Skip to main content

Full text of "The world's great events ... a history of the world from ancient to modern times, B.C. 4004 to A.D. 1903"

See other formats


THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




o 

w 
o 

Pi 
< 

X 

u 



THE WORLD'S 
GREAT EVENTS 



/;V FIVE VOLUMES 

A HISTORY OF THE WORLD FROM 

ANCIENT TO MODERN TIMES 

B.C. 4004 TO A.D. 1903 

By ESTHER SINGLETON 



ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS FULL-PAGE DRAWINGS 
EXECUTED IN DUOGRAPH 

VOLUME FIVE— INVENTIONS 

A.D. 1830 TO A.D. 1803 



NEW YORK 

P. F. COLLIER & SON 

M C M I V 



Copyright 1901 
By p. F. collier & SON 



V. 6 



CONTENTS 



VOLUME FIVE 

A.D. 1830—1903 

Modern Illumination. Alfred Russel Wallace 1981 

The Conquest of Algeria (a.d. 1830-1857). David Kay . . . 1986 
The Beginning of Free Trade -(a.d. 1838-1842). Robert Mac- 
kenzie 2000 

The Opening of China (a.d. 1839-1860). James Legge . . . 2007 
The Discovery of the Northwest Passage (a.d. 1845-1847). 

Albert Hastings IMarkham 2015 

The Discovery of Gold in California (a.d. 1847-1849). James 

Schouler 2026 

The French Revolution of 1848. W. A. Taylor 2037 

The Revolution of 1848. W. Alison Phillips 2045 

The Great Exhibition (a.d. 1851). Sir Theodore ^lartin . . 2057 

Modern Inventions. Robert Mackenzie . . . • 2068 

The Second Republic and the Second Empire in France (a.d. 

1850-1852). Richard Lodge 2080 

The Opening of Japan (a.d. 1853-1854). Francis Ottiwell Adams 2091 
The Crimean War (a.d. 1854-1856). Justin McCarthy . . . 2099 
The Battle of Inkerman (a.d. 1854). A. W. Kinglake . . .2118 
The Indian Mutiny (a.d. 1857). Sir Richard Temple .... 2128 
Napoleon III. in Italy (a.d. 1859). John Webb Probyn . . . 2135 
End of the Pope's Temporal Power and Unification of Italy 

(a.d. 1860-1870). Robert Mackenzie 2143 

The Emancipation of the Serfs (a.d. 1861). Robert Mackenzie 2151 
The Polish Insurrection (a.d. i860- 1863). Alfred Rambaiid . 2157 
The Fight between the "Monitor" and the "Merrimac" (a.d. 

1862). Times Schouler . t^^^'^-^r^-r-^- ^ 2167 



4 CONTENTS 

Rise and Fall of the Mexican Empire (a.d. 1863-1867). Jules 

Gautier 2172 

The Emancipation of the Slaves (a.d. 1863). James Schouler 2180 

The Battle of Gettysburg (a.d. 1863). James Schouler . . . 2190 

Anaesthetics and Antiseptics. Alfred Russel Wallace . . . 2207 

Laying of the Atlantic Cable (a.d. 1866). W. H. Russell . . 221 1 
The Expulsion of Queen Isabella (a.d. 1868). Martin A. S. 

Hume 2220 

The Suez Canal (a.d. 1869). J. W. Grover 223> 

The Franco-German War (a.d. 1870-1871). James Sime . . . 2244 

The Congress of Berlin (a.d. 1878). Justin McCarthy . . . 2259 

The Rise of Mahdism (a.d. 1881). G. W. Steevens 2274 

Italian Colonization on the Red Sea (a.d. 1882). Pietro Orsi 2280 

The Great Siberian Railway (a.d. 1886). John Geddie . . . 2289 
The Battle of the Yalu (a.d. 1894). F- Warrington Eastlake 

and Yamada Yoshi-Aki 2299 

Discovery of the X-Rays (a.d. 1896). H. Snowden Ward . . 231 1 

Photography. Alfred Russel Wallace 2317 

The Battle of Santiago (a.d. 1898). Willis John Abbot . . 2328 

The Battle of Omdurman (a.d. 1898). G. W. Steevens . . . 2343 

The Battle of Manila Bay (a.d. 1898). Willis John Abbot . 2359 

The Peace Conference (a.d. 1899). Eleonore d'Esterre-Keeling 2371 

The Battle of Elandslaagte (a.d. 1899). G. W. Steevens . . 2380 

Telegraphy waTHOUT Wires. Silvanus P. Thompson .... 2390 

The Boxer Movement (a.d. 1900). Sir Robert Hart .... 2398 
The Destruction of St. Pierre: Eruption of Mt. Pelee (a.d. 

1902). Robert T. Hill 2413 

The Automobile. Robert Crawford 2426 

The Coronation of Alfonso XHI. (a.d. 1902). Richard Harding 

Davis 2433 

The Coronation of King Edward VII. (a.d. 1902). Sir Gilbert 

Parker 2438 

The Pontificate of Pope Leo XIII. (a.d. 1878-1903). Vicomte E. 

M. de Vogiie 2452 

The Nile Dam at Assouan (a.d. 1903). Frank Fayant . . . 2459 

Index 2467 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

VOLUME FIVE 

The Charge on the Malakoff (a.d. 1855). From Painting by Yvon. 
The Last Moments of Maximilian (a.d. 1867). From Painting 

by Laurens. 
Repulse of Longstreet's Assault at Gettysburg (a.d. 1863). From 

Painting by Walker. 
The Suez Canal (a.d. 1869). 
Foreign Troops Entering Pekin during the Boxer Movement (a.p 

1900). From a Photograph. 
Pope Leo XIIL Holding a Consistory (a.d. 1903). 



MODERN ILLUMINATION 



ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE 

THE first illuminants were probably 
torches made of resinous woods, 
which will give a flame for a consid- 
erable time. Then the resin, exuding from 
many kinds of trees, would be collected and 
applied to sticks or twigs, or to some fibrous f^minauons 
materials tied up in bundles, such as are still 
used by many savage peoples, and were used 
in the old baronial halls. For outdoor lights, 
torches were used almost down to our times, 
an indication of which is seen in the iron torch- 
extinguishers at the doors of many of the older 
West End houses; while, before the introduc- 
tion of gas, link-boys were as common in the 
streets as match-sellers are now. Then came 
lamps, formed of small clay cups, holding 
some melted animal fat and a fibrous wick; 
and, somewhat later, rushlights and candles. 
Still later, vegetable oils were used for lamps, 
and wax candles; but the three modes of ob- 
taining illumination for domestic purposes 
remained entirely unchanged in principle, 
and very little improved throughout the whole 
period of history down to the end of the Eigh- 



A (1981) 

VoL 5 



1982 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

teenth Century. The Greek and Roman 
Roman*"'* lamps, though in beautiful receptacles of 
bronze or silver, were exactly the same in 
principle as those of the lowest savage, and 
hardly better in light-giving power; and, 
though various improvements in form were 
introduced, the first really important advance 
was made by the Argand burner. This in- 
troduced a current of air into the centre of 
the flame as well as outside it, and, by means 
of a glass chimney, a regular supply of air 
was kept up, and a steady light produced. 
Although the invention was made at the end" 
of the last century, the lamps were not suffi- 
ciently improved and cheapened to come into 
use till about 1830; and from that time on- 
ward many other improvements were made, 
chiefly dependent on the use of the cheap min- 
eral 'oils, rendering lamps so inexpensive, and 
producing so good a light, that they are now^ 
found in the poorest cottages. 

The only important improvement in can- 
dles is due to the use of paraffin fats instead of 
i^nt^In' tallow, and of flat, plaited wicks which are 

candles. ' ' ^ 

consumed by the flame. In my boyhood, the 
now extinct "snufifers" were in universal use, 
from the common rough iron article in the 
kitchen to elaborate polished steel spring- 
snufifers of various makes for the parlor, with 
pretty metal or papier mache trays for them 
to stand in. Candles are still very largely 
used, being more portable and safer than most 



MODERN ILLUMINATION 1988 

of the paraffin oil lamps. Even our light- 
houses used only candles down to the early 
part of the present century. 

A far more important and more radical 
change in our modes of illumination was the 
introduction of gas-lighting. A few houses 
and factories were lighted with gas at the very 
end of the last century, but its first applica- 
tion to outdoor or general purposes was ini'ghting. 
1813, when Westminster Bridge was illumi- 
nated by it, and so successfully that its use 
rapidly spread to every town in the kingdom, 
for lighting private houses as well as streets 
and public buildings. When it was first pro- 
posed to light London with gas. Sir Hum- 
phry Davy is said to have declared it to be im- 
practicable, both on account of the enormous 
size of the needful gas-holders, and the great 
danger of explosions. These difficulties have, 
however, been overcome, as was the supposed 
insuperable difficulty of carrying sufficient 
coal in the case of steamships crossing the 
Atlantic, the impossibilities of one generation 
becoming the realities of the next. 

Still . more recent, and more completely 
new in principle, is the electric light, which 
has already attained a considerable extension ^^^ ^^^^ 
for public and private illumination, while it^"c"&ht. 
is applicable to many purposes unattainable 
by other kinds of light. Small incandescent 
lamps are now used for examinations of the 
larynx and in dentistry, and a lamp has even 



1984 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

been introduced into the stomach by which 
the condition of that organ can be examined. 
For this last purpose, numerous ingenious ar- 
rangements have to be made to prevent pos- 
sible injury, and by means of prisms at the 
bends of the tube the operator can inspect the 
interior of the organ under a brilliant light. 
Other internal organs have been explored in 
a similar manner, and many new applications 
in this direction will no doubt be made. In 
illuminating submarine boats and exploring 
the interiors of sunken vessels, it does what 
could hardly be effected by any other means. 
We thus find that, whereas down to the end 
of the last century our modes of producing 
Its multiple ^f^d utilizing light were almost exactly the 
"'^^' same as had been in use for the preceding two 
or three thousand years, in the present century 
we have made no less than three new de- 
partures, all of which are far superior to the 
methods of our forefathers. These are: (i) 
Three ^^c improvcmcut in lamps by the use of the 
frove^ents principle of the Argand burner and chimney; 
(2) lighting by coal-gas; and (3) the various 
modes of electric lighting. The amount of ad- 
vance in this one department of domestic and 
public illumination during the present cen- 
tury is enormous, while the electric light has 
opened up new fields of scientific exploration. 
Whether we consider the novelty of the 
principles involved or the ingenuity displayed 
in their application, we can not estimate this 



MODERN ILLUMINATION 1985 

advance at less than that effected during the 
whole preceding period of human history, 
from that very remote epoch when fire was 
first taken into the service of mankind, down 
to the time of men now living among us. 

[In 1821, Brazil declares its independence 
and elects Dom Pedro Emperor. Peru, Guate- 
mala, Costa Rica, La Plata, Uruguay and 
Venezuela also proclaim their independence, 
and the Republic of San Domingo is formed. 
In 1822, Iturbide becomes Emperor of Mex- 
ico. The United States recognize the inde- 
pendent colonies. In 182'?, the Monroe Doc- Monroe 

^ -' ' Doctrine 

trine is formulated. In 1824, Bolivia is formed^°™"'^'^- 
into an independent republic. In 1826, the 
mutinous Janizaries are massacred, leaving the 
Sultan without an army, which forces him to 
accept all the Czar's demands. Russia de- 
clares war against Persia. In 1828, Russia 
conquers Armenia and prohibits Persian ships 
on the Caspian. The Sultan preaches a Holy 
War, and the Czar captures Varna, Kars and 
Erzerum. The Gold Coast Protectorate is 
formed. In 1829, the King of Spain abolishes 
the Salic law on his fourth marriage. His 
brother, Don Carlos, protests, but a daughter, 
Isabella, is born to the King and recognized 
as his heiress. Western Australia is founded. 
In 1830, the Poles rise in Warsaw and mas- 
sacre the Russians. French troops land in 
Algiers.] 



ation of 
the slaves 



THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA 

(A.D. 1830—1857) 

DAVID KAY 

THE history of Algiers presents little call- 
ing for special notice down to the ex- 
pedition of Lord Exmouth. The prin- 
cipal States of Europe had had their attention 
taken up with weightier matters; but on the 
establishment of the peace of 1815 the En- 
Engiand gllsh Sent 3. SQuadron of ships, under Lord 
thTiiber- Exmouth, to Algiers, to demand the liberation 
of all slaves then in bondage there, and the 
entire discontinuance of piratical depreda- 
tions. Afraid to refuse, the Algerines returned 
a conciliatory answer, and released a number 
of their slaves; but no sooner had the ships 
left than they redoubled their activity and 
perpetrated every sort of cruelty against the 
Christians. Among other acts of cruelty, they 
attacked and massacred a number of Neapoli- 
tan fishermen who were engaged in the pearl 
fishery at Bona. The news of this excited 
great indignation in England, and Lord Ex- 
mouth was again despatched with five ships 
of the line and eight smaller vessels, and at 
Gibraltar he was joined by a Dutch fleet of 

(1986) 



A.D. iS3o-iSs7 THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA 1987 

six frigates, under Admiral Capellen. They 
anchored in front of Algiers on the 26th of 
August, 1 8 16. Certain terms, which were ex-g^^j^^^^ 
tremely moderate, were proposed to the Dey;Afg4?i. 
but these not meeting with acceptance, a fierce 
bombardment was at once commenced. At 
first the assailants were subjected to a heavy 
fire from the enemies' batteries; but after a 
time these were one by one silenced, and ship 
after ship caught fire, till the destruction of 
the Algerine naval force was complete. Next 
day the terms proposed to the Dey were ac-^^^^^y 
cepted; Christian slaves to the number of'"'""'^^' 
1,211 were set at liberty, and a promise was 
given that piracy and Christian slavery should 
cease forever. The Algerines, however, did 
not long adhere to the terms of the treaty. 
They lost no time in putting their city in a 
more formidable state of defence than before, 
and this done, they considered themselves in 
a condition to set the great powers of Europe 
at defiance. 

Various injuries had from tim.e to time been 
inflicted on the French shipping, but that 
which more directly led to a declaration ofTheoey 

•^ insults the 

war was an insult offered to the French con-fj^^^^h 
sul by the Dey. A debt had been contracted 
by the French Government to two Jewish mer- 
chants of Algiers at the time of the expedition 
to Egypt; and the Dey, having a direct in- 
terest in the matter, had made repeated appli- 
cations for payment, but without success. An- 



1988 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 9830-1857 

noyed at this and at what he considered insult- 
ing language on the part of the consul, he 
struck the latter on the face in public. In 
consequence of this, a French squadron was 
sent to Algiers which took the consul on 
board and for three years maintained an in- 
efifective blockade. At length war on a great 
scale was resolved on, and a fleet was equipped 

France rT->i -iv/r n 1 

dedares at Toulou in May, 1030, under the command 
of Admiral Duperre. It had also on board a 
land force, under the command of General 
Bourmont, consisting of 37,000 infantry, 4,000 
cavalry, and a proportionate number of ar- 
tillery. The troops began to land on the 14th 
of June upon the western side of the peninsula 
of Sidi Ferruch, in the Bay of Torre Chica. 
They did not meet with much opposition till 
the 19th, when a general attack was made 
upon them by a force of from 40,000 to 50,000 
men. These, after a fierce conflict, were 
completely routed. They renewed their at- 
tack on the 24th and 25th, but were on both 
occasions repulsed. The French then ad- 
vanced upon Algiers, and on the 29th the 
trenches were opened. On the morning of 
the 4th of July, the bombardment commenced, 
and before night a treaty w^as concluded for 
the entire surrender of Algiers. The next day 
the French took possession of the town; and 
twelve ships of war, 1,500 brass cannon, and 

Algiers over £2,000,000 sterling: came into their hands 

surrenders. 

as conquerors. The Turkish troops were per- 



A.D. 1830-1857 THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA 1989 

mitted to go wherever they pleased, provided 
they left Algiers, and most of them were con- 
veyed to Asia Minor. The Dey himself, with 
his private property and a large body of at- 
tendants, retired to Naples. 

When the French undertook the expedition 
against Algiers a pledge was given to the En- 
glish Government that they did not aim at the 
permanent possession of the country, but only 
at obtaining satisfaction for the injuries and 
insults they had received, and putting down 
that system of piracy which had so long out- 
raged Europe. The French Government en- 
gaged that, these objects being accomplished, 
the final settlement and government of the 
country should be arranged in concert withxhe 
the other European powers for the generaldejd^ 
advantage. Notwithstanding this, the French ^^^'^■^'• 
Ministry in 1833 publicly declared that it was 
the intention of their government to retain 
possession of Algiers and to colonize it. Sub- 
sequently, the English Government acquiesced 
in this, on receiving an engagement that the 
French would not extend their conquests be- 
yond Algeria, either on the side of Tunis or 
of Morocco. 

The capture of Algiers was celebrated in 
France with great demonstrations of joy. 

/-> 1 T» '111 ^Rejoicings 

General Bourmont was raised to the rank otin France. 
marshal, and Admiral Duperre was promoted 
to the peerage. The revolution of 1830 fol- 
lowed, when Bourmont was deposed, and Gen- 



oppression. 



1990 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. .Sjc^iSs? 

eral Clausel appointed to succeed him. The 
conquerors, instead of attempting to gain the 
good-wili of the natives, destroyed a number 
of their mosques, seized upon lands set apart 
for religious purposes, and attempted to in- 
troduce their own laws and usages in place of 
those of the country, the consequence of which 
was that the natives entertained the greatest 
abhorrence for their oppressors, whom they 
regarded as the enemies of God and their 

French prophct. General Clausel incensed them still 
more by seizing upon the possessions of the 
Dey, the Beys, and the expelled Turks, in di- 
rect opposition to the conditions on which the 
capital had been surrendered. Bona was 
taken possession of, and an incursion was made 
into the southern province of Titterie, when 
the troops of the Bey were defeated and Me- 
diah taken. The Beys of Titterie and Oran 
were deposed, and tributary rulers set up in 
their room. Still the war continued. The 
French were incessantly harassed by irrup- 
tions of hordes of the Arabs, so that no French- 
man was safe, even in the vicinity of the town ; 
and little reliance could be placed on the 
fidelity of the Beys who governed the prov- 
inces. Mediah was evacuated, and Oran 

War abandoned. In February, 1831, General Ber- 
thezene was appointed commander-in-chief, 
and undertook several expeditions into the in- 
terior to chastise the hostile troops, but met 
with little success. In October, Bona was sur- 



continues. 



reinforce- 
ments 
needed. 



A.D. 1830-1857 THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA 1991 

rounded and taken by the Kabyles. There was 
now no safety but in the town of Algiers; agri- 
culture was consequently neglected, and it waSp^^^^^j^ 
necessary to send to France for supplies ofmems 
provisions and for fresh troops. In Novem- 
ber, 1 83 1, General Savary, Due de Rovigo, 
was sent out with an additional force of 16,000 
men. The new governor sought to accom- 
plish his ends by the grossest acts of cruelty 
and treachery. One of his exploits was the 
massacre of a whole Arab tribe, including old 
men, women, and children, during night, on 
account of a robbery committed by some of 
them. He also treacherously murdered two 
Arab chiefs whom he had enticed into his 
power by a written assurance of safety. These 
proceedings exasperated the natives still fur- 
ther against the French, and those tribes 
that had hitherto remained quiet took up 
arms against them. 

About this time Abd-el-Kader first appears 

Abd-el 

upon the field. His father, a Marabout, hadKader. 
collected a few followers, and attacked and 
taken possession of the town of Oran. On 
this they wished to elect him as their chief, 
but he declined the honor on account of his 
great age; and recommended his son, who, he 
said, was endowed with all the qualities neces- 
sary to success. Abd-el-Kader was born about 
the beginning of 1807, and had early acquired 
a great reputation among his countrymen for 
learning and piety, as he was also distinguished 



1992 



THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



A.D. 1830-1857 



Attack 
on Oran. 



Abd-el- 
Kader's 
power 
increases. 



among them for skill in horsemanship and 
other manly exercises. He had made two pil- 
grimages to Mecca in company with his father, 
once when a child and again in 1828, by which 
he obtained the title of Hadji. At this time he 
was living in obscurity, distinguished by the 
austerity of his manners, his piety, and his 
zeal in observing the precepts of the Koran. 
He collected an army of 10,000 horsemen, 
and, accompanied by his father, marched to 
attack Oran, which had been taken posses- 
sion of by the French. They arrived before 
the town about the middle of May, 1832, but 
after continuing their attack for three days 
with great bravery they were repulsed with 
considerable loss. This was followed by a 
series of conflicts, more or less severe, between 
the parties; but without any permanent or 
decided advantage to either side. In March, 
1833, the Due de Rovigo was obliged on ac- 
count of his health to return to France, and 
General Avisard was appointed interim gov- 
ernor; but the latter dying soon after. Gen- 
eral Voirol was nominated his successor. Abd- 
el-Kader was still extending his influence more 
and more widely among the Arab tribes; and 
the French at last considered it to be their in- 
terest to offer him terms of peace. A treaty 
was accordingly concluded with him by Gen- 
eral Desmichels, Governor of Oran, in Feb- 
ruary, 1834, ^^ which he acknowledged the 
supremacy of France, and was recognized by 



A.D. i83o-i8s7 THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA 1993 

them as Emir of the province of Mascara. 
One of the conditions of the treaty was that the 
Emir was to have a monopoly of the trade 
with the French in corn. This part of the 
treaty was regarded with great dissatisfaction 
at home, and the General was removed fromJ«'"p°^?.''y 

' tranquillity 

his post. In July, General Drouet d'Erlon 
was sent out as Governor-General of the col- - 
ony. An intendant or head of the civil gov- 
ernment was also appointed, as well as a com- 
missary of justice at the head of the judicature. 
Tribunals of justice were also established, by 
which both French and natives were allowed 
to enjoy their respective laws. From the tran- 
quil state of the country at this time, the new 
governor was enabled to devote his attention 
to its improvement. The French, however, 
soon became jealous of the power of the Emir, 
and on the pretence that he had been encroach- 
ing on their territory. General Trezel, who 
had succeeded Desmichels in the Governor- 
ship of Oran, was sent against him with a con- French 
siderable force. The armies met at the riverMaku.*' 
Makta, and the French were routed with great 
slaughter on the 28th of June, 1835. On the 
news of this defeat, Marshal Clausel was sent 
to Algiers to succeed Count d'Erlon. In or- 
der effectually to humble the Emir, he set 
out for his capital. Mascara, accompanied by 
the Duke of Orleans, at the head of 11,000 
men. On reaching the town the French found 
it deserted, and, having set it on fire, they re- 



1994 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1830-1857 

turned without having effected anything of 
AM-ei-'' consequence. In January, 1836, Marshal 
Clausel undertook an expedition against 
Tiemcen, which he took and garrisoned. 
Soon after this the Emir attacked and put 
to flight a body of 3,000 men under Count 
d'Arlanges on the Tafna. General Bugeaud, 
who had succeeded Marshal Clausel, attacked 
the Arabs under Abd-el-Kader on the Sikak 
River, 6th July, 1836, and gained a complete 
victory over them. An expedition against the 
Bey of Constantine was next resolved on, and 
Marshal Clausel, at the head of 8,000 men, 
set out from Bona for this purpose in Novem- 
ber, 1836. They encountered on their march 
a severe storm of hail and snow, followed by 
a sharp frost, so that many of them died; 
and when they arrived before the walls of 
the town they were unable to undertake the 
siege, and effected their retreat with difficulty. 
The French were now anxious to conclude a 
peace with Abd-el-Kader, and with this view 
General Bugeaud arranged a meeting with 
him on the banks of the Tafna, and a treaty 
was signed, 30th of May, 1837. They were 
Treaty thcu frcc to tum thcir strength against the Bev 

of 1837. . to fc. J 

of Constantine, and an army of 20,000 men set 
out from Bona with this object, under the 
command of General Damremont, early in 
October. The town was, after a very gallant 
defence, taken by storm on the 12th of that 
month by General Valee, General Damre- 



A.D. i83o-i8s7 THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA 1995 

mont having been killed by a cannon-ball the 
previous day. On the capture of the city the 
neighboring tribes hastened to make their sub- 
mission to the conquerors, and a strong gar- 
rison being left to defend the town, the army 
returned to Bona. As a reward for his ser- 
vices. General Valee was made a marshal and 
appointed governor-general of the colony. 
Disputes with the Emir as to the boundaries of 
his territory were frequent, and at length war 
was again declared between the parties. The 
immediate cause of war on this occasion was 
the marching of an armed force of French The Emir 
troops through the Emir's territory. ThisF^rench. 
the latter looked upon as an infringement of 
the treaty, and consequently declared war. 
In October, 1839, he suddenly fell upon the 
French troops in the plain of Metidja, and 
routed them with great slaughter, destroying 
and laying waste the European settlements. 
He surprised and cut to pieces bodies of troops 
on their march; outposts and encampments 
were taken by sudden assault; and at length the 
possessions of the French were reduced to the 
fortified places which they occupied. On the 
news of these events reaching France, rein- 
forcements to the amount of 20,000 men werep^^„^^ 
sent out. The spring campaign was vigorouslyfo?cemems. 
opened on both sides, and numerous skirmishes 
took place, but without decisive results to 
either party. The French were, indeed, every- 
where successful in the field, but the scattered 



1996 THE ^VORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. iSsc^iSi? 

troops of the enemy would speedily reassemble 
and sweep the plains, so that there was no 
Defence of Safety beyond the camps and the walls of the 
Masagran. ^-Qwns. The fort of Masagran, near Mostaga- 
nem, with a garrison of only 123 men, gal- 
lantly withstood a fierce attack by 12,000 to 
15,000 Arabs, which lasted for three days. 
Marshal Valee was now recalled and General 
Buguead appointed to succeed him. The lat- 
ter arrived at Algiers on the 22d of February, 
1 84 1, and adopted a new system, which was 
completely successful. He made use of mov- 
able columns, radiating from Algiers, Oran, 
and Constantine, and having from 80,000 to 
100,000 troops at his disposal, the result soon 
told against the Emir. Many of the Arab 
Successive tribcs wcrc thus intimidated or brought un- 

French i • • , j , • 

triumphs, dcr suDjcction, hard-prcssed garrisons were re- 
lieved and victualled, and town after town 
taken. Tekedemt, the principal stronghold of 
Abd-el-Kader, was destroyed, and the citadel 
blown up; Mascara was taken; and Saida, the 
only remaining fortress in the possession of 
the Emir, was entirely demolished. In Janu- 
ary, 1842, the town of Tlemcen was taken, and 
ten days afterward the fort of Tafna, which 
was demolished. The terrified Arabs sub- 
mitted on all sides, and now almost the entire 
country was subdued. The Emir himself, 
driven to extremities, was compelled to take 
refuge in Morocco. Here he succeeded in 
raising a considerable force, and returned to 



A.D. i83o-i8s7 THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA 1997 

Algeria. He made up for the want of troops 
by the rapidity of his movements, and would 
suddenly make an attack on one place when 
he was supposed to be in quite an opposite 
quarter. In November, 1842, the Duke of 
Aumale arrived in Algiers to take part in the 
operations against the Emir; and in the spring 
of the following year he suddenly fell upon 
the camp of Abd-el-Kader while the great 
body of his troops was absent and took several 
thousand prisoners and a large booty, the 
Emir h-imself making his escape with diffi- 
culty. Not long afterward the latter again 
took refuge in Morocco, and so excited theindte"° 

" to war. 

fanatical passions of the people of that coun- 
try that their ruler was forced into a war with 
France. The army which was sent into Al- 
geria was attacked and defeated by Bugeaud 
at the river Isly, 14th August, 1844. The 
Emperor of Morocco soon afterward sued for 
peace, which was granted him on condition 
that he should no longer succor or shelter the 
Emir, but aid in pursuing him. Abd-el-Kader 
was now reduced to great extremities, and 
obliged to take refuge in the mountain fast- 
nesses, whence he would from time to time 
come down to annoy the French. In June, 
1845, a tribe of Arabs, who were being pur-J^hl'^^''' 
sued by a body of French troops under Gen- 
eral Pelissier, took refuge in a cave. As they 
refused to surrender, the general ordered a 
fire to be kindled at the mouth of the cave, and 



cave. 



1998 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. iSjo-.Ss? 

the whole of those within, men, women, and 
children, to the number of 500, were suffo- 
cated. The Emir at length was brought to 
such straits that he agreed to deliver himself 
up to the French on being allowed to retire to 
Alexandria or St. Jean d'Acre. Notwith- 
standing this promise, which was given by 
General Lamoriciere, and ratified by the 
governor-general, he was taken to France, 
where he arrived on the 29th of January, 
1848; and was imprisoned first in the castle of 
Pau, and afterward in that of Amboise, near 
Blois. In October, 1852, Louis Napoleon, 
o/AM-lf then President of the French Republic, gave 
him his liberty on condition that he should 
not return to Algeria, but reside at Brousso in 
Asia Minor. Here he remained until 1855, 
when, in consequence of the destruction of that 
town by an earthquake, he obtained permis- 
sion to remove to Constantinople, and after- 
ward to Damascus. At the latter place he 
rendered valuable aid to the Christians by 
protecting them during the massacre by the 
Turks in Syria in i860. 

[In 1 83 1, after heroically defending Gro- 
chow, Warsaw, and Cracow, thousands of 
Poles are sent to Siberia. Mehemet Ali in- 
vades Syria; Ibrahim besieges Acre. In 1832, 
the Reform Bill becomes law. It abolishes 
56 boroughs, and reduces 30 to one member 
each. Sixty-five seats are given to counties, 



A.D. i33o-i8s7 THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA 1999 

22 towns receive two each, and 21, one each. 
The French conquer Antwerp. Otto of Ba- 
varia accepts the Greek crown. The Sultan 
declares war against Mehemet Ali, who has 
conquered Acre, but who is defeated. In 1833, 
all the German States adopt the ZoUverein. 
Ferdinand of Spain dies; Isabella, aged three, 
becomes Queen, with her mother, Cristina, 
as Regent. This arrangement is recognized 
by England and France, but Don Carlos, sup- 
ported by the Church and the Basques, claims 
the crown. Cristina gains the Liberals by 
establishing two elective chambers. Russia 
forces Mehemet Ali to cease hostilities, but he 
receives the government of Syria and Egypt, j^^^^^j^j 
In 1834, Mazzini founds Young Europe and (?^^„^| 
organizes a raid into Savoy. The Carlist War ^"■'"p^ 
begins, the Basques supporting Don Carlos. 
In 1835, the life of the King of France is at- 
tempted by Fieschi, and consequent repressive 
laws regarding the press and political trials 
are passed. The Carlists gain ground. The 
Sultan regains power in Tripoli. In 1836, 
Louis Napoleon fails to excite a rising at 
Strasburg and is exiled to America. France 
and Austria force Switzerland to expel all 
political refugees. A body of Boers trek 
from Cape Colony and settle in Natal. They 
subdue the Zulus. In 1837, Victoria succeeds becomS 

e T-* 1 1 J T T Pueen of 

her uncle on the throne of England, and Han- England 
over passes to another uncle, the Duke of 
Cumberland.] 



Wealth of 
Nations. 



THE BEGINNING OF FREE TRADE 

(A.D. 1838—1842) 

ROBERT MACKENZIE 

IN 1776, Adam Smith, a Glasgow professor, 
published a book on the Wealth of Na- 
tions. In this book he argued with irre- 
sistible force that it was an exceedingly fool- 
ish thing for a nation to make the commodities 
which it consumed artificially dear, in order 
to benefit the home producers of these articles. 
William Pitt read the Wealth of Nations with 
care. The reasonings of the wise Scotchman 
were an economical revelation to the great 
minister. It is certain that he intended to 
embody them in his own commercial policy, 
and the era of Free Trade seemed about to 
dawn. The Man had come, but not the Hour. 
Pitt was drawn, reluctantly at first, into the 
war with France, and the opportunity of com- 
mercial reform was never given to him again. 
Henceforth, during all his life and for years 
after, enormous war expenditure compelled 
the indiscriminate levy of taxes, without re- 
gard to any result but the immediate posses- 
sion of money. Pitt's mantle did not fall on 

(2000) 



A.D. 1838-.842 THE BEGINNING OF FREE TRADE 2001 

his successors in office, nor even upon his great 
rival. Fox owned frankly that he could not 
understand Adam Smith. 

The protected interests — the landlords, the 
farmers, and the shipowners — were naturally 
blind to the mischief wrought by protection, protection. 
But the classes whose business it was to manu- 
facture and to distribute commodities were 
quick to discover the evils of a system which 
limited consumption by making commodities 
artificially dear. The mercantile class was 
now becoming powerful by wealth and intel- 
ligence, and, although yet scarcely repre- 
sented in the Legislature, was able to com- 
mand respectful attention- to its wants. The 
merchants of Great Britain were first to per- 
ceive that restriction was injurious to the na- 
tion ; and the merchants of London, in a peti- 
tion to the House of Commons, were the first 
to give forth an authoritative condemnation 
of the system. 

Under the influence of Mr. Huskisson 
(1823-24), various steps in the direction of The 
a Free Trade policy were taken. A prefer- 
ence for unrestricted commercial intercourse 
continued steadily to gain ground in all parts 
of the country. In 1836, and for two or three 
succeeding years, the harvest was defective, 
and much suffering prevailed. Enough had 
been said about freedom of trade to guide the 
hungry people to monopoly as the origin of 
their sorrows. Supported by a growing con- 



merchants 
condemn it. 



2002 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1838-1842 

cord of opinion in all the cities, an Anti-Corn 
Corn Law Law Lrcaguc was formed in Manchester 
(1838), and an organized agitation was be- 
gun such as no government could long resist. 
The soul of the Free Trade agitation was 
Richard Cobden. When Cobden, at the 
opening of his career, surveyed the abuses 
Richard of his time, that he might determine where 
his service could be most usefully be- 
stowed, he had almost chosen to devote 
himself to the cause of education. But he 
saw that the masses of the people were 
kept poor by unjust laws, and he knew that 
poverty brings moral degradation. Material 
welfare, he believed, was the indispensable 
foundation of moral progress; or as Sir Rob- 
ert Peel expressed it after his conversion to 
Free Trade — " I am perfectly convinced that 
the real way to improve the condition of the 
laborer, and to elevate the character of the 
working-classes of this country, is to give them 
a command over the necessaries of life." He 
chose freedom of trade as his life-work; he 
John Bright chose John Bright as his fellow workman. 

The Anti-Corn Law League applied itself 
to its task with energy unsurpassed in the 
annals of political agitation. The wealthy 
mercantile class supplied lavishly the funds 
required. Tracts were circulated by the mil- 
lion. Skilled lecturers overran the country. 
The speeches of Cobden and Bright in Par- 
liament and elsewhere were universally read, 



A.D. 1838-1842 THE BEGINNING OF FREE TRADE 2003 

and lodged in all impartial minds the convic- 
tion that restriction of commerce was at once 
impolitic and unjust. 

In 1845, Sir Robert Peel was at the head of 
a Conservative government, the supporters of 
which understood that it was pledged to de- |'j^|^°''«" 
fend the monopoly of the landed interests. 
Sir Robert had been forced to make conces- 
sions to the Free Trade party. He had modi- 
fied somewhat the duties on corn, and he re- 
duced or abolished duties on seven hundred 
and fifty other articles which were taxed by 
the intolerable tariff of the time. But these 
concessions, so far from being accepted by 
the free-traders, merely stimulated them to 
greater efforts. 

The summer had been ungenial, and dur- 
ing the autumn months rain fell unceasingly. 
In August, an alarm was whispered as to the 
condition of the Irish potato crop. There 
was a daily interchange of notes between Sir 
Robert and his Home Secretary, Sir James 
Graham, who was then at Netherby. Peel's 
tone was one of deep and ever-deepening 
alarm. His reports from Ireland, which had 
been from the first gloomy, soon became tragi- 
cal from the intensity of the peril which they 
disclosed. The entire potato crop was rap- Faiiu^re^of 
idly perishing, and still the pitiless rain fell ",°Jil^i_ 
incessantly. The people of Ireland were vis- 
ibly to suffer loss of their whole supply of 
food for the approaching winter. The grain 



2004 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1838-1842 

crops of England and Scotland were seriously 
injured too. Winter was at hand. The sup- 
ply of food was miserably insufficient, and 
laws were in force which must have the effect 
of keeping it so. 
Suspension Sir Robcrt Peel summoned his Cabinet to 
corn\aw the cottsidcration of these appalling: circum- 

considered. ^ ^ ^ 

stances. He would not incur the guilt of 
maintaining laws which within a few weeks 
must inflict the horrors of famine upon the 
people. The corn law must be, at the very 
least, suspended. But if suspended, there was 
no prospect, in the present temper of the pub- 
lic mind, that it could ever be reimposed. 
He preferred, therefore, that it should be at 
once repealed. 

He failed to convince some of his col- 
leagues, and therefore resigned. But there 
was no other man in England strong enough 
to guide the nation in this hour of danger. 
Peel was recalled, and surrounded himself 



Peel 



re-signs with mcn who were in full sympathy with his 
views. He proposed the total repeal of the 
corn law (January 19, 1846). A fierce con- 
test in the House of Commons ensued, in 
which Mr. Disraeli earned fame and the lead- 
ership of the Tory party by his envenomed 
resistance to the measure. But Peel tri- 
umphed by a majority of 327 to 229. The 
House of Lords received ungraciously a meas- 
ure which was deemed adverse to the interests 
of the landed class. But the Duke of Well- 



A.D. 1838-1842 THE BEGINNING OF FREE TRADE 2005 

ington was still the autocrat of that House, 
and his Grace, with a wisdom beyond that of 
his party, recognized and yielded to the inevi- 
table. When peers who received their law 
from his venerable lips asked permission to 
vote against the bill, the duke said to them, 
"You can not dislike it more than I do; but 
we must all vote for it." They did vote for 
it in sufficient numbers to secure its enactment 

Immediately after, the Tories were able to 
avenge themselves on Peel, by so outvoting 
him that he at once resigned. His closing 
words, on leaving office for the last time, were 
very pathetic. After speaking of the hostility 
which he had aroused among defeated mo- ^^^ 
nopolists— "It may be," he said, "that I shall "-. 
be sometimes remembered with expressions of 
goodwill in the abodes of those whose lot it 
is to labor and earn their daily bread by the 
sweat of their brow. I trust my name will 
be remembered by those men with expressions 
of goodwill, when they shall recruit their ex- 
hausted strength with abundant and untaxed 
food— the sweeter because no longer leavened 
with a sense of injustice." 

The corn law was the keystone of the pro- 
tective system. When Free Trade in corn 
was gained, the other protected industries 
knew well that their hour was at hand. It 
was a vast work which the legislature hadwo^V 

. the legis 

undertaken, and it was done boldly and swift- lature. 
ly. In 1842, there were twelve hundred ar- 

44 V (il 5 



2006 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1838-.841 

tides on which duty was levied at British 

ports. A few years later there were only 

„ „ ^ twelve, and these were retained merely for 

Free Trade ' -' 

is gained, jevenue. The idea of affording protection 
by means of duties imposed on imported ar- 
ticles was now completely and finally aban- 
doned. Henceforth the artificial regulation 
of prices was to cease, and the great natural 
law of demand and supply was to exercise its 
uninterrupted, and in the end universally be- 
neficent, dominion. 

[In 1838, Dost Mohammed receives a Rus- 
sian mission at Cabul and Great Britain de- 
clares war. Mehemet Ali refuses to pay trib- 
ute to the Sultan, and demands that the Gov- 
ernorship of Egypt and Syria shall be he- 
reditary. In 1839, Mehemet Ali gains many 
successes over the Turks. The Republic of 
g=„p^^';^°^ Honduras is proclaimed; a British army de- 
poses Dost Mohammed and places Shah Soo- 
jah on the throne of Afghanistan. The Can- 
ton merchants have to surrender their opium 
and leave China, whereupon Great Britain 
declares war and Canton is taken. Aden also 
is annexed.] 



THE OPENING OF CHINA 

(A.D. 1839—1860) 

JAMES LEGGE 

IT was not till after the Cape of Good Hope 
was doubled, and the passage to India 
discovered by Vasco da Gama, in 1497, 
that intercourse between any of the Euro- 
pean nations and China was possible by sea. 
It was in 15 16 that the Portuguese first niade ^^j'^^^^^oj;","^ 
their appearance at Canton; and they were w/s'tem''' 
followed at intervals of time by the Span- ''^"°"^' 
iards, the Dutch, and the English, in 1635. 
The Chinese received none of them cordially; 
and their dislike of them was' increased by 
their mutual, jealousies and collisions with 
one another. The Manchu sovereignty of Arrogance 
the Empire, moreover, was then in the throes Manchus. 
of its birth, and its rulers were the more dis- 
posed to assert their own superiority to all 
other potentates. They would not acknowl- 
edge them as their equals, but only as their 
vassals. They felt the power of the foreign- 
ers whenever they made an attempt to restrict 
their operations by force, and began to fear 
them. As they became aware of their con- 
quests in the Philippines, Java, and India, 

(2007) 



2008 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. iSsv.sso 

they would gladly have prohibited their ap- 
proach to their territories altogether. In the 
meantime trade gradually increased, and there 
grew up the importation of opium from India, 
and the wonderful eagerness of multitudes to 
importa- purchasc and smoke it. Before 1767, the im- 

tion of ^ / / ' 

opium. pQj-j. rarely exceeded 200 chests, but that year it 
amounted to 1,000. In 1792, the British Gov- 
ernment wisely sent an embassy, under Lord 
Macartney, to Peking with presents to the 
Emperor, to place the relations between the 
two countries on a secure and proper footing; 
but though the ambassador and members of 
his suite were courteously treated, the main ob- 
jects were not accomplished. In 1800, an im- 
perial edict expressly prohibited the importa- 
tion of opium, and threatened all Chinese who 
smoked it with condign punishment. It had 
been before a smuggling traffic, and hence- 
forth there could be no doubt of its real char- 
acter. Still it went on, and increased from 
year to year. A second embassy from Great 

from o'reat Britain, in 1816, was dismissed from Peking 
suddenly and contumeliously because the am- 
bassador would not perform the ceremony of 
San kwei chiu k'au ("the repeated prostra- 
tions"), and thereby acknowledge his own 
sovereign to be but a vassal of the Empire. 
So things went on till the charter of the 
East India Company expired in 1834, and the 
head of its factory was superseded by a repre- 
sentative of the sovereign of Great Britain, 



national 
interests. 



A.D. 1839-1860 THE OPENING OF CHINA 2009 

who could not conduct his intercourse with 
the hong merchants as the others had done. 
The two nations were brought defiantly f ace ^,^^jj.^^.^^ 
to face. On the. one side was a resistless force, 
determined to prosecute its enterprise for the 
enlargement of its trade, and the conduct of 
it as with an equal nation ; on the other side 
was the old Empire seeming to be unconscious 
of its weakness, determined not to acknowl- 
edge the claim of equality, and confident of 
its power to suppress the import of opium. 
The Government of China made its grand 
and final effort in 1839, and in the spring of 
that year the famous Lin Tseh-hsii was ap- 
pointed to the governor-generalship of the 
Kwang provinces, and to bring the barba- 
rians to reason. Out of his measures came our 
first war, which was declared by Great Brit-Brita|ns 
ain against China in 1840. There could be^^'^^^''^^ 
no doubt as to the result in so unequal a con- 
test; and we hurry to its close at Nanking, 
the old capital of the Empire, where a treaty 
of peace was signed on the 29th of August, 
1842, on board Her Majesty's ship Corn- 
wallis. The principal articles were that the 
island of Hong Kong should be ceded to Great 
Britain; that the ports of Canton, Amoy and 
Fu-Chau (in Fu-chien), Ning-po (in Cheh- 
chiang), and Shang-hai (In Chiang-su) 
should be opened to British trade and resi- 
dence; and that thereafter official correspon- 
^dence should be conducted on terms of equal- 



Great 



2010 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1839-1860 

ity according to the standing of the parties. 
Trtaty Nothing was said in the treaty on the subject 
of opium, the smuggling traffic in which went 
on as before. 

Before fifteen years had passed away, be- 
cause of troubles at Canton, not all creditable 
to Great Britain, and the obstinacy of the 
governor-general Yeh Ming-chin in refusing 
to meet Sir John Bowring, it was thought nec- 
essary by the British Government that war 
should be commenced against China again. 
In this undertaking France joined as our ally. 
Great Cantott was taken on the 29th of December, 
^condwar. 1 857, whcu Ych was captured and sent a pris- 
oner to Calcutta. Canton being now in the 
possession of the allies, arrangements were 
made for its government by a joint commis- 
sion; and in February, 1858, the allied pleni- 
potentiaries, accompanied by the commission- 
ers of the United States and Russia as non- 
combatants, proceeded to the north to lay 
their demands before the Emperor at Peking. 
There was not so much fighting as there had 
been in 1842, and on June 26 a second treaty 
was concluded at Tien-tsin, renewing and con- 
firming the former, but with many important 
additional stipulations, the most important of 
which were that the sovereigns of Great Brit- 
ain and China might, if they saw fit, appoint 
ambassadors, ministers, or other diplomatic 
agents to their respective courts; and that the 
British representative should not be required 



A. D. 1839-1860 THE OPENING OF CHINA 2011 

to perform any ceremony derogatory to him 
as representing the sovereign of an indepen- 
dent nation on an equality with China. Other 
stipulations provided for the protection of 
Christian missionaries and their converts; for 
liberty of British subjects to travel, for their 
pleasure or for purposes of trade, under pass- 
ports, into all parts of the interior of the coun- 
try; for the opening of five additional ports forpo^sopen. 
commerce — Niu-chwang (in Shing-king, the 
chief province of Manchuria), Tang-chau 
(with port of Chee-foo, in Shan-tung), Tai- 
wan (Formosa, several ports), Chao-chau 
(with port of Swa-tau, in Kwang-tung), and 
Chiung (Kiung-chau, in Hai-nan) — and for 
authority for merchant-ships to trade on the 
Yang-tsze River, ports on which would be Treaties 
opened when rebellion should have been put nations, 
down and peace and order restored. (The 
river was not opened to steamer traffic till 
1888.) Treaties on the same lines were con- 
cluded also with the United States, France 
and Russia. A revision of the tarifif regula- 
tions of 1842 was to take place subsequently 
in the year at Shang-hai. This was done in 
October, and then opium was entered among 
the legitimate articles of import, and the ar- 
rangement confirmed that the government 
should employ a foreign official in the collec- 
tion of all maritime duties. It might seem 
that these treaties secured everything which 
foreign nations could require, and that the 



2012 



THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



A.D. 1S39-1860 



The 
Chinese 
refuse 
entrance 
to Peking. 



humiliation of the Chinese Government vv^as 
complete. But they were nearly wrecked by 
one concluding; stipulation in all of them but 

An un- o r 

l°iJX?on. that of the United States, that the ratifications 
of them should be exchanged at Peking within 
a year. The Emperor and his advisers, when 
the pressure of the force at Tien-tsin was re- 
moved, could not bear the thought of the 
embassies entering the sacred capital, and 
foolishly cast about to escape from the condi- 
tion. The forts at Ta-ku, guarding the en- 
trance to the Pei-ho, and the approach to 
Tien-tsin and thence to Peking, were rebuilt 
and strongly fortified. When the English, 
French, and American ministers returned to 
Shang-hai with the ratified treaties in 1859, 
the Chinese commissioners who had signed 
them at Tien-tsin were waiting for them, and 
urged that the ratifications should be ex- 
changed there. The Fre&ch and English 
ministers then insisted on proceeding to Pe- 
king as the place nominated for the exchanges. 
But when they arrived at the mouth of the 
river, with the gunboats under their com- 
mand, they were unable to force the defences. 

Repulse of A sevcrc engagement ensued, and the allied 
forces sustained a repulse with heavy loss. It 
was the one victory gained by the Chinese. 
The British and French Governments took 
immediate action. A third expedition, under 
the same plenipotentiaries as before, with a 
force of nearly 20,000 men, was at the same 



the allies. 



A.D. i839-i86o THE OPENING OF CHINA 20K 

place in little more than a year. The forts 
were taken on August 21, and on the 25th the 
plenipotentiaries were again established in 
Tien-tsin. We can only refer to their march 
in September on Peking with all its exciting 
details. The Emperor (Hsien-fung) fled to^Hg^ht 
Jeh-ho, in the north of Chih-li, the imperial ^'"p""" 
summer retreat; and his brother, Prince 
Kung, whose name is well known, came to 
the front in the management of affairs. On 
the 13th of October he surrendered the north- 
east gate of the city; on the 24th the treaties 
were exchanged, and an additional conven- 
tion signed, by which, of course, an additional 
indemnity was exacted from the Chinese, and 
an arrangement made about the emigration 
of coolies, which had become a crying scan- 
dal, while a small piece of the continent of 
the Empire, lying opposite to Hong Kong, 
was ceded to that colony. So it was that the 
attempt of China to keep itself aloof from the 
rest of the world came to an end, and a new 
era in the history of the Empire was initiated. 

[In 1840, Louis Napoleon again tries to 
raise an insurrection at Boulogne. He is 
captured and condemned to life imprison- 
ment, but escapes in 1846. Napoleon's re- 
mains are brought from St. Helena and buried 
at the Invalides. An English, Austrian, and 
Turkish fleet bombards Beyrout and Acre. 
Mehemet receives Egypt as a hereditary pos- 



2014 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ad- 1839-1860 

session, but pays tribute to the Sultan. The 
penny post is introduced in England. In 1841, 
New Zealand becomes a separate colony. A 
massacre takes place at Cabul. The great 
Powers take steps to suppress the slave trade. 
In 1842, the English retreat from Cabul and 
Khyber the entire army is destroyed in the Khyber 
^''^^' pass. The treaty of Nankin ends the Opium 
War. Five ports are opened to English trade 
and Hong Kong is ceded. The Sultan an- 
nexes Tripoli and Barca. In 1844, the Re- 
public of San Domingo is founded. In 1845, 
there is much distress in Ireland by the failure 
Texas ad- of thc potato croD. Texas is admitted to the 

milled to ^ 

the Union. Uniou as a slave State. The first Maori war 
breaks out in New Zealand. Christian con- 
verts are massacred in Madagascar, and the 
French and English send an unsuccessful ex- 
pedition to their aid. Troubles between the 
Sikhs and the British begin.] 



THE DISCOVERY OF THE NORTHWEST 

PASSAGE 

(A.D. 1845—1847) 

ALBERT HASTINGS MARKHAM 

THE return of the Antarctic expedition 
in 1843 once more aroused public in- 
terest in matters connected with ex- 
ploration in high latitudes, and this interest 
was kept alive by the writings and efforts of 
English men of science and naval officers, Rfvivaiof 

o ' interest in 

who urged the necessity of the continuance of piorltion' 
further exploration. In the words of worthy 
old Master Purchas, who wrote 250 years ago, 
the discovery of the northwest passage was 
the only "thing yet undone whereby a notable 
mind might be made famous." 

This long-sought-for passage was at last to 
be discovered, and the "notable mind" that 
was to achieve the distinction which the solu- 
tion of the problem would, according to Mas- 
ter Purchas, entitle him to was no less a person 
than Sir John Franklin, who had already suc- 
ceeded in mapping out, by actual personal 
exploration; a very large portion of the pas- 
sage. He had, by great ability, energy, and 

(2015) 



2016 



THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



5-1847 



Sir John 
Franklin. 



The ships 
and their 
crews. 



indomitable pluck, in spite of unparalleled 
difficulties and unprecedented sufferings, in 
a vigorous climate and in an inhospitable and 
barren country, succeeded in showing to the 
world at large, that there was no service which 
Englishmen were not capable of undertaking, 
and no hardships or privations " that would 
make them waver or flinch in the performance 
of their duties and in carrying them out to a 
successful issue. 

In fact. Sir John Franklin had written his 
name with no light or feeble hand in large 
and unmistakable characters along the entire 
face of our North Polar map, and he was, 
even at that time, the actual discoverer of all 
but a very small portion that yet remained to 
be explored of the long-talked-of, but yet un- 
discovered, northwest passage. 

The ships selected for the service were the 
Erebus and Terror. They had only recently 
returned from the service on which they had 
been engaged under Sir James Ross in the 
Antarctic, but they had been completely over- 
hauled and thoroughly repaired after the hard 
buffetings they had received from the south- 
ern ice, and were, in consequence, prepared 
in every way that human skill and ingenu- 
ity could devise to undergo similar or ev^en 
worse treatment from the ice floes of the 
north. Captain Crozier, who was second in 
command in the Antarctic expedition, was se- 
lected to act in a like capacity to Sir John, and 



A.U. 1845-1847 DISCOVERY OF NORTHWEST PASSAGE 2017 

was appointed to the command of his old ship 
the Terror, while Sir John flew his pennant in 
the Erebus. Commander James Fitzjames, an 
able, popular, and accomplished officer, was 
appointed to the Erebus as second in command 
under Franklin. As the principal object of 
the expedition was the advancement of science, ?f^^he' 
the remainder of the officers were selected as "^ 
being specially suited by their scientific ac- 
quirements, professional knowledge, and ro- 
bust and vigorous constitutions, for the service 
on which they were to be employed. Among 
those appointed was Dr. Goodsir, an eminent 
naturalist. The complement of each ship was 
sixty-seven officers and men, making a total of 
twenty-three officers and one hundred and 
eleven men — in all, one hundred and thirty- 
four souls. Stores and provisions were put 
on board the ships for an anticipated absence 
of three years. The vessels were also fitted 
with screws and auxiliary engines, capable of 
working up to about twenty horse-power. 
This was the first time that the screw, as a 
means of propulsion in ships, was ever used 
in the Arctic Seas, but it was, as may be im- 
agined from the power provided, only to a 
very limited degree. 

Sir John Franklin's orders were to the ef- 
fect that he was to make the best of his way p^^^j^,;^,^ 
up Lancaster Sound to the neighborhood of°"^^'' 
Cape Walker, in about 74° N. latitude, and 98 
W. longitude. Thence he was to use his ut- 



2018 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1845-1847 

most endeavors, by working to the southward 
and westward, to push on in as direct a line 
as possible toward Bering's Strait; but much 
was left to his own discretion, and he was to 
be guided by any circumstances that might 
incidentally arise. All the arrangements 
being completed, the expedition sailed from 
England on the 19th of May, 1845, officers 
and men in the very best of spirits, and all 
fully resolved to do their utmost to bring the 
voyage to a successful issue, and so set at rest, 
and forever, the long-vexed question of the 
existence of a northwest passage. 

On the loth of July, they parted company 
with the transport, and sailed from the Whale 
Fish Islands ; on the 26th of July, the two ships 
were seen made fast to the ice in Melville Bay, 
in about 74° 48' N. latitude, and 66^ 13' W. 
longitude, by Captain Dannet, of the Prince 
of Wales, a whaler from Hull, who received 
. ^ a visit from some of the officers of the expe- 

Last sight ^ 

shi?sV dition; this was, so far as is known, the last 
Europeans. ^.^^ ^j^^ unfortunatc vessels were seen, at any 
rate by Europeans. After this date, although 
traces of the missing ships were discovered 
many years after, all is conjecture, all must 
be left to the imagination, to complete one of 
the saddest stories that has ever been told in 
connection with Arctic enterprise. 

The ships, we know, pursued their solitary 
way through Baffin's Bay toward Lancaster 
Sound. Entering this broad channel, they 



A.D. 184S-1847 DISCOVERY OF NORTHWEST PASSAGE 2019 

sailed along the coast of North Devon, con- 
tinuing their course to the westward; but ice, 
that unconquerable foe with which the Arctic 
explorer has to battle, effectually barred the 
passage, and prevented further advance in that 
direction. Wellington Channel, however, to 
the northward, appeared to be open, and up 
this they sail, hoping; that it may eventually 

11- , 1- • , , -^Course of 

lead in a westerly direction, and carry them^^^^^hips. 
into the eagerly sought for passage. But they 
are doomed to disappointment, for after sail- 
ing up this channel for a distance of about 150 
miles, they are again stopped by their relent- 
less and implacable enemy, the ice, and .are 
compelled to turn to the southward; but their 
return is made by a different channel to that 
up which they sailed, a newly discovered one, 
which they found to exist, separating Corn- 
wallis and Bathurst Islands, and which ulti- 
mately brought them again into Barrow 
Strait, about one hundred miles to the west- 
ward of the entrance to Wellington Channel, 
up which they had previously sailed. 

Unmistakable sisrns of the closing: in of the _, . 

o o Closing 

navigable season were now apparent; the hills °av^|abie 
and valleys were already covered with their*^*^°"" 
snowy mantle, and the young ice was begin- 
ning to form on the surface of the water to 
such a thickness as to materially impede the 
progress of the ships. Taking all these cir- 
cumstances into consideration, and finding 
that there was no prospect of advancing 



2020 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1845-1847 

further to the westward that season, the ships 
retraced their steps a short distance to the 
eastward, and were ultimately secured in snug 

quarter^ wintcr Quartcrs in a partially protected harbor 
on the northeast side of Beechey Island, the 
adaptability of which as winter quarters had, 
in all probability, been remarked and noted by 
Franklin as he passed up Wellington Channel. 
On the release of the ships from their winter 
quarters, which event, in all probability, did 
not occur until July or August, a course was 
shaped to the westward toward Cape Walker, 
the furthest point reached by them in a west- 
erly direction the previous year. We know 
well from the records of previous navigators, 
and also from subsequent experience, that the 

Cape ice to the westward of Barrow Strait, and in 

Walker 

the neighborhood of Cape Walker, is of an 
exceedingly formidable description. In spite, 
however, of the ponderous nature of the ice, 
Franklin persevered in his endeavors to get 
through, and seeing a channel open to the 
southward, he pushes into it, for surely, he 
thinks, it will eventually lead in the right di- 
rection. He knew if this channel did not end 
in a cul de sac, and if the ice permitted him 
to force his ships through, that the last link 
in the chain would be forged, and the north- 
west passage would be triumphantly achieved. 
This channel, separating North Somerset from 
Prince of Wales Land, is now called Peel's 
Strait. 



XD. 1845-1847 DISCOyERY OF NORTHWEST PASSAGE 2021 

All went merrily! Everything pointed to a 
speedy and successful termination to their 
voyage. Sailing past the west coast of North ^^^j^ 
Somerset, they fight their way bravely mile '""''°""'^- 
by mile, and almost inch by inch, along the 
coast of Boothia Felix, until they perhaps get 
a glimpse of King William Land, and al- 
most feel that success is actually within their 
grasp. But alas! although the distance that 
intervenes between their ships and absolute 
success is, perchance, only a little over one 
hundred miles, their further progress is sud- 
denly arrested, their vessels are caught and 
held fast in the rigid embrace of the ice, and 
thus, fast frozen in a solid and impenetrable 
pack, they are doomed to pass their second 
winter. Little did the poor fellows then im- 
agine, when they were busily engaged in 
making the necessary arrangements for pass- 
ing that winter, that their ships were inex- 
tricably frozen in — never again to cleave the 
blue water of the ocean, never to rise and fall 
on its heaving billows, never to be released 
from their icy fetters, until their poor battered 
hulls are rent and riven by their victorious 
enemy, the ice. 

To winter in the pack is known, happily, 
only to a few — to pass two successive winters winter 
in the ice is an experience that has, fortu-ice-pLk. 
nately, been vouchsafed to fewer still; yet the 
brave survivors of the Erebus and Terror were 
destined not only to pass one, but two long, 



2022 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ad. 1845-1847 

weary, successive winters, helplessly beset, and 
firmly frozen up in their icy bondage. 

As the daylight returned King William 
Land, covered in its white garb of winter, was 
occasionally seen to the southward. Once 
past that sterile and dreary-looking coast, and 
the northwest passage would be accomplished; 
for they would then, they well knew, connect 
with Simpson's, Ross's, and Back's discover- 
ies; but alas! an ice-encumbered sea inter- 
vened, choked with thick-ribbed ice, through 
which it was impossible to force their heavy, 
and perhaps seriously damaged, ships. 

The summer was not allowed to pass, how- 
ever, without some attempt at exploration, for, 
in the month of May, a travelling party was 
organized and despatched with the object 

MpforJs of exploring King William Land. It con- 
King Wil- ' 1 r m 1 • 1 

liamLand. sistcd of two oflicers and SIX men, and was 
commanded by Lieutenant Graham Gore, the 
first lieutenant of the Erebus. The officer 
that accompanied him was Mr. Charles F. 
Des Voeux, mate, belonging to the same ship. 
The pany left the ships on Monday, 24th 
of May, and succeeded in reaching Point 
Victory on King William Land; thence 
pushing on toward Cape Herschel they, per- 
haps, saw in the distance the continent of 
North America, and realized that the long- 

GoredTs- sought-for passagc had been discovered, and 

covers the iji -t »'ii«/-i i 

northwest could bc casily accomplished if they were but 

passage. -' '^ -' 

able to force their ships through the short, 



A.D. 1845-1847 DISCOVERY OF NORTHWEST PASSAGE 2023 

icy channel that intervened. Depositing a 
record, containing a brief account of their 
visit, they hurried back to their ships to im- 
part the joyful tidings to their comrades in 
order that they also might share in the exulta- 
tion that they could not help but feeling at 
having ascertained the successful result of the 
voyage. The record was simply a few lines 
written on a printed form supplied to the 
ships for the purpose of being corked up in 
a bottle and thrown overboard, with the 
object of ascertaining the set of tides and 
currents. 

The lines written by Graham Gore on this 
printed form were to the efifect that the Erebus record. 
and Terror wintered in the ice in latitude 70° 
5' N., and longitude 98° 23' W., having win- 
tered, in 1846-47, at Beechey Island in lati- 
tude 74° 43' 28" N., longitude 91° 39' 15" W., 
after having ascended Wellington Channel to 
latitude 77'', and returned by the west side of 
Cornwallis Island. It adds, somewhat sig- 
nificantly, that Sir John Franklin was still in 
command of the expedition, but that all were 
well. This paper is dated the 28th of May, 
1847, and is signed by both Gore and Des 
Voeux. 

On their return to the Erebus, they found 
a scene of sorrow and mourning which, per- 
haps judging from the somewhat ominous 
wording of their record, was not wholly un- 
expected. They found their beloved chief, 



2024 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1845-1847 

he who had before, so often and in so many 
shapes, been face to face with death, stricken 
down, fighting his last battle with that un- 
conquerable foe to whom the bravest must 
eventually strike their colors and yield. Sir 
John Franklin, after a long, honorable, and 
distinguished career, after a life more event- 
ful and adventurous than usually falls to the 
lot of man, lay on his death-bed. The end, 
however, had not yet come, and Sir John 
Death of . Franklin was permitted, before he passed 
Fran°kun. away, to reccivc from the lips of Graham 
Gore the announcement that the northwest 
passage, for the successful achievement of 
which he sailed from England two years ago, 
and for which he was now willingly and 
cheerfully laying down his life, had been dis- 
covered, and that he was the man who, by its 
discovery, had, according to old Purchas, 
made himself famous. 



[In 1846, the Spanish marriages cause 
considerable friction between England and 
France. Austria annexes the Republic of 
Cracow. War arises between the United 
States and Mexico over the Texan boundary 
question. In 1847, Rothschild, the first Jew- 
ish M.P., is elected for the city of London. 
In Switzerland war breaks out; the Sonder- 
bund is routed and dissolved, and the Jesuits 
are expelled. Gold is discovered in Cali- 
fornia. In 1848, Chartism is effectually 



Mexican 
War. 



A.D. I34S-I847 DISCOVERY OF NORTHWEST PASSAGE 2025 

checked in England. Mexico relinquishes 
Texas, New Mexico, California, Nevada, 
Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and 
Wyoming. The second Sikh War breaks out 
and the Punjab is annexed. Revolutions Tnnexed. 
break out in almost every European country.] 



THE DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA 

(A.D. 1847— 1849) 

JAMES SCHOULER 

UMBERING, tillage of the soil, and 
ownership of the spacious harbor of 
San Francisco had been the main ob- 
jects proposed by the annexation of California 
the^nnex- to thc Unitcd Statcs. But another advantage, 

ation of "^ ' 

California, which thrcw all these into the shade, was re- 
vealed at almost the moment of its formal 
transfer. It was a land of treasure-trove. 
Gold, mineral wealth of inestimable worth, 
lay ready to tempt cupidity, in rock, in crev- 
ices, in river beds, the moment these posses- 
sions became ours. A century earlier, so runs 
the story, Jesuits found gold in this region 
and were expelled in consequence. Minister 
Thompson's book gave gold and silver a pass- 
ing mention, while describing the resources 
of California. Mines nearer the heart of 
Mexico, which had been lately pledged for 
the security of British loans, once yielded a 
handsome return, but forty years of civil dis- 
order left them unproductive. Indeed, since 
1810, products of the precious ore in both 

(2026) 



A.D. 1847-X849 DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA 2027 

hemispheres had fallen off greatly, though the 
yield in the New World far excelled that of 
the Old. Hitherto, however, bowels of gold 
and silver had belonged to the sicklier races ; 
we, like our hardy English progenitors, had 
boasted rather of our coal and iron, products 
for common use. The gold region of the 
United States, as hitherto defined, lay along 
the mountains which bordered Virginia, North 
Carolina, and Georgia; and science, capital, 
and skill, while slavery infected that region, Discovery 

' J ■=* ' of gold. 

had all been wanting to develop or so much as 
locate these resources. But now this republic 
was on the verge of a discovery which would 
impart a new influence in the civilized world, 
and give new values and a new impulse to 
finance and the industrial activities. Had not 
God guided us? Was not the Union work- 
ing out some sublime mission of manifest 
destiny? 

Here within one hundred and sixty thousand 
square miles of our Mexican conquest, within 
that country alone, west of the Sierras, which 
was drained by the Sacramento and San Joa- 
quin Rivers, was more gold probably than 
would pay the cost of our late war a hundred 
times over. Such was the confident report 
of our military commandant in California, 
dated six weeks after peace had been officially 
proclaimed at Washington; and our Presi- 
dent, submitting that report to Congress in 
its ensuing session with his farewell message, 



2028 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1847-1849 

found a new justification of the policy he had 
pursued toward Mexico. 

That splendid and startling discovery was 
made in fact before the actual conclusion of 
a treaty with Mexico, and California's dwellers 
were wild with excitement at the time when 
distant representatives of the late belligerents 
ratified the compact of transfer wholly igno- 
rant of the news. Nor did the earth first open 
her secret to the peering eyes of the American 
conquerors who occupied the country, but to 
Captain Sutter, the Swiss lord of the Sacra- 
Marshal"*^ mento, and an American mechanic from New 
Jersey in his employ, named Marshall. Some 
miles above Sutter's fort, on the American 
fork of the Sacramento, a saw-mill was in 
course of erection for turning some pine for- 
ests near by into lumber. Marshall, with a 
gang of workmen, comprising native Indians 
and a few white Mormons, was engaged upon 
the work. While widening and deepening 
the channel, where water was let on to run 
the mill, yellow particles were brought down 
by night, mingled with the loose mud and 
gravel, which Marshall discovered as he 
sauntered along the tail-race the next morn- 
ing. Suspecting the truth, which was con- 
firmed by another night's sluicing, he gath- 
ered some of the glittering grains in his pouch, 
and rode down the stream to Captain Sutter, 
dismounting at the fort on the afternoon of 
the 28th. Sutter weighed the ore, applied 



A.D. 1847-1849 DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA 2029 

such tests of science as he could command, 
ransacked his little library upon the subject, 
and pronounced the substance gold. From 
that moment the news of the discovery spread, 
and men's minds were turned in his little king- 
dom from saw-mills, flour-mills, herds, flocks, J^^g^f 
and all that humbler property which hitherto 
had absorbed his thoughts and theirs, and to 
quote Sutter's own expressive phrase, — for he 
could not ride luck firmly at a break-neck 
speed, — the curse of the discovery was on him. 
Neither Sutter nor Marshall could profit 
by nature's confidence. They agreed to keep 
the secret to themselves ; and a Mexican grant 
being of course out of the question bythat time, 
Sutter procured a lease of this region from 
the Indian natives, and then undertook the 
more difficult affair of procuring title from 
the United States. Colonel Mason, the Amer- 
ican commandant at Monterey, could give no 
document; and so far from guarding theirsuuerand 
joint secret, Sutter and his unwary contractor fafuo^ 
managed to send the news far and wide, which^ecret. 
their humble workmen on the stream had wit 
enough to ascertain, very quickly. Sutter's 
saw-mill stood unfinished, as hundreds and 
thousands of laborers pushed by for more con- 
genial work. Within four months of the first 
discovery over four thousand persons were 
about the Sacramento, working as if for dear 
life, dwelling in coarse canvas tents and huts, 
and coaxing fortune with the rudest imple- 

^ Vol. 5 



2030 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1847-1849 



Crude 



ments. Some with bowls, pans, and willow 
minhTg baskets were seen washing out the gravel and 

methods. . . & , , , 1 

separating the shining atoms by the hand; 
others worked with the pick and shovel; while 
some, the luckiest of the lot, found places 
where they could pick gold out of crevices in 
the mountain rocks with their butcher knives, 
as they lay upon their backs, in pieces which 
weighed from one to six ounces. 

Fleets of launches, from the sloop to the 
cockleshell, left San Francisco in early May 
for the Sacramento saw-mill region, and the 
town was nearly stripped of its male popula- 
tion in course of the summer. Soon the whole 
country, from San Francisco to Los Angeles, 
Jven"'** and from the seashore to the base of the moun- 
tains, echoed the cry of "Gold, gold, gold!" 
The house was left half-built, the field half- 
planted; women looked after the shop. For- 
eign vessels began to arrive; but before they 
could unload, their crews deserted for the 
"diggings." Mexicans, scarcely less than 
Americans, caught the gold fever, and joined 
in the headlong rush for riches. And quickly 
as sails or steam could bear the tidings to dif- 
ferent points of the compass, adventurers has- 
tened from China, from the Sandwich Islands, 
from Australia, and from the whole Pacific 
coast between Vancouver Island and Val- 
paraiso. 

It was not until Lieutenant Loeser reached 
Washington in person, bearing Colonel Ma- 



A.D. 1847-1849 DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA 2031 

son's official despatch, that denizens of our 
Atlantic Slope began to realize the force of 
our new discovery. A small tea-caddy, which 
Loeser brought with him, full of the yellow 
stuff in lumps and dust, was placed on exhibi 
tion in the War Department. To see was to 
believe, and to believe was to set the news fly- 
ing eagerly. Mason's report, indorsed by the 
President, was published and commented 
upon by the press of two continents. 

The new year witnessed the exodus of ourThe 

•^ Argonauts 

modern Argonauts. A stream of population, °^^849. 
swollen beyond all precedent, drained the 
drifting elements from Europe, to mingle in 
a current whose American element predomi- 
nated. Never again was such delirium known, 
for it is novelty that makes the blood leap 
wildly. Those lesser discoveries of gold and 
silver which followed years later in British 
Australia and through our own Rocky range 
were tame by comparison. These seekers of 
the golden fleece are enshrined among the 
world's heroes. "Ho for California!" was the California" 
rallying cry of the press in our Atlantic cities, 
— their columns teeming with advertisements 
of gold-sifters, tents, picks, preserved meats, 
compasses, mining boots, and all other needful 
supplies; with rifles and pistols to use against 
one enemy, medicine and medical books 
against another. "California associations" 
were hunting up men to charter vessels in 
company or furnish a line of wagons. 



2082 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1847-1849 

Two modes were open to choice for mak- 

Thetwo ing the difficult journey: one by the overland 

route, requiring delay until spring; the other 

by water, which, though tedious to the last 

degree, pleased the impatient who wished to 

get in motion. The long water route lay 

round Cape Horn; but the short cut across 

the isthmus looked more attractive on the map. 

Sailing-vessels for one course or the other had 

begun departing from Atlantic ports; the 

number increasing rapidly with each new 

mandfor iT^onth, Until oM hulks were rigged up and 

shipping, ggj^^ ^Q gg^ ^g jQ^g ^g ^.j^gy could float, and even 

the whalers forsook their usual prey to engage 
in this ''new catch." The Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company had been organized already 
for general trade with our distant possessions. 
Its first steamer sailed from New York in the 
previous October, with not a single passenger 
on board for California; but after doubling 
the Horn, turning northward, and reaching 
Panama in the following January, its captain 
found fifteen hundred persons frenzied and 
clamorous to come on board as passengers, of 
whom scarcely one-thirtieth part could be 
provided with state-rooms. Steam and sail- 
ing vessels dumped at the isthmus, for many 
months, on the Caribbean side, their parties 
of adventurers, who worked across to Panama 
as best they might, to join in the mad rush 
struggle for from the latter port. As the frantic struggle 

passage. ^ '^^ 

was here renewed whenever a steamer came 



A.D. 1847-1849 DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA 2033 

in sight, the company disposed of all tickets 
by lot, and allowed none without them to 
come on board. Among the disappointed 
hundreds who were left behind, many em- 
barked upon the slow sailing-vessels which 
improvised a transit, rather than stay idle on 
shore, or rashly perilled their lives on long 
canoes of the natives. Meanwhile, the swift 
steamship, for its three weeks' trip to San 
Francisco, was crowded fore and aft; exer- 
cise was clogged ; sleep grew fitful and fever- 
ish; men rushed and wallowed for their food, 
each table being twice set; while for succes- 
sive days amid this turmoil of monotony the 
vessel would plow its way through a tranquil 
sea, as the sun rose and sank pillowed in a 
gorgeous sky. Welcome at last was the haven 
of San Francisco, as it came into view when 
the vessel curved the bay of the Golden Gate. 
But the journey overland, — how much more 
terrible were its hardships than those even of ^^ 

^ The over- 

the long, seven-months' voyage by sailing yes- ^^"'^ "^""^^ 
sel round the Horn! Tedium is the chief tor- 
ture of those who trust their lives to a carrier. 
By ocean travelled those indirect gainers by 
discovery, — the speculator, the gambler, and 
all that buzzard and miscellaneous horde who 
come to bring capital into play or pander to 
brute passions; many to be useful, many to 
make others worse. But the Argonauts of 
the plains were the sturdier set, — the miners 
or the farmers; and, having little to pay for 



2034 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1847-1849 

passage-tickets, these contributed their capi- 
tal of physical endurance. They made of 
Fremont's reports their guide-book. They 
travelled by companies together, both for de- 
fence and economy's sake. Wagons, animals, 
Wagon provisions, they purchased by co-operation; 
and even the penniless had a chance, as driv- 
ers or otherwise, to work out a free passage. 
The perils of those crusaders who took the 
savage hills of the Gila, or crossed the Great 
American Desert to Sonora, need not be dwelt 
upon. These had their terrible tales to re- 
late. But for the northern route of 1849, that 
great overland highway. Independence, or 
St. Joseph, Missouri, was the chosen rendez- 
vous; and on this frontier of civilization thou- 
sands assembled from the eastward in early 
spring, with wagon trains, waiting until the 
grass was high enough before venturing upon 
the broad ocean of the wilderness. From May 
to early June company after company set 
forth, until the emigrant trail from Fort 
Leavenworth on the Missouri to Fort Lara- 
mie at the foot of the Rocky Mountains was 
one long caravan; and the light of camp-fires 
shone by night like some unending turnpike 
of illumination. Tribes of Indians fled, in- 
stead of attacking, as the strange line, which 
comprised pack-mules and every species of 
wagon, from the "prairie schooner" down to 
the jaunty pedler's cart, halted in the rich 
green meadows to enjoy the first and easiest 



A.D. 1847-1849 DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA 2035 

part of the journey. Cholera, which ascended 
the Mississippi about the time they departed, 
was their first real scourge; and four thousand ^^^^ 
or more perished by the roadside from this hardships. 
disease alone. Beyond Fort Laramie that 
pestilence was escaped, and then came the 
more immediate hardships of the expedition. 
Pasturage grew scarce, and the pioneers had 
to divide into separate trails; subsisting them- 
selves often on nothing more appetizing than 
the tough meat of their mules or the flesh of 
noxious rattlesnakes. Up and down stern 
mountain-peaks, slowly through the South 
Pass, the toilsome march continued, until the 
tributaries of the Colorado served as guide. 
Rest, grateful as on the green spots among 
Arabian sands, was found in the Mormon set- 
tlement of the Salt Lake. Faithful to agri- Mormons. 
culture and their own vows of isolation, these 
religious enthusiasts found speedy gain from 
traffic with the Gentile journeyers. In this 
fertile valley some emigrants remained the 
coming winter, dreading to go on; but they 
v>^ho pressed on, strong-hearted, had their 
worst perils yet to encounter. Through sterile 
wastes and rugged mountain chasms in the 
Great Basin, by trails hard to find and still 
harder to explore, they goaded on their jaded 
beasts and dragged their own weary bodies; 
they wandered like sheep, they separated, they 
went astray. But in August the advance 
wagons of this first pioneer train began arriv- 



2036 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1847-1849 

ing, and by the close of December the last of 
The these overland companies of 1849 had en- 
encampon camoed on the western side of the Sierra 

the western r 

side^fthe jsjevada; and the great interior wilderness re- 
lapsed into its long winter slumber. 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1848 



W. A. TAYLOR 

N the year 1840, a treaty was made in Lon- 
don between Great Britain, Austria, Rus- 
sia, and Prussia, settling the question of 
the possession of Syria by the Pacha of Egypt, 
without reference to the acquiescence of 
France in their decision. This led to violent 
expressions of feeling on the part of the 
French people, who believed their nation in- 
sulted; the ministry breathed the same spirit, 
and the King consented to the augmentation 
of the army to 6^0,000 men. The plan for increase of 

J ^ ■'' r the army. 

the fortification of Paris, as it was called, 
which had been before rejected by the cham- 
bers, was resumed by Thiers among his other 
preparations for war, and this would seem to 
have been the only object aimed at by the 
King in apparently coinciding with the war 
feeling; for he refused to allow his minister 
to denounce the Treaty of July formally to the 
chambers, and ask for further warlike prepa- 
rations. Thiers therefore gave up his port- 
folio, and a new ministry was appointed, of Fan of 
which the master spirit was Guizot. That 

(2037) 



2038 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

Statesman continued the fortification of Paris, 
and coincided fully with the wish of Louis 
Philippe to preserve the peace of Europe. He 
remained at the head of the government from 
1840 until the Revolution of 1848. By every 
means in his power he preserved France from 
European hostilities, brought about an ex- 
change of visits between the sovereigns of 
England and France, and promoted on all 
occasions the intrigues of the King for the 
aggrandizement of the royal family, and its 
establishment by intermarriages in other 
courts of Europe. At the same time, his 
internal government was characterized by 
pride, tyranny, blindness, and a constant suc- 
cession of encroachments upon the liberty of 
the people. During the whole term of his 
administration the work of fortifying Paris 
was continued, until the whole city was sur- 
rounded by a girdle of fortifications of im- 
pregnable strength, the guns of which were 
expected to serve equally well in repelling a 
foreign foe and in crushing any revolt in 
Paris. Secure in the pride of power, Louis 
Philippe boasted that he held France in his 
hand, and Guizot ruled on, well contented in 
the seeming success of his policy, and con- 
vinced of the truth of his own saying, that 
an unpopular government is the most suc- 
cessful. 

On the opening of the French chambers in 
1848, a paragraph of the address announced 



Fortifica- 
tion of 
Paris. 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1848 2039 

the intention of the ministry to oppose the 
holding of a reform banquet in one of theuon^'ofa 
arrondissements of Paris. The people had banquet. 
been accustomed to these gatherings, which 
had always been conducted in a quiet and or- 
derly manner, and all Paris resolved to par- 
ticipate in the one thus opposed, as a demon- 
stration of their determination in the matter. 
On the eve of the day on which it was to be 
held the government grew alarmed, and is- 
sued a proclamation that it would prevent it 
vi et armis. This was made known to a meet- 
ing of the deputies and electors who were to 
take part in the festival, and they repaired to 
the chamber to interrogate the ministry upon 
the subject, where, in an angry debate, they 
learned the resolution that had been taken. 
The opposition deputies, anxious to preserve 
peace, announced their determination to take 
no part in the celebration, and the government 
strengthened itself to enforce its decree. The 
number of the troops was increased to one 
hundred thousand men, and armed bodies 
were concentrated about the Chamber of Military 

prepara- 

Deputies. Great bodies of people were in^'""^- 
motion early upon the day fixed for the ban- 
quet, February 22, blocking up the avenues 
to the chambers, and making offensive demon- 
strations before the house of the minister. The 
troops manifested great reluctance to make 
war upon them, and the day passed over with 
few occurrences of note, except the impeach- 



Barricades. 



2(340 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

ment of the minister by Odillon Barrot in the 
chamber, on behalf of fifty-three opposition 
deputies. 

During the night the troops demolished the 
barricades thrown up by the people during 
the day, and the morning of the 23d was spent 
in the erecting and destroying of these works. 
Shortly after noon a large detachment of the 
National Guard came to present a petition to 
the chamber in favor of reform, but they were 
met by the commander of the Tenth Legion, in 
the Place de la Concorde, who told them they 
would not be permitted to pass. As M. Guizot 
entered the Chamber of .Deputies on this day, 
the Tenth Legion on guard there saluted him 
with cries of, A has Guizot! Vive Louis 
Philippe! 

At half-past three a conflict commenced be- 
tween the people and the Municipal Guard; 
but almost everywhere the National Guard 
fraternized with the people. A lull was pro- 
donlfthe duced by the announcement of the resigna- 
tion of the ministry, and the appointment of 
Count Mole to the presidency of the council; 
but the wanton discharge of musketry upon 
the people, by the guard assembled before 
M. Guizot's hotel, by which fifty-two persons 
were killed or wounded, again aroused the 
people, and ever)rwhere the cry was heard to 
arms. The dead bodies were carried about 
Paris in a vehicle, preceded by an immense 
crowd, chanting in a mournful murmur the 



ministry. 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1848 2041 

songs of death. Suddenly there arose a cry 
for vengeance, and the issue of the Revolu- Iiaci^n^k 
tion was decided. At every corner barricades 
were erected. Gentlemen, shopkeepers, clerks, 
workmen, all labored equally and effectively. 
The dawn of the 24th saw the whole city in 
possession of the people. The Chateau d'Eau, 
a massive stone building in front of the Palais 
Royal, was garrisoned by 180 Municipal 
Guards, who attacked the people about the 
palace, and a desperate conflict ensued, in 
which the populace suffered severely, but 
demolished the chateau, chiefly by means 
of fire. 

The victors then rushed to the Tuileries, 
which was surrounded with thousands of Louis 

r. 1*11 Philippe 

troops, who would not fire upon their b re th- abdicates, 
ren. Louis Philippe found that his sceptre 
had departed, and he attempted, by abdica- 
tion, to transfer his crown to the Count of 
Paris, his grandson. The mother of the 
Count repaired with him to the Chamber of 
Deputies, where a voice from the public gal- 
lery settled the question at once: — "It is too 
late." The members of the royal family 
retired, followed by all the royalists in the 
chamber. Dupont de I'Eure, whose sturdy 
republicanism in 1830, was not forgotten, was 
carried to the chair, and a provisional govern- 
ment was proclaimed, amid loud shouts of 
Vive la Republique! 

Louis Philippe had been escorted by a de- 



2042 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

Louis tachment of guards to Neuilly, whence he 

Philippe II- • 1 • • T^ 1 1 A 

E^i^ad ^^^^ "IS escape in disguise to bngland. Ap- 
prehensions were entertained that his life 
would be sacrificed to popular fury; but the 
only cry that arose from the multitude was 
one of indifferent derision, "Let him go!" 

The furniture of the Tuileries was thrown 
out of the windows and burned, the wines in 
the cellar distributed among the multitude, 
the throne carried in procession through the 
streets, and finally burned on the famous Place 
de la Bastille, and the royal carriages were 
burned at the Chateau d'Eau. All this passed 
directly beneath the notice of long lines of 
motionless infantry and cavalry. The respect 
paid to private property was not less remark- 
able than it was honorable. Several malefac- 
tors, caught by the people in stealing, were 
shot on the spot, and the word "voleur" (thief) 
fastened upon their bodies. 

The provisional government was installed 
.p^g at the Hotel de Ville, and at once proclaimed 
Established, a republic. The Chamber of Peers was im- 
mediately abolished, and steps taken to re- 
lieve the people of the burden which the over- 
throw of existing relations was likely to place 
upon them. Lamartine, Arago, Ledru Rol- 
lin, Lamoriciere, Garnier Pages, Cavaignac, 
Decoutrias, with the venerable president, Du- 
pont de I'Eure, composed the provisional gov- 
ernment. The first act of the government 
showed Lamartine to be the master spirit. 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1848 2043 

Every citizen was made an elector, and the 
qualifications for office were citizenship and 
the age of twenty-five years. The penalty of 
death for political offences was immediately 
abolished. An act for the emancipation of 
every slave on territory subject to France was If^^^^""^ 
ordered to be immediately prepared. On the '''"''"^• 
4th of March, the victims of the Revolution 
were solemnly interred, in the presence of 
nearly half a million of people, at the foot 
of the monument erected to liberty, and the 
memory of victims of the three days of July, 
1830. 
iThe earliest occasion was selected by the states of ^ 

•^ America 

American minister at Paris, Mr. Rush, for|^knowi^ 
recognizing the Republic. On the 28th of ^^p"^"^- 
February he waited upon the provisional gov- 
ernment, and formally acknowledged the Re- 
public, in an eloquent speech; hoping that the 
friendship of the two republics would be co- 
extensive with their duration. A deputation 
of American citizens waited upon the pro- 
visional government on the 8th of March, ten- 
dering them congratulations, and presenting 
them a fiag-staflf, with the colors of the two 
republics united and flowing together. The 
color v/as received by M. Arago, in a hand- 
some address on the part of the government, 
and placed in the Hotel de Ville. 

The people throughout France are united 
in favor of a republican form of government, 
and the voice of the Church in favor of 



20i4 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

the change was heard in every cathedral in 
Jn'dt^h?^'^ France, almost before it was known that the 
ujiajiTmous King had quitted its territory. France with 
one voice has declared in favor of liberty, and 
not till she relapses into barbarism will tyr- 
anny find a foothold upon her soil. 



THE REVOLUTION OF 1848 



W. ALISON PHILLIPS 

THE February Revolution in Paris was 
not the cause of the political upheaval 
which, in 1848, convulsed Europe from 
Ireland to the banks of the Danube. It had 
been preceded by the victory of Liberalism 
in Switzerland, by the successful revolutions of^hl"''^ 
in Naples and Palermo, and by the proclama-Revoiiur^ 

*• 1 T-« '■'"'^ upon 

tion of a Constitution in Piedmont. But, Europe, 
flaming out in the very centre of the European 
S3'^stem, it was, as it were, the beacon fire which 
gave the signal for the simultaneous outbreak 
of revolutionary movements which, though 
long prepared, might but for this have been 
detached and spasmodic. The shock of the 
political cataclysm was felt in the remotest 
corners of Europe. Republican agitations in 
Spain and Belgium, Chartist gatherings in 
England, Fenian unrest in Ireland, seemed 
for a time to threaten to emulate the revolu- 
tionary victories in France. But the true in- 
terest of the movements of 1848 was rapidly 
concentrated in central Europe, wherever 
Austrian diplomacy and Austrian arms had 

(2045) 



Austria. 



2046 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

sought to throw a dam across the advancing 
tide of National and Liberal sentiment. The 
history of the Revolutionary movements of 
1848 is, in fact, not only in the Austrian Em- 
pire itself, but in Germany and in Italy, that 
of collapse of the Austrian system before the 
revolutionary forces it had sought to control, 
and of its marvellous recovery, due to the 
irreconcilable divisions in the ranks of the 
forces by which it had been overthrown. 
Effectin The scandal of the Gallacian rising had 
been but the most flagrant of a multitude of 
proofs of the utter bloodlessness of the Aus- 
trian administration. From the news of the 
February Revolution the government of the 
Hofburg could draw no better moral for 
the Viennese than the tendency of all consti- 
tutional government to degenerate into Com- 
munism. But the loyal Austrians were in a 
mood to accept the risk. "Rather a constitu- 
tional hell than an absolutist paradise!" was 
the cry — and Austria in 1848 was by no means 
a heaven. The state was on the verge of bank- 
ruptcy; and, since no accounts were ever pub- 
lished, the popular imagination painted afifairs 
even worse than they were. The proclamation 
of the government, calling on the people to 
rally to the throne, was answered, on March 
4, by a run on the banks, and a political would 
have followed the financial crisis, even with- 
out the impulse given to it by events in 
Hungary. 



THE REVOLUTION OF 1848 2047 

The news of the downfall of the July Mon- 
archy found the Diet at Pressburg engaged in 
the discussion of a programme of moderate 
reform. The effect on the imaginative and ex- 
citable Magyars was electric. The cautious 
policy of conservative change seemed utterly 
inadequate to the greatness of the crisis; and 
Kossuth, in his famous speech of March 7, 

; ^ '^'Kossuth's 

gave voice to the new and wider aspirations |?|^^^°f 
of the Magyar race, whose liberties could 
never be secure so long as the nations be- 
yond the Leitha groaned under absolute rule. 
"From the charnel-house of the Vienna cabi- 
net a pestilential air breathes on us, which 
dulls our nerves and paralyzes the flight of 
our spirit!" Hungary, then, must have a truly 
national government, with a ministry respon- 
sible to the people; and, herself free, must 
become the guarantee of freedom for all the 
Austrian races. The effect of this speech in 
Hungary and beyond was immense. "To re-t^^\*=^|°ch. 
place the bad cement of bayonets and official 
oppression by the firm mortar of a free Con- 
stitution" was an object which appealed to 
the enlightened sentiment of every race in the 
Austrian dominions. It was less easy to rec- 
oncile conflicting views as to the exact position 
to be occupied by the various nationalities in 
this new "fraternization of the Austrian peo- 
ples." Hitherto Germanism had formed the 
basis of the Austrian system, not as a national 
ideal, but because "it formed a sort of unna- 



2048 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

tional, mediating, and common element among 
the contradictory and clamorous racial ten- 
dencies." But with the growth of the idea of 
national unity in Germany itself, Germanism 
had established a new ideal, having its centre 
outside the boundaries of the Austrian Empire, 
and which brought it into direct antagonism 
with the aspirations of the other races. Be- 
tween the traditional German ascendency, 
strengthened by the new sentiment of a united 
Germany, and this new doctrine of the fra- 
ternization of the Austrian nationalities, a con- 
flict was inevitable. 

For the moment, however, the divergent 
donln"' tendencies of the popular ideals were over- 
fndvTenna. lookcd in thc gcncral enthusiasm. It was not 
in Pressburg only that the spark from Paris 
had fallen on inflammable material, though 
the agitation for reform did not at once as- 
sume a violent form. In Prague, on March 
II, a great meeting convened by the "young 
Czechs" agreed on a petition to the Crown, 
embodying Nationalist and Liberal demands; 
and, on the same day, at Vienna, the Diet of 
Lower Austria passed an address to the Em- 
peror praying for the convocation of delegates 
of the provincial Diets to set order into the 
tangled affairs of the Austrian finances. In 
this moderate demand of the Diet the govern- 
ment, next day, timidly acquiesced. But the 
Vienna is slightcst conccssion from above was perilous 

aroused. . '^ ^ 

in the present temper of the Viennese, roused 



THE REVOLUTION OF 1848 2049 

as they were at last from their "sleep of hiber- 
nating beasts." A mob of students and work- 
men invaded the hall of the Diet; Kossuth's 
speech was read; its proposals were accepted 
as the popular programme; and the members 
of the Diet were forced to lead the crowd in 
tumultuous procession to the Hofburg, to force 
from the Government its assent to a petition 
based on all the catchwords of the Revolution. 
Not till the mob was thundering at the door of 
his cabinet did Metternich believe that the in- 
credible had happened, and loyal Vienna be- 
come a second Paris. Hastily placing his 
resignation in the hands of the Emperor, the 
old chancellor escaped from the palace and 
passed into exile. 

The eflfect produced by the news of Met-p^,,^^ 
ternich's fall was stupendous. It was not that^ay^^Jj 
an experienced hand had been suddenly re- 
moved from the helm of state. The natural 
indolence of the chancellor had grown upon 
him with age, and he was no longer the shrewd 
statesman of former years. Of his diplomatic 
talent little survived but his capacity for more 
or less impressive phrase-making. The ship 
of the state was no more helpless without than 
with this pilot. But his name had become as- 
sociated indissolubly with a system; and just 
as in 1789, the Fall of the Bastille had been 
hailed as the symbol of the opening of a new 
era, so that of Metternich was welcomed in 
1848 as marking the collapse of the com- 



2050 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

bination of the reactionary Powers against 
liberty. 

The reaction upon affairs in Hungary was 
immediate. The centre of political influence 



Revolu- 



tionln' was transferred suddenly from constitutional 
Pressburg to revolutionary Pesth. On March 
14, a mass meeting, held in the Hungarian 
capital, passed the "twelve points," which 
practically involved the entire remodelling of 
the old Magyar Constitution on the lines of 
modern Liberalism; and at the same time a 
"Committee of Public Safety" was appointed 
to watch over the interests of the Revolution. 
Kossuth threw himself with ardor into the 
Radical cause; and the Diet, divided within, 
and intimidated from without, did no more 
than register the decrees of the Revolutionary 
party, hoping to preserve in this way at least 
The the semblance of power. On March 15 were 
L^ws?" passed those "March Laws" which formed 
henceforward the basis of the Magyar de- 
mands, and exhibited the twofold tendency of 
Hungarian Liberalism. 

The example of Hungary was speedily fol- 
lowed by Bohemia. The situation here was 
complicated not only by the antagonism be- 
tween the aristocratic Estates and the Revolu- 
Revoiu- tionary party, but also by that between the 
Bohemia. Czechs aud Germans. The new Constitution 
took no time in the making, and on April 8 
was solemnly proclaimed at Prague. 

In Italy, too, it was the news of the fall of 



THE REVOLUTION OF 1843 2051 

Metternich that precipitated the national up- 
rising:. This had, it is true, been expected for stages unu"e 

° . against 

months; and the Austrian commander-in-Austna,^^^ 
chief, Marshal Radetzky, had made prepara- 
tions for dealing with it. None the less, when, 
on March i8, the news of the Vienna revolu- 
tion reached Milan and the Lombards rose, 
the Austrians were taken by surprise. Ra- 
detzky, unable to hold his own in the city, 
withdrew his troops, and retired on Verona. 
At last the hour seemed to have come to strike 
a decisive blow for the emancipation of Italy; 
and, at the invitation of the Milanese, Charles 
Albert determined to come to their aid. On 
March 23, Piedmont formally declared war on f/f^''J^°"' 
Austria, and the Piedmontese troops crossed ^"^t"^- 
the frontier into Lombardy. All Italy seemed 
at last united in a common enthusiasm for the 
expulsion of the foreigner. All the govern- 
ments, either willingly, or coerced by public 
opinion, sent contingents to fight for the Italian 
cause. The Neapolitan army marched north- 
ward under the command of the veteran Pepe; 
and even the Pope blessed the standards which 
were to float in the national army over the sol- 
diers of the Church. 

While all Italy was advancing to expel the 
Austrians from Lombardy, Daniele Manin, 
on March 22, had, after a bloodless revo- 
lution, ousted them from Venice, and pro-xhe 
claimed on the great Piazza the Republic ofoi^l^Mark. 
St. Mark. In the Italian Tyrol, too, an agi- 



2052 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

tation was rising for union with Italy. Threat- 
ened from so many sides, and unsupported 
from the centre, the Austrian rule in Italy 
seemed doomed; and voices were raised in the 
councils of the Empire for cutting off the 
Italian provinces and concentrating the efforts 
of the Government on the preservation of Aus- 
tria as a league of federated states. That the 
Italian provinces were, for a time, preserved 
to Austria was due to the indomitable charac- 
ter and keen vision of the veteran Radetzky, 
who saw clearly the numerous elements of 
weakness on the Italian side, and realized 
that if Austria were content to wait she would 
be victorious. But, meanwhile, the conviction 
which Radetzky had succeeded in impressing 
- on the Vienna Cabinet that the fate of Austria 
would be decided in Italy, by depleting the 
north of troops, gave free play to the forces of 
Revolution. 

Nowhere was the crippling of the Austrian 
The Revo- power more fruitful of results than in Ger- 

lution In t 'i i • • • JS i n 

Germany, mauy. Liberal opmion was organized before 
the February Revolution; and as early as Sep- 
tember 12, 1847, a meeting of representative 
Liberals at Heppenheim had drawn up a 
political programme on revolutionary lines. 
When, therefore, the news of the Revolution 
in Paris excited popular fervor to fever pitch, 
the governments of the separate states found 
themselves powerless, face to face with a 
united public opinion. Accustomed to look 



THE REVOLUTION OF 1848 2053 

for support to Vienna, the preoccupation of 
Austria left them helpless, and they had to 
yield with the best grace possible. As usual, 
the South was the cradle of the Revolutionary 
movement, whence it rapidly spread to the 
smaller states of central Germany. Then sud- 
denly came the news of the Revolution of 
March 13 in Vienna, and of the fall of Met- 
ternich. Prussia at once caught the revolu- 
tionary infection. On March 15 barricades 
began to appear in the streets of Berlin, and Revolution 

=" ^ ^ 'in Berlin. 

the next day a riot was suppressed by the troops 
with some loss of life. The King, kind- 
Jiearted and agonized at being at odds with 
his beloved Berliners, realizing, too, that the 
collapse of Austria had made impossible the 
plans for the reform of the Confederation 
v^^hich he had been negotiating at Vienna, con- 
sented to open negotiations with the Liberal 
leaders on the basis of German "nationality," 
accepted the greater part of Gagern's pro- 
gramme and summoned the united Diet for 
April 3, with a view to discussing the Consti- 
tution. Next day, on March 18, a great crowd 
surrounded the palace. Its demeanor on the 
whole was loyal enough, but certain less rep- 
utable elements in it raised seditious cries, 
and the King ordered the courtyard to be 
cleared. In course of doing this a couple of 
shots were fired, intentionally or by accident. 
Instantly the loyal crowd was turned into asireet 

. iirr\ fighting. 

revolutionary mob. Cries of Treason!" were 



2054 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

raised and a sanguinary battle began between 
citizens and soldiery. It would now have 
been easily possible to crush the Revolution; 
and had the King been capable of a politic 
severity, Prussia could have taken in 1848 the 
position which it cost her two sanguinary wars 
to achieve; for no Power, least of all Austria, 
was in a position to dispute her assumption of 
the leadership of Germany. 

For the moment, indeed, the German move- 
ment was as little under the control of Prussia 
as of Austria. The revolutionary forces were 
in the ascendant; and even the Diet was car- 
ried away by their impulse, hoisted the Ger- 
man tricolor, and on March 30 gave its con- 
sent to the convocation of a German National 
Parliament. The general constitution of this 
body had already been decided by the Na- 
tional Convention, which had met, on the in- 
itiative of the Liberal leaders, without any 
authorization from the governments. This was 
now accepted by the Diet in the name of the 
German princes, and on May 18 the first 

German '■ ' -^ 

!^""»h"^"* German National Parliament met at Frank- 
^*^fort. Thus scarce two months after the fall 
of Metternich, the Revolution was to all ap- 
pearance everywhere triumphant. But in the 
very ease and completeness of the triumph lay 
the seeds of failure. The conflicting elements 
of the Liberal forces which, in a more bitter 
and protracted struggle, might have learned 
to bear and forbear, had no stomach for com- 



opened, 
May 18, 1 



THE REVOLUTION OF 1848 2055 

promise, in view of the utter collapse of the 
common foe. Extremists and moderates alike 
overestimated the defeat of the reactionary 
Powers, and fell to quarrelling over the spoils 
before the victory had been rendered really 
secure. The reactionary Powers had, in ef- 
fect, been taken by surprise, and stunned rather 
than crushed. Austria especially, after the 
first staggering blows, was beginning to show 
signs of unexpected vitality; and it was recog-anTtht 
nized that, as her collapse had made the suc-'^^"*°"" 
cess of the revolutionary movements possible, 
so her recovery would involve their ultimate 
^failure. Two things contributed mainly to the 
surprising power of resistance of Austria — 
her imperial tradition and her army. The 
former saved the crown of the Hapsburgs 
from going under in the chaos of national 
rivalries within their own dominions, and by 
casting its spell over the deliberations of the 
German Parliament and the mind of the King 
of Prussia, postponed for eighteen years the 
creation, at Austria's expense, of a united 
Germany. The latter, shaped in the mold of 
an iron discipline, and for the most part un- 
touched by revolutionary or nationalist senti- 
ment, once released from its entanglement in 
Italy, would form a formidable weapon in the 
hands of the reaction. With the fortunes of 
Italy, then, those of the revolution were bound 

UD. 



2056 



THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



Tai Ping 
rebellion. 



First sub- 
marine 
cable laid. 



[In 1850, the Pope arouses great indigna- 
tion by appointing Catholic Bishops to En- 
glish sees. California is admitted to the 
Union as a free State; and a severe fugitive 
slave law is passed. The great Tai Ping re- 
bellion breaks out in China. In Australia, 
Victoria is separated from New South Wales. 
In 1 85 1, Palmerston is dismissed for approv- 
ing of the French coup d'etat without consult- 
ing the Cabinet or Queen of England. The 
first submarine cable is laid between Dover 
and Calais. Austrian troops occupy Hol- 
stein. Gold is discovered in New South 
Wales. The Great Exhibition is opened in 
Hyde Park.] 



THE GREAT EXHIBITION 

(A.D. 1651) 

SIR THEODORE MARTIN 

IN the celebrated Frankfort Fairs of the 
Sixteenth Century may be found the 
germ of the Industrial Exhibitions of our 
own era. Of what these were, the great 
Greek scholar, Henri Estienne, has left an 
animated description in his Franco fordiensej^^^p^f^^ 
Emporium, published in 1574. "So great," sL^elnth 
he says, "and so diversified is the wealth of*"^"'"'^' 
this market, that it in a manner comprises all 
others within itself, and they seem to be de- 
rived from it as rivers from their source, and 
as Rome was formerly called the Compen- 
dium of the World, so, methinks, I should 
speak within bounds were I to say that the 
Fair of Frankfort ought to be called the Epit- 
ome of all the Markets of the World."* All 
the Industrial products of Europe, those that 
ministered not only to the necessities but also 



* In a letter, dated May 15, 1851, from the Chevalier Bun- 
sen to Max Miiller, he says: "The Exhibition is and will re- 
main the most poetical event of our time, and one deserving 
a place in the world's history." 

(2057) 



2058 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1851 

to the refinements of life — books, pictures, 
sculpture, tapestry, the masterpieces of the 
armorers', the goldsmiths', and the jewellers' 
art — were drawn together to this convenient 
commercial centre from all parts of the Con- 
tinent of Europe. Every invention in ma- 
chinery that could make one pair of hands 
do the work of many, or do work better than 
had been done before, was sure to find its 
way there. It was a field where ingenuity of 
all kinds was certain of recognition. Great 
machines or simple devices to make domestic 
life easier or more comfortable were equally 

fescrrp"fon. welcome. Estienne turns away from the men- 
tion of "machines of exceeding ingenuity and 
worthy of Archimedes himself, and number- 
less instruments adapted for use in the differ- 
ent arts," to speak wath admiration of an in- 
vention for roasting, which would supersede 
the services of a human turnspit. 

The French were the first to adopt the idea 
of bringing together great public collections 

Exhibitions o^ works of art and industry with a view to 
the improvement of both. Exhibitions of this 
nature were held on a very considerable scale 
in Paris, in 1798, the sixth year of the first 
Republic, and again in 1801, 1802, 1806, 1819, 
1823, 1827, 1834, 1^44) ^i^d 1849. Our own 
Society of Arts held several Exhibitions of 
the same kind upon a smaller scale. These 
had produced very beneficial results In rais- 
ing the quality of our manufactures; and it 



A.D. .8si THE GREAT EXHIBITION 2059 

seemed to the Prince that the time had come, 
when an Exhibition might be attempted, 
which would afford the means of showing 
what every country was able to produce in the 
shape of raw materials, in machinery and me- 
chanical inventions, in manufactures, and also 
in sculpture, in plastic art, and generally in 
art as applied to manufactures. Such an Ex- 
hibition, if successfully carried out, could not 
fail to produce results of permanent benefit 
in many ways. To put the argument for it 
on the lowest grounds, it would enable the ac- 
tive spirits of all nations to see where they 
stood, what other nations had done and were 
doing, what new markets might be opened, 
what new materials turned to account, how 
they might improve their manufacturing proc- 
esses, and what standards of excellence they 
must aim at in the general competition which 
steam and railroads, it was now seen, would 
before long establish throughout the whole 
world. 

At a meeting at Buckingham Palace, on the 
30th of July, 1849, the Prince propounded 
his views to four of the most active members The p. mce 

propounds 

of the Society of Arts— Mr. Thomas Cubitt, '"^^'^^'^^ 
Mr. Henry Cole, Mr. Francis Fuller, and 
Mr. John Scott Russell. He had already set- 
tled in his own mind the objects of which the 
Exhibition should consist; and in these no ma- 
terial change was subsequently made. The 
Government, with whom the Prince had pre- 



2060 THE WORLD'S- GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1851 

viously taken counsel, had offered the area 
within Somerset House for the purposes of 
the Exhibition. This was obviously too con- 
tracted, and various other sites were suggested ; 
but that in Hyde Park, which was ultimately 
used, was proposed by the Prince, even thus 
early, as affordng advantages "which few 
other places might be found to possess." It 
was, accordingly, resolved to apply for it to 
the proper authorities; and the application 
met with the approval of the Government. 

The first step to be taken manifestly was to 
ascertain whether such an Exhibition would 
be regarded with favor by the great body of 
themanu- manuf acturcrs throughout the kingdom. Mr. 



lacturers. 



Cole, Mr. Fuller, and Mr. Digby Wyatt un- 
dertook the necessary inquiries. They were 
soon able to report — the two former coming 
to Balmoral for the purpose — that the idea 
was taken up with warm interest wherever 
they went, and that no jealousy or distrust was 
likely to lead to the withholding from the Ex- 
hibition any of the great discoveries in indus- 
trial machinery, which were especially looked 

Exhibitfon to as likely to give distinctive value to the Ex- 
projected. , ., . . TV T I 1-1 

hibition. JNleans were taken to enlist the sym- 
pathies of our Colonies, and the East India 
Company w^ere among the first to promise 
their active assistance. Communications were 
also opened with the Continental States; since 
upon the way they viewed the scheme much 
of its success would necessarily depend. In 



A.D. i85i THE GREAT EXHIBITION 20*31 

such matters a strong example does much, and 
this was set by France. 

The time had now come for the Prince to 
place before the world, in his own words, his 
conception of the scope and purpose of the 
proposed Exhibition. The opportunity for^^^^^j^ig^^^ 
doing so was afforded by a banquet given, Houle!" 
upon a magnificent scale, at the Mansion 1850.'' 
House, on the 21st of March, to which the 
chief officers of State, the Foreign Ambassa- 
dors, the Royal Commissioners for the Exhi- 
bition, and the chief magistrates of more than 
two hundred towns had been invited. The 
Prince had by this time accustomed the public 
to expect much from his addresses; but in 
broad and comprehensive grasp of view, and 
in condensed fulness and vigor of expression, 
none of them was superior to the speech which 
he now made. The prospect which it shad- 
owed out of the great family of man, drawn 
together by the bond of mutual helpfulness 
and enlightened emulation of the arts of civil- 
ized life, had been the dream of poets and 
sages. No one knew better than the Prince, 
profoundly versed as he was in the history of 
the past, and still more in the stormy politics 
of the present, that this must long continue to 
be a climax seen only in prophetic vision of 
the throes and struggles of the human race, 
and that the halcyon days of universal peace 
were certainly not to be looked for in the 
present epoch, nor it might be for many gen- 



2062 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1831 



The 



erations to come. But his eminently practi- 
pnnce's cal genius saw that the time had arrived to 
give such an impulse toward this desirable 
result, as might greatly accelerate its arrival, 
and that it was from England this impulse 
might most fitly come. "England's mission, 
duty, and interest," he had written to Lord 
John Russell, on the 5th of September, 1847, 
"is to put herself at the head of the diffusion 
of civilization and the attainment of liberty." 
She might lose some of her material advan- 
tages by teaching other nations the arts and 
methods by which she had developed her in- 
ternal resources and commanded the markets 
- of the world. She might draw upon herself 
a competition in these markets, which might 
otherwise have long been postponed. But the 
same energy, the same intellectual activity 
which had put her in the van of nations, the 
Prince believed would enable her to hold her 
place under any alteration of circumstances. 
In any case, whatever might be said by de- 
tractors of her insular narrowness and selfish- 
ness, he understood her people too well to 
doubt that they would see with pleasure the 
spread throughout the world of the blessings 
which they had conquered for themselves, and 
be content to run even considerable risks in 
accelerating that better understanding of each 
other, without which the unity of mankind is 
impossible. The general satisfaction created 
by the parts of his speech now to be quoted, 



His belief. 



AD. i8si THE GREAT EXHIBITION 2063 

showed that in this estimate of British feeling 
he had not been mistaken : — 

"I conceive it to be the duty of every edu-^^^^ 
cated person closely to watch and study theg^piech!' 
time in which he lives, and, as far as in 
him lies, to add his humble mite of individ- 
ual exertion to further the accomplishment 
of what he believes Providence to have or- 
dained. 

"Nobody, however, who has paid any at- 
tention to the peculiar features of our present 
era, will doubt for a moment that we are liv- 
ing at a period of most wonderful transition, 
which tends rapidly to accomplish that great 
end, to which, indeed, all history points — the 
realization of the unity of mankind. Not a 
unity which breaks down the limits and levels 
of the peculiar characteristics of the different 
nations of the earth, but rather a unity the 
result and product of those very national va- 
rieties and antagonistic qualities. 

"The distances which separated the differ- 
ent nations and parts of the globe are rapidly 
vanishing before the achievements of modern 
invention, and we can traverse them with in- 
credible ease; the languages of all nations are 
known, and their acquirement placed within 
the reach of everybody; thought is commu- 
nicated with the rapidity, and even by the Division 
power, of lightning. On the other hand, the **' ''''*°''" 
great principle of the division of labor, which 
may be called the moving power of civiliza- 



Competi- 
tion and 
capital. 



2064 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1851 

tion, is being extended to all branches of 
science, industry, and art. 

"While formerly the great mental energies 
strove at universal knowledge, and that knowl- 
edge was confined to the few, now they are 
directed on specialties, and in these, again, 
even to the minutest points; but the knowl- 
edge acquired becomes at once the property of 
the community at large; for, while form.erly 
discovery was wrapped in secrecy, the pub- 
licity of the present day causes that no sooner 
is a discovery or invention made than it is al- 
ready improved upon and surpassed by com- 
peting efforts. The products of all quarters 
of the globe are placed at our disposal, and we 
have only to choose which is the best and the 
cheapest for our purposes, and the powers of 
production are intrusted to the stimulus of 
competition and capital. 

"So man is approaching a more complete 
fulfilment of that great and sacred mission 
which he has to perform in this world. His 
reason being created after the image of God, 
he has to use it to discover the laws by which 
the Almighty governs his creation, and by 
making these laws his standard of action, to 
conquer nature to his use; himself a divine 
instrument. 

"Science discovers these laws of power, 

motion, and transformation; industry applies 

industry, them to thc raw matter, which the earth yields 

and art. . ' -^ 

us in abundance, but which becomes valuable 



^•I'lSsi THE GREAT EXHIBITION 206f 

only by knowledge. Art teaches us the im- 
mutable laws of beauty and symmetry, and 
gives to our productions forms in accordance 
to them. 

"Gentlemen — the Exhibition of 1851 is to 
give us a true test and a living picture of this |f^f^i°[^^ 
point of development at which the whole of 
mankind has arrived in this great task, and 
a new starting-point from which all nations 
will be able to direct their further exertions. 

"I confidently hope that the first impression 
which the view of this vast collection will pro- 
duce upon the spectator will be that of deep 
thankfulness to the Almighty for the blessings 
which he has bestowed upon us already 
here below; and the second, the conviction 
that they can only be realized in proportion 
to the help which we are prepared to ren- 
der each other; therefore, only by peace, love, 
and ready assistance, not only between indi- 
viduals, but between the nations of the earth." 

The shock of delighted surprise which every 
one felt on first entering the great transept 
of Sir Joseph Paxton's building was a sensa- 
tion as novel as it was deep. Its vastness was 
measured by the huge elms, two of the giants 
of the past, which rose far into the air with all 
their wealth of foliage, as free and unconfined 
as if there were nothing bet^veen them and the 
open sky. The plash of fountains, the lux- 
uriance of tropical foliage, the play of colors 
from the choicest flowers, carried on into the 



2066 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1851 

vistas of the nave by the rich dyes of carpets 
and stufifs from the costliest looms, were 
enough to fill eye and mind with a pleasure 
never to be forgotten, even without the vaguest 
sense of what lay beyond in the accumulated 
results of human ingenuity and cultivated art. 
One general effect of beauty had been pro- 
duced by the infinitely varied work of the 
thousands who had separately co-operated to- 
ward this marvellous display and the struc- 
ture in which it was set by its graceful lines 
and the free play of light which it admitted, 
seemed to fulfil every condition that could 
be desired for setting off the treasures thus 
brought together. 

Beautiful at all times, the sight which the 
Beauty transcpt presented on the opening day, with 
transept, its cagcr crowds raised row upon row, with the 
toilets of the women and the sprinkling of 
court costumes and uniforms, added to its per- 
manent features was one which men grew elo- 
quent in describing. As the eye rested on the 
rich and varied picture, the first thought that 
rose was one of gratitude to the Prince, as he 
stood there looking with his accustomed air of 
modest calm upon the splendid fulfilment of 
what two years before he had foreseen in 
thought. 

Lord John Russell, fresh from the scene, 
congratu- could uot refrain from congratulating "the 
Queen on the triumphant success of the pro- 
ceedings of this day. Everything went ofif 



lations. 



-D. i85i THE GREAT EXHIBITION 2067 

SO well," he continued, "that it is needless to 
mention particulars; but the general conduct 
of the multitude assembled, the loyalty and 
the content which so generally appeared, were 
perhaps the most gratifying to a politician, 
while the wonders of art and industry will be 
the most celebrated among philosophers and 
men of science, as well as among manufactur- 
ers and the great mass of the working people." 
Besides the 25,000 people within the building dumber 
itself, it was calculated that nearly yoOjOOoLsembied. 
people were assembled on the route between 
it and Buckingham Palace, yet Sir George 
Grey was able to report next day to the Queen 
that there had not been one accident, one po- 
lice case, due to this assemblage. 



MODERN INVENTIONS 



F 



ROBERT MACKENZIE 

IFTY years after James Watt gave his 
steam engine to the world, the wind 
was still the only motive power at sea, 
and men still depended upon the horse to con- 
vey themselves and their productions on land. 
The large dimensions which the manufac- 
tures of the country had now attained called 

for greater facility of transport. The canal- 
Demand ° J r 

faciEo'f boat or the carrier's cart, moving at its lei- 
transport. gyj-giy j^yQ qj- xh^ce milcs au hour, was inade- 
quate to the requirements of a traffic which 
was growing with unexpected rapidity. The 
mail-coach, which at its best could traverse no 
more than two hundred miles in twenty-four 
hours, laid a debilitating restraint upon that 
free personal intercourse which is so essential 
in the conduct of business enterprises. More 
easy and speedy transport of men and com- 
modities was again demanded, and the steam 
engine was the agency by which it was to be 
supplied. 

The idea of the steamship is older than the 
idea of the steam-carriage. In the Sixteenth 

(2068) 



driven 
steam. 



MODERN INVENTIONS 2069 

Century, some forgotten genius made a feeble 
and fruitless attempt to apply steam to navi- 
gation. The imperfect mechanical skill of 
that early time was unable to give embodi- 
ment to so high a conception. A century later 
( 1736), a patent was actually taken for a boat ^oau 
which was to be driven by steam. Toward ^^ 
the close of the century, a small steamer was 
sailing on a loch in Dumfriesshire at the 
speed of seven miles an hour. In 1807, a 
steamer, devised by Fulton, sailed up the Hud- 
son from New York to Albany. After the 
crowning success of that voyage, steam navi- 
gation grew apace. A little later there were 
steamboats on the Clyde, and steamboats ply- 
ing from Glasgow to London, and from Holy- 
head to Dublin. In 1838, the Atlantic was 
crossed by steamers. Then the final triumph 
of steam was assured, and the distant places 
of the earth were bound together by a new 
and closer tie than they had known before. 

But still, while steam had become a mov- Land com 
ing power by river and sea, the land commu 
nications of all countries were maintained by 
the agency of the horse. From the earlier 
years of the century a steam carriage was 
the dream of mechanicians. Men of inven- 
tive genius, withdrawing themselves from the 
vain and bloody enterprise which then ab- 
sorbed the national care, sought to find an 
adequate mechanical embodiment for the 
splendid conception of steam locomotion. 



munication. 



Growth 
of a dis- 
position 
to travel. 



2070 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

Many efforts, partially successful, were made, 
culminating, at length, in the final triumph 
of George Stephenson. The engine con- 
structed by Stephenson for the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway solved all doubts, si- 
lenced all objections, and inaugurated victo- 
riously one of the grandest of industrial revo- 
lutions. 

Still more remarkable was the growth 
among the people of a disposition to travel. 
During the early portion of the century, men 
had scarcely the means to go from home be- 
yond such trivial distance as they were able 
to accomplish on foot. Human society was 
composed of a multitude of little communi- 
ties, dwelling apart, mutually ignorant, and 
therefore cherishing mutual antipathies. At 
once the causes of separation were withdrawn. 
Men of different towns, of different countries, 
were permitted freely to meet; to learn how 
little there was on either side to hate, how 
much to love; to establish ties of commercial 
relationship; to correct errors of opinion by 
friendly conflict of mind. The dormant love 
of travelling, by which nature protects men 
from the evils of isolation, wakened into life 
so vehement that, in 1875, the railways con- 
veyed six hundred million passengers. An- 
cient prejudice melts away under the fuller 
knowledge gained by this extended acquain- 
tance. Peculiarities of dialect, of man- 
ners, of belief, grow indistinct, and the unity 



communi- 
cation. 



MODERN INVENTIONS 2071 

of the people becomes every year more per- 
fect. 

But a still more wonderful mastery over the 
secrets of nature was now to crown the patient 
researches of science, and yet more closely to 
unite the scattered families of men. It was 
found that the same mysterious and terrible 
power which flashes out of the heavens in 
storm was ready to traverse continent and 
sea with the speed of thought, bearing the 
messages which men desired to convey to each 
other. After many experiments, with con- Teie- 

J r 7 graphic 

stantly growing success, a line of telegraph 
was constructed on the Blackwall Railway 
and used for the transmission of railway sig- 
nals. A little later the telegraph was taught 
to print the messages which it bore. The rail- 
way companies hastened to construct tele- 
graphs beside their lines, at first for their own 
purposes only, but soon for those of the public 
also. The uses of this marvellous invention 
spread with rapidity, and soon extended across 
the sea. Dublin was connected with London ; 
Dover with Calais. In a short time there fol- 
lowed the bold conception of stretching an 
electric pathway in the depths of the Atlantic, 
and uniting Europe with America. Ere long 
all civilized countries were thus connected. 
Across all lands and seas, the mysterious 
agency which man had subjugated obediently 
carried his commands. 

In England, the State acquired, by pur- 



2072 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

chase, all telegraphs, and so extended the sys- 
ownlrship. tern, that soon every village in the kingdom 
enjoyed the inestimable privilege of instan- 
taneous comm.unication with every part of the 
inhabited globe. 

This use of electricity possesses for us an 
interest especial and unique. It is the first 
human invention which is obviously final. In 
the race of improvement, steam may give 
place to some yet mightier power; gas may 
be superseded by some better method of light- 
ing. No agency for conveying intelligence 
can ever excel that which is instantaneous. 
Here, for the first time, the human mind has 
reached the utmost limit of its progress. 
The The union of distant localities by railway 

fhenews/ aud tclcgraph quickened the interest which 
men felt in the concerns of each other, and 
awakened an incessant thirst for news. The 
weekly journals, which had hitherto satisfied 
the desires of the limited number who cared 
to read them, were now utterly insufficient. 
It became necessary that the daily history of 
the world should be compiled, in such hasty 
manner as might be possible, and printed 
every morning in newspapers. It was further 
indispensable that these newspapers should be 
cheap, and yet of high intelligence and lit- 
erary excellence. The abolition of the tax 
which had hitherto fettered newspapers, and, 
in a few years more, the abolition of the tax 
on paper, made both of these things possible. 



MODERN INVENTIONS 2073 

The price of nearly all newspapers was re- 
duced to one penny, — a charge so low that 
even poor men could afford the indulgence of 
a daily paper. From these circumstances 
there resulted an increase of newspaper cir- 
culation which there are no means to compute, 
but which we know to be enormous. With 
increased revenues came a higher excellence 
of literary workmanship, and a consequent 
increase of influence over the minds of men. 
Every morning the same topics are presented 
to all minds, generally with moderation and 
intelligence, often with consummate skill. 
These topics furnish themes of thought and 
conversation for the day. Public opinion, 
which is now the governing power of the 
Empire, is thus formed, expressed, intensified, 
and guided to the discharge of the great func- 
tion which it has assumed. 

The enormous increase of the demand for 
newspapers rendered it indispensable that^^^^^^^^^ 
swifter methods of printing should be found. l^esT^ 
From the date of its invention down to the 
close of 1 8 14, there had been almost no im- 
provement on the printing press. A rude 
machine, yielding at its best no more than 150 
copies per hour, was still universally em- 
ployed. In 1 8 14, the Times set up a press of 
German construction, worked by steam, and 
giving 1,100 copies per hour. Many years 
passed without further notable improvement. 
The urgent necessity arose for more rapid 



2074 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

printing. By various steps we have at length 
attained to machines which satisfy every re- 
quirement. A machine, driven by steam, is 
fed with huge rolls of paper, and gives out 
newspapers, cut and folded, at the rate of 
25,000 copies per hour. A simple process of 
stereotyping makes it easy to supply from one 
set of types an indefinite number of such 
machines. 

It has always been of prime interest to men 
Methods of — savage or civilized — to evoke the heat 
kinding. ^j^i^j^ jjgg j^-^ everywhere in nature, and kin- 
dle it into flame. Possibly the care which was 
taken to keep lights continually burning in 
certain heathen temples, and around which 
religious sanctions ultimately gathered, had 
its remote origin in the experienced difficulty 
of kindling light. But never was any wide- 
spread and urgent human want so imperfectly 
supplied. The earliest method of obtaining 
fire was by the friction of two pieces of dried 
wood. The next was the striking together of 
steel and flint. These two rude methods of 
obtaining the indispensable assistance of fire 
have served man during almost the whole of 
his career. Only so recently as about the time 
of the first Reform Bill has he been able to 
command the services of a more convenient 
agency. 

The elements which compose this agency 
come from afar. Pine trees are brought from 
Canada or Norway, and cut by powerful and 



MODERN INVENTIONS 2075 

delicate machinery into innumerable little 
pieces. Sulphur, cast up by volcanic action sulphur 
from the depths of the earth, is brought from 
Sicily. The bones of innumerable genera- 
tions of wild cattle are collected on the vast 
plains of South America, and the chemistry 
of Europe extracts phosphorus from them. 
The little pieces of pine wood, dipped in 
phosphorus and sulphur, form matches, which 
burst into flame on the slightest friction. So 
perfect is the machinery employed, that a few 
workmen produce matches by millions in a 
day. So cheap, consequently, is the price, 
that the wholesale dealer buys eight hundred 
for one penny. 

Long after the power-loom had entered 
upon its career, and cloth was woven by ma- 
chinery, nothing better than hand labor had 
been found for sewing the cloth so produced 
into the forms required for human use. The 
poor needle-women of London still slaved 
during as many hours as they were able to 
keep awake, and received a daily sixpence or 
eightpence in requital of their toil. But at 
length an American mechanic invented a ma- 
chine which could sew as much as six needle- The 

rr-'i 1 -1 • • r 1 • ' • sewing'- 

women. 1 he capabilities of this invention machine. 
were promptly appreciated, and much atten- 
tion was given to its improvement. In course 
of years there were twenty different machines, 
with an annual sale of millions. So highly 
were the powers of the sewing-machine devel- 



2076 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

oped, that it could be driven at the rate of 
three thousand stitches per minute. The de- 
mand for sewing increased with a rapidity 
altogether unexpected. The starving needle- 
woman ceased to be one of the scandals of 
civilization. In her place came the machine- 
girl, with her moderate hours of labor and her 
comfortable wages. 

Mechanical skill is a growth of the Nine- 
Sechanicii tccnth Ccntury. A great mechanic states 
^'""" that in the beginning of the century the hu- 
man hand performed all the work that was 
done, and performed it badly. James Watt 
was nearly baffled in getting the first model 
of his engine made. His cylinder could not 
be bored; it could only be rudely shaped out 
under the hammer, and it leaked so abomina- 
bly that steam could scarcely be kept on the 
engine. The roughly-fitted machine emitted 
a ''horrible noise" as it moved. But the great 
inventions of the day called imperiously for 
more perfect tools and higher excellence of 
mechanical execution. Nor did they call in 
vain. In due time there came a race of great 
mechanicians, whose task it was to create a 
suitable embodiment for the conceptions of 
the inventors. Bramah, of the patent lock, 
was the first to construct machines for work- 
First ing in iron. He could not, without such help, 

machines . , , . ... , . . 

for working attam the requisite precision in makins; the 

in iron. ^ '^ ^ 

parts of his lock. One of his pupils was 
Maudslay, who devised the fixed slide-rest. 



MODERN INVENTIONS 2077 

Another was Clements, who made the first 
planing-machine. Nasmyth followed, with 
his steam-hammer. Whitworth raised incal- 
culably the standard of mechanical precision 
by inventing a machine which detects varia- 
tions of the one-millionth part of an inch. In- 
numerable contrivances followed for shorten- 
ing processes of labor and obtaining accurate 
results. In half a century a vast, although 
comparatively unnoticed, revolution had been 
accomplished. Machinery had superseded Labor- 
the human hand. The workman was no machine.. 
longer the maker of any piece of work. He 
was merely the director of a machine, which 
produced its results with swiftness and pre- 
cision infinitely superior to his own. 

Down almost to the close of last century the 
British farmer cultivated the soil according 
to methods which had changed little for ages. 
The alternation of crops was unknown. No 
means had been found of restoring to the soil, 
by manuring, the elements of which the plant 
had deprived it. A field exhausted by f re- ]Zn[s]n 

. . f , rr J agriculture 

quent repetition of the same crop was suirered 
to lie waste for an indefinite period, till nature 
restored the expended capability. Drainage 
was practiced, but on a scale as limited, and 
in a form as rude, as those which were in use 
among the Romans. The water which soaked 
the ground caused the crops to ripen late, di- 
minished their quantity and impaired their 
quality; it stunted the growth of cattle; it 

A Vol. 6 



2078 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

diffused ague and intermittent fevers among 
men. The implements of the farmer were of 
the most primitive type. His plow was a rude 
structure, which only scratched the surface of 
the ground. The sower went forth to sow 
equipped as he had been in Palestine eigh- 
teen centuries ago. The ripened grain was 
cut by means of the ancient reaping-hook. 
The "thresher's weary flingin'-tree," so pain- 
fully celebrated by Burns, still formed the sole 
agency by which grain was separated from 
straw. 

In 1823, Smith, of Deanston, taught a sys- 
dfamage'^ tcm of dccp drainage, which v/as rapidly 
adopted. It yielded larger and earlier crops, 
and promoted the health both of man and 
beast. So well was the value of this improved 
drainage appreciated, that, in 1846, Parlia- 
ment offered a loan of £4,000,000, to be ex- 
pended on drains. Science was now enlisted 
in the service of the farmer. The nature of 
the plants which it was his business to rear 
was carefully studied, and the food which con- 
duced best to their growth was ascertained. 
Agricultural societies collected and compared 
the experience of observant farmers, and pub- 
lished it for the general good. Machinery 
was applied to sowing and threshing. In 
1852, a machine for reaping was offered to 
farmers, and accepted with prompt appre- 
ciation. Three years later a plow drawn by 
steam was in use. Steam tillage turned up 



MODERN INVENTIONS 2079 

the soil to a greater depth than had been pos- 
sible before, and was, therefore, more effective steam un. 

' ' ' age better 

in the production of bountiful crops. It was ^^Jj^nl?,,. 
not only better; it was, to an important extent, 
less expensive. 



THE SECOND REPUBLIC AND THE SECOND 
EMPIRE IN FRANCE 

(A.D. 1850—1852) 



A 



RICHARD LODGE 

FTER the suppression of the socialist 
rising of June, 1848, Cavaignac had 
carried on the government of France 
with almost perfect tranquillity. The Assem- 
bly proceeded with its work of drawing up a 
constitution for the Republic. The legisla- 
tive power was intrusted to a single chamber 
of 7C0 members chosen by manhood sufifra^e. 

The new . ° 

constitution AH partics agreed to place the executive 
power in the hands of a president. The chief 
discussion arose on the question whether the 
president should be chosen by the Assembly 
or by the nation, but ultimately it was decided 
that he should be elected by universal suffrage 
for four years. The subordination of the 
president to the assembly was strongly as- 
serted, but no means were suggested for 
enforcing it. It was a hazardous experiment 
to create two powers both having an inde- 
pendent origin, without any provision to avert 
a deadlock between them. But, for the mo- 
ment, future dangers were forgotten and 

(2080) 



A.D. i85o-i8s2 THE SECOND REPUBLIC IN FRANCE 2081 

men's minds were absorbed in the approach- 
ing election, which was fixed for December 
lo. The republican candidate was Cavai- 
gnac, who had given conclusive proofs of his 
honesty and of his ability to rule. His most 
formidable rival was Louis Napoleon, who ^T°p'oieon 
had been elected in September by five depart- President. 
ments. This time no opposition was made to 
his return to France, and he took his seat as 
deputy for the department of the Seine. Lit- 
tle was known of him but the futile conspira- 
cies of Strasburg and Boulogne, but his name 
was a charm to conjure with. Thanks to 
Thiers and other writers, the memory of the 
first Napoleon had come to be almost wor- 
shipped in France. The peasants and sol- 
diers believed that the rule of another Napo- 
leon would secure their prosperity and their 
glory. The Orleanists also supported him, 
in the belief that they could use him as their 
instrument to effect the restoration of the July 
monarchy, but events proved that their confi- 
dence in his incapacity was ill-founded. From 
the first commencement of the voting, the re- 
sult was a foregone conclusion. The recorded 
votes numbered nearly seven millions and a 
half. Of these, Louis Napoleon received 5,- 
434,226, and Cavaignac only 1,434,107. On 
December 20, the President took the pre- 
scribed oath to observe the Constitution, and 
entered upon his official residence in the pal- 
ace of the Elysee. 



2082 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. iSsc^iSsj 



Napoleon's 



From the first, Louis Napoleon made it 
e^nl^'^rmou"^ His aim to abolish the Republic and to revive 

majority. . _ _. . 

the Empire, in complete contrast to Louis 
Philippe, who had relied upon the middle 
class, he sought support from the peasants, the 
army, and the priests. The expedition to 
Rome, under Oudinot, was intended as a 
bribe to the soldiers and the Church. The 
Constituent Assembly, having completed its 
work, was dissolved, and a new legislative as- 
sembly met in Paris on May 26, 1849. The 
elections gave evidence that the republicans 
had lost the confidence of the people. The op- 
position consisted of about 120 extreme demo- 
crats under the lead of Ledru-Rollin, and 
they revived the old revolutionary title of the 
"Mountain." The failure of Oudinot's first 
attack on Rome gave occasion for a rising in 
Paris in June. But the troops, under Chan- 
garnier, speedily put down disorder, and the 
movement of reaction was strengthened. 
Ledru-Rollin fled to London. Several of 
the republican journals were suppressed, and 
a new law was introduced to shackle the press. 
In October, the President dismissed his minis- 
ters, who were too constitutional for his tastes, 
and filled their places with more obscure but 
more docile instruments. 

To a certain extent, the President and the 
majority of the Assembly pursued common 
objects. Both were hostile to the Republic; 
but while the latter wished to restore a consti- 



Rising 
in Paris. 



A.D. i8so-i8s2 THE SECOND REPUBLIC IN FRANCE 2083 

tutional monarchy, Louis Napoleon scarcely 
troubled to conceal his despotic inclinations. 
As long as they could work together, the prog- 
ress of reaction was rapid. The parti de I'or- 
dre, headed by Thiers, Broglie, Mole, and 
Montalembert, determined to avert the dan- 
gers threatened by universal suffrage. After 
a stormy debate, in which Thiers excited the 
fury of the "Mountain" by speaking of ''/<^Thesu£- 
vile multitude," they carried their proposal rSfrkfed. 
restricting the suffrage to citizens domiciled 
for three consecutive years in the same com- 
mune (May 30, 1850). 

As the period of his presidency was running 
out, and the constitution prohibited his re- 
election, it became necessary for Louis Napo- 
leon to take active measures to secure his 
power. As his designs became more and more 
apparent, the Assembly began to show distrust 
and hostility. In January, 185 1, General 
Changarnier was dismissed from the com- 
mand of the Paris garrisoa and the National 
Guard, apparently because his regiments had 
not raised the cry of Vive I'Empereur! at the 
recent reviews. The Assembly declared its 
confidence in the general and its want of con- 
fidence in the ministry. This compelled the 
retirement of the ministers, but their success- 
ors were equally docile to the President, and 
equally unacceptable to the legislature. Pe- 
titions, got up by Napoleon's agents, poured 
in from the provinces to demand a revision of 



208-4 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1850-1852 

the Constitution, but the requisite majority of 
lill^for votes in the Assembly could not be obtained, 

an Empire. . 1 tvt 1 

and the project was dropped. JNapoleon now 
determined to throw himself upon the sup- 
port of the people. The Assembly had made 
itself very unpopular by the law of May 30, 
1850, which had reduced the number of elec- 
tors by three millions. The ministers pro- 
posed the repeal of the law, but the majority 
refused to give up their measure. Thus the 
President posed as the champion of demo- 
cratic liberties against an oligarchical and re- 
actionary Assembly. At last Louis Napoleon 
considered that his time had come, and fixed 
December 2, the anniversary of Austerlitz, as 
the date for the long-meditated coup d'etat. 
The necessary preparations had been care- 
J^/fr^ fully made by Napoleon's agents, M. de 
Morny, Generals St. Arnaud and Magnan, 
and M. de Maupas, the prefect of police. On 
the night of the ist, while suspicions were 
lulled by a grand party at the Elysee, the 
troops were distributed, and the necessary 
placards and proclamations were printed at 
the government press. The first blow was 
struck by the imprisonment of the most dan- 
gerous opponents. Generals Cavaignac, Chan- 
garnier, Lamoriciere, Bedeau, together with 
Thiers, Victor Hugo, and Eugene Sue, were 
simultaneously seized in the middle of the 
night and dispersed to diflferent prisons. In 
the morning, proclamations appeared in all 



A.D. 1850-1852 



THE SECOND EMPIRE IN FRANCE 2085 



the streets announcing that the National As- 
sembly was dissolved, that a new election was 
to take place on December 14, that universal 
suffrage was restored, and that Paris and the 
department of the Seine were in a state of 
siege. A new ministry was announced, inThe.ne^^ 
which Morny was Minister of the Interior; 
St. Arnaud, of War; M. Rouher, of Justice; 
and M. Fould, of Finance. In an "appeal to 
the people," Louis Napoleon proposed that 
the executive head of the government should 
be chosen for ten years, and that a Council of 
State, a Senate, and a Legislative Assembly 
should be created on the model of his uncle's 
Constitution of the i8th Brumaire. Mean- 
while, about 250 deputies met in the Palais 
Bourbon, and were preparing a protest against 
the action of the President, when the hall was 
surrounded by troops, and they found them- 
selves prisoners. By this act, the opposition 
was deprived of any common centre of union. 
Isolated revolts took place on the next two 
days, and the usual barricades were erected, 
but the troops gained an easy victory, though 
not without considerable bloodshed. By the 
evening of the 4th, the success of the coup 
d'etat was secured. The plebiscite was com- 
menced on December 20, and resulted in an The 
enormous majority m favor of the new Consti- adopted 
tution. The number of recorded votes was 
7,439,216 to 646,757. The result of this vote 
was that Napoleon became President for ten 



new 

constitution 



2086 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1850-1852 

years, and the chief constitutional checks upon 
his power were removed. 

Like all restored princes, Louis Napoleon 
was an imitator. On December 2 he had 
closely copied the i8th Brumaire; his Consti- 
tution, which was formally issued on Janu- 
ary 15, returned to the system of the first Na- 
poleon; the uncle had been Consul, the 
nephew was President. To complete the ex- 
ternal parallel, it was only necessary to get 
rid of the republican title by reviving the 
Empire; and it was certain that this would 
not long be delayed. The gilt eagles were 
restored to the standards; Napoleon's name 
was substituted for that of the Republic in 
the public prayers; the National Guard was 
reconstituted; the President took up his resi- 
dence in the Tuileries. In the autumn, Louis 
Napoleon made a grand tour through the 
provinces, and was everywhere received with 
shouts of Five rEmpereur! The same cry 
was raised by the troops on his return to the 
capital. The Senate was directed to discuss 
the matter, and it was decided once more to 
have recourse to a plebiscite. The proposal 
was that Louis Napoleon should be chosen 
suffJagf hereditary Emperor of the French, with the 

decides iot -^ ^ ' 

theEmpire. j-jght pf scttHug the succcsslon among the 
members of his family. It was carried with- 
out discussion by 7,824,129 to 253,145. So 
far universal suffrage had shown itself suffi- 
ciently favorable to despotism. On Decern- 



A.D. 1850-1852 THE SECOND EMPIRE IN FRANCE 2087 

ber 2, 1852, the new Emperor was proclaimed 
as Napoleon III. 

The Empire was accepted in Europe with- 
out hostility, but without enthusiasm. The 
governments which had just recovered from 
the shock of 1848 welcomed it as a defeat of 
the Revolution. The Czar, the patron of le- 
gitimacy, was, as usual, the last to acknowl- 
edge the new government of France. In 
France itself the coup d'etat had annihilated 
all opposition. The educated classes were 
hostile to despotism, but they were overawed 
by a system of espionage that made the utter- 
ance of heedless words a crime. A ereat re- 

'^ Revival of 

vival of material prosperity followed the res- prosperity. 
toration of order, and the ardent pursuit of 
money-making proved an excellent salve for 
political discontent. The Constitution of Jan- 
uary, 1852, was renewed with a few modifi- 
cations, which increased the power of the 
Emperor, and further humiliated the corps 
legislatif. To fuse the two branches of the 
House of Bourbon, the Comte de Chambord 
(Henry V.) adopted the Comte de Paris; but 
the royalists continued to be harmless, and the 
people resented the treatment of the French 
crown as the property of a family. The gov- 
ernment adopted the economical fallacy that 
unproductive expenditure is beneficial to the 
laborers. Great part of Paris was pulled 
down to make room for more magnificent 
buildings. The Rue de Rivoli was extended 



2088 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1850-1852 

almost to the Faubourg St. Antoine, and thus 
nl^msln" was demolished the labyrinth of lanes which 

Paris. 

formerly surrounded the Hotel-de-Ville, and 
made it always liable to a surprise. The court 
was revived on the most magnificent scale, 
and the expenditure on pomp and festivities 
was enormously increased after the Emper- 
or's marriage. The first duty of the founder 
of a new dynasty was to marry. Napoleon 
began by looking round for a princess; but he 
^fJice^of"^ found the established dynasties so coof in re- 

a wife, 

sponse to his overtures that he determined to 
conciliate democratic prejudices by an alliance 
with a subject. His choice fell upon Donna 
Eugenie di Montijo, the widow of a Spanish 
general who had fought under Napoleon I., 
and the marriage was solemnized in January, 
1853. The Empress Eugenie became the 
model for fashionable ladies, and her example 
did much to encourage that lavish extrava- 
gance which distinguished, and at last discred- 
ited, the second Empire. 

France was once more subject to the abso- 
lute rule of an individual, and the character 
of that individual was one of the riddles of 
Character thc agc. Napolcon's personal courage was 
o?Napo'-'' indisputable, but it was combined with invin- 
cible procrastination. No advice could turn 
him from his purpose, but no one could pre- 
dict the moment when he would carry it out. 
He could not endure opposition, and he sur- 
rounded himself with clerks rather than with 



leon III. 



A.D. 1850-1852 THE SECOND EMPIRE IN FRANCE 2089 

ministers. Men like Guizot and Thiers re- 
fused to serve him, and he could never have 
tolerated their superiority. His early train- 
ing had been that of a conspirator, and a con- 
spirator he remained when he had attained 
the throne. There is little doubt that in his 
youth he had been mixed up in the plots of 
secret societies, and the associations then 
formed never ceased to hamper him. He 
was always afraid that any treachery to his 
old allies would lead to his assassination, and 
this fear had much to do with directing his 
policy toward Italy. He was a socialist in secret of 
possession of absolute power, but he had touuon"'' 
conciliate the established dynasties, which 
hated and dreaded socialism. Hence the ap- 
parent vacillation of his policy and the secrecy 
which always shrouded his designs. He was 
naturally indolent and averse to business; he 
would trust no one to do his work for him, and 
thus his administration was always defective. 
His ability was considerable, but it was the 
ability of an imitator. He had none of the 
original genius of his great uncle, and none 
of his power of choosing the best instruments. 
Nothing but the excessive dread of a new rev- 
olution could have kept him in power so long. 
The domestic history of France is almost a 
blank in his reign. To divert men's minds 
from the degradation and corruption of his 
rule, he adopted a vigorous foreign policy 
and became the firebrand of Europe. The 



2090 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1850-1852 

French had been so accustomed to excitement 
for the last few years that they could not live 
without it. Napoleon fully comprehended 
this, and bribed his subjects with magnificent 
fetes at home, and aggressive wars abroad. 

[In 1852, Montenegro and Herzegovina 

rebel against Turkey. England recognizes 

recSgnizes thc independence of the Transvaal, and an- 

the Trans- ^ ' 

"^^^^ nexes the valley of the Irawaddy from Bur- 
mah. In 1853, the Czar proposes to England 
to partition the Turkish Empire. On refusal 
he orders the Sultan to recognize him by 
treaty as the official protector of the Chris- 
tians in the Turkish dominions. The Rus- 
sians occupy Moldavia and Wallachia, and 
Turkey declares war. England and France 
come to Turkey's aid. The Russians destroy 
the Turkish fleet at Sinope. English and 
French fleets enter the Black Sea, and the 
Russian fleet retires to Sebastopol. The 
Greeks are repulsed in an attempt to seize 
Thessaly and Epirus. The first railway in 
l^YZ India is opened. Commodore Perry forces 
^*''*"' the Shogun to open Japan to American trade.] 




THE OPENING OF JAPAN 

(A.D. 1853-1854) 

FRANCIS OTTIWELL ADAMS 

URING the long period of peace which 
succeeded the establishment of the 
Tokugawa dynasty of shoguns, the in- 
trigues against it on the part of jealous and 
ambitious daimios (and such there doubtless 
were from time to time, especially in connec-Sr'i^''uef 
tion with the Court at Kioto) had so far failed, rlkulawl 

i-v CI i-z-r-'i • shoguns. 

and the shogun of the day, or his ofncials, vir- 
tually ruled the empire from Yedo. 

But the advent of foreigners changed the 
com.plexion of affairs, and gave an additional 
impetus to the machinations of the daimios, 
who chafed under the usurpation of the great- 
est among them, and of those members of the 
Court party who were their allies. Indeed, 
when the foreigner appeared on the scene, 
everything was already ripe for a revolution 
in the old style, and for the substitution of 
a fresh dynasty for the worn-out Tokugawa 
dynasty. And it is now quite evident that the 
imperfect government of the shogun was not 
adapted to the new order of things which suc- 

(2091) 



2092 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1853-1854 

ceeded the signing of treaties with foreign na- 
tions. It is essential for the reader to under- 
c. . stand that, from the moment those treaties 

Signature ' 

aVe'afh-^' camc into force, the fall of the shogunate be- 
shdgunate^ Came a mere question of time, and that noth- 
ing could have saved it. As far as the estab- 
lishment of commercial and friendly relations 
of a permanent nature with Europe and the 
United States was concerned, the sooner it was 
abolished the better. It was not the supreme 
power, and yet in its dealings with other 
powers and their representatives it pretended 
to be so. Hence, as will be seen, perpetual 
subterfuges and a daily resort to small tricks 
for the purpose of keeping up the delusion, 
and of preventing foreigners from becoming 
aware of this important fact (which, however, 
could not long be concealed) that he, to whom 
the treaties and the diplomatic agents had ac- 
corded the title of "Majesty," had no right 
to be so styled, and was not the Emperor of 
Japan. 

Although this fact is now patent to every 

The sh6- ^ . K , . , ' 

"Tycoon" ^^^> Hiany foreigners clung with curious ob- 
Temporai stlnacy, even up to a late date, to the false 
sovereign. .^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ "Tycoou" was thc temporal sov- 
ereign of the country, and that he would soon 
"return to power," as they were wont to ex- 
press what they would have found difficult to 
explain or define. 

We now come to the first years of foreign 
intercourse. And in considering them we shall 



A.D. 1853-1854 THE OPENING OF JAPAN 2093 

derive much assistance from the Blue Books 
presented to Parliament, and from some native 
productions, especially one called. G^wy/ yume 
monogatari (the story of the dream of Genji)^ 
which gives a narration of various occurrences 
from 1850 to 1864, and attributes the origin of 
the fight in Kioto, which occurred in the latter 
year, to the circumstances of the arrival of for- 
eigners in Japan after the long period of non- 
intercourse. 

The different attempts of foreigners of va- 
rious nations to break through the isolation in 
which Japan had persisted since the expulsion 
of the Christians are recorded in the last chap- 
ters of Hildreth's Japan as it Was and Is. 
None but Dutch were allowed a footing in the 
country, and they were still confined to the 
small island of Deshima, off Nagasaki. The 
Government of the United States, however, Jtate^"'^^'* 

di . I , , . . expedition 

etermmed to make one more attempt to es- under com- 

modore 

tablish intercourse with the Japanese, and as^^^y- 
the humoring policy of the naval officers who 
had previously visited the coast had not proved 
successful, it was decided to despatch an envoy 
with a naval force sufficient to ensure him a 
respectful hearing. Of this expedition Com- 
modore Matthew G. Perry was selected as 
head, and he finally set sail toward the end 
of 1852, furnished with a letter from Presi- 
dent Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan, and 
with instructions to conclude a treaty. The 
objects of the treaty were declared in a letter 



2094 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i853->854 

dated November 2, 1852, from the State De- 
partment to the Secretary of the Navy, as fol- 
lows: 

"i. To effect some permanent arrangement 
t^e^freaty for thc protcctlon of American seamen and 
property wrecked on those islands, or driven 
into their ports by stress of weather. 

"2. The permission of American vessels to 
enter one or more of their ports, in order to 
obtain supplies of provisions — water, fuel, etc. 
— or, in case of disasters, to refit so as to enable 
them to prosecute their voyage. It is very 
desirable to have permission to establish a 
depot for coal, if not on one of the principal 
islands, at least on some small uninhabited 
one, of which it is said there are several in 
their vicinity. 

"3. The permission to our vessels to enter 
one or more of their ports, for the pur- 
pose of disposing of their cargoes by sale or 
barter." 

Commodore Perry proceeded by way of 
uragfin*^ Madeira and the Cape of Good Hope to 
withfou?' Hong Kong and Shanghai, and ultimately in 

ships of war _ . i r^r tt i 

July, 1 053, arrived off Uraga, at the entrance 
of the passage leading to Yokohama and Yedo. 
His squadron consisted of the steam frigates 
Perr 's Susquehanud and Mississippi, and the sloops 
squadron, ^f ^^j. piymoutk and Saratoga. The further 
accounts of his narrative, as taken from the of- 
ficial documents printed by order of the United 
States Senate, will be found in Mr. Hildreth's 



A.D. i3s3-i854 THE OPENING OF JAPAN 2095 

book. I will here follow the Genji yufne 
monogatari. 

It was in the summer of 1853 that, as the^ccoum 
author states, an individual named Perry, whoLv^v?"""! 
called himself the envoy of the United States '"'""'^'""^' 
of America, suddenly arrived at Uraga in the 
province of Sagami with four ships of war, 
declaring that he brought a letter from his 
country to Japan, and that he wished to deliver 
it to the sovereign. The governor of the place, 
Toda Idzu no kami, much alarmed by this 
extraordinary event, hastened to the spot to 
inform himself of its meaning. The envoy 
stated, in reply to questions, that he desired to 
see a chief minister, in order to explain the 
object of his visit, and to hand over to him the 
letter with which he was charged. The gov- 
ernor then despatched a messenger on horse- 
back with all haste to carry this information 
to the castle of Yedo, where a great scene of^ ^ . 

' ° Confusion 

confusion ensued on his arrival. Fresh mes-^^^^*^" 
sengers followed, and the Shogun lyeyoshi, 
on receiving them, was exceedingly troubled, 
and summoned all the officials to a council. 
At first the afifair seemed so sudden and so for- 
midable that they were too alarmed to open 
their mouths, but in the end orders were issued 
to the great clans to keep strict watch at va- 
rious points on the shore, as it was possible 
that the "barbarian" vessels might proceed 
to commit acts of violence. A learned Chi- 
nese scholar was sent to Uraga, had an inter- 



2096 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i8s3-i8;t 

view with the American envoy and returned 
with the letter, which expressed the desire of 
the United States to establish friendship and 
intercourse with Japan; and said, according to 
this account, that if they met with a refusal, 
they should commence hostilities. 

Thereupon the shogun was greatly dis- 
Son?^ tressed and again summoned a council. He 
also asked the opinion of the daimios. "The 
assembled officials were exceedingly disturbed, 
and nearly broke their hearts over consulta- 
tions which lasted all day and all night. The 
nobles and retired nobles in Yedo were in- 
formed that they were at liberty to state any 
ideas they might have on the subject, and al- 
though they all gave their opinions, the diver- 
sity of propositions was so great, that no de- 
cision was arrived at. The military class had 
during a long peace neglected military arts; 
they had given themselves up to pleasure and 
luxury, and there were very few who had put 
on armor for many years. So that they were 
greatly alarmed at the prospect that war 
might break out at a moment's notice, and 
began to run hither and thither in search of 
arms. The city of Yedo and the surrounding 
villages were in a great tumult; in anticipation 
of the war which seemed imminent, the peo- 
ple carried off their valuables and furniture 
in all directions, in order to conceal them in 
the houses of friends living further off, and 
there was such a state of confusion among all 



A.D. .8s3-i8s4 THE OPENING OF JAPAN 2097 

classes that the governors of the city were com- 
pelled to issue a notification to the people, andaiam. 
this in the end had the effect of quieting the 
general anxiety. But in the castle never was a 
decision further from being arrived at, and 
while time was being thus idly wasted, the 
envoy was constantly demanding an answer. 
So at last they decided that it would be best to 
arrange the aflair quietly, to give the foreign- 
ers the articles they wanted, and to put ofif 
sending an answer to the letter; to tell theitis 

*^ ' agreed to 

envoy that in an affair of such importance to'^'"?"""- 
the State no decision could be arrived at with- 
out mature consideration, and that he had bet- 
ter go away; that in a short time he should 
get a definite answer. The envoy agreed, and, 
after sending a message to say that he should 
return in the following spring for his answer, 
set sail from Uraga with his four ships. 

The Shogun lyeyoshi had been ill since the 
commencement of the summer, and had been 
rendered very anxious about this sudden and 
pressing affair of the outer barbarians. Per- 
haps it was this cause which now made his ill- Death of 
ness so severe that he died on the 22d day of SeVoshf" 
the seventh month. The assembled retainers 
entirely lost their heads, and both high and 
low were plunged into the deepest grief. He 
was buried in Zojoji, and received the title of 
Shintoku-in. 

The death of the Shogun at this particular 
crisis was at least suspicious. He was sue- 



2098 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1853-1854 

ceeded by his son, lyesada, thirteenth of the 
Tokugawa line. 

Early in 1854 Commodore Perry returned, 
and the question of acceding to his demands 
was again hotly debated. Eventually the 
Treaty was concluded on the 31st of March, 
1854. Three copies, signed by the Japanese 
Commissioners, were delivered to Commo- 
dore Perry, and he gave to them in exchange 
three copies in English, signed by himself, 
Provisions with Dutch and Chinese translations. The 
Treaty, ports of Shimoda, in the province of Idzu, 
and of Hakodate, in the island of Yezo, were 
opened for the reception of American ships, 
to be supplied with such articles as wood, wa- 
ter, provisions, and coal. There were stipu- 
lations with respect to the treatment of ship- 
wrecked men; there was an article giving fa- 
cilities for trading, a favored nations' clause, 
and an article providing for the appointment 
by the Government of the United States of 
consuls or agents to reside in Shimoda, pro- 
vided that either of the two governments 
deemed such arrangements necessary. 

In this year. Admiral Sir James Stirling 

Admiral arrlvcd with a squadron, and concluded a 

conveiftiln. convention with Japan, by which Nagasaki 

and Hakodate were to be opened to British 

ships for repairs, supplies, etc. 



THE CRIMEAN V/AR 

(A.D. 1854—1856) 

JUSTIN McCarthy 

NGLAND, then, and France entered the 
war as allies. Lord Raglan, formerly 
Lord Fitzroy Somerset, an old pupil 
of the Great Duke in the Peninsular War, and 
who had lost his right arm serving under 
Wellington at Waterloo, was appointed to f„"|'f^f„^g 
command the English forces. Marshal St. ^"'" 
Arnaud, a bold, brilliant soldier of fortune, 
was intrusted by the Emperor of the French 
with the leadership of the soldiers of France. 
The allied forces went out to the East and as- 
sembled at Varna, on the Black Sea shore, 
from which they were to make their descent 
on the Crimea. The invasion of the Crimea, 
however, was not welcomed by the English or 
the French commander. It was undertaken 
by Lord Raglan out of deference to the rec- 
ommendations of the Government; and by 
Marshal St. Arnaud out of deference to the 
Emperor of the French. The allied forces 
were, therefore, conveyed to the southwestern 
shore of the Crimea, and effected a landing 

(2099) 



2100 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854-1856 

in Kalamita Bay, a short distance north of 
the point at which the river Alma runs into 
the sea. Sebastopol itself lies about thirty 
miles to the south ; and then more southward 
still, divided by the bulk of a jutting promon- 
tory from Sebastopol, is the harbor of Bala- 

Landingof klava. The disembarkment began on the 
morning of September 14, 1854, and was ef- 
fected without any opposition from the Rus- 
sians. On September 19, the allies marched 
out of their encampments and reached the 
Alma about noon on September 20. They 
found that they had to cross the river in the 
face of the Russian batteries armed with 
heavy guns on the highest points of the hills 

ufeAlmL or bluffs, of scattered artillery, and of dense 
masses of infantry which covered the hills. 
The Russians were under the command of 
Prince Mentschikoff. The soldiers of the 
Czar fought stoutly and stubbornly as they 
have always done; but they could not stand 
up against the blended vehemence and obsti- 
nacy of the English and French. The river 
was cross.ed, the opposite heights were mount- 
ed, Prince Mentschikoflf's great redoubt was 
carried, the Russians were driven from the 
field, the allies occupied their ground; the 
victory was to the Western Powers. The first 
field was fought, and we had won. 

The Russians ought to have been pursued. 

fo""wed"up^^^ there was no pursuit. Lord Raglan was 
eager to follow up the victory; but the French 



A.D. i8s4-i8s6 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2101 

had as yet hardly any cavalry, and Marshal 
St. Arnaud would not agree to any further 
enterprise that day. Lord Raglan believed 
that he ought not to persist; and nothing was 
done. Except for the bravery of those who 
fought, the battle was not much to boast of. inaction. 
But it was the first great battle which for 
nearly forty years our soldiers had fought 
with a civilized enemy. The military au- 
thorities and the country were well disposed 
to make the most of it. The gallant medley 
on the banks of the Alma, and the fruitless 
interval of inaction that followed it, were told 
of as if the men were speaking of some battle 
of the gods. Very soon, however, a different 
note came to be sounded. The campaign had 
been opened under conditions differing from 
those of most campaigns that went before it. 
Science had added many new discoveries to 
the art of war. Literature had added one 
remarkable contribution of her own to the 
conditions amid which campaigns were to be 
carried on. She added the "special corre- The 
spondent." Therefore, while the fervor of g;^^^-^^^ „ 
delight in the courage and success of our 
army was still fresh in the minds of the pub- 
lic at home, while every music-hall was ring- 
ing with the cheap rewards of valor in the 
shape of popular glorifications of our com- 
manders and our soldiers, the readers of the 
Times began to learn that things were faring 
badly indeed with the conquering arrny of 

P VoL 6 



tent war 
adminis 
tration. 



2102 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854-1856 

the Alma. The hospitals were in a wretch- 
edly disorganized condition. Stores of medi- 
cines and strengthening food were decaying 
in places where no one wanted them or could 
well get at them, while men were dying in 
hundreds among our tents in the Crimea for 
lack of them. The system of clothing, of 
transport, of feeding, of nursing — everything 
had broken down. The special correspon- 
dent of the Times and other correspondents 
continued to din these things into the ears of 
incompe- thc public at home. Exultation began to give 

tent war r O o 

way to a feeling of dismay. The patriotic an- 
ger against the Russians was changed for a 
mood of deep indignation against our own au- 
thorities and our own war administration. It 
soon became apparent to every one that the 
whole campaign had been planned on the as- 
sumption of our military authorities here at 
home — we do not speak of the commanders 
in the field — that Sebastopol was to fall like 
another Jericho, at the sound of the war-trum- 
pets' blast. 

Our commanders in the field were, on the 
contrary, rather disposed to overrate than to 
underrate the strength of the Russians. It is 
very likely that if a sudden dash had been 
made at Sebastopol by land and sea, it might 
have been taken almost at the very opening of 
the war. But the delay gave the Russians full 
warning; and they did not neglect it. On the 
third day after the battle of the Alma, the 



A.D. 1854-1856 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2103 

Russians sank seven vessels of their Black Sea 
iieet at the entrance of the harbor of Sebasto- deSe 

measures. 

pol, and the entrance of the harbor was barred 
as by sunken rocks against any approach of 
an enemy's ship. There was an end to every 
dream of a sudden capture of Sebastopol. 
The allied armies moved again from their 
positions on the Alma to Balaklava, which 
lies south of the city, on the other side of 
a promontory, and which has a port which 
might enable them to secure a constant means 
of communication between the armies and the 
fleets. Sebastopol was but a few miles off, 
and preparations were at once made for an 
attack on it by land and sea. On October 17 
the attack began. It was practically a fail- seSopoi 
ure. The fleet could not get near enough ^ ^^'^"'^^' 
to the sea-forts of Sebastopol to make their 
broadsides of any real effect because of the 
shallow water and the sunken ships; and, al- 
though the attack from the land was vigorous 
and was fiercely kept up, yet it could not 
carry its object. 

The Russians attacked the allies fiercely on 
October 25, in the hope of obtaining posses- Kki°,!a. 
sion of Balaklava. The attempt was bold and 
brilliant; but it was splendidly repulsed. 
Never did a day of battle do more credit to 
English courage, or less, perhaps, to English 
generalship. The cavalry particularly dis- 
tinguished themselves. It was, in great meas- 
ure, on our side a cavalry action. It will be 



2104 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854-1856 

memorable in all English history as the bat- 
"Chargeoftle in which occurred the famous charge of 
Brigade." thc Light Brigade. Owing to some fatal mis- 
conception of the meaning of an order from 
the Commander-in-Chief, the Light Brigade, 
607 men in all, charged what has been rightly 
described as "the Russian army in position." 
Of the 607 men, 198 came back. Long, pain- 
ful, and hopeless were the disputes about 
this fatal order. The controversy can never 
be wholly settled. The officer who bore the 
order was one of the first who fell in the on- 
set. All Europe, all the world, rang with 
wonder and admiration of the futile and splen- 
did charge. The Poet Laureate sang of it in 
spirited verses. Perhaps its best epitaph was 
contained in the celebrated comment ascribed 
to the French General Bosquet, and which has 
since become proverbial, and been quoted un- 
til men are wellnigh tired of it — "It was mag- 
nificent, but it was not war." 

Next day, the enemy made another vigor- 
ous attack on a much larger scale, moving out 
of Sebastopol itself, and were again repulsed. 
On November 5, the Russians made another 
grand attack on the allies, chiefly on the Brit- 
ish, and were once more splendidly repulsed. 
fnkermln ^^^ platcau of Inkcrman was the principal 
scene of the struggle. It was occupied by the 
Guards and a few British regiments, on whom 
fell, until General Bosquet with his French 
was able to come to their assistance, the 



A.D. 1834-1856 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2105 

task of resisting a Russian army. This was 
the severest and the fiercest engagement of the 
campaign. Inkerman was described at the 
time as the soldiers' battle. Strategy, it was 
said everywhere, there was none. The attack 
was made under cover of a dark and drizzling 
mist. The battle was fought for a while al- 
most absolutely in the dark. There was hardly 
any attempt to direct the allies by any prin- 
ciples of scientific warfare. The soldiers 
fought stubbornly a series of hand-to-hand 
fights, and we are entitled to say that the 
better men won in the end. 

The winter was gloomy at home as well as 
abroad. The news constantly arriving iT^om^^^^f^^- 
the Crimea told only of devastation caused by^"^^""^- 
foes far more formidable than the Russians — 
sickness, bad weather, bad management. The 
Black Sea was swept and scourged by terrible 
storms. The destruction of transport-ships 
laden with winter stores for our men was of 
incalculable injury to the army. Clothing, 
blanketing, provisions, hospital necessaries of 
all kinds, were destroyed In vast quantities. 
The loss of life among the crews of the ves- 
sels was immense. A storm was nearly as 
disastrous in this way as a battle. On shore 
the sufferings of the army were unspeakable. 
The tents were torn from their pegs and blown severities 

•^ => of the 

away. The officers and men were exposed to ^I'n'f'^" 
the bitter cold and the fierce stormy blasts. 
Our soldiers had, for the most part, little ex- 



2106 



THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



A.D. 1854-1856 



Lack of 
medical 



Blunders 

and 

confusion. 



perience or even idea of such cold as they had 
to encounter this gloomy winter. The inten- 
sity of the cold was so great that no one might 
dare to touch any metal substance in the open 
air with his bare hand under the penalty of 
leaving the skin behind him. The hospitals 
for the sick and wounded at Scutari were in 
a wretchedly disorganized condition. They 
were, for the most part, in an absolutely cha- 
otic condition as regards arrangement and 
supply. In some instances medical stores 
were left to decay at Varna, or were found 
lying useless in the holds of vessels in Bal- 
aklava Bay, which were needed for the 
wounded at Scutari. The medical officers 
were able and zealous men; the stores were 
provided and paid for so far as our govern- 
ment was concerned; but the stores were not 
brought to the medical men. These had their 
hands all but idle, their eyes and souls tor- 
mented by the sight of sufiferings which they 
were unable to relieve for want of the com- 
monest appliances of the hospital. The most 
extraordinary instances of blunder and confu- 
sion were constantly coming to light. Great 
consignments of boots arrived, and were found 
to be all for the left foot. Mules for the 
conveyance of stores were contracted for and 
delivered, but delivered so that they came 
into the hands of the Russians and not of us. 
Shameful frauds were perpetrated, in the in- 
stance of some of the contracts for preserved 



A.B. i834-i8s6 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2107 

meat. The evils of the hospital disorganiza- 
tion were happily made a means of bringing 
about a new system of attending to the sick 
and wounded in war, which has already 
created something like a revolution in the 
manner of treating the victims of battle. Mr. 
Sidney Herbert, horrified at the way in which 
things were managed in Scutari and the 
Crimea, applied to a distinguished woman, 
who had long taken a deep interest in hospital 
reform, to superintend personally the nursing Florence 
of the soldiers. Miss Florence Nightingale was&aie. 
the daughter of a wealthy English country gen- 
tleman. She had chosen not to pass her life in 
fashionable and aesthetic inactivity; and had 
from a very early period turned her attention 
to sanitary questions. She had studied nurs- 
ing as a science and a system; had made her- 
self acquainted with the working of various 
Continental institutions; and about the time 
when the war broke out she was actually en- 
gaged in reorganizing the Sick Governesses' 
Institution in Harley Street, London. To her 
Mr. Sidney Herbert turned. He offered her, 
if she would accept the task he proposed, plen- 
ary authority over all the nurses, and an un- 
limited power of drawing on the government 
for whatever she might think necessary to the 
success of her undertaking. Miss Nightin- 
gale accepted the task, and went out to Scutari 
accompanied by some women of rank like her 
own, and a trained staff of nurses. They 



2108 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854-1856 

Speedily reduced chaos into order; and from 
work"^ the time of their landing in Scutari there was 
at least one department of the business of war 
which was never again a subject of complaint. 
The spirit of the chivalric days had been re- 
stored under better auspices for its abiding 
influence. Sidney Herbert, in his letter to 
Miss Nightingale, has said that her example, 
if she accepted the task he proposed, would 
^'multiply the good to all time." These words 
proved to have no exaggeration in them. We 
have never seen a war since in which women 
of education and of genuine devotion have 
not given themselves up to the task of caring 
for the wounded. The Geneva Convention 
and the bearing of the Red Cross are among 
the results of Florence Nightingale's work in 
the Crimea. 

But the siege of Sebastopol was meanwhile 
Miseries of dragging heavily along; and sometimes it was 
not quite certain which ought to be called the 
besieged, the Russians in the city or the allies 
encamped in sight of it. During some months 
the armies did little or nothing. The com- 
missariat system and the land transport system 
had broken down. The armies were miser- 
ably weakened by sickness. Cholera was ever 
and anon raging anew among our men. 
Horses and mules were dying of cold and 
starvation. The roads were only deep, ir- 
regular ruts filled with mud; the camp was 
a marsh; the tents stood often in pools of 



A.D. i8s4-i8s6 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2109 

water; the men had sometimes no beds but 
straw dripping wet; and hardly any bed cov- 
erings. Our unfortunate Turkish allies were 
in a far more wretched plight than even we 
ourselves. The authorities who ought to have 
looked after them were impervious to the criti- 
cisms of special correspondents and unassail- 
able by Parliamentary votes of censure. 

Meanwhile new negotiations of peace, set 
on foot under the influence of Austria, had 
been begun at Vienna, and Lord John Rus- 
sell had been sent there to represent the in- 
terests of England. We had got a new ally in 
the little kingdom of Sardinia, whose govern -emerTihe 
ment was then under the control of one of the 
master-spirits of modern politics. Count Ca- 
vour. Sardinia went into war in order that 
she might have a locus standi in the councils 
of Europe from, which to set forth her griev- 
ances against Austria. The policy was singu- 
larly successful, and entirely justified the ex- 
pectations of Cavour. The Crimean War laid 
the foundations of the kingdom of Italy. But 
there was another event of a very different na- 
ture, the effect of which seemed at first likely 
to be all in favor of peace. On March 2, iS^^jD^^ji^^f.^g 
the Emperor Nicholas of Russia died of pul-N^E. 
monary apoplexy, after an attack of influenza. 
A cartoon appeared in Punch, which was 
called "General Fevrier turned Traitor." The 
Emperor Nicholas had boasted that Russia ^ 
had two generals on whom she could always 



2110 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. .834-1856 

rely, General Janvier and General Fevrier; 
and now the English artist represented Gen- 
eral February, a skeleton in Russian uniform, 
turning traitor and laying his bony, ice-cold 
hand on the heart of the sovereign and be- 
traying him to the tomb. But indeed it was 
not General February alone who doomed 
Nicholas to death. The Czar died of broken 
hopes; of the recklessness that comes of defeat 
and despair. He took no precautions against 
cold and exposure; he treated with a mag- 
nanimous disdain the remonstrances of his 
physicians and his friends. The news of the 
sudden death of the Emperor created a pro- 
found sensation in England. At first there 
was, as we have said, a common impression 
that Nicholas's son and successor, Alexander 
II., would be more anxious to make peace than 
his father had been. But this hope was soon 
gone. The new Czar could not venture to 
show himself to his people in a less patriotic 
Gloomy light thau his predecessor. The prospects of 
theSs^.° the allies were at the time remarkably gloomy. 
There must have seemed to the new Russian 
Emperor considerable ground for the hope 
that disease, and cold, and bad management 
would do more harm to the army of Eng- 
land at least than any Russian general. The 
Conference at Venice proved a failure. 

The operations in the Crimea were renewed 

^ with some vigor. The English army lost by 

the death of its brave and manly Com- 



A.D. 1854-1856 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2111 

mander-in-Chief, Lord Raglan. He was suc-Death 
ceeded by General Simpson, whose adminis-Ragun. 
tration during the short time that he held 
the command was at least well qualified to 
keep Lord Raglan's memory green and to 
prevent the regret for his death from losing 
any of its keenness. The French army had 
lost its first commander long before— the ver- 
satile, reckless, brilliant soldier of fortune, 
St. Arnaud. After St. Arnaud's death the 
command was transferred for a while to Gen- 
eral Canrobert, who resigned in favor of Gen- 
eral Pelissier. The Sardinian contingent had 
arrived, and had given admirable proof of its 
courage and discipline. On August i6, 1855, 
the Russians, under General Liprandi, made 
an unsuccessful efifort to raise the siege of Se- 
bastopol by an attack on the allied forces. The 
Sardinian contingent bore themselves withcaiiantry 
stubborn bravery in the resistance, and allsardfnians. 
Northern Italy was thrown into wild delight 
by the news that the flag of Piedmont had 
been carried to victory over the troops of one 
great European Power, and side by side with 
those of two others. It was the first great 
illustration of Cavour's habitual policy of 
blended audacity and cool, far-seeing judg- 
ment. The siege had been progressing for 
some time with considerable activity. The 
Malakofif tower and the Mamelon battery in 
front of it became the scenes and objects of 
constant struggle. The Russians made des- 



Redan and 

Malakoff 

batteries. 



2112 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854-1856 

perate night sorties again and again, and were 
JlhV ^ always repulsed. On June 7, the English as- 
saulted the quarries in front of the Redan, and 
the French attacked the Mamelon. The attack 
on both sides was successful ; but it was fol- 
lowed on the 1 8th of the same month by a des- 
perate and wholly unsuccessful attack on the 
Redan and Malakoff batteries. On Septem- 
ber 5, the allies made an attack almost simul- 
taneously upon the Malakoff and the Redan. 
The French got possession of the Malakoff, 
and the English then at once advanced upon 
the Redan ; but the French were near the Mal- 
akoff; the English were very far away from 
the Redan. The distance our soldiers had to 
traverse left them almost helplessly exposed 
to the Russian fire. They stormed the para- 
pets of the Redan despite all the difficulties of 
their attack; but they were not able to hold 
the place. The attacking party were far too 
small in numbers; reinforcements did not 
come in time; the English held their own for 
an hour against odds that might have seemed 
overwhelming; but it was simply impossible 
for them to establish themselves in the Redan, 
and the remnant of them that could withdraw 
had to retreat to the trenches. It was only the 
old story of the war. Superb courage and 
skill of the officers and men; outrageously bad 
generalship. The attack might have been re- 
newed that day, but the English Commander- 
in-Chief, General Simpson, resolved not to 



Retreat of 
the British. 



A.D. i8s4-i856 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2113 

make another attempt till the next morning. 
Before the morrow came there was nothing to 
attack. The Russians withdrew during the^j^^j^^^ 
night from the south side of Sebastopol. AlebasSoi. 
bridge of boats had been constructed across 
the bay to connect the north and the south 
sides of the city, and across this bridge Prince 
Gortschakoff quietly withdrew his troops. 
The Russian general felt that it would be im- 
possible for him to hold the city much longer, 
and that to remain there was only useless 
waste of life. But, as he said in his own de- 
spatch, "It is not Sebastopol which we have 
left to them, but the burning ruins of the town, 
which we ourselves set fire to, having main- 
tained the honor of the defence in such a man- 
ner that our great-grandchildren may recall 
with pride the remembrance of it and send it 
on to all posterity." It was some time before 
the allies could venture to enter the aban- 
doned city. The arsenals and powder-maga- 
zines were exploding, the flames were burst- 
ing out of every public building and every 
private house. The Russians had made of 
Sebastopol another Moscow. 

With the close of that long siege, which had 
lasted nearly a year, the war may be said to 
have ended. The brilliant episode of Kars, it3Kars°^ 
splendid defence and its final surrender, was 
brought to its conclusion, indeed, after the fall 
of Sebastopol; but, although it naturally at- 
tracted a peculiar attention in this country, it 



2114 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854-1856 

could have no effect on the actual fortunes of 
such a war. Kars was defended by General 
Fenwick Williams, an English officer, who 
held the place against overwhelming Russian 
forces, and against an enemy far more appal- 
ling — starvation itself. He had to surrender 
at last to famine; but the very articles of sur- 
render to which the conqueror consented be- 
came the trophy of Williams and his men. 
The garrison were allowed to leave the place 
with all the honors of war; and, "as a testi- 
mony to the valorous resistance made by the 
garrison of Kars, the officers of all ranks are 
to keep their swords." The war v/as virtu- 

End of * . 1 t 1 • 1 1 c 

the war. ally ovcr. Austria had been exertmg herself 
throughout its progress in the interests of 
peace, and after the fall of Sebastopol she 
made a new efifort with greater success. France 
and Russia were indeed now anxious to be cut 
out of the struggle almost on any terms. If 
England had held out, it is highly probable 
that she would have had to do so alone. For 
this indeed Lord Palmerston was fully pre- 
pared as a last resource, sooner than submit 
to terms which he considered unsatisfactory. 

Congress Xhc Congrcss of Paris opened on February 
26, 1856, and on March 30 the treaty of peace 
was signed by the plenipotentiaries of the Great 
Powers. Prussia had been admitted to the 
Congress, which therefore represented Eng- 
land, France, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Tur- 
key, and Sardinia. 



A.D. 1854-1856 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2115 

By the treaty Kars was restored to the Sul- 
tan, and Sebastopol and all other places taken 
by the allies were given back to Russia. The 
Great Powers engaged to respect the inde- 
pendence and territorial integrity of Turkey. 
The Sultan issued a firman for ameliorating 
the condition of his Christian subjects, and no 
right of interference, it was distinctly speci- 
fied, was given to the other powers by this 
concession on the Sultan's part. The Black 
Sea was neutralized; its waters and its ports 
were thrown open to the mercantile marine of 
every nation, and formally and in perpetuity 
interdicted to the flag of war either of the 
Powers possessing its coast or of any other 
Power, with the exception of the right of each 
of the Powers to have the same number of 
small armed vessels in the Black Sea to act 
as a sort of maritime police and to protect 
the coasts. The Sultan and the Emperor en- 
gaged to establish and maintain no military or^er^^^^of 
maritime arsenals in that sea. The navigation ™^"^- 
of the Danube was thrown open. Moldavia 
and Wallachia, continuing under the suze- 
rainty of the Sultan, were to enjoy all the privi- 
leges and immunities they already possessed 
under the guarantee of the contracting Powers, 
but with no separate right of intervention in 
their affairs. Out of Moldavia and Walla- 
chia united, after various internal changes, 
there subsequently grew the kingdom of Rou- 
mania. The existing position of Servia was 



2116 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ad. 1854-1856 

secured by the treaty. During time of peace 
the Sultan engaged to admit no foreign ships 
of war into the Bosphorus or the Dardanelles. 
To guarantee Turkey from the enemy they 
most feared, a tripartite treaty was afterward 
agreed to between England, France, and Aus- 
tria. This document bears date in Paris April 
15, 1856; by it the contracting parties guaran- 
mtegrity tegfj joiutly and severally the independence 
guarded. ^^^ integrity of the Ottoman Empire, and de- 
clared that any infraction of the general treaty 
of March 30 would be considered by them as 
casus belli. The Congress of Paris was re- 
markable for the fact that the plenipotentiaries 
before separating came to an agreement on the 
rules generally of maritime war by which pri- 
vateering was abolished. It was agreed, how- 
ever, that the rules adopted at the Congress of 
Paris would only be binding on those States 
that had acceded or should accede to them. 
The United States raised some difficulty about 
renouncing the right of privateering, and the 
declarations of the Congress were therefore 
made without America's assenting to them. 
Italy's At the instigation of Count Cavour the condi- 
broughr tion of Italy was brought before the Congress; 

before the ^ ° to J 

Congress, and thcrc can be no doubt that out of the Con- 
gress and the part that Sardinia assumed as 
representative of Italian nationality came the 
succession of events which ended in the estab- 
lishment of a King of Italy in the palace of 
the Quirinal. The adjustment of the condi- 



A.D. 1854-1856 THE CRIMEAN WAR 2117 

tion of the Danubian principalities, too, en- 
gaged much attention and discussion, and acanubian 

'=' ^ ' principal- 

highly ingenious arrangement was devised for^''^^- 
the purpose of keeping those provinces from 
actual union, so that they might be coherent 
enough to act as a rampart against Russia, 
without being so coherent as to cause Austria 
any alarm for her own somewhat disjointed, 
not to say distracted, political system. All 
these artificial and complex arrangements 
presently fell to pieces, and the principalities 
became in course of no very long time a united 
independent State under a hereditary Prince. 
But for the hour it was hoped that the inde- 
pendence of Turkey and the restriction of 
Russia, the security of the Christian provinces, 
the neutrality of the Black Sea, and the closing 
of the Straits against war vessels, had been 
bought by the war. 

England lost some twenty-four thousand 
men in the war, of whom hardly a sixth fellKs^SP 
in battle or died of wounds. Cholera andmone^y" 
other diseases gave grim account of the rest. 
Forty-one millions of money were added by 
the campaign to the National Debt. 



THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN 

(AD. 1854) 



T 



A. W. KINGLAKE 

HE outlines of the fight — like those of 
Mount Inkerman itself — are indented 
and jagged, but well marked. 
First Period. — Coming up from the West 
under Soimonofif, and from the East under 
Se^fight?^ Panlofjf, 40,000 assailants moved forward un- 
to'*7^to"A.M. der so thick a cover of darkness and mist that, 
by no greater efifort than that of driving in an 
outlying picket, Gep'^ral Soimonoff was able 
to plant on Shell Hill a powerful artillery 
supported by heavy bodies of foot. From the 
commanding position thus rapidly seized, and 
now guarded by sixteen battalions, twenty 
other battalions, with a strength of 15,000 
men, were thrown forward to attack General 
Pennefather along his whole front, while a 
-force called the "Under-road-column" moved 
up unobstructed by the bed of the Careenage 
Ravine, in order to turn his left flank. On his 
right for some time the enemy triumphed; 
he seized three of our guns; he drove from 
the field a bewildered body of nearly 400 

(2118) 



A.D. i8s4 THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN 2119 

foot; and, meanwhile, with the Under-road 
column he successfully turned the position, 
coming up by the Well-way at last to within 
a stone's throw of Pennefather's tents. 

Then, however, all changed; and the mist, 
which had thus far protected the enemy, be- 
gan to favor our people, by taking from the 
many their power of rightly wielding big 

1 /-I/- 1- r t "^'^^^ turns 

numbers, from the few their sense of weak- ae^inst the 

■ Russians. 

ness. It resulted that (with the aid of some 
batteries) 3,300 of our infantry, under Penne- 
father and Buller, found means to defeat with 
great slaughter, and even to expunge from the 
battlefield the whole of the 15,000 men who 
had assaulted their front, and, moreover, 
proved able to rout the Under-road column at 
a moment when it was driving into the very 
camp of the 2d Division. 

The number of Russian officers struck down 
was appallingly great; and General Soimon- 
off himself fell mortally wounded. 

Second Period. — General Dannenberg, now 



coming: up, assumed the command, and began DanLn- 

• 1 /• 1 -r* 1 • berg takes 

to act with fresh troops, oy attacking not command. 
only the front of the English position, but also [of^j^'^.M. 
the valueless ledge surmounted by the Sand- 
bag Battery, he challenged his adversaries 
to meet him in two separate combats; and our 
soldiery, believing — though wrongly — that the 
dismantled work must be a part of the En- 
glish defences, fastened on it with so eager a 
hold, that Lord Raglan— in the midst of close 



2120 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854 

fighting — could not even attempt to withdraw 

them. The mistake long continued to work 

the^EngHs°hits baneful effects: and the combatant part of 

soldiery. ' ■* 

the English force (now augmented by the ac- 
cession of fresh troops) divided itself into two 
unconnected assemblages, with a dangerous 
gap between them. In one of the two simul- 
taneous fights thus provoked — that is, the one 
in front of Home Ridge) — General Penne- 
father, with very scant means, proved able to 
hurl back every onset; while in the fight for 
the Sandbag Battery, after long and obsti- 
nate struggles, our people drove down the 
whole multitude which had swarmed on the 
ledge of the Kitspur; but then, haplessly, 
they went on to do more, achieving what I 
have called a "false victory" over the left 
wing of the Russian army. Excepting only 
a few score of men with difficulty restrained 
from pursuit, they all of them poured down 
the steeps, attacking or chasing the enemy, be- 
came dispersed in the copsewood, and in this 
way annulled for a time their power of ren- 
dering fresh services. 

Russian troops, it was suddenly found, had 
moved up unopposed through the Gap, and 
the few score of English still remaining on the 
heights then seemed to be entirely cut off, yet 
proved able to fight their way home. 

For some time, the two French battalions 
nes'soF'^ ' which had come up would take no part in the 

the Krench, 

fight; but one of them — the 6th of the Line — 



A.D. i854 THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN 2121 

moved forward at length with good will 
against the flank of a Russian force then ad- 
vancing along the Fore Ridge. The enemy 
thus threatened fell back, and the French bat- 
talion victoriously made good its advance to 
ground on the west of the Kitspur. 

Thus the efforts the enemy made in the 
course of this Second Period resulted, after 
all, in discomfiture; but by the continued 
necessity for guarding our left, by Penne- 
father's still ardent propensity to fight out in 
front of his heights, and now finally by the 
losses and the dispersions sustained on the 
Kitspur, the number of English foot-soldiers 
that could be mustered for the immediate de- 
fence of Home Ridge was brought down to 
diminutive proportions. 

Third Period. — That immediate defence of 
their position, for which our people were thus 
ill provided, became the very problem in 
hand. The enemy, concentrating his efforts wdf^ty 
upon one settled purpose, delivered a weighty Rf^ge"'"^ 
attack upon the Home Ridge, now almost de- 
nuded of English infantry, but guarded by 
the 7th Leger — a battalion 900 strong. His 
advanced troops broke over the crest, ob- 
tained some signal advantages over both the 
English and French, and then, upon being 
better confronted, began to fall back; but the 
bulk of the assailing masses had not ceased to 
advance all this while, and was soon ascend- 
ing the Ridge. Then with the 7th Leger, with 



2122 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854 

a truant little band of Zouaves, and with a few 
of our own people whom he could gather 
around him, General Pennefather, after a sin- 
gular struggle which hung for some minutes 
in doubt, found means to defeat the great col- 
umns thus attacking his centre; and, the col- 
lateral forces brought up on the right and on 
the left being almost simultaneously over- 
thrown by other portions of our infantry, and 
in part also, too, by our guns, the whole mul- 
titude of our troops which had undertaken 
this onslaught was triumphantly swept for- 
ward into the Quarry Ravine. 

Fourth Period. — The Allies having no 
troops in hand with which to press their ad- 
vantage, the enemy very soon rallied, and with 
some vigor turned on his pursuers. The 
French 6th of the Line had been already 
The^enemy drivcn back from our right front, and our 
9:15A.M. people engaged at the centre were more or 
less losing ground, when the accession of the 
two i8-pounders, ordered up by Lord Raglan, 
put an end all at once to the ascendency of the 
Russians in the artillery arm, and began to 
tear open that stronghold on the crest of Shell 
Hill which had hitherto furnished the basis 
for all their successive attacks. 

When in this conditions of things General 
Bosquet approached with fresh troops, there 
seemed to be ground for believing that the 
end of the fight must be near. 

Fifth Period. — When Bosquet's acceding 



to 10 A.M. 



A.D. i8s4 THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN 2123 

reinforcements had brought up his infantry 

on Mount Inkerman to a strength of ^.cjoo, hebr°ing"s^rem- 

° -J'~> ' forcemenis. 

was induced to advance with a great part of 
this force to the false position of the Inker- 
man Tusk. Upon the approach of a Russian 
column movmg up to ground on his left, "a.m. 
where he fancied the English stood posted, 
he was forced to retreat in great haste with 
the loss of a gun; and, some Russian battalions 
appearing in another direction, it was only by 
a swift spring to the rear that his troops, 
drawn up on the Tusk, proved able to make 
good their escape. The 1,500 French troops 
disposed on Bosquet's left rear fell back be- 
hind the Home Ridge; and, the cavalry which 
Canrobert brought up to cover the retreat be- 
ing driven from the field by some shells, all 
this succession of adverse occurrences seemed 
threatening to end in disaster. The French 
troops became disconcerted, and the allies 
were from this cause in jeopardy. 

Their weakness, however, was masked by 
the vigor of the English defence maintained bS"' 
all this while at the Barrier, as well as by the 
might of the two i8-pounders; and, General 
Dannenberg not seizing his opportunity, the 
despondency of the French passed away. 

Upon the accession of yet further reinforce- 
ments. General Bosquet resumed the offen- 
sive, and with two of his battalions he not 
only defeated that agile Selinghinsk regiment 
which had once more climbed the Kitspur, 



2124 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854 

but drove it down over the aqueduct, and out 
of the Inkerman battlefield. He also with- 
drew both the 7th Leger and the 6th of the 
Line from their shelter behind the Home 
Ridge, and again sent them forward, but they 
moved by the course of the Post-road, and 
there had the English in front of them. 

Then the share of the French infantry in 
this Inkerman conflict was unaccountably 
brought to a close. 

Sixth Period. — While still minded to hold 
fast their respective positions on Mount In- 
kerman, both the Russians and the French now 
French abandoned the offensive; but our people, still 

cease 

fighting, disputing the victory which Canrobert would 
thus concede to his adversaries, maintained 
the fight two hours .longer without the aid of 
French infantry, passed gradually from their 
old attitude of aggressive defence to one of 
decisive attack, and at length, by the united 
power of Lord Raglan's two i8-pounders and 
a small daring band of foot-soldiery, put so 
sharp a stress on Dannenberg, that — without 
consulting Prince Mentschikoff — he deter- 
mined at once to retreat. 

Seventh Period. — No pursuit worth record- 
ing took place, and General Dannenberg's re- 
treat being accomplished at eight o'clock in 
the evening, the action came to an end. 

From this fight on Mount Inkerman there 
resulted, it seems, to the enemy a loss of 10,729 
in killed, wounded and prisoners. Among his 



I P.M. to 
8 P.M. 



A.D. i8s4 THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN 2125 

killed or wounded there were six generals; 
and, if Russian grades were like ours, the 
number might be stated at twelve ; for, besides 
Soimonofif and Villebois, and Ochterlone, and 
the rest of the six stricken chiefs having actual 
rank as generals, there were slain or wounded 
six other officers who each of them held a 
command extending over thousands of men. 
The enemy lost altogether 256 officers. Bring- 
ing fifty battalions to Mount Inkerman, he 
kept sixteen in reserve, and all those to the 
last remained sound; but in the thirty-four 
fighting battalions with which he delivered 
his successive attacks, dire havoc was wrought. 
Twelve of them were all but annihilated; and The 
twelve more were so shattered and beaten asreS"^ 
to become for the time nearly powerless, leav- 
ing not more than ten out of the whole thirty- 
four which continued to be at all fit for com- 
bat; and even in those — but more especially in 
the four Okhotsk battalions, where the "killed" 
exceeded the "wounded" — the losses were ru- 
inously great. 

In proportion to what they achieved, the 
losses of the English were moderate, but great, 
very great, in comparison with their scanty 
numbers. Out of a strength of only 7,464^55!?" 
infantry collected on Mount Inkerman, with 
200 cavalry and 38 guns, they lost in killed and 
wounded, 2,357, o^ whom 597 were killed. Of 
their officers, 130 were struck, 39 being killed 
and 91 wounded. ^ ^^^ 5 



2126 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1854 

It is believed that of the Guards, engaged 
th°e'En|iish in their false position by the Sandbag Battery, 
nearly a half were killed or wounded in the 
space of an hour; and in the right wing of the 
2 1 St Fusiliers — a body which fought in the 
centre — the proportion of losses proved even 
more huge; while in the 20th and 57th regi- 
ments it was not much less. Because fighting 
for the most part in scanty numbers, the com- 
batants of the 2d Division w^ere able to carry 
on their lengthened struggle from the hour 
before daybreak to one in the afternoon with- 
out losing more than about three-eighths of 
their strength; and in the companies of the 
77th under Egerton, which exerted a great 
sway over the course of events, the proportion 
of killed and wounded was about one-fifth. 

Besides Lord Raglan and the principal offi- 
cers of the Headquarters Stafif, there were ten 
Loss in English generals who came into action on 

command- • i r 

ing officers. Mount Inkcrman, and these ten, with five 
other chiefs who succeeded to divisional or 
brigade commands (thus making altogether 
fifteen), were, all of them, either killed or 
wounded, or had their horses shot under them. 
And, with only a single exception, the same 
may be said of the eighteen colonels or other 
officers, who brought regiments, or lesser de- 
tachments, of foot to Mount Inkerman, and 
took an active part in the struggle. 

The French stated that their loss on Mount 
Inkerman comprised 13 officers and 130 men 



A.6. i8s4 THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN 2127 

killed, and 36 officers and 750 men wounded. 
We saw that General Canrobert himself re- 
ceived a wound in the arm and that Colonel 
de Camas was killed. 

The piece of French cannon which the 
enemy took was left on the battlefield, and re- Losses of 

, . T. y -P, . the Frendt. 

covered after the action. JNo gun, Russian, 
English, or French, was definitively lost. 

[In 1855, De Lesseps plans to cut the isth- 
mus of Suez with a canal. A small civil war 
breaks out in Kansas. The independence of 
the Orange Free State is recognized. The 
Governor of Eastern Siberia seizes the Amur. 
Burton and Speke explore Somaliland. In 
1856, by the Treaty of Paris, privateering is 
forbidden; no neutral goods, except contra- 
band of war, are liable to capture under an 
enemy's flag; and blockades in future must be 
effective in order to be binding. The prov- 
ince of Oudh is annexed by the English, who 
also bombard Canton on account of the Chi- 
nese having seized an English ship. Burton 
discovers Tanganyika, Speke discovers the 
Victoria Nyanza, and Livingstone explores the 
entire Zambesi. The Neanderthal skull is 
discovered. The Dred Scott decision is given 
by the United States Supreme Court. The 
great Indian Mutiny breaks out. The English 
and French join against China, whose fleet is 
destroyed, and Canton captured. England oc- 
cupies Perim; and France conquers Algeria.] 



Outbreak 
of the 
Sepoys. 



THE INDIAN MUTINY 

(A.D. 1857) 

SIR RICHARD TEMPLE 

AFTER the occurrence of some isolated 
mutinies in the Bengal native soldiery, 
generally called sepoys, during the 
early part of 1857, the native portion of the 
garrison at Meerut, near Delhi, broke out on 
the loth of May; the European garrison failed 
to prevent them, and the mutineers marched 
straightway to Delhi, and were joined by the 
native troops there and by the city mob. The 
rebels set up as Emperor the titular Great 
Mogul, who dwelt in the ancestral palace 
there under British protection, and proclaimed 
the restoration of the Mogul Empire. This 
event was rapidly followed by the revolt of 
almost the whole native army of the Bengal 
Presidency. Their comrades of the Bombay 
Presidency were but slightly afifected, and 
those of Madras hardly at all. At that time 
the native forces numbered more than 247,- 
000 men of all arms; of these about 50,000 
belonged to Madras, 30,000 to Bombay, and 
the remainder to Bengal; among the latter, 

(2128) 



A.D. i8s7 THE INDIAN MUTINY 2129 

however, were many troops called irregular. 
A large part of the irregular troops remained 
stanch ; but of the Bengal regular troops onlyj^^^^^^ 
seven battalions continued in service. Fromuoops.'^ 
80,000 to 90,000 soldiers, horse and foot, were 
in revolt, having in many cases murdered their 
officers, and sometimes the European families 
also. The mutineers were cantoned over many 
stations in broad provinces, held forts, ar- 
senals, treasuries. They were armed with Brit- 
ish weapons, had been organized with British 
discipline, were in possession of much artil- 
lery, of a great number of cavalry horses and 
other transports, and of vast sums of treas- 
ure. In Hindustan, in Oudh, and in parts of 
Malwa, throughout the summer the British 
power was insulated at certain points, such as 

1 1 /• T^ 11 • < Insulation 

the camp before Delhi, the cantonment at°f^the^ 
Meerut, the fortresses at Agra and Allahabad, 
the weak fortifications at Lucknow. Else- 
where the European magistracy with their 
families had been either killed or hunted 
away, and the court-houses with their records 
burnt. The disaster extended over at least an 
area of 100,000 square miles, with a popula- 
tion of 40,000,000. It occurred, too, at the 
worst season of the year. If not speedily 
stamped out the fire must spread over the 
whole country. The year was a centenary of 
historic events. It was just one hundred 
years since Clive founded British dominion 
at Plassey, and two hundred since Sivaji the 



2130 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1837 

Mahratta struck a deadly blow at-the Moslem 
power. Many an enemy thought that the knell 
of the empire had sounded. And certainly, 
unless the resources of the British Isles could 
be brought to bear upon the scene of revolt 
within a few months, the British authority 
would be narrowed to its three original seats 
— namely, the Presidency towns resting on the 
sea-board. 

At that time there were 40,000 European 
Confidence troops in the country. Several thousand men 
natives, on thcif way from England to China, at Lord 
Elgin's disposal, were, with his co-operation, 
diverted to India. Some 40,000 European 
soldiers were despatched from England round 
the Cape of Good Hope by a sea-voyage of 
12,000 miles. Meanwhile the disasters at 
Cawnpore and elsewhere in Hindustan had 
been partially retrieved by Henry Havelock. 
At the outset a force, largely consisting of Eu- 
ropeans, marched against Delhi. After a se- 
vere siege of four months, the place was recap- 
Defhiand turcd by assault. The communications had 
Luckn°ow. been maintained continuously with the Pun- 
jab, under John Lawrence, as a base whence 
reinforcements were derived. Native troops 
were raised from the loyal Punjab in place of 
the mutineers of Hindustan. Lucknow, for a 
long while after the death of Henry Law- 
rence besieged by rebels, was first relieved and 
afterward recaptured by a European force 
under Colin Campbell. The districts were 



A.D. .857 THE INDIAN MUTINY 2131 

speedily reoccupied by British authority. 
Though many influential individuals, some Loyalty^ 
chiefs and princes, and some classes, including^"""' 
the worst part of the mob, had joined the re- 
bellion, or rather the military revolt, still the 
mass of the people in these districts had re- 
mained passive and readily returned to their 
allegiance. The principal native princes and 
their states had set an important example of 
loyalty. Within six months of the outbreak 
the imperial danger was surmounted, though 
troubles lasted here and there, and the embers 
smouldered for more than a year, especially in 
the hilly parts of the central regions. The cost 
of suppressing this rebellion is reckoned at 
forty millions sterling. Unlike all the earlier 
foreign dynasties, the British power had never 
been naturalized or domesticated in the coun- 
try, but was then, as ever, recruited constantly 
from the British Isles. Its officers serving in 
the country had been born and educated in 
Europe, and possessed as a reserve against 
danger all the imperial qualities of their race. 
Many causes were assigned for the Indian 
Mutiny. The greased cartridges served out tife^Muiiny. 
to some of the Bengal troops operated as an 
immediate provocation. The Brahmins were 
too numerous in the ranks; they were fanati- 
cal, and they had the brains to conceive mis- 
chief when discontented. The Kabul disaster 
had broken the spell of invincibility. Certain 
chiefs near the scene of the outbreak were 



Effect of 
the anneX' 
ation of 
Oudh. 



2132 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1857 

laboring under a sense of wrong, real or sup- 
posed. Some native states had been alarmed 
at British policy with regard to the right of 
adoption. The annexation of Oudh, however 
righteous in itself, had induced many Moham- 
medan conspirators to excite mutiny, and to 
turn it to political account. This brought 
about a very unusual combination between 
Mohammedans and Hindus. Still, these and 
other lesser causes would never by themselves 
have brought about such a crisis as that which 
has been described. The prime, the funda- 
mental, cause was a large and simple fact, 
namely, this: The native forces were much 
too large relatively to the European. There 
was only one European soldier to six native 
soldiers, whereas now there is one to two. The 
ThTslpoJ-s. sepoys then had the physical force in their 
hands, and they knew it. The distribution, too, 
of these excessive numbers aggravated the 
peril. The sepoys were, as already seen, in 
charge of the stations containing the state re- 
sources, civil as well as military. It was the 
sense of power which gave them the mind 
to revolt. Their interests, including employ- 
ment, pay, pension, and the like, were indeed 
bound up with the British rule. The govern- 
ment was over-slow to believe that the men 
would revolt to the destruction of their own 
prospects. But their conduct proves that there 
are moments when religious fanaticism, na- 
tional sentiment, pride, and passion will pre- 



A.D. i8s7 THE INDIAN MUTINY 2133 

vail over self-interest. The occurrence was 
only a question of time, and many will wonder 
why it did not happen before. But an analysis 
of historic circumstances would show that 
never before had a complete opportunity of- 
fered. Mutiny of particular bodies of troops 
had often occurred already, and had been 
overcome. Thus the British authorities came„,. ^ 

Blindness 

to be insufficiently alive to the symptoms which "^t^^^^ities. 
portended the events of 1857. But after the 
storm had burst they evinced qualities rarely 
surpassed in the annals of the nation, and the 
history of the time is aglow with genius, valor, 
and capacity. 

The crisis past, no time was lost in rectify- 
ing the military faults which had rendered 
the revolt possible. The native troops were 

* ^ Changes in 

reduced in number, the European troops were ^ucy^^ 
augmented. The physical predominance at 
all strategic points was placed in the hands of 
European soldiers, and almost the whole of the 
artillery was manned by European gunners. 

Peace and order having been restored to 
the Empire in 1858, various changes, consti- 
tutional and other, were made. The East 
India Company, the greatest corporation ever 
known to history, ceased to exist, and the gov- 
ernment was assumed by the British crown. 
The army was reorganized so as to guard 
against the danger from which the country 
had just been saved. As compared with the 
relative proportions of former times, the Eu- 



ress. 



2134 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1857 

ropean force was doubled, while the native 
force was reduced by more than one-third. 
Dominion ^hus, as already seen, the European and the 
and prog- Hatlve wcrc as one to two; moreover, the Eu- 
ropean was placed in charge of the strategic 
and dominant position, so that the physical 
power was now in his hands. The dominion 
was consolidated by the work of peace under 
the successive Viceroys — Elgin, Lawrence, 
Mayo, Northbrook — with material improve- 
ment and moral progress. 

[In 1858, a Carbonaro, named Orsini, at- 
tempts to murder Napoleon III., and escapes 
to England. Much ill feeling results between 
France and England. Napoleon is frightened 
and turns to Cavour, promising to help expel 
the Austrians from Italy. The Montenegrins 
annihilate a Turkish invading army. Mol- 
davia and Wallachia are formed into a single 
State — Roumania. The East India Company 
is abolished. The Treaty of Tien-tsin opens 
China to European trade; China recognizes 
Russian sovereignty over the whole of Siberia. 
Japan is opened to unrestricted commerce 
with England, France, Russia, and the United 
States. The Virgin is believed to appear at 
Lourdes. In 1859, Volunteer rifle corps are 
formed in England. Napoleon marches into 
Italy against Austria. John Brown is cap- 
tured and executed for armed rebellion. 
Queensland is formed into a separate colony.] 



NAPOLEON III. IN ITALY 

(A.D. 1859) 

JOHN WEBB PROBYN 

THE ties which united France to Pied- 
mont were strengthened by the mar- 
riage, in the end of January, 1859, of 
the Princess Clotilde, the eldest daughter of 
Victor Emmanuel, with Prince Napoleon, the 
first cousin of the French Emperor. Nor was qoS. 
the surmise unfounded that the marriage was 
accompanied with distinct political stipula- 
tions between the two Governments; for an 
agreement was made by which the Emperor 
Napoleon promised to give armed assistance 
to Piedmont if she were attacked by Austria. 
The result, in case the allies were successful, 
was to be the formation of a northern king- 
dom of Italy, described as one possessed of 
about eleven millions of inhabitants. This 
agreement was not made public, but was 
signed on the i8th of January, 1859, by Prince 
Napoleon and General (afterward Marshal) 
Neil, on the part of the Emperor of the 
French, and by Cavour and General Lamar- 
mora, on the part of Victor Emmanuel. Both 

(2135) 



2136 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1859 

Austria and Piedmont increased their arma- 
ments and raised loans in preparation for war. 
, Men of all ranks and conditions of life flocked 

Austria and 

lllpZT to Turin from the other States of Italy to join 
for war. ^|^^ Piedmontcsc army or enrol themselves 
among the volunteers of Garibaldi, who had 
hastened to offer his services to the King 
against Austria. Instead of the confusion 
and division which marked and marred the 
uprising of Italy in 1848, there were now to 
be seen union and devotion under the com- 
mand of that Italian prince who had, ever 
since he mounted the throne of Piedmont on 
the field of Novara, remained faithful to the 
constitutional liberties of his own people, and 
opened his country as a refuge to all Italians 
driven into exile for the cause of liberty. 
Meanwhile, diplomacy made continual efforts 
to avert war by endeavoring to find some solu- 
tion of the difficulties and differences to which 
the Italian problem gave rise. In vain did 
other Powers seek to bring the views of the 
Cabinets of Vienna and Turin into agree- 
ment by means of various compromises. The 
gulf separating these two governments was 
far too wide to be thus bridged over. Then 
the idea of a European Congress was started. 
Dipio- Questions at once arose as to whether Pied- 
S^ mont was to have a seat at the Congress, and 
if Piedmont, whether the other Italian States 
were to be admitted ; again, were they to have 
a full or only a consultative voice in the ar- 



A.D. iss9 NAPOLEON III. IN ITALY 2137 

rangements made? Innumerable were the 
points of discussion which arose between 
Paris, London, Turin, Vienna, St. Petersburg, 
Berlin, not to mention the views expressed by 
the various little courts of the Italian penin- 
sula. Then came the proposition of a general General 

r r a disarma- 

disarmament, by way of staying the warlike proposed. 
preparations which were taking over enlarged 
proportions. On the i8th of April, 1859, the 
Cabinet of Turin agreed to the principle of 
disarmament at the special request of Eng- 
land and France on the condition that Pied- 
mont took her seat at the Congress. The Cab- 
inet of Vienna had made no reply to this 
proposition. Then suddenly it addressed, on 
the 23d of April, an ultimatum to the Cabi- 
net of Turin demanding the instant disarma- 
ment of Piedmont, to which a categorical 
reply was asked for within three days. At 
the expiration of the three days, Count Ca- 
vour, who was delighted at this hasty step of refusal, 
his opponent, remitted to Baron Kellerberg, 
the Austrian envoy, a refusal to comply with 
the request made. War was now inevitable. 
Victor Emmanuel addressed a stirring proc- 
lamation to his army on the 27th of April, and 
two days afterward another to the people of 
his own kingdom and to the people of Italy. 
When he left his capital to put himself at the 
head of his troops he was accompanied by 
the earnest goodwill of his own subjects and 
of the vast majority of Italians. The Em- 



2138 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1859 

peror of the French, who had promised to aid 
Piedmont if Austria were the first to take an 
aggressive step, was faithful to his engage- 
ment. On the 30th of April, some French 
troops arrived at Turin. On the 13th of 
Napoleon Mav, Napoleon III. disembarked at Genoa, 

arrives j i r ' 

in Italy, -yvhere an enthusiastic welcome was given him 
by the immense concourse of people assem- 
bled to witness his meeting with Victor Em- 
manuel, who came to receive his powerful 
ally. 

During the diplomatic campaign,^ which 
lasted through the first four months of 1859, 
Count Cavour, and those who represented his 
sovereign abroad, played their difficult game 
with consummate skill; yielding whenever 
circumstances made it necessary to do so, 
however hazardous it might be; standing firm 
just at the moment when such a course ap- 
proved itself to some, if not all, the great 
Powers; losing no occasion to further the 
cause of Piedmont, never losing sight of the 
end at which they aimed — that not only of 
securing the influence of Piedmont, but of 
advancing the cause of constitutional freedom, 
which she championed, throughout Italy, so 
far as circumstances permitted. The des- 
faheSp. potic rulers of Austria, baffled and annoyed, 
at last lost patience and sent that ultimatum 
to Turin which gave Count Cavour the op- 
portunity of refusing their demands with dig- 
nity, while enabling him at once to claim the 



A.D. i8s9 NAPOLEON III. IN ITALY 2139 

assistance which the Emperor of the French 
had promised if Austria were the first to take 
a step which made war inevitable. The real 
difficulty of Austria rose from her ultra- 
despotic system, which had received its crown- 
ing touch in the concordat concluded with the 
Papal See in 1855 — a concordat to which no 
former ruler of Austria would have consented, 
so greatly did it fetter and restrict the impe- difficulties. 
rial power. The Italian subjects of Austria 
hated her rule, as did the subjects of those 
Italian princes whom she upheld. Hungary 
had never ceased to desire the restoration of 
her ancient constitutional rights. The free- 
dom and order of Piedmont only increased 
the dislike felt by Italians to Austria, and so 
enhanced her difficulties. The Government 
of Vienna thought to cut the Gordian knot of 
its perplexities by war. It had just com- 
mitted, by its precipitate ultimatum, a diplo- 
matic blunder which its able adversary availed 
himself of without delay. It now went on to ^fj^^^^y 
commit a military blunder; for, although the *'^""'^^''- 
Austrian armies proceeded to cross the Ticino 
and invade the Piedmontese territory, they 
failed to make a decisive march on Turin. 
Had Count Giulay, the Austrian commander, 
done so without hesitation, he might well have 
reached the capital of Piedmont before the 
French had arrived in sufficient force to en- 
able the little Piedmontese army to arrest the 
invasion. As it was, the opportunity was lost 



2140 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1859 

never to occur again. In the first engage- 
ments at Montebello and Palestro the advan- 
tage rested decidedly with the allies. It was 
at this last-named battle that Victor Emman- 
uel, by his bold bearing and courage, excited 
the admiration not only of his own soldiers, 
but also of the French Zouaves, who were 
among the best troops of France. On the 4th 
Magenta, of Junc, the Frcnch fought the battle of Ma- 
genta, which ended, though not without a 
hard struggle, in the defeat of the Austrians. 
On the 8th, the Emperor Napoleon and King 
Victor Emmanuel entered Milan, where they 
were received with a welcome as sincere as 
it was enthusiastic. The rich Lombard capi- 
tal hastened to recognize the King as its sov- 
ereign. While there he met in person Gari- 
baldi, who was in command of the volunteer 
corps, whose members had flocked from all 
parts of Italy to carry on, under his command, 
the war in the mountainous districts of the 
north against Austria. The cordial and frank 
Meeting bearing of the monarch and his single-hearted 
konand' dcvotion to thc national cause made the deep- 

Garibaldi. . . i t i • • t j j 

est impression on the Italian patriot, indeed. 
Garibaldi felt from that moment the utmost 
confidence in the King; nor was it ever shaken 
throughout the difficulties, dangers, and trials 
which beset the progress of Italian- freedom 
until its final victory in Rome. 

The allied troops pursued their march on- 
ward toward the river Mincio, upon whose 



AD. i8s9 NAPOLEON III. IN ITALY 2141 

banks two of the fortresses of the famous 
Quadrilateral are situated. On the 24th of 
June they encountered the Austrian army at 
Solferino and San Martino. French, Pied- 
montese, and Austrians fought with courage 
and determination. Nor was it until after Ba"ieof 

Solferino. 

ten or eleven hours of hard fighting that the 
allies forced their enemy to retreat and took 
possession of the positions they had occupied 
in the morning. 

The French and Piedmontese armies had 
won the battle of Solferino, and driven the 
enemy across the Mincio; their fleets were off 
the lagoons of Venice, and were even visible 
from the lofty Campanile of St. Mark's. Italy 
was throbbing with a movement of national 
life daily gathering volume and force. Eu- 
rope was impatiently expecting the next move. 
It took the unexpected form of an armistice, 
which the Emperor of the French proposed, 
on his sole responsibility, to the Emperor 
Francis Joseph on the 8th of July. On the ^he Peace 
1 2th, the preliminaries of peace were signed f/ancaf' 
at Villafranca, Victor Emmanuel was op- 
posed to this act of his ally, but was unable to 
prevent it. 

[In i860. Napoleon obtains Savoy and 
Nice. Spain gains territory from Morocco. 
The second Maori war breaks out. The 
Druses massacre the Maronites, the Moham- 
medans massacre the Damascus Christians, 



2142 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1859 

and order is restored by a French army. 

South South Carolina dissolves its union with the 

secedes. United States. Speke and Grant determine 

the Victoria Nyanza to be the true source of 

the Nile. Garibaldi invades Sicily.] 



END OF THE POPE'S TEMPORAL POWER 
AND UNIFICATION OF ITALY 

ROBERT MACKENZIE 

AT the close of the war, Naples, containing 
a population of nine million, was still 
ruled by a Bourbon, who maintained state of the 
over the unhappy people a shameful despot- of"]fapks. 
ism. The Neapolitans were quick, intelli- 
gent, and good-natured — a people capable of 
high civilization, but cruelly debased by cen- 
turies of wicked government. They were ig- 
norant, idle, superstitious, and without just 
ideas of right and wrong. 

Ferdinand II. was then Kino:, the last of aFerdi- 

'-^ nand's 

line of tyrants. His government was regarded '^^^p°^'^"' 
with abhorrence by his subjects, and with 
strong disapproval by Europe. Some years 
before an eminent English statesman, Mr. 
Gladstone, had visited Naples. He was led to 
make inquiry into the relations maintained by 

. -^ Mr. Glad- 

the government with those of its subjects who^^"'^^^^^ 
were supposed to be disaffected. He gave to 
the world the result of his researches in letters 
addressed to Lord Aberdeen. He showed that 
there were probably twenty thousand persons 

(2143) 



2144 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

held in prison by the Neapolitan government 
for political reasons; that men were habitually 
arrested without any offence being charged, 
simply because the government desired to have 
them out of the way; that unoffending citi- 
zens were imprisoned for years, without trial, 
among the vilest criminals, often in heavy 
irons, which were never for a moment re- 
horrors, moved; that the dungeons were dark, airless, 
crowded, inexpressibly filthy, and often so 
low-roofed that the prisoners could not stand 
erect; that the doctors refused to enter these 
loathsome cells, and caused such prisoners as 
required medical care to be brought out to 
them; that the police habitually inflicted tor- 
ture; that trial was a mockery of justice; that 
prisoners who had the rare good fortune to be 
acquitted were liberated only if the govern- 
ment pleased. 

These revelations brought upon Naples the 
reprobation of the civilized world, and left 
her, in an age of revolution, without a friend. 
Lord Palmerston sent copies of Mr. Glad- 
stone's letters to the British ministers at all 
Neapolitan Europcan courts. The Neapolitan Govern- 

Govern- ^ 

[^^^\/^f ly^ ment felt so acutely the damage done to its 
stone. reputation that it caused a reply to be pre- 
pared, which, as Mr. Gladstone showed, vir- 
tually admitted the substantial accuracy of 
his statements. 

The great events which had come to pass 
in northern and central Italy sent their thrill- 



END OF THE POPE'S TEMPORAL POWER 2145 

ing influences among the people of the south. 
An insurrection broke out in Sicily ( i860) .ex^p^uion^ 
General Garibaldi summoned about him two 
thousand men, old soldiers of liberty, and 
sailed from Genoa, to strengthen and direct 
the movement. His battle-cry was to be, 
''Italy and Victor Emmanuel." The King's 
government was not a little embarrassed by 
this invasion in the King's name of the terri- 
tory of a friendly power. Cavour, who hadcavours 
just returned to ofiice, pronounced it the most '^""°*' 
difficult conjuncture in which he had ever 
been placed. He could not, without the sanc- 
tion of France, give encouragement to the con- 
quest of Naples. But the people of the north 
felt deeply the wrongs of their brethren in the 
south, and would not sufifer any eflfort for their 
deliverance to be thwarted. The government 
officially disapproved of Garibaldi's expedi- 
tion, but stood prepared to accept the advan- 
tages which its success would offer. After a 
little the King himself wrote to Garibaldi, 
begging him to desist. The general replied, 
with many loyal and dutiful assurances, that 
he was called for and urged on by the people 
of Naples; that he endeavored in vain to re- 
strain them; that the King must, on this occa- 
sion, permit him to be disobedient. But when 
it became evident that marvellous success was 
to crown the patriot efforts, Cavour's diffi- 
culty vanished. It was necessary that Sardinia 
should assume the leadership of a great na- 



2146 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

tional movement. Otherwise the unity of Italy 
would have been endangered. 
Triumph Garibaldi quickly possessed himself of Sic- 
rihemoa. ily. Hc crossed over to the mainland and be- 
gan his advance to Naples (August 19). His 
march was a triumphal progress. The troops 
of the King retired as he drew near; the re- 
joicing people hailed him as their deliverer. 
They gave expression to their rapture by il- 
luminations. They brought gifts of fruit and 
wine to the soldiers. They embraced, with 
Italian demonstrativeness, the rugged and 
travel-stained heroes. Garibaldi pressed for- 
ward rapidly, and in three weeks he entered 
Naples. The King and Queen fled on his ap- 
proach. The people received him v/ith enthu- 
siasm, such as the ancient city had probably 
never witnessed before. 

A portion of the Neapolitan army made a 
stand on the Volturno, where Garibaldi in- 
flicted upon it final defeat. Garibaldi became 
for a time dictator, and governed Naples. The 
people were asked to declare their wishes in 
regard to their political future. They voted, 
Union with by vast majorities, in favor of union with Sar- 
sardinia. ^jjj^j^ 'pj^g King, in acccptlng the new trust, 
summoned the people to concord and self- 
denial. "All parties," he said, "must bow be- 
fore the majesty of the Italian nation, which 
God uplifts." 

Garibaldi did not remain in the kingdom 
which he had won. He cherished against 



END OF THE POPE'S TEMPORAL POWER 2147 

Count Cavour a bitter antipathy, and sought to 
have him dismissed from office. He intimated 
in the official gazette of Naples his determina- 
tion never to be reconciled with the man who 
had sold an Italian province. He felt that he 
was not in harmony with the political condi- 
tions which surrounded him. In three months 
he had overthrown a despotic government, and 
added a population of nine million to the free 
kingdom of Italy. And now his work was 
done. Unostentatiously he quitted the land Garibaldi 

•' ^ retires to 

which he had saved, and returned in poverty^^P''^''^- 
to his little island of Caprera. 

The foundations of Italian unity had been 
laid by the judicious interference of Sardinia 
in the strifes of the great European powers. A 
judicious repetition of the same strategy was 
once more to yield results of the highest value 
to the national cause (1866). In course of 
years it became obvious that questions had 
arisen between Austria and Prussia which 
could not be solved otherwise than by the 
sword. Austria's extremity was Italy's oppor-portunity. 
tunity. A treaty was arranged by which Prus- 
sia bound herself not to make peace with Aus- 
tria until Venetia should be gained for Italy. 
King Victor Emmanuel engaged, on his part, 
to attack Austria on land with eighty thou- 
sand men, and at sea with all his naval force. 
On both elements he was unsuccessful: the 
Austrians defeated his army and his fleet. But 
better fortune crowned the arms of Prussia. 



2148 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

Two days after the battle of Sadowa, it was 
announced that Austria had ceded Venetia to 
France, thus, it may be supposed, lessening in 
some slight degree the humiliation which her 
final expulsion from Italy involved. The Em- 
peror Napoleon gracefully handed his acquisi- 
tion to the Italian Government. It had always 
been his purpose, he intimated, to restore Italy 
to herself, so that she should be free from the 
Alps to the Adriatic, and this programme was 
now all but completed. 

Rome's '^^^ ^^^^ remaining obstacle was the Pope. 

posiuon. The Holy Father still bore rule over the city 
of Rome and a considerable portion of those 
regions which the Church claimed to possess 
as the patrimony of St. Peter. To north and 
south lay the now united states which made up 
free Italy. Wedged in between was a popula- 
tion of half a million of Italians longing to be 
united with their countrymen, enduring impa- 
tiently a government which they believed to 
be the worst in Europe. This was a condition 
whose continuance was impossible. Italy 
could not tolerate, in the very heart of the 
kingdom, an alien state with a blindly despotic 
government and a discontented population. 
Moreover, Rome was the inevitable capital of 
united Italy. 

But the tottering throne of the Pope was still 

byFrance. Upheld by Frcnch bayonets, and the "eldest 
son" of the Church gave ominous warning to 
the Italians that his filial duty was to be in- 



Insurrec- 
tion in 
Rome. 



THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY 2149 

flexibly discharged. The King of Italy was 
firmly bound by a convention with France, not 
only to abstain from making any attack upon 
the territory of the Holy Father, but also to re- 
sist such attack if made by others. And when 
the Italian Government manifested some dis- 
position to forget that agreement, the Emperor 
Napoleon sternly intimated that France was 
prepared to insist upon its fulfilment. 

But events proved stronger than the Empe- 
ror Napoleon. The impatience of the Italian 
people became irrepressible. Insurrection 
burst out in Rome. Garibaldi gathered around 
him a band of unlicensed liberators, most of 
whom fell into the hands of the French and 
Papal troops. The Italian question became 
again a cause of European anxiety. Queen 
Victoria (November 19, 1867) expressed to 
Parliament her hope that the Emperor would, 
by the early withdrawal of his troops, remove 
any possible ground of misunderstanding be- 
tween himself and the King of Italy. A week 
or two later the French quitted Rome, but next 
day the French Government intimated angrily 
that "France would never submit to such a vio- 
lence on her honor and on Catholicity" as the 
occupation of Papal territory by the Italians. 

Three unquiet years passed, bringing vast 
changes. The Emperor Napoleon was a pris-[^^^^pf 
oner in the hands of the Prussians; his armies, p""^^""' 
shamefully defeated, had found refuge in sur- 
render; the King of Prussia was setting out on 

a VcL 5 



2150 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

his triumphal march to Paris; the Church was 
bereaved of her "eldest son." Undutiful Italy 
did not neglect the opportunity. Her troops 



Italy seizes 



tunity 



t^uni?r°''' forced an entrance into Rome (September 20, 
1870). The Empress of France exclaimed, 
"Rather the Prussians in Paris than the Ital- 
ians in Rome." The Archbishop of Paris fore- 
told approaching desolation. "Revolution," 
he said, "will overwhelm the world, and God 
will know how to create a new order out of its 
chaos." But neither prophecy nor malediction 
shook the steady purpose of the Italian people. 
The subjects of the Pope joyfully united them- 
selves with their countrymen, and the libera- 
tion of Italy was at length a completed work. 

[In 1861, the Czar Alexander frees the 
serfs. The American Civil War breaks out.] 



THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SERFS 

(A.D. 1861) 

ROBERT MACKENZIE 

UNDER the rule of his successor the des- 
potic system of Nicholas was to an 
important extent departed from. The 
newspaper press experienced sudden enlarge- 
ment. So urgent was the demand for politi- 
cal discussion, that within a year or two from ^"nYff" 
the close of the war seventy new journals were '^'^P''^'^- 
founded in St. Petersburg and Moscow alone. 
The government censors discharged their 
functions with the mildness which the liberal 
impulses of the time demanded. For a brief 
space the press enjoyed a virtual freedom 
from restraint, and availed itself boldly of 
the unprecedented opportunity. Western Eu- 
rope had been shut out by the Emperor Nich- ^^^^^i^''^' 
olas. Its liberal ideas, the history of its recent ^"'''*' 
political revolutions, its marvellous progress 
in science and the arts — all were unknown to 
the Russian people. Educated Russians were 
eager to acquaint themselves with this long- 
forbidden knowledge ; and a crowd of journal- 
ists, burning with a love of liberal ideas, hast- 

(3151) 



2152 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i86i 

ened to gratify the desire. An enfranchised 
press began to call loudly for the education 
of the people, for their participation in politi- 
cal power; for many other needful reforms. 
Chief among these, not merely in its urgency, 
but also in its popularity, was the emancipa- 
tion of the serfs. 

Forty-eight million Russian peasants were 
ofs°erfs in bondage — subject to the arbitrary will of 

long con- o J j 

tempiated. ^j^ Qwncr — bought and sold with the proper- 
ties on which they labored. This unhappy 
system was of no great antiquity, for it was 
not till the close of the Sixteenth Century that 
the Russian peasant became a serf. The evil 
institution had begun to die out in the west 
before it was legalized in Russia. Its aboli- 
tion had long been looked forward to. Cathe- 
rine II. had contemplated this great reform, 

dJrw ^"<^ so also had her grandson, Alexander I.; 

heriteduskj^^j. ^^ ^^^.^ -^^ which thcy spent their days 

forbade progress in any useful direction. 
Nicholas very early in his reign appointed a 
secret committee to consider the question; but 
the Polish insurrection of 1830 marred his 
design. Another fruitless efifort was made in 
1836. In 1838, a third committee was ap- 
pointed, but its work was suspended by "a 
bad harvest," and never resumed. Finally, 
it was asserted that the dying Emperor be- 
queathed to his son the task which he himself 
had not been permitted to accomplish. 

And thus it came to pass that when Alex- 



'a.d. i86i THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SERFS 2153 

ander II. ascended the throne, the general ex- 
pectation of his people pointed to the eman- 
cipation of the serfs. The Emperor shared in 
the national desire. At his coronation he pre- 
pared the somewhat reluctant nobles for the 
change which to many of them was so unwel- 
come. A little later he nominated a commit- 
tee, chosen from the proprietors, whose duty 
it was to frame, in accordance with certain 
principles laid down for their guidance, the 
details of this great revolution. Three years The decree 

. , . . . published 

followed of discussion, adjustment, revision, ('S^i). 
and then the decree was published which 
conferred freedom upon nearly fifty million 
Russian peasants. 

The position of the Russian serf, although 
it had much to degrade, was without the re- 

,. rni Position 

pulsive features of ordinary slavery. 1 he °4^„^|eff"^' 
estate of the Russian landowner was divided 
into two portions. The smaller of the two* — 
usually not more than one-third — was retained 
for the use of the proprietor. The larger was 
made over to the village community, by whom 
it was cultivated, and to whom its fruits be- 
longed. The members of that community 
were all serfs, owned by the great lord and 
subject to his will. He could punish them by 
stripes when they displeased him; when he 
sold his lands he sold also the population. 
He could make or enforce such claims upon 
their labor as seemed good to him. Custom, 
however, had imposed reasonable limitations 



2154 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1861 

on such claims. He selected a portion of 
ufifoS" his serfs to cultivate his fields and form his 
retinue. The remainder divided their time 
equally between his fields and their own: 
three days in each week belonged to their 
master, and three days belonged to themselves. 
Many of them purchased, for a moderate pay- 
ment, the privilege of entire exemption from 
the work of their owner. It was customary 
for these enterprising bondmen to settle in the 
nearest city, where occasionally they attained 
to wealth and consideration. Instances have 
occurred of wealthy bankers and merchants 
who still remained the property of a master, 
to whom a humiliating recognition of their 
servile estate was periodically offered. 

The lands which were in possession of the 
villagers were divided by lot among the sepa- 
rate families. As the number of claimants 
fluctuated, a fresh division was made every 
ninth year. A villager never lost his right to 
participate in the common inheritance. He 
might be absent for years, seeking his fortune 
in the city, but when it pleased him to return 
and claim his interest in the lands of his na- 
tive village, the claim could not be resisted. 

The law of emancipation bestowed personal 

freedom on the serfs. For two years those 

^mrncf- who were household servants must abide in 

pation. ... . . I j- 

their service; receiving, however, wages tor 
their work. Those who had purchased ex- 
emption from the obligation to labor for their 



A.D. i86i THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SERFS 2155 

lord were to continue for two years the an- 
nual payment. At the end of that time all 
serfs entered on possession of unqualified free- 
dom. 

The villagers continued in occupation of 
the lands which they had heretofore pos- ^0°™^"^^- 
sessed; but they became bound to pay a pur- p*'*''"^- 
chase-price or a sufficient equivalent in rent 
or in labor. The continued occupation was 
not voluntary, but compulsory; and no peas- 
ant may withdraw without consent of the 
whole community, which, in the northern 
parts of the Empire, is gained only by pur- 
chase. The lands thus acquired are not owned 
by individuals, but by the community. All 
obligations to the former proprietor or to the 
State are obligations of the associated vil- 
lagers. The land system of the greater por- 
tion of Russia is thus a system of communism. 
The industrious villager is the co-obligant of system 
the idle and vicious. The motive which im- munism. 
pels a man to the careful cultivation of his 
land is weakened by the knowledge that in a 
short time he will have to change fields with 
his neighbor. The peasant is assured of a 
maintenance which no misconduct on his part 
can alienate, but he is left almost without 
hope of rising to a better position. The por- 
tion of land assigned to him furnishes only 
partial employment. Recent changes in the 
excise laws bring stimulants within easy re^ch 
of all. Promoted by idleness, ignorance, and 



2156 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1861 

abundant opportunity, drunkenness has fear- 
drun1fen-° fully incrcascd since the abolition of serfdom. 
The indolent peasant works reluctantly for 
hire to his former lord. Notwithstanding an 
abundance of laborers, there is a serious 
insufficiency in the supply of labor. It is 
believed that over much of the country the 
productions of agriculture are diminishing. 

[In 1862, the Greeks expel their King, Otto. 
George, the second son of the King of Den- 
mark, is chosen by England to take his place ; 
representative institutions are established. Na- 
poleon begins his aggressive schemes on Mex- 

Farragut f _ ° tvt /-. 1 

captures jco. Farragut captures New Orleans; the 

Orleans. Alabama leaves the Mersey, notwithstanding 

protests; the Federals are repulsed at Bull 

Run ; Lee invades the North and then retreats; 

and . the Merrimac is worsted by the Monitor; An- 

nam cedes part of Cochin China to France.] 



THE POLISH INSURRECTION 

(A.D. 1860—1863) 

ALFRED RAMBAUD 

GREAT hopes awakened in Poland at 
the accession of the new sovereign; 
they went as far as the re-establishment 
of the Constitution, and even to the reunion 
of the Lithuanian provinces with the king- 
dom. The awakening of Italy had made that 
of Poland appear possible; the concessions of 
the Emperor ef Austria to Hungary led menp^j^^^,^ 
to expect the same from Alexander IL The^°P"- 
interview of the three northern sovereigns at 
Warsaw, in October, i860, caused a certain ir- 
ritation among the people. It is necessary also 
to take into consideration the intrigues set on 
foot by the Polish committees abroad. If 
many Poles counted on the support of Alex- 
ander IL to help them to raise their country, 
others wished to emancipate her entirely from 
Russia. There existed, therefore, two parties, 
in Warsaw and in the foreign committee; the 
one wished to take Italy as an example, the 
other would be content with the new lot of 
Hungary. The emancipation of the peasants 

(2157) 



2158 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1860-1863 



Two 



was in Poland, as in Russia, the question of the 
parties. day, but the conditions of the question were 
different in Warsaw from what they were in 
Moscow; the personal liberty of the rustics 
had been decreed by Napoleon I., at the time 
that the Grand Duchy was created ; but as they 
had received no property, they continued to 
farm the lands of the nobles, and paid their 
rent either in money or by corvees. The sub- 
stitution of a fixed money payment instead of 
a corvee was the first step in the path of re- 
form, which might be carried further by al- 
lowing the husbandman to become a proprie- 
tor, by paying annually a fixed sum toward the 
Policy of repurchase of the land, and putting means of 
cuuura/" credit at his disposal. The Agricultural So- 
society. ^,jg^^ presided over by Count Andrew Zamoi- 
ski, found that it was the intere'st of the Polish 
nation to anticipate the Russian Government, 
and to secure to the native nobility the honor 
of emancipation; the government, on the con- 
trary, represented by M. Monkhanof, director 
of the Interior, decided that it was to its ad- 
vantage to fetter the activity of the society, to 
forbid the discussion of the question of repur- 
chase, and to confine its functions to the muta- 
tion of the crovee into fixed dues. 
Agitation The contest between the Agricultural So- 
ciety and the Government increased the agita- 
tion which already existed at Warsaw. On the 
29th of November, i860, on the occasion of 
the thirtieth anniversary of the revolution of 



at Warsaw. 



A.D. i86o-i863 THE POLISH INSURRECTION 2159 

1830, demonstrations at once national and re- 
ligious took place in the streets of the capital, 
and portraits of Kosciuszko and Kilinski were 
distributed. On the 25th of February, 1861, 
the day of the anniversary of the battle of 
Grochov, the Agricultural Society held a 
meeting to deliberate on an address in which 
the Emperor should be asked for a constitu- 
tion. Tumultuous crowds gathered in the 
streets, singing national songs. On the 27th, 
on the occasion of a funeral service for the vic- 
tims of the preceding insurrections, there was 
a new demonstration, which had to be sup- 
pressed, with the loss of five killed and ten 
wounded. Prince Gortchakof, Viceroy of 
Poland, touched by these strange manifesta- Address 
tions, in which the disarmed people confined Emplror. 
themselves stoically to facing the musketry 
without interrupting their songs, labored with 
Count Zamoiski for the restitution of order. 
The address to the Emperor was circulated in 
Warsaw, and was covered with signatures; 
100,000 persons quietly followed the obsequies 
of the victims of the 27th of February. 

Without desiring to grant a constitution, the 
Emperor Alexander II. made, however, many 
important concessions. He decreed (edict of 
March 26) a council of state for the kingdom, 
a department of public education and of wor- 
ship, elective councils in each government and 
each district, and municipal councils at War- 
saw and in the principal cities of the kingdom. 



2160 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ^•°- '860-1863 

The Marquis Vielepolski, a Pole belonging to 
the party which hoped for the re-establish- 
ment of Poland by Russia, was named director 
of public worship and education. 

These concessions were likely to reconcile 
uonof"' ^^ lG2LSt the constitutional party; unhappily, 
cukurlh' their effect was destroyed by the sudden dis- 
society. solution of the Agricultural Society, in which 
the mass of people had placed its hopes, and 
the demonstrations continued. On the 7th of 
April a crowd assembled in the square of the 
Zamok (castle of the Viceroy) to demand that 
the edict of dissolution should be withdrawn, 
but it dispersed without any result before the 
hostile attitude of the troops. On the 8th of 
April the multitude reappeared, more nu- 
merous and more violent, shouting that they 
wanted a country; a postilion, who was driving 
a postchaise, played on his cornet the favor- 
ite air of Dombrovski's legions, "No, Poland 
shall not perish." The crowd, composed in 
great part of women and children, presented 
a passive resistance and invincible vis inerti(B, 
on which the charges of cavalry had no effect. 
The troops then had recourse to their arms. 
Massacre and fifteen rounds of shot laid 200 dead and a 
troops. large number of wounded at the feet of the 
statue of the Virgin. On the following days 
the people appeared only in mourning, in spite 
of the prohibition of the police. This uneasy 
state of things was prolonged for many months. 
On the loth of October a Polish and a Lithu- 



A.D. i86o-i863 THE POLISH INSURRECTION 2161 

anian procession celebrated at Hodlevo, on the 
Polo-Lithuanian frontier, the four-hundredth 
anniversary of the union of the two countries. 
The humanity of the Russian commandant al- 
lowed the fete to be held without the efifusion 
of blood. 

The Government still made one attempt 
at conciliation when the Emperor appointed 
Count Lambert as Viceroy, with orders toLamben^ 
apply the reforms decreed in March, 1861, but '■°^- 
the effect of his nomination was weakened by 
the presence at his side of men devoted to the 
policy of repression. The anti-Russian party, 
besides, had not disarmed. On the 15th of 
October, on the anniversary of Kosciuszko, the 
people flocked to the churches of Warsaw; 
the military authorities caused the churches to 
be surrounded by detachments, without seeing 
that the inoffensive inhabitants, alarmed at 
the display, would refuse to leave the churches, 
and that it would be necessary to drag 
them out by force. In fact, after a useless 
blockade that lasted a day and a night, up to 
four in the morning, the soldiers had to force 
the cathedral, and carry 2,000 people to the 
fortress. Count Lambert loudly complained 
to General Gerstenszweig, the military gov- 
ernor. After a fierce altercation, the latter 
blew out his brains, and Lambert was recalled. 

He was succeeded by Count Liiders, who count 
began a period of reaction, and a certain 
number of influential Warsovians were trans- 



2162 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ^-^^ 'SSo-'SSs 

ported. The Grand Duke Constantine, made 
Viceroy on the 8th of June, 1862, again tried 
a policy of reconciliation. Vielepolski, one 
of the promoters of the address to the Emperor, 
was nominated chief of the civil power. En- 
thusiasts attempted the lives of Liiders, of 
Vielepolski, even of the Grand Duke, and vio- 
lent men profited by all the errors of the Gov- 
ernment to push things to extremity, and to 
turn its good intentions against it. The Poles 
of Warsaw committed the error of disquiet- 
ing Russia about the provinces which she re- 
garded as Russian, and an integral part of 
the empire; the proprietors did not content 
themselves with demanding in an address to 
Constantine, that the government of Poland 
should be Polish, which was reasonable and 
just, but insisted that the Lithuanian palati- 
nates should be reunited to the kingdom. The 
upper classes of Podolia expressed the same 
podoiian wish with regard to that province, to Volhynia 
lf^ar?Js\edand thc Ukraiuc. These imprudences caused 
the exile of Zamoiski and the arrest of the 
Podoiian agitators. All understanding be- 
came impossible; an exercise of authority pre- 
cipitated the explosion; in the night of the 
15th of January, 1863, ^^e military govern- 
ment laid violent hands on the recruits. 

The conscripts who had escaped from the 
police formed the nucleus of the rebel bands 
which promptly appeared at Blonie and at 
Sierogk. The war could no longer assume 



A.D. i86<^i863 THE POLISH INSURRECTION 2163 

the great character of those of 1794 or of 1831 ; 
there was now no Polish army to struggle seri- 
ously with that of Russia: it was a little war 
of guerrillas and sharpshooters, who could no- 
where hold their own against the Russians, but 
who plunged into the thick forests of Poland, ^Irllvt 
and concealed themselves there, only to ap- 
pear further on and harass the columns. 
There were no battles, only skirmishes, the 
most serious of which was that of Vengrov, 
on the 6th of February, 1863. A few chiefs 
made themselves names: among these were 
Leo Frankovski, Sigismond Padlevski, Casi- 
mir Bogdanovitch, Mielengki, the energetic 
Bossak-Hauke (who was one day to fall un- 
der the French flag in the fields of Bur- 
gundy) ; the French Rochebrune and Blanken- 
heim, Mademoiselle Poustovoijov, Sierakov- 
ski (ex-colonel in the Russian army, who was 
hanged after his check in Lithuania) ; the 
priest-soldier, Mackievicz, Narbutt (son of 
the historian) ; Lelevel (a pseudonym adopted 
by a Warsaw workman), and Marian Langie- 
vicz, soon appointed dictator, but who, after 
the skirmishes of the 17th, 18th, and 19th of 
March, was driven back into Gallicia, and 
detained there by the Austrians. The secret 
committee of insurrection, or anonymous gov- 
ernment of Poland, had summoned the peas- 
ants to liberty and the enjoyment of property. 

The exasperated Russians treated the towns ^rueuy 
and villages concerned in the affair with great ^"''''"'^" 



2164 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. .860-1863 

cruelty. The village of Ibiany was destroyed, 
and the Polish chiefs taken with arms in their 
hands were shot or hanged. General Moura- 
vief in Lithuania declared that it was "useless 
to make prisoners." Berg in Poland, Dlo- 
tovskoi in Livonia, and Annenkof in the 
Ukraine, were the agents of a rigorous repres- 
sion. Felinski, Archbishop of Warsaw, was 
transported into the interior of Russia, as a 
punishment for having written a letter to the 
Emperor. 

Europe was touched. On the 5th of Janu- 
ary, 1863, the French minister, Billault, in the 
tribune of the Corps Legislatif, had blamed 
the "baseless hopes excited in the minds of 

interven- p^trlots, whosc powerlcss efforts could only 

Eu"ro°pean bring about new evils ;" he recommended the 
insurgents to the clemency of Alexander. 
Then France, England and Austria decided 
to have recourse to diplomatic intervention, 
invited the other Powers who had signed the 
Treaty of Vienna to join in their efforts, and 
laid before the Russian Government the notes 
of April, 1863, which invited her to put an 
end to the periodical agitations of Poland by 
a policy of conciliation. On June 17, the 
three Powers proposed a programme with 

Conditions ^^^ foUowing conditions: i. An amnesty; 2. 

required, ^j^^ cstablishmcnt of a national representa- 
tion; 3. The nomination of Poles to public 
offices; 4. The abolition of restrictions placed 
on Catholic worship; 5. The exclusive use of 



A.D. i86o-i863 THE POLISH INSURRECTION 2165 

the Polish language, as the official language 
of the administration, of justice, and of educa- 
tion; 6. A regular and legal system of re- 
cruiting. This intervention of the Western 
Powers, which was supported by no military 
demonstration, was rejected by the famous 
note of Prince Gortchakof, Chancellor of the 
Empire, and the idea of a European confer- 
ence was likewise rejected. Europe found 
herself powerless, and Napoleon III. had to 
content himself in his speech from the throne 
with the declaration that the treaties of 1815 
were ''trampled under foot at Warsaw." The 
conduct of Prussia had been quite different; 
she had concluded with Russia the convention 
of the 8th of February, 1863, for the suppres- 
sion of the Polish manifestations, and thus laid 
the foundation of that Prusso-Russian alliance 
which was to prove so useful to her. 

This insurrection was to cost Poland dear. 

__, t • r 1 • Extinction 

The last remams of her autonomy were extm- of Poland. 
guished. To-day, the "kingdom" is nothing 
but a name, and the country has been divided 
into ten provinces (1866). The Russian lan- 
guage has replaced the Polish in all public 
acts; the University of Warsaw is a Russian 
university; the primary, secondary, and supe- 
rior education all lend their aid to the work 
of denationalization. Poland lost her insti- 
tutions without obtaining the benefit of those 
of Russia — the zemstva, the jury, and the new 
tribunals. As the government held the nobles 



2166 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1860-1863 

responsible for the insurrection, it therefore 
markedly favored the peasants, authorizing 
them to "enter into full and entire possession 
of the lands which they held." An oukaze 
of the loth of December, 1865, rendered the 
sale of confiscated and sequestrated property 
imperative, and Russians alone might be pur- 
chasers. 

Finland, on the contrary, had all her privi- 
prMieges. ^^gcs conflrmcd. In 1863, Alexander con- 
voked the diet of the grand duchy, the second 
that had been held since the annexation to the 
Empire. The German nobility of the Baltic 
provinces, more docile and more politic than 
that of Poland, were not disturbed. The Uni- 
versity of Dorpat remained a German uni- 
versity; the government only took measures 
to protect the language and religion of the 
Empire against the propagation of the Ger- 
man tongue and of the Protestant religion. 
The bold demands of the Slavophil louri Sa- 
marine, in his Russian Frontiers, and the lively 
polemic sustained against him by the Baltic 
writers — Schirren, Wilhelm von Bock, Julius 
Eckart, and Sternberg — did not lead to any 
important changes in the three governments 
of Livonia, Courland, and Esthonia. 



THE FIGHT BETWEEN THE "MONITOR" 
AND THE "MERRIMAC" 

(A.D. 1862) 

JAMES SCHOULER 

ON the same day that Johnston's retreat 
from Manassas was made known at 
the White House, a sea encounter oc- 
curred at Hampton Roads, off Fortress Mon- 
roe, which revolutionized in effect the naval 
warfare of the civilized world. This was the 
ironclad combat of the Monitor and Merri- 
mac. On both sides American inventive ge- 
nius had been at work over armor-plated Appropna- 
vessels and the use of the ram, public appro- explru" 

, . , , . . ments. 

priation havmg been made for experiments. 
At the Tredegar works in Richmond, the 
Merrimac, rescued by its captors when Gos- 
port navy yard burned, was converted into 
an ironclad. A wedge-shaped prow of cast- 
iron projected about two feet in front of this 
vessel ; while a wooden roof, sloping to the 
water's edge, was covered with two iron plates 
of armor, inside of which was placed a bat- 
tery of ten guns. On the Union side, the Navy 
Department, from the plans submitted, chose 

(2167J 



2168 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1862 



that of John Ericsson, of New York, a man of 
pianfuTe scientlfic acquirements, Swedish by birth, but 
an American by adoption. His Monitor, a 
craft of careful model and superior workman- 
ship, seemed almost providentially constructed 
to engage the clumsier Merrimac at the right 
moment. For sea service it was defective; 
but in light draught and nimbleness of motion 
it was well suited for shoal harbors and rivers. 
Like a "cheese-box on a raft," as well de- 
scribed by the Union press, this ironclad pre- 
sented only a thin edge of surface above and 
below the water line, while an iron turret re- 
volved in sight from which two large guns 
might be rapidly trained and fired. 

Three wooden Union frigates of the older 
pattern lay at anchor under the guns of For- 
tress Monroe, and two others near Newport 
News, further within the bay, when about 
noon on Saturday, March 8th, this recon- 
structed Merrimac plowed suddenly toward 
them from the mouth of the James River near 
Norfolk, under an armed convoy. The three 
nearest frigates slipped their cables at once, 
expecting an easy encounter; but, being all of 
deep draught, they soon ran aground in low^ 
water. From Newport News the two other 
frigates, with shore batteries besides, opened 
fire upon this strange craft, which looked like 
some huge, half-submerged crocodile; but, to 
their amazement, the iron hail bounded from 
the sloping back of the dark leviathan like 



A.D. i862 THE "MONITOR' AND THE "MERRIMAC" 2169 

rubber balls. On came the monster, and 
crashed her iron prow into the Cumberland, nma/J' 

victory, 

which sank m forty- five mmutes, carrymg^archs, 
down officers and crew; and the colors still 
floated at her masthead as the Merrimac, hov- 
ering about her, sent shot into the defenceless 
hull. Next, turning upon the Congress, which 
had made for shore, the Merrimac took up a 
raking position and riddled her with hot shot 
and shells, until after fearful carnage that ves- 
sel burned until midnight, when explosion of 
the magazine made an end of her. Drawing 
ofif at dusk, the iron champion returned with 
its convoy to the Norfolk side and anchored 
under the guns of Confederate batteries until 
morning. 

The day's news carried consternation to 
Washington. This strange and terrible en- 
gine of war, impervious to our heaviest shot, 
what irreparable damage might it not inflict? 
Two of the three frigates that had run aground 
were with difficulty drawn off; but the Min-^l^^^^^' 
nesota* stuck fast, the first probable victim of Sng^^n'*"' 
the next daylight. Deliverance was provi- 
dentially at hand, neither summoned nor sent 
for. By the light of the burning Congress the 
puny Monitor from New York was towed 
into Hampton Roads late that very evening, 
and, under the brave Lieutenant John L. 
Worden, took station near the stranded frig- 
ate. On Sunday morning the Merrimac ap- 

* Twin frigate to the original Merrimac. 



2170 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1862 

proached, like a Goliath, sure of the prey; 
but the pygmy, like David, advanced to meet 
her. A single combat of three hours ensued, 
which spectators lining both shores viewed 
with prolonged wonder and eagerness. It 
began a duel of the invulnerables, and ended 
with no obvious impression made on either 
adversary; but the lighter craft, by forcing 
the heavier to withdraw, gained the essential 
victory. The Merrimac was twice the Moni- 
The duel oi tor s Icngth and breadth, and carried five times 
as many guns. Her great draught compelled 
her to manoeuvre in deep water, while the 
Ericsson craft, drawing only ten feet, could 
run where she pleased and bring her guns to 
bear upon an iron target far broader than her 
own. The Merrimac began leaking, and there 
was danger of penetrating the joints of her 
armor; she rushed in vain to sink the agile 
foe, having lost her iron prow the day before; 
and, just as the second in command on the 
The Mer- MoTiitor rclievcd Worden, who had received 
withdraws, a slight injury while in the pilot-house, the 
Merrimac started on her retreat, refusing 
further fight* 

Wooden walls, however, won the victory at 
New Orleans; and gunboats on our Western 
rivers, only partially protected with iron 
chains or plates, did good service against the 

* The Merrimac's engines were poor, and fear was felt of 
a falling tide. The pilot-house arrangement of the original 
Monitor was afterward improved. 



A.D. 1852 THE "MONITOR" AND THE "MERRIMAC" 2171 

more imposing, but ill-built Confederate rams 
and armor-plated craft, which never did such 
deadly work again nor caused such terror as 
on this first occasion. The valiant Monitor 
soon lent her name to a whole Union fleet, 
built after the turreted model, which operated 1><^ ., . 

' r Monitor is 

before Charleston and Richmond; and, thCamodlL^' 
world over, naval ingenuity entered upon a 
new era of invention, which has hardly yet, at 
this late day, perfected its experiments. 



RISE AND FALL OF THE MEXICAN EMPIRE 

(A.D. 1863—1867) 

JULES GAUTIER 

NAPOLEON III. dreamed of founding 
in Mexico a Latin empire which would 
counterbalance the influence of the 
United States, and pursued this project in ac- 
cord with the clerical conservative party. 
^mtofoTs'^ When he learned of the convention of the 
i^gaLatin solcdad he sent to Mexico a brigade of 4,500 
men under General Latrille de Lorencez, ac- 
companied by General Almonte, son of the 
patriot Morelos and one of the heads of the 
conservatives. With him came Father Mi- 
randa and other notable priests. Juarez gave 
the order to arrest "the traitors and reaction- 
aries," and the representatives of Spain and 
England, Prim and Wyl^e, demanded that Al- 
monte should be sent back. Jurien de la Gra- 
viere refused, and in April the English and 
Spanish corps evacuated Mexico. 
The French Ou April 1 6, thc Frcuch published a strange 
manifesto in which they declared they had 
come to Mexico to put a stop to the divisions 
of the country. This was war. A conserva- 

(2173) 



manifesto. 



A.D. 1863-1867 RISE AND FALL OF MEXICAN EMPIRE 2173 

tive revolution was counted upon, but it did 
not take place; Almonte and Miramon could 
only group 5,000 adherents around the foreign 
camp; not a town opened its gates. Juarez 
issued a decree calling all men to arms from 
twenty-one to sixty years, and threatening with 
death any who gave aid to the enemy. On 
April 28, De Lorencez forced the passage of 
the mountains at Cumbres, and on May 5 at- 
tacked Puebla, which Zaragoza defended with 
12,000 men; he was repulsed and lost 476 sol- 
diers. On May 18, a defeat of the Mexicans 
at Bananceseca by the French compensated 

n^. .J The siege 

for this check. The French army remamedof Puewa. 
at Orizaba, maintaining with difficulty its 
communication with Vera Cruz. It received 
supplies from a new commandant, General 
Forey, who landed in August with 30,000 
men, and climbed slowly toward Orizaba, 
where he dissolved the pseudo-government 
organized by Almonte (October, 1862). He 
established a line of communication with Vera 
Cruz, and on May 16, 1863, began the siege of 
Puebla; Zaragoza was dead; Ortega defended 
the place with 22,000 men, while Comonfort 
covered Mexico. The siege was terrible; they 
had to take each cuadra (square of houses) 
one by one. Despite cholera and typhus, thechoiera 

1 • J 1 1 1 1 1 r- 11 andtyphus. 

besieged held out three months; nnally, on 
May 8, Comonfort's army was dispersed by 
Bazaine at San Lorenzo; on the 17th, Ortega 
surrendered himself after having spiked his 

1 ^ ^ Vol. 6 



2174: THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863-1867 

150 cannon, broken his arms and scattered his 
powder; 26 generals, 1,000 officers and 11,000 
soldiers were taken prisoners. Juarez left 
Mexico on May 31, retiring to San Luis de 
Potosi. Bazaine entered the capital on June 
Bazaine yth. The Frcnch entered Mexico City in tri- 

enters the / J 

Capital, umph with the acclamations of the people; an 
assembly of thirty-five notable conservatives 
was reunited and restored the authority to the 
triumvirate of Almonte, De Labastida, Arch- 
bishop of Mexico, and General Marianno 
Salas, a former lieutenant of Santa Anna. 
They convened 250 notables under the name of 
a Constituent Assembly, to deliberate, and on 
June 10 made this illegal, unelected body vote 

Resolution ^^ followiug rcsolution : "The Mexican na- 

Assembiy. ^.^^ adopts for form of government a tem- 
perate and hereditary monarchy, under a Cath- 
■ olic prince; the sovereign will take the name 
of Emperor of Mexico; the imperial crown 
will be offered to the Archduke Maximilian 
of Austria, for himself and for his descen- 
dants." 

At first, circumstances seemed favorable 
to the Napoleonic combination. Forey, ap- 
pointed a marshal, returned to France, leaving 
the command to Bazaine (October i, 1863). 
The latter made rapid operations with the 
help of the conservative bands of the Marquez 
and Mejia. The liberal armies were broken 

Zorci?^''*^ up; there remained little else than guerrillas, 
reinforced by the remnants of the troops of 



A.D. 1863-1867 RISE AND FALL OF MEXICAN EMPIRE 2175 

Comonfort and the fugitives from Puebla; the 
nucleus of the regular army was composed of 
pressed Indians, serving indifferently under 
any flag; as for the guerrillas, formed of bands 
of volunteers or vaqueros grouped around 
their proprietaries, they were divided between 
the liberals and reactionaries. The two prin- 
cipal leaders of the revolutionary cause were 
Juarez in the north and Porfirio Diaz in the 
south. 

Bazaine gathered the Mexicans in two 
columns under General Douai and General 
Cartaguy, and had Colonel Dupin organize 
some contra guerrillas. San Luis de Potosi 
was taken on December 25; Guadalajara on 
January 5, and Zacatecas on February 6, 1864; 
Juarez took refuge in Monterey, from which 
he chased the Governor of New Leon, Vi- 
daurri, who wished to be independent. Juarez suteV""^'^ 
solicited the aid of the United States, offering 
to cede Sonora, but that country being ab- 
sorbed by the War of Secession it would not 
accept. Comonfort had been killed. Ortega, 
who had escaped, was embroiled with the 
President and seemed disposed to ally himself 
with Bazaine. The new Emperor had a clear 
field. He had declared on October 3 to a 
Mexican deputation that came to Miramar to 
offer him the crown that he would accept it 
under the reserve of the unanimous adhesion 
of the nation; the address was signed by two 
thousand communes; on April 10, 1864, the 



fuse aid. 



2176 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863-1867 

Archduke announced his adhesion, was conse- 
crated by the Pope at Rome, and sailed for 
Vera Cruz on May 29. 

Maximilian arrived in Mexico with his 
wife, Marie Charlotte (daughter of the King 
of Belgium), on June 12, 1864. He attempted 
a conciliatory policy, scattering the extreme 
clerical orders. He refused to restore the 
fueros of the clergy and abolish the peonat, 
which was a kind of bondage imposed upon the 
Maximilian Indians. By this means he alienated the reac- 
Mexko.'" tionaries without rallying the patriots around 
him. At the same time he promulgated martial 
law against the republicans who still held the 
country. The French army had occupied 
Monterey and driven Juarez back to Chihua- 
hua; Bazaine marched against Porfirio Diaz, 
and took Oajaca on February 9, 1865, and then 
occupied Chihuahua (August 15). Juarez 
installed himself at El Paso del Norte, the last 
point of Mexican territory that had remained 
free. 
Ss™'^'*" It was thought that he had gone into the 
decree. United Statcs, and on October 3 Maximilian 
issued a decree declaring that this departure 
had put an end to the resistance and that hence- 
forth the liberal guerrillas would be regarded 
as associations of malefactors and their mem- 
bers should be shot in twenty-four hours; any 
one providing them with arms, provisions or 
information must submit to capital punish- 
ment. These severe measures were not calcu- 



A.D. 1863-.867 RISE AND FALL OF MEXICAN EMPIRE 2177 

lated to strengthen a rule that was supported 
only by foreign bayonets. 

The downfall of the new Empire of Mexico 
was rapid. It was never recognized by the 
United States, which had never ceased treat- 
ing Juarez as the head of legal power. On 
April 4, 1864, Congress, at Washington, had 
declared that the people of the United States 
considered it incompatible with its principles 
to recognize a monarchy instituted under the 
auspices of a European Power. Neither the Rapid 

'^^ . 1-1 downfall 

Senate nor the President were connected with °f the 

Empire. 

it; but as the War of Secession drew near its 
close, on February 9, 1865, the Federal Gov- 
ernment, in the name of the Monroe Poctrine, 
demanded Napoleon III. to recall his troops, 
so as to leave the Mexicans free to choose their 
own government. Vainly they tried to pro- 
tract matters; the language of the United 
States became menacing, and evacuation be- 
came inevitable. A loan of 170 millions, 
subscribed in France, brought but 50 mil- 
lions to the government. Bazaine and Maxi- 
milian were not in harmony and were power- 
less; the Pope had rejected a new concordat 
that sanctioned the sale of the possessions of 
the clergy. Disaffection multiplied. Im- '^?fj^|«4'° 
movable, Juarez, whose powers expired onP"^^"^^- 
November 30, 1865, had prorogued them, re- 
fusing to yield place to the president of the 
Supreme Court, Ortega, who should have 
filled the interim. Volunteers streamed in 



2178 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863-1867 

from the United States; the execution of the 
republican leaders, Arteaga and Salazar, shot 
by General Mendez (October 31, 1865), only- 
served to excite the patriots. Even old Santa 
Anna issued from his retreat in Havana. As 
soon as the order for the return of the French 



Mexico 
shakes o 
the yoke. 



shakes off troops was known, the Mexicans shook off the 



yoke. In January, 1866, the Liberals were 
masters of the State of Durango; in February, 
of New Leon; on June 14, Mejia capitulated 
at Matarnoros; Monterey was evacuated; 
Tampico was taken in August, and Juarez 
was reinstalled at Chihuahua in September. 
Vainly did the Empress Charlotte supplicate 
Napoleon; they even refused to send fresh Aus- 
trian volunteers. The chivalrous Maximilian 
refused to abdicate, unwilling to abandon his 
followers to the reprisals of the conquerors. 
le^part'^"'^ On March 11, 1867, the last of the French 
soldiers departed; the Belgians and most of 
the Austrians had also left. Events followed 
rapidly; the bands of Apaches and Opatas 
that had guarded the Imperial tent were 
pushed to the north; the Imperialists were 
vanquished as far south as Yucatan ; Porfirio 
Diaz, after having defeated Marquez, arrived 
before the gates of Mexico; Maximilian re- 
tired into the fortress of Queretaro, while 
Marquez shot his prisoners and terrorized the 
capital. Escobedo besieged Queretaro, where 
Miguel Lopez surrendered the citadel (May 
15, 1867) ; Mendez was shot on the same day; 



A.D. 1863-1867 RISE AND FALL OF MEXICAN EMPIRE 2179 

in the following month, Maximilian shared 
the same fate with Mejia and Miramon (June execuTed.^" 
19). The Liberals would not allow the de- 
parture for Europe of a pretender whose court 
had been the permanent arena for conspira- 
cies; and they meant to give a bloody warn- 
ing to all European princes in quest of a 
crown. On June 21, General Diaz entered 
Mexico; on June 25, Vera Cruz surrendered. 
Juarez re-entered his capital amid acclama- 
tions and was re-elected president. 

[In 1863, the Ionian Islands are united to 
Greece; a Polish insurrection against con- 
scription is brutally suppressed by Muravieff. 
Lincoln issues a proclamation abolishing: slav- abolishes 

r o slavery. 

ery. Grant captures Vicksburg and controls 
the whole Mississippi. Lee defeats the Fed- 
erals at Chancellorsville and invades the 
North, but is defeated at Gettysburg. Gor- 
don suppresses the Taiping Rebellion. Japan 
is attacked by French, English, and American 
fleets.] 



THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES 

(A.D. 1863) 



P 



JAMES SCHOULER 

(OSTERITY, which finds the pathway 
cleared, must do justice to the humane 
generation of Americans that hesitated, 
while considering its honest legal duty. Most 
admirably did the President himself express 
^ndmem ^^^ dominant loyal sentiment of his times, 
of the day. ^j^^^h forbadc that emancipation should sup- 
plant the original cause for taking up arms in- 
stead of applying in furtherance of it. "My 
paramount object in this struggle," as he de- 
clared in an oft-quoted letter to Horace 
Greeley, "is to save the Union, and is not 
either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could 
save the Union without freeing any slave, I 
would do it; and if I could save it by freeing 
all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could 
save it by freeing some and leaving others 
alone, I would also do that." * 

But a year of desperate and indecisive con- 
flict had shown to the North God's guidance 

* This was written only a month before he issued the pre- 
liminary proclamation of emancipation. 
(2180) 



A.D. i863 THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES 2181 

toward new social conditions. Scarcely were 
Northern troops seen hastening to the defence ofjohn 

^ '^ Ouincy 

of the capital, when John Quincy Adams's ^<i^^^- 
speech was recalled and reprinted in North- 
ern presses, with that ominous threat that 
slaves might be lawfully freed by a constitu- 
tional exercise of the war power in case of 
disloyal rebellion. It was impossible that 
the rebellious States should be invaded at all 
without making slavery omnipresent in its 
military aspects. And one point soon became 
clear, that troops from the free and loyal 
States were not to be used at the seat of war 
as slave-catchers or the police of social oppres- 
sion. Butler, who, though of Democratic and 
Doughface antecedents, was a quick-witted siaveryand 
politician, read those signs speedily. On'^*""^^'' 
reaching Maryland at the first call to arms, 
he offered the use of his regiments as a Massa- 
chusetts brigadier to put down any slave up- 
rising which might occur there, and joined 
issue through the press with his governor on 
that subject; but a month later, when in Fed- 
eral command at Fortress Monroe, he was of 
all generals zealous to formulate a policy 
which should compel slavery to endure its 
own disadvantage. Of slave insurrection 
there was never a serious danger; but these 
docile children of nature would come flock- 
ing into the Union lines like estrays, because 
the master's hold was loosened. Butler framed 
the ingenious plea that such fugitives were 



2182 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a. d. 1863 

contraband of war, since the enemy used the 
?intraband ablc-bodled slave to build batteries and dig 
intrenchments. That expression was a happy 
one, and became immensely popular. "I'se 
contraband," the grinning runaway was sup- 
posed to say to the master who sought to re- 
claim him; and the idea of self-confiscation 
tickled so greatly the Northern sense of humor 
that the chattel was left unsurrendered. For 
negro freedom was popular enough with the 
North if only the Constitution were obeyed. 
Strict confiscation had in law but a limited 
conserva- T^nge ; aud in the practical denial of a sur- 
oSe''*^^ render for such waifs of bondage our depart- 
ge^rais" mcnt gencrals found occasion to differ. Thus, 
in 1 86 1, while Butler in southeastern Virginia 
virtually freed the slaves who came to him, 
Sherman and Buell in Kentucky, Dix in 
Maryland, and Halleck in Missouri, slave re- 
gions less positively disloyal, took a more con- 
servative attitude and ordered slaves kept out 
of their lines. This latter course avoided, 
were it possible, all implied obligation of sur- 
rendering to loyal masters; for, as Dix wrote, 
''we have nothing to do with slaves." In 
some rare instances orders issued that fugi- 
tives should be restored; but the undercurrent 
of military practice strengthened in the direc- 
tion of permitting freedom. The love of cu- 
riosity, of novelty, of vagrancy, and his own 
irrepressible longing for liberty, brought the 
slave into the Union camps, ragged and shift- 



A.D. 1863 THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES 2183 

less; and humanity enjoined that he should 
be fed and sheltered. Officers kept such ne- 
groes as servants or set them to work as cooks, 
teamsters, and laborers; and when campaigns 
of invasion began, whole families of slaves 
were found upon plantations, deserted by their 
owners and helpless. In the mildest sense of 
lost and abandoned property government 
might well have claimed reimbursement for 
its care and support of such creatures. 

Plainly, then, as things tended after the real 
struggle of civil war began, this Union could 
never have been restored to its previous con- 
dition, as concerned slavery, with that institu- aw°akTningr 
tion strong as before. The awakening of the 
Northern mind was shown in the second ses- 
sion, in which were debated long and ear- 
nestly the new and shifting aspects of this al- 
ways perplexing problem. Had McClellan's 
spring campaign in Virginia ended in the 
speedy capture and downfall of Richmond, a 
practical, though somewhat negative, eman- 
cipation must in the nature of things have 
largely resulted from his military operations. 
Public opinion moved onward. A treaty with wuf^ 
Great Britain for a joint suppression of the 
slave-trade, with a mutual right to search sus- 
pected merchant vessels, was concluded at 
Washington in April of the new year. And 
of other practical measures tending in the 
same direction, passports were to be granted 
without distinction of color; Hayti and Li- 



reat 
Britain- 



2184 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

beria gained recognition for diplomatic inter- 
course; freedom was declared henceforth 
within all territories of the United States; 
slavery was eradicated in the District of Co- 
lumbia by a measure such as Lincoln had pro- 
posed years earlier, while in Congress; and 
the curse was removed from the soil of the 
nation's capital. 

Conscious that this philanthropic drift must 
continue, the President now procured the 
sanction of Congress to a general plan of 
compensated abolition for winning the loyal 
border States to freedom. A joint resolution 
of April loth, which passed Congress at his 
suggestion, offered the co-operation of gov- 
ernment to any State that might emancipate, 
whether gradually or at once, by giving, pe- 
cuniary indemnity for the inconvenience, 
public and private, of changing the system. 
Recompense, in other words, was offered to 
the loyal border States, on the principle just 
applied as of constitutional right in the Dis- 
Lincoin's ^^^^^ ^^ Columbia. Lincoln's message of 

Mlrdfe,"^ March 6th, solemnly commending such co- 
1862. . . , 

operation, was meant to avert more violent 

results, and to tender seasonably to slavehold- 
ers the olive branch. 

Lincoln was a man of expedients; and, im- 
pressed though he was by the moral aspects 
of the struggle forced upon him, he took anx- 
ious care not to foster dissensions among loyal 
States, nor suffer a strife for the integrity of 



A.D. i863 " THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES 2185 

the Union to lapse into a remorseless revolu- 
tion. The immediate and practical aspects 
of administration he kept constantly in view. 
Yet slavery, with its ambitious rivalry and dis- 
sensions, had caused this bloody struggle; and 
a deep, though undefined, hope increased 
among the Northern people that somehow, in 
God's providence, slavery and rebellion would 
perish together. Full abolition could only 
be secured by a constitutional amendment, and 
such amendment by the constitutional method 
was, in the present stage of sentiment, impos- 
sible. But emancipation by edict in aid of 
the war power against the rebellious and dis- 

Tendencies 

loyal was held legitimate. In that respect t° ^'■««<^o'"- 
Lincoln reserved strictly to himself the 
weighty initiation. His views varied, to- 
gether with his policy, not because his pur- 
pose was fixed far in advance, but because his 
conscience advanced with that of the conserv- 
ative people, whose gradual change of senti- 
ment was like that which had brought their 
ancestors, in 1776, to throw ofif allegiance topianof 

, . compen- 

tne Kmg, when resistance to bad measures sated 

o" abolition. 

was the cause of taking up arms. Fremont, 
at Missouri, had announced military emanci- 
pation too early, and the President overruled 
him. Hunter, a warm personal friend, is- 
sued, while commanding in South Carolina, 
a similar edict, which the President modified 
in 1862, publicly declaring that, as comman- 
der-in-chief, he reserved so momentous a de- 



2186 



THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



A.D. 1863 



Palmer- 
ston's 
hostility 
to slavery. 



Northern 
opinion. 



cision to himself. While proclaiming this, 
he earnestly pressed his plan of compensated 
abolition upon the loyal slave States. On the 
1 2th of July, at a conference held by his in- 
vitation at the White House, he once more, in 
a most impressive address, urged the border 
Representatives, now about to return home 
for the recess, to lay that plan before their sev- 
eral constituencies. 

There were signs this spring that a policy 
of emancipation would strengthen the Union 
cause in England. Weed wrote from abroad 
that Lord Palmerston's hostility to slavery 
was earnest and unchangeable. What with 
debates of the long session upon various phases 
of the slavery question, and the differing and 
often conflicting orders of the various com- 
manders, some thought the government too 
fast, others too slow, in the new direction. In 
truth, the disposition grew in Congress to com- 
pel the President to proclaim emancipation. 
Slaves of disloyal persons in the Confederate 
States were declared emancipated upon com- 
ing within the Federal lines; all persons in the 
army and navy were prohibited from passing 
judgment upon the claims of slave masters. 
Much, in short, was done before adjournment 
toward authorizing the Union armies to grind 
negro vassalage under foot as they went for- 
ward. Yet Northern opinion constrained 
Congress from compelling the President upon 
the issue of proclaiming freedom to the slave. 



A.D. i863 THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES 2187 

A gloom had come over military operations 
after the bright harbinger of spring. Upon 
McClellan's repulse on the peninsula, had 
been arranged, with State governors, the new 
levy of three hundred thousand men. Lin- 
coln, now left unfettered by Congress, brooded 
over the great question of declaring general 
emancipation through the whole insurrection- 
ary region. Five days after the adjournment 
of the legislative branch he reached his con- 
clusion, impelled by conscience and a military 
necessity. On Monday was held a Cabinet 
meeting for considering various stringent mili- 
tary measures, such as subsisting troops in the 
hostile territory, and employing negroes in the 
army and navy — projects presently embodied 
in general arders. On the next eventful day, 
July 22d, the subject was resumed ; after which 
Lincoln read to his Cabinet the draught of a 
proclamation, declaring free the slaves of all and ws" 

^ t n r T divided 

States still in rebellion on the first of January cabinet, 
ensuing; but commending once more to the 
loyal slave States his plan of compensated 
abolition. Brief memoranda of the occasion 
are extant; but all the President's advisers, ex- 
cept Seward and Welles, were taken by sur- 
prise, and bewilderment was shown at the 
magnitude of the project. This draught, 
which the President had prepared upon his 
own conviction and without the knowledge 
of his Cabinet, gave rise to various comments ; 
the same hesitation and variance of views be- 



Seward's 
views. 



2188 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

ing visible here as among the people at large. 
Blair, who alone positively objected, declared 
it would cost the approaching elections. 
''Nothing, however, was offered," as Lincoln 
related afterward, "that I had not already 
fully anticipated and settled in my own mind, 
until Secretary Seward spoke. He said in 
substance, 'Mr. President, I approve of the 
proclamation, but I question the expediency 
of its issue at this juncture; the depression of 
the public mind, following upon recent re- 
verses, might make it viewed as the last meas- 
ure, a cry for help, — the government stretch- 
ing forth its hands to Ethiopia, instead of 
Ethiopia stretching forth her hands to the 
government.' Hence, he advised deferring 
its issue until supported by some military suc- 
cess." The wisdom of that view struck the 
President with very great force; it was an 
aspect that with all his thought he had en- 
tirely overlooked, and so he put the docu- 
ment away, waiting for victory. Pope was 
defeated, we have seen, the last of August; 
but Antietam's victory furnished the occa- 
sion in September. After two months' in- 
termission the President resumed the subject 
with his Cabinet; stating reverently that he 
had made the promise to himself and his 
Maker to issue that proclamation as soon as 
Lincoln thc rcbcl army was driven out of Maryland, 
fhl^res^n- and test God's favor to the act he proposed. 

sibility. ^ * 

The responsibility was now his own, and the 



A.D. i863 THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES 2189 

Cabinet officers, though not voting, promised 
each in turn his support. With general ap- 
proval, a change or two was made in the origi- 
nal draught at Seward's suggestion; chiefly a 
promise to "maintain" the freedom which it 
recognized. The Cabinet meeting over, the 
great seal was affixed to this document at the 
State Department. The President signed it 
the same afternoon, and the Northern press 
the next morning sent it broadcast through the 
land. Such were the circumstances that ush- 
ered in, with characteristic caution, and upon 
due notice, the social regeneration of Amer- 
ica; and the ist of January, 1863, the promise 
"to recognize and maintain" took effect. Pos- 
terity will agree that Lincoln chose the right 
time for this becoming act of mercy, and 
showed consummate statesmanship both in his 
decision and the means for giving it effect. 



THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 

(A.D. 1863) 



I 



armies. 



JAMES SCHOULER 

GNORANT, as scarcely ever before, of his 
adversary's movements, and seriously hin- 
dered by the absence of his cavalry, Lee 
did not learn until the evening of the 28th that 
the Army of the Potomac had crossed into 
offitlk Maryland. Little more than this could he 
learn at all. He, as well as Meade, had pru- 
dently meant to avoid an open battle except 
under favorable conditions; yet, in spite of the 
precautions on either side, these two formi- 
dable armies rapidly approached one another 
like two thunderclouds from different points 
of the compass, all through the last day of the 
month of June; Longstreet and Hill marching 
east that day, through the mountains of Gettys- 
burg, while Meade unconsciously headed to- 
ward them almost in a perpendicular direc- 
tion. The most tremendous and the most sig- 
nificant open battle of the whole Civil War 
was historically the result of a collision of 
these two armies, simply accidental, while on 
the march. Neither Lee nor Meade made 

(3190) 



A.D. i863 THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 2191 

deliberate choice of the eventual fighting posi- 
tion. 

Gettysburg — to the Southern cause "a glori- p^^j^.^^^^ 
ous field of grief" — lies in a peaceful pastoral Gettysburg 
region, walled in on the west by the blue line 
of the South Mountain range, and studded 
throughout its landscape by lesser hills. 
Nearly of the same longitude as Washing- 
ton, it is situated in Pennsylvania not far north 
of the Maryland border. Here the Cham- 
bersburg and Hagerstown roads cross one an- 
other and diverge; while a valley, highly cul- 
tivated, with grain fields and orchards, lies 
slumbering with thrifty farmhouses between 
two nearly parallel ranges of hills — Seminary prlplra- 
Ridge on the west (near which stands a Lu- 
theran seminary), and, on the southeast, 
Cemetery Ridge, one of whose hills is conse- 
crated for burial purposes. This latter range 
begins in a bold and rocky cliff, called Gulp's 
Hill, at whose southerly extreniity towers a 
conical and commanding rock. Round Top, 
crowned with a smaller spur, called Little 
Round Top, which overlooks the surrounding 
country. Midway in the peaceful valley is 
a lower intermediate ridge, along which runs 
the road to Emmitsburg. Upon this natural 
theatre was fought the desperate three days' 
battle to be described, in the hot and exhaust- 
ing weather of midsummer. 

Learning from Gouch that Lee's army had 
turned away from the Susquehanna River, 



2192 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

Meade, before dawn of July ist, arranged for 
a defensive line of battle along Pike Creek, 
there to await the enemy's approach. But 
Reynolds had gone leisurely on in advance, to 
occupy the obscure town of Gettysburg, hav- 
ing in command the ist, 3d, and nth corps, 
the left grand division of Meade's army. Bu- 
ford, who had taken possession of this town 
with his cavalry the day before, and thrown 
out pickets, encountered on the Chambersburg 
road a fragment of the enemy's advancing 
host. He despatched the tidings at once to 

Reynolds' ^ ^ 

dedslon. Reynolds, who dashed forward on horseback, 
on that memorable morning, with his ist corps 
following fast on foot, and sent word for the 
rest of his command, now miles in the rear, 
to hasten up quickly. After an anxious sur- 
vey with Buford from the belfry, of the Lu- 
theran seminary, Reynolds resolved upon the 
morning's work. Here a battle might well 
be risked ; here the instant duty was to keep 
back that oncoming wave until Meade could 
mass his host to break it. With a higher man- 
date plain before his eyes, the letter of his 
written directions seems to have been disre- 
garded. Heth's Confederate division ap- 
proached in force from the west; and while 

holds Heth Reynolds held it watchfully in check on the 

m check. -' -' 

Chambersburg road, that devoted officer was 
shot dead by a bullet through his brain. His 
glory on this field was first and greatest, yet 
others were to win glory there before the fight 



A.D. i863 THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 2193 

ended. Doubleday now took charge, with 
such of the ist corps as had arrived, and the 
fighting began in earnest. From ten in the 
forenoon for three long hours the ist corps 
alone, with Buford's cavalry, bore the brunt 
of the enemy's advance, and forced A. P. Hill 
to wait for Ewell. The Confederates, largely 
reinforced, were pressing hotly when, about 
two o'clock, Howard arrived with his iith^oy^'^^ 

' arrives. 

corps, and, by virtue of his rank, assumed di- 
rection. He deployed at once to hold the two 
western roads to the left, while on the right 
confronting Ewell's phalanx, which came into 
view on the road from Carlisle. But the 
Union line had extended too far; and Ewell Eweii's 

' ' success. 

assailing it simultaneously in front and on the 
exposed flanks, won an easy victory; for in 
both numbers and position the Confederates 
had now the advantage. Howard's column 
was pressed back into the town and through 
it, closely pursued, and suffering much in 
wounded and captured. But before this mis- 
fortune, Howard had taken the precaution to 
secure Cemetery Hill, which made a strong 
refuge place for posting anew his retreating 
troops as they poured southward. At this 
juncture, and toward four in the afternoon, 
Hancock arrived on the scene, sent thither by 
Meade to assume command in consequence of 
the death of Reynolds, whose tidings reached 
him. Hancock's splendid presence at this dis- assumes 

' / command. 

couraging moment was like that of another 



2194 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

army corps, and gave calmness and confidence 
to our exhausted soldiery. He checked the 
fighting and received the disorganized regi- 
ments as they arrived. Howard,^ though de- 
murring at the authority given by Meade to 
one who was, in lineal rank, his junior, co- 
operated generously in restoring order. The 
two arranged together a new position on 
Cemetery Hill and along the Ridge, impreg- 
nable to further assault for the day, and cov- 
ering Gettysburg and the roads from Balti- 
more and the South. Slocum now reached 
the scene with Sickles's dusty veterans of the 
3d corps, who had been marching all day by 
reHevS thc Emmltsburg road. To him, as ranking 

Hancock. /-»- 1 1 i 1 

officer, the command was turned over, and 
Hancock galloped back to urge upon Meade 
the advantage of this new field of battle. 

Meade, while taken unawares, had not hesi- 
tated what course to pursue; and, though but 
three days in command of this great army, he 
relinquished one plan to take up another, and 
moved his whole force promptly to the rescue. 
All night, and by every road of approach, the 
Union troops came swarming in from the 
southward, and marched to their positions un- 
der the light of the full moon. Meade him- 
self came upon the field at one o'clock the next 
morning, pale, hollow-eyed, worn with toil 
and loss of sleep, yet rising to the measure of 
his responsibilities. 

Lee, at the opposite entrance to Gettysburg, 



Meade 
arrives on 
the field. 



A.D. 1863 THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 2195 

had arrived on the ist, in season to watch from 
Seminary Ridge the new position which his hesluuon. 
flying foe was taking. His mind was not yet 
made up to fight an offensive battle; for, im- 
pressed by the steadiness of this new align- 
ment, he gave no order of attack to break up 
the Union preparations, but merely sent Ewell 
the suggestion to carry Cemetery Hill if he 
thought it practicable. Ewell, however, spent 
the afternoon in waiting to be reinforced; 
and a great Confederate opportunity was neg- 
lected. Lee's suspense need not be wondered 
at; for Longstreet, his second and his ablest 
adviser, urged him at this point to keep to his 
original plan, and, avoiding a pitched battle, 
march aside by the flank down to Frederick. 
"No," was Lee's response, "the enemy is there, 
and there I mean to attack him;" and, with Temptation 

' ' proves 

signs of a great success in his grasp, the temp- ^***'- 
tation to stay and fight the battle out proved 
irresistible. But as accident had lured him 
on to action, so action deferred lured him to 
a second day of loss, and that loss to a third 
day of irreparable slaughter. Possibly the 
danger of moving still further to the southeast 
influenced his fatal decision.* 

The sanguinary fight of the 2d did not com- 
mence until far into the afternoon. This July 
weather was hot and oppressive; many of the 



* "In view of the valuable results," says Lee's dry report on 
this point, "that would ensue from the defeat of the army of 
General Meade, it was thought advisable to renew the attack." 



2196 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

troops just arrived on either side had borne a 
long and exhausting march; and doubtless the 
opposing commanders felt the onerous burden 
of initiating battle. Both Meade and Lee had 
planned an attack for an early hour of the 
morning; but the one abandoned that inten- 
tion, waiting for another corps to arrive ; while 
the other, partly for a corresponding reason, 
but more because Longstreet did not share his 
sanguine hopes, deferred giving immediate 
orders.* By afternoon Meade had posted 
three corps over Cemetery Ridge, under 
Slocum, Howard, and Hancock, the last 
named holding the crest with the 2d corps, 
while Sickles, with the 3d corps, gave support 

The sec- ^^ ^^^ ^^^^> ^^^ ^^^ 5^^^ corps formcd the re- 
fightt^l^ serve on the right. Sedgwick and the 6th 
corps, whom Meade had also waited for, came 
in sight when the battle had begun, after a 
long night's march. About a mile distant, 
Lee's army swept in a w^ide curve from hills 
on the northwest of Gettysburg to the high 
ground in front of the Round Tops; Ewell 
holding the Confederate left, Hill the centre, 
while Longstreet's troops, which were the last 
to arrive, were posted on the extreme right. 

Little Round Top w^as the key to the Union 
position; and the enemy, concealing their 
movements in thick woods until the signal 
for assault was given, revealed themselves 

* The delay was for Longstreet, who did not get McLaws'* 
division until noon, nor had Pickett's yet arrived. 



A.D. i863 THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 2197 

suddenly atfour o'clock, with an outflanking 
line. Sickles held an advance position not 
intended by Meade, but too late to be recti- 
fied. Upon him, unsheltered, was made by 
Hood's division from Longstreet the first furi- 
ous assault, Lee desiring that ground for his 
artillery in storming the higher crests beyond.* 
Here, for nearly two hours, raged a fierce and 
sanguinary conflict. Sickles, with one leg 
shot away, was borne from the field, and 
Birney fought desperately in his place; second 
Humphreys was compelled by McLaws to Gettysburg 
retreat under a withering fire. But rein- 
forcements, which Meade sent in good sea- 
son, protected the withdrawal of that corps to 
a safer ground. Meantime came a close and 
bloody hand-to-hand fight for possession of 
Little Round Top, toward which Hood's 
troops had been stealthily climbing. Warren, 
chief of engineers, who was posted in this vi- 
cinity, pressed instantly to the scene of danger; 
and, after a fierce encounter, reinforced on 
either side, the enemy were driven down the 
precipitous slope and the crest was held se- 
curely. But this was done at a terrible sacri- 
fice ; and among young Union officers of prom- 
ise who here gave their lives were Weed, 
Hazlitt, O'Rorke, and brave Strong Vincent, 
the first of all Union officers to reach the sum- 



* Sickles's true position had been intended for the extreme 
left near Hancock. He now stood near what was called the 
Peach Orchard, toward the Emmitsburg road. _ , g 

Ml 



Ewell's 
success. 



2198 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a. d. 1863 

mit. As twilight gathered, Humphreys's di- 
vision advanced and recaptured the guns they 
had lost, and by nightfall the whole Union 
line from Round Top to Cemetery Ridge was 
held impregnable. 

Lee had wished Ewell to assail the extreme 
Union right at Cemetery Hill while this con- 
test went on, with Hill at the same time watch- 
ing his chance to fall upon the centre. Ewell, 
in attempting to carry out his part of the plan, 
attacked the nth corps with such energy that 
Howard was compelled to ask assistance, 
which Hancock rendered by despatching Car- 
roll's brigade. The Confederates were driven 
from the hill; but later in the day, when the 
Union right was much depleted by the rein- 
forcements hurried to Round Top, a line of 
intrenchments left here by Geary's division 
were carried by the Confederate General 
Johnson, who held the position all night. Ar- 
tillery had taken part wherever it could, in a 
pell-mell fight which slackened and then 
ceased late in the evening. 

The full-orbed moon was shining when 
Meade summoned a council of his chief offi- 
cers, after the action was over, to decide 
whether to stay or withdraw. There was but 

The coun- •' 

eiiofwar. Q^jg yolcc iu the confcrcncc ; for all present 
were in favor of fighting out the battle where 
they stood, awaiting an attack; and Meade 
adopted that opinion as his own. On the 
Confederate side was reached the same con- 




< 
CO 

PL, 
W 



w 
w 

H 
O 

O 
h4 



derision. 



A.D. 1863 THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 2199 

elusion; for, whatever his earlier misgivings, 
Lee felt himself too strongly committed by the 
day's partial triumphs to retreat ignomini- 
ously. At a bloody cost he had gained the 
Emmitsburg road and ridges for his artillery, 
on one side, and planted himself within Fed- 
eral intrenchments on the other.* Though 
not all the success he had hoped for, this was 
yet something; and, besides adding Pickett's 
strong division, newly arrived, to strengthen 
Longstreet, his centre was fresh and had Lee-s 
scarcely as yet engaged at all. His army ap- 
peared in fine spirits, and the South Mountain 
defiles were close at hand, should retreat be 
necessary. The risks of manoeuvring toward 
Baltimore and Washington, as Longstreet had 
advised, were greater now than on the day be- 
fore; and so, putting aside with good humor 
the warning advice of his chief subordinate, 
he accepted the final gage of battle which 
Meade offered him.f 

Thursday, the 3d of July, dawned with that 
same bright summer weather, intensely hot, 
which invited inaction until the sun should 
pass its meridian. Meade, though uncertain 
of the issue, prepared for either fate with cool- 
ness and forethought. At sunrise he tele- 
graphed to his general who commanded at 

* Lee thought he had gained a success because he had taken 
ground from his foe and captured several field-pieces. lb. 341 
(Longstreet). 

t Longstreet expressed his hopeleseness of the attempt, but 
Lee gave him orders. 



2200 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

Frederick, to harass and annoy the enemy 
should they be driven to retreat, but in case 
discomfiture came to the Union army, then to 
interpose his force so as to protect Washing- 
ton.* Upon Meade rested the earliest renewal 
of the fight, for it was needful to dislodge 
Johnson's intruders from the intrenchments 
they had gained at the right near Gulp's Hill, 
and toward the Baltimore turnpike.f This 
was accomplished, after a desultory fight of 
several hours, beginning at early dawn; and 
then Geary's troops marched once more into 
their intrenchments to reoccupy them, and 
Lee's concert of plans was lost.J 

No general battle had been drawn on by 
Jt^Geuys^ this morning's operation, and noon ap- 
''"^' proached with intense stillness in the adver- 
sary camp. But Lee had employed his entire 
forenoon in preparing for a last assault upon 
the Union lines ; this time making Gemetery 
Hill the crest to be carried, and masking his 
preparations as far as possible under cover of 
the woods and the crest of Seminary Ridge. 
To the faithful though unwilling Longstreet 
uonsYJi-'a was committed a task not unlike that which 
Burnside had essayed at Fredericksburg; and 
Lee's proud disdain of Northern soldiery, as 
compared with his own, reached now its retri- 

* And to be prepared for either contingency. 

t Had Lee thus penetrated and got across the Baltimore 
pike, there would have been danger. 

X Where Johnson was driven out a forest of dead trees 
marked the place later, killed like soldiers by the bullets. 



last assault. 



A.D. i863 THE BATTLE OP GETTYSBURG 2201 

bution. For this final onslaught the post of 
honor was given to Pickett's division of the 
Virginia chivalry, supported by Wilcox, Pet- 
tigrew, and Trimble, whose three fine divi- 
sions belonged to A. P. Hill's command. The 
midday silence was broken by a simultaneous 
discharge of 130 cannon planted on the Con- 
federate ridge, to whose terrific uproar half 
the number responded on the Union side. 
Dense clouds of smoke settled over the valley, 
through which the shells went hissing andThearta- 

° ... lery duel. 

screaming to and fro. This tentative artillery 
duel, whose damage done was trifling in com- 
parison with the prodigious noise and flame, 
occupied about an hour. The Union lines 
stood firm as before, and even firmer, and no 
spot showed weakness for the foe to break. 
Obedient to Longstreet's orders,* as the black 
canopy rolled away, Pickett valiantly led 
forth his troops from behind a ridge, where 
they had lain concealed, and a column of 
some 17,000 men moved wedge-like over the 
green landscape of waving grain and stubble, 
irradiated by the beaming sun. On they came, 
in full sight from Cemetery Ridge, for nearly 
a mile; but before they had advanced half- 
way across the valley they bore off toward the 
centre and in the direction of Hancock's front. 
And now, while the Union artillery, which 
Lee had hoped to silence, opened from right 
to left upon the forlorn column with a terribly 

* Given with a heavy heart. 



2202 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

destructive fire, Pickett's assaulting force of 
Tharl".^ five thousand, thinning in ranks at every step, 
approached the long bristling Union line, 
which was drawn up firm on the heights. Pet- 
tigrew's division, supporting it on the left, 
was attacked by Alexander Hays, of Han- 
cock's corps, with such fury that the ranks 
wavered and broke, and all courageous who 
were left alive mingled with the troops of 
Pickett. At an advanced point, where part of 
Webb's small force held a stone fence, that 
barrier was carried with yells of triumph; but 
fnd mreat. ^^t)b fcll back among his guns, and, aided 
from right and left by Union brigades and 
regiments, which rushed valorously to the 
scene, a din and confusion arose, men fighting 
and overturning one another like wild beasts, 
until, at a little clump of woods, where Gush- 
ing, a Union lieutenant of artillery, fired a shot 
as he dropped, and the Confederate General 
Armistead, foremost in this assault, fell while 
waving his hat upon his sword-point, the last 
invading surge expended itself. More than 
two thousand men had been killed or wounded 
in thirty minutes. Pickett now gave the order 
to retreat, and as his bleeding and shattered 
force receded in confusion, the Union soldiery 
sprang forward, enveloping on all sides the 
Confederate ranks, and swept in prisoners and 
battle ensigns. Wilcox, too, whose support- 
ing column on the other side had become iso- 
lated, had to cut his way out in retreat, forced 



A.D. i863 THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 2203 

by a Union brigade, while batteries from 
above on Little Round Top rained down iron 
hail. While this main battle raged, sharp 
cavalry combats took place upon both flanks 
of the hostile armies. 

With the repulse of Pickett's splendid but 
impracticable charge, the third day's fight of 
Gettysburg, the briefest of all in duration, and 
yet in proportion the bloodiest, came to an^^^^^.^^ 
end. Lee, shaken by the fearful consequences, shatTlred 
took candidly the blame of this futile effort *'^'°''' 
upon himself, and with soothing words drew 
off to save the remnant of his army. Meade, 
from the opposite heights, made no counter- 
charge, but comprehending quite slowly the 
magnitude of his victory, which he described 
in despatches as a "handsome repulse," re- 
frained from pressing forcibly his advantage. 
For this there was prudent reason to one so 
new in command. The anxious strain of those 
hot summer days had been most severe; and 
Meade's own losses were so enormous that 
adequate thought could hardly be given to the 
corresponding harm inflicted upon the enemy. 
Of Union generals most tried and trusted, 
Reynolds lay dead, while Sickles, Hancock, 
Gibbon, Doubleday, Warren, and Webb were losses" 
all wounded, unable to take part in a pursuit* 

The 4th of July was passed in last offices 

♦ A large preponderance of military testimony, however, 
Union and Confederate, goes to show that Meade should have 
pushed his advantage at Gettysburg after Pickett's bloody re- 
pulse with more energy than he displayed. 



2204 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

to the ghastly heaps of dead; but Lee's re- 
quest for a truce and exchange of prisoners 
Meade properly declined under the circum- 
stances. A violent rainstorm was further ex- 
cuse for Meade's inaction, and, when night 
came, a military council advised him to remain 
where he was, keeping a close watch upon his 
adversary. On the morning of the 5th the 
Confederates were found to be in full retreat 
through the mountain passes, and Meade pur- 
sued southward to intercept their passage of 
the Potomac. Now came the most earnest in- 
junctions from Washington to give the foe 
neither rest nor respite; and Lee's position 
was truly critical when, on reaching the Poto- 
mac, he found his pontoons partly destroyed 
and that river so swollen by rains as not to be 
fordable. While Lee intrenched, waiting for 
Slsl the river to fall, Meade, scarce a mile distant, 
pursuit, prepared from the loth to the 12th to fight 
him; but in another council of war, most un- 
fortunately called, from which his best ad- 
visers were necessarily absent, Meade found 
his own opinion overborne and unhappily 
yielded. With nothing more than a recon- 
noissance meanwhile for annoyance, Lee 
crossed with his whole force after the Poto- 
mac had fallen so as to be fordable, and on the 
Escape of momlng of the 14th he was safe once more 

Lee's army. ^, -^7-. . . . •• 

upon the Virgmia side. 

Meade's noble success at Gettysburg — • 
where for the first time reserves in this army 



A.D. 1863 THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 2205 

were put forward in battle at the right time 
and place — won him a promotion to briga- 
dier-general in the regular army, and a public Meade-s 
gratitude imperishable. But so keen was the'^^'^^'^ 
administration's disappointment that the full 
harvest of victory had not been reaped, that 
a despatch from Halleck, harshly comment- 
ing on Lee's escape, provoked Meade to ten- 
der his recall. Such return for his inestimable 
service was not to be thought of, and Meade 
remained in command. But a phrase in his 
general order of the 4th, which announced 
the enemy "utterly baffled and defeated," had 
been to Lincoln a foreboding reminder of An- 
tietam, for it spoke of "driving the invader 
from our soil" as the supreme effort requisite. 
"Will our generals," he inquired, "never get 
that idea out of their heads? The whole coun- 
try is our soil." And he regretted that he had 
not himself gone to the front and issued per- 
sonally an order to attack Lee vigorously on 
the retreat, regardless of all military councils. Lmcoin-s 
But time and reflection restored his confidence tSlm. 
in Meade as brave and highly deserving, if 
not faultless. For at Gettysburg, like Flod- 
den's fatal field, the right arm of the South 
was broken, as all now concede; and that bat- 
tle, one of the most destructive of modern 
times, portended the fate of this insurrection. 
In that first and only shock of arms upon free 
Northern soil, two leading generals on the 
Union side besides Meade himself fought for 



2206 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1863 

his native State,* and mighty feats of valor 
performed on either side marked the pro- 
longed encounter.f 

[In 1864, a short war against Denmark by- 
Austria and Prussia ends in the spoliation 
of the former. Sherman marches through 

Georgfa" "" Georgia and captures Savannah, and Thomas 
is successful at Nashville. Grant fights the 
terrible battles of the Wilderness against Lee, 
the fighting lasting a month. Lincoln is re- 
elected President. In 1865, Transylvania is 
united to Hungary. Richmond is captured 
and Lee capitulates, at Appomattox. Lincoln 

mur'dired. is murdcrcd. Chili and Peru, allied, make 
war against Spain. General Booth starts the 
Salvation Army in East London. Lister in- 
troduces antiseptic surgery in Glasgow.] 

* Meade, Reynolds, and Hancock were all born in Penn- 
sylvania. 

t At least 70,000, from first to last, fought under Lee at 
Gettysburg, and 90,000, or somewhat more, under Meade. 
The number varied from day to day. On the Union side were 
lost in killed, wounded, and missing, 23,003 ; on the Confed- 
erate side, 20,451 — a nearly equal loss in proportion. But, with 
■a diminishing military population, the South suffered by far the 
greater exhaustion. This "may be regarded as the most event- 
ful struggle of the war," says Jefferson Davis 



AN/ESTHETICS AND ANTISEPTICS 



ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE 

A BRIEF notice must also be given of 
two discoveries in practical physiol- 
ogy, which have perhaps done rnore 
to benefit mankind than those great mechan- 
ical inventions and philosophical theories 
which receive more general admiration. f/'^'^^|f 
These are, the use of anaesthetics in surgical*^^""' 
operations, and the antiseptic treatment of 
wounds. 

Anaesthetics were first used in dentistry in 
1846, the agent being ether; while chloro- 
form, for more severe surgical operations, was 
adopted in 1848; and though their primary 
effect is only to abolish pain, they get rid of 
so much nervous irritation as greatly to aid it^ l^o^oi""' 
the subsequent recovery. The use of anaes- frlatS. 
thetics thus renders it possible for many opera- 
tions to be safely performed which, without 
it, would endanger life by mere shock to the 
system ; while to the operating surgeon it gives 
confidence, and enables him to work more de- 
liberately and carefully from the knowledge 
that the longer time occupied will not increase 

(2207) 



2208 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

the suffering of the patient or render his re- 
covery less probable. Nitrous-oxide gas is 
now chiefly used in dentistry or very short 
operations, sulphuric ether for those of mod- 
erate length, while chloroform is usually em- 
ployed in all the more severe cases, since the 
patient can by its use be kept in a state of in- 
sensibility for an hour or even longer. There 
is, however, some danger in its use to persons 
with weak heart or of great nervous sensi- 
bility, and the patient in such cases may die 
from the effects of the anaesthetic alone. 

Even more important was the introduction 
of the antiseptic treatment in 1865, which, by 
preventing the suppuration of incised or 
wounded surfaces, has reduced the death-rate 
for serious amputations from forty-five per 
cent to twelve per cent, and has besides ren- 
dered possible numbers of operations which 
would have been certainly fatal under the old 
system. I remember my astonishment when, 
soon after the introduction of the practice, I 
was told by an eminent physiologist of the new 
method of performing operations, in which 
the freshly cut surfaces could be left exposed 
to the air without dressings of any kind, and 
would soon heal. The antiseptic treatment 
was the logical outcome of the proof that sup- 
puration of wounds and all processes of fer- 
mentation and putrefaction were not due to 
normal changes either in living or dead tis- 
sues, but were produced by the growth and 



ANESTHETICS AND ANTISEPTICS 2209 

the rapid multiplication of minute organisms, 
especially of those low fungoid groups termed 
Bacteria. If, therefore, we can adopt rneas- ^^^j^^p^j^g 
ures to keep away or destroy these organisms 
and their germs, or in any way prevent their 
increase, injured living tissues will rapidly 
heal, while dead animal matter can be pre- 
served unchanged almost indefinitely. In the 
case of wounds and surgical operations this 
is effected by means of a weak solution of cor- 
rosive-sublimate, in which all instruments and 
everything that comes in contact with the 
wound are washed, and by filling the air 
around the part operated on with a copious 
spray of carbolic acid. Cold has a similar ef- „ 

Jr J Preserving 

feet in preserving meat; while the process of "^^'■ 
tinning various kinds of food depends for its 
success on the same principle, of first kill- 
ing all bacteria or other germs by heating 
the filled tins above the boiling point, and 
then keeping out fresh germs by air-tight 
fastening. 

The combined use of anaesthetics and anti- 
septics has almost robbed the surgeon's knife 
of its terrors, and has enabled the most deeply 
seated organs to be laid open and operated 
upon with success. As a result, more lives are 
probably now saved by surgery than by any 
other branch of medicine, since in the treat- 
ment of disease there has been comparatively 
small progress except by trusting more to the 
healing powers of nature, aided by rest, 



2210 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

warmth, pure air, wholesome food, and as few 
drugs as possible. 

The Seven [In 1 866, the Seven Weeks' War breaks 

Weeks L 7 

^'"■- out between Austria and Prussia. Queen Isa- 
bella of Spain appoints a new Ministry under 
Narvaez and the Cortes is dissolved. The 
Turks suppress a revolt in Crete, which has 
proclaimed its union with Greece. The Fe- 
nians invade Canada. The Dred Scott de- 
cision is cancelled by an addition to the Four- 
teenth Amendment. The Atlantic cable is 
laid under the direction of William Thom- 
son.] 



laid 



8S7. 



LAYING OF THE ATLANTIC CABLE 

(A.D. 1866) 

W. H. RUSSELL 

SEVEN years ago* a metal strand, envel- 
oped in gutta-percha, was laid in the 
bed of the Atlantic from Ireland to 
Newfoundland. For a few weeks the obedient 
current, creeping feebly through its narrow 
viaduct, flickered from end to end, and l^'H 
moved the magnet to speak. But waning in 
force, and flowing from out unseen wounds 
into the night of waters, the electric fluid, 
which is the vital blood of telegraphy, died 
out altogether in mid-ocean. The needle 
made no sign. How or why this came to pass 
no one can say. All that is known may be 
summed up in the fact that there was a fatal 
fault, or dead earth, in the insulating cover 
of the copper wires, and that the electricians, 
detecting its influence on the escape of the 
current, endeavored to stimulate the mori- 
bund body by augmenting the power of the 
batteries. We all know that lightning, as a 
general rule, takes the nearest course between 
two points, but the law is influenced by sur- 

* 1857. 

(2211) 



2212 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1866 

rounding conditions. When a fault occurs in 
disco^vxred a cablc, for instance, some of the current es- 

in the wire. . , . . , , 

capes into the sea, and some of it travels along 
the wire to the terminus. The force of the 
current is regulated by a well-defined law. 
When the fault is so great as to allow the cop- 
per to come in contact with a perfect conduc- 
tor, all the electricity marches through the 
dead earth, and is lost. The operators in those 
days, seeing the indications of the needle 
weakened, thought they would make up for 
the consequences of the fault by increasing the 
force of the current. They multiplied their 
plates and soon brought the disease to a cli- 
max, and aggravated the causes of death to 
rapid issue. The last word traced by the hand 
of the deceased cable was "Forward." The 
message came from the New World to the 
Old, and it has been accepted as a legacy by 
•the executors. Now, that cable of 1858, 
Short life though it had a short life, and not a very 

of the first ° ' ■' 

cable. merry or useful one, was a great fact. It was 
a demonstration forever of two matters con- 
cerning which men might otherwise have been 
contending fiercely — one was that a cable 
could be laid in the depths of the sea from 
Ireland to Newfoundland; the other, that 
messages could be sent with remunerative 
rapidity from one end of it to the other. The 
trial of 1857 failed so completely that, but for 
the renewed effort and its successful issue in 
1858, there would have been doubters up to 



A.D. 1866 LAYING OF THE ATLANTIC CABLE 2213 

this day whom the experiment just concluded 
so abruptly would not have converted to a 
sound belief as to the actual practicability of 
laying the cable. There are people now who 
say they have a strong suspicion no message 
ever went through the cable of 1858 at all. 
The interchange of civilities between the 
Queen and President Buchanan — the last of 

Genuine- 

the Washington Doges — was, they aver, a;^«||^°^gg 
got-up thing." There are hundreds of mes- '^°"'''«^- 
sages — copies and originals — to be seen; but 
the doctor es dubitantium do not care to see 
them, will go on shaking their heads till their 
tongues cease to wag. The cable failed then, 
and the anticipations of the great benefits to 
both countries from a rapid interchange of 
ideas and news were not realized. 

It was ten or twelve years, however, after 
submarine cables had been in common use in 
European seas, that one was laid under water 
from one point of land to another of the Amer- 
ican continent; and it was an Englishman, 
Mr. Gisborne, who gave the first impulse tOMrCis- 
the idea of an Atlantic cable, and who actu- eariy 

' success. 

ally connected Newfoundland with the main 
by a submarine telegraph. The original proj- 
ect was to run a line of steamers from Galway 
to Newfoundland, and to use the submarine 
line for the transmission of news to Boston and 
New York. The legislatures of the British 
provinces encouraged it by extraordinary 
charters and privileges, which drew from the 



2214 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. iS66 

home government an intimation that they 
would not sanction similar monopolies. The 
promoters soon exhausted their money, and 
Mr. Gisborne repaired to New York to inter- 
est capitalists in the undertaking. There he 
cyrusFieidmet Mr. Cyrus Field, who, thinking over the 

interested. -' ' ' cj 

subject, was led to inquire if it would not be 
possible to lay a cable between Ireland and 
America. 

After the breakdown of 1858, the enter- 
prise failed out of men's minds, but the Atlan- 
tic Telegraph Company still existed, and Mr. 
Field never ceased to agitate by every means 
in his power the great question of his life. 

t'h^'fiuure It was, however, British capital which fur- 
nished the means for the last expedition, just 
as it was British manufacturers who made the 
cable, and British ships, sailors, and engineers 
who were engaged in laying it. Well, it was 
a failure — that can not be controverted; but it 
was one of those glorious failures which mark 
out the road to ultimate success. It marked 
out many places on the map of electrical dis- 
covery which were hazy and uncertain. 

TheGrtat Whcn thc Grcdt Eastern started, it was 
averred by the first authorities that want of 
success could only arise from some source then 
overlooked and unsuspected. Alarmist the- 
ories respecting the strength of the ship her- 
self, and the wanton appetites of sharks and 
whales, were propounded without any foun- 
dation; but no one seemed to apprehend the 



Eastern. 



A.D. i866 LAYING OF THE ATLANTIC CABLE 2215 

least danger from the wire in the external 
coating of the cable, from which, eventually, 
all the mischief arose. 

Now it made a very long story in the 
papers — all that was done and suffered. Put 
it into the nutshell of a page, it is this: — FirstSovtred. 
fault discovered on 24th of July when we 
were in 400 fathoms water; more than six 
hours elapsed before the cable was cut; two 
hours more before the end so cut was hauled 
in over the bows; twenty-four hours (9.30 
A.M. on July 25th) before the fault came on 
board; in five hours more the cable was let 
run out astern again. Now in all these oper- 
ations the strain never exceeded 35 cwt. at 
paying-out machine and 36 cwt. in picking up. 
This great result gave all on board a ruinous Rj^""^*^^ 
confidence. To pick up the cable so easily 
was to reduce the operation to a facillimum. 
Then on July 29th, when the second great im- 
pediment took place, not much more than two 
hours elapsed between the electricians' warn- 
ing and the cutting of the cable; but twelve 
hours rolled on before the end was got in over 
the bows, and nearly six hours more was spent 
in picking up till the fault (dead earth) came 
on board. More than eleven hours were de- 
voted to preparing the cable for its next com- 
mittal astern to the deep. During the second 
operation the strain at the stern dynamometer, 
or paying-out apparatus, was the same as it 
was on the occasion of the first fault, and it 



Position of 
the break. 



2216 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i866 

did not exceed 50 cwt. at the dynamometer 
in the bows while the picking-up was going 
on. Third and fatal fault, August 2d; not 
more than two hours elapsed between dis- 
covery of fault and cutting of cable, and in an 
hour and a half the end was over the bows 
and picking-up commenced ; but owing to the 
lie of the ship and the drift of the wind, and 
possibly of the current, the strain rose up to 
50 cwt. and then to 64 cwt. In about five 
hours 2.04 miles nautical had been picked 
up, and then the cable parted and sank in 
profundis. Now the breaking strain of the 
cable is j.jc^ tons, so that unless there was 
an exceeding violence in a pick or consider- 
able deterioration from chafing there was no 
reason why it should have parted in the course 
of picking-up. Subsequently the grappling 
experiments aflforded satisfactory evidence 
that the depth of water under the ship was 
somewhat less than two nautical miles when 
the cable broke. At that time there were 
1,082 miles of cable left on board, and the 
ship had receded about two miles toward the 
last. Just 1,186 miles of cable were out in a 
straight line, and the distance from Valentia 
was 1,063 iTiiles, and from Heart's Content 
603 miles. The public who are not share- 
holders were probably more interested in the 
attempts to pick up the cable than in the 
proceedings connected with laying down and 
recovering it. When the grapnel was let go 



A.D. 1866 LAYING OF THE ATLANTIC CABLE 2217 

there was little expectation that it would 
catch anything; the greatest strain denoted 
while paying out the line 2,500 feet long was 
80 cwt., which was indicated at 10.20 P.M. 
of August 2d, but at 6.45 A.M. next morning, 
as they were hauling it in, the strain rose to^^^^l'f^Jl 
85 cwt., and when soon afterward it increased 
to 90 cwt., the spur' wheel of the machine 
broke. That strain was due to the rapid mo- 
tion of the picking-up drum and the great fric- 
tion ; because when the capstan was used in lieu 
of the machinery and engines, the dynamome- 
ter index fell to 60 cwt., and finally the swivel 
bolt failed and down went 1,400 fathoms of 
wire buoy rope and the grapnel and cable 
held by it. On the 7th, after another grapnel 
with 2,400 feet of rope had been down more 
than five hours, the strain began to rise from 
50 cwt. to 58 cwt., and finally to 66 cwt., and 
the ship's head came round to the wind. In 
an hour after we began to heave up, but the 
strain did not increase materially for a couple 
of hours, when it rose to 67 cwt., and soon 
afterward to 75 cwt. It stood for more than 
two hours at 75 cwt., then ran up to 78 cwt., 
finally to 80 cwt., and then the swivel of a 
shackle broke on the capstan, and another 
grapnel and mass of wire rope were lost. This 
occurred about four and a half miles from the 
end of the cable in lat. 51° 25', long. 38° 56', 
bearing S. 14 E. When the fouled grapnel 
was over with 2,460 feet, on August loth, the 



2218 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1866 

highest strain as the ship drifted was 56 cwt. ; 
and it never increased in the picking-up be- 
yond 70 cwt., from which it fell in eight hours 
to 25 cwt. till the grapnel was hauled in. On 
the last attempt the strain was at 65 cwt. when 
picking-up began, and ran up to 90 cwt. in 
two hours and a half, and in half an hour 
more was at 100 cwt., when the last rope 
broke. 

The course on which the ship was kept was 
The course an arc of the great circle, passing through 
"creat Valentia and Heart's Content, which is only 

Eastern. ' •' 

some 16 miles shorter than the line on Mer- 
cator's projection. It possesses the advantage, 
however, of running over known soundings, 
along the course of what is called the Atlantic 
plateau, which presents a surface of ooze be- 
neath a depth of water varying from 1,700 
fathoms to 2,400 fathoms. The deepest part, 
therefore, is about two and a half nautical 
knowledge milcs ( 2,ooo yards cach ) deep. No one knows 
prel?elt anything very positively about the ocean at 
a-pihs. ti^ese great depths. It is urged that there must 
be utter darkness there, but then starfish with 
traces of color have been taken up by sounding 
apparatus ; and if they come up from the bot- 
tom, it is inferred there must be some rays of 
light penetrating there, or the colors would 
not exist. The pressure of the water itself is 
very much exaggerated, but it may be fairly 
assumed that it is very obscure down there, 
and that if anything can exist at all it must 



A.D. i866 LAYING OF THE ATLANTIC CABLE 2219 

be very dull living. When the substance 
called ooze came up on the grapnel line of the 
Great Eastern, from a depth of nearly two 
miles, it was simply a light-colored mud, like 
that which a heavy shower makes in the streets 
of London. 

[In 1867, there is an abortive Fenian rising 
in Great Britain. The North German Fed- 
eration is established. Parliamentary govern- 
ment with two houses is established in Austria. 
The Dominion of Canada is formed, a Gov- 
ernor-General appointed, and a Federal Par- 
liament meets at Ottawa. The United States The united 

States buys 

buys Alaska from Russia. In 1868, Queen Alaska. 
Isabella of Spain flees to France. Congress 
passes the Force Laws against the Ku Klux 
and other secret societies. An expedition sent 
to Abyssinia successfully rescues English pris- 
oners. Bokhara and Samarcand become de- 
pendent on Russia.] 



THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 

(A.D. 1868) 



A 



MARTIN A. S. HUME 

NEW Cortes was to be elected at the 
end of 1863, and in its manifesto the 
government signified its intention of 
allowing a fair proportion of both parties to 
be elected and to return to the system of party 
government which the Union Liberal had de- 
stroyed. But at the same time they forbade 
any but electors to attend political meetings. 
There was nothing very new in this, for it had 
been done before, but the advanced Liberals 
made it their excuse for retiring altogether 
from the contest, and abandoning open politi- 
cal action. This meant, sooner or later, a 
f"he°'^°' Liberal revolution, and so it proved. The 

Liberals. ' 1 z-w 

advanced Liberals threw upon the Queen the 
odium of their retirement. She had, they said, 
refused to dissolve Parliament for a moderate 
Liberal Government, in order to discredit the 
party, and had dissolved Cortes without diffi- 
culty at the bidding of a ministry whose ten- 
dency was Conservative. It was clear then, 
they asserted, that while Isabel reigned no Lib- 

(2320) 



Retirement 



A.D. 1868 THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 2221 

eral ministry would be allowed to govern, 
whatever professions of attachment she might 
make to them for her own objects. 

The retirement of the Liberals deprived the programme 
elections of all interest, and the Government cano^vaJ!'^ 
party of cohesion and authority; the result 
being the accession of a more strongly Con- 
servative ministry under Arrazola, which, 
however, fell after a few days on their demand 
for another dissolution; when they were suc- 
ceeded by a semi-Liberal combination headed 
by Mons and Canovas, whose programme was 
purity of election, loyalty to the Constitution 
(of 1845), and greater freedom of the press. 
But it was clear to all observers by this time 
that parliamentary government had broken 
down. The unblushing manipulation of elec- 
tions, and the Queen's erratic exercise of her 
prerogative of dissolution, with the retirement 
of the Liberals, had turned the whole business 
into a discredited farce, of which all honest 
men were tired. 

The impatience of the country was still fur- 
ther aroused by the meddling of the King- ^^^^^^^e King 
Consort, who had gone to Paris to return the 
visit of the Empress Eugenie, and on some in- 
ducement never understood had entered into 
an undertaking with Louis Napoleon for the 
recognition of Victor Emmanuel as King of 
Italy, and the return to Spain of the detested 
Cristina. This neither Isabel nor the Govern- 
ment could stand, and the latter retired; the 



Narvaez 
forms a 
ministry. 



Liberals 
stand aloof, 



2222 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i86S 

Queen at her wits' end, then consulting O'Don- 
neil, who recommended the nomination of a 
purely Conservative ministry, to which he 
promised his support in order to hold democ- 
racy in check. This, of course, meant Nar- 
vaez, who formed a ministry with Gonzales 
Brabo at the Home Office, but refused O'Don- 
nell's profifered co-operation. 

The Liberals, now under the leadership of 
Prim, for old Espartero had finally retired, 
still stood aloof; and the cloud of coming revo- 
lution loomed blacker than ever. The sale of 
the mortmain properties, which had supplied 
O'Donnell with abundant funds for several 
years, had now nearly come to an end, and 
money was scarce again; the Queen surren- 
dered three-quarters of the royal patrimony to 
meet national expenditure, but it was all in 
vain, for the Government grew more unpopu- 
lar every day. Again Narvaez's favorite rem- 
edies, the gag and the stick, were used ruth- 
lessly; Castelar was dismissed from his profes- 
sorship and the Rector of Madrid University 

The Queen • , ,• i • r i • • 

is alarmed, deprivcd of his post, peacciul citizens were 
trampled on and killed by soldiers,* elected 
town councils were arbitrarily dismissed and 
replaced by nominated bodies, and in the 

* The terrible scenes of slaughter and outrage upon inoffen- 
sive people for the simple purpose of infusing terror, on the 
night of Saint Daniel, April lo, 1865, in Madrid, must be laid 
at the door of Gonzales Brabo alone. Narvaez was ill and 
failing, and was not at this juncture in favor of the iron tyr- 
anny of his colleague. 



A.D. i868 THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 2223 

meanwhile underground conspiracy spread its 
fibres throughout Spain, Prim being the mo- 
tive power of the coming revolt. 

The Queen took fright and summoned 
O'Donneli in June, 1865, to try and win back 
the Liberals to parliamentary action, and he 
formed a government for the purpose, with 
Posada Herrera and Canovas as members. 
But Prim, Sagasta — editor of the Iberia — and 
the rest of the Liberals resisted all attempts to 
entice them into the net again. In vain a Lib- Power 
eral policy was followed; Italy was recog- 
nized, reduction of the franchise and electoral 
purity promised, the Bleeding Nun, Sister Pa- 
trocinio, and the Queen's confessor, Father 
Claret, were once more banished ; other per- 
sonages even more objectionable were sent 
away from the palace, and Prim was ostenta- 
tiously courted, notwithstanding his known 
disaffection. But it was too late, for the Queen 
grew daily more divorced from her people 
as the scandals about her increased, for the 
Liberals, who were formerly her champions 
in this respect, were silent now. 

All through the autumn of 1865 cholera 
raged in Madrid, and risings, small but sig- reb°emoif." 
nificant, took place in various parts of the 
country, the Queen in the meanwhile resent- 
fully remaining in retirement contrary to her 
usual custom when her people were in trouble. 
A military rising was planned by Prim for 
January, 1866, but the afifair missed fire 



222-1 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i863 

Prim plans thfough ill dircction; and of the large force 
risTng!^*^^ which promised aid only two regiments of 
cavalry joined him at Aranjuez. Followed 
by the Government troops, he escaped to Por- 
tugal, and the failure of this widespread con- 
spiracy, which was revolutionary like that of 
1854, but not anti-dynastic, sealed the fate of 
Isabel's throne. 

Prim continued to conspire from his exile 
in France, but he no longer shut his eyes to the 
fact that the success of a military revolt was 
not now possible, and if a popular movement 
accompanied it, the result, to use his own 
words, would be "to throw the throne out of 
the window." He faced this possibility, and 
organized a great rising of troops, in union 
with the democrats and Liberal civilians, to 
start from Valladolid in May, and to spread 
along the whole line between Madrid and the 
French frontier, the principal active agents 
being the non-commissioned officers of the va- 
rious regiments. After several false alarms 
and much disagreement, the artillery sergeants 
in the barracks of San Gil in Madrid revolted 
on the 22d of June. They had not intended to 
kill their officers, but on the resistance of the 
latter they did so; and followed by 1,200 men 
with thirty pieces of artillery, posted them- 
selves at strategic points of the city. The 
troops which remained loyal, however, under 
O'Donnell and Serrano, overcame the muti- 
neers in the Puerta del Sol and at the barracks, 



Revolt of 
sergeants. 



A.D. i868 THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 2225 

with terrible slaughter, after ten hours' fight- 
ing. The civilians who held barricades were 
more easily defeated; and the simultaneous ris- 
ings in Valladolid and elsewhere melted away 
when the disaster of Madrid was known. The 
slaughter of the prisoners horrified humanity : slaughter 

, •' ' ot prisoners 

the constitutional guarantees were suspended, 
and a reign of terror was established at the 
bidding of the palace clique that disgusted 
even O'Donnell, grim old soldier though he 
was.* 

For a time, thanks mainly to O'Donnell's 
energy, Isabel's inevitable fall had been de- 
layed, but the besotted reactionaries who were 
dominant in the palace could not forgive the 
marshal for his insistence on the recognition 
of Italy and his coquetting with liberalism; 
and on July lo, 1866, he understood by the 
Queen's attitude toward him that his position 
was undermined, and for the last time he "e^a°rts 
threw up his post. As he left the misguided 
woman, the last prop that sustained her throne 
crumbled. Swearing never to cross the thresh- 
old of the palace again while Isabel II. 
reigned, he turned his back on Spain to tread 
its soil no more, for before the end of the fol- 
lowing year the descendant of the great Ulster- 

* He is said to have replied to a courtier who urged that 
more sergeants should be shot: "But does not this lady (ie.j 
the Queen) understand that if we shoot all the soldiers we 
catch, the blood will rise up to her own chamber and drown 
her?" There were sixty-six executions, but it is difficult to 
believe the assertion that the Queen herself was not on the side 
of mercy. 



O'Donnel} 



2226 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i863 

man, O'Donnell the Red, slept in his splendid 
tomb at the Atocha. 

Narvaez and Gonzales Brabo came back 
again, but with somewhat chastened hearts. 
They promised oblivion and forgiveness and 
the Liberals came out of their hiding; but the 
palace clique, with the Marquis of Orovio, 
General Calonge, and other extreme reaction- 
aries, forced the hand even of Gonzales Brabo, 
who could only privately advise the betrayed 

Flight of Liberals to fly before it was too late. The re- 
sult was an exodus of all those who had ever 
taken part in Liberal movements, and the Gov- 
ernment was irresistibly swept along the cur- 
rent of reaction until its decrees became such 
as would have shamed Fernando VIL 

All legality was trampled under foot, all 
guarantees forgotten, all liberty crushed. 
Taxes were extorted in advance, municipali- 

era!fani"c. tics dlssolvcd, thc clcctoral laws altered by 
decree, the press and speech, public and pri- 
vate, suppressed. Dismay, almost panic, 
reigned supreme; ruined shopkeepers put up 
their shutters in every town, merchants closed 
their counting-houses, money wellnigh disap- 
peared from circulation — for it will be recol- 
lected that even in London at the time the 
Bank rate was ten per cent — and the great 
cities of Spain were like communities in 
mourning. The more moderate members of 
the Cortes attempted to petition the Queen 
for redress, but the Captain-General of Mad- 



A.D. i868 THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 2227 

rid trampled upon "the rights" of Parliament 
and shut the doors against the members; the 
president, Rios Rosas, and the permanent com- 
mittee being banished. General Serrano, a 
duke and grandee of Spain, the Queen's ear- 
liest friend, personally dared to remonstrate 
with her; and he, too, was driven into exile to 
join the conspirators who were already per- 
fecting their plans in France, Belgium, and 
England. 

Under these circumstances the new Cortes, 
meeting earlier in 1867, was a farce. Cano- 
vas del Castillo and a few other Conservatives cones^"^ 
vigorously opposed the insensate tyranny of 
the Government, but without efifect; official 
senators who dared to vote against the Gov- 
ernment were dismissed, and Gonzales Brabo, 
with a parliamentary ability which has rarely 
been equalled, made the worse appear the 
better reason, and obtained for himself — an 
unpopular civilian — a practical dictatorship. 

In the meanwhile the exiles were not en- 
tirely united. The central direction of the 
revolution was in Brussels under Prim, but 
a republican organization, with Pi y Margall 
and Castelar, met in Paris, while several 
friends of Prim were in London. From the 
first the difficulty was what could be devised to 
replace the present regime. ''Down with the 
Bourbons!" was the popular cry; but Prim 
and Olozaga would not have the question pre- 
judged: all must be left for the elected of the 



Olozaga's 
policy. 



2228 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a,d. 1868 

people to decide after the success of the revo- 
lution was attained. This was Olozaga's pol- 
icy, and was no doubt considered wise in order 
to unite all the discontented under one banner; 
but it was a fatal mistake, as events proved, 
for it only delayed division to a time when di- 
vision was destructive. Efforts were made to 
enlist the name of old Espartero in the coming 
revolution ; but he had done with politics, and 
refused his countenance, and the extreme dem- 
ocratic party and the republicans were far 
from unanimous in aiding Prim without 
knowing what was to follow. 

In these circumstances the latter could only 

look to his own friends for funds and could 

barely collect enough for the humblest prepa- 

Primsun- ratlous. Whctt, at length, in accordance with 

successful 

attempts, the plan agreed upon, he entered the port of 
Valencia from Marseilles in July of 1867, he 
found that his promise to abolish conscription 
had offended the officers upon whom he de- 
pended; and he had to return to France un- 
successful. Simultaneous risings took place 
in Cataluna, Aragon, Valencia, and Castile; 
but they all failed, for there was no united 
plan of proceeding, and no definite under- 
standing as to the final object. Manifestoes 
and counter-manifestoes rained plentifully. 
The Government called the revolutionists 
perjured traitors, and these retorted with ac- 
cusations of tyranny and oppression; but it 
was now evident that Prim alone had not com- 



A.D. 1868 THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 2229 

mand of sufficient resources or prestige to suc- 
ceed, and it was necessary to form fresh com- 
binations. 

Don Carlos, ever on the lookout for a 
chance, approached Sagasta and Prim, who 
was in London, and the former had a long^°"C*'^'°'- 
interview with Cabrera; but though the Car- 
lists were pliable, Prim put his foot down 
heavily, and the suggested fusion fell through. 
A more promising recruit was found in Gen- 
eral Serrano; and with him a more powerful 
auxiliary still, who was able to provide what 
was required more than anything else — 
namely, money. The Duke of Montpensier, 
whose marriage with Isabel's sister had caused 
so much heart-burning, had sunk into political 
insignificance with his father's dethronement 
and the rise of Louis Napoleon; but he had 
lived a peaceful, happy, and respectable life 
with his family, managing thriftily his wife's 
vast property in Andalusia. He was, how- 
ever, like most of his family, a man of busi- o/^M^n"^^ 
ness; and when it became evident that his^'"^'^' 
sister-in-law's throne was to go begging, he ap- 
parently thought that his wife and children's 
chance of obtaining it should not be neglected. 
He was excessively rich and could afiford to 
risk something for such a prize; but he 
was frugal and undertook but grudgingly to 
finance the revolution.* 

* Prim wanted from £40,000 to £60,000 for the revolution, 
and when Montpensier sent him £4,000 to London by Senor 



2230 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1868 

What conditions he made with Serrano and 
Admiral Topete and what pledges they gave 
him are still a mystery, but it is certain that 
Prim declined to bind himself beyond the 
overthrow of the existing state of things and 
the election of a Constituent Cortes. Out of 
this tacit, if not expressed, difference between 
the leaders of the revolution, the whole of the 
subsequent trouble arose. The nation was not 
in a condition to be able to choose calmly and 
judiciously its own institutions, and it was the 
duty of those who overturned the old order 
of things to have another ready to replace it 
with a strong hand, if necessary, to impose 
what they deemed best. Montpensier, it may 
be granted, was a foreigner and unpopular, 
but his wife was not; and they were both sen- 
sible and of good repute, and would have been, 
at all events, preferable to the chaos which 
followed the revolution. 

Narvaez died in April, 1868, and Gonzales 



Death of 



Narvaez. gj-abo, Orovlo, and Marfori* (Marquis of 



Mazo for the purpose, Prim refused to undertake a rising for 
such a sum. The Duke subsequently contributed £4,000 more, 
so far as is known, but probably a much larger sum was pro- 
vided secretly by him through other channels, especially for 
the rising of the fleet. 

* This person had been an actor and was the son of an Ital- 
ian cook. He was soon withdrawn from the ministry to take 
the place of superintendent of the royal household, a position 
which brought him into constant contact with the Queen, who 
was much attached to him. But for Isabel's indignant refusal 
to dismiss him from her side at the critical moment of the 
revolution, when her return to Madrid was contemplated, her 
crown might even yet have been saved. 



A.D. i868 THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 2231 

Loja), the Queen's great friend, formed a min- 
istry pledged to utter reaction and undisguised 
tyranny. An attempt of the Cortes to meet in^^^jj^j 
session was violently repressed, and all the '^^'^^'^'' 
leaders of opinion not favorable to the minis- 
try were arrested and banished, among whom 
were Generals Serrano, Dulce, Cordoba, Za- 
bala, Serrano-Bedoya, Caballero de Rodas, 
Hoyas, and Letona, and Rios Rosas, the Presi- 
dent of the Cortes, while the Duke and Duch- 
ess of Montpensier were deported to Lisbon. 

In the critical situation the Government was 
unwise enough to allow the Queen and herisabei 
family — accompanied by Marfori, chief ofLeqleuo. 
the palace — to go to Lequetio, on the Biscay 
coast, for sea-bathing, and while she was there, 
on the 19th of September, 1868, Rear- Admiral 
tTopete, in command of the squadron in Cadiz 
Bay, raised the flag of revolt. He had long 
been distrusted by the local governor, and only 
shortly before his declaration many arrests 
had been made among the men in garrison in 
Cadiz; but his cleverly worded manifesto de- 
nouncing the tyranny of the Government and 
calling for a Constituent Cortes and a return 
to an honest parliamentary regime, fell like a 
bombshell in the ranks of reaction. This was 
the spark which all Spain was waiting for, and 
it caught fuel that blazed out irresistibly. 

Prim, Sagasta, Paul y Angulo, and others, 
had embarked at Southampton on the 12th 
in the steamer Delta, and had landed at Gib- 



2232 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.v. ms 

raltar on the 17th, sailing thence on a steam 
yacht belonging to Mr. Bland to join Topete 
at Cadiz. Prim found the Admiral, whom he 
did not know, strongly in favor of the Duchess 
of Montpensier as constitutional Queen with 
Serrano as leader of the rising. With regard 
to the latter, Prim easily agreed, for it was 
obvious that he was not powerful enough in 
the army to head a successful national revolt, 
but on the point of sovereignty he would not 
move from his principle of leaving everything 
to a Constituent Cortes ; and with this, Topete, 
who was no politician, had to be contented. 
As neither Serrano nor the exiled generals 
from the Canaries had yet arrived, however. 
Prim in ^nd Topctc darcd no longer delay. Prim was 
appointed to the interim command ; and the 
citizens of Cadiz were delighted, on the morn- 
ing of the 19th of September, to see the ships 
of the squadrons dressed with flags, and to 
hear the cheers of the crews, the Hymn of 
Riego, and the thundering of the cannon, 
which announced the fall of the ancient Span- 
ish dynasty. When Prim and Topete, followed 
by Serrano, landed in Cadiz, and the exiled 
generals from the Canaries joined them, there 
was no doubt of success. Cadiz went wild 
with joy; Seville followed suit: the telegraph 
carried the great news through Spain, and, as 
if by magic, the whole country rose. 

To the last moment Gonzales Brabo, who 
was with the Queen on the north coast, had 



A.D. i868 THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 2233 

lived in a fool's paradise, scoffing at all warn- 
ings; and the successful revolution came upontionbrlakt 
him like a thunderclap. While his colleagues 
in Madrid were praying him to come back, 
and proclaiming martial law, he could only 
desert the falling edifice, and recommend the 
Queen to appoint a military dictatorship 
under Manuel Concha, Marquis of Habana, 
who, collecting such forces as remained faith- 
ful, sent General Pavia, Marquis of Nova- 
liches, to meet Serrano and the revolting army 
of Andalusia, which was advancing on Mad- 
rid; while other loyal generals were told off 
to hold in subjection the north and centre of 
Spain. 

Serrano left Cordova on the 24th of Septem- 
ber to meet Pavia, who stood in his way to- 
ward Madrid with 9,000 infantry, 1,300 cav- 
alry, and 32 guns. The armies met on theThebauie 
plains of Alcolea, with the famous bridge, the° ^°^' 
scene of so many struggles, between them. 
From the first Pavia knew that success was 
hopeless, for the revolt had awakened the 
sleeping land like a bugle call, and Serrano's 
force was the larger; but he was the soul of 
loyalty, and sorrowfully resolved to fight to 
the last in a lost cause. The bridge had been 
seized by Serrano's General, Caballero de 
Rodas, and there the principal struggle took 
place. "Viva la Reina!" cried the Govern- 
ment soldiers, as they rushed to storm it; and 
"Viva la libertadl" was the reply of the de- 



2234 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1868 

fenders. Soon both detachments were firing 
from behind parapets of corpses, and on all 
sides across the plain the bitter conflict raged, 
abounding in instances of pitiful generosity 
and chivalry, as well as in brutal fury; while 
honest John Rutledge, the Northumberland 
engineer, who had run down from Cordova on 
his engine by the line that overlooked the bat- 
tlefield, worked like a beneficent giant help- 
ing the wounded and the dying. As night 
closed in, both armies were exhausted, for 
1,000 men had fallen, and Pavia himself had 
had his nether jaw shot away. It was clear 
serri^? °^ that Scrrano could not be beaten back, and 
during the night the Queen's troops retired 
— ^those who did not join the insurgents — 
and Serrano's road to Madrid was free. 

In the meantime Gonzales Brabo had fled, 
and Concha's Government in Madrid was a 
prey to utter distraction; the Queen alone 
keeping a stout heart. She would go to Mad- 
rid and brave the rising; she would, indeed, 
at one time, have gone to Cadiz and ex- 
erted her personal influence on the generals: 
but as news came day by day of fresh ships 
or regiments revolting, ominous whispers of 
abdication in favor of little Alfonso, with old 
Espartero for Regent, were rife. But these 
were counsels of despair: and the Queen 
would not listen to them. Again and again 
she was ready to start for Madrid with all her 
Court; but Concha, who knew where the dan- 



A.D. i868 THE EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA 2235 

ger lay, always stopped her with a telegram, 
insisting that if she came she must come alone, 
or accompanied only by her children. She 
knew — all the world knew — what alone meant, 
and with tears of rage, that any man should 
dare to dictate to her — a Queen — the choice 
of her servants, she would tear up the minis- 
ters' telegrams and stamp them with fury be- 
neath her feet; while the stout, coarse-looking 
man, with the sallow face, behind her, and the 
frail, gentle little consort by her side, could 
only bow to her imperious will. 

On the 29th of September the news of the 
defeat of Alcolea reached her; and in quick 
succession, the intelligence of the unanimous 
rising of Madrid, the deposition of the Bour-isabei 
bon dynasty, and the formation of a provi- ^^^°^^ ' 
sional government. All through that night 
the distracted Queen and Court discussed the 
next step to be taken, and a dozen times the 
train, with its engine toward France, was 
ready in San Sebastian station and again coun- 
termanded. But as the thunder-peals of revo- 
lution drew nearer and nearer, and the French 
Caesar, a few miles off at Biarritz, could offer 
nothing but sympathy and shelter, Isabel II. 
accepted the inevitable and went into exile. 

With tears coursing down her fat, good- 
natured cheeks, but still with a proud port be- 
fitting a Queen, leaning on the arm of her 
husband, and with Marfori behind her, she 
entered the railway carriage which bore her 



2236 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1868 

over her frontier into France. A few weep- 
iSve?"^^" ing subjects blessed her and touched the hem 
of her garments as she passed, for the dregs 
of the great love the people had borne her still 
lingered; but her thoughts must have been 
gall and wormwood to her fond, proud heart; 
for in this very corner of her dominions hun- 
dreds had cheerfully laid down their lives for 
her. Even as her father had done before her, 
though not so wickedly, she had frittered 
away, by her faults and caprices, the ardent 
devotion of a loyal people, and lost the an- 
cient crown which her ancestors had worn for 
well-nigh a thousand years. She went into 
exile with wounded pride, grief, and anger 
contending for the mastery: and- her last offi- 
cial words on her own soil to the local authori- 
ties who took leave of her as she crossed the 
frontier, were the bitter words, ^'I thought I 
had struck deeper root in this land." 

[In 1869, the Anglican Church is disestab- 
lished in Ireland. Russia gains control of the 
South German fortresses. Serrano is declared 
Regent of Spain. The Hudson Bay Com- 
pany's territories are sold to Great Britain 
Suez and incorporated with Canada. The Suez 
o^nid Canal is opened. Japan abolishes the feudal 
system.] 



THE SUEZ CANAL 

(A.D. 1869) 

J. W. GROVER 

FOR a period of about twelve centuries 
and a half, from the time of Darius 
to that of Omar, various attempts had 
been made to connect the waters of the Nile 
with the Red Sea; and in all these projects we tempts to 

' ■* •' connect 

note that the projectors always had in view ^^^?jf^'^^^ 
the formation of a fresh-water canal. Xhe^^'^^^^- 
idea of connecting sea to sea in a direct course 
never seems to have occurred to them. 

For over a thousand years after the times of 
Omar, the work was abandoned, and the next 
attempts were inaugurated by the French un- 
der the great Napoleon, who, during his occu- 
pation of Egypt, turned his genius toward the 
subject. He caused a survey and a report to 
be made of this great work of antiquity, un- 
der the direction of M. Lepere, a French 
engineer of high standing; and no doubt, if 
the French had been successful in Egypt, 
something would have been done toward the 
realization of the scheme. Without entering 
very precisely into the proposals of M. Le- 
pere, it may be said generally that they were 

(2237) 



2288 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. ise 

founded on the same great error which had 
defeated the ancient plans, viz., that the Red 
Lepere's ^^^ ^^^ higher than the Mediterranean by a 
p'^"- mean height of twenty-seven feet and a half, 
and he made the mean height of the Nile at 
Cairo the same; but as the river rises and falls 
twenty-three and a half feet, whereas the Red 
Sea does not vary more than five and a half 
feet, he proposed to construct the canal in sec- 
tions, having locks between them, to govern 
the differences in height at various times. The 
line he proposed was first from Bubastis to 
Seneka (or Abaceh) , a distance of about twelve 
miles; the second length extended as far as 
Serapium, and was to be thirty-eight miles 
long; the third section, of twenty-seven miles, 
extended through the Bitter Lakes; and the 
fourth length, from them to the Red Sea, a 
distance of about thirteen miles. He esti- 
mated the cost of these works at £691,000 
sterling; but with a number of accessories he 
brought up his figures to nearly £1,250,000. 
It is only fair, however, to M. Lepere to say 
that he spoke favorably of a direct cut from 
sea to sea. That distance is, in a straight line, 
about seventy-five miles; but, as surveyed, his 
canal would have been about ninety-three 
miles long. 

In the year 1847, a French engineer, M. 

Linam Linaut Bey, in the service of the Egyptian 

pjposai. Government, proposed to carry a canal from 

the Red Sea, through the Bitter Lakes to Lake 



A.D. i869 THE SUEZ CANAL * 2239 

Timsah, and thence through the lagoons of 
Lake Mensaleh to Tineh (Pelusium) on the 
Mediterranean ; and on the assumption that 
the levels of M. Lepere were correct, he cal- 
culated that there would be a flow through 
the canal of three or four miles an hour. 

At that time, however, our own eminent en- 
gineer, the late Robert Stephenson, M.P., ap- Robert 
peared upon the scene, and under his auspices ^oi^'^^^Jis- 
a careful set of levels were taken across the 
Isthmus, which revealed the curious and im- 
portant fact that there was no essential differ- 
ence between the two seas at low water, and 
at high water the difference was not more than 
four feet. This discovery seems for a time to 
have deterred further enterprise, it being Mr. 
Stephenson's opinion that the canal could not 
be kept open without a current through it. 

About four years after, the project was 
again revived by M. Ferdinand de Lesseps, m. de 

Lesseps 

to whom the Khedive of Egypt granted the [^vives.^^^ 
concession of making a canal direct from sea 
to sea, besides subscribing substantially to the 
undertaking. At the instance of M. de Les- 
seps, an international commission of engineers 
was appointed to examine and report upon the 
plans; and under their direction an exact sur- 
vey was made of the country, and fresh levels 
were taken, which confirmed Mr. Stephenson's 
statement that the two seas were virtually the 
same level. It was now proposed that a canal 
should be excavated having a depth of 8 me- 



2240 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1869 

tres, or 26 feet 3 inches; and a width at the 
water-level of 80 metres, or 262 feet. The 
estimate for this work was £6,500,000; and it 
was proposed to form a company, with a capi- 
tal of £8,000,000. It need hardly be ob- 
served, that the works have cost double that 
amount. 

It would not be fair to omit the name of 
Colonel Chesney among the list of those emi- 
nent men who foresaw the practicability and 
Colonel advantages of a direct connection from sea to 
sea. In 1830, he examined the country, and 
says: "As to the executive part, there is but 
one opinion. There are no serious difficul- 
ties; not a single mountain intervenes, scarcely 
what deserves to be called a hillock. In a 
country where labor can be had without limit, 
and at a rate infinitely below that of any other 
part of the world, the expense would be a 
moderate one for a single nation, and scarcely 
worth dividing between the great kingdoms 
of Europe, who would all be benefited by the 



Chesney. 



measure." 



Having thus glanced at the general history 
K^de o^ ^^^ earlier Suez canals, which were all 
Lesseps. j^Qj-g qj. iggg abortivc, I will endeavor, in as 
concise a form as possible, to describe the won- 
derful work of M. de Lesseps. 

The whole length of the Canal, from Port 
Said to Suez, may be taken at eighty-eight 
geographical miles; of this, sixty-six miles are 
actual canal ; and twenty-two miles of the navi- 



A.D. i869 THE SUEZ CANAL 2241 

gation run through three lakes, viz., Timsah 
and the Great and Little Bitter Lakes. In all 
cases, however, except for about eight miles, 
it was necessary to excavate to obtain the re- 
quired depth. The width of the Canal at the SiSii. 
surface varies from 325 feet to 195 feet; and 
its floor is 72 feet wide, the depth of water 
being 26 feet; the general slope of the excava- 
tion being 2 to i, but considerably flatter 
where the surface of the water impinges. At 
every five or six miles between Port Said and 
Lake Timsah — the whole distance being forty- 
two miles — there is a "gare," or siding, to al- 
low large vessels to bring up in, either for the 
purpose of passing each other or to moor for 
the night. 

The greatest difficulty anticipated was that 
the large quantity of deposit being constantly 
carried eastward from the Nile would rapidly 
form a shoal across the entrance to the Canal 
at Port Said. M. de Lesseps, however, boldly ^j^^j^^^^^^^ 
confronted this difficulty, and his decision has '^^"''■ 
been justified by the event. He has thrown 
out two formidable breakwaters on both sides 
of the Canal, inclosing an area of 450 acres, 
and extending as far as 6,940 feet to sea on one 
side, and 6,020 feet on the other. These form 
a good, quiet harbor, and effectually keep out 
the silt. The breakwaters are made of loose 
blocks of artificial stone. At Suez, the port 
of entry is easy of access. A breakwater here 
protects the entrance from southerly winds. 



2242 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1869 

From the Nile at Cairo to Ismailia there 
is a fresh-water canal, which connects with the 

The fresh- iTiaritime canal there by means of two locks. 

TMsmaliia! About thrcc miles before reaching Ismailia, 
an arm of this fresh-water canal branches off, 
and runs alongside of the main Canal to Suez. 
The depth of this fresh-water canal is about 
four feet. There is also a railway from Suez 
to Ismailia along the route of the canal. 

To show the enormous value of this work to 
all Indian and Chinese interests, it may be 

,, , , sufficient here to state that the Canal route 

Value of 

the Canal, g^yes vcry nearly one-half the distance be- 
tween the English Channel and Galle, the dis- 
tances being round the Cape of Good Hope, 
11,650 miles, and by the Canal, 6,515; or a 
saving of 5,135 miles, or in point of time, 
thirty-six days. 

It was in the year 1854 ^^^^ Mohammed 
Said succeeded Abbas Pacha. On the 15th 

The of November, in that year, M. de Lesseps sub- 

Company ' j i ^ ir ^ 

\^"^lt mitted to him a memorial advocating with 
grand simplicity and power the advantages of 
this grand project. On the 30th of Novem- 
ber, the concession was signed, inaugurating a 
Universal Company for piercing the Isthmus 
of Suez. Then the English representative 
asked the Viceroy how he expected the work 
could ever be accomplished. To which Mo- 
hammed Said replied, "that M. de Lesseps 
having entitled his company 'Universal,' all 
nations would be invited to contribute to its 



A.D. i869 THE SUEZ CANAL 2243 

capital." M. de Lesseps himself announced, 
in these terms, to the English agent, the sign- 
ing of the firman: "I come as the friend of 
peace and of the Anglo-French alliance, to 
bring you that which will contribute to realize 
the saying, 'Aperire terram, et dare pacem 
gentibus/ " 

[In 1870, the Franco-Prussian war breaks 
out, the French troops are recalled from Ci- 
vita Vecchia and the Italian troops bombard ^^^^^ 
and occupy Rome, ending the temporal power tempo^i^ 
of the Papacy. The son of Victor Emmanuel ''°'^^'^' 
is chosen King of Spain. A revolt of Indian 
half-breeds on the Red River is suppressed. 
Diamonds are discovered in the Orange Free 
State. Board Schools are established in Eng- 
land. Infanticide is prohibited in India.] 



E 



THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 

(A.D. 1870—1871) 

JAMES SIME 

ARLY in July, 1870, Leopold, the hered- 
itary Prince of HohenzoUern, at the 
request of the Spanish Government, 
and with the permission of King William of 
Prussia as head of the HohenzoUern family, 

dedarls became a candidate for the Spanish throne. 

pfussS"'^The Emperor Napoleon, who had never 
heartily accepted the reconstitution of Ger- 
many, and who was anxious for an opportu- 
nity to establish his waning popularity in 
France, resolved to make Leopold's candida- 
ture the pretext for a war with Germany. A 
cry was raised in the French Legislative As- 
sembly that a foreign Power was about to 
place one of its princes on the throne of 
Charles V. A section of the French people 
took up the cry, and called loudly for the sub- 
mission of Germany to the wish of France. 
To take away all cause of dispute, the Prince 
of HohenzoUern formally resigned his candi- 
dature on July 12. Not content with this tri- 
umph. Napoleon insisted that the King of 
Prussia should give an assurance to France 

(2244) 



A.D. 1871^1871 THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 2245 

that the candidature of the Prince of Hohen- 
zollern would not be renewed. M. Benedetti, 
the French ambassador, came on the 13th to 
Ems, where the King was staying, and on a 
public promenade urged this demand. King 
William not only refused to grant it, but de- The French 

o J ambassador 

clined to listen further to M. Benedetti onsnubbed.i 
the subject. An official telegram from Ems 
informed the German Governments of this 
fact next day. War had now become certain ; 
and the King hurried toward Berlin. On the 
15th he was met at the Brandenburg station 
by the Crown Prince, Counts von Bismarck, 
von Moltke, and von Roon, and informed of 
what had taken place that day in the French 
Legislative Assembly. All that was now 
wanting was the formal declaration of war. 
While still in Brandenburg, therefore, the 
King of Prussia gave orders for the mobiliza- 
tion of the North German army. Next day 
the Federal Council met, and expressed its ^j^^ g^^jjj 
hearty concurrence with the views of the Gov-sut«*"e- 
ernment; and on the 19th the Confederate t^^p^uSl 
Diet was opened by the King with a speech of 
great dignity and moderation. On the same 
day, the French declaration of war was re- 
ceived and communicated to the Assembly. 

Napoleon, misinformed as to the real state 
of Germany, had hoped that the South Ger- 
mans, if they did not actually join France, 
would at least remain neutral. But, though 
in Bavaria and Wiirtemberg there were strong 

JU VoL 6 



2246 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1870-1871 

parties in favor of such a course, they were 
true to their engagements. On the i6th the 
King of Bavaria and the Grand Duke of Ba- 
den ordered the mobilization of their troops; 
and next day the King of Wiirtemberg fol- 
lowed their example. On the 20th the South 
German princes formally announced to the 
King of Prussia that their forces were at his 

Real causes i i i-k • /^ -r» • 

ofthewar. disposal ; and the rrussian Crown rrmce at 
once left Berlin to take the command of the 
united army. Throughout all Germany the 
prospect of the war excited much enthusiasm. 
It must not be supposed that the miserable 
HohenzoUern dispute had really anything to 
do with the war. It was of even less impor- 
tance than the Schleswig-Holstein quarrel had 
been in the Austro-Prussian war. In a few 
days the world almost forgot that the Prince 
of HohenzoUern had been a candidate for 
the Spanish throne. What France was really 
about to fight for was the maintenance of her 
supposed supremacy in Europe. Germany 
had taken up arms in her own defence, and 
perhaps she was not unwilling to engage in a 
struggle by which she might thoroughly 
humble a Power that had for centuries lost 
no opportunity of adding to her divisions, rob- 
bing her of her territory, and depriving her 
of her just place among the nations. 

The German army, including the forces 

Vast force 

of Germans both of North aud South Germany, numbered 
more than a million men. This vast force was 



A.D. 1870-1871 THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 2247 

under the supreme command of the King of 



Prussia, whose chief adviser was again Gen-mancom- 
eral von Moltke, head of the General Stafif. 
It was divided into three armies, some part of 
each of which remained behind for the pro- 
tection of the country. The first, under Gen- 
eral von Steinmetz, was placed near Trier as 
the right wing; the second, under Prince 
Frederick Charles, assembled in Rhenish Ba- 
varia; the third, consisting of the South Ger- 
man army and of three Prussian corps, and 
commanded by the Prussian Crown Prince, 
occupied the right bank of the Rhine from 
Mannheim to Rastatt. By the end of July 
these three armies were ready for action, and 
some skirmishing took place. But real fight- 
ing did not begin till next month. On August 
4 the third army began its march toward the 
Lauter, and the first battle was fought at 
Weissenburg. The French were defeated, 
and the whole of the third army encamped 
on French soil. On the 6th a great victory was 
won by the same army at Worth over Marshal 
MacMahon. The loss on both sides waSbilu?* 
heavy; but the defeat of the French was com- 
plete. They fled in such wild disorder that 
MacMahon's corps was for some time hope- 
lessly scattered. The Crown Prince at once 
began his march across the Vosges mountains, 
leaving the Baden division to besiege Strass- 
burg. On the day of the battle of Worth a 
part of the first and second armies gained a 



Further 
victories 



2248 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i87<^i87i 

brilliant victory near Saarbriicken. The 
bravery with which the heights of Spicheren 
were stormed has rarely been equalled. After 
this battle the whole German army entered 
France. 

The three German armies now pressed on 
toward the Moselle. The scene of the great 
battles which were next fought, and which 
rapidly followed one another, was the coun- 
try immediately in front of Metz. Marshal 
Bazaine, who had now assumed the supreme 
command of the French army, and who ap- 
parently wished to join MacMahon, began his 
march from Metz on the 14th; but he was at- 
tacked by a portion of the first German army 
at Courcelles, and driven back. Next day he 
again set out toward Verdun. On the i6th the 
battle of Mars-la-Tour or Bionville was 
fought. It continued from morning till night, 
and portions both of the first and second 
armies took part in it. The result was unfa- 
vorable to the French; but on the i8th they 
were still more decidedly defeated at Grave- 
lotte, and obliged to take refuge in Metz. 
That fortress was instantly surrounded by the 
rounded"'^' first aud sccond armies, the supreme command 
of both of which was given to Prince Frede- 
rick Charles. The Prussian Crown Prince had 
awaited at Nancy the issue of the battles be- 
fore Metz. His orders now were to proceed 
against Marshal MacMahon, who had reor- 
ganized and greatly strengthened his army at 



A.D. i87o-i87t THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 2249 

Chalons. To aid the Crown Prince in this 
difficult undertaking, a fourth army was 
formed from corps which had hitherto be- 
longed to the second army. It was in the end 
placed under the Crown Prince of Saxony, 
and called the army of the Maes. The King 
of Prussia himself assumed the supreme com- 
mand of the armies of the two Crown Princes. 
Both were in full march westward, and the 
Prussian Crown Prince had fixed his head- 
quarters at Ligny, when the news came thatMac-^^,^ 
Marshal MacMahon had left Chalons. If^^^'^n^^'nts 
was soon discovered that he had been in 
Rheims, and was marching toward Rethel. It 
was therefore concluded that he was making 
for Metz, with the intention of operating with 
Marshal Bazaine against Prince Frederick 
Charles. The Germans at once turned to the 
right, and marched in pursuit of the enemy. 
MacMahon had concentrated his troops near 
Vouziers. On August 28 he advanced toward 
the Maes in the direction of Beaumont. Two 
days afterward an important battle was fought 
near the latter place, the result of which was 
that the French were driven toward Sedan, 
while the road leading to Metz was occupied 
by the Germans. MacMahon's great scheme 
was thus already baffled. The decisive battle 
of the campaign was fought on September i-ofsLdan. 
After severe fighting the French were driven 
from all sides into Sedan, which the Germans 
surrounded, and into which they were pre- 



2250 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1870-1871 

pared to pour a destructive fire. Nothing re- 
capku° mained for the French but to surrender. The 

lation. 1 1 1 r 

Emperor JNapoleon, who had for some tmie 
freely exposed himself on the battlefield, 
yielded his sword to King William; and next 
day the two monarchs had an interview. The 
conditions of the capitulation were agreed 
upon by Count von Moltke and General 
Wimpffen, the latter having assumed the com- 
mand of the French early on the previous day, 
when Marshal MacMahon was disabled by 
a severe wound. All the troops in Sedan, 
amounting to 84,000 men, together with 50 
generals and 5,000 other officers, yielded 
themselves prisoners of war, while the entire 
war material of the army became the property 
of the Germans. Those officers who passed 
their word of honor to take no future part in 
the war were set free. The Emperor Napo- 
leon received as his residence the Castle of 
Wilhelmshohe, near Cassel. 

The tidings of the French Emperor's sur- 
render caused much excitement in Germany. 
Many hoped that the war would now cease; 
but this hope was soon shown to be ground- 
France less. The German people had made up their 

's still ^ ^ ^ 

obstinate, minds that the cession of Elsass and German 
Lorraine should be a condition of peace. The 
French Government of the National Defence, 
which displaced the Empire, at once declared 
that France would give Germany any sum of 
money, but would not yield an inch of its terri- 



A.D. i87c^.87i THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 2251 

tory or a stone of its fortresses. Germany, 
therefore, all but unanimously approved of 
the continuance of the war. Almost immedi- 
ately after the battle of Sedan, the armies of 
the two Crown Princes began their march to- 
ward Paris. On September 5, King William 
entered Rheims, and in a fortnight afterward 
the Germans were before Paris, the third army 
occupymg the country to the south and south- p^^s. 
east, the army of the Maes that to the north 
and northeast. The Prussian Crown Prince 
fixed his headquarters in Versailles, where 
those of King William were also placed, on 
October 5. Meanwhile two distinct efforts to 
break through the German lines had been 
made, one by General Ducrot, on September 
19, another by General Vinoy, on September 
30; but both times the French were driven 
back. On October 13 and October 21, sim- 
ilar attempts were made, but with a like 
result. The French were somewhat more 
successful on October 28, when they took pos- 
session of the village of Le Bourget, and be- 
gan to mass troops there. Two days after- 
ward, after a brave defence, they had to 
retreat. 

Meanwhile, a new French army, called the 
army of the Loire, had been raised and had 
begun to operate with a view to the relief 
of Pans; and General Faidherbe had also 
formed an army in the north. But fresh dis- 
asters had befallen France. Strassburg had 



THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1870-1871 

surrendered on September 27; and on Oc- 
tober 27, Marshal Bazaine, after having sev- 
eral times tried to escape from Metz, capitu- 
lated with his whole army, which consisted of 
173,000 men, with three marshals and 6,000 
officers. Metz itself was surrendered to the 
Germans. The troops which had so long sur- 
rounded Metz were then free to prosecute the 
war which had anew broken out on the field. 
The first army was placed under General von 
Manteuffel, and, with the exception of the 
troops left behind for the occupation of Metz 
and Lorraine, proceeded in a northwest direc- 
tion, against Faidherbe. The greater part of 
the second army marched toward the south, 
where Prince Frederick Charles was to as- 
sume the supreme command. On October 
12, General von der Tann had taken possession 
of Orleans; but on November 8, his troops 
being enormously outnumbered by the army 
of the Loire, he retreated. Next day he was 
hotly attacked, and on the loth fell back upon 
Tours. He was joined by the Grand Duke 
of Mecklenburg, who was sent with troops 
from Paris to hold the French in check until 
the second army should come up. The Grand 
Duke gained some advantages before the ar- 
rival of Prince Frederick Charles; but when 
the latter appeared, the army of the Loire, 
which had begun its march toward Paris, was 
driven back at all points, and on December 4, 
after severe fighting, Orleans was once more 



A.D. 1870-1871 THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 2253 

occupied by the Germans. The army of the 
Loire was then broken up into two great di- 
visions, one under General Chanzy, the other 
commanded by General Bourbaki. The for- 
mer army was repeatedly defeated, and at 
length altogether scattered by Prince Fred- 
erick Charles; the latter marched toward the 
east, with a view to efifect a diversion by the 
invasion of South Germany. In the north, paidherbe-s 
Faidherbe displayed great energy; but he^ergy. 
was twice defeated in the neighborhood of 
Amiens; he was overcome also at Bapaume 
and St. Quentin. A new German army, called 
the south army, was formed to oppose Bour- 
baki in the east, and placed under General 
von Manteufifel, who was succeeded in the 
north by General von Goeben. For a mo- 
ment South Germany appeared in real danger 
from the advance of Bourbaki, for, although 
he was pursued by General von Manteufifel, 
the latter was far in the rear. The danger 
was averted by the courage of General von 
Werder, who, with the Baden division, had 
for some time been holding Generals Cam- the Baden 

O division. 

briel and Garibaldi in check, and who now 
resolved, at whatever cost, to prevent the 
further advance of Bourbaki's army. For 
three days Bourbaki strove, with his large 
army, at Hericourt, to drive back Werder's 
small force; but the Baden troops fought with 
such bravery that the French, on January 17, 
1 87 1, were themselves obliged to retreat in 



a closer 



2254 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1870-1871 

disorder. Bourbaki was displaced by Gen- 
eral Clinchant; but the latter succeeded no 
better. Harassed on every side by General 
von Manteufiel, Clinchant crossed the Swiss 
frontier with his whole army, consisting of 
84,000 men, on February i. 

During the progress of the war the South 
Germans, proud of the common German 
name, began to feel how small are the points 
of difference between themselves and their 
northern kinsfolk compared with those great 
interests by which all Germans are united. 

dSht^oT This feeling gave rise to a desire for a closer 
union with the Northern Confederation; and 
in the middle of October, 1870, plenipoten- 
tiaries were sent from all the Southern States 
to Versailles for the purpose of bringing 
about the desired change. The result of the 
negotiations was that treaties were signed with 
Hessen and Baden on November 15; with 
Bavaria on November 23 ; and with Wiirtem- 
berg on November 25. By these treaties, 
which afterward received the approval of the 

^5r?-^.".„ North German Diet and the South German 
Parliaments, the Northern Confederation was 
changed into a German Confederation. This 
change was accompanied by another of great 
importance. On December 4, King Ludwig 
II. of Bavaria proposed to the other German 
sovereigns, and to the Senates of the three 
free towns, that the President of the Confed- 
eration should receive the title of German 



The 



Confeder- 
ation. 



A.D. 1870-1871 THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 2255 

Emperor. The proposal being agreed to, 



King William was, on January i8, 1871, indecia?^ 
the Hall of Mirrors in the palace of Ver- 
sailles, in presence of a brilliant company of 
German princes and representatives of the 
army, solemnly proclaimed Emperor in Ger- 
many. 

On the following day (the very day on 
which Faidherbe was defeated at St. Quentin) 
the French made a last attempt to escape from 
Paris; but their plans were ill arranged, and 
they were driven back with heavy loss. The 
Government of the National Defence, feeling 
that further resistance was now impossible, 
opened negotiations with a view to peace. On Peace ne- 

r o r gotiations. 

January 28, Paris formally surrendered; and 
an armistice for three weeks was concluded, 
which, however, did not apply to the military 
operations in the eastern provinces. The pre- 
liminaries of peace were signed on February 
26 by Count Bismarck and the South German 
plenipotentiaries on the one hand, and by 
MM. Thiers and Favre on the other. Ac- 
cording to these, France ceded to the German 
Empire the province of Elsass (excluding 
Belfort) and German Lorraine (including 
Metz and Thionville) ; and undertook to pay 
5,000 millions of francs as an indemnity for 
the expenses of the war. On March i, a por- 
tion of the German troops entered Paris and mans^/nter 
occupied a small part of it; but two days after- 
ward they left it, the National Assembly at 



Peace of 
Frankfurt. 



2256 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1870-1871 

Bordeaux having already ratified the prelimi- 
naries of peace. The German and French 
plenipotentiaries, who met at Brussels on 
March 27, for the purpose of concluding a 
treaty, could not come to an agreement on va- 
rious points. The delay caused by the misun- 
derstandings, and the troubled state of France, 
gave rise to an uneasy feeling in Germany. 
Count Bismarck, therefore, himself inter- 
fered, and on May 6 met M. Favre at Frank- 
furt. Here a treaty was formally signed on 
the loth; and it was afterward ratified by the 
German and French Governments. The 
treaty of Frankfurt differed only in details 
from the preliminaries which had before been 
concluded. The district round Belfort was 
yielded to the French ; but in return the latter 
ceded some additional territory in Lorraine. 
The German people were displeased that 
France was allowed to keep Belfort; but on 
the whole they regarded the results of the war 
with pride and pleasure. The ancient mili- 
to the war. ^^^^ famc of Germany had been more than 
maintained; the Fatherland had been united; 
and the national sentiment was gratified by 
the conquest of the long-lost provinces of 
Elsass and Lorraine, which would henceforth 
form a defence against French attacks. The 
Austro-Prussian war had raised Prussia to the 
first place in Germany; the present war raise4^ 
Germany to the first place in Europe, 



Feeling 
of the 
Germans as 



A.D. 1870-1871 THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR 2257 

[In 1871, a Republic is proclaimed inp^^^^^^ 
France, as the Comte de Chambord refuses ^^p"^"'^- 
to renounce the white flag; the Commune 
breaks out in Paris and is suppressed by Mac- 
Mahon, after great incendiarism and excesses. 
The seat of Italian Government is transferred 
from Florence to Rome. The Tweed ring of 
New York is broken up; Holland cedes her 
Gold Coast settlements to England. The 
Mont Cenis tunnel is opened. Livingstone 
discovers the Upper Congo. The English 
Universities abolish the Religious test. En- 
glish trade-unions are legalized. In 1872, 
the ballot is introduced. The Geneva Court vi^l^arT 
of Arbitration awards $15,000,600 damages 
to the United States for the depredations by 
the Alabama and other ships. In 1873, the 
last instalment of indemnity is paid and the 
German troops evacuate France; general con- 
scription is introduced. In Spain, the King 
resigns, and a Republic is proclaimed. Cas- 
telar becomes dictator; Carlists revolt in the 
north, Federalists and Communists in the 
south. The treaty of Zanzibar forbids the 
Slave Trade in Africa. In 1874, ^^e troubles 
in Spain are concluded by the proclamation 
of Alfonso, son of Isabella, as King. The 
British conclude a war with Ashanti by the 
capture of Coomassie. In 1875, a controlling E„g,^„j 
interest in the Suez Canal is bought by Dis- llfkniz 
raeli. France adopts a new constitution, with 
a President for seven years. Bosnia and 



2258 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1870-1871 

Herzegovina revolt against Turkey. Stanley 

circumnavigates Victoria Nyanza and Tan- 

posuT" eanvika. The Universal Postal Union is in- 

Union. O •> 

stituted. Plimsoll carries the Merchant Ship- 
ping Bill. In 1876, the Carlist War ends. 
Bulgaria revolts and is treated with horrible 
cruelty. Servia and Montenegro declare war 
on the Sultan and are aided by Russian volun- 
teers. France and England establish the 
Dual Control in Egypt. Christian Science is 
founded by Mrs. Eddy. A telephone is in- 
Sephone vcnted by Bell. In 1877, Russian troops in- 
vade Turkey; Roumania aids Russia; the 
Turks hold Plevna with great gallantry for 
a long time. Kars in Asia Minor is stormed 
by the Russians. Great Britain annexes the 
South African Republic and the Queen is pro- 
claimed Empress of India, Japan suppresses 
an obstinate rebellion in Satsuma. In 1878, 
Great Britain prepares to aid Turkey, who 
signs the treaty of San Stefano with Russia. 
Great Britain demands a European Congress, 
which meets at Berlin. Great Britain ac- 
quires Cyprus. Austria reduces Bosnia and 
Herzegovina. The Ameer refuses to receive 
Electric ^^1 EngUsh mlsslon, and General Roberts in- 
ilurolhfced. vades Afghanistan. Electric lighting is intrC' 
duced. David Hughes discovers the micro- 
phone.] 



THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN 

(A.D. 1878) 

JUSTIN McCarthy 

THE common expectation was soon ful- 
filled. At the close of June, 1876, 
Servia and Montenegro declared wargerviaand 
against Turkey. Servia's struggle was short. gro"decitre 

. , , . . r nt 1 1 1 warag-ainst 

At the begmnmg of September the struggle Turkey, 
was over, and Servia was practically at Tur- 
key's feet. The hardy Montenegrin moun- 
taineers held their own stoutly against the 
Turks everywhere, but they could not seri- 
ously influence the fortunes of a war. Russia 
intervened and insisted upon an armistice, and 
her demand was acceded to by Turkey. Mean- 
while, the general feeling in England on both 
sides was growing stronger and stronger. 
Public meetings of Mr. Gladstone's sup- 
porters were held all over the country, and 
the English Government was urged in the 
most emphatic manner to bring some strong 
influence to bear on Turkey. On the other 
hand, it can not be doubted that the common 
suspicion of Russia's designs began to grow 
more keen and wakeful than ever. Lord 

(2259) 



2260 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1878 

Derby frankly made known to the Emperor 
Alexander what was thought or feared in 
England, and the Emperor replied by pledg- 
ing his sacred word that he had no intention 
of occupying Constantinople, and that if he 
were compelled by events to occupy any part 
of Bulgaria, it should be only provisionally, 
and until the safety of the Christians should 
, ^ . be secured. Then Lord Derby proposed that 

Lord Derby -^ ^ '^ 

conference ^ confcrcncc of thc Europcan Powers should 
European bc hcld at Constantinople in order to agree 
upon some scheme which should provide at 
once for the proper government of the vari- 
ous provinces and populations subject to Tur- 
key, and at the same time for the maintenance 
of the independence and integrity of the Otto- 
man Empire. The proposal was accepted by 
all the Great Powers, and on November 8, 
1876, it was announced that Lord Salisbury 
and Sir Henry Elliott, the English Ambas- 
sador at Constantinople, were to attend as the 
representatives of England. 

Lord Beaconsfield was apparently deter- 
mined to recover the popularity that had been 
somewhat impaired by his unlucky way of 
dealing with the massacres of Bulgaria. His 
plan now was to go boldly in for denuncia- 
tion of Russia. He sometimes talked of Rus- 
sia as he might of an enemy who had already 
declared war against England. The pros- 
pects of a peaceful settlement of the Euro- 
pean controversy seemed to become heavily 



consfield 

denounces 

Russia. 



A.D. 1878 • THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN 2261 

overclouded. Lord Beaconsfield appeared to 
be holding the dogs of war by the collar, and 
only waiting for the convenient moment to let Lord Bea- 
them slip. Every one knew that some of his 
colleagues, Lord Derby, for example, and 
Lord Carnarvon, were opposed to any thought 
of war, and felt almost as strongly for the 
Christian provinces of Turkey as Mr. Glad- 
stone did. But people shook their heads 
doubtfully when it was asked whether Lord 
Derby or Lord Carnarvon, or both combined, 
could prevail in strength of will against Lord 
Beaconsfield. 

The conference at Constantinople came to 
nothing. The Turkish statesmen at first at- „ ., 

O Failure of 

tempted to put off the diplomatists of the s^anunopie 
West by the announcement that the Sultan ^°"^^'^^""'^' 
had granted a Constitution to Turkey, and 
that there was to be a Parliament, at which 
representatives of all provinces were to speak 
for themselves. There was, in fact, a Turk- 
ish Parliament called together. Of course, 
the Western statesmen could not be put off by 
an announcement of this kind. They knew 
well enough what a Turkish Parliament must 
mean. It seems almost superfluous to say that 
the Turkish Parliament was ordered to dis- 
appear very soon after the occasion passed 
away for trying to deceive the Great Euro- 
pean Powers. Evidently Turkey had got it 
into her head that the English Government 
would at the last moment stand by her, and 



2262 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



Turkey 
refuses 
to come 
to terms. 



would not permit her to be coerced. She 
refused to come to terms, and the Conference 
broke up without having accomplished any 
good. New attempts at arrangement were 
made between England, Russia, and others of 
the Great Powers, but they fell through. Then 
Sr^es at last, on April 24, 1877, Russia declared war 
Turke^>^'"'' against Turkey, and on June 27 a Russian 
army crossed the Danube and moved toward 
the Balkans, meeting with comparatively lit- 
tle resistance, while at the same time another 
Russian force invaded Asia Minor. 

For a while the Russians seemed likely to 
carry all before them. But they had made 
the one great mistake of altogether undervalu- 
ing their enemies. Their preparations were 
hasty and imperfect. The Turks turned upon 
them unexpectedly and made a gallant and 
almost desperate resistance. One of their 
osman commandcrs, Osman Pasha, suddenly threw 
Plevna, up defcusivc works at Plevna, in Bulgaria, 
a point the Russians had neglected to secure, 
and maintained himself there, repulsing the 
Russians many times with great slaughter. 
For a while success seemed altogether on the 
side of the Turks, and many people in Eng- 
land were convinced that the Russian enter- 
prise was already an entire failure; that noth- 
ing remained for the armies of the Gzar bur 
retreat, disaster, and disgrace. Under the di- 
recting skill, however, of General Todleben, 
the great soldier whose splendid defence of 



A.D. i878 THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN 2263 

Sebastopol had made the one grand military 
reputation of the Crimean War, the fortunes 
of the campaign again turned. Kars was victories 
taken by assault on November i8, 1 877 ; Rus''s?an 
Plevna surrendered on December 10. At the^*^"*^' 
opening of 1878 the Turks were completely 
prostrate. The road to Constantinople was 
clear. Before the English public had time to 
recover their breath and to observe what was 
taking place, the victorious armies of Russia 
were almost within sight of the minarets of 
Stamboul. 

Meanwhile, the English Government were 
taking momentous action. In the first days 
of 1878 Sir Henry Elliott, who had been Am- 
bassador in Constantinople, was transferred to 
Vienna, and Mr. Layard, who had been Min- 
ister at Madrid, was sent to the Turkish capi- Mr. Layard 

' ^ appointed 

tal to represent England there. Mr. Layard ^^'^i^. 
was known to be a strong believer in Turkey; Tur°ke>° 
more Turkish in some respects than the Turks 
themselves. But he was a man of superabun- 
dant energy; of what might be described as 
boisterous energy. The Ottoman Govern- 
ment could not but accept his appointment as 
a new and stronger proof that the English 
Government were determined to stand their 
friend ; but they ought to have accepted it, too, 
as evidence that the English Government were 
determined to use some pressure to make them 
amenable to reason. Unfortunately it would 
appear, that the Sultan's Government accepted 



2264 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1878 

Mr. Layard's appointment in the one sense 
only and not in the other. Parliament was 
called together at least a fortnight before the 
time usual during recent years. The Speech 
from the Throne announced that Her Maj- 
esty could not conceal from herself that, 
should the hostilities between Russia and Tur- 
key unfortunately be prolonged, "some unex- 
pected occurrence may render it incumbent 
on me to adopt measures of precaution." This 
looked ominous to those who wished for peace, 
English and it raised the spirits of the War Party. 

War Party. ^ ^ -^ 

There was a very large and a very noisy war 
party already in existence. It was particu- 
larly strong in London. It embraced some 
Liberals as well as nearly all Tories. It was 
popular in the music-halls and the public- 
houses of London. The men of action got a 
nickname. A poet of the music-halls had 
composed a ballad which was sung at one of 
these caves of harmony every night amid the 
tumultuous applause of excited patriots. The 
refrain of this war-song contained the spirit- 
stirring words: — 

"We don't want to fight, but, by Jingo, if we do. 
We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've 
got the money, too." 



Origin of 
the word 
"Jingo." 



Some one whose pulses this lyrical outburst 
of national pride failed to stir called the party 
of its enthusiasts Jingoes. The name was 
caught up at once, and the party was uni- 



A.D. i878 THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN 2265 

versally known as the Jingoes. The term, 
applied as one of ridicule and reproach, was 
adopted by chivalrous Jingoes as a name of 
pride. 

The Government ordered the Mediterra- 
nean fleet to pass the Dardanelles and go up to 
Constantinople. The Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer announced that he would ask for a 
supplementary estimate of six millions for 
naval and military purposes. Thereupon 
Lord Carnarvon, the Colonial Secretary, at 
once resigned. He had been anxious to get 
out of the Ministry before, but Lord Beacons- 
field induced him to remain. He disapproved 
now so strongly of the despatch of the fleet to 
Constantinople and the supplementary voteEngush 
that he would not any longer defer his resig- dered to 
nation. Lord Derby was also anxious to re-^'"°p'«- 
sign, and indeed tendered his resignation, but 
he was prevailed upon to withdraw it. The 
fleet meanwhile was ordered back from the 
Dardanelles to Besika Bay. It had got as far 
as the opening of the Straits when it was re- 
called. The Liberal Opposition in the House 
of Commons kept on protesting against the 
various war measures of the Government, but 
with little efifect. While all this agitation in 
and out of Parliament was going on, the news 
came that the Turks, utterly broken down, had sign an "^ ^ 

-' ' armistice. 

been compelled to sign an armistice, and an 
agreement containing a basis of peace, at 
Adrianople. Then, following quickly on the 



2266 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a. d. 1878 

heels of this announcement, came a report that 
the Russians, notwithstanding the armistice, 
were pushing on toward Constantinople with 
the intention of occupying the Turkish capital. 
A cry of alarm and indignation broke out in 
London. If the clamor of the streets at that 
War fever momcnt had been the voice of England, noth- 
inLcndon. -^^ could havc pTcventcd a declaration of war 
against Russia. Happily, however, it was 
proved that the rumor of Russian advance was 
unfounded. The fleet was now sent in good 
earnest through the Dardanelles, and anchored 
a few miles below Constantinople. Russia at 
first protested that if the English fleet passed 
the Straits, Russian troops ought to occupy the 
city. Lord Derby was firm, and terms of ar- 
rangement were found — English troops were 
not to be disembarked and the Russians were 
not to advance. Russia was still open to nego- 
tiation. 

Probably Russia had no idea of taking on 
herself the tremendous responsibility of an oc- 
cupation of Constantinople. She had entered 
Jf'san^^*^ into a treaty with Turkey, the famous treaty 
stefano. ^^ g^^ Stcfano, whlch secured for the popula- 
tions of the Christian provinces almost com- 
plete independence of Turkey, and was to 
create a great new Bulgarian State with a sea- 
port on the Egean Sea. The English Govern- 
ment refused to recognize this treaty. Russia 
ofifered to submit the treaty to the perusal, if 
we may use the expression, of a Congress ; but 



A.D. i878 THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN 2267 

argued that the stipulations which merely con- 
cerned Turkey and herself were for Turkey 
and herself to settle between them. This was 
obviously an untenable position. It is out of 
the question to suppose that, as long as Euro- 
pean policy is conducted on its present prin- 
ciples, the Great Powers of the West could 
consent to allow Russia to force on Turkey any 
terms she might think proper. Turkey mean- 
while kept feebly moaning that she had been 
coerced into signing the treaty. The Govern- 
ment determined to call in the Reserves, to 
summon a contingent of Indian troops to Eu- 
rope, to occupy Cyprus, and to make an armed 
landing on the coast of Syria. All these re- 
solves were not, however, made known at the 
time. 

Every one felt sure that something im- 
portant was going on, and public expectancy Lord Derby 

r o o J r r J resigns. 

was strained to the full. On March 28, 1878, 
Lord Derby announced his resignation. Meas- 
ures, he said, had been resolved upon of which 
he could not approve. He did not give any 
explanation of the measures to which he ob- 
jected. Lord Beaconsfield spoke a few words 
of good feeling and good taste after Lord 
Derby's announcement. He had hoped, he 
said, that Lord Derby would soon come to 
occupy the place of Prime Minister which he 
now held; he dwelt upon their long friend- 
ship. Not much was said on either side of 
what the Government were doing. The last 



2268 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1878 

hope of the Peace Party seemed to have van- 
ished when Lord Derby left his office. 

Lord Salisbury was made Foreign Minister. 

Changes in -^ ■=" 

mfni^t'ry'^ Hc was succccded in the Indian Office by Mr. 
Gathorne Hardy, now created Lord Cran- 
brook. Colonel Stanley, brother of Lord 
Derby, took the office of Minister of War in 
Lord Cranbrook's place. Sir Michael Hicks- 
Beach had already become Secretary of the 
Colonies on the resignation of Lord Carnar- 
von. The post of Irish Secretary had been 
given to Mr. James Lowther. Lord Salis- 
bury issued a circular in which he declared 
that it would be impossible for England to 
enter a Congress which was not free to con- 
sider the whole of the provisions of the Treaty 
of San Stefano. The very day after Parlia- 

, . ment had adjourned for the Easter recess, the 

Indian •' 

or°d°e?ld Indian Government received orders to send 
to Malta. ^,gj-tain of their troops to Malta. This was a 
complete surprise to the country. It was made 
the occasion for a very serious controversy on 
a grave constitutional question in both Houses 
of Parliament. The Opposition contended 
that the constitutional principle which left 
it for Parliament to fix the number of soldiers 
the Crown might maintain in England was 
reduced to nothingness if the Prime Minister 
could at any moment, without even consulting 
Parliament, draw what reinforcements he 
thought fit from the almost limitless resources 
of India. The majority of those supporting 



A.D. i878 THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN 2269 

Lord Beaconsfield were not, however, much 
disposed to care about argument. They were 
willing to approve of any step Lord Beacons- 
field might think fit to take. 

Prince Bismarck had often during these 
events shown an inclination to exhibit himself Bismarck 

plans a 

in the new attitude of a peaceful mediator. at°Blrfin. 
He now interposed again, and issued invita- 
tions for a Congress to be held in Berlin to 
discuss the whole contents of the Treaty of 
San Stefano. After some delay, discussion, 
and altercation, Russia agreed to accept the 
invitation on the conditions proposed, and it 
was finally resolved that a Congress should as- 
semble in Berlin on the approaching June 13. 
Much to the surprise of the public. Lord 
Beaconsfield announced that he himself w^ould 
attend, accompanied by Lord Salisbury, and 
conduct the negotiations in Berlin. The event 
was, we believe, without precedent. Never 
before had an English Prime Minister left 
the country while Parliament was sitting to act 
as the representative of England in a foreign 
capital. The part he had undertaken to play 
suited Lord Beaconsfield's love for the pic- 
turesque and the theatrical. His journey to 
Berlin was a sort of triumphal progress. At 
every great city, almost at every railway sta- 
tion, as he passed, crowds turned out, drawn 
partly b}^ curiosity, partly by admiration, to 
see the English statesman whose strange and 
varied career had so long excited the wonder- 

M Vol. 6 



2270 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1873 

ing attention of Europe. Prince Bismarck 
co°nst5eidrs presided at the Congress, and, it is said, de- 

triumphal ^ f !• 1 • 1 • 

journey parted irom the usual custom of diplomatic as- 

to Berlin. t' r 

semblages by opening the proceedings in En- 
glish. The use of our language was under- 
stood to be a kindly and somewhat patroniz- 
ing deference to the English Prime Minister, 
whose knowledge of spoken French was sup- 
posed to have fallen rather into decay of late 
years. The Congress discussed the whole, or 
nearly the whole, of the questions opened up 
by the recent war. Greece claimed to be heard 
there, and after some delay and some difficulty 
was allowed to plead her own cause. 

The Treaty of Berlin recognized the com- 
plete independence of Roumania, of Servia, 
If^BeTun*^^ and of Montenegro, subject only to certain 
stipulations with regard to religious equality 
in each of these States. To Montenegro it 
gave a seaport and a slip of territory attaching 
to it. Thus one object of the mountaineers 
was accomplished. They were able to reach 
the sea. The treaty created, north of the Bal- 
kans, a State of Bulgaria: a much smaller Bul- 
garia than that sketched in the Treaty of San 
Stefano. Bulgaria was to be a self-govern- 
ing State tributary to the Sultan and owning 
his suzerainty, but in other respects practically 
independent. It was to be governed by a 
Prince whom the population were to elect 
with the assent of the Great Powers and the 
confirmation of the Sultan. It was stipulated 



A.D. 1878 THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN 2271 

that no member of any reigning dynasty of the 
Great European Powers should be eligible as 
a candidate. South of the Balkans, the treaty 
created another and a different kind of State, 
under the name of Eastern Roumelia. ThatRoumiiia 

created. 

State was to remain under the direct political 
and military authority of the Sultan, but it was 
to have, as to its interior condition, a sort 
of "administrative autonomy," as the favorite 
diplomatic phrase then was. East Roumelia 
was to be ruled by a Christian Governor, and 
there was a stipulation that the Sultan should 
not employ any irregular troops, such as the 
Circassians and the Bashi-Bazouks, in the gar- 
risons of the frontier. The European Powers 
were to arrange in concert with the Porte for 
the organization of this new State. As re- 
garded Greece, it was arranged that the Sultan 
and the King of the Hellenes were to come to 
some understanding for the modification of 
the Greek frontier, and that if they could not 
arrange this between themselves, the Great 
Powers were to have the right of offering, that 
is to say, in plain words, of insisting on, their 
mediation. Bosnia and the Herzegovina were 
to be occupied and administered by Austria. 
Roumania undertook, or, in other words, was 
compelled to undertake, to return to Russia 
that portion of Bessarabian territory which 
had been detached from Russia by the Treaty 
of Paris. Roumania was to receive in compen- 
sation some islands forming the Delta of the 



2272 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1878 

Danube, and a portion of the Dobrudscha. As 
regarded Asia, the Porte was to cede to Russia, 
Ardahan, Kars, and Batoum, with its great 
port on the Black Sea. 
The Treaty of Berlin gave rise to keen and 
Adverse adverse criticism. Very bitter indeed was the 

criticism. -' 

controversy provoked by the surrender to Rus- 
sia of the Bessarabian territory taken from her 
at the time of the Crimean War. Russia had 
regained everything which she had been com- 
pelled to sacrifice at the close of the Crimean 
War. The Black Sea was open to her war ves- 
sels, and its shores to her arsenals. The last 
ga"in^s.^^ slight trace of Crimean humiliation was ef- 
faced in the restoration of the territory of Bes- 
sarabia. Profound disappointment was caused 
among many European populations, as well as 
among the Greeks themselves, by the arrange- 
ments for the rectification of the Greek fron- 
tier. 

Thus, speaking roughly, it may be said 
that the effect of the Congress of Berlin on 
the mind of Europe was to make the Christian 
populations of the southeast believe that their 
friend was Russia and their enemies were 
England and Turkey; to make the Greeks be- 
lieve that France was their especial friend, and 
that England was their enemy ; and to create an 
uncomfortable impression everywhere that the 
whole Congress was a prearranged business, a 
transaction with a foregone conclusion, a dra- 
matic performance carefully rehearsed before 



A.D. 1878 THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN 2273 

in all its details and merely enacted as a 
pageant on the Berlin stage. 

[In 1879, Davitt forms the Irish Land Daviu 

■- ' ^^ forms 

League; Chili and Peru go to war over the ['■]|'^^^^"'^ 
nitrate deposits; Peru's navy is ruined and her 
chief ports captured. The British go to war 
with the Zulus, who are successful at first, but 
crushed at Ulundi. Belgium sends Stanley 
to found the Congo Free State. The British 
envoy being murdered, Afghanistan is again 
invaded and the capital captured. In 1880, 
Montenegro acquires Dulcigno. In Afghan- 
istan, the British are defeated at Maiwand, 
but Roberts makes a successful march to Can- 
dahar. The Boer War breaks out. Cologne 
Cathedral, begun in the Thirteenth Century, 
is finally completed. In i88r, the Czar Alex- 
ander II. is murdered. Turkey is forced to 
cede most of Thessaly and the command of 
the Gulf of Arta to Greece. President Gar- "^^S^' 
field is murdered. The Boers defeat the Brit- 
ish and the Transvaal recovers self-govern- 
ment. The French gain control of Tunis. A 
Dongola enthusiast proclaims himself the 
Mahdi and raises the Sudan against the Khe- 
dive. The Russians take the Turcoman fast- 
ness of Geok-Tepe and a general massacre 
follows. The Revised Version of the New 
Testament is brought out. In England, the 
Married Woman's Property Act is passed.] 



THE RISE OF MAHDISM 

(A.D. 1881) 

G. W. STEEVENS 



1 



N the year 1881, before we came to Egypt 
at all, there had arisen a religious teacher, 
a native of Dongola, named Mohammed 
Ahmed. The Sudan is the home of fanati- 
cism: it has always been called "the Land of 
Ahmed.""^'' the Dervishes," and no rising saint was more 
ascetic than the young Dongolawi. He was 
a disciple of a holy man named Mohammed 
Sherif, and one day the master gave a feast at 
which there was dancing and singing. Such 
frivolity, said Mohammed Ahmed, was dis- 
pleasing to Allah ; whereat the Sherif was an- 
gry, cursed him, and cast him out. The dis- 
ciple sprinkled ashes on his head, put a yoke 
on his neck, and fell at his master's feet, 
imploring forgiveness. Again Mohammed 
Sherif cursed him and cast him out. 

Angered now himself, Mohammed Ahmed 
joined a new teacher and became a straiter as- 
cetic than ever. The fame of his sanctity 
spread, and adherents flocked to him. He 
saw that the people of the Sudan, smarting 
under extortion and oppression, could but too 

(3274) 



A.D. i88i THE RISE OF MAHDISM 2275 

easily be roused against the Egyptian Gov- 
ernment: he risked all, and proclaimed him- 
self El Mahdi el Muntazer, the Expected j^j^. 
Guide, the Mussulman Messiah. The Gov-jXent^ 
ernor-General at Khartum sent two companies 
to arrest him: the Mahdi's followers fell on 
them unawares and destroyed them. More 
troops were sent; the Mahdists destroyed 
them : next came a small army, and again the 
Mahdists destroyed it. The barbarous tribes- 
men flocked to the Mahdi's standard, and in 
September, 1882, he laid siege to El Obeid, 
the chief city of Kordofan. His assault was 
beaten back with great slaughter, but after 
five months' siege the town surrendered; sack 
and massacre taught doubters what they had 
to expect. 

The Sudan doubted no longer: of a truth 
this was the Mahdi. Hicks Pasha's army 
came down from the North only to swell the 
Mahdi's triumph to immensity. Unorgan- 
ized, unwieldy, afraid, the Egyptians crawled 
on toward El Obeid, harassed by an enemy 
they never saw. They saw them at last on 
November 4, 1883, at Shekan: the fight lasted Themas- 
a minute, and the massacre spared only hun- sh"kan. 
dreds out of ten thousand. The rest you 
know — Gordon's mission, the loss of Berber, 
the siege of Khartum, the massacre of Baker's 
levies at El Teb, Graham's expedition to Sua- 
kim, and the hard-fought fights of the second 
Teb and Tamai, Wolseley's expedition up the 



2276 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ad. i88r 

Nile, with Abu Klea and the Gubar and Kir- 
bekan, the second Suakim campaign and 
M'Neill's zariba. Everybody knows these 
stories, so gallant, so futile. I remember thir- 
teen and fourteen years ago being enormously 
proud and joyful about Tamai and Abu Klea. 
I was very young. Read over the tale again 
now — the faltering and the folly and the fail- 
ure — and you will feel that if Eg^^pt has 
Baker's Teb and Hicks's ruin to wipe out, 
England was not so very far from suffering 
precisely the same humiliations. And in the 
end we failed, with what loss we still remem- 
ber, and gave the Sudan away. The second 
act is not a merry one. 

The third was less tragic, but it was per- 
haps even harder to play. We pass by a mud- 
walled quadrangle, which was once the artil- 
lery barracks; through the gateway you look 
across sand to the mud ramparts of Haifa. 
That is the stamp of the days of reorganiza- 
tion, of retrenchment, of difficulties and dis- 
couragements, and unconquerable, undisap- 
pointed work. Those were the days when 
the Egyptian army was in the making, when 
Haifa was the frontier fortress. There are 
old barracks all over it, where the young fight- 
ing force of Egypt used to sleep half awake. 
The brown flanks of those hills beyond the 
rifle-range, just a couple of miles or so desert- 
ward, have seen Dervishes stealing up in broad 
day and insolently slashing and stabbing in 



The third 
act. 



A.D. .881 THE RISE OF MAHDISM 2277 

the main streets of the bazaar. Yet this time 
was not all unavenged insult: the long years 
between 1885 and 1896 saw Egypt defended 
and its assailants smashed to pieces. Little 
by little Egypt — British Egypt now — gained 
strength and new resolution. 

Four battles mark the stages from weakness 
and abandonment to confidence and the reso- 
lution to reconquer. At Gmnis, on the last^ngio-^^ 
day but one of 1885, came the first Anglo- ^'"°''y- 
Egyptian strategical victory. The Mahdists 
had been tactically beaten before — well beat- 
en; but the result had always been that we fell 
back and they came on. After Ginnis, fought 
by the British army of occupation, aided by 
a small number of the new Egyptian army, we 
stood firm, and the Dervishes were washed 
back. There were men of the Cameron 
Highlanders, on the Atbara, who had fought 
in that battle: it was not perhaps a very great 
one, but it was the first time the enemy had 
been brought to a standstill. He retired be- 
hind the Third Cataract. 

Then followed three years of raid and Raids and 

counter- 

counter-raid. Chermside cut up their ad-''^''^^- 
vance-guard at Sarras; they captured the fort 
of Khor Musa, and Machell Bey of the 13th 
Sudanese drove them out within twelve hours. 
On the Suakim side the present Sirdar made 
head against Osman Digna with what irregu- 
lars and friendlies he could get together. 
iThen in 1888 Osman waxed insolent and threw 



2278 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. iSSi 

up trenches against Suakim. It became a reg- 
ular siege, and Dervish shells fell into the 
town. But on December 20 Sir Francis Gren- 

Osman 

rep^ite^ fell, the Sirdar, came down and attacked the 
trenches at the battle of Gemaizeh, and Os- 
man fell back shattered: never again did he 
come so near his soul's ambition. 

Meanwhile Wad-en-Nejumi — the great 
Emir, the conqueror of Hicks and the captor 
of Khartum — had hung on the southern fron- 
tier, gathering strength for his attack on 
Egypt. He came in 1889, .skirting Haifa in 
the western desert, striking for a point in 
Egypt proper above Assuan. His Emirs got 
out of hand and tried to get to the Nile; in 
a hard day's tussle at Argin, Colonel Wode- 
house and the Haifa garrisons threw him back 
into the desert again. Nejumi pushed on 
southward, certain of death, certain of Para- 
dise. At Toski, Grenfell brought him to battle 
with the flower of the Egyptian army. At the 
end of the day Nejumi was dead and his army 
was beginning to die of thirst in the desert. 
Egypt has never been attacked since. 

Finally, in 1891, Colonel Holled-Smith 
marched against Osman Digna's base outside 
Suakim, the oasis of Tokat. The Dervishes 
fuming- sprang upon him at Afafit, but the days of sur- 
fhrdrama. prisc and panic were over. They were rolled 
back and shattered to pieces; their base was 
occupied; and Suakim as well as Haifa had 
peace. Now all ground was finally main- 



A.D. i88i THE RISE OF MAHDISM 2279 

taiiied, and all was ripe for attack again. Eng- 
land heard little of this third act; but for all 
that, unadvertised, hard-working, it was the 
turning-point of the whole drama. 

[In 1882, the Primrose League is founded 
in England. The Phoenix Park murders are Murder of 
committed in Dublin. The Panama Canal isandeVke. 
begun. Arabi Pasha rouses the Egyptians 
against foreign influence. The English fleet 
bombards Alexandria, an army is landed, and 
the Egyptian rebels are dispersed at Tel el 
Kebir. Arabi is banished to Ceylon and a 
British army of occupation remains. Italy 
seizes Assab Bay on the Red Sea, acquires ter- 
ritory north and south and founds the colony 
of Erytrea.] 



ITALIAN COLONIZATION ON THE RED SEA 

(A.D. 1882) 



s 



PIETRO ORSI 

INCE 1870, the Rubattino Navigation 
Company had established in the Bay of 
Assab, on the Red Sea, a coaling-station 
for their steamers, which, ten years later, they 
ceded to the Italian Government. The latter 
took possession of this roadstead without any 
primary intention of annexation or self-ag- 
, , ffrandizement, but later let itself be carried 

Italy enters ^ ' 

uons'^wtth away by the tendency — now so widespread 
Abyssmia. tj^j-oughout EuTopc — to colonial development, 
and early in 1885, with the idea of pleasing and 
perhaps of assisting England, then planning 
the conquest of the Soudan, sent troops to oc- 
cupy Massowah. Frustrated in their design 
of aiding the English expedition, by the fall 
of Khartoum and the Mahdist victory, the 
Italian contingent now set about establishing 
friendly relations with John, the Negus of 
Abyssinia, in the hope of attracting the com- 
merce of the interior to the port of Massowah, 
but failed nevertheless to propitiate that sus- 
picious prince. One of the Abyssinian chiefs, 

(2280) 



A.D. 1882 ITALIAN COLONIZATION ON THE RED SEA 2281 

Ras Alula, with an enormous army, now re- 
paired to Dogali, where he surprised and sur- "^'"'*' 
rounded a column of five hundred Italians, 
who, after fighting for eight hours, using all 
their ammunition and killing a great number 
of the enemy, were nearly all massacred (Janu- 
ary 26, 1887). 

Preparations were then made on both sides 

Prepara- 

for war. Having delayed operations till at^°f ^""^ 
favorable time of year (January, 1888), the 
Negus arrived with a large army in sight of 
the fortresses occupied by the Italian troops, 
but fearing to give battle, retired. Mean- 
time, Menelik, King of Shoa, one of his vas- 
sals, had rebelled against the Negus, who was 
thus threatened on both sides, and it was while 
fighting this new enemy that he received the 
wound from which he soon after died (March, 
1889). There were several pretenders to the 
Abyssinian crown, and for some time the coun- 
try was a prey to civil war. 

The Italian Government, headed by Fran- 
cesco Crispi — who had succeeded DepretiscoYonLI 

'^ ^ policy. 

on the latter's death in 1887, thought to profit 
by this state of affairs, and whilst it extended 
its possessions in the highlands by occupying 
Keren and Asmara, allied itself with Menelik, 
who, to triumph the easier over his rivals, 
made them the most ample promises. It 
seemed as if an era of prosperity might now be 
dawning for the new colony, to which Crispi 
gave the name of Erythrea. At the same time, 



2282 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1882 

an Italian protectorate was established over 
a vast zone of the Somali peninsula. Swayed 
by the now generally-felt enthusiasm, Crispi 
fondly imagined that he had laid the basis of 
a glorious future for Italy's colonial ambitions. 
But that year of 1889 presented a terrible 
deficit in the country's finances — amounting, in 
fact, to more than two hundred million lire. 
To rectify it, new taxes, little relished by the 
country, had to be levied, especially as, owing 
to the impossibility of renewing the commer- 
cial treaty with France, who was piqued by 
the too Germanophile policy of Crispi, one of 
cnspi s fall ^j^^ principal outlets for the export of Italian 
products was now closed. Besides, the sys- 
tem of excessive and fruitless expenditure, 
initiated by the state, had unhappily been 
adopted by the communes and provinces, and 
brought about a serious economic crisis. In 
January, 1891, Crispi fell from power, and 
was succeeded by the Marquis di Rudini, and 
afterward by Giolitti, who both managed, by 
the pursuit of a more prudent policy, to re- 
duce somewhat the deficit. 

Meanwhile, the news from Africa was any- 
thing but satisfactory. Menelik had no sooner 
ensured the submission of all Abyssinia than 
he gave out that he had no intention of recog- 
nizing the Italian protectorate. The dervishes 
Theitai- were also a fresh source of annoyance; they 
dSt'^at had been irritated by the Italian advance, and, 

Agordat. , •' ' 

in the December of 1893, attacked the fort of 



A.D. i882 ITALIAN COLONIZATION OF THE RED SEA 2283 

Agordat, but were defeated, leaving a thou- 
sand of their dead and seventy-two standards 
behind them on the field. 

At this juncture, Crispi returned to the head 
of the government, and, after suppressing the 
Sicilian risings which had broken out from 
purely economic causes a little while before, 
urged General Baratieri, Governor of Ery- 
threa, to further action in Abyssinia. Bara- 
tieri, in consequence, organized an advance 
against the dervishes, and, in the July of '94, 
succeeded in expelling them from Kassala and 
in mastering this most important position, 
which effectually secured the safety of theremfns 

•^ _ -'to power. 

Italian colony on that side. In the meantime, 
the strained diplomatic relations between Italy 
and Abyssinia had resolved themselves into an 
open rupture. In view of the suspicious atti- 
tude assumed by Ras Mangascia in the Tigre, 
Baratieri thought it well to anticipate the 
Abyssinian leader's movements and succeeded, 
by forced marches, in surprising and defeat- 
ing him at Coatit and Senafeh in January, 
1895, and hence was enabled, without much 
opposition, to occupy all the Tigre. 

However, that this was only the beginning 
of the war was hardly realized by the Italians. 4e'Ne^°/ 
Ras Mangascia implored the intervention of 
Menelik, who managed to carry all Abyssinia 
with him in this struggle against Italy. Bid- 
ing his time till the season was favorable, the 
Negus advanced with an army of more than 



2284 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i88a 

one hundred thousand men, against whom the 
Governor of Erythrea, insufficiently equipped, 
could only oppose a few thousand troops. This 
poverty of Italian resources was, in a great 
measure, due to the carelessness of the Minis- 
try at home, who lacked proper information 
in the matter, and pursued a bold policy of 
expansion without saying anything to the 
country or asking Parliament for the necessary 
means to prosecute it. Baratieri, flattered on 
all sides for his preceding victories, grew, at 
last, quite accustomed to a position that was, 
in reality, bristling with dangers. 

On the yth of December, 1895, Major To- 
selli, at the head of only two thousand men, 
was attacked at Amba-Alagi by a numerous 
host of the enemy, and, after a long and heroic 
resistance, was, with the greater part of his 
men, killed. 

The Abyssinians now advanced and sur- 
„ , , ^ rounded the fort of Makaleh, whose small 

Makaleh ' 

capitulates, garrisou, under Major Galliano, maintained 
a gallant defence for nearly a month, for Gen- 
eral Baratieri found it impossible to venture 
on their relief. The besieged, reduced to ex- 
tremity through lack of water — the nearest 
supplies having fallen into the enemy's 
hands — had heroically decided to blow 
up the fort and fight their way through the 
Abyssinian ranks, when Menelik, impressed 
by their bold resistance or by the memory of 
the heavy losses he had lately sustained, sent 



A.D. i882 ITALIAN COLONIZATION OF THE RED SEA 2286 

word to Baratieri that he would readily allow 
the garrison of Makaleh to march out with 
the honors of war, so they might rejoin the rest 
of the Italian troops concentrated at Adigrat. 
It was under such conditions that, on the 26th 
of January, 1896, Makaleh capitulated. 

During this time, reinforcements had ar- 
rived from Italy, but the lack of proper com-^^^.^^^^^ 
missariat organization increased the difficulty J^^';^^j°f^^- 
of providing for the needs of the soldiers 
among those arid mountains so far from the 
coast. General Baratieri continued to act on 
the defensive, contenting himself, however, 
with preserving a vigilant attitude in face of 
the Abyssinians, who, leaving Adigrat, now 
took the direction of Adowa. But eventually, 
impressed by the emphatic representation of 
the Ministry — which desired to satisfy public 
opinion by reprisals — and judging that an ad- 
vance would probably decide the foe either to 
attack the Italians in their intrenched posi- 
tions or to retreat, Baratieri, on the ist of 
March, 1896, led his fourteen thousand men 
into action. 

The Abyssinians were encamped in the en- 
virons of Adowa. Either through their op- 
ponents' ignorance of the ground, or through 
the unmeasured impetuosity of the first col-Adowa° 
umn, the wings of the Italian army divided, 
and the vanguard, instead of assuming a posi- 
tion wherein to wait the assault of the enemy, 
advanced as far as the latter's camp itself. The 



2286 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1882 

Abyssinian troops, far outnumbering their an- 
the'iunans. tagonists, easily routed the first Italian col- 
umn before the second could appear on the 
scene, and afterward defeated, in turn, the 
second and third bodies of troops as they came 
up. 

Nearly a third of the Italian army was 
killed in this engagement — among the dead 
were Generals Dabormida and Arimondi, as 
well as Galliano, the gallant defender of 
Makaleh, who had, just before, been pro- 
moted to a lieutenant-colonelcy for distin- 
guished merit — while another third, which 
included General Albertone, were taken pris- 
oners. In spite of his victory, Menelik dared 
not advance further, and General Baldissera, 
who had just arrived at Massowah to supplant 
Baratieri in the supreme command, proved 
himself apt in reorganizing the troops of the 
colony and in minimizing the consequences of 
the defeat. 

The news of the disaster at Adowa pro- 
voked keen indignation among the Italian 
people, who, not unreasonably, accused the 
government of having failed through want 
of knowledge, in the management of a diffi- 
cult undertaking, and this feeling was gener- 
P^jj^^ ally approved by the nation. On the 5th of 
SnTstry. March, 1896, the Crispi Ministry fell, with- 
out so much as venturing to challenge a vote 
of the Chamber. Its colonial policy had 
never been popular in Italy, for the country 



A.D. 1882 ITALIAN COLONIZATION ON THE RED SEA 2287 

was not rich enough to cope adequately with 
such undertakings, and the territory to be an- 
nexed promised no great resources. The un- 
fortunate issue of the African campaign went 
to prove that the nation at large had more 
good sense in this matter than the government, 
which now had been much discredited in pub- 
lic opinion. The new Ministry, directed by 
the Marquis di Rudini, openly declared its 
desire to abandon Crispi's colonial policy, and 
set on foot negotiations for peace as well as for peace 
the release of the Italian prisoners in Abys- concluded, 
sinia. After long and wearisome discus- 
sions, the captives were liberated, and a peace 
treaty was concluded, by which Italy re- 
nounced her claim to the Tigre and confined 
herself to the territory bounded on the south 
by the Mareb-Belesa-Muna line. Later, the 
fortress of Kassala was ceded by the Italian 
Government to the English, as useful to the 
latter for their Soudanese expedition. 

[In 1883, a Civil Service Act introduces cmi ser- 
competitive examination into the United Tntroduced. 
States Government service. The French go 
to war with Madagascar. They also declare 
a protectorate over Annam and Tonkin. 
Maxim invents an automatic machine-gun. 
In 1884, Russia annexes Merv. In 1885, 
Eastern Roumelia revolts from Turkey and 
joins Bulgaria. Servia invades Bulgaria, but 
is driven back. Riel's rising of the half-breeds 



2288 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. i88a 

is put down. Great Britain conquers Burma 

and declares a Protectorate over southern New 

Pasteur's Quinca. Pastcur discovers a cure for hydro- 
cure for -' 

Sob^. phobia. In 1886, King Ludwig of Bavaria 
commits suicide. Russia fortifies Batoum in 
defiance of treaties. Alexander of Bulgaria is 
kidnapped by Russians. He is restored and 
resigns. The Canadian Pacific Railway is 
completed. Great Britain and Germany de- 
fine their spheres of influence in the Western 
discovlred Pacific. GoM is discovered in the Trans- 
Transvaai. yaal ou thc Witwatcrsrand. The British East 
African Company is formed. The Siberian 
railway is begun.] 



THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY 

(A.D. 1886) 

JOHN GEDDIE 

IN May, 1705, Peter the Great founded 
his new capital, thereby breaking out, 
through the channel of the Neva, "a window 
into Europe." In the same month, in 1891, 
the present Emperor, Nicholas IL, then sod^cu^W 
Czarewitch, cut the first sod of the greatest 
of Russia's engineering undertakings, the 
Trans-Siberian Railway, at Vladivostok, the 
"Golden Gate" of the East. If official cal- 
culations hold good, the vast work will be 
complete, from end to end, in the course of 
the summer of 1905, and the traveller will 
then be able to journey by rail, in a fortnight, 
from the shores of the Baltic to those of the 
Gulf of Tartary. 

Russians believe in auspicious anniversa- 
ries; and there will probably be an effort to 
make the opening of the railway across Si- 
beria coincide with the second centenary of 
the founding of St. Petersburg. The one 
event is the complement of the other. What Russia's 

. . need of 

Russia needed most two centuries ago wasi'&htand 

o space. 

light. What she now chiefly strives after is 
space. If it was necessary, in 1705, to open a 

(3289) 



2290 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1886 

front window into the Baltic, it will be felt 
not less urgent in 1905 to open a back door 
into the Pacific. 

The ruling powers of Russia would per- 
haps have been glad, on several grounds, to 
have postponed for some time longer the task 
of taking up and pressing forward to com- 
pletion a project that has been before their 
minds ever since the Crimean War, if not ear- 
lier. Economically and financially, Russia 
Russia is not yet in the most advantageous position 
prefer for tackling an enterprise so stupendous. Even 
if the estimates of cost are not exceeded, it will 
be for long a heavy drain on the resources of a 
country which has not much to spare for com- 
mercial adventures beyond the Urals. It will 
hamper and impede the progress, none too 
rapid, of internal reforms. But there were 
considerations that imperatively demanded 
that the work should be taken in hand with- 
out delay; and these were at least as much 
political and military, and even social, as con- 
nected with trading and industrial develop- 
ment. 

China has been giving the world further 
Irg^rt?'^'' proofs of her decrepitude and helplessness. 
The two great Western Powers — Great Brit- 
ain and France — have planted themselves 
firmly upon her southern border, and are 
striving, by the opening of new land and 
water routes, to obtain a commercial com- 
mand of her rich back provinces that some 



A.D. 1886 THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY 2291 

day may take the form of territorial appro- 
priation. Germany is in the offing, eagerly 
watching for an opportunity of stepping in 
and claiming a share in the "partition of 
China." Above all, there has been the , 

' Impor- 

phenomenal rise of the Empire of Japan tojlp^n^n 
the position of a great naval and trading ^^^^*^'' 
power in the Pacific. Her recent easy tri- 
umph, by land and sea, over her bulky and 
inert neighbor was the final demonstration 
of the first-class importance of Japan as a 
factor in Eastern politics; it proved, more- 
over, that Japanese policy has before it a set- 
tled and resolute purpose, and behind it the 
impelling force of a united and patriotic na- 
tional feeling. 

While such movementswere going forward, 
Russia could not afiford to remain quiescent. 
She, too, must open her trade routes and 
establish herself firmly along the Chinese 
borderlands and on the shores of the Pacific — 
if possible, on waters unobstructed by ice all 
the year round — if she was to have a hand in 
the game in which she means to play the 
trump card. She must make her "contiguity rome^or 
to China" a real and effectual fact, and not 
a mere geographical expression. She must 
be ready and able to put down her foot and 
stretch forth her hands when the day comes 
for the dividing of the spoil. This may in 
part be done by the opening and improvement 
of sea and river routes. But obviously the one 



2292 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS aij- 1886 

Strong and indispensable band for fastening 
the basin of th€ Amur to that of the Volga is 
the "link of steel" of a trans-Siberian railway. 
Other reasons, not less weighty, demanded 
that the work should go forward in right t^Lv- 
Enonnous nest. Enormous as is the area of European 

population ^ 

of Russia. Russia, the country is beginning to be found 
too narrow for a growing population already 
numbering over a hundred million of souls, 
who are, for the most part, directly dependent 
on the produce of the soil. In many prov- 
inces there is even now a congested rural pop- 
ulation, with the natural consequences of in- 
creasing pauperism, and discontent, and 
recurring famines. 

The settlement of Siberia, therefore, is 
thrust upon her as a national necessity as well 
as a national good. Hitherto, during the three 
centuries she has more or less held possession, 
she has used Siberia as the lumber-room — 
nay, as the "cesspool" — of the Empire. The 
country is in many parts prodigiously fertile, 
and abounds in forest and mineral wealth. 
Important towns, the centres of agricultural, 
mining, and manufacturing industry, have 
sprung up on the banks of the great Siberian 
rivers and at their roots among the hills. 
What these cities — Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, and 
the rest — chiefly suffer from is their isolation; 
the vast distances, traversed only by sledge or 
lumbering tarantass, that separate them from 
each other and from the great centres of Eu- 



Utility of 
Siberia. 



A.D. i886 THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY 2293 

ropean civilization and trade. Emigration 
has for many years been running with a quick- 
ened current across the Urals, which look 
more of a barrier on the maps than they are 
in nature. Colonization of the rich farming, 
stock-raising, and metalliferous regions of Si- 
beria has begun in earnest. It needed but the 
opening of a railway to make the stream a 
flood. 

The scheme of laying a line of railway from 
the Urals to the Chinese frontier and the Pa- 
cific had Ions: been maturing in the minds of Thescheme 

c5 o not new. 

the rulers of Russia. But in the end, the de- 
cision in the crucial questions of route, point 
of departure, and terminus, and plan and time 
of construction, had to be taken with some 
degree of precipitancy. When the problem 
was finally settled by the Special Commission 
of 1890, three routes came into competition. 
One was a modification of a plan chosen fif- 
teen years before, by which the Ural Mines 
Railway would have been connected with 
Nijni-Novgorod, and extended from Tiumen Three 
toward the east. Another was a prolongation considered. 
of the Orenburg railway across the waterless 
and almost uninhabited steppes to the East, to 
the great Barnaul m.ining district and the 
skirts of the Altai chain. The route selected 
was a middle way. It is a continuation east- 
ward of the line passing through Samara, Ufa, 
and Zlatoust, to Miass and Cheliabinsk within 
the borders of Siberia. „ , ^ 



2294 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. ,885 

Its merits and demerits compared with the 
competing routes need not now be discussed. 
Among its advantages is the fact that it passes 
through the fertile and relatively well-peopled 
"Tchernozen" zone of the province of To- 
bolsk, avoiding alike the great marshes and 
forests and wide rivers of the north, and the 
arid and desert steppes to the south. It will 
feed itself, and feed the country behind and 
ahead, as it advances. In point of distance, 
Advan- there is not much to choose between the three 
sefeaeT ^^^^^^s, but what advantage there is is in favor 
of that adopted. It has further to be had in 
mind, that the other two are postponed only, 
not abandoned; that the destined tracks con- 
verge on each other and meet at Nijni Udinsk, 
fully a third on the way across Siberia; and 
that already the Ural Mines Railway is being 
coupled to the trans-Siberian by a connecting 
line from Ekaterinburg to Cheliabinsk. 
cheiia T^^'is latter town is taken as the starting- 

Marung-^ polnt of the Great Siberian Railway, and it 
pokxt. j^ygj. ^^ remembered that on reaching it the 
traveller, say from Calais, will have already 
made a journey of wellnigh 3,000 miles over- 
land. Beyond it, the line, as the route is at 
present laid down, traverses a distance of 7,083 
versts, or, including branch lines, 7,112 versts, 
roughly, 4,800 miles, to Vladivostok. The 
route and plan of construction once resolved 
upon, the government lost no time in entering 
upon the work. The final decision was not 



ii.D. 1886 THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY 2295 

taken until the end of February, 1891, at 
which date the Zlatoust-Miass line had not yet 
been carried on to the starting-point of the 
Great Siberian Railwayat Cheliabinsk. Three 
months later, as has already been mentioned, 
the present Emperor had cut the first sod at 
the other, or eastern, extremity of the line, and 
entered upon the active work of direction, 
which was confided to a special government 
department of which his Majesty is presi- 
dent. 

It will be strange if, all things reckoned, 
the cost to the Government of Russia falls 
much, or any, short of fifty millions sterling. 

Besides this initial outlay, the working of 
it is certain to entail for many years a burden profits 
on the Russian treasury. The opening of the enterprise. 
line for through traffic,, it has been seen, will 
be the afifair of the early years of next cen- 
tury. But the industrial and agricultural de- 
velopment of Siberia, and of the countries 
bordering on the Pacific, on a scale large 
enough to make this vast enterprise profitable, 
must be postponed to a date considerably more 
remote; and not in the conveyance of such 
high-priced goods as tea and silk is the over- 
land route likely to compete successfully, un- 
der present conditions, with the sea route in 
the markets of Western Europe. 

On the other hand, the political, the social, ^^^^^^^^^ 
and the economical influences of the Great Si- ^^^uway. 
berian Railway begin already to be felt. 



enization. 



2296 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1886 

Every year they will become more marked. 
One problem of extraordinary interest is be- 
Sctfibo""' ing worked out along the line. Convict la- 
bor, under a gang system, is being applied to 
the building of the railway. In the western 
and central sections, at least, it is said to be 
attended with excellent results. For prison- 
ers, eight months of railway labor reckons as 
one year's imprisonment, and exiles have their 
terms shortened by counting one year as two. 
They are working out their own salvation. 

A yet more tremendous question, for Russia 
and for other countries, is that of the free col- 
Free coi- onization of Siberia. This has at length be- 
gun in earnest. The running eastward of the 
line into the fertile plains of the Irtish and 
the Obi has been like cutting a gap in a dam. 
A rush of emigrants from the crowded com- 
munes of Great and Little Russia has fol- 
lowed, and every year it has grown in volume. 
The temptations held out by the government 
to the peasants to settle in the provinces of To- 
bolsk and Tomsk!— cheap railway fares and a 
free allotment of forty-three acres of Crown 
land — do not seem extravagant, considering 
the remoteness of the scene and the severity of 
the winter climate. But they have been suffi- 
cient to set a great human tide flowing east- 
ward. 

[In 1887, President Grevy is forced to re- 
sign in consequence of corruption by his son- 



A.D. i886 THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY 2297 

in-law, Wilson. Ferdinand of Coburg suc- 
ceeds Alexander in Bulgaria. Stanley starts df^covL 
to find Emin Pasha and discovers the Albert gdward 

Nyanza. 

Edward Nyanza. In 1888, County Councils 
are created in England. The Lick Observa- 
tory in California begins work. In 1889, the 
Panama Canal Company becomes bankrupt. 
The Crown Prince of Austria commits sui- 
cide. King Milan of Servia abdicates in favor 
of his son, Alexander. Brazil becomes a Re-Braziia 
public. The British South Africa Company ^^^"''''^' 
receives a charter. The Eiffel Tower is built. 
Japan sets up constitutional government. In 
1890, in consequence of a divorce suit the 
Parnellites are disrupted. England cedes 
Heligoland to Germany. Spain receives uni- 
versal suffrage. Germany, England and 
France agree on their African boundaries. 
The French capture Timbuctoo. The Forth 
bridge is completed. The Russian Jews are 
persecuted. Baron Hirsch organizes colonies 
in Argentina. The first May Day celebration 
of labor is held. The bank of Baring Broth- 
ers fails. In 1891, England obtains pre-emp- 
tion of the Portuguese territories in Africa. 
In 1892, the Pope orders Catholics to accept 
the French Republic. In 1893, the Bering Sea 
arbitration in Paris decides against the United ^^^^^.^ 
States. A World's Fair is held in Chicago. g°'p"»a 
France gains territory and privileges in Siam. ^^^'^- 
The Matabele are conquered in South Africa. 
New Zealand adopts the franchise for women. 



2298 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1886 

In 1894, parish councils are created in Eng- 
carnor' land. Prcsident Carnot of France is mur- 
""^ " ' dered. The Dreyfus case is begun by the ar- 
rest of the captain as a spy. A revolt makes 
the King of Corea call upon China for assist- 
ance. Japan sends troops also and proposes 
joint action. After much dispute, war breaks 
out between China and Japan. The latter cap- 
tures Port Arthur.] 



THE BATTLE OF THE YALU 

(A.D. 1894) 

EASTLAKE AND YOSHI-AKI 

THE victories' achieved by the arms of 
Japan were very evenly divided be- 
tween the two branches of the service. 
If the land-troops carried all before them at 
Phyongyang, Kangwasae, Newchwang, and a 
dozen other places, the fleet was no less suc- 
cessful ofif Phungdo, in the Yellow Sea, and at 
Wei-hai-wei. The naval engagement of the 
Yellow Sea, better known by the style of the 
Fight of Haiyang — an important island near 
the scene of the conflict — is unique in the an- First batue 

^ between 

nals of this century. For here, for the first ^°^|^!;,,. 
time on record since the great change in naval 
construction, two fleets of the most modern and 
powerful type met in deadly warfare, the re- 
sult being significant of the tremendous nature 
of the weapons now employed by "civilized" 
nations and the fury with which the battle was 
fought on both sides. It was a deadly grapple 
between two ancient foes, with all the skill on 
one side and all the victory; though the Chi- 
nese did not fall behind in point of bravery 

(2399) 



2300 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1894 



Causes of 

China's 

defeat. 



and determined pluck. According to naval 
experts in this part of the world, the Chinese 
were defeated primarily because of their ex- 
ecrable tactics, and secondarily because they 
had no ships so swift as one or two of those on 
the Japanese side. Moreover, the Japanese 
vessels fought intelligently, as a compact 
whole; while the Chinese warships, with the 
exception perhaps of the two great ironclads, 
failed to work in harmony and at no time 
brought their full strength to bear on the foe. 
It was on September i6, 1894, that the Japa- 
nese fleet left the temporary anchorage at the 
mouth of the Taidong River. The next day, 
after a fruitless cruise near the Korean littoral, 
the fleet made for the island of Haiyang, an 
island of importance, as already pointed out, 
and one which commanded the approach to 
Vessels thc Klnchow Peninsula. The Yoshino, Taka- 



of the 



Japanese chtcko, AkitsusJiima, and Naniwa, in the or- 

fleet. ' ■' o 1 

der named, forming the First Flying Squad- 
ron, led the van, the flag of Rear-Admiral 
Tsuboi Kozo flying on the Yoshino. The fol- 
lowing. Principal, Squadron was composed 
of the Chiyoda, Itsukushima, Hashidate, Hi- 
yei, and Fuso, with the Matsushima as flag- 
ship, Vice-Admiral Ito Sukehiro, Comman- 
der-in-Chief, being on board. Close behind 
followed the gunboat Akagi and the ex-mer- 
chant-steamer Saikyo Maru, transformed into 
a cruiser for the time being. At 6.30 A.M. 
the island was sighted, and the harbor — a fine 



A.D. 1894 THE BATTLE OF THE YALU 2801 

one there — shortly afterward reconnoitred. 
No signs of the enemy being visible, a course 
was shaped for Takushan, and the fleet pro- 
ceeded onward after a short review, Talu Isl- 
and being the objective. Steaming easily, the 
warships were enjoying the fine autumn day, 
when suddenly, at 10.50 A.M.^ thick smoke was 
seen on the port bow, low down on the horizon 
and northeast by east from the leading vessels. insight. 
This was what the admirals had long and pa- 
tiently been looking for; no doubt was enter- 
tained that the enemy was now close at hand. 
From the increasing volume of the smoke it 
was clear that the hostile war-vessels were nu- 
merous. Each ship therefore promptly cleared 
for action and beat to quarters. 

The weather was exceptionally fine; the sea 
smooth and glassy, with just a faint ripple 
where the light breeze touched the surface. 
At five minutes past noon the Matsushima sig- 
nalled to prepare to close with the enemy. 
The Akagi and Saikyo Maru, not being well 
protected, and the former a very slow boat, 
were ordered to go under the port bow of the 
Squadrons, thus getting out of the enemy's 
range. The Chinese formation was an irreg-vesseum 
ular wedge, the Ting Yuen and Chen Yuen — Aelt. '"^ 
the two great ironclads — leading, with the 
Lai Yuen, Ching Yuen, Yang Wei, and Chao 
Yang on the right, and the King Yuen, Chih 
Yuen, Tsi Yuen and Kwang Chia on the left: 
ten men-of-war in all. Some distance of^ to 



2302 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1894 

the north, smoke was again visible, proceed- 
ing from the funnels of two or three Chinese 
warships kept in reserve. 

At 12.50 P.M. the Ting Yuen, though still 
6,000 metres off, opened fire from her large 
chfnese g^us, the Other members of the fleet speedily 
open fire. foUovs^jng suit. The shells fell near, but did 
not strike the Japanese ships, the sea about 
them being beaten into waves and fountains 
of angry water, so tremendous the impact of 
the missiles. This did not of course stop the 
steady, swift advance of the Japanese, who as 
yet had not fired a single shot. Five minutes 
later the distance between the two fleets was 
decreased to 3,000 metres, and the hitherto si- 
lent men-of-war now burst into a tremendous 
roar of shot and shell that seemed to rend the 
very heavens. All the big guns on the Japa- 
K^nese Hcsc vcsscls wcrc directed toward the upper 
decks of the Ting Yuen and Chen Yuen, the 
rest of the Chinese ships being fired at with 
guns of smaller calibre. The Flying Squad- 
ron had by this time steamed past the enemy's 
front and was getting round to their starboard 
side; and just as the four fleet men-of-war ap- 
proached the Chinese rear, the Principal 
Squadron, then at a distance of 4,000 metres, 
rapidly assumed a wedge-shaped formation, 
thus sheltering the Akagi and Saikyo Maru 
on the starboard and taking the whole of the 
enemy's heavy starboard fire. At 12.58 P.M.^ 
a shell from the Matsushimas 32-centimetre 



attack. 



A.D. i894 THE BATTLE OF THE YALU 2308 

gun crashed through the upper part of the 
Chinese flagship's — the Ting Yuen's — largest 
mast, so that the latter was no longer able to^o^sof 
make signals to the rest of the fleet. Taking }ori4tionf^ 
advantage of this accident, the Japanese Prin- 
cipal Squadron opened out and surrounded 
the Chinese ships, firing most fiercely the 
while. The enemy, at a loss what to do, the 
flagship no longer directing them, steamed 
confusedly hither and thither, their formation 
being completely broken. Each acted inde- 
pendent of the rest, to the great loss of time 
and force. Some of the Chinese ships now 
caught sight of the Akagi and Saikyo Maru. 
Deeming these two an easy prey, they steamed 
toward them, entirely separating themselves 
from the rest. The Japanese vessels, on the 
other hand, maintained their original line and 
continued to fire at each ship with precision and 
terrible effect. Six of the ten Chinese ships 
had by this time caught fire, while the Chao^^^^f^ 
Yang and Yang Wei got quite apart from the*^'^' 
others. Some of the enemy's vessels ap- 
proached the Hiyei and Fuso — both small 
warships — in the rear of the Principal Squad- 
ron. The Hiyei' s position was, for a while, 
one of extreme peril, there being great danger 
of her getting rammed; yet with reckless 
bravery her commander thrust the ship di- 
rectly between the powerful Ting Yuen and 
the Chen Yuen, this being the one possible 
chance of escaping destruction. The ma- 



2304 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a. d. 1894 

noBuvre was successful, and discharging her 
broadsides as she steamed ahead at full speed, 
the Hiyei passed through and got to the rear 
of the attacking vessels. The Saikyo Maru 
then steamed rapidly ahead to carry the news 
E^^eof of the peril of the Hiyei and Akagi to the 
Principal Squadron; and when the message 
was made out through the clouds of smoke, 
the flagship at once ordered the First Flying 
Squadron to proceed to the aid of their com- 
rades. The order was promptly obeyed, the 
four fine warships immediately steering west- 
ward. They steamed directly for the Lai 
Yuen, Chih Yuen and Kwang Chia, keeping 
the enemy on their port bow as they ap- 
proached. The gunners stationed there fired 
rapidly and with magnificent precision, hand- 
ling their huge weapons with skill and judg- 
ment. At a distance of 2,800 metres the can- 
non of the Flying Squadron proved too much 
for the three hostile vessels, which slowly 
Success of turned and attempted to get back to their Main 
Squadron? Squadron. This, however, the Japanese hin- 
dered them from doing, keeping a middle 
course between the three ships and the rest of, 
their fleet; while the Principal Squadron, hav- 
ing come up to the rear, interposed between 
the Flying Squadron and the other Chinese 
vessels. The battle now reached its climax, 
the firing being stupendously heavy, the air 
dark with shot and shell, while the sun itself 
was obscured by the pall of smoke overhang- 



A.D. i894 THE BATTLE OF THE YALU 2305 

ing the whole scene. Just before this, when 
the Flying and then the Principal Squadrons 
had gone to the relief of the Hiyei and ^^^^^^ jeopardy of 
the cruiser Saikyo Maru was left quite alone, A/l^f^-^" 
despite which fact she kept up fighting with 
the enemy. At 2.20 P.M., a 30.5-centimetre 
shell from thtTingYuen struck and exploded 
back of the officers' ward on the Saikyo^ caus- 
ing great damage and cutting the steam pipe 
controlling the steering-gear. Signalling what 
had happened to the flagship, the Saikyo 
ran between the Akitsushima and Naniwa, 
getting on the port bow of the Chinese fleet, 
some vessels of which at once started to sink 
the injured cruiser, which did her best to get 
away from her opponents. About this time, 
moreover, the several men-of-war which the 
Japanese had believed to be the Chinese re- 
serve, drew near. These were the Ping Yuen, 
Kwang Ping, and t^vo torpedo-boats. They 
could not come up with the Principal Squad- 
ron, on account of the quick-firing guns, but 
noticing that the Saikyo was in great straits, 
the Ping Yuen, Kwang Ping, and the two tor- 
pedo-boats started to sink her. Everybody 
had been breathlessly awaiting the result of 
the torpedo-boat attack; and when the Saikyo 
was out of immediate danger the Chinese 
men-of-war surrounding her found themselves 
at close quarters with several Japanese war- 
vessels. The Chao Yang, which had first the c/u.° 
taken fire, now went down stern-foremost; 



2306 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1894 

while the Yang PFei, seeing that her case was 
hopeless, ran toward the shallow water and 
beach of Talu Island. 

A little before this, the Ting Yuen, which 
had failed in her attack on the Saikyo Maru, 
tried to get back to the rest of her comrades. 
Just as she was about passing in front of the 
Japanese Fleet, she suddenly changed her 
course and made as if she would either ram 
the Matsushima or else discharge a fish-tor- 
pedo at the Japanese flagship. From doing 
either she was prevented by the violent fire 
poured from the Matsushima's batteries. 
iuUs"^ Sheering off to starboard, the Tinz Yuen 

gallant 1 , . 

fight. shaped her course at right angles to the Japa- 
nese line. On her port-bow becoming visible 
another broadside was poured into her from 
the Matsushima s guns. As the Ting Yuen 
was not more than 1,500 metres distant at the 
time, the effect of this broadside was tremen- 
dous, great holes being beaten into her side, 
whence volumes of smoke soon came pouring 
forth. A fire had started on board. In re- 
venge, the Ting Yuen fired several rounds 
from her 26-centimetre guns, one shell en- 
tering the Matsushima's starboard quarter, 
plunging through the doctors' ward or sur- 
gery on the lower deck, severely shattering 
the steel fender, and, after passing down the 
torpedo-tube, finally destroying the barbette 
containing the 32-centimetre gun. Almost 
immediately afterward a 47-centimetre shell 



A.D. i894 THE BATTLE OF THE YALU 2307 

tore through the Matsushima into her cen- 
tral torpedo-room, striking the mainmast and 
causing numerous fatal and other injuries. 
None the less, it was evident that great con- 
fusion reigned on board the Ting Yuen, in 
consequence of her adversary's steady fire. 

The First Flying Squadron were now in hot 
pursuit of the Kivang Chia, Lai Yuen, and 
King Yuen, which were doing their best to^j. ^^^^ 
get out of the fight. The Kwang Chia ran to veS 
the north of Bucha Island, while the Lai 
Yuen headed for Talok; the King Yuen being 
thus left alone. The firing from the four ves- 
sels composing the Flying Squadron was then 
concentrated on the wretched King Yuen. 
She was already on fire, and now keeled over 
to port, turning completely over. The flag- 
ship then recalled the Flying Squadron from 
further pursuit of the other two Chinese ves- 
sels, and the four swift men-of-war steamed 
obediently back to the Principal Squadron. 

In the meantime, the latter Squadron had 
been waging a furious war with the Ting 
Yuen, Chen Yuen, Chih Yuen, and Ping 
Yuen, the best ships the enemy still had afloat. 
The Chih Yuen, trusting to her powerful 
frame, bravely attempted to run down some 
of her persistent adversaries; but the Flying 
Squadron coming up, the devoted vessel was 
made the object of a tremendous assault. Shot sinking 
through and through, she listed to starboard <^'^'^' J^"^"- 
and sank. This occurred at just 3 130 P.M. 



2308 THE WPRLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1894 

The Principal Squadron now concentrated 
their fire on the Ting Yuen and Chen Yuen, 
the destruction of one or both of these big bat- 
tleships being the great ambition of every 
vessel in the Japanese Fleet. At 3:30 P.M.^ 
just as the Chih Yuen sank beneath the waves, 
two shots from the 30.5-centimetre gun of the 
Ting Yuen wrought great havoc aboard the 
Matsushima, the lower deck on the port side 
being dreadfully cut up. A fire broke out on 
the sorely tried Matsushima, which took quite 
half an hour to extinguish. The Ting Yuen, 
it was simultaneously observed, had again 
caught fire. 

From first to last Vice-Admiral Ito, Com- 

Adrnf/iiito^'i^i^der of the Combined Squadrons, kept his 
place on the bridge. Yet his ship, the Matsu- 
shima, suffered most; the gunners were nearly 
all killed or wounded, their places being sup- 
plied by landsmen. 

The result of the great sea-fight was that 
the Chao Yang, Chih Yuen, and King Yuen 
were sunk; the Yang Wei stranded; and the 
Kivang Chia and Tsi Yuen forced to run off 
to avoid sinking or capture. The remaining 
vessels, all more or less severely battered, 

Flight of steamed off in every direction, only the two 

the Chinese . ^ . ' \ 

great ironclads contmumg the combat. Yet 
the Ting Yuen was now wreathed in smoke 
from the fire on board, and was thus incapa- 
ble of prompt manoeuvring; while the Chen 
Yuen, which stood by to assist her sister-ship, 



A.D. 1894 THE BATTLE OF THE YALU 2309 

had a very narrow escape, the Japanese ceas- 
ing to fire only as the light died out in the 
western sky, at which time the Chen Yuen 
was quite a distance from Admiral Ting's 
flagship. The First Flying Squadron was 
then ordered to give over chasing the fugi- 
tives, for it was now 5 130 P.M. and growing 
very dark. 

Taking advantage of the gathering dusk, 
the Chinese fleet — or rather what there was 
left of it — turned southward for Wei-hai-wei. 
To oflfer to pursue them would only have 
brought confusion upon the Japanese vessels, 
for the enemy had half-a-dozen torpedo-boats, 
and these might have inflicted serious damage 
in the night tim-e. Moreover, the Matsushima 
was indeed in an evil plight, so large a por- 
tion of her crew being hors de combat and the 
vessel greatly cut up from stem to stern. It 
was, under the circumstances, adjudged best 
to send the Matsushima back to Japan for re- 
pairs, and the flag of Vice-Admiral Ito was 
removed to the Hashidate. 

And so the Japanese had not lost a single 
vessel; even the unarmored Saikyo was still ^°"Pf\'he 
afloat and ready to try conclusions with theS^y!^ 
enemy at any time. The victory of the Japa- 
nese was not only decisive, but even over- 
whelming, the Chinese losing five out of the 
twelve vessels that had taken part in the con- 
flict: three sunk; one blown up, and one aban- 
doned by the Chinese themselves. 



2310 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1894 

[In 1895, the Baltic Canal is opened. The 
Chartered Company makes an abortive raid 
Jameson on the Transvaal under Dr. Jameson. China 
makes peace, ceding territory and opening 
new ports. Japan relinquishes the territory 
on protest by Russia, France, and Germany. 
Corea declares itself independent. In 1896, 
the Turks massacre Christians in Crete. 
France annexes Madagascar. Rontgen dis- 
covers the X-rays.] 



DISCOVERY OF THE X-RAYS 

(A.D. 1896) 

H. SNOWDEN WARD 

INTENSELY interesting and undoubtedly 
valuable is the discovery of Professor 
Rontgen of a certain radiant force pos- 
sessing properties hitherto unknown. To the 
physical scientist it is important, and to the 
surgeon and the public extremely interesting; ;^jfjj 
but when the first wave o'f excitement is over, ^"""^ 
it v/ill be seen that the most wonderful phe- 
nom.enon connected with the discovery is psy- 
chological. It is a striking instance of the 
power of the press and of a popular enthu- 
siasm; for, curiously enough, what has so 
largely attracted the press and public is not 
new, while the actual novelty of the discovery 
has been practically ignored. "The new 
photography," so far as most of the repro- 
duced examples are concerned, is not new, nor 
is it necessarily dependent upon Professor 
Rontgen's new "X"-rays. The photograph- 
ing of the living skeleton has long been possi- 
ble; the reduction of sensitive silver salts by ;: invisible 

' -' light." 

"invisible light" has long been practiced; of 

(2311) 



2312 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1896 

the transparency of black vulcanite, pitch, 
etc., and the opacity of many substances that 
are commonly called transparent, we have 
long been aware. At the Imperial Institute, 
in 1896, Captain Abney dealt very fully and 
experimentally with some of the photographic 
properties of "invisible light," but did not 
claim that he had made any new discovery. 
In fact, speaking generally, we may say that 
the most picturesque and popular properties 
of Professor Rontgen's new rays are those 
which they largely share with rays that were 
previously well-known ; while the actually 
novel characteristics, even now but partially 
and tentatively established, have attracted only 
the investigators. The practical value of the 
new rays is yet to be determined, but there can 
be no possible doubt as to the value of the pub- 
licity that they have given to* the whole sub- 
ject of ''photographing the invisible." The 
impetus given to investigation, and the drag- 
ging of much useful knowledge from the dim. 
obscurity of science — handbooks to the work- 
aday world of practical application — are 
boons .for which we can heartily thank Pro- 
fessor Rontgen — and the newspaper corre- 
spondents. 

It is not for me to belittle the discovery of 
Professor Rontgen, but rather to show, as far 
as can be done with our present insufficient 
data, what is its actual novelty. Two classes 
of men are certainly premature — namely, 



Impetus 
to inves- 
tigation. 



AD. .896 DISCOVERY OF THE X-RAY 2313 

those who pronounce it the greatest discovery 
of the age, and those who pooh-pooh it as 
valueless. The discoverer himself, like a true 
man of science, makes a perfectly modest and 
simple statement of his results in the Sitzungs- 
berichte der Wurzhurger Physik-medic Ge- 
selleschaft. He there states that when experi- 
menting with a vacuum tube covered with 
black paper impervious to ordinary light, and 
passing a high-tension electric current through 
the tube, fluorescent substances brought near 
the covered tube were seen to glow. This 
proved that some force was being generated 
within the tube that was capable of passing 
through paper that ordinary light could not 
pass, and also capable of excitin? fluorescence. Rontgen/s 

^ ' ^ <-' discoveries. 

From other points the discovery of the other 
properties of the unknown or "X"-rays was 
merely a question of time and patience. It 
was found that they acted upon the photo- 
graphic plate similarly to light, and the means 
of observation principally used were, there- 
fore, fluorescence and photography. 

It soon became apparent that the new rays 
were able to penetrate many substances which 
to ordinary light were quite impenetrable. 
Several experiments led to the conclusion, af- 
terward modified, that the densitv of bodies 
was the property mainly affecting their perme- 
ability. Thus it was found that a deal board KdL 

affects 

was more transparent than glass or quartz. J^^^'Jfj''- 
On the other hand, it was found that when 



2814 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. .8g6 

glass, Iceland spar, quartz, and aluminium 
were tested together, the Iceland spar was 
much less transparent than the other bodies of 
about the same density. Another generaliza- 
tion, made by some of the English papers, 
was that organic substances were transparent, 
while inorganic were not. Probably this was 
based upon the experiments with the human 
hand, in which the flesh freely transmits the 
rays, while thebones (containing much earthy, 
inorganic matter) obstruct them. 

Perhaps the most interesting fact about the 
new rays is that they can not, so far as is 
known at present, be reflected or refracted. 
A glass prism placed in the path of light-rays 
Reflection Tefracts them and spreads them out into a 
ref^raction. spcctrum, but the"X"-rays go straight through 
the prism, and do the same with prisms of mica 
filled with carbon bisulphide and with water. 
This property prevents their being focussed 
with a lens — both glass and ebonite lenses 
have been tried. But the best test for reflec- 
tion and refraction is to attempt to pass the 
rays through a powdered substance. Pow^ders 
owe their opacity to ordinary light largely to 
the fact that their innumerable particles re- 
fract and reflect the rays to such an extent 
that they can only penetrate a small depth, 
even though the powdered substance be essen- 
tially transparent. Under this test it is found 
that powders transmit the "X"-rays as freely 
as the homogeneous substance. As we can not 



A.D. 1896 DISCOVERY OF THE X-RAYS 2315 

reflect the "X"-rays, we can not produce pho- 
tograms in the ordinary way in which light 
reflected from the subject is focussed by a lens 
to form the image upon a sensitive surface. 

And now for a few words on other methods 
of photographing the invisible. I need notPh^°^°:^^ 
refer in detail to astronomical work — in which '^^'"''"'''^ 
photography reveals myriads of stars and 
nebulae which no telescope could enable the 
eye to discover — or the photographing of in- 
sects in flight, projectiles in their course, or 
other objects in extremely rapid motion; for 
these involve only the use of ordinary light. 
The light of day, refracted by a prism, forms 
a visible spectrum which can be both seen and 
photographed. But beyond the visible spec- 
trum is a long series of rays on both sides, which 
are photographically active. By pure photo- 
graphic means the spectrum beyond the visi- 
ble violet has been proved to extend to at least 
nine or ten times the length of the visible por- 
tion; and beyond the red of the spectrum is a 
range fourteen times as long as the whole visi- 
ble portion, the presence of which is partly 
proved by photography and partly by the bo- 
lometer. Passing from ordinary light, we find^j^^ 
the cathode rays, which were shown by Hertz Hem «>% 
and Lenard to be generated in the Crookes 
tube, and which have been spoken of as Hertz- 
ian light. These possess very many of the 
properties of the "X"-rays, and will cause 
most, if not all, of the phenomena which have 



2316 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a. d. 1896 

surprised the public. They pass through 
many "opaque" substances, and are stopped 
by many "transparent" bodies. They seem 
incapable of reflection or refraction, but they 
can be deflected by a magnet placed in their 
path. And here comes the main difference 
between the new "X"-rays and the older 
cathode rays, for the former are not deflected 
by a magnet. The cathode rays, too, seem to 
have much less penetrative power in air, for the 
"X"-rays produce results at a distance from 
their source where the cathode rays have 
ceased to be active. 

For photographing the bones within the 

flesh it is not necessary to use invisible light, 

Sir and it is probable that the method of Sir Ben- 

RicS" jamin Richardson, described before the Brit- 

son's ' 

method, ish Association in 1868, may be modified to 
give much better results than will ever be ob- 
tained with "X"-rays. In this case also the 
diseased structure can be seen and need not be 
photographed. By placing the body in an 
aperture with an intense light behind it, and 
the observer in an otherwise darkened room, 
it is possible to see fractures of bones, etc. 



T 



PHOTOGRAPHY 



ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE 

HE improvements in the mode of pro- 
duction of light for common use are 
sufficiently new and remarkable to dis- photog- 
tinguish this century from all the ages that sp'^earum 

, , . , , • I • . . .^ Analysis. 

preceded it, but they smk mto msignmcance 
when compared with the discoveries which 
have been made as to the nature of light it- 
self, its effects on various kinds of matter lead- 
ing to the art of Photography, and the com- 
plex nature of the Solar Spectrum leading to 
Spectrum Analysis. This group of investi- 
gations alone is sufficient to distinguish the 
present century as an epoch of the most mar- 
vellous scientific discovery. 

Although Huygens put forward the wave- ^-he wave^ 
theory of light more than two hundred years I5ht7°^ 
ago, it was not accepted, or seriously studied, 
till the beginning of the present century, when 
it was revived by Thomas Young, and was 
shown by himself, by Fresnel, and other math- 
ematicians, to explain all the phenomena of 
refraction, double-refraction, polarization, 
diffraction, and interference, some of which 

O (2317) 

" Vol. 6 



2318 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

were inexplicable on the Newtonian theory 
of the emission of material particles, which 
had previously been almost universally ac- 
cepted. The complete establishment of the 
undulatory theory of light is a fact of the 
highest importance, and will take a very high 
place among the purely scientific discoveries 
of the century. 

From a more practical point of view, how- 
ever, nothing can surpass in interest and im- 
portance the discovery and continuous im- 
provement of the Photographic art, which has 
now reached such a development that there 
is hardly any science or any branch of intel- 
lectual study that is not indebted to it. A 
brief sketch of its origin and progress will 
therefore not be uninteresting. 

The fact that certain salts of silver were 

^uh^iT darkened by exposure to sunlight was known 
to the alchemists in the Sixteenth Century, 
and this observation forms the rudiment from 
which the whole art has been developed. The 
application of this fact to the production of 
pictures belongs, however, wholly to our own 
time. In the year 1802, Wedgwood de- 
scribed a mode of copying paintings on glass 
by exposure to light, but neither he nor Sir 
Humphry Davy could find any means of ren- 
dering the copies permanent. This was first 
effected, in 18 14, by M. Niepce of Chalons, 

The Da- but no important results were obtained till 
1839, when Daguerre perfected the beautiful 



PHOTOGRAPHY 2319 

process known as the Daguerrotype. Per- 
manent portraits were taken by him on sil- 
vered plates, and they were so delicate and 
beautiful that probably nothing in modern 
photography can surpass them. For several 
years they were the only portraits taken by the 
agency of light, but they were very costly, and 
were, therefore, completely superseded when 
cheaper methods were discovered. 

About the same time a method was found 
for photographing leaves, lace, and other 
semi-transparent objects on paper, and ren- t^j^^^.^^ 
dering them permanent, but this was of com- ^'''"■ 
paratively little value. In the year 1850, the 
far superior collodion-film on glass was per- 
fected, and negatives were taken in a camera- 
obscura, which, when placed on black velvet, 
or when coated with a black composition, pro- 
duced pictures almost as perfect and beautiful 
as the daguerrotype itself, and at much less 
cost. Soon afterward positives were printed 
from the transparent negatives, on suitably 
prepared paper; and thus was initiated the 
process which, with endless modifications and 
improvements, is still in use. The main ad- 
vance has been in the increased sensitiveness 
of the photographic plates, so that, first, mov- 
ing crowds, then breaking waves, running 
horses, and other quickly moving objects were 
taken, while now a bullet fired from a rifle 
can be photographed in the air. 

With such marvellous powers, photography 



2320 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

has come to the aid of the arts and sciences in 
Ssof p*ho- ways which would have been perfectly incon- 
tograph>. ^g-^^i^jg ^Q Q^j. j^Qgj. learned men of a century 

ago. It furnishes the Meteorologist, the Phys- 
icist, and the Biologist with self-registering 
instruments of extreme delicacy, and enables 
them to preserve accurate records of the most 
fleeting natural phenomena. By means of suc- 
cessive photographs at short intervals of time, 
we are able to study the motions of the wings 
of birds, and thus learn something of the 
mechanism of flight; while even the instanta- 
neous lightning-flash can be depicted, and we 
thus learn, for the first time, the exact nature 
of its path. 

Perhaps the most marvellous of all its 
Aids in achievements is in the field of astronomy. 
Every increase in the size and power of the 
telescope has revealed to us ever more and 
more stars in every part of the heavens; but, 
by the aid of photography, stars are shown 
which no telescope that has been, or that prob- 
ably ever will be, constructed, can render visi- 
ble to the human eye. For by exposing the 
photographic plate in the focus of the object 
glass for some hours, almost infinitely faint 
stars impress their image, and the modern 
photographic star-maps show us a surface 
densely packed with white points that seem 
almost as countless as the sands of the seashore. 
Yet every one of these points represents a star 
in its true relative position to the visible stars 



astronomy. 



Mechanical 
processes. 



PHOTOGRAPHY 2321 

nearest it, and thus gives at one operation an 
amount of accurate detail which could hardly 
be equalled by the labor of an astronomer for 
months or years — even if he could render all 
these stars visible, which, as we have seen, he 
can not do. A photographic survey of the 
heavens is now in progress on one uniform 
system, which, when completed, will form a 
standard for future astronomers, and thus give 
to our successors some definite knowledge of 
the structure, and, perhaps, of the extent of the 
stellar universe. 

Within the last few years the mechanical 
processes by means of which photographs can 
now be reproduced through the printing-press, 
have been rendered so perfect that books and 
periodicals are illustrated with an amount of 
accuracy and beauty that would have been im- 
possible, even twenty years ago, except at a 
prohibitive cost. 

It has long been the dream of photographers 
to discover some mode of obtaining pictures ^oiorPho- 
which shall reproduce all the colors of nature '°^'^p^^' 
without the intervention of the artist's manip- 
ulation. This was seen to be exceedingly dif- 
ficult, if not impossible, because the chemical 
action of colored light has no power to pro- 
duce pigments of the same color as the light 
itself, without which a photograph, in natural 
colors, would seem to be impossible. Never- 
theless, the problem has been solved, but in 
a totally different manner; that is, by the prin- 



2322 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

ciple of "interference," instead of by that of 
chemical action. This principle was discov- 
ered by Newton, and is exemplified in the col- 
ors of the soap bubble, and in those of mother- 
of-pearl and other iridescent objects. It 
depends on the fact that the differently col- 
ored rays are of different wave-lengths, and 
the waves reflected from two surfaces half a 
wave-length apart neutralize each other and 
leave the remainder of the light colored. If, 
therefore, each differently colored ray of light 
can be made to produce a corresponding mi- 
nute wave-structure in a photographic film, 
then each part of the film will reflect only 
light of that particular wave-length, and 
therefore of that particular color that pro- 
duced it. This has actually been done by 
Professor Lippmann, of Paris, who published 
Professor his mcthod in i8qi; and in a lecture before 

Lippmann s ^ ' 

success, fj^g Royal Society in April, 1896, he fully de- 
scribed it and exhibited many beautiful speci- 
mens. 

The method is as follows: A sensitive film, 
of some of the usual salts of silver in albumen 
or gelatin, is used, but with much less silver 
than usual, so as to leave the film quite trans- 
parent. It must also be perfectly homogene- 

Long ous, since any granular structure would inter- 

exposurc. ' J o 

fere with the result. This film on glass must 
be placed in a frame so constructed that at the 
back of it there is a shallow cell that can be 
filled with mercury which is in contact with 



PHOTOGRAPHY 232o 

the film. It is then exposed in the usual way, 
but much longer than for an ordinary photo- 
graph, so that the light-waves have time to 
produce the required effect. The light of 
each particular tint, being reflected by the exposure. 
mercury, meets the incoming light and pro- 
duces a set of standing waves — that is, of 
waves surging up and down, each in a fixed 
plane. The result is that the metallic par- 
ticles in the film become assorted and strati- 
fied by this continued wave-action, the dis- 
tance apart of the strata being determined by 
the wave-length of the particular colored light 
— for the violet rays about eight millionths of 
an inch; so that in a film of ordinary thick- 
ness there would be about five hundred of 
these strata of thinly scattered metallic par- 
ticles. The quantity of silver used being very 
small, when the film is developed and fixed 
in the usual way, the result is not a light- 
and-shade negative, but a nearly transparent 
film which, nevertheless, reflects a sufficient 
amount of light to produce a naturally col- 
ored picture. 

The principle is the same for the light- 
waves as that of the telephone for sound- 

rr-'i • -1 • • 1 Analogy 

waves. 1 he voice sets up vibrations in the between 

^ sound and 

transmitting diaphragm, which, by means of ''^^' 
an electric current, are so exactly reproduced 
in the receiving diaphragm as to give out the 
same succession of sounds. An even more 
striking and, perhaps, closer analogy is that 



2324 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

of the phonograph, where the vibrations of 
the diaphragm are permanently registered on 
a wax cylinder, which, at any future time, can 
be made to set up the same vibrations of the 
air, and thus reproduce the same succession 
of sounds, whether words or musical notes. 
So, the rays of every color and tint that fall 
upon the plate throw the deposited silver with- 
in the film into minute strata which perma- 
nently reflect light of the very same wave- 
length, and therefore of the very same color as 
that which produced them. 
The effects are said to be most beautiful, the 
of'effect':^ only fault being that the colors are more brill- 
iant than in nature, just as they are when 
viewed in the camera itself. This, however, 
may perhaps be remedied (if it requires rem- 
edying) by the use of a slightly opaque var- 
nish. The comparatively little attention that 
has been given to this beautiful and scientific- 
ally perfect process, is no doubt due to the 
fact that it is rather expensive, and that the 
pictures can not, at present, be multiplied rap- 
idly. But for that very reason it ought to be 
especially attractive to amateurs, who would 
have the pleasure of obtaining exquisite pic- 
tures which will not become commonplace by 
indefinite reproduction. 

This beautiful and wonderful art, which 

Anentireiy already plays an important part in the daily 

departure, life aud cnjoymcnt of all civilized people, 

and which has extended the bounds of hu- 



PHOTOGRAPHY 2825 

man knowledge into the remotest depths of 
the starry universe, is not an improvement 
of, or development from, anything that went 
before it, but is a totally new departure. 
From that early period when the men of the 
stone age rudely outlined the mammoth and 
the reindeer on stone or ivory, the only 
means of representing men and animals, 
natural scenery, or the great events of hu- 
man history, had been through the art of 
the painter or the sculptor. It is true that 
the highest Greek, or Medieval, or Modern, 
art can not be equalled by the productions of 
the photographic camera; but great artists recork 
are few and far between, and the ordinary, or 
even the talented, draughtsman can give us 
only suggestions of what he sees, so modified 
by his peculiar mannerism as often to result 
in a mere caricature of the truth. Should 
some historian in Japan study the character- 
istics of English ladies at two not remote 
epochs, as represented, say, by Frith and by 
Du Maurier, he would be driven to the con- 
clusion that there had been a complete change 
of type, due to the introduction of some for- 
eign race, in the interval between the works 
of these two artists. From such errors as this 
we shall be saved by photography; and our 
descendants in the middle of the coming cen- 
tury will be able to see how much, and what 
kind, of change really does occur from age 
to age. 



2326 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

The importance of this is well seen by com- 
paring any of the early works on Ethnology, 
illustrated by portraits intended to represent 

Impor- J r r 

Ethnology, the different "types of mankind," with recent 
volumes which give us copies of actual photo- 
graphs of the same types; when we shall see 
how untrue to nature are the former, due 
probably to the artist having delineated those 
extreme forms, either of ugliness or of beauty, 
that most attracted his attention, and to his 
having exaggerated even these. Thus only 
can we account for the pictures in some old 
voyages, showing an English sailor and a 
Patagonian as a dwarf beside a giant; and for 
the statement by the historian of Magellan's 
voyage, that their tallest sailor only came up 
to the waist of the first man they met. It is 
now known that the average height of Pata- 
gonian men is about five feet ten inches, or 
five feet eleven inches, and none have been 
found to exceed six feet four inches. Photog- 
raphy would have saved us from such an error 
as this. 

That such a new and important art as pho- 
tography should have had its birth, and have 
come to maturity, so closely coincident with 
the other great discoveries of the century al- 
ready alluded to, is surely a very marvellous 
fact, and one which will seem more extraordi- 
nary to the future historian than it does to our- 
selves, who have witnessed the whole process 
of its growth and development. 



PHOTOGRAPHY 2327 

[In 1897, the Diamond Jubilee of Queen 
Victoria is celebrated. Greece openly sides 
with the Cretan insurgents and is invaded by 
the Turks. Greece speedily makes peace with 
loss of money and territory. Gold is discov- 
ered in the Klondike. The United States Hawaii 
annexes Hawaii. Andree tries to reach the*""^" 
North Pole in a balloon and disappears. Ger- 
many acquires Kiao Chau, China, as indemnity 
for murdered missionaries. In i8q8, the Aus- 
trian Empress is murdered. The United 
States battleship Maine is destroyed in Ha-Ie1troyed"' 
vana Harbor. Spain is ordered to evacuate 
Cuba. Dewey destroys a fleet at Manila and 
Sampson another at Santiago. Peace is made 
by the Spaniards relinquishingCuba and Porto 
Rico and receiving $20,000,000 for the Philip- 
pines. General Kitchener, with an Anglo- 
Egyptian army, annihilates the Dervishes at 
Omdurman. An Anti-Foreign Society, called 
the Boxers, is formed in China to get rid of 
foreign influence.] 



THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO 

(A.D. 1898) 



T 



WILLIS JOHN ABBOT 

HE first ship out was the Maria Teresa. 
Behind her came the Vizcaya, the 
Cristobal Colon, and the Almirante 
Oquendo. To meet them all the ships of the 
blockading fleet were standing in toward the 
Spaniards harbor, firing rapidly from every gun that 
haTbor.^ could be brought to bear. According to the 
plan of the blockade, the American vessels 
were lying still and had to get under way, — 
a slow process for a io,ooo-ton battleship 
when the enemy is forging past under full 
headway. 

The Maria Teresa rounded the shoals and 
turned west. The little Vixen, which lay near 
the Brooklyn, let fly with her 6-pounders when 
she saw the huge bulk of the Maria Teresa 
turn toward her, and then prudently slipped 
ufeK^.l away. But the rest of the American ships, 
with funnels belching black smoke, and tur- 
rets, hulls, and tops spurting out red flame 
and yellow smoke, came rushing down toward 
the enemy. 

(2328) 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO 2329 

As the enemy came rushing out of the har- 
bor, the American vessels to the eastward 
steamed down as fast as possible, maintain- 
ing a fierce fire the while from everything 
that could be brought to bear. The batteries 
on shore turned loose at the Americans, but 
no attention was paid to them. Nearest the 
shore was the Indiana, and she, too, was near-^j^^ 
est the leading ship of the enemy at the mo-openfthe 
ment of beginning the battle. The water ^^^^ 
about this battleship fairly boiled with the 
flood of projectiles that poured down from 
Morro and sped from the broadside with 
which the Maria Teresa opened. The Ifi- 
diana scored more than one hit on the Teresa, 
as that ship was making her turn to the west, 
and then gave her attention to the Vizcaya. 

Straight toward the fleeing enemy steamed 
the Iowa and Oregon, belching forth great 
clouds of smoke until they looked like huge 
yellow clouds on the water. Then came the 
time when a cool head and a clear eye were^^ee^^of 
necessary for the captain of an American ship. 
As the battleships closed in on their prey, they 
overlapped one another, and careless use of the 
guns or a failure to make out accurately the 
target might have resulted in one of our ships 
firing into another. But so skilfully were our 
ships handled that at no time were they put in 
jeopardy from either the guns or the rams of 
one another, though at one time the Oregon 
was firing right across the decks of the Texas. 



2330 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

The hapless Maria Teresa was the first ship 
to leave the harbor, and her end was swift 
and frightful. Upon her for a time the fire of 
all the American squadron was concentrated. 
The shells from the great turret-guns for the 
uon'ort'he most part went wild, but the 5-inch and 6-inch 
TereTa. shcUs and the storm of smaller projectiles 
searched out every part of the doomed ship, 
spread death and ruin on every hand, and soon 
had her woodwork ablaze. Her gunners for 
a time stood manfully to their guns, and the 
scarlet flames jetted viciously from her sides 
like snakes' tongues. Little smoke hung about 
her, and she stood out bold and black against 
the green background of the hills, a perfect 
target. A shot from the Brooklyn cut her 
main water-pipe; a shell, supposed to be from 
the Oregon, entered her hull and exploded in 
the engine-room; a 6-inch shell from the Iowa 
exploded in her forward turret, killing or 
wounding every man at the guns; while the 
tempest of smaller projectiles made the decks 
untenable, and by the din of their bursting si- 
lenced the officers' commands. Admiral Cer- 
vera himself was on this devoted ship. "He 
expected to lose most of his ships," said one of 
his officers afterward, "but thought the Cris- 
tobal Colon might escape. That is why he 
transferred his flag to the Maria Teresa, that 
he might perish with the less fortunate." 

The Teresa had come within the zone of 
the American fire at about 9.35 A.M. Within 



Cervera's 
devotion. 



A-D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO 2331 

fifteen minutes smoke was rising from her 
ports and hatches, indicating that she had been 
set afire by the American shells. The shot 
from the Brooklyn that had cut her water- 
main made it impossible to extinguish the 
flames, and, the fire from the American ships 
growing more accurate and more deadly every AmeS^ 
minute, she was beached at 10:15 and her flag 
hauled down. On the Texas the men raised 
a shout of joy. "Don't cheer, men," said Cap- 
tain Philip from the bridge; "those poor fel- 
lows are dying." Admiral Cervera's own race 
for life and liberty lasted less than forty min- 
utes. Clad in underclothes only, he tried to 
escape to the shore on a raft, directed by his 
son, but was captured and taken to theGlouces- 
ter, where he was received with honors due 
his rank. His voyage away from Santiago 
covered exactly six miles and a half, and his 
brief experience with American gunnery cost 
nearly half his officers and crew. 

Behind the Maria Teresa, at an interval of 
about 800 yards, came the Vizcaya, and under Jhe^^^ 
gathered headway rushed on to the west, pass- ^°"°'^^- 
ing the heavier battleships Iowa and Indiana, 
but receiving terrible punishment from their 
guns. In a newspaper interview on his ar- 
rival as a prisoner in the United States, a lieu- 
tenant of the Vizcaya spoke of the murderous 
efifect of the shells from the Indiana. "The 
carnage inside the ship was something hor- 



2332 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

rible and beyond description. Fires were 
started up constantly. It seemed to me that 
the iron bulkheads were ablaze. Our organi- 
zation was perfect. We acted promptly, and 
mastered all small outbreaks of flame until 
the small ammunition magazine was exploded 
by a shell. From that moment the vessel be- 
came a furnace of fire. While we were walk- 
ing the deck, headed shoreward, we could 
hear the roar of the flames under our feet 
above the voice of artillery. The Vizcayas 
hull bellowed like a blast furnace. Why, 
men sprang from the red-hot deck straight 
into the mouths of sharks." 

But the Vizcaya lasted longer than the Al- 
Destruc- mtratite Oquendo, which followed her out of 

tion of the 

OfuenT/' the harbor. While the former ship made her 
turn at the harbor's mouth and headed west 
on the coast, with the Brooklyn, Oregon, and 
Texas in full pursuit, the latter fell an imme- 
diate prey to the fire of the Indiana and Iowa. 
Though accredited with speed equal to that of 
her sister ships, she lagged that day of all 
times, and received a fiercer baptism of fire 
than fell to the lot of any of her ill-fated com- 
rades. She bore the punishment five minutes 
longer than the Teresa; then, with flames 
pouring out of every opening in her hull, she 
made for the beach, hauling down her flag in 
token of submission, while men were drop- 
ping from her red-hot decks to the water. 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO 2333 

Two great Spanish war vessels were thus de- 
stroyed in the first three-quarters of an hour, 
and the American fleet, as though hungry for 
more victims, was concentrating its fire now 
on the two that were left. 

Leaving the Teresa and the Oquendo flam- 
ing and smoking on the beach, the chase swept 
on. The Vizcaya was still making a gallant 
running fight, and the greatest of all the Span- 
ish ships, the magnificent Cristobal Colon, 
named after the man who had given to Spain chaseofthe 

=• ^ Cristobal 

this western domain she was now in process'^"''''"- 
of losing, the ship which alone Admiral Cer- 
vera had hoped to save from the wreck he 
foresaw, was racing along the coast near the 
shore, and protected from the American ves- 
sels in some degree by the Vizcaya. While 
she fled, disaster fell upon the two torpedo- 
boat destroyers, Pluton and Furor. 

As the cruisers came out, Wainwright 
joined in the general cannonade with his little 
six- and four-pounders, but he did not join in 
the chase. With quick comprehension of the^n^ofthe 
situation, he determined that the torpedo de-boT*^"" 

dcst rovers* 

stroyers were his fair game, and he deter- 
mined to await their appearance, meanwhile 
letting steam accumulate in his boilers in or- 
der to have plenty of speed when the crucial 
moment should arrive. The destroyers were 
slow to come out. For some reason yet unex- 
plained Cervera, schooled tactician as he was, 
failed to handle them in the only way in which 



2334 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

they might be made of service. Instead of 
bringing them out of the harbor on the lee, or 
protected, side of the heavier vessels, and let- 
ting them slip out when our ships were near- 
est, he left them to make their appearance 
alone and undefended. As if this were not 
enough to ensure their impotence and their 
certain destruction, the destroyers themselves 
were manoeuvred with an entire lack of that 
audacity and even desperation which alone 
can make one of these vulnerable craft for- 
midable. Instead of dashing at the nearest 
American ship, and trusting to the rapidity of 
their progress and the small target they of- 
fered for their safety, both the Pluton and the 
Furor followed the example of the cruisers. 
They run and tumcd along the shore to the westward. 
Cervera's torpedo destroyers ran away. The 
gunners on the larger American cruisers sent a 
storm of projectiles from the secondary bat- 
teries after them, but the real, serious attack 
was left to the little Gloucester and Wain- 
wright. 

In a cloud of smoke from her own guns, the 
former yacht sped forward, receiving and ig- 
noring shots from the batteries and the nearer 
Spanish cruisers. One 6-inch shell would 
effectually terminate her career, and many 
were fired at her; but her captain had eyes 
only for the two destroyers, and only one de- 
sire, to come to close quarters with them before 
they could either be sunk by our battleships 



away. 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO 2335 

or strike our vessels a blow. Either of the 
destroyers was more than a match for the chucester 

, . pursues. 

Gloucester. Their batteries alone were of 
twice the power, without considering at all 
the engines of destruction which they could 
let slip from their torpedo tubes. In a few 
minutes from the moment the enemy was 
sighted, Wainwright was engaged with the 
two destroyers at short range, and under the 
fire of the Socapa battery. In a few min- 
utes both destroyers began to smoke ominous- 
ly, and the rapidity of their fire fell ofif. Then 
the Furor became erratic in her course, as 
though her steering-gear had been cut. Wain- 
wright closed in savagely, and his men at their 
unprotected guns redoubled their efforts. Sud- 
denly, amidships on the Pluton, there shot up 
a prodigious cloud of smoke and flame with ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
a deafening roar and shock that could be felt'''°^'"p- 
across the water despite the thunders of the 
guns. A shell from one of the battleships' — 
three afterward disputed for the honor — had 
struck her fairly, and exploded either the 
magazines or the boilers, or both. Broken in 
two by the rending blast, she sank like a stone. 
Balked of half his chosen prey, Wainwright 
pursued the other craft the more relentlessly. 
She was already clearly crippled, and made 
pathetic efforts to escape. At last, fairly shot 
to pieces, she hauled down her flag, and ran 
for the line of breaking surf, where her men 
leaped overboard to escape the fierce flames 



2336 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

that were sweeping resistlessly from bow to 
stern below. Changed in an instant from a 
relentless enemy to a succoring friend, Wain- 
wright manned his boats, and went to the 
rescue of the survivors on the burning ship. 
Many were saved, and the Americans had 
barely left the smoking mass of scorching steel 
and iron, when it blew up with a resounding 

j^urol. '^ roar, and the Spanish torpedo destroyers had 
vanished. They lasted just forty minutes un- 
der the American fire, and at no time had been 
a serious menace to any American ship. 

The action had now continued for about 
three-quarters of an hour. The Infanta Maria 

theXttfe° Teresa and the Oquendo were blazing on the 
beach with their colors struck. The two tor- 
pedo destroyers were annihilated. The bat- 
tleship Indiana, which had been distanced by 
the enemy in his rush to the eastward, had 
been signalled to turn in toward the shore, and 
give aid to the survivors on the burning ships. 
Two Spaniards only were still afloat, — the 
Vizcaya, running and fighting bravely in a 
hopeless struggle for life, and the great Cristo- 
bal Colon, which was rushing, with the mo- 
mentum of a planet in its course through 
space, down the coast to the westward. In 
the chase of these two vessels, the Brooklyn 
held the place of honor. Her station on the 

ofthe*'" blockade when the enemy came out was such 

^"' as to give her a commanding position, and her 

speed kept her well to the front throughout. 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO 2337 

Next to her at the outset was the Texas, a bat- 
tleship which for years the newspapers had 
been describing as unlucky and "hoodooed," 
but which in this battle developed marvellous 
speed and fought with reckless gallantry. The 
Oregon, third in the race at first, by a dash H'll^'"'^' 
which no one thought possible for a ship of ^'''^'"'• 
her weight and structure, passed the Texas, 
and actually came up with the Brooklyn. The 
fire of these three vessels as they sped along, 
and that of the Iowa, which was only a short 
distance in the rear, was concentrated on the 
unhappy Vizcaya. She had passed inside the 
Oquendo and the Teresa when those two 
doomed ships were receiving the attention of 
the entire American fleet, and had, until they 
were sunk, escaped serious injury, but now, 
with the fire of four of the biggest and best 
fighting-machines in the world concentrated 
upon her, the stanch and beautiful vessel be- 
gan to go to pieces. Her great frame quiv- 
ered under the repeated blows of the heavy 
shells that struck it, and rung like a boiler- 
shop in full operation with the incessant 
clangor of the smaller projectiles. An hour 
had passed. Of the American ships that 
started in the chase, only the Brooklyn, Texas, 
and Oregon were hanging like hounds on the 
flank of the quarry. The Indiana had been 
left behind. The Iowa, too, had stopped to 
give aid to the burning and drowning men on 
the two blazing warships. The Colon was 



Fire con- 
centrated 
on the 
yizcaya. 



2338 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

Steaming ahead with no sign of weakness, but 
the Vizcaya seemed like a ship in distress. 
On her the fire of the three pursuers w^as con- 
centrated. Admiral Schley, peering around 
the lee of the conning tower on the Brooklyn, 
said to his captain, "Get in close, Cook, and 
we'll fix her." The range was then 1,400 
yards. 

The word was passed to the turrets and tops 
of the Brooklyn to aim at the Vizcaya only. 
The ship was carried in until the range v/as 
less than 1,000 yards, or little over half a mile, 
and the effect of the shots at that distance be- 
gan to tell. The turrets were full of dead 
and wounded men, the machinery shattered, 
and the hull pierced below the water-line. 
Reluctantly abandoning the fight, for he was 
a brave officer and a gentleman. Captain Eu- 
late turned his ship's prow toward that rocky 
and inhospitable shore on which already lay 
ashore. piled thc wrccks of the Teresa, the Oquendo, 
and the Furor. As the ship swung about, a 
shell from the Oregon struck her fairly in the 
stern. The enormous mass of steel, charged 
with explosives of frightful power, rushed 
through the steel framework of the ship, shat- 
tering everything in its course, crashed into 
the boilers, and exploded. Words are inade- 
quate to describe the ruin that resulted. Men, 
guns, projectiles, ragged bits of steel and iron 
splinters and indescribable debris were hurled 
in every direction, while flames shot up fiercely 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO 2339 

from every part of the ship. Between decks 
she was a raging hell of fire, and when she 
struck the beach the watchers from the Amer- 
ican men-of-war could see what looked like a 
white line reaching from her bow to the wa- 
ter, which was, in fact, the naked men drop- 
ping one after another over the side to seek 
the cool relief of the ocean from the fiery tor- 
ment they were enduring. 

Thus the Vizcaya dropped out of the fight 
at 1 1 :o6, according to the timekeeper on the 
Brooklyji. One hour and a half had been the 
period of her endurance of the American 
shells. The Colon was now left alone. Thus 
far her career had not been glorious, for she'hec^^«. 
had simply run away, not making any effort 
to stand and give battle to her pursuers, and 
not even keeping up a very fast fire from her 
guns. In her speed was her one hope of es- 
cape, and her captain trusted to it wholly. 
From the very first shot of the battle the Span- 
iards had done nothing but run. Their fire, 
such as it was, was only intended as an aid 
to their escape. Had Cervera come out of 
Santiago intent upon fighting a desperate bat- 
tle, he might indeed have lost all his ships, 
but in all probability he would have taken at 
least one of the American vessels to the bot- 
tom with him. His running fight only re- 
sulted in the loss of all his ships without inflict- 
ing the slightest loss upon the Americans. The 
Colon adhered strictly to the plan which had 



2340 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

thus far characterized the Spanish tactics. It 
was quickly evident to those on the foremost 
of the pursuing ships that there could be no 
escape for the fugitive. Even had not the 



No pos- 



po 

esc4l° Americans developed unexpected speed, the 
course of the ships was such that the Colon 
would inevitably be cut off. A cape jutted 
out into the ocean at some distance before her, 
which she would have to round. The Brook- 
lyn, being further out to sea, was headed for 
that headland in a direct line, while the 
doomed Colon had a long curve to make to 
reach it. A signal from the Brooklyn sug- 
gested to the Oregon that she try one of her 
13-inch guns on the chase. The great cannon 
flashed and roared from the forward turret, 
and the shell, which rushed past the Brooklyn 
with a noise like a railway-train, fell short. 
On they sped a little further, the Oregon visi- 
bly gaining on the fastest ship of the Spanish 
navy, a battleship built for weight and solid- 
ity overhauling a cruiser built for speed. Pres- 
ently another shell was tried. It fell nearer 
the fugitive, near enough for the captain of 
the fleeing foe to read in its splash in the water 
the death-warrant of his ship. At such a mo- 
ment some men would turn fiercely and sell 
their lives as dearly as might be, but that in- 
stinct was lacking to the Spaniard. Instead, 
he turned his almost uninjured ship toward 

S'tfefched. ^^^ shore and beached her, hauling down his 
flag as she struck. Either before the surren- 



A"- '898 THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO 2341 

der or after, her engineer's crew opened and 
broke the sea valves so as to destroy the ship. 
If this was done before the flag was hauled 
down, it was a legitimate and proper act; if 
after, it was dishonorable and treacherous. 
Captain Cook went in a boat to take possession 
of the prize, his crew being ordered not to 
cheer or exult over the vanquished. The ship 
had been struck but eight times, and not by 
shells of large calibre, and she would have 
been a useful prize but for this sly work be- 
low. There were plain indications that offi- orunken- 

^ ness of 

cers and men had been drinking heavily. An ^^^"^^• 
effort was made to save her by the New York, 
which came up just after the surrender. Cap- 
tain Chadwick, seeing the ship beached and 
fearing that she would slip off and sink in 
deep water, laid the nose of the New York 
up against her stern and pushed her gently but 
firmly up the shelving strand. The manoeuvre 
was useless. Before another day the great 
cruiser had filled and rolled over on her side 
and lay a perfect wreck on the desolate and 
uninhabited shore of Cuba at the mouth of 
Rio Tarquino. It was the exact spot where 
the ill-fated Virginius expedition tried to 
land. More scores against Spain than that 
set down on account of the Maine were wiped 
out that day. 

So ended, after less than four hours' fight- 
ing, — for the Colon surrendered at 1:15 P.M.^ 
— a naval battle that possesses many extraor- 

^ Vol. ft 



2342 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



dinary and unique qualities. It completed 
span?sh the wreck of Spanish naval power which had 
power. been in slow and interrupted progress since 
our Anglo-Saxon progenitors strewed the 
Channel with the wrecks of the Invincible 
Armada. It dealt the decisive stroke in the 
war which deprived Spain of her last rem- 
nant of American colonies. It was of absorb- 
ing interest to naval experts in all parts of the 
world, because it was the only considerable 
battle in which heavy men-of-war of the mod- 
ern type and with modern armament had ever 
been pitted against each other on anything 
like equal terms. And it was unique in that, 
while the defeated fleet lost six ships, more 
than 600 men killed and drowned, and 1,800 
prisoners, many of them wounded, the victors 
had but one man killed and one wounded. 



THE BATTLE OF O M D U R M A N 

(A.D. 1898) 

G. W. STEEVENS 

N' IGHT stole quietly into the sky behind 
us; there was no sound from the plain 
or the hills before us; there was hardly specma- 
a sound from our own line. Everybody was Sawn. 
very silent, but very curious. Would they be 
so mad as to come out and run their heads into 
our fire? It seemed beyond hoping for; yet 
certainly they had been full of war the day 
before. But most of us were expecting in- 
stantly the order to advance on Omdurman. 
A trooper rose out of the dimness from be- 
hind the shoulder of Gebel Surgham, grew 
larger and plainer, spurred violently up to the 
line and inside. A couple more were sil- 
houetted across our front. Then the electric ^h^^iemy 
whisper came racing down the line; they were 
coming. The Lancers came in on the left; 
the Egyptian mounted troops drew like a cur- 
tain across us from left to right. As they 
passed a flicker of white flags began to extend 
and fill the front in their place. The noise 
of something began to creep in upon us; it 
cleared and divided into the tap of drums and 

(2343) 



2344 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

the far-away surf of raucous war-cries. A 
shiver of expectancy thrilled along our army, 
and then a sigh of content. They were com- 
ing on. Allah help them! they were coming 
on. 

It was now half-past six. The flags seemed 
still very distant, the roar very faint, and the 
thud of our first gun was almost startling. It 
may have startled them, too, but it startled 
them into life. The line of flags swung for- 
atuck^** ward, and a mass of white flying linen swung 
forward with it too. They came very fast, 
and they came very straight; and then pres- 
ently they came no further. With a crash the 
bullets leaped out of the British rifles. It be- 
gan with the Guards and Warwicks — section 
volleys at 2,000 yards; then, as the Dervishes 
edged rightward, it ran along to the High- 
landers, the Lincolns, and to Maxwell's Bri- 
gade. The British stood up in double rank 
behind their zariba; the blacks lay down in 
their shelter-trench ; both poured out death 
as fast as they could load and press trigger. 
Shrapnel whistled and Maxims growled sav- 
agely. From all the line came perpetual fire, 
fire, fire, and shrieked forth in great gusts of 
destruction. 

And the enemy? No white troops would 
have faced that torrent of death for five min- 

The 

enemy's utcs, but tfic Bagffara and the blacks came on. 

bravery. oo , 

The torrent swept into them and hurled them 
down in whole companies. You saw a rigid 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF OMDURMAN 2345 

line gather itself up and rush on evenly; then 
before a shrapnel shell or a Maxim the line 
suddenly quivered and stopped. The line 
was yet unbroken, but it was quite still. But 
other lines gathered up again, again, and yet 
again ; they went down, and yet others rushed 
on. Sometimes they came near enough to see 
single figures quite plainly. One old man 
with a white flag started with five comrades; p^^^^J^^"* 
all dropped, but he alone came bounding for- 
ward to within 200 yards of the 14th Suda- 
nese. Then he folded his arms across his face, 
and his limbs loosened, and he dropped 
sprawling to earth beside his flag. 

It was the last day of Mahdism, and the 
greatest. They could never get near, and they 
refused to hold back. By now the ground be- 
fore us was all white with dead men's drapery. 
Rifles grew red-hot; the soldiers seized them 
by the slings and dragged them back to the re- The 

-' o °° slaughter. 

serve to change for cool ones. It was not a 
battle, but an execution. 

In the middle of it all you were surprised 
to find that we were losing men. 

But loss on this scale was not to be consid- 
ered beside the awful slaughter of the Der- 
vishes. If they still came on our men needed 
only time and ammunition and strength to 
point a rifle to kill them ofif to the very last 
man. Only by now — small wonder — they 
Vvcre not coming on. They were not driven 
back; they were all killed in coming on. One 



2346 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

section of fire after another hushed, and at 
eight o'clock the village and the plain were 
still again. The last shell had burst over the 
last visible group of Dervishes; now there was 
nothing but the unbending, grimly expectant 
line before Agaiga and the still carpet of white 
in front. 

We waited half an hour or so, and then the 
omdurman suddcn buglc Called us to our feet. "Ad- 
vance," it cried; ''to Omdurman!" added we. 
Slowly the force broke up, and expanded. 

Movement was slow, since the leading bri- 
gades had to wait till the others had gone far 
enough inland to take their positions. We 
passed over a corner of the field of fire, and 
saw for certain what awful slaughter we had 
done. The bodies were not in heaps — bodies 
hardly ever are; but they spread evenly over 
acres and acres. And it was very remarkable, 
if you remembered the Atbara, that you saw 
hardly a black; nearly all the dead had the 
high forehead and taper cheeks of the Arab. 
The Baggara had been met at last, and he was 
worth meeting. Some lay very composedly, 
with their slippers placed under their heads for 
a last pillow; some knelt, cut short in the mid- 
dle of a last prayer. Otherswere torn to pieces, 
vermilion blood already drying on brown 
skin, killed instantly beyond doubt. Others, 
again, seemingly as dead as these, sprang up 
as we approached, and rushed savagely, hurl- 
ing spears at the nearest enemy. They were 



The dead 
Baggara. 



A.D. .898 THE BATTLE OF OMDURMAN 2347 

bayoneted or shot. Once again the plain 
seemed empty, but for the advancing masses 
and the carpet of reddened white and broken 
bodies underfoot. 

It was now twenty minutes to ten. The 
British had crested a low ridge between Gebel The 

o second 

Surgham and the Nile; Maxwell's brigade ^"^*'''' 
was just ascending it, Lewis's just coming up 
under the hill. Men who could go where 
they liked were up with the British, staring 
hungrily at Omdurman. Suddenly from rear- 
ward broke out a heavy crackle of fire. We 
thought perhaps a dozen men or so had been 
shamming dead; we went on staring at Om- 
durman. But next instant we had to turn 
and gallop hot-heeled back again. For the 
crackle became a crashing, and the crashing 
waxed to a roar. Dervishes were firing at us 
from the top of Gebel Surgham, Dervishes 
were firing behind and to the right of it. Renewal of 
The 13th Sudanese were bounding up the hill ; 
Lewis's brigade had hastily faced to its right 
westward, and was volleying for life; Mac- 
donald's beyond, still facing northward, was 
a sheet of flashes and a roll of smoke. What 
was it? Had they come to life again? No 
time to ask; reinforcements or ghosts, they 
were on us, and the battle was begun all again. 
To understand, you must hear now what we 
only heard afterward. The Dervish army, it 
appeared, had not returned to Omdurman on 
the night of the ist, but had bivouacked — 



2348 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

40,000 to 50,000 of them — behind Gebel Surg- 
Khaiifa ham, southwestward from Agaiga. The Kha- 
hisarmy. Ufa had doubtless expected a sudden attack at 
daybreak, as at Firket, at Abu Hamed, on the 
Atbara; as we marched by night to our po- 
sitions before Omdurman he must have de- 
signed to spring upon our right flank. When 
day broke and no enemy appeared he divided 
his army into three corps. The first, under 
Osman Azrak, attacked the village; the sec- 
ond, with the green banner of Ali Wad Helu 
— with him Abdullahi's eldest son, the Sheik- 
ed-Din — moved toward Kerreri Heights to 
envelop our right; the third, under AbduUahi 
himself and his brother Yakub, remained be- 
hind Surgham, ready, as need might be, to 
envelop our left, or to act as reserve and bar 
our road to Omdurman. 

What befell the first you know ; Osman Az- 
rak died with them. The second spread out 
toward our right, and there it fell in with the 
Egyptian cavalry, horse-battery, and camel- 
fn'^ffi^°°'^ corps. When Broadwood Bey fell back be- 
fore the attack, he sent word of its coming to 
the Sirdar, and received orders to remain out- 
side the trench and keep the enemy in front, 
instead of letting them get round the right. 
Accordingly, he occupied the Heights of Ker- 
reri. But the moment he got to the top he 
found himself in face of Wad Helu's unsus- 
pected army-corps — 12,000 to 15,000 men 
against less than 2,000 — and the moment he 



A.D. isgs THE BATTLE OF OMDURMAN 2349 

saw them they began swarming up the hill. 
There was just a moment for decision, but one 
moment is all that a born cavalry general 
needs. The next his galloper was flying with 
the news to the Sirdar, and the mounted 
troops were retreating northward. The choice 
lay between isolation, annihilation, or retreat on 
Agaiga and envelopment of the right. Broad- 
wood chose the first, but even for that the 
time was short enough. The camels floun- 
dered on the rocky hillside ; the guns dragged ; 
the whole mass of Dervishes pursued them 
with a pelting fire. Two guns lost all their 
horses and were abandoned ; the camel-corps losUI. 
alone had over sixty men hit. As for the cav- 
alry, they went back very hard pressed, cover- 
ing their comrades' retreat and their own by 
carbine fire. If the Egyptian army but gave 
Victoria Crosses, there were many earned that 
day. Man after man rode back to bring in 
dismounted officers, and would hardly be dis- 
suaded from their endeavor when it was seen 
the rescued were plainly dead. It was the 
great day of trial' — the day the pick of our 
cavalry officers have worked for through ^otlte^'^ 
weary decade and more — and the Fayum fel- f^I^. 
lah fought like a hero and died like a man. 
One or two short of forty killed and wounded 
was the day's loss; but they came ofif hand- 
somely. The army of the green flag was now 
on Kerreri Heights, between them and the 
camp; but with Broadwood's force unbroken 



2850 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

behind it, it paused from the meditated attack 
on the Egyptian right. In the pause, three of 
the five gunboats caught it, and pepper-cas- 
tered it over with shell and Maxim fire. It 
withdrew from the river toward the centre 
again: the instant a way was cleared the out- 
paced camel-corps was passed back to Agaiga. 
The cavalry hung upon the green flag's left, 
till they withdrew clean westward and in- 
land ; then it moved placidly back to the infan- 
try again. 

Thus much for the right; on the left the 
British cavalry were in the stress of an engage- 
ment, less perfectly conducted, even more 
hardily fought out. They left the zariba the 
moment the attack burned out, and pricked 
Advance of eagerly ofif to Omdurman. Verging some- 
ecavary. ^j^^^ Y^gstward, to thc rcar of Gebel Surg- 
ham, they came on 300 Dervishes. Their 
scouts had been over the ground a thousand 
yards ahead of them, and it was clear for a 
charge. Only to cut them off it was thought 
better to get a little west of them, then left 
wheel, and thus gallop down on them and 
drive them away from their supports. The 
trumpets sang out the order, the troops glided 
into squadrons, and, four squadrons in line, 
the 2ist Lancers swung into their first charge. 
Knee to knee they swept on till they were 
The but 200 yards from the enemy. Then sud- 
chaTge" denly — then in a flash — they saw the trap. 
Between them and the 300 there yawned sud- 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF OMDURMAN 2351 

denly a deep ravine; out of the ravine there 
sprang instantly a cloud of dark heads and a 
brandished lightning of swords, and a thunder 
of savage voices. Mahmud smiled when he 
heard the tale in prison at Haifa, and said it 
was their favorite stratagem. It had suc- 
ceeded. Three thousand, if there was one, to 
a short four hundred; but it was too late to 
check now. Must go through with it now! 
The blunders of British cavalry are the fertile 
seed of British glory: knee to knee the Lancers 
whirled on. One hundred yards — fifty — knee 
to knee — 

Slap! "It was just like that," said a captain, 
bringing his fist hard into his open palm. T^eoer- 
Through the swordsmen they shore without 
checking — and then came the khor. The 
colonel at their head, riding straight through 
everything without sword or revolver drawn, 
found his horse on its head, and the swords 
swooping about his own. He got the charger 
up again, and rode on straight, unarmed, 
through everything. The squadrons followed 
him down the fall. Horses plunged, blun- 
dered, recovered, fell; Dervishes on the ground 
lay for the hamstringing cut; officers pistolled 
them in passing over, as one drops a stone into 
a bucket; troopers thrust till lances broke, then 
cut; everybody went on straight, through 
everything. 

And through everything clean out the other 
side they came — those that kept up or got up 



the 3,000. 



2352 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

in time. The others were on the ground — in 
pieces by now, for the cruel swords shore 
through shoulder and thigh, and carved the 
dead into fillets. Twenty-four of these, and 
of those that came out over fifty had felt sword 
or bullet or spear. 

Forbearing a second charge, the Lancers 
dismounted and opened fire; the carbines at 
short range took an opulent vengeance for the 
lost. Back, back, back they drove them, till 
Death of they came into the fire of the 32d Battery. The 
shrapnel flew shrieking over them; the 3,000 
fell all ways, and died. 

All this from hearsay; now to go back to 
what we saw. When the Sirdar moved his 
brigades southward he knew what he was do- 
ing. He was giving his right to an unbeaten 
enemy; with his usual daring he made it so. 
His game now was to get between the Der- 
vishes and Omdurman. Perhaps he did not 
guess what a bellyful of beating the unbeaten 
enemy would take ; but he trusted to his gen- 
erals and his star, and, as always, they bore 
him to victory. 

The blacks of the r3th Battalion were storm- 
ing Gebel Surgham. Lewis and Macdonald, 
facing west and south, had formed a right 
angle. They were receiving the fire of the 
Khalifa's division, and the charge of the Kha- 
lifa's horsemen; behind these the Khalifa's 
Baggara hugc black Standard was flapping raven-like. 
The Baggara horsemen were few and ill- 



horsemen. 



A.D. i898 THE BATTLE OF OMDURMAN 2853 

mounted — perhaps 200 altogether — but they 
rode to get home or die. They died. There 
was a time when one galloping Baggara would 
have chased a thousand Egyptians, but that 
time is very long past. The fellaheen stood 
like a wall, and aimed steadily at the word; 
the chargers swerved toward Macdonald. The 
blacks, as cool as any Scotsmen, stood and 
aimed likewise; the last Baggara fell at the 
muzzles of the rifles. Our fire went on, steady, 
remorseless. The Remington bullets piped 
more and more rarely overhead, and the black 
heads thinned out in front. A second time 
the attack guttered and flickered out. It was 
just past ten. Once more to Omdurman! 

Two minutes' silence. Then once more the 
howling storm rushed down upon us: once The third 

attack 

more crashed forth the answering tempest. 
This time it burst upon Macdonald alone — 
from the northwestward upon his right flank, 
spreading and gathering to his right rear. For 
all their sudden swiftness of movements the 
Dervishes throughout this day never lost their 
formation; their lines drove on as rigidly as 
ours, regiment alongside regiment in lines of 
six and eight and a dozen ranks, till you might 
have fancied the Macedonian phalanx was 
alive again. Left and front and right and rear 
the masses ate up the desert — 12,000 unbroken 
fast and fearless warriors leaping round 3,000. 
Now began the fiercest fight of that fierce 
day. The Khalifa brought up his own black 



aid's peril. 



235J: THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

banner again ; his stanchest die-hards drove it 
into the earth and locked their ranks about it. 
The green flag danced encouragement to the 
Allah-intoxicated battalions of Wad Helu 

piSe""^ and the Sheik-ed-Din. It was victory or 
Paradise now. 

For us it was victory or shredded flesh and 
bones unburied, crackling under the red slip- 
pers of Baggara victors. It was the very crux 
and crisis of the fight. If Macdonald went, 
Lewis on his left and CoUinson and the sup- 
porting camel-corps and the newly returned 

Macdon- cavalry, all on -his right or rear, must all go 
too. The Second British and Second Egyptian 
Brigades were far off by now, advancing by 
the left of Surgham hill; if they had to be 
recalled the Khalifa could walk back into his 
stronghold, and then all our fighting was to 
begin anew. But Hunter Pacha was there 
and Macdonald Bey was there, born fighting 
men both, whom no danger can flurry and no 
sudden shift in the kaleidoscope of battle dis- 
concert. Hunter sent for Wauchope's first 
British Brigade to fill the gap between Mac- 
donald and Lewis. The order went to Gen- 
eral Gatacre first instead of the Sirdar: with 
the soldier's instinct he set the brigade mov- 
ing on the instant. The khaki columns faced 
round and edged rightsvard, right\\^ard till the 
fighting line was backed with 3,000 Lee-Met- 
fords, which no man on earth could face and 
live. Later the Lincolns were moved further 



A.D. i898 THE BATTLE OF OMDURMAN 2355 

Still on to Macdonald's right. They dispute 
with the Warwicks the title of the best-shoot- 
ing regiment in the British army; the men 
they shot at will dispute no claim of the Lin- 
colns forever. 

But the cockpit of the fight was Macdon- 
ald's. The British might avenge his brigade; 
it was his to keep it and to kill off the attack. 
To meet it he turned his front through a com- "^^'^'''y 

o tactics. 

plete half-circle, facing successively south, 
west, and north. Every tactician in the army 
was delirious in his praise: the ignorant cor- 
^respondent was content to watch the man and 
his blacks. "Cool as on parade," is an old 
phrase; Macdonald Bey was very much 
cooler. Beneath the strong, square-hewn face 
you could tell that the brain was working as if 
packed in ice. He sat solid on his horse, and 
bent his black brows toward the green flag 
and the Remingtons. Then he turned to a 
galloper with an order, and cantered easily 
up to a battalion-commander. Magically the 
rifles hushed, the stinging powder smoke 
wisped away, and the companies were rapidly 
threading back and forward, round and round, 
in and out, as if it were a figure of a dance. 
In two minutes the brigade was together again 
in a new place. The field in front was hasten- i[^^§fj-k 
ing toward us in a whity-brown cloud of''"^^'^^' 
Dervishes. An order. Macdonald's jaws 
gripped and hardened as the flame spurted 
out again, and the whity-brown cloud quiv- 



2856 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS ^.u. iSgg 

ered and stood still. He saw everything; 
knew what to do; knew how to do it; did it. 
At the fire he was ever brooding watchfully 
behind his firing-line; at the cease fire he was 
instantly in front of it: all saw him, and knew 
that they were being nursed to triumph. 

His blacks of the 9th, loth, and nth, the 
historic fighting regiments of the Egyptian 
army, were worthy of their chief. The 2d 
Egyptian, brigaded with them and fighting 
in the line, were worthy of their comrades, 
and of their own reputation as the best dis- 
ciplined battalion in the world. A few had, 
feared that the blacks would be too forward, 
the yellows too backward: except that the 
blacks, as always, looked happier, there was 
no difference at all between them. The 
Egyptians sprang to the advance at the bugle; 
the Sudanese ceased fire in an instant silence 
at the whistle. They were losing men, too, for 
though eyes were clamped on the Dervish 
charges, the Dervish fire was brisk. Man 
after man dropped out behind the firing-line. 
Egyptian Hcrc was a white officer with a red-lathered 

losses. 

charger; there a black stretched straight, bare- 
headed in the sun, dry-lipped, uncomplain- 
ing, a bullet through his liver; two yards away 
a dead driver by a dead battery mule, his whip 
still glued in his hand. The table of loss 
topped 100 — 150 — nearedzoo. Still they stood, 
fired, advanced, fired, changed front, fired — 
firing, firing always, deaf in the din, blind in 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF OMDURMAN 2357 

the smarting smoke, hot, dry, bleeding, blood- 
thirsty, enduring the devilish fight to the end. 

And the Dervishes? The honor of the fight 
must still go with the men who died. Our Heroism 
men were perfect, but the Dervishes weret)erv'ishes. 
superb — beyond perfection. It was their 
largest, best, and bravest army that ever fought 
against us for Mahdism, and it died worthily 
of the huge empire that Mahdism won and 
kept so long. Their riflemen, mangled by 
every kind of death and torment that man can 
devise, clung round the black flag and the 
green, emptying their poor, rotten, home- 
made cartridges dauntlessly. Their spear- 
men charged death every minute hopelessly. 
Their horsemen led each attack, riding into 
the bullets till nothing was left but three 
horses trotting up to our line, heads down, 
saying, "For goodness' sake, let us in out of 
this." Not one rush, or two, or ten^— but rush 
on rush, company on company, never stopping, 
though all their view that was not unshaken 
enemy was the bodies of the men who had 
rushed before them. A dusky line got up and 
stormed forward : it bent, broke up, fell apart, 
and disappeared. Before the smoke had 
cleared, another line was bending and storm- 
ing forward in the same track. 

It was over. The avenging squadrons of 
the Egyptian cavalry swept over the field. 
The Khalifa and the Sheik-ed-Din had gal- night of 
loped back to Omdurman. Ali Wad Helu was' ^ 



2358 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

borne away on an angareb with a bullet 
through his thigh-bone. Yakub lay dead un- 
der his brother's banner. From the green 
army there now came only death-enamored 
desperadoes, strolling one by one toward the 
rifles, pausing to shake a spear, turning aside 
to recognize a corpse, then, caught by a sud- 
den jet of fury, bounding forward, checking, 
sinking limply to the ground. Now under the 
black flag in a ring of bodies stood only three 
men, facing the three thousand of the Third 
Brigade. They folded their arms about the 
stafif and gazed steadily forward. Two fell. 
The last Dervish stood up and filled his chest; 
Dervish, hc shoutcd thc name of his God and hurled 
his spear. Then he stood quite still, waiting. 
It took him full ; he quivered, gave at the 
knees, and toppled with his head on his arms 
and his face toward the legions of his con- 
querors. 



THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY 

(A.D. 1898) 

WILLIS JOHN ABBOT 

WHEN the battle was fought the first 
hour showed the immense superi- 
ority of the Americans in every- s„p„.^ri^y 
thing that goes to win victory; but as Com- Americans. 
modore Dewey led his fleet along the coast of 
Luzon toward the harbor where he knew the 
enemy lay in waiting, he had nothing to ex- 
pect but a desperate battle with a fleet not 
greatly his inferior. It must be remembered, 
that the Spanish ships were anchored in a har- 
bor protected by shore batteries. To get at 
them the Americans had to pass down a chan- 
nel guarded on either side by powerful forts 
armed with modern rifles. The harbor to be 
traversed before reaching the enemy was six- 
teen miles long, and it was only to be expected 
that it was plentifully besprinkled with mines. 
One seems to read in Dewey's first decision 
the effects of his training under the great Ad- 
miral Farragut. His fleet arrived off theAmvaiof 
mouth of Manila Bay at night. There was^ * **'' 
no stop to reconnoitre, no suggestion of "bot- 

(2359) 



the bay. 



2360 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

tling Up" the enemy after the Santiago fash- 
ion, no waiting until daylight might make it 
easier to run the gantlet of mines and batteries, 
no delay of any kind, but a quiet and immedi- 
ate attack on the enemy. Only a brief wait 
for the moon to set, and then on, in single file, 
the Olympia leading, the McCulloch bring- 
ing up the rear, with all lights out except one 
lantern at the stern of each ship for the next 
to steer by. Seemingly, the Spaniards had no 
Entering idca that an enemy was at their door. The 
great light that marked the entrance to the 
harbor gleamed as though to welcome the grim 
procession of ghostly gray ships stealing un- 
aware upon their prey. The forts were as 
silent as though all defenders were dead. To 
the men on the ships it seemed that their prog- 
ress was attended with the tumult of a thou- 
sand railroad trains. They walked with muf- 
fled tread and spoke in whispers lest Spaniards 
miles away might hear them, and marvelled 
that the rush of the vessels through the water 
and the white foam breaking away from the 
cleaving prows did not attract the attention 
of the enertiy. Yet there came no sound of 
cannon, nor did any mine rend the plates of 
any stout ship. The last ship of the column, 
the McCulloch, gave the first alarm. From 
its smoke-stack, when coal was flung on the 
furnaces below, there flared up a red flame 
lighting up the w^aters and the rigging of the 
ships ahead. All turned expectantly toward 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY 2361 

the batteries in anticipation of a shot, but 
no sound came. Again the unlucky beacon 
flared, and again, and after the third illumi- 
nation the darkness to starboard was pierced 
by the flash of a gun on a rock called El Fraile. shol '^' 
The shell went wild, and the Concord re- 
sponded with the fierce bellow of a 6-inch 
gun. There was no longer any attempt at 
secrecy, and cannon roared from the Boston, 
the McCulloch, and the Concord, the big ships 
at the head of the line passing on in silent dig- 
nity. The shot from El Fraile had done much 
more good than harm. It gave to the com- 
modore, who with a Filipino insurgent by his 
side stood on the bridge of the Olympia pilot- 
ing in the fleet, a clear idea of how the shore 
lay. That battery once passed, all the de- 
fences of the harbor's mouth were left behind, 
and there was nothing more to apprehend un- 
til the city, with its forts at Cavite, was reached 
— nothing, that is, except mines, against which 
no skill could avail and which might there- 
fore be ignored. So the ships steamed sul- 
lenly on up the bay, the tension measurably brerks, 
lessened by the little spurt of fire, but with 
every man alert for the next development of 
the morning — for by this time the sudden 
dawn of the tropics was breaking. 

The swift coming of day discovered to the 
eager gazers from the American ships not 
only the old town of Manila, with its cluster- 
ing low roofs and towering cathedral, but a 



2362 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

sight which they had come all this way to see 
i^hflfet^"" — the Spanish fleet — ten great ships with mili- 
tary tops showing across a low neck of land — ■■ 
lying at anchor under the batteries at Cavite, 
a suburb of the city where the navy yard, ar- 
senal, and other military and naval establish- 
ments were placed. There was silence on the 
ships as the stirring spectacle was presented, 
and the men, many of whom had slept on the 
run in from the harbor's mouth, crowded to 
the points of vantage to gaze on it. With a 
glass, the roofs and quays of the city could 
be seen to be crow^ded with spectators; so it 
was evident that the short engagement with 
the battery at El Fraile had alarmed the city. 
As the men gazed, others passed up and down 
^'ser"e^d' the dccks of the men-of-war, distributing cups 
of hot coffee and biscuit, by orders of the com- 
modore, who had no intention of having his 
sailors go into action hungry. The plan of 
the battle had been worked out already, and 
only a few signals from the flagship were nec- 
essary to place the fleet in the formation agreed 
on. As the signals fluttered from the gaff, 
black balls mounted to every peak on all the 
vessels, and breaking out, displayed the great 
battle-flags. At that the enemy growled out 
a word of warning with the 9-inch guns of 
Fort Lunetta, and the attacking column moved 
^.^^^^ sullenly on to closer quarters. ''Hold your 
your fire." fire," was thc word passed on from the flag- 
ship, and save for two shots from the Concord 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY 2363 

no answer was made to the forts. Onward 
toward the Spanish fleet, which was main- 
taining a like silence, the fleet sped. A sud- 
den muffled roar and a great volume of mud 
and water springing into the air right before 
the flagship told that the dreaded mines were 
near, and in an instant another exploded. 
Neither did any hurt, and with the explosion 
of the two the Spanish resources of that sort 
seemed to be exhausted. By this time the 
fleet was approaching the enemy nearly. On 
the bridge of the Olympia stood Commodore 
Dewey, Captain Gridley and Flag-Captain 
Lambert at his side. Though the Spanish 
ships now joined the forts in pouring a fire 
on the advancing foe, there was still no re- 
sponse. Just as the sun rose, red and glaring 
with midsummer heat, the commodore turned 
to the officer at his side and said, quietly, "You opening of 
may fire now, Gridley, when ready." Grid-'''"'''""' 
ley was ready, and almost on the instant an 
8-inch shell hurtled out through the yellow 
smoke toward the enemy, now about 4,500 
yards away. Presently a signal from the 
flagship conveyed to all the vessels a like 
permission, and the whole fleet was soon 
engaged. 

On the flagship, before opening action, 
Dewey had assembled his men and given them 
this final word: "Keep perfectly cool, and pay 
attention to nothing but orders." This was 
the watchword throughout the American fleet 



2364 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

that morning, and, as the result, the fire 
was deliberate and deadly. The column — 
Olympia, Baltimore, Raleigh, Petrel, Con- 
cord, and Boston, in the order named — 
steamed along parallel to the Spanish ships, 
working every gun that could be brought to 
bear, and receiving the fire of ships and forts 
Vigorous in return. The fire of the enemy was, as 

but ineflfec- . . , . a • 1 

tivefire. Dewey put It m his report, vigorous, but gen- 
erally ineffective. " Down past the Spanish 
line the squadron moved, the port side of 
every ship a mass of flame and smoke, then 
circling around in a grand sweep — that made 
the Spaniards think for a moment they were 
pulling out of action — the column returned 
again on its course, and the men of the star- 
board batteries had a chance to try their skill 
while their fellows rested. Each turn brought 
them nearer the enemy; each broadside found 
the American gunnery improving. Five times 
the circuit was made, and then a signal flut- 

r?t?lir' tered from the yard of the Olympia, and the 
fleet turned away to the other side of the har- 
bor, where the McCulloch and the colliers 
had been lying. The Spaniards raised a re- 
sounding cheer at the sight of what they sup- 
posed to be a retreat, and a telegram was 
instantly sent ofif, that the enemy had been 
compelled to haul ofif for repairs. A misin- 
terpreted signal had caused the commodore 
to believe that ammunition for the 5-inch guns 
was running short, and as the smoke made it 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY 2365 

difficult, if not impossible, to ask each ship- 
captain by signal how much he had, it was 
determined to haul off and redistribute the 
ammunition if it were required. In the end, 
however, no necessity was found for this, and 
as there was time then for breakfast, the meal 
was served. 

In the portion of the engagement prior to 
the intermission, the "first round," it might he^^^^,^ 
called, the Spaniards had suffered heavily, fcfstes'*" 
The American fire had been both rapid and 
accurate. With the glasses, the shots could 
be seen striking the thin iron hulls of the 
Spanish ships, and by the time the third cir- 
cuit had been made three were in flames. 
Stung into fury by the losses inflicted on his 
squadron. Admiral Montojo, just as the Amer- 
icans were turning to begin their third circuit, 
slipped the cables of his flagship, and under 
full steam darted out as if with the intention 
of ramming the Olympia, or at any rate com- 
ing to close quarters. The dash was magnifi- 
cent, but it was futile. As the Reina Cristina 

The Reina 

swung away from her fellows, the fire of the f^';;;''^'"''-^ 
whole American fleet was concentrated upon 
her. As she clung stubbornly to her course, 
the storm of projectiles swept down upon her, 
pierced her hull like paper, swept her decks, 
and, bursting, spread death and fire on every 
side. Her bridge was shot away, her engines 
wounded. Superhuman gallantry could bear 
the punishment no longer, and, responding 



2366 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. ,898 

with difficulty to her helm, she turned to seek 
her former position. Just as her stern was 
presented to the American fire, an 8-inch gun 
on the Olympia was trained upon her, and its 
projectile sped forth on a murderous errand. 
It struck the Spaniard full in the stern, tore 
its way forward, killing men, shattering guns, 
exploding ammunition, piercing partitions and 
tearing up decks, until it exploded in her after- 
boiler. The wound was mortal. With flames 
leaping from her hatches, and the shrill 
screams of agonized men rising above the 
thunder of the battle, the Reina Cristina stag- 
gered back. One hundred and fifty of her 
men lay dead, and nearly a hundred wounded, 
— most of them sacrificed in Montojo's gallant 
effort to rush the American flagship. Another 
Destruc- hcavv loss fell upon the Spaniards while this 

tion of the •' ^ ^ 

b°cms!^°' ^ct in the drama of battle was progressing. 
Thinking, no doubt, that the attention of the 
Olympia would be wholly centred upon the 
Cristina, the two Spanish torpedo boats slipped 
out, and made a run for the American fleet. 
One headed for the supply-ships, but was 
caught by the Petrel, which first drove her 
ashore, and then pounded her with rapid-fire 
guns until she blew up. The other, advancing 
on the Olympia, was struck amidships by a 
shell, broke in two, and disappeared like a 
broken bottle. So at Manila, as later at San- 
tiago, it was demonstrated that torpedo boats 
are not the dangerous engines of war that had 



A.D. 1898 THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY 2367 

been thought, — at least not when they are in 
Spanish hands. 

Three hours' intermission was taken by the Three _^ 
American sailors after that first round. A'^™''^'°"- 
leisurely breakfast, a critical examination of 
all guns and machinery that had been under 
strain, and the work of preparing an ample 
supply of fresh ammunition occupied the 
time. Then out fluttered the signals again, 
the crews went to their quarters, the great 
screws began to revolve, and once more the 
fighting ships bore down upon the unhappy 
enemy. Again the fleet revolved in a great 
circle of smoke and fire, though at closer 
range than before. The Spaniards, whose 
hopes had been roused by the stoppage of the 
action, were demoralized by its renewal. Their 
fire was wild, their resistance half-hearted. 
The Reina Cristina — no longer the flagship, 
for Montoio had transferred his flag to thetraS°s 

•' ° his flag. 

Isla de Cuba — was blown up by the shells of 
the Baltimore. After her, speedily followed 
the Don Juan de Austria, her coup de grace 
being administered by the Raleigh. The little 
Petrel ran into the shoal water and set fire to 
the El Correo, the Marques del Duero, the 
Don Juan de Austria, Isla de Luzon, Isla de 
Cuba, and General Lezo, all of which had 
been disabled by the fire of the fleet, and most 
of which had been run ashore after surrender- 
ing. Admiral Montojo with great gallantry 
fought his second flagship until her guns were 



2368 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

silenced and the flames were making her decks 
untenable. Then he abandoned her to her 
fate and escaped to the city, whence, it is said, 
a great concourse of people had come out that 
morning to see the "pigs of Yankees" anni- 
hilated. Finally the Don Antonio de Ulloa, 
Sstnks. the last ship left fighting, sunk with her flag 
still nailed to her mast, and a well-placed 
shot entered the magazine at Cavite, ending 
the resistance of the shore batteries. Then the 
signal was flung out from the flagship, "The 
enemy has surrendered," the hot, weary, and 
smoke-begrimed men swarmed cheering out 
of turrets and up from the bowels of the ships, 
the flagship's band broke out with The Star- 
Spangled Banner, and the victory of Manila, 
the first victory in the war with Spain, was 
won. And at how light a cost! 

As each captain came over the Olympias 
side, he replied to the eager query, "How many 

The cheap , , 

victory, killed? in a manner that indicated a very 
much mixed state of mind. Mingled with 
satisfaction at having lost no man was an evi- 
dent desire to have it understood that the lack 
of loss was no proof of an absence of danger. 

"Only eight wounded," replied Captain 
Dyer of the Baltimore — "none seriously. But 
six shells struck us, and two burst inboard 
without hurting any one." 

"Not a dashed one!" was the rollicking way 
the next captain reported. 

"None killed and none wounded," was the 



A.D. isgs THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY 2869 

apologetic reply of the next one; ''but I don't 
yet know how it happened. I suppose you 
fellows were all cut up!" 

"My ship wasn't hit at all," was the next 
report, made with a sort of defiant air, as if 
the speaker would like to hear it insinuated 
that he had had any part in keeping his men 
in a safe place. 

When the Boston's captain came alongside 
it was feared that he for certain would have a 
serious list of casualties, for it was known that 
his ship had been on fire. And when he an- 
nounced neither killed nor wounded, the news 
quickly spread through the flagship, and the 
men cheered vociferously. 

For the Spaniards there was no such immu- 
nity as attended the Americans. No miracles Spanish 

■^ , losses. 

interposed between them and the American 
shells, perhaps because the latter were more 
skilfully directed. The exact losses in Ad- 
miral Montojo's squadron are not known. 
His ten ships and two torpedo boats were 
totally destroyed, and the report of General 
Augustin, the Governor-General, put the 
number of killed and wounded at about 6i8, 
though there is reason to believe it was nearer 
a thousand. 

[In 1899, Captain Dreyfus obtains a second 
trial: he is again condemned but pardoned. 
The Peace Conference meets at The Hague. 
Spain sells her remaining Pacific possessions 



2370 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1898 

to Germany. The Khalifa is killed on the 
White Nile. The Crown buys up the Niger 
Company. The disputes between the Boers 
and Uitlanders, whose demands are backed 
by Great Britain, culminate in war. The 
The Boer Boers enter Natal and besiege Mafeking and 
Kimberley. The Boers are defeated at Glen- 
coe and Elandslaagte, but win at Nicholson's 
Nek and surround Ladysmith. Methuen and 
Gatacre both receive severe checks, and Bul- 
ler is routed at Colenso. Roberts is appointed 
to the chief command with Kitchener as sec- 
ond. Marconi experiments with wireless 
telegraphy.] 



war, 



THE PEACE CONFERENCE 

(A.D. 1899) 

ELEONORE D'ESTERRE-KEELING 

"We are making a page of history; let us see to it that we 
make it well !" 

THESE words were spoken lately by one 
of the ninety-eight delegates who, sent 
by twenty-six States, met at The Hague 
on May i8 to form the greatest Conference 
of the century, and the speaker nowise over- 
estimated the importance of his mission. That a page of 
page of history, which he helped to make, 
might be written in letters of gold. 

For the last quarter of a century the nations 
of the world have been devoting all their 
ingenuity to the invention and perfection of 
means of destruction, with the result that a 
point at last was reached which meant that 
the next great war must terminate in the ruin 
of one combatant and the annihilation of the 
other. 

Such a state of things was more than the 
most belligerent of Powers could contemplate 
with equanimity. Where was it all to end. 
and who would be the first to cry, "Hold — 
enough!" 

(2371) 



2372 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1899 

The answer came from the least expected 
quarter. 

The foreign ambassadors to the Court of 
St. Petersburg, when paying their weekly 
visit, on August 28th of last year, -were 
handed by Count Muravieff, the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, a printed document which 
caused them no little surprise. This docu- 
^, ^ , ment has since become famous as the Tsar's 

The Tsar s 

Rescript. Rescript. It contained an invitation to all 
the Powers who were represented in the Rus- 
sian capital to hold a Conference to discuss the 
possibility of putting "some limit to the in- 
creasing armaments, and to find a means of 
averting the calamities which threaten the 
whole world." At the same time the Tsar's 
circular pointed out that — 

^'The ever-increasing financial burdens at- 
tack public prosperity at its very roots. The 
physical and intellectual strength of the peo- 
ple, labor and capital are diverted for the 
greater part from their natural application 
and wasted unproductively. Hundreds of 
millions are spent to obtain frightful weapons 
of destruction, which, while being regarded 
to-day as the latest inventions of science, are 
destined to-morrow to be rendered obsolete 
by some new discovery. National culture, 
economical progress, and the production of 
wealth are either paralyzed or turned into false 
channels of development. Therefore the more 
the armaments of each Power increase, the 



A.D. 1899 THE PEACE CONFERENCE 2373 

less they answer to the purposes and intentions 
of the Governments. Economic disturbances 
are caused in great measure by this system of 
extraordinary armaments, and the danger ly- 
ing in the accumulation of war material ren- 
ders the armed peace of to-day a crushing 
burden more and more difficult to bear." 

Of the Conference which he proposed 
should be held, the Tsar went on to say: 

"It would be a happy augury for the open- 
ing century. It would powerfully concentrate 
the efforts of all States which sincerely wish 
to see the triumph of the grand idea of uni- 
versal peace over the elements of trouble and 
discord." 

This paper was printed in the Times of Au-The 
gust 29, 1898, and a comment upon it in aLond 
leader of the same journal is worth quoting: 

"The state paperwhich Count Muravieff,by 
direct order of the Tsar, has addressed to the 
representatives of the Powers accredited to the 
Court of St. Petersburg, is a very remarkable 
and most unexpected document. On the eve 
of inaugurating a memorial to his grandfather 
as the Tsar Liberator, the present Autocrat of 
all the Russias seizes the opportunity to appeal 
to the civilized world in the still more lofty 
capacity of the Tsar Peacemaker. Count 
Muravieff's note. In which the views and as- 
pirations of his master are expounded, breathes 
a spirit of generous — perhaps, indeed, of al- 
most quixotic — humanity, a spirit with which 



com- 
ment of the 



2374 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a. d. 1899 

we have long been familiar in the effusions 
of visionaries and enthusiasts, but have been 
too seldom privileged to find in the utterances 
of great sovereigns and responsible statesmen. 
Never perhaps in modern history have the 
aspirations which good men in all ages have 
regarded as at once ideal and unattainable 
found so responsive an echo in the counsels of 
one of the greatest and most powerful of the 
world's rulers." 

The States to which the Rescript had been 
Second addressed having respectfully, if incredu- 
circuiar. igusly, cxprcsscd their desire for further in- 
formation as to the proposed Conference, on 
January ii, Count Muravieff sent out a sec- 
ond circular, in which the points to be dis- 
cussed were placed under eight headings, as 
follows : 

"i. An agreement not to increase military 
and naval forces for a fixed period; also not 
points for to incrcasc the corresponding War Budgets; 
to endeavor to find means for reducing these 
forces and their Budgets in the future. 

"2. To interdict the use of any kind of new 
weapon or explosive, or any new powder more 
powerful than that which is at present in use 
for rifles and cannon. 

"3. To restrict the use in war of existing 
explosives of terrible force, and also to forbid 
the throwing of any kind of explosives from 
balloons or by any analogous means. 

"4. To forbid the use of submarine torpedo 



considera- 
tion. 



A.D. i899 THE PEACE CONFERENCE 2375 

boats or plungers, and any other similar 
engines of destruction, in naval warfare; 
to undertake not to construct vessels with 
rams. 

"5. To apply to naval warfare the stipula- 
tions of the Geneva Convention of 1864. 

"6. The neutralization of ships and boats 
for saving those shipwrecked during and after 
naval battles. 

''7. The revision of the Declaration con- 
cerning the laws and customs of war elabo- 
rated in 1874 by the Conference of Brussels, 
which remains unratified to this day. 

"8. To accept in principle the employment 
of good offices in mediation and optional ar- 
bitration in cases which lend themselves to 
such means in order to prevent armed conflict 
between nations; an understanding on the sub- 
ject of their mode of application and the es- 
tablishment of some uniform practice in mak- 
ing use of them." 

On January 17, the Times in a leading ar- 
ticle expressed its opinion of this development 
as follows : 

"This document in a certain measure meets ^ 

General 

the wish expressed by Lord Salisbury in his^ritj^^^sm 
despatch of October 24, for 'some indication ^""'p'- 
of the special points to which the attention of 
the Conference is to be directed.' We now 
know what these points are to be, and the 
knowledge, we are afraid, can but confirm the 
view generally held by men of sense and expe- 



2876 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1899 

rience in affairs as to the Utopian character 
of the whole design." 

The opinion of the Times was by no means 
singular. The Tsar's proposal was discussed 
all over the civilized world, and everywhere 
the unpractical character of the scheme was 
condemned. Very much of the doubt inspired 
by it was due to the over-emphasis given in 
men's minds to point i, which deals with the 
restriction of armaments. Had Count Mura- 
vieff's circular consisted of this point alone 
the failure of the proposed Conference would 
have been a foregone conclusion, but the other 
seven points offered a more hopeful prospect, 
and to them the success of the undertaking is 
wholly due. 

With misgivings in their hearts, the dele- 
gates at length met at The Hague, where they 
were welcomed by the young Queen of the 
The Netherlands, who placed at their disposal her 
the Wood." beautiful summer palace, known as the"House 
in the Wood." 

A more favorable spot could scarcely have 
been chosen for deliberations which were des- 
tined to last over two months in the hottest 
part of the year. For the English, French, 
and German delegates. The Hague is as con- 
venient a meeting-place as could well be de- 
vised, and the close proximity of Schevenin- 
gen, one of the most delightful of seaside 
watering-places, enabled the delegates to com- 
bine the pleasantest of holidays with the exe- 



A.D. i899 THE PEACE CONFERENCE 2377 

cution of their business duties. Many of the 
members were accompanied by their families, 
and what with receptions by Queen Wil- 
helmina, and entertainments at the British 
Embassy, the Kurhaus at Scheveningen, and 
the temporary residences of the leaders of the 
Conference, ample provisionwas made against 
the dulness which is proverbially known to ac- 
company all work and no play. 

The situation indeed was so novel, and so 
little was expected to come of the proposed Novelty 
deliberations, that we can scarcely wonder at''^"^''°"- 
the question put by an American paper to one 
of its Dutch correspondents: "Is the Confer- 
ence at The Hague anything else than a huge 
international junketing picnic party?" 

Slowly, but surely, things began to take 
shape. It was seen that the Tsar's proposal, 
far from being confined to disarmament, was 
based on three distinct ideas, which might be 
roughly classed as the Means of War, the 
Horrors of War, and the Prevention of War. 
Strange to say, only one of the eight points in 
the Muraviefif circular, and that the last one 
concerned itself with the prevention of war. 
As soon as this fact had become clear to the 
delegates to The Hague, they began to see 
their way. Their work was then divided into t^L'wor'k?^ 
three sections. To the first section was given 
the discussion of points i to 4 of the Mura- 
vieff circular, dealing with armaments; and 
this section was again divided into two sub- 



2378 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1899 

sections — military and naval — the President 
Ifficer^s'^^ being M. Beernaert, the Belgian Minister of 
Finance and President of the Chamber. 

The second section undertook points 3 to 7, 
which referred to Rules of War, and here 
again two sub-sections devoted themselves re- 
spectively to the consideration of the Geneva 
Convention and of the Brussels Conference. 
M. Martens was nominated President of this 
section, and a better choice could not have 
been made. M. Martens is a Russian and a 
great linguist. He is an experienced diplo- 
matist, and his knowledge of international law 
is so profound as to have gained for him the 
title of Chief-Justice of Europe. The third 
section, to which the important last clause of 
the Muraviefif circular was confided, has con- 
sidered the possibilities of Arbitration. The 
difficult and delicate position of President of 
this section was conferred on M. Bourgeois, 
the ex-Prime Minister of France; the Hon. 
Presidents being Sir Julian Pauncefote and 
Count Nigra, the chief Italian delegate. 

The President of the whole Conference was 
M. de Staal, who has been Russian Ambassa- 
dor to the Court of St. James's since 1884. 
The Acte final was drawn up and presented 
do^cument ^^ ^^^ delcgatcs just before the last sitting, on 
July 29. Its principal contents are the three 
conventions relating to Arbitration (which 
here comes first) , to the Rules of War, and to 
the Geneva Convention. The first of these 



A.D. i899 THE PEACE CONFERENCE 2879 

was signed at once by sixteen States; those 
which abstained from signing being Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, China, Great Britain, 
Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Servia, Switzer- 
land, and Turkey. The second and third Con- 
ventions were signed by fifteen States, the ab- 
stentions being the same as in the preceding 
case, with the addition of Portugal. 

The delegates parted with mutual expres- 
sions of encouragement and goodwill, M. de 
Staal, as President of the Conference, con- 
cluding his last speech with the words: "For T^e^.^^^ ,^ 
myself, who have arrived at the term of mylS^t' 
career and decline of my life, I consider it as 
a supreme consolation to have been able to 
witness the advent of new prospects for the 
welfare of humanity, and to have been able to 
cast a glance into the brightness of the future." 



THE BATTLE OF ELANDSLAAGTE 

(A.D. 1899) 

G. W. STEEVENS 



train. 



F 



ROM a billow of the rolling veldt we 
looked back, and black columns were 
coming up behind us. 
Along the road from Ladysmith moved cav- 
alry and guns. Along the railway line to 
Advance fight of it CFcpt trains — one, two, three of 
columns, ^j^gj^ — packcd with khaki, bristling with the 
rifles of infantry. We knew that we should 
fight before nightfall. 

Major-General French, who commanded, 
had been out from before daybreak with the 
Imperial Light Horse and the battery of the 
Natal Volunteer Artillery reconnoitring to- 
Jrmored Ward Elandslaagtc. The armored train — 
slate-color plated engine, a slate-color plated 
loop-holed cattle-truck before and behind 
an open truck with a Maxim at the tail of all 
— pufifed along on his right. Elandslaagte is 
a little village and railway station seventeen 
miles northeast of Ladysmith, where two days 
before the Boers had blown up a culvert and 
captured a train. That cut our direct com- 

(3380) 



A.D.i3gg THE BATTLE OF ELANDSLAAGTE 2B81 

munication with the force at Dundee. More- 
over, it was known that the Free State com- 
mandoes were massing to the northwest of 
Ladysmith and the Transvaalers to attack 
Dundee again. On all grounds it was desir- 
able to smash the Elandslaagte lot while they 
were still weak and alone. 

The reconnaissance stole forward until it 

The recon- 

came m sight of the little blue- roofed village n^'ssance. 
and the little red, tree-girt station. It was oc- 
cupied. The Natal battery unlimbered and 
opened fire. A round or two — and then sud- 
denly came a flash from a kopje two thousand 
yards beyond the station on the right. The 
Boer guns! And the next thing was the hiss- 
ing shriek of a shell — and plump it dropped, 
just under one of the Natal limbers. By luck 
it did not burst; but if the Boer ammunition 
contractor was suspect, it was plain that the 
Boer artillerist could lay a gun. Plump: 
plump : they came right into the battery; down 
went a horse; over went an ammunition- 
wagon. At that range the Volunteers' little, 
old 7-pounders were pea-shooters; you might 
as well have spat at the enemy. The guns lim- 
bered up and were off. Next came the vi- 
cious phutt! of a bursting shell not fifty yards 
from the armored train — and the armored 
train was puffing back for its life. Every- 
body went back half-a-dozen miles on the 
Ladysmith road to Modder Spruit Station. 
The men on reconnaissance duty retired, as 



2382 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1899 

is their business. They had discovered that 
melnT""'' the enemy had guns and meant fighting. Lest 
fighting. ^^ should follow, they sent out from Lady- 
smith, about nine in the morning, half a bat- 
talion apiece of the Devonshire and Manches- 
ter regiments by train; and the 42d Field Bat- 
tery, with a squadron of the 5th Dragoon 
Guards by road. They arrived, and there 
fell on us the common lot of reconnaissances. 
We dismounted, loosened girths, ate tinned 
meat, and wondered what we should do next. 
We were on a billow of veldt that heaved 
across the valley; up it ran, road and rail; on 
the left rose tiers of hills, in front a huge 
green hill blocked our view, with a tangle of 
other hills crowding behind to peep over its 
shoulders. On the right, across the line, were 
meadows; up from them rose a wall of red- 
brown kopje; up over that a wall of grass- 
green veldt; over that was the enemy. We 
ate and sat and wondered what we should do 
o/the^^ next. Presently we saw the troopers mount- 
coiumns. -j^g ^^^ ^^^ trains getting up steam; we 

mounted; and scouts, advance-guard, flanking 
patrols — everybody crept slowly, slowly, cau- 
tiously forward. Then, about half-past two, 
we turned and beheld the columns coming up 
behind us. The 21st Field Battery, the 5th 
Lancers, the Natal Mounted Volunteers on 
the road; the other half of the Devons and 
half the Gordon Highlanders on the trains 
— total, with what we had, say, something 



A.D. i899 THE BATTLE OF ELANDSLAAGTE 2383 

short of 3,000 men and eighteen guns. It 
was battle! 

The trains drew up and vomited khaki into 
the meadow. The mass separated and or- 
dered itself. A line of little dots began to 
draw across it; a thicker line of dots followed; 
a continuous line followed them, then other 
lines, then a mass of khaki topping a dark 
foundation — the kilts of the Highlanders. 
From our billow we could not see them 
move; but the green on the side of the line 
grew broader, and the green between them 
and the kopje grew narrower. Now the first 
dots were at the base — now hardly discernible 
on the brown hill flanks. Presently, the sec- 
ond line of dots was at the base. Then the 
third line and the second was lost on the 
brown, and the third — where? There, bold^j^^j^.,, 
on the sky-line. Away on their right, round '"'"'"'^'^ 
the hill, stole the black column of the Impe- 
rial Light Horse. The hill was crowned, was 
turned — but where were the Bo — 

A hop, a splutter, a rattle, and then a snarl- 
ing roll of musketry broke on the question; 
not from the hill, but far on our left front, 
where the Dragoon Guards were scouting. 
On that the thunder of galloping orderlies 
and hoarse yells of command — advance !> — in 
line! — wagon supply! — and with rattle and 
thunder the batteries tore past, wheeled, un- 
limbered as if they broke in halves. Then 
rattled and thundered the wagons, men gath- 



2384 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1899 

ered round the guns like the groups round a 
patient in an operation. And the first gun 
barked death. And then, after all, it was a 
false alarm. At the first shell you could see 
through glasses mounted men scurrying up 
the slopes of the big, opposite hill ; by the 
third they were gone. And then, as our guns 
still thudded — thud came the answer. Only 
where? Away, away on the right, from the 
green kopje over the brown one, where still 

^^nfhT" struggled the reserves of our infantry. 

Limbers! From halves the guns were 
whole again, and wheeled away over plow- 
land to the railway. Down went a length of 
wire-fencing, and gun after gun leaped ring- 
ing over the metals, scoring the soft pasture 
beyond. We passed round the leftward edge 
of the brown hill and joined our infantry in 
a broad, green valley. The head of it was the 
second sky-line we had seen ; beyond was a dip, 
a swell of kopje, a deep valley, and beyond 
that a small sugar-loaf kopje to the left and 
a long, hog-back one on the right — a saw 
of small ridges above, a harsh face below, 
freckled with innumerable bowlders. Be- 
low the small kopje were tents and wagons; 
from the leftward shoulder of the big one 
flashed once more the Boer guns. 

This time the shell came. Faint whirr 

Theartii- waxcd prcscntly to furious scream, and the 

lery duel. . ' . 

white cloud flung itself on to the very line of 
our batteries unlimbering on the brow. Whirr 



A.D. i899 THE BATTLE OF ELANDSLAAGTE 2385 

and screamr — another dashed itself into the 
field between the guns and limbers. Another 
and another, only now they fell harmlessly be- 
hind the guns, seeking vainly for the wagons 
and teams which were drawn snugly away 
under a hillside on the right. Another and 
another — bursting now on the clear space in 
rear of the guns between our right and left 
infantry columns. All the infantry were ly- 
ing down, so well folded in the ground that I 
could only see the Devons on the left. The 
Manchesters and Gordons on the right seemed 
to be swallowed by the veldt. 

Then between the bangs of their artillery 
struck the hoarser bay of our own. Ball after 
ball of white smoke alighted on the kopje — the Peppering 
first at the base, the second over, the third Grapnel. 
jump on the Boer gun. By the fourth, the 
Boer gun flashed no more. Then our guns 
sent forth little white balloons of shrapnel, 
to right, to left, higher, lower, peppering the 
whole face. Now came rifle fire — a few re- 
ports, and then a roll like the ungreased 
wheels of a farm cart. The Imperial Light 
Horse was at work on the extreme right. 
And now, as the guns pealed faster and 
faster, we saw mounted men riding up the 
nearer swell of kopje and diving over the 
edge. Shrapnel followed; some dived and 
came up no more. 

The guns limbered up and moved across to 
a nearer position toward the right. As they 



2386 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1899 

moved, the Boer gun opened again — Lord, but 
the German gunners knew their business! — 
punctuating the intervals and distances of the 
A pieces with scattering destruction. The third 

momen"' or fouTth shcU pitchcd clean into a laboring 
wagon with its double team of eight horses. 
It was full of shells. We held our breath for 
an explosion. But, when the smoke cleared, 
only the near wheeler was on his side, and the 
wagon had a wheel in the air. The batteries 
unlimbered and bayed again, and again the 
Boer guns were silent. Now for the attack. 

The attack was to be made on their front 
and their left flank — along the hog-back of 
the big kopje. The Devons on our left formed 
for the front attack; the Manchesters went on 
the right, the Gordons edged out to the ex- 
treme rightward base, with the long, long 
bowlder-freckled face above them. The guns 
flung shrapnel across the valley; the watchful 
cavalry were in leash, straining toward the en- 
emy's flanks. It was about a quarter to five, 
and it seemed curiously dark for the time of 

The ter- , 

rible rain. Q ay. 

No wonder — for, as the men moved for- 
ward before the enemy, the heavens were 
opened. From the eastern sky swept a sheer 
sheet of rain. With the first stabbing drops 
horses turned their heads away, trembling, 
and no whip or spur could bring them up to 
it. It drove through mackintoshes as if they 
were blotting paper. The air was filled with 



A.D. i899 THE BATTLE OF ELANDSLAAGTE 2387 

hissing; underfoot you could see solid earth 
melting into mud; and mud flowing away in 
water. It blotted out hill and dale and enemy 
in one gray curtain of swooping water. You 
would have said that the heavens had opened 
to drown the wrath of men. And through it 
the guns still thundered and the khaki col- 
umns pushed doggedly on. 

The infantry came among the bowlders and 
began to open out. The supports and reserves 
followed up. And then, in a twinkling, on 
the stone-pitted hill-face burst loose that other 
storm — the storm of lead, of blood, of death, of^'deat'h"" 
In a twinkling the first line were down behind 
rocks firing fast, and the bullets came flicking 
round them. Men stopped and started, stag- 
gered and dropped limply as if the string were 
cut that held them upright. The line pushed 
on ; the supports and reserves followed up. 
A colonel fell, shot in the arm; the regiment 
pushed on. 

They came to a rocky ridge about twenty 
feet high. They clung to cover, firing, then up the wfi 
rose, and were among the shrill bullets again. 
A major was left at the bottom of that ridge, 
with his pipe in his mouth and a Mauser bul- 
let through his leg; his company pushed on. 
Down again, fire again, up again, and on! 
Another ridge won and passed — and only a 
more hellish hail of bullets beyond it. More 
men down, more men pushed into the firing- 
line — more death-piping bullets than ever. 



2388 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. iSgg 

The air was a sieve of them; they beat on the 
bowlders like a million hammers; they tore 
the turf like a harrow. 

Another ridge crowned, another welcom- 
ing, whistling gust of perdition, more men 
down, more pushed into the firing-line. Half 
the officers were down; the men puffed and 
JSrmedf" stumblcd on. Another ridge — God! Would 
this cursed hill never end? It was sown with 
bleeding and dead behind; it was edged with 
stinging fire before. God! Would it never 
end? On, and get to the end of it! And now 
it was surely the end. The merry bugles rang 
out like cock-crow on a fine morning. The 
pipes shrieked blood and the lust of glorious 
death. Fix bayonets! Stafif officers rushed 
shouting from the rear, imploring, cajoling, 
cursing, slamming every man who could move 
into the line. Line — but it was a line no 
longer. It was a surging wave of men — 
Devons and Gordons, Manchester and Light 
Horse, all mixed, inextricably; subalterns 
commanding regiments, soldiers yelling ad- 
vice, officers firing carbines, stumbling, leap- 
ing, killing, falling, all drunk with battle, 
shoving through hell to the throat of the 
enemy. 

And there beneath our feet was the Boer 
camp, and the last Boers galloping out of it. 
There also — thank Heaven, thank Heaven! — 
were squadrons of Lancers and Dragoon 
Guards storming in among them, shouting, 



A.D. .899 THE BATTLE OF ELANDSLAAGTE 2389 

spearing, stamping them into the ground. 
Cease fire! 

It was over — twelve hours of march, of^^^^^^g 
reconnaissance, of waiting, of preparation^ ^^'^''' 
and half an hour of attack. But half an hour 
crammed with the life of half a lifetime. 



Wel. £ 



TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES 



T 



SILVANUS P. THOMPSON 

^O communicate messages by telegraph 
between two places unconnected by any 
wire wherewith to convey the electric 
current sounds almost a mythical achievement. 
Yet this has been possible, over short dis- 
Sfe^hy. tances, for some years. There is no "new 
telegraphy," as some journalists would have 
us believe. The only telegraphy in the mat- 
ter is the old telegraphy of dots and dashes. 
Neither is there anything new in the circum- 
stance of dispensing with the metallic com- 
munication afforded by a line-wire. This 
only is new: — that by improvements in the de- 
tails of known apparatus it is now possible 
thus to communicate over distances of miles 
where formerly the limit of range was to be 
measured only in as many bow-shots. Nor 
is this all that may yet be accomplished. The 
recently announced feat of telegraphing with- 
out wires* across the Bristol Channel — a dis- 
tance of nearly nine miles — seems a small af- 
fair when compared with some of the unre- 

* This was written in 1897. 
(3390) 



TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES 2391 

hearsed and unintended feats of electric trans- 
mission. It is barely ten years ago that one 
night, through an accident to Mr. Ferranti's 
electric lighting machinery at Deptford, the 
whole of the railway telegraphs over South 
London were for some hours completely dis- currents. 
organized by persistent and unauthorized sig- 
nals, the stray currents being traced by their 
telegraphic effects not only into the Midland 
Countries, but even across the sea at Paris. If 
these things were possible once, and without 
prearrangement, it was obvious that by proper 
forethought and due expenditure of money on 
the requisite machinery a telegraph without 
wires might be established between London 
and Paris, or for that matter between any two 
places. 

When telegraphy first became an established 
fact it was supposed that two wires were nec- 
essary for communication, one to carry the 
current on its outward journey, the other to 
serve as a return path, thus constituting to- 
gether a closed metallic circuit. But more steinheiis 

° discovery. 

than half a century ago Steinheil of Munich 
discovered that the earth itself conducted suf- 
ficiently well to serve as a common return for 
any number of separate outgoing circuits; 
since which time telegraphy with single lines 
has been the universal rule. 

For telegraphy without wires several 
methods are possible, but they may be 
grouped under three heads — namely, conduc- 



2392 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

tion through earth or water, magnetic induc- 
tion, and true electric or electro-magnetic 
waves. The first of these it is which has been 
known for long. A good many years ago ex- 
perimental communication was thus success- 
fully tried between the Isle of Wight and the 
Solent, without any connecting cable. Two 
stations Vv^ere chosen, some miles apart, on 
each shore; and a line was erected along each 
shore, each line terminating at both ends in 
Conduction thc sca.* If now a message was transmitted 
sel-wlter. aloug thc Hampshire line, the current, instead 
of returning simply back through the earth, 
spread through earth and sea, a measurable 
fraction of it finding its way through sea to 
the submerged end of the Isle of Wight line, 
and along that line till it entered the sea again 
to complete its return course to the starting- 
point. To telegraph thus by conduction 
through sea-water needs, however, a sufficient 
length of coast as a base-line on both sides; 
and experience shows that the requisite mini- 
mum length of base-line is about as great as 
the distance to be crossed. Hence this method 
is out of the question for communication to 
lighthouses like the Eddystone, though it has 
been successfully used by Mr. Preece to com- 
municate with the Island of Mull during a 
temporary breakdown of the cable connecting 
that island to the mainland. Many instances 
might be given of similar communication by 
conduction through the soil or the sea. When 



TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES 2393 

telephones were used with single lines instead 
of proper metallic circuits, there were con- 
tinual interferences from stray noises, chiefly 
consequent on earth conduction and leakage 
from other lines. 

The second method, that of magnetic induc- 
tion, is scarcely applicable over so wide aj^ducuon. 
range; yet it is possible under certain circum- 
stances. In some experiments by the postal 
authorities wires were laid out around two 
large square tracts of land in South Wales, 
each square constituting a separate closed cir- 
cuit without any chance of leakage or earth 
conduction from one to the other. Yet signals 
made in one of the squares could be detected 
and read upon instruments in the other square, 
even though several hundred yards intervened 
between the two. In this case the magnetic 
''field" created by the currents in one circuit 
spread invisibly into the other circuit and in- 
duced corresponding currents therein. 

The third method — that of electric waves — 
has lately received considerable public atten- waves, 
tion, though the discovery howto transmit elec- 
tric waves and detect them at a distance was 
made by the late Professor Heinrich Hertz 
so far back as 1888. The waves are started by 
setting electric sparks to jump between a pair 
of metal balls attached to an apparatus called 
an oscillator or sender, which is simply a me- 
tallic conductor divided at the middle to pro- 
vide a spark-gap. Improved forms of the 



2894 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

wave-emitter have been devised by Professor 
Righi of Bologna and by Professor Oliver 
Lodge of Liverpool, both of whom have la- 
bored long and well in developing scientifi- 
cally the path thus pioneered by Hertz. De- 
tectors of many kinds have been used for 
picking up the Hertzian waves at a distance. 
Foremost of these is the form used by Lodge, 
which is simply a glass tube containing some 
iron filings or metallic dust, connected with 
a small battery and a sensitive receiving in- 
strument. This arrangement depends upon 
the earlier discovery by Branly that loose 
Sl^^. metal powders when exposed to electric waves 
change their properties temporarily, and from 
being almost perfect non-conductors become 
exceedingly good conductors of electric cur- 
rents. Using such a detector, Lodge was able, 
at the British Association meeting at Oxford 
in 1894, to show the transmission of signals by 
electric waves from the Museum to the adja- 
cent building of the Clarendon Laboratory, 
through several intervening stone walls, the 
detector being in connection with an electric 
bell or a sounder to make the signals audible. 
Still no large-scale experiments were carried 
CHit, mainly because of a want of sympathy 
between the officials of the telegraph service 
and the scientific experimenters. In the sum- 
mer of 1896, there came to England a young 
Italo-Hibernian, Signor Marconi, with a 
project for signalling by electric waves on a 



Marconi's 
system. 



TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES 2895 

closely similar plan. He uses a Righi trans- 
mitter and a modified Branly detector, con- 
sisting of very fine metallic particles inclosed 
in an exhausted glass tube of diminutive size. 
The detector is relayed on to a Morse tele- 
graph sounder or w^riter, with sundry details 
of improvement, including a device originally 
suggested by Lodge for giving mechanical 
agitation to the detector after each time that 
it has operated. With this apparatus and the 
powerful co-operation of the Post-Office, Mar- 
coni succeeded on Salisbury Plain in sending 
signals across a space of two miles; and subse- 
quently — when the apparatus was removed to 
the West country — from Penarth, near Car- 
diff, to Bream Down, near Weston-super- superiority 
Mare, a distance of eight and three-quarters t'heory'T*''*' 
miles. Mr. Preece states that up to three 
miles the wave-method is not so successful as 
the conduction method with a suitable base- 
line, but beyond that distance the wave-method 
has undoubted superiority. 

On the occasion of the recent Royal Society 
Conversazione, Mr. Preece described Mar- 
coni's apparatus and exhibited it in operation; 
while in the Council Room, Dr. Alexander 
Muirhead showed Lodge's apparatus, operat- 
ing for this occasion a Kelvin recorder, the 
transmitter (an ordinary Hertz -wave appara- 
tus) being in another room, some eighty feet 
away. It is doubtless a great stride in prac- 
tical progress to be able to signal to a distance 



2396 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

of nine miles;* but this is far from the limit 
that can be reached with properly designed 
apparatus. We are yet only at the beginning 
of the practical research. These electric waves 
travel with the speed of light. They are in 
fact simply gigantic light-waves of an invisi- 
ble kind. But, unlike the ripples of ordinary 
light, they are not stopped by fogs or trees or 
buildings. We all know what splendid ser- 
vice Mance's heliograph, or telegraph for 
flashing signals by the sun's rays, did at Ekowa 
Mance's sixtccu vcars ago. But Mance's heliograph 

heliograph. , , X J- 1 J 

can not work through fog or cloud, nor across 
a forest. The Hertz-wave telegraph is not ob- 
structed by any such obstacle; and the expense 
of installing the sending and receiving appa- 
ratus is slight compared with the cost of a 
submarine cable. Hence a rapid development 
of its applications may be expected. It is but 
nine years since the discoveries of Hertz in 
this out-of-the-way region of abstract science 
put into our hands the means of creating elec- 
tric waves. Hertz died all too soon to see the 
first-fruits of the germ which he planted. 
Now after nine years others enter in to reap 
the benefit of his discoveries, and to create 
financial schemes for exploiting the product 
of his brain. Let them not forget to acknowl- 
edge that the only real novelties in the whole 
thing are the Hertz-wave and the Branly- 

* Expectations have since been amply justified, since wire- 
less messages have already been sent across the Atlantic. — Ed. 



TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES 2397 

Lodge detector, both of which were given 
freely and unpatented to the world. 

[In 1900, the United States Senate ratifies 
the Samoan treaty. The Boer General Croniecronje 

•' surrenders. 

surrenders to Lord Roberts; the British army 
occupies Bloemfontein ; Pretoria surrenders 
to Lord Roberts, and Lord Roberts pro- 
claims the Transvaal British territory. A 
British force is attacked near Dompoassi by 
the Ashantis; an International Exposition at 
Paris attracts 60,000,000 visitors; the allies 
capture the Taku forts in China; the Chinese 
attack the Legations at Peking. Baron von 
Ketteler, the German minister, is murdered, 
and the allies take Tien-tsin; a fire in Ho- 
boken, N. J., destroys vessels and docks and 
other property to the amount of $10,000,000. 
King Humbert is assassinated at Monza and 
is succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel ; the Stflbert 
Duke of Abruzzi returns from a polar expe- nated. 
dition, having reached 86° 33' N. lat., the 
highest point yet discovered. A tornado in 
Galveston, Texas, destroys 7,000 lives and 
$30,000,000 in property. Prince Hohenlohe 
resigns the Chancellorship of the German 
Empire; a new Spanish Ministry is formed 
under General Azcarraga. The Cuban Con- 
stitutional Convention is opened in Havana.] 



THE BOXER MOVEMENT 

(A.D. 1900) 



w 



SIR ROBERT HART 

E can not say we had no warning. 
Already in September, 1898, after 
the famous coup by which the re- 
forming Emperor, Kwang Hsii, was relegated 
to the nothingness of harem life, and the well- 
Empress k^owtt Emprcss Dowager, who had ruled the 
Dowager's gj^p^j-g through two minoritlcs (Tung-Chih 
in the sixties and Kwang Hsii in the eighties), 
again came to the front, the attitude of Tung 
Fuh Hsiang's soldiers had disturbed the Le- 
gations, accentuated the possible insecurity of 
the foreign community, and brought guards 
to Peking, and in the autumn of the following 
year the Shanghai press called attention to 
the Boxer movement in Shantung — its genesis 
and aspirations, while the Tien-tsin Times 
was laughed at, in the spring of 1900, for its 
bold denunciations of the same movement and 
for its prophecies of the harm therefrom to 
come as the society's operations crossed the 
frontier and began to spread in Pecheli. In 
fact, if there was one cry to which our ears 

(2398) 



AD. iQoo THE BOXER MOVEMENT 2399 

had grown so accustomed as to mind it less 
than our own heart-beats, it was this Chinese 
cry of "Wolf!" Rebellion was ever on the 
point of upsetting the dynasty — the govern- 
ment was always on its last legs — foreigners 
were to be exterminated on a given date — the 
powers were about to partition China — etc.: 
each year — nay, every month — the press or 
local rumor, Cassandra-like, foretold woe, and aggression. 
yet, barring a few episodes of various degrees 
of importance, the government went on as be- 
fore. The last half of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury saw the Taeping rebellion, the "Arrow" 
war, the Tien-tsin massacre, the Franco-Chi- 
nese misunderstanding, the war with Japan, 
and the surrender of Cochin-China, Burma, 
Kiao Chow, Port Arthur, Wei-Hai-Wei, 
Kwang Chow-wan, etc., to the foreigner — it 
also saw the rejection of Italy's Chekiang de- 
mands — and still life went on unchanged and 
the cry of Wolf grew more and more mean- 
ingless: so it was not surprising that many 
supposed the Boxer scare would fizzle out 
similarly and with a minimum of danger to 
either Chinese Government or foreign inter- 
ests. At the same time some of us regarded 
the movement as very significant, but we did 
not expect it to become a danger before au- 
tumn: its earlier development was a genuine 
surprise. 

That it was patriotic in its origin and jus- 
tifiable in much that it aimed at can not be 



2400 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1900 

questioned, and can not be too much insisted 
on, but, like other popular risings, its popular 
organization and formidable development 
and widespread growth made it more likely 
to lead than to follow, while the claims of the 
Super- initiated to something like supernatural pow- 

natural or r 

thTBoxers. ^^s iu thc matters of movement and invulner- 
ability, exhibited first before Prince Tuan 
and then before Emperor and Empress Dow- 
ager, won for it a standing and respect which 
placed it on a plane of its own and went far 
toward giving it a free hand for its operations. 
Something akin to hypnotism or mesmerism 
seems connected with Boxer initiation and ac- 
tion : the members bow to the southeast, recite 
certain mystical sentences, and then, with 
closed eyes, fall on their backs; after this they 
arise, eyes glazed and staring, possessed of the 
strength and agility of maniacs, mount trees 
and walls, and wield swords and spears in a 
way they are unable to at other times; semi- 
initiation is said to render the body impervi- 
ous to cut or thrust, while the fully initiated 
fear neither shot nor shell; the various sub- 
chiefs are, of course, fully initiated, but the 
supreme chief is described as more gifted still 
— he sits in his hall, orders the doors to be 
opened, and while remaining there in the 
body, is said to be elsewhere in spirit, direct- 
ing, controlling, suggesting, and achieving. 

Those of us who regarded the movement as 
likely to become serious and mischievous put 



move- 
ment. 



A.D. ,900 THE BOXER MOVEMENT 2401 

off the time of action to September: our cal- 
culations were wrong, for already in May it 
had spread from Shantung, was overrunning 
Pecheli, and was following the railway line 
from Pao-ting-foo, the provincial capital, to- 
ward Peking itself. Chapels were destroyed, 
converts were massacred, railway stations were 
wrecked, railway and telegraph lines were^^^^^^^^ 
damaged, excitement was spreading, and yet, ^^i 
although the state of the country all around 
grew more and more alarming, it still seemed 
to be a question whether the movement would 
roll back toward its source from Peking or 
take new shape there and gather new and on- 
ward impetus. Meantime, the Legations for- 
tunately succeeded in getting up a few guards 
from the warships off Taku, so that there were 
from three to four hundred armed men in 
Peking for their protection — American, Aus- 
trian, British, French, Italian, Japanese, and 
Russian. 

From the end of May the air was full of 
rumors and alarms, and all were on the alert, TnTa^Lrms 
ladies and children spending the nights at the 
British Legation for safety; but the movement 
was still regarded as a Boxer movement, and 
we could not allow ourselves to believe that 
the government would permit it to create dis- 
order in Peking; much less that the troops 
would join it and its doings be accepted and 
approved of by the Chinese authorities: in 
fact, the troops appeared at one time to be op- 



Rumors 



2402 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1900 

crating against the Boxers and protecting the 
Ma-chia-pu railway station from destruction, 
and thus helped to strengthen our old faith in 
the security of the capital ; but to the eye of to- 
day that military movement was intended to 
obstruct the Admiral's force, and not to op- 
pose the Boxers. On the 9th of June, the out- 
look was so threatening that the Customs and 
College people were called in from the scat- 
tered quarters; and from that date to the 20th 
all lived at the Inspectorate, and combined 
with their neighbors, Japanese, Austrians, and 
French, to keep watch day and night. 

Up to the 20th of June we had only the 
Boxers to deal with, but on the 19th, we were 
Note from surprlscd by a Circular Note from the Yamen 
(Chinese Foreign Office), stating that the for- 
eign naval authorities at Tien-tsin were about 
to seize the Taku forts, and ordering Lega- 
tions to quit Peking within twenty-four hours. 
The Legations replied, and represented to the 
Yamen that they knew nothing of the Taku 
occurrence — that they regretted any misun- 
derstanding — and that they could not possi- 
bly quit, or make transport arrangements, on 
such short notice. A proposal to visit the 
Yamen in a body was set aside, but on the 
morning of the 20th Baron von Ketteler, the 
German Minister, attended by his interpreter, 
Mr. Cordes, set off for the Yamen alone: his 
colleagues advised him not to go, but he felt 
that, having announced his visit, he must pay 



the Yamen, 



A.D. I900 THE BOXER MOVEMENT 2403 

it. Ten minutes after he left the Legation, 

his Chinese outriders galloped back saying Ba"rorf von 

1 I1J1 11 • . Ketteler. 

that he had been shot when going up the 
Ha-ta-men Street. His interpreter, badly 
wounded, managed to escape to the Methodist 
Mission, and was thence taken back to the 
German Legation. It had previously been de- 
cided, in case of attack, to hold all the Lega- 
tions as long as possible, but to fall back on 
the British Legation when necessary for 
united defence and a final stand; the order to 
quit Peking, and the seemingly official mur- 
der of a Minister, rather precipitated matters, 
and before the twenty-four hours' limit had 
expired (4 P.M.^ 20th of June) all the ladies 
and children were in the British Legation, and 
also the various foreign representatives. 

Up to the 20th of June we had — as already 
stated — only Boxers armed with sword and 
spear to fear, but on that day rifles began to 
be used, and soldiers fired them — notably men soidiers^^ 
belonging to Tung Fuh Hsiang's Kan-suh ^^^^"''"'' 
command. Our longing for the appearance 
of Admiral Seymour grew intense, and night 
after night we buoyed ourselves up with cal- 
culations founded on the sound of heavy guns 
in the distance or the appearance of what ex- 
perts pronounced to be search-lights in the 
sky: soon, however, we gave up all hope of 
the Admiral's party, but, supposing that the 
Taku forts had been taken on the i8th, we 
inferred that a few days later would see a 



2404 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. ly^o 

large force marching from Tien-tsin for our 
relief, and that within a fortnight it would be 
with us — otherwise, why imperil us at Peking 
by such premature action at Taku? 

We were under fire from the 20th to the 
The 2i:th of Tune, from the 28th of June to the i8th 

Legations ~) J i •> 

besieged, q^ j^jy^ ixQxx\ the 28th of July to the 2d of 
August, and from the 4th to the 14th of Au- 
gust: night and day rifle bullets, cannon balls, 
and Krupp shells had been poured into the 
various Legations from the gate in front of 
the Palace itself, from the very wall of the 
Imperial City, as well as from numerous 
. nearer points around us, and the assailants on 
all sides were Chinese soldiers; whether the 
quiet of the 26th and 27th of June and 19th 
to 27th of July was or was not ordered by the 
government we can not say, but the firing 
during the other periods, close as we were to 
the Palace, must have been by the orders of 
the government; and it cost our small number 
over sixty killed and a hundred wounded! 
That somebody intervened for our semi-pro- 
tection seems, however, probable: attacks were 
not made by such numbers as the government 
had at its disposal — they were never pushed 
home, but always ceased just when we feared 
they would succeed — and, had the force round 
us really attacked with thoroughness and de- 
termination, we could not have held out a 

tionof*" week, perhaps not even a dav: and so the ex- 

salvation. ' y r j i 

planation that there was some kind of protec- 



A.v.t9oo THE BOXER MOVEMENT 2405 

tion — that somebody, probably a wise man 
who knew what the destruction of the Lega- 
tions would cost Empire and Dynasty, inter- 
vened between the issue of the order for our 
destruction and the execution of it, and so 
kept the soldiery playing with us as cats do 
with mice, the continued and seemingly heavy 
firing telling the Palace how fiercely we were 
attacked and how stubbornly we defended 
ourselves, while its curiously half-hearted 
character not only gave us the chance to live 
through it, but also gave any relief forces 
time to come and extricate us, and thus avert 
the national calamity which the Palace in its 
pride and conceit ignored, but which some 
one in authority in his wisdom foresaw and 
in his discretion sought how to push aside. 

On the 4th of August our assailants' rifles ^[^^^^^^^.1^ 
again began to be troublesome, and the 'list of '^"^'''^''• 
killed and wounded was added to. On the 
7th some additional barricades isolated us even 
more than ever, and at the same time de- 
spatches from the Yamen announced that Li 
Hung Chang was appointed to arrange mat- 
ters by telegram with the various Foreign 
Offices. On the 8th the firing was lighter, and 
letters of condolence came from the Yamen 
communicating the news of the deaths of the 
King of Italy and the Duke of Edinburgh; 
but on the 9th heavy firing was resumed, and 
grew heavier and heavier until the 14th, the 
nights of the 12th and 13th being specially 



2406 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1900 

noisy, and the latter so threatening — one shell 
4e"s>nfi bursting in the Minister's bedroom — that the 
coningen. j^^.^^^ bell summoned everybody to arms 

twice: our previous assailants had been with- 
drawn and the newly arrived Shansi contin- 
gent had taken their places armed with the 
very best repeating rifles and headed by a gen- 
eral who undertook to finish with us in five 
days, "leaving neither fowl nor dog." Their 
five days were ending on the 12th, and the 
general was at the barricades in person, en- 
couraging his men; but, happily, part of the 
barricade gave way and exposed those behind 
it, who were at once shot by our people, the 
general himself falling to the rifle of a Cus- 
toms volunteer, Mr. Bismark. Our position 
had been strengthened in ever}?" possible way, 
but the assailants were growing bolder, and 
the experiences of the 13th showed that they 
would probably rush it in overwhelming num- 
Reiief force be rs thc ncxt attack. Fortunately for us, the 

arrives. J ' 

morning of Thursday, the 14th, brought us the 
welcome sounds of the Maxims and guns of 
the relieving forces; and about 3 P.M. General 
Gazelee and General Chafifee were shaking 
hands with us. 

What precedes, as already explained, is not 
a chronicle — it is simply a note to give readers 
a bird's-eye view of the unprecedented occur- 

Signifi- -^ ' 

theevent. ^ences of a Peking summer, and prepare the 
way for directing attention briefly to the 
future thereby foreshadowed: as for daily 



A.D. igoo THE BOXER MOVEMENT 2407 

details, they will be found in many quarters 
elsewhere from the reports and pens of many 
observers. The episode of to-day is not mean- 
ingless : it is the prelude to a century of change 
and the keynote of the future history of the 
Far East: the China of the year 2000 will be 
very different from the China of 1900! Na- 
tional sentiment is a constant factor which 
must be recognized, and not eliminated, when 
dealing with national facts, and the one feel- 
ing that is universal in China is pride in Chi- 
nese institutions and contempt for foreign: 
treaty intercourse has not altered this — if any- 
thing, it has deepened it, and the future will 
not be influenced by it. The first question 
now to be settled by the Treaty Powers is how mX*" 
to make peace — for China is at war with all, ^^^^''' 
and what conditions to impose to safeguard 
the future — for the stipulations of the past 
have been set at defiance and obliterated. 
There would seem to be a choice between 
three courses — partition, change of dynasty, 
or patching up the Manchoo rule. That the 
future will have a "yellow" question — perhaps 
a "yellow" peril — to deal with is as certain as 
that the sun will shine to-morrow. How can 
its appearance be delayed, or combated, or by 
any action taken now turned into harmless 
channels? 

But what is this "Yellow Peril" ? The Chi- cwnas 

^ , I . ^ I . I , . sources of 

nese, an mtelligent, cultivated race, sober, m- wealth. 
dustrious, and on their old lines civilized, 



2408 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1900 

homogeneous in language, thought, and feel- 
ing, which numbers some four hundred mil- 
lions, lives in its own ring fence, and covers 
a country which — made up of fertile land 
and teeming waters, with infinite variety of 
mountain and plain, hill and dale, and every 
kind of climate and condition — on its surface 
produces all that a people requires and in its 
bosom hides untold virgin wealth that has 
never yet been disturbed — this race, after 
thousands of years of haughty seclusion and 
exclusiveness, has been pushed by the force of 
circumstances and by the superior strength of 
assailants into treaty relations with the rest of 
the world, but regards that as a humiliation, 
sees no benefit accruing from it, and is looking 
forward to the day when it in turn will be 
strong enough to revert to its old life again 
and do away with foreign intercourse, inter- 
ference, and intrusion. It has slept long, as 
we count sleep, but it is awake at last, and its 



What the 



movement cvcry mcmbcr is tingling with Chinese feel- 
reaiiy is. j^g— "China for the Chinese, and out with the 
foreigners!" The Boxer movement is doubt- 
less the product of official inspiration, but it 
has taken hold of the popular imagination 
and will spread like wildfire all over the 
length and breadth of the country; it is, in 
short, a purely patriotic volunteer movement, 
and its object is to strengthen China — and for 
a Chinese programme. Its first experience has 
not been altogether a success as regards the 



A.D. igoo THE BOXER MOVEMENT 2409 

attainment through strength of proposed ends 
— the rooting up of foreign cults and the ejec- 
tion of foreigners, but it is not a failure in 
respect of the feeler it put out — will volun- 
teering work? — or as an experiment that 
would test ways and means and guide future 
choice: it has proved how to a man the people 
will respond to the call, and it has further 
demonstrated that the swords and spears to 
which the prudent official mind confined the 
initiated will not suffice, but must be supple- 
mented or replaced by Mauser rifles and 
Krupp euns: the Boxer patriot of the future 

. , , , , , The Yellow 

Will possess the best weapons money can buy, Perii. 
and then the "Yellow Peril" will be beyond 
ignoring. Wen Hsiang, the celebrated Prime 
Minister of China during the minority of 
Tung Chih in the early sixties, often said: 
"You are all too anxious to awake us and start 
us on a new road, and you will do it; but you 
will all regret it, for, awaking and started, 
we shall go fast and far — further than you 
think — much further than you want." His 
words are very true. 

The first doings of the Boxer patriots show 
that their plan of operations was on the one thfso^xers. 
hand to destroy Christian converts and stamp 
out Christianity, and thus free China from 
the, in their eyes, corroding influence of a 
foreign cult, and, on the other, — not to hurt 
or kill, but — ^to terrify foreigners, frighten 
them out of the country, and thus free China 



2410 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1900 

from foreign trespass, contamination, and hu- 
miliation, and these are the objects which will 
be kept in view, worked up to, and in all prob- 
ability accomplished — with other weapons in 
their hands — by the children or grandchildren 
of to-day's volunteers. 

Twenty millions or more of Boxers, armed, 
drilled, disciplined, and animated by patri- 

The Boxers .' . , . ., , . 

ofthe otic — if mistaken — motives, will make resi- 

luture. ' 

dence in China impossible for foreigners, will 
take back from foreigners everything for- 
eigners have taken from China, will pay off 
old grudges with interest, and will carry the 
Chinese flag and Chinese arms into many a 
place that even fancy will not suggest to-day, 
thus preparing for the future upheavals and 
disasters never even dreamt of. In fifty years' 
time there will be millions of Boxers in ser- 
ried ranks and war's panoply at the call of the 
Chinese Government: there is not the slightest 
doubt of that! And if the Chinese Govern- 
ment continues to exist, it will encourage — 
and it will be quite right to encourage, uphold 
and develop — this national Chinese move- 
ment: it bodes no good for the rest of the 
world, but China will be acting within its 
right, and will carry through the national 
programme. 

[In 1901, The Hague Court of Interna- 

court.^^^tional Arbitration is organized. The first 

Territorial Legislature in Hawaii meets. A 



A-D. 1900 THE BOXER MOVEMENT 2411 

Pan-American Exhibition is held at Bufifalo 
and an International Exhibition in Glasgow. 
Santos-Dumont's airship sails around the Eiffel 
Tower. Prince Chun goes to Germany to ex- 
press regret for the murder of Baron von Ket- 
teler. President McKinley is shot at the Pan- ^"^^ff^^ify 
American Exhibition in Buffalo on September nfted.'" 
6, and dies on September 14, when President 
Roosevelt takes the oath of office. The Pan- 
American Congress is opened in the City of 
Mexico. The South Carolina and West In- 
dian Exhibition is held in Charleston, S. C. 
Great Britain and the United States sign the 
Isthmian Canal treaty. In 1902, the Emperor 
and Empress Dowager of China re-enter Pe- 
kin. England and Japan form an alliance to 
preserve the integrity of China and Corea. 
An earthquake in Transcaucasia kills about 
2,000 people. Prince Henry of Prussia visits 
the United States. China and Russia sign -a 
convention at Peking, wherein Russia agrees 
to evacuate Manchuria. The first Congress 
of the Cuban Republic meets at Havana. An 
eruption of Mont La Soufriere, St. Vincent's, 
on May 7, destroys 2,000 persons, and on May 
8 an eruption of Mont Pelee, Martinique, de- 
stroys St. Pierre and 30,000 inhabitants. T. 
Estrada Palma is inaugurated first President Paima'first 

^ President 

of Cuba ; the Campanile at Venice falls. Mont °f cuba. 
Pelee is again in eruption (August 30-Sep- 
tember 4), and more than 2,000 persons are 
killed. Lieutenant Peary travels to 84° 17' 



2412 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1900 

northwest of Cape Hecla. Stanley Spencer, 

the English aeronaut, sails his airship 30 miles 

over London. The Canadian-Australian ca- 

canadian- ble, of 3,455 Hiiles, from Vancouver to Fan- 

cawecom- ninff Island, is completed. The Assouan 

pleted. =* . . O 

Dam on the Nile is opened December 8. 
Great Britain and Germany present an ulti- 
matum to Venezuela, seize her fleet, and de- 
molish a fort at Puerto Cabello. Venezuela 
appeals to the United States for arbitration.] 



THE DESTRUCTION OF ST. PIERRE 

(A.D. 1902) 

ROBERT T. HILL 

"T T 7 HAT has to-morrow in reserve for 
Y Y us? A flow of lava, a rain of 
pumice-stone, jets of asphyxiating 
gas; what submerging cataclysm, or will there 
be simply an inundation of mud? There is 
a great secret, and when it is known many^pp^K- 
men will be unable to bear it." — Editorial ^'°"' 
from La Colonic of May 7, 1902; the last 
paper published in St. Pierre. 

The editor of La Colonie wrote the fore- 
going portentous words two days before the 
great explosion, and they were probably the 
last copy hung upon the hook. They ap- 
peared in the columns of the last paper that 
was ever published in St. Pierre and were 
preserved through the energy of Father Mc- 
Grail, the chaplain of the Dixie, who by 
scouring the shops of Fort de France, secured 
a file of the paper for a week prior to the 
catastrophe, which constitutes one of the most 
precious results of the expedition. 

For a week the editor had been filling his 

8 'n;s. 5 



2414 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 190a 

columns with words of hope and cheer while 
TcSy. ominous ashes were darkening his sanctum 
window and the detonations within the bowels 
of Pelee were frenzying the population. 
Through those preceding days of general 
fear these were the only words of despair in 
his paper, and must have been written as the 
stimulus of hope deserted him and as he, at 
last, saw the finger of fate through the sombre 
surroundings. The following day, there were 
thirty thousand who were unable to bear the 
great Secret which was made known to them 
only by its great power. 

To-day, the great question still is, What 
was the secret force that so quickly destroyed 
the people of St. Pierre, consumed their houses 
by fire and then by reappearance so annihilated 
the city that in a few weeks the tropical vege- 
tation, already springing up over its levelled 
ruins, will so hide them that the passing ob- 
server will not be able to locate its site? The 
destruction of St. Pierre was by forces never 
before recorded in the annals of volcanic 
disaster, and the scientific members of the 
Dixie expedition, who studied the phenomena, 
were confronted by conditions which they 
never anticipated and which will require 
months fully to explain. 

Closely after the first news of the disaster 
cataciys- Teports Were sent describing cataclysmic phe- 

mic phe- f « • 1 1 • 'J 

nomena. nomcna of many kmds as havmg accompanied 
the volcanic outbursts of Pelee and St. Vin- 



The secret 
force. 




w 
> 

o 



w 

X 

c 

eq 
O 

2 
p 

Q 



2 



:3 

o 

O 
H 

2: 

o 

3 

o 



A.D.I902 THE DESTRUCTION OF ST. PIERRE 2415 

cent. It was announced that the entire upper 
half of Mont Pelee had been destroyed; that 
the coast had sunk to great depths; that the 
coast line had been- changed; that the earth 
had quaked; that great fissures had rent the 
earth, opening new and terrible chasms; and 
that lightning of tremendous effect had ac- 
companied the eruption, especially in St. Vin- 
cent, where it was alleged that over fifteen 
hundred people had been killed by it. 

Yet the Isle of Martinique to-day shows no 
serious change, except immediately around ^Jjght^^j 
the thin rim of the old crater of Pelee, where ^''^"^^^• 
some of the small projecting peaks, like those 
of Morne la Croix, have tumbled in, lowering 
by this process the summit only some sixty me- 
tres (two hundred feet). Every hill, valley, 
scarp, precipice or other surface feature of the 
relief as laid down upon the map of 1823 is dis- 
tinctly recognizable. The only changes are 
merely the superficial destruction of vegetation 
and the veneering of a small triangular area 
with a thin layer of ashes and mud, so that it 
is converted from a green carpet of cane and 
woodland to a barren, desert mountain land- 
scape like that of Arizona. Nineteen-twen- 
tieths of the area of Martinique is as green 
and beautiful to-day as ever. 

Yet something terrible had happened, as at- 
tested by the thirty thousand dead and the ter- 
ror of the hundred and fifty thousand surviv- 
ors. This Secret, which destroyed bright and 



2416 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 190. 

cheerful St. Pierre, and changed it into that 
ghostly, horrid ruin, will haunt me until my 
dying day. What was it? 

It was not a flow of lava that the morrow 
had in reserve. Pelee has not sent forth flow- 
Noiava ing strcams of molten rock for many thousand 
years. It is true that in the foundations of 
Martinique as seen around Fort de France 
there are ancient masses of lava* which may 
have once flown upon the surface, but these 
have been covered by thousands of feet of ashes 
(lapilli) and mud flows such as Pelee spits 
forth at long intervals of time. 

Neither was it a rain of stone that over- 
whelmed the helpless people. There was for 
a few moments a fall of light pumice-stone, 
but these stones did not finish their hurtling 
flight or reach the earth until all the souls had 
joined their Maker. There is no record of 
this material in Martinique as having in- 
jured any person or thing. It was shot into 
the air with great velocity and did not reach 
the city until most of its inhabitants were dead. 
Furthermore, owing to its cellular structure, 
although heated when ejected, it probably 
cooled quickly in the air, while its specific 
gravity was so light it is doubtful if pieces 
of the size which fell would have injured any 
one struck by them. 

Over the ash-covered surface of the area 

* Hornblende and hypersthene-andesite, as determined by 
Mr. J. S. Diller from the writer's recent collections. 



A.D. I902 THE DESTRUCTION OF ST. PIERRE 2417 

of destruction from Precheur to Carbet, ex- 
cept in the immediate city where their pres- 
ence is obscured by the debris of the houses, 
one finds everywhere a cement-like covering of 
ashes which is dotted here and there by small 
stone of pumice which fell upon the surface. 
In some cases near the Riviere Blanche there 
are great bowlders of this material which 
were brought down by the surging waters in 
the days of strenuous overflow. 

Neither was it an "inundation of mud" that 
destroyed St. Pierre. Rivers of mud there Noinunda- 

-' tionofmud. 

were, and he who looks over the vast plain of 
Consolation back of St. Pierre and the former 
plain of the River Blanche — but a month ago 
sapphired fields of cane — now sees only great 
slopes of mud. 

Neither was there an earthquake of sufii- 
cient force to cause the death and desolation of 
St. Pierre. There were tremors, it is true, 
which snapped the ocean cables like fiddle- 
strings, but these were so slight that they were 
hardly felt upon the land, except where re- 
corded upon the sensitive instruments in the 
observatory of the Lycee, and, as written by the 
dead observer, "being horizontal they were 
not felt by persons." Furthermore, there is no 
evidence throughout the island of a stone or 
stick having been shaken from its place by 
earthquakes. 

The submerging cataclysm with its Secret, 
which thirty thousand people were unable to 



2418 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a. d. 1902 

bear, is one the like of which has never before 
tdenud^"' been recorded in the annals of disasters result- 

disaster. , . % 1 c t 

ing from nature s stupendous forces, i can 
not here submit detail evidence as recorded 
in my notebooks with dates and names of wit- 
nesses, but shall endeavor to interpret what 
happened as I concluded from all testimony, 
including narratives of human survivors and 
eye-witnesses of the catastrophe, the silent evi- 
dence of the ruin and wreckage, and my per- 
sonal observation of the several subsequent 
great eruptions. 

Two great and distinct kinds of phenom- 
phfrlSmena cua probably took place on that eventful morn- 
ing of May 8, one within and the other without 
the crater. As a whole, they may be com- 
pared to those which accompany the firing 
of a projectile from a great gun involving ( i) 
the explosion of one kind of gas, creating a 
propelling force which may be compared to 
a gun within the crater, and (2) the travel- 
ling through the air of a deadly projectile (a 
cloud of hot steam, gas, and smoke) which 
may or may not itself have been explosive. 

1. Within the crater there was a terrific 
explosion, presumably from the meeting of 
water and the molten rock matter. 

2. This explosion projected out of the mouth 
of the crater a dense cloud of ash (lapilli), 
steam, and heavy gases. 

3. Following the cloud was the vertical 
flash from the crater itself, presumably the 



A.D. .902 THE DESTRUCTION OF ST. PIERRE 2419 

flame of combustible hydrogen within the 
crater. 

4. Succeeding the flame was the noise of 
the detonation, which, although originating 
instantaneously with the flame and pufif, owing 
to the slowness with which sound travels, was 
not evident to outsiders until the preceding 
phenomena had been observed. 

The great gun having fired its projectile, 
let us consider what subsequently happened to 
the latter: 

1. The force oi elevation being soon over- 
come, the cloud mushroomed, first making a 
dense, round, boiling head, which has been mushroom- 
variously compared to a caulmower, a human cioud 
brain with its convolutions, and the spread- 
ing foliage of a palm tree. 

2. The material in the clouds was heavier 
than the atmosphere — at least in the case of 
the cloud erupted from the lower vent — and 
hence, after losing the vertical direction of 
projection, it sank downward toward the 
surface of the earth through gravity and 
was propelled southwestward by the strong 
trade-winds. 

3. After reaching the external air, and a 
short distance from the crater, lightning-like 
flame and explosions took place in the cloud. 

4. This generated still greater heat in the 
already hot cloud and fired the buildings in 
its path. 

5. The ignition was of an explosive nature 



2420 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 190a 

which caused a terrific air movement that 
movements travcllcd rapidly in all directions from the seat 
of explosion. 

6. After the propulsion of the air outward 
by the explosion there followed a return move- 
ment of the air from the inrush to fill the 
vacuum which had been created. 

7. The ignition in the cloud may have 
been the combination of some heavy gas with 
atmospheric oxygen, and this exhausted the 
latter from the atmosphere so that there was 
nothing to breathe. 

8. The cloud of ash, steam, and gas was hot 
when it left the volcano — sufficiently so to in- 
jure people who were not necessarily within 
the radius of the explosion. 

On that morning there were three of these 
Three . doublc-natured eruptions in rapid succession. 

successive r r 

eruptions, yj^^ ^^^^^ which Came from the summit of the 
mountain, was a vast column of black ashes 
mingled with steam, which ascended and 
spread out like a great palm tree — as stated 
by Father Altaroche, who witnessed it from a 
commanding view at the village of Mont Vert, 
five miles due south of Pelee peak. A few 
moments later another great puff of similar 
material arose from the lower crater of the 
western slope of Mont Pelee, nearly fifteen 
hundred feet below the summit. These great 
smoke clouds were at first propelled upward 
into the outer air by the initial explosion 
within the mountain, the light of which was 



A.D. I902 THE DESTRUCTION OF ST. PIERRE 2421 

not seen nor the noise heard until the puffs had 
come out of the vents. Then followed great 
jets of flame from the mouth of the crater like 
the flash of a great gun. Some seconds after 
this the stupendous booming of the detonations 
reached the ears of those who had observed 
the cloud of smoke and seen the flash of light. 
Had this been all, the people of St. Pierre 

' ■* ^ Explosion 

would have been alive to-day; but, besides the *" "^^ ^i""- 
explosion within the mountain, the evidence 
strongly points to another one in the air, and 
the nature of this is the Secret of the submerg- 
ing cataclysm which the people of St. Pierre 
were unable to bear. 

Contrary to those laws of nature which 
would have been followed had the clouds 
been composed only of hot steam and lapilli, 
the great cloud from the lower crater, instead 
of rising, descended and closely hugged the 
contour of the land as it rolled away in a south 
of west direction toward the sea and over the 
fated city. What was the Secret of that de- 
scending heated cloud which caused it to fall 
instead of rise? 

Let us digress for a moment to look again 
at the summit cloud. Some seconds after itmitVioud. 
had left the crater, and long after the upward 
shoot of flames within the crater had died, 
great jagged streaks of fire were observed 
shooting back and forth, upward and down- 
ward, here and there through all parts of the 
black cloud. Lightning-like in their effect, 



2422 



THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 



A.D. 1902 



Another 
terrible 
phenom- 
enon. 



yet unlightning-like in color and action, and 
unaccompanied by thunder. There was ap- 
parently something born in that cloud after 
meeting the outer air which, notwithstanding 
its superheated condition within the crater, 
did not ignite until it left it. That something 
was the Secret of Pelee. 

These lower clouds of lapilli were not only 
hot and heavy, but after they had reached the 
outer air and become well mixed with it an- 
other terrible phenomenon occurred. This 
floated on southwest in the direction of the 
trade-winds, toward the fated city, and, when 
almost upon it, several seconds after having 
emerged from the vent, it ignited and ex- 
ploded, and at that moment, within the radius 
of its action, all nature cried : 



"Death has struck, and nature, quaking, 
All creation is awaking, 
To its judgment answer making." 



Sheets of 
tiame. 



While we who were spared from participa- 
tion in such a catastrophe might well say, 
''Deliver me, O Lord, from that eternal wrath 
on that awful day when the heavens and earth 
shall be shaken and thou shalt come to judge 
the world by fire." 

There was no thunderous noise or detona- 
tion, but with terrific force sheets of flame 
ignited within this cloud and, as seen by 
Father Altaroche, travelled from north to 
south over the city with lightning quickness, 



A.D. 1902 THE DESTRUCTION OF ST. PIERRE 2423 

setting fire to it. Merely a blinding flash of 
fire within the cloud, and in a moment the 
whole of the great fireproof city built of stone, 
with roofs of iron and tile, was on fire. 

That something in that awful cloud, which 
had fallen instead of risen and had exploded 
over the northern end of the city — the terrible 
Secret — was probably an invisible gas fired 
from the crater that united with another in 
the air. 

All the phenomena of the catastrophe tell us 
that the latter of these gases could only have ^he two 
been the oxygen of the air. The nature of 
the other gas (if there was one) which was 
belched from the crater and contained within 
the dark cloud of lapilli that rolled down from 
Le Tang Sec was a heavy gas the composition 
of which is still unknown. It was a gas which 
would not ignite within the oxygenless crater 
even under the intense heat there present, but 
which exploded with fatal force upon mixing 
with the oxygen of the cool air a mile from the 
crater. 

The first explosion within the crater was 
more than a steam puf¥. The upward-shoot- 
ing flame which followed it was most probably 
hydrogen gas, accompanied by the sodium 
colors derived from sea waters. 

The Secret of Pelee, according to our pres- 
ent working hypothesis, now resolves itself J^^e secret 
into a question of the determination of the 
gases. Of these there were probably at least 



2424 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 190a 

two kinds, if not more. The great volume 
of water, the meeting of which with the hot 
magma of rock is the fundamental cause of 
volcanic explosions within the crater, was 
probably resolved into oxygen and hydrogen, 
and the latter burned after the projectile cloud 
had shot forth. 

But what of the gas in the projectile cloud 
which did not burn within the fiery crater, 
but shot forth into the air, combined with the 
oxygen of the air? It is well known that some 
volcanoes emit carbon monoxide, which has 
an affinity for free oxygen of the air, but this 
is a lighter gas than air and would not have 
floated downward. Again, there is the wholly 
explosive marsh gas (CH4), and this Profes- 
sor Landes of the St. Pierre College reported 
he had detected in the mud of the Riviere 
Blanche several days before the great Secret 
enveloped him: but this gas is also lighter than 
air. 

At present we have in view but one other 
suiphu- explosive gas which might have caused this 
hydrogen, damage, sulphuratcd hydrogcn (H2S). This 
gas has a specific gravity of 17, which is much 
heavier than that of air (14.5), and is the only 
one of the gases mentioned which could have 
floated downward upon the city. There is 
much evidence to this effect. 

Should Science, with data in hand, write 
an epitaph over St. Pierre, it would be a 
cryptogram as follows: H2S+O. 



A.D. I902 THE DESTRUCTION OF ST. PIERRE 2425 

But there are alternative hypotheses con- 
cerning the nature of the Secret, and one of 
these is that the destruction came from a 
blast of intensely hot steam and cinders. The 
data thus far collected tend strongly to uphold theodel. 
the gas explosion theory. Yet the evidence 
must all be in before the final verdict can be 
given. 



THE AUTOMOBILE 



ROBERT CRAWFORD 

FRANCE is the paradise of the motor- 
car, and is likely to remain so a few 
years longer. The birth and rise of 
this new form of locomotion is but a short 
chapter in the history of modern industry, 
home"/lhebut it Is 3. fascinating one. Builders and buy- 
auto-car. ^^^ alike were enthusiasts and poets in their 
way. The former can boast of a record of 
steadfast faith, of dogged struggles with all 
manner of difficulty and disappointment, of 
plunges into seemingly wildcat ventures, 
which, in defiance of all reasonable expecta- 
tion, have turned out well; the latter may 
claim to rank as sheer enthusiasts with the 
Dutch tulip-fanciers of old. The whole his- 
tory of automobilism in France is colored by 
the spirit of enthusiasm of its founders — of 
those who made the first auto-cars, and of 
those who bought them. 

Those motorists, in bearskin jackets (in 
July!) and with yachting-caps and smoked 
spectacles, are legion, who dash along the 

(2426) 



'THE AUTOMOBILE 2427 

roads of France, and cheerfully swallow dust 
for hours because they believe that they are 
fulfilling a mission as pioneers of "the Great p^o^^-^s 
National Industry"; and when they get intoP^^""'"- 
difficulties with the police for "scorching" 
(nineteen miles an hour is the limit, except 
for races, with special town regulations), they 
are not unwilling to look upon themselves as 
martyrs for the cause. 

The history of automobilism in France may 
be divided into four periods : (i.) The early 
— almost prehistoric — period of steam-boiler 
carriages from i860 to 1880. There were 
horseless carriages in England some years be- 
fore, not to mention a self-propelled vehicle 
known to have existed in 1769; but this inter- 
esting infant industry was stifled by the Loco- 
motion Act. (2.) The birth and develop- 
ment of modern automobilism, 1880 to 1890. 
(3.) A period of great prosperity, due to the 
oil motor, 1-890 to 1895. (4-) The modern 
period. The first half of this period, 1895 to 
1898, coincides with the racing mania; the lat- 
ter half with a reaction of public opinion 
against racing, ending in prohibition of high 
speed, except under severe limitations. 

The great year 1882 is a landmark. Count 
de Dion, the friend of General Boulanger, deoion. 
a society man and an authority on duelling, 
suddenly disappeared from politics and from 
the clubs, and no more was heard of him for 
some time. He had resolved to do something. 



Develop- 
ments of 
cycling. 



2428 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

to get on; but how was he to succeed unless 
by striking out in some entirely new line? He 
had made the acquaintance of a mechanic 
named Bouton, whose head was full of no- 
tions, which, with his old foreman's experi- 
ence, he knew how to put into practical shape. 
Count de Dion brought a little capital, social 
connections, and — as it turned out — no mean 
degree of business ability. They put their 
heads together, and decided that they would 
build horseless carriages. Why that, and not 
something else? Probably because cycling 
was fast coming into vogue : the "safety" dates 
about this time. The two partners foresaw 
that cycling would create a taste for fast trav- 
elling on roads. 

For some years Count de Dion and Bouton 
worked in their wooden shanty at Suresnes 
sustained by faith. They were literally build- 
ing the cart before they knew where they 
could get the horse — I mean a good motor. 
Industry, in their case, had its romance. They 
worked with the self-confidence of youth. 
An old-established firm of machine builders 
would not attempt the horseless carriage 
problem, because there was abundant reason 
to believe nothing would be gained by it. 

It seemed impossible at the time to build 
a small and yet efficient machine. Count de 
Dion and Bouton were two years before find- 
car? '^' ing a suitable boiler. In 1884, they turned 
out a bicycle with machinery weighing one 



net's 
invention. 



THE AUTOMOBILE 2429 

hundred pounds and running eighteen miles 
an hour. In the following year they could do 
one kilometre in one minute on a tricycle. 
The year 1888 is another date to be remem- 
bered. The cycling boom had reached its 
height in that year, races were being run on 
every national road, velodromes were set up 
all over the country (most of them since be- 
come bankrupt) , and betting on cycling events 
was prevalent. 

M. Serpollet's small-bore tubular boilers 
(an altogether remarkable invention) solved ,?fXt 
the problem of making a light yet efficient 
engine. This was in 1888, and M. Serpollet's 
invention has stood the test of time. At the 
1900 salon du cycle d. Serpollet carriage was 
exhibited, which was purchased by King Ed- 
ward VII. 

Automobilism is so much associated in peo- 
ple's minds with petroleum that an effort of 
memory is necessary to remember that it began 
with steam. Automobilism was popular in 
France before it was practical. The wish was 
father to the success. Very likely this will 
again be the case in aerial navigation. In 
1894, the Petit Journal opened a prize contest 
to be run from Paris to Brest and back (750 
miles). 

In 1895, a new invention revolutionized the 
automobile industry — namely, the oil motor 
■ — for which we are indebted to Herr Daim- 
ler. The Daimler motor was immediately 



2430 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

adopted by the motor-car building firms of 
Panhard & Levassor and Peugeot. 

It would not be unfair to say that, after this 
far-reaching invention, subsequent improve- 
ments in oil vehicles have been merely im- 
lotor'' provements of detail, accumulated, however, 
in such number as to make a modern auto-car 
a very different thing from its prototype of 
ten or fifteen years ago. 

The history of automobile racing in France 
is a brief but a checkered one. It covers a 
period of six or seven years, during which the 
attitude of the public has undergone several 
changes. These phases of opinion form con- 
venient subdivisions for the purpose of our 
history. Motorists of the furious-driving 
school are apt to resent remarks of outsiders. 
But has not the man in the street the right to 
say he objects to being run over? 

Between 1802 and iSo; motor cars were al- 

Popular ^ ^ -^ 

prejudice, ready snorting along the highways of France. 
Motorists were received in the towns with 
misgivings and in the villages with positive 
hostility. The peasants resented the noisy, ter- 
rifying horseless carriage that ran over their 
dogs and chickens, and in the hands of inex- 
perienced drivers, caused serious accidents. 
This was a period of quarrels and lawsuits be- 
tween local authorities and motorists. 

In the second period, from 1895 ^^ 1898, the 
peasants and people of country towns were 
brought round. They were made to believe 



THE AUTOMOBILE 2431 

that automobilism would bring about as great 
a revolution as railways had done fifty years 
before — that motor omnibuses would soon 
connect every village with the neighboring 
towns and that wealth would be multiplied. 
This was the period of racing and record- 
breaking. Even the peasants grew enthusias- 
tic. The first long-distance race of this pe- 

^ '■ Auto-car 

riod (Paris to Bordeaux and back, 745 miles) "^^cing. 
was won by M. Levassor, on a carriage built 
by himself, in 48 hours 48 minutes, a feat of 
endurance. M. Levassor did not take a min- 
ute's sleep or rest for two days and two nights. 
These three years, 1895 to 1898, were a period 
of boom for carriage builders, and though they 
charged fancy prices they could not meet the 
demands of purchasers. 

In the third period, from 1898 up till now, 
the weight, the speed, the power of carriages 
have increased every year, the peasant has 
been disappointed in his hopes, reckless driv- 
ing has become a national nuisance, the high- 
ways are getting dangerous, and accidents are 
happening daily. The peasants' attitude is 
now one of sullen hostility. Government and 
local authorities issue regulations against fast 
driving, and an order was issued (in 1900) 
which prohibits racing, except by special per- 
mission. 

The Paris-Berlin race on June 27, 28 and 
29, 1901, marks a triumph and a collapse. BeAin'Vaw. 
When the hundred and ten competitors started 



2432 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS 

from Champigny automobilism was still 
what it had been from the foundation of the 
Automobile Club — a sport. When the win- 
ners made their triumphal entrance into Unter 
den Linden it was a sport no longer, but 
a means of transportation. This evolution 
would have taken place sooner or later. A 
long time ago M. Giffard, the editor of the 
Veto, defined what automobilism should be in 
an epigram: "Non pas Sport, mais Trans- 
port." It was the running over the little boy 
at Rheims that precipitated the change. 

The future of Automobilism must be shaped 
on different lines from the past. Possibly it 

The future ..,..., 

of the was a necessity for the mfant mdustry to come 

automobile. J -' 

forward as a sport. To attempt to keep up 
this character any longer would, I think, in- 
jure instead of favoring that industry. The 
time is not far off when wealthy chauffeurs 
will be enthusiastic on something else. In the 
long run the best customers will be found in 
the easy middle class, but prices will have 
to be much lower than they are now. This 
would be impossible with present habits of 
excessive speed, and disregard for mechanical 
efficiency. It is just as well to give up the idea 
that auto-cars can compete with railways. 
Horseless carriages have been built which 
run faster than any express train; but electric 
trains can be made to outspeed either. 



THE CORONATION OF ALFONSO XIII. 

(A.D. 1902) 

RICHARD HARDING DAVIS 

THERE is a crown in Spain, but the 
King does not wear it. Unlike other 
monarchs, to become a king he does not 
have to wait until the crown is placed upon 
his head, but he is born a king. When, six- 
teen years ago, Alfonso the Thirteenth was 
passed around the ante-room to his mother's 
bed-chamber on a silver tray, robed simply in 
pink jeweller's cotton to be observed by the 
foreign ambassadors, he was then just as much 
of a king as when, in the Cortes, he laid his 
hand on the Bible and swore to observe the 
laws of his country. 

The oath he swore is this one: "I swear to 
God on the Holy Gospels to observe the Con- oath. '°^^ 
stitution and the laws. If I do this may God 
reward me, if not, may He call me to account." 
At the conclusion of this brief oath, which the 
boy recited in a firm, clear voice, some one 
cried, "Viva el Rey!" and the entire gathering 
shouted "Viva" once. It rang like a salute 
of musketry. 

There were a crown and sceptre on the 
table beside the King, but he did not touch 

(2483) 



2434 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1902 

them. The only other sign of a crown in the 
Coronation exercises was the one on the top 
of the carriage in which, after taking the oath, 
he rode from the Cortes to the Church of St. 
Francis to listen to the Te Deum. In this pro- 
cession there were twenty-three state coaches, 
the carriage of the King, known as the Coach 
of the Royal Crown, bringing up the rear. 
At the head of the procession were her- 
The Royal alds in mcdiaBval costume, mace-bearers, and 

procession. , , .,,.., , , 

mounted drummers with their silver kettle- 
drums flashing from either side of the pommel, 
grooms in white wigs, silk stockings and the 
court livery of three hundred years since, lead- 
ing Arabian horses, with their empty saddles 
of velvet and gold. Then the carriages of the 
grandees and the royal family. These were 
the state coaches. They rocked and swung on 
carved wheels, heavy with ormolu brass. The 
bodies were covered with enamel, tortoise- 
shell or gold leaf, on which were painted coats 
of arms and scenes and landscapes as exquisite 
as those on an ivory fan. The trappings were 
of red morocco and stamped Spanish leather. 
Postilions in jackets of gold lace rode the near 
leader of each of the six horses, a driver in a 
three-cornered hat and white wig was lost 
on a box-seat as large as a feather-bed and 
covered with a velvet hammer cloth. On the 
heads of the horses and on the tops of the 
coaches were dyed ostrich feathers and plumes 
of gold. The interior of the coaches was 



A.D. 19=2 THE CORONATION OP ALFONSO XIII. 2435 

lined with padded silk and satin. They re- 
sembled monster jewel cases on wheels, and as 
they moved slowly forward in the brilliant 
sunlight, and the horses tossed their plumes, 
and the jewel boxes rocked on their springs, 
they flashed like the fairy coach of Cinderella. 
In form, the Church of St. Francis is circu- 
lar, and surmounted by a great dome. With- 
out the six small chapels which open upon it, 
it is much the same size as the rotunda of the 
Capitol at Washington. It has a very modern 
air. It is lighted by electric lights, and looks 
as though it had been lately gilded. The 
paintings on the walls and in the dome also 
have a modern look, and suggest Bouguereau, 
when he is most like Bouguereau. It was here 
the King listened to the Te Deum, but, except 
for the wonderful music, the scene had less the 
suggestion of a religious ceremony in a cathe- 
dral than of an audience hall in a palace. 
The back of the church was almost entirely a theatn- 

Ceil scrvicy* 

hidden by royal princesses and the grandees, 
so that, instead of the altar, one saw only ti- 
aras, bare shoulders, epaulets, and decora- 
tions. And in the body of the church the 
priests and bishops were entirely lost in the 
crush of foreign princes, members of the em- 
bassies, captains-general, admirals, and diplo- 
mats. The ladies of Madrid, wearing black 
mantillas, were seated in an outer fringe 
against the walls. 

When the King entered the cathedral ten 



2436 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1902 

priests walked beside him, supporting over his 
head a canopy, heavy with silk and gold. 
But, not being in the habit of carrying cano- 
pies over kings, the priests allowed this one to 
droop and sometimes the fringe fell in front 
of the King's eyes and sometimes the canopy 
bumped him on the head. The Queen- 
Mother, who now, since within the last twenty 
minutes, followed behind the King, as she 
passed the tribune of the visiting strangers, 
could be heard expostulating with two priests, 
who were so overcome with stage fright that 
they were allowing their part of the canopy 
to brush the King's hair the wrong way. But 

hea«ed finally the King, when he was half-way down 
the aisle, dodged from under the canopy and 
walked on ahead of it, leaving the ten priests 
struggling with their burden and hurrying to 
recapture him from the rear. 

At the church the music of the Te Deum 
was the most impressive feature of the cere- 
mony. It swept from the choir loft, high 
over the heads of the people, across the great 

T^Sm.*" dome to the gallery opposite, where another 
chorus of voices and brass and string instru- 
ments rolled it back again. Only with an 
opera-glass was it possible to distinguish the 
singers and the musicians in the dome. They 
were so high above the people that the an- 
tiphonal chorus was like an artillery duel in 
the clouds. The music swept down out of the 
dark dome like a wave of thunder, silencing 



A.D. 1902 THE CORONATION OF ALFONSO XIII. 2437 

the whispering princesses before the altar and 
reaching even the impatient multitude wait- 
ing outside on the sunlit tribunes. It was 
glorious music, noble, magnificent, tremen- 
dous, and as the thunder ceased, and from 
the painted saints and angels in the dome a 
single tenor voice rose proudly and jubilantly, 
the little king ceased smiling at the wax which 
dripped from a candle upon the epaulets of 
his equerry and, with his mother at his side, 
dropped to his knees. 

The reception which followed the taking of 
the oath was notable chiefly on account of the 
beauty of the tapestries of the palace and of 
the decorations of its halls and corridors. It 
was also interesting on account of the shock 
it gave to visitors who had heard much of the 
strict etiquette of the Spanish court. To them 
itwas surprising to see the King and the Queen 
stepping from their dais and mixing in the 
crowd, talking and shaking hands with their Democratic 
Spanish friends. It looked much more demo- ^'"''^^'°''- 
cratic than a reception at the White House. 

The review of the troops was notable on 
account of the excellent showing made by the 
cavalry and artillery. The latter, who came 
at the end of the long procession, passed the 
tribunes at a trot, which was quickened into a 
gallop, the guns of each battery passing as 
though made of one piece and the cavalry 
keeping a line which one seldom sees outside 
of military tournaments. ^ , , 



THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD VII. 

(A.D. 1902) 

SIR GILBERT PARKER 

"/^■^UR Gracious King; we present you 

I I with this Book, the most valuable 

thing that this world afifords. Here 

is Wisdom; This is the Royal Law; These 

are the lively Oracles of God." 

These were the words uttered by the Dean 
of Westminster while handing the Sovereign 
of Great Britain and Ireland and all his Do- 
minions beyond the Seas the Holy Bible — the 
last act of the formal coronation of the King. 

The oath had been taken, the anointing had 
been done, the spurs and sword had been pre- 
sented, the armilla girded on and the Imperial 
coronation, mantlc had been hung upon the King's shoul- 
ders. The orb had been given into his hand. 
The ring, the ensign of royal dignity, had been 
placed upon his finger. He had received the 
sceptre, the ensign of kingly power and jus- 
tice. Solemnly he had been led to King Ed- 
ward the Confessor's chair, that ancient relic 
of England's sovereignty and might, and there 
the crown of pure gold had been put upon his 
head to a splendid outburst of acclamation, 
with the sounds of trumpets, while from out- 

(3438) 



A.D. I902 THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD VII. 2439 

side came faintly the booming of guns and the 
clanging of bells. But the presentation of the 
Bible touched a note which was sounding 
softly in millions of hearts in the land and was 
deeply characteristic of this gorgeous cere- 
mony — this tenderly religious service. 

There were greater moments, more pictu- 
resque incidents, in this noble drama of the 
English Constitution than this which I choose 
for the pivot of comment, but in the midst of 
glamour and pageantry and glittering form, 
the bare simplicity of the words, their grave 
significance, brought the great scene into 
homely relation with the innate religious sen- 
timent of this kingdom and this empire. 

With this act, as much as with the celebra- 
tion of the Holy Communion which followed, 
a great hush spread through this vast, beauti- 
ful temple, made even more beautiful by the 
thronging valor and intellect and nobility of 
an empire and consecrated by ages of solemn 
service and history to loftiest uses. 

This scene was in fine contrast to that which 
followed, when the King, seated on his throne Sfegi^ce. 
in the centre of the theatre on which the faith- 
ful Commons and their ladies, and the peers 
and peeresses of the realm, in robes of state, 
looked down, the Archbishop, as head of the 
spiritual lords, and the Dukes, as heads of each 
order of temporal peers, touched the crown 
worn by the King, kissed him upon the cheek 
and swore allegiance. 



2440 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1902 

Nothing was missing to give the scene its 
true meaning of thankfulness to Providence 
for the King's recovery and freedom from na- 
tional anxiety for further security of constitu- 
tional life and the disproof of all prognostica- 
tion. 

This made the service in the Abbey prob- 
ably the most notable event, not even excepting 
the Jubilee of Queen Victoria, which has ever 
taken place within its walls. 

The whole interior of the cathedral was 
Impressive wallcd with seats — in galleries, chancel, tran- 
theAbbiy. septs, aisles, and nave — like a theatre, and, 
strange to say, without marring its sacred ap- 
pearance and character. As far as eye could 
see, from altar to western door, the place was 
terraced high with people. Give some vast 
opera-house treble its size, lend it the unpur- 
chasable grandeur of architecture a thousand 
years old, make the people on the stage real 
people, a real king and queen and dukes and 
earls and heralds and kings-at-arms and stand- 
ard-bearers; conceive the event to be the his- 
tory of a people expressing itself at one solemn 
moment in ancient symbol and pious rite; see 
one man made the centre of the authority of 
the people, the expression of their will, the 
link in the chain of a nation's life which he 
himself did not make and can not destroy; 
surround him with brilliant, august ceremony; 
circle him with the heads of houses and fam- 
ilies of his kingdom as ancient as his own; 



A.D. I902 THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD VII. 2441 

place him thus high after a season of na- 
tional storm and stress, after he himself has 
struggled back gallantly from the grave to 
a people's confidence, admiration, regard, 
and fealty — and you have a picture unpar- 
alleled. 

How much prophecy has been proven false 
these past weeks, how much cheap clairvoy- Pessimistic 

^ ' r J prophecies. 

ance there has been, how many wise folk said 
Edward would never be crowned — that cheap 
superstition of human nature which hangs on 
the heels of the world's great events. 

Edward has been crowned. 

They said — the sallow harbingers of trouble 
— that the Coronation would not be worth go- 
ing to see. Had not all the foreign princes 
and potentates gone back again to their homes? 
Where would the splendor be had? So many 
of the Colonial and Indian troops returned 
whence they came. Was not the circle of im- 
perial demonstration broken? Had not every- 
body left town? The Abbey would not be 
full, they said. 

Well, what has happened? We did not 
miss the foreign princes and potentates, and 
the Colonial and Indian troops in large num- 
bers challenged the admiration and regard 
and applause of hundreds of thousands. 

Whatever else the people came out for, they 
came to see the prince whose life had lately 
hung in the balance and who in all his suffer- 
ing proved himself as good a fighter as any of 



2442 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1902 

his subjects, and they acclaimed him as a brave 
man in the streets even as they acclaimed 
Kitchener and Roberts. 

The foreign princes were missed — the 
show, the bravery of color, the international 
courtesy their presence would have expressed 
— for the people love kings and the livery of 
kings. 

But what was missing then was made up by 
teltL?"" the wonderful gladness of the subjects of the 
sovereign at seeing in the streets, in his gold 
and crystal coach, drawn by the gayly capar- 
isoned cream cobs, and on the throne in the 
Abbey in his imperial mantle, the sceptre in 
his hand, the King whose lamp of life burned 
but dimly a few weeks ago. 

How splendidly he bore the ceremony! 
There was no sign of weakness or feebleness. 
Alert, composed, watchful, steady of step and 
strong and clear in response. During the two 
and a half hours of ritual in the Abbey, his 
robes and mantles heavy on him, there was no 
sign of the fight he had had, of the illness 
from which he had risen, save that he looked 
rather thinner than of yore, was somewhat 
fine-drawn and something wistful. 

The Queen looked the more fragile, though 
she bore herself with a sweet, firm dignity 
and played her part with infinite grace, as did 
the Princess of Wales in her less important 
place in the proceedings. 

There were several touching incidents in 



A.D. 1902 THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD VII. 2443 

the ceremony, but one stands out very sug- 
gestively in the circumstances. When the 

^ -A touching 

Archbishop of Canterbury, whose wonderful '°^'«^^"'- 
voice could be heard in every part of the great 
building, had enthroned the King, with the 
help of the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, whose hereditary right it is 
to walk with the King and attend him at the 
Coronation, and had knelt and paid fealty, 
he swayed slightly and seemed unable to rise. 
He made an effort, and, with the help of the 
Bishops beside him, leaned over and kissed 
the King's cheek, according to ancient custom. 
Then he essayed to kiss the King's hand, and 
again he tottered with weakness and seemed 
about to fall. The King, with the quick kind- 
ness so natural to him, and regardless of his 
own recent weakness, caught the Archbishop's 
hand in his and assisted him to rise. Having 
done so, he kissed the Archbishop's hand 
gravely, and, still swaying and with great 
feebleness, the aged prelate moved slowly 
back to the altar, assisted by his attendants. 

Another moment of compelling interest 
came when the Prince of Wales advanced to 
the throne to pay allegiance. Having knelt 
he came and touched his father's crown and 
then kissed him on the cheek. The King 
thereupon drew him down and, taking his 
head in his hands, kissed it solemnly, then 
shook his hands warmly several times, both 
deeply moved, as were all who saw. None 



2444 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1902 

was ashamed to-day to feel the emotional 
flood welling up, for it came from a nation's 
soul. 

It was a family party, a great national 

^edfvivus. home-coming — England's redivivus. The 

motif of the centuries repeating itself in this 

new overture of another act in the brave 

drama of progress and civilization. 

Among those who were found in the pro- 
fJulLrep- cession of the King and Queen on this 9th of 
resented, ^yg^st wcTc familics whosc representatives 
have walked in similar processions since the 
Coronation day of Richard II. Then an Ed- 
mund Earl of Cambridge, a Richard Earl of 
Arundel, now Norfolk, an Earl of Warwick, 
an Earl of Stafford, and an Earl of Salisbury; 
a De Percy, now Duke of Northumberland, a 
De Neville and a Grey de Ruthin did duty at 
the Coronation. To-day, heads of these same 
families — save that of Salisbury — were on 
duty beside the King and were in the noble 
group around the throne. 

Conspicuous in this circle were the Duke 
of Devonshire, the Duke of Norfolk, Earl 
Marshal, the Duke of Leinster, the Duke of 
Abercorn, the Marquis of Conyngham, the 
Duke of Marlborough, the Duke of Fife, the 
Duke of Argyll, whose father was on duty at 
Queen Victoria's Coronation; the Marquis of 
Londonderry, the Red Earl, Earl Spencer. 
the Earl of Crawford, the Earl of Shrews- 
bury, the Earl of Derby, the Earl of Rose- 



A.D. I902 THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD VII. £445 

bery, the Earl of Errol, the Earl of Cadogan, 
the Earl of Lucan, the Earl of Pembroke, and 
Mr. Arthur Balfour, Prime Minister of Eng- 
land. 

Other names, once so familiar to English 
people, are no longer heard, though at Queen 
Victoria's Coronation they were royal titles; 
namely, the Dukes of Kent, Sussex, and 
Gloucester. 

To-day another name, another figure, was 
wanting to complete the circle and ancient ser- Absence of 

, , Salisbury. 

Vice and splendid history of the great families 
of England — Lord Salisbury was absent 
through indisposition. One looked in vain in 
the noble group about the throne, magnificent 
in robe and coronet, part of a pageant of 
an antique world, with its constant service, 
for the massive frame and gray head of this 
Minister, whose loss to the government will 
be more clearly and deeply felt as time goes 
on. Lord Cranborne, his son, sat with his 
Countess in a front seat of the House of 
Commons gallery, but he has far to go before 
he finds a place and power such as his father 
gained and kept to the last. No Minister at 
Queen Victoria's Coronation was like him in 
weight, or prestige, or ability. Lord Mel- 
bourne, the then Minister, was more the sort 
of man that Arthur Balfour, the present Prime 
Minister, is — keen, fine, persuasive, logical, 
and of imperturbable temper — and to-day, as 
one looked at England's Prime Minister— 



2446 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1902 

tall, slight, clear-cut, modest, and calm, by 
comparison with the resplendent peers around 
him, so simply dressed in gold-laced coat and 
white-satin breeches — one received a sharp 
impression of the change come upon the gov- 
ernment of the country. The younger men, 
the keener life, the less reserved, form the less 
impressive personalities, but perhaps a closer 
touch with the quick-changing temper and 
swift movements of public life of the twen- 
tieth century. 

This impression was sharpened by seeing 
in the choir, among the Diplomatic Corps, 
thcMfnTstry the tall, Still dignified figure of the Chancel- 
lor of the Exchequer, Sir Michael Hicks- 
Beach, whose successor was announced this 
morning; by the sight of the Duke of Devon- 
shire, whose successor was also named to-day. 
Salisbury, Devonshire, Hicks-Beach — the 
oldest and best of those who have served the 
state — they go forever, no doubt, and it was 
meet that two of them at least should add to 
the meaning and majesty of to-day's great 
function by their presence. 

Besides the group about the throne, among 
whom the Duke of Argyll was a most stately 
figure, and to whom the King handed his 
sceptre to hold during the Communion Ser- 
vice — an act of great royal favor — there were 
other groups splendid to see. Was it the oc- 
casion itself? Was it the lofty drama and 
ancient pageantry, the costumes and regalia 



A.D. 1902 THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD VII. 2447 

of old heroic days, the heralds, the trumpets, 
the exquisite pages, the ritual which began 
when the kings of ancient Britain were con- 
secrated and was carried on with increasing 
form and the same substance to Harold and 
William and Richard I. and Elizabeth and 
Charles, even to this day — was it any or all of 
these that made all the personages who took 
part in the ceremony bear themselves with such 
grace and befitting dignity, and made urbane 
and harmonious this play of plays, this solemn 
ratification of a nation's choice of kings? For 
he was chosen, duly elected by the people to- 
day, as has been the case since the olden days 
when the king to be crowned shut himself up 
in the Tower of London after succession, lest a solemn 
he might be dispossessed, until the Corona- 
tion, when he was solemnly elected by the 
people — and it was so to-day. King Edward 
was elected by the people: 

"Sirs, I here present unto you King Ed- 
ward, the undoubted King of this Realm; 
wherefore, all you who are come this day to 
do your homage, are you willing to do the 
same?" said the Archbishop of Canterbury in 
a voice heard distinctly to the western door; 
and a great shout, led by the massed choris- 
ters, cried, "God save King Edward!" fol- 
lowed by a fanfare of trumpets. 

This election has a greater significance in 
the democratic England of to-day than even 
in the days of King John, when Archbishop 



2443 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1902 

Hubert Waller insisted on his election that he 
might avoid the responsibility of crowning 
Popular- such a man. Kings exist in England by vir- 
Gueiph^s^ tue of heredity, but they also exist by virtue of 
Act of Parliament, as witness the passing of 
the Stuarts and the advent of the Guelphs. 

In old days a king was not really a king 
until he was elected and crowned, and so it 
was that eldest sons were sometimes crowned 
in the father's lifetime to avoid an interreg- 
num. Such days have gone, and the Guelphs 
have nothing to fear at the hands of rival dy- 
nasties or from the will of the people. They 
are at last firmly allied with the history of the 
land and are close to the hearts of the people. 
With all their faults and mistakes, they have 
been, on the whole, beloved. Even George 
IV. was immensely popular and to his last 
day could command the enthusiasm of the 
man in the street; and to-day the royal family 
showed to noble advantage. Over thirty 
Guelphs walked up the long aisle and through 
the great rood screen into the chancel and 
choir to take their places nearest to the throne, 
and royal grace and noble carriage marked 
their deportment throughout. Slow and 
stately they moved through the historic fane 
— Princess Christian, Princess Louise, Prin- 
cess Henry of Battenberg, the Crown Princess 
of Roumania, the Duchess of Fife, the 
Princess Charles of Denmark, the Duchess 
of Sparta, the Princess Victoria of Wales, 



a.D. 1902 THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD VII. 2449 

and those other noble relatives, the Duchess 
of Albany and the Duchess of Connaught, not . 
less regal. Both come from kindred stock to 
the Guelphs. 

So wonderfully was everything timed that 
in this varied and complex panorama every ^J°^j^]^^^'* 
figure drew to its place, moved in its orbit 
with noble precision and grave accord. Nor 
were the young royalties behind their elders. 
The children of Princess Christian, of Prin- 
cess Henry of Battenberg and the Duke of 
Connaught, smiling and composed, glided 
through the great vista of blue and gold, the 
cynosures of thousands of eyes, a long, grace- 
ful line which radiated in the sanctuary to 
high-appointed places. 

No figure of them all was more revered 
than the Duke of Cambridge, none more be- 
loved than the Duke of Connaught — thor- 
ough, efficient soldier, quiet, high-minded 
gentleman, the King's right hand — but for 
the Princess May, now Princess of Wales, 
grown more princely with responsible years, 
and for George, Prince of Wales, straight- 
forward, honest, shrewdly intellectual, become 
more royal of mien since his tour round the 
world; for the little manly Prince Edward 
of York — a future king also — was reserved 
an applause which meant more than the vivat-f 
vivat! vivatl of the choir, or the music of Sir 
Frederick Bridge, Sir Walter Parratt, or Sir 
Villiers Stanford, to whom honor is due for 



2450 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. rjw 

an exquisite and noble service of music, and 
particularly to Sir Frederick Bridge. 

The cheering in the cathedral rivalled that 
"God save spotttancous outburst of "God save the King!" 
started in the great stands outside the Abbey 
as the King issued from the west door and en- 
tered his state carriage with Queen Alexan- 
dra. The hymn poured down from those 
high-terraced pavilions, with their medieval 
form and structure and their antique hatch- 
ments, and was carried on to the Houses of 
Parliament stands and so on up Whitehall 
and on to the doors of Buckingham Palace. 
It was thought, in 1838, a wonderful thing 
that seats for the procession sold at two-and- 
sixpence and three shillings; to-day they sold 
from one to ten guineas. Then it was noted 
that the ladies took off their bonnets as Queen 
Victoria passed. To-day, if they did not take 
ofif their bonnets, they wore their hearts on 
their sleeves, and»sang and cheered and waved 
their handkerchiefs as bravely as the men. 

There never was a more orderly crowd, 
never were arrangements carried out more 
Excellent Satisfactorily. Everything worked without a 
S.^^* hitch, and inside, the Abbey there was the 
most absolute comfort and the machinery 
worked as though it had been going ten years, 
so splendidly had the Duke of Norfolk and 
Lord Esher arranged everything and drilled 
all the officials concerned. In every sense the 
thing went on wheels. 



A.D. I902 THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD VII. 2451 

Taking it all in air, the most striking re- 
membrance I have of this pageant ceremony 
and national rejoicing is the moment when the 
crown was placed on the King's head and all 
the peers stood up and put their coronets on 
their own heads with as much precision and 
to as fine a dramatic effect as though they 
had been drilled by line sergeants. 

But finer still was the scene when the crown 
was placed on the Queen's head and all the 
peeresses rose in their places and put their 
coronets on — hundreds upon hundreds of 
duchesses, marchionesses, countesses, and 
ladies in scarlet and ermine and ablaze with 
jewels, bared arms raised, adjusting the scar- 
let and gold circlets upon their heads behind 
the radiant tiaras they already wore. 

My last impression is of the King walking 
slowly down the chancel, with the orb andpr^i^M. 
sceptre in his hand, moving with an assured 
step and bowing to right and left, his purple 
robe carried by many pages, his crown glis- 
tening in the gaslight from the dark old pil- 
lars of the Abbey. The after view of him in 
his state carriage driving away with his Queen, 
affable and royal of mien, does not efface the 
other picture of him, proud and satisfied, met 
by a storm of cheers, as he made his way into 
the outer world of work and cares and high 
responsibility. 



I 



THE PONTIFICATE OF POPE LEO XIII. 

(A.D. 1878—1903) 



T 



VICOMTE E. M. DE VOGUE 

HE gigantic and venerable palace of 
the Vatican, heavy with its burden 
of ages, and of memories, has grow^n 
under the shadow of St. Peter like the 
monumental form of the Church. It sends 
Vatican. ^^^ roots down into the tomb of the Apostle; 
its deep foundations mingle with those of 
the Basilica, extend to the Crypt of the 
Fisherman. From these catacombs the build- 
ings have risen step by step, until they 
dominate the whole city with their topmost 
story, where are distributed to-day the apart- 
ments of the Sovereign Pontiff and of the 
Secretariat of State. A continual impulse 
of history seems to have carried the Pope 
to this height. In the evening, from the 
depth of the interior court, his lamp may be 
seen shining like a beacon. But between 
the successor of Peter who lives high up 
there, and the hidden bones from which he 
derives the reason of his existence, commu- 
nication has never been broken. The chain 
of age stretches from its origins to this sum- 
mit; it is perceptible to the eyes, and the mind 

(2452) 



Traditional 



A.D. 1878-1903 THE PONTIFICATE OF POPE LEO XIII. 2453 

discovers it on each of the steps by which one 
mounts upward in this labyrinth of marble 
and of travertine. 

The traditional rites of the Vatican ordain 
that the Pope who has just died should pass rftes. 
one night in the Sistine Chapel. Suspended 
in the case of Pius IX. from force of circum- 
stances, this ceremony will without doubt re- 
appear. Let us transport ourselves in imagi- 
nation to that coming night of funeral watch- 
ings, before the Last Judgment of the sub- 
lime Florentine. He who wore the tiara lies 
at full length beneath the gaze of the sibyls 
and the prophets, on the most august altar 
whence a last vision of the world could be 
outspread. The history of humanity, painted 
by Michael Angelo, surrounds him. Above 
him our globe is outlined in space, sadly 
Adam emerges at the foot of the mountain 
which he must climb, the symbolic scenes in 
which the life of the sons of Adam is sum- 
marized cover the arches and the walls up to 
Christ the Judge, who calls the multitudes 
out of the tombs. Piety, genius, the accumu- 
lated emotion of men of every race, — every- 
thing conspires to create in the Sistine Chapel 
an atmosphere which enlarges and fertilizes 
the thoughts. 

I recall this personage, twenty-one years 
ago, in this same Sistine Chapel, at the mo- 
ment when the cardinals brought him there 
on the sedia gestatoria, the chosen of the con- 



Election of 
Leo XIII. 



2454 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1878-1903 

clave of 1878. I was there. Outside the 
Sacred College no one knew this septuagena- 
rian who had been imprisoned for thirty-two 
years in the mountains of Umbria. He passed 
from his bishopric of Perugia to the seclusion 
of the Vatican like a fugitive shadow among 
shadows; among those other aged men who 
celebrated his elevation with little ado, with 
obsolete ceremonies, in the narrow inclosure 
and the half light of the Sistine; timid and 
enfeebled under the evil of the time, they had 
not dared to bring forth their chosen in the 
basilica of St. Peter's, with the concourse of 
the people and the accustomed pomp. The 
darkness of the place, the limited company, 
that air of efifacement and almost of mystery 
— everything led the thoughts back to the first 
enthronements of the Popes in the Catacombs. 
A lowly beginning, foreshadowing little. Pius 
beginning, jx., whosc Hfc had been so eventful, left an 
abounding fame and a great void; the de- 
spoiled Papacy seemed to be engulfed with 
him. The heir without a heritage who was 
shown to us had a look of weakness, and his 
title to fame was still discussed. His corona- 
tion seemed to us a simulacrum of vanished 
realities, the elevation of a phantom. And 
these were the years when the shadow of the 
Cross on the w^orld was growing less. How 
deceptive is a hasty judgment! We took away 
from that ceremony the impression of a thing 
that was coming to an end. The early years 



A lowly 



A.D. 1878-1903 THE PONTIFICATE OF POPE LEO XIII. 2455 

of his Pontificate, condemned to an attitude 
of discraet protest, did nothing to correct our 
mistake. 

Leo XIII. did not reveal himself by pre- 
cipitate action, like other sovereigns one could 
name who have fascinated men's minds at the 
first blow. His lofty stature rose gradually on 
the horizon with the calm of ereat forces. ^ ^ , 

o Gradual 

Little by little his form became clearer and frpowen 
more precise. I found it already very clearly 
marked when I returned to Rome in 1886. 
However, it had not even then reached its 
true pedestal. The new Pope had been rec- 
ognized as a masterly philosopher, and a di- 
plomatist of rare versatility; it was enough 
to give him a great place for his Papal letters 
and in the Almanach de Gotha,^ — too little 
to give him the first place in the world. At 
this moment the Curia was the centre of very 
active negotiations, which recalled the fine 
old times of ecclesiastical policy, but which 
did not presage a new epoch. The dominant 
influences at the Vatican were obstinately pur- 
suing a dream; they were seeking the inde- 
pendence necessary to the Holy See in a res- 
toration of the ancient territorial sovereignty; 
they were putting their hopes in another 
dream, the accord with Germany, the effec- 
tive intervention of Prince Bismarck. It is 
well known what disillusions awaited the Ro- 
man negotiators on that score. 

Leo XIII. understands that the basis and 



2456 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1878-1903 

the true guarantee of the Holy See are in the 
p^Hcy hearts of Catholic peoples and in the involun- 
tary respect of non-Catholics. The Pope con- 
tinues to negotiate with governments, he deals 
v^ith them prudently; but the mainspring of 
his policy, more evident every day, is in his 
appeal to the peoples. Each of his acts re- 
veals his increasing absorption in the task of 
conciliating the French and American de- 
mocracies in order to base his action on 
those two wide foundations. 

From the day when Leo XIII. inaugu- 
rated this policy he became the first man of 
Europe. Since the death of William I. of 
Germany, little by little, in the popular 
imagination, he took the place which that 
other old man had occupied. Twenty years 
ago no hesitation would have been permis- 
sible to a conscientious and intelligent painter, 
commissioned to group in a picture the lead- 
ing personages of Europe. He would have 
set up in the centre the colossal figure of the 
old German Emperor. Ten years later the 
same painter again would not have hesitated: 
his composition would have arranged itself 
round Pope Leo XIII. 

Whence comes this general consensus of 

imagination? First, from the incomparable 

His prestige of that position: a king without a 

prestige. 1 • j . 

kmgdom, yet more powerful than territorial 
sovereigns. Next, it comes from a proof of 
intellectual force of which the very expres- 



A.D. 1878-1933 THE PONTIFICATE OF POPE LEO XIII. 2457 

sion seems a guarantee. This old man had 
only made one brief appearance in the out- 
side world — during his Nunciate at Brussels, 
more than half a century ago. After that he 
lived for thirty years in the retirement of his 
bishopric of Perugia, and for twenty-five years 
in the walled solitude of the Vatican, where 
he was surrounded by a little society unre- 
sponsive to any innovation. Of the strangers 
who come to him, some are dumb out of awe, 
while the others have every interest in dis- 
torting the truth. No condition can be im- 
agined better adapted for concealing from a 
man the changes of his epoch; and no epoch 
has seen changes more profound or more rad- 
ical. 

The Encyclicals, the canonical documents, 
are not the most significant demonstrations of "cu^aiV 
this Pontificate; acts not less remarkable, both 
fundamentally and formally, have been the 
communications given by the Pope to news- 
papers, to popular journals like those of 
our own Petit Journal. The more we reflect 
upon these conversations, the more we find 
there, in every word, the wish to enlarge, as 
much as the Pope can do, the range of free 
movement for the societies of our time. The 
Church had not used this language at all 
since the great days of the Middle Ages. If 
I have employed in this study the word "in- 
novations," it is that I may fall in with the 
current point of view; in reality Leo XIII. 



2458 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1878-1903 

takes up to-day the traditions which were 
sleeping for several centuries. He follows 
jjjg the general movement; all the living forces 

Kesa of our times are aroused toward this past 
which comes to life again: the Pope like 
the Russian and German Emperors and the 
heads of the workmen's organizations like 
other disinterested thinkers. Those who are 
shocked at an "Interview with the Pope," 
ought first of all to ask themselves how a 
Hildebrand, an Innocent, or a Sixtus V. 
would have acted to-day. Like this successor 
of theirs who becomes their equal, they would 
take the weapons of their time, they would 
descend into the public arena and speak di- 
rectly to the peoples, to plead their cause, to 
gain souls, to save humanity. Whatever has 
seemed daring and new in the Pope of the 
Nineteenth Century is only a return to the 
ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas, the mighty 
philosopher who gave, so f arback as the Thir- 
teenth Century, the same directions for the 
conduct of societies and of the human mind. 
Leo XIII. sets forth their natural conse- 
quences, with the gentle obstinacy and the 
calm prudence which form the basis of his 
character. No one will refuse the epithet of 
liberal to a Pope who has stretched the rigid 
Roman unity to the utmost possible limits 
every time that a particular right demanded 
satisfaction. 



THE NILE DAM AT ASSOUAN 

(A.D. 1903) 

FRANK FAYANt 

THE First Cataract of the mighty Nile, 
which has roared and thundered 
through the ages, has been taken cap- 
tive by English engineers. From out of the 
red granite quarries, where the ancient Egyp- 
tians, by patient and persistent toil, hewed ^^f*i^^ 
their eternal monuments, a million tons ofcauract 
stone has been taken to dam the cataract. For 
four years an army of men has labored to erect 
a great granite wall to bind the turbulent 
floods that rush 3,500 miles through Africa 
from the Equatorial lakes to the Mediterra- 
nean. The shriek of construction engines, the 
pounding of restless pumps, the rattling of . 
powerful cranes, has awakened the Land of 
the Pharaohs. The cataract of seven thou- 
sand summers has been blotted off the world's 
map, and in its stead has been created, by the 
genius of Twentieth Century engineering, a 
mighty reservoir, that sets back between the 
hills of Upper Egypt for 200 miles, storing a 
milliard tons of water. 

(2459) 



24G0 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a. d. 1903 

And why have men toiled and spent mil- 
lions of treasure to raise this mile-long wall in 
the heart of dried-up Egypt? Is there some- 
thing in the atmosphere of the ancient land 
that compels men to quarry the rock and raise 
monuments that will endure to the end of 
time? Without the Nile, Egypt would be as 
barren as the Great Desert. With the great 
river, fertile Egypt is but an elongated oasis, 
green I'iTie a thin sTCcn line on either side of the stream, 

of ftitihty. ° ' 

from Alexandria up into the heart of Central 
Africa. This thin green line in the days of 
the ancients made Egypt the garden and gran- 
ary of the world. And for thirty centuries 
men have struggled to widen this line. But 
all the mighty undertakings of the past — the 
building of dykes to bind the floods, the rais- 
ing of great walls to hold them back, the dig- 
ging of canals and basins to lead the water to 
the parched fields — have been but pigmy ef- 
forts compared to this last work, which, at a 
single stroke, increases the national wealth by 
£80,000,000. 

For water is gold to Egypt. In flood it 
Value of rushes to the sea at the rate of ic,ooo tons a 
second, and 10,000 men are called out to 
drive it on. But when the crops are grow- 
ing, the Nile is but a brook coursing through 
the rocks, and the law lays rough hands on the 
peasant farmer who, under shadow of the 
night, dips out an extra bucketful of drink for 
his thirsty crops. Now modern engineering 



water. 



A.D. .903 THE NILE DAM AT ASSOUAN 2461 

attempts to save some of the summer flood, 
that the cotton and grain may not shrivel up 
in the torrid sun of the spring. It is cotton 
that makes modern Egypt a living land, for 
Egyptian cotton is known over the world as 
the best cotton grown. England has under- 
taken this great irrigation work in Egypt — 
of which the new dam at Assouan and the new 
barrage at Assiout are but the beginnings — 
because England is vitally interested in the 
cotton trade. 

Cotton is the backbone of the commerce of , 

Importance 

England. From around the world — from°^'°"°"- 
the Southland of America, from Brazil and 
Peru, from far-away India, from the country 
of the Nile — a mighty fleet of merchantmen 
is bringing to Liverpool the harvest of many 
millions of acres of cotton fields. The vora- 
cious spindles and looms of Lancashire use a 
third of the cotton crop of the world. Eng- 
land, thousands of miles from the nearest cot- 
ton fields, weaves cotton for the world. The 
plodding Egyptian, with watchful eye on the 
rising flood of the great river, tends his crops 
in a garment made, perhaps, from cotton he 
picked the season before; but the workers who 
made the cloth were in far-off England. 

The first cotton mill is yet to be erected in 
Egypt, but, with the added impetus given to 
Egyptian industry by the great engineering 
now being developed, it will not be long be- 
fore agricultural Egypt will become manu- 



2-162 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1903 

facturing Egypt; and the long staple of the 
Nile Valley will be spun and woven in Egyp- 
tian mills by Egyptian labor. 

English financiers have the strongest faith 
in the future of Egypt. For centuries Egypt 

Finances of was practically a bankrupt country, but within 
the past few years, under able English admin- 
istration, the finances of Egypt have been 
placed on a solid foundation. The best proof 
of this is found in the daily market quota- 
tions of Egyptian Government securities. The 
one man who may be well called the Finan- 
cier of Egypt is Sir Ernest Cassel. 

Sir Ernest Cassel's greatest work in Egypt 

cierofthe has bccu thc financing of the new dam. For 

dam. o 

years Egyptian engineers have gone up and 
down the Nile Valley projecting on paper 
wonderful schemes of irrigation. Lakes have 
been formed, canals dug, and great barrages 
thrown across the river — all on paper. All 
of these fine schemes, which proposed to turn 
the desert into a garden, were brought before 
the Egyptian Government, and the rulers ap- 
plauded the engineers. But, when it came 
to providing funds for the carrying out of 
England thcsc plans for the saving of Egypt, the gov- 
ernment was silent. Although Egypt is now 
on a sound financial footing, its financial ar- 
rangements are most chaotic. Nominally the 
vassal state of the Sultan of Turkey, the inde- 
pendence of Egypt is guaranteed by the Pow- 
ers; but the financial administration is prac- 



A.D. I903 THE NILE DAM AT ASSOUAN 2463 

tically controlled by England. When Sir 
Benjamin Baker, the distinguished English 
engineer of the Forth Bridge and the Central 
London Railway, placed before the Egyptian 
Government an engineering plan for the dam- 
ming of the Nile at two points — six hundred, 
and two hundred and fifty miles, respectively 
— above Cairo, the government gave its ap- 
proval to the scheme, which involved the ex- 
penditure of several million sterling. But 
the government was not able to pay for the 
work, except by small payments extending 
over a long period of years, and not begin- 
ning until the dams were in actual operation. 
Undaunted, Sir Benjamin Baker went to 
his friend. Sir Ernest Cassel, and told himla. 
that several million sterling was needed to 
dam the Nile, and would he advance it? The 
engineer assured the banker that the project 
would be of inestimable benefit to Egypt, and 
that the two dams would rapidly pay for 
themselves in the greatly increased revenue 
they would bring to the Egyptian Government 
in water taxes. It did not take the banker 
long to decide. Four days later a contract 
had been signed with Sir John Aird, who is 
probably the greatest contractor in England 
to-day, to build the two dams within five 
years. Sir Ernest Cassel agreed to pay the 
contractor for the work as it was carried on, 
and an agreement was made with the Egyp- 
tian Government, by which payment for the 



E. 
Cassel's 
enterprise. 



2464 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1903 

work will be made to Sir Ernest Cassel in an 
annuity of £160,000 a year, the first payment 
to be made in July, 1903. That the Egyp- 
tian Government will not only be able to pay 
the annuity, but will profit immensely by the 
new dams, is more than assured by the fact 
that the barrage at Assiout, already in opera- 
tion, is now earning enough to pay the entire 
annuity. 

The dam at Assouan is a dam such as was 

dc'l^fuTdam. never projected before. To build a great wall 
across an ordinary stream is merely a matter 
of labor, but to throw up a dam in the heart 
of a Nile cataract is a daring engineering 
undertaking. 

"We had no idea of the difficulties we were 

fng^'im-' to meet," said Sir Benjamin Baker to the 
writer, in describing the work at Assouan, 
"We were greatly hampered in the work at 
the beginning because of the uncertainties of 
the river bed. We had to crush one turbulent 
channel after another, to enable our thousands 
of workmen to go down into the bed of the 
river to excavate for the foundation. This 
work had to be done at High Nile to enable 
us to begin excavating as soon as the Nile sub- 
sided. In closing a channel, we first threw 
ton after ton of granite blocks into the cata- 

Rubbieand ^^^^> and thcu we pitched in trainloads of 

'^"'*- rock, trucks and all. Gradually the rubble 
mound rose above the surface of the water. 
After the flood had subsided we banked this 



A.D. I903 THE NILE DAM AT ASSOUAN 2465 

rock wall with many thousand bags of sand. 
What a task we had to get those bags! We 
used eight million, and we had to search all 
Europe for them. When the floods rose again 
we anxiously watched the excavation ditch 
protected by these walls of rock and sand 
bags. We had a score of great pumps ready 
to draw out the water should it rush in, but 
so well had our sudds been constructed that 
two pumps were as many as we needed. 

"When we finally got to work in earnest in 
the bed of the river, we found the task was a 
more formidable one than we had imagined. 

rr'i I • 1 1 • Rotten rock 

1 he rock m many places was such as no engi- bed. 
neer would think of building a dam upon. It 
was rotten rock that crumbled into sand under 
the pick. We worked down yard after yard 
looking for solid rock, and in some places we 
had to go forty feet below the bed of the river 
to find it. This enormous excavation, of 
course, greatly increased the cost of the work. 
When I saw that we would practically have 
to excavate a deep ditch through the river bed 
to get to solid rock, I told Lord Cromer I did 
not know how much it would cost, but it would 
be done. Lord Cromer said, 'Go ahead!' " 

The work was carried on night and day 
through the winter and spring before the flood 
came rushing down the valley. An army of 
native labor was thrown into the ditch. At 

. Number of 

one time 13,000 men were at work on the As- '^^i''^^^- 
souan dam. Despite the unexpected engi- 



24:66 THE WORLD'S GREAT EVENTS a.d. 1903 

neering difficulties, the work has actually been 
completed a year ahead of time. 

If private companies could go into Egypt, 
build great dams and irrigation works, and 
receive the revenue that they would earn, all 
the Morgans and Carnegies and Rothschilds 
would be rushing ofif to Egypt to build dams; 
for a dam in Egypt is a bigger money-maker 
than an Atlantic steamship line, or a steel 
works, or a beef combine. Lord Cromer 
roughly estimates that the dam at Assouan, 
which has cost about £2,500,000, will increase 
the agricultural earning power of Egypt by 
avenue. £2,6oo,ooo cvcry year. That is, the Assouan 
dam. High Nile or Low Nile, will pay for its 
entire construction every year. Lord Cromer 
estimates that the actual increase in the gov- 
ernment revenue, because of an irrigation of 
an added 1,600,000 acres of land, will be 
£380,000; so that the Assouan dam will not 
only pay twice over the annuity of £160,000, 
but it will give a surplus of £2,500,000 a year 
to the country. 




en 

o 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abarbanel, offers ransom for Jews, 1015 

Abbasides, rise of the, 611 

Abdallab, negotiates for surrender, 1005 

surrenders Granada, 1006, 1009 
Abdelaziz, conquests of, 602 
Abd-el-Kader, 1991, 1998 
Abderrahman, 605, 606, 607, 610 
Abel, 26 

Abercromby, General, 1630 
Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 1852, 1856 
Abillius, 117 
Aboukir Bay, 1825 
Abraham, 29, 27> 49 
Abruzzi, Duke of, 2397 
Abu Bekr, 575, 579, 580 
Abu Talib, 574, 575 
Abyssinia and Italy, 2280, 2287 
Academy of Berlin founded, 1490 
Accad, 47, 54 
Achaia, 397, 404, 405 
Achean captives, 398, 399 

League, 357, 397, 399, 401 
Acheans join Rome, 381 

break with Rome, 400, 401 
Achmet III., 1818, 1819 
Acre, capture of, 720 

siege of, 723, 724, 794 

capture of, 727 

capture of, by Mamelukes, 794 

the Polos visit, 806 

Bonaparte at, 1837 

British defence of, 1840, 1842, 1844 

siege raised, 1846, 1847 

besieged by Ibrahim, 1998 
Act of Uniformity, 1285 
Actium, battle of, 424, 429 
Adam, fall of, 25 , 

Adams, John Quincy, speech of, 2181 
Adams, Samuel, 1668, 1678 
Adelheid, Queen, 653 
Aden, 2006 

Adowa, battle of, 2285, 2286 
Adrian, persecution of Christians under, 

477, 478 
Adrian VI. becomes Pope, 1136 
Adrianople, Peace of, 1976, 1978 
Aetius, bravery and tactics of, 540, 541 
Afghanistan, 1600, 2006 

invasions of, 2258, 2273 
Agathias, 60 
Agesilaus, 301 

Agincourt, battle of, 929, 931 
Agordat, battle of, 2282, 2283 
Agrarian laws, 261 
Agricola, 496 



Agriculture, improvements in, 2077, 2078 

Agrippa, 424, 426, 485 

Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, 453 

poisons Claudius, 473 
Aguilar, Don Alfonso, 1074 
Ahriman, 61, 62 
Ahura, 62, 64 
Aignadel, battle of, 1078 
Air ships, 241 1, 2412 
Aistulf, the Lombard, attacks Rome. 6i<;. 

616 
Akbar, youth of, 1191, 1192 

humanity of, 1192 

wars of, 1 1 92 

toleration of, 1193 

religion of, 1194 

establishes a new era, 1195 

conquests of, 1266 
Akron and Romulus, combat of, 118, 1 19 
Alaric, 531 

attacks Roman Empire, 535 
Alaska, 2219 
Alba, 112 

Albany, settlement at, 1332 
Alberoni, 1540 

Albert of Brandenburg, 11 68 
Albert, the Constable d', 927 
Albert (son of Rodolph), tyranny of, 

813 
Albert Edward Nyanza, Lake, discov- 
ered, 2297 
Albert, speech of Prince, 2063, 2065 
Albigenses, the, 753, 755 

destroyed, 759 
Alboin, King of the Lombards, 569 
Alcibiades, treason of, 286 -iZ; 
Alcmseonids, the, 213, 214 
Alcolea, battle of, 2233, 22^4 
Alemanni invade Gaul, Spain, and Africa, 
S09 

driven from Gaul, 534 
Aleppo, occupied by Mamelukes, 794 
Alexander of Macedon, 336 

conquests of, 336, 337 

at Arbela, 342, 343, 352 

crosses the Euphrates, 344 

precautions of, 345, 347 

generalship of, 348, 349 

death of, 356 

kingdom of, 356 
Alexander, son of Cleopatra, 417 
Alexander the Syrian, 427 
Alexander, Pope, flight of, 720 
Alexander V., Pope, 914 
Alexander VI., Pope, 1035, ioS4 

grants for exploration, 1343, 1344 
(2467) 



2468 



INDEX 



Alexander VI., Pope, suspends Savona- 
rola from preaching, 1058 
Alexander I. of Russia, 1889, i943. 

1944, 1966 
Alexander II. of Russia, 2110, 2152 

murdered, 2273 
Alexandria (Egypt), 336, 407 

French fleet at, 1825, 1826 
Alexandrine War, the, 414 
Alexis, 711, 712 
Alexius, Prince, 735 

Mourzoufle becomes Emperor, 740 
Alfonso XII. of Castile, compiles as- 
tronomical tables, 778 
Alfonso XII., King of Spain, 2234, 2257 
Alfonso XIII., coronation of, 2433 
Alfred the Great, accession of, 626 

King of Wessex, 629 
Alfric, Earl of Mercia, 659 
Alfric the traitor, 665 
Algeria, captured by the French, 2127 
Algerian piracies, beginning of, 1104 
Algiers, conquest of, 1986, 1998 
Alhambra, surrender of the, 1007, 1008 
Ali, Mohammed's follower, 575, 576 
Allen, Ethan, 1691 
Alleghenies, settlements beyond the, 

1 60 1, 1602 
AUia, battle of the, 310 
Alliance of Thebes and Athens, 331 

of Venice, Rome, and Spain, 1227, 
1228 
Alma, battle of the, 2100 
Almeida discovers Ceylon, 1076 
Almohades, fall of the, 742 
Almonte, General, 2172, 2173, 2174 
Alp Arslan, conquests of, 702, 703 
Alphege, 665 

Alphonso II. of Naples, 1035, 1040 
Alpuj arras, rebellion in, 1071, 1073 
Altis, the, 104 
Alva, 1224, 1236, 1237 

in the Netherlands, 1236, 1238 
leaves the Netherlands, 1240 
Alviano,_ Bartolomeo, d', 1078 
Al Zegri, conversion of, 1069, 1070 
Amboise, Cardinal, 1077 
Ambrose, St., 532 
American army, 1703 
American congress, first, 1682 

congress, first, Chatham on, 1679, 

1680 
congress, second, 1692 
Amiens, award of, 785 
treaty of, 1149 
peace of, 1853 
Amphictyonic Council, the, 323, 326, 327 
Anabaptists, revolt of the, 11 68 
Anacreon, 210 
Anaesthetics, 2207 
Ananda, 133 

Anderida, fall of fortress of, 554 
Andre, Major, hanged, 1716 
Andredsweald, destruction of, 554 
Andree, 2327 

Andrew, King of Hungary, 772 
Andriscus, 400 
Angel to the Shepherds, chapel of the, 

431, 432 
Anghiari, battle of, 951 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, quoted, 662, 665 



Angra Mainyu, 63 
Anjou, Duke of, 1267, 1268 
Anna Comnena, 633, 706 
Annam, 2287 

Anne of Austria, 1390, i393. i394 
Anne, Queen of England, accession of, 

1496 
Anne, Czarina of Russia, 1571, 1579 
Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, 629 
Antarctic expedition, 2015 
Anti-Corn Law League, 2002 
Antioch, battle of, 514 

capture of, 714, 715 

taken by Mamelukes, 794 
Antiochus III. of Syria, 381 
Antiseptics, 2207, 2210 
Antiseptic surgery, 2206 
Antonina, wife of Belisarius, 565 
Antonias (Cleopatra's galley), 420, 421 
Antony, 414 

plans war against the Medes, 415 

preparations for war. 419 

fleet, 419, 421 

allies, 421 

dominions, 421 

challenges Caesar, 422 

ruse, 423 

flight, 427, 428 

death, 430 
Antwerp, sack of, 1241 

massacre in, 1244 
Aollius, 117 

Apis, Bull, killed by Cambyses, 204 
Apollo, 72, 73 

worship of, 44 

hymn to, 72 
Apostle of the Indians, 1091 
Apparition of St. Peter and St. Paul, 

543 
Apparitions at Salarais, 256 
Appius Claudius, 265 

Herdonius, 262 
Appomattox, Lee's surrender at, 2206 
Apulia, Hannibal at, 358 

seized, 633 
Aquileia besieged by Attila, 536, 538 
Aquitaine, conquered by Clovis, 561 
Arab tactics, 585 
Arabian caliphs, the, 582 
Arabian Empire in Spain, fall of the, 

loos, lOIO 
Arabi Pasha, 2279 
Arabs, conquests of the, 590, 591, 594 

besiege Constantinople, 603 

invade France, 603 

moderation of the, 603 

subdue Sicily, 625 
Arago, 2042, 2043 
Arbaces the Mede, 99 
Arbela, battle of, 339, 352 
Arbues, the Inquisitor, loi? 
Arcot, captured, 1600 
Areopagus, the, 140, 141 
Aretes, 351 

Argonne, L', destruction of, i774. I77S 
Argyle, Duke of, execution of the, 1413 

Duke of, 1551. 1555 
Aristides, 243, 257, 258 
Aristogeiton, escape of, 212, 213 
Ariston, 350 
Aristotle, 60 



INDEX 



2469 



Arius, banishment of, 525 
Armada, the Spanish, 1256, 1260 
Armenia, conquered by the Turks, 703 

conquered by Russia, 1985 
Arminius, elopement with Thusnelda, 442 
battle-ground of, 445 
tactics of, 447, 448 
attacks Varus, 448 
Armistead, General, 2202 
Army, lirst national standing, 951 

Alexander's, 342, 343 
Darius's, 341, 342 

of the Loire, 2251 

of the Maes, 2249 

of the Potomac, 2190 
Arnold, Benedict, 1691, 1704, 1711 
Arnold of Brescia, 855 
Arques, battle of, 1277 
Arrabbiati, the, 1058 
Arragola, 2221 
Arruntius, 426 
Artaphernes, 218, 219, 236 
Artaxerxes, 296, 298 

restores Persian royalty, 509 
Artillery, first used, 847, 848 
Aruns of Clusium, 311 

combat with Brutus, 227 
Arzema dethroned, 584 
Ascalon, Crusaders attack, 718 

rebuilt, 729 
Asia, 406, 418 
Asia Minor, conquered by Chosroes, 569 

conquered by Turks, 703 
Askold, 639 
Aspern, battle of, 1883 
Assassins, the (of Persia), 778 

during the Terror, 1783, 1784, 1787 
Assembly of the People, 408, 409 
Asshur-edil-ilani II., 97, 98 
Asshurlik-hish, 98 
Assize of Jerusalem, 719 
Assouan Dam, 2412, 2433, 2440 
Assyria, 44, 102 
Assyrian Empire, 32, 96, 97 

invasion, 150 

general's harangue, 153, 154 
Assyrians, 49 

attack Syria, 79 
Astronomical Tables, 778 
Astronomy, 52 

Astyages, 161, 162, 163, 164, 166 
Atahualpa, the last Inca, 1094 
Atella, French capitulate at, 1042 
Athens, rise of, 83 

insurrection in, 135 

factions at, 216, 217 

revolutions at, 218 

power of, 259 

makes peace with Sparta, 259 

yields to Sparta, 270 

confederacy against, 283 

calamities at, 283 

strength of, 283 

plague at, 283 

sends second fleet to Syracuse, 290 

subdued by Macedonians, 357 

taken by Mohammed II., 981 
Athenian aggression and oppression, 280, 
281 

army at Marathon, 240 

commanders, the, 238 



Athenian army, defeat of, 293, 294, 334 

generals, 286 

fleet, 285 

liberty, 218 

navy, 325 

power, ruin of, 294, 295 

sailors, 280 
Atlantic Cable, 2210, 22:1 
Atlantic first crossed by steamships, 

2069 
Atmospheric Engine, the, 1632 
Attains III., 406 
Attica, invasion of, 214, 215 
Attila, 532 

invades Gaul, 535 

invades Italy, 535, 536 

story of the stork, 537, 538 

besieges Aquileia, 538 

triumphant march of, 538 

at Milan, 538-539 

receives Roman ambassadors, 542 

superstitions of, 543 

marries Ildico, 543, 544 

death and burial of, 544, 545 
Auerstadt, battle of, 1881 
Augury, 113 

Aulus Postumius, 231, 234 
Augustin Friars founded, 779 
Augustine, St., 531, 532 
Augustus, despair of, 452, 453 
Augustus II., King of Poland, 1591 
Augustus III., King of Poland, 1591 
Aumale, Duke of, 1997 
Aurelian, Emperor of Rome, 482 

successes of, 509 

attacks Zenobia, 510 

expedition, 513, 514 

takes Palmyra, 514, 516 

captures Zenobia, 516 

quotation from, 515 

triumph of, 518, 519 
Aurungzebe, 1398, 1412, 1513 
Austerlitz, battle of, 1879, 1880 
Australia, 1644, 1645 
Austria invaded by Soliman, 11 54 

House of, 1403, 1404, 18 14, 1815 

overruns Venetia, 1821 

in Italy, 1957 

reduces Naples and Sicily, 1961 

gains Cracow, 2024 

and Piedmont declare war, 2136 

revolution (1848) in, 2046 

and Italy, 2051, 2052 

blunders of. 2139 
Austrian Empress murdered, 2327 
Austrians invade Bavaria, 1874 
Auto-de-fe, the first, 994 
Automobile, the, 2426, 2432 
Avars, the, 634 
Aventine Hill, the, 262, 266 

Mount, 113 
Avienus, character of, 541, 542 
Avignon becomes seat of the Papacy, 8l2 
Aylesford, victory of, 551 
Aztecs, the, 1092 



B 



Baalezar II., 79 

Babel, 54 

Babel, Tower of, 28 



2470 



INDEX 



Baber founds Empire of Grand Moguls, 
1168 
takes Bengal, 1168 
Babington, Anthony, conspiracy of, 1253, 

1254 
Babylon, vastness and strength of, 188, 
189 

magnificence of, 195, 196 

walls of, 196 

destruction of, 196 

Alexander enters, 356 
Bagration, General, 1890, 1892 
Bahar, conquered by Akbar, 1266 
Balaklava, position of, 2100 

battle of, 2103, 2104 
Balboa, Vasco Nunez de, 1091 
Baldwin, Count of Flanders, 741, 74a 
Balearic Islands, 362 
Baltimore, Lord, 1373 
Ballot, the, 2257 
Baltic Canal, the, 2310 
Band, the Sacred, 333, 334 
Bank of England, the, 1488, 1560 
Bannerets, the, 860 
Bannockburn, battle of, 828, 835 

English losses at, 834 

booty taken at, 834, 835 

importance of victory to Scotland, 
822 
Baratieri, General, 2283, 2284, 2285, 2286 
Barbarians, conversion of the, 533 

Attila's, 536, 540, 541 
Barbaric invasions of the Fourth Cen- 
tury, 634 
Barbary fleet, destruction of the, 1398 
Barbury Hill, battle at, 557 
Barca, 2014 

Barclay, General, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1894 
Bar-Cochba, the impostor, 477 
Bar-Giora, 488 
Barnabites, the, 1181 
Barnet, battle of, 981 
Baron, the feudal, 695, 696 
Barons, the English, meet at Brackley, 
766 

appear before King John, 766 

opposition to Henry, 780, 781 

resistance of the, 792 

policy of, 786 

victory of the, 788, 789 
Barras, General, 1807 
Barrier Treaty, the, 1540 
Basilica of St. Peter's, 624, 625 
Basle, Council of, 922 
Bassora, foundation of, 586, 587 
Bastille, the plan of, 1753 

storm of the, 1741, 1742, 1748, 1759 

fall of, 1759 
Batavia (Java) founded by Dutch, 1340 
Batavian Republic, the, 1796 
Bath, 557 

Battenize, Tamerlane arrives in, 907 
Battle Abbey, 678 
Battle of the Nations, the, 1934 
Battleships, 2200. 2300 
Bayard, Chevalier, 11 39 
Bayeux tapestry, 637 
Bazaine, General, 2171, 2174, 2175, 2248, 

2249, 2252 
Beaconsfield, Lord, 2260, 2261, 2267, 
2269 



Beasts, laws regarding, 145 
Beauharnais, Eugene, 1856 
Becket, Thomas a, murder of, 720 

offerings to shrine of, 11 74 
Bed of Justice, 1692 
Bedeau, General, 2084 
"Beggars, The," 1235 
Belem, Temple of, 1046 
Belgrade besieged by Mohammed II., 981 

captured by Turks, 1167 

captured by Russians, 1886 

captured by Eugene, 1556 
Belisarius, conquests of, 563, 565 

treatment of, 566, 567 
Belshazzar, feast of, 189, 194 
Beltis, 52 
Belus, 52 
Bengal taken by Baber, 11 68 

wealth of, 1623, 1624 
Beotian infantry at Syracuse, 292 
Berengar, King of the Lombards, 653, 

.654 
Berenice, Princess, 493, 495 
Beresford, Lord, 1956 
Beresina, passage of the, 1904 
Bergen, 839 

Bering Sea arbitration, 2297 
Berlin Decrees, the, 1881 

treaty of, 2269, 2273 

congress of, 2259, 2269, 2273 
Bernadotte, Crown Prince of Sweden, 
1873. 1885, 1886, 1889, 1931, 1936 
Bernard of Weimar, 1361 
Bernicia, the kingdom of, 560 
Berosus, 36, 37, 45 
Berry, Duke of, assassination of the, 

1952 
Bertha, wife of Henry IV. (Germany), 

692 
Berthezene, General, 1990 
Berytus, captured by Crusaders, 720 
Bethlehem (Judea), inn at, 433, 434 

(Penn.), 1580 
Betica, reduction of, 597 
Bezetha, seized by the Romans, 488 
Beziers, capture of, 756 
Bigi, the, 1058 
Bionville, battle of, 2248 
Bishops, first General (Council of, 525 
Bismarck, Count von, 2245, 2255, 2256, 

2269, 2270 
Bithyas joins the Carthaginians, 390, 394 
Black Death, the, 862, 833, 1138 

in China, 863, 864 

march of, 865, 868 

in Europe, 867, 868 

duration of, 869 

number of victims, 868, 870 

eflfects of the, 870 

Boccaccio's description of, 874, 877 
Black Guard, the, 981 
Black Hole of Calcutta, 1623, 1625 
Black Prin-:e, the, at Crecy, 850 

at Poitiers, 884 

in Spain, 895 
Black Tomb, the, 637 
Blenheim, battle of, 1506, 15 12 
Block, Captain, 1329 
Blucher, I933i 1936, I939 
Boabdil. See Abdallah 
Bobadilla, 1181 



INDEX 



2471 



Boccaccio, quotation from, 874, 877 

Bochica, 36 

Boers settle in Natal, 1999 

Boer War, outbreak of, 2273, 2390 

Boethus, Mathias, execution of, 489 

Bohemia, 923 

contest for, 1349, 1350 

invasion of, 1619 

revolution in, 2048, 2050 
Bohemians, the, oppose Sigismund, gao 

rise of the, 1350 

besieged by Henry I., 648 
Bohemond, 707, 708, 711, 712 

gains Antioch, 715 
Bohun, Sir Henry, death of, 829 
Bolivia, Republic of, founded, 1985 
Bologna, besieged, 1084 

Charles V. enters, 1155 
Bon, General, 1839 
Bonaparte, Joseph, army of, 1907, 1908 

escape of, 1918, 1919 
Bonaparte, Lucien, 1850 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 1807, 1808, 1828 

on Charles XII. 's invasion of Rus- 
sia, 1520-1521 

invades Italy, 1812 

declares war against Venice, 1822 

goes to Egypt, 1824 

overthrows the Directoire, 1837, 1849 

becomes First Consul, 1837, 1850, 
1851 

in Egypt, 1838 

at Acre, 1846, 1848 

returns to France, 1848 

passage of the Alps, 1851 

league against England, 1853 

hostility to England, 1854 

becomes Emperor, 1855 

coronation of, 1855 

becomes King of Italy, 1856 

marches on Austria, 1873 

gives away kingdoms, 1880 

captures Vienna, 1883 

marries Maria Louisa, 1884, 1885 

empire of, 1885 

captures the Pope, 1885 

re-establishes Poland, 1886 

prepares to invade Russia, 1887 

army of, in 1812, 1888 

crosses Russian frontier, 1888, 1889 

leaves Moscow, 1898 

campaign of, 1841, 1936 

abdication of, 1937, 1941 

sent to St. Helena, 1941 

buried at the Invalides, 2013 
Bonapartists, massacre of the, 1948 
Boniface, Marquis of Montserrat, 734 
Bonnivet, the Admiral, 11 39 
Borodino, battle of, 1895 
Borr, 42 

Boscawen, Admiral, 1600, 1630 
Bosnia, 2257, 2258, 2271 

taken by Matthias of Hungary, 981 
Bosquet, General, 2104, 2122, 2123 
Boston (Mass.), founded, 1373 

Port Bill, 1673, 1674, 1681 

public meeting in, 1668, 1671 
Bosworth, battle of, 998, 1000 
Bo Tree, the Sacred, 130, 131 
Bourbaki, General, 2253, 2254 
Bourbon, Anne de, 1389 



Bourbon, Cardinal of, 1270 

Bourbon, Constable of, 1139, 1146, 1147 
Bourbon, Francois, 11 53 
Bourbons, the, 1937 

league against the, 1495 
Bourchier, Sir Thomas, joins Earl of 

Richmond, 997 
Bourmont, General, 1988. 1989 
Bouvines, battle of, 765 
Bowariyeth Mound, the, 50 
Bowring, Sir John, 2010 
Boxers, the, 2400, 2401, 2409, 2410, 
Boyne, battle of the, 1456, 1463 
Boync, Valley of the, 1451, 1452 
Braavalla, battle of, 628 
Braddock, General, arrives in Virginia, 
1602 

character of, 1602, 1603 

sent to Fort Duquesne, 1600 

march and defeat of, 1603, 1608 
Brabo, Gonzales, 22.22, 2226, zzzj, 2230, 

2232, 2233, 2234 
Bragadino, Governor of Cyprus, cruel 

treatment of, 1227 
Brandenburg, House of, 1618 
Brazil, discovered, 1076 

settled by Portuguese, 1190 

separates from Portugal, 1956, 1957 

declares independence, 1985 

becomes a Republic, 2297 
Bremen, 845 

Brennabourg, besieged by Henry I., 648 
Brennus, 313 
Brescia, sack of, 1084 
Bretigny, peace of, 895 
Bricks, 49, so 
Brienne, Archbishop, 1739 
Bright, John, 2002 
Britain, conquered by C2esar, 413 

conquest of, 472 

overrun by Picts and Scots, 545 

calls upon Jutes, 545 

and the English, 546 

antiquity of, 550, 551 

conquest of Souttiern, 553, 556 
Brithnorth, 659 

British East African Company, 2288 
British Museum, 98, 99, 1600 
Britons, massacre of the, 551, 552 

disappearance of, 553 
Brotherhood of the Cross, 871, 873 
Brown, John, execution of, 2134 
Bruce, Edward, 831 
Bruce, Robert, 824, 826, 829, 835 
Brueys, Admiral, 1828, 1834 
Bruges, 839, 842 
Brunswick, Duke of, :745. i777, 1781, 

1940, 1941 
Brutus, Lucius Junius, 220, 221, 225, 
226, 22T, 228 

Marcus Junius, death of, 414 
Buda, captured by Turks, 1944 
Buddha, Gotama, 124, 135 
Buddhistic idea, the, 131, 132 
Bugeaud, General, 1994 
Bulg^aria, 2270 
Bulgarians, 634 
Bullcr, General, 21 19, 2370 
Bure, 42 
Burgoync, General, 1702, 1703 

army of, 1708 



2472 



INDEX 



Burgoyne, General, retreat of, 1710 

surrender of, 1713 
Burgundians, conquered by Clovis, 561 

army of, 987, 988 
Burgundy, Duke of. See Charles the 

Bold 
Burgundy refuses taxation, 983 

Switzerland and, 813 
Burial customs, violation of, 276, 277 
Burials, Lycurgus's regulations of, 94, 

95 
Burke, Edmund, speech on American 
colonies, 1675, 1676, 1683, 1686 

quotation from, 1634 
Burma, 2288 
Burr, Aaron, 1886 
Byblos, 148 
Byzantium, Philip fails at, 325 

government removed to, 519 



Cable, Atlantic, the, 221 1, 2219 

Canadian-Australian, 2412 

first submarine, 2056 
Cabral, Alvarez de, discovers Brazil, 1076 
Cadesia, battle of, 584, 585 
Caesar, Julius, 413, 414 

assassinated, 414 

children of, 417, 418 

conquers Gaul and Southern Britain, 

fleet of, 422 

preparations for war, 420 

dominions of, 421 

charges against Antony, 418 

allies, 421 
Caesar, Sext. Julius, 401 
Cain, 26 

Caius, Claudius Nero, 367 
Cajetan, 1108 
Calabria_, seizure of, 633 
Calais, importance of, 1199, 2002 

sack of, 1203 

surrenders to French, 2002 
Calcutta taken by Surajah Dowlah, 1623 
Caled, conquests of, 583 
Calendar, the, 146 
California admitted to United States, 

2026 
Caligraphy, 975, 977 
Caligula, son of Germanicus, 453 
Caliph's empire, extent of the, 604 
Calixtines, the, 922 
Callet, Guillaume, King of the Jacques, 

893 
Callicrates, 398, 399 
Callimachus, 239, 240 
Calneh, 47, 48, 51, 52, 54 
Calonge, General, 2226 
Calonne, 1739 

Calvin, John, iios, 1115, 1117 
Cambaceres, 1850, 1853 
Cambray, treaty of, 1155, 1156 

League of, 1077 
Cambyses declares war against Egypt, 
197 

puts Psammetichus to death, 201 

policy of, 202 

kills Apis, 204, 205 

returns to Asia, 205 



Cambyses violates tombs, 205 

death of, 206 
Camillus defeats the Gauls, 32J 
Campanile at Venice, fall of, 241 e 
Campbell, Colin, 2130 
Camperdown, battle of, 1812 
Campobasso, 987, 980 
Campo, Formio, Treaty of, 1823 
Canaan, 28 

Canada, French lose, 1632 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 2288 
Candahar, march to, 2273 
Candia, surrender of, 1817 
Candles, 1982, 1983 
Canidius, 419, 424 

flight of, 429 
Cannae, battle of, 338 
Canning, 1964, 1966, 1972 
Canossa, 683 

Henry IV. (Germany) at, 693 
Canovas del Castillo, 2221, 2223, 2227 
Canrobert, General, 21 11, 2127 
Canterbury burned by the Danes, 666 
Canton bombarded by English, 2127 
Canute proclaimed King of England, 667 

character of, 670 

makes a pilgrimage to Rome, 671 

death of, 672 
Cape Breton, 1630 

Isle of, surrenders to England, iS97, 
1598 
Cape of Good Hope, 1043, 1046, 1047 

captured by the British, 1796 
Capodistrias, Count, 1979 
Cappadocia, massacres in, 481 
Caprera, Garibaldi retires to, 2147 
Captal de Buch, 891, 892 
Captives, employment of, 51 
Caraffa, Cardinal, 11 84 
Carbonari, 1837, 1959 
Carcassonne besieged, 756 
Caricatures, 1568 

of America, 1687 
Carlists, revolt of, 2257 
Carlist War, end of the, 2258 
Carlos, Don, 1999, 2229 
Carlowitz, Treaty of, 1489, 1818 
Carmagnoles, the, 1769, 1770 
Carmelites, founded, 720 
Carnot, President, murdered, 2298 
Carolina, Colony of, founded, 1398 

divided, 1570 
Carpet, the wonderful Persian, 588 
Carpini, Friar, 805 
Carthage, 78 

founding of, 80, 82 

importance of, 359, 360 

agriculture in, 361 

colonies of, 361 

trade of, 360, 361, 383 

gives hostages, 386, 387 

disarms, 387 

attacks on, 393, 395 

prepares for resistance, 388 

submission of, 386 

colony on site, of, 396 

sack of, 396 
Carthaginians unwarlike, 362, 363 
Casa-Bianca, 1835 
Casalecchio, battle of, 1083 
Cashmere, conquered by Akbar, 1266 



INDEX 



2473 



Cassiodorus, 562 
Cassius, 414 

Dion, quotation from, 451-452 
Castelar, 2222, 2227, 2259 
Castelleto taken by Doria, 11 54 
Castile and Leon, union of, 778 
Castle of Minerva, 756 

of the Martyrs (Merida), 601 

of La Vaur, 757-758 
Castor and Pollux, 232-234 
Catesby, Robert, 131 3-1 323 
Catherine II. (Russia), 1635, 1766 

visits Crimea, 1726 

trip to Turkey, 172 7- 1729 

magnificence of, 1660-1661 
Catholics, escape of the, 597-598 
Catiline, conspiracy of, 413 
Cato demands destruction of Carthage, 
384-385 

death of, 390 

and Achean captives, 398-399 
Cava, the story of, 592 
Cavaliers, devotion of the, 1376-1377 

victories of the, 1378-1379 
Cavaignac, 2042, 2080, 2081, 2084 
Cavalry, combat of, at Arbela, 350-351- 

352 
Cavour, Count, 2109, 2111, 2116, 2135, 

2137, 2138, 2145, 2147 
Ceawlin, 557 

Cecil, Robert. See Salisbury, Earl of, 
Cecrops, 33 
Cedicius, 321 
Celesyria, 413 
Celius, 424 
Censorinus, 388, 389 

Cerda, Chevalier de la, cowardice of, 
1222-1223 

death of, 1223 
Cerdic, 556 
Cesario, son of Cleopatra and Julius 

Caesar, 417 
Cervera, Admiral, 2330, 2333, 2334, 2339 
Ceuta, fortress of, 591 
Ceylon discovered, 1076 

captured by the English, 1812 
Chaironeia, battle of, 413. See Cheronea 
Chaldea, importance of, 53 

cities of, 54 

great men of, 53-57 
Chaldean, history, beginning of, 46-47 
Chaldeans, the, 29 
Chalons, battle of, 535 
Chambord, Comte de, 2257 
Champagne, Count of, 732 
Changarnier, General, 2083, 2084 
Chanzy, General, 2253 
Chares, 325 

Charge of the Light Brigade, 2104 
Chariots, scythe-armed, 344, 348, 349, 

351 
Charlemagne, ambitions of, 617-618 

and Leo III., 620 

in Rome, 624 

reasons for selecting him Emperor, 
623-624 

coronation of, 625 

forebodings of, 627 

and Pope Hadrian, 617 

the deliverer of Rome, 612 

crowned Emperor of Rome and of 
the West, 611 



Charlemagne conquers Lombardy, 611, 
616 

enters Rome, 616 
Charles Albert, 2051 
Charles Albert of Carignano, 1563 
Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria, 1592- 

^ 1593 

becomes Emperor of Germany, 1594 
Charles of Anjou becomes Senator of 
Rome, 795 

power of, 795-796 

prepares to attack the Greeks, 799 

selects a Pope, 800 
Charles the Bold. See Charles, Duke 

of Burgundy 
Charles, Duke of Burgundy, at Salins, 
982 

assassinated, 933 

defeated by the Swiss, 981 

at Joux, 984 

cruelty of, 987 

death of, 990-991 

interment of, 991-992 

popular incredulity of his death, 993 
Charles I. (England), execution of, 1398 
Charles II. (England), death of, 1412 
Charles II. (Spain), will of, 1494-1495 
Charles V. becomes Emperor, 1135 

crowned by the Pope, 1156 

takes Milan, 1155 

meeting with Henry VIII., 1130, 
1134 

the Netherlands under, 1230 

takes Tunis, 11 68 

and Council of Trent, 1185 

grants peace to the Venetians, 11 58 
Charles IX. (Sweden), 1403 
Charles XI. (Sweden), 1489 
Charles XII. becomes King of Sweden, 
1489 

nivades Poland, 1489 

invades Russia, 1513 

besieges Pultowa, 1522- 1523, 1540 

1519-1520 

death of, 1556 
Charles Edward Stuart, Young Preten- 
der, 159 s 
Charles Martel, 605, 606, 614, 615 
Charles of Navarre and the Jacques, 893 
Charles the Simple, 630 
Charles VII. of France and Joan of Arc, 
942 

crowned at Rheims, 950 
Charles VIII. becomes King of France, 

1932 

kingdom of, 1032 

army of 1033-1034 

claims Naples, 1033 

enters Italy, 1036 

enters Florence, 1039 

enters Rome, 1040 

retreat of, 1041-1042 

capitulates, 1042 

returns to France, 1042 

favors Earl of Richmond, 995-996 
Charles IX. of France, 1263, 1264 

death of, 1266 
Charles X., 1971 
Charmion, 420 

Charter of Frederick II., 77s 
Charter, the Great, 767, 769-771 
Chatham's opposition to Boston Port 
Bill, 1673-1674 



2474 



INDEX 



Chatham on the First American Con- 
gress, 1 679- 1 680 

Chedorlaomer, 53, 55-57 

Cheronea, battle of, 323, 333-334 
results of, 335-336 
plain of, 332 

Chester, 557 

Chichester, Sir Arthur, 1289-1290 

Children, disposition of, 91 
Training of Spartan, 91 

China invaded by Zingis Khan, 747-748 
plague in, 863-864 
Boxer Movement, the, 2398-2410 
Empress Dowager of, 2398 
opens new ports, 2310 
first intercourse of Western nations 

with, 2007-2008 
first war with Great Britain, 2009 
treaties with nations, 2011-2012 
opening cf, 2007-2013 
patriotism in, 2408-2409 

Chinese ports, opening of, 201 1 

Chios, massacre of, 1961 

Chivalry, Moslem and Christian, 1003 

Choiseul, 1659, 1660 

Chomasbelus, 45-46 

Chosroes, murder of, 569 
conquests of, 569 

Chreocopiae, the, 138 

Christ, birth of Jesus, 430, 437 
crucifixion of, 453, 465-469 
sufferings of, 468-471 
last words of, 471 

Christendom, safety of, 611 

Christian Church at Smyrna, 478 

Christian II. (Denmark), 11 67 

Christian IV. (Denmark) defeated by 
Tilly, 1352 

Christian kings of Spain unite against 
Moors, 730 

Christianity, birth of Latin, 530 

Christian Science founded, 2258 

Christians, the eleven persecutions of 
the, 474 
first persecution of the, 473 
second persecution of the, 475-476 
third persecution of the, 476-477 
persecutions under Adrian, 477-478 
fourth persecution of the, 477-478 
persecution of the, under Marcus 

Aurelius, 478 
fifth persecution of the, 478-479 
sixth persecution of the, 479-480 
seventh persecution of the, 480 
eighth persecution of the, 481 
tenth persecution of the, 482-483 
persecutions of the, under Nerva, 

476 
torture of the, under Nero, 474-475 
eleventh persecution of the, 483-484 
forty_ years of peace. 482-483 
permitted to worship unmolested, 484 
join Arabs, 594 
attacked by Mamelukes, 794 
the New, 1012-1013 

Chronology, 103, 146 

difficulties of computing, 45 

Church and State, 622-623 

Churches, profanation of, 602 

Cimbri, the, 406, 410 

Cimqn, 259 

Cincinnatus, 262 

Cinq-Mars, execution of, 1374 



Circus, factions of the, 561 

Blue and Green factions of the, 568 
Circumnavigation of the globe, first, 

1127 
Cirencester, 557 
Cirrha, 69 
Cisalpine Gaul, 357 
Citadel at Rome attacked, 320 

geese save the, 322 
Citadel of Plebeians, 263 
Civil Service Act (United States), 2287 
Civil War (United States), 2150 
Clairfayt, 1775 
Claudius, 509 

Claudius proclaimed Emperor of Rome, 
453 , 

poisoned, 473 
Claudius Nero, 370 
Clausel, General, 1990, 1993 
Cleander, 350 
Clearchus, 297 
Cleisthenes, 216-217, 218 
Clement II., Pope, 681 
Clement IV., Pope, 79s 
Clement V., Pope, abolishes the Knights 

Templars, 821 
Clement VI. celebrates a jubilee, 869-870 
Clement VII. becomes Pope, 1 138-1 139 

1140, 1142 
Clement, James, assassinates Henry III, 

of France, 1275-1276 
Cleomenes, 217, 218 
Cleopatra, 414, 416 

children, 417-418 

flight of, 426-427 

death of, 430 
Clergy, rage of the English against the, 

552 
Clermont, Council of, 704, 708-709 
Clinchant, (jeneral, 2254 
Clinton, Sir Henry, 1706- 1707 
Clisthenes, 235 
Clive captures Arcot, 1600 

captures Trichinopoly, 1600 

returns to India, 1624 
Cloelia swims the Tiber, 230 
Clovis conquers the Burgundians, 561 

King of the Franks, 561 

converted to Christianity, 561 

conquers the Goths, 561 

establishes his monarchy in Gaul, 561 

conquers Aquitaine, 561 

becomes a Christian, 563 

death of, 563 
Clusium, siege of, 311-312 
Cobden, Richard, 2002 
Cochin China ceded to France, 2156 
Code of Justinian, 568 
Code Napoleon, the, 1853-1854 
Codringfton, Admiral, 1974 
Colenso, 2370 

Coligny, Admiral, of France, defends 
St. Quentin, 1198 

1262, 1264 
Cologne, importance of, 839-840 
Cologpe Cathedral finished, 2273 
Colombia, Republic of, founded, 1967 
Colonial Tories, 1678-1679 
Colonna, Prospero, 1137. ii39, ii45 
Colosseum, the, 496 

Columbus, Christopher, ships of, 1020- 
1021 

companions of, 1020 



INDEX 



2475 



Columbus, Christopher, embarks, 1022 
diary of, 1022-1025 
landing of, 1026-1028 
beholds the New World, 1025 
explores San Salvador, 1029-1030 

Comitium, 123 

"Compromise," the, 1235 

Comonfort, General, 2173, 2175 

Comte de Paris, 2087 

Concha, Manuel, 2233, 2234 

Concord, skirmish at, 1688-1689 

Conde, 1262 

Prince de, 1388, 1390, 1393, 1394, 



e, Prnicesse de, 1393 



188s 



Conde, 

Confederation of the Rhine, 1880, 

Confucius, descent of, 168-169 

education of, 170 

marriage of, 170 

begins to teach, 170-171 

disciples of, 1 71-172, 173, 174 

wanderings of, 172 

death of, 174 

tomb of, 174-175 

descendants of, 175 

teachings of, 176-178 

literary work of, 175-176 

maxims of, 177 

religion of, 178 

philosophy of, 178 
Congo, Upper, discovered, 2257 
Congo Free State, 2273 
Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1950 

of Berlin, 2259, 2269-2273 

the Colonial (America), 1642, 1643 

of Mantua, 1086 

of Paris, 2114-2x16 

of Vienna, the, 1938- 1939, 1963 
Conqueror, character of the Oriental, 

56-57 
Conquest of the Saxon shore of Britain* 
553 

of Southern Britain, 556 

of the Severn valley, 557-558 
Conspiracy of the Gunpowder Plot, 13 12- 
1324 

m Italy, 796-797 

of the Pazzi, 994 

against Pisistratae, 212-213 

of Marino Faliero, 880, 882-883 

of Tiepolo, 812 

against Venetian Republic, 1815-1816 
Constance, Council of, 899, 917-919 

close of the Council of, 923 
Constantine, birth of, 520 

youth of, 520, 521 

the first Christian Emperor, 519 

proclaimed Emperor, 521 

vision of, 522 

becomes Emperor of the West, 523 

becomes sole Emperor of the Roman 
Empire, 524 

favors Christianity, 524-525 

selects new capital, 525-526 

breaks up legions, 527 

taxes of, 527 

policy of, 527 

character of, 528 

death of, 528 

last years of, 528 

donation of, 619 
Constantine Paleologus (Emperor 
the Latin Empire), 1453 



of 



Constantine Paleologus, bravery of, 953, 
966-967 

death of, 971-972 
Constantinople, dedication of, 526 

besieged by the Arabs, 603 

besieged by the Varangians, 639 

Crusaders in, 709-710 

splendors of, 710-711 

Greeks and Latins in, 736 

gained by Venetians, 738 

pillaged by Crusaders, 740 

capture of, 740 

Latin Empire of, 741 

regained by Paleologus, 779 

defences of (1433), 95^ 

siege of (1453), 954972 
Constantius Chlorus, 520-521 
Cook, Captain James, 1634, 1643 

first voyage to Australia, 1645-1649 

discovers New Caledonia, 1667 
Coomassie, capture of, 2257 
Coote, Eyre, 1717 
Coperihagen taken by Christian III., 116S 

Nelson at, 1852 
Corculum, 384 
Cordova, fall of, 597-598 
Corea becomes independent, 2310 

King of, calls for aid, 2298 
Corinth prepares for defence, 402 

sack of, 397, 404 
Corn Law, 2004 
Cornwallis, Lord, 17 16 

surrender of, 1718-1723 

in Mysore War, 1760 
Coronation of Charlemagne, 625 
Corsica, 357 

bought by France, 1643, 1659 
Corstiaensen, Hendrick, 1328, 1330 
Cortes, Fernando, 1092 
Council of Basle, 922 

of Blood, 1237 

of Clermont, 708 

of Constance, 899, 917-919 

of Constance, close of the, 923 

of the Indies, 1076 

of Pisa, 914, 1084 

of Ten, 812, 881-882, 883, 1816-1817 

of Trent, 1185-1186, 1190 
Counter-Reformation, 1184 
Court of God, 723 
Coxcox, 39 

Cracow, annexed to Austria, 2024 
Crassus, 413 
Creation of the world, 25 

of man, 25 
Crete subdued by the Arabs, 625 

captured by Turks, 1398 

revolt in, 2210 
Crevant taken by Bedford, 934 
(Trimea taken by Venetians, 981 
Crimean War, the, 2099-21 17 
Crispi, FrancescOj 2281-2282, 2283, 2286 
Crispus, son of Constantine, 524 
Crissa, 69 

Cristina, Regent of Spain, 1999 
Critolaus, 402 
Croesus, conquests of, 179-180 

on funeral pyre, 185-187 

sends to allies for aid, 182 
Cromlechs in Britain, 551 
Cromwell, Oliver, 1381-1382 

reorganizes the army, 1383 

invades Ireland, 1398 



2476 



INDEX 



Cronje, General, surrender of, 2397 

Cross, the, 455 

inscription on the, 461-463 

Crotona, 235 

Crown, Olympian, 107 

Crown Point captured, 1691, 1703 

Cruciiixion, customs regarding, 459-460 
darkness during the, 468-469 
the central point in the world's his- 
tory, 472 

Crusade, beginning of first, 703, 704-705 
First, leaders of the, 706-708 
First, route of the, 709 
First, failure of the, 715 
First, losses during the, 716 
Second, 720 
Third, 721, T22 
Third, greatness and failure of the, 

722 
Fourth, preached, 731, 732 
Fourth, France in the, 732-733 
Fourth, Pope's opposition to, 735 
Fourth, aided by the Venetians, 733- 

.734 

Fifth, begun, 772 

Fifth, 778 

Sixth, 778 

Eighth, 794 
Crusaders, first, wild appearance of the, 
709-710 

march of the first, 705 

arrive in Constantinople, 709 

arrive in Asia, 712 

make terms with Alexis, 712 

simplicity of the, 7 10-7 11 

losses of, on the march, 713 

capture Antioch, 714 

sufferings of, 714-715 

worship Tomb of Christ, 717 

take Jerusalem, 717 

in Jerusalem, 717-719 

German, return home, 724 

capture Constantinople, 740 

pillage Constantinople, 741 
Crystal Palace, description of the, 2065- 

2067 
Ctesiphon, sack of, 589 
Cuba evacuated by Spaniards, 2327 
Cuban Constitutional Convention, 2397 

Republic, First Congress of, 241 1 
Cufa, foundation of, 589 
Culloden, battle of, 1595 
Cunaxa, battle of, 299 
Curacoa, Dutch take, 1373 
Cures, 122 

Curules, conduct of the, 317-318 
Cushite Kingdom, 45 
Cuthwulf, march of, 557 
Cuzco, 1094 
Cynegirus, 243 
Cynoscephalae, 381 
Cynric, conquests of, 556-557 
Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, execution 

of, 482 
Cyprus, earthquake in, 864-865 

2258 
Cyrus at Median Court, 159-160 

rebellion of, 160 

flight of, 1 61 -1 62 

King of Media and Persia, 165-166 

marches against Croesus, 179-180 

attacks Croesus, 180 

stratagem of, 181 



Cyrus determines on seizing the Persian 
throne, 296 
character of, 297 
and Artaxerxes, combat between, 

299 
death of, 299 
Czar, title of, 981 

D 

Dacia becomes a Roman province, 508 

Daguerre, 2318 

Daguerrotype, 2318 

Dale, Sir Thomas, 1302, 1305 

Daleminziens subdued by Henry I., 648 

Dalmatia, 720 

Damascus occupied by Mamelukes, 794 

Damiani, opinion of Gregory VII., 68Sf 

Damietta, 772 

taken by St. Louis, 778 
Damremont, General, 1994, I995 
Dandolo, Doge of Venice, 733-734 

statecraft of, 738 

Andrea, the Doge, rule of, 879 
Dane-geld, the, 659, 661-662 
Danes, the, 650, 653 

attack England, 625, 659 

in England, position of the, 663 

burn Canterbury, 666 
Danican, General, 1808- 1809 
Daniel interprets handwriting on the 

wall, 190-193 
Danish kings, dues exacted by, 841 
Dannenberg, General, 21 19, 2123, 2124 
Danton, 1746 

Danubian principalities, 211 7 
Darius, 236 

army of, at Arbela, 341-342 

encamps at Arbela, 344-345 

flight of, 355 

death of, 356 
Dasturs, the, 67 
Datis, 236 

Davis, Sir John, 1336 
Davout, 1933 
Daun, Count, 1618, 1620, 1627-1628, 

1621-1622 
Dauphin, marriage to Marie Antoinette, 
1659-1660 

death of the, 1796 
"Day of the ass drivers," 1085 , 

Debts, discharge of, 137 
Decalogue, the, 31 
Decemviri, the, 260 
Decemvirs, 264 
Decian Storm, the, 481-482 
Decius, the Emperor defeated and slain, 

509 
Declaration of Frankfort, 1938 

of Independence, 1693-1699 

of Indulgence, 1437, 1441 

of Rights, 1448 
Decoutrias, 2042 
Deiri, kingdom of the, 560 
De Launay, 1750-1752, I7S5-17S7 
De Lesseps, 2127 
Delfts Haven, Pilgrim Fathers embark 

from, 1364 
Delhi, Tamerlane arrives in, 909 

Sultan flees from, 911 

surrenders to Tamerlane, 911 

pillage of, 912 

Tamerlane enters, 913-914 

massacre of Moguls in, 913 



/NDEX 



247r 



Delphi, town of, Ti 

temple at, 71 

change of divinities at, 71-72 

wealth of, 74 

the Bank of Greece, 75 

Oracle of, 44, 76-77, 184, 220-221 
Deluge, the, 27 

universality of the, 35, 43-44 

Brahmin, legend of, 39-41 

Celtic legends, 42 

Chaldean, 36-37 

Chinese, 35 

Greek traditions of the, 41-42 

Lithuanian tradition of, 42-43 

Mexican legend of, 39 

Phyrgian, 38 

Scandinavian legend, 42 

South American, 36 
Demetrius, 400 
Demosthenes, 290-292, 323, 327, 328, 331 

Athens gives golden crown to, 332 

flight of, 334 
Denain, battle of, 1534 
Dentatus, 263, 265 
Deorham, Saxon victory at, SS7 
Derby, Lord, 2260, 2261, 2266, 2267 

institutes Blue Ribbon of the Turf, 
1716 
Derkyllidas, 30 1_ 
Derry, colonization of, 1290 
De Ruyter, 1406 
Dervishes, 2274, 2345-2358 
Descartes, 1374 
Desiderius, King, seized by Charlemagne, 

616 
Desmond, Earl of, 1286 
De Soto lands in Florida, 11 68 

discovers the Mississippi, 11 68 
Destroying Prince, the, 910 
De Thou, execution of, 1374 
Detroit, English evacuate, 1930 
Deucalion, 41-42 
Dewey, Admiral, George, 2359 
De Witts, murder of the, 1398 
Deza, the Grand Inquisitor, 1075 
Diadochi, wars of the, 356 
Diamond Jubilee, 2327 
Dias, Bartolomeu, 1043, 1046 
Diaz, Porfirio, 2175, 2176, 2179 
Dictum de Kenilworth, 792 
Dido, 81-82 

Diebitsch, General, 1976 
Diet of Augsburg, 1114 

of Erfurt, 651 

of Poland, 1665-1667 

of Pressburg, 2047 

of Ratisbon, 1180 

of Spires, 11 13 

of Worms, 731, 11 10-11 11 
Dieus, 3C)9-400, 401, 402, 403 
Digby, Sir Everard, 1313, 1320, 1321 
Digest of Justinian, 568 
Diocletian, division of the Empire under, 
519-520 

persecution of Christians under, 483 

and Maximian, abdication of, 483 
Dir, 63P 
Directone, the, 1798, 1812, 1849 

overthrown, 1837 
Directory. See Directoire. 
Disraeli, 2004 

buys interest in Suez Canal, 2257 
See Beaconsfietd, Lord. 



Doge of Venice, 720 

Dominion of Canada established, 2219 

Domitian becomes Emperor of Rome, 508 

persecutions of Christians under, 
475-476 

assassination of, 580 
Doomsday Book, 719 
Doria, Andrea, 1154-1155 

address of, 1 159-1 160 

honors to, 1 1 64 

influence of, 1167 

modesty of, 11 67 
Doria Filippino, 1151, 1153, 1 161 
Doria, Paganino, 879-880 
Dorian migrations, 83 

confederacy, 270 
Dost Mohammed, 2006 
Douai, surrender of, 1535 
Douglas, the Steward, knighted, 831 
Dowlah, Surajah, 1623, 1625, 1626 
Draco, laws of, 134-135 

repeal of laws of, 138-139 
Dragonade, the, 1414-1415 
Drainage, improvements in, 2077-2078 
Drake, Francis, voyage around the world, 
1249-1250 

on Spanish Main, 1252 

attacks Spain, 1255 
Dred Scott decision, 2127, 221a 
Dresden, surrender of, 1627 

battle of, 1932 
Drevlians murder Igor, 642 
Dreyfus case, 2298, 2369 
Drusus leads Roman armies to the Weser 

and Elbe, 430 
Ducos, 1850 
Ducrot, General, 2251 
Duhoux, General, 1808-1809 
Dumblane, battle of, 1551 
Dumouriez, General, 1746, 1770, 1774, 
1775. 1780 

retreat of, 1776 
Duquesne seizes Fort Duquesne, 1600 
Duperre, Admiral, 1998, 1999 
Durazzo, battle of, 633 
Dutch found Batavia (Java), 1340 
Dutch Republic, foundation of the, 1243- 

1244, 1245 
Dwyfan and Dwyfach, 42 



Earth, bones of the, 42, 43 

the goddess, 70 
Earthquake, 481 

shocks, 504-505 

in Cyprus, 864-865 

at Lisbon, 1 609-1616 

in Transcaucasia, 2411 
Eastern Empire, government of the, 621- 

622 
Eastern Europe, changes in, during the 

Fourth Century, 634 
East India Company (English), 1374, 
2134 

founded by Emperor, 1570 
Ebbsfleet, destruction of, 547-548 
Ecbatana, 159 
Eclipse of sun, 98 
Eddystone lighthouse built, 1489 
Edessa captured by Turks, 720 
Edgar the Atheling chosen King, 679 

supporters of, 679-680 



2478 



INDEX 



Edict against the Jews, 1014, 1015 
Edict of Nantes, 1282 

revocation of the, 141 6 
Edmund Ironside, 668, 669 
Edric. 668, 669 

the traitor, 665 

treason of, 669 
Edward the Confessor, 672 
Edward, son of Henry III. of England, 

783. 784 
takes the cross, 793 
raises siege of Acre, 794 
Edward II. prepares for war with Scot- 
land, 823 
luxury, 834-835 
flees to Stirling, 834 
Edward III. of England lays claim to 
France, 836 
at Crecy, 846 
genuis of, at Crecy, 847 
praises the Black Prince, 851 
prudence of, 853 
goes to Calais, 854 
Edward VII., coronation of, 2438 
Egbert, King of Wessex, 625 
Egidio, battle of St., 933 
Egmont, Count, 1232, 1237 

and Horn, execution of, 1238 
Egypt, Empire of, 44 

natural defences of, 198 
subjugation of, 200 
becomes a Roman province, 430 
conquered by Chosroes, 569 
attacked by Arabs, 590 
wealth of, 407 
first entered by Turks, 720 
taken by the Mamelukes, 778 
restored to Turkey, 1856 
becomes possession of Mehemet, 
2013 
Egyptian, Anglo-, victory, 2277 
Egyptians, the, 29 
Eiffel Tower, 2297 
Elandslaagte, battle of, 2380-2389 
Elba, Napoleon sent to, 1937 

Napoleon escapes from, 1938 
Eleanor, Queen, arrives in Naples, ^2^ 
Eleanore, Empress of Austria, 1405 
Electric lighting, 1983-1984, 2258 
Elephants used in battle, 348, 366, 385 
Elfmar, the traitor, 666 
Elgin marbles, 1966 
Elis, 104 
Elissar, 80-82 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, hatred of 
Protestantism, 1208 
protects Mary Stuart, 1213 
recognizes James, 121 7 
diplomacy of, 1247 
signs Mary Stuart's death warrant, 

1234 
aids Henry IV. of France, 1278 
Elizabeth of Russia, death of, 1622 
Ella, 628 
Ellasar, 51, 52 
Elliott, Sir Henry, 2260, 2263 
El Medinah, 576 
Elmet, forest of, 559 
Elsass, 2250, 2256 

Emanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, 1197 
Emessa, battle pf, 514 
Emigration of the Parsis, 59 
Emigres, return of the, 1852 



Emperor Leo determines to abolish the 

worship of images, 614 
Emperor sends an embassy to Attila, 541- 

542 
Emperors, six at once, 521-522, 523 
Empire, expansion of Chaldean, 56-57 

and Papacy, 688-689 

division of, 534, 535 

first French, 1885 

second French, 2084 

Mexican, 2 174-2 177 
Empress Agnes, the, 690 
Encyclopedic, 1600 

Enghien, execution of the Duke d', 1855 
Engle, the, 555-556 
England, attacked by the Danes, 625 

internal dissensions, 660 

under Ethelred, 660 

and the Normans, 673 

insurrection in, 766 

national unity in, 767-768 

succession to the throne of, 1206 

aids the Dutch, 1247 

acquires Madras, 1600 

prosperity of, 1561 

religious revival in, 1582- 1583 

rise to empire, 1634 

American expeditions from, 1630 
English, the, 546 

men, the, 555-556 

adventurers, 1248- 1249 

archers, 832 

army, 824, 1097-1098 

army, condition of the, 926-929, 
1097-1098 

army, retreat from Orleans, 950 

army, power of the, 1384 

conquest of the, 548 

conquest of Britain, character of the, 

conquests in France, 936 

expelled from France, 951 

explorers, 1336 

fleet goes to meet Armada, 1257-1253 

invasion of Britain, 550 

invade France, 895 

monarchy, the, 768 

navy, 1477 

in Thanet, the, 547-548 

throne, claimants to the, 670 

throne, Saxon line restored to, 672 

tribes, character of the, 547 

voyages and discoveries, 1634-1635 
Enoch, 26 

Entertainments, laws regarding, 145 
Epaminondas, quotation from, 89 
Ephesus, Antony goes to, 419 
Ephors, the, 297 
Epirus, 405, 413 

conquest of, 381 
Equality, personal, 269 
Erech, 47, 54 

Eretria, fall of, 237 , , , r 

Erik the Red discovers Greenland, 626 
Erlon, Drouet d', General, i993 
Eruption of Mount Etna, 1488 

of Vesuvius, 497-508 

of Mont Pelee, 241 1, 2413-2423 

of La Soufriere, 241 1 
Erythrea, colony of, 2279, 2282 
Eschines, 326, 327, 328, 330 
Eschylus at Marathon, 243 
Espartero, 2222, 2228 



INDEX 



2479 



Essex, Earl of, 1377-1378, 1382 
Estates, Citizens', 139 
Este, Alphonso d', 1156 
Ethbaal, 151 
Ethelred, 663 

flight of, 667 

goes to Normandy, 673 

recall of, 668 
Ethelric, King of Bernicia, 560 
Etna, eruption of, 1488 
Etolian League, 357 
Etolians join Romans, 381 
Etruria, Gauls invade, 311 
Etruscans sent to Rome for aid, 31 1-3 12 
Eudo, Count, 606-607 
Eugene, Prince, 141 1, 1535, 1538 

defeats the Turks, 1489 

captures Belgrade, 1556 

meeting of, with Marlborough, 1503 

Marlborough, Villars, 1538-1539 

advance of, 1534 
Eugenie di Montijo, 2088 
Eugcnius IV., 861 

Pope, 922, 923 
Euphrates, Cyrus plans to turn the, 189 
Eure, Dupont de 1', 2041, 2042 
European Powers and Poland, 2164 
Eurybiades, 251 

Eurycles, the Lacedemonian, 427-428 
Eitrymedon, battle of, 465 
Evesham, battle of, 790, 792 
Ewell, General, 2193, 2195, 2196, 2198 
Exarch of Ravenna, 567, 613 
Exclusion Bill, 1399-1400 
Exhibition of 1851, 2057-2067 
Exhibitions, French, 2058-2059 
Ericsson, John, 2168 
Exmouth, Lord, 1966, 1986 

expedition to Algiers, 986 
Eylau, battle of, 1882 



Faber, Peter, ii8t 

Fabian tactics of Prospero Colonna, 137 

Fabianus, martyrdom of, 481-482 

Fabius, 263-264 

Fabri, the, 312 

Faidherbe, General, 2251, 2253 

Fairfax, 1382 

Faliero, Marino, becomes Doge, 879 

conspiracy of, 880-882 

signal for action, 882-883 

execution of, 883-884 
Falkirk, battle of, 1595 
Famine, army crusaders, 714 
Family Compact, the, 1622 
Farel, 1106 

Farewell Pilgrimage and Mecca, 579 
Farnese, Alexander, Duke of Parma, 

1243, 1244. 1245 
Farragut, 2156 

Father, power of the, 268-269 
Fatimites, the, defend Jerusalem, 716 
Fatrah, the, 573 
Favre, 2255, 2256 

Fawkes, Guy, capture of, 131 0-13 12, 
^ 1314. 1323 

Fealty, 697 
Fen Country, the, 559 
Fenian rising in Great Britain, 2219 
Fenians, 2210 
Feodor, 632 



Ferdinand (Emperor), death of, 1361 
Ferdinand of Aragon, 994 

musters troops, looi 

covets Naples, 1074 

suppresses the Moors, 1074-1075 

and Isabella receive keys of the Al- 
hambra, 1007 
Ferdinand I., 1961-1962 
Ferdinand II. of Naples, 2143 
Ferdinand VII. of Spain, 1953 
Ferdinand, Duke of Styria, elected em- 
peror, 1349, 1350 
Ferdinand of Talavera, 1065 
Festival at Olympia, 1 1 1 
Feudal baron, the, 695 

system established in England, 719 

barons in England, 768 

tenure, 697-698 

principles, universality of, 701-702 
Feuillants, the^ 1745, 1783 
Field of the Cloth of Gold, tourneys at, 

1133 
Field, Cyrus, 2214 
Finland, privileges of, 2166 
Fire-worship, 58 
Fitz-Walter, 766 
Flagellants, the, 871-873 
Flamen Quirinalis, 315, 317 
Flanders joins Crusade, 733 

refuses to be taxed, 983 
Flemish refugees in England, 1235, 1246 
Fleurus, battle of, 1463 
Flodden Field, battle of, 1096-1104 
Flodden Ridge, 1096, 1097 
Florence becomes a Republic, 730 

loses Pisa, 1038 

hostile parties in, 1058 

Republic of, restored, 11 68 
Florida purchased by United States, 1954 
Force Laws, 2219 
Ford Castle demolished by the Scots, 

1097 
Fort Duquesne taken by French, 1600 

Braddock encamps within ten miles 
of, 1605 

captured by Washington, 1630 
Fort Edward, 1703, 1705 
Fort Niagara captured, 1630 
Fort St. Elmo attacked, 1222 

falls, 1223 
Forth Bridge, 2297 
Foscari deposed, 981 
Forum, the, 318, 320 
Fouche, 1948 
France invaded by the Arabs, 603 

laid waste, 608 

John of England, successes of, in, 
765 

invaded by the English, 895 

claimed by Henry V. of England, 
924 

invaded by Henry V. of England, 
926 

condition of, 935 

declares war against Venice, 1078 

debt of, 1 738- 1 739 

becomes a Republic, 1 767 

constitution of, 1795, 1 797-1 798 

new government of, 1850 

declares war against Algiers, 1988 

revolution in, 1848, 2037 

prosperity in, under Second Empire, 
2084 



2480 



INDEX 



France, Second Empire, 2084 

second Republic, 2080 

alliance with Piedmont, 21 35 

declares war against Prussia, 2244 

invaded by German army, 2248 

surrenders to German army, 2250 

a Republic, 2257 
Franche-Comte, The States of, 982, 988 
Francis I. takes Milan, 1139 

appearance at Field of the Cloth of 
Gold, 1 132 

persecutes the Vaudois, 1190 
Francis of Lorraine, 1592 

becomes Emperor, 1595 
Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria, 2 141 
Franciscan Order of Mendicant Friars 

founded, 742 
Frankfort fairs, 2057-2058 

peace of, 2256 
Franklin, Sir John, 2015-2024 
Franconians and Saxons, convention of, 

645 
Frankish monarch, friendship of, with 

Rome, 615 
Franklin, Benjamin, 1641, 1671-1672 
Franks invade Gaul, Spain, and Africa, 
509 

importance of the, 623 
Frateschi, the, 1058 
Frederic I. (of Germany), 720 
Frederick, the Elector Palatine, 1350, 

1351 
Frederick I., King of Prussia, 1489 
Frederick I. of Schleswig-Holstein be- 
comes King of Denmark, 11 68 
Frederick William III., 1944, 1946 
Frederick of Naples, 1035 
Frederick of Sicily, 760 
Frederick II. of Sicily, 797 
Frederick of Swabia, 724, 774 
Frederick II. heads Fifth Crusade, 778 
Frederick II., Emperor, 840 
Frederick of Prussia (the Great), 1593- 
1594, 1617-1626 

comes to the throne, 1590 

successes, 1627 

and Joseph, 1663 

invades Saxony, 161 8 

invades Bohemia, 1618 
Frederick Barbarossa, 723-724 

starts for the Holy Land, 723 ^ 

chastises Romans, 856 

death of, 724 

legendary resting-place of, 724 
Free Trade, 2001, 2006 
French army at Crecy, 849 

lack of discipline, 848-849 

at Agincourt, 927, 928 

condition of the, 1768 
French driven from Genoa, 1085 

Empire, 1885 

enter Mexico, 2174 

invade Germany, 1498 

invade Flanders, 1 770-1771 

lose Canada, 1632 

losses at Agincourt, 931 

losses at Crecy, 852 
French fleet destroyed at Damme, 763 

army, flight of, 851-852 
"French Fury," the, 1244 
French, Major-General, 2380 
Friedland, battle of, 1882 
Erimont, General, 1962 



Fronde, end of the, 1397 
Frondeurs, the, 1390 
Frundsberg, George, 1146 
Fulk of Neuilly preaches Fourth Cru- 
sade, 732 
Fulton, Robert, 1857, 2069 

precursors, 1857-1858 
Furst of Uri, 814 



Gage, becomes Governor of Massachu- 
setts, 1 680- 1 681 
Galba, becomes Emperor of Rome, 484 
Galerius, 483-484, 521-522 

edict of, 484 
Galileo, 1374 
Galliano, Major, 2284 
Galilean Church, 951 
Gallienus, 509 

(Emperor of Rome) treatment of 
Christians, 482 
Gallipoli, the Ottomans conquer, 878 
Gamarra, Major, capture of, 1914 
Games, laws regarding, 143-144 
Ganges, Tamerlane marches to the, 914 
Garibaldi, 2136, 2140, 2142, 2145, 2253 
Gas, 1983 

Gaston, Duke of Orleans. 1393 
Gaston de Foix, Due de Nemours, 1084- 

1085 
Gaston Phoebus, Count of Foix, bravery 

of, 891-892 
Gatacre, General, 2354, 2376 
Gates, General, 1709 
Gates, Sir Thomas, 1301, 1304, 1305 
Gaugamela, destruction of, 1340 
Gaumata, 205-206 
Ciautama, birth of, 124 

youth of, 125 

birth of his son, 126, 127 

flight of, 125-126 

influence of, 134 

becomes an ascetic, 129 

studies philosophy, 129 

temptations of, 128-129 

disciples of, 130, 131, 133-134 

itinerary of, 133-134 
Gaul conquered by the Visigoths, 560 

becomes the seat of Clovis's king- 
dom, 561 

transalpine, 406 

Caesar's conquests in, 413 
Gauls invade Rome, 310 

invade Etruria, 311 

grievances of the, 313 

enter Rome, 318-319 

victory of, 314 

defeated by Camillus, 323 

march to Rome, 313 

repulsed, 322 
Geese save Rome, 322 
CJelaleddin, heroism of, 750-751 
Gelimer, King of the Vandals, 563 
Gemblours, battle of, 1242 
Geneva a centre of the Reformation, 11 16 
Geneva Convention, 2108 
Geneva Court of Arbitration, 2257 
Genoa victorious over Pisa, 803 

capture and pillage of, 1138 

freedom of, restored, 11 53- 11 54 

Constitution of, 1164-1:65 

illustrious families of, 1165 



INDEX 



2481 



Genoese at Crecy, 848, 849-850 
Genseric, the Vandal, 532 

conquers North Africa, 535 

sacks Rome, 560 

carries spoil to Carthage, 564 
Gentleman's Magazine founded, 1 571 
Geok-Tepe captured, 2273 
George, King of Greece, 2156 
Georgia conquered by the Turks, 703 
Georgia founded, 1571 
Gepidae kingdom destroyed, 569 
Gerard, Balthasar, assassinates William 

of Orange, 1244 
Gerberge, daughter of Henry I. of Ger- 
many, 646 
German army evacuates France, 2257 

army, the, 2246-2247 

army enters France, 2248 

confederation, 2254 

emperor, 2254-2255 

crusade, 776 
German Parliament, first, 2054 
German rebels, craft of the, 444 

rapacity of, in Venice, 1079 

cruelty of the, 1080 
Germanicus, successes of, 453 

death of, 453 
Germans, ferocity of the, 449 

victory of, 450-451 
Germany, condition of, in 17th Century, 
1362 

relation of, with the Empire, 655 

unity of, 655-656 

rebellion in, 654 

becomes a nation, 656-657 

re-creation of, 1633 

revolution of 1848 in, 2052-2054 

importance of, 2256 
Gessler, bailiff of Uri, 814 

and William Tell, 815-816 
Gettysburg, description of, 2191 

battle of, 2190-2206 
Gewissas, the, 556 
Ghezzar Oglou, 1842, 1844, 1847 
Gibraltar, 595 

surrender of, 1490 
Giolitti, 2282 

Girondists, the, 174S. 1810-1811 
Gisborne, Mr., 2213-2214 
Giselbert, Duke of Lorraine, 646 
Giunta, the, 883 

Glacidas. See Gladsdale, Sir William 
Gladsdale, Sir John, at Orleans, 946 
Gladsdale, Sir William, at Orleans, 944, 

949 
Gladstone, 2143-2144, 2259, 2261 
Glanvil, Ranulf, 725 
Glencoe (Scotland), 1464 

(South Africa), Boers defeated at, 
2370 
Gloucester, 557 

siege of, 1379 
Godfrey de Bouillon, 708, 711, 712 

elected baron of the Holy Sep- 
ulchre, 718 

wars of, 718 

in Jerusalem, 719 

takes Jerusalem, 717, 719 
Godoy, 1766 
Gold discovered in California, 2026-2036 

in the Klondike, 2327 

in New South Wales, 2056 

in the Transvaal, 2288 



Golden Book, the, 1162-1163, 1164 
Golden Dragon of Wessex, the, 677 
Golden Rule, Confucius's, 176-177 
Goletta, fortress of, 396 
Golgotha, description of, 458-459 
Golossa, 389 
Gondomar, 1343 

Gondy, Jean Paul de, 1390, 1393, 1394 
Gonsalvo de Cordova, 1066, 1071-1072, 

1076 
Gonzaga, Frederick de, 11 56 
Gordon Riots, the, 1716 
Gore, Graham, discovers N. W. passage, 

2022-2023 
Gorges, Sir F., 1293 
Gorm, King of the Danes, 650 
Gortchakof, Prince, 2 113, 2159, 2165 
Gosnold, Bartholomew, 1292, 1293, 1294, 

1296 
Gothic monarchy, state of the, 592 

army, 595 

fall of the, 597 
Goths attack Asia Minor and Greece, 509 

invade Illyricum, 523-524 

enter Gaul, 535 

cross the Danube, 534 

conquered by Clovis, 561 

battles with Belisarius, 564-565 

take Rome, 566 

and Saracens, 591 

degeneracy of the, 592, 593 

defeat of the, 596-597 

invade the Empire, 509 
Gracchi, the, 409-410 
Gracchus, Tiberias, the Younger, 392 
Gran, capture of, 1411-1412 
Granada conquered by the Almohades, 
720 

Inquisition established in, 1075 

fall of, 1006, 1009 

destruction of, 1002 

kingdom of, founded, 778 
Grand Duke Franz, 1576-1578 

losses of, 1578 
Granicus, battle of the, 336 
Granson, battle of, 981 
Grant, Ulysses S., 2179, 2206 
Granvella, Cardinal, 1231 
Great Britain gains Burma, 2288 

conquests of, 1812 

treaty with United States, 2183 

embassies to China, 2008 

first wars with China, 2009-20 11 
Great Eastern, the, 2214, 2218, 2219 
Greece, heroes of, 34 

a sovereign State, 1978-1979 

invaded by Turks, 2327 

made a kingdom, 1980 

an autonomous State, 1976 

fall of, 405 

becomes a Roman Province, 397, 
404-405 
Greek fire, 603, 955 

Greek language, general use of the, 621- 
622 

Emperor agrees to pay tribute to 
Russia, 642 

the language of Christianity, 530 

Church in Russia, 632 

warriors, appearance of, 240-241 

States, League of, 323 

laws, 264 

civilization, spread of, 336-337 



2482 



INDEX 



Greek genius, 337-338 

embassy to Persia, 219 

States, independence of, 381 
Greeks, massacre of, 1662 

in Constantinople, cowardice of the, 
738 

rout of the, at Constantinople, 971 

perfidy of the, 640 

in Constantinople insulted by Cru- 
saders, 739 

treachery of the, 711 

defeated by the Turks, 703 

join Cyrus, 298 
Greenland, discovery and settlement of, 

626 
Gregorios, execution of, 1970 
Gregory IV. excommunicates Henry IV. 
of Germany, 690 

holds synod in the Vatican, 690 
Gregory VI., Pope, 681 
Gregory VII. (the Great), 530, 533-534 
■ Pope, 681 

power of, 685 

infirmities of, 685 

policy of, 686 

holds synod at Rome, 688 

influence of, 686-687 

difficulties of, 687 
Gregory IX., Inquisition begins under, 

755 
Gregory XII., Pope, 914 

abdicates, 918-919 
Grenfell, Sir Francis, 2278 
Grenville, 1636, 1639 
Grevy, President, 2296 
Grey, Lord, 1286 
Grey, Sir Thomas, 827 
Grochov, battle of, 2159 
Guadeloupe settled, 1373 _ 
Guelf and Ghibelline factions, 720 
Guiana, claims to, 1344 
Guiscard, Robert, 633, 687 
Guise, Duke of, attacks Calais, 202, 1199 
Guizot, 2037, 2038, 2040 
Gunhilda, prophecy of, 664 
Gunpowder Plot, 13 12-1324 
Gustavus Adolphus, 1352, 1355-1360 

death of, 1359 
Gustavus of Sweden, 1667 
Gustavus III. (Sweden!, assassinated, 

1766 
Gustavus Vasa, 11 68 
Guy, King of, 723, 728 
Guzerat, conquered by Akbar, 1266 
Guzman, Dominic, 755 
Gylippus, 287-288, 290, 292 
Gyrwas, the, 559 

H 

Habeas Corpus Act, 771 
Habeas Corpus Bill, 1402 
Habertsburg, peace of, 1623 
Haco I. of Normandy, tt2 
Hague Court of International Arbitra- 
tion, 2410 
Hajnault joins Crusade, 733 
Haiyang, fight of, 2900 
Hakhiyt, Richard, 1292 
Halkett, Sir Peter, 1603, 1604, i6o8 
Ham, 28 

Hamburg, 627, 840, 841, 845 
Hamilcar, 359, 364 



Hamilcar, Phameas, 390 

Hamilton, Richard, 1456, 1458, 1460 

Hamilton, Lieut. -Colonel, 1468-1469, 

1471, 1474, 1475 
Hampden, death of, 1380-1381 

regiment of, 1376 
Hancock, 2193, 2194, 2196 
Handwriting on the wall, 190-193 
'Hanifism, 574 
Hannibal invades Italy, 357-358 

genius of, 363-364 

hears news of Hasdrubal, 370-371 

learns of Hasdrubal's death, 380 

recalled from Italy, 381 

death of, 382 
Hanover, Treaty of, 1556 
Hans of Denmark, 844 
Hansa Alamanniae, the, 840 

decline of the, 844 

Diet, last meeting of the, 1398 
Hansa, definition of, 837 
Hanseatic League, origin of, 778 

character of, 843-844 

last assembly of, 845 

effect of Reformation on, 845 
Hapsburg, Counts of, 813 

House of, 1 592 
Harald Hardrada, 675 
Harfleur, the English take, 926 
Harmodius, death of, 212 
Harpagus, 181- 182 
Harold Bluetooth, 653 
Harold, Earl of Wessex, becomes King 
of England, 672 

oath, 674 

difficulties of, 675 

army, 677 

death of, 679 
Harold Goldtooth, death of, 628 
Harold Haarfager, 629 
Haroun al Rashid, 611 
Hasdrubal, death of, 359 

expedition of, 364-365 

troubles of, 366 

crosses the Pyrenees, 366 

enters Italy, 368-^69 

march of, 368 

movements of, 371-372 

prepares for battle, j,77 

sends a message to Hannibal, 372 

retreat of, 376 

death of, 379-380 

385. 391 

massacres prisoners, 392 

395 
Hashim, Mohammed s grandfather 570 
Hassan Bey, 1844 
Hassan, Gazi, 1662 

Hassan Pacha, harangue of, 1 730-1 731 
Hastings, Count of Chartres, 630 
Hastings, Warren, goes to India, 1643 

Governor of Bengal, 1667 

resignation of, 1725 

trial of, 1736 
Havana captured by English, 1635 
Havelock, Henry, 2130 
Hawaii, first Territorial Legislature, 2410 

annexed to the United States, 2327 
Hawke, Admiral, 1629 
Hawkins, John, 1258 
Hawkwood, Sir John, 933 
Hayraddin Barbarossa, 1104 
Hayti, Independence of, 1856 



INDEX 



2483 



Hegira, the, 576 

Heights of Abraham, the, 1631 

Helena, mother of Constantine, 520 

Heligoland, 1906, 2297 

Hellenic, League, the, 259 

Hellespont, the, 524 

Helvetic Confederation, 1886 

Helvetic Republic, 1824 

Hengest, landing of, 547-548 

Henry II. (England), wars of, 767-768 

Henry III. (England), murder of, 793 

refuses to observe the Provisions, 
783 

pledges his kingdom to the Pope, 780 

br&very of, 788 
Henry V. of England claims France, 924 

invades France, 926 

rewards after Agincourt, 933 

conquers Normandy, 933 
Henry VI. of England proclaimed King 

of France, 934 
Henry VII. of England. See Richmond, 
Earl of 

treaty with Hans of Denmark, 844 
Henry VIII. at field of Cloth of Gold, 
1131-1132 

and Francis I., meeting of, prepara- 
tions for, 1 1 28- 1 1 30 
Henry III. of France, alliance with 

Henry of Navarre, 1275 

1270-1271, 1272-1275 
Henrys, war of the three, 1270 
Henry IV. of France defeats the League, 

1277-1278 
Henry of Navarre, 1262 

wedding of, 1264 

becomes Henry IV. of France, 1277 

1271-1272 
Henry, Duke of Guise, 1265, 1267, 1268, 

1269-1270, 1272, 1273, 1274 
Henry the Fowler, 645 
Henry I. refuses consecration, 645-646 
Henry I. of (jermany compels submis- 
sion, 646 

foreign foes of, 646 

frontier campaigns of, 648-650 

makes truce with the Hungarians, 
647 

strengthens the (jerman towns, 647 

preparations for war, 647-648 

insults the Hungarians, 648 

victory over the Hungarians, 649 

death of, 651 
Henry III., The Black, goes to Rome, 

681 
Henry IV. ((jermany), 681 

support of, 683 

wins victory at Hohenburg, 683 

rebellion against, 683 

policy of, 682 

escapes from Hartzburg, 683 

forced to submit, 691-692 

holds council at Worms, 689 

letter to the Pope, 689-690 

deposed, 690 

death of, 720 

goes to Pavia, 692-693 

position of, 691 

humiliation of, 693-694 

excommunicated, 690 
Henry VI., Emperor, 730, 731 

death of, 732 
Heraclidae, the, 83 



V 



Heraclius delivers Constantinople, 569 
Herbert, Sidney, 2107-2108 
Herbert, Sir Walter, 996 
Herculaneum, excavations begun, 1371 
Hercules, pillars of, 591 

and Theseus, combats of, 33 
Hercynian, forest, the, 447 
Herman of Salza, 774, 775 
Hermann, Bishop of Metz, 691 
Hermippus, 60 

Hernici, wars of, with Rome, 322 
Herodotus, 32, 69, 208, 217 
Heroes of Chighitta, the, 911 
Herrera, Posada, 2223 
Herring fisheries, 844 
Hersilia, 1 16-1 17, 122 
Hertz, Heinrich, 2393-2394 

ray, 2315 

waves, 2393-2394 
Herzegovina, 2257, 2258, 2271 
Hevelles, the, conquered by Henry I., 

648 
Hexham, battle of, 981 
Hezekiah, 149 

preparations of, 152 

sues for peace, 153 
Hicks Pasha, 2275 
Hieromnemon, the, 326 
Hildebrand, 681 

becomes Pope Gregory VII., 684-685 
Hill, A. P., 2193 
Hill, General, 2i§o 
Hilliers, Baraguai d', General, 1823 
Hipparchus, 207 

character of, 210 

death of, 211 
Hippias, 207, 210, 211, 236, 238 

dream of, 239 
Hirsch, Baron, 2297 
Hoche, pacifies La Vendee, 18 12 
Hochkirch, battle of, 1620, 1627 
Hohenburg on the Unstrut, battle of, 683 
Holland snubbed, 1536 

importance of, 1493 
Holled-Smith, Colonel, 2278 
Holy Alliance, the, 1943- 1945 
Holy Lance, discovery of the, 715 
Holy League, the, 1083-1084, 1251, 1267 

defeated, 1280-1282 

against Turks, 1412 
Holy Roman Empire, end of the, 1886 
Holy See becomes international power, 
615 

and Pepin the Short, 615 
Holy Synod, the, in Russia, 1569 
Holy War, the, 577 

against the Phocians, 323 

third, 323 

Sultan preaches, 1985 
Homage, definition of, 696-697 
Homer, 72 

Homicidal mania, 1782-1783, 1791-1793 
Honduras, Republic of, proclaimed, 2006 
Hong Kong, ceded to English, 2014 
Honoria, the Princess, 535, 536, 542, 543. 
Horatius, 266 

Codes, 229 

defends the bridge, 229 
Horn, Admiral, 1232, 1237 
Horsa, death of, 551 

landing of, 547 
Hospitallers, 720 

Hostilius, 117 TT 1 r 

Vol. 5 



2484 



INDEX 



House of Burgesses, Virginia, 1 681-1682 

House of Chimham, 437 

Howard, John, 1589-1590 

Howard, General, 2193, 2194, 2196 

Howard of Effingham, Lord, 1257, 1259 

Howe, Lord, 1706 

Hudson, Henry, set adrift, 1339 

arrives in New York bay, 1326 

sails up Hudson River, 1327-1329 

voyage of (1609), 1338 

voyage of (1610), 1338-1339 
Huejar, sack of, 1072 
Hugh, Abbot of Cluny, 691, 693 
Hugh of Vermandois, 706, 712, 715 
Hughes, David, 2258 
Hugo, Victor, 2084 
Huguenots, the, 1262 

cruelties suffered by, 1415-1417, 
1419-1420 

flight of the, 1417-1418 

the, 1265, 1267-1280 
Huluku enters Persia, 778 

extirpates the assassins, 778 
Humbert, King, assassinated, 2397 
Human sacrifices, 450 
Humber, estuary of the, 558-559 
Humboldt, goes on voyage of discovery, 

1837 
Hundred Days, the, 1939 
Hundred Years' War, beginning of the, 

836 
Hungarians invade Pannonia, 640 

the, 646, 720 

truce with Henry I., 647 

defeat of the, 654 

invade Germany, 649 

defeated by Turks, 11 68 
Hungary invaded by Turks, 1406 

revolution of, 2047-2050 
Hungerford, Sir Walter, joins Earl of 

Richmond, 997 
Huniades defeat Mohammed II., 981 
Huns, retreat of the, 535, 536 

ravages of the, 535 

attack the Goths, 534 

the, 634 
Huss, John, tried for heresy, 919-920 
Hussinitz,' James, 921 
Hussite wars, beginning of the, 922 
Hussites, the, 923-924 
Huythaca, 36 
Hyder All defeated, 171 7 

I 

Ibrahim, 1972-1973 

Ibrahim, Sultan, 1817 

Icilius, 262, 266 

Ida establishes the capital of the English, 

560 
Ida, 41 
Igor, assassination of, 642 

leads expedition against Tzarg^rad, 
641-642 

defeated, 642 
Ildico, wife of Attila, 543-544 
Illumination, ancient, 1981-1982 
Illyria, 357, 405 
Incas, the, 1093-1094 
Independents, rise of the, 1380 
Index, the, 1184 
India, French influence in, 1 761-1762 

first railway in, 2090 



Indians of the New World, 1028 

on Manhattan Island, 1326-1327, 
1331 
Indifference, laws to prevent, 141 
Inkerman, battle of, 2104-2105, 21 18 
Innocent I., 530-532 
Innocent III., Pope, 732, 753 

deposes John of England, 761 
Inoculation for small-pox, introduction 

of, 1570 
Inquisition, beginning of the, 755 

the, 1 184 

established in Rome, 1184 

established in Spain, 994 

established in Granada, 1075 
Inquisitors in Granada, 1073 

work of the, 1012 
Institutes of Justinian, 568 
Investitures, 681, 688, 719 
Invisible light, 231 1-2312 
Ionian Islands, united with Greece, 2179 
Irak submits to the Caliph, 586 
Ireland, Spanish and Papal invasion of, 
1286-1287 

revolt in, 1287-1288 

and Queen Elizabeth, 1283 

French Invasion of, 1823 

conquest of, 720 

invaded by Cromwell, 1390 
Irene, the Empress, 623 
Iris, 420 
Irish, courage of the, 1284 

Land League, 2273 
Iron crown of Lombardy, 1856 
Isaac Comnenus, Emperor of Constanti- 
nople, 738 
Isaac, 30 

Isaac the Emperor, 735, 740 
Isabella of Castile, 994, 1003-1004, 1008 
Isabella of Spain, 1999, 2220-2236, 2210, 

2219 
Isagoras, 217 

Isaiah, prophecy of, 149-150, 156-157 
Isdraeli, Bertuccio, 881 
Isis, the New, 418 
Islamism, 67 

proscribed, 1075 
Isle of Ely, 793 
Isle of Thanet, 547-548 
Isthmian Canal Treaty, 2411 
Ismail, siege of, 1735 
Issus, battle of, 336 
Italian Republics, re-established, 721 

States unite against Austria, 2051 
Italy, subjugation of, 323 
f ravaged by Turks, 993 

improvement of, under Theodoric, 
562 

southern, forms a league, 1034 

(upper) welcomes the French, 1034 

condition of, 1136-1137 

calamities of, 1157 

loses liberty, 1 157-1158 

reformation in, 1179 

kingdom of, 2116 

during revolution of 1848, 2051-2055 

and Abyssinia, 2280-2287 

Victor Emmanuel becomes King of, 
2397 
Ito, Sukehiro, 2300, 2308, 2309 
Ivan of Russia, 981 
Ivri, battle of, 1277 
lyeyoshi, the Shogun, 2095, 2097 



INDEX 



2486 



JACKSON, General, 1966 
acobin, the, 1782 
rabble, the, 1785 
Jacobinism, 1945 
Jacobins, the, 30, 1743, 
Jacobites, 1541, 1545-1547 
intrigues of the, 1542 
Jacquerie, the rising of the, 886-889 

overthrown, 892-894 
Jacques Bonhomme, 886 
Jaffa, capture of, 1839-1840 
Jafl&er, Antoine, 1815-1816 
Jalula, battle of, 590 
James I. (England) and letter regard- 

inig Gunpowder Plot, 1309-1310 
James II. (England), accession of, 1412 
humiliation of, 1436-1437, 1439-1440 
raises Irish troops, 144 1 

flight of, 1 444- 1 445 
retreat of, 1451 

at Donore, 1452 

armv of, 1453, 1484, i486 
James IV. (Scotland) invades England, 
1096 

death of, iioi 
Jamestov/n (Va.) founded, 1296 
Jameson Raid, 2310 
Janiculum, the, 317 
Janizaries, the, 969-970 

revolt of, 1490 

massacre of, 1985 
Japan and Portuguese form a treaty, 

1190 
Japan, opening of, 2091-2098 

opened, 2134 

abolishes feudal system, 2236 
Japetus, 28 

farnac, battle of, 1262 
Jeanne d'Arc, 938 
Jebel Fureidis, 437 
Jemappes, battle of, 1746 
Jemmingen, battle of, 1238 
Jena, battle of, 1881 
Jerome of Prague, 920 
Jerusalem, 413 

defenders of, 486 

defence of, 487-488 

siege of, begins, 486-487 

famine in, 481 

walls of, 490 

horrors of famine in, 491-492 

a furious sortie upon, 493 

sack of, 494 

siege of the upper city of, 495 

fall of, 496 

conquered by the Turks, 703 

siege of, 716-717 

assize of, 719 

captured by Saladin, 721 

Richard's march to, 729 

burned by Turks, 778 

sacked by Turks, 778 
Jesuits, 1181 

Order of_ the, 1 182 

political influence, 1183 

found mission in Canada, 1340 
Jesuit schools, 1183-1184 
Jeuncsse Doree, the, 1803 
Jewish blood in Spanish nobility, 1013- 

1014 
Jews, heroism of the, 488 

and Mohammed, 581 



Jews rewarded by Tarik, 596 

in England, massacre of, 721 

edict against the, 1014, 1015 

number of, exiled, 10 16 

sufferings of the, 1017 

cruelties to the, 1014-1015, 10 16, 
1018, 1019 

persecution of the Russian, 2297 
Jingo, origin of word, 2264-2265 
Jits, exterminated by Tamerlane, 908 
Joan of Arc, 938-951 
John of Argyle, 823 
John of Austria, Don, 1242. See Don 

Juan of Austria 
John (England), takes oaths of Cru- 
sader, 766 

deposed, 761 

makes league with northern princes, 
761 

surrenders his crown to the Pope, 
762 

opposition to the Pope, 760 

successes of, in France, 765 

in France, 765 

bad faith of, 771 

death of, 7;^2 

vengeance of, 772 
John of Gischala, 488, 490 
John of Leyden, 1168 
John, the Negus of Abyssinia, 2180, 

2181, 2283-2284 
John XXIIL, Pope, 898-899 

abdicates, 917-918 
John of Portugal, King, death of, 1044 
John of Procida, 797-799 
John VI. of Spain, 1965-1966 
Joinville, Sire de, 732 
Josephine, coronation of, 1855 

divorce of, 1884 
Joshua ben Gamala, 491 
Joshua, 32 

Joseph and Mary, journey of, 435-437 
Joseph II. of Austria, 1663 
Josephus, 486 
Jonson, Ben, 1323-1324 
Juan of Austria, Don, 1226, 1228, 1229, 

1243 
Juarez, 2172, 2173, 2175, 2176, 2177, 

2179 
Judah, Sennacherib pillages, 152-153 
Judaism, 44 
Judea, becomes a Roman province, 472- 

Tugurtha, 406, 410 
Julian, Count, 595, 597 

entertains Musa, 600 

General of the Goths, 591 

his disgrace, 491 

seeks aid from Moors and Arabs, 593 
Julian, Emperor, death of, 534 
Julius II., Pope, 1081, 1083 
Junius Letters, 1658 
Juno, Temple of, 105 
Junto formed, 1488 
Justeius, M., 424 

Justin I., Emperor of the East, 563 
Justin II. succeeds Justinian, 569 
Justinian, Emperor of Constantinople, 

accession of, 563 
death of, 569 
churches built by, 569 
Justiniani, John, conduct of, 970 



2486 



INDEX 



Kaabah, description of the, 570-571. 57^ 

Mohammecl resolves to visit the, 577 
Kara Mustafa, 1406, 1408- 1409 

death of, 1412 
Kapilavastu, 124 

Karismian Turks invade Palestine, 778 
Kars, fall of, 21 13-2 114 

capture of, 2263 
Keith, General, 1574 
Kellerberg, Baron, 2137 
Kellermann, 1772, 1774, 1776 1 777-1778, 

1780, 1 78 1 
Kenilworth, barons at, 792 
Kent, 553-554 

German invasion of, 554 
Ketteler, Baron von, 2397, 2402-2403 
Keymis, Captain, 1344- 1345 
Khan of the Keraites. See Prester John 
Khyber Pass, 2014 
Kidd, Captain, 1489 
Kief made the mother of Russian 

cities," 640 
Kier, 631 

Kindling, methods of, 2074-2075 
Kings of the Romans, three, 915 
Kimberley, Boers attack, 2370 
Kitchener, General, 2327, 2370 
Kit's Cot^ House, 551 
Kleber, General, 1839, 1843, 1846, 1847 

assassinated, 1856 
Klondike, 2327 

Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 773, 
817, 1220, 1221 

are given Malta, 11 68 
Knights of the Calatrava founded, 720 
Knox, John, 1207, 1214, 1215 
Kolyans, the, 124 
Konigsmarck, murdered, 1488 
Koran. See Qur'an 
Kossuth, 2047, 2049, 2050 
Kotzebue, assassination of, 1947 
Krasnoi, battle of, 1902 
Krudener, Baroness, the, 1943 
Kublai Khan, the Polos visit, 805-806 

and young Marco Polo, 808 
Kudur-Lagamer, 55-57 
Ku-Klux, 2219 
Kulm, battle of, 1932 
Kunersdorf, battle of, 1627 
Kung, Prince, surrender of Peking, 2013 
Kutchuks Kainardji, peace of, 1692 
KutusofI, General, 1894-1895, 1897. 1899- 

1900, 1902, 1905 
Kwang Hsii, 2398 



Labarum, the, 522-523 

Labor-saving machines, 2076-2077 

Lacedemonians, habits of, 92 
discipline of, 92-93 
subjects of discourse, 94 
the, 215-216, 298, 300-301 

Ladrones, the, 1 123-1 124 

Ladysmith, 2370 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 1741, 1742 
flight of, 1746 

La Hogue, battle of, 1 481 -i486 

Lahore, conquest of, by Akbar, 1266 

Lainez, lago, 1181, 1189 

Lake Erie, battle of, 1921-1930 

Lamarmora, General, 2135 



Lamartine, 2042 

Lambert, Count, Viceroy of Poland, 2161 

Lamoriciere, . General, 1998, 2042, 2084 

Landais, Peter, 995 

Lands, division of, 85 

Langton, Stephen, Archbishop, 763-764 

Languedoc, 753 

conquest of, 759 

rebellion in, 1420 
Lannes, General, 1839, 1847 
Laomedon, 33 
Larancha, 51 

La Rochelle, headquarters of Hugue- 
nots, 1262 

surrenders, 1373 
Lars Porsena, 228-230 
La Salle sails down the Mississippi, 1403 
Las Casas, Fra Bartolome, 1091 
Latent heat. Black's theory of, 1653-1654 
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, fall of, 794 

Empire of Constantinople, fall of 

the, 742 
Latins make war on Rome, 231 
Laud, impeachment of, 1374 
Lautrec, Marshal, 1137 

enters Italy, 1149, 1150-1151 

death of, 11 52 
Lauzun, 1455, 1456 
Law of Nations, 312 

Law regarding Jews and Christians, 480 
Law, John, 1556 

failure of, 1557, 1566 
Lawrence, John, 2130 
Laws, 260, 261-270 

of Moses, 31 

of Lycurgus, 84-95 

of Solon, 136-147 

trade, 143 

marriage, 141 -142 

concerning wills, 142 

naturalization, 145 

the new, 267 

Roman, 408 

of Justinian, 567-568 

of Zingis, 745-746 

(Code Napoleon), 1853 

(March), 2050 
Layard, British Ambassador to Turkey, 

2263-2264 
League of Cambray, 1077, 1813 
League, The Catholic, 1350 

of Greek States against Macedon, 
381 

Hanseatic, The, 842, 843-844 

Hanseatic, last assembly of, 845 

The Holy, 1083-1084, 1251 

between Lubeck and Hamburg, 841 

of Mallen, 742 

the Southern (Italy), 1034 
Lebrun, 1850 

Leczinski, Stanislaus, 1591 
Lee, Robert, General, 2156, 2190-2206 
Lefevre, 1106 

Legion of Honor, the, 1852 
Leicester, 559 
Leignitz, battle of, 1621 
Leipsic, disputation of, 11 09 

battle of, 1356-1357 
Lelius, 391, 393-394 
Leonidas, 247 

Leo, Bishop of Rome, 542, 543 
Leo, the emperor, excommunicated by 
the Pope, 614 



INDEX 



2487 



Leo the Deacon, 642 
Leo I., 530, 532 

Leo III. succeeds Pope Hadrian, 619 
Leo VI., the Philosopher, 640 
Leo X. authorizes sale of indulgences, 
1107 

treaty with Charles V., 1135 

death of, 11 36 
Leo XIII., Pope, 2452-2458 
Leontis, 243 

Leopold of Austria, Duke, captures Rich- 
ard Coeur de Lion, 730 

takes Crusaders to Germany, 724, 
1404 . , . 

and Sobieski, 1406 
Leopold, Prince of Hohenzoliern, 2244 
Lepanto, battle of, 1228 
Lepere, M., 2337-2338 
Lepidus, 414, 418 

Lerin, the Count, cruelty of, 1072 
Lesseps, Ferdinand de, 2239-2243 
Leucopetra, battle of, 397 
Leuctra, battle of, 323 
Leuthen, battle of, 1619-1620, 1627 
Levant Company, 1600 
Lewes, battle of, 787-788 
Lewis of Nassau, 1237-1238, 1239, 1240, 

1263-1264 
Lexington (Mass.), British retreat from, 

1689 
Leyva Antonio de, 11 53, 11 54 
Leyden, University of, founded, 1241 

siege of, 1240-1241 
Libertines, the, 11 15-1 116 
Libya, 397 
Lichfield, 559 
Licinius, 521-522 

becomes Emperor of the East, 523 

death of, 524 
Ligny, battle of, 1940 
Lille, capture of, 1513 
"Lillibullero," ballad of, 1441 
Lima founded, 1094 
Limerick, the siege of, 1463 
Linant Bey, 2238-2239 
Lincoln upon slavery, 2180 

message of 1862, 2184 

murdered, 2206 
Lindiswara, the, 558 
Lion of the North, the, 1515 
Lippe, 445 

Lippmann, Professor, 2322 
Liprandi, General, 21 n 
Lisle, Rouget de, 1745 
Lister, 2206 
Liudprand, King of the Lombards, 614 

endeavors to overrun Rome, 614 
Livingstone, 2257 
Livius, 370, 371, 373-375, 378 
Loch Leven, 12 12 
Locrians, the, 326 
Lodbrok, Regnar, 628 
Loiera, battle of, 880 
Lombards, conversion of the", 534 

attack Rome, the, 611, 612-613 
Lombardy conquered by Charlemagne, 

611, 616 
London, fortress of, 558 

fall of, 667 

siege of, 668 

capture of, 767 

riot in, 786 

Hansa, influence of the, 839 



London, treaty of, 1973-1974 
Long Parliament, the, 1374 
Longstreet, General, 2190, 2196, 2197 

2201 
Longueville, the Duchesse de, 1389, 1391 

1392 
Longwy, capture of, 1773 
Lorraine, conquered by Henry I. of Ger 
many, 646 

centre of Burgundian empire, 984 
2250, 2255 
Louis, son of Philip Augusta, 758 
Louis IX. (Saint) annuls Oxford Pro 
visions, 785 

goes on Sixth Crusade, 778 

taken prisoner in Egypt, 778 

in Acre, 778 

death of, 794 
Louis XL humbles Burgundy, 1031 
Louis XII., cruelties of, 1078-1079 
Louis XIV. comes of age, 1394, 1397 

vanity of, 1414 

attacks Germany, 1442 

empire of, 1491 

power of, 1 49 1 -1493 

ambition of, 1494 

campaigns of, 1498-1499 

letter to Philip V., 1530-1531 

afflictions of, 1530 

death of, 1540, 1543 
Louis XV^., accession of, 1570 

marriage of, 1570 
Louis XVL, accession of, 1738 

flight of, 1744 

execution of, 1 747 
Louis XVIII., 1945, 1947, 1951, 1953 

accession of, 1941 
Louis Napoleon exiled to America, 1999, 
2013, 2135 

elected President of France, 2081 

policy of, 2082 

constitution of, 2085-2086 

becomes Emperor, 2086-2087 

marriage of, 2088 

character and policy of, 2088-2090 
Louis of Baden, 1463 
Louis Philippe, 1746, 2038, 2040 

abdication and flight of, 2041-2042 
Louisa of Savoy, 1140, 1141, 1154 
Louisbourg, siege of, 1596-1598 

capture of, 1630 
Louisiana, 1403 

purchased by United States, 1869 
Louie, murder of, 1965 
Louvois, Marquis de, 1415, 1416, 1417 
Loyola, Ignatius, 1181-1182 
Liibeck, importance of, 840 

and Hamburg, alliance of, 841, 843, 
845, 869 
Lucanians, the, 411 
Lucius II., death of, 856 
Lucknow, treaty of, 1 762-1 763 
Lucretia, story of, 222-223 
Lucullus, 385, 398 
Lucullus, Lucius Licinius, 413 
Liiders, Count (Poland), 2161 
Ludwig of Bavaria, 228S 
Ludwip II. of Bavaria, 2254 
Luneville, treaty of, 1852 
Lusitania, wonders of Roman architec- 
ture, 601 
Luther, Martin, 1105 

youth of, 1106 



2488 



INDEX 



Luther, in Rome, 1107 

burns Papal bull, mo 

and 95 theses, 1108 

translates New Testament, 1111-1112 

marriage of, 11 12 

last days of, 1114-1115 
Lutter, battle of, 1352 
Luxembourg, palace of the, 1488, 1798 
Luxury, regulations against, 89 

decline of, 86-87 
Lycurgus, 83, 84, 208 

valor of, 92 
Lydians, bravery of the, 180-181 

Cyrus surprises the, 180 

defeat of the, 182 
Lymne, fall of, 554 

Lyons, persecutions of Christians at, 479- 
480 

M 

Macdonald, General, 2352-2356 
Macedon, pretender to throne of, 400 
Macedonia, growing power of, 323 

state of, 400 
Macedonian phalanx, 342 

weapons, 343 

wars, 381, 382, 397 
Machinery for agriculture, 2078-2079 
Maclan of Glencoe, 1465 
Maclans of Glencoe, the, 1470-1475 
Mack, General, 1874-1877 
MacMahon, Marshal, '2247, 2248, 2249, 

2250, 2257 
Madagascar discovered, 1076, 2287, 2310 
Madayn, sack of, 587 
Mademoiselle, La Grande, 1388, 1395 
Madras, acquired by the English, 1600 

built, 1374 

presidency, the, 1765 
Madrid, treaty of, 1143-1144 
Mafeking, Boers attack, 2370 
Magalhaens, Fernam de, youth of, 11 18- 
1119 

renounces Portugal, 11 19-1 120 

fleet of, 1 120-1 121 

embarks, 1121 

explorations of, 1122 

discovers the Philippines, 1124 

expedition against Matan, 1 125-1136 

death of, 1126 

expedition returns, 1127 
Magdeburg, sack of, 1356 

Archbishopric of, founded, 653 
Magellan. See Magalhaens 
Magenta, battle of, 2140 
Magians of Persia, fall of the, 611 
Magna Charta, 767 

germ of the, 667-668 

terms of the, 769-771 
Magnan, General, 2084 
Magnesia, battle of, 382 
Magnus of Norway, 842 
Mago, 364 
Magyars, the, 634 

persecution of the, 1405-1406 
Mahdi, El, 2275 
Mahdism, 2274.-2Z7g, 2345 
Mahomet. See Mohammed 
Mahomet II. at Constantinople, 958, 959, 

960, 961, 962, 965 

takes Constantinople, 971-972 

conquers Athens, 981 
Mahommed IV. (Sultan), 1406 



Maid of Orleans, 941 

Maine, the battleship, 2327 

Makaleh, capitulation, 2284-2285 

Makta, battle of, 1993 

Malakoff, assault of the, 2111-2112 

Maldon, battle of, 659 

Malek-adhel, Sultan, 737 

Maloria, Genoese, victorious at, 803 

Malplaquet, 1513 

Malta, 1168 

captured by Napoleon, 1824 
Malwa conquered by Akbar, 1266 
Mamelukes take Egypt, 778 

occupy Aleppo, 794 

destroyed, 1886 
Manchus, dynasty of the, 1385 

arrogance of the, 2007 

the, 2007-2008 
Manfred, 797 
Manhattan Island, trading-post, 1328 

purchased, 1334 
Manila captured by British, 1635 
Manila Bay, battle of, 2359 
Manilius, 386, 389, 390 
Manin, Daniele, 2051 
Manissa, 388 

Mankind, degradation of, 26 
Manoel the Fortunate, King of Por- 
tugal, 1044 
Mansfeldt, Count, 1351 
Manteuffel, General von, 2252, 2253-2254 
Mantinea, battle of, 323, 357 
Mantua, Congress of, 1086 
Manu, legend of, 39-41 
Mar, Earl of, 1540, 1544-1545, 1547-1548, 

1551 
Marat, 1746, 1786, 1787 
Maratha Confederacy, 1764 

war, the second, 1763 
Marathon, 235 

plain of, 238 

battle of, 240-246 
Marcel, 884, 

Marcel, Stephen, aids the Jacques, 889 
Marcellus defeats Hawke, 358 
"March Laws," the, 2050 
Marcian, dream of, 545 
Marconi, 2370, 2394-2395 
Marcus Antoninus defeats the confed- 
eracy of German nations, 508 
Marcus Aurelius, 478, 479 
Marcus Horatius, 228 
Marcus Papirius, 319 
Mardion, 420 
Mardonius, 236 
Marengo, battle of, 1851 
Marfori, 2230, 2231 
Margaret of Austria, 1077, 1154 
Margaret of Navarre, 1264 
Margaret of Parma, 1231, 1235, 1237 
Maria Theresa, 1591, 1592-1595, 1664- 

1665 
Marie Antoinette, 1659 
Marie Charlotte, Empress of Mexico, 

2176 
Marius, 406 410-413 
Marlborough, ability of, 1496- 149 7 

scheme of, 1500 

march of, 1501-1504 

meets Prince Eugene, 1503 
Marriage customs, origin of, 117 

laws, 141-142 
Married Women's Property Act, 2273 



INDEX 



2489 



Marseillaise, the, 174s 
Marshall, William, 766 
Marsin, Marshal, 1502, 1504, 1505 
Mars-la-Tour, battle of, 2248 
Marston Moor, battle of, 1382 
Martin V., Pope, 899 

elected, 919 
Martinique settled, 1373 
Martyrs, the Roman bishops, 529 
Mary, mother of Christ, 435, 436, 438, 

439-441, 467 
Mary I. restores Romish religion in Eng- 
land, 1 190 
Mary j^ersecutes Protestants, 1190 
Mary Stuart, 1204, 1205 

returns to Scotland, 1209 

ambitions of, 121 1 

sent to Loch Leven, 1212 

cause ended, 12 18 

execution of, 1254 
Maryland colonized, 1373 
Masaniello, revolt of, 1385 
Masinissa, 383, 384-385, 386, 410 
Mason and Dixon boundary line, 1600 
Massachusetts, arms for war, 1687 
Massachusetts Bay Company, the, 1373 
Massacre in Antwerp, 1244 

of Bonaparte prisoners, 1840 

in Cabul, 2014 

of Christians at Constantinople, 
(1453). 912 

of Christians, 1406, 1971, 2141 

in Crete, 2310 

of the French, 802 

of Glencoe, 1472-1476 

of the Greeks, 1662 

of Hindus, 905-906 

of the Infidels, 717 

of Jews in England, 721 

of Latins in Constantinople, 736 

in Madagascar, 2014 

of the Maronites, 2 141 

of the Moguls, 913 

by the Moguls, 912-913 

of Peterloo, 1967 

in Poland, 2 160-2 161 

of Prato, 1087 

of St. Bartholomew, 1217, 1265 

of St. Brice, 663-664 

of Shekan, 2275 

in Spain, 2225 

of Turcomans, 2273 
Mastanarbal, 389 
Matabele, 2297 
Match, the sulphur, 2075 
Mathan, 79, 80 

Matilda, Countess of Tuscany, 693, 719- 
Matthias, the Emperor, 1349, 1350 
Matthias of Austria, Archduke, 1242 
Matthias of Hungary takes Bosnia, 981 
Maupas, M. de, 2084 
Maurice of Nassau, 1244, 1245 
Maurice of Saxony, 11 86 
Mauritania, 591 

Mauritius, France occupies, 1570 
Maxentius (Emperor), 521-522, 523 
Maxim gun, 2287 
Maximian, persecution of Christians un- 

_ der, 481, 483, ^21-522 
Maximilian of Bavaria, 1354 

arrives in Padua, 1080 
Maximilian Sforza, 1077, 1081, 1083, 

1085 



Maximilian (Emperor), death of, 1135 
Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, Mexi- 
co offpred to, 2174 

arrives in Mexico, 2176 

decrees of, 2 176-2 177 

execution of, 2179 
Maximin, Emperor, 521 

and Licinius, 523 
Mayenne, Duke de, 1274, 1275, 1277, 

1280-1282 
Mayflower sails from Plymouth, 1367 
Mazarin, 1396, 1397 

forced to leave France, 1394 

recalled, 1394 
Mazdeism, 60-61, 65-66 
Mazeppa, 1513 

Mazzini founds Young Europe, 1999 
McKinley, President, assassinated, 241 1 
Meade, General, 2192, 2194, 2190-2206, 

2196, 2197, 2198 
Meaux, attack upon, 890-892 
Mecca makes truce with Mahommed, 577- 
578 

acceptance of the new prophet, 574 

the sacred city, 570 
Mecklenburg, Grand Duke of, 2252 
Medes, repulse of, 1165 

victory of the, 163 
Medieval wars, nature of, 1031 

travel, dangers of, 837-838 
Medici family, antiquity of the, 896 

wealth, source of the, 899-901 

authority, nature of the, 900-901 

flight of the, 1038 

expelled, 11 68 

return to Florence, 1088-1089 
Medici, Alexander de, 1155 
Medici, Alessandro de', 1089 
Medici, Catharine de', 1263, 1264, 1265, 

1269, 1272 
Medici, Cosmo de', 898-903 

aids Venetian Republic, 902 
Medici, Giovanni de', 897-898 

as Pope Leo X., 1088 
Medici, GiuHano de', 1088 
Medici Giulio (Clement VIL), 1089 

death of, 994 
Medici, Ippolito de', 1089 
Medici, Lorenzo de', 898, 994, 1088 
Medici, Pietro de', 1034 

returns to Florence, 1037 

cowardice of, 1036-1037 
Medici, Salvestro de', 896-897 
Medina Sidonia, Duke of, 1258, 1259 
Megacles, 208, 210, 216-217 
Megalopolis, battle of, 336 
Megara, battles of, 393-394 
Mehemet Ali, 1972, 1999, 2006 

conquers the Sudan, 1967 

invades Syria, 1998 
Mehemet Ali Pacha, 1886 
Mejia, 2174, 2178, 2179 
Mel»icthon, 1106 
Melchthal of Unterwalden, 814 
Mencius, 168 

Mendoza, Count of Tendilla, 1065, 1070 
Menelik, King of Shoa, 2281, 2282, 2286 
Menes, 44 
Menidas, 350 

Menou, General, 1807, 181 1 
Mentschikoff Prince, 2100, 2124 
Mercantile settlements, important, 839 
Mercator, makes his chart, 11 90 



2490 



INDEX 



Mercenaries, Carthage employs, 363-367 

Merchant Shipping Bill, 2258 

Mercians, the, 559-560 

Merida, reduced by Musa, 600, 601 

Merv, 2287 

Messianic hopes, 436 

Metaurus, battle of the, 378-379 

Metellus, 401, 402, 405 

Methodists, 1583, 1588- 1589 

Methuen, General, 2370 

Methuen treaty of commerce, 1490 

Metternich, 1971 

fall of, 2049 
Metz, surrender of, 2252 
Mexican War, 2024 
Mexico, conquered by Cortes, 1092 

expedition to, 11 68 

downfall of empire, 2177 

evacuated bj[ the French, 2178 
Michelet, quotation from, 362-363 
Micipsa, 389 

Microphone, invented, 2258 
Middle English, the, 559 
Mies, battle of, 922 
Milan, Republic of, established, 951 

destroyed by Franks, 565 
Milan of Servia, 2297 
Milan, Republic of (estimated), 720 

sufferings of, 1145 
Milford-Haven, Richmond, lands at, 

996 
Miltiades, 239 

Minden, battle of, 1628- 1629 
Minerva, the false, 208 
Ming dynasty, fall of the, 1385 
Minuit, Peter, buys Manhattan Island, 

'334 
Minute Men, the, 1683, 1689 
Mirabeau, Comte de, 1741, 1743, 1744 
Miracle of rain, 479 
Miramon, 2173, 2179 
Mirandola attacked, 1085 
Mise of Lewes, 788-789 
Mississippi Company, founded, 1556 
Mithridates, King of Pontes, 412, 413 
Mithridatic War, first, 412 

second, 413 
Mocenigo, Luigi the Doge, 1227-1228 
Mogul Emperor, 750 
Mogul, empire of the Grand, founded, 

1168 
Moguls, territory of the, 752 

massacred by Tamerlane, 913 

the, begfin a massacre, 912-913 
Mohammed I. founds Granada, 778 
Mohammed Ahmed, the Mahdi, 2274- 

Mohammed, the Prophet, spread of re- 
ligion of, 582-583 

tries to enforce his teachings, 578 
enters Mecca, 579 
ancestry of, 572 
birth of, 572-573 * 

physical constitution of, 572-573 
revelations, 573-574 
and the Jews, 581 
and Christians, 581 
turns to Jews for support, 581 
religion of, estimate of, 580, 581 
estimate of, 580 

makes pilgrimage to Mecca, 577 
makes truce with Mecca, 577-578 
preaches the Holy War, 577 



Mohammed, the Prophet, establishes his 
religion, 576-577 

three followers, 575 

escape of, 575-576 

last pilgrimage, 579 

death of, 579 
Mohammed, the Sultan, fall of, 750-751 
Mohammed II., besieges Belgrade, 981 
Molay, John de, execution of, 821 
Moltke, Count von, 2245, 2247 
Monasteries, Henry VIII. destroys, 

1 1 69-1 1 78 
Money-coining in Rome, 857 
Money, iron, 86 
Mongols, the, 803 
Monitor and Merrimac, battle between, 

2167-2171 
Monmouth, execution of, 1412 
Monotheism, 66-67 
Monroe Doctrine, 1985, 2177 
Mons, 2221 

French take, 1463 

surrender of, 15 13 
Mons Sacer, the, 263, 266 
Monserrat, Boniface of, 734 
Montcalm, 1630, 1631, 1632 
Mont Cenis tunnel, 2257 
Montebello, battle of, 2140' 
Montenegro, 2258 

declares war against Turkey, 2259 
Montezuma, 1092 
Montferrat, Conrad of, 726, 728, 729 

quarrel with Guy, 728, 729 
Montmorency, the Constable, 1198 
Montojo, Admiral, 2365, 2367, 2369 
Montpensier, Duke of, 2229 
Mooker Heath, battle of, 1240 
Moor, Last Sigh of the, 1009 
Moors, civilization of the, loio-ioii 

of Granada, dismay of, 1004-1005 

outbreak in Spain, 1070 

in Granada, liberty of, 1065-1066 

rebellion of, 1071-1073 

expulsion of, from Spain, 1075- 
1076 
Morat, battle of, 981, 985 
Moravians found Bethlehem, Penn,, 

1580 
Moray, Earl of, assassination of the, 

1214 
Morea conquered by Venice, 1818 
Moreau, 1851, 1855, 1931 
Morgarten, battle of, 816 
Moriscos, the, 1073, 1225-1226 
Mormons, gains of the, 2035 
Mornington, Lord, 1 760-1 761 
Morny, M. de, 2084, 2085 
Morone, Jerome, plans deliverance of 
Italy, 1 141 

Pescara's treachery to, 11 43 
Mortimer, 790 
Moscow, evacuation of, 1896 

iired, 1896-1897 
Moses, 30, 32 
Moslems, army of, 584-585 

spoils of the, 583-584 

troops, disorder of, 608-609 
Mount Arafat, Mohammed preaches 

upon, 579 ^ . . 

Mount Badon, victory of the Britains 

at, 556 
Mount 'Hira, Mohammed at, 573-574 
Mount Thabir, 573 



INDEX 



2491 



Moultan blockaded, 906 

Mount Thaur, Mohammed hides at, 575- 

576 
Mounteagle, Lord, 13 10 

visits Salisbury, 1306 
Movables, division of, 85 
Mowbray, Philip de, warning of, 827 
Mummius, L., 402, 403, 405-406 

sends work of art to Rome, 404 
Miinnich takes Oczakow, 1573 

campaigns, 1572 
Munda, battle of, 414 
Munster, treaty of, 1385 
Murat, i88o^ 1936 
Muravieff, Count, 2-iTi-2-^'jy 
Muret, battle of, 758 
Musa repulsed by Julian, 591 

preparations of, 594 

impressed with wonders of Lusi- 
tania, 601 

meeting with Tarik, 601 

treatment of Tarik, 602 

takes command, 600 

reduces Seville, 600 

reduces Merida, 600 
Mustafa retires from Malta, 1224 
Mustafa III., 1661 
Mutiny, Indian, 2128-2134 
Mysore War, second, 1760 

third, 1764-1765 

N 

Namur, battle of, 1489 
Nancy taken by Rene, 984 

attacked by Charles, Duke of Bur- 
gundy, 988-989 
Nangis, G. de, quotation from, 878 
Nankin, treaty of, 2014 
Nantes, edict of, 1282 
Napata, invasion of, by Cambyses, 204 

kingdom of, 203-204 
Naples, kingdom of, 2143 

in revolution, i960 

House of, 103 s 

conquered by Spain, 1076 

claimed by Charles VIII. of 
France, 1033 

siege of, 1151 

fall of, 1 04 1 
Napoleon III., 2148, 2165, 2250 

manifesto of, 2172 

attempts to found Mexican empire, 
2148, 2165, 2172, 2250 

arrives in Italy, 2138 
Napoleon Bonaparte. See Bonaparte 
Narbonne, 758 

Narses destroys Ostrogothic kingdom, 
567 

hampers Belisarius, 565 

made first Exarch of Ravenna, 567 
Narvaez, 2210, 2222, 2226, 2230 
Naseby, battle of, 1382 
Nashville, battle of, 2206 
Nassau, House of, 1233 
Natal, Vasco da Gama names, 1048 
National Assembly, 1740-1741 
National Convention, the, 1746 
National Debt (of England), 1558-1559 
National Guard (of France), 1806 
Nations, battle of the, 1934 
Naturalization, 145 
Navarino, battle of, 1974-197S 



Navas de Tolosa, battle of, 742 
Navel of the Earth, 73 
Navigation act, 1398 
Navigation laws, 1 639-1 641 
Necker, Jacques, 1692, 1738- 1739 

dismissed, 171 7 

recalled, 1736 

dismissed, 1743- 1744 
Negro slaves imported to Virginia, 1340 
Nehavend, battle of, 590 
Neil, Marshal, 2135 
Nelson, 1877-1878 

pursues Villeneuve, 1872 

tactics of, 1826-1827 

victory of, 1833, 1836-1837 
Nepaul conquered by East India Com- 
pany, 1966 
Neptune, 71, 72 
Nero, Claudius, 372-373. 378-381, 474-475 

joins Livius, 374 

march, Byron's opinion of, 381 

becomes Emperor of Rome, 473 

charged with setting fire to Rome, 
474 

suicide of, 484 
Nerva, 476 

battle of, 1489 
Nestor, 635, 639, 641, 642, 643 
Netherlands, bishoprics in the, 1232 

the, 1230 

persecutions in the, 1235, 1238 

revolt of the, 1239- 1240 
New Amsterdam settled by Dutch, 1373 
New Englanders, spirit of the, 1 677-1678 
New Guinea, 2288 
New Netherland, the, 1330 
New Netherland Company, The United, 

1330, 1333. 1340 
New Orleans founded, 1557 

captured by Farragut, 2156 
Newport, Captain, 1295, 1296, 1298, 

1299, 1302 
New Rome, 526 

New South Wales colonized, 1737 
Newspaper, first, in the United States, 

1512 

growth of the, 2072-2073 
New Sweden settled, 1374 
New Testament, translation by Luther, 

1111-1112 
New Tribunal, the, 1784-1785 
New Zealand, 2014 

discovered, 1385 

franchise for women, 2297 
Ney, General, 1902 

Marshal, 1904 

execution of, 1948-1949 
Nicea, Crusaders at, 712 
Nicias, 286, 288 
Nicholas, Emperor of Russia, death of, 

2109 
Nicholas V., 861 
Nicholas of Tusculum, Papal legate, 

arrives in England, 764 
Nicholson's Nek, 2370 
Niebuhr, visits Arabia and Persia, 1635 
Niffer, 48 

Nightingale, Florence, 2107 
Nika, the riot, 568 
Nile, battle of the, 1828-1837 

dam at Assouan, 2433-2440 

source of, discovered, 2142 
Nimrod, 28, 46, 47, 48, 53-54 



2492 



INDEX 



Nineveh, 32, 98 

siege of, 1 00-101 

fall of, 10 1 

building of, 29 
Ninus, 32 
Nipur, 51, 52 
Nitetis, story of, 197-198 
Nizam of Haidarabad, the, 1764 
Noah, 27, 45 

derivation of name, 37-38 
Nobility, flight of the French, 888 • 
Nola, Hannibal defeated at, 358 
Norfolk, Duke of (at Bosworth), 999 
Normandy, conquered by Henry V. of 

England, 933 
Norman ambition, 673 
Normans, protect Ethelred against the 
Danes, 673 

in ist Crusade, 707-708 

refinement of the, 631 

settle in France, 630-631 

spread of the, 631 

aid in defending Constantinople, 
632 

in Southern Italy, 632 

aid in repelling Saracens, 632 

gradual disappearance of the, 633 
Norse blood in English people, 629, 
6^0 

in French people, 630 
North, Lord, 1672-1673, 1674, 1678, 

1722-1723, 1725 
Northampton, battle of, 981 
Northern Africa attacked by Arabs, 

590 
Northern Confederation of Sweden, 

Denmark, and Russia, 1856 
North German Federation, 2219 
Northmen's Saint, the, 670 
Northumbria, kingdom of, 560 
Northwest passage discovered, 2022 
Norway ceded to Sweden, 1906 
Norwegian Parliament, the first, 772 
Notables, the, meet, 1725 

assembly of the, 1739 
Notre Dame (Paris), 720 
"Novels" of Justinian, 568 
Novgorod, 631, 839 
Nushirvan, King of Persia, 565 
Nystadt, peace of, 1525 

treaty of, 1569 



OcHiNO, Bernardino, 11 79, 1184 

Octavia, 415-417 

Octavius, Marcus, 414, 424 

becomes sole ruler of Rome, 430 

Oczakow, capture of, 1575 

Odenathus, husband of Zenobia, 511 

Odin, 42 

Odoacer, 560-561 
death of, 562 

O'Donnell, 2222, 2223, 2224, 2225-2226 

Ogyges, 41 

Ohio Company receives charter, 1600 

Oil, laws regarding, 145 

Old Sarum, capture of fort at, 556-557 

Oleg, 631-632 

succeeds Rurik, 639 
legends regarding, 640-641 
unites Russian tribes, 640 
death of, 641 



Olga, 632 

widow of Igor, revenge of, 643- 
643 

the Apostle of Christianity, 643 
Olive wreath, 109 
Olozaga, 2227-2228 
Olympia, crown at, 105, 109 

banquets at, 106-107 

olive wreath at, 109 

sacrifice at, 1 10 

magnificence at, 106, lio-lll 

festival at, 103 

victors at, 107-108, 109 

embassies to, 106 

importance of festival, iii 
Olympiad, the first, 83 
Olympian games, crowds at, 107 
Olympian Jove, altar of, 104 
Omar, 580, 582, 588, 589 
Omdurman, battle of, 2343-2358 
Omen, evil, 989 
Omens, 452 

Omens and prophecies, 599 
Omens at Salamis, 254 
Ommiades, fall of the, 611 
O'Neill, Hugh, 1287, 1288 
O'Neill, Shane, 1283-1285 
Opium, 2008 

Opium War ended, 2014 
Oppas, Archbishop of Toledo and Se- 
ville, 592 
Oracle, Brutus interprets, 221 
Oracle, Delphi, 76-77 

answers of, 77 

how obtained, 76 

corruption of, 214 

dispute about, 278 

of Delphi, how obtained, 76 
Oracles, Themistocles resorts to, 249 

of Buto, 206-207 
Oran, attack of, 1992 
Orange Free State, 2127 
Orange, principality of, 1233 
Orchomenos, battle of, 413 
Order of the Temple, 773 
Order of the Knights Templars, 818 

charges against them, 819-820 

persecutions of the, 820-821 

abolished, 821 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 819, 
821 

founded, 720 
Order of Templars founded, 720 
Orestes, M. Aurelius, 401 
Orion, constellation of, 48 
Orleans, attacked by Salisbury, 936-937 

last French stronghold, 936 

siege of, 934 

offers to surrender, 938 

begs aid of Joan of Arc, 942 

fortifications of, 937-938 

rejoicing in, 949 
Orleans, Duke of, becomes Regent of 

France, 1540 
Ormuz, taken by the English, 1373 
Oropus, 330 
Orovio, 2230 
Orsini, Paolo, 1037 
Ortega, General, 3173. 21 75 
Osman Digna, 2277-2278 
Osman Pasha, 2262 
Ostrogoths, the, 535 

leave Italy, 567 



INDEX 



2493 



Ostrogothic kingdom, fall of the, 567 

Othman fleet, 1227, 1228 

Othman founds Ottoman Empire, 803 

Otho, revolt of, 484 

Otho (1209), Emperor of Italy, 760 

Otho of Bavaria, King of Greece, 1980 

Otto de Colonna, 919 

coronation of, 651-652 

becomes King of Lombardy, 655 
Otto I., coronation of, 651 

wars of, 653-654 

in Italy, 653 

marries Adelheid, 653 

becomes Emperor, 655 
Otto, King of Greece, expelled, 2156 
Otto the Great, 657 
Ottoman Empire, founded, 803 
Ottomans enter Europe, 878 
Oudenarde, battle of, 1513 
Oudh, 2127 

annexed, 2132 
Oudinot's -expedition to Rome, 2082 
Our Lady of Blachernes, legend of robe 

of, 639 
Ouverture, Toussaint 1', captured, 1869 

President of Hayti, 1856 
Oxenstiern, 1360 
Oxford, the Earl of, 996, 998 



Pacification of Ghent, 1241, 1243 
Pacific Ocean, discovery of the, 1091 
Padua, 538, 539-540 

siege of, 1080 
Pages, Garnier, 2042 

Paleologus. See Constantine Paleologus 
Paleologus, Michael, regains Constanti- 
nople, 779 
Palestine, 413 

invaded by Turks, 778 

conquered by Chosroes, 569 
Palestro, battle of, 2140 
Palmerston, Lord, 1979, 2114, 2144, 
2186 

dismissed, 2056 
Palmyra, renewed rebellion of, 517 

siege of, 515 

surrender of, 516-517 

sinks into obscurity, 517 

besieged by Aurelian, 515 
Palmyreans, defeat of the, 514 
Palos, Columbus embarks from, 1022 
Panama Canal, 2279 
Pan-American Congress, 2411 
Pan-American Exhibition, 2411 
Pandects of Justinian, 568 
Palma, T. Estrada, 24 11 
Pandulf, the Pope's legate, has audience 
with King John, 761-762 

John gives the crown of England 
and Ireland to, 762 

goes to France, 763 
Panic, financial, 1564 
PanloflF,_ General, 2 118 
Pannonia subjugated, 430 

invaded by the Hungarians, 640 
Papacy, triumph of the, 1188-1189 

seat of the, 812 

rise of the, 622 

founders of the, 530 
Papal legate governs at Rome, 860 
Papal Schism, the Great, 812 



Paris, revolt of, 1391 

frenzy in, i753-i757 

Peace of, 759, 1623, 1938 

University of, founded, 742 

insurrection in, 884 

siege of, 2251 

Germans enter, 2255 

agitations m (1797), 1799-1800, 
1802-1803 

fall of, 1937 

Commune in, 2257 

rising in, 2082 

improvements in, 2088 

Treaty of, 1941, 2127 

famine in, 1278-1279 

Exposition, 2397 

in revolt, 1273 

the city of, 563 

besieged, 630 
Parliament (England) passes resolutions 
against Slave Trade, 1692 

of Simon de Montfort, 790-791 

first English, 790 

English, at Westminster (1258), 780 

English, at Oxford, 781-782 

first English, 790-791 
Parliamentarians, resources of the, 1375 
Parma, Duke of (Alexander Farnese), 
prepares to invade England, 1255- 
1256 
Parmenio, 349, 353, 354, 355 
Parnassus, Mount, 42, 69 
Parsi religion, early study of, 60 

religion and monotheism, 67-68 
Parsis, emigration of, 58-59 

defeat of, 58 

the, 58, 59 
Parthians, the, 415 
Pasargadae, 163 
Passage of the Alps, 1851 

of the Beresina, 1904 
Passarowitz, Peace of, 1557, 1819 
Pasteur, 2288 

Patarini, driven from Milan, the, 689 
Pater Patriae, 903 
Paths, the, 132 
Patrician, the title, 616 
Patricians, the, 115, 408-409 

and plebeians, 259 
Patricius Romanorum, 616 
Patroons, the, i334-i335 
Paul III., 1185 
Paul IV. publishes^ the Index, 1184 

abolishes nepotism, 1186 
Paul of Russia strangled, 1852 
Paul, Saint, apparition of, 543 
Paullus, 396 

Pausanias, first victor at Delphi, 73 
Pavia, battle of, 1140 

pillage of, 1149 
Pazzi, conspiracy of the, 994 
Peace of Adrianople, 1976-1978 

of Amiens, 1853 

of Bretigny, 895 

of Constance, 721 

of Frankfort, 2256 

of Hubertsburg, 1623 

of Kutchuks Kainardji, 1692 

of Lubeck, 1353 

of Paris, 759, 1623, 1938 

of Passarowitz, 1557, 1819 

of Rastadt, 1540 

of Ryswick, 1489 



2494 



INDEX 



Peace of Tilsit, 1882 

of Utrecht, 1539 

of Vienna, 1591 

of Villafranca, 2141 

of Westphalia, 845, 1361-1362 

Conference at the Hague, 2371-2378 
Peasantry, rising of the French, 886-887 

sufferings of the French, 885-886 

rebellion of English, under Wat 
Tyler, 895 

cruelty of, 889 
Pedro, Dom, 1 956-1957. 1985 
Pedro, Don, of Spain, 797 
Pedro the Cruel, 895 
Peel, Sir Robert, 2003, 2004, 2005 
Peisistratus, 207 

fall of, 208 
Pekin, Kublai builds, 794 

fall of, 748 
Pelagius, the heresy of, 531 
Pelissier, General, 1997, 21 11 
Peloponnesian army returns to Athens, 

271 
Peloponnesian War, 270 
Peloponnesus, invasion of, by Thebans, 

323 
Pelusium, battle of, 200 
Pembroke, the Earl of, 999 
Peninsular War, the, 1882- 1883 
Penn, William, founds Pennsylvania, 
1403 

takes Jamaica, 1398 
Pennefather, General, 21 18, 21 19, 2120, 

2121, 2122 
Pennsylvania founded, 1403 
Penny post, 2014 
Pensacola founded, 1557 
Pentateuch, the, 32 

People, Solon's classification of the, 
139-140 

the, 1 1 5 
Pepe, General, i960, 1962 
Pepin the Short, 534 

becomes King of the Franks, 615 

delivers Rome, 611 

twice goes to the rescue of Rome, 
615-616 
Pepperel, Sir William, iS97. 1598 
Pepys, Samuel, 1428 
Perry, Captain, 1922- 1924- 1930 
Perry, Matthew G., expedition to Ja- 
pan, 2093-2098 
Percy, Thomas, 1315-1323 
Pergamus, realm of, 406 
Pericles, rule of, 270 
Perinthus, attack of, 324 
Perpetua, story of, 480-481 
Perpetual Edict, the, 1242 
Persia aids Athens, 324 

attacks Greece, 235 

conquered by Seljuks, 702 

concludes peace with Eastern Em- 
pire, 569 

struggle with Eastern Empire, 569 

invasion of, 583 
Persian expedition against Eretria and 
Athens, 236-237 

army, disposition of, at Arbela, 347- 
348 

empire, extent of, 201 

standard, the, 586 

defeat of, at Salamis, 257 

religion of, 60 



Persians, conquer Armenia, 509 

conquer the Emperor Valerian, 509 
Peru, 1093 

wealth of, 1096 
Pescara, the Marquis, 1139, 1140, 1141, 
_ 1 142 

his treachery, 1143 

death of, 1143 
Pestilence among Crusaders, 714 
Peter III. (Russia), 1622-1623 

murdered, 1635 
Peter des Roches, appointed judiciary, 

764 
Peter the Hermit, 704, 709 
Peter the Great, 1488, 1489, 1490, 1517- 
1518 

army of, 1522 

conquests of, 1526 

death of, 1570 
Peter Martyr, 1179, 1184 
Peter, Saint, 529 

apparition of, 543 
Peterborough, E^rl of, 1512 
Peterloo massacre, 1967 
Petition of Right, the, 1401-1402 
Pevensey, fall of, 554 

William anchors off, 676 
Phanes, enters Persian service, 199 

murder of his children, 199-200 
Pharnabazus, 301 
Pharnaces defeated by Julius Caesar, 

414 
Pharsalus, battle of, 414 
Phenicia, 413 
Phenician colonies, 78 

cities, rise of, 77-78 
Phenicians, 49 

loss of possessions of, 80 
Philadelphia, 1682 

Philip II. of Spain, 1197, 1198, 1199, 
1234, 1242 

prepares to invade England, 1250 

conquers Portugal, 1266 

sends aid to Malta, 1224 
Philip V'l. (France) seeks revenge on 
English, 846 

confidence of, 848 

at Crecy, 851 
Philip Augustus, 724, 725 
Philip of Macedon, 323 

ambitions of, 325 

superior generalship of, 332 

appointed Strategus, 329 

conflict with Athens, 324 

defeats Athenians, 334 

death of, 336 
Philip Egalite, 1741 
Philippi, battle of, 414 
Philippines, the, discovered, 1124 
Phillippeaux, Colonel, 1841, 1843 
Philopemen, 357 
Phocians, the, 326 
Phocion, 325 

Phoenix Park murders, 2279 
Photography, 2317 

color, 2321 
Phtah, Cambyses enters temple of, 204 
Phya, 209 

Piagnoni, the, 1037-1038, 1058 
Pichegru conquers Holland, 1796 

death of, 1855 
Pickett, 2201-2202 
Picts, the, 545, 546 



INDEX 



2495 



Picture changed by Attila, 538-539 
Piedmont, 2135 

attacks Austria, 2051 

revolt of, 1962 
Pierre, Jaques, 1815-1816 
Piimeliura, 80 
Pilgrims Fathers in Holland, 1364 

embark, 1364- 1365 

voyage of the, 1367-1370 

landing of the, 1370-1373 
Pindar, quotation from, 107 
Pisa, Council of, 914, 1084 
Pisani, Nicole, 879 
Pisaurum, swallowed by an earthquake, 

420 
Pisistratidse, the, 239 
Piso, L. Calpurnis, 390 
Pitigliano, 1078 
Pitt, William, 1624, 1626, 1629, 2000 

resolves to destroy French rule in 
America, 1630-1631 
Pittsburg, named for William Pitt, 1630 
Pius III. convenes third Council of 

Trent, 1 186-1 190 
Pizarro, Francisco, 1093 
Placentia, resistance of, 369 
Plague, the, 862. See Black Death, 1138 

at Athens, 270 

nature of the, 271 

origin of the, 272 

characteristics of the, 272-276 

at Jaffa, 1840 
Plagues, 31 

two great, 97-98 
Platea, battle of, 259 
Plato, 84, 210, 212, 213 
Plassey, battle of, 1625-1626 
Plebeians, 316-317, 408-409 

citadel of, 263 

grievances of, 261 
Plebeians and Patricians, 259 
Plevna, surrender of, 2263 
Plimsoll, 2258 
Pliny the Elder, calmness of, 501 

philosophical curiosity regarding Ve- 
suvius, 499 

seeks to aid the distressed, 499-500 

resolves to rescue a friend, 500 

overcome by noxious vapors, 502- 
503 

body found, 503 

writes for posterity, 497 
Pliny the Younger, 476-477 

opinions regarding Christians, 476- 
478 

tribute to the elder Pliny, 498 

behavior of, during eruption of Ve- 
suvius, 595-508 
Pocahontas, 1298 
Poitiers, battle of, 884 
Poland, Agricultural Society of, 2158- 
2160 

ambitions of, 2157-2158 

extinction of, 2165-2x66 

re-established, 1886 

civil war in, 1643 

partition of, 1663-1665, 1766 

invasion of, 1490 
Polar expeditions, 2397, 2411 
Polians, the, 639 
Politiques, the, 1266 
Polo, MaflFeo, 805 
Polo, Marco the Elder, 805 



Polo, Marco, the Younger, employed by 
Kublai Khan, 807-808 

claims to nobility, 804 

merits of his book, 809-812 
Polo, Nicolo, 805 
Polos, second journey of the, 807 

the return to Venice, 806 
Polybius, 391, 398, 399, 404-405 
Polycarp, martyrdom of, 478-479 
Pomerania, invasion of, by Danes, 1526 
Pompeii, excavations begun at, 1600 
Pompeius, Cneus, 413 
Pompey, 413-414 

murdered, 41a. 
Poniatowsky, deatli of, 1935 
Pontos, kingdom of, 412 
Pontus, massacres in, 481 
Poplicola, 424, 426 

Pope and Emperor, relations between, 
689 

relation of, to Rome, 613 

policy of the, 618-619 

loss of temporal power, 2148-2150 
Pope Innocent III., opposition to fourth 

Crusade, 735 
Pope (Gregory III.), peril of the, 614 
Pope Hadrian, 616-617 
Pope Leo III., attack on, 619-620 

motives of the, 622 

separated from the Eastern Empire, 
611 
Pope Sylverius banished, 565 
Popes, beginning of the temporal power 
of the, 534 

three rival, 914 

deprived of temporal power, 1824 
Porcaro, Stephen, 861 
Porcius, 370, 371, 373, 374, 378 
Port Arthur captured, 2298 
Porteous riots, 1571 
Port Mahon, 362, 1623 
Portobello captured, 1588 
Port Royal taken by English, 1526 
Portugal becomes independent, 1398 

revolution in, 1955-1956 

conquered by Philip II., 1266 
Portuguese settle Brazil, 11 90 

form a treaty with Japan, 1190 
Pothinus, 420 

death of, 479 
Potemkine, 1727, 1729, 1733 

takes Otchakoff, 1734 

triumphal journey, 1736 

besieges Ismail, 1735 
Poundage, 1374 
Powhatan, 1297 
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, 951 

Sanction, the, 1557, 1591 
Prague, battle of, 922 

besieged, 648 
Pramzimas, 43 
Prato, capture of, 1087 
Press, progress of the, 1636, 1637 
Pressburg, Diet of, 2047 

Treaty of, 1880 
Prester John, 1049 

skull of, 744 
Preston Pans, battle of, 159S 
Pretender (England), Charles Edward, 

French aid to, 1544 
Pretender (James) returns to France, 

'555 . ^ , , 
arrives in Scotland, 1553 



2496 



INDEX 



Pretender (James), proclamation of, 

1554 
Pretoria, surrender of, 2397 
Pretorian Guard proclaims Claudius em- 
peror, 453 

disbanded, 523 
Priam, 33 
Prima, 117 
Prim, General, 2222, 2223, 2224, 2227, 

2228, 2231, 2232 
Primrose League, 2279 
Prince of Wales, orig^in of motto, 853 
Printers, early, 980-981 
Printed book, earliest, 978 
Printing by steam, 2073-2074 
Printing, spread of, 978-980 

in China, 974-975 

in Japan, 974-975 

first attempts at, 973 
Procopius, 60, 922 
Prodigies, 420, 439, 471-472 
Prometheus, 41 

Prophecy, fulfilment of, 193-195 
Protection, 2001 

Protestantism, triumph of, 1219 
Protestants, famous, 1105 

persecuted in England, 1190 
Provisions of Westminster, 793 

of Oxford annulled by Louis IX., 
785 

of Oxford, the, 782 
Prussia, 1880-1881, 2054 

gains Stettin, iS57 

importance of, 2256 

King Aru of, 2249-2250 

Crown Prince of, 2247, 2248, 2251 

King of, 224s 

King William of, 2251 
Psammetichus, endurance of, 201 

flight of, 200 
Pteria, combat at, 180, 
Ptolemy, son of Cleopatra, 417 
Publius Valerius, 223, 225 
Puebla, siege of, 2173 
Pultowa, siege of, 1522-1526 
Punic War, first, 357 

second, 357 

third, 382 
Punjab annexed to Great Britain, 2025 
Pym, death of, 1380 
Pyramids, battle of the, 1824 
Pyre, funeral, 10 1 
Pyrrha, 41-42 
Pyrrhus, 323 
Pythia, the, 70 
Pytho, the, 70 
Pythoness, the, 70 

choice of, 75-76 

message to Croesus, 184 



QtJADRANT invented, 15 71 
Quatre Bras, Marshal Ney at, 1940 
Quebec, battle of, 1631-1632 
Queensland, 2134 
Quiberon, battle of, 1629 
Quinctius, Keso, 262 
Qurais, the, enmity toward Mohammed, 
^574 

the, 570, 574 

the council of, 575 
Qur'an, the, 580 



Racecourse, Olympian, 105 

Radetzky, Marshal, 2051, 2052 

Raglan, Lord, 2099, 2101, 2122, 2124 

death of, 21 11 
Raikes, Robert, founds Sunday Schools, 

1589 
Railway in India, first, 2090 
Rakoksy, defeat of, 1526, 1557 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, quotation from, 
378-379 

unpopularity of, 1341 

"History of the World," 1341 

imprisoned in Tower, 1341-1342 

schemes of, 1342 

artifices of, 1347 

liberation of, 1342 

execution of, 1348 
Rameses II., 44 
Ramillies, battle of, 1512 
Randolph, Pejrton, 1682 
Ras Alula, 2281 
Ras Mangascia, 2283 
Rastadt, Peace of, 1540 
Ratisbon, Diet of, 1180 
Ravenna, 531, 564, 565 

battle of, 1084-1085 
Raymond, Count of Toulouse, 707, 711, 

714. 755:756, 758 
Raj'mond de Cordona, 1084, 1087, 1088 
Raymond VI., death of, 759 
Raymond, Roger, bravery of, 756 
Redan, assault of the, 21 12 
Red Cross, 2108 
Red Rocks, battle of the, 522 
Reform Bill passed, 1998 
Reformation, 1107, 11 08 

in Italy, 1 1 79 

in Denmark, 11 68 

effect on Hanseatic League, 84s 

in Scotland, triumph of, 1218 
Regillus, Lake, battle of, 231-232 
Regnier, General, 1839, 1847 
Reichstadt, Due de, 1885 
Reign of Terror, 1 782-1 796 
Religion, development of, 44 

of Zingis Khan, 746 

of the Albigenses, 754 
Religious thought, great period of, 60 
Remus, 112 

death of, 113 
Renaissance, Savonarola and the, 1054- 

1055 
Renaudot fomds Gazette de France, 

1373 
Rene of Anjou takes Nancy, 984-985 

army of, 987-988 

before body of Charles, Duke of 
Burgundy, 992 

solicits aid from the Swiss, 985 
Repasts, public, 87 
Repton, 559 

Republic of France established, 2042- 
2043 

of St. Mark, 2051-2052 

second French, 2080 
Requesens, Don Luis de, 1226, 1240- 

1241 
Retz, Cardinal de, 1397 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1412 
Revolution of 1848 in Europe, 2045- 

2055 
Reynolds, 2192, 2193 



INDEX 



2497 



Rheiras, Charles VII. crowned at, 950 
Rhodes, 817 

taken by Turks, 11 67 
Rhode Island colonized, 1374 
Richard III., fury of, at Bosworth, 999 

unpopularity of, 997-998 

crimes of, 995, 996 

goes to Nottingham, 996 

treachery of his supporters, 997- 
998 

death of, 1000 
Richard Cceur de Lion, 722, 725 

march to Joppa, 728 

exploits in Holy Land, 729 

retreat of, 730 

shipwrecked, 730 

capture of, 730 

leaves Palestine, 730 

in Palestine campaigns, 728 

and Philip Augustus, 726-727 

marries Berengaria, 727 

and Tancred, 727 
Richard of Capua, 687 
Richardson, Sir Benjamin, 2316 
Richelieu, 1355, 1359, 1360, 1948, 1950- 

interruption of, in Austrian aiTairs, 

, 1353 , 

death of, 1374 
Richmond, capture of, 2206 
Richmond (Henry VII.), Earl of, inva- 
sion of England, 996 

supporters of, 996-997 
Riego, rebellion of, 1954-19SS 
Riel's insurrection, 2287 
Rienzi, Nicola di, 858 
Rienzi made tribune, 858 

assassination of, 859 

character of, 850 
Riot in Constantinople, 568 
Riot, the, Nika, 568 
Roberts, Lord, 2273, 2370, 2397 

General, invades Afghanistan, 2258 
Robespierre, 1741, 1746 
Rochefoucauld, Duke de la, 1391, 1394 
Rockingham Ministry, the, 1643 
Roderic the Goth, 592 

at Xeres, 595-596 

flight of, 596 

death of, 596 
Rodney, 1716 

defeats De Grasse, 1723 
Rodolph, Emperor, 813 
Roger, Count of Sicily, 633 
Rolf Ganger, See Rollo 
Rollin, Ledru, 2042 
Rollo attacks Normandy, 630 
Romanoff, General, 1662 
Roman wars, 322-323 

Republic, 1824 

laws, 261-262 

Senate, 382, 383, 385, 389, 39i. 
401, 408, 411 

Empire, division of, 414 

triumphs, 405-406 

army, 369^570, 485 

army in Germany, 444 

army, march of the, 446, 447 

army, defeat of, 450 

cavalry, flight of, 449 

nobles, feuds of, 857-858 

Empire of the West extinguished, 
560-561 



Roman Empire, the Eastern, 561 
Empire, the Western, 560-561 
legions withdrawn from Britain, 

545 
Empire, the Eastern, attacked by 

the Arabs, 590 
policy, 582 

consulship abolished, 569 
empire, dream of a, 620-621 
and Teuton, union of, 625 
triumph, origin of, 1 19-120 
fortitude, 365 

royalty, mythical period of, 219 
government, 408-409 

Romans grow dispirited at Jerusalem, 
492, 
massacre of the, 319 
learn Hasdrubal's plans, 372 
rout of the, by the Gauls, 313-314 
victory of the, 379-380 
driven out of Germany, 451 

Rome, founding of, 113 
foundation of, 83 
interested in Greek politics, 357 
gains Sardinia and Corsica, 357 
gains Cisalpine Gaul, 357 
gains Illyria, 357 
peril of, 369 
burning of, 310 
from B.C. 105-88, 406 
regains power in Asia, 413 
social war, 410 
first civil war of, 411-412 
triumphant, 380-381 
internal state of, in Middle Ages, 

Sss . , . 

seven chief magistrates of, 861 

law and order restored in, in Mid- 
dle Ages, 858 

during the Great Schism, 857 

bannerets in, 860 

sacked by Vandals, 560 

taken by the Goths, 566 

invaded by the Saracens, 625 

attacked by the Lombards, 611 

growing power of, 323 

capital of Italy, 2148, 2257 

King of, 1885 

insurrection in, 2149 

war with Tarentum, 323 

panic in, 314-315 

takes measures for defence, 315-317 

Gauls invade, 310 

dictator at, 411-412 

social strife at, 409-410 

acts as arbitrator, 382 

and her allies, 407-408 

terror in, 451-452 

great fires of, 473-474 

declares war against the Acheans, 
401 

quarrels _ of Plebeians and Patri- 
cians in, 259 

sack of, 319, 1147-IT48 
Romulus and Remus leave Alba, 112 

dispute of, 113 
Romulus classifies the inhabitants, 113 

builds his city, 114-115 
Rontgen, Professor, 2310, 2311-2313 
Roon, Count von, 2245 
Roosevelt, President, 241 1 
Roses, War of the, beginning of, 981 
Rosetta Stone, 1837 



2498 



IND^X 



Ross, Sir James, 2016 
Rossbach, battle of, 16 19, 1627 
Rostopchin, Count, 1896 
Rothschild, Nathan, 1886 
Roumania, 2270, 2271 

established, 2134 
Roumelia, East, 2271, 2287 
Royal Wards, 700-701 
Rubicon, Csesar crosses the, 413 
Rubruquis, William de, 805, 809 
Rudini, Marquis de, 2282, 2287 
Runnymede, 767 
Rurik, the home of, 638 

founds Russia, 631 

goes to Novgorod, 639 
Russell, Admiral, 1477, 1478-1479, 1484 
Russia, beginning of, 638 

derivation of the name, 638 

heroic age of, 638 

first Mongol invasion of, 778 

insignificance of, 15 14 

triumph over Sweden, 1516 

army in :8i2, 1889 

invades Turkey, 2258 

press in, 2151-2152 

declares war against Turkey, 2262 
Russians, cruelty of the, 2 163-2 164 
Russo-Turkish War, 1975 
Rustam, the Persian general, 584 
Rysvvick, Peace of, 1489 



Saarbrucken, battle of, 2248 
Sabine women, rape of the, 115-117 
Sabines, the, 118, 1 19-120, 121-122 
Sackville, Lord George, 1628 
Sacred War, first, 135 
Sacrifice, human, 253-254 

at Olympia, no 
Sadowa, battle of, 2148 
Sagasta, 2223, 2229, 2231 
Sahib, Tippoo, 1824 
_ Saint Paul, Comte de, 1161. See also 
St. Pol 
Sakyas, the, 124 
Saladin, 723 

captures Jerusalem, 721 

becomes Sultan of Egypt, 720 

alarmed by Richard, 728 
Salamis, 235 

battle of, 254-257 
Salem, persecution of witches, 1488 
Salic law enforced, 836 
Salisbury, Earl of, attacks Orleans, 936- 

937 
Salisbury, Lord, 2260, 2268, 2269 
Salisbury, Earl of (Robert Cecil), 1306- 
1310 

receives letter, 1307- 1308 
Salmeron, 1181 
Saluces, Marquis de, 1152 
Salvation Army, 2206 
Samnite wars, 323 
Samnites, the, 410, 412 
Sampson, Admiral, 2327 
San or Sansi, 52 
Sanctuary at Jerusalem, fate of the, 

492-493, 494 
San Stefano, Treaty of,_2258, 2266-2267 
San Domingo, insurrection in, 1766 
republic of, founded, 1985 
republic, 2014 



Sandwich Islands discovered, 1692 

San lldefonso, treaty of, 1716 

San Salvador, 1028-1029 

Santa Fe built, 1004 

Santa Hernandad instituted, 981 

Santa Rosa, 1963 

Santiago, battle of, 2328-2342 

Santos-Dumont, 2411 

Sapor (King of Persia), death of, 516 

defeats Valerian, 482 
Saracen army, 595 

invasion of France, 606 
Saracens, conquests of the, 604 
invade Rome, 625 
great work of the, under Omar, 

582 
loss of, at Cadesia, 586 
land in Spain, 594-595 
Saratoga, 1712, 1706-1713 
Sardanapalus, 98-101 
Sardica, Council of, 530 
Sardinia, 357, 362, 2116, 2146, 2147 

joins in war with Russia, 2109 
Sardinians, gallantry of, 21 11 
Sardis, the Persians besiege, 182 
capture of, 183-184 
fall of, 185-186 
Sarmatians invade Illyricum, 523-524 
Sarrut, General, death of, 1914 
Sassanian dynasty, fall of the, 584 
Satapathabrahmana, quotation from the, 

39-41 
Savage, Sir John, 999 
Savary, (General, 1991 
Savona, capture of, 1161-1162 

taken by Doria, 11 54 
Savonarola, Girolamo, 1054 
excites populace, 1037 
attitude toward the Renaissance, 

1054-1055 
preaching of, 1055 
political sagacity of, 1055, 1056 
vandalism of, 1056 
reformation of, 1056-1057 
suspended from preaching, 1058 
sermons of, 1058-1059 
enemies of, 1061 
letter to Alexander VI., 1061 
claims to supernatural powers, 

1061-1062 
imprisoned, 1062 
meditations of, 1062 
trial by fire, 1062 
execution of, 1063 
posthumous influence of, 1064 
Savoy, Duke of, 1156 
Saxon revolt, 682-683 
Saxons revolt against Henry IV. of 

Germany, 691 
Saxony, Crown Prince of, 2249 
Scellius, 424 
Schiller, description of Wallenstein, 

'354 ^ 
Schism, The Great, 857, 919 
Schley, Admiral, 2338 
Schomberg, Meinhardt, i454> 1456, 

1458-1459, 1463 , „„ 
Schonbrunn, Treaty of, 1884 
Scipio Nasica, 384 

elected Consul, 391 
Scipio, Publius, 359, 366, 389, 390, 395. 
398 

attacks Megara, 392 



INDEX 



2499 



Scipio, Publius, blocks harbor, 393 

curse of, 396 

expels Carthaginians from Spain, 
381 

lands in Africa, 381 

destroys Carthage, 382 
Sclavonians, 646 

defeated by Henry I. of Germany, 
648 
Scotch, patriotism of the, 1204 
Scotland unites with England, 1512 

united, 836 
Scots, the, 545, 546 

prepare for war, 823 
Scottish leaders, 825 

archers, 832 

army, 1 098 
Scutage, 698-699 
Scythia, Goths in, 634 
Sea Beggars, the, 1239 
"Sea Dogs," the,- 1248 
Sebastopol fired, 2 113 

siege of, 2 108-2 109 

attack on, 2103 

position of, 2100 
Seckendorff, 1571, 1575-1576 
Sedan, battle of, 2249-2250 
Segestes, 442 

Selim III. captures Egypt, Syria, Pales- 
tine, 1 104 

becomes Sultan of Othman Empire, 
1226 

wants Cyprus, 1227 
Seljuk Turks conquer Persia, 702 
Semiramis, 33 

Semitic emigration, the, 48-49 
Senate, the, 84 

establishes laws, 146 
Senator of Rome, office of the, 856- 

857 
Senlac, battle of, 676-677 « 

Sennacherib, 150, 151 

pillages Judah, 152-153 

results of disaster of, 158 

advance of, 155-156 

destruction of, 156-158 

vengeance of, 1 51-152 
Sepoys, power of the, 2 132-2 133 

outbreak of, 2128-2129 
September massacres, 1786 
Septimus Severus, persecution of Chris- 
tians under, 480 
Serfs (Russian) freed, 2150 

abolition of, 21 52-21 56 
Seringapatam, 1765 
Serrano, General, 2224, 2227, 2229, 

2231, 2232, 2236 
Sertorius, 41 1 
Servia, 2258, 2270, 2287 

gained by Turkey, 1886 

declares war against Turkey, 2259 
Seton, Sir Alexander, at Bannockburn, 

830 
Seven Bishops, trial of the, 1 421 -1438 
Seven Weeks' War, 2210 
Seven Years' War, importance of, 1633 
Severn valley, conquest of the, 557- 

558 
Severus becomes emperor, 508 

death of, 508 
Seville, first auto-de-fe at, 994 

rebellion of, 602 

reduced by Musa, 600 



Sewing-machine, the, 2075-2076 

Sforza, Francesco, 1136-1137, 1141, 

1142, 1144, 1156 
Shalmaneser V., 79, 97 
Shawnawaze pillaged, 906 
Shekan, massacre of, 2275 
Shera, 28 

Shepherd Kings, 44, 702 
Shepherds, the watching, 432 

adoration of the, 438 
Sherman's march through Georgia, 2206 
"Ship-money," 665 
Ships, battle, 2167-2171 
Shore, Sir John, 1760 
Shovel, Sir Cloudesley, 15 12 
Siberia, first exiles to, 1513 

Poles sent to, 1998 
Siberian railway begun, 2288 

railway, 2289-2296 
Sicilian Vespers, story of, 802 
Sicily, dissatisfaction in, 798-799 

Garibaldi's invasion of, 2 145-2146 

disaffection in, 800-801 

taxation in, 801 

Easter in, 801-802 

importance of conquering, 731-732 

captured by Athens, 284-285 

subdued by the Arabs, 625 

taken from the Saracens, 633 

conquest of, 633 

first slave insurrection in, 406 

Athens covets, 284-285 
Sickles, General, 2196, 2197, 2203 
Sidon captured by Crusaders, 720 
Sierra Leone, 1726 
Sieyes, Abbe, 1850 
Sigismund, King of Hungary, 915 ' 

coronation of, as King of Bohemia, 
922, 923 

defeated, 922 

character of, 916 

summons Council of Constance, 
916-917 

opposed by Bohemians, 920 
Sigurd the Dane, 628 
Sikhs, the, troubles begin with, 2014 
Sikh War, second, 2025 
Silesia, 1933 

invaded by Frederick the Great, 
1593-1594 

seized by Frederick the Great, 1590 

recaptured, 1620 
Silk-making introduced into Europe, 568- 

569 
Simon de Montfort (ist), 733, 756-757 

death of, 759 
Simon de Montfort (2d), 784 

military successes of, 786 

captures Warwick, 787 

sons of, 791 
Simon de Montfort (3d), 792 

death of, 792 
Simonides, 210 

Sineous, brother of Rurik, 638 
Sixtus, Roman bishop, 482 
Slave question, the, 2 180-2 189 
Slaves, emancipation of, in the United 

States, 2189 
Slavs, the, 634, 635 

Sleswig, Henry establishes German col- 
ony at, 650 
Slociim, General, 2194, 2196 
Smith, Adam, 1653, 2000 



2600 



INDEX 



Smith, Adam, publishes "Wealth of Na- 
tions," 1692 
Smith, Captain John, 1292-1305 

adventures of, 1292- 1293 

President of Virginia Council, 
1299-1300 

captured by Indians, 1297-1298 

saved by Pocahontas, 1298 

publishes map, 1340 

returns to England, 1303 
Smith, Sir W. Sidney, 1841, 1844 
Smith, Sir Thomas, 1300 
Smolensko, French enter, 1892-1894 
Snow King, the, 1355 
Sobieski, John, 1407, 1410, 141 1, 1818 
Socage, 698-699 
Social War (Athens), 323 
Society Islands discovered, 1645, 1646 
Society of JesUs, 1667 
Society of the Garden Ruccellai, 1088 
Socinus, 1 190 
Socrates, conduct of, 306-309 

takes poison, 309 

visitors to, 302-303 

last words of, 309-310 

death of, 301 

commands of, 304-305 

on immortality, 303-304 
Soimonoff, General, 211 8, 2119 
Solemn League and Covenant, 1382 
Solferino, battle of, 21^1 
Soliman invades Austria, 1154 
Solon, 13s 

procedure of, 136 

leaves Athens, 147 
, made lawgiver, 138 

death of, 208 
Solon's laws, criticism of, 146-147 
Solyman the Magnificent attacks Malta, 
1220 

power of, 1220 
Somaliland, exploration of, 2127 
Somers, Sir George, 1302 
Somers, John, 1424, 1448 
Sonderbund dissolved, 2024 
Soult, Marshal, preachings of, 1908 
South African Republic, 2258 
South Carolina founded, 1398 
South Sea Bubble, 1566 
South Sea Company, 1559, 1562-1566 

organized, 1526 
Southumbrians, the, 1559 
Spain conquered by the Visigoths, 560 

attacked by the Arabs, 590 

Inquisition established in, 994 

Christian kingdoms united in, 994 

growth of, loio 

rise of power of, 1032 

outbreak of Moors in, 1069-1070 

intolerance in, 1066 

expels the Moors, 1076 

possessions of, 1495 

declares war against Great Britain, 
1870 

rebellion in, 2223 

Liberals in, 2220, 2222, 2223, 2226 

panic in, 2226-2227 

republic, 2257 

universal suffrage in, 2297 
Spaniards, cruelty of, in Rome, 1148- 
1149 

cruelty of, 1080, 1090 
"Spanish Fury," the, 1241 



Spanish Netherlands, the, 1244-1245 

successes in, 1239- 1240 
Sparta, rise of, 83 

importance of, 23s 

attacked by the Corinthians, 310 
"Special Correspondent," origin of, 2101 
Speculation, mania for, 1561-1563 
Spencer, Stanley, 2412 
Speyer, Henry IV. (Germany) at, 692 
Spider, legend of Mohammed and the, 

576 
Spires, Diet of, 11 13 
Spoil, wealth of Persian, 587-588 
Spoleto, duchy of, founded, 613 
St. Albans, battle of, 981 
St. Antoine, battle of, 1395 
St. Arnaud, General, 2084, 2085 

Marshal, 2099, 2101 

death of, 21 11 
St. Clair, General, 1703 
St. Germain, Treaty of; 1263 
St. Helena, Napoleon sent to, 1941 
St. James, 439 
St. Jerome, 532 
St. John, 467, 475-476 
St. Luke, 431, 432-433j 440 
St. Peter's begun, 1076 
St. Petersburg founded, 1490 
St. Pol. See Bourbon, Francois de, 

1153-1154 
St. Quentin, battle of, 1198 
St. Sophia, church of, 569 
St. Thomas, sack of, 1344-1345 
Stahremberg, Count, 1407, 1408, 1411 
Stair, Master of the, 1464, 1466-1467 
Stairs, Lord, 1543 
Stamford Bridge, battle of, 676 
Stamp Act, the, 1640, 1643 
Stanislaus, King of Poland, 1665- 1667 
Stanley, Henry M., 2273, 2297 

circumnavigates Victoria Nyanza, 
2258 
Stanley, Sir William, 998, 999 
Star Chamber abolished, 1374 
Star worshippers, Chaldeans as, 52 
States of Franche-Comte, 982 
States-General, the, 1230-1231 

France, first, 812 

(France), meeting of the, 1739- 
1740 
Stauffacher of Schwyz, 814 
Steam plow, the, 2078-2079 

ships, 2068-2069 

engine, Fulton orders, 1866 

engine (Watts), 1858-1859 

boat, first, 1868- 1869 

boat, inventors of the, 1860-1863 

printing press, 2073-2074 

railways, 2069-2070 

engine, the, 1650-1658 
Steenkirke, battle of, 1488 
Steinmetz, General von, 2247 
Stelton, 1557 

Stephen of Blois, 707, 715 
Stephenson, George, 2070 
Stephenson, Robert, 2239 
Stirling, Admiral, Sir James, 2098 
Stirling surrenders, 834 
Stirling, the gate of Scotland, 822 
Stork at Aquileia, story of the, S37-S38 
Storm-gods, Zoroaster's connection with, 

62-64 
Storthing, the, 772 



INDEX 



2501 



Strafford, impeachment of, 1374 
Stralsund besieged, 1353 
Strategus, definition of, 329 
Stratius, 398 

Strongbow conquers Ireland, 720 
Struensee, 1658 

executed, 1667 
Sudan, the, 2274, 22-;<,-22t; 

conquered by Mehemet Ali, 1967 
Sue, Eugene, 2084 
Suez Canal, 2127, 2237-2243, 2257 
Sugar-cane taken to Hispaniola, 1076 
Sulla, L. C, 406, 411, 413 
Sultan Mahmoud, 1972 
Sunday, a day of rest, 525 
Surahs of Mohammed, 580 
Surrey challenges James IV., 1097 

advance of, 1098-1099 
Suwaroff, 1733-173S. 1849 
Suwarrovv. See Suwaroff 
Sviatoslaf, 642 
Swabians, the, 682 

Sweden becomes an absolute monarchy, 
1403 

importance of, 1515-1516 

rise and fall of, 15 16-15 17 
Sweyn, invasion of, 666-667 

proclaims himself King of England, 
667 

devastations of, 658 

death of, 667 
Swiss called to aid of Italy, 1082 

aid Rene, 986 

defeat Charles the Bold, 981 

in Milan, 1085-1086 

Guard, 1782 
Switzerland, ducal tyranny in, 814 
Sybaris, destruction of, 235 
Sylvester III., Pope, 681 
Symphorian, martyrdom of, 480 
Syracuse, foundation of, 134 

siege of, 279-280 

receives foreign aid, 289 
Syria becomes a Roman province, 413 

conquered by Chosroes, 569 

attacked by Arabs, 590 

conquered by Turks, 703 
Szathmar, treaty of, 1526 



Table, manners at, 88 

how supplied, 87 
Tables, The Twelve, 260, 265 

use of public, 87 

admission of new members at, 88 

children at public, 87 
Taku forts captured, 2397 
Taborites, the, 922 
Tarhau, battle of, 922 
Taillefer the Minstrel, 677 
Tai Ping Rebellion, 2056 
Talasius, 117 

Talbot, Sir Gilbert, joins Earl of Rich- 
mond, 997, 998 
Tallard, Marshal, 1501-1502, 1504, 1505, 

1506 
Talleyrand, 1937, 1948 
Talmud, the, 59 
Tamerlane takes Delhi, 911-912 

crosses the Jumna, 910 

exterminates the Jits, 908 

in Battenize, 907-908 



Tamerlane, orders massacres, 905-906, 
908, 910, 913 

crosses the Ganges, 914 

enters Delhi, 913-914 

invades Hindostan, 904 
Tammany Society founded, 1737 
Tancred, 707, 714, 718-719, 726, 727 

and Richard, 727 
Tanganyika, 2258 

discovered, 2127 
Tann, General von der, 2252 
Tarentum, foundation of, 134 
Tarik rewards the Jews, 597 

enters Toledo, 597-598 

expedition of, 594-595 

march of, 597-598, 599 

conquests of, 598-599 

protects the Christians, 596 

and Musa meet, 601 
Tarpeia, story of, 120-121 
Tarsus, dispute of Crusaders about, 714 
Tartar army, discipline of the, 745 
Tarquin, a plan for the restoration of, 
226 

deposition of, 224-225 
Tarquinius, King, consults Delphic 
Oracle, 220 

death of King, 235 
Tasman, 1385 
Tasmania discovered, 1385 
Tatius, 120, 121 
Taurus, 424 
Tax on property, 1374 

income, 1374 
Taxation of American colonies, 1641 

no tyranny, 1679 

illegal in France, 1390 
Taygetus, Mount, 91 
Tchitchagoff, General, 1903 
Tea, destruction of, in Boston Harbor, 

1668-1671 
Teias, last of Ostrogothic kings, 567 
Tekeli, Count Emmerich, revolt of, 1406 
Telamon, battle of, 357 
Telegraph, the, 2071 
Telegraphy, wireless, 2390-2397 
Telephone invented, 2258 
Tell, William, 814 

and the apple, 815 

leap, 816 

kills Gessler, 816 

escape of, 816 

death of, 816 
Temple to Castor and Pollux, 234 

of Hercules, 239 

of Asylean god, 113 

of Delphi, gifts to, 74 

of Esculapius, 394 

of Hercules, 420 

of Janus closed, 430 

of Jerusalem, fall of the, 495 
the Judeans retire to the, 490-491 
of Jerusalem is fired, 493 
Temples, 105 

Chaldean, 51-52 

Babylonian, 51-52, 55 
Temugin. See Zingis 
Ten Thousand, retreat of the, 300 

result of the expedition of the, 301 
Terentilius, Harsa, propositions of, 262 

law of, 267 
Tertullian, 530 
Tetzel, John, indulgences, 1107 



2502 



INDEX 



Tetzel, John, contested theses, 1108 

Teuton and Roman, union of, 625 

Teuton, aim of the, 621 

Teutones, the, 406, 410 

Teutonic Order, the, 773-774. 775, ll(>- 

778 
Tewksbury, battle of, 981 
Texas admitted to Union, 2014 
Thamas Kouli Khan, 1579 
Theagenes, iZi 
Theatines, the, 1181 
Thebans join Acheans, 402 
Thebes and Athens, alliance of, 331 

and Sparta, war between, 323 

rivalry of, 326 

deserts Philip, 329-330 
Themis, the goddess, 71, 72 
Themistocles, 243, 247, 248-249 

offers human sacrifices, 253-254 
Theodora, the Empress, 565 
Theodoric the Ostrogoth, death of, 562 
Theodoric, King of Visigoths, death of, 

535 , „ 

Theodosius, Emperor of Rome, con- 
quers the Goths, 535 

issues edicts against heretics, 535 
Thermopylae, Pass of, 235 
Thessalian migration, 83 
Thief, the repentant, 465-466 
Thiers, 2084, 2255 

fall of, 2037-2038 
Thirty Tyrants in Attica, 330 
Thomas, Sir Rice ap-, 996 
Thrace, 524 

Throckmorton, Thomas, 13 14 
Thucydides, 211, 212 

Thundering Legion, miracle of the, 479 
Thuriot de la Rosiere, 1750 
Thurkill, 666 
Thusnelda, 442 
Tiberias, battle of, 721 
Tiberius, Alexander, 486 

recalled from Germany, 443 

brother of Drusus, 430 
Ticonderoga, 1630, 1703 

captured, 1 690-1 691 
Tiepolo, conspiracy of, 812 
Tien-tsin, Treaty of, 2134 
Tierra del Fuego, 1122 
Tilly, 1352 

at Lutter, 1352 

general of Austrian armies, 1355- 
1356, 1357 
Tilsit, Peace of, 1882 
Timbuctoo, 2297 
Timur. See Tamerlane 
Tipu, Sultan, 1760 

death of, 1765 
Tissaphernes, 300-301 
Titus Herminius, 232 
Titus, son of Vespasian, 484 

becomes Emperor, 485, 496 

crucifies 500 prisoners, 488 

"the delight of all mankind," 488 

executes priests at Jerusalem, 494 

penetrates the sanctuary of the tem- 
ple (Jerusalem), 493 

behavior of at Jerusalem, 492-493 

appears before Jerusalem, 485 

orders Jerusalem to be fired, 495 

arch of, 496 
Tmolus, Mount, 183 
Todleben, General, 2262 



Togrul, 702 

Tokugawa Shoguns, 2091-2092 

Tomsberg destroyed, 720 

Tonkin, 2287 

Tonnage, 1374 

Topcte, Admiral, 2230, 2231, 2232 

Torquemada, Thomas de, 10 12, 10 15 

death of, 1075 
Torgan, battle of, 1622 
Toselli, Major, 2284 
Tostig, 675 
Totilas the Goth, 566 

slain by Narses, 567 
Toulouse, 758 
Tourelles, the, 937, 947 
Tournay, battle of, 15 13 
Tours, battle of, 607 

Arabian version of, 607-610 

significance of the, 610-61 1 
Tourville, Admiral, fleet of, 1480 

retreat of, 1482 
Tower of London, 680 

of St. Romanus (Constantinople) 
falls, 956 
Towns and corporations, 702 
Towton, battle of, 981 
Trade, laws for encouraging, 143 
Trafalgar, battle of, 1877-1878 
Traite des dames, La, 11 54 
Trajan, persecutions of Christians un- 
der, 476-477, 481-482 

edict of, 476-477 

wages war against the Dacians, 508 

conquers the Parthians, 508 

death of, 508 
Trajan's Column completed, 508 
Transvaal, 2273 

becomes British, 2297 

independence recognized, 2090 
Trasimene, Lake, battle of, 357 
Travel, growth of disposition to, 2070 

facilities for, 2068 
Travelling in the Middle Ages, 837-838 
Treaty of Amiens, 11 49 

of Berlin, 2269-2273 

of Blois, Secret, 1077 

of Cambray, 11 55-1 156 

of Carlowitz, 1818 

of Campo Formio, 1828 

of Great Britain and China (1842), 
2010 

of Hanover, 1556 

of Iglau, 922 

with Japan, 2094, 2098 

of London, 1973-1974 

of Lucknow, 1762- 1763 

of Luneville, 1852 

of Madrid, 1 143-1 144 

of Munster, 1385 

of Nankin, 2014 

of Noyes, 933 

of Nystad, 1569 

of Paris, 1941, 2127 

of Presburg, 1880 

of Schonbriinn, 1884 

of Szathmar, 1526 

of St. Germain, 1263 

of San Ildefonso, 17 16 

of San Stefano, 2258, 2266-2267 

of Tien-tsin, 2134 

of Vervius, 1282 

of Vienna, 2164 

of Westphalia, 1245 



INDEX 



2503 



Treaty of Zanzibar, 2257 

Treaty Barrier, 1540 

Trees, laws regarding, 144 

Trent, Council of, 1185-1186, 1186-1190 

Tresham, Sir Francis, 1308, 1320, 1323 

Tres Puentis bridge, capture of, 1913 

Trezel, General, 1993 

Triballi, the, 325 

Tribonian aids Justinian in making laws, 

567-568 
Tribur, nobles and bishops assembly at, 

691 
Trichinopoly captured, 1600 
Triennial Act, 1488 
Trigetius, 542 

Tripoli captured by Crusaders, 720 
Tripoli, 2014 

taken by Turks, 1190 
Tristan d'Acunha, 1076 
Triumvirate, The First, 413-414 

The Second, 414 
Tronvor, brother of Rurik, 638 
Troy, siege and destruction of, 33-34 

war of, 83 
Truce of God, the, 681 
Truths, The Four Great, 132 
TuUeries, sack of the, 1746 
Tunis gained by the French, 2273 

taken by Charles V., 11 68 
Turenne, 1391, 1394, 1395 
Turin, Cabinet of, 2137 
Turkey attacked by Russia, 1661-1662 

declares war against Russia, 1730 

gains Servia, 1886 

calls a parliament, 2261-2262 
Turkish tactics, 713, 1845 

navy, destruction of the, 1 661- 1662 

war, end of the, 1578 



conquests, 703 
at C 
953-954 



artillery 



onstantinople (1453), 



fleet (1453). 957-958 
Turks defeated by Prince Eugene, 1489 

Venetian wars with the, 1817-1818 

defeated by Louis of Baden, 1463 

take Rhodes, 11 67 

invade Italy, 993 

league with France, 11 68 

take Buda, 1168 

defeat of, at Lepanto, 1228 

take Tripoli, 1190 

take Constantinople, 972 

invade Hungary, 1406 

defeated by Russians, 1733 

capture Crete, 1398 

driven from Hungary, 1556 

capture Edessa, 720 

the, 702 

rout of the, 715 

enter Egypt, 720 

gain victory over Hungarians, 1168 
Tweed Ring (N. Y.), 2257 
Twenge, Sir Marmaduke, 835 
Tycoon, the, 2092 
Tyranny, the, 213 

encroachment of ducal, in Switzer- 
land, 814 
Tyrants, suicide of the, 267 

the ten, 265 
Tyrconnel, 1456, 1457 
Tyre, foundation of, 33 

wealth of, 148 

importance of, 148 



Tyre, flight of King of, 150-151 
captured by Crusaders, 720 

Tzargrad, the queen of cities, 639 
invaded by Oleg, 640 
third invasion of, 641-642 

Tzar's Rescript, the, 2372 

U 

Ulm, capitulation of, 1875-1877 
Ulster, colonization of, 1290 
Ulundi, 2273 
Uniformity, Act of, 1285 
Union of Calmar, 1167 

of Protestants, the Evangelical, 1350 

of Utrecht, the, 1243 
United States of America recognized, 
1715-1716 

war against England, 1886 

recognizes French Republic, 2043 

expedition to Japan, 2093-2098 

refuses aid to Mexico, 2175 

and Mexico, 2177 

buys Alaska, 2219 

annexes Hawaii, 2327 
University of Halle established, 1488 
Ur, 47, 51 
Urban II., Pope, 704 
Uriconium, death song of, "557-558 
Urukh, 49, S3, 55 

buildings of, 50-52 
Utica, 397 
Utrecht, union of, 1243 

Peace of, 1539 



\'ala, N., 449 

Valdez, Juan, 1 1 79 

Valee, General, 1994, 1995, 1996 

Valens, 520 

defeat of, 535 

becomes Emperor of the East, 534 

professes Arianism, 534 
Valentinian, 520 

Emperor of the West, 534 
Valerian, persecution of Christians un- 
der, 482-483 

conquered by the Persians, 509 

death of, 483 
Valerius, 266 
Valetta, 1225 

Valette, Jean Parisot de la. Grand Mas- 
ter of Knights of St. John, 1221, 
1222 

honors to, 1224-1225 

death of, 1225 
Valnry, battle of, 1 778-1 781 

T^ellermann at, 1779 
ccreat of the Prussians at, 1780 
Valois, House of, 836 
Vancouver explores northwest coast of 

America, 1759 
Vanguard, The, 1826 
Varangian soldiers, 532 
Varangians, the, 631, 635-636 

and Slavs, 636-638 
Varus, Q., succeeds Tiberius in Ger- 
many, 443-444 

character of, 443-444 

march of, 446, 447 

army, 448 



2504 



INDEX 



Varus, Q., suicide of, 449 

Vasco da Gama, voyage of, 1046, 1053 

return of, 1051-1053 

captains of, 1045-1046 

fleet of, 1045 
Vassal, the feudal, 699-700 
Vatican, the, 2452-2453 

attacked, 1145-1146 
Vaudois attacked, 1398 
Ve, 42 

Veil, Romans at, 320, 321 
Venables and Penn take Jamaica, 1398 
Vendee, La, 1850 
\'enetian attitude toward the Empire, 

741 
Republic, policy of, 1814-1815 
Republic, conspiracy against the, 
1815-1816 
Venetians aid Crusaders, 733-734 

gain Constantinople, 738 
Venezuela, 241 2 

declares independence, 1985 
Vengrov, battle of, 2163 
Venice, foundation of the Republic of, 
5 39-540 
wealth of, 540 

aided by Cosmo de' Medici, 902 
France declares war with, 1078 
greatness of, 1813 
work "of, in Sixteenth Century, 

1813-1814 
weakness and decay of, 1819-1820 
and French Revolution, 1820-1821 
attacks the French, 1822-1823 
"Venice Preserved," 1817 
Verdun, surrender of, 1774 
Verneuil taken by Bedford, 934 
Vernon takes Portobello, 1590 
Verona, congress of, 1963 
Verrezano enters New York Bay, 1325 
Versailles, mob marches to, 1742 
Vervins, Treaty of, 1282 
Vespasian becomes Emperor of Rome, 

484 
Vestal priestesses, 315, 317 
Vesuvius, eruption of, 501-502, 504-508 
unnatural cloud noticed by the 
Plinys from, 498-499 
Vicksburg, capture of, 2179 
Victor, General, 1902, 1903 
Victor Emmanuel, 1958, 1959, 1962-1963, 

2137, 2140, 2147 
Victoria becomes Queen of England, 
1999 
Empress of India, 2258 
Victoria Nyanza (Stanley), 2258 
Victors, vengeance of, at Syracuse, 294 

at Olympia, 107-108, 109 
Victory of Victories. See Nehavend 
Vienna, capture of, 1883- 1884 
revolution (1848), 2048-2049 
Treaty of, 2164 
siege of, 1406-1407 
Peace of, 1592 
Vikings, ferocity of the, 628-629 
conquests of the, 625-626 
the, 627 
Vili, 42 

Villa Viciosa, 1398 
Villafranca, Peace of, 2141 
Villars, Marshal, 1531-1532, i533. iS34- 

1535. 1538 
Villehardonin, Geoffroi de, 732, 735 



Villeins, the, 699 

Villena, Marquis of, ravages the Al- 

puxarras, 1002 
Villeneuve, Admiral, 1871-1873 
Vinland (America) discovered, 626 
Vinoy, General, 2251 
Virginia, English colonists, 1294-1295, 

1299 
Virginia Charter, the first, 1294 

the new, 1300-1301 
Virginia, story of, 266-267 
Virginius, 262, 266 
Visconti, the, extinguished, 951 
Visigoths conquer Spain and Gaul, 560 
Vitellius the Glutton, 484 

death of, 484 
Vitiges, King of the Goths, 564 
Vittoria, battle of, 1906, 1907 

description of, 1909 

Wellington at, igi2 
Vladimir I., 632 
Vladimir, 643-644 

W 

Wad-en-Nejumi, 2278 

VVagram, battle of, 1884 

Wainman, Sir Ferdinando, 1302 

Wakefield, battle of, 981 

Waldemar I. of Denmark, 720 

Waldenses founded, 720 

Waldo, Peter, 720 

Wales subjugated by Edward, 803 

Wales, Prince of, origin of motto of, 

853 
Wallace, 803 

Wallenstein, Albert (Count), marches 
of, 1352-1353 

described by Schiller, 1354 

successes of, 1352 

besieges Stralsund, 1353 

dismissed, 1354 

at Prague, 1354 

recalled, 1357-1358 

assassination of, 1360 
Walpole, Horace, 1564-1565, 1566-1567, 

1632 
Walter, Hubert, Bishop of Salisbury, 

725-726 
Walter the Penniless, 706 
Wandu and Wejas, 143 
War of the Austrian succession, 1591- 
1595 

The Fifty Years', 284 

Lycurgus against, 89 

of American Revolution, beginning 
of, 1691-1692 

of the Polish succession, end of, 

1571 
Warr, Lord de la, 1301, 1302, 1305 
Warsaw occupied by Russians, 1656- 

1666 
Warships, modern, first battle of, 2299 
Wartburg Castle, Luther imprisoned, 

iiii 
Warwick captured by S. de Montfort, 

787 
Warwick, Earl of, sends message to 

Edward at Crecy, 850 
Washington, City of, laid out, 1737 
Washinsrton, George, captures Fort 

Duquesne, 1630 
elected President, 1737 



INDEX 



2505 



Waterloo, 1940-1941 

Wat Tyler, rebellion of, 895 

Watt, James, 'leso-iesS, 1858, 2076 

"Wealth of Nations, the," 2000. See 

Smith, A dam 
Wedgwood potteries, 1658 
Weissenburg, battle of, 2247 
Wellesley, the Marquess, 1761, 1762- 

1765 
Wellington, Duke of, 1883, 1911-1912, 

1919, 1936, 1939, 1950, 1964, 

1978, 2004-2005 
Wencelaus, the son of Charles IV., 915, 

921 
Wenzeslas, Duke, attacked by Henry I., 

648 
Werder, General von, 2253 
Wesley, Charles, 1585 
Wesley, John, 1585-1588 

in Georgia, 1580 
West India Company, the, 1332, 1334 
Westminster Abbey, 2440-2442 
Westminster, William the Conqueror 

crowned at, 680 
Westphalia, Peace of, 845, 1361-1362 I 

Treaty of, 1245 
Weymouth, Captain George, 1293 

discoveries of, 1336-1337 
Whigs, fall of the, 1527 
White Company, the, 757-758 
Whitefield, 1580, 158^-1585 
Wilderness, battles of the, 2206 
Wilkes, John, 1637-1638, 1686 
William and Mary, 1448, 1449 
William the Conqueror, 629, 673, 674 
prepares to invade England, 674- 

675 

resentment of, 674-675 

anchors off Pevensey, 676 

heroism of, 678 

ruse of, 678-679 

coronation of, 680 

visits Normandy, 681 

general submission to, 681 
William of Orange (England), 1439 

supporters of, 1441-1442 

enters England, 1443-1444 

army of, 1454 

invades Ireland, 145 1 

heroism of, 146 1 

death of, 1496 
William of Orange, 1232, 1233, 1242 

becomes a Calvinist, 1237-1238 

youth of, 1233 

becomes statholder, 1239 

assassination of, 1244 
William Rufus, 719 
Williams, General Fenwick, 21 14 
Wills, laws concerning, 142 
Wimbledon, battle at, 557 
Wimpffen, General, 2250 
Winchester, surrender of, to William 

the Conqueror, 679 

fight at, 556 
Winter, Thomas, 1314-1323 
Wippedsfleet, struggle at, 553-554 
Wisby, 839 
Witiza the Goth, 592 
Wodehouse, Colonel, 2278 
Wolfe, General, at Quebec, 1631-1632 
Wolaey, Cardinal, 1128, 1130, 1131, 

II33. 1134 
Women, training of, 90 



Women, regulations for, 142-143 

Word, the, 63-64 

Worden, John L., 2169 

World, four ages of the, 25, 28, 29, 

33 
World's Columbian Exposition, 2297 
Worms, Council at, 689 

Diet of, iiio-iiii 
Worth, battle of, 2247 
Wright, John, 1314-1323 
Wyndham, William, arrest of, 1546 



Xanthippus's dog, 250 
Xavier, Francis, 1 1 8 1 
Xenophon, march of, 300 
Xeres, battle at, 595-596 
Xerxes, 247, 248 

throne of, 253 

bridges the Hellespont, 257-258 

retreat of, 258-259 

watches the battle of Salamis, 253 
Ximenez appears in Granada, 1066-1067 

vandalism of, 1068 

goes to Seville, 1070 

policy of, 1073 
Xisuthius, 37, 45 
Xochiquetzal, 39 
X-rays, 2310 

discovery of the, 23 11 -33 16 
Xylography, gjj 



Yahj, battle of the, 2299 
Year, the Greek, 103 
"Yellow Peril," the, 2407-2409 
Yezdegerd, grandson of Chosroes, 584 

King of Persia, flight of, 590 
Ymir, 42 

York, the capital of Britain, 559 
Youth, education of, 89-90, 92 



Zama, effect of the battle of, 359 
Zamoiski, Count Andrew, 2158, 2159 
Zanzibar, Treaty of, 2257 
Zara, 720 

siege of, 734 
Zarathustra, 63-65 
Zealots, the, 488, 489-490, 492, 495 
Zem-Zem, the well, 571 
Zend-Avesta, 58, 59-60 
Zenobia, ancestry of, 510 

character and accomplishments of, 
Sio-sii 

valor of, SI I 

reigns over the East and Egypt, 

512 

domains of, 512-513 
flight of, S16 

captured by Aurelian, 516 
a captive, 519 
Zingis Knan, ancestry of, 743 
first battle of, 743 
barbaric rites of, 744 
laws of, 745-746 
religion of, 746 
invasion of China by, 747 



2506 



INDEX 



Zingis Khan, illiteracy of, 746 
empire of, 748-749 
army of, 749-750 
cities conquered by, 750 

fenerals of, conquests of, 751 
arem of, 752 
sons of, 752 
successors of, 752 
ZioH, destruction of, 496 
Ziska, 922 



Zonta, the, 883 
Zoroaster, 60-65 

the law-giver, 64 

unborn son of, 64 
Zoroastrianism, 44, sS 
Zoroastrian religion, slow growth of, 

68 
Zomdorf, battle of, 1620-1621, 1627 
Zozimus, 532 
Zwingle, Ulric, 1106, 1112-1113 



Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



Wk 






Form L9-25)«-9,'47(A5618)444 



THE LTFRARY 
UNIVERSITY C.-' C;..i.IFORNIA 



AA 000 858 173 8 



t 



PLEA««{: DO NOT REMOVE 
THIS BOOK CARD ] 



A^tllBRARYQ^ 




University Research Libra 



ry