. Conferences in London 
between representatives of British coal opera- 
tors and miners. Disastrous fire entailing loss 
of several millions at Houston, Texas, Severe 
wind storm in New York State. Hundred 
miners entombed by fire in a coal mine in 
Oklahoma. National Assembly of China elects 
as vice-president General Li Yuen Hung, com- 
mander of the revolutionary army. Yuan 
Shih-kai accepts the Presidency of the Repub- 
lic of China. Two thousand revolutionary 
troops mutiny at Peking and set fire to the city. 
Colombian minister to the United States re- 
called. Italian Parliament reopened with 


royal decree proclaiming the annexation of 
Tripoli and Cyrenaica ratified two days later 
by Senate. Italian force attempting to occupy 
the oasis of Zanzur, near Tripoli, defeated. 
Italian fleet sinks several Turkish war vessels 
at Beirut, Syria, and damages life and prop- 
erty in the city. Martial law proclaimed at 
Beirut, ^nd the Italian Government denied 
that the city was bombarded. Italian army 
uses dirigible balloons for the first time in 
warfare. Two air-ships drop bombs in Turk- 
ish camp at Zanzur. Philander C. Knox, 
American Secretary of State, and party visit 
Latin American republics bordering on the 
Caribbean. First of a series of conferences 
between anthracite mine-workers and opera- 
tors in New York; the miners demanding 
eight hours a day and twenty per cent increase 
o35£?*" in wages (refused two weeks later). Hunga- 
resignt. j.jj^j^ Cabinet resigns. General Orozco, mili- 
tary governor of Chihuahua, Mexico, turns 
against the Madero government and seizes the 
State for the revolutionists. Lloyd George an- 
nounces that two-thirds of the British cabinet 
are in favor of woman suffrage. City of 
Juarez falls into the hands of the revolution- 
ists, who dynamite the National Bank of Mex- 
ico. A monster demonstration in favor of 
peace and the government is held in Mexico 
City. The United States Senate ratifies the 
general treaties of arbitration with Great Brit- 
ain and France with important amendments. 


Regiments of United States troops are sent to 
the Mexican border. German naval bill pro- 
vides for sixty large ships and forty cruisers. 
House passes a bill declaring all citizens of 
Porto Rico to be citizens of the United States. 
Senate authorizes the President to prohibit the 
shipping of war materials into Mexico. Gov- 
ernment's suit against Sugar Trust is begun in 
New York. Chinese outbreak spreads to Tien- 
tsin, foreign troops (including 200 Ameri- 
cans) arriving in Peking restore quiet (5,000 
persons killed during troubles). Yuan Shih- 
kai is inaugurated President and proclaims a 
general amnesty. Coal miners (1,000,000 
men) go on strike in Great Britain. Bristol 
dock workers refuse to handle foreign coal; 
more than 300 trains are withdrawn, and the 
sailings of many steamships are cancelled. 
Captain Roald Amundsen arrives at Hobart, captaia 
Tasmania, and announces that his expedition rea<!£s the 

' ^ South 

planted the Norwegian flag at the South Pole, ^'^' 
Dec. 14, 191 1. National Assembly in China 
grants to women the right to vote if they can 
read and write, and if they own property. 
Russia withdraws from the "six nation" con- 
troversy. Swedish Government introduces a 
bill in Parliament extending the franchise to 
women, and the right to sit in Parliament on 
the same conditions as men. Floods on banks 
of Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers. 
Robert F. Scott's vessel returns to New Zea- 
land reporting that the expedition arrived 


within 150 miles of the South Pole. The Min- 
imum Wage Bill passed by British House of 
Lords. Bill providing an eight-hour day for 
miners passes the French Chamber. French 
protectorate established over Morocco. War 
Department of the United States sends 1,000 
rifles to the American Legation in Mexico for 
its own use. Two hundred insurgents executed 
in Canton. Battleship Florida attains speed 
JnhS""" of 22.58 knots (a new record). Hulk of bat- 
raiwand tlcship Maxnc is raised from bottom of Ha- 
J2a. *^ vana harbor and buried in the open sea with 
impressive ceremonies; remains of oflScers and 
men are buried at Arlington. Failure of all 
attempts to arbitrate the British coal strike. 
About 175,000 coal miners strike in Germany. 
Coal strike averted in Belgium. Nine weeks' 
strike of textile workers ended at Lawrence, 
Mass. (more than 125,000 persons in New 
England obtained advances of from five to 
seven per cent, as a result). Suffragettes 
smash hundreds of windows in London (150 
women arrested) . Sun-power plant sent from 
Philadelphia at Khedive's order to irrigate 
the Nile Valley ( 10,000 horse-power, and ex- 
pected to take the place of over 2,500 labor- 
ers). Floods in Mississippi Valley cover 200 
square miles, render 30,000 persons homeless 
(damage, $10,000,000).] 


{AD. 1912) 

E. S. 

ON the morning of April the fifteenth p|^^^,^ 
the whole civilized world was stunned 
with horror and grief at the news that 
had come by wireless "out of the deep" that 
the passenger steamship Titanic, of the White 
Star Line, had sunk. She was not only 
the largest ship the world had ever seen, but 
the most magnificent vessel that had ever 
proudly floated on the breast of the mighty 
monster — Ocean. She was 883 feet long, 92J 
feet broad, and 104 feet high from keel to 
bridge. She had eight steel decks, a cellular 
double bottom ; and to drive her engines — the 
last expression of marine engineering — 29 
enormous boilers and 159 furnaces. To man 
and run her was a crew of 860, including 320 
engineers and 65 engaged in her navigation. 
All her structure was of steel, of weight, size, 
and thickness greater than ever used before 
on any ship. 

Her interior fittings and furnishings were 
superb, and she was provided with Turkish 
baths, gymnasiums, elevators, and all the lux- 
uries that are to be found on land. The vari- 


3158 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d, 191a 

ous decks, saloons, libraries, palm-gardens, 
etc., were so extensive that it was more than 
easy to lose one's way. As the huge Titanic 
left its dock at Southampton, an incident oc- 
curred that many passengers at the time re- 
garded as an evil omen. The New York, 
moored to the side of the dock, broke from 
her cables, charmed by the greater ship, and 
"crept slowly and stealthily, as if drawn by 
some invisible force which she was powerless 
to withstand," to quote from one of the wit- 
nesses on the Titanic' s deck. It was only with 
the greatest difficulty that she was hauled 
^^/e» Thus sailing on Wednesday, April 10, with 
2,208 passengers and crew, the Titanic called 
at Cherbourg the same day and at Queens- 
town on Thursday, and on that day started 
across the Atlantic, expecting to arrive in 
New York on the following Wednesday 
morning. A particularly long run was made 
on Sunday. Those who had crossed the At- 
lantic before agreed that the Titanic was the 
most comfortable boat they had ever traveled 
on, and that the trip had been in every way 

In his carefully written "Loss of the Steam** 
ship Titanic^' (Boston, 191 2), Lawrence Bees- 
ley, one of the survivors, says : 

"Perhaps the real history of the disaster 
should commence with the afternoon of Sun- 
day, when Marconigrams were received by 


the Titanic from the ships ahead of her, warn- w««e4 ef 
ing her of the existence of icebergs. In con- 
nection, with this must be taken the marked 
fall of temperature observed by everyone, in 
the afternoon and evening of this day, as well 
as the very low temperature of the water. 

"I remember with deep feeling the effect 
this information had on us when it first be- 
came generally known on board the Carpa- 
thia. Rumors of it went round on Wednesday 
morning, grew to definite statements in the 
afternoon, and were confirmed when one of 
the Titanic officers admitted the truth of it, 
in reply to a direct question. I shall never 
forget the overwhelming sense of hopelessness 
that came over some of us as we obtained defi- 
nite knowledge of the warning messages. It 
was not then the unavoidable accident we had 
hitherto supposed; the sudden plunging into 
a region crowded with icebergs which no sea- 
man, however skilled a navigator he might be, 
could have avoided 1 The beautiful Titanic 
wounded too deeply to recover, the cries of the 
drowning still ringing in our ears, and the 
thousands of homes that mourned all these 
calamities — none of these things need ever 
have been I" 

The story, briefly told, is this : A little before 
midnight on April 14th the Titanic, going 
at full speed through a region of ice, collided 
with an iceberg in latitude 41*" 46' North, and 
longitude 50"* 14' West — 1,600 miles due east 


of New York. An expert nautical engineer 
explains the accident as follows : "A massive, 
projecting, under-water shelf of the iceberg, 
with which she collided, tore open several 
compartments of the Titanic. The rent ex- 
tended from near the bow to amidships, and 
was similar tp what would have happened 
had an immense can-opener gouged her side." 
The energy of the blow was 1,100,000 foot 
tons. It is well to remember that the plates 
were less than an inch thick. 

It was not until about an hour after the ac- 
cident that the wireless call for help was sent 
to Cape Race and the lifeboats began to be 
'^ikS^^ lowered. The ship sank, bow first, at 2:20 
o'clock in the morning. The survivors were 
picked up in the dawn by the Carpathia, 
which had responded to the wireless call for 
help. Subsequently, the White Star Line 
chartered two vessels — the Mackay -Bennett 
and the Minia — to search for bodies. These 
ships found the remains of 200 persons and 
took them to Halifax. Among the bodies 
found were those of Col. John Jacob Astor, 
Isidor Straus, and Charles M. Hays. The 
financial loss of the vessel exceeded $15,- 

When the Carpathia arrived in New York, 
on April i8th, it found the great city in a hys- 
teria of grief and anxiety. Preparations had 
been made to care for the dead and dying and 
wounded, for the sensational reports had it 


that she was a 'Meath-ship/' on which many 
of the survivors had gone mad from grief and 

But this was not the case. The surviv- 
ors had gone through the terrible ordeal 
with remarkable fortitude ; and although they 
landed without clothing and money and un- 
der emotional excitement, in the main they 
were in a wonderful state of health, and dis- 
embarked in solemn and impressive outward seif- 

' control of 

calmness and self-control. •urriTOM, 

Who could have imagined that the splendid 
Titanic was destined to such a fate? Least of 
all those passengers sleeping quietly in their 
berths, or enjoying the various pleasures the 
ship afforded. Even after the accident, no 
one imagined that within a couple of hours 
the floating palace would be no more, and that 
all the passengers would be shipwrecked! 
What a rapid change! What a violent shock! 
One moment within a brilliantly lighted and 
deliciously warm ship, surrounded by all con- 
ceivable luxuries — in the next helplessly cast 
upon the broad ocean in the dark and cold 
night, without food or raiment, separated 
from relatives and friends, with the horror of 
perishing and the greater horror of watching 
others struggle in the waves. We can almost 
live through this scene by means of Mr. 
Beesley^s vivid pen, which so graphically de- 
scribes the actual sinking of the vessel. The 
lifeboat in which he was fortunate enough to 


have a place had been afloat for an hour and 
a half when the Titanic' s tragic end came : 

"The oarsmen lay on their oars, and all in 
the lifeboat were motionless as we watched 
her in absolute silence — save some who would 
not look, and buried their heads on each 
other's shoulders. The lights still shone with 
the same brilliance, but not so many of them; 
many were now below the surface. I have 
often wondered since whether they continued 
to light up the cabins when the portholes were 
under water; they may have done so. 

"And then, as we gazed awe-struck, she 
tilted slowly up, revolving apparently about 
a centre of gravity just astern of amidships, 
Thj^aup until she attained a vertically upright posi- 
Srighik"^ tion ; and there she remained — emotionless ! As 
Swi5(^^* she swung up, her lights, which had shone 
without a flicker all night, went out suddenly, 
came on again for a single flash, then went out 
altogether. And as they did so, there came 
a noise which many people, wrongly, I think, 
have described as an explosion; it has always 
seemed to me that it was nothing but the en- 
gines and machinery coming loose from their 
bolts and bearings, and falling through the 
compartments, smashing everything in their 
way. It was partly a roar, partly a groan, 
partly a rattle, and partly a smash, and it was 
not a sudden roar as an explosion would be; 
it went on successively for some seconds, pos- 
sibly fifteen to twenty, as the heavy machinery 


dropped down to the bottom (now the bows) 
of the ship ; I suppose it fell di rough the end 
and sank first before the ship. But it was a 
noise no one had heard before, and no one 
wishes to hear again; it' was stupefying, stu- 
pendous, as it came to us along the water. It 
was as if all the heavy things one could think 
of had been thrown downstairs from the top 
of a house, smashing each other and the stairs 
and everything in the way." 

**When the noise was over the Titanic was 
still upright like a column; we could see her 
now only as the stern and some 150 feet of her 
stood outlined against the star-specked sky, 
looming black in the darkness, and in this 
position she continued for some minutes — I 
think as much as five minutes, but it may have 
been less. Then, first sinking back a little at^«Jj* 
the stern, I thought, she slid slowly forwards ^•'•'^ 
through the water and dived slantingly. down; 
the sea closed over her and we had seen the 
last of the beautiful ship on which we had em- 
barked four days before at Southampton. 

"And in place of the ship on which all our 
interest had been concentrated for so long, and 
towards which we looked most of the time be- 
cause it was still the only object on the sea 
which was a fixed point to us — in place of the 
Titanic, we had the level sea now, stretching 
in an unbroken expanse to the horizon ; heav- 
ing gently as just before, with no indication 
on the surface that the waves had just closed 


over the most wonderful vessel ever built by 

man's hand; the stars looked down just the 

same, and the air was just as bitterly cold." 

Jaountof Another very graphic account was written 

£*t^dby"by Miss Marie G. Young of Washington, in 

Ywng. the library of the Carpathia. 

"In our midst are heart-broken wjves 
mourning for husbands who forced them into 
lifeboats ; here also are motherless and father- 
less babies, for whom busy fingers are eagerly 
fashioning garments cut from clothing fur- 
nished by generous women oi the Carpathia. 
Mothers and sisters are crying for lost sons 
and brothers. Men are here, too, with frozen, 
bandaged .feet and hands. From these tragic 
surroundings, while words of despair, of 
cheer, of hope, and of solace pass and repass, 
I send my recollections of a night of horror 
that language can never adequately describe. 

"The steamship Titanic was moving swiftly 
over a quiet sea under a sky brilliant with 
stars. I had just switched off the light over 
my bed, when the ship struck with a grinding, 
wrenching force, followed by several violent 
bumps. My friend, Mrs. White, and I 
thought we had struck a small boat, and she 
urged me to go with her immediately to Deck 
A, where the promenade deck was situated. 

"We put on our wrappers and fur coats, 
and went up from Deck C to Deck A, where 
a steward told the gathering passengers that 
we had grazed an iceberg, but the ship was 


in no danger. Consequently^ we lost valuable 
time, sitting in the corridors watching the 
young girls and men come in from the deck, 
carrying pieces of ice which had fallen on the 
deck (70 feet above the sea) when we struck. 
In this time we might have collected valu- 
ables, and dressed warmly for the undreamed- 
of exit into the icy night. The engines were 
letting off steam, all headway being stopped. 
Suddenly Captain Smith ran downstairs, call- 
ing out Tut on your life-belts T It seemed 
impossible we could really have understood 
his words, so full of tragic import, and spoken 
on such a gigantic 'unsinkable' boat as the 

"I ran down to our room, took a lif e-pre- 
jerver from the rack on the ceiling, and find- 
ing the second one caught in the hinge, I took 
another from the top of the wardrobe. Then, 
catching up some money lying near and a 
sweater and extra coat, I ran to Deck A again, 
in time to hear the order given for all women 
to go to the boat deck. 

"There was no hurry, no confusion, no 
crowding. The ship was so large the passen- 
gers had not gathered together. 

"We heard that chivalrous and gallant com- 
mand, 'Women first 1' 'S&^ 

"One boat had already been lowered from 
the port side when we were lifted into Boat 
No. 8. The captain was beside us, and from 
a hamper nearby he threw a huge loaf of 

8166 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

bread into the boat. To a group of waiting 
seamen and stewards we heard the question 
put, *Can you row?' 

"No sailor had any station assigned him for 
any boat, and this 'scratch' crew had known 
no boat drills. 

"Eagerly four men entered our boat as oars- 
men, and with only twenty-two souls aboard 
The first we were lowered away from the height of 
lowered, eighty feet into the sea. Our stern lowered 
at such a start, it seemed certain that we would 
ship water, but finally we slipped gently from 
the hawsers and rested on the ocean, whose 
calmness was our salvation. 

"Captain Smith called to us to pull for a 
green light seen in the distance, to unload pas- 
sengers and return the boat at once. We left 
above us weeping wives who refused to leave 
their husbands, and young mothers who had 
come to place nurse and babies into a boat. 
They went below to save other children, but 
they were not seen again. Our boat was 
rowed a short distance, then rested, as opinions 
were divided between following the captain's 
orders and staying nearby to pick up possible 

"How we hoped and prayed that the Ti- 
tanic would staunchly bear up with her wait- 
ing hundreds' until succoring ships had com- 
pleted the work of rescue. Finally we started 
in pursuit of the low-lying distant light 
pointed out, but again and again our hor- 


rificd eyes were held by the lighted sinking 

"Slowly deck after deck sunk out of sight, 
the water covering the bow port-holes, and, as 
she crouched lower, she seemed like a gigan- 
tic kneeling animal. 

"It was more like a nightmare than reality 
to watch the death struggle of the ship whose 
warm and superlative luxury had so recently 
enfolded us. What bitter regret one felt at 
the thought of the millions spent in palm- 
gardens, Turkish baths, squash court, tapes- 
tried walls and inlaid woods, when the great sufficient 
essential of sufficient lifeboats was lacking, u^t 

"All aboard her had such faith in her 
staunchness that they waited by preference 
aboard her after her deathblow, believing her 
to be unsinkable. Her wireless call rent the 
sky, rockets blazed, illumfnating the huge ice- 
berg on the starboard side, and her cannon 
boomed again and again for succor. 

"The incredible sound of music reached us, 
and with disappearing lights, the roar of ex- 
plosions, the wails of i,6oo agonizing souls, 
was mingled the heroic music played by what 
trembling hands God only kno^s. 

"Horror and grief stunned us. How could 
we witness it and live? One seaman said pver 
and over again, *I'd rather go back and drown 
with them than save myself.' 

"Yet we were in the hands of men who had 
lighted their cigarettes with calm indifference 



before we left the steamer's deck, A steward 
near me, trying to row, said, *I never held an 
oar before.' No officer was at our helm. We 
depended on girls to steer us, and all night the 
women rowed, standing, facing the men, so 
four hands were throwing all bodily strength 
into each pull of the oars. 

"Often the lantern was lifted and waved. 
It burned badly, and we lost time trimming it 
The sea stretched so smoothly before us that 
the stars were reflected. Twinkling about us 
were the lights of other Titanic boats. Those 
that were launched without lanterns burned 
The dawn fope and hats as signals. Slowly dawn came. 

"Never had our eyes watched so eagerly for 
the creeping light that turned from black to 
gray, then flushed to pink on low-lying clouds- 
Then what a joyous cry went up I Far away 
from the elusive light we had vainly followed, 
shone a light too high to be anything but a 
mast light. What salvation lay in its exist- 
ence, could we but reach it or call it to us! 

"Soon it showed deck lights as it swung its 
side towards us, and from the fear of death 
awaiting us, our hearts surged to the belief 
that help, relief, and life itself reached out 
glad, welcoming hands. 

" ^Courage now,' we cried, as the sea grew 
rough, as the wind rose with the approaching 

"How desirable life looked! Freezing 
hands labored at the oars, and the first gleams 


of the sun displayed* a horizon with fifteen 
icebergs white against it. Sea gulls flew oyer 
our boat, returning to hover over the crew of 
straining women and men at the oars. 

"As far as eye could see were small white 
boats struggling towards the rescuers, called 
by the miracle of the wireless message. Boat 
after boat gathered close to that waiting ship. 
Would such joy ever be ours, to become one 
of them, and feel a line of safety thrown to 
hold us to her side? 

"We saw her black hull, the swinging rope 
ladders and men waiting on her decks. 
Whirling ropes flew towards us, oars were 
shipped, and just as safety seemed certain we 
crashed against the hull of the Carpathia in 
the wild wash of the roughening sea. 

"A voice called *Any children aboard?' 

"]Qp went a shout of *No!' 

"Secured at bow and stern, a *bo's'n's seat' 
was lowered, looking like a stout wooden 
swing. It worked on a pulley, and many 
hands held it. The thought of being seated 
in it was terrifying, as it swayed dizzily be- 
tween sky and sea; but strength and assurance 
of safety rang in the voices above. 

"Life preservers were discarded, and the 
passenger nearest the bow was pulled upward ^j^^ 
in a series of vigorous leaps. Outstretched?^^ 
arms secured each one in turn, and the deck Us^ngera. 
of the good ship Carpathia was a haven of 


S^tiga- ^^ ^^ ^^y ^^*^^ ^^ arrival of the Carpa- 
82*c^ thia (April 18), the American investigation 
appointed into the causes of the wreck began under a 
^ed special committee appointed by the United 
Senate Stktcs Scnatc, of which Senator Smith of 
Michigan was chairman. Senator Smith took 
the chief part in obtaining testimony from the 
survivors of the Titanic, and officers and pas- 
sengers of other vessels that were in the vicin- 
ity of the wreck; and the first important tes- 
timony was that of Mr. J. Bruce Ismay, chair- 
man of the Board of Directors of Ae Inter- 
national Mercantile Marine Company, which 
owns the White Star Line. 

The main facts were that the Titanic, 
though forewarned, was dashing at full speed 
through a region of icebergs ; the ship was not 
properly provided with lifeboat provision 
(one in three only could be saved) ; the crew 
was too small and insufficiently trained; the 
wireless telegraph service was inadequate, and 
provided with but one operator; the bulkhead 
doors and general electric equipment were not 
tested thoroughly before starting; lack of 
proper glasses for the lookout; and the belief 
of the officers, crew, and passengers in the un- 
sinkability of the ship. This is all covered, 
however, in Admiral Chadwick's criticism in 
the Evening Post: "The Titanic was lost by 
unwise navigation, by running at full speed, 
though so amply forewarned, into the danger- 
ous situation, which might easily have been 


avoided. This is the fundamental, sad, and 
one important fact. It accounts for every- 

It is, however, of far more interest to the 
general public to discover what precautions 
should be taken to avert a similar disaster, 
than to try to fasten the blame upon any in- 
dividual, or company, or board of trade. The 
blame may not be unfairly laid largely upon 
the traveling public itself that has demanded 
ever-increasing speed and all the luxuries and 
elegancies of modern life on an ocean steamer. 
These have naturally crowded out the appli- 
ances for safety and provisions for saving 

Senator Smith proposed, after the inquiry 
had established these facts, new legislation {Jg;^^ 
for ocean passengers. He would have ocean ?o?^Si 
liners equipped with double bottoms and*^*"" ' 
fitted out with modern lifeboats, fully 
equipped and supplied with food, sufficient in 
number to take care of every soul on board; 
searchlights, binoculars for the men on watch, 
who should have shorter hours; regular life- 
boat drills with permanent crew stations; con- 
stant day and night wireless service with ade- 
quate remuneration for the operators; a warn- 
ing signal to the passengers of an accident; in- 
structions given to passengers concerning life- 
belts and the proper entering into lifeboats; 
regulation as to speed when the steamer is_ 
proceeding through log or iceDergs; and rules 

8172 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191. 

that steamers should take the summer route in 
the iceberg season. 

Before the American investigation was fin- 
ished, Mn Ismay announced that a number of 
reforms, including the carrying of sufficient 
lifeboats, would be instituted on the ships of 
the White Star Line, and on May ist the 
Government Steamship Inspection Service 
changed the regulations regarding the num- 
ber of lifeboats, regulating this "by the num- 
ber of passengers, officers, and crew licensed 
to be carried," instead of by tonnage. Various 
steamship lines conferred with the United 
States Hydrographic Office, and all captains 
were ordered to take the new southern route, 
although this adds two hundred miles to the 
westward course. 
Iritiii! Oi^ May 2d the British Commission of In- 
SSnT quiry, under the direction of the Board of 
^^«»;^ Trade, began its investigations, which were 
conducted by Lord Mersey. 

Again let us quote from Mr. Beesley, who 
wrote his interesting book largely for the pur- 
pose of seeing that the proper reforms are car- 
ried out. He writes : 

"The Titanic's two thousand odd passen- 
gers went aboard thinking that they were on 
an absolutely safe ship, and all the time there 
were many people — designers, builders, ex- 
perts, government officials — ^who knew there 
were insufficient boats on board, that the Ti- 
tanic had no right to go fast in iceberg regions. 



and took no steps and enacted no laws to pre- 
vent their happening. Not that they omitted 
to do these things deliberately, but were lulled 
into a state of selfish inaction from which it 
needed such a tragedy as this to arouse them. 
It was a cruel necessity which demanded that 
a few should die to arouse many millions to a 
sense of their own insecurity, to the fact that 
for years the possibility of such a disaster has 
been imminent. Passengers have krfown none 
of these things, and while no good end would 
have been served by relating to them needless 
tales of danger on the high seas, one thing is 
certain — that, had they known them, many 
would not have traveled in such conditions, . 
and thereby safeguards would soon have been 
forced on the builders, the companies, and the 
Government. But there were people who 
knew and did not fail to call attention to the 
dangers : in the House of Commons, the mat- 
ter has been frequently brought up privately, 
and an American naval officer. Captain E. K. 
Roden, in an article that has since been widely 
reproduced, called attention to the defects of 
this very ship, the Titanic — taking her as an 
example of all other liners — and pointed out 
that she was hot unsinkable, and had not 
proper boat accommodation." Regarding the 
direct responsibility of the disaster, he says: 
"Dealing first with the precautions for the 
safety of the ship, I suppose that the direct di£ct.rg; 
jcsponsibility for the loss of the Titanic and^f^?;^^,.^^ 

E— Vol. 10 



A.D. 191a 

bility for 
loss of 

SO many lives must be laid on her captain. He 
was responsible for setting the course, day by 
day and hour by hour, for the speed she was 
traveling; and he alone would have the power 
to decide whether or not speed must be slack- 
ened with icebergs ahead. No officer would 
have any right to interfere in the navigation, 
although they would no doubt be consulted. 
Nor would any official connected with the 
management of the line — Mr. Ismay, for ex- 
ample — be allowed to direct the captain in 
these matters; and there is no evidence that 
he ever tried to do so. The very fact that the 
captain of a ship has such absolute authority 
increases his responsibility enormously." Of 
the indirect responsibility, he says : 

''In the first place, disabusing our minds 
again of the knowledge that the Titanic struck 
an iceberg and sank, let us estimate the proba- 
bilities of such a thing happening. An ice- 
berg is small and occupies little room by com- 
parison with the broad ocean on which it 
floats ; and the chances of another small object 
like a ship colliding with it and being sunk 
are very small ; the chances are, as a matter of 
fact, one in a million. This is not a figure of 
speechj that is the actual risk for total loss by 
collision with an iceberg as accepted by 
insurance companies. The one-in-a-million 
accident was what sunk the Titanic. 

''Even so, had Captain Smith been alone in 
taking the risk he would have had to bear all 


the blame for the resulting disaster. But it 
seems he is not alone ; the same risk has been 
taken over and over again by fast mail-pas- ^^^ 
scngcr liners in fog and in iceberg regions. j]5JSf? 
Their captains have taken the long-very long^:|^^ 
-—chance many times and won every time; hefiiS?^ 
took it as he had done many times before, and 
lost. Of course, the chances that night of 
striking an iceberg were much greater than 
one in a million; they had been enormously 
increased by the extreme southerly position of 
icebergs and field ice, and by the unusual 
number of the former. Thinking over the 
scene that met our eyes from the deck of the 
Carpathia after we boarded her — the great 
number of icebergs wherever the eye could 
reach — the chances of not hitting one in the 
darkness of the night seemed small. Indeed, 
the more one thinks about the Carpathia com- 
ing at full speed through all those icebergs in 
the darkness, the more inexplicable does it 

'^So that it is the custom that is at fault and 
not one particular captain. Custom is estab- 
lished largely by demand, and supply too is the 
answer to demand. What the public demand- 
ed the White Star Line supplied, and so both 
the public and the line are concerned with the 
question of indirect responsibility. 

"The public has demanded, more and more 
every year, greater speed as well as greater 
comfort, and by ceasing to patronize the low- 


Speed boats, has gradually forced the pace to 
what it is at present Not that speed itself is 
a dangerous thing — it is sometimes much safer 
to go quickly than slowly — but that, given the 
facilities for speed, and the stimulus exerted 
by the constant public demand for it, occasions 
arise when the judgment of those in command 
of a ship becomes swayed — largely uncon- 
sciously, no doubt — in favor of taking risks 
which the smaller liners would never take." 
hi?oi«nof The passengers as a rule showed wonderful 
paLengers. hcrolsm and calmness, both in individual cases 
and as a whole ; and in summing up the col- 
lective behavior of the crowd, the qualities 
that struck him were the entire absence of 
fear or alarm on the part of the passengers; 
quietness and self-control, the two qualities 
most expressed; that the sense of danger came 
to every one very slowly; that there was a 
curious sense of the whole scene being but a 
dream; that every one surveyed the actions 
of others dispassionately; the general atmos- 
phere of peace — clear sky, calm sea, and not 
a breath of wind — to which all on board re- 
sponded unconsciously; and the general obe- 
dience and respect for authority of every one, 
each one endeavoring to do his part to bring 
about the best result for all on board, irrespec- 
tive of his own safety; all of which behavior 
proved that heroism is an unconscious qual- 
ity of the race, and nobility of character far 
less uncommon than is usually supposed. 


[A Congressional inquiry into the causes of 
the Titanic disaster begun by Senators Smith 
and Ncwland* in New York. Yuan Shih-kai 
delivers his first Presidential message at the 
opening of the Chinese Advisory Council. 
Mutiny among Moorish soldiers at Fez. Car- 
pathia arrives in New York with 495 pas- 
sengers and 210 crew of the wrecked Titanic. 
Memorial services for those who lost their lives 
cm the Titanic held in St. Paul's Cathedral and 
in other churches in the British Empire and 
United States. Announcement that steamers 
of the International Mercantile Marine will 
carry sufficient lifeboats and rafts for passen- 
gers and crew. Bazaar section of Damascus, 
Syria, destroyed by fire. British commission 
under Lord Mersey begins investigation of 
wreck of Titanic. Death of Frederick VIII., H***^ 


King of Denmark, and accession of his son, l^^i^*"** 
Christian X. Cable ship Mackay-BennettDl^m^rk. 
brings 190 bodies picked up from the Titanic 
wreck into Halifax. Italian battleship, Re 
Vmberto, runs on rocks off Tripoli and sinks. 
Over 15,000 persons participate in woman 
mffrage parade in New York City, on May 
4th. Cable ship Minia carried fifteen more 
bodies from Titanic into Halifax. Deaths of 
Major-General Frederick Dent Grant; Clara 
Barton, founder of the Red Cross Society, and 
Col. John Jacob Astor, W. T. Stead, and Isi- 
dor Straus {Titanic) J] 


(A.D. 1912) 


'HE fourteen of us who have come into 
the Thames include all the South Pole 
shore party except Captain Amundsen, 
who is now busy in Buenos Aires writing the 
book of his experiences, and he will not come 
to Europe until August. Toward the close 
of the year he proposes to rejoin the Fram at 
Buenos Aires, and make an attempt via Cape 
Horn to reach the North Pole. Seven or eight 
of us intend to rejoin him on that expedition. 
There will only be fourteen in the new trip, 
instead of the twenty-one who sailed south, 
but in attempting the North Pole there is no 
need to furnish a landing party. 

"Even apart from the achievement of reach- 
ing the South Pole, our voyage has been a 
great success, and in the conditions under 
which we made it there was no risk. None 
of us have at any time had any feeling of hav- 
ing been in trouble. 

"There have been toil and dangers, but the 

surmounting of these has been a question of 

Am^d^n Organization, and that was the work of Cap- 

a fearless o 7 r 

leader, tain Amundsen. He is a splendid leader, su- 



A.D.I912 At THE SOUTH POLE 3179 

preme in organization^ and the essential in 
arctic or antarctic travel is to think out the dif- 
ficulties before they arise. When that is thor- 
oughly done everything goes smoothly and the 
difficulties resolve themselves into a test of en- 

"The chief of the dangers we encountered 
were the crevasses in the ice. Of these Ig;^ 
sometimes dream. One day Captain Johann-"^^ 
sen was driving his sleigh, and the fore- 
most of his dogs dropped into a crevasse and 
had to be abandoned. Usually it was possible 
to make a bridge with our skis and pull the 
dogs back to safety by their harness. 

"One of the closest shaves experienced was 
by the Southern party. On that occasion the 
dogs got safely over a crevasse and continued 
pulling, but the sleigh fell in. One of the 
party had to climb down to the sleigh, unpack 
everything that it contained, and arrange for 
its contents to be pulled up piece by piece, fol- 
lowed by the sleigh itself. That was a diffi- 
cult bit of work, for the snow and ice at the 
edge of a crevasse are often only a few inches 
thick, and liable at any moment to give way 
when weight is put upon them. 

"Our mean temperature for the time we 
were in the antarctic regions constitutes a rec- 
ord. The figure was 60 degrees Centigrade 
below freezing point, the lowest being 77 de- 
grees. A good idea of the intensity of the cold 
may be obtained from the fact that on one of 

3180 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS aj>. 191a 

the sleighing expeditions the brandy froze in 
the bottle and was served out in lumps. It 
did not taste much like brandy then, but it 
burned our throats as we sucked it. 

"Several of the members got more or less 
frostbitten. You are bound to suffer in this 
way in polar exploration, but it does not mat- 
ter much if it is only on your hands or face. 
The trouble is when it attacks you in the feet. 
It is the same sort of feeling as burning. Then 
the pain disappears, and you know that you 
are frostbitten. 

"In the spring of 191 1 Captain Amundsen 
made too early a start for the Southern expe- 
dition, and he had to return, because three of 
the party had their feet frostbitten. All the 
time we were with6ut a doctor, but we needed 
none, for Captain Amundsen had had two 
years of medical training. 

"Despite the cold the weather was extreme- 
ly favorable. We had expected heavy gales, 
but, as a matter of fact, the wind was no 
heavier than you meet with elsewhere. 
Animaiiife "Animal life, except on the coast, was non- 
?*ilient. existent. On the shores of the Bay of iWhales, 
where we had our hut, life was abundant. 
The bay is rightly named, for whales were ex- 
traordinarily common, and there were crowds, 
too, of seals, penguins, and gulls. We sent 
back a collection with the Fram the first time 
she left us, and were able to supplement it 
when we returned this time. The animals 


were amazingly tame, and the seals and pen- 
guins frequently walked right up to the doors 
of our hut. We obtained cinematograph pic- 
tures of them, and they will be shown by Cap- 
tain Amundsen when he lectures on the 

"Thanks to the wealth of animal life in the 
Bay of Whales we were never short of fresh 
food. Lest we should not find this source of 
supply, we had taken with us between twenty 
and thirty tons of dried fish for the dogs, and 
large quantities of dried pemmican that 
proved very useful for them on the way out. 
It was particularly on their account that wc 
welcomed the supply of fresh meat. For our- 
selves we found the penguins and gulls were 
excellent as a change from tinned meat. They 
taste very much like partridge, and all the 
time we were at the hut there was not a single 
day that fresh meat did not figure at least once 
on our bill of fare. It entirely saved us from 

"Food proved no difficulty on our expedi- 
tion. We have cached in the antarctic regions *;«|*^ 
as much food as will last for three years. We 
left our hut in complete order, ready for oc- 
cupation. There is food in it The sleeping 
bags are ready for use. The cooking stove is 
in perfect order, and beside it lies a box of 
matches. A thousand yards from the hut is 
a special cache of provisions marked with a 
large flagpole, so that any one can find it. 


"The Southern expedition was well 
equipped," the speaker added. "There were 
four sleighs, each about eleven feet long, with 
span runners, and weighing fifty-five pounds^ 
Each sleigh carried four provision cases, one 
bearing also Captain Amundsen's private bag- 
gage, and the remaining three the tent, cook- 
ing gear, sleeping bags, three compasses, 198 
pounds of petroleum, and various apparatus. 
Thirteen dogs were attached to each sleigh, 
the weight amounting to between 850 and 900 
pounds. To ease the dogs two days' rest wa» 
taken at each depot. Between the 84th and 
86th degrees a chain of ice mountains had to 
be negotiated. Two tremendous peaks about 
15,000 feet high were named Don Pedro 
Christophersen and Frithjof Nansen. 

"The weather became very severe, and the 
Eiicd^^'r party were obliged to kill and eat several of 
their dogs. For some days the party traveled 
on a huge glacier. El Diablo, after which a 
tramp had to be made in the teeth of a blind- 
ing storm. 

"Conditions then improved, and on Dec. 
14th a hole was dug at the pole, and with all 
hands on the staff the Norwegian flag was 
raised. A tent was erected over the spot, and 
clothes, food, and other articles which it is 
hoped may be of use to the next visitor were 
placed inside. The site was named Pol 
Heim. After three days of observation tfie 
return journey was begun. 


jLi>.i9ia AT THE SOUTH POLE 3188 

"The party arrived back at the hut early in 
the morning of the long Summer day. They 
had been expected daily, but several of the 
party were out when they arrived. The suc- 
cess of the expedition was celebrated by a 
special dinner. 

"Plenty of new land has been explored by 2nd. 
the southern and the eastern parties. We"""***^^' 
found that the range discovered by Sir Ernest 
Shackleton runs all across the country. Both 
parties made geological collections as far as 
was possible, and Captain Amundsen will 
have a good deal that is new to report of King 
Edward VII. Land, which was discovered by 
Captain Scott. The eastern expedition in 
King Edward VII. Land was conducted by 
Lieutenant Prestrud, who had two compan- 
ions, and they named one of the peaks after 
Captain Scott. It is easy to understand why 
Captain Scott could not explore the country, 
for it is bordered by ice forty feet high, and 
is quite unapproachable by a ship. The pres- 
ence of iron was detected by the compass, but 
no traces were found either of coal or gold. 
Naturally, it was not possible to make any- 
thing approaching to a complete study of the 
district, for all the time it was necessary to 
travel quickly, as can be imagined when it is 
remembered that Captain Amundsen did his 
return journey from the Pole to the hut with- 
out a rest, traveling continuously from Dec. 
17th to Jan. 26th. In collecting specimens, 



the work was in many ways like Alpine climb- 
ing, for we often had to descend by ropes on 
to the face of the cliflfs, to get at the land where 
it was not covered by snow or ice. 

"Our most exciting experience was the 
sighting of the British and the Japanese expe- 
ditions. In 191 1 we had a most cordial mect- 
}^T^a ing with the Terra Nova. We had seen noth- 
ing for six months, and naturally were excited 
at meeting her. We were with her people al- 
together about twelve hours. We had finished 
building our hut the day before, and they were 
the first guests we received. They came to us 
for breakfast, and we paid a return visit to 
them for luncheon. 

*^It was just at the time that the southern ex- 
pedition had returned toward the end of Jan- 
uary. The ice in the bay was still tight, but 
then a fortunate gale broke it up and drove 
both the Tainan Maru and the Fratn out to 
sea. That gale was a very good thing for us, 
for instead of having to transport our things 
ten miles, the Fram was able to come back 
within a couple of miles of the hut. When 
we left a day or two later the tents were still 

"Sir Ernest Shackleton has put forward the 
view that the bay ice is changing. Between 
1900 and 1901 he reports a large piece was 
broken oflp. During our two years' stay there 
was no change in it. 

"Much of the success of the expedition de- 


pended on the dogs, which behaved splendid- 
ly. From the time of the start we made them 
our pets, and each member of the shore party, 
including Captain Amundsen, was responsi- 
ble for one of the teams, each man invariably 
feeding his own dogs. This is an important 
point, as a great deal depends on the dogs be- 
coming fond of their drivers. While Captain 
Scott was able to get more work out of his 
ponies as long as they were on firm ice, it was 
the opinion of our expedition that dogs were 
superior for the varying conditions." 

[Theodore Roosevelt announces his conver- 
sion to the cause of woman's suffrage. The 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor approves 
the new regulations requiring lifeboat accom- 
modations for all persons on ocean liners. 
Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey iswS2^°^ 
nominated for President on the 46th ballot in^"^***^ 
the Democratic National Convention in Bal- National 
timore. Jose Ramirez, a former cabinet min-^*°**^ 
ister, is assassinated at San Juan del Sur, Nic- 
aragua. Cuban insurgent leader. General 
Evaristo Estenoy, is killed in an engagement 
near Santiago. London dock strike is ended, 
the workmen's ballot against its continuing. 
Dock on Grand Island, Niagara River, col- 
lapses, drowning two hundred people. Turks 
and Arabs repulsed with heavy losses at Trip- 
oli. Chief Willis L. Moore of the United 
States Weather Bureau, outlines a plan for an 

3186 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a,d. 191a 

international weather and storm bureau. The 
German battleship squadron visits New York. 
The German Emperor and Czar of Russia 
meet at Baltic Port, Russia. Seven persons die 
of bubonic plague in Porto Rico, and United 
States army surgeons are sent there to check 
the disease. Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst and 
Mrs. Pethick Lawrence, the British suffra- 
gettes, are released from prison after serving 
a month of their nine months' sentence. A suc- 
cessful woman-suffrage parade is held in Bal- 
timore. Tornado in Regina, capital of Sas- 
katchewan Province, Canada, destroys much 
property (fifty lives lost). Harriet Quinby, 
the woman aviator, is killed at the Boston avia- 
tion meet with her passenger, W. A. P. Wil- 
lard. The British Government arranges for 
the construction of five high-power wireless 
stations to cost $3,00x3,000, for a complete 
round-the-world service. Mexican revolu- 
o^S? tionists, under General Orozco, are defeated 
in a battle south of Chihuahua (1,700 dead, 
2,900 wounded). British Board of Trade's in- 
quiry into the cause of the Titanic wreck end- 
ed. Mexican Federal troops take possession 
of Chihuahua. The Norwegian Storthing 
passes the $5,000,000 naval budget. Trial 
of the Camorrist leaders at Viterbo, Italy, is 
ended after seventeen months; eight of the 
men are sentenced to thirty years' solitary con- 
finement. General Garibaldi resigns his com- 
mand of the Mexican Federal volunteers. 




(AJ>. 1912) 


I CROSSED the international bridge over 
the Minho at Tuy a few hours before Cap- 
tain Victor Sepulveda and his two hundred 
Royalists made their futile attack on Valenga, 
and I remained in the north of Portugal until 
the failure of the raiders was beyond question. 
As I naturally took a keen interest in what 
was going on around me, and had been study- 
ing the Portuguese question for years, my 
views with regard to the recent Royalist raid 
may, therefore, be of some interest. 

Captain Couceiro has been ridiculed be- 
cause his attempt failed miserably, but, until 
facts proved their inadequacy, the RoyalistThc 
plans did not seem so very fantastic. ThepJ^i*- 
theory was this : 

The Portuguese army and the peasantry of 
the north are a pair of powder-barrels. A 
single spark will explode both of them and 
blow the Republic sky-high. A corporal's 
guard with a blue-and-white flag will be sufli- 
cient. Now, Captain Couceiro must have sent 
across the frontier, at different points, no less 


3188 • THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

than one thousand men. At least half of these 
were well-armed and had plenty of ammuni- 
tion. The main body had even two mountain- 
guns and three machine-guns. If there were 
any truth in the very numerous and very' cir- 
cumstantial reports which Couceiro had re- 
ceived regarding the anxiety of ninety-nine 
per cent of the Portuguese soldiers to surren- 
der to him, this raid from Spain was as sure 
of success as was Napoleon's raid from Elba. 
Moreover, it seemed certain that the civilians 
would rise as one man, seize the arsenals, 
and constitute themselves into a formidable 
army. Such, at least, was the impression one 
gathered from the Royalist emissaries who 
came almost daily to Verin, Tuy, Orehse, and 
Mondariz from the interior of Portugal, 
when the present writer lived in those places 
last year. The priests in the north were espe- 
cially emphatic on the subject of a general in- 
surrection. They themselves would lead their 
flocks. The most cautious calculation was 
that at least fifty thousand men would rise in 
the north, and that at least half the troops in 
garrison there would join the insurrectos. 
Moreover, it seemed, on July ist, to be as cer- 
tain as anything can be that there would be a 
coup d'etat in Lisbon itself. It failed be- 
The cause, at the last moment, the Gdvernment 
^^ made sweeping changes among the officers, 
SESfS.' transferred some and retired others. More- 
over, the military leaders of the Lisbon plot 



began quarrelling among themselves and with 
Couceiro. The result is that, for one month 
now, fresh ramifications of this great military 
plot are being discovered almost daily. It has 
become clear that if all (he people concerned 
in this plot had, on the day fixed for the rising, 
made a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull all 
together, they might have pulled down the 

Braga, the ultra-Catholic and ultra-Royal- 
ist capital of Entre Douro e Minho, and an 
important strategic point at which all the 
roads in that province converge, seems to have 
been a hotbed of conspiracy; and if Couceiro 
had succeeded in taking Chaves, he would un- 
doubtedly have been joined by nearly all the 
Braga garrison as well as by a large number 
of civilians from the town and the surround- 
ing country. This is clearly shown by the 
number of arrests that have since taken place 
in Braga. At first two majors, three lieuten- 
ants, one cadet, and five sergeants were taken 
into custody. On July 17th, three officers and 
several sergeants were arrested; and on the 
25th a major of engineers and an inspector of 
fortifications were sent to keep them company. 
The number of political prisoners became so Great ^ 
great that the former residence of the Jesuits pjjjjjjj.^ 
in Saint Barnabe Street was converted into a 
jail, and quickly filled with suspects. Among 
those suspects were some ladies, and many 

3190 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. iji* 

Early in July a plot was discovered in the 
Loios barracks, and three sergeants and one 
soldier were arrested. One of the sergeants 
had had charge of the magazine, from which 
many cartridges were missing ; but tlje author- 
ities refused to give any information, and it is 
possible that many more arrests have since 
been made. It was stated in the Republican 
papers that the Loios plot had ramifications in 
other companies of the Republican Guards, 
and that the military conspirators were in the 
habit of meeting civilian confreres at a certain^ 

At Evora there was a serious plot which ex- 
tended to Borba and to Mora, where the ar- 
rest of a sergeant of the Republican Guard led 
to the discovery that a good deal of military 
ball cartridge had been handed over to the 
civilian conspirators by their allies in the 
army. In connection with the Evora plot 
Major Montez, an officer on active service, 
was arrested. 
M?Wft On July 1 8th, a monarchist plot was discov- 
ered at Torres Vedras. The local Royalists 
had intended to seize that town, make it their 
headquarters, and then march on Leiria. 

At Vianna do Castello a serious conspiracy 
was discovered dn July 25th, and thirty arrests 
were made. The military leaders of tfee con- 
spiracy. Captain Alvaro Pimenta and Captain 
Martinho Cerqueira had, however, escaped. 
There was another plot at Beja, and still s^n- 



Other at Bemfica. From Azoia, on July 9th, J^^; 
a band of armed conspirators marched onpo^jT 
Porto de Moz. "' 

I refer to this long, though incomplete, list 
of monarchical conspiracies in order to show 
that Couceiro was not so absolutely without 
friends in the Portuguese army as has been 
represented, and that his enterprise was not, 
therefore, so mad as some people have de- 
scribed it. In fact it seemed to have a much 
better chance of success than the successful 
revolution of October 4th. On that occasion 
four hundred men with everything against 
them and only a non-commissioned naval offi- 
cer at their head overcame several thousands 
with everything in their favor and scores of 
excellent officers to lead them. Couceiro had 
a thousand men with artillery, and for the first 
few days the Republican troops which con- 
fronted him were always in the minority, 
and always without artillery. At Chaves 
he had 600 men, and the Republicans had 
only 170. 

He was mistaken in thinking that the peas- 
antry would join him as soon as he crossed 
the border, but a military commander (and 
much more an adventurous raider) must take 
some risks. And if Chaves had fallen, Cou- 
ceiro would, undoubtedly, have got many re- 
cruits. As a matter of fact, there was a popu- 
lar rising at Cabeceiras de Basto and in half 
a dozen other places, but the peasants who 


3192 THE WORLD'S GREAT^ EVENTS a.d. 1912 

seized those villages were subsequently unable 
to join forces with Couceiro's column. 
"How was it, then," the reader will ask, 

Why did "that the Royalist movement failed so ut- 

Royaiirt terly?" 

Many causes contributed to that failure, but 
I have only space to deal with one cause here, 
and that is the action of the Carbonados. It 
may safely be said, indeed, that the Carbon- 
arios killed the counter-revolution. They 
prevented the cutting of the railways and of 
the telegraph wires, as well as the blowing up 
of the bridges. They made inter-communica- 
tion between the various bodies of insurrectos 
impossible, and consequently prevented that 
coordination of Royalist outbreaks which 
would seriously have menaced the Republic. 
They paralyzed the whole machinery of the 
internal conspiracy (which was infinitely 
more important, of course, than the allied 
Galician conspiracy) by locking up the indis- 
pensable man in each district, just at the mo- 
ment when the success of the local plot de- 
pended on his being at large. 

The Republican Government undoubtedly 
employed the Carbonarios in the service of 
the State. This secret organization did the 
work of the police ; and it had the double ad- 
vantage of discharging its work with fanat- 
icism and disinterestedness, and at the same 
time of exercising clandestinely its terrible 
vigilance. Senhor Carlos Malheiro Dias men- 


tions a report that every suspected monarchist, 
every military leader who might possibly do 
the Republic harm, is continuously watched 
by "one of these obscure and fanatical men," 
one of the Carbonados, who will take care that 
in case of a Royalist insurrection, his prey will 
never reach the insurgent camp. This story 
founds sensational, but the vast number of ar- 
rests made by Carbonados on the day Cou- 
ceiro crossed the frontier seems to lend color 
to it. 

Let us take one case alone, that of Lieuten*- 
ant Soares, and let us tell it in the formal, mat- 
ter-of-fact language of Reuter's Lisbon cor- 
respondent : 

"Second-Lieutenant Manuel Albert Soares caae of 


of the Portuguese Navy was murdered in aSo»«^**- 
hotel here this afternoon. This officer had 
been arrested on a charge of complicity in the 
Algarve plot, but had been found not guilty. 
He was, however, watched by members of the 
Carbonaria, the secret society which played a 
prominent part in the Republican Revolution. 
Seeing him passing through Rocio Square, 
some Carbonarios followed him to a hotel in 
which he sought refuge. Lieutenant Soares 
made as if to draw a weapon, but a Carbon- 
ario was quicker than he, and fired, hitting 
him four times, with a revolver. The lieuten- 
ant was conveyed to hospital but died on his 
way there." 
There can be no doubt that the Carbonarios 


helped the Republic enormously by spying on 
the monarchist conspirators in Spain, and that 
they ran to earth in 191 1 the Royalist plotters 
of Coimbra, Figueira da Foz, and other 
places. In short, they defeated the Royalist 
plot of last year as they defeated the greater 
Royalist plot of this year. On these two plots 
the monarchists spent probably over half a 
million sterling. Thanks to the Carbonaria 
they spent it in vain. 

This secret orjganization does not confine it- 
self to detective work. Its members are also 
very successful as soldiers in the field. When 
the Oporto Royalists plotted last year to seize 
the battery of Serra do Pilar and the Palacio 
do Crystal, armed Carbonados routed them 
single-handed. And Couceiro's fatal check 
at Chaves in July was largely due to the pres- 
ence of civilian Carbonarios in the Republi- 
can fighting line. There were thirty of these 
terrible fanatics in Couceiro's own army.* 
The Carbonarios have been tremendously 
2?5il**' helped by their evil reputation. The simple- 
boi^rios. minded Catholic peasant of the north fears a 
Carbonario as he would fear the devil. In his 
opinion, the secret society adept combines an 
absolute contempt for death with a fiendish 

* My authority for this statement is Senhor Abilio Magro 
who was himself a spy in Couceiro's "army," where he was 
well received owing to the fact that his brother is a priest, 
an exile, and a leader among the Royalist conspirators. See 
his Revoluftlo de Couceiro, page 317. I do not mean, of 
course, that all the thirty accompanied Couceiro on his march. 


cruelty and a superhuman cunning. Having 
been excommunicated by the Church he is, of 
course, sold to the devil, and enjoys diabolical 
assistance, so that it is madness for a plain. 
God-fearing man to contend with him. He 
carries so much dynamite about his person at 
all times that, if you strike him, you will per- 
ish as well as he in the resultant explosion, and 
there will not be a building left standing with- 
in a radius of half a mile. This feeling of 
dread the peasant lad carries into the army 
with him when he does military service, and 
the result is that one Carbonario sergeant is 
sometimes sufficient to cow a whole regiment 
At Valen^a do Minho, the garrison would 
have surrendered in July last had not a Car- 
bonario sergeant fired a shot at the enemy, 
who consequently fled hastily towards Spain. 
The soldiers, being thus left without anyone 
to whom they might surrender, remained 
staunch Republicans, and even took part in 
the pursuit. I suspect that many a Royalist 
regiment continued true to the Republic, ow- 
ing to the Colonel's fear of being shot by some - 
Carbonario in the ranks the instant he de- 
clared for King Manuel. 

This Carbonaria mania is, of course, ab- 
surd. The Carbonario, as a matter of fact, is 
generally a debauched townsman with much 
less physical strength than the average moun- Sfd 

to a Car- 

tation makes the countryman tremble before »»«*rf*- 

taineer of Traz os Montes, but his lurid repu-atuche* 

' to a Car 


him. This belief that the bad, blasphemous, 
intoxicated man necessarily makes a good sol- 
dier is prevalent in all primitive communities^ 
and was very common in medisBval Europe. 
The Janissaries of the Grand Turk probably 
owed their victories as much to their reputa- 
tion for lewdness and ferocity as to their phy- 
sical value as soldiers. To-day the Carbona- 
2?M^s rios are the Janissaries of the Portuguese Re- 

thejanis* _ « i. 
aarieeof pUDilC. 

IfTSlf'* Without troubling to get any permit either 
from the military or civil authorities, these 
secret society men searched private houses, 
shadowed officers, watched in barracks, and 
arrested so many suspects that finally the Gov- 
ernment had to set at liberty most of these 
prisoners, and to issue an edict forbidding un- 
authorized persons to make arrests. 

As Reuter's Lisbon correspondent put it: 

"Bodies of civilians, which have been or- 
ganized throughout the country for the de- 
fence of the Republic, are actively assisting 
the Government in the search for plotters." 

"During the last few days," wired the Lis- 
bon correspondent of The Times on July i6th, 
"civilians, mostly Carbonarios, have been vis- 
iting the private residences of various persons 
accused of being monarchists, and making a 
number of arbitrary arrests." 

"To the Carbonarios," says the careful and 
impartial author of Do Desafio a DebandaJa, 
'^have been conceded discretionary powers of 


espionage, investigation, denunciation, and ar- 
rest. Lisbon is full of these amateur detec- 
tives, members of secret associations." 

The most important of the many services 
which the Carbonarios rendered to the Re- 
public was the protection of the railways and The 
telegraph lines. Couceiro had arranged com- j|.{J^^j^ 
pletely to isolate the north for weeks by a?"i2graph 
wholesale cutting of railways, as well as of '""^^ 
telegraph and telephone lines, also by the 
blowing up of railway and other bridges, 
and the blocking of high-roads with great 
masses of stone. There seemed no reason 
why this plan should not be carried out, 
for in large districts through which the rail- 
way passes there is not a solitary Repub- 
lican. If it had succeeded, its success would 
have helped the Royalist cause, for a veil 
of silence would have suddenly been drawn 
over half of Portugal; and the inability of 
the Government to publish daily telegrams 
from Braga, Guimaraes, Braganga, and the 
other towns in the north, would make the peo- 
ple scent a disaster, and would consequently 
^injure the prestige of the Republican Govern- 
ment. It may be remembered that the silence 
which the revolutionists imposed on monarch- 
ical Lisbon on October 4th, 1910, contributed 
powerfully to the overthrow of Dom Manuel. 

When the Royalists set about making a rev- 
olution^ they found, however, that their oppo- 
nents were oniy too fceeniy alive to the im- 

F— Vol. 10 

3198^ THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1912 

portance of the railway and telegraph lines. 
Damage was done to both in many places, but, 
thanks to the activity of the Carbonarios, it 
was always promptly repaired. In the prov- 
ince of Minho several bridges were blown up. 
Valenga was for a time cut off from tele- 
graphic communication with the south. The 
railway was damaged between Caminha and 
Barresellas, and at Amarante all the telegraph 
lines were cut; but the necessary repairs were 
executed so rapidly that, were it not for the 
newspapers, the general public would not 
have known that there had been any interrup- 
tion. The road between Babugaes and Bar- 
resellas was blocked with pine trunks and 
huge boulders, but a number of men belong- 
ing to the "Grupo da Defeza" went in a motor 
from Vianna and cleared away these obstacles. 
The telegraph line between Braga and Es- 
pozende was cut, but only for a few hours. 
The mercilessness which the Carbonarios 
showed to peasants who cut telegraph wires 
intimidated the entire country, with the result 
that the whole vast plan for the isolation 
of the north collapsed in the most pitiable 
i?moSr The number of Carbonarios in the north 

csirs by 

iSLSm ^^ small, but, thanks to their large use of mo- 
tor-cars, they practically multiplied their 
number by ten. The motor-car was a serious 
factor in Couceiro's defeat: and if there is an- 
other raid the Republicans will probably fol- 


low it from aeroplanes, for the purchase of 
which they are now raising a national sub- 
scription. The Republican Government is 
also arranging with the Marconi Company 
for the establishment of wireless telegraphs wireicw 

o r telegraph 

throughout the country; and this will still fur-irt^u^hed. 
ther handicap invaders. Even now a raid 
into Portugal has much less chance of suc- 
cess than eighty years ago, when King Pedro 
IV. and his sete mil bravos (seven thousand 
braves) landed at Mindello. In a few years, 
perhaps in a few months, it will be quite im- 

How Carbonado clubs were able to hire 
so many automobiles as I saw puffing about 
the streets ofOporto and the roads of northern 
Portugal in July last is difficult to understand. 
The Government probably paid for all of 
them. It certainly notified every garage that 
its motors would be hired by the military au- 
thorities. Stray items in the newspapers give 
us an idea of the extent to which the country 
roads swarmed with Republican motor-cars. 
An Oporto telegram sent to the Mundo on 
July nth tells how "an automobile running 
from Fafe to Cabeceiras in the service of the 
telegraph department ran to-day into another 
automobile coming to Oporto and filled with 
Carbonarios." And when Celorico de Basto 
and Cabeceiras revolted, the Carbonarios and 
the Pro Patria people were on the spot in a 
few hours, long before the Government troops. 

8200 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

And with the Government troops, in many in- 
stances, were civilian cyclists who helped to 
reconnoitre, carry messages, etc. 

If, on October 4th, 1910, the Royalist civil- 
ians had given the monarchy half the sup- 
port which the Carbonados gave the Repub- 
lic on the occasion of the two Royalist raids, 
Dom Manuel would probably be still in Lis- 
bon. On the former occasion the Royalist 
Government and the Royalist officers did 
nothing. They were afraid they would be ac- 
cused of tyranny if they took energetic meas- 
ures. Last month, however, the Republican 
State of colonels lost no time in proclaiming a state of 
SLmcd. siege and issuing stringent regulations which 
nobody who cared for his life would venture 
to disobey. 

Before October 4th, 19 10, much ammuni- 
tion was brought into Lisbon in carts and au- 
tomobiles, and even by the railway, without 
the Royalist authorities seeming to care. In 
the towns of the north last month the Republi- 
can authorities forbade any kind of vehicle to 
approach, lest it might contain arms or ex- 
plosives, and forbade the country people to 
enter in groups. The shops were all closed, 
and the streets were patrolled by day and night 
by cavalry, infantry, and Carbonarios. Until 
October 4th, i9io,the Republican newspapers 
of Lisbon were in full swing, and could say 
practically whatever fhey liked. Even then 
the Republicans appealed to high heaven and 


the liberal opinion of Europe against the tyr- 
anny to which their press was subjected. . In 
July, 191 2, they themselves showed scant 
mercy to the newspapers which ventured to 
differ from them. A decree in the Official 
Gazette declared that any journal which crit- 
icized the Government was liable to have its. 
copies seized or to be suspended. As a re- 
sult of this decree the Dia, the only monarch- 
ical paper which the Government had per- 
mitted to exist in the country, was suppressed. 
Its editor succeeded in escaping, and is prob- 
ably at this moment in Paris or London^ 

The great point, however, is that civilian 
Republicans worked for the Republic in July, 
1912, while civilian Monarchists did nothing 
for the Monarchy at the moment when it was 
toppling over, in October, 19 10. Nobody in- 
terfered on that occasion, when railways and 
telegraph wires were being cut in all direc- 
tions. Even the police looked another way. 

*^Portugal e uma monarchia sem monarchi- is^**'*'**^ 
cos" ("Portugal is a monarchy without mon-^^th^t*^ 
archists") said that keen observer, Dom Car- a^chists.- 
los, meaning that the people were sunk in 
inertia, that, with the exception of the limbs 
in contact with the electric current of repub- 
licanism, the whole organism of State was 
paralyzed. If anything wakes up the Portu- 
guese Royalists, it will be the hardships which 
they have now to put up with, and which they 
richly deserve. Those hardships will teach 


them the necessity of union and vigilance ; and 
if ever the monarchy comes back, it should, 
out of gratitude, erect a statue to Affonso 

This does not mean, however, that the 
Carbonarios are good in themselves. As a 
matter of fact, they are bad, quite as bad 
as the corrupt Rotatavist politicians who pre- 
ceded them. No matter what kind of Gov- 
ernment you establish in the Portugal of to- 
day, it is sure to be bad, owing to the fact 
that an enormous percentage of the people 
ar^ illiterate, and take no intelligent interest 
in politics. John Stuart Mill has pointed out 
The that whenever this is the case in a nation, 

illiteracy ' 

^%. power must fall into the hands of self-seeking 
men who use it largely for their own ends. 
The Portuguese Republic owes its origin and 
its preservation to popular revolutionary as- 
sociations, but it must pay for that assistance 
by remaining the slave of these elements, most 
unsuited though they may be to direct the gov- 
• ernmental action of a r^^im^ of liberty. It is at 
the mercy of a Jacobinism as harmful as it is 
inopportune. Carlos Malheiro Dias, the able 
Portuguese writer, who deals more impartial- 
ly than any other with current Portuguese his- 
tory, finds himself compelled to admit this in 
his latest book Do Desafio a Debandada. 
To "the perilous qmnipotence" of the Car- 
bonaria he attributes "the Provisional Govern- 
ment's errors of orientation and the unfor- 


tunate prolongation of the revolutionary 

The present Government of Portugal is as 
little constitutional as the Government of the 
Young Turks. The former is dominated byTje^^^ 
the Carbonarios as the latter was dominated SJSin.ted 
by the Committee. And as the Young Turks boiUAS**^' 
lost their reputation by confining themselves 
to the narrow and intolerant programme of 
the Committee, so the Young Portuguese Re- 
public has discredited itself by adopting the 
narrow and intolerant programme of the Car- 

"Time, the example of a respected admin- 
istration, the promulgation of wise and just 
laws, a regime of indulgent fascination, would 
have done more to consolidate the Republic 
than the terrorist menaces of the Carbonarios, 
the Jacobin intolerance of the revolutionaries, 
the despotism which has crushed for the last 
six months an inorganic political society, the 
absence of liberty which tarnishes this pro- 
logue of a paradoxical democracy and, above 
all, the demagogic tyranny of a minority, ex- 
alted with arrogance, which pretends to claim 
as exclusively its own a country which belongs 
to all Portuguese." 

These are the words of the earnest and pa- 
triotic (if somewhat long-winded) Republi- 
can writer whom I have already quoted. I 
could supplement them, if I had space, with 
the testimony of many other Republicans, two 

8204 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

of the most eminent of whom quitted public 
life last year by way of protest against the mob 
law which prevailed, and especially against 
the manner in which the Government permit- 
ted gangs of roughs to suppress all the Oppo- 
sition papers. 

Even under Dom Manuel the Portuguese 
people were not ruled by such a narrow clique 
as that which governs them now. That sov- 
ereign's Premiers made, if anything, too much 
allowance for Republican and anti-clerical 
points of view. It is not generally realized 
that it was the last Prime Minister of the 
Monarchy who began the anti-clerical cam- 
paign in Portugal by the closing of several 
Jesuit houses in Lisbon. In his anxiety to ap- 
pear as liberal and as broad-minded as possi- 
ble, that statesman even allied himself with 
the Republican parties on the occasion of the 
last General Election held under the Crown; 
and the result was what we all khow. 
Republic '^^ ^^^ Carbonarios the Republic owes its 
od|ii!*?o origin: to the Carbonarios it will probably 
bonarioi. owe its downfall. For the chiefs of the army 
will be more than human if they can endure 
much longer the interference of secret society 
civilians in their barracks. 

Last year the zeal of the Carbonarios, lie- 
tores populares denunciatores, who considered 
it their duty to visit the various military bar- 
racks so as to ascertain if the Republicanism 
and anti-clericalism of the officers was being 


kept well up to the mark, nearly caused a con- 
flict between the civilian revolutionaries and 
the army. Seeing their authority set at naught, 
and the military regulations violated by those 
Inquisitors of the Republic, the Carbonarios, 
commanders of regiments began to protest. 
The Paiz stated that, owing to the increasing 
insubordination of the soldiers as a result of tii« i]i««>. 
Carbonario interference, 400 soldiers were^j^^ 
imprisoned at one time in the Castle of S. 
Jorge, and a still greater number in the fort 
of Alto do Duque. 

Even the military leaders, themselves, are 
not free from the scrutiny of Carbonados, who 
act for the Government, and whq are unoffi- 
cially attached to regiments, like the commis- 
sioners of the French Convention. Indeed, on 
one occasion, when the commandant of the 3rd 
Ca^adores paraded his men in order to hold 
an inquiry into the flight of two officers to 
Galicia, a Carbonario claimed to have a voice 
in the matter on the ground that he was legit- 
imately delegated by the Government. 

The presence of these civilian supervisors 
in the regiments strikes, of course, at the root 
of all military discipline. After the October 
revolution, the sentinels on guard at barracks 
and elsewhere used to be seen sitting on chairs. 
This custom has ceased, but the latent insubor- 
dination remains. An officer who once re- 
proved a sentry for smoking was answered 
back with "Ja me tinham dito que vossa se- 


nhoria era muito thalassa!" ("I had heard it 
said that your honor was a strong thalassa" 
— thalassa being a slang term of contempt for 
Royalist) . 

A Colonel was hooted by the people and at- 
tacked by the Press because he took from his 
soldiers a number of secret society banners 
which they had insisted on carrying in the 
ranks, and because he discouraged their prac- 
tice — a practice which had come in with the 
Republic — of answering the ovations of the 
populace with wild yells. These yells the 
Colonel seems to have regarded as incompati- 
ble with "the severe composure which the sol- 
dier in the ranks ought to maintain under all 

From the military element, therefore, many 
people expect the reaction which will recall 
King Manuel, or, more likely, establish a less 
Jacobin form of Republic. But Carbonarism 
is a medicine which it is hard to eject from the 
The system of a nation. It is a remedy which is 
w^M than certainly worse than the disease it is supposed 

the diBeaae. ^ ^^ 

to cure. 

Every revolution is, of course, engineered 
by a secret society, but, as a rule, the secret so- 
ciety ceases to exist when it has accomplished 
its work. The societies which brought about 
the Young Turk revolution and the Portu- 
guese revolution were exceptional. After hav- 
ing accomplished their primary object they 
Still continued to rule Turkey and Portugal 


respectively on the narrowest secret society 
lines. It must be admitted, of course, that in 
both cases the circumstances were peculiar. 
If the Young Turks had established a really 
constitutional government, the Arabs, Alban- 
ians, Serbs, and Greeks would have outnum- 
bered the Turks in the Chamber, and would, 
perhaps, have combined to give each other 
autonomy in turn. And, in the case of the 
Serbs and the Greeks, autonomy would have ^ 
meant subsequent annexation to a foreign 
State. In the same way the Portuguese Re- 
publicans might plead that an absolutely free 
hand to the Catholics in the Press and at the 
elections would have meant a Royalist restora- 
tion, civil war, and Spanish intervention. It 
would have been of no use to assure them that 
an indulgent treatment of political opponents 
never does harm. They would simply have 
pointed to the fate of that most liberal and 
indulgent monarch, the ex-King Manuel. 

The Carbonarios have saved the Republic, 
but at such inconvenience to the people at 
large that many Portuguese will heartily re- 
gret that the Republic was not lost. For, be- JJj?y . 
ing ignorant, fanatical men, unaccustomed to V!^nt'*^ 
regular police work, the Carbonarios have ar-R«pwwia 
rested or induced the regular police to arrest 
hundreds of innocent people. 

"It is useless" (writes Senhor Carlos Dias) 
'*for the civil governor to publish in the Lis- 
bon papers statements to the effect that he docs 


not allow any but the regular police to effect 
arrests. Every day the zealous Carbonario 
arrests, searches, and shows, it is to be feared, 
in the exercise of these official functions, fa- 
naticism and brutality. On the simple denun- 
ciation of a drunkard, the Brazilian actress 
Lucilio Peres had to submit to see her room in 
the Hotel Franckfort invaded and her trunks 
searched for contraband of war. If we were 
to recount all the wrongful excesses discreetly 
chronicled in our newspapers, the arbitrary 
arrests, the illegal invasions of domicile, the 
aggressions and denunciations of these fanat- 
ical agents of the great secret organization 
which intimidates the Government itself, we 
would have to be so prolix that the thread of 
our narrative would be broken. It would be 
unjust to deny, however, that it is to the vigi- 
lance of the Carbonaria that the Government 
owes in great part the discovery of the Royal- 
J^^^ ist plot Thanks to the terror inspired by the 
mitred Carbouario's well-earned reputation, the Re- 
wkrios. public has been able to crush innumerable 
reactions. Worse than the familiar of the 
Holy Inquisition, the Carbonario has become 
a terrible figure before whose eyes the boldest 
quail. All the Minho has been superficially 
subdued by the vigilance of these Argi, who 
find in the northern peasant a fund of ingenu- 
ous . superstitions which render him an ex- 
. tremely favorable subject for domination. And 
the Carbonario loses no opportunity of hyp- 


notizing his victim for the great advantage of 
the Republic. The worst feature of this sys- 
tem, however, is that the hypnotic force be- 
comes more powerful and more exacting each 
time it is employed. It has finally acquired 
unbounded influence over the Government, 
prejudicing and embarrassing the mental ac- 
tion of the Cabinet, and imprinting on it a 
Jacobin, intolerant and demagogic character 
which renders it unsuitable for the rule of a 
composite State." 

"The Carbonaria is, in a word, a terrible 
power," says Senhor Dias, who goes on to 
show that its influence "is bound to efface all 
idea, even the most rudimentary idea, of legal- 
ism." "An essentially revolutionary organiza- 
tion, its work should have ended with the rev- 
olution ; nevertheless, its instruments of revolt 
continue in action, continue to impress on the 
Republic its own alarmingly turbulent char- 

Thus the mysterious body which, in Octo- 
ber, 1 910, called the Republic into existence, 
and which has twice saved the Republic since, 
is not only preventing the normal development 
of its own offspring, but is slowly stran- 
gling it. 

[A twenty-four-hour strike is declared at|^^'* 
Zurich as a protest against loose immigration 
laws in Switzerland. David Lloyd-George, 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, is assaulted in 


London by an opponent of his national in- 
surance scheme. Five members of the Chi- 
nese Cabinet resign. The National Insurance 
Act goes into effect in Great Britain, upon 
which 30,000 dock laborers in Liverpool and 
Birkenhead refuse to pay tax and strike. The 
dirigible balloon Akron explodes during 
a flight at Atlantic City, killing its builder, 
Mclvin Vaniman, and four of the crew. The 
International Radio-Telegraph Conference in 
London adopts a series of recommendations 
concerning the use of wireless at sea. New 
flags with two new stars for the States of Ari- 
zona and New Mexico are raised on all gov- 
ernment buildings. Thirty-nine persons 
killed and sixty injured on the Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western Railroad near Corn- 
ing, N. Y. Twenty-six persons killed and 
thirty injured on the Ligonier Valley Rail- 
The fifth road at Wilpen, Pa. King Gustav opens the 
Games, fifth rcvival of the Olympic Games at Stock- 
holm; American athletes win the pentathlon 
and all three places in the one hundred metre 
dash, the high jump, and all three places in 
the eight hundred metre race, the standing 
high jump, the four hundred metre run and 
the three thousand metre team race; K. K. 
McArthur of South Africa wins the Mara- 
thon; James Thorpe, the Carlisle Indian, wins 
the decathlon, or all-round championship 
contest. Thirteen passengers killed and twen- 
ty injured in a rear-end collision on the Chi- 


cago, Burlington &; Quincy Railroad, near 
Chicago. Porto Rico reports twenty-one 
deaths from bubonic plague. Death of Sir 
Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Herman Rosen- Graft in 
thai, a gambler, about to give evidence con- go^ccj*^ 
ecrning graft in the New York Police De-*"^°*- 
partment, is shot and killed by five men who 
escape in an automobile. The first convention 
of the Progressive Party is held in Atlantic 
City. Lieutenant Charles Becker of the New 
York Police Force is indicted for having in- 
stigated the murder of Rosenthal. Turkish 
Cabinet resigns; Tewfik Pasha is appointed 
Grand Vizier. Asquith welcomed on his visit 
to Ireland, and promises an early passage of 
the Home Rule Bill. Mexican rebels attack 
a train near Mexico City and kill forty pas- 
sengers and forty escorting soldiers. Alban- 
ian revolutionists capture the town of Pris- 
tina.. Winston Churchill, First Lord of the 
British Admiralty, delivers a noteworthy 
speech before the House of Commons upon 
the government's new plans for a larger navy 
to meet Germany's preparations, A fleet of 
Italian torpedo boats, attacking the forts at 
the Dardanelles, is repulsed. Mexico and the 
United States agree over the boundary near 
El Paso, the land to be purchased by the 
United States. Spain refuses to expel the 
Portuguese royalists who have taken refuge 
over the border. Leaders of the London dock 
strike appeal to the American Federation of 


Labor for funds. Earthquake partially de- 
stroys the city of Guadalajara, Mexico. 
Cloudbursts and floods in Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia drown more than sixty persons. 
Boston car strike ends in a victory for the em- 
ployees. The first National Newspaper Con- 
ference assembles in Madison, Wis. The dis- 
contented longshoremen of the port of New 
York receive an increase of ten per cent, in 
wages. Deaths of Jules Henri Poincare, 
the famous French mathematician, Andrew 
Lang, the British essayist; Dr. Horace How- 
ard Furness, the Shakespearean scholar; and 
Massenet, the French composer. Mutsuhito, 
forty-four years Emperor of Japan, dies in 
Tokio and is succeeded by the Crown Prince 
Yoshihito. Senate passes the Panama Canal 
Bill. The House passes a measure requiring 
that all ocean-going vessels shall be properly 
Theodort CQuippcd with lifeboats. The Progressive 
niSmiStcd Party in session in Chicago nominates Theo- 
gj^j* dore Roosevelt for President, and Governor 
Hiram Johnson, of California, for Vice-Pres- 
ident. Massacre of one hundred Bulgarians 
by Mohammedans in European Turkey. Mrs, 
Mary Leigh, the suffragette who threw a 
hatchet at Asquith, and Gladys Evans, who 
set fire to the Theatre Royal in Dublin, are 
sentenced to five years' imprisonment. Mulai 
Hafid, Sultan of Morocco, abdicates and is 
succeeded by his brother, Mulai Youssef.] 


(A.D. 1912) 


IT IS pitiful how this word genius has suf- 
fered on its travels through mankind. To 
see such a word at the mercy of loose talk- 
ers, is to be reminded of Christian and Faith- 
ful in Vanity Fair. The meaning of their 
names, and the sound of their voice, were lost 
in a place like that. The populace neither 
understood them, nor was content to leave 
them alone: they were maltreated by fools, 
who at last put them in a dungeon and left * 
them there. So it is with all words of a con- 
templative character: they are roughly han- 
dled by ignorant folk who will neither think 
them out nor do without them. Among these 
martyr-words, none has experienced worse 
abuse than genius — or, to call it by its right ^A"h* 
name, Genfuj. Seeing what upstart words gSTms. 
adorn themselves nowadays with capital let- 
ters, we must not refuse to Genius this mark 
of distinction: for it is one of a highly con- 
nected family, all of them mentioned in the 
"Who's Who" of words living or lately de- 
ceased. Genius loci, for example, is a fine con- 
ception: any word might well be proud of be- 

• (3213) 


longing to the old faith that places may some- 
how be inspired, may have more than our- 
selves in them, and may address themselves to 
us. It is true that rural deities and local 
nymphs are not true; still, this pagan creed 
outworn, that there is a personal influence in 
this or that bit of the country, this or that 
home, has its advantages over the childish defi- 
nition of genius as an infinite capacity for tak- 
ing pains. Infinite or finite, all capacities 
must come from somewhere; and genius is 
where they come from. 

Perhaps to restore this word on its throne, 
we must look away from definitions, and look 
at facts. There have been men and women 
of genius ; they are rare, but there have been 
some. There was Pasteur. By what sign, or 
signs, do we know, past all doubt, that he was 
gcSuS.°^ a man of genius? 

It is a sign of genius, if the work of a man's 
life obeys and fulfils a plan which seems to 
have been made not by him but for him ; if 
all the good in him is orderly brought out, as 
a conductor brings out every instrument in the 
orchestra ; if we cannot so much as look at him 
without an immediate and irresistible sense 
that he was all of him design, none of him 
chance ; that he was an idea worked out, a pro* 
gram got through. Once we think what 
Pasteur did with his life, we see that genius 
had its designs on him. The man himself is a 
better argument from design than any amount 


of Paley's Evidences. For he is taken, in the 
straight course of his work, up every rung of 
the scale of creation, from, inorganic matter 
to man : and he only left off there because man 
is the top rung of the ladder. Physics, inor- 
ganic chemistry, organic chemistry, ferments, 
diseases of wines and beers, diseases of silk- 
worms, diseases of poultry and sheep and cat- 
tle and swine, diseases of man — up he went, 
his genius directing every step, from the dis- 
covery of molecular disymmetry to the discov- 
ery of the protective treatment against rabies. 
As the embryo, advancing toward birth, 
dreams its way through lower types, experi- 
menting with ducts and gills and tail, and then 
discarding them, yet, after birth, still bears the 
impress of these experiments, so Pasteur 
thought his way up through creation. He be- 
gan with mathematics, which is where crea- 
tion begins: and he lived to hear of the first 
few thousands of children saved with diphthe- 

But there is another sign of genius. In the^°^*^£*' 
abiding power, the continuing output of a^"*"** 
man's work, after he is dead. Pasteur died 
more than seventeen years ago, September 28, 
1895. The example of his life shines on us, 
and hi? memory is one of the world's treasures. 
Such purity, loving-kindness, and humility, 
were daily in him, such passionate reverence 
for facts, such faith, laborious patience, and 
self -judgment. The sound of his name is like 

8216 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1513 

music; and his epitaph was written, long ago, 
in the saying that the righteous and the wise 
and their works are in the hand of God. That 
is to say, their works are still going on, still 
making themselves useful, here and now, on 
earth. Men to-day are advancing them along 
new lines, adapting them to fresh purposes, 
raising them to higher levels, and carrying 
them to logical consequences. That is just 
what it is for a man's work to be "in the hand 
of God"; it must be there, to be here: if it 
I were not there, it would be nowhere. The 
man dies, but the genius of a man's work, or 
the work of a man of genius, whichever we 
prefer to call it. 

Lives through all life, extends through all extent, 

as Pope says, putting the whole case into the 
nutshell of a line. So Pasteur's work, like 
Newton's and Darwin's — "up to heaven, all 
three" — lives and moves to-day through the 
world's affairs, turning them this way and 

Sixty-four years ago, as it were to begin 
Molecular with, he made out the molecular disymmetry 
Sctiry'of of certain crystalline substances, and we have 


subatancea. [^^ qq thc authority of Dr. Tutton and Pro- 
fessor Frankland, that by this discovery, when 
he was only twenty-six, he founded "one of the 
most wonderful departments of modern chem- 
istry." His line of argument in 1848 has been 
"fully vindicated and substantiated," and i» 


followed, at the present time, in the quest for 
new synthetic products. Then came the next 
item on the program. In his work on the di- 
symmetry of crystals, he had chosen, for espe- 
cial study, tartaric acid and its salts. Science, 
pure unapplied science, was all that he was 
thinking of, when he chose this one group of 
substances. Behold, he had chosen, blindfold, 
a grape-acid,, a by-product of fermentation, a 
deposit of wine-casks, a commercial article. 
By this choice he was taken straight, like a 
man keeping an appointment, into the king- 
dom of the ferments. Once he got there, his 
genius turned him loose on the whole world- 
wide business of brewing and wine-making; 
and, with him and his microscope came the 
end of the old haphazard John-Barleycorn 
ways. If it were possible to write the history 
of alcoholic drinks, there would be Noah, and 
there would be Pasteur; the one planted aHwigr^t 
vineyard, the other used a microscope: NoahJJS!'"^ 
happened by chance on the making of "na- 
tional beverages," Pasteur taught the nations 
to be scientific over the making of them. He 
revolutionized this colossal industry; the ge- 
nius of his work is active to-day in every brew- 
ery. His lectures to the vinegar-makers of 
Orleans are a classic, and his great book on 
wines and beers is the "Novum Organon" of 
brewing. So it always is with him; all that 
he touches turns to gold — to other men's gold. 
But, early in his work on the ferments, he 



was led from increasing the world's wealth to 
improving the world's health. It is fifty-five 
years since he read to the Lille Scientific So- 
ciety his paper on lactic acid fermentation, the 
ordinary "turning" of milk; and the news, that 
milk turns sour because germs turn it sour, 
reached Lister, and was interpreted by him. 
If milk in a jug were blood in a vein, then the 
souring of a pint of milk would be a case of 
acute blood-poisoning. The milk has been 
infected, it has been wounded with those non- 
sterilized germ-laden instruments, the feet of 
a fly: the bacillus lactis has been introduced 
into its system — even a jug of milk may have 
a system. Fifty-five years ago, this household 
fact was a discovery, and more than a discov- 
Thegern cry;^ it was the very making of the germ-the- 
ory; and of modern surgery; and Lister, all his 
life, gave thanks for Pasteur's guidance. 
From 1857 onward, the two discoverers were 
drawing nearer to each other, till their meth- 
ods were not two but one method, no more 
separable than the convexity and the concavity 
of a curve. In 1865, Pasteur began his five 
years' work on the infective diseases of silk- 
worms: he took it in hand against his inclina- 
tions, and he carried it through, and brought 
back prosperity to the silk trade: he turned 
away loss from the cultivators, and starvation 
from the workers — O Melibcee, deus nobis 
hac otia fecit, Namque erit ille mihi semper 
deus — and he won for himself insight into the 


facts of wound-infection. By 1875 h^ was 
demonstrating, in the Paris hospitals/ the asep- 
tic method. He, who was not a doctor, and 
had to screw up his courage to go round a hos- 
pital, and was made sick by the sight of an 
examinatiqn of the dead body, he was teaching 
the surgeons; he was declaring, with a few 
words and a sketch on the blackboard, the na- 
ture of puerperal fever; and the old learning 
began to pale its ineffectual fire, now that his 
genius was lighting the ways of practice. 

Next to Lister and Pasteur, among the mak-Thg^^^^^ 
ers of modern surgery, comes Koch. His bookSi^J?. 
on the infective diseases of wounds spread the 
new learning in Germany: besides, it was he 
who introduced the use of gelatin for the 
growing of germs in pure culture, and ex- 
tended the use of Weigert's discovery, that 
germs can be stained With aniline dyes. Till 
the bacteriologists had these two methods, they 
could not go ahedd : and Koch's earlier work, 
on wound-infections, is no less important than 
his later work on tubercle and malaria. By 
1880, the genius of Pasteur had re-created, in 
every civilized country, the study of the infec- 
tive diseases. Novus rerum nascitur ordo: the 
world, at last, was understanding its own in- 
fections : they were made visible under the mi- 
croscope, independent of any life but their 
own. Here, under a man's eyes, in a man's 
hands, were the contagia viva, the materies 
morbi, the particulare virus — good-bye to 


these vague Latinities — here they were, the 
living agents of a disease, the thing itself, the 
real offender, isolated from the body, corked 
up in a test-tube, flourishing on a surface of 
sterilized gelatin. That is the wonder of Pas- 
teur's work. 

Genius, when it makes its abode, none too 
often, in the family-circle of the medical sci- 
ences, makes its presence felt by very plain 
speaking; it surprises, and may even shock, 
these quiet sciences, by direct and vivid sen- 
tences, which break through accumulated the- 
ories like shafts of light through clouds, till 
they lift, and the sun comes out. So it is with 
Pasteur : his sayings have the simplicity of his 
genius, and the air is cleared at the touch of 
them. For example, his answer to a foolish 
critic, solemn over a question that was wholly 
unimportant — Si vous saviez comme tout cela 
tne'st egal. Again, when he drew on the black- 
board, in 1878, at the French Academy of 
Medicine, the germs of puerperal fever — 
TeneZj void sa figure. For truth of teaching, 
for downright thrill of novelty, these four 
words are unsurpassable. There is the same 
Koch's note of simplicity in Koch's account, in 1882, 

discovery * -^ ' . ' 

gems of of his discovery of the germs of Tubercle: 
Tubercle. "Hcnccforth, in our warfare against this 
fearful scourge of our race, we have to reckon 
not with a nameless something, but with a defi- 
nite bodily foe, whose conditions of life are 
for the most part already known, and can be 


further studied. Before all things, we must 
shut off the sources of infection, so far as it is 
possible for man to do this/^ 

Thirteen years later, in 1895, in Roux's fa-?°S^ 
mous paper in the Agenda du Chimiste, xhtclt^i!^ 
same note : 

"See how far we have come, from the old 
metaphysical idea about virulence, to these 
microbes which we can turn this or that way 
— stuff so plastic that a man can work on it, 
and fashion it to his liking/^ . 

These three golden sayings mark the three 
lines of advance in the fight against the infec- 
tive diseases : and every medical student ought 
to know them by heart. Also, he ought to 
know the chief episodes of the long warfare, 
the date^ of the decisive battles, and the names 
of the victorious generals. As Romanes wrote 
"Darwin and After Darwin," so we ought to 
have "Pasteur and After Pasteur." This de- 
lightful book would begin at 1857, with the 
isolating of the bacillus lactis. Three years 
later, Pasteur was making his final experi- 
.ment, above Chamonix, on the exclusion of 
germs from putrescible fluids : and Lister, not 
yet gone from Glasgow to Edinburgh, was 
sterilizing cotton-wool dressings by heat. 
Three years more bring us to 1863, the date of 
Davaine's finding the germs of anthrax (splen- 
ic fever, malignant pustule, wool-sorter's dis- 
ease). Before Davaine, men of science had 
seen these germs, and had imagined that they 

G— Vol. 10 


were some sort of "blood-crystals"; Davaine 
recognized them for what they are. Anthrax, 
henceforth, began to be properly understood. 
Paateur'. From 1 865 to 1870, Pastcur was working in 
j|<^5 *o Paris on ferments, and at Alais on the diseases 
of silkworms (pebrine and fldcherte): the final 
proof of his success over these diseases was in 
the results obtained at Villa Vicentina in 1870, 
just before the Franco-German War. Lister, 
during these five years, 1 865-1 870, published 
his first paper on the antiseptic treatment of 
compound fractures; made his experiments in 

1867 with the carbolized silk ligature, and in 

1868 with the carbolized catgut ligature: and, 
about 1870, introduced the use of antiseptic 

Next came Schroeter and Weigert, bring- 
ing "honorable presents and of great value," 
as Ambroise Pare called his fees. Schroeter, 
in 1872, discovered that germs could be made 
to grow, in pure culture, on solid media, such 
as slices of potato: and iWeigert, in 1875, dis- 
covered the use of aniline dyes for the difl^er- 
ential staining of germs. The years between 
1876 and 1880 are the time of Pasteur's work 
on fowl-cholera, puerperal fever, and osteo- 
myelitis; Sternberg's work on tetanus; and 
Laveran's discovery of the germs of malaria. 

In 1 88 1, more argosies of science came 
home. Pasteur presented to the French Acad- 
emy his memoir on the protective treatment 
against anthrax; Koch, during the Interna* 


tiona) Medical Congress in London^ showed 
to some English doctors the germs of tubercle ; 
Lister, at this Congress suggested that wound- 
infection is due rather to di-rect contact than to 
germs suspended in the air; and, over in Ha- 
vana, Finlay inoculated himself and other vol- 
unteers with mosquito-bome yellow fever. 

In ^883, Koch discovered the "comma- 
bacillus,'' the cause of Asiatic cholera; in 1884, 
the germs of diphtheria, typhoid fever, and 
tetanus were obtained in pure culture; in July, 
1885, Pasteur first used on a patient the pro- 
tective treatment against rabies; in 1886, he 
first used the protective treatment against 
swine-erysipelas; in 1887, Bruce discovered 
the germs of Malta fever. 

In 1890, Behring and Kitasato published 
their discovery that animals can be immu- 
nized, as against anthrax and rabies, so against 
diphtheria and tetanus : really, there ought to 
be '^National Thanksgivings" for discoveries 
of this magnitude. In the winter, in Berlin, 
came the grievous disappointment over the 
first use of tuberculin. Happily, at the pres- 
ent time, with the fuller knowledge which has 
been gained since 1890, the use of tuberculin The um of 
IS giving good results, in more ways than one. 

Henceforth, the work so widened, that a 
mere list of the doings of the pathologists is of 
no value at all. In 1893, came the inestimable 
blessing of diphtheria^aiititoxin, HafiFkine's 
protective treatment against Asiatic cholera^ 

3224 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

and tetanus-antitoxin; in 1894, Yersin and 
Kitasato discovered the plague-bacillus: in 
1895, Bruce's work of nagana (tsetse-fly dis- 
ease of animals) ; in 1896, Wright's protective 
treatment against typhoid fever; in 1897, 
Haffkine's protective treatment against 
plague; in 1898, Ross's work on bird-malaria; 
in 1900, the self-experiments of Sambon and 
Low, Manson and Warren, and the volunteers 
during the American Commission in Havana: 
these self-experiments proved, for all time, 
the mosquito-theory of malaria and of yellow 
fever. But what is the good of this list? The 
story, to be told properly, requires not a list, 
but a book. In 1903, Bruce set to work on 
sleeping sickness (tsetse-fly disease in man, 
trypanosomiasis) ; in 1904-5 he traced the in- 
fection of Malta fever to the goats' milk. In 
1907 came Flexner's work on epidemic menin- 
gitis, and in 1908 his antitoxin for that disease; 
in 19 10, his work on epidemic infantile paral- 
ysis and Ehrlich's work on "606." Last year 
came the compulsory use, in the United States 
army, of the protective treatment against ty- 
phoid fever: this year, in our own country, the 
compulsory notification of consumption. 
li^ All these life-saving discoveries, and many 

discorerict.^^j.^^ havc bccu wou for men and animals, 

through Pasteur's work, and have been given 
to them, as it were, by his hands and on his ad- 
vice. He treated mankind and the animal 
creation ; he healed^not cases, but nations ; and 



the whole earth is his patient, enjoying, thanks ^ 
to him, a marked improvement in its general 

Take the rough, doubtless inaccurate, list of List of . 
these discoveries. See how it illustrates the 
three golden sayings, i. Tenez, void sa fig- 
ure: There, thafs what ifs like. The living 
agents of the disease are discovered in the 
blood and the tissues of a case of that disease : 
they are cultivated, outside the body, in pure 
culture, in test-tubes: and the disease is repro- 
duced, in small animals, with this pure cul- 
ture. The disease itself is bottled; is visible, 
under the microscope; take this or that aniline 
stain; has its likes and dislikes, its tendencies 
and habits ; behaves in this or that way towards 
heat and cold, light and darkness, air and no 
air. 2. We must shut off the source of infec- 
tion. Illustrations of this saying are the noti- 
fication of consumption, the testing of the 
milk-supply, the tuberculin-test for cattle, and 
the mallein-test for the diagnosis of glanders; 
the prohibition of goat^s milk to our garrisons 
in Malta and Gibraltar, the antiseptic and 
aseptic method of surgery; the Muzzling Act, 
and quarantine of dogs; the destruction of rats 
in time of plague; the bringing down of ma- 
laria and yellow fever by "anti-mosquito" 
methods ; the bringing down of sleeping sick- 
ness — and so forth. 3. Stuff so plastic that a 
man can work on it. Not only can he bottle 
diseases, but he can standardize them, and pre- 

3226 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

pare, from these standards, his antitoxins and 
vaccines. Illustrations here are diphtheria- 
antitoxin, tetanus-antitoxin, Flexner's serum- 
treatment of epidemic meningitis, Sclavo's 
serum-treatment of anthrax in man, Shiga's 
serum-treatment of dysentery; the tuberculin- 
treatment in cases of consumption ; the uses of 
vaccine-therapy; the protective treatments 
against rabies, cholera, typhoid fever, plague, 
rinderpest, distemper, anthrax in sheep and 
cattle, swine-erysipelas — and so forth. 

See, by these instances, how the genius of 
Pasteur inspires all workers for the health of 
man and of animals. But, if we could look a 
hundred years ahead, will his kingdom en- 
dure? Will he still dominate medical and sur- 
gical practice, and preventive medicine, and 
State medicine? 
Pasteur's Thc auswcr surely is, that Pasteur's work 
will abide, ^jii abide, in authority, crowned and en- 
throned, till the day comes when a man shall 
be able to receive under his skin, without hurt, 
a needleful of the germs of tetanus, plague, 
or anthrax, in pure culture, at full virulence. 
There is no sign of that day's coming. Hith- 
erto, thc work is done along the lines which 
Pasteur laid down; it is the extension, not the 
dissolution, of his kingdom ; not the death, but 
the development, of his teaching. II faut 
travail I er, he would say, again and again, to- 
ward the end of his life at the Institute. He 
was past work: it was that last summer, when 


they put a tent for him, in the grounds of the 
Institute, under the trees, and from time to 
time one of the younger men might go and talk 
to him. Last of all, he was moved to Ville- 
franche, where are the meadows and farms 
and stables for the animals used for preparing 
antitoxins; there he died; but where does hisSSS!*^* 
work not live? The fight against plague and 
cholera in India, rinderpest in the Transvaal, 
malaria and yellow fever in the Panama Zone, 
sleeping sickness in the Uganda Protectorate, 
is fought in his name. He made a way to the 
saving of hundreds of thousands of human 
lives. He made a way to the saving of sheep 
and cattle and horses and dogs and swine and 
poultry. Back, down the scale of creation, we 
go in thought, the way he came; and find 
everywhere the meaning of his life, till we are 
back at mathematics and physics, which he 
taught to the boys at the College of Besan^on, 
when he was seventeen, for 300 francs a year 
and his board and lodging. 

[Riotous demonstrations mark the opening 
of the Hungarian Parliament; the cause being 
universal suffrage. Socialists riot in Buda- 
pest and Parliament. The United States in- 
tervenes in Nicaragua and relieves the city of 
Granada from famine. Arabs and Turks are 
defeated by the Italians near Derne, Tripoli, 
one of the bloodiest engagements of the war. 
The Chinese Minister of Finance refuses the 

3228 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.b. i9i» 

terms offered by the six Powers for a loan of 
$35o,ooo,ooo. Two thousand Chinese soldiers 
mutiny at Wu-chang. Violent disorders in 
Mexico. Madero offers amnesty to General 
Orozco. The Nicaraguan revolutionary lead- 
er, General Mena, surrenders to the Ameri- 
cans. Legagneux, the French aviator, ascends 
in his monoplane to a height of three and one 
half miles. Armed strikers seize the copper, 
lead, and silver mines at Bingham, Utah. 
Henri Chagnoux, the French mineralogist^ 
finds radium existing in greater quantities in 
Colorado than anywhere else. Nineteenth 
Universal Peace Congress meets in Genoa. 
Terrible typhoon in Japan. The French Min- 
ister reviews an aerial drill near Paris (20 
monoplanes take part). Augusta, Ga., is 
placed under martial law on account of street 
railway strikes. Great Anti-Home-Rule dem- 
onstration is held at Belfast. Thousands of 
Ulsterites sign covenant of resistance to Home 
amy***'' Rule. Two United States army aviators, 
Sifedk" Lieut. Rockwell and Corporal Scott, are 
killed while flying at College Park, Md. Riot- 
ing during a twenty- four-hours' demonstra- 
tion strike at Lawrence, Mass., on the day of 
the opening of the trial of the labor leaders, 
Ettor and Giovannitti. Bulgaria, Scrvia, and 
Greece order the mobilization of their army 
reserves to force Turkey to institute reforms 
in Macedonia. Bulgaria and Servia suspend 
passenger traffic with Turkey. China ar- 


ranges a $50,000,000 loanwithaBdgian syndi- 
cate. British submarine sinks after a collision 
off the coast of Kent. Four United States ma- 
rines are killed and five wounded in capturing 
a position near Masaya, Nicaragua. Leon, the 
last stronghold of the revolutionists, surren- 
ders to the Americans. The derailment of an 
express train on the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad at Westport, Conn., kills 
seven persons and injures forty. Dynamite 
explodes in a warehouse at Tampico, Mexico, 
kills forty-five persons and injures several hun- 
dred others. An oil steamer explodes and de- 
stroys by fire $3,000,000 worth of vessels and 
piers at Bayonnc, N. J. Several minor en- 
gagements on Turkish soil between Turkish 
troops and Montenegrins and Bulgarians. 
Montenegro declares war upon Turkey. The 
Bulgarian Premier refuses to agree to the plan 
of the Powers for intervention with Turkey 
in the Macedonian question. The Montene- 
grin army, in the first engagements of the war 
with Turkey, forces the Turks from positions 
on Mount Planinitza and Mount Detchitch. 
Colonel Roosevelt is shot and dangerously 
wounded by a fanatic named Schrank while 
leaving a Milwaukee hotel in an automobile 
on his way to deliver a political address. 
President Taf t reviews warship fleet assem- ^^ ^^^^j 
bled in the Hudson at New York. The Nobel ^^ 
prize for medicine is awarded to Dr. Alexis SlSliciS^ 
Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute.] 



EVERY social student of to-day is contin- 
ually confronted by a very perplexing 
problem, the difficulty of reconciling 
the needed control of the individual by the 
community with the development of the in- 
dividual as a separate and self-controlled en- 
Thecdu- tity. The problem is not, of course, a new 

S't^dSr. ^^^> ^^^ y^^^ "Y y^^^ ^* becomes of mcreasmg 
importance in view of the fact that the com- 
plex questions with which civilized humanity 
has to deal are now mass-questions which, if 
soluble at all, have seemingly to seek for their 
solution in the broad application of general 
principles without much attention being paid 
to the special needs of the individual as such. 
Here we directly touch the philosophical bat- 
tie-ground between the individualist and the 
socialist, and there is, as yet, little or no evi- 
dence that either school of thought has square- 
ly faced the difficulties which are presented 
to it by the other. The individualist is loth 
to recognize that with the complex growth of 
social humanity, control by the community; 



over its units will almost necessarily increase, 
while the socialist shrinks from attempting to 
formulate, even in thought, any conception of 
the extent which that control may have to as- 
sume, or of the methods which it may have to 
employ. Both schools may, perhaps, claim 
that the time has not yet arrived for any such 


formulation, but sooner or later the problem 
will have to be faced. 

Have we faced it in that supremely impor- 
tant subject, education, especially in that side 
of it which is known as elementary? 

When the Education Act of 1870 wasT^^e^Edu. 
passed, perhaps the majority of educational fgifo?* 
reformers rejoiced greatly. For the first time 
the State, the community, had begun to real- 
ize its educational duty to all its children, and 
to some superficial thinkers the educational 
millennium seemed in sight. But those think- 
ers were speedily confronted with the prob- 
lem outlined above as applied to children, the 
effective combination of communal educa- 
tional control side by side with the most care- 
ful guarding against the swamping in that 
control of the separate individualities of the 
separate children. Even after forty-two years 
he would be a bold man who would say that 
this educational problem has been solved. 

Admittedly the task was a great one. From 
the old dame schools in the country villages, 
through the British and National voluntary 
schools, to Mr. Forster's Act was a far cry, 

3232 fHE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.i>. xju 

and the task was immensely complicated by 
the enormous growth of industrialism, of con- 
gested population, of factory life, of the half- 
time evil. The "mass" question was growing 
daily, and the new educational system had, 
perforce, to accommodate itself to the fact 
that in the nation's schools where the nation's 
children were congregated the individual de- 
velopment of the child as a unit seemed al- 
most impossible. New ideas had to be graft- 
ed on to old conceptions, or rather to supplant 
them. Former neglect had to give way to 
present control, and control when dealing 
with the vast subject of the education of the 
children of the nation naturally, perhaps, be- 
came impatient of individual details. The 
The€dtt- education of the child was in danger of being 
2hud*in lost in the education of the children, the in- 
b^Sf"*" dividual in danger of being swamped in the 
theedu- mass. Up to now the result has been far from 

cation *^ 

children, satisfactory. No responsible person proposes 
to abolish the whole of our system of State 
education, but every real educational re- 
fofmer is now searching for more bedrock 
principles and newer and better all-round 
methods of reaching the heart and the intelli- 
gence of the children in our schools. 

For the teachers in our elementary schools 
in town and country no praise can be too 
high. The nation has never yet seemed to 
realize what it owes to them, but they have 
been handicapped and overweighted by the 


shackles of the system within which they have 
had to work. The evil effects of "payment 
by results" for years went far to kill elemen- 
tary education in the real sense, and to stunt 
and dwarf the mentality of the children. It 
seems almost incredible that a hundred and 
eleven years ago Pestalozzi published "How 
Gertrude Teaches Her Children," and that 
seventy-five years ago Froebel opened his first 
Kindergarten, and that still in England we 
are in many respects far behind the Pestaloz- 
zian and Froebel ideas. It has remained for 
Italian genius to add one more gift to civili- 
zation, and to show not only us but the rest of 
the world how to lay a broad educational how a 
foundation on which a superstructure may be cISonai/*" 
built, which shall take into account the whole ^i!^ 
of the child nature, by individualizing that 
nature to the fullest extent while developing 
in concord with it the true communal ideas of 
mutual friendship and service. 

Dottoressa Maria Montessori is an Italian 
lady who, about fifteen years ago, was assistant 
doctor at the Psychiatric Clinic of the Uni- 
versity of Rome, and had occasion to frequent 
the insane asylums to study the sick and select 
subjects from amongst the children. In this 
way she became interested in the idiot chil- 
dren who were at that time housed in the gen- 
eral insane asylums, and she was led to study 
thoroughly the idea of pedagogical, as well 
as medical, treatment for various morbid 

3234 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

forms of disease, such as deafness, paralysis, 
idiocy, rickets, and the like. Little by little 
she devoted herself to preparing some of the 
teachers of Rome for a special method of ob- 
servation and education of feeble-minded 
children, giving herself over completely to 
the actual teaching of the children. Then it 
gradually dawned on her that the same meth- 
ods might be successfully applied to normal 
children. To accomplish this, then, became 
her life-work, and she has given her princi- 
ples, ideas, and methods to the world in her 
illuminating and fascinating book, "II Meto- 
do della Pedagogia Scientifica applicato alF- 
educazione infantile nella Case dei Bambini," 
an English translation of which, by Miss 
Anne E. George, of America, has recently 

«The been published, entitled "The Montessori 

Method." Method." 

Dr. Montessori's educational method is for 
children of from three to six years, but, as she 
says in her preface, it is but the earnest of a 
work that, developing the same principle and 
method, shall cover in a like manner the suc- 
cessive stages of education, and she believes 
that it offers an experimental field for the 
study of man, and promises, perhaps, the de- 
velopment of a science that shall disclose 
other secrets of nature. 
' Briefly, Dr. Montessori's method is to al- 

low the child, with as little teaching as pos- 
sible, to educate itself through the medium of 


the senses, and thus gradually develop its la- 
tent faculties and character — practically the 
same idea as Pestalozzi's, "to begin with ob- 
servation, to pass from observation to con- 
sciousness, from consciousness to speech." 
One of her cardinal ideas is that the innate The 


faculties for this training through the senses |^^«jw 
are active at a much earlier age in children °**^^^- 
than is commonly supposed, and she seems, by 
her method, to have proved her belief. An- 
other of her principles seems to be that chil- 
dren are innately good if properly appreci- 
ated. A friendly comment recently passed on 
her method was that it abolishes original sin, 
and, as far as regards child life, that idea is 
really an enormous gain. Ordinarily, even 
with the best of parents and the best of teach- 
ers, the notion still seems to linger that in 
every child there is a trace of the old Adam 
which at times must be sternly repressed, even 
occasionally by corporal punishment. Dr. 
Montessori's method is the exact antithesis of 
this. Help the child to manifest the good in 
itself rather than presuppose the evil in its 
nature; and even if the evil seems sometimes 
to show itself it is best dealt with by looking 
for the cause in faulty training. Such an idea 
as this is almost entirely foreign to our pres- 
ent methods of elementary education. Often 
against their will our elementary teachers are 
forced to drive rather than lead. The edu- 
cational syllabuses, the rules, and regulaticmSy 



the fixed time-tables, the red-tape, the shadow 
of officialism, the large classes, the practical 
inflexibility of school-life, all combine to 
make the teachers' lives far from happy. The 
wonder is that they and the children come out 
as well as they do. Of course, in our infant 
schools (and it is with these that the Mon- 
tessori method would more immediately con- 
cern itself) there is less routine and much 
more flexibility, but the infant teachers are 
still hampered with huge numbers and rules, 
forms, regulations, inspections, and official 
criticisms. Dr. Montessori, instead of requir- 
ing teachers to say "Don't" or "Do," keeps the 
teacher, qua teacher, in the background as 
much as possible, and when she (for they are 
women as yet) is required, would have her 
say to the children, "Come and let us try this 
Seven years ago Dr. Montessori was en- 
^^u ahled to undertake the organization of an in- 
estabiithcd. jf^j^j school in the model tenements of the 

Roman Association for Good Building. 
Others of these schools were subsequently 
opened in different quarters, and named "Casa 
dei Bambini," "The Children's House." The 
schools were so successful that their reputa- 
tion spread at a rapid rate, and, in 1909, Swit- 
zerland began to transform its orphan asy- 
lums on the same methods and principles, and 
in June, 191 1, passed a law establishing the 
Montessori system in all its public schools^ 


thus forging ahead of Italy, where the edu- 
cational authorities have not yet taken up the 
system generally. Two model schools were 
opened in Paris last September, one of them 
under the direction of the daughter of the 
French Ambassador to Italy, who has studied 
with Dr. Montessori in Rome. Shortly, 
schools will be established in India, China, 
Mexico, Korea, Honolulu, and the Argentine 
Republic. As yet there is no news of the 
system having made any headway against the 
officialism of German education, but Amer- 
ica, eager as usual to entertain new id^eas, 
has warmly welcomed the method, and iswSSS. 


fortunate in having for its exponents Miss "»«**»<><*• 
George, the translator of Dr. Montessori's 
book, and Professor Henry W. Holmes, 
of the EH vision of Education of Harvard 

Dr. Montessori would not, of course, think 
of asserting that she has made an absolutely 
new discovery in human nature. Co-ordinat- 
ing the kindred principles of her predecessors 
from Pestalozzi onwards, and making her 
own application of them, she has achieved the 
great work of translating into normal child- 
life the ideas which had hitherto been applied 
to the feeble-minded, has given liberty in- 
stead of repression to the pupil, and, while 
making the teacher the friend and counsellor 
of the child, has insisted on the fundamental 
requisite in all education, the most thorough 

3288 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

training of that teacher, chiefly a training in 
sympathy and insight. It is no slur on the 
teachers of England to say that their training 
is often imperfect — technical rather than hu- 
man — and it is humanity which in the long 
run will save and redeem education. Dr. 
Montessori will have done much if her insist- 
ence on this cardinal point leads to a more 
general recognition of the fact that the edu- 
cation of children, especially of the young, is 
a human business, and requires as much apti- 
tude and attention as law, medicine, or the- 

One great feature of Dr. Montessori's work 
in Rome is that it deals with the most un- 
promising material, the very poor children 
Sfdrcn fron^ *hc slums. It cannot therefore be said 
tivml that her method is successful because she picks 
and chooses her cases. In her inaugural ad- 
dress, delivered at the opening of the second 
"Children's House," in the quarter of San 
Lorenzo, Rome, she said : 

"The quarter of San Lorenzo is celebrated, 
for every newspaper in the city is filled with 
almost daily accounts of its wretched happen- 
ings. . . . San Lorenzo is not the people's 
quarter, it is the quarter of the poor. It is the 
quarter where lives the underpaid, often un- 
employed working man, a common type in a 
city which has no factory industries. It is the 
home of him who undergoes the period of sur- 
veillance to which he is condemned after his 


prison sentence is ended. They are all here, 
mingled, huddled together." 

It is from such a region as this that Dr. 
Montessori's pupils are chiefly drawn. Not 
that her method is inapplicable to the well-to- 
do classes, for in Rome a school for these has 
been set up by a committee, of which the wife 
of the British Ambassador is a member. But , 
it is the children of the poor with whom Dr. 
Montessori has mainly worked. And the re- The 

J results are 

suits have been extraordinary. STSJjr 

The children of both sexes are taken from 
about two and a half to six or seven years of 
age. The method obtains in every depart- 
ment of their life, so long as it is under the 
teacher's care. The children sleep at home, 
although Dr. Montessori hopes that one day 
there will be a system of low-lying hammocks 
for them at the school. Very great attention 
is given to food, the meals, etc:, and in every 
way the child life is carefully watched and 
tended. In order to carry this out thoroughly 
the school day is long, from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., 
but it is essential that as much as possible of 
the child life should be the school life. It is 
stated that the influence of even these small 
children on their home life is extraordinary. 
A marked improvement has taken place in the 
personal habits of their parents. The chil- 
dren, young as they are, insist on going clean 
to school, and this reacts on the mother and 
imbues her also with personal self-respect. It 

3240 THE WORLD^S GREAT EVENTS a.i>;i9ij 

all shows that the principle which guides the 
schools, love plus wisdom, is a most potent 
factor, even although, as in the case of the 
parents, it is secondary. 

In the schools there are no prizes or pun- 
Sr**pSSfsh- ishments. The children even object to re* 
"**"*** wards. A lady took a box of medals to a 
school to distribute to the cleverest and the 
best children. A little boy of four strongly 
protested, crying out, "Not to the boys, though, 
not to the boys!" If children disturb the 
others without paying any attention to what 
the teacher says, they are at once examined by 
the physician. If they are normal children, 
they are isolated in a comfortable little arm- 
chair, so that they can see their companions 
at work, and they are given their own games 
and toys. Little by little they are insensibly 
drawn again to the others, and all the children 
who at first seemed to rebel against discipline 
were calmed. Discipline, of course, there is, 
but it is the discipline of love, not of fear. 
And here is, above all things, the place and 
vocation of the teacher, to see that object-les- 
sons, lessons in character, are continually be- 
fore the children's eyes. The most frequent 
question that is asked in England about the 
method is as to the function of the teacher. 
The query, in connection with this question of 
discipline, is best answered in Dr. Montes- 
sori's own words : 
"We call an individual disciplined when 


he is master of himself, and can, therefore, 
regulate his own conduct when it shall be nec- 
essary to follow some rule. A special tech- 
nique is necessary to the teacher who is to lead 
the child along such a path of discipline, if 
she is to make it possible for him to continue 
in this way all his life, advancing indefinitely 
toward perfect self-mastery. . . . We must 
check in the child whatever offends or annoys 
others, or whatever tends toward rough or ill- 
bred acts. But all the rest — every manifesta- 
tion having a useful scope — ^whatever it may 
be, and under whatever form it expresses it- 
self, must not only be permitted, but must be 
observed by the teacher. Here lies the essen- SSntw 
tial point; from her scientific preparation the '**''"*' 
teacher must bring not only the capacity, but 
the desire to observe natural phenomena. In 
our system she must become a passive, much 
more than an active, influence, and her passiv- 
ity shall be composed of anxious scientific curi- 
osity, and of absolute respect for the phenom- 
enon which she wishes to observe. The teacher 
must understand and feel her position of ob- 
server: the activity must lie in the phenom- 

Such a conception of the vocation of the 
teacher will probably be a revelation to nine- 
tenths of the teachers of the world! 

Although Dr. Montessori's book is to be 
chiefly valued for the principles of life that 
it contains, principles without which her prac- 


tical method would be useless, the attention 
of most readers will probably be drawn at first 
to the material details of that method. Fore- 
most among these is the apparatus she uses for 
the training, first of the children's senses, and 
so on to their character and mind. One of the 
tifnaf' "^^5* interesting of these is an "educational 
SSic." gymnastic" to develop co-ordinated move- 
ments of the fingers. These prepare the chil- 
dren for the exercises of practical life, such 
as dressing and undressing themselves. Wood- 
en frames are mounted with two pieces of 
cloth or leather, to be fastened and unfastened 
by means of buttons and buttonholes, hooks 
and eyes, eyelets and lacings, or automatic 
fasteners. These are among the earliest exer- 
cises of children of three and a half. At first 
the child makes mistakes, finding a button too 
little or a buttonhole too many. The teacher 
does not show it its mistake, but leaves it for 
discovery. The discovery once made, the child 
has really learned something, educated itself. 
Then as Signora Montessori says : "As soon as 
he knows how to do it, he begins to wish to 
make a practical application of his ability, and 
very soon he will be proud of being suffkienf 
unto himself, and will take delight in an abil- 
ity which makes his body free from the hands 
of others, and which leads him the sooner to 
that modesty and activity which develop far 
too late in those children of to-day who are de* 
prived of this most practical form of cduca- 


tion.*^ And then, "By their fruits ye shall 
know them." A few months ago an English 
visitor and his wife went to a school. His 
wife's blouse was unfastened at the top. A 
mite of four noticed this. She gravely took 
her little stool (the children have each their 
own seat) , stood it in front of the lady, mount- 
ed it, fastened her blouse, politely bowed, took 
her stool, and returned to her place, stopping 
on her way to fasten up the bootlace of an- 
other child which she noticed was undone. 
That, in short, is the Montessori method! The 
nimble education of the body, the spontaneous 
application of that education, the courtesy 
which arose from the sense of human comrade- 
ship. If this is the result in a child of four, 
what may not be expected from the future 
man and woman whose lives are developed 
upward on these lines? And that is Dr. Mon- 
tessori's faith and hope. 

The book must be read to appreciate fully 
this very fascinating side of the method. The 
children's eyes are trained with colors, their 
touch, when blindfolded, with smooth and 
rough surfaces, velvet, sand, etc., their mathe- 
matical instincts with blocks — oblong, cube, 
square, round — ^with rods of different lengths. 
But it is not to be supposed that this is mere 
material or mechanical training. It is simply 


one part of a great unifying idea, the all-round aii-round 
training of the child. The intellectual f acul- \^^' 
ties are at work all the time, without stress or 



JLW, I9f» 

The re- 
made by 
by the 

Strain, in a pleasurable way, and to a degree 
which is almost incredible. vOne especially in- 
teresting example is the teaching of reading 
and writing. Seguin and Itard had certain 
ideas on this, founded on experiment, but Dr. 
Montessori invented a method of her own witfi 
deficient children. Having taught the children 
to touch the contours of the plane geometric 
inset, she next taught them to touch with their 
fingers the forms of the letters of the alphabet. 
Then, by a careful series of grade experiments, 
coupled with linguistic efforts, she eventually 
taught reading and writing. In her schools 
of normal young children she follows out a 
modification of this to such an extent that chil- 
dren write spontaneously. The same visitor 
stated that he saw a child of four spontaneous- 
ly write a sentence (the first he had ever writ- 
ten) on the blackboard without ever having 
really been taught to write in the ordinary 
sense, and Signora Montessori says that while 
the children in the first elementary were la- 
boriously working to forget their wearisome 
pothooks, and to prepare for making the 
curves of "o" and the other vowels, one of hef 
little ones of five years of age wrote, in the 
name of himself and his companions, a letter 
of good wishes and thanks to Signor Edoardo 
Talamo, and this without blot or erasure^ 
Signor Nathan, the Mayor of Rome, has 
stated that when the children leave the Casa 
Jet Bambini for the ordinary elementary 


schools of Rome, they are at least a year ahead 
of other children, and there has been no pre- 
cocity or undue forcing. 

Space prevents a further exposition of a 
method of education which is undoubtedly 
destined to revolutionize much of educational 
thought and practice, if it is allowed room to 
expand. Our own Board of Education sent 
Mr. Holmes (the author of "What Is and 
What Might Be") to Rome to report on the 
Montessori system, and he is understood to be 
entirely favorable to it. An English Montes- 
sori Society has been formed, and this autumn 
two or three lady students will be sent by the 
Society to Rome to study under Dr. Montes- 
sori. When they return they will devote them- 
selves to the training of teachers, and it is 
hoped that the method will then be planted in 
England. There are many difficulties in the 
way. It is impossible to try the method as 
part of the ordinary work or routine of our 
elementary schools. Special rooms and spe- 
cial appliances are needed, and, above all, 
special* teachers. But it is a cheering sign that 
the London County Council has consented to 
allow the method to be tried in a few of their 
schools, they bearing the expense. 

No one imagines that the Montessori meth- 
od will transform child-nature in a year or 
two, but it will certainly lay a secure founda-fo^g. 
tion for a nobler educational child-life. t&tmc 

The closing words of Dr. Montessori's in- 

H— Vol. 10 


tensely interesting book may very fitly be the 
close of this article. 
Mugce u ^Tjjg Children's House' seems to exert a 

Childreii'«2 • *.._ 1 • ri t 1 

Houtc." spiritual influence upon everyone. I have seen 
here men of affairs, great politicians preoccu- 
pied with problems of trade and of state, cast 
off like an uncomfortable garment the burden 
of the world, and fall into a simple forgetful- 
ness of self. They are affected by this vision 
of the human soul growing in its true nature, 
and I believe that this is what they mean when 
they call our little ones wonderful children, 
happy children — the infancy of humanity in 
a higher stage of evolution than our own. . . . 
Truly our social life is too often only the dark- 
ening and the death of the natural life that is 
in us. These methods tend to guard that 
spiritual fire within man, to keep his real na- 
ture unspoiled, and to set it free from the op- 
pressive and degrading yoke of society. It is 
a pedagogical method informed by the high 
concept of Immanuel Kant: Terfect art re- 
turns to nature.' " 


(AJO. 1912) 


THE Isthmus of Panama runs nearly east 
and west, and the canal traverses it from 
Colon on the north to Panama on the 
south, in a general direction from northwest 
to southeast, the Pacific terminus being twen- 
ty-two miles east of the Atlantic entrance. 

The greatest difficulty of the canal project 
now nearing completion was and is the control 
and disposal of the waters of the ChagresThe 
River, and its many tributaries. The Chagres giU^es. 
runs a circuitous serpentine course, backwards 
and forwards across the Isthmus from its 
source in the San Bias Mountains, emptying 
into the Caribbean Sea a mile or two west of . 
Limon Bay. One of the merits claimed for 
the canal plan as finally adopted is that it con- 
verts what was an obstacle into the motive 
power of the colossal project, for without the 
formerly greatly feared floods of the Chagres 
the canal would simply be a dry ditch, useless 
for navigation. 

♦ Reprinted from The American Mediterranean, by Stephen 
Bonsai (New York, 1912) ; Moffat Yard & Co^ publishers. 
By permission. 




The American canal consists of a sea-level 
entrance channel from Limon Bay to Gatun, 
about seven miles long, forty-one feet deep at 
mean tide, and with a bottom width of five 
hundred feet At Gatun the canal becomes 
a high-level canal, from which it takes its 
name. Here a mammoth dam has been con- 
structed across the valley by which the waters 
of the Chagres River are impounded and a 
lake, which will have an area of about a hun- 
dred and sixty-four square miles, is formed. 
This high level is maintained until Pedro 
Miguel, thirty-two miles away, is reached. 
\\ Here the Pacific side of the lake is confined 

by a dam between the hills, and here also the 
descent towards a lower level begins through 
the locks. 
The The Gatun dam, which is the bulwark of 


dwn- the reservoir lake, is nearly one mile and a 
half long, measured on its crest, fully half a 
mile wide at its base, and about four hundred 
feet wide at the water surface, and the crest, 
as planned* will be at an elevation of one hun- 
dred and fifteen feet above mean sea-level, and 
about thirty feet above the expected normal 
level of the lake. Of the total length of the 
dam only five hundred feet, or one-fifteenth 
part, will be exposed to the maximum water 
head or pressure of eighty-five feet. As a 
matter of fact, this bulwark is a mountain 
rather than a dam, and it is confidently ex- 
pected that a view of its colossal proportions 





• -1 

■ I 
, 1 

r ' 

f ' 


will disarm those critics of the project who 
have ever thought to see in an earthen dam at 
this point the fatal weakness of the high-level 

The spillway in the dam is a concrete-lined 
opening twelve hundred feet long and three 
hundred feet wide cut through a hill of rock 
nearly in the centre of the dam, the bottom 
of the spillway opening being ten feet above 
sea-level. There are six double locks of 
concrete in the canal, three pairs in flight 
at Gatun, with a combined lift or drop of 
eighty-five feet One pair at Pedro Miguel 
with a lift or drop of thirty and a third feet, 
and two pairs at Miraflores with a combined 
lift or drop of fifty-four feet eight inches at 
mean tide. For sixteen miles from the Gatun 
dam the canal channel will be a thousand feet 
broad, then for four miles it will narrow to 
eight hundred feet and for four miles farther, 
indeed to the northern entrance of Culebra cut 
at Bas Obispo, it will have a width of five hun- 
dred feet, with depth varying from eighty-five 
feet to forty-five feet the minimum. The 
water-level in the cut will, of course, be that 
of the lake and with a minimum depth of 
forty-five feet Through the cut the mini- 
mum bottom width of the canal, three hun- 
dred feet, will be reached. 

On the Pacific side of the cut or continental pSSfic 
(divide the canal work consists, in addition to"***^ 
the locks already enumerated, of the break* 


waters extending from Balboa to Naos Island, 
a distance of a little more than three miles, 
and the excavation of the canal and ocean 
channel to deep water in the Pacific. At the 
Pacific entrance of the canal the fluctuations 
of tide are considerable, amounting to nearly 
twenty feet The arrangements in the form 
of gates in the tidal lock, by which this obsta- 
cle is to be met, are new and untried, and there 
is no absolute certainty that they will work 
successfully. Here we are face to face with 
one of several important details of the great 
construction which are absolutely without 
precedent, and whose strength or weakness will 
only be apparent when the canal is completed. 
Lg pgt hof The length of the canal from shore-line to 
shore-line is about forty miles. From deep 
water to deep water it is ten miles longer. 
Throughout its course there are no lazy turns, 
a thing which the mariner notes with delight. 
The changing course is met by a succession of 
twenty-two clean-cut angles, without excessive 
curvature in any place such as would retard 
or endanger navigation. 

Even from the above fragmentary sketch of 
the canal project the vital importance of an 
adequate water supply will be apparent. 
Critics of the high-level plan, which we 
adopted, have not of late so frequently repeated 
their criticisms of the Gatun dam, but on the 
question of whether we have enough water to 
work the canal they are far from being silent 


And^ of course, in a sense their criticism is not 
without foundation — however magnificent the 
dam, however wonderful the locks, and how- 
ever accurate the electrical appliances to sup- 
ply the power, sea-going ships will not be able 
to pass from ocean to ocean, and the dream of 
centuries will not be realized, unless the 
water-level of forty-five feet is always main-^^^ 
tained in the channel of the interoceanic'^***'**'^ 

The confidence of the canal engineers in the 
adequacy of the visible water supply to main- 
tain the necessary water-level is based on fig- 
ures, measurements, and observations which 
were started by the French in 1880, and have 
been continued by ourselves. What appear 
to be liberal allowances are niade for evapora- 
tion and seepage and leakage at the water 
gates of the locks. However, should these 
figures prove to be deceptive, should in the dry 
season water not be forthcoming in sufiicient 
quantities for all the lockages desired, the 
canal will not remain on our hands as the 
hopeless wreck of a colossal blunder, as these 
critics maintain will be the case. To meet this 
contingency, which it is hoped, and with much 
show of reason, will never arise, a suitable site 
has been chosen up the Chagres River, ten 
miles away from the canal prism, where in the 
season of floods and rains great quantities of 
water could be accumulated, to be drawn 
upon in the dry season, in case of shortage. 


mergency ^hc sitc of this emergency or secondary dam 

^^* has been selected and the plan fully worked 

out, but construction work has not begun, and 

I understand will not be, until the necessity 

for the same becomes more apparent. 

The great work as outlined above is pre- 
sided over by Colonel Goethals the master- 
iw builder, seconded by Colonel Hodges, assistant 
chief engineer and designer of the permanent 
structure of the canal. It is subdivided 
into three main sections, Colonel Sibert of 
the engineers being in charge of the Atlantic 
Division, while Colonel Gaillard, also of the 
Army, is in charge of the central division, 
which includes the Gatun lake and the Cu- 
lebra cut. The Pacific Division is the pecu- 
liar domain of Mr. S. B. Williamson, a civil 
engineer of great distinction, one of the many 
such who are numbered among the alumni of 
the Virginia Military Institute. Admiral 
Rousseau is the worthy representative of the 
Navy in the great work, while the duties of 
Mr. Joseph B. Bishop, the secretary of the 
Commission, are many and exacting, as are 
those in a different sphere of Mr. Thatcher, 
the civil administrator of the Canal Zone. 

The first days of the visitor (if he is a lay- 
man) in the Canal Zone, as a rule, leave only a 
confused recollection of many things seen and 
little understood. Generally he rushes wildly 
about for a week of bewildered days, dividing 
his time with strict impartiality between the 


many great and striking features of the work. 
Then, if he is wise, he settles down and tries to 
get upon closer and more intimate terms with 
some one of the wonders unfolded, that one 
probably which he flatters himself he under- 
stands. I, charmed by their simplicity, grad- 
ually became identified with the water-gates ^^^_ 
of the Gatun lock, at the Atlantic entrance to ****•• 
the high level. Truly, as the foreman ex- 
plained, the mechanism of the gates is within 
the grasp of the most simple-minded, merely 
''an open and shut game,'' as he said, but of 
enthralling interest, for here the waters of the 
Atlantic will make their first onward rush to 
wreck the work of soaring man, and here, if 
all goes well, the dreadnoughts and the ocean 
greyhounds alike will be made to walk up- 

And here everything is on a gigantic scale. 
The men who are building these great water- 
gates at Gatun treat appliances that handle 
fifty-ton weights as though they were feather 
dusters, with as much nonchalance as if they 
were sewing machines. This is a place where 
the roar of the sledge hammers is ceaseless, 
and the drumming of the riveting irons is 
never hushed. Each leaf of the mitred gate 
costs, I believe, a hundred thousand dollars, 
and the great rivets by which the leaves are 
fastened into place are doubtless not as cheap 
as ten-penny nails. In the twilight of the lock 
interior the rivets are hurled from the heating 


furnaces to where they arc needed. As they 
fly through the air to the great gates which 
arc being forged to keep out the floods of the 
Atlantic, they look like nothing half so much 
as a shower of meteors rushing through the 
darkling air into space. 

Here at the first water-gate of the Gatun 
locks and beyond by the timbered coflFer-dam, 
which to-day alone protects and shields the 
mitred gates of iron from the onrush of the 
Atlantic tides, perhaps the advanced state of 
the work is most apparent and you soon fall 
into the illusion that everything is ready for 
shipping until the cold calculating foreman, 
with the steel-blue eye, comes along and blasts 
your dream by the admixture of a few, to me, 
wholly unsympathetic facts, but at all events, 
ever the foreman cannot deny this, the picture 
h^Vspdie changes every day, and every hour spells prog- 
progress. ^^^^ somcwhcre. One day I rode through the 

drainage canal at the bottom of the locks and 
came back at noon the next day to repeat the 
performance, only to find the outlet through 
which we had steamed so gaily, closed with a 
corselet of steel, which was being flooded by 
a river of cement. The little engine in which 
we had traveled was entirely cut oflp from the 
railway system, and the engineer was not a 
little perturbed at the separation. He came 
from Colorado and did not like being a one- 
horse railway by himself. "The Superinten- 
dent wants me to fetch and carry down in 


here canyon for a month or two," he ex- 
plained, "but some day he will drop a chain 
from a crane and haul me out to open air and 
the main system again, at least that's his 

And one day as I lingered by the coffer-dam 
I saw the fate of that water which had been 
so presumptuous as to threaten the water-gates 
with flood and the cement-larkers with drown- 
ing. The engineers had slipped another dam 
behind the pressing flood, and quietly and 
without noise of any kind the water which I 
and many another observer had thought des- 
tined to be first in the lock was being squirted 
out over an adjacent prairie. After the water 
was out the suction dredges sucked up thou- 
sands of yards of slime, filled up a little lake, 
by means of their great extension-pipes, and 
here and there reduced mountains to mole- 
hills. In a few hours many familiar features familiar 

'' features 

of the landscape had disappeared. IWhen allf^^^^^j^ 
the ooze was sucked out, the drilling machines *^''******'"* 
were placed on the bed rock that was now dis- 
closed to view, and one wall began to rise 
which is to protect the vast lock structure from 
earth slides and another to guide the incoming 
steamers to their first resting place on their 
epoch-making journey across the continental 
divide. So you see to-day the freckle-faced, 
flannel-shirted hydraulic engineer can do all 
the things to the ocean that King Canute 
could not 


Suddenly the eleven o'clock whistle echoes 
through the yellow canyon, and the uproar 
from many machines dies slowly, it would 
seem reluctantly away, and the voices of the 
^m%r foremen can be heard shouting: "Pick 'cm up, 
pick 'em up I" And the men turn their backs 
on the great water-gates, which are ajar. Just 
as the whistle sounded a trained and, as it 
would seem, thoroughly domesticated travel- 
ing crane had deposited with precision and 
with something like respectful obedience to 
the touch of the button or the turn of the lever, 
at their very feet, an eighteen-ton girder for 
one leaf of the water-gate, which in the fulness 
of time is destined to hold back the waters of 
the ocean. The chains are loosened of their 
burden, and the riveters, climbing down from 
their perches, coil the chains about their 
bodies as if they were ropes of flowers and 
shout: "Pick 'em upl Haul away I" I wish you 
could see then the dark despair that is de- 
picted on the faces of the men on the lower 
level, whose fate it is to puddle about in the 
swamps of cement below and who, by reason 
of the great rubber trousers which they wear, 
and the uneasy element, neither liquid nor 
solid, in which their working hours are lived, 
are not quick movers. 

"Pick 'em upl Pick 'em up!" the cry re- 
sounds through the ravine. Some one touches 
the button or some one turns the lever and die 
traveling crane hoists away out of the depths 


a score or so of half-naked men with beads of 
perspiration dripping from their bare khaki- 
colored backs. As they squirm in and out 
among the chains and perform acrobatic feats 
that made at least one obsenrer's heart sink 
into his boots, they are shot out of the yellow 
canyon, and swinging clear of the earth, dan- 
gle for a moment some fifty feet overhead, a 
glowing tangled knot of humanity, that recalls 
some masterpiece from the chisel of Cellini 
more than anything I had ever seen in life 
before. Then they are dropped softly down 
to the top level of the lock structure and start 
for dinner quietly, just as though they had 
stepped oflF a trolley car. 

Out of the glare of the sun the men pass into 
the subdued light and the welcome coolness 
of the bird cage-shaped and wired eating 
houses, which give the whole line of our new 
waterway such a very Japanese appearance. 
As they pass out of the sunlight into the twi- 
light beyond the turnstile, the men finger little 
brass numbered checks, like the old-fashioned The braw 
trunk checks of the last decade, which hang 
from their belts and serve to identify them. 
I believe, as a man's work is done and a section 
of the great work finished, these checks are 
called in and the man passes out into the 
world with nothing tangible to show that he 
has played his part in that great work which 
is the wonder of tfie day and likely to remain 
the miracle of the ages. I think every man 

8258 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

who sees the thing through or does his little 
part of it with credit should be allowed to re- 
tain this medal of highest honor, this Victoria 
Cross, this emblem of membership in that 
greater Society of the Cincinnati.* 

When the traveler comes to Culebra, fortu- 
nately for him he cannot see all the wonders 
and all the horrors of the crooked, snaky "cut" 
at once, and so he escapes a very disagreeable 
moment It is best to take the troubles which 
the cutting of the divide entails in short cross- 
sections, emulating the example of Colonel 
Gaillard, the engineer upon whom the solu- 
tion of the Culebra problems has devolved, 
and who is known as the most cheerful man in 
the Zone. At a banquet of the "Kangaroos" 
an orator described him, not inaptly, as "the 
cheerful cheerful chamois of the Culebra cut." Upon 


ctuSbra ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ devolved of severing this 
'^^" backbone that holds North and South Amer- 
ica together, and, surprisingly enough, the 
trouble is not that this backbone is tough, but 
that it has hardly the strength and consistency 
of the traditional chocolate eclair. It won't 
stay cut, but slides together again, and if they 
can't get together the severed portions will not 
sit up, can hardly be made to sit up when sup- 
ported, what they love to do is to relax or col- 
lapse, and to drop down into that dry ditch 

* I am informed since the foregoing was written that the 
Isthmian Canal Commission are now permitting all men 
who are honorably discharged after two years' work to take 
with them these simple metal disks. 


where some day soon, though it requires the 
faith that removes mountains to believe it, the 
ocean greyhounds will go steaming by. 

Perhaps you could take in with your eye a 
cross-section of the staggering spectacle which 
the Culebra presents, if it were not for the 
noise. Perhaps you have never heard of noise 
affecting the optic nerve, but that is merely 
one way of saying you have never been in the 
"cut." Down there the man of keenest hear- 
ing has no advantage over the deaf mute. If 
you are not struck speechless as you ought to 
be, communicate your thoughts in the sign lan- 
guage, but you had better concentrate all your 
attention on flying boulders, incipient ava-g^^^^ 
lanches, and erratic steam shovels. All about l^dlJlU. 
you are marshaled machines, whole battalions 
of machines of every variety, those that build 
up and those that tear down. The whole 
gamut of invention is represented from the 
drill, that goes through granite, to the titanic 
hose, which washes away bulging hillocks and 
sharp comers just as though they were so many 
sand piles erected by children at play. And 
speaking of children, the concrete guns are 
simply boys' blow-pipes, magnified to heroic 
size. They squirt their sticky charges against 
the uneasy walls of the man-created canyon in 
the hope (it never was realized) that after this 
tonic has been administered the walls will sit 
up and cease from crumbling away. 

But the steam shovels, especially those of 

3260 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.0. 191a 

the ninety-five ton variety, are the popular 

tools which report progress every time they 

eat into the mountain-side, and lay bare its 

Moon, geological secrets. Sometimes moonstones 

a^dafites and agatcs are brought to light, but generally 

brought up " ^ o / ^ ^ 

by8hovci8. if jg jjj.f^ generally dirt of the most "ornery" 
kind, as the steam-shovel men all agree. Af- 
ter the shovels come the hose, washing up the 
debris, clearing the sidewalks, as it were, un- 
der tremendous hot-air pressure. The cav- 
alry, it would seem, are represented by the 
patrols and squads of spidery-shaped drills, 
which make the holes for the dynamite. You 
think these drills are simply playing and wast- 
ing valuable time; as a matter of fact, they 
do not occupy the centre of this great stage 
until at noon, when the hungry hordes have 
gone to eat, or at night when they have gone 
away to sleep at higher levels. It is only then 
that the flights and squadrons of drills are 
withdrawn from the advanced posts, where 
they have been digging dynamite holes all 
day, and the electric spark is sent along the 
invisible wire, and, with a roaring crash, the 
hills are rent. It's a great moment, this, for 
the drills, and for those grimy, daring men 
who play around all day in the bottom of the 
cut with dynamite sticks as others play with 
golf clubs. There is no one there to cheer, 
but it is a hard moment for the bluff steam 
shovels with their blustering ways, and they 
generally relieve the awkwardness of the mo- 



ment by blowing off steam. Great and mighty 
are the shovels and deservedly far-reaching is 
their renown, but the mighty excavation has 
brought to light nuts which the shovels would 
find it hard to crack were it not for the pre- 
paratory pioneer work of the slender drills 
and the disintegrating influence of the dyna- 
mite charges. 

The walk through the cut always leads to 
where Gold Hill, the highest point in the 
Zone, throws, in more senses than one, its dark 
shadow over this section of the battlefield. I 
have always been a follower of those enthusi- 
astic, plausible, and perhaps profoundly ig- 
norant men who have tried so hard to induce 
the canal commissioners to undermine Gold 
Hill on the far side, not for treasure trove, but 
in the hope that, robbed of its underpinnings, 
this menacing mountain would slide away and 
disappear from the horizon, where to-day it 
looms so large and so full of menace. The 
project has never appealed to the commission. 
The movement of the hill, they claim, suppos- 
ing that it had once been started, would de- 
pend entirely upon the underlying geological 
formation, of which we know nothing, and 
not upon the wishes of the starters. Probably 
it is best to leave it alone — as they have de- 
cided. However, where all the earth is mov- 
ing it seems excessively optimistic to hope that 
Gold Hill will always stand stock-still. Per- 
haps it may slide away from it, perhaps it may 

8262 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191* 

slide into the "cut.'' Certain only it is that so 
long as Gold Hill stands where it does there 
is the possibility of a catastrophe which would 
wreck our inter-oceanic waterway for years, 
and perhaps forever. 
S?ww£«. While the working hours are on and fifty 
thousand husky men are working within the 
canal prism at high pressure to see the thing 
through, you feel proud to be a man and a 
brother of these men of many colors and of 
many nations, who, under the leadership and 
the guidance of American engineers, are re- 
moving mountains, flooding waterways, and 
preparing the dry land. There is no thought 
of failure or even of appreciable delay along 
that far-flung battle line, from the shallows 
in Limon Bay, where Drake is resting in his 
leaden coflin, to "old" Panama, where Mor- 
gan was wont to singe the King of Spain's 
beard, and make free with his ingots and his 

In working hours you are fired by the en- 
thusiasm of the workers. You, too, though 
only a camp follower, a spectator, an un- 
worthy clerk, if you will, of the ever victori- 
ous army, you too follow the "snow-white 
plume" to the deepest levels or to the top of 
the continental divide, from whence Balboa 
did not see both oceans, unless the old Con- 
quistador's eyes were quite different from 
those of other mortals. But do not venture 
into the canal prism at night or on the Sab- 


bath, or on one of the infrequent holidays, if 
you would preserve your equanimity and op- 
timistic poise. I spent one solitary Sunday 
in the cut, and it required many cheery days 
of companionship with the workers, many 
bright hours of visible conquest to dispel the 
gloomy forebodings that then assailed, if they 
did not quite possess me. 

It is an unpleasant experience, and yet I 
know no other way in which the odds of the 
venture can be gauged, or the terms upon 
which the battle is being fought, appreciated. 
Man is resting, but restless Nature is at work 
and her sinister opposition to man's greatest 
achievement becomes apparent in all its dead- 
ly eflfectiveness. 

As I walked along one of the lower reaches 
of the cut, a bank caved in before my eyes, 
and I was enveloped in a splashing spray of 
muddy water. It was as if a geyser had burst Jh^^^^ 
out from the bowels of the embankment. I^JiweL 
looked about me for an alarm to sound, but I 
was alone in a great solitude. How criminal 
it is that men should be at church or playing 
baseball (and I knew they were both praying 
and playing, because I had been cordially in- 
vited to both places), while the demon of de- 
struction is having its will of the great work I 
The torrent issuing from the embankment 
broadened, my heart sank as I saw the lake 
forming all around me. Can that crazy Span- 
iard, who leads a hermit existence in the shack 


back of the hill, be right after all? How im- 
pressively and how without feeling he had 
said to me only yesterday, "Yes, the Americans 
are working wonders, their project is worthy of 
every success, but, of course, success will not be 
theirs. What God has joined let no man put 
asunder." I danced and sprang about dodg- 
ing the rising flood, and while intent upon 
maintaining my retreat to the mainland, I saw 
through the embankment, now wholly col- 
lapsed, what had happened. The waters of 
one of the innumerable tributaries of Ac 
Chagres had burst the diverting channel 
through which it was to be escorted out of 
harm's way and was flooding the lower levels. 
Soon it would reach the railway bed, soon sub- 
merge the steam shovels. Suddenly a familiar 
sound fell upon my ears. I have heard Christ- 
mas chimes and the lightship's bell off a bleak 
lea shore, but nothing ever sounded half so 
sweet to me as the chug of that automatic ram 
that started to work in the lower depths of the 
culebra cut Another and another joined in 
the chorus. Here and there a pump started, 
Fighting and the unruly waters were quelled and 
pumped back whence, unbidden, they had 

I wish man, with his many inventions, could 
fight the invading dirt in his absence as suc- 
cessfully as he does the water, but truth com- 
pels me to say that, as far as my observation 
goes, he cannot All this Sabbath day the gla- 

the water. 


cier-like "slides" were, without haste and The siidci. 
without rest, pouring their burden of earth 
into the deep cut that man, with his many ma- 
chines and many forms of power, has been so 
long in making. All the old "slides" were fill- 
ing in the wounds and covering over the scars, 
inflicted during the past weeks, while the un- 
manned steam shovels stood powerless by and 
one of them at least was well-nigh submerged 
in the avenging flood. The steam shovels 
«tood by stock-still, but they were not silent 
under the provocation. A sibilant hissing 
noise issued from their boilers where the steam 
is generated that on working days enables the 
shovels to eat into mountains as though they 
were old cheeses, and hurl ten-ton boulders 
around as though they were so many marbles. 
I could have borne with the old "slides," — 
they have, as it were, their traditional justifi- 
cation, — but to see a new "slide" start as I did, 
indeed two of them, either one of which might 
sooner or later encompass the overthrow of 
man's proudest achievement, was hard to bear, 
especially on a holiday outing. 

The Cucaracha is the famous historic slide, JJ^^^j^^ 
which was first heralded to the world, but the 
men on the fighting line, I find, more greatly 
fear that moving avalanche more directly in 
the cut, and which is consequently called the 
Culebra slide. The Cucaracha, is, however, 
the senior slide, and it began to give the 
French trouble in 1884. It still gives trouble 


and costs much money. The cost of this one 
pesky bit of earth that won't sit up and behave 
itself could have been converted profitably 
into quite a fleet of battleships- It was at first 
confined to a length of eight hundred feet 
measured along the line of excavation, but it 
has extended or expanded to include the entire 
basin south of Gold Hill for a length of three 
thousand feet Originally but six acres, the 
Cucaracha now covers nearly fifty acres, al- 
ways moving restless, irresistible as the sea. 
Should the Culebra slide develop along these 
proportions, say the pessimists, our present 
plan of canal will be defeated. 

Of course we are taking big chances with 
the "slides," and no one can say with absolute 
Araianches Certainty whcn these avalanches of earth may 
reach the angle of repose so prayerfully 
worked for, and which is so different in situ- 
ations which appear to be exactly similar. If 
it is to be a fight to the finish, no one can say 
how much it will cost, or how long it will take 
to extirpate or remove, by excavation, these 
pockets of rotten earth of such changing and 
uncertain dimensions. One cannot feel very 
cheerful when he sees, or thinks he sees, at all 
events when he knows by scientific measure- 
ments which admit of no denial, that three- 
quarters of a million of cubic yards of earth 
are moving directly towards the canal chan- 
nel ; when he learns, by the rudest and most 
convincing of object lessons, that the flow can- 


not be stopped, at all events down to the pres- 
ent never has been stopped, and that it will all 
have to be dug out sooner or later by the shovel 
or the dredge. 

So it can be said that the Culebra cut, or 
rather the treatment of the "slides" and the 
breaks in its banks, has developed into the un- 
certain and experimental feature of the work 
and the completion of the "cut," as Colonel 
Goethals has well said, will also mark the date 
of the canal's completion. Colonel Gaillard, 
of the Engineers, who is in immediate com- 
mand of the forces that are fighting the An- 
tean monster of Culebra, is very anxious to 
get water into the cut because he believes that 
the back pressure of the water will give the 
inefficient banks greater stability; it is also 
thought that the removal of the railway with 
its vibration, and the cessation of blasting, will 
bring relief. 

Down in the bottom of the "cut" the heat is J^^J*^ 
sweltering, though overhead, on the surface 
level, the bushes and the few remaining trees 
are nodding and bowing before the constant 
breeze. I staggered along, and coming, as I 
did, to such close quarters with hitherto almost 
unsuspected forces in the bowels of the earth, 
strange revelations were to be expected, and 
certainly they were not lacking. First of all, 
and certainly to me the most fearful and awful, 
was Ae genesis of a new slide. I saw two 
come into being in the course of the short walk 


which I describe. One soon subsided, but the 
other, for all I know, may be sliding yet. It 
certainly was moving with unimpaired vigor 
many hours alter I witnessed its sinister birth. 
To me, in the depths of the chasm, where at 
noon it is twilight and the burning heavens 
straight overhead alone are visible, at the very 
foot of this breathless pit where the sullen 
dead heat reigned, it seemed passing strange, 
but it was nevertheless so, above and not so far 
away in the breezy above-sea-level world out- 
side men were playing ball, and men and 
women, too, were going to church, and some 
of the latter were bent on staying to witness 
the titanic struggle between the "Kangaroos" 
and another famous nine, for the Isthmian 
championship. As the Sunday train passed 
out of hearing, on its way to the church reser- 
vation in Ancon, where the fighting Parson 
prays and also plays ball, the engineer blew 
his whistle, I hope, to warn track-walkers and 
not out of sheer animal spirits. Be this as it 
may, the whistle rang and re-echoed shrilly 
through the cut and right under my eyes, and 
at my feet, which were soon covered with a 

S?^nning ^^ttlc avalanchc of sand, the "slide" began. 

S-BSdc" First a mere thread of sand it was, then a rivu- 
let of bulkier mass, soon a rock or two was 
drawn into the current, and a minute later I 
jumped none too soon to escape a great boul- 
der, which, bereft of its underpinning, came 
suddenly crashing down into the lower IcvcL 


—Vol. X. pair 

A3.x»ia THE PANAMA CANAL 3289 

In five minutes there was work, and plenty, for 
a steam shovel or two, and before evening the 
new slide had swept away a railway siding, 
buried a steam shovel so deep that it would 
have to be dug out, and set back the work of 
those dauntless men, who had determined to 
see the thing through, by many a weary back- 
breaking day. 

I fled this slide only to stumble into another. 
Overhead now the baseball game was waxing 
hot, the '^Kangaroos" had gotten on to the 
twirl of the new pitcher from Colon and were 
batting him all over the field. A tremendous 
hit resounded down the "cut" from the far- 
away field, a loud hurrah "Go to second! 
Come home 1'^ from the excited fans, and sud- 
denly, again at my side, there sprang into be- 
ing another slide. A little rivulet of restless 
earth seeking repose, which did not subside 
for an hour or more, by which time it had de- 
posited some twenty tons or more of indurated 
clay into Uncle Sam's ditch, and by so much 
added to the engineers' cares and the taxpay- 
ers' burden. 

A little further on, and the earth grew sud- 
denly strangely hot under foot. I looked 
down and it seemed to me I was walking upon 
smoldering coals or upon a bed of peat 
burnt into many colors. I had stumbled upon 
that curious phenomenon which the negroes 
from Barbados and Jamaica reported to their 


bosses, a few days before, as "hell hole" or hell hoie- 

I— Vol. 10 

«270 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.ii.i9i< 

gate. Many of the newspapers took it up, and 
a large section of the European Press was con- 
vinced, cable-graphically I suppose, that we 
had unearthed an awakening volcano in die 
very track of our four-hundred-million-dollar 
waterway- Indeed, I do not blame the Euro- 
pean brethren if they reported what they ac- 
tually saw. I myself have seen half a dozen 
volcanoes in Java (lady^s volcanoes the Dutch 
call them, from their gentle ways and the fact 
that they can easily be visited by the most 
Chinese-footed of the fair sex), which did not 
look so volcanic to the untutored and unscien- 
tific eye. At all events, on this day all the 
The ground about was either aflame or a-smoking, 
aflame, and, here and there, the earth had been burnt 
into heaps of rubbish, which had taken on 
strange fantastic colors. Whatever it may be, 
and I personally had not the ghost of a notion, 
this is not ordinary pay-dirt. But already 
men, keen-eyed deep-delving geologists from 
whom Mother Earth cannot conceal her se- 
crets, have brushed away Ae superstition of 
the negroes and the theories of the half-baked 
scientists. It is not the gate to hell, and it 
is not a destruction-breeding volcano we are 
face to face with, but an interesting phenome- 
non, which wise men from all over the world 
are hastening to see. I confess that the feature 
of it that I find most interesting, is that the 
phenomenon has proved helpful rather than 
hurtful to the work of excavation. 

^.1912 THE PANAMA CANAL 3271 

It happened in this wise, say the geologists. 
A steam shovel or a blast, destroying better 
than it knew, brought to view and exposed to 
the burning rays of the overhead tropical sun, 
a great deposit of iron pyrites. A slow fire 
by combustion or from the blast was the result, 
to which a nearby lying bed of free lime con- 
tributed further fuel; to-day the fire smol- 
ders in a bed of lignite, and as nothing is easier 
to remove than ashes, strict orders have been 
given to watch the fire, but by no means to put 
it out; already many hundred yards of what 
would have been, but for this happy accident 
and the glowing kiss of the sun, stubborn 
spoils, have been incinerated and this cross- 
section of burnt-out earth displays more dis- 
solving colors than ever did Joseph's coat 
Only steam-shovel man No. 501 1 is disap- 
pointed, for when the "volcano" was first re- 
ported he offered Colonel Goethals to dig it 
out "by the roots" with his great machine. 

One hundred yards farther on another phe- 
nomenon is staged. It is not visible, however, 
to the naked eye, unless the eye has the insight 
of imagination, but it is none the less real, and 
none the less formidable for all that. We 
have reached the bottom of the chasm as itJJ*<Jom 
yawns to-day. Here the eighty-five- foot level, ^^ 
the future level of the canal, has been reached 
and indeed surpassed, the extra depth being 
needed, it is said, for a temporary or emer- 
gency drainage canal. And perhaps here the 



A.D. 191a 

of the 
of the 

hole has been dug deep as an object lesson of 
what is yet to come all along the line. In 
other words, it is a reconnaissance in force to 
the bottom of the "cut/' Here even the most 
thoughtless and unscientific toiler can get the 
measure of the work that still awaits us and 
gird up bis loins for the mighty sustained ef- 
forts that will yet be required of him. 

The truth and the correctness of the level 
reached in this place was ascertained by the 
most scientific instruments and substantially 
corroborated by half a dozen others, including 
the rule of thumb for which most foremen of 
working gangs have such a strong partiality. 
But a day or two later the place did not look 
right. Some with the insight of imagination 
in their vision said the ground had risen over 
night, and boldly asserted that they saw it rise 
while they stood there! When the measuring 
instruments were brought, science confirmed 
the imaginative point of view. The bottom 
of the canal channel had risen a foot in forty- 
eight hours, and worse luck I was still rising I 
A feeling of superstitious awe now possessed 
some of the men of this particular working 
gang. Here was indeed no end of a job I 
Here was an endless chain of excavations 1 A 
prey to superstitious fears and powerless to 
continue on the job, some of the Spaniards 
here engaged — ^here where they had made an 
enviable record for endurance and steadiness, 
second to no men whether white or black — 

Aj>.i9ij THE PAKAMA CANAL 8278 

had to be transferred to less fantastic fields of 
labor, and the matter-of-fact steam-shovel 
men were called in by the equally unemotional 
engineers. The ditch was dug out again "deep ^^,f''^ 
and plenty," as the steam^ovelers say, and 
again it filled out and welled up to its former 

Then the wise men, responsible for die con- 
struction of the world's eighth wonder, put on 
their thinking caps and found a very natural, 
if regrettable, explanation of Ae extraordi- 
nary occurrence. The rise of the soil in the 
"cut," and indeed in die bottom of the future 
waterway in many odier places, was caused 
by die weight of the banks which remained 
and the lateral pressure which they exerted.* 
Where the height and consequently the weight 
of the adjacent bank has been reduced, the 
alanxkimg bulge ceases and the bed of the canal 
stays dug. Still this topping of the side crests 
or embankments in many places is costing an- 
other pretty penny. 

It is well to bear this in mind and also to 
remember that when you look into the totals 
of the "cut," the tale is not so tragic as are 
some of the details. Barring a catastrophe, 
the "cut" will be completed early in 191 3, nine Completion 
months from now, and thanks to the unf ore- *° '^'^* 
seen slides we will then have excavated twenty 

* Observers are losing faith in the ''angle of repose" doc- 
trine and the "slides" are assigned by many to the same causes 
whidi are given here for the nsing of the soil. 

8274 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.o. 1912 

million cubic yards more dian we bargained 
for. Fortunately, however, the cost price of 
the excavation that we did foresee has been 
so much smaller than we had any reason to 
hope it would be, that though we will have 
dug twenty million cubic yards more than we 
counted upon, die work is still within, and 
well within, the estimated cost. 

In so far as it is permitted to the human 
finite eye to spy into the future to-day, this the 
greatest work of man since his activities began 
Work is eighty per cent completed. To-day some of 
^^ted. the great water-gates through which the argo- 
sies of the future are to pass into the south and 
eastern seas are completed and ajar, the light- 
houses at either entrance and the range lights 
within, so many beckoning beacons, flash out 
their invitation, calling attention, like so many 
gigantic electric signs, to the new route of 
commerce soon to be thrown open to the 
world. In the lake reservoir the precious in- 
dispensable water is rising nearly an inch a 
day, and the "cut" section of the work is only 
dry because of a slender strip of earth or dike, 
at Matachin, a strip of earth which a steam- 
shovel could devour in less than half a day. 

To-day, for the first time in eight years, the 
undoubted progress of the great work is ap- 
parent. Up to now progress was a matter for 
cold, careful scientific calculation, to-day it is 
a matter of ocular demonstration. Formerly 
you could, of course, see the dirt fly, but the 


plot was 80 carefully concealed that the good 
of the flying dirt was really a matter of faith. 
To-day, however, not only is eighty per cent 
of the work completed, but the end is in sight. 
The canal has taken shape and the purposeful 
co-ordination of all the detached works and 
isolated workers jumps to the eye of the most 
short-sighted tourist. Hardly a week passes 
without "finished" being written upon some 
important fraction of die work. 

Barring some great and unforeseen catas- 
trophe, all the masonry and the concrete will 
be completed by January i, 1913. By July, 
next year, the air- and water-tight gates, which 
are to hold and control the floods of the 
Chagres, will be ready to perform their vital 
functions in the working of the canal. Three 
gates are already completed and, in operation, 
have been subjected to severe tests. Indeed, 
by this date, July, 1913, the whole canal proper 
should be completed and there is every reason 
to believe it will be. The terminals may not 
be ready, and the back-filling of these gigantic 
concrete castles, which the engineers call locks 
may lag behind, but all these ragged edges 
will have been gathered up and smoothed out 
long before the date of the official opening in 
191 5. To-day the railway yards at Balboa are 
being transferred to make room for the per- permanent 
manent dry-dock and basin on the Pacific side.o^ftSfe 
It is to be hoped that this is the last transfer 
of this vagrant railway, which, though it en- 


joys the shortest route across the contisent, has 
had its roadbed changed so frequently that if 
all the construction work on the Panama line 
had been. permanent it would reach from the 
Isthmus to Patagonia, and form one of the 
longest railways in the world. 

The dry-dock will be a thousand feet long 
and the first terminal pier, which is now weil 
under way, will have the same length and be 
about two hundred feet wide. The two great 
coaling stations, one at Cristobal on the Atlan- 
tic, and the other at Balboa on the Pacific, will 
be ready for their grimy work some time be- 
fore they will be needed. The lake is filling, 
and the water will be permitted to rise until 
the fifty- foot level is reached. At this level 
in the lake the "cut" and the locks will stiil 
remain high and dry until July, 191 3, when, 
if all goes well, the great deluge will be in- 
augurated, as quietly as possible, of course. 
H^2*f?r" There will be a dramatic morarent, doubtless, 
when the steam-shovels eat away the earth- 
work at M atachin, and the water rushes into 
the "cut" and the lower levels which it has 
cost so much hitherto to keep dry. But engi- 
. neers shun drama, and the water rush will be 
contrived, as quietly as possible, probably 
by sluices. What will be the actual status 
of the waterway after this critical moment 
is passed, no one can say with precision, 
but it is hoped, and it is quite possible, that 
in a very few weeks sea-^oing dredges wiU 

tions for 




have dug out many of the remaining shoal 
places and that, from this time on, freighters 
of medium tonnage will accomplish the tran- 
sit of the Isthmus without difficulty. 

The Atlantic side breakwater, stretching far 
out into Limon Bay, affording the ships from 
the North Atlantic and the oft-vexed Carib- 
bean a safe and smooth refuge, is practically 
finished, and the mammoth breakwater on the 
Pacific side, from Balboa out to Naos Island, 
nearly, if not quite, three miles long, is, thanks 
to the spoils from the Culebra cut, growing 
into an ocean promontory with marvelous 

A wonderfully safe harbor is the result, 
and some think an ideal naval base, until 
the dawn of the day when all that sort of 
thing can be thrown away into the rubbish 

None too soon are Congress and the Press 
occupying themselves with the important de- 
tails of the permanent organization and gov-^'Suneat 
ernment of the canal, for unless all signs So?l"*^" 
should prove deceptive and the hopes of con- 
servative observers prove unfounded, in the 
early winter of 1913, while the canal may yet 
be far from completed, as it is proposed to 
build it, yet the two oceans, long asunder, will 
be joined by a gated waterway, freighters will 
be passing through, and the conquest of the 
centuries, a dream of four centuries at least, 
will have become an accomplished fact, and 

ffi78 THE WORUyS GKEAT EVENTS aj>.i9u 

soon, yery soon, merely a hnmdnmr milestone 
in the path of man's progress. 

Along the way which the old navigators 
dreamed of and knew mnst be achieved, the 
new navigators will penetrate die Soudi Seas 
and the search for the western route to the Far 
East, which shaped history and, incidentally, 
peopled die Americas, will have ended But 
the new lands, which die new route makes ac- 
cessible and even brings near to our main trav- 
eled roads, are lands which die oM navigators 
never dreamed of, and here, it seems to me, is 
the place to dwell upon die epoch-making f ea- 
Tbe ^ , ture of our work, that triumph of sanitation 

triumpii of ' 

nniution. which has made die construction of the canal 
and residence on the Isthmus not only possi- 
ble, but even pleasant 

The far-reaching effects of this successful 
sanitary campaign cannot be over-estimated!, 
indeed, I fear, with our old-fashioned ideas, 
which sad experience has instilled into our 
minds of how cosdy, in human lives, was the 
conquest of the tropics, when attempted by the 
individual, we cannot estimate it at all. But 
let us, at least, recall that, had the canal been 
completed twenty years ago, people would 
still have passed through it with bated breath 
and grave anxiety, some, indeed, with medi- 
cated handkerchiefs before their nostrils. It 
is certain that the transit of the Isthmus was 
then regarded as an exceedingly dangerous 
and unpleasant stage in the journey to the 


promised lands beyond. To-day, however, 
thanks to the new science of sanitation and its 
apostles, who have risen from the ranks in our 
army medical corps, the promised lands lie 
near at hand, and those who seek them are not 
scourged by pest and pestilence. I have had 
the honor and the advantage of talking upon 
this momentous subject on several occasions 
with Colonel Gorgas, the man, who, despite 
his many modest protests, has contributed to 
this proud result more than any other man. 
He is of the opinion that the conquest of the 
tropics has been attained, and that, in conse-xhe 
quence, vast economic changes are impending* S?^"* 
He believes firmly that within a period of attained. 
time, long indeed, when viewed from the 
standpoint of a man's life, but short enough 
when compared with the other historical 
epochs of the world, in a near future, as his- 
tory marks its periods, the centres of popula- 
tion and the most flourishing civilization will 
be found dwelling and flourishing within the 
confines of those very lands so long shunned, 
at least so far as our race is concerned, by all 
save the adventurer and the outcast. Colonel 
Gorgas, with characteristic modesty, in a re- 
cent address to a medical society, put his claim 
and his prophecy in the following simple 

"We, therefore, believe that sanitary work 
on the Isthmus will denionstrate to the world 
that the white man can live and work in any 



part of the tropics and maintain good health, 
and that the settling of the tropics, by the Cau- 
casian, will date from the completion of the 
Panama Ca^al." 

In a word, there is much reason to believe 
The that the conquest of the Isthmus will not mere- 

conquest r 

iMhmuB. ^y bring the Caribbean countries, so long side- 
tracked, upon the centre of the stage, and exert 
a lar-reaching influence upon the world's 
channels of commerce and transportation 
routes. Clearly, on the day now so near, when 
the water-gates of Panama shall be thrown 
wide open and the Atlantic and the Pacific 
joined by the genius and the industry of man, 
there will be revealed to the least observant 
eye the dawn of a new and most interesting era 
in the progress of our race. 

In the conclusion of the canal, the future 
historian will doubtless see the point of de- 
parture for economic and sociological chances 
and developments, which it would be folly to 
attempt to outline here and now. The sanita- 
tion of the Isthmus, the making healthy that 
plague-spot, famous during four centuries as 
a barrier and a scourge to civilization, is but 
the first victory in a campaign for the fuller 
utilization of the riches of the tropics, from 
the enjoyment of which men of our race have, 
hitherto, been excluded or only enjoyed while 
taking fearful risks and paying a heavy tribute 
of valuable lives. 


(A.D. 1912) 

THE most conspicuous object of the ever- 
changing skyline of the city of New 
York is the giant Woolworth Building 
which towers many stories above the other fa- 
mous high buildings of the metropolis and 
which commands an almost unequalled view. 

It is the apex of the man-made mountains of 
stone, brick, and steel which demonstrates to 
the whole world that for ingenuity, daring, 
and effectiveness the American architects and 
engineers are far ahead of the master builders 
of this or any other age. 

Some idea of what was required of the ar-J^^**" 
chitect may be had from the statement that^cutect 
24,000 tons of steel were used in the construc- 
tion of the Woolworth Building. This steel 
had to be brought to the building site practi- 
cally on the minute — so it could be put in the 

* The year 191 2 has also seen the launching of the hugest ship 
afloat, the S. S. Imperator, which was christened by Kaiser 
Wilhelni II* on Ma^ 23d in the Vulcan Yards at Hamburs. 
The length of this giant ship exceeds the height of the Wool- 
worth Building by 150 feet; its width equals that of the 
broadest roadways, and her nine decks tower to the height of 
a great apartment house. The Imperator is 919 feet long, 98 
feet beam, 62 feet deep. On her maiden voyage, arriving June 
18, 1913, she made the passage from Cherbourg to New York 
m 6 days, 5 hours, and 12 minutes. 




designed place — as it was impossible to store 
the material in the busy streets about the build- 
ing. Even to place such an immense quantity 
of steel beams and girders in an open space 
upon the ground is a great undertaking, but 
to handle it in rapid-fire order, and rivet it 
into place, beginning forty feet below the sur- 
face of the street and attaining a height of 780 
above the curb, is a stupendous proposition. 
Twenty-four thousand tons of steel — ^sufficient 
to construct the Third Avenue Elevated Rail- 
road structure from the City Hall north to the 
Harlem River at 129th Street — placed on a 
lot I52'xi97' inside of ten months — is a won- 
derful accomplishment. 
j^^.oQo Seventeen million bricks were used in the 
^^'^ construction — enough bricks to pave a road- 
way thirty feet in width from the Woolworth 
Building to West 250th Street. The 80,000 
electric bulbs from the 13,500 electric light 
outlets in the building strung less than three 
feet apart, would light the entire forty miles 
of water-front around Manhattan Island. 
There are eighty-seven miles of electric wir- 
ing; sufficient to extend from New York to 
Philadelphia, and the six huge 2,500 horse- 
power boilers, if harnessed together, could lift 
100 times the weight of the Statue of Liberty. 
The building has a total weight of 206 million 
pounds at the caissons. It is figured that this 
immense weight is increased at times by wind 
pressure by 40,000,000 pounds. The building 



is designed to withstand a wind pressure of 
250 miles an hour. 

The Woolworth Building reaches a height 
of 780 feet above the sidewalk. Its sub-base- 
ment floor is 37.6 feet below the level of the 
street, and the concrete and steel caissons upon 
which it rests extend to bed rock, 130 feet be- 
low the surface. No other building since the 
creation has reached such a height as 910 feet, 
which is the extreme height of the Woolworth 
Building from where it sets on bed rock to 
the top of the tower. The Eiffel Tower alone 
exceeds it in height, but the Eiffel Tower is 
not a building. 

The Tower of Babel — scientists tell us — j^.^^^^ 
reached a height of about 680 feet before theTbwcrof 
builders got mixed in their tongues and gave ^*^^' 
it up. The chances are the tower never 
reached anywhere near such a height, and 
there are probably more different languages 
spoken within a mile of the Woolworth Tower 
than were heard in Babel. 

The Woolworth Tower is 86 feet by 84 feet 
and 55 stories high ; the roof of the main build- 
ing is 385 feet above the street. It is 29 stories 
in height and its cubical contents are 13,200,- 
000 cubic feet, covering a lot approximately 
152 feet by 197 feet. The building contains 
27 acres of rentable office space, and about 13 
acres more is taken up with the elevators and 

There is a battery j)f 28 elevators, which if 

8284 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a,o. i9t« 

put end to end would extend two miles — a 
round trip in each of the elevators will be 
equal to a four-mile ride, all within the 

Some other figures which give an idea of 
the work involved for the architect to plan the 
building are: Over 43 miles of plumbing 
pipes, 53,000 pounds of bronze and iron hard- 
ware, 3,000 hollow steel doors, 12 miles of 
marble trim, 12 miles of slate base, 383,325 
pounds of red lead, 50,000 cubic yards of sand, 
and 15,000 cubic yards of broken stone, 7,500 
tons of exterior architectural terra cotta — the 
most complicated architectural terra cotta in 
the world — 2,000,000 square feet or 28,000 
tons of hollow tile, 1,050,000 square feet or 
28,000 tons of terra-cotta partitions and firing. 
These combine to make the Woolworth Build- 
ing absolutely fireproof, as there was no wood 
used in its construction, the doors, partitions, 
and trim being of steel, terra cotta and ^ire 

There are over 3,000 exterior windows; the 


amotint glass uscd in them would cover nearly one 

of glass ^ -^ 

^^- and a half acres, or half of Union Square, and 
there is almost again as much glass used in the 
interior of the building. 

It is estimated that the Woolworth Build- 
ing will have from 7,000 to 10,000 tenants of 
its own, and in addition to being the tallest 
building in the world, it will enjoy still an- 
other distinction. It is the largest building>ia THE TALLEST BUILDING IN THE WORLD 8285 

ever erected by an indiridual, and when it is 
completed it will have cost $13,500,000, and 
be free and clear of debt. 

The view from the top of the Woolworth ^ew^J? 
tower is without question the most remarkable *''''*'^' 
if not the most wonderful in the world. 

The scenic and color effects with the sun 
shining on the multi-colored buildings, and on 
the water and land for thirty-five or forty 
miles in all directions, is a picture impossible 
of adequate description. Tou get a view of the 
giant buildings, volcanoes of human energy, 
that make even the great mountains of the Far 
West seem small in comparison, and when one 
thinks that instead of gazing upon unpopula- 
ted, even if remarkably beautiful mountains 
and valleys as those of the Grand Cafion, he 
is overlooking the homes, the playgrounds, 
and the workshops of seven million fellow 
human beings, the feeling grows upon you 
that, marvellous as were the upheaval and con- 
tortions of nature which formed the moun- 
tains and valleys, equally wonderful have been 
the development and evolution of the brains 
and handiwork of man, which not only con- 
cealed the possibility of such a building as the 
Woolworth, but carried out the conception to 


(AJ>. 1912) 



EW YORK houses on comparatively in- 
significant plots of land the popula- 
tions of good-sized towns that range 
from fire to nine thousand or more. The 
amount of concentrated human energy con- 
tained within one of these sky-scrapers 
is enormous, the amount contained within a 
block is appalling, and when these great steel 
cities within a city, in the hours from five to 
seven o^clock in the evening, send forth that 
multitudinous energy to its scattered homes, 
the result is. beyond words. At the lower end 
of Manhattan, tides upon tides of humanity, 
numbering into the hundreds of thousands, 
stream from the great buildings, filling the 
pavements, the streets, and covering the parks 
in a mighty rush towards Brooklyn Bridge, 
the subways, the elevated, and every available 
means of transit. Thus the Island of Manhat- 
tan, long and narrow, with its lines of traffic 
running north and south is slowly revolving 
The the problem of how it shall rush a million 
people to their homes at night and return them 
to their work between the hours of six and nine 




the next morning. The question has not been 
a simple one, but is one filled with immense 

Within a few years New York promises to 
take rank as the largest city in the world. In 
1 910 its population had nearly doubled over 
the preceding decade. During that year the 
city's transportation lines carried 1,531,263,- 
000, against 846,353,000 in 1900. Naturally 
the city traffic accommodations fell hopelessly Aocomm^- 
short under this astonishing rate of increase, jopSSsir 
and the total inadequacy of the present trans- 
portation system became a positive menace. 
It is this fact that the city is now fully awake 
to, for not only is New York growing at an 
immense rate, but a large portion of its daily 
population is contributed from the ever-in- 
creasing districts beyond the waters of the 
Hudson, East, and North Rivers. 

Five sets of tunnels, three under the North 
River to New Jersey, and two under the East 
River to Long Island, with four bridges — 
the Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queensboro, and 
Williamsburgh — span the rivers and make ac- 
cessible commuters' homes. It is a strange 
fact, and one well illustrating the rapid 
growth of the city, that these should now prove 
congested, although they accommodate a pub- 
lic that not so very long ago were dependent 
solely on the old ferries. 

Supplementing the tunnels and bridges, the 
present subway runs through Brooklyn from 


A.i>. i9rs 

Atlantic and Flatbush Avenues, under the East 
Aiver and along Manhattan up to 96th Street, 
where it branches, one line extending into the 
Bronx as far as i8oth Street or Bronx Park, 
and the other line along Broadway out to 242d 
Street or Van Cortlandt Park. In addition 
to this, three elevated lines also traverse Man- 
hattan from its southernmost point, one line 
extending as far as 155th Street and another in- 
to the northern part of Bronx Park, yet all 
these, with the network of large surface cars, 
are unable to cope with the vast home-coming 
crowds at night. 

Beyond question, the best and most used sys- 
wbway. ^^™ ^^ transportation is the city^s subway, and 
almost since its completion discussions as to 
its enlargements have been rife. Originally 
built to carry 400,000 passengers, at present 
it finds itself called upon to frequently trans- 
port over a million people per day. 

Whoever has seen, between the hours of fiwe 
and seven in the afternoons during week days, 
the city's great army of workers swarm 
through the streets from cast, west, north, and 
south, to the subway entrances, gains but .a 
vague idea of the real conditions that prevail- 
To fully appreciate the appalling congestion 
that exists, one must go below, into the packed, 
surging mass of humanity on the station plat- 
forms, where the mercury rises ten degrees, 
and where arriving trains only tend to loosen 


a little the almost immovable blocks of men 
and women that fight for an even greater con- 
gestion in the stifling cars. More than one 
casualty is laid to the subway. Once within 
the train an exit is as difficult to effect as an 
entrance was to gain. Women are in this 
struggle, and little children ; and night after 
night, girls who have stood for nearly nine 
hours behind a counter, stand for another hour 
clinging to a strap. The number of people 
unaccommodated by seats in a year would 
reach well into the hundreds of thousands. 

Thus, from the city's realization of its need, 
the great Dual System of Rapid Transit wasgjsj^ 
born to solve the acute problem of extending 
street railway systems, and to provide gener- 
ously for the city's future needs. Five years 
will see this great $300,000,000 Dual System 
completed in all its parts, with the present 
traffic facilities more than trebled. For al- 
though the immediate need will not be nearly 
so great, the new system will have a yearly 
capacity of accommodating comfortably up- 
wards of 3,000,000,000. This is ^ large im- 
provement over the present system which, dur- 
ing 191 1, was called upon to carry 798,281,850, 
and this under circumstances that do not sug- 
gest pleasant riding. 

The existing subway, extending from the 
business centre of Brooklyn under the river, 
consists of 26 miles of road or 73 miles of sin- 


gle track, and these, when across the river, run 
up Manhattan on the east side as far as 42d 
Street. Then it becomes a west-side line for 
the rest of its course. Under the Dual System, 
extensions are to be made to this subway both 
north and south of 42d Street, so that, when 
completed, the subway will have two complete 
north and south lines, runing up and down the 
east and west sides of Manhattan. Both of 
Su^^^ these extensions will be four-track subways, so 
that both local and express service can be 
maintained. This, the most important exten- 
sion, so far as the island of Manhattan is con- 
cerned, gives only a slight idea of the mam- 
moth undertaking in progress, for throughout 
Greater New York the extensions are in pro- 
portion to this, and will ^'form the basis for the 
development of the city for generations to 
come,*' as well as give immediate relief to the 
present intolerable conditions. 

Important additions and extensions are also 
to be provided for the elevated lines under the 
Dual S3rstem, in Manhattan and the Bronx. 
These, namely the Second, Third, and Ninth 
Avenue roads, arc mainly two-track lines, but 
as third tracks on the elevated are needed for 
express-train service, it is proposed to make all 
three elevated roads three-track lines. These, 
with the reconstruction into a four-track 
bridge of the one across the Harlem River 
carrying the Third Avenue Elevated tracks. 


together with many other extensions and junc- 
tions, will add greatly to the existing trackage 
of the Manhattan Elevated System. The total 
elevated mileage in Manhattan and the Bronx 
is 88 miles of single track, which, with the 
proposed additions under the Dual System, 
will be expanded to 139 miles. 

New subways, and subway and elevated ex- 
tensions in Brooklyn, will be made in the same 
degree as in the other boroughs, and the new 
Steinway tunnel under the East River will be 
extended on both sides of the river and oper- 
ated as a part of the subway. 

It is hard from these bare outlines to form 
an adequate appreciation to what vast extent 
the city^s existing lines will be increased by the 
new additions and extensions, or of the amount 
of new residential territory that will be opened 
up and made easily accessible to the would-be 
suburbanite. The combined trackage of thecomwncd 

o traclcige. 

existing lines amounts to 303 miles of single 
track. To this will be added, by the new lines 
of the Dual System, 334 miles of single track, 
making a new system with 637 miles of single 

Any new undertaking, major or minor, is, to 
some degree, speculative and experimental, a 
stepping-stone to something better. The exist- 
ing New York subway has been no exception 
to the rule, and, being the first underground 
railroad ever operated in New York, it was 


inevitable that some features should present 
diemselves on which it was possible for engi- 
neers to base future improvements. Thus, the 
new Dual System will show itself to have 
profited immensely over the old lines in many 
details. To begin with, the ventilation of the 
present road has always been poor in the ex- 
treme. Much stirring up of air there has 
been, caused by the constant rush of trains, but 
with little renewal of fresh air. This fact has 
caused the transit company large sums of 
money in more or less unsuccessful efforts to 
provide good ventilation, the absence of which 
is accounted for by the wide-open space admit- 
ting of four tracks abreast, which prevails 
with few exceptions throughout the length of 
the line. The construction of the new subway 
with separate tunnels for each train will, it is 
vcgtiittion believed, greatly improve the ventilation. The 
SiS^ed. passage of the trains through these smaller en- 
closures will produce a piston action, thus 
driving the air out ahead of them and caus- 
ing an inrush of fresh air by suction from the 
rear. Archways will be placed in the parti- 
tion wall at stated distances, to which laborer? 
may retire for safety while a train passes by. 
Next to the question of ventilation is that of 
the temperature, the height of which renders 
the air doubly heavy in winter, and which in 
summer becomes intolerable. This is caused 
principally by the electric motors underneath 


the cars, and by the friction of brake shoes on 
wheels and wheels on tracks. Of course it will 
be hard to totally eliminate this discomfort, 
which will, to a great degree, be mitigated by 
fresh ventilation, but it is thought that by the 
use of less waterproofing which encloses al- 
most entirely the existing subway, more heat 
will escape than is at present possible. This 
waterproofing is made up of layers of woven 
fabric and asphalt and brick laid in asphalt, 
and the only use that will be made of it in the 
new subway will be where it is absolutely nec- 
essary to keep out water — principally under 
the roof, along the sides of the tunnel where 
the road runs below water level, and under 
the floor of the subway. 

All the new subways will be larger than the ^^^y^ 
first one, and in some cases the difiference willlha?oid 
be considerable. The old subway has a height 
of twelve feet ten inches above the base of the 
rail, and has a width of about twelve feet six 
inches for each track. The Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit subways will have a maximum height 
of fifteen feet above die base of the rail, and a 
width of fourteen feet for each track, with a 
minimum height of diirteen feet two inches, 
and a minimum width of thirteen feet six 
inchest. While the frame-work of the subways 
will be of steel, the walls and partitions will 
be of reinforced concrete, which material will 
be used extensively in the construction. It is 

J— Vol. 10 



very strong ; in fact, so strong that at one point 
in Brooklyn where the Fourth Avenue subway 
passes under the existing subway, the latter 
rests entirely upon the roof of the former. 
d^toT Double-decked subways are another inno-' 
vation. These have been used extensively by 
the company along Lexington Avenue, which 
is narrow. Here it seemed more economical 
to build the express tracks on one level and the 
local on another, thus avoiding the expense of 
encroaching on the private property either 
side, as would have been the case in building 
four tracks abreast. The station platforms 
will not only be larger than those that were 
first built — ^which latter subsequently had to 
be enlarged, thus costing the city $1,500,000 — 
but they are going to be located on straight 
stretches of track, and, as far as possible, sharp 
curves will be avoided on all lines. This will 
be a great improvement over some of the ex- 
isting platforms that are built on curves, 
which not only cause undesirable conditions 
when trains are loading and unloading, but 
also necessitate all trains approaching to slow 
down to avoid danger, although the curved 
stations are provided widi an excellent signal 
system. The new station platforms will be 
built to receive ten-car express and six-car 
local trains. 

Under the Harlem and^East rivers, in the 
new tunnels, footpaths are to be provided, to 



be used in case of accident or when a train is 
stalled, and should it become necessary to 
unload it where it stands, passengers may 
leave it and walk with safety out of the tunnel. 

For the first time in New York, the city's 
elevated structures will aspire to artistic effect 
and less noise. In Berlin the ^^elevateds" are 
objects of beauty, which is a far cry from the 
unsightly structures with their thundering 
trains that now grace Sixth Avenue. But in 
certain places, like the Queens Boulevard in 
Queens Borough, where the city authorities 
are striving for beauty effects in street con- 
struction, the elevated structure will be of or- 
namental design. 

An interesting episode in connection with 
the excavations has been the uncovering in 
Broadway of the Old Beach Pneumatic Tun-B^ch 
nel, which was built for underground pur-xunnei. 
poses way back in the early seventies, and 
which was designed for cylindrical cars that 
were to be propelled by air pressure applied 
from the outside. Very much a failure, and 
very much of a curiosity, it was operated for 
a short time by die company which, after many 
vicissitudes, finally abandoned it. For forty 
years the old relic lay in oblivion, under the 
turmoil of Broadway, until the modern con- 
tractors broke in upon and removed it. 

Not only is the greater subway to prove of 
untold relief to unnumbered thousands, but its 


wide effect on rents, on the congestion of pop- 
ulation, and the future deyelopment of the im- 
migrant problem would prove a study in itself. 
The very future of the city in this respect de- 
pends on larger transportation facilities. 
With crowded tenements come higher rents, 
with higher rents comes congestion of immi- 
grant quarters in the effort to "accommodate" 
lodgers and thus decrease expenses — and with 
congestion come low morals and disease, of 
which the greatest menace is the Great White 
Thus the subway will offer to the laborer a 
trtniit. quick five-cent ride from his work to a home 
which, if he chooses, can be where the ait is 
as pure and the winds as free as those in any 
country side. Should such a result as the liqui- 
dation of the tenement districts come to pass, 
by enabling the laborer to live further from 
his work yet reach it just as quickly through 
improved means, half the purpose of the sub- 
way will have been accomplished, with a con- 
sequent fall in tenement rents, and a propo^ 
tional rise in tenement conditions. 


(AD. 1912) 

THE great Catskill Aqueduct, that dwarfs 
the mightiest efforts of the Romans, and 
rivals in point of engineering feats the 
national undertakings of tfie Suez and Panama 
canals, is at last nearing its completion. In- 
deed, while costing the city of New York as^^^o^ 
much as was originally appropriated by the 
United States for the construction of the Pan- 
ama Canal, this great municipal undertaking 
has presented unprecedented problems to the 
engineer— obstacles to be overcome, and ques- 
tions to be answered that have been unknown 
in the digging on the isthmus. But, as always, 
man's ingenuity has found a way, and before 
long, up and down, across hills and deep val- 
leys, through masses of seemingly unyielding 
rock, with the mighty plunge of a thousand 
feet under the Hudson River and another of 
hundreds of feet under the East River to 
Brooklyn, the gigantic stream will wind itself 
to New York's thirsty millions. When this is 
accomplished, the fresh, pure soft mountain 
waters from the Catskill heights, fed by rains 


3298 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS aj>. 191a 

and melting snows, will flow through miles 
upon miles of circuit pipes below the city's 

Figures dazzle, the mind is baffled in an at- 
tempt to adequately grasp by numerals this 
mammoth undertaking. The brain fails to 
grip the extent of such a work. It is the great- 
est municipal enterprise in history, and its 
permanent concrete strength will outlast the 
f^iS!^ The reasons that led to the establishment of 
•tirucdon. the Catskill Aqueduct were adequate enough. 
In 1895 a city of four million inhabitants had 
practically reached the limits of its resources 
for water. That city, die city of New York, 
is growing at such a rate that each two years 
it takes unto itself the population of an Al- 
bany, a Bridgeport, a New Haven, or a Grand 
Rapids. Every five years it gains in size the 
equivalent of a Boston, a Cleveland, or a Bal- 
timore. Naturally it was long ago recognized 
that to keep pace with this growth of approxi- 
mately 125,000 per year, the increase of the 
city's water supply system would be inevitable. 
Back in 1896 the subject was first taken up 
by the Manufacturers* Association of Brook- 
lyn, and, in 1899, Comptroller Coler caused 
an investigation of all the available sources of 
supply to be made by John R. Freeman, Con- 
sulting Engineer. In 1901, in the wake of all 
the agitation caused by the Manufacturers' 


Association, a bill was introduced in the Legis- 
lature that had for its object the creation of a 
commission empowered to add to the water- 
supply of the city, which resulted in 1902 in 
the appointment of the Burr-Herring-Free- 
man Commission to investigate the question. 

To Ex-Mayor George B. McClellan be- 
longs the honor of having finally, in 1905, se- 
cured the passage of the water bill through 
the Legislature, which empowered him to ap- 
point the Board of Water Supply, thus inau- 
gurating the Catskill Aqueduct 

This board of three commissioners, consist- J5;^52 
ing of J. Edward Simmons, Charles N. Chad- "^"^ 
wick, and Charles A. Shaw, found themselves 
confronted by a large and involved problem. 
Many administrations had volunteered their 
aid towards its solution; report after report 
had gone to increase the volume of knowledge 
they possessed; much wisdom and encyclope- 
dic information had been evolved, only to 
leave before them the gigantic task of reduc- 
ing that knowledge to practice — of determin- 
ing on the sources from which that vast 
amount of water was to be taken. In October, 
1905, they submitted for approval a plan for 
obtaining from the Esopus, Rondout, Scho- 
harie, and Catskill creeks a supply of not less 
than 500,000,000 gallons of water daily at an 
estimated cost of $161,857,000. On May 14, 
19061 the approval of the State Water Supply 


Commission was granted, and in less than six 
months later the first construction contract for 
eleven miles of aqueduct was let. The scheme 
of 1905, not having included the delivery of 
water to Manhattan, Queens, or the Bronx, a 
plan for the delivery of Catskill water to all 
of the boroughs of the city was first approved 
on December 10, 1909, and again, after ex- 
haustive investigation, on July i, 19 10. This 
increased the estimated cost of the undertake 
ing by $15,000,000. The project of develop- 
ing the mountain sources of the Catskills cov* 
ers the watersheds of the Esopus, Rondout, 
Schoharie, and the Catskill creeks, any two of 
which, in connection with the Esopus, are ca* 
pable of delivering 500,000,000 gallons of 
water daily. At the present time it is contem- 
plated to deliver only the Esopus watershed, 
which will make available 250,000,000 gallons 
daily. This procedure necessitates the build- 
TiLkut ing of the Ashokan collecting reservoir and 
the main aqueduct, which is ninety-two miles 
long, connecting with Hill View reservoir in 
Yonkers at the northern boundary of the city^ 
and which is of a size through which a rail- 
road train might pass with ease. Every foot 
of this distance is now under contract, and 
work along all the line has progressed with 
such favorable rapidity that, if the past rate 
of progress is maintained, it is reasonable to 
expect that the aqueduct will be ready for use 



within the very near future. By reason of 
the high level of this Catskill supply, water 
will be furnished to the top floor of twenty- 
story buildings in lower Manhattan, thus af- 
fecting an annual saving of $2,000,000 in 
pumping alone. 

The total area of all the watersheds to be de- 
veloped in the future is over nine hundred 
square miles, and their combined supply, when 
fully developed, will exceed 800,000,000 gal- 
lons daily. 

Seven villages with a permanent population sgr^^ 
of 2,000 in 1905 are being wiped out and sub-^*^**^ 
merged under the mighty Ashokan reservoir, 
whose capacity is to be 130,000,000,000 gal- 
lons. Twelve miles long, and two wide, it lies 
about fourteen miles west of the Hudson at 
Kingston, and is now being built at an expen- 
diture of nearly $14,000,000. The Olive 
Bridge dam, across Esopus Creek, the Beaver 
Kill and Hurley dikes, across smaller streams 
and gaps between the hills, form the 
natural walls of the reservoir. These, with 
the dividing dikes and weir which separate the 
reservoir into two basins, and the waste weir 
over which rushing flood waters may safely be 
discharged, are the principal structures, a de- 
scription of which gives but little idea of the 
vast size of this artificial lake. It is an in- 
teresting fact that the water which the Asho- 
kan will hold would cover all Manhattan Is- 


land to a d^pth of twenty-eight feet, and the 
area of its surface is equal to that of all Man- 
hattan below 1 1 6th Street 

It is a far cry from the Ashokan reservoir 
situated up in the foothills of the Catskills to 
Richmond Borough, surrounded by tidal 
waters at the lower end of New York Bay. 
toS2£r J^^* ^^^ hundred and twenty-seven miles of 
Yl7k. rolling sunlit hills, smiling valleys dotted with 
villages, rocky glacial gorges, and deep rivers 
are to be traversed and dived under by an 
aqueduct and pipe-lines before the delivery of 
water may be made effective. All this path 
of beauty must perform its part in the big 
game being played with nature. 

The acquiring of property, which involves 
die removal of villages, churches, schools, and 
homes, the relocation of highways and rail- 
roads, and the investigation of thousands of 
titles, is still another part of the great problem 
which is being worked out through agreement 
with owners and by condemnation proceed- 
ings. Hundreds of miles of beautiful country 
have been overrun by topographers and prop- 
erty surveyors. Innumerable are the holes 
that have been drilled deep into the heart of 
the earth and through solid rock to determine 
the best and most economical locations for the 
great reservoirs, dams, and aqueducts. Num- 
berless samples of soil, sand, gravel, and stone, 
as well as of rock by core borings, have been 


obtained. The data thus secured have been 
submitted to and passed upon by the most dis- 
tinguished experts of the country — engineers, 
geologists, specialists in aeration, in filtration, 
and in preparation of reservoirs; also by ex- 
perts in mechanical construction and in the lo- 
cation of railroads and highways. Science 
has given generously of her best in this gigan^. 
tic undertaking, where die workers go eating 
their way into the rocky gorges, showing up 
the solemn secrets of the Hudson's mysterious 
depths, burrowing their way through moun- 
tains, transplanting railroads and relocating 
them like toys. Miles upon miles of highway 
are to be discontinued, and again miles are to 
be rebuilt. Whole villages have sprung into 
being like Aladdin's palace of old. 

The largest of these impromptu villages, the The 
"camp city," is located near the Ashokan dam. ^^y- 
Here many of the three thousand employees, 
with their families, find their home. The 
camp is divided into Italian and negro sec- 
tions while the Americans live separately, and 
every means to promote good citizenship and 
efficiency in the workmen has been employed. 
Well laid-out streets, plentiful sewerage and 
water-supply systems, one story wooden dwell- 
ings with screens on all the doors and windows, 
electric lights, telephones, savings bank, hos- 
pital, general store, bakery, police and fire 
protection, schools for children, and even 


a kindergarten-^all these and much more 
besides, shown in the spirit of cheer and good 
fellowship that generally prevails, go to 'the 
making of this miniature city. An evening 
school for men is one of the features of the 
camp, the eight-hour day giving them plenty 
of spare time to attend the school where the 
elements of the English language and of na- 
tional, state, and city governments are taught 
Good food, wholesome water, and a general 
atmosphere of cleanliness speak for the strict 
sanitary conditions, enforced for safety in the 
areas affected by the construction operations. 
East of the Hudson and about thirty miles 
KeSricp ^^om the City Hall, the Kensico reservoir will 
contain several months' supply of Catskill wa- 
ter. Its capacity will be 40,000,000,000 gal- 
lons, and it is now being constructed under 
contracts that amount to nearly $8,500,000. 
This will serve as a storage reservoir, so that 
in case of inspection, cleaning, or accident to 
the seventy-seven miles of aqueduct between 
it and Ashokan, the water supply to the city 
will not be interrupted. 

The function of the third great reservoir, 
the Hill View, situated in Yonkers, will be to 
equalize the difference between the use of 
water in the city as it varies from hour to hour 
and the steady flow in the aqueduct. With its 
capacity of 900,000,000 gallons, it will also 
furnish large quantities of water upon imme- 



diate demand, as, for instance, in the case of a 
great conflagration. The contract for its con- - 
struction was let for $3,270,000. 

North of New York City line there are four SaSnct 
distinct types of aqueduct in use : the cut-and- aqueduct 
cover, the grade tunnel, the pressure tunnel, 
and the steel-pipe siphon. 

Whenever die water flows at hydraulic 
grade the aqueduct is being constructed of 
concrete, of the cut-and-cover type. Large 
molds of horseshoe shape, seventeen feet high 
by seventeen feet six inches wide inside, are 
placed on concrete supports along the line of 
which travels the concrete pouring machine 
which completely covers the mold. When this 
concrete cover is sufliciently hardened the 
mold is forced along another length and the 
process is repeated. When completed the 
whole will be covered by an earth embank- 
ment, and in the meantime the concrete tube 
continues through many weeks to gain in 
strength and durability. 

Where hills or mountains cross the line and 
it would be impracticable to circumvent them, 
tunnels at the natural elevation of the aqueduct 
are driven through them. There are twenty- 
four of these grade tunnels, aggregating four- 
teen miles. They, also, are of horseshoe shape, 
seventeen feet high by about thirteen feet wide, 
and lined throughout with concrete. 

Where it is necessary to cross deep glacial 

3806 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.ii.«»i« 

gorges, circular tunnels have been driven deep 
into solid rock far below the surface of the 
ground and lined with thick concrete within 
which water will flow under pressure. At the 
' northerly end of each pressure tunnel the 
water will drop down a deep shaft, and at the 
southerly end will rise again in a similar shaft, 
thus connecting each pressure tunnel at either 
extremity with the adjacent portions of the 

Steel-pipe siphons are used in valleys where 
the rock is not sound, or where for other rea- 
sons pressure tunnels would be impracticable. 
These steel pipes are made of plates riveted 
together, and are nine feet and eleven feet in 
diameter. They are being lined with two 
inches of cement mortar, embedded in con- 
crete and covered with an earth embankment. 
Three pipes are required in each siphon for 
the full capacity of the aqueduct, but only one 
is at present being laid. 
The most diflicult crossing to be encountered 
ta^eiat is that under the Hudson at Storm King 
M<raktaiii. Mountain, where the river is 2,800 feet wide. 
While the water is only ninety feet deep, solid 
^ rock is not encountered at a less depth than 
seven hundred feet. As the tunnel passes un- 
der the river at a depth of eleven hundred feet, 
and the natural level of the water in the aque- 
duct here is about four hundred feet above the 
river surface^ each leg of the inverted siphon 


will reach a depth of fifteen hundred feet 
This siphon tunnel will be the largest in the 

From the Hill View Reservoir, fresh Cats- 
kill water will be delivered to the five bor- 
oughs of New York by a circular tunnel driven 
through solid rock, reducing in diameter from 
fifteen feet, to fourteen, thirteen, twelve and 
eleven feet. From two terminal shafts in 
Brooklyn steel and iron pipe lines will extend ^ 

into Queens and Richmond, and a cast-iron 
pipe, resting on the harbor bottom, will cross 
the Narrows to the Silver Lake Reservoir ong^jjf 
Staten Island, holding 400,000,000 gallons. ^**^"'~'* 
The total length of this delivery system is over 
thirty-four miles. 

A remarkable phase of this mammoth un- 
dertaking is the almost entire non-interference 
with streets, buildings, subways, sewers, pipes, 
or any surface or sub-surface activity what- 
ever. To safeguard this, the tunnel will be 
pierced at depths of 200 to 750 feet below the 
street surface. It is necessary also that these 
depths should be maintained to secure a strong 
enough rock covering to withstand the burst- 
ing pressure of the water. The tunnel, con- 
Crete lined, will be constructed from shafts 
located in parks and other places where they 
will interfere least with the traffic. Through 
these shafts also the water will be delivered 
into existing pipes, while here and there, for 


AJ). X912 

purposes of purifying, aeration fountains will 
send their graceful jets high into the windy 
sunlight, their beauty rivaling their beneficial 

The only work visible to the pedestrian will 
be at the shafts from which, one to another at 
varying depths, the tunnel passes for its whole 
length under streets, parks, and rivers. 

If — to repeat a well-worn if — our streets 
were paved with glass! With what wonder- 
ing awe we would peer down through the vast 
complexity of cables, gas mains, electric ca- 
bles, and the thousands of telephone wires in 
their conduits, deeper still, down far beneath, 
to where lies hidden away from the ear and 
eye, under the throbbing heart of a city, the 
mysterious way that is being prepared for the 
mountain stream I 

Thus silently, at least to the great metropo- 
lis, steadily, surely, with determined resolu- 
tion the great project pursues its course. To 
the inquiring, intelligent, and mentally alert 
Jr^test it is a triumph no other city ever saw, a prom- 
^^ ise of water of crystal cleanliness, mountain 
SmS^cs. freshness that begets health, and of the health 
that begets the citizenship that ministers to a 
mighty nation. 



(AJ>. 1912) 

ON NOVEMBER 5, 1912, Governor 
Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey was 
elected President of the United States 
by a Democratic landslide that constituted a 
total of 429 electoral votes. Never before in 
this country has a candidate ^ scored such a 
sweeping victory at the polls which, coming 
at a time when industrial, commercial, and po- 
litical discussions are rife, holds out large 
speculative possibilities for the future of the 

Wilson carried every State in the Union ex-^^^^^, 
cept eight, two of which went for Taft, and2i[^?dty 
the other six for Roosevelt. In New York, 
with a total vote of almost a million and a half, 
Wilson ran 2CX>,ooo ahead of Taft with Roose- 
velt far in the rear. In New Jersey, of which 
State Wilson was Governor, he scored an easy 
victory, although Roosevelt made a good 
showing. In Pennsylvania, Roosevelt was well 
in the lead, the Legislature of which State will 
be controlled by the Progressives. Wilson 
carried West Virginia by a large majority, as 
was also the case with Maryland. But in New 



8310 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

England, although it greeted the new party 
with its usual conservatism, the Progressives 
progresiiv« made big inroads into popular feeling. Taf t 
'£^uic^ won Vermont with only a slight plurality over 
Roosevelt; New Hampshire went for Wilson, 
with Taft a close second and Roosevelt very 
far behind; Maine gave Wilson only a slight 
plurality over Roosevelt with Taft a heavy 
loser, while in Massachusetts Wilson gained 
170,995, Taft 152,255, and Roosevelt 140,152. 
The Southern States flocked to the Democratic 
standard by large majorities. In Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ar- 
kansas, Missouri, and Texas the Progressives 
ran high against Taft, while Kentucky and 
Tennessee gave him a slight plurality over 
Roosevelt. Wilson carried New Mexico, 
Arizona, Oklahoma, Kansas, with Roosevelt a 
close second, Nebraska, with Taft a far third, 
and Colorado. 

In Indiana the Progressives ran second in 
both National and State tickets, although Wil- 
son carried the State with 272,509, Roosevelt 
received 158,952, and Taft 150,485. Ohio, 
Mr. Taft's native State, gave him 312,600 
against 446,769 to Wilson and 253,564 to 
Roosevelt. In a total vote of 1,000,000 in Illi- 
nois, Roosevelt ran 65,000 ahead of Taft and 
only 16,000 behind Wilson. Michigan, Min- 
nesota, and South Dakota went decidedly for 


Roosevelt, while California gave him a plu- 
rality over Wilson with Taf t nowhere in the 
field. Wilson carried Montana and also South 
Dakota with Roosevelt second in the latter 
State. Washington went for Roosevelt with 
Wilson as second, and Roosevelt ran second in 
Wilson's capture of Oregon. Iowa gave Wil- 
son a slight plurality over Roosevelt, and Wis- 
consin was carried by Wilson's 200,000 votes, wijKon. 
against Taft's 180,000 and Roosevelt's 85,000. 



(A.D. 1912) 


THE conquest of the air is conceded to 
be among the most stupendous achieve- 
memjox ments of the ages. Human flight opens 

the sky to man as a new road in which to 
travel, and because it is a road free of all ob- 
structions and leads everywhere, affording the 
shortest distance to any other place, it offers 
to man, in its prospective developedstage, un- 
limited freedom. The aircraft promises to 
span continents like railroads, bridging seas 
like ships, to go over mountains and forests 
like nothing else except birds, and to sWiften 
and simplify the problems of transportation. 

Human flight is the realization of our an- 
cestors* remotest imaginings. The idea of 
human flight, the wish to imitate birds and 
rise freely in the air, is, possibly, as old as in- 
tellect itself. Its origin cannot be ascer- 
tained, all records leading to the time- 

♦This article was written expressly for The World's Great 
Events, by Henry Woodhouse, the associate editor of "Flying,** 
the official organ of the Aero Qub of America. Mr. Wood- 
house is the author of many works on aeronautics, and pre- 
sents here the first concise authoritative account of the work 
of the pioneers who have contributed to the Conquest of the 

Air. — Edftdr. 


dimmed age of fable. But the myths and 
lores of different races tell of winged gods 
and flying men, and show that for ages to fly 
was the highest conception of the sublime. 

The first type of aircraft to travel through 
the air was the balloon. Its realization was 
brought about by Joseph and Stephen Mont- 
golfier, two French brothers, who, in 1783, 
made and launched a large paper bag in- 
flated with hot air. At about the same time 
Professor Charles, another Frenchman, 
launched a balloon filled with hydrogen. 
Here was the origin of the balloon, common- 
ly known as the passive or free balloon which, 
having no means of directing its own course, 
therefore merely drifts with the winds. The 
balloon used to-day is still very much like the 
balloon of old, and the six thousand ascen- 
sions made yearly in different countries rep- 
resent but little improvement on the ascensions 
of a century ago. 

The power balloon is the natural develop- 
ment of the free balloon. Experiments to de- 
velop a dirigible balloon began soon after the 
first ascension was made, but it was not until 
the eighteenth century that any success was 
obtained. The first ascension with a dirigible*^ 

balloon was made December 24, 1852, by aSL^iue 
Frenchman named Henry Giffard, with a **^ 
spindle-shaped balloon 143 feet long, 39 feet 
in diameter, fitted with a three-horse-power 


Steam engine and an eleven-foot screw pro- 
pellen This craft made several short trips 
under good control, and attained a speed of 
six miles- an hour. 

Subsequent notable experimenters were: 
Charles H. L. Dupuy de Lome (1870-72); 
Paul Haenlein (1872); Gaston and Albert 
Tissandier ( 1 88 1 - 1 885 ) ; Captains Charles 
and Paul Renard and Krebs (1880-1889); 
Drs. Woelfert and Schwartz (1896-1899); 
Albert Santos Dumont (1898-1904). All of 
these contributed considerably to developing 
the dirigible balloon, but none succeeded in 
developing an efficient craft, principally be- 
cause they lacked suitable motors. That was 
left to the workers of the twentieth century 
to achieve. 
d^tof Dirigible balloons are divided into three 
SkSiJ. classes, the rigid, the semi-rigid, and the non- 
rigid. The rigid has a frame or skeleton of 
either wood or metal inside of the outer en- 
velope, to stiffen it; the semi-rigid is rein- 
forced by a wire net and exterior metal frame 
or platform, while the non-rigid is just a bag 
filled with gas. Up to 1900 the experiments 
had, with one exception, been made with non- 
rigid dirigibles. In that year Count Ferdi- 
nand von Zeppelin produced the first of the 
rigid dirigibles bearing his name. Its con- 
struction consisted of a frame of aluminum 
with 17 compartments containing hydrogen 


gas to give it its buoyancy; it was 406 feet 
longy 38 feet in diameter, and had a capa- 
city of 400,000 cubic feet of gas. The first 
ascension was made on July 2, 1900, on Lake 
of Constance, Germany. This airship, which 
was named Zeppelin I., was dismantled in 
the following spring (1901). A second air- 
ship containing many improrements was 
finished in 1905, and made its first trial on 
November 30th of that year. Its second trial 
took place January 16, 1906, and it landed 
at Kisslegg, the first landing made by a 
Zeppelin on dry land. The dirigible was 
destroyed by a storm on the night of January 
17-18, 1906, at its first anchorage in the open. 
Subsequently, between the period 1906 and 
191 2, ten more airships of this type were con- 
structed and were employed for passenger 
carrying. The first of the passenger-carry- JJ;^^*^ 
ing type was the Deutschland, launched \n^^ 
1910. This dirigible was 485.6 long by 45.93 b»iiooo«. 
in diameter, had a gas capacity of 681,600 
cubic feet; its power plant consisted of three 
motors totaling 400 horsepower; its speed 
was 34 miles an hour. It carried a useful 
load of four tons. In its first trip, on June 
19, 1910, it carried 32 people from Diissel- 
dorf to Dortmund, Germany. This dirigible 
was wrecked on June 28, 1910, on the Teuto- 
burg forest through being unable to stand a 
Vtotm^ due to the fuel giving out 


A.B. I9T» 


pes of 

The latest of the passenger-carrying Zep- 
pelin, the Viktoria Luise, was launched in 
February, 19 12. Its size is practically the 
same as the Deutschland, but its power is 450 
horsepower, and it attains a speed of 45 miles 
an hour. Its launching took place at Fried- 
richshafen in February, 1912; soon after it 
was put in regular use for cruising, and 
during the remainder of the year it 
made hundreds of trips, including some 
with 40 passengers and some lasting over 
forty hours. 
^^gid The semi-rigid and the non-rigid types of 
jjgd^" dirigibles also underwent remarkable devel- 
opments in the period between 1902- 19 12. 
The representatives of the semi-rigid have 
been the Lebaudy and Gross types, which 
have been put to extensive use for military 
services. Among the non-rigid are half a 
dozen types, including the Parseval, Astra, 
and Clement-Bayard, which have proven 
very successful, some carrying a dozen men 
for over twenty hours without stopping, and 
reaching an altitude of over 7,000 feet 
America has done very little in this line. In 
19 10 Walter Wellman attempted to cross the 
Atlantic with an American-made dirigible; 
in 191 2 Melvin Vaniman constructed an- 
other large dirigible with which he intended 
to cross the Atlantic, but it was destroyed on 
July 2, 191 2, exploding in the air, due to a 


faulty pressure valve. At the close of 191 2 
tht dirigibles of the world numbered about 

The aeroplane more than the dirigible or The 
the balloon stands as the emblem of the con-|^j^« 
"quest of the air. The reasons for this areconJSert 
that dynamic flight is a real conquest of the''^^'*''*'^' 
air, a real victory over the battling elements; 
and that the aeroplane, or any flying machine 
that may follow it, brings air travel within 
the reach of everybody. In their practical 
development, the dirigible will be the steam- 
ship of the air which will render invaluable 
services of a certain kind, the aeroplane will 
be the automobile of the air to be used by the 
multitude for as many purposes as the automo- 
bile is being used. 

Dynamic flight, although last to be real- 
ized, was really the first attempted. Centu- 
ries before the lifting power of hot air or 
gases had been defined, men dreamed of 
flight by means of wings like bird flight. 
But, that was hard — well nigh impossible — 
to realize; for it meant evading or conquer- 
ing gravi^, and it rather seems a fatuous 
thing even now to think that men should have 
thought it possible to break the rigid law 
which holds our world together. It seems 
as if breaking such law would revolutionize 
or upset our economic plan. 

As has already been pointed out, none of 
K— Vol. 10 

3318 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.o. 191* 

the experimenters before the seventeenth cen- 
tury succeeded in evolving a tHeory or meth- 
od of scientific value; that was still true, 
where dynamic flight is concerned, at the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century. 

The very first step in the science of avia- 
tion or dynamic flight was taken by Sir 
SyS?'** George Cayley, an English inventor, in 1809. 
He was the first to plan dynamic flight on a 
scientific basis. With admirable lucidity 
of mind, this inventor planned an aero- 
plane complete with slightly oblique planes, 
resting on a wheeled chassis, fitted with 
propellers, motor, steering and balancing 

The description of his monoplane together 
with his plans were published in Nicholson's 
Journal for October, 1809. A month later he 
wrote about his first model as follows : 

"I am engaged in making some farther ex- 
periments upon a machine I constructed last 
summer, large enough for aerial navigation, 
but which I have not had an opportunity to 
try the eflFect of, excepting as to its proper 
balance and security. It was very beautiful 
to see this noble white bird sail majestically 
from the top of a hill to any given point of 
the plain below it, according to the set of the 
rudders, merely by its own weight descend- 
ing in an angle of about i8 degrees with the 


In February, 1810, he writes again about 
his trials: 

'^Last year I made a machine, having a sur- 
face of 300 square feet, which was accidentally 
broken before there was an opportunity of 
trying the effect of the propelling apparatus; 
but its steerage and steadiness were perfectly 
proved, and it would sail obliquely down- 
ward in any direction, according to the set of 
the rudder. Even in this state, when any per- 
son ran forward in it, with his full speed, 
taking advantage of a gentle breeze in front, 
it would bear upward so strongly as scarcely 
to allow him to touch the ground, and would 
frequently lift him up and convey him sev- 
eral yards together." 

The next important contributor was Sam-l^jS, 
uel Henson, another English inventor who, 
in 1843, patented what was designated as an 
"aerial steam carriage," an aeroplane of im- 
mense size, which was to be used for carrying 
passengers. The thing could not in the light 
of twentieth century knowledge be called sci- 
entific, the "carriage" was never built An- 
other English scientist, F, H. Wenham, im- 
proved on Hanson's idea, and in 1867 devel- 
oped a multiplane. This model was taken up 
by another inventor, M. Stringfellow, who re- 
duced the number of planes to three, making 
a triplane, which he fitted with a tail and two 
propellers. This model was shown at the ex- 

8820 ' THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

hibition of the Aeronautical Society, of Great 
Britain in 1868. Nothing in this model in- 
dicates that he liad any comprehension of the 
principles of stability or knowledge of the 
shapes of surfaces or the power required for 
flight. Stringfellow deserves, however, much 
credit for the building of a very light motor, 
one of sufficient lightness to support a well- 
designed aeroplane. 
piSiSd!^ I^ 1872 a French inventor named Al- 
phonse Penaud constructed a small model 
monoplane. It was only a toy — two flimsy 
wings actuated by a twisting rubber, but had 
fore-and-aft stability, something that most of 
the creations of the time lacked. The system 
of fore-and-aft stability, of which he was the 
originator, is used more or less in every aero- 
plane of the present day. Subsequently, in 
1875, Penaud took out a patent on a mono- 
plane fitted with two propellers and having 
controlling devices. But this was not built, 
principally because it would have required a 
light motor, and the lightest available at the 
time was over sixty pounds per horsepower. 
He, however, constructed a number of smaller 

Another student of bird flight was 
Louis Pierre Mouillard, a Frenchman, who 
having observed that large birds in flight, 
while seeming at rest, could go forward 
against the wind without a stroke of the 


wings, constructed a number of gliders built 
on the principle of bird wings, and experi- 
mented with gliding. In 1881 he published a«L'Empir«. 
valuable work entitled "L'Empire de rAir,"^'*'"^*" 
which inspired many of the later experi- 

Subsequently, he invented a soaring ma- 
chine, which he patented in 1892. 

But Mouillard was a poet rather than a 
scientist, and it was to the charm of his writing 
in enthusing others that the world owes a debt 
of gratitude. These early experimenters laid 
the foundations of modern aviation. They 
showed the supporting power of thin rigid 
surfaces, defined the general shape and struc- 
ture of aeroplanes, and prepared the work for 
the next generation, which was. to perfect 
these, and find ways and means to make the 
aeroplane rise from the ground and maintain 
equilibrium while in the air. 

This new generation came toward the close 
of the nineteenth century. These new men, 
the pioneers of modern aviation, were divided 
into two schools. The first sought to achieve 
soaring flight by means of large kitelike ap- 
paratus, which enabled them to soar in the air 
against winds, their machines being lifted up 
and supported by the inertia of the air as kites 
are. The second sought to develop power 
flight, that is, to send their kitelike machines 
through the air at high speed, being tracted 

3822 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.o. 1912 

or propelled by revolving screws actuated by 
motor power. 

The most eminent experimenters in the 
S?l?i- first school were Otto Lilienthal, who was 
the chief expounder of gliding flight; P. L. 
Pilcher, an English follower of Lilienthal; 
Octave Chanute, an American follower of 
Lilienthal, and J. J. Montgomery, an Ameri- 
can. Lilienthal, a German, was the first to 
make gliding flight a science, and he first de- 
fined the value of arched wings, determined 
the best shapes for wings, and the amount of 
pressure to be obtained at various angles of 
incidence. He met with untimely death 
while experimenting in 1896. Chanute's ex- 
periments were in the line of Lilienthal, but 
his great contribution was his early encour- 
agement of the Wrights, although the 
Wrights did not succeed by adopting Cha- 
nute's theories. 

The leaders of the second school, who ac- 
tually built and tried power-driven aero- 
planes, were: Clement Ader (1890-97), Sir 
Hiram Stevens Maxim (1890-94), and Sam- 
uel Pierpont Langley (1895-1903). Clement 
Ader was the first to construct an aeroplane 
large and powerful enough to carry a man, 
and the French Government considered the 
craft of immense value and employed him to 
build some for the army, but as each of the 
two experiments toppled over at the trial and 


wrecked, the Government refused to further 
finance the enterprise. While Ader was mak- 
ing his experiments in France, Sir Maxim was 
at work constructing a large multiplane for 
the English Government, which he fitted with 
two steam engines of 175 horsepower. But 
like Ader's experiment, it toppled over at the 
first trial and was wrecked, and the British 
Government refused further backing. The 
experience of Samuel Pierpont Langley in 
America is not unlike the experience of Ader 
in France and Maxim in England. He was 
employed by the Board of Ordnance and For- 
tification of the United States army to con- 
struct the "aerodrome" of his own invention, aer^onlfc 
Congress appropriating $50,000 for the pur- 
pose. Langley's machine was a tandem mono- 
plane, 48 feet from tip to tip and 52 feet from 
bowsprit to the end of its tail. It was fitted 
with a 50-horsepower engine and weighed 830 
pounds. The trials of this aerodrome, two at- 
tempts to launch it, were made on October 7 
and December 8, 1903. On both occasions the 
aerodrome became entangled in the defective 
launching apparatus, and was thrown head- 
long in the Potomac River — on which the 
launching trials were made. Following the 
last failure, when the aerodrome was wrecked, 
the press ridiculed the whole enterprise, and 
Congress refused to appropriate money for 
further experiments. As with the experi- 


A.D. 1912 

menters of the first school, they did not attain 
practical results. Their machines were usu- 
ally wrecked at the first trial without giving 
any flue to the nature or whereabouts of the 

Just how much each of these contributed 
toward the final success is hard to say. The 
matter has not yet been defined, and, possibly, 

w?& ^^^y ^^^ ^^^ — Orville Wright — is qualified 
to say. Most of these men made valuable ad- 
ditions to the knowledge of the science, but all 
of them mixed the practicable with the im- 
practicable in such a way as to make it risky 
to adopt their conceptions as to the basis of 
actual flight, a fraction of error being enough 
to spoil the unity of truths that must be pres- 
ent, and so to end an experiment in catas- 

Wilbur Wright, who, having tested and 
dissected the theories and notions of all of 
these pioneers, knew the exact worth of each. 
He could have made the valuation, but died 
before he had done so. In a paper on Lilien- 
thal, which he wrote a day or two before his 
death, he defined the causes of previous fail- 
ures, and made a general rule by which all 
could be judged and their works valued. 

He wrote: "One of the greatest diflficulties 
of the problem has been little understood by 
the world at large. This was the fact that 
those who aspired to solve the problem were 


constantly pursued by expense, danger, and 
time. In order to succeed, it was not only 
necessary to make progress, but it was neces- 
sary to make progress at a sufficient rate to 
reach the goal before money gave out, or be- 
fore accident intervened, or before the por- 
tion of life allowable for such work was past. 
fThe problem was so vast and many sided that The 

* •' problem 

no one could hope to win unless he possessed ^\^*°<* 
unusual ability to grasp the essential points," 
and to ignore the nonessentials. It was nec- 
essary to have a genius for solving almost 
innumerable difficult problems with a mini- 
mum expenditure of time, a minimum ex- 
penditure of money, and a minimum risk 
of accident. A study of the failures of the 
nineteenth century shows clearly that none 
of the important workers stood still, but 
that the rate of progress was so slow that each 
one was overcome and removed from the race 
by one of the causes just mentioned before the 
goal was reached. If they had possessed the 
faculty of doing things more quickly, more 
simply, and less expensively, they might not 
have been overtaken by old age, lack of 
funds, or accident. Some were traveling at 
a rate which would hare required fifty years 
or more to reach success. Others were spend- 
ing money at a rate which would have neces- 
sitated an expenditure of millions of dollars 
in order to complete the task. When the de- 


tailed story is written of the means by which 
success in human flight was finally attained, 
it will be seen that this success was not won 
by spending more time than others had spent, 
nor by spending more money than others had 
spent, nor by taking greater risks than others 
had taken. 

"Those who failed for lack of time had al- 
ready used more time than was necessary; 
those who failed for lack of money had al- 
ready spent more money than was necessary; 
and those who were cut oflf by accident had 
previously enjoyed as many lucky escapes as 
reasonably could be expected." 
JJ^Iization The realization of power flight was thus 
flig^''*' left to the twentieth century — and to the 
Wright brothers. In view of the complex 
problems to be solved, this achievement may 
be called stupendous. 

As the story of the achievement runs, Wil- 
bur Wright and his brother, Orville Wright, 
two men of remarkable characteristics, sons 
of the Rev. Milton Wright, were presented 
in their boyhood, thirty odd years ago, with a 
toy helicopter, a butterfly-shaped contrivance, 
consisting of paper wings fitted with a tin pro- 
peller which, when made to revolve by twisted 
rubber, caused the toy to shoot forward 
through the air. That toy fired their imagi- 
nations, and they saw it, in magnified form, 
capable of carrying a man. 


Their attempt to fly large helicopters con- 
structed on the idea of the toy did not bring 
practical results and until 1896 they did not 
give the matter of artificial flight more than 
passing attention. In the summer of that 
year, however, the news of the accident and 
death of Otto Lilienthal, the German cham- 
pion of gliding flight, stirred them to action, 
and they set themselves to study aerodynam- 
ics and the works of Lilienthal, Mouillard, 
Chanute, Maxim, and Langley, the most 
prominent experimenters at that time. 

Their experiments with a glider began in^p^' 
the fall of 1900 at Kitty Hawk, North Caro-^|.» 
lina. There, on the barren sand dunes of 
North Carolina, these two intrepid investi- 
gators took all theories and tried them one 
by one — only to find, after two years of hard, 
discouraging work, that they were based more 
or less on guesswork. Thereupon they cast 
aside old theories and patiently put the ap- 
paratus through innumerable gliding tests, 
ever changing, adding, modifying — setting 
down the results after each glide, comparing 
and changing again and again, advancing inch 
by inch, until they had, at last, developed a 
glider wonderfully exact, which, when fitted 
with a light motor, also built by them, made 
initial flights on December 17, 1903, of 
from twelve to fifty-nine seconds' duration. 
This, then, was the birth of the aeroplane, the 


flimsy, iconoclastic thing which seems to evtde 
Newton's laws, eliminates frontiers, and prom- 
ises to expand civilization as much as have 
the steamship, the railway, and electricity. 

The Wrights did not make their achieve- 
ment public at the time; in fact, until 1908 
they flew only in private. 

But the report of their wonderful achieve- 
ment, neverdieless, went far and wide, and 
stimulated those who had given up experi- 
menting and inspired others to take up ex- 
periments. Octave Chanute, in 1902, went to 
France and related the early successes of the 
Sty Wrights with their glider, and described the 
ir^TJ S^^^^^^ shape of the Wright machine. The 
iuccesB. result of this trip was that a half dozen enthu- 
siasts, including Louis Bleriot, Captain Louis 
Ferber. Ernest Archdeacon, and, later, the 
Voisin brothers and Albert Santos Dumont, 
took up the work, thus founding the mighty 
French school which has increased so greatly 
and done so much since. The first of this schocd 
to succeed was Santos Dumont, the Brazilian 
aeronaut sportsman. He constructed a ma- 
chine of original design, and in 1906 made 
short sustained flights of from fifty to seven 
hundred feet in straight line, which created t 
world-wide sensation at the time. His ma- 
chine was not, however, capable of more than 
short straight-line flights, and for two years 
he was unable to repeat his feat Meantime, 


othex^ of the French school graduated and 
won honors. The Voisin brothers turned 
constructors and teachers, and with their co- 
operation Leon Deiagrange, Henry Farman, 
Louis Blerioty and others prosecuted prac- 
tical experiments and succeeded in getting 
their creations to leave the ground for modest 
flights. At this juncture, in the summer of 
1908, the Wrights started out to give public 
demonstrations, and their methods supplied 
and suggested to the French experimenters 
the means to modify and improve their 
aeroplanes, particularly the means of balanc- 
ing them, which had, until then, been a per- 
plexing problem. Some months before this 
some American enthusiasts had combined 
under the auspices of Mrs. Mabel G. Bell, the 
wife of the inventor of the telephone, and or- 


ganized the Aerial Experiment Association. Aeriai 
Glenn H. Curtiss, one of the experimenters, ;«"* 

developed a suitable type of aeroplane, and*"****"^ 
in 1908-1909 became proficient in piloting it, 
and founded a scKool which did much in the 
following years to popularize and develop 
aviation in America. During the period 
1908, 1909, 1910, and part of 1911 aviation 
developed in fast strides, generously support- 
ed by public interest in its flights. During this 
time, under the incentive of competition, avi- 
ators learned to fly better and better, and 
aviation developed rapidly, especially in 

8830 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.o. i^ia 

France. After that, after the demonstration 
of the summer of 191 1, when scores of airmen 
took part in long circuits across countries and 
continents, the military authorities began to 
adopt it, and by the end of 191 2 ten nations 
had aviation organizations in their armies, 
representing an investment of over ten mil- 
lion dollars, France alone spending close to 
six million dollars in its own organization. 

At the close of 191 2, at the time this is writ- 
^^^ ten, there are 2,500 licensed pilots and as 
^^^ many nonlicensed, and about eighty aviation 
schools, with approximately one thousand 
pupils. Aeroplane making and selling is al- 
ready an important industry, with an invested 
capital of $50,000,000, and there are about 
forty different kinds of standard aeroplanes. 
The record flights include flights up to 18,000 
feet altitude, 105 miles an hour speed, and 
continuous flying for over thirteen hours. A 
distance of over 500 miles has been covered 
by an airman in a single flight made between 
sunrise and sundown. 

Aeroplane making changed considerably 
early in 191 1, when the French Government 
offered $268,000 for aeroplanes fulfilling cer- 
tain requirements. Engineers, finding in- 
ducement, entered the field, and aeroplanes 
underwent wonderful transformations, while 
aero motors became more eflficient 

The same evolution is taking place in Eng- 


land, Russia, Germany, and Italy, where the 
Governments have offered large sums as 
prizes for efficient military aeroplanes. To 
fulfill the requirements of the British Warlvl?"* 
Office, for instance, an aeroplane must be ca- qmrei^ta. 
pable of flying for four and a half hours 
without stopping with a live load of 350 
pounds, in addition to fuel, oil, and instru- 
ments; it must fly at a mean speed of 55 miles 
per hour, and stay up for one hour in an alti- 
tude of 4,500 feet, fully loaded; it must be 
capable of starting and landing from freshly 
plowed land, and the pilot must be able to 
start the machine without assistance. It must 
do all the above easily, and it must be so con- 
structed that two men can take turns at pilot- 
ing and can observe the country below, in 
front, and on either side. The conditions of 
the French Government are but a little less 

A short space of eighteen months, since ex- 
hibition flying was discontinued in Europe, 
has introduced steel for general construction ; 
heavy wheels, reinforced and improved chassis 
to land on ; strong cables for trussing, double 
cables for controls ; better joints, tumbuckles, 
bolts, and general accessories. It has also 
brought thoroughly tested propellers, re- 
markably efficient motors — ^with self-starters, 
self-acting gasoline pumps, oil- safety valves, 
special devices to minimize the danger of 

8332 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

fire; and scientific instruments to facilitate 
travel, and safety helmets and safety belts to 
minimize hurts when accidents happen. 
Other innovations have been hoods to shield 
aviators from the elements, comfortable seats 
with special arran]gement for carrying pas- 
sengers. The standard makes are obtainable 
in three or four types — light, medium weight, 
or heavy; for sport, for racing, for cross- 
country flying, for military service, and to 
carry a different number of passengers. The 
last innovation has been the hydro attachment 
for water flying, which is now being supplied 
with a dozen standard machines, and is in it- 
self a wonder in safety and utility, Glenn H. 
Curtiss is principally responsible for this last, 
the most practical innovation made since fly- 
ing began. He developed the first successful 
craft of this kind in 191 1, and its practicabil- 
ity made it an instant success. 
Sdrtero- A year ago the hydVaeroplane was looked 
^ "*" upon as a freak in Europe, and there was 
only one successful type ; now water flying is 
considered the safest form of flying; there are 
about fifteen types of water planes, and re- 
cently not less than a dozen hydraeroplanc 
meets took place in Europe. The most con- 
vincing argument in its favor is that there has 
not been a single fatality in water flying, al- 
though tens of thousands of flights have been 
made. Four constructors — Bleriot and Brc- 


guet, in France ; Etrich, in Austria ; and Roe, 
in England — also supply aerial limousines, 
which are limousine bodies with aeroplane 
wings. The Bleriot and Etrich have been 
flying for months with thorough success. ' 

Thus the conquest of the air has progressed 
to the point of certainty. Looking forward, 
with the tremendous progress of the past dec-J^Jj^^f 
ade in sight, we see approaching in rapid 
strides the aerial age, when the skies will be 
as Tennyson saw them, filled 

". . . With commerce, argosies of mag^c sails, 
Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping down with 
costly ba^es." 



(A.D. 1912) 


AM not sure that I know the precise mean- 
ing of a "great Power." It seems that 
some six or seven of the largest combina- 
tions of men under one rule are regarded as 
world-arbiters, though they may be on the 
verge of bankruptcy, heterogeneous in race, 
helpless in action. Look at Italy, which was 
tempted into a wild-goose chase by the many 
usurers of the Banca di Roma, and has 
now had to obey a cry of "Halt!" just when 
she might have been useful to the Christians 
Aurtrii. of Turkey. Look at Austria, whose popula- 
tions would take a page to enumerate. In no 
sense can she be called a nation, yet this patch- 
work Power prates of her patriotic aims, her 
national ambitions, her rights as a pioneer in 
the ran of Western civilization. Probably 
every one of her subjects would prefer to owe 
allegiance to some other country, yet all of 
them have to carry out the behests of an ami- 
able, almost senile, German sovereign, sup- 
ported by electors who are bought and sold 
like sheep. Much the same may be said of any 
"great Power." It is not a voice of the peo- 


«.«. 1912 MONTENEGRO 3835 

pie, but a close corporation of a few heredi- 
tary, corrupt mountebanks, who talk a jargon 
of their own, wear gorgeous gold-laced uni- 
forms, and spend weeks or months to settle 
the simplest questions by the exchange of fu- 
tile notes, pompous pourparlers, cloaked con- 
versations, and empty ultimata. 

Even in Great Britain, the pattern of popu-gnjj^ 
iar government and mother of Parliaments, of*i>SJuu7 
the masses are allowed no voice in foreign af- SSST*" 
fairs, which are certainly the most important 
affairs of all. How long is it since iforeign 
affairs have figured prominently as an issue 
in an election? No doubt Mr. Gladstone's 
Midlothian campaign inspired a wave of sen- 
timent on behalf of dowp-trodden Christians, 
almost a revival of the spirit of the Crusaders. 
But it led to very little, for the Berlin Treaty 
had been signed and all the eloquence may 
have been but part and parcel of the party 
game. Anyhow, foreign politics have re- 
mained the preserve of a gang of officials ever 
since our sovereigns agreed to reign instead of 
rule. Whatsoever party should be in office, 
the officials continued on their old weary, 
Whiggish way. Even Disraeli was not al- 
lowed to deviate far from the path along 
which Palmerston had been driven. Gladstone 
knew very little about fqreign countries, their 
mysterious machinations, even their elemen- 
tary geography. Granville, Salisbury, Lans- 
downe, Edward Grey, have been a mere string 


of Amuraths. During the last dozen years I 
do not suppose that a dozen public speeches 
have been made by British statesmen on sub- 
jects of external import. Audiences would 
have yawned or fallen asleep if any references 
had been made to negotiations with Vienna or 
treaties about Persia or nationalist unrest in 
Egypt. Besides, it was not considered good 
form to invade the sanctity of a secret service; 
it was "against public policy" to inquire about 
matters which must be left in the hands of our 
. winking augurs. 

Most people, even the sterilized mummies 
at the Foreign Office, now admit that the 
5Sin.^^ Treaty of Berlin has not proved a success. It 
may have meant peace with honor at the time, 
and pacified Europe honorably for a genera- 
tion, but it has left us an unsavory legacy, 
chiefly because no one could or would carry it 
out. And our close corporation of a Foreign 
Office is responsible for much of the present 
trouble, because, though no longer playing the 
big drum, it still holds a place of profit as sec- 
ond fiddle in the Cafe Concert of Europe. 
Austria was allowed to tear up the Treaty of 
San Stefano, which not only created a big Bul- 
garia, but trebled the area of Montenegro ; an 
Austrian and Turkish wedge was driven be- 
tween the Slav States of Servia and Montene- 
gro. But the principality was doubled, 
though Xjrusinje and Plava turbulently refused 
annexation. Then Dulcigno was offered in 

AJ>. 1913 MONTENEGRO 3837 

compensation by the Powers, but was only 
ceded by Turkey after a naval demonstration, 
in which England took the lead — for the last 

This small act of justice has left a profound 
impression of gratitude, such as would prob- 
ably not be found in any other civilized State. 
During a recent visit, I enjoyed opportunities 
of observing the excellent disposition of all 
classes towards us. The King recalled the 
services which England had rendered to Mon- 
tenegro, and assured me that an Englishman 
was always welcome at his Court. He had 
received much kindness from Queen Victoria 
and King Edward when' he was in England; 
he could never forget the friendly spirit 
which our whole people had displayed. 
'His particular regard for the late Mr. Glad- The King 

^ o an admirer 

stone is well known. His Majesty hasgf^^^,^^^ 
even written a poem about him, and never 
tires of expressing his affectionate enthu- 
siasm whenever he receives an English- 
man. A United States Minister, when pre- 
senting his credentials one day, ingeniously 
won his Majesty's approval by claiming Mr. 
Gladstone's practical sympathy on behalf of 
the whole Anglo-Saxon race — a shrewd 
stretch of diplomatic craft, if ever there was 
one. In a spirit similar to his father's, Prince 
Mirko assured me that he always felt at home 
with Englishmen, and knew in advance that 
he would share their point of view in all 


things. It almost amounted to a kind of free- 
masonry, and such was his personal devotion 
to King Edward that he felt there was nothing 
on earth he would hesitate to do for his sake. 
Indeed, he was so good as to describe his feel- 
ings towards Great Britain as a species of in- 

Yet, alas! the Montenegrins have very little 
except one small act of justice for which to 
thank our country. When I sounded Sir Ed- 
ward Grey with regard to Montenegrin views 
ijogMjcd on the proposed Balkan railway, I could re- 
rauroad. ccivc no satisfactory reply, though I followed 
up my messages by persuading a friend to put 
questions in Parliament. Even the small sat- 
isfaction of a permanent British Minister at 
Cetinje was refused for a long time. It is true 
that, in pursuance of his red-tape, Jack-in- 
office policy, Sir Edward Grey did protest 
against the Austrian annexation of Bosnia and 
Herzegovina — z direct violation of the Berlin 
Treaty. This was, of course, only a move oft 
the chess-board of European diplomacy, but 
the Montenegrins have venerable ideas of 
fidelity, and they leaped to the conclusion 
that we were reappearing in our old part as 
champions of distressed nationalities. Rarely, 
if ever, has there been so great an outburst of 
enthusiasm in all the annals of the Black 
Mountains. Dense crowds of picturesque 
highlanders stood for hours outside the palace 
and the lodgfng of the British envoy, waving 


Union Jacks and cheering frantically for our 
King and country. Every town and village 
throughout Montenegro witnessed similar 
demonstrations, with liever a single discordant 

It seems a pity that Sir Edward Grey never 
realized the importance of reciprocating all 
these friendly feelings. He must now at last 
perceive that Montenegro is the one Balkan 
State which can be counted upon for courage The.^^ 
and honor and fidelity. He may plead that itfidSIJir'^'* 
was impossible for any but a soothsayer toSlS?ir 
guess that she would suddenly declare war 
against a great Empire without knowing 
whether her alleged allies meant business or 
not. But surely some of his secretaries could 
have drawn up an intelligible memorandum, 
or a precis of Montenegrin history. There 
he would have read how completely King 
Nicholas and his people are at one, how they 
rely upon his wisdom in time of stress and ac- 
quiesce in his patience when times are not ripe 
for battle. Even when there was an insurrec- 
tion round and about Cattaro in 1869, the 
Montenegrin sovereign resisted all temptation 
to intervene. In 1861 he listened to the bid- 
ding of the Powers, remaining neutral while 
Herzegovina was in arms, even permitting 
the Turks to take war material through his 
territory. But in 1862 the Turks declared 
war, and the Montenegrins were hard pushed 
after prodigies of valor, twenty-six men dc- 


fending Ostrog monastery against whole ar- 
mies of the enemy. The next fourteen years of 
peace were devoted to the organization of the 
army and the purchase of efiicient arms. 
There was another Herzegovinan rising in 
1875, and it was clearly impossible to restrain 
the Montenegrins now that they knew them* 
selves ready for battle. In July, 1876, the sov- 
ereign accordingly declared war on Turkey 
and placed himself at the head of the insur- 
gents. Victory after victory encouraged the 
mountaineers, and the defection of Servia did 
. not matter much, as the Russians were already 
pn the warpath. 

If Sir Edward Grey had known these ele- 
mentary facts, he would perhaps have per- 
ceived the importance of time. While he was 
despatching platitudes to the Chanceries of 
^cfoUf Europe, King Nicholas quietly invaded Tur- 
^Sk^. key without a care for diplomatic rigmaroles 
or the doubtful assistance of other Balkan 
States. Up to the time of writing, he has been 
rewarded by an unbroken series of triumphs. 
No doubt it was very rash to attack a great Em- 
pire in this way, but men like the Montene- 
grins are not wont to care for consequences. 
If pledges are fulfilled in time, there is no 
reason why allied armies should not liberate 
the whole Balkan peninsula once and for all. 
It is all very fine for the impotent "great Pow- 
ers" to prafe about forbidding the Christians 
to profit by their prowess, but I shall be con- 


—Vol. X, Paget J3II-3333 

A.l>. Ifid 


siderably surprised as well as disappointed if 
conquered vilayets are ever restored to. the 
grip of Mahound. Even if new States are 
created and younger sons of reigning houses 
are sent out to earn their spurs as sovereigns, 
emancipation will have been accomplished, 
and it is for emancipation that King Nicholas 
has thrown down the gauntlet. At any rate, 
he has had the intelligence to understand that 
peaceful persuasion has been worse than 

When people say to me, "You are clamor- 
ing for the rescue of oppressed Christians in 
Turkey; why, then, did you disapprove of the 
Balkan Committee's hysterics?" I have an 
easy answer. Until a revolution deposed Ab- 
dul Hamid, the one diplomatist whose high 
sagacity could safeguard the Ottoman Em- 
pire, the Balkan Committee type of person 
could only irritate ineflfectively. iWe all Icnow 
that pale, unctuous, snivelling type, always 
ui'ging others to spread fire and slaughter, 
while they themselves issue leaflets and col- 
lect coins for secretaries and oflfices and leath- 
ern armchairs. The only result of Ac policy 
which they approved was the Komitaji's reign KomiuH's 
of terror. Brigand bands, almost openly en- *«"<>'• 
couraged in Bulgaria, scoured Macedonia, 
burning Moslem villages, killing defenceless 
peasants, and taking toll even from Christians, 
whom they compelled to store arms at the risk 
of their lives. The result was a state of an- 

L— Vol. 10 


archy, such as a few desperadoes can always 
create in mountainous districts. Naturally, 
the Turks and Moslem Albanians were pro- 
voked to reprisals, and the Balkan Committee 
deluged the world with gruesome pictures of 
massacres, gory descriptions, lurid lectures, 
and all the paraphernalia of propaganda. It 
was all one-sided, and many must have won- 
dered how it came to pass that Turks could be 
such fiends when Christianity was the only of- 
fence of their martyrs. But it sufficed to un- 
loose the purse-strings of sentimental old 
women, and to irritate the Turks to further 

Now, while all this foolish brigandage was 
afoot, the attitude of Montenegro remained 
invariably correct, even in the face of consid- 
erable provocation. Powers and tabernacles 
vied with one another to pat and encourage 
the Bulgarian spoiled child, who shrank from 
nothing to advance extravagant aspirations of 
empire. Then came the deposition of Abdul 
Hamid, and theoretical democrats cried 
Turnkey "Huzzal" and "Turkey for the Turks." The 
old trick of promising reforms gained cre- 
dence when it came from a secret committee, 
which juggled with watch-words about Union 
and Progress. The sufferers soon saw that the 
new order of things was only the old order 
writ large and systematized. Taxes began to 
be collected more regularly, to feather the 
nests of "Union and Progress" ; Christians and 

for the 

^i>.i9i2 MONTENEGRO 8343 

Jews were granted the unwelcome boon of be- 
ing allowed to serve a country they detested; 
raids and outrages increased steadily, and the 
"great Powers" were studiously impotent. 

Then Turkey was handicapped by a conflict Turkey 
with Italy, which, if not precisely a war, in-§?pj^ 
terfered with the transport of troops fromKi^. 
Asia and left the Turkish army without any 
superiority over the soldiers of the Balkan 
States. Here was an opportunity in a century 
for solving the Eastern question at last, and 
the Balkan States would have been criminal 
lunatics to neglect it. For some mysterious 
reason, hoWever, when every hour seemed of 
importance, when Italy was facilitating the 
transport of reinforcements, Bulgaria, Servia, 
and Greece confined their warfare to paper. 
No doubt King Ferdinand reflected that he 
would cut a sorry figure as Generalissimo, as 
it is said to take four men to hold him on 
horseback. Peter Karageorgevitch exposed 
himself to a revised version of the taunt, lev- 
elled at his pusillanimous grandfather, Kara 
George, who fled at a critical juncture one 
hundred years ago: "The fairy shrieks from 
the summit of Rudnik above Jasenitsa, the 
slender stream. She calk Peter Karageorge- 
vitch at Topola in the plain : Cowardly Peter 
Karageorgevitch, where art thou to-day? 
Would thou wert nowhere. If thou drinkest 
plum-brandy in the palace, may it run out of 
thee in wounds. Dost thou not see (ah I would 

8344 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 191a 

that thou wert deprived of sight) that the 
Turks have invaded thy fatherland?" But, 
even when threatened with revolution, Peter 
pleaded piteously that h€ was really much too 
ill to go to war. If necessary, he would obtain 
a medical certificate! As for the Greeks, we 
need not trouble about them, save as swift run- 
ners, if the experiences of their late war count 
for aught At the best, they may provide us 
with a comic version of Olympic games. 

Apart from motives of philanthropic broth- 
erhood, Montenegro was perfectly justified 
Monte- in precipitating hostilities. Scarcely a day 
^^ftote passed without news of sufferings among the 
***** Montenegrins in Albania, where a number of 
semi-independent chiefs exercise a peculiarly 
oppressive tyranny. I have heard many de- 
tails of the exactions committed by Albanian 
begs and the impossibility for a Christian to 
obtain redress at their hands. Whenever a 
serious protest was made, assurances were al- 
ways forthcoming that a searching inquiry 
should be held at once. But the usual plan 
was to summon the plaintiffs to attend a Court 
at a certain town, which they could only reach 
at the peril of their lives by passing through 
a d^istrict inhabited by their deadliest enemies. 
And if a Christian refused to take the risk, 
either in justification of his grievances or when 
invited to answer fiscal interrogatories, he was 
deemed to be contumacious and became liable 
to summary arrest and imprisonment. No 

M. i9» MONTENEGRO 8345 

doubt, the Turkish Government was not alto- 
gether responsible, for it was powerless to con- 
trol the Albanian mountaineers without exten- 
sive warfare, which would not be counte- 
nanced by the Powers. But if the Turkish 
Government could do nothing, all the more 
reason for some one else to intervene. And, 
as we can now see for ourselves, Montenegrin 
intervention was very likely to provoke the 
general conflagration, which all Europe had 
long striven to avoid. 

Up to the last the Montenegrins displayed 
a spirit of forbearance as amazing as it was^j*^^ 
admirable. Even when the Albanians built aJ^^lSi 
block-house on Montenegrin territory, near 
Podgoritsa, a few years ago, King Nicholas's 
Government was content to make a diplomatic 
protest, and actually prevented the inhabitants 
of the neighborhood from taking active steps 
to resent the aggression. It is therefore clear 
that the present war was not initiated without 
mature reflection following intense provoca- 
tion. I observe that some fanatics for peace 
at any price are complaining that hostilities 
were begun without the hocus-pocus of. diplo- 
matic procedure, but if they will take the 
trouble to consult any handbook on interna- 
tional law, or indeed any elementary history 
of the world, they will find that scarcely any 
war has been preceded by an ultimatum or a 
declaration. In this case more than in almost 
any other, a few days* warning would have af- 


forded the enemy an undue advantage. In- 
deed, there was every reason for a speedy 

Servia, of course, is not to be trusted under 
the present regicide rule. It is not long since 
I was present at a State trial at Cetinje, where 
it was proved "diat desperadoes had been pro- 
vided with bombs from the Servian arsenal at 
Kragujevats, with the knowledge of the ex- 
Crown Prince George Karageorgevitch, for 
the express purpose of blowing up the whole 
Royal family of Montenegro. In view of pres- 
ent dangers, a sort of truce has been patched up 
between Servia and Montenegro, an alliance 
has been concluded, and the best way to shame 
modern Servians like Peter and Pashitch into 
fulfilling their obligations was to press for- 
ward into the Sanjak of Novi Bazar with all 
possible speed. 
AuMria Moreover, there was Austria to be consid- 
considered. cTcd also. Already ruling several millions of 
unwilling Slavs, she sees no reason why she 
should not extend her empire over their breth- 
ren further south. The chaos and corruption 
and decay of elementary civilization which 
followed the Belgrade murders have afforded 
Austria at least a plausible pretext for an ad- 
vance, and many are wondering why she does 
not revive her protectorate of the Sanjak and 
forbid Servian or Montenegrin aspirations 
But such high-handed action would be 


far more difficult after a Montenegrin inva- 
sion than while it was only contemplated. 
And the sooner the whole Sanjak is occupied 
by Montenegro, the greater will be her claim 
to retain it when peace is concludec^. Con- 
tiguity between Servia and Montenegro has 
been desired by Slavs for centuries, ever since 
the battle of Kosovo. But it would certainly 
handicap Austrian hopes of penetrating to the 

Give the Sanjak to Montenegro, and Ser- 
via will not have far to look for a sovereign 
when the time comes to replace her blood- 
stained dynasty with a monarch worthy of 
Dushan's glorious traditions. Montenegro 
contains all the fine flower of Servian chivalry, 
and has maintained her independence against 
the encroachments of empires all through the 
centuries. The last remaining advocates of 
Austria argue that she has accomplished a 
great civilizing work, and should therefore be 
encouraged to extend the blessings of her rule. J^ttrum 
It may, perhaps, be admitted, in the matter of ^^ 
communications and superficial comforts, that 
she has been the interpreter of progress for 
Bosnia and Herzegovina. But a few tele- 
graph-poles and hostelries do not constitute 
the last word in civilization. All the material 
advantages which Austria has introduced have 
been exclusively for her own benefit; her sol- 
diers and policemen have thriven like locusts 
on the fat of the land; she has been engaged 


in a deliberate conspiracy to force Roman 
Catholicism upon an Orthodox population. 

Assuming that the ends in view are the 
pacification and development of the peninsula, 
it is difficult to discover any argument for re- 
. garding Austria as the ideal emancipator. 
Troublesome races are more easily admin- 
istered by people of their own blood, particu- 
larly when courage and freedom have been 
theirs throughout many generations. No 
doubt the final settlement will presently be re- 
duced to a question of cash, according to the 
principles of modem diplomacy. In that case 
Servia might be bought off, particularly if an 
opportunity were seized during the precarious 
existence of the present venal rule. But Mon- 
tenegro is sufficiently awake and conscious of 
the possibilities of her future to hold out for 
Monte- compensations more important than those of 
STalntelncd petty cash. She has maintained her independ- 
pJndSncc ence at the point of the sword, but it has only 

only at the '^ ' "^ 

Sl"JiirOTd. ^^^^ grudgingly conceded on paper. Again 
and again she has conquered territory, only 
to see it taken away at the dictation of some 
congress or concert of Europe. All she really 
asks is that she may receive the ordinary treat- 
ment which is usually extended to civilized 

The Treaty of Berlin having been violated 
by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
it is difficult to see how Austria can protest 
against a revision of Article 29, which handi* 

Aj>. i9ia MONTENEGRO 3349 

caps the future of Montenegro. That article 
incorporated Spizza in Daln^iatia, though it 
had previously been conquered by Montene- 
gro and though it was essential to Montenegro 
for securing the freedom of the port of Anti- 
vari. Moreover, the obnoxious Article 29 
provided that Montenegro should have no flag 
or ship of war, that all Montenegrin waters 
should be closed to the warships of all nations, 
that Montenegrin shores should not be forti- 
fied, that the assent of Austria-Hungary 
should be required for the construction of 
roads and railways through the new Montene- 
grin territory, and that maritime and sanitary 
police functions, both at Antivari and along 
the Montenegrin coast, should be exercised by 
Austro-Hungarian coastguard lighters. All 
these stipulations are inconsistent with full 
Montenegrin independence, and must be re- 
considered very sympathetically at the next 
international congress. 

Montenegro has other legitimate desires. J^^JS; 
Having established her independence by****'^ 
her own courage and endurance, having now 
come to the enjoyment of all the blessings 
of a civilized State, it is only natural that she 
should begin to think of her future develop- 
ment. Hitherto Nature has vetoed her aspira- 
tions; rugged mountains, admirable for repel- 
ling invaders, have also resisted the advance 
of trade. A, beginning is being made : one of 
the finest natural harbors in the world is being 



A.D. I9IJ 

rapidly perfected at Antivari, a regular serv- 
ice of motor cars has been established to the 
most important parts of the kingdom. But the 
crying need is for a railway which shall con- 
nect Montenegro with the European system. 
Of all the schemes which have lately been 
propounded for Balkan railways, none is so 
reasonable or attractive as that for a line from 
an emancipated terminus at Mitrovitsa, 
through Montenegro by Nikshitch and Pod- 
goritsa to Antivari. The Servian scheme 
would be infinitely more costly, and the port 
at San Giovanni di Medua could never afford 
satisfaction: the river Boyana pours. in such, 
great quantities of sand that it would be nec- 
essary to dredge there night and day for ever 
and ever. Again, the Servian line would run 
through the wildest and most insubordinate 
region, whereas the whole of Montenegro is 
May I conclude wirii an urgent plea that the 
The Red various Red Cross Societies will pay their first 
lutf"^^ attention to the obvious claims of Montene- 
Montfr* gro? Heroes do not ask for help, but often 
"**"* need it most of all. Only the other day, the 
nurses and doctors at Podgoritsa could be 
. counted on the fingers of both hands. The 
hospital' accommodation and surgical supplies 
are hideously insufficient, and hundreds of 
brave men may be left to die from trivial 
wounds which a little care would cure. Let 
England endeavor to deserve at last some ot 


the accumulated gratitude which Montenegro 
has lavished upon her erer since the days of 

[Old summer palace of Peter the Great on 
Petrovski Island, Russia, destroyed by fire. 
The Danish- American National Park at Aal- 
borg, Denmark, the gift of the Danes in the 
United States, is formally presented to the 
Government. The motor boat (thirty-five 
foot) Detroit, arrives in Queenstown, having 
crossed the Atlantic from New York in 
twenty-five days. An explosion in a powder 
magazine under the Haitian national palace 
at Port-au-Prince kills President Leconte and£j^;*f*f 
many others. Explosion of fire damp in ajdulS'. 
mine near Bechum, Germany, kills more than 
one hundred miners. Earthquake shock on 
both sides of the Dardanelles kills nearly one 
thousand persons. The army of the National 
Guard (20,000) begins a sham battle in Con- 
necticut to defend New York City. Massacre 
of Christians in Albania by Turks. More than 
four hundred Nicaraguan troops are slaugh- 
terecf after the city of Leon surrendered to 
the insurgents. Federal troops again hold 
Juarez, Mexico. Two generals suspected of 
^conspiracy are executed in China. Turkish 
government orders a court-martial of all per- 
sons implicated in the recent massacre in Bul- 
garia. Secretary Knox leaves Washington to 
attend the funeral of the Emperor of Japan. 



4.11. I9t« 







of the 



Edmond Audemars, a Swiss aviator, flies from 
Paris to Berlin (530 miles), making four 
landings. More than 30,000 persons tike part 
in the funeral services of General William 
Booth, the founder of the Salvation Army. 
The city of Norwich, England, is inundated 
by rain and 10,000 persons are temporarily 
homeless. The German Emperor reviews 50,- 
000 soldiers in Berlin; eight aeroplanes and 
two dirigibles take part. The Servian Cab- 
inet resigns. The Chinese Government au- 
thorizes Sun Yat Sen to build a comprehen- 
sive system of railways with money raised 
through the new loan: A new Servian Minis- 
try is formed, with N. Pasitch as Premier. 
Railway and telegraphic communication in 
Nicaragua reopened by United States marines. 
Turkey and Bulgaria begin active prepara- 
tions for war; Bulgaria accused of inter- 
ference in Turkey's Macedonian affairs.] 


(AJ). 1912) 


ASHORT time ago I read an interesting 
account of Sir Max Waechter^s recent 
^ journey to the capitals of Turkey and 
all the other Balkan States.^ He had visited 
these towns with the object of laying before 
the Sovereigns of the Balkan States and their 
Ministers proposals for abolishini? war by 
the creation of a European Federation of Federation 

All the Balkan Sovereigns and Ministers 
whom he had seen had expressed themselves 
sympathetically and favorably and had 
agreed to accept the status quo. To-day all 
the Balkan States are at war; Russia, Austria- 
Hungary, and Italy are arming, and people 
are anxiously discussing the possibility of a 
world war. The sudden transition from peace 
to war appears inexplicable to those unac- 
quainted with the realities of foreign policy, 
and many people are asking: Why has the war 
broken out? Could it have been prevented 
by diplomacy? Is it likely to spread beyond 

* S. Hiinz, "Balkan Herrsdier und Staatsmanner/' Vienna, 


3354 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.p. 191^ 

the Balkan Peninsula? What steps should 
Great Britain take? In the following pages 
an attempt will be made to answer these 

Twkish ^^ J^^y> ^9^^> ^^^ Turkish Revolution 
S'lSSS?"" broke out. It was a great and immediate suc- 
cess. Never in the world's history had there 
been so successful a revolution or one so 
. bloodless. As by magic, Turkey was changed 
from a mediaeval State into a modern democ- 
racy. The Turkish masses were rejoicing. 
Old feuds were forgotten. Mahomedans and 
Christians fraternized. The words Liberty, 
Equality, Fraternity, Parliamentarism, and 
Democracy were on all lips. Overnight a new 
Turkey had arisen. Soon the leaders of 
Young Turkey began to assert the rights and 
claims of the new-born State. We were told 
that European intervention in the affairs of 
Turkey would no longer be tolerated, and that 
those parts of the Turkish Empire which, 
though nominally subject to the Sultan, were 
no longer under Turkish control, would have 
to be handed back. Great Britain was to re- 
store Egypt and Austria-Hungary Bosnia and 
Herzegovina. Many Englishmen endorsed 
these claims, and told us that a new era had 
opened in the East. At that time only a few 
people ventured to doubt whether the Turk- 
ish Revolution would be a lasting success. I 
think I was the only British publicist who im- 

A.D.19I2 WAR IN THE BALK/lNS 8355 

mediately and unhesitatingly foretold that 
Parliamentary Government in Turkey was 
bound to be a failure, and that it would 
inevitably lead to the formation of a 
Balkan Confederation which would attack 

Unfortunately, my forecast has come true in 
every particular. ^ 

The failure of New Turkey was natural. Failure of 
It was unavoidable. Ancient States are pon-TuTmh 

*^ party. 

derous and slow-moving bodies. Their course 
can be deflected and their character be altered 
only by gradual evolution, by slow and almost 
imperceptible changes spread over a long 
space of time. Democracy, like a tree, is a 
thing of slow growth, and it requires a con- 
genial soil. It cannot be created overnight in 
Turkey, Persia, or China. The attempt to 
convert an ancient Eastern despotism, firmly 
established on a theocratic basis, a country ip 
which the Koran and the Multeka are the law 
of the land, into a Western democracy based 
on the secular speculations of Rousseau, Mon- 
tesquieu, Bentham, Mill, and Spencer was 
ridiculous. The revolution effected only an 
, outward change. It introduced some Western 
innovations, but altered neither the character 
of the Government nor that of the people. 
Turkish Parliamentarism became a sham and 
a make-believe. The cruel absolutism of Ab- 
dul Hamid was speedily followed by the 


scarcely less cruel absolutism of a secret com- 
Kewruicn Thc HCW Hilers of the country were mostly 
weyottog ^^^ young men, who were conspicuous for 
their enthusiasm and their daring but not for 
their judgment and experience. They had 
picked up on the boulevards and in the Quar- 
tier Latin of Paris and in Geneva the sonor- 
ous phrases of Western democracy and dema- 
gogy, and with these they impressed, not only 
their fellow-citizens, but also the onlookers in 
Europe. Having obtained power, they em- 
barked upon a campaign of nationalization. 
However, instead of trying to nationalize the 
non-Turkish millions slowly and gradually by 
kind and just treatment coupled with a mod- 
erate amount of nationalizing pressure, they 
began ruthlessly to make war upon the lan- 
guages, and to suppress the churches, schools, 
and other institutions of the non-Turkish citi- 
zens, whom they disarmed and deprived of 
their ancient rights. The complaints and re- 
monstrances of the persecuted were answered 
with redoubled persecution, with violence, 
and with massacre, and soon serious revolts 
broke out in all parts of the Empire. The 
Young Turks followed faithfully in Abdul 
Hamid's footsteps. However, Abdul Hamid 
was clever enough always to play off one 
nationality or race against the other. In his 
Balkan policy, for instance, he encouraged 


Greek Christians to slay Christian Bulgarians 
and Servians, and allowed Bulgarian bands to 
make war upon Servians and Greeks, support- 
ing, on principle, one nationality against the 
other. But the Young Turks persecuted indis- 
criminately and simultaneously all non-Turk- 
ish races, Albanians, Bulgarians, Servians, 
and Greeks, and thus they brought about the 
union of the Balkan States against themselves. 
The outbreak of the war could scarcely have 
been prevented by the European Powers. It 
was bound to come. It was as inevitable as The war 
was the breakdown of the Young Turkish instable. 
regime. Since the earliest times the Turks 
have been a race of nomadic warriors. Their 
policy has always been to conquer nations, to 
settle among the conquered, and to rule them, 
keeping them in strict and humiliating sub- 
jection. They have always treated the subject 
peoples harshly and contemptuously. Unlike 
other conquerors, they have never tried to cre- 
ate among the conquered a great and homo- 
geneous State which would have promised 
permanence, but, nomad-like, have merely 
created military settlement among aliens. 
Therefore, the alien subjects of the Turks 
have remained aliens in Turkey. They have 
not become citizens of the Empire. As the 
Turks did not try to convert the conquered to 
Islam — the Koran forbids proselytism by 
force — and to nationalize them, the subjected 

3358 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS aji. 191a 

and ill-treated alien masses never amalga- 
mated with the ruling Turks, but always strove 
to regain their liberty by rebellion. Owing to 
the mistakes made in its creation, the Turkish 
Empire has been for a long time an Empire 
in the process of disintegration. Its later his- 
tory consists of a long series of revolts, of 
which the present outbreak is the latest, but 
scarcely the last, instance. 
SSfurc The failure of the new Turkish regime has 

Tu^sh*''' increased to the utmost the century-old antag- 
onism between the ruling Turks and their 
Christian subjects. The accounts of the suf- 
ferings of their brothers across the borderline, 
inflicted upon them by Constitutional Turkey, 
which had promised such great things, had 
raised the indignation of the Balkan peoples 
to fever heat and had made an explosion of 
popular fury inevitable. The war fever in- 
creased when it was discovered that Servians, 
Bulgarians, and Greeks were at last of one 
mind, and that Turkey's strength had been un- 
dermined by revolts in all parts of the Empire 
and by the Turkish-Italian war. The Turks, 
on the other hand, were not unnaturally indig- 
nant with the perfidy of the Christian Powers, 
which, instead of supporting Turkey in her 
attempts at reform, had snatched valuable ter- 
ritories from her immediately after her revo- 
lution. Not unnaturally, they attributed the 
failure of the new regime and the revolts of 


their subjects to the machinations of the Chris- 
tian States, and the Balkan troubles to the hos- 
tile policy of the Balkan States. The tension 
on. both sides became intolerable. If the Bal- 
kan States had not mobilized a revolution 
would have broken Out in Sofia and Belgrade, 
for the people demanded war. If the Turkish 
Government had given way to the Balkan 
States, a revolution would have broken out in 
Constantinople. The instinct of self-preser- 
vation forced the Balkan Governments and 
Turkey into war. The passions of race-hatred Jf^ona of 
had become uncontrollable. SSU. 

Obedient to the clamor of the public, which 
believed that the inevitable collision of these 
elemental forces could be stayed by waving 
a piece of paper in the face of the antagonists, 
the Great Powers united in making energetic 
' representations at the various Courts. The 
presentation of the notes was slightly delayed 
— not through England's fault. But nothing 
could have prevented the war except a timely 
demonstration of overwhelming force. Such 
a demonstration could not have been made col- 
lectively by the European Powers but only by 
Austria-Hungary. The Danube forms the 
frontier between Servia and Austria-Hun- 
gary, and Belgrade, the capital of Servia, lies 
on the Danube. Austria-Hungary, having a 
fleet of monitors on that river, can occupy Bel- 
grade in a few hours. She could have pre- 


vented the war by concentrating a division or 
two opposite Belgrade, calling up her moni- 
torSy and informing Servia that an attack upon 
Turkey would immediately be followed by 
the occupation of Belgrade. Roumania, 
which usually marches hand in hand with 
Austria, is separated by the Danube from Bul- 
garia. She might simultaneously have taken 
similar steps at Sofia. Why were these steps, 
the only ones which would have promised suc- 
cess, not taken? There are two possibilities. 
Either Austria-Hungary did not care to rouse 
the enmity of the Balkan States and of their 
Slavonic sympathizers in Russia by prevent- 
ing a war which appeared just to all Slavs and 
which they believed they would win, or the 
outbreak of the war was welcome to Austria's 

In considering the question whether the war 
is likely to be confined to the Balkan Penin- 
sula, we must first of all take note of the his- 
toric antagonism which divides Austria-Hun- 
gary and Russia in the Balkans. 
^dtionof '^^^ position of Austria-Hungary is a diffi- 
H^*|i*rira cult one. Austrfa- Hungary contains about as 
oLcf"^* many different nationalities as Turkey^ which 
State she resembles in many ways. Sixteen 
different languages are spoken in that country. 
The Germans rule the Austrian half, and the 
Magyars the Hungarian half, of the Mon- 
archy. Now the Germans and Magyars com- 


bined form, riot a majority, but only a mi- 
nority, of the population, for of the 52,000,000 
inhabitants only 12,000,000 are Germans and 
9,000,000 Magyars. The 21,000,000 Germans 
and Magyars, who occupy the middle of the 
country, are enveloped on the north, east, and 
south by about 25,000,000 Slavs. The Slav- 
onic peoples of Austria-Hungary are mostly 
somewhat backward in civilization. They 
have hitherto been kept back by the ruling 
Germans and Magyars in various ways which 
it would take too loijg to describe. Notwith- 
standing the Parliamentary institutions of the 
country, the Slavs do not possess that influence 
in Parliament which their number should 
give. However, their influence is gradually 
increasing. They are demanding political 
equality, and as the birth-rate among the Slavs 
is considerably higher than it is among the 
Germans and the Magyars, Austria-Hungary 
is in danger of being swamped by her Slavonic 
citizens. The danger is to some extent less- 
ened by the fact that the Slavs of Austria- ^^^^]g2^ 
Hungary are divided by the various languages SySSHy 
which they speak, and the Government tries "*"**^ 
to increase their divisions. Besides the in- 
ternal, there is the external, danger of Slav- 
ism, the danger of pressure from the adjacent 
Slav States upon Austria-Hungary. Austria- 
Hungary's neighbors towards the north, east, 
and south are Russia, Roumania, and Servia. 

3862 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i^ri 

These three Slavonic States touch the Slavonic 
parts of Austria-Hungary. The spirit of Pan- 
Slavism is by no means dead. Of the Slavs 
in Austria-Hungary, 2,000,000 are Rouma- 
nians and no fewer than 5,500,000 are Servi- 
ans. The Servians in Servia, who number only 
3,000,000, dream of, a Greater Servia, and the 
Roumanians of a Greater Roumania, both of 
which States could be created only at the cost 
of Austria-Hungary. On account of the Slav- 
onic danger alone, Austria- Hungary is not de- 
sirous to see the Slavonic Balkan States be- 
come too strong, and especially those with 
which her relations are none too friendly. 
Russia's Russia's dcsirc to possess Constantinople 

desire to • *^ * 

SmSqu- springs not only from historical, but also from 
°'*'*^** weighty strategical and economic reasons. 
The Dardanelles are the door to Russia's 
house. The Crimean iWar has shown that a 
hostile Power controlling the Dardanelles and 
the Bosphorus can attack Russia in a most vul- 
nerable part. Besides, the most fruitful and 
most densely populated provinces of Russia 
are those in the south which lie on, or close to, 
the Black Sea, which are watered by the 
Dnieper, Don, and Volga, and which depend 
on the Dardanelles for an outlet. Hence, two- 
thirds of Russia's water-borne foreign trade 
depends upon the free use of the Black Sea. 
The Black Sea trade is very important to 
Great Britain, because we receive thence a 

A.D. 19 X 2 


very large part of our wheat, but it is far 
more important to Russia. If the Dardan- 
elles are closed, Great Britain can replace 
Russian wheat with Argentine or Cana- 
dian wheat, but Russia cannot sell at all her 
wheat grown in the south, because transport 
by rail is too expensive. The closing of the 
Dardanelles would therefore be ruinous to 
Russia. Russia's Black Sea trade is rapidly 
increasing, and it is susceptible of unlimited 
expansion. It is clear that for political and 
economic reasons Russia cannot allow Con- 
stantinople to fall into the hands of a strong 
European Power. 

In the present war Turkey will either be 
victorious, or she will be defeated. If we 
wish to form an opinion whether the war will 
spread, or whether it can be confined to the 
Balkan Peninsula, we must consider both pos- 
sibilities. Let us first study the consequences 
of the Turkish victory, and let us assume that 
no European Power will intervene by force 
of arms. 

A great Turkish victory would not solve the Aef^^^ 
Balkan question, but would merely adjourn MWe^'the 
its solution. The differences between Chris- quwti^n. 
tians and Mahomedans would remain, and the 
Turkish minority would find the task of gov- 
erning the Christian majority as difficult as 
ever. The differences between the Turks and 
Christians in the Balkan Peninsula are rather 



A.». X91J 



of the 




racial than religious. The Turks do not ap- 
pear to possess the gift of ruling men of an- 
other race and creed, and of making them 
contented citizens. Experience seems to show 
that Mahomedans and men of other religions 
are able to live peacefully side by side only if 
both are ruled by a strong and independent 
government which acts without favor and 
treats men of all creeds and races with equal 
justice. Under the British Crown, for in- 
stance, Mahomedans and men of other relig- 
ions dwell side by side in harmony, and life 
and property are secure. The late Prince 
Lobanoff said that the Turks would never 
change because they could never change. 
These considerations may influence the atti- 
tude of the Great Powers in the coming settle- 
ment of the Balkan question, for the settlement 
of that quesion will scarcely be left to the for- 
tune of war alone. 

Europe is getting weary of the eternal Bal- 
kan question, and wishes for its final solution. 
Already weighty warnings are raised in vari- 
ous countries that the Balkan question must 
now be settled for all time, whatever may be 
the issue of the present struggle. It seems, 
therefore, quite possible that the Powers will, 
even if Turkey be victorious, abolish her con- 
trol, though not Turkey's sovereignty, over 
those provinces of hers in which the Christian 
element is strong, in order to prevent the re- 


g :J 

M.t9xa WAR m THE BALKANS 8865 

currcnce of the race struggle. If the war 
^ould lead to such a settlement; Turkey's ter- 
ritory in Europe would be reduced, but the 
<}tiestion of Constantinople and of Salonica 
would not arise. 

Armed intervention, in case of a Turkish 
victory, if it comes at all, would most probably 
come from Russia. The Bulgarians, Ser- 
vians, and Montenegrins are Slavs. They 
are united with the Russians by the bonds 
of race and of religion. Whilst the Austri- 
ans have made wars upon Turkey merely 
for conquest, the Russians have waged theirs 
largely from racial and religious motives. 
In all Balkan wars and risings, thousands 
of Russian volunteers have gone to assist 
their Slav brethren against the Turks. When- 
tjver the Turks have succeeded in defeating 
the uprisings of the Slavonic Balkan Chris- 
tians die Russians have intervened in dieir fa- 
vor, and have made war upon Turkey. Will 
Russia, guided by sentiment, follow once more 
her traditional policy? 

The Russian Government has stated that itj^j^j^^^ 
does not intend to intervene, and we have noSSm'iKii 
cause to doubt its intentions. Russia's states- Pnteirene. 
men are in favor of peace, either for altruistic 
reasons or because they think that Russia is 
still enfeebled by her unfortunate war with 
Japan and requires rest. However, we must 
not forget that wars are made more often by 

M— Vol. 10 


passion than by calculating reason. There is 
a strong sentimental strain in the Russian 
character. Race wars are the most sangui- 
nary wars. The horrors of the Balkan war — 
it will probably be waged against women and 
children by both combatants — may again 
rouse the passions of the Russian people, as in 
the past, and they may force their Govern- 
ment to intervene against its will. 

The victorious but exhausted Turks could 
not resist for long a Russian army. A Rus- 
sian attack upon Turkey would be very un- 
welcome to Austria-Hungary. Her armed 
intervention would almost certainly lead to an 
Austrian mobilization, and it might bring 
about a collision between the two countries. 
Possibly the Czar Liberator would be satisfied 
to assume again his historic rule as the Pro- 
tector of the Slavonic Balkan States, the ter- 
ritories of which would become greatly 
enlarged. Such a development would appear 
undesirable to Austria-Hungary, for she 
4^SSbthe dreads the growth of the Slav States, which 
£2sut^ hem her in on three sides. Possibly Russia 
would aim at indemnifying herself by acquir- 
ing the control, but not necessarily the posses- 
sion, of Constantinople. She might arrange 
with the Turkish Government for a veiled 
protectorate, as she did in 1833 at the treaty 
of Unkiar Skelessi. The question of Constan- 
tinople may soon come up for settlement, but 

A.11.191^ WAR IN THE BALKANS 8867 

before examining it let us consider the con- 
sequences of a decisive defeat of Turkey at the 
hands of die allied Balkan States. 

Before the outbreak of war, the Great Pow- 
ers informed the Balkan States that they 
would not be allowed to make any territorial 
acquisitions should they be victorious. The 
Balkan States replied that it was not their in- 
tention to extend their frontiers, and that they 
had taken up arms merely in order to secure 
good government for their brethren across the 
border. It is unlikely that Turkey^s control J^'Jg'* 
over those European provinces in which theJJ*^^ 
Christian element is strong will be maintained f^^S. 
if Turkey should be victorious. It is, o£ 
course, still more unlikely that the Christian 
provinces will be put back under Turkey's 
control if that country should be defeated. At 
the end of the war die Powers would either 
forget their official threats, or the provinces 
conquered by the allies would be made semi- 
independent They would remain subject to 
a purely nominal Turkish sovereignty, and in 
course of time these semi-independent prov- 
inces would gravitate towards their racial af- 
finities and amalgamate with them. The his- 
tory of Bulgaria would repeat itself. Turkey 
is likely to lose in any. case. We may conclude 
tiiat both a Turkish victory and a Turkish de* 
feat will lead earlier or later to the aggran- 
dizement of the Balkan States. These may be 


expected to quarrel among themselves when 
it comes to the division of the. spoils. When 
the Turkish danger is abolished, when fear 
unites them no. longer, we must look for a 
struggle among them for supremacy. Bul- 
garians and Greeks hope to make Constanti- 
nople their capital. 

Whilst Turkey's victory may lead to the 
intervention of Russia, her defeat may lead 
to the intervention of Austria-Hungary, for 
Austria-Hungary would not look with favor 
upon the aggrandizement of the Slavonic Bal- 
kan States. If Austria-Hungary should at- 
tempt to deprive the victorious States of the 
fruits of their victory, either with the inten- 
tion of re-establishing Turkey or of extending 
her own power in the Balkan Peninsula, Rus- 
sia would almost certainly consider her in- 
terests most seriously threatened, and would 
act with vigor. 

A final settlement might apparently be 
Stition of found in the partition of Turkey. Hitherto 
*^' Austria-Hungary has prevented Russia taking 
Constantinople, but she has scarcely done so in 
the hope of acquiring Constantinople for her- 
self. Austria-Hungary could obviously hold 
Constantinople only after the most complete 
Russian defeat, a defeat which would make 
her recovery improbable. Austria-Hungary 
would scarcely accept Constantinople as a 
free gift. Its possession would involve war 

ii.ix.i9ia WAR m THE FALKANS 3389 

with Russia and the united Balkan States. 
Austria-Hungary possesses only a small fleet, 
and if she be separated from Constantinople 
by hostile Balkan States she will scarcely be 
able to hold it for long. Whilst Austria-Hun- 
gary can hardly wish to acquire Constanti- 
nople, her reservation of the Sanfak of Novi 
Bazar shows that she does not desire to see the 
road towards the southeast blocked by the 
Balkan States. 

Whilst Russia makes the strongest claims 
upon the possession of Constantinople for 
strategical and economic reasons, Austria de- 
sires equally strongly the possession of the^^lSf* 
harbor of Salonica. If the present war should 
bring about the end of Turkish rule in Eu- 
rope, a consummation which is by no means 
impossible, a collision between Russia and 
Austria^Hungary and their supporters — a 
war, not between two Powers, but between 
two groups of Powers, which may eventually 
drag in Great Britain, can be avoided only by 
a partition which would give Constantinople 
to Russia and Salonica to Austria-Hungary. 
Such a partition would oflFer great difficulties. 
In the first place, it would meet with opposi- 
tion on the part of the Balkan States. In the 
second place, various European Powers 
would, for the advantages accruing to Austria- 
Hungary and Russia, demand compensation, 
which these two States might find difficult to 


furnish. Italy, for instance, would probably 
demand the control of Albania, which Austria- 
Hungary would be reluctant to concede. Rou- 
mania might demand Russian Bessarabia, and 
Germany would certainly not allow herself to 
be left out. The settlement of the Balkan 
question bristles with difficulties and unex- 
pected possibilities of the most dangerous 

The partition of European Turkey would 
create numerous zones of dangerous friction 
between States, and would cut across many ex- 
isting international arrangements and friend- 
Jjj^Tripie ships. It might destroy the Triple Alliance 
^t^t^^ or the Triple Entente. The present war will 
dfS^oyed. scarcely bring about a final settlement of the 
Balkan question. It is more likely to mark 
the beginning of a series of great wars for the 
control of Constantinople. Whether Turkey 
should win, or be defeated, the danger is great 
that the conflagration will spread beyond the 
Balkan Peninsula. Constantinople is an ob- 
ject of the very greatest value to several 
States. The question of its possession cannot 
be settled peacefully by the European Powers 
but only by war, and more than one war may 
be required for the final settlement. It may 
well lead to a struggle between the Germanic 
and the Slavonic races, and Germany may dis- 
cover before long that her future lies not on 
the water, as William 11. has told her, but 

A.i».ifij WAR IN THE BALKANS 8871 

on the land. We may be approaching a pe- 
riod of wars similar to those which marked 
the Napoleonic era. The map of Europe may 
have to be remade. 

What steps should Great Britain take, inwjug^ 
view of the serious consequences to which the Siiui?^^ 
present war may give rise? Some desire that 
Great Britain should endeavor to stop the war 
by calling a European Conference. In view 
of the divergent interests of the Great Powers 
in the Balkans, such a Conference would 
probably have no practical result. Very like- 
ly it would only serve to show that the Euro- 
pean Concert is rather a journalistic than a 
diplomatic fiction. The interests of the Great 
Powers in Turkey clash. Therefore the com- 
bined European Great Powers cannot influ- 
ence the course of events. The so-called Eu- 
ropean Concert can produce useless notes, but 
it is incapable of prompt and vigorous action. 


(AJ>. 191:29 



NCE more all the wise have been con- 
founded, for a crisis in the Near East 
has come upon Europe as an almost 
The complete surprise. The league of Balkan 
Sit?5?cat States was formed with such complete secrecy 
**^^^- that the fact was scarcely known, and its extent 
was certainly not realized in any of the chan- 
celleries of Europe. 

The Balkan Ministers in London do not 
themselves yet know the terms of the present 
understanding, but the American public will 
be safe in assuming that the Balkan agreement 
is a firm compact between the four States — 
Bulgaria, Servia, Montenegro, and Greece. 
They will support one another in case of war 
and will negotiate together in case of peace. 
Calculations of coming disunion between the 
Balkan States are likely to be wholly dis- 
pelled, for the four Christian Governments in 
the Near East have prepared for everything 
and have foreseen everything. They have 
even, I believe, arranged for a possible parti- 
tion of Macedonia between their respective 



countries in case of victory in the war. 
You have here, therefore, a sudden ap- 
pearance in Europe of the new and most 
formidable corporate power, the Balkan 

As long as these four States — Servia, Bul- 
garia, Greece, and Montenegro — acted sepa- 
rately they were powerless. As long as they 
could be stirred up to mutual quarrels, and 
even mutual slaughter, by agents of Turkey 
or the Powers they were playing a game as 
foolish as it was wicked. 

All that was needed for Europe was that she 
should stand by and look on. Even the cry of 
humanity, so powerful in 1877, was practical- 
ly taken away from the Christians by the hor- 
rible atrocities perpetrated by Greeks and 
Bulgars a few years ago. 

Murder in Macedonia has ceased to be re-Murderiii 
garded as a breach of the Eighth Command- 
ment. Instead of action, we had nerveless 
proposals, written in vanishing ink. Scheme 
succeeded scheme and programme succeeded 
programme, like ghosts in "Macbeth," and 
with little more reality. 

The plain fact is^ that up to recently nei- 
ther the Powers nor Turkey ever actually con- 
templated doing anything at all. 

It always seemed, in the end, more to their 
interest that the reign of murder should go 
on rather than that the Macedonian question 


6874 THE WOfiLD'S GREAT EVENTS aj>.x9x« 

should really have to be decided once and 
for all. 

Now Europe is faced with the Nemesis of 
this conduct. The moral authority of the 
Powers has disappeared. Having absolutely 
neglected the duties of its guardianship, the 
Powers find themselves thrown over by their 
own wards. Those wards suddenly stand erect 
and face the world upright, claiming the right 
to conduct their own affairs. 

"Who would be free, themselves must strike 
the blow," sang Byron, and that is the watch- 
word of the Balkan uprising. The Balkan 
States are of age. They will keep their houses 
in order themselves, 
wwdice The cowardice of the Powers has defeated 
Powert. itself and has instantly precipitated this new 
fact of a Balkan federation. A most sur- 
prising countermove, it has brought back 
into instant and actual life the old European 

Up to the end of last week Europe was 
divided into two hostile camps, the Triple Al- 
liance and the Triple Entente, but within 
three days of the Balkan events, those two 
camps had coalesced, and Europe had become 

M. Sazonoff, the Russian Foreign Minister, 
who happened to be in Western Europe, had 
arranged with France and England. France 
had arranged with Austria-Hungary, and 


Austria-Hungary had brought Germany be- 
hind her. 

All the Powers had come together, and the 
first musical performance of the new concert 
was a symphony of joint notes into the ears* of 
the Balkan States and Turkey. These notes* 
took a considerable number of hours in pre- 
paring, and for several days the wires 
hummed between the capitals of Europe. 

Speaking broadly, Russia and France were 
in favor of kindness to the Balkan States and 
severity to Constantinople. Austria-Hungary 
was in favor of severity to the Balkan States 
and kindness to Constantinople, while Great 
Britain stood somewhere in between, and Ger- 
many supported Austria-Hungary. The final 
result was that after many emendations notes 
were composed which were brave to the weak 
and cautious to the strong. 

Such is the new concert of Europe. This Jc^cSSTof 
mutual fear may be strong enough to hold the ^"^^""^ 
European Powers together for a time, for it is 
really a very serious fear. It centres around 
the one notorious fact, the rivalry of Austria- 
Hungary and Russia in the southeast of 

Russia, it will be remembered, only acqui* 
esced in the annexation of Bosnia and Herze- 
govina four years ago, after a German threat 
of war, but she cannot acquiesce again. If 
Austria-Hungary sends troops south, it is 


probable that Ritssia will in(77e; and if Russia 
moves, Germany moves, and if Grermany 
moves, France moves, and then — There you 
have die terrible tormenting circle of dread, 
which keeps Europe powerless and afraid. 
sut^M , Meanwhile the Balkan States go on molnl- 
mobiiiang. — j^g ^^^ threatening war. Why not? Al- 
ready they have gained much. The Powecs 
of Europe, deaf to the appeals of humanitji^ 
and absolutely indifferent to die sufferings of 
Macedonia as long as everybody was quiet and 
peaceful, are now in a quite different mood. 
They are hammering fiercely at the door <rf 
the Sick Man^s room. They are urging hifli 
to take his medicine. For the moment theaor 
persuasions are mild, but when the possibiit- 
ties of war become nearer and more terrible, 
then, after all, the Powers may think that die 
moment has come to do somediing real. For 
if the Powers begin to think that Macedonia 
is really going to be freed, diey may, after all, 
idiink it best to free Macedonia themselves. 

The only great and effective recourse that 
lies in the hands of the Powers at the pre^at 
moment is to declare in favor of a Chrisdan 
Government for Macedonia under their own 
•control. Against such a declaration Turkey 
would be powerless, and the Balkan States 
could not move. The Balkan States would 
obtain what they were working fox, and yot 
&ey would not have got what they waiotcd. 


Is there any Power with the sufficiently 
high purpose and authority to make that pro- 
posal ? 

If it were proposed, would Europe fol- 
low it? 

In the old days, it might have been pro- 
posed by Great Britain, but at the preseht mo- 
jnent Great Britain has become involved in 
the network of European diplomacy and 
seems to have lost the high and independent 
daring of the old Gladstonian faith. 

[Funeral ceremonies of the Emperor 
Mutsuhito begun in Tokyo. General Nogi, 
supreme military councillor of Japan, and hisgjjj^^jO* 
wife commit suicide as a tribute to the late^^**- 


(AJ>. 1912) 

E. S. 


'OR nearly forty years the belligerent 
Balkan States have been intently watched 
and manipulated by the European Pow- 
ers, so much so, in fact, that it has been a watch- 
word with some of them that when troubles 
at home become too serious ^'to kindle a fire 
in the Balkans," and thus divert popular atten- 
tion to the Near East. However, though they 
always appear to stand aloof from the Balkan 
caldron, nevertheless, they have been watch- 
ing anxiously for years for an opportunity to 
jump forward and revise the map of Southr 
eastern Europe, each in a manner to suit its 
own particular needs and ambitions. 
Blair Blair Jaekel, author of the ^'Lands of the 

quoted. Tamed Turk," sets forth the facts as follows : 
"Austria-Hungary, in a high-handed man- 
ner a few years back, usurped the nominal 
Turkish provinces of Bosnia and the Herze- 
govina, and thus punctured the Servian dream 
of a greater Servia. Austria ought to be satis- 
fied ; but, no, she even seeks to extend her ter- 
ritory to the iS^gean Sea at Salonika. Russia, 



ftltbough the self -avowed champion of pan- 
Slavism, looks askance at seeing another nation 
than herself at the shores of the Bosphorus, the 
gateway to the Black Sea. Germany admits 
that she would fare better by absolute Otto- 
man supremacy in Macedonia* France and 
£ngland are without territorial aspirations in 
the Balkans, but dieir interests in the Mediter- 
ranean tend to make diem antagonistic to any 
change of power in these regions. 

''SerVia is but as large as the island of Santo Relative 
Domingo,, and has a population equal to diat Safi^n 
of Chicago. Bulgaria, including eastern Rou- 
mrelia, would covet only half of the State of 
Nebraska, while she might exchange popula- 
tions with N«cw Yoric City and suffer little 
loss in numbers. Montenegro would scarcely 
overlap the edges of the Yellowstone National 
Park if placed on top. of it, and her population 
might all find comfortable living quarters in 
a city the size of Minneapolis. Since her war 
with Turkey die entire area of Greece has 
dwindled to about that of the State of West 
Virginia, and she and Servia are neck and 
neck in point of people. 

"Scarcely will you have crossed the Servian 
frontier than you begin to feel the influence of 
the one-time supremacy of a nation which has 
not to this day given up hopes of regaining its 
lost provinces — a nation whose forefathers fell 
in their persistent atbempts to Mohammedan- 


izc Europe only at the very gates of Vienna 
itself. Most magnificent of Turkish influence 
throughout these regions are the ever-conspic- 
uous pencil-like mosque minarets, from the 
high balconies of which the muezzins call the 
faithful to prayer as regularly as on die other 
side of the Sea of Marmora. The fez and the 
baggy bloomers, the long filmy veils and the 
up-toed slippers are articles of dress common- 
ly seen upon the streets and in the market 

All these States, so long oppressed by Turk- 
ish atrocities and rendered suspicious by the 
threats and intrigues of Great Powers, and all 
and each intensely patriotic, have developed 
their armies during these years of turmoil and 
have gradually prepared for this great com- 
bined attack against the one common enemy — 
the Turk. The Balkan League was, however, 
a surprise to the world at large; for until this 
year the various States not only fought the 
Turk separately but also fought each other — 
sometimes at the bidding of the European 
diplomacy, that had "kindled" the proverbial 
fire, making use of old feuds, jealousies, and 
prejudices to do so. 
The common enemy of these States — ^Tur- 
^enteen kcy — comprises a million and a half square 
IhS?' miles, more than seventeen times as large as 
BaTkiS^ Servia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Greece put 
^*****' together ; and it almost equals France in point 


of population. The authoritatire Dr. E. J. 
Dillon says : 

"October i6th will figure in European his-J^gn,, 
tory as an historic date. For the long-threat- ?^*°^ 
ened conflict between the Balkan States and 
Turkey began that night on the Turkish bor- 
ders to end, nobody knows when and how. 

"Long before King Nicholas's warriors had 
crossed the frontier, the black shadow of the 
war fell like a poisonous upas tree upon the 
populations, not only of the Balkan Peninsu- 
la but of all Europe. In Bohemia, for exam- 
ple, gaunt weavers and spinners who take no 
heed of politics, and are glad of an opportu- 
nity to toil and moil for the wherewithal to 
keep body and soul together, were deprived 
of work. They were dismissed to their homes, 
because the firms employing them failed to 
sell their output, for the usual buyers in Hun- 
gary and Galicia could no longer obtain 
credit from the banks, because these institu- 
tions had to lend their money to the state for 
new armaments. And this is but a solitary in- 
stance of the disastrous effects of war rumors. 

"The casus belli turned on the miserable 
plight of the inhabitants of Macedonia. 
There can be no doubt that these ill-starred 
Christians were scandalously misgoverned, 
with the connivance of the Powers, which 
had formally undertaken to see them fairly 
dealt with. Macedonia was once on the point 


of escaping from this hell upon earth, but the 
Powers thrust her back. Thfe province was 
ceded by Turkey to Bulgaria in tfie year 1878, 
in virtue of the Treaty of San Stefano. That 
diplomatic instrument, however, was soon af- 
ter revised in Berlin, and Great Britain and 
Austria insisted on the territory being restored 
to Turkey; but they undertook, in conjunction 
with the other signatory States, to see that an 
organic law establishing good government in 
Macedonia was passed and applied. That 
promise was never kept. Not till twelve years 
later was the bill agreed upon by representa- 
tives of the Powers, and even then it remained 
on paper a dead letter. Turkey declined to 
ratify it, and the Powers connived at Turkey's 
backsliding. Yet these same Powers were 
quick enough to impose their will whenever 
the Balkan States made ready to take the law 
into their own hands. 

It must be remembered, in a survey of this 
memorable Balkan War, that the Balkan peo- 
ples are not fighting Old but Young Turkey, 
New trained and benefited by European educa- 

SSSSTedby ^^^^J ^"^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ fighting with the fury 
Europeans. q£ fanatics instead of the apathy of merce- 

Added to the general horrors of such a 
bloody campaign, marked by such severe and 
fanatical -fighting, Asiatic cholera has played 
havoc with those spared by shot and shell ; and 


this great punrcyor for the House of Death 
will yet gather a rich harvest for his grim 
Master for months to come. 

[Turkey declares war on^Senria and Bul- 
garia. Servia declares war on Turkey. Bul- 
garia and Greece declare war on Turkey. The war 
Bulgarians take the fortress of Kurt Kokale 
and the town of Mustafa Pacha. Blockade of 
ports by both Turkish and Greek navies. 
Greeks take Elassona. Turkish frontier 
crossed by Bulgarian troops, and Czarcvo, 
Selo, and Gorna captured. Plava taken by the 
Montenegrins. The Turks take the Servian 
town Karsamlie. The Bulgarians capture 
Tirnova. The Servians take Rulya Heights. 
Bulgarians advance on Adrianople. Heavy 
fighting around Adrianople and Kirk Kilisse 
between Turks and Bulgarians. Bulgarians 
capture Jumaia. Bulgarians advance on Kirk 
Kilisse. The Servians take Prishtina. Kirk 
I Kilisse taken by the Bulgarians. The Servians 
capture Kumanova and Novi Bazar. The 
Greeks take Servije. The Servians take Uskub. 
The Bulgarians capture Ishtip, Macedonia. 
The Servians capture Kopriilii. Turks gain 
Viza. Turks defeated in Thrace. The Ser- 
vians capture Prisrend. The Greeks occupy 
Grevena, The Turks destroy Metzovo, Epirus. 
Turkey notifies the Powers of its- desire that 
they intervene and begin negotiations for 

%84 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS *.»• 1913. 

peace. Greek troopa capture* Prevesa, a forti- 
fied town on the Gulf of Arta. The city of 
Salonica, a Turkish stronghold, is taken with- 
out serious opposition by the Greek army 
under Crown Prince Constantine. The 
Turkish Government orders the disarmament 
of the populace in Constantinople, to prevent 
a massacre of Christians. More than 1,000 
cases of cholera are reported daily in and 
around Constantinople, half of them fatal. 
Monastir, the remaining Turkish stronghold 
in Macedonia, is surrendered to the Servian 
troops after three days* desperate fighting, in 
which 20,000 Turkish soldiers are killed or 
wounded. Turkey rejects the terms oflFered 
by the allies for the arrangement of an armi- 
stice. The Servian army occupies the port of 
Durazzo, Albania. The Turkish cabinet ap- 
proves the protocol of an armistice. Servian 
troops enter the town of Durazzo and haul 
down the Albanian flag. A fourteen days* 
armistice is signed at Baghchetch by repre- 
sentatives of Turkey and Bulgaria, Servia, and 
Montenegro. Greece refuses to sign the 
agreement; peace negotiations are to begin at 
London on December 16. The plenipoten- 
tiaries of Bulgaria, Servia, Montenegro, 
Greece, and Turkey meet in St. James's 
Palace, London, to' arrange terms of peace. 
Jan. X. 19x3. Parcel post service begins in the United States. 
The Irish Home Rule Bill passes the final 

A.». ifij THE BALKAN WAR 3385 

Stage in the House of Commons. Raymond 
Poincare is elected President of France. Aris- 
tide Briand is made Premier of France. The 
War Party in Constantinople revolts against 
the peace terms. Nazim Pasha, War Minister, 
is assassinated. The Balkan Allies declare the 
armistice ended. General Inez Salazar is 
elected Commander in Chief of a new revo- 
lution in Mexico. British House of Lords re- 
jects the Irish Home Rule Bill. The Balkan Feb.s. 
Allies resume attacks on Turkish strongholds. 
Battle in streets of Mexico City between 
Federals and followers of Felix Diaz. Gen- 
eral Reyes is slain. Manuel Aranjo, President 
of Salvador, dies of wounds inflicted by as- 
sassins on February 4. News received that 
Captain, R. F. Scott, the British explorer, and 
four others perished on March 29, 1912, while 
returning from the South Pole. President 
Madero of Mexico is taken prisoner and 
Federal General Victoriano Huerta pro- 
claimed provisional President. Raymond 
Poincare inaugurated President of France. 
Gustavo Madero, brother of Francisco Ma- 
dero and formerly Minister of Finance, is ex- 
ecuted in Mexico City by troops of the new 
Government. Dowager Empress of China dies 
at Pekin. Revolts in Mexico against the 
Huerta rSgime. Ex-President Madero and ex- 
Vice President Suarez are shot. The War De- 
partnient orders the mobilization of 4,000 


troops near the Mexican border. Additional 
Mtr.s. troops ordered to Texas. Greeks capture 
Janina with 32,000 Turkish troops- Woodrow 
Wilson inaugurated President of the United 
States. The Austro- Hungarian and Russian 
.Governments agree to demobilize their mili- 
tary, forces along the boundary line. The 
Balkan Allies, announcing peace terms, de- 
mand the cession of Adrianople, Scutari, the 
:iEgean Isles, and Crete. Kkig George I of 
Greece is assassinated at Salonika. Crown 
Prince Constantine acclaimed King of Greece, 
Disastrous floods in Ohio and Indiana* Bul- 
gars take Adrianople. The Government's re- 
lief expedition headed by the Secretary of 
War goes to Dayton, Ohio, to the flood- 
Apia & stricken districts. The first Parliament of 
China convenes. The "Chinese Declaration of 
Independence" is sent to foreign capitals. 
Ambassador Chinda of Japan protests to the 
State Department against die proposed Anti- 
Alien Land Ownership Law in California. 
Mrs. Pankhurst is released. The Montenegrin 
army takes Scutari. Austria declares that if 
the Montenegrins do not evacuate Scutari by 
May I, war will be declared. The California 
Senate passes the Anti-Alien Land BilL 
May X. Americans warned to leave Mexico. National 
Peace Congress convenes at St. Louis. 
Italian troops under General Ganbretti de- 
feated by Arabs in Tripoli, 1,000 Italians 

A.*. xfi3 THE BALKAN WAR 8387 

missing. Domingo Rosillo, a Cuban aviator, 
flies from Key West to Havana. The Gov- 
ernor of California signs the Anti-Alien 
Ownership Bill. Mexican rebels defeat Fed- 
eral troops. Peace treaty signed between the 
Balkan Allies and Turkey. Secretary Bryan 
and Ambassador Spring-Rice sign a renewal 
of the five-year general arbitration treaty be- 
tween the United States and Great Britain. 
Premier von Lukacs is wounded in a riot in 
the Hungarian Parliament Japan asks thatjaiie4. 
the California Anti-Alien Land Ownership 
Law be not enforced. The European Powers 
demand that the Balkan States demobilize 
their armies. Mexican rebels dynamite a troop 
train. Shefket Pasha, Grand 'Vizier of 
Turkey, assassinated. Governor Castillo Brito 
of Campeche takes the field with i,ooo men 
against Huerta. The Reichstag adopts a reso- 
lution to lighten and shorten German military 
service. Bulgaria demands withdrawal of 
Servian troops from the territory claimed by 
Bulgaria. Greek, Turkish, and Roumanian 
armies advance in Bulgarian territory. Robert juiy 16. 
Bridges appointed poet laureate of England. 
Turks recapture Adrianople. Austria de- 
mands that Servia and Greece cease hostilities 
against Bulgaria. Ex-President Castro starts 
a revolution in Venezuela. Peace treaty be- 
tween the Balkan States signed at Bucharest. 
Castro rebellion checked. Twentieth, 


versa! Peace Oonigress at the Hague. King 
Charles and Queen Elizabeth (Carmen 
Sylvia) of Roumania are shot at while motor- 
ing in the Carpathians. Carnegie Peace Palace 

Sept. 4. at the Hague is dedicated. £x-King Manuel 
of Portugal marries Princess Augustine Vic- 

oct, 10. f^,.j^ Qf Hohenzollern. One hundred and four 

members of the Mexican Chamber of Depu- 
ties are arrested and imprisoned at the order 
of Huerta. Yuan Shi-Kai takes oath as Presi- 
dent of China. Prince Katsura, thrice Pre- 
mier of Japan, dies in Tokyo. Fire in Shang- 
hai renders 20,000 persons homeless. Servian 
troops withdraw from Albania. Collision at 
Melun, 30 miles from Paris, kills 47 passen- 
gers. Six thousand business men of Ulster 
pledge themselves not to pay taxes under a 

Nov. 5. home- rule Irish Parliament. Prince Regent 
Luitpold of Bavaria proclaims himself King 
Ludwig III. Turkey and Greece sign treaty 
of peace. Prince Keiki Tokugawa, the last oi 
the Shoguns, dies in Tokyo. The Euphrates 
Dam completed. The Russian Government 
proposes to the powers to withdraw all for- 

Dec.M. eign troops from China. The island of Crete 
is formally annexed to Greece. Cardinal 
Rampolla dies in Rome.] 

Jan. 10. [1914. — Mexican rebels, reinforced by 

General Villa, captures Ojinaga City. A vol- 
canic eruption on Sakura Island, Japan, de- 
stroys three towns and several hundred per- 

-*.». I9I4 THE BALKAN WAR 3389 

sons. Direct wireless communication is estab- 
lished between Germany and the United 
States; Kaiser Wilhelm sends the first message 
to President Wilson. The Chinese reestab- 
lished Confucianism as the State religion. 
President Wilson issues a proclamation lift- Feb. j. 
ing embargo on shipment of arms to Mexico. 
The Philippine Progressive Party adopts a 
resolution for independence under the pro- 
tectorate of the United States. Prince William- 
of Wied accepts the throne of Albania. The 
Senate ratifies treaties of arbitration with. 
Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Japan. Arabs at- 
tack Italian troops in Tripoli. Turkey and Mar. ii. 
Servia sign treaty of peace at Constantinople. 
'^Mother Jones," the aged strike leader, again 
arrested in Colorado, Field Marshal Sir 
John French and Adjutant General Sir John 
Spencer Ewart resign as a protest against the 
Ulster policy. Colonel George W. GoethalsApnii 
becomes Governor of the Canal Zone. loo,- 
ooo Unionists in London join in demonstra- 
tion against Home Rule. United States ma- 
rines are arrested in Tampico and the United 
States demands a salute to the United States 
flag as an apology. The American fleet is 
ordered to Tampico, as a result of Huerta^s 
failure to salute the flag. Huerta still refuses 
to salute the United States flag. Vera Cruz is 
captured by the United States forces. 

rf-VoL 10 


(A.D. 1914) 


NO NOVELIST or stage carpenter ever 
devised a scene more curious and the- 
atrical than that presented in the old 
Plaza of Vera Cruz this morning, Friday, 
April 24, when I saw it three days after the 
marines and sailors took the city. The sun 
blazed down. The air was filled with waltzes 
and musical-comedy songs pounded out by a 
band from an American battleship under the 
palms on the Plaza benches. Mexicans lis- 
tened languidly, a trifle bewildered, rather 
pleased, pufling their cigarettes under arcades 
about the Plaza; and the little cafe tables in 
front of the mirrors shattered by Wednesday's 
fire were crowded with American refugees 
from the interior, excitedly telling how they 
had got away, humming the band tunes ; with 
business men who had left behind them the 
work of years, not knowing whether diey 
could ever return; with their wives and chil- 
dren; with adventurers and soldiers of 
The same lazy sun-drenched air that car- 




lied the band music was cracking with radios 
from Tampico^ Tehuantepec, and Pacific 
Coast townSy telling oi hundreds fleeing, as 
they thought) for thfdlf lives ; and of the five 
thousand troops preparing to embark at Gal- 
veston. Above the pahns in the old cathedral 
belfry; on roofs, tm the sand hills wigwagging, 
sefiding and answering messages from the bat- 
tleships in the harbor ; and past the caf^ tables 
went a steady procession of field guns, rapid- 
fire automatics, and commandeered wagons 
filled with tents and supplies, with guards, 
rifles in hand, watching the roofs, and com- 
panies of sailors in service uniforms of rusty 
yellow and marines. Everything showed there 
bad been a battle. 

No one could tell what would happen next, 
and yet this was not war. The Mexican flag 
was still floating from the old fort of San Juan 
de Ulloa in the harbor scarcely two hundred 
yards from the Prairie, whose fire against the 
Naval Academy was so accurate on Wednes- 
day morning. From the deck of the Prairie, 
scarcely a stone^s throw to the old prison, the 
Comandante was warned that at the first sign 
of activity San Juan would be fired on. Yet 
as this IS not war the two lie quietly side by 
side ; and the ComanJanfe, who flies his flag in 
face of the fleet that could blow him out of the 
water, punctiliously dips the ensign when a 
launch carrying American dead passes by. 

3392 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a... 1914 

Peacefully to take a custopihause and to 
continue civil government among a people ac- 
customed to accept rules of conduct developed 
by highly civilized nations may be simple 
enough, but it is another thing among people 
who owe offices to favor of a dictator they 
fear to offend, and to not a few of whom Red 
Cross flags are mere red marks on a white 
cloth and nothing more. 

While the great twelve-inch guns of the 
fleet merely frowned in silence the navy was 
sustaining losses many times greater than it 
sustained in all the Spanish War; and while 
oflicers and men were being sent ashore to 
march through empty streets to meet a death 
that took them unawares; while mobs were 
marching through the streets of the Mexican 
capital and Americans were crowding the 
refugee trains, the Mexican transport Pro- 
greso, crowded with reinforcements, steamed 
into the harbor under the very guns of the 
dreadnoughts, and then, this not being war, 
was told not to anchor, and left to wander 
rather crestfallen out to sea. Surely not often 
in international relations has a situation arisen 
so extraordinary as this. It is often said by 
Americans living in Mexico that the unex- 
pected always happens, and the longer you 
know Mexico the less you pretend to under- 
stand it. As this is being written no one can 
tell what will have happened before it is 

A.i>. 1914 THE FALL OF VERA CRUZ 9893 

printed, or how, having stepped into Mexico 
in this strange and tragic fashion, we may get 
out again. It is one of the grim and in- 
evitable ironies of the whole mixed-up busi- • 
ness that those who fired from ambush on men 
who had no intention of firing on them should 
be regarded by Mexicans as patriots defend- 
ing their homes from an invader — anonymous 
heroes, as "La Opinion" called them yester- 
day. Anonymous they were. The very be- 
havior of our own men was admirable 
riiroughout, forbearing under great difficul- 
ties. They went from their ships to the most 
disconcerting sort of land fighting resolute 
and undismayed. 

While salutes were thundering out to a Brit- 
ish cruiser this morning, and radios pouring in 
from all four points of the compass from 
Washington to the west coast, in the midst of 
orders in official language came a message 
from the flagship, stiffly introduced like the 

"Following, telegram," it said, and then 
quoted a sentence from parents in the far-off 
States to their son, a bluejacket on the 
Florida : 

"All our thoughts and sympathies arc with 
you. Earnest prayers for your speedy recov- 

There was no hint of address. It had 
merely come out of the air, a human word 

3394 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.». 19x4 

faltering strangely across the spaces into this 
sternly beautiful company of great gray fight- 
ing ships. There has been war for them, at 
any rate. [Battle between Trinidad district miners 
and Colorado State troops. The Mexican 
rebel leader, Villa, declares that he will not 
war with the United States. Congress passes 
the Volunteer Army Bill. The United States 
accepts offer of mediation by Argentina, Bra- 
zil, and Chili. Huerta agrees to mediation 
plan. President orders Federal troops to 
Colorado. Severe earthquake in Sicily. Tam- 

Mtira. pico bombardcd. Mexican Peace delegates 
reach Washington. ^ Norway celebrates cen- 
tennial of independence. Russian astronomers 
report the discovery of a large unknown 
comet. Suffragettes start a new war in Lon- 
don, slashing paintings in the Royal Academy 
reviling the King in public, etc. Villa re- 
organizes his army of 35,000 men. The 
Aquitania, the newest and largest British liner, 
sails for New York. Huerta withdraws 

June!, blockade of Tampico. The United States 
Government prohibits all future shipment of 
arms to Mexico. Peace Centenary of England 
and America held in London.] 


(AJ>. 1914) 


THE Balkan War has taught us an in- 
valuable lesson. It has thrown a glar- 
ing light upon the unsound and danger- 
ous political organization of Europe. It has 
thrown to all who have eyes to see that the 
defective structure of Europe has been the 
chief cause of many avoidable wars in the 
past, and that it may lead to many more pre- 
ventable wars in the future. 

There are six Great Powers in Europe. 
They form two groups: the Triple Alliance, 
composed of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and 
Italy; and the Triple Entente, composed of 
France, Russia, and Great Britain. These two 
groups have been created by feelings of mu- 
tual jealousy and distrust. They have been 
created for preventing a war of aggression^ 
and for preserving what is called the status 
quo of Europe. 

In pursuit of this policy, the two groups 
of Powers watch one another with sleep- 
less vigilance. As both are approximately 
equally strong, they hold, so to say, the balance 


3396 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1914 

to one another; they form what is called the 
balance of power in Europe. 

People speak frequently of "the will of 
united Europe." Evidently Europe cannot 
have a single will as long as the States of 
Europe are divided by the balance of power 
into two armed camps which watch and op- 
pose and consequently hamper one another. 
It is true that the Powers of the Triple En- 
tente and of the Triple Alliance occasionally 
agree upon some joint measure. If they act 
in harmony they form what is called the 
European Concert. However, as the two 
groups of Powers are divided in practically 
all essential matters by feelings of jealousy and 
distrust, their harmony is more apparent than 
real. Their unity of action is, as a rule, re- 
stricted to the presentation of colorless and 
harmless diplomatic notes; that is of notes 
which are not intended to be followed by com- 
bined action. In the course of thirty years the 
Concert of Powers presented periodically 
joint notes to Turkey, pressing for reforms in 
Macedonia and elsewhere. However, Turkey 
took not the slightest notice, for as soon as the 
proposal was made to follow joint representa- 
tion by combined action, unsurmountable dis- 
sensions appeared among the Great Powers, 
the European Concert broke down. 

The group system is probably the best sys- 
tem, which, so far, has obtained in Europe. 


It constitutes a great advance upon the chaotic 
conditions which prevailed in the past, when 
European wars were far more numerous than 
they are now. The Triple Alliance and Triple 
Entente are almost evenly matched, and as 
each Power must, of course, consult its allies 
before resorting to action, the ambitions or 
aggressive dispositions on the part of any 
single Power are checked by its allies. It is 
not unlikely that in this way the outbreak of 
war has been prevented on several occasions. 

The present system has, nevertheless, most 
serious drawbacks. It is obvious that if two , 
Powers of equal strength oppose one another 
they neutrali:^e one another. This is clearly 
shown by' the negative results arrived at by 
the action of the Concert of Europe in the 
past. The present organization of Europe is 
apt to check combined action by the Powers. 
Thus, it tends to lower the prestige of Europe 
in the world; and States which are bent upon 
adventure are enabled to speculate upon Eu- 
rope's division to flout its will and to involve 
other nations in war. 

But this is not all. The system has produced 
a wild competition in armaments among the 
Powers. Each Power tries to outbid its com- 
petitors, and so to alter the balance of power 
to its own advantage. Of course, the opposing 
side follows suit, other Powers become 
alarmed and increase their armaments, and 


thus the whole of Europe is converted into a- 
gigantic military camp. How enormously 
' costly the preservation of peace has become 
will be seen from the following figures, which 
have very kindly been supplied to me by the 
Admiralty and War Office: 


Russia £53,000,000* 

Germany 47,000,000 

France 38,000,000 

United Kingdom 28,000,000 

Austria-Hungary 23,000,000 

Italy 17,000,000 

Other Powers 35,000,000 

Total £241,000,000 


United Kingdom £45,000,000 

Germany 23,000,000 

France 18,000,000 

Russia 18,000,000 

Italy 9,000,000 

Austria-Hungary 6,000,000 

Other Powers 6,000,000 

Total £125,000,000 

From the foregoing table it appears that 
the States of Europe spend at present upon 


their armies and navies about £360,000,000 
per year. Let us study the significance of this 
colossal sum. The Panama Canal will, when 
finished, cost approximately £80,000,000. It 
follows that Europe is spending every year on 
armaments more than four times the cost of 
the most gigantic and the most expensive en- 
gineering undertaking which the world has 
seen. At £15 per gross ton the value of the 
entire merchant marine of Great Britain, 
which comprises 10,000 ships of 19,000,000 
tons gross, is £285,000,000, and the value of 
the merchant marine of the whole world, 
which comprises 40,000,000 tons gross is 
£600,000,000. As the States of Europe spend 
on military and naval preparations £360,000,- 
000 per year, or £30,000,000 per month, it 
appears that they spend every ten months a 
sum equal to the value of the gigantic mer- 
chant marine of Great Britain, and that they 
spend every twenty months a sum equal to the 
value of the entire merchant marine of the 
world. If the seas should disappear, one could 
easily build a first-class broad-guage railway, 
with all the necessary bridges, tunnels, sta- 
tions, sidings, rolling stock, etc., encircling the 
whole earth for £360,000,000, the sum which 
Europe spent last year upon armaments. 
Every year Europe expends on armaments far 
more than it does on education, sanitation, and 
social betterment combined, and this expendi- 

8400 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS *•»• »«»4 

ture increases year by year at a constantly 
growing rate. 

The foregoing comparisons give an idea:of 
the enormous economic waste which is caused 
by the present condition of armed peace, but 
they do not tell the whole tale. The present, 
organization of Europe leads not only to an. 
enormous waste of money, but to an equally 
serious waste of human energy and labor. 
More than 4,000,000 able-bodied young men 
are constantly kept under arms in the Euro- 
pean standing armies and navies and about 
1,000,000 workers are permanently engaged 
in manufacturing warships, weapons, gun-: 
powder, military stores, etc. Thus more than 
5,000,000 of the most efficient workers of 
Europe, who might be engaged in producing 
food, manufactures, etc., for the need of the 
people, are withdrawn from economic pro- 
duction. The value lost to the nations of 
Europe by the withdrawal of 5,000,000 
workers and of more than 1,000,000 army 
horses from economic activity, must amount 
to several hundred million pounds a year. 

The nations of Europe are staggering under 
their colossal burden. The existence of these 
vast armies and navies constitutes an ever- 
present menace to the peace of the world. The 
nations of Europe are permanently kept under 
the apprehension of war, and the fear of war 
causes periodically great crises, which are 



equally disastrous to the capitalists and to the 

Unless thi^rnnd. increase of annaments be 
checked in time, the military and naval com- 
petition among the Powers must end in the 
impoverishment and bankruptcy of all Eu- 
rope, or in the greatest war which the world 
has ever seen, or in a great revolution, for the 
masses may at last rise in despair in order to 
shake off their crushing burdens. 

What can be done to prevent the calamities 
and the universal ruin which threaten to over- 
take all Europe before long? 



[The Curtiss sea plane, America, intended june 
for transatlantic flight, is successfully ma- 
neuvered at Keuka Lake, New York. Arch- 
duke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hun- juneae. 
gary, and his morganatic wife, the Duchess of 
Hohenberg^ are assassinated by a Serb student 
in Sarajevo.] 



(AJO. 1914) 


ONCE more the hand of the assassin has 
rudely torn the delicate web of Euro- 
pean policy and removed one of those 
rare personalities who seem destined to leave 
their mark upon their generation. The Arch- 
duke Francis Ferdinand was born in 1863, ^^ 
eldest son of the Archduke Charles Louis, 
third brother of the present Emperor — a 
simple, lovable man who played no great part 
in politics. The Archduke's mother was Prin- 
cess Theresia Annunciata, daughter of Ferdi- 
nand II, King of the two Sicilies — a name of 
ill omen in the history of Italian liberty. Left 
a widbwer when his eldest boy was only eight, 
Charles Louis married a Portuguese Princess, 
and it was under her care that Francis Ferdi- 
nand and his two brothers grew to manhood. 
In accordance with the tradition of his family 
the young Archduke entered the army at an 
early age, and seemed likely to follow the 
usual career of a junior scion of what is the 
most prolific reigning house of Europej when 



a sudden tragedy drew him forth from com- 
parative obscurity. In January, 1889, Crown 
Prince Rudolph committed suicide in: an Al- 
pine shooting lodge, under circumstances 
which will probably never be fully explained; 
and Francis Ferdinand became — after his 
father, living in complete retirement — ^the 
next heir to the Hapsburg throne. 

It was in 1900 that an event occurred which 
revealed the Archduke as a man of strong will 
and determination. During a visit to his 
cousins, the Archduke and the Archduchess 
Isabella, at Pressburg, he made the acquaint- 
ance of their lady-in-waiting, Countess Sophie 
Chotek, the younger daughter of an ancient 
but somewhat impoverished Bohemian family 
— one of the very few which had not alto- 
gether thrown off its Czech traditions. The 
attentions which it was supposed were being 
paid to one of the six daughters of the arch- 
ducal pair, were in reality bestowed upon the 
maid of honor ; and when this becanje known, 
every effort was made to thwart the match. 
But Francis Ferdinand overbore all opposi- 
tion, even that of the Emperor himself, and 
undeterred by the fact that no Hapsburg heir 
had ever before married outside the magic 
ring of royalty, insisted upon a free choice in 
a matter where his affections were so deeply 

The marriage which took place on July i, 

3404 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1914 

1900, was preceded by a solemn renunciation 
of the succession for his future children, and 
it is probable that even if he had lived to be- 
come Emperor, this could never have been re- 
voked. The case of his wife was different, and 
from the very first he consistently set himself 
to break down in her favor the rigid Castilian 
etiquette of the Hofburg. The existence of a 
hostile clique among the Archduchesses and 
high court officials naturally gave rise to much 
unprofitable speculation and spiteful gossip. 
An added piquancy was supplied by the un- 
doubted circumstance that Hungarian Law 
(which is something very different from the 
House Law of the Hapsburgs) knows no such 
institution as a morganatic marriage, and by 
the tendency of certain Opposition circles to 
assert that on the Archduke's accession to the 
throne his consort would ipso facto become 
Queen of Hungary. The tragedy of Sarajevo 
has reduced to merely academic value a ques- 
tion which one month ago seemed likely to 
affect the ceremonial of every court in Eu- 
rope, but it is safe to assume that her hus- 
band's unconcealed eagerness and the natural 
tendency of the Austrian and Hungarian Par- 
liaments to outstrip each other in the removal 
of existing obstacles would soon have secured 
her recognition as Empress and Queen. Four 
years ago the Emperor, who on the occasion 
of her marriage had granted her the title of 


Princess of Hohenbcrg, gave her the still 
higher rank of a Duchess with the predicate 
of Highness. But even this did not avail to 
alter the galling fact that every one of the 
thirty or more Archduchesses — even the young 
debutantes — took precedence at every public 
function over the wife of the Heir Apparent; 
hence in recent years the Archduke who did 
not care to go anywhere without his wife, was^ 
rarely seen at court balls and diplomatic re- 

The force of character which his marriage 
first revealed and which an ideal home life 
did much to develop and strengthen, gradually 
made itself felt in other directions during the 
years that followed. Above all, the Archduke, 
despite the frequent divergence of their polit- 
ical views, acquired the Emperor's confidence 
in military questions; and thus, by a natural 
process, as Francis Joseph advanced in years^ 
most of his military duties and privileges de- 
volved upon his nephew. They joined hands 
in vigorously resisting the Magyar onslaught 
upon the unitary character of the Joint Army; 
and during the prolonged crisis to which it 
gave rise in Hungary, Francis Ferdinand's in- 
fluence was repeatedly noticeable in the back- 

Throughout the stormy decade (1903- 
1913), the Archduke, while keeping a jealous 
watch over military policy as a whole, was 


untiring in his efforts for the improvement of 
all arms of the service, the introduction of 
greater efficiency, the raising of the social 
status of the officers and the material comfort 
of the men. Finally, in September, 191 3, the 
Emperor created in his nephew^s favor the 
new post of "Inspector General of the entire 
armed forces of the Monarchy," thereby 
tacitly recognizing the fact that the Austro- 
Hungarian Army, as it was at the close of the 
second Balkan War, was to a very large ex- 
tent what Francis Ferdinand had made it 
during years of restless reorganization. 

Not less important was the Archduke's in- 
terest in the navy; indeed, the entry of Austria- 
Hungary upon the sphere of naval competi- 
tion must be directly ascribed to his initiative. 

Time after time in recent years journalists 
have discussed the question whether Francis 
Ferdinand was Slavophil, Roumanophil, 
Magyarophobe. All such speculation was on 
utterly wrong lines. From first to last his 
policy never wavered; it was neither German 
nor Slav, but simply Hapsburg. He weighed 
men and tendencies in a dynastic balance, and 
accepted or rejected them simply as they rose 
or sank in the scale of dynastic interests. 

The Balkan Wars completed a process 
which had long been noticeable to attentive 
observers ; and to-day the question of internal 
constitutional change is inextricably bound up 


with the main problems of foreign policy. 
The Balkan upheaval brought the Southern 
Slav and Roumanian questions into line, and 
Austria- Hungary must adapt her system to 
the interests and sentiments of her own seven 
million Southern Slav and four million Rou- 
manian subjects, if her relations with Servia 
and Roumania are to be tolerable, and if her 
influence is to make itself felt in the Balkans. 

These considerations had long weighed with 
Francis Ferdinand, and for some years past 
rumor had credited him with the intention of 
superseding Dualism by "Trialism," through 
the creation of a Southern Slav Kingdom 
(Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia, Istria, Bosnia, 
Herzegovina) under the Hapsburg sceptre. 

Francis Ferdinand was fully alive to the 
dangers which threaten the Monarchy from 
the growth of Pan-Serb tendencies. He real- 
ized what many Austrian and Hungarian 
statesmen are too shortsighted to admit, that 
an idea can only be combated by an idea, that 
the staple methods of the police state, as so 
often applied in Croatia and Bosnia, merely 
fan discontent to fever heat. 

It would be mere folly to ignore the fact 
that to every Servian of the Kingdom Francis 
Ferdinand seemed an irreconcilable enemy, 
the leader of the war party and the personifi- 
cation of Austrian Imperialism in a form 
which seemed to threaten Servia's existence. 



(A.D. 1914) 


BETWEEN July 28 and August 4, 19 14, 
seven European nations declared war. 
Before the end of the month fighting 
was taking place and preparations for fighting 
were being made in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
Australia, and Canada. 

No single cause can be ascribed to so wide- 
spread a conflagration. The situation was ex- 
tremely complicated : there were the rival in- 
terests of Austria and Russia in the still un- 
settled Balkan States;, there was the military 
preparedness of Germany, aggressively ex- 
pressed by the large expansion of the army in 
1913; there was the supposed military weak- 
ness of France; there was the expectation of 
civil war in Ireland, which would weaken 
Great Britain; and there was disquiet in 
India. The point of crisis was reached when, 
on June 28, the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, 
nephew and heir to the Emperor of Austria, 
was, with his wife, the Duchess of Hohen- 
berg, assassinated in a street of Sarajevo, the 
capital of Bosnia. 



A thrill of horror ran through the world. 
In the storm of indignation that broke over 
Austria an attempt was made to fasten a share 
of the crime on the Servian Government. 
Anti-Servian riots occurred in Sarajevo and 
Vienna, where the Servian Legation was 
threatened by a mob. On July 25 the Austrian 
Government sent a startling note to Servia, 
requiring an answer within forty-eight hours. 
Austria made ten demands humiliating in the 
last degree, calling for the suppression of the 
newspapers and societies and dismissing cer- 
tain officers from the army. Servia had, how- 
ever, undertaken to inquire into the outrage 
and punish any of her subjects implicated. 

Austria's fojimidable note to Servia was 
handed to the Powers the following day. The 
Servian reply, made on July 25, accepted all 
the terms, subject to the delay necessary for 
passing new laws, with the exception of the 
cooperation of Austrian officials and police. 
Moreover, the reply concluded with an offer 
to refer the question, if unsatisfactory, to the 
Hague Tribunal or the Powers. 

Germany warned the other Powers not to 
interfere with Austria in her purpose of pun- 
ishing Servia. Sir Edward Grey, British 
Foreign Secretary, proposed an Ambassador's 
Conference in London to discuss means to 
avert complications. "Mediation," he said, 
"was ready to come into operation by any 


method that Germany thought possible, if 
Gemiany would press the button in the inter* 
ests of peace." His proposition was refused 
by Austria; and Germany and Austria de- 
clared war on Servia on July 28. On July 
29 the Austrian troops were bombarding 

During the Balkan War of 191 2, Austria 
had viewed with concern the amazing growth 

of the Slav nations, which seemed to threaten 
her position as the ruler of Croats, Serbs, and 
Slovenes in her southern provinces. The am- 
bition of Servia to found a Slav Kingdom 
under the aegis of Russia was perceived and 
resented, and Servia came to be regarded as a 
troublesome neighbor. The murder at Sara- 
jevo proved to be the last straw. The Great 
Powers at first seemed content to let the two 
parties to the quarrel fight it out. Unfortu- 
nately Russia, fearing that Austria had de- 
signs against her, ordered, apparently without 
actual provocation, a partial mobilization. 
Germany, as the ally of Austria, demanded an 
explanation of this action ; and, being unsatis- 
fied, declared war on Russia on August i. 
France at once mobilized in support of Rus- 
sia. England, thereupon, inquired separately 
of France and Germany whether they would 
observe the treaties existing in regard to the 
neutrality of Belgium. Germany refused to 
pledge herself in regard to a "scrap of paper" ; 


andy on the appeal of the King of Belgium for 
'^the protection guaranteed, England instantly 
declared war on Germany. Meanwhile, Mon- 
tenegro had joined Servia, and when Japan 
had allied herself with England, and Canada, 
India and Australia came into the cause,^war 
had begun in four continents! 

Behind all the ostensible reasons put for- 
ward by diplomatists to excuse their Govern- 
ments taking those precautionary measures 
which are almost as menacing as ultimatums, 
were the salient facts that Austria and Russia 
have been rivals in regard to the suzerainty 
over the Balkan peoples, who meanwhile 
aspired to complete independence; that Ger- 
many has been itching to put to some profitable 
use the colossal military machine she has 
created at so great a cost; and that England, 
desirous of peace, found herself compelled by 
the growth of the German Navy to incur an 
increasing expense to keep her place in the 
race for armaments. France had nothing to 
gain by going to war but relief from the 
burden of three years' compulsory service, un- 
willingly home in order to keep pace with the 
growth of her neighbor's recruiting re- 
sources. Belgium might have made terms 
with Germany for the friendly use of her ter- 
ritory, but chose the nobler part of resisting 
with all her might the attempt to bribe or 
bully hen 

3412: THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS: * -^ "^i*. 

On July 31 the Germaa Government ad- 
dressed a peremptory ultimatum to Russia re* 
quiring her to demobilize both against Aus- 
tria and Germany within twelve hours. 
France was also asked to state within eighteen . 
hours whether or not she would remain neu- 
tral in the event of a Russo-German war. The 
original quarrel between Austria and Servia 
had now fallen into the background — the 
great conflict was developing. On July 3 1 also 
an Imperial decree declaring- a state of war 
throughout the German Empire was issued. 
Holland and Belgium mobilized to defend 
SSiS^ their neutrality. On August i Germany de- 
rSmu. clared war on Russia; France ordered mobi- 
lization; and Italy notified Germany that she 
would remain neutral. Russia assured Great 
Britain that she would on no account com- 
mence hostilities if the Germans did not cross 
her frontier. 

Early on Sunday morning (August 2), the 
German troops entered the Duchy of Luxem- 
burg, a small independent State adjoining Bel- 
gium, and, like Belgium, assured of neutrality 
by treaties, to which Prussia, France, and 
Great Britain were parties. The Grand 
Duchess Marie Adelaide made a futile pro^ 
test; but it was later stated that Germany had. 
already acknowledged her claim by a first 
payment of 1,000,000 marks. For Germany 
the first objective was the French army. It 


was decided to cross the Vosgcs between Toul 
and Epinal to avoid the fortified areas of 
which Belfort and Verdun are the centers, 
overrunning in consequence Luxemburg and 
proceeding up the right bank of the Meuse 
into France. Germany had already built rail- 
ways leading to all parts of the French 
frontier and to the frontiers of Luxemburg 
and Belgium. French territory was violated P*Sm^ 
by German troops without declaration of war. ^™*^*' 
German troops now appeared before Li^ge 
and on August 3 Germany demanded a clear 
passage through Belgium, offering in return 
that the integrity and independence of Bel- 
gium should be secured at the close of the war 
if Germany were victorious. An answer was 
demanded in twelve hours. If it were a re- 
fusal, Belgium would be treated as an enemy. 
The King of the Belgians telegraphed a per- 
sonal appeal to King George of England. On 
August 4 Germany notified Belgium that a 
state of war existed: Great Britain declared creit 

' Britain 

war with Germany ; the House of Commons JVrS* 
voted a war credit of $525,000,000; the Reichs- ^*"°•"^• 
tag a vote of $1,252,000,000; and the United 
States proclaimed its neutrality. Simultane- 
ously Belgian territory was violated at Gem- 
menich near Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Belgium began operations by destroying 
bridges, tunnels and other property, in order 

to delay the advance of the Seventh and Tenth 
o— Vol. 10 

8414 THE WORLiyS GREAT EVENTS ^^ 1914 

German Corps, afterward joined by the Sixth 
Corps. After taking Vis6 and Verviers, the 
Germans stormed Li^ge (August 5), but were 
repulsed. On August 5 Lord Kitchener was 
made Secretary of State for War in the British 
Cabinet; on August 6 Austria-Hungary de- 
clared war upon Russia; and Parliament 
voted an additional $500,000,000. On Augusx 
6 the United States cruiser Tennessee left 
New York with $5,500,000 in gold for the use 
of Americans stranded in Europe. 

In the meantime the Germans renewed 
their attack on Li^ge and gained the city on 
August 7. The Belgian infantry (20,000) re- 
treated westward, leaving an ambulance train, 
engines, and supplies. On August 8 British 
troops landed in Belgium ; Portugal joined the 
Allies; French troops entered Alsace-Lor- 
raine and the French and Germans clashed in 
France de- the picturcsQuc Vosgcs. On August 10 France 
M Austeu. declared war on Austria-Hungary and French 
and German troops covered a line from Hol- 
land to Switzerland, a distance of about 240 

In the meantime, Germany, too weak in big 
ships to engage the British Fleet, was forced 
to keep the majority of her ships and boats in- 
side her harbors, defended by mines and 
powerful fortifications, entrusting the work 
of fighting to mines and submarines. The 
main strength of the British Fleet was in the 


North Sea under Sir John Jellicoe ; the French 
Fleet was in the Mediterranean with base at 
Toulon and the Russian Fleet was divided be- 
tween the Black and the Baltic Seas. On 
August 5 the morning following the declara- 
tion of war, the British cruiser Amphion, dis- 
covered the Hamburg-American liner K6ni- 
gin Luise (2,163 tons), dropping mines about 
sixty miles off Harwich' and sent her to the 
bottom within six minutes after the first shot. 
A few hours later the Amphion struck a mine 
and perished. On August 9 the British cruiser 
Birmingham sank the German submarine 

The terrible war had begun. 


(A. D. 1914. f 916) 


A DETAILED history of the most colos- 
sal calamity that ever befell the world 
would fill libraries rather than volumes. 
Years ago imaginative writers predicted what 
a war of the twentieth century might be, with 
all the resources of modern chemistry and new 
implements and engines of warfare ; and they 
gave rein to their fancy in picturing novel 
duels in the air with airships and flying ma- 
chines ; but not one of the most wildly fanciful 
ever pictured a hundredth part of the horrors 
Horrors of and diaboHcal inventions which are used by 
ceatury both sidcs in the war. These include liquid 

warfare. ^ ^ 

fire, hand grenades, the submarine, and the 
bomb-dropping Zeppelin. 

Through the great discoveries and inventions 
of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such 
as rapid transit, telegraphs, and telephones, 
the uttermost parts of the world have been 
brought together. Louis XIV remarked that 
"there were no longer any Pyrenees"; the 
rulers of the twentieth century might say there 
are no longer any seas; for distance and time 



have both been annihilated. And with these 
wonderful facilities for communication that 
bring the happenings of the whole world to the 
breakfast table with the morning paper it had 
been taken as a matter of course that races and 
nations were gaining a better understanding 
of one another, and that the "brotherhood of 
man" had become something more than a 
well-sounding phrase. The world's interests oi**^*** 

^ ^ world'! 

seemed to be closer knit, and there seemed to«*«'«^- 
be a "give and take" among nations that drew 
them together in hundreds of mutual ties. 

But, alas I under the apparent serenity 
and well-ordered life, that appealed to and 
charmed so many visitors to European coun- 
tries, fires had long been smoldering^ — fires of 
jealousy, hatred, and envy, intensified by cen- 
turies of tangled history that included wars, 
court intrigues, matrimonial alliances, and 
long-suffocated ambitions. Each nation en- 
tered this terrific conflict perfectly justified in 
its own eyes as to the righteousness of its indi- 
vidual cause. Moreover, each country has 
published its diplomatic documents and corre- 
spondence of the early days ; and in the French 
Yellow Book, the Belgian Gray Book, the 
Russian Orange Book, the Serbian Blue 
Book, the German White Book, the Austro- 
Hungarian Red Book, etc., the student of 
history and politics may draw his own con- 


"The Chancelleries of Earope/' writes a 
member of the English Cabinet, "as can be 
read in the official papers, seem simultane- 
ously to have thrown up the sponge and simply 
waited for the inevitable collapse. Only Sir 
Edward Grey refused, without some struggle, 
to accept so desperate a conclusion. Every 
day, almost every hour, he showered proposals 
oi^'s?*' among the ambassadors. He endeavored to 
Gw" mobilize the forces which still made for peace. 
He pleaded for time. He pleaded for a con- 
ference of disinterested powers. He pleaded 
for any alternative proposition; when refused 
one, he proffered another. He was willing to 
perform almost any act, to violate even the stiff 
diplomatic conventions, to drop the 'formulas* 
of conventional communication, in order to 
get back to the world of reality — so long as 
Europe might be saved. 

"God alone can fix the ultimate responsi- 
bility of a war which, even were it concluded 
to-day, would demand a generation for re- 

"It was not a war in the ordinary sense 
of the word, like the Napoleonic contests, or 
the last fight between France and Germany; it 
was a smashing to pieces on a scale compared 
to which every previous war has been mere 
child's play, of a laboriously created indus- 
trial civilization of centuries. It might 
mean before its termination, the destruc- 


tion of the whole social order, the end of 
a world." 

On the other hand, Chancellor von Beth- 
mann-HoUweg in his address to the Reichstag 
on August 4 insisted that Germany*s hand had 
been forced by the Russian and French mobili- 
zations : 

*We had deliberately abstained up to that 
time for the sake of the peace of Europe from 
calling a single reservist to the colors. Should 
we have waited patiently longer until the 
powers between which we are wedged in were 
in a position to choose the time when to deliver 
their blow? To have exposed Germany to this 
danger would have been criminal. Therefore, 
on July 31, we demanded of Russia the de- 
mobilization of her troops — her solemn assur- 
ances could yet preserve the peace of Europe. 
The Imperial German Ambassador in St. 
Petersburg was instructed to declare to the 
Russian Government that in case of rejection 
of our demands we should be obliged to de- 
clare a state of war. 

"When the allotted time expired the Ger- 
man Emperor was compelled at the same time 
to make sure what attitude France would 
assume in the situation. To our definite ques- 
tion whether she would remain neutral in a 
German-Russian war she answered that she 
would do what her interests bade her. 

"We knew France was ready for an invasion. 


France was able to wait; we wer^ oot A 
French aggression into our flank in the lower 
Rhine would have been disastrous, and we 
therefore were compelled to overrule the legit- 
imate protests of the Luxemburg and Belgian 
Governnients. We shall repair the wrong we 
are doing as soon as our military aims have 
been reached." 
2?cc rf'' At the outbreak of the war Europe was 
^^^'' divided into two groups : the Triple Entente — 
Russia, France, and Great Britain; and the 
Triple Alliance — Germany, Austria, and 
Italy. Thus the "balance of power" was deli- 
cately held in the political scales. 
i5?to* On July 23, nearly a month after the assas- 
sination of the Archduke of Austria at Sara- 
jevo, the Austro- Hungarian Government sent 
its demands to Serbia. The Austrian note 
threatened war and startled every nation in 
Europe, The reply was requested within forty- 
«ight hours. Serbia, faced with this ulti- 
matum, turned to Russia. Acting on Russia's 
advice, Serbia replied within the time, but 
asked for a reference to The Hague Tribunal 
on two points not quite clear. The Austrian 
Government's reply was that nothing but a 
complete acceptance would be acceptable. 

Then began the extraordinary week of 
diplomatic efforts in Europe, in which the 
British Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, 
approached Germany, France, and Italy, with 



the hope of calling a conference in London to 
mediate on the Austrian-Serbian dispute. 
France and Italy agreed, but Germany de- 
clined. By July 29 Austria had declared war 
on Serbia, and was bombarding Belgrade; 
Belgium in self-defense, was mobilizing; 
Germany had recalled her high-sea fleet; the 
British fleet was concentrating; and Russia, 
while disclaiming aggressive intentions against 
Germany, had ordered mobilization. At mid- 
night the Kaiser held a council of war at Pots- 
dam. Just how far the Entente bound Great 
Britain to support France had never been 
made public. Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg, 
Imperial Chancellor, sent for the British Am- 
bassador, Sir Edward Goschen, oflFering on 
Germany's part that France should not be de- 
spoiled of any European lands at the close of 
the war, and that Germany would not retain 
any Belgian territory, provided the Belgians 
did not fight against Germany. The ambas- 
sador replied that Great Britain would stand 
by France and the Belgian neutralization 

By the beginning of August practically the 
whole continent of Europe was under arms. 

"The week-end — Friday, July 31 to Tues- 
day, August 4 — ^was such as no one then living 
had ever spent. For so widespread a sense of 
foundations destroyed, and a world turned S^ed'*''^ 
topsy-turvy, we must go back to the days of the 5?Jy'. 


French Revolution. In Britain the markets 
went to pieces; the bank rate rose to lo per 
cent on Saturday, and the Stock Exchange 
was closed. Monday, August 3, was a bank 
holiday, the strangest in the memory of man. 
An air of great and terrible things impending 
impressed the most casual visitor. Crowds 
hurried about the telegraph offices and rail- 
way stations; men stood in the street in little 
groups ; there was not much talking, but many 
spells of tense silence." * 

In Germany on July 31 it was officially 
announced that the Emperor had declared a 
state of war throughout Germany. "The ap- 
proaches to the palace were crowded at all 
hours, thrilling religious services were held, 
singing and shouting crowds filled the streets, 
until on Saturday evening the general mobi- 
lization was ordered. That solemnized Ber- 
lin; anxious women took the place of noisy 
traffickers; and the capital, pulling itself to- 
gether, prepared fot the final, struggle." * 
dl^dared. On S^aturday evening Germany declared war 
on Russia; and although the Czar, Kaiser, 
and King of England exchanged telegrams, 
matters had gone too far. These telegrams 
amounted to nothing more than "stage letters." 

England's Ambassador was now instructed 
to ask if the report were true that Germany 
had demanded of Belgium free passage for 



her troops and that Belgium had refused, and 
requesting also from Germany an assurance 
that Belgian wishes should be respected. Ger- 
many refused; and Sir Edward Goscheh re- 
turned to London with the information from 
Dr. Bethmann-HoUweg that he "would hold 
Great Britain responsible for all the terrible 
events that might happen." 

On the appeal of the King of Belgium for 
protection, England declared war on Germany 
at once. In the meanwhile Montenegro had 
joined Serbia; and when Japan allied herself 
to England and England's colonists espoused 
the cause, war was busy in four continents. 

Belgium might have made terms with Ger- 
many for the use of her territory; but she chose 
the nobler part of resisting an overwhelmingly Bei^^^-g 
superior power. Belgium's heroic stand won^liS? 
the admiration and sympathy of the world. 

The awakening was sudden. For a few 
days the world was paralyzed by the shock. 
Then nation after nation began to prepare to 
meet the terrific conflagration. Bankers, 
jurists, army and navy men, statesmen, finan- 
ciers, chemists, engineers, manufacturers, and 
many others, bent to the new task of manipu- 
lating men, munitions, and supplies for a 
terrific contest on a scale that required the 
work and the strength of Titans rather than of tuSII/*' 
men, and for which in no avenue of human 
activity was there a precedent. 


SSik?* ' Europe was thrown into a panic, but every 
nation rose as one man to the occasion. Trav- 
elers were amazed at the rapidity of the mobi- 
lization. Troops took possession of the trains, 
and everywhere the sudden halt to organized 
living was felt Food rose in price, banks 
were closed, motor cars were requisitioned, 
and transportation became increasingly diffi- 

None felt the troubles more keenly than 
the thousands of Americans who found their 
way with difficulty out of the countries at war, 
and were glad to obtain homeward passage on 
any kind of a sailing vessel. Germany's sus- 
picions that every one who spoke English was 
a spy increased the multitude of troubles and 
small annoyances. Posterity may read in the 
daily newspapers full accounts of the hard- 
ships that wealthy Americans were forced to 
endure in countries where their bank checks 
were not honored, and where food was at a 
premium, if not altogether exhausted. Those 
who had been careful to select the fastest and 
most luxurious steamers were now glad to 
come home in steerage accommodations on 
slow-going vessels which crossed the Atlantic 
so cautiously that they deviated from the or- 
dinary paths of the ocean liners and pursued 
their way, through fog and moonlight alike, 
unlanterned and with darkened portholes. 

Thrilling, too, are the accounts in the 


French papers of the exodus of frightened 
citizens from Paris. 

In France, General Joffre had been madeJi*|JS; 
commander in chief; in Russia the Grand 
Duke Nicholas ; in Belgium King Albert took 
command. In Germany the Kaiser, the 
Crown Prince, Admiral von Tirpitz, and 
General von Kluck prepared their attacks on ' 
France and England. 

On the day of the declaration of war Ad- 
miral Sir John R. Jellicoe was gazetted to the 
supreme command of the navy, with Rear 
Admiral Charles E. Madden as chief of staff. 
The British navy, which had been assembled 
for inspection by the King at Spithead, moved 
forward to hold the North Sea and Channel. 
Field Marshal Earl Kitchener, appointed War 
Minister, set himself the task of hurrying men 
to the front and raising new armies for foreign 
service and home defense. Field Marshal Sir 
John French was made commander in chief, 
with Major General Sir Archibald Murray as 
chief of staff. On August i6, the day before 
the Belgian Government moved to Antwerp, 
the entire force was landed in France, and by 
August 22 this army had taken up position on 
a line reaching from Condc (north of Valen- 
ciennes) to Mons, with the French army, com- 
manded by General Joffre, on the right along 
the line of the Sambre River. 

Immediate offers of assistance came to Great 

3426 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 4ud. 1914 

iS£to~" Britain from all her colonics — offers of men, 
Brfuln. money, and supplies. The response of India 
was marvelous. On September 9 the Viceroy 
telegraphed: "The rulers of the native states 
in India, who number nearly 700 in all, have 
with one accord rallied to the defense of the 
Empire and offered their personal services and 
the resources of their states for the war." The 
service of every corps was offered. The Dalai 
of Tibet offered 1,000. Tibetan troops; the 
Nizam of Hyderabad £400,000, and also to 
defray the cost of his own regiment and the 
Twentieth Deccan Horse. The Gaekwar of 
Baroda and the Maharaja of Bharatpur, who 
were in Europe, placed the entire revenues of 
their states at England's disposal. The Aga 
Khan, the spiritual head of 60,000,000 Mo- 
hammedans, volunteered to serve as a private; 
and the Indian Government offered to bear 
the entire expense of the expeditionary force. 

The first Indian regiments reached Mar- 
seilles in October, and took part in the heavy 
fighting on the northwestern frontier. 

Again destiny determined that Flanders — 
the old-time battle ground of Europe — should 
be the theater of action. Here, where the 
modern giant guns roar and smoke great 
warriors and generals — Caesar, Attila, Theo- 
doric, Charlemagne, Charles the Bold, Jeanne 
d'Arc, Talbot, Turenne, Condc, Louis XIV, 
Villars, Marlborough, Saxe, Prince Eugene, 


Napoleon, Blucher, Schwarzenberg, Well- 
ington, Bismarck, Moltke, Napoleon III, and 
many others — fought decisive battles. It is 
not surprising th^t strange stories have been 
told from various sections of the line of sol- 
diers, who have seen, or imagined they have 
seen, visions of Jeanne d'Arc and St. George 
leading them on to victory. 

For Germany the first objective was thefirrt"*"^'* 
French army. Germany had already prepared 
railways leading to all parts of the French 
frontier and to the frontiers of Luxemburg 
and Belgium. In order to avoid the fortifica- 
tions of Belfort and Verdun the Germans de- 
cided to overrun Luxemburg and proceed up 
the right bank of the Meuse. Three corps 
were therefore sent to destroy the Belgian 
army, while others were to seize Luxemburg, 
and others were to stand in Alsace-Lorraine 
between Mulhausen and Saarburg. 

The German center was under Duke Al- 
brecht of Wurtemberg. The first offensive 
was the occupation of Luxemburg, which was 
promptly performed despite the dramatic pro- 
tests of the young Grand Duchess of Luxem- 
burg, who placed her automobiles across the 
bridge over which the German invaders must 
march. The German excuse for invasion was 
that the Luxemburg railways were German 
controlled, and that in the event of war were 
necessary for the transport of troops. 

3428 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1914 

SV/'Si Let US look at the opening of the great 
drtin*. drama through the pen of an eyewitness: 

"On Sunday, August i, while Germany was 
awaiting Russia's answer to her ultimatum, 
the British people had their first practical in- 
timation of the imminence of war. Posted up 
in the London terminus of each southern rail- 
way were notices informing the public that all 
Belgian traffic was under military direction; 
that through trains ran no further than Her- 
besthal on the Belgian border, and that 
communication with Luxemburg through 
Belgium could not be guaranteed. Early on 
Sunday morning the first act of war was com- 
mitted. The inhabitants of the capital, which 
lies beautifully on the cliffs above the winding 
Alzette, were surprised by the appearance of 
armed motor cars filled with German officers 
and men. It was the vanguard of the Twenty- 
ninth Regiment from Thionville coming 
down the river by the Lorraine road. They 
seized the Adolf Bridge and demanded a right 
of passage through the Duchy for the Ger- 
man army. The Grand Duchess motored up 
and wheeled her car across the roadway, but 
she was bidden to go home, and her chauffeur 
was compelled to return. One of the ministers 
of state made a formal protest, which had 
no effect whatever. Luxemburg was like 
the nest of field mice in the path of the reap- 
ing machine, and her handful of gendarmes 


could do nothing to stay the onrush. By the 
afternoon German covering troops from 
Treves were tramping along her eastern roads 
and her railways were in German hands." 

From Thionville German cavalry crossed 
the boundary to Longwy, the French fortress 
that guarded the way from Luxemburg to the 
valley of the Meuse. South German troops 
from Strassburg crossed the Vosges into 
Cirey-les- Forges and cavalry from Miilhausen 
crossed the boundary into France and fired on 
the custom officers. The French troops had 
been withdrawn eight miles within the border 
line in accordance with France's policy. 

At the same time that Germany sent troops 
to the frontiers of Luxemburg and Belgium, 
five corps were distributed in East Prussia, to 
the frontiers of which Germany had also long 
ago built railways of the most advanced kind. 
England showed no such preparedness, for it 
took her three weeks to assemble and transport 
a comparatively small force to a distance of 
250 miles from Southampton. Immediately 
the British concentrated at Mons, with the 
French to the right at Charleroi. 

The orders which the British admiralty had^°^*- ^^ 
issued to the fleet on July 26 and its departure *^*®"'^''^ 
from Portland on July 29 prevented the Ger- 
man navy from swooping down upon their 

Meanwhile Belgium had declined the oflfer 


of five corps from France^ believing the for- 
tresses of Liege and Namur would hold her 
until the Allies arrived. 

Bdjuir*" General Joffre, in command of all the 
French forces, began to deploy his troops be- 
tween Belfort and Maubeuge. The Belgians 
began to destroy bridges, tunnels, and other 
property to delay the German advance; but 
the Germans took Vise and Verviers, crossed 
the Meuse, took Lifege (August 7), compelled 
the retreat of the Belgian infantry, took Tirle- 
mont and Louvain (destroying the splendid 
library), and entered Brussels on August 20. 
The Government had removed to Antwerp on 
August 17. 

The German general, Baron von der Goltz, 
was installed as Military Governor of Brus- 
sels and the Belgian army was thrown back 
toward Antwerp. When Namur fell, the 
Germans had control of the entire region be- 
tween the Moselle and the Meuse and com- 
mand of the Belgian railways east of Brussels. 

S^'^tened. ^^ September i the British Brigade of 
Guards distinguished itself at Compi^gne, but 
the Germans had pressed the Allies to Paris 
and German aeroplanes were flying over the 
city itself. On September 3 the capital was 
transferred to Bordeaux, to which city there 
was a hurried exodus of Parisians. At the 
same time the British base was withdrawn 
from Boulogne to Havre, The line of fortified 


towns — La Fere, Laon, and Rheims — fell be- 
fore September 3. 

From August 23 to September 5 the French 
and English were forced to retire. On August 
25 the Allies stood on the line La Fere-Noyon 
along the Oise, and for three days and three 
nights the British were pursued by five Ger- 
man army corps. Their casualties were 15,000, 

Great pressure was still directed by the 
Germans upon General French's command 
of the allied forces on the German right, 
where General von Kluck was hammering 
with the intention. of driving to Paris. On 
August 29 General Joffre visited General 
French and made arrangements for a further 

The Germans reached Coulommiers, their 
most southern point; but this southern move- 
ment had left their right wing in a dangerous . 
position. At this critical moment General J^,?.? 
Joffre, who had kept a steady defensive, now cSSST" 
ordered a general counteroffenstve all along 
the line. The Allies were in a strong position, 
their left resting on Paris, their right on the 
great fortress of Verdun ; and, moreover, they 
were reenforced by a new French army (the 
Sixth), commanded by the veteran, General 
Pau. The Allies turned and furiously at- 
tacked the Germans, who had crossed the 
Aisne. On September 6, the German army 
crossed the Marne at Chalons, where, after 



two days of terrible fighting, they halted. It' 
was the culminating point in the first st^ge 
of the campaign in the west — ^known as the 
Battle of the Marne (September 6-10). 
^e^battk "The Battle of the Marne resolves itself 
into a number of separate engagements. It 
embraces, if we go by rivers, the battles of the 
Ourcq, Marne, the two Morins, and the upper 
Aisne ; or, we can call the different actions the 
battles of Meaux, Sezanne, Yitry, and the 
Argonne. History, whatever name it knows it 
by, will record it as an indisputable victory for 
the Allies, won by hard fighting and good 
generalship. The Germans failed, first, be- 
cause of Von Kluck's bold exposure of his 
right; and, second, because of the heavy de- 
feat on their right center inflicted by Foch and 
the Ninth Army. Great credit is also due to 
Langle and Sarrail, who had to meet the most 
violent part of the German offensive. The 
Germans showed themselves no less skillful in 
a forced retreat than in their great descent 
from the north. Their losses, when all is said, 
were surprisingly small. Their armies were 
no more broken than were those of the Allies 
when they fell back from the Sambre to the 
Seine. During the last two days of the battle, 
the world was presented with a new spectacle 
of how fast an orderly retirement could be. 
Von Kluck, fighting rear-guard actions, fell 
back in that time not less than thirty-five miles, 


' and the German center cannot have covered 
• less than fifty. ■ 

The Battles of the Marne checked effectu- 
ally the great German drive toward Paris. 
General Joffre issued orders for this great 
counteroffensive on September 4, 19 14. The 
ensuing engagements and the masterly Ger- 
man retreat to the strong defensive positions 
already prepared on the line of the Aisne were 
consummated September 12, 19 14. From that ^ 

date the armies took up positions they were to 
occupy for months, perhaps years to come, and 
the struggle in the west resolved into a war of v 
intrenchments, artillery, and limitless supplies 
of munitions, with the advantage both in posi- 
tion and preparation on the side of Germany. 

It was about this time that the world at'large 
began to realize the tremendous nature of the 
conflict, the new and horrible devices of 
modern warfare and the value of the aero- 
plane as "the eyes of the army." 

The Belgians with Antwerp for a base also 2i2lSi 
harried the Germans. Von Kluck's retreat be- *"**• 
came a rout. The Crown Prince's army was 
pushed back from Verdun and Nancy; 
Rheims was recovered by the French. On 
September 15 the Germans rallied and in- 
trenched themselves on the north bank of the 


Aisne. Then followed a series of battles, first 
one side winning and then the other, while the 
trenches extended for miles and miles. On 

3494 THE WORLiyS CaiEAT EVENTS a.d. 1914 

August 18, the day after the Belgian Govern- 
ment had removed to Antwerp, the Germans 
pressed on from Liege and Tirlemont, com- 
pelling the small Belgian force to retreat. On 
their way they shelled and sacked Louvain 
and destroyed its priceless library. 

Later reports concerning the bombardment 
of Louvain-show that a number of the more 
venerable buildings and works of art had 
been spared. The Germans say their action at 
Louvain was because of attacks on the troops 
by noncombatants. The Emperor stated that 
"Louvain had to be destroyed for the protec- 
tion of my troops," and he added: "My heart 
bleeds when I see such measures inevitable." 

On August 25 a Zeppelin airship dropped 
bombs on Antwerp and the army began to 
close in. On September 4 the dykes were 
opened and many Germans were drowned and 
guns lost. But on September 1 1 the Germans 
were reenforced. 

On August 28 the Germans bombarded 

Malines, an unfortified city, damaging the 

cathedral. The Belgians evacuated on Sep- 

Antwerp tcmbcr 26. A month later the bombardment 


of the outer defenses of Antwerp began. For 
five days the heroic Belgians, under personal 
command of King Albert, held the outer line; 
but on October 3 they were forced behind the 
outer ring of defenses. On October 6 the seat 
of government was again changed — this time 


to Ostend. On October 8 the Germans brought 
up their heavy siege guns and forced the pas- 
sage of the Scheldt. The Allies withdrew and 
the civil population fled to Ostend, to Hol- 
land, and to England. On October ii Gen- 
eral Beseler led his Germans into deserted 
Antwerp and imposed a fine of $100,000,000 
upon the stricken city. 

Thrown back from Paris, the Germans took Jr°;?^*~ 
a stand along the Aisne River, bending north- 
ward through Soissons, Compifegne and 
Noyon. On September 15 the Allies forced 
the passage of the Aisne at Soissons. Mean- 
while, the wing commanded by the Crown 
Prince had transferred the German head- 
quarters from Ste. Menehould to Montfaucon 
in the Argonne forest. On their retreat the 
Germans turned and tried to break the French 
line between Craonne and Rheims, bombard- 
ing the magnificent cathedral, the finest 
Gothic church in France, although it was 
being used as a hospital and was flying the 
Red Cross flag. 

On September 29 the Germans lost their 
strong hold on Verdun, and by October i the 
Allies were north of the Somme River. 

Now a new development took place — the^f^^ 
line began to lengthen from the western endunt 
toward the north; the cavalry began to ope- 
rate ; and the trenches were extended till they 
ran from Noyon. 


The Germans evacuated Amiens and all the 
country to the west. The Allies gained the 
Geraian trenches at Soissons and by October 
6 cavalry was fighting as far as Lille. At this 
time Lille became the center for some fierce 
fighting. The Germans bombarded Arra^ and 
destroyed the beautiful fourteenth-century 
tower of the town hall. On October 12 they 
occupied Lille for the second time. 

Antwifp. ^^ ^^^ ^^11 ^f Antwerp (October 12), the 
Belgian army, having withdrawn from the 
citadel, joined the Allies on the coast, and widi 
them pressed on to the southern Belgian 
frontier. On October 15 they occupied Ypres, 
and the line of the Allies was extended to the 
coast. Ostend had, however, fallen and the 
Belgian capital had to move for the third 
time. Now it sought refuge in France at 

The Belgian army took up a position be- 
tween Nieuport (ten miles south of Ostend) 
and Dixmude. The line was continued by the 
British. On the south the French were con- 
tending bitterly for Lille. 

German re. The Gcrmaus uow tried to gain Calais 

treat from ® 

^■''- and many terrible battles were fought. To the 
great surprise of the Germans, off the danger- 
ous "banks of Zeeland,*' between Nieuport 
and Ostend, three vessels built to the order of 
the Brazilian Government for patrolling the 
Amazon, and which had been purchased by 



the British admiralty for the purpose of move- 
ments in shoal water and now heavily armored, 
began to bombard the coast. Joined by other 
British vessels and 'French warships, the bom- 
bardment soon extended to Ostend and was 
effective six miles inland. The German right 
wing was pushed from the coast and Nieuport 
was saved. As the Germans retreated the Bel- 
gians opened the dykes and flooded the coun- 
try. Many Germans were drowned. The 
attack on Calais proved a failure. The next 
object was Dixmude, which was taken by the 
Germans on November lo. At the same time 
the Crown Prince of Bavaria's huge com- 
mand held La Bassee, a position which Gen- 
eral French said 'defied all attempts at cap- 
ture." The attack on La Bassee lasted for ten patue of 

La Bassee. 

days (October 22 to November 2). On Octo- 
ber 27 the Germans entered Ncuve Chapelle, 
where the Indian troops had their first taste of 
battle. They aided greatly in partially regain- 
ing Neuve Chapelle on October 28. More 
battalions of Indians arrived; and for three 
weeks attacks were frequent as the armies 
gradually concentrated against Ypres. 

The assault against Arras took place Octo- J^^! ^ 
her 20-26. The Germans bombarded the an- 
cient city and shells rained in its streets. The 
city was nearly destroyed, but the French line 
held ; and, in the counterattack, the Germans 
were driven out Everything now was directed 

P— Vol. 10 

3438 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1914 

Ypwl*** toward Ypres. At Ypres was "fought the 
longest, bloodiest, and most desperate battle 
in the history of British arms." It began on 
October 20 in clear weather and ended on 
November 17 in a severe snowstorm. Be- 
tween Lille and the sea the Germans had not 
less than a million men. Six of their fourteen 
army corps were of the first line, and even the 
new formations were terrible in their assault — 
more terrible than the veterans, perhaps, for 
they were still unwearied, and the edge of 
their keenness was unduUed. The immature 
boys and elderly men, who so often fell to 
pieces before the counterattacks, came on with 
incredible valor in their early-charges. They 
were like the soldiers of the Revolution — the 
more dangerous at times because they did not 
fight by rule. Against that part of this force 
the British opposed numbers which began 
by being less than 100,000 and were never 
more than 150,000. In the actual salient of 
Ypres they had three divisions and some 
cavalry, during the worst part of the fighting, 
to meet five army corps, three of the first line. 
For the better part of two days one division 
held a front of eight miles against three army 
corps. In this mad melee strange things hap- 
pened. Units became hopelessly mixed, and 
oflScers had to fling into the breach whatever 
men they could collect. A subaltern often 
found himself in command of a battalion; a 


brfgadier commanded one or two companies, 
or a division, as the fates ordered. At one mo- 
ment a certain brigadier had no less than thir- 
teen battalions under him. ^^A price must be 
paid for great glory, and the cost of Ypres was 
high. The German casualties cannot have 
been less than 250,000 in the three weeks' 
battle. The allied forces from Albert to 
Nieuport, lost well over 100,000 men, and 
in the Ypres fight alone the British lost at 
least 40,000. The total loss to combatants was 
not far from the losses of the North during the 
whole of the American Civil War. Whole 
battalions virtually disappeared — the First 
Coldstream, the Second Royal Scots Fusiliers, 
the Second Wiltshires, the First Camerons. 
One divisional general, two brigadiers, and 
nearly a dozen staff officers fell and eighteen 
regiments and battalions lost their colonels. 
Scarcely a house famous in English history 
but ntiourned a son — Wyndham, Dawnay, 
Fitzclarencc, Wellesley, Cadogan, Cavendish, 
Bruce, Gordon-Lennox, Frascr, Kinnaird, 
Hay, Hamilton ; it is like scanning the death 
roll after Agincourt or Flodden. 

**Ypres was a victory, a decisive victory, for 
it achieved its purpose. The allied line stood 
secure from the Oise to the sea ; turning move- 
ment and piercing movement had alike been 
imlcAj and the enemy's short-lived initiative 
was over. He was now compelled to conform 

3440 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS *.»■ 1914 

to the battle we had set, with the edge taken 
from his ardor and everywhere gaps in his 
ranks. Had we failed, he would have won the 
Channel ports and destroyed the allied left, 
and the war would have taken on a new char- 
acter." * 

Out of the 400 officers who had set out from 
England only 44 were left and out of the 12,- 
000 men only 2,336. Such was the death toll 
of Ypres I 
T^SS^ On the eastern side operations were more 
interesting from a militaiy point of view. 
East Russia, Poland, and Galicia were the bat- 
tle grounds, or battle ground, from the begin- 

To appreciate the maneuvers of the armies, 
a glance at the physical conformation of the 
country will be illuminating. One who knows 
it writes as follows: 

"The eastern theater of war is a strip of 
country 400 miles long and 250 miles wide, 
bounded on the northern end by the Baltic 
Sea, on the southern end by the Carpathian 
Mountains, and on the east and west by — noth- 
ing at all. Therein lies the explanation of the 
amazing fluctuations of fortune, the alternate 
advance and retreat of vast armies, which have 
distinguished the campaign in the field from 
that in the west. 

"The map shows Russian Poland like the 



prow of some great steamship pushing west-pSSid? 
ward into the Austro-German territory; or, 
to change the point of view, East Prussia and 
Galicia extend eastward like two gigantic 
arms to grasp Russian Poland." 

This battle ground, which has had a thou- 
sand years of history and whose politics have 
been constantly changed by wars, treaties, and 
matrimonial alliances, is a mixture of re- 
ligions, languages, and sentiments. Through 
it flows the Vistwla, which, after leaving 
CracQW, has still 700 miles to go before it 
empties into the Baltic in a delta of tangled 

At the beginning of the Great War, Russia 
possessed three leaders of high reputation — 
Rennenkampf, a cavalry general^ who fought 
under Kuropatkin in the Japanese War; Sami- 
sonoff, who had also fought in the Far East; 
and Russky, a scientific soldier and teacher in 
the Russian Staff College. 

The Grand Duke Nicholas, who became Russia's 
generalissimo of the Czar^s forces on August 3, {L°"poiei. 
issued this proclamation to the Poles on 
August 15: ''The hour has sounded when the 
sacred dreams of your fathers and grand- 
fathers may be realized. The Russian army 
brings you the solemn news of reconciliation, 
which obliterates the frontiers dividing the 
Polish people, and unites it un^er the scepter 
of the Russian Czar. Under this scepter Po- 


3442 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ^.d. 19x4 

land will be born again, free in her religion 
and her language." 
Stc?*" ^^^ fi^^^ aggressive acts were taken by Ger- 
many in crossing the frontier in Poland, where 
Germany, Austria, and Russia meet, and seiz- 
ing the townships there. On August i6 Gen- 
eral Rennenkampf advanced to attack the 
Germans, and on August 19 in a fight at 
Eydtkuhnen defeated the Germans. The Rus- 
sians now advanced toward Konigsberg and 
spread west toward Thorn in the Lower Vis- 
tula; but before the end of September they 
were defeated by General von Hindenburg, 
who crossed the Russian frontier and moved to 
the Niemen. 


Hidden. At the outbreak of this war General von 
hobby. Hindenburg, a veteran of the war of 1870, was 
living in Hanover. He had spent much of his 
life in East Prussia, and from the day of his 
retirement he made the defense of East Prussia 
his hobby, haunting the marshes and wilder- 
nesses, and learning every inch of bog, forest, 
and lakes. Several years ago a business syndi- 
cate planned to drain the region and to clear 
the country of forests. Von 'Hindenburg went 
to the Kaiser and protested. "This eastern 
wilderness," he said, "was worth to Germany 
many army corps and dozens of fortresses. 
Why ruin a natural defense and lay the Em- 
pire open to invasion in its oldest provinces?". 
Appointed to succeed General von Frangois 


in the East Prussian division, General von 
Hindenburg had his great opportunity; and 
for his victory at Tannenberg the Kaiser made 
him Field Marshal and Generalissimo of the 
Teutonic armies in the east. 

The last day of the battle, August 31, was^jj^j^^* 
an unrelieved disaster for the Russian army. *""'■* 
Samsonoff was slain that day by a bursting 
shell, and two of his corps commanders and 
several divisional generals and brigadiers were 
killed or wounded. The Army of the Narew 
had been five corps strong at the beginning of 
the fight. Little more than one complete corps 
and a portion of another succeeded in gaining 
Ortelsburg and retreating eastward by the line 
of the frontier railway. It was a very complete 

The Germans had between 80,000 and 90,- 
000 prisoners in their hands, about the same 
number that had capitulated forty-four years 
before at Sedan. Hundreds of guns and am- 
munition wagons were taken, many of them 
left abandoned in swampy places, whence it 
was difficult for the victors to extricate their 
trophies. Huge quantities of supplies were 
also captured in the derelict trains on the 
Ortelsburg-Allenstein railway. 

"Tannenberg was the only battle in the first 
months of the war that in itself can be con- 
sidered a complete and decisive victory. The 
veteran Von Hindenburg became the idol of 


the Geiman people, and his triumph was well 
deserved. Strategically he had outmaneu- 
yered his opponent; tactically he had shown, 
not for the iSrst time in history, that with skill- 
ful handling a smaller force may envelop a 

Tannenberg bears a curious resemblance to 
Mukden, and in his last stricken moments 
Samsonoff may have remembered drat the Ger- 
man feint against one wing to hide a crushing 
attack on the other was the. device which 
Oyama had used on Kuropatkin by means of 
Nogi's army. Von Hindenburg was to live to 
fight battles on a far greater scale when, as 
Field Marshal of the Empire, he commanded 
all the German armies of the east. But Tan- 
nenberg must have given him a satisfaction 
which could scarcely be repeated. It was a 
vindication of the hobby of a lifetime." * 

In October General von Hindenburg was 
called south to take part in an advance on War- 
saw; and General Rennenkampfs army en- 
tered East Prussia, seizing the railway between 
Neidenburg and Lyck. 
L2mbe?J. Lemberg, capital of Galicia, was the first 
object of attack. A battle for its possession 
raged for seven days. On September 3 the 
first great battle ended with a decisive victory 
for the Russians. The Austrians lost 130,000 
men and 200 guns. General Russky, occupy- 



ing Lemberg, restored the old Slav name of 
Lwow. Farther south General Brussiloff 
drove the Austrians from Stry and Nikolajow. 
A general advance was now made on the forti- 
fied line of Jaroslav and Przemysl. The right 
wing was curved along the line of the San to its 
junction with the Vistula; and on September 
14 the Russians crossed the San. On Septem- 
ber 17 they defeated the Austrians (250,000 
losses) and captured 400 guns. 

On the Russians pressed, hoping to reach 
Cracow. Jaroslav fell, but Przemysl held out. 
The Grand Duke Nicholas now seized the 
passes of the Carpathians and overran Transyl- 
vania. The Germans, now realizing the seri- 
ous state, withdrew troops from France, and 
gave a bold counterstroke from the line of the 
Upper Vistula combined with a forward move 
from Prussia, hoping to close in on Warsaw. 
The German advance was rendered particu- 
larly difficult on account of the lack of roads 
and the bad weather. It is supposed that Gen- uwtB9i 
cral von Hindenburg had more than 1,800,000"*"' 
men on this march. 

The Russians met these huge masses with 
numbers equally great. A rough estimate 
gives 4,000,000 men on this line. 

The Russian line rested on the Vistula, a 

mndred miles along the Niemen to the sea. 

The left of the main army was covered by 

General Brussiloff and General Russky in 


Galicia. The Czar, himself, now went to Ac 

S2S*?t ^^ October 3 the Germans were beaten at 
Auw.towo. ^^g^g^^^^ (60,000 losses). This checked 

.their yictorious march from East Prussia. 

The Russians adopted a different course m 
Poland. As they retreated the Austrians 
raised the siege of Przemysl and permitted the 
Germans to reach within sixteen miles of War- 
saw, over which the latter flew their airships 
and bomb-dropping Zeppelins. Then on 
^l^?. October 13 the Russians turned and resumed 
*"*^*' the offensive, with tactics resembling those 
General Joffre had shown at Paris. On Octo- 
ber 22 the Germans fled from Warsaw, pursued 
by the Russians, who retook Jaroslav and 
Przemysl. Their main line now faced Ac 
Austro-German central armies along the line 
Cracow-Thorn. In East Prussia the Russians 
advanced and captured Kaiser Wilhelm's 
personal game preserves in the east of the 

Von Hindenburg's assault on Warsaw hav- 
ing failed, Russia attempted a second advance 
to Cracow, for she was faced with the problem 
of surrendering the wedge to the enemy or of 
occupying it and placing herself in danger of 
a flank attack and a battle fought on lines 
parallel with her communication. On No- 
vember 13 the Grand Duke Nicholas realized 
that Von Hindenburg was preparing a 

A.D. 1 9 14 



counterstroke. He had a striking force of^^Sti. 

800,000 and large reserves within call. Hisp?cpwe'« 

' *^ counter- 

objective was Warsaw again with a sudden •^**«- 

blow at the right of the Russian center, which 

was struggling desperately around Lodz and 


On December 12 the Austrians carried the eso^^tSda 
Dukla Pass, the key of the western Car- "^ 
pathiansj but by December 25 the Russians 
had the three great western passes. In the 
north the Russian line was pierced by General 
von Mackensen on November 23, which split 
the Russian Army of the North in two. Lodz, 
the second of Polish cities and the industrial 
capital, surrendered on December 6 without 
a shot. The Russians then took up a position 
from the Bzura to the Nida, and the Germans 
poured in from East Prussia. A second Battle 
of Warsaw began on December 7 and lasted 
three weeks. The Russians fell back, sur- 
rendering the towns of Lowicz, Piotrkov, and 
Tomaszov. The Germans attacked Warsaw 
with vigor, but failed. The great contest 
ended in a winter stalemate. It is well to re-atw£!l!^. 
member that during the first five months the 
German army outnumbered the Russian by 
half a million. 

Serbia, meanwhile, had come into the arena. 
Ringed around by enemies, short of ammuni- 
tion, and lacking supplies of all kinds, the 
small country made up her balance in heroism. 


3448 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a... 1914 

Jutting into the territory of Austria- Hungary, 
and bounded by the Drina and Save, she 
offered a difficult problem of defense. 
S^'shJfiL "The Battle of Shabatz was the culminating 
move for which the Serbians played and 
maneuvered in the early weeks of the war, 'as a 
fencer plays for an opening,' a critic aptly re- 
marks. Abandoning Belgrade, the Serbians 
pretended to fall back on Nish, but moved 
northwestward instead into the triangle 
formed by the Drina and Save Rivers. Dur- 
ing the first week of August five Austrian 
army corps tried unsuccessfully to cross the 
Danube and Save. However, an advance 
guard crossed the Save near Shabatz on 
August 12; and on the following day the Aus- 
trians began to pour across to march into 
Serbia. Serbian troops were rushed to this 
point and held firm until they succeeded in 
driving a wedge between the Austrians. The 
Austrian retreat became a rout, and the 
Serbians pursued their enemies back into the 
Drina or across it Of the 130,000 Austrians 
that had crossed the Drina on August 12 and 
13 about 20,000 were killed or wounded and 
5,000 were taken prisoners. Shabatz (or 
Jadar) was the first decisive battle of the Great 
War. Its moral effect was enormous. It de- 
layed Austrian mobilization, and compelled 
the German and Austrian general staffs to re- 
consider their carefully prearranged plans. 

vi>. 1914 THE GREAT EUROPEAN WAR 9449 

Two Austrian corps intended for Alsace were 
hastily recalled. Reserves intended to meet 
the Russians in Galicia were ordered south 
instead of east, and Germany had to transfer 
troops from Belgium and France to replace 
the Austrian losses." * 

Vienna announced that the campaign had 
been merely a punitive expedition, and that she 
had more important work to do in the north. 
However, the Austrian casualties were 40,000 
(8,000 dead) and the loss of fifty guns. The 
Serbians now gathered, with the help of 
Montenegro, for an attack on the capital of 
Bosnia — Sarajevo. This, of course, brought 
the Austrians to a new offensive, and on the 
8th of September began the Battle of the^l^orSL 
Drina. The Serbians were intrenched along 
the Drina for a hundred miles. The Austrians 
bombarded Belgrade intermittently. The 
punishment of Serbia (nominally the cause of 
the war) was demanded by the Austrian na- 
tion; and the arrival of several fresh German 
corps and the renewal of efforts in Poland en- 
abled Austria to pour more troops into the 
southeast. The Austrian objective was Nish, 
to which the Serbian Court had moved. With 
a force of 300,000 the Austrians advanced on 
a wide front, moving up the Morava valley. 
The Serbian army, composed of every man 
that could be mustered, in addition to her regu- 


3450 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS *-»- »5i4 

larSy did not exceed 200,000, and ammunition 
was short Moreover, she was shut oflF from 
communication with the rest of the world save 
by the Montenegrin port of Antivari. " The 
commander in chief was the young Crow^n 
Prince Alexander, with Field Marshal Putnik 
as chief of staff. The Austrian advance began 
in the first week of November. The Crown 
Prince was forced to fall back to the hills south 
of Valjevo. By the middle of November the 
whole Serbian army covered the ridges with a 
line of retreat toward Nish. King Peter, 
though ill and feeble, joined the army and 
encouraged his men in the following memor- 
able address (December 3) : 
fS^L» "Heroes, you have taken two oaths — one to 
me, your king, and the other to your country. 
I am an old, broken man, on the edge of the 
grave, and I release you from your oath to me. 
From your other oath no one can release you. 
If you feel you cannot go on, go to your homes, 
and I pledge my word that after the war, if we 
come out of it, nothing shall happen to you. ^ 
But I and my sons stay here." 

The Battle of the Ridges had greatly aided 
the Allies by delaying for some weeks the Aus- 
trian main offensive in East Galicia. 

The Serbians, in conjunction with the 
Montenegrins, began to enter Bosnia, crossed 
the Save River and captured the important 
town of Foca; but the reenforcement of the 


AHStrians compelled the Serbians to abandon 
the offensive. Moreover, the winter was ap- 

The great war circle had widened so that itSe*s^utS 
even embraced the South Pacific. An expedi- 
tionary force from New Zealand landed at 
Apia (August 30) and forced all the German 
islands in the Samoa group to surrender. The 
island of New Pommera (Bismarck Archi- 
pelago) was forced to surrender to an Aus- 
tralian naval brigade; and Australians also 
occupied ( September 1 1 -September 24) Kaiser 
Withelm Land (German New Guinea). 

Great Britain's colonists were soon in the^^j^^ 
field. To a detachment of the West African 
frontier army, under Lieutenant Colonel 
Bryant, from the British Gold Coast, an in- 
vasion was made of the German Gold Coast 
(Togoland), which surrendered August 26. 
Duala, capital of the Kameruns, and Bonabiri 
surrendered to the Anglo-French forces. 
Fierce fighting on a small scale also occurred 
on the lakes of central Africa. 

Even to Chinese waters the flames spread. 
In August the Japanese demanded from Ger- 
many the cession of the port of Kiao-chau and 
oir refusal captured the place, cooperating 
with the British troops. The fortress oi^^^^^ 
Tsing-tau surrendered on November 5, after 5faing.ta«. 
a siege of two months. Two thousand three, 
hundred prisoners were taken. 

3452 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1914 

The Japanese lost a few small ships while 
mine sweeping in the harbor of Kiao-chau, and 
the cruiser Takachido was sunk by the Ger- 
man destroyer S-QO. The latter was later in- 

in cwncie ^emed in Chinese waters. 

On October 6 a Japanese squadron occupied 
Jaluit, capital of the Marshall Islands (Ger- 
man) in the South Pacific, and Japanese ships 
participated in Eastern waters to protect the 
commerce of the Allies and in pursuit of Ger- 
man raiding cruisers. 

SlllSL The position of Japan was announced on 
August 19 by the Japanese premier, who de- 
clared that "Japan harbors no design for terri- 
torial aggrandizement, and entertains no desire 
to promote any other selfish end." Japan also 
subscribed to the formal Treaty of Alliance 
(September 5) signed by Great Britain, 
Russia, and France, that no one nation would 
treat for peace separately. 

The German navy was from the first bottled 
up in the North Sea, inside harbors defended 
by mines and powerful fortresses. The work 
of wearing down the hostile fleet was intrusted 
to mine€ and submarines. 

On the day after the declaration of war the 
British cruiser Amphion caught the Ham- 
burg-American liner Kbnigin Luise (2,163 
tons) dropping mines sixty miles east of Har- 

«rit shots wich, and sank her in ten minutes after firing 

No^ Sea. the first shot. On the following day the Am- 


phion struck a mine and was lost, with 131 
officers and men. On August 9 the cruiser 
Birmingham sank the German submarine 
U'lS' The number of trawlers (British and 
neutral) sunk by mines proves how this form 
of warfare had been prepared by the Germans. 

The first naval action of consequence was Stfon"*''*' 
(August 28) when the British, under Admiral quen?lf' 
Sir David Beatty, attacked the German de- 
stroyers and cruisers guarding the coast in the 
Helgoland Bight. The British sank two Ger- 
man destroyers and three cruisers, and dam- 
aged others. The British cruiser Arethusa 
distinguished herself. Among her prisoners 
was the son of the German Grand Admiral 
von Tirpitz, the creator of the German navy. 
British and German submarines took part in 
the engagement. >On September 25 the British 
Pathfinder was destroyed by a mine off Scot- 
land and 259 men lost 

The British submarine E-Q sank the Ger-sS;*^™; 
man cruiser Hela (September 13) and a de- 
stroyer in the mouth of the Ems (October 7). 
On September 22 the Germans gained an im- 
portant victory, attacking with submarines the 
Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy (12,000-ton 
cruisers) , and sinking them with heavy losses. 

On October 3 the British announced that a 
mine field had been laid at the mouth of the 
Thames. The cruiser Hawke, a seaplane- 
carrying ship, was destroyed by a submarine 


(October 15), and four German destroyers 
were sunk by the British off the Dutch coast. 
In the submarine engagements at this period, 
the British E-J was lost with her crew of 
twenty-eight On November 3 a German 
squadron crossed the North Sea and tried to 
bombard Yarmouth. Submarines became 
active in the Straits of Dover, and torpedoed 
and sank the French refugee ship Atniral 
Ganteautne {October 26), and the protected 
cruiser JEf^rm^j (October 3 1 ) . 
?ed£ed" On November 3 came the very important 
Sia"^ announcement from England that the entire 
North Sea must now be regarded as a military 
area from the Straits of Dover to Iceland, and 
that vessels entering without permission would 
do so at their own risk. This action, which so 
greatl^lffected neutrals, was a consequence of 
the laying of mines by the Germans under 
neutral flags. ^ 

SVMtiS. I^ ^hc Baltic the German navy, superior to 
the Russian, showed no desire to force a battle, 
although the Germans bombarded Libau, 
Sveaborg, and Windau. On August 27 the 
Russians wrecked and destroyed the German 
cruiser Magdeburg in the Gulf of Finland, 
and on October 1 1 the Russian cruiser Pallada 
was sunk by a German submarine with all 
hands (573 officers and men). The Russian 
admiralty claimed that two German sub- 
marines were sunk; but Germany denied this. 


Early in October the Germans mined all en- 
trances to the Baltic, and closed the Kiel Canal 
to all except war traffic. Russia mined the en- 
trance to the Gulf of Finland. 

In the Adriatic the Austrians began war bySi*^"*" 
bombarding the Montenegrin port of Antivari 
(August lo) ; but the Anglo-French forces 
drove them back and sank the Austrian cruiser 
Zenta. On September 22 the Allies bom- 
barded Cattaro. The Austrians lost a torpedo 
boat, sunk by one of the many mines they had 

Two important naval battles took place in 
the southern Pacific and the southern Atlantic. 
The first occurred off the coast of Chile be- 
tween Rear Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock^ 
and the German Pacific squadron under Ad- 
miral von Spee. The German fleet, com sted 
of two armored cruisers, the Gneisenau and 
the pcharnhorst, and three light cruisers, the 
Dresden, Leipzig, and Nurnberg. The Ger- 
man fleet was much stronger than the British, 
the ships of which were out of date. The en- 
gagement took place in the afternoon. The 
battle ofif Coronel was fought with all odds^«^>^^'^ 
against the British; and the Germans won the 
day. The flagship Good Hope sank with the 
admiral and 1,650 officers and men. 

The British admiralty now dispatched an- 
other squadron to the South Atlantic to trap 
Admiral von Spee. Rear Admiral Sir Fred- 


crick Dovcton Sturdee's expedition was kept a 
secret. It went to the Falkland Islands and lay 
in Port Stanley. On December 8 Admiral voa 
Spee arrived and, discovering the strength of 
the British squadron, put out to sea. The Brit- 
ish pursued and compelled a fight. Admiral 
von Spee and two of his sons went down with 
the Gneisenau and Scharnhorst The Nurni- 
berg and Leipzig also sank. The one boat left^ 
the Dresden, escaped, but was caught off Juaa 
Fernandez on March 14, 1915, and sunk by 
the Kent and Glasgow. 
2?*4^ The battle off the Falkland Islands annihi- 

Sund^^ lated the one squadron left to Germany outside 
the North Sea, it left only two cruisers, the 
Dresden and the Karlsruhe, and the armored 
merchantmen Kronprinz Wilhelm and Prints 
Eitel Friedrich on the high seas. 
mma?tiie ^^^ tfitxvt German mercantile marine was 
fw^xitom gradually driven into neutral ports and swept 
***** from the seas. During the first two months 
two German cruisers, the Emden and the 
Karlsruhe, kept up a constant attack on British 
commerce. The Emden had a dramatic 
career. Belonging to the Far Eastern squadr 
ron, of 3,592 tons and carrying ten 4.-inch guns, 
she appeared in the Bay of Bengal on Septem- 
ber 10 and captured seven British merchan^ 
men. On September 22 off Madras she fired 
a few shells into the harbor and captured and 
sank four more ships. On October 20 she cap- 


tured seven more, and on October 28 she ap- 
peared off Penang, disguised and flying a flag 
of the Allies, to sink the Russian cruiser Jem- 
tchug and the French destroyer Mow j^^m^. The 
Emden was captured by the Australian cruiser 
Sydney (November 9) at Cocos Island, where 
she was found about to cut the cable. She 
was driven ashore and burned (200 killed). 
iThe Sydney's losses were 3 killed and 15 

The Karlsruhe (4,280 tons), with twelve 
4-inch guns, captured thirteen British mer- 
chantmen (sinking ten) in the Atlantic. She 
is supposed to have been wrecked in the West 
Indies in the autumn of 19 14. 

The Kbnigsberg destroyed the British 
cruiser Pegasus at Zanzibar (33 killed) ; and 
the Chatham sank colliers across the river to 
prevent her exit. 

The Kaiser Wilheltn der Grosse, an armed 
merchantman, was sunk by the Highflyer ofif 
the west coast of Africa (August 27) , and the 
Cap Trafalgar by the Carmania in the South 
Atlantic (September 14). The Spreewald 
was captured. 

After a preliminary raid (November 2) S?IS*Sn 
German battle cruisers attacked Hartlepool SS^'JI?* 
and Scarborough. Bombarding the latter they 
left 18 dead (chiefly women and children) 
and about 70 wounded. At Hartlepool 119 
were killed, 300 wounded, and 600 houses 


damaged and destroyed. The German aim 
was to create a panic in England which wcmld 
compel Sir John Jellicoe to more his base 
nearer home. 

'^tGoedm The Turkish question opened on the seas. 

Bresiau. q^ August 4 the Gcmian battle cruisers Goe- 
ben and Breslau were bombarding the coast of 
Algeria. Pursued by the British and French, 
they took refuge in the Straits of Messina, 
whence, after coaling, they escaped and ar- 
rived in the Dardanelles. The Germans sold 
them to Turkey; but, although they flew the 
Turkish flag, they retained their German offi- 
cers and crews, and put out to the Black Sea. 
Protests were ma<le to the Porte. In the mean- 
while German officers arrived in Constanti- 
nople in large numbers and seemed to usurp 
the Government. On September 9 Turkey 
demanded the capitulations under which 
European residents enjoyed certain rights, a 
military outbreak occurred on the Egyptian 
frontier, and the BresUu appeared (October 

?f*furkS8 29) off the Russian town of Theodosia in the 

ho.tiiitie.. Crimea and shelled it in conjunction with the 
Turkish battleship Hamedieh. They also 
shelled Novorossisk (an unfortified town in 
the Sea of Azov), although no declaration of 
war had preceded these acts. The British, 
French, and Russian embassies in Constanti- 
nople had been cut off from telegraphic com^ 
munication with their home governments* 



The ambassadors, in consequence, prepared to 
leave. A Turkish squadron bombarded 
Odessa (October 30), and the Goeben shelled 
Sebastopol (November 2) in a fog. The Brit- 
ish Minerva now attacked Akaba at the head 
of the Red Sea, and the French and British 
fleets bombarded the Dardanelles. 

On November 5 Great Britain declared war g«^ ^^ 
on Turkey and formally annexed Cyprus. OnSlfxSrkS 
November 8 a military force from India, withSnexet 
a naval brigade from the Odin, occupied Fao 
in the Persian Gulf, The Russians invaded 
Asia Minor from the Caucasus, and, advanc- 
ing toward Erzerum, took several towns. 

On 17th December the Khedive Abbas II,^eV4 
having joined Turkey, ceased to rule in Egypt, exSi"? 
which, Great Britain, with the aid of France, 
proclaimed a British protectorate (Decem- 
ber 18). The title of Khedive became extinct, 
and the throne of Egypt with the title of Sul- 
tan was given to Prince Hussein Kamel Pasha, 
second son of Ismail Pasha. Turkey decided 
to attack the Suez Canal, and sent an expedi- 
tionary force of 65,000 under Djemal Pasha, 
with the German General von Kressenstein as 
chief of staff, across the desert. A splendid 
force of British, including detachments from 
India, New Zealand, and Australia com- 
manded by Major General Sir John Maxwell, 
were secretly waiting. 

In December the Allies in Flanders and the 

a460 THE W(»LiyS GREAT EVENTS ajm^s 

jtoFiindert nofth of Ffaiicc were f aciag die severities of 
France, wiiitcr ill thc trciichcs. Fighting was heavy 
in the neighborhood of La Bassee, with a small 
advance of the French. Von Kluck held firm ; 
the Crown Prince was active in the Argonnc; 
and the French did splendid service in the 
snowy Vosges. 

In the beginning of 191 5 the Allies held 500 
miles in the west (one-tenth by the British, the 
rest by Belgians and French), The line ran 
from Nieuport and through the Vosges. Dix- 
mude was in German hands. On January 14 
the French were driven across the Aisne, east 
of Soissons, after a wedc's battle, for 12,000 
men with no fresh supplies could hold out 
Baflfe«i against 40,000; but the Battle of Soissons cost 
the enemy 10,000, and the improvement in 
their position was slight. 

The next theater of operations was in north- 
ern Champagne, where the fighting was ex- 
ceedingly complex. General Joffre's advance 
began on February 16, His method was a 
violent artillery bombardment of the German 
positions, followed by an infantry charge. The 
Allies advanced about five yards a day for a 
month until the trench and woodland war be- 
came a stalemate. 

Between the Meuse and the Moselle — the 

way to Metz in German Lorraine — General 

French Dubail, Commanding the Army of tiie Vosges, 

SJws! prepared for an offensive. The French took 


3 s 



Les Epirges 2nd advanced through the high 
hills into Alsace, where the opposing trenches 
soon became as close as in Flanders. "The 
ten weeks of this war of attrition in the west ■ 
served its purpose," writes a historian* *Trom 
the North Sea to Verdun it kept the enemy on 
the stretch, bit deeply into his strength of men 
and material, and prevented him from send- 
ing troops to complicate Russia's difficult task 
in East Prussia." 

Meanwhile Germany had methodically laid gg*»^^^ 
Poland waste (November). An area seven 
times as large as Belgium was ravaged, and 
its inhabitants submitted to severe hardships 
and suffering. Germany now began to ham- 
mer again at Warsaw — her third attack. The 
Russians placed themselves on the Niemen 
and Narew. Graad Duke Nicholas's tactics 
were principally to harass and distract Von 
Hindenburg, for he possessed neither men 
nor guns for a big offensive. Von Hinden- v«i^h«i.^ 
burg attempted his drive to Warsaw, aided by wiww. 
Von Mackensen, with 140,000 men, along the 
Rawka and Bzura. 

Battles, sorties, attacks, and counterattacks, 
with huge losses on both sides, form a compli- 
cated series of events in a vast area of marshy 
forests enwrapped in the snows and 'mists of 
winter. By the beginning of March the Rus- 
sian counterattack had developed and the in- 
vaders were being driven back from Kovno to 

Q—Vol. 10 


GJ^?M**tothe Narew. General von Hindenburg gave 
p?wsia. orders for a general retreat to the East Prussian 
frontier. On February 22 the Germans cap- 
tured Przasnysz; but a Russian force on the 
ridge poured in, and with heavy and primitive 
fighting regained the town. The Germans re- 
treated, leaving 10,000 prisoners. 

The Carpathian passes were severely con- 
tested. The Russian movement directed to 
Rumania was political rather than strategical ; 
for Rumania's position in the war was not de- 
clared. At this juncture Count Berchtold, the 
Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs, re- 
signed, and was succeeded by Baron Stephen 
Burian, a Hungarian, whose own country was 
now threatened. 
fu"wdlr8 ^^ March 22, after an investment of seven 
Russians months, Przemysl surrendered to the Rus- 
sians, who took 120,000 prisoners, of whom 
2,600 were officers. On March 21 the Russians 
entered Hungary through the Dukla Pass. 
Neuvc^^ In Flanders the great assault of Neuve Cha- 
pelle was undertaken on March 8, a success 
dearly purchased. The Canadians and the 
British airmen were noted for their achieve- 
ments. On a front of three miles the Allies 
had advanced more than a mile. The German 
losses were about 20,000. Next in the western 
theater came the Second Battle of Ypres, which 
began at Hill 60 and lasted from April 22 to 
May 13. Here the Germans attacked with 


poisoned gas and asphyxiating bombs. Heavy 
were the casualties ; and the balance of success 
was with the Germans, whose machine guns 
and poisoned gas won the day. But the Second 
Battle of Ypres taught the British the inferi- 
ority of their fighting machine, and led to the 
reconstruction of the British Government. The 
war in Alsace, where the inhabitants suffered 
all the hardships that Belgium now knew, con- 
tinued. The Allies' offensive was directed 
toward Lens and Lille. Terrific fighting took 
place in the ridges and trenches. The price of 
such victories as Festubert (May 17) wasrJSfbSrt. 

Turning again to the eastern frontier, Ger- 
many had been busy since the fall of Przemysl 
(March 22) . Men in tremendous niasses were 
concentrated in this region. Von Mackensen's^^"SJi.. 
army is said to have been the largest everenomoSa 
mustered under one general. His center of 
attack was Ciezkowice, between Grybow and 
Tarnow. It was taken (May 2) with the same 
methods as Neuve Chapelle. More than 700,- 
000 shells are said to have been used. The* 
Russians were forced to retreat before Von 
Mackensen. The Battle of the San (May 15) 
was one of the great conflicts of the eastern 
campaign. Przemysl fell (May 31); Lem- 
berg was captured (June 22). The Ger- 
mans also had Libau (May 9). General 
von Mackensen, now ready for an attack 

3464 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1915 

on Warsaw, held 2,5oo,cxx) men under his 


The one naval engagement of consequence 

g^ J at the beginning of the year was the battle in 

North Set. ^^^ North Sea (January 24), during which 

Admiral Beatty's ships sank the Blucher. 

Of great importance was the seizure of the 
American steamer Wilhelmina with a cargo 
of foodstuffs for Germany. The boat was 
stopped at Falmouth and the case referred to 
the Prize Court; for Germany had declared 
on January 26 her intention of seizing all stocks 
of corn and flour, and prohibiting all private 
transactions. Grain thus became a contraband 
of war. The seizure of the Wilhelmina re- 
sulted in Germany's declaring that from 
February 18 the waters around the British 
Isles would be considered a war region and 
any enemy merchant vessels found there 
"would be destroyed without its always being 
possible to warn the crew or passengers of the 
dangers threatening." 
blockade The British Government then closed to all 
'ships of all nations the greater part of the 
North Channel leading from the Atlantic to 
the Irish Sea. On March i Asquith an- 
nounced in the House of Commons "that the 
Allies would take into port and detain all ships 
carrying goods of presumed enemy origin, 
ownership, or destination, and that no neutral 
vessel which sailed from a German port after 




March i would be allowed to proceed, and no 
vessel after that date would be allowed to sail 
to any German port." This was, of course, a 

Then the activity of the German submarines 
began. On March 28 one sank the passenger 
steamer Falaba with loss of life; on April 30 
the American tank steamer Gulflight was tor- 
pedoed off the Scilly Isles, and on May 7 the 
Lusitania was sunk off Kinsale Head withfjjjj^^^^ 
a loss of nearly 1,200 lives, including many 
Americans. On May 13 President Wilson 
sent a Lusitania protest to Germany. 

Interest now turns to the Dardanelles — that Forcing 

th« Dar- 

protection to Constantinople from any navaH"*"**- 
incursion on the south. The Sea of Marmora 
and the winding straits that join the .flEgean 
and Black Sea, meeting-place of East and 
West, is 200 miles long and heavily fortified 
every inch of the way. The problem of forc- 
ing the Dardanelles was more than difficult. 
It was rash. Still with such a prize as the fall 
of Constantinople the Allies decided to try 
their luck. Success would not only give 
Russia free passage for her troops, but have 
effect upon neutral Italy and the Balkan States 
and Greece. Besides it was thought to be a 
short path to a triumphant peace. 

The great bombardment of the Dardanelles 
began on February 19 with the attempt to force 
a passage into the Sea of Marmora by naval 



power alone, but it soon became obvious 
that it was necessary to have a land force 
to cooperate, although the French and 
British had a strong fleet, including the 
new superdreadnought Queen Elizabeth, with 
the most powerful guns ever used in naval 
warfare. The great attack failed with the loss 
of three battleships and more than 2,000 men; 
and after three weeks of incessant battle w^ith 
ships, forts, submarines, and mines, the attack 
was temporarily abandoned while the Allies 
waited for the Dardanelles expeditionary force 
to arrive from France and England. It assem- 
bled in Egypt in April, to be commanded by 
Sir Ian Hamilton, and consisted of 120,000 
men, mostly British. They chose the south 
end of the Gallipoli peninsula for their land- 
ing, and scaled the bluffs as Wolfe's men scaled 
the Heights of Abraham in 1759. The first 
stage in the Gallipoli campaign, called the 
of*the Battle of the Landing, was a feat unparalleled 
in history. Sixty thousand men, backed by the 
most powerful navy in the world, attacked a 
shore which nature seemed to have made im- 
pregnable, and which was held by at least 
twice that number of the enemy in positions 
prepared for months, and supported by the 
latest modern artillery. The mere problem of 
transport was sufficient to deter the boldest. 
Every rule of war was set at naught. In Sir 
Ian Hamilton's words, "it involved difficulties 



^.D. 1915 THE GREAT EUROPEA>f WAR 3467 

for which no precedent was forthcoming in 
military history." * 

The struggle for Krithia and the Achi Baba 
heights (April 28) was attended with terrible 
losses. The Second Battle of Krithia (May 
6-9), and the Third (June 4) — a five weeks* 
struggle — was one of the most costly and by 
far the most reckless campaign of this whole 
war of nations. Up to May 31 the British 
losses in the Dardanelles (exclusive of theJh^oIr!." 
French) were 38,636 (1,722 were officers), 
larger than the whole losses for the three years 
of the South African War, which were 38,156 
— figures that cover the landing and the two 
attacks on Achi Baba. The Turkish lost 60,- 
000 — a small number in comparison. The 
allied fleet was attacked by submarines and 
gradually withdrew. The great drive for 
Constantinople had failed! 

Italy, which had denounced the Triple gJy;Mj|*» 
Alliance (May 4) , now entered the war (May 
23). An Austrian raid in the Adriatic began 
hostilities. The attack extended from Brindisi 
to Venice. The Austrians also on the same 
day blew up two bridges in the Adige valley. 
General Cadorna's army advanced against the 
Isonzo on the way to Trieste. A second army 
on the Trentino frontier had Trent for its ob- 
ject. Italian mobilization was slow. The com- 
mander in chief was King Victor Emmanuel, 

' * Buchan. 



and the chief of staff and generalissinM in tbc 
field was General Count Luigi Cadoraa, who 
had a knowledge of Italy's northern frontier. 
The admiral in chief of the Italian navy was 
the Duke of the Aforuzzi, first cousin of the 

The Italian army began to work through 
the passes of the Dolomites and Carnic Alps, 
and soon acquired the highest peaks and 
took Cortina on the great Strada d'Alemagna, 
one of the finest roads in Europe. The 
Italian Trentino fighting began on the same day. The 
Italians pushed forward until they reached 
within five miles of Borgo (May 27), and 
closed in upon the outworks of Trent The 
floods of the Isonzo made progress difificult in 
places where the enemy had destroyed the 
bridges; but the Italians, reenforced, prepared 
to attack Monte Nero near Gorizia; and 
Italian aviators persistently bombarded Mon- 
falcone and the railway between Gorizia and 
Trieste to cut oflF supplies, while destroyers 
shelled the Monfalcone shipyards. The 
Italians took the coast town of Grado, and on 
June 8 occupied the town of Monfalcone. 

Meanwhile the Prinz Eitel Friedrich had 
been interned at Newport News (April 7), 
the Germans had dropped bombs on Paris 
(March 31) and London (May 31), the 
famous German submarine U'2g had been 
sunk (March 26), and the Bryce Commis- 


sion had reported on the Belgian atrocities 
.(May 12). 

With the whole world in flames, it is possi- 
ble to give here dnly the most significant events. 
The most dramatic occurrence was the occu- Germans 


pation of Warsaw by the Germans (August 5) . w«:»aw 
Contrary to expectations, the Kaiser made no 
spectacular entry into the Polish capital; and 
when Prince Leopold of Bavaria and his 
cavalry entered, they found a deserted city, 
and saw the flames rising from the fields and 
villages to which the retreating Russians had 
set fire as they had done on the coming of 

The Germans had also taken Przasnysz 
(July 31), and the Austrians Lemberg (June 
22) and Lublin (July 31). In the middle of 
July the Prussian losses were estimated at 

Much of the summer was occupied by thefcfauSSJ 

^ w i --■ 

strained relations between Germany and theGemfSr 
United States on account of the Lusitanta^^^^ 
question and the discovery that German spies 
were acting under direction of high officials. 
President Wilson sent a second Lusitania note 
to Berlin on June 1 1 and a third on July 8. On 
July 9 the American Government took charge 
of the Sayville wireless plant, and the proved 
implication of the Austrian Minister Dumba 
in plots to blow up munition factories caused 
President Wilson to demand his recall (Sep- 


tcmber 9) . At this time Germany sent Presi- 
dent Wilson a note justifying the sinking of the 
Arabic which had been torpedoed off Fastnet 
on August 19. 

The Germans suffered a naval defeat in the 
Gulf of Riga (August 16-21) and the English 
lost a transport with i,ocx) men, which was 
torpedoed in the -flEgean Sea (August 14). 

On September i Germany accepted Ameri- 
can contentions regarding submarine warfare ; 
but on September 4 the liner Hesperian was 
sunk off Fastnet 

wlcSim. The Germans progressed in the Argonne. 

pagne. Xhcy took a mile of trenches on September 8; 
but during September 14-25 the French and 
English won about fifty square miles in Cham- 
pagne, and captured 25,000 men and many 

The Allies landed a new army at Gallipoli 
(August 7) ; Zeppelins raided London suburbs 
(August 17) and bombarded the heart of Lon- 
don (September 8) ; General von Mackensen 
captured Pinsk (September 15) ; the Germans 
occupied Vilna (September 18) and bom- 
barded the Serbian frontier (September 18). 

aild cJifecc Bulgaria and Greece then mobilized (Septem- 

mobilized, j^^j. ^j ^^^ September 24). Sir Edward Grey 

pledged armed support to Balkan sympa- 
thizers of the Allies (September 28). 

On September 7 the Czar took the Grand 
Duke Nicholas's place as commander in chief; 


the Rufifiians took 17,000 prisoners on Screth 
River in Galicia ; Russia sent an ultimatum to 
Bulgaria (October 4), which Bulgaria re- 
jected (October 6). Russian cruisers bom- 
barded the Bulgarian port of Varna ( Octo- J^"Ji«fJ| 
ber 7), and Bulgaria declared war on Serbia scrbSS 
(October 14). i 

The Allies landed at Salonica (October 4) ; 
the French advanced into Serbia (October 6) ; 
and Austro-Germans invaded Serbia. The 
French captured Hill No. 191 in Champagne 
(September 30) ; the German attacks on Bel- 
gian line failed (October 15) ; Von Bernstorff 
presented note concerning disavowal and rep- 
aration in Arabic case (October 5) ; the 
premier of Greece, Venizelps, resigned (Octo- 
ber 6) ; Belgrade was captured by the Ger- 
mans (October 9) ; Russians pierced Austrian 
line at Strip a River (October 11); British 
submarines sank German ships in the Baltic 
(October 13) ; Zeppelins killed 55 persons in 
London (October 13) ; Greece ann.ounced 
her determination not to join Serbia (October 
15) ; German attacks on Belgian line failed 
(October 15) ; Bulgarians cut Salonica rail- 
way at Vranya (October 16) ; Italy declared Jgi^d^^^, 
war on Bulgaria (October 7) ; Germans won Bulgaria, 
in Krusevac (November 6) ; Russians were 
driven back across the Styr (November 14) ; 
Serbs retired from Babuna Heights and Prilep 
(November 17), and on November 19 four- 


fifths of Serbia wa» occupied by iaradziig 
^ . Austro-Gcrman armies. On November 8 Ber- 
lld^!^ lin announced the close of the Serbian cam.- 

Nish was captured by Bulgarians (Novem- 
ber 5 ) ; Lord Kitchener visited the Near East 
and had a conference with King Constantine 
of Greece (November 21 ) ; the French people 
contributed $4,000,000,000 to the Loan of 
toJl^ed. Victory; the Ancona was torpedoed in die 
Mediterranean (November 9) by Germans; 
the German cruiser Frauenlob was sunk by a 
submarine in the Baltic (November 22) ; 
Greece was partially blockaded by the Allies; 
and the British hospital ship Anglia was sunk 
in the English Channel. 

Next come the Caucasian campaign and the 
Turkish attacks in Egypt. The Turkish navy 
was badly crippled. "The United States de- 
manded of Germany the recall of Captain 
Boy-Ed and Von Papen, who had been aiding 
German spies in this country (December 2), 
and sent the Ancona note to Austria (Decem- 
ber 6). The Allies were driven from Serbia; 
Greece yielded to the ultimatum of the Allies; 
General de Castelnau was appointed chief of 
staff under General Joffre; forty-five French 
aeroplanes dropped bombs on railroad sta- 
sirDougias ^^^^^ behind German lines (December 14) ; 
Swecds Sir Douglas Haig succeeded General French 
^<^ in command of the British forces, and General 


French became commander in chief of the 
troops in the United Kingdom, The Allies 
fortified Salonica; Russians took Rum in 
Persia; Austrians took the offensive on the 
Isonzo River; Arabs attacked the western 
frontier of Egypt (December 27) ; the British 
liner Persia was sunk in the. Mediterranean . 
(December 29) ; and the British steamship 
Glengylrw2iS torpedoed in the Mediterranean 
(January 2). The British conquest of the 
Kameruns was announced. 

Nancy was bombarded by Germans (Janu- 
ary 7) ; Germany agreed to settle the Frye 
and Lusitania cases; Russians bombarded 
Varna on the Black Sea (January 8) ; the 
British abandoned Gallipoli, and the King 
Edward VII was sunk (January 9) ; the 
United States began to consider defense plans 
in Congress; Austrians captured Mount 
Lovcen, Montenegro (January 10) ; Germans 
gained in Champagne with great losses; the 
French occupied Corfu and turned the fj|5<^^Q°;j; 
Kaiser's villa Achilleion into a hospital id^f? 
(January 10) ; the Greek Government pro-"" 
tested to the allied powers against the viola- 
tion of her neutrality; French submarines 
sank an Austrian cruiser near Cattaro (Janu- 
ary 13) ; Austrians entered Montenegro's 
capital, Cettinje (January 14) ; Germany 
threatened reprisals for act of British warship* 
Buralong; King Nicholas of Montenegro sur- 

3474 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.1.. 1916 

NieSoiasof Tendered to Austrians (January 17) ; the Ger- 
ne^^'rar. man Kaiser and Kine Ferdinand of Bulgaria 

rcodcrs to ^ c* 

Awtruns. met at Nish (January 18) ; Austrians took the 
Montenegrin ports of Antivari and Dulcigno 
(January 22) ; King Nicholas of Montenegro 
fled to Italy (January 23) ; England was raided 
by German aeroplanes (January 23) ; Austrians 
occupied Scutari, Albania; Germans shelled 
Germans Nieuport Cathedral (January 25); Russians 
MtSSS. attacked Erzerum, Turkey (January 27) ; 
Allies occupied Greek port in Salonica Har- 
bor; Germans attacked French south of the 
Somme; Zeppelins killed twenty-three per- 
sons in Paris (January 30) ; Germans gained 
two miles of trenches on the Somme. 
kSSheiicr'a ^^ Fcbruary 15 Lord Kitchener reviewed 
^diuo^. the operations on the various fronts as follows : 
"In France/' he said, "although the Indians 
have been withdrawn, our forces have been 
materially increased by not less than eight di- 
visions of the new army. In Egypt adequate 
preparations have been made against a threat- 
ened invasion. In Mesopotamia Major Gen- 
eral Sir Fenton Aylmer is awaiting further 
reenforcements before renewing his forward 
movement for a junction with General Towns- 
hend. The allied offensives at Loos, in the 
Champagne, and about Arras, inflicted very 
heavy losses on the Germans, and resulted in 
the capture of important positions by the allied 
troops. Owing to the continuous offensive 


action on the western front, considcraWe Ger- 
man forces were withdrawn from the Russian 
frontier, enabling Russia to obtain ' certain 
successes and to hold the enemy well in check. 
In France and Flanders, since the capture of 
Loos and the forward movement in Cham- 
pagne, the allied lines have remained prac- 
tically unchanged. Through the winter the 
morale of the French army has been main- 
tained at the same high level, and their fight- 
ing qualities have never been greater or more 
highly developed than at present. Our troops 
throughout the winter have been constantly 
carrying on active operations, which have 
given no rest or respite to the enemy. 

"The activities of the Italian army were con- 
spicuous in October and November, during 
their advance on the Isonzo. Their efforts 
since then have not been relaxed, although the 
positions occupied by the enemy are so strong 
as to bar for the present the development of a 
forward .movement which the splendid cour- 
age of the Italian troops is sure eventually to 
push home. 

"Notwithstanding the heavy blows and the 
consequent losses sustained by Russia in the 
summer of 191 5, her army has been thoroughly 
reorganized and reequipped and her arma- 
ments increased. 

"The Turkish army, reenforced by Ger- 
man supplies, was able to organize a move- 


ment of troops either against Egypt or to 
strengthen their forces in Mesopqtamia, and 
at the same time to bring more powerful artil- 
lery to bear against our positions on the Gal- 
lipoli peninsula. It was therefore decided to 
withdraw from the peninsula and to reenforce 
our troops in Salonica and in Egypt. 

"During last winter an abortive attempt on 
the Suez Canal was easily pushed aside by the 
small British force operating in that neighbor- 
borhood; but as a more serious attempt has 
been threatened, adequate preparations have 
been made to defend the canal. 

"The Turco-German influence with the re- 
ligious chief of the Senussi tribesmen on the 
western flank of Egypt succeeded in inducing 
the tribes of Cyrenaica and Tripoli to assume 
a hostile attitude toward us. Their first at- 
tempts resulted in complete failure and dis- 
aster, and though this movement still causes a 
certain amount of unrest, it made a most 
admirable effective barrier to any penetration 
by these raiders into the cultivated areas. 

"In East Africa several small engagements 
have enabled us to extend our positions. In 
the Kameruns joint operations undertaken by 
French and British troops have brought the 
country entirely under the control of the 
Allies. The campaign there may be regarded 
as concluded. 

"In the future, as in the past, we have our 


dangers and difficuliics, throughout which the 
spirit of our troops at the front and the calm 
determination of the people at home to sup- 
port them will enable us to look forward to a 
victorious issue which should insure peace for 
many generations." , 

On February i8 the allied powers signatory SS^^^ViS 
to the treaty guaranteeing the independence 
and neutrality of Belgium decided to renew 
the agreement not to end hostilities until the 
political and economic independence of Bel- 
gium is reestablished and the nation is indem- 
nified for the damages suffered. Japan and 
Italy concurred in this new declaration. 

The ' Turkish stronghold Erzerum fell f^f*^ 
(February i6) to the Russians, with eighteen^"*™"*' 
forts, after five days of terrific fighting. 
Erzerum, the chief city in Turkish Armenia, 
has been the objective of the recent campaign 
in the Caucasus. 

The peculiar features of this Great War are pecuuar 
the use of aeroplanes and airships, not only for th?i wS?. 
scouting but for actual fighting; the develop- 
ment of the anti-aeroplane guns; the use of 
submarines and mines; the invention of great 
nets to catch them, and the fitting of vessels for 
mine sweeping; the raids of Zeppelins; the use 
of poisonous gas and liquid fire; the tremen- 
dous guns used on both land and sea, and the 
stem measures that were practiced by the Ger- 
mans, as well as their systematic laying waste 

3478 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS *-'» '9^« 

of whole communities and consequent destruc- 
tion of works of art and historic buildings. 

niXbJrlf* War on such a scale was never known be- 
fore. The great fight known as the Battle of 
the Nations (October 16-19, 181 3), which 
happened at Leipzig, engaged 472,ocx> men, 
the largest number engaged in any one en- 
counter to that date. Sadowa (1866) was 
fought by 436,000. The Battle of Mukden 
staggered the world. It was fought for three 
weeks on a battle front of eighty miles, and 
engaged 700,000 men. But even Mukden be- 
comes small when the present war is consid- 
ered. The battle front is frequently two hun- 
dred miles long; battles have often occupied 
six weeks of heavy fighting; and 2,000,000 
men are frequently engaged. 

The . A calculation based on all available infor- 


^aSitaret. i^^tion shows that the cost of the war to bel- 
ligerents is more than $150,000,000 a day, 
although the actual expenditure is $92,000,000. 
The table is as follows : 

England's daily expenditure $25,000,000 
France's " " 15,000,000 
Italy's " " 5,000,000 
Russia's " " 25,000,000 
Germany's " " 15,000,000 
Hungary's " " 7,000,000 

* An estimate of the comparative military 

».- --v - >~ 


Strength of the nations at war in terms of men, 
if it were possible for each of them to put all 
available fighting men in the field, is as 
follows : 

in men 

Germany's 7,800,000 

Austria-Hungary's 4,500,000 

Turkey's i ,600,000 

Bulgaria's 400,000 

Total for Central Powers 14,300,000 

France's 4,800,000 

Russia's 13,200,000 

England's (including Canada and 

Australia) 5,250,000 

Italy's 3,500,000 

Belgium's 250,000 

Serbia's 250,000 

Montenegro's 50,000 

Japan's 1,000,000 

Total for Allies 28,300,000 

It is not, however, possible for any of the 
great nations to equip, officer, and transport 
such forces. The strength of the Central 
Powers at the beginning of 19 16 may have 
been 6,500,000, and that of the Allies about the 
same, but with reserve forces overwhelmingly 
in favor of the Allies. 


The names of authors are printed in LARGE CAPITALS, and Ihe titles o£ 
chapters in LAaca and Small Capitals. The contribution of each author repre- 
sented in the work is giTcn in upper and lower case type under the author's name. 
Miscellaneous* entries are also in upper and lower case type. 

Abarbanel oSerM ransom for Jews, iii, 

Abbasides, rise of the, ii, 611 


The Battle of Manila Ba/, Tii» 3359 
The Battle of Santiago, yii, 2328 

Abdallah, negotiates for surrenoer, iii, 
surrenders Granada, iii, 1006, 1009 

Abdehudz, conquests of, ii, 60s 

Abd-eloAsiz, yuu »^S9i ix« 2793 

Abd-el-Kader, vi, 1991, 1998 

Abderrahman, ii. 605, 610 

Abdul Hamid, Sultan of Turkey, iz, 

3784. 2793; K, 33S6 

deposed, ix, 2836 
Abel, i, 26 

The Jamaica Earthquake, tx, 2756 
Abercromby, Geaeral, v, 1630 
Abercromby, Sir Ralph, yi, 185a, 1856 
Abillitts, if 117 

Aboukir Bay, vi, 1825 * 

Abraham, i, 29, 37, ^9 
Abruzzi, Duke of, vul, 2397 
Abu Bekr. ii, 575. 579, 580 
Abu TlUib, ii. S74 
Abyssinia and Italy, Tii, 2280, 2287 
Academy of Berlin founded, t, 1490 
Aocad, I, 47. 54 
Achaia, li, 3^7, 404 
Achean captives, ii, 398 

League, i. 357; »», 397, 399» 40i 
Acheans join Rome, ii^ 381 

break with Rome, ii, 400 
Achmct IIL, vi. 181 8 
Acre, capture ot, ii, p^so 

siege of, ii, ^23; iii, 794 

capture of, ii, 727 

capture of, by Mamelukes, iii, 7^ 

the Polos visit, iii, 806 

Bonaparte at, vi, 1837 

British defence of, vi, 1840, 1842, 

siege raised, vi, 1846 
besieged bf Ibrahim, vi, 1998 

Act of Uniformity, iv, 1285 

Actium, battle of, ii, 424, 429 

Adam, fall of, i, 25 

The Opening of Japan, vii, 2091 

Adams, John Quincy, speech of, vii, 

Adams^ Samuel, v, x668, 1678 

Adelheid, Queen, U, 653 

Aden, vi, 2006 

Adham, the, i, 30, 34 

Adowa, battle of, vii, 2285 

Adrian, persecution of Christians under, 

iif 477 
Adrian VI. becomes Pope, iv, XX36 
Adrianople, Peace of, vi, 1976, 1978 
Aeronautics, history ana development 

of, X, 331a 
Aetius, bravery and tactics of. ii, 540 
Afghanistan, v, 1600; vi, 2000 

invasions of, vii, 2258, 2273 
Agathias, i. 60 
Ace and laws of Justinian, The, 

ii, 562 
Agesilaus, i, 301 

Agincourt, battle of, iii, 929, 931 
Agordat, battle of, vii, 2282 
Agrarian laws, i, 261 
Areola, ii, 496 

Agriculture, improvements in, vii, 2077 
Agrippa, ii, 424, 436, 485 
Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, ii, 453 

poisons Claudius, ii, 473 
Agnilar, Don Alfonso, iv. X074 
Ahmed Minza becomes Snah of Persia, 
ix. 2843, 2847 

holds his first durb&r, Ix, 2848 
Ahriman^ i, 61 
Ahura, 1, 62, 64 
Aignadel, battle of, iv, 1078 
Air ships, viii, 24 11 
Aistulf, the Lombard, attacks Rome, ii, 

Aix-Ia-Chapelle, Congress of, vi, 1950 
Akbar, youth of, iv, 1191 

humanity of, iv, 1x92 

wars of, iv, 11 92 

toleration of, iv, 1x93 

religion of, iv, X194 

establishes a new era, iv, 1x95 

conquests of, iv, 1266 
Akron and Romulus, combat of, i, xi8 
Alaric, ii, 531 

attacks Roman Empire, ii, 535 
Alaska, vii, 2219 

gold discovered in, vii, 2327 
Alba, i, 1x2 

Albany, settlement at, iv, 1332 
Alberoni, v, 1540 
Albert I. crowned King of Belgitifil» 

ix, 2872 
Albert of Brandenburf, iv, 1x68 




Albert of Flandertp iz, S7S4 
Albert, the ConsUble d', ul, 9J7 
Albert (son of Rodolpn), tyranoy o£» 

iii, 813 
Albert Eoward Nyaiua, Lake, diaeor- 

ered« vii. ^297 
Albert, speech of Frince, Tii, ao6t» *q6$ 
Albigensea, the, iii, 753» 755 

destroyed, iii, 759 " 

religion of, iii, 754 
Alboin, King of the Lonhardik il* 

Aldbiades. treason off, i, aM 
A]cm«onias, the, t, ai3 
Alcolea, battle of, Tii, 2233 
Alemanni invade Gault Sj>aillt Aod 
Africa, ii, 509 

driven from Gaul, ti, 534 
Aleppo occupied by Mamelukea. ffi» 794 
Alexander of Macedon, a, 330 

conqucbts of, i, 336 

at Arbcla, i, ^4a» 35a 

crosses the Euphratea, 1, 344 

precautions of, 1, 34^, 347 

Seneralshi]) of, i, 348 
eaib of, i. 356 
kinKdom ot, 1, 356 
Alexander of Servia, ▼iii, 2480 
Alexander, son of Cleopatra, Ii, 417 
Alexander the Syrian, li, 427 
Alexander, Pope, flight of, ii, 7^0 
Alexander V., Pope, iii, 914 
Alexander VI., Pope, W, 103 St 1054 
grants for exploration, iv, 1343 
suspends Savonarola from preaching, 
iv, 1058 
Alexander L of Russia, ti, i889» iM3* 

Alexander II. of Russia, Tii, 2110, aiSd 

murdered, vii, 2273 
Alexandria (Egypt), i. 336; H, 407 

French fleet at, vi, 1825 
Alexandrine War, the, ii, 414 
Alexis, iJi 711 
Alexius, Prince, iii, 73J) 

Mourzoufle becomes Emperor, m, 740 
Alfalfa grass, viii, 2647 
Alfonso XII. of Castile, compiles aa^ 

tronomical tables, iii, 778 
Alfonso XII., King of Spain, Tii, 2234t 

Alfonso XIII., coronation of, Tiii, 2440 
marnape, viii, 2713 
attempted assassination of, Tiii, 2534, 

Alfred the Great, accession of, ii, 626 

King of Wessex. ii, 629 
Alfric, Earl of Mcrcia, ii, 659 
Alfric the traitor, ii, 665 
Algeciras Conference, The, viii, 2655) 
Algeria captured by the French, Tii, 

2127 . , - . 

Alperian piracies, beginning of, iv, T104 
AlRiers, conquest of, vi, 198^.^ 1998 
Alhambra, surrender of the, iii, 1007 
Ali, Mohammed's follower, ii, 575 
The Directoire, vi, i797 
The Battle of Vittoria. vi, 1907 
Alfegheniea, settlements beyond the, T, 

Allen, SOmxk, ▼• J<0i 


The Seine in Flood, iac, 2873 
AUia, battle of the, i, 310 
Alliance of Thebes and Athens, i, 131 

of Lubeck and Hambuiv* iii* 841* o4J« 
84s. 869 

of Venice, Rome* and Spsint ir, 1227 
AlmSi battle of the^ Til, 2100 
Almeida diacoTers Ceylon, it, 1076 
Almohadea, fall of the, iii, 742 
Almonte, General, inig 2172 
Alp Arslui, conquests of, n. Tm 
Ali^iege, iL 66< 

Alphonso IL of Naptes, it, 1035* n4* 
Alps, Awssge of the, ti* t%sx 
Alpujarraa, rebellioa in, it, io7>0 io73 
Altia, the, i, 104 
Alva, iv, 1224, 1236 

in the Netherlands, !▼, 1236* 1238 

lesTes iLe Netheslanda, it, 1240 
AlTiano, Bartolomeo, d\ It, 1078 
Al 2>gri, conTcraioa of, it, '069 
Amboiae, Cardmal, it, 1077 
Ambroae, St., ii, S32 
Amfiie. Queen of FortOBal, la, 2781 
Aoierican army, tI, x7ox« i7<>3t ^T^St 

Aaiencan congxeaa, first, ▼« i68a 

congresa, first, Chatham on, % ia79 

congreaa, second, t, 1692 
American fleet, Tojrace of the* iiu •ml 

strength of the. ix, »Q75 
Aosiena, asnrd ot, iii, 785 

treaty of, iT, 1x49 

peace of, tI, 1853 
Amphictyonic Counal, (he, i, 3^w'^ 

The Con<^iieBt of tlie Northwest Fw- 
saae, Tiii, 2^3 
Amnndaen discoTcra South Pole, x* 

3155. 3178 
Anabaptists. reToU of the, it, uoo 
Anacreon, 1, 210 

Anjssthetics ahd Antiskptics, TU, 2207 
Anaesthetics, Tii, 2S07 
Ananda, i, 1^3 

Anderida, fall of fortresi of, S, 554 
Andr^, llajor, hanged, ti, x7i6 
Andredsweald, destruction o^ ii, 554 
Andree, Tii^ 2327 

Andrew, King of Hungaiy, iii, 77' 
Andciactis, ii, 400 , 

Angel to the Shepherds, chapd of w$ 

iii ^3^ 
Anghian, battle of, iii, ^j^i 
Anglo- Japanese treaty, Tiii, 2634 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, qnoteo, ii, Wi 

An^ MainyUi i, 63 
Animals, pre-historic, ix, 2763 
Anjou, uuke of, iT, 1267 
Anna Comnena. ii, 633, 706 
Annam, tH, 2287 
Anne of Austria, t. 1300, X393 
Anne, Queen of England,' accession ofi 

T, 1496 

Anne, Czarina of Russia, t, 157X. f579 

At the South Pole, x, 3x78 
Attempted Aaaaasination of Alfonto 

of Spaifl, Tiii, 27x4. 
The Coronation* ix, 30x1 




Prendential Elecdoo of 19x2, x, 3309 

The Talleat Bmldiiig in the World, 
X, jaSi 
AnBgmr, the Apoetie of the North, ii, 

Antarctic expedition, ri, 30x5 
f Anti-Corn Law Lca^e, ri, 2002 
Antioch, battle of, li, 5x4 

capture of, ii, 71 a 

taxen by Mamelukes, iii, 794 
Antiochus III. of Syria, ii, ^8x 
Antiseptic surgery, vii, 2200 
Antiseptics, vii, 2207, 2210 
Antonuu (Qeopatra^s galley), ii, 4J0 
Antonina, wife of Belisarxus, ii, 565 
Antony, ii, 4x4 

plans war agakiBt the Medes, ii, 415 

prepcu-ations for war by, ii, 4x9 

fleet of, ii, 419, 421 

allies of, ii, 4Jx 

dominions of, ii, 421 

challenges Cesar, li, 433 

ruse of, ii, 433 -- 

flight off u, 437 

death of, ii, 430 
Antwerp, sack of, it, X341 

massacre in, ir, 1344 

strike riots in, ix, 377$ 
Aollius, i, iipr 

Apis, bull, killed by Cambyses, I» J04 
Apollo, i, 73 

worship of, i, 44 

hymn to^ i. 72 
Apostle of the Indians, It, 1091 
Apparition of St Peter and St. Paul, 

ii* 543 
Apparitions at Salamis, t, 356 
Anpius Claudius, i, 365 

Merdonius, i. 363 
Appomattox, Lee's surrender at, Tii, 


Apulia, Hannibal at, i, 358 

seized, ii, 633 
Aquileia besieged by Attila, ii, 536, 538 
Aquitaine conquered by Qotis, li, 50 x 
Arab tactics, ii, 585 
AsAB CoNQUBST OF Spaih, ii, 59 X 
Arabi Pasha, vii, 337^ 
Arabian caliphs, the, li, 583 
Arabian Empire in Spain, fall of the^ 

iii, loos, loio 
Arabs, conquests of the, ii. 590, 594 

besiege Constantinople, ii, 603 
. invade France, ii, 603 
' moderation of the, ii, 603 

subdue Sicily, ii, €ks 
■ Arago. vi, 2043 
Arbaees the Mede, i, 99 
Arbela, battle of, i, 339p 3S< 

combat of cavalr^ at, i, 350 
Arbues. the Tnquisitor, iii, 10x3 

The Stmplon Tunnel, viii, 2586 
Arcot captured, v, 1600 
Areopagus, the, i, 140 
Aretes. I, «i 

Argonne, L*, destruction of, vi, 1774 
Argyle. Duke of, execution of the, V, 

Dolw of, ▼, X551, X55S 
Anstides, i, 243, 357 

Aristogdton, escape of, i, jxa 
Ariston, 1, 350 
Aristotle, i, So 
Arius, banishment of, ii, 535 
Armada, the Spanish, iv, X356, x36o 
Armenia, conquered by the Turks, lit 
conc^uered by Russia, vi, 1085 
Ai'minius, elopement with Thusaelda» 

ii> 443 

battle-ground of, ii, 445 

tactics of. ii, ^j 

attacks Varus, u, 448 
Armistead, General, vii, 3203 
Army, first national standing, iii, 951 

Alexander's, i, 343 

Darius's, i, 341 

of the Loire, vii, 325 x 

of the Maes, vii, 3349 

of the Potomac, vii, 3190 
Arnold, Benedict, v, 1691; vi, X704, 


Expulsion of the Tarauins, i, 330 
Arnold of Brescia, iii, 85 s 
ArqueS| battle of. iv, 1377 
Arrabbiati, the, iv, X058 
Arragola, vii, 3321 
Arrisa, Manoel, elected President of 

Portugal, ix, 3079 
Arruntius, ii, 426 , 

Artaphemes, i, 2x8, 236 
Artaxerxes, i, 296, 298 

restores Persian royaltv. ii, 509 
Artillery, first used, iii, 847 
Aruns of Clusium, i, 3x1 

combat with Brutus, i, 227 
Arzema dethroned, ii, 584 
Ascalon, Crusaders attack, ii, 7x8 

rebuilt, ii, 729 
Asia, ii, 406, 418 

Asia Minor, conquered by Chosroea, 
ii, 569 

conquered by Turks, ii, 703 
Askold, ii, 639 
Aspern, battle of, vi, 1883 
Asquitfa, Premier, ix, 3783 
Assassination of Pbxsidbnt McI^nlbv, 

viii, 3413 
Assassins, the (of Persia), iii, 778 

during the Terror, vi, 1783, 1787 
Assembly of the People, ii, 408 
Asshur-edil-ilani IL, 1, 97 
Asshurlik-hish, i, 98 
Assize of Jerusalem, ii, 7x9 
Assouan Dam, viii, 34x2, 2459 
Assyria, i, 44, 102 
Assyrian, Empire, I, 32, 96 

invasion, I, 150 

general's harangue, i, 153 
Assyrians, i, 49 

attack Syria, i. 79 
Astronomical Tables, iii, 778 
Astronomy, i, 52 
Astyages. i, x6i, 166 
At thb South Polb, x, 3178 
Atahualpa, the last Inca, iv, X094 
AtelUj French capitulate at, iv, X04« 
Athenian, aggression and oppression, U 

army at Marathon, {, 240 

commanders, the, i, 239 



Atbefiian. MmJi- ^tefc ^ V ^H^ JP^ 

Sener&Ia, i. 286 
«et, ip 285 
libert7| i*. ziM 

power, ruin of,. 1, J94. 

■ailori, i| 280 
Athcni^ rise of , t, 83 

ii M urr a cli oa in, i, ijs 

factions at, i, 216 

rerolutions at, i, axS 

power of, i, 359 

makes peace with. Spactii i, a|f 

yields to Sparta^ i, 370 

Mofadecacy a^nst, 1, 2$$ 

calamities at, 1, 283 

strength of, i, 283 

plague at, i, 283 

sends second fleet to Syimetiae 1, J90 

subdued by Macedonians, i, 357 

taken by Mohammed II., iii, 981 
Atlanta race riots, ix, 2753 
Atlantic cable, vii, 2210 
AtlsBtic first crossed by sleamahtpa, 

yii, 2069 
Atmospheric engine, the, f^ 165J 
Attains III., ii, 406 
Attxmpted Assassination of Auoiil^ 

ov SPAm, viii, 2714 
Attica, invasion of, i, 214 

Thirty Tyrants in, i, 313 
Attila, ii, 532 

invades Gaul, ii, 535 

invades Italy, ii, S3S 

•tory of the stork ay, ii, S37 

besieges Aquileia, ii, 5^8 

triumphant march of, u, 538 

at Milan, ii, 538 

chansea nctnre, ii, 536 

receives Roman ambassadori^ U* S4* 

superstitions of, ii, 543 

mivries Ildico, ii, (43 

death and burial of. li, 544 
AuersUdtv battle of, vt, 1881 
Augsburg, Diet of, iv, 11 14 
Augury, i, 113 

Augustin Friars founded, iii, yyf 
Augustine, St., ii, 531 
Augustus, despair of, ii, 452 
Augustus ll.j King of Poland, v, 1591 
Augustus III., Kin^ of Poland, ▼, 1591 
Aulus Postumius. 1, 23 r» 234 
Aumale, Duke of, vi, 1097 
Aurelian, Emperor of Rome, ii» 48 J 

successes 01, ii, ^09 

attacks Zenobia, li, 510 

expedition, ii, ^13 

takes Palmyra, li, $14, 516 

captures Zenobia, li, 516 

quotation from, ii, 515 

triumph of J ii, 518 
Aurungzebe. iv, 1308; v, 1412, 1513 
Austerlitz, battle of, vi, 1879 
Australia, v, 1644 
Austria, invaded by Soliman, iv, 1134 

House of, V, 1403; vi, 1814 

overruns Venetia, vi, 1821 

in Italy, vi, 1957 

reduces Naples and Sicily, vi, 19^1 

gains Cracow, vi, 2024 

and Piedmont declare war, vii, 3136 

revolution (1848) in, vii, 3046 

Austria^ and Italy, vii, joyt 
Unnaea> of, vut ax3y> 

wT i^atemgm, ^ 334r_ 
Austna-Uungary, annexes 
He iaego v i na, ix, 3^4 

and the Balkan Stab», x, 33601, 3361^ 
33 65^ 3375 
Austrian Kmpresa murdered, tiI, ms*T 
Auatrians invade Bavaria* vi, 1874 
AvsTao-RussxAM Attack oir Ti 

Th*. V, 1573 
Auto-de-re, the first, iii, 994 
AtrroicoaiLB, Tbm, viii, 2433 
Avars, the. ii, 6^4 
Avantiae Hill, the, i, 262, 366 

Votut^ i, 1x3 
Avienus, character of, ii, 54r 
Avignon becomes seat of toe 

UU 8X3 
AWAKSNIKG OF CaxiTA, ThS, X, 3x07 

Aylesford, victory of, ii, 551 
Axtccs, the, iv, 109a 


Baaleaxar II., i, 79 
Babel, i. 54 
Babel, Tower of, i, 36 
Baber, founds Empire of Grand Mogodit 
iv{ rx68 
takes Benaal, iv, 1168 
Babington, Anthony, eonspiracy of, fir* 

Babylon, vastnesa and strength of, i, r88* 

•emi^les of, i, 51, 55 

Daniel interprets handwriting oa ttaa 
wall of, i, 190 

magnificence of, i, 19s 

walls of, i, 106 

deatmctioa ml i, 196 

Alexander enters, i, 356 

The Triumph of Italy, xx, a^66 
Bharation, General, vi, 1890, 189a 
Baiiar, conquered by Akhar, iv, t96§ 
Baker. Sir JBen|amin, viii^ 2463 
Balaklava, position of, vii, axoo 

battle of, vii, 2103 
Balboa, Vasco Nunez de, iv, 109X 
Baldwin, Count of Flanaers, iii, 74r 
Balearic Islands, ii, 362 
Balfour, resignation of, viii, 2639 
Balkan States, war with Turk^, a^ 

, 3353. 3378 

League of the, x, 3373 
Balkan War, viii, 2507 
Balkan War, The, x, 3378 
Ballot, the, vii. 225^ 
Baltic Canal, the, vti, 23 iq 
Baltimore, Lord, v, 1373. 
Baltimore conflagration, viii, 3533 
Band, the Sacred, i, 333 
Bank of England, the, v, T486, 1S69 
Bannerets, the, iii, 860 
Bannockbuin, iii, 822 
Bannockbum, battle of, iii, 838, 8ss 

English losses at, iii, 834 

booty taken at, iii, 834 

imj^rtance of victory to SootfAfldL 
xii, 822 
Baratieri, General, ^, aaSa 



Bariiariant, eonvendon of tlie, ii, S33 

Atdla'a, ii, -^36, 540 
Barbaric invasions oj the Fourth Cen- 
tury, ii, 63A 
Barbarossa, Frederick. {S4g Fsxdzrick 

Barbarossa. Hayraddin, zv, 1x04 
Barbary fleet, destruction of the, r, 

Barbury Hill, battle at* ii, 557 
Barca. vi, 2014 

Barcelona, bomb at, viii, 263^ 
Barclay, General, ri, 1890, 1894 
Bar-Cochba, the impostor^ ii, 477 
Bar-Giora, ii, 488 

Revolution in China, x, 3x18 

War in the Balkans, x, 33S3 
Barnabites, the, iv, 1181 
Bamet, battle of, iii, 981 
Baron, the feudal, ii, 095 
Barons, the English, meet at Brackl^y* 
iii, 766 

appear before King John, iii, 766 

opi>osition to Henr^, iii, 780 

resistance of the, iii, 793 

policy of, iii. 786 

victory of the, iii, 788 
Bakons' Was and First Englxir 

Parliament, The. iii, 780 
Barras, General, vi, Z807 
Barrier Treaty, the, t, 1540 

L^o XlII. A Retrospect, yiii, 2490 
Basle, Council of, iii, 922 
Bassora, foundation of, U, 586 
Bastille, the plan of, vi, 1753 

storm of the, vi, 1741, 1748, X7S9 

fall of, vi, X7<9 
Batavia (Java) touiuled l^ Dutch, iv, 

Batavian Republic, the, vi, 1796 
Bath, ii, 55 

. T 

Battenize, Tamerlane arrives in, fll, 

Battle Abbey, ii, 678 
Battui ow AcTiuic, ii, 4x5 
Battls 07 AoiNCotTRT^ xii, 92s 
Battlb or Arbbia, The, i, 337 
Battle of Blemhriv, The, v, 1491 
Battle of Crzct, iii, 846 
Battle of Elandslaagts^ The, viii, 

Battle of Floddbn Field, iv, 1096 
Battle of Gettysburg;, The, vii, 3190 
Battle of Inkermam, The, vii, 211S 
Battle of La Hogue, The, v, 1477 
Battle of Lake Erie, The, vi, 193X 
Battle of Manila Bat, The, vii, 2359 
Battle of Marathon, The, i, 236 
Battle of Mukden, viii, 3590 
Battle of Omdurman, The, vii, 2343 
Battle of Pultowa, The, v, 1514 
Battle of St. Quentxn and the Loss 

of Calais, iv, 1x07 
Battle of Salaicis, The, i, 247 
Battle of Santiago, The, vii, 232S 
Battle of the Boyne, v, 1450 
Battle of the MxTAifRUS, The, U, 

Battte of the Nations, the, vi, 1934 
Battik of the Nile, The, vIi ims 

E— Vol. 10 

Battle of the Sea of Jafan, viii, 

Battle of the Yalu, The, vii, 2299 
Battle of Tours, The, ii, 6^4 
Battle of Trafalgar, The, vi, 1871 
Battle of Valmy, The, vi, 1767 
Battle of Vittoria, The, vi, 1907 
Battleships^ vii, 2200, 2300 
Bayard, Cnevaiier, iv, 1x39 
Bayeux tapestry, li, 637; ix, 2921 
Bazaine, ueneral, vii, 2x71, 2x74, **4^ 


Beaconsfield, Lord, vii, 2260, 2267, 2269 

Beasts, laws regarding, i, 145 

Bcauharnais, Eugene, vi. 1856 

Becket, Thomas i, murder of, ii, 720 
offerings to shnne of, iv, X174 

Bed of Justice, v, 1692 

Bedeau, General, vii, 2084 

"Beggars, The," iv, 1235 

Beginning of Free Trade, The, vi, 

Beginning of the French Revolution, 
The, vi, 1738 

Beginnings of Russia, The, ii, 634 

Belcm, Temple of, iv, X046 

Belgrade, besieged by Mohammed ILt 
iii, 981 
captured by Turks, iv, 1x67 
captured by Russians, vi, x886 
captured by Eugene, v, xs56 

Belisarius, conquests of, ii, 563, $6$ 
treatment of, ii, 566 

Belshazzar, feast of, i, 189, 194 

Beltis, i, 52 

Belus, i, «2 

Bengal, taken by Baber, iv, xx68 
wealth of, v» 1623 


King Edward VII., ix, 2893 

Beotian infantry at Syracuse, i, 991 

Berengar, King of the Lombards, il, 

Berenice, Prineeas, ii, 493, 495 

Beresford, Lord, vi, 1956 

Beresina, passage of the, vi, 1904 

Ber^n, iii, 839 

Bering Sea atintration, vii, 2297 

Berlin Decides, the, vi, x88i 
Academy of, founded, v, 1490 
treaty of, vii, 2296, 2273; x, 3336, 

congress of, vii, 225^, 2269, 2273 
Bernadotte, Crown Pnnce of Sweden, 

vi, 1873. 1885, 1889. 1 93 1, 1936 
Bernard of Weinur, iv, x^6x 
Bemida, the kingdom of, li, 560 
Bercsus, i, 36, 45 
Berry, Duke of, sisasaination of -flic, 

VI, 1952 
Bertha, wife of Henry IV. (Germaoy)* 

ii, 693 
Berthezene, General, vi, 19QO 
Bervtus captured by Crusaders, ii, 720 
Bethlehem (Judea), inn at, ii, 433 

(Penn.). v, 1580 
Betica, reauction of, ii, 597 
Bezetha, seized by the Romans, xl, 48S 
Beziers, capture of, iii, 756 
Bigi, the, iv, X058 
Bionville, battle of. vii, 2248 
Bishops, firtt Gcrieikl Council oC ii* SH 

. COOBt TM, Til, 114s, USI, 

Bimai^ fawn of, vUi, >&47 

KthTU joini the UttlufJaUu, il, mo. 

Booiparte, Napoteon, e««natlaa •{, <i 
become* Kiu of Italr, vi, itM 
■ oo Anaria. ri, '871 

empire of, 1 
opturs the Pope, ri. 1SS5 
re-cMabli*be> Polmn^ *i, iMf 
prepsRi (o LDT*de WiiWia. *i, t 
•r^of. in i8ia, ri, iS88_ 

letTci MoMov, vi, 1898 



1913. iVJti. IMS 

(Sm i 

Ilk of, iU. •>• 



ntputiiti, mi 
iDiface, Harq' 

It, ifi. 

Tfae Pinuna Canal, x, 3147 

The Amkenini of China, x, 2 

Borodino, battle of, t1, i8«5 


Boicacidlo, quotation from, ill, St*. S77 

B«r"%a^: outbreak of, Wi. »7i; tUI, 

Boeii Mttle in Natal. 1 

attack Maf ' ' 
Botlhiu, Hat 
Bohemia, ill. gij 

conleM (or. i», 1349 

ln*a*iaa of, ▼. lOip 

mrolution In, ni, >04S, aojo 
BohemlaiM, the. sppoae SlflmaM> <m 

•iegtd -, -. 

anond, li, JO?, 7" 
nina Antiocb. li. j- 
Bohun. Sir Hen 

Bolivar, Simon -,-, 

Boliria, Republic of. foanded, vi, ipSj 
Bologna. besirKed. It, --"- 

anncsad to Austria- HuDt«[7i ix, 17M 
Boaquc^ Geneial, Tii, 1104, iiaa 
Bonoa (Maaa.), founded, t. 1373 
Port Bill, T, 1671, 1681 
publlB raeenoc m, t, 1668, 1671 
BoawoTtli, battle of. lii. 998. iww 
Botha, General, ' 

Bonaparte. Luclen. *i. 1S50 
Bonaparte, Napgleon. tI, 1807, 1B18 
on Charlea Xll.'a iDTaalan of Rti» 

tnTa^ea 'itafy. n, iSii 

declare) war agamn Venice, vi. 181) 

goes to Egypl. Ti. 18J4 

orerthiowa the Direcioire, t1, 1837, 

Firat Consul. *l, 1837, 1810 

, Ti. 18,1? 

paxagc of the Alps, wi, iS;! 
teanie airainat England, iri, iSja 
code of. *i, 1851 
hoatillly to England, t1, 1854 
becomes Emperor. *t. 1851 

Hirchier, Sir Thomaa. joini Eari of 

.jurmont. General, tI, ip8S 
BouTlnes, battle of. iii, j6i 
Bowariyeth Uound, (he. i, so 
Bowrinn, Sir John, n, joio 
BoxEa MoviMEHT. TnE, Tiii, ijpS 

BOT SCODT MovBMaHi, AmaicAH, TsB, 

EoT S'cotJI MovanENT, EllCI.I>B, T«B, 


nil, It 16, iiso, 
rive* fn Vtr^nia, 

tent to Fort Dnqueme. < 
march and defeat of. t. 

BuDDDCK't DeTUT, T, i6o 




^The Voyage of the ''Mayflower* t, 
Bragadino, Goremor of Cyprxu, erael 

treatment of, iy* 1227 
Brandenburg, Houae of, t. x6x8 
Brazil, discorered, xr, xo^ 

settled by Portu^eoe, nr, 1x90 

separates from Portugal, ti, xgs6 

declares independence, ri, 1995 

becomes a Republic, '▼ii, 2397 
Bremen, iii, 845 
Brennabourg besieged by Htory L» 

ii, 648 
Brenntu, i, 3x3 
Brescia, sack of, it, 1084 
Bretigny, peace of, iii, 895 
Briand, Aristide, viil» 2644 
Bricks, i, 49 

Brienoe, Ax^bisliop, tI, X73f 

The Ma«na Charto, iii, 760 
Bright, John, ti, S002 
Britain, conquered by Cesar, ii, 4x3 

conquest of, ii, 472 

overrun l^ Piets and Scots, ii, 549 

calls upon Jutes, ii, 545 

and the English, ii, 546 

antiquity o^ ii, 550 

conquest of Southern, ii» S53» SS^ 
Brithnorth, ii, 659 

British army, ti, xyox. X704, X708, X7xj 
British East African Companr, yii, 2289 
British Museum, i, 08; t, xooo 
Britons, massacre of ue, il, 551 

disappearance of, ii, 553 

The Coming of President .Taft, bt, 
283 X 
Brotherhood of the Cross, iii, 87 x, 873 
Brown, John, execution of, Tii, 2x34 

The Detliroaement of the Shah, ix, 


Execution of Marino Fallero^ iii, 879 
Bruce, Edward, iii, 831 
Bruce, Robert, iii, 824, 826, 829. 835 
BrueySk Admiral, yU X828, 1834 
Bruges, Si, 839, 842 
Brunswick, Duke of, ▼!, X74S, X777> 

X781, X940 
Brutus, Loeius JuninSk i, 220, 225 . 

Marcus Junius^ death oi^ ii, 4x4 

The Coronation of Charlemagne, H» 
Bryce, James, becomes British Aniba»> 

sador to Washington, ix, 2754 
Buch, Capital de. iii, 89 x 
Buda, captured by Tunes, ▼!, 1944 
Buddha, Uautama, I, X24 
Buddhisti<> Idea, the, i, X31 
B u aea u d, General, tI, 1994 
Buutaria, Tii. 2270 

(Stt also Balkan States) 
Buiffarians, ii, 634 
Buller, General, yfi, 2x19. 2370 
Bfiiow, Chancellor Ton, ix, mt^' 

The Battle of Miration, i, 29^ 
Bure, i, 42 

Burgoyne, General, vi* 170 J 

army of, vi, 1708 
Burgoyne. General, retroit of, tI, 1710 

surrender of, vi, 17x3 
BurguisdiaiiB, coxiquered by Clovis, ii, 
56 X 

army of, iii, 987 
Burgundy, Duke of. (Seg Chaslb, 


Burgundy refuses taxation, iii, 983 

Switzerland and^ iii, 813 
Burial customs, violation of, i, 276 
Burials, Lvctu-gus's regulations of, i. 94 
Burke, Edmund, speech on Americao 
colonies, v, 1675, X683, 1686 

quotation froxn, t, 1634 

The Moriscos, iv, X065 
Bumia, vii, 22M 
Burr, Aaron, vi, 1886 

Spontaneous Education: The Moih 
tessori Method, x, 3230 
BybkM, i, 148 
Byzantium, Philip fails at, i, 32s 

government removed to, ii, 519 

Cable, Atlantic, the, vii, 22x1, 2Jt9 

Canadian-Australian, viii. 24x2 

first submarine, vii, 2050 

New York to Havana^ ix, 2775 
Cabral, Alvarez de, dxacovers Bniil» 

iv, X076 
Cadeaia, battle of, xi, 584 
Gnaar, JuUns, ii, 4x3 

defeats Pharnaces, il, 414 

assassinated, ii, 414 

children of, ii, 417 

conquers Gaul and Southern Britala» 
ii, 413 

fleet of, ii, 422 

preparations for war by, ii, 4J0 

dominions of, ii, 42 x 

charges against Antony by, ii» 418 

allies of, li, 421 
Cesar, Sext. Jnlla% ii, 401 
Cain, i, a6 

Caius, Qaudiua Kero, ii, 3^7 
Caietan, iv, 11 08 
Calabria, arizure of, ii, 633 

earthquake in, ix, 2775. 2807 
Cains, importance of, iv, 1199; vl* 

sack of, iv, X203 

surrenders to French, vi, 2002 
Calcutta, taken by Sunjah DowlaK ▼• 

Black Hole of, v. 1623, idag 
Caled, conauesta ot, ii, 583 
Calendar, the, L X46 
California a^itted to United 

vi, 2026 
Caligraphy, iii, 075. 977 , 
Caligula, aon of GermanicuB. il, 453 
Cafiph's empire, extent of the, il, no4 
Calixtines, the, iS, 922 
Callet. Gttillnune, "SOm ^ th« JacvM, 

ii5. 893 

CSdicrstet, li, jfS 



CdMh. i, 47p si. 14 ^ 
GBloofe, Gencnl* ▼&• mmH 
pAfiMii*^ Yi, 17S9 
Caivu, !jolin« t¥, 1105, iiiSt my 
Cmbutfea. vi, i8sop i8s3 
Cmrnhnj, treaty of, it, 1159 

League of, it, 1077 
Cimkjeee, declaret wir at&inst EfTPt* 

it 197 

pats PMimnetichiiB to death, i, joi 

ooUcT of. i, aoa 

tOTades Napata, i, ao4 

kills Apis, 1. 204 

returns to Asia^ i, 20s 

violatea tombs, i, sos 

deatli of, t, 206 
CamiUua defeats the Gauls, i, ^as 
rampsnilf at Venice^ fall of^ Tiil, a4it 

First stone laid of new, Tiii, SS47 
Campbell, Colin, Tii, 2130 
Camperdown, battle of, tI, i8is 
Campobasso, iii, 087, 990 
Campo Formio, Treaty of, Ti, 1823 
Canaan, i. 28 
Csnads. French lose, t. 1632 

Dominion of, established, Tii, asxa 
Csnadian Pacific Railway, Til, Jj8t 
Candahar, march to, Tti, 2273 
Candia, surrender of, Ti, 1817 
Candles, Ti^ 1982 
Csnidius, ii, 419, 424 

flight of, ii, 4S9 
Csnn«, battle of, I, 358 
Csnning, Ti, 1964, i960, 197s 
Canossa, U. 68^ 

Henrj IV. (Cermanj) at, ti, 693 
CanoTas del Castillo, Tii, 2221, 2223, 


Csnrob«rt, General, Tii, 21 11, 2127 
Canterbury burned by the Danes, ii, 666 
Canton bombarded by English, Tii, 2127 
Canute, proclaimed King of Englano, 
ii, 667 

character of, ii, 670 

makes a pilgrimage to Rome, ii, 671 

death of, ii, 672 
Cape Breton, t, 1630 

Isle of, surrenders to England, t, 

Cape of Good Hope, It, 1043, X046 

captured by the British, Ti, 1796 
Capodistrias, Count, Ti, ij^79 
Cappadocia. massacres in, li, 481 
Caprera, Garibaldi retires to, tU, 2147 
.CaptiTes, employment of, i, 51 
CxFTuaa OP Cape Breton, Ths, t, 1396 
Caraffa, Cardinal, It, 1184 
Carbonari, Ti, 1837, 19^9 
Carcassonne besieged, iii, 756 
Caricatures, t, 1568 

of America, t, 1687 
Cftirlist War, end of the, Tii, 2258 
Carlists, reTolt of, Tii, 2257 
Carlos, Dom, King of Portugal, Till, 

^ 1*763; ix, 2^77 
Carlos, Don. ti, 1999; tu, 2229 
Carlowitz, Treaty of, t, 1489; tI, x8x8 

The Austro-Russian attack on Turkey, 
▼, £57^ 

The Taking of the Bastille, Ti, 1748 

Caftaagnolea, the, Ti, ly^ 
Garmeutea founded, ti, yao 
Carnegie, Andrew, ix, 2970 
Camot, President, nmrdered* viip aayS 
Carolina, Colony of, founded, t, 1398 

diTided. t, 1370 
Carpet, the wonderful PeniaB, ii* sM 
Carpini, Friar, tii, 805 
Cartharc, i, 78 

founding of, i, 80, 8a 

imfwrtance of, ii, 339 

agriculture in, ii, 361 

colonies ofp ii, 361 

trade of, ii, 360, ^83 

employs mercenanea. ti, 363 

S'tos hostagea, ii, 386 
■arms, ii, ;|87 

attacka on, u, 3^3» 39S 

prepares for resistance, ii, 388 

submiMion of, ii, 386 

colony on site of, ix, 396 

sack of, ii, 396 
Carthsynsns unwarlike, ii, 362 
Caaa-Bianca, Ti, x83( 
Casalecchio, battle of. It, X083 
Casas, Bartolomi de las, it, X091 
Caahmere conquered bjf AldMr, rr, 1266 
Cassel, Sir Ernest, Ttii, 2462 
Cassiodorus, ii, 562 
Csssius, ii, 4x^ 

Dion, quotation from, ii, 451 
Castelar, Tii, 2222, 2227, 2259 
Castelleto taken by Doria, it, XX54 
Castile and Leon, union ox, iit, 778 
Castor and Pollux, i, 232 
Catesby, Robert, ITj 13x3 
Catherme II. (Russia), t, 1635; Ti, 1766 

Tisits Crimea, Ti, X726 

trip to Turkey, ti, 1727 

magnificence ox, t, x66o 
Catholic League, iy, X350 
Catholics, escape of the, ii, 597 
Catiline, conspiracy of, ii, 4x3 
Cato, demands destruction of CartfiaaCL 
11, 384 

death of, ii, 390 

and Achean captiTes, ii, 398 
CsTa, the story of, ii, 592 
CaTaignac, tI, 2042; Tii, 2080, 2084 
CaTaliers, deTOtion of the, t, X376 

Tictories of the, t, 1378 
CaTalry, combat of, at Arbela, t, 350 
CaTour, Count, Tii, 2x09, 2x11, 2x16, 
« .^'3S» 3137. ai45, 2x47 
Cay ley, Sir George, x, 33x8 
Ceawfin, ii, 557 
Cecil, Robert {Ste Sausiuxt, Eabl 


Cecrops, i^ 33 

Cedicius, i, 32 x 

Celesyria, ii, 4x3 

Celius, ii, 42^ 

Censortnus, ii, 388 

Central American war ended, ix, 2763 

Cerda, ChcTalier de la, cowardice of. 

It, X332 

death of, It, 1223 
Cerdic, ii, 556 

CerTera, Admiral, Tii, 2330, 2393, 2339 
Cesario, son of Cleopatra and Julias 

Ciesar, ii, 4x7 
Ceuu, fortresa of, U, 591 



Ceylon, diacoTered, ir, T076 

captured l^ the Engliso, Ti» x8ia 
Chaironeia, battle of, ii, 4x3. (Ste 

Chaldea, importance of, i, 53 

temples ox, i, 51 

cities of, i, 54 

empire, expansion of, i, 56 

great men of, i, 53 
Chaldean history, beginning of, i, 46 
Chaldeans, the, i, 29 

as star-worshippers, i, 53 
Chalons, battle ox, ii, 53$ 
Chambord, Comte de, vii, 2257 
Champagxie, Count of, iii, 732 
Changarnier, General, vii, 2083 
Chanzy, General, Tii, 2253 
Chares, i, 325 

Charf^e of the Light Brigade, vii, 2104 
Chariots, scythe-armed, i, 34^, 348, 351 
Charlemagne, ambitions 01, li, 617 

and Leo IIL, ii, 620 

in Rome, ii, 624 

reasons for selecting him Emperor, 
ii, 62p 

coronation of, ii^ 625 

forebodings of, li, 627 

and Pope Hadrian, ii, 617 

the deliverer of Rome, ii, 6x2 

crowned Emperor of Rome and of 
the West, li, 61 x 

confjoers Lombardy, ii, 6x1, 6x6 

enters Rome, ii, 616 
Charles Albert, vii, 20^ x 
Charles Albert of Cangnano, yi, 1963 
Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria, v, 

becomes Emperor of Germany, v, 1594 
Charles of Anjou, becomes 'Senator ot 

Rome, iii, 795 
power of, iii, 795 

prepares to attack the Greeks, iii, 799 
selects a Pope, iii, 800 
Charles the Bold. iSte Chaujm, 

DuKB OF BuKGUin>y) 
Charles, Duke of Burgundy, at Salins, 

111, 982 
assassinated, iii, 03^ ^ 

defeated b;^ the Swiss, iii, 981 
at Joux, ill, 984 
cruelty of, iii, 987 
death of, iii. $1^0 
interment of, iii^ 99 x 
popular incredulity of his death, iii, 

Charles I. (England), execution of, t, 

Charles II. (England), death of, ▼, 

Charles II. (Spain), will of, v, 1494 
Charles V. becomes Emperor, iv, 1x35 
Chakles v., Conoubks Italy, iv, xi3s 
crowned by the Pope, iv, X156 
takes Milan, iv, xxss 
meeting wiu Henry YIII., iv, 1x30, 

the Netherlands under, iv, 1230 
takes Tunis, iv, 1x68 
and Council of Trent, iv, xx8s 
grants peace to the Venetians, iT» 
Charles IX. (Sweden), v, 1403 

Charles XI. (Sweden), v, 1489 
Charles XII., becomes King of Sweden, 
V, 1489 

invades Poland, v, 1489 

invades Russia, v, X513 

character of, v, 151 9 

besieges Pultowa, v, X522, X540 

death of, v, 1556 
Charles of Denmark, viii, 261 x, 2722 


Charles Edward Stuart, Young Preten- 
der, V, 1595 
Charles Martel, li, 605, 614 
Charles of Navarre and the Jacques, 

iii, 893 
Charles the Simple, ii, 630 
Charles VII., ot France, and Joan of 
Arc, iii, 942 

crowned at Rheims, iii, 950 
Charles VIII, becomes King of France, 
iv, 1032 

kingdom of, iv, X032 

army of, iv, X033 

claims Naples, iv, X033 

enters Italy, iv, 1036 

enters Florence, Iv, X039 

enters Rome, iv, 1040 

retreat of, iv, 104X 

capitulates, iv, 1042 

returns to France, iv, xo4a 

favors Earl of Richmond, iii, 995 
Charles IX, of France, iv, 1263 . 

death of, iv, 1266 
Charles X., vi, lorx 
Charles Edward, Pretender, French aid 

Charmion, u, 420 

Charter of Frederick II., iii, 775 

Charter, the Great, ii, 667; ixi, 767, 

(Set also Magna Chakta) 
The Great Earthquake at Lisbon, ▼, 
Chatham's opposition to Boston Port 

Bill, V, 1673 
Chatham on the First American Con- 

gress, V, X679 

Chcdorlaomer, i, 53, ^5 

Cheronea, battle of, 1, 323, 333 
results of, i, 335 
plain of, i, 332 

Chester, ii, J 5 7 

Chichester, Sir Arthur^ iv, X289 

Chighitta, Heroes of, iii, ^xx 

Children, disposition of, i, 91 
training of Spartan, i, 61 

China, invaded by Zin^is IChan, iii, 747 
plague in, iii, 863; ix, 2857 
Boxer Movement, the, viii, 2398 
Empress Dowager of, viii, 2398 
opens new ports, vii, 2310 
first intercourse of Western nationi 

with, vi, 2007 
first war with Great Britain, yi, 2009 
treaties with nations, vi, 20x1 
opens more ports, vi, 201 1 
opening of, vi, 2007 
'Patriotism in, viii, 2408 
compulsory education edict in, ix^ 

, 2775 
the old party of, x, 2803 


dOB ia, I, ]■•}, lilt 
r 1 republic, x. 31M 

ChiM, auairiere ct, rL ijtti 
Clu**lr7> Ho^cn tad ChriMUB, i 


iT. Il«7^ 




defoUd br 

CbriMuin' IX. of Domuifc, deatb of, 

Tiii, j666 
Cbriniuk ctaiv>lr<r, iij, looj 
Chriitun Cburcb at Smjinw, U, 47> 
Cbrinian kinii of Spun luilu acaiiiN 

Cbrinikn Science foanded, oii, iijl 
CfariMiaidlr. birth of Latin, " -- 

CnH Sendee / 

Cbil War CUnitol SOKc*), bepnittt 

end of, vii, tia6 

Qaudiuj, ii, 51M 

CUudioi, proclaimed Brnftrtr ut Koae, 

Pd1k)ik4, ii. «7J 
CUudiaa Nero, ii, 370 
Oanad. Gaoenl, yi, ip9a, im 
Qeander, 1, jja 
Clearcbu^ j, 197 
C]ditbeiic% i, a 16 
acmect IL, Pope, ii, 6<i 
Clement IV„ Pope._^ J9i , _ . . 

jtibilee. fii, 
Qeraent VIL becomei Pope, ■ 


the, ii. 474 



lion of t 


rjei" ffe'n 


woribip uiimoleMcd, it. 
lukes, iii, TM 

acked bv Mi 

: New. lit, I 

^iiiunoTo^, i. 103, 14D 

difficultiea of GomputiziB, i, 45 
Cburch and State, it. 6ia 
•eparalion of, viii, »«40 
Churche*, profanation of, ii, Csi 

Gmbt the,'"* 406. 410 

Cimon, I. 15a 

Cincinnattu. I. >Si 

anq-Hara, eTfcution of. t, tj7. 

CircuDinaviEKtion of tbe globe, 

■ of the, ii. sGi 


Blue and Green ficti 

H. SS7 
isaipi'ne Gaul, i, 3%; 
itadel at Rome, atu 

Tcmplara, lii, Bti 


Qeopalra. ii,' 4'4. 4>< 

children of, ii, 417 

Sight of, ii, 4i« 

death at. il. 4]0 
Clergy, rage of tbe Engiiafa igainal tb^ 

ClermoDt, Cmudl of, ii. 704, 708 
Qlnchant Genenl, ni, 1154 
Clinton. Sir Henry, ti, 17DG 
Qiatbaiea, i, 2is 
Clire, captarea Arcot t, i&m 

retorna to I n dia, t. i6u 
Cloelia iwima Ue Tiber i. 130 
CloTia. conqucra tbe Burgundiaiu, fi, 

King of the Fraoki, ii, jSi 

conTfrtrd to Chriatianitr. ii. s6i 

conqucra the GoEha, ii, 56* 

eatabliahca bia mooarchy in Gaul, ^ 

Cobden,' lUcbai 


an, Ii. s&i 

jo France, Tii, aijC 

Code of JuMinian. ii, jM 
Code Napolfon. the. rl. iSSj 
Codrington, Admiral, Ti, 1974 

Coliiniyl Aifmiril. of France, defenda 
St. Qyentin, iv, 1158, laBi. 1164 

The Age and Ls« of JuirinUn. ii. 

Tbe Begintilng ot tbe French Rero- 

lution. Ti. i7]B 
Cruiade Agtlntt the Albigenies, iii. 

The First Conaul, Ti. 1B49 

The Founding of ConMantiilople. il. 

The Great Triumphi of Napoleon, yi. 



Ttie Growth of the Papacy, U, 5^9 
The Nomuuu in France and Italy, ii, 

Peraecutiona of the Chriatians, ii, 

The Reformation, iv. 1x05 
The Seren Yeara' War, t, 16x7 
The Thirty -^Years' War, iv, X349 
Cologne, importance of, iii, 839 
Cologne Cathedral finished, Tii, 2273 
ColombiiL Republic of, founded, vi, X967 

United States of, yiii, 25x0 
Colonial America, Congresa of, t, 1642 
Colonial Tories, ▼, 1678 


Colonna, Proapero^ ir, 1x37, 1x39, 1x45, 
Colosseum, the, ii, 496 
Columbus, Christopher, ships of, iii, 

companions of, iii, 1020 

embarks, iii, X022 

diax7 01, ill, X022 

htnding of, iii, X026 

beholds the New World, iii, 1025 

explores San Salvador, iii, 1029 


Comitium, i, X23 

Comonfort, General, vii, 2x73, 2175 
"Compromise," the, iv, 1235 
Concha, Manuel, vii, 2233 
Concord, skirmish at, v, x688 
Concordat, the, viii, 2641 
Cond6, iv, X262 

Printe de, v, X388, 1390, i393. I397 
Condi, Princease de, v, 1393 
Coney Island fire, ix, 27^5 
Confederation of the Rhine, vi, 1880, 

CONFUCXUS, i, 168 

descent of, i, x68 

education of, i, 170 

marriage of, i, 170 

begins to teach, i, 170 

disciples of, i, i^x 

wanaeringa of, 1, 172 

death of, i, 174 

tomb of, x, X74 

descendants of, i, 175 

teachings of, i, 1^6 

Golden Rule of, i, 176 

literary work of, i, 175 

maxims of, i, 177 

religion of, i, X78 

philosophy of, i, X78 
Congo Free State, vii, 2273 
Congo, Upper, discovered, vii, 2257 
Congress, of Aix-la-Chapelle, vi, 1950 

ot Berlin, vii, 2259, 2269 

of Mantua, iv, xo86 

of Paris, vii, 21x4 

of Vienna, the, vi, X938, X963 

the Colonial (America), v, X042 
Congress of Berlin, The, vii, 2259 
Conqueror, character of the Oriental, 

1. 56 
CoNQuaar of Ax^eria, The. vi, 1986 
Conquest of Egyft by Caicbysbs, i, 

Conquest of Gbakada, The, iii, 100 x 

Conqubst of Ibblakd and CoLomcA- 

TiOH or Ulbtbb, The, iv, 1283 
CoNQUBST of Lyoia, The, i, 179 
Conquest of Mysobb, Thb, vi, 1769 
Conquest of Persia, The, ii, $82 
Conquest of the Ah, The, x, 33x2 
Conquest of tbb Nobtbwest Passaov, 

The, viii, 2563 
Conquests of Bengal and Canada, 

The, V, X624 
Conquests of Mexico and Peru, It, 

Conquests of Zingis Khan, iii, 743 
Consolidation of Gbeicany by Henby 

L, ii, 64s 
Conspiracy, of the Gunpowder Plot, iv, 
13 X 2 

of Cataline. ii, 4x3 

in Italy, iii, 7^0 

of the Pazzi, lU, 9p4 _ 

againat PisistratK, 1, aia 

of Marino Faliero, iii, 880, 882 

of Tiepolo, iii, 8x2 

against Venetian Reoublic, vi, 18x5 
Constance, Council of, iii. 899, 9x7 

dose of the Council of, iii, 923 
Conatantine, birth of, ii, 520 

youth of, ii, 520 

the first Christian Emperor, ii, 3x9 

proclaimed Emperor, ii, 521 

vision of, ii, 522 

beoomea Emperor of the West, ii, 523 

becomes sole Emperor of the Roman 
Empire, ii, 524 

favors Christiamty, ix, 324 

aelecta new capital, ii, 525 

breaks up legions, ii, 527 

taxea of, ii, 527 

policy of, ix, «27 

character of, it, 528 

death of, ii, 528 * 

laat years of, ii, 528 

donation of. ii, 6x9 
Constantino Paleologus, bravery of, iii» 
953, 966 

death of, iii, 971 
Constantinople, dedication of, ii, 526 

riot in, ii, 568 

besieged by the Arabs, ii, 603 

besieged by the Varangians, ti, 639 

Crusaders in, ii, 709 

Splendors of, ii, 710 
reeks and Latins in, iii, 7^6 
gained by Venetians, iii, 738 
pillaged \y Crusaders, iii, 740 
capture of, iii, 740 
Latin Empire 01, iii, 741 
regained by Michael Paleologus, iii, 

defences of (1433), iii, 952 

siege of (i453). »ii» 9S4 
Constantius Chlorua, ii, 520 
Cook, Captain James, v, 1634, 1643 

first voyage to Australia, v, 1645 

discovers New Caledonia, v, T667 
Cook, Frederick A., ix, 2858, 2868, 2872 
Cook's Australian Discoveries, v, 

Coomassie, capture of, vii, 2257 

The Battle of Lake Erie. vi. 1921 
Coote, Eyre, vi, 17x7 



Nelftott at, vi, i8$j 
Corothiiiif ii, 38^ 
Cordova, fall of, ii, $9^ 
Cordora. GonaalTO dc, iv, 1066, 1071, 

Corea, becomes independent, vii, 2310 

Kink of, calls for aid. vii, 2398 
Corinth, prepares for defence, ii, 402 

sack of, ii, 397t 404 
Corn Law, vi, 2004 
Cornwallis, Lord, vi, 1716 

anrrender of, vi, 1716 

in Mysore War. vi, 1760 
CoKOJCATion or Alfomso XIII., TSB, 

vtii, 2440 
CoaoNATioM or Chaklemacmb, The, tx, 


The, viii, a445 
CoKOifATioif, The, is, 301 x 
Corsica, i, 357 

bonght by France, v, 1643, 1659 
Corstiaensen, Hendrick, iv, 1328, 1330 
Cort6s, Fernando, iv, xoga 
Cosmo de' Medici, iii, 896 
Cotton, Egyptian, viii, 2461 

Wh^ I Revived the Olympic 
viii, 2609 
Council of Basle, iii, 922 

of Blood, IT, 1237 

of Clermont, ii, 708 

of Constance, iii, 899, 017 

of Constance, close of the, iii, 9*$ 

of the Indies, iv, 1076 

of Pisa, iii, 914; iv* 1084 

of Sardica. ii, 530 

of Ten, iii, 812, 881; vt, x8x6 

of Trent, iv, 11 85, X190 
Council of Constance aicd 

Hussite Was, iii, 915 
Counter-Reformation, The, iv, S179 
Counter-Reformation, iv, 1184 
Court of^ God, ii, 723 
Coxcox, i, 39 ^ ^ ■ 

Cracow annexed to Aostria, vi* 40a4 

The Pan-American Congress, ix, MfS7 
Crassus, ii, 413 

Tlie Automobile, viii, ^433 

The Battle of Arbela, i. 337 

The Battle of Blenheim, v, 1491 

The Battle of Pultowa, v, 1514 

The Battle of the Metaurus, ii, 359 

The Battle of Tours, ii. 604 

The Battle of Valmy, vi, 1767 

Joan of Arc at Orleans, iii, 935 

Siege of Syracuse, i, 279 

Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga, 
vi, X700 

Victory of Arminiua, it, 44a 
Creative Power, i, 30 
Crete, subdued by the Arabs, ii, 6as 

captured by Turks, v, 1398 

revolt in, vii, 2^x0 

proclaxma its union with Grecoc^ Iri 

evacuation of, iac, 4857 

Crevaat tikes by BedCaH, iflp 994 

Crimea taken bj VenetiAiia» id. fm 

CuMKAH Wae, Thb, vii, ao99 

Crispi, Francesco, vii, 2281 

CrispoB, son of Copsfntinr, ii, 5x4 

Crissa, i, 69 

Cristina, Regent of Spain* ri, I9f9 

Critolaits, ii, 402 

CroBtus, conquests of, i, 179 

on fuxieral pyre, i, x8s 

sends to allies tor aid, i, 18a 
Cromlechs in Britain, ii, 551 

Return of Hall^'a Comet* iz» a9ij 
Cromwell, Oliver, ▼, 1381 

reorganizes thct army, v. 1383 

invades Ireland, v, X398 
Croi^e, General, suxrcader o^ viii, 

Crookes, Sir WilUam, viii, asjo 
Cross, the, ii, 455 

inscription on the, ii, 461 
Crotona, i, 235 

Crown Point captured, ▼, 1691 ; vi, X7t>3 
OtuciFixiON, Tux, ii, 454 
Crucifixion, customs re|(arding, ii, 459 

darkness during the, li, 468 

the central point in the world's kia- 
tory, ii, 472 
CausADE Against the ALBicBMaaa, iit. 

Crusade, beginning of first, ii, 703 
First, leaders of the, ii, 706 
First, route of the, ii, 709 
First, failure of the, ii, 7x5 
First, losses during the, ii, 716 
Sec<Hid, ii, 720 
Thirds ii, 721 
Third, greatnesa' and failnre of tba, 

Ii, 7" 
Fourth, preached, iii, 73 x 
Fourth, France in the, iii, 73a 
Fourth, Pope's oppoAtion to, Iii* 

Fourth, aided by the Venetiana^ m* 

Fifth, begun, iii, 772 
Fifth, ui. 778 
Sixth, iii, 778 
Eighth, iii, 794 
Crusaders, first, wild appcaraaee of tihe^ 

ii. 709 
inarch of the first, ii, 705 
arrive in Constantinople, ii, 709 
arrive in Asia, ii, 712 
make terms with Alexis, ii, 71a 
simplicity of the, ii, 7x0 
losses of. on the march, ii, 713 
capture Antioch, ii, 714 
sufTcringa of, ii, 7x4 
pestilence among, ii, 714 
worship Tomb of Christ, ix, 717 
take Jerusalem, ii, 7x7 
in Jerusalem, ii, 7x7 
German, return home, ii, 724 
capture Constantinople, iii, 740 
pillage ConstantinoiMe, iti, 74> 

Crystal Palace, description of the, vH. 

Cteaiphon, sack of, ii, 589 

Cuba, evacuated by Spaniards, vii, s^ZT 
Firat Coogrtaa of, iz, j8ai 



Cubui C«Mtiliiti«iua CoBTeation, Till, 

C«b«i RepubUc. First Congress of, viii, 

Cttfa, foundation of> ii, 589 
CuUoden, l»ttle of, y, iS95 
X^uiiucs, battle of, i, 299 
Cuca^oa, Dutch take, v, 1373 
Cures, 1, 122 
Curie, Madame, Tiii, 2517 
Curtiss, Glenn H., ix, 2858, 2947; s, 

3339, 3333 
Curules, oonauct of the, i, J17 
Cuahite Kingdom, i. 4s 
Cuthwulf, march of, ii, 557 
Cuzco, iv, 1094 
Cynegirus, i, 343 
Cynocephalc, ii, 381 
Cynric, conquests of, ii, 556 
Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, execution 

of, ii, 482 
Cyprus, earthquake in, iii, 864; vii, 

Cyrus, at Median Court, i, 159 

rebellion of, i« 160 

flight of, i, x6x 

King of Media and Persia, i, 165 

marches against Croesus, i, 179 

attacks Croesus^ i, 180 

stratagem of, 1, x8i 

Slans to turn the Euphrates, i. 189 
etermines on seizing the Persian 
throne, i, 2^6 
character of, 1, 297 
and Artaxerxes, combat between, i» 

death of, i, 299 
Cyrus Founds Ksrsia, i, 159 
Czar, title of, iii, 981 
Czolgosz, yiii, 2415 

Dacia becomes a Roman province, ii, 508 
Daguerre, Tii, 2318 
Daguerreotype, vii, 2318 
Dalai Lama, flight ot, ix, 2885 
at the death bed of the Empress 

Dowager, ix, 2806 
Dale, Sir Thomas, iv, 1302, 1305 
Daleminziens subdued by Henry L, U, 

Dalmatia, ii, 720 
Damascus ocbupied by Mamelukes, Iii, 

Damiani, opinion of Gregory VII., - 

Damietta. iii, 772 

taken by St. Louis, iii, 778 
Damrimont, General, vi, 19^^ 
Dandolo, Doge of Venice, lii, 733 

statecraft of, iii, 738 

Andrea, the Doge, rule of, iii, 879 
Dane-geld, the, ii, 659, 66x 
Danes, the, ii, 650, 653 

attack England, ii, 625, 6^9 

in Exuland, position of the, ii, 663 

burn Canterbury, ii, 666 
Danican, General, yi, x8o8 
Daniel interprets handwriting on the 
wall. i. XQO 

Danish Cohqubst of EhglAnd, il, 6i9 
Danish kings, dues exacted by, ui, 

Dannenberg, General, yii, 2119, aiaj 
Danton, yi, 1746 
Dantzig, sieije of, viii, 2^84 
Danubian prindpaUties» yii* ax 17 
Darius, i, 236 

army of, at Arbela, i, 341 

encamps at Arbela, i, 344 

flight of. i, 3SS 

death of, 1, 356 

Zoroaster, i, 58 
Dasturs, the, i, 67 
Datis, i, 236 

Daun, Count, v, x6x8, 1620, z6s7 
Dauphin, death of the, yi, 1796 
Davis, Sir John, iy, 1^36 

The Coronation of Alfonso XIII., 
viii, 2440 

The Messixui Earthquake, ix, 2807 
Davout, vi, 1933 

"Day of the ass drivers," iv, 1085 
Death op Socbatbs, i, 302 
Debts, discharge of, i, 137 
Decalogue, the, i, 3X 
Decemviri, the, i, 260 
Decemvirs, i, 264 
Decian Storm, the, ii, 481 
Decius, the Emperor, defeated and 

slain, ii, coo 
Declaration of Frankfort, vi, 1938 

of Independence, vi, 1693 

of Indulgence, v, 1437, 1441 

of Rights, V, X448 
Declaxatiom or iNOBPSirDENCx, Th^ 

vi, X693 
Decline and Fall op Venice, The, 

vi, 1 813 
Decoutrias, vi, 2042 
Defeat op the Spanish Akkaoa, iy, 

Deiri, kingdom of the, ii, 560 
De Launay, vi, 1750, 1755 
Delfts Haven, Pilgrim Fathers enAark 

from, V, X364 
Delhi, Tamerlane arrives in, iii, 909 

Sultan flees from, iii. 91 x 

surrenders to Tamerlane, iii, 9x1 

Tillage of, iii, 9x2 
*amerlane enters, iii, 91^ 

massacre of Moguls in, iii, 913 
Delphi, town of, i, 73 

temple at, i, 71 

change of divinities at, i, 71 

wealth of, i, 74 

the Bank of Greece in, i, 75 

Oracle of, i, 44» 76, 184, 229 
Delphic Oracle, The, i, 69 
Deluge, The, i, 35 
Deluge, the, i, 27 

universality of the, i, 35, 43 

Brahmin legend of, 1, 39 

Celtic legends of, i, 42 

Chaldean tradition of. i, 36 

Chinese tradition of, 1, 35 

Greek traditions of, i, 41 

Lithuanian tradition of, i, 4s 

Mexican legend of, i, 39 



Deluse. die Pkngmn JniMim al. i. ^ 

South American tradition of, i» 36 
Delyanni aasaaainated, win, j6i8 
Demetrius, ii, 400 
Demoathenea, i. 290, 323, lay, 33.1 

Athena gives golden crowB to, u 33^ 

flight of, i, 334 
Denain, battle of, ▼, 15^ 
Denmark, ReformatiCMi m, br, litt 
DenUtua, i, 263, 365 
Dcorham, Saxon victory at, U, 557 
Derby, Lord, vii, 2260, aa66 

institutes Blue Ribbon of tibc Tvf, 
vi, 1716 
Derkyllidas, i, 301 
Derry, coloniaatioa oi, iv, uf0 
Dervishea, vii, 2274^ 2345 

Descartes, ▼.1374 ... ^^^ 1 
Desideriua, King, seiacd bf Chtrlc- 

maRnc, ii, 616 
Desmdnd, Earl of, iv, 1286 
Destroying Prince, the, iii, 9*0 
Dbstkuction of St. PiEaas, The, ▼fii, 

DasTaucTioN of Tea uf Bostov Hauoi, 

Dbthronkmkmt of the Shab, Tbc, 

ix, 2840 
Detroit, English evacuate, ▼!, 1930 
Deucalion, i, 41 
"Dewar bulb," the, ix, 2856 
Dewar, Professor; ix, 2852 
Dewcv, Admiral George, vii, 2359 
De Witte, viii, 2620 
De Witts, murder of the, ▼, 1398 
Deza, the Grand Inquisitor, iy, 1075 
Diadochi, wars of the, i, 356 
Diamond, Great Cullinan, ix, 2776 
Dias, Bartolomeu, iv, 1043, 1046 
Diaz, Porfirio, vii, 2175, 2179 . 

reelected President of Mexico, n, 

resigned, ix, 3006 

departure of, ix, 3006 
Diaz: Tuk Mauul of Modbut Mbzxoo, 

ix, 3000 
Dictum de Kenilworth, iii, 793 
Dido, i, 81 

Diebitsch, General, vi, 1976 
Diet, of Augsburg, iy, 1x14 

of Erfurt., ii, 651 

of Poland, V, 1665 

of Prcssburg, vif, 2047 

of Ratisbon, iv, 1180 

of Spires, iv^ 1113 

of Worms, iii, 731; iv, iiio 

Hansa, last meeting of the, ▼» 1398 
Dieus, ii, 399 

Digby, Sir Everard, iy, 13x3. i3ao 
Digest of Justinian, ii, 568 

The Late Dowager Empress of China, 
ix, 2795 

The Portuguese Reyolution, ix, 2930 
Diocletian, division of the Empire 
under, ii, 519 ... 

persecution of Christiaiw ttiiaer, n, 

and Maximian, abdication of, il» 4^3 
Dir, ii, 639 
PiiECTOiAi; Tbb, yi, 1797 

overthrown, yi, 1837 



Tbb, yi, 2026 


The, yi, 2015 
Diso^vEKY OF rum. X-Xays, yii, ajii 
Diaraeli, yi, 2004 
buys isteFcat in Ssses CanaL vu, 


(5«r BsSCOMSFZBUlt,' LoBo) 

DoGGEE Bank axd Artsm, Tut, yu, 

Dogger Bank diaaster, yiii, 355^ 
Dominion of Canada estaMiahcd, vu, 

Domitian, becomea £mi>eror of Rome, 

persecutiona of Christiana tuukr, b« 

assassination of, u, 580 
Doomsday Book, ii, 719 
Dona, Aiidrea, iy, 1x54 

address of, iy, 1x59 

honora to, iv, XX64 

influence of, iv, 1x67 

fliodesty of, iv, 1167 ^ 

I>oria» riUppino, iv, ix5i» XX53* xx»' 
Doria, Fa^anino, iii, 879 
Dorian migrations, i^ 83 
Dorian confedemesr, 1, ajo 
Dost Mohammed, vi, 2006 
Douai, surrender of, y, 1535 , . 

Doualaa, the Steward, lexuitated, iii« W 
DowTah, Surajah, y, 1623, 1625 
Downfall of Napolbom, Tarn, wit J93^ 
Draco, lawa of, i, 134 

repeal of laws of, 1, X38 
Draga, Queen, yiii, 2480 
Drapronade^ the, y, 14 14 ^ 
Drainags* luiproyenienta in 

vii, 2077 

Drake, Francis, yoyns^ around tw 
world, iy, 1249 

on Spaniah Main, iy, xasa 

attacks Spain, iy, X255 
Deeadhoughts, viii, 2667 
Dred Scott decision, vii, 2za7» 22x0 
Dresden, surrender of, v, 1627 

battle of, vi, 19V2 
Dwvltana nmrder I^or, ii, 642 
Dreyfus, case of, vii, 2298, 2369- 

vindicated, viii, 2726 
Dnisus leads Roman armies to the 

Weser and Elbe, ii, 430 
Ducos, vi. 1850 
Ducrot, General, vii, 2251 
Duhoux, General, vi, x8o8 
Duma, viii, 2707; ix, 2763 
Dumblane, battle of, v, 1551 
Dumouries, General, yi, X746» i77^ 

1774. 1780 

retreat of, vi, 1776 

The Olympic Games, i, 103 
Duperr^, Admiral, vi, X998 
Dttquesne seises Port Duqvesne^ ▼, iCoe 
Oozazxo, battle of, ii, 69s 



•uldli <«aM BaUvift (JtTt), ir. is4« 
Dutch Republic, fouaiatira M Oie, 

!▼» IS43 
Dwyfaa ana Owyfach, i, 4s 


Earth, bonea of the, i, 4J 

age of the, i, 27 

the goddeia, i, 70 

evolution of tiie, i, ^ 
Earthquake, U, 481 

•hocka, ii, S04 

in C/prua, iii, 664 

at Lasbon, v, 1609 

in Transcaucasia, yiii, a4ii 

at San Francisco, viii, ao87 

at Measina, ix, 2S07 

at Regno, ix, aSio 
Eaatem Empire, gorernment af the» 

ii, 6a I 
^Btem Europe, changea in, during the 

Fourth Century, li, 634 
Eaat India Company (Elngliah), v, 1374; 
vii, a 1 34 

founded by Emperor, v, 1570 

The Battle of the Yalu, vii, aa99 
East River Tunnel, ix, 3754, 277$ 

The Boy Scout Movement, American, 
ix, 3034 
EbbsfleeC aeatruction of, ii, 547 
Ecbatana, i, 159 
Eclipse of aun, i, 98 
Eddystone lighthouse built, Vj 1489 
Edessa captured by Turks, ii; 7ao 
Edgar the Athe1inf(, chosen King, ii, 679 

supporters of, 11, 679 
Edict of Nantea, iv, laSa 

revocation of the, v, 141a, 1416 
Edison, Thomas, ix. aoao 
Edmund. Ironside, ii, 668 
Edric, ii, 668 

the traitor, ii, 665 

treason of, ii, 669 
Education Bill, House of Lords, iz« 

Edward the Confessor, ii, 67a 
Edward, son of Henry III. of England, 

iii. 783 

takea the cross, iii, 7^3 

raises siege of Acre, til, 794 
Edward II. prepares for war with Scot- 
land, iii. 823 

luxury, til, 834 

flees to Stirling, iii, 834 
Edward III. of England laya claim to 
France, iii, 836 

at Crecy, iii, 846 

genius ot, at Crecy, iii, 847 

praises the Black Frince, iii. 

prudence of, iii, 85^ 
goea to Calais, iii, 854 
Edward VII., coronation of, viii, 4445 

death of, ix, 2893 

his characteristics, vU, a894 
£galit6, Philip, vi. 1741 
Egbert, King of Wessex, ii, 6a5 
Egmont, Count, iv, za3a, 1237 

and Horn, execution of, iv, xa38 

Efiryt, EBtire af, i, 44. 

natural defencea of, 1, 298 

aubjugatiott of, i, aoo 

becomea a Roman province, li, 430 

conquered by Choaroea, ii, 569 

attacked by Arabs, ii, 590 

wealth of, ii, 407 

first entered by Turks, ii, 730 

taken by the Mamelukes, iii, 778 

restored to Turkey, vi, 1856 

becomea possession of Menemet, vi, 
Egyptian, Anglo-, victory, vii, aa77 
Egyptiana, the, i, a9 
Eiffel Tower, vii, 3297 
Eighth Satkx«utb oy Jupitib, Tki^ 

ix, 38x7 
Ehindslaagte, battle of, viii, 3380 
Elba, Napoleon sent to, vi, 1937 

Napoleon escapes from, vi, 1938 
Eleanor, Queen, arrivea in Naples, ii, 

Eleanore, Empress of Austria, v, 140$ 
Electric lighting, vi, 1983; vii, 3358 
Elena, Queen of Italy, ix, 3989 
Elephanta used in battle, i, 348; ii« 

$66, 385 
Elfmar, the traitor, ii, 666 
El^n marblea, vi, 1966 
Ehs, i, X04 
Elissar, i, do 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, hatred af 
Protestantism, iv, 1308 

protects Mary Stuart, iv, 1313 

recognizea James, iv, X3X7 

diplomacy of, iv, 1247 

aigns Mary Stuart's death warrant, 
iv, 1354 

aida Henry IV. of France, iv, 1378 
Elizabeth of Russia, death of, v, 1633 
Ella, ii, 638 
EUasar, i, 51 

Elliott, Sir Henry, vii, 3360, 3363 

Eugenics, ix. 3743 
El Medinah, ii, 576 
Elmet, forest of, li, 559 
Elsass, VU, 335p, 3356 
Ely, Isle of, lu, 793 
Emancipation op the Sbeys, The, vii, 

Emancipation op the Slaves, The, 

vii, 3180 
Emanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, iv, 

Emessa, battle of, ii, 514 
Emigr^a, return of the, vi, 1853 
Empire vs. Papacy: Henet IV. at 

Canossa, ii, 683 
Encyclopedic, v, 1600 
End op the Peloponnbsian Was: 

Battle op Cheeonea, i, 334 
End op the Pope's Tempoeal Fowva 
AND Unification of Italy, vii, 

End of Wars of the Roses, iii, 995 
Enghien, execution of the Duke d*, 

▼i. i8ss 
England, attacked by the Danes, il, 635 
internal dissenaions in, ii, 660 
under Ethelred, ii, 660 
and the Normans, ii, 673 


BdcIuAI, iasarrectioii te, in. 766 

natioaal viiity In, iti, j^ 

succession io the throne oft ^» IS06 

•Ms the Dutch, rw, 1347 

acqutrea Madras, ▼, 1600 

prosperity of, v, 1561 

religious reyiTal in, ▼, 1582 

riae to empire of^ ▼, 1634 

American expeditiona fron^ T, ttfjO 
Engle, the, ii, 555 
Xngitsh« the, ii, 546 

men, the, ii, 555 

adventurers, ir, 1248 

archerSj^ iii, 833 

army, iii, 8^4; it, 1097 

army, condition of tine, iii. 926; !▼« 

army, retreat from Orleans, iii. 950 

army, power of the, t, 1384 

conquest of the, ii, 5^8 

conquest of Britain, cinracter of tlw, 
ii. 552 

ccMiquests in France, iii^ 936 

expelled from France^ Ui, 951 

explorers, iv, 1336 

fleet goes to meet Armada, It. 1257 

invasion of Britain, ii, 550 

invade France, iii, 895 

peasantry, rebellion of, aader Wit 
Tyler, iii, 895 

monarchy, the, iii, 768 

"•▼y. ▼. 1477 

m Thanet, the, ii, 547 

throne, claimants to die, ii, 670 

throne, Saxon line roatored to. ii. 

tribes, character of the, ti. 547 
voyages and discoveries, v, 1634 

Enoch, i, 26 

Entertainments, laws regarding, i, 145 

Epaminondas, quoUtion from, 1, 89 

Ephesua, Antony goes to, ii. 4x9 

Ephors, the, i, 297 

Epirus, ii, 405, 413 
conquest of, ii, 381 

Equality, personal, i, 469 

Erech. i, 47. §4 . 

Eretna, fall of. 1, 237 

Erfurt, Diet ol, ii^ 651 

Ericsson, John, vii, 21 08 

Erik the Red discovers Greenland, ii. 

Erlon, Drouet d', General, vi, 1993 

EavPTioM OF Mount Vesuvius, li, 497 

EauPTioN OF Vesuvius, The, viii, aoyfi 

Erytbrea, colony of, vii, 2279, a28a 

Eschines, i, 326, 330 

Eschylus at Marathon, i, a4j 

Es parte ro vii, 2222, 2228 

Essex, Earl of, v, 1377, 138a 

Estates, Citizens', i, 139 

Eate, Alphonso a*, iy, 1156 

Bthbaal, Ij^ 151 

Ethelred, 11, 663 
flight of, ii, 667 
goea to Normandy, ii, 673 
recall of. ii, 668 

Ethelric, King of Bemicia, ii. |fiO 

Etna, eruption of, t, 1488 

Etolian League, i, 357 

Etolians join Romana, li, 381 

Etruria, Ganls invade, i, 3" 

to wbomt nr aid, 1. 311 

Eodo, 0>nBt, ii, tto6 

Eugene, Prince. ▼. 141 x> zSlSt i5J8 

defeata the Turka, ▼, 14S9 

icaptorea Belgrade, v, 1556 

meeting of. with Mariborousli, t. 1593 

meeting of^ with Villara^ ▼. 1538 

advance of, v, 1534 
EuGBNics, ix, 2743 
Eugenie di Montijo, vii. 
Euaenius IV., iii, 861 

Pope, iii, 923 
Euphrates, Cyrus plana to torn 4c^ \ 

Eure, IH^nt de 1*. vi, 2041 
Europe and the Halkan • questio n, x, 

^ 3367, 3373 , _ 

European Powers and Poland, vn. ^164 

Eurybiades, i, 251 

Eurydea, the Lace d e m o n ian, u, 427 

Enrymedon, battle of, ii, 465 

Evans, Admiral, ix, 2824 

Eveaham, battle of, iii, 790, 79a 

Ewell, General, vii, 2x93, 2195, 2x98 

Exclusion Bill, v, 1399 

Exclusion Bili. and Wa»»»« Cobtos 

Act, The, ▼. i399 
ExEcunoM ov Maezmo Fauxeo. iS, 

Execution or Savoxaioia. Trx. iv. 

Exeter, yootfa amxiversary, ix, 2753 
Exhibition of 185 1, vii, 2057 
Exhibitions, Ffench, vii, 2058 
Exmodth, Lord, vi. 1966^ 1986 
expedition to Algiers, iii. 986 
ExFxoxTiON ov THE TiH THOusano. L 

396 • 
Expulsion op QuKKir Isabzleji. Th^ 

▼ii, 2220 
Expulsion op the PEisiSTEATii. i. 

Expulsion of the TAagtnvSt i. xao 
Eylau, battle of. vi, 1882 

Faber, Peter, iv. 1181 

Fabian tactics ot Prospero Colonna. nr. 

1 137 
Fabianua, martyrdom of, ii, 4S1 
Fabius, i, 263 
Fabri, the, i, 3x2 
Faidherbe, General, vii, 2231, 2253 
Fairfax, v^ 1382 

Faliero, Marino, becomes Doge, iu. 679 
conspiracy of, iii, 880 
aignal for action of, iii, 882' 
execution of, iii, 883 
Falkirk, battle of, ▼, is$(S 
Fall op Babtloh, The. i, t88 
Fall op CAaTRAox, The, li, 383 
Fall of Constantinoplb. The, iH, 953 
Fall op Geeecb, The. ii, 3^ 
Fall op the DBcvmrntATB, 1. a6i 
Fall of Tyxe mvo th* Sibge oy 

Jerusalbic, The, !• 148 
Fall op Zenobia and pALifTiA, H, 510 
Falliires, Tiii, a^6 
Family Compaet, t he, ▼ , .1622 
Famine, amqr cmsMcn . li, 7'4 



Farel, iv, iiq6 

Farewell Filsrimage snd Mecca, li, 579 

Fannan, Henry, ix, 2858, 2872: x. 3529 

Famese, Alesouider. Diflce m Parna, 
iv, 124^ 

Farragut, ▼11, 21$^ 

Tlie Crucifixion. H. 454 
The NatiTity of Christ, ii, 431 

Father, power of the, i, 268 

Fatimitea, the, defend Jernsalem, it, 716 

Fatrah, the, ii, 573 

Favre, vii, 2255 

Fawkes, Guy, capture of, iv, 1310, 


The Nile Dam at Assouan, riii, J459 
Fealty, ii, 697 
Fen Country, the. 11, 559 
Fenian rising in Great Britain, rii, 2219 
Fenians, yii, 22x0 
Feodor, ii, 632 
Ferdinand (£mperor), death of. It, 

Ferdinand of Ara^on, xii, 994 

musters troops, tii, loox 

covets Naples, iv. 1074 

suppresses the Moors, iv, X074 

and Isabella receive keys of the Al- 
hambra, iii, 1007 
Ferdinand of Bulgaria assumes title of 

Czar, ix, 2794 
Ferdinand L ox Naples, vi, X96X 
Ferdinand II. of Naples, vii^ 2x43 
Ferdinand VII. of ojpain^ vi, 195^ 
Ferdinand, Duke of Styria, dected em- 
peror, iv. X3A9 
Ferdinand of Talavenu iv, X065 

The Invasion of Tamerlane, iii, 904 
Feudal, baron, the, ii, 605 

system established in England, ii> 7x9 

tarons in England, xii, 768 

tenure, ii, 69^ 

principles, uixiversality of, H, 701 
Feuillants, the, vi, 1745, X783 
Field of the Cloth ow Gold, iv, ixs6 
Field of the Qoth of Gold, tourneys at» 

iv, 1133 
Field, Cyrus, vii, sat4 
Fifty Years* War, i, 284 


TRs ''MxaaiMAC," The, viL 2x67 
Finland, privileges of^ vii, 2166 

Constitution of, viii, 2639 

The Lisbon Assassination, ix, 2777 

iHre-worship, i,_58 


FiEST Consul, the, vi, X849 
FiasT CausAOB, The, iif 704 


FiasT Jacobite Rebslliov, The, ▼, 

FixsT RUSSIAN PASLtAimrr, The, vlil« 

FtiET Voyage Abound the Wokld, iv, 

Fitz-Walter, iii, 766 
Flagellants, the, iii, 871 
Plamen Qairinalia, i, ^xs, 9x7 
Flanders, joins Crasaac, iit, 7J8 
refuses to be faxed, id, goB 

Flemiili refug ee ! kt EngtiTid, iv, 2 ass* 

Fleurus, battle of, v, 1463 

Flight of the Dalai Lama, The, ix, 

Flodden Field, battle of, iv, 1096 

Flodden Ridge, iv, xoq6 

Florence, becomes a Republic, ii, 730 
loses Pisa, iv, 1038 
hostile parties in, iv. 1058 
Republic of, lestored, iv, 1x68 

Florida purchased by United Stalefl» 
▼i, X954 

Food Bill, Pure, viii, 2533, 2675 

Forbes, A. H., ix, 2892 

Force Laws, vii, 22x9 

Ford Castle demolished by the Scots, 
iv, X097 

Fort Duquesne, taken by^ French, ▼, x6oo 
Braddock encamps within tea miles 

of, V, x6os 
captured by Washington, v, 1630 

Fort Edward, vi, 170^, X705 

Fort Niarara capturea, v, 1630 

Fort St. Elmo, attacked, iv, xaaa 
falls, iv, X223 

Forth BridgCj vii, 2297 

Forum, the, 1, 3x8, 320 

Foscari dejposed, iii, 981 

Fouch£, VI, X948 

Founding oy Cakthagj^ The, i« 79 

Founding of Chaldea^ The, i, 45 

Founding or Constantinople, The, ii, 

Founding ov Rome. The, i, 112 

Foukth CausAOB, the, ill, 731 

France, invaded by the Araoa, ii, 6es 
laid waste, ii, 608 
John of England, successes of, ia» 

iii, 765 
Invaded by the English, iii, 895 
claimed t^ Henry V. of En^aiid, 

iii, 924 
invaded by Henry V. of England 

iii, ^26 
condition of, iii, 935 
declares war against Venice, xv, 1078 
debt of, vi, 1738 
becomes a Republic, vi^ 1767 
constitution ot 1795, vi, 1797 
new goverxunent of, vi, 1850 
First Empire of, vi, 1885 
declares war against Alters, vi, 1988 
revolution of 1848 in, vi, 2037 
prosperity in, under Second Empire, 

vit, 2084 
Second Empire of, vii^ 2080 
Second Republic of, vii, 2080 
alliance with Piedmont of, vii, atjc 
declares war against Prussia, vii, 

invaded by German army, vH, 2248 
surrenders to German army, vis, 2250 
a Republic, vii, 2257 

France and Germany sign Moroccan 
treaty, ix, ^2822 

Franche<:omt^ the States of. Si, 918^ 

Francis I., tabes Milan, iv. iijgo 
appearance at Field of the Oolli of 

Gold, iv, 11^2 
Titian's postrslt of, i¥, ixja 



Fnacte L p cr t e tutM tte VMidois. It, 

Fnmds of Lorrmiae^ ▼, iS9a 
becomes Emperor, ▼, 159$ 
Francis Jose^, Emperor of Austria, 

vii, 41 41 
celebrates his Djamond Jubilee, isc, 

Frandacan Order of Mendicant Friars 

founded, iii, 74' 
Franco. Joao, ix, 2778, S783 
FiAMCo-GnifAH Was, Thb« Tii, SS44 
Franconians and Saxons, conTentioa o^ 

>i* 645 
Frankfort, Declaration of, ti, 1938 
Frankfort, fairs at, vii, 4057 

peace of, vii, 4356 
Frankish monarch, friendship of, wioi 

Rome, ii, 6xi 
Franklin, Benjamin, ▼. 1641, 1671 

Centenarr of, viii, 4686 
Franklin, Sir John. vi. 4015 
Franks, invade Gaul, Spain, and Africa, 

ii. 509 

importance of the, it, 643 
Franz, Grand Duke, ▼, 1576 

losies of, ▼, 1^78 
Frateschi, the, iv, 1058 
Frederic I. (of Germany), U, 7ao 
Frederick, the Elector Palatine, iy. 1350 
Frederick I., King of Prussia, v, 1^89 
Frederick I. of Schleswig-Uolstein be- 
comes King of Denmark, iv, xz68 
Frederick VII. of Denmark, viii, 4666 
Frederick VIII., King of Dennurk, 

death of, x, 3x77 
Frederick William III., vi, X944i 194^ 
Frederick of Naples, iv, X035 
Frederick of Sicily, iii, ^60 
Frederick II. of Sicily, iii, T^y 
Frederick of Swabia, li, 744; iii, 774 
Frederick XL heads Fifth Crusade^ 

iii. 778 
Frederick II., Emperor, iii, 840 
Frederick of Prussia (the Great), ▼, 

1593. 16x7 . 

comes to the throne, ▼, 1590 

successes of, v, 1647 

and Joseph, v, 1663 

invades Saxony, v, 1618 

invades Bohemia, v, x6i8 
Frederick Barbarossa, ii, 74^^ 

starts for the Holy Land, 11, 743 

chastises Romans, iii, 856 

death of, ii, ^24 

legendary resting-place of, ii, 744 
Free Trade, vi, 2001, 4006 

The Reign of Akbar, iv, 1191 ^^ 

Social and '^ithridatic Wars, ii, 407 
French, army at Crecjr, iii, 849 

lack of discipline, iii, 848 

nobility, flight of the, iii, 888 

at Ap^mcourt, iii, 9^7 

condition of the, vi, 1768 

driven from Genoa, iv, io8s 

invasion of Ireland, vi, 1843 

Empire, First, vi, 1885 

Empire. Second, vii, 4084 

enter Mexico, vii, 4174 

invade Germany, v. 1498 

invade Flanders, Ti» 1770 

at Affincourt, iii, 931 

losses at Crecy* iii. Ssa 

fleet destroyed at Ummmt, au tH 

•rmv, flifflit of, ixi« 8s i 

exluMtioni^ vii, 2058 

pessantrv, rising of the, iii, 88s 
"French Fury," the. br, 1444 „,_ 
FtewcH RavoLUTiov or 1848, Th^ 

vi, 4037 
French, Major-General. Tiii, 1380 
Friedland, battle of, -rt, 1884 
Frimont, General, vi. 1964 
Fronde, end of the, ▼, 1397 
Frondeura, the, ▼, 1390 

The Reformation in Scotland, iv, X4t4 
Frundsberff, George, !▼, 114^ 
Fulk of Neuilly preaclies Fourth Onh 

sade, iii, 734 
Fulton, Robert, vi, 1857; ▼", J069 

precursors ox, vi, 1857 
Furst of Uri, ill, 814 

The Battle of Trafalgar, vi, jSrt 

The Moscow Campaign, vi, 1887 


Strikes, ix, 3064 
Gage becomes Governor of Massachu- 
setts, V, 1680 
Galba becomea Emperor of Rome, ii, 4o4 
Galerius, ii, 483, 541 

edict of, ii« 484 
Galileo, v, X374 
Galliano, Major, vii^ 4484 
Gallican Church, iii, 951 
Gallienus, ii, $09 

(Emperor of Rome) treatment of 
Christians, ii, 484 ^,, 

Gallipoli. the Ottomana conquer, iii, 878 
Galton, Francis, ix, 4746 
Gamarra. Major, capture of, vi, I9<4 
Games, laws regarding, i, 143 
Ganges, Tamerlane marcnea to the, iii, 

Gapon, Father, viit, 4675 
Garcia, Manuel, viii, 4600 

The Colonization of Virginia, iv, H9^ 
Garibaldi, vii, 4136, 4140, 4144, si4S» 

Gaa, VI, 1983 

Gaston, Duke of Orleans, ▼, 1393 

Gaston de Foix, Due de Nemours, !▼» 

Gaston Phoebus, Count of Foix, bravery 

of, iii, 891 
Gatacre, General, vii, 4354; viii, 4376 
Gates, General, vi, 1709 
Gates, Sir Thomas, iv, 1301^ 1304 
Gautramela, destruction of, iv. 1340 
Gaul, conquered by the Visigoths, u, 560 

becomes the seat of Qovis*8 nnff* 
dom, ii, 561 

Cisalmne, 1, 357 

transalpine, ii, 406 

Cesar's conquests in, ii, 413 
Gauls, invade Rome, i, 3x0 

invade Etruria, i, 31 x 

r ttoi.*; 


QtmiM, grkvanees of tlie, i» 31a 

enter Rome, i, ^z8 
yictory of the, i, 314 
defeated by CamiUut, i, 323 
march to Rome, i, 313 
repulsed, i, 322 
Gaul'b FiasT Attack on Romb, Tmm, 

Gaumata, 1, ao5 
Gautama, birth of, i* 124 

▼tmth of, i, xas 

birth of hia aon, i, ij6 

fliffbt of, i, 12$ 

influence 6i, i, 134 

becomes an ascetic, i, 129 

studies philosophy, i, 129 

temptations of, i, xaS 

disciples of. i, 130, 133 - 

itinerary ox, i, x^3 
Gautama Buddha. 1, 124 

Rise and Fall of the Mexican Empire^ 
▼ii, 2x72 

The Great Siberian Railway, Tii, 2289 
Geese save Rome, i, 322 
Gelaleddin, heroism of, iii, 750 
Gelimer, King of the Vandus, ii, 563 
Gemblours, battle of, iv> 1242 
Geneva, a centre of the Reformation, 
iv, ixx6 

Convention, vii, 2108 

Court of Arbitration, yii, 2257 
Genius of Pastbus, Thb^ x, 32x3 
Genoa, victorious over Pisa, iii, 803 

capture and pillage of, iv, 1x38 

freedom of, restored, iv, 1x53 

Constitution of. iv, 11 64 

illustrious families of, iv, X165 
Genoese at Crecy, iii, 848 
Genseric, the Vandal, ii, 532 

conquers North Africa, li, 535 

sacks Rome, ii, 560 

carries spoil to Carthage, ii, 564 
"Gentleman's Magacine" founded. ▼« 

Geok-Tepe captured, vii, 2273 
GeorjB^e V. of England, coronation «f, 
ix, 3010 

visits India, x, 3139 

is proclaimed Emperor, x, 3x06 
George, King of Greece, vii, 2156 
Georgia conqnered by the Turks, il, 

Georna founded, v, X57X 
Gepld» kingdom destroyed, ii, «6^ 
Gerard, Bafthasar, assassinates William 

of Orange, iv, X244 
Gerberge, daughter of Henry I. of Ger< 

many, ii, 646 
German, army evacuates France, yii, 

army, the, vii, 2246 

army enters France, vii, 2248 

confederation, vii, 2254 

emperor, first, vii, 2254 

crusade, Iii, 776 

Parliament, nrst, vii, 2054 

rebels, craft of the, ii, 444 

rapacity of, in Venice, iv, X079 

crueltv of tlie, iv, 1080 
Gtnnama]% auocfuci of, ii, 4S3 

GermamaUk dentil of, U, 453- 
Germans, ferocity of the, ut 449 

victory of, ii, 450 
Germany, condition of, in lytk ccntttxy. 
iv, 1362 

reUtion of, with the Empire, ii, 6%g, 
unitv of, il, 65s »-•»«• 

rebellion in, ii, 654 
becomes a nation, ii, 6^ 
re-creation of, v, 1633 
revolution of 1848 in, vii, 2052 
importance of, vii, 2256 

and France sign Moroccan treaty, ht, 
2822 ^' ^ 


Hudson's Last Voyage, iv, X3a6 
Gessler. bailiff of vA, Iii 814 ^^ 
^and WiUiam Tell, lif, 8x5 
Gettysburg, dedbription of, vii, 2191 

battle of, vii. 2190 
Gewissas, the, li, 556 
Ghent, pacification of, iv, X24X, 1243 

The Arab Conquest of Spain, ii, 591 
The Conquest of Persia, ii, 582 
Conquests of Zingis Khan, xii, 744 
The Fall of Constantinople, iu, 05a 
Fall of Zenobia and Palmyra, ii, 310 
Invasion of Italy by AttiU. Founda- 
tion of the Republic of Venice and 
Destruction of Attila's Empire, ii 


King Manuel in Exile, ix, 2945 
Gibraltar, ii, <9s 

surrender of, v, 1490 
Giolitti, vii, 22^ 
Girondists, the, vi, 1745, 18x0 
Gisoorne, Mr., vii, 2213 
Giselbert, Duke of Lorraine, ii, 646 
Giunta, the. iii, 883 
Glacidas. (Seg Guidsdals, Six WtL> 


Gladsdale, Sir John, at Orieans, iii, 946 

GUdsdale, Sir William, at oSUni,^ 

_, 944. 949, 

Gladstone, vii, 21 A3, 2259, 2261 

Glanvil, Ranulf, ia, 725 

Glencoe (Scotland), v, 1464 

(South Africa), Boers defeated at, 
vii, 2370 
Glorious Rxvolutiom, The. v, X439 
Gloxious Rxvolutiom in Skivia. A« 

vin, 2478 
Gloucester, li, 557 

siege of. ▼• i379 
Godfrey de Bouillon, ii, 708, yxx 

elected baron of the Holy SepulfOhre^ 
ii. 718 

wars of, ii, -718 

in Jerusalem, ii, 719 

takes Jerusalem, li, yty, 7x9 
Godoy, vi. 1766 
Gold, discovered in California, vi, J0s6 

in the Klondike, vii, 2327 

in New South Wales, vii, 205<( 

in the Transvaal ^ vii, 2288 
Golden Bo<dc, the. iv, 1x62, xid4 
Golden Dragon of Wessex, the, ii» 6r7 
Golden Itde. Confucius's, i, 176 
Goletta, fortress of, ii, 396 



GolgoCtef 4Mcriftioa •£. ii, 45I 

Jo« MifiMl, elected President 

of Cubft, ix, 9794 
Gondomar, !▼• 1343 
Qotkdj, Jean raul d^ ▼, 1390, 1393 
Goniiiga, Frederick at, iv, 1156 
Gordon Riots, the, Ti, 1716 
Gore, Grshsm, discovers K. W. passage, 

▼i, aoaa 
Gorges, Sir P., ir, iap3 
Gorm, King 01 the Danes, ii, 650 
Gortcliakoflr Prince, Tii, 2113, 21 $9, 

Gosnold, Bartholomew, iv, 139a, 1^96 
Gothic monarch^^ state of the, ii, 59s 

army of the^ 11, 595 

fall of the, li. 597 
Goths, attack Asia Minor and Greeee, 
ii, 500 

invade lUyricum, ii, 533 

enter Gaul, ii, 535 

cross the Danube, ii, ^34 

conauered by Clovis, u, ^61 

battles with Belisarius, ii, 564 

take Rome, ii, ^66 

and Saracens, it. 591 

degeneracy of toe, ii, 593 

defeat of the, ii, 596 

invade the Empire, ii, 509 

in Scythia, ii, 634 
Gracchi, the, ii, 409 
Gracchus, Tiberius, the Younger, B» 


The Siege of Jerusalem, ii, 485 
Gran, capture of, v, 141 1 
Granada, conquered by the Almohadea, 
ii, 720 

Inquisition established in, iv, 1075 

fall of, iii, xoo6{ X009 

destruction of. iii, xoos 
f kingdom of, founded, iii, 778 
Granicus, battle of the, i, 336 
Granson, battle of, iii, 981 

Braddoclrs Defeat, v, x6oi 
Grant, Ulysses S., vii, 3179, 3306 
Grantham train wreck, ix, 3753 
Granvella, Cardinal, iv, 1231 
Great Britain gains Burma, vii, 3388 

conquests of, vi, xSia 

treaty of, with United States, vii, 3183 

embassies of, to China, vi, 3008 

first wars of, with China, vi, 2009 
GasAT DivoacB in France, The, viii, 

GaxAT Eaethquake at Lisbon, The, 

V, 1609 
Crtat Eastern^ the, vii, 3314, 3318 

wreck, viii, 3634 
Great Exhibition. The, vii, 3057 
Geeat Siberian Railway, The, vii, 

Great Triumphs or Napoleon, The, 

vi, 1879 , , 
Greece, heroes of, 1, 34 

a sovereign State, vi, 1978 

invaded by Turks, yii, 3337 

made a kingdom, vi, 1980 

an autonomous State, vi» 1976 

fall of, ii, 405 

Greece becomes a Romnn Provinee* n, 

397;- ii. 404 

(5tf# also Baxkam States) 
Greek, fixe, ii, 603; iii, ^SS 

language, genval use of tfa^ a, 
63 K 

Emperor agrees to pay tribiile ts 
Russia, ii, 643 

the lan^naae ci Chnstiuutf • u« S3* 

Church in Russia, ii, 63a 

warriors, appearance ot» i, 340 

States, Leaigue of, i, 333 

lavn^ i, 364 

civilizatidn, spread of, i« 336 

genius, i, 337 . . 

cmbsssy to Persia, i« 319 

States, independence of, ii, 381 
Greeks, massacre of, v, x66a 

in Constantinople, cowardice of the* 
iii» 738 

rout of the, at Constantinople, iii, 971 

perfidy of the, ii, 6^0 

in Constantinople insulted by Cru- 
saders, iii. 739 

treacherv ot the, ii, 71X 

defeated by the Turin, ii, 703 

Join Cyrus, i. 398 

The Conquest of Ireland and CoJam> 
zation of Ulster, iv, laSj 

The Conquests of Bengal and Canada, 
V, 1634 

Defeat of the Spanish Armada, iv, 

The Glorious Revolution, v, X439 

Prosecution of John Wilkes and Pass- 
ing of the Stamp Act, v, 16^6 

Norman Conquest of England, li, 673 

The Rise of Methodism and the New 

Philanthropy, v, X58X 

The Saxon Conquest of Britain, ii, 

enland, discovery and settlement of, 
ii, 636 

Gregorios, execution of, vi, 1970 
Gregory III., peril of, ii, 614 
Gregory VI^ Pope, ii, 68x 
Gregory VII. (the Great), ii, 530, S33 

Pope, ii, 681 

power of, ii, 683 

infirmities of, ii, 685 

policy of, ii, 686 

holds synod at Rome, il, 688 

influence of, ii, 686 

difficulties of, ii, 687 

excommunicates Henry IV. of Ger- 
many, ii. 690 

holds svnoa in the Vatican, ii, 690 

(See also Hildbbrand) 
Gregory IX., Inquisition begins under, 

iii. 755 
Gregory XII., Pope, iii, 914 

abdicates, iii, 918 
Grenfell, Sir Francis, vii, 3378 
Granville, v, 1636, 1639 
Gr6vy, President, vii, 3296 
Grey, Lord, iv, 1386 
Grey, Sir Thomas, iii^ 827 
Grpchov, battle of, vii, 3x59 

The Suez Canal, vii, 3337 
GiowTH OP the Fapact, the, ii, 539 




GuadelouDe flettkd, ▼, 13^ 

Guelf ana Ghibclline £aetioaB, ii, 720 

Guiana, claims to, iv, 1344 

Guiacard, Robert, ii, 633, 687 

Guise, Duke of, attibcks Calais, i, 202; 

The Peaoe of Utiecht, v, 1527 
Gunhilda, prophecy of, ii^ 664 


Gunpowder Plot, iv, 131a 

Gustaye V., ix, 3776 

Gustavus Adolphus, iv, 1352, 1355 

death of, iT,.i359 
Gustavus of Sweden, ▼. 1667 
Gustavus III. (Sweden), assassinated, 

vi, 1766 
Gutenberg, Johannes, iii, 981 
Guy, King of, ii, 723, 728 
Gitzerat, conquered by Akbar, iv, 1266 
Guzman, Dominic, iii, 755 
Gylippns, i, 287, 290, 292 
Gyrwas, the, ii, 559 


Haakon VXI., King of NoawAY, viii, 

Haakon VIL, of Norway, viii, 261U 

Habeas Corpus Act, iii, 771 
Habeas Corous Bill, v, 1402 
Haco I. of Kormandy, iii, 772 
Hadrian, Pope, ii, 616 
Hague, Court of International ArMtrar 
tion, viii, 2410 

Conference, ot 1890, ix, 2977 
-Hainault joins Crusauie, iii, 733 
Hakluyt, Richard, iv, 1292 
Halkett, Sir Peter, v, 1603, 1608 

Revolutions in Rome, iii, 855 
Halley. Edmund, ix, 2915 
Halley^s Comet, ix, 2913, 28S12 
Ham, i, 28 

Hamburg, ii,- 6271 !ii, 840, 845 
Hamikar, ii, 359, 364 
Hamilcar. Phameas, ii, 390 

Japan and Korea, ix, 2764 

The Orenburg-Tashkent Railway, viii. 

The Persian Crisis, ix, 2735 
The Rise of the Young Tuiks, ix, 
Hamilton, Richard, v, 1456, 1458, 1460 
Hamilton, Lieut 'Colonel, v, 14TO, 1471, 

HamfKlen, death of, v, 1380 

regioent of, v, 1376 
Hancock, vii, 2193, 2196 
Handwriting on the wall, i, 190 
Hanifism, ii, 574 
Hannibal, invades Italy, i, 357 

defeated at Nola, i, 358 

genius of, ii, 363 

hears news of Haadmhal, 11, 370 

learns of Hasdrubal'a dc«th, ji, j8o 

recalled from Italy, ii, 981 

death of, ii, 382 

Hanover, Treaty o^ v« 1596 
Hans of Dennimc, iii, 64^ 
Hansa AlamanniBi tfae, su, 640 

decline of the, iii, 844 

Diet, last meeting of the, v, 1398 
Hansa, definition of, iii, 8^7 
-Hanseatic League^ Thb, in, 837 
Hanseatic League, origin of, iii, 776 

character of, iii, 843 

last assembly of, iii, 845 

effect of Reformation on, iii, 845 
Hapsburg, Counts of, iii, 813 

House of, v, 1592 
Harald Hardrada, ii. 67< 
Harfleur^ the English take, iii, 916 
Harmodius, death of, i, 212 
Harold Bluetooth, ii, 653 
Harold, Earl of Wessex, becomes King 
of England, ii, 672 

oath of, ii, 674 

difficulties of, ii, 675 

army of^ ii, 677 

death of. ii, 679 
Harold Goldtooth, death of, ii. 6a8 
Harold Haarfager, ii, 629 
Haroun al Raimid, ii, 6ix 
Harpagus, i, 181 

The Suffragette Movement, ix, J959 

The Boxer Movement, viii, 2398 
Haadrubal, death of, ii, 359 

expedition of, ii, 364 

troubles of, ii, 366 

crosses the Pyrenees, ii, 366 

enters Ital^, ii, 368 

march of, ii, 368 

movements of, ii, 371 

prepares for battle, ii, 377 

sends a message to Hannibal, ii, 37a 

retreat of, ii, 376 

death of, il. ^79> 3851 39' 

massacres prisoners, ii, 392. 395 
Haahim, Monammed's grandutther, ii* 

Hassan Bey, vi, 1844 
Hassan, Gazi, v^ 1662 
Hassan Pacha, harangue of, vi, 1730 
Hastings, Count of Chartres, li, 630 
Hastings, Warren, goes to India, v, 

Governor of Bengal, v, 1667 
resignation of, vi, 1725 
trial of, vi, im< 
Havana capturea b]r English, v, 1635 
Havelock, Henry, vii, 2130 
Hawaii, first Territorial Legislatttre i>f, 
viii, 2410 
annexed to the United States, vii* 
Hawke, Admiral, v, 1629 
Hawkins, John, iv, 1258 
Hawkwood, Sir John, iii, 933 
Hayti. Independence of, vi, 1856 
The Great Divorce in France, V!iii» 

The Black Death, iii, 862 
The Flight of the Dalai Lafltt, ix, 



Ueigfcts Qf AbrakAin. the, ▼. 1631 

Helena, mother of Conttintine, ii, s^ 

Helena, Queen. iSwg Elbma, Qubv) 

HelifoUad, ri, 1906; vii, 3197 

Hellenk League, the, i, a59 

Hellespont, the, ii, $34 

Helveuc Confederation, vi, 1886 

Helvetic Republic, ri, 1834 

Hengest. landing of, ii, $47 

Henry II. (England), wart of, tii. 76^ 

Henry III. (England), murder of, iii, 


refutet to obsenre the Proyiaona, 
iii, 783 

pledget hit kingdom to the Pope, iii, 

bravery of, iii, 788 
Henrjr V. of England daimt France, 
iii* 92A 

invades Prance, iii, 9^6 

rewardt after Agincourt, iii, 933 

conquers Normandy, iii, 93^ 
Henry VI. of England proclauned King 

of France, iii, 934 
Henry VII. of England, iSt* Rich- 
mond, Eaal of) 

treaty with Hans of Denmark, Iii, 

HcnryVlII. at Field of Cloth of Gold, 
iv, 1 131 
and Francis I., meeting of, prepara- 
tions for, iv, 1 1 28 
destroys monasteries, iv, 1169 
Henry III. of France, alliance with 
Henry of Navarre, iv, ia7S» 1*70, 

Henry IV. of France defeats the 
Henry of Navarre, iv, 126J 


iry Iv. 01 rn 
League, iv, 1277 
irv of Navarre, iv, 
weading of, iv, 1264 
becomes Henry IV. of France, iv, 
1271, 1277 
Henry, Duke of Guise, iv, 1265, 1267, 

Henry the Fowler, ii, 645 
Henry I. refuses consecration, ii, 6^5 
Henrv I. of (Germany compels submis- 
sion, ii, 646 
forei^ foes of, ii, 646 
frontier campaifrns ot. ii, 648 
makes truce with the Hungarians, 

ii, 6a7 
strengthens the Carman towns, ii, 

preparations of, for war, ii, 647 
Insults the Hungarians, 11, 648 
victory over the Hungarians of, ii, 

death of, ii, 651 
enry III., the Black, goes to Rome, 
if, 681 

Henry IV. (Germany), ii, 681 
support of, ii, 683 
wins victory at Hohenburg, ii, 683 
rebellion a^inst, iii, 683 
policy of, ii, 682 
escapes from Hartzburg, ii, 683 
forced to submit, ii, 691 
holds council at Worms, ii, 689 
letter of, to the Pope, ii, 689 
deposed, ii, 690 

Henry IV.. death of, ii, r— 

goes to Pavia, ii, 692 

poaitioa of, iL 6^1 

■umiltatioa ot, ii, 69J 

excommunicated, ii, 090 
Henry VI., Emperor, ii, 730 

death of, iii, fzz 
Heradidje, the^ 1, 83 
Heradittt delivers O)nstanrinoplr, i» 

Herbert, Sidney, vii, 2107 
Herbert, Sir Walter, iii. 996 
Herculaneum, excavationa bccmi, t, 

Herculet, pillars of, ii, 59t 
Hercynian, forest, the, u, 447 
Herman of Salza, iii, 774 
Hermann, Bishop of Meti, ii, 691 
Hermippus, i, 60 
Hermit Kingdom, the, ix, 2764 
Hernici, wars of, with Rome, i, 3aa 

The Conouest of Lydia, i, 179 
Heroes of Chiehitta, the, iii, 91 z 
Herrera, Posaos, vii, 2223 
Herring fisheries, iii, 844 
Hersilia, i, 116, 122 
Hertz, Heinrich, viii, 2393 

ray, vii, 2315 

waves, viii, 2393 
Herzegovina, vii, 2257, 2271 

annexed to Austria-Hungaryp ix, 9794 

Invention of Printing, iii, 973 
Hevelles, the, conquered by Henry L 

ii, 648 
Hexham, battle of, iii, 982 
Hezddan, i, 149 

preparations of, i, xsa 

sues for peace^ i, 153 
Hicks Pasha, vii, 2275 
Hieromnemon, the, i, 326 
Hildebrand, ii, 68 1 

becomes Pope Gregory VII., ii, 684 

(Ste also GasGOiY VII.) 
Hill, A. P., vii^ 2193 
Hill, (jeneral. vii, 2190 

The Destruction of St. Pierre, viii. 
Hilliers, Baragnai d*. General, vi, 1823 
Hipparchus, i, 207 

character of, i, 210 

death of, i, 211 
Hiopias, i, 207, 210, 236, 238 

dream of, i, 2^^ 
Hirsch, Baron, vu, 2297 

The Victoria Falls Bridge, viii. 2635 
Hoche pacifies La Vendue, vi, 18 12 
Hochkirch, battle of, v, 1620, 1627 
Hohenburg on the Unstrut, batOe oL 

ii, 683 

Battle of Mukden, viii, 2590 

The Siege of Port Arthur, viii, 2579 
Holland, snubbed, v, 1536 

importance of, v, 1493 

conauered by Pichegru, vi, 1796 
Holled-Smith, Colonel, vii, 2278 
Holy Alliance, the, vi, 1043 
Holy Lance, discovery of the, ii, 713 



Holy Letcue, the, !▼, X083, IJ51, laS^r 

defeated, iy, laSo 

against Turks, r, 1412 
Hoijr Roman Empire^ end of the> yi> 1886 
H0I7 See, becomes international power, 
"» 6x5 

and Pepin tlie Short, ii, 6x5 
Holy Synod, the, in Russia, r, 1569 
Holy War, the. ii. S77 

against the Phocians, i, 3^3 

third, i, 333 

Sultan preaches, vi. ij^s 
Homage, definition of, ii, 696 
Homer, i. 72 

Homicidal mania, vi, 1782, 1791 
Homo, the, i, 30 
Homo heidelbergensis, i, 33 
Honduras, Republic of, proclaimed* Tit 

Hong Kong ceded to English, vi, aoi4 
Honoris, the Princess, ii, 535, 543 
Horatius, i, 366 

Codes of, i, 330 

defends the bridge, i, 339 
Horn, Admiral, iv, 1333, X33y 
Horsa, death of, ii, 551 

landing of, ii, $47 
Hospitallers, ii, 730 
Hostilius, i> 1x7 

House of Burgesses, Virginia, v, 1681 
House of Chimhaxn. ii, 4^7 
House sf Lords (England), ix, 3048 
How THB Carbonaria Saved ths 


How THE LoRi>s SuaaENDBREo, ix, 3048 
Howard, John, v, x^89 
Howard, General, vii, 3193, 3196 
Howard of Effinghaxu, Lord, iv, 1357, 

Howe. Lord, vi, 1706 
Hubertsbnrg, peace of, v. 1633 
Hudson, Henrv, set adritt, iv, 1339 

arrives in New York ba^r, iv, 1336 

sails up Hudson River, iv, X337 

voyage of (1609), iv, X338 

voyage of (x6io)), iv, X338 
Hudson's Last Voyage, iv, X336 
HueJar, sack of, iv, 1073 
Hugo, Abbot of Cluny, ii, 691, 693 
Hugh of Vermandois, ii, 706, 7x3, 7x5 
Hughes, David, vii, 2258 
Hugo, Victor, vii, 2084 
Huguenots, the, iv, 1262 

cruelties suffered by, v, X4xs, 14x9 

flight of the, V, X4xf 

the, iv, 1265, 1267 
Huluku, enters Persia, iii, ^jB 

extirpates the assassins, xil, 778 
Human sacrifices, ii. 450 
Humber, estuary ox the, ii, 558 
Humbert, King, assassinated, viii, 3397 
Humboldt goes on voyage ox discovery, 

vi, 1837 _ 

Battle of Agincourt, lii, 925 

Battle of Crecy, iii, 846 

End of Wars of the Roses, iii, 995 

Sir Walter Raleigh's Expedition, iv, 


Suppression of the Greater Monas- 
teries, iv, 1169 

Suppression of tiie Templars, iii, 8x8 


The Exclusion Bill and HabeaJi 
Corpus Act, ▼, 1390 

The Expulsion of Queen Isabella, vii, 


Hundred Days, the, vi, X039 
Hundred Years' War, beginning ^f the, 

iii, 836 
Hungarians invade Pannonia, ii, 640 

the, ii, 646. 720 

truce with Henry I., ii, 647 

defeat of the, ii, 654 

invade Germany, ii, 649 

defeated by Turks, iv, xi68 
Huxigary, invaded by Turks, v, X406 

revolution of. vii, 3047 
Huxigerford, Sir Walter, joins Earl •£ 

Richmond, iii, 997 
Huniades defeats Mohammed II., iii, 981 
Huxis, retreat of the, ii, 535 

ravages of the, ii, $35 

attack the Goths, ii, 534 

the, ii, 634 

The Conquest of Mysore, vi, X760 

Battle of the Sea of Japan, viii, 360X 
Huss, John, tried for heresy, iii, 9x9 
Hussiiutz, James, iii^ 921 
Hussite wars, begixining of the, iii, 933 
Hussites, the, iii, 933 
Huythaciu i, ^6 
Hyder All defeated, vi, X7X7 

Ibrahim, vi, X972 
Ibrahim, Sultan, vi, 181 7 
Icilius, i, 363, 266 
Ida, i, 41 

Ida establishes the capital of the Eng- 
lish, ii. 560 
Igo, assassination of, ii, 643 ' 

leads expedition against Tsargrad, 
ii, 64X 

defeated, ii, 643 
Ildico, wife of Attila, ii, 543 
Illumination, ancient, vi, 198X 
lUyria, i, 357; ii. 405 
Illyricum, Sarmatians invade, li, 533 
Incas, the, iv, X093 

Independence, Declaration of, vi, X693 
Independents, rise of the, v, 1380 
Index, the, iv, XX84 
India, French influence in, vi, 1761 

first railway in, vii, 3opo 
Indian Mutiny, The, vii, 3x38 
Indians, of the New World, iii, X028 

on Manhattan Island, iv, 1326, 133X 
Indies, Council of the, iv, 1076 
Indifference, laws to prevent, 1, X4X 
Indulgence, Declaration of, v, 1437, 144X 
Inkerman, battle of, vii, 2104, 21x8 
Innocent I., ii, 530 
Innocent III, Pope, iii, 7^2, ^53 

deposes John of England, iii. 761 

his opposition to Fourth Crusade, iii, 

Inoculation for small-pox, introduction 

of, V, XS70 



Inanitttioa* bcsinamg «< the, in, 75s 

tnCf iv, 1 1 84 

established in Rome, !▼, X184 
establiahed in Spain, iii, 994 
estsbhsbed in Granada, it, 1075 
Inquisitors in Granada, iv, 1073 

work of the, iii, loii 
Institutes of Justinian, ti, «68 
International Arbitration, Hagoe Court 

of, viii, 2410 
International Law, Anerican Sodety 

of, viii, a6s8 
Ihto Tibet, riii, 2535 
Invasion op Italy by Attila, Founda- 
tion or TBB Republic op Venicx 


Empibk, ii. 536 
Invasion op Tamerlane, The, iii, 904 
Invention op Feinting, iii, 973 
Intention of the Steamboat, Tb^ 

vi, 1857 ^ r^ ^ 

Invention op the Steam-Enginb, The, 

v, 1650 
Investitures, ii, 681, 688, 7x9 
Invisible light, vii, 23 11 
Ionian Islands, united with Greece, Tii, 

Irak submits to the Caliph, ii, 586 
Ireland, Spanish and Papal invasion of. 
iv, 1286 

revolt in, iv, 1287 

and Queen Elizabeth, iv, 1283 

French invasion of, vi, 1823 

conquest of, ii, 720 

invaded by Cromwell, v, 1390 
Irene^ the Empress, ii, 623 
Iris, li, 420 
Irish, courage of the, iv, 1284 

Land League, vii, 2273 
Iron crown of Lombaroy, vi, 1836 
Irrigation, value of, viii, 2655 

The World's Beginning and Primitive 
Man. i, 25 
Irving, Sir Henry, death of, viii, 2639 

The Discovery of America, iii, 1020 
Isaac Comnenus, Emperor of Constanti- 
nople, iii, 738 
Isaac, i, 30 
Isaac, the Emperor, iii, 735, 74° 
Isabella of Castile, iii, 994t X003, 

iMbella of Spain, vi, 1990; vii, aaxoi 

2219, 2220 
Isap^oras, i, 217 

Isaiah, prophecy of, i, 149, 156 
Isdraeli, Bertuccio, iii, 88x 
Isis, the New, ii, 418 
Islamism, i, 6^ 

proscribed, iv, 1075 
Ismail, siege of, vi, 1735 
Issus, battle of, i, 336 
Isthmian Canal Treaty, viii, 2411 
Italian Colonization on the Red 

Sea, vii, 2280 
Italian Kcptiblics re-established, ii, 721 

States unite against Austria, vii, 2051 
Italians at Tbipou, The, x, 3081 
Italy, subjugation of, i, 323 

Italy, iMprorement o£, imder Tlneodarie. 
iif 56a 

■otithem, forma a league, it, 1034 

(upper) welcomes the French, it, 

condition of, iv, 1136 

calamities of, iv, Z157 

loses liberty, iv, Z157 

reformation in^ iv, X179 

kingdom of, vri, 21x6 

during revolution of 1848. Txi. 

and Abyssinia, vii, 2280 

Victor Emmanuel becomes King ori^ 
viii, 2397 

progress of, ix, 2086 

and Tripoli, war oetween, x, 3081 
Ito, Prince, assassinated, ix, 2872 
Ito, Sukehiro, vii^ 2300, 2308 
Ivan of Russia, xii, 98 x 
Ivri, battle of, iv, 1277 
lyiyoshi, the Shogun, vii, 2095, ^097 

conspiracv in. iii, 706 
ravaged by Turks, iii, 993 

Jackson, (general Andrew, vi, 196$ 
acobin, the, vi, 1782 
rabble, the, vi, 1785 

Jacobinism, vi, 1945 
acobins, the, i, 30; vi, 1743 
acobites, v, x54t> i545 
intrigues of the, v, 1542 

JACQUEEiB, The, iii, 884 
acquerie, the rising of the, iii, 886 
overthrown, iii, 892 

Jacques Bonhomme, iii, 886 
affa, capture of, vi, 1839 
, aiEer, Antoine, vi, 1815 
/alula, battle of, ii, 590 


. ames I. (England) and letter regard 

ing Gunpowder Plot, iv, 1309 
James II. (England), accession of, t, 
humiliation of, v, 1436, 1439 
raises Irish troops, v, 1441 
flight of, V, 1444 
retreat of, v, 145 1 
at' Donore, v, 1452 
army of, v, 1453. 1^84, 1486 
James IV. (Scotland), invades England, 
iv, xop6 
death ot, iv, xiox 
James (Pretender) arrives in Scotland, 
V, 1553. 
proclamation of, v, 1554 
returns to France, v, 1555 

Jameson Raid, vii, 2310 
amestown (Va.) founded, iv, X296 
Ter-Centennial Exposition, ix, ^7^3 
Janicnlum, the, i, 317 
Janizaries, the, iii, 969 
revolt of, Vj X490 
massacre ot, vi, 1985 
J^pan and Portuguese form a treaty, 

iv, 1x90 
Japan, opening of, vii, 2091 
opened, vii, 2134 
abolishes feudal ^stem, vn, 2236 
Japan and Kobea, ix, 2764 
Jtapetos, i, j8 

mac, battle af. Iv, 
^M Fureid* ii, «j 

^UKD, PlCBdeOt, ' 

unappei, batUE oi, i 
immmgca, battle of, 
uu, battle of, TJ. il 

[5m Jaut o* Aae) 
i, J646 

:n of, ii, 486 
deleace of, li, 487 
Utgc of. bejtini. il, 4M 
tamiiie in, 11. 481 
wallt of, li. 490 
horroii of funine io, ii, 491 
a funoiu aorue upoa, 11, 4^3 
fate of tbe Sanctuar; at, 11, 493, 4M 

Bcee ai tbc upper dtr of, ii, 499 

fair of, li, 496 

cooijueredby the Turin, ii, 703 

captured br SaladiQ, ii, Til 
Richard's marcb to, ii. Tag 
buroed b; Turks, iii, 77B 
Mcked by Turks, iii. 778 
leitiit KhDOla, iv, 118} 

Blitical iDSueoee. It, 11S3 
jnd miuian in Canada, ir, 1340 
(StM also SociiTt OF Juui) 

{RineSK Dorie, [he. vi, 1803 
Fwish blood in Spanish aobiUCr. Ui, 

Jewiah iDternational Conference, viil. 

Jevi, beroiim of the, ii, 48S 
and Mofaammed, ii, 581 
and Christiana, law regarding, ij, 4S0 
rewarded br Tarik, il, S96 

luSeringa of the, iii, 1 

John (Eofland), .. 
Pope, iii., 7<* „ 
•ucceaaei of, Id France, lu, ffis 

John of Giacliala. li, 4S8, 490 
ohn of Lerden. it, 116S 
Dhn, the Neciu of Abjauiua, tU, a 180, 
iiBi, 1183 
Jofan XXIII.^ Pope, iii, BeS 

John of Portunl, Sing, death of, iv, 

fohn ol Procida, iii, 797 
ohn VI. of Spain, Ti, igfis 
oinriUt, Sire de. iii, 731 
onei, John Paul, ™i, 1706 

oatba of Cru- 

j feai 

. T6t 

io«ph II. of Au«r!a, y. . 
Jo«phine, coronation of. Ti 

diTorce of. Ti, 1884 
. OBCphUB. ii, 486 
. otbua ben Gamala, ii, 49 

: Sin"'of'AMtriB, Don, iv. 

laaS, I, 






aeeL aid 


Uoors and Arabi, 

Jaws Exi 

fingo, origin of word, *ii, 1264 
it* extetminated br Tamberlane, Ui, 

J OAK or Aac ar Oiliahb, iii, 93; 
oan of Arc, iii, P38 

seeks the Dauphin, iii, p4'i 

Sd'" harlw "v'll.?' n*%so 
bealification of, ii, 2838 

John of Au«ria,"Don'^iv, 134»- (Str 

Do« JD*B 0» AUSI...I 

John (England), tskei 

T'po^'. 1 

DSlin t. f^pc'ior of tbe East, il, 5«i 

Diaest o't, i 
■■NoTcl." o: 

Kaabah, description of tbe, ii, 370 

I the Pope, 

KapiUvastu, i 
Kara Mu— '- 

icnption 01 UK, n, S70 

!A resolves to vitit tbe, U, 


The Sepvation of Norwaf rad 

Sweden, viii, a6i4 
Kara, fall of, vii, aizj 

capture of, Yii, aj63 

The Conqueat of Algeria, vi, loM 

The Peace Conference, viii, 2371 
Keith, General, ▼, 1574 
Kellerberg, Baron, vii, 2137 
KelleriBaii, ▼!, i77a» i774> i776, 1780 
Kelvin, Lord, quoted, i, 27 
Kenil worth, barons 1^ iii, 79a 
Kent, ii, 5^3 

German invasion of, ii, S54 

The Italians at Tripoli, z, 3081 
Katteler, Baron von, viii, 2397, a4Qa 
Keymia, Captain, iv, 1344 
Khan of the Keraitea. iSt£ Pistns 

Khyber Pass, vi, 20x4 
Kidd, Captain, v, 1489 
Klcf made the "mother of Ruaaiaa 

cities," ii, 640 
Kimberley, Boers attack,^ rii, 2370 
Kindling, methoda of, vii, 2074 
King Edward VII., ix, 2893 
King Manuel, in Exile, ix, 2945 

The Battle of Inkertnan, vii, axx8 
Kiahaneff, massacre of Jewa at, viii, 

Kitchener, General, vii, 2327, 2370 
Kit's Coty House, ii, 551 
Kleber, General, vi, 18391 l843f 1846 

assassinated, vi, 1856 
Klondike, gold discovered in, vii, 2327 

Battle of St. Quentin and the Lob of 
Calais, iv, 1x97 

Danish Conquest of Eiudand, ii, 658 

Destruction of Tea in Boston Harbor, 
V, 1668 

Field of the Cloth of Gold, iv, 1128 

The Gunpowder Plot, iv, 1306 

The Invention of the Steam- Engine, 
V, 1650 

The South Sea Bubble, t, 1558 

The Surrender of Comwallia at 
Yorktown, vi, 1718 
Knights of St John of Jerusalem, iH, 
773» 817; iv, 1220 

are given Malta, iv, 11 68 
Knights of the Calatrava founded, ii, 

Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, ix, 2763 
Knox, John, iv, 1207, 1214 
Kolyana, the, i, 124 
Komnra, viii, 2621 
Konigsmarck murdered, v. 1488 
Koran. (5"^* Qur'an) 
Korea, ix, 2764 

annexed to Japan, ix, 2929 

Emperor of, abdicates, ix, 2763 
Kossuth, vii, 2047, 2049 
Kotzebue, assassination of, vi, 1947 
Krasnoi, battle of, vi, 1902 
Krudener, Baroness, die, vi, 1943 

Kublaa Khaji» tiie FblM visits in. 8^ 

ind {ousg Marco Bcrfo, iii, 808 

ir-i^asaaer, i, 55 
Ktt-Klux, vii, 2219 
Kulm, battle of, vi, 1933 
Kunersdorf, batde of. v, 1627 
Kung, Prince, surrender by, of 

VI, 201^ 
Kutchuka Kainardji, peace of, t, 169^ 
Kutuaoff, General, vi, 1894, 1897, tSgOw 

1902, 1905 
Kwang Hsu, viii, 2398; ix, 2798 

Labanim, the, ii, ^22 
LaborHWving machinea^ vii^ J076 
Lacedemonians, habits of, 1, 9a 

discipline of, i, 92 

subjects of discourse of, i, 94 

the, f, 2X5, 298, 300 
Ladrones, the, iv, 11 23 
Ladysmith, vii, 2^70 
Lafayette, Marquia de, vi, 1741 

flight of, vi, 1746 
La FaoNDS, v, 1^86 
La Grande, Madeaoiselle, v, 1388^ 

La Hogue, battle of, v, 1481 
Lahore, conqueat of, by Akbar, it, 1266 
Lainez, lago, iv, xi8x, 1189 
Lake Erie, battle of, vi^ 1921 
Lamarmora, General, vii, 2135 

The Russian Conquest of the CrimeB. 
vi, X7a7 
Lambert, Count, Viceroy, of Poland. 

vii, 2 1 61 
Lamoricidre, General, vi, 1998, so4^ 

viL 2084 
Land League, Irish, vii, 2273 
Landais, Peter, iii, 995 
Lands, division of, i, 85 

Bannockbum, iii, 822 

Battle of Flodden Field, Iv, 105^6 
Langton. Stephen, Archbishop, in* 763 
Langtieooc, iii, ^53 

conqueat of, iii, 759 

rebellion in, ▼, 1420 
Lannes, General, vi, 1839, 1847 
Laomedon, i, 33 
Larancha, i, 51 

La Rochelle, headquarters of Hiigiie> 
nots, iv, 1262 

surrenders^ v, 1373 
La Salle aails down the Mississipid, ▼» 

Lars Porsena, i, 228 
Las Casas, Fra Bartolomf, iv, ro9x 
Last Sigh of the Moor, iii, X009 
Latb Dowagbk Empkbss or China, Tbm, 

n> 3795 
Latent heat^ Bladt'a theory of, v, 1653 
Latin America, tx, 2727 
Latin, Kingdom of Jerusalem, fan of, 

iii* 794 
Empire of Constantinople,, fall of 

the, iii, 742 
Latins make war on Rome, i, 231 
Laud, impeachment of, v, 1374 



Tke Dogger Bank gnd After, viii, 

Laiitrec, Manhal, ir, 1137 

enters Ital/, ir, ir49» iis« 

deatk of, it, 1x5a 
Lauzvn, r, 1455 
Law of Nations, i, 3xa 
Law regarding Jews and Chrilti«lig> 

ii, 480 
LaW| John, r, 1556 

failure of. r, x^^7, 1566 
Lawrence, John, tu, 2130 
Laws, i, 260, 261 

of Mosea, i, 31 

of Lycurgus, i, 84 

of Solon, i, 136 

trade^ i, 143 

marriage, i, zax 

to prevent indifference, i, 141 

concerning wills, i, 142 

regarding games, i, 143 

naturalization, i, 145 

regarding oil, i, 145 

regarding beasts, i, 145 \ 

regarding entertainments, 1, 14$ 

the new, i, 267 

Roman, ii, 408 

of Justinian, ii, 567 

of Zinns, iii, 745 

(Code Mapoleon), vi, 1853 

(March), Tii, 2050 
Laws of jLtcurgus, i, 84 
Laws op Solon, i, 136 
Layard, British Ambassador to Turkey, 

vii, 2263 
Laying of tbe Atlantic Ca^le, vii, 


Lbagub, The, iv, 1267 

LkAGUB of CjiMBRAY, iv, 1077 

League of Cambray, iv, 1077; ti, 18x3 
Leagub of thb Balkan States, The, 

X, 3372 
League. The Catholic, iv, 1350 
of Greek Sutes against Macedon, 

ii. 381 
Hanseatic, the, iii, 842 
Hanscatic, last assembly of, iii, 

The Holy, iv, X083, X251 
between Lubeck and Hamburg, iii, 


of Mallen, iii, 742 

the Southern (tuly), iv, X034 
Lebrun. vi, 1850 
Leczinski, Stanislaus, v, X59X. 
Lee, Robert, General, vii, 21 5*6, 3190 
Lcfcvrc, iv, 11 06 

Confucius, i, 168 

The Opening of (^ina, vi, 2007 
Legion of Honor, the, vi, 1852 
Leicester, ii, 559 
Leignitz, battle of, v. 1621 
Leipsic, disputation ox, iv, 11 09 

battle of, iv, 1356 
Lelius, ii, 39i« 393 

The Deluge, i. 35 , ^ 

First Destruction of Nineveh, 1, 96 

The Founding of (Carthage, i, 79 
Leo, Bishop of Rome, ii, 54> 

Le«, the eaperMr, determines to aboUiA 
the worsUp of inuiges, ii, 6x4 

Is eiccoaimimicated bj the Pope, Ii, 
Leo the Deacon, ii, $41 
Leo L. ii, S30> S3^ 
Leo III., tucceeds Pope Hadrian, ii, 

attack on, ii, 619 

motives of, U, 6ss 

serrated from the Eastern Empireb 
li, 6x1 
Leo Vl., the Philosopher, ii, 640 
Leo X. authorizes sale of induigenceib 
iv, XI 07 

treaty of, with Charles V^ iv, 113s 

death of, iv, 1x36 
Leo XIII., Pope, viii, 24S;i 

twenty-fifth anniversary of, viii, 4467 

statesmanship of, viii, 2490 

and jFrance. vifl, 249a, 249S 

activities of, vui, 2495 

early life of. viii, 2496 

position of tne Holy See during reign 
of, viii, 2496 

as cardinal, viii, 2^97 

is elected Pope, vui, 2498 

talents and characteristics of, viii, 
Leo XIII. A Retbospect, viii, 2490 
Leonidas, i, 247 
Leontls. 1, 243 

Leopold of Austria. Duke, captures 
Richard Coeur de Lion, ii, 730 

takes Crusaders to Germany, ii, 724 
Leopoldj Emperor, v, 1404 

and Sobiedd, v. X406 
Leopold, King of Belgium, death of, 

ix, 2872 
Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollem, vii, 

Lepanto, battle of, iv, 1228 
Lepire, M., vii, 2337 
LeiMdus, ii, 414, 418 
Lerin, the Count, cruelty of, Iv, 1079 
Lessej>s, Ferdinand de, vii, 2127, 2239; 

Viii, 25 IX 
Leucopetra, battle of, ii, 397 
Leuctra, battle of, i, 323 
Leuthen, battle of, v, 1619, 1627 
Levant Company, v^ x6oo 
Lewes, battle of, iii, 787 
Lewis and Claek Exposition, viii, 2646 
Lewis of Nassau, iv, 1237, 1263 
Lexington (Mass.), British retreat 

from, V, 168^ 
Leyden, University of, founded, hr, 
1 241 

siege of, iv, 1240 
Leyva, Antonio de, iv, X153 
Liakhoff, Colonel, ix, 2841 
Liberation of (jBnoa: Andrea Doru* 

iv, 1 1 59 
Libertines, the, iv, 11x5 
Libva, ii, 397 
Lichfield, ii, 559 
Licinius, ii, 521 

becomes Emperor of the East, U, 523 

death of, ii, 524 

The Fall of Carthage, ii, 383 

The Fall ef Greece, ii, 398 



Lig«7, bsrdc of, vi, f>^ 

Lilie, capture of, v. 1513 

"Lillibullero," ImUs^ off, ▼, 1441 

Lima founded, iv, 1004 

Lincriek. tlie «cge 01, v, 1463 

Linant fiey, vii, 22^8 

Lincoln, abolisbet slavery, Tii, S179 
upon slavery, vii, si 80 
■c i sa ^ of 1862, vii, 2184 
and bis divided cabinet, vii, 41B7 
and General Meade, vii, Jaos 
assassinated, vii, 2206 
Centenary celebrated, ix, 26aa 

Lindiswara, tlie, li, ^^8 

Linevitch, General, vni, 2600, d6ao 

Lion of the North, the, r, 1515 

li^ppe, ii, 445 

Lippmann, Professor^ vii, sjaa 

Liprandi. General, vii, "2x11 

Liquid Air, ix, 2849 

Lisbon Assassimation, Thje, ix, 2777 

Lisbon, earthquake at, v, 1609 

Lisle, Kouget de, vi, 1745 

Lister, vii, 22o€ 

Lindprand, King of the Lombards* iit 
endeavors to overrun Rome, ii, 614 

LivingstoBe, vii, 2257 

Lj^ua. ii. 370, 373, 378 

The Gaul's First Attack on Rooie, i, 
Loch Leven, iv, 121 2 
Locriana, the, i, 326 
Lodbrok, Regnar, ii, 628 

Radium and its Lessons, viil, 2517 

The Counter-Reformation^ iv, 1179 

The Hanseatic League, ui, 837 

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew, iv, 

Hise of the Dutch Republic, iv. XS30 

The Second Republic and the Second 
Empire in France, vii, 2080 

Western Europe and the Holj Alli- 
ance, vi, 1943 
Loiera, battle ot, iii, 880 
Loire, Army of the, vii, 2251 
Lombards, conversion of the, ii, 534 

attadc Rome, the, ii, 6ix 
Lombardy conquered by Charlemagne, 
ii, 611, 616 

Iron Crown of, vi, x8s6 

The San Francisco Disaster, villi 3687 
London, fortress of, ii, SS^ 

fall of, ii, 667 

siege of, ii, 668 

Tower of, ii, 680 

capture of^ iii, 767 

riot in, iii, 786 

Hansa, influence of the, iii, 8j9 

treatv of, vi, 1973 
Long Parliament, the, v. 1374 
Longatreet, General, vu, si 90, s»96, 

Longuevillcj the Duchesae dc^ ▼, X3S9, 

Longwy, cipture of, yi, nr7J 

Xrorraine, coiw^MtiL i l by JSxnry L. of 
Germany, 11, 640 

centre of Burgundian onpire^ la, 
984; vii, "SO, sa55 
Louis, s<m of Philip Anguatas. iii, 

Louis IX. (Saint), annuls Oxford n«- 
visLottS, iii, 785 

goes on Sixth Cmsade, xxi, 778 

taken prisoner in Egypt, xii, 778 

in Acre, iii, 778 

death of, iii, 794 
Ix>uis XI. humbles Burgundy, xv, zojx 
Louis XII., cruelties of, iv. 1078 
Louis XIV. comes of age, ▼, 1394, 1397 

vanity of, v, 141 4 

attacks Germany, y, 1441 

empire of, v, 1491 

power of, V, i4gi 

ambition of, v, 1494 

campaigns of, v. 1498 

letter of, to Philip v., ▼, 1530 

afflictions of, v, 1530 

death of, v, 1540, 1543 
Ix>uis XV., accession of, v, 1570 

marriage of, v, 1570 
Louis X Vl., marria^ of, while Daupidxx, 
to Marie Antomette, v, x6s9 

accession of, vi, 1738 

flight of, vi. 1744 

execution 01, vi, 1747 
Louis XVIII., vi, 194s. 1947, 1951, I9S3 

accession of, vi, 1941 
Louis Napoleon, exiled to Amedca, vi. 

1999. aoi3; VII, 2135 

elected President of France, vii, so&i 

policy of, vii, 2082 

constitution of, vii, 2085 

becomes Emperor, vii, 2086 

marriago of, vii, 2088 

character and policy of, vii, ao88 
Louis of Baden, v, 1463 
Louis Philippe, vL 1746, 2038, ao40 

abdication and mgbt of, vi, 2041 
Louisa of Savoy, iv. 1x40, 1134 
Louisbourg, siege of, v, 1596 

capture of, v, 1630 
Louisiana, v, 1403 

girchased by United States, vi* 1869 
urchase Act, viii, S646 
LouK, murder of, vi, 1965 
L'Ouverture, Toussaint, captured, vi, 

President, of Hayti, vi, 1856 
Louvois, Marquis de, v, 1415 
L^ola, Ignatius, iv, ii8x 
Ltroeck, importance of, iii, 840 

and Hamburg, alliance of, iii, 841, 
, 8^3. 845 865 
Lucanians, the, u, 4x1 
Lucius II«, death ot, ill, 656 
Lucknow, treaty of, vi, 1762 
Lucretia, story of, i, 222 
Lucullu^ ii, 385, ^98 
Lucullus, Lucius Ucinitui, ii, 4x3 
Ltiders Count (Pofaoid), vn, si6x 
Ludwig of Bavaria, vii, stK 
Ludwig II. of Bavaria, vxi, JS54 
Lumber industry, vxS, 0654 
Lune^Ue, troa^ of, vL los^ 
Luiitanla, wondexs of xoman «rchile» 
ture is, ii, 601 



Lusitamia breaks record, iz, 4775 
Luther, Martin, iv, 1105 

^outn of, iv, 1 1 06 

m Rome, it, 1107 

bums Papal bull. It, ixxo 

and 95 theses, iv. xxo8 

translates New Testament, ivt xiix 

marriage of, iv, 1112 

last days of, iv, 1x14 
Luttcr, battle of, iv, 115a 
Luxembourg, palace of the, v» 1488; 

vi, 1798 
Luxurjr, regulations against, i, 89 

decline 01, i, 86 
Lycurgus, i, 83, ao8 

valor of, i, 9a 

his regulations of burials, i, 94 
Lydians, bravery of the, i, x8o 

Cyrus surprises the, i, 180 

defeat of the, i, 1S2 
Lynine, fall of, il, 554 
Lyons, persecutions of Christiaiia tt, 
", 479 

The Battle of La Hogue, v, X477 
Battle of the Boyne, v, 1450 
The Massacre of Glencoe, v, x'464 
The Trial of the Seven Bishops, T, 

142 X 
The War Between Charles I. and the 

Parliament, v, 1375 

McCarthy, justin 

The Congress of Berlin, vii, SS59 
The Crimean War, vii, 2099 

How the Csrbonaria Saved the Portu- 
guese Republic, x, 3x87 
Macdonald, General, vii, 2352 
Macedon, pretender to throne of, ii, 

Macedonia, Rowing power of, i, 3S3 

state of, il, 400 
Macedonian, phalanx, i, 34s 
weapons, i, 343 
wars, ii, p8r, 397 
Machinery for agriculture, vii, S078 
Maclan of Glencoe, v, 1465, X470 
Mack, General, vi, 1874 

The Beginning of Free Trade, vi, 

2000 J 

The Emancipation of the Serfs, vii, 

End of the Pope's Temporal Power 
and Unification of Italy, vii, 

Modern Inventions, vii, 2068 
McKinley, President, assassinated, viii, 

241 1 
MacMahon, Marshal, vii, 2247, 2257 
Madagascar discovered, iv, X076; vii, 

2287, 2310 
Madayn, sack of, ii, ^87 
Madero, Francisco L, ix, 300^ 

goes to the United States, ix, 3005 
provisional President of Mexico^ ix, 

elected • President, ix, 3080 

Madras, acquired by the English, v, 

built, V, 1374 

presidency, the, vi, 1765 
Madrid, treaty of, iv, X143 
Madriz, Jose, elected President of Ni- 
caragua, ix, 2872 
Maes. Army of the, vii, 2249 
Mafeking, Boers attack, vii, 2370 
Magalhaens, Femam de, youth of, iv, 

renounces Portugal, iv, xxip 

fleet of, iv, 11 20 

embarks^ iv, X121 

explorations of, iv, 1122 

discovers the Philippines, iv, 1x24 

expedition against Matan, iv, 1x25 

death of, iv, 1x26 

expedition returns, iv, 1127 
Magdeburg, sack of, iv, 1356 

Archbishopric of, founded, ix, 653 
Magellan. {See Magalhabiis) 
Magenta, battle of, vii. 2140 
Magians of Persia, fall of the, ii, 6xz 
Magna Charta, Ths, iii, 760 
Magna Charta, iii, 767 

germ of the, ii, 667 

terms of the, iii, 769 

iSee also Chartek. thb Gueat) 
Magnan^ General, vfi. 2084 
Magnesia, battle of, ii^ 382 
Magnus of Norway, iii, 842 
Mago, ii, 364 
Magyars, the, ii, 634 

persecution of the, v, X40S 
Mahdi, El, vii, 2275 
Mahdism, vii, 2274, 2345 
Mahmoud, Sultan, vi, 1972 
Mahomet. (See Mohammsd) 
Mahomet II., at Constantinople, iii, 9s8^ 

takes Constantinople! iii, 97X 

conquers Athens, iii, 981 
Mahomet Ali Shah, ix, 2737 
Mahommed IV. (Sultan), v, 1406 
Maid of Orleans, iii, 941 
\ {See also Joak of Ajtc) 
Maine, the battleship, vii, 2327; z, 


First Voyage Around the World, iv* 

Voyages of Vasco Da Gama, iv, XO43 
Makaleh, capitulation, vii, 2284 
Makta, cuittle of, vi, 1993 
MalakofiF, assault of the, vii, 2x11 
Maldon, battle of, ii, 6^9 • 
Malek-adhel, Sultan, iii, 737 
Mallen, League of, iii, 742 

Liberation of Genoa: Andrea Doria, 
iv, IIS9 
Malona, Genoese, victorious at, iii, 803 
Malplaquet, v, 15x3 
Malta, iv, 11 68 

captured bv Napoleon, vi, x8a4 
Malta and Lspanto, iv. xaao 
Malwa conquered by Axbar, iv, 1266 
Mamelukfcs, tske E^pt, iii, 778 

occupy Aleppo, iii, 794 

destroyed, vi, 1886 
Man, ttme age of, i, 31 


S— YoL 10 




Manchus, dynasty of the, t, 1385 

arrogance of the, ▼!, aoo7 

the, vi, 2007 
Manfred, iii, 797 
Maohatun Island, trading-post, iv, 1328 

purchased, iv, 1334 
Manila, captured by British, v, 1635 
Manila Ba^, battle of, vii, 2359 
Manilius, ii, 386, ^89 
Manin, Daniele, vii, 2051 
Manissa. ii. 388 
Mankind, degradation of, i, 26 
Manoel the Fortunate, King of Por- 
tugal, iv, 1044 
Mansfeldt, Count, iv, 1351 
Manteuffel, General von, vii, 2252 
Mantinea, battle of, i, 323, 357 
Mantua, Consress of, iv, xo8o 
Manu, legend of, i, 39 
V Manuel, King of Portugal, ix, 2776^ ^78a 

is dethroned, ix, 2929 

in exile, ix, 2945 
Mar, Earl of, v. 1540, 1544. i547. XSSX 
Marat, vi, 1746, 1786 
Mir&tha Confederacy, vi, 1764 

war, the second, vi, 1763 
Marathon, i^ 235 

plain of. 1, 238 

iMttle ox, i, 240 
Marcel, iii, 884 
Marcel, Stephen, aids the Jacques, 

iii. 889 
Marceilus defeats Hawke, i, 358 
"March Laws," the, vii, 2050 
Marcian, dream of, ii, 5^;; 
Mabco Polo's Travels, hi, 804 
Marconi, vii, 2370; viii, 2394 
Marcus Antoninus defeats the confed' 

eracy of German nations, ii, 508 
Marcus Aurelius, ii, 478 
Marcus Horatius, i, 228 
Marcus Papirius, i, 319 
Mardion, ii, 420 
Mardonius, i, 236 
Marengo, battle of, vi, 1851 
Marfori, vii, 2230 

Margaret of Austria, iv, 1077, 1x54 
Margaret of Navarre, iv, 1264 
Margaret of Parma, iv, 1231, 1235, 1237 
Maria Pia, ix, 2780 
Maria Theresa, v, 1591. 166/^ 
Marie Antoinette, v, 1659; vi, 1738 
Marie Charlotte, Empress of Mexico, 

vii, 2176 
Marius, ii, 406, 410 

Cook's Australian Discoveries, v, 1644 

The Discovery of the Northwest Pas- 
sage, vi, 2015 
Marlborough, ability of, v, 1496 

scheme of, v, 1500 

march of, v, 1501 

meets Prince Eugine, v, 1503 

takes Tournay and Malplaquet, v. 

at Blef 

wins victory at RamilHes, v, 1512 

tlenheim, v, 1506 
I victory at Ram 
The Eighth Satellite of Jupiter, ix, 
Marriage, customs, origin of, i, X17 
laws, i, X4X 

Married Women*8 Property Act, vn« 

Marseillaise, the, vi, 1745 
Marshall, William, iii, 766 
Marsin, Marshal, v, 1502, 1504 
Mars-ia-Tour, battle ot, Tii, a.248 
Marston Moor, battle of, ▼, 138^ 
Martin V., - Pope, iii, 899 

elected, iii, 919 

The Jacquerie, iii, 885 

The Great Exhibition, vii, 2057 
Martinique settled, v, 1374 
Martyr, Peter, iv, 1179, 1184 
Martyrs, Castle of the, ii, 6ox 
Martyrs, the Roman bisho|>8, ii, 529 
Mary, mother of Christ, li, 435, 438, 

Mary I. restores Romish reliciosi in 

England, iv, 11 90 
Mary persecutes Protestants, it, Z190 
Mary Stuart, iv, 120A 

returns to Scotland, iv, 1209 

ambitions of, iv, 121 1 

sent to Loch Leven, iv, xsia 

cause of, ended, iv, 1218 

execution of, iv, 1254 
Maryland colonized, v, 1373 
Masaniello, revolt of, v, 1385 
Masinissa, ii, 383, 4x0 
Mason and Dixon boundary line, t, 


Conquest of Egypt by Cambyses, i, 197 

The Fall of Tyre and the Siege of 
Jerusalem, i, 148 
Massachusetts arms for war, v, 1687 
Massachusetts Bay Company, the, t, 

Massacre in Antwerp, iv, 1244 
of Bonaparte prisoners, vi, 1840 
in Cabul, vi, 20x4 
of Christians at Constantinople 

of ^C^^' '"■ "' 

stians, v, 1406; vi, 1971; vii. 

2 1 41 

in Crete, vii, 2^10 
of the French, ui, 802 

of Glencoe, v, 1472 

of the Greeks, v, 1662 

of Hindus, iii, po5 

of the Infidels, ii, 717 

of Jews in England, ii, 721 

of Latins in Constantinople^ iii, 736 

in Madagascar, vi, 20x4 

of the Maronites. vii, 2x41 

of the Moguls, iii, 9x3 

by the Moguls, iii, 912 

of Peterloo, vi, X967 

in Poland, vii, 2160 

of Prato, iv, X087 

of St. Bartholomew, iv, XS17, 1265 

of St. Brice, ii, 663 

of Shekan, vii, 2275 

in Spain, vii, 2225 

of Turcomans, vii, 2273 
Massacre of Glsncob, Ths, v, X464 
Massacre of St. Bartbolohbw, Th^ 

iv, X262 
Massacre of trb Jews ik Rxjssia, viii, 



Mbstanarbal, ii, 389 

Matabele, viiy 2297 

Match, the milphur, vii, 2075 

Mathan» i. 79 

Mauida, Countess of Tuscany, ii, 693, 

Matthias, the Emperor, iv. 1349 
Matthias of Austria, Archauke, ir^ i^^ 
Matthias of Hungary takes Boaiia, iUf 

Maud of Denmark, viii, 2723 
Maupas, M. de, Yii, 2084 
Maurice of Nassau, iv, 104^ 
Maurice of Saxony, iv, xioo 
Mauritania, ii, 591 
Mauritius, France occufues, t* 1570 
Maxentius .(Emperor), ii, 521 
Maxim ffun, vii, 2287 
MaximiaUf persecution of Christians tu- 

der- li, a8i, 483, 5«, 
Maximilian of Bavaria, iv, 1354 

arrives in Padua, iv, 1080 
Majrimilian Sforza, iv, X077, xo8i, 1083, 

Maximilian (Emperor), death cit ir, 

Maximinan, Archduke of Austria, Mexi- 
co offered to^ vii, 2174 

arrives in Mexico, vii, 2176 

decrees of, vii, 2176 

execution of, vii, 2x79 
Maximin, Emperor, ii, 521 

and Lidnius, ii, 523 
Maybrick, Mrs. Florence, viii, 2533 
Mayenne, Duke de, iv, 1274, i^7f 1^80 
Mayflower sails from Plymouth, ▼, X36f 
Mazarin, v, X396 

forced to leave France, v, X394 

recalled, v, 1394 
Mazdeism, i, 60, 05 
Mazeppa, v, 15 13 

Mazzmi founds Young Europe, Ti, 1999 
Meade, (General, vii, 2x90, 2192, 2194, 


The Algeciras Conference, viii, 2659 
Meaux, attack upon, iii, 890 
Mecca makes truce with Mahommed, ii, 

acceptance of the new prophet, ii, 574 

the sacred city, ii, 570 
Mecklenburg, Grand Duke of, vii, 2252 
Mecklenburg- Schwerin, Grand Duchy of, 

receives a constitution, ix, 2783 
Medes, repulse of, iv, T165 

victory of the, i, 163 
Medieval, wars, nature of, iv, 1031 

travel, dangers of, iii, 8^7 
Medici family, antiquity of the, ill, 896 

wealthj source of the, iii, 899 

authontv, nature of the, iii, 900 

flight of the, iv, 1038 

expelled, iv, tt68 

return to Florence, ir, 1088 
Medici, Alessandro de, iv, 1089 
Medici, Alexander de, iv, 1151 

"' lici, r 


Medici, (Catharine de* 

, iv, 126; 

J, nfip, 

Medici, C!osmo de^ iii, 898 
aids Venetian Republic, iii, 90a 

Medici, Giovanni de% iii» 897 
as Pope Leo X., iv, xo88 

Medici, Giuliano de', iv, xo88 
Medici Giulio (Oement VII.), it, X089 

death of, iii, 994 
Medici, Ippolito de\ iv, X089 
Medici, Lorenzo de, iii, 898, 994; iv, 

Medici, Pietro de', iv, X034 

returns to Florence, iv, X037 

cowardice of, iv, X036 
Medici, Salvestro de', iii, 896 
Medina, Sidonia, Duke of, iv, 1258 
Megades, i, 208, 210, ax 6 
Megalopolis, battle of, i, 336 
Megara, battles of, ii, 393 
Menemet Ali, vi, 1972, 19^9^ 2006 

conquers the Sudan, vi, 1967 

invades Syria, vi, 1998 
Mehemet Ali Pacha, vi, x886 
Mehemmed V., Sultan of Turkey, ix, 

Mejia, vii, 2x74, 2178 
Melancthon, iv, 11 06 
Melchthal of Unterwaldcn, iii, 8x4 
Mencius, i, x68 
Mendoza, Count of Tendilla, iv, 1065^ 

Menelik, King of Shoa, vii, 2281, 2286 
Menes, i, 44 
Menidas, i, 350 

Menou, Cieneral, vi, X807, x8xi 
Mentschikoff, Prince, vii, 2x00, 2x24 

Consolidation of (aermany by Henry 
I., ii, 645 

Coundl of Constance and the Hu»> 
site War, iii, 915 

The Downfall of Napoleon, vi, X93X 

The Swiss Confederacy: The Swiss 
War of Independence, iii, 813 

War of the Austrian Succession, r, 
Mercantile settlements, important, iii, 

Mercator makes his chart, iv, 1x90 
Mercenaries, Carthage employs, ii, 363 
Merchant Shipfiing Bill, vii, 2258 
Mercians, the, ii, 559 
Merida reduced by Musa, ii, 600 

Fall of the Decemvirate, i, 26X 
Merv, vii, 2287 
Messianic hopes, ii, 436 
Messina Earthquaics. Thb, ix. 2807 
Metaurus, battle of the, ii, 378 
Metellus, it, 401, 405 
Methodists, v, x«3, X588 
Methuen, General, vii, 2370 
Methuen treaty of commerce, T, 1490 
Metre Hill (203), viii, 2579 
Metternich, vi, 1971 

fall of, vii, 2049 
Metz, surrender of, vii, 2S52 
Mexican War, vi, 2004' 
Mexico, conquered by Cort^ ir, 

expedition to, ir, ix4l8 

empire of, vii, 2174 

downfall of empire of, vir, 2x77 

evacuated by the French, viii 217ft 

The First Crusade, it, 704 

The Fourth Crusade^ xii, 731 



Nancy— Deatli of Charles the Bold» 

lU, ^2 

The Sicilian Vespers^ tii, 795 
Micheiet, Jules, quotation from, ii, 36a 
Micipsa, ii, ^89 

Microphone invented, vii, 2258 
Middle English, the, ii, 559 
Midhat Paaha, ix, 2785 
Mies, battle of. iit, 93a 
Milan, King ot Servia, Wi, 22gy 
Milan, Republic of, estalAished, iii, g$i 

destroyed by Franks, ii, 565 

(subjugated), ii, 730 

Bufferings o^ iv, Z145 
Milford-tiayen, Richmond lands at, tii, 


The Siege of Acre, vi. i8j8 

The Jews Expelled from Spain, ill, 

Order of the Teutonic Knights, iii, 

MilUaoes, i, 339 

Minden, battle of, t, 161& 

Minerva, Castle of, iii, 756 

Minerva, the false, i, 208 

Ming dynasty, fall of the, v, 1385 

Minuit, Peter, buys Manhattiin Island, 

iv. 1334 
Minute Men, the, v, 1683, 1689 
Mirabeau, Comte de, vi, 1741, 1743 
Miracle of Rain, ii, 479 
Miramon, vii, 2x73, 2179 
Mirandola attacked, iv, Z085 
Mise of Lewes, iii, 788 
Mississippi Company founded, ▼, 1556 

The Delphic Oracle, i, 69 

Expulsion of the Peisistrats, i, 208 
Mithridates, King of Pontos, ii, 41a 
Mithridatic War, first, ii, 412 

second, ii, 413 
Mocenigo, Luigi, the Doge, iv, 1227 
MoDBEN Illumination, vi, 1981 
MoDsair Inventions^ vii, 2068 
Mogul Emperor, iii, 750 
Mogul, empirt of the Grand, founded, 

iv, 1168 
Moguls, territory of the, iii, 75a 

massacred by Tamerlane, iii, 913 

the, begin a massacre, iii, 912 
Mohammed I. founds Granada, iii, 778 
Mohammed Ahmed, the Mahdi, vii, 2274 
Mohammed All Mirza, ix, 2762 
Mohammed, the Prophet,- spread of re- 
ligion of, ii, 582 

tries to enforce his teachings, ii, 578 

enters Mecca, ii, $79 

ancestry of^ ii, 572 

birth of, ii, 572 

physical constitution of, ii, 572 

revelations of, ii, 573 

and the Jews, ii, 581 

and Christians, ii, 581 

turns to Jews for support, ii, 581 

religion of. estimate of, ii, 580 

estimate of, ii, 580 

makes pilgrimage to Mecca, ii, 577 

makes truce with Mecca, ii, 577 

preaches the Holy War, u, 577 

Mohammed, estaUiabea his reHgioiu fU 

three followers of, ii, S75 

escape of, ii, 575 

hegira of, ii. $76 

and the spider, legend of, ii, 576 

last pilffrimage of, ii, 579 

death of. ii. 579 
Mohammea, the Sultan, fall of, m^ 750 
Mohammed II. besieges Belgrade, iii, 981 
Molay, John de, execution of, iii, 821 
Moltke, Count von, vii, 224s, 2247 
Monaateries, Henry VIU. destroys, iv, 

Money coining in Rome, iii, 857 

Money, iron, i, 86 
Mongols, the, iii, 803 

Monitor and Merrimac, battle between, 

vii, 2167 
Mcnmoutfa, execution of, ▼, 141 2 
Monotheism, i, 66 

Monroe Doctrine, vi, 1985; Tii« a 177 
Mons, vii, 2221 

French take, v, 1463 

surrender 01, v, 15x3 
Mons Sacer, the, 1, 263, 266 
Montserrat, Boniface of, iii, 734 
Montcalm, v, 1630 
Mont Cenis tunnel, vii, 2257 
Montebello, battle of, vii, 2x40 
MoNTBNEcao, X, 3334 
Montenegro, vii, 2258 

declares war against Turkey, vii, 2259 

and Turkey, war between, x, 3340 

(See also Balkan Statis) 
Montessori method of spontaneous edu- 
cation, X, 3230 
Montezuma, iv, xooa 
Montferrat, Conrad of, il, 726, 728 

quarrel with Guy, ii, 728 
MontmorencT, the Constable, iv, 1x98 
Montojo, Aomiral, vii, 2365, 2367, 2369 
Montpensier, Duke of, vii, 3229 
Mooker Heath, battle of, iv, 1240 

Peary's Disg»very of the North Pole, 
ix, 2860 
Moors! civiliration of the, iu, xoxo 

of Granada, dismay of, iii, 1004 

outbreak in Spain of, iv, 1070 

in Granada, lioerty of, iv, 1065 

rebellion of, iv, 1071 

expulsion ot, trs^m Spain, iv, 1075 
Morat, battle of, iii, 081. 985 
Moravians found Bethlenem, Pexxn., v, 

Moray, Earl of, assassination of the, 

iv, I 2 14 
Morea conquered by Venice, vi, 18x8 
Moreau, vi, 185 1, 1855, 1931 
Morgarten, battle of, iii, 816 
Moaiscos, Thb, iv, 1065 
Moriscos, the, iv, 1073, 1225 
Mormons, gains of the, vi, 3035 
Mornington, Lord^ vi, 1760 
Momy, M. de, vii, 2084 
Morocco, viii, 2659 

Treaty of, ix, 2822 
Morone. Jerome, plans deliverance ef 
Italy, iv, XI AX 

Pescara's treachery to, iv, 11 43 
Mortimer, iii, 790 



Moecowy cvacamtion of, yi, 1896 

fired, vi, 1896 
Moscow Campaign, Thx, vi, 18S7 
Moses, i, 30, 33 

laws of, i, 31 
Moslem chivalry, iii^ X003 
Moslems^ anny of, iL 584 

spoils of the, ii, 583 

troops, disorder of, ii, 608 
Moultan blockaded, lii, 906 
Mount Arafat, Mohammed preaches 

upon, ii, 579 
Mount Badon, victory of the Britains 

at, ii, 556 
Mount *Hira, Mohammed at, ii, 573 
Mount Thabir, ii. 573 
Mount ThaXir, Mohammed hides at, ii, 

Monnteagle. Lord, iv, 13 10 
visits Salisbury, iv. 1306 
Movables, division ot, i, S^ 
Mowbray, Philip de, warning of, !&» 


The New Pontificate, viii, 2501 
Mu hammed Ali, Shah of Persia, de> 
throned, ix, 3840 
private debts of, ix, 2845 
goes to Odessa, ix, 3847 
Mukden, Battle of, viii, 2590 
Mulai Hafid gains throne of Moroeco^ 

ix, 2793 .. 
Mummius, L., u. 402, 405 

sends works of art to Kome, ii, 404 
Munnich, takes Ocrakow, v, 1573 

campaigns, v, 1S7,^ 
Munda, battle of, ii, 414 
Munster, treaty of, v, 1385 
Murat, vi, 1880, 19^6 
Muravieff, Count, viii, 2373 
Muret, battle of, iii, 758 
Musa, repulsed by |ulian, ii, 591 

preparations, of, ii, 594 , , . . 

impressed with wonders of La8ttaw6» 
li, 601 

meeting with Tarik, ii, 601 

treatment of Tarik by, ii, 60a 

takes command, ii, 600 

reduces Seville, ii^ 600 

reduces Merida, ii, 600 
Mustafa retires from Malta, iv, 1224 
Mustafa III., v, 1661 
Mutsuhito, Emperor of Japan, death of, 

X, 3212 
Mysore War, second, vi, 1760 

third, vi, 1764 


Namur, battle of, v, 1489 

Nancy taken by K^n6, iii, 984 

attacked by Charles, Dnke ol Bur- 
gundy, iii, 988 

Nancy — death or Chascss the Bokd, 
iii, 982 

Nanffis, G. de, qnotation from, ia^ 878 

Nankin, treaty of,^ vi, 2014 

Nantes, edict of, iv, ia82 

Napata, invasioik of, fay GsaibysflSy. i, 
kingdom of, i, 203 

Naples, kingdom of, vii^ 3143 

in revolution, vi, 1960 

House of, iv, 10^5 

conquered by Spain, iv. 1076 

claimed by Charles VIII. of France, 
iv, 1033 

siege of, iv, 1151 

fall of, iv, 1 041 
Napoleon III., vii. 2148, 2165, 2250 

manifesto of, vli, 2172 

attempts to found MexicaA empire^ 
vii, 2x48, 2x65, 2172, 3250 

arrives in Italy, vii, 2138 
NAP01.E0N III. XM Italy, vii, 2x33 
Napoleon Bonaparte. iSee BoNAFAmn) 
Narbonne. iii, 758 

N arses, destroys Ostrogothic kingdom, . 
ii, 567 

hampers Belisarius, >i, 5^5 

made first Exarch of Kavenna, ii, 567 
Narvaez, ■ vii, 22x0, 2222, 2226, 2230 
Naseby. battle of, v, x^82 
Nashviue, battle of, vii, 2206 
Nasir-el-Mulk, ix, 2740 
Nassau, House of, iv, 1233 
Natal, Vasco da Gama names. It* 104A 

Boers settle in, vi, 1999 
National Assembly, vi, X740 
National Convention, the, vi, 1746 
National Debt (of England), v, I5]|8 
National Guard (of France), vi, x8o6 
Nations, battle of the, vi, 1934 
Nativity op Christ, Tbb, ii, 431 
Naturalization laws, i, 145 

Dreadnoughts, viii, 2667 
Navarino, battle of, vi, 1974 
Navas de Tolosa, battle of, iii, 74^ 
Navel of the Earth, i, 73 
Navel of the world, the, viii, 2511 
Navigation act, v, 1398 
Navigation laws, v, 1639 
Necker, Jacques, v, 1692; vi, 1738 

dismissed, vi, 17x7 

recalled, vi, 1736 

dismissed, vi, 1743 
Negro slaves imported to "^nrginia, hr, 

Nehavend, battle of, ii, 590 
Neil, Marshal, vii, 2135 
Nelson, vi, X877 

pursues Villeneuve, vi, X872 

tactics of, vi^ 1826 

victory ot, vi, 1833* 1836 
Nepaul conquered by East India Com- 
pany, VI, 1966 
Neptune, i, 71 
Nero, Claudius, ii, 372, 378, 474 

joins Livius, ii, 374 

march of, Bryon^ opinion of, ii, 381 

becomes Emperor 01 Rome, ii, 47^^ 

charged with.setting fire to Rome, is, 

suicide of, ii, 484 
Nerva. ii, 476 

battle of, V, 1489 
Nestor, ii, 63Sf 639, 641 
Net Results of King George's Indian 

Tour, The, x, 3x3^ 
Netherlands, bishoprics us the, ir, xass^ 
the, iv, 12^0 
persecutions in tht^ it, lagS* x^tjfr 



Netherlands, revolt of the. iv, 1230 
New Amsterdam settled by Dutebi y. 

New Lnflanders, spirit of the, ▼, 1677 

New Guinea, Tii, ^288 

New Nether land, the, !▼, 1330 

New Netherland Company, The United* 

iv, 1330, i333» »340 
New Orleans fotindedf v, 1957 

captured by Farragut, Tit, 2156 
Nbw Poxtificatb, Thb, riii, 2501 
Newport, Captain, ir, 1295$ "98, 130a 
New Rome, d. 526 
New South Wales, colonized, vi, 1737 

gold discovered in, vii, aos6 
Newspaper, first, in the United States, 
V, 151a 

growth of the, vii. 207s 
New Sweden settled, v, 1^74 
New Testament, translation of, by 

Luther, iv, 11 11 
New Tribunal, the, vi. 1784 
New York, subway, viii, 2562; x, 3286 

Catskfll Aqueduct, x, 3297 
Nbw York's GRZATBa, Subway, x, 

New Zealand, vi, 20x4 

discovered, v, 1385 

franchise for women, vii, 2297 
Ney, General, vi, 1902 

Marshal, vi, 1904 

at Quatre Bras, vi, 1940 

execution of, vi, 1948 
Nicea, Crusaders at, ii, 7is 
Nicholas, Emperor of Russia, death of, 

vii, 2109 
Nicholas V., iit. 861 
Nicholas, King of Montenegro, invades 
Turkey, x, 3340 

at Tuzi, X, 3384 
Nicholas of Tusculum, Papal legate, 

arrives in England, lii, 764 
Nicholson's Nek, vii, 2370 
Nicias, i, 286, 388 
Niebuhr visiu Arabia and Persia, v, 

Niffer, 1, 48 

Nightingale, Florence, vii, 2x07 
Nika, the riot, ii, 568 
Nile, battle of the, vi, 1828 

source of the, discovered, vii, 2x42 
NiLB Dam at Assouan, The. viii, 2459 
Nile to Red Sea railway, viii, 2666 
Nimrod, i. 28, 46, 53 
Nineveh, 1, 32, 98 

siege of, i, 100 
fall of, i, xoi 

building of, i, 29 
Ninus, i, 32 
Nipur, i, 51 
Nitetis, story of, i, 197 
Nizim of Haidarib&d, the, vi, 1764 
Noah, i, 45 

derivation of name, i, 37 
Nobel Prize, ix, 2754 
Nola, Hannibal defeated at, !, 358 
Norfolk, Duke of (at Bosworth), iii, 

Norman Conqubst op England, ii, 673 
Normandy conquered by Henry V. of 

England, lii. 933 
Norman ambition, li, 673 

Normans, protect Ethelred rngMtnat th» 
Dane% ii, 673 

in I St Crusade, ii, 707 

refinement of the, ix, 631 

settle in France, ii, 630 

spread of the. ii* ^1 

aid in defending Constantinopk; ii, 

in Southern Italy, ii, 63a 

aid in repelling Saraoens, ii, €^2 

gradual disappearance of the, ii, 633 
Normans in Francs and Itai,t, Tkb, 

ii, 627 
Norse blood, in English people, ii, 629 

in French people, ii, 630 
North, Lord, v, X072, 1678; vi, 1722, 

Northampton, battle of, iii, 981 
Northern Africa attacked by Araba, 

ii, 590 
Northern Confederation of Sweden, 

Denmark, and Russia, vi, 1856 
North German Federation, vii, 22x9 
Northmen's Saint, the, ii, 670 
North Pole, discovery of, ix, 2858, a86o 
Northumbria, kingdom of, ii. 560 
Northwest passage, discoverea, vi, 2022 

conquest of, viii, 2563 
Norway, ceded to Sweden, vi, 1906 

and Sweden, viii, 2612 
Norwegian Parliament, the first, iii, 772 
Notables, the, meet, vi, 1725 

assembly of the, vi, 1739 
Notre Dame (Paris), ii, 720 
"Novels" of Justinian, ii, $68 
Novgorod, ii, 631; iii. 839 
Nushirvan, King of Persia, ii, 565 
NystadC, peace of, v, 1525 

treaty of, v, 1569 

Obaldia elected second President of 

Panama, ix, 2783 
Ochino, Bernardino, iv, 1179, 1x84 
Octavia, ii, 4x5 
Octavius, Marcus, ii, 414, 424 

becomes sole ruler of Rome, ii, 430 
Oczakow, capture of, v, 1575 
Odenathus, husband of Zenobia, ii, six 
Odin, i, 42 
Odoacer, li, 960 

death of, ii, 562 
O'Donnell, vii, 2222 
Ogygcs, i, 4x 

Ohio Company receives charter, t, x6oo 
Oil. laws regarding, i, 145 
Oklahoma, becomes a State, ix, 2776 

State Constitution, ix, 2763 

Peacemaking at Portsmouth, viii. 2619 
Old Sarum, capture of fort at, it, 556 
Oleg, ii, 63 X 

succeeds Rurik, ii, 639 

legends regarding, ii, 6^0 

unites Russian tribes, ii, 640 

death of, ii, 641 
Olga, U. 632 

widow of Igor, revenge of, li, 642 

the Apostle of Christianity, ii, 643 
Olive wreath, i, xoq^ 



Oloxagit vii, aa37 

Olympitt, crown «t, i, 105, Z07, lOO 

racecourse at, i, 105 

banquets at. j, 106 

olive wreath at, i, 109 

sacrifices at» i, ixo 

magnificence at, i, 106, xxo 

festival at, i, 103, 11 1 

victors at, i, 107 

embassies to, i, 106 

importance of festival, i, ixi 
Olympiad, the first, i, 83 
Olympian aames, crowds at, i, loy 
Oljrmpian Jove, altar of, i, Z04 
Olymkc Games, The, ^>io3 
Olympic Games, viii, 2099 

(Fifth) X, 3210 
Omar, ii, 580, s8a, «88, 
Omdurman, battle of, vii, 3343 
Omen, evil, iii, 989 
<^ens, ii, 45a 

Omens and prophecies, ii, 599 
Omens and Salamis, i, s^4 
Ommiades, fall of the, it, 611 
O'Neill, Hugh, iv, 1287 
.O'Neill, Shane, iv, 1283 
Opening of China, The, vi, 2007 
Opening of Japan, Tke, vii, 2091 
Opium, vi, S008 
Opium War ended, vi, 2014 
Oppa^ Archbishop of Toledo and Se- 
ville, if, 592 
Oracle, Brutus interprets, i, 221 
Oracle, Delphi, i, 70 

answers of, i, 77 

how obtained, 1, 76 

corruption of, i, 214 

dispute about, 1, 278 

of Delphi, how obtained, i, 76 
Oracles, Themistocles resorts to, i, 149 

of Buto, i, 206 
Oran, attack of, vi, 1^92 
Orange Free State, vit, 2127 
Orange, principality of, iv, 1233 
Orchomenos, battle of, ii, 4x3 
Order of the Temple, iii, 773 
Order of the Knights Templars, iii, 818 

charges against them, iii, 819 

persecutions of the, iii, 820 

abolished, iii, 821 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem, iii, 
819, 821 

founded, ii, 720 
Order of Templars founded, ii, 720 
Ordse of the Teutonic Knights, iii, 

Orenbubg-Tashksnt Railway, The, 

viii, 2 §49 

Orestes, M. Aurelius, ii, 401 

Orion, constellation of, i, 48 

Orleans, attacked by Salisbury, iii, 936 

last French stronghold, iii, 936 

siege of, iii, 934 

offers to surrender, iii, 938 

begs aid of Joan of Arc, iii, 942 

fortifications of, iii, 937 

rejoicing in, iii, 949 
Orleans, Duke of, becomes Regent of 

Prance, v, 1540 
Ormuz taken by the English, v, 1373 
Oropus, i, 330 
Orovio, vii, 2230 


Italian Colonization on the Red Sea, 
vii, 2280 
Orsini, Paolo, iv, 1037 
Ortega, General, vii, 2173, 2175 
Oscar of Sweden renounces crown, viii, 

Osman Digna, vii, 2277 
Osman Pasha, Hi, 2262 
Ostrogoths, the, ii, S35 

leave Italy, li, 567 
Ostrogothic kingdom, fall of the, ii, 

Othman fleet, iv, 1227 
Othman founds Ottoman Empire, iii, 

Otho, revolt of, ii, 484 
Otho (1200), Emperor of Italy, iii, 760 
Otho of Bavaria, King of Greece, vi, 

Otto de Colonna, iii, 91^1^ 
Otto I., coronation of, u, 651 

wars of, ii, 653 

in Italy, ii. 65^ 

marries Adelheid, ii, 653 

becomes King of Lombardy, ii, 655 

becomes Emperor, ii, 655 
Otto, King of Greece, expelled, vii, 2156 
Otto the Great, ii, 657 
Ottoman Empire, founded, iii, 803 
Ottomans enter Europe, iii, 878 
Oudenarde, battle of, v, 15 13 
Oudh, vii, 2127 

annexed, vii, 2132 
Oudinot's expedition to Rome, vii, 2082 
.Our Lady of Blachemes, legend of 

robe of, ii, 639 
Oxenstiem, iv, 1360 
Oxford, the Earl of, iii. 096, 998 
Oxford, Provisions of. lii, 782 

Provisions of, annulled by Louis IX., 

Mlf 78s 

pageant, ix, 2775 

Pacific Ocean, discovery of the, iv, 

Padua, ii, 5^8 

siege of, iv, xo8o 
Pages, Gamier, vi, 2042 

Tbe Genius of Pasteur, x, 3213 
Paleologus. (See Constantinb Faleol- 


Paleologus, Michael, regains Constant!* 

nople, iii, 779 
Palestine, ii, 4^3 

invaded by Turks, iii, 778 

conquered by Chosroes, ii, 569 
Palestro, battle of, vii. 2140 
Palma, T. Estrada, viii, 241 x 

The Hegira, ii, 570 

The Voyage of the American Fleet, 
ix, 2823 
Palmerston, Lord, vi, 1979; vii, 2x14, 
2144, 2x86 

dismissed, vii, 2056 
Palxoyra, renewed reoeilioii of, it, 5x7 



Palmyra, siege of, ii, 5X5 

•urrender of, ii, 516 

sinks into obscurity, ii, 517 

besieged by Aureban, ii, 515 
Palmyreana, defeat of the, ii, 514 
Paios, Columbtia cmliaflEB from, ^ 

Panama, Secession of, Yiii, 2509 
Panama Canal, vii, aa79; Tiii, 2509 

Treaty, viii, 346(6, 2533 

Roosevelt visits, ix, 2753 
Panama Canal, Thb, x, 324;^ 
Pan-American Conference, viii, 2726 
Pan-American Congress, viii, 2411 
P*H*AMEaiCAir Congress, Thb, ix, 2737 
Pan-American iLxhibition, viii, 2411 
Pandects of Justinian, ii, 568 
Pandulf, the Pope's legate, has audi- 
ence with King John, iii, 761 

John gives the crown of £ii|^aad 
and Ireland to, iii, 762 

goes to France, iii, 763 
PanlofT, General, vii, 2118 
Pannonia. subjugated, ii, 430 

invadeo by the Hungarians, ii, 640 
Papacy, triumph of the, iv, xx88 

seat of the, iii, 812 

rise of the, ii, 622 

founders of the, ii, 530 

versus Holy Roman Empire, il, 682, 
Papal Conclave, the, viii, 2502 
Papal legate governs at Rome, iii, 860 
Papal Schism, the Great, iii, 8x2 
Papal and Spanish invasion of Ireland, 

iv, X286 
Paris, Comte de, vii, 2087 
Paris, revolt of, v, 1391 

frenzy in, vi, 1753 

Peace of, iii, 759; ▼» i^^ji; vi, 1938 

University of, founded, iii, 742 

insurrection in, iii, 884 

siege of, vii, 2251^ 

Germans enter, vii, 2255 

agitation in (1797), vi, 1799, x8o2 

fall of, vi, 1937 

Commune in, vii, 2257 

rising in, vii, 2082 

improvements in, vii, 2088 

Congress of, vii, 21 14 

Treaty of, yi, 1941; vii, 2127 

famine in, iv, 1278 

Exposition, viii, 2397 

in revolt, iv, 1273 

the city of, ii, 563 

besieged, ii, 630 

Seine overflows in, ix, 2873 

The Coronation of King Edward VII., 
viii, 2445 
Parliament (England), passes resolu- 
tions against Slave Trade, v, 1692 

of Simon de Montfort. iii, 790 

English, at Westminster (1^58), iii, 

English, at Oxford, iii, 781 

first Gennan, vii, 2054 
Parliamentarians, resources of the, T, 

Parma, Duke of (Alexander Fameae), 

prepares to invade England^ IT* 

Parmenld* tU9$ J$3 

, 1. 4a, 69^ . ^ 
Parsi religion, early study o^ 1, oa 

religion and monattadaDu t, 4f 
Parsia, emigration o^ i» 58 

defeat of, i, 58 

the, i, s& 
Parthians, the, ii, 4x5 
Partition op Poxjihd, y, 1659 
Pasargadz, i, 163 

Passarovritx, Peace of, ▼, i557t ^ >9xi 
Pasteur, vii, 2288 

the ffeniaa and attainments of* x, 
Patarini, driven from Milan, the, ii, 689 
Pater Patriae, iii, 903 
Paths, the, i, 132 
Patrician, the title, ii, 616 
Patridana, the, i, 1x5; ii» 40S 

and Plebeians, i, 259 ^ 
Patridus Romanorum, ii, 6x6 
Patroons, the, iv, X334 
Paul III., iv, 1x85 
Pftul IV., publiahes the Index, it, 1x84 

abolishes nepotism, !▼, xi86 
Paul of Rusaia strangled, vi, 1852 
Paul, Saint, apparition of, ii, S43 
Paullus, ii, 396 

Fausanias, first victor at Dalphi, i, 7S 
Favia, battle of, iv, 1x40 

pHlage of, iv, 1140 
Pazzi, conspiracy of the, iii, 994 
Peace CoKPERBifcs, The, viii, 2371 ^ 
Peace Conference, Central Anierxcaa, 

ix, 2776 
Peace Conference (Hague), viii, 2371; 

ix, 2763 
Peace Congress, International, is, S763 
Peace of Adrianoi^e, vi, 1976 

of Amiens, vi, 1853 

of Bretigny, iii, 895 

of Constance, ii, 721 

of Frankfort, vii, 2256 

of Hubertsburg, v, 1623 

of Kutchuks Kainardji, v, 1692 

of Lubeckj iv, 1353 

of Paris, iii, 759; v, 1623; vi, 1938 

of Passarowitz, v, I5S7; vi, 1819 

of Rastadt, v, 1540 

of Ryswick, v, 1489 

of Tilsit, vi, 1882 

of Utrecht, v, 1539 

of Vienna, v, 1591 

of Villafranca, vii, 2x41 

of Westphalia, iii, 845; ivi 1361 
Peace op Utrecht, The, v, 1527 
Peace on Eabth, ix, 2971 
Peace Plenipotentiaries, viii, 2619 
Peace Treaty, Central American, viii, 

Peace Treaty* Japan and Russia, signed, 

viii, 2639. ^ ... ^ 

Peacemaking at Poetsmouth-, vni, 26r9 

Rise of Feudalism, ii, 695 
Peary, Polar Expedition, ix, 2754 

discovers North Pole, ix, 2858, 2860 

arrives in New York, ix, 2859 " 

Peary's Discovery of the North Foue, 

ix, 2860 
Peasantry, rising of the French, itii 

■sufferings of the French* iii, 889 



Feasantiy, rebellion of English, under 
Wat Tyler. uL ^5 

cruelty of, iii, wg 
Pedro, Dom, vi, 1956, 1^85 
Pedro, Don, of Spain, iii, 797 
Pedro the Cruel, lii, 895 
Peel, Sir Robert, ri, aoo3 
Peisistratus, i, 207 

fall of. i, 208 
Pekin, Kublai builds, iii, 794 

fall of, iii, 748 
Pelagius, the heresy of, ii, 531 
Pel^, Mont, eruption of, viii, 24 iz 
P61issier, General, vi, 1997; viii 21 11, 

Peloponnesian army returns to Athens, 

1, 271 
Peloponnesian War, i, 270 
Peloponnesus, invasion of, by Thebans, 

^ »• ^23 

Pelusium, battle of, i, 200 
Pembroke, the Earl of, til, 909 
Peninsular War, the, vi, 1882 
Penn, William, founds Pennsylvania, 
V, 1403 
takes Jamaica, v, 1398 
Pennefather, General, vii, 21x8 
Pennsylvania founded, v, 1403 
Penny post, vi, 2014 
Pensacola founded, v, 1557 
Pentateuch, the, i, 32 
People, Solon's classification of the, i, 

the, i, IIS 

Assembly of the, ii, 408 
Pepe, General, vi, 1960, 1962 
Pepin the Short, ii, S34 

becomes King of the Franks, ii, 6x5 

delivers Rome, ii, 6ix 

twice goes to the rescue of Rome, 
ii, 615 
PeppereL Sir William, v, 1597 
Pepys, Samuel, v, 1428 
Percy, Thomas, iv, 1^15 
Pergamus, realm of, ii, 406 
Pencles, rule of, i, 2^0 
Perinthus, attack of, i, ^24 
Perpetua. story of. ti, 480 
Perpetual Edict, the, iv, 1242 
Perry, Captain, vi, 1922 
Perry, Matthew G., expedition to Ja- 
pan, vii, 2093 
Persecutions of the Chrxstzans, ii, 

Persia aids Athens, i, 324 
attacks Greece, i, 2^5 
conquered by Seljuks, ii, 702 
concludes peace with Eastern Em- 
pire, ii, 569 
struggle of, with Eastern Empire, ii, 


invasion of, ii^ 583 
Persia, Constitution of, ix, 2734 

National Assembly of, ix, 2735 
Persian Caisxs, The, ix, 2735 
Persian, expedition against Eretria and 
Athens, i, 236 

armv, disposition of, at Arbela, i, 347 

empire, extent of, i, 201 

standard, the, ii, 586 

spoil, wealth of, ii, S87 

carpet, the wonderful, ii, 588 

Persians, conquer Armenia, ii, 509 

conquer the Emptror Valerian, li, 509 

defeat of, at Salamis, i, 257 
Peru, iv, 1093 

wealth of, iv. 1096 
Pescara, the Marquis, iv, 1x39 

treachery of, iv, 11 43 

death oz, iv, 11 43 
Peter III. (Russia), v, 1622 

murdered, v, 1635 
Peter des Roches appointed judiciaiyt 

iii, 764 
Peter of Servia crowned, viii, 2562 
Peter the Hermit, ii, 704, 709 
Peter the Great, v, Z488, 15x7 

army of, v, 1522 

conauests of, v, Z526 

death of, v, 1570 
Peter, Saint, ii, ^29 

apparition of, ii, 543 
Peterborough, Earl of, v, 15x2 
Peterloo massacre, vi, X967 
Petition of Right, the, v, 140X 
Pcvensey, fall of, ii, J54 

William anchors off, ii, 676 
Phanes. enters Peruan service, i, Z99 

murder of his children, i, 199 
Pharnabazus, i, 301 
Pharnaces defeated by Julius Caesar, 

ii, 414 
Pharsalus, battle of, ii, 414 
Phenicia, 11, A15 
Phenician, colonies, i, 78 

cities, rise of, i, 77 
Phenicians, i, 49 

loss of possessions of, i, 80 
Philadelphia, v, 1682 
Philip II. of Spain, iv, X197, 1234, 

prepares to invade England, iv, Z250 

conauers Portugal, iv^ 1266 

sends aid to Malta, iv, 1224 
Philip VI. (France) seeks revenge on 
English, iii, 8^6 

confidence of, iii, 848 

at Crecy, iii, 851 
Philip Augustus, ii, 724 
Philip of Macedon, i, 323 

ambitions of, i, 325 

superior generalship of, i, 332 

appointed Strategus, i, 329 

conflict of, with Athens, x, 324 

defeat^ Athenians, i, 334 

death of, i. 336 
Philippi, battle of, ii, 414 
Philippine Tariff BUI, viii, 2658 

legislature demands independence of 
the islands, ix, 2838 
Philippines, the, discovered, iv, X124 
Phillippeaux, Colonel, vi, 1841, 1843 

The Revolution of 1848, vii, 2045 

War of Greek Independence, vi, 
Philopemen, i, 357 
Phocians, the, i, 326 
Phocion, i, 325 

Phoenix Park murders, vii, 2279 
Photography, vii, 23x7 

color, vii, 2321 
Phtah, Cambyses enters temple of, ^ 



Phym, I, ao9 

PiaKnoni, the, iv, 1037, 105! 

Pichegru. conquers UoUaad, ▼!» 1796 

death of, vi, 1855 
Pickett, vii, 2201 
Picts, ihc, ii, 545 
Pieilmont, rii, 2135 

attacks Austria, vii, aosi 
revolt of, VI, 1962 
Pierre, Jaques, vi, 18x5 
Piimeiiun, i. 80 

Pilgrim Fathers, in Holland* f, 1364 
embairk, ▼» 1364 
voyage of the, t, 1367 
landing of the, v, 1370 
Pindar, quotation from, i, 107 
Pisa, Council of, iii, 914; iv, 1084 
Pisani, Nicolo. iii, 879 
Pisaurum swallowed by an earthquake, 

ii, 420 
Pisistratc, conspiracy against the, i, jxj 
Pisistratidac, the, i, a^9 
Piso, L. Calpumis. is, 390 
Pitigliano, iv, 1078 

Pitt, William, v, 1634, i6s6, 1629; vi* 
resolves to destroy French rule in 
America, ▼, 1630 
Pittsburg, named for WilUam Pitt, ▼, 

Pius III. convenes third Council of 

Trent, iv, 1186 
Pius IX., viii, 249s 
Pius X., viii, 2501 
PizarrOf Francisco, iv, 1003 
Placcntia, resistance of, il« 369 
Plague, the, iii, 862. (^tf« BlACB 
Death, iv, 1138) • 
at Athens, i, 2^0 
nature of the, 1, 271 
origin of the, i, 272 
characteristics of the, i, a7J 
at Jaffa, vi, 1840 
Plague at Athens, Thi, i, jyi 
Plagues, i, 31 

two great, i, 97 
Planets, origin of the, 1, 2$ 
Plassey, battle of, v, 1625 
Platca, battle of, i, 259 

Death of Socrates, i, 3<ia 
Plebeians i, ^16; ii, 408 
citadel of, 1, 263 
grievances of, 1, 261 
Plebeians and Patricians, I* a$g 
Plevna, surrender of, vii, S263 
Plimsoll, vii, 2258 

Pliny the Elder, calmness of, li, 50X 
philosophical curiosity of, regarding 

Vesuvius, ii, 490 
seeks to aid the distressed, ii, 499 
resolves to rescu<j a friend, ii, 500 
overcome by noxious vapors, ii, 502 
body of, found, ii, 50^ 
writes for postcritv, ii, 497 

Eruption of Mount Vesuvius, ii, 497 
Pliny the Younger, opinions regarding 
Christians, ii, d.?6 
tribute to the elder Pliny. Ii, 498 
behavior of, durtnf er u p U o a . ot V^ 
snviua, if, 505 


The Battle of Actitiin, ii, 415 

The Battle of Salamis, i, 247 

The Foundinc of Rome, a« ii<3 

Laws of Lycurgus, i, 84 

Laws of Solon, i, 136 
Pocahontas, iv, 1298 
Poitiers, battle of, iii, 884 
Poland, Agricultural Society of, ^m» 

ambitions oL vii, S157 

extinction ot, vii, 2165 

re-established, vii 1886 

dvil war in, v, 1643 

Sirtition of, v, 1663; vi, 1766 
iet of, V, 1665 
invasion of, v, 1490 
partition of, viii, 2470 
Pcdar expeditions, viii, 2397, S411 
Poles sent to Siberia, vi, is)98 
Polians, the, ii, 639 

Polish Insukkectioh, Tuj^ vis, MtSJ 
Politiques, the, iv, is66 
Polo, Marco, the Elder, iii, 80s 
Polo, Marco, the Younger, employed bf 
Kublai Khan, iii, 80;^ 
claims to nobihty of, in, 804 
merits of his book, iii, 809 
Polo, Nicolo^ iii, 805 
Polonium, viii, 2489 

Polos, second journey of the, iii, 807 
the return to Venice of the, iii, SoS 
Polybius, ii, 391, 398, 404 
Polycarp^ martyrdom oC ii, 478 
Pomerania, invasion of, by Daaes^ ▼, 

Pompeii, excavations begun at, ▼, x6o9 
Porapeiusi^ Cneus, ii, 413 
Pompev, li, 413 

murdered, li. 4x4 
Poniatowsky, death of^ vi, 1935 
Pontos, Idugdom of, li^ 41a 
Pontus, massacres in, ii, 481 
Pope and Emperor, relations betweei^ 
ii, 689 
relation of, to Rome, ii, 613 
policy of the, ii, 618 
Popes, beginning of the temporal power 
of the, ii, 534 
three rival, iii, 914 
deprived of temporal power, vi, x8a4 
loss of temporal power, vii, 2148 
Poplieola, ii, 424, 426 
Porcaro, Stephen, iii, 861 
Porcius, ii, 370, 373. 378 
Porsena, Lars, i, 228 
Port Arthur, captured, vii, 2298 
attack on, viii, 2533 
defeat of Russian fleet at, viii, 2548 
Japanese enter, viii, 2578 
siege of, viii, 2579 
opened to the shipping of all nation^ 
ix, 2928 
Porteous riota, v, 1571 
Portland, viii, 2651 
Port Mahon, ii, 36Z; v, xiSas 
Portobello captured, v, 1588 
Port Royal taken by Enfflisii, v, 1526 
Portsmouth, Treaty of, viii. afii^r 
Portugal, becomes indspeaient, v; 1^98 
revolution in, vi, 1955 
•onquercd b^ PhiUp BL. iv, uM 



PortugaL King of, aasastiiiation of, ix, r 
Law of Public Security in, ix, 2781 
Republic of» proclaimea» ix, 3943 
becomes a republic, x, 3187 ' 

Portuguese* settle Brazil, iv. 1x90 
form a treaty with Japan, it, 1190 


Potemkine, ri, 1727, 1729, 1733 

takes Otchakoff, vi, 1734 

triumphal journejr of, vi, 1736 

besieges Ismail, ri, 1735 
Pothinus, ii, 420 

death of, 11, 479 
Potomac, Army of the, yii, 2x90 
Poundage, ▼, X374 
Powhatan, ir, 1297 
Pragmatic Sanction, of Bonrges, ili, psi 

the, T, isS7f IS? I 
Prague, battle of, lii, 922 

besieged, ii, 648 
Pramzimas, s, 43 
Prato, capture of, it, 1087 

PlBVACK, 1, X 

The Conquest of Granada, xil, xoox 


X, 3309 
Press, progress of the, ▼, 1636 
PressDurg, Diet of, vii, 2047 

Treaty of, tI^ x88o 
Prester, John, xv, X049 

skull of, tii, 744 
Preston Pans, luitde of, v, X595 
Pretoria, surrender of, viii, 2397 
Pretorian Guard, proclaims Claudiua 
emperor, ii, 453 

disbanded, ii, 523 
Priam, i, 33 

The Boy Scout Movement, Etiglish, 
ix, 302 X 
Prim, General, ▼!!, 222Z, 2227, 223 x 
Prima, i, 117 

Primrose League, rii, 2279 
Prince of Wales, origin of motto of, 

"I, 853 

Printed book, earliest, iii, 978 
Printers, early, iii, 980 
Printing by steam, Tii, 2073 
Printingj spread of, iii, 978 

in China, iii, 974 

in Japan, iii, 974 

first attempts at, ill, 973 

Napoleon III. in Italy, vii, 2x35 
ProcopiuB, i, 60; iii, 922 
Prodigies, ii, ,4^0, 439, 471 
Prometheus, 1, 41 

paosecution of johh wxlkes axd 
Passing of thb Stahp Act, ▼, 1636 
Protection^ vi, 2001 
Protestantism, triumph of, iv, 12x9 
Protestants, famous, iv, xios 

persecuted in England, iv, 1x90 
Prussia, vi, x88o; vii, 2054 

f rains Stettin, v, xss7 
mportance of, vii, 2256 
Crown Prince of, vii, 2247, 2251 
Psamnietichus, endurance of, I9 joi 

flight of, i, 200 
Ptena, combat at, x, x8o 

Ptolemy, son of Qeopatra, ii, 417 
PubUus Valerius, i. 223, 2^5 
Puebla, siege o\ vii, 2172 
Pugct Sound, viii, 26s9 
Pultowa. siege of, ,v, 1522 
Punic War, first, i, 357 

second, i, 357 

third, ix, 382 

Punjab annexed to Great Britain, vi. 
2025 ^ 

Pu Yi, Emperor of China, ix, 2794 
Pym, death of, v, 1380 
Pyramids, battle of the, vL X824 
Pyre, funeral, i, loi 
Pjrrrha, i, 4x 
grrrhus, i, 323 
Pythia, the, 1, 70 
Pytho, the, i, 70 
Pythoness, the, i, 70 

choice of, i, 75 

message to Croesus, i, 184 


(uadrant invented, v, 1571 
fuatre Bras, Marshal Ney at, vi, 
uebec, battle of, v, 1631 

8 celebrates 300th anniversary, ix, 2781 
ueensland. vii, 2134 
^uiberon, battle of, v, X629 
',ninctiu8, Keso, i, 262 
Quriis, the, enmity toward Mohammed 

the, 11, 570, 574 
_the council of, ii, 575 
Qur'in, the, ii, 580 


Radetzky. Marshal, vii, 3051 
Radio activity, viii, 25x7 
Radium, i, viii, 2517 

deposits in Canada, ix, 2958 
Radium and its Lbssons, viii, 25x7 
Raglan, Lord, vii, 2099, 2x01,2x22,2124 

death of, vii, 211 1 
Raikes, Robert, founds Sunday Schools. 

V, xs8p 
Rakokmr, defeat of. v, 1526, 1557 

The Fan of Babylon, i, x88 
Raleigh, Sir Walter quotation from, ii, 

unpopularity of, iv, 1341 

"ffistory of the Worid* by, iv, 1341 

imprisoned in Tower, iv, 1341 

schemes of, iv, 1342 

artifices of, iv, X347 

liberation of^ iv, 1342 

execution of, iv, 1348 

The Befl;inningB of Russia, ii, 634 

The Polish Insurrection, vii, 2x57 
Rameses II., i, 44 
Ramillies, batUe of, v, xsis 
Randolph, Peyton, v, 1682 

End of the Peloponnestan War: 
. ^ Battle of Cheronea, i, 324 

Expedition of the Ten Thousand, i, 996 



The First RuBsan Ptolkaeni 


Ru Alula, vii, aaSi 
Ras Mangascia, vii, 22B3 
Rastadt, Peace of, v, 1540 
Ratisboa, Diet of, iv, si 80 
Ravenna, ii. 531, 564 

Exarch ol, u, 507, 613 

battle of, IV. X084 

CvniB Founds Persia, i, im 

The Founding of Cbaldea. f, 41 
Rajnnond, Count of Touiouae, ■« fWTt 

711, 714; iii, 755, 758 
Raymond de Cordona, iv, X084, 1087 
Raymond, Roger, bravery of, m^ fpk 
Raymond VI., death of, iii» 759 
Rays, Cathodic, viii, SS17 

Lcnard, viii. 2517 

Ronton, viii, 2517 

X. viii, 2517 
Redan, assault of the, vii, jiij 
Red Cross, vii, 2108: x, 3350 
Red Rocks, battle of the, u, $Ji 
Reform Bill passed, vi, X99S 
RspoRMATioif, The, iv, X105 
Reformation, iv, 11 07 

in Italy, iv, 1179 

in Denmark, iv, 1168 

effect of, on Hanseatte Leacne» fil» 

in Scotland, triumph of, tv, iai8 
Reformation im Scotland, The, iv» 

Reggie, Earthquake at, iz, aS<}6, j8o8 
Regillus Lake, battle of, i, 231 
Regnier, General, vi, 1839, 1847 
Reichstadt, Due de, vi, 1885 
Assassination of President McKinlej. 
viii, 2413 
Reign op Akbak, Thb, iv, 1191 
Reign of Terror, Trs, vi, 1782 
Reis Admiral Candido dos, ix, 2936 

death of, ix, 2937 
Religion, development of, it. 44 
Religious thought, great period of, u 

Remus, i, X12 

death of, i, 113 
Renaissance, Savonarola and the, iv, 

Renaudot founds Gazette de France, 

V, 1373 
R^ne of Anjou, takes Nancy, iii, 984 
array of, iii, 987 

before body of Charles, Duke of 
Burgundy, iii, 99^ - 

solicits aid from the Swiss, iii, 985 
The Invention of the Steamboat, vi, 

Repasts, public, t, 87 
Repton, ii, 559 

Republic of St, Mark, vu, aoji 
Requesens, Don Luis de, iv, iJa6, 

-Return of Hallky's Comet, ix, 2913 

Retz, Cardinal de, v, i397 _^ ,, 

RavivAi. or tile iMFEaiAXi ihavin^ ii» 


RavflcaTiOK o» tbb Ehict ov KanOk 

V, 1413 
Rrrocatkm of tbe £«lict of Natttes, % 

1412, 1416 
Rbvolutiom ih China, x, 31 18 
RxvoLunov or 1848, Toe, via. 2045 
RevolutiOb of 1848 an. Europe, viii 

Rbvolutiohs in Rom^ iii, Sss 
Reynolds, vii, 2x92 _ 

Rheim% Charles VII. crowned at, ni, 

Rhine, Confederation of the. vi, iSSa^ 

1 88 c 
Rhode Island coloniyfd, ▼, 1374 
Rhodes, iii, 817 

taken by Turks, iv, 1x67 

Gautama Buddha, i, la^ 
Richard III., fury of, at Boafrorth, m 


unpopularity of, iii, 997 

crimes of. iii, 995 

goes to Nottingham, iii, 996 

treacherv of his supporters, iii, 997 

death of, iii, 1000 
Ridiard C<cur de LioUi ii, 722, 725 

march of, to Joppa, li, 728 

exploits of, in Holj Land, H, 7^ 

retreat -of, ii, 730 

shipwrecked, ii, 730 

capture of, ii, 730 

leaves Palestine, ii, 730 

in Palestine campaigns, ii, 72S 

and Philip Augustus, ii, 726 

autrries Berenfpria, ii, 727 

and Tancred, 11, 727 
Richard of Capua, ii, 6S7 
Richardson, Sir Benjamin, vii, 2316 
Richelieu, iv, Z3SS» 1359; ▼!• <94^ 

interruption of, in Austrian affair^ 

iv, 1353. 
death of, iv, 1374 

Richmond, capture of, vii, 2206 

Richmond (Uenrv VII.), Earl of, ixpn- 

sion of England by, iii, 996 

supporters of, iii, 9^ 
Riego, rebellion of, vi, 1954 
Riel s insurrection, vii, 2287 
Rienzi, Nicola di^ iii, 858 

made tribune, iii, 858 

assassination of, iii, 859 

character of, iii, 850 
Rights, Declaration of, v, 1448 
Rise and Fall of thb MxxiOUI 

Empire, vii, 2172 
Rise of Feudalism, ii, 695 
Rise of Mahdism, The, vii, 2274 
RiSB of Methodism and the nww 

Philanthropy, The, v, 1581 
Rise of the Dutch Republic, iv, 12^0 
Rise op tub Young Tubks, The. ax* 

2784 ^ 

Roberts, Lord, vii,. a273» »37o; ▼>"f 

General, Invadea Afghaustan, vii, 

Robespierre, vi, 1741* I740 
Rochefoucauld, Dtuce de H, vv X39i» 

« .*394 „ .^ 

Rochester conflagration, ruu ^39 



Bockingham Iftnistry* the, ▼, t&^J 
Roderic the Goth, ii, 593 

at XereSk ii, S95 

flight of, ii, 596 

death otf ii, 506 
Rodney, vi, 1710* 

defeats Dc Graaae, ^ 17:13 
Rodolph, Emperor, iii^ 8x^ 
Roger, Cotiiit of Sioly, u, 633 
Rojestvenaky, Admiral, viii, 2556, adojb 

Rolf Ganger. (5'^^ Rollo) 
Rollin, Ledru, vi, 3043 
Rollo attacks Normandy, ii, 6^0 
Roman Empire, the Eastern, u, 561 

the Eastern, attacked by the Arabii 
ii, 590 

division of, ii, 534 

division ol, under Diocletian, ii, 

SIX emperors ofp at once, ti, |ai 
of the West extinguished, ii, 500 
Roman, legiona withdrawn from Britaiflft 

ii» 545 
policy. 11, 583 

consulahip abolished, ti^ 569. 
empire, dream of a, ii, 630 
ana Teuton, union of, ii, 6J5 
triuniph, origin of, i, Z19 
fortitude, ii, ^65 

royalty, mythical period of, I, JS9 
government, ii, 4oiB 
wars, i, 333 
Reptd>lic, vi, 1834 
laws» i, 361 
Forum, i, 318, 320 

Senate, ii, 383, 385, 389» 39i» 40i> 4A 
^ Empire, division of, ii, 414 
triumphs, ii. 405 

army, ii, 309f 485 .. 
army in Germany, li, 444 
army, march of the, 11, 446 
army, defeat of, ii, 450 
cavalry, flight pf, li, 449 
nobles, feuds of, iii, 8«7 

Romanoff, General, v, 1663 

Romans, grow dispirited at Jeroatlem* 
ii, 493 
massacre of the, i, 3x9 
learn Hasdrubal s plans, Ii, 373 
rout of the, by the Gauls, i, 313 
victory of the, ii, 379 
driven out of Germany, ii, 451 
three kings of the, in Germany, ii^ 

Rome, founding of, i, 1x3 
foundation of, i, 83 
citadel at, attacked, i, 320 

geese save the citadel, 1, 333 
iterested in Greek politics, i, 357 
gains Sardinia and Corsica, I, 357 
gains Cisalpine Gaul^ i, 357 
gains Illyria, i, 357 
peril of, 11, 369 
burning of, 1, 310 
regains power in Asia, ii, 413 
social war in, ii, 410 
first civil war of, ii, 4x1 
triumphant, ii, 380 
iatemal state oU ia Middk 
iii, 855 

Rome, seven chief magistratea of, tii, 
law and order restored in, in Mid- 
dle Ages, lii, 858 
during the Great Schism, iii, 857 
bannerets in, iii, 860 
sacked by Vandals, ii, 560 
taken by the Goths, ii, 566 
invaded by the Saracena, ii, 625 
attacked by the Lombards, u, 611 
growing power of, i, 333 
rapital of Italy, vii, 3148, 3357 
King of, vi, 1885 
iaaurrection in, vii, 3149 
war of, with Tarentnm, i, 313 
panic in, i, 314 

takes measures for defence^ i, aij 
Gauls invade, i, 3x0 
dictator at, ii, 411 
social strike at, ii, 409 
acts as arbitrator, ii, 38a 
and her allies, ii, 407 
terror in, ii, 451 

Sreat fires of, li, 473 
edares war against the Acheans, ii, 
quarrels of Plebeians and Patridaos 

in, L SS9 
sack of, 1, 3x9; IV, XX47 
Inquisition established in, tv, 1x84 
Romulus and Remua leave Alba, i, xu 

dispute of, i, 113 
Romulus, classifies the inhabitants, i» 

buil(u his dty, i, 1x4 
Rontgen^ Professor, vii, 33x0 
Roon, Count von, vii, 3245 
Roosevelt, Theodore, viiii, 34x1, J6a3; 
ix, 2891 

inauguration of, viii, 3489 

characteristics of, ix, 3833 

policies of, ix, 2833 

trip of, ix, 2900 

attempted assassination of, Ju jaao 

Cosmo de' Medici, iii, 896 
Rosen, viii, 2635 
Rosetta Stone, vi, 1837 
Ross. Sir Tames, vi, 2016 
Rossbach| battle of, v, x6x9, i6ay 
Rostopchin, Count, vi, 1896 
Rothschild, Nathan, vi, x886 
Roumania, vii, 2270 

established, vii, 2134 
Roumelia, East, vii, 2371, 3387 
Roussine. Captive, viii, 3630 
Roval Wards, ii, 700 
Rubicon, Caesar crosses the, ii, 4x3 
Rttbruquis, William de, iii, 805, 809 
Rudini, Marquis de, vii, 3383, 2287 
Runnymede. iii, 767 
Rurik, the oome of, ii, 638 

founds Russia, ii, 631 

goes to Novgorod, li, 639 
Russell, Admiral, v, X477, 1484 
RUSSELL, W. k. ' 

Laying of the Atlantic Cable, vii* 
Russia, beginning of, ii, 631^ 638 

derivatioo of the xiame, ii^ ^38 
lieroic age of^ ii, 638 

fiiafc Mon0al invaaion of, itt^ 778- 



Riosia, iouffnificance of, ▼, 15 14 
triumph ox. over Sweden, ▼, isi6 
Holy Synod in, t, 1569 
army oz, in 181 2. vi, 1880 
invades Turkey. tU, 2258 

Sress in, vii, 2151 
ecUres war against Turkey, vii. 

Constitution of, viii, 2634 

and the Balkan question, x, 3362, 

_ 3365. 3375 

RussiAM Conquest of the CaiMEa» 

Thb^ ri, 1727 
Russian Parliament, firirt, viit, 2707 
' Russian serfs, freed, vii, 2150 
abolition of, vii, 2152 
Russians, cruelty of the, vii, 2163 
Russo-Turkish War, Ti, 197s 
Rustara, the Persian general, ii, S&4 
Ruyter. de, t, 1406 
Ryswick, Peace of, ▼, 1489 

S> E. 
The Balkan War, x, 3378 
The Titanic Disaster, x, 3157 
Saarbriicken, battle of, vii, 2248 
Sabine women^ rape of the, i, 115 
SabinesL the, 1. 118 
Sackville. Lord George, v, 1628 
Sacred Band, the, i, 333 
Sacred War, first, i, 135 
Sacrifice, human, i, 253 

at Olympia. i, no 
Sadowa, battle of, vii, 2148 
Sagasta, vii, 2223, 2229, 2231 
Sahib, Tippoo, vi, 1824 
Saint Paul, Comte de, iv, 1161. iSH 

also St. Pol) 
Sakhalin, viii, 2621 
Sakyas, the, i, 124 
Saladin, ii, 723 
captures Jerusalem, ii, 721 
becomes Sultan of Egypt, ii, 720 
alarmed by Richard, ii, 728 
Salamis, i. 235 

battle of, 1, 2^4 
Salem, persecution of witclies of, ▼» 

Salic law enforced, iii, 836 
Salisbury, Earl of, attacks Orleans* 

iii, 936 
Salisbury, Earl of (Robert Cecil), !▼» 
receives letter, Iv^ 1307 
Salisbury, Lord, vii, 2260, 2268 
Salisbury, railway accident at, viii, afaS 
Salmeron, iv, 1181 
Saluces, Marquis de, iv, 11 52 
Salvation Arm;^, vii, 2206 
Samnite wars, 1, 323 
Samnites, the, ii, 4iO| 4x2 
San^son. Admiral, vii, 2327 
San or Sana!, L 52 
Sanctuary at Jerusalem, fate of the, 

ii. 492 
San Domingo, insurrection in, vi, 1766 
republic of, founded, vi, 1985 
republic, vi, 3014 
Sandwich Islands discovered, ▼, 1692 

Sah Fuurasco Disasteb, Tn. vm. 

San Udefonso, treaty of, vi, 171^ 
San Salvador, iii, 1028 
San Stefano, treaty of, vii, 2258, 22M 
Santa F€ built, iii* 1004 
Santa Hemandad instituted, iii, 9^1 
Santa Rosa, vi, 1963 
Santiago, battle o£| vii, 2528 
Santos-Ekimont, viii, 2^.11 
Sapor (King of Persia), death of, S, 
defeats Valerian, ii, 482 
Saracen army, ii, 595 
Saracens, conquests of the, ii, 604 

invade Rome, ii, 625 

great work of the, ander Omar, Ut 

loss of, at Cadesia, ii, 586 

land in Spain, ii, 594 

invade France, ii, 606 
Saratoga, vi, 17 12, 1706 
Sardanapalus, 1, 98 
Sardica, Council of, ii, 5^0 
Sardinia, i, 357; ii, 362; vti, 2x16, 214^ 

joins in war with Russia, vii, 2109 
Sardinians, gallantry of, vii, 2x11 
Sardis, the Persians besiege, i« 182 

capture of, i, 183 

fall of, i, i8s 
Sarmatians invade Illyricuxn, ii, $^3 
Sarrut, (General, death of, vi, 19x4 
Sarto, Cardinal Joseph, viii, 2^01 
Sassanian dynasty, fall of the, li, 5^ 
Satapathabrahxnana, quotation from the, 

h 39 
Savage, Sir John, iii, 995^ 
Savary, (jeneral, vi, X99X 
Savona, capture of, iv, 116 z 

taken by Doria, iv, XX54 
Savonarola, C^rolamo, iv, 1054 

excites populace, iv, 1037 

attitude of, toward the Renaissance, 
iv, X054 

preaching of, iv, xoss 

political sagacity of, iv, X055 

vandalism of, iv, X056 

reformation of, iv, 1056 

suspended from preaching, iv, X058 

sermons of, iv, 1058 

enemies of, iv, xo6i 

letter of. to Alexander VI., iv, J061 

claims ox, to supernatural powers, ir> 

imprisoned, iv^ X062 

meditations of, iv, 1062 

trial b^ fire of, iv, 1062 

execution of^ iv, 1063 

posthumous influence of, iv, X064 
Savoy, Duke of, iv, 11 56 
Saxon Conquest of Britain, Thi, 

ii, 546 
Saxon revolt, ii-, 682 
Saxons, revolt against Henry IV. ol 
(jermany, ii, 691 

victory at l>eorham, li, 557 
Saxony, Crown Prince of, vii, 2249 
Scellius, ii. 424 

The Eruption of Vesuvius, viii. 2676 
Schiller, description of Wallenatein, it, 



Schism, the Great* iii» 857> 9^9 
Schley. Admiral^ rii, 2338 
Scbomoerg, Meinhardt, v, i454» X456» 

1458, 1463 
Sehonbrunn, Treaty of, ti, 2884 

The Battle of Gettysburg, vii, si 90 

The Declaration of Independence, ▼!, 

The DiscoTery of Gold in California, 
vi, 2026 

The Emancipation of the Slaves, Tti, 

The Fight between the Monitor 
and the Merrimac, vii, 2x67 
Scipio Nasica, ii, ^84 

elected Consul, u» 391 
Sdpio, Publius, u, 359» 3^, 389, 39S» 

attacks Megara, ii, 39a 

blocks harbor, li, 393 

curse of. ii. 396 

expels Carthaginians from Spain, ii« 

lands in Africa, ii, ^81 

destroys Carthage, 11, 38a 
Sclavonians, ii, 646 

defeated by Henry I. of Germany* 
ii, 648 
Scotch, patriotism of the, iv, zao4 
Scotland unites with England, ▼, 151 J 

united, iii, 836 

Reformation in, iy, Z3i8 
Scots, the, ii, 545 

prej>are for war^ iii, 823 
Scottish, leaders, iii, 8as 

archers, iii, 83a 

army, iv, 1098 
Scutafi:e, ii, 698 
Scytbia, Goths in, ii, 634 
Sea Beggars, the, iv, 1239 
"Sea Dogs,'* the, iv, laaS 
Sea of Japan, battle of the, viii, s6ot 
Seattle, viii, 26^0 
Sebastopol, firea, viiv 21x3 

siege of, vii, a 108 

attack on, yii, 3103 

position of, vii, 2 TOO 
Secession op Panama and tee Panama 

Canal, The, viii, 2509 
Seckendorff, v, 1571, 1575 
Second Republic and the Second 
Empire in Feancx, The, vii, ao8o 
Sedan, battle of, vii, 3349 
Segestes, ii, 442 

Seine in Flood, The, ix, 28^3 
Selim Ill.f captures Egypt, Syria, Palaa- 
tine, IV, II 04 

becomes Sultan of Othman Empire^ 
iv, 1226 

wants Cyprus, iv, 1227 
Seljuk Turks conquer Persia, ii, 701a. 
Semiramis, i, 33 
Semitic emigration,, the, i,. 48 
Senate, the, i, 84 

establishes Iawa» i, 146 
Senator of Rome, office ot tht^ iu^ 9^ 
Senlac, battle of, ii, 676 
Sennacherib, i, 150 

pilTages Judah. i, 152 

results of disaster of, 1, i§B. 

advance of, i# 155. 

Sennacherib, destruction^ of, i, 156 

vengeance of, i, 151 
Separation of Norway and Swedbk, 

The, viii, a6ia 
Sepoys, power of the, vii, 3132 

outbreak of, vii, ax 28 
September massacres, vi, 1786 
Septimus Severus, persecution of Chris* 

tians under, ii, 480 
Seringapatam, vi, 1^05 
Serrano, General, vii, 3334, 3337, aaag, 

3331, 3336 
Sertorius, ii, 411 
Servia, vii, 3258. 3370, 3387 

Sained by Turkey, vi, i8s6 
eclares war against Turkey, vii, 1359 
Revolution in. viii, 3478 
iSge also Balkan States) 
Seton^ Sir Alexander, at Bannodcbanit 

iii, 830 
Seven Bishops, trial of the, v, 1421 
Seven Weeks' War, vii, 3210 
Seven Years' War, The, v, 1617 
Seven Years' War, importance of, ▼, 

Severn valley, conquest of the, ii, 557 
Severus, becomes emperor, ii, 508 

death of, ii, 508 
Seville, first auto-de-f6 at, iii, 994 

rebellion of, ii, 602 

reduced by Musa, ii, 600 
Sewing-machine, the, vii, 2075 
Sforaai, Francesco, iv, X136, 1141, 1144* 

Shaho, Battle of, viii, 2555 
Shalmancser V., i, 79, p7 
Shawnawaze pillagea, iii, 906 
Shekan, massacre of, vii, 3273 
Shem, i, 28 

Shepherd Kings, i, 44; ii, 703 
Shepherds, the watching, ii, 433 

adoration of the, ii, 438 ' 
Sherman's march through Georgia* vHt 

"Ship-money," ii, 665 
Ships battle, vii, 2167 
Shore, Sir John, vi, 1760 
Shovel, Sir Cloudesley, v, 15x2 
Siberia, first exiles to, v, 15 13 

Poles sent to, vi. 1998 
Siberian, railway oegun, vii, 3388 

railway, vii, 3289 
Sicilian Vespers, The, iii, ^95 
Sicilian Vespers, story of, iii, 8o3 
Sicily, dissatisfaction in, iii, ^98 

Garibaldi's invasion of, vii, 3x4$ 

disaffection in, iii, 800 

taxation in, iii, 801 

Easter in, iii, 801 

importance of conquering, iii, 731 

captured by Athens, i, 284 

subdued by the Arabs, ii, 635 

taken from the Saracens^ ii, 6^x. 

conquest of, ii, 633 

first slave insurrectioo in, ii, 406 

Athens covets, i, 284 
Sicily, Earthquake in^ ix, 3754^ 3807 
Sickles, General, vii, 2196, 2203 
Sidon captured by Crasadera^ h, 730 
Siege of Acr% Thb, vt* x^3ft 
Siege of Jerusalem, Thj, ii, 484- 
SxsoB or Mqms AarBUi, Tu,. vUw 



SxsGB or Syiacuu. i, a79 

BlEGE or ViBXHA, THB« T, I4O4 

Sieges, famoua, Tui, 2584 

Sierra Leone, vi, 1720 

Sieves, Abb^ vi* 1850 

Siffismund, King of Hunganr, iii. 9^5 

coronation of, as Kins of Bohemia, 
iii, 922 

defeated, iii. 922 

character ox, iii, 916 

summons Council of Constance, iii, 

opposed by Bohemians, iii, 920 
Sigurd the Dane, ii, 628 ■ 
Siui War, second, vi, 2025 
Sikhs, the^ troubles begin with, Ti, 2014 
Silesia, vi, 1933 

invaded by Frederick the Great, ▼, 

seized by Frederick the Great, ▼, 

recaptured, ▼, 1620 
Silk-making introduced into Europe, ii, 

The Franco-German War, vii, 3244 
Revival of the Imperial Dignity, ii, 

Simon de Montfort (xst), iii, 733f 75^ 

death of, iii, 7S9 
Shuon de Montfort (2d), iii, 784 

military successes of^ iii, 786 

captures Warwick, iii, 787 

sons of, iii, 791 
Simon de Montfort (3d), iii, 792 

death of, iii, 792 
Simonides, i, 210 

SiMrLON Tunnel, Thb, viii, as86 
Sineous, brother of Rurik, li, 638 

The Net Results of King (George's 
Indian Tour, x, 3130 

Preface, i, i 
Six Waltix Ralxigh'^ Expedition; 

iv, X34X 

Charles V. Conquers Italv, iv, 1135 

Charles VIIL Invades Italy, iv, 103 1 

The Decline and Fall of Venice, vi, 

League of Cambray, iv, 1077 
Sixtus, Roman bishop, ii, 482 
Slave question, the, vii, 2180 
Slaves, emancipation of, in the United 

States, vii, 2189 
Slavs, the, ii, 634 

Sleswig, Henry establishes German col- 
ony at, ii, 650 
Slocum, General, vii, 2194, 2196 
Small-pox, inociUation for^ v, 1570 
Smith, Adam, v, 1653; vxj 2000 

publishes ''Wealth of Nations." ▼, 
Smith, Captain John, iv, 1292 

adventures of, iv, I2ff2 

President of Virginia Council, iw, 

captured br Indians, iv, 1297 

saved by Pocahontas, iv, X298 

publishes map, iv, 1340 

returns to England, iv, 1303 

Smith, Sir Thomas, £▼, 1300 
Smith, Sir W. Sidney, n, x84z, 1844 
Smolensko, French enter, ri, 18102 

The Capture of C^pe Breton, ▼, 15516 

The First Jacobite Kebellion, ▼, 154X 
Snow King, the, iv, 1355 
Sobieaki, John, y, 1407, 14x0; vU 1818 
Socage, it, 608 

Social ahd Mitbudatxc Wabs. ii» 407 
Social War (Athens), i, ^23 
Society Islands discovered, v, 1645 
Society of Jesus, v, 1667 

{Seg aUo Jesuits) 
Society of the Garden RuccelUi* ir, 

Socinus, iv, X190 
Socrates, conduct of, i, 306 

takes poison, i, 309 

visitors to, i, 302 

last words of, i, 309 

death of. i, 301 

commands of, i, 304 

on immortality, i, 303 
Soimono£F, Creneral, vii, axx8 

SoXJkE MOTOKS, ix, 29^2 

Solemn League and (Tovenant, v, 1382 
Solferino, battle of, vii, 2141 
Soliman invades Austria, iv, 1x54 
Solon, i, X35 

{procedure of, i, 136 
eaves Athens, i, 147 

made lawgiver, i, 138 

death of, i, 208 
Solon's laws, criticism of, i, 146 

classification of the people, i, 139 
Solyman the Magnificent, attadcs Malta, 
iv, 1220 

power of, iv, X220 
Somaliland, exploration of, vii, 2x27 
Somers, Sir George, iv, 1302 
Somers, John, v, X424, 1448 
Sonderbund dissolved, vi, 2024 
Soult, Marshal, preachings of, vi, X90S 
South African Repiftlic, vii, 2258 
South Carolina founded, v, 1398 
South Pole, discovery of, x, 3155, 3178 
South Sea Bubble, The, v, 1558 
South Sea Bubble, v, 1566 
South Sea Company, v, 1559, 1562 

organized, v, 1526 

The Battle of the Nile, vi, 1825 
Southumbrians, the, v, 1559 
Spain, conquered by the Visigoths, ii, 

attacked by the Arabs, ii, ^90 

Inquisition established in, iii, 994 

Christian kingdoms united in, iii, 

fau of the Arabian Empire in, iii, 

X005, xoxo 
growth of, iii, xoxo 
rise of power of, iV| 10^2 
outbreak of Moors xn, iv, 1069 
intolerance in, iv, xo66 
expels the Moors, iv, X076 

Sossessions of, v, 1495 
eclares war against Great Britain* 
vi. 1870 
rebellion in, vii, 2223 
Liberals in« Txi, 2220, 2222, 2226 



Spain, pamc in, vii, aaj6 

republie, vii, 3^57 

universal suffrage in. Tit, ^7f^ 
Spaniards, cruelty of, in Rome, vt, 1148 

cruelty of, iv, 1080, 1090 
Spanish Armada, rr, 1256, ia6o 
"Spanish Fury," the, iv, 1241 
Spanish Netherlands, the, ir, 1244 

successes in^ iv, 12^ 
Spanish nobihty» Jewish blood in, iii, 

Spanish and Papal invasion of Irdand; 

iv, X286 
Sparta, rise of, i, 83 

importance of, i, 235 

attacked by the Corinthians, i, 310 

and Thebes, war between, i, 333 
Spartan children, training of, i, 91 
*' Special Correspondent,'' origin of» 

vii, 21 01 
Speculation, mania for, v, 1561 
Spencer, Stanley, viii. 24x2 

The League of the Balkan States, z, 

Peace on Earth, ix. 2971 
Spcver, Henrj IV. (Gferniaay) at, ii, 69a 
Spiaer, legend of Mohammed and the, 

ii, <76 
Spizes, Diet of, iv, IZ13 
Spoil, wealth of Persian, ii, 587 
Spokane, viii, 2649 
Spoleto, duchy <a, founded, ii, 6x3 
Spontaneous Education: The lloN- 

TS8S0SZ KfiiTHOD. X, 3230 
St Albans, battle of, iii, 98 x 
St. Antoinc, battle of, v, 1395 
St. Arnaud. General, vii, 2084 

Marshal, vii, 2099, 21 01 

death of, vii, atix 
St. Clair, General, vx, 1703 
St. £gidiO| battle of, iii, 933 
St. Germain, Treaty of, iv, 1263 
St. Helena, Napoleon sent to, vi, 1941 
St. Tames, ii^ 439 
St. Jerome^ li, 532 
St. John, ii, 467, 475 
St. Luke, it, 431, 4^0 
St. Peter's, begun, iv, X076 

Basilica of, ii, 624 
St. Petersburg founded, v, i^^o 
St. Pierre, destruction of, viii. 24^0 
St. Pol, iv, 1 153. iJStt BousBOV, 

Francois dk) 
St. Qnenuxi, battle of, iv, 1x98 
St. Sophia, church of, ii, 569 
St. Thomas, sack of, iv, 1344 
Stahr ember g, Count, ▼, 1407, 14x1 
Stair, Master of the, v, 1464, 1466 
Stairs, Lord, v, 1543 
Stamford Bridge, battle (rf, ii, 676 
Stamp Act, the, v, 1640, 1643 
StanxoXtl, Thomas W^ vx, 2998 
Stanislaus, King of PioboMl, ▼, 1663 
Stanley, Henry M^ vii, 2273, 2297 

circumnavigates Victoria Nyaaza, vii, 
Stanley, Sir William^ iii, 998 
Star Chamber aboli^cd, v, 1374 
Star worshippers, Chaldeans as, i, 5« 
States of Franchc-Ceat^r lit, 989 
States-General, Netbcrlaadsy rv, iJ^a 

States-General of France, first, iii, 8ia 

meeting of, in X789> vi; ^739 
Stauffacher of Schw^z» iii, 814 
Steam, plow, the, vii, 2078 

ships, y\L 2068 

engine, Fulton orders, vi, x866 

engine (Watts), vi, 1858 

boat, hrst, vi, 1868 

boat, inventors of the, vi, x86o 

printing press, vii, 2073 

railways, vii, 2069 

engine, the, v, 1650 
Steenkirke, battle of, Y, 1488 

The Battle of Elandslaagte, viii, 2380 

The Battle of Omdurman, vii, 2343 

The Rise of Mahdism, vii» 2274 
Steinmetz, General von, vii, 2247 
Stelton, V, 1557 
Stephen of Blois, ii, 707, 715 
Stephenson, George, vii, 2070 
Stephenson, Robert, vii, 2239 
Stirlii>g, Admiral, Sir James, vii, 2098 
Stirling, the ^ate of Scotland, iit* 8aa 

surrenders, iii, 834 
Stoessel, General, viii, 27x2, 2726 
Stolypin, viii, 2726 
Stork at Aquileia, story of the, ii, 537 
Storm-gods, Zoroaster's connection with* 

i, t2 
Storthing, the, iii, 77^ 

Theodore Roosevelt's Trip, ix, 2900 
Strafford, impeachment of, v, 1374 
Stralsund besie^d, iv, 1^53 
Strategus, 'definition of, 1, 329 
Stratius, ii, 398 
Strikes, ix, 3064 

New York's Greater Subway, x, 3286 

The World's Greatest Aqueduct, z, 
Strongbow conquel's Ireland, ii, 720 
Struensee, v, 1658 

executed, v, 1667 

The Baron's War and First Engfiah 
Parliament, iii, 780 

The Third Crusade, ii, 722 
Sudan, the, vii, 2274 

conquered by Mehemet Ali, vi, 1967 
Sue, Eugene, vit, 2084 
Suez Canal, The, vii, 2237 
Suez Canal, vik 2127, 2237, 22^7 


Suffragettes in House of Commons, ix, 

Sugar-cane taken to Hispaniola, iv, X076 
Sulla, L. C. ii, 406, 411, 413 
Sunday, a day of rest, li, 525 

schools founded, v, 1589 
Sun Yat Sen, x, 3x19* 3i^9» 3X5^' 33Sa 
Suppression op thb Greaiee Mov- 


Suppressxoh of the Tekplars, iii, 818 
Surahs of Mohammed, ii, 580 


vi, 1700 
Surrender of Cornwaixzs at Yobsv 

Toww. Tr^ vi, 17x8 
Surrey, cnallen^es James IV<» iv, 1097 
advance of, iVr ie99 



Suwaroff, ti, i733. "849 

Suwarrow. (5rtf SuwASorr) 

SviatosUf, ii, 64a 

SvrmbUna, the* ii, 682 

Sweden, becomes an absolute monarcny* 

▼, 1403 

importance of, t, 1515 

rise and fall of, t, 1S16 
Sweyn, invasion of, ii. 666 

proclaims himself King of England, 
ti, 667 

devastations of, ii, 658 

death of, ii, 667 

How the Lords Surrendered, ix, 3048 
Swiss, called to aid of luly, iv, io8a 

aid Rend, iii, 986 ... 

defeat Charles the Bold, ui, 981 

in Milan, iv, 1085 

Guard, vi, 178a 


OF Indbpkndbnce, The, iii, 813 
Switzerland, ducal tyranny in. in, 814 
Sybaris, destruction of, i. ajs 
Sylverius, Pope, banished, ii, s^S 
Svlvester III., Pope, ii, 681 
The Execution of Savonarola, !▼, 

Symphorian, mart^dom of, it, 400 
Syracuse, foundation of, i, 134 
siege of, i, a79 ,^ , ^ 
receives foreign aid, 1, 289 
vengeance of victors at, i, 294 
Syria, becomes a Roman province, ii» 

conquered by Chosrocs, u, 569 

attacked by Arabs, ii, 590 

conquered by Turks, ii, 703 

Szathmar, treaty of, v, 1536 

Table, manners at, i, 88 

how supplied, i, 87 
Tables, The Twelve, i, 260, 265 

use of public, i, 87 

admission of new members at» it 

children at public, i, 87 
Taborites. the, iii, j>22 
Tachau, battle of, iii, 922 
Tacoma, viii, 2650 
Taft, William H.. visits Japan, ix, 277S 

elected President of the United 
Sutes, ix, 279^ 

inau^ration of, ix, 2831 

policies of, ix, 2834 
Taillefcr the Minstrel, ii, 677 

The Reini of Terror, vi, 1782 
Tai Pihg Kebellion, vii, 2056 
Takahira, Tiii, 2621 

Taking of thb Bastille, The, vi, 1748 
Taku forU captured, viii, 2397 

Talasius, i, 117 . . 

Talbot, Sir Gilbert. Joins Earl of Rich- 
mond, iii, 997 
Tallard, Marshal, v, 150 1, 1^04 
Tallmt Builpimg xn the wokld, Th^ 

X, 3281 
TaUeyrand, ▼!, i937» 1948 

Talmud, the, i, 59 

Tamerlane, takes Delhi, iii, 9x1 

crosses the Jumna, iii, 910 

exterminates the Jits, iii, 908 

in Battenize, iii, 90^ 

orders massacres, iii, 905, 908, 910^ 


crosses the Ganges, iii, 914 

enters Delhi, iii, 913 

invades Hindostan, iii, 904 
Tammany SocieQr founded, ti, 1737 
Tancred, ii, 707, 7x4, 7x8, 7^ 

and Richard, ii, 727 
Tanganyika, vii, 2258 

discovered, vii, 2127 
Tann, General von der, vii, 2252 
Tarentum, foundation of, i, 134 
Target practice, record for, ix, aysj 
Taruc, rewarda the Jews, ii, 597 

enters Toledo, ii, S97 

expedition of, ii, 594 

inarch of, ii, ^97 

conquests of, 11, 59^ 

protects the Christians, ii, 596 

and Musa meet, ii, 601 
Tarpeia, story of, i, 120 
Tar^uin, a plan for tUb restoration of, 
I, 226 

deposition ojL i, 224 
Tarquinius, Eking, consults Deiphic 
Oracle, i, 220 

death of King, i, 235 
Tarsus, dispute of Crusaders about, S. 

Tartar army, discipline of the, iii, 745 
Taaman, v, 1385 
Tasmania discovered, ▼, 1385 
Tatius, i, 120 
Taurus, ii, 424 
Tax, on property, ▼, 1374 

on income, v, 1^74 
Taxation, of American colonies, ▼, 1641 

no tyranny, v, 1679 

illegal in France, v, 1390 
Taygetus, Mount, i, 91 

The Secession of Panama and the 
Pananu Canal, viii, 2509 

The French Revolution of 1848, v^ 

The League, iv, 1267 
Tchitchagott, General, vi, 1903 
Tea, destruction of, in Boston Hariior, 

▼, x668 
Tdas, last of Ostrogothic kings, ii, 567 
Tekeli, Count Emmerich, revolt ot, 

V, 1406 
Telamon, battle of^ i, 357 
Telegraph, the, vii, aoyi 
Telegraphy, wireless, viii, 2390 
Tblbgsaphy Without Wiibs, viii, aj90 
Telephone invented, vii, 2258 
Tell, William, iii, 814 

and the apple, iii, 815 

leap, iii, 8x6 

kilts Gessler. iii, 816 

escape of, iii, 8x6 

death of, iii, 8x6 

The Indian Mutiny, vii, 2x28 



Temple, to Castor and Pollux, i, 234 

of Aavleaa ^od, i, 1x3 

of Delphi, ^fts to, i, 74 

of Esculapius; ii, 394 

of Hercules, 1, 239 

of Hercules, ii, 420 

of Janus closed, ii, 430 

of Jerusalem is fired, ii, 493 

of Jerusalem, fall of the, ii, 495 

the Judeans retire to the, ii, 490 
Temples, i, 105 

Babylonutn, i, 51. 55 

Chaldean, t, 51 
Temugin. {See Zxngxs) 
Ten, Council of, iii, 812, 88 x, 883; vi, 

Ten Thousand, retreat of the, i, 300 

result of the expedition of the, 1, 30 x 
Terentilius, Harsa, propositions of, i, 

law of, i, 267 
Terry. Ellen, jubilee, vlii, 2706 
Tertullian, ii, ^30 
Tetzel, John, indulgence, iv, X107 

contested theses, it, 1108 
Teuton and Roman, union of, ii, 62$ 
Teuton, aim of the, ii, 621 
Teutones, the, ii, 406, 410 
Teutonic Order, the. iii^ 773, 778 
Tewksbury, battle ox, iii, 981 
Texas admitted to Union, vi, aox4 
Thames KouU Khan, v, 1579 
Thanet, Isle of, ii, 547 
Thaw, H. K., Tiii, 2725; ix, 2762 
Theagenes, i, 3^3 
Theatines^ the, it, xiSi 
Thebans jdin Acheans, ii, 402 
Thebes, and Athens, alliance of, i, 331 

riyalrv of, i, 326 

and Sparta, war between, i, 323 

deserts Philip, i, 329 
Themis, the goddess, 1, 71 
Themistocles, i, 243, 247, 248 

offers human sacrifices, i, 253 
Theodora, the Empress, li, s6c 
Tbeodokb Roosbvslt's Trip, ix, 2000 
Theodoric the Ostrogoth, death 01, ii, 

Theodoric, King of Visigoths, death of, 

ii, §35 
Theodosius, Einperor of Rome, con- 
quers the Goths, ii. 535 

issues edicts against heretics, U, 535 
Thermopylx, Pass of, i, 235 
Thessalian migration, i, 83 
Thief, the repentant, ii, 405 
Thiers, vii, 2084, 2255 

fall of, vi, 2037 
Thikd CausADB, Ths, ii, 722 
Thirty Tyrants in Attica, i, 330 
THiaxY YEAas' War, The, it, 1349 
Thomas, Sir Rice ap-, iii, 996 

Telegraphy Without Wires, viii, 2390 
Thou, de. execution of, v, 1374 
Thrace, it, 524 

Three Henrys, War of the, iy, 1270 
Throckmorton, Thomas, iv, 1314 

The Plague at Athens, i, 271 
Thundering Legion, miracle of the, ii, 

Thuriot de la Rosi^re, vi, 1750 
Thurkill, ii, 666 
Thusnelda, ii, 442 
Tiberias, battle of, ii, 721 
Tiberius, Alexander, ii, 486 

recalled from Germany, ii, 443 

brother of Drusus, ii, 430 
Tibet, viii, 2^35 

Tibetan mission, viii, 2533, 2562 
Ticonderoga, v, 1630; vi, 1703 

captured, V, 1690 
Tien-tsin, Treaty of, vii, 2134 
Tiepolo) conspiracy of, iii, 8x2 
Tierra del Fuego, iv, 1122 
Tilly, iv, 1352 

at Lutter, iv, 13^2 
_ general of Austrian armies, iv, 1355 
Tilsit, Peace of, vi, x88j 
Timbuctoo, vii, 2297 
Timur. (See Tambxxjuvx) 
Tipii, Sultan, vi, 1760 

death of, vi, 1765 
Tissaphernes, i, 300 
Titanic Disaster, The, x, 3x57 
Titian's portrait of Frances I., iv, 1x3a 
Titus Herminius, i, 232 
Titus, son of Vespasian, ii, 484 

becomes Emperor, ii, 485, 496 

crucifies 500 prisoners, u, 488 

<'the delight of aU mankind," ii, 488 

executes priests at Jerusalem, ii, 494 

penetrates the sanctuary of the tem- 
ple (Jerusalem), ii, 493 

appears before Jerusalem, ii, 485 

behavior of, at Jerusalem, il, 492 

orders Jerusalem to be fired, ii, 493 

arch o^ ii, 496 
Tmolus, Mount, i, 183 
Todleben, General, vii, 2262 
Togo, Admiral, viii, 2601, 2639 
Togrul, ii, 702 

Tokio Bay, naval review in, viii, 3639 
Tokugawa Sh6guns, vii, 2091 
Tolstoi, Leo, ix, 2794 
Tomsberg destroyed, li, 720 
Tonkin, vii, 2287 
Tonnage, v, 1374 
Toole, death of, ix, 2734 
Topete, Admiral, vii, 2230 
Tor^an, battle of, v, 1622 
Tones, American Colonial, v, 1678 
Torquemada, Thomas de, iii, xoxa, xoij 

death of, iv, 1075 
Toselli, Major, vii, 2284 
Tostig, ii, 675 
Totilas the Goth, ii, 566 

slain by Narses, ii, 567 
Toulouse, iii, 7^8 
Tourelles, the, iii, 937, 947 
Tournay, battle of, v, 15 13 
Tours, battle of, ii, 60/ 

Arabian version of, ii, 607 

significance of the, ii, 6x0 
Tourville, Admiral, fleet of, v, 1480 

retreat of, v, 1482 
TOUT. T. F. 

Empire versus Papacy: Henry IV. ttt 
Canossa, ii, 682 
Tower of Babel, i, 28 
Tower of London, ii, 680 

of St. Romanus (Constantinople) 
faUs, iii, 956 



Towns and corporatiofls* ii« to* 
Towton, battle of, iii, 981 
Trade, laws for encouraging, i» 143 
Trafalgar, battle oi, vi, 1877 

Centenary of battle of, viii, 9639 
Traite dea dames, la, iv, 1154 
Trajaat i>ersccutions of Christiaaa un- 
der, ii, 476, 481 

edict ol, ii, 476 

wages war against the I>aGian% ii, 

Gonuuers the Parthiana, ii, 508 

death of, ii, 508 
Trajan's Column completed, ii, so8 
Transcaucasia, earthquake in^ !▼• 

Transvaal, vii^ as73 

becomes British, Tii, aa97 

independence recognixed, vii, aOQO 

gold discovered in, vii, 2288 
Trasimene, Lake, battle of, i, 357 
Travel, growth of disposition to, viit 

facilities for, vii, ao68 
Travelling in the Middle Afca, Hi, 

Treaty, of Amiens, iv, T149 

of Berlin, vii, 2269; x, 3336, 3348 

of Blois, Secret, iv, X077 

of Canibray, iv, 2x55 

of Campo rormio, vi, 1823 

of Carlowitz, vi, 1818 

of Great Britain and China (l84a)t 
vi, 2010 

of Hanover, v, 1556 

of Iglau, iti, 922 

Isthmian Canal, viii, 24x1 

with Japan, vii, 209^^ 2098 

of Kutchuks Kainardji, ▼, i60J 

of London, vi, 1973 

of Lucknow, vi, 1762 

of Luneville, vi, 1852 

of Madrid, iv, 1143 

of Morocco, ix, 2822 

of Munster, v, 1385 

of Nankin, vi, 2014 

of Noyes, iii, 933 

of Nystad, v, 1569 

Panama Canal, viii, 24^66, 2$$$ 

of Paris, vi, 1941; vii, 2x27 

of Presburg, vi, 1880 

of St. Germain, iv, 1263 

of San Ildcfonso, vi, 1716 

of San ^tefano, vii, 2258, 2266 

of Schonbrunn, vi, 1884 

of Szathmar, v, 1526 

of Tientsin, vii, 2134 

of Vervius, iv, 1282 

of Vienna, vii, 2164 

of Westphalia, iv, 1245 

of Zanzibar, vii, 2257 
Treaty liarricr, v, 1540. 
Trees, laws regarding, i, T44 
Trent, Council of. iv, 1185 
Tres Puentis bridge, capture ofi vl^ 

Treshani, Sir Francis, iv, X3a8, 1320, 

Trezel, General, vi. 1993 

Trial of the Seven Bishops^ Tms» 

V, 142X 
Triballi, the, i, 325 

Triboniui tida Jtiirinian in 
Uwa, ii, 567 

Tnbur, nobles and bishopa 
ii, 691 

Trichtnopolv captured, yr, 1600 

Triennial Act, v, 1488 

Trigetius, ii, 543 

Tripoli, captured b^ Crusaden, ii, ji 
taken by Turks, xv, 1x90 
Sultan annexes, vi, 20x4 
and Italy, war between, x, 3081 

Tristan d*Acunha, iv, 1076 

Triumph of Italy, Thx, ix, 2986 

Triumvirate, the Fxrst, ii. 4x3 
the Second, ii, 414 

Tronvor, brother of Rurik, ix, 638 

Troy, siege and destruction a£» i, 33 
war of, i, 83 

Truce of God, the, ii, 681 

Truths, the Four Great, i, 13a 

Tsu Hsi, Dowser Empress of 
death of, ix, 2794, 2806 
crueltv of, ix, 2795 
second regencjr of, ix, 2797 
a progressist, ix, 2802 
characteristics <n, ix, 2804 

Tuileries, sack of me^ vi, 1746 

Tung Chi. ix, 2796 

Tunis, gained by the French, to, 2*73 
taken by Charles V., iv, 1x68 

Turenne, v. X391, 13JH 

Turin, Cabinet ox, vxi, 2x37 

Turkey, attacked b^ Russia, v, 1661 
declares war against Russia, vi, xys* 
gains Servia, vi, x886 
calls a parliament, vii, 2261 
obtains constitution and Parfiamcnk, 

ix, 2783, 3785 
social conditions in, ix, 2791 
reign of terror in, ix. 2792 
cedes Herzegovina to Austria, ix, 2821 
condition ot, in 1876, ix, 2784 
revolution of 1908 in, x, 3354 
war Mrith Balkan League By. x, 3353 
control over European provinces oft 

Turkish, tactics, ix, 71^; vi, X84S 

navy, destruction of the, v, x66i 

war, end of the, v, 1578 

conquests, ii, 703 

artillery at Constantinople (i4S3}t 
iii. 953 

fleet (1^5?). iii. 957 
Turkish regtmt, new, x, 3358 
Turks, defeated by Prince Eugene, ▼» 

Venetian wars with the, vi, 18 17 

defeated by Louis of Baden, ▼, 1463 

take Rhodes, iv, 1167 

invade Italy, iii, 99:^ 

league with France, rv, 1x68 

take Buda, iv, 1x68 

defeat of, at Lepanto, iv, X328( 

take Tripoli, iv, 1x90 

take Constantinople, iii, f^a 

invade Htftigary, v, 1406 

defeated by Russiana, vi, 1733- 

capture Crete, v, 1396 

driven from Hungary, ▼, 155^ 

capture Edessa, ii, 720 

the, is, 702 

rout of the, ii, 715 



Turks, enter Egypt, ii, 720 

gain Tictory over Hungarians, br, 
Turks, Young, rise of the, ix, 2784; x, 


First Congress of, ix, 2787 

Second Congress of,/ix, 2787 
Tweed Ring (N. Y.). vu, 2257 

Diaz: The Maker of Modern Mexico, 
ix, 3000 
Twenge, Sir Marmaduke, iii, 835 
^coon, the, vii, 2092 
Tyler. Wat, rebellion of, iii, 895 
Tyranny, the, i, 213 

encroachment of ducal, in Switzer- 
land, iii, 814 
Tyrants, suicide of the, i, 267 

the ten. i, 265 
Tyrconnel, v, 1456 
Tyre, foundation of, i, 33 

wealth of, i, 148 

importance of, i. 148 

flight of King of, i. 150 

captured by Crusaders, ii, 720 
• Tzargrad, the aueen of cities, ii, 639 

Svaded by Olegp ii, 640 
ird invasion of, ii,* 641 
Tzar's Rescript, the, viii, 2372 


Ulm, capitulation of, vi, 1875 
Ulster^ colonization of, it, X290 
Ulundi, vii, 2273 
Uniformity, Act of, iv, 1285 
Union, of Calmar, iv, "1167 
of Protestants, the EVangelical, iw, 

of Utrecht, tiie, iv, 1243 
United Statea of America, recognized, 
vi, 171S 

war against England, vi, 1886 

recognizes French Republic, vi, 2043 

expedition to Japan^ vii, 2093 

refuses aid to Mexico, vii, 2175 

and Mexico, vii^ 2177 

buys Alaska, vii, 2219 

annexes Hawaii, vii, 2^27 
University of Halle establisbed, v, 1488 
Ur. i, A9 SI 
Urban II., Pope, ii, 704 
Uriconium, death song of, ii« 557 
Urukh, i, 49. 5^, 55 

buildings of, 1, 50 
Utica, ii, 3^7 
Utrecht, union of, iv, 1243 

Peace of, v, i539 

Vala, N., ii, 4^9 
Valdez, tuan, iv, 1179 
Valie, General, vi, 1994 
Valens, u, 520 

defeat of, ii, 535 

becomes Em^or of the East, ii, S34 

professes Ananism, ii, 534 

The Discovenr and Settlement of 
Manhattan isUnd, iv, X3»s 

Valentinian, 11, 520 

Emperor of the West, ii, 534 
Valentinian III. sends an embassy to 

Attila, ii, 54 x 
Valerian, persecution of Christians un- 
der, ii, ^2 

conquered by the Persians, ii, 509 

death of, ii, 483 
Valerius, i, 266 
Valetta, iv, 1225 

Valette, Jean Parisot de la, Grand Mas- 
ter of Knights of St. John, iv, 

honors to, iv, 1224 

death of, iv, 122^ 
Valmv, battle of, vi, 1778 

Kellermann at, vi, 1779 

retreat of the Prussians at, vi, X780 
Valois, House of, iii, 836 
Vancouver explores northwest coast of 

America, vi, 1759 
Vanguard, the vi, 1826 
Varangian soldiers^ ii, 532 
Varangians, the, ii, 631, 63s 

and Slavs, ii, 636 
Varus, Q., succeeds Tiberius in Ger- 
many, ii,,44^ 

character of, u, 443 

march of, ii, 446 

army of, ii, 448 

suicide of, ii, 449 
Vasa, Gustavus, King of Sweden, iv, 

Vasco da Gama, voyage of, iv, 1046, 

captains of, iv, X045 ^ 

fleet of, iv, 1045 

names Natal, iv, X048 

return of, iv, X05X 
Vassal, the feudal, ii, 699 
Vatican, the, viii, 2490 

attacked, iv, 1x45 
Vaudois attacked, v, 1398 
Ve, i, 42 

Veii, Romans at. i, 320 
Venables and Penn take Jamaica, ▼, 

Vendee, La, vi, 181 2, 1850 
Venetian, attitude toward the Empire, 
iii, 74X 

Republic, policy of, vi, 1814 

Republic, conspiracy against the, vi, 
Venetians, aid Crusaders, iii, 733 ^ 

gain Constantinople, iii, 738 
Venezuela, viii, 2412 

declares independence, vi, X985 
Ven^ov, battle of, vii, 2163 
Vexuce, foundation of the Republic of, 

ii> 539 

wealth of, ii, 540 

Doge of, ii, 720 

aided by Cosmo de' Medici^ iii, 902 

France declares war with, iv, X07& 

greatness of, vi^ 18x3 

work of, in sixteenth century, vi, 

weakness and decay of, vi, 18x9 

and French Revolution, vi, 1820 

attacks the French, vi, xSaa 
"Venice Preserved," vi, X817 
Verdun, surrender of, vi, 1774 



Verneuil taken by Bedford. Ui, 934 
Vernon takes Portobello, ▼, 1590 
Verona, CongreM of, ti, 1963 
Verrezano caters New York Bay, it, 

Versailles, mob marches to, yi^ 174s 
Vervins, Treaty of, iv, laSa 
Vespasian becomes £mperor of Rome, 

ii, 484 
Vestal priestesses, if Ji5» 317 
Vesuvius, eruption of, ii, 497 » 5oi, 504 
vnnatural cloud noticed by the 

Plinys from, ii, 498 
earthquake, viii, a6oo, 2680 
.eruption of, viii, 2676 
Vicksbunr, capture of, vii, ai79 
Victor, General, vi, 190a 
Victor Emmanuel, vi, 1958, 196^; vii, 

ai37, 3140, 3147 
Victor Knunanuel III. of Italy, iz, 29^ 
Victoria, becomes Queen ot England, 
vi, 1999 
Empress of India, vii, 2258 
celcDrales Diamond Jubilee, vii, 23^7 
at Olympia, i, 107 
VxcToaiA Pauls Bridgb, Thb« viii, 2635 
Victory or Arminius, ii, 442 
Victory of Victories. (o#tf NkbavkhP) 
Vienna, capture of, vi, 1883 
revolution (1848), vii, 2048 
Treaty of, vii, 2164 
siege of, v, 1406 
Peace of, v^ 159a 
Congress of, vi, 1938* 19^3 
Vikings, ferocity of the, ii, 628 
conquests of the, ii, 625 
the, ii, 627 
Viii, i, 42 

Villa Viciosa, V, 1398 
Villafranca, Peace of, vii, aiai 
Villars, Marshal, v, 1531, 1^36 
Villehardonin, Geoftroi de, iii, 73a, 73$ 
Villeins, the, ii, 699 
Villcna, Marquis of, ravages the Al- 

puxarras. iii, 1002 
Villeneuve, Admiral, vi, 187 1 
Vinland (American) discovered, ii, 626 
Vinoy, General, vii, 2251 
Virginia, English colonists, iv, 1294, 

Virginia, Charter, the ^^rst, iv, 1294 
Jamestown founded in, iv, 1296 
the new, iv, 1300 
7 negro slaves imported to, tv, 1340 
Ilouse of Burgesses, v, 1681 
Virginia, story of, i, 266 
Virginius, i, 262, 266 
Visconti, the, extinguished, iii, 951 
Visigoths conquer Spain and Gaul, ii, 

Vitellius the Glutton, ii, 484 ,/ 

death of, ii, 484 
Vitiges, King of the Goths, ii, 564 
Vittoria, battle of, vi, 1906 
description of, vi, 1909 
Wellington at, vi, 191^ 
A Glorious Revolution in- fltl^i^ viii, 

Montenegro, x. 3334 
Vladimir I., it, 63a 
Vladimir, il, 643 


Revocaiiott of tfae Edict of lfantie\ t* 

Voyage of the Ajcsbzcajt Flmbt, Th1| 

ix, 2823 
Voyagz of thb "MAmjowmm," Tia, v. 

Voyages of Vasco sa Gama, ir» 

Vulgate Bible, revision of, ix, 2763 


Wad-en-Nejumi, vii, 2978 
Warrant, battle of. vi, 1884 
Wainman, Sir Ferdlnando, it, 130s 
Wakefield, battle of, iii, 981 
Waldemar I. of Dennmrlc, ii« 7^0 
Waldenses founded, ii, 720 
Waldo, Peter, ii, 720 
Wales, Prince and 'PrixMOCSs of, vuit 

India, viii, 2^39 
Wale;^ Prince of, origin of motto e^ 

iii, 853 
Wales subjugated by EdwardL iii, 8«3 

Anaesthetics and Autiaepll cS!, . m» 

Modem Illumination, vi, 1981 

Photography, vii, 3317 
Wallace. William, iii, 803 
Wallenstein, Albert (Count), ma/cbes 
of, iv, i35» 

described by Schiller, iv, 1354 

successes of, iv, 1352 

besie^res Stralsund, iv, 1355 

dismissed, iv, 1354 

at Prague, iv, 1354 

recalled, iv, 13^7 

assassination of, iv, 1360 
Walpole, Horace, v. 1564, 1566, 163s 
Walter, Hubert, Bishop of Salisbaryt 

ii, 725 
Walter the Penniless, ii, 706 
Wandu and Wejas, i, 143 
Wae Between Chables L amd tks 

Parliament, The, v, 1375 
War in the Balkans, x, 3353 
War of Greek Independence, vi, 19^ 
War of the Austrian Succession, ▼• 

War, of the three Hemys, iv, 1270 
of the Roses, iii, 981 
Lvcurgus against, i, 89 
of American Revolution, beginnina 

of, V, 169 1 
of 18x2, beginning of, vi, 1886 
of the Polish succession, end of. v 


Discovery of the X-Rays, vii, 2311 
Warr, Lord de la, iv, 1301, 1305 
Warsaw occupied by jEtussians, w, 

Warships, modem, first battle o^ vfi, 

Wartburg Gaatle, Lutfier iinprisoned at, 

iv, 1 1 II 
Warwick oaptared^ By S. de Hontfort 

iii, 7«y 




Warwick^ Earl of, sends message to 

Edward at Crecy, iii, 850 
Washington, dtr of, laid out, vi, 1737 
Washington, George, captures Fort 

DuQuesne, ▼, 1630 
elected President, vi, 1737 
Waterloo, vi, ij>40 
Watt* James, ▼, 1650; vi, 1858; vii. 

"health of Nations, the," vi, aooo. 

(St* Smith, Adam) 
Wedgwood potteries, v, 1658 
Weissenburg, battle of, vii, 2247 
Wellesley, the Marquess, vi, 1701 
Wellington, Duke of, vi, 1883, X9xi» 

I9i9> 1936, i939> 1950. X964* X978» 

Wellman, Walter, ix, a8<7, 2956 
Wenoeslaus, the son of Charles IV., 

iii* 915* 9'x 
Wenzeslas, Duke, attacked by Henry 

I., ii, 648 
Werder, General von, vii, 2253 
Wemz, Father Francis Xavier, ix, 2753 
Wesley, Charles, v, 1585 
Wesley, John, v, !<&$ 

in Georffia, v, 1580 
Wessex. Golden Dragon of, ii, 677 
West India Company, the, iv, X333f 

WssTBaN Evaopa and the H<mY Alli- 
ance, vi, 1Q43 
Westminster Alwey, viii, 24^$ 
Westminster, Provisions of, in, 793 
Westminster, William the Copqueror 

crowned at, ii, 680 
Westphalia, Peace of, iii, 845; iv,'i36x 

Treaty of, iv, 1245 
Weymouth, Captain George, iv, 1293 

discoveries of, iv, 1336 
Whigs, fall of the, v, 1527 

Massacre of the Jews in Russia, viii, 
White Company, the, iii, ^57 
White, Stanford, shot, viii, 2725 
Whitefield, v, 1580, 1583 
Why I Revived the Olympic Games. 

' viii, 2699 
Wilderness, bftttles of the, vii, 2206 
Wilkes, John, v, 1637, 1686 
William and Mary, v, x^8 
William the Conqueror, li, 629, 67s 

prepares to invade England, ii, 074 

resentment of, 11, 674 

anchors off Pevensey, ii, 676 

heroism of, ii, 678 

ruse of, ii, 678 

coronation of, ii, 680 

visits Normandy, ii, 681 

freneral submisnon to, ii, 68 x 
William of Orange (England), v, 1439 

supporters of, r, 1441 

enters England, v, 1443 

army of, v, 1454 

invades Ireland, ▼, 1451 

heroism of, t, 1461 

death of. v, 1496 
William ot Orange, iv, 1232, I24« 

becomes a Cahrinist, iv, 1237 

youth of, iv. 1233 

becomes statholder, iv, 1239 

William of Orange, assassination of, 

iv, X244 
WiUiam, Rufus, ii, 719 
William I., King of Prussia, vi, 2245* 


Liquid Air, ix, 2849 

Solar Motors, ix, 2952 
Williams, General Fenwidc, vii, 2x14 
Wills, laws concerning, i, 142 
Wilson, Woodrow, elected President of 

the United States, x, 3309 
Wimbledon, battle at, ii, 557 
Wimpffen, General, vii, 2250 
Winchester, surrender of, to William 
the Conqueror, ii, 679 

fight at, ii, 556 
Winter. Thomas, iv, 1314 
Wippedsfieet, struggle at, ii, 553 
Wireless telegraphy, ix, 2754 

Haakon VII., King of Norwi^, viii, 
Wisby, iii, 839 

Witches, persecution of (Salem), v, X488 
Witiza the Goth, ii, 592 
Wodehouse, Colonel, vii, 2278 
Wolfe, General, at Quebec, v, 1631 
Wolsey, Cardinal, iv, 11 28, 1x30, 1x33 
Woman Suffrage League, Intematioxiai, 

vui, 2561 
Women, training of, i, 90 

regulations for, i. 142 

The Conqttest of the Air, x, 33x2 
Woolworth Building (New York City), 

X, 3281 
Word, the. i, 63 
Wordei}, John C, vii, 2169 
World, four ages of the, i, 25, 28, 33 
World's ' Beginning and PaiMiTivs 

Man, The, i, 25 
World's Columbian Exposition, vii* 

Wobld's Gesatest Aqueduct, The, z, 

Worms, Council at, ii, 689 

Diet of, iv, 11 10 
Worth, battle of, vii, 2247 
Wright, John, iv, 13 14 
Wright, brothers, x, 3326, 3329 

Orville, ix, 2794, 2857, 2858; x, 3324 

Wilbur, ix, 2871, 2872: x, 3324 

Into Tibet, viii, 2535 
Wyndham, William, arrest of, ▼, 1546 

Xanthippus's dog, i, 250 
Xavier. Francis, iv, ii8x 
Xenopoon, march of, i, 300 
Xeres, battle at, ii, 595 
Xerxes, i, 247 

throne of, I, 253 

bridges the Hellespont, i, 257 

retreat of, i, : i8 

watches the battle of Salamis. i, 25^ 
Ximenex, appears in Granada, iv, xo66 

vandalism of. iv, xo68 

goes to Seville, iv, X070 



Xinenes. policy of» hr, ta7J 

Xisuihius, U 37» 45 
Xochiquetzal, i» 39 
X-rays, Tii, a<io 

discovery of the, vii, 2$lt 
Xylography, iii, 977 

Yalttr battle of tfae» Til, 2*99; «iii» J846 

Year, the Greek, i» 103 

-YcUow Peril." the, to. A107 

Yesdegerd, graadatm at Chowoet. A* 
King of Penia, flight o£» it, 590 

Ymir. i, 4a 


Conquests of Mexico and Pem» ir» 

La Fronde, ▼, 1386 
Malta and LMianto. ir, 1210 
Partition of Poland, v, 1659 
The Siege of Vienna, ▼, 140I 

York, the capital of Britain* ia» SSf 

The Battle of the Yalu, vis, 2299 

Youth, education of, i, 89, 9s 

Yuan Shi Kai, x, 3x53 

Marco Polo's TraTels, iii, 804 

SEama, effect of the battle ofj H, 399 
Zamoisld, Count Andrew, yii, si 58 
Zanzibar, Treaty of, vii, 2157 
Zara. ii, 720 

siege of, iii, 734 
Zarathnstra, i^ 63 
Zealots, the, li, 48&, 489> 49», A9S 

Zem-Zem, the veB, h, 571 
Zcnd-Ayesta, i, 58 
Zenobia, ancestrv of, ii, 510 

character and aecomplisfaiiienta 0^ 
ii, 5x0 

▼alor of, ii, 51 x 

reigns oTer the East and EgFPk. ii« 

domaina of, ii, 5x2 
flight of, ii, ^16 
captured b^ Aurelian, ii, 5x6 
a captive, li, 5x0 
Zeppelin, Count, a, 2793, 2838. 3938; 

Zangis Khan, ancestry of, iii, 743 

first battle of, iii, 743 

barbaric rites of, iii, 744 

laws^ of, iii, ^45 

refigion of. iii, 746 

invasion ox China by, iii, 747 

^literacy of; iii, 746 

empire of, iii, 748 

army of, iii, 749 

cities conqtiered by, iii, 9S<^ 

generals of, conquests ox, iii, 751 

harem of^ iii, 752 

sons ofj iii, 752 

successors 01, iii, yj^s 
Zion, destruction of, u, 496 
Ziska, iii, 922 
Zqnta, the, iii, 883 


Zoroaster, i, 60 _ 

and Storm-goda, i, 6a 

the law-giver, i, 64 

unborn son of, i, 64 
Zoroastrian religion, alow growth ol» 

i. 68 
Zoroastrianism. i, 44, 58 
Zomdorf, battle of, ▼, 1620, i6af 
Zozimus, ii, ^32 
Zwingle, Ulnc, iv, xio6, xixs