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The Writer 







(CorvnoMT, 1903, by William H. II ilia. All Riumt* Rbssrvbd] 


Adams, Andy, 100 

Ade, George, 135 

American English Criticised, 169 

Arnold, Winifred, 182 

Arthur, Rosalie, 102 

Atkinson, Arthur W., Avoid Straining V'our Eyes, 73 

Austin, Mary, 102 

Author as Reporter, The, 140 

Authors as the Publisher Views Them, 91 

Baker, Mercy E., 167 

Barr, Amelia E., 76 

Baylv, Ada Ellen, " Edna Lyall," 76 

Beach, Rex Ellingwood, 182 

Benton, Charles E. f Descriptive Writing, 129 

Besant. Sir Walter, 7ft 

Birdsall, Katharine N., Editorial Talk, 179 

Blum en thai, W. H. t The Ubiquitous Illustration, 82 

Blunders of Authors, 9, 86, (Cole) 97, 100, 140 

Boltwood, Edward, 103 

Book, Opening a New, 30 

Book Doctor, Every Man His Own, 185 

Book Reviewing. A Year's. 29 

Book Reviews, <m. 109. 140. »5 8 . 171, 186. 

Book Success, What Makes. Lamp ton, 81 

Boston Writers of To-day, Martin, 49 

Brevity. Necessity of, 170 

Brigham, Johnson, In the Writer's Fallow Years, 153 

Broderick. Edward, On Maturity, 162 

Bullen. Frank T , 44 

Cable, (Jeorge Washington, 87 

Canneld, Dorothy. 134 

Card System for Writers, The, Stunti 150 

Cartoons, How Drawn, Mc Cutcheon, 120 

Chapell, H., Making an Index, 98 

Chesterton, Gilbert E.. 136. 

Clark, A. E., The Evolution of the Short-story Artist. 177 

Clemens, Samuel L.. 184 

Cobb, Thomas. 77 

Coins in Letters, Sending. i8t> 

Cole, Pamela Mc Arthur. Blunders of Authors, 97 

Co-operative Publishing. «> 

Copy. Painstaking in Preparation of, bo 

Country Training for Journalists, i2<> 

Crockett. Ingram. 103 

Current Li'erary Topics. 29. **». 89, 107, 126, 139, 157, 169, 185 

Dana. Olive E . Some Necessary Components oi the Writer s 
Equipment. 151 

Darwin. Charles, S7 

Delay* in Publishing. t*> 

Descriptive Writing. Kenton. 120 

Dictating. Suggestions About, 186 

Doyle. Sir Conan. 184 

Editorial. 8. 2*> 42. 5M. -j, 84, 100, 118, 132. 152. 166, !&• 

Editorial. The Future. n*S 

Editorial Talks with Contributors. 130, 179 

Ensign. Hermon, 124 

Essay. How to Write an, Golden , 2 

E:»ta brook. Alma Martin, 108 

Eye-strain, and Its Influence on the Health of Writers, Golden, 
«7- 4*. 7\ 

Farrar. Dean, J9 

Ferris, Katharine L , i<j 

Fiction, Hints About Writing, Hills. (.5 

Fine Writing, 5*. i<8 

Fitch. Clyde. On Playwriting. ;t 

Flaubert. Gustave, 77 

Former and I-atter. .>j 

Fountain Pens. TnKible^ome, 30 

Fowler. Egbert Wilbrd. 182 

Fowler. Ellen Thoroeycroft, 1% 

French. Minnie Keid. 124 

<iirrm>n, Theodosia Pickering. 77 

Gilman. Rev. Bradley. n'> 

Given*. Helen M., 114 

Gla«pell. Susan Keating. i'>S 

Golden, Agnes (;., How to Write an Essay, 2, Ill-health of 

Writers Due to Eye-strain, 17 
Goodier, Bertha Ester-Brooke, 103 
Gorky, Maxime, 44 
Gray, Patrick Leopold, 134 
Hallowell. Jean D., 182 
Harben, Will N., 44 
Hardy, Thomas. 87 
Harraden, Beatrice, 45 
Harris, May, 154 
Harte, Francis Bret, 87 
Hawkins, Anthony Hope, 59 
Hawthorne. Nathaniel, 77 
Heath, Blanche Trennor, 183 
Hegan, Alice Caldwell, 27 
Helpful Hints and Suggestions, 30, 186 
Henley, William Ernest, 136 
Hennequin, Alfred. Writing for the Stage, 11 
Hilliers, Ashton. 183 
Hills, William H., How to Make Manuscript, 33, Hints About 

Writing Fiction, 65, Instruction in Journalism, 145 
Holmes. Ernest R., How Not to Make Novels, 161 
Hotchkiss, Chauncey C. 78 
Hugo, Victor. 137 

Illustration, Ubiquitous, Blumenthal, 82 
Illustrators. Do Thev Read, 139 
Index Making, Chapell. 98 
Interviewing. The Art of. 18$ 
Italic. The Passing of the, Schuler, 164 
Italics. Small Capital*, and Capitals, How Marked, 60 
Jones, Florence A., 108 
Journalism as a Career, Reid, 147 
Journalism, Instruction in. Hills, 145 
Kemper, S. H., 124 
Kipling. Rudyard, 156 
Knipe, Arthur Alden, 1^4 

Lamp ton, William J.. What Makes a Book Succeed, 81 
I^aughlin. Clara E.. 13 
I^ee, Alice I-ouise, 103 
I^essing. Bruno, i<»8 
Literary Articles in Periodicals, 14. 30, 46, 62, 78, 94, 109, 127, 

141. i}<>. 174. 1*7 
Literary Horrors, 92 
London, Jack, 132, n: 
Ixiwell, James Russell, 13 
Macpherson. Ewan, 124 
Mc Kay. Colin, ibx 

Mc Cutcheon, John T., How Cartoons Are Drawn, 120 
Magazine Writing Again, Never*, 83 
Magazines. Study the, Mahon, 1 
Mahon. Anne Guilbert. Study the Magazines, 1 
Maltby. Dorothy Lord. 125 
Manuscript. How to Make. Hills, 31 
Manuscripts. How Publishers Handle, 93 
Martin, Edward L , Boston Writers of To-Day, 49 
Maturity, On. H rode rick, 162 
Merington. Marguerite, 154 
Merriman. Henry Seton, 45, 184 
Michel*. Philip Verril. 13 
Miller. Emily Huntington, 125 
Miller. I<ewis B . 103 
Mixed Metaphor, 153, iv», 180 
Morris, Gouverneur, if»8 
Moselev, Ella I^iwery, 135 
Moss, Mary, 154 
Nash, Harriet A . 154 

Necrology. 10. s>. 48. o 4> 80, «/». 128, 144. 160. 176, 188 
Never*. Alice M . Again Magazine Writing, 83 
New Word*, Coinage of, 01 
News and Notes, 14, 31.47.03. 79.05. u°, «*7, M3, 159, 175, 

Newspaper English, i<\ 58, 102, 118, 126, 169 
Newspaper English Edited, 43, 59, 7J , 86, 102. 134, 167 
Novels. How Not to Make, Holmes, 161 
O'Connor, T. P., 150 



Osborne, William Hamilton. 125 

Overton, (iwendoline. 104 

Painstaking Writers, White, 178 

Parody, What is, 107 

Peixotto, Marv H., 155 

Pemberton, Max, 88 

Perkins, Lydia, 104 

Personal Gossip About Authors, 13, 27, 44. 59. 7*> &7> lo 4» '35- 

156, 184 
Plagiarism, Coincidence not, 107 
Playwriting ( Hennequin ), 11, ( Fitch ), 73 
Plays, Writing Successful, 61 
Plots, Coincidence in, 93 
Poe, Edgar Allan, 88 
Poetry, How to Indent, 1 18 
Poet's Method, The, 90 
Postage, Cheaper, for Manuscripts. 132 
Provost, Agnes Louise, 125 
Pseudonyms, Use of, 89 
Pulitzer School of Journalism. The, 157 
Queries, 9, 27. 59, 153, 181 
Rankin. Carroll Watson. 135 
Rapid Literary Production, 107 
Reed, Mvrtle, The Forms of Lyric Verse, 113 
Reid. Whitelaw, Journalism as a Career, 147 
Rhodes, H. G., if*) 
Roseboro, Viola. 88 
Sampson, M. (*., 126 
Sangster, Margaret E.. 104 
School of Journalism. The Pulitzer, 157 
Schuler, H. A . The Passing of the Italic, 164 
Scrap Basket. The, 43. *». > '9. «<>7 
Sea well, Molly Elliot, 105 
Sensational Stories. Writing, 1 19 
Short Story Writing, Clark. 177 
Signature, The Writer's, 72. 89 
Small. Ethel Sigsbee. 15s 
Society of American Authors, 85 
Song-Writing, Vannah, 115 
Spelling. Importance of (*ood. 180 
Spencer. Herbert, 45, 138 

Sunnard, Mrs. Arthur. " John Strange Winter." 7S 
Stockton, Frank R. 88 
Stone. Herbert l^awrence, 183 
Stunts. S. C, The Card System for Writers. 150 
Stryker. Florence E.. it*> 
Swinburne's Stvle. t*i 
Tarbell, Ida M., 4 t> 
Tarkington. Booth. 28 
Timely anl Freak Stories Unprofitable. $H 
Translation. Difficulties in. 140 
Unknown Writer. Chance of an. 107 
Use and Misuse of Words. 44. 73. wz 
Vannah. Kate. A Little Talk About Song-Writing. 115 
Verse. Forms of Lyric. Reed. 113 
Viele, Herman Knickerbocker, 155 
Walker. Elliot. 12*. 

Ward, Mrs. Humphry, 157 

Warner, Anne, 183 

White, Fanny Rogers, 169 

White, H. Adelbert, Painstaking Writers. 178 

White. Michael, 156 

White, Trumbull, Editorial Talk. 130 

Wilkins. Mary E., 106 

Williamson, C. N., 139 

Wilson, Harry Leon, 106 

Wilson, John Fleming, 169 

Wilson, Kathryne, 104 

Wiltse. Henry M. t 156 

Writer's Equipment. Necessary Components of, Dana, 151 

Writer's Fallow Years, In the, Brig ham, 153 

Writers of the Day. 13, 102, 124, 134. «53. »<>7. « s * 

Zola, Emile, 14 


Bastow, Irene, The Writer's Year Book, 94 

Bisland, Elizabeth, A Candle of Understanding, 186 

Brown, Alice, Judgment, 172 

Brown, Charles Walter, Ethan Allen, of Green Mountain 

Cody, Sherwin. The Art of Writing and Speaking the English 

Language, 140 
Dallas, Richard, A Master Hand, 173 

I)e Vinne. Theodore Low, A. M., Correct Composition, 33 
Earle, Mabel, New Fortunes, 174 
Emery. Master, Some Village Verse, 159 
Gould, George M., M. I)., Biographic Clinics. 17 
Griffin. A. P. C, A List of B«x>ks on Mercantile Marine Sub- 
sidies, 174 , „ . 
Hopkins. Samuel A., M. D., The Care of the Teeth, 15S 
How to Write an Essay, 2 
Howells. William Dean, Letters Home, 173 
Jackson, Gabrielle E., Little Miss Sunshine, 109 
Knowles, Frederic Lawrence, A Treasury of Humorous Poetry, 

I.CWW, Alfred Henry, The Boss, 173 ...„,. 

Lincoln, Charles Henry, A Calendar of John Paul Jones 

Manuscripts in the Library of Congress, 174 
Matthews. Brander, The Development of the Drama, 171 
Merwin. Samuel, His Little World: The Story of Hunch 

Badeau, 173 , _, _ , 

Miller, D. R.. D. D., The Criminal Classes; Causes and 

Cures, 172 
Munn, Charles Clark, The Hermit, 174 
Perry. Bliss. A Study of Prose Fiction. 6$ 
Powell. H. Arthur. Young Ivy on Old W alls. 141 
Ritchie, George Thomas, A List of Lincolniana in the Library 

of Congress, 174 
Seawell, Molly Elliot. The Fortunes of Hh. 17* , 
Stoddard, Charles Augustus. Cruising Among the Canbbees, 

Wiggin. Kate Douglas, Half a Dozen Housekeepers. 1S0 
Winslow. Helen M.. Literary Boston of To-day, 49 


Adams, Andy, 100 

Ade, Georee, 135 

American English Criticised, 169 

Arnold, Winifred, 182 

Arthur, Rosalie, 102 

Atkinson, Arthur W., Avoid Straining Your Eyes, 73 

Austin, Mary, 102 

Author as Reporter, The, 140 

Authors as the Publisher Views Them, 91 

Baker, Mercy E., 167 

Barr, Amelia E., 76 

Bayly, Ada Ellen, " Edna Lyall," 76 

Beach, Rex Ellin^wood, 182 

Benton, Charles E., Descriptive Writing, 129 

Besant, Sir Walter, 76 

Birdsall, Katharine N., Editorial Talk, 179 

Blumenthal, W. H., The Ubiquitous Illustration, 82 

Blunders of Authors, 9, 86, (Cole) 97, 100, 140 , 

Bolrwood, Edward, 103 

Book, Opening a New, 30 

Book Doctor, Every Man His Own, 185 

Book Reviewing, A Year's, 29 

Book Reviews, 94, 109, 140, 158, 171, 186. 

Book Success, What Makes, Lampton, 81 

Boston Writers of To-day, Martin, 49 

Brevity, Necessity of, 170 

Brigham, Johnson, In the Writer's Fallow Years, 153 

Broderick, Edward, On Maturity, 162 

Bullen, Frank T., 44 

Cable, George Washington, 87 

Canfield, Dorothy, 134 

Card System for Writers, The, Stuntz. 150 

Cartoons, How Drawn, Mc Cutcheon, 120 

Chapell, H., Making an Index, 98 

Chesterton, Gilbert E., 136. 

Clark, A. E., The Evolution of the Short-story Artist, 177 

Clemens, Samuel L., 184 

Cobb, Thomas, 77 

Coins in Letters, Sending, 186 

Cole, Pamela Mc Arthur, Blunders of Authors, 97 

Co-operative Publishing, 9 

Copy, Painstaking in Preparation of, 60 

Country Training for Journalists, 126 

Crockett, Ingram, 103 

Current Literary Topics, 29, 60, 89, 107, 126, 139, 157, 169, 185 

Dana, Olive E., Some Necessary Components of the Writer's 

Equipment, 151 
Darwin, Charles, 87 
Delays in Publishing, 60 
Descriptive Writing, Benton, 129 
Dictating, Suggestions About, 186 
Doyle, Sir Conan, 184 

Editorial, 8, 26. 42, 58, 72, 84, 100, 118, 132, 152, 166, 180 
Editorial, The Future, 108 # 

Editorial Talks with Contributors, 130, 179 
Ensign, Hermon Lee, 124 
Essay, How to Write an, Golden, 2 
Estabrook, Alma Martin, 168 
Eye-strain, and Its Influence on the Health of Writers, Golden, 

Farrar, Dean, 59 
Ferris, Katharine L., 153 
Fiction, Hints About Writing, Hills, 65 
Fine Writing, 58, 158 
Fitch, Clyde, On Playwriting, 73 
Flaubert, Gustave, 77 
Former and Latter, 93 
Fountain Pens, Troublesome, 30 
Fowler, Egbert Willard, 182 
Fowler, Ellen Thomeycroft, 184 
French, Minnie Reid, 124 
Garrison, Theodosia Pickering, 77 
Gilman, Rev. Bradley, 136 
Givens. Helen M., 124 
Glaspell, Susan Keating. 168 

Golden, Agnes G., How to Write an Essay, 2, Ill-health of 

Writers Due to Eye-strain, 17 
Goodier, Bertha Ester-Brooke, 103 
Gorky, Maxime, 44 
Gray, Patrick Leopold, 134 
Hallowell. Jean D., 182 
Harben, Will N., 44 
Hardy, Thomas, 87 
Harraden, Beatrice, 45 
Harris, May, 154 
Harte, Francis Bret, 87 
Hawkins, Anthony Hope, 59 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 77 
Heath, Blanche Trennor, 183 
Hegan, Alice Caldwell, 27 
Helpful Hints and Suggestions, 30, 186 
Henley, William Ernest, 136 
Hennequin, Alfred, Writing for the Stage, 11 
Hilliers, Ashton, 183 
Hills, William H., How to Make Manuscript, 33, Hints About 

Writing Fiction, 65, Instruction in Journalism, 145 
Holmes, Ernest R., How Not to Make Novels, 161 
Hotchkiss, Chauncey C., 78 
Hugo, Victor, 157 

Illustration, Ubiquitous, Blumenthal, 82 
Illustrators, Do They Read, 139 
Index Making, Chapell, 98 
Interviewing, The Art of, 185 
Italic, The Passing of the, Schuler, 164 
Italics, Small Capitals, and Capitals, How Marked, 60 
Jones, Florence A., 168 
Journalism as a Career, Reid, 147 
Journalism. Instruction in, Hills, 145 
Kemper, S. H., 124 
Kipling, Rudyard, 156 
Knipe, Arthur Alden, 154 

Lampton, William J., What Makes a Book Succeed, 81 
Laughlin, Clara E., 13 
Lee, Alice Louise, 103 
Lessing, Bruno, 168 

Literary Articles in Periodicals, 14, 30, 46, 62, 78, 94, 109, 127 
141, 159, 174, 187 ' 

Literary Horrors, 92 
London, Jack, 132, 137 
Lowell, James Russell, 13 
Macpherson. Ewan, 124 
Mc Kay, Colin, 168 

Mc Cutcheon, John T., How Cartoons Are Drawn, 120 
Magazine Writing Again, Nevers, 83 
Magazines, Study the, Mahon, 1 
Marion, Anne Guilbert, Study the Magazines, 1 
Maltby, Dorothy Lord, 125 
Manuscript, How to Make, Hills, 33 
Manuscripts, How Publishers Handle, 93 
Martin, Edward L., Boston Writers of To-Day, 49 
Maturity, On, Broderick, 162 
Merington, Marguerite, 154 
Merriman, Henry Seton, 45, 184 
Miehels, Philip Verril, 13 
Miller, Emily Huntington, 125 
Miller, Lewis B., 103 
Mixed Metaphor, 153, 166, 180 
Morris, Gouverneur, 168 
Moseley, Ella Lowery, 135 
Moss, Mary, 154 
Nash, Harriet A., 154 

Necrology. 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 128, 144, 160, 176, 188 
Nevers, Alice M., Again Magazine Writing, 83 
New Words, Coinage of, 61 
News and Notes, 14, 31, 47,63, 79, 95, no, 127, 143, 159, 175, 

Newspaper English, 26, 58, 102, 118, 126, 169 
Newspaper English Edited, 43, 59, 73, 86, 102, 134, 167 
Novels, How Not to Make, Holmes, 161 
O'Connor, T. P., 156 




Osborne, William Hamilton, 125 

Overton, Gwendoline, 104 

Painstaking Writers, White, 178 

Parody, Wnat is, 107 

Peixotto, Mary H., 155 

Pemberton, Max, 88 

Perkins, Lydia, 104 

Personal Gossip About Authors, 13, 27, 44* 59> 76, 87, 104, 135, 

156; 184 
Plagiarism, Coincidence not, 107 
Playwriting ( Hennequin ), 1 1 , ( Fitch ), 73 
Plays, Writing Successful, 61 
Plots, Coincidence in, 93 
Poe, Edgar Allan, 88 
Poetry, How to Indent, 118 
Poet's Method, The, 90 
Postage, Cheaper, for Manuscripts, 132 
Provost, Agnes Louise, 125 
Pseudonyms, Use of, 89 
Pulitzer School of Journalism, The, 157 
Queries, 9, 27, jo, 153, 181 
Rankin, Carroll Watson, 135 
Rapid Literary Production, 107 
Reed, Myrtle, The Forms of Lyric Verse, 113 
Reid, Whitelaw, Journalism as a Career, 147 
Rhodes, H. G., 169 
Roseboro, Viola, 88 
Sampson, M. G., 126 
Sangster, Margaret E., 104 
School of Journalism, The Pulitzer, 157 
Schuler, H. A., The Passing of the Italic, 164 
Scrap Basket, The, 43, 86, 119, 167 
Sea well, Molly Elliot, 105 
Sensational Stories, Writing, 119 
Short Story Writing, Clark, 177 
Signature. The Writer's, 72, 89 
Small, Ethel Sigsbee, 155 
Society of American Authors, 85 
Song-Writing, Vannah, 115 
Spelling, Importance of Good, 180 
Spencer, Herbert, 45, 138 

Stannard, Mrs. Arthur, " John Strange Winter," 78 
Stockton, Frank R., 88 
Stone, Herbert I^awrence, 183 
Stuntz, S. C, The Card System for Writers, 150 
Stryker, Florence E., 169 
Swinburne's Style, 92 
Tarbell, Ida M., 46 
Tarkington, Booth, 28 
Timely an.l Freak Stories Unprofitable, 58 
Translation, Difficulties in, 140 
Unknown Writer, Chance of an, 107 
Use and Misuse of Words, 44, 73, 102 
Vannah, Kate. A Little Talk About Song-Writing, 115 
Verse, Forms of Lyric, Reed, 113 
Viele, Herman Knickerbocker, 155 
Walker, Elliot, 126 

Ward, Mrs. Humphry, 157 

Warner, Anne, 183 

White, Fanny Rogers, 169 

White, H. Adelbert, Painstaking Writers, 178 

White, Michael, 156 

White, Trumbull, Editorial Talk, 130 

Wilkins, Mary E., 106 

Williamson, C. N., 139 

Wilson, Harry Leon, 106 

Wilson, John Fleming, 169 

Wilson, Kathryne, 104 

Wiltse, Henry M., 156 

Writer's Equipment, Necessary Components of, Dana, 151 

Writer's Fallow Years, In the, Brigham, 153 

Writers of the Day. 13, 102, 124, 134, i53» > 6 7> » 8 * 

Zola, Emile, 14 


Bastow, Irene, The Writer's Year Book, 94 

Bisland, Elizabeth, A Candle of Understanding, 186 

Brown, Alice, Judgment, 172 

Brown, Charles Walter, Ethan Allen, of Green Mountain 

Fame, 94 
Cody, Sherwin, The Art of Writing and Speaking the English 

Language, 140 
Dallas, Richard, A Master Hand, 173 

De Vinne, Theodore Low, A. M., Correct Composition, 33 
Earle, Mabel, New Fortunes, 174 
Emery, Master, Some Village Verse, 159 
Gould, George M., M. D., Biographic Clinics, 17 
Griffin, A. P. C, A List of Books on Mercantile Marine Sub- 
sidies, 174 
Hopkins. Samuel A., M. D., The Care of the Teeth, 158 
How to Write an Essay, 2 
Howells, William Dean, Letters Home, 173 
Jackson, Gabrielle E., Little Miss Sunshine, 109 
Knowles, Frederic Lawrence, A Treasury of Humorous Poetry, 

Lewis, Alfred Henry, The Boss, 173 
Lincoln, Charles Henry, A Calendar of John Paul Jones 

Manuscripts in the Library of Congress, 174 
Matthews, Brander, The Development of the Drama, 171 
Merwin, Samuel, His Little World: The Story of Hunch 

Badeau, 173 
Miller, D. R., D. D., The Criminal Classes ; Causes and 

Cures, 172 
Munn, Charles Clark, The Hermit, 174 
Perry. Bliss, A Study of Prose Fiction, 65 
Powell, H. Arthur, Young Ivy on Old Walls, 141 
Ritchie, George Thomas, A List of Lincolniana in the Library 

of Congress, 174 
Seawell, Molly Elliot, The Fortunes of Fifi, 172 
Stoddard, Charles Augustus, Cruising Among the Caribbees, 

Wiggin, Kate Douglas, Half a Dozen Housekeepers, 186 
Winslow, Helen M., Literary Boston of To-day, 49 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 1. 



Study the Magazines. Anne Guilbert Mahon. ... i 

How to Write an Essay. Agnes G. Golden 2 

Editorial 8 

Wanted — A Spelling-reform Novel , 8 — First Requi- 
site of Success in Short-story Writing, 8— Mr. How- 
ells as a Poet, 8 — A Story Writer's Blunders. . . . 9 

Queries 9 

Co-operative Publishing. . •• 9 

Writing for the Stage. Alfred Hennequin. ... 11 

Writers of the Day 13 

Clara E. Laughlin, 13 — Philip Verril Mighels. . . 13 

Personal Gossip About Authors. ... . . 13 

James Russell Lowell, 13 — Emile Zola. ..... 14 

Literary Articles in Periodicals. 14 

News and Notes 14 


By studying the requirements of the different 
periodicals the writer may gain valuable in- 
formation on the subject of the general prepara- 
tion of his manuscripts. 

Some of the much-dreaded rejection slips 
prove to bt veritable stepping-stones to future 
success with the editors from whom they come. 
They contain valuable information as to the ex- 
act needs of the magazines and the character 
of manuscripts likely to be found acceptable ; 
and they specify also what features are regard- 
ed as unfavorable by those publications. The 
literary aspirant would do well to study these 
and to endeavor to meet the requirements when 
submitting further contributions. 

One syndicate publishing company states as 
its reasons for returning stories that they are 
either too long or too short; they lack sufficient 
human interest; they are careless in language 
or hackneyed in plot, or the subject is handled 
in a morbid or tragic manner. How much 

information is obtained from these terse state- 
ments ! 

In a late short-story contest conducted by 
one of the leading periodicals, the editor stated 
that the first requisite of a good short story 
was " Plot sufficient to justify the writing." Sto- 
ries to obtain favor with him should be •' strong, 
bright, cheerful, and optimistic in tone." 
They must begin in an interesting manner and 
should end when the story is told. The state- 
ment continued that there is "nothing worse 
than along-drawn out anti-climax at the end of 
a story, unless it is a detailed exposition of the 
hero's family tree at the beginning." While 
these suggestions had reference merely to that 
particular prize competition, they contain val- 
uable hints for the story-writer in general. 

Another magazine in stating its require- 
ments gives some good advice to young writers 
as to the handling of plots, the preservation of 
the proper relation between dialogue and de- 
scription, and the naturalness of the characters 
and environment. The stories desired must 
have a " dash and go about them," so that the 
person who picks them up carelessly will be- 
come immediately interested and remain so 
until the end. They must possess *» force, vigor, 
interest, conclusiveness, and completeness " to 
such a degree that the impression on the read- 
er will be " immediate and lasting." 

The Brandur Magazine — alas! it died 
young — gave some excellent advice to young 
writers in an article directed to its contrib- 
utors. It said : — 

" The short story should capture the reader's 
interest in the opening and hold it to the end. 
The reader of fiction, being often disappointed, 
is coy and suspicious. The writer must offer 
alluring bait to catch his_reader, and play his 

Copyright, 1902, by William R. Hills. All rights reserved* 


lines with much art and knowingness to hold 

Then followed the encouraging statement 
that there are more story-tellers of merit at the 
present time than ever before, and also that 
" there are writers coming who will surpass the 
favorites of the present." 

The article continued : "To the new writer 
we will advise that he express himself with 
simplicity and sincerity, choosing the plainest 
word that will convey his meaning, avoiding ex- 
aggeration, affectation, phrases in foreign 
tongues, and vague and puzzling forms of ex- 
pression. If he uses language to dazzle and 

mystify his reader, he uses it unworthily. He 
should portray his own kind, the life and 
scenes with which he is most familiar, and ex- 
press the thoughts which are truest and clear- 
est to himself. He may study expression in 
the masters, but he should remain himself — be 
no imitator." 

These suggestions come from a most prac- 
tical source — the magazines themselves — and 
the young writer will do well to study the gen- 
eral information contained in them, and also the 
special needs of periodicals generally before 
submitting to them his work. 
Philadelphia, Pknn. Anne Guilder t Mahon. 


Not every one is gifted with the imaginative 
and creative power necessary for writing fic- 
tion — that is, fiction that is really literature. 
Yet many people possess knowledge and ideas 
which, if embodied in proper and effective 
form, would be of undoubted value as litera- 
ture, but which they are unable to utilize with 
success, simply because they do not under- 
stand fully the art of writing an essay. Such 
people will find profit in a study, or a perusal, 
of the book, " How to Write an Essay,"* al- 
though the veteran, as well as the unskilled 
writer, may find much that is helpful in its 

In his introductory chapter, " What Is an 
Essay ? " the author tells us Montaigne was 
the first writer to popularize the essay as a 
form of literature. " Bacon followed in his 
steps. But in the hands of Addison and 
Steele the essay began to lose its first charac- 
teristic as a medley of rough notes put to- 
gether without a special attempt at order : it 
became more studied both in form and con- 
tents, and instead of being a series of jottings 
it was transformed into the systematic treat- 
ment of subjects, expressed in carefully cho- 
sen language We may therefore de- 

• How to Write an Essay. By the Author of "How to 
Write a Novel." 10S pp. Cloth, as. 6d. London : Grant 
Richards. 1901. 

fine an essay as a short disquisition on a sub- 
ject of taste, science, philosophy, or common 

life The difference between an essay 

and a treatise is kept in view by using the 
word ' short ' — fullness of detail is not possible 
in the essay, but is expected in the treatise." 

Turning to the more mental aspects of 
essay writing, first and foremost we place the 
point of view. " It is evident that the painter 
must leave out of his picture, and the poet out 
of his description, everything that he cannot 
see from a definite position. Objects of 
thought as well as objects of sight may be 
contemplated from a variety of positions; 
great questions in politics and sociology are 
discussed from the standpoint of the reformer, 
the statist, the commercial expert, and the 
statesman ; and life itself is regarded from the 
changing positions of poet, theologian, and 
philosopher. Thus, if you are about to write 
an essay on a given subject and the point of 
view is not contained in the title, it is your 
first duty to fix a point of view, and make it so 
decisive that it shall exclude all foreign mat- 
ter — every thought and every fancy that has 
no legitimate place in your survey of the sub- 
ject. An essay on 4 The English Church ' 
from a purely political standpoint would incor- 
porate facts and arguments which an essay on 
the same subject by a sacerdotal specialist 


would pass by altogether, simply because they 
dojnot come within range of his point of view. 
.... The points of view, when rightly appre- 
hended, are like a pair of hands which pick 
out of large masses of material just the facts 

that are needed Amid the infinity of 

subjects which a complex civilization presents 
to us, the man who can discover new points of 
view, new themes, and can embody his 
thoughts in forcible and attractive language, is 
always sure of a hearing." 

There are three elements of an essay : — 
i. The Materials: Facts and Ideas. 

2. The Process of Building: How to make 
a Plan. 

3. The Finished Work : Beauty and 

"Information — facts — these come first. 
But where are they to be found ? A curious 
question, surely! and yet the novice unac- 
quainted with books and hardly knowing what 
to ask for when he enters a public library, 
often puts the question to himself. We will 
say for his edification that his subject is rec- 
ondite indeed if he can find nothing about it in 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica or Chambers's 
Encyclopaedia. In most cases these mines of 
information will furnish him with an outline 
history of his subject, as well as a list of the 
best books to consult. Every public library 
has its collection of reference books — histor- 
ical, literary, scientific, social, and political. 

"These are quite sufficient to put the essay 
writer on the best lines. Sonnenschein's * Best 
Books,' in two or more volumes, is a good 
book to look into; it is much more than a dull 

" See that you get all the facts available. 
Do not be content with an isolated group; 
look everywhere Use only the high- 
est sources of information. Avoid newspaper 
scraps and chance quotations. 

" * Facts are easily found,' some one says, 
'but how can we get ideas?' This is an easy 
question to answer in one sense, very difficult 
in another. The presence or absence of ideas 
depends, of course, on the nature and capac- 
ity of a man's brain It is therefore 

practically impossible to tell a man how he 
may get ideas, that is, to originate them in his 

own mind ; all that can be done is to throw out 
hints as to methods, habits, and mental laws. 
Thus we might say that much could be learned 
by careful observation, deep reflection, wise 
reading, and discreet conversation ; as if we 
had said: 'Every mind is a law unto itself, 
and must obtain ideas in its own way, but 
these are general methods pursued by every 
body.' So in the case of writing an essay. 
Your note-book is crammed with facts, and as 
you copied them from books, or wrote them 
down from the lips of witnesses, some few 
ideas came into your mind, and you made a 
note of them. What you want now is a way of 
looking at these facts which will produce the 
greatest number of ideas, and the best. Each 
mind has an individuality of its own, more or 
less pronounced ; but there are certain general 
ways of developing a subject that are common 
to all minds. 

"1. Surround the subject with questions. 
♦ A faculty of wise interrogating,' says Lord 
Bacon, ' is half a knowledge ; for, as Plato 
saith, " Whosoever seeketh knoweth that which 
he seeketh for in a general notion : else how 
shall he know it when he hath found it ? " 
And therefore the larger your anticipation is, 
the more direct and compendious is your 
search.' Let the subject be 'Modern Militar- 
ism.' The papers before you contain your re- 
searches into figures: France, so many sol- 
diers; Germany, so many; Russia, so many 
more, etc.. The cost of standing armies and 
the up-keep of navies is accurately stated. 
Now is the time to 'pepper ' the subject with 
questions. What is the essence of modern 
militarism? How does it differ from ancient 
militarism ? What is its meaning as a 
national phenomenon ? .... And so you 

might continue at great length Of 

course, the ability to ask a good question is a 
factor to be remembered ; in other words, a dull 
mind will question a subject for hours and get 
no further. Here, as everywhere, there is a pre- 
mium on the best brains. Nevertheless, me- 
diocre talent is better with a method than with- 
out one, and as a beginning we unhesitatingly 
prescribe the interrogation to which Bacon re- 
fers in so high terms. 

"2. Most subjects have a history, therefore 

The Writer. 

make it your duty to know the matter historic- 
ally Only then can you hope to see it in true 

"3. It is good to regard a subject in the 
light of its associations. Here again we 
would drop a word of caution. Not every 
subject will develop new ideas by the applica- 
tion of this rule ; all that is necessary is to 
make the experiment, and if it be fruitless, to 
pass on to something else. 

"4. The introduction of contrast in devel- 
oping topics that are suitable for its operation 
is worthy of a trial. If you are to write about 
4 The Relation between Eloquence and States- 
manship/ the use of contrast will be of the 
highest service. A statesman of great ability, 
but with poor powers of speech, is to be set 
' over against one of similar ability, but elo- 
quent tongue; another of poor ability, but with 
greater oratorical gifts, may be set over 
against a man of vast mental power, but with 
no gift of speech at all. 

*» 5. Be on the alert to find a cause for 
every effect, or, in other words, a reason for 
the existence of everything. 

"6. What others have said on the subject 
of your essay comes last of all — that is its 
proper place. Gibbon never read what had 
been written on any particular theme without 
first formulating his own thoughts. The habit 
is an excellent one and should be followed 
whenever possible. 

41 It is difficult, if not impossible, to write a 
successful essay without first making a plan. 
But how go about the matter? In general, it 
may be said that the plan of a subject requires 
an introduction, a development and a conclu- 
sion, and the best writers in handling a certain 
class of material arrange it in this way. But 
if you have a subject that suggests an aboli- 
tion of the introduction by going at once to 
the heart of the matter, or if vou have reasons 
for stating your conclusion first and proving 
it afterward, do not hesitate to take such a 

"The introduction is to furnish such prelim- 
inary information as is needed to put the 
reader in possession of the subject, the point 
of view, and the manner of treatment." 

Take for example, the expository essay. 

" The two problems of making a plan of 
your subject are these : — 

" 1. How to group the ideas so as to make 
them follow each other in logical sequence and 
cohere in the reader's mind and memory, and 

" 2. How to give them such movement as 
shall make them work a desired effect. 

44 These questions are answered by referring 
to the laws of association They are : — 

"(a) The Law of Contiguity, 

44 (b) The Law of Similarity, and Contrast, 

44 (c) The Law of Cause and Effect. 

44 Contiguity refers to 4 the coherence of 
ideas that lie naturally next to each other in 
space, or time, or in a continuous system of 
thought.' " 

The object in an outline of a narrative essay 
is 44 to know and observe the true order of 
events and give the most prominent of them a 
chief place. 

44 The successful conversational essay de- 
pends to a large extent on ( 1 ) securing a strik- 
ing point of view, and ( 2 ) sustaining it by lan- 
guage equally striking. Very often the theme 
is a mere fancy, a whim, or an absurdity ; and 
to make such themes readable and attractive 
demands no mean ability. 

4; The critical essay, like the conversational 
essay, is one of the most difficult to write, de- 
manding on the part of the writer not only 
4 personality,' but genius for literary valuation, 
as well as great knowledge of the subject dealt 
with. ... A paper on an historical subject 
should consider : — 

44 1. Sources of the work. 

44 2. Cause, occasion, purpose. 

44 3. Circumstances under which the work 
was produced. 

44 4. Relation of the work to its author. 

44 5. Relation to the time in which it was 

44 6. Effect of the work upon the public." 

If the work be a novel, we should con- 
sider: — 

44 1. Brief sketch of subject matter, plot. 

44 2. Characters: Their qualities as per- 
sons; relative importance; relation to one an- 
other; contrasting characters; what each is 
intended to bring out. " 

Having satisfied yourself as tc the plan of 

The writer. 

•your essay, you must now turn your attention 
to the finished work. " If you have an essay 
to write, you should not only invest it with 
truth of facts and ideas, but also with beauty 
and strength of formation. 

" Let there be no quarrel in your mind as to 
whether you shall use short sentences or long 
sentences. Remember that language is your 
instrument, and by means of it you convey 
your thoughts to others. Remember also that 
it is a supple instrument ; so much so, that 
you can infuse it with your own personality. 
Follow your own instinct and feeling in the 
choice of sentences. Generally speaking, a 
short one lends itself to emphasis, a long one 
to rhythm and cadence; a short one states the 
fact, a long one supplies the details. Hence 
you require an intelligent use of both kinds. 

"The two main problems in sentence struc- 
ture are : How to preserve the unity of the 
sentence, and how to arrange all its parts ac- 
cording to their intrinsic emphasis and impor- 
tance. (Of course, you never have these 
rules in mind when you are writing your essay, 
you make a great mistake if you do. These 
remarks are intended as critical tests to be 
applied after you have written your composi- 
tions, not before.) Bear in mind, therefore, 
that in a single sentence, every part should be 
subservient to one principal affirmation. If 
you introduce irrelevant ideas, you spoil the 
unity of the sentence and confuse the mind of 
the reader. For example, read this paragraph, 
•quoted in Abbott's 'How to Write Clearly': — 

'" This great and good roan died on the 17th September, 
1683, leaving behind him the memory of many noble actions 
and a numerous family, of *hom three were sons; one of them, 
George, the eldest, heir to his father's virtues, as well as to his 
principal estates in Cumberland, where most of his father's 
property was situated, and shortly afterward elected member 
for the county, which had for several generations returned this 
family to serve in Parliament.' 

" At the same time, it should not be thought 
that two ideas or assertions cannot properly be 
-embodied in one sentence. The rule is to de- 
termine first what is to be the central thought 
of the sentence; then, if other ideas are to be 
introduced, to place them in such a manner 
that they aid the comprehension of the central 
thought, and thus facilitate the exposition of 
the subject. Avoid introducing unrelated 

ideas into one sentence, thus: 'The new Con 
gressman comes of good old New England 
stock, is in favor of tariff reform, and at pres- 
ent resides at Washington Court House, the 
town which gained an unenviable notoriety 
last year on account of the mob attack on the 
jail.' The last eighteen words should be 
omitted ; they have nothing to do with the pen 
portrait of the Congressman. Not only may 
the unity of the sentence be broken by having 
too many ideas, or unrelated ideas — a change 
in style of language may break the unity of 
tone, thus: 'The sight oppressed me with 
sorrow, my heart swelled into my throat, my 
eyes filled with tears ; I couldn't stand it any 
longer, and I left' The words in italics show 
a distinct fall in tone from the rest of the 
words in the sentence ; they are too colloquial 
to \\e permissible. 

" With reference to emphasis, the endeavor 
should be to place words so that they empha- 
size themselves. Never allow the meaning of 
a sentence to depend on the way it is read. 
The two places where one naturally looks for 
emphasis are the beginning and end of a sen- 
tence; e.g., * Flashed all their sabres bare'; 
or, * Whatever side we contemplate Homer, 
what principally strikes us is his wonderful 
invention' " 

The next step in the development of the es- 
say is a consideration of the paragraph. " A 
paragraph has been defined as *a connected 
series of sentences constituting the develop- 
ment of a single topic.' There is no rule de- 
ciding the length of a paragraph; but it is 
subject to all the rules which govern sentence 
structure, together with an additional number 
that are peculiar to itself. It should have 
unity; that is, there must be a close relation- 
ship in thought and purpose between all the 
sentences constituting the paragraph; only 
those ideas which are strictly necessary are 
allowed a place ; proportion should be observed 
by giving prominent positions to the chief 
ideas, the secondary ones being more indicated 
than expounded; there should be a due regard 
for that order which will best bring out the 
main conception, and enough variety to make 
the whole pleasant reading. 

" Each paragraph, like each essay, has a 


theme — or, shall we say, a sub-theme? — and 
it can be developed in the following manner : — 

"i. Repeating the theme in other words. 

" 2. Defining or limiting the theme. 

"3. Presenting its contrary. 

"4. Explaining or amplifying its meaning 
by examples, illustrations, or quotations. 

"5. Particularizing by means of specific in- 
stances or details. 

" 6. Presenting proofs. 

"7. Applying or enforcing the theme. 

"8. Introduction and transition." 

Lastly, we come to that intangible scmething 
called "style" — the crowning glory of the 
essay. *• Whole volumes have been written on 
style, but the sum of the matter is this : there 
are two elements in literature, the technical 
and the non-technical. The technical are those 
which deal with words, sentences, paragraphs, 
and the canons of art — such as unity, se- 
quence, proportion, suspense, movement, and 
climax. These may be studied and mastered 
in so complete a manner that you can analyze 
the best prose and write a passable quality of 
your own. The non-technical element in lit- 
erature is the personality of the writer himself 
— 'the style is the man.' Here we leave the 
rules, regulations, and canons of art behind us, 
and enter the sphere of soul. Consequently 
your style, in its ultimate essence, is the liter- 
ary expression of your tastes, your philosophy, 
your outlook on life. 

" Instead of mimicking the best models, read 
them, and live with them. Cultivate your own 
views on like subjects, and express them 
modestly, but fearlessly. Seek to make that 
expression a combination of beauty and 
strength; revise once and again, and still 
again ; then at last, although your ideal may 
yet be far off, you will have the satisfaction of 
knowing that the work is conscientiously your 
own ; not great work, perhaps, but nevertheless 
the work of your individual self. Whether 
you ever become a 'stylist' or not, there are 
two very necessary attainments that are open 
to every one — clearness and forcefulness. 
Never leave your meaning in doubt, and always 
seek the expression that is most vigorous." 

A question that is often asked by the novice 
in writing is: What books should I read in 

order to get a command of language ? ... 
" There are no books which alone can give the 
student a good command of language ; reading 
is only one of thej means to accomplish tha* 
end. Practice in writing is the other means, 
and the book of reference most often used 
should be Roget's 'Thesaurus.' It is quite 
true, however, that some books are more help- 
ful than others, and probably the best to ccm- 
mence with is Macaulay's Essays. Macaulay's 
style has well-known defects, but in extent of 
vocabulary, clearness and power of expression, 
and wealth of knowledge, he is not easily sur- 
passed. Next comes Thomas De Quincey's 
' Confessions of an Opium Eater.' The style 
is very different from that of Macaulay — it has 
a tendency to be prolix and occasionally weari- 
some, but it is full of feeling and imagination. 
Washington Irving and Nathaniel Hawthorne 
should receive close- attention; and of the more 
modern writers, Matthew Arnold and Robert 
Louis Stevenson have the greatest claims. 
Perhaps one ought not to omit Cardinal New- 
man. Arnold's 'Essays in Criticism,' Steven- 
son's 'Virginibus Puerisque,' and Newman's 
' Idea of a University ' are excellent works for 
the purpose in hand; but the mere reading .of 
these books is, as previously stated, not enough. 
When you have read a section of Newman, or 
an essay by Macaulay, put all books away, and 
either reproduce what you have read, or de- 
scribe your impressions of it in your own lan- 
guage. Stick to one author for a period ; live 
with him, so to speak, until you know him 
thoroughly, but do not slavishly imitate him. 
Macaulay's antitheses are very clever, but avoid 
his trick of multiplying them whenever the 
opportunity presents itself." 

The practical worker in literature, of course, 
wishes to know something about the essay in 
newspapers and magazines. "What is it that 
distinguishes the magazine essay, or the news- 
paper article, from the rank and file of such 
productions in schools, colleges, and debating 
societies? The answer is simple enough — 
they are better in structure, better in composi- 
tion, sounder in knowledge, and possessed of 
greater authority. . . . Specialized knowl- 
edge is one of the first requisites of the mag- 
azine essay. A man who lived in Pretoria 


during the Boer War would be allowed an ex- 
pression of opinion on the attitude of Kruger 
in preference to a man who was a politician, 
even though his literacy powers might greatly 
surpass those of the individual who knew his 
Transvaal by personal experience. Of course, 
it is quite possible for an enterprising man to 
write an interesting article on a given subject, 
especially one that will lend itself to illustra- 
tion, and find an easy market for it; and he 
may start work knowing next to nothing of the 
matter in hand. But for questions relating to 
politics, science, ethics, religion, and other 
branches of knowledge, as well as those mat- 
ters where authority can come only from ex- 
perience, a thorough acquaintance with all de- 
tails is absolutely necessary. 

" Essays, however, as a form of literature, 
do not depend on the knowledge they convey 
to the reader, or the skill with which the writer 
marshals his argument. An essay of the high- 
est order depends on the beauty and original- 
ity of its ideas, the vigor and chastity of its 
style, and the infusion of the personality of 
the author throughout the whole. For this 
reason an essay by Andrew Lang on seme lit- 
erary topic is of greater significance — as lit- 
erature — than one by Professor Thomson on 
a new aspect of electricity. The 'Essays of 
Elia ' are not remarkable for the discovery of 
new facts, or for accuracy in reasoning ; they 
are remarkable for style in the revelation of a 
striking personality. And it follows as a mat- 
ter of course that the only method of writing 
essays of this quality, either for publication in 
a monthly journal or in book form, is to culti- 
vate a personality — the very idea of which is 
too absurd to be entertained. Patience and in- 
telligent study may enable you to write the 
essay of knowledge ; only genius will give you 
the power to produce the essay that is literature. 

41 With the newspaper press things are very 
different. Not that here good work is never 
looked for, and therefore never produced, but 
that a newspaper's daily requirements neces- 
sitate a different style of writing and a nar- 
rower scope of treatment. There is, for in- 
stance, the article describing such a thing as 
Queen Victoria's funeral. Writing of this 
kind demands quickness of perception, ability 

to seize the graphic points of an event, and 
readiness in committing them to paper in for- 
cible and vivid language. Descriptive report- 
ing often rises to the elevation of literature, 
and one might say at this point that it is al- 
most regrettable to see such good work so 
short-lived. ' 

" For several reasons there is no better prep- 
aration for the novice than the careful study of 
such essays as those he wishes in his turn to 
produce. ; The beginner in the art of writing 
ought to have before him models resembling as 
closely as may be the work which he seeks to 
produce — models suitable in style, of a com- 
pass such that they maybe grasped, not merely 
in detail, but in organic wholes. And it is not 
enough that he should have the finished prod- 
uct before him : his attention must be directed 
to the way in which that product is put to- 
gether. He must learn inductively the meth- 
ods which he is himself to employ.' 

" * It may be objected that conscious analysis 
and conscious synthesis have had no place in 
the works of masters of the art of writing, nor 
in the actual production of literature of any 
order. Such an assertion is probably a great 
overstatement of the facts. But accepting it 
as true, it simply means that imitation has been 
carried on in a roundabout and clumsy fashion, 
for whose defects innate aptitude has made 
amends. One may learn a complicated figure 
in skating by vague attempts at imitating the 
whole, but a speedier method is to analyze that 
whole into a series of movements, and then to 
attempt to combine these. In the matter of 
writing such a procedure is the only one for 
the ordinary beginner who has no inborn 
genius for the art. To the skilled author de- 
vices and methods are second nature; he is 
not conscious of them. When we learn pen- 
manship we consider every stroke, and pain- 
fully join strokes into letters and words ; but 
in process of time we think merely of the 
word to be set down, and the hand that writes 
it, not from a series of efforts, as at first, but 
from one conscious impulse. The highest skill 
is always largely unconscious, but the readiest 
way of acquiring that skill is by conscious ap- 
plication of method.'" Agnes G. Golden. 
Boston, Mass. 

The writer. 

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P. O. Box iyo 5 . 

14A Franklin street, Room 32, 

Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. January, 1903. No. 1. 

Sh^rt, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 

1,000 words. 


Emancipation from the slavery of conform- 
ance to irregular English word forms would be 
a boon, perhaps, but it has not occurred to 
most of us, probably, that a great novel might 
be written to advance the cause of simplified 
spelling among English-speaking people. G. 
W. Wishard of Irvington, N. Y., advances the 
idea in a contribution to the Herald oi Toron- 
to, a bright little paper devoted to pronunciation 

and amended spelling. It reads as follows : — 


Most intelligent peopl ar alredy convinced that speling ref m 
is a worthy cause. Public education in this has been of the 
hed, not the hart : it shud be of both. 

To set the machinery in motion what is needed ? A great 
story wil both teach the hed and tuch the hart. Ther is plenty 
of material for such. Milions of children hav their tender 
minds confused and stupefied by the hard, dry, useles, sensles 
stuf of silent leters or complicated substitutes. Many ar drivn 
by utter repulsivnes in sp. from study to truancy. Thru this, 
some, otherwise the making of good citizens, fall into evil com- 
pany, go from bad to worse, landing in prison. 

With welth of material, ther is no Harriet Beecher Stowe to 
rite the story. May Clod raise up some humbl scool girl or 
teacher with power to stir all humanity's hart. 

The first requisite for success in short-story 
writing is indicated in Marshall Steele's ap- 
preciation of E. Nesbit in Harpers Basar for 
January : " She has an artist's conception of 
the short story; she never overloads it, she 
rigidly excludes from it all that is unnecessary, 
and she chooses for its theme one episode, not 
a series of episodes which would provide ma- 
terial for a novel of the old three-decker di- 

* * 

The Church Standard ventures to speak 
irreverently of Mr. Howells as a poet. Com- 
menting on the December Harper's, it says: 
"Among the poets of the number William 
Dean Howells puts in an appearance, not a 
very brilliant appearance at that. Mr. How- 
ells's prosody, not to mention anything else, 
might easily be improved. Whether 

* Heaven ' is a monosyllable or a dissyllable 
we shall not pretend to decide : but certain we 
are that it is not both, and that a pome which 
makes it both within the compass of four lines 
is rather defective in technique. This is how 
Mr. Howells does it. ( A father speaks): — 

If she has " newly come from Heaven, our home," 
As Wordsworth says, then she knows everything 
We have forgotten, but shall know again, 
When we go back to Heaven with her. 
The Mother : Yes. 

41 Asain, Mr. Howells forgets that the ugliest 
way to deface a blank verse is to make it 
rhyme, and so he gives us this remarkable 
specimen of his own peculiar taste : — 

How much do you suppose she really knoas? 

" From first to last of this queer composi- 
tion Mr. Howells has provided for the rising 


of our generation a conspicuous exam- 
: the innumerable ways in which blank 
ou'ht not to be written." 

[r. F. J. Stimson had followed the advice 
drawing a map given in " How to 
a Novel " and quoted in the December 
er, he would not have called forth the 
ing criticism in the Boston Tran- 

lom denizen of Cape Cod who has been reading F. J. 
's latest story, " Jethro Bacon," finds so much therein 
st him and to raise his righteous wrath that he has 
he following communication. We take pleasure in giv- 
ice in these columns, and earnestly hope that it may 
Ir. Stimson at least one interested reader: " As a for- 
en of Sandwich, I have read with great pleasure the 
' Jethro Bacon,' in the November Scribner's Maga~ 

only on account' of its charming (?) description of 
ife, but also for the picture it gives of the phys'cal 
sness of its characters The fair Nora first challenges 
tion on account of that little stroll to the village of 
to mail the box of mayflowers. The town of Bourne 
hen in existence, but let that pass. It is true that it 
little matter of seven miles by the highway, but the 
res us in doubt concerning the return route, for since 
;e of Bourne is actually situated on an inlet of the sea 
.zards Bay it naturally follows that in taking the shore 
5 she must have skirted the whole of Cape Cod, a 
ne hundred and twenty miles or so. Or in case she 
»re miles through the woods to the north shore, how 
lanage to cross Scusset harbor, which implies either 
nming abilities or the use of a boat where none is to 
ed? Her eyesight also excites my admiration when, 
nee of one hundred yards, at dusk, she makes so close 
1 study of the unknown woman that she instantly rec- 
er twenty-odd years afterward. After that the pro- 
her vision over a range of hills and fifteen miles of 
discern Manomet Point does not count for much, 
tit is not mentioned, but it is only fair to suppose that 
s able to take note of the furnishings of the office in 
company plant on the second floor she must have 
ast ten feet tall, or have had a neck of pure gum." 
lese little accomplishments," continues our corres- 
' are nothing to those of the gifted Jethro. His first 
hich I believe is heretofore unequalled, was to make 
om Sandwich to South Dennis and back, a distance 
tan forty miles, during an ordinary church service, sav 
hour in extent I am wrong ; the horse delivered 

destination, then ran away and returned to church in 
le benediction. It must have been a wonderful horse, 
Id not mind having a colt from the same stock. One 
:les me a little. How could Jethro sail eastward 
vichport and pass the mouth of Bass River, which 
Jes to the westward, without changing his course ? 
s of minor importance, when we consider what I may 
respect regard as his crowning feat of endurance. 
Uy walk of his to South Dennis, involving as it did a 

over eighty miles, is almost a staggerer. The writer 
: he was healthy. Great Scott ! ! He HAD to be. 
:o reconcile with this record another statement in the 

storv to the effect that ' Cape people are no great travelers 
If my arithmetic is not at fault, the noble Jethro in thirty year* 
reeled off something like eight hundred and seventy-six thou- 
sand miles to keep his lady love supplied with wood and water 
Surely that is an average performance, even for good walkers, 
and to the lay mind the labors of Hercules and the toil so 
Sisyphus pale into insignificance." 

Mrs. Craigie ( " John Oliver Hobbes " ) in a re- 
cent lecture on Balzac, said of the great novel- 
ist's methods: " It was his habit to write three 
or four books at a time. This method, which 
has been and is followed by all great painters, 
is beyond question the right one." Authors 
who are struggling with one book and finding 
even that simple task frequently too much for 
them are likely to feel discouraged when they 
read this bold assertion. w. h. h. 


[ Questions relating to literary wprk or literary topics will be 
answered in this department. Questions must be brief and of 
general interest. Questions on general topics should be 
directed elsewhere. 1 

What, is the so called " co-operative plan " of 
publishing ? Has it found general favor among 
authors and literary workers, generally? 
What are its specific merits and demerits? 
What attitude does The Writer maintain 
toward the *' plan " ? Does it advise authors to 
adopt it for their wares ? d. m. 

[By the " co-operative plan " of publishing, 
" D. M." presumably means the arrangement by 
which author and publisher share the expense 
of bringing out a book. It means, generally, 
that publishers who have seen the manuscript 
do not feel confidence enough in its financial 
success to risk the whole cost of its publica- 
tion. In such a case a publisher may make 
one of several propositions. He may propose 
that the author pay the whole cost of bringing 
out the first edition ; or that the author pay the 
cost of making the plates; or that the cost of 
publication shall be divided between him and 
the author, equally or unequally, as the case 
may be. Whatever the proposition may be» 
the author stakes more or less money on the 
success of the book, and the risk of the pub- 
lisher is reduced accordingly. 

Sir Walter Besant used to advise authors 
never to pay part or the whole of the cost of 
bringing out their books, his idea being that 
publishers generally are men of good business 



judgment, and that if they are unwilling to 
invest in a book the cost of bringing it out, the 
chance* are that it will not be financially suc- 
cessful. In most cases this probably is true, 
but there are always exceptions enough to 
make publishing at the cost of the author a 
pleasant speculation, with some small chance 
of gratifying profit. When the author pays 
part or the whole of the cost of publishing, 
his royalty on sales, of course, is correspond- 
ingly large, so that if his book turns out to be 
a great success, his return from it is much 
greater than if it is brought out at the pub- 
lisher's risk. If an author has supreme con- 
fidence in his manuscript, this prospect of 
larger royalties looks most alluring to him. 

As regards the attitude of The Writer 
toward " co-operative " publishing, the general 
advice of the editor would be against it, if the 
author's chief object is to make money from 
his book. If his chief object is to get a book 
into print, regardless of the financial question, 
the co-operative plan may be a boon to him, 
since it will enable him to accomplish what he 
cannot bring about in any other way. But in 
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, if an author 
cannot find a publisher who will risk the cost 
of bringing out his book, the book, if published, 
will be a financial failure. There are firms that 
make a business of "co-operative " publishing 
on terms that are seldom profitable to the 
authors whom they draw into their nets. They 
advertise continually for manuscripts, offering 
the facilities of a high grade publishing house. 
Send in a manuscript and you will get an en- 
thusiastic letter, praising it:; manifold merits, 
and declaring that if it is published it will be 
the sensation of the day. It needs, however, 
more or less revision. The firm does not do 
this work itself, but it takes the liberty of re- 
ferring you to Mr. Soand-So, a competent critic 
and manuscript Reader, who will do whatever 
may be necessary, at reasonable cost. After 
the manuscript is revised, the publishing firm 
will be pleased to make arrangements for its 

You communicate with Mr. So-and-So.* He 
examines your manuscript, and his report is 
quite as enthusiastic as that of the firm that 
has referred you to him. ( It does not occur to 

you, perhaps, that he is a partner in the ingen- 
ious enterprise.) Your book is a masterpiece, 
but it does need a good deal of technical revis- 
ion. His estimate of the cost of the work that 
he needs to do upon it may vary from £25 to 
£200 — possibly according to his opinion of 
your circumstances. This, of course, must be 
remitted in advance. He congratulates you 
upon the offer you have received from the ad- 
vertising firm of publishers looking to the pub- 
lication of the book. 

You remit the $25, or the $200, as the case 
may be, and in due time you receive word from 
the publishers that Mr. So-and-So has done 
his work, and that the manuscript is now in 
their hands, ready for publication. Seeing it 
in its revised form, they are even more enthu- 
siastic than before about the masterpiece. It 
is bound to be the sensation of the year. They 
esteem themselves fortunate to have a chance 
to publish it, and the profit is certain to be 
very large. They have so many enterprises on 
hand just now, however, that it is not practica- 
ble for them to advance the whole cost of pub- 
lishing the book, and they ask you, therefore, 
to pay the cost of making the plates — a mere 
bagatelle, say $400 or $500. *A11 the other ex- 
penses of bringing out the book — printing, 
paper, binding, illustration, advertising, etc. — 
they will pay themselves, and it will really be 
to your advantage to pay for making the plates, 
since as a result your royalty will be increased, 
not the usual ten per cent, but twenty-five per 
cent., possibly even fifty per cent., on all copies 
sold above 5,003. 

You do not know, perhaps, that the real cost 
of publishing the book, making plates and all, 
will be less than $300, so that the money you 
send them will give them a profit, if not a 
single copy of the book is sold. You are 
dazzled by the suggestion that your book will 
be the sensation of the century, and you easily 
figure that a fifty per cent, royalty on all copies 
sold above 5,000, if the book has a sale of 
150,000 or even 100,000 copies, will bring you 
quite a comfortable sum. You send on the 
$400, or the $500, as desired, and then you plan 
how you will spend your fortune when it comes. 

It never comes. Your book is "published," 
in the course of time — often after harassing 

The writer. 

delays — and if you know anything about good 
book-making, you are disappointed when you 
see it, because it looks so cheap. You watch 
for press notices. They are few and brief* 
Book reviewers know how your firm of pub 
lishers conducts its business, and they give 
scant attention to its books. You wait for 
checks to pay your royalty. You keep on 
waiting. You wait some more. Finally you 
write a timid letter of inquiry to the firm. If 
you get an answer at all, it is most discourag- 
ing. They are keenly disappointed in the out- 
come of the venture. Your book, quite un- 
accountably, has failed. Its sales are small — 
far short of the 5,000 limit beyond which your 
financial interest in sales begins. They have 
lost a great deal of money on it, in fact. They 
are as pessimistic now as they were enthusias- 
tic before they got your check, and, while they 
politely refrain from saying so, you can see 
that the one wish of their hearts is that they 
had never heard of you. Perhaps by that time 
you reciprocate the sentiment. Well, you 
have at least bought wisdom by your experi- 
ence. You probably realize then that "high- 
grade publishers,'' "reputable publishing 
houses," do not keep advertisements standing 
in the newspapers begging folks to send them 
manuscripts. Your disappointed friends have 
pocketed maybe 5 100, maybe $200 or 5300, of 
your remittances. They have got in addition 
the whole benefit of whatever sale your book 
has had. Perhaps before long they will fail 
again, as some such firms have failed in the 
past, and so avoid the payment of their print- 
ing bills. At all events you may be sure that 
you will never get a rent of profit lrom your 

To all such "co-operative '* publishing Thk 
Wkmi-'R is inalterably opposed. It has 
always declined to print the advertisements of 
such publishers, and it 1 egrets to see them 
published in papers the publishers of which 
ought to be unwilling to encoui.ige fiaud. It 
must not be understood that all publishers who 
advertise tor manuscripts are untrustwortln. 
Not infrequently legitimate publishers want 
manuscripts of cert.cin kinds, and advertise for 
them. The publishers to axoid are the ones 
who .nlvettise for manus»r:pts .til the time, 

using the daily newspapers, as well as trade 
journals. Publishers of the highest grade gen- 
erally get, without advertising, all the manu- 
scripts they want, and even second-grade pub- 
lishers in good standing advertise for book 
manuscripts only occasionally. 

As regards legitimate " co-operative " pub- 
lishing, the first-class houses do very little of 
it. What they do is mostly with books — par- 
ticularly books of poems — by authors of rep- 
utation, which will be creditable to them, but 
which are not likely to be financially profitable. 
A Boston publisher said not long ago that it 
would surprise the public to know how many of 
the poems of certain well-known authors issued 
by first-class houses were published in book 
form at the authors' own expense. The second- 
grade houses publish a good many books 
wholly or partly at the expense of the author, 
and the lower-grade houses seldom publish at 
their own risk. Before an author makes an 
arrangement to publish on the co-operative 
plan, he will do well to investigate thoroughly 
the standing of the firm that makes a proposi- 
tion to him, and then govern himself accord- 
ingly. — w. 11. H.] 


In a recent number of the magazine called 
the Theatre, and in an article entitled "The 
Involution of a Play," I read : — 

"The dramatist's first work .... is to 
evolve the action of the piece, act by act. be- 
ginning with the last act first. This is the 
French manner, and undoubtedly the best." 

"The French manner " — why so? Dumas 
tils tells us, in one of his famous prefaces, that 
he wrote his plays, pour aitisi dire % in his mind 
before he actually wrote a single word. His 
"manner "was this — to ask: First, is the 
theme a logical one ? Second, what characters 
best suit the theme? Third, what must be 
the natural conclusion ? Fourth, what lesson 
shall be taught ? 

If Harry B. Mawson.the writer of the article 
referred to above, means that a playwright 
must first know what will be the end of his 
play — "the lesson taught'* — he is right in 
saying that the dramatist begins with the last 



act first, but that does not necessarily mean 
that a play should be built backward. The 
old saying, "Look before you leap," has some 
meaning, even for a playwright. 

Dumasyf/j believes in "themes" as much, 
or more so, as a minister does in a "text." 
" The theme is the play "; and this he empha- 
sizes in all his dramatic writings. The rest is 
simply "w///Vr"y that is, how to startle an 
audience Low to make an audience laugh or 
weep — mere tricks of the trade. 

I am inclined to believe that Mr. Mawson 
had in mind " play-building," and not dramatic 
authorship, when he called " the best ( French ) 
manner" writing a play backward. That 
"manner " I should call the American manner, 
or, if it need be French, Scribe's or Sardou's 

"All I need to make a good play," once said 
Dion Boucicault, "is a good situation," and he 
added: " All the rest, story, plot, characters, I 
can, in half an hour, dig them out, if need be, 
of a dozen different French dramas." And he 
often did it, "the good situation" included. 
He certainly did not write backward: he wrote 
around — around, not an idea, but around stage 
tableaux — something catchy, dramatic, emo- 
tional, or what not ? Scribe never did other- 
wise, nor has Sardou, whether we study the 
" Verre d'eau," or " La Haine." And the same 
can be said of Octave Feuillet. All their plays 
are the same; none of their characters are 
capable of feeling the rush of true passion. 
Everything is subservient to "the situation." 

Certainly such plays are not written "begin- 
the last act first"; they are not writ- 
ten at all, they are " constructed," having for • 
aim,yea, for basis, a *• situation " which, in all 

obability, will be the grand climax, and, con- 
sequently, in a four-act drama, toward the end 
of act third. 

But all this is not to the point : If by a play 
we mean a story with a plot, rewarding virtue, 
i d killing the villain at the end, 
all well and good. We may first decide how 
we shall kill the villain, or simply get rid of 
him, and then go on, crablike. But what will 
the play prove ? That all villains, like good 
little boys, die ? which would not be true: some 
good boys do not die, and there are a few 

villains still alive, much to the joy of fond 
mothers, and to the sorrow of some of us who 
may have lent money to a villain. 

A play need not be a story, nor need it have 
a plot. A good story and a rational plot will 
not necessarily injure a play, but what a play 
needs is a theme and characters. A Shylock 
needs no plot, nor does a Tartuffe. Hamlet is 
melancholia, Othello is jealousy, King Lear 
is ingratitude, Tartuffe is hypocrisy, Juliet is 
love. These themes, embodied into immortal 
characters, are whole plays of themselves. We 
need but to hear any of the characters speak 
to build, in our minds, dozens of stories and 
plots. Let Shylock be approached by you or 
me who may be in need of money, and a whole 
drama looms up. Let Hamlet recite his famous 
monologue, and we foresee lots oi foolish 
things he will do sooner or later. Give all 
your wealth to your children while )cu are 
alive, and before long you will be going over 
the hill to the poorhouse, or put on a crown of 
thorns — not of straw — as did old King Lear. 
Let your best friend confess to you that he 
has a great sin on his conscience, that of hav- 
ing " killed a flea while saying his prayers," 
and you can be sure that your friend will, a la 
Tartuffe, try to kill you, if it can serve an end 
of his. Whether a Capulet, or not, seek a Ju- 
liet's love. No plots, or stories, are needed 
for such plays. There is no "building," "con- 
structing," "making" of plays with such 
themes; and note that Shakspeare and 
Moliere used very silly stories and impossible 
plots which mar their wcrduus veils — ust 
to please audiences. 

Why not write for the stage rationally ? If 
the heroine is to get married at the end, give 
one a good reason for it — whatever the reason, 
provided it be good. Let her have love, if it is 
love she wants ; let her get money, if it is 
money she wishes ; but let her go about it as 
one does who seeks love, or has money for her 
goal. Do not ask that she be buried alive a la 
Juliet; Romeo knew Juliet loved him, and that 
drug business adds nothing to the play. Give 
me the balcony scene, and jou may have all 
the rest. I have heard it said, more than once* 
that it was a pity Armand did not marry Ca 
mille at the close of the fifth act. The theme 

The Writer. 


calls for Camille's death just as logically as the 
theme calls for Desdemona's death. If either 
lived — let us suppose they did not die — 
would the story be ended? Armand might 
have some trouble — some recollections, and 
Othello might have a few more jealous fits. 
What a lot of stories and plots could, however, 
be "constructed "; first, with Armand and Ca- 
mille as husband and wife ; and secondly, with 
Desdemona's forcible recollections of 
Othello's way of proving his love? Ah, but 
where would be the themes ? The rehabilita- 
tion of women through love would be lost, 
gone forever; and the green-eyed monster 
would have to become as Daudin. Imagine 
Othello //// bin bourgeois ', and Armand intro- 
ducing his wife to your wife! Good material 
for stories and plots, but would the u New 
Othello" and the " New Camille " be good 
plays ? 

Need I say, now, that all 1 have said above 
on "play making," on "theme," on "story,'' 
and on "plot," has for aim to appeal to our 
men of brains writing for the stage, to put 
aside such models as Scribe and Sardou, and 
if it needs be they have models, let them look 
to real masters. It would certainly not hurt 
them to study, for society plays, Augier, and 
for comedies, Labiche; and for a safe under- 
standing of human nature, Shakspeare and 
Moiiere ; and not wonder whether a play is 
written backward or forward. 

A if red Hen nequ in . 

The Boston Transcript. 


Clara E. Laughlin, author of "Stories of 
Authors 1 Loves," is literary editor of the Inte- 
rior, of Chicago. She has held this position 
for more than ten years, and during that time 
has been a contributor to nearly all the leading 
magazines. She has, too, been for many years 
connected with various publishing houses as 
manuscript Reader and literary adviser. Miss 
Laughlin was born in New York City in 1873, 
of Scotch-Irish parentage; she has lived 
in Chicago for twenty years, but is a frequent 
visitor to the East. Her schooling was in the 
public schools of Chicago ; she graduated 
from the high school in Chicago in June, 1890? 

and had no college education. She never 
expected to write a book, but suddenly, by 
the cumulative process, finds herself author of 
one, thanks to the encouragement given by the 
editor of the Delineator, and the " Stories of 
Authors 1 Loves," which, begun as a short 
series, lengthened out over a period of three 
years* serial publication. 

Philip Verril Mighels, author of "The In- 
evitable," has had a varied experience. His 
people were journalists throughout his boyhood, 
his father having founded a California news- 
paper in the pioneer days. Mr. Mighels, while 
he knew the newspaper business from setting 
the type to the final delivery of the printed 
sheet, was educated in the law. He subse- 
quently relumed to journalism in San Francisco 
and in New York City, where much of his 
leisure time was spent in the study of art. It 
was there that the author of " The Inevitable " 
published an essay in the Nevt York Herald, 
purporting to prove, through a cipher contained 
in the old-time nursery jingles themselves, that 
Francis Bacon wrote the nonsense so widely 
attributed to Mother Goose. In 1897 Mr. 
Mighels went to London, where he lived for 
four years. He published a novel in London, 
dealing with the English working-classes. 
Since resuming his residence in his own coun- 
try, Mr. Mighels has;contributed half a dozen 
short stories to magazines. 


Lowell. — Two new stories jibout Lowell 
have recently been told by General James 
Grant Wilson : A lady asked him why he had 
not sent her a copy of his latest book. " 1 
could not afford to,'' answered the poet. "If 
my friends do not buy my books, who, pray 
tell me, will buy them ? " The other story con- 
cerns an autograph collector, who wrote a short 
note to Lowell describing his collection and con- 
cluding with the remark, " I would be much 
obliged for your autograph." The repJy came 
bearing with it a lesson on the correct use of 
the words "would" and "should," which 
deeplv impressed itself on the mind of the re- 
cipient. The response read, " Pray do not say 
hereafter, ' I would be obliged/ If you would 



be obliged, be obliged, and be done with it. 
Say, * I should be obliged,' and oblige yours 
truly, James Russell Lowell." 

Zola. — His first success came on a New 
Year's day, when he was about twenty -five 
years of age. He had sent a little Chronique 
to the Petit Journal. It was accepted, and a 
few sous paid for it. The sketch is of pro- 
found interest as the first literary work of 
Zola. It describes the conditions of a family 
living in extreme poverty in the slums of 
Paris, sending out the children upon the street 
to beg for bread on New Year's Day. It was 
a plea for mercy. " Rich and fortunate ones, 
remember us,"' says this voice, speaking for 
the great disinherited classes. He married, 
but his income was very uncertain ; and often 
what little he had must be sold to secure the 
necessaries. One day in 1868, he went to 
George Charpentier, the publisher. He said, 
" I have a great plan. It will take me twenty 
years to accomplish it, but I must have an as- 
sured living. Will you give me 500 francs a 
month that I may live in decency with my 
family? And I promise that I will give you 
two novels every year." The offer was ac- 
cepted. Three years afterward a novel of his 
sold in thousands of copies. Charpentier sent 
for Zola, and said, " I cannot keep the con- 
tract," and he tore it up. " I earn too much. 
You shall have a larger share." — Nathaniel 
Schmidt, in the Ethical Record for January. 


[The publishers of Thk Writer will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
on receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents postage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the articles mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention Thk Writbr when they write.] 

Wanted: An Atelier of Fiction. H. C. Chatfield- 
Taylor. Bookman ( 28 c.) for January. 

The Novel and Contemporary English Society. Mary 
Moss. Bookman ( 28 c ) for January. 

Some Real Persons in Fiction. Will M. Clemens. 
Bookman ( 28 c.) for January. 

Henry James's Later Work. William Dean Howells. 
North American Review ( 53 c.) for January. 

Literary Landmarks of New York. Illustrated. 
Charles Hemstreet. Critic (28 c.) for January. 

The Decay of The Novel. Benjamin Swift. Critic 
( 28 c.) for January. 

BjiiRNSTjBRNB BjUrnson. John Nilson Laurvik. Critic 
( 28 c.) for January. 

Number 4 Park Street. ( From the Atlantic to its read- 
ers.) Bliss Perry. Atlantic ( 38 c.) for January. 

My Own Story — I. J. T. Trowbridge. Atlantic ( 38 c.) 
for January. 

Charles Dickens as a Man of Letters. Alice Meynell. 
Atlantic ( 38c) for January. 

The Latest Novels of Howells and Jambs. Harriet 
Waters Preston. Atlantic ( 38 c.) for January. 

Franklin in Germany. J. L. Rosengarten. Lippincott* s 
( 2S c.) for January. 

Qualities of Charles Dudley Warner's Humor. 
Joseph H. Twichell. Century ( 38 c.) for January 

The Poe-Chivbrs Papers. — I. With portraits. Edited by 
George E. Woodberry. Century ( 38 c.)for January. 

Hugh Miller and His Centenary. Illustrated. John 
M. Clarke. New England Magazine ( 28 c) for January. 

Reminiscences of Two Abolitionists. (Stephen S. and 
Abby Kelly Foster.) Lillie B. Chace Wyman. New Eng- 
land Magazine ( 28 c.) for January* 

Bobby's Newspaper Story. John Bennett. St. Nicholas 
(28 c.) for January. 

Zola's Claim to Remembrance. Nathaniel Schmidt. 
Ethical Record for January. 

English Men of Letters, With Portraits — II. 
George W. Smalley. AfcClure's Magazine ( 13 c.) tor January. 
A Burns Pilgrimage. Illustrated. Clifton Johnson. 
Pilgrim ( 13 c.) for January. 

Correct Speaking and Writing. Elizabeth A. Withey. 
Ladies' Home Journal ( 13 c.) for January. 

E. Nbsbit. An appreciation. With portrait. Marshall 
Steele. Harper's Bazar (13 c.) for January. 

Emilb Zola. His Literary and Social Position. Gustave 
Geffroy. International Quarterly ( £1.28 ) for December — 

The Washington Irving Country. Illustrated. H. W. 
Mabie. Outlook (13 c.) for December 6. 

Alice Caldwell Hegan. With portrait. William Fred- 
eric Dix. Outlook (13 c.) for December 6. 

Horace Howard Furnbss. With portrait. Talcott 
Williams. Outlook ( 13 c.) for December 6. 

Booth Tarkington. With portrait. Charles Hall Garrett. 
Outlook (13 c.) for December 6. 

About Edmund Burke. Elbert Hubbard. St. Louis 
Mirror (13 c) for December 18. 


lijornstjerne Bjornson's seventieth birthday 
was widely celebrated December 8. 

The Authors' Club of Minneapolis has 
changed its name to the Writers' League. 
It has now more than ioo members. 

Margaret Waldo Higginson, who had an ar- 
ticle in the New England Magazine for De- 
cember, is a daughter of Colonel Thomas 
Wentworth Higginson. 



Charles K. Lush, author of "The Federal 
Judge," has sold his newspaper, the La Crosse 
( Wis.) Morning Chronicle. 

Grace Rhys, author of the story, "Judith in 
Mackford's Entry," in the January Lippin. 
cotfsy is the wife of the English novelist, 
Ernest Rhys. 

Knowing Tolstoy's later life it is difficult to 
believe that his novel, " The Cossacks," was 
sold to pay gambling debts, but he tells us so 
himself in a hitherto unpublished letter print- 
ed in the Independent for December 4. 

H. G. Wells is a slow worker. For in- 
stance, his " Love and Mr. Lewisham " was 
begun in 1898. Another story, begun in 1901, 
dealing with what he terms the most momen- 
tous discovery in the world, is not likely to ap- 
pear in serial form till 1904. 

William A. Linn's " Life of Horace Greeley " 
wi 1 be published by the Appletons before 
long. Mr. Linn, when employed by Horace 
Greeley on the Tribune^ prepared an index for 
the " Recollections of a Busy Life." 

Charles Reade's long-time friend, John Cole- 
man, is writing a memoir which he intends to 
call "The Romance of Charles Reade." 

The autobiography of J. T. Trowbridge be- 
gins in the January number of the Atlantic 
Monthly under the title, " My Own Story.'* 
Mr. Trowbridge shares with one other writer 
the honor of being the only surviving contribu- 
tor to the first issue of the Atlantic. 

Miss Grace Hodgdon Boutelle, daughter of 
the late Congressman Boutelle of Maine, has 
taken an editorial position on the Boston 

Carolyn Shipman has succeeded the late 
Paul Leicester Ford as editor of Dodd, Mead, 
Si Company's magazine, the Bibliographer. 

James Jeffrey Roche is now the proprietor 
as well as the editor of the lioston\Pilot. 

Men and Women is a new magazine, pub- 
lished by the Men and Women Publishing 
Company. Cincinnati. 

A new in mthly illustrated,[magazine, to be 
issued early in I'jOj under the title of the 
Printing Aft. is announced'by the |University 
Press, Cambridge, Mass- 

Colonel George Harvey, president of Harper 
& Brothers, and owner of the North American 
Review* has bought the Metropolitan Maga- 
zine ( New York ). He says : "In buying the 
Metropolitan I bought simply a name. I have 
had it in mind for some time that there has 
developed in this country a field for a popular 
magazine whose chief mission should be to tell 
about New York. I am so firmly convinced of 
the soundness of the idea that I am going to 
make the experiment. The name ''Metropoli- 
tan ' exactly fits the purpose, hence the pur- 
chase. The editor of the new Metropolitan 
will be John Kendrick Bangs." 

Chicago is to have a new religious nonsec- 
tarian weekly newspaper to be called Christen- 
dom. Its editor is to be Shailer Matthews, 
dean of the University of Chicago Divinity 
School, and he will be assisted by Dr. Frank 
W. Gunsaulus, Dr. William Douglas Macken- 
zie, Prof. Charles M. Stuart, Prof. H. L. Wil- 
lett, and others. The first number is promised 
for April. 

The Presbyterian and Reformed Review* 
which has been edited for thirteen years by 
Prof. B. B. Warfield of the Princeton Semi- 
nary, has passed into the hands of the seminary 
and will be known as the Princeton Theological 

The Olympian Magazine will make its ap- 
pearance in Nashville this month. It will be 
illustrated, and will be "devoted to literature, 
education, and amateur sports." 

Beginning with Vol. VI., No. 1, the Litetary 
Review ( Boston ) will be published by an en- 
tirely new management, and several changes 
in policy will be inaugurated. The Bock Re- 
view section will be under the joint directicn 
of Aimee Evelyn Churchill and George Htm- 
bert Westley. The Book Plate Collector will 
be a new department under the management 
of Winfred Porter Truesdell. The new pub- 
lishers are the Charles E. Peabody Company. 
The Philharmonic ( Chicago ) will hereafter 
be issued monthly instead of quarterly. 

Modern Women ( Boston ) begins its third 
volume with the January number, coming out 
in new and enlarged form. W. H. Roystone, 
Jr., is the publisher. 



With the January number the Pilgrim 
opens a new volume, Volume VI., and issues 
for the first time a complete magazine wholly 
manufactured in its own plant. What will be 
interesting reading to the many admirers of 
this progressive publication is the illustrated 
description of its new home and the answers 
given to the questions often asked: "Why 
do you publish in Battle Creek ?" " Why do 
you discuss politics?'' and "Is the Pilgtim 
partisan ? ' 

John M. Clarke, who was the United 
States representative to the celebration recent- 
ly held in Cromarty, Scotland, in honor of the 
centenary of Hugh Miller, writes entertaining- 
ly in the New England Magazine for January 
of the life and work of that famous geologist. 
The article has a curious portrait of Miller, 
characteristic pictures of his town, of the mon- 
ument erected to his memory and unveiled at 
this celebration, and other illustrations. 

"The Ambassadors," Henry James's new 
story, will be the first work of fiction to be 
published in the North American Review. It 
will appear serially, beginning with the Janu- 
ary number, which will therefore be enlarged 
to 160 pages. Mr. Howells contributes to the 
same number an article on Mr. James's later 
work. It is stated that the story is suitable for 
publication in the Review purely on account of 
its literary value. 

The Review of Reviews, like the North 
American Review, has made a new departure. 
Mr. Stead has refused for twelve years to ad- 
mit fiction into the Review, but with the Janu- 
ary number begins "an endless romance." 
Each chapter is to treat of some current event, 
but in just what proportion fiction and fact are 
to mingle the editor does not explain. 

The Outlook (New York) for December 6 
is a Book Number, and in it ten authors 
answer the question: "What are the books 
most characteristic of American genius and 
life?" The number also has an illustrated 
article by Mr. Mabie on "The Washington 
Irving Country," and portraits and sketches 
of Miss Hegan, Mrs. Lillian W. Betts, H. H. 
Furness, Booth Tarkington, and Helen Keller 
— the last sketch by Edward Everett Hale. 

The Century has made a " find " ii 
covery of "The PoeChivers Papers 
erous instalment of which appears i: 
uary number. They consist of unpr 
ters of Poe, with a personal sketch c 
his friend, Dr. Chivers of Georgia, b 
teresting conversations in which Poe 
opinions of Shelley, Tennyson, K 
others. These papers, which are, 
among the last material of the sort t< 
lished concerning Poe, are edited by 1 
Woodberry and are accompanied by 
of Poe and Chivers. Another paper 
ary personalia in the same number is 
Joseph H. Twichells brief article or 
ities of Warner's Humor/' 

Albert Ritchie has been appointee 
nent receiver of the Metaphysical Pu 
Company, of No. 114 West Thirty 
street, New York, and an order h; 
granted dissolving the corporation. 
M. Davis was appointed temporary 
July 14. The liabilities were $24,( 
actual assets $14,705. 

Mme. Marguerite Durand, the origin; 
of La Fronde, a Parisian journal condu 
tirely by women, has presented the pap< 
members of her staff, and will here; 
merely a co-woi ker with them. Chicag 
to have an afternoon daily newspap 
ducted entirely by women. 

Kt. Rev. Hugh Miller Thompson died 
tie Hill, Miss., November i8,aged sevei 

Mrs. Caroline Leslie Field died at 
Mass., December 1, aged fifty years. 

Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer died ii 
December 6, aged forty-seven. 

Th. Nast died at Guayaquil, Ecuad 
cember 7, aged sixty-three. 

Frederick Saunders died in New Yc 
December 12, aged ninety-five. 

Mrs. Mary Hartwell Catherwood d 
Chicago December 26, aged fifty-five. 

Mrs. Jessie Benton Frdmont died ; 
Angeles, Calif., December 27, aged s< 

Marshall T. Bigelow died at Cant 
December 28, aged eighty years. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 2. 

gwnwio at thi boston PotT-pyy.ct as McoNQ-ciAM -Ati nATTiw. should appeal with especial force to liteiary 

* ; ~~ workers.* 

CONTENTS: fag. Fiye t meR f E , d De Quincey, 


nesG.Gddtn 17 Carlyle, Darwin, Huxley, and Browning, 

Editorial a* suffered from youth until well into middle age 

Mr. Munsey's Present Ideas about Illustrations, 26- frQm SQme j ncxp ]j cab ] e ma l ac i y lnat baffled the 

•' Newspaper English " bv Kdward Bok »6 . ' 

Queries. . »7 efforts <> f the wisest physicians. Dr. Gould, 

Pergonal Gossip About Authors 27 the editor of A metican M(diiitie, has Studied 

Alice Caldwell Hegan, » 7 - Booth Tarkington. . . ,a* tne medical history of these men as far as he 

Current Litbkary Topics *9 __.,i» „«.u^- •* r * u- l- j i 

a Years Book-reviewing ao could S a,her u from biographies ard Utters, 

Hblphl Hints and Suggestions. 30 and he seems by this study to have solved the 

That Troublesome Fountain Pen, 30 — Opening a mystery. 

. Book % D *" In the introduction to his book he says: 

Literary Articles in Periodicals 30 •«/»• 

News and Notb> 3' "The forelying study of the clinical biogra- 

■ phies of five of the greatest geniuses oi England 

ILL-HEALTH OF WRITERS DUE TO concerns but one class of symptoms and one 

EYE-STRAIN. disease producing factor. Of other diseases 

and other patients I am not competent to 

Nothing else in life is so precious as health, speak. The field will be found untilltd and 

This everybody has found out from personal, productive by specialists in other departments 

perhaps painful, experience. Brain workers in medicine. But to the historian and psychol- 

have discovered, to their sorrow, that if the ogist the role of eyestrain will be especially 

body be not in good physical condition, the interesting because of its subtle and astonish- 

brain cannot perform its normal functions. ing influence upon character, upon literature, 

The close connection between ideas and diges- and even upon history. None could pretend 

tion is indisputable, and one does not have to be to a fraction oL the insight which could see 

a materialist to see considerable truth in Feuer- the pre found differences in our literature and 

bach's rather shocking pun : •» Der Mensch ist civilization consequent upon the injection of 

was er isst." ( Man is what he eats.i the eye strain factor. What could these men 

Yet, though humanity may be a unit in its not have done, what would they not have done, 
desire for health, how comparatively few, even if this morbidi/ing horror had not clutched 
in these days of advanced hygienic knowledge, their hearts with its palsying and despoiling 
know how to attain it! How many, for ex- hand? Certainly also every tenth person of 
ample, realize that the digestion is in any wise the slaves of civilization — all those who are 
affected by the eye, that a slight and unsus- compelled to work with their eyes at the retd- 
pected defect of that wonderful organism may ing, writing, and handiwork distance, are to- 
upset the entire physical system ? Yet this is day having havoc played with their minds, dis- 
a recognized medical fact ot comparatively re- — - - ~ - - _ — 

,? .... .. . . r mm ' A . • Biographic Clinics. The Origin o( the 111 Health of De 

cent discovery. I he subject is discussed at ^.^ ^^ I)arwm| HuxJey and Browrin|c By 

length in ** Biographic Clinics," a book which George M. (k>uld. M. D. Cloth, ft. 00. Philadelphia: p. 

is a unique departure in literature, and which BUkistons Son & Co. 1903. 

Copyright, 190a, by William H. Hills, All rights ««san*&t 



positions, and workaday lives, by this unrecog- 
nized disease factor. 

" Whether physiologic or pathologic, the 
eye is necessarily actively functional during 
every instant of the waking life. It is bound 
up with every emotion, and guides every con- 
cept. Our thinking is by photographic images ; 
even the letters of the alphabet are conven- 
tionalized pictures. When vision is morbid 
there is therefore no limit to the kind and ex- 
tent of resultant harm both to the organism 
and to life." 

Taking up the lives of his five distinguished 
subjects, Dr. Gould presents, in each case, the 
clinical data on which he grounds his argu- 
ment. We view these five great men in a new 
light, that of wretched and suffering mortals. 
Deeply interesting as the study is to all stu- 
dents of literature, it is also unspeakably pa- 

' Of De Quincey, we are told : " At fourteen 
years of age, he was probably the best Greek 
scholar in Europe, conversing in that language 
fluently. His Latin verses were paraded as 
models by his teachers before the older boys. 
His passion for books was so great that he 
went heavily in debt for them beyond his 
allowance. He had to be removed from 
school at the age of fourteen or fifteen, ' in 
consequence of a very alarming illness threat- 
ening his head,' which lasted more than a 

At the age of seventeen, De Quincey ran 
away to Wales, where he lived as a wanderer, 
sleeping in the open air. His health improved, 
but his money failed and he came to London. 

"Much against his will young De Quincey 
consented to try to study once more, this time 
in Oxford. In his second year (1S04) his 
severe neuralgic affection led him to try opium 
for the first time. With a less well-balanced 
mind than that of De Quincey, and especially 
if we remember his intense suffering, this 
method of treatment would at once have been 
equivalent to ' throwing the baby away with 
the bath,' but with De Quincey, although it at 
once gave a heavenly relief, he became only an 
occasional rather than a constant devotee of 
the drug for nine years. His love of roaming 
over the hills and valleys was kept up at 

Oxford, but despite this, and also notwith- 
standing the opium, which indeed masked and 
relieved but could not cure the symptoms, least 
of all their cause, he again could not endure 
systematic and continuous study — he, Jar ex- 
cellence, a born student and lover of books and 
study ! He soon left Oxford and spent several 
years in objectless travel or wandering about, 
settling at last in 1809, aged twenty-four, at 
Grasmere. Here were kept up the constant 
exercise, the long walks, the interest in 
sports, and the seemingly morbid solitary 
walks in the darkness of the night. Despite 
these things, in 181 2 there was a suddenly ap- 
pearing and as suddenly disappearing five- 
months' attack of * nervous horror,' and in 
1813 such an increased intensity of the 'irrita- 
tion of the stomach ' that for relief he in- 
creased the intermittent doses of opium he 
had been taking since 1804, until he was soon 
taking as much as 340 grains a day. He 
would not marry while taking so much, and by 
1816 he had so far conquered the habit that he 
felt justified in marrying. This period of 
1813-1816 was his first one of excess, but im- 
mediately after marriage his suffering became 
more unendurable and for a year he relapsed. 
His heroism in 1821 in again fighting and win- 
ning the battle was rewarded only by great suf- 
fering, dejection, 'derangement of the liver,' 
etc., and there followed another relapse into 
excess from 1824 to 1825. The last relapse 
was from 1841 to 1844. At other times and 
after this time there was moderate, not ex- 
cessive use. 

" This history of his splendid struggle and 
success in 1844, his absolute abstention for 
sixty-one days in 1848, and his wise choice 
thereafter of moderate use as the lesser of 
two evils, his last ten years of life in 'quiet 
and steady activity,' are also noteworthy. 

" No one who has studied the life of De Quin- 
cey ( or the lives of the other men whom we are 
to observe later ) seems to have adequately pon- 
dered, at least not to have asked for the sig- 
nificance of, the irresistible necessity these 
men were under to walk or exercise. Ocular 
accommodative effort and reflexes cease in 
walking almost entirely, and absolutely so in 
walking at night. All his life De Quincey 



walked many miles a day, walked in day and 
darkness, in sunshine or in rain, and in the 
worst time of trials he would walk round and 
round a ring, like a poor, dumb, driven animal, 
from 400 to 500 times a day. At the age of 
seventy he was still active and vigorous, out- 
walking younger men. 

" Observant ophthalmologists know that in 
the life history of patients suffering from un- 
corrected eye-strain, or optical error, there 
tends to be three critical periods or crises. 
In girls and women these crises are of some- 
what different ordering. Here I speak only of 
boys and men, and in them the first is at or 
within a few years of puberty. The second is 
in early adult life, the third comprises the 
period of the failure of accommodation ex- 
tending normally from about forty-five to sixty, 
but varying according to the amount and kind 
of ametropia. In hyperopic or 'far-sighted* 
astigmatism it begins five or even ten years 
earlier. In De Quincey's case the first crisis 
came at the logical age of fourteen, when he 
had to be taken from school because of the 
* very alarming illness threatening his head.' 
Every oculist knows well enough about these 
ocular or ametropic headaches. They more 
seldom occur in boys or men than in girls and 
women. The reflex of eye-strain in the latter 
is usually to the head, with more or less impli- 
cation of the digestional organs. In boys the 
tendency is to the eyes (styes, blepharitis, con- 
junctivitis, etc.), while in men, especially in 
severe eye-workers, it is usually to the diges- 
tional organs alone. But there are many cases 
of modified or masked symptoms, depending 
upon the always varying conditions of the 
eyes, native vigor, external circumstances, etc. 
The noteworthy fact is the long-continued in- 
creased intensity of all reflexes during the 
failure of -accommodation, and the sudden ces- 
sation of direct ocular reflexes at about sixty. 
If the long-continued functional diseases of 
the digestional and cerebral centres have at 
that time not been too badly injured, there is 
peace for the rest of life. But if irreparable 
harm has been done them, symptoms will be 
changed, but will persist. Of course, accord- 
ing to circumstances and conditions, one period 
may extend into another, and the habit of 

drug-taking or the hap-hazard catching up of a 
pair of spectacles may modify but not abro- 
gate the symptons. In De Quincey's case the 
first critical period (head pains), plainly due 
to eye-strain, passed off in a year, but recurred 
in one form or another until he was compelled 
to run away from school and seek rest from 
eye-strain even by vagabondage if necessary, 
at all events by the walking or exercise which 
all such sufferers are unconsciously compelled 
to take. Of course, one so endowed as De 
Quincey could not escape the literary life, and 
his compromise with the unknown enemy that 
possessed him was opium and walking. The 
first hid and modified the results of eye-strain, 
the second gave the needed health to resist, 
and the eye-rest demanded for recuperation. 

" In all severe eye-strain, insomnia, appar- 
ently due to a number of mysterious causes, is 
almost always a constant symptom. ( 'Kicks 
about at night and cries out in his sleep ' is an 
almost invariable report of parents of astig- 
matic children.) 

" Without a scrap of direct evidence as to 
the existence of eye-strain, a study of the 
clinical biography of De Quincey by a compe- 
tent oculist should convince him that the mys- 
tery of De Quincey's life and disease, ' the 
key to the original cause,' as he puts it, of his 
suffering was reflex ocular neurosis. Why 
then did his eyes not pain him and suffer? 
It is one of the greatest of unutilized truths, 
long known, strangely ignored, that in the vast 
majority of cases of eye-strain the morbid re- 
sults of the astigmatism, etc., are not felt in 
the eyes. It is perfectly explainable why this 
is so. The value of the eye so overtops that 
of almost any other organ that the reflex re- 
sults of its unphysiologic function must be 
shunted anywhere except back to the eye it- 
self. In women it goes to the head, and the 
world is full of those tortured nearly every 
day of their life with headache and sick-head- 
ache ('bilious 'or 'nervous ' headaches ). In 
many, and especially in men working much 
with the eyes, the reflex is to the digestional 
organs, with ' indigestion ' and ' liver derange- 
ments,' ' anorexia,' etc. The truth that eye- 
strain induces these functional gastric, intesti- 
nal, and biliary disorders cannot much longer 



be ignored. When acted upon it will consti- 
tute one of the greatest advances in practical 
medicine that has ever been made. 

In connection with the fact that even at 
seventy-four De Quincey never used specta- 
cles for reading, the author says: "We now 
know that even with the best application no 
spectacles that any person could have obtained 
at that time would have completely relieved 
eye-strain. Spectacles of the crudest kind were 
discovered only about 500 years ago and science 
and some scientific men seem often inclined to 
ignore for another 500 years their use and 
improvement in correcting the optical defects 
of the eye that looks through their infinitely 
studied and perfected microscopes. But all 
the lenses of all the opticians of that country 
and time would not have helped poor De 
Quincey. Why ? Because he had myopic 
astigmatism, and of some anomalous and 
anisometric variety. Had he not been afflicted 
with this optical fault of his eyes, he could not 
have read a line of any book at the age of 
seventy. ... At any time of his life a 
proper pair of spectacle lenses would have 
relieved De Quincey of his sufferings, would 
have enabled him to quit opium-taking, and 
would have allowed him to pursue a far more 
wonderful literary career." 

Carlyle's record is not unlike De Quincey's, 
except that his sufferings seem to have been 
far more intense. 

At the age of twenty-three, says Froude,"he 
was attacked with dyspepsia, which never 
wholly left him." 

" The physician," says Dr. Gould, " who has 
heard the same pitiful recitals of anguish from 
his patients recognizes the utter sincerity of 
Carlyle's utterance : 4 Am getting weary of suf- 
fering, feel as if I could sit down in it and say, 
well then, I shall soon die, at any rate.' * I am 
near heartbroken. Nobody on the whole 
believes my report.' 

44 As regards his irritableness, melancholia, 
and mental misery generally, Froude says in a 
hundred ways and 'insinuendos,' it was all in 
4 his nature,' that he could no more escape 
from these things than his body * could leap off 
its shadow,' etc. But what more beautiful 
character ever showed itself than in the early 

essays ? The man who, poor and self-denying 
as he was, secretly gave away to the poor at 
least half his income, and who honored his 
father and passionately loved his mother — he 
a genius, they peasants ; the man who wrote 
and felt to Mrs. Carlyle as he did — such a 
man was to be honored rather than pitied. 

"Carlyle himself knew better: *I declare 
solemnly without exaggeration that I impute 
nine-tenths of my present wretchedness, and 
rather more than nine-tenths of all my faults, to 
this infernal disorder in the stomach.' * On 
days when moderately well I feel as happy as 
others; happier, perhaps,' and a thousand lines 
could be quoted as lovely and true as, * The 
world is God's world, and wide and fair.' 
Even poor Mrs. Carlyle, who * married for am- 
bition,' could but say : * My husband is as good 
company as reasonable mortal could desire/ 
That he was at times gloomy, irritable, morose,, 
harsh, etc., no one would deny, least of all 
Carlyle himself. But that it was his essential 
nature to be so — every page of the letters 
gives the lie to this faithless indictment. 
Those things were simply the symptoms of his 
awful disease. 

" Carlyle had throughout his life more or less 
of what American oculists call 4 theater head- 
aches' or 'panorama headaches.' A great 
many of our patients, until eye-strain has been 
stopped by glasses, cannot attend banquets, 
concerts, theaters, etc., without disastrous 
effects to head and 4 nerves.' When Carlyle 
went much to the Museum he had what he 
called * musaeum headaches.' When he went to 
a 4 party' he returned with 4 headache and 
shattered nerves,' and vowing never to do such 
a foolish thing again. 

44 In some men, the untoward conditions of 
circumstances, the ill-health, the mental abnor- 
malism, etc., may have little or no effect upon 
the quality of their literary labors. In others 
this may be subtly modified, and in others still 
the differences caused may be most profound. 
Carlyle, I think, is an example of the last class. 
Every work he brought forth is in almost every 
line modified by the direct result of the con- 
ditions of eye-strain while engaged upon it. 
The very choice of subjects is dictated by it. 
With the resistance and energy of youth over- 


•coming all disease we have the beautiful 
objectivity, the combined 'sweetness and light, 
the humor, and the charm of the early essays 
and of ' Sartor.' What could be more like his 
wrecked soul than the 4 French Revolution,' 
both in subject and treatment ? History writ- 
ten by lightning flashes it is, indeed, but the 
lightnings are those of his own mind in thun- 
derstorm that brought in its fury brief peace, 
but that also brought destruction. Again how 
imperative of hrs mood and how logically re- 
sponsive were 'Chartism,' 'Heroes,' 'Crom- 
well,' and ' Past and Present ! ' But, at last, 
at peace, 'Frederick' (taking twelve years to 
write) shows what the character of the life- 
work might have been if the thirty-eight pre- 
vious years had not been lived upon the rack 
of atrocious suffering. The unauthorized pes- 
simism, the pitiable anti-science, the foolish ar- 
rogance, the outrageous 'Ilias Americana in 
Nuce,' and all such things are excusable. 
They were the groans and deliriums of a-ner- 
vous system in awful agony. 

" When the storms of the life voyage were 
over, Carlyle had a splendid opportunity [in 
the inaugural address] to gather to a focus 
all the experience and wisdom he had 
gained. And splendidly he "improved it! 
Among the noble truths there glowing with 
softened but exquisite light he urged that 
the function of universities was to create 
libraries and teach the student to read. Assi- 
duity in reading is the great study of the intel- 
lectual man. There was not a word, of course, 
as to the mechanism of reading, and one is 
grieved to think of this and the fact that the 
labor of reading with an optically wretched in- 
strument had been the cause of the speaker's 
life-tragedy. And that it would be the same 
with thousands of his pupils then and since? 

" Lastly comes the lesson called • a very 
humble one,' but which not even he could real- 
ize how aud why it was far from humbly impor- 
tant: ' In the midst of your zeal and ardor. . 
. . remember the care of health. ... It 
would have been a very great thing for me if I 
had been able to consider that health is a thing 
to be attended to continually, that you are to 
regard that as the very highest of all temporal 
things for you. There is no kind of achieve- 

ment you could make in the world that is 
equal to perfect health. What to it are nug- 
gets and millions ? . . . I find that you 
could not get any better definition of what 
" holy " really is than " healthy." Completely 
healthy; mens sana in corpore sano. A man 
all lucid, and in equilibrium. His intellect 
a, clear mirror geometrically plane, brilliantly 
sensitive to all objects and impressions made 
on it, and imaging all things in their correct 
proportions ; not twisted up into convex or 
concave, and distorting everything so that he 
cannot see the truth of the matter, without 
endless groping and manipulation; healthy, 
clear, and free, and discerning truly all around 

" He ( Carlyle ) is compelled by the very na- 
ture and mathematics of the subject to use im- 
ages of physical and physiologic optics. It is 
as necessary for the eye to be optically right as 
for the intellect. Moreover, he did not know, 
as even then he might have known, that the in- 
tellect whose function he could best describe 
in optical terms is psychologically most liter- 
ally and absolutely the creation of the act of 
vision. It has the qualities of geometric and 
imaging perfection only because by the hered- 
ity of millions of years the optically correct, 
or approximately correct, eyes of innumerable 
ancestors have produced the optically correct 
intellect. The acme of physical and intellect- 
ual suffering is to supply a correct intellect, 
the product of eyes, with an optically morbid 
pair of eyes, and compel them to work for 
sixty years against the demands of the laws of 
all past time. 

" Let us make one last quotation from the 
inaugural address. In the face of the fact 
that numberless thousands and even millions 
of hard eye-workers (literary and others) are 
clear-sighted physically and mentally, and have 
no considerable suffering therefrom — despite 
this which Carlyle should have thought of, he 
says: ' We can never attain that [the holy and 
healthy, the optically perfect intellect] at all- 
. . . You cannot, if you are going to do any 
decisive intellectual operation that will last a 
long while; if, for instance, you are going to 
write a book — you cannot manage it (at least 
I never could) without getting decidedly made 


ill by it: and really one nevertheless must; if 
it is your business, you are obliged to follow 
out what you are at, and to do it, if even at the 
expense of health. Only remember at all 
times, to get back as fast as possible out of it 
into health, and regard that as the real equilib- 
rium and center of things.' 

" How clearly the virtue and also the vice of 
the deductionist type of intellect is seen in 
these words. The subjective experience car- 
ried over as a general rule and demand ! But 
how infinitely pathetic! And also how in- 
structive to those who are now seeking to unite 
the two methods of intellectual activity, de- 
duction and induction, in one fused flame of 
philosophic science. The earnest, woeful 
pleading to read books and to look above all 
things to the health, by one who had never 
committed a conscious hygienic sin in his life, 
and who had looked most carefully after his 
health every instant almost, of his whole life ! 
And yet who had suffered as great physical 
and mental anguish from ill-health as ever 
mortal did ! What every one of his hearers 
needed and what millions of others still need 
to be told is not to care for their health, but 
how to do it. That Carlyle had never once 
seriously considered; only an enlightened 
science, and enlightened medical science can 
teach that. Alas that Carlyle cared for 
neither! The more imperative is our own 

Of Charles Darwin, his son wrote : " For 
nearly forty years he never knew one day of 
health of ordinary men, and thus his life was 
one long struggle of the weariness and strain 
of sickness." 

Dr. Gould has summed up the case of Dar- 
win with an illuminating intelligence. 

" In the article upon De Quincey, I spoke of 
the psychologic influence of errors of refrac- 
tion, the powerful and subtle effect of eye- 
strain in the developing boy upon the character 
or disposition, the choice of a career, etc. I 
found reason to believe that this factor had 
been at work in De Quincey's case, as the 
unrecognized cause of the seven years' vaga- 
bondage of the unequalled scholar. It was 
the only way the wisdom of the organism could 
devise to rid itself of the profound injury 

which reading and writing was causing the 
nervous and digestive systems. It even made 
the evil of the opium habit preferable to the 
unbroken impact of the ocular irritation. To 
such a mind as that of De Quincey, the literary 
career could not be escaped, and so there was 
the life-long tragedy we have witnessed. 

" In Carlyle's case the dour Scotch inheri- 
tance, body and mind, together with physical 
work, country life, and an absence of an en- 
slaving literary ambition, made him miss the 
evil effects of eye-strain during youth ; butfrom 
the age of twenty-three onward the conditions 
(reading and writing) of the chosen career 
made him a great sufferer so long as there was 
any ocular * accommodation ' left. As Mrs. Car- 
lyle said, there would have been no * tongues* 
if Irving had married her, so there would have 
been no vagabondage and no opium in De 
Quincey's case if he had chosen the career of 
a farmer ; and if Carlyle had chosen his father's 
Occupation there would have been an utter 
absence of the misery of his life and the pecu- 
liar qualities of * history by lightning-flashes.' 

"When we come to Darwin, we find the 
same causes producing the same results, but 
with the differences of detail which all biologic, 
and especially all psychologic, phenomena ex- 
hibit. For, be he oculist, general physician, or 
intelligent layman, when one reads the life and 
letters of Darwin, he must be struck with the 
astonishing fact of the strangeness and illogi- 
cality of the life of the great scientist's youth. 
Up to the age of twenty-two he had done 
nothing but waste, * worse than waste,' time and 
opportunity in hunting, walking, riding, ath- 
letics, rat-catching, with dogs, etc., so that even 
his most kind and indulgent father said he 
would be a disgrace to himself and to his 
family. Medicine could not attract the atten- 
tion of the * idle sporting man,' and also the 
functions of the clergyman had no charm. 
Why? Because he was in excellent health 
and high spirits when he did not use his eyes 
at near range, but any reading made him 4 have 
spirits for nothing,' made him 'so disgusted 
that he had not the heart to write anybody,' — 
made him 'quite desperate.' The degree at 
Cambridge caused him to become 'so miser- 
able, both before and afterward,' and, 'what 



makes it more ridiculous, I know not what 
about.' Once, at the age of twenty-two, he was 
for two months compelled by bad weather to 
keep indoors in a strange place, without 
friends, and without amusements other than 
reading, and he was * inexpressibly gloomy 
and miserable,' and even troubled with. pain 
and palpitation about the heart. The simple 
recital of facts compels one to recognize that 
the wasted years of Darwin's youth were not 
* worse than wasted' by choice; it was not 
because of the compulsion of inherent moral 
tendencies, nor of fashion, nor because of his 
dislike of classic studies. There was nothing 
in his ancestry nor in his life-work of after 
years that would force him to such amuse- 
ments and to the escape of all study; there 
were plenty of earnest men at Cambridge, 
there was opportunity for congenial study — 
if study of any kind had been possible, and 
health retained. There was no way to a seri- 
ous and honorable life, was the unconscious 
command of the wisdom of the organism, ex- 
cept perhaps through some such plan as the 
Beagle voyage. Thus science gained its mar- 
tyr, although he did not know, and indeed he 
never knew, the exact nature of the cause of 
his martyrdom." 

Dr. Gould proves conclusively that the sea- 
sickness from which Darwin was supposed to 
have suffered on board the Beagle "was the 
same nausea and morbid nervous symptoms 
that thousands of patients have described to 
their oculists as following use of the eyes with- 
out the proper spectacles, and disappearing at 
once the moment all use of the eyes is stopped. 
Darwin had found great discomfort during his 
youth and up to twenty-two, upon the use'of 
his eyes; it was more pronounced and intense 
now during the voyage (some slight sea-sick- 
ness cooperating); and in the productive 
years of his after life, from the ages of about 
forty to sixty, it was a daily tragedy and horror." 

" It is strange," says Dr. Gould, " that Dar- 
win himself and his physicians should have 
supposed that intellectual labor was the cause 
of his symptoms. It is true that Dr. Clark was 
accustomed to tell his literary patients to quit 
proof-reading, writing, etc., and take a holiday, 
but this was routine, and with the plain intent 

to break up mental work, and, of course, in- 
finitely far from any consciousness that it was 
abnormal ocular function, instead of intellectual 
over-exertion that was at fault. Once Darwin 
recognized this when at the age of fifty he 
wrote : * It is a very odd thing that I have no 
sensation that I overwork my brain.' This was 
when he was hardest at work on the * Origin.' 
As if thought and laborious intellectual action 
could be stopped in De Quincey, Carlyle, Hux- 
ley, or Darwin by making them walk half their 
lives or more about rings, sand-walks, or moors, 
or ride 20,000 miles on one horse, etc.! In 
reality, such things made mental action the 
greater, adding also worry, introspection, the 
regret of lost time, etc. Indted, Darwin says 
that when he could do nothing else from ill- 
ness, he could collect his facts for the * Origin 
of Species.' Correcting proofs is by no means 
such intellectual work as thinking out and 
composing the * Origin of Species,' and yet 
Darwin himself wrote, 'and, also, there yet re- 
mains the worst part of all, correcting the 
press.' It was worse because it was more 
laborious to the eyes. Doubtless the splendid 
inductive quality of his mind, the patient and 
tireless gathering of facts which distinguishes 
his books and bottoms them upon an incontro- 
vertible basis, was in great part due to this, 
that he was unconsciously compelled to spend 
his time so largely in some manner as did not 
induce the reflexes of eye-strain." 

At the completion of the "Origin," we are 
told, he was in an awful state of stomach, 
strength, temper, and spirits. He sa}S himself: 
"My confounded book half-killed me." And 
yet, how many people who have read his great 
work have realized at what cost it had been 
produced ? 

Dr. Gould finishes his interesticg chapter on 
Darwin by saying: "There seems to be a 
childish popular error, shared even by those 
who should be accurate, that the solving of 
intellectual problems such as those which 
busied Darwin's mind is more wearing and dis- 
astrous to the health and mind than the mental 
exertion of the simplest intellects in the stren- 
uous life which millions have to carry on. The 
fact is, that almost all great thinkers have lived 
to a ripe old age. As to the 'rest-treatment,' 


The Writer. 

it frequently happens that the rest-cure does 
not cure unless reading and writing are inter- 
dicted, or proper glasses ordered, and that 
many neurasthenics are cured by glasses with- 
out the rest-cure. In other words, 'neuras- 
thenia* may be caused by eye-strain." 

Of Thomas Huxley, we learn that as a boy 
he "read everything he could lay hands on in 
his father's library." u Not satisfied with the 
ordinary length of day, he used, when a boy of 
twelve, to light his candle before dawn, pin a 
blanket around his shoulders, and sit up in bed 
to read Hutton's ' Geology.' As to his health, 
we learn that from the age of fourteen he was 
a great sufferer, and in much the same manner 
as were the three men whom we have just con- 
sidered. " His suffering for fifty years wrung 
from him the most bitter complaints, and forced 
him for the latter part of his life to renounce 
what he held dear in the world, and to renounce 
it more and more absolutely with every added 
year of life. The result of all his study of 
his own case, the result of all his consultation 
of physicians, was that neither he nor the 
physicians had the least idea what ailed him. 
... It shows how truly Huxley diagnosed 
his own unfitness for the work of a practical 
physician, when we reflect that his wretched- 
ness of fifty years never made him catch any 
hint of the fact that whenever he began study, 
reading, or writing he suffered, and whenever 
he stopped these things he was at once well. 
During his whole life he was teaching and 
urging upon others the study of physiology. 
But he never suspected the significance of the 
physiology of the eye and of astigmatism, and 
of their relation to his bad health. What was 
his disease? It was functional, surely, and it 
was so terribly real that one can hardly imagine 
what tragedy it brought to him ; great as were 
the study, work, and scientific results of his 
life, it prevented him from making far more of 
that life than we can know." 

In his Johns Hopkins address, Huxley said : 
" To understand the nature of disease we must 
understand health, and the understanding of 
the healthy body means the having a knowl- 
edge of its structure and of the way in which 
its manifold actions are performed." " But/' 
says Dr. Gould, " he had been, as we know, a 

profound sufferer all his life from some disease 
which baffled his best medical advisers, and of 
which he said, ' I wish I knew what is the mat- 
ter with me.' One of the most fundamental 
and important of the senses, one of the greatest 
of physiological functions, the origin and 
creator of intellect, is vision. Of its physi- 
ology Huxley was incurious. Its malfunction 
in his case wrecked his life, and when he read 
made every day a day of wretchedness. When- 
ever he read or wrote he suffered, whenever 
he stopped reading or writing lie was well. Not- 
withstanding this, Huxley wrote * The Method 
of Zadig.' " 

When, in 1845, Robert Browning fell in love 
with Elizabeth Barrett, he was thirty-two years 
old. From their correspondence, Dr. Gould 
has produced about five pages of excerpts re- 
lating solely to Robert Browning's headaches. 

" I have had a constant pain in the head for 
these two months, which only very rough ex- 
ercise gets rid of. I thought I could never be 

" So much reading hurts me ; ... whether 
the reading be light or heavy, fiction* or fact, 
and so much writing — whether my own — 
such as you have seen, or the merest compli- 
ments — returning to the weary tribe that 
exact it of one." 

And so on. 

" Browning," says the author, " was a man of 
refined and sensitive nature, self-controlled, 
careful of himself and of his health, a perfect- 
ly well-regulated man, living temperately in all 
things, well-to-do, and with no need, by inher- 
itance, or conditions, ever to go to any ex- 
treme in life. He had been remarkably well, 
he informs us, up to the age of thirty-two. If 
we had accurate data prior to this time, we 
should doubtless find that the moderation and 
quietness of his nature and demeanor were in 
great part the lessons unconsciously derived 
from the forgotten experiences as regards 
health in youth. A boy with the astigmatism 
he had could never have been a hard student 
or immoderate in any way without ill-health re- 
sulting. After the time we know him (thirty- 
two) we find him always extremely sensitive to 
slight excesses of irritation, such as a late 
dinner, excitement, etc. It never needed but 



a small thing to upset his delicate health. 
Even reading a few minutes would bring on the 
head trouble, and a few minutes of ocular rest 
would make it disappear. Each winter's work 
(with, the eyes) brought him to the state of 
nervous prostration and physical apathy, and, 
as of old, it was charged automatically to 

* liver, deranged liver,' although the evil was 

* not serious/ and he had no organic disease 
whatever." Referring in this connection to 
what he calls the "ocular reflexes," the author 
remarks: "The more sensitive the nature, the 
more the reflex tends to be cerebral, the more 
resistant, the more it tends to be dig^stional. 
Carlyle and Huxley would, therefore, not have 
headache so much as ayspeptic or * liver* 
symptoms. Browning had chiefly, though not 
solely, the cerebral type of reflex. The worst 
kind of organization is that in which there is a 
balance, or such a combination of the two that 
the reflexes affect both sets of organs. The 
result in these cases is * biliousness,' ' bilious 
headache,' or * sick-headache,' one of the most 
awful affections and most frequent which 
afflicts humanity. The case of Darwin is an 

"Both Browning and his medical adviser 
find a perfect explanation of Browning's head- 
ache in heredity. * Why has anybody to 
search for a cause? There sits your mother 
whom you so absolutely resemble! I can 
trace every feature, etc' If this explains it, 
Adam, or rather, Eve, must have been 
afflicted in the same way, and all of her de- 
scendants to Browning's mother. One marvels 
how a headache can be inherited, and why 
family facial resemblances demonstrate the 
fact. Throwing the responsibility back upon 
the mother, or upon Eve, will no longer do, 
and I think we should give it up. Browning 
and his medical adviser may not be censured 
for such a naive medical philosophy, but 
really we grownups must quit such hide-and- 
go-seek childish games. We must find what 
caused the headache in each case, separately, 
of son and mother, at least if we wish to cure 
the son. An anti-hereditive medicine has not 
so far been discovered effective after the 
patient's birth. 

"For forty-two or forty-three years after 

this Browning lived, but I find few data of 
value or trustworthiness for further knowledge 
of his clinical biography. Like De Quincey, 
Carlyle, Darwin, and Huxley, Browning never 
suspected the cause of his suffering, and 
learned only that it was in some mysterious 
way eluded by long walks and persistent exer- 
cise. Mrs. Bronson says he never passed a 
day without taking one or more long walks; 
indeed, his panacea for most ills was exercise, 
and the exercise he chiefly advocated was 
walking. He wrote : ,*I get as nearly angry 
as it is in me to become with people I love 
when they trifle with their health, — that is, 
with their life, — like children playing with 
jewels over a bridge-side, jewels which, once 
in the water, how can we, the poor lookers on, 
hope to recover ? You don't know how abso- 
lutely well I am after my walking.'" 

Thus end the " Biographic Clinics." The 
remaining chapters of Dr. Gould's book relate 
to the physiology of vision, the evil effects of 
eye-strain in general, and the indifference and 
neglect shown toward it by the medical profes- 
sion. The author pays a deserved tribute to 
Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, who, he says, "must be 
recognized as one of the greatest medical dis- 
coverers and benefactors of the race. So far • 
as I can learn he first taught the pathologic 
significance of astigmatism and eyestrain, and 
that the prescription of cylindric lenses is of 
vast importance in the care and prevention of 
systemic diseases. . . . Nothing that our 
distinguished colleague has ever contributed 
to medical progress can equal the value of 
the masterly articles which he wrote in 
1874, 1875, an d 1876 upon the subject of eye- 

In speaking of the famed Philadelphia 
School of Ophthalmology, the author says : 
" Learning their art directly or indirectly from 
the so-called Philadelphia school, hundreds of 
oculists are finding a noble lifework through- 
out the United States, and are giving a million 
patients the indubitable proof of personal ex- 
perience that eye-strain is the cause of terrible 
and varied diseases, the cure of which by 
spectacles is one of the greatest discoveries 
of the nineteenth century." 

Boston, Mass. Agnes G. Goldett. 



The Writer. 

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Franklin street, Room 3a, Boston, Mass. 



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146 Franklin street, Room 32, 
P. O. Box 1905. Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. February, 1903. No. 2. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

Mr. Munsey has apparently learned the im- 
portant truth that pictures alone will not satisfy 
the reading public. " Since I began the publi- 
cation of Afunsey's IMagazine" he says, "my 
own theories have changed a good deal. In 
one respect formerly I regarded the picturesque 
side of the magazine as of the greatest im- 
portance. I still believe in the force and value 

of illustrations, and illustrations of the best 
grade, but I believe to a greater extent than 
formerly in the strength of the letterpress — 
the themes treated and the manner of treat- 
ment. Instead of suiting the text to the illus. 
trations, as I did to some extent half a dozen 
years ago, I now suit the illustrations to the 
text, and use illustrations only where they will 
strengthen the text. The letterpress is, in 
fact, the backbone and sustaining quality of a 
properly conceived magazine." 


The St. Louis Star makes the startling an- 
nouncement that " Henry Loomis Nelson is 
now David A. Wells, professor of political 
science at Williams College." As a matter o£ 
fact, Mr. Nelson is David A. Wells Professor 
of Political Science at Williams. The impor- 
tance of the comma and the capital is thus 
illustrated again. 


" Beware of realism," wrote Stevenson to 
Mr. Trevor Haddon once. •' It is the devil. 
It is one of the means of art, and now they 
make it the end." 

An example of "newspaper English" that 
sorely needs to be edited is this 4I Personal 
Note to the Public," published as an advertise- 
ment in facsimile of the handwriting of Ed- 
ward Bok, editor of the Ladies' Home Jour- 
nal : — 

I firmly believe that if every man and woman of moderate 
means, young and old, married or not, would read the series 
" How We Saved for a Home " in The Ladies* Home Jour- 
nal, that thousands would date the beginning of their true 
living from that day. 

Here are 100 young couples, and men with families, work- 
ing girls and unmarried young men, who tell, step by step 
and dollar by dollar, how bach now own their own home, — 
some on salaries of $4. per week: none higher than $30. 
The average is $15. 

The words printed in small caps need par- 
ticular attention. 

* * 

Preparations are being made for the obser- 
vance May 25 of the hundredth anniversary of 
the birth of Ralph Waldo Emerson. In the 
Christian Register Rev. J. W. Chad wick 
makes the suggestion that the supreme way to 
celebrate the anniversary is for each celebrant 

The writer. 


"to read Emerson through, right straight 
through, in the course of this year.*' " I 
stump all who love Emerson to do it," he 
says. Those who really love Emerson ought 
not to find the task particularly arduous. It is 
to be feared that a great many people who talk 
of Emerson and even quote him seldom read 


Bret Harte's estate has been valued at only 
$1,800 — but if Bret Harte died poor, it is 
only because he lived rich. w. H. H. 


[ Questions relating to literary work or literary topics will be 
answered in this department. Questions must be brief and of 
general interest. Questions on general topics should be 
directed elsewhere.] 

How is the phenomenal success of the ten- 
cent magazines accounted for? Of course, ref- 
erence is made to those in the larger cities, 
particularly New York. Is not the success 
which they enjoy due, mainly, to business tact 
and ability ? And is it not also true that none 
of these magazines are particularly successful 
from the literary viewpoint, but the success is 
almost exclusively based on the financial re- 
turns, gained, principally, frcm advertising pa- 
trons? D. M. 

[The ten-cent magazines are successful be- 
cause they are popular. The price puts them 
within the reach of all, and their literary stan- 
dard is not so high as to make them attractive 
only to an exclusive clientage. Thousands of 
people who will not pay twenty five cents for a 
magazine will buy one for a dime, and so the 
ten-cent magazines get a large circulation. 
Having the circulation, they can get quantities 
of advertising, and the income from the adver- 
tisements is so large that the publishers can 
afford to make the magazines attractive with 
pictures, which ordinary people like. Their 
literary standard is not high, because they are 
published for the multitude, not for the culti- 
vated few, and yet they have a distinct merit 
of their own. They have to be made interest- 
ing to the great majority of people, or they 
would fail. In a word, they must be popular, 
and no contribution is desired that will not 

suit the popular taste, no matter how much lit- 
erary merit it may have. Financially they are 
successful because they carry so much adver- 
tising matter. No one of them could pay ex- 
penses with the income from circulation alone. 

— w. h. h. ] 


Hegan.— The Cabbage Patch ! For years 
Miss Alice Hegan had been executing unob- 
served acts of charity in this forlorn and un- 
beautiful part of Louisville. Here, u where 
ramshackle cottages played hop-scotch over 
the railroad tracks," she had been a regular 
and welcome visitor. All doors were opened 
to her, and to her sympathetic ears the woes 
of the neighborhood were poured out. Win- 
ter after winter she had done much to relieve 
the stress of poverty, and the incident in her 
book of the letter to the newspaper, and the 
instant responses in money, clothes, and food 
it brought to a stricken family, was founded on 
an actual occurrence. 

Curiously enough, that which probably 
made her such a welcome visitor among these 
people of the Cabbage Patch was what has 
been the chief element in her success — her 
strong love of humor. She has to a remark- 
able degree a quick and acute sense of humor 

— humor, that is, which is funny and humor 
which is pathetic: she sees the pathos in life 
as sensitively and appreciatively as she does 
the incongruous and the absuid. So she thor- 
oughly understood the various phases of lowly 
human nature in this squalid part of Louis- 
ville, and established among its people a 
strongly human understanding with them. 

And so, when the idea came to her of writ- 
ing up her own experiences, she had but to 
add a thread of fiction, to change a few names 
and concentrate the innumerable episodes, and 
the book seemed actually to write itself ! It 
seemed absolutely spontaneous ! Yet, when it 
was written, she mistrusted it and worked over 
it with painstaking care, and even when she 
felt she.could do no more with it, she had the 
gravest doubts over this little record of some 
of her own experiences. Of course the intro- 
duction of the love episode was the fiction 



which strung the scenes in the story together, 
and it was with many misgivings that " Mrs. 
Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch " was offered 
for publication. 

About a year ago, Miss Hegan, while in 
New York, had the pleasure of calling upon 
her publishers and receiving in her hands the 
first copy of a modest little green-covered 
book of about one hundred and fifty pages. 
She turned the leaves with shy but intense in- 
terest, and wondered if it would ever be no- 
ticed among all the large and beautiful books 
that were coming out. This was her first real 
venture in the field of letters she had looked 
into from afar for so long. Almost at once the 
little tale began to be read and talked about ; 
soon a thousand copies were sold, then five, 
ten, fifteen thousand ! Her picture was sought 
after for publication ; new editions were 
quickly exhausted ; twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, 
sixty thousand copies went, and still the new 
editions are quickly disposed of; and within 
the year this Louisville girl has emerged as 
the writer of one of the most popular, most 
wholesome and human books of recent 

What is the secret of its success ? It is full 
of human love and sympathy. It was written 
from the heart, without self-consciousness or 
false motives, but with simplicity and sin- 
cerity. It shows a subtle earnestness of pur- 
pose which shines behind all its mirth. It is 
deliciously humorous because the humor is 
perfectly natural, it is pathetic without being 
sentimental, and with all its pathos it is never 
sad because there is not a note of despon- 
dency in it. Its optimism is constant, and it 
is a perfectly true and convincing picture 
of life.— William Frederic Dix, in the Out. 

Tarkington. — In vain for years he sought 
recognition, always rewriting his returned 
manuscripts, never being satisfied with the 
work of his pen, persevering, till the way 
opened and two novels were accepted at 

While at Princeton he drew for one college 
publication and wrote for two others. In one 
can be found almost the entire circus scene of 
44 The Gentleman from Indiana." Although, 

after graduating, he desired to become a 
writer, he began the study of art. 

" But," said Mr. Tarkington, " I never ad- 
vanced beyond technique. I sent a drawing 
and a joke to Life. The drawing was accepted 
and the joke rejected. A subsequent drawing 
and joke were reversed in the matter of 
acceptance. I followed them up with forty 
drawings, all of which were refused. It was 
the disproportionate return for my work in 
favor of the text that forever decided me to 
undertake journalism." 

In his native town, Indianapolis, he had ta 
ken an active interest in an amateur dramatic 
club, and had written for it three plays. They 
were so well received that he rewrote them, 
with the idea of playing a part, and in 1895 
came to New York in hopes of having one of 
them produced, only to be disappointed and to 
return home. 

" I then wrote a story," continued Mr. Tark- 
ington, " of fifty thousand words. It was re- 
fused by many publishers, but became the 
greater part of * The Gentleman from Indiana,' 
so my pains were not thrown away. I submit- 
ted * Monsieur Beaucaire ' to McCture's, which 
they liked, and wrote to me asking me to call, 
and inquiring if I had written anything else. 
I spoke of 'The Gentleman from Indiana, 
which was in an unfinished state. They asked 
to see it, advised me to complete it, and then 
to do a little pruning; and I might say I did 
not spare it, but slashed, condensed, and re- 
wrote the book from beginning to end ; always 
bearing in mind it was to be a serial, that each 
installment should in some way make refer- 
ence to the past, and have an ending both sat- 
isfactory and carrying — which the publishers 
have excused me from doing in my last, * The 
Two Vanrevels.' I think as a book it will ap- 
pear better constructed." 

" The Gentleman from Indiana" appeared 
serially before " Monsieur Beaucaire," which 
was dramatized for Mr. Mansfield and ran sue 

Up to the time of the acceptance of his first 
two books, Mr. Tarkington's total receipts for 
five years' work amounted to but $22.50, all of 
which he received from Life, although he had 
written under the nom de plume "John Cor- 



burton" for the Indianapolis papers, and while 
in New York, in 1895, for a magazine called 
yohna-Dreams, signing himself " S. Cecil 

"The death of that little magazine," said 
Mr. Tarkington, "on the staff of which I was 
supposed to be, was the greatest blow I ever 

"At an early age my mind revolved around 
bits of local Indiana history, and when too 
young to write easiry, my sister acted as my 
amanuensis. To her I dictated my early im- 
pressions, and delighted in stories of daring 
and of adventurous life. Jesse James, the des- 
perado, appealed to my youthful fancy, and, in 
consequence, my early attempts at composition 
invariably commenced: * It was dusk, and 
four horsemen were seen riding over the top of 
the hill.' With my companions, I fashioned 
a stage in my father's barn, and there we en- 
acted * The Escapades of Jesse James,' from 
my pen, charging an admission of three cents. 
How distinctly 1 remember the bar-room scene, 
always too short to my way of thinking, with 
the crack of pistol-shots ! And how pungent 
was my regret that I could not play both Jesse 
James and Bob Ford, his slayer! 

** I wrote * The Two Vanrevels ' many years 
ago, as a short story of two thousand words, 
and put it away in hopes it would develop in 
my mind into a more pretentions work. Re- 
cently I wrote a play. Mr. John Drew and 
two managers declined it, the latter saying 
they would accept it if I would make certain 
changes, which I declined to do, being unwill- 
ing to sacrifice the artistic, as I did in * Mon- 
sieur Beaucaire ' to satisfy Mr. Mans- 
field." — Charles Hall Garrett, in The Out- 




A Year's Book Reviewing. — " Water, 
water everywhere, and not a drop to drink." 
The situation of Coleridge's sailor closely re- 
sembles- that of the book reviewer of a daily 
paper. Books, books, on every side ; new vol- 
umes, beautiful volumes; books with charm- 
ing covers and delightful pages; books with 
illustrations that one would like to devour, 

they draw one so strongly ; and not a book for 
real reading. If only one volume out of the 
numbers of them could be taken to some quiet 
corner and, sitting down at leisure and undis- 
turbed, read to satisfaction ! 

One reads the reviewer's way for months 
and is yet hungry for real readiog. These 
books have been sent by the publishers for no- 
tices and merit attention. A hasty glance is 
given here and there; a hurried reading of 
some pages to find out points to admire ; or 
for careful blame where blame is apparently 
just. Hurry, hurry through, yet all the time 
with the sense that justice is due the book, and 
it must have it. So the volume is again gone 
over, and more carefully. The review is then 
made and the book is laid away. Both must 
be straightway forgotten, leaving the mind en- 
tirely clear for the next volume, which will in 
its turn absorb the complete attention of the 

Some large and important books, like one 
on finance, a large history, or a cyclopedia, 
cannot receive reading, but get examination 
only. One's reading is laid out "for one and 
not from choice. Whether to one's personal 
taste or not, it must be honestly judged on 
merit according to the ability of the reviewer. 
There is no room for reading for one's own 
personal improvement. One has to forego so 
much of general reading, the news of the time, 
the delightful and valuable magazine reading, 
even taking only cursory glances at one's own 
newspaper, and read only for business. The 
brain must be made like a sieve, only retaining 
a few rust spots that show that it has been 

In the rush of book business one must rise 
early and be glancing at a book while dressing; 
eat with a book held open on the table from 
which to catch some sentences while doing 
breakfast; read books by the uncertain light 
and in the crush of the street car; sit all of a 
long day at the desk, reading, driving a pencil 
or clacking the typewriter. At late night one 
creeps wearily to bed after having worked over 
some book all the evening, and falls asleep 
while wondering if justice has been done, if 
judgment has been correct, if any fine or 
good point has been overlooked, or if blame 



has been unwarranted; and dreams yet of 
books. Yet one is expected to have bright, 
active brain, fresh enthusiasm, and a mind 
stored with wisdom, and an infallible judg- 
ment ! 

Yet the reviewer is not wholly without com- 
pensation. There is an interest in opening 
«ach new package that arrives. There is a 
pleasure in holding a fine volume in the hand. 
There is a pleasure in looking at the 'rows of 
books on the shelves and thinking how nice it 
would be to own some of them and read them 
at leisure. There is a cause for gratification 
that good books are written and that many 
read them. One wishes to know the authors. 
One feels a sympathy with the publishers in 
their wish for the success and appreciation of 
a book upon which they have spent much la- 
bor and thought. In spite of trying to forget, 
memories of some specially attractive volume, 
a mental picture of the scenes portrayed with 
such fervor that the impression is indelible, 
some good thought finely expressed, some no- 
ble sentiment pointed out, will remain in the 
mind and heart. 

And then, once in a great while, some au- 
thor writes a note of appreciation of the re- 
viewer's work. These are few, but oh, how 
tenderly treasured ! How dear and comfort- 
ing to the tired and tried heart of the reviewer. 
— Mary E. Stewart,in the Milwaukee yournal. 


That Troublesome Fountain Pen. — If 
your fountain pen flows too freely, it may be 
you have put too much ink in it. When filling 
a fountain pen, always leave a little room for 
air. If it will not flow at all, it may be that the 
ink is all used up, or the feed groove may 
be clogged. A fountain pen will not work 
well unless it is kept clean. j. F. s. 

Denver, Col. 

How to Open a New Book. — Lay the book 
back downward, on a table or smooth surface. 
Press the front cover down until it touches the 
table, then the back cover, holding the leaves 
in one hand while you open a few leaves at the 
back, then at the front, alternately pressing 
them down gently until you reach the centre of 

the volume. This should be done two or three 
times. Never open a book violently nor bend 
back the covers. It is liable not only to break 
the back, but to loosen the leaves. G. w. 

Chicago, 111. 


[The publishers of The Writer will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
en receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents postage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the article? mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention The Writer when they write.] 

The Pob-Chivbrs Papers. — II. George E. Woodberry. 
Century ( 38 c.) for February. 

The Literary Loss of the Bible. Rollo Ogden. Cen- 
tury ( 38 c.) for February. 

The Art of the Dramatist. Brander Matthews. North 
American Review ( 53 c ) for February. 

Leo Tolstoy: An Interpretation Done in Little. 
Elbert Hubbard. Cosmopolitan ( 13 c.) for February. 

Herbert Spencer. George lies. Illustrated. World''* 
Work (28 c.) for February 

New England Editors in the South. George Freder- 
ick Mellen. New England Magazine ( 28 c) for February. 

An Historic Mansion ( Longfellow House in Portland). 
Ella Matthews Bangs- Illustrated. New England Maga- 
zine ( 28 c.) for February. 

My Own Story. -II. J.T.Trowbridge. Atlantic (38c.) 
for February. 

Reminiscknces of Wendell Phillips. Lillie B. Chace 
Wyman. Illustrated. New England Magazine (28 c.) for 

Lafcadio Hears. Paul Elmer More. Atlantic (38c.) 
for February. 

Sensational Journalism and the Law. George W. 
Alger. Atlantic ( 3S c.) for February. 

The Literary Pilgrimage. Rollin Lynde Hartt. At- 
lantic ( 38 c.) for February » 

Libin, A New Interpreter of East-Side Life. Charles 
Rice. Atlantic ( 38 c.) for February. 

Real Forces in Literature. Edward Fuller. Atlan- 
tic ( 38 c.) for February. 

Litbraturb and Politics. Willis J. Abbot. Booklover's 
Magazine ( 28 c.) for February. 

Personal Glimpses of Emerson. Julian Hawthorne. 
Illustrated. Booklo~ocrs Magazine (28c) for February. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson: Thb Tribute of a Son. 
Edward W Emerson. Illustrated. Bookloz>ers Magazine 
(28 c) for February. 

Mrs. Humphry Ward. Roland Phillips. Illustrated. 
The Lamp ( 18 c. ) for February 

Macaulay's First Essay. Professor Wilbur L. Cross. 
The Lamp ( 18 c. ) for February. 

Mr. Henley and Romantic Painting. W. C. Brownell. 
The Lamp (18 c.) for February. 

Mr. Paul on the Poetry of Matthew Arnold. 
Edith Wharton. The Lamp (18 c. ) for February. 

Wbismann: An Autobiographical Sketch. The 
Lamp ( 18 c. ) for February. 



Mr. Bakrib as a Dramatist. J. M. Bullock, lllua 
trated. The Lamp ( 18 c ) for February. 

William Harrison Ainsworth. Beverly Stark. Book- 
man ( 28 c. ) for February. 

G. K. Chbstbrton. C. F. G. Masterman. Bookman 
<a8c.) for February. 

Thb Centenary of Douglas Jbrrold. Lewis Melville. 
Bookman (28 c. ) for February. 

Mr. Kipling: Where Dobs Hb Stand? Wilfred Whit- 
ten. Bookman ( 28 c. ) for February. 

Vbnice in Recent Fiction. Louise Closser Hale. With 
illustrations by Walter Hale. Bookman ( 28 c. ) for February. 

Literary Landmarks of New York. — VII. Charles 
Hemstreet. Illustrated. Critic (28 c.) for February. 

Mary Hartwbll Cathbrwood. W. E. Simonds. Critic 
(28 c. ) for February. 

Letters to a Litbrary AsPiRANT. — I. Critic (28 c. ) 
for February. 

"The Decay of the Novel" Answered. Numerous 
replies by prominent novelists. Critic (28 c. ) for February. 

College Professors Who Are Men of Letters. 
I.— Harvard. Frank W. Noxon. Illustrated. Critic ( 28 c. ) 
for February. 

An Unwritten Chapter of " Lbs Mis^rablbs." Paul 
Chenay ( Victor Hugo's brother in-law ). Lippincot? s ( 28 c. ) 
for February. 

Illustrated Interviews. LXXVI1I. — Mr. F. Car- 
ruthers Gould, Cartoonist. Rudolph de Cordova. Strand 
Magazine ( 13 c. ) for February. 

Mr. Yeats and His Mysticism. Victor Brandon. Har- 
vard Monthly ( 28 c. ) for February. 

Nature in the Elizabethan Lyrics. Lorian Way. 
Harvard Monthly (28c) for February. 

Fielding and Hogarth. Gerald Chittenden. Yale Lit- 
erary Magazine (38 c.) for February. 

Poetry in the Nineteenth Century. Reprinted from 
the Edinburgh Review in the Eclectic (28 c. ) for February. 

Burns as an English Poet. David Christie Murray. 
Reprinted from the Contemporary Review in the Eclectic 
(28 c.) for February. 

Philip James Bailey. Edmund Gosse. Reprinted from 
the Fortnightly Rev ew in the Eclectic (28 c. ) for February. 

Good Books for the Young. Elisabeth Robinson Scovil. 
Ladies' Home Journal (13c) for February. 

Reporting and Correspondence. B. A. Heydrick. 
Chautauquan (28 c.) for February. 

Thomas Nast. Ernest Knaufft. Illustrated. Review 0/ 
Reviews ( 28 c. ) for January. 

Somb Recollections of Emile Zola. Ernest Alfred Viz- 
etelly. Illustrated. Pall Mall Magazine (28 c.) for January. 

Owbn Wister. With portrait. David Graham Phillips. 
Saturday Evening Post (8c.) for January 3. 


Rudyard Kipling has left Rottingdean, and 
his home is now an ancient stone manor called 
«* Burwash," out in the country from Tun- 
bridge Wells. 

Henry Norman has obtained a divorce from 
his wife, who Was Miss Menie Muriel Dowie. 
The wife of Elbert Hubbard, editor of the 
Philistine, has sued for a divorce. 

Dr. Lyman Abbott is now at work on a biog 
raphy of Henry Ward Beecher, which Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. expect to publish next Sep- 

An illustrated life of Robert Buchanan is in 
preparation by his sister-in-law, Miss Harriet 
Jay, who will, as far as possible, cast it into 
autobiographical form. 

Lee & Shepard, the Boston publishers, are 
soon to bring out a volume giving an ac- 
count of the life and works of Rev. Elijah 
' Kellogg. It will embrace a life of Mr. Kellogg 
by Judge Grimes of Nashua, N. H., and other 
friends, each one of whom will tell of that 
period of Mc. Kellogg's life with which he was 
best acquainted, and it will be edited by Pro- 
fessor W. L. Mitchell of Bowdoin College. 

William Henry Carson writes his books 
afoot. His "Tito" was the result of long 
tramps along Italian roads. Mr. Carson, be- 
sides being a busy lawyer, is fond of walking, 
and picks up his scenes and views of life as he 

Dr. E. A. Steiner, of Sandusky, O., has gone 
to Europe to begin work on the biography of 
Tolstoy. " I have been in close touch with 
Tolstoy for seventeen years," said Dr. Steiner, 
in explaining how he came to be chosen by 
Tolstoy's family as the count's biographer, "and 
during that time have visited him three times. 
I became intimately acquainted with the count 
and his family in those visits. The count 
himself wants no biography written, but his 
family and his admirers desire that it should 
be done." 

Bliss Carman will be the editor of the Lit- 
erary World ( Boston ), which L. C. Page & 
Co. have bought. 

The Book Buyer ( New York ) has changed 
its name and is now the Lavip. 

Philip Cowen, publisher of the American 
Hebrew, New York city, has bought the Jew- 
ish Messenger, which has been published in 
New York for more than fifty years. 

Satidow's Magazine ( Boston ) is a new 
monthly devoted to the maintenance of health 
and strength through exercise, hygiene, and 
recreation in the home, gymnasium, forest and 


The Writer. 

The Leader (Providence, R. I.) is anew 
semi-monthly magazine of modern education. 

Mirth and Music is the name of a new illus- 
trated magazine announced by the Standard 
Music Company of New York. It will give 
new music in each issue, in addition to a 
budget of entertaining literature. 

Literature, Art, and Music is a new 
monthly magazine published at Newark, N. J. 

Masters in Music is a new monthly magazine 
published in Boston by the Bates & Guild 
Company. Daniel Gregory Mason is the 
editor. Each number will be devoted to some 
one great musician, giving an account of his 
life and works, a portrait, a bibliography, quota- 
tions from various critics, and thirty-two pages 
of piano music chosen from his compositions. 

It is a common belief that Huckleberry Finn 
is Mark Twain himself. But Mr. Clemens 
says that this idea is wrong, and that his origi- 
nal in his books is Tom Sawyer, not Huck Finn. 

Stopford Brooke is a rival of Henry James 
in the writing of long sentences. He has one 
in his recent BrowniDg book which fills thirty- 
two lines of small print. 

S. S. McClure & Co. have issued a "Com- 
plete Index to McCluris Magazine" covering 
Volumes I. to XVIII., inclusive, or from June, 
1893, to April, 1902. 

President Harlan, of Lake Forest Univer- 
sity, Lake Forest, 111., announces a prize of 
$6,000 to be awarded to the author of the best 
book "on the connection, relation, and mutual 
bearing of any practical science or the history 
of our race, or the facts in any department of 
knowledge, with and upon the Christian relig- 
ion." The competition is open to all scholars. 
Manuscripts must be submitted to President 
Harlan on or before June 1, 1905* the name and 
address of the author to be inclosed in a plain, 
sealed envelope. The prize has been made 
possible by the gift of the late William Bross, 
who bequeathed a fund for the purpose. The 
award is to be made by a committee of judges 
composed of distinguished men in divinity, 
science, and letters, hereafter to be chosen. 
To facilitate the work of the committee three 
copies of each manuscript must be submitted 
in typewriting. 

Two prizes, of $1000 and $400, to be called 
the Loubat prizes, have been established at 
Columbia University, to be awarded every five 
years for the best original works dealing with 
North America at any period preceding the 
Declaration of Independence. The first 
award will be made this year, and original 
manuscripts, books, and pamphlets offered in 
competition must be submitted before June. 
The work submitted must treat of the history, 
geography or numismatics of North America 
prior to 1776, or of some topic cpmprised with- 
in these general subjects. If a printed work, 
it shall have been published for the first time 
not before 1898, and if in manuscript the au- 
thor must agree to publish the work within 
one year from the date of award. 

The New York Commercial Advertiser offers 
each week prizes of $5, $3, and $2 for the best 
unpublished photographs of news events, or 
beautiful, historic, amusing, and interesting 
scenes. Pictures submitted become the prpp- 
erty of the paper, and those that do not win 
prizes, if printed, will be paid for at one dollar 
each. The pictures must have address of con- 
tributor plainly written on the back, with a few 
lines of descriptive matter, and each one must 
be marked " Photo Contest." 

The Booklover y s Magazine ( Philadelphia ) 
for February i*s an Emerson number, in recog- 
nition of the Emerson centennial anniversary 
May 25, and contains some very interesting 
illustrated articles touching Emerson's distinc- 
tive personality, by Julian Hawthorne and by 
Emerson's son, Edward W. Emerson, of Con- 

The first publication in England deserving 
the name of a real newspaper, says Professor 
W. E. Simonds, in his "Student's History of 
English Literature," was the Daily Coutant % 
which ran for thirty years from 1702. 

Rev. P. C. Headley died at Lexington, 
Mass., January 5, aged eighty-three. 

Henri Georges Stephen Adolphe Opper de 
Blowitz died in Paris, January 18. 

Julian Ralph died in New York, January 20, 
aged forty-nine. 

Augustus John Cuthbert Hare died at Holm- 
hurst, England, January 22, aged sixty-nine. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 5- 

Entered at the Boston Post-office as second-class mail matter. 


How to Makb Manuscript. William H. Hills. . . 33 

Editorial 4* 

Plot-Suggestions in Newspapers, 42 — Importance 

to Writers of Relieving Eye-strain 4* 

"Newspaper English " Edited 43 

The Scrap Basket * 43 

The Use and Misuse of Words 44 

Personal Gossip About Authors 44 

Frank T. Bullen, 44 — Maxime Gorky, 44— Will N. 
Har ben, 44 — Beatrice Harraden, 45 — Henry Seton 
Merriman, 45 — Herbert Spencer, 45 — Ida M. Tar- 
bell 46 

Literary Articles in Periodicals 46 

News and Notes 47 


Probably the foremost printer in the United 
States is Theodore Low De Vinne. He has 
the right to affix the letters A.M. to his name, 
and if there were such a university degree as 
Doctor of Printing established, there is no 
question that he would be the first man to be 
entitled to it. He has rendered much notable 
service in the cause of beautiful and clear 
typography, but he has done nothing more use- 
ful than in writing — or as he modestly calls 
it "compiling" — the book on the practice of 
typography to which he has given the title, 
" Correct Composition." * 

Mr. De Vinne's book is primarily intended 
for printers, written with a view to harmoniz- 
ing the differences in " office style " in various 
printing shops and setting forth the generally 
accepted rules for model work ; but as printing 
presupposes copy, it is also designed for writ- 
ers, who will find in it the necessary instruction 

•Correct Composition. A treatise on spelling, abbrevia- 
tions, the compounding and division of words, the proper 
use of figures and numerals, italic and capital letters, 
notes, etc., with observations on punctuation and proof- 
reading. By Theodore Low De Vinne, A.M. 476 pp. 
Cloth, $2.00. New York : The Century Company. 1901. 

for preparing their copy in the proper way. 
" Amateurs in literary composition," says Mr. 
De Vinne, "soon acquire the bad habit of 
writing carelessly; they spell strange names 
in two or more different ways ; they form cap- 
ital letters, and even the small, lower-case 
letters, obscurely, so that one word may be 
mistaken for another; they have no clearly- 
defined system, or at least, observe none, for 
the proper placing of capitals, italic, and the 
marks of punctuation. There is a general be- 
lief that the correcting of these oversights is 
the duty of the printer, and the writer too often 
throws this duty on the compositor and the 

Mr. De Vinne points out the importance of 
having copy correctly prepared in the first 
place, and at the outset he takes up the ques- 
tion of spelling. Noting the variations in 
spelling authorized by the seven large diction- 
aries in daily use, he says: " The order of an 
author to disregard all variable spellings in his 
copy and to spell according to a specified dic- 
tionary has to be obeyed in the first stage 
of the work by compositors who have small 
knowledge of, and often no access to, that au- 
thority, for not one printing house in a hundred 
has more than one dictionary as a book of 
reference. . . . Failing to find in the first 
proof the spelling he prefers, the author does 
last what he should have done first, and care- 
fully writes out on the proof the spellings which 
should have been made in his copy. These 
alterations delay the work, and give dissatis- 
faction to the author because of added expense. 
. . . The right of an educated author to 
spell as he pleases is not to be questioned, but 
he should write distinctly. As an additional 
safeguard, he should note on the first page of 
his copy the name of the dictionary he desires 

Copyright, 1903, by William H, Hiiis. KW ngtA* t*wxn*&> 



to be accepted as authority. If he chooses to 
deviate from that dictionary in some words, he 
should prepare a list of his spellings of these 
words. . . . These precautions are observed 
in their work by all disciplined writers." 

Taking up the subject of abbreviations, Mr. 
De Vinne says : *' The author should not ab- 
breviate any word in his copy which he intends 
shall be printed at full length. Even the 
abbreviations for foot — or for side — notes 
should also be written exactly as they are to 
appear in these notes. When the notes are 
extracts from, or citations of, authors who 
write in a foreign language, too much care 
cannot be given to distinctness of writing. 
. . . Doctor and Professor should always be 
spelled out, also General, Colonel, Captain, 
and Major. When the title is double and is 
connected with a hyphen, as in Major-general, 
or Lieutenant-colonel, the first word takes a 
capital letter. The same ruling should be ap- 
plied to Ex-governor or Ex-senator. For ante 
meridiem and post meridiem it is now a common 
practice to make use of lower-case letters for 
a.m. and p.m., as is here shown. The abbre- 
viations inst., prox., and ult. are entirely im- 
proper in the texts of books." Mr. De Vinne 
gives minute directions for the proper use of 
abbreviations of all kinds, laying stress on the 
instruction that an abbreviation should never 
be written in copy where the author intends to 
have the word spelled out in full. He might 
have added that to save labor in writing, it is 
permissible to write an abbreviation in copy 
and circle it, the circle being understood as an 
instruction to the compositor to spell out the 
word. " The careful writer who has to abbre- 
viate in his foot-notes the names of books and 
periodicals, and scientific terms and foreign or 
little-used words, should prepare an alphabeti- 
cal list of the abbreviations, that will prevent 
him and the compositor from spelling the same 
word in different ways." 

Mr. De Vinne's next chapter takes up the 
puzzling subject of compound words, and dis- 
cusses in detail the theory of compounding, 
preferred forms, and the use of prefixes and 
terminals. Next come chapters on figures 
and numerals, italic, capital letters, the division 
of words, and small capitals, giving similar de- 

tailed directions. In book printing, he says, 
figures should be avoided as much as possible 
for all numbers but those of dates. When the 
sentence begins with a numerical statement, 
words must be used for numbers, even if figures 
are used in other parts of that sentence. Dates 
should be stated with system in every book. It 
is a fault to have April 17, 1762, on one page 
and 23d August, 1 764, on another. The use 
of 2nd and 3rd, common in England, is not to 
be commended ; 2d or 3d is a more acceptable 
abbreviation. In formal writing, a statement 
of time should be made in words. Phrases 
like two o'clock, half-past three, or ten minutes 
to four, are more pleasingly expressed by 
words than by 2 o'clock, 3.30, or 3.50. Roman 
numerals are often used to specify parts and 
chapters. The numeral used in a chapter- 
heading generally has the word "Chapter" 
before it, as: — 

Chapter I Chapter III 

but the continued repetition of the word 
"Chapter" seems as unnecessary in this po- 
sition as the word "Page" before paging 
figures. Some printers suppress the word 
"Chapter " (always understood) to give the 
required prominence to the numeral. It is 
customary in many printing houses to put a 
period after the numerical part of the name. 
The need of the period in this position has 
never been satisfactorily explained, for XIX is 
no more an abbreviation than 19. 

" A too-frequent use of capital letters for titles 
spots the pages and makes the titles much 
more prominent than the names. The word 
'deviT is sometimes written with a capital, 
when it is obviously intended for the Devil of 
the Bible, or of John Milton. When used in 
dialogue matter, or as an expletive in swear- 
ing, the capital is never allowed. The words 
hell, purgatory, and paradise are now seldom 
capitalized. In serious or standard books, 
capitals should not be used too lavishly for 
marking emphasis in the text. A projecting 
capital in the text is like a rock in the current, 
for it diverts the eye and interrupts an even 
stream of attention." It is interesting to note 
that Mr. De Vinne takes middle ground be- 
tween the ordinary printers' style, as regards 
the use of capitals, and the style of the pro- 

The writer. 


gressive newspaper, which, with the object 
of attaining uniformity, bars capitals unless 
they seem absolutely necessary. 

The next chapters discuss extracts and 
letters, notes, indention, spacing, quotation 
marks, sub-headings, and punctuation. "It is 
customary," says Mr. DeVinne, "for the pub- 
lisher of a proposed book to determine the 
length and width of its pages, and the size and 
style of its type, before he gives the copy to 
the printer. He decides at that time, also, 
whether the text shall be leaded or solid, so 
that it may occupy a prescribed number of 
pages. There he often stops. Definite orders 
are rarely given concerning types for extracts, 
letters, documents, notes, tables, preface, ap- 
pendix, and index. It is unwisely assumed 
that the selection of proper types for these 
parts of the book may be left to the discretion 
of the compositors." Mr. De Vinne then gives 
directions in detail for the choice of type to 
secure uniformity in the pages of a book, with 
suggestions for graduating sizes, in order to 
have the relative value of each part easily dis- 
cerned. "Notes," he says, "are a hindrance 
in composition and in makingup. Side-notes, 
which add to the expense of composition, are 
not used as much as they were fifty years ago." 
Taking up the subject of quotation marks, Mr. 
DeVinne says: "The purpose of quote-marks 
within the text is to enclose the exact words 
of another writer, so that the reader at a glance 
can differentiate the words quoted from those 
of the author. When used with discretion, 
quote-marks are helpful; too lavishly used, 
they disfigure print and really degrade the 
style of the writer. To fence in with quote- 
marks phrases like these — not for an age, but 
for all time; the knell of parting day; the 
observed of all observers; to the manner born 
— implies on the part of the author a low es- 
timate of the reader's knowledge of literature. 
This remark may be applied to all trite prov- 
erbs and hackneyed sayings, which do not 
need quote-marks any more than they need 
foot-notes, citing author, book, and page. . . . 
When a sentence or a long extract from 
another writer is incorporated in the type of 
the text, two turned commas are usually placed 
at the beginning and two apostrophes at the 

end of the incorporated matter. If the extract 
consists of two or more paragraphs, the turned 
commas should be used at the beginning of 
every paragraph, but the double apostrophes 
appear only at the end of the quotation. . . . 
When special attention is invited to any word, 
it is customary to enclose it in single marks, 
as: By 'experiment' is meant, etc. In this 
illustration the single quote-mark is the ac- 
cepted substitute for the old fashion of putting 
the word in italic. . . . .The quotation, or 
extract, which is set in smaller type and is 
made a separate paragraph, needs no quote- 
marks. Change in size of type is enough to 
show that it is not a part of the text. But 
when the quotation, or extract, is made a part 
of the paragraph, the quote-marks must be 
used. ... It often happens that a quoted 
word or phrase in the body of a much longer 
quotation must be distinguished by another 
series of quote-marks. The interior quotation 
is usually made with one inverted comma and 
one apostrophe, and is known as a single quote. 
. . . When it is supposed that the exact words 
of a title of a book may not be well known to 
the general reader, its title, when mentioned 
in a text, may be quoted, but care should be 
taken to give with precision the exact words. 
To cite any printed title from memory is always 
unsafe; there is a probability that the writer 
will add or omit some word. Gibbon's ' His- 
tory of the Roman Empire ' is here wrongly 
quoted; it should read, 'The Decline and Fall 
of the Roman Empire. 1 A reference to 
Froude's History or to Parkman's History is a 
very inexact citation, for Froude and Parkman 
have written many histories." 

Mr. De Vinne's next chapter, on Subhead- 
ings, is chiefly of interest to printers. It is 
followed by a long chapter on punctuation, 
which gives the important rules for the proper 
use of points. " For a study of close pointing, 
the common version of the Bible, on which 
many editors and revisers have been lavish of 
care, is an excellent text-book. Blackstone's 
Commentaries on Law is equally valuable for 
its precision. Shakespeare will show the 
widest range of expression, from the stateliest 
diction to the commonest colloquialisms. Nor 
should writers so unlike as Dr. Johnson and 



Sterne, Macau lay, and Carlyle, be overlooked. 
Milton is not to be recommended, for the 
latinized style and the long involved sentences 
of his * Paradise Lost * will confuse more than 
they will enlighten. . . . Rules are of value, 
whether they are found in grammars or are 
taught by proof-readers, but they can never 
take the place of an understanding of subject 
matter. The function of points is to make ex- 
pression intelligible. Use commas only where 
they will be of service in unfolding the sense. 
In case of doubt, omit the comma. Points 
must be selected to aid the reader; they 
should not be used as practical demonstrations 
of the rules of grammarians, or of elocution- 
ists." The rules for punctuation are summar- 
ized as follows : — 


A Period marks the end of a sentence. 

A Colon is at the transition point of the 

A Semicolon separates different statements. 

A Comma separates clauses, phrases, and 

A Dash marks abruptness or irregularity. 

An Exclamation marks surprise. 

An Interrogation asks a question for answer. 

An Apostrophe marks elisions, or possessive 

(Quotation-marks define quoted words. 

Parentheses inclose interpolations in the 

Brackets inclose irregularities in the 

The chapter on proof-reading is full of 
practical points. "The first proof of book 
matter is usually taken from the long galley 
on which the compositor puts his composi- 
tion. When the reader meets with an unmis- 
takable fault made by the writer through lapse 
of memory or negligence, he should correct it. 
Whenever he feels obliged to query a change 
in spelling or statement, he must note this 
change on the author's proof. In every writ- 
ing of importance the reader should query 
faulty construction, bad metaphor, inconsistent 
statements, the misuse of a word, and other 
errors of similar character. When the first 
proof has been corrected, a new proof of the 

matter so corrected is taken, which is called 
the first revise. The proof to go to the author 
should be correct to copy in all its features, 
and have no marks on it but the queries made 
by the proof-reader, which should be trans- 
ferred from the first proof to the author's 
proof. In some book-houses, the corrected 
matter is not sent to the author in the shape 
of a galley proof, but is made up in pages of 
the prescribed form. Proofs in pages are 
more readily handled by the author, and offer 
him a generous margin for corrections; but 
page proofs seriously add to the expense of the 
work when the author makes much alteration, 
for frequent alterations will compel an over- 
running and remaking-up of many pages. It is 
a commoner practice to put the first author's 
proof in the form of a galley slip, and it is to 
his benefit to read on the galley, for his altera- 
tions in the proof are more quickly and cheaply 
made by the compositor on the galley than in 
the page. Two proofs are usually sent to the 
author. On the one returned he marks the 
changes he desires, and he retains the other 
for possible future reference, and as a re- 
minder of every correction he ordered. The 
author's first proof, when corrected, should 
always be returned to him with the second 
proof, which he should consider as his revise, 
for the verification of previous correction, and 
for the making of trivial corrections only. 
The last proof certified as correct by the au- 
thor is the proof known in the printing-house 
as the foundry proof, or the press proof. It is 
always read by the second reader for the dis- 
covery and correction of minor errors that 
may not have been discerned by the first 
reader and the author. To do this properly, 
the copy and all previous proofs should be at 
the second reader's hand. It is a mistake for 
the author, when he returns the last proof, to 
keep back the copy and all the previous proofs, 
for they usually contain memoranda on the 
margin that are of importance in the final 
reading. The author should see and approve 
all the minor changes made by the last reader 
on the foundry proof before he returns it as 
approved. As a rule, he does not see them, 
because each additional proof tempts the au- 
thor to indulge in petty corrections, which de- 

The writer. 


Jay the work and needlessly increase his bill of 
expense. ... It cannot be too frequently 
impressed on the author that the proof-reader 
is not an editor. The proof-reader's position 
is not an enviable one. When he does his 
best and makes the book correct, he has done 
no more than his duty. He may correct ninety- 
nine errors out of a hundred, but if he misses 
the hundredth, he may be sharply reproved by 
the book reviewer for that negligence. 

" Authors often send to the printing-house 
typewritten copy that is easily readable, but 
that has not been thoughtfully corrected. 
Proper names in foreign languages may be 
spelled in two or more ways ; capital letters, 
italic, quotation marks, and abbreviations may 
be written in without system, apparently with 
small concern about their lack of uniformity. 
This disregard of attention to trivial details is 
a common fault. Exactness in spelling and 
pronunciation is well taught in all our high 
schools [is it, though, Mr. De Vinne ? ] but 
exactness of expression in writing for the 
press is not taught at all. Careless writing is 
so common that it often passes unnoticed. 

" A broader knowledge of the frequency of 
faults in writing should lead to a better appre- 
ciation of the services of the proofreader, 
but this knowledge is generally acquired out of 
a printing-house. The undisciplined writer 
who believes that he is careful and exact often 
resents the suggestion that he can be indebted 
to the proofreader for help of any kind. The 
too rapid and over-confident writer who may 
have been provoked by too many queries from 
the reader ( for there are amateurs who can be 
as irritating as mosquitoes) may peremptorily 
order that his copy shall be followed faithfully 
in every particular. • Not a comma or a capital 
must be changed. Writers like these put the 
reader in an unpleasant position. To query a 
supposed error is an offence to the writer; to 
pass an indefensible error is to offend the em- 
ployer and incur discredit as a competent 
reader. Yet the positive order of " Follow 
copy exactly" may lead to unhappy 
results, when the author cannot see the proof 
of his writing. 

"Correction can be overdone, and the irrita- 
bility of an author may be justly provoked by 

the meddling queries of a captious reader, who 
suggests corrections where the corrections are 
not needed. Even the amiable poet Cowper 
has put on record his anger at a proof-reader 
who had tried to improve his poems; he ac- 
cused him of rash and * gratuitous emendation * 
and with being * a presumptuous intermeddler.' 
This meddling, rarely done by the trained 
proof-reader, is common with the amateur at 

" Authors who are most far-seeing in the prep- 
aration of copy are generous in their acknowl- 
ment of the efficient service rendered to them 
by a competent proofreader. No one has 
done this more gracefully than Charles Dick- 
ens, who said in a speech made by him in 
London in 1867: — 

" ' I can testify that the duties of a corrector 
are not mechanical, not mere matters of manip- 
ulation and routine, but that they require from 
those who perform them much natural intelli- 
gence, much superadded cultivation, and con- 
siderable readiness of reference, quickness of 
resource, an excellent memory, and a clear 
understanding. I gratefully acknowledge that 
I have never gone through the sheets of any 
book that I have written without having had 
presented to me by the corrector of the press 
something that I have overlooked, some slight 
inconsistency into which I have fallen, some 
little lapse I have made ; in short without hav- 
ing set down in black and white some unques- 
tionable indication that I have been closely 
followed through my work by a patient and 
trained mind, and not merely by a skilled 

To writers a most important chapter in Mr. 
DeVinne's book is that with the heading, 
41 About Copy." "When copy has been neg- 
ligently prepared by a careless writer, who 
sometimes spells incorrectly and capitalizes 
and italicizes without system, it is the duty of 
the compositor to correct these faults; but 
when copy has been carefully prepared by a dis- 
ciplined writer, who plainly shows that he has a 
style of his own, that copy should be followed 
faithfully, even though it conflicts with the sys- 
tem of the office. It is the author's right to go 
before the public in his own way; to show his 
own notions about italic, punctuation, and capi- 
talizing, and to follow the spelling of Webster, 



Stormonth, or Dr. Johnson. All that the- 
printer asks of the author is that he shall spell 
uniformly and put his capitals, points, and 
other peculiarities of style in their proper 
places, so that there can be no misunderstand- 
ing about his intent. If he has not done this 
thoroughly, (even a careful writer cannot be 
consistent always) he should prepare a written 
code of his style, plainly indicating the spell- 
ings he prefers, and making clear his system 
for the use of italic, points, quotation marks, 
references, compound words, abbreviations, 
etc. When the master printer has this code 
put in type and provides a fair proof of it for 
every compositor on the work, the irregulari- 
ties of style that deface a first proof and make 
the alterations expensive are largely prevented. 

"The art of preparing copy for a printer is 
not taught in schools, and the authors are few 
who have devised and adhere to systems of 
their own. Much of the copy sent to a print- 
ing-house seems to indicate on the part of the 
author his indifference to all typographic nice- 
ties : a strange proper name may be spelled in 
two or more ways ; punctuation may be exces- 
sive in one paragraph and scant in another ; 
italic may be marked for one quotation, quo- 
tations marked for another, while a third of the 
same class may have no marks of distinction ; 
arabic figures and spelled-out words for num- 
bers may appear upon the same page. These 
are some of the many inconsistencies of the 
ordinary manuscript, which the writer fails to 
see in his own writing, but they are glaringly 
offensive when they reappear in the proof. 
Good copy and bad copy are easily distin- 
guished, and the compositor knows almost at a 
glance that he must follow the first and correct 
the last. Between these two extremes is a 
much larger quantity of copy that may or may 
not require correction. The common belief 
that the correction of these lapses is the com- 
positor's duty is based on the assumption that 
the compositor is a qualified corrector. This 
is a grave error. If he were a corrector, it is 
probable that he would have a much better paid 
position of proof-reader or assistant editor. 

" It is another mistake to assume that the 
work of composition is always done by one 
compositor, who can and will correct errors 

with uniformity. A long manuscript is always 
set by many compositors ; if it is required in 
haste, or even if its composition is protracted 
over many months, it may be set and read by 
many compositors and readers. • The uniform- 
ity desired by an author should begin with him- 
self in the copy, even if he finds it is necessary 
to have the copy typewritten and approved by 
a qualified corrector before it is sent to the 

u Too much dependence should not • be 
placed on the corrections that are hoped for in 
the printing-house. It is unsafe for the master 
printer to allow the compositor to make a 
material change in copy without positive 
authority. He may correct plain faults accord- 
ing to system provided by the author or by the 
office, but he must do no more* Even when he 
finds in the copy what may seem unauthorized 
errors of spelling or grammar, he is not justi- 
fied in correcting them without a special order, 
for the supposed errors may not be errors. 
The compositor should have small license for 
correction ; he is safe only when he literally 
follows copy, or obeys distinct orders to 

" Paper selected for copy should be uniform 
as to size. Whtn odds and ends of paper 
have been used for copy and interleaved with 
additions on smaller scraps, some with coarse 
and some with fine writing, it is impracticable 
to make a correct estimate of the number of 
pages that the manuscript will occupy in print. 
Copy so put together gives needless trouble to 
the workmen. It is not easily arranged for the 
copy-holder, and is liable to misplacement and 
loss. What is worse, it leads to the making of 
blunders. The size, commercial note, (leaf 5 
by 8 inches ) is large enough for those who 
write with small and neat letters. Sermon 
paper (leaf 8 by 8)4 inches) and letter paper 
( leaf 8 by 10 inches ) are better sizes for those 
who write with more boldness, and are entirely 
acceptable to compositors; but foolscap (leaf 
7 y z by 12 inches ) and flat cap (leaf 8 }£ by 14 
inches) are inconvenient shapes. Very thin 
paper, that cannot be kept in position on the 
compositor's case, and very thick paper, that 
may have been marred with creases, are equally 
objectionable. Manuscripts should be kept 

The writer. 


flat; if it is necessary to roll them, let them 
be rolled with the writing on the convex side. 

" Copy paper should have a wide margin on 
the left side of the leaf, as a provision for 
possible alterations in the manuscript. Alter- 
ations in minute writing between the lines are 
usually obscure, and productive of error. 
When the author does not provide a wide mar- 
gin at the left of the copy paper, he should 
leave wide spaces between the lines. 

" Copy should be written with ink, and on 
one side of the leaf. That which has been 
written on both sides often has to be cut apart 
in two or three slips and given to different 
compositors. The reuniting of these slips 
gives needless trouble, and it may be done 
badly and lead to very serious error. Pencil 
writing makes bad copy unless it has been 
done boldly and with an indelible pencil. 
Weak handwriting with a hard lead pencil on 
smooth paper always makes indistinct copy. 

" Many of the so-called errors of the press 
begin with bad arrangement of copy and indis- 
tinct writing, which compels the compositor to 
guess ( and to guess erroneously sometimes) 
at the spelling of the obscure words. Some 
teachers of penmanship are to blame for the 
bad models they put before their pupils. In 
some models the n and u are nearly alike ; 
in the penmanship of their pupils they are ex- 
actly alike. Capital letters are sometimes so 
overloaded with flourishes that one letter will 
be mistaken for another. In the angular style 
of penmanship the small letters are almost as 
uniform in shape as the teeth of a saw, each 
tooth and each small letter much like its 
fellows. The meaning of the words has to be 
guessed at from an occasional capital or the 
loops of the ascending or descending letters. 
Some writers make no easily perceptible dis- 
tinction between the capitals I and J. When 
they appear in the names of Isaac Jones, the 
letters that follow the capitals are the real 
guides to the proper selection of capitals; but 
when the first name is abbreviated to I. Jones, 
it is possible that I will appear as J in print. 
A similar remark may be made concerning the 
formation of the capitals T, S, and Y, as they 
are put upon paper by some writers. It is not 
reasonable to suppose that the compositor who 

works by the piece can afford to waste much 
time in deciphering the words which the writer 
has not even tried to make plain. With every 
desire to aid the author, the compositor can do 
but little toward helping him in making his 
words intelligible. 

"There is a wide-spread belief that all au- 
thors are illegible writers. The first copy of 
their writings may be indistinct or illegible, on 
which hasty pen scratches were made to pre- 
serve a quickly flying thought, and this copy 
may be afterward obscured with erasures and 
inter.lineations; but this is not the copy that is 
sent to the printing-house. The last copy of 
the professional writer, even when it is not 
typewritten, is much neater and is usually 
much more systematically arranged than that 
of the man of business or the amateur in au- 

" What the compositor desires in every 
manuscript is distinctness and a systematic 
use of points and capitals. Forbearance is 
not due to the writer who has ample time to 
write legibly, or the means to have his illegible 
writing fairly transcribed or typewritten. The 
needs, and indeed the rights, of the printer 
deserve more consideration than they receive. 
It frequently happens that the master printer 
has to return a manuscript to the writer to be 
legibly rewritten. 

"Additions to a manuscript should never be 
written on the back of the leaf, where an addi- 
tion is likely to be overlooked ; but if such an 
addition is made, attention should be directed 
to it by bold markings on the face of the copy. 
It is a better practice to write out the addition 
on a separate slip of paper, and to paste it on 
in its proper place, where it will not be over- 

" When an insertion of one leaf or more is 
to be made in copy, the inserted leaves should 
be carefully numbered in order. If, as is usual, 
it is impracticable to renumber anew all the 
leaves of the ent're manuscript, the inserts 
should receive the number of the last folio, 
with the addition of alphabetical letters, in 
regular order. If the inserts are to go be- 
tween folios 22 and 23, these inserts should be 
marked 22a, 22b, 22c, etc. The foot of page 
22 should have this note for the compositor: 



Page 22 is followed by 220, 22^, 22c. A simi- 
lar practice should be observed by the cancell- 
ing of discarded leaves. If pages 41 to 46 
must be cancelled, the foot of page 40 should 
have this note : Pages 41 -46 are cancelled. 

" Words in foreign languages, proper names 
of all kinds, historical or biographical, and 
little-used terms in science and art should be 
written with unusual distinctness, and with the 
accents clearly marked. The compositor is 
fiot expected to have the knowledge of these 
matters that will supplement the writer's neg- 
lect to write plainly. 

" The placing of marks of punctuation is 
usually done by the author when he completes 
each sentence, but if he remodels the con- 
struction or phrasing of that sentence in a 
subsequent revision, the points should be 
looked after with care, for those first made 
-will surely be wrong, and will bewilder the 

"These are the underscorings used by edi- 
tors as directions for italic, small capitals, 
and capitals: — 

italic. = capitals. 

— small capitals. ~ — • italic capitals. 

Mr. J. Stearns Cushing, of the Norwood 
Press, offers these underscorings for display 
in school-books : — 

''"" lower-case. 

italic lower-case. 

- bold-faced 

^^y^~- capital letters. 

spaces between 

Underscoring for italic or bold display and 
the placing of quotation marks should not be 
done during literary composition, for they are 
sure to be inconsistent. It will be prudent to 
postpone these markings until the writing has 
been completed and the author is better pre- 
pared to make a code that can be applied to all 
cases. It is desirable to have the punctuation 
done by the writer ; but he should not over- 
punctuate, and especially should not make too 
free use of the dash and quote-marks, which 
may obscure his meaning. 

" The leaves of all manuscript copy should 
be paged systematically from beginning to end. 
To page each chapter by itself leads to con- 
fusion. When two or more chapters are in the 

hands of different compositors at one time, 
they cannot be reassembled easily and put in 
the proper place. Page 16 of manuscript in- 
tended for chapter VI may be transposed with 
page 16 of chapter VII. 

"Afoot-note, or citation of quoted author- 
ity, should be written exactly as it should 
appear in print, and be placed directly under 
the line of text which contains the reference 
to that note. When foot-notes are written on 
separate scraps of paper and are pasted out of 
place on the copy, it is probable that they will 
be out of place in print. 

" When copy for the text of a book is sent 
to the printing-house at irregular intervals and 
in instalments of one or two chapters, its com- 
position is done at disadvantage. An inspec- 
tion at one time of all the copy is needed to 
determine the uniformity in little details which 
is one of the merits of a well-made book. 
When the text of any book containing irreg- 
ular parts is set and electrotyped in driblets, it 
must have inconsistencies of treatment that 
may cry aloud for expensive changes after the 
plates have been made. 

"When it is possible to do so, manuscript 
should be typewritten and carefully revised by 
the author before it is sent to the printing- 
house. Even a neat and careful writer will be 
surprised to find how much more quickly he 
can detect an error in typewritten copy than in 
his manuscript. Publishers of experience 
give all manuscripts accepted by them, 
whether written well or ill, to the typewriter, 
and this typewritten copy is revised by the 
author before it goes to the printer. The 
typewriting of the new copy does not cost so 
much as the alterations in type that have to be 
made from manuscript copy. Careful authors 
approve of this method, for it hastens the get- 
ting of a clean proof, and lightens the subse- 
quent labor of correction. If the writer of 
indistinct copy could stand at the case of a 
compositor and could note how much he is de- 
layed by obscure writing, what grave errors 
he makes by reason of this obscurity, how 
imperfectly the proof-reader corrects the mis- 
understandings of the compositor, and could 
foresee the added expense of the alterations 
and over-runnings that have been caused by 



liasty writing, but that will have to be made, 
and that the author will have to pay for — he 
would not regret the delay, or question the 
economy of typewritten copy. 

"The author's work does not end with this 
revision of copy. He should read proof, and 
proof-reading will require much more of time 
and care than he intended to give. He is sure 
to find words awkwardly divided, and the sub- 
headings, foot-notes, extracts, tables, and illus- 
trations contrary to the plan of the copy, and 
in unexpected positions. His reference mark 
to a foot-note in the manuscript, or his line of 
subheading may fall on the last line of the 
page of print, where it cannot be put. His 
indivisible table of figures, or engraved illus- 
tration may have been placed in the proof, and 
unavoidably so placed, too far from the ex- 
planatory text. He sees that it is not always 
possible for the printer to follow copy unthink- 
ingly. The types are tyrranous; pages must 
be of uniform length and width, and words or 
lines must be made longer or shorter to adapt 
them to type and page. The maker-up and 
proof-reader are usually intelligent helpers and 
discreet advisers to this end, but they cannot 
rearrange the composition without fresh in- 
struction from the author. If he expects an 
orderly book, he must cut out or add words to 
prevent the bad division of a proper name; 
he must add or cancel lines before or after a 
table or an illustration that may stand in the 
way of a proper make-up. This is drudgery, 
but it is not to be avoided. It cannot be done 
by the printer; it must be done by the author. 

44 Bad writing is a very old grievance of 
printing, but complaint has not led to any im- 
provement, for its practice is as common as 
ever. There always have been and always 
will be bad writers, and the compositor must 
accept some bad copy as one of the conditions 
of the printing trade, against which it seems 
useless to protest. Yet there is a limit to for- 
bearance. Bad writing and badly-arranged 
copy have to be declined on the typesetting 
machine. A machine made to quicken type- 
setting is of no benefit to any one, if the oper- 
ator has to pause on every line to decipher 
obscure words. It is not for the tedious dis- 
entangling of written puzzles that the master 

printer pays thirty-four hundred dollars for a 
new machine, and from three-and-a-half to five 
dollars a day to the operator. The master 
printer has to insist on copy, preferably type- 
written, that can be read as quickly as reprint. 
The writer who carelessly prepares unreadable 
copy should not expect to share in any of the 
advantages that should be had from the use of 
a quick machine, which has been made ineffi- 
cient by his neglect." 

Mr. De Vinne's final chapter on Errors of 
the Press includes many amusing examples of 
typographical blunders. He makes a useful 
suggestion to writers when he says : 44 Authors 
who correct the final proof with a lead pencil 
provoke the making of new errors. They note 
an error in phrasing and write down the correc. 
tion. After rereading this correction, they see 
that it does not fully convey the meaning in- 
tended. The first pencil markings are rubbed 
out, and other words take their place. Some- 
times two or three alterations have to be made, 
and all are written over markings previously 
made. Repeated rubbing out makes the 
writing illegible, and liable to perversion. 
Sometimes an addition is made to a singular 
nominative which should compel the selection 
of a plural form of verb or pronoun in the words 
that precede or follow, but the plural forms 
may be, and often are, overlooked. When the 
press is kept waiting for this final proof, it is 
possible that the errors corrected will be those 
only that are marked in the proof. It follows 
that the author, as well as the printer, has to 
suffer the stigma of an inexcusable violation 
of plain grammatical rules." 

In appendices Mr. De Vinne gives a com- 
parative list of variable spellings, and rules for 
the French, Italian, German, and Spanish 
division of words. The book has a complete 
index. Its great value is indicated by the ex- 
tracts made from it in this article. As an au- 
thoritative work, giving information to writers 
about the requirements for good copy, from the 
point of view of the composing room, it should 
be added to the library of every literary worker, 
while no printer or compositor can possibly 
afford to get along without it. 

William H. Hills. 

Boston, Mass. 



The Writer. 

Published monthly by the Writer Publishing Company, 146 
Franklin street, Room 32, Boston, Mass. 



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P. O. Box 1905. 

146 Franklin street, Room 32, 

Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. March, 1903. No. 3. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

An editorial in the December Writer 
called attention to the fact that writers looking 
for plots may often find valuable suggestions 
in stories of real life printed in the newspapers. 
Here, for instance, is a story told in the New 
York Mail and Express: "A woman in 
Mount Vernon, who all her life — she was 
sixty-five and a spinster — had dreamed of 

having a fine monument erected over her 
grave, had practised living on five cents a 
day in order that her little hoard of money in 
a savings bank should remain intact for its 
poignant purpose. Last Thursday she died 
of starvation ; and the consummate irony of it 
all is that, because of the sanctity that the law 
sometimes wraps money in, her bank account 
cannot be touched, and she must be buried in. 
the Potter's Field." Think what De Maupas- 
sant would have done with that ! 

The article on "Eye-Strain" in the Febru- 
ary Writer and the book to which it refers 
should have the thoughtful attention of every 
literary worker not in perfect health. The edi- 
tor of The Writer knows from recent personat 
experience how serious the effects of eye-strain 
are, and in what strange ways they manifest 
themselves. Many a sufferer from digestional 
disturbance, headaches, or brain weariness, so 
disheartening as to cause fears of incipient 
paresis, might be cured wholly by proper 
treatment from an oculist. If one is suffering 
without evident reason in this way, it will be 
wise to consult an oculist at once, to see if the 
eyes are normal and in good condition. 


The prevalence of eye-strain, Dr. Gould be- 
lieves, causes crime as well as suffering. " I 
am told," he says, " that an abnormally large 
percentage of criminals and the youth con- 
signed to reformatories have high degrees of 
optical and other defects of the eyes. Out of 
sixty-eight cases of epileptics examined, ninety- 
eight per cent, had astigmatism, and fifty per 
cent, had the very rare and most injurious de- 
fect, unsymmetric astigmatism. There is no 
considerable part or kind of our social life, the 
drink-problem, the labor-problem, all handi- 
crafts, family tragedies, etc., in which the sub- 
tle influence of morbid vision is not at its office 
of evil. In the mean time the supercilicus- 
indifference and ignoring of the fact is one of 
the awful expenses of life and an opprobrium 
of medicine." 

Considering the disadvantages under which* 
the authors whose cases Dr. Gould has studied 



worked, it is marvelous that they could do so 
much. " We must not forget," he says, "that 
in the days of De Quincey, Carlyle, etc., can- 
dles and rush-lights were the common sources 
of artificial light. When even our wonderful 
best modern lights are by no means equal to 
daylight, and are found taxing to weak and de- 
fective eyes, what must have been the degree 
of eye-strain in the days of candles ? Ophthal- 
mology at that time had not risen to its splen- 
did opportunity. It has only done so excep- 
tionally today. To its disgrace, operations and 
inflammatory diseases still occupy the special- 
ist's attention too exclusively." Dr. Gould be- 
lieves that at any time of De Quincey's life a 
proper pafr of spectacle lenses would have re- 
lieved him of his sufferings and enabled him 
to quit the opium habit and to pursue a far 
more wonderful literary career. " Even with 
De Quincey's incomparable brilliancy and ac- 
curacy of insight," he says, "he could not have 
divined all this. How near to it he came, how- 
ever, is to be found in a number of selections 
from his writings. If he could have suspected 
that the source of the disorders of 'the whole 
process and elaborate machinery of digestion ' 
in his case was in that most delicate, import- 
ant, and wonderful organ of vision, he would 
probably have made the following passage even 
more beautifully powerful and pathetic than 
it is : * The whole process and elaborate ma- 
chinery of digestion are felt to be mean and 
humiliating, when viewed in relation to our 
mere animal economy. But they rise into dig- 
nity and assert their own supreme importance, 
when they are studied from another station, 
viz., in relation to the intellect and temper. No 
man dares then to despise them. It is then 
seen that these functions of the human system 
form the essential basis upon which the 
strength and health of our higher nature re- 
pose, and that upon these functions chiefly, the 
genial happiness of life is dependent. All the 
rules of prudence, or gifts of experience that 
life can accumulate, will never do as much for 
human comfort and welfare as would be done 
by a stricter attention, and a wiser science, 
directed to the digestive system/" There 
can be no question that eye-strain is a frequent 
cause of indigestion, and the relations between 

the stomach and the brain are so intimate that 
to have any faults of vision corrected is of su- 
preme importance to every writer. 

w. H. H. 


We ought to try and think. 
- The Bookman. 

We ought to try to think. 

Little or no secret is made 
of the fact that the volume 
of graceful and thoughtful 
verse recently published un- 
der the title of " Hand in 
Hand," by Mother and 
Daughter, is the work of Mr. 
Kipling's mother and sister, 
Mrs. Fleming, the novelist.— 
London Letter in New York 
Mail and Express. 

Little or no secret is made 
of the fact that the volume of 
graceful and thoughtful verse 
recently published under the 
title of " Hand in Hand," by 
Mother and Daughter, is the 
work of Mr. Kipling's mother 
and his sister, Mrs. Fleming, 
the novelist. 


The copyright of Milton's " Paradise Lost " 
was sold outright for five pounds sterling down 
and five pounds when an edition of 1,300 
should be sold, together with a promise of two 
similar sums after the sale of two other such 
editions. That is, Milton received twenty 
pounds sterling for the selling of 3,900 copies. 
Multiplying by four gives us rather more than 
the equivalent in modern money value; and 
this amounts to $400. — Current Literature. 

When Sidney Lee matriculated at Oxford 
as Solomon Lazarus, Dr. Jowett, foreseeing a 
great future for his brilliant pupil, advised him 
to change his name, pointing out to him that it 
would be difficult to attain literary fame under 
his own name, owing to racial prejudice. He 
then adopted the name of Sidney Lee, which is 
known to all the English world. 

The Publishers" Weekly says that 7,833 new 
books were issued in the United States during 
1902, a falling-off of 308 when compared with 
the previous year's total. This decline, how- 
ever, is regarded as a desirable one, since it is 
confined largely to cheap reprints of novels. 
The most significant fact is that American 
books continue to increase much more rapidly 



than imported books. There were produced 
last year 5,210 books by American authors, an 
increase of 509 over the previous year. This 
increase in the domestic literary product is 
accompanied by a marked decrease in imports. 
Foreign books are of two classes — those 
printed in the United States under the copy 
right law, and those imported without copy- 
right. There were 1,578 books of the former 
class in 1902 as against 2,122 in 1901, while the 
figures for the latter class were 1,045, as 
against 1,318 in 1901. In other words, our 
authors produced last year 5,210 new books, 
as against 2,623 from abroad. Year by year 
the number of American writers who can live 
by the pen is increasing. 

The outlook for the American author is 
bright, and is steadily brightening. Not only 
is the tide of British literary influence in Amer- 
ica surely slackening, but the tide of American 
literary influence in England is rapidly rising. 
United States government statistics regarding 
book imports and exports show that the im- 
ports in 1899 were a little less than $1,500,000. 
In 1902 they were $1,750,000 (December esti- 
mated), an increase of about 17 per cent. On 
the other hand, the exports have increased 
in much greater proportion. In 1899 they 
were $2,700,000. Last year they were about 
$4» — an increase of about 60 per cent. 


A Baltimore clergyman spoke recently of 
the "superb" life of Phillips Brooks as "an 
evidence of Christianity." The term ** superb " 
was an unfortunate one, well-meant but unfor- 
tunate. For into the word "superb" enters 
inevitably the thought of haughtiness, pride, 
pomp. A superb Christian is a contradiction, 
or else the New Testament is without mean- 
ing; and "the superb life " of a Christian is 
merely a bit of hifalutin. — Boston Herald. 

"lady." Yesterday's Journal, in its headlines 
said : " Policeman's Wife a Plucky Woman — 
Dived After Lady Who Had Gone Down for 
Last Time." Here we observe a sort of re- 
version to type. It is hard work for the 
Journal \o reform all at once. Why did the 
woman dive after the lady? Why didn't the 
lady dive after the woman? — Springfield 




If we remember correctly, it was less than a 
week ago that the Boston Journal favored us 
with a long editorial on the passing of the word 

Bullen.— Why did Frank T. Bullen turn au- 
thor? Because, as he told the Authors Club, 
he had been earning only ten dollars a week, 
and it was n't enough to live on. He wrote 
"The Cruise of the Cachalot " on the kitchen 
table, for there was no other place to write it, 
and he got $500 for it. He had never seen so 
much money before, and he thought his for- 
tune was made. — Rockland Courier-Gazette. 

Gorky. — Maxime Gorky told an interviewer 
who questioned him about his inspiration that 
"he wrote when he was indignant about some- 
thing." Asked why, in his works, he always 
allowed women to take a secondary place, he 
said he could not write about women, for he 
did not know their character. To describe the 
adventures of women one must have love 
affairs, and he had never occupied himself 
with such things. — Boston Transcript. 

Harben. — Will N. Harben was occupied 
four months in the practical writing of "Ab- 
ner Daniel," which has proved the most suc- 
cessful book of his career. He had previously 
filled up a note-book of several hundred pages 
with the actual sayings and doings of the 
Georgia folk about whom he intended to write; 
but not one of these notes was eventually used 
in the novel, — which goes to show that the 
making of notes for books of fiction may be of 
more educational than practical use to the 
author. Mr. Harben writes only at his best 
moments, if only an hour or two in the morn- 
ing. He writes down an outline of his pro- 
jected novel on a typewriter, then rewrites the 
whole, and perhaps uses a very small propor- 
tion of the material originally set down. He 
gets hold o: his characters and situations by 

The Writer. 


actually writing about them — in a word, pre- 
pares for the writing of the real novel by writ- 
ing an experimental novel. In this way, de- 
spite the work involved, he reaches his best 
results. — New Haven Register. 

Harraden. — Beatrice Harraden says that she 
cannot write with other people around hen 
and so she retires of a morning to a studio 
standing in a delightful old garden. Here she 
composes her stories, arid two hours of steady 
labor is all that she requires of herself. She 
recognizes the possibility that some may con- 
sider that she escapes very easily, but she says 
that she has a way of thinking out her stories 
beforehand, so that the actual writing is done 
swiftly and without hesitation, and at the end 
of the two hours she has produced a considera- 
ble quantity of work. — Hartford Post. 

Merriman. — Henry Seton Merriman, whose 
literary career has been one of uninterrupted 
success and who has now made another hit 
with " The Vultures," is in private life Hugh 
Scott, an English country gentleman. Much 
of his childhood was spent in France, and a 
series of long sea voyages, necessitated by his 
health, roused in him a Wanderlust, which he 
has never lived down, though he calls a beauti- 
ful country place in Suffolk home. Both in 
looks and in temperament he is said to 
resemble Robert Louis Stevenson.— New 
York Sun. 

Spencer.— Herbert Spencer, when he began 
the composition of " First Principles," in i860, 
adopted the practice of dictating to an amanu- 
ensis. He was spending" the summer by the 
shore of a Scotch loch. His habit was to dic- 
tate for a quarter of an hour, then row for an 
equal period with the object of so stimulating 
the circulation of the blood as to carry him 
through another fifteen minutes' dictation, and 
so on throughout the forenoon. Neither then 
nor afterward did he work in the afternoon. 
Ten years later, at times when his health fell to 
a low ebb, he would go to a racket court in the 
north of London, play with the man in charge, 
and dictate in the intervals of the game. One 
of the most abstruse portions of his Psychol- 
ogy, the argument for Transfigured Realism, 
was composed under these unpromising cir- 

cumstances. . His usual programme as he 
wrote the volumes of the " Synthetic Philoso- 
phy" was to leave his house soon after nine in 
the morning and direct his steps to Kensing- 
ton Gardens. There he walked until nearly 
ten o'clock, his head slightly bent, his pace 
somewhat rapid, his mind evidently in medita- 
tion. Regularly at ten o'clock he appeared in 
his workroom, in Leinster Place, a retreat 
known to hardly any one, and sacred against 
intrusion. He first dictated his correspond- 
ence, often rebelling at its onerous demands.. 
Then he turned to his systematic work, soon 
rising to the full tide of dictation; usually he 
went on without a break till close on one o'clock, 
when he hurried away to luncheon. If his 
health was out of order, he would stop abrupt- 
ly at any moment and leave the house, saying 
that his head felt queer. When fairly well, he 
would smoke half a cigar, finding that it pro- 
moted the flow of thought. The dictation was 
continuous ; there were no interruptions, and 
only brief pauses. The panorama of thought un- 
wound itself slowly, and apparently without an 
effort. He seldom, in resuming his task, needed 
to be reminded of the last word spoken, and 
he never changed his calm sitting position in 
front of the grate. Never did he patch, recon- 
struct, or begin again. The matter seemed 
long to have been familiar to him, and only to 
be taking .its final shape before his eyes. Now 
and then a brilliant thought would flash sud- 
denly upon him. Thus, the felicitous antithe- 
sis in his " Sociology" of the religion of amity 
and the religion of enmity was a surprise to 
himself, and so was his declaration that his 
works are not only caviare to the many but ca- 
viare to the few. He rarely used notes. At 
the end of a week or two's dictation he would 
begin revising his pages. His sole objects 
were greater conciseness and precision of 
language. There was much substitution of 
short phrases for long ones, but there were no 
wholesale excisions, and few additions. His 
works might have been printed from his dic- 
tated manuscripts and shown no other defects 
than redundancies. Considering the difficulty 
of his subjects, the solidity of the matter, and 
his finish of style and treatment, his rate of 
composition was not slow. On good mornings 

4 6 


he would produce iooo words. This was re- 
duced by the time occupied in revision, the ar- 
rangement of materials, and relapses into ill- 
health to a daily average for the year of 330 
words. In 1879, when he was recovering from 
a serious illness, sitting under the trees of 
Kensington Gardens, he dictated his autobiog- 
raphy to an amanuensis. — George lies, in the 
World's Work. 

Tarbell. — Ida M. Tarbell was originally a 
school teacher. After a few years' experience 
in teaching and in editing a small magazine 
she decided that her bent was toward biograph- 
ical and historical work and that she wanted to 
study the French method of handling history. 
Thereupon she went to Paris, took up her res- 
idence in a cheap quarter and attended lect- 
ures at the Sorbonne and the College de 
France for three years. While in Paris she 
depended for her support upon the chance of 
having letters accepted by American magazines 
and newspapers. On leaving America she had, 
she says, only a few unremunerative connec- 
tions with newspapers and no magazine con- 
nections at all. Her letters were accepted by 
the Boston Transcript, McClure's syndicate, 
Scridner's Magazine, and McClure's, and she 
paid her entire expenses out of the proceeds. 
She studied three years abroad, and clothed 
and supported herself without having to borrow 
more than $50. 


[The publishers of Thk Writer will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
on receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each cas« the price of the periodical, 
with three cents pottage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the ppblishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the articles mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention The Writer when they write.] 

My Own Story.— III. J. T. Trowbridge. Atlantic 
( 38 c. ) for March. 

The Writing of History. A. T. Mahan. Atlantic 
( 38 c. ) for March. 

Real and Sham Natural History. (The Writings of 
Wm. J. Long, Charles G. D. Roberts, Wm. Davenport 
Hulbert, and Ernest Thompson- Seton.) John Burroughs. 
Atlantic ( 38 c.) for March. 

Nature Love Among the Poets of Ancient Greece. 
John Vance Cheney. New England Magazine (28 c.) for 

New England in American Colonial Literature. 
Montgomery P. Sillers. New England Magazine ( 28 c.) for 

The Real Booth Tarkington. " John-a-Dreams." Illus- 
trated. Pearson' s Magazine ( 13 c.) for March. 

Susan B. Anthony at Home. Ida Husted Harper. 
Illustrated. Pearson's ( 13 c.) for March. 

Some American Humorous Artists. I.— Frederick 
Burr Opper, Eugene Zimmerman, Charles J. Taylor, A. Z. 
Baker, and Peter Newell. Thomas E. Curtis. Illustrated* 
Strand Magazine ( 13 c.) for March. 

John Leech and His Method. Frederick Dolman. 
Illustrated. Strand Magazine ( 10 c.) for March. 

Why Shakspbrb is Not Understood. World?* Work 
(28 c.) for March. 

Marjorie's School of Fiction. (A story for young 
authors.) Albert Bigelow Paine. St. Nicholas ( 38 c.) tor 

BjOrnstjbrnb BjOrnson. William Morton Payne. Inter- 
national Quarterly ( $1.28 ) for March-June. 

•Alfred db Vigny. Edmund Gosse. International Quar- 
terly ($1.28) for March- June. 

Development of the French Drama. Brander 

Matthews. International Quarterly ( £1.28 ) for March-June. 

Hitherto Unpublished Letters of Darwin. 

With frontispiece portrait. Popular Science Monthly ( 33 c.) 

for March. 

Sanity in Fiction. (William D. Howellsand his books.) 
Hamlin Garland. North American Review (53 c.) for 

Women and Books. Mrs. Arthur Giles. Globe Quarterly 
Review ( 53 c.) for March. 

Poetic Ideals of Women. Eugene Parsons. Globe 
Quarterly Review (53 c.) for March. 

" No Time for Reading." Andrew Lang. Book-Lover 
(38 c.) for March-April. 

The Story of Prbscott's First Book. Book-Lover 
( 38 c.) for March April. 

Music in Fiction. C. W. James. Book-Lover ( 38 c.) for 
March - April. 

Native Literature of Porto Rico. Cora F. Morrow. 
Book- Lover (38 c.) for March -April. 

Thk Truth About Edgar Pob. Eugene L. Didier. Illus- 
trated. Book-Lover ( 38 c.) for March - April. 

Tub Limitations of Lord Macaulay. H. C. Foxcroft. 
Reprinted from the Fortnightly Review in the Eclectic ( 28 c ) 
for March. 

Tub Tendencies of the English Novel in the Nine- 
teenth Century. A review of "The English Novel,*' by 
Walter Besant. Reprinted from the Edinburgh Review 
in the Eclectic (28 c.) for March. 

On Browning's Casuistry. Sir Leslie Stephen. Re- 
printed from the Natiotial Magazine in the Eclectic Magazine 
(28c )for March. 

Edwin Markham, Cowboy and Poet. Charles H.Garrett. 
Era ( 28 c.) for March. 

Tub Short Story in the Novel. Isabel Moore. Critic 
(28 c.) for March. 

Israel Zangwill As I Know Him. G. B. Burgin. Critic 
(28 c.) for March. 

Letters to A Literary Aspirant. Critic ( 28 c.) for 



Litbrarv Landmarks of New York.— VIII. Charles 
Hemstreet. Illustrated. Critic ( a8 c.) for March. 

The Work of Frank Norris. Hamlin Garland. Critic. 
(28c.) for March. 

Some Literary Instructors of Yale. (Thomas R. 
Lounsbury, Henry A. Beers, and William Henry Bishop.) 
With portraits. Burton J. Hendrick. Critic (28 c.) for 

American Undergraduate Journalism. L. G. Price. 
Bookman ( 28 c.) for March. 

The Novel and The Short Story. Gertrude Atherton. 
Bookman ( 28 c.) for March. 

The Future of The Drama. Brander Matthews. Book- 
man ( 28 c.) for March. 

Famous Novels and Their Contemporary Critics. 
• — Uncle Tom's Cabin. Arthur B. Maurice. Bookman. 
( 28 c.) for March. 

The History of the Nineteenth Century in Carica- 
ture. I.— The Napoleonic Era. Frederic Taber Cooper 
and Arthur Bartlett Maurice. Illustrated. Bookman ( 28 c.) 
for March. 

Practical Studies in English. Benjamin A. Heydrick. 
Chautauquan ( 28 c.) for March. 

English Comment on The American Novel. J. M« 
Bullock. The Lamp ( 28 c.) for March. 

A Browning Pilgrimage. Anna D. McMahan. The 
Lamp ( 28 c.) for March. 

The Unactable Drama. Brander Matthews. The 
Lamp ( 28 c.) for March. 

The Book Shop Girl. Carolyn Wells. Life (13 c.) for 
February 19. 

A Pilgrimage to Shakspbrian Shrines. D. J. Marshall. 
Illustrated. Four-Track News ( 13 c ) for March. 

The Trail of Leather-stocking. Kidder Keyes. 
Illustrated. Four-Track News ( 13 c.) for March. 

Emerson's Essays. K. R. Forbes. Mind (23 c.) for 

Vicissitudes of a Frbb-Lancb. Reader (28 c.) for 

A Note on the Novella. Alison M. Lederer. Reader 
(28 c.) for March. 

The Gbntlb Art of Essay Writing. Anna Blanche 
McGill. Reader ( 28 c.) for March. 

The Passing of Goethe: A Fantasy. Hermann Hage- 
dorn, Jr. Reader ( 28 c.) for March. 

Outline of Lincoln Literature. Lina Brown Reed. 
Dial (13 c.) for March 16. 

The Author of "John Inglbsant" (Joseph Henry 
Shorthouse).. Dial{ 13 c.) for March 13. 

Correct Speaking and Writing. Elizabeth A. Withey. 
Ladies* Horn* Journal ( 13 c.) for March. 

Francis Wilson and His Bookish Home. Gustav KobW. 
Illustrated. Ladies' Home Journal ( 13 c.) for March. 

The Literary Beginner. Franklin B. Wiley. Ladies' 
Home Journal ( 13 c.) for March. 

Hints to Verse Writers. Horatio Winslow. The Edi- 
tor ( 13 c.) for March. 

Getting into Print. Jack London. The Editor ( 13 c.) 
for March. 

Scenery in Fiction. Reprinted from the London Acad- 
emy in Current Literature ( 28 c.) for March. 

The Unrest of Euripides. Reprinted from the Spectator 
|n the Living Age for February 21. 

Celtic Sagas. Stephen Gwynn. Reprinted from Mac 
miliars Magazine in the Living Age for February 21. 

Alfred db Vigny. C. G. Compton. Reprinted from the 
Fortnightly Review in the Living Age ( 18 c ) for Feb- 
ruary 21. 

The Youth of Tainb. Mary Duclaux ( A. Mary F. Rob- 
inson). Reprinted from the Fortnightly Review in the Liv- 
ing Age for February 28. 


General Lew Wallace is writing his autobi- 

Charles Dana Gibson has made an arrange- 
ment with the publisher of Collier's Weekly 
whereby he is bound to furnish 100 cartoons 
for $100,000 during the next four years. Dur- 
ing this time he will draw exclusively for 
Collier's Weekly and for Life. 

The new associate editor of Pearson's Maga- 
zine, Miss Fannie V. Warner, has been for 
twelve years on the staff of the Florida 
Times-Union of Jacksonville. 

Charles Welsh has withdrawn from the house 
of D. C. Heath & Co., to devote himself to 
independent literary work. 

The New-Yorker is a new weekly literary 
paper, published by the Walker Publishing 
Co., Fifth avenue and Twenty-third street, 
New York. 

An American edition of the English quar- 
terly, the Library, will be published by the 
Scott-Thaw Co., (New York) beginning with 
the March number. 

Home Educatio?i (Chicago) is a new maga- 
zine intended for parents rather than for teach- 
ers, its aim being to interest the former in the 
work of the latter. Mary P. Squier is the editor. 

The American Woman of To-day is a new 
Chicago publication. 

The Home Missionary Society of New York 
(Congregational) is to begin the publication of 
a periodical to be called the New Nalion. The 
editor will be Rev. Dr. Joseph B. Clark, for 
many years one of the secretaries of the soci- 

Hitchcock's Monthly (New York) is a new 
monthly magazine. 

Art and Photography is a new magazine 
published in Atlanta. K. M. Turner is the 
publisher and Mrs. Walter Howard is the 



Four O'Clock has been merged with the Phil- 
harmonic ( Chicago ). 

Collier s Weekly is hereafter to have an 
English edition. Its publisher, P. F. Collier, 
believes that Great Britain produces the ablest 
writers in the English tongue, but that the me- 
chanical presentation of their work is not what 
it should be. He is planning to publish books 
in London, in accordance with the latest Amer- 
ican ideas on printing and book-making. 

Motherhood and the American Kitchen 
Magazine have been combined, and will appear 
as the Home Science Magazine (Boston), be- 
ginning with the April number. 

The Globe Quarterly Review has removed 
from New York to Philadelphia. 

Self-Help ( York City, Penn.) has been sold 
to Edward Erf, Parkersburg, W. Va., who 
will continue its publication. 

The Reader (New York) has suspended 

Youth and Age ( Nashville ) is dead. 

R. F. Fenno & Co. ( New York) have been 
petitioned into bankruptcy by their creditors. 
Mr. Fenno's attorney has asked for an exten- 
sion of time, the payments to be completed at 
the end of three years, and the business to be 
managed by a committee of three until the 
obligations are paid. The majority of the 
creditors were favorably inclined to this plan, 
and it may be adopted. 

The name of Mr. Bowen, who died in 1893, 
has been dropped from the title of the Bowen- 
Merrill Co., of Indianapolis, and the name of 
Mr. Bobbs, president of the company since 
1896, has been put in its place. There has 
been no change of ownership, or of business 

Thomas Nelson & Sons, and E. & J. B. 
Young & Co., two of the oldest and largest 
Bible houses in this country and England, 
have consolidated, under the name of Thomas 
Nelson & Sons. 

The Book Supply Company, of Chicago, 
which has been simply a mail order house, is 
planning to enter the general publishing field. 
Its first book will be "That Printer of 
Udell's," by Harold Bell Wright. 

David McKay, of Philadelphia, has bought 
the entire stock and publishing plant of the 
American branch of Geo. Routledge & Sons, 

The Booklovers* Magazine ( Philadelphia ) 
wants short, pungent, vigorous, signed editor- 
ials by men and women who have things to say 
and who want to say them "hard" — anything 
which hits the nail on the head ; any nail 
which needs driving home or down. It offers 
to pay cash and good prices. 

The Ladies' Home Journal (Philadelphia) 
offers four prizes amounting to $1000, for 
bright, wholesome, well-told love stories of 
from 1000 to 3000 words. The prizes will be 
awarded as follows : $500 for the best, $250 for 
the next best, $150 for the third best, $100 for 
the fourth best. Manuscripts should be type- 
written, if possible, and should be ad- 
dressed " Short Story Editor of the Ladies* 
Home Journal." The competition will close 
July 25. 

The New York Commercial Advertiser 
offers each week prizes of $5, $3, and $2 for 
the best unpublished photographs of news 
events, or beautiful, historic, amusing, and in- 
teresting scenes. Pictures submitted become 
the property of the paper, and those that do 
not win prizes, if printed, will be paid for at 
one dollar each. The pictures must have 
address of contributor plainly written on the 
back, with a few lines of descriptive matter, 
and each one must be marked " Photo Con- 

The French Academy now has a rival. 
After six years' contention in the law courts, 
the Council of State has decided that " the 
Literary Society founded by Mm. de Gon- 
court " is of public utility, and may accept the 
important legacy. 

Ada Ellen Bayly ("Edna Lyall") died at 
Eastbourne, February 9, aged forty years. 

Hon. J. L. M. Curry, LL. D., died at Ashe- 
ville, N. C, February 12, aged seventy-eight. 

Sir Charles Gavan Duffy died at Nice, Feb- 
ruary 9, aged eighty-seven. 

George Birkbeck Hill died in London Feb. 
ruary 25, aged sixty-eight. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 4. 



Boston Writers of To-D ay. Edward L.Martin. . . 49 

Editorial 58 

Disadvantages of Writing "Timely" Stories, 58 — 

Writing for the Freak Magazines 59 

Queries 59 

"Newspaper English'* Edited 59 

Personal Gossip About Authors 59 

Dean Farrar, 59 — Anthony Hope Hawkins. . . • 59 

Current Literary Topics 60 

Painstaking in Preparation of Copy, 60 — Marking 
Italic, Small Capitals, and Capitals in Copy, 60— De- 
lays in Publishing, 60 —The Coinage of New Words, 

61 — Writing Successful Plays 61 

Literary ArticlbsIn Periodicals 6a 

News and Notes 63 


The question is idle whether Boston is still 
the literary centre of the country, as it was 
thirty years ago. The country has no literary 
centre now. Literary activity through the 
United States is general, and authors are 
found everywhere, from Eastport to Los 
Angeles. Neither Boston, nor Chicago, nor 
New York, nor Philadelphia can claim literary 
preeminence, without justified dispute from 
Indianapolis, New Orleans, Louisville — or 
even Birmingham, Ala., or Windsor, Vt. 

Boston, however, still maintains the literary 
prestige that the city won mainly from the 
work of Holmes, Hawthorne, Longfellow, 
Lowell, Emerson, Aldrich, Hale, and Whittier 
— only three of whom, strictly speaking, were 
Boston writers. That the city is still eminent 
in a literary way, moreover, is shown by the 
fact that Miss Winslow has been able to make 
a book of more than four hundred pages about 
Boston writers of to-day* without devoting 

• Literary Boston of To-Day. By Helen M. Winslow. 
Illustrated. 444 pp. Cloth, $1.20, net. Boston : L. C. Page & 
Company. 1903. 

any great amount of space to any single au- 
thor. Aldrich, of course, is still living. As 
Miss Winslow says : " Although no longer edi- 
tor of the Atlantic, he is a resident of Boston 
and his beloved Ponkapog. From the day 
when his ' Story of a Bad Boy ' made its ap- 
pearance, he has ranked among the leading 
men of letters. ... He has lived for many 
years in the famous old house on Mount 
Vernon street, with his wife and his twin boys, 
and when the owner of the house died a few 
years ago and left, not only the establishment, 
but a fortune as well, to the Aldrich family, all 
Boston rejoiced in the good fortune of the 
'Poet of Ponkapog.' " Mr. Aldrich was born 
November 2, 1836, at Portsmouth,, N. H., and 
although he passed most of his boyhood in 
Louisiana, he returned to Portsmouth in 1850 
and prepared for Harvard. Two years later 
his father died and he went into a banking 
house in New York ; but after three years he 
took an editorial position on the New York 
Evening Mirror. In 1865 he came to Boston 
to take charge of Every Saturday, and from 
1 88 1 to 1890 he was the editor of the Atlantic 
Monthly. Since then he has devoted himself 
wholly to literature, although he has published 
little. " We may, however, expect a book of 
reminiscences from his pen, which is sure to 
be a valuable and interesting contribution to 

Contemporary in a literary sense with Mr. 
Aldrich are Colorfel Higginson, Mrs. Howe, 
John T. Trowbridge, Edward Everett Hale, 
and Hezekiah Butterworth. 

Colonel Higginson, though born and nur- 
tured in the literary atmosphere of Cambridge, 
has not lived there always. Before the Civil 
War he was a clergyman and preached in 
Newburyport, and presided over a parish in 
Worcester. "But his mind is of too liberal 

Copyright, 1903, by William H. Hills. All rights reserved. 



frame to be satisfied with creed and dogma, 
and he left the ministry many years ago, set- 
tling in Cambridge, where he owns a pictur- 
esque house on Buckingham street. In the 
summer he takes his wife and daughter to the 
beautiful town of Dublin, N. H., where he 
owns another charming home. Mrs. Higgin- 
son (who is a niece of Professor Longfellow's 
first wife) writes occasionally some excellent 
verses, and the daughter, just blossoming into 
young womanhood, is proving her title to be 
the intellectual successor of such a father and 

Edward Everett Hale, " although an octoge- 
narian, is still mentally keen and active, with 
powers that give no sign of decadence and 
with all the enthusiasm of youth. From his 
years and his wide eclectic experiences, Dr. 
Hale may well be given the position of the 
Dean of Boston's literary set. And this alone 
not from the length of life which has been ac- 
corded him, and his varied and important 
achievements, but from the sincere and active 
interest which he takes in those who are 
making letters a profession, and his special 
kindness to beginners." Dr. Hale was born 
April 3, 1822. Before taking up ministerial 
work, " he served his father as secretary, and 
also an apprenticeship in his newspaper office 
— the old Boston Advertiser — from the work 
of typesetting to editing. It was a question 
for a time which profession he would choose, 
and he ultimately took the ministry. The 
journalistic instinct has been always strong 
within him, but he has had to keep it in check, 
or he would have been compelled to give up 
everything else for it." It is almost half a 
century since he was installed pastor of the 
South Congregational church of Boston, and 
he is still pastor emeritus, although the paro- 
chial duties are performed by his successor in 
active work, Rev. Dr. Edward Cummings. 
" His literary work has bsen stupendous, 
reaching to fifty volumes, and ten times fifty 
volumes in uncollected articles, studies, and 

" If Dr. Hale is the Dean of literary 
Boston, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe is the recog- 
nized leader and acknowledged sovereign. 
Although Mrs. Howe has reached the ripe age 

of eighty-three, there is none of the sugges- 
tion of the decay which years are supposed to 
bring, and whether she is holding meetings at 
her house, in the interest of universal peace, 
or writing books, she is the same busy, active 
woman of years ago. Mrs. Howe was one of 
the founders of the New England Woman's 
Club, in 1868, and has been its president ever 
since its first ruler, Mrs. Severance, left Massa- 
chusetts for California, early in the seventies. 
She is also president of the Boston Authors' 
Club. Her four daughters have all proved 
literary workers of more than average ability,. 
while her only son is a distinguished scientist, 
and also a clever writer on special lines, upon 
which he is an acknowledged authority." Per- 
haps the best-known of her daughters is Laura 
E. Richards, who "has written some of the 
most delightful nonsense verses for children 
that have ever seen light on the printed page, 
and it is no wonder that her name is a house- 
hold word in many families." 

" One of the houses that often sheltered 
that rare group of men who made literary Bos- 
ton famous during the early part of the last 
half of the century just past is still the resort 
of the favored few, and it is to day considered 
a mark of high esteem and an honor to be 
asked to the home of Mrs. James T. Fields. 
. . . Mrs. Fields was the wife of the famous 
Boston publisher, who was the medium of 
communication and even of introduction be- 
tween the galaxy of literary stars in Boston 
between 1850 and 1880, and who established 
and published the Atlantic Monthly, She is 
still continuing her literary work, which has 
always been of a high order, though not at all 

"One cannot think of Mrs. Fields without 
remembering her most literary intimate friend, 
Sarah Orne Jewett, whose winters are for the 
most part passed in the Charles-street home, 
and who in the summer is found for some por- 
tion of the time at Mrs. Fields's home at Man- 
chester-by-the-Sea. ... Miss Jewett's work- 
ing hours are in the afternoon, and when she 
has anything in hand she writes from one un- 
til about five. She says that she thinks best 
in the waning of the day, and finds work easier 
then. She writes on an average between three 



and four thousand words daily, although she 
has sometimes gone as high as eight and even 
nine thousand words in onejday. She usually 
thinks out her stories quite carefullyibefore 
beginning to write, so that when it comes to 
transcribing them she can do it easily, and 
without much rewriting, although, of course, 
some of her stories she works at quite labor- 
iously. * There are,' she says, 'stories that 
you write and stories that write themselves in 
spite of you. And I find that these are the 
ones that do not need much working over.' " 

Miss Jewett was born in a fine, old colonial 
mansion in the village of Berwick, Me., which 
is still her home. When her father, "The 
Country Doctor," , was living, she went about 
with him a great deal, and that was the way in 
which, without realizing what the experience 
was to prove to her, she got her marvellous in- 
sight into the lives of the country people of a 
quarter of a century ago. Her first story for 
the Atlantic was accepted before she was 
twenty, and without the help of any literary 
€riend at court. "Probably her success as a 
writer was due to her father's advice, con- 
stantly repeated, and which she has closely 
followed : * Don't try to write about people and 
things ; tell of them as they are. 1 " 

Another writer along the same lines as 
Miss Jewett and Miss Wilkins is Alice Brown, 
the daughter of Rev. Theron Brown, who for 
•many years was one of the editors of the 
Youth's Companion, " Miss Brown lives on 
Pinckney street, in a very quiet way, and only 
semi-occasionally does one meet her at social 
and public functions. She was fortunate in a 
childhood spent amid the rural beauty of the 
little New Hampshire town of Hampton Falls. 
. . . Like many another New England girl she 
first turned to school teaching as the most 
natural occupation, but the call toward literary 
activities would have its way." Her stories 
are mostly occupied with New Hampshire life, 
but her novel, "Margaret Warrener" is a 
story of Bohemian Boston, and a marked de- 
parture from the lines laid down by her pre- 
vious work. 

" For many years the centre of literary 
Boston has been located in the drawing-room 
of Mrs. Louise Chandler Moulton's house in 

Rutland Square. . . . Thither all the best of 
the town — those who have achieved anything 
worth while in letters and art and science, 
those who are young in achievement, but full 
of high courage and working ambitions, to- 
gether with the literary or artistic 4 stranger 
within the gates ' — turn their steps every 
Friday afternoon of the winter. For she 
keeps open house then, and the only invitation 
needed is the cordial * Come and see me any 
Friday afternoon; I'm always at home.' . . . 
In London, where Mrs. Moulton spends every 
summer, she receives as she does at home, 
and she is quite as fully appreciated over there 
as in her own Boston, and from a literary 
standpoint even more highly rated — if that be 
possible — than she is in her native land. Her 
weekly receptions in Grosvenor Square call to- 
gether all the great literary world of London, 
the famous Americans who are by chance in 
the city, and many members of England's no- 
bility itself. It is said of her that she has 
maintained on both sides of the water the 
nearest approach to the literary salon that is 
now in existence." 

Mrs. Moulton was born in the little town of 
Pomfret, Conn., and while still a school-girl 
began writing little scraps of prose and bits of 
verse for a Connecticut weekly paper, of which 
Edmund C. Stedman. then a very young man, 
was the editor. " He took a lively interest in 
this blue-eyed girl's welfare, and encouraged 
her to continue her literary work, and advised 
her concerning her future. The friendship 
thus begun between the young editor and his 
school-girl contributor has always continued. 
At fourteen her first poem was accepted and 
printed. The name by which the public first 
knew her was not Louise Chandler Moulton, 
but Ellen Louise Chandler, although the name 
under which her stories and poems appeared 
was simply * Ellen Louise.' Her first book, a 
volume of short stories, was published when 
she was eighteen, and eighteenj .thousand 
copies were speedily sold. Soon afterjits ap- 
pearance she was married to William U. 
Moulton, the editor and publisher of the True 
Flag, of Boston, to which she was a frequent 
contributor, and after her marriage Boston be- 
came her home. She continued^steadily at 



work, improving constantly. She was a care- 
ful writer and a thorough worker. She was 
annoyed at any seeming awkwardness of ex- 
pression, and did not rest until she had made 
it smooth and finished in every particular." 
For a few years past she has devoted herself 
almost entirely to poetry. " She is a loyal and 
devoted friend, and one of the kindest and 
most helpful women in all the world of letters. 
Free from everything which savors in the 
least of jealousy, she is most hospitable in her 
welcome to young people, who are entering 
with timid steps the field of literary endeavor." 
"We have, too, a granddaughter of a 
famous ancestor, in whom Boston takes pride, 
although she sends us her books from over the 
sea— Mrs. Helen Choate Prince. Rufus 
Choate, who contained within his intense 
being fire and fancy enough to transmit to a 
hundred generations, had a fine romantic vein, 
and in the third generation the Boston maiden 
bore in her brain an inheritance which was to 
be developed amidst great conditions and 
strengthened and enlivened by stimulating sur- 
roundings to delight a large number of 

"Although Miss Edna Dean Proctor lives in 
South Framingham when she is not traveling 
abroad, she belongs to the Boston Authors' 
Club and is considered a part of literary 

" Another name of which the Boston of to- 
day is very proud is that of Margaret Deland. 
She is a native of Pennsylvania, but came to 
Boston as a bride in 1880 and has done all her 
literary work here." 

" Then, too, there is Elizabeth Stuart Phelps 
Ward. Nobody will deny her right to be 
numbered with the foremost writers in Amer- 
ica, and since she came to settle at Newton, 
Boston claims her as belonging to its literary 
set. . . . Elizabeth Stuart Phelps was born in 
Boston August 31, 1844. When she was four 
years old, her father was appointed professor 
at the Andover seminary, and the pleasant hill 
town was her residence until her marriage, in 
1888. Her first literary essay was a magazine 
article, called • A Sacrifice Consumed,' and she 
was only twenty-four when her great success 
was attained *in 4 Gates Ajar.' Her literary 

career has been exceedingly busy, and her 
marriage to Herbert D. Ward, in 1888, opened 
a new chapter in it. 

"Herbert Dickinson Ward, her husband,, 
was born in Waltham, Mass., and is a graduate 
of Amherst college. He was the son of Dr. 
William Hayes Ward, editor of the New York 
Independent. Mr. Ward was * The Burglar 
Who Moved Paradise,' and married Elizabeth 
Stuart Phelps at the little cottage at East 
Gloucester, which is associated in the minds- 
of so many delighted readers of 4 The Old 
Maid's Paradise.' Mr. Ward has written sev- 
eral books alone, besides collaborating with 
his wife in three, and is doing a vast amount of 
literary work for the best magazines and peri- 

"But in summing up our famous literary 
women, let us not forget that rarest, most deli- 
cate soul, which has given out so much that is 
strong and true and aspiring, Mrs. Harriet 
Prescott Spofford; for although it is true that 
her real home is in Newburyport, Mrs- 
Spofford has ever been identified with literary 
Boston, and passes some part of every winter 

" John Townsend Trowbridge now rests in 
the serene afternoon of life in his pleasant 
home in the town of Arlington, one of Boston's 
charming suburbs just beyond Cambridge. 
. . . Mr. Trowbridge is in all his character- 
istics a typical New Englander, but he is r 
nevertheless, a native of New York state, and 
did not come to Boston until about a month 
before he was twenty-one. He had previously 
spent some little time in New York, writing for 
the Knickerbocker and other periodicals. But 
he tired of writing for fame, notes of thanks^ 
and at most, a dollar a page, and so came to 
Boston, the acknowledged literary centre, 
where, writing under the name of * Paul Cray- 
ton,' he found plenty to do at the munificent 
rate of two dollars a column." " Martin 
Merrivale," a book which he published under 
his pseudonym in 1854, is supposed to recite 
his earlier literary experiences. "When the 
Atlantic Monthly was proposed, he was in- 
vited to become a contributor, and although 1 
less than fifty years have passed since the ap- 
pearance of the first number, Mr. Trowbridger 



and Professor Charles Eliot Norton are the 
sole survivors of the contributors to that issue. 
Mr. Trowbridge occupies a unique position 
among the older literary men, being the only 
one who has depended wholly upon the income 
from his books. . . . During all the years he 
has kept up his connection with the Atlantic, 
and is a frequent contributor." His Reminis- 
cences are now being published in the maga- 
zine. " All the author's actual writing is done 
at the desk in the pleasant study on the sec- 
ond floor of his house. His methods are very 
simple. When he has a long piece of work in 
hand, he sits down soon after breakfast and 
stays at his desk for three or four hours, work- 
ing steadily and uninterruptedly. He is an im- 
pulsive writer, but he does not put pen to 
paper unless he has something to say. He re- 
vises and rewrites more than he did in his 
earlier work, which is quite natural. Much of 
his work is done in the open air, particularly 
his poetry, which is composed while he is , 
walking about, and his verses are often quite 
complete in his mind before they are com- 
mitted to paper. During the fifty-odd years of 
his literary life, he has produced almost fifty 
volumes of prose and poetry." 

Hezekiah Butterworth "has watched with 
keen delight the rise of many of our most 
prominent writers, and some of them have 
been glad to testify to the fact that they owe 
their success largely to the encouragement 
that Mr. Butterworth gave them. His ready 
sympathy with and for young writers, strug- 
gling against many obstacles, is largely due to 
the fact that he knows from personal experi- 
ence what it is to overcome obstacles. Born 
of poor parents, in Warren, R. I., in 1839, 
without money, friends, or influence, he left 
his country home, and came to Boston. Like 
so many other young writers, he found a sale 
for his first work in the office of the Youth's 
Companion. In 1870, Mr. Butterworth be- 
came associated with the Youth's Companion, 
and for twenty-five years he was one of its ed- 
itors. During these years, he brought out that 
immensely popular series of books, under the 
title of 'Zig-Zag Journeys.' These books 
have had an aggregate sale of more than a 
•half million of copies, and the demand for 

them continues." Mr. Butterworth resigned 
his position in the office of the Youth's Com- 
panionxu 1895. He has brought out nearly 
fifty volumes at various times. 

" No group of the older Boston men of let- 
ters is complete without the genial and schol- 
arly gentleman known as Frank Sanborn, 
editor, lecturer, author, philosopher. . . . Al- 
though he has passed his allotted three-score- 
and-ten, he is still active in public and chari- 
table work." 

James Jeffrey Roche is a well-known figure 
in literary Boston. Mr. Roche was born in 
Ireland a little more than fifty years ago. He 
was brought to Prince Edward Island by his 
parents in his early infancy, and that was his 
boyhood's home. He came to Boston in 1866,. 
and was editorial contributor to the Pilot long 
before he became a permanent member of its 
staff. This was in 1883; and on the death of 
John Boyle O'Reilly, in 1890, Mr. Roche suc- 
ceeded to the chief editorships position which 
he has held ever since. He is now the owner 
of the paper. 

" The famous Papyrus Club has furnished 
its full quota to the literary Boston of to day. 
Like Mr. Roche, Thomas Russell Sullivan is 
a Papyrus man, one of its past presidents, and 
a still active member. He was born in Boston, 
November 21, 1849. His first novel, 'Roses 
of Shadow,' was written in 1885, and in 1888 
Mr. Sullivan left business, to devote himself 
exclusively to literary pursuits. ... As a 
writer, Mr. Sullivan is thoroughly conscien- 
tious and a perfect master of English. He is 
his own most severe critic, and is never satis- 
fied with any of his work until it is polished 
and finished and is made simply direct. This 
simplicity of diction gives a virility to his 
writing, reminding one of what the late John 
Fiske was accustomed to say : 'Any attempt at 
the ornate weakens the work, and the best rule 
to follow in writing is to use short Saxon 
words, in terse, direct sentences.'" 

" Another one of the group of clever men of 
whom Roche and Sullivan are shining exam- 
ples is John T. Wheelwright, who is also a 
Papyrus man, a lawyer by profession, and an 
author by preference." 

Frederic Jesup Stimson, "J. S. of Dale," 



was born in Dedham, and has lived there all 
his life, calling Dedham home, even while 
passing his winters in his town house in 
Boston. " To Mr. Stimson belongs the dis- 
tinction of being the pioneer in the field, 
somewhat overworked of late, of the historical 
novel. * King Noanett ' was one of the earlier 
of the flood of recent novels which deal with 
American colonial life, and was a notable 

" Had he established no other reputation, 
Judge Grant would be known all over this 
country as the creator of * Selma White.'" 
Robert Grant was born in Boston in 1850, and 
is of Scotch descent. Secretary to the mayor 
of Boston, then water commissioner, and later 
associate judge of probate, which position he 
still holds, "during all the time he has been 
steadily advancing in his literary position, 
darrying one work along with another, yet 
never neglecting the one nor the other." 

Arlo Bates, now professor in the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, in a small house 
of cosy snugness in old Chestnut street, the 
stillest street in the city, finds a congenial at- 
mosphere for a home. Arlo Bates was born in 
East Machias, Me., December 16, 1850. He 
had early determined to follow literature as a 
profession, and after leaving his alma mater, 
he naturally turned his steps Bostonward. 
For some years he was editor of the Sunday 
Courier, besides being Boston correspondent 
of the Providence Journal. In 1893 he was 
called to the chair of English literature in the 
Institute of Technology. He has written 
seventeen or eighteen novels, and two helpful 
volumes of " Talks on Writing English " and 
" Talks on the Study of Literature." 

Percival Lowell, although he is more apt to 
be found in Mexico, or Arizona, or the far East, 
than in his native city, still keeps a home in 
Boston, and has a permanent address here, 
where his books are published. 

Like Mr. Lowell, Professor Justin H. Smith, 
of the chair of Modern History in Dartmouth, 
keeps a Boston address, and he is a member of 
the Boston Authors' Club. 

Conspicuous among Boston writers is Hon. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, who comes from fine old 
Puritan stock, and was born in Boston, May 

12, 1850. In 1876 he became editor of the 
North American Review, and later, from 1879 
to 1881, in connection with John P. Morse, Jr., 
he edited the International Review p . As a 
biographer and historian he has won a notable 
place in literature. 

John Torrey Morse, Jr., was born in Boston,. 
January 9, 1840. After graduation from the 
Harvard law school, he wrote several books of 
value on legal subjects, but his more recent 
work has been in the line of biography. 

"Although he was born in Weymouth 
[ October 9, 1843 ] an d lives now in Wellesley 
Hills, literary Boston claims the naturalist and 
delightful writer, Mr. Bradford Torrey, as be- 
longing to her. . . . Mr. Torrey is one of the 
editors of the Youth's Companion." 

" Another worker along historical lines is 
Mr. James Ford Rhodes. He was born in 
Cleveland, O., and his most ambitious work 
has been 'The History of the United States 
Since the Compromise of 1850.'" 

"One of the best short stories ever printed 
in the Atlantic Monthly was *A Browning 
Courtship.' Its author was Miss Eliza Orne 
White. . . . Her first published work was 
some children's stories for the Christian Reg- 
ister. . . . Miss White lives in a delightful old 
house, with extensive, well-shaped grounds, in 
Brookline. . . . She prefers to work in the 
morning. Working late in the day keeps her 
from sleeping at night. Miss White does not 
devote much attention to style, although she 
revises and polishes her work very carefully* 
She believes the more she polishes her 
writing, the more spontaneous it appears." 

" Miss Agnes Blake Poor is another Brook- 
line writer. She has written much for maga- 
zines and periodicals under the pen-name of 
1 Dorothy Prescott.' " 

"Mrs. Thomas Aspinwall (formerly Alicia 
Towne ) is another Brookline writer who is 
making a reputation with her stories for young 

u Miss Anna Fuller, a Cambridge woman of 
charming address, unusual brilliancy, and re- 
markable powers of observation, made her d6- 
but in the Nevj York Evening Post, at the age 
of twenty-one, with a letter from Germany. 
Her most popular book in this country has 

The Writer. 


been 4 A Literary Courtship.' It may be of 
some comfort to struggling authors, whose ex- 
cellent manuscripts are continually rejected, to 
know that this book, like many another pop- 
ular novel, ran a gauntlet of innumerable 
refusals before it was finally accepted; and 
that then, when the book had appeared and 
been a success, one of the firms that had re- 
fused it when it was first offered wrote inno- 
cently to Miss Fuller, asking her to write a 
story on similar lines for them. . . . Miss 
Fuller's impulse is to write off her story in the 
rough at first, and then to prune and revise it 
exhaustively. She thinks there is a danger of 
spoiling the spirit of a story if one potters 
over the sentences as one goes along; and that 
there is unwisdom in working against the grain, 
in trying to force inspiration when the inspira- 
tion is not there." 

A few doors below Miss Fuller's home on 
Commonwealth avenue lives Helen Leah Reed, 
whose " Brenda" stories are fast making her 
name a household word wherever there are 
young girls. 

44 Still farther up the avenue one may find as 
mistress of Dr. John Preston Sutherland's 
home another woman who is fast making a 
name, not as a novelist or juvenile writer, but 
as a playwright. Evelyn Greenleaf Suther- 
land ("Dorothy Lunt") began her work as 
dramatic critic on several Boston newspapers, 
and her wide acquaintance among theatrical 
people turned her serious work in the way of 
playwriting, a field where she is winning 
laurels and achieving excellent results." 

Mary Devereux is a resident of Boston, and 
lives at the Parker House. 

Miss Mary Knight Potter is another Bos- 
tonian who is coming to the front in the world 
of letters, if, indeed, she has not already 

Miss Josephine Preston Peabody lives in 
Cambridge, with her mother and her sister, 
and has recently taken the place of Professor 
Vida Scudder at Wellesley College, giving 
courses in English literature. 

A neighbor of Miss Peabody's, Miss Beulah 
Marie Dix, is another of Boston's young liter- 
ary workers. She was born at Plymouth, 
December 25, 1876, and graduated from Rad- 

cliffe in 1897, winning the Sohier prize for her 
honor thesis. She has written several books, 
and has done a good deal of playwriting with 
Mrs. Sutherland. " As to her methods of 
work, she writes with pencil, and rewrites and 
revises, and typewrites and revises again, then 
re-typewrites, and prints." 

In Jamaica Plain lives Miss Caroline Tick- 
nor, a daughter of Benjamin Holt Ticknor, 
publisher, and granddaughter of William D. 
Ticknor, founder of the historic publishing 
house of Ticknor & Fields. She has written 
two books and many short stories, and has 
done important work as a compiler and editor. 

Miss Elizabeth Phipps Train "was born in 
Dorchester, makes her winter home in Boston, 
and has a summer house in Duxbury. 

Miss Cornelia Warren has written a success- 
ful novel, " Miss Wilton," published ten years 

Mary Tappan Wright lives in Cambridge, 
the wife of J. H. Wright, himself an author- 
editor as well as professor of Greek at Har- 

Lillian Gertrude Shuman ( Mrs. Carl Drey- 
fus) is the author of a volume of poems, en- 
titled " From Me to You," and has written fre- 
quently for Boston periodicals. 

Miss Geraldine Brooks, the oldest daughter 
of Elbridge Streeter Brooks, who was himself 
for many years an important member of the 
Boston literary set, has written two books on 
" Colonial Dames." The Brooks family occu- 
pied a lovely home in Somerville for many 

Miss^Abbie Farwell Brown, Miss Elizabeth 
McCracken, and Miss Edith Robinson are all 
Boston writers. 

Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, reformer, philan- 
thropist, orator, and writer, was born in Bos- 
ton, December 19, 1821, and now lives in 

Mrs. Adeline D. T. Whitney was born in 
Boston, September 15, 1824. In 1843 she was 
married and settled in Milton, where she still 

Mrs. Ednah Dow Cheney was born in Bos- 
ton, June 27, 1824. Her most famous work is 
her " Life and Letters of Louisa M. Alcott." 

Mrs. Abby Morton Diaz is "one of the 



Mortons of Plymouth," and now has a pleas- 
ant home in Belmont, only a little way from 
Mr. Trowbridge's Arlington residence. 

Another woman who belongs to this older 
group of workers is Mrs. Kate Tannatt 
Woods, whose home is in Salem, but whose 
affiliations are with Boston. 

" * The Cambridge set * has been looked on 
with pride by literary Boston for many years, 
since the days when Professor Longfellow, 
James Russell Lowell, and Dr. Holmes were a 
part of it. Mr. Horace E. Scudder and Pro- 
fessor John Fiske, so recently lost to literatuie, 
were for many years connected with the Atlan- 
tic Monthly, and Harvard University has al- 
ways furnished some of our best writers and 
thinkers. Perhaps the man who best serves 
today to keep alive the atmosphere of soul 
and beauty that enveloped Longfellow and 
Lowell and these others is Charles Eliot 

President Eliot of Harvard was born in 
Boston, and is identified with the city quite as 
much as he is with Cambridge. Other well- 
known writers in Cambridge are Professor 
George Herbert Palmer, Professor Shaler, 
Professor Langdell, Professor Alexander A. 
Agassiz, and Mrs. Louis Agassiz, his mother, 
Professor Sumichrast, Professor Farlow, 
Barrett Wendell, Professor Taussig, Albert 
Bushnell Hart, John Trowbridge, Arthur Gil- 
man ( whose wife has also written several 
books under the name of " Marion Vaughn") 
Samuel H. Scudder, Professor Ashley, Profes- 
sor Davis, William J. Rolfe, Professor Lyon, 
Professor Williams, Arthur Searle, George 
Lincoln Goodale, Professor Lanman, Profes- 
sor flickering, William James, Josiah Royce, 
Professor Peabody, Professor Thayer, Profes- 
sor Munsterburg, Rev. Samuel Crothers, Rev. 
Alexander McKenzie, Rev. William Johnson, 
and Rev. William Basil King. 

Wellesley College writers are Miss Katha- 
rine Lee Bates, Miss Caroline Hazard, Profes- 
sor Katherine Coman, Miss Florence Converse, 
Miss Vida Scudder, and Miss Sophie Jewett. 
In Wellesley, too, lives Miss Julia Eastman, 
who has written some delightful children's 

Miss Charlotte Porter and Miss Helen 

Archibald Clarke are the editors of Poet-Lore, 
which they started in Philadelphia, in 1888, 
and removed to Boston in 1892. They have 
edited and compiled several books in collab- 
oration, and are now engaged on the prepara- 
tion of an edition of Shakspere. 

44 Louise Imogen Guiney is the poet among 
Boston women who ranks next to Mrs. Moul- 
ton ; some even place her above. . . . Miss 
Guiney lived for several years at Auburndale, 
where she held the office of postmaster for 
sometime." For two years past she has been 
in England. 

Mrs. Emma Endicott Marean, associate 
editor of the Christian Register, has done 
some excellent literary work. 

Mrs. May Alden Ward was born in Ohio, 
and lives on Dartmouth street, with her hus- 
band, Professor William G. Ward, who also is 
an author, as well as a lecturer on literary 

Nathan Haskell Dole was born in Chelsea, 
August 15, 1852, and began his literary career 
by exchanging poems for opera tickets at the 
office of the Boston Transcript, After gradu- 
ating from Harvard, he was a teacher for a 
time, but for many years he has been engaged 
in literary pursuits, as a reader of manuscripts, 
translator, writer, editor, and literary adviser. 

Rev. Charles F. Dole of Jamaica Plain is a 
brother of Nathan Haskell Dole, and has writ- 
ten several valuable books of an ethical nature. 

George Willis Cooke was born in Michigan, 
in 1848. Three years ago he retired perma- 
nently from the Unitarian ministry, removed to 
Wakefield, near Boston, and gave himself up 
entirely to literary pursuits. 

Rev. George A. Gordon, Rev. Samuel Her- 
rick, Rev. Edward Cummings, Rev. Edward L. 
Clark, Rev. Edward A. Horton, and Rev N Dr. 
Donald are other Boston clergymen who have 
written books. 

Sam Walter Foss, author of so many poems 
of New England life, was born in New Hamp- 
shire, in 1858, and is a graduate of Brown Uni- 
versity. Since 1895, he has been the librarian 
of the Somerville Public Library. 

Charles Follen Adams ("Yawcob Strauss") 
was born in Dorchester, in 1842, and published 
his first German dialect poem in 1872, in Our 



Young Folks. " Leedle Yawcob Strauss " was 
.published in the Detroit Free Press, in 1876. 

Edward Payson Jackson has written many 
poems and a number of successful books. He 
lives in Dorchester and is editor of the Bo- 

J. L. Harbour was born forty-five years ago, 
in Iowa, and for fifteen years has been one of 
the editors of the Youth's Companion. In 
addition to a juvenile book, he has written 
more than six hundred short stories, most of 
them for the Youth's Companion. He lives in 

Several other men on the Youth's Compan- 
ion have written books, including Edward 
Stanwood, the managing editor, Arthur Stan- 
wood Pier, and Walter Leon Sawyer. 

James Buckham was born in Vermont, in 
1858, and came to Boston in the eighties, be- 
coming connected for a time with the Youth's 
Companion. He has contributed much to 
magazines and other periodicals, and has pub- 
lished a volume of verse. He lives in 

Frederic Lawrence Knowles has acted as 
literary adviser of several publishing houses 
and has held an editorial position on the 
Atlantic Monthly. He has published several 
books, some of them under pseudonyms. 

Oscar Fay Adams has done much excellent 
literary work, both as an original writer and as 
an editor and compiler. 

Ashton Rollins Willard, who has recently 
come to Boston from Vermont, is the author 
of two books relating to art. 

Charles Felton Pidgin, author of "Quincy 
Adams Sawyer," "Blennerhassett," and other 
books, is the chief of the Massachusetts 
Bureau of Statistics of Labor. 

Willis Boyd Allen, who was born in Maine, 
in 1855, has thirty-five books to his credit, 
mostly juveniles. His home is one of the 
most delightfully hospitable in Boston. 

Miss Kate Sanborn is of New England 
birth, having been born in New Hampshire, in 
1839. She was but eleven years old when she 
earned her first money with her pen. Some 
years ago she relinquished the work of teach- 
ing, so that .she might give her time to 
-writing and to lecturing. 

A dozen books are credited to Mrs. Mary E. 

Blake, the wife of Dr. John G. Blake, of 
Beacon street. 

Miss Sophie Swett and her sister, Miss 
Susan Hartley Swett, live at Arlington 

Miss Florence Converse lives at Denison 
House, a college settlement on Tyler street. 
Miss Converse has been on the editorial staff 
of the Churchman since January, 1900, and is 
the author of two successful novels. 

Anna Farquhar ( Mrs. Ralph Bergengren ), 
Miss Lilian Whiting, Miss Katharine Eleanor 
Conway, Mrs. Clara Erskine Clement- Waters, 
Miss Henrietta Sowle, Mrs. Mary J. Lincoln, 
Mrs. Lavinia S. Goodwin, Mrs. Anna L. Burns, 
Mrs. Frances C. Sparhawk, Mrs. Sarah White 
Lee, Mrs. Whiton-Stone, and Mrs. Sally Joy 
White all have written books, and all live in 

Frank Preston Stearns has accomplished 
fine results in spite of ill-health and many dis- 
couragements. Portions of his " Sketches 
from Concord to Appledore," and " The Real 
and the Ideal in Literature" were dictated 
from five to ten minutes at a time, which was 
the longest period he could work consecu- 

Henry Demarest Lloyd, prominent in anti- 
trust agitation and social reform, was born in 
New York city, in 1847. He now makes his 
home in Boston. 

Among the Boston leaders of the "new 
thought " movement are Horatio W. Dresser, 
Henry Wood, and Ralph Waldo Trine. 

Journalist authors in Boston are Edward H. 
Clement, editor-in-chief of the Transcript, 
Edwin Munroe Bacon, Louis C. Elson, Henry 
C. Lahee, Lewis Clinton Strang,Henry Austin 
Clapp, Edwin D. Mead, (whose wife, Lucia 
True Ames, is also a writer of ability), Charles 
E. L. Wingate, E. F. Harkins, Curtis Guild, 
Rev. Francis Tiffany, Sylvester Baxter, Ed- 
mund Noble, and Bliss Perry, who is now 
editor of the Atlantic Monthly. 

This abstract of Miss Winslow's book gives 
only an inkling of its literary interest. It is 
attractively illustrated, with numerous half- 
tone portraits of Boston authors and pictures 
of the interior and exterior of some of their 
homes. Edward L. Martin. 

Boston, Mass. * 



The Writer. 

Published monthly by the Writer Publishing Company, 146 
Franklin street, Room 3a, Boston, Mass. 

WILLIAM H. HILLS, . . . Editor. 

• # *Thb Writer is published the first day of every month. 
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P. O. Box 1905. 

146 Franklin street, Room ji, 

Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. April, 1903. No. 4. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
i,ooo words. 

• • 

It would be hard to find in the rhetorics a 
more striking example of "fine writing" 
than this report of a wedding published in a 
paper at West Point, Miss.: — 

Would that my pen had been plucked from some beautiful 
bird of paradise, and dipped in the eyes of the rainbow, that I 
might fittingly describe the beautiful marriage scene enacted at 
the residence of Mrs. E. V. Braswell. 401 St. Anthony street, 
Mobile, Ala., on the evening of February jj. 

Just mm the &*y God clothed in majesty sublime had with- 

drawn his galaxy of quivering, golden beams from ail the earth) 
and wafted a good-night kiss to the young evening, who wa 
fast approaching with her cloudless brow, mounted by a crow a 
of jeweled stars — it was then that the cords of confidence* 
hope and love, binding the hearts of Hiram J. Bruister and 
Mary Elizabeth Bra*well were indelibly traced upon the scrol| 
of life, and sacred seal of holy matrimony placed thereon. 

How lovely ! Almost as picturesque is this 
description of a social function, found in the 
Marshall ( Kas.) Index : — 

The soft glow of innumerable candles shed their enchanting 
light over scenes which in splendid beauty rivaled fairyland or 
Elysian fields or even the far-famed hanging gardens of Baby- 

People who like to unravel language puzzles 
may find pleasant exercise in editing this 
sentence from Dr. Gould's " Biographic 
Clinics" : — 

There is something inexpressibly pathetic that these great 
men, so different from one another, yet so alike, suffering, as t 
believe, from the same disease, a disease that wrought in 
each the profoundest of tragedies, and yet, like unrecognts- 
ing brothers, they looked into each other's eyes, knowing 
neither of the other's way and woe. 

Here is an extract from the latest novel of 
Henry James, now running in the North 
American Review : — 

She knew her theatre, she knew her play, as she had known, 
triumphantly, for three days, everything else, and the moment 
filled to the brim, for her companion, that apprehension of the 
interesting which, whether or no the interesting happened to 
filter through his guide, strained now to its limits his brief op- 

"The point," says the Boston Herald, **is 
toguesswhat it's all about." It is indisput- 
able that Mr. James's style, which used to be 
held up as a model, is getting to be more and 
more obscure and awkward every year. 

Experienced writers have learned from their 
experience that it does not pay to write 
** timely" stories. It is a common thing for 
the young writer to be^in by writing a story 
about Christmas, or New Year's, or Thanks- 
giving. The season may serve as inspiration, 
or he may think that his story is more attrac- 
tive because of its timeliness, or it may be 
easier to write a story with Christmas in it 
than one without. However that may be, it is 
certainly easier to sell the story that has no 



season tag upon it than the one that is duly 
marked and labelled, as the writer soon 
discovers. A Thanksgiving story, for instance, 
can properly be printed only one month, or one 
week, or one day in the year. By writing such 
a story, therefore, an author cuts down his 
market to one-twelfth, in the case of monthlies, 
one-fifty-second, in the case of the weeklies, 
and one-365th, in the case of the daily papers, 
of the annual possibility. In other words, the 
market for a story that is not timely among 
daily papers is 365 times as broad as the mar- 
ket for a story that is suitable for publication 
only on Thanksgiving day. The moral, of 
course, is obvious to the writer who wants to 
sell his wares. 

It does not pay, either, to write stories ex- 
pressly for the "freak" magazines that print 
only odd and unusual tales, often more con- 
spicuous for their weirdness than for their 
plausibility or their literary merit. Such mag- 
azines sometimes* pay high prices for what they 
buy, and at first sight the possibility of selling 
a manuscript to one of them seems tempting, 
but if the author writes a story expressly to 
please the editor of one of these publications 
and the editor rejects it, the author will gener- 
ally find that there is no other market for the 
manuscript. On the other hand, if a story is 
written expressly for the Century and the edi- 
tor declines it, there are a hundred other publi- 
cations for which it may be suited. The moral, 
again, is obvious. It pays to write standard lit- 
erature, rather than to try to suit the erratic taste 
of an editor who pays high prices for fantastic 
tales. Aim high. If you hit the mark, you 
will be well rewarded; if you fall a little short, 
you will find that your labor has not been in 
vain. w. h. h. 


[ Questions relating to literary work or literary topics will be 
answered in this department. Questions must be brief and of 
general interest. Questions on general topics should be 
directed elsewhere.] 

The rhetorics tell us not to use the possess- 
ive " whose," excepting in reference to persons, 
but I have noticed a number of times lately that 
"whose" is used of inanimate objects by 
writers in good standing — by Arthur Sher- 
burne Hardy, for instance, whose serial is ap- 

pearing in the Atlantic, It often happens 
that the " of which " phrase is clumsy, when 
used in its place. What do you think? 

L. F. M. 
[It is true that the "of which" phrase is 
.often awkward, but "whose" should not be 
used to refer to inanimate things. The awk- 
wardness of the phrase "of which" can often 
be overcome by remodeling the sentence. — 
w. h. H.] 


I will not hesitate towithin 
twenty-four hours assemble. 
— Governor Yates of Illinois. 

I will not hesitate to assem- 
ble within twenty- four hours. 

The pension plan is likely 
to prove a most effective pre- 
ventative of labor troubles. — 
Kansas City Times. 

The pension plan is likely 
to prove a most effective pre- 
ventive of labor troubles. 

The very choice of subjects 
are indicated by it. — Dr. 
Gould's "Biographic 

The very choice of subjects 
is dictated by it. 


Parrar. — Dean Farrar wrote rapidly, and no 
one can write accurately when he writes rapid- 
ly. His novels were full of errors. The 
equipped reviewer, when he came to read his 
"Gathering Clouds, a Tale of the Days of St. 
Chfysostom," saw that he had two Pretorian 
Prefects too many at the court of Arcadius, a 
Pretorian Guard which had been disbanded by 
Constantine, "Egregii" and Zosimus as the 
contemporary of his eloquent hero. — Phila- 
delphia Press. 

Hawkins. — Anthony Hope Hawkins ("An- 
thony I Hope " ), who arrived here a few 
days ago from England, in conversation said 
that his visit was solely one of pleasure, and 
that he would remain for three or four weeks. 
Of his system of working Mr. Hawkins said: 
" A year is the average length of time it takes 
me to write a novel. I usually occupy the 
first six months in collecting material and 
thinking out and planning the story. The 
other half I require in putting the whole to- 
gether on paper. I never rewrite my story; 
that would be altogether too laborious. Of 



course, I revise slightly. That is always 
necessary and advisable. A novel does not de- 
pend for success upon the time devoted in 
writing it. The novel written, say, in two 
months, may be just as good, and perhaps 
better, than the one that has taken twelve 
months to produce. For myself, I do not be- 
lieve in hurrying. In this question of speed a 
great deal, of course, depends on the nature of 
the plot and the temperament of the author." 
— New York Commercial Advertiser, 


Painstaking in Preparation of Copy. — 
The poet Gray rewrote his Elegy nearly 
twenty times before he was content with its 
construction. Tennyson was almost as fastid- 
ious. The writings of Thomas Hood and of 
Edgar Allan Poe were models of neatness. 
The penmanship of some journalists is almost 
as readable as print. Eugene Field was a 
notable example. There are busy authors who 
keep in their employ a special editor to correct 
and systematize, and a copyist to transcribe 
their manuscript. Charles Dickens's writings 
were so revised by an editor, who cancelled 
paragraphs and pages at his pleasure, and re- 
turned to him the manuscript for addition and 
improvement. George Bancroft, the histor- 
ian, had his manuscripts carefully transcribed 
and put in type, from which two proofs were 
made. The first setting of the type was then 
distributed. The two proofs were carefully 
revised at convenience, dates and authorities 
were verified, verbiage was cut out, new matter 
was added, and imperfect sentences were 
remedied. The new copy so prepared on this 
proof gave no more trouble to the compositor 
than ordinary reprint, and the charges for alter- 
ations in the proof were consequently trivial. 
— Theodore L. De Vinne y in " Correct Compo- 

Marking Italic, Small Capitals, and Capi- 
tals in Copy. — Mr. De Vinne in his useful 
book, " Correct Composition," gives these di- 
rections regarding italic, small capitals, and 
capitals in copy : " One line drawn under- 
neath any given word is understood as a direc- 

tion to put that word in italic. This underscor- 
ing should be done by the writer wherever 
italic is needed. A general direction to 
put in italic a class of words not so marked 
may not be understood when copy so neg- 
lected has to be set by many compositors. 
The free use, or even the moderate use, 
of italic for emphasis in the text is now 
regarded as an exhibition of bad taste on 
the part of the writer, and a needless affront 
to the intelligence of the reader. Words 
and phrases in foreign languages are not put 
in italic so frequently as they were a hundred 
years ago. There is increasing resistance to 
the excessive use of italic. The foreign words 
and phrases that have been practically incorpo- 
rated in the English language are now prefer- 
ably put in roman, as alias, debris, dramatis 
personam, etc. Foreign words that are familiar 
to all intelligent readers do not need italic. 

" Letters intended for capitals of full size 
are indicated in the manuscript by underscor- 
ing them with three parallel lines. When the 
name of a newspaper or periodical is cited in 
the text, the definite article ' the' should not 
have a capital, but in the exact citation of a 
book title, this beginning 'the' should be cap- 
italized — e.g., * According to the Tribune*; 
4 We cannot praise "The Revolt of Islam."' 

"A writer's desire for small capitals in print 
is indicated in manuscript by underscoring the 
specified words with two lines. Small capitals 
are rarely used to indicate the emphatic words 
of the text. The taste which forbids the too- 
free use of italic is equally severe on the use 
of small capitals. Type-setting machines of 
old form, which are without any provision for 
italic or small capitals, are a still more effective 
agency for their suppression. Readers have 
been slowly, and somewhat unwillingly, taught 
that the emphasis of italic and the modified 
display of small capitals are not really needed 
for the comprehension of printed matter." 

Delays in Publishing.— " These are tragic 
facts," writes a London literary man, * 4 which 
cannot be rubbed too strongly into the minds 
of 'beginners in literature.' Last week I met 
an old friend, an American journalist, who told 
me that he once wrote a * rush ' article on Bir- 
mingham for Harper's Magazine^ and it was 

The Writer. 


issued just twenty-eight months after he cor- 
rected the first proof. 

" It is Colonel John Hay, I think,who tells of 
a friend of his who had a short story accepted 
by the editor of the famous magazine just 
mentioned, and watched its pages for the ap- 
pearance of his story for twenty-two years. 
At the end of that time he died, and the story 
was published some months later." — Boston 

The Coinage of New Words.— Baron Ave- 
bury [ better known, perhaps, as Sir John Lub- 
bock ] in writing his book on " The Scenery of 
England/' has coined a number of new words, 
among them the word "manywhere." Like all 
new words this one will grate harshly upon the 
eye and ear at first, but it requires only a mo- 
ment's reflection to perceive that it has as much 
right etymologically to be in the language as 
14 everywhere " and "anywhere," and it has a 
different meaning from either of them. 

New ideas are constantly enriching the lan- 
guage with new words. * Some of them come 
into general usage ; others are discarded soon 
after their coinage. Kipling speaks of the 
"coolth"of the evening; an illustrated lecture 
was recently advertised as a " travelogue " ; 
Carlyle invented the compound "careful- 
hopeful " ; the carving out of a curiously- 
shaped congressional district in Massachusetts 
for Governor Gerry gave us the word "gerry- 

Naturally the most industrious coiners of 
words are the newspapers, which Macaulay 
says give the only true history of a people. 
They have coined such words as jag, scoop, 
fake, storiette, playlet, booklet, managerial, 
reportorial, masher, doubtlessly, illy, casualty, 
underhanded, to suicide, to burglarize, to en- 
thuse, to probate, to railroad, and hundreds of 
other words and phrases. 

By far the heaviest contribution of new 
words, however, is made by science and inven- 
tion. Such words as telephone, telegram, 
cable car, motorman, electrocute, and automo- 
bile, although coined to designate certain 
products of scientific invention, have become 
a part of the common language of the people. 

Nearly all of the words and phrases which 
William Cullen Bryant refused to allow in 

the columns of the New York Evening Post 
are now in common use, and are recognized as 
having a place in a "reputable vocabulary." 
Usage governs language. There is no other 
standard. When Coleridge declared that one 
might as well use the word "shillinged " or 
" farthinged " as the word "talented, " he very 
aptly illustrated the limitless possibilities of 
the " mother tongue" when it comes to the 
coinage of words.— Chicago Record-Herald. 

Writing Successful Play».-r- Much has 
been said regarding the methods by which 
writers of fiction evolve their novels, but, 
curiously, little is known of a subject of 
at least equal interest — the tricks and meth- 
ods of playwrights. 

Haddon Chambers, the author of many 
clever and charming plays, frankly confesses 
that he has no method. " So erratic am I," he 
declares, " that I often begin in the middle of 
a play and complete, say, the third act before I 
have the remotest idea what to put in the first. 
This was the case in * The Honorable Herbert,' 
where the third act fashioned itself so com- 
pletely in my mind that 1 was compelled to sit 
down and write it before it escaped my mem- 
ory, and then I turned to the first act." 

Mr. Chambers has no difficulty in finding his 
plots. They come to him, as he says, with al- 
most fatal facility ; but before putting pen to 
paper he allows the plot to simmer in his mind 
for at least a month, until play and characters 
have assumed a coherent and tangible form in 
his mind. Practically all of his writing is done 
at Westgate, for he finds London far too rest- 
less and feverish a place for quiet literary 

Louis N. Parker equally pleads guilty to an 
utter lack of method in his work. " I rarely 
put pen to paper," he admits, "until managers 
begin to worry me about rehearsals and I have 
only three or four days left in which to produce 
a tour-act play. Then I work practically night 
and day until the thing is done, with the result 
that I always vow I will never write an- 

As for his ideas, he says that he " begs, bor- 
rows, and steals them," and then tries to find 
out the sort of characters that can conceivably 
carry them out. With the central idea. *aA. 



characters settled, he finds no difficulty in 
weaving a story around them. When collabo- 
rating with Mr. Carson, he says, " We are 
really only together during the incubation 
stage, and this sometimes lasts only a morning." 

G. R. Sims has very decided views as to 
how a successful melodrama should be written, 
and probably no one is entitled to speak with 
mpre authority on this subject. The chief 
thing, he says, is to get a simple story, free 
from complication, and with plenty of passion, 
pathos, humor, and lively characterization in 
it. Having thus got the mental skeleton, he 
proceeds to clothe the plot with dialogue and 
fill in the Incidents. 

As all his plays are written for special casts, 
he makes a point of "writing round " the in- 
dividual actors who are to produce- the play, 
and every line is written with a mental eye on 
the stage, which no playwright is more familiar 

When writing in collaboration he and his 
colleague usually spend a week in cogitation at 
some charming place, such as Brighton or 
Monte Carlo, returning home without a single 
line being written. 

Sydney Grundy, when he wants an idea for 
a new play, seeks inspiration from one of his 
seasoned bulldog pipes — and never in vain. 
But when he has got his idea the difficulty of 
working it out proves formidable. " I suffer 
from the disease of laziness," he says, "and 
I simply can't settle down to work until I am 
compelled to. But when once I start I go 
right ahead, working morning, noon, and night 
until it is finished." 

Having got a suitable idea, he first plans out 
a very slight scenario, and begins to write 
with only a slight conception of his characters. 
Gradually, however, these assume form and 
reality, and before the first act is finished he is 
on perfectly good terms with them. When 
once the play is under way his brain is satur- 
ated with it, and everything else is thrown 
aside until it is completed. " I keep the stage 
in view throughout," he says, " as if it were a 
chess board, and get no mental rest until I 
have done the thing." 

Some of Gilbert's best work has been sug- 
gested by very trivial incidents. The sight of 

a huge Japanese sword inspired " The Mi- 
kado," and W. H. Smith's appointment as 
first lord of the admiralty was the origin of 
" Pinafore." All his operas were written 
with a miniature copy of the Savoy stage be- 
fore him, with every entrance and exit shown 
and small blocks of wood, painted different col 
ors, to represent the different voices, for actors 
There is no more methodical or conscien- 
tious worker among playwrights than Mr 
Pinero. When he has a play in hand he 
works at it every day, quite regardless of 
moods ; never, however, touching his pen un- 
til the evening, which he finds to be his best 
working time. He is in the happy position of 
being able to write exactly what he pleases, 
and never to order. He never dictates his 
plays, nor will he allow any one to come near 
him when he is writing. As for his ideas, they 
come to him at all times and places and are 
jotted down on hundreds of scraps of paper, 
with which his pockets are stuffed. When the 
play is ripe for writing he produces all these 
countless literary fragments, and from them 
evolves one of his delightful and brilliant 
plays. — London Mail. 


[The publishers of The Writer will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
en receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents pottage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
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if they will mention The Writer when they write.] 

The Genial in Literature. Topics of the Time. 
Century ( 38 c.) for April. 

My Own Story.— IV. J. T. Trowbridge. Atlantic 
( 38 c.) for April. 

Horace E. Scudder : An Appreciation. Alexander V. 
G. Allen. Atlantic ( 38 c.) for April. 

Makers of the Drama op To-Day. Brander Matthews. 
Atlantic (38 c.) for April. 

Emerson's Correspondence with Herman Grimm. 
Frederick W. Holls. Atlantic ( 38 c.) for April. 

Literary Stunts. Contributors' Club. A tlantic ( 38 c.) 
for April. 

The Work op Mrs. Humphry Ward. Hamilton W. 
Mabie. North American Revieiv ( 53 c.) for April. 

Robert Louis Stevenson: The Dramatist. Arthur 
Wing Pinero. Critic ( 28 c.) for April. 

The writer. 

6 3 

Thb Comic View. Benjamin de Caster es. Critic ( 28 c.) 
tor April. 

Lira Outdoors and its Effect Upon Literature. 
Mabel Osgood Wright. Critic ( a8 c ) for April. 

Theodore Botrbl: A Singer of Breton Ballads. K. 
L. Ferris. Critic ( 28 c.^ for April. 

A Poet's Library. ( Gift of Richard Henry Stoddard to 
the Authors Club.) Carolyn Shipman. Critic (a8 c) for 

The Permanence of Poetry. Bliss Carman. L iterary 
World {izc.) for April. 

Edward W. Townsend. With portrait. Bookseller ( 13 c' 
for April. 

Edwin Mark ham. With portrait. Charles Brodie Patter- 
son. Mind ( 23 c.) for April. 

Chicago Literary Women. Illustrated. Edith A. 
Brown. Pilgrim ( 13 c.) for April. 

Modern Dramatic Realism. Fannie Humphreys 
Gaffney. Arena (28 c ) for April. 

American Literature and the High Schools. John 
M. Berdan. Arena ( 28 c.) for April. 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Dr. Axel Emil Gibson. 
Arena ( 28 c.) for April. 

Frank Norris. W. S. Rainsford. World's Work ( 28 c.) 
for April. 

Confessions of a Foreign Correspondent. Wolf von 
Schierbrand. World's Work ( 28 c.) for April. 

John Fiske as a Popular Historian. H. Morse 
Stephens. World's Work ( 28 c. ) for April. 

Samuel Johnson: Philosopher and Autocrat. Illus- 
trated. T. M. Parrott, William Lyon Phelps, and Julian 
Hawthorne. Booklovers Magazine ( 28 c.) for April. 

The Art of Reading. Lewis E. Gates. Booklovers 
Magazine ( 28 c.) for April. 

Some American Humorous Artists. II.— Henry Mayer, 
T. S. Sullivant, Louis Dalrymple, Gus Dirks, and Arthur 
Young. Illustrated. Thomas E. Curtis. Strand Magazine 
( 13 c.) for April. 

My Shakespeare Autograph Book. Illustrated from 
facsimiles. George J. Beesley. Strand Magazine ( 13 c.) for 

Artistic Achievements and Possibilities of the 
Stage. David Belasco. New Metropolitan ( 18 c.) for April. 

The Prophet- Poet of Norway ( Bjornsterne Bjornson). 
Louis* Park* Richards. Cosmopolitan ( 13 c.) for April. 

Hogarth. Illustrated. John La Farge. McClure's Maga- 
zine ( 13 c.) for April. 

Nature Lovers among the Poets of Ancient Greece. 
— II. John Vance Cheney. Mew England Magazine (28 c.) 
for April. 

Interview with Mrs. Amelia E. Barr. Illustrated. 
Isabel Gordon Curtis. Good Housekeeping ( 13 c.) for April. 

How Zola Overcame Indolence. Success ( 13 c.) for 

How to Form a Library. Richard Le Gallienne. Suc- 
cess ( 13 c.) for April. 

The Evolution of the Leader. T. H. S. Escott. Re- 
printed from the London Quarterly Review in the Living 
Age ( 18 c.) for March 7. 

The Ups and Downs of Old Books. J. P. Hobson. Re- 
printed from the Leisure Hour in the Living Age ( 18 c.) 
for March 7. 

Germs of the Wavbrlby Novels. Alex. Innes Shand« 
Reprinted from the Cornhill Magazine in the Living Age 
( 18 c.) for March 14. 

Mere Words. Harold Ismay. Reprinted from Long- 
man\ Magazine in the Living Age ( 18 c.) for March 14. 

Anatolb France on Childhood. Paul Mantoux. Re- 
printed from the Academy in the Living Age ( 18 c.) for 
March 28. 


Mr. Howells's forthcoming book will be his 

Richard Burton, formerly professor of liter- 
ature at the University of Minnesota, is now 
literary adviser of the Lothrop Publishing 
Company of Boston. 

Mrs. Flora Annie Steel, the novelist, has 
joined the staff of the Saturday Review of 

In the two volumes devoted to the " Life and 
Letters of Edgar Allan Poe," by James A. 
Harrison, of the University of Virginia, the 
letters are collected from scattered sources for 
the first time, while the biography is new, and 
makes use of the most recent data on Poe's 

Mrs. Burnett says that she was writing fairy 
tales when she was only seven years old. At 
the age of eleven she wrote her first published 
story. It was not published until she was fif- 
teen, but it was the same story that she wrote 
at eleven. 

"The Song at Midnight," is the title of a 
new book of poems by Mary M. Adams, wife 
of Charles Kendall Adams, the historical 
writer. While this book was in press Profes- 
sor Adams died, and four months later, just as 
the proofs had been sent to her, Mrs. Adams 

Mrs. Mary R. P. Hatch's novel, " The Miss- 
ing Man," has been dramatized by William J. 
McKiernan, of Newark, N. J. 

"Lucas Malet" (Mrs. Harrison) has be- 
come a convert to Catholicism. 

A new monthly magazine has made its 
appearance in Pittsburg, the People's Maga- 
zine^ published by the People's Publishing 
Company, at Forbes and Magee streets. 

Opportunity ( St. Paul ) is a new magazine 
something like Success. 

Murdoch's Illustrated Monthly is a new 
magazine published aX ¥\\Vs»Wt^. 



Grant E. Hamilton, cartoonist, and W. J. 
Merrill, business manager of fudge, have re- 
signed their positions, and with W. J. Arkell, 
who left Judge two. years ago, have formed the 
Arkell Company, with quarters at 35 West 
Twenty-first street, New York. They will pub- 
lish comic papers, under the names Just Fun, 
the Foolish Book, the Fun Quarterly, and 
Smiles. The first two are to be monthly pub- 

Vim ( New York ) is a newcomer in the 
magazine field, devoted to " Physical Culture, 
Health, Philosophy, and Mental Force.** 

Educational Science, issued by the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati, is a new magazine designed 
as " a digest of current thought on education." 

John Wanamaker has sold Everybody's 
Magazine ( New York ) to a new corporation, 
the Ridgway-Thayer Company, composed of 
Erman J. Ridgway, John Adams Thayer, and 
G. W. Wilder. The June number will bear 
the imprint of the new concern. Mr. Ridg- 
way has for several years been connected with 
Frank A. Munsey, and is at present vice-presi- 
dent of the Frank A. Munsey Company. Mr. 
Thayer is a director of the Butterick Publish- 
ing Company, publishers of the Delineator and 
other fashion magazines ; he was formerly 
connected with the Ladies' Home journal. 
The other member of the corporation, Mr. 
Wilder, is the president of the Butterick 

Current History has been incorporated in 
Current Literature ( New York ). 

The Philharmonic (Chicago) has absorbed 
Four O'Clock, Werner's Magazine, and 

The Gentleman's Magazine ( Chicago ) is 

Shaw's Magazine ( Chicago ) offers prizes of 
five dollars, three dollars, and two dollars for 
the best amateur photographs sent in each 

Country Life in America (New York) 
offers eight prizes of thirty dollars each for the 
best gardening articles representing the work- 
ing out of any idea suggested by the March or 
Apr)) numbers of the magazine. 

The Critic is offering prizes in books for 
ideas regarding the improvement of the 

Rector K. Fox and Pitts Duffield are the 
heads of a new firm which is to engage in a 
general publishing business in New York 
under the style, Fox, Duffield, & Company. 

Harper & Brothers have taken over the 
entire business of R. H. Russell, the New York 
publisher. Mr. Russell says: "The tendency 
of modern business has convinced me that it 
is only a question of time when a publisher,, 
doing a limited business, with an organization 
necessarily small, and without the advantage 
of periodicals under his direction, will be un- 
able to compete successfully with a larger 
house having these accessories." 

The Standard (Chicago) for March 7 was 
a Fiftieth Anniversary Number, and had inter- 
esting illustrated articles telling how the 
Standard is made (with portraits of the 
members of the staff) and recounting the his- 
tory of Baptist journalism in the West. 

The story, "Wee Macgreegor," was offered 
to a publisher for $50. The publisher refused 
it ; then the author, a newspaper man, printed 
it at his own expense, and cleared $15,000 on 
it in six weeks. 

Joseph Henry Shorthouse died in London 
March 4, aged sixty-nine. 

Lieutenant-Colonel George F. R. Hender- 
son died in Egypt March 6. 

Miss Virna Woods died at Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia, March 6. 

Andrew C. Wheeler ( " Nym Crinkle " and 
U J. P. Mowbray") died at Monsey, N. Y., 
March 10, aged sixty-eight. 

Miss Amelia Duchemin, editor of the 
Waverley Magazine, died at Maiden, Mass., 
March 11. 

James H. Connelly died in New York March 
15, aged sixty-three. 

Charles Godfrey Leland died at Florence, 
Italy, March 20, aged seventy-eight. 

Very Rev. Frederic William Farrar, Dean 
of Canterbury, died in London, March 22, 
aged seventy-one. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 

BOSTON, MAY, 1903. 

No. S . 

iNnmo at thi Boston PotT-omei as »icond-cla»» mail mattir. 


Hints About Writing Fiction. William H. Hills. . 65 

Editorial 7* 

Disadvantages of Change of Name by Authors, 7a — 

Emerson Biography, 7J — Authors' Royalties. . . . 72 

•• Newspaper English " Edited 73 

The Use and Misuse of Words 73 

Avoid Straining Your Eyes. Arthur W. Atkinson. . 73 

Clyde Fitch on Playwriting 73 

Personal Gossip About Authors 7 6 

Amelia E. Barr, 76 — Ada Ellen Bayly, 76 — Gustave 
Flaubert, 77— Theodosia Pickering Garrison 77 — 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, 77 — Chauncey C. Hotchkiss. 

7S— Mrs. Arthur Stannard 7 8 

Literary Articles in Periodicals 78 

News and Notes 79 


A satisfactory text book of the art of fiction 
is perhaps impossible. Some attempts have 
been made in this direction, but the books are 
all inadequate, because, for one reason, instruc- 
tion must be largely by example, and example 
in this case means more extended quotation 
than the limits of any volume will allow. The 
best any teacher of fiction-writing can do is to 
lay down a few general principles, and illus- 
trate them to some extent by brief quotations 
and references to standard stories. Indirectly 
some help to the student of the art of fiction 
may be given by guidance in fiction study, and 
several excellent books treating of the novel, 
its history, and its development, have been 
written. Among the most useful are "The 
English Novel," by Walter Raleigh ; " The 
Development of the Knglish Novel." by Wil- 
bur L. Cross; Dunlop's "History of Prose 
Fiction"; "The Evolution of the Knglish 
Novel," by F. H. Stoddard; -The Knglish 
Novel," by Sidney Lanier; " Philosophy of 
Fiction in Literature," by D. (i. Thompson; 
Zola's " Le Roman Kxperimental"; " The 
Novel: What Is It?" by F. Marion Crawford; 

Sir Vf alter Besant's lecture on " The Art of 
Fiction," and the essay in rejoinder by Henry 
James ; " The Philosophy of the Short-Story," 
by Brander Matthews; "Short-Story Writing," 
by C. R. Barrett; and " The Story Teller's 
Art," by Miss Charity Dye. One who has 
studied these books and reflected upon the 
principles of criticism laid down in them has 
learned a good deal about the technique of 
fiction — as much, perhaps, as may be learned 
from books. A notable addition to the list of 
helpful books of this class has recently been 
made in " A Study of Prose Fiction," by 
Bliss Perry,* formerly lecturer on prose 
fiction at Princeton, and now editor of the 
Atlantic Monthly. As a scholar of fine culti- 
vation, a writer of fiction, a lecturer upon it, 
and a magazine editor compelled to ex- 
amine critically many thousands of manu- 
scripts, Mr. Perry is peculiarly well fitted to 
discuss the principles of the art of fiction 
writing, and his book is one which story writers 
generally should not fail to read. Intended 
primarily for readers of fiction interested in the 
art, it contains many suggestions which fiction 
writers will find helpful in their work. 

The task of the story writer is well defined 
by Guy de Maupassant in the frequently 
quoted passage from the preface of " Pierre et 
Jean": "The public is composed of numer- 
ous groups who say to us [novelists]: 'Con- 
sole me, — make me sad, — make me senti- 
mental, — make me dream, — make me laugh, 
— make me tremble, — make me weep, — 
make me think.* But there are some chosen 
spirits who demand of the artist: 'Make for 
me something fine, in the form which suits 
you best, following your own temperament.*" 
Realizing the variety of tastes among readers 
to whom he may appeal, the writer who is try- 
ing to learn by study of famous fiction must 

•A Study <r I'mo^b Fiction. By Blin Perry. 406 pp. 
(.'loth, $1.50. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & to 1^1. 

Copyright, 1903. by William H. Hint. K\\ r\s>\* 



first consider how he may study to the best 
advantage. Mr. Perry is of the opinion that 
one cannot begin the' study of prose fiction 
more profitably than, by endeavoring to grasp 
the relations between the story writer's art and 
the art of narrative poetry. Then the affilia- 
tions of fiction with the drama must be made 
clear through a study of such questions as the 
general similarity in the construction of the 
novel and the play, and the advantages and 
disadvantages of substituting the novelist's in- 
direct methods of narration and description 
for the direct representation of action by 
' means of the stage. Then it is natural to pass 
to a detailed study of the content of fiction, a 
study, that is, of character, plot, and setting, in 
themselves and as interrelated. Methods of 
character delineation must be observed; 
stationary and developing characters com- 
pared ; the relation of main and subordinate 
characters noted. The nature of tragic and 
comic collisions must be analyzed; the infi- 
nitely varied ways of tangling and untangling 
the skein of plot reduced to some classifica- 
tion. The circumstances or events enveloping 
the action of the story — whether it be set in 
some focal point of history or merely keyed 
to a quiet landscape — must be accurately 
perceived. Setting and plot and character, 
whether analyzed separately or grasped in 
their artistic relations to one another, must 
further be discussed in connection with the 
personality of the fiction-writer — so far as the 
outward facts of his life have affected his cre- 
ative processes or moulded his imagination. 
Finally the writer must study the way in which 
differences in the nature of material and differ- 
ences in personality have resulted in the de- 
velopment of the varying forms of fiction. 
Each writer's thoughts, dreams, Convictions, 
must be put into words. His mastery of ex- 
pression is the final element that determines 
his rank as an artist, and there is thus sug- 
gested to the student an endlessly curious in- 
vestigation of matters of technique and 

Leslie Stephen said : " A novelist is on the 
borderline between poetry and prose, and 
novels should be as it were prose saturated 
with poetry." Mr. Perry begins his study of 
fiction by noting the affiliations of prose fiction 

with poetry. The writer-student may get a 
useful hint from the suggestion that many 
novels contain lyrical passages, — that is, epi- 
sodes of heightened personal feeling, transports 
of happiness, anguish, or exaltation, which owe 
their inspiration to the same causes as those 
which produce, in the case of a poet, lyric 
poetry. Fiction and poetry, moreover, have 
common material. Novelist and poet alike 
are primarily interested in human life ; both 
care first of all for persons. Both of them 
must, to compass any high artistic achieve- 
ment, be thinkers. They must be able to 
generalize from specific examples. " Both may 
be seers, but the novelist is compelled by the 
very terms of his art to say what he sees, while 
the poet sings it." 

Considering fiction and the drama, Mr. 
Perry begins by noting that both novel and 
drama have for their object the exhibition of 
characters in action. The element of external 
action is less necessary to the novel, because 
the author can describe mental attitudes in- 
stead of visualizing thera for the eye of the 
spectator. But it is through action — tangible, 
visible action upon the stage, or in the novel 
action suggested by the medium of words — 
that the characters of the play and the novel 
are ordinarily revealed. What is more, there 
are marked similarities in the general construc- 
tion — the architecture, so to say — of the two 
literary forms. In both play and novel, for in- 
stance, it is the first task of the author to ex- 
plain the characters and circumstances which 
are essential to an understanding of the plot. 
The first act of a play is spoken of as the act 
containing the "exposition." The opening 
chapter of a novel, or the first lines of a short 
story, have a precisely similar function to per- 
form. The novelist may be more deliberate, 
and tells us more, leaving us less often to our 
own inferences, than the playwright. But 
whatever may be the differences in technique, 
both novelist and dramatist are bent first of all 
upon introducing their characters. 

"Then comes, commonly in the middle or 
toward the end of the first act of the play, and 
not far from the beginning of a well-constructed 
tale, what is called the * exciting (or 'inciting ') 
force ' or * moment.' Something happens, and 
even though this happening may be apparently 

The Writer. 


insignificant, it begins to affect the entire course 
of the plot. The Ghost appears to Hamlet; 
the witches confront Macbeth ; Cassius talks 
with Brutus ; the clash of interest begins; the 
lines of party or of faction, of individual ambi- 
tion or resolve, are suddenly apparent. In the 
tale this * moment' — the little weight that 
turns the scale — is frequently quite undra- 
tnatic and unimpressive, but it can usually be 
.pointed out. In 'Pendennis' it is where the 
Major receives the letter from his sister which 
tells about Arthur's infatuation for Miss 
Fotheringay. In 4 The House of Seven 
Gables ' it is the opening of the shop after all 
the years of dust and silence. . . . No sooner 
are the currents of action fairly flowing, both 
in play and in novel, than their speed and 
power perceptibly increase. Throughout the 
second and into the third act of a five-act play, 
we witness what Freytag called the 'heighten- 
ing'; that is, not merely quickened move- 
ment, but more passionate feeling, a closer 
contact of personal forces, a more violent col- 
lision of wills, a greater complication of the 
various threads of the plot, the entanglement 
of a greater number of personages in the 
intrigue or the achievement upon which the 
play is based." 

44 Near the middle of the typical play — com- 
monly in the third act of a five-act drama — is 
what is variously called the * highest point,' 
the 4 turning point,' the 4 climax,' or the 4 grand 
climax.' It is the scene where the dramatic 
forces which are contending for the mastery 
are most evenly balanced. It is the point of 
greatest tension between the opposing powers. 
... In a tragedy the grand climax is usually 
immediately preceded or followed by what is 
called the 4 tragic moment,' — the event which 
makes a tragic outcome unavoidable, and pre- 
dooms to failure every subsequent struggle of 
the hero against his fate. ... It is not often 
that a novel presents such striking examples 
of skillfully constructed climax. In the 
modern romance of adventure, all that is 
usually attempted is to invent a brisk succes- 
sion of incidents and situations, designed to 
-capture the attention of the reader by any de- 
vice, rather than to conform rigidly to those 
technical conventions upon which the success 
of the playwright is constantly dependent. In 

the novel of manners or the novel of char- 
acter, instead of a 'grand climax' there is 
likely to be a series of less noticeable scenes 
which reveal or determine the personality of 
the men and women involved. 

44 What parallel does prose fiction offer to the 
dramatist's handling of the 4 resolution,' the 
4 untying ' of his plot ? In the so-called 4 plot 
novel ' the parallel is very close indeed. The 
first half of a detective story often occupies 
itself with knotting as firmly as possible the 
threads of the mystery; the second half is 
devoted to a skillful untangling. When the 
hero or heroine of fiction has once made a 
fatal choice, the 4 fall ' proceeds along pre- 
cisely the same lines as in the drama." 

44 A practical and instructive way of compar- 
ing the technique of the novel and the drama is 
to study the dramatization of novels. Let 
the student read 4 Vanity Fair,' 4 The Scarlet 
Letter,' and other books, and watch, carefully 
and repeatedly, the plays that have been con- 
structed from these stories. He will learn, 
better than any abstract analysis can possi- 
bly teach him, the inexorable conditions 
under which the playwright is obliged to 

Considering the influence on fiction of the 
development of science, Mr. Perry says: "The 
exactness of observation which has everywhere 
resulted from the cultivation of the physical 
sciences has changed the very texture of the 
modern novel. Dialect stories form a conven- 
ient illustration. No novelist would now care 
to put into the mouths of negro characters the 
unheard-of sounds that passed for negro dialect 
in the generation of 4 Uncle Tom's Cabin.' 
Many writers of provincial dialect have given 
the most detailed and painstaking effort to the 
study of phonetics." 

In his chapter on "The Characters," Mr. 
Perry says : " We are accustomed to say of 
any work of fiction that it contains three ele- 
ments of potential interest, namely: the char- 
acters, the plot, and the setting or background. 
. . . First, then, from what sources does the 
novelist draw his characters ? Either he ob- 
serves them directly in the actual world, or 
hears or reads about them and thus appropri- 
ates the experience of other persons, or, finally, 
he may imagine his characters. ... A wide 



acquaintance with the different forms of 
human nature is by no means essential to the 
highest achievement in character - drawing. 
... A great deal of the material of the nov- 
elist comes to him from what he hears in 
his conversation with others or reads in books. 
The latter source of information is of course of 
peculiar value to those story-writers who have 
occupied themselves primarily with history. 
. . . Yet it is clear that few novelists of high 
rank ever transfer directly to their pages the 
material which has reached them at second- 
hand through conversation or through books. 
Nor is it so common as we suppose to transfer 
directly to the pages of the story the material 
furnished by the writer's own observation. In 
proportion as he is a genuine artist his imagi. 
nation plays an increasing r61e in remoulding 
memories of objects or persons." 

" What is called in the case of the playwright 
indirect delineation of character has also its 
correspondence in fiction. * 1 am no longer 
beautiful,' said a famous French woman; * the 
sweepers no longer turn to look when I cross 
the street!' Something of the same effect is 
secured in the chapters of a story, as upon the 
stage, by describing not the hero and the hero- 
ine, but the effect produced by them upon the 
other personages." 

" However real the fictitious personality may 
seem to the writer, he must depend upon cer- 
tain artistic devices for making the character- 
istic traits of his personages seem real to the 
reader. It was the custom of Scott to devote 
a page or two of personal description to each 
character at the time of its first introduction 
into the story. ... It is more common, 
however, to find these characterizing details, 
whether of outward appearance or of inner 
nature, presented gradually to the reader. 
Sometimes the characteristic trait in fiction 
corresponds closely to the *gag' upon the 
stage ; that is, a trick of speech or action obvi- 
ously used to identify the character. These 
repeated idiosyncrasies of talk, or face, or 
dress, or manner, undoubtedly help to accent, 
uate the individuality of the character, but if 
too exclusive reliance is placed upon them it is 
easy to turn them, whether in a book or upon 
the stage, into caricatures. 

" It is extremely interesting to notice the 

delicate and sure touches with which masters 
of imaginative fiction have portrayed the char- 
acteristics of the various professions and occu- 
pations. . . . Class characteristics are also in- 
teresting to observe. It is interesting again to 
note that individuals in fiction frequently take 
on certain typical traits due to the particular 
role which the individual is to play in the 
story. The debutante, the dowager, the 
* woman thirty years old,' the * woman misun- 
derstood,' have a distinct function in certain 
stories, and this function affects more or less 
directly the behavior of the individuals who 
have been cast for that particular role. The 
same is true of the persons who represent 
moral failures and triumphs. The villain, the 
lover, the intriguer, the heroine, are parts sug- 
gesting definite lines of character : drawing, and 
it is impossible to construct an individual 
character in fiction without regard to the con- 
ventional requirements of the role which the 
person is asked to play. Furthermore, there 
are typical national traits which are always to 
be noted, in addition to those lines of differ- 
ence which we have just discussed. ... It 
becomes essential, therefore, that we should 
distinguish closely between the individual and 
the type." It is an error to attempt to 
describe the individual by typical traits merely. 
" If I say that a tramp came to my back door 
this morning, and asked for some breakfast, 
and that he had torn shoes, old clothes, a 
slouching gait, the face of a drinker, I do not 
identify him in the slightest. It is obvious 
that to identify this particular individual I 
must be able to describe some peculiarity of 
person or costume which differentiates him 
from others of his class, or at least to describe 
such a combination of qualities and details as 
is not likely to be found in the case of any 
other tramp." 

"College stories furnish an excellent exam- 
ple of the prevalence of a certain fashionable 
type, and the consequent neglect of individual 
portraiture. . . . Most authors of college sto- 
ries content themselves, as far as character-de- 
piction is concerned, by describing the pigeon- 
hole rather than the man in the pigeon-hole." 

" Some of the greatest triumphs in the por- 
trayal of character have been due to an effect- 
ive sense of character-contrasts. The differ- 



«nces between members of the same family 
have been utilized with consummate effect. 
The same is true of those pairs or trios of 
friends of which the history of the drama and 
of the novel offers so many brilliant exam- 

" It is quite impossible to conceive of char- 
acters in a novel without taking into consider- 
ation the actions in which those characters are 
involved. ... In fiction, as in life, the 
character should be true to itself — under the 
given circumstances it should exhibit consist- 
ent behavior." 

Taking up the question of the Plot, Mr. 
Perry says: "In determining the nature and 
the details of the action of the story, it is 
obvious that the novelist may draw on the 
same sources of knowledge which he uses in 
the construction of the characters. The plot 
may be suggested to him by his own observa- 
tion, by memories of what he has heard or 
read, or through the pure gift of inventiveness. 
. . . The stories that come to one by inheri- 
tance, through half-forgotten memories of 
country-side legends and traditions, narratives 
which one dimly remembers from old books, 
or scraps of history and ballads, have often 
proved more stimulating to the constructive 
imagination than any hints given by actual ex- 

" Plot in its simplest form may concern it- 
self with nothing more than the progress of a 
single character and its development and ex- 
periences at the different stages of its career. 
. . . Usually, however, the plot of a story in- 
volves at least two characters. They embody 
different forces, different ways of facing and 
fighting the world's circumstances with which 
they are brought into collision. ... It is far 
easier, however, to throw the lines of a plot 
into swift complication when there are at least 
three characters involved. The attitude of 
two of these characters toward the third may 
instantly be utilized to establish and carry for- 
ward new lines of action. . . . Such a three- 
fold relationship inevitably involves the play of 
strong passions, the elements of fear, of jeal- 
ousy, of danger, of surprise, of remorse; and 
all these are furnished as it were ready to 
the novelist's hand by the theme itself. 

" Something has already been said about the 

danger of plot-determined characters. Where 
the plot requires a lovers 1 episode, the novelist 
is tempted to make a given man fall in love 
with a given woman * upon compulsion,' even 
if the natures of the two persons, as well as 
the circumstances involved, protest against the 
alliance. There is no surer mark of the am- 
ateur in fiction than the fascination said to be 
exerted by certain characters who obviously 
have no fascination to exert. * Bright ideas ' 
come to characters who could never by any 
stretch of the imagination conceive of a bright 
idea. We are assured of the sudden access of 
courage, or devotion, or folly in persons in 
whose temperaments and characters there is 
no room for these traits which it becomes nec- 
essary for the unfortunate author to discover 
and utilize. 

" Finally, the action of the story itself should 
be related not only to the characters themselves, 
but to those circumstances and events indirectly 
involved in the tale, and furnishing, as it were, 
the background and setting for it." 

Mr. Perry discusses at length the setting of 
the story, incidentally pointing out that the 
modern spirit of precise observation has ac- 
complished an immense gain in accuracy. The 
use of landscape as an aid in powerful emo- 
tional effects, if rightly subordinated to the 
human element, becomes an element of extra- 
ordinary power and charm. The landscape 
setting actually influences the moods of the 
characters, and in this way plays no inconsid- 
erable role in the evolution of the plot. It is 
the setting of a story which often gives the 
deepest unity to the work as a whole. The 
setting is used to emphasize the fundamental 
idea of the book, to accentuate the theme, and 
to bring all the characters of the story into 
proper perspective. 

In his chapter on " The Fiction Writer," Mr. 
Perry discusses the question of the moral pur- 
pose. "When a novelist sits down to write a 
story," he asks, " should he have a specific moral 
intention? Is the novel with such a purpose 
likely on that account to be a better novel ? 
The chances are that it is not. If it has subor- 
dinated the artistic considerations to the exi- 
gencies of some ethical doctrine, it commonly 
pays the penalty. The * novel with a purpose' 
has often had the instantaneous influence^tK^. 



wide currency of a pamphlet, but in a few years 
it shares a pamphlet's fate. The * novel of the 
season* is not the novel of the generation." 

In his chapter on." The Question of Form," 
Mr. Perry speaks of the advantages of a com- 
parative study of fiction, to get at the secret of 
an author's style. " How is the student of 
fiction to train himself in such analysis? I 
know of no better method than that followed in 
such excellent handbooks as Minto's 'Manual 
of English Prose Literature' or Clark's * En- 
glish Prose Writers.' In Professor Minto's 
book, for example, there are careful studies of 
representative British authors, who are mi- 
nutely examined under such headings as Life, 
Character, Opinions, in order to insure first of 
all an intelligent knowledge of the man behind 
the book. Then the Elements of Style are con- 
sidered : The Vocabulary, its constituents and 
characteristics, the Sentences and Paragraphs; 
then the Qualities of Style, Simplicity, Clear- 
ness, Strength, Pathos, the Ludicrous, Melody, 
Harmony, Taste. His Figures of Speech are 
then analyzed and classified, and finally, taking 
a broader outlook, there is an estimate of the 
author's accomplishment in the varying kinds 
of composition, such as Description, Narration, 
Exposition, and Persuasion. Professor Clark's 
method of analytical study is similar in aim, 
although it differs in details. . . . Let the 
reader take a single book of any of the masters 
of fiction and devote a few days or weeks to 
writing out with the most scrupulous care such 
critical notes upon it as Minto and Clark have 
suggested. He will never regret the labor." 

In the chapter on "The Short Story," re- 
printed from the Atlantic Monthly for August, 
1902, Mr. Perry asks : " What are the require- 
ments of the short story as regards the deline- 
ation of character? Looking at the characters 
alone, is there any difference between the short 
story and the novel ? There is this very ob- 
vious difference : if it is a character-story at 
all, the characters must be unique, original 
enough to catch the eye at once. Everybody 
knows that in a novel a commonplace person 
may be made interesting by deliberate, patient 
exposition of his various traits, precisely as we 
can learn to like very uninteresting persons in 
real life if circumstances place them day after 

day at our elbows. . . . But all this takes time 

— far more time than is at the disposal of the 
short-story writer. If his special theme be the 
delineation of character, he dare not choose 
colorless characters ; if his theme is character- 
development, then that development must De 
hastened by striking experiences. . . . And 
yet it is by no means necessary that the short 
story should depend upon character-drawing 
for its effect. If its plot be sufficiently enter- 
taining, comical, novel, thrilling, the characters 
may be the merest lay figures and yet the story 
remain an admirable work of art. . . . Nor is 
it otherwise if we turn to that third element of 
effect in fiction ; namely, the circumstances or 
events enveloping the characters and action of 
the tale. The nature of the short story is such 
that both characters and action may be almost 
without significance, provided the atmosphere 

— the place and time — the background — is 
artistically portrayed. . . . It is true, of course, 
that many stories — and these, perhaps, of the 
highest rank — avail themselves of all three 
of these modes of impressions. But because 
we sometimes receive full measure, pressed 
down and running over, we should not forget 
that the cup of delight may be filled in a sim- 
pler and less wonderful way. 

" This thought suggests the consideration of 
another aspect of our theme, namely, the op- 
portunity which the short story as a distinct 
type of literature gives to the writer. We 
have seen indirectly that it enables him to use 
all his material, to spread before us any hints 
in the fields of character, or action, or setting, 
which his note -book may contain. Henry 
James's stories very often impress one as chips 
from the workshop where his novels were built. 
It is obvious, likewise, that the short story 
gives the young writer most valuable experi- 
ence at the least loss of time. He can tear up- 
and try again. Alas ! if he would only do so a 
little oftener ! " 

Successful short-story writing " calls for vis- 
ual imagination of a high order : the power to- 
see the object; to penetrate to its essential 
nature ; to select the one characteristic trait by 
which it may be represented." The novelist 
has many opportunities to describe his heroine 
in various situations. " The short-story writer, 

The writer. 


on the other hand, has but the one chance. 
His task, compared with that of the novelist, 
is like bringing down a flying bird with one 
bullet, instead of banging away with a whole 
handful of bird-shot and having another barrel 
in reserve. Study the descriptive epithets in 
Stevenson's short stories. How they bring 
down the object ! What an eye ! And what a 
hand ! No adjective that does not paint a 
picture or record a judgment ! " 

"An imagination that penetrates to the very 
heart of the matter; a verbal magic that re- 
creates for us what the imagination has seen — 
these are the tests of the tale-teller's genius." 

" Here is a form of literature easy to write 
and easy to read. The author is often paid as 
much for a story as he earns from the copy- 
right of a novel, and it costs him one-tenth the 
labor. The multiplication of magazines and 
other periodicals creates a constant market 
with steadily rising prices." 

Mr. Perry's chapter discussing " Present 
Tendencies of American Fiction " is sugges- 
tive to the novel writer looking for a theme. 
He says : " That there will be very shortly — 
if indeed there is not already — a reaction 
against over-production of Colonial, Revolu- 
tionary, and other types of American histor- 
ical fiction, cannot be doubted. But this is 
chiefly because the supply has temporarily out- 
run the demand. The story of our own ances- 
tors and their struggles upon American soil 
will never lose its essential fascination, when 
depicted not by a horde of imitative weaklings, 
but by masters of the fictive art. The marvel- 
lous epic of the settlement of the western 
half of the continent stills waits an adequate 
recital. We have already a legion of Civil 
War stories, and yet we have not begun to see 
the wealth of material which that epoch holds 
for the true imaginative artist. The romance 
of labor, of traffic,.of politics, in our strangely- 
composite civilization has been perceived by a 
few writers; but how much is still to be told! 
For American social life is changing, taking 
account of itself before our eyes, readjusting 
itself, and a thousand subtle, delightful, force- 
ful themes are thus laid open to the novelist. 
. . . The human spirit changes, widens, grows 
richer and more beautiful with the infinite 

years of man's history upon this planet. And 
over against this wonderful process of de- 
velopment stands the novelist, himself a part 
of it all, and yet one of its interpreters. If, 
watching that changing human spectacle, he 
finds no story to tell, discovers no charm, or 
beauty, or solemnity, it is not because these 
things are not there, but because his eyes are 

Not the least valuable part of Mr. Perry's 
book is the appendix, containing practical sug- 
gestions for the study of fiction to the best 
advantage. The student is guided by a full 
bibliography, a list of topics for study, sug- 
gestions for original work in construction and 
practice in analysis, and review questions. 
Writers should be particularly interested in 
the rules given for practice work in construct- 
ion, which are as follows : — 

1. Read the opening chapters of any novel 
until you feel sure that the main characters are 
all introduced ; then block out a plot which 
shall accord with your view of the characters. 

2. Read until the complication is well ad- 
vanced ; then block out the remainder of the plot. 

3. Read until you are sure the catastrophe is 
imminent; then sketch in detail a catastrophe 
which shall harmonize with the foregoing plot. 

4. Construct a diagram of a plot involving 
but two or three persons, indicating the lines 
of complication, the climax or turning point, 
and the denouement. 

5. Construct a similar diagram, indicating 
the situations or steps by which the action 
advances to the climax and thence to the catas- 

6. Describe a room or a house so that each 
detail shall serve to indicate the character of 
the occupant. 

7. Write a conversation which indirectly 
reveals a character ; describe an action which 
directly reveals a character. 

8. Describe an important situation, sketch- 
ing briefly the antecedent and subsequent plot- 

9. Write a closing chapter, indicating the 
steps by which it is reached. 

10. Describe a group of characters suitable 
for a sub-plot, with the briefest indication of 
their connection with the main plot. 

Boston, Mass. William H. Hills. 



The Writer. 

Published monthly by the Writer Publishing Company, 146 
Franklin street, Room 33, Boston, Mass. 

WILLIAM H. HILLS, . . . Editor. 

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him will be brought out by the observance of 
his centenary that an ideal biography could be 

P. O. Box 1905. 

146 Franklin street, Room 3a, 

Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. 

May, 1903. 

No. 5. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted fcr The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

The great mass of material about Emerson 
that will be published in newspapers and mag- 
azines this month ought to be winnowed and 
worked over by somebody who is competent to 
make a book including all the best of it. 
Enough time has elapsed since the death of 
Emerson so that he can be seen in true per- 
spective, and so much new matter concerning 

written now. 

Mrs. Mary Wilkins-Freeman has resumed 
her maiden name, so far as book-publishing is 
concerned, and her new volume has simply 
Mary E. Wilkins on the title-page. Mrs. Fran- 
ces Hodgson Burnett Townsend is another 
author whose full name is not used by her pub- 
lishers. There is no good reason why an 
author should change her signature in publish- 
ing when she marries, and there are many 
business reasons for retaining the name with 
which the public has become familiar. A well- 
known name has value, and a woman writer 
will do well to regard the name under which 
she has won reputation as a pseudonym 
after she is married. Just as Miss Alice Cald- 
well Hegan became generally known she mar- 
ried Mr. Rice, but she would have done better 
to continue to use her maiden name in publish- 
ing than to use the name Alice Caldwell Hegan 
Rice, as she has done. Miss Josephine Dodge 
Daskam has recently announced her desire to 
drop the " Dodge " from her signature, which 
is well if she does not intend to add her hus- 
band's name when she becomes shortly Mrs. 
Selden Bacon. Kate Douglas Wiggin is 
known to her friends as Mrs. Riggs, but she 
wisely continues to write for the public under 
her former name, following the example of 
many other women authors who have married. ' 
Men have even less reason than women for 
changing the names under which they have 
become generally known as authors. Ernest 
Thompson Seton, for example, was guilty of a 
business blunder when he changed his name to 
Ernest Seton Thompson. One result is that 
many well-informed people find difficulty in 
remembering which of the two names he wishes 
to be called by now. 


* *• 

Miss Jeannette L. Gilder thinks that Mrs. 
Humphry Ward is the best-paid of living novel- 
ists. She has no exact information, but she 
believes that Harper & Brothers paid Mrs. 
Ward at least $25,000 for the serial rights of 
" Lady Rose's Daughter," and that the book 



royalties added to this will increase the novel- 
ist's income from this story to more than 
$150,000. Almost equally fortunate is Conan 
Doyle, whose publishers say that English and 
American magazines have jointly agreed to pay 
him $9,000 each for twelve stories of ten thou- 
sand words each. This payment is at the rate 
of $900 a thousand words — almost a dollar a 
word. And yet some people think that Rud- 
yard Kipling is the most business-like of 
modern authors. w. h. h. 


Hon. John T. Boifeullet, 
of Macon, is in the city, stop- 
ping at the Kimball.— At- 
lanta Constitution. 

Hon. John T. Boifeullet, 
of Macon, is staying at the 

The contents of the Studio 
is agreeably suited to the 
season.- Press Notice. 

The contents of the Studio 
are agreeably suited to the 


"I christen you Shamrock III. May God 
bless you and may you bring back the cup." 

So said the Countess of Shaftesbury, as she 
dashed the beribboned bottle against the bow 
of Sir Tommy's challenger, as the craft went 
sliding down the ways at Dumbarton. The 
language of the Countess is justified by 
popular usage, but not by the best of taste. A 
christening is a religious ceremony, strictly 
speaking, and that designation applies only in 
•cases where a name is given to a person in the 
name of Christ. The other day when our 
latest new cruiser was launched, the daughter 
of the Mayor of Chattanooga said : — 

"I name you Chattanooga." 

And she was formally congratulated by a 
bishop standing by upon having used the right 
word, instead of the more common one. — Bos- 
ton Herald. 

Here is a list of words and phrases that ac- 
cording to the Lofidon Academy should be 
tabooed : Succulent bivalve, sacred edifice, 
devouring element, well-earned rest, pro- 
nounced life extinct, no reason can be assigned 
for the rash act, scene of her former triumphs, 
young lady of prepossessing appearance, ample 
justice, tables literally groaned, numerous and 
•costly wedding presents, Johnson the great 

lexicographer, the Swan of Avon, the Wizard 
of the North, the Sage of Chelsea, it is inter- 
esting to note, I crave a portion of your valu- 
able space anent a question which is in 
evidence, rush into print, comes as something 
in the nature of a surprise, woo the muse, 
a place not mentioned in polite society, apolo- 
gizing for taking up so much of your valuable 

We add to this list: Willing hands, caught 
red-handed, among the prominent persons 
present, gallant fire laddies, a gentleman who 
does not wish his name to be mentioned, a 
lady of an uncertain age. — Boston Transcript. 


Whenever your eyes begin to ache or feel 
tired, close them, and hold a handkerchief 
over them for about a minute. Continue this 
practice at intervals until your eyes are en- 
tirely rested. Some writers strain their eyes 
by glaring at objects in front of them while in 
deep study. Avoid straining your eyes by 
keeping them open constantly while studying. 
Remember, when you strain your eyes you in- 
jure your brain and entire system. If it is 
necessary for you to wear glasses, get the best 
that can be procured, and wear them con- 
stantly. Read the article on " Eye Strain " in 
The Writer for February, and read it once 
every month, and take warning by it. Remem- 
ber loss of sight means the loss of health and 
physical darkness. Arthur W. Atkinson. 

Lynn, Mass. 


An interesting talk with Clyde Fitch about 
play writing is reported in the Boston Tran- 
script. Being asked what he regarded as the 
most essential qualifications of the playwright, 
without a moment's hesitation he replied: 
" An inborn dramatic instinct, first of all; then 
an intuitive perception of dramatic movement 
and effect, as distinguished from the method 
of the novelist. Without this there is nothing. 
This instinct may be developed, of course, 
otherwise there would be no growth in the 
dramatist's power and skill, but it must first be 
of the genuine quality. When I got out of 



college I was writing stories for children. A 
friend suggested that I try to write a play 
around a historical figure for a certain well- 
known actor. I ridiculed the idea. I had 
never thought of playwriting, and the idea 
seemed to me silly in the extreme. But finally 
I drew up a scenario and fortunately it was ap- 
proved at once. When I turn back to-day to 
that scenario, crude as it was, I see that it 
clearly showed a true dramatic sense. This 
was, as I say, intuitive, since I had made no 
attempt to acquire it. Of course, the arith- 
metic of playwriting may be learned — the 
mechanical methods of producing intended 
effects, but the dramatic instinct must be 

" Probably it is because every one has some 
consciousness of the dramatic instinct that 
makes almost every living creature imagine it 
can write plays. Failure may be due to the 
crudeness of this instinct or to an undeveloped 
technique. The only way to find out is to go 
ahead and write. Time will tell. You know, 
it has a way of dispelling illusions." 

" What is the best way to market the new 
play ? " 

44 Well," said Mr. Fitch, 44 don't count on the 
managers. They are, with a few exceptions, 
almost impregnable. They seldom read plays 
themselves, but employ Readers — picked up, 
as likely as not, from behind some bargain 
counter — who are usually failures as play- 
wrights themselves, and whose judgment is 
worthless. As a result the good plays are lost 
with the bad ones. There is scarcely a suc- 
cessful play today that has not passed through 
the hands of scores of these Readers who 
rejected it." 

Onlv those who remember the desperate 
fortunes of 44 Nathan Hale," 44 Lovers' Lane," 
44 The Climbers," and many other popular suc- 
cesses, can fully appreciate the truth of Mr. 
Fitch's words. The best way to approach the 
managers, he believed, is through the actors 
themselves. Once get an actor or actress 
interested in a play and one may rest assured 
the managers will hear of it; and if they have 
faith in their actors, they will very likely take 
hold of the play. 

" But how can one hope for the good play 

ever to be found among the flood of poor 

Mr. Fitch mused a moment, and then said : 
" Yes, that is the tragedy of it all. It is the 
waiting and waiting and — hoping for the chance 
that will bring it recognition. But there is no- 
other way. After all, do we get anything of 
value in life without working and waiting for it? 

44 It is commonly supposed also that after 
one's first success the rest is plain sailing. 
As a rule, perhaps, this is true, but it is by no 
means certain. In my own case, after I had 
had as many as four distinct successes, when 
my position might have been thought secure, 
there came a period of nearly six years when I 
could get no plays accepted. The managers 
were all afraid of the same plays that have 
since been successful. They would come to 
me begging for plays, and when I said, 4 Why» 
certainly,' and handed them 4 The Climbers' 
from my desk, they received it with delight. 
But when they opened the manuscript the 
smile faded, they stammered their regrets, and 
suddenly recalled an engagement at the club. 

44 1 lost heart and almost concluded the game 
was not worth while. No one seemed to want 
my plays, and I began to think of some other 
line of work." 

44 The truth is," he continued, " I had too- 
much of what one might call boyish pride. 
I could not follow the managers and actors 
around. I would not sit on their doorsteps. 
It went too much against the grain. Well 
while I was in this frame of mind I read a story 
that proved the turning point of my life. It 
was about a dramatist who followed a manager 
into a Turkish bath, in the belief that anybody 
would be sufficiently bored by a Turkish bath 
to listen to anything. This amused me so that 
I decided to make one more trial. I wrote to- 
an actor whom I had unsuccessfully tried to- 
me et several times before. Reluctantly he 
granted me an interview the following week. 
Then I grew very bold. I told him next week 
would not do; that if I did not see him the 
next day I should sell the play to another 
prominent actor. Accordingly, I was invited 
— or rather permitted — to see him the next 
day. But even at the theatre the actor tried to- 
divert me from my purpose of talking about 

The Writer. 


'Nathan Hale.' Without inviting me to sit 
down, he tried to interest me in the beauties of 
his English home, pointing out some rare hang- 
ings of the interior. 

444 Ah, yes, 1 I persisted, 'but speaking of 
this play — * 

44 ' And notice the beautiful landscape, too — * 

14 'Enter '-Nathan Hale." ' 

44 Mr. Goodwin capitulated, and before he 
had heard it half through he accepted the 

From that time on Mr. Fitch's success has 
been uninterrupted. 

44 Is it true Mr. Fitch, that you use the 
checker board as an aid when constructing 
your plays?" 

The playwright laughed and sank feebly into 
the depths of his chair, the picture of comical 
despair. Then he spoke seriously. 

44 No. Some playwrights use dummies of 
various sorts to help in working out the plot, 
but I have never used devices of this kind, as 
I always found my imagination vivid enough 
to keep everything in mind. I visualize clearly. 
As to method, I have none — and I am not sure 
I would tell it if I had. The only thing in the 
world I take seriously is my work. It is easy 
to imagine the whole world hanging on what 
you intend to do next, but it keeps me busy 
enough watching that I don't slip down and 

" No, the method of work is simply the 
manner of the man, and is of no more interest 
to others than any other peculiarity, because it 
is something that cannot be imparted. You 
may be sure that no person who has to be 
supplied with a method of work will ever make 
a playwright. Every writer evolves his own 
method, and it will be the natural expression of 
his temperament. Practice alone will teach a 
man the best method for himself. My own 
method is bad, I suppose, because it is really 
a lack of method. I write whenever I feel 
that I can write, and at any odd moment. It 
may be for an hour in the morning, three hours 
in the evening, or if I catch a good idea I may 
write in my lap on the train. This practice 
certainly helps to develop one's spontaneity, 
at least, which is a very essential thing. That 
is why I stop writing when I get tired, as I 

never try to force myself after I have ceased 
to express freely." 

This naturally suggested the much-mooted 
question of the number of plays a dramatist 
should properly try to produce in a year. 

"It is a favorite criticism," he said, "that 
quality must necessarily be sacrificed to 
quantity. In the abstract this would seem to 
be true, but this, just like the peculiar method 
of work, must depend on the man. I have 
been much criticised for producing too rapidly, 
but this is the method of expression natural to 
me. Being of a nervous, active temperament, 
it is natural for me to compose rapidly; and it 
is doubtful if I would do better work if I 
wrote more slowly. If a lifetime is good for, 
say, twenty plays, one man may write them 
all in a period of five years, while another may 
stretch them over a period of forty. Each 
would be following the bent of his tempera- 
ment, and each might be equally efficient. If 
a man has a definite idea and can express it 
quickly, why need he take a year to do it ? " 

44 What is your usual starting point in the con- 
struction of a play — do you see it as a 
whole ? " 

"Very seldom. A play, like life itself, and 
any work of art, is a growth. Very frequently 
it outgrows all semblance to its original form 
in the playwright's mind — he begins with one 
play and ends with another. This is because 
if one's characters are real, their actions can- 
not always be anticipated, and they take the 
bit in their own mouths. My first conception 
usually is that of one or more given characters 
in a given critical situation. From this point 
the play grows backward as well as forward. 

44 Usually I think over a play about a year 
before I set about it on paper. I let it lie 
fallow in my mind, elaborating it and changing 
it until I have a fairly well defined idea of its 
completed action. Then I begin to write and 
put it on paper very rapidly. 

44 For instance, I have a play in mind now 
that I am under contract to deliver next Sep- 
tember. I have not yet written a word of it, 
but when once I begin I expect to put it into 
shape in about three weeks. Of course, I oc- 
casionally put down snatches of dialogue when 
they occur to me, if they seem especially good,. 

7 6 


and lay them aside to use later. Naturally, 
some good ideas are also lost before I get to 
the writing point. The distinct advantage I 
find in this method is that it is very seldom 
necessary to cut after the play* is completed. " 


Barr. — "My novels are not the outcome 
wholly of imagination," says Mrs. Amelia E. 
Barr. " Every book I have written represents 
much study. Before I put a pen to paper I 
familiarize myself perfectly with the history, 
the manner, the costumes, the life of the period 
I plan to put in a story. When I began to 
write I haunted the Astor library studying con- 
stantly. So familiar did I become with its 
shelves that I made an index of my own, one 
which permitted me to find more easily the 
■books I wanted. Frequently the attendants 
would come to me and ask for aid to find some 
volume which their index did not readily dis- 
cover. That was the Astor library of eighteen 
years ago, you understand. 

" Before I began to write * The Lion's 
Whelp,' I read for four months constantly 
nothing but Cromwellian literature, eighty-two 
volumes, till I knew the England of three hun- 
dred years ago most intimately; then I began 
work. With my plot and its setting of scenery 
and manners well in mind, I can write so rap- 
idly that it is rarely a word has to be altered 
in editing. I do my work in the early part of 
the day. During the beautiful mornings of 
spring and summer, you might find our house- 
hold astir at daylight and the breakfast table 
set on the broad piazza at five o'clock. After 
breakfast and a constitutional in the fine brac- 
ing air, I go to my study and work steadily 
till noon. As a rule, my thoughts flow as 
quickly as my pen will put them on paper. If 
they do not, I turn to the Hebrew prophets, 
whose sublimity of language calms the mind 
and inspires. I never touch a pen after noon- 
time. Dinner is followed by an hour or two of 
restful sleep. I believe implicitly in the mid- 
day siesta of the tropics." — Gocd Housekeeping. 

Bayly.— The death of Ada Ellen Bayly — 
to give " Edna Lyall" her real name — has 
brought out many interesting particulars re- 

garding her. She was a quiet little woman, of 
an intensely religious turn of mind, and found 
less enjoyment in playing the "lion" than in 
laboring with the class of working girls whom 
she used to receive every Sunday afternoon at 
her seaside home at Bournemouth. She 
worked continuously, but for the last few years 
of her life was obliged to confine herself to a 
rather small quantity of work each day, on ac- 
count of ill health. It will be a surprise to 
most people to hear that both " Donovan " and 
" Won by Waiting," her first published works, 
proved complete failures until the success of 
" We Two " aroused interest in them. — Denver 

Besant. — Nobody understood the practical 
issues of a literary career more thoroughly 
than did Sir Walter Besant. He has left us 
intimate details of his personal expenses, and 
it is obvious that in his case the struggle was 
not particularly tragic. As far as his example 
is concerned, it should not encourage any 
human being to attempt literary work as a sole 
means of livelihood. He could afford to wait, 
and he understood the art of waiting. The 
following details show that the delay was not 
intolerable : — 

" My rent was ^40 a year ; my laundress^ 
washing, coals, lights, and breakfast cost me 
about £70 a year. My dinners — it is a great 
mistake not to feed well — cost me about thirty 
shillings a week. Altogether I could live very 
well indeed on about ^250 a year. Practically 
I spent more, because I travelled whenever I 
could get away, and bought books, and was 
fond of good claret. The same thing in liter 
ary work is always the same — to be indepen- 
dent ; not to worry about to-morrow, and not to 
be compelled to do pot-boiling. I could afford 
to be anxious about the work and not to be 
anxious at all about money." 

His rules for conduct in literature may be 
deduced from the following: — 

"i. I was not dependent on literature; I 
could spend time on my work. 

" 2. I began by producing a book on the 
subject on which I desired to be a specialist. 
The work had a succes d'estime, and in a sense 
made my literary fortune. 



"3. This book opened the doors for me of 
magazines and reviews. 

"4. The knowledge of French matters also 
opened the door of the daily press for me. 

44 5. I followed up the line by a second book 
on the same subject. The press were again, 
on the whole, very civil." — Chambers's Journal, 

Cobb. — Among the minor English novelists 
none is better known than Thomas Cobb. 
Mr. Cobb's method of work is painstaking, if 
nothing more. He sits down at his desk at 
about a quarter past eight in the morning, and 
labors uninterruptedly at his manuscript until 
noon — a span of about four hours — which he 
considers a fairly good day's work. Fre- 
quently he writes the bulk of a novel three or 
four or even five times, and he always writes it 
twice. This, of course, means hard labor; but 
as he works systematically, he gets through a 
good deal. As a rule, he uses a typewriter, 
employing a pen only for corrections. Some 
reviewers have described Mr. Cobb's work as 
"superficial," a criticism to which he takes 
strong exception. His theory is that as in 
actual life we are necessarily compelled to 
judge persons by their speech and appearance, 
so in a novel, if the author reports (with a dif- 
ference) the one and describes the other, he 
gives a sufficient clew to that within, which is, 
of course, the character. — Boston Transcript. 

Flaubert. — Most people know what infinite 
pains Gustave Flaubert took in fostering the 
literary style of his pupil, De Maupassant, and 
had surmised therefrom that he must have 
pruned and polished his own work quite as 
laboriously. Proof of the correctness of this 
suggestion is now forthcoming from a French 
writer who has just been permitted to examine 
Flaubert's unpublished papers, and who has 
written an essay on the author's "labor of 
style." He is especially interesting when he 
describes Flaubert's treatment of the adminis- 
tration of the extreme unction to the heroine 
in " Madame Bovary," apiece of writing which 
many critics have pronounced almost perfect. 
Flaubert wrote this description five times in 
succession, and the last draft was as different 
as possible from the first. To begin with, the 
author set down only his general idea. He 
afterward elaborated it, and finally cut out 

different parts. Concerning the final draft, the 
French critic says: "In the fourth, he said 
everything he thought possible to say, while in. 
the fifth and last, he said everything he thought 
possible to say in the fewest possible words." — 
London Letter, in the Indianapolis News. 

Garrison. — Theodosia Pickering Garrison 
admits that she began to write verse when she 
was seven years old. " I wrote in a yellow, ink- 
stained copy-book, and it had an owl on the 
cover. When I had reached the mature age 
of sixteen, I wrote a poem entitled 4 Christmas 
Bells,' and when I saw it in print, in a little 
local publication called Town Talk, I wept in 
shame." In 1896, Theodosia Pickering mar- 
ried Joseph Garrison, a New York lawyer, and 
since that time she and her husband have occu- 
pied a cosey little apartment near the Park, in 
West Eighty-eighth street, where they give 
cordial welcome to their many friends. Mrs. 
Garrison reflected a moment when I asked her 
how she found time for her writing. " I don't 
know how I do it," she confessed. " I write 
at any odd moment I may have, before break- 
fast, while dressing for dinner, and late at 
night — whenever I find the time. I don't 
think verse writing is difficult— it just comes." 
To illustrate her extreme facility, a friend of 
hers told me that on a day's notice she wrote 
"The King's Chamber," a poem which won a 
prize of $250. Mrs. Garrison was at Long 
Branch. Her poem reached New York on the 
last day of a contest, and won the prize out of 
1,200 competitors. — Bertha C. Crowell, in the 
Boston, Transcript. 

Hawthorne. — At an auction sale in Boston 
April 7 of the library of the late E. P. Whipple, 
the critic, $147.50 was paid for a letter of 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, dated West Newton, 
May 2, 1852, to Mr. Whipple, asking him to 
read the copy of "The Blithedale Romance" 
and suggest an appropriate name. It appears 
from this letter that Hawthorne had nearly hit 
upon the title, but it is probable that the final 
same of the volume was suggested by Mr. 
Whipple. The letter reads in part : — 

44 Behold a huge bundle of scribble which 
you have thoughtlessly promised to look over \ 
If you find it beyond your powers, send it over 



to Ticknor at once, and let him send it to the 
Devil! Nobody has yet read it except my 
wife. ... I wish you would help me to choose 
a name. I have put * Hollingsworth ' on the 
title-page, but that is not irrevocable, although, 
I think, the best that has occurred to me — as 
presenting the original figure about which the 
rest of the book clustered itself. 

"Here are some others — ' Blithedale ' — all 
well enough, but with no positive merit or suit- 
ability; • Miles Coverdale's Three Friends' — 
this title comprehends the book, but rather 
clumsily; 'The Veiled Lady* — too melodra- 
matic, and besides, I do not wish to give 
prominence to that feature of the romance ; 
'Priscilla* — she is such a shrinking damsel 
that it seems hardly fair to thrust her into the 
vanguard and make her the standard bearer ; 
' The Blithedale Romance ' — that would do in 
lack of abetter; 'The Arcadian Summer* — 
not a taking title." 

Hotchkiss. — Chauncey C. Hotchkiss has his 
own fads and fancies in the manner of working. 
He generally takes the climax of his plot and 
works backward from it until he has his story 
roughly outlined. Then for a month or two he 
searches out data bearing on the events and 
localities, and begins his novel, composing 
with lead-pencil in a common blank book that 
can be carried in the pocket, and using each 
alternate page, leaving the other for interpola- 
tions. This is almost illegible to all but him- 
. self, and from it he makes his one and final 
copy on the typewriter, correcting and 
strengthening as he progresses. He is of a 
nervous temperament, and cannot dictate to a 
stenographer nor compose while another per- 
son is in the room. His daily stint is about 
one thousand words, and he maintains that 
few men, writing creative matter, can do more 
than that, day after day, and have the result 
worth reading. 

Mr. Hotchkiss is a man now in the prime of 
life. He is a great reader, but his only prac- 
tical literary training was gained on a country 
newspaper owned by his uncle. When he re- 
turned to New York he studied photography in 
in its special branches and for more than thir- 
teen years was surgical photographer for the 
New York hospital and part of that time for 

the Roosevelt hospital in the days when Dr. 
McBurney was its leading light. His health 
becoming affected, he cut all bridges connect- 
ing him with commercial life and launched 
again into literature. — Boston Transcript. 

Stannard. — Struggling authors should note 
that it was only after ten years of incessant 
work that Mrs. Stannard ("John Strange Win- 
ter " ) scored a real, big success. They should 
also lay to heart the fact that " Booties " was 
rejected by six London editors, who, one 
would think, must since often have yearned to 
kick themselves. Soon after her marriage, Mr. 
Stannard, who relieves her of a heavy burden 
by looking after all her business interests, 
found the story in a box of manuscript, read it, 
liked it, and suggested that he should send it 
to the Graphic. Mrs. Stannard, mindful of 
its previous receptions, answered — may one 
say it — pettishly: " Send it to Paradise if you 
like, for it is quite as likely to get into one as 
the other." Not long afterward she one day 
picked up a horseshoe in the road, and carried 
it home "for luck." On the hall table she 
found awaiting her a letter of acceptance from 
the Graphic. — Mainly About People. 


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Thomas Arnold the Youngkr. With bas-relief portrait. 
William T. Arnold. Century ( 38 c.) for May. 

Notable Women: Madame Blanc ( "Th. Bentxon"). 
With portrait. Mrs. Fields. Century (38 c.) for May. 

Our Inheritance in Emerson. Topics of the Time, 
Century ( 38 c ) for May. 

A Letter from Miss Alcott's Sister about '• Little 
Women." St. Nicholas ( 28 c.) for May. 

The Emerson Centennial— Emerson and Trans- 
cendentalism. Illustrated. George Willis Cooke. New 
England Magazine ( a8 c.) for May. 

Jean db Bloch and "The Future of War." With 
portrait. Edwin D. Mead. New England Magazine (a8 c.) 
for May. 

The New England Primer. Illustrated. Clifton 
Johnson. New England Magazine ( 38 c.) for May. 



Embrson as a Rbligious Influence. George A. Gordon. 
Atlantic ( 38 c.) for May. 

My Own Story.— V. J. T. Trowbridge. Atlantic ( 38 c.) 
for May. 

Thb Book and thb Place. Martha Baker Dunn. 
Atlantic ( 38 c.) for May. 

Some American Humorous Artists. III.— *'Penrhyn 
Stanlaws," F. M. Howarth, Walter H. Galloway, Frank A. 
Nankivell, A. S. Daggy, S. D. Ehrhart, Syd. B. Griffin, and 
Custave Verbeek. Illustrated. Thomas E. Curtis. Strand 
Magazine (13 c.) for May. 

Great Magazines and Their Editors. With photo- 
graphs of twenty-six editors. David Graham Phillips. Suc- 
cess ( 13 c. ) for May. 

Alice Frbbman Palmer and Her Work for Educa- 
tion. Illustrated. Anna Garlin Spencer. Pearson* s Maga- 
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Emerson's Influence on American Civilization. 
Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Success ( 13 c.) for May. 

A Woodland Hbrmitagb. (The home of John Bur- 
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•Good Housekeeping { 13 c) for May. 

Embrson and Concord. Illustrated. Hamilton Wright 
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Of Collaboration. "V. E. M." The A uthor ( London ) 
( 18 c.) for May. 

Somb Free Lancb Experiences. •• H. W." The 
Author ( London ) ( 18 c.) for May. 

Litbrary Copyright: Thb Period of Protection. J. 
A. Reid. The A uthor ( London ) ( 18 c.) for May. 

The Irritability of Authors. The Author ( London ) 
< 18 c.) for May. 

The Ministry of Emerson. With portrait. Dr. Mon- 
cure D. Conway. Open Court (13 c.) for May. 

Literary Concord. Illustrated. Jennie Campbell 
Douglass. Four-Track News (8c.) for May. 

Thb Ideal Newspaper. Paul Tyner. Era ( 13 c.) for 

The Development of the Modern Newspaper. Illus- 
trated. Day Allen Willey. Era (13 c.) for May. 

Another View of Jane Austen's Novels. Annie 
Gladstone. Reprinted from the Nineteenth Century and 
After in the Eclectic ( j8 c.) for May. 

Monsieur Db Blowitz. Reprinted from Mac miliars 
Magazine in the Eclectic ( a8 c) for May. 

Helen Keller : A Psychological Autobiography. 
( Review of " The Story of My Life," by Helen Keller.) Pro- 
fessor Joseph Jastrow. Popular Science Monthly ( 33 c ) for 

Certain of the Chicago School of Fiction. ( Edith 
Wyatt, George Ade, and F. P. Dunne.) W. D. Howells. 
North A merican Review ( 53 c ) for May. 

The Modern School of Nature Study and its Crit- 
ics. A reply to '* Real and Sham Natural History," by John 
Burroughs, in the Atlantic for March. William J. Long. 
North American Review (53 c.) for May. 

Ralph Waldo Embrson. W. Robertson Nicoll. North 
American Review ( 53 c.) for May. 

Some Memories of Bayard Taylor. Murat Halstead. 
Criterion ( 13 c.)for May. 

"Who is Mr. Chesterton?" (Gilbert Chesterton, 
author of " The Defendant." ) Randall Blackshaw. Critic 
(28 c.) for May. 

Thb Uncertainties of Litbraturb. Elliott Flower. 
Critic ( 28 c.) for May. 

Thb Modern Embrson. Edith Baker Brown. Critic 
(28 c.) for May. 

Embrson : Sceptic and Pbssimist. Benjamin de Casseres. 
Critic {lie ) for May. 

First Editions of Embrson. Illustrated. Annie Russell 
Marble. Critic ( 28 c.) for May. 

Embrson as a Poet. Illustrated. Gerald Stanley Lee. 
Critic ( 28 c.) for May. 

Embrson and Contemporary Ports. F. B. Sanborn. 
Critic ( 28 c.) for May. 

Ralph Waldo Embrson as I Knew Him. Julia Ward 
Howe. Critic ( 28 c.) for May. 

Embrson: Thb Tbachbr and thb Man. Moncure D. 
Conway. Critic ( 28 c.) for May. 

The Speech Reporter as a Spbbch Reviser. Contin- 
ued. David Wolfe Brown. Phonographic Magazine ( 13 c.) 
for May. 

Morb About Carlylb. Margherita Arlina Hamm. 
Journalist ( 13 c.) for April 18. 

Something Very Short about thb Institute of 
Journalists. Herbert Cornish. Journalist (13 c.)fur 
April 25. 

George Palmbr Putnam: A Memorial. R. R. Bowker. 
Publisher's Weekly ( 13 c.) for April 18. 

Hillary Bell's Sudden Death. With portrait. 
News paper dom ( 13 c.) for April 16. 

Thb Small Publisher. Nation ( 13 c.) for April 2. 

Madame Db Stabl and Napoleon.— I., II., III. 
Nation ( 13 c. each ) for April 2, 16, and 30. 

Copyright Improvement. Nation ( 13 c.) for April 30. 

Monsieur db Blowitz'. Reprinted from Mat.millan*s 
Magazine in the Living Age ( 18 c.) for April 4. 

Another View of Jane Austen's Novels. Annie 
Gladstone. Reprinted from the Nineteenth Century and 
After in the Living Age ( 18 c.) for April 4. 

Tchaikovsky and Tolstoi. Rosa Newmarch. Reprinted 
from the Contemporary Reviezv in the Living Age ( 18 c.) for 
April 4. 

The Sonnet. Reprinted from the Academy in the Living 
Age ( 18 c.) for April 1 1. 

Battles in Fiction. Eveline C. Godley. Reprinted from 
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Matthew Arnold's Note-books. J. C. Bailey. Re- 
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( 18 c) for April 18. 

Letters to a Literary Aspirant.— I., II., III. Re- 
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for April 25. 

Novelist Poets. ( George Meredith, Thomas Hardy, and 
Robert Louis Stevenson.) Reprinted from the Academy in 
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Miss Ellen Thorneycroft Fowler was married 
April 16, to A. L. Felkin, Esq., at Tettenhall, 
near Wolverhampton, England. 

Mrs. Edith E. Bigelow has obtained a 
divorce from Poultney Bigelow on the statutory 

Doubleday, Page & Co. are to publish the 
memoirs of M. de Blowitz. 



"The Faith of Robert Louis Stevenson," by 
John Kelman, Jr., announced by the Fleming 
H. Revell Company, is in no way a biography 
or a criticism, but rather a careful analysis of 
Stevenson's message to his age. 

Mr. Collier has called Norman Hapgood 
from Italy to take charge of the editorial page 
of Collier's Weekly. 

John Emery McLean has retired from the 
editorial staff of Afind and of the Arena. 

Miss Adeline Knapp has joined the staff of 
the Household (New York ), which has been 
published under new management since the 
beginning of the year. 

The Red Book is a new short-story magazine 
published in Chicago. Trumbull White is the 

The American Weekly (Chicago) is now 

Campbell's Illustrated Journal has removed 
from Chicago to St. Louis. 

The Ledger Monthly (New York), which 
made Robert Bonner's fortune, has failed. 

The Abbey Press ( New York ) has been 
petitioned into bankruptcy. 

The Prang Educational Company has re- 
moved from Boston to New York. 

A. S. Barnes & Co. are preparing to extend 
their line of books, and have secured the ser- 
vices of Ripley D. Hitchcock, formerly with 
D. Appleton & Company, as literary adviser. 

The Outlook (New York) offers prizes of 
$250 and $100 for the best two illustrated 
articles on " The Town Beautiful," not exceed- 
ing 3,000 words, received before September 1. 
These articles may describe any plan, system, 
or invention by which a community, large or 
small, village or city, has been made more 
attractive or less unsightly. 

Good Housekeeping (Springfield, Mass.,) 
offers $1,000 in prizes to those who have the 
most interesting experiences to relate from 
their own lives or from the lives of those they 
personally know or have known. Mere anec- 
dotes when true and interesting, will win 
prizes, or be paid for in cash if available for 
publication. The contest will remain open till 
November 1. 

Short Stories ( New York) offers a monthly 
prize of $5 for the best anecdote, original or 
selected, submitted to the editor. 

The editor of Golf ( New York) will be glad 
to receive for consideration photographs and 
contributions on the general subject of the 
game. Payment will be made on publication. 

" The Big Trees of California " is an inter- 
esting pamphlet, issued by the Southern Pacific 
Company, San Francisco, and including four- 
teen exceptionally fine pictures of the Califor- 
nia Sequoias. 

When R. H. Russell transferred his publish- 
ing business to Harper & Brothers, his three 
best-paying books were those of " Mr. Dooley," 
George Ade, and Charles Dana Gibson. Mr. 
Gibson declined to be a party to the transfer, 
and applied to Charles Scribner's Sons, who 
were the publishers of his first book, and his 
books in future will bear the Scribner imprint. 

S. F. Harriman, a bookseller and publisher 
of Columbus, O., has been sued by John James 
Piatt for $2,500 damages on the ground that he 
did not bring out a new edition of Piatt's book, 
as agreed. 

The Book of the Royal Blue (Baltimore) 
for May has autograph contributions from 
sixty of the newspaper humorists of the 
United States ( who are to form an association 
this month ) with portraits and sketches of the 

The May Century offers apropos of the Em- 
erson centenary a full-page woodcut, engraved 
by Timothy Cole, of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
and editorial discussion of "Our Inheritance 
in Emerson." 

St. Nicholas for May prints a letter from 
Miss Alcott's sister, the Meg of "Little 
Women," written years ago to a young 
admirer of this friend of young folks, and 
telling the true story of the four sisters. 

The Critic for May is an Emerson Centenary 
number, with seven articles relating to the poet 
and his work, some of them illustrated. 

Rev. Dr. George Dana Boardman died in 
Philadelphia, April 29, aged seventy-five. 

Paul B. Du Chaillu died in St. Petersburg 
April 29, aged sixty-seven. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 

BOSTON, JUNE, 1903. 

No. 6. 

Entired at the Boston post-office as second-class mail matter. 


What Makes a Book Succeed? William J. Lampton. 81 
The Ubiquitous Illustration. JV. H. Blumenthal. 82 
Again Magazine Writing. Alice M. Never s. ... 83 

Editorial. 84 

The Oldest English and American Authors, 84 — A 
Model of Description, 84 — The Association of Ameri- 
can Periodicals, 85 — Need of a Representative Asso- 
ciation of Authors, 85 — How Not to Sell a Manuscript. 86 

"Newspaper English" Edited 86 

The Scrap Basket 86 

Personal Gossip About Authors 87 

George W. Cable, 87— Charles Darwin, 87 —Thomas 
Hardy, 87— Bret Harte, 87— Max Pemberton, 88 — 
Edgar Allan Poe, 88 — Viola Roseboro, 88— Frank 

R.Stockton 88 

Current Literary Topics *. . 89 

The Use of Pseudonyms, 89 — The Method of the 
Poet, 90 — Authors as the Publisher Views Them, 91 

— Literary Horrors, 92 — Mr. Swinburne's Style, 92 

— How Publishers Handle Manuscripts, 93 — " The 
Former " and *• The Latter," 93 - Coincidence in Plots. 93 

Book Reviews 94 

Literary Articles in Periodicals 94 

News and Notes 95 


What makes a book successful — " success- 
ful," in this instance and in these days of 
material things, meaning large sales and much 
profit to author and publisher? Is it merit? 
Not always. " David Harum " is not the most 
meritorious book that has been written within 
the past twenty years, but what book has had 
a larger sale ? " Ben Hur," moreover, has had 
an enormous sale, and yet books with equal 
merit, in point of everything except subject, 
have met with only slight success. Some have 
been failures. At least they are failures now, 
although if their authors happen to press the 
magic button with some later production, they 
may retrieve themselves. 

Books upon religious subjects, e.^j^ecially 

touching the life of Christ, are usually good 
sellers, for example, "The Prince of the 
House of David," "In His Steps " and "Ben 
Hur." This may be attributed to the univer- 
sal interest of the subject, appealing as well to 
those in the palace as to those in the hovel. 
Several millions of copies of the first and 
oldest of these have been sold, while " Ben 
Hur," the next in age, approaches a million, 
and " In His Steps " exceeds that number, 
partly because it has been issued in the 
cheapest form, in order to reach the poorest 

Books with a motive, such as "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin/' sometimes have large sales, particular- 
ly if they appear at a time ripe for their read- 
ing, as was the case with " Uncle Tom." No 
later book with a purpose, however, has 
equalled that, and with the multiplicity of 
interests characterizing an older and much 
more diversified and numerous people, it is not 
probable any other ever will equal it. 

Some of the books selling to-day as fast as 
they can be got off the presses furnish no evi- 
dence of the cause of their success. We can 
understand why Wagner's " The Simple Life," 
which seemed destined to a career of obscur- 
ity, suddenly emerged from it and began to be 
inquired for by all people, when we come to 
consider that Mr. Roosevelt boomed it in one 
of his speeches. So, also, occasionally, did Mr. 
Gladstone lift an ordinary book to fame and 

But these are exceptions. Other books, for 
no reason that any fair-minded judge of merit 
can advance, suddenly catch the popular fancy, 
and before author or publisher can compre- 
hend what is happening, the boom is on and 
the presses are going night and day to supply 
the demand. Nor are many, if not most, of 

Copyright, 1903, by William HL. Hills. All rights reserved* 


The Writer. 

these successful books by well-known writers. 
Most of the best sellers for the past few years 
have been by new writers, and their success 
began with the first book. Attest " David 
Harum," "Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage 
Patch," and others between. 

Now, what is it makes them go? What is 
the mystery of their making? Do books have 
a personal magnetism, such as people have, 
which attracts without reason and fascinates in 
spite of all faults ? William J. Lampton. 
New York, N. Y. 


Along with the deluge of books that to-day 
overwhelms a long-suffering reading public is 
the equally appalling flood of illustrations. 
Have you who read this never experienced a 
feeling of irritation at the atrocities perpetrated 
by our book-illustrators under the guise of art? 
Have you not often thought that the book you 
happened to be reading would have been better 
unillustrated, and that the illustrations de- 
tracted from rather than added to your enjoy- 
ment of it ? That many of our authors have 
thought so, and usually the greatest of them, 
is shown by the fact that their own books are 
unillustrated. Padding popular novels with 
cheap illustrations to catch the eye of a gullible 
public is an acknowledged trick of the trade 
amongf publishers. A recent novel whose ac- 
tion was supposed to take place in one day 
came forth lavishly pictured, but by some 
oversight its seven illustrations each had the 
heroine (a village society belle) garbed in a 
different fashionable gown. While these fash- 
ion plates may have been most edifying to the 
fair readers of the book, the author said noth- 
ing in the story to lead us to suppose that the 
lady was a lightning-change artist. 

Most lovers of poetry will agree that it is 
seldom made more enjoyable by illustration. 
There are various reasons why this is so. The 
imaginative and suggestive qualities of poetry 
defy adequate illustration. The lyric by the 
fact of its subjectivity is essentially opposed to 
the idea of objective portrayal. The publisher 
who some time ago brought out a vignette edi- 
tion of Shelley slapped the face of the Muse. 

When the poet and the painter are more or 
less blended, as in a Blake or a Rossetti, there 
is some slight excuse for the illustration of 
lyric poetry. Otherwise, it cannot but be in- 
artistic. Even a Turner could not do full jus- 
tice to a Wordsworth, and if he could, it must 
always be remembered that while poetry is 
lasting, the externalities, such as dress, which 
would so often be necessary to its illustration, 
are ever changing. True, in such a poem as 
" Paradise Lost," the difficulties of dress need 
not be dealt with by the illustrator. No one 
has ever told us why in the old English morality 
plays the story of Adam and Eve was always 
acted by the tailors* guild. But it is question- 
able whether illustration is to be desired even 
in the epic whose objectivity might be sup- 
posed to afford scope for the artist. In fact, 
the only class of poetry which can be illustrated 
without a certain loss of art, and the class 
which is perhaps least of all illustrated, is the 
drama. The action which is an essential ele- 
ment of dramatic writing, and the power of 
visualization which is necessary in the reader 
for the proper interpretation and enjoyment of 
this class of poetry, make the task of the illus- 
trator somewhat easier here and his illustra- 
tions more often to be desired — if they be 
really illustrative and artistic. 

Distinctions must also be made between dif- 
ferent types of the novel in a consideration as 
to whether or not books of that class should be 
illustrated. The art of Thomas Hardy is seen 
in this matter of illustration as in all else that 
is touched by the magic of his genius. In the 



publication of his later works he has insisted 
that his publisher dispense with illustrations 
altogether, or have only a frontispiece giving 
an artistic picture of some view of Wessex 
scenery. In works such as those of Dickens, 
where the characters are usually objectively 
treated and are generally in the nature of car- 
icatures, an able artist can add to our enjoy- 
ment by portraying the outward peculiarities 
of figure or dress. But in a book where the 
inner passions of men and women play one 
against the other, where the interest is psycho- 
logical, no illustration can aid us in entering 
into the spirit of the novelist's portrayal of 
human character. 

There is one point of view from which this 
•question of illustrating books may be regarded 

that argues against any illustrations whatso- 
ever. The reader of a novel forms, consciously 
or unconsciously, a certain mental image — 
more or less vague, to be sure, and permeated 
with his own individuality — of every character 
depicted by the novelist. The artist who 
wishes to illustrate this book likewise forms 
an image of each character in the novel, but an 
image tempered and interpreted by his own 
personality. The conceptions of the characters 
imaged in the mind of each reader and of the 
artist are in each instance different. Hence the 
illustrations will only partly if they at all em- 
body the picture of the characters which the 
reader has mentally formed for himself, and 
will serve only to dissolve or blur that picture. 

Philadelphia, Penn. W. H, BlumenthaL 


The discussion in the November Writer of 
the chances of magazine work has moved me 
to contribute a pertinent anecdote or two. 

Some years ago a new writer appeared in 
New York and offered to each of the great 
periodicals in turn certain work now as well 
known as the writer has since become. It 
•was rejected everywhere. The new writer had 
no other means of earning a livelihood, and 
after a while was in actual danger of starva- 
tion. At this juncture a friend interested an 
author with much influence in the struggling 
•writer. This author took the rejected manu- 
scripts to a prominent editor (one who had 
already returned them) and insisted upon a 
second consideration of their merits. The 
consideration was given, the merits were dis- 
covered, and the manuscripts were accepted. 
This was enough for the new writer, who 
stands to-day among the foremost of Ameri- 
can story-tellers. 

Another new writer, some time ago, sent a 
contribution to a leading magazine. It was 
returned, accompanied by a letter from the 

editor, saying that he could not let it go with- 
out telling the author how much he had 
enjoyed reading it, and how gladly he would 
have accepted it, had not the owner of the 
magazine refused it for some business reason 
totally irrespective of its value. 

Lastly, here is another true tale. A young 
poet met the editor of a periodical which pub- 
lishes verse, both original and — a little — se- 
lected. The editor spoke in warm terms of a 
poem of the writer's which he had recently 
copied from another paper. 

" It was one you had already declined," said 
the writer, " I sent it first to you, and not un- 
til after you had rejected it, to this other pub- 

The editor replied coolly : "Very likely. We 
are obliged, of course, to reject quantities of 
excellent stuff." 

But why? thought the poet. If the poem 
was good enough to print, why was it not good 
enough to buy ? 

Alice M. Never s. 

New York, N. Y. 



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%* Not one line of paid advertisement will be printed in 
The Writbr outside of the advertising pages. 

%• Advertising in Thb Writer costs fifteen cents a line, or 
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advertising payments must be made quarterly in advance. 

V Contributions not used will be returned, if a stamped and 
addressed envelope is enclosed. 


146 Franklin street, Room 32, 
P. O. Box 1005. Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. 

June, 1903. 

No. 6. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

* * 

The oldest English author is Dr. Samuel 
Smiles, the author of " Self Help," who was 
born in 1S12. The publication of this fact re- 
cently brought out an announcement that Pro- 
fessor Marcius Wilson, of Vineland, N. J., 
who was born in 1S13, is still doing daily liter- 
ary work. He is the author of many books, 
including a series of school books published 

fifty years ago, on which the Harpers are said 
to havefpaid him royalties amounting to more 
than $220,000. Older still is Charles H. Has- 
well, of New York City, who was born May 22** 
1809, and has just completed the revision of the 
sixty-ninth edition of his "Mechanics' and 
Engineers' Pocketbook," first issued in 1842. 
Of active authors who have made themselves 
known by the highest kind of literary work, is. 
not Thomas Wentworth Higginson, born 
December 22, 1823, the dean? 

Students of the art of description will find 
a model worthy of careful study in this, by 
Robert Louis Stevenson: — 

Yet there was a small house, backed up against the cemetery 
wall, which was still awake, and awake to evil purpose, in that 
snoring district. There was not much to betray it from with- 
out; only a stream of warm vapor from the chimney-top, a 
patch where the snow melted on the roof, and a few half- 
obliterated footprints at the door. But within, behind the 
shuttered windows, Master Francis Villon, the poet, and some 
of the thievish crew with whom he consorted, were keeping the 
night alive and passing round the bottle. 

A great pile of living enfbers diffused a strong and ruddy 
glow from the arched chimney. Before this straddled Dom 
Nicholas, the Picardy monk, with his skirts picked up and his 
fat legs bared to the comfortable warmth. His dilated shadow 
cut the room in half ; and the firelight only escaped on either 
side of his broad person, and in a little pool between his out- 
stretched feet. His face had the beery, bruised appearance of- 
the continual drinker's; it was covered with a network of 
congested veins, purple in ordinary circumstances, but now 
pale violet, for even with his back to the fire, the cold pinched 
him on the other side. His cowl had half fallen back, and 
made a strange excrescence on each side of his bull neck. So 
he straddled, grumbling, and cut the room in half with the 
shadow of his portly frame. 

On the right, Villon and Guy Tabary were huddled together 
over a scrap of parchment; Villon making a ballade which 
he was to call the " Ballade of Roast Fish," and Tabary splut- 
tering admiration at his shoulder. The poet was a rag of a 
man, dark, little, and lean, with hollow cheeks and thin, black 
locks. He carried his four-and- twenty years with feverish 
animation. Greed had made folds about his eyes, evil smiles 
had puckered his mouth. The wolf and pig struggled to- 
gether in his face. It was an eloquent, sharp, ugly, earthly 
countenance. His hands were small and prehensile, with 
fingers knotted like a cord ; and they were continually flick- 
ering in front of him in violent and expressive pantomime. As 
for Tabary, a broad, complacent, admiring imbecility breathed 
from his squash nose and slobbering lips : he had become a 
thief, just as he might have become the most decent of bur- 
gesses, by the imperious chance that rules the lives of human 
geese and human donkeys. 

At the monk's other hand, Montigny and Thevenin Pensete 
played a game of chance. About the first there clung some 
flavor of good birth and training, as about a fallen angel ; 
something long, lithe, and courtly in the person ; something 
aquiline and darkling in the face. Thevenin, poor soul, was- 



*n great feather : he had done a good stroke of knavery that 
afternoon in the Faubourg St. Jacques, and all night he had 
been gaining from Montigny. A flat smile illuminated his 
face ; his bald head shone rosily in a garland of red curls ; 
tris little protuberant stomach shook with silent chuckling* as 
he swept in his gains. 

Observe that there is not a commonplace 
sentence in any of these paragraphs ; that every 
descriptive word has been chosen with care to 
express the exact meaning of the writer ; and 
that nothing is described, either at large or in 
detail, that is not unusual, striking, and distinct- 
ive. Stevenson instinctively selects the salient 
features of his scene, the distinctive character- 
istics of his personages, and then seeks the 
exact word to present them vividly to the 

The Cosmopolitan Magazine announces that 
it is a member of the Association of American 
Periodicals. This association undertakes to 
follow up and punish all frauds against its 
members, such as the securing of subscriptions 
without authority and the sale of manuscripts 
or illustrations previously published. The as- 
sociation no doubt will do a useful work, and 
writers should be glad to aid it by calling at- 
tention to any impositions on magazine editors 
or publishers that come within their knowledge. 


Some day, perhaps, there will be a strong 
association of writers that will follow up and 
punish all frauds against its members, such as 
the publication, without payment, of manu- 
scripts expressly offered for sale ; unreasonable 
delay in judging manuscripts or unwarrantable 
defacement of manuscript returned ; the with- 
holding of royalties on books; or indefinite 
delay in paying for manuscripts or accounting 
for royalties. Most publishers and editors are 
honest, and would be glad to assist such an 
association in punishing the few who are not, 
just as most writers will heartily join in expos- 
ing the plagiarists and other literary thieves — 
if only for the good and honor of the profession 

* * 

At present the only association of this kind 

is the Society of American Authors, which is 

good so far as it goes, but which for some rea- 

son has never become a representative body of 
authors, as the English Society of Authors is. 
It is pleasant to note that the American society 
has recently taken an important step which is 
likely to increase its usefulness to writers gen- 
erally. At a meeting of its board of managers 
in New York May 21, Poultney Bigelow offered 
a resolution, which was unanimously adopted, 
pledging the legal assistance of the society to 
all the members of the London Society of 
Authors in return for reciprocal treatment. 
Explaining what this means practically, Mr. 
Bigelow says: "The whole success of the 
English society, in my opinion, is based — 
aside from the wonderful character and energy 
of the late Walter Besant — upon the feature 
that the English society gives to its members 
the benefit of first-class legal advice. So far 
we have had nothing of the kind. We have 
in the United States at least 10,000 men and 
women who can be classed as authors in the 
sense that they are directly interested in the 
relation of author and publisher. These 10,000 
care very little for a society that limits itself to 
giving dinners to distinguished men of letters, 
but they are keenly alive to the value of one that 
will obtain for them, for instance, the right to 
send manuscript as second-class matter and that 
will give them practical aid when they are un- 
justly treated by a publisher. The Society of 
American Authors has been looked at askance 
so far because of its lack of practical purpose. 
From this time on I believe we shall not only 
do for American authors all that the English 
society does for English authors, but, owing 
to the larger reading public in America, we 
shall be of even greater importance. It has 
been my idea to try to do something of this 
nature while over here. I am going back to 
discuss this thing with the English society and 
to put it through." 

The trouble with the Society of American 
Authors so far has been the conspicuous ab- 
sence from its membership rolls of the names 
of the leading authors of the United States. 
It is not, and never has been, an active work- 
ing association of the representative authors 
of this country. The English Society of Au- 



thors has power because it includes as mem- 
bers all the leading English writers of to-day. 
Its president is George Meredith, and among 
the members of its council are Rudyard Kip- 
ling, Thomas Hardy, J. M. Barrie, Jerome K. 
Jerome, Mrs. Humphry Ward, H. Rider Hag- 
gard, Conan Doyle, Austin Dobson, and others 
almost as prominent. The present president 
of the Society of American Authors is " Former 
Surrogate" Rastus S. Ransom of New York 
— an estimable gentleman, no doubt. 

* ** 

It would be a good thing if a few hundred of 
the leading authors of the United States would 
join the Society of American Authors, elect a 
prominent president and board of managers, 
and make the society really what its name im- 
plies. Of course it is understood that some- 
body perhaps not known to fame always does 
the work in an association of this kind. In 
the English society, Sir Walter Besant was a 
very active factor, but both before his death 
and since, the secretary, G. Herbert Thring, 
probably deserves credit for much of the so- 
ciety's success. The present secretary of the 
American society, G. Grovesnor Dawe, — odd, 
isn't it, how both these secretaries lay loving 
emphasis on their middle names — also is an 
active worker, and is doing all he can, but he 
needs the helpful backing of names like 
Meredith and Kipling on his letterheads. It 
would be a great thing for the literary workers 
of this country if the Society of American 
Authors could be made over into what it ought 

to be. 

* * 

An enterprising author— probably as talented 
as he is modest — recently sent to a Philadel- 
phia publishing house, and probably to other 
publishers, a printed postal card which read as 

follows : — 

For Sale — A charming romance, entitled " Bernadine: or, 
What Keeps the World in Trim." Nearly five years was de- 
voted to the work by the writer, whose likeness can be seen 
among the most prominent Hoosier authors. It is enough to 
say that good authority compares this work to those of Charles 
Dickens. Number of words, nearly 80,000. This method of 
sale is chosen to save time and expense. Do not miss this op- 
portunity now before you, to procure this fine monumental 
work. The highest bid takes the manuscript, be it large or small. 
Will be shipped C. O. D. one month from date. Address, etc* 

Publishers are notoriously slow to take ad- 

vantage of the golden opportunities that are 
offered to them, and so it is perhaps not 
surprising that "Bernadine" has. not yet 
been announced as the literary sensation of 
the year. , w. h. h. 


Two weeks from to-morrow I Two weeks from to-morrow 
is Memorial day.— Simcrvill* I will be Memorial day. 
(M*s&.) Journal. \ 

I love Chicago people and 
their ways, but its lack of at* 
tractiveness, when compared 
with other cities, is something 
extremely painful.— Ex-S*c~ 
retary Gage. 

I love Chicago's people and 
their ways, but its lack of at- 
tractiveness, when compared 
with other cities, is something 
extremely painful. 


James Courtney Challis for a long time wrote 
verses for the Atchison Globe, getting theatre 
tickets in return. Asking for money, he was 
told that his work was not worth it. This set 
him to wondering why the New York papers 
should reprint his verses, and whether, since 
they did reprint them, they would not pay 
for verses offered originally to them. So he 
stopped writing for the Globe and began bom- 
barding the New York editors with manuscripts. 
He did not gain admittance anywhere till he 
had tried four years. Then he began to get 

In the May number of McClure's Magazine 
is a little sketch by Miss Wilkins, entitled "A 
Happy Day," wherein is described a day spent 
in the Exposition grounds by a French work- 
man and his family. 

From their huge luncheon was taken the fol- 
lowing : U A bottle of red and one of white wine, 
a long twist of bread, slices of cold ragout of 
mutton, salad, and cheese.'* 

Now, it remains a fact that a Frenchman 
rarely drinks red and white wine together, antl 
white wine is not a probable beverage for a 
workman of that locality, though it might be in 
Southern France. The twist of bread is im- 
probable, but not impossible. "A gigot" of 
mutton might be cut into slices ; but a "ragout" 
is nothing more or less than a mutton stew, 

The Writer. 


and it would certainly require skillful carving 
to get slices off the small pieces. 

A few lines farther on we learn that the wine 
was *• thin," which sounds very luxurious for a 
poor family, as the " vin ordinaire " is a thick, 
dark wine, and leaves a blue stain on table 
linen. When one workman wishes to "treat" 
another, he invites him to take a " petit bleu." 

I am wondering, then, why Miss Wilkins 
does not stick to h«r New England hillsides. — 
Henrietta Goodwin, in the New York Times 
Saturday Review. 


Cable. — Mr. Cable's working place is a study 
that he has built among the trees at "Tarry- 
a-While," his beautiful Northampton home. 
Near it are trees planted by Anthony Hope, 
J. M. Barrie, Henry Ward Beecher, and Max 
O'Rell. A writer in the Boston Globe says : 
"Outside, this workhouse is of rough stone 
and shingles, picturesque in the extreme, while 
within, its huge open fireplace, its broad win- 
dow seat and the delightful odor of fir balsam 
pervading the place make a visitor feel inclined 
greatly to envy this literary worker his ideal 
shop. ... On the desk stood a bust of Soph- 
ocles and a picture of Mrs. Cable, together with 
some chance volumes and a fresh and attractive 
manuscript all ready to be mailed. Nearby 
was a small typewriter surrounded by elaborate 
notes and other evidences of recent composi- 
tion. Mr. Cable is a very painstaking writer, 
and all his first drafts are in his own script 
prepared on writing pads. » The last of that 
story I wrote to-day,' he said, pointing to the 
neat manuscript, 'and that means that I've 
worked hard. One thousand words is a big 
day for me. Usually I content myself with four 

Darwin. — In a letter to a friend, Charles 
Darwin wrote in reference to literary accom- 
plishments : " Do not despair about your style. 
I never study style ; all that I do is to try to 
get the subject as clear as I can in my own 
head, and express it in the commonest language 
which occurs to me. But I generally have to 
think a good deal before the simplest arrange- 
ment and words occur to me. It is a golden 

rule always to use, if possible, a short old 
Saxon word. Such a sentence as 'so purely 
dependent is the incipient plant on the specific 
morphological tendency' does not sound to 
my ears like good mother English — it wants 

Hardy.— The story of the discovery of 
Thomas Hardy is interesting. He had pub- 
lished three books — " Desperate Remedies," 
" Under the Greenwood Tree " and "A Pair of 
Blue Eyes" — when one day upon a railway 
book-stall Frederick Greenwood picked up the 
second of these, probably, as he explains, at- 
tracted by the word " Greenwood." He read 
this in the train and was greatly struck by it. 
As he was editing the Cornhill at the time, it 
resulted in Mr. Hardy's being commissioned 
to write a novel for that magazine. 

The novel was "Far from the Madding 
Crowd," and made Mr. Hardy's reputation. 
It is interesting to note that Mr. Greenwood 
had a fight before he was authorized by the 
proprietors to commission the story, and he 
always declared that he was thankful it turned 
out to be " Far from the Madding Crowd " and 
not " The Hand of Ethelberta."— London Mail 

Harte.— Bret Harte's father was a scholar 
of eminence and reputation, and the fragile 
youth who was destined to be one of the repre- 
sentative literary men of the western world 
was brought up in a literary atmosphere. Al- 
bany, N. Y., his native town, was not without 
picturesqueness of scenery and history, and 
the eager, impressionable lad found much to 
engross his thought and interest in the envi- 
ronment of the place where he was born. It 
was at the age of eleven that he made his first 
attempt at a poem, which he christened, with 
much self-gratulation, " Autumn Musings," and 
sent it surreptitiously to the New York Sun- 
day Atlas. Not without fear and misgiving 
did he wait for a reply, and to his astonish- 
ment and inexpressible delight he soon saw it 
in all the glory of print. His elation at the 
sight was most natural, and he hastened to ac- 
quaint the home circle that he was the proud 
author of the effusion, but to his disappoint- 
ment the family circle bestowed ridicule and 
satire, instead of praise, and his triumph was 
of short duration. He was absolutely grief- 



stricken, so much did he take their ridicule to 
heart, and after he was a man he remarked to a 
friend: "Such a shock was their ridicule to 
me that I wonder that I ever wrote another 
line of verse." 

At the death of his father, when he was sev- 
enteen, he resolved to go West in quest of ad- 
venture and research, a yearning for the novel 
and the romantic possessing his ardent imagin. 
ation to such a degree that he was not content 
to stay at home. — New Haven Register, 

Pemberton. — Max Pembarton does the best 
part of his work in the morning, and an old habit 
of doing nothing from half-past one o'clock till 
five o'clock in the afternoon, inherited from his 
Cambridge days, still clings to him. Like 
other authors, however, he often works be- 
tween five o'clock and half-past seven o'clock. 
Sometimes he finds his work at that hour better 
than in the morning. He does not like working 
before the day is "aired," that is, too early in 
the morning. He cannot work in town ; the 
country is his favorite place for work. He 
writes every tale laboriously with a pen, and 
only dictates letters and occasionally the re- 
vision of chapters. — San Francisco Call. 

Poe — The old dispute as to where Edgar 
Allan Poe was born appears to be settled by 
his latest biographer. Professor Harrison 
states with emphasis that he was born in Bos- 
ton January 19, 1809. His parents, who were 
strolling actors, though his father was of 
excellent family, were playing in Boston when 
little Edgar was born. As Professor Har- 
rison facetiously puts it : — 

At length a stop — in Boston — came to the wanderings. 
January 19, 1809, Mrs. Poe did not appear, but Edgar did. 

— Boston Herald. 

Roseboro. — Viola Roseboro is the daughter 
of a minister, barn and brought up in Win- 
chester, a little village in Tennessee. She had 
books, but wanted life and people, and when 
quite young she came to New York alone, 
without letters or friends, in search of the 
things of her desire. The stage offered her 
the best field, and, though not stage struck, 
she began acting, and during one engagement 
was leading lady for "The Lights of London," 
under the ILiion Square management. Event- 

ually abandoning the stage, she took up news- 
paper work. Beginning to write for the maga- 
zines, she found her stories readily accepted. 
Her first book was " Old Ways and New," and 
shortly after its publication she became con- 
nected with the S. S. McClure Company, for 
which house she has been Reader for about 
five years. — Norristown Herald. 

Stockton. — Just before his death Frank R. 
Stockton completed "The Captain's Toll-gate," 
which has just been published. The novel is 
prefaced with a memorial sketch of the author, 
in which his widow tells of the circumstances 
under which his stories were written, the influ- 
ences that determined their direction, and the 
history of their evolution. Here is Mrs. Stock- 
ton's account of how her husband stumbled on 
one of his most famous characters: "When 
we set up our own household at Nutley, N. J., 
I went to New York and procured from an 
orphans' home a girl whom Mr. Stockton de- 
scribed as " a middle-sized orphan." She was 
about fourteen years old and proved to be a 
very peculiar individual with strong character- 
istics, which' so appealed to Mr. Stockton's 
sense of humor that he liked to talk with her, 
and draw out her opinions of things in general, 
and especially of the books she had read. Her 
spare time was devoted to reading books, 
mostly of the blood-curdling variety ; and she 
read them to herself aloud in the kitchen in a 
very disjointed fashion, which was at first 
amusing and then irritating. We never knew- 
her real name, nor did the people at the orphan- 
age. She had three or four very romantic ones 
she had borrowed from novels while she was 
with us, for she was very sentimental. Mr. 
Stockton bestowed upon her the name of 
Pomona, which is now a household word in 
myriads of homes. This extraordinary girl, 
and some household experiences, induced Mr. 
Stockton to write a paper for Scribner's 
Monthly, which he called * Rudder Grange. 1 
This one paper was all .he intended to write, 
but it attracted immediate attention, was ex- 
tensively noticed, and much talked about. The 
editor of the magazine received so many letters 
asking for another paper that Mr. Stockton 
wrote the second one ; and as there was still a 
clamor for more, he, after a little time, wrote 

The Writer. 

8 9 

others of the series. Some time later they 
were collected in a book. For those interested 
in Pomona, I will add that the woman Pomona 
was a development in Mr. Stockton's mind of 
the girl as he imagined she would become, for 
the original passed out of our lives while still 
a girl." 

Of his literary methods, Mrs. Stockton 
writes: "He dictated his stories to a stenogra- 
pher. His favorite spot for this in summer 
was a grove of large fir-trees near the house. 
Here, in the warm weather, he would lie in a 
hammock. His secretary would be near, with 
her writing materials, and a book of her choos- 
ing. The book was for her own reading while 
Mr. Stockton was * thinking. 1 It annoyed him 
to know he was being * waited for.' He would 
think out pages of incidents, and scenes, and 
even whole conversations, before he began to 
dictate. After all had bsen arranged in his 
mind, he dictated rapidly; but there often were 
long pauses, when the secretary could do a 
great deal of reading. In cold weather he had 
the secretary and an easy chair in the study — 
a room he had built according to his own fancy. 
A fire of blazing logs added a glow to his 


The Use of Pseudonyms. — It is in fiction 
that there has been for a long time a well- 
established custom of concealing as far as pos- 
sible the personality of the author. It is sur- 
prising the number of authors of preeminent 
merit who have employed pseudonyms or simi- 
lar means of concealing themselves. It is 
sufficient merely to recall but a few; in some a 
pseudonym has been constantly employed, in 
other cases there has been at first anonymity 
which soon became equivalent to the employ- 
ment of a pseudonym. Thus, though Sir 
Walter Scott published the first of the Waver- 
ley novels under no name, "The author of 
' Waverley ' " soon became as good a name as 
■that which George Sand used. Dickens made 
his literary d6but as Boz. George Eliot never 
gave up the use of the pseudonym and has been 
known to literature, and even to the world in 
general, under that name, although it was gen- 
erally known that her name was Evans, or, by 

courtesy, Lewes. Charlotte Bronte, that great 
inuovator in the English novel, who needed no 
pseudonym to shield her frcm the gibes of 
critics, was long known as Currer Bell. Prob- 
ably the case of the French writer, M. Francois 
Marie Arouet, whom hardly any one recognized 
under that title, is the most astonishing in- 
stance of the employment of a pseudonym and 
the futility of such attempts at concealment. 
The civilized world refuses to recognize any 
other name than that of Voltaire, the name by 
which he obtained his fame and made himself 
the greatest literary power in Europe. 

There seems to be some sound reason in 
almost every case for declining to appear be- 
fore the public in one's own proper personality. 
There has* been the diffidence of the young 
writer and the fear of ridicule. There has 
been such savage criticism of meritorious work, 
at least in the past, that a sensitive person has 
often hesitated in exposing himself to the jibes 
of the critics. But in the case of several there 
has been the difficulty of forecasting the suc- 
cess of a venture in a new field and the danger 
of spoiling a literary reputation obtained in 
one field by a failure in another. Such seems 
to have been the reason for Scott's refusal to 
allow his name to appear upon his title-page 
when he wrote the "Waverley Novels," on 
which more than on his poetry his present 
fame rests. There, seems also to have been a 
personal feeling on the part of Scott that fiction 
was not a department of literature that enjoyed 
a recognized place among art forms Poetry 
was in the ascendant. It was a form of letters 
that was practised by all ranks and was not be- 
neath his dignity. But fiction, in spite of the 
success, or, possibly, because of the success, of 
Smollett and Fielding, was treated with scant 
consideration by the polite world — that world 
which Scott's little vanity made him want to 
conciliate. When once the success of the ' 
" Waverley Novels " was assured, it was im- 
portant, for commercial reasons, that the new 
volumes of the series should be connected 
with those that had already made their mark in 
the world. The effect was cumulative — each 
work produced added to the success of the 
succeeding volumes and each that introduced 
the author to a new reader recommended the 



volumes that had already appeared. There 
seems to have been less of the personal element 
in the case of the assumption of the pseudonym 
— George Eliot. She had not established any 
such literary reputation as had the author of 
" Marmion." For one who had read her re- 
views there had been a hundred who had read 
" The Lady of the Lake." There was no great 
danger, therefore, in taking up fiction as a field 
of work. But there seems to have been an 
instinctive recognition that it would be better 
to write under a masculine name. There is a 
superficially masculine character to much of 
George Eliot's thought which would have made 
the name of Mary Ann Evans appear as that 
extraordinary literary apparition — the assump- 
tion of a feminine pseudonym by a man. There 
seems also to have been at the time a not un- 
natural hesitancy for a woman to appear as the 
author of a serious work of fiction. It was 
all very well for Hannah More and others to 
write books of an edifying character. But 
Miss Evans did not intend to produce works of 
edification, but of literary art. It seemed, 
therefore, advisable to take the name of a man, 
and then the question of the sex of the author 
would not be taken into consideration. This 
seems to be at the bottom the reason for the 
constant assumption of masculine pseudonyms 
by women. The world was long accustomed 
to treat men as men and to regard the work of 
a woman who worked in a field that had been 
largely that of the " lords of creation " as sub- 
ject to other canons of criticism and to make 
allowances for the difference of sex. But art 
knows no difference of sex. The soundness 
of George Eliot's literary conscience may be 
seen in her assumption of the masculine 
pseudonym. Afterward, when she had won 
her place in the foremost ranks of writers of 
English fiction, it was not necessary to use the 
pseudonym, but it was maintained for personal 
reasons, probably — reasons which will readily 
suggest themselves to those who are familiar 
with the domestic life of the gifted authoress. 

After all the attempts at impersonality or at 
concealment of the identity of the author there 
has always been the practical defeat of the at- 
tempt. There has been in most cases the 
speedy discovery of the real name of the writer. 

But, even apart from these cases in which the 
personality of the author has been discovered, 
there is the impossibility of concealment on 
the part of any one who has something really 
worth saying. A man can construct an anthol- 
ogy without betraying his own tastes, merely 
following the opinion of the soundest critics. 
But no man can write a novel of power without 
disclosing his opinion of the world. It is r 
however, quite unnecessary to know the actual 
name of the author. For the most part the 
individuality of the writer is of very minor con- 
sideration apart from his work, in which his 
real personality is often expressed more per- 
fectly than in any other way. The world of 
readers knows the writer better through his 
books than many who have met him repeatedly 
merely in the flesh. The careful study that 
lies at the foundation of all literary work often 
has a way of remaining concealed from the 
world in which men and women move and of 
becoming revealed only in that higher sphere 
in which the intellect assumes a quasi-divine 
power and creates from chaos a universe in 
which to live. — Baltimore Sun. 

The Method of the Poet.— " The last line 
is not quite smooth." 

"Ah, yes! I know it. But how else am I to 
get both the thought and the rhyme ? " 

"There, I suspect, is the poet's worst diffi- 
culty. To make sense and rhyme perfectly 
harmonious so that neither warps or constrains 
the other; to manage both so artfully as to 
make it appear that the thought could in no 
otherwise be so well and adequately expressed 
— that must give him his hardest labor. But 
I should really like to know what is the poet's 

" I do not know if I can tell you. With me, 
it seems like a remembering rather than a 
making. My verses come to me precisely as 
you recall a half-forgotten poem or song. 
Whole lines and stanzas start up in my mind, 
without the least effort ; but here and there 
are gaps which it is hard to fill. In vain I try 
to remember what belongs in them ; the 
missing line or phrase hovers about the outer 
edge of my mind, but cannot be coaxed within it. 
It is only after long trial that I can fill up these 
gaps, at all; and the interpolation always has 

The writer. 


the air of a patch over a hole in a garment — 
at least, to me." 

The above-quoted conversation is taken from 
" Shiloh," a book written and published more 
than thirty years ago, which contains many 
passages of rare beauty. The poet is a young 
girl, a " discovery " of the summer boarder in 
the quiet New England village, whose story 
forms the theme of the book, and she is the 
interlocutor. All who fcrite poetry, whether 
their rhymes be simple, everyday verse, or the 
higher flights of poetic fancy, have experienced 
the same difficulty as the young girl quoted. 
A line, an expression, even as she says, whole 
stanzas, will haunt one for days, springing up 
in the mind spontaneously, but baffling one to 
find the*true connecting links. Even the great- 
est poems have their halting rhymes, their 
weak places, their doubtful rhythm, where the 
expression seems forced and unnatural — few 
in number, perhaps, but there notwithstanding. 
So it is not to be wondered at that the lesser 
lights of the poetical firmament sometimes fail 
to shine steadily when the greater ones have 
their periods of imperfect action. These diffi- 
culties can be overcome, in a measure, though 
perfection in poetry is as rare as it is anywhere 
else. It depends largely upon how truly attuned 
to the harmony of rhythm, meter, and musical 
expression is the ear of the writer. With some 
this sense of harmony is intuitive, with others 
it must be cultivated, and still others cannot 
acquire it at all. 

The poet who writes because he must — be- 
cause the thoughts that crowd his mind clamor 
for expression — may produce much that is 
crude in form, but it will, after all, have the 
genuine ring that commands recognition in 
spite of imperfection. Such a poet will never 
be satisfied with his own productions, unless 
he be too ignorant or uncultured to note his 
own deficiencies, but will rewrite and repolish, 
changing a word here and there, until he feels 
that he has reached his limit for the time being. 
He will read the best writers and while he will 
not follow their style with servile imitation, 
they will influence his work and point out to 
him the way to perfection. Such a poet will, 
sooner or later, find recognition if he perse- 
veres, undaunted by obstacles and rebuffs, and 

if he does not attain to fame and fortune, will 
at least have the satisfaction of knowing that 
he has spoken to kindred souls, be they few or 
many, in the language which they understand. 
— Water bury A merican. 

Authors as the Publisher Views Them. — 
Authors of rejected manuscripts — especially 
of books — are inclined to look on the Readers 
for publishers as their natural foes. When the 
manuscript of the novel which was to make 
the writer's fame and fortune comes back with 
the enclosed note of refusal — or perhaps it is 
only the printed slip — no power in the world 
could convince the young author that his offer- 
ing had received respectful consideration. If 
it had, he feels, it would have been accepted 
immediately. Here is what a Reader for a 
well-known publishing house says about the 
matter: — 

"A Reader never picks up a manuscript from 
a new author without fear and trembling. He 
is, so to speak, * between the devil and the deep 
sea.' If he gives a verdict favoring the ac- 
ceptance of a book which later proves a failure 
his employers are apt to lose confidence in his 
judgment. If, on the other hand, he advises 
the rejection of a manuscript which afterward 
makes a fortune for another firm he is in even 
a worse plight. Publishers, like other busi- 
ness men, are mercenary, and they pay Read- 
ers to gauge the public taste as well as to pass 
on the merits of manuscripts. 

" Of course in many cases — most, in fact — 
it is easy to tell whether the literary offering 
has value. If its faults are too palpable, rejec- 
tion is a matter of course, and nothing more is 
thought of the matter. But once in a while — 
and this is what keeps the Reader's nerves on 
edge — there comes a story of a new type. It 
differs from the standard by which we have 
been accustomed to judge the work of writers. 
We are in doubt whether it is a production of 
a new genius who heralds a new 'school 1 or 
the haphazard work of a tyro. Of course you 
say it ought to be easy to distinguish a genius 
from the herd, and that we should have no 
trouble in seeing the merit of a book that will 
sell into the hundreds of thousands. It may 
seem so ; but why did Stevenson have such a 


The writer. 

hard time at the baginning]of his career ? Why 
did a leading firm of 4 American publishers reject 
Kipling's stories as trash ? Why was not * Da- 
vid Harum ' snapped up on the spot ? Why 
did * Ben Hur ' make the rounds from publisher 
to publisher? It is humiliating to admit it, and 
some Readers won't admit it, but all were so 
new — so diffirent in conception and construc- 
tion — that the literary experts were puzzled. 

"Take the case of 'David Harum.' The 
Reader who accepted that book for his firm 
may never have done anything before or since, 
but he earned enough by that one stroke to 
entitle him to a life position. He advised put- 
ting the horse trade at the opening of the book, 
and that unique picture won the reading public 
and made the book a record-breaker. 

" But all books are not so easy of reconstruc- 
tion as * David Harum.' Plenty of manuscripts 
come to us that are simply bubbling over with 
' good stuff 1 They may contain striking inci- 
dents and have soma excellent character draw- 
ing, but they are poorly constructed, and we 
send them back. There are certain canons 
from which we cannot depart, no matter what 
other merit we may see. Of course the writers 
are angry and puzzled. They cannot see why 
acceptance was not their portion. The trouble 
is they have not learned their art. We cannot 
go into detailed explanations over the defects. 
We have not the time. However, if the un- 
fortunate author would consult some expert 
and rewrite the story, he might meet with the 
success which he considers his due." — New 
York Press. 

Literary Horrors. — Two of the May maga- 
zines have caught the infection and publish as 
literature tales that belong in the chamber of 
horrors. One of these is based on the life of a 
woman afflicted with an incurable disease, who 
is finally put out of misery by a half-witted at- 
tendant who applies chloroform for the pur- 
pose. The other story has as central figures a 
degenerate cowboy who has killed a man, and 
a member of the one-lung brigade camping in 
Arizona for his health. 

If the purpose of literature is to uplift, in- 
spire and fit one to face life bravely, both of 
these stories belong in the waste basket. Even 
as studies in mental pathology they are without 

any excuse that would justify their publication; 
and as literature alone they afford not the 
slightest entertainment or illumination. 

If American magazines have reached the 
point where they have to publish stuff of this 
sort, it is time for the reading public to abandon 
magazines and go back to the standard works 
that do inspire, that stimulate and encourage. 
With the classics available, with Stevenson 
and Kipling, Dickens*and Dumas, and all the 
lesser lights whose works are worth while, 
there is no excuse for the expense of time and 
money involved in the support of publications 
that parade the literature of the morgue and 
degrade the art of literature into the realism of 

The gospel of good cheer which Stevenson 
preached and practised as the best thing in his 
high calling is still in demand, and the maga- 
zine editor who realizes this rule and abides by 
it will do his constituents a great service and 
his publishers will reap the reward. — Salt 
Lake City Herald. 

Mr. Swinburne's Style. — Mr. Swinburne's 
style, especially in his later work, is censured 
severely by a writer in the Academy, " It was 
never a sound style," he says, " even when it 
was most charged with vehement eloquence ; 
but it is becoming something worse than 
vicious, if that be possible. . . . Mr. Swinburne 
is never delivered of verbs or adjectives but in 
twins. * An everlasting and god-like type of 
heroic and human agony dominates and 
dwarfs,' etc., — that is the way of it, without 
intermission. And this redundance of words 
is merely part of a vice which sinks into the 
whole tissue of the style. Everything is in ex- 
cess. Mr. Swinburne seems incapable of 
praise (for instance) except by hyperbole. It 
might be curious for some statistician to com- 
pute how often in his critical writings he has 
used the formula, ' There is nothing in all lit- 
erature,' or 'nothing in all poetry' — as the 
case may be. Every writer he has occasion to 
praise must in some way be superlatively su- 
preme above all other writers. • Incomparable,* 
'transcendent,' 'unequalled,' 'unique,' — such 
trifling unconsidered adjectives fly about till 
the air is thick with them, and they have as 

The Writer. 


little value for us as the purse of gold which 
the stage hero is forever tossing to messengers 
and followers." 

How Publishers Handle Manuscripts.— 
Every publishing house employs at least one 
Reader, and a manuscript clerk, and maintains 
some sort of a system for the proper care of 
every manuscript which is sent in. One house 
gets in more than 25,000 manuscripts in a 
year's time. Several get in between 8,000 and 
10,000 contributions during the same period. 
It is the establishment of a system for giving 
all manuscripts proper care and the necessity 
for maintaining it which makes a personal 
"pull" impossible. A manuscript sent to an 
editor and marked " Personal " on the envelope 
naturally goes in with the editor's mail. As a 
result it is not in the record of manuscripts 
received, or is likely not to be, and if the editor 
happens to be out of town, or is busy, as he 
generally is, the manuscript is not read for 
several days. The danger of loss is very great, 
and when the manuscript is taken up for con- 
sideration, in ninety cases out of a hundred, 
the particular editor to whom it is addressed 
turns it over to the manuscript department, to 
take its regular course with other contri- 
butions.— Herbert Brewster's New York 

"The Former" and " The Latter."— I de- 
test them. I should like to banish them from 
the English language. One of them by itself 
may be occasionally tolerable, but the two to- 
gether are unendurable. The writers of comic 
verse long ago perceived their absurdity. Ar- 
thur Reed Ropes has given us a good example 
of it in his lines to the " Lost Pleiad " : — 

She had yielded to a mortal when he came to flirt and flatter. 
She was Merope or Sterope— the former or the latter. 

Calverley also : — 

One night I saw him squeeze her hand : 
There was no doubt about the matter ; 

I said he must resign, or stand 
My vengeance — and he chose the latter. 

It were, perhaps, beside the point to cite the 
punning poet who wrote of Xenophon's historic 
retreat : — 

When over the land and the sea 

It behooved the ten thousand to scatter, 

There were some cried rt the former f'>r me," 
But the rest cried "the latter ! the latter : " 

The appreciation of this requires a little 

strictly Attic salt. Butjthe locus classicus is, of 
course, in the "War Song of Dinas Vawr": — 

The mountain sheep are sweeter, 

Bat the valley sheep are fatter ; 
We therefore deemed it meeter 

To carry off the latter. 

Seriously, why cannot| writers|>epeat their 
words instead of usingjthese unnecessary sub- 
stitutes? Is it thought that such[repetiticn is 
unpleasing to the ear? To^my thinking the 
very opposite is the truth. And much is gained 
in the cause of lucidity. Take the following 
sentence, for instance, which I chanced upon 
in a daily journal of February 17: "A * board* 
— which is probably a screen, as somebody 
said a generation ago — understands, and the 
great bulk of the ordinary shareholders do not 
understand, the workings of company finacce. 
When a crisis comes, the latter seldom hesi- 
tate to put their interests in the[hands of the 

Halte la ! We must " hark back " and recon- 
sider the passage. We are then led to the 
conclusion that by "the latter" is meant the 
shareholders, and by "the former" the board. 
But why not so write it, like an honest man? 
"And when a crisis comes, the shareholders 
seldom hesitate to put their interests in the 
hands of the board." Surely, this is better 
both to mind and ear; and if instead of "the 
board " we read "the directors," we have a 
clear, simple, and, in my humble judgment, a 
much improved statement. — London Speaker. 

Coincidence in Plots. — In the Editor's 
Study of Harper's Magazine Mr. Alden tells 
of a number of curious cases of coincidence 
in plots of stories, and apparently unconscious 
plagiarisms which have come to his notice as 
editor of the magazine : — 

"The instances of coincidence in plots 
come often under the editor's notice," he says, 
" and in some there is almost a suggestion of 
telepathic correspondence. Some ideas, how- 
ever novel, are sometimes, so to speak, 'in the 
air.' There is a progressive course of scien- 
tific development, and it does not seem strange 
to us that the idea of the origin of species as 
advanced by Darwin in one quarter of the 
globe should correspond with that conceived 
at the same time so soon afterward advanced by 
Wallace in another. BvjX^*. wcw\k*s> \» vswsfc 



surprise when within the same week, as once 
happened, we received two stories, one from a 
well-known writer in New England and the 
other from a promising new Western author, 
both dealing with a very uncommon and yet al- 
most identical situation in which the governor 
of a State was called upon to exercise his pre- 
rogative of pardon." 


Thb Writers' Ybar-Book, 1003. Edited by Irene Bastow. 
ndon :*""'" ' " ' ~ ~ 
pany. 1903. 

76 pp. Cloth, is. 6d. London: Writer*' Year- Book Com- 

1 The Writers' Year-Book " is a directory of 
English periodicals, giving in the case of each 
the address and information about the date of 
closing forms, date of issue, style of matter 
accepted from outside contributors, rate of 
payment, circumstances under which special 
rates are paid, when payment is made, whether 
preliminary letter regarding contribution is re- 
quired, whether contributor is expected to 
send in an account, and prizes or special offers 
made to writers. To this are added a list of 
English publishers, imperfect lists of Amer- 
ican periodicals and publishers, and a list of 
English literary agents and syndicates. 
There are also short articles on " Copyright," 
" How to Write for the Press," "Journalism for 
English and American Women," and "Writ- 
ing for the Magazines." w. h. h. 

A Treasury of Humorous Pobtry. Edited by Frederic 
Lawrence Knowles. 407 pp. Cloth, $1.33, net. Boston: 
Dana E$tes& Co. 190a. 

Tastes differ, and what seems humorous to 
one man will make another sad, but in this 
new anthology Mr. Knowles has collected a 
great number of poems which readers gener- 
ally will agree have wit and humor. He has 
made no effort to arrange a chronological col- 
lection, and his "Treasury" is representa- 
tive only in that it contains many of the poems 
by English and American writers that are 
likely to seem most amusing to readers of the 
present day. It contains more than 250 selec- 
tions, including the work of more than 130 
different British and American poets. Fifteen 
pages of biographical and explanatory notes 
add value to the anthology, and the book con- 
tains indexes of authors, titles, and first lines, 
besides a critical introduction. An odd feature 
of the collection is that so few women — not 
more than half-a-dozen — are represented in it. 
Some of the writers who are represented have 
written better things than those selected. For 
instance, it seems odd that Mr. Knowles 
should have chosen Ben King's parody, " If I 
Should Die Tonight." which is rather coarse 
and offensive, instead of the verses, " Nothing 

to Do But Work," which made King famous. 
Generally, however, the book deserves unqual- 
ified praise, and it will be a welcome addition 
to any library! w. H. H. 

Ethan Allen, op Grbbn Mountain Fame. By Charles 
Walter Brown. 281 pp. Cloth, f 1.00. Chicago : M. A. 
Donohue & Co. 190a. 

Mr. Brown's book tells the story of the life 
of the hero of Ticonderoga, largely by quota- 
tion from Allen's own narrative of his experi- 
ences and from official documents. This 
material has been so treated typographically 
that it is not easy to distinguish between the 
quotations and Mr. Brown's original work. 
The book would be a better one if it contained 
less formal quotation and more vivid direct 
narration. As it is, it presents the known facts 
of the Vermont patriot's career in a rather un- 
interesting way. w. h. H. 


Rip Van Winklb. By Washington Irring. Printed in the 
easy reporting style of Benn Pitman phonography. as pp. 
Paper, 25 cents. Cincinnati : The Phonographic Institute 
Company. 190s. 

Business Lbttbrs. No. a. — Railroad Correspondence. 
Written in the easy reporting style of Benn Pitman phonog- 
raphy. 5a pp. Paper, as cents. Cincinnati : The 
Phonographic Institute Company. 190a. 


[ The publishers of Thb Writbr will send to any address a 
copy of any magaiine mentioned in the following reference list 
on receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents pottage added. Unless a price isgiren, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the articles mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention Thb Writbr when they write.] 

Embrson as Sbbr. Charles W. Eliot. Atlantic {1% c.) for 

Emerson's Aphasia — Emerson's Estbbm for Thorbau. 
Contributors' Club, Atlantic (38 c.) for June. 

A Forgotten Patriot (Thomas Day). Henry S. Pan- 
coast. A tlantic (38 c.) for June. 

Thb Tbnbmbnt Book and Rbadbr. Norman Duncan. 
Harper's Magazine ( 38 c. ) for June. 

Tbnnyson : A New Estimate. Frederic Harrison. North 
A merican Review ( 53 c. ) for June. 

A Defence of Finb Writing. Elia W. Peattie. Critic 
(a8 c.) for June. 

The Terrible and Tragic in Fiction. Jack London. 
Critic { 28 c.) for June. 

Dante Portraits: Pro and Con. With special reference 
to the Orcagna fresco. Illustrated. Walter Littlefield. Critic 
(28 c.) for June. 

Litbrary Landmarks of New York.— IX. Illustrated. 
Charles Hemstreet. Critic ^ 28 c. ) for June. 

Some Writbrs of the Princeton Faculty (Walter A. 
Wyckoff, Woodrow Wilson, Henry van Dyke, George McLean 
Harper, Winthrop More Daniels, John Huston Flnley, and 
Howard Crosby Butler). With portraits. Edwin M. Norris. 
Critic ( 28 c.) for June. 



Labouchbrb and London Truth. Ernest L. Hancock. 
Bookman ( a8 c. ) for June. 

Biographical Sketch of Alfred Henry Lewis. With 
frontispiece portrait. Book News (8c.) for June. 

Matthew Arnold's Notebooks. J. C. Bailey. Re. 
printed from the Fortnightly Review in the Eclectic ( a8 c. ) 
for June. 

Battles in Fiction. Eveline C Godley. Reprinted from 
the National Review in the Eclectic ( a8 c. ) for June. 

The Sonnet. Reprinted from the Academy in the Eclectic 
(38 c.) for June. 

Letters to a Literary Aspirant. Reprinted from 
Blackwood's Magazine in the Eclectic ( 28 c. ) for June. 

A Challenge to the Critics. "An Ungrateful Author." 
National Review ( 75 c. ) for June. 

Charles Dickens as a Background Artist. Emma 
Carleton. House Beautiful ( 23 c. ) for June. 

Books in Political Fiction. ( 4I J. Devlin, Boss,'' by 
Francis Churchill Williams; "The 13th District," by Brand 
Whitlock; "The Henchman," by Mark Lee Luther; and 
«' The Spoilsmen," by Elliot Flower.) Wallace Rice. World 
To-Day (a8 c.) for June. 
John Burroughs. Illustrated. Edward B. Clark. World 
To-Day ( 2? c. ) for June. 

Paul Bblloni Du Chaillu. With portrait. Ivan C* 
Waterbury . World To-Day ( a8 c. ) for June. 

Shakespeare's Portrayal of Moral Life. Frank 
Chapman Sharp. World To-Day ( 38 c. ) for June. 

Tolstoy, Mystic and Realist. Ernest Howard Crosby. 
Mind ( 23 c. ) for June. 

Ernest Howard Crosby : a Biographic Sketch. With 
portrait. Charles Brodie Patterson. Mind ( 23 c. ) for June. 
A Visit to Edwin Markham. Charles Henry Gondiss. 
Wilshire's Magazine (13 c.) for June. 

The Speech Reporter as a Speech Reviser. Continued. 
David Wolfe Brown. Phonographic Magazine (13 c.) for 

In the Literary Market. Albert Bigelow Paine. Edi- 
tor ( 13 c. ) for June. 

Making a Choice of a Profession. VI.— The Profession 
of Journalism. Albert Shaw. Cosmopolitan ( 13 c. ) for June. 
Augusta Holmes: Her Life and Her Work. Illus- 
trated. Percy Mitchell. Delineator ( 18c. ) for June. 

A Master of Maxims (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Charles 
Leonard Moore. Dial ( 13 c. ) for May 1. 

The Morality Play in the Development of English 
Drama. Florence H. Harvey. Dial ( 13 c ) for May 1. 

Emerson as a Public Speaker. Annie Russell Marble. 
Dial (13 c.) for May 16. 

Reminiscences of Paul Brlloni Du Chaillu. With 
portrait. Helen Evertson Smith. Independent for May 14. 

Impressions of Emerson. William Dean Howells. Har- 
per's Weekly ( 13 c. ) for May 16. 

The Personality of Emerson. Thomas Wentworth Hig- 
ginson. Outlook ( 13 c. ) for May 23. 

Humorists of the Pencil. John T. McCutcheon. Satur- 
day Evening Post (8c.) for May 30. 

14 John Inglbsant." Reprinted from the Academy in the 
Living Age (18 c.) for May a. 

A Literary Man (Robert Buchanan). Reprinted from 
the Academy in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for May 9. 

Joseph Henry Shorthousb. Edward Hut ton. Reprinted 
from Blackwood's Magazine in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for 
May 16. 

Hartley Coleridge. J. K. Hudson. Reprinted from 
Temple Mar in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for May 23. 

Letters to a Literary Aspirant.— IV., V., VI., VII. 
Reprinted from Blackwood's Magazine in the Living Age 
( 18 c.) for May 23. 

Fiction and Froth. Reprinted from the Academy in the 
Living Age ( 18 c. ) for May 30. 

The Bronte Novels. Walter Frewen Lord. Reprinted 
from the Nineteenth Century and After in the Living Age 
(18 c)for May 30. 

Some Remote Effects of Eye-Strain. George H. 
Thomas, M. D. Northwestern Lancet ( 13 c. ) for June 1. 


John Morley's " Life of William Gladstone " 
will be published in this country by the Mac- 
millan Company. The work will be brought 
out in three volumes, with portraits and many 
other illustrations. It will be published in 

Two biographies of Alexander Dumas, one 
by Arthur F. Davidson, published by the J. B. 
Lippincott Company, and the other by Harry 
A. Spurr, published by the F. A. Stokes Com- 
pany, have been issued contemporaneously 
with the celebration of the centenary of 
Dumas's birth. 

Carl Schurz is engaged in the preparation of 
his autobiography. 

Mrs. Isabelle Moore, a Reader for G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons, has gone to England for two 
months with the idea of collecting material for 
a volume dealing with the youth and "literary 
beginnings " of Jane Austen. 

General James Grant Wilson has brought 
together his Thackeray papers and will publish 
them in the fall in an elaborate limited edition 
of 750 copies. 

Edna Lyall, in an essay upon Mrs. Gaskel), 
written in 1897, mentioned that, owing to her 
unpleasant experiences in connection with her 
biography of Charlotte Bronte, and the violent 
attacks to which that work gave rise, Mrs. 
Gaskell had determined that no record of her 
own life should be written, and had instructed 
her family to that effect. Up to the present 
time her wishes have been respected, but the 
difficulty has apparently been surmounted in 
some way, for a " Life of Mrs. Gaskell," by 
Clement Shorter, is announced as one of the 
forthcoming volumes in the English Men of 
Letters Series. 



The last literary labor of the late Richard 
Henry Stoddard was in connection with his 
" Recollections, Personal and Literary." This 
work, which his friend, Ripley Hitchcock, 
aided him in arranging, is to be published, 
with an introduction by E. C. Stedman, and 
reproductions of pictures and autograph letters 
collected by Mr. Stoddard. 

Colonel Higginson is about to publish a 
" Reader's History of American Literature," 
utilizing his extraordinarily large fund of per- 
sonal reminiscences. Colonel Higginson has 
been assisted by Henry W. Boynton in the 
work of preparation. 

John Kendrick Bangs has resigned the edi- 
torship of the Metropolitan Magazine. 

The latest success in London weekly jour- 
nalism is called V. C, the popular abbreviation 
of Victoria Cross, the most coveted reward of 
military valor. Its tone is high, and the spirit 
in which the paper is edited reminds the reader 
of President Roosevelt's "strenuous life." 
Negotiations are on foot to publish an edition 
of V. C. in the United States. 

Burr Mcintosh's Monthly ( New York ) is an 
attractive picture magazine, practically without 
letter press. 

The Illustrated Sporting News ( New York ) 
is a new national weekly, devoted entirely to 
sporting subjects. It will range in size from 
24 to 36 pages and will be edited by Robert W- 
Woolley. for the last two years sporting editor 
for the New York World. The paper will be 
practically without a rival in its field as a 
weekly, for though there are several publica- 
tions devoted to one or more of the great 
sports, there are none that cover the whole 
field from a popular standpoint — that is, which 
treat every phase of sport, from lawn tennis to 
ballooning, in a manner that appeals to the 
general reader. 

EvWy Month, the Household, and the Ledger 
Monthly have been merged, and will be pub- 
lished as the Household-Ledger beginning 
June 1. 

James J. Johnson, publisher of Modem Sto- 
ries, has bought the Unique Monthly, and here- 
after it will' be published in New York. 

Poet Lore ( Boston ) has changed its name to 
the American Quarterly. 

The Reader ( New York ) has resumed publi- 
cation, with Mitchell Kennedy, formerly editor 
and proprietor, as manager. 

The Nickell Magazine ( New York) is in the 
sheriff's hands. 

The Woman's Home Companion (Spring- 
field, O. ) wants ideas and suggestions concern- 
ing home topics, and will give prizes of $25 for 
the best offerings on the subjects " Does Gar- 
dening Pay?" " Fancy- Work," and "Novel 
Entertainments." Photographs are wanted,and 
prizes are also offered for the best photographs 
illustrating "Porch Possibilities," "Home In- 
teriors," and "Home Weddings." The com- 
petitions will close November 1. 

Leslie's Weekly (New York) offers prizes 
of ten dollars each for the best photographs 
representing the spirit of Thanksgiving and of 

Hurst & Company, 395 Broadway, New York 
City, have bought the plates and copyrights of 
the books formerly published by the Jamieson- 
Higgins Company, of Chicago. 

E. P. Dutton & Co. announce that they have 
become the exclusive American agents of 
George Routledge & Sons, of London. 

E. P. Dutton & Co. will publish soon a little 
book including three articles on " Dramatic 
Criticism," by A. B. Walkley, the dramatic 
critic of the London Times. 

The Journal of Geography ( Chicago ) for 
June is a special Boston number, with finely 
illustrated articles by experts on "The Geo- 
graphical Features of Boston and Vicinity"^ 
"Excursions in and Around Boston"; "The 
Boston Park System," and "Approaching 

Dr. Charles W. Doyle died at Santa Cruz, 
Calif , May 2, aged fifty years. 

Richard Henry Stoddard died in New York, 
May 12, aged seventy-eight. 

Paul Blouet ( " Max O'Rell " ) died in Paris, 
May 24, aged fifty-five. 

Max Bennett Thrasher died at Tuskegee, 
Ala., May 29, aged forty-three. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 

BOSTON, JULY, 1903. 

No. 7. 

cntirid at tmi boston post-ofpici as mcond-clam mail mattir. combined with that which is accurate. In 

■ reading "Sir Richard Calmady" it may seem 

CONTENTS: pack of but small importance to know the name of 

Blunders of Authors. Pamela Mc Arthur Cole. . . 97 the Spanish artist whose painting produced SO 

Making an Index. H. Chapell 98 d an j mpress j on on t h e y0U ng priest, but it 

Editorial »°° . . . 4 , A ,. .... \ \. * •* 

To Get Inspiration, 100 -One Author's Experience IS hard tO be told Within a dozen pages that it 

with Publishers' Readers, 100 — Notes 1°° was the work both of Murillo and of Velas- 

44 Newspaper English" Edited loa quez. 

The Use and Misuse of Words io2 ^ r ... ... ., v 1 j r *.i_ 

.„ -. I02 One familiar with the holy-days of the 

Writers of the Day Ioa J J 

Rosalie Arthur, ioa — Mary Austin, 102 — Edward Anglican Church was surprised to read, in one 

Bohwood,io3 — ingrain Crockett, 103 — Bertha Ester- f ^j rs Belden's stories, of some ceremonial 

S^ 00 ^^'^^^"^;^"^ observed "every year on the twenty-sixth of 

B. Miller, 103 — Lydia Perkins, 104 — Kathryne Wil- ,,,.„, . 

son 104 June, — Saint Johns day — knowing that 

Personal Gossip About Authors »°4 Saint John's day, midsummer, around which 

Gwendolin Overton, 104 - Margaret Sangster, .04- SQ m f thc fancies and legends of the 

Molly Elliot Seawell, 105 -Mary E. Wiikms, 106- / # » 

Harry Leon Wilson "* olden time cling, is the twenty-fourth of the 

Current Literary -Topics ,0 7 month. This may be a typographical error ; if 

Rapid Literary Production, 107- The Chances of an SQ j et p r i nters bear the blame. 
Unknown Writer, 107 — Coincidence, not Plagiarism, 

,o 7 -What a True Parody is, .07-The Future Such excuse, however, can hardly serve for 

Editorial ioS a statement in a Boston newspaper, that 

Book Reviews >°9 November second is the anniversary "of the 

Literary Articles in Periodicals .09 dedication of A11 Sou | 8 Church ( Unitar|an) of 

News and Notes >»o , *„ „ , , 

Roxbury, and the day is named All Souls from 

the church." 

BLUNDERS OF AUTHORS. In Cooper's "Prairie," we read of the exe- 

cution of White, the murderer, — a painful 

The conversation had taken a literary turn, story of "border justice." The judge and 

and the "authoress" had been giving the executioner, wishing to give the criminal some 

details of an historical incident to be inter- opportunity of spiritual counsel, gives him a 

woven with her next story. few leaves of the Bible, placing them in his 

"But," said the friendly critic, "that will hands with the hope that he may read with 

never do. The date utterly disagrees with profit. His hands had been tied behind 

that of the rest of the story." him ! 

"Oh, I don't care about that," was the In "Some Colonial Homesteads," by 

cheerful reply. Marion Harland, we read of one place among 

" But you want to be accurate." whose relics is "a portrait of Martha Blount 

" No, indeed, — no matter about accuracy, — painted by Vandyke." Pope's biographers 

the great thing is to be interesting." speak of the sisters, Martha and Teresa 

This may be a writer's opinion, but readers Blount, as playmates of Pope in his childhood, 

do rather prefer that which is interesting to be and near his age. Pope was born in 1688, and 

Copyright, 1903, by William H, Hills. All rights reserved. 



Vandyke died more than forty years before. 
The probabilities are not in favor of the por- 
trait being his work. 

In another part of the book, after quoting 
some verses addressed to Miss Chew, by 
Major Andre*, the writer says : " We may be 
permitted a sighful thought of Honora Sneyd 
keeping the vestal fires of love and memory 
alight in her heart for her absent and soon-to- 
be dead lover." 

Our thoughts are less " sighful " remember- 
ing that at the time of Andrews death Honora 
Sneyd had been for several years the second 
wife of that much-married man, Richard 
Lovel Edgeworth. " I was in love with my 
second wife during the life-time of my first," 
he writes. We are not inclined to dispute his 
assertion : " I am a man absolutely without 
prejudices." Pamela Mc Arthur Cole. 

East Bridgbwatbr, Mass. 


When I was first asked to make an index for 
a book, I wavered between two opinions; one 
was that somewhere in the world was a pro- 
found volume that would tell me everything 
about making an index, the other was that the 
task was so simple that any person of good 
sense was supposed to be able to do it. But I 
could never find that volume. Experience had 
taught me that while an index was supposed to 
tell what was in a book, it seldom did. But a 

solid book without an index ! The book 

assigned to me was as full of quotations and 
citations as a honeycomb is of honey, so when 
I was given a brief and practical set of rules, I 
consented joyfully. 

Last but most pungent on this list of rules 
was the remark that u an index is not an analy- 
sis; it is simply a pointer to that in the volume 
which it is desired to command." From that 
time on my dreams were haunted by three men 
and a ghostly sign-board. One was portly and 
important, a possible purchaser, remarking, 
" Hm ! A new book by Prof. X. Well, if he 
has anything to say on the recrudescence of 
esoterical philosophy, I must get it for my 
next lecture." The second man was thin and 
eager, and I could see him taking down volume 
after volume in some library and making rapid 
notes whenever he found something bearing 
on the subject of his thesis. I always felt 

sorry for him when he had to spend time 
searching through a book that had no index. 
The third man had bought the book, and I 
could see him rushing to his shelves, saying: 
•• If I can only find that summary of figures on 
immigration! It is just what I need to use 
now." I determined that each one of these 
men should be aided in his quest. 

Taking up the rest of these rules, I fixed in 
mind these particulars: — 

" In a single reference use the comma in 
separating the topic from the matter referred 

" For a series of references use the colon in 
dividing the topic from its subordinate clauses." 

"The principal clause preceding the colon 
should with each one of the subordinate clauses 
make complete sense." 

"At no point should a subordinate clause 
take the place of the principal clause." 

This last particular is a pitfall to the unwary 

The book itself was a charming one to begin 
with. It was a large-page i2mo of about 650 
pages. If there was anything in the history, 
science, religion, geography, or the -isms, of 
the last hundred years, that the author did not 
mention, casually explaining its deepest mys- 
teries, it must have been insignificant. Ana- 
lyzing its contents was almost a liberal educa- 



tion. A sample page yielded statements of 
eight different historical facts essential to the 
author's argument, twelve names of authorities, 
four quotations, and several allusions. Oh, for 
a diviner's wand to know what could be slighted 
without being missed ! 

But this page was easy, since it had the 
names to choose from all plainly before one. 
There are other, things to keep the good editor 
or indexer busy. The author had regard for a 
smooth and flowing style, so he spoke of 
" Darwin's epoch-making volume " and quoted 
voluminously from "a poet whose works are 
now almost forgotten." The exact title of 
that volume must be looked up, for it would 
never do to index the wrong volume, and the 
good editor does not trust his memory — he 
verifies. That poet seemed to have the same 
style as Burns, who was quoted on the pre- 
vious page, so a volume of Burns was sought. 
Wilberforce was quoted several times, but one 
had to distinguish the voice of Bishop Samuel 
from that of William. 

Besides all this, one must untwist double- 
twisted threads of thought. Here are Human- 
ism, Humanitarianism, Humanity, and Man, to 
be carefully distinguished, and that sometimes 
when they are not definitely labelled. Also 
there is variety. Manila comes next to Man. 
Queen Victoria's telegram to Mme. Joubert, 
Schopenhauer, and X-rays, are all here to- 
gether. If the aesthesiometer had been in- 
vented when this book was written, it would 
surely be here. 

That index stood between me and a vaca- 
tion, but even so no one would believe the 
number of weeks I spent on it, so I shall not 
tell. Armed with a book, a pencil, and blocks 
of paper about two by four inches in size, or 
even less, I wrote and wrote and wrote, and 
threw the slips into a box. Where several 
references to the same subject came near to- 
gether, the slip for that topic would stay on my 
desk till I had come to different matter, but 
most of the slips went into the box with only 
one reference on each. 

All the small blocks of white paper that 
could be furnished from the printing house 
were used up, and then they sent pink and 
yellow and green. As the blotter which I used 

later was a deep and beautiful blue, the effect 
was diverting and restful to the eyes. There 
were anywhere from three to six thousand of 
these slips, though many went into the waste- 
basket in the final combining. When I pasted 
them together at last, the effect was somewhat 
like a Roman sash. Editors all know that of 
making many books there is no end, and some- 
times it seems as if there would be no end to 
the making of even one, particularly if it is 
good and fat. It would have been intolerable 
without tire colors. The thermometer stood at 
ninety-five degrees in the office day after day, 
but ice-water cloths on my head and the 
thought of vacation sustained me. 

And yet some people think that books grow 
all their accessories as plants grow leaves, and 
that a bare manuscript fed into a press 
comes tumbling out in the form of perfect 

After all the writing came the sorting and re- 
sorting. I marked off an alphabetical chart on 
a large blue blotter, the size of which suited 
this purpose very well. Sorting first by initial 
letters, each pile had to be sorted for the fol- 
lowing letters and then each one of those piles 
was laid out in the final order, all repetitions 
were erased and the whole was pasted together 
in a long patchwork strip. I stood up to the 
work of sorting, but when the slips began to 
grow under my paste-brush, my mind grew 
restful at sight of the goal, and I sat down 

Still Patience must perfect her work, so the 
i's were dotted and the t's were crossed, and 
colons, semi-colons, and commas had particular 
attention, for it is such trifles that make per- 
fection in an index. The result was distress- 
ing to the eye, but plain to the printer, and the 
proofs were a joy. 

Here my index and I parted. I am very 
proud of it, for though I have made others, I 
have never made another quite like that qne. 
I sometimes fear that it was too good for this 
cold world, and certainly I should not have 
the heart to put so much into a mere index 
again. However, from all reports it is fairly 
well serving its purpose, and I will uphold its 
rules and methods as good for the production 
of useful indexes. H. Chapell. 

Philadelphia, Penn. . 



The Writer. 

Published monthly by the Writer Publishing Company, 146 
Franklin street, Room 32, Boston, Mass. 

catching an idea here and there, will set the 
brain at work. Skimming books rapidly will 
serve the same purpose. The main thing is to 
get the faculties active. 



%*The Writer is published the first day of every month. 
It will be sent, postpaid, One Year for One Dollar. 

•»* All drafts and money orders should be made payable to 
The Writer Publishing Co. Stamps, or local checks, should 
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• # *Thb Writer will be sent only to those who haVe paid for 
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146 Franklin street, Room 32, 
P. O. Box 1905. Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. July, 1903. 

No. 7. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

* # 

Don't wait for moods. " Instead of waiting 
for inspiration," said Dr. Holmes, "try a little 
perspiration." Sit down at your desk, as a car- 
penter takes his place at his bench, and stir up 
your brain. Get your mind active, and the 
moods will come. Anything that incites to 
thought will lead to inspiration. Sometimes 
rapid glancing over the pages of newspapers, 

Don't write merely for the sake of writing. 
It is foolish to put words on paper unless they 
express thought. Having got your idea, think 
it out until you have made the most of it. 
Then, when your brain is full of it, take paper 
and try to put your idea into words. You have 
a poor brain if you can sit at your desk for an 
hour, actually working in this way, and not 
think something that is worth putting on paper 
at least for the sake of practice; whether it is 
worth putting into print or not. Inspiration 
is good; but inspiration is more likely to find 
you if you are working at your desk than if you 
are dawdling in a hammock or lying at the sea- 
shore on the sand. Longfellow wrote in his 
journal: "October: will it bring me any songs 
this year?" But Longfellow knew as well as 
anybody that his songs would not write them- 
selves, and if he had waited for inspiration, 
always, his poems would not make so large a 



Novelists need to pay attention to little 
things as well as great. The *SV. Louis Globe- 
Democrat notes that in his story, "The Vir- 
ginian," Owen Wister upsets railroad traditions 
by putting a No. 2 west-bound train on the 
time table. 


Do publishers' Readers fail to take an inter- 
est in the work of unknown writers? Judge 
for yourself, after reading these letters ad- 
dressed fo the author of " The Log of a Cow- 
boy," published in May by Houghton, Mifflin, 
& Co. : — 

" Dnubleday, Page & Company, Publishers, 
34 Union Square, New York, 

July 5, 1901. 
" Dear Mr. Adams : 

" Apologies to commence with for having had these so long. 

One of our Readers who had them after I finished was ill, and 

he took ever so much longer passing on them than is customary. 

" The material for novels and sketches you certainly have, 

but you have not got the proper touch. 

"Take, for instance, the Prospectors' Stories — as episodes 
of the life they are as true as gravitation, but the mere ups and 



downs of the average unsuccessful man don't justify themselves. 
If the incidents were adventures in the career of a given man 
who had made a great winning subsequently — yes — but there 
must be a pivotal basis on which to hinge the narrative. 

" You may say that there are but few successful prospectors, 
yet there are a good many successful mines. 

" If you were to tell the story of one of these adventurers 
who finally pulled off a big thing, representing his vicissitudes 
and telling finally what use he made of his wealth — picturing 
an actual man — and were to do it in the vein that Ogden 
handles the De Mores story in our July number, you'd have a 
great article. Your sketch of the Mexican outlaws is too 
confused, has too many details, and does not give any tense 
dramatic effect. 

" There's only one way I know of to learn to write — it's to 
write. Keep at it. You could have no better model than E. 
Hough, who is a fine stylist and a man who puts the very feel 
of the West into his matter. Send him two or three of these 
sketches of yours and ask his opinion. You know the stuff. 
You have the material — learn to shape it so we'll want it. 

" Truly yours, J. O'H. Cosgrove." 

" Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., 
Editor's Office. 
Boston, August 28, 1901. 
" Dear Mr. Adams : 

" It is always an unwelcome task to return a manuscript that 
one likes, and I have been interested in these sketches of cow- 
boy life more than a little. Yet the business judgment of the 
Readers here doe* not support my inclination, and I am return- 
ing the manuscript to you with the wish that if you should in 
time carry out the project of which we have spoken — that is, 
make a Log of a Cowboy — a closely-woven, connected treat- 
ment of the cowboy's life, equipment, activity, hardships, 
amusements, and the conditions under which he lives, I should 
be very glad if you would let me see it. Yours sincerely, 

" VV. B. Parker. 
" The manuscript is being sent by Wells- Fargo express." 

" I). Appleton & Co., 72 Fifth Ave., New York. 

v New York, Oct. 7, 1901. 

"Andy Adams, Esq., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

" Dear Sir :— We want to tell you of the interest and delight 
with which your short stories of cowboy life have been read. 
They are sketches really rather than stories and each one is 
very graphic and full of the true spirit of the life. You should 
publish all these sketches in periodicals. They are admirably 
adapted for such use. If you cannot find a satisfactory place 
for them in the weeklies or monthlies, I think the New York 
Sun would take them for their Sunday edition. As regards 
their publication in book-form, that is, unfortunately, a differ- 
ent matter. It is extremely hard to persuade the public to buy 
collections of stories or collections of sketches. For instance : 
There are reviewers and readers who would appreciate the 
graphic quality of your work, but the book, as a book, would 
not bring results which would be satisfactory to you or to the 
publishers. I want you to understand the situation exactly. 
This decision is not due to lack of interest in your book or lack 
of appreciation. Secondly, I want you to try your hand at a 
long story, a novel of the trail and ranch. With a novel many 
things can be done. It is necessary to have a plot which will 
serve as a scaffolding or skeleton, and it is necessary to also 
give considerable care to the simple construction as well as 

the decoration and finish of the house. If you will take the 
matter up carefully, work at it faithfully, and not allow yourself 
to be discouraged, I think that you may develop a novel which 
you will be very glad of when it is finished. 

" I earnestly hope that you will do this, for I like your work 
so much that I should like to see it developed as it should be. 

" I am holding your manuscript until you tell me whether it 
should be returned to you or sent elsewhere, and I remain, with 
many thanks for the opportunity of seeing your work, 

" Very truly yours, Ripley Hitchcock." 

" D. Appleton & Co., 72 Fifth Ave., New York. 
New York, Qct. 14, 1901. 
"Andy Adams, Esq., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

" My Dear Sir :— I am glad to have your letter of the tenth. 
I am delighted that you have already begun a novel, and I shall 
await with great interest the opportunity of seeing it. You will 
pardon one or two suggestions. In the first place, the title 
which you suggest, ' The Log of a Cow Herd,' would not do. 
Your novel must be a novel of incident and variety, with a live 
interest, and it must have as a basis of construction a definite 
plot. The title, and to some extent, the plan would make the 
book appear to be a narrative, and a narrative of a cowboy's 
journey from Texas to Montana would be a very different thing 
from a novel. It is not necessary to put everything into the 
novel. The first thing is, of course, human nature, but it is not 
necessary to cover the whole ground of the cattle country, and, 
in fact, it would be a mistake to use too much descriptive ma- 
terial. With best wishes, believe me, 

" Very faithfully yours, Ripley Hitchcock." 

There is food for thought in these letters, 
and writers will do well to read them carefully. 
Mr. Adams got his material in ten years of 
herding cattle on the plains, from 1880 to 1890, 
but he did not know how to handle it, and it 
was not until the Readers for the publishers 
put him on the right track that he was able to 
achieve a successful work. 

It is astonishing to what extent specializa- 
tion in magazine publishing is carried nowa- 
days. For instance, among the new magazines 
announced last month are the Journal of In- 
fectious Diseases^ to be published in Chicago, 
and American Art in Bronze and Iron, pub- 
lished in New York. 

* * 
Vogue's receipt for check sent in payment 
for manuscripts is " for copyright and all rights," 
and a notice printed at the bottom says : "All 
manuscripts, drawings, photographs, etc., pur- 
chased by Vogue or the publisher thereof, or 
either of them, for their own account or the 
account of whom it may concern, are so pur- 



chased with the distinct agreement on the part 
of the party supplying or selling the same that 
they are original, and unless otherwise ex- 
pressly stipulated, are sold with all rights 
therein, including copyright, translation, pub- 
lication, republication, non -publication, trans- 
fer, sale, exchange, etc." 


A "literary note" conveys the information 
that Beatrice Harraden is writing a comedy 
"about which she has been meditating a long 
time." Nobody ought ever to undertake to 
write a comedy, or even a tragedy, without 
meditating a long time. 

That the proper placing of modifying clauses 
is a matter of some importance is illustrated 
by two statements that appeared recently in 
newspapers. In describing a commencement, 
the Huntington (Va.) Herald said : "The stage 
presented a pretty scene. In the first row 
were the graduates, ten young girls dressed in 
white, each carrying a large bunch of carna- 
tions and one young man." And the Maine 
Woods announced : "A trout has been caught 
by a guest at Mooselookmeguntic lake with a 
padlock in his stomach." w. h. h. 


My beloved brethren, I have 
a secret to tell thee and a ques- 
tion to ask. Do you know how 
much I love you and the nature 
of this love ? — Mrs. Mary 
Baker Eddy. 

My beloved brethren, I have 
a secret to tell you and a ques- 
tion to ask. Do you know now 
much I love you and the nature 
of this love ? 

Entirely unique. — Wash- I 
ington Post. \ 


The Boston Transcript, 
which has been agitating the 
negro question for years, is 
now protesting against the 
proposition to remove a colony 
of them to Boston. — Washing- 
ton Post. 

The Boston Transcript, 
which has been agitating the 
negro question for years, is 
now protesting against the 
proposition to remove a colony 
of negroes to Boston. 

Can it be possible ? — New I It it possible? 
Fork Sun. I 


A writer pleasantly observes that we are 
taught at school that a preposition, from its 
very name, should not end a sentence, yet 

some men will doubtless go on asking: "Who 
are you getting at?" and "Where am I at?" 
There are times when even three prepositions 
at the end of a sentence may be useful, as wit- 
ness this question of a nurse, who once said to 
her patient: "What would you like to be read 
to out of?" But could she have made herself 
any clearer, if even her sentence was more 
gracefully turned ? — Boston Herald, 

We still say electrocute instead of electri- 
cute. Why not conform to the dictionaries on 
the subject? — Boston Herald. 


Rosalie Arthur, whose verses, •* Phoebe," 
illustrated by herself, appeared in Harper's 
Bazar for June, is an artist as well as a writer. 
She studied drawing at the Art Students' 
League of New York, under Walter Appleton 
Clark, and has done various sorts of illustra- 
tion in the past four years, including work for 
the McClure Syndicate, Life, Harper & Bros.' 
publications, and other magazines, and she has 
also illustrated several books. Recently she 
has had poems, largely of an outdoor nature, 
accepted by Country Life in America, Ains- 
lee's, Good Housekeeping, and Harper's Bazar, 
and last year she compiled and illustrated a 
book, " Out-of-Doors, M consisting of quotations 
in verse and prose from eminent Nature writ- 
ers, running in sequence throughout the year. 
This book was published by the Dodge Pub- 
lishing Co., of New York, and has gone into a 
second edition. Miss Arthur is particularly 
fond of drawing children, and has illustrated 
two series of stories by Charles Battell Loomis. 
It is her desire to divide her time hereafter 
between drawing and writing. She prefers 
quiet surroundings, and most of her work is 
done at her home in Flatbush. 

Mary Austin, who wrote "The Little Town 
of the Grapevines," in the Atlantic for June, 
was born in Illinois, but left there when she 
was twenty, broken in health from overstudy 
in the university. Since then she has lived in 
southeastern California, in the high valleys 

The Writer. 


and desert hills toward Death Valley, giving 
as much time as very delicate health permits, 
as she puts it, "to the study of children and 
other little animals." Thus far the most not- 
able work sjie has done is educational. Once 
in a year or so, Mrs. Austin goes out of the 
desert to lecture in Normal Schools, or at In- 
stitutes and Teachers' classes, and after a few 
months of this she returns to the hills, her 
studies, and field work with her husband, who 
is a botanist. The last few years Mrs. Austin 
has taken up literary work. She has written 
both stories and verse for the Atlantic Monthly, 
Munsey's, the Independent, Out West, and 
more particularly for St. Nicholas and the 
Vouth's Companion. Her best work is verse, 
especially that in St. Nicholas, which is very 
widely copied. Mrs. Austin has spent much 
time among the Indians, and has been able by 
her writings to assist in some movements for 
their relief. 

Edward Boltwood,* whose story, " Crossed 
Wires," was published in the Red Book for 
June, was born in Pittsfield, Mass., and worked 
on a Dakota cattle ranch before entering Yale 
college, where he graduated in 1892. He then 
studied law and was admitted to the Massa- 
chusetts bar, but gave that up for a position 
with Harper & Bros. In 1897 and 1898 he was 
one of the assistant editors of Harper's Maga- 
zine. Since 1898 he has devoted himself to 
story-writing and unattached newspaper work. 
He has had stories printed by Lippincott's, 
Munsey's, the Smart Set, Harper's Weekly, 
Harper's Bazar, the Independent, Life, the 
Black Cat, the New York Herald, the New 
York Sun, the Brown Book, the Red Book, and 
various newspaper syndicates. Mr. Bolt- 
wood's home is in New York. 

Ingram Crockett, author of " In June," in 
Lippincott's Magazine for June, is of an old 
Virginia-Kentucky family, and has given much 
of his spare time to writing. His work has ap- 
peared in the Youth's Companion, Outing, 
Country Life in America, Truth, Lippincott's, 
Leslie's, the Criterion, the Churchman, the 
Olympian, and other publications, and he is 
also the author of two books, " Beneath Blue 

Skies and Gray " (verse), R. H. Russell, and 
"A Year-Book of Kentucky Woods and Fields." 
Mr. Crockett was born in Henderson, Ken- 
tucky, and has lived there since his marriage 
in 1887. He is devoted to Out-of-doors, and 
most of his prose work has been along the 
lines of nature study. 

Bertha Ester-Brooke Goodier, who wrote the 
story, " Laviny's Wedding Gown," in the De- 
signer for June, began writing about two years 
ago for the love of it, and in her first year's ex- 
perience wrote about forty stories of all kinds — 
, girls' stories, boys' stories, love stories, and 
tales of adventure, besides special articles — 
" anything and everything," she says. " I went 
through a sort of beginner's luck, I presume," 
she adds, "and managed to dispose of all but 
seven of these. I am a Michigan girl, just 
turning the quarter-century mark, and just one 
example, I doubt not, of what ten thousand 
other girls might do along the same lines, if 
they would only try." 

Alice Louise Lee, whose story, " Professor 
Ashur's Tutor," appeared in the Delineator 
for June, graduated from Syracuse University 
in 1896, and has since taught literature in a 
boarding school in Cazenovia, N. Y. A three- 
part story of hers was recently printed in 
Modes and Fabrics, and she has contributed to 
a number of periodicals, including the Youth's 
Companion and Everybody's Magazine. 

Lewis B. Miller, whose story, •• In the Quick- 
sand," with four striking illustrations by Martin 
Justice, was one of the features of the Century 
for June, was born on the Texas frontier and 
most of his life has been spent in Texas. His 
earliest recollections are of living in old Fort 
Blocker, a fort established near the Red River, 
partly as headquarters for the frontier scouts, 
but chiefly as a place of refuge for the settlers 
from the Comanches and other hostile tribes. 
One of the most vivid of his childhood memo- 
ries is of fleeing from the savages down a dry 
creek-bed with a party of women and children, 
accompanied by a one-eyed man leading a 
little gray mule, which, to the terror of all, per- 
sisted in braying. Two years of Mr. Miller's 



early boyhood were passed on a cattle-ranch, 
so near to one of the great cattle-trails that, in 
dry weather, he could watch the dust-clouds 
moving across the country as the mighty droves 
of long-horned beeves marched northward to 
slaughter. Later he passed some years on a 
Missouri farm, and several of his stories were 
suggested by four wagon-trips made between 
Missouri and Texas during his boyhood. Be- 
sides farming and driving cattle, he has taught 
country schools, edited both country and city 
papers, and held the professorship of Greek in 
a Texas college. He is familiar with nearly 
every phase of life from St. Louis to the Rio 
Grande, and within the last few years he has 
written about forty stories, which have been 
accepted by the Century* Harper's Monthly, 
St. Nicholas, Harper's Round Table, and (a 
large number) the Youth's Companion. u In 
the Quicksand** is the outgrowth of an incident 
which he witnessed on the banks of the Red 
River. At the present time Mr. Miller is hard 
at work upon a long story for boys. He now 
lives in St. Louis. 

Lydia Perkins, whose story, u The Atavism 
of Alaraaf,** appeared in the Atlantic for June, 
is a writer who, if not born with the instinct, 
nevertheless loves the profession. She has 
written for the papers of her home city, the 
Washington Post and Evening Star, and for 
several syndicates, among them the Newspaper 
Enterprise Association of Cincinnati and Cleve- 
land, and the McClure Syndicate of New York. 
She has also written for the Black Cat and 
other magazines. She was born in the South, 
and looks forward to bringing out a novelette 
of that section in the near future. 

Kathryne Wilson, whose story, "The Greater 
Claim/' appeared in Short Stories for June, is 
twenty-four years old, and has always lived in 
the states of Montana and Washington. She 
graduated from the University of Montana in 
the class of 1901. Her education was supple- 
mented by a course of travel in America and 
Europe. She now lives in Seattle. Miss Wil- 
son appreciates the value of the West of to-day 
as a literary field, and her work is devoted to 
the portray*] of character as it exists in that 

section of the country generally represented in 
literature by the cowboy and the Indian — a 
locality, however, where the cowboy is becom- 
ing a curiosity and from which the Indian is 
fast disappearing. 


Overton. — Miss Gwendolin Overton, the 
daughter of Captain Gilbert E. Overton, U.S.A., 
retired, who won recognition as an author by 
her novel, •' The Heritage of Unrest," has a 
new book named "Anne Carmel," just presented 
to the public. Born at a frontier post, she has 
spent most of her twenty-nine years with the 
Army, though she was educated in France. 
Of late years Miss Overton has resided at Los 
Angeles, Cal. — Town and Country. 

Sangster. — Asked to tell something of her 
early experiences, Mrs. Sangster said : " I 
began to write when I was a very young girl, 
and I have been writing all my life. I never 
knew personally any of the difficulties that 
many novices encounter, as I was fortunate 
enough to be successful from the very start. 
My first editorial work was on Hearth and 
Home, where I was assistant to George Cary 
Eggleston, whom I may call my preceptor in 
journalism. I had been contributing to that 
paper and to the Independent for some time, 
when Mr. Eggleston came to me one day and 
offered me the position which, he informed me, 
was then made vacant by the resignation of 
Mary Mapes Dodge, who was then beginning 
her long and enviable career as the editor of 
St. Nicholas. I was amazed that I should be 
sought out for the place, and replied to Mr. 
Eggleston that I had never had any experience 
as an editor. He answered that the publishers 
had carefully watched my contributions and 
were satisfied that I was the person they 
wanted. 'Any woman who can make a dress,* 
he said, 'can edit a paper.* * But I am one of 
the few women who can*t make a dress/ I re- 
plied. * I'll put it in another way, then,' he 
answered. 'Any woman who can keep house 
can edit a paper.* As I knew I could keep 
house, I raised no further objections. That 
was thirty years ago, and I have been contin- 
uously in the editorial harness ever since. At 



the present time, as you know, I am editing 
departments in the Ladies' Home Journal 
and the Christian Herald. 

"About my literary methods? I usually 
work six hours a day; I am an early riser, and 
most of my writing is done in the morning. I 
never work after four o'clock. I usually map 
out each day's work in advance, and think out 
what 1 am going to write, almost to the very 
words, before beginning. When I once have 
started, I work at a rapid pace, and can usually 
trust myself to write three thousand words a 
day. Frequently I produce more, very rarely 
less. When working on a novel I usually write 
two or three chapters and then put them away 
for a few days. When I take them up again I 
revise thoroughly what I have written before 
sending the sheets to the typewriter. Mean- 
while, of course, I am at work on other chap- 
ters, so there is no delay. The general plan of 
the story is all arranged before I begin to write, 
but sometimes the characters get away from 
me and persist in doing what they please, de- 
spite all my efforts to make them conform to 
my plan. I like to have several different kinds 
of work on hand at the same time. Then, 
when I am tired of one, I can put it aside and 
take up another. 

44 It has been my rule all through my literary 
career never to let my work crowd me. I al- 
ways keep well ahead of it, especially when I 
am writing tor newspapers. The result is that 
when I promise to have a piece of work ready 
at a certain time I can almost absolutely be 
depended on to have it done. For me the one 
fatal thing would be to feel hurried. I provide 
against it by being very systematic." — Newark 
Sunday News. 

Seawell.— Molly Elliot Seawell has made a 
practical success of writing, — practical because 
she began without name or fortune; in fact, 
she has told the writer that she had no means 
of support except that derived from her pen. 
What she wrote was not sold on recommenda- 
tion or the strength of a letter from a friend to 
the publisher, but on merit. 

She was but little more than a girl when she 
took up her pen with the determination to live 
by its products; but she was a practical girl 
and not given to dreaming of what she was 

going to do at some future time. She began 
doing immediately. For fifteen years she has 
been doing with unbroken regularity, and to- 
day she is more than ever convinced that 
*' there is no excellence without great labor." 

Not long ago the writer asked Miss Seawell 
why she chose the profession of letters. 

44 Because," was the quick reply, 44 1 had to 
earn my living and I thought that, in my case, 
it was the most available. When my father 
died," she continued, 44 1 felt that I must do 
something at once. I decided that I was per- 
haps better equipped for writing than for any. 
thing else, so I began in earnest. What did I 
write ? Everything I thought would be of in- 
terest to the public. 1 wrote for newspapers 
and publishers and sent my wares to whatever 
market I judged they would suit. The first 
year I wrote I earned $700 ; the second year I 
earned twice that amount." 

It must be remembered that Miss Seawell 
worked. She toiled unceasingly for her art. 
44 So many persons," she says, * 4 imagine that 
writing requires no special training, no hard 
work. In my opinion there is no line of writ- 
ing but requires a special training and adapta- 

44 Soon after I began to write I had the good 
fortune to be introduced to Longfellow. He 
told me whatever I was doing, no matter how 
small the work or the expected reward, to 
throw myself into it without reserve. I have 
profited much by his counsel. 

" I believe that I may say that I have been 
unusually successful. Very few of my articles 
were returned by publishers. In this I know 
1 am an exception, but I must remind you that 
I have always been an indefatigable worker 
and that I exact the very best there is in me 
when preparing a manuscript. I rewrite most 
of my manuscripts at least three times. 

44 My first distinct encouragement was a $500 
prize from the Youth's Companion for my 
story, * Little Jarvis.' But I think almost any- 
one could have written that : it is such a lov- 
able character that the story almost wrote 
itself. Then my • Sprightly Romance of Mar- 
sac ' won me a $3,000 prize from the New York 

44 If I am capable of giving advice to writett N 



1 would say make a specialty of some line of 
writing — something of which they can write 
with facility — and pursue it diligently. I 
know a young man who earns a fairly comfort- 
able living by writing on financial topics only. 
He began a few years ago on a New York 
newspaper and so mastered his line that what- 
ever he wrote about it was interesting and 
absolutely reliable. This is the age of the 
literary specialist. 

"I believe with Anthony Trollope that it 
would be a good thing if some who are trying 
to live by writing were glued to their chairs. 
They have no conception of concentration and 
application. Without drudging we cannot 
achieve distinction in any art. The price must 
be paid in full. 

"A great deal of time and toil is wasted in 
trying to get into the magazines by those who 
are not sufficiently skilled to meet the critical 
requirements of those publications. Many 
writers would do well to try first to please the 
newspapers — a field that is broader and in 
which the standards are not so sharply 

Miss Seawell is in love with her work and 
has found it the source of all her happiness. 
She usually puts in about six hours daily and 
brooks no interruption while engaged. She 
has earned a reputation for promptness, and 
when an editor or publisher has her agreement 
to furnish copy by a certain time he knows it 
will be forthcoming. When Miss Seawell 
went to her publishers, her work days were 
longer; now she receives them in her cozy 
Washington home. For her latest book she 
was paid an advance of $7,500, which, the 
writer is informed, was the largest advance 
ever made by an American publisher. — James 
Ravenscroft, in the Household-Ledger. 

Wilkins. — Mary E. Wilkins, who is now 
Mrs. Freeman, was only about eighteen years 
old when she wrote her first story. A Sunday- 
school publishing firm had offered a prize, and 
on reading the conditions she said, half in jest, 
she believed she could write a good story to 
fulfil the requirements. Her friends urged her 
to try, and the story she produced easily carried 
off the prize. From that time her efforts have 
been uniformly successful, and she has never 

had difficulty in finding a market.— Ntuark 
Sunday News. 

Wilton.— Puck, the New York weekly paper, 
has been edited from the wilds of Taney county 
( Mo. ) for many months. Harry Leon Wilson, 
the editor of Puck, and his accomplished wife, 
known to the public best as O'Neill Latham, 
are both at Day, a little place of the usual gen- 
eral store, postoffice, and blacksmith-shop type. 
Day is the girlhood home of Mrs. Wilson. It 
was here that she found that she could write 
and draw. After trying her hanu awhile in 
the rural press she contributed illustrated jokes 
to the magazines and weeklies. Then she 
went on to New York, where she found a mar- 
ket for her work. She married Mr. Latham, a 
broker, but she came back to Taney county 
and Judge Neville of Springfield granted her a 
divorce. Then she went back to New York, 
where she married the editor of Puck. 

Mr. Wilson and his wife are the heaviest 
contributors to the paper, but practically all of 
the matter used goes to Day, and is approved 
and edited by Mr. Wilson before it is published. 
Running from Springfield is a little branch of 
the St. Louis & San Francisco railway, which 
ends abruptly in the Ozarks. 

This train carries a combination mail and 
passenger coach. One mail clerk handles the 
business with ease. When Puck is in Taney 
county the clerk has to work a little harder 
than usual, coming and going. He takes down 
with him great packages of letters, jokes, and 
newspapers, which arrive in Springfield from 
New York. This mail is delivered at Chad- 
wick to an old-time stage coach, which carries 
the jokes into the fastnesses of the Ozarks at 
Day, off the railroad, telegraph, and telephone 
lines. Waiting at Chadwick for the train is 
the combined output of the Wilson*, a large 
portion of it in tubes in which the pictures, 
ready for the artist, are rolled. 

Mr. Wilson, since the great success of bis 
novel, " The Spenders," is now writing another 
story. Mrs. Wilson has often been spoken of 
as a native of Taney county, a girl without ad- 
vantages and one who jumped at a single bound 
out of obscurity. The fact of the matter is, 
Mrs. Wilson had lived in Omaha and Nashville 
before she went to Taney county and knew 



considerable of the world before she attempted 
any literary work. The Wilsons are in Missouri 
strictly for business. While Mr. Wilson has 
often been in Springfield on his way to and 
from New York, he has not made an acquaint- 
ance in the city, and hardly half a dozen people 
in Taney county know him. 

Since Mrs. Wilson has been successful in 
her particular line she is pushing forward a 
younger sister in the same path. She, too, 
shows considerable talent and is gradually 
making her way in New York. — Detivtr Re- 


Rapid Literary Production. — Sir Walter 
Besant's autobiography records the fact that 
he wrote eighteen novels in eighteen years. It 
is calculated that this output meant the writing 
of about a thousand words each secular day of 
the year, basing the calculation on the average 
length of his novels. This is far behind the 
achievements of some of our contemporary 
novelists, Marion Crawford, for instance, who 
often writes two novels in one year, and who 
once wrote four in twelve months. Probably 
this latter achievement entitled Mr. Crawford 
to the record for the rapid production of novels 
that are worth reading. — Boston Herald. 

The Chances of an Unknown Writer. — A 
glance at the magazine indices for the past ten 
years shows that new writers are continually 
getting in, and staying in. Again these maga- 
zine files show that after all, the great majority 
of articles are signed by names which are prac- 
tically unknown to the reading public. These 
facts refute the idea that editors are not ready 
to see merit in the unknown writer. This 
is the true relation between the editor and the 
new writer. The unknown man must force 
his way in by hard, continued work; not 
being too depressed by defeat, nor too elated 
by success. The most important sense for 
success, outside of unquestioned genius, for 
the newcomer is the •' journalistic instinct," 
whether he writes stories, travel articles, or 
social studies. The writer who acquires the 
reputation for doing something better than hit 
fellows, soon rises. The unknown writer can 

never tell in advance what manuscripts will 
stick and what ones will come back. The only 
thing that is in his power is to persevere and 
bide his time, encouraged by the fact that 
never has the public been so quick to recognize 
merit as to-day ; that never has there been so 
great a market for the literary worker. — The 

Coincidence not Plagiarism. — How, pray, 
are we going to know that some one else, in 
another place, is not writing a poem, a story, 
or a book like ours, that will be published be. 
fore our own and give us the appearance of 
thievery ? There is known to the writer of this 
screed a young woman who achieved a tale for 
the Youth's Companion the theme of which 
was painfully evolved from her own conscious- 
ness. The Companion people, on returning it, 
assured her they would gladly have taken it 
but for the fact that they had just accepted, 
from Mrs. Margaret Del and, a story of pre- 
cisely the same subject and precisely same at- 
titude toward that subject. This unfortunate 
author, a few years ago, wrote a poem about a 
little child which she sent to various editors — 
without success. While the manuscript was 
still on its peregrinations there appeared in 
one of the prominent magazines a poem on the 
same subject, and of like order, one of the 
chief points of which was also a chief point of 
her poem and was expressed in words almost 
identical with her own. Had hers been pub- 
lished after that — oh, what a plagiarism was 
there, my sisters ! — Louisville Post. 

What a True Parody Is.— A parody should 
certainly be an addition to literature, if it is to 
be welcomed, not a subtraction from it. If it 
is designed to spoil our enjoyment of a great 
work by suggesting undertones of triviality, it 
is an outrage which should be strenuously re- 
sented. For our own part we are furiously 
resentful, since we have to make a fierce effort 
to forget the travesty before we can return to 
the original with the usual zest. 

What, then, are the limits of legitimate 
parody ? Shall we not say that the first rule of 
the game is that no masterpiece shall be 
turned into verbal triviality? A travesty of 
the Lord's Prayer or the Sermon on the Mount 
would offend the tdo&X ^^TM$taroaii vgaascfcR.- 



Shakespeare seems to be immune, for no one 
has ever even tried to travesty his style — he 
is above style — and the innumerable traves- 
ties of "To be or not to be" have left the 
great monologue serenely uninjured. But for 
the rest, criticism or suggestion marks the 
limit; and the warning bell should ring when 
the parody passes from the spirit of the author 
to the letter, when the parodist deliberately 
takes a masterpiece and degrades it, so that 
the infernal tinkle of the parody rings in our 
ears as we strain to listen to the music of the 

Many instances of the legitimate parody 
occur as the pen runs. The late Bret Harte's 
"condensed novels" never took a moment of 
pleasure from the reader of the stories he 
burlesqued. His was not verbal parody, not 
of the letter which kills. He took the method 
and produced it in a straight line till it met ab- 
surdity. Nor did any one find "Lothair" 
spoiled by the reading of " Lothaw." The 
same may be said of Sir F. Burnand's " Strap- 
more," and the man who laughed over the 
burlesque could go back to " Strathmore " 
with unimpaired emotion. Calverley, with his 
acute literary sense and his amazing power of 
rhyme, was one of the finest parodists that 
ever wrote. Yet he worked entirely by sugges. 
tion — and criticism of the method. Take the 
" Ode to Tobacco," which is cast in the metre 
of Longfellow's " Skeleton in Armor." There 
is just one hint of the original : — 

I have a liking old 
For thee, though manifold 
Stories, I know, are told, 
Not to thy credit. 

*• 1 was a Viking old." It is a mere allusion 
that would despoil no one of any enjoyment he 
could get from the " Skeleton in Armor." 
And was there ever a better parody of a great 
poet — and a more innocuous one — than Cal- 
verley's "The Cock and the Bull "? 

You tee this pebble stone ? It's a thing 1 bought 
(X a bu of a chit of a boy i' the mid o' the day — 
I like to dock the smaller parts-o' -speech. 
As we curtail the alread curtail'd cur, 
( You catch the paronomasia, play ' po ' words * ) 
Well, to my muttons. I purchased the concern, 
And clapt it i' my poke. hating given for same 
By way o' chop, swop, barter, or exchange — 

And so on. But though you recognize merely 

a humorous criticism of Browning — Brown- 
ing's method produced to absurdity — and no 
single poem is dragged in the mud of travesty, 
you return to Browning with a sane conscious- 
ness of the spots on your sun. Ccming to 
contemporaries, we find Owen Seaman follow- 
ing the same course in the " Battle of the 
Bays " : — 

Washed white from the stain of Attarte 
My verse any virgin may buy. 

Do we need to quote further to indicate the 
sensuous swing of Swinburnian verse? Yet 
the parody is not verbal, it fastens parasitica!!)' 
on no masterpiece ; it is critical; it adds to our 
insight and does not subtract from our literary 
enjoyment. — The Academy. 

Th« Future Editorial.— What will be the 
future newspaper editorial? Or will the edito- 
rial page disappear entirely? 

A few modern newspapers cling to the old, 
heavy, archaic editorial department, filling a 
complete page. They can be numbered on the 
fingers of one hand. When so conservative a 
newspaper as the Chicago Tribune cuts out 
half its editorial space the tendency is appar- 
ent to every observer. 

The editorial will not disappear. The news- 
paper will always reserve a limited space for 
the expression of opinion. But it will be dif- 

Note this fact: There are very few political 
organs now-a-days. The organ is the sort of a 
newspaper that prints editorial that will help 
and not harm the party. Its point of view it 
the party's. Its editor colors his views to suit. 
Every one knows what such a newspaper will 
say editorially and there is no special anxiety 
to read its utterances. Besides, the man who 
wants to go deep into politics and economics 
reads the reviews. He gets the opinion of ex- 
perts in those periodicals. 

Will there, then, be no editorial on politics? 

There will be. But it will be an honest ex- 
pression. Politics is a part of our national 
life. The old-time editor made the mistake, 
however, of supposing it is the only topic in 
which newspaper readers are interested. 

Therefore the advent of the 4< human inter- 
est" editorial. 



The reasons why the editorial page has lost 
prestige are not far to seek. It has not kept 
pace with the news columns. It is not up-to- 
date. It is largely what it was a hundred years 
ago. It appeals to a small constituency; the 
masses do not read it. The average man 
skips it. 

The coming editorial will reflect the life of 
the people as do the news columns. 

It will cover all the interests of society. 
Women as well as men will read it. It will be 
written and printed so that he who runs may 
read. It will be eloquent in brevity. There 
will be short words and short sentences. 
There will be no padding. The style will be 
the direct, nervous style. 

The coming editorial will be ethical. 

The editor will not be afraid of a preach- 
ment — even to the verge of "slopping over." 
He will err on the side of sentiment. He will 
write from his heart and reach the heart. The 
pulpit is losing its hold on the people. Where 
will they get their morals save from the press? 

The coming editorial will be "featured." 

It will be displayed as the news is displayed 
— saving the dignity supposed to attach to edi- 
torial matter. Why should the reporter's stuff 
be displayed and the editor's hidden? 

In modern newspapering it is a choice be- 
tween modernizing the editorial and its disap- 
pearance. Is that radical? It is true. More- 
over, the newspapers that have made the appeal 
to human interest from the first page head-line 
to the last line of the editorial page are the 
great and growing newspapers of to-day. — 
A' ans as City World. 


Littik Mi-» h'shisk. tly ( iubncllr K. Jaikmn. 41" pp. 
Cloth, Jiso New Y.rk : J. F. Taylor & Co. i r>»- 

" Little Miss Sunshine " is a pleasant story 
of an attractive girl, just past fifteen, who sees 
good in everybody, who is always doing some- 
thing for M>met>ody, and whose influence tends 
to make everybody better. She is a little over- 
drawn, perhaps, but her moral effect is good, 
and her experiences are related in such a 
bright, entertaining way that boys and girls 
everywhere will be glad to read al>out her. 
She is skilfully contrasted in the story with a 
striking character, a crabbed old Yankee far- 

mer whose eccentricities make him — in a 
book — an unfailing source of joy. 

w. H. H. 

Thb Legend of Slbbpy Hollow. Printed in the easy re- 
porting style of Benn Pitman phonography. 31 pp. Paper 
35 cents. Cincinnati : The Phonographic Institute Com- 
pany. 190a. 

Sir Isaac Pitman : His Lira and Labors. By Benn 
Pitman. 201pp. Cloth. Cincinnati: Benn Pitman. 190a. 

Addresses on Wak By Charles Sumner. With an Intro- 
duction by Edwin D. Mead. 319 pp. Cloth. Ginn & Co. 
1 90s. 



( The publishers of Thb Writbr will send to any address a 
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en receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents postage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the article* mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention Thb Writbr when they write.) 

Bket Hahtk and the Akgonaits. Illustrated. Albert 
E. Hancock. Boohlovers Magazine ( 28 c. ) for July. 

Somk Mfm<>k:f> uy the Latr Richard Hknky S mu- 
ii a ko. Joel Benton. Criterion ( 13 c. ) for July. 

The Kthks oh Hkk.kaj-hv Edmund Gosse. Cosmopoli- 
tan ( 1 j c. ) for July. 

Old LiiVE-STiiKiits Rf.t..ld. V. - Shelley and Mary ( ;od- 
*in. Illustrated. Richard Lc Gallicnne. Cosmopolitan (ijc.x 
lor July. 

Hkkman Hknky K..hl>aai. With portiait. Elliott 
Flower. Cosmopolitan (13 c.) for July. 

Thf Fik>i American Gf<«;ka»>h\ . Illustrated. Chiton 
Johnson. Mew England Magazine ( j* c. ) f< >r July. 

M«'M.\ F.Li t<ii Sr.AWFi.L. James Ravenscroft. Household- 
Ledger ( 1 j c. ) for July. 

An Oid-Timi S>n«. Wkiifk (Suphcn Collins Foster) 
George HinUeyc. Household- Ledger ( i\ c. ) for Julv. 

Tin F.mi h>..«n Cfnm.naky. Illustrated. Hayes Kohbin.s 
World To-Day ( i« 1 . ) f-.r July. 

M >ki. Aifi 1 H.\Kn\K\ Fkifuhik Illustrated. R. M 
Cheshire. Book «»/ the Royal Blue ( * «.. ) for Julv. 

I.i 1 r 1 1 Pi 1 (.kim m.jn Amom. thf Mi n Who H.\vr. Wki i- 
iiN K.\M"i-» lli^KN. I.— Imnic Hathtller. F. F. Harkin* 
Ltttraty H'srld ( i? c. ) for Julv 

Skmiv and Ami It live Carman Literary H'orld (\\ \. ) 
for JuU 

A I.ii»k\ky Tki >\ lohn l> Harry Literary H'srld 
( 1 \ t > lor Julv. 

Tin CtiH-'tn in Fuii-n John I a'ileiket Ht.tdtr 
( ,«*i ) t-.r |ui% 

Tin Mam\ »k I »•* 1 \ 1 1 in r !• 1 1- n W S I 'miliar 
Reader ( .•* 1 ) t> r |ul\ 

r t'i n I'm 1 1 1 11 An iNiifc'.iin William Wallan 

Wlutcloik Re.t.ler(>*i ) i.. r In it 

KlMIM-i IN- I • - I \N iMIKMHMk 1 I I. — J>S<|.|| Jtl 

k-rson I lien I trrv >ir Henry Irving. Reader ( 2* <.. ) |.r 

Wi-i 11 m Til- ' '.m 1 Ik \mi SchcII Fonl. Re<td*r(t*i> ) 
for July. 

Thi Sh--ki M »;\. Ivkl-ri (;. Am. her. The Author 
(London ) ( 1" t. » for July. 



Dramatic Critics and Great Expectations. James 
M. Graham. The A uthor ( London ) ( 18 c. ) for July. 

Thackeray's Kindness to Children. Mary King Clarke. 
Critic ( 28 c. ) for July. 

Artist Life in New York in the Days op Oliver 
Horn. Illustrated. William Henry Shelton. Critic ( 28 c.) 
for July. 

Literary Landmarks op New York.— X. Illustrated. 
Charles Hemstreet. Critic ( 28 c. ) for July. 

Letters to a Young Writer. Critic ( 28 c. ) for July. 

The Novels of Lord Lytton. Francis Gribble. Critic 
(28 c.) for July. 

Alexander Dumas. With portrait. Francis Grierson. 
Critic ( 28 c. ) for July. 

Certain Overlooked Phases of American Life. M. 
H. Vorse. Critic ( 28 c. ) for July. 

Novelist Poets. (Owen Meredith, Thomas Hardy, and 
Robert Louis Stevenson. ) Reprinted from London Academy 
and Literature in Book News (8c.) for July. 

The Book Critic. Book News (8c.) for July. 

Letters from Ruskin to a Young Lady. Adam Scot. 
North A merican Review (53c) for July. 

The Recent Dramatic Season : A Study in Theatri- 
cal Faolution. Henry Tyrrell. Forum (53 c.) for July- 

Paul Du Chaillu. With portrait. National Geographic 
Magazine ( 28 c. ) for July. 

The Newspaper— Its Usefulness as a Factor in the 
Progress of Education. Annie M. Cannon. National 
Printer-Journalist (23 c.) for July. 

The Use of Cuts for Newspapers. Lon Sanders. Na- 
tional Printer-Journalist (23c) for July. 

The Speech Reporter as a Speech Reviser. — Con- 
cluded. David Wolfe Brown. Phonographic Magazine ( 13c.) 
for July. 

The Writing of the Booklet and Folder. E. St. 
Elmo Lewis. Book-Keeper (13 c.) for July. 

The "Reader" and the Manuscript. Robert Adger 
Bowen. Gunton's Magazine ( 13 c. ) for July. 

What is " Comparative Literature " ? Charles Mills 
Gayley. Atlantic ( 38 c ) for July. 

The Literary Development of the Pacific Coast. 
Herbert Bashford. Atlantic ( 38 c. ) for July. 

Unpublished Letters by Sik Waltek Scott.— I. 
Horace G. Hutchinson. Century ( 38 c. ) for July. 

Literature and Diplomacy. Topics of the Time. Cen- 
tury (38 c.) for July. 

The Bronte Novels. Walter Frewen Lord. Reprinted 
from the Nineteenth Century and After in the Eclectic ( 28 c. ) 
for July. 

Joseph Henry Shorthouse. Edward Hutton. Reprinted 
from Blackwood '* Magazine in the Eclectic (28 c. ) for 

Hartley Coleridge. J. K. Hudson. Reprinted from 
Temple Bar in the Eclectic ( 28 c. ) for July. 

Letters to a Literary Aspirant.— IV., V., VI., VII. 
Reprinted from Blackwood's Magazine in the Eclectic ( 28 c. ) 
for July. 

A Century of French Fiction. A review of "A Century 
of French Romance," edited by Edmund Gosse. Reprinted 
from Blackwood 's Magazine in the Eclectic ( 28 c. ) for July. 

Short Story Essentials. Leslie W. Quirk. Editor 
{ 13c.) for July. 

Milton and Dante. Harriet B. Bradbury. Mind (21 c. ) 
for July. 

The Book Treasures of an Angler ( John G. Hecksher). 
Emest Dressel North. Literary Collector ( 18 c. ) for June. 

Tolstoy and Co. William Henry Thorne. Globe Quar- 
terly Review ( 53 c. ) for June. 

Professor Herman Grimm. Elizabeth von Heyking. In- 
ternational Quarterly (#1.28) for June-September. 

A Theory of the Comic. William Norman Guthrie. In- 
ternational Quarterly ($1.28) for June-September. 

The Dramas of Paul Hervibu. Edouard Rod. Inter- 
national Quarterly ( $1 .28 ) for June-September. 

The Goncourts. ( The late ) L. Marillier. International 
Quarterly (£1.28) for June-September. 

John Muir. Illustrated. Ray Stannard Baker. Outlook 
(13 c.) for June 6. 

Some More Letters of Mrs. Carlyle. Augustine Bir- 
rell. Reprinted from the Nineteenth Century and After in the 
Living Age ( 18 c. ) for June 13. 

The Interpretation of Dante. S. Udny. Reprinted 
from the Contemporary Review in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for 
June 20. 

The Newspaper. " J. G. L." Reprinted from Mac mil- 
Ian' s Magazine in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for June 20. 

The Literary Aspects of the Praybr-Book. Reprinted 
from the Spectator in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for June 20. 

Max MUller. Cornelia Sorabji. Reprinted from Temple 
Bar in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for June 27. 

The Complacency of the Wordsworthians. " H.F.C." 
Reprinted from the Speaker in the Living Age (18 c. ) for 
June 27. 


Henry James is to visit the United States 
after an absence of twenty-five years. 

Albion W. Tourgee, consul at Bordeaux, 
France, has been promoted to be consul-general 
at Halifax, N. S. 

Marie Corelli is to have a biography written 
by T. F. G. Coates. 

A memoir of the late Dean Farrar, author- 
ized by his family, is now in course of prepara- 
tion by his eldest son, Dr. R. A. Farrar. 

"Margaret Fuller's Love Letters," with an 
introduction by Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, are 
published in book form. They were written in 
1845-46, and were addressed to James Nathan, 
a young business man of New York. Reminis- 
cences of Margaret Fuller, written by Emerson, 
Horace Greeley, and Charles T. Congdon, are 
included in the volume. 

A biography of John Fiske is to be published 
by the Macmillan Company. 

Arthur Goodrich has resigned as managing 
editor of the World's Work, to become asso- 
ciate editor of Outing. 

The writer. 


Eugene L. Didier, author of a "Life of 
Edgar Allan Poe," is collecting his various 
Poe articles for publication in book form next 

•R. H. Russell is now the editor of the Met- 
ropolitan Magazine, with Perriton Maxwell as 
assistant. The magazine is to undergo changes 
which will make it a sort of illustrated Smart 

A magazine devoted to the interests of chil- 
dren and mothers will be started soon in Bos- 
ton. It is to be called the New Mothers' 
Magazine and the editor will be Jean 

Twentieth Century Boys and Girls is a new 
juvenile magazine published by Francis E. 
Mason in New York. 

The Business Woman's Magazine ( Denver) 
is a new monthly, devoted to the interests of 
business women and women in general. Miss 
Louise Lee Hardin is editor, with Mrs. Robert 
Balfour as associate editor. 

The California Ladies'' Magazine (Oakland, 
Calif.) is the only magazine for women pub- 
lished on the Pacific coast. 

Modern Philology is a new magazine, de- 
voted to research in modern languages and liter- 
ature. It comes from the University of Chicago 

The Review of Catholic Pedagogy is a new 
magazine published in Chicago. Professor 
Thomas K. Judge is the editor. 

Michael Monahan of Mount Vernon, N.Y., 
is about to publish the first number of the 
Papyrus, a new monthly magazine of literary 

Beginning with the September number, the 
Ladies' World will be enlarged, and new de- 
partments will be introduced. 

Gun/on's Magazine{ New York ) has enlarged 
its range of subject matter, and will hereafter 
print articles of general literary interest as well 
as articles discussing economic and public 

Beginning with the September number, the 
International Studio will devote more space 
to notice of the progress of art in the United 

Mrs. Dore Lyon of New York has purchased 
the Club-woman, and has transferred its head- 
quarters from Boston to New York. She an- 
nounces that her policy will be "broad and 
liberal/' and will endeavor to appeal to women 
in general. Especial prominence, however, 
will be given to the affairs of clubdom. Mrs. 
Lyon will be editor-in-chief, Miss Helen Wins- 
low, founder of the publication, acting as first 

The July Delineator shows a considerable 
change in make-up from preceding issues; the 
literary matter has been brought to the front of 
the book, then come the fashions, and lastly 
departmental matter. The number is in many 
respects superior to any previous one. 

The Week's Progress ( New York ), formerly 
known as the Great Round World, will make 
its first appearance under the new name with 
the issue of July 4. 

The New York Medical journal and the 
Philadelphia Medical Journal have been con- 

The Designer ( New York ) has reduced its 
price from one dollar to eighty cents a year. 

The Olympian Magazine, started in Nash- 
ville in January, is doing so well that the Olym- 
pian Publishing Company has increased its 
capital to 550,000. Dr. J. H. Stevenson is 
chairman of the editorial committee, and 
Theodore H. Brewer is managing editor. The 
stockholders include the strongest capitalists 
of Nashville, who are able to back the maga- 
zine to any amount that may be necessary. 

The editorial policy of the new Everybody' s 
Magazine will be to have cheery and whole- 
some articles. There will be no place in its 
pages for the morbid, the mawkish, or .the un- 
real, (iood short fiction is what its editors 

The* Sunny South ( Atlanta ) offers prizes of 
5120, £70, 550, $25, 520, and 515 for the six 
best short stories of from 3,500 to 5,000 words 
submitted to the " Story Contest Editor" be- 
fore August 1 5. " No story will be considered 
from any individual generally recognized as a 
professional author." Stories that do not win 
prizes will be paid for, if accepted. 



The Household- Ledger ( New York ) offers 
prizes of $100, $50, $25, and $25 for the four 
best short stories, from 1,000 to 2,500 words, 
submitted before September 1. The House- 
hold-Ledger also offers $1,000 in prizes for des- 
criptions of thrilling episodes "which have 
never been told beyond the family circle, and 
which the public would be glad to read." 
Manuscripts should be labeled, " When Wits 
Won," and should be submitted before Octo- 
ber 1. 

Good Housekeeping (Springfield, Mass. ) of- 
fers $1,000 in 244 prizes ranging from $250 
down to one dollar for the best letters telling 
of actual experiences in meeting emergencies 
in practical life. The contest will close No- 
vember 1. Letters and manuscripts must be 
clearly labeled with name and address, and ac- 
companied by stamps if return is desired. 
Stories must deal with personal experience, or 
that of acquaintances, and if ever in print be- 
fore must be so labeled. 

Browning's Magazine ( New York ) offers a 
monthly prize of five dollars for the best photo- 
graph made by an amateur, and sent in by a 
subscriber to the magazine. A second prize of 
three dollars and a third prize of two dollars 
are also offered, while one dollar apiece will be 
paid for any other photographs retained. 

The Book-Keeper ( Detroit ) offers $35 in 
prizes for the best true story of "how you 
saved for a home." Each manuscript must be 
accompanied by a photograph of the house, 
and must be limited to two hundred words. 
The competition will close November 1. 

The Oaks ( Chicago ) is conducting a prize- 
story contest to end November 1, the highest 
amount offered for the best short story being 
$300 and* the least award $25. 

Sunset Magazine (San Francisco) wants con- 
tributions "relating to western development, to 
the arts, industries, and resources, to be ac- 
companied, wherever possible, by good, clear 
photographs." Charles Sedgwick Aiker is the 

The Outlook Company ( New York ), which 
publishes the Outlook, is now publishing books 
as well. 

The Chicago Madrigal Club offers a prize of 
$25 for the best setting of the poem, "What 
the Chimney Sang," by Bret Harte. The set- 
ting must be for chorus of mixed voices, to be 
done without accompaniment. The manuscript 
is to be in the hands of the judges not later 
than October 15. Each composition will remain 
the property of its composer. Communica- 
tions should be addressed to D. A. Clippinger, 
410 Kimball Hall, Chicago. The competition 
is open to any musician residing in the United 

An "International Encyclopaedia of Journal- 
ism " is in preparation in England under the 
editorship of William Hill ( Westminster Ga- 
zette ), Alfred Harmsworth ( Daily Mail), and 
Maurice Ernst (JVeues Wiener Tageblatt). It 
will b2 provided with a full index, and it is to 
be published at a popular price, probably in 
two handy volumes on thin paper. A bureau 
has been opened for the organization and ac- 
complishment of the idea, which is to produce 
for the first time an authoritative history and 
comprehensive handbook of journalism in all 
its phases. Communications in furtherance of 
this object addressed to the Secretary, "Ency- 
clopaedia of Journalism," Granville House, 
Arundel street, Strand, W. C, London, Eng- 
land, are invited. 

Mary Anne Watts Hughes, to whom Sir 
Walter Scott addressed the letters, hitherto 
unpublished, which appear in the July Century* 
was the wife of Dr. Hughes, canon of St. Paul's, 
and grandmother of Thomas Hughes, author 
of the "Tom Brown " books. There is a pretty 
story of how the friendship between this inter- 
esting woman and the great novelist began, in 
1806, when Sir Walter Scott was in town en- 
joying his first fame after the publication of 
"The Lay of the Last Minstrel." The letters 
begin in 1808. lapse entirely between 1813 an d 
1821, and then continue at fairly regular inter- 
vals to 1 83 1 . They are full of personal chat and 
were evidently highly prized by Mrs. 

The Boston Book Company has issued a 
bibliography of the small periodicals, or freak 
magazines, compiled by Frederick Wintbrop 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 8. 

*J^>_*Z1»*±™ ^'™™* " ,!! C »»; CLA " ""• MA ™ j stately hexameter and the difficult sonnet form 

CONTENTS: PAGi are fitted onI y * or serious verse. Four feet 

Tmk Forms «>p Lyric Vkrse. Myrtu Reed «i 3 to tne measure make a light and tripping 

A LittlbTalk Ab-.i-t Song Writing. Kate Vannah. 115 movement which may often be sold to a funny 

Ed,7 t . r ' m " ',, . ''■ ',„'.' ' « „ ' ', ' " 8 P a P er '* the editor needs it to fill out the page. 

The Correct Indentation of Poetry, 11S— How to In- . r"5 v * 

struct CompoMtor to "Follow Copy/' 118 There is always scope for fancy in the arrange- 

Thk Sckai- Haskkt 119 ment of verse, and happy is he who invents a 

W.,T.Nu S.NSAT.ONAL S T „R,B S M, new fh met hod, but it IS UOt in gOOd UStC 

H'tw CarTi'<-ns Arb Drawn. /oA« /\ Mc Cut die on. . 120 ••• ..... , 

Wr.tbr. <k thb Day ,24 to tam P er with established forms. 

Hi-mjon Lee Knsign, 114— Minnie Reid French. 1*4 Nearly all of our verse forms are of French 

-Helen m. Given*, 124 -s. H. Kemper. 124- origin. The sonnet comes to us from Italy, 

Ewan Macpherson, 124— Dorothy Lord Maltby, 125 j 1 <* • , ~ . . 

-Emily Huntington Miller. ., 5 - William Hamii- and lhe Spenserian stanza from England, but 

ton otborne, 12$ — AKnes Louise Provost, 125 — m. the Ballade, Double Ballade, Chant Royale, 

<;. sampvm. 126- EUiot Walker 126 Kyrielle, Pantoum, Rondeau, Rondeau Re- 

CuRkBNT Litbrary Tories 126 1 ' 1 w o j 1 ™ j 1 . t» , , 

u;i v . < l v 1 1 > a /• ♦••'•• ( double. Rondel. Rondelet, Roundel, Sestina, 

y* ay Not hpeak English ' 126 — Country 1 raining lor ' ' *-'*•*** ••"» 

journalise 126 Triolet, Villanelle, Yirelai, and Sicilian Octave 

Litbrary akticlrn is Pkriodicai.s 127 are all French forms, and many of them are 

Wiws an d Notes "7 very ] ( |. 

THP FORmVofTyrTp VPP^P Thc StrJCt ,taIian type ° f S ° nnet is by far 

THfc FORMS UF L YRIC VbRSfc. the rtnest form> and Shakespeare's couplet at 

Every p.>et who has a rhyming dictionary the end destroys the majesty of the lines, 

is familiar with the feet of his verse, if not the Spenser's experiments with the sonnet also 

basic principles of art. Most of us learned at weakened rather than strengthened the form, 
school that an iamb was a metrical foot of two The perfect sonnet consists of fourteen lines 

syllables with the accent on the second; a of iambic pentameter, subdivided into an oc- 

troche, a foot of two syllables with the accent tave and a sestet. It contains one, and only 

on the first; an anapest ; a foot of three s\ 11a- one, mood, idea, or emotion, introduced in the 

bles with the accent on the; a dactyl, a first quatrain, explained in the second, which 

fo )t of three syllables with the accent on the ends in a full point, and carried to confirma- 

third ; and a spondee, a foot uf two syllables tion and conclusion in the two tercets which 

equally accented or not accented at all. We make up the sestet. Contrasted rhymes must 

also learned that trimeter was a line of three not play on the same vowel, and there must be 

feet; tetrameter, a line of four feet; pen- no pauses in the lines. The normal pauses 

tameter, a line of live feet; and hexameter, a come at the end of the first quatrain, at thc end 

line of six feet — iambic, trochaic, dactylic, of the second, the end of the first tercet, and 

anapestic, or spondaic, as the case might be, the end of the sonnet. A comma may be used 

though the true hexameter consists always of anywhere, but a perfect sonnet will have no 

dactyls and spondees. period, save at the end of the octave and thc 

With these as tools, not forgetting the rhym- end of thc sestet. Semicolons or dashes arc 

ing dictionary, the poet practises his art, many used at the end of the first quatrain and the 

times without knowing that the form of his first tercet. Sonnet rhymes, also, must play 

verse should depend upon his subject. The upon different vowels, according to the strict 

Copyright, iooj, by Wiluam H. Hills. All rifbtt nitrwtd* 



interpretation of the form. If the rhyming 
words of the octave turn upon "a" and " o," 
they must not be used in the sestet, and so on, 
through endless variations. 

Except for the repetition of the " e " vowel 
in the sestet rhymes, which perhaps is unavoid- 
able, the second of the two sonnets prefixed 
to the Purgatorio is absolutely perfect : — 

" With snow-white veil and garments as of flame 
She stands before thee, who so long ago 
Filled thy young heart with passion and the woe 

From which thy song in all its splendors came ; 

And while with stern rebuke she speaks thy name, 
The ice about thy heart melts as the snow 
On mountain height, and in swift overflow 

Comes gushing from thy lips in sobs of shame. 

Thou makest full confession, and a gleam 
As of the dawn on some dark forest cast 
Seems on thy lifted forehead to increase ; 
Lethe and Eunoe — the remembered <?ream 
And the forgotten sorrow — bring at last 
That perfect pardon which is perfect peace." 

1221-1221-345-345 is the accepted rhyming 
standard, although 1221-1 221-34-34-34 ard 
1221-1221-345-435 are also technically correct. 
Shakespeare's form was 1 2-1 2-34-34-56-56-77, 
and Spenser's Amoretti are written 12-12-23-23- 


The Spenserian stanza is written in iambic 
pentameter, 12-1223-23, as: — 

" Eftsoones they heard a most melodious sound 

Of all that mote delight a daintie eare 
Such as at once might not on living ground 

Save in this Paradise be heard elsewhere. 
Right hard it was for wight which did not heare 

To read what manner musicke that mote bee 
For all that pleasing is to living eare 

Was there consorted in one harmonee ; 

Birdes, voices, instruments, windes, waters, all agree." 

The Ballade is written in iambic or trochaic 
tetrameter, and therhymemethod is 12-12-23-23. 
This is repeated in the two stanzas following, 
the rhymes being mutual, or interchangeable, 
and the Envoy, which usually begins with the 
word " Prince," consists of four lines, 22-33 or 
25-23. The double Ballade contains six stanzas, 
rhymes interchangeable, the rhyme form being 
the same, and the Envoy containing four lines, 
in the 23-23 rhyme form. Swinburne used 
iambic hexameter in a double Ballade. 

The Chant Royale is the most difficult form 
we have. It consists of five verses and an en- 
voy, in iambic pentameter; the last line of each 

verse and of the e*nvoy is the same, and the 
rhymes are all interchangeable. The form is 
12-12-33-44-45-45, followed by four stanzas re- 
peating the rhymes in exactly the same form. 
The envoy has seven lines, also interchange- 
able, 33-445 45. Rhyme 1 occurs ten times ; 2, 
ten times; 3, twelve times; 4, eighteen times; 
and 5, twelve times. It is said that he who 
writes one Chant Royale is forever master of 
the sonnet. 

The Kyrielle is written in iambic tetrameter, 
and there may be three, fiwey eight, or ten 
verses, the last line of each being the same. 
The rhymes are the same in each verse, and 
therhymemethod is 11-22. It is a tiresome 
and difficult form. 

In the Pantoum, the lines themselves are re- 
peated. It is written in iambic tetrameter, four 
lines to the verse, the rhyme method being 12- 
12. In the second verse, the second line of 
the first verse becomes the first line, and the 
last line of the first verse becomes the third 
line. This is continued throughout the ten 
verses, each borrowing two lines from its pre- 

The Rondeau Redouble* consists of six verses 
of four lines each, the first two feet of the first 
line being repeated in a separate line at the 
end of the poem, and the rhymes being inter- 
changeable. The lines are also repeated. The 
rhyme method is 12-12. The last line of the 
second verse is the same as the first line of 
the first verse, the last line of the third is the 
second line of the first, the last line of the 
fourth is the third line of the first, the last line < 
of the fifth is the last line of the first verse. 
The sixth verse has no repetition except the 
first two feet of the first verse in a line added 
to the complete verse — usually the title. 

The Sicilian Octave is a dainty form in 
iambic pentameter, and consists of eight lines, 
as its name implies. The rhyme method is 12- 

In the Rondel, the rhymes are interchange- 
able, and the first two lines are also the last 
two of the first eight and the last two lines of 
the poem — in other words, the first two lines 
are repeated at the end of the octave and ses- 
tet. Therhymemethod is 1221-1212 — 122111. 
Lines of three, four, or five feet may be used. 



The form of the Rondelet can best],be 'ex- 
plained by the poem itself: — 

" The summer's gone — how did it go ? 
And where has gone the dogwood's show ? 
The air is sharp upon the hill 
And with a tinkle sharp and chill 

The icy little brooklets flow — 
What is it in the season, though, 
Brings back the days of old, and so 
Sets Memory recalling still 
The summer's gone ? 

Why are my days so dark, for lo 
The maples with fresh glory glow ; 

Fair shimmering mists the valleys fill 

The keen air sets the blood a-thrill ; 
Ah, now that you are gone, I know 
The summer's gone ! " 

Lines of three or five feet may also be used. 

In a Roundel, the title, the first two feet of 
the first line, the last line of the first verse, and 
the last line of the poem are all the same. The 
rhyme method is 1212-212-1212. The rhymes 
are interchangeable. 

A Sestina consists of six verses of iambic 
pentameter, and the rhymes are interchange- 
able, the same words being used throughout 
as rhymes. The rhyme method is 12- 12- 12. 
The second verse is a reversal of the order, 
though the words are the same, 21-21-21. At 
the end there are three lines as an envoy, 212. 

The triolet is a familiar form, using two, 

three, or four feet to the line. The rhyme 

method is 1 2-1 11 2-1 2. The first, fourth, and 

seventh lines are the same, as also the second 

. and eighth. 

The Villanelle consists of six verses of three 
lines each, in iambic or trochaic tetrameter, 

the rhymes being interchangeable and certain 
lines repeated. The rhyme method is 121, the 
second verse, 212, then 121 again. The end of 
the second verse is the first line of the first, the 
end of the third the last line of the first, the 
end of the fourth is the first line of the first 
verse, the end of the fifth is the last line of the 
first verse, and the end of the sixth is the first 
line of the first verse, with the last line of the 
first verse repeated immediately after it. 

The Virelai, on account of its difficulty, is 
seldom written. It consists of nine verses of 
nine lines each, written in iambic tetrameter, 
and with certain rhymes repeated. The 
rhymes are the same all through the first two 
verses, but the positions are changed, and a 
new word is introduced. The rhyme method 
is 112-112-111. In the second verse, rhyme 2 
takes the place of rhyme 1, as 221-221-222, but 
rhyme 2, in the second verse, is a new word, 
though rhyming with rhyme 2 in the first 

Any one who does not wish to follow the 
beaten path may construct his own forms, 
avoiding always the eight-line verse of trochaic 
tetrameter, alternate lines rhyming, which has 
been done to death. Iambic tetrameter has 
dignity, and iambic pentameter has majesty, 
but trochaic tetrameter has worn the same old 
clothes far too long. A musical ear will en- 
able one to tell exactly where his line is rough, 
and, oftentimes, the difference between trash 
and art is a simple matter of two or three 
synonymous words. Myrtle Reed. 

Chicago, 111. 


From the fact that Music appeals to the 
emotions in a more direct manner than Poetry, 
there are more people friendly with her than 
with her more deliberate sister, Poetry. Some 
prose-poet once said : " Music is Love in search 
of a word." That "word " is Poetry, and when 
they find each other, all is said. 

Cowen, the English composer, was complain- 
ing of late that there is a greatjdearth of mu- 

sical poets. True — but there is a far greater 
dearth of poetic musicians. I would recom- 
mend, most emphatically, for every school in this 
broad land, that a certain portion of time be set 
apart each week — each day were better — for 
the memorizing of the best dramatic and lyric 
poems, classic and modern. The average man 
and woman does not recognize a poem when 
he or she hears one. Many singers before the 



public to-day cannot phrase a song with any 
idea whatever of bringing out the beauty of the 
words. What exquisite pleasure to listen to a 
singer who feels the value of both words and 
music ! 

It is not enough for us to be musicians only, 
we must be men and women of general infor- 
mation, of liberal education — we must be men 
and women of culture. 

A composer who writes very good things 
picked up my volume of Mrs. Browning's 
poems not long ago, and after glancing care- 
lessly at one or two of the Sonnets from the 
Portuguese, returned the book with the re- 
mark: " Is this woman any relation of Robert 

" No blood relation, merely his wife," quoth 
I, wanting both to laugh and cry. 

Take, for example, the study of the Sonnet, 
the highest form of verse. The study of the 
Sonnet alone would be, in my opinion, far more 
uplifting and interesting than that maddening 
daily wrestle with algebraical problems which 
our schools insist upon, indiscriminately, 
whether a pupil has a natural inclination to 
mathematics or not. The minds of scholars 
who detest the higher mathematics may be 
quite as well disciplined by the study of Latin, 
Greek, German, French, and poetry. Mathe- 
matics and a marked love of music and poetry 
rarely go hand in hand. When I speak of 
poetry, I do not mean those atrocious "selec- 
tions " that have far too long been the text- 
books of the average elocutionist — the product 
of so-called Schools of Oratory. I mean the 
best anthologies made by the poets qualified 
for such work. 

When you shall have studied instrumental 
music for many years, then make a conscien- 
tious study of the songs of Schubert, Schu- 
mann, Franz, and Larsen. " When some day 
you feel an overwhelming desire to create a 
song, choose a refined lyric. If you are gifted, 
perchance, with the power to create in poetry 
as well as melody, then get down on your knees 
and thank God, for you are indeed blest. Be 
humble, and, I charge you, esteem your gift as 
a trust of ineffable sacredness — for you need 
envy no creature. The lyric should inspire 
love at first sight. Your melody leaps to greet 
it warmly. They are to be lovers, nay — more 

than this, they are to be married lovers, as 
congenial at every point as were Robert and 
Elizabeth Browning. 

A simple ballad can move a multitude, but — 
it must be perfect of its kind. Do not always 
seek in the open, i. e., the magazine, for a poem. 
Very often you'll find a dear little violet of a 
poem, a perfect heart-breaker, down in the 
corner of an over-crowded newspaper. And 
sometimes — the pathos of it — you can never, 
though you hunt for years, find the name of 
him who wrote it. 

If you have within you the sense of poetry, 
no one will need to select for you. A well- 
known man composer wrote to me recently: 
" I don't see where you find so many good 
poems." I find them because I know the dear 
nooks where they are born. I find them be- 
cause I search always by the light of enthu- 
siasm and love. And, after all, without this 
light we would even pass by the delicate flow- 
ers that spring for us in the spiritual world — 
too often trodden under foot, unrecognized until 
too late ! Natural gift may produce a rhyme- 
ster, but he is not invariably a poet any more 
than a rag-timer is a cultivated musician. He 
is simply a tunester, and very often in this 
confusing day, I find the tunester is the better 
fellow of the two. One of the pleasant expe- 
riences of the person who has written a suc- 
cessful song or two is the weekly deluge -of 
poems (!) from poetasters ranging from the 
missionary in India to the school-girl in Skow- 

The refrain of a lullaby which came to me 
the other day from the far West was : — 

" The goose flew east and the gander flew west, 
Sweetheart, angels will tell you the rest 
While you go to sleep on Mother's breast." 

In "Vesty of the Basins" we are told by a 
lovable old deacon in prayer-meeting that "a 
good disposition" is the main thing requisite 
to start up a tune. This advice if followed too 
literally by the poet or the singer might eventu- 
ally lose him his audience. 

If your taste runs to serious love-ballads 
with the thrilling, human touch in them, the 
warmly personal note — cultivate just that line 
assiduously, because in your hand you hold the 
key to the great human heart all the world 
over. Concentrate yourself, body, heart, and 

The writer. 


soul, upon the making your song a beautiful 
thing. Say to yourself: " I want this song to be 
the friend of all the ages." If your thoughts 
are white, your motives unselfish, you may 
hear your song in heaven one day, interpreted 
with a perfect appreciation of all the joy and 
all the grief you may have infused into it. If 
you can only see the stars on nights when for 
the world they do not shine; if you can sud- 
denly hear the whisper of Spring's sandals 
when she comes, undreamed-of by others, to 
wake the crocus; if you feel a sudden aching 
'neath the lids because the shadow of a bird 
falls athwart the window of ^our sick-room ; if 
you, all your days, long to catch all lonely, suf- 
fering things to your breast for shelter— you 
are a poet, and you will write for the mere joy 
of creation and self-expression. You will give 
such happy expression to what you think and 
feel that you will have it in your power to en- 
rich the multitude of less gifted persons with 
those precious trophies which they could never 
win for themselves. 

Spend hours on hours at the piano or organ 
humming your melody — giving it every con- 
ceivable fascinating touch for an accompani- 
ment. Your poem and your melody are lovers, 
your accompaniment must be the priest who 
marries them — though in many instances it 
would seem the reverse is true. Nine-tenths 
of the songs by men whose knowledge of the 
study of harmony is unquestioned are wretch- 
edly unmusical things because so many men 
lack imagination to soften the hard corners in 
their irreproachably correct accompaniments. 
They are so conventional they bore you. 
George Eliot in describing a person of their 
sort exclaims: "A wrinkle in his glove would 
have been a relief ! " Here, at this point, is a 
chance for woman to s'line. She has a richer, 
and more musical play at fancy, a nimble in- 
telligence, a warm sympathy. Haweis says: 
"To accompany well you must not only be a 
good musician, but you must be mesmeric, 
sympathetic, intuitive." So remember that no 
one can possibly be all these fine things in 
playing a dull, conventional accompaniment. 
Think while making your accompaniment^ just 
as when you are playing one, of the singer. 
Make her pleasantly conscious that you are 

there, yet always keep "to heel." Chadwick's 
accompaniments are very beautiful. Mrs. 
Brach thinks far more of the piano than of the 
singer, but the same was said of Wagner! A 
good model for any American composer in the 
matter of accompaniments is Ethelbert Nevin 
— peace to his soul. Nevin is the greatest 
melodist of them all. I always associate Nevin 
with this quotation: " Harmony is a beautiful 
problem of which melody is the solution." 

Lose no opportunity to talk with singers — 
men and women. Ascertain their vocal ranges, 
and do not make the grave mistake of placing 
the wrong word or syllable on a very high note, 
for several well-known male composers offend 
on this point, and wonder why a certain other- 
wise well-written song is a failure. It is the 
very best education possible to discuss these 
points with singers. They are not always ac- 
cessible, but when you have found them they 
aren't a bit shy, and they love to talk of their 
own voices, for the singer's voice is the singer's 
baby, and each one thinks her own, of course, 
the finest going. If you desire to be invited a 
second time, have tact, and do not — if you 
value your future — become frenzied to one 
soprano about the merits of another! The 
same rule applies to tenors, only more so. 
The most malignant cases of self-consumption 
by conceit are invariably to be found in the 
very small tenor with the big voice. Say noth- 
ing of yourself to these, just listen. 

You may not know that the very greatest 
artists like to have a song dedicated to them — 
and, if it be worth the singing they will give 
that special number a "heap of doing" over 
better numbers on their program. And a truly 
great artist will ask you, very simply, if you 
have any suggestions to make as to its inter- 
pretation. This is the moment of your life 
when you are undecided whether to faint or 

Never use your talents triflingly. Of Tenny- 
son, the faultless poet, it is said: "His sense 
of the divine service of this gift was almost 
awful to him, since he felt that every word of 
his should be consecrated to the service of 
Him who had touched his lips with that fire 
of heaven which was to enable him to speak in 
God's name to his age." Kate Vannah. 

Gardiner, Me. 



The Writer. 

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Franklin street, Room 33, Boston, Mass. 



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146 Franklin street, Room 32, 
P. O. Box 1905. Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. August, 1903. No. 8. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

All editors see frequent evidence that many 
verse writers do not know the rule regarding 
the indentation of poetry. The rule is simple : 
Lines that rhyme should be indented equally; 
that is, should begin at the same distance from 
the left-hand margin of the paper. The rule 
applies whether the lines are together, as in 
couplets, or are separated by one or more lines 

ending with other rhymes. In making manu- 
script the verse-writer should always indent his 
lines according to this rule, so that they will be 
in the manuscript as they will be in print. If 
he — or she — fails to do so, the easiest way 
for the editor to indicate to the compositor how 
the lines should be indented is to mark a small 
square — like that used in proofreading to in- 
dicate an em quad — before each line to be 
indented. If a line should be indented more 
than one em, this may be indicated by making 
the square an oblong divided by perpendicular 
lines into spaces to indicate the number of ems 
the compositor should indent the line. 

The boy or girl of no more than grammar school education 
who can speak their own language grammatically is a rarity.— 
New York Evening Post. 

This will do to go with the rule once pub- 
lished in a Rhetoric : — 

Never use a preposition to end a sentence with. 

Some time ago a correspondent of The 
Writer criticised the announcement in Com- 
fort of the methods of the editor in dealing 
with contributors. The announcement in 
Comfort now reads : — 

"Jo Contributors : All literary contributions should be 
accompanied by stamped and addressed envelopes for their 
return in case they are not available. Manuscripts should not 
be rolled. 

That is as it should be. 

The extracts from the article on cartoon 
drawing reprinted in this number of The 
Writer are no less interesting to newspaper 
writers than to would-be artists, because many 
of the suggestions made apply to editorial 
writing as well as to cartooning. A cartoon is 
a graphic editorial, and the rules that govern 
it govern also the writing of all editorials — 
particularly paragraphs. 

If you have written something in copy that 
you are particular to have printed just as you 
have written it, you may easily instruct the 
compositor to "follow copy" by making a line 
of dots underneath the letter, or word, or words 
in question. Such a line of dots under a word 

The Writer. 


calls the attention of the compositor particu- 
larly to it, and warns him that he must be care- 
ful to set it exactly as it is written, even though 
at first glance it seems wrong. This device is 
particularly useful to newspaper paragraphers 
making puns, or to careful writers who wish to 
have Lilian spelled with only one " 1," or Mac- 
pherson without a capital " P." It is also use 
ful in distinguishing such similar words as 
"therefor" and "therefore," which are fre- 
quently confounded. w. h. h. 


In his recent brochure on Zola, M. Faguet, 
of the Acaddmie Franchise, says : " Zola began 
to write too soon. Every man who writes be- 
fore he is thirty, and who does not devote the 
golden age of his life — from the twentieth 
year to the thirtieth — to reading, observing, 
and thinking, without writing a line, runs the 
risk of having no brain and of being but a 
journeyman author. There are some excep- 
tions, but they are rare." 

Dialect tempered with slang is an admirable 
medium of communication between persons 
who have nothing to say and persons who 
would not care for anything properly said. — 
Thomas Bailey Aldrich, in the August Century, 


The task of putting into readable shape 
stirring tales about Jesse James, Alkali Pete, 
Gentleman Jim, Wild Bill, the Gold King, the 
Boy Detective, and other heroes whose exploits 
thrill small boys, is not done by writers of the 
same heroic and fire eating type as the charac- 
ters portrayed. Men who write such stories 
need principally a fertile imagination, a ca- 
pacity for hard work and the ability to turn 
out thousands of words of readable stuff a day, 
to make them successful. 

They have never rescued imperilled maidens, 
tracked Indians and murderers over deserts and 
mountain trails, or recovered lost fortunes. 
Many of them have never seen a live Indian or 
a cowboy, have a bare speaking acquaintance 
with the detectives at headquarters and carry 
no six-shooters in their back pockets. 

More than one dime novel publishing firm 
has made a fortune at the business of providing 
literature for Young America, and that in the 
days when they paid a writer from $75 to $250 
for a story. Things are done differently now. 

Each dime novel publishing house employs 
a staff of writers, who receive a regular salary. 
Besides the staff of regular contributors, per- 
sons who can furnish a large amount of copy 
every week, each publishing house has a list of 
workers who can write a story to order and at 
short notice. When a regular writer falls ill or 
takes a vacation,or when some special event hap- 
pens which makes a foundation for a plot for a 
popular novel, one of these special writers is 
communicated with and is ordered to dash off 
a story on three or four days' notice. Inspira- 
tion forms a small part of the dime novel 
writer's stock in trade, for nearly all his stories 
are written to order. In these cases a writer 
follows a plot suggested by the publisher and 
does not even select the title. 

Stories of.sensational crime or adventure in 
the daily newspapers that offer a possibility of 
being dressed up into an interesting boys' story 
are eagerly seized upon by the publishers as 
the subjects for a novel. This is particularly 
true if the incident is of national interest. 

A few years ago a producer of this class of 
literature made a record for himself in the way 
of rapid production, writing 40,000 words of 
copy in thirty-six hours. To do this he was 
compelled to go without much sleep and to 
take his meals in bites between sentences. 

The necessity for such rapid work arose 
over an incident in the South American city 
where several sailors from the United States 
cruiser Baltimore were attacked in the streets 
by a mob. Through the industry of this 
trained writer his publishers were able to put 
on sale two days after news of the event 
reached New York a story in which the mur- 
dered boatswain's mate of the cruiser was the 

When Admiral Dewey won his victory in 
Manila Harbor, there were a score of stories, 
in which that battle formed the chief event, on 
the news-stands within a week. And so it 
goes. A disastrous railroad wreck, a thrilling 
escape from death, a national catastrophe — 



all furnish material for the dime-novel writer. 
Many people who denounce such fiction as 
wholly bad may not know that the publishers 
will not allow a suggestive sentence or a line 
in the stories or a word that any boy or girl 
might not read. The heroes may perform 
some rather remarkable exploits and exter- 
minate a good many bad people, but it is gen- 
erally an outdoor life the writers tell about, 
the heroes are self-reliant men or boys, and 
the bad people who get killed deserve it. The 
moral of the stories must be good. Virtue 
always triumphs and vice is overthrown. 

Said a successful writer of boys' stories the 
other day : — 

11 We writers of dime novels do not attempt 
a polished style of English, as a rule, and the 
pages we write are rarely re-read or edited by 
ourselves. The publishers want action, plot, 
incident, dialogue, and thrilling situations. 

" In order to write successful dime novels 
the author must possess at least superficial 
knowledge of a great variety of subjects. He 
must be able to depict life in the slums of a 
great city, or the free, roving existence of the 
cowboy on the Western plains; he must lay 
his scenes in Cuba or the Philippines without 
making any material error in the descriptive 

"That the plot and incidents must be plaus- 
ible is a rigid rule. No matter how improb- 
able the deeds of the hero seem, the author 
must be sure that what he does is not abso- 
lutely impossible or absurd. If Brandywine 
Pete scalps an Indian in the Black Hills in the 
morning and cleans out a faro bank in Dead- 
wood at night, the story must explain satis- 
factorily how he made the journey from one 
point to the other in the time specified." 

It often happens that the dime novel writer 
must take up a character created by another 
individual and carry this hero along through 
new adventures without changing his habits cr 
permitting him to repeat himself in any of his 
daring deeds. One central figure is often 
carried along through twenty or thirty num- 
bers of a library, and while the same name 
may appear on the title page of each separate 
story, a dozen different authors may have con- 
tributed to the series, each one taking up the 

thread of the story where his predecessor left 
off. This is considered hard work, but is one 
of the things that come to the professional 
dime-novel writer. 

"A publisher who had created a romantic 
Western adventurer with a name that proved 
popular with the boys contracted with one of his 
weekly writers for a series of twenty stories," 
said the man quoted from above. "The 
writer worked industriously for thirty two 
weeks, getting out a complete story bimonthly, 
when he was taken ill. 

"The publisher was in a quandary, but laid 
the case before one of his special writers, who 
arranged to take up the work where the other 
left off and carry on the central characters un- 
changed. This man was employed in the day 
time, and could give only his nights and one 
day a week to the extra work. 

" In order to prevent any discrepancies in 
the stories, he had to read up what the original 
writer had written about the characters. He 
did this and wrote four novels of 40,000 words 
each in twenty days without interfering with 
his regular work. The stories were dictated 
to a stenographer, and were thus written at the 
rate of 2,000 words an hour." 

It is said that regular writers of dime novels, 
men who do no other kinds of work, are able 
to produce a story of from 40,000 to 50,000 
words a week, and to keep it up for six months 
in the year. The writer cannot attempt to 
think out his plot and arrange the events in 
the hero's life before sitting down to write, as 
that would take too long. Instead, he must 
be able to take a title and plot and develop 
his story as he progresses. — New York 


The work of a cartoonist differs essentially 
from that of other workers in art, in that he 
must have several qualifications besides the 
ability to draw. First, he should be able to 
draw well enough to express his ideas; sec- 
ondly, he should have a sense of humor; 
thirdly, he should have a fairly clear idea of 
what is happening in the world of politics, 

The writer. 


society, and finance ; fourthly, he should know 
something of the Bible, of history, of mythol- 
ogy; and, fifthly, he should have the ability to 
grasp the importance of a news item when he 
sees it, so that he may draw from it a logical 
idea that may be expressed clearly in a draw- 
ing. These various requirements are lost 
sight of by most beginners, who seem to feel 
that the ability to draw a man with a turned-up 
nose constitutes the chief requisite of a car- 
toonist. Many beginners in art aspire to be 
cartoonists because it looks so easy. They do 
not reckon with the other qualifications. They 
know that they can draw, and usually think 
that they have a keen sense of humor because 
fond relatives have informed them that certain 
of their drawings were "perfectly killing"; 
but it generally develops that they lack the 
other essentials. 

The mere ability to draw has about as much 
to do with making a successful cartoonist as 
the choice of stationery has to do with making 
a strong editorial. A very wretchedly drawn 
cartoon may express an idea so cleverly that the 
cartoon is immensely successful. In cartoon- 
ing, the excellence of the idea excuses all 
shortcomings in technique; and it happens 
often that an artist may make his cartoons so 
artistic that the humor and the idea are wholly 
submerged in the artistic quality of the draw- 
ing. If a cartoonist is a clever draftsman, 
very well; but he should realize that his work 
is to be judged by the idea and not by artistic 

His drawing should have in it the spirit of 
caricature and his idea should be expressed 
simply and directly. Every part of the picture 
should strengthen the central idea and nothing 
should be added that would detract from it. 
When any one looks at the cartoon he should 
not think that here is a fine drawing, but that 
here is a cartoon pure and simple. If the car- 
toonist can do these things he is almost ready 
to begin drawing for the paper. 

Let us assume it is morning and the cartoon- 
ist must have a cartoon ready for the following 
day's paper. His first work is to evolve an idea, 
and in doing this he is influenced by several 
cardinal principles of journalism, paramount of 
which is the necessity of keeping a weather-eye 

on the counting-room of the paper — which 
* is to say, he must weigh carefully whether 
his cartoon will offend an advertiser or lose 
a subscriber. No humor that is likely to 
cut down the subscription list is humorous 
to the publisher of the paper — there- 
fore the artist must avoid subjects that are 
likely to reflect unpleasantly upon any race 
of people that happens to be largely repre- 
sented in the circulation lists or advertising 
columns. He is at liberty to lampoon Ameri- 
cans all he wishes, because Americans are a 
rather uncertain mass that lacks cohesion, but 
he must not hit the Irish, the Germans, the 
Jews, or the Swedes, all of whom may be found 
in the subscription list of the average American 
daily and all of whom are quick to resent any 
slur against their nationalities. The cartoonist 
is not required to be so considerate in his treat- 
ment of the French, the English, the Chinese, 
or the Turks, for the reason that these races 
are not so numerously represented in the cir- 
culation books. It is a golden rule that when 
somebody must be lampooned, let that some- 
body be a distant foreigner who does n't take 
the paper. 

The cartoonist also learns that he must not 
make a cartoon that runs counter to the relig- 
ious principles of any church denomination, 
and that, for reasons of propriety, it is well to 
avoid any reference to the Deity and sacred 
Bible characters, as well as anything suggestive 
or vulgar, or anything horrifying in the way of 
human suffering. It is usually considered in 
bad taste to employ some great calamity, such 
as the Mont Pelee disaster, as a theme for a 
humorous cartoon, even though the cartoon 
may be intended to express an idea entirely 
foreign to the disaster itself. Another fixed 
rule is that the cartoonist shall not picture 
wives or children of national celebrities who 
may be before the public — and, in fact, never 
draw a woman in any way unless it be dis- 
tinctly complimentary. 

Suppose it is morning and there is not an 
idea anywhere in the world. The first move a 
cartoonist makes is to read the morning papers 
carefully, taking note of the news that is upper- 
most in the public mind. If conditions are 
such that everybody is interested in a certain 


piece of news then the cartoonist endeavors 
to build a cartoon that treats of that sub- 
ject. Nearly every day brings forth one 
big piece of news that demands more attention 
than anything else before the public. One day 
it may be a great election ; the next day it may 
be a war scare ; the next day a notable speech ; 
the next day a widely-advertised prize-fight, 
and so on through an endless variety of 

From the one dominating piece of news the 
cartoonist endeavors to derive his idea. Some- 
times it happens that there are other ideas 
suggested by news of slightly lesser interest, 
and so he carefully makes a note of them. By 
the time he has digested the papers he may 
have a half-dozen or more suggestions equally 
good — or poor, as the case maybe. One may 
be an idea that deals with a topic of broad 
national interest, another may appeal to that 
class of readers that is deeply interested in 
politics or legislation, still another may have the 
domestic interest that will appeal to women and 
children. It always is desirable to make a car- 
toon that will appeal directly to the greatest 
number, but, of course, this is not always prac- 
ticable. Cartoons that deal with subjects very 
close to home life have been found to be the 
most generally interesting, although it is not 
possible to draw these all the time. 

With his list of cartoon suggestions the car- 
toonist goes to the editor and submits them for 
his editorial approval, or else if he has dis- 
cretionary powers he selects himself the one 
that offers the greatest possibilities for a suc- 
cessful cartoon. 

It sometimes happens that there is not an 
idea suggested by the news and it may be late 
in the afternoon before one is evolved. A 
nervous cartoonist might become anxious as 
the hours passed unfruitfully, but there is 
always the cheering consolation that the car- 
toon will be drawn because it simply has to 
be, and in the recollection that oftentimes the 
eleventh-hour idea is one of the best. 

When the eleventh hour comes, however, 
and brings no idea, the cartoonist is obliged to 
"dig." He looks at the date of the following 
day, and asks himself if it has any significance. 
Is it the anniversary of any notable historical 

event ; is it the birthday of any of our country's 
great, either dead or living; or is it of any par- 
ticular interest as to the weather, the length or 
shortness of the day, or of anything relating 
to fashions in dress? What is happening in 
Washington? What is the President doing? 
If he is doing nothing, then that in itself is 
noteworthy and might form the nucleus of a 
cartoon. All these things are canvassed 
fore and aft, up and down, inside and outside, 
until finally the glimmer of a suggestion beams 
through the clouds. 

If the subject that is selected admits of 
humorous treatment, the cartoonist handles it 
in that vein; if it does not, he handles it in a 
serious way. Broadly speaking, all cartoonists 
might be classified in two groups — the humor- 
ous and the serious. There are some subjects 
that should not be treated frivolously, and 
there are some evils that demand more sting- 
ing rebukes than can be given with ridicule or 
good-natured satire. A club in certain trying 
moments is more productive of unwholesome 
results than a reprimand. 

There is perhaps more to be avoided in 
drawing serious cartoons than there is in draw- 
ing humorous ones. Some serious cartoons 
are savage and venomous and doubtless do far 
more harm than good, for they cannot but 
create a feeling of sympathy for the persons 
whom they attack. They have an unpleasant 
effect upon the one who looks at them, and in 
doing so react against the attacking party. 
The cartoon that is charged with malice or 
venom might just as well be left undrawn, so 
far as any beneficial effect on the public goes. 
Another type of the serious cartoon is the one 
that appeals to class prejudices and strives to 
"arouse the passions of one element of society 
against another. This class of cartoons is dis- 
tinctly unwholesome. Take, for instance, the 
cartoon policy of representing capital as a de- 
vouring monster whose only purpose in life is 
to throttle the poor workingman. Such car- 
toons have no effect upon people who think, 
but in the minds of the ignorant they nourish 
a spirit of hostility to capital that is unde- 

The other school of cartooning is the one 
which strives to attain its end in a good- 



natured way, eliminating the sting as much as 
possible. It is not so powerful or direct as the 
serious school, but a great deal of good results 
from its influence. It is insidious and sinks 
deep without one's suspecting. The cartoons 
of this school "hit off" the existing evils and 
abuses with good-natured ridicule or satire, 
and, like the sugar-coated pill, are pleasant 
while you are taking them. 

Up to this point I have written chiefly of the 
creation of the idea and not of the manual 
labor of putting the cartoon on paper. When 
the cartoonist has his idea selected he "lays it 
out" roughly in tabloid form on a small piece 
of paper, so that when he begins the cartoon 
he knows exactly where he is going to place 
every figure and how he is going to illustrate 
his central idea. This being done, he care- 
fully draws it out in a much larger form on 
cardboard, usually two or three times the size 
it will be when it appears in print. Then, 
with black ink, he makes his drawing, cutting 
out everything that will not strengthen the 
idea. If the idea is a good one, there is lots 
of fun in drawing it, particularly if it is along 
the humorous line. Anatomical accuracy in 
drawing the figures is abandoned and every- 
thing reduced to simple forms. A correctly 
drawn figure is very seldom amusing; and 
also a figure that is too grotesquely drawn is 
often likely to be offensive. If the cartoonist 
desires to express surprise, incredulity, anger, 
joy, or any of the many changes of the human 
face, he does it boldly and without any attempt 
to be anatomically correct. He uses as little 
shading as possible, for the more he uses in a 
face, the further he gets away from making a 
funny picture. Any emotion can be shown in 
eight lines so convincingly that there can be 
no doubt as to what is intended. The slightest 
turn of one or more of these lines will change 
gladness to misery. A few lines will suggest 
President Roosevelt so that no one could mis- 
take the intention even though the picture 
does not look like him. An old-fashioned plug 
hat and some straggly whiskers suggest Mr. 
Kruger, just as a military mustache and a hel- 
met suggest Kaiser Wilhelm. Instead of being 
portraits they are merely symbols that mean 
certain people — symbols which newspaper 

readers become familiar with and which never 
fail to suggest the people they stand for. The 
portrait of a man drawn carefully and true to 
life would look stiff and formal and would be 
completely lacking in humor and spontaneity. 
Brevity in drawing is the soul of humor in a 

Just as certain symbols mean famous men, so 
other symbols stand for imaginary people. For 
instance, a fat man generously besprinkled 
with diamonds, gorgeously adorned with side- 
whiskers and a silk hat, is the symbol used to ex- 
press "capital" or "trust." He is always 
corpulent, which is assumed to be indicative 
of wealth, especially when the corpulence is 
garnished with a few large diamonds. The 
latter are usually shown busily shooting out 
streams of radiance. It is not known why 
bankers and capitalists and rich men are rep- 
resented as wearing side whiskers, but it is 
probable that the early American pioneer car- 
toonist used the elder Vanderbilt to typify great 
wealth. It may be remembered that these 
first very rich Americans wore side-whiskers, 
and that one, at least, expressed some disre- 
gard for the rights and feelings of the public 
in general. Later cartoonists stick to the type 
because the average reader has been trained to 
associate side-whiskers with great wealth. 

An anxious-looking man loaded down with 
bundles stands for a suburbanite ; a man with a 
checked suit, a fierce overhanging black mus- 
tache, a huge diamond, and a gaudy hat tipped 
down over the eyes, stands for a gambler or 
a confidence man. By adding a horseshoe 
watch-charm the same man is changed to a 
race-track sport. Congressmen are symbolized 
by chin whiskers and slouch hats, although in 
real life you see few such men. Old maids 
always wear spectacles and ringlets; family 
men usually are wheeling a baby-carriage, 
club-women are shown with high foreheads, 
contracted brows and ample avoirdupois. 
Uncle Sam is always the tall, gaunt gentleman 
with an old-fashioned beaver hat, a wisp of 
beard trimmed a la Capricorn, and trousers a 
few inches too short. 

A cartoonist is seldom a good judge of what 
will strike the popular fancy. Frequently the 
drawing that he labors over and considers ex- 


The writer. 

ceedingly successful will never bring forth a 
single word of commendation, whereas some 
little feature that he regards as inconsequential 
may appeal to popular favor with mighty force 
and unanimity. — John T. McCutcheon, in the 
Saturday Evening Post, 


Hermon Lee Ensign, whose story, " Union 
Square Jim," appeared in the Woman's Home 
Companion for July, was born in Pennsylvania 
in 1849. I n his early boyhood he removed to 
the West and was a telegraph operator. When 
about twenty years old, he entered the Phillips 
Andover Academy in Massachusetts, intend- 
ing to study for the ministry, but his health 
failed him and he went to Chicago and was 
connected with the American Bridge Com- 
pany. Later he entered journalism with a 
paper called the Alliance, in which he was as- 
sociated with such men as Rev. Robert Collyer 
and Rev. David Swing. In 1881, Mr. Ensign 
removed to Rochester, N. Y., and in 1884 he 
went to New York City. He had meantime 
adopted advertising as his business, and was 
very successful in it until his death in 1899. 
He was a great lover of animals, especially of 
horses, and although he published little, he was 
constantly interested in literary matters, and 
wrote much. Besides "Union Square Jim," the 
Woman's -Home Companion has published 
three stories by him, "Lady Lee," "Gentle- 
man Jack," and " My Friend, the Elephant," 
and a collection of his animal stories has been 
published by A. C. McClurg & Co., of Chicago, 
under the title of " Lady Lee." 

treats in a humorous but sympathetic manner 
the present status of the so called aristocracy 
of Virginia. She is now engaged in writing 
another novel of Southern character. 

Minnie Reid French, whose story, "Cupid 
at Camp Meeting," appeared in the Actional 
Magazine for July, is a native of West Virginia, 
her childhood having been spent in the beauti- 
ful valley of New River, which has been taken 
as the scene of a great many of her stories. 
Although only in her twenties, Mrs. French 
has been writing for a number of years, her 
first check for published work having been 
received at the age of sixteen. She is the 
author of a novel, "A Little Court of Yes- 
terday," published a few years ago, which 

Helen M. Givens, whose story, " In the 
Twinkling of an Eye," was published in Short 
Stories for June, is a native of California, and 
has had some experience in newspaper work, 
having contributed a series of illustrated travel 
articles, collected during a European trip, to 
the San Francisco Chronicle, the Denver Re- 
publican, and other journals, in 190 1 and 1902. 
Her first attempts in short-story writing were 
disposed of to syndicates, but of late she has 
had a number of stories accepted by the maga- 
zines, among others "An Arrested Reincarna- 
tion," which the New Metropolitan will soon 

S. H. Kemper, whose poem, "The Love of 
the Day's Work," appeared in McClure's 
Magazine for July, is a railroad man, and 
writes only in such spare time as he can get 
from his business. He is a Virginian, the son 
of General Del Kemper, a distinguished Con- 
federate officer, and was with his father when 
he served as United States Consul at Amoy, 
China, during President Cleveland's second 
administration. Mr. Kemper has had articles 
published in Munsey's Magazine, Everybody's 
Magazine, and McClure's Magazine. 

Ewan Macpherson, whose story, "The Lost 
April Twin," appears in the New Metropolitan 
for August, was born in Jamaica, British West 
Indies, and came to this country in 1886. 
After spending some time in teaching, he ob- 
tained employment successively on three of 
the daily papers published in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, and soon afterward had his first effort 
in fiction, "Two Graves," published in Har- 
per's Weekly. Since then he has had stories 
published by Harper's Monthly, Scribner's 
Magazine, A ins lee's Magazine, the New York 
Evening Post, McClure's Syndicate, and the 
R. H. Russell Syndicate. Two of Mr. Mac- 
pherson's best stories were " Cupid's Ku-Klux," 
published by the McClure Syndicate, and 



44 The Christmas Eddie Forgot Santa Claus," 
published by the R. H. Russell Syndicate. 

Dorothy Lord Maltby, whose story, " White 
Orchids and Cypress," is printed in Short 
Stories for August, lives in New Haven, the 
home of her ancestors since its founding. She 
began writing about a year and a half ago, and 
it was the impression made by various places 
she saw and people she met while spending 
several years abroad -that gave her the idea of 
putting into print for others what she herself 
had enjoyed so much. Her first article was a 
sketch of "Good Friday in Menton," which 
appeared in the Perry Magazine, and which 
was followed by several articles on the lives 
and works of the "Great Masters" of paint- 
ing, and sketches of different foreign places. 
Miss Maltby has written children's stories, 
and some " nature " articles for Birds and 
Nature, but "White Orchids and Cypress" is 
her first story for adults. It is in every essen- 
tial a true story. The characters were drawn 
from life, which necessitated the changing of 
names of places, etc. The character of Reggie 
Fitzgerald was drawn from an Englishman 
who met his death while gallantly leading his 
men in the charge of Spion Kop. Miss Maltby 
also writes under a pseudonym, and has had 
very few rejected manuscripts, although she 
was wholly unknown when she began to write, 
and her success has been due to no "pull." 
In the case of almost every rejected manu- 
script, there has been some kind little word 
written by the editor, either of encouragement 
or saying that the work was good. She now 
has a novelette nearly completed, " Luigi, an 
American Gondolier," a quiet little tale of a 
Venetian summer. 

Emily Huntington Miller, whose story, 
"Angelica's Lover," appeared in the New Eng- 
land Magazine for July, is a native of Con- 
necticut and comes of old Revolutionary stock. 
She was educated at Oberlin and has lived 
West since her marriage. She began writing 
for publication in her school days and has 
written a great deal, both prose and fiction. 
Her songs, "Hang Up the Baby's Stocking," 
44 My Good-For-Nothing," and "Song of the 
Bluebird," have been published all over the 

world. For ten years she was editor of the 
Little Corporal, published in Chicago, which 
was afterward merged with St. Nicholas. 
She has had nineteen books published, most 
of them for young people, and two volumes of 
poems, the latest, " From Avalon," being pub- 
lished by A. C. McClurg & Co., of Chicago. 
Mrs. Miller was for seven years Dean of Wo- 
men in the Northwestern University in Evan- 
ston, Illinois, where she now lives. 

William Hamilton Osborne, whose story, 
44 Shaughnessy and the Turnpike Toll," is 
printed in the Cosmopolitan for August, is a 
busy New York lawyer, thirty years old, and 
does all his writing evenings at his home in 
Newark. He began to write in May, 1902, 
when he wrote a 4200-word bank story, which 
was accepted within ten days by Munsey^s 
Magazine. Since then he has written 130 
short stories, of which 108 were accepted be- 
fore he had been writing a year. His work 
has been accepted by McClure's Magazine, 
the New Metropolitan, Munsey's Magazine, 
Pearson's Magazine, Frank Leslie's Popular 
Monthly, Success, the Cosmopolitan, the Wo- 
man's Home Companion, the Argosy, the Red 
Book, McClure's Newspaper Syndicate, the 
New York Sun, Herald, Press, Times supple- 
ment, and others. He writes mostly stories of 
business, bank, and law, and has written more 
than twenty stories about swindlers, some of 
whom actually exist. "Shaughnessy and the 
Turnpike Toll" is based upon a bit of legisla- 
tion of a year or so ago, affecting the charter 
to the turnpike which runs between Newark 
and New York, and which has always been a 
toll road with very heavy traffic. Mr. Osborne 
says he succeeds best with the stories that he 
writes at one sitting of about three hours and 
upon which he makes no after corrections. In 
the first year of his literary work he wrote 
more than 370,000 words. Now he has stopped 
writing so fast in order to turn out the best 
work possible. 

Agnes Louise Provost, whose story, " Jacky," 
appeared in Lippincott 's Magazine for July, 
has been writing for about five years. She 
began by writing an occasional isolated story 



for the pure pleasure of working Jt out, gradu- 
ally increasing the number as the writing fever 
became virulent. She writes each story three 
times, once by hand, and twice on the type- 
writer, before submitting it to an editor. While 
not confining herself to any particular style of 
story, she has made somewhat of a study of 
the legislative conditions in her own state, and 
has published several political stories, one of 
which, " Senate Bill No. 22," appeared in Mun- 
sey's Magazine for May. She has also written 
for the New England Magazine, the Ladies' 
Home Journal, the Woman's Home Compan- 
ion, the Youth's Companion, St. Nicholas, the 
Overland Monthly, the Smart Set, and the 
New Metropolitan, in the July number of 
which her story, "An Elopement Up-to-Date," 
was printed. 

M. G. Sampson is a new writer, but from 
the attention which her story, "Judy," in 
the July number of McClure's Magazine, has 
attracted, it is evident that she has found a 
path that suits her. She is a native of New 
York, but a niece of James Hamilton, Esq., 
deputy-lieutenant of the County Cavan, Ire- 
land, and years spent there at Castle Hamilton 
have given her an Irish style, and imbued her 
with Irish tints and ideas. In writing her 
stories, Miss Sampson says she lets her people 
alone and waits for them to speak for them- 
selves, so enjoying the effect of their sensa- 
tions that she forgets it is herself who invents 

Elliot Walker, who had a story entitled 
"Jackson's Thirst," in the New England 
Magazine for July, and a sketch, " The Watch 
Cat," in the July Criterion, commenced to 
write prose about two and a half years ago, and 
has been very successful, having had stories 
in the New York Independent, the Christian 
Endeavor World, the Argosy, Munsey's Maga- 
zine, the Era, the Black Cat, the Book World, 
the Ladies' Home Journal, Good Housekeep- 
ing, the Housewife, Farm and Fireside, the 
Bohemian, and other publications. McClure's 
Syndicate and some of the newspapers also 
have accepted work from him. He is most in- 
terested in the American home, and he prefers 
to write country stories about " folks " as he sees 

them, but he also writes humorous sketches, 
love stories, and sometimes serious matter. In 
1900 he published a little volume of rhymes, 
entitled "Cat Tales in Verse," which met with 
a successful sale, and as he himself says, 
"pleased the cat lovers and did no harm/' 
Mr. Walker began literary work after a busi- 
ness experience of twenty-five years, divided 
between stock brokerage and silk manufactur- 
ing, and has hardly yet got over his surprise at 
finding he could write. 


Why Not Speak English ? — Is cherub an 
English word ? If so, its plural is cherubs, 
and not the Hebrew cherubim. Is lexicon an 
English word, and criterion also? If so, their 
plurals are lexicons and criterions, not the Greek 
lexica and criteria. Is appendix an English 
word, and index, and vortex ? If so, the plurals 
are appendixes and indexes and vortexes, and 
not the Greek appendices, indices, and vor- 
tices. Is memorandum an English word, and 
curriculum, gymnasium, medium, and sanato- 
rium ? If so, their plurals are memorandums, 
and curriculums, gymnasiums, mediums, and 
sanatoriums, and not the Latin memoranda, 
curricula, gymnasia, media and sanatoria. Is 
formula an English word, and nebula also ? If 
so, the plural is formulas and nebulas, and not 
the Latin formulas and nebulae. Is beau an 
English word, and bureau? If so, the plural 
is beaus and bureaus, and not the French 
beaux and bureaux. Is libretto an English 
word? If so, its plural is librettos, and not 
the Italian libretti. Why not speak English? 
Crisis is thoroughly acclimated in the Eng- 
lish language, and so is thesis; and yet there 
are those who prefer crises and theses to the 
normal and regular crisises and thesises. Per- 
haps they are seeking to avoid the unpleasant 
hissing of the English plural; but none the 
less they are failing into pedantry. — Brander 
Matthews, in Harper's Magazine, 

Country Training for Journalists. — How 
to get a position on the staff of the Tribune, 
or the Sun, the Times, or some other good 
paper? Certainly, there is no rule at all about 
that. For my own part, I am a great believer 



in country training. I think newspaper work 
in a smaller town or city affords the best op- 
portunity for the beginner to learn all parts of 
his trade. He will get on much faster after- 
ward in the city for having learned all that a 
country newspaper office can teach him. On 
the other hand, I am also a great believer in 
the country as a place for the able and self- 
respecting city newspaper man who has grown 
weary of the burdens and exactions of work in 
a metropolitan newspaper office, and who 
yearns for a little more chance to develop his 
own personality. I have known various cases 
where such men, still young, took what they 
had saved out of their salaries, bought news- 
papers in smaller cities or country towns, soon 
became leading men in their communities, 
learned to keep early hours, and "lived happy 
ever after." — Dr. Albert Shaw, in the June 


[The publishers of Thb Writer will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
on receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents postage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the articles mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention Thb Writbr when they write.] 

Thb Later Years of Sir Walter Scott. (Unpublished 
letters to Mrs. Hughes. — II.) Illustrated. Horace G. 
Hutchinson. Century (38 c.) for August. 

A Day at Conan Doyle's Home. Illustrated. Day Allen 
Willey. National Magazine ( 13 c. ) for August. 

Some Reminiscences of "Josh Billings." Joel Benton. 
New Metropolitan ( 1 8 c. ) for August. 

Thb Government's Newspaper (The London Gazette). 
Illustrated. Arthur Hill. Strand ( 13 c. ) for August. 

Shakspere in Modern Settings. Illustrated. Frank C. 
Drake. Cosmopolitan (13 c.) for August. 

Jacob A. Rus. Reporter, Reformer, American Citizen. 
With portrait. Lincoln Steffens. McClure's Magazine (13 c.) 
for August. * 

Emerson: Poet or Philosopher. Lillienne A. Hornor. 
Mind ( 23 c. ) for August. 

A Literary Luncheon. Carolyn Wells. Good House- 
keeping (13 c.) for August. 

Some More Letters of Mrs. Carlylb. Augustine Bir- 
rell. Reprinted from the Nineteenth Century and After in 
the Eclectic ( 28 c. ) for August. 

The Nbwspapbr. " J. G. L." Reprinted from Mac mil- 
iars Magmzine in the Eclectic ( 28 c. ) for August. 

The "Formbr" and Thb •' Latter." A Protest. " G. 
G. G." Reprinted from the Speaker in the Eclectic (28 c.) 
for August. 

Thb Complacency of thb Wordsworthians. " H. F. C." 
Reprinted from the Speaker in the Eclectic ( 28c. ) for August. 

Thb Democracy of Jambs Russell Lowhll. D. W. 
Working. Pilgrim (13 c.) for August. 

Social and Litbrary Relations Between England 
and France. Mrs. Edward Stuart- Wortley. National Re- 
view ( 75 c. ) for July. 

Bird Photographs for Bird-Books. Illustrated. Dr. 
R. W. Shufeldt. Professional and Amateur Photographer 
(13 c.) for July. 

William Morris and His Decorative Art. Lewis F. 
Day. Reprinted from the Contemporary Review in the Liv- 
ing Age ( 18 c. ) for July 11. 

Thb Ethics of Parody. Reprinted from the Academy in 
the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for July 11. 

A Challenge to thb Critics. "An Ungrateful Author.'* 
Reprinted from the National Review in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) 
for July 18. 

% Thb Novels of Peacock. Herbert Paul. Reprinted from 
the Nineteenth Century and After in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) 
for July 18. 

A Chelsea Menage. (Mrs. Carlyle's servants.) Emily 
Cook. Reprinted from the National Review in the Living 
Age ( 18 c. ) for July 25. 

Max O'Rell: A Satirist as Seen by a Caricaturist. 
Illustrated. Harry Furniss. Saturday Evening Post (8c.) 
for July 11. 

The Literary Chaperon. Lucy Monroe. Saturday 
Evening Post ( 8 c.) for July 25. 

The Favorite Author oV Old New England. (Isaac 
Watts.) Collins G. Burnham. Youth's Companion (8c.) 
for July 16. 

A Christian Writer. (Charlotte M. Yonge. ) Youth's 
Companion (8c) for July 23. 

Making a Daily Newspaper in India. Illustrated. H. 
Craig Dare. Newspaperdom (13 c.) for July 23. 

Newspaper Men in Litbraturb. Reed Carradine. Re- 
printed from the Tammany Times in the Journalist (13 c.) 
for July 25. 


Samuel L. Clemens and his wife and two 
daughters are going to Italy in September, and 
will buy a villa in Florence, where they will 
settle down for an indefinite stay. The 
change is made on account of Mrs. Clemens's 

Thomas Bailey Aldrich has left Ponkapog for 
Saranac in the Adirondacks. His forthcom- 
ing book, " Ponkapog Papers," is to contain, 
among other essays, a biographical and critical 
study of " Robert Herrick, the Man and the 

Robert J. Burdette has become the pastor of 
a Baptist church in Los Angeles. 

Norman Duncan is about to sail for the 
Labrador coast to complete the collection of 
material for a novel dealing with life in that 



Owing to the weakness of Booth Tarking- 
ton, resulting from his attack of typhoid fever, 
the trip that he and his wife had planned to 
take abroad has been postponed until autumn. 
They will spend the summer at some quiet 

Josephine Dodge Daskam was married July 
25, at Stamford, Conn., to Selden Bacon, 
a New York lawyer. 

The Ford Publishing Company, of Spring- 
field, Ohio, is to start a new woman's magazine, 
to be known as Madame. 

The Gateway is a new magazine to be started 
in Detroit. 

The Social Review is a new weekly published 
at Galveston, Texas. 

The Househ old Ledger (New York) has ab- 
sorbed two more publications — the Piano 
Music Magazine, established by J. \V. Pepper 
in Philadelphia in iyoo, and Literature, Art, 
and Music, first published in 1902. 

F. T. Neely, the New York publisher, who 
failed in October, iS</^, has been petitioned 
into bankruptcy. The petition states that he 
has been doing business as Frank Neely, the 
Neely Company, the Home Savings Bank 
Company, and the Anglo-American Press. 

Short Stories ( New York ) offers four prizes 
of 5ico, 550, $25, and $25 for the four best 
original stories submitted before December 1. 
Regular rates will be paid in addition to the 
prizes awarded, and the editor will also make 
special offers for such contributions as seem 
available for Short Stories, but do not secure 
prizes. Manuscripts should not contain more 
than 5, coo words. 

G >od Housekeeping (Springfield, Mass. ) of- 
fers $100 in prizes for the best photographs of 
"The American Mother" submitted before 
October 1. The magazine also offers three 
additional prizes, as follows: Fifteen dollars 
for the best photograph of a rustic arbor or 
picturesque garden nook; <i 5 for the best 
photograph of the exterior of a summer cot- 
tage; and $20 for the best set of photographs 
showing the interior of a summer cottage. 
Photographs for this contest should be sub- 
mitted before November 1. 

The Professional and Amateur Photogra- 
pher { Buffalo ) is offering prizes in photographic 
equipments to professional and amateur photog 
raphers for descriptions of practical methods 
of working. 

Collier's Weekly ( New York) wants photo- 
graphs for its department, u The Focus of th e 
Time." Such as are available will be paid for 
and an additional prize of $10 will be awarded 
for the best photograph published during the 
month. The magazine also offers a prize of 
Si,ooo cash to the reader who, during 1903 
makes the most helpful suggestion. 

Leslies Weekly (New York) offers prizes 
of Sio each for the most attractive Thanks- 
giving Day photograph and the photograph 
best representing the spirit of Christmastide. 
It also offers a weekly prize of five dollars for 
the best amateur photograph submitted. The 
news feature is important. 

The Youth's Companion offers a prize of 
<ioo for the best set of pictures, not less than 
five in number, in which the human figure is 
the chief point of interest. For the six next 
best sets, prizes of $50 and $25 each will be 
given in the men's class and women's class, re- 
spectively, and prizes of $35 and $15 will be 
given in the young people's class. Three ad- 
ditional prizes of £25 each are offered for 
the best photographs of working interiors, 
out-of door sports, and studies of plant life. 
The competition will close October 31. 

The Century for August has a paper of 
random observations on life and literature by 
Thomas Bailey Aldrich. 

John Paul Bocock died at Wayne, Penn., 
June 17, aged forty-stven. 

Edward L. Wilson, editor and publisher of 
Wilson's Photographic Magazine, died at 
Yineland, N. J., June 23, aged sixty-five. 

William Ernest Henley died at Woking, 
near London, England, July 12, aged fifty-four. 

James NcNeill Whistler died in London, 
July 17, aged sixty nine. 

George Frederick W.Hollsdied at Yonkeri, 
July 23, aged forty-seven. 

B. L. Farjeon died at Hampstead, England, 
July 23, aged seventy years. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 9. 



Descriptive Writing. Charles B. Benton i»9 

Editorial Talks with Contributors. XXVII — 
By the editor of the Red Book. Trumbull White. . 130 

Editorial *3* 

Cheaper Postage for Manuscripts 13a 

*' Newspaper English •' Edited »34 

Writers of the Day *34 

Dorothy Canfield, 134 — Patrick Leopold Gray, 134 — 
Ella Lowery Mosely, 135- Carroll Watson Rankin. 135 

Personal Gossip About Authors >35 

George Ade, 135 — Gilbert K. Chesterton, 136— Rev. 
Bradley Gilroan, 136— W. E. Henley, 136— Victor 
Hugo, 137 — Jack London, 137 — Herbert Spencer, 138 

— C.N. Williamson »39 

Current Literary Topics >39 

Do Illustrators Read ? 139 — Difficulties in Translation, 

140 — The Author as a Reporter 140 

Book Reviews 140 

Literary Articles in Periodicals M> 

News and Notes »43 


Regarding the writings of those who have 
become noted as observers and descriptive 
writers, it has been remarked how singular it 
is that eminent success in those lines should 
be so rare, for apparently one has but to ob- 
serve closely and record accurately in order to 
be sure of literary success. This, however, 
must not be accepted as a comprehensive defi- 
nition of what is needed to secure literary 
recognition : the very fact of the rarity of com- 
plete success indicating that there must be 
something more than these simple require- 

In the first place, to observe closely is not 
always to observe accurately. Artists tell us 
that it is much more difficult for beginners to 
see the thing as it really appears than it is to 
make the necessary lines by which to represent 
that appearance. Our perception of the object 
seen is so much modified by preconceptions as 
to what it is or should be, that it becomes diffi- 
Copyright, 1903, by William 

cult to note and record its actual appearance. 
Doubtless the same is true in regard to a rec- 
ord to be made in writing. The first requisite, 
then, in descriptive writing, is not so much 
close observation as accurate observation. 

In addition to this, there must be what I 
shall term the selective instinct. The writer 
must be able to select those striking points 
which will be of interest to the reader, for it is 
as impossible to tell of everything observed as 
it is for the artist to put all the details of the 
scene before him on his little canvas. In each 
case the highest talent is his who succeeds in- 
depicting the most in the fewest lines. The 
second requisition for descriptive writing, then, 
I shall name as that quality which enables the 
writer to select from the mass of his observa- 
tions that which will interest and instruct his 

Besides these talents, his efforts must be 
supplemented by the imagination. Even as the 
sculptor sees in advance the life-like figure in 
the block of stone, before it is released by the 
chisel, just as truly the writer also must have 
the magic glasses of imagination through which 
he may see the picturesque, the tragic, the 
comic, or the pathetic, in the commonplace. 
He must be able to reach out and grasp the 
ultimate thought, of which the fact itself is but 
the symbol. Of course he who would convey 
this thought by writing must do so by use of 
language, and to reach the best success must 
become accomplished in its use; just as any 
workman must learn to use his tools skilfully. 

To summarize, then, the descriptive writer 
needs, first, to observe closely, but more es- 
pecially to observe accurately. Second, he 
must select carefully just those vital points 
which form the life of the picture, rejecting the 
immaterial. Third, he must be able to see, by 
the aid of the imagination, the striking, the 
beautiful, — in short the interesting, — in that 

H. Hills. All rights reserved • *:••! 



which is to "be described. To use these facul- 
ties he must become practiced in the use of 
the language, yet remembering that it is, at the 
most, but a means to an end. At the present 
day, when the world is flooded with printing, 
and the editorial offices are still worse flooded 
with manuscripts, the great public has no use 
for "fine writing" — with nothing in it. The 
writer must have something to write which will 
be worth the reading, and then he must set it 

before the reader in the fewest words and in 
the most simple and straightforward manner. 
To do this, I am assured by successful authors, 
is not always as easy as the careless reader 
supposes. But if the turning out of a well- 
wrought article involves labor, the writer may 
console himself by reflecting that (to use words 
attributed to one of our greatest dramatists) 
" easy writing's curst hard reading." 

Nbw Bedford, Mass. Charles E. Bent OH. 


XXVII. — By the Editor of the Red Book. 

The Red Book is a monthly magazine of 
short stories and nothing but short stories. 
With its October number it will be six months 

Manifestly a publication of this age has few 
office traditions to be overcome in filling its 
pages and developing its standards. The only 
thing required of manuscripts in order that 
they may find favor is that they shall be good 
short stories. The only puzzle, then, is as to 
the interpretation of that phrase, and that, in 
this office as elsewhere, finally depends on the 
personal appeal a given manuscript makes to 
the editor's judgment. It is always a difficult 
matter to define things in which the personal 
equation enters so largely. Nevertheless, it is 
possible to outline a few affirmative and a few 
negative conditions which help or hinder man- 
uscripts from reaching publication in the Red 

There are few magazines that have been less 
heralded in advance of publication than the 
Red Book. It has depended upon its own 
pages to speak as to its purposes and its char- 
acter. In the first number appeared the only 
editorial expression to the public, and from 
this certain phrases may be taken to serve the 
present purpose. 

"The Red Book wants to make friends of its 
readers, and it is the simplest of axioms to say 
that the best way to gain friends is to deserve 
them. It is the aim to give intelligent readers 
what they desire, and always it will be a pleas- 
ure to receive, and a satisfaction to defer to, 
suggestions from such readers as to what will 
please them best. But certain standards are 
established, to any infraction of which the Red 
Book will not yield. It is to be invariably in- 
teresting, wholesome, decent, and cheerful. It 
expects to win friends among those whose 
preferences are for the. interesting, the whole- 
some, the decent, and the cheerful. It is be- 
lieved that these standards need not in any 
way conflict with each other, but rather are of 
mutual support. Stories need not be of shady 
morals or gloomy spirits to be interesting. 
The Red Book is no place for preaching, except 
as its clever stories of clever people, by virtue 
of their cleverness, preach the gospel of cheer- 
fulness and good will. If ever there be printed 
here a story of sadness, it will be but to accent 
more strongly some phase of happiness, ma- 
terial or otherwise, that is made conspicuous 
by contrast." 

In common with some other publications 
the Red Book often falls below its standards, 
but these exist, nevertheless. The established 



rule is that stories must be short and good. 
Any clean, original story may be available. 
There is no purpose to limit the field to one 
form. Romance, history, adventure, character- 
study, or any other variety of good short fiction 
is acceptable. Any story between 1,000 and 
5,000 words in length may serve the needs of 
the Red Book. Those of more than 5,000 
words are not likely to be available. 

There are some things that are not wanted 
under any circumstances : The risque* and the 
religious story are equally outside the plans of 
this magazine ; nor are juvenile stories printed. 
Some other forms of short fiction have a preju- 
dice to overcome, and are not likely to be 
available, all hough manuscripts might be ac- 
ceptable if so good as to force a purchase; 
among such are those of extreme and obscure 
dialect; stories purely fantastic and based on 
unreasonable and unnatural violations of 
natural laws, and stories that are highly melo- 
dramatic. No market exists here for the 
cheap, tawdry love story. 

In this day when the occult enters so largely 
into numbers of manuscripts submitted, and 
into the minds of many reading people, it is 
well to define the exactions of the magazine in 
this direction. Ghost stories which are 
nothing but ghost stones are not wanted 
under any circumstances. In order to be 
available for the Red Book, those stories whose 
mysteries depend upon the occult must be very 
cleverly handled, and must permit of some ex- 
planation through the application of reason- 
ably recognized forces. That is to say, 
thought transference, hypnotism, and mental 
influence are recognized forces operating in 
our personal relations, and a phenomenon 
which might be naturally credited to one of 
those forces is not unreasonable. An ex- 
ample of what is intended to be conveyed 
will be found in Charles Belmont Davis's story, 
"On the Bay Road," which leads the July Red 
Book. This rule, however, in common with 
others, no doubt has been violated in the 
pages of the magazine. 

Manuscripts submitted are judged entirely 
upon their merits, according to the standards 
established. Translations and reprints are 
not of service under any circumstances. Nor 

are manuscripts entirely outside the short 
fiction field in any way available at this time. 
The Red Book in its present form uses no 
poetry, history, biography, travel, description, 
essay, or editorial, and the submission of such 
matter is therefore useless. 

It is the purpose to give editorial judg- 
ment upon manuscripts as promptly as possi- 
ble, but conditions have been such as to make 
manuscript reading always from two to four 
weeks behind. It has been necessary, there- 
fore, to ask that much indulgence from writers, 
A receipt is sent to every writer on the day his 
manuscript arrives, so that no one is left in 
doubt as to the safety of his matter. All man- 
uscripts are read in the sequence of their 
arrival, and judgment is made very promptly 
after the first reading. An offer is invariably 
made to the author of any manuscript which 
proves acceptable to the editor, before the 
purchase is regarded as made, and immediately 
upon receipt of an affirmative reply from the 
author a check is forwarded. The rates at 
this time vary greatly. We are very glad to 
have writers indicate the price of manuscripts 
in the letters of transmission. If that is not 
done, we make such an offer as we think the 
manuscript deserves, measured by our own 
standards as to its value to the Red Book. 
Our minimum rate is no higher than the 
column rate paid by the best newspapers, but 
there is a wide range of fluctuation above that, 
according to the author and the story. 

We need about two hundred stories a year, 
and we want good ones. Although the manu- 
script receipts, beginning with nothing six 
months ago, have now reached nearly 1,000 
manuscripts a month, there never has been a 
time when we have had enough of the stories 
that fully served our purpose. 

Writers who have their reputations yet to 
gain, as well as those of established"fame, are 
therefore invited to offer such matter as they 
believe to meet the exactions. We are just as 
unwilling to buy poor stuff from famous 
authors — sometimes they write it — as we are 
delighted to receive treasures from those 
whose names are unknown. 

Trumbull White. 

Chicago, 111. 



The Writer. 

Published monthly by the Writer Publishing Company, 146 
Franklin street, Room 32, Boston, Mass. 



•♦•The Writer is published the first day of every month. 
It will be sent, postpaid, One Year for One Dollar. 

•t* All drafts and money orders should be made payable to 
The Writer Publishing Co. Stamps, or local checks, should 
not be sent in payment for subscriptions. 

• # *Thb Writer will be sent only to those who have paid for 
t in advance. Accounts cannot be opened for subscriptions, 
and names will not be entered on the list unless the subscrip- 
tion order is accompanied by a remittance. 

• # *The American News Company, of New York, and the 
New England News Company, of Boston, and their branches, 
are wholesale agents for The Writer. It may be ordered 
from any newsdealer, or direct, by mail, from the publishers. 

•#* Not one line of paid advertisement will be printed in 
The WRiTBR'outside of the advertising pages. 

%• Advertising in The Writer costs fifteen cents a line, or 
$2.10 an inch ; seven dollars a quarter page ; twelve dollars a 
half page; or twenty dollars a page, for one insertion, remit- 
tance with the order. Discounts are five, ten, and fifteen 
per cent, for three, six, and twelve months. For continued 
advertising payments must be made quarterly in advance. 

%* Contributions not used will be returned, if a stamped and 
addressed envelope is enclosed. 


P. O. Box 1905. 

146 Franklin street, Room 32, 

Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. September, 1903. No. 9. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

In view of the separation of Jack London 
and his wife, renewed interest is given to the 
report that "The Kempton-Wace Letters," 
which express radical ideas about love and 
marriage, are the joint work of Mr. London 
and Annie Stransky. Mr. London is said to 

have written the Wace letters, and Miss 
Stransky the Kempton and Hester letters. 


An American magazine editor has been try- 
ing to induce Thomas Hardy to write a new 
novel, but Mr. Hardy has definitely declined 
the editor's proposal. It is refreshing once in 
a while to see the tables turned. 


Readers of The Writer who wish to com- 
pete in any of the prize contests announced in 
the "News and Notes" department should 
first write to the editors offering prizes for the 
rules governing the contests. It is impossible 
to give the details of such offers in a brief 
paragraph, and frequently the details are im- 

* *• 

The movement to secure cheaper postage 
for manuscripts, which was begun by The 
Writer in September, 1891, now has the sup- 
port of the Society of American Authors, which 
is taking a lively interest in the matter. The 
society has mailed to all authors whose ad- 
dresses could be secured and to the editors of 
large papers throughout the United States a 
circular showing the injustice of the present 
postage rate on manuscripts and urging recipi- 
ents to join in bringing pressure to bear on 
congress to secure a change. The circular 
sets forth the fact that while authors and news- 
paper correspondents in the United States 
have to pay two cents an ounce for mailing 
their manuscripts to publishers in this country, 
if they wish to send these same manuscripts 
from the United States to the most remote 
parts of the world, they can do so at the rate ' 
of one cent for every two ounces — one-fourth 
of the cost of mailing to points within the 
United States. As The Writer said in Oc- 
tober, 1 891 : "It is actually cheaper for a writer 
in Boston to send a book manuscript by mail 
to a London publisher than to a publisher in 
his own city. If the manuscript weighs fifty 
ounces, it will cost him one dollar to mail it to 
any point in the United States ; he can mail it 
to any foreign country in the Universal Postal 
Union for twenty-five cents. There is no 
reason that writers can see why the United 



States post-office should not carry a manu- 
script from New York to Chicago as cheaply 
as from New York via Chicago to Hong 

Similarly, as the circular of the Society of 
American Authors shows, writers living in the 
remotest parts of the world, or, to make the 
statement more striking, just across the border 
in Canada, can send their manuscripts to points 
within the United States at the rate of one cent 
for every two ounces, or four times cheaper 
than they could if residing in the United States. 
To quote the circular : — 

** Within the United States manuscripts rank 
as private communications and pay letter post- 
age — two cents for one ounce; outside the 
United States manuscripts rank as commercial 
papers and pay printed-matter rates — one cent 
for two ounces. 

" Cuba, Hawaii, Guam, Porto Rico, the Phil- 
pipines, Tutuila (in the Samoan group ) are 
now subject to the United States' rulings, 
hence have slipped back from former auvance. 

41 Haiti is now more liberal than Porto Rico. 

44 The Cook Islands are now more liberal than 
the Philippines. 

44 The Samoan group is liberal or illiberal 
according to the owner of the individual island 
or port. German Samoa is liberal. United 
States Samoa is illiberal. 

44 The Universal Postal Union regards as 
commercial papers the following : All instru- 
ments or documents written or drawn wholly 
or partly by hand, which have not the charac- 
ter of an actual or personal correspondence, 
such as papers of legal procedure, deeds of all 
kinds drawn up by public functionaries, way- 
bills or bills of lading, invoices, the various 
documents of insurance companies, copies of 
or extracts from deeds under private signature 
written on stamped or unstamped paper, scores 
or sheets of manuscript music, manuscript of 
books or of articles for publication in periodi- 
cals forwarded separately, corrected tasks of 
pupils excluding all comments on the work, elc. 

44 The following countries are more liberal 

than the United States in relation to manu- 
scripts for books and newspapers: — 


Terra del Fuego, 

French Colonies, 



German Colonies, 



English Colones, 

Falkland Islands, 


Spanish Colonies, 


North Borneo, 

Italian Colonies, 



Netherlands Colonies. 

44 In fact every civilized and many uncivilized 
points the world over." 

Now, everybody knows that good manu- 
scripts are frequently declined by the editors 
to whom they are first offered, and that the au- 
thor's bill for postage in selling any manu- 
script may prove to be considerable. In this 
respect manuscripts are unlike other merchan- 
dise, on which generally transportation charges 
are paid only once. The publisher who sends 
a printed book to a customer pays postage one 
way at the rate of one cent for two ounces. 
The author offering a book manuscript for sale 
may have to pay postage both ways, at the rate 
of two cents an ounce, eight or ten times or 
more before the sale of the manuscript is 
effected. Obviously the drain on the author's 
purse is considerable, and every one must ad- 
mit that the discrimination against him, as 
compared with all other sellers of merchandise, 
is unjust. 


A book manuscript is merchandise, just as 
much as a pound of tea. There is nothing in 
it of the nature of personal correspondence, 
and there is no good reason why the author 
should be compelled to pay letter rates of two 
cents an ounce to send it through the mail. It 
would be only just for congress to take action 
reducing the rate of postage on manuscripts 
for publication, so that they may be mailed at 
the same rate as a printed book, and at the 
rate at which manus< ripts are mailed now in 
other countries and from the United States to 
other countries. 

♦ *♦ 

The circular of the Society of American Au- 
thors says : 44 For four years this society has 
been endeavoring to secure to American writers 
the same rights as are possessed by foreign 
authors in their own countries, and by foreign 



authors when sending manuscripts here, and 
by American authors when sending manu- 
scripts abroad. Eighteen months ago, at our 
request, the late Amos J. Cummings introduced 
in congress a bill to this effect. It did not 
pass before his untimely death. 

" We expect to secure the introduction of a 
bill simultaneously in both senate and house 
at the next session of congress, and we write 
therefore to you and to others associated with 
the literary productivity of the United States. 
We ask from you three lines of assistance. 
First, that you will notify us of your interest in 
this effort; second, that you will correspond at 
the favorable moment with your congressman 
and senator ; third, that you will advise us of 
others who might be interested in receiving 
similar circulars. 

"The importance of this matter to all who 
use their pens is so great, and the reform, if 
secured, will be so far reaching throughout all 
future time, that we urge you to let us hear 
from you at the earliest possible moment, as 
there is avast amount of correspondence to be 
done in order to bring upon congress a pres- 
sure so uniform and so wide-spread that there 
shall be no hesitation in granting the plea." 

• •• 

The secretary of the society is G. Grosvenor 
Dawe, 128 Broadway, New York City, who will 
gladly supply circulars to all who may apply 
for them. w. H. H. 


The most wonderful woman 
in the world lives in Boston. 
Though wealthy, she is al- 
ways more simply gowned 
than any of her guests. — Du- 
luth Herald. 

The most wonderful woman 
in the world lives in Boston. 
Though rich, she always 
dresses more simply than any 
of her guests. 

We will know to-night. — | We shall know to-night. 
rockton Times. * 

Brockton Times, 

It is a queer fact but true 
that the news of the death of 
Pope Leo reached London 
via of New York. — Nashua 
Daily Telegraph. 

It is strange but true that 
the news of the death of 
Pope Leo reached London by 
way of New York. 


Country," in the New Metropolitan for 
August, and another, "One Result of the 
Martinique Disaster," in Harper's Bazar for 
August, is a daughter of James H. Canfield, 
librarian of Columbia University. Her mother 
is an artist of note. Miss Canfield graduated 
from the Ohio State University in 1899, and 
has spent much time abroad as traveler and 
student. She reads, writes, and speaks fluently 
five languages. Her first printed work was 
"Essential Qualities of the Work of Emile 
Augier," which was privately printed, and 
which was said by Brander Matthews to be a 
genuine contribution to the literature and 
criticism concerning Augier. Miss Canfield 
has frequently contributed fugitive pieces to 
special editions of the New York Times, and 
she has nearly ready for the press a volume, 
"The Influence of Racine and Moliere on the 
English Drama." She is secretary to the 
Horace Mann School, New York. 

" Dorothy Canfield " ( Dorothea Frances 
Canfield), who had a story, "The Man with a 

Patrick Leopold Gray, whose sonnet, " Kan- 
sas," appeared in the National Magazine for 
August, was born in a prairie cabin in Kansas, 
in 1864, and now lives on a farm at Bendena, 
Kansas. The house, forty years old, is built 
of stone, with walls twenty-four inches thick, 
and in summer is almost entirely hidden by 
vines. Mr. Gray published his first book — 
"verses, of course," he says — before his 
nineteenth year. The edition consisted of 
fifty copies, which he gave away. Later, he 
says, he bought them in — every one. His 
second book was a story for boys and girls, 
published by John B. Alden in 1888. Mr. 
Gray spent ten years at local newspaper work, 
five of which were passed at the pine desk of 
his own little " journal, " which enjoyed a cir- 
culation of about seven hundred copies. This 
experience, he says, left him poor in health 
and poor in pocketbook. He was gray at a 
very early age, and now, at thirty-nine, his hair 
is entirely white. His latest book, " In a Car 
of Gold," was published last year by the Saal- 
field Publishing Company, and he has just 
finished a fifth book, '" Prairieland," a story 
for boys and girls, telling of pioneer life, and 
giving an account of home adventures on the 
high prairies of Kansas in the great grass- 



hopper year. Mr. Gray has written humorous 
jingles for the daily press, but the sonnet, " Kan- 
sas," is a fair sample of his serious work. He 
now contemplates making a collection of his 
verse, published and unpublished, to be put in 
a more enduring form. 

Ella Lowery Moseley, author of the story, 
"The Amok of Wangsa," which appeared in 
Short Stories for August, is a t native of 
Alabama, and lives in Birmingham. She is 
the widow of Dr. Robert A. Moseley, Jr., who 
was consul general to Singapore at the time of 
his death, and it was during her residence 
there that she obtained the material for this 
story. She was for four years editor 6f the 
woman's department of a weekly newspaper, 
the columns of this department being devoted 
to current events and book reviews as well as 
to household economy, and she often wrote 
not only the political editorials in addition to 
this department, but got out the entire paper. 
She has had occasional articles in the Wash- 
ington Post, the Birmingham Age-Herald, and 
in several other leading papers, but "The 
Amok of Wangsa " is her first literary venture 
— the beginning of writing as the one serious 
purpose of her life. She intends to write 
other stories characteristic of the Malay, 
which, considering the large percentage of 
Malays in the Philippine population, she 
hopes will be interesting to American readers. 
Mrs. Moseley has also at intervals written 
poems, which have been published in the 
New Orleans Times- Democrat, the New York, 
Home Journal and her home papers, but she 
has never taken poetry seriously, and has not 
bombarded the magazines with it. She is now 
occupied with a novel, the atmosphere and 
plot of which is Southern and political. The 
theme of it, she says, may be expressed by the 
Japanese proverb, "A woman may not look 
upon two husbands," but the treatment is 
psychological and idealistic, and it will be in 
no sense a problem novel, nor will it contain 
any word that "the young girl " may not read. 

name is her real name, not a pseudonym. 
Mrs. Rankin was educated in the public 
schools of Marquette and at Kemper Hall, 
Kenosha, Wis., and afterward spent two years 
abroad. Her first writing, a composition on 
" Cats," written when she was eleven years 
old, was published without her knowledge or 
consent in an educational journal. At seven- 
teen, she was local editor of a daily paper, and 
wrote, besides, a great many verses, that were 
published, under a pseudonym, in the Chicago 
Inter Ocean. Eight years ago her first 
attempt at a magazine article, a paper entitled 
" The Winter Window Garden," was accepted 
and promptly published by the Ladies'' Home 
Journal. Mrs. Rankin confesses that she has 
never spent the money that she got for this 
manuscript. "Nothing," she says, "ever 
seemed quite good enough to buy with that 
first astonishing check." A second article 
was declined, and she wrote no more for five 
years. Three years ago she wrote, for her 
own amusement, her first short story, and 
later sent it to the Youth's Companion, by 
which it was immediately accepted. Since 
then the Companion has published eighteen 
other stories of hers. Her specialty seems to 
be the humorous short story. Within the past 
three years she has had articles, essays, or 
stories published in the Century, Harper's 
Monthly, Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, 
Munsey's Magazine, Collier's Weekly, Short 
Stories, Lippincott's Magazine, the Black Cat, 
the Bookman, and many other periodicals. 
She regards "The Doctor's Largest Fee," and 
" The Quest of the Hallowe'en Pumpkin," both 
printed in the Youth's Companion, as the best 
stories she has had published. 


Carroll Watson Rankin, author of "Cupid 
in the Elevator," which was printed in Pear- 
son's Magazine for August, is Mrs. Ernest 
Rankin, of Marquette, Michigan, and her pen 

Ade. — George Ade's own account of how 
he came to write the fables that have made 
him famous is given as follows in the Literary 
World: " In 1890," writes Mr. Ade, "having 
risen to a weekly income of fifteen dollars, I 
lit out for Chicago, where I got a job on the 
Morning News, later the Record, as a reporter. 
The following year I had pretty good assign- 
ments, and in 1893 I did special World's Fair 



stories. When the fair closed up I became 
the father of a department in the paper called 
4 Stories of the Street.' I had to fill two 
columns every day, which, with a cut or two, 
meant from twelve hundred to two thousand 
words. My stuff was next to Eugene Field's 
'Sharps and Flats.' When Field died I got 
his desk. I used to get desperate for ideas 
sometimes. One lucky day I wrote a story on 
a church entertainment, in which Artie was 
the spokesman. That was in 1895. I heard 
from that story so much that Artie was given a 
show once a week. In 1898 I ran up against 
the fable of the old serio-comic form. I had 
learned from writing my department that all 
people, and especially women, are more or less 
fond of parlor slang. In cold blood I began 
writing the fables to make my department go, 
but I had no idea that those fantastic things 
would catch on as they have. My first one was 
entitled ' The Blond Girl who Married a Bucket- 
Shop Man.' Soon other papers asked permis- 
sion to copy the fables, and then to share them 
with the Record^ and by-and-by a publisher 
collected them and made up a copyrighted 
book. There you have the whole thing in a 

Chesterton. — England is developing a new 
style of humor as well as America, and it is 
quite as different from the old humor as the 
new American humor is different from Artemus 
Ward and the earlier Mark Twain. The most 
conspicuous of these newer humorists is Gil- 
bert K. Chesterton. 

Mr. Chesterton is one among those writers 
who have graduated from journalism, — hardly 
graduated from it, perhaps, for he is still a reg- 
ular contributor to the London Daily News, 
having the same position on that paper that 
Andrew Lang held for a number of years. A 
sort of go-as-you-please column is conducted 
by him in that journal. He writes on any sub- 
ject that interests him, and the way he treats 
the subject, no matter what it may be, interests 
his readers. 

It is rather interesting to know that Mr. 
Chesterton when he left school intended to 
adopt art as a profession and studied for some 
time in well-known London studios. Even 
now, though he has laid aside the pencil for the 

pen, he usually carries a bit of crayon in 
his pocket, and wherever he sees a blank 
wall he proceeds at once to decorate it with 
some fantastic idea that has possession of his 
mind at the time. In appearance Mr. Chester- 
ton looks more like an artist Bohemian than a 
man of letters. He has been described as be- 
longing to the untidy type of genius. Dress is 
the last thing that he thinks about. He wears 
a broad-brimmed slouch hat, something rarely 
seen in the streets of London, and his whole 
appearance is in keeping with his hat. — yean- 
nette L. Gilder, in the August Critic. 

Oilman. — Rev. Bradley Gilman of the 
Church of the Unity, Springfield, intends to 
close his pastorate there within a year, and his 
letter of resignation will probably be presented 
at the annual church meeting in December. 
Success in the field of literature, especially 
through his recent novel, " Ronald Carnaquay," 
has led him to plan to give more of his atten- 
tion to this line of work than is possible in so im- 
portant a parish. He consequently has decided 
to retire from his pulpit before another sum- 
mer, when he will have completed a service of 
twelve years. Mr. Gilman came to Springfield 
from Concord, N. H., in 1892. He was born 
in Boston, January 22, 1857, was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1880, and from the Harvard 
Divinity School in 1884. He was settled over 
churches in Belmont and Waverley for two 
years, and from there went to his pastorate in 
Concord. — Boston. Transcript. 

Henley. — When I went to London in 1894 
I had not heard much of W. E. Henley ; but I 
had not been there long before I heard a great 
deal of him. What I there heard has not 
been repeated on this side of the Atlantic, and 
certainly ought to interest us. To us Mr. 
Henley was a poet, a critic, an editor, assuredly 
not of the first rank and perhaps not even of 
the second. To the young men in London, 
however, he was master, and all spoke of him 
in terms of reverence. 

The truth is, Henley was never especially 
successful in literature. Only so short a time 
ago as 1894 he was barely able to make scant 
living by his pen. Life was still the desperate 
struggle to him that it is to most hopeful young 



men who are trying to enter the profession of 
letters, but to a man of Henley's " unconquer- 
able soul " there were compensations that made 
the struggle for bread seem a matter of small 
moment. In his case the compensation was 
the worship of the successful young writers 
whom he had discovered and taught how to 
write successful and truly artistic short stories 
and poems. 

So far as I know, Mr. Henley never wrote a 
short story in his life; but as editor, first, of 
the Scotch paper the National Observer, and 
later of the New Review in London, and of 
other periodicals, he scented out and devel- 
oped nearly all the best English short-story 
writers. He was one of the very first to see 
the merit of Kipling's work, of Barrie's, of 
Gilbert Parker's, of Arthur Morrison's, of W. 
D. Lowry's, and of many others. These young 
men sent him their best stories even when 
they could have sold them to other editors for 
three times what Henley could afford to pay. 
They knew that commercial value in a story 
was nothing to him, that he would not have a 
story, whatever its price in the market, if it 
were not artistically worthy. 

And they felt in their souls that he knew 
what a truly artistic short story was. Often 
by crossing out half a line here, a word there, 
a sentence in another place, he turned a story 
not wholly successful into one that was entirely 
so. He was a teacher, and he taught the art of 
short-story writing to those in whom he saw 
promise — he developed many a finished genius 
out of the raw material. 

Mr. Henley was also a critic of poetry. It is 
said that he retouched all of Kipling's early 
poems. — Sherwin Cody, in the Boston Tran- 

One of Mr. Henley's li young men " writes 
In the London Express about his former chief 
as follows : — 

" I must tell you," he wrote when he had ac- 
cepted two manuscripts which had been re- 
jected by many editors, "that my hands are 
very full, and that my staff is a fairly complete 
one, so that if you make your way in, you must 
do so by sheer writing. ... I do not pro- 
pose to print your signature as yet, as I want 
to see how people are taken by your stuff." 

Can you imagine how the young man who re- 
ceived that letter (he was still at Oxford) 
worked after that? 

The first two manuscripts were printed ex- 
actly as they had been sent in. The third 
came back so cut that he had some hours of 
indignation. One did not send careless work 
to Henley, and this had already been rewritten 
twice. But it was returned, and with the re- 
quest that he would return another which had 
not been produced without the same care. 
This was rewritten twice more, and cut re- 
morselessly, and one had learned a lesson. He 
was sometimes a terrible man with the copy of 
his contributors and with his own proofs. 

When the National Observer was dead, and 
we "waked" it at " Solfy's," he said in the 
course of his reply that as he looked round the 
room he saw no man with whose copy he had 
not taken great liberties, and that he was not 
going to apologize, because he knew that he 
had always been justified by the results. 

Hugo. — Victor Hugo always wrote stand- 
ing at a high desk especially constructed for 
him, throwing off sheet after sheet as fast as 
he filled it till he would be quite snowed up in 
leaves of foolscap. He often rose in the mid- 
dle of the night to note down an idea or a 
verse. He got up for the day usually at six 
o'clock and would devote from six to eight 
hours a day to his work. He made but few 
corrections, his poems being thought out com- 
plete in his brain before he put pen to paper. 
It is a well-known fact that he indulged in the 
arduous task of composition while traversing 
the streets of Paris on the top of an omnibus. 
When working out some great conception, he 
would spend hours in this way. — Rehoboth 
Sunday Herald. 

London. — Jack London has had a varied 
experience, although only twenty-seven years 
old. He was born in San Francisco, Janu- 
ary 12, 1876. His father, John London, a 
nomadic trapper, scout, and frontiersman, ar- 
rived in San Francisco in 1873, and Jack was 
the youngest of ten half-brothers and sisters. 
He lived on California ranches until his tenth 
year, when his parents moved to Oakland, and 
he had the opportunity to acquaint himself with 
books from a public library, and to go to school. 

i 3 8 


But a few months later he " dropped into an 
adventurous life alongshore," and " became in 
turn a salmon fisher, an oyster pirate, a fish pa- 
trolman, a 'longshoreman, and a general bay- 
faring adventurer." When he was seventeen 
he shipped before the mast, going to Japan and 
Behring sea, seal hunting. 

Reviewing his mental and physical equip- 
ments up to the time he was eighteen, Mr. 
London says : '* I had lived my childhood on 
California ranches, my boyhood hustling news- 
papers on the streets of a healthy western 
city, and my youth on the ozone-laden waters 
of San Francisco bay and the Pacific Ocean. 
I loved life in the open, and I toiled in the 
open, at the hardest kinds of work. Learning 
no trade, but drifting along from job to job, I 
looked on the world and called it good, every 
bit of it. Let me repeat, this optimism was 
because I was healthy and strong, bothered 
with neither aches nor weaknesses, never turned 
down by the boss because I did not look fit, 
able always to get a job shoveling coal, sailor- 
izing, or manual labor of some sort." 

Swayed partly by interest in sociology and 
economics, partly by the fascination of the en- 
terprise, Mr. London tramped many thousands 
of miles over the United States and Canada. 
" On rods and blind baggages I fought my way 
from the open West, where men bucked big and 
the job hunted the man, to the congested labor 
centers of the East, where men were small 
potatoes and hunted the job for all they were 

He had more than one jail experience in the 
course of several thousand miles of tramping, 
because he possessed no fixed place of abode 
and no visible means of support. Later on he 
repeated his vagabond career in the East End 
of London, the result being his volume on 
"The People of the Abyss," which, after its 
serial run in one of the magazines, is to appear 
in book form in the autumn. Eventually he 
decided that tramping was not all beer and 
skittles, and returned to Oakland, where he 
entered the high school. 

His college course in the University of Cali- 
fornia was limited to his freshman year, finan- 
ces, or the lack of them, obliging him to turn to 
at the familiar grind. This was in 1897, and, 

impelled by the promise of gold and adventure, 
Jack London was among the first to join the 
fall rush to the Klondike. 

It was in the Klondike that he gathered the 
material for his first books, which brought him 
before the reading public. His first magazine 
article was published in the Overland Monthly 
in 1899, and his first book appeared the follow- 
ing year. 

He is a Socialist, and takes an active part 
in the propaganda of the Socialist party. His 
home is on the Piedmont Hills, overlooking 
San Francisco bay. Among his hobbies, other 
than Socialism, may be mentioned kite-flying 
and boat-sailing. Much of his writing is done 
on his sloop-yacht in San Francisco bay ; at 
present he is writing a novel of the sea. 

Spencer. — Herbert Spencer, who was 
eighty-three last April, after expecting for 
sixty years that each new birthday would be 
the last, is absolutely sound in mind, despite 
all the reports to the contrary. He is feeble in 
body, and a few months ago there was some 
uneasiness regarding his condition, but the 
advent of sunshine on the sands of Brighton 
after a long and depressing period of cold and 
rain has pulled him up wonderfully. He has 
finished his life work, however, and probably 
will never write another word that is intended 
for the public eye. Not long ago an enter- 
prising American magazine asked me to offer 
him any sum that he might name for an article 
of any length whatever on any subject that 
might interest him. But the only answer was 
that while he appreciated the compliment of 
such an offer he regretted his inability to 
comply with it. He has received plenty of 
other offers almost as liberal in the last two 

The aged philosopher is now practically 
alone in the world. Affairs of the heart never 
interested him, and he now has not one near 
relative living. Huxley and Tyndall are gone, 
and nearly all his other old friends, except 
John Morley, and he is said to feel his isola- 
tion keenly. The man who acts as his secre- 
tary and writes practically all his letters for 
him is almost his only companion in the lonely 
house at Brighton. All requests for interviews, 
for permission to take photographs, for auto- 

The writer. 


graphs, and for everything else of that sort are 
declined — usually by stereotyped letter. 

An intimate fiiend of Mr. Spencer's told me 
to-day the story of how the sage was " discov- 
ered " in America. He says he thinks the facts 
were never published before. The little book 
— I think it was "The First Principles of 
Sociology" — which had been published ob- 
scurely here, found its way to the tables of the 
famous old American publishing house for which 
the late E. L. Youmans was literary adviser. 
The author was unknown and the subject was 
dry, and no attention was paid to either until 
one day Mr. Youmans's sister happened to pick 
up the neglected volume in an idle moment. 
She read it from beginning to end with in- 
creasing interest, and told her brother that she 
had discovered a great philosopher. He was 
incredulous and said there was no public for 
books on sociology. Somewhat against his 
will, his sister persuaded him to read the book, 
with the result that he went to the head of his 
publishing house to say that an American edi- 
tion of the book must by all means be published, 
whether it proved profitable or not. The ad- 
vice was accepted, and although the book had 
no great sale, it attracted the attention of so 
many thoughtful folk in America that Mr. 
Spencer's audience was assured from that 
time forth. — ** H. C. />.," ** Louisville Courier- 

Williamson. — C. N. Williamson, one of the 
authors of "The Lightning Conductor," was, 
with the exception of Alfred Harmsworth, per- 
haps the youngest man who ever started an 
important London paper. He was the founder 
and first editor of Black and White, having 
previously been connected with the Graphic. 
As a boy he wrote a successful " Life of Thomas 
Carlyle," and at about the same time drew 
wide attention, in a series of articles which 
appeared in the Graphic, to Cumberland as a 
climbing centre. Mrs. Williamson, the other 
author of "The Lightning Conductor," was an 
American girl, a Miss Livingston of New York. 
She went to England on a visit eight or nine 
years ago, met Mr. Williamson there, and mar- 
ried a year .or two later. She has written a 
number of novels which have been well re- 
ceived, but " The Lightning Conductor " (with 

the exception of some short stories which ap- 
peared in the Strand and other magazines) is 
the first work that she and Mr. Williamson 
have done together. "The Lightning Con- 
ductor" was suggested by a long tour which he 
and his wife took in their automobile through 
the various countries named in the book. 
Their method of constructing the story was 
for Mrs. Williamson to write all the American 
girl's letters, while Mr. Williamson wrote those 
of the English hero. — The Critic for July. 


Do Illustrators Read ? — In the current 
Bookman Henry M. Baldwin raises the ques- 
tion, whether artists really read the texts they 
illustrate. He cites a number of examples 
which, with others that occur to the mind, 
would seem to require the answer that often 
they do not. 

For example, in " The Two Vanrevels " the 
hero plunges into some bushes, captures a 
truant kitten and returns it to the heroine. He 
is described as wearing a white satin stock; 
yet in Mr. Hutt's picture the stock is changed 
to black. 

The text of " Lady Rose's Daughter" clearly 
discloses that the action took place in the '70s ; 
yet the men in Mr. Cristy's pictures wear the 
creased and turned-up trousers that did not 
come into fashion until a dozen years later. 

" Elspeth flopped down on her knees," wrote 
Mr. Barrie in " Sentimental Tommy," " and put 
a babyish prayer for Jean Myles." But in the 
accompanying picture Elspeth is irreverently 
sitting on the floor while she prays. 

Then look at the transformation that Mr. 
Birch wrought in Dan, in the new edition of 
Miss Alcott's " Little Men." Dan is certainly 
a typical rough-and-tumble boy, but the artist 
makes him decidedly Fauntleroyish. 

Andre Castaigne's picture of the death of 
Philip of Macedon, published in the Century 
not long ago, shows the assassin holding his 
short sword — practically the American bowie 
knife — as bowie knives are held in popular- 
price melodrama, but never by men who use 
them in real life. 

Military equipments are often a weak point 



with the average artist. In one of Robert W. 
Chambers's grim war stories, published by 
many newspapers a few years ago, an officer 
was shown by the artist wearing his sword on 
his right side, and yet there was not a word in 
the text to show that the officer was left- 

Nor are the most eminent artists exempt 
from these blunders. In spite of the line, 
" heavily the low sky raining/' Rossetti and 
Waterhouse, in their illustrations of "The 
Lady of Shalott," have candles burning 
brightly around the heroine's body as it floated 
down to Camelot. Holman Hunt's well- 
known design for the same poem evoked from 
the poet the justifiable protest : " My dear 
Hunt, I never said that the young woman's 
hair was blowing all over the shop." 

Charles Dickens was notoriously fussy about 
the illustrations of his works, and once said 
that he would cheerfully have given ^ioo to 
have a certain picture kept out. Dickens had 
the true journalist's instinct for accuracy, and 
if publishers were as wise as they ought to be, 
they would insist upon it as persistently as he 
did. — Chicago Inter-Ocean. 

Difficulties in Translation. — An amusing 
blunder occurred in a French translation of J. 
Fenimore Cooper's novel, " The Spy." The 
author, describing a scene in Westchester 
county, wrote of one of the characters in the 
story, that he rode up in front of a house, dis- 
mounted and tied his horse to a large locust — 
meaning, of course, the tree indigenous to that 

The French translator, ignorant of any such 
tree, and taking the word locust literally, trans- 
lated it by the word " sauterelle," which, when 
again rendered in English, read that the officer 
tied his horse 10 a large grasshopper. 

Welsh rabbits always puzzle the French. 
Invariably they translate these dishes into an- 
imals, calling them "lapins du pays de Galles," 
or " rabbits of the land of Wales." 

Where Shakspere makes one of his heroes 
say that, renouncing his inheritance, he will 
carve out for himself a fortune with his sword, 
a French translator renders that : — 

" What care I for lands? With my knife I 
will make a fortune cutting meat." 

The Firth of Forth was once translated " le 
cinquieme de quatrieme " — "the fifth of the 

Victor Hugo rendered " peajacket" "paletot 
a la pure*e de pois." 

" Out, out, brief candle! " was made by Jules 
Janin, " Sortez, candelle ! " — " Candle, go 
away ! " — New York Tribune. 

The Author as a Reporter. — The author 
who has been a reporter knows how to go 
about the business of getting facts. Specific 
knowledge, technical names of things and inti- 
mate details he absorbs by instinct. Sewell 
Ford, whose recently published book, " Horses 
Nine," seems to show that he knows the horse 
thoroughly, has been through the journalistic 
mill. When he begins a story, about a truck 
horse, for instance, he visits the Bull's Head 
district, where heavy draughts are put up at 
auction ; he haunts the big city stables, where 
hundreds of truck horses are housed, and he 
fraternizes with the men who drive the 
trucks. Finally, when he is sure of his 
ground, he writes the story. — The Scribner 


The Art up Writing and Speaking thb English Lan- 
guage. By Sherwin Cody. Vol. I. — Word study. 128 pp. ; 
Vol. II.— Grammar and Punctuation- 117pp.; Vol. III. 
— Composition. 128 pp. ; Vol. IV. — Constructive Rheto- 
ric. 126 pp. Cloth, 75 cents each: the set, $3.00. Chi- 
cago : The Old Greek Press. 1903. 

Mr. Cody is a safe guide in matters of lan- 
guage study and literary composition, and 
these four books of his have interest and 
value. The volume on " Word-study " takes 
up spelling, a study of letters and words, word- 
building, and pronunciation, and even well-in- 
formed people can learn a good deal from it. 
The volume on " Grammar " gives in simpli- 
fied form the laws of sentence-building, and 
twenty pages at the end include the essential 
rules of punctuation. The volume on " Con- 
structive Rhetoric" takes up business-lett r 
and advertisement writing, short-story writ- 
ing, and creative composition of different 
kinds, such as verse-writing, essay-writing, 
novel-writing, etc. The volume on "Compo- 
sition " undertakes to teach the art of effective 
writing, largely by analysis of the work of the 
masters, fixing attention on the rhetorical 
element that each writer best illustrates. The 
books are all of handy pocket size, convenient 



for daily study. They are well worth their 
price. w. h. h. 

Young Ivy On Old Walls By H. Arthur Powell. 57 pp. 
Antique Boards, $1.00. Boston: Richard G. Badger. 1903. 

That Mr. Powell is a versatile verse-maker 
is shown by the fact that in this collection he 
reprints contributions to periodicals so unlike 
as Town Topics and the Christian Advocate* 
Other verses are reprinted from Scribner's 
Magazine, Munsey's, the Independent, and 
other leading periodicals. As a matter of fact, 
Mr. Powell's aptitude is general, and he shows 
talent in writing various kinds of verse. Occa- 
sionally a false rhyme — like " silence "- " vio- 
lence" — mars the effect of his work, but as a 
whole it is in good form, and it shows much 
poetic feeling. w. h. h. 


Career and Conversation of John Swinton. By Robert 
Waters. 84 pp. Paper, 25 cents. Boston : Charles H. 
Kerr & Co. 1902. 

Beyond the Requiems, and Other Verses. By Louis Alex- 
ander Robertson. 65 pp. Cloth. San Francisco: A. M. 
Robertson. 190a. 

The Left Side Man. By Margaret Blake Robinson. 366 pp. 
Cloth, $1.25. New York: J. S, Ogil vie Publishing Co. 1902. 

The King of Unadilla. By Howard R. Garis. 134 pp. 
Cloth, 50 cents. New York: J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Co. 

Letters of an Amrrican Countess. 138 pp. Cloth, 50 
cents. New York: J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Co. 1903. 

Our Benevolent Feudalism By W. J. Ghent. 303 pp. 
Cloth. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1902. 


[The publishers of The Writer will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
on receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents postage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the article? nentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention The Writer when they write.] 

The "Literary Centre." M. A. De Wolfe Howe. 
Atlantic (38 c.) for September. 

Some Early Impressions. — I. Sir Leslie Stephen. 
A tlantic ( 38 c.) for September. 

" Christopher North." ( John Wilson.) William 
Aspenwall Bradley. Atlantic ( 38 c.) for September. 

Books New and Old : W. E. Henley and Journal- 
ism. H. W. Boynton. A tlantic ( 38 c.) for September. 

The Secret of Wordsworth. ( Review of Walter 
Raleigh's "Wordsworth.") Bradford Torrey. Atlantic 
( 38 c.) for September. 

Declined with Than,ks. Contributors' Club, Atlantic 
( 38 c.) for September. 

A Query Concerning Up-to-Date Novelists. Con- 
tributors' Club, Atlantic ( 38 c.) for September. 

Emerson. Joseph H. Choate. Critic ( 28 c.) for Septem- 

James Martineau. Mrs. Humphry Ward. Critic ( 38 c.) 
for September. 

Phil May. Illustrated. Christian Brinton. Critic ( 28 c.) 
for September. 

Literary Landmarks of New York.— XII. Illustrated. 
Critic ( 28 c.) for September. 

Linguistic Laziness. Herbert W. Horwill. Critic 
( 28 c.) for September. 

Whistler's Boyhood. A. J. Bloor. Critic ( 28 c.) for 

William Ernest Henley. Randall Blackshaw. Critic 
(28 c.) for September. 

Fiction, North and South. Mrs. L. H. Harris. 
Critic ( 28 c.) for September. 

A Chelsea Manage. ( Mrs. Carlyle's servants.) Emily 
Cook. Reprinted from the National Review in the Eclectic 
(28 c.) for September. 

The Novels of Peacock. Herbert Paul. Reprinted from 
the Nineteenth Century and After in the Eclectic ( 28 c.) for 

A Challenge to thr Critics. " An Ungrateful Author." 
Reprinted from the National Revinv in the Eclectic (28 c.) 
for September. 

The Ethics of Parody. Reprinted from the Academy 
in the Eclectic ( 28 c.) for September. 

Charles Dickkns as an Editor. Augustine Birrell. 
Reprinted from Chambers's Journal in the Eclectic ( 28 c.) for 

The Late Frederick William With portrait. 
American Monthly Revinv of Revieius (28 c.) for Sep- 

A Year of Continental Literature.— I. Dial ( 13 c.) 
for August 1. 

The Literary Method of Teaching English. Sher- 
win Cody. Dial ( 13 c) for August 16. 

How Dictionaries Are Made. Illustrated. William 
Curtis Stiles. Success (13 c.) for September. 

Vers de Societe" in English. Brander Matthews. 
Smart Set ( 28 c.) for September. 

Joseph Pulitzer. The Man Who Revolutionized Amer- 
ican Journalism With portrait. Frank Lane Carpenter. 
Everybody's Magazine ( 13 c.) for September. 

A Little Talk arout a Great Poet. Illustrated. 
Klyda Richardson Stccge. St. Nicholas ( 28 c.) for September. 

Avowals. Being the First of a New Series of " Confessions 
of a Young Man." George Moore. Lippincott 's Magazine 
( 28 c.) for September. 

Charles Lamm's One Romance. With fac-simile of a 
portion of a love-letter. John Hollingshead. Harper's 
Monthly ( 38 c.) for September. 

The Standard of Pronunciation in English. T. R. 
Lounsbury, LL. D. Harper's Monthly ( 38 c ) for September. 

An American Indian Composer. Natalie Curtis. 
Harper's Monthly ( 38 c.) for September. 

William Ernest Henley. With portrait. J for Id To- 
Day ( 28 c.) for September. 

"Phil May." Illustrated. F. E. Waska. World To- 
Day ( 28 c.) for September. 

Whistler: Sane and Unsane. Illustrated. James 
William Pattison. World To-Day ( 28 c.) for September. 

Mark Twain. Illustrated. Samuel E. Moffet. Pilgrim 
( 13 c.) for September. 

John Ward Stimson : A Biographic Sketch. With front- 
ispiece'photograph. Charles Brodie Patterson. Mind (23 c.) 
for September. 



A Chinese Paper in New York. Illustrated. George 
Grantham Bain. Strand Magazine ( 13 c.) for Septem- 

Littlr Pilgrimages Among the Men and Women Who 
Have Writtrn Famous Books. III. — Arthur Sherburne 
Hardy. E. F. Harkins. Literary World ( 13 c. ) for Septem- 

Does Copyright Copyright? Concluded. Samuel J. 
Elder. Literary World { 13 c. ) for September. 

The Buying of Books. Bliss Carman. Literary World 
( 13 c. ) for September. 

The Decline of Style. Albert S. Henry. Book News 
(8c.) for September. 

The Novel — What It Will Become. " J. G. L." Re- 
printed from the London Academy and Literature in Book 
News ( 8 c. ) for September. 

Did Shakespeare Write Bacon ? Leslie Stephens. Re- 
printed from the National Review in Book News (8c.) for 

Genius and Morals. Harold van Santvoord. Reprinted 
from Literature in Book News (8c.) for September. 

Emile Zola. Henry James. Atlantic Monthly (38 c.) 
for August. 

The Young Man in Fiction. G. K. Chesterton. 
Critic ( 28 c.) for August. 

Gilbert K. Chesterton. "The Lounger in London." 
Critic ( 28 c.) for August. 

Whistler. With portrait. Christian Brinton. Critic 
( 28 c.) for August. 

Paul Verlaine. Illustrated. Francis Grierson. Critic 
( 28 c.) for August. 

Maurice Hewlett as a Poet. Milton Bronner. Critic 
( 28 c.) for August. 

Browning and the Animal Kingdom. Elisabeth 
Luther Cary. Critic ( 28 c.) for August. 

Literary Landmarks of New York. — XI. Illus- 
trated. Charles Hemstreet. Critic ( 28 c.) for August. 

Was Thorbau a Lover of Nature? J ennette Barbour 
Perry. Critic ( 28 c.) for August 

Insanity in Criticism. James E. Routh, Jr. Critic 
(28 c.) for August. 

A Summer Visit to Concord. Illustrated. Katharine 
M. Abbott. Critic ( 28 c.) for August. 

Charles and Mary Lamb. ( Review of " The Works of 
Charles and Mary Lamb." Edited by E. V. Lucas ) Illus- 
trated. William Archer. Critic ( 28 c.) for Aigust. 

Maeterlinck and " Joyzelle." Grace Corneau. 
Critic ( 28 c.) for August. 

Letters from Editors to a Literary Aspirant. 
"The Literary Aspirant." Reader (28 c.Hor August. 

Jack London : An Interview. Fannie K. Hamilton. 
Reader ( 2S c.) for August. 

The Literary Guillotine.— IX. The Otherwise Men. 
Reader ( 2S c.) for August. 

The Poetry of William Butler Yeats. "A. E." 
Reader ( 2b c.) for August. 

Fictionshire, England. Sewell Ford. Reader (28 c.) 
for August. 

On the Best Prose Style. " H. P. C." Reprinted 
from London Academy and Literature in Book News (8c.) 
for August. 

Realism in Letters. Bliss Carman Literary World 
(13 c.; for August. 

Little Pilgrimages Among the Men and Women 
Who Have Written Famous Books. II.— George Ade. 
E. F. Harkins. Literary World {xj, c.) for August. 

Dobs Copyright Copyright? — I. Samuel J. Elder. 
Literary World{ 13 c.) for August. 

Jambs Abbott M'Nbill Whistler. Illustrated. 
Ernest Knaufft. American Monthly Review 0/ Reviews 
( 28 c.) for August. 

The Boy in Fiction. Julia R. Tutwiler. Gunton's 
Magazine ( 13 c.) for August. 

Being an Author. William J. Burtscher. World To- 
Day ( 28 c.) for August. 

Some Thoughts on Carlylb. L. H. Dyer. Wilshtre's 
Magazine ( 13.) for August. 

An Interview with Gabriels D ' Annunzio. Doctor 
Bruno Franchi. Wi/s Aire's Magazine ( 13 c.) for August. 

The Dramatic Art. Repne. National Review (78 c.) 
for August. 

Sir Isaac Pitman and His Shorthand. With por- 
trait. David Bailey. Reprinted from the Journal of Orthoepy 
and Orthography in the Phonographic Magazine ( 13 c.) for 

Writing and Arranging Catalogues. E. St. Elmo 
Lewis. Book-Keeper ( 13 c.) for August. 

American Men of Letters — Oliver Wendell 
Holmes. Illustrated. John P. Murphy. Men and Women 
( 13 c.) for August 

The Democracy of Jambs Russell Lowell. D. W. 
Working. Pilgrim (13 c.) for August. 

Why Use Spectacles? New York Medical Times ( 13 c. ) 
for August. 

How We Lost a Great Scoop. Harry Dare Craig. 
Newspaper dom ( 13 c. ) for August 27. 

Essentials of Successful Journalism. S. J. Thomas. 
Newspaperdom (13 c. ) for August 20. 

Journalism as a Career for Young Men. John 
Temple Graves, H. H. Cabinnis. Newspaperdom ( 13 c. ) for 
August 6. 

How to Become a Successful Nbwsgathbrbr. George 
H. Wilson. Newspaperdom ( 13 c. ) for August 6. 

J. McNeill Whistler. " N. N." Nation (13 c.) for 
August 20. 

Education and Journalism. Nation (13 c. ) for Au- 
gust 27. 

A Visit to Samoa. " The Countess of Jersey." Youth's 
Companion ( 13 c. ) for August 6. 

Million-Dollar Book Making. Norman H. White. 
Saturday Evening Post (8c.) for August 1. 

The Supernatural in Nineteenth-Century Fiction. 
Reprinted from the Edinburgh Review in the Living Age 
( 18 c.) for August 1. 

Charles Dickens as an Editor. R. C. Lehmann. 
Reprinted from Chambers" s Journal in the Living Age ( 18 c.) 
for August 1. 

A Telephone Newspaper. Frederick A. Talbot. Re- 
printed from Chambers's Journal in the Living Age ( 18 c.J 
for August 8. 

Glimpses of Ruskin. R. Wilkins Rees. Reprinted from 
the London Quarterly Rer'inv in the Living Age ( 18 c.) for 
August 15. 

William Ernest Henley. " H. B. M. W." Re- 
printed from the Athenaeum in the Living Age (18 c.)for 
August 15. 

Thackeray. An appreciation. Charles L. Eastlake. Re- 
printed from the Nineteenth Century and After in the Living 
Age ( 18 c.) for August 22. 

A Revived Scandal. ( The Carlyle controversy.) Re- 
printed from Blackwood 's Magazine h the Living Age (18 c.) 
for August 22. 

The Writer. 


Nbw Editions of Charles Lamb. Augustine Bin-ell. 
Reprinted from the Speaker in the Living Age ( 18 c.) for 
August 29. Reprinted from the Athenaeum in the Living 
Age ( 18 c) for August 29. 


Mrs. Humphry Ward has left London for her 
charming old-fashioned country residence, 
Stocks House, at Tring, with the intention of 
beginning work on her new novel. 

Muriel Dowie, the divorced wife of Henry 
Norman, has married Edward Arthur Fitz- 
gerald, a lieutenant in the British army. 

Albert Lee, author of children's stories, has 
been divorced from Blanche C. Lee, who is 
also a writer of children's stories. 

At picturesque Kittery Point, Me., is W. D. 
Howells's equally picturesque summer home, a 
cluster of rambling buildings, surrounded by 
fine old trees and set on a hill commanding the 
sea to the Isles of Shoals. The dwelling-house 
was originally a small, plain farm-house, added 
to — a room here, a wing there — as need re- 
quired. Then Mr. Howells bought it and 
turned the barn into a detached library and 
workshop, lined with books and pictures. It 
has been the scene of much of his recent work, 
for he remains in Maine from spring "to the 
late autumn. 

Jules Verne is almost blind. An operation 
for the removal of a cataract is necessary, but 
he declines to undergo this on the ground that 
it would be too dangerous at his age. He is 
seventy-five years old. 

•• Pierre Loti," who is Captain Viaud of the 
French navy, has been assigned to duty in the 
torpedo destroyer Vautour at Constantinople. 

Elizabeth Cherry Waltz, author of the 4i Pa 
Gladden " stories, is literary editor of the 
Louisville Courier- Journal, and wife of Fred- 
eric H. Waltz, financial editor of the Louisville 
Herald, Their home is in Meadowbrook, a 
suburb of Louisville. 

The editor of Punch, Sir Francis Burnand, 
will publish in October " Reminiscences of My 
Life." His associates on the staff of Punch 
and his notable acquaintances in and out of 
society will, of course, be commemorated. 

The Outlook Company announces " Tolstoy 
the Man," which Professor Steiner of Grinnell 
College has in preparation. 

A biography of Tom Moore is to be written 
for the English Men of Letters Series by 
Stephen Gwynn. The series will also be 
increased next season by Alfred Ainger's 
biography of Crabbe and, it is hoped, by Dr. 
Van Dyke's life of Lowell. 

A notable addition to the American Men of 
Letters Series is the " Life of Sidney Lanier," 
which Houghton, Mifflin & Co. announce is to 
be written by Professor Edward Mims of Trin- 
ity College, Durham, North Carolina. 

A memoir of the late Edwin L. Godkin is in 
preparation, and any who may have preserved 
letters from him available to that end are 
asked to send them to Lawrence Godkin, 56 
Wall Street, New York. They will be re- 
turned in all cases when merely loaned. 

The man who wrote " Hiawatha," Charles 
Daniels of Kansas City, whose pseudonym is 
" Neil Moret," sold the air for $10,000, and has 
been given a place as composer in the biggest 
music publishing house in the United States. 

Men and Women ( New York ), a little 
magazine, scarcely six inches by four in di- 
mensions, just started, is an illustrated period- 
ical of personalities, and is edited and pub- 
lished by Mattie Sheridan. 

The Public Library Monthly is a new maga- 
zine published in Boston by the American 
Architect Company. It is to be a periodical 
"devoted to Libraries, Books, and their 

The American Cartoonist Magazine, just 
started at Denver, announces itself as the 
official organ of the newspaper artists and 
newspaper writers. Walter Juan Davis is the 

The Review of Catholic Pedagogy is a new 
magazine published in Chicago. Professor 
Thomas E. Judge is the editor. 

S. S. McClure has been spending the sum 
mer in Switzerland with his family, and when 
he returns he will personally edit McClure *s 
Magazine, which he says has been edited by 
the whole staff. 



W. F. Kellogg, publisher of the New Eng- 
land Magazine, has accepted an offer from the 
London Times and has gone to England. The 
New England Magazine has been sold to the 
American Architect Company, of which J. D. 
P. Wingate is manager. 

Victor H. Smalley of St. Paul has changed 
his Northwest Magazine and now publishes it 
bi-monthly as the Northwest Farmers* Maga- 
zine, and in addition puts out a ten-cent maga- 
zine of short stories. 

Beginning with the September number, the 
New Metropolitan will be known as the Metro- 
politan Magazine. 

Poet Lore ( Boston ), now a quarterly, has 
resumed its old name. 

Manzi, Joyant, & Co. have resumed the 
publication of Paris Illustre', which was is- 
sued successfully for more than twenty years, 
and discontinued only on account of the other 
engagements of its editors. 

The Overland Monthly (San Francisco) 
increases its price with the September number 
to fifteen cents a copy. The publishers say 
that the magazine will undergo a change in 
policy; its field will be broadened and its con- 
tents improved in all directions. 

Ainslee's Magazine offers prizes of $500, 
$250, $150, and $100 for the four best love 
stories of from 1,000 to 3,000 words, the only 
requirement being that they be American in 
setting and coloring. 

The Four-Track News (New York ) will pay 
from twenty-five to fifty cents each for photo- 
graphs suitable for reproduction. The subjects 
desired are scenes and objects of interest, es- 
pecially those possessing life ; also unique 
pictures of any sort. 

The Book- Lover Press ( New York), which 
publishes the Book- Lover and the Book and 
News-Dealer, and which is to begin publish- 
ing books this fall, is owned by the Consolida- 
ted Retail Booksellers, a corporation repre- 
sented in 237 cities and towns throughout the 
United States by leading booksellers, who are 
stockholders in the company and under con- 
tract with the corporation to co-operate in all 
practical ways for their just advantage. 

The Neale Publishing Company has trans- 
ferred its editorial and publication depart- 
ments from Washington to New York. 

An anonymous book soon to be published 
under the title of " The Truth About an Au- 
thor " is expected to give an amusing account 
of actual experiences in literary and news- 
paper offices and in novel-writing. 

*' Backgrounds of Literature " will be the 
title of Hamilton W. Mabie's new book, which 
is to be brought out shortly by the Out- 
look Company, New York. Wordsworth, 
Emerson, Goethe, Scott, Shakspere, Irving, 
and other poets and prose writers will be 
studied, and the book will be profusely, 

Robert J. Burdette is now pastor of a Bap- 
tist church in Los Angeles. 

The Periodical Publishers' Association of 
America, with principal officers in New York 
City, has been incorporated to promote the in- 
terests of publishers and to stimulate social 
and friendly relations. The directors are: 
John Brisben Walker of Irvingtonon-the-Hud- 
son, F. N. Doubleday, Arthur T. Vance. 
Theron Mc Campbell, John Adams Thayer 
and Lewis Klopsch of New York city; Wil- 
liam B. Howland of Montclair, N. J.; Fred- 
erick B. Colyer of Tenafly, N. J.; Oscar W. 
Brady of Orange, N. J.; R. J. Cudahy of 
Brooklyn and Edward E. Higgins of Tarry- 

Shortly before the death of Benjamin L. 
Farjeon, St. Nicholas secured from him a story 
for children, which will be the chief serial of 
St. Nicholas for the coming year. 

George Moore has in Lippincotfs for Sep- 
tember the first of a series of literary papers, 
in which he asks and answers the question, 
" Why is it that England has failed to produce 
a first-class work of fiction ? " 

Phil May died in London August 5, aged 
thirty eight. 

Noah Brooks died at Pasadena August 16, 
aged seventy-two. 

Major C. H. Smith ("Bill Arp") died at 
Cartersviiie, Ga., August 24, aged seventy- 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 10. 

CONTENTS: page art of journalism can be taught in a properly- 

Instruction in Journalism. William H. Hills. . . 145 equipped professional school, while others de- 

Journalism as a Career. Whitelaw Reid 147 _i-« A ♦u„* ««....„^«.x«« «««.» „..„» u^ ~>~a~ :_> 

The Card System kor Writers. S. C. StunU. . . ,50 ^ that ne J S P a P er men muSt be made Jn 

Some Necessary Components of the Writer's Equip- newspaper offices, and cannot be made any- 

ment. Olive E. Dana 151 where else. Very many editors, taking a mid- 

Editorial . 152 d j e ground, have said in effect that while such 

Specialization in Publishing, 152 — Mixed Metaphor. 152 , __ 

q ubribs I53 a school as Mr. Pulitzer has planned may 

In the Writer's Fallow Years. Johnson Btigham. 153 fit men to become good journalists, they 

Writers of the Day 153 must still learn the principles of journalism in 

Katharine L. Ferri?, 153— May Harris, 154 — Alden . . . , .. - 

Arthur Knipe, ,54 - Marguerite Merington. ,54- aCtlVe e *P erienCe ln da,1 y WOrk ° n newspapers. 

Mary Moss, 154 -Harriet a. Nash, 154 -Mary H. Whichever of these varying opinions may be 

Peixotto, 155- Ethel Sigsbee Small, 155— Herman right, it is interesting to see what Mr. Pulitzer 

Knickerbocker Viele, ,„ -Michael White. , 5 6- ,„ do ^ ffi ,, announcerneDt b , he 

Henry M. Wiltse 156 J 

Personal Gossip About Authors 156 secretary of Columbia University says : — 

Rudyard Kipling, 156— T. P. O'Connor; 156 — Mrs. "This generOUS gift puts into effect a pur- 

HumphryWard . . 157 pose which Mr. Pulitzer has long had in con- 

Current Literary Topics 157 . . . . . e 

The Pulitzer School of Journalism, ,57- Fine Writ- templation, namely, the provision of an Oppor- 

ing 158 tunity to secure in a great university both 

Book Reviews 158 theoretical and practical training for journal- 

Litbrary Articles in Periodicals 159 . , , . _, , . 

News and Notes 159 ,sm considered as a prolession. The School 

- of Journalism of Columbia University will 

INSTRUCTION IN JOURNALISM. take rank with the existing professional 
schools of law, medicine, engineering, archi- 

The announcement that Joseph Pulitzer has tecture, and teaching. Subject to the general 
given to Columbia University a million dollars jurisdiction of the University council, its 
for the establishment and endowment of a course of study will be formulated and its ad- 
School of Journalism connected with the uni- ministration carried on by a faculty of jour- 
versity is Mr. Pulitzer's practical answer to nalism, the members of which will be ap- 
the old question : " Can journalism be taught in pointed by the trustees in the near future, 
schools?" Mr. Pulitzer thinks that jour- "The erection of a suitable building to ac- 
nalism is a profession as much as aw, medi- commodate the new school will be begun at 
cine, or theology, and that there should be once. A provisional site for the building has 
a well-equipped professional school, that will been chosen in the University quadrangle, 
put the profession of journalism "upon a level It is hoped that the building may be pushed to 
with others in supplying a definite educational completion so that it may be occupied in the 
course for students, and in affording the news- autumn of 1904. The estimated cost of the 
papers an opportunity to recruit their staffs building, fully furnished and equipped, is 
from men adequately prepared for the duties about $500,000. 

of that service" Since the announcement of "Both Mr. Pulitzer and Columbia Univer- 

the gift there has be';n general comment from sity recognize that, with the establishment of 

editors all over the country. Some of them a School of Journalism of university grade, a 

think, as Mr. Pulitzer apparently does, that the new academic field is entered upon, and in 

Copyright, 1903, by William H. Hills. All rights reserved* 



order that the best ability and experience of 
the profession of journalism may guide the 
new undertaking, an Advisory Board has been 
provided for, the first members of which are 
to be appointed by the university upon the 
nomination of Mr. Pulitzer. The president 
of the university is to be ex-officio a member 
of this Advisory Board. Mr. Pulitzer will 
nominate the members of this Advisory Board 
in time for action by the trustees of the uni- 
versity at their next stated meeting on the 
first Monday in October. 

" A meeting of the Advisory Board will be 
called as soon as possible after its members 
are appointed, and the fundamental principles 
which should govern the School of Journal- 
ism will be discussed and agreed upon. After 
the suggestions of the Advisory Board have 
been communicated to the University council 
and to the trustees, the work of organizing the 
school will proceed with all possible speed, in 
order that instruction may be given just as 
soon as the building is ready for use. 

" A committee, consisting of President But- 
ler and Professors Burgess, Peck, Brander 
Matthews, G. R. Carpenter and Giddings, has 
already been appointed to frame a report for 
early presentation to the University council 
regirding the organization and academic rela- 
tions of the School of Journalism. 

" The length of the proposed course in Jour- 
nalism and its content will be decided upon 
after the Advisory Board has expressed an 
opinion on both matters. Thorough training 
in written English, in logic, in the elements of 
economics and of political science, in the his- 
tory of the United States and the contempo- 
rary history of Europe, will certainly be in- 
cluied. T-ie more technical courses will com- 
prise instruction in newspaper administration, 
newspaper manufacture, the law and the ethics 
of journalism, the history of the press and 
related subjects. 

" If, at the end of three years, the School of 
Journalism is in successful operation, Mr. 
Pulitzer will give to Columbia University an 
additional million dollars, the income of one- 
half of which will be devoted to the mainte- 
nance of the School of Journalism. The in- 
come of the remaining half million will be 

expended for purposes to be hereafter agreed 
upon between Mr. Pulitzer and the Univer- 

The selection of members of the Advisory 
Board is obviously a matter of great impor- 
tance. Mr. Pulitzer has already designated 
seven members, as follows: Nicholas Murray 
Butler, President of Columbia University, ex- 
officio; Hon. Whitelaw Reid of the New York 
Tribune, Hon. John Hay, Secretary of State, 
Hon. St. Clair M'Kelway, of the Brooklyn 
Eagle, Hon. Andrew D. White, Charles 
W. Eliot, President of Harvard University, 
Victor F. Lawson, of the Chicago Daily 
News, and General Charles H. Taylor, of the 
Boston Globe. Four of these are practical 
newspaper men, actively engaged at the pres- 
ent time in the conduct of great newspapers. 
Others will be added to the list. 

Good judgment has been shown so far in 
selecting the members of the Advisory Board, 
particularly in the choice of the practical news- 
paper men who have been chosen. Mr. Law- 
son and General Taylor, especially, are men 
who know all there is to know about news- 
paper work in every department of the busi- 

The detailed plan of instruction has not yet 
been arranged. President Eliot, of Harvard 
— who has never had any newspaper experi- 
ence — was asked to submif an outline for a 
practical scheme, and here is the result: — 
Subjects Appropriate to a Course of 

Study Leading to the Profession of 


Newspaper A dntinh tration — The organi- 
zation of a newspaper office; functions of 
the publisher; circulation department; adver- 
tising department; editorial and " reportorial " 
departments; the financing of a newspaper; 
local, out-of-town, and foreign news service; 
editorial, literary, financial, sporting, and other 
departments. (The methods of carrying on 
some or all of these departments would prob- 
ably be the subject not only of a general survey 
under the heading of administration, but of de- 
tailed exposition and training in separate 

Newspaper Manufacture — Printing presses ; 
inks; paper; electrotyping and stereotyping 

The Writer. 


processes; type composition; typesetting and 
typecasting machines ; processes for reproduc- 
ingjllustrations; folding, binding, and mailing 


The Law of Journalism — Copyright ; 
libel, including civil, criminal, and seditious 
libel ; rights and duties of the press in report- 
ing judicial proceedings ; liabilities of pub- 
lisher, editor, reporter, and contributor. 

Ethics of Journalism — Proper sense of 
responsibility to the public on the part of 
newspaper writers; to what extent should the 
opinions of the editor or owner of a newspaper 
affect its presentation of news? Relations of 
publisher, editor, and reporters as regards 
freedom of opinion. 

History of Journalism — Freedom of the 
press, etc. 

The Literary Form of Newspapers — 
Approved usages in punctuation, spelling, ab- 
breviations, typography, etc. 

Re-enforcement of Existing Departments 
of Instruction for the benefit of students of 
journalism: In English — reporting of news, 
news-letters, reviews, paragraph writing, edi- 
torial writing; in History — emphasis on con- 
temporary history, government, and geog- 
raphy; in Political Science — emphasis on 

contemporary economic problems and financial 

Beyond this, little that is definite is known. 
" It is probable that the scheme of instruction 
will include several of the academic courses 
now taught in the university, but will also give 
special prominence to the other side of the 
study — to the endeavor to impart by thorough 
teaching and training what has been hitherto 
acquired in the hard school of actual practice. 
The newspapermen who will define the precise 
detail of this part will themselves recognize 
and attach a proper value to each division of 
this study." It has been said that the school 
will have a practical newspaper plant, and it 
may be that a newspaper will be published. 
In that case, the students will obviously have 
all the advantages of actual work in newspaper 
making, under the direction of competent men, 
and, in addition, the benefit of special educa- 
tion to fit them to do this work. At all events, 
the Columbia School of Journalism will tend 
to raise the standard of newspaper-making, and 
its graduates, whether they are journalists 
when they graduate or not, will be better fitted 
to become journalists than those who have had 
only haphazard training. 

Boston, Mass. William H. Hills. 


There has never been a time, I think, in the 
history of colleges in this country, when so 
many of their students were looking forward 
to the possibility of a newspaper career. There 
is a feeling on the one hand that the profes- 
sions are overcrowded, and on the other that 
newer fields to which applied science and busi- 
ness beckon offer at the outset slower ad- 
vances and less attractive experiences. The 
idea of being brought into contact with ail 
forms of public life, of seeing great transac- 
ts and watching the actors in them, of 

writing from day to day the history of a mar- 
vellous age — all this naturally fascinates the 
ardent and aspiring mind. It is true, too, that 
the young man of good qualifications gets 
quicker returns in newspaper work than else- 
where. If he studies law, three or four years 
more must be taken out of his life after gradu- 
ation before he can enter upon his vocation ; 
and then he has the cheerful prospect of starva- 
tion for as many more before clients begin to 
find him out. A similar duty confronts the 
medical student, and patients often display a 



similar backv rdness about coming forward 
to the your doctor's office. But the college 
graduate who once gets a chance assignment 
on a busy day in a city editor's book, may find 
himself with as many more as he cares for 
within a fortnight, and may presently secure a 
modest salary that, with health and industry, at 
once puts him beyond want. Then there are 
fascinations in the sense of influence, in the 
power to reach the public attention or shape 
public opinion, even in the facility for coming 
in contact with important men and getting 
somewhat behind the scenes in transactions 
that interest the whole community. The no- 
tion is spreading, too, that a newspaper is be- 
ginning here,- as long since in France, to take 
the old place of the lawyer's office as a path to 
entry on public service. The very name by 
which ( for want of a better ) foreign newspaper 
writers have taken to designating ihemselves, 
" Publicists," seems to many a hint -at a more 
attractive pursuit than defending a rogue or 
prescribing pills or potions. 

It cannot be denied that there is a certain 
justice in many of these considerations. And 
yet the first advice a competentand experienced 
newspaper man is apt to give a young aspirant 
will be the old one, " Don't.'' It is an irregular, 
exacting, exposing, tempted life. It demands 
intense and long-continued application ; breaks 
into all manner of engagements; entails its 
hardest work at moments when everybody else 
is at leisure; and requires, even when pursued 
by gentlemen, under the direction of a gentle- 
man, occasional situations from which a gentle- 
man's first impulse is to shrink. 

Besides, there are, after all, fewer prizes in 
it than in the old professions. Any of you can 
count up forty or fifty men now in New York 
who have won distinction and fortune in the 
law. Can you count half as many who are 
doing as well in both particulars on the news- 
papers ? Nor can it be said that the tendency 
in the law appears yet to be toward diminish- 
ing the number or value of these prizes. 
Among the newspapers it does seem to be 
that way- Great success does not always bring 
esteem, or fortune, or permanence. The lower 
walks of the business are enormously over- 
crowded: competition is not always scrupu- 

lous, and the pay is apt to be very small. 
Within the lifetime of the boys now in the 
preparatory schools the changes have been 
almost revolutionary. While they were largely 
physical at the outset, they necessarily opened 
the way to moral changes as striking. 

The cost of raw material has been reduced 
from two-thirds to three-fourths; the cost of 
composition one-half, the cost of printing in a 
greater proportion than either. Meantime the 
supply of the raw material has become almost 
unlimited; the speed with which news can be 
put in type has been so greatly increased that 
columns of new matter, and pages if need be, 
can be set within an hour of the time when the 
paper must reach its readers; and the speed 
with which printing can be done has been so 
revolutionized that it is easier to catch mails 
and news companies and newsboys at the 
earliest hour desired with an edition of a hun- 
dred thousand now than it used to be with an 
edition of five or ten thousand. 

Obviously the business results from these 
revolutionary changes in the methods of the 
business were inevitable, no matter what the 
sentiments, or wishes, or even principles of 
the men engaged in it. Nothing could prevent 
either a great reduction in price or a great in- 
crease in size, or both ; and nothing could then 
wholly avert the moral changes which soon 
began to accompany this unexampled facility 
of production. 

It would be unjust not to give the other side 
of the picture. While evil traits of the Ameri- 
can newspaper have been increasingly devel- 
oped under the cheapness of production, an 
expansion of facilities, and craze for mere cir- 
culation, there are other changes as marked 
and most beneficial. The flippancy of our 
newspapers, which so vexed the soul of Mat- 
thew Arnold, certainly continues, as well as 
their deplorable addiction to the use and inven- 
tion of slang. But they are more generally 
well written than they were fifteen years ago, 
and are often more attractively arranged. The 
number of young college-bred men whom they 
enlist grows steadily larger. They are better 
informed on the subjects they discuss, or at 
least they have acquired and organized far 
better means of gathering information. They 



glean news with amazing thoroughness, and 
they exhaust it from the most secluded and 
guarded hiding places with the mysterious en- 
ergy of an air pump. Whoever has had to do 
with public affairs has learned that as all na- 
ture is in conspiracy against a vacuum, so 
under the guidance of the newspapers the 
whole world around them is in conspiracy 
against a secret. They cover the earth with 
their correspondents. They study the progress 
and even the politics of all nations. They 
give foreign news by cable with tenfold the 
fulness of a few years ago. Almost every first- 
class paper has its own special cable letter 
from London or Paris. In fact, the ocean 
lines are used as freely now by the press as 
the line to Washington formerly was. A rate 
of fifty-five cents a word from China, and of 
far more from the Philippines, does not check 
the full daily reports. 

We have seen the startling changes of the 
last twenty years. What are you to expect 
and prepare for in the next twenty ? 

It is safe to predict that the better class of 
daily newspapers and their readers may come 
to a mutual understanding that less quantity 
and better quality would be mutually advan- 
tageous. The Saturday Review once called 
Macaulay the father of picturesque reporters, 
and Dickens has often been called their prince. 
No doubt these are ambitious models; but the 
press that sent MacGahan to a European war 
and Harding Davis and Bigelow to an Ameri- 
can one, and has developed so many of our 
most popular authors from its ranks, can rise 
above the present wordy and tedious level of 
telling the news whenever the editors and their 
readers agree that it is desirable. In that di- 
rection lies one of the best hopes for the future 
of the best newspapers. Fewer words, shorter 
stories, better told; fewer eight dollar-a week 
reporters, who write only by main strength 
and awkwardness, and more men who have 
learned the capacities of the English tongue ; 
fewer men whose chief idea is to rake in all 
the rubbish they can and label it with startling 
headlines, and more men who know what is 
worth telling and know how to single it out 
from the mass of rubbish ; fewer mere photo- 
graphers in nonpareil whose sole idea is to set 

down in fine type everything they see, and 
more artists who know what to see and how to 
make, in words, a picture of it — that is the 
line of progress for an intelligent press, worthy 
of an intelligent community. But f rst of all, 
the public must make up its mind that the 
merit of a paper, its enterprise, its resources, 
and its importance are not determined by the 
number of its pages — that paper is made 
out of cordwood and costs two cents a pound ; 
that type is set by steam, and that white sheets 
can be run through printing machines in any 
number you want in any big office at the rate 
of 100,000 an hour. If the people continue to 
want quantity, as they certainly seem to do 
now, the quantity will no doubt continue to be 
printed — though Sheridan's ghost should hiss 
in every editor's ear that easy printing, even 
more than easy writing, makes curst hard 

If now, among students who have done me 
the honor to follow these remarks, there should 
be some still unwise enough to persist in an in- 
tention to take up newspaper work, the simplest 
advice to give them, and about as practical as 
any they are likely to follow, is to imitate Lord 
Bacon, and take all knowledge for their prov- 
ince. The average newspaper man on the 
great dailies is far better educated to-day than 
twenty years ago, but the standard of qualifica- 
tions is likely in the next twenty to be higher 
still. Like most of my colleagues on the press, 
I have little faith in "schools of journalism," 
or in "courses of journalism," or, if you must 
have the truth, in lectures on journalism, either. 
The only place to learn the newspaper business 
is in a newspaper office, and you have to be 
caught tolerably young to learn it at all. But 
the place to acquire some of the qualifications 
for the work is the place where you can get 
the best general education the world affords. 
Above all, it must be an education that teaches 
you to see straight and to think straight, and, 
therefore, its very foundation must not be 
undermined by too eager a search for easy 

We may next look for whatever will facili- 
tate wide acquisition and persuasive expres- 
sion. You must first know things, and know 
where to find things, and next know how to 



interest people in your way of telling these 
things, and in your reasoning about them. 
Knowledge, real knowledge, not a smattering 
of the history of your country, is indispensa- 
ble, and no historical knowledge will come 
amiss. Constitutional and international law, at 
least, you must know, and if you can take a full 
course, so much the better. Modern languages 
will be most helpful, and in our great news- 
papers a reading knowledge of at least three 
of them — French, German, and Spanish — be- 
comes every ^year more desirable. The liter- 
ature of your own language should be studied 
until you learn to use the noble tongue to ex- 
press to the best advantage and in the fewest 
words whatever you have to say. You should 
know your own country, and, above all, grasp 
intelligently the fact that the part worth know- 
ing is not confined to a narrow strip along the 
Atlantic coast. You should know foreign coun- 
tries, and thus chasten the notions that wisdom 
began with us, and that liberty and intelligence 
hardly exist elsewhere. You should know the 
people, the plain, everyday, average man, the 
man in the street — his condition, his needs, 
his ideas, his notions — and you should learn 
early that he is not likely to be overpowered 
by your condescension when you attempt to 
reason with him. 

Finally, let me remind you that the man who 
succeeds is a man who has not undervalued 
what he is undertaking. This work we have 

considered is as varied, as exacting, and as re- 
sponsible as any known to our modern civiliza- 
tion, if not also the most potential for good or 
ill. It calls for patience, for moderation, for 
quick and accurate perception, for deliberate 
judgment, for resolute purpose and for what 
the politicians call staying power. No man 
who cannot, like the pugilist, "take punish- 
ment,*' has any business in it. No man who 
lets his nerves or his passions run away 
with his ice-cold judgment has any business 
in it. 

But to him who is called, the opportunity is 
beyond estimate. To him are given the keys 
of every study, the entry to every family, the 
ear of every citizen when at ease and in his 
most receptive moods — powers of approach 
and of persuasion beyond those of the Protest- 
ant pastor or the Catholic confessor. He is 
by no means a prophet, but, reverently be it 
said, he is a voice in the wilderness preparing 
the way. He is by no means a priest, but his 
words carry wider and farther than the priest's, 
and he preaches the gospel of humanity. He 
is not a king, but he nurtures and trains the 
king, and the land is ruled by the public opin- 
ion he evokes and shapes. If you value this 
good land the Lord has given us, if you would 
have a soul in this marvellous civilization and 
a lifting power for humanity, look well to the 
nurture and training of your king. 

The New York Tribune. WhiteldW Reid. 


Use the card system. It is easily enlarged 
and easily kept clear of dead material. 

For each manuscript use a single card, pref- 
erably of standard library size, as cards of 
this size are the most easily obtained and han- 
dled. At the head note the title, with the sub- 
ject, form, and length. Below note places 

sent, with dates of mailing and return, and if 
any comment should be made by an editor, be 
sure to file the letter and refer from the card 
to the file. The unfinished record will show 
where the manuscript is at any time, and there 
are spaces below for acceptance, date, amount 
received, and date of publication. In order to 



save reweighing manuscripts, the amount of 
postage required may be added in the lower 
right-hand corner. When the manuscript is 
sold the card may be filed with those of others 
already sold. 

Here is an example of a card filled out: — 

"Joan of Arc. 

" Humorous 

labor union 


3600 words. 

McCl ure's 

Aug. 16, 100 

1. Sept. 18 

, 190 1 


Sept. 18, iqoi. Oct. 12, 



Oct. 13, IQOI 

Nov. 5, 


See letter. 


Nov. 6, 100 ( 

Accepted. Century, Nov. 



Published. Century, July, 


4 cents. 

Another very convenient use for the card 
index is in keeping lists of periodicals. At the 
head give the common name of the periodical, 
with information as to frequency of publication; 

below that the full name and form of address 
of the publishers, and any notes as to material 
used, when paid for, time of retention before 
return, if stamped envelope must be enclosed, 

Leslie's. * Monthly. 

Frank Leslie Publishing House, 
MI-M7 5th Ave., 

New York City. 
Stories, verse, sketches capable of photographic illustration. 
Pay on acceptance. 
3 weeks. 

Several writers have carried the idea still 
further and have duplicated their lists, dividing 
them into several sections: periodicals that 
pay for fashion notes ; games, recipes, sugges- 
tions for woman wage-earners, etc. The idea 
may be carried as far as the writer has time. 

Washington, D. C. S. C. Stutltz. 


A successful writer must have: — 

A varied knowledge of circumstances and 
occupations, even though one's own experi- 
ence of them be brief and casual. 

Sympathy, which comes partly from large 
observation and knowledge, partly from native 
warmth and vigor of imagination, but, most of 
all, from a generous and loving heart. 

The perception of moral values, wrnch 
comes partly by intellectual discipline and 
close observation, but chiefly by singleness of 
moral purpose and by unswerving spiritual 

Unselfishness, — of the sort that finds a 
great part of its own contentment *in the happi- 
ness of others and one of its most frequent 
absorptions in entering into and augmenting 
such happiness. An hour spent with a child 
may put one in a fitter mood for artistic or cre- 
ative work than the most careful mental prepa- 
ration could. 

Unconsciousness and spontaneity of atten- 

tion and insight, with an instinctive grasp of 
the material they give. These are primarily 
an endowment of nature, but the keeping of 
them at their best estate is dependent largely 
on one's own faithfulness to high artistic and 
spiritual ideals. 

And, last and chiefest, that largeness and 
warmth of nature which makes the work of 
authorship a secondary or minor thing — a 
thing quite forgotten when love comes to the 
soul or sorrow to the heart. Life is much 
more than any utterance of it, even the fittest 
and the finest, can ever be. The artist's woik 
is at its best when it is the natural and half- 
unconscious expression of personal experience. 

These last are imperishable things, that 
transcend the artist's expectation and often 
his desire. They do not come with seeking, 
or even with watching for them, but Life, far 
readier to give such gifts than most of us be- 
lieve her, is waiting to bestow them all. 
Augusta, Me. Olive E. Dana. 


The writer. 

The Writer. 

Published monthly by the Writer Publishing Company, 146 
Franklin street, Room 32, Boston, Mass. 



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146 Franklin street, Room 32, 

P. O. Box 1905. Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. October, 1903. No. 10. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 


In the July Writer the extent to which 
specia ization in periodical publishing is car- 
ried nowadays was briefly referred to. The 
tendency of t^e times is shown still further by 
the news 1 1 . «i t New York is to have a daily 
medical paper. The Medical Publishing Com- 
pany of Ameiica has been incorporated at 

1150,000, for the purpose of publishing the 
Daily Medical Journal. The first issue is 
scheduled for October 1, and the iubsciiption 
price has been placed at one dollar a year, 
which also includes the New York Medical 
Critic, a monthly journal now in its second 
year. The prospectus announces a six page 
journal, 12x15 inches in size, with full affilia- 
tion with the Associated Press and with an 
edition of 100,000 copies. The editorial staff 
has not yet been announced, with the excep- 
tion of Dr. M. W. Curran, managing editor, 
154 East Seventy-second street, New York.. 


There is also a project afoot to establish in 
New York a Roman Catholic newspaper, 
which is to appear semi-weekly at first, and 
eventually to become a daily publication. A 
woman's daily paper, conducted by women for 
women, fe also to be started in New York, and 
in Philadelphia a political daily, devoted 
solely to politics, will soon appear. Perhaps 
the golf-players, too, will have their daily paper 
some day. 


The baseball editor of the St. Paul Dispatch 
has rendered a service to the authors of 
Rhetorics by giving them in good faith this 
beautiful example of mixed metaphor: — 

The coming champions are now looking down on the League 
race from the dizzy height of a percentage of .670 games won. 
Forty-five rungs distant they can see the Brewers struggling 
mightily to breast the waves and steer clear of the rocks en- 
c ountered on the road ; still further back the Colonels are 
within comfortable range doggedly fighting their way up the 
pike. Indianapolis is gradually receding in the distance, and 
away off on the horizon Minneapolis is dimly descried, cling- 
ng to what, at a distance of 270 points, looks like a percentage 

of .400. 

» * • 

In his novel, "A Special Assignment," S. T. 
Clover advances his hero rapidly through suc- 
cessive steps in newspaper work, so that in 
five years he becomes managing editor of a 
great newspaper. The newspaper critics, im- 
mediately recognizing the improbability of 
this, have vigv..ously protested, the result 
being that Mr. Clover has replied that the 
story is a record of actual fact in his own ex- 
perience, known to many who have been 
familiar with his rapid rise. The New York 



Times, however, • justly objects that, while 
truth can be as extravagant as it pleases, fic- 
tion must at least be plausible. "The truth of 
fiction," says the Times, "must commend 
itself immediately to the common mind." 

* ** 

Fiction writers will do well to remember 
this. The old saying that truth is stranger 
than fiction should be a warning to the novel- 
ist. No matter if the plot and details of a 
story are literally true, the story will fail to im- 
press the reader if it seems improbable. The 
fiction writer must always be plausible, and it 
is often necessary to tone down the facts of 
real life considerably to make them proper 
elements for a fict ; tious story. 

Every poet has been made to realize the ur- 
gent need of more rhymes for "love." Dove, 
glove, shove, above, unglove — there you have 
the whole list of rhymes available, and it is pa- 
thetically inadequate. Arthur Symons in a 
poem lately published in the Athenceum 
makes a brave effort to extend the list by 
rhyming "love" vvith "enough," but the ex- 
periment is not in every way successful. 

w. H. H. 


[ Questions relating to literary work or literary topics will 
be answered in this department. Questions must be brief and 
of general interest. Questions on general topics should be 
directed elsewhere ] . 

What is the rule regarding the use of "be- 
side " and " besides " ? m. k. p. 

["Beside" means "by the side of"; "be- 
sides" means "in addition to." For instance, 
"She was sitting beside him, and her mother 
was there besides." — \v. H. H.] 


One of the commonest experiences of an edi- 
tor is the prevalence of literary aspirations and 
the scarcity of literary ability. Men and women, 
even boys and girls, think themselves compe. 
tent to write for the best journals and maga- 

zines though they have n*t even mastered the 
a b c of literary production, to say nothing of 
their lack of style, experience, knowledge, and 
original thought. This reflection was sug- 
gested by a recent letter to an ex editor — 
doubtless suggested by a chance copy of a 
magazine now several years deceased. The 
letter reads : — 

Do you purchase original poems for your magazine. I have 
disposed of some to Ideals, but have several more on hand, and 

Mr. B advised me to send to other magazines as it will be 

some time before he can dispose of part of them. Mr. C 

also advised me to send to magazines. 

I should like to become a regular contributor at a reasonable 
price, to several magazines, or papers. 

If you do not wish to purchase, will you be so kind as to 
write me who you think may. 

Observe the punctuation, also the grammat- 
ical construction of the last sentence; also 
note the undue prominence given to the 
financial consideration, and the innocent hope 
of the writer that she may be employed as a 
regular contributor, without having given evi- 
dence of her ability to contribute anything 

The density of the ignorance behind this 
letter is well-nigh hopeless. And yet, rot a 
few successful writers can recall similar 
letters — either sent or withheld — written by 
them in the fallow years of their early youth. 
Dbs Moinbs, Iowa. Johnson Brtgham. 


Katharine L. Ferris, author of the story, 
"An Offer of Marriage," which appeared in 
the September number of Short Stories^ has 
returned again to Brittany, where she spent 
last summer. At that time she met Theodore 
Botrel, the Breton bard, and she has since 
published an article about him in the Critic. 
The Metropolitan will soon publish another 
of her Brittany articles. Miss Ferris will 
make her home in France for the next few 
years, and her readers will have the pleasure 
of knowing how the French lifr appears to a 
bright American woman. It is interesting to 
note that the main points in ''An Offer of 
Marriage" occurred in the lile of a French 
peasant within the last year. Besides stories 



and critical articles, Miss Ferris writes verses. 
She had some verses in the Editor's Drawer 
of the September Harpers. 

women of limited means in finding a place id 
which to live in New York City. 

May Harris, whose story, "The Rose of 
Spring," appeared in the September Harper's, 
lives with her father at "Thornfield," their 
home in the country, near Montgomery, Ala- 
bama. During the past three or four years 
Miss Harris has contributed short literary 
articles to the New York Times Saturday Re- 
view, also to Town and Country, and the Era, 
Her first story, " A Window to the South," 
was published in Harpers Magazine two 
years ago, and since that time she has had 
stories in Harper's, Frank Leslie's Popular 
Monthly, Short Stories, and Town Topics, 
Her story, " Whom the Gods Love," pub- 
lished in Harpers last January, attracted much 
favorable attention. Miss Harris inherits her 
literary tendency from her father, who is a 
poet of distinction. At present she is en- 
gaged in writing a novelette for one of the 
leading publishing houses of New York. 

Alden Arthur Knipe, whose story, "Please," 
was printed in the September number of 
Everybody 's Magazine, is a grandson of T. S. 
Arthur, and so co'mes naturally by his bent for 
writing. Mr. Knipe was born in Philadelphia 
in 1870, and was educated at Haverford, and 
at the University of Pennsylvania, where he 
was graduated in medicine. While at the 
University of Pennsylvania, he was prominent 
in athletics, and was captain of the football 
team in 1894. He is now at work on a volume 
of college stones of Pennsylvania, and a num- 
ber of his stoiies have been accepted by vari- 
ous magazines, and are now awaiting publica- 

Marguerite Merington, author of the story, 
"Toddykins," in the September number of 
Scribner^s Magazine, is a well-known play- 
wright. "Toddykins " is a humorous account 
of how an artist and a writer found a home on 
the top floor of a Fifth-avenue mansion, and 
concerning it Miss Merington says that while, 
of course, it is fiction, it by no means exag- 
gerates the difficulties encountered by refined 

Mary Moss, author of "Miss Atheiton's 
Wanderjahr," in Lippincotfs for September, 
and " A Pompadour Angel," in the September 
number of McClure's, has written besides two 
novelettes, " Fruit Out of Season," and "Ju- 
lian Meldohla," both of which were published 
in Lippincotfs. She has also written a lot of 
signed reviews and critical work for the Atlan- 
tic Monthly and the Bookman, and occasional 
special articles for newspapers. The Atlan- 
tic Monthly has recently accepted an essay, 
called " Machine Made," and Ainslee's will 
soon print one of her short stories, called 
" An Augur in Kimono." Her first novel, " A 
Sequence in. Hearts," is just being brought out 
by the J. B. Lippiucott Company. Miss Moss 
says that her first efforts were rejected with 
perfect unanimity by every magazine on the 
Atlantic seaboard, with the exception of one, 
which she never tried. Then her work began 
to be accepted. She thinks now that the edi- 
tors were correct in both decisions, but it was 
a severe trial to her at first, when she was 
thrilling over things that seemed most inter- 
esting and amusing to her, but could not man- 
age to shape her ideas in any acceptable form. 
She hopes to learn enough to write a play 
some day, but she has never attempted verse, 
and says that she never shall attempt it. Her 
ambition is to write novels, stories, or plays 
about people of to-day as we know and see 
them, without holding a brief for any side or 
developing any particular theory. She has 
always lived in Philadelphia. 

Harriet A. Nash, who had a story, "A 
Woman Hater," in the September Red Book, 
and another, " The Webster Curse," in the 
New England Magazine for September, is a 
resident of Skowhegan, Maine, and is well 
known in social and business circles of that 
state. Her literary work covers a perird of 
about six years, her first story having appeared 
in the New England Magazine for March, 
1898, since which time she has been a frequent 
contributor to that magazine, as well as to the 
Youth? s Companion, McClurc*s t A ins lee's, and 



many other periodicals. As the greater por- 
tion of Miss Nash's time is devoted t6 busi- 
ness pursuits, her literary work thus far has 
been almost wholly confined to the short stoiy, 
the one exception being a book for girls, en- 
titled " Polly's Secret, a Story of the Ken- 
nebec," which was published last year. Miss 
Nash confines her work to stories of New 
England country life and character, and says 
that the good old state of Maine, from its 
rocky coast to the little settlements scattered 
through its northern woods, is replete with 
character and incident peculiarly its own, and 
easily adapted to the field in which she has 
thus far worked. 

Mary H. Peixotto, whose story, "The Clock 
Without a Face," was printed in the July Cos- 
mopolitan, is the wife of Ernest C. Peixotto, 
whose illustrations and travel articles are so 
well known. Mrs. Peixotto is young, and it is 
only within the last two years that she has 
begun to write, but already many of her stories 
have appeared in leading Anurican magazines, 
notably in Scribner's Magazine and in Harpers 
Magazine. She is a Californian by birth, but 
has lived for many years in New York and in 
Europe. The result of her long European 
residence is shown in the vivid local coloring 
of her stories. For instance, her " Summer in 
Sabots" tells of a sojourn in the tiny Dutch 
town of Rijsoord ; " Mostar " tells of Turkish 
life in Herzegovinia; "Giuseppe's Christmas " 
portrays the pathetic wanderings of a little 
Neapolitan street waif at Christmas-tide; 
while "A Summer in a Sandolo " details the 
transformation of a Venetian piccolo into a 
full-fledged gondolier. The theme of "The 
Clock Without a Face " is based on fact ; such 
a clock does exist in the town of Larchant. 
The characters, however, are fictitious, al- 
though drawn with such fidelity that they 
seem real. 

Ethel Sigsbee Small, whose story, "As 
Turns the Wheel," appeared in the September 
number of the Metropolitan Magazine, is the 
daughter of Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee, of 
the navy, and the wife of Robert Toombs 
Small, of the editorial staff of the Washington 

Evening Star. In her schoolgirl dvysatthe 
national capital, Mrs. Small spent most of her 
spare moments at the study hall in writing 
thrilling novelettes as seen through the 
imaginative eyes of a child, and she still 
cherishes a voluminous manuscript of fifty-two 
chapters as one of the unfinished novels of 
those days. At that time, however, she did 
not confine her ambitions to the writing of 
mere stories, but turned her talents 10 the 
drama, and evolved plays in which princes and 
beautiful maidens had many strange and ex 
citing adventures. With her school chums 
she enacted these plays, much to the delight 
of large parlor audiences of parents and in- 
vited friends. She followed this writing 
merely as a girlish whim and for her own 
amusement, and as she grew up abandoned 
writing altogether. About a }ear ago she 
again took up the pen, and received the rare 
encouragement of having her first story ac- 
cepted by the first magazine to which she sub- 
mitted it. Since that time she has had stories 
in the Smart Set, Ainslee % s Magazine, Mun- 
sey y s Magazine, and the Metropolitan. • 

Herman Knickerbocker Viete, author of 
"The Carhart Mystery," in the September 
number of the Cosmopolitan, has produced 
three books, "The Inn of the Silver Moon," 
"The Last of the Knickerbockers," and " Myia 
of the Pines," and is at present at woik upon 
a fourth, a novel dealing with conditions in an 
American country town. He will also have a 
volume entitled "Random Verse" published 
this fall, and he has recently finished a play, 
which is under consideration by a well-known 
actress. "The Inn of the Silver Moon" 
has met with a flattering reception in Eng" 
land, and a German translation of it is 10 
appear shortly in Berlin. Of late Mr. Viel£ 
has given some attention to shorter fiction, ard 
several of his stories have already appeared in 
the magazines, while others are listed for 
early publication. Mr. Vield may be classed 
with the younger writers, though he has 
turned forty, and began his literary woik with 
the experience of a successful professional 
career and the impressions of several years of 
travel. He is a versatile writer, and holds 



that no man can attain his best by copying his 
first success. He is a brother of Francis 
yield-Griffin, the only Anglo Saxon ever 
granted the Legion of Honor as a writer of 
French poetry, a fact that may give an added 
interest to the verses of the American brother. 

Michael White, whose story, "Bobby's 
Garden," was printed in the Delineator for 
September, was born at Ahmednagar, Bom- 
bay, India, and was educated at the United 
Service College, North Devon, England, where 
he was a classmate of Rudyard Kipling. He 
has traveled extensively over Europe and the 
Orient, and came to America first from Aus- 
tralia. Mr. White lived for several years in 
California and Oregon, and says he learned 
there how easy it is to lose forty thousand dol- 
lars in different ventures, and how hard it is 
to make the same sum in literature. He adds 
that he literally bombarded the magazines and 
newspapers for three years with all kinds of 
material without making forty dollars. Five 
.years ago he came East, and since then he has 
succeeded much better, having had matter 
printed in Ttuth, Pearson's Magazine, the 
Smart Set, Leslie's Weekly, the Critic, Mun- 
sey's Magazine, the Independent, the Reader 
the Youth's Companion, the Four Track 
News, the Delineator, Good Housekeeping, 
the New Idea Magazine, the New York Her- 
ald, and the New York Press, and he has 
also done considerable journalistic work for 
McCIure's Syndicate, the New York World, 
and the New York Evening Post. Last year 
J. F. Taylor & Co. published a Hindu histor- 
ical romance of his, entitled, " Lachmi Bai." 
After roaming about half over the world, Mr. 
White is now quite content to stay in the 
United States, although he looks forward 44 to 
one or two side trips to South America and 
other near-by places when funds will permit." 

Henry M. Wiltse, whose story, 4 The White 
Elephant," appeared in the Metropolitan for 
September, is a native of Michigan, and was 
educated for the law at the University of 
Michigan. He practised law in Chattanooga 
for some years, and was city attorney four 
terms, assistant United States attorney four 

and a half years, and twice member of the 
state legislature. Mr. Wiltse always had a 
taste for literature, having held editorial posi- 
tions two or three different times, and gradu- 
ally drifted from law to literature. He went 
on the lecture platform for a while, and for the 
past eight years has given almost his entire 
time to literary work, writing a good deal for 
the magazines and for metropolitan news- 
papers. Mr. Wiltse has written two books; 
one a history of the illicit distillers of the 
South, called 44 The Moonshiners," which is a 
study into their lives and characters, and the 
other, a nonsense book, called "The Centen- 
nial Liar." He is now conducting a depart- 
ment of " anecdote and levity" for a daily 


Kipling. — Kipling throws a good deal of 
his work into the waste basket. He feels that, 
having won a reputation, it is his duty to write 
up to it. On one occasion, when in a heroic 
mood, he destroyed a whole book. The title 
of this unborn work was "Forty -five Morn- 
ings." After it was finished he asked Robert 
Barr to read it. " As goad as * Plain Tales,' " 
was Mr. Barr's verdict. " Not better?" said 
Kipling. " I don't think it is," answered Barr. 
44 Then it will never be published," was Kip- 
ling's unexpected reply, and it was destroyed 
forthwith. — Columbus Dispatch. 

O'Connor. — I little knew when I started 
Disraeli's "Life" what a gigantic business it 
was going to be. Indeed, the book nearly 
killed me. To it, perhaps, more than to any- 
thing else, I may attribute the success and 
reputation I began from its publication to at- 
tain. It was bought at a price which few new 
would be able or willing to pay. In order to 
write the book, I had to go through forty years 
of " Hansard," and " Hansard " for one year 
usually consists of five or six big volumes. I 
had to read almost every line Disraeli ever 
spoke, whether it was at hustings at election 
times, or to his constituents during the Par- 
liamentary vacations; I had to read all his 
own works — which amounted to something like 
a library in themselves; and, in short, I had 
to spend on this work almost as much time as 



would have enabled me to write a considerable 
history All through this period I was so ab- 
sorbed that it was difficult for me to seek or to 
do any other work, with the result that my en- 
tire income consisted of the occasional checks 
for £$ which Mr. Beeton gave me. And the 
result was that I was in black poverty. 

Indeed, I was so poor part of the time that 
even paper was a consideration to me, and I 
was delighted when a friend of mine, who was 
a chemist, gave me large bundles of leaflets 
setting forth the merits of some plaster or 
ointment. These leaflets were printed on one 
side only ; the other side I used for my manu- 
script. I was rather careless then in collecting 
anything associated with myself, and I don't 
believe I have the manuscript of a single book 
I ever wrote; but I did make an exception in 
the case of these chemical leaflets; 1 have 
preserved some of them still. They are in a 
drawer in my study, and now and then, when I 
am running through my papers, I come across 
them. In a trice I can see again the scene in 
which they were written; the little parlor 
in the south of London, and the faces of my 
companions — some of them passed beyond 
these voices — and the feverish and killing 
work, with the curious sense that, after all, the 
reward would come, sooner or later, or that, at 
all events, I had begun a task, and could no 
more escape from it than the convict from 
his appointed doom. — T. P. O'Connor, in 
M. A. P. 

Ward. — Little is known of Mrs. Humphry- 
Ward's methods of composition, but the follow- 
ing extract from one of her own addresses at 
the Passmore Edwards Settlement will be of 
interest to readers. Mrs. Ward said : "Time 
passes, and every scheme in which there is a 
germ of life develops in ways some expected, 
some unexpected, and makes its own character. 
It is like — if I may take an illustration from 
my own trade — it is like a character in a novel. 
The story-teller plans it in this way or that. 
You scribble down on your first sheet of paper 
such and such incidents. Your hero is to end 
badly or to end well. Marriage bells there 
shall certainly be — on that last far-off page. 
Or, if you are in a sterner mood, you see all 
the forces of the pit unchained about your poor 

puppets— shipwreck, a railway accident, some 
new disease with a long name; you write it 
down inexorably. But then you begin your 
work ; and after a little while, as your grip 
tightens, as your characters come out of the 
mist, they begin to make themselves, to shape 
their own story. Your idea remains, if it had 
any virtue. Often one looks back with a strange 
thrill to see how near the thought of the end 
has been to the thought of the beginning. But 
on the way it has tmken to itself asccre of fresh 
forms and developments." 


The Pulitzer School of Journalism. — At 
the time of the last census there were in the 
United States 114,073 lawyers and 30,098 per- 
sons classed as journalists. The legal piofes- 
sion was provided with trained recruits by ica 
law schools with 1,106 professors and instruct- 
ors. For a fair proportion there should have 
been at least 26 ^colleges of journalism, with 
faculties 291 strong. There was not one. 
Not a single one of the 30,098 newspaper 
men and women in the country had enjoyed 
what a lawyer would call a systematic profes- 
sional training. 

It is the fashion in the newspaper world to 
say that this is as it should be — to ridicule the 
idea of training the recruits of the press for 
their work, and to insist that journalism, alone 
of all arts, sciences, trades, and professions in 
the world, cannot be systematically taupht, lut 
must be picked up as a boy picks up a knowl- 
edge of swimming when he is thrown into 
deep water. Some boys drown. 

And yet every newspaper is a daily sufferer 
from the lack of training in its staff. The 
first question an editor asks of an applicant 
for a position is : ** What has bien your experi- 
ence ? " In other words : " Have you picked 
up some knowledge of your duties at the ex- 
pense of some other newspaper, or must I 
waste my time teaching you the rudiments of 
your trade ? " 

In former years a boy began the study of 
law by sweeping out a lawyer's ofhee, or of 
medicine by mixing pills for a country doctor. 
Instruction for newspaper work is still in the 

1 5 8 


same stage. That law and medicine are now 
studied in professional schools, while a 
knowledge of newspaper work must be 
"picked up" in an office, does not mean that 
journalism is any less capable than law or 
medicine of being systematically taught, but 
merely that the methods of preparation for 
one profession have stood still, while those for 
the others have advanced. 

Of course no school can make a great edi- 
tor, a great war correspondent or a "star 
reporter," any more than it can make a Millet, 
a Lorenz, or a Henry Ward Beecher. But it 
can teach the right methods, which the genius 
and the clod alike must observe; it can give 
protection against ignorant blunders, and it 
can show how to make use of the sources of 
accurate information. It is the function of a 
technical school to enable its graduates to 
handle the tools of their profession with cor- 
rectness and facility — for force and originality 
they must depend upon themselves. — New 
York World. 

Fine Writing. — The Mount Morris (III.) 
Index employs a word painter to describe for 
the benefit of its readers the events of gen- interest which transpire within its sphere 
of usefulness, and there are times when this 
word painter reaches the very dizziest heights 
that it is possible for an imaginative and real- 
istic writer to attain without losing his balance. 
In a recent contribution he says : — 

Your scribe attended the (Fourth of July) 
celebration at Leaf River, which, like every 
event of the kind held at Leaf River, was a 
success. During the forenoon heaven's artill- 
ery rumbled through the cloudy vault, but, as 
even nature hated to throw a wet blanket over 
such an enthusiastic crowd of the wit and 
beauty of Ogle County, the loyal winds finally 
brushed the frowning clouds from old Sol's 
glorious brow, who, in his chariot of day, cir- 
cumfused with his veil of lighr, determined 
once more to keep step with the drum beat of 
the ages, and join the picturesque procession 
as it moved with drum beat and brass band 
cadency, with waving banners, to the beautiful 
school yard, where, amid the twittering of birds 
and the rustle of the leaves of numerous loyal 
trees, as the shimmering sunshine fell through 
the numerous open spaces of the interlacing 
trees, in broad, golden patches of patriotic 
glory, the exercises were opened by a timely 
prayer by the Rev. C. W. Jaycox. 

This extract, it should be explained, is 

really only a part of the sentence, which con- 
tinues for twenty lines more, or until the word 
painter rounds it out with a reference to the 
charming manner in which Miss Edna Getchell 
"presided at the organ." 

The celebrated Schiller Band then gave 
another of their inestimable selections, and, as 
the silvery cadency of their harmonious sounds 
floated through the salubrious air, it well might 
have charmed another Plato from his dreams 
of Elysium. Then the orator, the Rev. E. W. 
O'Neal of Aurora, was introduced in a grace- 
ful manner by Joel B. Bertolet, president of the 
day. If those sturdy heroes of the Revolution 
who followed Washington in his immortal cru- 
sade for liberty, and spent eight years amus- 
ing themselves by twitching the lion's tail to 
hear him roar, could have been present on this 
patriotic occasion, and have listened to the 
fervent, eloquent, patriotic, witty, and sensible 
address by the Rev. O'Neal, they would have 
been amply repaid for all their sanguinary ex- 
ploits and privations and sufferings at Lexing- 
ton, Bunker Hill, Brandywine, Ticonderoga, 
and Valley Forge, and would have had elucida- 
ted to their inner consciousness by undeniable 
demonstration the true object iu achieving 
American independence. 

And to conclude he says, in a mournful but 
impressive vein : — 

The skyrockets have faded from the heavens. 
The Japanese fireflies and squids have flared 
out. The Chinese crackers have ceased their 
monotonous racket. The roll of the drums 
has died out and the cadence of the bands 
faded away in the distance. Historic shad- 
ows envelop us, and we remember that Egypt 
has passed away, and that Assyria is but a 
dream, and the owls and bats make their nests 
in the ruins of Nineveh, while Greece sits in 
sackcloth and ashes, and the glory of Rome is 
the theme of school-boys — but what of all that? 
Let the American eagle scream, for into the 
heavens, with unblinking eye to the sun, he 
still proudly clasps in his loyal talons the gold- 
en-pointed banner of the Union, pointing the 
serene and shining pathway to the stars. 

There! Who will have the hardihood to say 
now that the best literature produced in our 
day finds its way into the magazines? — Chi. 
cago Inter-Ocean. 



The Care op thk Tkhth. By Samuel A. Hopkins, M.D., 
D. D. S. 150 pp. Cloth, 75 cent*. New York: D. Ap- 

pleton & Co. 1903 

Dr. Hopkins has done the world a service 
by writing this practical and useful manual. 
He is convinced that a -large proportion of 
dental operations are preventable, and hisob 



ject has been to show how the teeth should be 
cared tor so that such operations will be un- 
necessary. He discusses in a plain, common- 
sense way the causes and prevention of decay, 
the proper care of the teeth, the best methods 
of brushing, the use of mouth-washes, proper 
methods of eating, the effect of different kinds 
of food, toothache and the means for its treat- 
ment and prevention, and other practical 
phases of the subject. A copy of the book 
should bd in every household. w. h. h. 

Some Village Versk. By Master Emery. ioopp. Stiff 
paper, #5.00, net. Lima, Ohio: Published by the Author. 

Now here's a poet who sets value on him* 
self. His book is a manila paper brochure — 
editio princeps, limited to five hundred copies. 
At five dollars a copy, net, it will bring the 
author $2,500 ( of course, provided ) . And yet 
some people say that poetry doesn't pay! Mr. 
Emery's ability to write poetry and his appre- 
ciation of it are both illustrated by thes»e lines 
of his on Sidney Lanier, which are a fair sam- 
ple of his work : — 

His little poem on sunrise 

Is a leader 
An' a beautiful surprise 

To the reader ; 
For the far faint voice, arising 

From the Marsh-bed, 
Seems to start the angels singing * 

O'er the dead. 


Strange Ca«b of Dr. Jhkyll and Mr. Hydb. By Rob- 
ert Louis Stevenson Printed in the easy reporting style of 
Benn Pitman phonography. 66 pp. Paper, 25 cents. Cin- 
cinnati : The Phonographic Institute Company. 1903. 

The Stcmbling Block. By Edwin Pugh. Illustrated. 313 
pp. Cloth, $1.50. New York : A. S. Barnes & Co. 1903. 

The Wisdom of the Foolish and the Folly of the Wise. 
By Minna Thomas Antrim. 106 pp. Ooth, 50 cents. 
Philadelphia: Henry AUemus Company. 1903. 

The Last Words of Distinguished Men and Women* 
New edition. By Frederic Rowland Martin. 354 pp« 
Cloth, $1.50. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company 

Vittorio Emanuhlf. Prince of Piedmont. A romantic 
play. By James Murmell. 123 pp. Paper, 75 cents. 
Philadelphia: Franklin Printing Company. 1903. 


[The publishers of The Writer will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
en receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the namr 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical 
with three cents postage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the article? mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention The Writer when they write.] 

How Shakespeare Learned His Trade. Brander Mat- 
thews. North A nterican Review ( 53 c. ) for September. 

Jambs McNeill Whistler. Joseph Pennell. North 
A merican Review ( 53 c. ) for September. 

The Unforgottbn Whittibr. Illustrated. John Wright 
Buckham. New England Magaz me ( 28 c. ) for September. 

Edinburgh Authors op To-Day. ( Rev. Hugh Black, 
Eve Blantyre Simpson, "Gabriel Setoun" (Thomas N. Hep- 
burn), Archibald Stodart Walker, Henry Johnstone, Jane 
and Mary Findlater.) Illustrated. Betty Harcourt. Crite- 
rion ( 13 c. ) for September. 

The Early Life of Jambs Lanb Allen. Illustrated. 
Laetitla Preston McCauley. Criterion (13 c.) for September. 

Margaret Horton Potter. With portrait. Bookseller 
( 13 c. ) for September. 

The Horace Grbblby I Knew. Joel Benton. Wtl- 
hire's Magazine (13 c.) for September. 

Pertinent Pointers for Proofreaders. J. W. Taylor. 
National Printer-Journalist ( 23 c. ) for September. 

A Newspaper Photographer's War Experiences. Il- 
lustrated. J. C Hemment. Delineator ( 18 c.) for October. 

Frederick W. Robertson. Percy F. Bicknell. Dial 
( 13 c. ) for September 1. 

A Year ok Continental Literature. — II. Dial 
( 13 c. ) for September 1. 

Scientific Study of Rhythm Mary Hallock. Re- 
printed from the Popular Science Monthly in Public Opinion 
( 13 c. ) for September 3. 

Eye-Strain from thb View-Point of the General 
Practitionbr. Edward Benedict Taylor, M. D. North 
western Lancet ( 13 c. ) for September 1. 

Stories of Circulation. Some of the tricks of the trade 
that sell newspapers. Robert John. Saturday Evening 
Post (8c.) for September 1 . 

The Goncourt Academy. J. H. Rosny. Translated by 
C Heywoud Reprinted from the Fortnightly Review in the 
Living Age ( 18 c. ) for September 5. 

Charles Rbadb's Novels. Walter Frewen Lord. Re- 
printed from the Nineteenth Century and After in the Liv- 
* n £ Age ( 18 c. ) for September 5. 

Contemporary Fiction in Germany. Friedrich Spiel- 
hagen. Independent (13 c.) for September 17. 


Henry James has completed his book on 
William Wetmore Story, and it will be pub- 
lished soon. 

Two books about James McNeill Whistler 
are already promised. Mrs. Elizabeth Rob- 
bins Pennell is to write an official biography, 
which will presumably be some time in the 
making. Meanwhile, the Macmillan Company 
announces for the autumn a volume entitled 
"J. McNeill Whistler and His Work." The 
authors, Alfred G. and Nancy Bell, completed 
their work only a few weeks before the artist's 

Lady Bitty Balfour is editing a volume of 
the correspondence of her father, the late Earl 
of Lyt l .on. It is said that it will show u Owen 
Meredith" in his more intimate moods. 

The Life of Bret Harte in the American 
Men of Letters Series will be written by Henry 
C. Merwin. 



Dr. Lyman Abbott's book on Henry Ward The Holiday Magazine is a new periodical 

Beecher, his predecessor in the Plymouth for DOVS and girls, published by the Holiday 

church pulpit, is described as more intimate Publishing Company, 34 Union square, New 

than formal. York. Miss Katharine N. Birdsall is the 

A. S. Barnes & Company will publish "Rec- ed,tor - 

ollections, Personal and Literary," by Richard Latest Literature, a continuation of What 

Henry Stoddard, edited by Ripley Hitchcock, to Read, will be published by C. A. Huling, 

with an introduction by Edmund Clarence Chicago. It is intended for the average reader, 

Stedman. a °d will be published as an adjunct to the 

The Lippincotts have just published their Bookseller (Chicago), which is more strictly 

biographical edition of the novels of Charles for the P ublis ^er, bookseller, and librarian. 

Dickens in twenty volumes. Each volume in 
the edition is supplied with a biographical in- 
troduction, giving a history of the book and 
its place in Dickens's life. The edition also 

The first number will be issued October 20. 

Food Topics is a new weekly magazine pub- 
lished in Milwaukee. Its editor is E. M. Max- 
well, and S. E. Maxwell is the publisher. The 

includes Forster's " Life of Dickens," edited scope of the periodical will include everything 

and revised by George Gissing. 

Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney observed her seventy- 
ninth birthday September 15 at her home in 
Milton, Mass., and J. T. Trowbridge celebrated 
his seventy sixth birthday September 18 at his 
home in Arlington. 

Jjles Verne was finally persuaded to have 
the operation for cataract. He is recovering 
and expects soon to resume his literary work. 

Although Ibsen will never write again for 
publication, he is so far recovered from what 
was supposed to be his final illness that he is 
now making plans for an excursion to St. 
Pjtersbjrg and Finland, with the idea of see- 
ing tor h mself what Russia is doing in the 
way of crushing out the rights and liberties of 
the Finns. 

The first annual convention of the Society 
of American Authors will be held in St. Louis 
July 4. on the Exposition grounds. 

Colonel A. A. Pope's new congressional bill 
prepared for the Postal Progress Kagucpro- 
vides f«T the consolidation of sei 01 d arc! thnd- 
cl.iss 111 iil matter, including authors' manu- 
scripts, u):inii'.'i i.i! papers and the like, and 
the extension of the present weight limit to 
eleven pour.cN. 

The I n:\ersit\ ot Kansas will establish a 
chair of Journal:>m this fall. 

The New Ani^terd.iin Hook C"i»mpan\ 1 New 
York ) has in tile an assigr,nunt to Andrew C 
Dickinson. Jr.. who has been its treasurer. 

pertaining to domestic science. 

Footlights (Chicago) is a new monthly 
theatrical paper, published by the National 
Theatrical Exchange, of which Charles J. 
Carter is the president and treasurer. 

National Progress is a new magazine pub- 
lished in Chicago. Ira Jay McGee is the man- 
aging editor. 

Bliss Carman is now sole editor of the Liter- 
ary World ( Boston ). 

The American Home and Fireside has re- 
moved its offices from Chicago to Springfield, 
111., and the name of the publication will here- 
after be the American Fireside. 

Wayside Tales (Detroit) is to be recon- 
structed and issued in improved form. 

The Fortune Press is the name of a new 
publishing business in Boston, conducted by 
Ernest S. Briggs, of the former firm of Briggs 
Brothers. Plymouth, Mass. 

Mrs. Julia McN air Wright died at Fulton, 
Mo., September 2. aged sixty three. 

Albert Mathews ( " Paul Siegvolk " ) died in 
N T -*w York, September <;, aged eighty-three. 

Thomas Sedgewick Steele died at Swamp- 
scott, Miss.. September 10. aged fifty-eight. 

Mrs. M. 1.. YV. Sherwood died in New York. 
Septtmber \ 2, aged seventy-three. 

1'rofessor Alexander Bain died in Aberdeen, 
Scotland, September |X, aged eighty-five. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Cherry Waltz died in Louis- 
ville, September i<>, aged thirty-six. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 11. 

ewTiRip at thi bostoh P08T-OFFIC1 A881 COND-CLASS mail mattib . bristled with it at every pore ; but no artistic 

CONTENTS- pa^b reverse was inconceivable for an adventurer 

„ XT w XT r /» Hgtlmm . t PA .fi* who, stating in one breath that his knowledge 

How Not to Make Novels. Ernest R. Holmes. . . 101 " v *-«s*- 

On Maturity. Edward Br ocUrkk 162 ot Italy consisted of a few days spent at Genoa, 

The Passing of the Italic, h. A. Schuler. ... 164 was ready to declare in the next that he had 

Editorial . . . . • • • • • l6 planned, on a scale, a picture of Rome. It 

Mixed Metaphor, 166- Photrgrapm for Bock and « « , ,. F 

Magazine Illustration, ,66- Pecuniary Profits of flooded his Career, tO my sense, with light ; It 

Authors ... 167 showed how he had marched from subject to 

"Newspaper English "Edited '67 subject, and how he had * got up ' each in turn 

The Scrap Basket l6 7 u^„,:„„ „i„^ u . 1 1 1 1 

writers op the Day 167 ~ showing, also, how consummately he had 

Mercy E. Baker, 167- Alma Martin Estabrook, 168— reduced such getting-up to a science. He had 

Susan Keating Glaspell, 168- Florence A. Jones, 168 success, he had a rare impunity, behind him ; 

Z^uX^^Z^X^^ but nothing wou.d now be so interesting as to 

E. Stryker, 169- Fanny Rogers White, 169 -John see if he could again play the trick. One 

Fleming Wilson. . "69 would leave him, and welcome, Lourdes and 

Current Literary Topics. ... . . . . . . .169 p aris _ he had alwa s dea lt, on a scale, with 

American English Criticised, 169 -The Necessity of J » ^ >v,in 

Being Brief . 170 h ' s own country and people. . But was the 

Book Reviews »7» adored Rome also to be his on such terms, the 

Literary Articles in Periodicals 174 Rome fc e was a l rea dy giving away before hav- 

Nbws and Notes »75 . . , . / r . * ~ J . 

ing acquired an inch of it? One thought of 

HOW NOT TO MAKE NOVELS. ° ne ' S 7" ^q^^tions saturations - a his- 
tory of long years, and of how the effect of 

In the wonderfully penetrating and complete them had somehow been but to make the sub- 
analysis of Zola by Henry James in the August ject too august. Was he to find it easy 
Atlantic Monthly is a passage that may through a visit of a month or two with ' intro- 
easily be construed as a reproach to the major ductions ' and a Baedeker ? " 
part of literary production to-day. Mr. James After this prejudgment, Mr. James naturally 
tells how Zola, after calmly confessing that found " Rome " a " presumptuous volume, 
Italy he knew only through a dash as far as without sweetness, without antecedents, super- 
Genoa, and a few days' stay, tells him just ficial and violent, with the minimum instead of 
as calmly and more assertively that, having the maximum of value" 

rounded out the careers of the Rougon-Mac- Is it then a literary crime to plan a book 

quart, he will begin " Les Trois Villes" before having absolute and complete knowl- 

u And which cities are they to be?" in. edge of the matter to go in it? Must all such 

quired Mr. James. planning be reminiscent, the arrangement of 

44 Lourdes, Paris, Rome," responded Zola experience gone through with no thought of 

with fine promptitude. The answer, says Mr. possible future use, or is it only when Rome 

James, left him gaping, and afterward unrav- or Italy is the subject that such frankly avowed 

elled many a mystery in the literary perform- purpose is reprehensible ? And there's \ 

ances of Zola. Caine, just set off for Iceland, after pu 

"He was an honest man — he had always announcing that he is going to write a 
Copyright, 1903, by William H. Hills. All rights reserved* 

1 62 

The Writer. 

with scene laid among its volcanoes and gey- 
sers. Has he, too, unlocked the crudely me- 
chanical make-up of his mind to Mr. James's 
searching vision ? Why, the whole industry of 
modern novel making is threatened if this 
theory is put into practice. Think of Miss 
Runkle, who never saw Paris, or indeed, much 
else, and yet sold — how many editions was it? 
Then there is Stewart Edward White, who saw 
a blank space on a map to the north, and im- 
mediately blocked out there divers and sundry 
books which he worked out with canoe and 
rifle and woods tramp. Did Jack London 
have no malice prepense when he struck out 
for Alaska, thus escaping the ban against 
undertaking that which he knew as yet but 
vaguely? But why enumerate? Will any 
escape, save those who in the quiet of their 
cells evolve situation, setting, country, all, not 
even sitting three weeks before a stuffed par- 
rot, as once did Flaubert? 

Mr. James must remember that in this work- 
day world writers cannot treat literature as a 
delightful recreation, but must treat it as a 
trade, and the supply of board and rent and 

clothes money has to be reasonably constant. 
That involves skirmishing for subjects before 
living the experience; it even involves "tak- 
ing assignments," like vulgar reporters, and 
'• doing," like a task, a book about that of 
which in advance one is hopelessly ignorant, 
and afterward little less so. Mr. James is 
cruelly strict. He would shut the door on all 
those unable to roam leisurely through Europe 
half a lifetime before thinking about writing a 
book. Why, soon one would have to begin 
preparation for a literary career two genera- 
tions before one's birth, as for the trade of 
" gentleman " now figuring on our tax rolls, in 
order to secure the necessary fortune and 
leisure to gather data without conscious 
and purposeful designs on publishers and 

It is pretty certain that Mr. James's ideals 
will not be followed by the hustling book- 
makers of the day. In some ways that it will 
not is a pity. We should be spared so many 
unpleasant, unmentionable intellectual gripes 
and pains. Ernest R, Holmes. 

New York, N. Y. 


The word carries a hint of promissory notes, 
more or less unpleasant, but still it is the word 
for the idea. 

Completeness, perfection, ripeness; the de- 
licious, rare flavor that tells of fruit plucked at 
just the right moment; this is the quality, the 
virtue, of literature — which is a fruit of the 
mind and heart and soul — that I would write 
about. For of all the causes that work toward 
the disappointment of hopeful, clever young 
writers and bring down the slips of refusal im- 
maturity, a hint of greenness, is, I think, chief. 

Let any one who began writing several years 
ago read over and work over his first manu- 

scripts. Try the experiment yourself. Many 
of these early efforts you will find striking in 
plot and sound in character sketching, for they 
were selected from your life experience — you 
had not yet learned the journalist's trick of 
turning everything into copy. But you will 
find that you must cut away, you must round 
off, you must add a certain flavor. That is, 
you will if you are progressing. The parts you 
will cut away will be the marks of the beginner. 
There will be false humor, exaggerated pathos, 
a making too much of certain points that pride 
of creation led you to rate too high ; an out- 
burst that tastes of youth ; an explanation not 



necessary; a running over of climax; and yet 
other faults, — all distinctively those of the be- 
ginner, the immature. 

Good writing of any kind, from a newspaper 
story to a poem, is a matter of taste, and in- 
finite pains in the selection of the fit — the 
right idea, the true proportion, the only words, 
the right arrangement. There is no moment 
in a period of composition when the little brain 
workers are not rushing about, now in the cells 
of memory, now searching the domain of im- 
agination, now weighing words and testing 
word-pedigrees in an orderly bump of science, 
— fitting, shading, carving, building a temple 
of thought. The capacity for taking infinite 
pains is not genius; it is merely one necessity 
imposed by genius. If you have only a modi- 
cum of taste in an art work and you attempt to 
create along that line, you must use pains. 
True appreciation, genius, would force you to 
infinite pains. 

But in the beginning our pains are not 
enough to secure the high excellence in small 
things that modern acuteness demands. The 
iaste of the artist is not developed, not ready 
to agree with that of the world he would serve. 
In the exuberance of creative work even mas- 
ters become less acute in their critical faculty* 
and the young writer is almost sure to lose his 
ballast of criticism altogether at times. 

But we are young! And we can't help it; 
we're going to be young for years still and 
we're going to hold — we pray — the brave and 
cheery outlook. Sometimes we bubble over, 
and the slangy editors will say of the stuff we 
write them: "It slops over"; sometimes we 
are too despondent for anything but verses 
that are rather absurd. We are young, and 
too wise to want to get over it. 

But surely one need not grow old to attain a 
touch of maturity in writing. Many a boy is 
spoiled by effeminate affectations which some 
older one fondly believes to be good manners. 
But a real boy can have good manners without 
losing any of those wonderful charms that be- 
long to the real boy. Many a good story has 
been spoiled by a youth's affectation of age, 
but a young writer can attain sound judgment 
of men and a cultivated literary taste without 
losing his or her charms of the young heart 

and the awakening inner eye. It is these 
things, judgment, taste, sincerity, that young 
writers must strive for from the beginning. 
How are they attained? 

First, you must live. Crowd into your life 
every inspiring experience you can. Physical 
action is but one small part of life; he liveth 
most who loveth most. To love is to under- 
stand, to see through and through, to appre- 
ciate. Put yourself into another's life. Scorn 
and hate bar you out of hearts you should 
explore. Sympathy opens the lock of every 
mystery ; it is the greatest virtue for those who 
would create ; cultivate your sympathy. 

Live in your own mind; loaf and invite your 
soul to conference; work to know the various 
selves of which you are made up; find the use 
and good in each one and develop by using it. 
In a word, broaden, uplift yourself. 

Live vicariously. By thoroughly understand- 
ing the nature of your friend and knowing the 
facts of his trials, his defeats, his triumphs, 
you gain, in some measure, the good of big ex- 
periences. By sympathy you can " Gain the 
gains of various men, ransack the ages, spoil 
the climes." Live many lives. For he who 
writes more lives than one more lives must 

Cultivate your sympathy to extend beyond 
good men and women to mean ones, weak ones. 
Understand, pity. Go further — for most of 
us perhaps it is not further — and love all 
dumb creatures. Many years' love of gentle 
love of manhood gave to Goldsmith Dr. Prim- 
rose. Many years' love of dogs gave to Jack 
London his " Call of the Wild." There is no 
masterpiece that was not born of love. 

Now, in matters of literary taste, how do 
you work toward maturity? Suppose you give 
more time to reading those works that are 
notably ripe, seasoned, mature. Of course, you 
do not read Marie Corelli, or Mrs. Augusta 
Evans Wilson, or " Ouida," or " the Duchess." 
Not even for amusement can you afford to do 
this. For a clever outlook on the world, its 
men and women, read more of Thackeray, 
George Meredith, Balzac. For a style that 
will not allow you to betray greenness, or run 
to the ultra mellow, soak yourself for a time 
in Stevenson, Irving, Thackeray, Goldsmith 



(essays), and Daudet, even in translation if 
you cannot read French. Read the French 
masters for their art of novel structure. Read 
poetry that you love, and try — by reading 
often — to love the greatest. 

All this does not apply to those alone who 
aspire to the heights of literature : it is for all 
who write. You need maturity of viewpoint, 
judgment, and taste even to write for the 

The popular writers of our age are read too 
much. It is necessary to read some of their 

books ; it is necessary for us to keep up with 
the fads of our world. And when Mary Mac- 
Lane came upon the market we had, perhaps, 
to nibble very green fruit with the rest of the 
world. But let us do it no more than 
we must. 

Now look over your oldest manuscripts. 
Were they, to use popular language, plucked 
before they were ripe? What kind of fruit da 
you take to a market glutted with the green — 
the immature ? De te fabula. 

New Yo«k, n. y. Edward Broderick. 


Italics, my International tells me, are the 
invention of Aldus Manutius, a celebrated 
Venetian printer, and take their name from 
having been dedicated to the states of Italy. 
They were extensively used in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. In books of that 
period quotations are usually printed in italics, 
besides being set off with quotation-marks, 
not only at the beginning and the end, but 
also at the beginning of every line. At that 
time it was customary to distinguish, by a 
change of type, proper names, whether em- 
phatic or not. Documents printed in German 
characters had such names set in Roman or 
Latin type, while in English, Latin, French, 
Spanish, and Italian prints they appeared in 

My textbook on grammar, issued more than 
thirty years ago, says that italics as well as 
small capitals and large capitals are used for 
emphasis, their use being indicated in writing 
by underscoring. It further says that they 
are generally used to distinguish foreign words, 
common words spoken of merely as words, 
and names of boats, ships, newspapers, and 
magazines. The names or titles of books 
should certainly have been included in this 

These rules were generally observed until 
about a dozen years ago. The dates of news- 
paper dispatches were usually prefixed in ital- 

ics or small capitals ; some journals used the 
latter in their editorials for all personal names. 
Foreign words and names of periodicals and 
books were put in italics ; so were words which 
the writer wanted to be emphasized. 

The advent of the type-setting machine has 
changed all this. To-day you may open almost 
any newspaper or magazine and not find a 
single italic outside of the headings and ad- 
vertisements, which are usually set up by 
hand. Emphatic words, foreign words, phrases 
and sentences, titles of publications of every 
kind, are all on one dead level. Where it is 
still deemed necessary to distinguish a word, 
phrase, sentence, or title, quotation-marks are 
pressed into service. Many periodicals dis- 
card even these, when titles of newspapers, 
magazines, and books are concerned; they 
print all these in ordinary Roman, simply capi- 
talizing, that is, beginning with capitals, the 
leading words thereof. 

No doubt this is an improvement for the 
typesetter and his employer in saving time and 
labor — the great desideratum of our busy age; 
but we do not see why the general reader 
should favor the change, and certainly the old- 
fashioned proof-reader does not. In the first 
place, the monotony of the page becomes 
wearisome to the eye ; what is more important, 
the reader misses the accustomed pointers 
along the way, the help formerly given by a 

The Writer. 


simple change of type. The following sen- 
tences, taken from late issues of Current Lit- 
trature, may be clear enough to a well-informed 
reader, but must be more or less ambiguous to 
the reader who does not happen to know cer- 
tain things : — 

The name alone, Man and Superman, is suggestive of the 
author of Arms and the Man, and Cashel Byron's Profession. 

By The Silent Maid we are carried back to the days when 
we read The Undine of Fouqu^, although the present book 
may not reach the standard of that classic romance. 

At a recent sale in London, Defoe's Life and Strange, Sur- 
prising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner, and 
The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, two volumes, 
. . . . realized $1,535. 

I do not see the need of distinguishing the 
names of sailing vessels or animals more than 
the names of persons and places, which we 
simply begin with capitals. But when we 
come to names of periodicals and books, which 
are really quotations, I think a distinction 
should be made, and italics will serve better 
than quotation-marks. English words men- 
tioned only as' words and foreign words should 
certainly be thus marked. Some of our pro- 
gressive journals even go to the extent of 
dropping the accents on French words, print- 
ing nee (without quotation-marks) for ne'e and 
lese-majeste for lese-majeste'. Does not that 
look much like stripping a foreigner, whom we 
have invited to our company, of any ornament 
or peculiarity of dress which, among his coun- 
trymen, he is required to wear? 

When the type casting machines were first 
used, there was some reason for omitting 
italics, since there was no provision for them 
in the mechanism of the linotype, and they 
could bt us^d only by putting matrices in by 
hand. The latest linotypes, however, provide 
for italics and small caps, and in matter set on 
these machines italics can be used as easily as 
not. There is, therefore, no practical reason 
of economy to be urged against them. In fact, 
italics can now be used more cheaply in pro- 
portion than they could in the old days of 
typesetting by hand, since distribution — al- 
ways an expensive bother — has been done 
away with. 

The Writer, I am pleased to see, still ad- 
heres to the good old rule of italicizing dis- 
tinctly foreign words and the names of periodi- 

cals. When it comes to distinguishing English 
words and phrases, it prefers to use quotation- 
marks, as it does in printing titles of books. 
Quotation-marks, however, are apt to become 
burdensome and, when used to excess, will 
disfigure the page; hence, when somebody 
sends in a list of so many hundred new English 
words, The Writer very sensibly chooses 
the less of two evils and sets them out in sim- 
ple Roman. My choice would be italics or 
some other change of type. 

Mr. De Vinne, certainly one of the best 
authorities on modern typography, says in his 
book, "Correct Composition": " Readers have 
been slowly and somewhat unwillingly taught 
that the emphasis of italic and the modified 
display of small capitals are not really needed 
for the comprehension of printed matter. 
Yet it is not probable that small capitals or 
italic will ever go out of use. Of small ser- 
vice for display within a text they are of real • 
value when used with discretion in differen- 
tiating some of the different divisions or fea- 
tures of a book." Speaking of the mechanical 
cost he says: " If seven per cent, of the words 
in a manuscript is marked for italic, its com- 
position cannot be done to advantage on the 
ordinary type-setting machine. When ten per 
cent, or more is italicized, the compositor by 
hand rightfully claims an extra price for the 
additional labor it imposes." 

As in speaking we try to make clear our 
thought by varieties of tone and stress, so dif- 
ferent forms and sizes of letters have been in- 
vented to illuminate, as it were, the printed 
page. A perfect agreement as to the use of 
these, or of capitals and punctuation-marks, 
has indeed not yet been reached and likely 
never will be. The French saying, Chacun a 
son go&t, applies here very well. But certainly 
it is worth while for a magazine like this to 
chronicle the growing disfavor of the italic 
letter, which the writer of this article would 
gladly reinstate in its old rights, if he could. 
Was there ever a proof-reader of any experi 
ence who did not wish that he had to make all 
the rules of his art and could compel all his 
professional brothers and sisters to follow 
them? //. A. Schuler. 

Allbntown, Penn. 

1 66 


The Writer. 

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P. O. Box 190s. 

146 Franklin street, Room 3s, 

Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. November, 1903. No. 11. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

. ♦. 

Some beautiful examples of mixed metaphor 
have come to the attention of The Writer 
lately. Writing from Victoria, B. C, about 

Alaska boundary decision, a correspondent 
telegraphed: "The general trend of opinion 
seems to be that the action of the British com- 

missioners has started a wave of popular opin. 
ion which may be the opening wedge of the 
weaning of Canada from the patriotic reliance 
upon the mother country which has marked the 
Dominion in the past." Less remarkable, but 
still interesting, was the announcement of a 
temperance paper in Chicago, that "the fall 
campaign is already being launched in a blaze 
of enthusiasm." Lastly, there is a confusing 
triple suggestion in the declaration of the 
Boston Transcript that "the embattled farmers 
of New England are now preparing to man the 
pumps and save the ship of the milk industry 
from going to smash on the rocks of capi- 

Metaphor, rightly used, enlivens literature; 
carelessly used, it adds to the gaiety of nations. 
The Victoria newspaper man did not use his 
imagination as he wrote; he simply employed 
a few stock phrases, without considering how 
incongruous they were and that their use to- 
gether would make what he wrote ridiculous. 
Apart from putting the "embattled farmers" 
on shipboard — which is perhaps allowable — 
the Boston Transcript writer did not get his 
metaphor mixed, but his reference to manning 
the pumps, in connection with the milk busi- 
ness, inevitably suggests a thought that leads 
the joke nourished reader away from his stir- 
ring marine picture. He, too, failed to use his 
imagination sufficiently. As Professor Genung 
well says: "The fault is to be avoided by sur- 
rendering one's thoughts to the picture sug- 
gested until it becomes real and works itself 
out consistently." 

The development of a new industry, that of 
furnishing photographs for magazine and book 
illustration, is recognized by the Household- 
ledger (New York), which offers a prize of 
twenty dollars for the photograph that best 
illustrates a story published in synopsis in the 
November number. A similar offer will prob- 
ably be made each month hereafter. Any one 
may enter this contest. The prints, mounted, 
should be indorsed with the name and address 
of the sender and the name of the camera 
used, and the portion of the story that is illus- 



trated should be attached. All photographs 
submitted are to become the property of the 
paper — the only unjust condition of the con- 
test. The publishers should pay for photo- 
graphs, not prize winners, that they retain for 
use. The Household Ledger hopes by this 
method to secure a regular staff of photog- 
raphers to do story illustrating. 

Under modern conditions photography and 
authorship are closely connected, and for the 
general writer the camera is almost as neces- 
sary as the typewriter. Good illustrations help 
the sale of a manuscript amazingly, and the 
writer who has a camera and knows how to 
use it will sell twice as many manuscripts in a 
year, other things being equal, as the one 
without. There is a great demand, especially 
among newspapers, for illustrated special ar- 
ticles, and even pictures alone, without accom- 
panying letter-press, may frequently be sold. 
The Writer almost every month announces 
prize offers for photographs. Every up-to-date 
writer will find the purchase of a camera a 
highly profitable investment. 


We are told that in writing his biography of 
Gladstone John Morley and his secretaries ex- 
amined about four hundred thousand docu- 
ments. Considering also the fact that Mr. 
Morley devoted three years to his task, and 
was obliged meanwhile to withdraw from par- 
liament and for the time being to sacrifice 
whatever honors he might have achieved in 
public life, it is evident that the $50,000 that 
he was paid for the work was not excessive. 
The Boston Herald notes that although Mr. 
Morley's fee is the largest sum ever paid for a 
copyright biography in England, it has been 
more than matched in this country. John Hay 
and Mr. Nicolay received that sum for their 
life of Lincoln, and the Grant family received 
about $300,000 for his memoirs. It is in the 
field of fiction that the largest pecuniary profits 
have been realized by authors, however. Five 
fiction successes of the season of 1900-1901 
were said to have brought their authors 
$75,000, $45>°°o> $39>°oo, $34>oco and $30,000, 

respectively. Unfortunately, published state 
raents of authors' profits have seldom been 

authentic. w. H. H. 



In fact, every civilized and 
many uncivilized point* the 
world ovtT.—Circufar of So- 
ciety of A merican A utkors. 

In fact, every civilized 
point and many uncivilized 
points the world over. 

Less arrests Saturday 
night. — Boston Glob*. 

Fewer arrests S aturday 

The President has drank 
to the health of Sir Thomas 
Lipton. — Portsmouth Times. 

The President has drunk 
to the health of Sir Thomas 

It is incredible to believe I It is impossible o believe 

that the people of New that the people, of New 

York. — New York Evening York. 

Post. I 


In her very able and instructive article on 
the various forms of lyric verse, published in 
the August Writer, tyliss Myrtle Reed, de- 
scribing the sonnet, says that its second quat- 
rain ends in a full point. My textbook on 
Rhetoric, Dr. John S. Hart's, teaches just the 
contrary by saying that "to prevent the two 
(octave and sextet) from swaying apart, care 
is usually taken that there shall be no gram- 
matical break in passing from one to the other, 
and thus the whole structure is made one." 
Remembering this, I became anxious to see 
how far either of these rules had been observed 
by three of the great masters of English verse. 
I find that Milton and Wordsworth observed 
neither, sometimes ending the octave with a 
grammatical stop and sometimes making no 
pause at all. Shakespere, I believe, always 
makes a pause, but sometimes it is only a 
comma or a semicolon. h. a. s. 

Allbntown, Penn. 


Mercy E. Baker, who had a poem, "The 
Old Decoy Duck," in the October Atlantic 
Monthly, and another, "The Hunt," in the 
October Critic^ is a resident of Westport Point, 
Mass. She has cared for art first and most,* 
and has done less writing than illustrating, 

1 68 


outdoor work, and miniatures, but, besides the 
two poems already mentioned, she has had 
poems printed in the "Editor's Drawer" of 
Harper's and in the Brown Book, 

Alma Martin Estabrook, whose story, "The 
Requital," was printed in Harper's Magazine 
for September, is a short-story writer whose 
work has appeared in Lippincott's Magazine, 
the Cosmopolitan , Current Literature, Mun- 
sey's Magazine, Vogue, the Overland Monthly, 
Short Stories, and the Woman's Home Com- 
panion. Lippincott's will soon publish her 
novelette, " My Cousin Patrura," a story of 
modern cosmopolitan life, and her first >long 
novel is in the hands of the Lippincott Com- 
pany. Mrs. Estabrook was born in Greenfield, 
Indiana, but is now living in California, having 
previously spent several years in Colorado. 

Susan Keating Glaspell, whose political story, 
"In the Face of His Constituents," was printed 
in Harper's Magazine for October, is a grad- 
uate of Drake University, Des Moines, and 
was employed in newspaper work in that city 
for several years. This work was largely of a 
political nature, as she had the state house as- 
signment, and her experiences and the things 
that came to her notice then have furnished 
the basis of the political stories that she has 
written in the past year. Miss Glaspell has 
had stories in the Youth's Companion, the Met- 
ropolitan, the National Magazine, and the 
Brown Book, and she has a prize story soon 
to come out in the Black Cat, having won the 
prize trip to Cuba in the contest that closed 
last year. She has also done some work in 
Chicago publishing houses. 

Florence A. Jones, whose poem, "Way Down 
in Maine," appeared in Lippincott' s Magazine 
for October, is the wife of a jeweler in an Illi- 
nois town, who still uses her maiden name in 
literary work because it is the one under which 
she became known to editors. She was born 
near Madison, Wisconsin, in 1861, and has 
written more or less for a number of years. 
For some time she was engaged in teaching, 
which occupied most of her time, but since her 
marriage she has found more time for literary 

work. She has had poems printed in Lippin- 
cott's, the Criterion, the Smart Set, Current 
Literature, Four O'clock, the Clever Magazine, 
What To Eat, Good Housekeeping, and many 
other magazines and newspapers. 

"Bruno Lessing," author of the story, "The 
End of the Task," in McClure's Magazine for 
October, is in reality Rudolph Block, the liter- 
ary editor of the New York American, and 
also the editor of the Comic Supplement of the 
New York American and Journal, the San 
Francisco Examiner, and the Chicago Ameri- 
can, Mr. Block has just written a book of 
short stories, entitled "Children of Men," 
among which "The End of the Task" is in- 
cluded. All these stories were written under 
his pen name. 

Colin McKay, whose story, "The Mate from 
Maine," appeared in the October number of 
McClure's Magazine, was born in Nova Scotia, 
where Donald McKay, who built the longest 
and swiftest of the famous American clipper 
ships of fifty years ago, and Lockwood McKay, 
who sailed the famous " Sovereign of the Seas," 
were born. He belongs to a branch of the same 
family. Like his ancestors, Mr. McKay has 
followed the sea for a large part of his life. 
When on shore he has worked more or less 
for the Montreal newspapers, and he has had 
stories accepted by Ainslee's and McClure's. 
McClure's has several ot his stories now on 
hand. Mr. McKay says that he has been to 
sea in almost every capacity, even once serv- 
ing as a stoker on a "puffing billy." when they 
lost most of their crew in Santos and had to 
work the vessel short-handed to Rio, and that 
the adventures which he relates in his stories 
are, or have been, actual occurrences. 

Gouverneur Morris, whose story, "The 
Strawberry Preserves," was printed in the 
Metropolitan for September, and who also had 
a poem, "The Drummer," in the Century for 
the same month, is a young New Yorker who 
is at present staying in California. He finds 
California so delightful that he says when it is 
discovered everybody will go there to live and 
then it will be spoiled. Mr. Morris is at pres- 

The Writer. 


•ent engaged on three books, five short stories, 
seven descriptive articles, and perhaps fifty 
pieces of verse, but as he declares that he ad- 
mires the world very much and is unusually 
glad to be alive, and, moreover, says that he 
would rather be good friends with everybody 
than be Shakespeare, it is doubtful when any 
of these will be finished. 

H. G. Rhodes, whose story, "An Occupation 
for the Unemployed," appeared in the October 
number of Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly 1 
was born in Cleveland, and is a Harvard grad- 
uate. For four years he was with H. S. Stone 
& Co., of Chicago, and did editorial work and 
writing on the Chap-Book during almosW its 
whole career. The past four years, he has 
lived abroad, spending most of his time in 
London. He has had stories and miscellaneous 
articles in McClure's Magazine, the Cosmo- 
politan, the Saturday Evening Post, Collier's 
Weekly, and the Windsor Magazine, in Eng- 
land. Mr. Rhodes is also a playwright, having 
collaborated with Anthony Hope in the play, 
" Captain Dieppe," in which John Drew is now 

Florence E. Stryker, author of the story, "A 
Lapse in Doctrine," in the October number of 
Short Stories, is a Vassar college woman, and 
a graduate of the University of Michigan. 
For some years she has been teaching history 
in a large private school near Washington, D. C. 
She has had stories published in Harper's 
Weekly, the Churchman, Munseys Magazine, 
Short Stories, and other periodicals. In 1901 
she won the prize in the Short Stories competi- 
tion by a story, " The Pilgrimage of Madolena." 

Fanny Rogers White, whose story, "Living 
Pictures," was printed in the National Maga- 
zine for August, began her work by making 
photographic illustrations for the writings of 
others. At one time she had been making pic- 
tures of her own home, which was rather un- 
usual and artistic in its construction, and which 
had been designed by her husband and herself. 
A Southern writer suggested writing a story of 
the building of the house, using pictures by 
Mrs. White to illustrate it. The outcome was 
the serial, "The House that Jack and Jill 

Built," which ran in the Delineator, This was 
so successful that other similar work followed, 
until Mrs. White says she was surprised to 
find herself writing verses and stories of her 
own and making pictures for them. Her work 
has been accepted by St. Nicholas, Country 
Life in America, the New England Maga- 
zine, the Brown Book, Good Housekeeping, the 
Churchman, the Youth's Companion, the La- 
dies' World, and the New Idea, besides the 
National Magazine and the Delineator. The 
story of "Living Pictures" was suggested by t 
the Dutch painting called "Cat's Eyes," and 
Mrs. White's own little daughter and a pet cat 
were the models for the illustrations. Mrs. 
White says that she is constantly seeing sto- 
ries in pictures, and is always trying to frame 
these stories in verse and prose. This habit 
of finding suggestions in pictures has made 
most of her writings imaginative, and as the 
little people are the imaginative ones, her 
verses and stories have been mostly juvenile. 

John Fleming Wilson, whose story, "Peer- 
ing Jimmy," appeared in the Metropolitan for 
October, is a graduate of Princeton, and divides 
his time between San Francisco and Portland, 
Oregon. His first story was published in 
Munsey's Magazine in 1900, and he has since 
had about twenty-five stories in Pacific coast 
magazines, such as the Overland Monthly, the 
San Francisco News-Letter, and the Argonaut. 
He has been an editorial writer and special 
story writer on the Oregonian and the Tele- 
gram, both published in Portland, Oregon. 
Mr. Wilson has lived on a ranch, and worked 
at salmon canning, and has traveled much, hav- 
ing visited the Japanese and Siberian coasts, 
as well as Central America. He says that he 
hopes some day to write a story of the Pacific 
coast life that will convey a little of the man- 
fulness, the strength, and the crude, elemental 
passionateness. of those who get their living 




American English Criticised. — "To read 
American," said the Melancholy Author, "is 
a disheartening experience." 

The Timorous Reporter suggested, as deli- 



cately as possible, that the English language 
as spoken here had been called "American" 
before — that his distinguished interlocutor 
wis not a pioneer in that region of humor. 

"For example," continued the Melancholy 
Author, " I have the unhappiness to read here 
in this newspaper that a certain man 'got mar- 
ried.' That's what they always say — a man 
does not; marry; he 'gets married,' and, I sup- 
pose, 'gets lived happily' ever after. It is 
most dejecting." 

"In justice to the newspapers," said the 
Timorous Reporter, " I should like to point out 
that they use the word ' marry ' as seldom as 
possible. They say 'wed.'" 

The Melancholy Author fixed upon the 
Finder of Excuses a terrible regard! "The 
man who in cold prose, and himself cold sober, 
will write the word 'wed,' in any of its moods 
and tenses, is an immortal ass." 

That is what the Melancholy Author said. 
The Timorous Reporter asked if there were 
other imperfections in the "American " tongue. 

" They say ' the most unique,' " he answered. 
"A thing is altogether unique or it is not 
unique at all; there can be no degrees of — of 

— uniquity. That is unique which is unlike 
all other things; if it have a fellow, it is not 

"Then why do they say 'dirt ' for 'earth'? 

— 'the dirt was removed from the excavation. 1 
'.Dirt' has been defined as 'matter out of 
place,' though all matter out of place is not 
dirt. When you say 'dirt' you ought to mean 
something disagreeable; there is nothing disa- 
greeable in fresh earth. 

"Why do they say 'tear' down a building 
instead of 'pull 'down? A building is not a 
textile fabric. A tent is, but that is not said to 
be ' torn ' down ; it is ' taken ' down. 

"The writers of our beloved country (the 
land of the free and the home of the European 
peasant) treat other foreign languages almost 
as badly as they do the English. A little while 
ago they were all writing about 'Seflor Emilio 
Aguinaldo.' Some of them, however, pre- 
ferred to call him ' Don Aguinaldo.' All were 
wrong. We should say 'Don Emilio' and 
'Seftor Aguinaldo.' This is a stupidity of the 
same character as that of the French journal- 

ists, by whom that illustrious Englishman, Sir 
Shadrach Byles, is mentioned as 'Sir Byles.' 
In this country, by the way, Sir Shadrach 
would be described as 'a scion of nobility.' 
The other day I saw the son of Joseph Cham- 
berlain, the British Colonial Secretary, head- 
lined by a Wheeling paper as a 'peer.' But 
when an English paper mentions Minnesota as 
the capital of Connecticut we think it becom- 
ing in us to smile." 

The Timorous Reporter ventured to intimate 
that the discussion was diverging from the 
original topic, and that the reciprocal ignor- 
ances of nations concerning one another was a 
rather wide field. Absorbed in the contempla- 
tion of human unworth, the Oracle heeded not, 
but gave one hundred more horrible examples, 
too long to quote and too interesting to abridge, 
and proceeded thus : — 

"Our newspapers are talking (most respect- 
fully, I admit) of the new King of Servia as 
' Peter the First.' They " 

The Reporter interrupted to explain that 
that was the official title that His Majesty had 
formally adopted. 

•'Well," said the great man, " I don't want 
to be hard on sons of swineherds, but the fel- 
low seems to be as prescient as the man who 
minted the valuable ancient coin that bore the 
date '347 B. C How the devil does he know 
that there is to be a Peter the Second? — Am- 
brose Bierce, in the New York American. 

The Necessity of Being Brief. — "If you 
have a good incident about which to group a 
story," said one of the literary agents who 
undertake the job of selling the young writer's 
copy, "that incident is worth a certain amount 
of narrative. It may be equal to 1,500 words 
or it may be strong and intense enough to 
make 3,000 possible. 

"Young writers over-elaborate. One came 
yesterday with a story more than 6,000 words 
long. I told the author that the central idea 
was good and the story readily marketable if 
he reduced it to 1,500 words. Of course, he 
was furious and will send around the story to- 
magazines. After it has been refused by all 
of them he will condense it to 1,500 words and 
bring it back to me. 

" And how he will criticise the tastes of the 



magazine Readers which compel him to con- 
dense his story. He will say that he is not 
allowed lo put in character, observation, wit, 
or anything but the skeleton of his plot. 

"That is unfortunately true, so far as the 
beginner is concerned. In his case the editors 
want a story quickly told. After he has 
acquired a reputation it may be possible for 
him to digress from the facts of his plot." — 
New York Sun. 


The Development of the Drama. By Brander Matthews. 
351 pp. Cloth, #1.25, net. New York : Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 1903. 

For the first time in a single volume, Pro- 
fessor Matthews tells in u The Development 
of the Drama " the story of the slow evolution 
of the drama from its rude beginnings down 
through the ages to the pictorial complexity of 
the present day. His desire has been to bring 
out the essential unity of the history of the 
drama, and to make plain the principles under- 
lying the art of the stage. " These drama- 
turgic principles," he says, "are not mere 
rules laid down by theoretical critics, who 
have rarely any acquaintance with the actual 
theater ; they are laws, inherent in the nature 
of the art itself, standing eternal, as immiti- 
gable to-day as when Sophocles was alive, 
or Shakspere, or Moliere. ... To M. Ferdi- 
nand Brunetiere — who profited, perhaps, by a 
hint of Hegel's — we owe the clearest state- 
ment of one important law only dimly per- 
ceived by earlier critics. He declares that 
the drama differs from the other forms of 
literature in that it must always deal with 
some exertion of the human will. If a play is 
really to interest us, it must present a struggle; 
its chief character must desire something, 
striving for it with all the forces of his being. 
... He may be thwarted by some over- 
powering antagonist, or may be betrayed by 
some internal weakness of his own soul; but 
the strength of the play and its interest to the 
spectator will lie in the balance of the con- 
tending forces. . . . And here we may per- 
ceive a reason why the modern novel of char- 
acter-analysis can very seldom be dramatized 
successfully." Professor Matthews also lays 
stress on the contention of the late Francisque 
Sarcey, who "maintained that every subject 
for a play, every theme, everv plot, contained 
certain possible scenes which the plavwright 
was bound to present on the stage. These he 
called the seines d faire, the scenes which had 
to be done, which could not be shirked, but 
must be shown in action." " M. BrunetieVe's 

law," says Professor Matthews, "helps us to 
perceive the necessary subject-matter ot the 
drama; and M. Sarcey's suggestion calls our 
attention to the necessary prestntation of the 
acutest moments of the struggle before our 
eyes. The drama has other laws also, due to 
the fact that it is an art; it has its conventions, 
by which alone it is allowed to differ irom 
nature." Some of these conventions are ehsen- 
tial, and therefore eternal. *' It is a condition 
precedent to any enjojment of a play that the 
fourth wall of every room shall be removed, so 
that we can see what is going on, also that 
the actors shall keep their faces turned toward 
us, and that they shall raise their voices so 
that we can hear what they have to say." The 
dramatist must present his theme void of all 
the accessories that would encumber it in real 
life, showing us only the vital episode, and 
ordering his plot so that everything is clear 
before our eyes, and he must be brief : the 
speech of every character must be stripped of 
the tautology, of the digressions, of the irrele- 
vancies which dilute every-day conversation. 
These things are essential and we find them 
alike in the ancient drama and in the modern. 
The dramatist, as he composes, must always 
bear in mind the players, the playhouse, and 
the play-goers. He must also conform always 
to the taste of those to whom he is appealing. 
He mav seek to improve that taste, to elevate 
it and purify it, but he cannot ignore it. If he 
fails to consider it, his play will fail also. 
And he must not expect too much of his 
audience. An old London stage-manager once 
said : " If you want the British public to 
understand anything, you must tell them you 
are going to do it, next you must tell them 
you are doing it, and at last you must tell 
them you have done it — and then, confound 
'em, perhaps they'll understand you ! " 

Having discussed briefly the art of the 
dramatist, Professor Matthews considers the 
development of the drama. " If only we could 
behold all the links," he says, "we should be 
able to trace an unbroken chain from the 
crudest mythological pantomime of primitive 
man down to the severest problem-play of the 
stern Scandinavian whose example has been 
so stimulating to the modern stage." First 
taking uo Greek tragedy, he notes that it is 
from religious exercises, set off always with 
music and often with dancing, that the drama 
has evolved itself in almost every literature — 
in Chinese, for example, and again in Sanskrit. 
Then he shows how Greek tragedy began in 
the Dionysiac commemorations with the dithy- 
ramb, "a swinging hymn to Dionysus, sung by 
a chorus of youths, sometimes somewhat under 
the influence of new wine." He traces its 
development by iCschylus, Sophocles, ard 



Euripides, the first of wnum introduced the 
second actor, and the second, the third actor. 
Next he takes up the subject ot Greek and Ro- 
man comedy — wnicn "j>cems to nave sprung 
into Deiug at the vintage testival ot the uree* 
villagers, when all was jovial gaiety and jesting 
license in honor of Dionysus" — and shows 
how it was developed by Aristophanes, Me- 
nander, Plautus, and Terence. Then came the 
Middle Ages, and "for a thousand years and 
more the nistory of the drama is ail darkness 
and vacancy; and we have not a single name 
recorded ot any author writing plays to be per- 
formed by actors, in a theater, uelore an audi- 
ence. . . . The art of acting was a lost art, 
and the theaters themselves fell into ruin." 
When at last the new 'drama came into lite, 
the germ of it was religious, and it was slowly 
elaborated from what was at first only a 
casual accompaniment of public worship. . . . 
Latin was the language ot the church and of 
its liturgy; and it is out of the Latin liturgy 
of the Christian church that the drama of the 
modern European languages has been slowly 
developed. . . . There was a steady growth, 
beginning with a single brief scene acted within 
the church, by the priests, in Latin, and almost 
as part of the liturgy, and developing, in the 
course of time, into a sequence of scenes, acted 
by laymen outside the church, in the vernacu- 
lar, and wholly disconnected from the service." 
Thus the commemoration in the church of the 
chief events in the life of Jesus became in time 
the passion-play, which after it had become a 
mystery, " was found to be too unwieldy for 
presentation in the church itself and too bur- 
densome for the clergy to perform. ... At 
first the church was the only body having at 
once the desire and the resources to execute 
so onerous a task. But when the gilds arose 
in time, and when burghers banded together 
and craftsmen combined, it became possible 
for the church to relinquish the control of the 
mysteries to lay organizations." Then was 
added " the element of humor, of joyous gaiety, 
of vivacious realism, and often indeed of reck- 
less vulgarity." 

11 Closely allied to the mystery was the 
miracle-play, which may have come into being 
even before the Easter cycle had elaborated 
itself into a passion-play. A sequence of epi- 
sodes taken from Holy Writ we now call a 
mystery; what we now call a miracle-play is a 
sequence taken from the life of some wonder- 
working saint." The medieval drama had all 
the elements of a vital drama, but in all medie- 
val literature there is no born playwright; and 
there is no born poet who wrought in dialogue 
and action. 

In time the medieval drama was able to take 
as the central figure of its struggling episodes 

a hero of secular legend, or of romantic narra- 
tive, or even of actual fact. So the chronicle- 
play came into being, " prepared to be per- 
tormed by professional actors at regular 
intervals, in a building set apart for the pur- 
pose, before an audience that had paid its way 

Having thus .shown the development of the 
drama to something like its present condition, 
Professor Matthews in successive chapters 
treats of the drama in Spain, in England, and 
in France, and then in the 18th and the 19th 
centuries. A brief chapter on "The Future 
of the Drama " closes the book, which deserves 
a careful reading by every one who is interested 
in play writing or in the story of the stage. 

w. H. H. 

The Criminal Classbs; Causes and Curbs. By D. R. 
Miller, D D. Illustrated. 237 pp. Cloth, $1.00, net. 
Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. 1903. 

Dr. Miller has had official dealings with 
criminals in Ohio for more.than twenty years, 
and in this book he gives the result of his 
observations and experience. Inside oppor- 
tunities have enabled him to gather many 
facts and note many incidents which furnish 
material for interesting and instructive narra- 
tives, and to form opinions regarding crime and 
its prevention obtainable in no other way. 
Everything like sensationalism has been 
avoided in the book, which is of special value 
to students of sociology, psychology, and crim- 

Judgment. By Alice Brown. Illustrated. 195 pp. Cloth, 
fi.25. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1903. 

Alice Brown is making for herself a place 
among the very best American writers, but 
"Judgment " will not add much to her reputa- 
tion. It shows less maturity than her other 
recent books, and it reads as if it were an early 
manuscript, the product of apprentice days, 
brought out now to meet the demand that her 
fine work has created. "Judgment" is not 
an uninteresting story, but it is not convincing, 
and the characters do not compel you to belief 
in their reality. The plot turns upon the 
effort to keep from a young girl knowledge of 
wrong-doing by her betrothed before he met 
her, and the behavior of the characters is not 
inspired by that sound common sense that 
must be the basis of all sane fiction. It is 
hard to believe that "Judgment" has been 
written since " Margaret Warrener." To one, 
at least, of Miss Brown's ardent admirers the 
story is a distinct disappointment. 

W. H. H. 

The Fortunes of Fifi. By Molly Elliot Seawell. Illus- 
trated. 2jg pp. Cloth, $1.50. Indianapolis: The Bobb»- 
Merrill Company. 1903. 

The publishers have given to "The Fortunes 
of Fifi " a most attractive dress. The fancy 



cover, with its dainty flower design and its 
embossed silver lettering, the colored illustra- 
tions by T. de Thulstrup, and the handsome 
letter-press all delight the eye, and make the 
book seductive. Mile. Fifi herself, the little 
leading actress of an obscure theatre in Paris 
in the time of Napoleon, is a lively, inconse- 
quential creature, whose personality possesses 
a certain charm, even though her adventures 
may not appeal to the reason oi the reader. 
Her airy absurdities are set against the back- 
ground of a sturdy soldier, favored by Napo- 
leon, who loves Fifi devotedly, and whose 
unselfish devotion wins for him the affection 
of the reader. 

Letters Home. By William Dean Howells. 299 pp. Cloth, 
#1.50. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1003. 

Perhaps Mr. Howells wanted to disprove the 
modern theory that stories told in the foim of 
letters cannot be successful. At all events, in 
" Letters Home " he has proved the opposite, 
and has given the epistolary novel standing 
among modern literary forms. The book is 
made of letters written from New York by 
people from various places who are thrown 
together there, and in this correspondence an 
interesting love story is worked out. The let- 
ters are written with all the delicate skill that 
has made the author famous, and their variety 
and the consistency of those written by the 
contrasted characters show the power of the 
master workman. The book abounds in those 
delightful touches of human nature that readers 
of Howells always enjoy so much, and every 
now and then you come upon an epigram or a 
phrase so felicitous that you involuntarily store 
it away in memory to enrich your future con- 
versation. The plot of the story is not so 
satisfying as the manner of the telling of it, 
but we have learned not to expect too much in 
the way of plots from Mr. Howells. It is 
enough that the book is a delightful one, with 
a charm that will fascinate all the author's old 
admirers and win for him innumerable new 
ones. w. h. h. 

The Boss. By Alfred Henry Lewis. Illustrated. 409 pp. 
Cloth, $1 50. New York : A. S. Barnes & Company. 1903. 

To read " The Boss" is to get a liberal edu- 
cation in the tricks of New York politics. It 
is a strong and interesting story of the life- 
history of a typical Tammany chief, showing 
how he rose step by step to power, and inci- 
dentally showing how New York is controlled by 
Tammany, and how the Tammany "machine " 
is *' oiled " and run. The book does not catch 
the reader's interest at the beginning, because 
the author's style, in an attempt to present the 
individuality of the uneducated boss telling his 
story with the aid of a newspaper writer, is 
harsh and unnatural, but when the action be- 

gins this trouble ends, and from that time on 
the story wholly absorbs th£ reader. No one 
who struggles through the first dozen pages of 
the book will like afterward to lay it down un- 
finished, w. H. H. 

A Master Hand. By Richard. Dallas. 257 pp. Cloth,. 
$1.00, net. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1903. 

"A Master Hand" is a detective story, tell- 
ing of the murder of a young bachelor in his 
New York apartment, and pursuing the in- 
vestigation of the crime to a solution of the 
mystery. The author's style is careless, and 
not infrequently ungrammatical, — as, for in- 
stance, in the clause u at the poor boy whom I 
knew lay on the divan," — but his sto?y is 
better than his style, and the reader is held in 
proper suspense until the end is near. The 
book serves a useful purpose in showing the 
danger of depending on what seems conclusive 
circumstantial evidence or formirg judgments 
based on data that are incomplete. It will 
please those who like a lively story. 

Cruising Among the Caribbbbs. By Charles Augustus 
Stoddard. Illustrated. Revised and enlarged edition 246 
pp. Cloth, $1.50. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The first edition of Mr. Stoddard's " Cruis- 
ing Among the Caribbees," published in 1895, 
won immediate success, because of its graceful, 
entertaining descriptions of life in the West 
Indies. Mr. Stoddard is not only a skilful 
writer, but he is an experienced traveller and 
a trained observer, and he always puts before 
the reader just the things the reader wants to 
see. This new edition brings his facts up to 
date, and chapters have been added on the de- 
struction of St. Pierre, the Island of Jamaica, 
and our new possession, Porto Rico. The 
book is full of valuable information, and its 
authority is unquestioned. There are also 
many interesting illustrations. 

His Little World: The Story of Hunch Badbau. By 
Samuel Merwin. Illustrated by Alonzo Kimball. 201 pp. 
Cloth, #1.25. New York : A. S. Barnes & Co. 1903. 

There is no apology for the rudeness of 
scene, speech, or manner, the existing condi- 
tions, or the results, in the telling of the story 
of Hunch Badeau. The tale is all action and 
conversation from beginning to end, the epi- 
sodes requiring no description or explanation 
of the character of this crude naiure's noble- 
man. John Badeau utterly lacks polish and 
accomplishment, but is of staunch honor and 
has a will of iron. His diffidence and self- 
effacement in his love affair are a fine foil for 
his courage and determination on the water. 
He comes of the old type of skipper who rules 
an unquestioned master on board his ship, and 
does not hesitate to thrash his subordinate 
soundly with one hand, for cowardice and in- 



temperance, while with the other he feeds the 
needy family and pays its debts. The tale is 
soon toli in type clear and bold, and the tell- 
ing is helped not a little by the illustrations, 
which though few in number, are an attractive 
feature. c. m. h. 

The Hbrmit. By Charles Clark Munn. Illustrated. 406 
pp. Cloth, $1.50. Boston: Lee & Shepard. 1903. 

Readers who enjoy the types of character 
pictured in "Pocket Island " and "Uncle 
Terry" will welcome "The Hermit" by the 
same author. Mr. Munn's new book has to 
deal with life in the vast wilderness of the 
Maine forest, alternating with the incidents of 
a gossipy town. It runs along without great ad- 
venture, smoothly and pleasantly, with touches 
of the pathos and humor common to characters 
of simple, domestic village life. The plot is of 
less consequence than the rich enthusiasm and 
good descriptions of out-door life, untrammeled 
and free. There is a genuineness in the love 
of hunting and fishing as here pictured, and of 
the wildness of camp-life, where one is soothed 
by the resinous fragrance of the evergreen, 
and the vigor of mountain air. The trend of 
the story is simple and wholesome, and the 
book is rightly dedicated to devotees of camp 
life. C. M. h. 

A Calendar of John Paul Jonks Manuscripts in the 
Library of Congress. Compiled under the direction of 
Charles Henry Lincoln, Ph.D. 316 pp. Washington: 
Government Printing Office. 1903. 

A List of Lincolniana in the Library of Congress. By 
George Thomas Ritchie. 75 pp. Washington : Government 
Printing Office. 1003. 

A List of Books on Mercantile Marine Subsidies. Com* 
piled under the direction of A. P. C. Griffin, becond edition, 
with additions. 100 pp. Washington : Government Print- 
ing Office. 1903. 

To the valuable series of bibliographies 
being issued by the Library of Congress three 
important additions have been made. The 
calendar of John Paul Jones manuscripts sum- 
marizes the manuscripts that are catalogued, 
and will be invaluable to historians and to 
others interested in the admiral's career. The 
list of Lincolniana catalogues the Lincoln 
manuscripts in two parts, one devoted to Lin- 
coln's own writings and the other to writings 
regarding him. The list of books on Mercan- 
tile Marine Subsidies includes also references 
to periodicals, and this second edition contains 
much new material. 

New Fortunes. By Mabel Earle. Illustrated. 268 pp. 
Cloth, $1.25, net. New York: A. S. Barnes & Company. 

That taking good care of a brother is worth 
the effort is well shown in Mabel Earle's 
spirited story, "New Fortunes: How Molly 
and Her Brothers Came to Boulder Gulch." 
The love features of the plot are the beautiful 
affection of two brothers for their younger 
sister, and her equal devotion to both the 

steadfast and the wayward one. Molly is a 
clear-minded cheery girl, a natural housekeeper, 
and the brave courage of the sister whose faith 
in her wayward brother never wavers is a 
beautiful illustration of the possibilities of the 
good which may be accomplished quietly in 
the home, even though it be but a rude cabin 
in the mining district of the far, far West. 

c. M. h. 


Recollections, Personal and Literary. By Richard 
Henry Stoddard. Edited by Ripley Hitchcock. Illustrated. 
333 PP- Cloth, #1.50, net. New York: A. S. Barnes & 
Co. 1903. 

A Candle of Understanding. By Elizabeth Bisland. 306 
pp. Cloth, $1.50. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1903. 

Thb Star Drbambr. By Agnes and Egerton Castle. 375 
pp Cloth, $1.50. New York: Frederick A.Stokes Com- 
pany. 1903. 

Thb Early History of thb Maumbb Vallby. By John E. 
Gunckel. Illustrated. 101 pp. Cloth, #1.00. Toledo: 
J. E. Gunckel. 1902. 

Half-a-Dozbn Housekeepers. By Kate Douglas Wiggin. 
Illustrated. 16a pp. Cloth, 75 cents. Philadelphia: Henry 
Alt emus Company. 1903. 

Tbnnbssbb Todd. By G. W. Ogden. 344 pp. Cloth, $1.50. 
New York. A. S. Barnes & Co. 1903. 

Thb Circlb in thb Square. By Baldwin Sears. 396 pp. 
Cloth, $1.50. New York : A. S. Barnes & Co. 1903. 

Within thb Palb. By Midiael Davitt. 300 pp. Cloth, 
$1.20, net. New York : A S. Barnes & Co. 1903. 

Thb Man Without a Country. By Edward Everett Hale. 
Printed in the ea*y reporting style of Benn Pitman phonog- 
raphy. 29 pp. Paper, 25 cents. Cincinnati : The Phono- 
graphic Institute Company. 1903. 

Dogs of All Nations. By Conrad J. Miller. Illustrated. 
»43 PP- Cloth, $1.50. New York: J. S. Ogilvie Publish- 
ing Company. 1903. 

Onb for Many. Confessions of a Young Girl. By " Vera." 
191 pp. Cloth, 25 cents. New York: J. S. Ogilvie Pub- 
lishing Company. 1903. 

Breakers Ahead, or Whithbr are Wb Drifting? By 
James R. Griffing. 116 pp. Paper, 25 cents. New York: 
J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Company. 1903. 

The Sociable Ghost. By Olive Harper. Illustrated. 235 
pp. Cloth, $1.50. New York : J. S. Ogilvie Publishing 
Company. 1903. 

Mr. Claghorn's Daughter. By Hilary Trent. 277 pp. 
Cloth, $1.00. New York: J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Com- 
pany. 1903. 


[ The publishers of Thb Writbr will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
on receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents postage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the article* Mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention Thb Writbr when they write.] 

Thackeray's Friendship with an American Family. 
Illustrated. Century (38 c.) for November. 

American Epigrams. Brander Matthews. Harper's 
Magazine (38 c.) for November. 

** Juvbnilb Litbraturb (So-callbd)." John Preston 
True. A tlantic ( 38 c. ) for November. 

The writer. 


Walt Whitman as an Editor. Charles M. Skinner. 
Atlantic ( 38 c. ) for November. 

The Problem op the American Historian. William 
Garrott Brown. Atlantic ( 38 c. ) for November. 

Journalism. Sir Leslie Stephen. Atlantic (38 c.) for 

Avowals. Being the Third of a New Series of " Confessions 
of a Young Man." George Moore. Lippincott's Magazine 
(28 c.) for November. 

A Postscript on Ruskin., Vernon Lee. North American 
Review ( 53 c. ) for November. 

Thr Vice of Reading. Edith Wharton. North A merican 
Review ( 53 c. ) for October. 

Thk Nation's Print Shop and Its Methods. Illus- 
trated. J. D. Whelpley. American Review of Reviews 
( 28 c.) for November. 

The Old Corner Book-Store. The famous literary land- 
mark of Boston, and the men who met there. Illustrated. 
New England Magazine (28 c.) for November. 

Op the Genuine Text of Shakespeare. Judge Webb. 
National Review ( 78 c. ) for October. 

Literature: The Making and Re-making of Nations. 
Herbert W. Horwill. Forum ( 53 c. ) for October-December. 

Two Estimates op Browning. (Robert Browsing, by G. 
K. Chesterton ; The Poetry of Robert Browning, by Stopford 
A. Brooke.) W. P. Trent. Forum (53c.) for October- 

Some Remarks on the Study of English Verse. Henry 
van Dyke. Atlantic ( 38 c. ) for October. 

Some Early Impressions.— II. Sir Leslie Stephen. At- 
lantic ( 38 c. ) for October. 

Henry Ward Beech br. Lyman Abbott. Atlantic (38 c. ) 
for October. 

The American Man of Letters. Horace E. Scudder* 
Booklovers Magazine ( 28 c. ) for October. 

Dual Personality in Literature. Albert Elmer Han- 
cock. Booklovers Magazine ( 28 c. ) for October. 

The South in American Letters. George Edward Wood- 
berry. Harper 1 s Monthly (38 c.) for October. 

Literary Portraits prom the Sixties. Justin McCar- 
thy. Harper's Monthly (38 c.) for October. 

" Labby " ( Henry Labouchere ). Illustrated. T. P. O'Con- 
nor. Everybody's Magazine ( 13 c. ) for October. 

An Illustrator of Wild Animal Life (Arthur Fleming). 
With portrait. Metropolitan ( 18 c. ) for October. 

Avowals. Being the Second of a New Series of '* Confes- 
sions of a Young Man." George Moore. Lippincott's Maga- 
zine ( 28 c. ) for October. 

Charles Rbadb's Novels. Walter Frewen Lord. Re- 
printed from the Nineteenth Century and After in the Eclectic 
(28 c.) for October. 

The Goncourt Academy. J. H. Rosny. Reprinted from 
the Fortnightly Review in the Eclectic (28 c.) for October. 

Personal Advertising in Literature. Michael White. 
Reader ( 28 c. ) for October. 

Reminiscences of an Intbrvibwbr.— VI. Reader (28 c. ) 
for October. 

Men op Letters at Columbia. With portraits of Geonre 
E. Woodberry, W. P. Trent, Brander Matthews, Curtis Hidden 
Page, Harry Thurston Peck, and Frank Dempster Sherman. 
George S. Hellman. Critic (28 c. ) for October. 

William Ernest Hbnlby : Some Mpmoribs and Impres- 
sions. Sidney Low. Reprinted from the Cornhill Magazine 
in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for October 17. 

In the Brbt Hartb Country. Winifred Black. Reader 
(28 c.) for October. 

Balzac's Short Stories. Ferdinand Brunette re. Critic 
(28 c.) for October. 

Emerson the Man. R. Heber Newton, D. D. Arena 
(28 c.) for October. 

Tolstoy's Marriage and Family Lifb. Illustrated. 
Edward A. Steiner. Outlook ( 13 c.) for October 3. 

A Fbw Observations on Modern Tragedy. Jane H. 
Findlater . Reprinted from the National Review in the L iving 
Age ( 18 c. ) for October 17. 

Walter Patbr. Edward Hutton. Reprinted from the 
Monthly Review. in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for October 24. 


Ad authorized life of John Fiske has been 
prepared from his remaining papers, letters, 
and documents, and will be brought out anony- 
mously in two volumes by the Macmillan Com- 

A biography of Zola, the work of Ernest 
Alfred Vizetelly, translator of his novels, is to 
be published this month by John Lane. It will 
be fully illustrated, with facsimiles of letters, 
etc., and will contain bibliography and index. 

The authorized biography of the late Dean 
Farrar is in preparation by his son, Dr. R. A. 
Farrar, and will be completed and published in 
the early spring. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 
are the American publishers. 

Mrs. Perugini is writing a life of her father, 
Charles Dickens, with the assistance of her 
brother, Henry Fielding Dickens. The Dick, 
ens family were by no means satisfied with 
Forster's monumental work, by which its au- 
thor gained ^12,000. 

The correct way to pronounce the name of 
Maeterlinck, the Belgian author and dramatist, 
is as if it were spelled Mahterlink, not May- 
terlink, or Meterlink, as it is variously called. 
The French pronounce it Mayterlink because 
the sound of ae in French is a, but in Belgian 
French the ae is pronounced ah. 

The engagement is announced of Israel 
Zangwill and Edith, daughter of Professor W. 
E. Ayrton. Miss Ayrton is the author of a 
number of short stories. 

Schedules in the assignment of the New 
Amsterdam Book Company, New York, show 
liabilities $17,117 and actual assets $16,941. 



Emerson Hough of Chicago, known for 
nearly twenty years over the signature of " E. 
Hough " as a writer on sporting topics, and the 
author of "The Mississippi Bubble" and other 
books, has taken an interest in Field and 
Stream (New York), and, will assume editorial 
charge January i. 

The Popular Magazine ( New York ), a 
monthly "for boys and old boys," makes its 
first appearance with the November number. 
It is published by Street & Smith. 

The Twentieth Century m Home (New York) 
is a new magazine published by John Brisben 
Walker, editor and publisher of the Cosmopoli- 
tan, and begun with the November number. 

American Motherhood is a new magazine to 
appear in Boston this month. Mrs. E. M. H. 
Merrill is the editor, and Mary Wood Allen, 
M. D., is associate editor. 

Motor is the name of a new monthly pub- 
lished in New York by William R. Hearst, and 
devoted to automobiling and kindred subjects. 

Force is the name of a new St. Louis maga- 
zine, which is devoted to the maintenance of 
health, physical perfection, recreation, and 
gentlemanly sport. John C. Myers is the editor. 

National Progress, the new Chicago maga- 
zine, is owned by W. R. Hearst. 

Wayside Tales will hereafter be published 
by the Sampson-Hodges Company, of Chicago. 

Conkey^s Home yournalhzs been combined 
with the Woman's Magazine, of St. Louis. 

Christendom and the World Today ( Chi- 
cago) have been consolidated under the title, 
the World To-day in Christendom. Professor 
Shailer Mathews is the editor. 

The Fronde, the Paris woman's daily, writ- 
ten and published altogether by women, after 
seven years* existence fighting for the rights 
of "feminisme" has ceased publication. 

Munsey's Magazine offers $100 in prizes for 
the three best topical poems, treating some 
subject of current interest in a humorous or 
satirical way. For the best poem $50 will be 
paid, for the second best, $30, and for the 
third best, $20. The contest will close De- 
cember 15. Any poems, not prize winners, 
worthy of publication, will be purchased. 

The publishers of the Book lovers Magazine 
(Philadelphia) want good short stories, of 
from 8,000 to 10,000 words. They will print 
one story each month, and will pay from $200 
to $500 for accepted manuscripts. 

The National Magazine (Boston) wants 
photographs suitable for cover designs and 
frontispieces; out-of-door scenes will receive 

The Patriotic Review ( Boston ) offers a ten 
dollar gold piece for the best 5ooword article 
on "The Army Canteen," for or against the 
canteen. The contest will close January 1. 

The Pittsburg Gazette offers two prizes of 
$25 each for the best articles on household 

Recent Old South Leaflets consist of re- 
prints of the Massachusetts senate document 
relating to Samuel Hoar's expulsion from 
Charleston in 1844, and of an extract from 
President Dwight's travels in New England, 
entitled, " Boston at the Beginning of the Nine- 
teenth Century." 

Edith Elmer Wood's story, "The Object 
Lesson," in the October Century, is a sequel to 
her longer story, " Martha Ellen at the Chi- 
cago Exposition," which appeared in the same 
magazine about two and a half years ago. 

The subjects of poetry and epigrams are 
discussed at length in the Editor's Easy Chair 
and the Editor's Study of the November 

William Westall died in London-September 
9, aged sixty-nine. 

Henry Demarest Lloyd died at Winnetka, 
111., September 28, aged fifty-six. 

Gen. Bradley T. Johnson died at Rock 
Castle, Virginia, October 5, aged seventy-four. 

Rev. Edward A. Rand died at Watertown, 
Mass., October 5, aged sixty-six. 

Colonel Richard Henry Savage died in New 
York October 11, aged fifty-seven. 

Dr. Marcus M. Jastrow died in Philadelphia 
October 13, aged seventy-four. 

Rt. Hon. William Edward Hartpole Lecky 
died in Dublin October 23, aged sixty -five. 

Albert Dresden Vandam died in London 
October 26, aged sixty. 

The Writer: 


Vol. XVI. 


No. 12. 

tNTlEtO AT THl BOSTON POST-O^Cl AS HCONC-CLASS MAIL JJATTIH . and what jj ba( J A b()y Q £ th j rteenj ^q had 

rrkXTTCWTC been reading, surreptitiously, a ratheT wild 

v^UiN I U.IS 1 ^ : pack A ... . 

Thb Evolution of th. Short-Story Artist. A. E. 8tor y ,n a sensational magazine, recently COn- 

Ciark 177 fessed: " Mamma, I suppose I should have 

Painstaking Writers. H . Adeibtrt White. ... 178 finished it, if it hadn't been so wretchedly 

Editorial Talks with Contributors. XXV11L— >.. „ A ,-..1 , . , , , „ .. 

Br the Editor .f th. H«u.y i*a e „i~. KatH.rin, written." A little later he remarked : « Mamma, 

N. Birdtaii 179 is n't it queer that some things are written so 

Editoriai * 180 well, and other things are written so badly? 

WmtbrJ or thb Day !sa Wnv > vou can/?*/ when you read them whether 

Winifred Arnold, 182 - Rex Ellingwood Beach, 181- tne Y ar C done right or not ! M 

Egbert Wiliard Fowler, 18a — "Jean D. Hailowell," That discovery, though trite enough when 

18*-" Blanche Trennor Heath," ,83- A.hton Hii- reduced to actual expression, marked an epoch 

hers, 183 — Herbert Lawrence Stone, 183 — Anne ..... . . .. 

-Warner 183 ,n nis "terary career, whatever it may be. He 

Personal Gossip About Authors 184 was a Critic. Just at present he is in the Stage, 

Samuel M Clemens, 184- F. Marion Crawford, .84 mentioned before, in which he records long 

— Sir Conan Doyle, 184 — Ellen Thorney croft Fowler, . . . 4 . ^ . 

,84-"HenrySetonMerriman.» .84 se q uen ces of imaginary events, in a "total 

Currrnt Litbrary Topics 185 recall " fashion : but I like to think that I see 

HsLpruL Hints and Suggestions 186 developing a tendency toward the selection of 

ook bvibws. 1 gma u units of related matter, and toward the 

Litbrary Articles in Periodicals 187 

Nbws and Notes 187 keeping of important and unimportant details 

=. in their proper relation. His style, also, I 

THE EVOLUTION OF THE SHORT- trust, will undergo a process of evolution. 

STORY ARTIST. Already he has a fair mastery of sentence 

structure; his paragraphs, though not devel- 

Unless a person who is destined to become oped along lines marked out by the most ap- 
famous as a literary artist is one of the true proved "theory of the paragraph," are pass- 
heaven-born, he begins his career, perl .>ps at able; he instinctively chooses good words; 
an early age, by narrating interminable series and his productions are not conspicuously de- 
of events. Perhaps he wonders why it is that, ficient in spelling or punctuation. Neverthe- 
in his childish attempts, there never seems to less, his style, as a whole, is like his vertical 
be an end to his story. He has not yet grasped writing — stiff and precise. He has much hard 
the idea of the "short story." It may be that word to do before he will be an artist, 
he will not get the true philosophy of that until It may be that this severe and extremely 
he is taught the principles of narration in col- accurate style is a necessary and normal stage 
lege, and is required to write "stories of from in the growth of a writer. At any rate, the 
live hundred to a thousand words " perfunc- habit of care in construction and expression is 
torily. a good foundation for the freer and easier style 

But sometime earlier than that, if he pos- that should come with more mature thought, 

sesses the real germ, there will have dawned If one could find the time for such an exercise, 

upon him a sense of what is good — from a how entertaining it would be to reconstruct 

literary and artistic point of view — in fiction, one's early "themes," remodelling sentences 

Copyright, 1903. by William H. Hills. All rights 1 

i 7 8 


and paragraphs, condensing entire composi- 
tions to one-third their original lengths, and 
giving to the doubtless bright ideas their truly 
artistic setting ! 

There are many phases of literary training 
that bear out the analogy to that of the student 
of art. There is the practice in " composition " 
— in the artist's sense. From the fabric of 
interrelated events and characters, some design 
must be chosen and separated, and smoothly 
finished with all threads carefully fastened ; 
and in the working out of this pattern there 
must be movement and balance. The student 
must find these stories everywhere. Every- 
where, as William Morris said, he will "see 
things going on in these places " ; and in every 
man he will see a motive. 

Moreover, the author as truly may go a- 
sketching with his pencil and note-book as any 
other artist. In his drawing, he has a choice 
of the impressionist or the naturalistic style. 
If the former, the effect and "atmosphere" 
must be produced by telling strokes : situations 
shown by few details; characters suggested 
rather than elaborately drawn. This needs 
practice, study of masterpieces, and more 
practice. If he select the naturalistic method, 
he needs unceasing practice in detailed de- 
scription : he has before him a lifelong course 
in drawing from life — from man and nature. 
It is recorded that, on a certain occasion, 
Flaubert said to his pupil, Guy de Maupassant : 

"You see that cab horse across the street; 
there is just one word in the French language 
to describe his attitude. Find it." 

Finally, behind every form of art there is the 
Idea. It is the writer's own personal inspira- 
tion: and it is his problem to keep his setting, 
his characters, and his technique in harmony 
with the ultimate perfect representation of that 

An enthusiastic Japanese artist who lived a 
century ago once wrote of himself : " From my 
sixth year I had a perfect mania for drawing 
everything I saw. When I had reached my 
fiftieth year I had published a vast quantity of 
drawings, but I was dissatisfied with all that I 
produced before my seventieth year. At 
seventy-three I had some understanding of the 
power and real nature of birds, fish, and plants. 
At eighty I hope to have made farther progress, 
and at ninety to have discovered the ultimate 
foundation of things. In my one-hundredth 
year I shall rise to yet higher spheres unknown, 
and in my one-hundred-and-tenth, every stroke, 
every point, and in fact everything that comes 
from my hand will be alive. Written at the 
age of seventy-five, by me, Hokusai, the old 
man mad with drawing." 

So, too, for the artist in fiction, the way is 
long : but, as our teacher, Stevenson, has told 
us, the greatest satisfaction lies not in the 
arriving, but in the journeying. 

Providence, R. I. A. E. Clark. 


The beginner in the craft hardly realizes 
that the masterpieces of literature have been 
wrought laboriously. Many contributors are 
mortally offended when a manuscript is re- , 
turned ; and if they are questioned, one learns 
that it was something "just dashed off," — and 
of course it ought to be printed. 

The men who write both rapidly and well 
can be counted easily. On the other hand, 
some of the master artists have made many 

revisions. It is said that a young lady, while 
visiting in the household of Mr. Wordsworth, 
tripped down stairs joyfully one morning and 
handed the venerable poet a scrap of paper, 
remarking: "There, Mr. Wordsworth, I have 
spent three whole hours on those verses." 
The great man replied : " Young lady, I have 
spent three weeks on the same number of 
lines." Voltaire once garrulously said : " What 
do you think of my Olytnpie? I wrote it in 

The writer. 


six days." His friend, who had read the pub- 
lished work, rejoined, with as much good 
sense as wit : "You should not have rested on 
the seventh." Tennyson re-wrote one of the 
songs in "Maud" fifty times; Tom Moore 
thought he had done a fine week's work if 
he had completed seventy lines of " Lalla 
Rookh"; Goldsmith is said to have stopped 
the press seven times during the imprinting of 
a single book ; " Two Queens " was revised 
eight times. 

" My books," said John Stuart Mill, "have 
all been written twice over." Hume wrote his 
history three times over. " If I wrote four 
words," said Boileau, " I should erase three." 
Balzac carried his revision far into his printer's 
proofs. Two or three altered sets of proofs 
were nothing to him; of " Pierette " no fewer 
than twenty-six were taken. Frequently whole 
chapters were so changed in proofs that they 
were practically written anew. 

Stevenson says that he once worked two 

days on a single page and afterward felt that 
he should have worked three days on it. Some 
parts of Green's " Making of England "were 
written thrice, others five times. It was said 
of one of Longfellow's poems that it was writ- 
ten in five weeks, but that the poet spent six 
months in correcting it and cutting it down. 
Emerson wrote with great care, and would not 
only revise his manuscript carefully but fre- 
quently rewrite the article upon the proof- 
sheets. La Rochefoucauld rewrote many of 
his maxims more than thirty times. 

Examples are numerous ; in fact, hard work 
alone generally guarantees an author immor- 
tality. No writer should be content with pro- 
ducing something merely fit to print; but his 
endeavor should be to finish work worthy of 
reprint. It is possible, moreover, for one to 
become his best critic, if his taste is only culti- 
vated rightly. 

H. Adelbert White. 

Middlbtown, Conn. 


XXVIII. — By the Editor of the Holiday 

It is the intention of the Holiday Magazine 
to provide healthy literature that will stimulate 
the mind of the child to thought ; to encourage 
the love of country, order, charity and bravery ; 
to suggest the good in everything; and to cul- 
tivate in every child the desire for good litera- 
ture. We aim at the child from eight to ten 
years old, but interest children from five to 

We are particularly in search of very short 
articles of an entertaining nature, with a geo- 
graphical or historical interest; bits of natural 
science; "how to make " new or popular toys, 
devices or useful appliances ; short true stories 
of animals or children. These should be from 
two to eight hundred words in length. 

Historical and true stories of today must be 

uplifting but not "religious," and should con- 
tain fewer than 2,000 words, preferably 1,200. 
Fairy stories are considered. 

All material submitted should be carefully 
polished, and writers are asked to bear in mind 
the fact that a juvenile story requires more 
care than any other, that it must be as true to 
fact as possible, and that it must be well "pol- 

Short, serious poems are desired, especially 
if suited to recitation. 

As the price of the Holiday Magazine is 
only fifty cents a year, we have a wide public 
to appeal to, and hence we do not aim for the 
interest of the "very rich " or the "very poor," 
but rather for the support of the great middle 
class — a connecting link between the school 
and the home. Katharine N. Birdsall. 

New York, N. Y. 


The Writer. 

The Writer. 

Published monthly by the Writer Publishing Company, 146 
Franklin street, Room 32, Boston, Mass. 



%*The Writer is published the first day of every month. 
It will be sent, postpaid, One Ybar for One Dollar. 

*** All drafts and money orders should be made payable to 
The Writer Publishing Co. Stamps, or local checks, should 
not be sent in payment for subscriptions. 

%*Thb Writer will be sent only to those who have paid for 
it in advance. Accounts cannot be opened for subscriptions, 
and names will not be entered on the list unless the subscrip- 
tion order is accompanied by a remittance. 

%*The American News Company, of New York, and the 
New England News Company, of Boston, and their branches, 
are wholesale agents for The Writer. It may be ordered 
from any newsdealer, or direct, by mail, from the publishers. 

%* Not one line of paid advertisement will be printed in 
The Writer outside of the advertising pages. 

%• Advertising in The Writer costs fifteen cents a line, or 
$2. 10 an inch ; seven dollars a quarter page ; twelve dollars a 
half page; or twenty dollars a page, for one insertion, remit- 
tance with the order. Discounts are five, ten, and fifteen 
per cent, for three, six, and twelve months. For continued 
advertising payments must be made quarterly in advance. 

%* Contributions not used will be returned, if a stamped and 
addressed envelope is enclosed. 


146 Franklin street, Room 32, 
P. O. Box 1905. Boston, Mass. 

Vol. XVI. December, 1903. No. 12. 

Short, practical articles on topics connected 
with literary work are always wanted for The 
Writer. Readers of the magazine are invited 
to join in making it a medium of mutual help, 
and to contribute to it any ideas that may 
occur to them. The pages of The Writer 
are always open for any one who has anything 
helpful and practical to say. Articles should 
be closely condensed ; the ideal length is about 
1,000 words. 

To the choice examples of mixed metaphor 
is now added this interesting quotation from a 
wedding notice in a Kansas paper: "May 
their automobile glide smoothly over the sea 
of life, and no stumbling blocks interrupt their 
bark." Another example is found in the intro- 
ductory paragraph of a letter written after the 

death of a prominent^clergy man^in[ Bo ston : — 

Again the axe has been laid to the root of? the tree, not of a 
noisome shrub or of one that cumbereth the ground, but a tall, 
choice cedar of Lebanon has fallen, which we fondly hoped 
would have been spared for many years to come. But an all- 
wise Providence £to whose inscrutable ways we must all bow, 
has now transplanted it to the everlasting hills. 

Imagine an all-wise Providence laying an axe 
to the root of a tall cedar of Lebanon to trans- 
plant it to the everlasting hills ! 


Although good spelling is no longer fash- 
ionable, and success in business life may be 
attained without it, as many of our millionaires 
have shown, writers cannot afford to neglect 
what to them is a most important matter. 
Errors in spelling in a manuscript inevitably 
prejudice readers and editors against it, since 
they give to it an appearance of illiteracy 
which must be much to the disadvantage of 
the author. The ability to spell correctly is 
not a gift, as many bad spellers are only too 
willing to believe. Bad spelling is the .result 
of careless and inaccurate observation, and 
editors and publishers have learned that no 
one who is a careless and inaccurate observer 
can be a successful writer. Slovenly manu- 
script, generally speaking, is almost never 
good manuscript, and it is the common expe- 
rience of editors that the manuscript of good 
writers is generally well prepared, with much 
attention to detail, and that they may usually 
pass by carelessly-written manuscripts without 
fear of losing much. 

Modern elementary education is unsatisfac- 
tory in many ways, but in no respect more so 
than in the matter of orthography. It is 
widely known that a painfully large percentage 
of grammar and high school graduates cannot 
spell correctly even common words, and the 
teachers of English in the colleges complain 
constantly because the students whom they 
have to teach show such ignorance in this re- 
gard. In the old days, when Webster's spell- 
ing-book was one of the well thumbed text- 
books in the common schools, when spelling 
matches stirred up boys and girls to healthful 
rivalry, when good spelling was honorable and 
bad spelling a disgrace, there was little pre- 



tence that good spelling is a gift. Pupils then 
were taught to study the forms of words, to 
look at them carefully as they read, to impress 
on their minds an image of each word which 
they could reproduce mentally at will, and in 
consequence bad spelling was the exception 
rather than the rule. Nowadays there are so 
many fads in the schools, a little attention is 
given so many different things, that there is 
no time to ground the boys and girls thor- 
oughly in the essentials, and in consequence 
we have an annual crop of half-educated grad- 
uates. The children hurry over what they 
read without giving to each letter of each word 
its proper value, and when they come to write 
they find that they have no accurate mental 
image of even common words. # 

Writers who are deficient in this respect, in 
consequence of insufficient drill and training 
in the schools, can correct their faults by care- 
ful observation as they read, and it will pay 
them well to give themselves this discipline. 
Accurate observation is the first essential for 
good writing, and editors are justified in the 
conclusion that if a writer is not a sufficiently 
accurate observer to be able to spell correctly, 
his observations of nature, of life, of human 
character are likewise careless and inaccurate. 
The exceptions to the rule are so few that a 
manuscript marred by misspellings may in 
nine cases out of ten be safelv rejected with- 
out reading more than the first page. 

Careless preparation of manuscripts gener- 
ally is greatly to the disadvantage of the author, 
for a very practical reason that no writer 
should be blind enough to overlook. Before 
any manuscript can be given to the printer 
it must be made •'* perfect copy," clear and 
distinct, with all the punctuation marks in 
proper place, with misspellings corrected, 
with the paragraphs indicated properly, so 
that the compositor can put it in type without 
unnecessary loss of time. Some writers have 
the foolish idea that in making manuscript 
such things are of no importance. " The proof- 
reader will fix it," they say to themselves. 
" It will come out all right in prinf." They 

ought to know that the manuscript has to be 
made perfect long before the proofreader 
sees it, and that if the busy editor does not see 
fit to do the perfecting work that the writer 
should do for himself, the manuscript will 
never come out in print at all. This is par- 
ticularly true in these days of linotypes and 
monotypes, when composition in the printing- 
office is largely done on high priced machines, 
bought to save precious time and absolutely 
demanding perfect copy. Master printers 
cannot afford to have the operators of these 
costly time-saving machines stop to puzzle out 
poor copy, correct misspellings, or decide the 
place of punctuation marks. The copy must 
be right in all respects before it goes to the 
compositor, or all the time-saving advantage of 
the machines is lost. If the writer does not 
make his copy right, the editor must do so, 
and a writer does not need much perspicacity 
to see that a busy editor is hardly likely to 
buy a manuscript on which he will have to do 
much independent work when he has before 
him other manuscripts of equal literary merit 
and technically right. 

The conclusion is that the writer who does 
not think it worth while to learn how to spell 
or to prepare his manuscripts properly will 
never win success. Attention to detail is im- 
portant in all business life. Nowhere is it 
more important than in the business of writing 
for the press. w. h. h. 


[ Questions relating to literary work or literary topics will 
be answered in this department. Questions must be brief and 
of general interest. Questions on general topics should be 
directed elsewhere.] 

What was the list of ten "indispensable 
books" once made by Charles A. Dana? 

s. P. 

[ Mr. Dana's list comprised the Bible, 
Shakspere, the Declaration of Independence, 
the Constitution of the United States, Ban- 
croft's " History of the United States," Irving's 
"Life of Washington," Franklin's Autobi- 
ography, Channing's " Essay on Napoleon 


The writer. 

Bonaparte," Gibbon's " Decline and Fall of 
the Rom in Empire/ 7 and Tarbell's " Early 
Life of Lincoln." — w. h. h.] 


Winifred Arnold's monologue, " Mrs. Bas- 
sett's Squash Pie," which was printed in 
Everybody's Magazine for October, is based 
on an actual occurrence, and Miss Arnold is 
at work on a series of Mrs. Bassett sketches, 
in response to requests from several editors 
and publishers. She is now a teacher in St. 
Mary's School, Garden City, N. Y., but she 
has lived most of her life in New England, 
and is a graduate of the B. M. C. Durfee high 
school of Fall River, where for two years she 
was the editor of the high school magazine, the 
Premier. She graduated from this school as 
valedictorian and winner of the Davis medal 
for the best work during the senior year, and 
then went to Vassar, where she graduated as 
an honor pupil and commencement speaker, 
with graduate fellowship in modern languages 
and membership in the Phi Beta Kappa. 
While in college, she wrote for the Vassar 
Miscellany and the Vassarian, and a book of 
poems, " Vassar Verse," and acted as corre- 
spondent for the New York Mail and Express. 
Since her graduation she has been teaching, 
and has written only occasionally — generally 
without signature — most of her work being 
humorous sketches and articles. 

1 899-1 900 he made one of the first mid- winter 
trips with a dog-team from Seattle to Nome, 
and explored a considerable portion of the 
Behring Sea coast from the Aleutian Islands 
north to the Arctic Ocean. The stories run- 
ning in McClure's Magazine will be published 
in book form when the series is finished. In 
addition Mr. Beach has had stories in Pearson's 
Magazine, the Red Book, and other publica- 
tions. His home is in Chicago, where he is 
actively engaged in business, which leaves him 
little time for writing. 

Rex Ellingwood Beach, whose story, " The 
1 e Driver and the Garrulous Mute," was 
printed in McClure's Magazine for November, 
and who has a story, " Reverend Pericles 
Peters, Pirate," in the December number of 
the Red Book, is a new-comer in the story- 
writing field, having been writing for less than 
a year. Although he was born in Michigan, he 
was brought up and educated in Florida, leav- 
ing college to enter a law course at the Chicago 
College of Law and Kent College of Law, 
Chicago. While in college he was active in 
athletics, foot ball, aquatics, and track athletics. 
In 1897 he went west and joined the early rush 
for the Klondike, spending five years mining 
and prospecting in Alaska. In the winter of 

Egbert Willard Fowler, whose story, " A 
Strenuous Courtship," appeared in the Novem- 
# ber issue of McClure's Magazine, was born 
May 5, 1869, in Blandinsville, 111., and died of 
consumption December 21, 1901, in Colorado 
Springs. He had for a number of years fol- 
lowed the dramatic profession, playing in 
Shakespearean and other roles, but in 1897 he 
came to New York, and from that time until 
his death he devoted himself to writing. Dur- 
ing those four years his stories appeared in the 
National Magazine and the Puritan, and some 
longer stories are now being prepared for pub- 
lication. His verse was distinguished both for 
originality of thought and freedom of form, 
and some critics considered it unique among 
American verse of to-day. The New York 
Home Journal, now Town and Country, and 
the Conservator, of Philadelphia, published 
specimens of his verse which attracted the at- 
tention of connoisseurs. One of hiswestern 
poems, " The Storm," appeared in the form of 
a booklet, under the imprint of the Blue Sky 
Press, of Chicago, and another, »• Dream-Rest," 
was brought out in similar form by the now 
defunct Alwil Shop, of Ridgewood, N. J. This 
latter poem was very favorably commented 
upon by the veteran poet-critic, Edmund 
Clarence Stedman. A volume of Mr. Fowler's 
western poems and another of a singularly 
satirical character will soon be brought out. 

'• Jean D. Hallowell," whose audacious story, 
" The Girl with the Banjo," appeared in Lippin- 
cotfs Magazine for November, is the pen-name 
of the daughter of a prominent clergyman, 
whose family have been known in literature for 

The writer. 


many years, her grandfather having been a 
famous author, and her uncle now being a 
noted clergyman, writer, and editor. It may 
be interesting to add that the name "Jean D. 
Hallowell " will not be used again, as a woman 
in Philadelphia having the same name wrote 
to the author through her lawyer, complaining 
that the use of that pseudonym was injuring 
her chances as a writer. Miss HallowelFs 
work, therefore, will be signed hereafter 
" Eleanor Hallowell." Contributions from 
her, published both under her own name and 
under pseudonyms, have appeared in Harpers 
Magazine, the Century, the Outlook, the 
Ladies' Home JournaL the Smart Set, Life, 
and Town Topics — a list of periodicals that 
illustrates her versatility. She herself is a 
teacher in a large normal school, and it might 
be added that neither her family nor her fellow 
teachers have much knowledge of her writing. 

" Blanche Trennor Heath," the name signed 
to the poem, " Opportunity," in the November 
Lippincotfs, is the pen-name of Florence War- 
ner Dinsmore, and is derived fiom names in 
her family. Miss Dinsmore was born in New 
York in 1874, and removed to Chicago in early 
childhood. She has since resided in several 
other cities. Upon the completion of her 
studies she devoted a year or two to the pursuit 
of music, for which she had a strong natural 
bent, but by the advice of friends, who had 
rea some of her printed articles, written in 
occasional leisure moments, she was induced 
to choose literature for a profession. Since 
then she has done syndicate work, and has 
contributed a great variety of stories and poems 
in different veins to numerous leading maga- 
zines. Much accepted matter is now in the 
hands of various editors of high-grade maga- 
zines, awaiting publication. 

Ashton Hilliers, author of the story, "Oving- 
dean's Little House," in McClure's Magazine 
for September, is an Englishman, and his ear- 
liest recollections, he says, "are of the rattling 
casements of an old, old house in a second-rate 
street in a small East-country port. The ships 
were a childish passion, the smell of them, their 
Jiairy hawsers, their network of rigging against 

the moving clouds, the dusty caverns of their 
holds." After four years at a private school, the 
boy entered one of the lesser public schools, 
where the Literary Society did something for 
his development. Then came some years of 
business, with evenings spent in a great library. 
Not until middle age was there any thought of 
publishing. Said an elderly woman of the 
world: " Why don't you print that? It is good 
enough." And it seem* that she was right. 

Herbert Lawrence Stone, whose story, " The 
Reckoning," appeared in Short Stories for 
November, is a railroad man, being in the 
financial department of the' New York Central 
and Hudson River railroad. He is now pre- 
paring an article on the recent developments 
in modern railroad operation. Mr. Stone is 
fond of the sea, and has made several long sea 
voyages, both in steamships and in sailing 
vessels. On one of these voyages, from pure 
love of the sea, he served before the mast. 
Most of his writing has been confined to short 
stories, chiefly of the sea. Several of these 
stories have appeared in the Argosy and in 
Short Stories, and both these magazines will 
bring out other stories of his in the near 

Anne Warner, author of the story, "The 
Marrying of Susan Clegg," in the Century for 
November, says in response to a request for 
information regarding her literary work, that 
she might apply Susan Clegg's speech to her- 
self and say that she decided to be an author, 
so she "set right about it." "Susan" was 
wholly imaginary. She sprang into being from 
the joking words of a friend — the words 
quoted above. That night Mrs. W'arner woke 
up and began to work out the possibilities of 
the story. They seemed so funny that she got 
up and jotted down a dozen headings for ideas. 
In the morning she made a draft of four thou- 
sand words, which she afterward copied out to_ 
six thousand, and mailed to the Century. 
That was in May, and the Century accepted 
the story in June and printed it in November. 
Mrs. Warner adds that since then people ex- 
pect her to develop " Susan " into a book, but 
that she really can't think of anything more for 



her to say. The Christmas Town Topics will 
have a story of hers, "The Three Sons," which 
was accepted by Town Topics after having 
been refused four times — "I imagine," says 
Mrs. Warner, " because all the other editors 
had relatives who were doctors, or soldiers, or 
interested in ihe South." Mrs. Warner has 
been writing for three years. The first year 
she wrote only a little poem and one short 
story, both of which w.ere accepted. Then she 
went to Europe and did not attempt anything 
else until she felt called upon to voice her 
views of Europe. The book was printed, but 
her views have changed so much since then 
that the edition has been suppressed. Since 
her return from Europe a year ago, she has 
written seventy-eight short stories and two 
books. Thirty two of the stories have been 
printed, and about twelve more accepted. The 
rest, she says, are returning to her every three 
or four weeks. This does not at all discourage 
her- Whenever the manuscripts seem suscep- 
ible of further improvement that she can give 
them, she writes them over again. After the 
seventh or eighth journey, she files them away 
for a while and then passes judgment on them 
herself. She has sold several stories that had 
been refused six times. Mrs. Warner studies 
continually, reads no English, so as to keep 
free from the mannerisms of other writers, and 
gets her daily news from a German paper. She 
is soon to have a book brought out by a Boston 

publishing firm. 

♦ — • 


Clemens. — Mark Twain's story in the Christ- 
mas number of Harper's Magazine lay in his 
min i twentyyears before he wrote it, and when 
he finally set it down on paper the words came 
without a break, nor did he change a syllable 
of it after it was written. With one exception, 
he says, this is the only story he was ever able 
to write in this way. Usually he has to work 
hard over his short stories, writing and rewrit- 
ing them. 

Crawford. — A young woman was introduced 
to M irion Crawford recently. Hearing that 
he was a novelist, she said : — 

41 And have you written anything that will 
live after you are gone ? " 

" I don't know," replied the novelist. " You 
see, what I am after is something that will en- 
able me to live while I am here." — Boston 

Doyle. — Sir Conan Doyle, in the general 
preface he has written for the new collected 
edition of his novels, includes some remarks 
on his own conception of the art of fiction. 
The touchstone with which he approaches a 
novel is a simple one — "Does it interest?" 
If it does, he holds that the book has served its 
purpose. Of this power to interest he goes on 
to say: "It is the power of sympathy, the 
sense of the dramatic. There is no more capri- 
cious and indefinable quality. The professor 
in his study may have no trace of it, while the 
Irish nurse in the attic can draw out the very 
souls of his children with her words. It is im- 
agination — and it is the power of conveying 
the imagination." 

Fowler. — Strange are the beginnings of 
some authors ! According to an interviewer 
with whom Miss Ellen Thorneycroft Fowler 
(Mrs. Felkin) has lately been talking, the last 
thing for which she believed she was intended 
was a novelist. But one day a firm of pub- 
lishers "conceived the idea that a novel deal- 
ing with Methodism and Society would be 
a success," and, on looking for writers ac- 
quainted at first hand with both subjects, their 
first choice fell on Miss Fowler. When their 
representative called and explained what he 
wanted she said : " I can't write a novel, and, 
what is more, I've never tried to." She was 
adjured to try, and four months later she 
had written " Concerning Isabel Carnaby." — 
Kennebec your n aL 

Merriman. — "Henry Seton Merriman " 
(Hugh S. Scott) played well the part of the 
public entertainer. He always gave his readers 
a good plot, skilfully outlined against a back- 
ground in which "local color" was deftly ap- 
plied, and characters that were sure to be 
interesting, however quickly remembrance of 
them might fade from the mind. He had as a 
writer one besetting sin, a tendency to pad his 
books with machine-made epigrams disclosing 
far more complacency than wit. He had also 
one great virtue — he never allowed himself to 
be interviewed and never published his photo- 


1 8 5 

graph, resolutely keeping his personality from 
the public gaze. Known simply as Mr. Scott 
in private life, it is recorded of him that he 
once sat through a long dinner without giving 
the lady at his side the faintest clew to his 
professional interests. — New York Tribune. 


The Art of Interviewing. — De Blowitz was 
unquestionably a great journalist, or at least a 
great interviewer and reporter. His practical 
suggestions to interviewers are interesting and 
often acute. The successful interviewer, he 
points out, will not take notes — a practice 
which keeps the person interviewed on his 
guard — but will trust to a trained memory. 
The interviewer who has elicited an indiscreet 
revelation must not depart abruptly, for if he 
does " a flash of caution will burst upon his 
informant," and the journalist will be notified 
not to report what has been said. The person 
interviewed should know that his remarks are 
to be reported ; but to this rule there are excep- 
tions. If the journalist is sure that his inform- 
ant will, on reflection, approve the publication 
of the interview, it is not always necessary that 
he should be forewarned. When the person 
interviewed is forewarned, and yet makes in- 
discreet revelations, these may legitimately be 
printed ; but it }s sometimes wise to forego this 
immediate advantage in order to secure grati- 
tude and confidence. De Blowitz's professional 
ethics are interesting: they are so frankly 
utilitarian. — The Nation. 

Every Man His Own Book Doctor. — The 
44 Autocrat of the Breakfast Table" has said 
that there should be a room set aside for a 
book hospital in every complete house. And 
every book lover will agree with Dr. Holmes 
when he learns how easy it is to put his books 
into substantial repair. The materials are: A 
glue pot, a small pot of paste, one or two 
brushes which painters call sash tools, a bit 
of small, cheap sponge, and a large pair of 
scissors. First let me speak of the cheap re- 
prints of many standard works issued with 
only paper covers. If a piece of smooth 
brown paper is pasted near the edge to cover 
each side, and a piece of white buckram glued 

down the back, overlapping some half inch on 
each side, the buyer will have a serviceable 
book. If he respects the volume, he may 
cover the brown paper sides with good marble 
paper, and letter the back with a broad pen. 

Let us suppose that we have a cloth covered 
book slipped out of its covers. Now, if we 
have a bookbinder's press, or one of those 
old-fashioned tablecloth presses, we shall screw 
the naked book into the press, i. e., pressing 
the sides together and leaving the back ex- 
posed. Failing any kind of press, let us tie a 
piece of stout string around the book from top 
to bottom, close up the back, so us to keep the 
wet out of it, and proceed with a small, cheap 
sponge and a basin of hot water to sponge off 
the muslin and glue from the back, not having 
the sponge too wet. 

We now leave the book to dry a little, and 
look at the cover. If it has a printed title, we 
will leave this, by all means, as titling a book 
is one of the amateur's greatest difficulties. 
If the back is limp, we shall improve it by 
glueing a piece of cartridge paper inside the 
back, a full width from top to bottom. If the 
back is torn or worn away from the lids, let us 
first repair it by getting a lady to give us a bit 
of old lining or other thin material of a color 
which will tolerably match the cloth cover. 
This we glue inside the cover before we glue 
the strengthening paper. 

Let us now return to our volume drying in 
the press. We will cut a piece of strong mus- 
lin to cover the back, and leave about an inch 
free on each side. We carefully glue the back 
of the book,' put on our muslin, leaving a loose 
margin on each side, and rubbing down the 
muslin to the back with an old paper-knife. 
The. muslin is then covered with a puce of 
strong paper. 

I have discovered the best kind of muslin 
for the back is a material kept by large drapers 
called 4< cheese straining," a kind of a cioss 
between canvas and muslin, and the same 
draper probably keeps "white buckram," a 
most useful material to the amateur, because 
it is tough and smooth, and one can write 
on it. 

Having returned to our book in press after 
two or three hours, we shall find the back dry 



and the muslin firmly adhering to the back. 
We look to see that it is firmly attached both 
to the back of the first sheets and the last 
We now fit it to its old cover, and paste down 
the projecting inch of muslin on each side to 
the inside of the lids, putting over it a strip of 
paper to prevent it sticking to the book, and 
replace it in its covers in the press, or put it 
sideways on a shelf with some weight on it to 
dry. Before passing the book into covers, we 
shall take our scissors and trim the top and 
bottom of the muslin close to the book, so as 
not to be an eyesore ; we also cut the ends of 
the projecting muslin a little askew, with the 
same object. We shall find, after drying, that 
we have a firm, useful book, instead of a slat- 
ternly book which gets worse every day. — The 
Book Lover. 

I have spoken." If you wish to have a long 
extract put in quotation marks, say at the be- 
ginning : " Begin quote," and at the end : " End 
quote." Always indicate a new paragraph to- 
the copyist by saying, " Paragraph." 


[Under this heading it is intended to describe any handy 
little contrivance that may be of use in any way to literary 
workers. Facts about home made devices particularly are de- 
sired. Paid descriptions of patented articles will not be 
printed here on any terms ; but this shall not hinder any one 
from letting others know gratuitously about any invention that 
is of more than ordinary value to literary workers. Readers of 
The Writer are urged to tell for the benefit of other readers 
what little schemes they may have devised or used to make 
their work easier or better. By a free exchange of personal 
experiences every one will be helped, and, no matter how 
simple a useful idea is, it is an advantage that every one should 
know about it. Generally, the simpler the device, the greater 
is its value.] 

Sending Coins in Letters. — In sending 
small coins through the mail, I have found is 
convenient to cut the corner from an envelope, 
slip the coin into it, and then pin or otherwise 
fasten this improvised coin envelope to the 
upper cornerof my sheet of letter paper. Coins 
sent in this way cannot shake around in the 
envelope, with a chance of being lost. G. M. 

Chicago, III. 

For Writers who Dictate. — When you are 
dictating to a typewriter or to any copyist, if 
you want to have a word written with a capital 
letter, say, for instance: "State, capped." If 
you want to have the whole word printed in 
capitals, say: "State, in capitals." If you 
want to have a short phrase put in quotation 
marks, say, for instance: "These (pause) 
boodlers and grafters quoted ( pause ) of whom 

Cambridge, Mass. 


A Candle of Understanding. By Elizabeth Bisland. 
306 pp. Cloth, $1.50. New York: Harper & Brothers. 

One rarely comes across a sweeter, more 
candid and straightforward story than " A 
Candle of Understanding" by Elizabeth Bis- 
land. It is a tale of the development of a fine 
character from childhood to mature woman 
hood, and it never fails to amuse in the telling 
of even trivial incidents of domestic routine, 
while it furnishes a true and touching picture 
of life in Louisiana after the war and about the 
time of the invasion of the carpet-baggers. In 
the midst of pathos it sparkles with vivacious 
accounts of the post-bellum condition of the 
ex-master and the freedmen and women. Al- 
though the story is told in the first person, there 
is no egotism in it, and the personality of the 
narrator is quaintly original and delightfully 
honest. c. m. h. 

Half a Dozen Housekeepers. By Kate Douglas Wiggin. 
Illustrated. 162 pp. Cloth, 75 cents. Philadelphia : Henry 
Altemus. 1903. 

" Half a Dozen Housekeepers " is a pleasing 
story of girls, written for girls by a popular 
writer of girls' stories. While it does not have 
the spontaneity of Miss Alcott's books, which 
never gave the impression of being written for 
an admiring audience, it has many natural inci- 
dents, and the book is one with which a girl in 
her teens will be glad to curl up in some cosy 
corner for entertaining reading. The story 
tells of the experiences of six New England 
girls, who, when the school to which they had 
been sent was closed, on account of the burning 
of the recitation hall, obtained permission to 
spend the time at the home of one of their 
members whose parents were traveling. How 
they managed the housekeeping, what they did 
for entertainment, and what mishaps befell 
them is told in a bright and lively manner, and 
many a girl would have been glad to join them 
in their two weeks' frolic. m. g. 

Vocal - " Oh. Child of Mary, Softly Sleep," D S. Babcock ; 
*' O Holy Night " (Christmas Song) Samuel Carr ; " A Rose- 
Jar," Grace Hibbard and F. Flaxington Harker; "Run, 
Mister Nieger," Frank J. Kent and Henry E. Lower; "Re- 
joice, O Daughter of Jerusalem," M. C. Milliken Piano — 



•'Angelic Vision," Herman P. Chelius; "Arabian Dance, 
Harriet Russell Collver. Boston : C. W. Thompson & Co. 



[The publishers of Thb Writer will send to any address a 
copy of any magazine mentioned in the following reference list 
on receipt of the amount given in parenthesis following the name 
— the amount being in each case the price of the periodical, 
with three cents postage added. Unless a price is given, the 
periodical must be ordered from the publication office. Readers 
who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies 
containing the article* mentioned in the list will confer a favor 
if they will mention The Writer when they write. 1 

The Profession of Publicist. Arthur Reed Kimball. 
Atlantic ( 38 c. ) for December. 

Stb>hanb Mallarme\ Francis Grierson. Atlantic 
( 38 c. ) for December. 

Editing. ^The fourth of Sir Leslie Stephen's reminiscent 
papers.) Sir Leslie Stephen. Atlantic (38c. ) for Decem- 

Avowals. Biing the Fourth of a New Series of " Confes- 
sions of a Young Man." George Moore. Lippincott's Maga> 
sine ( a8 c. ) for December. 

Philip Frbnbau : America's First Poet. Illustrated. 
Annie Russell Marble. New England Magazine (28 c.) for 

Thackeray's Friendship with an American Family.— 
II. Illustrated. Century ( 38 c. ) for December. 

The Personality of Hawthorne. W. D. Howells. 
North A merican Review ( 53 c. ) for December. 

Walter Pater. Albert S. Henry. Book News (8c.) for 

Little Stories of Journalism. — II. Julius Chambers. 
Reader ( 28 c. ) for December. 

Popular Illustrators. I. — Howard Chandler 
Christy. Illustrated. Earl Stetson Crawford. Reader 
( a 8 c. ) for December. 

William Ernest Henley. Sidney Low. Reprinted from 
the Cornhill Magazine in the Eclectic (28 c.) for December. 
The Poetry of W. D. Howells. With portrait. Rich- 
ard Arthur. Booklovers Magazine ( 28 c. ) for December. 

The Last Minstrel. (Sir Walter Scott.) With frontis- 
piece portrait. T. M. Parrot. Booklovers Magazine (a8c ) 
for December. 

Language in the Making — A Defense of Slang. 
Herman Spencer. Booklovers Magazine ( 28 c.) for Decem- 

The Study of Shakespeare. B. P. Drury. Globe Review 
( 53 c. ) for December. 

How Parsifal Was Written. Illustrated. W. J. 
Henderson. Delineator (18 c. ) for January. 

Reading for a Grandfather. William Dean Howells. 
Harper's Bazar ( 13 c. ) for December. 

Shorthand'and Brains. John Rothwell Slater. World 
To- Day ( 28 c. ) for December. 

The Origin of the Realistic Novel. Pauline Carrington 
Bouve\ Guntons Magazine ( 13 c. ) for December. 

Some Early Impressions - Editing. Sir Leslie Stephen. 
National Review ( 75 c - ) for December. 

The Symbolical Drama. Emile Faguet. International 
Quarterly ($1.28) for December-March. 

The Parsifal of Richard Wagner and Its Spiritual 
Significance. B. 0. Flower. Arena ( 28 c. ) for December. 

Henry Frank : A Biographic Sketch. With frontis- 
piece portrait. Thomas C. Dyas. Mind (23 c. ) for Decem- 

The Religion of Whittibr. B. O. Flower. Mind ( 23 c. 
for December. 

Election Night in a New York Newspaper Office. 
Illustrated. Ewan Macpherson. Household- Ledger ( 13 c. ) 
for December. 

Juan db Dios Pbsa. (The Mexican Longfellow.) With 
portrait. Patti Guthrie. Modern Mexico ( 13 c. ) for Dec- 

Concerning John Bunyan. Illustrated. J. W. Da vies. 
Pilgrim ( 13 c ) for December. 

Jambs Whitcomb Riley and His Children. Illustrated. 
Roger Galeshore. Success ( 13 c. ) for December. 

Notable People I Have Intbrvibwbd. With portraits. 
Vance Thompson. Success (13 c. ) for December. 

Little Pilgrimages Among the Men and Women Who 
Have Written Famous Books. No. 6 — Jack London. 
E. F. Harkins. Literary World ( 13 c. ) for December. 

Poets of the French Renaissance : Ronsard. Hilaire 
Belloc Reprinted from the Pilot in the Living Age (18 c. ) 
for November 7. 

Mr. Kipling as Poet and Prophet. Stephen Gwynn. 
Reprinted from the Pilot in the Living Age (18 c. ) for Nov- 
ember 14. 

The Old Controversy About Story-telling. H. B. 
Marriott Watscn. Reprinted from the Monthly Review in the 
Living Age (18 c. ) for November 14. 

Words That Go to the Bad. Reprinted from the 
Academy in the Living Age ( 18 c. ) for November 2t. 

W. E. H. Lbcky. Reprinted from the Athenaeum in the 
Living Age ( 18 c. ) for November 28. 

Theodor Mommsbn. Dial ( 13 c. ) for November 16. 
Science in the Encyclopedias. T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Dial( 13 c. ) for November 16. 

The Making of Bibles. Kindlay Muirhead. Youth's 
Companion ( 13 c. ) for November 19. 

How Your Picture Gets in the Paper. H. J. Mahin. 
Saturday Evening Post (8c.) for November ai. 

Dissbminating Literature. W. A. Fraser. Saturday 
Evening Post ( 8 c. ) for November 28. 


Ernest Vizetelly has finished his biography 
of Zola, which is soon to be published. Mr. 
Vizetelly was intimate with the French novel- 
ist for many years, and in this book he deals 
with the latter's home life as well as with his 
literary career. 

William Roscoe Thayer, of 8 Berkeley Street, 
Cambridge, Mass., has undertaken, at the re- 
quest of Mr. Fiske's family, to edit the letters, 
journals, and memorials of the late John Fiske. 

The name Aquila Kempster, which appears 
on the titlepage of u The Mark," is not a pseu- 
donym. The author. is a newspaper man of 
New York.