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VOL. 111. 


Of this Letter.psess Edition 
yso Copies have been Printed for Sale 

No. :..:[/:...:... 


August, i88g 






Vol. III. 

1 775-1 776 



Press ot / 

G. 1*. Putnam's Sons 

New York 



Answer to an Address of the Provincial Congress of 

Massachusetts, July 4th [ 

To James Warren, July loth 5 

Returns of the army show a force inailequate to general ex- 
pectations — Conndl of officers — Post horses — Asks concerning 
executive. . 

To the President of CangressAluI^ TOth ... 8 

Hb arrival at cami^ — Position of the* enetny and of the Con- 
tinental tToof>s — Disadvantages labored under — Council of war 
— Army returns — Tents wanted — Commissary-general should be „ 
appointed — Other oflices are indispensably necessary — Military 
chest and clothing — Engineers — Appointments of officers in 
Massachusetts troops — The generals characterized — Deficiency 
of the army in nnmbers and su^estions For completing the 
establishment — Discipline and subordination — Ixisses at Bun- 
ker's Hill — Intelligence. 

To Richard Henry Lee, July 10th .... 21 
Condition of army — DeUy in making returns — A position of 
danger — Advantages possessed by the enemy — Abuses will be 

To Governor Trumbull, July i8th .... 26 
Arrangement of general officers by Congress has produced 
dissatisfaction — Right of Congress to control unquestionable. 

To the President of Congress, July 2[st . . 28 

Augmentation of [roops by Connecticut and Rhode Island — 
Both armies fortifying — Distressed situation of those in Boston — 
Intentionsof the enemy — Cowardice of officeis at Bunker's Hill — 
Division of the army — Generals Spencer and Pomroy — Judge- 
advocate wanted — Paymaster — Other officers required — Hospital 
nervice — Recruiting and reduction of officers — Information from 
England — Destnictioii of the light-house — British tosses at 
Knnker'f Hill. 


CONTENTS O/'' VOL. ///. 

To General Thomas, July 23d ..... 

On hi» |>K>p<»ed rctiTCiucni. 
To John Augustine Washington, July 27th 

SiCuaiion nf unny on hi« iiriTal— Losses at Bunker's I till — 
The enemy iickly And m wani — KeiofArcetnenit atrivwl, anil kn 
attack cxpeclei. 
To Major-General Schuyler, July 28th 

Thcaltituilcnf the IndiAntianil ihc Canajliaiiii — (iMOwn liJfli- 
cultUs — I'nlieticc snd |t«ne vert nee rci-otn mended — News from 
England — [mpwiltont and iTrcgulahtiM. 

To the General Court of Massachusetts Hay, July 3 1 st, 

CanituI (leUil troojn few internal ilefence^Intcnlion u( Con- 
grem llinl BBch colony stiniild iLcp^rnd nn it« own militia in such 

To Dcputy-Governor Coolce, 4th . 

The Driliih fleet — Great necessities in puwdcr aiiJ lead. — An 
expedition lu BermuiIapiuiHised-^Tow doih am) hunting shirts. 
To the President of Congress, August 4th 

Commissi on 1 received — DilTiculliefi attending their usnt — 
Colonel Gtndley— DifTcrent csiaWishmcnts — Defidcncies and 
reeruiltng — Reduction of regiments — I'roupcclt tor ihc winter— 
Supproed i n ten linn* eif ihc enemy— AII.tIi at tlie lighl-liouae — 
Lack of pnwrlci, anil an error in rrtutnt — Allowance cil pm- 
visloni — Detachment of truops (or colonial defence — Army 
formed into divi»icns— Opeiaiions of (ieneial (Jage — I^iniJi- 
tiient of •jfRccrf for cowardice — Indians in cam jv-Db position 
of ih* Canadians — Letters intercepted — New reiirieti*iii im- 
pOBcd on pcisons coining from Bontun. 

To Lewis Morris, August 4th 

A|ipointinen<.< in army— Susi>est» iliat Congress rnervc them 
in their own hand*. 

To J. Piilmcr. 7th 

Local appointment) — Sound pulUy oJ liesiuwing posilioni 
among diRerent colonic^ — Impouihility of cHt'Cting a lurprisc. 
To the President of the Council of Masaachu.tctta 
Bay, August 7th 

Large niinnliet of abi>ciii Mildlcrs and otiticert — The ruino-ut 
To the Provincial Congress of New York, August gth, 
Oh supplying llriltsh with proviiioni— future mavemeiits of 
the enemy. 









To a Committee of the General Court of Massachu- 
setts Bay. August iith 76 

Propaud opeditiftn agftintl Nov* Smtia — Cltjec!i<iM eUiIk) 
— l>npa««Q>ilil)' <jS mpplytng annctl vck»cU, 

To Lieutenant-General Gaye, August iilli . . 77 

III trcannciil of Amcriian piiMinen — Rrinli.iiion thmtcncd. 

To Governor Trumbull, August 14th ... 80 

New Icvici — PovdeT — I.eiul to be liiuuglii fruin TicMidcroga. 

To Deputy-Governor Cooke. August I4tli . 81 

Tkc Benouda cupcdilioo — Live stock ihoold be removed 
Irani thcblands. 

To Major-General Schuyler, August isth ... 84 

InduKs — !SD|<pl)' "' lead from Ticontlrroga. 

To Major-Gencial Schuyler, August 20th ... 86 

Powder mppliec— Neutrality of IndiAm ilc&ircd by i:oiigrMs 
— ProfKBed ckpcditioii lo Cftmiln BubinituU— The Now Hamp- 
shire corn pan in. 

To Licutcnant-Gciicral Gage, August 20th go 

HU letter irreleMtit— Mtni»i«ri»l paEili'Dn— CorTe&pondencc 

To J. Palmer, August 22d 92 

Pnini Atdcnon— Iropouiblv to lake pout M such 1 4lUunc« — 
N« powdef lo tpoie. 

To Sir William Howe. August 23CI . . - . 95 

lotcrcuimc botvccn i3nip> U> Le flopped. 
To Richard Henrj' Lee, August 29th ... 96 

Edmuml Randolph — Siupldiijr of people iml uniiy — Appoiiii- 
ment o£ oAccn uiuler the miik, of geiieral uhould be mmle by 
Co^iuk -A " good ^am " made amoii); MaiaadiuMil!i ufficera— 
Point .\ldcTt(M and the iibjrvlion^ tuuccupying it^Occupnlion 
of PUiTvd Hill— WiKhinglon't annoyance and latignr. 

To Caesar Rodney and Thoma* McKean, August 30th, 102 

Mr. I'.irite — .Appoinltncnl of officers. 

To the President of Congress, August 3 rst . IQ4 

The T*cant hrigadier-gcneral — Col. Johr Amulranfr — Co). 
Vrf* — Btigadc najon— 0«.'up>lion of Plowed Hill. 

To Brigadicr>GeneraI Woostcr. September 2d . 107 

On applicalioii lor aid — Cannot intcrfeie with OeticralSchuy- 
ler'a unlers — No Provincial Connrcn caii dikpu>c of uuupx on 
Ibc Coniincnial ctiabli^menl— ImpoMancc of jirc«cr%-ing eom- 
tnnaialioii vn North Kivcr. 



To the Inhabitants of the Island of Bermuda, Sep- 
tember 6th 1 10 

Addr«st atking for aid. 
To the Major- and Brigadier-Generals. September 8th, 1 14 

A pToponcd attack on Boston to be eotmidcted. 

To Major-General Schuyler. September 8th , , 116 
Arnolds deiuliuicat toCsoad* — Ncccteliy uf prcacrving the 
friemliliip of ihE Cnnmlinnt, 

To Governor Trumbull. September Sth . .117 

ConliKcnUl ln»p» not to be employed for defenee of the ««- 
cooac — New levies to iiiart:h to Cttuibriil^c, 

To John Augustine Washington, September 10th . 1 18 

Occupation oF PloiveH Hill was cupcctrd 10 bring nbmit 
Alt action — Iiurtivity of the Dnti«h — Arnold':. ciLpeHilioii into 

Instructions to Colonel Benedict Arnold, September 

14th 121 

To Colonel Arnold. September 14th . . .124 

Musi regard L'oiutilianH ns friciti)!! anil breihTen^Ordct. ili«- 
cj|)liii«, .ind Tcs^i>c!cl for the rclifrion of the country enjoined. 

To [he Inhabitants of Canada . . .126 

To Thomas Evcrard, September 17th . . .128 
His Ohio Unds — Attempts to •«•! and improve them- — WUhe 
pctidon lo be made »» Iaw require*. 

To Deputy-Governor Cooke, September 1 8th . . 133 

Powder triitit Bcmmcln — tnlcn.-c[)litt[> the packrls — Ra^oniie 

To Governor Trumbull, September 2ist . . . 135 
Is concerned by (be Govciiiur'^ iiiterprciation of bia iut 
Ictier — No disrespect inlcTitleil— Spedal dcEaiU of (rcK>|it to be 
diecoumi^l . 

To the President of Congress, September 3ist . . 137 
Difficulty of obtaining a ■ubMriplion to the nnid«» tA wnr — 
DuKolution of the army on llcceinbci iM^Mejuures (ccam- 
mended to en|[age troopt — Pay o( aitilicer^ and BTllUery— The 
rifle companies exceed their ectaMichment — Pay of traop« h]^ the 
montli — Pctiliun ofsuhdttcmii — New icguUtion of the amiy — 
Clothing nnd Mankelx — rrovikian allowance for otlicerv--' Ar- 
nold's Mpedilion — Atlnck on Boiloii proposed, bal ne{[attved bjr 
officen Winter acciunmixlatioivi and nece.-nitle« of army. 



'iPD'liajor Christopher French, September 26th 

tib question one ol punciitio^A(lirit«v an ai'iiuincvncc ii> llic 
<viU)cs <il the comBittltc — ImprDpriely of his conducl, 

To Brigadier'Gencral Spencer. September 26th . 151 

On <|aeMionne appaintmcau — CommiMion a rewnrd vt 
tnefil— Claink Iront real ierric« few. 
To the President o( Congress, September joth 

Mr Kirlflanil — Ilitpositioa of the InHianH And Caruditiih 

To Captain Dante) Morgan, October 4th . 

Claini of esein|)lioQ (rotii cuminanil inwlmlh&ililc— <>Ac<tii 
■nut comnraMl KcconJinn to rank. 
To Major-Gcncral Schuyler. October 4th . , ts6 

Arnold'i much <o Caiuda — Inlcreepieil Iriieri frtmi Qaebec 
— Sunkcr't llill in England — Gace't recall. 
To the General Officers, October 5th 

QnoiMiu tubmi'iied by Cdngrciu and tlic (icncnil. 
To the president of Congress, October 5th 

Optaioa of oAcen uLed on the quet-iioto o( Coiif;re«»-— 
Tw.a»a« of Dr. Cbuicfa— Cupiuicd ^raffcny Intcndcil fat ilic 
cntmy^InlellifriHrc (nm [lui>ti>ii and Canada. 
To Major-Gencral Schuyler. October 5th ... 168 

WoMtcr ind .\niold'> tnaich. 

To Robert Carter Nicholas. October 3th . .170 

Acknowledcn hit <iMiKntTilaliana — Pair vf Mr. Bynl — I'ijw- 
tloo of Ihc iwn nnDtr* 
To the President of Congress. October r2lli . 172 

Cosimitler o( Congre™— Pay nf meti cannoi be tccluted — 
Sar^colu n<'unaBi«iid«I^Vrw>rl- (<> intercept Hii|)|>lir^ Icn BiMtmi 
tad \r* Quebec — Ititdligcnrc — \xitd nunm<iiT'« vcbctiirn. 

To John Augustine Washington, October 13th . 177 

ResotalMMa ol ilic Viq^nia coorentiuti — Position ul tbc atwy 
— Araold'k (IclKbmcul fot Canada— Mn. NVa>Kin|-t<4i invitnf 
To the President of Congress, October 341)1 181 

Untndlcni v( Fnliuouih — liittlltaii tent 10 that pUce. 
To the Committee 0/ Falmouth. October 24th . 182 

iBatiflit* to >md ■ dcUchmciit l<i tticii mtMhlniKf. 

To Mftjor-Gencral Schuyler. October 26th . 183 

tWifttdM Col. AIkn'> capture — L'ommittw of L'uitgns'^— 
IntcDigcnce — Importanc* of Canadinn cnnipoign. 


To Joseph Rccd, October 30th 18$ 

Mr. TuilciiS rccinnmcndtilioiih >s to ijrnml £«Urit- martial. 

To the President of Congress, October 30th . 190 

Return «f cDinmlllcc— Conliouancc of olliccra in itrvico — 
KncoAiragemeRt iliould be gi»eii 10 ihe ptlvaiet. 
To the President of Congress, November 2d . . 193 
D«ath of Peyton Randolp)) — Return of officers willing Ia 
continu-E — Ungacliet-gcDcrol should be Appointed — Dritlfli 
To the GenerftI Court of Massachusetts, November 2d, 19$ 
Wood and hay rcf|uired— Regiments cutting ihtir throots for 1 
few IflcuKl Irce.s nCAr tKe cMnp^DcHtrvclion ol trees deprccalcil. 
To Josiah Quincy, November 4th .... 196 
Prjinl Aldertoii. 

To Major-Gcncral Schuyler, November sth . . 198 

Chambtee — \Voo»tar and Montgamcry — Pestrucllon of Fol- 
moath — fiituation of Ihc army. 
Instructions to General Sullivan, November 7th 300 

To the President of Congress, November 8lh - 202 

Scheme (if C&pmin M«tphl:I^on — Driiisli vcsscl.'i lakm— 
Proper i-ouru to condemn priie* necessary— British prisoners— 
The new ciiUMUhnicnl delayed — Knox to succeed Gndlcy — 
Canada and Knlmoutli. 
To Joseph Rccd, November Sth .... 207 

C»pl«rtj, of [Iritiih properly— New Rrrangemenl of olficcn 
anil difficulties encountered — A nericit of btunden. 

To Colonel William Woodford, November loth . 209 

Advice •* to dtadplining troops. 

To the President of Congress. November nth . . 313 

PriicK and ile^terininaiioci of i|ucst)iiisE pcrluinlng to Ihem — 
A(T«n(;cnicnl ■■•( \\v srrny — Want of nrmi nnd powder — Affair - 
at l,riehmorc'» Point. 

To William Palfrey. November 12th .... t\y 

Tyranny and cruelty nf the Driliili — Ordc[^ li> &ei(c every 
officer of (ovenmunl u.1 I'oiLMnoniti. 

Instructions to Henry Knox, November r6th . . 220 
To Major-Gcncral Artemas Ward, November 17th . 222 

Wither 10 consult him on Fortifying his camp— Abo nuqmse 
of Cofilc William. 




To the President of Congress, November 19th . . 225 

McMongen to Nova Scotia— Amngrmcnt of troop). — Uaiul- 
io«u of marine*— News from Canada expeditions— Mortify in|> 
•ctrdty of firewixMl— Returnti of cnllkiinent!!. 

To Joseph Rccd, November zoth .... 239 

Hi» posilioo 11 »ectetary — Othvr akb ile»cril>«<l — Soggcslion 
u( adnitce \kj — Dr. Church icnt to CoDneclicul—Muliny ol 
the pnratecnnen — Newt (roni Ani«Id— Mrs. Washington'* 
YMtwrj to c«in|h 

Instructions to Aaron Willard, November 24th . 233 

To Lund Washington, November 26th . 235 

Semnts nnrcliahtc— His ovii wages — Dlicclioni ion mUD. 
Uiaing the hospitaliiy of i)ie honse. 

To Richard Henry Lee, November 27th . . 237 

Work* on Cubbte Hi!l — Armed vewel*— The Briiiili not 
likely to leave Bo«lon — Money wanted — Canada. 

To Joseph Reed, November 27th .... 239 
OccupailoD of Cubtile Hill — Furtifiuitious cun«lnicled — The 
oadua from Boilon— An oeilnaOiCe vewt'l to be cnpldred, 

To the President of Congress, November 2Kth . , 24I 

Knos't onlen — Mesengm to Nova Scotia — Ccl. Knot— K«- 
lutncnl of men for wu not obtainable — Cobble Hill— Inlisbl- 
ttnu of Boitim ■.'ufiiitig uul — Nuintieruf enlisted men, And favon 
grsated— Militia and minute-men to be called in — Stnall-pox in 
Boston — The Canada expedition. 

To Joseph Reed, November 28th .... 24S 

III* presence nronled — Mr. Lynch on hi* position — Want of 
■Knej'—ScocK-iobbiDg and want of vinuc pruvaD — Connecticut 
trao|K nil] nut i.1ay beyond tlieir lime — Wniild not have accepted 
cvKimand hiul prc»eul dilBtoIlici l^ccn fuieictn — Oi^ct^tioiu of 
Amy — Kitmc — Propovetl exchange of priscmcrv— Aids xliould 1>b 
Rfldjr writen — The new arrandemeni of the officers — Capture of 
Montreal — Kccd't pcn^aiHtes. 

To Major-Gcncral Schuyler, November 28th . 2$o 

Little patriotic tptril ihown I>y tronpf^ — Col. Enod and Mont- 
(omcry — Inddenls of tkc camp — Capture of military utorex. 

To Governor Trumbull, December 2d . . . 253 
Reiircheaiible conduct of the Connecticnt troops— Militia 
called IB to lake tlieir pUc& 

To the President of Congrc&s, December 4th 

Caplnr« oi vessels — Inqvincs u to diepontion of ships and 
CArgoc»— SctndaJou^ condun nf Cnnneciicul troops, and mckv 
arvx Ukcn lo remwijr their lettricig — EiilutmenU procetMl slowly 
— Colo-iicl Babcock — Aflsin ot the Canada foKOi — Defence <d 
C>pe Cod^Howc «endin|> out inhabilanti — Fears oi unall-pox. 

To Governor Cooke, December sth .... 

Imprtclicabilin' of (ccruiting new traxy by rolunlary eali*l- 
inoiti — A bounty ex|)«cied — Desertion of uoapt looked (or — 
The cnililiA not to be depended upon — VigoroiM meanire* nece^ 
>ary ti> complete anny. 

To Major-Gencral Schuyler. December 5th 267 

ArnoW* progre** Bti'i aivrii — Wont of ordei among tnxips — 
Tnislk he will not resign. 

To Colonel Amold. December 5th . . . 26S 

Ccnntnends IiJi apiric — A vominitiKl reserved for him — Bnox 
undpr arreM 

To the President of Congress, December I ith . 270 

Priics — Slow ertlutcncDi — Mtliija arriving iii numbera— Fear 
of Atnall-pox— Malfrre in Rosioii — Cnlunel Emis' ttinl flnd ac- 


To the President of Congress. December i 4th . 274 

The marine battalions — Appointment af surgeons — Ekchocige 
o( Allen pro[iO!ied — Siuall-pui In Boiiioii. 

To Jcseph Keed, December 1 5th . 277 

Atlention>. 10 Mn, Washington — Jealousies nciticed. and 
explanations made^Leilers from CAinp ilisapproved — Money 
and pay accounts — Qouiity for rnliiimcDtt — loscdviiy of Briliali 
— Lord Uunmore's cchtmes — Small-pot. 

To His F-xccIlcncy General Howe, December i8th . 282 

Treatment of AiucricLD priimieri — Allen'% mnv nulod, and 
reioliatinn cin frescoti ihreateoo) — Regret thai Howe thauld 
■pp«ar Against Atn«rtca. 
To the President of Congress, December 18th , 285 

Intercepted letters «bawi»|[ T>iiiiniore\ pUn»— A)ik> the tJlua- 
lion at St, AagMtine— Pn^CM of new worki of loriiRcaiion^ 
Letter lo Howe — Returrn of enlt>)tm«nts — Master Lovsll'i cue. 
Tn Major-General Schuyler. December 1 8th 288 

Eacapc oJ Carlcion — Allcn'h case — Major R«|[cr^ s«id to have 
been in (lanada. 




To Major-General Schuyler, December 24th . 2g2 

Qa bis inicDlMM) ta qnit ihe lervice — Clothing of ttic Iroop*^ 
TV Rrituh ral«ion» with ihc Indiinv. 

To the PresEdent of Congress. December 25th . . 294 

The faiMructions 10 Connolly — Ilonc't kiln — The pity of Ihe 
troy— OidniDce— Gen cnl LmxuI to Rhode liUntl. 

To Joseph Reed. December 2$th .... 298 

FoRi(]rl>|( Lcichntore'i Point — Leilers of inlrtxluction — A 
pMM(C o( a l«ttcr misnndcrfloocl — VolunUiy cnlUlmcnts — The 
CantinenU} fleets Mn. WathiD|[toii'i> journey. 

To Richard Hcnr>' Lcc, December 26tb . . . 300 

DeauB(l!( (or Buxiey — Lord Dtiiunow'i «Gh«inH and iwcHMty 
of actioi tgainX him — I>cterniinalion of Capture* — A hr^dicr- 

To the General Court of Massachusetts, Decefnber 

29**1 303 

Tbe indep«n<leBl cooipuiiev and iboi fx^ — On eiUnttine 

To the President of Congress, December 31st . 305 

Expcnwa ol the Annir— CIothinE— Commisaont for ihc 
aficvn in Ctnada — Kmployaicnl ol free negroec in tbe nrmv-^ 
Colonel GcitUey — latclUicciicc Uvn Cinada — Priio and Pmon- 
ai» Ijtt in Rhoile Uland— Pa; nf chapliint. 


To the President of Congress, January 4th 312 

An attack on Elo«lon— Siluodon of the anny— Th« Itritinh 
(tneiaail ibdropenllona— Protecting Ne« Vcwk— Hi& Majei- 

To Joseph Reed, January 4th 316 

MaiUnin Virginin — The kiRc'i ipeech. anil ill rcL-eplion in 
cMnp— Raiwng the ixjlor^— The conrtition of ihe nnny— French 
tnwpa in the M'«t tndicv— .^ cnoiv br tbe Briti'A fleel. 

To Governor Cooke. January 6th .... 330 

8Ua)iet»— Supplying Captain Wallace with proTi»ion»— I la 
pnnkiatK oooMqnaner*— Acts of the Connecticut Atsernblf— 
Itprewing wngoti * . 
To Governor Trumbull, Januarj* 7th .... 324 

Snpptka— Emhnikniioii of troopH fium Boston — Probably for 
New Vori or Lonfj hland— Will detach General li> New 
VatIi — Tori** to be •liBamei) — Request for tro<»(». 

Instructions to Major-General Lee, January 8ih . 327 
To the Council of Massachusetts Bay, January loth. 3J0 
The btrencth of the lines — The new army. 

To the President of Congress, January nth . 332 

EmtiarkaiLon of British troops — Tin|iarlnnce of defending 
New Vork — Knowlloii't wcploii. 
To Colonel Arnold, January 12th .... 334 

Store* at Quebec— A Canadian army propc(«d. 
To James Warren. January 13th .... 336 
f Gre^l ilcfit:icncy i>f arinsi. 

To the President of Congretis, January 14th . . 337 

Dediiency o( .'vrms, antt the rvaions for it — Enlinments 
olmoul ai an end — Keiuforccmenb from ICnglonil — Colonies 
tppllvd lo Tar vma, 

To Joseph Reed, January 14th 340* 

CrilKiKinft on hU tonrtiicl answered^The Coniincrial fleet— 
EolulmenK at a stanil — OppcMiti-iiii of iome oflifers — Great 
want af iLrni» — Ki> hoan anJ anxietics-^Knowlton'i ck- 
pluii — 1*1; wilt (o New York^lntelligencc Iroin Ehk'"""! — Tlw 
comtiiitmenl of Jinj^re — Kiencli force* in the West Indies — Ad- 
journ men I of Cangrcvi, 

To Major-Gcneral Schuyler, January i6th . . . 348 

On c'liniiiminK to liulJ hiJi tommiuiiun — Fieic^U anil Kogen 
— Montgomeiy uul ArnoKl — The l(iilian« — Pitiolc of Mr. 
Gamble — Woniier'i furlouglis critidseil, 

To the General Court of Massachusetts Bay, January 

16th 3SI 

Rounly iiroposition miuntCTpreCed — On raiunc troap»^Tfa< 
j'urchft'e of aniid — I.<ian r>f money, 

To Maithcw Ttiornton, January iCth . 354 

New foicct to Lc ritucd. 
To Major-General Schuyler, January i8th 355 

I'all nf MnnliiDinery — Cnn uparc no I roop* — New r^menlt 
lo be nised — Route of new forces. 
To the President of Congress, January 19th , . 359 
KvpuUeinCanaiU—KcinforcemcDbftom the ea&ccrn colonies 
'•Importance of auppurlin); the (!>nji(la Imopi — Reptiei fmin 
Connecticut And Khode Uland. 

To the New England Governments, January 19th 362 

Urging reinforcemenU lor CanadiL. 



To Governor Trumbull, January 31st . . . 363 

InHuLTioaRU for men lo <nliisl fnr Caiia'ts. 

To Major-Gcneral Lee, Januarj' t^d .... 364 
Action of CongKU rcgicitci] — Yioopi sliuuM Ijc i.liklMndcil-' 
C4r>*diar> Allklrv— Stuw lecruiting — Clinton gone <m »ume expo- 

To Joseph Reed, January 23d 367 

DisDcu lew a KCrcUry— PrcHurc ol busaCM— Wo<»tci'» 
«nterpm^-N'ew iioopa — MotemeaU ol the Driiiih — Vowder 

To the President of Congress, January 24th . . 371 

CoininiuaiT-ijenenl and hix accounts — The accounU of the 
xfiBf^i^nKbue of anns — Nothlnf; deci«i<ic can be done withoul 
p*'»ier--Clinlfto'» «xp«<lilioii — The 1>altallons o( in«rine«^In- 
ilians cnlenaincd. 

"To Major-General Schuyler, January 27th 375 

Newi ol Arnold— Rein (orccniien Is (or Canadi — The ImJuus 
a aunt of eDib4mxiineni — The Ttyoij County expedition. 
To Colonel Arnold, January 27tli .... 379 

KontgowRy't ilcfcal— Mcuuicn taken lo Mnd Uoopn 10 
Cuutda— Imparlance of rEUining a poMiian in that countiy. 

To Commodore Manly, January 28th . . 382 

Hi* condnct cMum«Bded — t*Toini(« of {•diet vc»*cl — A|>- 
potntH commoduTc. 
To the President of Congress, January 30th 383 

Imporiancc o( CinMb^ReinftKcemcnl^— Ex change uJ Mi. 
Ivivell to be propoMd — The rank of aid« — l^onnolljr't inKtrac- 
ticMia— Need of powder— Money— A ncncraJ (or C»itadt— Clin- 
ton'* eipcdition^<!aplain Ctx:hran^Prtfe capium — Arm^ — 
CancMlmtnl nt OnWoIIj** onlpn — The commiMionen returned 
fnm Van Scotia— Propoked sllcnipl on ITatifax. 

To Major-General Lee, January 30th 393 

CUntoa pn>l«bly gone In New York — niMmiing lh« Toriot 
— Cmcm« ma)* x-nd him In Canada. 

To Joseph Reed, January 3i5t 395 

Httlliplj'inc busincM — The Coatiiitiital iiav) — The rava^cfc 
hi Vli^fbiia 4nd "Comnon^icnse"— Amold'i ability— Impot- ^, 
(BaeeofMippcfiitighim — txe in N«w Vorl — Cannih«ll"s|»cturt. 
To Joseph Reed. February 1st 398 

Bdmiot of Hontgmncry's troops— Kvib of shuU ciiliMmciiU 
— A hoatity ihoaM be given. 



To Governor Trumbull, February 8th 

PftjTmenl of colony (or troaps — Powd*r very much wiiiilvil. 

To the President of Congress, Fcbruar>' 9th 

Priie*— Commisswy of priwncrt. reeitwl— [ «aii from .Vla<>sa. 
chute 1 1> — Procuring ann* — E«pre«M». 

To the President of Congress. February 9th 

Dinulvanlnget of xhoR cntibUnenis — A eau&r of Moiitgom«ty'» 
(IcfciLI — hrmy vannol Ix liinciplineil — Ciiniequent expcnic — A 
bountjr ihould be given. 

To Joseph Reed. February tolh .411 

Expectation smi futiilmciii — EnlibUucnu anil c-viiJiboii of 
regimcnii — ^CliiracteT ot the people — Sinrving the cauw — IdcAh 
of kcccmmodniion — Zc«l of chtmney- corner licrvei — TriaJ vf 
opium— Mil ill n ordered in— Arduou* work ni l^lchmore's 
Point — Miw Whcailcy'* ponn — Reed's election to ihe Attembly. 

To the General Court of M.-issachusetts, February loth, 418 
Necodty u( purchuing firelock*. 

To the President of Congress. February 14th 419 

I^nl Dnimmniii]'!! letter — Hhinlcnlionn of dubious nntuic- — 
L'unduci m premature and uflidout — The Nov« Scolia miviion a 
failiife — ItnlikhatMcImn Dorchctitcr Neck — Supplying pmoner*. , 

To the President of Congress, February 18th . 425 

I«e formod between Dorchester Point «n(t Boston — AttACk 
on «ty proposed but ncgaiivcd — liktomcncs* of hit poririon— 
Powder — Ex prcues. 

To Governor Trumbull. February 19th . . 438 

Situation as to [lomder — A golilcn tipportiuiity to attack city 
ioit— Caute. a wan! of powder — Urgci the torwaHing of "ip- 
pUaw— Toun blocks Inexjiedicivt al this ]iin<lurc. 

To the President of Congress, February 36th . . 432 
?re]iaTat)on« to take jioioeuiaii of Uorcheiter Height* — 
MovcmcntAof British luokine 10 an cinbaikutioii— Conjcctnrca 
SK In deitinalion — Hii own openliont In ■aait of evacuation. 

To Major-Generai Lee, February 26th 435 

Captain Parker's thrcnls — ^Dritiih apporenOy pre|)ariiig in 
move — Darchesiet Heights li> be octupieil — Defence o( New 
Voik — The C'nail* ciprdiliim. 

To Miss Phillis Wheatley, February 28th . . . 440 
Acknnwlcdgmein of poem. 

COAT^A'rS Of VOL. ///. 


Tft Joseph Keed, March 3d 

PfxmUr — Datcli«urr Hcfghu — Lcc't joonicy to Nvw Vork — 
Ualookfd>for cxpnn* atinidiaK lti« Connecticut tro«p« — 
PnaHc of Sean— pMsihlc di«pprob«tJon of Cnngnv— Can|> 
eqvtpage wuii«d. 

To the President of Congress, March 7th . 

Boinb«rtlmmt of Bnuon— OccupXton of Dorchntei TTcighb 
— Nook** Hfll 10 bf token po«Msia« ol— Mdrtan «rd«r«4— 
U3iti« orlcred ia, an ait>ck bciit); Bnitcipaicd— MoA-cmenu of 
ikl CDinj^A pratnblF mack iDtcti'.l«<l — Hii pre^aratiuBK to 
Mm it — Militia Jiicluugcd^Thiee inaior-gencrdk ncedei^ 
Tbomat and ThompMin rccommciuled — Infoimaiioo fraiD Boa> 
tnn b]rCa]>iain IrHnc — Letter fron ibr <«)cciineB— lit rrctfitioa 
— More 00 PTtKA'* Hill — Enemy'* opcTatian> to be walcbed by 
knd and ac* — Conjcctom as to their plak»— Money wanlnl. 

To Joseph Rccd. March 7th 

TTk rtt«Dt G*ctit!i tlcscribcil — Heprt for kia trturn— PaUtek 
Hcniy^AraulToaic and Tbomi»an— To tend Tbompnn in 
Virginia in the Km cooitnand wovld lt« ■ grave mutakc — 
Genera) Fry — Tbe rumored commiMiion — The embarkation 

To the President of Congress, March 13th 

[faituh ttill in Uh kartx) I— Importance of defeivlin£ Nen 

Vorfc — Annj to he sent 10 Ihal place — Teni|x>rary troops called 

(or (row Connecticut and Sew Jcr>«y — Nook's Hill not Dccupied 

-UcaMIca 10 haften march lo New Voik — Prommions rcconi- 



TotheCommanding Officer at Nei,vYorl;, March I4ih, 

LTtj^ tmpofUBce «( ihat pwi, and give* tnfonnaiioit of 
ires taken lo ilrenf^thcn ihe force* under hiiii. 

To tbe President of Congress, March tgth 

Evaraaiionuf thedtybylhe BritiUi — Tbe cantes^Occnpatian 
«f iW diy— Iia condition, and storca absudouvd by tbe caeny. 

Proclamation on the Evacuation. March 21st . 

Tn the Genera] Court of Massachusetts, March 3lst . 

Neoeadty ti ibrowiiie iroopk Into the town— Darij^r of small- 

pot — Meanica of dcfnio^— Property nf rtfngcei — Pay at fieU! 


To Governor Trumbull, M.irch 2ist . . . . 

Inlennalian on ibe muaiion — Future rnovcmmtt. 





To the President of Congress. March 24th . . 487 

British still at Nantaslcet Rood — Abandoned property and 
questions of ownership — Fortifications thrown up to prevent 
enemy's return — Stores and number of rations drawn by the 
British — Resignations of Ward and Fry — Powder — Queries as to 
receiving commissioners from England. 

To Joseph Reed, March 25th 492 

Movements of the enemy — Danger of an allaek — Mr. Webb. 

To Col. Mifflin, Instructions, March 24th . . . 496 
Answer to an Address from the General Assembly of 

Massachusetts 497 

To Major-General Putnam, Instructions, March 29th, 500 

To John Augustine Washington, March 31st . . 501 

Want of arms and powder — Operations before Boston — Con- 
dition of the town after the departure of the British — The loyal- 
ists—His own position — Every person should be active at this 
time — Commissioners — General Lee. 




4 July. »775. 


Your kind congratulations on my appointment and 
arrival, demand my wannest acknowledgments, and 
will ever be retained in grateful remembrance: 

'Ob J«ac mh (be Praviacisl Coafcvn of M>i Mch a>rtU •ppointed • connitt** 
to OMuider ibc 9lep* "proper to be Uken fot reccirinj; Genera] WoAhingUm with 
propu fwpeei, and to provide ■ house for him ncajniingly. '* The ropan wsi 
made <m Uic 3;lb bvl wax ikk perfvclcd until the ncxi day. " /{<telvtti, ihai 
Uoct. BcDju&ia Cbnrcb *a,A Mr. MmesUUl, be a commiiicc tofCI>Ji^taSpHn)[• 
6eld, iberc ta nedvc Gcaerak Wnflhinglon and I^e, with tntty mark of rciipoct 
dKlotlteiT cxalied chantctcni sad atatiniB ; lo pfoviilc prfijici cxorU for them, 
fmm tbcDC*. in the army bcfoir Botlon. and the hi^uw prnvidcii (nr thrir re. 
c«ptioo at Canbtidcc ; aa<l lo make sullable pro\-ision (or th(-m, in manner fol- 
toviag, rii.: b; a nnmbcr »( gcnilcmcn of tbU colony from Springfield lo 
BtooUdd ; and byaMtber cataysiy raii«d in iliat neijjhUorbood. from there la 
Worecslci ; aod by aaotbcr company, ihcrc proi'ided, fram thence to Nfarl- 
^''— t** • "'*■' irwm thenoc. by the troop o! hone to tbnc plact:. to the army 
aim laiiT ; and [to make tuitable provnian foir] their company M the scveril 
11^^ oa the rottd. and torecci*c the bilhiof cxpcascsat the MieraJ inns, where 
il nay Ik nmicnienl (or ibem lo stop for [cfmhmcnt, to examine them, and 
make rcpoft al the levera] *nnu expended at each of them, f oi thai pitrpMe, thai 
ofdan nuy be taleo by the Congreaa for the payment ol them ; and all inn- 
heep cr a arc hereby directed lo make jirovuion B|[reably to tlic irqucitii made 
by the nid cammtlUo : aad thai Ge»oral Ward be notified of the appoinlment 
of Cancnl WaaUacton, ■« commander in chief of the American forces, and of 
tJt* expectation we hive, of his speedy arrival with Major General \jev. that he, 
with tbc gcnefala of ibe forces of the othe* coIoniM, may give nich orden for 
lUr honor^le teccpiioti, aa may acrord with tlic rules and ciTcumitanwa of (be 
and the respect doe to tbeir rank, nitliout. however, any expenae of 




In exchanging the enjoyments of domestic life for 
the duties of my present honorable but arduous sta- 
tion, I only emulate the virtue and public spirit of the 
whole province of the Massachusetts Bay, which, with 
a firmness and patriotism without example in modern 
histor)', have sacrificed all the comforts of social and 
political life, in support of the rights of mankind, and 
the welfare of our common country. My highest 
ambition is to be the happy instrument of vindicating 
those rights, and to see this devoted province again 
restored to peace, liberty, and safety. 

The short space of time, which has elapsed since 

powder, mtid withuut taking the uoupi 00 train the ncceuuy aiteniiou lo Iheir 
dntjr, <tt this crisit of oui offftiit." 

" I hope the uUuast polileneaa and respcci will be slio*o lo these olSceraon 
their ftrrival. The whole nnny, I think, should h« ilrAWii up u|ion the uciaudaa, 
ftndktl the pride, pomp, and cucunulftnce of gloriotu wm dupUj'ed ; — h« piwder 
httmt4. h^wevff." J«hn Adamt lo Gfrry, i8 June, 1775. 

The CMt of eeorting and enteriainiQji the generali (Tom Sprinjjlield to Cun- 
bridge won twenty el^ht pounds, Gvc shiiling* and ten pence, lawful money. 

The appninunent of Washiinjioiu *ai looii known in ilie timp it ('ambridge, 
and prepatalion^ were mnde to receive him. Dn the 36th of June the Provincial 
CongrcM had utdered ihat the ' ' I'residenl's |of the College] hoiue in Canitiridge, 
excepting one room reserved for the president for his own use. be taken, clcBTcd, 
prepucd (uid lurfliihed, lot th« reception of General Waihington and Gener&l 
Lee." On June agth. the word of piirole in Cambridge Camp was WmklHgton, 
and of counlenign. Virginia. July int tlie Cungieut directed the cnuiiuittee in 
whotc charge the orden lecpccting the house hfi'd bMn plac«d, to " ptirchose 
what things arc nect&sary th«t they cannot hire," a inactct of some JcUy and 
difficulty, as on the fifth the same commtttee was ordered to "complete Uie 
buiineu." General Washington arrived in Canil)Tii]|[C on Sunrlay, July li), about 
two o'clock in the ■(temoon. The lint of the general orders iraucd in dated 
July 3d. On the JtlL Ihe ftovinctal Cotigtess appointed some of it; members lo 
confer with WashitigtoD " on the cubjecl «I fvrniihing hii table and know what 
he eipcctji telnlive thereto." Some question may have been raised on the general 
acceptablencH of the Ptvudent'c honsc for Washington'* purposes, an on the 6th 
the CoCbgreas directed Ifac Committee of Safely to ' ' desire General Wathitigloa 
10 let them know if there in any hutue at Cambridge that would be mure agrcea 
able to hioi and General Lee than that in which they now an : and in that case 



my arrival, does not permit me to decide upon the 
state of the army. The course of human affairs for- 
bids an expectation that troops formed under such 
circumstances should at once possess the order, regu- 
larity, and discipline of veterans. Whatever deficien- 
cies there may be, will, I doubt not. soon be made up 
by the activity and zeal of the ofticers, and the docility 
and obedience of the men. These qualities, united 
with their native bravery and spirit, will afford a 
happy presage of success, and put a final period to 
those distresses, which now overwhel m this once 
happy country.' 

the miA CoounitlM tn diMCted to pMCurv nti^h houe and put it in proper order 
for didr mxptioo." Tbe gcucnl ihougbt a dian^c eapcilicnt, ani) un the Slh 
ihe Cotninittce u( Safely direuteil that (he liouie of Joliti Vusflll. )>ab»c(]U'ently 
kiujwn ■» the *' Cr«igi« honx," belonging t" « nfu^icf Ivyalinl, shtnij'd be 
intnedittcly pat iit ■ proper condition for ihc rcccplbn of hit exceUency aiid 
hu aneiMlftiiU. On Ifae Tlh l]i« Provincial Caajj-rcu dir«ct«<l the "oommittM 
■ppoiated to ptocuir • itcward for Ocneral WMhington " to "piocnro him 
two or dme woidcd. for coolu." A repon wu mtdc on the rollotring, which 
wwfteecplMl, direettDg m "eomniiltee lo ma]te inquiry forthwith for Rome iii' 
fCaiow, active anil futhful oiaa to be tccom mended to Gcn'l Wuiliincton u « 
Memtid : likcviic, lo procure and recommend to him tome cipnbtc wamtn, 
TT'*^''''' to ftci in Ihc pUce of A hoiUMkeepcr, and OTte or mare pfiaA fenmlc ler- 
taatL" l!buiei«r Awdn wu sooa after appointed atvwnrd, aiid rtmainod in 
4m1 capocilj whik the U«aeral wa* at Cambridge. WLen Washingion movpd 
iU» th« Vaatall boiue ii nnoutun, but Mr. Chorlei Deanc, to wHom careful 
waA] of llw sab{cct I am tndcbicd for most of tlic ahoTe facta, conjectures it 
'■ai in the month of Jnly. On the qtli tlie Congrexi provided for supplying the 
C>—ial with fuch «ttic1«* of household (urniture »■ ho had written for, and on 
Ik I5ih b noted in Wathingtoii'i accounts an item for cleaning the lioiue 
MigiHJ to Un for qaartan. The ProrinciAl Congress espired on the iglh, 
taavioe ^^ boi»e «t>Il incomplelely (umi«hc<l, for it* legislative buucesaor, tbe 
II«Mco< Reprewntaiivca OD the »d ordered thcComniiltcc of Safety to "com- 
|kli tlw teruduiif of General Wathington'c houte, and in particular lo provide 
Vafavoc fiTvmartbcd*." S«rtKe PrMreJingit/ iAe MMsatkuitttj llUttri- 
atStrifty. September, 1871, 157. 

' " We vovld not presume lo prviciibe to your ezceUeney, but mppodng yoii 
«oaU chooM to Ik infoiwcd e( the gcnenl character of tlic soldiers whu com> 



I most sincerely thank you, Gentlemen, for your 
declaration of readiness at all times to assist me in 
tlie discharge of the duties of my station. They are 
so complicated and extended, that I shall need the 
assistance of every good man, and lover of his coun- 
try. I therefore repose the utmost confidence in 
your aid. 

In return for your affectionate wishes to myself, per- 
mit me to say, that 1 earnestly implore that divine 
Being, in whose hands are all human events, to make 
you and your constituents as distinguished in private 
and public happiness, as you have been by ministerial 
oppression, and private and public distress.' 

pose tlic Bnny, l>eg luvc to rcpruent, thm the gmlest part of theni hftve not 
befote tecD tervin : ind altljauuh nalurtilly brave .ind of good understanding, 
yel, (or want n( expcnence in military IHe. have bul lillle knowledge of divers 
ihinga moit c.iNcnli4l lo ihc pnscivalion of licalili and cvcti Xxle. Tlie youlb of 
the BTmy anr not poH^rtt&cd of Che bI<e()1uIc n.e>ccs;Kity «( c]ehnlinei><^ in their drvts 
■nJ tod|>m|{, continuiLl exerciic, and strict Icniperatici.', to preserve them from 
diMSict Ircquenlly prevailing in camp^i. cjiedally among thtne, who, from 
childhood, have lieen used lo % labaHous lile" — From Ik^ Adiiras e/ iht Com- 
gret4. The entln addxcst is printed iajeirnait of tht Prgvindat C^ngrftt ■>/ 
Matiatkuitfts, 43S. 

' " The Hon : Aricmu Ward, Chikrle«, Philip Schuyler, and IsrAel Putnam 
Eaqnires, are appoiiitei! Majui CicnendBi ul the Auicricou Aniiy, and due obedi- 
ence is lo Ix paid (hem m, such. The Continental Congrcw not having com- 
ideated the appointmcnii of the other otficen in uid army, nor had niflicieBt 
time tu prepare and fuiwud their Commuaioni ; cveiy otliccr is lo continue to 
do duly in the Rank and Station be at preienl holds, untill (urther otdem. 

" Thumus Mifllin E>qr : i« HpjKiinted by ihcneneralonc of hisAid-de-Canipb. 
— Jcscph Recti Elicit v. in like manner appointed Secretaiy tu [he General, and 
they ore in future to be conudcrcd and rvgacded bs such. 

" The CoDtinentaJ Congrcw luivin); now taken all the Troop* of the Kever«l 
Colonic*, which have been mUed, or which may be hereafter raised, for the 
support And dclence of the Liberties of Ameriea ; into their Pay and Service : 
They ari now the Truops of the United FVuvinccaof Murth Auicriua ; aud it in 
hoped that oJI Dislinclioiu of Coltinics will be laid aside ; «o that one and the 
aame xfuiil may animate the whole, and the only Conleii be, who shall render. 








After much difficulty and delay, I have procured 
such returns of the state of the army, as will enable 
us to form a judgment of its strength. It is with 
great concern I find it inadequate to our general ex- 
pectations, and the duties that may be required of it. 
The number of men fit for duty in the forces raised 
in this province, including all the outposts and artil- 
lery, does not amount to nine thousand. The troops 
raised in the other colonies are more complete, but 

lUt c*^* ^"'^ Ujitig < 


il Service tv tlie 


molt cj 
commcM cauw la which wc are all engaged. 

** It U required and exp«clc<1 thai esact ditciplinc !>« obHrved, and doe Sub- 
anliiutiorB prevail ihro' ihe whole Anny, as a Failure ia llioe iti4»l taicniia' 
(ninttautt arcMUrily iwoduocDitromo Uaxard, Diwrdcraml Confusion: and 
vtA in rfwoufnl diiappointaienl and dt^nce. 

" Titc General most earnmly icqulm. nnd expects, a due observance o( 
■bow artldea ai war, ertahliiheJ (or ihe UovemmfUl ol the armj-, which forbid 
profaae cvniac, iwcaritii; and dmnkcucu i And in like mnnnci lequitrs & 
eipca», of all Oflkcn, and ^oltlient, no[ engaged on actual dulj, a punctual 
aiWKdaaetMi divine StTvie*. to implore the bicutngt of heaven dik))) themeani 
wed f»t oar aafety and defence 

" AJI OSoera are required and ex))ecled 10 pay dili|;ent Atteaiion. tulceep 
Adr Hen neat and clean — to vUit them often at iheir quaiten, and inculcate 
^na (hem the oecnaily of cleaatinCM, as ciMntiid to their hcsllh and service. 
Tbcf an ponicnlarly lo we, that ihej have Straw to lay on. if to be bad, and 
la mall* it known if they arc dentilute of ihii article. They are nbo lu tab* 
are ihM NeccHaryc be provided in the Can>p» and frvciiicntly lillcd up to pro- 
NM di^ bdnf oSeadve and aohealthy. Proper Notice will be takeu of inch 
OCoen and Men, «a diatinguiah ihemaelve* by their attention to tbcae neeenar; 
dujca." (hiUrfy Bteii, 4 July. 177s. 

"The Cenenl most eariwttly recommends & reijutm of all the Officen, that 
llw; be caceeding dQigesI and ilrict in pitvcntinj; aU 1 iivauons and Abuae oj 
IMivalc pC'ipetty in (heir iiaartcn, or cttewhere ; be hnpCK. and indeed flallen 
htaMcU, that ewy pnvaie Soldier will detest, and abhor such practice*, when 



yet fall short of their establishment ; so that, upon 
the whole, I cannot estimate the present army at 
more than fourteen thousand five hundred men capa- 
ble of duty. I have the satisfaction to find the troops, 
both in camp and quarters, very healthy ; so thai the 
deficiency must arise from the regiments never hav- 
ing been filled up to the establishment, and the num- 
ber of men on furlough ; but the former cause is by 
much the most considerable. Under all these cir- 
cumstances, I yesterday called a council of war, and 
enclosed I send you an extract of our determinations, 
so far as they respect the province of Massachusetts 
Bay.* Your own prudence will suggest the necessity 
of secrecy on this subject, as wc have the utmost rea- 
son to believe, that the enemy suppose our numbers 

tie coridilen;, ihat il Ik fnr the prewrvation of tiix i»uni Rit[hU, Liberty and 
Property, and thoac of hit PcUaw Cuiintrj'men, that he i« n[>w called tnto »cr- 
vicc : lliat It i>> iirnixnlr and iully\ the dignity of the ernt cnitac, in wliidi we 
are all engaged, to viokle thsl jiroperty, he U called to prolCCl, and cs]x:dally, 
thm « is most cruel and inconsisUnl, thu* to add lo the DitlreMO oC iho-ie of 
iheif eooiitrymen, wbo aie suScrinE under the Iron hand of opprcaaion." 

5 July. I77S. 

"Nu Soldier, belonging to lhc» posts, or ebcwlicrc, tobcsuRcretl to Itrtggle 
nt a distance from ihcir tcspeciive parade, on any pretence, wilhoul leave from 
hia Officen : A> an unguarded Hour, may prove faul to ihc whnic army, and 
to the noble Cau»c in which wc are engaged. The Imporiutjcc of wliich, 
to every man u( cumuKiii unilent.inding, inuKi ioipirc «v«y good Oflicer and 
Soldier, with ihr iiohlcti Ardour mid Mrictci.1 allcnlinn, IctttI hcihould prove 
the fatal IniiniitkenI of our niiti. . . . 

" The General hat grcai Reason; and j; highly dinpIcaKBd, with the N«^Iige»icc 
and Inattention of those Ofliccri, who have placed as Centries, at ibe oul-pmts. 
Men with whose Characlere they are nol acquainted. He therefore orders, 
that for the future, no Man nhall he ftppointfd to thost impoMnnt StatioBH, who 
it not a Native of this Country, or ha:> a Wife, or Family in it, to whom he is 
known lo be aliachcd. This order ix to be cunaider'd as a itanding one and tite 
Officers are lo pay obedience to it at their peril." 7 July, 1775. 

'The council of war concluded that the enemy number 11.500 men; ttwt Hie 
present poi^ti occupied !>hould be defended ; that the American anny ahould be 




much greater than they are, an error which it is not 
our interest to remove. 

The great extent of our lines, and the uncertainty 
where may be the point of attack, added to the ne- 
cessity of immediate support, have induced me to 
order that horses ready saddled should be kept ac 
several posts, in order to bring the most early intel- 
ligence of any movement of the enemy. For this 
purpose, I should be glad that ten horses may be 
provided as soon as possible. I have the honor to 
be, Sir, &c 

P. S. As I am informed, that the Congress pro- 
poses to rise immediately, I should be glad to know 
what committees are left, or upon whom the execu- 
tive business devolves." 

ni*ed to 32,000 men : thai the Muaachusccu rteimenls should he recniitcd. 
stA the lYMrinciml Omgreu chould fomith o lemporiuy Tcinforccment ; and 
ikat ibe *' Welch &(uunuit» dcai Cnmlitidicc >ntl in Uic rear i>( the Rtubury 
fiDS** wm* * niitahk pUcc (or a rcndcivouf in cue of a dUdaliilion af tlic army 
«V llie potitMXui ihuDld become unleDabte. 

• " RttthtJ, Thai the Commillec *>i Safety be directed to wait on General 
Wafhingtoa, and infonn him o( the \tuiren vfilh which the Congress have nsted 
them ; and that the Committ«e of Scft^itie^ r«mnin poueaed «f all thoie powen 
ibey have bervtofurc had ; and to mnfcr with the General with regard lo the 
dmitBiiaaces or the army, and to (Icnre him to call iti all that are uul od f ui- 
la«^. and direct thai all rvcruitii b« ortkrcd to (he camp at soon u made ; and 
the said cammillrc nrr hinher dirccird to isne their nrdcr for calling in Midi a 
Bvmbcr of militia from ili« several paiU of ihi^ colony as (lie Grnenil shall r<t- 
^wcvt. Bot cxcccdiDf; three thotuand men." A/aitacMtiietli I'rvviitdal C^nxrrrt, 
tl Jtii<f, t77S- WaiJiiDctoD ifaouKhi that a icmpoiaiy rein fore cm cnl of one 
(hanand men, to he dationed ai Uedford wonU be niffidenl for lliv (listing 
caicwKy, ■ikI anlD the >ev lcvi«B (hen raiting coald be complclcd ; but tome 
iaiaUignicc froBi Bo*l<in received on the eirenin£ of the 12th, indnctd the Gcn- 
wni to d«cid< (hat the propcMcd rvinforcemeni could tic ijispcnwd with. "Tlie 
nae ol harre*t, ih« expected troopx (rooi the romhward. and the repeated valla 
whjcli have beeD rade of (h« like amure (ram thin Province, arc Mrong rcaxon* 
in poapCAO (hH mcasuw, if contUicnt with utfety." KmJ to lit frctinriaJ 
Cmgwnt, l« Jdlj. 1775. 




Camp AT CAUBRtotiB July to, tnj- 


I arrived safe at this Place on the 3d insL, after a 
Journey attended with a good deal of Fatigue, and 
retarded by necessary Attentions to the successive 
Civilities which accompanied me in my whole Rout. 
Upon my arrival, I immediately visited the several 
Posts occupied by our Troops, and as soon as the 
Weather permitted, reconnoitred those of the Enemy. 
I found the latter strongly cntrcnch'd on Bunker's 
Hill about a Mile from Charlestown, and advanced 
about half a Mile from the Place of the last Action, 
with their Gentries extended about 150 Yards on this 
side of the narrowest Part of the Neck leading from 
this Place to Charlestown ; 3 floating Batteries lay in 
Mystick River, near their camp ; and one 20 Gun Ship 
below the Ferry Place between Boston and Cliarlea- 
town. They have also a Battery on Copse Hill, on 
the Boston side, which much annoyed our Troops in 
the late attack. Upon the Neck, they are also 
deeply entrenched and strongly fortified. Their ad- 
vanced Guards 'till last Saturday morning, occupied 
Brown's Houses, about a mile from Roxbury Meeting 
House and 20 roods from their Lines: But at that 
Time a Party from General Thomas's Camp sur- 
prized the Guard, drove them in and burnt the 
houses." The Bulk of their Army commanded by 

■ R««d before CoBgrcss, July t^dk. 

' The house and bftm of Mr. Brown siood on ihc west n'dc of the tiighvray 
[Wuhtnitioa :iu«et] near the present locatiou of Fianklin Squofe. Oa the Slh 


JvLjt- ^^J**-*- e>^^>'%^^ 




— . ^ ^^<^ fi\dth 

**>-«Wl'Ct •«'a,-C^ •^^i-hy- P^-* C4S-7fc<^«.-^w«.^^^^ ^o— ^'XA- 

^^^^.^.^^ ^.<d.^.*^eX ^ic^^-^c*^^.^-^ ■ ' 

TlUt Aknvi MC-tlUltC ttlirtWt Tllr UOUUK MK\D8 OF 40SJKC19 1\> UK THEATKD 
iVarratitt tmJ C'ifiiit fiiitvry of Amirittt. r AM AlltinKD in isr THIS KAC- 



Genl Howe, lap on Bunker's Hill, and the Remain- 
der on Roxbur}' Neck, except the Light Horse, and 
a few Men in the Town of Boston. On our side wc 
have thrown up [ntrcnchments on Winter and Pros- 
pect Hills, the Enemies camp in full View at the 
Distance of little more than a Mile' Such interme- 
diate Points, as would admit a Landing, I have since 
my arrival taken care to strengthen, down to Sewall's 
Farm, where a strong Entrenchment has been thrown 
up. At Roxbury General Thomas has thrown up a 
strong Work on the Hill, about 200 Yards above the 
Meeting House which with the Broken-ness of the 
Ground and great Number of Rocks has made that 
Pass very secure.' The Troops raised in New 
Hampshire, with a Regiment from Rhode Island 
occupy Winter Hill. A Part of those from Connecti- 
cut under General Puttnam are on Prospect HJIL 

af J«lf ■ [Mny ol volnntcm rr<nn rhe Rhode Tiiland ini) MsstachMBelts fercM, 
nder tb« coronuuid of Mikjon Tuppet an<J Crane attftckciJ the poil Aod drove 
in dw puid xnd set fin to the bnililiiigs, but two xtlcmpis appear to hava hc«n 
aeuaaiy to occocnpllsh this. Jsi. Trumhuil lo Elifh. Dyer, 1 1 Juljr, 1775. 
"Thbwai Uic only Annc4 coiillkt between ihc opposing antiict whicli took. 
pbcc within the arigiaal limtl* of Botcon." Centennial Annivrriary Evatua- 

' TIm origuul luM of Americtn forliRcalion cnswM vlial is now Wuhjnglon 
Stivn. oa llw Snc of dirisinn between Boston and Roxbury. Dear tbe pr«Kni 
Cliiioa Place. 

• " Ve«crd47, u I w«s Koins lo CunbrJdec I ran the Generals [WuJiindtoii 
awl L««J. who iiegged me lo return to Roxbury again, which I did. WKen 
1W7 b^ rtcwcd tlw woria, Iboy e>p«i»cd tlic Krcalcsl ylcaiuie and Hurprisc at 
■Wrwtsalioa and a|)parenl utility, to say nothing of ilic plan, wliich did nnt 
thrir |i*ai«c." Grntral A'tux U Air wi//, 6 Juiy, 1775. " General 
WMfcJBgtaw Ub hU place wiUi vast ca»c and dignity, and ditperuc* happincti 
•rawid taiin." 9 July. " The new genccali are of inliiiiic service to the onny. 
They have lo leduoe order alini>tt from a perfect ctiao*. I think they are in a 
Ur way at iloiiig it." 11 Jul)'. 




The Troops in this Town are intirely of the Massa- 
chusetts : The Remainder of the Rhode Island Men, 
are at Sewall's Farm ; Two Regiments of Connecticut 
and 9 of the Massachusetts are at Roxbury. The 
Residue of the Army, to the Number of about 700, 
are posted in several small Towns along the Coast, 
to prevent the Depredations of the Enemy: Upon 
the whole, 1 think myself authorized to say, that 
considering the great Extent of Line, and the nature 
of the Ground we are as well secured as could be 
expected in so short a Time and under the Disadvan- 
tages we labour. These consist in a Want of Enj;i- 
neers to construct proper Works and direct the men, 
a Want of Tools, and a sufficient Number of Men to 
man the Works in Case of an attack. You will 
observe by the Proceedings of the Council of War, 
which I have the Honor to enclose, that it is our 
unanimous Opinion to hold and defend these Works 
as long as possible. The Discouragement it would 
give the Men and its contrary EfiTects on the minis- 
terial Troops, thus to abandon our Incampment in 
their Face, form'd with so much Labor, added to the 
certain Destruction of a considerable and valuable 
Extent of Country, and our Uncertainty of finding a 
Place in all Respects so capable of making a stand, 
are leading Reasons for this Determination : at the 
same Time we are very sensible of the Difficulties 
which attend the Defence of Lines of so great extent, 
and the Dangers which may ensue from such a 
Division of the Army. 

My earnest Wishes to comply with the Instructions 




of the Congress in making an early and complete Re- 
turn of the State of the Army, has led into an invol- 
untary' Delay in addressing you, which has given me 
much Concern. Having given orders for this Purpose 
immediately on my Arrival, and unapprized of the 
imperfect Obedience which had been paid to those of 
the like Nature from General Ward. I was led from 
Day to Day to expect they would come in, and 
therefore detained the Messenger. They are not now 
so complete as I could wish, but much Allowance is to 
be made for Inexperience in Forms, and a Liberty 
which has been taken (not given) on this subject. 
These Reasons 1 flatter myself will no longer exist, 
and of Consequence more Regularity and exactness 
in future prevail. This, with a necessary attention 
to the Lines, the Movements of the Ministerial 
Troops, and our immediate Security, must be my 
Apology, which 1 beg you lay before the Congress 
with the utmost Duty and Respect. 

Wc labor under great Disadvantages for Want of 
Tents, for tho' they have been help'd out by a Collec- 
tion of now useless sails from the Sea Port Towns, 
the Number is yet far short of our Necessities. The 
Colleges and Houses of this Town are necessarily 
occupied by the Troops which affords another Reason 
for keeping our present Situation : But I most sin- 
cerely wish the whole Army was properly provided 
to take the Field, as I am well assured, that besides 
greater Expedition and Activity in case of Alarm, it 
would highly conduce to Health and discipline. As 
Materials are not to be had here. I would beg leave 




to recommend the procuring a farther supply from 
Philadelphia as soon as possible.' 

I should be extremely deficient in Gratitude, as 
well as Justice, if I did not take the first opportuny 
to acknowledge the Readiness and Attention which 
the provincial Congress and different Committees 
have shewn to make every Thing as convenient and 
agreeable as possible : but there is a vital and inher- 
ent Principle of Delay incompatible with military 
service in transacting Business thro' such numerous 
and different Channels. I esteem it therefore my 
Duty to represent the Inconvenience that must un- 
avoidably ensue from a dependence on a Number of 
Persons for supplies, and submit it to the Considera- 
tion of the Congress whether the publick Service will 
not be best promoted by appointing a Commissary 
General for these purposes. We have a striking 
Instance of the Preference of such a Mode in the 
Establishment of Connecticut, as their Troops are 
extremely well provided under the Direction of Mr. 
Trumbull, and he has at different Times assisted 
others with various Articles. Should my Sentiments 
happily coincide with those of your Honors, on this 
subject, I beg leave to recommend Mr. Trumbull as 
a very proper Person for this Department. In the 
Arrangement of Troops collected under such Circum- 
stances, and upon the Spur of immediate Necessity 

' " QrdtTtti. ihat Mr. Wilson apply lo Uic cummiucc of the dtj niid tiberties 
of Phttoddphin, anil rei^uesl Ihem In make <iiligimt eni^uiiy what (luaniity of 
duck, Kumia Hlicetinj;, tow-cloth, ocnftbuq^a and Ucklenbutgs nn be procured 
in thix city, and make return a* lOon %.\ possible to lliis ConercH." yMimali. 
July 19U1. 




several Appointments are omitted, which appear to 
be indispensably necessary for the good Government 
of the Army, partieularly a Quartermaster General, a 
Commissary of Musters and a Commissary of Artil- 
lery. These I must Earnestly recommend to the 
Notice and Provision of the Congress.' 

I find myself already much embarrassed for Want 
o( a Militarj- Chest ; these embarrassments will in- 
crease every day : I must therefore request that 
Money may be forwarded as soon as Possible. The 
want of this most necessary Article, will I fear pro- 
duce great Inconveniences if not prevented by an 
early Attention. I find the Army in general, and 
the Troops raised in Massachusetts in particular, 
very deficient in necessary Cloathing.* Upon Inquiry 
there appears no Probability of obtaining any sup- 
plies in this Quarter. And the best Consideration 
of this Matter 1 am able to form, I am of Opinion 
that a Number of hunting Shirts not less than 
10,000, would in a great Degree remove this Diffi- 
cult)' in the cheapest and quickest manner. I know 
nothing in a speculative View more trivial, yet if put 
in Practice would have a happier Tendency to unite 
the Men, and abolish those Provincial Distinctions 
which lead to Jealousy and Dissatisfaction. In a 
fonner part of this Letter I mentioned the want of 

' TivmboU wi> appointed by C!x>ni:rtis ; and tlic naming of the other oFGccra 
m w«D IK of ihre> brigade majon itbs IcEt lo WoKhingtnn. Journali, July t9tb. 

* C«ii«r*l Win! wrote to lh« Frovinctal CijagrcK on the 7th, tlut " pcmt 
Blxn In ibc amy arc aJQioti naked for vrtm of thin*, brcedict, siockinc*. 
tkM«, and ether clotUng : and imlets ihcy caa be immediately rappliMl, iecoti- 
cthabk ■^"■iil** ud dntnut will acciuc to the annf ." 




Engineers; I can hardly express the Disappointment 
I have experienced on this Subject. The Skill of 
those we have, being very imperfect and confined to 
the mere manual Exercise of Cannon : Whereas — 
the War in which we are engaged requires a Knowl- 
edge comprehending the Duties of the Field and 
Fortifications.' If any Persons thus qualified are to 
be found in the Southern Colonies, it would be of 
great publick Service to forward them with all expe- 
dition. Upon the Article of Ammunition I must 
re-echo the former Complaints on this Subject : We 
are so exceedingly destitute, that our Artillery will be 
of little Use without a supply both large and season- 
able : What we have must be reserved for the small 
Arms, and that managed with the utmost Frugality. 

I am sorry to obser\-e that the Appointments of the 
General Officers in the Province cf Ma.ssachusetts 
Bay have by no Means corresponded with the Judge- 

I " We arrived here on Sunday before dinner. We Cound everytliiag execllj 
ihc reverse of wliui had been rcpreicnied. Wc were aujied at Philadelphia 
that the array u-as stocked with Engineen.. Wc found tiot nnc. Wc were 
usuied thai u-c ubuuIJ htid au cxji-cit train ol artillery. Tbey have not a tittgle 
gunner, and u> on. So (at from ihc men being prejudiced in favoiu of iheir 
own oRicere, (hey are exiTeraely dilHdetii in them, snd seetn tnaeh pleased that 
wc Me arrived. Tbc men ate rcaiiy very fine fellovn, and had they fait play 
wimid be made an Invincible arnLy." Charits Lte to Kobtrt ,\f«rns. 4 July, 
1775. ijt I'apirs, i., taa. 

" Uatil 1 visited bead-^uade mat Cambridge. I ocvci heard uflhcTalorof Pnacott ' 
at Rtinliei Hill, noTthctngenuityof Knox and VValeiBinplarinirigilte celebrated 
worlu at RoTbury. We were told here lha.t there were none in our camp who 
nndenrtood the businc^ of an engineer, or anything more than Ihe maaua] ex- 
erclse of itic gun. Thx we had frum great authority, and. fui want of more 
certain intelligence, were oblijjed at Icoat to be nilenU There arc many military 
gcaiuscs at present unemployed and uverlcuhcd. wliu, t hope when the anujr b 
new modelleil, will be taught after aud cntiKtcdinlo the service of their country. 
They mutt be Mu^hl after, for modest merit dc>:lincs tu pmh itaoU into public 
view." Samttel Adami ts Jil6tit(gt Gtrry, 26 Seplember, 1775. 





ment and Wishes of cither the civil or Military. The 
great Dissatisfaction expressed on this Subject and 
the apparent Danger of throwing the Army into the 
utmost Disorder, together with the strong Represen- 
tations of the Provincial Congress, have induced me 
to retain the Commissions in my Hands iintill the 
Pleasure of the Congress should be farther known, 
(except General Futtnam's which was given the Day 
1 came into Camp and before I was apprized of these 
Uneasinesses.)' In such a Step I must beg the Con- 
gress will do me the Justice I believe, that I have 
been actuated solely by a Regard to the publick 
Good. I have not, nor could have any private 
Attachments; every Gentleman in Appointment, 
was an intire Stranger to me but from Character. I 
must therefore rely upon the Candor of the Con- 
gress for their favorable Construction of my Con- 
duct in this Particular. General Spencer was so 
much disgusted at the preference given to General 
Puttnam that he left the Army without visiting me, 
or making known his Intentions in any respect* 
General Pomroy had also retired before my Arrival, 
occasioned (as is said) by some Disappointment from 
the Provincial Congress.' General Thomas is much 

* ~ Al the icqucH ol General WuhiDfion, fteMhred, That no diotc cooiiiuv 
«HS (or the preteni be dcUrend lo oiijr officen of che Caltmy Anny. tliose 
o f fay W nore pw1tc«l«r)y for ike pratcclion of the KBcoaiU, «xccpl«L" 
tlMrmJtmjtffx Prmmeimi Comgrtu, } July. >77S> 

* A iQMvkAbla sfmaritl in favor of Gena«l Spenoer b la b« found in VoKt, 
Awttrtcsm Artkif€i, Fourth Serin, ii,, \%i%. A letter from Sunud B. Webb 
laSOat Oonc, ti July, 177s, ihrawi mmuc lij[tit on SpcDCer'i coaducL Collri' 
<Im« C*»tutiieMt iiiit*rieal Sontty, ii., SSJ, 3SS, 190. 

* " A* Fnarvr b ov« Ab»CDl, uid >l the lUtlancc of an hundred railei from 
<k> Atmy, if it txa be otuuutvai with your ExceUencys Tn»i aod ihc Scwico 
w iBilH Ui CoBWMiwn mtiU roo thaU rccdve Advic« from the CoUiaenui 




esteemed and earnestly desired to continue in the 
sen'ice : and as far as my Opportunities have enabled 
mc to judge I must join in the general opinion that 
he is an able good Officer and his Resignation would 
be a publick Loss. The postponing him to Pomroy 
and Heath whom he has commanded would make his 
Continuance very difiicuU. and probably operate on 
his Mind, as the like Circumstance has done on that 
of Spencer." 

The State of the Army you will find ascertained 
with tolcrablL- Precision in the Returns which accom- 
pany this Letter.' Upon finding the Number of 
men to fall so far short of the Establishment, and 
below all Expectation, I immediately called a Council 
of the general Officers, whose opinion as to the mode 
of filling up the Regiments, and providing for the 
present Exigency, I have the Honor of inclosing 
together with the best Judgment we are able to form 
of the ministerial Troops. From the Number of 
Boys, Deserters, and Negroes which have been In- 
listed in the troops of this Province, I entertain some 
doubts whether the number required can be raised 
here ; and ail the General Officers agree that no 
Dependance can be put on the militia for a Continu- 

Congresi, asd w« shall hr thic to prevnil with Hcaih to mnlcc a cuncnsioii 
Honouriible to himteli. and advanlagroui to the pulilick. Wobumbly coDcetTc 
lh« way would lie opca to do Jutticc to Thomu." yM. Wantn and Joitpk 
HaviUy, IB a'aikinj^tcn. 4 Jul>- 1755. 

' " ftti»lvtd, Tliit Ccnctal Thomu be app«inicd Gret biigadicr-gtucnl in ihc 
army of ihc United Colonic*, in ihc cuuin »( Cicncral fainctuy. who never OLled 
under the commiiiMon Mnt la him, and that (iennral ThotnjwU commissioB bear 
the «inc due ibdt (Jcncral I'omeroy'a did." jDumatt, July 19th, 

' A i^ncnil Tetura of tht airny is printed in Force. Amtri(am Attkivtt, 
t'oorlh S«ricH, ii.. 1630. 






aoce in Camp, or Re^ularit}' and Discipline during; 
the short Time they may stay.' This unhappy and 
devoted Province has been so long in a State of 
Anarchy, and the Yoke of ministerial Oppression 
been laid so heavily on it that great Allowances are 
to be made for Troops raised under such Circum- 
stances : The Deficiency of Numbers. Discipline 
and Stores can only lead to this Conclusion, that 
their Spirit has exceeded their Strength. But at the 
same Time I would humbly submit to the considera- 
tion of the Congress, the Propriety of making some 
farther Provision of Men from the other Colonies. 
If these Regiments should be completed to their Es- 
tablishment, the Dismission of those unfit for Duty 
on account of their Age and Character would occasion 
a considerable Reduction, and at all events they have 
been inlisted upon such Terms, that they maybe dis- 
banded when other Troops arrive: But should my 
apprehensions be reali2ed, and the Regiments here 
not filled up, the publick Cause would suffer by an 
absolute Dependance upon so doubtful an Event, 

' Ob 10 JbI]' General G«le« imied an order to be obterred by Uie recniilitig 
«fiMn. who were lm»cdi>tc!y «cnt upon ihat tcrvlcc : — 

" Yoa ate doI lo enltil nny dcten«T troin ihe MinUlerial army, nor any iitti>l- 
kv, Bcgfo, or vagabond, or penon sviprclt'd of heing an eoemf to the librrty 
•I America, nor my nndcr eighteen yckrs of age. 

** As ibe csBM b the beit thai can engage men of cauro^ and pnnclptc to 
«p arau, BO tl U expected Ibnt none but such will be accepted by the 
lac officer. The pay, prariilon, &c., being m ■mple, ic is not Joubicil 
iMltkat tlieoAcen tent tijion Ibii «ervice will, wiihuut delay, onmplele Ibeir 
iiip» lin eorpe, and iniTC)) the men [oTttiwitli to rump, 

"Vna mc not to cnHit any pcnon who ii not an American bcvn, ttnlcM such 
fmmm lux a wife and family, and U a lettlwl r«ai<ient in th» country. Tlie 
pMWnyva coHm mot be prorided with good and complete arm*." Gaiiia' 
Mtwrm^jr. Jnly 241)1. 




unless some Provision is made against such a Dlsap- 

It requires no military Skill to judge of the Diffi- 
culty of introducing proper Discipline and Subordi- 
nation into an Army while we have the Enemy in 
View, and are in daily Expectation of an Attack, but 
it is of so much Importance that every Effort will be 
made which Time and Circumstance will admit. In 
the mean Time 1 have a sincere Pleasure in observ- 
ing that there are Materials (or a good Army, a great 
number of able bodied Men, active zealous in the 
Cause and of unquestionable courage.' 

I am now Sir, to acknowledge the Receipt of your 
Favor of the 28th InsL inclosing the Resolutions of 
the Congress of the 27th ult and a Copy of a Letter 
from the Committee of Albany, to all which 1 shall 
pay due Attention. 

General Gates and Sullivan have both arrived in 

* " Xfsohed, That *iich a bodjr of troopi he kepi up in the Monachusctts 
Bfty. u Central Washington shMl think nrocNiiiry. provided the; <Eo not exceed 
Iwcnty-lwo thouMnd men." — JVwnio/t, July aisl. Sec noic on p. (i. 

* " Upon mjr muI the malenals here (I mean ihc private men) are [■dmini] 
ble ; had they proper uniforms, urmii, and proper officer*, their te«l. fouih, 
Wdily atrcne^^i S°^ humor, [and dcxtjeiily, mutt make '<■» an iavinctbic 
simy. The Rhode [Inlanders] are well off In the arlicic of i>l£cen and the 
young [offic«n of) the olher Province* arc willing, and with n little lime 

<5o very well. But frnm the aid big wigrt [ — lilicra] nra, Domine. The abili- 
lis of ibeir cngineet^are not [Uanscenjduit, I leally believe not a sincle man 
of them iK [ca]>able]of conitnicting an oven."- — OMfiei Lee U Btiijamiu Kmsh, 

30jul>. I775. 

" A1thait|;h in the MastachiuMti part of the axiny there are tliven bnve and 
intrepid oOicer«. yet Iherttar^ loo many, and even srveral i.'oliineU, whow cKat- 
acters, to My the least are very eq^uivocal with lespecl to coura)[c. There is 
much more cause to fear that the officers will fail in « da/ of trial, than th« 
private;!. I may venture to say, that U the officers will do their duly, ther« i» 
no fear of the soldiery." — y^trph Uaviky t« Wtuhmgten, 5 July, 1775. 




good Health. My best Abililies are at all Times de- 
voted to the Service of my Country, but I feel the 
Weight Importance and variety of my present Du- 
ties too sensibly, not to wish a more immediate and 
frequent Communication with the Congress. I f&ar 
ic may often happen in the Course of our present 
Operations, that 1 shall need that Assistance and 
Direction from them which Time and Distance will 
not allow me to receive.' 

* Ob the UMh Waibinglon wrote \a Benjuoin Harrison, bot t}t« letter » lost 
aail ict cDfUcau can ontj' i>c guessed at by HAitiiiun'b reply, iirinicil In Fotcc, 
AmurieaM Artkivta, Fouctli Seriet, ii.. 1&97. The more im|>(inarit raatlcn 3rc 
iadi«l«d by ih» following «xlrac[» : " Vnur fali^ix nni'l rariaus kinds of trou- 
Ue, I dftre Mjr ore ereat ; but ihcf ire net marc itun 1 expected, knowini; ibe 
[4«]fdt yov have to deal with bj- the sample ue have hoie. . . . The waul of 
evpnecn, I (ear, it not to be nipplied in Atneriot, Some foiki here teemed 
■acli displcued U your report on ih^t head. They aflirni there ate two very 
£ODd ono with yon— fl Coluncl Gridlcy, I Ihink, it one- I lixik Ihe liberty to 
uy tbil (hey miiit be inigtaken ; they were certainly eit]i<;t not id camp, or 
OMild not bare the skill they were picucd to uy tbcy had. This, in my «oft 
wvf, pnt a Mop to anylUng men on the Kubjeet. Indeed, my friend, I do not 
ksov wbat to think of lome of these men ; ihcy iccm to tic excecdiitg beany 
ia ike cause, but iiill wl»h tokeci>everytbiii(jamoij^?>t rtiem»c:Ivek. . . . The 
CoofPMa have givcB you the appoinlmenl of tlirec brigade majorii. Mr. Trum. 
bslllaa tbe office you pra|io»ed for liitu. The appoiotincnl» of the cooimiasary 
04 utQItty, (Utto of muden, anct ((iiar(rnnac[c[<general, are lUn left (o yoar 
iHspooaL . , , Webavesiren the commUaioti of lint brigadier to Mr. 'I'homM. 
At Putnam's connisiion was delivered, it would, perhaps have offended (he 
old gesliemaii lu have mgicrceUed him : the other I hujie. will I'till act. The 
COBfr«M bavc, from year account, a high opinion of him, itnd t dare »■>/ will 
(nU anytUng in theii power that he may hereafter require. Your hint for a 
nma*« of the Coogras to »oinr place nearer lo you, wilt come on to-moorcw. 
I tUsk it win not answer your expectations if we should remove ; you: shall 
ban ifac rcsitl in the cIok of this. The mililAry chcsl. 1 hoiic, will be supplied 
MM ; llwy begin to itrike the bill* this day, w that 1 hope lome may he for- 
iriw l lo yon tKXl week. ... (31 July). The debate about our remove 
rat taken yolerday, and delennined in the ncijative. I propoied a conimitlee, 
b«t cmld nflt carry it. t think the Uit method would have annwercd ynnr pur- 
poM bcfi, bai tbe gentlemen omild not think of parting with tbe leatt particle 
e< tkctr power." (33 July.) This letter never reached Washin|^on, being in- 




Since writing the above, I have also to acknowl- 
edge your Favour of the 4th Inst, by Fessenden, and 
the Receipt of the Commission and Articles of War. 
The Former are yet 800 short of the number re- 
quired, this deficiency you will please supply as soon 
as you conveniently can. Among the other Returns, 
I have also sent one of our killed, wounded and miss- 
ing in the late Action, but have been able to procure 
no certain Account of the Loss of the ministerial 
Troops, my best Intelligence fixes it at about 500 
killed and 6 or 700 wounded ; but it is no more than 
Conjecture, the utmost Pains being taken on their side 
to conceal it.' 

P. S. Having ordered the commanding Officer to 
give me the earliest Intelligence of every Motion of 
the Enemy, by Land or Water, discoverable from the 
Heighths of his Camp, I this inst, as I was closing 
my Letter received the enclosed from the Brigade 
Major. The Design of this Manucevre I know not, 
perhaps it may be to make a Descent some where 
along the Coast; it may be for New York, or it may 
be practised as a Deception on Us. I thought it not 
improper however to mention the matter to you. I 

tcrcepml by ihc Brilllh. It i> prinlcd in tlic Centltman's Afajafiru. 1775- 
When Woihingtnn was in Congress there ippeirs to hnvc hee-n £om« talk at 
TCBioviii^ tu Cu !i lie c lieu 1, [Si/iti Dtant to Mt wife, i6 June, IJK>, >nil ai^siii 
in Septeinl>er \Da, to Do,, ScpEcmbct 3i). 

' At Blinker's Hill, an the lyih af June, According to a 
by the ProvinciAl Congms of Muiachu^etts, ilie loss m* on' 
(orty.bvc UUeil and missing, anil thr» huodicd and four wui 
Uiiity i>r llic X\fiX. number were wounded and taken pritonei 
GnKc'i uflidti] Tclurn. Uie lulled. aoJ. iDmiitjf of tkc Dntiili wctt' two bundrecl 
aad iwcnty-six. und the wounded Hgtit hundnd nnd twenly.tight. in lU one 
ih&UMnd and 6((y (our. — Almen's Rimtmhranttr, vol, i., (^ 99, 179, 

.ondrcd and 
ed. About 
By General 




have done the same to the commanding Officer at 
New York, and I shall let it be known to the Com- 
mittee of Safety here, so that the Intelligence maybe 
communicated as they shall think best along the Sea 
Coast of this Government 


CAMf AT CAMBXronZ. 10 Jnljr. I775. 

Dear Sir, 

I was exceeding glad to receive a letter from you, 
as I alu^ays shall be whenever it is convenient ; though 
perhaps my hurr}', till such time as matters are 
drawn a little out of the chaos they appear in at 
present, will not suflfer me to write you such full and 
satisfactory- answers, or give such clear and precise 
accounts of our situation and views, as 1 could wish, 
or you might expect. After a journey, a good deal 
retarded, principally by the desire of the different 
townships through which I travelled of showing 
respect to the general of your armies, I arrived here 
on this day week ; since which 1 have been laboring 
with as much assiduity by fair and threatening means. 
to obtain returns of our strength in this camp and 
Roxbur)' and their dependencies, as a man could do, 
and never have been able to accomplish the matter 
till this day ; and now. I will not answer for tiic cor- 
rectness of them, although I have sent several of the 
regimental returns back more than once to have 
mistakes rectified. 

I do not doubt but the Congress will think me very 




remiss in not writing to them sooner ; but you may 
rely on it yourself, and 1 beg you to assure them, that 
it has never been in my power till this day to comply 
with their orders. Could I have conceived, that what 
ought, and, in a regular army, would have been done 
in an hour, would employ eight days, I should have 
sent an express on the second morning after I 
arrived, with a general account of things ; but expect- 
ing in the morning to receive the returns in the 
evening, and in the evening surely to find them In the 
morning, and at last getting them full of imperfec- 
tions, I have been drilled on from day to day, till 1 am 
ashamed to look back at the time, which has elapsed 
since my arrival here. You will perceive by the 
returns, that we have but about sixteen thousand 
effective men in all this department, whereas, by the 
accounts which I received from even the first officers 
in command, I had no doubt of finding between 
eighteen and twenty thousand ; out of these there are 
only fourteen thousand fit for duty. So soon as I 
was able to get this state of the army, and came to 
the knowledge of our weakness, I immediately sum- 
moned a council of war, the result of which you will 
see, as it is enclosed to the Congress. Between you 
and me, I think we arc it) an exceedingly dangerous 
situation, as our numbers are not much larger than 
we suppose those of the enemy to be, from the best 
accounts we are able to get. They are situated in 
such a manner, as to be drawn to any point of 
attack, without our having an hour's previous notice 
of it, if the General will keep his own counsel ; 




whereas we are obliged to be guarded at all points, 
and know not where, with precision to look for them. 

I should not, t think, have made choice of the 
present posts, in the first instance, although I believe 
the communication between the town and country 
could not have been so well cut off without them ; and, 
as much labor has been bestowed in throwing up 
lines, and making redoubts; as Cambridge, Roxbury, 
and Watcrtown must be immediately exposed to the 
mercy of the enemy, were we to retreat a little 
further into the country; as it would give a general 
dissatisfaction to this colony, dispirit our own people, 
and encourage the enemy, to remove at this time to 
another place ; we have for these reasons resolved in 
council to maintain our ground if we can. Our lines 
on Winter and Prospect Hills, and those of the enemy 
on Bunker's Hill, are in full view of each other, a 
mile distant, our advance guards much nearer, and the 
sentries almost near enough to converse ; at Roxbury 
and Boston Neck it is the same. Between these, we 
are obliged to guard several of the places at which 
the enemy may land. They have strongly fortified, 
or will fortify in a few days, their camps and Bunker's 
Hill ; after which, and when their newly landed troops 
have got a little refreshed, wc shall look for a visit, if 
they mean, as we are told they do, to come out of 
their lines. Their great command of artillery, and 
adequate stores of powder, give them advantages, 
which we have only to lament the want of. 

The abuses in this army, I fear, are considerable, 
and the new modelling of it, in the face of an enemy. 





from whom we every hour expect an attack, is ex- 
ceedingly difficult and dangerous. If things therefore 
should not turn out as the Congress would wish, I 
hope they will make proper allowances. I can only 
promise and assure them, that my whole tiijje is de- 
voted to their service, and that as far as my judgment 
goes, they shall have no cause to complain.' I need 

* " Bifflil trauports w-j'tU Irvops that have been «t Sandjr Hook since Thnn- 
dqr Uit arc to uil from ilicncc to day. Rcporit iircvttil that the men on bouil 
btnw nulinied, thai the}' r«(uyed logotoBosion. Of [his, however, I have not 
beon able lo get khj certainty, llandl bilU have been iDiroduccd amonfit 
them to encourujie thcai in nuil on the lint fftvomble opportunity a ncrrlce 
which mum render ihcm ndittrtix t« all hone«l men. Governor Tryon's conduct 
has hithcrtu been uti except ton able, and [rvm the informatiua I have been able 
to procure, scitnc of which I pal great confidence in, I hove tcanon to believe 
thai the lint he liu chalked out (or himself ii ni«h a» w« would wiih he thoald 
\«)\d,."—Geittra! Sfhiyltr U iVinhS»si«n, I July, 1775. 

" Notu'iihiucidiiig Gov. Tryoii'i plausible behavior I recommended It lo you 
to watch him narrowly and s.'t uiy unlucky Change of ARain on our Part tnay 
produce a Change in him n( his prtsmt tmtxirpiinnablf (an^uet, I expect you 
will on (he iirst Appearance of such a Change pursue the advice given in my 
la*t Letter. The like Advice I give you respecting CcneraU llaLdiman who la 
tuppoKd by >omc 10 have gone to New York with a Design to countenci lu In 
that Province. . . . 

" Tbs di!>pct«iii{C Hand Bills auioug^l the Troops at New York baa my moat 
hearty Approbation and may bare a good Effect hcic. Our Knemict hare at- 
tempted nothing agajnil us since my arrival here — th«y are itrongly ported an 
liuokcra Hill Jk are itilt busy ia throwing up additional Works. Wc have 
thrown Lines and Redouble betureeu My&tiuk Kiver & Dorcheiier 
Point to prevent their mnhing Way inlo the Country and in a few Dnys thaLl be 
well prepared to receive them in CaM a Sotlioc Is attempted.— Watkinst^n U 
Sclimj/itr. 10 July, 1775. 

" Sine* t did myself the honor of addreislng you the tOth. Inatant, nothing 
material has happened in the camp. From some hie and authentic advices of 
the stale of the mlni&terial troops and the great inconvenience of calling in the 
militia at tht« aeaton, 1 have been induced for the present to waive it ; but ia 
the mL-antimc reemiiing psrtio have been »enl throui.'h lhi» province to fill the 
regiments «o the e«i«hliiihmenl of the Provincial Congreu. . , . The 
great tcutctly of freth provinoiu in their army has led me to take every prtcau- 
lion to prevent a supply. For ihU purpose I have ordered all the cattle and 
■beep to be drove from the low groanda and (arms within their reach. A de- 






not IcII you. that this letter is written in much haste ; 
the fact will sufficiently appear from the face of it. I 
thought a hasty letter would please you better than 
no letter, and, therefore, I shall offer no further apol- 
ogy, but assure you, that, with sincere regard for my 
fellow laborers with you, and Dr. Shippen's family, I 
am, dear Sir, your most afTectionate servanu 

tedtncBt EtotD G«Beni] Ttionuu' oinp on Wednuday night vent ov«r ta Lsnf 
Uisd, vid bicvghi (ram ihoiicc so cftttlc anil ■ nuiiibu uf slicL-p, with Kbout 
■J hrfMnn who had been put oa )>; n Mr, Kav Thumat, in oriler lo cut hay, 
4tc By Mmc acdilvnt ihcy orailtcd bumini; ilie haf, ami rctumrd ths iml 
d>]r ta coaipleie it. which they effected amidst the firing of the diijifiing with the 
\xtm ti one man killed, and aDother irounded. Last e>'eniitg nlso ji party at the 
CmmwcHirtt men [under MiLJor Orcalon] rtroUciI do«-n upon the maroh at Kos- 
tacy and fired upon a lentry. which drew on a heavy die frum the enemjr'a 
Ubm tad doattng buieiy, hat attended <rilh no other effect ihnn the loo of ods 
Kan kiDcd by ■ ibot from the enemy's line*." — 7'« tie Prtsitf^nl «f Ccngmi, 
Ctmtrijgt. 14 jB(y. 1775. 

" Tht C^oenl obsfrnrlng great reml«me«K, and neglect. In the leveral GoftTd* 
b and aboat the Camp, orders the Officers commuidinc any Guard tu turn ont 
Ik G«anl immedtaicty upon the near apprnadi nf The Cnmrnandrr iti Chief or 
amf <■! the General OHicvre, and upon pa»ini; the Cunrd ; The Commander in 
GUef kiobe received with rtitrit Anns; the Otiliocr In salute nnd the Druma 
In bcnl K martti. The Major* Oeneral with rtrtni Arms. Ilie Offieer 10 uluie 
actd l^ I^mi lo beat two Ruffles. The Brit^dJera <Jcueral with rttttd Arms, 
the OflBcn lo Mlnte and the Dnin» to beoi one Ruffle.— There beine xdmelhin^ 
■wfewanl, M irell m improper, in iha General OfSoers bering ttopp'd at the out- 
poMs : ufc'd for pa»a by the Scntriet, and obliged often to tend (nr the Officer 
4( the Gturd (vbo it tometimef happens it as much unacquainted wUh the 
PtrnOM of the (iencnb, as the private men ) before they can patt la or out : It 
it rcsoameadol 10 both Officcn and Men, to inalce themKlvcs acquainted with 
Cm paaoax of all the Officen. in Central Cnminnnd, nnd in the mean time to 
I — I wrt miaUka : The GcDeral OfliLer* and Iheir AidMle-Camp, will be dia* 
ttifiriilwd is the (oUowiDC naniter. 

" Tkt Conmnder In Chief by ■ light blue Ribband, wore ncTMi )U* hretut, 
t U n uM kb Com and Wai&lcoat. 

"ne Hajonand Brigndicra General, by a Ptnic Ribband wore in the lilie 

"The AldWe^'amp by a green ribband." — Ordtrly ffoek. 14 July, t??;. 
" Notvithaunding the Orders already given, the Genera! heirs with auoni'th- 
Ihnl not only Soldier*, but Officers vn authorised, are eontimudly convers- 





Cahkridce. 16 July. 1775. 


It is with no small concern^ that 1 find the arrange- 
ment of general officers, made by the honorable Con- 
tinental Congress, has produced much dissatisfaction. 

■RE with the Officcis And BenlTyiiofUie Enemy ; any Ofiiccr N«ii Comitibuoiiod 
Officer or Soldier, oi any fcrunn whatsoever, who t) delected holding any 
Convcntttion, or <Arryinji mi Any CoFrM|)ond«Dce with any ol the Offic«n or 
ScDlrys or the ^dvanc'd posU ol the enemy, will be imaicdifticly brought bcfoie 
■ General Court Martial, and pual&hecl wlih ihe utiiio« severity. The Cleneml 
U aloni- Co judge of the f>ropr<«ly aE »ny intercourse with Ihe cit'cmy and no on6 
else is In prcAume to iiiicrfcre." 15 July, 1775. 

"The<'oniinciiu! Congre** having earn csily recommended, that ' Thursday 
next the aoth Imtntil, be observed by the Inhabitants o( all ihe English Colo- 
d1c& upon llil<i Continent ; as A Day of public Humiliation, Fasitiiig and 
Prayer: that they mny with united Hearli & Voiie. uiiMnedly canfcu their 
Sini before God. and supplicate the all wibc and tncrciCul diapotcr of cvcata, to 
■vert the Ueiolatiiin and CalamiliH of an uniiatuml War:' Tbc Genera] 
orders that Day to h^ rcligiou&ly obiwrvcd by Ihe Forces under his CoRtmaDd, 
exactly in ciBiiner directed hy the proclamation of the Continental Congrcu : 
II li therefore itrictly enjuind uii all Oflicem and Soiilien, (uoi opon duty) to 
attend Divine Service, at the iccutlcmed pUces of worship, a* well in IheLinea, 
as the Encuinpiiicnii) unil Quaricn ; ami it is expected, ilint all ihoso who |^ to 
wonhip, do lake their Armx, Ammunition and Accnuliemenls & are preparad 
for immediate Action if called upon, If in Ihe Judgment of the Officers, the 
Work* should appear to he in »uch forwardncMns the utmost security of the 
Camp requires, they will command iheii men to abitain from all Labour upon 
that solemn day. 

" It wasiwlih much mrpriie and concern chat ihcGeneralin paMingalonc the 
New Hampshire IJnei. yesterday, observed a mo«( wanton, miKchirvnu^. and 
UDpro^laLle ALusc of property, in the Dutruction of many valuable Trees, 
which were utandinE along the side of the road, mil of the way ol our woik» or 
gunii. he thcrelore onlen. that an effective itop be put to luch practicex for the 
(mure, or Mvcre panishmcni will fall upon [he Trauagtctisora of this order." — 
O^derfy Book.lh ]v\y. 1775- 

' Governor TnimbuU woa nne of Ihe firtnewl palrinti and betl men. thai hit 
country has produced. He was at this time aixty-rive years old, having been 
born in the year 1710. yet no man engaged with mure xeal and activity in the 
common cause. So Irae wa« he to the principle* of libetty, and tuch wo* the 
oonlidence of hi» fellow ciliiens in hi^ talents and Integrity, that, although first 
appoioied Goveruot in 17O9, keveial yvsin before l>ie bmildiig out of the war. 






As the army is upon a genera! establishment, their 
right, to supersede and control a Provincial one. must 
be unquestionable : and, in such a cause, I should hope 
every post would be deemed honorable, which gave a 
man opportunity to serve his country. 

A representation from the Congress of this province* 

he te%» conblantljr choM») with greil iiiiRnimily lo th<: utmc htxlion (ill Ihc end 
of iltc moladan, when, at the ngc of icvctity-thice, he declined a futlbet elro 
tion. His scrvkn wen of vpiy gmi Jni|Mii(ance ihroughoiil the whole wai. 
not only in KsnlalinK the <ivil oHoin of Conneciicut. l)ul Id keeping alive 
■ sUUtafy irdoi among the people, iikI lhu« pTOmolirg efficiency and prompt- 
neu ei action in tlie forces coniiibuted (lom lime to lime by that Stale. Gov. 
cRUM' TruRihull li>0 written to Wuthinglon : 

" Soffer me to join in mngritulatin|E yon, un yuui a|)[K>iiilmciii lo be ticneral 
^A CaafittiMler-in'Cliicf of ihc lToo|)<i miised or to be tsiMKi for the defence uf 
flwi III III fibcrljr. Men, who have tailed of {teedom, nn<l who Hnvv fell (licir 
ptTr"'! rishls, ate not c«»ily laughi lo bear with encroachments on either, or 
liiimTi I lA submit to o}>pr<s£lon. Virtue ought aturays to be made the object sf 
favmuncDl ; jutticc it firm and prnnaoenl. 

** Utc Majvfty'« minixien have artfully induced the Pailinment to join in their 
■cwoKft, to prMecuie the ilanj;erous and Increatinj; difTerttice between Creai 
BriulD aod thnc colonio with rigor and miiilmy force ; whereby ibc latter are 
drivn to an aboohte neceiAity to defetid their rigbU and properiie*. by raiung 
Istco IcK llieir tecnrity. The tionoiahte CongicM have, with one united voice, 
afptMUcd yoa to ifae \a%f\ utation you poxteu. The Snpremc Director of att 
ita luM caascd a wonderful union of hcartN and coiinvlf lo tubncl amoopt 
Now, thcnfore, be siroag and very coiui^^ous. May the God of ibe 
of Itrad diowcr down the blcistngs ol hit divine pTovidcnce on you, 
five ^oa widklom and fortitiKle, cover yonr head in the day of battle and dan- 
pr. a4<l •access, coaviace out snnnLcb uf their miiuken mcaturee, and tbat all 
ikair Utnnptt to deprive thne colooiex oflheit incdtaiablcctniKtilutianal rinhta 
a*d ]ibenie« art inji»j«u» and vain." 

iBKptyWaahiogloa wrote on July i8lh: " Allow me to return you my aincere 
ttaaki, toT the kind wiabei and favorable wntimenta eK|tTe«sed in yours of the 
IJifc Isatant. A* Ihc eao&e ol out oommon country calli uu liolh to an active 
rmm il«ty. I tiatl thai Divine Providcnic, which wiicly ordc« the 
of men. will enable ui^ to discharge it uctb fidelity and Kucccii^. The 
iptcd choke ol a beave and free people ha« iaj»cd you to dcscTVcd emi- 
That the blcMiBgi of health, and the still greater bleasing of long con- 
tfai»l«H to govern inch a people, may be yovR, b ihe tincerc «-Uh of, Sir, 




with such remarks as occurred to me on this subject, is 
now before the Continental Congress." In the mean 
time, I beg leave to assure you, that, unbiassed by any 
private attachments, I shall studiously endeavor to 
reconcile their pretensions to their duty, and so dis- 
pose them, as to prevent, as far as possible, any in- 
convenience to the pubh'c service from this competi- 
tion. 1 have the honor to be, &c.' 


Camf at CAMnniDUK, « JuV, 1775. 


Since I did myself the Honor of addressing you the 
14th instt I have received Advice from Govr Trum- 
bull, that the Assembly of Connecticut had voted, 
and that they are now raising two Regiments of 700 
Men each, in Consequence of an Application from 

' I AID unable lo trace (hit pti|>er. Wtshington's letter vpm intendeil ta 
umuiilcracl Spencer's effort to secure preecdcnoe over Putnam. 

* " If after what hiu hB|>;>pne(1. Ili« £nemy in Revenge uf their late Lon, 
iJioulil dar« to attempt foidn^ vur Linc^, The Annjr ma)' )>ea»kur«(l, tluit nctb- 
ing but ihcii own Indolence and Rcmiunciis, can give ihc kosl hope at moccM 
to aa T»»h an Enterpns« : It is therefore Btrongly reconimen<l«(l to the Com. 
manding Ofiiccn of Corpt, Ouardt and Detaclmtents ; that they be anidnoUKly 
ticrt iu parading ihcit Men. oi thetr tcveral potts, half an houi before dtjr 
break I OR-d remain there, utitill the Com minding Ofiiceni thintc proper iDdinnin 

" The General hexrt «riih AHto-niiibment, (he very Irequrni applicaCionii, that 
ire niad« to hun. at well bj- Officers ai Soldiers far FurloMgha : Brave Mvit, 
who are engaged it; the noble Cause of Liberty ; sbonld never think of remov- 
ing from tbdr Cump. while the Kucmy i« in tight, aud anxioiu lu lake every 
Advantage, a-rvf IndibCtetiuti on our tide mity |;ivc ihcin : The General duubia 
not, but the CDmmandinji OEHue^ uf Corps will anticipate hit wiiheti, and dis- 
courage those under them, from disgrmcefully dsMring to go home, untJU th« 
Campaign i» ended." — Orderly Book, July 18. 1775. 





the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts Bay. The 
Rhode Island Assembly has also made an Augmen- 
tation for this purpose ' ; these Reinforcements with 
the Riffle Men who are daily expected, and such 
Recruits as may come in, to fill up the Regiments 
here, will I apprehend compose an Army sufficiently 
strong, to oppose any force which may be brought 
against us at present. I am vcr>' sensible, that the 
heavy expcnce necessarily attendant upon this Cam- 
paign, will call for the utmost Frugality and Care, 
and would therefore if possible avoid inlisting one 
unnecessary Man. As this is the first certain Account 
of the Destination of these new raised Troops, I 
thought proper to communicate my Sentiments as 
eariyas possible ; least the Congress should act upon 
my Letter of the loth. and raise Troops in the South- 
cm Colonies, which in my present judgment may be 
dispens'd with. 

In these 8 Days past there have been no move- 
ments in either Camp of any consequence. On our 
side, we have continued the Works without any Inter- 
mission, and they are now so far advanced, as to leave 
as little to apprehend on that Score. On the side of 
the Enemy, they have also been very industrious in 
finishing their Lines both on Bunker's Hill, and Rox- 
bury Neck. In this Interval also their Transports 
have arrived from New York, and they have been 
employed in landing and stationing their Men. I 
have been able to collect no certain Account of the 

' T«« c«8l[«nie* were addtil In <Mh njjpnif at o( Ihe colony Iwfore Boiloa 
■ad ite vny vi (i4>tcrviiJon was pUccd nndcr the commuKl of Washln^B. 
MaetfA »fUu C»l«my »f ttkad* h4MHd, «il., 3S4. 355- 




Numbers arrived, but the inclosed Letter, wrote 
(the' not signed) by Mr. Sheriff Lee, and delivered 
me by Capt Darby, (who went Express with an 
Account of the Lexington Battle,) will enable us to 
form a pretty accurate Judgment. The Increase of 
Tents and Men in the Town of Boston, is very 
obvious, but all my Accounts from thence agree, 
that there is a great Mortality occasioned by the 
Want of Vegetables and fresh Meat: and that their 
Loss in the late Battle at Charles Town (from the 
few Recoveries of their Wounded) is greater than at 
first supposed. The Condition of the Inhabitants 
detained in Boston is very distressing, they are 
equally destitute of the Comfort of fresh Provi- 
sions, and many of them are so reduced in their 
Circumstances, as to be unable to supply themselves 
with salt: Such Fish as the Soldiery leave, is their 
principal support. Added to all this, such Suspicion, 
and Jealousy prevails, that they can scarcely speak, or 
even look, without exposing themselves to some Spe- 
cies of military Execution. 

I have not been able from any Intelligence I have 
received, to form any certain Judgment of the future 
Operations of the Enemy. Some Times I have 
suspected an intention of detaching a part of their 
Army to some Part of the Coast ; as they have been 
building a number of flat bottom"d Boats capable of 
holding 200 Men each. But from their Works, and 
the Language held at Boston, there is Reason to 
think, they expect the Attack from us, and are prin- 
cipally engaged in preparing themselves against it 




1 have ordered all the Whale Boats along the Coast 
to be collected, and some of them are employed 
every Night to watch the Motions of the Enemy by 
Water, so as to guard as much as possible against 
any surprize. 

Upon my arrival and since, some Complaints have 
been prcferrVi against Officers for Cowardice in the 
late Action on Bunkers Hill. Though there were 
several strong Circumstances and a very general 
Opinion against them, none have been condemned, 
except a Captn Callendcr of the Artillery, who was 
immediately cashier' d.' I have been sorry to find it 

*"Il U «rilh iDnprcMible Concf rn (hflttlieCenenluponhisfintArrivallnUic 
«R&f, iJioulil l>Dd«n Officer (CBleaced by ■ Gcoccal Court MartUl to Uccadiicr'd 
torCowmrdicc — A Crime o( atl othcn. tlic roost infarooun in x SoliJicr, the mait 
ttijarioBBlOkK Army, luid the lict to be fotgivoi : ina<minchasit inajr, and often 
lioa b«ppen, that tbe Cowmrdicc of a itaglc Officer may prove the Disiruction 
tA tbe wtmlc Anny : The General Ibcnforc (iho' wiili great Comcerii, an^ mure 
■■imlntlj. M ibe TranHction happencil before he luul the Command of the 
Tn*^} tkiDks UoucU obliipxl (or l)ic cood of the wrvicc, lo uppmve the Judg- 
Mun of tbc Court HaitUJ irilli raped to Capl: John Cn.11en<Ier, whn iii hereby 
MMeaced lO b« eu)iHr»(l. Capir Jidin Callrndrr ii nccoTdin;;!)' cavhivrrd ADd 
fiariM(t : ftvm all farther wrvice in ibc ConCincnial Anny o-t an OfBccr. 

"TheOvneral hartng made all due inqnirin. itndin.-iliirrly coiiisii)er*it[hitinai. 
la w led (» tbe above dcttraiinaiiop not only (mni tb« particular (>uilt of Capt 
CaBenden. Ini the fatal Contcquaiccs of sudi Conduct to tlic army and to the 
■m^KttA aakcrica. 

**lleno« itteieforcnuxtteu'nctllycx.bortt OfTiL-crK of >II raiili* to ahew sn Ex- 
hb|e of Rnveiy and CoimgB to iheit mcD ; asutinK them Uutt Mich as dolbcir 
4i^ is tbc dsy of Battle, at brave and good OfficatE, ihall bt honoKd with ovcry 
■uk af dnttaclioa aad re|[ard \ their names and ineritt made kaowu Xx> the 
GoHnl Concrca and all America : wbUc on the other hand, lie positively 
JaehuB that emy Officer, be hU mile what it may, wlio thall beiray hii 
Ceonr. djahawowr the Amy and his (Jciier«t, by baiely keeping back auii 
ibriaking fntn hia duty in any cai;a£eiuent ; iJiall be held u]> ua an iiifanioni 
Cawwd aBd puanli'd a« neb, with the utmnM martial «c\vnty : and nn connec- 
tiaai^ iBteract, or InTiiiiirMiinia in hb behalf will avail to prevent the slfict eie- 
, «ainiof jastks." — Ori^B*«k,Tlxi.T. 1775. 




an uncontradicted Fact, that the principal failure of 
Duty that day was in the Officers, iho' many of them 
distinguish'd themselves by their gallant Behavior. The 
Soldiers generally shew'd great Spirit and Resolution. 
Next to the more immediate and pressing Duties 
of putting our Lines in as secure a State as possible, 
attending to the Movements of the Enemy, and 
gaining Intelligence, my great Concern is to establish 
Order, Regularity and Discipline : without which, our 
numbers would embarass us, and in case of Action 
general Confusion must infallibly ensue In order to 
this, I propose to divide the Army into three Divi- 
sions at the Head of each will be a General Officer — 
these Divisions to be again subdivided into Brigades, 
under their respective Brigadiers' ; but the Difficulty 
arising from the Arrangement of the General Officers, 
and waiting the farther Proceedings of the Congress 
on this Subject, has much retarded my Progress in 
this most necessary Work. I should be very happy 
to receive their final Commands, as any Determina- 
tion would enable me to proceed in my Plan.* 

' " I tim informed by hU Excellency tlint the ide* of colony troops it to he 
■botulicd, iLud that t)i« whole anny b l« be (onncd into brigades, aail the gen- 
erate to be apjioinled liy ihc Congresi. ... I wisli thst good ttnd able men 
may be the ohjecu of the Continenial choice, niher than iubjects of particular 
interests," Ccncnl Greene Lijt oj Grtent.X., roj, 104. 

* "Regularity and due Subordii melon, beint; so esMiiIiolly neceuary, to (lie 
good Order and Government of nn Aimy, and ivithout it, the whole matt M>on 
become a riccnc o( disorder and canfusbn. The General finds it imlispetiaibly 
neccwAry, witliuul waiiiiii; any longer for dUpatchet from, the General Conii- 
nental Congrc^i, immediately lo form Iho Army into Lhrve Grand Divisiont, and 
of dii-iding each of thine Grand Divisions into two Brigades: lie therefore onlcn 
that the following Regimcnti viit — • 

Ucnl Wards, Gen I'homiu's, Co! Fellows, Col Cotlcnu, Col DaaicUoni, Col 
Dad Brewer's. coiDposc one Brigade, and be tindex the Command of Brigadier 





General Spencer returned to the Camp two Days 
ago. and has consented to serve under Puttnam, 
rather than leave the Army Jntirely. I have heard 
□othing from General Pomroy, should he wholly 
retire, I apprehend it will be necessary to supply his 
Place as soon as possible. General Folsom proposes 
also to retire. In addition to the Officers mentioned 
in mine of the lo. Instt, I would humbly propose that 
some Provision should be made for a Judge Advo- 
cate, and Provost Marshal — the Necessitj' of the first 
appointment was so great, that I was obliged to 
nominate a Mr Tudor, who was well recommended to 
me, and now executes the Office, under an Expecta- 
tion of recei vi ng a Captain's pay ; an Allowance, in ray 
Opinion, scarcely adequate to the Service in new 

Goenl "nonn ; ilat Ccnl SpCDcen, C«l Pwsocu, Col Walkers, Col I. R«ftdc, 
Cd Leaniwds. iDdvpendnits, cora|>o«c another Brigade, to be commandnl br 
Til i|.iirn I G«d1 Sp«nc«r ; That iti«4« iiv« Brigade compOM the rigbt winf* or 
iBtMhi oI ibc army . and be nndcr ihc coTntntui'l of Major Genera] WadI, and 
II ma ill at Roxbnrj, and lt« ^ouUieni depemliuiciM. Tliat Col SiarkE, Col 
Roon, Col Recdfi — Nev n«mpihiT«; Col Nixons, C'nt. Monifield, Col Doo- 
lidlc^ ■ MMocbuaett*. be (ciminl into anoilieT Brigade uiiilcc tlic Command a{ 
Bl'HWrHii Gvaefol Sullivan, and |)osied on Winicr hill. Thai ('«1 VocnumK. 
Col Hitcbcoclu, Col Cbnrcfaa— Rhode Itlaad ; Col Wbilccombn, Col Gupjncn. 
Cd I. Brewcn, Col Uiiles— Maatochusetii, be (onncd inin onolhec Brigade, 
and eonuiuuid«d bf Brlgadiei Gml Greco, and posted upon Prospect Hill : and 
iIkm nro Brigade* compoce the left wing or fcoand diviHon of the army under 
ibe Commaait cA Majof Ucnl Lee. That Ceni Futnanu. Col Gloveri, Col 
PiyM, Col Bodgec, Col Woodbridga, Col Serjeanls, be (ormed into another 
BiiUiili . aadcr tlic Coanand of the Scalot OfGccr thcreia, and until the plcab- 
■rt of the Coatineniol Coagr<n be known ; Thete two Brigades to be under the 
Command of Major G«Bl PntBan, also a Corp4-de- reserve, (or the defeoce ol 
iJbe tevcral poati, oorth of Roibmy. not already named. 

" The amngemeDi now otdeied to take place, is to be made as ipeedlly ai 
pOHiUo, aod the Majors Oenciak aic to ie« it done accordingly, tame incon- 
■mhitpw may arUc to certain IndividuoU by ihia chance, but aa the good o{ 
Ac aerviev nquir c a it to be made on alert and ready compliance i* eipecled." 
OtAa^f Book, m Joly, 177s- 




raised Troops, when there are Court Martials every 
Day. However as that is the Proportion in the 
regular Army, and he is contented, there will be no 
Necessity of an Addition. 

I must also renew my Request as to Money, and 
the Appointment of a Paymaster: I have forbore 
urging Matters of this Nature from my Knowledge of 
the many important Concerns which engage the At- 
tention of the Congress ; but as I find my Difficulties 
thicken every Day. I make no Doubt suitable Re- 
gard will be paid to a Necessity of this Kind. The 
Inconvenience of borrowing such Sums as are con- 
stantly requisite must be too plain for me to enlarge 
upon, and is a Situation, from which I should be very 
happy to be relieved. 

Upon the Experience I have had, and the best Con- 
sideration of the Appointment of the several Offices 
of Commissary Genl, Muster master Genl, Quarter 
Master Genl, Paymaster Genl and Commissar^' of 
Artillery. 1 am clearly of Opinion that they not only 
conduce to Order, Despatch and Discipline, but that it 
is a Measure of Oeconomy. The Delay, the Waste, 
and unpunishable Neglect of Duty arising from these 
Offices being in Commission, in several Hands, evi- 
dently show that the publick Expence must be finally 
enhanced. I have experienced the Want of these 
Officers, in completing the Returns of Men, Ammu- 
nition, and Stores, the latter are yet imperfect, from 
the Number of Hands in which they are dispers'd. 
1 have inclosed the last weekly Return which is more 
accurate than the former, and hope in a little Time we 





shall be perfectly regular in this, as well as several 
other necessar)^ Branches of Duty. 

I have made lnquir>' into the Establishment of the 
Hospital, and find it in a very unsettled Condition. 
There is no principal Director, or any Subordination 
among the Surgeons, of Consequence, Disputes and 
Contention have arisen, and must continue, untill it 
is reduced to some system. I could wish it was im- 
mediately taken into Consideration, as the Lives and 
Health of both Officers and Men. so much depend 
upon a due Regulation of this Department.' I have 
been particularly attentive to the least Symptoms of 
the small Pox and hitherto we have been so fortunate, 
as to have every person removed so soon, as not only 
to prevent any Communication, but any Alarm or 
Apprehension it might give in the Camp. We shall 
continue the utmost Vigilance against this most 
dangerous Enemy. 

In an Army properly organized, there are sundry 
Offices of an Inferior kind, such as Waggon Master, 
Master Carpenter, &c, but I doubt whether my 
Powers are sufficiently extensive for such Appoint- 
ments : If it is thought proper to repose such a 
Trust in me, I shall be governed in the Discharge of 
it. by a strict Regard to Oeconomy, and the publick 

My Instructions from the Hon Congress direct 
that no Troops arc to be disbanded without their ex- 
press Direction, nor to be recruited to more than 
double the Number of the Enemy. Upon this Sub- 

' Ste/^mnuli, July STtb. 




ject, I beg Leave to represen t . that u niess the 
Regiments in this Province, are more successful in 
recruiting than I have Reason to expect, a Reduction 
of some of them, will be highly necessary ; as the 
Publick is put to the whole Expense of an Establish- 
ment of Officers, while the real Strength of the 
Regiment, which consists in the Rank and file, is 
defective. In Case of such a Reduction doubtless 
some of the Privates, and all the Officers would re- 
turn Home; but many of the former, would go into 
the remaining Regiments, and having had some Expe- 
rience would fill them up with useful Men. I so plainly 
perceive the Expence of this Campaign, will exceed 
any Calculation hitherto made, that I am particularly 
anxious to strike off every unnecessary Charge. You 
will therefore, Sir. be pleased to favor me with explicit 
Directions from the Congress on the Mode of this 
Reduction, if it shall appear necessary, that no Time 
may be lost when such Necessity appears. 

Yesterday we had an Account that the Light 
House was on Fire — by whom, and under what 
Orders, I have not yet learned. But we have Reason 
to believe, it has been done by some of our Irregulars. 

You will please to present me to the Congress with 
the utmost Duty, and Respect. 

P. S. Capt. Darby's Stay in England was so 
short, that he brings no other Information than what 
the inclosed Letter, and the News Papers which will 
accompany this, contain ' — General Gage's Dispatches 

' Byft vote of the MuMchuselUProviacial Congress (April aCth), Mr. Richard 
Derby of Sftlem wu empowered io 6t uut his vessel, cs « packet, to carry ia> 

had not arrived, and the Ministry affected to disbelieve 
the whole Account — treating it as a Fiction or at most 
an AfTair of little Consequence. The Fall of Stocks 
very inconsiderable.' 

« July. I77i. FiTe o'clock P. M. 

Since closing the Letters which accompany this I 
have received an Account of the Destruction of the 

exigence of the L«da|^n buUc to Ent>lknil, kdiI all ch&nccs were tu be paid 
bf Ike caloaf. Ii trn cointnandcd hjr Captain John Derby, who arrived in 
l.a«itow on lh> S^tk of May, having taken with him several copies o( lh« Etttir 
Gmiette, n wttkh was conlamexl the fim pubtUhed accoani of the affair at Lcx- 
iofUm Kad CoocoM. This was r«print«d and circulated In London the day 
aAer hat aniral and gare the dm notice of that event to the Eoglith public 
CapCalu Dvriijr was Mimoioncd before the I'rivy Countil. ihc miuintry having 
nueifid no d«p«Lch«< from C^cncral Cage confinning Rich a report. Nor did 
\m laftcra mtivc liti rlcvcn <b)-) arterwarda, >lthDu|;li the v«n«l conTtjring tliani 
■ailed (oordajr* pievioni to the dcjiariurc of Captain Oerhy. Creai excitement 
. produced ihtougbovt England, and the clamor grsw lond againit the min. 
becuiac it was prcsaniMl that they concealed the ofKctal accouota, aiid 
vlabed to keep the people in ignorance. On the loth ul June, boutevec, as 
leaa a* Ocnetal Gage't official report rcMhcd Whitehall, it wa» publiahed. — 
' »/ MauaehutttU Pr^iuial Cengrttt. — MS. Paptrs in ike Slate 
Ojfitt, L*ndfn. 

C^ftato Derby took with him th« orifcinal afl>dav{ts of the people in Leiing- 
I and Concord raspcciing the battle, and a Ictici from the ProviRclal Con- 
frcH to Dr. Franklin. Ofeni in England fur Ma>aachni«tls. These identical 
pa(«n are now in the Ijbrary of Harvard Uniicrtlty, When Ca|>tai[i Derby ar- 
ciicd in London Dr. Franklin bod anilci) for America, and he wai at tea when 
tiM aflajr ai l.«iingioD took place. The papera werv. therefore, handed la 
Aithfli Lee, who was Dr. Franklin's succcuor. 1 Ic retained them, and recently 
llwy luvebccndcpoatcdintbe Library of the university, with other manuacripis 
by Mr. R. II. Lee, of Virginia. 

' "O^>Uu0 Darby's acconata differ reiy eucnllolly from the ncwspapcn he 
'■"^g*'' He lays the eeneral lenliment ii against ui. and even the London 
■MeJfte who have pctJlkmol, arc ii heart our enemies, which the ministry 
«^ koDw, The coonmenccnent of tuntililics was the wondei of a day. and 
Am litila tkoagbt of. Stocks only fell t} percent., uhlrh ihcy often do on 
Ac tfightcct alarat. A minister never dreadi b (oil till it gets to 3 per cent." 
—jMtfl KmllfPeail. "Ufcol Reed."!., tl7. itS. 

' The news bom AaerkA occasioned a great ttir among us yederday. . . , 




Light House, a Copy of which I have the Honor to 

P. S. I have also received a more authentick Ac- 
count of the Loss of the Enemy in the late Battle 
than any yet received. Dr. Winship who lodged in 
the same House with an Officer of the Marines 
assures me they had exactly 1043 killed and wounded, 

Gftge's flcKroanl is DOt yet arrived. He tent histeltenby x merchanl ihipl&den 
with KCt>dE. The Battoniiu)* i«n[ iitt'it «Cory hy ft sbip in l]alla»l, the niMlerDf 
which brought noletlen whatever, bul nppcareil in I.cindon yesterday maming 
with the »c«itirl yfiu will sec printed, nnd » London Evening Post eiiraardin- 
ory wftt piiLtishcd Imt night lo spread the nlarm. It i« strange \q sec ihcmAiiy 
Joyful (acci upon ihis event, thinking, ! conclude, that Kcbclliun will be the 
meant oi changing the Ministry. ... I linve iiecn no MiniMers, hut 1 hnvs 
bcca Gavcruor Hutcliin»un, and h« ngrcct with mc in opiniun. and .lays the 
hurry they «cre in of semlitig n ship eipren Trom Salem canvjncct him ihac 
(he itoty is misreprcecnted for purpose* of the fneiion there." — Lord Ge^rga 
Germaia^ Ic (Traeral /rwiii, 30 Maj, iy;s. 

" Wc have leceived an account through the channel of a jirfvate thip »ent im 
porpoEc, ac vie conceive, by the I'ravincift.1 Congteu osieinhEed in Matuchu- 
Actln Bay, u[ B ikinnuh between s licIaLhnicnt of the Kin^'^ tioops and ^ome 
rebel provinciflU in the neigh borhood of Boston. This account, u you will 
readily beliere, is made up with a view of creating atann here, »nd ansircr the 
endii of faction : but as wc hRvc rot ycl .iny iniclligeiKe from CJi/ncral Hage, I 
can only «y, wuIj greai saiiifaction, thac it hn.s lailed ut iu object, .mf! has hid 
no other clfcet than to excite that juitt indigaation thai every hoiictt innti feck 
at the meanuie!! adopted in North America fur kupixirtingliy acltaf open rebel- 
lion, a pesistanec lo the laws and nuthohty o* this kingdom." — £itr] of D^rt- 
mculM ta Govitrtifr Franklin, 7 June, 177s- 

April 3g, May a^. June a8. 

Banlt Ntock t43^ 142]- 141I 

Four per ccnlx 91 91 90! 

Three per cent. conioLt B9 S9 Shut. 

South »ca stock 99} 99 Shut. 

■ A party of American iroopt, under Major Voie. &et hre to (he ligbtJiauw, 
which ilood on an islam! about nine mileu from Boston. It wa« connicleivd an 
enterprise of some merit, aa a Britbh mann^if • war wu stationed within a mile of 
the place. "Some »f the hmve men who -c fleeted ihi; with ihrir lives in lh«ir 
hnnds have just now applied lo me to knov whether it [tvhat they captured at 
the hghi IloBsc] ws* to be cDnsidcicd x\ plunder or otherwise. I was not able 
to determine (hii matter, hut told them that 1 would lay the matter before jrcwr 
exccUcacy."— jyi-dM to /fiwAix^/oM, sj July. 1775. 


of whom 300 fell on the Field or died within a few 
Hours. Many of the wounded are since dead.' 


to general thomas.* 


The retirement of a General OfiRcer possessing the 
confidence of his country and the army at so critical 
a period, appears to mc to be big with fata! conse- 
quences both to the public cause and his own reputa- 
tion. While it is unexecuted 1 think it my duty to 
use this last effort to prevent it, and your own virtue 
and good sense must decide upon it. In the usual 
contests of empire and ambition, the conscience of a 
soldier has so little share, that he may very properly 
insist upon his claims of rank, and extend his preten- 
sions even to punctilio ; — but in such a cause as this. 
when the object is neither glory nor extent of terri- 
tory, but a defence of all that is dear and valuable in 

' Mr llancAcIc had written: "I mutt beg the favor, thai jrau will tcjtcrrc 
want b«nh fnr di«, in citch drparimcnt as jon may jndge moEt prop'rr ; for I 
■a dclenniiwd to acl under v<ni, if it be lo t.ikc the lirclack and join the ranlu 
u % vohmtMr." In reply Washington wrule from Cambridge, ai July : " I am 
yrtif lariy ta acknowledge that part of your favor of lh« loth inttant, wherein 
■jvt do nc ili« boDor of <lcierminia{ to juici the anny under my command. I 
xtttA certainly moke no pmfe«nonK of ihc pleioure I shall have in teeing ymi. 
AI the tanc time I have to TejnTt, that to litllo \s in my j-mwcr lo ofTer 9i\\\xi to 
Colmtd llancMck't mciii% and wnrthynf hit acceptance I shall be happy in 
eveiy opponuntiy to thty-i (he regard nnd esteem with which I rid, &c., &c." 
TIm cOBipuy of Cadet* in Bottnn had been commanded by Mr, Hancock, wilh 
Ike nak of ColoBcJ. He waadiimU»cd (tou that command by Gcneml Gnee. 
A arion urretpootUnce on lb« nibjcct is caniaincd in the H»tt»m Gaielte. 
Aapot sgth. 1374- It doa not appear that he joined (he anny under Waah- 
iafton in vaj military capacity, ai above proposed. 

* Takefl from Keed, Lijt »/ HtfJ, i, 109. 




private and public life, surely every post ought to be 
deemed honorable in which a man can serve his 
country. What matter of triumph will it afford our 
enemies, that in less than one month, a spirit of dis- 
cord should show itself in the highest ranks of the 
army, not to be extinguished by any thing less than 
a total desertion of duty. How little reason shall 
we have to boast of American union and patriotism. 
if at such a time and in such a cause smaller and par- 
tial considerations cannot give way to the great and 
general interest. These remarks not only atTect you 
as a member of the great American body, but as an 
inhabitant of Massachusetts Bay. Your own Prov- 
ince and the other Colonies have a peculiar and un- 
questionable claim to your services, and in my opinion 
you cannot refuse without relinquishing in some de- 
gree that character of public virtue and honor which 
you have hitherto supported. If our cause is just, it 
ought to be supported ; but when shall it find sujj- 
port if gentlemen of merit and experience, unable to 
conquer the prejudices of a competition, withdraw 
themselves in the hour of danger? I admit, Sir, that 
your just claims and services have not had due re- 
spect, — it is by no means a singular case, — worthy 
men of all nations and countries have had reasons to 
make the same complaint, but they did not for this 
abandon the public cause, — they nobly stifled the 
dictates of resentment, and made their enemies 
ashamed of their injustice. And can America afTord 
no such instances of magnanimity? For the sake of 
your bleeding country, — your devoted Province, — 




your charter rights, — and by the memories of those 
brave men who have already fallen in this great cause, 
I conjure you to banish from your mind every sug- 
gestion of anger and disappointment ; your country 
will do ample justice to your merits, — they already 
do it by the regret and sorrow expressed on this oc- 
casion : and the sacrifice you are called to make, will 
in the judgment of everjr good man and lover of his 
country, do you more real honor than the most dis- 
tinguished victory. You possess the confidence and 
affection of the troops of tliis Province particularly ; 
— many of them are not capable of judging the pro- 
priety and reasons of your conduct, — should they es- 
teem themselves authorized by your example to leave 
the service, the consequences may be fatal and irre- 
trievable. There is reason to fear it from the personal 
attachment of the officers and men, and the obliga- 
tions that are supposed to arise from these attach- 

But, sir, the other Colonies have also their claims 
upon you, not only as a native of America, but an 
inhabitant of this Province. They have made com- 
mon cause with it, they have sacrificed their trade, 
loaded themselves with taxes, and are ready to spill 
their blood, in vindication of the rights of Massachu- 
setts Bay. while all the security and profit of a neu- 
trality have been offered them. But no acts or temp- 
tations could seduce them from your side, and leave 
you a prey to a cruel and perfidious ministry. Sure 
these reflections must have some weight with a mind 
as generous and considerate as yours. How will you 




be able to answer it to your countrj- and to your own 
conscience, if such a step should lead to a division of 
the army or the loss and ruin of America be ascribed 
to measures which your counsels and conduct would 
have prevented ! Before it is too late, I entreat, sir, 
you would weigh well the greatness of the stake, and 
upon how much smaller circumstances the fate of em- 
pires has depended. Of your own honor and repu- 
tation you are the best and only judge ; but allow 
me to say, that a people contending for life and lib- 
erty', are seldom disposed to look with a favorable 
eye upon either men or measures, whose passions, 
interests or consequences will clash with those inesti- 
mable objects. As to myself, Sir. be assured, that I 
shall with pleasure do all in my power to make your 
situation both easy and honorable, and that the 
sentiments I have here expressed flow from a clear 
opinion that your dutj' to your country, your pos- 
terity, and yourself, most explicitly require your con- 
tinuance in the service. The order and rank of the 
commissions is under the consideration of the Conti- 
nental Congress, whose determination will be re- 
ceived in a few days. It may argue a want of respect 
to that august body not to wait that decision. But 
at all events, I shall flatter myself, that these reasons, 
with others which your own good judgment will 
suggest, will strengthen your mind against those 
impressions which are incident to humanity, and.| 
laudable to a certain degree, and that the result 
will be your resolution to assist your country ant 
friends in this day of distress. That you may reaj 




the full reward of honor and public esteem whicH 
such a conduct deserves, is the sincere wish of, Sir, 
Yours, &c — ' 

*''As tk> Cootinemi] Annjr tuivs nnfortunxtcljr ao UnifonnB, md coiue- 
qneaU; bmij inconvenieDcn laiut uiie, from not being nbk olwayt to di»tin- 
gmh ibe CcnmiHioncd Officrre, from Ibc non CoRimiBiiomed, and the dod 
CeHBtetoned (ran Uw privue ; it tc dnired tlut Mine Bkiigee of DiGtineiion 
■ay be taunnluidy prarided. Tm Iiuiaotc, the Field OSiccn may have n't/ vr 
fimi oolour'd Coduda in their Haiu : the Capuins yeitev ar buff ; and the 
SotalurD* grrtn. Tliey aie to furnifih thcniitclveK .tccordinfrlj- — The Snjfania 
■•f b« di*tiiiEiii*b«d b; >n Epaulette, ct i.|np« «( rtd Cl«lh, sew^ upon the 
ri^ ^OBtdec ; the Cotponb by one of grttM/'—Ortterfy Boot, 33 July. 1777. 

" Vott will. I pmume, b«for« ihii letter get* to hand, hear ol my appoint- 
ncmi to the comiaaiid «l the ContiaeDtal Amiy. I anivttl at this camp the ad 

" Von mnit, no doobt, «lco hare h<«rd of the cngagemenl on Bunker** Hill 
ihm tTlh nldmo ; bat » I am persuaded ybu will have a very erroneous sLcount 
nuNniltcd of Uw Ion nutaned on the side of Uie rrorincialt, I do assure you. 
Dpca siy <*<nd, that our Iom. u appean by the returns made to me tince I came 
berv. amoiantii to no marc than one hundred and thirty-nine Killed, ihirty-iix 
■faifag, aiul l«o lmndr«d and lerenty-eight wouniied; nor hud we, if I can 
<M4il the Bttax snlcmn auurmce* of ihr officers, u iiii vrrrc in itit acliun, abova 
one thimucd Bve hundred men engaged on thai day. The Ituu nn the (ids 
ef ffcc nuRiMtma] troofw, » I am informed from good sulhoHty, contisled of 
Ma tbouMod utd (orty-lhr«« killed and wounded, wbcrcol niacty-Cwo were 

" Eadoed I «end you ■ tecond address from the Congrtu: to the inhobiianis 
a4 CicU BriMin ; ■* «1k> a dcdanition scitine fortli the cauMa and neceatity ol 
■kor taking up aimt." — fVatkimgttm to Gtorgf William J^iiir/ax. 3j July, 

" la mj hurry, ycklcnlay, I forgot tlie principal thing t had in vicvr. when I 
tkxrB to mila 10 yoa. und ihat was. lo inform you of the indispensable 
you nraM now be under of appainting ancthici Attorney. The nature 
ef tfac bniincM [ eBi now encaged In (which alunc is full luflidcnt to engrma the 
ime and attcntiau of aaj one Uan) and the ditlance 1 nm removed from your 
aa well aa my own, pub it abeuiutely out o( my power to be of any 
' lerrlca to yon in Virginia : It i* a duty incumbent on me. Ihcrcforc, to 
ytm ef thu circaenKtaace, that you may. without deUy, appoint wmbc 
' Attomcy lo mana^ yoor ASain ; a* it WQuld be foUy in the extreme, in 
■c. In sadcnake to coodoct yovr busneaa at ihc diiuncc of boo Milei, when it 
li MUf)y "<■' eif my power (bat by meant of a third penon) to Order and direct 
." — fFmiAiitftfit t» Ctorgt IVi/JUm Fair/ojt, a6 July. 1775. 




Camp at Camubidck, aboui 5 nillei from Dotiioii, 27 July. 1775. 

Dear Brother, 

On the 2nd instant I arrived at this place, after 
passing through a great deal of delightful country, 
covered with grass, (although the season has been 
dry) in a very different manner to what our lands in 
Virginia are. 

I found a mixed multitude of people here, under 
very little discipline, order, or government; I found 
the enemy in possession of a place called Bunker's 
Hill, on Charles Town Neck, strongly intrenched, and 
fortifying themselves. I found part of our army on 
two hills, (called Winter and Prospect Hills) about a 
mile and a quarter from the enemy on Bunker's Hill, 
in a verj' insecure state ; I found another part of the 
army at this village; and a third part at Roxbury, 
guarding the entrance in and out of Boston. My 
whole time, since 1 came here, has been employed in 
throwing up lines of defence at these three several 
places, to secure, in the first instance, our own troops 
from any attempts of the enemy ; and, in the next 
place, to cut off all communication between their 
troops and the country'. To do this, and to prevent 
them from penetrating into the country with fire and 
sword, and to harass them if they do, is ail that is 
expected of me ; and if effected, must totally over- 
throw the designs of administration, as the whole 
force of Great Britain In the town and harbor of Bos- 
ton can answer no other end, than to sink her under 
the disgrace and weight of the expense. Their force. 





including marines. Tories. &c, are computed, from 
the best accounts I can get, at about twelve thousand 
men' ; ours, including sick absent, &c., at about six- 
teen thousand ; but then we have a semicircle of eight 
or nine miles, to guard to every part of which we are 
obliged to be equally attentive; whilst they, situated 
as it were in the center of the semicircle, can bend 
their whole force (having the entire command of the 
water), against any one part of it with equal facility. 
This renders our situation not very agreeable, though 
necessary. However, by incessant labor (Sundays 
not excepted), wc arc in a much better posture of de- 
fence now, than when I first came. The enclosed, 
though rough, will give you some small idea of the 
situation of Boston and Bay on this side, as also of 
the post they have taken on Charles Town Neck, 
Bunker's Hill, and our posts. 

By very authentic intelligence lately received out 
of Boston (from a person who saw the returns), the 
number of regulars (including 1 presume the marines) 
the morning of the action on Bunker's Hill amounted 
to 7533 men. Their killed and wounded on that 
occasion amounted to 1043, whereof 92 were officers. 
Our loss was 1 38 killed. 38 missing, and 276 wounded. 

The enemy are sickly, and scarce of fresh pro- 
visions. Beef, which is chiefly got by slaughtering 
their milch cows in Boston, sells from one shilling to 
eighteen pence sterling per pound ' ; and that it may 

' Gtfc tk July found (rom n ccnnit of the city population, 6,573 nvQiuu, 
I ad an uny oJ l3.Soa> 

'Axoldunitb, Roklon, cnug out from Bauon and reported "that tbcdiw 
I Af tbe uoopt Increuci (ut, tbeir bn[ is spent, iheii mail sad elder all 




not get cheaper, or more plenty, I have drove all the 
stock, within a considerable distance of this place, 
back into the countrj'. out of the way of the men-of- 
war's boats. In short, I have [done,] and shall con- 
tinue to do, every thing in my power to distress them. 
The transports are all arrived, and their whole rein- 
forcement is landed, so that I can see no reason why 
they should not. if they ever attempt it, come boldly 
out, and put the matter to issue at once. If they 
think themselves not strong enough to do this, they 
surely will carry their arms (having ships of war and 
transports ready) to some other part of the continent, 
or relinquish the dispute; the last of which the min- 
istry, unless compelled, will never agree to do.' Our 
works, and those of the enemy are so near and quite 
open between that wc see every thing that each other 
is doing. 1 recollect nothing more worth mention- 
ing. I shall therefore conclude, with my best wishes 

gone : &II the fre«h prorlilona tber ctn procore. th«;r vn obliged to Eir« to th« 
kick and wounded . . . that Ia.iI week* poor milch cow wru iLilled in town Bud 
aold (i>t*i1iilUiiE sterling «pouiMl.'" — t^emtiylvaniajmtnuii. 3 Aucvct, 1TJ5. 

' When Pirlismcnt aitumblcd in Norcmbet, 1774, the oppoiition wu 
Imrgrl}' in <hc ininoHly ard wh*t ititinglh it had was much weakued by 
tlivuion*. It was known ihnt New England wb» in a time of rebellion, while 
ihe violent conduct o( local cominitlees In other colooiet vu crentlng a preju* 
dice agninit modcrntc counciLj. A* eail)- u November tSth (he King wrote to 
Lord North thai " blow* niu»t decide whcthci they arc to be subjects to lUs 
counliy or independent." " We mutt either miuter them," he wrote tile next 
dtjr, " or t»t«ll]' leave them lu lhenisclvc» *nd lr«at them as idieDt." In hi* 
ndilres* to Parliament he declared hii raolution la withitand cverjr attempt to 
weaken or impAir the wpreme authorityor Ihe le^sUture over all hit dominions, 
the maintenaoce ol which he cuntideied euentiol to the dignitjr, Hfcty, and 
welfare o( the Empire.— Adolph us. History ef England, ii., 158. The»« 
lentimentt were adapted by the rarliameni, and th« MinUtty could olwayt count 
u;taa handMiae majorities (or (heir mcttsurca. On May aCiih the t'arlianiicni 
u'Hi prorogued, Ihe King making a temperate speech in which he exproacd the 
moit perfect s»libfacti«n with the conduct of that b>>dy at luch an important nuia. 





and love to my sister and family, and compliments to 
any inquiring friend, your most affectionate brother.' 

' " But ott Tacsd^ three men of vu and »ix Innspocls Mtled out «f Uoiton 
h&rbour and itood a counc about E. S. E. One Grorcr, who came out ol 
Bo«ton tbe same evening informed tti« officer at one of the ouiposiv thai the 
traaspona bad on board 600 iu«ii, anJ were bound to Block Ulaad, Fbhcr !§• 
land, and Long labind, lu (ilunder them attd bring oil what cattle they may 
find. This f«Uon returned agafn into Bostnn und«r such aacpiciouE cir- 
nunuanccs thai it hu led mc to doubt the truth of hii inlelligeiice. A de»ertct 
•rtao came in afterwards informs me that it wai given out in Ihc camp they were 
«ilher gone for lodiBU ot Ircsh proviiion*. and ihat e*<h lianiport had l>ut 
twenty rucn on bonrd. Upon ihis intdll(;ciic<: I iranicdiaicly vnolc to Got. 
ernor Coolie o( Khodc Ulaml and to (ienera! Wuo^ter. llmt they might take 
proper prevxiliout (or mnuvini; tli< ottlc ofT ll<i».c inl.iiids, aod (o preveot any 
snrprite. As we are contirnied by ever}* accnanl in the great scarcity of fmh 
provinoBi la the encmici camp, and particularly by this dewrier, who niys 
Ihcy have had notw since the battle o( Leaii^on, it i* very probable this voy- 
age may be only tntendcd for a kupply. But ai it may poMibly be oilierwiu, 
I thought it be«t to tnntmit the intelligence to the honorable Cangre*^, that 
they miy cither forward it to the aouihwarJ, or l^c any ulhui step which they 
may judge propcf. Since writing the above three more de«er!en have come 
oat, which ttiake* lour in twenty.four hour*. Their accounii corr«cpond with 
Ihote of the first who came out." — tf^athiHgt^H ta tXe Pretident of Cengrrst, 
Cami*tidgf, 37 ]<i\y. t77i- 

" Vealerday a DeputAlion from ihc Provinedal Congrcis of New Hainpthire 
attended mc with a Kequest that three Cumpanie* raiacd in their Province and 
now posted on Connccliciit Rjvct hi and beiwreTi the iwn Colonics cmnmanded 
by Capts. Timothy Rudle, James Osgood and John Parker might be continued 
for the Security of ihc Frontiers ol thai Province on ihc continental Eilablisli' 
meat : Ai it did not appear to me that their reqocil could be com-plicd with and 
ak 1 apprehend jou ntay have more iiumcdiaic Occation for them than I have, 
I thongbt it proper to give yon the earUeit Notice where tliey are Ihat if you 
thinh proper you may order then to join the Tmoph under your Command. 
Id which Caie yuu will plcanc write tn Mallhew Thornton Eiqr Prc^iident of 
the Provincial Congress. Each Company coiHists of 65 Men including Ofli- 
e«n and are reported to me a< able bodied clout active Fellows lued to the 
woods capable of any Duty and having an Acquaintance with Cannda — But 
yaa will please to rememtier lliat tliey muKt continue under their uwii Offic-ers 
to whom they are attached and Kubjcct only to sopcrioc Coniniaiid, — Wc have 
bad iK> Transaction of any Conicijuence since I wrote yuu last. Our Army it 
hi (ood Health and Spirits well supplied vith all lcind>i of Provisions. The 
Sitatioa of the Kneray is directly the Reverse and we have Ucoson to think 
Doertions will be very great. Pour have come oui¥rilhiD Ihc last t\ Houn." 
— IVMkiH£tsm l» S^Amybr, 17 July, 1775. 





Camp at Caubkidce, sK Jnly, 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

I wrote you yesterday by way of New York, and 
in two hours afterwards was favored with yours of 
the 15th and i8th instant, with their respective en- 
closures. I was extremely glad to find your first 
apprehensions of an incursion by the Indians in some 
degree removed by the later advices. At the same 
time, I think it is evident from the spirit and tenor 
of Colonel Johnson's letter, that no art or influence 
will be left untried by him to engage them in such an 
enterprise. Should he once prevail upon them to 
dip their hands in blood, mutual hostilities will most 
probably ensue, and they may be led to take a more 
decisive part. All accounts I think agree, that the 
Canadians are very averse to engage in this unnatu- 
ral contest ; but I am persuaded you will not abate 
in the least your vigilance to expedite every move- 
ment in that quarter, notwithstanding their present 
pacific appearances.' 

' "One tCrilingcircumUsnce upon ttie lint view of il fL««'« Icilcr} is that 
lh« r«l>«li nre more alinned at Ihe repoit of engaging the Indiani than >t any 
other mca»uic. And I huinl>l]r think this kitcr alone thowii the expediency ot 
dill);«iiily jitcpiriii[( and tmjjloyinK ihai engine." — Burgoyn* lo Lort Nvrik, 
In Fonblanquo'i PeHUca! anJ Military EfitnJts, p. 17S. 

" Tlic ulcpt which you lay the rcbcU have taken for CiJIinE in the auistaace 
of the Indidns, leivc no room to hesitate upon ihc propriety of our pntsuing 
lh« tame ineuut«. For thi* porpoie I iticloac to you o letter to Colonel Joha- 
son, conliiniag 14is Majesty'^ commands for engaging ■ body of Indians." 
— Lord Dorttnouth te iitneral Cage, August, 1775. The letter tefetred to i> 

prob*1ily that printed in Ditcummti rt/iiti»g ta tkr C^leniat Mitltry e/ Nrttf 

Vcrk, viti., {q6. A j'ounial of Johniun'K usnicftciiant with the Indians from 
May to November, 1775, is printed in the tune collection, p. 6jB. 




I am much easier with respect to the public interest 
since your arrival at Ticonderoga, as I am persuaded 
those abilities and that zeal for the common welfare, 
which have led your country to repose such confidence 
in you. will be fully exerted. From my own experi- 
«ice I can easily judge of your difficulties to introduce 
order and discipline into troops, who have from their 
infancy imbibed ideas of the most contrar)' kind. It 
would be far beyond the compass of a letter, for me 
to describe the situation of things here on my arrival. 
Perhaps you will only be able to judge of it from my 
assuring yoti, that mine must be a portrait at full 
length of what you have had a miniature. Confusion 
and disorder reigned in every department, which, in a 
little time, must have ended either in the separation 
of the army, or fatal contests with one another. The 
belter genius of America has prevailed, and most 
happily the ministerial troops have not availed them- 
selves of their advantages, till I trust the opportunity 
is in a great measure past over. The arrangement of 
the general officers in Massachusetts and Connecticut 
has been ver>' unpopular, indeed 1 may say injudicious. 
It is returned to the Congress for further considera- 
tion, and has much retarded my plan of discipline. 
However, we mend every day, and 1 flatter myself 
that in a little time we shall work up these raw ma- 
terials into a good manufacture. 1 must recommend 
to you, what I endeavor to practise myself, patience 
and perseverance. As to your operations, my dear 
Sir, I can suggest nothing, which your own good 
judgment will not either anticipate, or control, from 




your immediate view of things, and the instructions 
of the Continental Congress.' 

The express from hence to England, with the 
account of the commencement of hostilities at Lex- 
ington, has returned. It was far from making the 
impression generally expected here. Slocks fell but 
one and a half per cent. General Gage's account had 
not arrived, and the ministry afTected to treat it as a 
fiction. Parliament had been prorogued two days, 
but it was reported that it would be Immediately 
recalled. Our enemy continues strongly posted about 
a mile from us, both at Bunker's Hill and Roxbury, 
but we are not able to get any information of their 
future intentions. Part of the riflemen are come in, 
and the rest daily expected. 

I did not expect your returns would be very com- 
plete at first ; but I must beg your attention to re- 
forming them as soon as possible ; and 1 beg leave to 
add, that I would have you scrutinize with exactness 

■ " The unhappy cantroTeray which Itu aub«blcd between llie ofliain at Tl- 
condemgx relative lo tbtr cummsnd, hat. I am informeil, thrown every thing into 
vast confusion. : Iroops have heen rtifinissed. Others refined to lerve, if this or 
ihal man comnHbnJs ; tbc iiluop \% witboui cither captain or ptloi, holh of which 
arc dtnniiscd or come away. ... A very considerable waita ui etnbezxle- 
neot [of pTOvi^iJooiJ hai owurred." — Schuyler te tkt Pmidntt of Congrtit, 
l( July, 177;. " Unfortunately nat ouc canhly thing baa bceii dune to cnablo 
me to move hence. I have neither boati sufficieiit, nnr any matcritilE prepared 
for building them. The stores I ordered from New York are not yet ar- 
rived: I have theicfoic not a nail, no pitch, no oakum, atid want a variety of 
■rilcles indispensably necessary ... An .ilmoil equal Karclty of am. 
muaition subsists, no powder haring yet come to hand - not a gun carri- 
age for the few prnpcr guns wc li»ve, and as yet very little proviiion ; two 
humlred iruops less than Iiy uiy lai.t retnm, these badly, very badly, aimed 
indeed, aivd one poor armoror to repair their guiu." — SchnyUr ie Cfngrai, ai 
Jnly, 177!. 




into the application of provisions and stores. I have 
the utmost reason to suspect irregularities and im- 
positions here. You will be fortunate if the contagion 
does not reach you. General Lee has removed about 
four miles from me, but I will take the first oppor- 
tunity to make your kind wishes known to him. Col. 
R feed] and Major M [ifflin] join me in the best wishes 
for your health and success. I am, &c.' .i '^ 

- y 


Cmi* at Caksiidck, 31 Jul)', 1775. 


1 have Considerd the Application ' made me yes- 
terday, from the General Court, with all the attention 
due to the situation of the People in whose Behalf it 
is made. & the Respect due to such a Recommenda- 

' Gaga wu si this lime conxideriTig ibc aspedicncy of removing Ms fcxce 10 
Stm Vorie, ngudlBg Boiton \s " the most diiadviDtagcoui pUce ioi all opcM- 
Mitt, pftrtioilailr when then b nodiTtraion of ihe icbel foiccs. but all arc col. 
lecud tiilooiie poini. Wu tliis aimy in Nevr York. Ibnl Proviiii-e might, to all 
■|»|»nr>iii I be nofc eMuIjr rednced, xiid ihc fhctiiU of governiucnl be kblv to 
nite forCM to Join tlw tioops." — Ca^t id Earl 0/ Dartmoutk. 24 Joly, 1775. 

So the miitistry w«re beginning to look to New York us the proper cmlM for 
D^«(Btiofu, not only fur mJlitaiy reosoinit, Hul aUo to recover the altachincDl and 
fidtUt; of tbat province. — Earl »/ l>artmo>Hh to Governor Trytn, 1 July. 
1775, and t» Gfm. Gag*, 3 AogKtl, 1775. Wuhinj{:ion cuKpectvd nicb m more- 
woBl wu oo ivA M eulj a* Aiigui4 toili, uid waiiicd tlic Nor Vock Con4ircu. 

* ia UouAc of ReptneoMli**! July 39. 1775— ^m^vi/, that Doclr Cbiirdi. 
Mr, Woedbridfe utd Mr. Scwull. with wth at the Honblc Board shull '\tA%, 
b« ■ CoBinitlae to vajt on his Ekccllcncr Gcneial Woshinetoti. & inform him 
«( (Iw (Hnrcn'd Situation of the Inhubiiantt of ihc Eatlern put^ oi the CoU 
«aj ; sad knew of btm, if h( can. Contiiieni with his Iminiciions, and the 
Gncnl Scrrkc, order a Dctacliment there, 10 prevent tbc Enemy (torn Rav* 
ttfing the Coontry. aod plundering the Inbahitinti of their Csttle, Sheep, 
Wood Ac : to Suppiy— theiniMlve*. 




Upon referring to my Instructions and Consulting 
with those Members of Congress who are present as 
well as the General Officers ; they alt agree that it i 
would not be consistent with my duty to detach any^| 
Part of the Army now here on any Particular Pro- 
vincial Service. It has been debated in Congress 
and Settled that the Militia or other Internal Strength 
of each Province is to be applied for Defence against 
those Small and Particular Depredations which were 
to be expected, & to which they were supposed to be 
CompeteniL This will appear the more proper, when 
it is Consider'd that every Town & indeed every Part ^ 
of our Sea Coast which is exposed to these Depreda-^^ 
tions would have an equal Claim upon this Army : 
It is the misfortune of our situation which exposes us 
to these Ravages, against which in my Judgment no 
such Temporary relief would possibly secure us. The 
great Advantage the Enemy has of Transporting ■" 
Troops by being Masters of the Sea will enable them ' 
to harrass us by Diversions of this kind ; and should 
wc be tempted to pursue them upon every Alarm, 
The Army must either be so weakened as to Expose 
it to Destruction or a great Part of the Coast be still 
left unprotected ; ^1 

Nor indeed does it appear to me that such a Pur-^ 
suit would be attended with the least Effect : The^j 
first notice of such an Incursion would be its actual^^ 
Execution ; and long before any Troops could reach 
the Scene of Action, the Enemy would have an 
Opportunity to Accomplish their Purpose & retire. 
It would give me great Pleasure to have it in my. 




Power to extend Protection and Safety to every In- 
dividual, but the Wisdom of the General Court will 
Anticipate me in the Necessity of Conducting our 
Operations on a General and Impartia] Scale, so as 
to exclude any first Cause of Complaint and Jealousy.' 

I b<^ Sir you will do me the Honor to Communi- 
cate these Sentiments to the General Court and to 
Apologize for my Involuntary Delay : As we were 
alarm'd this Morning by the Enemy & my Time 
taken up with giving the Necessary Directions. 

I shall be happy in every Opportunity of shewing 
my ver>' great Respect and Regard for the General 
Court of Massachusetts Bay.' 


Camp at CAKBJciDaK, 4 Auenat. 1775. 


I was yesterday favored with yours of the 31st 
July. Wc have yet no certain account of the fleet, 
which sailed out of Boston on the 25th; but if our 
conjectures and information are just, we may expect 
to hear of it cvcr^' hour. 

'TUi letter niRjr not bate ulUfied the Cenend, Ceait, (n tke Council od 
Aof il ad. ordered Mt. Gmolcaf, Mr. Winlliro)> and Mi. Palmci to wail upun 
ifac General, and " lo rcqnctl him to infomi ihu Boanl nf ihc extent ol the 
powcn delegated 10 him bf the Honorable Contineotal Coii(;TeM." 

*C«nB«ctiait hod tcvcailf dcicnnjncd lo Knd (ourtccn bu&drcd xtdilional 
■m to ibc canp. Tboie wtve called ntw irvics. " Ai tlie seuuii ii now ad. 
ynmiteA and the eoemjr ci^siidcrahl^ reinforced, we have the ulinost fCiuon 10 
■ipcci Bar »tack tliat may be nude will ooi be much luiicct delayed. I 
iknld, (hetcfoR, think ii lustily necewary ihe new niacd troops iihnuld join 
dw anny wilb all ptMEiblc eipedilion." — WathimglBn le Cvtirrntr Trmmtull, 
S^. I77S. 




I am now, Sir, in strict confidence, to acquaint 
you, that our necessities in the articles of powder and 
lead, are so great, as to require an immediate supply. 
I must earnestly entreat, you will fall upon some 
measures to forward every pound of each in the colony, 
which can possibly be spared. It is not within the 
propriety or safety of such a correspondence to say 
what I might upon this subject. It is sufficient, that 
the case calls loudly for the most strenuous exertions 
of every friend of his country, and does not admit 
of the least delay. No quantity, however small, is 
beneath notice, and. should any arrive, I beg it may 
be forwarded as soon as possible.' 

But a supply of this kind is so precarious, not only 

I "The BtttAtlon of th« army u t» ■mmunUion is bjr no mean* wlutt h 
Oi^t lobe. Wc have grcm rcoMiii lo expect iIjc cuemy very suon inlciiils to 
bombard our line». and our Klork of powder ii sa small u in a great degm to 
make our heavy artillery uselfsa," — To the AVu> Hampt/iirt Committte «/ 
Softly, 4 Aug., 1775. At a couocil held at Cambridgi;, August 3, 1775, the 
general cammunicated letters n-speoting the ^tale of tbe ammunition vrhivb 
appears l» be far »h\>rl af Ihc return made some time ago. I'he whole slock 
of liic anny al Rmbury »nd Cambridge and (he Hdjatciit po&lK cuiisiuting of 
only 9U hbis or ihereabauts. 

Tt wa« prv|)«9ed to make an attempt on the maj^inc at Halifoa where then 
is rcMon to luppnac there in a [jrcat qtiartity nf jxiwdcr. The qucatios WM 
■greed lo by a great majority, md a detachment for this enterprise conilKlBgol 
jgo men vrai ordered. 

Abo to endeavor to eoUeci a tnpply from the neighboring proviiicc« o( New 
Hampthire, Rhode Island and C.>nnccticut. 

" On the jd ai August a cnuncil was held nt bcnil quarter), and it waa found 
that, owing to a mi«loke in the report of the M»:$uchu celts committee, instead 
of tour hundred and eighty .fi ve ■quarter-catks of powder in the m^azinc, at 
had been suppoMd, thetc were only thirty-five halt barrcb, at not hali a pound 
■ man. When Washington heard the report he ■kxa ta moch struck by the 
dan^^cr ' that h? dii) not ultn a worcC for hali an hour -, every one el*e wa* 
equally lurprised. Messengers were despatched to all the touthcrn colonics to 
call in their stores,' " — 1 Greene, Grtfmt, 109, no. SuUiwin I0 A'/v> //amf. 




from the clanger of the enemy, but the opportunity 
of purchasing, that I have revolved in my mind every 
other possible chance, and listened to every proposi- 
tion on the subject, which could give the smallest 
hope. Among others. I have had one mentioned, 
which has some weight with mc, as well as the gen- 
eral ofllicers to whom I have proposed it. One 
Harris is lately come from Bermuda, where there is 
a very considerable magazine of powder in a remote 
part of the island ; and the inhabitants well disposed 
not only to our cause in general, but to assist in this 
enterprise in particular. We understand there are 
two armed vessels in your province, commanded by 

lAfnr Ctrnmirtte of Safety, 5 Angufti, 177$, The nibject wu r«flectMl in (tie 
f^wnl onlen of the 4tli : — 

" it b wiik iBdtgnaiton tad ihamc 10 general oluervcn, that naiwithxtand- 
ioc iha PfpMlcd ordm which hav« beea pven lo prevent [he liring of gum, in 
iBd aboM the cunp, tkal it is A»k\y and hnarly practised ; thai contrary to all 
(•iets, ■nmBSl'^C eoliiien do uill pau the ^xti, and fire at a diitance. where 
ibere i* aot the leMl probability ol hurting the eaemy, ojid where no oth«r end 
i» aasHcntI, bat ta wftiie amtnunition, expoM themMlves to ibc tldicule of the 
•■caiy. atid keep Ilieir own canpt barmaed by freiiuciii anil contiima] Bhtnnt, 
lo (Iw hurt of everf good toJdicr, whn ii thrrehy didiirl^ied of hit nalural kkI, 
•ml will at length ncrn be able to diklingaish between a roil and a fal»e alarm. 

" Foe ihc» rcuons. it is in the mott pciemplory manner forbid any person 
•r penoos w-hatsocver, under any pretence, to pan tbe out gnaid, unleasauthor- 
bed b]t tlic commanding ofTicci at that part of the linn, signified in wilting, 
vludi must be tfaown to the officer of the [[uani ai they pa». Any person 
bJ— dif ta tk» pwtkokr, will be cunudercd in no other ticht Lban a» a 
"ifittBATi enemy, and the guard vrill have ardent lo lire upon tbcm m such. The 
wwMii1lii|[, I Jii 1 1 of tfnrj ref^ment ia to direct that every man in hit regi- 
■m, i> awde K({uwnlcd with order*, to the eod that no one may plead 
%M— ee. and thai ill nuiy be apprixedoJ the oonsequence of ditobedicDte. 
TW "H*— *'* of r^menta and commaDding officer* of corps, to order the rolic 
of cvrry company to be called twice a day, and every roan's anuaunition eiam- 
latf ai «**niii£ loU calling, and xucfa ax are found to be defidenl 10 be confined. 
TW pmnl ave to apprehend all penon* firin)' guns near ihcir pottn, whether 
or *cMien."—OrdfTfy Sevi. 




men of known activity and spirit ; one of which, it 
is proposed to despatch on this errand with such 
assistance as may be requisite. Harris is to go along, 
as the conductor of the enterprise, and to avail our- 
selves of his knowledge of the island ; but without 
any command. 1 am very sensible, that at first view 
the project may appear hazardous ; and its success 
must depend on the concurrence of many circum- 
stances ; but we are in a situation, which requires us 
to run all risks. No danger is to be considered, 
when put in competition with the magnitude of the 
cause, and the absolute necessity we are under of in- 
creasing our stock. Enterprises, which appear chi- 
nnerical, often prove successful from that very circum- 
stance. Common sense and prudence will suggest 
vigilance and care, where the danger is plain and 
obvious ; but, where little danger ts apprehended, the 
more the enemy will be unprepared, and consequently 
there is the fairest prospect of success.' 

Mr. Brown' has been mentioned to me as a very 
proper person to be consulted upon this occasion. 
You will judge of the propriety of communicating 
it to him in part or the whole, and as soon as possible 
favor me with your sentiments, and the steps you may 
have taken to forward it. If no immediate and safe 
opportunity ofifers, you will please to do it by express. 

' "A cammiltee was sp])oti)i«il to act during the recean n[ Che (ienenl 
\ss«ml)ly, with full ptiwcrs ; nasi ^iinung (Iicrrn thej' were 'particularly 
empowered to einpli>y the Iwii Brmert vcsncIs in the service of this colony, or 
tither of Ihcm, in nich a maiiDcr, and upon Mich voyage u cliey shall think 
waduti'e [o Ihc public interctt." — Rt<erdi •// (At C«ltny «/ JfinJi JtlanJ, 
rll., 36s. ' >tr. Baiicroli tays Jotn Brown, 




Should it be inconvenient to part with one of the 
armed vessels, perhaps some other might be fitted 
out, or you could devise some other mode of execu- 
ting this plan ; so that, in case of a disappointment, the 
vessel might proceed to some other island to purchase. 

My last letter from the honorable Continental Con- 
gress recommends my procuring, from the colonics of 
Connecticut and Rhode Island, a quantity of tow 
cloth, for the purpose of making Indian or hunt- 
ing-shirts for the men, many of whom are very des- 
titute of clothing. A pattern will be sent you ; and I 
must request you to give the necessary directions 
throughout your government, that all the cloth of the 
above kind may be bought up for this use, and suita- 
ble persons set to work to make it up. As soon as 
any number is made, worth the conveyance, you will 
please to direct them to Ix: forwarded. It is designed 
as a species of uniform, both cheap and convenient. 

We have had no transactions in either camp since 
my last, but what are in the public papers, and related 
with tolerable accuracy. The enemy still continue to 
strengthen their lines, and we have reason to believe, 
intend to bombard ours, with the hopes of forcing us 
out of them. Our poverty in ammunition prevents our 
making a suitable return. 

Since writing the above. Colonel Porter has under- 
taken to assist in the matter, or to provide some suita- 
hie person to accompany Harris to you. who will com- 
municate all the circumstances. I am, &c' 

' " Wli«a aajr plnndu is taken (rum Ihc Enemy (nul eKce|>ied by ihe Conti. 
>eot»l Article* d war) Mcb plunilcr muitl be all ^unendcf d to the Comma n-dlO); 






Camp at Cambhidge, 4 August. 1775. 


I am to acknowledge the receipt of your Favor of 
the 24th July accompanied by 284 Commissions, which 
are yet much short of the necessar>' Number. I am 
much honored by the Confidence reposing in me of 
appointing the several Officers recommended in mine 
of the loth ult, ; and shall endeavor to select such 
Persons, as are best qualified to fill those important 

General Thomas has accepted his Commission and 
I have heard nothing of his Retirement since, so that 
I suppose he is satisfied. 

In the Renewal of those Commissions some Diffi- 
culties occur, in which I should be glad to know the 
Pleasure of the honbl Congress. The General Offi- 
cers of the Massachusetts, have Regiments, those of 
Connecticut, have both Regiments, and Companies, 
and the other Field Officers have Companies each. 
From Rhode Island, the General Officer has no 
Regimt, but the Field Officers have Companies. 
But I do not find they have, or expect Pay under 
more than one Commission. Should the Commis- 
sion now to be delivered supercede these different 
Establishments, there will be a Distinction between 

Offif^cr. And an snon w: convenient after hi« urhr*] «t Hend Quarlcn, public 
Notice inu«l be made, ihut sm Aucliun will be held la the Irani of the Edoiir}). 
menl for the sale thereof ihcncii dayai noon. xaA thcmoncr aiiunBihcrcfrom, 
is Ici b« equally divided between the Offic«rsand Men, that tciolt il. ThisOrder 
is not lu be construed to extend, to permitting ualuwful ftnd irregular plunder- 
ing ; as any Officer, ur SoMier, who dull t>e found guilty ihereof. will be pun- 
iahed with the gtcatest tiCverily." — OrJtrly Book, 3 Augutl, 1775. 




General and Field Officers of the same Rank. In 
Order to put New Hampshire, Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island upon a Line with Connecticut, it would 
be necessary to dismiss a Number of Officers in Pos- 
session of Commissions, without any Fault of theirs ; 
on the other Hand, to bring the Connecticut Gen- 
erals, and Field Officers to the same Scale with the 
others, will add to the Number of Officers, and may 
be deemed inconsistent with the Terms on which 
they entered into the Ser\'ice, altho you add nothing 
to the Expence, except in the Article of Provisions. 
Upon the whole, it is a Case, which I would wish 
the Honbl Congress to consider and determine. 

Col. Gridley of this Province, who is at the Head 
of the Artillery has the Rank of Major GenI from 
the Provincial Congress. Will it be proper to renew 
his Commission here in the same Manner ? It is 
proper here to remark, that In this Case he will 
take Rank of all the Brigadiers General, and even 
the Majors General, whose Commissions are subse- 
quent in Date, and can answer no good Purpose, but 
may be productive of many bad Consequences.' 

These are Matters of some Importance, but I am 
embarrassed with a Difficulty of a superior kind. 
The Estimate made in Congress, supposed all the 
Regiments to be formed upon one Establishment, 
but they arc different in different Provinces; and 
even vary in the same Province, in some Particulars. 
In Massachusetts, some Regiments have Ten Com- 

* CangrxM dirwted itut « commUiian tu coton«l (hauld b« tuued to Col. 



panics, others Eleven ; The Establishment of the 
former is 590 Men Officers included, of the latter 
649. The Establishment of Rhode Island, "knd New 
Hampshire is 590 to a Regiment, Officers included. 
Connecticut has 1000 Men to a Regiment. Should 
the Massachusetts Regiments be completed ; with 
the new Levies from Rhode Island and Connecticut 
and the Riffle Men. the Number will exceed 22.CXXX 
If they should not be completed, as each Regiment 
is fully ofiicer'd, there will be a heavy Expense to 
the Publick without an adequate Service. The Re- 
duction of some of them seems to be necessary and 
yet is a Matter of much Deltcacy. as we are situated. 
I most earnestly request it may be taken into imme- 
diate Consideration, and the Time and Mode of 
doing it, pointed out by the Honbl Congress. By 
an Estimate 1 have made, from the General Return, 
when the new Levies arrive, and the Regiments are 
completed there will be 24,450 Men on the Pay and 
Provision of the united Colonies. Some of the re- 
cruiting Officers who have been out on that Service, 
have returned with verj' little Success, so that we 
may safely conclude, the Number of 2064 now want- 
ing to complete will rather increase than diminish. 
There are the Regiment of Artillerj' consisting of 
493 Men, and one under Col. Sergeant who has not 
received any commission, altho he had Orders to 
raise a Regiment from the Provincial Congress here, 
which are not included in the above Estimate. This 
last Regiment consists of 234 Men by the last Re- 
turn, but a Company has since joined. 




By adverting to the General Return, which 1 have 
the Honor of inclosing (No. r) it will be seen what 
Regiments are most deficient. 

If the Congress does not chuse to point out the 
particular Regiments, but the Provinces in which the 
Reduction is to be made, the several Congresses and 
/Vssemblies may he the proper Channel! to conduct 
this Business : which I should also conceive the most 
adviseable, from their better Acquaintance with the 
Merits, Terms, and Time of Service of the respective 
Officers. Reducing some Regiments, and with the 
Privates thereof, filling up others would certainly be 
the best Method of accomplishing this Work, if it 
were practicable ; but the Experiment is dangerous, 
as the Massachusetts Men under the Priviledge of 
chusing their own Officers, do not conceive them- 
selves bound if those Officers are disbanded. 

As General Gage is making Preparations for Win- 
ter, by contracting for Quantities of Coal ; it will 
suggest to us the Propriety of extending our Views 
to that Season. I have directed that such Huts as 
have been lately made of Boards, should be done in 


iNOTOir, juLV aQTH, 1775, 

MaaswhoMlU Bay regiments l6. & 4 Independl comp«nie«. ConnBcticul 
NfJiBcati 3- New IlainihJre regiinenls y Rbodc Isltitiil reK''*icti'* 3- 

Teulaf pr«*eBica>nmbione(lonicen,3oColQnelE. 31 Lt. CoIoncU. 55 Majnts. 
■S^C^fitAiBL Jii ljm(cii*Bl«. 73 Knti^iit. TaUl (A iirfwol StmfT ofGccn 14 
f^lJiiM. y^ AdjaiAim. 3$ >•) Nftuien. 3; Sutgcoiu. 30 Muicrc— Total 
«f aem caoMMMOMd aiBcvK. isos S«rjc«nls. 612 Dnimsand lifes. Rtnk aad 
fie piM eo l fit foi dmr. i)399- Sick present 1330. fjick absent. 1690 — on 
holOMcIiL. X87. Ob Command 6g3. Total rank aiid lilc t6dgA— Wuitin|[ 10 
MBpkU. 114 Serteanti. 10$ Urvnu and li(«t. 307^ privates. Cel» Sugents 
Nflscat aoi iadadcd in the tboTc rctom. 




such a Manner, that if necessary they may serve for 
covering during the Winter; but 1 need not enlarge 
upon the Variety of Necessities such as Clothing, 
Fuel, &c. — both exceedingly scarce and difficult to 
be procured, which that season must bring with it; 
if the Army, or any considerable Part of it is to 
remain embodied. From the Inactivity of the Enemy 
since the Arrival of their whole Reinforcement, their 
continual Addition to their lines, and many other 
Circumstances, I am inclined to think that finding 
\is so well prepared to receive them, the Plan of 
Operations is varied, and they mean by regular 
Approaches to bombard us out of our present Line 
of Defence, or are wailing in Expectation that the 
Colonies must sink under the Weight of the Ex- 
pence ; or the Prospect of a Winters Campaign, so 
discourage the Troops as to break up our Army. 
If they have not some such Expectations the Issue 
of which they are determined to wait ; I cannot 
account for the Delay, when their Strength is lessened 
every Day by Sickness, Desertions, and little Skir- 

Of these last we have had only two worthy of 
Notice: Having some Reason to suspect they were 
extending their Lines at Charles Town, I last Satur- 
day Evening, ordered some of the Riffle Men down 
to make a Discovery, or bring ofiT a Prisoner. They 
were accidentally discovered sooner than they ex- 
pected ; by the Guard coming to relieve, and obliged 
to fire upon them ; We have Reason to believe they 
killed several. They brought in two Prisoners whose 






Acct confirmed by some other Circumstances re- 
moved my Suspicions in part. Since that Time we 
have on each Side drawn in our Gentries, and there 
have been scattering Fires along the Line. This 
Evening we have heard of three Captains who have 
been taken off by the Riffle Men and one killed by a 
Cannon Shot from Roxbury besides several Privates ; 
but as the Intelligence is not direct, I only mention it 
as a Report which deserves Credit. The other hap- 
pened at the Light House. A Number of Work- 
men have been sent down to repair it with a Guard 
of 22 Marines and a Subaltern, Major Tupper last 
Monday Morning about i 'Clock landed there with 
about 300 Men, attack'd them killed the Officer, and 
4 Privates; but being detained by the Tide, in his 
Return he was attack'd by several Boats, but he liap- 
pily got through with the Loss of one Man killed 
and another wounded. The Remainder of the min- 
isterial Troops, three of which are badly wounded, 
he brought ofl' Prisoners, with 10 Tories, all of whom 
are on their Way to Springfield Gaol. The Riffle 
Men in this Skirmish lost one Man who we hear is 
a Prisoner in Boston Gaol. The Enemy in Return 
endeavored to surprise our Guard at Roxbury, but 
they being apprized of it by a Deserter, had Time to 
prepare for it ; but by some Negligence or Miscon- 
duct in the Officer of the Guard, they burnt the 
George Tavern on the Neck; and have every day 
since been cannonading us from their Lines both 
at Roxbury and Charles Town, but with no other 
Effect than the Loss of two Men. On our Part ex- 




cept straggling Fires from the small Arms about the 
Lines which we endeavor to restrain, we have made 
little or no Return. Oiir Situation in the Article of 
Powder is much more alarming than I had the most 
distant Idea of. Having desired a Return to be 
made out on my Arrival, of the Ammunition, I found 
305J Bbbl's of Powder mentioned as in the Store : 
But on ordering a new Supply of Cartridges yester- 
day, I was informed to my very great Astonishment 
that there was no more than 36 Bbbls of the Massa- 
chusetts Store, which with the Stock of Rhode Island, 
New Hampshire and Connecticut makes 9937 lb — 
not more than 9 Rounds a Man : As there had been 
no Consumption of Powder since, that could in any 
Degree account for such a Deficiency, I was very 
particular in my Inquiries, and found that the Com- 
mittee of Supplies, not being sufficiently acquainted 
with the Nature of a Return, or misapprehending my 
Request, sent in an Account of all the Ammunition, 
which had been collected by the Provinces so that 
the Report included not only what was in Hand, but 
what had been spent. Upon discovering this Mis- 
take, I immediately went up to confer with the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, upon some 
Measures to obtain a Supply from the neighboring 
Townships, in such a Manner, as might prevent our 
Poverty being known, as it is a Secret of too great 
Consequence to be divulged in the general Court, 
some Individual of which might perhaps indiscreetly 
suffer it to escape him, so as to find its Way to the 
Enemy, the Consequences of which, are terrible even 







in Idea. I shall also write to the Governors of 
Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and the Committee of 
Safetj* in New Mampshire on this Subject, urging in 
the most forcible Terms, the Necessity of an imme- 
diate Supply if in their Power. I need not enlarge 
on our melancholy Situation ; it is sufficient that the 
Existence of the Army, and the Salvation of the 
Country, depends upon something being done for 
our Relief both speedy and effectual, and that our 
Situation be kept a profound secret. 

In the Inclosures (No 2 and 3) I send the Allow- 
ance of Provisions &c. made by the Provinces of 
Connecticut and Massachusetts, the Mode and 
Quantity are different from what has fallen within 
my Experience, and I am confident must prove very 
wasteful, and expensive. If any alteration can be 
safely made, (which 1 much doubt) there might be a 
great Saving to the publick. 

A Gentleman of my Family," assisted by a De- 
serter who has some Skill in Fortification, has by my 
Direction sketchd out two Draughts of our respec- 
tive Lines, at Charles Town and Roxbur}*, which 
with the Explanation will convey some Idea of our 
Situation, and I hope prove acceptable to the Mem- 
bers of the honorable Congress. They are the 
Inclosures (No 4 and 5). 

Since I had the Honor of addressing you last, 
I have been applied to, by a Committee of the Gen- 
eral Court for a Detachment of the Army, to protect 

' J«weph TrambwD. The plan it reproduced in Winsor'e "Hutotyof Boat on," 




the Inhabitants of the Eastern Parts of this Province, 
from some apprehended Depredations on their 
Coasts. I could have wJsh'd to have complied with 
their Request ; but after due Consideration, and con- 
sulting the General Oflficers. together with those 
Members of Congress, who are here, I thought it 
my Duty to excuse myself. The Application, and 
my Answer are the Inclosures No, 6 and 7, which I 
hope will be approved by the honorable Congress. 

Since 1 began this Letter, the Orig"inal of which 
the Inclosure No. S is a Copy, fell into my Hands ; as 
the Writer Is a Person of some Note in Boston, and 
it contains some Advices of Importance not mentioned 
by others, I thought proper to forward it as I received 
it. By comparing the Handwriting with another 
Letter, it appears the Writer is one Belcher Noyes, 
a Person probably known to some of the Gentlemen 
Delegates from this Province : who can determine 
from his Principles and Character what Credit is due 
to him. 

The Army is now formed into three grand Divi- 
sions, under the Command of the Generals Ward, Lee 
and Puttnam. Each Division into two Brigades, con- 
sisting of about 6 Regiments each, commanded by 
Generals Thomas, and Spencer at Roxburj' ; Heath 
at Cambridge. Sullivan and Greene at Winter Hill. 
By this you will please to observe, there is a Defi- 
ciency of one Brigadier General, occasioned by Mr 
Pomroy's not acting under his Commission, which I 
beg may be filled up as soon as possible. I observe 
the Honbl Congress have also favored me with the 




Appointment of three Brigade Majors; I presume 
they have, or intend to appoint the rest soon, as they 
cannot be unacquainted that one is necessary to each 
Brigade, and in a new raised Army it will be an Oflfice 
of great Duly and Service. 

General Gage has at length liberated the People of 
Boston, who land in Numbers at Chelsea every Day, 
the Terms on which the Passes are granted as to 
Money EfTccts and Provisions correspond with Mr 
Noyes's Letter. 

We have several Reports that General Gage is 
dismantling Castle William and bringing all the Can- 
non up to Town, but upon a verj- particular Inquiry, 
Accounts are so various that I cannot ascertain the 
Truth of JL 

I am Sony to be under a Necessity of making such 
frequent Examples among the Officers when a Sense 
of Honor, and the Interest of their Country might 
beexpected to make Punishment unnecessary. Since 
my last, Capt Parker of Massachusetts for Frauds 
both in Pay, and Provisions, and Capt. Gardiner of 
Rhode Island for Cowardice in running away from 
his Guard on an Alarm, have been broke. As noth- 
ing can be more fatal to an Army, than Crimes of 
this kind. I am determined by everj- Motive of Re- 
ward and Punishment to prevent them in future. 

On the first Instt a Chief of the Cagnewaga Tribe,' 
who lives about 6 Miles from Montreal, came in here, 

' Tb« Indiu'i Kune wst \xm%. " He hii all along apptiarcd friendly to 
A* New EngUnd paaple, ii rcty intclliKcnl, ftnil Kb$ the chnracicr mnong; iht 
tndiaa uadcn of an honeu ftllow, who has alwayi ucxfii by aud made good 
^i»^aA,''^-C4L J»*m HhH I* Iht Ntv Hamfthirt Cengrttt, 3? July, inS- 





accompanied by a Col : Bayley of Cohoss.' His Ac- 
counts of the Temper and Disposition of the Indians, 
are very favorable. He says they have been strongly 
soMicited by Gov. Carleton, to engage against us, but 
his Nation is totally averse : Threats, as well as In- 
treaties have been used without Effect.' That the 
Canadians are well disposed to the English Colonies, 
and if any Expedition is meditated against Canada 
the Indians in that Quarter will give all their Assist- 
ance. I have endeavored to cherish these favorable 
Dispositions, and have recommended to him to culti- 
vate them on his Return. What I have said, I en- 
forced with a Present which I understood would be 
agreeable to him, and as he is represented to be a 
Man of Weight, and Consequence in his own Tribe, 
I flatter myself his Visit will have a good Effect 
His Accounts of Gov. Carleton's Force and Situation 
at St Johns correspond with what we have already 
had from that Quarter. 

The Accession of Georgia to the Measures of the 
Congress is a happy Event and must give a sincere 
Pleasure to every Friend of America. 

Au^uil {ih. 

We have Accounts this Morning of two Explosions 
at the Castle, so that its Destruction may now be 
supposed certain. 

* Jftcob Bayley (1738-1816), urved in Ibe t'rench and Indisn wac : in 1376 
coinmence«l the militafy ro.irf dorfgned to nin frotn ihc Connediciit Ri^er to St, 
Johns (Canada), adcrw-iirEU known ax itic Haien road. He woa co-mmiuai^r- 
|reonal during a part of [he Revolution, and held n rommiuicin frnm Nvw York. 

* Arnold had wnllen Co the ContincDlfcl Congress on 1} Jun«, that thii tribe 
of Indians were dctcnniucd not to assist llic king's uuops. and hod decreed 
daaih to any membet wbo should violate that conduiion. 




I have this Morning been alarmed with an Infor- 
mation that two Gentlemen from Philada (Mr Hitch- 
bourn and Capt. White) with Letters for General 
Lee and myself have been taken by CapL Ayscough 
at Rhode Island, the Letters intercepted and sent 
forward to Boston with the Bearers as Prisoners. 
That the Captain exulted much in the Discoveries he 
had made and my Informer who was also in the 
Boat but released understood them to be the Letters 
of Consequence. I have therefore dispatch'd the 
Express immediately back, tho' I had before resolved 
to deuin him till Fessenden's Return. 1 shall be 
anxious till I am relieved from the Suspence I am in 
as to the Contents of those Letters. 

It is exceedingly unfortunate that Gentlemen should 
chuse to travel the only Road on which there is Dan- 
ger. Let the Event of this be what it will I hope it 
will serve as a general Caution against trusting any 
Letter that Way in future. 

Nothing of Consequence has occurr'd in the Camp 
these two Days. The Inhabitants of Boston continue 
coming out at Chelsea, but under a new Restriction 
that no MiH shall come out without special Licence 
— which is refused to all Mechanicks since the Tory 
Laborers were taken at the Light House.' 

* Raid before Cvngnn, S«pt. 13th. Congreu hwl wljourncd on AoEiut 
I toaeet onScpierab«r Jth. but from ihc small alieniJincc on ihui days fur> 
uljevnmeiil wu ibm1« to S«f>tenib«r tjih. The many important quek 
lintt fmiicd by Wuhii^onwere nchu CoogreH dtdnoirecl competent to ptui 
irttfamii mora (teSnite inlMBiatioa. Tc •ecuce ttiU ii apputnlcij > cuin> 
■, coaflMingof Mr. Fnnklin, M(. Ilarriton, ami Mr. I.yn<h, tc go to Ih* 
I sad cMnull with tba Cmtstal. — Jtmmal, Scplombcr aifih and jotb. 






Camp at Cahubidss. 4 August. 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

I have been favored with your letter of the 18th 
ulto. by Messrs. Ogden and Burr, and wish it was in 
my power to do that justice to the merits of those 
gentlemen which you think them entitled to. When- 
ever it is, I shall not be unmindful of your recom- 
mendations. The two or three appointments with 
which I have been honored by Congress were partly 
engaged, before I received your letter, and you will 
please recollect that the ultimate appointment of all 
other officers is vested in the governments in which 
the regiments were originally raised. I can venture 
to pronounce, therefore, that few commissions in 
this army will be disposed of out of the four New 
England governments ; the good policy and justice of 
which, you may judge of as well as I can : as Volun- 
teers from any other colonies, however deserving they 
may be of notice, or to be considered on account of 
the expence which they are run to, will stand little 
chance whilst there is an application from any person 
of the government from whence the Regiment came. 

Admitting this to be the case and I believe hardly 
any one will doubt it, had not the Congress better 
reserve these appointments in their own hands? It 
will be putting the matter upon a much larger bot- 
tom and giving merit a better chance; nor do 
I see any inconvenience arising from it, as it is 
highly presumable that during the continuance of 

' A delegate from New Vurli Co the Coniincntal Congress. 




these disturbances, the Congress wiH be chiefly sit* 
ting, oracling by a Committee from whence commis- 
sions might be as easily obtained as from a Provincial 
Assembly or Congress. I have taken the liberty of 
suggesting this matter, as I conceive the service will 
be infinitely promoted thereby; as merit only, with- 
out a regard to Country will entitle a man to prefer- 
ment, when, and so often as vacancys may happen- — 
Having wrote fully to the Congress respecting the 
state of publick affairs, 1 shall refer you-to that, and 
am, &c 


CAmUDOK, } ADffiat, 1775. 


Your favor of yesterday came duely to my hands. 
As I did not consider local appointments, as having 
any operation upon the general one, 1 had partly 
engaged (at least in my own mind) the office of 
Quariermaster-Genl. before your favor was presented 
to me. 

In truth Sir, I think it sound policy to bestow Offi* 
cers indiscriminately among the Gentlemen of the 
different Governmts. ; for as all bear a proportionable 
part toward the expence of this war, if no Gentlemen 
out of these four Governments come in for any share 
of the appointments, it may be apt to create jealousp 
ies which will, in the end, give disgust ; for this reason, 
I would earnestly recommend to your Board to pro- 
vide for some of the Volunteers who arc come from 




Philadelphia with very warm Recommendations, tho' 
strangers to me. — 

In respect to the Boats &c. from Salem. I doubt, 
in the first place, whether they can be brought over 
by Land — in the Second, I am sure nothing could 
ever be executed here by Surprize ; as I am well 
convinced that nothing is transacted in our Camp, or 
Lines, but what is known in Boston in less than 34 
hours, — indeed, Circumstanced as we are it is scarce 
possible to do otherwise, unless we were to stop the 
Communication between the Country & our Camp St 
Lines ; in which case, we shd. render our Supplies of 
Milk, Vegetables &c. difficult & precarious. — We are 
now building a kind of Floating Battery, when that 
is done & the utility of it discovered, I may possibly 
apply for Timber to build more, as Circumstances 
shall require. I remain with great esteem Sir. &c* 


Hbad-Qvailtbk», 7 Aiiga*!, 1775. 


By the genera! return made to me for last week. I 
find there are great numbers of soldiers and non- 
commissioned officers, who absent themselves from 
duty, the greater part of whom, 1 have reason to 
believe, are at their respective homes in different 
parts of the country ; some employed by their offi- 
cers on their farms, and others drawing pay from the 
public, while they are working on their own planta- 

' The original is in th« postosfion of Mr. George Havon Patimm, who has 
Lindly given lac a copy, 





utmost exertions 

sc and pernicious con- 



tions or for hire. My 
been able to prevent 
ducL I must, therefore, beg the assistance of the 
General Court to cooperate with me in such measures 
as may remedy this mischief. I am of opinion it 
might be done, either wholly or in part, by the com- 
mittees in your several towns making strict and 
impartial inquiry of such as are found absent from 
the army, upon whose account they have left it, by 
whose leave, and for what time ; requiring such, as 
have no impediment of sickness or other good reason, 
to return to their duty immediately, or. in case of 
failure sending an account of their names, and the 
company and regiment to which they belong, that I 
may be able to make examples of such delinquents.' 
I need not enlarge upon the ruinous consequences 
of suffering such infamous deserters and defrauders 
of the public to go unnoticed or unpunished, nor use 
any arguments to induce the General Court to give 
it immediate attention. The necessity of the case 
does not permit me to doubt the continued exertions 
u( that zeal, which has distinguished the General 
Court upon less important occasions. I have the 
honor to be, &c 

* ** It bM bMB iatinuit«d M iba genanl, thkt lome offioen, under [>ra(ence <A 
l^vbiC fnHcM^fu to meo recorcnbi; from sickucM, Knd them to work upon 
IlKit {timi Foi their own phrxie ccnoluinciii. nt the umr lime that ihc public 
kiaied witb tbeu paf, if not with (heir proviiiani. Thcte inunuattonK being 
W qfc K ^m c lj Mxlc. tbc |[cacral b onwilUii); to bcliei« tliat any Q<l>(^<-'r can be 
M loal to all ■erne of honor u to defnuil the public in «a Kandalnut a man- 
■•r. and. ibtnfwc, docs not at prtMnt paj nnjr (utttiei reganl to Iht Jiuinua- 
4mi Aan to declare that he will ahnw nn favor to any nfliccr who xhall he 
faiad C*fliy of nch iniquiloiu practices ; but will da hli uimcnt eiuleavon to 
trim l^«^ to exemplary puniJtmeni, and the di^ace due to audi mal-con- 
"—Ordtrfy Bnk, \ut;wit Blh. 





Cahp at Cambridge, 6 Aokum. i77S- 

It must give great concern to any considerate 
mind, that, when this whole continent, at a vast 
expense of blood and treasure, is endeavoring to 
establish its liberties on the most secure and solid 
foundations, not only by a laudable opposition of 
force to force, but denying itself the usual advantages 
of trade, there are men among us so basely sordid, 
as to counteract all our exertions, for the sake of a 
little gain. You cannot but have heard, that the 
distresses of tlic ministerial troops for fresh provi- 
sions and many other necessaries at Boston were very 
great. -It is a policy, justifiable by all the laws of 
war, to endeavor to increase them. Desertions, dis- 
couragement, and a dissatisfaction with the service, 
besides weakening their strength, are some of the 
natural consequences of such a situation ; and, if 
continued, might afford the fairest hope of success, 
without further effusion of human blood. 

A vessel, cleared lately out of New York for St 
Croix, with fresh provisions and other articles, has 
just gone into Boston, instead of pursuing her voyage 
to the West Indies. I have endeavored to discover 
the name of the captain, or owner, but as yet without 
success. The owner it is said, went to St. Croix be- 
fore the vessel ; from which, and her late arrival, I 
make no doubt you will be able to discover and ex- 
pose the villain. And. if you could fall upon some 
effectual measures, to prevent the like in future, it 




would be doing a signal <;ervice to our common 

1 have been endeavoring, by every means in my 
power, to discover the future intentions of our enemy 
here. I find a general idea prevailing, throughout 
the army and in the town of Boston, that the troops 
are soon to leave the town and go to some other part 
of the continent. New York is generally mentioned, 
as-the place of their destination. I should think a 
rumor or suggestion of this kind worthy of very 
liltle notice, if it were not confirmed by some cor- 
responding circumstances. But four weeks of total 
inactivity, with all their reinforcements arrived and 
recruited, the daily diminution by desertion, sick- 
ness, and small skirmishes, induce an opinion, that 
any effort they propose to make will be directed 

I thought it proper just to hint to you what is 
probably intended, and you will then consider what 
regard is to be paid to it, and what steps it will be ex- 

' " It » a matter of cic«ndiRg grrat concern to the General io lind. that at 
a tine when the miled effort* of Amerim are es<Tt4n{; in defence o-f the eotn> 
■OB right! aad tRxtlict of mankinil, thai there ihould be in an army cansii> 
MUd lac » noble a puqHMe. nich repeated initances uf officera, who Imi to 
tvafy Maae of baoor and viiluc, are leckiiig lijr diily and Xioac meant, llie pro- 
■odaB of their owd dkhuaut uain, \a the elernal di^race of ihetiudvei and 
iUMaar of ihetr ooanlry. PracticvE of this son will never he avcTliK>ke<l, 
whenever an accntation is lod|[cd ; but llie aulhoo bnniEbt to the moit cxcin- 
ptaiy fiDniihmcDI.' — Ordcriy Honk, i» Auguir, 1775. 

* "We hare had no ocrarrence in the camp far Mveral day* worthy of notice ; 
hit h]r aomc advices fivm Botlon, and several concurring circumtiancc*, we have 
frett loucM 10 lupeci a pan or the whole of the minulctiat troops, are abcat 
to RSMT*. New Vofk is the place genetaEly talked of oti th«r deKiination. I 
(ivc yon the ioicUiccttcc aj it came Io me, but du not vuuch (or its authentie- 
ity."— ff(iii(a!fi^ t9 Ntv York Prwimfial Omgrtu lo Aagixst, I77S- 




pedient for you to take, tf any. I am, with ^eat 
respect and regard, Gentlemen, Sec' 


Camp at Caubudob, ii August, 1775. 


I have considered the papers you left with me yes- 

As to the expedition proposed against Nova Scotia, 
by the inhabitants of Machias, 1 cannot but applaud 
their spirit and zeal ; but, after considering the rea- 
sons offered for it. several objections occur, which 
seem to me unanswerable. I apprehend such an 
enterprise to be inconsistent with the general prin- 
ciple upon which the colonies have proceeded. That 
province has not acceded, it is true, to the measures 
of Congress; and, therefore, it has been excluded 
from all commercial intercourse with the other col- 
onics ; but it has not commenced hostilities against 
them, nor are any to be apprehended. To attack it, 
therefore, is a measure of conquest, rather than de- 
fence, and may be attended with very dangerous con- 

' " CambTJdgc. August g, 1775. We vftitod on GraerftI Wuhington, vho 
1 have the plcanirc to inform you i« much beloved anJ admired for his poUte 
condcsoension and nal>te Jcparuuent. His ■p|>olmnicnt to the chief conitnuid 
hu the genefal suRrage o( nil ran kx of people h^rr, whUli I think ix no biul 
omen." — Exlracl of « IcUcr (ram « ?luUdcl]}luiin. Pmmtylvania GautU, Au- 
liuw 23. 175s. 

' Co]. Th(>(nfi<ion hid piopostd 10 raiie a farce of on« thousand mtn, ind % 
fleet of four anncd vcstcU and eight inniiponi ; \a proceed I0 Windior, capli- 
VBI« i)ie Turiei. mtkc ali ihe prowlyin possiUe. and th«n proceed lo Halifax 
■nd deitroy the ICing'e'lockyud, if choaghl proper. 




xjucnces. It might, perhaps, be easy, with the force 
proposed to make an incursion, into the province and 
overawe those of the inhabitants, who are inimical to 
our cause, and. for a short time, prevent their supply- 
ing the enemy with provisions; but, to produce any 
tasting effects, the same force must continue. 

As to the furnishing vessels of force, you, Gentle- 
men, will anticipate me, in pointing out our weakness 
and the enemy's strength at sea. There would be 
great danger, that, with the best preparations we 
could make, they would fall an easy prey, either to 
the men-of-war on that station, or to some which 
irould be detached from Boston. I have been thus 
particular, to satisfy any gentleman of the Court, who 
should incline to adopt the measure, I could offer 
many other reasons against it, some of which, I doubt 
not. will suggest themselves to the honorable Board. 
But it is unnecessary to enumerate them, when our 
situation as to ammunition absolutely forbids our 
sending a single ounce of it out of the camp at 
pre&eot. I am, Gentlemen, &c.' 


Ukao-Quaxtkrs, Cambsidck, ir Aupm, 1775, 


I understand that the officers engaged in the cause 
of liberty and their country, who by the fortune of 
war have fallen into your hands, have been thrown 

'nvofdcnof tlte iidi innonnced Ihe appoiotmeai or Stephen MoyUn to be 
Hnler UuIm G^nnal, tnd of the i^th, ihnt of mmjor ThomM Miffln, to l>« 
Qwttci MaMcr GcBciml. On the ijili, Edmund lUindulpli and Geor)^ Bajlor 
m* Bunnf aidH-dc-cainp 10 (he command tr-in-chiel. 




indiscriminately into a common g^aol appropriated for 
felons ; that no consideration has been had for those 
of the most respectable rank, when languishing with 
wounds and sickness; that some have been even 
amputated in this unworthy situation. 

Let your opinion, Sir, of the principle which actu- 
ates them be what it may, they suppose they act from 
the noblest of all principles, a love of freedom and 
their country. Uut political principles, 1 conceive, 
arc foreign to this point. The obligations arising 
from the rights of humanity and claims of rank are 
universally binding and extensive, (except in case of 
retaliation.) These, I should have hoped, would 
have dictated a more tender treatment of those indi- 
viduals, whom chance or war had put in your power. 
Nor can I forbear suggesting its fatal tendency to 
widen that unhappy breach, which you, and those 
ministers under whom you act, have repeatedly de- 
clared you wished to see for ever closed. 

My duty now makes it necessary to apprize you, 
that, for the future, I shall regulate my conduct 
towards those gentlemen, who are or may be in our 
possession, exactly by the rule you shall observe 
towards those of ours now in your custody. 

If severity and hardship mark the line of your con- 
duct, (painful as it may be to mc.) your prisoners 
will feel its ejTects. But if kindness and humanity 
are shown to ours, I shall with pleasure consider 
those in our hands only as unfortunate, and they shall 
receive from me that treatment to which the unfor- 
tunate are ever entitled. 




I beg to be favored with an answer as soon as 
possible, and am. Sir, your very humble servant.' 

' " We (cnt in jvMcrdajr m moil mHou) message to G*ge, but I cmanot giro 
ytm a cofif «riibout G. Wflihington'i coiuent. "—darlei Let te R»ttri /Vsrrit, 
■3 Ai^*c, I77S. The replf wm wdtien, utc ike but pangraph, hj General 
Bttffoyno i^ 

'• Boston, ij Aueuil. 1775. 

"To tW {lM)r of eivilieed BUJon«, humanity xnd w«r have hrcn ompklible; 
md coinpa«ioa 10 tlie mbJueJ is become n genenl lyslero. Britani ever pre- 
onlMM bi nercy, have oui^nc common frxamples, and overlnoked thccriniUial 
is the ^ipti*c Upon iheie prioeiples your pruoDCrs, wheat livci hy the law of 
the land arc deslDcd 10 the cord, have hilhcdo been treated with care and 
kittdncH, and more cumforiutily tudfretl tha^ii ihe KiD|['& tmupx in the hinpilak: 
indmcriauaatclj' it 9 tttie, for 1 acknotrlcdicc no lank, lliat ia not dvrivcd from 

"Mv intelligence from your annjr wniilrl jnsiifjr were recrimiuallon. 1 
■mil I 111 ml th^e are of ihe Kin);'s Jailhfu] fub)cet», taken loinc lime since !>)■ 
ihe rebcU. Laboring, like negro »1avei, to gain their dadjr »ul>uiiencc, ur icctuceiJ 
IB the wrdehed alteraatiee, lo perish l)y (amine or lake aimi ngaiiuU their King 
ml coontrf. Tbwc wba have made ibc Lrealcnciit uf tlie priiMnvn in mj' 
hamtt, or of joax other friends in BoMon, a prvlcnoc (or Hucb measutca, foatid 
bubarit^ Bpon f«li«hood. 

" [ WD«M wQliagt; hope. Sir, that the sentiments of Kbcratity, wliich I have 
iim%f% believed jroa lo pOKCts. will be eaerted lo correct thae miKdoingi^. Be 
ttmftnl* in potilic«l dijK)ui>.ilion ; givt: (rcc opvmliun to truth, and punihh 
ttwM wbo dcoeiTC anil miitreprocfii ; and duI only the eflecti. bul the cauic% of 
tUt Wika|lp7 tonHUi will be rsinoTod. Shnuld those, under whnte umrped 
MrikorityyoM ad, control mch a dispoiition, and tlatc to cuJt seventy retalin- 
tioa, 10 God. who knowi all fcearti, tic the appeal fui Ihe dreadful conscquencea. 
I mm tlut Brilhh toldiets, mening the rightt of ihe iiUte, the Liwi o[ Ihe 
had, tbe bciag «l the contlitudoo, will meet all cveoti with becumiag fortitudv. 
Tbejr will ooart irictory with the vpirit their ca.iue inspires 1 and, from the umc 
■•Mlve, will find the pitiance of madyri under mitfortune. 

" Tm I read yoar iminoatioiw in rqEard lo miniiten, 1 conccivL-d that I had 
KUd KDder Ibe King, whoae wiahes, tl U tne, se well as Ihote of hii ministers, 
•sd of *verf hoaeit nun, have been lo u« thii unhippy breach (or ever elated ; 
hot, nnfortMtiBieJy (or both conalrica, thoae who long tincc projected the present 
aMi^ aad influence the councils o( America, have views very iliitanl from 
■■Emiiaiadation. I an. Sir, your meat obedimi humble servant, 

" Thomas Gaok." 
"GBokOK WAiuijtcroN. Kut." 

"Ob Ibe daf after General Gage's tetin wai^ received, Mr. Keed wrote, hy 
«f lb« CoatmaiMler-in-Cbief to ih« Council of MA«Hchiuettt, directiag 






Caup at Cahbuimik, t4 Aognst, 177$. 


Your favors of the 7th 8th and lath Inst, arc all 
received. The detention of the new raised levies 
has happily coincided with my Intentions respecting 
them. In the present uncertainty I think it best 
they should continue where they are and I hope their 
officers will be assiduous in disciplining and improv- 
ing them in the use of their arms. 

Upon the subject of powder 1 am at a loss what 
to say — Our necessities are so great and it is of such 
importance that this army should have a full supply 
that nothing but the most urgent and pressing exi- 
gence would make it proper to detain any on its way 
— I have been informed that 15 Hhds were lately 
landed at New York and that farther supplies were 
daily expected both there and at Connecticut : Should 
there be any arrivals. I beg no time may be lost in 
forwarding this from Hartford and wliat can be 
spared from the necessary Colony stock — Indeed at 
present 1 should chuse you to forward one of these 
waggons and the other may remain where it is till we 
see the issue of our expectations on this head. The 
removal from Boston I consider as very precarious, 
by no means deserving to have so much stress laid 

rigorous And rdolialoiy measum to b« adopted (owBrdt the prisonen, tlioueb 
in ■ few days ihc order wm revoked, and ihey were dirfcied to (how ' ewry 
indulgence and Hvility to the priioners, bo long as they demean themselves 
with decency and good mancicts. As ihcy have commiticd no hostility aeainat 
the people of thifc country, they have a jiiit claim la mild trealmenl ; and the 
General docH not doubt thai ^our conduct lowiird^ thnm will he auch ** to con- 
pel their cratefnt acldiowjodgmenl ihal American* are aa mcrdfnl a* they are 
brave*"— Reid, fSfi of Rud,\.. 115, 




on it We begin to feel a scarcity of Lead, and as I 


learn that 

from the 


are to expect a 
southward — I have concluded that a part of the stock 
found at Ticonderoga sliould be brought down and 
for this purpose have wrote to Genl. Schuyler. I am 
not sufficiently Master of the geography of the 
Country to know the easiest Mode of Conveyance — 
but from the Time in which Letters have come thro' 
your Hands 1 apprehend thro Connecticut must be 
the best & most expeditious. You will therefore 
be pleased to give us your Assistance and take the 
Direction of this Matter into your own Hands, to 
which 1 have not the least Doubt you will attend as 
well to the Expcncc as other Circumstances con- 
ducive to the publick Service. 

Nothing new in the Camp for several Days past. 
— Three Deserters have come in within these 48 
Hours but they bring no Intelligence of any Conse- 
quence 1 am. sir. &c 

Since writing the above I have been informed there 
is a Lead Mine in your Colony which may be work'd 
to Advantage. Cut off from all foreign supplies every 
internal resource is worthy of attention & I make no 
Doubt if my Information is just some proper Steps 
may be taken to turn this to the publick advantage. 


14 AuKiui, I77J. 

Your Favors of the 8 and i ith Instt. are duly re- 
ceived. The fonner I laid before the General Court 
of this Province but one of the Delegates having 




commvinicated to them what Mr. Ward did to you of 
the Proceedings of the Continental Congress touch- 
ing' this Powder, nothing was done towards the pro- 
viding of specie that the Vessel might proceed to 
other Places in Case of a Disappointment at the first 
1 am of opinion that the Collection of any consider- 
able sum here would be difficult in the Time pro- 
posed : and I think there is the less Necessity for it, 
as there are few Colonies who have not some Vessel 
Out on this Errand and will probably bring all that is 
at Market — Having conversed with Col. Porter and 
farther considered the Matter. I am of Opinion it 
ought to be prosecuted on the single Footing of pro- 
curing what is in the Magazine. The Voyage is 
short, our Necessity is great ; the Expectation of be- 
ing supplied by the Inhabitants of the Island under 
such hazards as they must run is slender, so that the 
only Chance of Success is by a sudden Strike. There 
is a great Difference between acquiescing in the 
Measure and becoming Principals, the former we have 
great Reason to expect, the latter is doubtful. The 
Powder by all our Information is publick Property so 
that as you observe it may be settled with our other 
Accounts. The draughting of Men from hence 
would be very difficult and endanger a Discovery of 
the Scheme. I am not clear that 1 have Power to 
send them off the Continent and to engage them as 
Volunteers it would be necessary to make their Des- 
tination known : I should suppose the Captain who 
is to have the Direction of this Enterprize would 
rather chuse to have Men whom he knew and. in 




whom he could confide, in Preference to strangers, 
rrom what Col. Parks informs me I do not see that 
Harris's Presence is absolutely necessary, and as his 
Terms would add considerably to the Expence after 
obtaining from him all the Intelligence he could give 
his Attendance might be dispensed with — The Vessel 
lately sent out to cruise for Powder seems to me the 
properesc for this Voyage, and as the ten Days will 
soon be out, if no objection occurs to you she might 
he dispatched. 

I have given Directions respecting the Lead at 
Ticonderoga which I am of Opinion with you is the 
surest Mode of Supply in that Article. 

1 have sent by this Opp'y a hunting-Shirt as a 
Pattern. I should be glad you would inform me of 
the Number you think I may expect. 

I have flattered myself that the Vigilance of the 
Inhabitants on the Islands and Coasts would have 
disappointed the Enemy in their late Expedition 
after live Stock. I hope nothing will be omitted by 
the several Committees and other Persons to guard 
against any future Attempts by removing all the 
Stock from those Places where their Shipping can 
protect them in plundering. 1 do assure you Sir 
that it would be rendering a most essential Service 
lo the publick Interest. Their Distresses before 
were very great and if renewed after their present 
supply is exhausted must be productive of very great 

' GhmmI Ctge wrote lo Ihe miBiMM on Au|;«8t t7lh thai the diip* b*il c«U 
IbbiI bcaaghtinr.yxitbacpUHllooaMn — ■ rccy seuonible suppljr. "Ws 





Cami* Ar CAMBKintit, 15 Augu*t, 1775. 


I received your favor of the 31st of July,' inform- 
ing me of your preparations to cross ihc Lake, and 
enclosing the affidavits of John Shatforth, and John 
Duguld.' Several Indians of the tribe of St. Francis 
came in here yesterday, and confirm the former ac- 
counts of the good dispositions of the Indian nations 
and Canadians to the interests of America; a most 
happy event, on which I sincerely congratulate you.* 

ow« it," wtofe Burgoyne lo Lord G«oi|te Germaine, "lo the tninsportj amved 
and Knt out bjr Gcncnl Gage, nni3 not to any a&uslancc from ilie fleet." 

The complalnia ugninsl Admiral Graves, tlie commander of (tie fleet, were 
laud and gcitcml. Iturgo^nc riiliculcd his insclivil)' and " Qiutkcr-like tcru- 
plts" ; W. Edcii spoke of him a» " a lornipl aAminLl without niiy sbadcnr of 
capacity "; and as early as July ^Slh, the King wrai« to Lord North : " T do 
thiolt Ihc AJmiial'a lemova] ai neccvuuy, if what is repotted is fo'UQdcd, as the 
mild General's" (Gage). Captain Monl&^c, who served under Graves, and 
wu a prejudiced witnut, wrote to the Earl a\ Dunmore on 9 August : " Tha 
G 1 and A 1 on bad leruis, the Utter universally, ctupi&cd, his charac- 
ter prostituted in the litiesi manner, totally igntirant of lite buiiinexs he i« em- 
ployed on : he nnly tusns his mind to find out ways of yromoling llift D4ph«Wl," 

' In coiucquciice of the rcMitve n\ Congtcu (June I7th1, authorixlog General 
Schuyler la lake posfiHsion of St. John's and Montreal, as aoon ai he ahoald 
find it practiablc, he had been malting preparations far Eoeh an enterpiii*. 
He wrote to General WAsliiugiun the ji5i ul July, from TicoiKlcrojjn : 

"Since my last, I have been tnojil auiduously employed in preparing miie- 
riala for building buats li> convey rnc acruss tlie Lake. The piugre» baa 
htlherto been slow, ai with (cw honda I had all the timber lo cut. and milU 
to repair for iawtng the plank ; and my draft catti; estremely weak forwani of 
feed, the droujiht having scorched up every kind «( herbage, t have now one 
boat on the stocks, which I hope wUJ carry near three hundred men. Another 
ti putting up to-day. P'rovriionn of the bread kind ate scarce with mc, and, 
thctelorc, I have aot dared to ordci up a IhuTUMiid men, that arc ai Albany, 
lest we thould Ktarve here." 

'Printed in Force, AmeneaH Artkives, Fevftk SfriHi lii., IS. 

• " Wc have several St. Frands Indians here, very friendly, and well di^ 
poted lo our Interetls. They are alKul 45 lotguM from Quebec, and are the 




1 am glad to relieve you from your anxiety, respect- 
ing troops being sent from Boston to Quebec These 
reports. I apprehend, took their rise from a fleet 
being fitted out about fourteen days ago to plunder 
the islands in the Sound of their live stock ; an 
expedition, which they have executed with some suc- 
cess, and are just returning; but you may depend on 
it no troops have been detached from Boston for 
Canada or elsewhere. 

Among other wants, of which I find you have your 
proportion, we fee! that of lead most sensibly; and 
as we have no expectation of a supply from the 
southward, I have concluded to draw upon the stock 
found at Ticonderoga when it fell Into our hands. I 
am informed, that it is considerable, and that a part 
of it may be spared, without exposing you to any 
inconvenience. In consequence of this I have wrote 
to Governor Trumbull to take the direction of the 
transportation of It, supposing the conveyance through 
Connecticut the most safe and expeditious. I expect 
he will write you on this subject by this opportunity. 

I have nothing new, my dear Sir, to write you. 

Mip> MC bad the man reason to feflr. All Carlclon't plniiB to tthntiUlc them 
■■d tt« Cwadimt againtt ut h^ve ended in Uiameand dis«ppointinMit." — Htnl 
* Br*if0t^^ 21 Aaeatt, 177;. 

"VcReitUir Seo^nlghi arrived it ihe ciuup in Cambridge, Swadiui, the 
Ckief, with fo«r otb«r Indiuu «( the Kt. Frnn^oii triHe, conducted thilber 
bj Ml. Reabca ColtMam, who has been Iiunumbly rc<:uiupcii!>eil lot hia 
tivild*. The above Indians came hither to nHer their icn^cc In the csuise 
of Anwrkan llbcity, bare l>«en kindly received, and are now onUccd the 
Mntoc SvMban ny* he will bring one half of hit tribe and haa engaged 
4 or S Mfccv tribes U they ihould be wanted. He «ays the Indlani of Caa. 
•dt ia fcacnl, and aUo the French, are greatly in our favor, and dclerroined 
•ottaact Bgaiiui ui." — PtmmjivoHia CautU, 30 August, 1775, 




We are precisely in the same situation, as to the 
enemy, as when I wrote last, nor can I gain any cer- 
tain intelligence of their future intentions. The 
troops from the southward are come in very healthy 
and in good order.' To-morrow I expect a supply 
of powder from Philadelphia, which will be a most 
seasonable relief in our present necessity. 

God grant you health and success, equal to your 
merit and wishes. Favor me with intelligence as 
often as you can, and believe me with very sincere 
regard, dear Sir, yours, &c 


HKAt>-QUAJCTBRS, CAUBRIDCK, 90 AogllCt, 177$. 

Dear Sir, 

Since my East of the 15th instant I have been 
favored with yours of the 6th. I am much concerned 
to find, that the supplies ordered have been so much^H 
delayed. By this time I hope Colonel McDougall, 
whose zeal is unquestionable, has joined you with 
every thing necessary for prosecuting your plan. 

Several of the delegates from Philadelphia, who 
have visited our camp, assure me that powder is for- 
warded to you ; and the daily arrivals of that article 
give us reason to hope, that we shall soon have a 
very ample supply." Animated with the goodness of 

' Morgan and his campony of rinetncn (mm Vtfgiola arrived in cunp on 

* " Upon the application of Dr. Fraoklin lo l^u Board foi a quinlity of gaii> 
powder (or the use of the trocvpi under ihe command of Col. Sichayler, Riiohtti^ 
thai a,344i lbs. of gunpowdei now Ln magaziae, uudei the can of Mr. Robot 
Towcn, be immediately tent, and that a proper team be provided to take nid 




our cause, and the best wishes of your countrymen, I 
am sure you will not let any difficulties, not insupera- 
ble, damp your ardor. Perseverance and spirit have 
done wonders in all ages.' 

In my last, a copy of which is enclosed, I sent you 
an account of the arrival of several St. Francis In- 
dians in our camp, and their friendly dispositions. 
You have also a copy of the resolution of Congress, 
by which you will find it is their intention to seek 
only a neutrality of the Indian nations, unless the 
ministerial agents should engage them in hostilities, 
or enter into an offensive alliance with them.' I have 
been, therefore, embarrassed in giving them an an- 
swer, when they have tendered their services and 
assistance. As your situation enables you best to 
know the notions of the Governor * and the agents, 

pnrdcf, «im] Io be attended on the nnd by Tliomas Apl>, until he receives or* 
das rfom Col. Schuyler." Ton-en reported (hot he had delivered to Aply, jSa 
ftl. «( nuuket powdo aod l,7S4 Itn. of cArtnon {lowi-lcr, wiiich were Mat fuT- 
■■idaQ Angnt loih. — Pemn. CoMM<%ie/ Safety, yxi, 301. The powder reached 
AJbnqr on the aitt. 

' In » letler ol the 6tb of Auj;u«t, Oeoeral Schuyler compUtini of the Iju-dinen 
of die Nrw York Provinciil Congress in raieing men. He say& ; " Not ■ man 
(■an tlli« colony hu yel Joined me, except those raised uid pud by the Com- 
■ hfc a of Albaoy \ dot have 1 yet received tb< ocrcwry wppUn, wUcb I 
b^B^ *'" New Vorlc Provindil ConErea to xend me, u lone ■E<> ** the jd of 
taM Beeth, md wfaicb the Conimental C«ngre«i had desired them to do." 

Aa ■»■ K TJconderoKa wa> token, the Albany (Jominiitce enlisted men to aid 
li teWnc thu pod. Two hundird and live men of this dncription were In WT- 
■iee, iri»eo Onetel Schuyler took command. Connecticut h«d sent x thousand 
BnofB oBder Colond Hinmaa, who succeeded Ethan Allen and Arnold in the 
fiB^HHsd. wUcb he retained till the arrival of Genera) Schuyler. By a mulital 
tflpallCioa, Connecticat wa« (o (umiah tioopa, and New Yorli proviaion). — Sea 
iiff </ Ctuvtmewr Morris, vol. i., pp. 53-60. Journal #/ lilt N. Y. Pwm. 
Cmgnt$/»rJimeMtdjMiy, 1775. 

^Jt^trmtth ^/C^rtgmt, I July. 1775. 

* Gencnl Cailcioa, Govdnor of Canada. 




I proposed to him [the chief] to go home by way of 
Ticonderoga, referring him to you for an answer, 
wliich you would give according to the intelligence 
you have had, and the judgment you have formed of 
the transactions among the Indians ; but as he does not 
seem in any hurry to leave our camp, your answer by 
the return of this express may possibly reach me, be- 
fore he returns, and alter his route. Four of his com- 
pany still remain in our camp, and propose to stay 
some time with us.' 

The design of this express is to communicate to 
you a plan of an expedition, which has engaged my 
thoughts for several days. It is to penetrate into 
Canada, by way of Kennebec River, and so to Que- 
bec by a route ninety miles below Montreal. I can 
very well spare a detachment for this purpose of one 
thousand, or twelve hundred men, and the land-car- 
riage by the route proposed is too inconsiderable to 
make an objection. If you are resolved to proceed, 
which I gather from your last letter is your intention, 
it would make a diversion, that would distract Carle- 
ton, and facilitate your views. He must either break 
up and follow this party to Quebec, by which he will 

' Ccnl. Scbuyler soon af tct met n number o( the lodiaDs ol the Six Nadmu 
and opened ncgolialinns for a licaly. The Inditiu held btclt, being apprc- 
heniive Ihnc th^ would be naked lo take ap arm in Uie Amencon cauie. A> it 
waa a family iguftnel, they said, they would nut intcrtcrc, liul remain neuter. 
" Thai ('.nvemor Carlclon and his agents are exerting Ihecnttlve* lo procurfl 
•avagrs In tict against us I have reasnn to helipve from lh« various accounll t 
have received, but I do not believe he will hare any sui:ccu with ihc Canada 
tribn, tho' I malte no doubt he is joined by some at the more remote Indiaitt, 
who, I believe, will oiuist him, and who have already terved hioi aitscouU Irom 
St. Johcia. I should, therefore, not hesitate one moment lu omplay any Indians 
Uut might be willinig to join v&."''—Sthmyirr It WaiMnglon, 17 August, 177$. 




leave you a free passage, or he must suffer that Im- 
portant place to fall into our hands ; an event that 
would have a decisive effect and influence on the 
public interests. There may be some danger, that 
such a sudden incursion might alarm the Canadians, 
and detach them from that neutrality which they have 
hitherto observed ; but I should hope, that, with suit- 
able precautions, and a strict discipline preser\'ed, any 
apprehensions and jealousies might be removed. The 
few, whom I have consulted upon it, approve it much; 
but the 6nal determination is deferred until I hear 
from you. Yon will, therefore, by the return of this 
messenger, inform me of your ultimate resolution. If 
you mean to proceed, acquaint me as particularly as 
you can with the time and force, what late accounts 
you have had from Canada, and your opinion as to the 
sentiments of the inhabitants, as well as those of the 
Indians upon a penetration into their country ; what 
number of troops are at Quebec, and whether any 
men-of-war ; with all other circumstances, which may 
be material in the consideration of a step of such im- 
portance. Not a moment's time is to be lost in the 
preparation for this enterprise, if the advices received 
from you favor it With the utmost expedition, the 
season will be considerably advanced, so that you will 
dismiss the express as soon as possible. 

While the three New Hampshire companies re- 
main In their present station, they will not be con- 
sidered as composing a part of the Continental army, 
but as a militia under the direction and pay of the 
colony, whose inhabitants they are, or for whose de- 





fence they are stationed ; so that it will not be proper 
for me to give any orders respecting them. 

We stiU continue in the same situation, as to the 
enemy, as when I wrote you last ; but we have had 
six tons and a half of powder from the southward, 
which is a very seasonable supply. We are not able 
to learn any thing further of the intentions of the 
enemy, and they are too strongly posted for us to 
attempt any thing upon them at present. 

My best wishes attend you ; and believe me, with 
much truth and regard, my dear Sir, your very 
obedient humble servant. 


HxAD-QuAKTBRS, Cambkidt.r, SO Angtul, 1775. 


I addressed you, on the 1 ith instant, in terms 
which gave the fairest scope for that humanity and 
politeness, which were supposed to form a part of 
your character. I remonstrated with you on the un- 
worthy treatment shown to the officers and citizens 
of America, whom the fortune of war, chance, or a 
mistaken confidence had thrown into your hands. 

Whether British or American mercy, fortitude, and 
patience are most pre-eminent ; whether our virtuous 
citizens, whom the hand of tyranny has forced into 
arms to defend their wives, their children, and their 
property, or the mercenary instruments of lawless 
domination, avarice, and revenge, best deserve the 
appellation of rebels, and the punishment of that 
cord, which your affected clemency has forborne to 
inflict ; whether the authority under which I act is 





usurped, or founded upon the genuine principles of 
liberty, were altogether foreign to the subject I 
purposely avoided all political disquisition ; nor shall 
1 now avail myself of those advantages, which the 
sacred cause of my country, of liberty, and of human 
nature, give me over you ; much less shall I stoop to 
retort and invective ; but the intelligence you say you 
have received from our army requires a reply. I have 
taken time. Sir, to make a strict inquiry, and find it 
has not the least foundation in truth. Not only your 
officers and soldiers have been treated with a tender- 
ness due to fellow citizens and brethren, but even 
those execrable parricides, whose counsels and aid 
have deluged their country with blood, have been 
protected from the fury of a justly enraged people. 
Far from compelling or permitting their assistance, I 
am embarrassed with the numbers, who crowd to our 
camp, animated with the purest principles of virtue 
and love to their country. You advise me to give 
free operation to truth, to punish misrepresentation 
and falsehood. I f experience stamps value upon 
counsel, yours must have a weight, which few can 
claim. You best can tell how far the convulsion. 
which has brought such ruin on both countries, and 
shaken the mighty empire of Britain to its foundation, 
may be traced to these malignant causes. 

You affect, Sir, to despise all rank not derived from 
ihe same source with your own. I cannot conceive 
one more honorable, than chat which flows from the 
uncorrupted choice of a brave and free people, the 
purest source and original fountain of all power. 
Far from making it a plea for cruelty, a mind of true 





magnanimity and enlarged ideas would comprehend 
and respect it. 

What may have been the ministerial views, which 
have precipitated the present crisis, Lexington, Con- 
cord, and Charlestown can best declare. May that 
God, to whom you then appealed, judge between 
America and you. Under his providence, those who 
influence the councils of America, and all the other 
inhabitants of the United Colonies, at the hazard of 
their lives, are determined to hand down to posterity 
those just and invaluable privileges, which they re- 
ceived from their ancestors. 

I shall now. Sir, close my correspondence with you, 
perhaps for ever. If your officers, our prisoners, re- 
ceive a treatment from me different from that, which 
I wished to show them, they and you will remember 
the occasion of it. I am Sir, your very humble 


Cahikidck, sa AujpL, 177$' 


In answer to your favor of yesterday I must in- 
form you, that I have often been told of the advan- 
tages of Point Alderton with respect to its command 
of the shipping going in and out of Boston Harbor ; 

' "Genentl Washington's Idler 1 think ft veiy good on«, but C*^ certunly 
dcKTvcd a »tiU itroogcr one, such us it was before it wb» iwflcncd." — Ch«rUi 
Ln te Btnja. Ruih, 10 Uctobei. 1775. I (iin unable lo tnce any t-upy or dralt 
othrr ihiti that printed. CencriU Wfishlngiton's first letlei ti> General Gage 
(Auguil iilh), and his answM, were putilisUed by ihe Brili»h i^vcrnmcnl in the 
Lonrion Gastlli. about ax weeli^ after ihcy were written : but the above wply 
was withhoW. — firm/m&raHier, vol, i., p. 179; ii., 60. The three letters were 
published together by order of Congrcsi in October. 




and that it has, before now, been the object of my 
particular enquiries, — That I find the Accts. differ, 
exceedingly, in regard to the distance of the Ship 
Channel, — and that, there is a passage on the outer 
side of the light House Island for all Vessels except 
Ships of the first Rate. 

My knowledge of this matter would not have 
rested upon enquires only, if I had found myself at 
any time since I came to this place, in a condition to 
have taken such a post. But it becomes my duty to 
consider, not only what place is advantageous, but 
what number of Men are necessar)* to defend it ; how 
ihey can be supported in case of an attack ; how they 
may retreat if they cannot be supported ; and what 
stock of Ammunition we arc provided witli for the 
purpose of self defence, or annoyance of the enemy. 
In respect to the first, I conceive our defence must 
be proportioned to the attack of Genl. Gage's whole 
force (leaving him just enough to Man his Lines on 
Charles Town Neck & Roxbury); and with regard to 
the Second, and most important object, we have only 
1S4 Barrls. of Powder in all, which is not sufficient 
to give 30 Musket Cartridges a Man, & scarce enough 
to serve the Artillery in any brisk action a single 

' " Ttu word PawJtr m a letter nets u* all a tiptoe. We have been in a 
lenjble tlluatian, oocatJoited by a tnfitake la a i«(um ; we reckoned npan 
On* faiBdred qaano cutlu and had but ihitty-two bafrcb — not aliovc nine 
cartridges to a maa to the whole aiiny, but the lale supply from Philadelphia 
kas relirrcd n& AU our heavy arlillcty woi ucdos, and cicn now we are 
oonpellcd to a very wrerc economy. I auppwc the Coaercu hare directed a 
eoauaHle* lo forward any thai may arrive. If Ikey have not, those gentlemen 
wke will do tJiia nccraary Hrvicc will perform the moirt etMnlii.1 iheir eMiQtry 





Would it be prudent then in me, under these Cir- 
cumstances, to take a Post 30 Miles distant from this 
place when we already have a Line of Circumvaleation 
at least Ten Miles in extent, any part of which may 
be attacked (if the Enemy will keep their own Coun- 
cil) without our having one hours previous notice of 
it? — Or is it prudent to attempt a Measure which 
necessarily would bring on a consumption of all the 
Ammunition we have, thereby leaving the Army at 
the Mercy of the Enemy, or to disperse ; & the 
Country to be ravaged, and laid waste at discretion ? 
— To you Sir who is a well wisher to the cause, and 
can reason upon the effects of such a Conduct, I may 
open myself with freedom, because no improper dis- I 
coveries will be made of our Situation : but I cannot 
expose my weakness to the Enemy (tho* I believe 
they are pretty well informed of every thing that 
passes) by telling this, and that man who are daily 
pointing out this — that — and t'other place, of all the 
motives that govern my actions, Notwithstanding, I 
know what will be the consequence of not doing it — 
Namely, that I shall be accused of inattention to the 
pubiick Service — & perhaps with want of spirit to 
prosecute it — but this shall have no effect upon my 
mind, and I will steadily (as far as my judgment will 
assist me) pursue such measures as I think most con- 
ducive to the Interest of the cause, & rest satisfied of 

requires. It dampi «ht spirit* ; ire a» just in the $iln«ti(kD ol n nian villi 
liltlc (Ti»ney in bift pocket, be will do Iweal; ineitn tltinge to pieveal Ms hresk- 
ing in upon kla Utile stock. We are ubIigcO to b«xi with the ruicalx on Ban. 
ker's Hill when ii fitw kIioI now and then in relum would keep our men 
ftllcnlive lo ihcii tnuincM, and gifc the encmx alonns," — Rttd h Brad/ori, 
34 jiugutf. 1775. 






any obloquy that shall be thrown conscious of having 
discharged my duty to the best of my abilities. 

I am much obliged to you, however, as I shall be to 
every Gentleman, for pointing out any measure 
which is thought conducive to the publick good, and 
chearfully follow any advice which is not inconsistent 
with, but corrispondant to, the general Plan in view, 
& practicable under such particular circumstances as 
govern in cases of the like kind. 

In respect to point Alderton, I was no longer ago 
than Monday last, talking to Genl. Thomas on this 
bead & proposing to send Colo. Putnam down to take 
the distances &c, but considered it could answer no 
end but to alarm. & make the Enemy more vigilant, 
unless we were in condition to possess the Post to 
efTect. I thought it as well to postpone the matter 
a while. I am, Sir, &c' 


CjUIF at CAMBKtDCX. 33 Augasl. I77S- 


I flatter myself you have been misinformed, as to 
the conduct of the men under my command, com- 

' Fnn tbe coUectnn of Dr. John S. H, Fogg, of Botlon, to whom I mok 
bidcbted tor a copy. 

■ ThM l«tt« U in replf to the following. It ntatei menly to the cftmp at 
Cfcxlcttown, then u&dei Uie commaad of Gcocral Howe, and Dot to the Btitlsh. 

Boh gencnlly. 

" C>tA*Laiio«)i CMir. •> AuKtut, itii. 

"Tbe men ander jour coniiiiatiij, hoing rci>c*tcdly 6rcd upon ihtiofficcnaf 
fail HajtKf'i tvoopK, before Ihey were relumed lo tbc aatworkt o( thii camp 
bow pMitey*, thai hate been Iiroughl on \iy yova (]c«irc, 1 am to rM)U«a( all (uf^ 
ihcT laicRonnc bcMrccn the two camps may be at an end your own letien ex- 
eepterf, which will be received. If you are j>leai«d to tvod them liy a dmniiner. 
I an, Sir, yoor m<Ml obedient tervant, " W. HoWS." 





plained of In yours of yesterday. It is what I should 
highly disapprove and condemn. 

I have not the least objection to put a stop to the 
intercourse between the two camps, either totally or 
partially. It obtained through the pressing solicita- 
tions of persons cruelly separated from their friends 
and connexions, and 1 understood was mutually con- 

I am, Sir, your most obedient humble servant. 


Camp at Caubmdcr, 99 August, t 

Dear Sir : 

Your favor of the first Inst, by Mr. Randolph' came 
safe to hand — the merits of this young Gentleman 
added to your recommendation, and my own knowl- 
edge of his character induced me to take him into my 
Family as an aid de camp in the room of Mr. Mifflin, 
whom I have appointed Quarter Master Genel. from 
a thorough perswasion of his Integrity — my own ex- 
perience of his activity — and finally, because he stands 
unconnected with either of these Governments ; or 
with this that, or t'other man ; for between you and 
I there is more in this than you can easily immagine. 

As we have now nearly compleated our Lines of 
Defence, we have nothing more, in myopinim to fear 
from the Enemy, provided we can keep our men to 
their duty and make them watchful and vigilant ; but 
it is among the most difhcult tasks 1 ever undertook 

■Edmiuid RimdolplL 


m my life to induce these people to believe that there 
is. or can be, danger till the Bayonet is pushed at 
their Breasts; not that it proceeds from any uncom- 
mon prowess, but rather from an unaccountable kind 
o/stupidit>' in the lower class of these people which, 
believe me, prevails but too generally among the of- 
ficers of the Massachusels /ar/ of the Army who are 
luarfy of the same kidney with the Privates, and adds 
not a little to my difHculties ; as there is no such 
thing as getting of officers of this stamp to exert 
themselves in carr)'ing orders into execution — to 
curry favor with the men (by whom they were 
chosen, & on whose smiles possibly they may think 
they may again rely) seems to be one of the princi- 
pal objects of their attention. 

I submit it therefore to your consideration whether 
there is, or is not, a propriety in that Resolution of 
the Congress, which leaves the ultimate appointment 
of all officers below the Rank of Generals to the 
Governments where the Regiments originated, now 
the Army is become Continental ? — To me it appears 
improper in two points of view ; first, it is giving 
that power and weight to an Individual Colony, 
which ought, of rt^Ai, to belong only to the whole, 
and next ;V damps the spirit and ardor of volunteers 
from all but the four New England Governments as 
none but their people have the least chance of getting 
into office — Would it not be better therefore to 
have the warrants which the Commander-in-Chief is 
authorized to give Pro-tempore, approved or dis- 
approved, by the Continental Congress, or a Com- 




mittee of their body, which 1 should suppose in any 
long recess must always sit ? In this case every Gen- 
tleman will stand an equal chance of being promoted 
according to his merits; in the other all officers will 
be confined to the Inhabitants of the 4 New England 
Governments which in my opinion is impolitick to a 
degree. I have made a pretty good slam among 
such kind of officers as the Massachusets Govern- 
ment abound in since I came to this Camp having 
Broke one Colo, and two Captains for cowardly be- 
havior in the action on Bunkers Hill, — two Captains 
for drawing more provisions and pay than they had 
men in their Company — and one for being absent 
from his Post when the Enemy appeared there and 
burnt a House just by it. Besides these, I have at 
this time — one Colo., one Major, one Captn., & 
two subalterns under arrest (or tryal — In short I 
spare none yet fear it will not all do as these 
People seem to be too inattentive to every thing but 
their Interest' 

' That \Vughiu);Iot] cxcrcificd ttiia prerr^>itivc freely is Ehown by the reconl 
of ihe caans inart)«l nC the not few days. On September 3d, Caputin Edirtrd 
CmIk was ordcrei! la be reprimnnded for "asing abusive lan^Ag* to bb 
Major"; on l}ie 5tb, Captain Moses Hart was found jjuilty ot "drawing for 
more provirions Ihan he wu entitled to, and for nn)ustly confining and al>iu< 
1d|[ hii men" ; Captain Vttfj, on th* 8lh, wju found guilty of "■ permitting 
l>et«oriK to pn3« the lines oa Uost«n Neck"; on the lith, EmigD Bmwu wu 
eonvicleil of '" atncnting from his rei,nnn;nl without leave " ; on the I3lh, thirty- 
three men were tried fnr "disobedient and matinoii* behAvJor" and found 
piilty, wUilc un Llie 5tli, » Cul. Manslittld wax convicted for " rcmisncKS and 
back ward ne» in the execution of Eib duty on Ihe late etigagemenl on Bunkeri 
hill " and a soldier wa* Sintenced to receive thirty luhcs foi " disobedience of 
»rden< and damaiag his ofKccre." On the fciUowing day Strcouil Finlcy waa 
found guilty of " expressing hinii«lf disrespectfully of the Continental anocia- 
tiun, and drinlting General Cage's health," and was to t>« "deprived of hb 






I have not been unmindful of that part of your 
Letter respecting Point Alderton — before the receipt 
of it, it had become an object of my particular 
enquiry, but the Accts. of its situation differ exceed- 
ingly in respect to the command it has of the ship 
channel but my knowledge of this matter would not 
have been confined to enquiries only if I had ever 
been in a condition, since my arrival here, to have 
taken possession of such a Post ; but you well know, 
my good Sir, that it becomes the duty of an Officer 
to consider some other matters, as well as a situation, 
—namely. What number of men are necessary to 
defend a place — how it can be supported — & how 
furnished with ammunition. — 

In respect to the first I conceive our defence of 
this place (point alderton) Must be proportioned to 
the attack of Genl. Gage's whole force, leaving him 
just enough to man his Lines on Boston & Charles- 
Town Necks — & with regard to the second, and 
most important, as well as alarming object we have 
only 184 Barls. of Powder in all (including the late 
supply from Philadelphia) wch is not sufficient to 
give 25 muskets cartridges to each man, and scarcely 
to serve the artillery in any brisk action one single 
il^ — Under these circumstances I dare say you will 
agree with me, that it would not be very eligible to 
lake a post 30 miles distant (by Land) from this 
place, when we have already a line of circumvalla- 
tion round Boston of at least 10 miles in extant to 

i muA KccovireBicntc, put in a bone cart, urith a tope runnd Iili neck, and 
out of «rm)r kad rttideicd forever incapable of tcrving in Uie Con- 
thc>m umf." 




defend any part of which may be attacked without 
our having (if the Enemy will keep their own Coun- 
cil) an hours previous notice of it; and that, it would 
not be prudent in me, to attempt a measure which 
would necessarily bring on a consumption of all the 
ammunition we have, thereby leaving the Army at 
the mercy of the Enemy, or to disperse ; and the 
Country to be ravaged and laid waste at discretion — 
to you. Sir. I may Account for my conduct, but I 
cannot declare the motives of it to every one, not- 
withstanding I know by not doing it, that I shall 
stand in a very unfavorable light In the opinion of 
those who expect much, and will find little done, 
without understanding or perhaps giving themselves 
the trouble of enquiring into the cause. — Such how- 
ever is the fate of all those who are obliged to act 
the part I do. 1 must therefore submit to it, under a 
consciousness of having done my duty to the best of 
my abilities. 

On Saturday night last we took possession of a Hill 
advanced of our Lines, & within point blank shot of 
the Enemy on Charles Town neck.— We worked in- 
cessantly the whole night with 1200 men^ & before 
morning got an Intrenchment in such forwardness as 
to bid defiance to their Cannon ; about nine o'clock 
on Sunday they began a heavy cannonade which con- 
tinued through the day without any injury to our 
work, and with the loss of four men only two of 
which were killed through their own folly — ^The In- 
sult of the cannonade however we were obliged to 
submit to with impunity, not daring to make use of 



artillery on accc of the consumption of powder, except 
with one nine pounder placed on a point, with which 
we silenced, & indeed sunk, one of their Floating 
Batteries — 

This move of ours was made to prevent the Enemy 
from gaining this Hill, and we thought was giving 
them a fair challenge to dispute it as we had been 
told by various people who had just left Boston, 
that they were preparing to come out, but instead of 
accepting of it, we leam that it has thrown them into 
great consternation which might be improved if we 
Aadihe means of doing it — Yesterday afternoon they 
began a Bombardment without any effect, as yet — 

There has been so many great, and capital errors, 
& abuses to rectify — so many examples to make — & 
so little Inclination in the officers of inferior Rank to 
contribute their aid to accomplish this work, that my 
life has been nothing else (since I ramt heri) but one 
continued round of annoyance & fatigue ; in short 
no pecuniary recompense could induce me to undergo 
what I have especially as I expect, by shewing so lit- 
tle coutttenance to irregularities & publick abuses lo 
render myself very obnoxious to a greater part of 
these People. — But as 1 have already greatly exceeded 
the bounds of a Letter I will not trouble you with 
matters relative to my own feelings.' 

As I expect this Letter will meet you in Philadcl- 

' Fer ■ pofecl copy of thii inlercslitig letter 1 gUilly AcLnowlcd^ wif indebt- 
c^o* to Mr. Joaepb [*ackard, Jr., uf Bkltimore, wlw caminiuucatod it la ma 
nlvMuilj. mailing tlic favor the mote accepuble. A curiout uu u mode of a 
yuKi bf PoIUnI in hi>/j>/r Y,ar «/ thr War, i86s. 383, 384. R. H. L«a it 
pnkibljr to be bcld accosBlable for ihe mutiUtol v«nion of the letter that 




phia I must request the favor of you to present my 
affecte. & respectful compliments to Doctr. Shippen, 
his Lady and Family, my Brothers of the Delegation, 
and any other enquiring friends — & at the same time 
do me the justice to believe that I am with a sincere 


Camp at CAMBKiDCh. 30 Aueun, 1775, 


1 have endeavored to pay the best attention in my 
power to your recommendation of Mr. Parke 'by 

Spvks uRciI. AS in hti life a( RicliBni Henry Lee he omitted nearly all that 
Sparks dttt. 

To this p*Tl of the letter Mr. Lee replied as followi : 

" 1 am greatly obliged to you for your favor of August the iQth, and yon may 
be usurcd I ihKJl pay great attention to it. When I mentioned K^uringtbccn- 
trance of the harbor of Boston, il was more in the way of wishing il could be 
done, than as coneriving it very pracHcahle. However, the reasonK yoa anifn 
are moiti conclusive again^t the attempt. I aaore yoa, that iki /or as I can 
Judge from the conveisntion of men, inittead of there being any, who Ihinlc yoa 
have cot done enough, the wonder teemi to be, that you have done io much. I 
believe ibcre is not a man of commoti scbsc, and u'ho i& void of ()rcjudii:e. in ths 
world, but greatly npjiroven the dintipline you have iniioiluted into llic cunp ; 
•incc [rasan nnd experi^iiioc join iii pruvinj;, tliat, wJlWitt diiiciiiUne, armie* ore 
6c only for the cnnlempl and nlau^hlet of their cncmie^s. Your labopi arc no 
doubt great, both of mind and body ; but !( Ihc praisie of the present and fulara 
time* can be any compensation, you will have a plcntifu! portion of that. Of otte 
thing you may certainly rest assured, that the Coagrcu will do every thing In 
their power to make yuur Tnoiil weighty buuneu etny to you. 

" I think you could not possibly have appointed a better man to hia present 
oflice than Mr. Mifilin. He is a singular man. nnd you certainly will meet with 
the applause and support of all good men by promoting and counlcnancing real 
merit and public virtue, in oppmi tion to all private interest* and partial affectJon. " 

' In CoDgrws. 

* The appoinlmeiit of John Paclte wu oniiouneed in ibc ordcn of Augiut 
i6th. In 17S6 a Tolamc of his pocm^ wu puUighcd in Philadelphia : Tk€ 
Lytit tV*rkt »/ Heraet ttamlattd into Riigliih yen*, t» viAiiM art addfd « 
nmmhtr ef Origiintl Perms. By a Nalit/e oj America. 





makingf him an assistant Quartermaster-General, an 
office indispensably necessarj' in discharge of that 
important and troublesome business, I wish it was in 
my power to provide for more of the young gentle- 
men who, at their own expence have travelled and 
now continue here, from Pennsylvania and elsewhere ; 
but the Congress seems to have put it out of their 
own power to do this, leaving by their instructions to 
me the ultimate appointment of all officers as high as 
a colonel to the government in which the regiments 
originated, the obvious consequence of which is that 
every commission will be monopolized by these four 
New England governments ; the good policy and 
justice of which I submit to your better judgment, 
but should give it as my own opinion that as the 
whole troops are now taken into the pay of the 
United Colonies, the Congress (which I presume will 
either by themselves, or a Committee of their own 
body always be sitting) ought to reserve the fillingup 
of all vacancies themselves, in order that volunteers 
from every government may have an equal chance of 
preferment, instead of confining all offices to a few 
governments to the total exclusion of the rest I 
have dropt these thoughts by way of hints which you 
may improve or reject as they shall appear to have 
or want weight' For the occurrences of the camp, 

' " Some uJTantages btok to owr Col«ny by Ihc Cmigrcss odopijng the anny 
nlwd In New England Ihe taU spnod ; but among oilier circumitancM 
aRc^ding it, ihit wa* one, naoiely, that it being now a Canlincntal ormf, the 
patlcincn of all the Colonica had a rif;ht lu anJ put in for a share in behalf of 
Ihair fficnilt in filling up the vannua afficrK. By this mcnnii, it wat thought, 
tkat viUtaiy knowlc<lgc and caperiencr aa wtll at tlie militacy tpiril, wonM 

the state of the army, &c., I refer to my pubtick 
letters addressed to Mr. Hancock, and with great 
respect and gratitude for your good wishes contained 
in your letter, I remain &c. 


CAUHRtDGK, 31 August. 1775- 


The enclosed letter came under such a direction 
and circumstances as led me to suppose it contained 
some interesting advices, either respecting a supply 
of powder, or the clothing lately taking at Philadel- 
phia. I therefore took the liberty of breaking the 
seal, for which I hope the service and my motives 
will apologize. 

As the filling up the place of vacant brigadier* 
general will probably be of the first business of the 
honorable Congress, I flatter myself it will not be 
deemed assuming, to mention the names of two 
gentlemen, whose former services, rank, and age, may 
be thought worthy of attention on this occasion. Of 
the one I can speak from my own knowledge, of the 
other only from character. The former is Colonel 
John Armstrong, of Pennsylvania ; he served during 
the last war, in most of the campaigns to the south- 

spiMct through ihc colonlci ; and besides, that (bey would all conaidci ihcm- 
mIvh Ihe more ititerested iti ihe luicceis or our »rmy, and in providing for it* 
suppoil. Bui then there viu lcs» luuiu lor persons bcLoiipog lo ibc Colonics 
whicli had linl raided Ihe arm)', who were well vrorthy of notice. Many of our 
friendR were diicontcnted. who AiA not ftdrert to ihii asthe true caiue why they 
were not pfomoted." — Santuei Adtimt U Joieph Palmtr, April, 1776. Fromtho 
coUecilou of Dr. John S. U. Kogg. 




ward, was honored with the command of the Penn- 
sylvania forces, and his general military conduct and 
spirit much approved by all who served with him ; 
besides which, his character was distinguished by an 
enterprise against the Indians, which he planned with 
great judgment, and executed with equal courage and 
success.' It was not till lately that I had reason to 
believe he would enter again on public service ; and it 
is now wholly unsolicited and unknown on his part. 
The other gentleman Is Colonel Frye of Massachu- 
setts Bay. He entered into the service as early as 
1745, and rose through the diflferent military ranks in 
succeeding wars, to that of colonel, until last June, 
when he was appointed a major-general by the 
Congress of this province.' From these circum- 
stances, together with the favorable report made to 
me of him, I presume he sustained the character of a 
good officer, though I do not find it distinguished by 
any peculiar service. 

Either of these gentlemen, or any other whom the 
honorable Congress shall please to favor with this 
appointment, will be received by me with the utmost 
deference and respect' 

*AaKlUckoa the Indiui town of KilMnlag, in FcniisjrlvknU, SeptcralxT 
■. t7S6. A dlvcf tneJal anil piece of plate w«« presenied lu Colonel Ann- 
Nioag, by ibe Corpnraliitn ai PhiUdcIphU, fnr hut l>MV«iy and go^ conduct 
gn tlmaoGraoD. An intimacy of many yean' sUnding luliaisteil between him 
Ui4 WMhiBgtoii. 

* He bad been at (he rie|[e of Lioni*but)t, and vro* token priooncr at Fori 
Wnttna Hcory. 

*S^H. ». 1775.— TbeOmgroa proceeded to ihe election ai a bri|pul:er-g«D- 
tnX. mad the ballots bciof dctermiacd, it was found lliat Colood Annstrong 
and Colonel Fry had an e<]UBl nvntber of itot». — MS. /curmal of Cen^rett. 
CA Fry did not ncmwt hit appointment till January, 1776. 

lofi THE WRITINGS OF [1775 

The late adjournment having made it impracticable 
to know the pleasure of the Congress as to the 
appointment of brigade majors beyond the number 
of three, which they were pleased to leave to me, and 
the service not admitting of further delay, I have 
continued the other three, which I hope their honors 
will not disapprove. These latter were recommended 
by the respective corps to which they belong, as the 
properest persons for tliese offices until further direc- 
tion, and have discharged the duty ever since. They 
arc the majors Box, Scammell, and Samuel Brewer. 

Last Saturday night we took possession of a hill 
considerably advanced beyond our former lines ; ' 
which brought on a very heavy cannonade from 
Bunker's Hill, and afterwards a bombardment, which 
has been since kept up with little spirit on tiieir part, 
or damage on ours. The work, having been con- 
tinued ever since, is now so advanced, and the men 
so well covered as [to] leave us under no apprehen- 
ions of much farther loss. In this affair we had 
killed one adjutant, one volunteer,' and two privates. 
The scarcity of ammunition does not admit of our 
availing ourselves of the situation, as we otherwise 
might do ; but this evil, I hope, will soon be remedied, 
as i have been informed of the arrival of a large 
quantity at New York, some at New London, and 
more hourly expected at different places. I need not 
add to what I have already said on this subject. Our 

I Plowed Hill, itaw knovm lu Mount Benedict. 

* SimpKin, of PcnnnylvaniB. " Thia ysaw.^ man waa viaitod &acl contQkd 
durini! hit illncui, liy General Wa]ihjn{<lan in person, nnd by mott of the afficen 
of rack belonging lo the irmy." — Wilkinton. Mtmtiri, i., 17. 




late supply was very seasonable, but far short of our 
necessities. * • » The treatment of our officers, 
prisoners in Boston, induced me to write to General 
Gage on that subject. His answer and my reply I 
have the honor to lay before the Congress ; since 
which I have heard nothing from him. I remain, 
with the greatest respect and regard, &c.' 


Camf at CamUiugk, 9 Seplembet. 177$. 


I have just received your favor of the 29th ultimo 
by express. I am very sensible, that the situation of 
the inhabitants of Long Island, as well as of at) those 
on the coast, exposes them greatly to the ravages of 
the enemy, and it is to be wished that general pro- 
tection could be extended to them, consistent with 
the prosecution of those great plans, which have been 
adopted for the common safety. This was early fore- 

' Ob Tncadajr Uit \i.t. (lom Ang. Jiii] a lellei from General Womtci lo llic 
Kew York Prorindal Congrcu, wnttto from Ojrttcr Paodsi on August ayih, wss 
prfjiihfl ui<I ciivBUtnl at a hand bill tlirougli the city [N. V.] In il U foond 
Ike (aUanvias mccncc token from a Icticr from Waahingtgn lo Wooalcr, 
Aft ajd: "Yettmlajp I recdved ndv{c« (rom Boilon. (hit > ntiniber of 
lOBipxta luTc lailed oo m K<i>ii<i cxpcUkUoa, foi (mli pravUion*. A* they 
May pOfVM ilie uhm raonc, only ad iraticing farther, we think MottUiti|> PoinI,ur 
Lonf IiUiul, ■ TCTT pM>b4bl« pUc« of thrir linitiriE ; I have Ihereforc thought 
ben u eItc foo tb« ewUest iatclUK<iM:c ; bat I Jo not mean t« coniiiie youi 
Mtentian ot vigUance to thai place ; yoa will pteasc to extend jrour views u far 
m dM MMckief may pmhahly extend." 

I Gcarral Wiwstcr had been kiatioaed with a tceimeot of Coiineclkut troop* 
al Hactfa^ ReccDUf he had |[one over lo Long IiUnd, at (he rcijucit of the 
New Yorii IWiriDicUl CoD|;Tcn, with four htindml and fifty men, fdr the pnr- 
! af proceciing tbc iakabitinit of that quarter from ihc tbrcatoocd ilcprc- 




seen, and the danger provided for by a resolution of 
Congress, that each province should depend on its 
own internal strength against these incursions, the 
prejudice arising" from them, even if successful, not 
being equal to that of separating the army into a 
number of small detachments, which would be har- 
assed in fruitless marches and countermarches after 
an enemy, whose convayance by shipping is so ad- 
vantageous, that they might keep the whole coast in 
constant alarm, without our being able, perhaps, at 
any time to give them vigorous opposition. Upon 
this principle I have invariably- rejected ever)' appli- 
cation made to me here, to keep any detachments on 
the coast for these purposes, 

I should, therefore, most probably have thought it 
my duty to order the three companies, mentioned in 
your letter as having joined your army, to aid in the 
general service, had they not been under command 
from General Schuyler to join him ; but as it is, 1 can 
by no means interfere. He is engaged in a service 
of the greatest importance to the whole continent, his 

dationt of Ihc Briliili from Bmion, who were sent out lo procure from the 
liUnd cattle »rnl othei provisioni. which were ncMssihle to thetT boai«. ITire* 
companict hoil been raiseil on l.on^ Island, a± a part of the rcgimcnti voted by 
(he New Vork Congre**, which were placed on Ilie Conliiicnlal eiCabiiihmciit. 

rjCnCFAl Schiiylcf had nrdi^ml Ihf^sc ccimpanics lo the norlhwaril \ niul an tW 

pcupic were thus loft exposed lo the ravagts of the enemy. General Wooster 
WTOle Co Ihc Cnm minder- in -chief ■ 

"The inhabiiantfc here think that ha.d General Schiijriet known thcii very 
expmcd siluatJon he would iioi It&vc ordered the companirs away. The New 
Vork Congieu iiuppoie they have no fight to counteract hU otden. They 

might, indeed, have bcnl to him, aitil receive] an answer in &eas<(>n ; but they 

wc no refined in their policy, have lo m»ny private views to an»wer, and lake 
such infiniic pains to keep out ol the plain path, cunscious |>crha[is of thdr 
own lupeiior wisdom, that they do Dothing like other people." — Ctnitvl 
iVaastfr iVatkin^un. ig Augutl, I77S. 





strength and appointments being far short of his expec- 
tations, and to give any counter orders may not only 
defeat his whole plan, but must make mc responsible 
to the public for the failure. Instead, therefore, of 
their further stay, I would have them march immedi- 
ately. I fear the delay of the ten days may have very 
bad effects, as, by my last advice from Ticonderoga, 
General Schuyler was to march in a few days for 
Canada ; and It is highly probable he may depend 
upon these companies to occupy the posts of com- 
munication, which otherwise he must weaken his 
army to do. No Provincial Congress can, with any 
propriety, interfere with the disposition of troops on 
the Continental establishment, much less control the 
orders of any general officer ; so that in this instance 
the Congress at New York have judged properly, in 
declining to counteract General Schuyler's orders. I 
vish I could extend my approbation equally to the 
whole line of their conduct Before you receive this 
letter, you will most probably be able to judge how 
far your continuance on Long Island will be farther 
necessary. If the fleet, which last sailed, was destined 
for those coasts, it must be arrived. If It is not, it is 
certainly gone to the eastward, and your present sta- 
tion is no longer necessary. The importance of pre- 
fer\'ing the communication of the North River, and 
many other reasons, induce me to wish you were 
returned to your former post. The late transactions 
It New York furnish additional reasons for your be- 
ing as near that city, as is consistent with the disci- 
pline and convenience of your troops. Your next, 
therefore, I flatter myself, will inform me of your 





having resumed your former station. I am, Sir, with 
much regard and esteem, &c' 

Camp at CAMDBtDUE, 3 mitcf from Buion. 6 September, 1775. 


In the great conflict, which agitates this continent, 
I cannot doubt but the assertors of freedom and the 

■ Genenl Wooiter replied on tlie sStli of Sepleniber, ai lluilen.— " I re- 
turned to thU place Immcdialcly upon the receipt ai your favor of the 3d in- 
slont ; and, in jiunuancc i>f aii orilci from the Coniiiicutftl Coni^css. I iihall 
this nftrrnonn embark wilh all the tToopt under my commRnd (or Albany, there 
to i«oil the oidets nf Genera] Schuyler," 

" If ii [[he fleet frnm Boiton] hox not yet arrived, wc may conctude it b>* 
sailed to the eastnnrd ; if jl Iiai arrived, the issue will he known inimedlilely ; 
to that in cither case the continuance of the new raited levies along the cowt 
is uiinece^iary. You w]]t, ihcrcforc. on receipt of this be pleued to order 
ihcm 10 tnftTch imtnediately tn this camp, directing the enmmanding officer, at 
the !M,me time, to ^ve roc Ivro or three days' notice of the Lime, in which the 
troops will arrive, that suitable iccomniodations mx.y he prepmcd. Their 
preieoce is the more neceitary, a« 1 may in conlidenco inforcn you, that I am 
about 10 detach one thguuiiid or twelve hundred men on an expedition into 
Canada, by way ol Keiinetjec River: from which I hove the greaieit reuon 
to espect, cither that Quebec will fall into our hands a very caiy prey, or tudi 
a diversion he made a,! will open an easy passage to GenenLl Schuyler. 

" Wc ire now so well secured in nut late advanced pnKt on the hill, that the 
eoeiDy have discontinued their canuonade. The men continue in good heaJth 
and spirits." — Washingten to Gevtrnor Tmmiuil, 2 Septembet, 1775. 

"A detachment consisting ol two Ueuienant-eoLonels, two majors, Ihicly 
tubaltcins, ihidy sergeant*, thirty corporaU, four diuutiincn, two Itfcra, and 
MX hundred and seventy six private*, to panule lomorrovr morning at eleven 
o'clock, upon the cnmmon. in Camhridge, to go npon cnmmand with Col. 
Arnold of Conaeciicul ; one company of Virginia riSc-men and two companiet 
froia Col. Thompson's rcnnt^lvanii ritlc.mcn. to join the above dclachmenl. 
... At it is inia.gined the oAieeri and men sent from (be regiments, both 
here and at Roxhury, will be iuch volunteers at are active woodtnien, and well 
acquainted with batiexus, to il is recommended lliat none but such will oSer 
iheinHelvm /or this service." — OrJerfy Stwi. September jlh. 

* In a letter to Governor Cooke, dated the 4lh of Aitgust, it has been seen. 




nght of the constitution are possessed of your most 
favorable regards and wishes for success. As de- 
scendants of freemen, and heirs with us of the same 
glorious inheritance, we flatter ourselves that, though 
divided by our situation, we are firmly united in sen- 
timent. The cause of virtue and liberty is confined 
to no continent or climate. It comprehends, within 
its capacious limits, the wise and good, however dis- 
persed and separated in space or distance. 

tlut Wiihiitgtoa nii^mnl lo Mm a p^kn foi procuring (luwdet [mm Bennudft. 
T«i) uaiU aimod vcxicU ha>I alicaclj- ticen filled oul bi^ Rtimlc [tiaiicl, and pat 
■ndn (be Eoatmand i>[ Captain Abralmui Whipplr. with tlie dcngn of protect. 
iBf ih* Im^ and cnoAi i>I thai province (ram ihc deprrdaiions of the «D«m]'. 
Tic plan vaa approved bj tha Oorcrnor and Commtltre of thai province, and 
Captata Whipple »^vtA to engage in ihc afTair, provided General Waihingtoa 
wnaU {ive Um a certllicate nndflr hii ourn hand, ihat, In ciise the BermudiuK 
vcaU aaut the undertaking, he would rccoimnend lo the ContinenuU Con- 
pTM to pCTinil ihe ci|>onation u( juuvi.dcni to itimc iiiaiidi (loin ihe colonJBs ; 
t^ captain pledging himMlf at Ihe tame lime. Ihat he would make no ute of 
acfc I pAper. unless he should be oppa^ed "by the inbabitanl^. 

CBpUiD Wblppli uUcd in the largei oT the Rhode Uland vecteU, manned 
«iA ■aatJT'^ne Mamen. The veucl wai manned by the a^enc; of lli« Rhode 
bknd Coomittcc, aod ai ihc char|:c of that pruviace. At ihi^ time a packet 
taa England was daSy npecled at New York. It was thought detirablc (o 
ialaracpt tkat packet, and CowcRior Cooke oidered Captain Whipple lo cruiM 
Im it oA the hubor ol New- York fonitecn dap, and. If he ihuuld not fall 
te with it dnfiag thai period, then lo proceed iminedialely on hit voyage to 
Bcfwvda. ihil he hod tcarcely tailed from Providence, bcfora an account mp- 
peaitd In the newspapers of one handred barrcU of powder having been taken 
fran Bemada. by jrvestel mppoced (o be (mm Philadelphia, and another from. 
SoBtJi C«roUaa. The lact^ were Micb. as to make il in the liigbest degree 
prabable. that (hit waa ihe umc powder, which Captain Wlupple had Eunc to 
praenre. General Washington and Governor Coake were both of opinion, thai 
ilw«a bex to coantermand hit iDstructiom. The other armed vcwcl of Rhode 
lilaad wM imiDedialel)' dcspitched in search of the captain, witti orderi, that, 
■hcA be had finiihed the cmite in search of the packet, ho should lelum to 
PlvTidcncc. But il was luo late. Captain Wliipplc hod heard of the arrivil 
tk ih* packet at New York, ami prooocded on hii voyage to Bemmda. 

He p«t is •■ the w**i eod of the i«Und. The inhabitant* wen at finC 
■krmcd. tappcvng him to command a King's armed vessel, and the women 




You need not be informed, that the violence and 
rapacity of a tyrannic ministrj' have forced the citizens 
of America, your brother colonists, into arms. We 
equally detest and lament the prevalence of those 
counsels, which have led to the effusion of so much 
human blood, and left us no alternative but a civil 
war, or a base submission. The wise Disposer of all 
events lias hitherto smiled upon our virtuous efforts. 
Those mercenary- troops, a few of whom lately boast- 
ed of subjugating this vast continent, have been 
checked in their earliest ravages, and are now actually 
encircled in a small space, their arms disgraced, and 
suffering all the calamities of a siege. The virtue, 
spirit, and union of the provinces leave them nothing 
to fear, but the want of ammunition. The applica- 
tions of our enemies to foreign states, and their vigi- 
lance upon our coasts, are the only efforts they have 
made against us with success. Under these circum- 
stances, and with these sentiments, we have turned 

and cbiMrcn flcj Lcto llic cuuntiy : but, whcii he bhuwcd hU uommtssion &nd 
inslniciions, Ihey Iccalcd him with conltxlily and friendship. TheyhadaftUBled 
in Tenoving th« poivdcr, which whe made known lo Gpnercl Gage, And he htd 
sent a iloop of war tu ulic kvray all itic !>ii])crfliKiu.<i pravisionii from the iilaod. 
The)' professed ihemt^lvei hearty friends to the Anicri>can caitie, bul ax Cap- 
tain Whipple wflj defeated in the object of his voyage he speedily relnrDCd tO 
FtovidcDce. — Gov. Cdakr'i MS. telUn. 

Soon iiftcr«iin)i> the intiahilaniK of fieraiudn petitioned Congress fnr relief, 
represcnl Ing tlii^ir grcnt distress, in c<ir»c(|unnce of the nun-imporUtion aj^ee- 
mcnl, which deprived them of (he supplie*. that usually came from the coloniciL 
lu consideration of their being frieii^Jly tu llie enube of Amenca, it wui tCJiolved 
by C<PDgre»$, that prorisivntin certain qiiaotilici migbc be cKportcd to them. — 
Jovmali e/ C<m£rr]i. Not. aid. 

" AugURt 26. A Ictier was this day reeeived by dpi. Georf^ Ord ol tbe 
Lady CathariDc, (rum Henry Tudier, chairman of the Depulie» of the levetat 
Parivhcs of Dcrmuda, cncloiing an accnuni for iiSi lbs. guopowder, shipped 
by him on board mid ves»1, amouniing to I,ib\. 14. B that cnrreticy-" — Pfm. 
CtuiKil 0/ Siiftty, 311. 





our eyes to you, Gentlemen, for relief. We are in- 
formed, there is a very large magazine on your island 
under a very feeble guard. We would not wish to 
involve you in an opposition, in which, from your 
situation, we should be unable to support you ; we 
know not, therefore, to what extent to solicit your 
assistance in availing ourselves of this supply ; but, if 
your favor and friendship to North America and its 
liberties have not been misrepresented, I persuade 
myself you may. consistently with your own safety, 
promote and further this scheme, so as to give it the 
fairest prospect of success. 13e assured, that, in this 
case, the whole power and exertion of my influence 
will be made with the honorable Continental Con- 
gress, that your island may not only be supplied with 
provisions, but experience every mark of affection 
and friendship, which the grateful citizens of a free 
country can bestow on its brethren and benefactors. 
I am, &c.* 

* " I Bccd MOt mention lt> you the vast imponaDcc of gaining Intelligence of 
fbe Enemy's MotivmoJ Dntgnt as eaiLy at |>u»ible— The gtcal saving lo thv 
CMklBKMt both of Blood ftnd Money. A Dctcclion <■[ o«i iccrcl & HKist dan- 
loou Enemies with inDiunctalilc other AtlTanla^ei would rcoilt from lh« 
btercfjitian <A tbctr Cones{>ondcncir at this JunctTin. I hxve therefore 
ibBUftht proper to ]>TOp«M to you (be leiiii^ the Mail by the next Packet. She 
tobooriy expected frnn EagUiid — hcT Forn: of Men And Hunt inconudcnble : 
MBC bat swlveli and only manned with iS Men. If the Veuel propoAcd \o go 
10 BenandM •boolil ciuIk for a few Uajs ofl Sandy Hook — I have no dovbt 
tbe wobU (aO in with her. In which Ccuc ihc mii;lil vith little or no Delay 
had th« Mat] in order to be fom-arded to me and proc<«d on her Voyage. But 
U tkerc any material ObjettioTU la this Mode, t am »till so anxloui upon the 
Saliject thai I wonM have ii tried with another Vessel at the continental 
ExpokM and will for that Had direct that any Charge which thall accrue in this 
Scrrice ihaJI he paid by the Paymaster here u|xkn bctnc duly liquidated. It 
wID (m nicrwity that mndb Penan well iciputtnted with the Parkeif tbould be 
M Vonrd o«t V«m«1 or the itopping inwaid bound VcskIi indiscriminately will 
the Alarm and ilic may be appriaed of her Daogci. The Choice <A a 


thp: writings of 



Camf at Camsridcc, 8 September, 1775. 


As I mean to call upon you in 3 day or two for your opinions 
upon a point of very great importance to the welfare of this con- 
tinent in general, and this colony in particular, I think it proper, 
indeed, an incUTnbcnt duty on me, prcvioiis to this meeting to ia- 
timate to you the end and dcsi^ of it, that you may have lime to 
consider the matter with that deliberation iuid attention, which 
the importance of it requires. 

\\ Ls lo know, whether, in your judgmeni, we cannot make a 
successful attack upon the troops at Boston, by means of boats, 
cofipcrated by an attempt upon their lines at Roxbury. The 
successs of such an enterprise depends, [ well know, upon the 
AU-wisc Disposer of events, and it is not within the reach of 
htiman wisdom lo foretell ihc issue ; bui if the prospect is fair, 
the undertaking is justifiable under the following, among other 
reasons, which might be assigned. 

The season is now fast approaching, when warm and comforta- 
ble barracks must be erected for the security of the troops against 
the inclemency of winter. Large and costly provision must be 
made in the article of wood for the supply of the array ; and after 
all that can be done in thii way, it is but too probable that feacca, 
woods, orchards, and even houses themselves will fall a sacrifice 
to the want of fuel before ihc end of winter. A very considerable 
difficulty, if not expense, must accrue on account of clothing for 

propel oi!icrr wiih iliie Cure of providing a suitable V«im1 Sec. 1 must leave xa 
you. Should it meet with the dcsiicd ^uG«cH there cui be na Doubl tfaa 
Honblc. Continental CongrcK will diiliugulhh it lewuil the Officen & 
Men wha shall have done so t^entinl ■ Service. Nor shall t fail in inakiag; 
known Co them hovr much die puMi<:k Service b inilol>tcd lo yuu (or xoui Zeal 
A Activity on all Occasiaaa."^ WaihiHgton Ip Drfiufy-Gnffmer CMit, 6 S^f' 
Umhtf, 1775, 

' ' As the icmoleoess o{ kuhic of the tcgimcnts (roni Mead Quarters rcndcn it 
difficult (n send iitritaiions to the officers, the Commands in chief tequ«ite lliat, 
for the (utuT«. the BeLd officer of Ibe diay, the oHieer of bis own guard, and tbo 
adjutant of the day, contiOcf tbcintclves iuvitcd %a dine at HomI Quuten, and 
IhU general iaviution they are detired to a(.'i:G|)t accordingly." — Ordrrfy Book, 
September 6th, 





the men now engaged in the service ; and if they tto not enliat 
apin, this difficulty will t>e increased to an almosi insurmouninble 
degree. Blanket!!, I am informed, art now much wanted, and not 
10 be goL How then shall we be able to keep soldiers to thcti 
duty, already itnpaiient to get home, when ihcy come (o feel 
the severity of winter without proper covering ? If this army 
should not incline to engage for a longer time than the ist of 
January, what consequences more certainly can follow, than that 
you must either be obliged to levy new troops and thereby have 
two sets, or partly so, in pay at the same time, or by disbanding 
one before you get the other, expose the country to desolation and 
the cause perhaps to irretrievable ruin. These things are not 
Doknown to the enemy ; perhaps it is the very ground they are 
building on, if they are not waiting for a targe reinfoicement ; 
and if they are waiting for succorers, ought it not to give a spur 
to the attempt ? Our powder, not much of wliich will be con- 
sumed in such an cnlcrpn&c, without any certainly of a supply, is 
daily wasting ; and, to sum up the whole, in spite of every saving 
that can be made, the expense of supporting (his amy will so far 
exceed any idea, that was formed in Congress of it, that I do not 
know what will be the consequences. 

These, among many other reasons, which might be assigned, 
induce me to wish a speedy finish of the dispute ; but to avoid 
thete evils we are not to lose sight of the difficulties, the haiard, 
and the loss ^^ tnay accompany the atlcmpi, nor what will be 
the probable consequences of a failure. 

That every ciicumstancc for and against this measure may be 
duly weighed, that there may be time for doing it, and nothing of 
this importance resolved on, but after mature deliberation, I give 
this previous notice of the intention of calling you together on 
Ucmday next at nine o'clock, at which time you are requested to 
attend at head-quarters. It is not necessary, I am persuaded, to re- 
eommcnd secrecy. The success of the enterprise, (if under- 
taken,) must depend in a great meaKiite upon the suddenness of the 
stroke. I am with great esteem, t-tc.' 

' The council of war ntel. id coelonniiy with lliis nuliiLe. on the 1 tth of Sep- 
taaibef. and >fl«i dnly coiuidwnig llw propodtion, aiid the reasons uil^ed. ii 
waf Biianiawualr agrcol. Uut. " coiuidcriaic the itote of the enemy's lina, uul 





Cakt at CAMaxincB, 8 Seplcmbci. [775- 

Dear Sir, 

I have received your favor of the 31SC of August. 
I am much engaged in sending off the detachment 
under Colonel Arnold, upon the plan contained in mine 
of the ?oth ultimo. A variety of obstacles has re- 
tarded us, since the the express returned with yours 
of the 27th August from Albany ; but we are now in 
such forwardness, that I expect they will set out by 
Sunday next at farthest. I shall take care in my in- 
structions to Colonel Arnold, that, in case there 
should be a junction of the detachment with your 
army, you shall have no difficulty in adjusting the 
scale of command. 

You seem so sensible of the absolute necessity of 
preserving the friendsliip of the Canadians, that I 
need say nothing on that subject ; but that a strict 
discipline, and punctual payment for all necessaries 
brought to your camp, will be the most certain means 

ihc rxpcciation of »oon receiving some imporuuic advicci from EnglAiid, it wu 
noi cxp«licoi to nuke Ihe ntiempt." 

" The Bitufttioii »l ihc king*! troop? apid thst of the rebels is nearly the same 
to, when 1 hari Ihc honor of writing yau lail. They wr pntrenchcd upon every 
AdvanugcoD4 spnt, *nij wp xtr-. iu> litrongly [vnttcd hnrv eh*t wc ivUh 10 tempt 
Ihcin to attai'k us, wliicli i( thsy Jo uwt Bhwrlly J-w, perhufs we may Uy our tot- 
tunc itjainiit ihem ; but wc arc so well pTcparcii upon these heigh is [Charlcslown] 
thai it would be imjmident lo atEack them before we (jive up thcit coming 10 
u»." — Sir WiUiam tlaweto Gtverngr Ltggt, 4 Sc(>(CTOt>cr, 1775. 

"Our Mtualicu) i» a consummaiioii of incitnciu and ditgracc. You will be 
told we aiY nn the poiiiE of removing Ihc hlockiilc . 1 bcbeve we arc ; luid I 
doubt not llic troops wi!l recover llicir rcputalion. I am confident of tJieir 
future n&cnidency, but we have nol a mxgn/inc of itny soti. nor any provision 
01 prcpatalioa whatever that can enable an array to advance twenty ■ntlni, nor do 
I see • ptxfiibillty of remedying these defects now, except by great and sudden 
cXMlions in Englanil." — Burgoynt l» a fritnd, Auguil, ITTS* 




of attaining so valuable and important an end. I 
shall inculcate the same principle most strongly on 
our troops, who go from hence, as that on which 
their safelj'. success, and honor entirely depend. 

I am truly concerned, that your supplies and ap- 
pointments are so far short of your expectations ; but 
trust you will have a feeble enemy to contend with, 
and a whole province on your side, two circumstances 
of great weight in the scale. Your situation for 
some time must be so critical and interesting, that I 
hope you will not fail giving me constant informa- 
tion of your motions and success.' 

Believe me, with much truth and regard, dear Sir, 
your obedient and humble ser\'ant. 


Camp at Cambudcs. 8 S«pieniber, 1775. 

Upon the receipt of this you will please to give 
directions, that all the new levies march immediately 
to this camp. By a resolution of Congress, the troops 
on the Continental establishment were not to be 
employed for the defence of the coasts, or of any 
particular province, the militia being deemed compe- 

* " Krmn ih« accoitiiu Gmifral Schnjrlrr gave 114 o( the siale o( his army, I 
ImbUc lot tun IB hit tfipeililiai) againtt SI. johm. 1)« WAnts almn&t evcqr 
AJDt ■etCMuy for the equipment of an army, lie coiii|>lains mui-h of the 
filatariMiM of the York committee. HU great (Iqienclcnce » upon ihc neu- 
tnlityof tlie Canadian) ; if ihcf do not anbt Gov, Cailcton, Srhuylcr liaa 
ambcn Nificieiit to rant, badly diKtplined and acconired ai ihcy aie." — 
jMtma! »/ Ttmtk TifgkmaH, 31 AuguM. 177$. TOghmaa wat in Albany, kU 
1^ aa SccreUiT to Ihc Indian CommiHioncn. 




tent to that service.' When I directed these troops to 
remain in their own province, I had some reason to 
expect a remove from Boston to New York, in which 
case they would have been able to give them a more 
speedy opposition ; but as that suspicion now appears 
groundless, there will be an impropriety in contin- 
uing them where they now are, considering the above 

The detachment, which 1 mentioned in my last, 
■will march in two days, and I shall have occasion for 
the troops from you to fill their places. The minis- 
terial expedition must. I apprehend, by this time 
have come to some issue; they are either returned 
■with disappointment, or have succeeded in their 
errand ; in either case the men can be spared without 
danger to the country. But should this not be the 
case, and they are still hovering on the coast, it is to 
make no diflference in their march; so that I shall at 
all events expect them here next week, for which 
you will please to give the necessary orders. I 
am, &c. 


Camp AT Cambkidok, 10 Strplembci. I77S. 

Dear Brother, 

So little has happened since the date of my last, 
that I should scarce have given you the trouble of 
reading this letter, did I not imagine that it might be 
some satisfaction, to you to know, that wc are well, 
and in no fear or dread of the enemy ; being in 

*^^ Jauntah »/ Certgfttt, iS July, I77S- 








our own opinion at least, very securely intrenched, 

the enemy 

and wishine for nothi 




out of their strong-holds, that the dispute may come 
to an issue. The inactive state we lie in is exceed- 
ingly dis^reeable, especially as we can see no end 
to it, having had no advices lately from Great Brit- 
ain 10 form a judgment upon. 

In taking' possession, about a fortnight ago, of a 
hill within point-blank (cannon-)5hot of the enemy's 
lines on Charles Town Neck, we expected to bring 
on a general action, especially as we had been threat- 
ened by reports from lioston several days before, that 
they (that is the enemy) intended an attack upon our 
intrenchments. Nothing, however, followed but a 
severe cannonade for a day or two, and a bombard- 
ment afterwards for the like time ; which, however, 
did us no other damage, than to kill two or three 
men, and to wound as many more. Both are now at 
an end, as they found that we disregarded their fire, and 
continued our works till we had got them completed. 

Unless the ministerial troops in Boston are waiting 
for reinforcements. 1 cannot devise what they are 
staying there for, nor why (as they affect to despise 
the Americans.) they do not come forth, and put an 
end to the contest at once. They suffer greatly for 
want of fresh provisions, notwithstanding they have 
pillaged several islands of a good many sheep and 
cattle They are also scarce of fuel, unless, (accord- 
ing to the account of one of their deserters,) they 
mean to ]>ull down houses for firing. In short, they 
are, from all accounts, suffering all the inconveniences 




of a siege. It is true, by having the entire command 
of the sea, ami a powerful navy, and, moreover, as 
they are now beginning to take all vessels indis- 
criminately, wc cannot stop their supplies through 
that channel ; but their succors in this way hath not 
been so powerful, as to enable them to give the com- 
mon soldiers much fresh meat as yet. By an account 
from Boston, of the 4th instant, the cattle lately 
brought in there sold at public auction from fifteen 
to ihirly-four pounds ten shillings sterling apiece; 
and the sheep from thirty to thirty-six shillings each; 
and that fowls and every other species of fresh pro- 
visions went in proportion. The expense of this, one 
would think, must soon tire them, were it not, that 
they intend to fix all the expense of this war upo 
the colonies, — if they can, I suppose wc shall add. 

I am just sending off a detachment of one thousan 
men to Quebec, by the way of Kennebec River, to' 
cooperate with General Schuyler, who by this is, I ex- 
pect, at or near St. John's, on the north end of Lake 
Champlain ; and may. for aught 1 know, have deter- 
mined the fate of his army and that of Canada, as he 
left Crown Point the 31st of last month for the Isle- 
aux-Noix. (within twelve miles of St John's, whe 
Governor Carleton's principal force lay.) If he shou 
succeed there, he will soon after be in Montreal with- 
out opposition ; and if the detachment I am sending 
from hence, (though late in the season,) should be 
able to get posession of Quebec, the ministry's plan, 
in respect to that government, will turn out finely,' 




' C^rneral Gage writes lo Governnr Lcgge (Nova Scotia) Ihit [500 men had 
tnarched from Cunbridgc " intended toe Canada." 




I have only to add my love to my sister and the 
Hide ones, and that I am, with the greatest truth, 
your most affectionate brother. 




t. Yon are immediately on their ntarch from Cambridge to 
uLcthc command of the detachment from ihc Continental army 
agaiosi Quebec, and use nil possible expedition, as the winter 
msoD is DOW advancing, and the success of this enterprise, 
under God, depends wholly upon the spirit with which it is 
pasbed. and the favorable dispositions of the Canadians and 

a, When jrou come to Newburyport you are to make all 
possible inquiry-, what men-of-war or cruisers there may be on 
tli« coast, to which this deinchmeni may be ex[)osed on their 
n>yagc to Kennebec River ; and, if you should find thai there is 
danger of your bein^ intercepted, you arc not to proceed by 
water, but by land, taking caic on the one hand not to be 
divrrted by light and va^c reports, and on the other not to ex- 
pose the troops rashly to a danger, which by many judicious 
perxtns has been deemed very considerable, 

5. You arc, by every means in your power, lo endeavor to 
discover the real sentiments of the Canadians towards our cause, 
and particularly as to this expedition, bearing in mind, if they 
are averse to it and will not cooperate, or at least willingly acqui- 
esce, it must fail of success. In this case you are by no means 
to prosecute the attempt ; the expense of the expedition, and the 
disappointment, are not to be put in competition with the danger- 
ous cODseqaeoces, which may ensue from irritating them against 
Ds, sod detaching ihera from that neutrality, which they have 

4. In order to cherish those favorable sentiments to the 
AmencAD cause, that they have manifested, you are, as soon as 
you arrive in thctr country, to disperKe a number of the addresses 
ou will have with you, particularly in those parts, where your 




route sliall lie : and observe the strictest discipline and good 
order, by no means suffering any inhabilant to be abused, or in 
any manner injured, either in his jjersoc or property, punishing 
with exemplary st-verity every person, who shall transgress, and 
making ample compensation lo the party injured. 

5. You arc to endeavor, on the other hand, to conciliate the 
affections uf those peojjle, and such Indians as you may meet 
with, by every means in your power ; convincing them, that we 
come, at the request of many of their principal people, not as 
robbers or to make war upon thcni, but as the friends and sup- 
portcrs of their liberties as well as ours. And to give efficacy to 
these sentiments, you must carefully inculcate upon the officers 
and soldiers under your command, that, not only the good of 
their country and their honor, but their safety, depend upon the 
treatment of these people, 

6. Check every idea and crush in its earliest stage every 
attempt to plunder even those, who are known to be enemies to 
our cause. It will create dreadful apprehensions in our friends, 
and, when it is oucc begun, no one can lell where it will slop. I 
therefore again most exprcs&ly order, that it be discouraged and 
punished in every instance without distinction. 

7. Any King's stores, which you shall be so fortunate as 
to possess yourself of, are to be secured for the Continental use, 
agreeably to the rules and regulations of war published by the 
honorable Congress, The officers and men may be assured, that 
any extraordinary services performed by them will be suitably 

8. Spare neither pains nor expense to gain all possible intelli- 
gence on your march, to prevent surprises and accidents of every 
kind, and endeavor if possible to correspond with General 
Schuyler, so that yoti may act in concert with him. This, I 
think, may be done by means of the St. Francis Indians. 

9. In case of a union with General Schuyler, or if he should 
be in Canada upon jour arrival there, you are by no means to 
consider yourself as upi>n a separate and independent command, 
but are to put yourself under him and follow hie directions. 
Upon this occasion, and all others, t recommend most earnestly 





to avoid all contention about rank. In such a cause ever)' postU 
ItoaorablCt in which a man can strvc his countr)-. 

to, I( Lord Chitham's son should be in Canada, and in any 
■mvf should fall into youi power, you are enjoined to treat him 
with all possible deference and respect. Yoii cannot err in 
paying loo much honor to the son of so illu.'itrious a character, 
and so true a friend to America. Any other prisoners, who may 
fall into your hands, you will treat with as much humaniiy and 
kindness, as may be consistent with your own safety and the 
public interest. Be very particular in restraining, not only your 
own troops, but the Indian^ from all acts of cruelty and insult, 
vhjch frill disgrace the Americnn arms, and irritate our fellow 
snbjecu against us. 

It. You will be particularly careful to pay the full value for 
tU provisions, or other accommodations, which the Canadians may 
provide for you on your march. By no means press them or any 
of their cattle into your service, but amply compensate those, 
who voluntarily assist you. For this puqmsc you are provided 
vtU) a sum of money in specie, which you will use with as much 
(mgality and economy, aa your necessities and. good policy will 
admit, keeping as exact an account as possible of your disbursc- 

I a. You are by every opportunity to inform me of your 
progress, your prospects, and intelligence, and upon any impor- 
urn occurrence to send an express. 

ij. As the season is now far advanced, you are to make 
all possible despatch : but if unforeseen difSciiUies should arise, 
or if the weather should become so <icverc, as to render it hazard- 
o«9 to proceed, in your own judgment and that of your principal 
oAcen, whom you are to consult, — in that case you are to return, 
giving me as early notice as possible, that I may render you such 
assistance as may be necessary. 

14. As the contempt of the religion of a country by ridiculing 
any of its ceremonies, or affronting its ministers or votaries, has 
ever been deeply resented, you are to be particularly careful to 
restrain every oflicer and soldier from such imprudence and folly, 
and to punish every instance of it. On the other hand, as far as 
lies in your power, you arc to protect and support the free 




exercise of the religion of Ihe country, and the undifiturbed 
enjoyment o( the rights of conscience in religious matters, vilh 
your utmost influence and authority. 

Given tinder my hand, at headM]uarter5, Cambridge, this 14th 
dajr of September, 1775. 


CAHr AT Cahs&idgk, 14 Scptcinbd, 1775. 



You arc entrusted with a command of the utmost 
consequence to the interest and liberties of America. 
Upon your conduct and courage, and that of the 
officers and soldiers detached on this expedition, not 
only the success of the present enterprise, and your 
own honor, but the safety and welfare of the whole 
continent may depend. 1 charge you, therefore, and 
the officers and soldiers under your command, as you 
value your own safety and honor, and the favor and 
esteem of your country, that you consider yourselves, 
as marching not through the country of an enemy, 
but of our friends and brethren, for such the inhabitants 
of Canada, and the Indian nations, have approved 
themselves in this unhappy contest between Great 
Britain and America ; and that you check, by every 
motive of duty and fear of punishment, every attempt 
to plunder or insult the inhabitants of Canada. 
Should any American soldier be so base and infamous 
as to injure any Canadian or Indian, in his person or 
property, I do most earnestly enjoin you to bring 
him to such severe and exemplary punishment, as the 
enormity of the crime may require. Should it extend 


to death itself, it will not be dispropottioned to its 
guilt, at such a time and in such a cause. 

But I hope and trust, that the brave men, who have 
voluntarily engaged in this expedition, will be gov- 
erned by far different views ; and that order, discipline, 
and regularity of behavior, will be as conspicuous as 
iheir valor. I also give it in charge to you to avoid 
at] disrespect of the religion of the countr)', and its 
ceremonies. Prudence, policy, and a true Christian 
spirit will lead us to look with compassion upon their 
errors without insulting them. While we are contend- 
ing for our own liberty, we should be very cautious 
not to violate the rights of conscience in others, ever 
considering that God alone is the judge of the hearts 
of men, and to him only in this case they are 

Upon the whole. Sir, I beg you to inculcate upon 
the officers and soldiers the necessity of preserving 
the strictest order during the march through Canada ; 
ID represent to them the shame, disgrace, and ruin to 
themselves and their country, if they should by their 
conduct turn the hearts of our brethren in Canada 
against us ; and, on the other hand, the honors and 
rewards, which await them if by their prudence and 
good behavior they conciliate the affections of the 
Canadians and Indians to the great interests of 
America, and convert those favorable dispositions 
they have shown into a lasting union and affection. 
TTius wishing you, and the officers and soldiers under 
your command, all honor, safety, and success. I 
remain. Sir, your most obedient humble servant. 





The unaatural contest between the English colonies and Great 
Britain has now ritien to such a height, that arms alone mu&t 
decide it. The colonies, confiding in the jiislice of their CAUse. 
and the purity of thcit intention, have reluctantly appealed to 
that Being, in whose hands are all human events. He has hitherto 
smiled up'On their virtuous efforts, the hand of tyranny has been 
arrested in its ravages, and the British anus, which have shone 
with so much Bplendor in every part of the globe, arc now 
tarnished with disgrace and disappointment. Generals of 
approved experience, who boasted of subduing this great con- 
tinent, find themselves circumscribed within the limits of a single 
city and its suburbs, sulTering all the shame and distress of a 
siege, n-hilc the frcc>bom sons of America, animated by the gen- 
uine principbs of liberty and love of theii country, with increas- 
ing union, firmness, and discipline, repel every attack, and despise 
every danger. 

Above all we rejoice, that our enemies have been deceived 
with regard to you. They have persuaded themselves, they have 
even dared to say, that the Canadians were not capable of dii- 
tinguishing between the blessings of liberty, and (he wretchedness 
of slavery ; that gratifying the vanity of a little circle of nobility 
would blind the people of Canada. By such artifices they hoped 
to bend yoii to their views, but they have been deceived ; instead 
of finding in you a poverty of soul and baseness of spirit, they 
see with a chagrin, equal to our joy, that you are enlightened, 
generous, and virtuous; that you will not renounce your own 
rights, or serve as instruments to deprive your fellow subjects of 

' Spark» Hiid tliat this paper wu printed in Iuin<l-fai11* before Arnold left 
Canbri'Igfr, wilh the view of having the copies distributed us soon as h« should 
Arrive in, hut it apipean to have been tent of tet bim. 

' ' I should be bUJ ihc maiiifeitu^ iniKbl bu forwarded on by bim (the express], 
if nut sent. ... P, S. Since writing the foregoing I have leteived a letter 
fTOtn Col. RwJ witli the ni«nif«to».'" BtnniitI AmnU In WatkiHgUn, Fort 
Weston, 3$ Sept. I77S- Schuyler Hiul already drawn up and sent into Canada 
a decUtation annonncing ibe approach of the AmH;ricBn army, and calling upon 
Canadinni to join it. 




thdn. Come then, my brethren, uoite with us in aD indissoluble 
Qoion, let us nin logether to the same goal. We have taken up 
ums in defence of our liberty, our property, our wives, and our 
children ; wc arc determined to preserve them, ur die. We look 
fonrard with pleasure to that day, not far remote, we hope, when 
the iababitaots of America shall have one sentiment, and the full 
enjoyment of the blessings of a free government. 

Incited by these motives, and encouTBgcd by the advice of 
many friends of liberty among you, the grand American Con}(rc&s 
luvc scot an army into your province, under the command of 
General Schuyler, not to plunder, but lo protect you ; (o animate, 
lad bring into action those sentiments of freedom you have dis- 
closed, and which ihctoolH of despotism would extinguish through 
itic whole creation. To cooperate with this design, and lo frus- 
trate those cruel and perfidious schemes, which would deluge our 
frontiers with the blood of women and children, I have detached 
Colonel Arnold into your country, with a part of the army under 
my command. I have enjoined at upon him, and I am certain 
chat he will consider himself, and act, as in the country of his 
patrons and best friends. Necessaries and accommodations of 
every kind, which you may furnish, he will thankfully receive 
ind render the full value. I invite you therefore as friends and 
hrcthcreo, to provide him with such supplies as your country 
afiords ; and I pledge myself, not only for your safety and 
leeurity, but for an ample compensation. Let no man desert his 
habitation ; let no one flee as before an enemy. 

The cause of America, and of liberty, i» the cause of every 
virtuous American citiicn ; whatever may be his religion or 
descent, the United Colonies know no distinction but sucb as 
slavery, corruption, and arbitrary dominion may create. Come, 
then, ye generous citizens, range yourselves under the standard 
of general liberty, against which all the force and artifices of 
tyraony will never be able to prevail. 





Camp at CAHBktiMiE, 17 September, 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

As 1 believe it will be three years next December 
since some of my Ohio lands (under the proclamation 
of I 754) were patentetl ; and as they arc not yet im- 
proved agreeably to the express letter of the law, it 
behoves mc to have recourse, in time, to the common 
expedient of saving them by means of a friendly pe- 
tition. My distance from Williamsburg, and my 
ignorance of the mode of doing this, lays me under 
the necessity of calling upon some friend for assist- 
ance. Will you, then, my good Sir, aid me in this 
work ? [ shall acknowledge it as a singular favor if 
you will, and, unless you discourage me, I shall rely 
on it. 

i have already been at as much expense in attempt- 
ing to seat and improve t]\ese lands, as would nearly 
if not quite have saved them, agreeable to our act of 
Assembly, had it been laid out thereon. In March, 
1774, I sent out more than twenty odd servants and 
hirelings, with a great number of tools, nails, and 
necessaries for this purpose ; but, hostilities com- 
mencing with the Indians, they got no further than 
the Red-stone settlement, where the people dispersed, 
my goods got seized and lost, and the whole expedi- 
tion, (which I suppose stood me in at least three 
hundred pounds,) came to nothing.' In March last, 

' Thi» «ipec!ilion wm pUc<4 in charge t>l V«]flnllne Craw/ord. The InMnic- 
lionH inrcpmcd liy Wutiingtan uc in his own writing, and are given ia full, u 
the; aRoid a striking exiunpEe of bis extreme caie io matlen of bndDen. The)- 




1 again purchased a parcel of sen-ants, hired men at 
considerable wages, and sent out a second time ; but 

rfidBot (all oiKlcTiny notice nmil ihr cailirr voliimr wits in print, or Oiejr would 
I ■geared in thcii proper potilioa clirunologically. 

30 March. 1774. 

*\aa are to proceed wiihout loss o( ilmc lo jtddt own sclilcment on Yoogli- 
iepBf, anil then, if it in not already duae. provide tucb. and so mvch prarlttion, 
u fo* tbaU ibink Bcocaaary to take dowa wilh you to my lands on the Oliiu, 
Tun are sbo to provide canoe* far tmn^iorling of (hcae provisionk, the took, 
taA 1^ woTlunen. 

** Vott aic to cnfcngc ihrec good hands as laborere, to be employed in this 
ba^tM : yoa ate lo get ihem upon the best icmii you csn. and liaTc ihcm 
kamid in article* 10 cervc till the first of December, duel)' and inicly, at the 
cxfnniian of which tim« ihcy ^aU receive their wagea. Provhluns and loob 
vill be (oond ihem, but nuthing else. 

'* Voo are alto lo en|pj>(r a gcx.Hl Iiuntci upon the best Icnnii you on, For the 
fnpoic of lopi^jrinK you with provisions. Let him have the skinx. 11 I ^uppo^c 
ka will cocafje the cheaper (or JL Engage him either alCogHlier for hunting, 
or lo h«nl and work u occasion requires, that (here may be aa di»pittc about it 
afterward* ; to in like ninncr tci every man etsc know what it is lie has to tnisi 
U, thai nodiapntca may irisc thereafter. And the bnt iray to prcviAt thiis. is 
to let all yoor birvUngs know that thoy arc not to consider Ibis or thai a* iJieir 
fAnknlar bnaness. but to tarn their bands to every thing, as the nature of the 
iMsineA* shall reqvire. 

" As much depend* upon your getting to the land carlj, in order that as 
much gruand ouy be cleared, and put into corn as possible Itcfoie the nemon is 
loo i** advsnccid, I do mo>t camctlly rci|iicsl you lo delay no lime in proiecui- 
ioc jour trip down ; and that as much gnnind av pcudble may l)o £Ot in order 
lor mm. and planted theiewilh, I wquM have yon delay building and fencing 
•Btll the seasoa is too laie for planting, and employ your whoI« (oroa for 

** begto ihl^ operation at nud on the upper tract and clear live acre fielils. in 
kaadsonc aquarcs npon every other lot along the river bank (leaving the trees 
next the river Handing, ti a aafcguard OKaiiiat frcshctt mid ice). ThcM licMs 
aay be so neat together at lu answer small lencmcnts of about lou seres in a 
kt. in ca»« yov canaol get Ibem survaycd. In ihori, allow esch lot a bmdtli 
il aboal one knnilrcd tods opon the rivet, tunning back (or quantity agreeably 
10 tbe plots given you. 

** Ttt« same siicd lots, tlui is lots ol the »sinc breadth upon the rivcti may 
be laid spun atl tlic oihct tracts, and live acre licld* cleared upun every other 
car, *» above. Bui oiler Ihe season has gal too laic (or planting com, then at 
ach of these fccUs tialld a houM, sixteen feci by 16, with an outside cUimncy. 
ihe lower part to be of tqgi (with diamond comen) and to be covered willi 




what they have done, I neither know nor have heard, 
further than that, after buying tools and provisions 

diiT« (eel ^hin^les. Also incloxe ftnd fence your com al Chii; lime, or before, if 

" Yi>D inny then, that is aflcr building houses to ihc ticliU alrmdy cicafcd, 
and fcndiig llitiu in. carry your cteafing. building auit («iicinic, regularlj' on 
lu|-«lhc, ill tiic manner above dctcribcd. 

" AFtcrlhc lame for iilanting ihc corn is over. In all of the botioms you tnty 
be al wnrli in, if Iherv iJiuutd lie any gr3»y pnniU, nr jilaces eiuily impioved, 
and (Iraiucd (or meadow, it may tie done, aod inclosed, instead <A preparing 
lud for ciim. 

" EndeavoT to get some rar»-ripo com to carry with you for yniirlul [ilanling 
and icplantitig;. The com which you do plnDl nuit be ctiltivated in any 
manner which may appear luosi advisable [o you for my iutcrcst. 

" If yau can get. ur [ nbould icnd i>ul peadi vtancs. have them cracked and 
the kcrnab planicd as ^ckid as you get lo the Qrst land, and properly incloN 

"It will bocMPntially neccsnry (o have all ihc work done upon anyone 
tract appraised before you move lo the next 6cld, if it be possible to hive it 
done : such work. I mean, as can be irjured by lire orothcr ai;ciden(s. Olher- 
wb* I may labor in vain, as 1 shall have no allowance made for any thing that 
is nut valu-cd. Iti these appraibemciilsyuu muM let notliing go unnoticed, as it 
ic nccca^ary that every thing should be lirougbl Into accouni that will eikhanca 
the price. 

"You should talcccarc to have a pAir of hand mill slonct with you. ua also a 
grinditone. for the benefit of yout tools, with proper pecks. 

'' Keep A icgular account of your tools, and call them over (rc<tucnlly, to ae« 
that none are iiibsi uk- Make every iiinii aiisivcrable for iucb a» is put into his 
care. Krcp a regular nccoani altn of (he days lest by h-lelinesi, for 1 ca(>eet 
none will be lost by any other meant, tliat an allou-anoe may be made for it at 
teltlenicnl ; and kcrp a regular and clear accoiini of all cupcncei. wiih proper 
vouchers, that mailers may b* setlled without any diHieuliy at the end o( the 

" Aa I could WL^ to have my lands teiiccd, if ii be puaiible todo it, you may, 
if tenants should vRcr engft|;c iheiii upon tlie following term*, to wit : upon a 
rent of three pounds stcrlint: (to be iU?>chargrd in the currency nf the counttTBt 
the exchange pTcvailing at the time of payment.) for each lol which is to be laid 
of! as d«!*cribed on the plot ; leaws lo be jpven (or three lives ; four yean rent 
free, where no improvement is made, and two oaty where there is a hniuc bufll, 
and live acre* of land cleared on Ihc lot. Or, if it will be a greatw inducement 
to tenants, I will grant Icntm for 91 ycin upon the above rent, payable in tUe 
above manner : which tea-te* shall be renewable for ever, upon paying at the 
»ad of Ibe lintai yean, twenty shilliogi per annam additional tent for tho 



at most exorbitant prices, and not being able (for 
money) to procure a sufficiency of the latter, my 

■art wen yetn ; and in Ii1:« m&nner ihe Increaied tent oF aar. Bterllng per 
Mwna for tnaj fcven yean adcnrsrdK. Bat it ii to be tuitcd thai 1 will not 
give leaxn for liret. uid leua fut the ibow lerm (renewable) in the sauie 
tnct of tand, a« tt mig^ oot be no convenient ta have lcA£ct o{ different lenuret 

" At I have pnJnied out the distance atnng Ibc water Tor the breadth of each 
l«t(in mcaiunDf; '>' "hich go slnit^ and as thr tourse and distance from the 
rivci of cadi lot. h alio particularly xt down, you cannol be at ■ loa if yon 
hate a cooapAW and chain to La> them off and mark iliem exaflly. I'he back 
Uao of the lot* may be marked or not, ju>l at it sutia ; the diriditig lines miut 
be marlied at all crciili. atid an accuunt taken of ilie comer trecx, in order to 
iMni them in the Icaiot, If any <;hou!d he given. At the corner of each lot, 
■poa the river, hlaie a tree, and with a kaifc or dtiicl number them in the tvl- 
lowing manner, vii : it the upper cnnicr of the firit lot make the figure t ; at 
Ik eoener which divides loti No. one and two, make the«e figuret >j ; at the 
comer wUcli divides lot No. two ami three, make the figures 'rj, aud sovu with 
Meiy lot. by whkh mean* the loti can alwayi be distinguished the raument 
dbejr are looked at, anil no mlnlakei t:an happi:n. 

" Build a bouse, aad clear and fence live acres of land upon every other lot, 
in the manner d«vcribed upon ihe plot, by which mennt, should any one (terum 
iacUttc to take two lota, they may be added logetbcr conveniently, and the im- 
frovcmenls w3l be convenient to both. 

" I hive DOW mentioned every thing by way of instmction to you thai I can 
U procDt tecoUect. Let me conclude iheii with obiicrviii); Ibail tliis bufiintM 
mma even under the Kreatcsi good manaEcmcnt and induilry be altciulcd with 
ptal capetMe, as It will be with equal injuitice, if it i<i neglected : to this 1 am 
to add, thai, as you an dow icceiving my money, your time is not your own, 
aad ihat every day or Iiouc miMp[)li«d. ii a lou to mc : du not. clicrctore. under 
a belief that, a* a (riendiiiip has long nihiuled between us, many ihinga may 
be oTcrloaikeil in yon, that would not in auuthcr ; devote any pan of yuur tima 
U otbcT bannni. or to nmuK-mcntK ; for be astured. that, in respect to our 
apceaeal, 1 ikill consider yon in no other lishl than a^ a man who ha* en- 
piged hia dmc mm) icrvlcra to condijcl and manage my inicre.^i on ihc Ohio, to 
the be«i advani^e. and i-hall seek tedresi II you do not. jiut as socm from you 
at frvm ••) entire tlran^cr. 

" I wiih you yottr health and sncccn, and am Sec. 

"Note. At these iiMirudioDtt wen begun tome time i^, and at a lime 
when I bad Ultle doubt of bavini; my people moved over llic raouQloiiia before 
the linl of April ; at alto at a lime when [ had a Khcnic under contemplation 
al wtponlng i'alatiaet, in ordo to settle on time lands, which tclicmc I have 
laid nddc ; ihote ctauMS which relate to the tumiDj; your whole tone 







servants, for the most part, had run away, and the 
manager with a few negroes and hirelings left in an 
almost starving condition.' This, Sir, is my situation ; ^J 
and to avoid a total loss of the land ( as I conceive ^^ 
there are some peculiar circumstances attending the 
matter, on account of other claims), and to prevent 
involving myself in any disagreeable controversy in 
defence of my property, having already had a great 
deal of trouble about it, I am desirous of adopting in j 
time the method of petitioning. ^B 

The enemy and we are ver)' near neighbors. Our ^^ 
advanced works are not more than five or six hundred 
yards from theirs, and the main bodies of the two 
armies scarce a mile. We see every thing that passes, ! 
and that is all wc can do. as they keep close on the 
two peninsulas of Boston and Charlestown, both of 
which are surrounded by ships of war. floating batter- 
ies, &c. ; and the narrow necks of land leading into 
them fortified in such a manner as not to be forced, 
without a very considerable slaughter, if practicable 
at all. I am, &c. 

tow^rdt preparing land for c«rn, iDXf \t cnHrcIy, «t in part laid uide, u cn- 
ciini!iunc» may dircci ; and, t( iheie ^holvl^^ be any [oconiistcncy between ibe 
Bnl and Inltei clnuKCK, pursue the directtoni. of ihe InEt mentioned. 

" IE you ithuuld tint receive i.n oiilcr tif cuurl (fium Botetourt) (or valuing (">« 
work (Inijc on my linit tract, before ynu move in the wcond, have the worlc 
donelbercon. apprai^d In the bett manner yon can liy Stevens, &c., and an 
account thereof ngned by them, in such a manner a* they would vkvk to^ if 
caUcil upon. 

" If it ihoulil happen that ynu are (vl>]iged to wait in your own nicighlwrhaod 
[or YCssda, pruviaioii^, cr on any other ncL-ount, let oil the people whidt yon 
cairy oat be emplnjred in fora-arding rny mill work at (iilben Simpaon's." 

' Jameft CleveL-ind was to be placed in charge «l this second a(t«m|i4 (iM 
II., page 4Si), hoc he was unable to go and William Stevens snccceded Inni. 
HU instruclioui are printed in II., page 459- 



IS September. 177^. 

Your Favors of the 9th, i4lh and 15 Instant have 
been duly received. The readiness of the com- 
mittee to cooperate with me in procuring the most 
auihentick intelligence and dispatching Captain 
Whipple for this purpose, is peculiarly satisfactory, 
and I flatter myself will be attended not only with 
Success, but the happiest consequences to the publick 
cause. I should immediately have sent you notice 
of the paragraph in the Philadelphia papers which 
is all the Account I have of the taking the powder at 
Bermudas; but 1 supposed it must have come to 
your hands before it reached ours. I am inclined to 
think it sufficient to suspend Captain Whipple's voy- 
age at least till farther intelligence is procured from 
Philadelphia, as it is scarce supposable these ves- 
sels would leave any quantity behind worth the risque 
and expence of such a voyage. As this enterprize will 
therefore most probably be laid aside for the present 
it may be proper for Captain Whipple to keep his 
station a few days longer for the packet. It must be 
remembered they generally have long passages, and 
we are very sure she has not yet arrived at Uoston, 
nor do I find she is expected there. The voyage to 
Bayonne is what I should approve and recommend. 
The person sent to Governor Trumbull has not yet 
called upon me, but the scheme appears so feasible 
that i should be glad to see it executed. At the same 
time I must add that I am in some doubt as to the 




extent of my powers to appropriate the publick Mon- 
eys here to this purpose. I could wish you would 
communicate it to the Congress for which you will 
have sufficient time and I make no doubt of their con- 
currence. In fact the slate of our treasury here at 
present is so low chat it would be impracticable to 
be of any service to the expedition if all other objec- 
tions were obviated. We have no news either in 
the Camp or from Boston, except a piece of intelli- 
gence from the latter, that the Enemy are pulling 
down the South end of the town in order to con- 
tinue a work across from River to River. 

Your chearful Concurrence with me In publick 
Measures and Zeal for the service calls for my best 
Thanks. — You will please to accept them and believe ^H 
me to be with much Truth and Esteem, etc. ^ 

P. S. — No Southern Mail arriving last Saturday we 
are apprehensive it has again fallen into the Enemy's 
Hands. If it was not attended with too much Trou- 
ble should be glad you would cause Inquiry to be 
made, if by any Accident the Letters are at Provi- 
dence you will please to forward them by Express — ' 

' " Ry kit Extrllmty GfffTf^ WatXiitfhm, CommamUr in CAif/of ikrArmiff 

of the VtiitrJ Pretiinera cf North A mericn. 

" Wh«rcas thf atvtssiiie^ of the army under my command for ummDnltion 
aie %o (Treat it> to rc(|uiic nil poHtblc ^iupplics, an'l Me»n. Clairk & Ni^liltit- 
gale, mcithajiu of I'rovidenct. Iiavinc rcpracnieil to me lliat ihey will, ■! 
ihcir own risk, undcrintc to procnrc Im-m ihn WckI Indie* nf clacwhrrc, auch 
qnuiLilien ±s m%y be purduavil, jiroriUcil ihc)' ubtEtin my iwrmisiun far Ihn 
pnrpcMc, 1 do ih*rrfoic hereby mnkc known io all Cninmicicc* nnd other per- 
tona whatto«ver, thai the vnyag« now proposed by the sloop /•'// and the aloop 
NtftuHe arc for ihc above purpoK, and utidcrtskcn with my privity Mid appro- 
balicin. uiiil« such testrictioDt and ensagtmenti lu the haiiurable iHivernor 
Cooke, <A Rb«de Island, thnll think proper, to i>r«vent (he »anri« from being 






CAHntiDoK. ai Seplember. inS-' 


It gives me real concern to observe by yours of 
the 15th instant, that you should think it necessary 
to distinguish between my personal and public char- 
acter, and confine your esteem to the former. Upon 
areperusal of mine of the 8th instant, I cannot think 
the construction you have made one ; and, unless it 

pcnerted to anj otbet purpow lluui that above spccilicd. And I do ttconw 
Bcn4 il to an comniilloa. and other pcracnit, nil only (o (ottieai molcilinf or 
kluceptiag ibcni od tbc vQjrap, biil lo girc Ihcm all aiuutancc 
nd ooaatenance irithin ihrir power."— iq ^ptcmbcr, 1771. 

'The BritMi mvn-of-o-ar had been menacing the coa^U of Connecticut, and 
Cwcnar Tninihull, in addition to the tDililia near the icaboaid, bad ordered 
teveni conpanlo of the new Icvicb. tabcd foe ihc Coniincnixl army, lo be 
tetaia«d ia tfc« prortn.ce, and stationed ai p)ac«t when th« j^eati'ii danger 
vaa spprcbcndcd. Of ihi* lie hid ifivca oolicc to Wuhington in a lelicr ol 
Ibe stb, bm on ibe 8lh the General tent an exprest order la have all the 
■cv IcTve* marthfd (o the ■rmy. The Governor complied wilh ihe order, 
iheogb apparcnUy not veil pleucd wiih iJic manner In which it wa« given. 
Ia bit anctrer. dated the ijlh. he tsys : — 

"I am uirprbcd ihxl mine i^f the sih inilant wm no-l received, or net 
jodged worthy of notice, ai do mention is made of it. f^iuninEtun had been 
matked, and t^erely cannonaded, and t>y T>ivino Prnvidcnc* marvelluiuljr 
pfotecled. New I,«adon and Norwich axe sliU vo mcnacett by the ntiniHlrrial 
■Upa and troop^ thai the miUlia cannot be thought iuflicieni for their neniriiy, 
aad il it necc&saiy lo throw up tome intrenchmenis. W« are obliged actually 
to niK more men lor their security, and (or ihe towns of New iUvcn and 
Ljv*. 1 hoped (oroe of Ihe new tevics mij[hl have beni left here, till thcte 
iliKftHi w«r* over, wiiboDt injaty to any of yoiir oprraiiont. I own that it 
•■M be led to ynor judpncnl. Vcl it would have ^ivcn rae plcannrc to have 
been acqitaiaied that you considered it. 1 th^ank Divine Providence and you 
kr thk eariy warning lo great care and watchfulnest, Ihai 10 th« union of the 
ulonies may be Kttlcd on a pennanenl Mid happy batii^ 

"Voa may depend on our utmoat eiertioDk lor ibe defence and security of 
tka WOitilutionil rijfhik and libcrly of the colunir*. and uf our own in paiticu* 
Iv. Nooc hav ihmrn greater f orwaiilncu, and thereby rendered iuci/ wore the 
abject o( mialiierial vcngranc*. 1 am, with great «tcem nnd re|[iml for you 
pcfaocud character,*' etc. 




was I should have hoped that the respect I really 
have, and which I fiattered myself I had manifested 
to you, would have called for the most favorable. 
In the disposition of the Continental troops, I have 
long been sensible that it would be impossible to 
please, not individuals merely, but particular prov- 
inces, whose partial necessities would occasionally call 
for assistance. I therefore thought myself happy, that 
the Congress had settled the point, and apprehended 
I should stand excused to all, for acting in the line, 
which not only appeared to me to be that of policy | 
and propriety, but of express and positive duty. If, 
to the other fatigues and cares of my station, that is 
to be added of giving reasons for all orders, and 
explaining the grounds and principles on which they 
are formed, my personal trouble will perhaps be of 
the least concern. The public would be most affected. 
You may be assured. Sir, nothing was intended that 
might be construed into disrespect; and, at so inter-^B 
esting [a] period, nothing less ought to disturb the ^^ 

harmony so necessary for the happy success of our 
public operations. 

The omission of acknowledging, in precise terms, 
the receipt of your favor of the 5th instant was purely 
accidental. The subject was not so new to me as to 
require long consideration. I had had occasion fully 
to deliberate upon it, in consequence of applications 
for troops from Cape Ann, Machias, New Hampshire, 
and Long Island, where tlie same necessity was as 
strongly pleaded, and, in the two last instances, the 
most peremptory orders were necessary to prevent the 



troops from being detained I foresaw the same dif- 
ficulty here I am by no means insensible to the 
situation of the people on the coast. I wish I could 
extend protection to all ; but the numerous detach- 
ments, necessary to remedy the evil, would amount 
to a dissolution of the army, or make the most im- 
portant operations of the campaign depend upon the 
piratical expeditions of two or three men-of-war and 

The spirit and zeal of the colony of Connecticut 
arc unquestionable ; and whatever may be the hostile 
intentions of the men-of-war, I hope their utmost ef- 
forts can do little more than alarm the coast. 

! am, with great esteem and regard for both your 
persona] and public character, Sir, &c.' 


Caoip M CuibridEc si Scptcmbci. ms.* 

W Sm 

^_ I have been in daily expectation of being favored 
^P with the commands of the honorable Congress on the 
subject of my two last letters. The season now ad- 
vances so fast, that I cannot any longer defer laying 

' la reply, Ctnetnot Tnunbull wrote Ociohrt ijlh ; — " I have no dispoticioo 
l«nKnaa« tlic weight of foar bunlcns, which, in llic mulliplidly of jroar 
hntBOB. noK be uifSckntly txtnj. nnr inclination to ditturh ihc hamiDny 
m MccMuy la ihe hftpp^ incceM of our public opcratioti*. 1 am |>eniuail«d 
■* tmth diKcuUf will may ntHc hippcn. tt b unhappy, thai jcalouact should 
be ocitcd. ai diapuio q( any nott ihigttcd, lictwccn any ot the colcnio. to 
dMuui« ihcfn 01 k linK, when our tib«fty, aur prapcriy. nur all ic at stoke, tf 
cw oaeaue* prevail. wUch «ar dtMiiioa may ounuaoQ, our jcatuuuc* wtU Husti 
iffmM Irivoloav and oil ovt diapnied claims «i no value lo either aide." 

* ltc«d to Coagm« Septeiober 99111. 


ijS THE WRf TINGS OF [1775 

before them such further measures as require their 
immediate attention, and in which I wait their direc- 

The mode in which the present army has been col- 
lected has occasioned some difficulty, in procuring the 
subscription of both officers and soldiers to the Con- 
tinental articles of war. Their principal objection 
has been, that it might subject them to a longer service, 
than that for which they engaged under their several 
provincial establishments. It is in vain to attempt to 
reason away the prejudices of a whole army, often in- 
stilled, and in this instance at least encouraged, by their 
officers from private and narrow views. I have there- 
fore forbore pressing them, as I did not experience 
any such inconvenience from their adherence to their 
former rules, as would warrant the risk of entering 
into a contest upon it ; more especially as the re- 
straints, necessary for the establishment of essential 
discipline and subordination, indisposed their minds 
to every change, and made it both duty and policy to 
introduce as little novelty as possible. With the 
present army. I fear, such a subscription is imprac- 
ticable ; but the difficulty will cease with this army.' 

The Connecticut and Rhode Island troops stand 
engaged to the 1st of December only; and none 
longer than the ist of January. A dissolution of the 
present army therefore will take place, unless some 
early provision is made against such an event. Most 

' The CnnrinenUl Aittclo of W«r, or u ihcy were ochcrwJic called. " Rnlc* 
and Reflations lor the Army," may be Men in the yfurmalt »/ C«ngrtst, 
3w June, I775. 






of the general officers are of opinion, that the greater 
part of them may be reenlisted for the winter, or 
another campaign, with the indulgence of a furlough 
to visit their friends, which may be regulated so as 
not to endanger the ser\'ice. How far it may be 
proper to form the new army entirely out of the old, 
for another campaign, rather than from the con- 
tingents of the several provinces, is a question which 
involves in it too many considerations of policy and 
prudence, for me to undertake to decide. It appears 
to be impossible to draw it from any other source 
than the old army, for this winter ; and, as the pay is 
ample. I hope a sufficient number will engage in the 
service for that time at least. But there are various 
opinions of the temper of the men on the subject ; 
and there may be great hazard in deferring the trial 
too long. 

In the Continental establishment no provision has 
been made for the pay of artificers, distinct from that 
of the common soldiers; whereas, under the provin- 
cial such as found their own tools were allowed one 
shilling per diem advance, and particular artisans 
more. The pay of the artillerj', also, now differs 
from that of the province ; the men have less, the 
officers more ; and. for some ranks, no provision is 
made, as the Congress will please to observe by this 
list, which I have tlie honor to enclose. These par- 
ticulars, though seemingly inconsiderable, are the 
source of much complaint and dissatisfaction, which 
I endeavor to compose in the best manner I am able. 

By the returns of the rifle companies, an<l that 




battalion, they appear to exceed their establishment 
very considerably, I doubt my authority (o pay 
these extra men without the direction of the Con- 
gress : but it would be deemed a great hardship 
wholly to refuse them, as they have been encouraged 
to come.' 

The necessities of the troops having required pay. 
I directed that those of the Massachusetts should 
receive for one month, upon their being mustered, 
and returning a proper roll ; but a claim was immedi- 
ately made for pay by lunar months ; and several 
regiments have declined taking up their warrants on 
this account. As this practice was entirely new to 
me, though said to be warranted by former usage 

' The Coniineiiial Congras ruolreil on the 14th of Jane, tbe dty before the 
appoinimrnl of ihe Cummander -in -chief. Chat sbc companiei o[ expert rifle- 
men should be nis^d in l^cnnsylvanii. Iwa in Maryluiil. and two in Virclnia, 
On iHe 11A, i[ wan again rctolvcd, Ihat two moie uomiiuniei xhuuid be raiied in 
1'enns/lva.nia, ^nd that the eight iogeih«T shcnld make a batiftlinn, ia be com- 
manilcil ty ^uch iicld-ofliccrt, i.'apiains, and liculEiianta. as should be rccc>m- 
meiiilctJ by the Awembly or Ccmveiilion of ihe cnlnny. The ntiove twelve 
cnmptuiiM w«ra kll iiMtA up with Miqimiog cvlsnty. One rompuiy airiveil in 
CunhridgB on the ijlh of July, anil eight othcis heroic llie i.|lh of August, so 
ihRi within two mo-nthti orders had gone ant, the men lud bevn enliited and 
e(|uipped, ftitd the whole had marched from (our to »cvcn hundred miles to 
CAinp. Cnptain Daniel Morgan, so much celcbiaird during the wur, cam- 
maiidett one of tliece compnnrci. He tnuvbed hit, men from Frederic county 
in. Virginia, a distance of kIx hundfcJ miles, in thicr weeks, 

Coii|;cesi hhd liicd the numl>cr of each company ai cighi3--iwo, When tboy 
arrived at Camhridgr, ihe number considerably exceeded that limit, and the 
Commander doubted vrhetbci be wu authoruted t» pay the lupemiimtnkries. 
When the enmmitice of Congrcst aflcrwarda visited the camp, ami this subject 
was r^^fcrred lo ihem, it wat decided that they should oil tecci»e pay, hnl thAI 
the General Ehouild >clect from each compatiy such as were not mark»mvti, and 
diimitt ihcro, with an allowance of piy to go home. Thoc nflcmen were 
enlisied for c-ne year, and were the &rst troops ordered to be raised by the 
Cotitincnlol Cun^rvas. The I'ennsj'Ivania battalion wan ccmmanded byColonel 
William ThompKOti. 





here, the matter now waits the determination of the 
lionorable Congress." I find, in Connecticut and 
Rhode Island, this point was settled by calendar 
months ; in Massachusetts, though mentioned in the 
Congress, it was left undetermined, which is also the 
case of New Hampshire.' 

The enclosure No. 2 Is a petition from the subal- 
terns, respecting their pay. Where there arc only 
two of these in a company, I have considered one as 
an ensign, and ordered him pay as such, as in the 
Connecticut forces. I must beg leave to recommend 
this petition to the favor of the Congress, as I am of 
opinion the allowance is inadequate to their rank and 
service, and is one great source of that familiarity 
between the officers and men, which is so incompati- 
ble with subordination and discipline.' Many valua- 

*" Mtsvhtd. TUjit wlien tbewwilmonilibiunl. ihc CoaE^cw mniu calcndor 
■mUIi. hf which llie |iay oi the mea in the wrriceoriheCnnliticniUlotiereg- 
•»UivA."^Jt>mrttali f/ GmgTfit, S October, 1775. 

* Sc« Smilivca to the J^cte /fumptkirf CommilUe of Safety. 13 Si!iilcnil>ci, 
177s. sBil thf* CAfnmtiiM'i teply, aS Srptraibcr, Ln Forre. Amtrttam Artkivtt. 
I'ouih Scrio, ill., 77^, 817. 

***Ob eucriiic the camp near Kmion, 1 wu smick uith the iBmJliarily 
vtndt prmiled among Ifee toldien uid oKcerx of nil ruiki ; (ram ibe colonel to 
ftn priruo. 1 obacrml tiM lltUc di>iiacti«D ; auJ 1 could oot ivfnin tma 
miiiitiiHi, U> a Tnonc gtntleman triUi whom I mode acquaintance, that the 
■ffiury diiciplibc oi ibclr troop* wat nnt K omspicuouii u iho civil suhordins- 
disal tftc GoamiiDtt]' in which I lircd." — Wilkinion, Atemein, i, 16. 

** Ttorc If OM ntsaa. attd I think a one. whjr a pereon bom in 
the wmc town at oeigUMriKKxl, *bMild not be employed on public alTairs ol 
thk natnic ia ibat ttrain at neiGliboriiood : it li, that the epirii of ettuolitr 
■UA nlgu thro^i thit coaalry will make bim afraid of exerting that an- 
ihotity II II I tiMiij for tbo Mpeditinig hi* buaine** ; he muat *hakc cvct^t man by 
tkc haJMt, aod desire, b^, and pray, do brotbcr, do my friend, do such a lhin£ ; 
■ to— * a tew beany damns froia a penon who did not csre a damn for them, 
WoiM baTC a nucb bett«t eflect."— Jfo^AtM to tVathmfMn, 34 October, 177J. 

" Hwae UlcM o4 cqwaUty. «bkb arc 10 aerccabtc to us nativea of New Eng- 




ble officers of those ranks, finding themselves unable 
to support the character and appearance of officers, | 
I am informed, will retire as soon as the term of 
service is expired, if there is no alteration." 

For the better regulation of duty. I found it neces- 
sary to settle the rank of the ofTficers, and to number 
the regiments ; and, as I had not received the com- 
mands of the Congress on the subject, and the 
exigence of the service forbade any further delay, I 
the general ofiticers were considered as having no 
regiments ; an alteration, which, I understand, is not 
pleasing to some of them, but appeared to me and 
others to be proper, when it was considered, that, by 
this means, the whole army is put upon one footing, 
and all particular attachments are dissolved.' 

Among many other considerations which the ap- 
proach of winter will demand, that of clothing appears 
to be one of the most important So far as regards 
the preservation of the army from cold, they may be 
deemed in a state of nakedness. Many of the men 
have been without blankets the whole campaign, and 

laod, are ver^r disagreeable to inan/ gcnllcmeTi in the colootes. They hod & 
^rcat opinion of the high impoitaacc of a conlinenlal gcaentl. Hud wen 
dctcrmiiicd lo place him in an elevated poijit of light."— yaA* Adamf to E. 
Ctrry. I8 June. 1775. 

' " Coogrcu must give fcetlci pay to llicir eiliccra, (or the praicnt isiMrabk 
pittance vrill not tempt men of liberal notiuiu to engage in Ihc Krvice. It i* 
indeed a fortune to the law wretches whnlivc like the common soldiers and witti 
the eoumuti svldien ; but men whu efausc to preserve the dcccol distance of 
offioen niusl have a decent sulisi&lcnce, and tviibout this dktaiic«, no autboritf 
or respect can be expected." — Charin Let tt Butiamim Ruth, 10 Ocloher, 1775, 

* The Continental comreiU^ioiu were iaiucil ou the aolli. It wu ]>ulili!thcd in 
Uie orden, that " no pcnon ii to proiume to ilcmand n Continental cammic- 
«ior, whu is not in aclval pMMMion of tlie like eommisiion from the proper 
authority oE t}ic cobnjr, which he ik engaged to serve," 




those which have been in use during the summer are 
so much worn as to be: of little service In order to 
make a suitable provision In these articles, and at the 
same time Co guard the public against imposition and 
expense, it seems necessary to determine the mode 
of continuing the army ; for should these troops be 
doathed under their present engagement, and at the 
expiration of the term of service decline renewing it, 
a set of unprovided men may be sent to supply their 

I cannot suppose it to be unknown to the honor- 
able Congress, that in all armies it is an established 
practise to make an allowance to officers of provisions 
and forage proportionate to their rank. As such an 
allowance formed no part of the continental estab- 
lishment, I have hitherto forbore to issue the orders 
for that purpose : but as it is a received opinion of 
such members of the Congress, as 1 have had an op- 
portunity of consulting, as well as throughout the 
army, that it must be deemed a matter of course, and 
implied in the establishment of the army, 1 have 
directed the following proportion of rations, being 
the same allowance in the American armies last 
war: — 

Major General 




Brigadier General 








LieuL ColoDcl 




If these should not be approved by the honorable 
Congress, they will please to signify their pleasure as 




to the alterations they would have made, in the whole 
or In part. 

I am now to inform the honorable Congress, that, 
encouraged by the repeated, declarations of the Cana- 
dians and Indians, and urged by their requests, I 
have detached Colonel Arnold with a thousand men, 
to penetrate into Canada by way of Kennebec River, 
and, if possible, to make himself m.ister of Quebec. 
By this manoeuvre, I proposed either to divert Carle- 
ton from St. John's, which would leave a free passage 
to General Schuyler ; or, if this did not take efTect. 
Quebec, in its present defenceless state, must fall 
into his hands an easy prey. I made all possible in- 
quiry, as to the distance, the safety of the route, and 
the danger of the season being too far advanced ; but 
found nothing in either to deter me from proceeding, 
more especially as it met with very general approba- 
tion from all whom T consulted upon it. But, thai 
nothing might be omitted, to enable me to judge of 
its propriety and probable consequences, I communi- 
cated it by express to General Schuyler, who approved 
of it in such terms, that I resolved to put it in imme- 
diate execution. They have now left this place seven 
days ; and, if favored with a good wind, I hope soon 
to hear of their being safe in Kennebec River. For 
the satisfaction of the Congress, 1 here enclose a copy 
of the proposed route. I also do myself the honor 
of enclosing a manifesto, which I caused to be printed 
here, and of which Colonel Arnold has taken a suit- 
able number with him. 1 have also forwarded a copy 
of his instructions. From all which, I hope the Con- 

grcss will have a clear view of the motives, plan, and 
intended execution of this enterprise, and that I 
shall be so happy as to meet with their approbation 
in it. 

I was the more induced to make this detachment, 
as it is my clear opinion, from a careful observation 
of the movements of the enemy, corroborated by all 
the intelligence we receive by deserters and others of 
the former of whom we have some every day, that 
the enemy have no Intention to come out, until they 
are reinforced. They have been wholly employed 
for some lime past in procuring materials for bar- 
racks, fuel, and making other preparations for winter. 
These circumstances, with the constant additions to 
their works, which are apparently defensive, have led 
to the above conclusion, and enabled me to spare this 
body of men where I hope they will be usefully and 
successfully employed. 

The state of inactivity, in which this army has lain 
for some time, by no means corresponds with my 
wishes by some decisive stroke, to relieve my coun- 
try, from the heavy expense its subsistence must 
create. After frequently reconnoitring the situation 
of the enemy in the town of Boston, collecting all 
possible intelligence, and digesting the whole, a sur- 
prise did not appear to me wholly impracticable, 
though hazardous. I communicated it to the general 
of5cers some days before I called them to a council, 
that they might be prepared with their opinions. 
The result I have the honor of sending in the in- 
closure No 6. 1 cannot say that I have wholly laid 




it aside ; but new events may occasion new measures. 
Of this I hope the honorable Congress can need no 
assurance, that there is not a man in America, who 
more earnestly wishes such a termination of the cam- 
paign, as to make the army no longer necessary. 

The season advances so fast, that I have given 
orders to prepare barracks and other accommodations 
for the winter. The great scarcity of tow cloth in this 
countr)', I fear, will totally disappoint us in our ex- 
pectations of procuring hunting shirts. Gov. Cooke 
informs me, few or none are to be had in Rhode 
Island, and Gov. Trumbull gives me iittle encourage- 
ment to expect many from ConnecticuL 

1 have filled up the office of quartermaster-general, 
which the Congress was pleased to leave to me, by 
the appointment of Major Mifflin, which I hope and 
believe will be universally acceptable. 

It gives me great patn to be obliged to solicit the 
attention of the honorable Congress to the state of 
this army, in terms which imply the slightest appre- 
hension of being neglected. But my situation is 
inexpressibly distressing, to see the winter fast ap- 
proaching upon a naked army, the time of their 
service within a few weeks of expiring, and no pro- 
vision yet made for such important events. Added 
to these, the military chest is totally exhausted ; the 
paymaster has not a single dollar in hand ; the com- 
missary-general assures me he has strained his credit, 
for the subsistence of the army, to the utmost The 
quartermaster-general is precisely in the same situa- 
tion; and the greater part of the troops are in a 





state not far from mutiny, upon the deduction from 
their stated allowance.' I know not to whom I am 
to impute this failure ; but I am of opinion, if the 
evil is not immediately remedied, and more punc- 
tually observed in future, the army must absolutely 
break up. I hoped 1 had expressed myself so fully 
on this subject, both by letter, and to those members 
of the Congress, who honored the camp with a visit, 
that no disappointment could possibly happen. 1 
therefore hourly expected advice from the paymaster, 
that he had received a fresh supply, in addition to 
the hundred and seventy-two thousand dollars deliv- 
ered him in August ; and thought myself warranted 
to assure the public creditors, that in a few days they 
should be satisfied. But the delay has brought mat- 
ters to such a crisis, as admits of no farther un- 
certain expectations. I have therefore sent off this 
express with orders to make all possible despatch. 
It is my most earnest request, that he may be re- 
turned with all possible expedition, unless the honor- 
able Congress have already forwarded what is so 
indispensably necessary. I have the honor to be, &c.' 

' " A coBUBJswy with twenty tbouKiiiil gaping roi>ul1» iijien full upon Mm, 
■•4 iwthinf; tostop litem with, muU ilc|>cDd (111 being ilcvuurtKl himself , . . 
iwv. to his tarpfise, linds » faymuler. a CotnmUMry. a Quartcr-mutcr, nom. 
lul AOBCBUtia : all ol Ihcm not abia to advance on« iliilUng. ... not one o( 
dkca. Uk Ceacnl, oi txl^ othci penon here, h&ve power to tiniw on Philadel- 
phia. ... 1 must cnlrr-ai you lo rscrt jounKlf in ihib unhappy aue, and to 
■dievc Bc of the KUlilionat trouble, lo ihe unavoidable ones of ony oRicr, of 
havtng ray hc«n dunned ««i, an<l be for wcckt unable to pay (or a buiJiel of 
potables. I taiiih the accnRed cause uf ihii diflicully n» wane (kunithmenl than 
Is bcput in my ntnation for ten diyt ^!kt.\."—Josrfk Tmmtttl! to Col. Dyer, 
*i Sepicnber. ins- 

* [n coiueqMDec at ttik letter Congmt determined to wnd a commitiee lo 
caaap l« coolei wttk the Gcnenl and the New England executive* " touching 





Cam; at Cambriccs, 96 ScpUmbcT, 1775, 


Your favor of the iSth instant is now before me, 
as well as that from the Committee of Hartford on 
the same subject When I compare the treatment 
you have received with that, which has been 
shown to those brave American officers, who were 
taken fighting gallantly in defence of the liberties of 
their country, I cannot help expressing some surprise, 
that you should thus earnestly contest points of mere 

tlio motl efFctliial melhixl rif conlinuitij;, sujiporling. uiul rrguliting n contiDctl- 
lol arm^." Lytich anil Dr. I-Vanklm were chracn tncmttcn ^r ihc committK, 
and " Iwo ether mrmbcrs hnving an equal numli«r " of votes, a seconil btlloi- 
inxreculted in the (election oi JUniton. A second commiltee, conipMcd of 
Rallctlgc. L«c, JolinsDn, R. UvtngUon njid Saniuct Ailains, wu conililnled 10 
dnw npimlnicljiuns foi the cimrcTiMicc. ThcCTimmitiep atrived in camp on 
OclobeT ISlb. Jsumah e/ Cengresi, iq aod 30 September, 1775. 

* A RHiish officrr. who was a priiMnct nt Hartfoid, havintf been sent there 
on parole by the Coniinitt« of Safety tn ITvilidelplii*- 

Majot ChriMophci Ficnch, ensign " lii the rniiil&terlal ann)r." lud bora 
anrikted at (iluucetter, feiin,. whcti on hii way tu join <lencnd Ga(;e. hy order 
of the Council of Saloty, of llut Provinre. He aiglKil a parole nut to li«*r 
■ima agiiinnt the colanies for twelve manlhs and promised lo proceed at once 
lo Ctunbridge lo nibmil himself 10 Washlnglon't diiGClions. — Pettna. Covimai 
of Saffty, 301 ct «N), 

" Gcneial Gage kas rejected. In very indecent aod lUibcra] terms, a pnapo- 
Kilion nia<le to liim »>me lime t^, lespecting officers who were prisoners, ao 
iHal yuiir lioj'ca of being exclun|>c<l, or even having an interview witb any of 
your fricndi, would noi lie an».werc<l by pmcccdio^ to this place, 3« General 
Howe last wcclc desired all intercourse between the Iwo camjis mtght be at an 
end. General Cage's treatment of cur oHiccrs. even of the raoU retpctrtcd 
rank, would juttlly a severe rcialiatiuij. They have pciitticd in a common 
iotl, under the haTid« of ;t wretch who had never before been employnl but in 
llie diac4«c9 of hoitcn. General Wtuhin£ ten '» di^posilino will not allow bim 
lo follow KO unworthy an example. You and your coiDpnnions wilt be treated 
with tindnew, and upon renewing your parole at Hnrt/ord, >x)u will hj.»e the 
aame induIecncctB* other gentlemen under the like ciicuni&taucc>." — Kerd u 
Mtjor Prtntk, 3 September. 177S. 




punctilia The appellation of Rebel has been deemed 
sufficient to sanctify every species of cruelty to them ; 
while the ministerial officers, the voluntary instru- 
ments of an avaricious and vindictive ministry, claim, 
upon all occasions, the benefit of those military rules, 
which can only be binding where they are mutual. 
We have shown, on our part, the strongest disposi- 
tion to observe them, during the present contest ; but 
I should ill support my country's honor, and my own 
character, if I did not show a proper sense of their 
sufferings, by making the condition of the ministerial 
officers In some degree dependent upon theirs. 

My disposition does not allow me to follow the 
ODWorthy example set me by General Gage to its 
fullest extent You possess all the essential com- 
forts of life; why should you press for indulgences 
of a ceremonious kind, which give general offence? 

I have looked over all the papers sent me from 
Philadelphia. I find nothing in them upon the pres- 
ent subject, nor do I know whether the liberty of 
wearing your sword was given or taken, But I 
flatter myself, that, when you come to consider all 
circumstances, you will save me the trouble of giving 
any positive directions. You wilt easily conceive 
how much more grateful a compliance with the wishes 
of the people, among whom your residence may be 
longer than you expect, will appear, when it is the 
result of your prudence and good sense, rather than 
a determination from me. I therefore should be un- 
willing to deprive you of an opjjortunity of cultivating 
their esteem by so small a concession as this must be. 




As I suppose your several letters to me have been 
communicated toothers, I cannot forbear considering- 
your conduct in "declaring, in a high tone, that, had 
you joined your regiment, you would have acted 
vigorously against this country, and done all in your 
power to reduce it," ' as a deviation from the line of 
propriety and prudence, which I should have ex- 
pected to distinguish the conduct of so old and 
experienced an officer. Your being so entirely in 
our power may extinguish the resentment, which a 
generous and enlightend mind would otherwise feel ; 
but I cannot commend the conduct, which puts such 
a mind to the trial.' 

I am Sir, your most obedient humble servant. 

' Thai Major FTCiicti wok o raitn uf sjiirit, nnd tomething of h HoUpiir, 
is evi<l'Cnl from thi< extract. aswtU m <,lher F>ar1s9i hU letlen. It is but 
fair, hiiwcver. In introduce hin reply (October qih) to ihit paragrapli. — " t wu 
asked by Mr. Pain«," uys he. " ii 1 would not ^ht Afjainsi the colonies If set 
•I liberty, and \ answered that I wwuld, in which might have been included, 
thai I would elideivuiir lo icduec llieiii, l>ul J did nol »ay wi ; siid I niusl 
appeal to ynti. Sir, if the qiicKlion need or fihniild have been fttkcd. The 
answer wan obvious, Aod tbcrcfoic it cauld only be oiked with *. design li> 
hHvesnniclhing to ««>-. 1 told Iheio, ihcrcfoie. that I elorird in serving mjr 
ktBK and country, and should always do so, and I glory even in T«peatinj[ it t» 
you. I am convinced. Sir, you will nol think the worse of mc for supporting 
my honor ai a inau, and a British afticer. which, in all kliuntions I am deter- 
mined to do." 

> " Vour favor uf the rSlh inj^lanl. and one from Majar Prencti on the same 
subject, have come safely tn hand. Fmm the general vharaeier of this gentle- 
man, an if the aekiidu-ledgcd politeness and attention O'f the Coukmiltee of Hart- 
ford to the gentlemen intrustrd to thcii care, I flaticrtd myself, thai there 
would he a mutual emulation of civility, which woult! have rexulled in the 
case and convenicucc of both. I am atrcmcly tvrty to find Ii olbcrwiM; 
and. upon arepcruuluf formei letters and papers, respeclini; these gentlemen, 
I cannot thitilc there is any thing particular in ihcir situation, which can chal- 
lenge a disiinctian. If the circumatancc of wearing their svrords had created 
no disutibifBcliDn, I should nol have interfered, con&idering it, lu itielf, at a 
matter of indifference; bat, as it hoi given offence, partly, perhaps, by the 





IIkA[>-Ql'aktkk«. a& Scptcail>ci, J775< 


I have perused and considered a petition, or rather 
a remonstrance, directed to you and signed by sev- 
eral captains and subalterns, on the appointment 
of Mr. Huntington to the lieutenancy of Captain 
Chester's company. 

The decent representation of officers, or even 
of common soldiers, through the channel of their 
Colonel, or other superior ofificers. 1 shall always en- 
courage and attend to ; but I must declare my disap- 

iBfttlvcilutl ezpresnon», which have been dropped on tbis occauvn, 1 pemaJc 
mjwJf, ihal Major French, for ihc sake u( his own convenience and ease, ind 
\AiXtt. Me farther trouble, will ci^ttcede what i« ttot enftcntial to either hlR com- 
fort or happiacM, farlliar ihan mere <i|^iuiuu iiiakc& it av, 

"On (h« oih^T hand, nllnw me in rccomTnenil a gentleness, cvcd Io forbcar- 
aBoe, with pervtm *o «nlirc)y in our power. We know noi what ibe chance 
of wai oui)' be : but, let it be what It will, the dulin of humatiiiy and Vin'tncM 
win demand from as mch a Imtmenl. an we th-onld e^ipect from oihen. the 

CM« b«ii^ reverted." — WaskiagtoM Io tkt Comini/ift ef HatlfirrJ, 36 Scplem- 

ber. 1775- 

" I B0IV «U down 10 givo a final answer to your applicatinn rcspecling your 
■wcri Dr. EtankUn caafirm*, what I before mcnlioned. that the privilet;e 
daiaicd wat no pari of the itipulation made ai Philadelphia, as it waa not 

" Having aad« iDquirr. I finil the rule wttli regard tu the indiUEcim In 
qMttioa i%, that priuinen do noi wear their iwonJu. I Iherefore cannot ap- 
pcove «( ii, more e>ipeda]ly as it pvea inch jteneral disMtitfaction to the good 
people of the eoBDirf . 

" To yo«r other request of removing to suine place, where you can liave the 
bcflvSt «f attending public wonhip in the church of England, 1 have not the 
leau ohjcctioD, provided the [tla^rc i« a|>i>r<jvcft liy Guvcrnui Truuibitll, to 
wtioBi. in ihit ca*e, you will be pleauH to apply. 1 with you aU the happineia 
OHHisteBt with your ftitoalion ; and while the inhabitanlti uf America treat 
yoa with hunuaiiy and kindncu, 1 iruM you will make a mailable return. It 
H ia itot graic<ul to me Io hear the respectable citiiens of the town treated wilh 
iacirllfty or contempt."— Waihingtett A" Maf^r Frtnth, 30 October, 1775. 





probation of this mode of associacing' and combining, 
as subversive of all subordination, discipline, and 

Should the proper officers refuse or neglect toj 
receive their complaints, an immediate application to 
their general officer would be proper. Much as \ 
disapprove Che mode of opposition to this gentleman^ 
I disapprove the opposition itself still more. To* 
yield to it would be in effect to surrender the com- 
mand of the army to those, whose duty it is, and 
whose honor it ought to be. to obey. Commission 
should be ever the reward of merit, not of age. and I 
am determined never to put it out of the proper 
power to reward a deserving, active officer, whatso- 
ever may be his standing in the army, or the preten- 
sions of those, who have no other merit than that of 
having been born or enlisted before him. 

In an army so young as ours, the claims arismg 
from real service are very few, and the accidental ^M 
circumstance of obtaining a commission a month or ^* 
two sooner can with no reasonable person claim any 
superior regard, or make such a scrutiny of any conse- 
quence. This army is supported by the whole conti- 
nent; the establishment is entirely new. All pro- fl 
vincial customs, therefore, which are different in ^ 
difTerent provinces, must be laid out of the question. 
The power, which has established and which pays 
this army, has alone the right to judge, who shall 
command in it. from the general to the ensign. To 
put it into any otlier hands would be a high breach of 
my trust, and would give birth to such factions and 





cabals, as must soon end in the dissolution of the 
army, and llie ruin of our country. 

As no objections are made to Mr. Huntington's 
character, nor any other reason assigned, than his not 
rising by gradation. I can make no alteration in his 
appointment At the same time I declare, that I 
shall upon all occasions pay a proper respect to long 
service, and as far as lies in my power give it all the 
preference, which is consistent with the welfare of 
the army and the duties of my station. I make no 
doubt, therefore, when these and all other officers 
(who, in such cases, are both parties and judges) 
divest themselves of prejudice and partiality, they 
will cheerfully acquiesce in such appointments as are 
made, and manifest their sincere attachment to their 
country, and the great cause in which we are en- 
gaged, by a ready and hearty obedience to all orders 
and rules judged necessary for the general interest 
I am. Sir, &c. 


Cahp at CAMBKioaE, 30 Scptemliu. i771> 

^B The Rev. Mr. Kirkland,' the bearer of this, having 
^1 been introduced to the honorable Congress, can need 

> Th« k««. Somael Kirldund wu init!uonaT>' lo the Oneida Indiiiu, Among 
wtLCtto be rcti'lcd many ycAn. Sec ti/< n/ Ltdyatd, sd cd., p. q. 

Dr. KuUaii(l(b. 1743'^. 1808) hftd been educiied in Ur. WliedocV't Intlton 
•d^Mil, kad h*d been employed cmotig the ^1 ohawk and Simeca iril>r« for tuaay 
fcan. He wu engagenl b^ ihc Continenul Coni^TCsj, uul accDinpawcd tim- 
tnl SoUivmntnbbvipeditioD against Ihe Indians of wntcra New York. Aflci 
Ibc peace, he lived among ihc Oneidax, and wa* rewarded by tlic SUI« with « 
gnat nt land where KirUand now tuadt. His jouiney ta Phlladdplilt wu 




no particular recommendation from me. Bui as he 
now wishes to have the affairs of his mission and 
public employ put upon some suitable fooling, I can- 
not but intimate my sense of the importance of his 
station, and the great advantages which have [re- 
sulted] and may result to the United Colonies, from 
his situation being made respectable. 

All accounts agree, that much of the favorable dis- 
position, shown by the Indians, may be ascribed to 
his labor and influence. He has accompanied a chief 
of the Oneidas to this camp, which I have endeavored 
to make agreeable to him, both by civility and some 
small presents.' Mr. Kirkland being also in some 
necessity for money to bear his travelling charges and 
other expenses, I have supplied him with thirty-two 
pounds lawful money. 

1 cannot but congratulate the honorable Congress 
on the happy temper of the Canadians and Indians, 
our accounts of which are now fully confirmed by 
some intercepted letters from officers in Canada to 
General Gage and others in Boston, which were 

luetl efFcrctively by Col. Johnson ic his " talk " with the Indian*. M described 
by the Mohtiwk chief. Abrahnm. " He Qohnson] also mIiI he had his eye om 
Mr. Kirklsnd ; that he was gone to Philadelphia, and along the K«-caAit ; tlut 
he »'Rs hcL-om« 3 grcni ioJclirr and a leader. Is Ihi!> a iniiiibti;r ? says he ; do 
you think your minister minds yoor vnil? No. By the time he comec to Phil- 
adclphin he will be a i;reai warri-oT, and when be icturu^ he will be llic chief □( 
all tiie five Nalionn." 

' "l*he Indian who accompanies Mr. Kirkland is an On«id> chief of eonuder. 
able rank in liix own cininlry. He lias came on a visit to the camp, principally 
to Mtli^fy his curiosity ; but as liJi tribe has been very friendly to the Uiill«d 
Colonics, and hi» rcpcirt to hii notion at hii return will have important conse- 
qoences to the public interest, 1 have sludloii>>ly t.-Ddcavored to inaice bU ri^it 
agieealile." — Waihingtcrt U' tkt Centrat CoHrt of MattatkuuUs, zbSeplem- 
bta, 1775. 




found on board the vessel lately taken, going into 
Boston with a donation of cattle and other fresh pro- 
visions for the ministerial army." 1 have the honor 
lo be, &C.* 

-A- -\^ 


Cahi> at Cambriiigk, 4 Octobct, I77S. 


I vrrite to you in consequence of information I have 
received, that you and the captains of the nflc^rom- 
panies on the detachment against Quebec, claim an 
exemption from the command of all the field-officers, 
except Colonel Arnold, I understand this claim is 
founded upon some expressions of mine; but, if you 

* Read in Coagnss, Ociober astb. 

* lo 1 leRcr from Gmeral Carleton [o Geotra] Gage. dUed at Monireil, De- 
ttmSact l6tti, he giics ut accounL of the landing o£ ihe Amrncaiiv in tho woodtk 
ae«r Si. John's, and sap they were driven back (o their boati by ■ p«ty of 
Indiftns, uid adds t— 

"They then retired to the I»le vox Notx, where they remain, and lend out 
CBtaafies to the Cinadlnns and Indbnt. among wbfim they have been too »uc- 
nafaL Msiif Indiaai have f[one aver to them, and large nnmben of Cana- 
diias BK with them al Chamblee. The people in ycncral iicciii iiicliocd that 
•ay, though the ECtiUemen, the clency. and idckI nf the baurgeoU have muu- 
fcafed a fidelity lo the King'a tarvicc. Wc have snccHded in r.iiting only 
fovncore militia. 

" Thu« we ore <in the very eve of being overrun and subdued. 1 had great 
hope* ol holding osi («i thit year, though I >eeon abandoned by all the earth, 
had iIk wnccs rcnaincd Jirm. I cannot blame these pour people for scenriiiE 
dMoudvca. aa they we muliitudea of the enemy at band, and no uiccodt from 
any part, ihoogh il is now font months since their opetntiona against u» fir»t 
bcKan."— JV5. LttUr. 

"AnyoOoer, non ronini«ionrd officer, or soldier, who shall heK>after be 
detected playuic at lu(»-ii|i, pitch and hoatle, or any other game* ol chance, in 
or near tlic camp or viLlagc« bordering on the cntampmcntH. <ihall without delay 
be ewwftned and puniahed Tor dtaoliedtence of orden. . . . The general doea 
nm incaM by the above order to discourage tpona of cacici»c and rccieatton, he 
Mly neaiu to diaooantenance and pimiih gaining. "^On/cr^ B4Qk, October $d. 





understood me in this way, you are much mistaken in 
my meaning. My intention is, and ever was, that 
every officer should command according to his rank. 
To do other%vise would subvert all military order and 
authority, which, I am sure, you could not wish or 

Now the mistake is rectified, I trust you will exert 
yourself to support my intentions, ever remembering 
that by the same rule by which you claim an indepen- 
dent command, and break in upon military authority, 
others will do the same in regard to you, and, of con- 
sequence, the expedition must terminate in shame 
and disgrace to yourselves, and the reproach and 
detriment of your country. To a man of true spirit 
and military character, farther arg^ument is unneces- 
sary. I shall, therefore, recommend to you to pre- 
serve the utmost harmony among yourselves, to which 
a due subordination will much contribute ; and, wish- 
ing you health and success, I remain your very humble 
servant ' 


Camp at Cambridge, 4 Ociabvr. 1775. 

Dear Sik, 

Your favor of the aoth ultimo came safely to hand. 
and 1 should have despatched the express much 
sooner, but Colonel Arnolds expedition is so con- 
nected with your operations, that I thought it most 
proper to detain him, until I could give you the full- 

' The rifle companira were nu«cil l)]r >» ci{<re«s onJcr uf the CcntJcienWl 
Congrtu, ■<ii1 on tht> ground the cnpUins had an impremion that Ibey were 
not to be cammanilcil by afficsre in the provincial tanlca. 





est account of his progress. This morning the ex- 
press, I sent him, returned, and the enclosure No. i 
is a copy of his letter to me ; No. 2 is a copy also of 
a paper sent me, being the report of a reconnoitring 
party sent out some time ago,' You will certainly 
hear from him soon, as I have given him the strong- 
est injunctions on this head. 

Inclosed No. 3, 1 send you a copy of his instruc- 
tions, and No. 4 is a Manifesto, of which I have sent 
a number with him to disperse throughout Canada. 
He is supplied with one thousand pounds lawful 
money in specie, to answer his contingent charges.. 

About eight days ago a brig from Quebec to Bos- 
ton was taken and brought into Cape Ann. By some 
intercepted letters from Capt^n Gamble to General 
Gage and Major Sheriff, the account of the temper 
of the Canadians in the American cause is fully con- 
firmed. The Captain says, that if Quebec should be 
attacked before Carleton can throw himself into it, 
there will be a surrender without firing a shot We 
most anxiously hope you will find sufficient employ 
for Carleton at St. John's and its neighborhood. 

We at last have the echo of Bunker's Hill from 
England. The number of killed and wounded by 
General Gage's account nearly corresponds with what 

' Tliis puiy oODiixed of (vn pcnoas. named Getchcll mvA Rcny, who mi off 
from Kort WMterv, on ihe Kemiebec, Sepiember lit. lliey arivanceil iit fsj' 
U the bcad-walcn of Ihc l>eiid Kitct, whcrt ibcy met tcwral Indun*. wbo 
fiTc them mch ctajjBcraicd «ccomii>of the cnanyon iheChaud.!^-. ilui ibc; 
did n« v«ntwr« to pTtwwfl fifthcr. Netntiu, (h« lui of the Norriilgewoclu, 
lud a cabin in lliU quarter, anil wax in the inlcTMl of Governor Cirkton. 
Tlic inlclligrnec broughl back by ihcsn p«r«oni, in regud to (he cinyinG'flico 
•ad condition of the river, wu of tome Mrvice to Arnold. 




we had, vizt, i loo. There does not seem the least 
probability of a change of measures or of ministers.' 

General Gage is recalled from Boston, and sails to- 
morrow ; he is succeeded by General Howe.' We 
have had no material occurrence since I had the 

' The nfw* of Bunker'K Hill wa* lakcn to Hnslxml by the Certrnti. and «i- 
rivcd ill LoTwIon on July 35th. On rhc foUnwing dAy cx-Ck>vcmnr Hutchinson 
hod B talk with l.urd Dtrlmouth. " Some adcliiion to the land force t think 
U delennined to be oiado imincdi&icly, porhnps two ihoiisand men : but such ■ 
force u Ificy arc now coDvioccd b ncceaaty, and which he lays will inoit ccr- 
tgJnly k" «t!y In ihe *prinK. '■ ''' ''o' iratiicaUc tu [irovide so as to arrive 
hcrnrr winter, . . . The next Kuramcr will ni> douhl delcTniInc th« Tnle ot 
America, wid it is said, tin- tudic (ttivi: will be emjilwycil «» if (he inhabitact* 
were French or Spanish enemies." UutchiHion to hii sen, a6 July, 1775, 

* Cage was recalled temporarily, as he Buppoi»d, "for con^uUttion," but it 
\i pn>bablc that the Frequent cbai^engf iocom pete nc]r made by Buigoyne, Howe, 
tud Cliiiloti. were ihc teal cause. He cuibnrked Oct, loth. 

General Gage arrived in London on the J4th of November. The fallowing 
aAiy In lluichtasun'* Diary utidoabledly rcfcrti to hioi : "Dcccitjber list, 
t'nsi G. G., whn had been appoinicd Secretary nt Georgia, came to me in 
tbcutmotl diair«!w, having received a IctUir from Mr, Pownall larl Saturday, 
acquainting biin that thf King had no (urtfact occasion (or hit service, and had 
ordered the wairani (ur making uut hi& comniission lo be s-upeitcded. He had 
wrote i-cvcral lcllcri> lo Boston, which had been opened ; one to hu wile, 
wherein he saya. llutt Guvi. wua still pur<iui[i£ the tame cruel and uiiri^htcoiu 
mMraiin against Amerien. I never taw a man mure dtKtrcued ; he having 
■pent aevemi ymn of lime, and all his foitune. in solliciling a place, and now 
Is mined in an in^tancT. lie sayt Lord P [agtmnulh] ndviipcd him tn oome to 
tne, and promised to ^ peak to roe. I told him 1 had it not in my power to serve 
him. t saw no poasibility of eaplaluiiig away his wordb. I cannot account (or 
Lord t>'» »CDdirit£ him to me. I pity liiiii under his inisforlunc. His wKc'a 
family, 1 Guppnsc, are high t.ihcrly pcnple. .indhc had a mind to plcai« them.'* 
Mrs. Go^c was a Miia Kctnble, of Nom' Jcney. 

The common c»iimalion of General Gagr's character wa» not favorable lo its 
capacity lo meet ivcceufully the emcri^e-ocy now presented. " He [Gage] 
is come out with very citraordinary po'wcrs, and has wrote (or mc: It is 
B very (oituiiute circumstance, iliui the power bcih civd and miliiury liath fal- 
len into the liand* of so nindcralc a man a* General Gage ; I hojie he will gain 
great credit on this critical occasion; h!^ abilities arc good, and with mpcct to 
his heart, you who know him so well, will allow him to be possessed of one of 
the best kind. " T/temai CemhU It/ CharUi Lei. 10 Jane, I J74. ' ' Sorely a 
man 10 bumanc, so honorable, m independent in his circtmulances, and ao 





pleasure of writing to you last. Our principal em- 
ploy at present is preparing for the winter, as 
there seems to be no probability of an accommoda- 
tion, or any such decision as to make the present 
army less necessary.' 

gnat from family cxpecUtioiu would never undertake a biuineu iA only lor an 
abandoned desperado, or a monsicr in human shape, a Genual Murray or 
■ Ravilllac ... I havt: reud wilh wundet mil intimitlimeol Ciagv'n proda- 
matioiu) ; »uroly litis it i\'>\ the winic ni»n ]rou .ind I knew no well in day^ 
of fare." Ckarki I^r lo CaUi, i Jfoly. 1*74. A airtouA letter nf l^c totingc 
ts printed in the Lf* Pa^rs, \. . 133. I^rd l^oudoun thought G»g« had not 
courage sufficient (01 hii poution. llul<luti»on Diary &• Lttlfs, i,, 364, 

" The kiug having l(^qultcd ticneral Gage's ptc&cncc at home 10 consult tiliu 
npiin ihc prexeut stale of Arocrtcn, 1 nin invested in liii sbkence with the ctim- 
imuid of the forcn in North Amciica on the side of the Atlantic; General 
Cartctnii havin.)r the same ptiwen within his Kareminenl and in the back 
country, and would take ihr command of the whole were we tem«et. Our two 
commisnnni are to cnrnmand in chief in our rcspcclire dntricfo. wherein I 
■hall lie happy to render you every service in my power." Si* Wm, ll»wt 
^tfCti'tmtr i^gge, 33 September, 1775, 

"General Gage ^es home in the Paliat, a tran9poi1»hip. Mill Gcncnl Howe 
ia adranced to Ihecliicf commnnd, a nlmoHl ndorrd hy the army, and nnc 
that with the ipiril of a Wolfe poft«c>!tes thcj^cnius ufa Marlborough." — Samufl 
Paiiteta tVUliam Painr. 1 October. 1775. 

' Lord Dartmuuth bad early sugijested tu General Uage the iniportaDce of 
Ukiuif poikcsiiun i>[ Khodc tslaadi as a mcaok oi keeping up a com muni cation 
iKtwecn BcKton and New Vork, and n!t • place easy tu be defended, and oac 
from which, in any csigency, tiucci»ur« might be derived. He had. aleoi ea. 
praacd an opinion, that New York should be occupied. General Goc* "!" 
piled: — '* As the King's forces arc too weak load in more than one point. New 
Vork ia the mcwt eligible lituaiion to hold. The friends of governmetit could 
rally there, and, (rum cvciy account, iiumbcrs «roultI join ihciD, That city 
conld be easily iletcndcd, and supplied by a water cummiinicaiiua. But lliere 
i» much diilicuhy in Imving Bmlon. Il rei^uiitk t«crccy and is of great detail. 
It is too tmporlBnl o ttcp to be put In execution without knowing hh Majesty's 
[ileasun. Frepstuiio[i» uill however be mnde for it, not knowing but initru^ 
tioDs to this cRecl may be given, in conscijucnce of intioMtioD* in a (ormer 
letter from inc." — Ji/S. Letitr, August »th, 

Cage't Tiews are fully ihown in his letter to the Eorl of Darlmouih, October, 
177s, in Force, Aoteritart Ankivti, Fourth Sexics, iii.,i)37, 

I^rd Dartmonth wrote ugnin on the jih of ^p'^-'fibci, before he couli) bare 
Tocciv«d the above latter, and rtcommcndcd lo General Gage lo abandon Bo»- 




I also send a copy of a letter given to Colonel 
Arnold to be communicated to the officers and men. 
The accounts we have of your health gives us great 
concern, not only on your own account, but that of 
the public service, which must suffer in consequence. 
I shall most sincerely rejoice to hear of your per- 
fect recovery ; and now, most fen-ently wishing 
you all possible success, honor, and safety, I am, dear 
Sir, &c. 

ten, diitnaDtle Cuilc William, ftnd repair wtili ihe troops cither to New York, 
nt tn Kome oth^ jHirt to ibe iiuiithwBnl. wlieic (be iliip^ coiilil lie in mfely.and 
Oiiy on epcralinni scmrely rftmng the witiier. Mnny iwiTainajics, he ihougM, 
wouM irsijit from mch a cHunge. ThU wiu a.nMverc<l by General Howr 
with argument simllai ca those altcady Rdvanccd by General Gage, and 
hi> returns (or not ccmplying with the tMominendaticn of the minialer w«rc 

Another plan in agftoEicn urasiudivide the forcca, and endenvat lo tioTd New 
Vork and Boston al the same time. Ocneral Howe discouraged tliit scheme, 
as h\\ his opinion impractirnblr ; and he u-irl that Gage, Clinlnn, nnil Riir- 
goyne agreed u-ith htm. Such a moveraeni would require an addiifonat (orce 
ol Dot IcSb than five dioiii>and men to l>c left in Uoiton, and twelve ihousiiitd at 
NcwVork. the lalier <(i be eiiipIcivL-d tn opening a coiuntvnication with Canada, 
iMving five bfltlalinnt for the defence of New York. Three ihouKand regulars 
would ihcn remain for Quebec, who, with three or (out thou^nd Canadian*, 
and »om« hundreds of Indians, woiild compone the army of Cnnada ; but he 
could not iwy whether inch a force would b« mffidenl in that quarter. The 
primary ubjccl of a communication with Canadn by the Hiidwn being thus 
accutnpltEhcd. and tecurcd by pti>>lx. Iruups mii*]!! lake tt^parate mutcu into 
MauacliUKtlk and other parU of N«w England, ai circiuBstancM should 
poiiil out. 

It wai the opinion of Gcnsral How», at the sarnc tinic, Ihat Rcstnn should be 
emcnated, and the force designed for thnt place rem-ovcd to Khode UUnd. 
The project of penetrating the country could more easily be cxccined from Ihat 
point than from Boston, where little eUe could be done than to defend the post. 
The pan.c.%Mon of Rhode bland would, moreover, put Connecticut in jeopardy. 
and Induce ihat colony to keep ii« army at home for selF-defcncc. Boaton 
harbor might be blockaded after the evacunliOTi by a vmtiW naral force, aided 
byo land party intrenched in the neighborhood of Naniasket Kou). — Litttr 
le Lord Dartmouth. October gih. 





Head-quastrbb, Caubrisgb, 5 October, 1775. 

Id a letter from the Congress, dated September z6tli, infnrma- 
lion ou the following points U required : 

What number of men arc sufficient for a winter campaign } 

Can the pay of the privates be reduced ? How much ? 

What regulations are further necessary for the government of 
the forces ? 

To the above queries of the CongresK I have to add several of 
my own, which I also request your opinion upon, vik. :— 

For how long a time ought the men in the present army (should 
■we set about enlisting thera) be engaged? 

What method would you rccommcad as most eligible to cloathc 
a new raised army with a degree of decency and regularity? 
Would you advise it to be done by the Conlincnl? In that case 
would you lower the men's wages, and make no deduction for 
clnathing, or let it stand and make stoppages? and how much a 

As there appears to be great irregularity in the maQner of pay- 
ing the mcD, and much discontent has prevailed on this account, 
in what manner and at what fixed periods would you advise it to 
be done under a new cstabHshracnl ? 

What sited regiments would you recommend under this estab> 
ttshment ; that is how many men to a company ? how many com- 
panies to a regiment, and how officered ? 

Is there any method by which ihe best of the present officers 
in this army can be chosen without impeding the inlistmcnt of 
the men, by such choice and preference? Under any complete 
establishment, even tf the privates in the army were engaged 
again, many of the present officers must be discharged as tliere is 
an over- proportion, of course we ou^t to retain the best. 

Vour close attention lo the foregoing points against Monday, 
ten o'clock, at which time I shall expect to see you at this place, 
will much oblige. Sir, Stc' 

The cnnctusionx of Ihc council were: 1. UnanimoiMly agreed llial the 
•imy oagbt D«t lu comivt of !«*• tban 30, Jja men ; Iv li« fonnc<d inlu twcnlj* 





Camp at Camhridue, 5 October, 1775. 

I was honored with your favor of the 26tli ultimo, 

late the night before last ; and a meeting of the 

general officers having been called upon a business, 

which will make a considerable part of this letter, 

1 took tlic opportunity of laying before them those 

parts of yours, which respect the continuance and 

new-modelling the army, the fuel, clothing, and other 

six regimrntti (excluijrc i:>F liflcmcD and anniery] ; cscli rcf;iiii«nt la consist of 
7aB men, officen inclitdcil ; cich comiiMny to be officcr'Cti n*ith nne capuin, lira 
tieu ten ants, one msign, nnd in contkin fnur MrgennU, four foiporaU, lira 
dnims, ct fifn, and scvcntir-aix privaici. This anay woi dccnicd sufficient for 
ofTcnitivc and defensive ciie-a^iiics. 3. That ihe pny caanol be icduceil at pres- 
ent, the pKtetit .iHowince of firovisiionii should fitnnd, and coTn{ienu.tian in, 
muiicy bIiuuIiI be lUowcil fuc tucli articles a? iIjc CumiiiiaaTy i:uuld nulfnniiah. 
3, The men ihottid be engaged lo December 1, 1776. but to be (ootier dis- 
chu^cd if nec«iMj)r. 4. That e«di gcn«Tnl oflicCT should clothe a man accord- 
ing to \i\\ ovrn fancy ant) judgment, and a Mlrelinn ici he tntde fiotn these 
models ; the dolhlogto be iuppliod by the Continent, and |iaid for by stoppage* 
of i«5 per month. 5, A»lomanncr«( paringthc troops thccoaocilwas equally 
dirided ; Wailiinatoii. Urctnc, Sullivan, Hcaili. and Lee were in faroj of 
ntftnihly payments ; and CitCK. Spencer, Thomas, Put nam, and Ward . of pay- 
■ncQt!! cveiy three uionth». Ou the (lucslious ol ie|;ulaling the forces and the 
selection of nf5ccr^ more limc wat rcqnetited. Art ndditionRl query was laid 
before the meeting that has tome interest : " Whether it will be nJviaible to 
enlist KDf negroes in the new army ? or whcihci ibeie be a distinction between 
such as are ilavcn and thoK llint aie free ? Agreed unsuimuusly. to reject ail 
oUvts, and, by a great majority, to reject negrocK altogether," Sec note to the 
letter 10 Concreu, 31 December, 17J5, p^'tt. The full p[ncccdin|r% of the 
conndl are printed in Force, Amrriean ArekiMt, Foiinh Series, iii.. 1039, 

October 3, 1775. Rftuhv^. That Central Washington may. if he thinks 
proper, for the cncounigcmcni of an nitack on Rmton, promise in. case of suo* 
oest a month ')> pay Co the anny. and to the representative) of such o( our brave 
countrymca as may chance to fall ; and in case succca should not attend the 
atlcmpL, A month's pay to the repT»eiitative« of the deceased. MS. Jemn%al 
c/ Cmgmt. 




preparations for the ensuing winter. Tliey have taken 
two or three days to consider ; and, as soon as I am 
possessed of their opinions, I shall lose no time in trans- 
mitting the result, not only on the above subjects, 
but the number of troops necessar>* to be kept up. 
I have also directed the commissary-general and the 
quartermaster-general to prepare estimates of the 
expense of their departments for a certain given 
number of men, from which a judgment may be 
made, when the number of men to be kept in pay is 
determined ; all which I shall do myself the honor to 
lay before the Congress, as soon as they are ready. 

I have now a painful though a necessary duty to 
perfonn, respecting Dr. Church, director-general of 
the hospital. About a week ago. Mr. Secretary 
Ward of Providence sent up to me one Wainwood, 
an inhabitant of Newport, with a letter directed to 
Major Cane in Boston, in characters ; which he said 
had been left with Wainwood some time ago, by a 
woman who was kept by Dr. Church. She had be- 
fore pressed Wainwood to take her to Captain Wal- 
lace," Mr. Dudley the collector, or George Rome, 
which he declined. She then gave him a letter, with 
a strict charge to deliver it to either of those gentle- 
men. He, suspecting some improper correspondence, 
kept the letter, and after some time opened it ; but, 
not being able to read it, laid it up, where if remained 
until he received an obscure letter from the woman, 
expressing an anxiety after the original letter. He 

< Juoe* WaIUoc. CMnm&K<i«r gf kis Majctty't >1iip i{*i*, itaiioocd at New* 




then communicated the whole matter to Mr Ward, 
who sent him up with the papers to me. I imme- 
diately secured the woman ; but for a long time she 
was proof against every threat and persuasion to 
discover the author. However, at length she was 
brought to a confession, and named Dr. Church. I 
then immediately secured him and all his papers. 
Upon his first examination he readily acknowledged 
the letter, said it was designed for his brother Flem- 
ing, and, when deciphered, would be found to con- 
tain nothing criminal. He acknowledged his never 
having communicated the correspondence to any per- 
son here but the girl, and made many protestations 
of the purity of his intentions.' Having found a 
person capable of deciphering the letter, I in the 
mean time had all his papers searched, but found 
nothing criminal among them. ]iut it appeared, on 
inquiry, that a confidant had been among the papers 
before my messenger arrived. I then called the gen- 
eral officers together for their advice, the result of 
which you will find in the enclosure No. i. The 
deciphered letter is the enclosure No. 2. The army 
and country are exceedingly irritated ; and, upon a 
free discussion of the nature, circumstances, and con- 
sequence of this matter, it has been unanimously 
agreed to lay it before the honorable Congress for 

' Having acknowledged the letter ns deciphered In he correct, Dr. Church 
explftlned that the leHer was inieiided t« " iiii[iiet.4 ih« enemy with n ilrong 
idea of our illcngtb and vitualion in ortlei to [ircvcnl an attnck iit a lime 
when the Corelinctilil army wus in [;rcot want o[ amtnunitinn, and in hupcs of 
clfecling some (pc^dy accommailalion of ihe ptewnc disjiulc, and made solemn 
uievemlioa* uf liiit innocence." 




their special advice and direction ; at the same time 
suggesting to their consideration, whether an alter- 
ation of the twenty-eighth article of war may not be 

As I shall reserve all farther remarks upon the state 
of the army till my next, I shall now beg leave to re- 
quest the detennination of Congress, as to the prop- 
erty and disposal of such vessels and cargoes, as are 
desigjKxl for the supply of the enemy, and may fall 
into our hands. There has been an event of this 
kind at Portsmouth as by the enclosure No. 3.' in 
which I have directed the cargo to be brought hither 
for the use of the army, reserving the settlement of 
any claims of capture to the decision of Congress. 

As there are many unfortunate individuals, whose 
propcrt)' has been confiscated by the enemy, 1 would 
humbly suggest to the consideration of Congress the 
humanity of applying, in part or in the whole, such 
captures to the relief of those sufferers, after com- 
pensating any expense of the captors, and for their 
activity and spirit. 1 am the more induced to request 
this determination may be speedy, as I have directed 
three vessels to be equipped in order to cut off the 
supplies; and from the number of vessels hourly ar- 
riving, it may become an object of some importance. 
In the disposal of these captures, for the encourage- 
ment of the officers and men. I have allowed them 

' B]r Ibe twenljr-cighib article of war, whoeicr wa* conrkied of holdlae 
comapon^vncc witli the cneinf, or of ipving intelltgciKc, wai to tnfl«i auch 
pmuhment u xhould be ordered bjr a ^^nerol caiut-martiaL Thrtc wim no 
preirllioii for referring iucb mbcs to Congrass, or other rifil lutborilin. 

' The «hip Prin<t G<«rgt which jailed from Brul«1 July t^Ui, with proTinon* 
for Cacc'« Ktvay. 

i66 THE WRITINGS OF [1775 

one third of the cargoes, except military stores, 
which, with the vessel, are to be reserved for the 
public use. I hope my plan, as well as the execution, 
will be favored with the approbation of Congress. 

One Mr. Fask, an intelligent person, came out of 
Boston on the 3d instant, and gives us the following 
advices ; that a fleet, consisting of a sixty-four, and a 
twenty-gun ship, two sloops of eighteen guns, [and] 
two transports with six hundred men, were to sail 
from Boston yesterday ; that they took on board two 
mortars, four howitzers, and other artiller>" calculated 
for the bombardment of a town ; their destination 
was kept a profound secret ;' that an express sloop of 
war, which left England the 8th of August, arrived 
four days ago ; that General Gage is recalled, and 
last Sunday resigned his command to General Howe ; 
that Lord Percy, Colonel Smith, and other officers, 
who were at Lexington, are ordered home with Gage ; 
that six ships of the line and two cutters were coming 
out under Sir Peter Dennis; that five regiments and 
a thousand marines are ordered out, and may be ex- 
pected in three or four weeks; no prospect of an 
accommodation, but the ministry determined to push 
the war to the utmost, 

I have an express from Colonel Arnold, and here- 
with send a copy of his letter and an enclosure No. 4 ; 
and I am happy in finding he meets with no discour- 
agement The claim of the rifle officers to be inde- 
pendent of all the superior officers, except Colonel 
Arnold, is without any countenance or authority 

■ Washington scnl worO to every important Kmn on the caul of tlu& aima- 
iu«iil, lUat cbcy mijilil he un iticir gnari]. 





from me, as I have signified in my last despatch, 
both to Colonel Arnold and Captain Morgan. The 
captain of the brig from Quebec for Boston informs 
me, that there is no suspicion of any such expedi- 
tion ; and that, if Carleton is not drove from St. 
John's, so as to be obliged to throw himself into 
Quebec, it must fall into our hands, as it is left with- 
out a regular soldier, and many of the inhabitants 
are most favorably disposed to the American cause ; 
and that there is the largest stock of ammunition 
ever collected in America. In the above vessel some 
letters were also found, from an officer at Quebec to 
General Gage and Major SherlfT at Boston, contain- 
ing such an account of the temper of the Canadians, 
as cannot but afford the highest satisfaction. I have 
thought it best to forward them. They are enclosures 
No. 6 & 7.' I am, with the greatest respect, &c' 

'"Noprotpc<t jcl of the militin being emkodicij here; nortio I think ihcy wilU 
Ccncnl Caricton, I .im apt in think, ii^ afriuil to girir the orilcr lent thejr ibouU 
iffuw to obvy, and lbtti«ve thi^ ycarnillpjiuovcrwittiotK the Canatlinn^ iloing 
ADjlhing in i^roi of govcinmcnt. ■ . • Vou miui look Cot no divcnion in 
ixm of llie aniijF iiii[ti(.-diatd> undct yuiu ExicUviicr't commuul ibis ycu from 
C'^n^'i ihc language here being only tn defend the Province : and il 'sgenenlljr 
thao^l here that if the icbels were to pssh (urwanl a \to&y o( [our at five 
Ihonund mea, the Onsdinns would \xy down theit annt, and not fire a «hot." 
— Tk*WMM Camt-U to CtmT<at Cage. Quebec, b S(|>tctnbef. 1775. 

" Theit roindi [i. e. the CaoadiADi] are all poiwncd by cmiMancs fram New 
Engluid anil the damned nuKOls at merchanu here and at Montreal. . . . 

The Quebec bill itctno utc; on the contrary the CuiadiaiM talk ol that d d 

abused wxwil liberty." — Titmai Gami/t f« A/aJ^r SAeriJ^, 6 Septraibtt, 1775. 

General Ga^t wmie 10 I^rcl DsnmDulh, on ihe 90ih of Aogiut, ihat Gen- 
nal Carleton did not bnd the Cattailians 10 ready (or war •• he had hopnl, uid 
thai KHnc of the Indinn irilm were btckwRrd, lie uid (he mindt of ilie 
Canadlaiu had Iteeu jjoiioned by the eneiay, but lluu a good force there would 
>ct tliein all in nii^iun. He advised, dial Gcucial Carleton should be cein- 
(orccd wiib (our iliouiand men, a »up)>ly a( annsi, roiUiary Mortw. and Indian 
good*.— .W.s'. I^ft/r. 

' Read before Consreatf. October I3tl>. 





Camp at Caubridce, % October, 177$. 

Dear Sir, 

I wrote you yesterday, of which the enclosed is a 
copy, since which I have been informed, that your ill- 
ness has obliged you to quit the army, and General 
Wooster as the eldest Brigadier will take rank and 
command of Mr. Montgomery. General Wooster, I 
am informed, is not of such activity as to press 
through difficulties, with which that service is en- 
vironed. I am therefore much alarmed for Arnold, 
whose expedition was built upon yours, and who will 
infallibly perish, if the invasion and entry into Canada 
are abandoned by your successor.' 

' General Wounicr wai now advanc'eil in life. He luid lerred in the two 
preceding wars, lijiving been present it the capture of Lnniiiljurg in 174J. and 
commiiiidcd 0. Connecticut icgimcnt nca-rly the whole of the loct French war. 
WhcD Itic Connecticut troops were raised, in 1775. he v&\ appointed \a the 
commnnd of the whole. The continental appointment, Ihetetore, by which he 
wan pkceil the third on (he list of brisailie (s, und Putnam ruiscd ovci him to 
live rank of majar-gencnl, was by no meam laliiifiiclarT. Vel he acceple<3 the 
comtnisiion in .1 spirit which reflected much credit upon hii chnraclcr. 

When ]ie went to the northward. General W«*hitigion bin! the impretsion, 
Ihni he would ussunie the coinmnnd in Canada, as higher in niok chmi Monl- 
gamery. Itut the fact wan, he ttood one degree tower, to that lliit difficulljr 
was obviated. To prevent all chance of diipule. Gcucral Sclmyler resolved to 
keep WociKier at Tiu'ondctngi, an<I«cnii forward hi^ regiment. But the officers 
(.tad men, ivlio «]-inpnthiii«(l with th«ir commander in his complaint of injustice, 
would not %o without him. They had already refused to sign the ariidet, of 
war, scnl out h/ the Conlincnlal Congrets. and their general was obliged to 
govern them by the military lowi of Connecticut. This anpecl of things gave 
Mine concern to General Schuyler, when Ihc teuiincnl arrived at Ticondcroga. 
(ind U< wrote to General WooWcr rcquetting to know preciiielyon whnt groand 
he (»n»id«red himself to itand. The reply wai ih:il of an Tiunoialile and gen. 
eroUK toldier. 3,1^ well ax a true patriot. 

" My Appointment in the Continental Amy," ia.\A General Wooster, "you 
are scnsihk couli) not be very agreeable to roe ; naltvilhsinndingwhicli, 1 never 
ihoiild hftVG conlinued in the service, had 1 not detennCDed to obcerve the lulei 




I hope by this time the penetration into Canada by 
your army is effected; but if it is not, and there are 
any intentions to lay it aside, 1 beg it may be done in 
such a manner, that Arnold may be saved by giving 
him notice, and in the mean time your army to keep 
up such appearances as may fix Carleton, and prevent 
the force of Canada being turned wholly upon Ar- 
nold. He expected to be at Quebec in twenty da>'s 

of the utny. Nq, 5tr ; I have the ckaK o( my coitntt^ too mudi at heart, to 
ittempi to make any (lifficulljr or iinea.tine«( in the anny, upon which the nio- 
CMS of >ti (DIcrpriM of almost inhnile impottancr (o the country is now 6,t- 
pcDcliiiit. I ihall consider my tank in the onny what uy commiuion from the 
Coniireninl Congie^i makt^ ii. and shall noi ailcmpt 1o dispuje the rommand 
vith Ceneral Mortgomt'Ty »l St. Joho't. You may depend , Sir. Ihat I Uiall 
acil myKlf oa much ut putailile lo [iroutote ihcstriclcsi uoion and faannony 
unonj both officer) and M)l<lien>. and u»e every meani in my power to ^re 
•uecc«« lo the Ciprilitioti." 

" Gcncml WooMer is jiut arrived here. A* be wu appointed a major-gcncnl 
by the colony of Conneciicui. and thai I did not know his leiitimeiiu with te> 
■peel lo the rank he onsidcrcil tiimwli in the Conltnental army, my inlcntioiu 
were to hiTc him remain at thi« pu%l lTicoiidcto|:a}. but aMurin^ mc ibat hb 
n^ment Mould not move without him, and that although he thought hard of 
Mns lupereeded, yet he irunld mo^t readily put himself under the coninand 
of Cenml Monieomcrir. ihnt bit only ricwt were the public lervice. and that 
BO obitraciions of any kind would be given hjr hitiu This tpirited and «endble 
declantka 1 tceeivcd with inciprcMible atttafution, and he roovct to-morrow 
with the Tint divikiuo ol hu tenimeiit." StkmykrtaCongrtu. tjOctobcr. t77S- 
Thut hartnnny wax moq thtealeacd, ax Schuyler wrote on the next day coia- 
plaininc tbnt WooMcr had utxicred a court nutriial at Fort Georee. " whkb he 
by no tnrani bad a right to do." and had dt(char{;eH men from llinman's and 
Walerlrtiry's rtpment*. "I anure j-oo, Sir. thai I feel lh*4e itiiult* frotn a 
general niiicci with all thai keen acnMbility thai a man of honor ought ; and I 
ahould be ubained to mention ihera to Coojpvu but that the criiieol jtitiuuion 
af out [laUie affain at ihik pcHot tn|uire that I ihoaM kaciilicc a jost reMtit- 
mcBt to ihcm. And I would with to liare it rememtiercd thai la that caute 
only mutt he imputed that I have taflrred a pergonal indignity to go ijn> 
punuhe<l." SckuyUr A> (^Hgrtti, 14 Oirtober, 1775. 

Me went forward with his regiment iaio Canada, put himtclf vadcr Ccacnl 
MontgotneiT, and verified tUidecUratlon by hiicoedvct, which wai not marked, 
however, with much entcrprue or efficiency. 




from the z6th of September, so that I hope you will 
have no difficulty in regulating your motions with 
respect to him. Should this find you at Albany, and 
General Wooster about taking the command, ! in- 
treat you to impress him strongly with the impor- 
tance and necessity of proceeding, or so to conduct, 
that Arnold may have time to retreat. 

Nothing new has occurred since yesterday deserv- 
ing your notice. Our next accounts of your health I 
hope will be more favorable. Ten thousand good 
wishes attend you from this quarter ; none more 
sincere and fervent than those of, dear Sir, your most 
obedient, &c. 


Caup at CAMBiu&ce, 5 October, i;;3. 

Dear Sir^ 

Your favor of the 8th ultimo came to my hands on 
the 2d instant by Mr. Byrd.' I return you my sincere 
thanks for your kind congratulation on my appoint- 
ment to the honorable and important post 1 now hold, 
by the suffrages of this great continent. My heart 
will ever bear testimony of my gratitude for the dis- 
tinguished mark of honor, which has been conferred 
on me by this appointment ; as It also will of my 
wishes, that so important a trust had been placed in 
the hands of a person of greater experience and 
abilities than mine. 1 feel the weight of my charge 
too sensibly not to make this declaration. At the 
same time. I must add. that I do not want to withdraw 

' Probably Olway Uyril, who wa» appuinted aiil-<lc-cain|} to Ceticial Lee, on 
Utv asUi. 





any services, within the compass of my power, from 
the cause we are nobly engaged in. 

Mr. Byrd shall not want for his pay, whilst he is in 
this camp ; although, as I have no cash of my own 
here, and charge the public with my expenses only, I 
shall be a little at a loss to know in what manner to 
advance it with propriety. Bills of exchange would 
answer no end here, as we have not the means of 
negotiating them ; but, if you would place the money 
in the hands of Messrs. Willing and Morris of Phila- 
delphia, (cither in specie, continental, Marj'land, or 
Pennsylvania paper.) they could easily remit or draw 
for it. But, at any rate, make yourself easy, as Mr. 
Byrd shall not want to the amount of his pay, * * • 

The enemy in Boston and on the heights at 
Charlestown (two peninsulas surrounded in a manner 
by ships of war and floating batteries) arc so strongly 
fortified, as to render it almost impossible to force 
their lines, which are thrown up at the head of each 
neck : without great slaughter on our side, or coward- 
ice on theirs, it is absolutely so. Wc therefore can 
do no more, than keep them besieged, which they are, 
to all intents and purposes, as close as any troops 
upon earth can be, that have an opening to the sea. 
Our advanced works and theirs arc within muskct- 
shot. We daily undergo a cannonade, which has 
done no injury to our works, and very little hurt to 
our men. Those insults we are obliged to submit to 
for want of powder, being obliged, (except now and 
then giving them a shot,) to reser\'e what we have for 
closer work than cannon-distance. 

xjz THE WRITINGS OF [1775 

My respectful compliments to Mrs. Nicholas and 
the rest of your fireside, and to any inquiring friends, 
conclude me, with grateful thanks for the prayers and 
good wishes you are pleased to offer on my account, I 
am, &c.' 


Cam? at Cauhridos, 13 October, 1775. 


I am honored with your several favors of the 26th 
and 30th of September, and 5th of October, the 
contents of which I shall beg leave to notice in their 
respective order. 

Previous to the direction of Congress to consult the 
general officers on the best mode of continuing and 
providing for the army during the winter, I had 
desired them to turn their thoughts upon these 
subjects, and to favor me with the result, by a partic- 
ular day, in writing. In this interval, the appointment 
of Dr. Franklin, Mr. Lynch, and Colonel Harrison, 
was communicated, an event which has given me the 
highest satisfaction, as the subject was too weighty 
and complex for a discussion by letter. This appoint- 
ment made any conclusion here unnecessary, as it is 
not probable any such arrangement would be agreed 
on, as would not be altered in some respects, upon a 
full and free conference. This good effect will arise 
from the step already taken, that every officer will be 

' " If any negfo is ti>uinl si rnggliti); «(lcr taf-too beating bIhjuI the cai»|i, uf 
ktrout aiiy of the roaili or v»lU|ru near the i-niarnpRictils at Koxbuty i>t Cam. 
bridgt, itisf arc lo bp sciicd and confined until Kunriic in llie guard, neared (o 
thfl plate where juch negro i» taken up." Orderly S^ei, October 9, 





prepared to give his sentiments upon thcscimportant 

The estimates of the commissary and quartermaster 
general I have now the honor of enclosing. • » » 

With respect to the reduction of the pay of the 
men, which may enter into the consideration of their 
support, it is the unanimous opinion of the general 
officers, that it cannot be touched with safety at 
present. * « * 

Upon the presumption of there being a vacancy in 
the direction of the hospital, Lieut. Col. Hand, for- 
merly a sui^eon in the iSth Regiment, or Royal 
Irish, and Dr. Foster, late of Charles Town, and one 
of the surgeons of the hospital under Dr. Church, are 

' Tli« ntfiabcra ul ifac vucnmitlcc, luJ tlcIcgitUs fioin ilii; (out colonics i^tuTe 
menlioocd, mrt in conrcntion at Ciunbridgc on Ihc iSlh of October, siwl con- 
ttnueit iheir &itlingt <Uily (ill the aid. The persons pre^nl, tieutics th« 
commiltrc, were Giinrold and W&les (lom Connccljcut : Governor Cooke (rom 
RlMxte Inland ; Bowdoln. OtU. ScTcr, sad Spuuaer frvin Mssttcbiuetu ; 
Matthew ThorDton from New Iliuitpklkire. Geaerol Washington was pretident 
ol tlie Uoonl. 

In a council of war, which had hecn SMVinltlctl but a ithort time lief oie. 
leveral of Ihc poiiili, put in charge <A the ■.fminiiltee \tf Con)[Tess, had been 
coiiudcTed. and Ihc opinions of the nRiccn upon tbcm ciprciwl. ThcK were 
generaUy coolinned and adoptM b]r the dclegales in confetence. The mode 
of raiwDg, arranging, clothing, and suppl]rin|; a new anny was detenuined. 
While ibe cocmi' remained iu the same sttcntcih at Uu^ua. II waiiunaninioniily 
agreed, that Ihc American anny ought not ti> condKi of leu than twenty 
IbouMuid thtte hundred and scrvnty-lwo men. making l«caly-t>ix regimentih 
exclusive of riflinirn And artillery, earh reKimerii to be divided into eight cotn- 
pani«. Eflotti were to be made to reenUst ai many Boldietn as posuble, 
■moag llioce already on the ground, and the vacancies were to t>c filled op by 
new levies. The delegatei of the foitt coloniet were re${>cettvely of opinion, 
thai twenty ihontand men mi^t be raiMd in MMmchutdta, eight Ibonand in 
Connecucnl, three tlioiuand ia New Ilamphhiic, and fifteen hundred In Rhode 
Uland, if the pay remained Ibe name oa heretolore, and the time of >errive oae 
year, Jtim^s *f tk* C«nJrmKt. 

After settling what peitataed to the anny, llic confertiKc broke ap, tint the 




candidates for that office. I do not pretend to be ac- 
quainted with their respective merits, and therefore 
have given them no further expectation than that 
they should be mentioned as candidates for the de- 
partment 1 therefore need only to add upon the 
subject that the affairs of tlie hospital require that 
the appointment should be made as soon as possible. 
Before I was honored with your favor of the 5th 
instant, I had given orders for the equipment of some 
armed vessels, to intercept the enemy's suppHcs of 
provisions and ammunition. One of them was on a 
cruise between Cape Ann and Cape Cod, when the 
express arrived. The others will be fit for the sea in 
a few days, under the command of officers of the 

«Bratnlttee from Congrvst T«tna)n«(l two or t)ir«« dayi i(>n|[er, and toolc many 
Other topic* into conndetktion, which had been suggcttei) inCcn«ral\Vaslun][- 
ton't lellen to Con|[re>it. The aitklet «( war ivcre reriMd, and changn 
TWOtDTnencJei) lo CiMigt*«. Kegulalinm for Hi*^«fiingof frifps sind prowions 
cnplured nt sea, exchange of |iri.i<jnen, eiiiploymcjU of Imlians. local ilciail.-iin 
fegaril to the nrmy, and mnny oihrr ixirliciiUre. wcrr dUcaH«l. nnd certain 
deiiniw prindplei or rulei e»tal>Ii»hed. The e«nlerenc« was of great monicnl 
to General WasJiingion. since the commidcc and ch« ilelcgBten fioin (tie 
ColonicK would Ue biiunJ lo Miscniii tlie ni«u!ture» there agreed u|>on. The 
aSain <A tlic army were Urr^ughl iiilti n inoTC sptcmitic Xttdn, and the Com- 
mani)<liier cuuld act with mure pTcciaiun and conlidcnce. The doinj^of 
the cnmmiitBc were in pan conlinnril liy Congress, in a aerisc of reaolvcs 
after their return. The inst ruction « giveo by Congrcn to it» committee will be 
fonnd in Force, Av%truan ArcMwi. Founh Series, lii., &48. The proceedings 
tA the conlefcnce are given in the wme volume, 1155. 

" Wbai Franklin, HnrriKin and Lynch sre gone about to the camp before 
Boston, li inacier of {•»»[ speculation here in F.n|;]Hnd. Some think it ii to 
exdie WaUiington to action hcfnrc winter ; others in reconcile WaehingtoB and 
Lee." Hutchinraii, Diary anii Letttri, \. , 57a. 

The cnmp<i<Jtion of thiR committn cauMd tome expie^aon of iurpriM, for ft 
u-ai a v<rry criricftl period, when tact and knowledge were necetiaiy. " Why 
wore not the New Ei^land dclc|;a[es seal 10 cslabllih the plan (at consliiution 
of the new army? Why Met« strangers sent?" Gtnerat Grttnt to Samutt 
IVarJ, 31 December, 1775. 





Continental army, who are well recommended, as 
persons acquainted with the sea. and capable of such 
a service. Two of these will be immediately de- 
spatched on this duty, and every particular, mentioned 
in your favor of the 5th instant, literally complied 
with.' That the honorable Conji;ress may have a 
more complete idea of the plan on which these ves- 
sels are equipped, I enclose a copy of the instructions 
i;iven to the captains now out' These, with the ad- 
ditional instructions directed, will be given to the 
captains, who go into the mouth of St Lawrence's 
River. As both officers and men most cheerfully en- 
gage in the service, on the terms mentioned in these 
instructions, I fear that the proposed increase will 
create some difficulty, by making a difference be- 
tween men engaged on similar service, I have 
therefore not yet communicated this part of the plan, 
but reserved an extra bounty as a reward for extraor- 
dinar)' activity. There are no armed vessels in this 

' ' latcUigciiKc bail just been tctciveJ by CQiii:rt3!i of the aaUins ol ivro brig- 
antinet from Engtnnd on the iiih of Aujjtun, liaund (or Quebec, laden with 
poird«r and other EtorM, withnut conToy and of no force. And instniciionfi were 
inaed to WaKhincton. (hni he »b<iul4 wiib all jtouiblc dctjialcb fit out two 
trnted wawK, at Ihp Caniin«nlal expense, lo sail for ihc Si. Ijiwrrncr, with 
' the view tA intcice|tling Ihcte bnginlinei. He vrai directed lo procure the 
vesscU from the suvcriiinciil ai MmJichuMttx ; but, at there were no armod 
vei&cU belofi(;ing lo Ihal provincr. Biid Ihc vcucIk of Rhode Island were not 
>Tailable. he r<qui{>|>r<l and xnt off two of tJici««, which were dro^y eiiLployed 
in the public »CTvice, '" These vntch [the Lyntk. commanded by Nicholaa 
Broughton. and the Franilm, coinaianded by Captain John Seliuan] were or- 
dcted (c the river St. Lawrence to iiktcrccpl an ammunilioD vcwel btrand to 
QiKbec, but RiitttitiK bci. ibey took ten other veueh and Gor. Wright of St. 
Jolini, all of which W4rre tvlctscd, as we hod waged a mioivteriai war and not 
oacagainit ourntougraciaiiaiHAcrcign." £, Gtrrytajokn A<iam,<f t'cbcuaff. 
1813. /aunui/i, October sih. 
' Printed In Force, Am*neam Arckitut, Koarth Series, iti., 1075, to;6. 




province ; and Governor Cooke informs me, the en- 
terprise can receive no assistance from him, as one of 
the armed vessels of Rhode Island is on a long cruise, 
and the other unfit for the service. Nothing shall be 
omitted to secure success. A fortunate capture of an 
ordnance ship would give new life to the camp, and 
an immediate turn to the issue of this campaign. 

Our last accounts from Colonel Arnold are very 
favorable. He was proceeding with all expedition ; 
and I flatter myself, making all allowances, he will be 
at Quebec the 20th instant, where a gentleman from 
Canada (Mr. Price) assures me he will meet with no 
resistance.' • * * From the various accounts re- 
ceived from Europe, there may be reason to expect 
troops will be landed at New York, or some other 
middle colony. I should be glad to know the pleas- 
ure of the Congress, whether, upon such an event, it 
would be expected that a part of this army should be 
detached, or the internal force of such colony and its 
neighborhood be deemed sufficient ; or whether, in 
such case, I am to wait the particular direction of 

The fleet, mentioned in my last, has been seen 

I Ktt. Price was a tnetchani or Montreal, Wli«n that p?n.ce capitulated to 
CcDcr&I Moiiigouiery. lie wioie : — '■ I have found Mr. Price so active anti u)> 
telligenC, and so u-nnn n friend to the mcasurn adqpted hy Congrcia, that 
I wttli to have him mcnlioncd in the ationgett tcnnit to Crogms." He w«s 
■ppoinlcd deputy comtni»Mry-ge(ieml o( ihc rnny in Conndn llic spring 
follow iag. 

'^"RtMhtd, That lu the new anny in Mtwetcliutctts Day is cak-ulaicd 1q 
oppoic the army at Boiton, It is not opectrJ lh»l the general ihouU detach 
any part of it to New Vork or rUcwherc, iinl«»5 it appear to him neceuaiy to 
do w (or the cominun »ft(cty." yvHrnali, yt NvvemLcr, 1773. 




standing N. N. E. ; so that we apprehend it is in- 
tended for some part of this province, or New 
Hampshire, or possibly Quebec. 

The latest and best accounts we have from the 
enemy are, that they are engaged in their new work 
across the south end of Boston, preparing their bar- 
racks, &c for winter; that it is proposed to keep 
from five hundred to a thousand men on Bunker's 
Hill all winter, who are to be relieved once a week ; 
the rest to be drawn into Boston. A person,' who 
has lately been a servant to Major Connolly, a tool 
of Lord Dunmorc's. has given an account of a 
scheme to distress the southern provinces, which ap- 
peared to me of sufficient consequence to be imme- 
diately transmitted. I have therefore got it attested, 
and do myself the honor of enclosing it. 

The new levies from Connecticut have lately 
marched into camp, and are a body of as good 
troops as any we have ; so that wc have now the same 
strength, as before the detachment made under Col- 
onel Arnold. I am, &c.' 


CahI' at Camhsidge, 13 Octobct, 177$. 

Dear Brother, 

Your favor of the 12th ultimo came to hand a few 
dajfs ago. By it I gladly learnt, that your family 
were recovered of the two complaints, which had 
seized many of them and confined my sister. I am 

■ WiUlam Cowlcj. 

■ Read before ConfiicM Outwbn auft. 

178 THE WRITINGS OF [1775 

very glad to hear, also, that the Convention had come 
to resolutions of arming the people, and preparing 
vigorously for the defence of the colony ; which, by 
the latest accounts from England, will prove a salu- 
tar)' measure.' I am also pleased to find, that the 
manufacLury of arms and ammunition has been at- 
tended to with so much care. A plenty of these, and 
unanimity and fortitude among ourselves, must defeat 
every attempt that adiabolical ministry can invent to 
enslave this great continent. In the manufacturing of 
arms for public use, great care should be taken to make 
the bores of the same size, that the same balls may 
answer, otherwise great disadvantages may arise from 
a mixture of cartridges. 

The enemy, by their not coming out, are, I sup- 
pose, afraid of us ; whilst their situation renders any 
attempts of ours upon them in a manner impractica- 
ble.' Nothing new has happened, since my last, 

' An accaunt of the Convention is given in » letter from Gtorgt Mawft ts 
Watkington, 14 October. 1775. 

' On th« iSch of Oclobtr. the ofEcers wore cotiTened it second time to hold 
a council icspccting an attack on Boston, TEicrc was a unanimous voice 
Bgainvl it. but tlicic li no record of wliac wu Wa^liiiigtoti'i opinion. 

Ills ijuestiofi of alucking Doston had come before the commiliee of confer- 
ence, the subject bcin^ thub stated by Wa^iiugton : — 

'• The coiiiiril of war, having, in consc<i,uencc of an iniimalion frnm Con- 
gTCBi, dclihcratcd an the expediency of an Misck upon the troops in tlie toum 
of Boston, and cjjcicrmincd that at pruciil ii wax not pmcticablc : the General 
widicE to know how fai it may be deemed proper and advisable to avail himseU 
of the aeaton to destroy the troopi who propow to winter in lloston, by bom- 
lnudmenl (when the harbor i» blocked up), 01 In athcr words, wlietlicr the Ion 
of the tnwii. and the ptoperty therein, nre u) lu be contideroH, as ihni an nttack 
upon the Iroopn there should he avoided, wben it evideally appears that the 
town TOmt, of cnn»ec[ucncc, be dcstroyeil. 

The committee thnughi this too important to bedetertained by them. They, 
lh«r«foic, rcfeixcd it to Congrc«c, where it hung fire lor ■ longtime. " 1 mcaa 




■worth communicating. Since finishing our own lines 
of defence, we. as well as the enemy, have been busily 
employed in putting our men under proper cover for 
the winter. Our advanced works, and theirs, are 
within musket-shot of each other. We are obliged 
to submit to an almost daily cannonade without re- 
turning a shot, from our scarcity of powder, which 
we are necessitated to keep for closer work than can- 
non-distance, whenever the red-coat gentry please to 
step out of their intrenchments. Seeing no prospect 
of this, I sent a detachment, about a month ago, into 
Canada, by the way of Kennebec River, under the 
command of a Colonel Arnold. This detachment 

not to uitici|wte jottr delennination, bat onljr to approve your dcsif^ to hover 
llt:« ftn caglr orcr your prey, alvayt niAy to pauncr upon It wlieii ih« proper 
lime eom«, t hnve noi fargoi your pr«poiiiiaD reUiii^ la th»t city; 1 try to 
povc the way for it, ami wait (or ihc scai^i, u jrou ila" Lytitk t« Waiking- 
Un, 13 November, 1775. I1 wai nol nnti] December tiA ihal a rrfnlutJon 
iiria T«*ch«t, vIikIi appears in the printed joumala. aJthough maiked " tecret " 
in the manuscript joumaU. 

" That if Geneint W,i«hlnglon and hii councfl of war should be of opinion. 

that a Mccenf ul attack may be tna<Ic on the troops in Boston, he do it in aaf 

taaancr lie may tlitnk ci|>cdleiii. DUiwitlLiiaiidliic the luwn and property in it 

may be dalrnj-cd." In con mimic.i ling ihb reaolrc, PrcvidenI Hancock wrnte : 

"Vou will notice the rctuluttiin re1.iliv« to an attack apitii BoatOD. This 

I after a Dio«t tcrioiu dctiatc in a commiticc t>[ the whtilc hunsc. and the 

leculion oral referred to you. May God crown your ■ilempi with luccea. I 

heartily viih it, ikonf^h indiTidually I may be the ercaicf* suircrcr." 

'YRaJdo)! Hancock potacued a valuable property in Uoaion. 

It U a tittle lemarkablc, thut each port} bad conclusive rcaton* fcf avoiding 
tto attack the other. "It ii iiiaditaahlc," taii General Ga^r in a letter to 
aid nartmontb, "10 attempt peneiTaling the country ffam Boaton. The 
«n«aiy'« Imcct ara numcroua, and web an attempt must be made under very 
great diiadiranlage*; and cren if niccestfiil, little would be cainci by it. as 
neither hor^e». carriages, nor other meant fur moviri]; tonrard could be pro- 
cured. Our foiTce i« loo imall to be divided iiilo detachments lot thiK purpose, 
sncccA* would antver no oiber end than to drive the relicli out of one 
'jM'DBg-hald into another." MS. i-ttur, August 3otb. General Howe used 
the wme atipimcnts 00 the 9IH of October. 




consisted of one thousand men, and was ordered to 
possess themselves of Quebec if possible ; but, at 
any rate, to make a diversion in favor of General 
Schuyler, who by this is in possession, I expect, of 
Montreal and St. John's, as I am not altogether with- 
out hopes that Colonel Arnold may be [possessed] of 
the capital. If so, what a pretty hand the ministr>' have 
made of their Canada bill, and the diabolical scheme 
which was constructed upon it I have also, finding 
that we were in no danger of a visit from our neigh- 
bors, fitted and am fitting out several privateers with 
soldiers (who have been bred to the sea), and have 
no doubt of making' captures of several of their 
transports, some of which have already fallen into 
our hands, laden with provisions. 

I am obliged to you for your advice to my wife, 
and for your intention of visiting her. Seeing no 
great prospect of returning to my family and friends 
this winter, I have sent an invitation to Mrs. Wash- 
ington to come to me, although I fear the season Is 
too far advanced (especially if she should when my 
letters get home be in Kent, as I believe the case will 
be) to admit this with any tolerable degree of con- 
venience. I have laid a state of difficulties, however, 
which must attend the journey before her, and left it 
to her own choice. 

My love to my sister and the little ones is sincerely 
tendered, and I am, with true regard, your most affec- 
tionate brother,' 

' Dr. Jerctny Belknap vi»ic<l llic cttiuti ia OctobCT isd lias Ufl n few nolo, 
on tbc genentU. Ward cppeutd a "calm, cooS, &aii|^Uul man ; fuuiiun, % 





Camp at Cahbridob, 94 Octobci. 177J. 


My conjecture of the destination of the late squad- 
ron from Boston, in my last, has been unhappily veri- 
fied by an outrage, exceeding in barbarity and cruelty 
every hostile act practised among civihzed nations. 
I have enclosed the account given me by Mr. Jones,' 
a gentleman of the town of Falmouth, of the destruc- 
tion of that increasing and flourishing village. He 
is a very great sufferer, and informs me that the time 
allowed for the removal of effects was so small, that 
valuable property of all kinds, and to a great amount, 
has been destroyed. The orders shown by the cap^ 
tain for this horrid procedure, by which it appears 
the same desolation is meditated upon all the towns 
on the coast, made it my duty to communicate it 
as quickly and as extensively as possible. As Ports- 
mouth was the next place to which he proposed to 
go. General Sullivan was permitted to go up, and 
give them his assistance and advice to ward off the 
blow. I flatter myself the like event will not happen 
there, as they have a fortification of some strength. 

fCMgh. licry freninii." On the tisl Oclober lie dineil with Mr. MifHin, the 
Qiunennut«r-Oei>enl. "Tlie companjr pnieni were I>r. FrankUn, Mr. 
Ly^Kb, and Colonel I lamuio (a cnoimiltce ftom the Coitgreia), General, 
' etc. Gencnl l^c » k |<crfcct orii^iiul, ■ ^ooA xchol&r, and an oAA ecnius. full 
of fire uid punoo, and but little good tnanneni ; a great sloven, wretchedly 
ptolane, an'l ■ giMl ulniirrr of dugs, of wrhicli I10 had two ■! dinner will) him, 
etc. GcscrKl Washington vrt* to have been at this dinnrr, hni ihr weatbct 
pre*ent«d. He k stld to be a very amiable i^nileiuaii. coal, i«adbl«, and 
placid, and ■ m«lutG wldi«r." 
' Pcanon jooca. 

i8x THE WRITINGS OF [1775 

and a vessel has arrived at a place called Sheepscot. 
with fifteen hundred pounds of powder. 

The gentlemen of the Congress have nearly fin- 
ished their business'; but, as they write by this 
opportunity, I must beg leave to refer you to their 
letter, for what concerns their commission. 

We have had no occurrence of any consequence in 
the camp, since I had the honor of addressing you 
last; but expect everj' hour to hear that Newport 
has shared the fate of unhappy Falmouth.' 


Campat Caurxidue. 94 October. 177;. 


The desolation and misery, which ministerial ven- 
geance had planned, in contempt of every principle 
of humanity, and so lately brought on the town of 
Falmouth, I know not how sufficiently to commiser- 
ate. Nor can my compassion for the general suffer- 
ing be conceived beyond the true measure of my 
feelings. But my readiness to relieve you, by com- 
plying with your request, signified in your favor of the 

1 "The General !• so boiily cngftgcd with tCommiiicc from ye CwnliiienUU 
Csagrus *nd the gaveroon of the ndjncenl caloniet, that he ctnnot is, h« 
milled wrileto you him«df." Herativ Gatti in H'tnltMrih, CAnirman ef lAt 
CvnmUUe of Forlimovlh. 20 Octohcr. 177S- 

' Mr. SpArks nonrrfltcl the Itrim-h Miniory from the cKuf;e tbui seem- 
ingly laid «£ninjl them, of wantonly nirlcring the dcflniction of the seaport 
lowDi. Bui there i» no mcniion of ihc tnimuen in Mowat'i Miiumoiis, dot 
doe* he give any source lor hi> «rdcn " to execute «. jmC puniahmeitt upon the 
town of FaJmottth." 

A detailed accounl of the l>timiag of Falmouth by I.icuienani Mowat wxj 
l»e found in Willinin son's Hiitary af Ataimt, vol. ii., pp. 411, 4J4. 





aist instant, is circumscribed by my inability. The 
immediate necessities of the army under my com- 
mand require all the powder and baH, that can be 
collected with the utmost industry and trouble. The 
authority of my station does not extend so far, as to 
empower me to send a detachment of men down to 
your assistance. Thus circumstanced, I can only add 
my wishes and exhortations, that you may repel every 
future attempt to perpetrate the like savage cruelties. 
I have given liberty to several officers in Colonel 
Phinny's regiment to visit their connexions, who may 
now stand in need of their presence and assistance, 
by reason of this new exertion of despotic barbarity. 
I am, Gentlemen, &c.' 


Cahf at Cambkidge, s6 October. 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

Your several favors of the !2th and T4th instant 
came safely to hand, though not in the proper order 
of time, with their several enclosures. You do me 
justice in believing, that I feel the utmost anxiety 
for your situation, that 1 sympathize with you in all 
your distresses, and shall most heartily share in the 
joy of your success^' My anxiety extends itself to 

* Titere '■» ■ curioiu entry in HvtchinMui'K Diary, i., ;6j ; " Ii it genenllj 
bdi«vctl tlial Falmouth ia C«k» Bay, it bunt by Capt. AIowU, aiid 3 ot 3 
BKirc tlii|i». Tbe UM lime 1 taw Lord Ct(cioTyc1 (■[craiBJiie], he obwrved. that 

; Adm. Gmvcs had bwn put in mind of hit TctniscnMs: and he imagined he 
would nin to ihc other extreme," 

* Gmcnl Schuylci hiul wrtlten (September 36ih) tiotn TicnnderoKa : " The 
VcxUion of epirfl under irhieti 1 labor, that a bubaraiu rompUcaiion 0I 

i84 THE WRITINGS OF [1775 

poor Arnold, whose fate depends upon the issue of 
your campaign. Besides your other difficulties, I 
fear you have those of the season added, which 
will increase every day. In the article of powder, 
we are in danger of suffering equally with you. Our 
distresses on this head arc mutual ; but we hope they 
are short-lived, as every measure of relief has been 
pursued, which human invention could suggest. 

When you write to General Montgomery, be 
pleased to convey my best wishes and regards to 
him.' It has been equally unfortunate for our coun- 
try and yourself, that your ill health has deprived the 
active part of your army of your presence. God 

diMirden iliMild pmeiii me (nxn raping tho»e Uurrls (or which I have un- 
vcuiedlj' WTcmglil since I was tiono-red with this ccimnuiiiil : the anxielf I have 
sufferecl since my anival here, lesi ihe army shoufd starre. nccasbned by a 
KBUflnlouf Wiiiit of subordi nation and inatleiilioii to inj- orders lu sonic <>( ihr 
o£Bccn, llial 1 left In camtnitnd nt the difTcrent |>i>sls ; (he rut variety of rexa- 
tlOBSIii'il <lUagre«iib1e incidents, thai almoHt every linur sHse in «oinedrpiR< 
metil or other ; not only rcutd cay cute, but have put me ciMiiideTably badt 
for tiuine it&ys past. If Job hail been a genera) in my silualion, his mcmary 
had iir>l heen so fa.mous for paliencc. Bat the glorioui end we have in view, 
■od which I have a coiifidciK hope ivill be attained, will ntt>uo (or all." 

' Gcneml MonCjiinnirry had lihcwisF met with his (ull share of troubles. On 
the 13th tti October, while investing the fort at Si. John's, he wrote to Gtneral 
SdiuylcT ;— 

" I had had a road cut 10 the Intended grouDd, anil tome tudnei made, 
when I wwt inromied by Major Brown, thol it j^ncra) ilUsalisfaclion prevailed ; 
ihal unlcM soniethins wat uadcrtakcn in a fev days, there would he a mutiny : 
find that the uiiivenal i«n&e of the army whk to direct all our nltenlion lo lite 
CK*! viiic. The iiiipalienue o( IIk troops to }^( hvmc has prevented their iieeing 
the tmposMhility of undertaking thti bunnetx snnner, ihc duly licing hartl for 
the Iroopi even on the pre»nt conlined state of operationi. 

" When I metilioticd my intentions, I did not ConKidcr llmt [ was at the head 
of troop*, who carry ihc spirit of freedom into the field, and think (or them* 
solves. Upon eonsidering the fatal Ciinseqtiences, which might flow from a 
want of >ut)ord!nation and diadplinc, shuuld thia ill'honior cunlitiue, my uiuta- 
ble authority over iroopt of different cntaniei, the intatliciency of the military 






Almighty restore you, and crown you with happiness 
and success. 

Colonel Allen's misfortune will, I hope, teach a les- 
son of prudence and subordination to others, who 
may be too ambitious to outshine their general of- 
ficers, and, regardless of order and duty, rush into 
enterprises, which have unfavorable effects to the 
public, and are destructive to themselves.' 

Dr. Franklin, Mr. Lynch, and Colonel Harrison, 
delegates from the Congress, have been in the camp 
for several days, in order to settle the plan for con- 
tinuing and supporting the army.' This commission 
extended to your department ; but, upon considcra- 

Uw, and my own want of power to enforce it, wemlc ■* it ia, I thought it a. 
peitienttocftU the ficLd-officcn lcis«thcr. Budoecd I tend you iheiottltol our 

" I cannot h«lp observing to how llnle parpoM I ftm here. Were I not 
•fniil the cxornplc irodd he tn« gcnetvtly (altowed, and thai the public ^rvicc 
might •kuder, I would not stay sn hour U the head ul troops, whcHc upemtiunt 
I cftnnot direct. 1 rouit uty I have no hope of »u«ccu, nnlesu Ironn the y^rn* 
»on'» wuitini; provision." 

' When « ennvention gf ihc Eercril lownthipi of ihe New Hampshire gnnit 
met at Ponet, <fa July a6, 1755, to elect field and ollii^r officera, Ethan Allen 
npcctcd in nbuin the chief command, hot to hit great cbngrin was defeated by 
Selh Warner, of BenninKlon, the vole in the conventiom being forty-one to five. 
AUcn then joined General Schayler, without holding a coBimistioD, and raising 
■ conipan]r of Canadians, croncd ihc Si. Lawrcucc with a tmiall party below 
Montreal, where he u*m defeated and token priioner. nfier matntalntng for 
aotnc time, and willi i;tcal courafc, a very unc<]u«l coitllict. He was put in 
irons and sent ti> Quebec, and thence lo ICnKiand where he arrived December 
S31I. After being a prisoner for nearly three yean, Imnsported from place 
10 place, he wa* exchanged. He published, in 1779, a A'drrii/iW of the cvcnU 
at hU capciue and imprisonmeui. 

* While f>r. Franklin was in camp, he paid over lo a committee of the 
MaMMchiMolta Aucrably one bundieil pounds ^letting, whi-cb had li<«n for- 
warded lo him as a charitable itonaiion from persons in England for the rdicf 
of tho*e, wbo bad been wounded in the battle of Lexington, and of ibe 
widow* and children of ihoic, who had been slain. — ^bwrna/o/ tkt Antmify. 
October ijth. 


tion, it appeared so difficult to form any rational 
plan, that noihinj^was done upon that head. If your 
time and health will admit, I should think it highly 
proper to turn your thoughts to this subject, and 
communicate the result to the Congress as early as 

We have had no event of any consequence in our 
camp for some time, our whole attention being taken 
up with preparations for the winter, and forming the 
new army, in which many difficulties occur. The 
enemy expect considerable reinforcemenu this winter, | 

and from all accounts are garrisoning Gibraltar and 
other places with foreign troops, in order to bring 
their former garrison to America. The ministry 
have begun the destruction of our seaport towns, by 
burning a flourishing town of about three hundred 
houses to the eastward, called Falmouth. This they 
effected with every circumstance of cruelty and bar- 
barity, which revenge and malice could suggest. We 
expect every moment to hear other places have 
been attempted, and have been better prepared for 
their reception. 

The more I reflect upon the importance of your 
expedition, the greater is my concern, lest it should 
sink under insuperable difficulties. I look upon the 
interest and salvation of our bleeding country in a 
great degree to depend upon your success. I know 
you feel its importance, as connected not only with 
your own honor and happiness, but the public wel- 
fare ; so that you can want no incitements to press 
on, if it be possible. My anxiety suggests some 





doubts, which your better acquaintance with the 
country will enable you to remove Would it not 
have been practicable lo pass St. John's, leaving 
force enough for a blockade ; or, if you could not 
spare the men, passing it wholly, possessing your- 
selves of Montreal, and the surrounding country? 
Would not St. John's have fallen of course, or what 
would have been the probable consequence ? Believe 
me. dear General, I do not mean to imply the smallest 
doubt of the propriety of your operations, or of those 
of Mr. Montgomery, for whom I have a great re- 
spect. I too well know the absurdity of judging 
upon a military operation, when you are without the 
knowledge of its concomitant circumstances. 1 only 
mean it as a matter of curiosity, and to suggest to 
you my imperfect idea on the subject I am, with 
the utmost truth and regard, dear Sir, your most 
obedient servant." 

* ** The rontinucd Accumnktion of price ind the icarcity which prerub- 
ihrcugh th« camp, (or th« srveral utldet of wood, haj, Ac, obl^ me to ad- 
dret* yoat honounblc Houses agnin upon thi* nbjcct. 

"The diirtcu of ihe Army for thr»e ncc«uaiict. I fear. ttlU be follovrnl 
widi the moal drcti'tful cffoeU lo th« general caute in which wc are engaged, 
nnle» Mme >peedy anil effeauaJ remedy b pn*id«d. I bavo dw ntsioat Ra- 
ton (n think the tcatnty n aitiCicial ; and, that the Genera] Court may hare 
l«II Mtitdtction 00 Ihi* nibjeei, Ihrae gentlemen, who have heirn employed in 
eodcaroNriag to procure thuc aniclcs, now wail oa yoiu hoooorable Houic*, 
togtve yon luch infonnauon ai ihelr inqiilritt and opfmrtusitia enable iben 
to do. The iniporlnncc &nd nccculty of making uich provinicn bs (o enable 
Uie tiiMp» 10 keeji tlicir ptrat niiui bo too obTious to moke any ar^uincat Dcce»- 
nijr : and aa lhi« Province bu evrr bem itnong thr (nrenKwl in il^ tjiirilrd 
Wertioat, I flaltci myxK nich meanirei will be adopted a* will remove the 
•ppnhemkMu and aiuuclics nndci which we now labor." WdjJumgtMi A it^ 
Cffmmeiie/ Mainuhmettt, aj October, 1775. 

"Vourfarai of ilic xsth initant cane lafdy tobaad. CaptaiD Whippk't 
r bai been unfoitonalc. but ii ia nM in mit power lo ODBuaand success. 





CAKniDOE. 30 October, 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

After you left this yesterday, Mr. Tudor presented 
me with the enclosed. As there may be some obser- 
vations worthy of notice, I forward it to you. that it 
may be presented to Congress; but I would have his 
remarks upon the frequency of general courts martial 
considered with some degree of caution, for although 
the nature of his office affords him the best opportu- 
nity of discovering the imperfections of the present 
Rules and Regulations for the Army, yet a desire of 
lessening his own trouble may induce him to transfer 
many matters from a general court martial, where he 
is the principal actor, to regimental courts where he 
has nothing to do. I do not know that this is the 
case, but as it may be. I think it ought not to be lost 
sight of. 

In your conference with Mr. Bache, be so good as 
to ask him whether the two posts which leave Phila- 
delphia for the southward, both go through Alexan- 
dria, and if only one, which of them it is, the 
Tuesday's or Saturday's, that I may know how to 
order my letters from this place. 

though it is olwa^ our djty co dcficrrc it. I bapc he will tie mure succcMfuI 
in hii ititeiided voyaEc, if il i» prop(»«l In coiiseijui-ucc ot lh<' direction of the 
CongrciK. I think \\ proper you fahouUI appnic liini. that Iwo scliouncrs liavc 
mMcJ frum )iccit;c lo tlic uiuulb of Si. I.awtcnire River upon the same service. 
commaTnW hy Captain Bniughton UTid Captain Splliniiii. The sigrtnJ which 
ihcy have Agreed on to diMtinj^vuh cnch other and to be kngwn Co their' (ricadt, 
Is the enkigo up lo the mun lopplng-lift I ngtce with )»u. thai ihe attach- 
ment o( our Bcnnudian litcthren ought (b rei^ommend Ihetn lo the favnrable 
regards of ihcir fricude uf America, and I il(>ubt out it will. I ahall ccrlitinly 
take a proper oppoituniiy to make their ea»c known m the honotable Con- 
tiaeoUl CongrMs." WoikiitgtBn le Dffiity Governor C^ke, 9g October, t7;s. 




My letter to Colonel Harrison, on the subject we 
were speaking of, is inclosed, and open for your peru- 
sal ; put a wafer under it and make what use you 
please of it Let me know by the post or * * * what 
the world says of men and things. My compliments 
to Mrs. Reed, and witli sincere regard, I remain, &c.' 

* " At jmu will b« fully informed of nny manrr nnil thing r«Uiive (o the 
Knii;, by youi own cominitlcc, 1 thoulcl not have given jmi ihe trovblcof b Id- 
ler at Ihli lime, were H not on ColcincI Reed's accounl. lie U, u I [iraunii: 
jren may have hennl, concerned in many of the prinvipil causet now depending 
F lo tlie count of Pcnnaylvxuia : and should [hoM cau:ics be pressed foi irii,l by 
I ^kk brelhfcn of the pmfeiMon, it will not only do hini a mantfcit injury in his 
tic* and fnlVTC prospern. but tfTord roftm for complaint of hit having n«g. 
'lectad hi* bminca ax a lawyer. This lie thinlts may be ^roicied, il .viine of you 
gmllcmen of ihr Congm*. in the coiirar of con*crMiion with the chief-jtullce 
Mid othcn, would reprcMDl the diudvanUgea, whl<h must re«uit to him, in cace 
his cauws ahvuld be hnmed to trioL 

" That Colonel Keeil ii clever In hU buaincis. and us.efiil to me, u too ap;iv- 
«il to mentinn. I ihould do eqaxl injuiticc, thetefnre, lo bit >>iili[ica and 
. >icrit», tterc I not to adil, that hit Mirico here are ton impnflant to be lou, 
land that I could n'ish to have him conridend in llii« point o{ ciew by your 
\ body, when occasion ihall farwr. 
' I dutn take it iiini) of you lo give mc. from lime 10 itmc, such anthenlic 
intelligence of the maiueuvres of the minixtiy, is you think may be reHed on. 
W« g^l iion« bul ncw'>,]Mper accouitl* here, and thcte very impertcvt." — W»iM- 
iMgffH lo Hithard Iftnry Lrt, 19 Octolier, 177). 

ColoDcl Jo*qih Reed was tccrelary lo C»nota.l WAs.Tiington. He lefl the 
camp (or Phikdclphia, on ibe 3uth of October, and wra* obiem till aftci the 
roDOval ot the army to New York. r)i)ring thif pcrind a constant and confi- 
deattal coneipondence woe kept up between him nnd the Cornmandcr-in-^hief. 
Roben Hanun Harriwri, of Atexandiia, a lawyer by profcMion, with whom 
Wathington had been much ac<|nitnted. and who had been itivilcd l>y hiiu to 
become one of hii axis, nTriie<t in Cnnibridge vliorlly after the departure of 
Cotoncl Reed. Itc wat immediately anncmnccd in (he public orderv as an aid 
lo the;hicf. He received a colonel's coiDnilsion, and served 
as tcctdaiy lo ibc General during a large portion of the war. S^rtt. 

"A* many oStcen, and others, have bq[un to Enlbt men tor the Continental 

Amy, without Ordeix {torn Head Quarten ; The t^nera) dcdret, that an im. 

mcdtatc Slop be put thereto ; that the iiilistments be retum'd : and that no 

C^tOfioa for the fittnrc. prtiumc lo interfere in thit mailer, 'till there is a proper 

jMnblUimenl of Officert, and thoae Ofteen auihortied and inilnictcd in what 

nuucs to proceed, Commusioiu in the new Anny arc not isteudcd merely (or 





Camp at Cambkidck, 30 October, 1775. 


The information, which the gentlemen who have 
lately gone from hence can give the Congress, of the 
state and situation of the army, would have made a 
letter unnecessary, if I did not suppose there would be 

those wUo cos inlisl the most men ; but for §ijch GcnilemcB at arc mott likely 
tadoGfve them. The CenemI would, tlierefore. not have it even Kupputced : 
nor OUT Enemies cndiuNgcl to believe, that there ia a Man tn thii Annjr (es- 
ttpt a tew millet partitukr titcumiUiiito) who will reiiuirc to be twice atkcd 
to do what his HnnflUf. his pcreono! Liberty, the Wclfnreof hi» eounlfy and 
the Sniety of bis I'unily 10 loudly ilenaad of him : WLcn motives powerful aft 
these, conbpitc to call Men into Venice, and when thai ^civlce is rewarded with 
higher pay ihiin private Soldien ever >■« met with in any former w»r ; The 
GcDcial cannot, nor will not (until he i« convinced to the coiitraxy) harbour ao 
dcitpicablr an Opinion of iheit undenutiLiuig and acal (or ihe came, a« 10 be- 
lieve they will Hetert il. As ihe Congress have lie«n at so much pains to buy 
Goods, 10 cloaih the Army, and the Quarter Mastci Ocneial, al ereat Iroubk 
to collect, upon ihe brht terms he car, such Articles at are warning for this 
purpohe. he il directed to reserv* tho^e goods for those brave Soldicra, who arc 
dctcrmin'd to jiiand forth in defence of their Country aiiuilicr year : and that 
he may be nlile to distinguiali tlieie, Iroin sudi as inenn tu cjuit ih« Service, at 
the end ol their present engagement, he will lie (urni>hed with the Jnlistmcnto 
— Any person therefore (Negroes excepted, which ihe Congrew do not incline 
to inlint again) coming with a proper On ler and \t-lll subscribe the InliKtincnt, 
shall be immediately jupplied. That cvciy non Coinnti$.sioncd oHicei and Sol- 
dier may Vnow upon what Tcriiti II is lit engages, lie is hereby Infonn'd — 
Thai he " It to be paid by the Kaleitdar Monih, at the present Rnlei ; ta ruif— 
Forty eight Shillings to Ihc Scrjcauls, Forty (our to the Corporals, Drums & 
Plfet, and Forty to the privates, which pay it is expected will be regularly dis- 
tributed every month. 

" That each man is tu furnish his own Armt (and good onc»} or if Arms U 
fmind him he is to allow Six Shillings for ihc use thereof ilaring the Campaign. 

" That he is to pay for hi^ Cloalliinj;, which will be laid in for him upon the 
best terms it can be bought ; to do which, a Stoppage of Ten Shillings a 
month will be made, until the Cloucbing is paid For. 

'• Thai Two I>olIafs will he allowed every one of them, who brings a good 
Blanket of hi* own witli him, & will bare Liticrty to carry It away al the end 
of Ihe Campnign. 

" That the present oUowanoe of provuioos will be coDllnucd ; And overjr 






some anxiety to know the intentions of the army on 

the subject of the retinlistment. 

Agreeably to the advice of those gentlemen, and 
my own opinion, I immediately began by directing all 
such officers, as proposed to continue, to signify 
their intentions as soon as possible.' A great number 
of the returns are come in, from which I find, that a 
very great proportion of the officers of the rank of 

wwn who inlists »lultbc ini)iilg<s<I in ■ rnuonablc diiic, 10 vixlt liis family in the 
couiM of ihc wittier, la \vt ngiilaieil in such a tnannEf, as nol lo wntknt the 
Army m injure Ihc lervico." — OrJirfy ffiMt, 31 OdwVrr, 1775. 

> " The (Jcpaiin Irnn) thr Hnnoniblc ContiDcnul CongtcH baring arrived ia 
Ihb camp, in order lo confer wilh ihe ncneral, the teveral Govrraan ol Khade 
IiUnd and Connccticul, the Cuuudl o( Musatchutcttt Bay an<l the Prcaidcut nud 
[of] ibe Convcntioui o( New Hampshire, on ihc continuinif an army for ibc 
<4efenr( and tiipimrt nF America and its 1tbcrti«s ; all officers who decline the 
farther wrrice of their counlnr, and intend to tctiic from Uie army at the ni>i- 
ratjon of ihcir piescni lent) of «cThicc, arc to Mgnify their intcniions in wTiling 
lo their colonel, which he it ta deliver «iih hli own, to the Brigndier Oneral, 
tlw cctnittandliie ofBccr of liis. brigade. Thu&e irave men and triu patriotic 
who uc resolved to conlinue ta t«rve and defend their brelhten, privilege* and 
|)iDperlj, arc to cciiBidcr lltcmadict eii^ijcd to lUe U<l lUy of Dn,(.-ml>er, 
1776, tmlen tooner diachargcd by the Hon : the Continental C,rm^yv», and will 
In like manner lignify their inienlioni." — Orderly Bttat, aa October. " The 
time* and the importance of the gre*t c«u»c we ore engaged in, allow no room 
tor hcilIaiioD or delay fin dcclulag intention to icrve]. When life, libctiy and 
propert y are nl Ktalce, wlien our country i* in danger of being a melancholy 
scene of Uoodahcd and dc«>tstii>n. when out town» are laid In aslio, and iniiv- 
ceot women and children driTcn from their peaceful habilalioni^ cxpoaed to the 
hg<>r at an inclement iftiton, and lo the lunds of charily perhaps For i]u.>ir iup- 
poft : when calaniilict lile tlioc uc (taiins u» in the f>cc, and a bratal, wvogc 
cnony (more m> than wiu ever yei fouml in a civilLed oation), are tbrentenini; 
IK, and every thing vet hold dear, with dettmction from foreign Iroopt, it little 
lietomch the character ul a soldier lo shrink from danger, and L^iidiiiuii for 
new lermv It iii the General'* intenlinn to indnlge both officen and \oldteni 
who compose the htw army with farloiighk, lo be ahwnl a reaaoDable lime, but 
it mutt be done in rach a manner bm not lo injure ibe len-ice, or weol^en the 
ormy too much at once. The General also thinks thai he can take upon him lo 
■Mnte the officers and soldier* of the nev army, ihai ibey will receive their pay 
once a month regularly, aflci the terms <rf their ynstm Inlistment arc expired." 
—OriiHy B«ek. 26 October. 




capt:un, and under, will retire ; from present appear- 
ances I may say half; but at least one third. It is 
with some concern also that I observe, that many of 
the officers, who retire, discourage the continuance of 
the men, and, I fear, will communicate the infection 
to them. Some have advised, that those officers, 
who decline the service, should be immediately dis- 
missed ; but this would be very dangerous and incon- 
venient. I confess I have great anxieties upon the 
subject, though I still hope the pay and terms arc so 
advantageous, that interest, and I hope also a regard 
to their countrj*. wilt retain a greater portion of the 
privates than their officers. In so important a matter, 
I shall esteem it my indispensable duty, not only to 
act with all possible prudence, but to give the most 
early and constant advice of my progress.' A supply 
of clothing equal to our necessities would greatly 
contribute to the encouragement and satisfaction of 
the men : in every point of view it is so important that 
I beg leave to call the attention of the Congress to it 
in a particular manner.' I have the honor to be, &c. 

■ " I un happy lo ialomi yen that CongrcHlu* ngivvd to cTciy rfcaminvndA- 
llon of Ibc CommiltM, and bacc gone beyond it, in allvwing the addictDnol pay 
to (ke ofiitcn. I rejoice tX ihii, hut cuinol thinli with patience that pitiful 
metcbec, who stoml cavilUtig with you when enlmteU to Mrve ihe nut cam- 
fMlgfi, ibonld reap ihc bcacnt of tliis ■'Iditiuo. They will now be rady 
ennajfh, but hope yon will be able to icfnK Uien with tlic cantempi (hey 
dcatrv«, ui4 to find better in their tomn, Cnuld not some of the gontltmea at 
cunp enlist tlie New Engluid men who have bcoo penuailcd to leave yon ? 
Frailer lold dic he coold. It would be m capita] point to convince the wurld 
that it k net neoeauiy to lun bad oftcen of that country, in order to tniie men 
tlwfc. I c«a Karoebcai (lieir tyranny."— £>»Kit la W«ukin£taH, 13 Kovcmber, 

' Read in Confirew November 7, 

"1 lincctcly with thia cnnip rould rarnbhaKOodcngiiiccT, ThcCommitsuj. 





CAMKRiiiur. t November. I77S> 


I could not suffer Mr. Randolph ' to quit this camp, 
without bearing some testimony of my duty to the 
Congress ; although his sudden departure (occasioned 
by the death of his worthy relative.' whose loss, as a 
good citizen and valuable member of society, is much 
to be regretted) docs not allow me time to be par- 

g«<m«l can infom j«« liow r««««dingly d«fici«i«t tW uai^ to tA (<nti«ai«D 
dulled in lh«t branch of bmancss. and that meat of ihe w«Mkii, wbkh hare hecD 
thrmm np for iIm dcfnic* o4 oar Mvenl encuapmniti, tu^c bean pitnnsil bfa 
l«tr ol ibe prindpal officer* oj tbii »miy, uM*t«d by Mr. Kn<K, A (cnllcaiRB 
xA WomstcT. Could I aflord jva che dnircd uatounoc in thb vRf, I tbemU 
do It iritli pJeawre. 

"Herewith 70a wiO receive « mp^r or the pfocvcdiim^ liciil witli ilKcumroti- 
tee of CoDgTCM fmn FhiUdelptua. It ought to hare Itcen Mnl anooier. biH I 
am tl prawnt vtdMqt a cccretaif; Colonel KMd, kaTing a call al li'<«iie, TeTi 
ihu place oa Sunday UsL I bcaitilj' coogiaiulate ytw oa iW nttiicrj <A the 
CCmunlaaai7.eeQenl [Ur. jMcpb Trambnll, aoa u( the Guvenm. abu had been 
for ac^« tinke ill in Coftnecticat], wIwm return, m> tooa ai he can tfavcl'wiih 
wfctjr, b Back aUnd Cor." — fKa/Ai^tm to Govertur TrmmhUi. > Noreaiber, 


■ Eduaad Randolph, «1m had Mnad (or a tkoet tb^ a* aa aid la <I«B«rs 

'Pcytoa Randolph, prnddcnt ot the 6rU CoallantLal CBWgwi*. He died 
saddcaly >i Pbl U ddphia o« tbc «>d a< Oct«bec A long B*d Iptbttla Ifiwd' 
afc^ lutd nliinl bc(a«cm Uia aad WatUngtoa. He had bariy bcaa al » ea< 
taNB Cawgrpii to fireaiAe ia tbe Vbfiaia Caavcotioa. and Ui la« btUr to 
WMUafioa waa daiad ScptenbcT bh. It ba^iaa wick ilw tafloaiac paia> 

«"I* — 

" I have ii ia cr— aaJ bo trartit' to yoa Um tbaalci ol the Coereatloa «< 
Vltfiaia (or foar **^Mi' JiaA a igr ol the imponaai tntt rt|fi*cd in yua, aa 
OM a< iklr dcfafa w t« &e Cia a U a tu tal Caapnh Voar apptrianaaai to ■■ 
•See^flaoHackeMMafaaaccto AacrfcB, and i nc— i f at ft ia wkh yew at i i ^ 
anceoatUftAof. aa* ifaa aaly gMaiia ink eadA kaav tadaoad (bnn aa«ie 
call ytm M tbe mam acrrttt. Ywr fendar M^fBUa «tM ——*—'— la tU« 
acfcawhitparwli. and yoa wjU lNii«*e il p««i aw dK gfiatnl MtMCa>M»Mi iv 
com*; » jam iW valfBcnte ad faar aa aau/t ca, aad al the taaa line W gin 
70a every UHtaaeny of ay affaohalfcaa aa 




The enclosed return shows, at one \'iew. what reli- 
ance we have upon the officers of this army, and how 
deficient we are Hkely to be in subaltern officers. A 
few days more will enable me to inform the Congress 
what they have to expect from the soldiery, as I shall 
issue recruiting-orders for this purpose, so soon as the 
officers are appointed, which will be done this day, I 
having sent for the general officers, to consult them 
in the choice. 

I must beg leave to recall the attention of the Con- 
gress to the appointment of a brigadier-general, an 
officer as necessarj' to a brigade, as a colonel is to a 
regiment, and one that will be exceedingly wanted in 
the new arrangement.' 

The proclamations and assoctation, herewith en- 
closed, came to my hands on Monday last.' I thought 
it my duty to send them to you. Nothing of moment 
has happened since my last. With respectful com- 

' Altlioiieh ihc election o( a brigadier-gcncnl wax appoiiiicd for Kovembv 
33CI, the jcjurnolh cuiiiain uu [iienilon of itny action taken uutll January 1776, 
wlii^ii Joit«pIi K17 woh cli>ai6n far the army in M tLKMchu««(U, and Uenedict 
Arnold (or ihc army in iltt riuithctn ilcpartiiieiii. 

' Proclamntioni JMUed by Cfciicral Huurc, qm the 3&th of October. The fini 
wai (or piohibilin); any pcrsoii fnim bc<nvi»g Boslon, in which ht ifji ; " 1 do, 
by virtue of the pnwcr and authority vcxicd in tnc by bin Mnjc.ny. forbid any 
pengn or persons wh:)iever. not tielanging (o the nnvy, to posi from heiic« by 
w*l«r or olhcrwinc without my orJcr at permisiion given in writing. Any 
person or persons ilctcctc-d in the iticmpt, or who may l>c tctakcu upoa »uffi* 
CienI proor Cliereof. (ball be liable lu miiitiry execution, and tliau: who ci-capc 
riwll be Itcatcd a* trLiton by teiiuic of tlieir gowik And cfTccts." The Komd 
proclainalinn prohibilci any pcnon from cdrryine mofc than live iioundt in 
apvde nway from the city. The association n-os for emiiudying the dtiiens to 
defend llic town. Se« Aefemiramer, Vol. U.. p. 191. SfSlftt Gauttt, Nov- 
ciuticrOtb. 1775- 

With ihit letter 11 the Koril TrocliLinfltion of 93 August, 1775, " fo« *up- 
pitttioif tsbdliim 4iid Bcdttiou." 






pliments lo the members of Congress. I have the 
honor to be, &c.' 


Cambudge. 3 November. 1779, 

I promised the gentlemen who did me the honour 
to call upon me yesterday, by order of your House, 
that 1 would inquire of the Quartermaster-General, 
and let them know to-day. what quantity of wootl and 
hay would be necessarjf lo supply the Army through 
the winter, I accordingly did so, and desired Gen- 
eral Gates this morning to inform you that tt was his 
(the Quartermaster's) opinion it would require ten 
thousand cords of the first, and two hundred Ions of 
the latter, to answer our demands; but the hurry in 
which we have been all day engaged caused him to 
forget it, till a fresh complaint brought it again to 
remembrance. When the Committee were here yes- 
terday. I told them I did not believe that we had then 
more than four days' stock of wood beforehand. I 
little thought that we had scarce four hours', and that 
difTcrcnt Regiments were upon the point of cutting 
each others' throats for a few standing locusts near 
their encampments, to dress their victuals with. This, 
however, is the fact; and unless some expedient is 
adopted by your honourable body to draw more 
teams into the service, or the Quartermaster-General 
empowered to impress them, this Army, if there 
comes a spell of raJn or cold weather must Inevitably 

■ Read in Coogreu. Novemba tjth. 

196 THE WRITINGS OF [1775 

disperse ; the consequence of which needs no animad- 
version of mine. 

It has been matter of great grief to me to see so 
many valuable plantations of trees destroyed. I en- 
deavored (whilst there appeared a possibility of re- 
straining it) to prevent the practice but it is out of 
my power to do it. From fences to forest trees, and 
from forest trees to fruit trees, is a natural advance 
to houses, which must next follow. This is not all ; 
the distress of the soldiers in the article of wood, will 
I fear, have an unhappy influence upon their enlisting 
again. In short. Sir, if I did not apprehend every 
evi! that can result from the want of these two capital 
articles, wood especially. I should not be so impor- 
tunate ; my anxiety on this head must plead my 
excuse. At the same time, I assure you that, with 
great respect and esteem, I am, &c 


Cambbidob, 4 November, 1775. 


Your favor of the 31st ultimo was presented to me 
yesterday. I thank you (as I shall do every gentleman), 
for suggesting any measure, which you conceive to be 
conducive to the public service ; but, in the adoption 

' Hr. Quincjr had suggested to General Washington « plan for blocking «p 
Boston harbot, and taking the whuk British ^nny and fleet. Being tbor- 
onghly acquA-inted with the islnnds in the harbour, and the ship-channeU, lie 
cunceivcil It praciit^lilc ti> construct such wurks at suilalile puitits. as wuuld 
prevent the cgreH of thi: Klit[tping. Etc communicaieil liic scheme to Dr. 
Franklin, who pnid him a viiit wliiU attending the tommitlec of conference at 
catnp, and by whose ndvice he wrote ai large on tlie subject lo Waaliington, 






of a plan, many things are to be considered to decide 
upon the utility of it. In ihc one proposed by you, I 
shall not undertake to determine whether it be good, 
or whether it be bad ; but thus much I can say. that 
if there is any spot upon the main, which has an equal 
command of the ship-channel to Boston harbor (and 
give me leave to add that Point Alderton is not with- 
out its advocates), in all other respects it must have 
infinitely the preference ; because the expense of so 
many batteries as you propose, with the necessarj' 
defences to secure the channel, the communication, 
and a retreat In the dernier resort from the east end 
of Long Island, are capital objections. Not, I con- 
fess, of such importance as to weigh against the object 
in view, if the scheme is practicable. But what sig- 
nifies Long Island. Point Alderton, and Dorchester, 
while we are in a manner destitute of cannon, and 
compelled to keep the little powder we have for the 
use of the musketry. The knowledge of this fact is 
an unanswerable argument against every place, and 
may serve to account for my not having viewed the 
several spots, which have been so advantageously 
spoken of. I am not without intentions of making 
them a visit, and shall assuredly do myself the honor 
of calling upon you. In the mean while, permit mc 
to thank you most cordially for your polite invitation, 
and to assure you that I am, Sir, your most obedient 
humble servant. 





Cambkidgx, s November, t77S- 

Dear Sir. 

Vour favor of the 26th uhimo with the enclosures, 
containing^ an account of the surrender of Fort Cham- 
blee. was an excellent repast, but somewhat incomplete 
for want of Montgomery's letter, which (a copy) you 
omitted to enclose. On the success of your enter- 
prise so far, I congratulate you, as the acquisition of 
Canada is of immeasurable importance to the cause 
we are engaged in. No account of Arnold since my 
last. I am exceeding anxious to hear from him, but 
flatter myself, that all goes well with him, as he was 
expressly ordered, in case of any discouraging event, 
to advertise me of it immediately.' 

I much approve your conduct in regard to Wooster, 
My fears are at an end, as he acts in a subordinate 
character. Intimate this to General Montgomery, 

' The utuMion o{ affiiira ia Cwitda at thia time miiy be un'derei«>Dd by the 
following exrrnci from a letter, dated tt Monlrcol, OcIAber 19<h, aiid written 
hy Bn^ok Walson, in eminent merchant iif thkt city, ti>Cc>vcrnnr Franklin of 
New Jersey. The Idler was intercepted by General Montgomery, and fur> 
warded by him to Genera! Schuyler. 

"Such U the wretched ttato of this unhnp|iy proviEce," *a)rs the writer. 
" that Culoncl Allen, with a few ilcsplcnlile wretches, waiili! have taken tlus 
city on tlie 25th ultimo, had not ii* inhabitants marched out to give them baitle. 
They fought, eonijuercil, and lhc(eV>y mvcI llic province for a while. Allen 
and hiii banditti were mostly taken pri^uncnt. He '\% now irr chaiiu on board 
thcGncpeo. This little action ha>i changed the face of things. TtiaCanadiint 
hefoie were nine tenth* Coi the B-Pituaians, They oie now returned to their 
duly : many in itrnit for the King and the parishes, who hnd been olhcrwiaci 
and daily demanding iheir pardon and taking arms for the crawn." 

Thi^ Mr, Watson wcni over to Englonil in the bame vessel, in which .Mien 
andhii. asiociaieii were trsnsported as prisoner* andi:iiron». Alien'* wri it » and 
ankle* were heavily manftclcd. In hiit Nnrrativt he npcakv of having received 
much ill trcaimcnt from Wataon during the voyage. Walaon was afterwards 
Lord Mayor of Loodon. 




with my congratulations on his success [and] the sea- 
sonable supply of powder, and wishes that his next 
letter raay be dated from Montreal, We laugh at 
his idea of chasing (?) the Royal Fusileers with the 
stores. Does he consider them as inanimate, or as 
a treasure ? If you carry your arms to Montreal, 
should not the garrisons of Niagara. Detroit. &c., be 
called upon to surrender, or threatened with the con- 
sequences of a refusal ? They may indeed destroy 
their stores, and. if the Indians are aiding, escape to 
Fort Charlres, but it is not very probable. 

The enclosed gazette exhibits sundrj- specimens of 
the skill of the new commander in issuing proclama- 
tions, and a proof, in the destruction of Falmouth, of 
barbarous designs of an infernal ministrj'. Nothing 
new hath happened in this camp. Finding the minis- 
terial troops resolved to keep themselves close within 
their lines, and that It was judged impracticable to 
get at them, I have fitted out six armed vessels, with 
the design to pick up some of their store-ships and 
transports. The rest of our men are busily employed 
in erecting of barracks, &c. I hope, as you have 
said nothing of the state of your health, chat it is 
much amended, and that the cold weather will restore 
it perfectly. That it may do so, and you enjoy the 
fruit of your summer's labor and fatigue, is the sincere 
wish, dear Sir, of yours. &c 

Generals Lcc and Mifflin are well ; Colonel Rccd 
gone to Philadelphia.' 

' '* I fvmv«d your favor o( ikc 3i1 inilant, .tnJ nm vrry sorry it is not in my 
power to nupplir Uie ncccMilics of (he towit of FalniLrutb. I have rcfcrreil ihe 
Cnilemcii. who brought me your \m*\. to th« G«n«ral Conn of this prmince. 





You are 10 proceed im mediately to PortBtnouth in New Hamp* 
shirc, and comijlete the works already begun, to secure that and 
the other towns, at the entrance of Piscataqua River, from any 
attacks by ships of war. For this purpose you arc to fix fire- 
ships and fire-rafts in such places, as you find most convenient 
to prevent the enemy from passing up the river. 

As great calamities and distress arc brought upon our seaport 
towns, through the malicious endeavors and* false representa- 
tions of many persons, holding commissions under tli* crown, 
who, not content with bringing destruction upon some of our 
principal towns, arc yet using every art that malice can devise to 
reduce others to the same unhappy slate, in hopes by such cruel 
conduct to please an arbitrary and tyrannical ministry, and to 
receive from them in return a continuance of such places and 
pensions, as they now hold at the expense of the blood and 
treasure of this distressed continent ; you are. therefore, imme- 

wtio, I hope, will {all upuii mjihc mctliDcl for your iisMslance. The arrival of 
ihc CcrbcTUs mnn-of-war is very alfti-ming; I do not ap|ifehend [hey will 
altompt tu jienvtratr into the cuuiitry, u you serm lu f«ar. If ihi-y ithould 
ittcmpl lo land any of their men, I woultl have tbc good pco|>tc o( the o.'>unti7. 
by all means, make every opposiiion in tlieir in>wer: for it will be much ea!>ier 
ta prc'cni thdi innking a lodgiucot, ch&tt lo forcv ttkem from it, wlicn they 
) |{ut iwiikcuiion. 

"I write by this canveyancc lo Colonel Phinny, who wiJI give you ew«ry 
ftdvicc and iuaiatuncc in hU power. 1 linoercly lympalhize with the p«ug)le in 
the diKiccoi ihcy arc driven lo ; but it is in auch limes, thai tlicy should ewrt 
theniielvc^ in ihi; noble cauw of liberty and iheit cavMT^."—Wathin^lom to Hu 
Committet ef Faimenlh, 6 Novcmbet, 1775. 

" Iv'<f.ieinbir %th. — As Ihe Cuinniaiitlei-iti-Chtef has lieen apprised o( e 
deiign, formed fot the ohKCTvancc nf that ridlculou* ^inil uhndivh cuxtom of 
buriiiii){ ihc cfligy of ibe Pope, he vanntit help exprcning hit Nurprixr, that 
there *hoidd be officers and Mildiefx in ihit jiimy so void i>( common senM, 
aa not to we Ihe impropriety of such a (tep at thi* junclure ; al a time wbeo 
wc arc saliciliog and have really ohinincd the friendship aui) aUiun'c of the 
people of Canjida. whom we uu£hi to consiJcr as bn-^llircn embarked in Ihe 
MDtc cauae, the defence of the gciicial titicrLy of America. At such a juuulura 
and in >udi drcuinsIaitceN to be iiiaulling their reli^on in wi monstroua. a« 
not to be suifercd or exciited ; indeed, inslcn<l of offering the most rctnole 
inntt, it is oui duty to adilreas public thaalu to these our bretLrea, u to Iheta 




diatel)* upoo your arrival in that province, to seize such persons 
as hold commissions under the crown, and are acting as open 
and avowed enemies to their country, and hold them as hostages 
for the security of those towns, which our ministerial enemies 
threaten to invade. In c^se any attack should be made upon 
Portsmouth, or other seaports in that quarter, you arc immedi- 
ately to collect such force as can be raised to repel invasion, and, 
at all hazards, to prevent the enemy from landing and uking 
possession of any posts in that quarter. When you have com- 
pleted the works at Porisraomh. and secured the jiassage of the 
river there, you ate to return without delay to the array, unless 
you find the enemy are about to make an immediate attack upon 
that or the neighburing towns. 

The above is rather to be considered as matter of advice than 
orders, as I do not conceive myself authorized to involve the 
continent in any expense for the defence of Portsmouth, or 
other place, out of the line of the great American defence, par- 
ticular colonies being called upon by the Congress to prepare for 
their own internal security, Given under my hand, this 7th day 
of November, i;75.' 

we are so mnch indcbt«cl for every late happy eucccm over the canmion rntmy 
b CmikU."— £)n/<Wr Beoi. 

"Robert HaniioD lianlwn Esqr. ia appointed Aid de Qtinp la His Ex- 
^eUeocy, the ComiiiiLnder in Chief ; aad nil ordert, uheibei wtiiien 01 verlMl, 
ilin|i from ihc Ccaeral, througli Mr, KkniiOD ore to b« punctiudly obeyed. 
•■AlthnuEh the Men cunlined by Lieut: Cot. Keed of the afiili Rcgt. were 
nl(«9H upon Application to Head Quarters — The t!encra1, hi far ftam being 
dbpleated with Cot. Recti, (or bU endeavours lo pccvcnC an inlrinccuienl of 
the Genera] Otdcra ; ihM he thanks ihc Colonel ; u he shall every Officer, who 
pays ilrict obedience to order*, ai without »o doing, it is in vain lo think of 
pRMTving order, and diacipliDe, in an umy — The diaagrccabkaas t>\ the 
reaiher, scarciiy o( wood, 4c. faclJned the General to overlook the Oflente 
' eOBMBilted at that lime, but he hope*, *nd eipecbc, ttie Offioen and Soldien, 
will for the future, caredilly avoid wantonly cutting tlie Trees, and commitilng 
waste upon the pinperty of Ihaw already but ino mudi dixtreued by tlie deprc- 
dbtions o( the Army." — OnUriy B»vi. 6 November. 1775, 

'General SnUivao had already been employed xevtral dayt al ?i>rtamauth in 
fvioE difcctjona about (ottifying the Town and harbor, having been teni there 
ta conaeqnciicc of the threat of Lieutenant Mon-dt at Kalmoulh, that all the 
lowM on the sea-cntuit lu tlie caitwatd of Itostoa would be burned. He aico 
cauaed action to be taken against certain ]ienoni who were thought to be hoctUe 
to ibc cause of the colonic*, — Force, Ameritaa Arekivtt, Fourth Seriea, ir., 19. 





Cahsxidcx, 8 Nuvember. 1775. 


The immediate occasion of my giving- the Congress 
the trouble of a letter at this time is to inform them, 
that, in consequence of their order signified in your 
letter of the 20th ultimo, I laid myself under a solemn 
tie of secrecy to Captain Macpherson.' and proceeded 
to examine his plan for the destruction of the fleet in 
the harbor of Boston, with all that care and attention, 
which the importance of it deserved, and my judg- 
ment could lead to. But not being happy enough to 
coincide in opinion with that gentleman, and finding 
that his scheme would involve greater expense, than 
(under my doubts of its success), I thought myself 
justified in giving into. I prevailed upon him to com- 
municate his plan to three gentlemen of the artillery 
(in this army), well versed in the knowledge and 
practice of gunnery. By them he has been convinced, 
that, inasmuch as he set out upon wrong principles, 
the scheme would prove abortive. Unwilling, how- 
ever, to relinquish his favorite project of reducing' 

' John McPhcnon. " He propoM* greal thing* ; is Mnguine, confident, 
podtive, thai he can take or bum every man of war in America. Il is a acCRC. 
he Myi. but he will vommunicsle il to nny one member of Cungren, upon ctm- 
(litiuu thai it be not divulged (lurliig bis life at all, ni^r aftci Iuk death, but for 
Ihe xervice nf thii cunntry. He kbjk ihaC il ik as certain as that he shall die, 
lh« hfl can bnni an^ ship." — John Adnms, iVorkt, ii., 414-438. 

Hit scheme had been tcbmitlcd to a c-smnittee o( Congress (Hopkins, Ran> 
dolph, and J. Ruiledge) who thoughl il, in Ihctiry. praclictble. and wished i( to 
be tried in Boston harbor. 

" l\Af 38, 1775. Doctor Fnnklin deUvercd to ltii§ Board a leiicr from C«pt. 
John .MoeKhersoo. oCteting his servic«ii (or the defent-e of ihts country, for 
which Doclc. Franklin ii deiired to return the thanks of th>« Board to Ctpl. 
MacPherKin."— ^iMdilfj of Pimh. Cotmtii of Safety. 




the naval force of Great Britain, he is verj' desirous 
of building a number of row-galleys for this purpose. 
But as the Congress alone are competent to the adop- 
tion of this measure, I have advised him (although he 
offered to go on with the building of them at his own 
expense, till the Congress should decide) to repair 
immediately to Philadelphia with his proposals ; 
where, if they should be agreed to, or vessels of 
superior force, agreeable to the wishes of most others^ 
should be resolved on, he may set instantly about 
them, with all the materials upon the spot ; here, 
ihey are to collect. To him, therefore, I refer for 
further information on this head. 

A vessel said to be from Philadelphia and bound 
to Boston with 120 pipes of wine (118 of which arc 
secured) stranded at a place called Eastham, in a gale 
of wind on the 2d inst. Another from Boston to 
Halifax with Ary goods, &c. (amounting per invoice 
to about 340;^ lawful) got disabled in the same gale 
near Beverly. These cargoes, with the papers, I have 
ordered to this place, the vessels to be taken care of 
until further orders. I have also an account of the 
taking of a wood sloop bound to Boston, and carried 
into Portsmouth by one of our armed vessels — par- 
ticulars not yet come to hand, and this instant of two 
others from \ova Scotia to Boston, with hay. wood, 
live stock, &c., by another of our armed schooners. 
These are in Plymouth. 

These accidents and captures point out the neces- 
sity of establishing proper courts without loss of time 
for the decision of property, and the legality of sciz- 




nres. Otherwise I may be involved in inextricable 

Our prisoners, by the reduction of Fort Chamblee 
(on which happy event I most sincerely congratulate 
the Congress), bying considerably augmented, and 
likely to be increased. I submit it to the wisdom of 
Congress, whether some convenient inland towns, re- 
mote from the post roads, ought not to be assigned 
them ; the manner of their treatment, subsistence, 
&c., defined; and a commissar)' or agent appointed, 
to see that justice is done both to them and the pub- 
He, proper accounts rendered, &c. Unless a mode 
of this sort is adopted. I fear there will be sad con- 
fusion hereafter, as there are great complaints at 

I reckoned without my host, when I informed the 
Congress in my last, that I should in a day or two be 
able to acquaint them with the disposition of the 
soldiery towards a new enlistment. I have been in 
consultation with the generals of this army ever since 
Thursday last, endeavoring to establish new corps of 
officers ; but find so many doubts and difficulties to 
reconcile, I cannot say when they are to end, or what 
may be the consequences; as there appears to be 
such an unwillingness in the officers of one govern- 
ment mixing In the same regiment with those of 
another ; and, without it, many must be dismissed, 
who are willing to serve, notwithstanding we are de- 
ficient on the whole. I am to have another meeting 

'^yournali kJ Cengren, 35 November, 1775, 

' TliE prisoners wete onlered lu Kca*liiig, LaiiGuleri and York, in P«iiiU]rU 





to-day upon this business, and shall inform you of the 

The council of officers are unanimously of opinion, 
that the command of the artillery should no longer 
continue in Colonel Gridley ' ; and, knowing of no 
person better qualified to supply his place, or whose 
appointment will give more general satisfaction, I 
have taken the liberty of recommending Henry Knox, 
Esq., to the consideration of the Congress, thinking 
it indispensably necessary, at the same time, that this 
regiment should consist of two lieutenant-colonels, 
two majors, and twelve companies, agreeable to the 
plan and estimate handed in ; — which, differing from 
the last establishment, I should be glad to be in- 
structed on. 

The Commissar)' General not being returned, will 
apologize I hope for my silence, respecting a requisi- 

' Colonel CrMIey bad Iimd appolnlcd by ihc ProvlncUI Con^Kn of Mus»> 
duowiu. April 26ih. chief etigin»r in the anDyihm beginning lo be organlied. 
with a ularjr vl one buudrcd uud scrcnty {juunda a jMt wliDc in Mnicc ; and 
of Icr [be army >)ioii1d be diibandcd, he Witi to leccive annually one hunilnd and 
twenty-thw* pixindi (or lifo. — MS. JpuntAl *f Prw. Ciigrni. Thf ume 
proviaian ol a life annuily was extended to Uic uoiiUtil'eiiginccr, On Ulc VXh 
o( September, Colonel Gri'iley was commiiaiontd to take command ol the 
aniUcTj of ihe Continental army, but vx% wpcreeded by ColMiel Knox in 
Kov«n)bct. Hi) advanced age was a&aiencd by Cmicrm, •■ a rcaton Tor 
kujienedtng bim. Al tbe battle of Biuiker'i HiU he (ought with concjticiunu 
bnvety in lh« intnnchmcnli, which he hfl<l |<lanne<l under Pieioott, and in 
wkkh br wnt woandcd. Colonel Gridley was a toldici of long eiprricnoc. 
having serted in the two tail wan, and bem present ai the tiLing of Louisburg. 
and in Wolfc'i battle on the riainii of Abraham. — Sxctt's Jliit. of Bunket-Jiill 
B*nU. pp. 11, «. 54, Ui'fute tlie Rcvulutiou he rc<;ci»cd Iial[-|iay ai a British 
vttcer. When Otlonel Knox wb« apjmtnted tn hit |ilaee in the irtillery, 17 No- 
vcoilier, Cungrna voted to indemnify him for any k^> of half-poy, whkh liv 
■night nnuin in conKcjvencc of baring been in ibe Mirioe of the United 



1 1 775 

tion of the expence of his clerks, &c., which I was to 
have obtained, together with others, and forward. 

I have heard nothing of Colonel Arnold since the 
13th ultimo. His letter of, and journal to, that date, 
■will convey all the information I am able to give of 
him. I think he must be in Quebec. If any mis- 
chance had happened to him, he would, as directed, 
have forwarded an express. No account yet of the 
armed vessels sent to the St. Lawrence. I think they 
will meet with the stores inward or outward bound. 

Captain Symons. in the Cerberus, lately sent from 
Boston to Falmouth, has published the enclosed 
declaration at that place ; and. it is suspected, intends 
to make some kind of a lodgment there. I wrote im- 
mediately to a Colonel Phinny (of this army) who 
went up there upon the last alarm, to spirit up the 
people and oppose it at all events. Falmouth is 
about a hundred and thirty miles from this camp.' 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

* Tbe tuwti of Falmoulh sceim-d desliiird lo mfler more chnn the usual 
calunities of w^r, n!> ihe victim of resenlment, or the olijoct of n bitlcr enmity. 
It hii'l bcca burnt to th« ground by ilie commntidet of one ajnied ihip. and a 
(ortnighl !i[tcrward& 'v.% a«hes were iii&uUed by Ui« following menace of 

" Cnpl&in John Symons. cominan<!er of his Majesty'* ship Ccibcriu, cau&ctli 
it to be ti(fnifi«il and made known to all jienont whatever, in Ihe town of 
Faliuouth u wtll as tlic vouulry adjacent \ that, if after thin public nutice. ftny 
violences iihal) be oflered to any oHIt^ctii <if the cravm, or other peaceably dis- 
posed stihjcctR "f hi^ Majmty ; r.r, if any bodies of Dieo shall be raised and 
nrmed in tlic ioid town and coiintry adjacent ; wr any military work* erected. 
oibent'ise than by nrdrr of his Majesty. 0/ tho^e acllug under liis autliurity : ot 
if any attempt! xhall be made 10 seize or destroy any public ma^uiiiu of oimt, 
ammunition. 01 oihci slotcs, It will be iudispenimUy my iluiy tu proceed wltli 
the mo^l vigomiu effoTLx againal tile taid louti, ai in open rebellion jgainct the 
K!n|[ ; and if aflce lht!> si^iiliualiuii tlie town ihall pemit in (he lubcUiowi acl* 
above mccttioiMd, they may depend on my proceeding accordingly." 





P. S. I send a general return of the troops, and 
manifests of the cargoes and vessels, taken at 



ClMmiDCS, 8 November, 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

The shipwreck of a vessel, said to be from Phila- 
delphia to Boston, near Plymouth, with one hundred 
and twenty pipes of wine, one hundred and eighteen 
of which are saved ; another, from Boston to Halifax, 
near Beverly, with about two hundred and forty 
pounds' worth of dry goods ; the taking of a wood- 
vessel bound to Boston by Captain Adams ; and the 
sudden departure of Mr. Randolph, (occasioned by 
the death of his uncle,) are all the occurrences worth 
noticing, which have happened since you left this. 

I have ordered the wine and goods to this place 
for sale ; as also the papers. The latter may unfold 
secrets, that may not be pleasing to some of your 
townsmen, and which, so soon as known, will be 

I have been happy enough to convince Captain 
Macpherson, as he says, of the propriety of returning 
to the Congress. He sets out this day, and I am 
happy in his having an opportunity of laying before 
them a scheme for the destruction of the naval force 
of Great Britain. A letter and journal of Colonel 
Arnold's, to the 1 3th ultimo, are come to hand, a copy 
of which I enclose to the Congress, and by applica- 
tion to Mr. Thomson you can sec. I think he is in 




Quebec. If I hear nothing more of him in Rvedays, 
I shall be sure of it. 

I had iike to have forgotten what sits heaviest upon 
my mind, the new arrangement of officers. Although 
we have not enough to constitute the new corps, it 
hath employed the general officers and myself ever 
since Thursday last, and we are nearly as we begun, 

Connecticut wants no Massachusetts man in their 
corps; Massachusetts thinks there is no necessity for 
a Rhode-Islandcr to be introduced amongst them ; 
and New Hampshire says, it 's verj' hard, that her 
valuable and experienced ofificers (who are willing to 
serve) should be discarded, because her own regi- 
ments, under the new establishment, cannot provide 
for them. In short, after a four days' labor, I ex- 
pect that numbers of officers, who have given in their 
names to serve, must be discarded from Massachu- 
setts, (where the regiments have been numerous, and 
the number in them small) and Connecticut, com- 
pleted with a fresh recruit of officers from its own 
government This will be departing, not only from 
the principles of common justice, but from the letter 
of the resolve agreed on at this place ; but, at present, 
I see no help for it. We are to have another meet- 
ing upon the matter this day, when something must 
be hit upon, as time is slipping off. My compliments 
to Mrs. Reed and to all inquiring friends. I am, wil 
sincerity and truth, dear Sir, your affectionate humble 

P. S. I had just finished my letter when a blundeiVj 
ing Lieutenant of the blundering Captain Coit, wl 






had just blundered upon iwo vessels from Nova 
Scotia, came in with the account of it. and before I 
could rescue my letter, without knowing what he did, 
picked up a candle and sprinkled it with grease ; but 
these are kind of blunders which one can readily 
excuse. The vessels contain hay, Hve-stock, poultry-, 
&c. , and are now safely moored in Plymouth 


CAunitiD«B, to No*vinb«r, 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

Your favor of the i8th of September came to my 
hands on Wednesday last, through Boston, and open, 

' " A Mr Lciris, who Icfi Bcntnn yotmlar aflcnronn. infonns mc tlul. on 
account of the scarcity o( vood and proviiiotis iii Ihat place. Cfnernl llcnre his 
nnned a pracUtnalton, (Jciinng nuch of ihc inttabitaaCo >> ore tDcUn«<l lu leave 
Jk Town to give in ilieii namei. and a Ibt of their cfTccix, before twelve 
o'clock this Axf. 

" As the caotKKi nccnsaty to be )ucd with these people, lo prevent a ctm- 
municatlon af the imall-pox, aiiit the proper care of them when out, uc otijecu 
o( exceeding great imparlance, I nihmit them to the concidenliiMt of your hon- 
orable body before ita rcces&: aud if the huuumbk Coiucal ihoaJd likowbe 
■djoum, [ muM xIh> reoimnxend tn jrour nitention the necescilj' there is of con- 
nitnting wme cf>urt, before whom all pervin* inimical or fMipeelcd, to be 
inimical, in Amerka, should be broe^t for ciaiDiBBtion. My lime a M much 
taken up w^th mibiary affain, that it la iRipo^&ible for uie to pay a proper 
atlenlion lo tbc>e nialtcni. There will be ecrI yon, amongat olhcn, a fxwt* 
Smithwick. who, from an intercepted letter, appcarc to tiave roolved to get into 
Boston. Then ia a onall trunk bclnnging lo him now in my panewion, which 
contains in gold an<l nlver about fitly l^imnda lawful mcocy, which it i* probable 
be imesdcd to carry in with bim. The owner and Captain ol a unall Coaatct. 
pat into Bevetiy in diMiew, bound (mm Busion to Noiw Scotia, will appear 
before yon. They ban cankd on a tiade uf rappl^ii^ Buatuu witli ptovfatoo, 
ttc, forttonie time. I beg leave to refer them toyonr «xBmtnalion."'^ffarA- 
ii^tfm H Jamn Warrtn, 9 November, 1775. 

* Tbe Virginia CooTcntiim had mcl oa the lyth of Jnly, and paaied an ordi- 
iwnc« foi taiang two reglmciits to net In dcfescc ol the colony, and two addi> 




as you may suppose. It might be well to recollect 
by whom you sent it, in order to discover if there has 
not been some treachery practised. 

I do not mean to flatter, when I assure you. that I 
highly approve of your appointment The inexperi- 
ence you complain of is a common case, and only to 
be remedied by practice and close attention. ITie 
best general advice I can give, and which I am sure 
you stand in no need of, is to be strict in your disci- 
pline ; that is, to require nothing unreasonable of 
your officers and men, but see that whatever is re- 
quired be punctually compiled with. Reward and 
punish every man according to his merit, without 

tional comp«nie» for protcciinK tlie vreticrn fruniicn. By t]i« name ardinance 
the jiruvincr wiu ilivided iii!o stNlecn di«lriclt, *nil rvgulatiotiii wrrc adoplcil for 
cicrcUinE all ibc mililin ts niinnle-mcn, and iireporinc (or public .icrvice at a 
momenri call. — Stc Heiiuig'> Smi. vol. Ik., p. q. Patrick Itcnry wu aj^ 
pointed cfiloncl of the (inl regimcnl, jmd commander of nil iJic forces lo be 
nuicil lor the defence of tbc colaajr. Wllllara Woodfonl wucoLanel of tlie 
ucond regiment. 

Tbc fapllnu-ini' Icttci frum George Mumiii to Wa^liiiifjtoa, dale*! October t4th, 
is chAiBcteri.itic of chc writer, nnd contnins snme curious {lArririiUn in rrgttid 
to the doingi of tha Convetiiion. 

"i hinicd to you in my liut the parties ami faclioiu, which prevailed al 
Riclimuiid. I iievei wa.* iu so tlisanrccaUle a alualioii. and almost detiwired 
of ft canxe, which t saw to ill conduclod. During the first part ^f tlie Conven- 
tion, pnrlica tan tc lu(;h. that wc lisd frctjucutly nu olbcc way of preventing 
tmpropei meaiuies, lluin by ion, utging Ihc prevfnns qiicKlinn. and 
f^ving men time to reject. However, aft#r goiti« weeks, ttt« bnblden were 
pretty well silenced, n few weighiy members bcgnn lo lakc tic lead, several 
wliolctome rcgulaliont were made, and. i( ifae Convention had coniiiiueit to »it 
ft few <3a>-i longer, I thinh the public wifcty would have been ai. well provided 
(at. 09 out pTc&cni circnmstamca pcrinic. The Cviivcniion, not thinking thiii 
a lime tn rely ttpiin rciolvet and rccomnicndations only, and lo give oliligatory 
f'orce tQ their pruL~t'rdiii(,-^, ^idvptcd thu tilyle iiixl form «f kgislalion, c]utn|pi)([ 
the word inact into ordain. Their ordinmirc!' were all introduced in the form 
ol hilb. were te);ularly referred to a committee «f the whole house, and ut^der- 
weDt tiuTC reading* befocc they were paucd. 





partiality or prejudice ; hear his complaints : if well 
founded, redress them ; if otherwise, discourage them, 
in order to prevent frivolous ones. Discourage vice 
in every shape, and Impress upon the mind of every 
man, from the first to the lowest, the importance of 
the cause, and what it is they are contending for. 
For ever keep in view the necessity of guarding 
against surprises. In all your marches, at times, at 
least, even when there is no possible danger, move 
with front, rear, and flank guards, that they may be 
familiarized to the use ; and be regular in your en- 
campments, appointing necessary guards for the se- 
curity of your camp. In short, whether you expect 

" I eucloic ywi. the oitlinanci: fur nusinj; jin anred Uact for ihe defence ud 
proicetkin of this eotony. Il is a littlr defaced by licin); liuidl«il al our dis- 
trkt committee, tiai it is the unl)' copyl have at present by mc. Vou will find 
uNne litiU tnaccurades in i(, bui. upon ilie whule, 1 h(i|H: it will merit youi 
approbation. The minute-plan I think is a wine one, and will iti a ihurt litno 
(vmbh eight ihooisand gooil iroojM, ready fur action, nnd corapmed of men in 
wboxe hand* the iword may Ik «ifcly innted. To defray the ex p? ntc of the 
provMlons initdc bj this i>r<liii.-tnce, und to pay the cliar);c uf the hut year's In- 
dian war. wc an; novr cmittinfi ihe «uiii nf ihicc hundrrd and tifly thouund 
pa«ri& in paper currency. I have |;TMt appKheaiion.H, that the \xegt mm* in 
bull of credit now iuiiiing all «««« the continent may liavc fatal cffccik iii dc- 
ptectating the value: and, thcfcfotc, 1 upposed any nupenMon of tautlioD, 
and nrged the necewity of tmroediatelj laying such taxcB ai Ihe people eould 
beax, to Ui>k the oum emitted wt soon tu po>aible : l>ut 1 was able wily to r^ 
dnce the prapoted Kuspcndon fmni Ihrw yran to one. 

"Our frirnd, the trcnscrer, w** the warmeet man in the convention for iro- 
mcdiaicly raising a siantiing itrniy of not less than funr thoiunnd uien, upon 
C^Miilanl pay. I'hey uood a cmutidemhle time at three thouMnd, cxdu^ive of 
the troopc upon the wcitcm fronlien ; hut, at the Uxt rending, an you will *ce 
bythc ordinance, ihcy were reduced tu one tbomand nnd twenty ruiL nnd file. 
In my opfnioa. a well judged reduction, not only from our inniiiliiy to fiimith 
at pteaent mch a number wtlh arms and oumnnilion, bnt I think tt cslrcniirljr 
inpmdcnt to eihanii ounclvc* hcfore nc know whcD wc arc lo l>c aiiaclEed. 
The pirt we have to act at present seems to require our laying in good ma{». 
rinci, training our people, and having a good Dumbci of them lendy for action." 




an enemy or not, this should be practised ; otherwise 
your attempts will be confused and awkward, when 
necessary. Be plain and precise in your orders, and 
keep copies of them to refer to, that no mistakes 
may happen. Be easy and condescending in your 
deportment to your officers, but not too familiar, lest 
you subject yourself to a want of that respect, which 
is necessary to support a proper command. These, 
Sir, not because I think you need the advice, but be- 
cause you have been condescending enougfh to ask 
it, I have presumed to give as the great outlines of 
your conduct. 

As to the manual exercise, the evolutions and ma- 
noeuvres of a regiment, with other knowledge neces- 
sary to a soldier, you will acquire them from those 
authors, who have treated upon these subjects, 
among whom Bland (the newest edition) stands 
foremost ; also an Essay on the Art of War ; Instruc- 
tions for Officers, lately published at Philadelphia ; 
the Partisan ; Younjr; and others. 

My compliments to Mrs. Woodford; and that 
ever)- success may attend you, in this glorious strug- 
gle, is the sincere and ardent wish of, dear Sir, your 
affectionate humble servant.' 




' " The GcncTnl ihitnkK i -I I n. . n . , , nnd ihc other gallant OfFicm &mI 
8oItIlcn(u well o( oiliw i !■. Ilirllert) for their nUcrtly jmienlaj. 

la (luihing Ehto' the witter, lo f^cl In ilic Kncii))' uii l.«tchmoic't |>oint ; be >■ in- 
funn'tl tl»l there were miuc (n>mc^ «.i yet unkiitiwn) wlio ducovcr'd ■ back. 
wardiiMi la uumiin} the caat^ way— these will be murkrd i( they can be 
<UM(nr<K(] — The Gcnrial w&t much nirpnsFd and conccrncil lo se« the onlerui 
which matiyof ihc Annn in icvrrnt of tbc rrgiTnmtt appcMcd : he had nut line 
10 enquire ihc nfimes of ih« iwrticuUr Oflic«ni lo whosv Companies ibeylie- 
longtd, tnil Oetireti that thi» hint nmy be icoeivcd, m *n Admonition, by MKh 
tAiitn u ut comdoiu of their Nciglo:! ol this dulji : vt other mcUiod* will be 
(«i]«n upon, II il fs n<A."~Orifrrfy SmK, i«h NoTcmbcr. 1775. 






Camp at Cambxiock. it Na*«mber, I77S- 


I had the honor to address myself to you the 8th 
inst. by Captain Macpherson, since which 1 have an 
account of a schooner laden chiefly with fire wood 
being brought into Marbtehead, by the armed schooner 
Lee, Captain Manly. She had on board the master, 
a midshipman, two marines, and four sailors, from 
the Cerberus, man of war, who had made a prize of 
this schooner a few days before, and was sending her 
into Boston. 

Enclosed you have a copy of an act passed this 
session, by the honorable Council and House of 
Representatives of this province.' It respects such 
captures as may be made by vessels fitted out by the 
province, or by individuals thereof. As the armed 
vessels, titled out at the Continental expense, do not 
come under this law, I would have it submitted to 
the consideration of Congress, to point out a more 
summar)' way of proceeding, to determine the pro[>- 
•erty and mode of condemnation of such prizes, as 
have been or hereafter may be made, than is specified 
In this act 

Should not a court be established by authority of 
Congress, to take cognizance of prizes made by the 
Continental vessels ? Whatever the mode is, which 

' TUs act ii rcniArluiblc u hariitg been tbe fint, wkicb was passed by any 

of tke colonies, for Gttins out v»kU of manque xaA leprinl, and (or mabliih* 
iag A court to try and condentn lh« captured vciikU of the enemy. See the 
Act, and »ome tnlcratiiiK reouHia uu [lie xubjcct. in AuatioS Lift ^/ Gtny, 
ydI. i., pp. gs, SOS- Soe il»o AcU and Rc»oU-ei of the Prorince of Uawa 
diuMlU Bay, ».. 436. 515, 




they are pleased to adopt, there is an absolute neces- 
sity of its being speedily determined on ; for I cannot 
spare time from military affairs, to give proper atten- 
tion to these matters. 

The inhabitants of Plymouth have taken a sloop, 
laden with provisions, from Halifax, bound to Boston ; 
and theinhabitantsof Beverly have, under cover of one 
of the armed schooners, taken a vessel from Ireland, 
laden with beef, pork, butter, &c., for the same place. 
The latter brings papers and letters of a very inter- 
esting nature, which are in the hands of the honorable 
Council, who informed nie they will transmit them to 
you by this conveyance. To the contents of these 
papers and letters I must beg leave to refer you and 
the honorable Congress, who will now see the abso- 
lute necessity of exerting all their wisdom, to with- 
stand the mighty efforts of our enemies. 

The trouble I have in the arrangement of the army 
is really inconceivable. Many of the officers sent tn 
their names to serve, in expectation of promotion ; 
others stood aloof to see what advantage they could 
make for themselves ; whilst a number, who had 
declined, have again sent in their names to serve. 
So great has the confusion, arising from these and 
many other perplexing circumstances, been, that I 
found it absolutely impossible to fix this very inter- 
esting business exactly on the plan resolved on in the 
conference, though I have kept up to the spirit of it, 
as near as the nature and necessity of the case would 
admit of. The difficulty with the soldiers is as great, 
indeed more so, if possible, than with the officers. They 




will not enlist, until they know their colonel, lieuten- 
ant-colonel, major, captain, &c ; so that it was neces- 
sary to fix the officers the first thing ; which is, at 
last, in some manner done ; and I have given out 
enlisting orders. You, Sir, can much easier judge, 
than I can express, the anxiet>' of mind I must labor 
under on this occasion, especially at this time, when 
we may expect the enemy will begin to act on the 
arrival of their reinforcement, part of which is 
already come, and the remainder daily dropping in.' 

' " Thrtn N. Rnglnnil men arc > tlnnge composition. Tlieit cammarully ifl 
nndoublcKny |!mxl, buc they arc hi defective in nmtciUls for olCcen that it 
mutt rc<]iaire lime In tntlie a mil good imif out q\ 'em. Encloieri I senil ytnt 
Um address oE Uie geoenls to (he i^ldien. Vou mutt know tbnt iwtoc officcra 
wbo arc discarded from itie service arc uopcclcd nf cxeriing thernxdve^ to 
dlnaode the toMien from reentiaing. To connlenict iheir machlnfttiofii wu 
llwdcti|[n of thib (.'"per." — Charttt Lt€ to Rsitrl Mtrrit, 32 November, 1775. 
" Wc were tome time Bp)irehenu*e of loving every thing fmm the hackward- 
BCaa el the men in enlisting. It ii nippowd that ibe diK«rd*d <iSic«ra labored 
to render ihc soldiers disAfTcctcd ; but the men leall; have public spirits and 
recmltinc goei on mott lorintmingly." — Snmt to lamr. 9 Dcceraber. 173s- " The 
t«al and alacril^r of Ibc luilicia wbo trere mmmori'd on the npposilion tknt 
OKf linn would be ilcearnial»cd, pn>|[n<nilme well, aiid do much lioaot to ihoc 
Pnmncet. There is ceiUunly much palilic (ptril in tlie bulk o( the )>cOf>le 
and I tbink (hey merit pulilic culi^giaBn. Tbc N. En^'^"'' ilelegates I am inlil 
have lately ircdvrd k> many nihi ihiii they irani a cotilial. I beg therefore 
thai you unll adtninUter one to ihoM who are of your acquatnlnnce in my iMmc. 
I »evcr Mvr a liaei body than lhi» militia,"— W^rfrr tv Bftjamin fttit^, 
13 Deteiiiber. I?" J. 

" The latlc \ai diKhandtng army and (ormiiig newj was tendered very difficult 
by the reduction of eleven r^inwntu and the discharge of such a pULabcr of 
officers who have done every thing to obttnnci and retard tbe filling ol the ncv 
amy In hope* to niin the eatabHahntcDi aod bring themselvea Into pliee 
again.** — Ctntral Grttne to G^nvr-cr WarJ. 

" By letters from camp I find there U infinite difliculty la relnUsdng the 
army. The idea of making it wholly Continental hat indnced Romany ft1i«ra- 
lioBi ditf^uitin^ to bulh ulTinrs and men. thai very little Mitvekt has aitcadcd 
o«r recnutinc oidcn. I have ofien told the Congrcst, Ihal, nnder the idea oF 
ncv modcUtag, I was afraid we sbonld dedroy onr aimy. Southern urnllemeri 
viab to remove that aitachincnt. which the oAcen and men have lo tWr 




I have other distresses of a ver>" alarming nature. 
The arms of our soldiery are so exceedingly bad, that 
I assure you, Sir, I cannot place a proper confidence 
in them. Our powder is wasting fast, notwithstand- 
ing the strictest care, economy, and attention are 
paid to it. The long series of wet weather, which we 
have had, renders the greater part of what has been 
served out to the men of no use. Yesterday I had a 
proof of it, as a party of the enemy, about four or 
five hundred, taking the advantage of a high tide, 
landed at Lcchmere's Point, which at that time was 
in effect an island ; we were alarmed, and of course 
ordered every man to examine his cartouch-box, when 
the melancholy truth appeared ; and we were obliged 
to furnish the greater part of them with fresh ammu- 

The damage done at the Point was the taking of a 
man, who watched a few horses and cows ; ten of the 
latter they carried off. Colonel Thompson marched 
down with his regiment of riflemen, and was joined 
by Colonel Woodbridge, with a part of his and a part 
of Pattersons regiment, who gallantly waded through 
the water, and soon obliged the enemy to embark 
under cover of a man-of-war, a floating battery, and 
the fire of a battery on Charlestown Neck. We have 
two of our men dangerously wounded by grape-shot 

napKlive ccilontca, and iiiAkc thviu look up Eq the continent «t \»x^ for Ihdi 
snppoit OT protnolion. I never thooght ihac attachnicnt injiirinitii to the com- 
mon caus«, but the titrangctit inducemonl lo pcupk to rL<k every thinj; In de- 
fence a( ihu whok, upon the pieservation of which wnX depend ibc safely «f 
ewh culotiy. I wUli. ilierefore, not lo pradiwue, bu( to regulate it in such a 
manner, %a may miMt conilnce to the protection ol the whole." — Gevtmar hVtwJ 
la kit bnthtr, 21 Novemher. 1775. 





from the man-of-war ; and by a flag sent out this 
day, we are informed the enemy lost two of their men.' 
1 have the honor to be, &c.' 


CAKBKioaK, 13 November, 1775. 


At a time when some of our seaport towns are 
cruelly and wantonly laid in ashes, and ruin and dc- 

' In w-ritinK tu Culunel Reod a fen- Axf% AfierwarcU, Waablucloii ogKilte in the 
following niflunjjr wf ihU affair. "The aincrity of ihe riftcmcn and officers 
upon tliAl occssivn did tlicm hanot, to whicK Colonel Patcrson'a rcfpinent and 
some olhcrs wen equally cnrillcd. nccpt in a few insuinccs ; hut ibc tide, ai 
that lime, wm (.o exceedingly liigh *i lu compel a large circuit before our men 
coalil get 10 the caiiueway, by which mcanf the enemy, except a unall cohering 
party, diitaul from the dry luiid an lhi> side ncur tinir hundred yanU, bad 
\ Ktrmted or wore about to etnbarlt. All the shot, theicfore, that pancd wcte 
■1 a great rfiitcance : however, ihe men went to nnd nver ihc cauKway spiritwlly 
enoush. Tliiii little nian<FUvre of ihc enemy i^ uothlog mure than a prelude. 
I Wc have Certain advice of a scoundrel (ri>in Mirbkhead, a man >>f properly, 
' hlTiiif otrricd tuGcacial Howe a true Ktatc of the tnnporand ilispo^ilion o( 
the Uoops lowardK the new cnliiitmcnc. and given hitn Ihe ilruni^eit auunuioei 
of tli« piBCticabilily of mokini- himteK master of ihe^c linn in a very ^orl 
time, from the dbaffcciian of ihe soldier* 10 the ier«-ire. I am endeavoring to 
ceojHeract him ; how effectually, time alone can show. 1 be^n our bomb 
battery at l^cchntcrc's I'oint ImI nighi ; the working party came off in the 
morainiE wiihuul havini; met wiili any intcmipiloa. The weather favored out 
opentians, Ihe earth being clear ot frost. There it not an uSrecr in the arnny, 
who does not look tor an attack. Thi.% has no cffoct upon, the Connixticut 
regiment! : ihey arc resolved 10 go off." 

' Received by Col^reM, November iqth, and read the next day. 
* William Palfrey wai a native of Itoiton, bom in 1741, and educated a mcc- 
ehani under the au»[Hce« of John Hancock. Before the rerulutioo be wa* 
CBgaged in mermntile affairs in Boston, and I«w«rd4 the cloae of the year 1774 
lie sailed on a royaf^ to South Camlina, anil (hence lo England, in a mad 
belonging to Hancock. From a journal, which he kept during hit Uay in 
London, and which 1 have Men, he appcant to have been on tenna of intimKir 
vitb MMoe of the leaden of the high Whig party, and It is probable, that hit 




vastation denounced against others ; when the arms 
are demanded of the inhabitants, and hostages re- 
quired (in effect) to surrender of their liberties ; when 
General Howe by proclamation, under the threat of 
military execution, has forbid inhabitants of Boston 
to leave the town without his permission §rst had and 
obtained in writing; when, by another proclamation, 
he strictly forbids any persons bringing out of that 
place more than five pounds sterling of their property 
in specie, because truly the ministerial army under 
his command may be injured by it ; and when, by a 
third proclamation, after leaving the inhabitants no 
alternative, he calls upon them to take arms under 
officers of his appointing ; it is evident, that the most 
tyrannical and cruel system is adopted for the de- 
struction of the rights and liberties of this continent, 
that ever disgraced the most despotic ministry, and 
ought to be opposed by every means in our power. 

visit to the mctrDpolis of Greal BrilHin bad « political as wcli *» comroerci*] 
objtrt. He rcmrntfl lo M&v^AchiiKclls a few lUyn before Genrrol Wuliinetan 
lOAlt commnnd of ihe armjr, and win immediaidf employer! on buuDcssol trust 
and importitDCe. Assuming a miiiUiy chamclcr, lie wa^ for *oaic lime aid to 
General Chftrles Lee, and afterwards m General Waihiiii-iOH. ami (e«lve«l a 
Keutcnant-eMnrero cciia mission. On rhe 37th of April, 1776, h« was b^ Con- 
pCHS a}>puiiited|>ayni«Bter-geneTa] at the amiy, a slalianof grcal rcapooiiibility, 
which, for more itinn fniir years and a half, lie filleil in mch a manner aa 10 
give univrrsaJ utitfaction. During this peritxl he had exhibited i-uch proofiof 
his inlcnU fur bminea», fidelity, nnd 'Icrolcdne'^ to the cntiK: of his oounlty, 
thai, on the \\\\ of November. 1780, he was elected Conwl-General from the 
Uniteil SlAlos to Kiancc, an oflicc al thiit time of much cnniidcTali»ii, oa it in- 
volxed the duties of niakini; ealcnsivc purchase* nf military nnd otlirr lupplic* 
for Ihe eouBiry, and an caaniinatior and scltlemcnl of all ihe accounts, in 
wbicb tlic Unilcd Stales were concerned with public and private amenta in 
Europe, and which had been multiplying aitd nciumulating vince the com- 
menecment of the war. He sailed (or Fmnee, but the vetiel in which he took 
pouage ua» lo^l at tica, anil every one on board was supposed lo have perished. 
— Sparks. 




I therefore desire, that you will delay no time in 
causing- the seizure of every officer of government at 
Portsmouth, who has given proofs of his unfriendly 
disposition to the cause wc are engaged in ; and 
when you have secured all such, take the opinion 
of the provincial Congress, or Committee of 
Safetj', in what manner to dispose of them in that 
government. I do not mean that they should be 
kept in close confinement If either of those bodies 
should incline to send them to any interior towns, 
upon their parole not to leave them until released, it 
will meet with my concurrence. For the present I 
shall avoid giving you the like order in respect to the 
Tories in Portsmouth ; but the day is not far off, 
when they will meet with this or a worse fate, if 
there is not a considerable reformation in their con- 
duct Of this they may be assured from. Sir, your 
most humble servant' 

* "1 recchred your favor of the 6th inn: in which you gjve » deuil ol Doctor 
Cheney'* aw %\ li tppeand betore jrau and eouucil. fn which nothing buc the 
(air side oT bii ch«raclcT kppeuc Von niAy li« aiiuKd tir thai hit Trul will 
be iapuibl, — that no inMilioua dcusn!> of Vn ciicniiet will lure wd|ilu, nnil 
thai it will give tn« much pleiture to find he »n Kc(|i]it himwlf of the Crimes 
he i> charged with — the eridences «re hourly expected— «n their airiril, the 
Trial will he no I^ngci delayed. GcnL SnllivAn »t cut nn the lath Inst : for 
Purtumoaih, New HampHinre. . . . At il it now vexy apparent thai <*« 
have nothing to depend on in the procnl Content, but our own fcttcagth, care, 
ftrmncn, A union. Should not the utne meauim be adopted in yoar* and 
every other Covemmeni on ihe C*riinem ? WotiM it not be pmdent to Betia 
on those Torio, who have been, ate und that we know wiU be active against 
ns ? why should penoot who arc praying upon the viia]B of iheli Country he 
snflered lo ilalk at Uif^, whiUt we know they would do na every Bii*cUef in 
their power 7 the*c, Str, are poinia 1 bee t*> whintl id your tcrious uowtdcnitkn. 

" I congtatuUle you on the incceia of our arma, hy Ihe Miriendet oJ St. 
Johtia which hnpc will be lOon followed by the reduction of Cana<la." 

" F. S. by an cipfus arrived frmn rhilodelphia I reccitcd the foDowiog 
RcmIvc oI the CoRlincnial Congrett : 






Caudkidce, 16 November. 177;. 


You are immediately to examine iiitu the ^.tale or ttie aniilcrj' 
of ihis army, and laltc an account of the cannon, mortars, shells, 

Resehicd — Tlio! Dcjcioi Church be cta>e canliiici) in some secure Goal in the 
Colony of Conncciicui u-iihoui the uk of Pen. I nek nud pnpcr— «iid that no 
pcnon be allvwcd V) Converge with him ctccpt in ihe jjicgcncc of a Masi&tretc 
or the ShetiilT of thv County where he *\a\\ W ronrtiiei), mid in llw EngUili 
Language itnllEI further otders from thii or a fuiute Cungrt^s. 

" Sir, in consequence of the above rewlve I now transmit to your Care Oocior 
Church under the Unartl of CapL Iitnel Putnam, a tergeaiit & >evcn men. 

" Vou will please to complj iti every particular wSili the abo\-e Kc«o1uiloa of 
Congreit," — tVaihingloH Iv Covfrnor TrtimbuH, 15 November, 1775. 

*' In llie General Ordcra o( tbo Jist of OcCoIm;i, ii is dcciucJ that cverjr Noa~ 
CommtMion'd Officer and Soldier, diall he pnicl by the Kalnniler month, is foU 
ItfWB. to a Seijeanl forty-eight Shillings to the CorporaJa forty-four and (c«ty to 
etdi private \ which pay it is expected, wiU be regularly dituibutcd es«ry 
moMib — Ench Noii-Cu[iiuti»iuned UlScer, and Soldier. (Drutui. & Fife* tx- 
cepted) is to fumi«h hi« nwn Aims ; if amw arc found him, he is to allow Sia 
Shilling)!, at the end of ihe Campaign for the uxe thereof, New Cloaihing will 
forthwith, be provided for every Nan ConiDtiisiion'd Ofiicer A Soldier, (or whicti 
KD ea*y stoppngc, of only ten Shillingi n month, will be made QUI of hi* pay, 
tintil the whole ik paid. Two Doll-iri uill be allowed tueach Non-Commlttion'd 
Ofticer. and Snldicr, who provides himielf with n gooil Blanket, and Liberty to 
take it away at tJic cnJ of the caiupsitnt ; llic present uuple alluwoncc of prv 
vi^ionit will he coniinued, and thote who inlid, will he indulged in a reMonahIo 
time, to viijt their fanulys, in Ihe eourM o( the Wlatei, ihi* to be regulated ia 
luch manner at not to weaken the army, or injure ihc Krvice. 

" To prevent lucb contenlioiisas hove irlten, from (he ume penon being in- 
listed by different OIKcers, and foi iliRcrent Regimenta, it t* poMntively ordered ; 
upon pain of bring caihiered, no OKecr knowingly presume to inlist any 
Soldier, who has been previously inlieted by anmhrr nfficvr. whme iuch n mis- 
talte happens undeiigDedly, the linl Inlititnent ii to take place — The Offiocn 
ore to be careful uut to inlist any pcnon, inspected of being unfriendly to the 
Libcrttet of Amcri'Ca. or nny aluuidon'd vagnhi^nil lo whom nil Cau»e» and 
Countries arc equal and alike iudificrciit — TlieRi|;bt>io{ lunnknid and llic Im- 
dom of America, irtll ha\-e Nnmlicn suiiideni to inip|iciri them, without reaurl- 
ing lo «ich wretched aiMsiance. — Lft thoie who with to put Shacklea upon 
Freemen fill their RbdIu, and place their conlidence in such miscrcantn. 

" Neitlier Negiuw. Buys unable tu bear Amii, nor old men unlii to endure 
the fatigues of the campaign are In he inlistcd, the preference* being given to 





l«ad, and ammuntlion, that are wanting, IrVhen you have done 
that, you arc to proceed in the most expeditions maiiDer to New 
York, there apply to the President of the Provincial Congress, 
and learn of him, whether Colonel Reed did any thing, or left 
any orders rcspecling these articles, and get htm to procure such 
of them u can pos&ibly be had there. 

the prcwai Army. The Officer; uc vi^lttnlly to try, wliit numliFT i>f men oui 
b< loUMcdin ih« CouTM of this week, and mskerepon ilicrenf CoiheirColoneU, 
■who will rcpott it lo l!ic General — Thi» lo be done errery week, until ihe wliole 
an compleaied. The Reguneiiu are lo consist of eighi Co(n|nnie«, each Coca- 
P«ny of ■ C<>|'l>iii. t^'o l.icutciiaiilt, and bd Eniign, (oui SeijcitnU, (our Cor- 
porals, iwo Dninu & Fifes and Scvcniy-u* Pricilci; *i llic Refimenti ate 
coBipIenlcd. they will be nuittered, and then reviewed by the Cammn-ndcr in 
Chief ; when a Roll cf e*ch Cotopauy, Bigii'd hy ihc Cipuin, acconlini- to a 
form preiinudy deliivi'd t>y the Adjuuni (fenenl : vi to he delivered to hi> 
Excellency. The Colonel of each Regiment will receive n LikI of Ihc Officers 
upQB the Ncw-cttabliabincnt from hi* llrigadicr Uencral. Tbc Commiuioned, 
noa Com niiiai lined Officer- md Swldfcrs of ihe prcscni Anny arc, lootwJth- 
itanding iheir rew cngagcmeni) lo coniinuc in the Regiment and Company 
lliay now belong to, until further oiden>. — Upun any Soldien bdac mlistcd, 
fmm ihc prncnt, inio ihc Idcw Eiiabltthaicni. the Rcgtmcm he now ticlangi 
to, with hia Name, Town and Country, ivre to be enler'd in a KcU kept for that 
parpose. by each Officer : A Co[>y of ihk RoH sljn'i), lo be scut every Saturday 
morning, to the CnloncI of encli regiment." — Onterfy Book, 12 November, i;?;. 

" It w eamettly recoaunended to aU the OlEceia of lh« oU Regimcnta, to h«c 
that ihcir tnen's arm* are alwayt in good order and the men not luffcted tu ttrac- 
^ iiaa. Camp— nor on any Account, lo <iuit their pott when upon duty, but be 
(«ady to turn out at a icioinent'» warning ; and they may rely upon it tliey will 
be suddenly called ujMin. whcne^'cr it happens. 

" Very puinted Complainia having thia day been made ngainu the Cammla- 
Uiy General, from Mvctal Field Officer. &c., of Ccnl. SuUivan'i brigade — T)i« 
ConunandcT in Chief awurts Ihe compliiaontt, that the utrictcat eaaaiinaiion 
•hall tw made into the Conduct of the Commieary Genera), as uw>n as h« 
armet in Cambridge, which b expected thi% week. 

■ • Wheiea* the ttcneral haa been informed thai the orden of lh« 6lh ol Sep- 
tembr. hnvc lieen cuntliued to permit any appror'd Sutkr, to acll spinluons 
Liquon, tu the Solitien beloneins tn othvr Rceii»cat$, wEibout tlic pcrmlitiaB 
of the Commanding Officer of the icgimenl, lo which nich Soldier belong It 
U therefore ordered, thai no Ccaamandinc Officer of a ReBitnent, cball aulhor- 
tie marc than one Sutler to a Rcgiroeni, >&d such appointment ahall he notified 
tu Regimental Orders, and no persun beio); authorised, shall pftetime tu tell 
apiritiunu Liquun to any Soldiers belonging to any other Regiment, without 
lean; in writing under the hand ol the Commanding Officer to which such Sol- 
dier belongs."— Or./i-rv^ Bo«k, 14 November, 1775. 




The Prtrsident, if he can, will have them iinmediatcl)' sent 
tiilher : if he cannot, you must pul (hem in a proper channel for 
being transported to this camp with despatch, before you leave 
New York. After you have procured as many of these Deccs- 
saries as you can there, you must go to Major-General Schuyler, 
and get ibe remainder from Ticondcroga, Crown Point, or St. 
John's ; if it should be necessary, from Quebec, if in our hands. 
The want of tbcm is so great, that no trouble or expense must 
be spared to obtain them, 1 have written to General Schuyler ; 
lie will give every necessary- assi&tance, that they may be had and 
forwarded to this place with ihe utmost despatch. I have given 
you a warrant to the paymaster- general of the Continental army 
for a thousand dollars, to defray the expense attending your 
journey and procuring these articles ; an account of which you 
are to keep and render upon your return.' 


CAMPATCAUSKiDeB, 17 November, 1775. 



As the season is fast approaching, when the bay 
bc-twccn us and Boston will in all probability be close 
shut up, thereby rendering any movement upon the 

I Knoa'i jouinal of tbh cxpcfliCian b prinlol in New EnglamJ GeitAUgu»i 
JtegiiUr, July. [876. 

Tlie falluwing aiAet ii so curiaiK in itself, and so honorttblr to the peraoDs 
cpnccriidil, llml it deserves lo lie (icqictuated. Colonel Whitcomb hid served in 
the liirnicr wu, in wlikh lie Siod borne a part in several cngagcmenLi. aixl wan 
a getillc^man highly mpectcd. He commanded one of the MossichuHrlli rc^- 
mcuts, but, on account of hia ftdviaced age, he waii umittcd in arrsngiii): the 
new anuy. Tbc iotilien o( lili rcgiintiiii were in much <li satisfied, tluii they 
retolvcd not to cnliel nnder any other oiiicor. He ekhorlcd them not to be in- 
iluciiccd by nucb a motive, in a cauxc «> imporisnt ; and, lo io<lu<:c tbcm la 
remtun. he propneed (o jnin them ii> the ranki. 

" Ntvfiuitr i6tk. Motives of economy rendering it {ndU|>cn«ablyncct*«My, 
that manjrof (hcrcgtmcDts ihoulJ be iciluucd. mid the whole put u pun adifTci- 
ent esUtbUshineiit. seveml deserving ofiiccis. nut from Any demerit, but pure 




ice as easy as if no water was there ; and as it is more 
than possible, that General Howe, when he gets the 
expected reinforcement, will endeavor to relieve him- 
self from the disjjraceful confinement in which the 
ministerial troops have been all the summer ; common 
prudence dictates the necessity of guarding ourcamps 
wherever they are most assailable. For this purpose, 
1 wish you. General Thomas. General Spencer, and 
Colonel Putnam, to meet me at your quarters to- 
morrow at lo o'clock, that we may examine the 
groimd between your work at the Mill and Sewall's 
Point, and direct such batteries, as shall appear neces- 
sary for the security of your camp on that side, to be 
thrown up without loss of time. 

I have long had it upon my mind, that a successful 
attempt might be made by way of surprise upon 
Castle William. From everj' account, there are not 
more than three hundred men in that place. The 
whale-boats, therefore, which you have, and such as 
could be sent you, would easily transport eight hun- 
dred or one thousand men, which, with a very moder- 

DMCsrftjr, have bc«n excluded in ihe new amiagetneni of Ihe nrmjr. Amonf 
these, was Colonel WbiUonb ; but the noble icalunenU di*clo»«<l bjr that gcn- 
tkaiui apoa ihU occulon, the fcel he has ^hown in exhorting ihc men not to 
■bftsdon theintcKil of their country MlhUuniiartanl crUii, and hii> dctcrmma- 
tion to continue in the Krvivc. cicn ai e> private bolUicr, ralbor than by ■ had 
■aunple. when ihc enemy arc eathcrini' ttrcnirth, to put the public aflaln lo 
buiard : when *n exara|>l« of ihi^ kln^l \\ i«t, it not only entill«i a genlLemin 
to p«ni«iilai ihuikk, bat lo particular rewards. Coloricl Jonathan Brewer is 
entiiled tu oounall abire of credit, in readlljp ([ivliig up to ColooH Whilconb 
the regitncet, which he woa appoiated lo command. CAloeel Whitcomb, 
therefore, ia hcnootcaward to be conaidcrcd aa Culancl of llut rti:iiiieiit, whldi 
w» intendtid (oi Colonel Brewer; and Colonel Brewer will be appointed 
Barrack- Maiter, enlil tomelhinK better wortb hi* acceptance on be pcoviiled." 

J 24 



ate share of conduct and spirit, might. I should think, 
bring off the garrison, if not some part of the stores. 
I wish you to discuss this matter, (under the rose,) 
with officers on whose judgment and conduct you can 
rely. Something of this sort may show how far the 
men are to be depended upon, I am, &&' 

' Three cumpariei d LoyalUls wefc embodJed In Botlon oo the 17th of 
November. The (oUvwiog \% an extract from General Howe's Ordrriy Book of 
ifacit (Ute -.^ 

" Many rf hie M»j«ly'» loj-al Amerienn «iit»jrctK in Botlon, with their ftdbor- 
cnlB, hkvine ndcreil iheiT Kivicc fm Ihc defence of (he |>bce, the Commandet- 
in-chief h«s ordered ihcm to tie «nnr<1, «ntl ffltmc-il into thrct- cnrnpanics uodrr 
the command o( the honorable Brigadiet-General Timothy Kugj^ea, to be called 
ihc ' /jiyal AmirrUan Ati^iateri.' They will be dulingaiahed ly n while udt 
dfciiind ihc left onti." 

" RqirewcnlalionK having been made tft the Continental Congrets, of th« 
great ineiunliiy in the pnv uf the Ofliceri. and Saltliers of thU .Army ; the ftrU 
being lower than usiinl. nnd lew than wm ever given to Commisition'd Ofttccrv, 
in any other service, whiUt that o( the Soldiers i» hijiheT. The Concress have 
been pleased 10 increase the pay of CDptaln to Twenty-six and *i' dollars — of a 
Pint LJeutcnani tu Eighteen DoUan, of a Second Lieutenant & Knsign, ta 
thirteen St J^ DuUars pi Kalendcr ^tulllh cocli ; Ic- lake place eo soon as the 
New Reeiinentx arc com plea ted, to their full onrnjiliineni of men. The Con - 
grcst have )pven ihii encouragement to the Captains, and Subnlteni!i, {whow 
pay wsA lower in proportion) with a view to inipre» upon theii minds a dii« 
Sense of Gratitude ; al the tame time that it i« intended to enable ihein lu cup- 
port the dmracier and appearance of (•cntlcinen it ntKeers wliich wUI add 
much to the rcpiLlntiun of the Regiments, and cannot but be pleasing to every 
man in il. It i« expected, that the officers of the new fornied Regiments, will 
exert thcmsclvea in the leeruiling Senrice. and that they do not fail to report 
Ihc nnmbei ihcy have recruited, to their Colonels 10 morrow, that they nnay 
make return-, iliereof the day alter. In order, that (lie KecmiiiiiiB pariie* may 
be Bcnl intv the country, if any backwaidoesb sbould appear here — When this 
happenM. the Q^loncli of the Old RcEiment^ arc to be connulicd, to prevent the 
Companies thetHn being left without nfficer*. 

"As Furlooiibv have been prumiied to the new inliatcd men, none odten 
cnn be indulged under any pretence wliai»it>^vcr, and in otder that the«e Fur- 
loughs may be jfiven with lome degree of kegularity, none hut OlooeU, or 
Coniniandine Officers of RcgJmciils, upon llic New Bi>tab1i>>luncnl are to grant 
them, and they reipectively nut I'U let more than Afly he abkcnt at a time, be- 
ginning with those who inli&lcd fit*t and goinj^ on in a reguhir Uotalion, until 
all arc indulged allowing each man Icndaya to be nl borne, andBSufficicDltiiae 
to gu and reium." — Unterly B^i'i, 17 November, I77S- 






CAMr AT CAMHitivcx. i^ November, I77S< 


I received your favors of the 7th and loth instant, 
with the resolves of the honorable Congress, to which 
I will pay all due attention. As soon as two capable 
persons can be found. I will despatch them to Nova 
Scotia, on the service resolved on by Congress. The 
resolve to raise two battalions of marines will, (if 
practicable in this army,) entirely derange what has 
been done. It is therein mentioned, "one colonel for 
the two battalions " ; of course, a colonel must be dis- 
missed One of the many difficulties, which attended 
the new arrangement, was in reconciling the different 
interests, and judging of the merits of the different 
colonels. In the dismission of this one, the same 
difficulties will occur. The officers and men must be 
acquainted with maritime affairs; to comply with 
which, they must be picked out of the whole army, 
one from this corps one from another, so as to break 
through the whole system, which it has cost us so 
much time, anxiety, and pains, to bring into any 
tolerable form. Notwithstanding any difficulties 
which will arise, you may be assured. Sir, that I will 
use ever)' endeavor to comply with their resolve. 

I beg leave to submit it to the consideration of 
Congress, if those two battalions can be formed out of 
this army, whether this is a time to weaken our lines, 
by employing any of the officers appointed to defend 
them on any other service? The gentlemen, who 
were here from Congress, know their vast extent ; 
they must know, that we shall have occason for our 




whole force for that purpose, more now than at any 
past time, as we may expect the enemy will take the 
advantage of the first hard weather, and attempt to 
make an impression somewhere. That this is the 
intention, we have many reasons to suspect. We 
have had in the last week six deserters, and took two 
straggling prisoners. They all agree that two com- 
panies with a train of artillery, and one of the regi- 
ments from Ireland, were arrived at Boston, that 
fresh ammunition and fruits have been served out, 
that the grenadiers and light infantry- had orders to 
hold themselves in readiness at a moment's warning. 

As there is every appearance, that this contest will 
not be soon decided, and of course that there must be 
an augmentation of the Continental army, would it 
not be eligible to raise two battalions of marines in 
New York and Philadelphia, where there must be 
numbers of sailors now unemployed ? This, however, 
is matter of opinion, which I mention with all due 
deference to the superior judgment of the Congress.* 

Enclosed you have copies of two letters, one from 
Colonel Arnold, the other from Colonel Enos. I can 
form no judgment on the latter's conduct until I see 
him.* Nothwithstanding the great defection, I do 

' Congress directed the general lo "suspend ihe miiingthe two battclioni of 
nunncs out of hU prcaciii anuy." anil diicctd ili&t they &hiiuld be r^iticd 
" ipdcpeiidcril of the army already unicnKi for the terwice in MasMchuiein 
Bay." JourHaU, 7J November, 1775. 

* Colanel Ragcr Enm commAiidcd the rear dirision of the arm; under 
Arnold, When he arrived at llie gnat Carrying- Place, between the Kennebeo 
ftad Dead Uivets. he wrote to Caloncl Arnold, who wai then in itdvance, ntsk- 
{d|[ in<]iiiiY al>i>ui prctviu-on^. AniuM tcplied. that the Mock wa<i aufRcicnt for 
iwcntf-five days. ilul before Knux gut over the Cntrytn^-Plftire. Major 
Higclow wtu Dflnt back (roni C«loncl Greene'* divtuon with uJncty men in 





not despair of Colonel Arnold's success. He will 
have, in all probability, many more difficulties to en- 
counter, than if he had been a fortnight sooner; as it 
is likely that Governor Carleton will, with what forces 
he can collect after the surrender of the rest of 
Canada, throw himself into Quebec, and there make 
his last effort. 

There is no late account from Captains Broughton 
and Sellman, sent to the River St. Lawrence. The 
other cruisers have been chiefly confined to harbors, 
by the badness of the weather. The same reason has 
caused great delay in the building of our barracks; 
which, with a most mortifying scarcity of firewood, 

|iro¥i)doni. Enosi supplkil Ihciii. and marchcU onwxnl [ill lie ovcitoiik Ccilonel 
CrMne fidy tn\\t* np the Dciil Rlvcf. H^re he i«ceiT«i1 iirHvrw from AtiKild 
lo ftirntih Colonel Cr«ne vntli pronsiona cnoitgh foi hin men in their march 
10 the i«iilcmeuTs on ihe Chaudii-re River. Alief ckccuting rhis orJur, lie \mA 
eo more tlian ns Aa,y< provisions left for hii own troopk. In thi& condition it 
vu the opinion of the officers, thai the mi divbion ought to ictum. 

Suth i« Colonel Kno&'ii account, in hi« letter to Wanhington. ftnd ihc coort- 
Biarliftl iic<iaittcd him on the ground li«rc assigned. But (lora AnitJd's letters 
since pnbliiJtei!. it would apiicar. that be did not rcprr««nt the mailer with 
perfect Accvracy. On the ijih of October, Arnold wrote lo hitn, that there 
irerc twenty-fife dnp* provision*. Arnold went foiwaid, and wrote neain on 
the 341b. from Ctuudlire Pond, that, on account of heavjr mint, there had 
been « delay, and it would take twelve or fifteen day* for the nntty (o reach 
ibc inhabited country. He ordered Eno>, ibcrcforc, and Greene, to selcci 
such ■ numbo' of Ibrir best men. u could be nupplied with lilteen dayi' pio- 
vfiiOBi, and tend th« oihcn, <« Ith the sick, back to the commisuTy at Norridgo- 
wock. Instead of ol>c]ring lhi» order. Eno« gave hit provi$loiu lo Greene, 
except enough for hii diiluon of the ttoopi. an their return t« Norridgevrock. 
ftikd immediately relntccd hit *tcp« with all hi* men. 

Altliouiih he ws) aci[uitied by the coun^narlial, and received a lieaicnanl- 
cobnel't commioiion in the new army, yet be wa<i not talHfied with the evi. 
dcneen be received of the good opinion of the Commander- in- chief, and in 
Janitaty he a«kcd leave lo resign. lie wn removed to Vcnnani, and it) lySl 
was a|>f>eJBled a {eneral and commaBder of ibe ndltia of that clale, and 
became somewhat ooDtpicunus as an actoe in public aflain. — fV^^cA'tfM/ v/tke 
Maine /fiti. Sac. rol. i.. p. 304— Ira AUen't //ill. tf ffrmami, pp. 1B9, 3o6. 




discourages the men from enlisting. The last, T am 
much afraid, is an insuperable obstacle. I have 
applied to the honorable House of Representatives 
of this province, who were pleased to appoint a com- 
mittee to negotiate this business; and, notwithstand- 
ing ail the pains they have taken, and are taking, they 
find it impossible to supply our necessities. The want 
of a sufficient number of teams I understand to be 
the chief impediment. 

I got returns this day from eleven colonels, of the 
numbers enlisted in their regiments. The whole 
amount is nine hundred and sixty-six men. Tliere 
must be some other stimulus, besides love for their 
country, to make men fond of the service. It would 
be a great encouragement, and no additional expense 
to the continent, were they to receive pay for the 
months of October and November ; also a month's 
pay advance. The present state of the military 
chest will not admit of this. The sooner it is enabled 
to do so the better." 

The commissary-general is daily expected In camp. 
I cannot send you the estimate of the clerks in his 
department, until he arrives. 

I sincerely congratulate you upon the success of 
your arms, in the surrender of St. John's, which I 
hope is a happy presage of the reduction of the rest 
of Canada. 1 have the honor to be, &c.' 

I " Rei9lve4, ihai the ;uo.<xia doUin laieiy ordered, be fotwardctj, with all 
poKtlble cii[icditii>n. to Ufnetal Washitigion. that he may lie vualiled to pay 
Kuch loltlien as will rc-enliil, (or the succeeding fear, ihcii wages for the 
month!! or October, Sovcmticr and December, and abo advance them one 
jfionlh'i pay." yountah, t Deccmhcr. 1775. 

' Received and read in Congress November 37th. 





Camp at Caubredck, 30 Navcmber, 177). 

Dear Sir, 

Your letters of the 4th from New York, 7th and 
— from Philadelphia (the last by express), arc all 
before me, and gave me the pleasure to hear of your 
happy meeting with Mrs. Reed, without any other 
accident than that of leaving- a horse by the way. 

The hint contained in the last of your letters, re- 
specting your continuance in my family, in other 
words, your wish that I could dispense with it, gives 
me pain. You already, my dear Sir, knew my senti- 
ments on this matter ; you cannot but be sensible of 
your importance to me ; at the same time 1 shall 
again repeat, what I have observed to you before, 
that I can never think of promoting my convenience 
at the expense of your interest and inclination. That 
1 feel the want of you. yourself can judge, when I 
inform you, that the peculiar situation of Mr. Ran- 
dolph's affairs obliged him to leave this soon after you 
did; that Mr. Baylor, contrar>' to my expectation, is 
not in the slightest degree a penman, though spirited 
and willing ; and that Mr. Harrison, though sensible, 
clever, and perfectly confidential, has never yet moved 
upon so large a scale, as to comprehend at one view 
the diversity of matter, which comes before me, so as 
to afford that ready assistance, which every man in my 
situation must stand more or less in need of. Mr. 
Moylan, it is true, is very obliging ; he gives me what 
assistance he can ; but other business must necessarily 
deprive me of his aid in a very short time. This is 




my situation ; judge you, therefore, how much T wish 
for your return, especially as the armed vessels, and 
the capital change (in the state of this army) about 
to take place, have added an additional weight to a 
burthen, before too great for me to stand under with 
the smallest degree of comfort to my own feelings. 
My mind is now fully disclosed to you, with this 
assurance sincerely and affectionately of accompany- 
ing it, that whilst you are disposed to continue with 
me. I shall think myself too fortunate and happy to 
wish for a change. 

Dr. Morgan, (as director of the hospital,) is exceed- 
ingly wanted at this place, and ought not to delay his 
departure for the camp a moment, many regulations 
being delayed, and accounts postponed, till his arrival. 
I have given G. S. and Col. P. a hint of the prevailing 
reports in Connecticut, without intimating from what 
quarter they came (for indeed I received them through 
different channels) in order to put them upon their 
guard ; they both deny the charge roundly, and wish 
for an opportunity of vindication. I thought as this 
information had come to my ears in different ways, it 
was best to speak to these gentlemen in terms ex- 
pressive of my abhorrence of such conduct, and of 
the consequences that might flow from it, and think 
it will have a good effect. The method you have 
suggested, of the advanced pay, I very much approve 
of, and would adopt, but for the unfortunate cramped 
state of our treasury*, which keeps us for ever under 
the hatches. Pray urge the necessity of this measure 
to such members as you may converse with, and the 




want of cash to pay the troops for the months of 
October and November; as also to answer the de- 
mands of the commissary, quartermaster, and for 
contingencies. To do all this, a considerable sum 
will be necessary. Do not neglect to put that wheel 
in motion, which is to brin^ us the shirts, medicines, 
&c. from New York ; they are much wanting here, 
and cannot be had, I should think, upon better terms 
than on a loan from the best of Kings, so anxiously 
disposed to promote the welfare of his American 

Dr. Church is gone to Governor Trumbull, to be 
disposed of in a Connecticut gaol, without the use of 
pen, ink, or paper, to be conversed with in the 
presence of a magistrate only, and in the English 
language. So much for indiscretion, the Doctor will 
say. Your accounts of our dependence upon the 
people of Great Britain. I religiously believe. It has 
long been my political creed, that the ministry durst 
not have gone on as they did, but under the firmest 
persuasion that the people were with them. The 
weather has been unfavorable, however, for the arri- 
val of their transports ; only four companies of the 
seventeenth regiment and two of the artillery are yet 
arrived, by our last advices from Boston. 

Our rascally privateersmen go on at the old rate, 
mutinying if they cannot do as they please.' Those 

* " The people on board ibe Brltutine W^^hiitgiam «r. in Bcnen], dMoon- 
tentcd. and have kgrmd to (to aa duty oa board MJd vhmI : umI mjt UiM tbey 
vnlitted \o tcrre in tbe airtay, and not u manncB. . , , (ThcKj pcopte 
really appear to me to he a vi oJ the irort unprinciplc*!, aliandoncd fellows I 
vtta law. ... I am very appreheiufve that bill* la to b* espccted (roin 




at Plymouth. Beverly, and Portsmouth, have done 
nothing worth mentioning in the prize way, and no 
accounts are yet received from those farther eastward. 

Arnold, by a letter which left him the 27th ultimo, 
had then only got to the Chauditirc Pond, and was 
scarce of provisions. His rear division, under the 
command of the noble Colonel Enos, had, without his 
privity or consent, left him with three companies ; 
and his expedition, (inasmuch as it is to be appre- 
hended, that Carleton, with the remains of such force 
as he had been able to raise, would get into Quebec 
before him,) I fear, in a bad way. For further par- 
ticulars I refer you to Mr. Hancock who has enclosed 
to him copies of Arnold's and Enos's letters. The 
last-named person is not yet arrived at this camp. 

I thank you for your frequent mention of Mrs. 
Washington. I expect she will be in Philadelphia 
about the time this letter may reach you, on her way 
hither. As she and her conductor, (who I expect 
will be Mr. Custis, her son,) are perfect strangers to 
the road, the stages, and the proper place to cross 
Hudson's River, (by all means avoiding New York.) I 
shall be much obliged in your particular instructions 
and advice to her. I do imagine, as the roads are 
bad and the weather cold, her stages must be short, 
especially as I expect her horses will be pretty much 
fatigued ; as they will, by the time she gets to Phila- 
delphia, have performed a journey of at least four 
hundred and fifty miles, my express finding of her 

fellows drawn proTniicDously f mm llic army for this bu»iieu ; bul that if |)eo|)Ie 
were cnlUted (or the purpose of privateering, much might be expected (roni 
them,"— WilHwn W*U»n u W*akiHgton, 39 November, 1775. 




among her friends near Williamsburg, one hundred 
and fifty miles below my own house. 

As you have mentioned nothing in your letters of 
the cannon, &c., to be had from New York, Ticon- 
deroga, &c., I have, in order to reduce the matter to 
a certainty, employed Mr. Knox to go to those places, 
complete our wants, and to provide such military 
stores as Sl John's can spare. 

My respectfu] compliments to Mrs, Reed, and be 
assured that I am, dear Sir, with affectionate regard. 

Flints are greatly wanted here.' 



The honorable ContincnUl Congress having lately passed a 
resolve, expressed in the following words, — "That two personi 
be sent, at the expense of these <;olonies, to Nova Scotia to in- 
quire into the state of that colony, the disposition of the inhabi- 
tuits towards the American cause, the condition of the forciiicaiions 

' " As the GcDcnl i« infonned tbu Uu* is lh« MMon, ia wEiich the people of 
tbf (uui New EngUnil lluvennnetiu lay In Piovltioo^, Slcrs, Stz. for Ihe um 
of their funilie«, h« hkt recommendei) {in the ilrangest manner he 11 c*patile) 
ihc necodty oi aendtai; Muncf to Ounp for llic immediaic pa>tucn( of the 
Troofw \s3t the MoDlhc of October ind Noveinber. utd io order 10 enable ihose, 
who have again inliilnl, and micIi othorv a^ are molvcd lu continue in vrvioc \ 
to do this more effectually, be has also rccommenilcd them to the Conj>reu. fnr 
oa« Uonlbs sdranced pay. & hu no doubt hlnuelf. of lli being compiled with, 
if money on be [«rwlu^dcd in time. 

" No Soldier whenever diuniwcd, 11 to catty away any anus with him. that 
are good, and fit for terrice ; if the Arms are hit own private property, they 
will lie appnuscd. and he will receive tho lull value (hereof ; Proper peiaon* 
when neceHarT. will be sppoinlcd to inspect, and value, the arms to detained." 
— Orderly BmM, 90 November, 1775. 




and docic-yards, the quantity of artjllcry and warlike stores, and 
the number of soldiers, sailors, and ships of war there, and trans- 
mit llio earliest int(.*l)i);ence to General Washington " ; I do hereby 
constiuite and appoint yoii, the said Aaron Willard. to be one of 
the persons to undertake this business ; and, as the season is late 
and this work of {(icat importance, I entreat and request, that you 
will use Ihe utmost despatch, attontion, and 6deltty in the execu- 
tion of it. The netessJty of acting with a proper degree of caiitioa 
and secrecy is too apparent to need recommendation. 

You will keep an account of your expenses, and, upon your 
return, will be rewarded In a suitnlile manner for the fatigue of 
your journey, and Ihe services you render your country, by con- 
ducting <iiid discharging iliis busineas with expedition and fidelity. 
Given under my hand, this 24th day of November, 1775.' 

' The asmdaic of Mr, Willard. cm chi.n miKiion, wai Maset Child. Thcne 
commlsslouei^ proceeded by kiid 10 liie twrdcre of Nova Scotia, wheni they 
weic met by two proc]am«ti«ns of lh« (lovemor of tluit provinct; ; the one 
" wsn)!n|f ill pcrsMis. iliai ihcy do dui In i.ny manner, rlJiectly cr indirectly, 
niil or anivi wttSi any t.up]>Uci whatever any (ebcl ur reheU. iiur hold intelli- 
gence «i coTTCtpondence with them, nor conceAl. harliovT. cr protect Uiy soch 
oflcndcr, «s they would avoid licing dc<-mfd rchclt and imitors, anil proceeded 
againtl ucordin^ly " ; iiikI the oiher. " forbidding any Blrangen to be ia Hali. 
fas more tban two bouis, without making their bu«ine*» known lo n juxiicc of 
the jieace. upon the pain ami peril ol being ireaitd aa »pk'»." Iht cxuiiiuia* 
eioners ihonghl it prortent to rctura 10 Cambridge, where they reporied Hltlo 
cIk, than thai, '' fmm iheir nwn Icnowtcdi^c, .1111I ihc best inlormaliun from 
othen, abcuf eight part« In leu of the inhabiuni^ of Nova ScolU would engage 
in (he common cause of Araericn, could ihey be protected." The grotuuls npon 
which ilicy founded this opinion arc not stated. 

Another lesutve wns aha pnsseil by Congiess, at the umc time with ifae one 
died in the above letter, by which <>encrsl Washingtoii was directed, "in cue 
he bhould juilt;c it practicable and eipedicnl, to Kiid Into Nova ScoiJa a nifB- 
denl force tu lalie nway the cannon am! warlike Kturei, atid to destroy Ihe 
docks, yards, iiml inftga/iiie<>, and lo l«ltc and <U'»troy aiiynbipsof wai i>r trans- 
ports there, lielonfftng lu our enemtea." No attcmpti were mwle to put this 
reulvB in execiition. 






CAMHKilMiit, |6 NoTctnbcr. 1775. 

What follows is part of a letter written to Mr. 
Lund Washington, the 26th day of November, 1775. 
A copy is taken to remind me of my engagements 
and the exact purport of them. These paragraphs 
follow an earnest request to employ good part of my 
force in clearing up swamps, h. hole, ditching, hedg- 
ing, &c. 

*' 1 well know where the difficulty of accomplishing 
these things will lie. Overseers are already engaged 
(upon shares), to look after my business. Remote 
advantages to me, however manifest and beneficial, 
are nothing to them ; and to engage standing wages, 
when I do not know that anything that I have, or can 

' Mr. Lunil WuhinKtoti was the aticot for tupcHnicntliiig timcnl Wuhiog* 
lon'» pU Italian*, miA managing hU burinett concern*, dttring the revolution. 
It wai mit knuvrn wriial dcEicc of (amilr iclalinnihip osiMcd l>clwcea them. 
Ihoogb it wu suppos«<l, lliat thry both dr^cendcd from tbc «nic nricinil dock. 
Theb anceilors came ta Aiii«rii:it ul dilleceiit iim«i, doubtlc^^ emigrating Irom 
dillctcni pam oi Ensl*»'^> ^■^ <'i'^ haidc t» the o«ilr evidence «f conuttguinily, 
which cither l;nini;h of the (smily piMseiocs, 

From the Iwfpnning lu the cmi o[ llie tcvululton, l.uncl Wnhbin^on wi»tc la 
ihc General ax often at IcaM a^ two or ihrcc lima a inijiith. ilikI comiiuniljr 
rvcry week, delailing minutely all the cvtint* th«t occurred on the planutians. 
hit putclia»ci, win, and payincntii of nion«y. the ktnit^ and quantity of 
pKKlucc. occujtttloiu ol the laborcn, and whatever cite coiild lend lo explain 
lh« preme condition and progrest of tlie busineu in hia hand^. 'I'besc letierc 
were rccularlf inswcrtd by tlic General, ei'cn when the weight and ctuburriXM' 
mrnt of public dulicK pretactt most heavily upon him. and full inilruclinmweie 
relumed for r^friilaiing the plans and conduct of Iho manager Hardly any 
copiea of this dctcriptioD of lellcra were recorded, if relainctl. and the orieiivala 
ha*e be«n l<wt or deviruyed, Bui Land Waihinglon'tleltett ate ptOienFtd, and 
ihejr give evidence of the extniardiaary attention bcatuwed by the Commander. 
in-chief on hi& douimtic ailain, though bcrcral hundred luLlu fiom huinc, and 
bearing a burden of public caret, which alone was enough to diatnict snd 
eahaunl lticliniiei4 miud. Sftirit. 




raise, will command cash, is attended withhazard ; for 
which reason, I hardly know what more to say, than 
to discover my wishes. The same reason, although 
it may in appearance have the same tendency in 
respect to you, shall not be the same in its operation ; 
for I will engage for the year coming, and the year 
following, if these troubles and my absence continue, 
that yoLir wages sliall be standing and certain, at the 
'highest amount, that any one year's crop has pro- 
duced to you yet. I do not offer this as any tempta- 
tion to induce you to go on more cheerfully in 
prosecuting these schemes of mine. I should do 
injustice to you, were I not to acknowledge, that your 
conduct has ever appeared to me above every thing 
sordid ; but I offer it in consideration of the great 
charge you have upon your hands, and my entire 
dependence upon your fidelity and industry. 

"It is the greatest, indeed it is the only comforta- 
ble reflection I enjoy on this score, that my business 
is in the hands of a person in whose integrity I have 
not a doubt, and on whose care I can rely. Was it 
not for this, I should feel very unhappy, on account 
of the situation of my affairs ; but I am persuaded you 
will do for me as you would for yourself, and more 
than this I cannot expect. 

" Let the hospitality of the house, with respect to 
the poor, be kept up. Let no one go hungry away. 
If any of this kind of people should be in want of 
corn, supply their necessities, provided it does not 
encourage them in idleness; and I have no objection 
to your giving my money in charity, to the amount of 




forty or fifty pounds a year, when you think it well 
bestowed. What I mean by having no objection Is, 
that it is my desire that it should be done. You are 
to consider, that neither myself nor wife is now in the 
way to do these good offices. In all other respects, I 
recommend it to you, and have no doubt of your ob- 
serving the greatest economy and frugality ; as I 
suppose you know, that I do not gel a farthing for 
my services here, more than my expenses. It becomes 
necessary, therefore, for me to be saving at home." 

The above is copied, not only to remind myself of 
my promises and requests, but others also, if any 
mischance happens to G. Washington. 


Camp at Caumidci, V\ Noreinber, 177$. 

Dear Sir, 

Your favor of the 13th, with the enclosures, for 
which I thank you, came to this place on Wednesday 
evening; part of which, that is, the night, I was 
engage<I with a party of men throwing up a work 
upon a hill, called Cobble Mill, which, in case we 
should ever be supplied with such things as we want, 
may prove useful to us, and could not be delayed, as 
the earth here is getting as hard as a rock,' This, 
and the early departure of the post, prevented my 
giving your tetter an answer the next morning. 

In answer to your inquiries respecting armed 

' TliCK breacnrorlu. forming one of ihe gltongml poinU in the Amcfioui 
Ur«3, weic (brown up an (he oigM of the 33nd, bjr Putnam anti Knox, with ihc 
M])port (rf ike regimoili of WilUam Bond nnd Biidge. 




vessels, there are none of any tolerable force belong- 
ing to this government. I know of but two of any 
kind ; those very small. At the Continental expense, 
I have fitted out six, as by the enclosed list, two of 
which are upon the cruise directed by Congress ; the 
rest ply about Cape Cod and Cape Ann, as yet to 
very little purpose. These vessels are all manned by 
officers and soldiers, except perhaps a master and 
pilots ; but how far, as they are upon the old estab- 
lishment, which has not more than a month to exist, 
they can be ordered off this station, I will not under- 
talcL- to say, but suppose they might be engaged 
anew. Belonging to Providence there are two armed 
vessels ; ajid I am told Connecticut has one, which, 
with one of those from Providence, is. 1 believe, upon 
the cruise you have directed. 

I have no idea that the troops can remove from 
Boston this winter to a place, where no provision is 
made for them ; however, we shall keep the best look- 
out we can ; and upon that, and every occasion where 
practicable, give them the best we have. But their 
situation in Boston gives them but little to apprehend 
from a parting blow, whilst their ships can move, and 
floating batteries surround the town. 

Nothing of importance has happened since my last 
For God's sake hurry the signers of money, that our 
-wants may be supplied. It is a very singular case, 
that their signing cannot keep pace with our demands. 
1 heartily congratulate you and the Congress on the 
reduction of St. John's. I hope all Canada is in our 
possession before this. No accounts from Arnold 







since those mentioned in my last letter to the Con- 
gress. Would it not he politic to invite them to send 
members to Congress? Would it not be also politic 
to raise a regiment or two of Canadians, and bring 
them out of the country ? They are good troops, and 
this would be entering them heartily in the cause.' 
My best regards to the good families you are with. I 
am, very affectionately, your obedient servant. 


Camusioce, •? Movembcr, 1775. 

Dear Sir. 

Your letter of the ]6th by Post now lyes before 
me. & I thank you for the attention paid to my 

' Congress had already provldcrl for ihcK mcaaures, in ihc iasinicliai» given 
to A commitiee, R. T. P&inc & Jno, t.ongHon, appointed tn pmoeod lo the 
northem amijr, (or Iho purpnic of canfcrrin^ wiUi UeneiaJ Schuylct on the 
aRain of hiK dqttMmenl. tl is there staled, that " ConcicfLt ilcMrc you [a 
cxeit jroui utmost «ii<l«avon ta induce the Caciadiani to accede to a union writlt 
iheK oolonici, and ilmt tlicy fonn fi»in ibcii »ci'cfiJ pari^lict a provincial con- 
Tciituin. and sent) U«ltgat» lu ihii Coiicren."— and that " jrou um* ail the 
meant in )'Aur power to perfect the raitin); of a regiment of Canai^ian*." In 
(«;< Cicneial Manl£niiii,-tT huil liccii bcfurcbanil with CongicM in ihi^i topcct, 
for he bad taid to the people, when he tonic [iDiuxuioii of Mnntreat. on ihc i3Ch 
of Novenibei, that be " hoped to i<« Mich a provincial convention anembled, 
«fl would enter with zcnl into every mcanirc, thai cooM contribute lo ki the 
civil and r«)!puU' rislm of that and her «i>ii-r colonies on a pcrananei^i fciunda- 
lion." And he did not fail lo uh hia best endeavor* lo indace ■» manf 
Canadians aa powible to join hii aiondan). In this, however, he wa.i leu nic- 
c««fiil, than fiome sanfciinr pcrv>n<i had amidpaicd. Nfitwithstanding apptar- 
BRcec, the Canailia&a proved llicinBulv«« aowix in«Iin«(l to b« conquered into 

" In whatever way the late of thin garriaon may b« deteminwl, I Aatter 
nijrtell ll will never depend on the aMcinblit^ ot CanAdiana, who mtut hav« 
tendered ihenuclvci <4iiui11)f i-odlcmpliblc to both partiea." Mafor Ck^rltt 
Pmtoit &> Cfn^Al MMitgemery, I Novetnber, t77S- Major Preaton «*« the 
British conunanilai)! at St. Johtu, 




an agree- 

Memorandums ; the arrival of Money will 
able Circumstance. 

] recollect no occiirrance of moment since my last, 
except the taking possession of Cobble Hill on 
Wednesday night. This to my great surprize wc did, 
and have worked on ever since, without receiving a 
single shott from Bunkers Hill. — the ship — or Float- 
ing Batteries — what all this means we know not 
unless some capitol strike is meditating — I have 
caused two half Moon Batterries to be thrown up for 
occasional use, between Litchmore's Point & the 
mouth of Cambridge River ; and another Work at the 
Causey going on to Litchmores point to command that 
pass & rake the little Rivulet which runs by it to Patter- 
son's Fort. Besides these I have been, &mark'd three 
places between Sewall's point & our Lines on Roxbur)' 
Neck for Works to be thrown up and occasionally 
mann'd in case of aSortee, whenthe Bay gets froze. 

By order of Gcnl. Howe. 300 of the poor Inhabi- 
tants of Boston were landed on Saturday last at point 
Shirley, destitute almost of every thing ; the Instant 
I got notice of it, I informed a Committee of Council 
thereof, that proper care might be taken of them — 
Yesterday in the evening 1 received information that 
one of them was dead, & two more expiring ; and the 
whole in the most miserable & piteous condition. — I 
have order'd Provision to them till they can be 
remov'd, but am under dreadful apprehensions of 
their communicating the small Fox as it is Rief in 
Boston. 1 have forbid any of them coming to this 
place on that acct. 






A Ship well fraught with Ordinance, Ordinance 
Stores, S:c., is missing and gives great uneasiness in 
Boston, her Convoy has been in a fortnight — I have 
order'd our Arm'd Vessels to keep a good look out 
for her. The same reasons which restrained you from 
writing fully, also prevent me. I shall therefore only 
add that I am, &c. 

If any waggon should be coming this way, Pray 
order a qty of good writing Paper to head Quarters, 
& Sea'g Wax. 


Caui* at Cambkiixik. 38 NaTcin1>ct, 1775. 


I had the honor of writing to you on the igth 
instant 1 have now to inform you that Mr. Henry 
Knox, Esq. is gone to New York, with orders to 
forward to this place what cannon and ordnance stores 
can be there procured. From thence he will proceed 
to General Schuyler on the same busines.s, as you will 
see by the enclosed copy of instructions, which 1 have 
given him. It would give me much satisfaction, that 
this gentleman, or any other whom you may think 
qualified, were appointed to the command of the 
artillery regiment. In my letter to you of the 8th 
instant. I have expressed myself fully on this subject, 
which I beg leave to recommend to your immediate 
attention ; as the formation of that corps will be at a 
stand, until 1 am honored with your instructions 
thereon. The vessel laden with wine which 1 advised 
you was wrecked on Jhis coast, proves to have been 




the property of Thomas Satler of Philadelphia. The 
papers relative to her and cargo were sent to Robert 
Morris, Esqr. who can give you every information 
thereon. The schooner with the drj* goods from 
Boston to Halifax, is given up to the Committee of 
Safety at Beverly, who will dispose of her and car^o, 
agreeable to the decision of a Court of Admiralty, 
and the schooner, carried into Portsmouth by Captain 
Adams, proves to be a friend, is of course discharged. 

There are two persons engaged to go to Nova 
Scotia, on the business recommended in your last. 
By the best information we have from thence, the 
stores have been withdrawn some time. Should this 
not be the case, it is next to an impossibility to 
attempt any thing there, in the present unsettled and 
precarious state of the army. 

Colonel Enos is arrived, and is under arrest ; he 
acknowledges, that he had no orders for coming 
away. His trial cannot come on until I hear from 
Colonel Arnold, from whom there is no account since 
1 last wrote you. 

From what I can collect by my inquiries amongst 
the officers, it will be impossible to get the men to 
enlist for the continuance of the war. which will be an 
insuperable obstruction lo the formation of the two 
battalions of marines on the plan resolved on in Con- 
gress.' As it can make no difTerence, I propose to 
proceed on the new arrangement of the army, and, 
when completed, inquire out such officers and men as 

' An addrcH from Ihc i^neral oKccn lo the Contincntftl soldicn, dated 84 
November, I775t '* prinlod in Farce, Amtntan ArtAivet, Fonnh S«riei, Kl. 




are best qualified for that service, and endeavor to 
form these two battalions out of the whole. This 
appears to mc the best method, and I hope It will 
meet the approbation of Congress. 

As it will be very difficult for the men to work, 
when the hard frost sets in, I have thought it neces- 
sarj', (though of little use at present,) to take posses- 
sion of Cobble Hill, for the benefit of any future 
operations. It was effected, without the least opposi- 
tion from the enemy, the 23d instant. Their inactivity 
on this occasion is what I cannot account for; it is 
probable they are meditating a blow somewhere. 

About three hundred men, women, and children of 
the poor inhabitants of Boston, came out to Point 
Shirley last Friday. They have brought their house- 
hold furniture, but unprovided of every other neces- 
sary of life. I have recommended them to the 
attention of the committee of the honorable Council 
of this province, now sitting at Watertown. 

The number enlisted since my last is two thousand 
five hundred and forty men. I am very sorry 10 be 
necesitated to mention to you the egregious want of 
public spirit, which reigns here. Instead of pressing 
to be engaged in the cause of their country, which I 
vainly flattered myself would be the case, I find we 
are likely to be deserted, and in a most critical time. 
Those that have enlisted must have a furlough, 
which I have been obliged to grant to fifty at a 
time, from each regiment. The Connecticut troops, 
upon whom I reckoned, are as backward, indeed,, if 
possible, more so than the people of this colony. Our 




situation is truly alarming ; and of this General Howe 
is well apprized, it being the common topic of conver- 
sation, when the people left Boston last Friday. No 
doubt, when he is reinforced, he will avail himself of 
the information." 

I am making the best disposition I can for our de- 
fence, having thrown up, besides the work on Cobble 
Hill, several redoubts, half-moons, &c., along the bay ; 
and I fear I shall be under the necessity of calling in 
the militia and minute-men of the country to my 
assistance. I say, 1 fear it, because, by what I can 
learn from the officers in the army belonging to this 
colony, it will be next to an impossibility to keep 
them under any degree of discipline, and it will be 
very difficult to prevail on them to remain a moment 
longer, than they choose ihenjselves. It is a mortify- 
ing reflection, to be reduced to this dilemma. There 
has been nothing wanting on my part to infuse a 
proper spirit amongst the officers, that they may exert 
their influence with the soldierj'. You sec. by a fort- 
night's recruiting amongst men with arms in their 
hands, how little has been the success. 

As the smallpox is now in Boston, I have used the 
precaution of prohibiting such, as lately came out, 
from coming near our camp. General Burgoyne, I 
am informed, will soon embark for England. I think 
the risque too great to write you by post whilst it 
continues to pass thro' New York. It is certain 
that a post has been intercepted the beginning of last 
month, as they sent out several letters from Boston 

' See Force, Amtritan Arthivfs, Fonrth Series, iiL, 1711-1713. 




with the postmark at Baltimore on them. This goes 
by Captain Joseph Blewer, who promises todehverit 
carefully unto you. 

You doubtless will have heard, before this reaches 
you, of General Montgomery's having got po&session 
of Montreal.' I congratulate you thereon. He has 
troubles with his troops, as well as I have. All t can 
learn of Colonel Arnold is, that he is near Quebec 
I hope Montgomery will be able to proceed to his 
assistance. I shall be very uneasy until I hear they 
are joined. 

My best respects attend the gentlemen in Congress ; 
and believe me, Sir, your most obedient, &c.' 


Cambmock, 38 Novembn-, 1775. 

Dear Sik, 

By post I wrote you yesterday in answer to your 
letter of the i6th, since which your favors of the 15th 
and 17th are come to hand. In one of these you 
justly observe, that the sudden departure of Mr. 
Randolph must cause your absence to be the more 
sensibly felt. I can triily assure you, that I miss you 
exceedingly, and if an expre&s declaration of this be 

* " An eipnas lut night rroa G«oenl Montfi^inery, brings ihe joyful iMinp 
bf Ihe Suireoder of Ui« City oi Moati«ftl, to the ConUnentnJ Arm* — Th« C(ii. 
cnl ha|>«t ^ucb frtquent (avun from illvine ptutMcDcc wall atiiuiale «T«ry 
Aaicridn to continue ti> nett hb uUnoaU, in the defence of Ihc li))erli<* of hii 
covntiy aa it wi>ii)d iKn* br llic bajnl in|;tati(uiic to tbo Alnlckty uiJ 10 ihdr 
Conntty, lo ahcw atir ihc leui b«ckwarilnra in ihe public c»»'iit"^-QwJtThf 
Am>. aS NoTcmber, \^^\. 

' Received in CongixB, Ueccmlxf 7th. 


THE wRrrrNGS op 


wanting to hasten your return, I make it most 
heartily ; and with some pleasure, as Mr. Lynch in a 
letter of the 13th (received with yours) gives this in- 
formation. " In consequence of your letter by Colo- 
nel Reed, I applied to the chief justice, who tells me 
the Supreme Courts are lately held, and that It will 
be some time before their term will return ; that he 
knows of no capital suit now depending, and that it is 
very easy for Colonel Reed to manage matters so as 
not to let that prevent his return to you ; I am sure 
Mr. Chew is so heartily disposed to oblige you, and 
serve the cause, that nothing in his power will be 
wanting." I could wish, my good friend, that these 
things may give a spur to your inclination to return ; 
and that I may see you here as soon as convenient, as 
I feel the want of your ready pen, &c., greatly. 

What an astonishing thing it is, that those who are 
employed to sign the Continental bills should not be 
able, or inclined, to do it as fast as they are wanted. 
They will prove the destruction of the army, if they 
are not more attentive and diligent. Such a dearth 
of public spirit, and want of virtue, such stock-job- 
bing, and fertility in all the low arts to obtain advan- 
tages of one kind or another, in this great change of 
militarj- arrangement, ! never saw before, and pray 
God 1 may never be witness to again. What will be 
the ultimate end of these manceuvres is beyond 
my scan. I tremble at the prospect. Wc have been 
till this time enlisting about three thousand five hun- 
dred men. To engage these 1 have been obliged to 
allow furloughs as far as fifty men a regiment, and 




the officers I am persuaded indulge as many more. 
The Connecticut troops will not be prevailed upon to 
slay longer than their term (saving those who have 
enlisted for the next campaign, and mostly on fur- 
lough), and such a dirty, mercenary spirit pervades 
the whole, that I should not be at all surprised at any 
disaster that may happen. In short, after the last of 
this month our lines will be so weakened, that the 
minute-men and militia must be called in for their 
defence; these, being under no kind of government 
themselves, will destroy the little subordination I 
have been laboring to establish, and run me into one 
evil whilst I am endeavoring to avoid another; but 
the lesser must be chosen. Could I have foreseen 
what I have, and am likely to experience, no consider- 
ation upon earth should have induced me to accept 
this command. A regiment or any subordinate de- 
partment would have been accompanied with ten 
times the satisfaction, and perhaps the honor.* 

* " llu EKCclkncy ii a yrcal and guod man, 1 (nl the higbot degree oi rc- 
■pccl for hia. I wbh Iiiin inuaoiUl honor. I Ibink myaclf lupp; in an oppor- 
tnnity to sem tiniler v> good ■ graenL Mj happiims wi1] be dill gTMlu if 
fortBDC civcs me an opportunity to contribute to hix glory and my nmnUr'i 
gnxl. Hut liti Exccll(^(7, u yon observe, haa nol had time <o make himself 
. Acquaioied <riUi the genius ai (hie people. I'hey are naturally as breve and 
I iiHriicd a« ihc pcasanliy of Any other coiuiiry ; but you i:«nn<il expect veccnns 
of 1 raw militia of only a few mooitlit' tervice. Thecomra'nn jicaple are exceed- 
ingly ainmdoiu ; the geniut uf the [■coj.ile u cummen-ial, from their luiig inter- 
course with lr»de. Tbc lentiinent nf honnr, the trac diontctcriilk of a taldicr. 
h«K not yet ^l the belter of Intcreii. Hit Emllency has been taught to be- 
lieve the people here • mperior race of onortaU ; And finding tbcm of the Mme 
temper and dbpodtloRS. pauions and prejudices, virtues aod vices of the com* 
man people of other gavcmmenla. ihey cink in his eciecm. The country round 
here »ct no bouods to ihcii demSind for liay, wuuj and tcuoinic- It hu i;ivca 
Us KxccQency a. great deal of uneuincii. thni (hey dionld lake this opportunity 
to citort from the nrcewilirs of the amy such enormous piiees,'' — Gentrai 
Gftme /d JItnry Hard, i8 Detembcl, IJ75. 




I think I informed you in my letter of yesterday 
that we had taken possessiun of, and had fortified 
Cobble Hill, and several points round the Bay, be- 
tween that and Roxbury. In a night or two morc» 
we shall begin our work on Lcchmorc's Point ; when 
doubtless we shall be honored with their notice, un- 
less General Howe is waiting the favorable moment 
he has been told of, to aim a capital blow ; which is 
my fixed opinion. 

The Congress already know, from the general esti- 
mate given in (for a month), what sum it will take to 
supply this army ; and that little less than two hun- 
dred and seventy-five thousand dollars will answer 
the purpose. 

Pray impress this upon the members, and the 
necessity of forwarding the last sum voted, as one 
hundred thousand dollars will be but a flea-bite to 
our demands at this time. Did I not in one of my 
late letters inform you that I had sent Mr. Knox 
through New York to General .Schuyler to see what 
artillery I could get from those places!* He has been 
set out upon this business about ten days, and I hope 
will fall in with the Committee of Congress. Powder 
is also so much wanted, that nothing without it can 
be done. 

I wish that matter respecting the punctilio, hinted 
at by you, could come to some decision of Congress. 
I have done nothing yet in respect to the proposed 
exchange of prisoners, nor shall I now. until I hear 
from them or you on this subject. 1 am sorry Mr. 
White met with a disappointment in the Jerseys ; as 




I could wish not to be under the necessity, from any 
former encouragement given him, of lakiiig him into 
my family. I find it is absolutely necessar}' that the 
aids to the Commander-in-chief sliould be ready at 
their pen, (which I believe he is not,) to give that 
ready assistance, that is expected of them, I shall 
make a lame hand therefore to have two of this kid- 
ney. It would give me singular pleasure to provide 
for those two gentlemen, mentioned in your letter ; 
but, believe me, it is beyond the powers of conception 
to discover the absurdities and partiality of these peo- 
ple, and the trouble and vexation I have had in the 
new arrangement of of^cers. After five, 1 think, dif- 
ferent meetings of the general officers, I have in a 
manner been obliged to give in to the humor and 
whimsies of the people, or get no army. The officers 
of one government would not serve in the regiments 
of another, (although there was to be an entire new 
creation ;) a captain must be in this regiment, a sub- 
altern in that company. In short, I can scarce tell at 
this moment in what manner they are fixed. Some 
time hence strangers may be brought in ; but it could 
not be done now, except in an instance or two, with* 
out putting too much to the hazard.' 

"Ah the troop* ■» considered conltncntfti anil not cnJonial, there most be 
lona* qnteinitiail ptao for lh« pajnnvDi witlioui anj Kference to particolar 
cokoici ; ctherwiM Uiejr will be partly oonlinenlal and partly ddonial. Hb 
ExccUcBcy kai a Krcat d«Iic to kanhk eveiy ideii uf local attachments. Ii b 
nest to impiMwililc to unhinge the prejiidicea Ihat people have (or placr* uid 
IhincH Xhxy liavc had a lone CMiovctian with. Bui the fewer of thotc local al> 
taclinKDti discover ihcmMlTct in our plan for cuahlUhing the array the more 
utiifnctoTy it muu be to the Southern gentry. For my own pan, I feel the 
cause and not the pLa^c. 1 woald as *oori go to Virginia a« >tay here, I caa 




I have this instant by express received the agree- 
able news of the capitulation of Montreal. The 
account of it, you also undoubtedlj- have. Poor Ar- 
nold, I wonder where he is. Enos left him with the 
rear division of his army, and is now here under 

What can your brethren of the law mean, by say- 
ing your perquisites as secretarj' must be considerable ? 
I am sure they have not amounted to one farthing. 
Captain Blewer waits, and therefore I shall add no 
more than tliat I am, dear Sir, your most obedient 
and affectionate servant. 

P. S. Please to let Col. Lee know that I answered 
his query by last post respecting the armed vessels of 
this Province, and those fitted out by the Continent, 


CaUBRIDCK, 28 November, I775. 

Dear Sir, 

You may easily conceive, that I had great pleasure 
in perusing your letter of the iSth instant, which, 
with the enclosures, 1 received last evening. It was 
much damped by my finding that General Montgom- 
ery had the same difficulties to encounter, with the 
troops under your command, that I have with these 
here." No troops were ever better provided, or higher 

urure Oie gcnUemeo to ibc MUlhwanJ ihm there coald not be tny thing more 
abhorteni pmpoied. than a union of iliinc [thcic] colonieii (or ihe purpuse of 
con^iuering the «ou(hern colonies." — General Grvenr, It Cowmor Ward, |6 
October, 1775. 

' Gcncnil Monlgomct)- wmic as follows to Gcnml Schnylirr. the day afltf 
tko capilulalion of MonUrnl, tj Nuvcmbct : — 

" I atnesceedinjiy sonrihKt CongicHharc nol favored mc witha commit- 




paid ; yet their backwardness to enlist for another 
year is amazing. It grieves me to see so little of 
that patriotic spirit, which I was taught to believe 
was characteristic of this people. 

Colonol Enos. who had the command of Arnold's 
rear division, is returned with the greater part of his 
men, which must weaken him so much, as to render 
him incapable of making a successful attack on Quebec. 
without assistance from General Montgomery. I 
hope he will be able to give it him, and, by taking 
that city, finish his glorious campaign. I have noth- 
ing material to communicate to you from hence. I 
am making cver>' disposition for defence, by throwing 
up redoubts, &c along the Bay ; some of which have 
been constructed under the enemy's guns, but they 
have not given us the least disturbance. I suppose 

IM. Il ^ruIl](t liav« hod grcml effect with, (he tioop^ who nre exceedingly 
Inrbulent vnA even mutinnus. My veiilinn and dUlreu cm only he altcviatcd 
\ef icRcc'linE cm the trrcal pulitk' wiTanCaccs, which mui-I ariic from my unpar- 
Bllclnl good fonunp. I thill doihc the Uwip* cfKnplolely, who engage again. 
I find HTith pleasure, thai my politics have iquated *ilh the vicvs o( Congrets, 
and iholl lotc no lime in callinc a convention, when my inlendnl eipeditioo l» 
finidied. Will not your heallh permit yon ta ruide at MontreMl thli winter } 
1 mtut go home, ir I walk by the side of (he lake, thi> winter. I am wcftty of 
power, .ind loully want t)ial patience anil temper, m tequtnle for nicb a oum> 
mitnd. I whh urnie method could be rallen upon of engaging grnlUmrm \a 
kCrvo, A jroint v( honor, and tnorc knowledge of the world (o be found in that 
clau of men. would greatly reform disciphne and render ihc troup« much more 

" llie oAScen of the fir*C rc^meol of Vorkcrt and artillery company were 
very near a mutiny the other day, becauiic 1 would nut itup Ibe clothing ul llic 
garrison of St. Ji>hnV I wAvId not have sullied my own repulatinn, nnr dis- 
graced the Continental arms by «uch a brtauh of capiiiilatian, for the univciw. 
There was no driving tl into (hdr beaib, that (he clothing was really the |irop- 
eny of the noldter ; that he had paid for U ; and (hat every regiment, in tbi* 
eountry cspcdally, savctl a year's clothing to have decent clothe* to wear on 
panicalar occaiioai." 




Mr. Howe waits the arrival of his reinforcements, 
when probably he will attempt something. He sent 
out about three hundred men, women, and children 
last week. They give shocking accounts of the want 
of fuel and fresh provisions.' General Burgoyne is 
gone, or going home. 

November 30, Last evening I received the agree- 
able account of one of our armed schooners having 
taken a large brigantine, laden with militarj' stores, 
the inventory of which I have the pleasure to en- 
close.' But let not this acquisition prevent your 
sending what stores you can spare. We shall want 
them all. Adieu, my dear General. I wish you a 
return of your health, and am. Sec* 

' '* I cniinot liel[i caiti plaining i>f dislress wht-n OM-asiaiiMJ by mitn. There ar« 
a few in (he army vrhu tni>n(i|M)liic, imldUtrcwus. A load of sci coal is just 
booght by ilieiu l§> to dullais jir. chutdruo. and we are foicetl to p«jr ;^j j/ 
Kteiling lor il. A i^uuiilil)' of niiti wit Iniely furJy pur\:liuc(l (a) 3/B |>t. gal- 
lon ; but il ticin^ in |KJuc»iuii of [lie Adiiiiral. the luunapuliicn gmve \ peony 
more and got it ; atid now rum i( i.n\A % 9/ sterling by the Hhd. A g*llwt 
hone will not wince. I dv iivt suppose tlic Gcnerut koaws of it." — PeUr 
OHvefle EHtka HmtchxHian, 30 November, 1775. 

* Thix cAplute of Uit tirij! Naiuy wax mivde by the tchooner/^, cammjuided 
by Caplftiii Manly. The priic was ukeu tu Cap« Anti, " a very opeu harbor 
aiul acccMiiblc 10 \%x^ thipi, which made me immeiiiately aend off Col. Glover 
aif'd Mr. Pnlftx-y with orders to r*<He the minute men and milituol that p«rto( 
the country, to have ihe cargo landed without Iniq of time, and guarded up (o 
this camp. ThU 1 hope they will be able lo cflect. before it \% known to tb« 
cneiay, what port the it carried inlo. . . . Manly hot also takes ■ doop 
In iW ministerial Krvicc. and Cape. Adatns. in lhc»choaner JfnrrrM luu Iskcn 
a «ehnnner laden with potntuet and turnips, bnund to Bostnn and carried her 
into Purtiuiouth. " Wiuhini^tt h drtf^tts, 30 November, 1775. 

The .VaiKy conlained among othw More* auoi muUicti. 100,000 flltll*. 
30,000 round ihot, more than 30 tans a{ muiikei Hhoi. eleven mortar bed*, and 
a bra^B mortar wcichini; nearly 3000 poutids. to which rutnani £bvc ibe aome 
Congreis. Ctntrn. Evacuatiom. 83. Mvylatttif Kied, I. Reed, 133. 

* *' Tlie fatal consequences which have at all times, and ufKiii all oecauons be- 
fallen Armies attacked at unawares, when men are soittered and remote frooi 





CAirniDGK. » December, C77I. 


The reason of my giving you the trouble of this, is 
the late extraordinary and reprehensible conduct of 
some of the Connecticut troops. Some time ago, 
apprehending that some of them might incline to go 
home, when the time of their enlistment should be up, 
I applied to the officers of the several regiments, to 
know whether it would be agreeable to the men to 
continue till the ist of January, or until a sufficient 
number of other forces could be raised to supply their 
place, who informed me, that they believed the whole 

dwir pMb, at nc^Iicent wtiil*! al thetn, «r« loo wdl known, and very oftcQ loa 
■alxmnly (ell, to itantl in need of deMTtpti.oii ; Whereai a huidful uf men {>re> 
pu«d for tn Altnck, are seldom (tefeaied. Il it Uif rrfon oirlered in the mosl 
CKpKH and prcmptory termf, that no DOD-rominiMOiicd officer or toldier, do 
prenme uadei iny pretence wlialever, day or nifhl. to be out of Drum nil ei 
hit Alarm |ii»l, without lea*< if the Captain or commanding Oflicer of the 
Cumpany be t>clonj:!i to ; and it i> oIki »a expressly ordered, tliat no Non-CoiB- 
miakiaed Officer, at Soldier, do pMs from CunbrKlge, and the \\at% on ttiii 
side the river to Koaibury, or come from thence hither, or go froin nther, to any 
Other place in the rKiglibourhood. wilhuui a written pass from the CnptAin at 
C«ninutdlB|[ Officer ul the Compouy he bdonga to, although he should not 
mean to stay eoorc than ii| hout or two. 

" Tlie olficen of each Regiment arc lu be mlijcci Id ihc saiDC rcstrdnts, and 
to obtain leave ra (he ume manner from the Colonel, or Commanding Officer oT 
Ute Rcfimenl they rci]>cctiTcly bcloi^; k>i and it n ci^pected ihat all Oficera, 
and Soldiers in ihi^ Army, wilt pay ihc sin'ctol attrnlinn to ihb Order, ax ihcy 
•hall afitwcT the consequences. Thi* order 1* not Intended to change the mode 
of iii^iut; FiulogLghs, {already pointed out in pa»l ordcrat the tolc dcaiga bciii( 
lo keep men to their duty, that they may be almy* ready to meet ihcir enemy, 
upon the ihonent notire. 

** It t> ^pin. and again, Etprenly ordered, thai an olIiceT of eacfa Compftny 
do. once a day, examine the Armi aiid Ammunition o( tlie Conipaoy be belong* 
to, and aee that they are fit for uie. Thia and the forgoing order*, are to bo 
Irc<)Bcnilf read lo the men. and the lucfotoea of thctfl tirooely inculcated vpos 
tbeir mindt ; tbey are to he cuu»ideted M ituding orden till counteiMiaDdttL " 
— Onierly B**k, I December, 177$. 




of them would readily stay, till that could be effected. 
Having discovered last week, that they were very 
uneasy to leave the service, and determined upon it, I 
thought it expedient to summon the general oflficers 
at head-quarters, and invited a delegation of the Gen- 
eral Court to be present,* that suitable measures 
might be adopted for the defence and support of our 
lines. The result was that three thousand of the 
minute-men and militia of this province, and two 
thousand men from New Hampshire, should be called 
in, by the lolh instant, for that purpose. With this 
determination the Connecticut troops were made 
acquainted, and requested and ordered to remain 
here, as the time of most of them would not be out 
before the loth, when they would be relieved. Not- 
withstanding this, yesterday morning most of them 
resolved to leave the camp. Many went off, and 
though the utmost vigilance and industry were used 
to apprehend them, several got away with their arms 
and ammunition. 1 have enclosed you a list of the 
names of some of them in General Putnam's regiment 
only, who escaped, and submit to your judgment, 
whether some example should not be made of these 
men, who have basely deserted the cause of their 
country at this critical juncture, when the enemy are 
receiving reinforcements.' 

I have the pleasure to inform you, that one of our 

' J. Palmer an ibe pari of the Coiin>cil, ud J. Wamn and Col, Bowm, o( 
|}i« HouM nf ReptMcntativea. 

• ■■ The beliaviur of our sultlicrs hoa made mc lick : but little better coold be 
expected frnra men irnincil ii|> with notioni of their right of uying how, and 
Mhen, «ad under wlioin, Ihejr wiU serve \ and who hitvc, foe eciuiu diily poUtt- 




armed vessels, the Lee, Captain Manly, took and 
brought in the other day a valuable store-ship bound 
to Boston. I am, &c.' 

ol purposn been tampered with by ibcir oflicvni, amorg wlioin aa Icsi Ihao a 
gttural hu b**n bu*y." — Silas I>/aiu to kit -ei/f. 15 Uecembei, 1J7S. 

" We hail hcic exhibited the oibci At,y aioetic plcaiwiit enough. Sumc of Uis 
Conneciicvtisni who were home tick coutil not b« ptervailcd un to tany, which 
tuMiu in New EngUnd dialect, in serve iny longer. They ««or<iingly mvched 
off b^ And ha^ttge, but in pitwini; thiuush the linc.i of other regiment* thcf 
were so horribly hissc<], gioaned st and pellcil. that I bcEies«d they wiJied 
their aunts, graDdiiiatheii *n<l «i«b tw«eth««rti, to whom the day before they 
were so much attache)], nt the Devil's own palace." CAat. Lte to B^mJ, JtmsA, 
la IJecember, 1775- See i, Grrene't Oreette, 139. 

' Covemor Trumlmll wrote in reply . — " The Late ealtaordinary and npn* 
hensible condact of nuntc ul the lnxi|s of ihb cokmy impreaaes me, and the 
minds of many of osr people, with grief, siuprise, and indignition : lince Ihe 
treatment thej- met with, and the order and request made to (, were M 
icasonable, and apparcntlj necessary for the defence of our common luuk, and 
Mfety of our rights and privileget, (or which they freely eng^ed ; the term 
they Tolunianly enliHcd 10 serve not cjtpitcd, and yrobibly would nut end 
miich bcrun: the time when they woulil be relieved, provided their circtim> 
■tencea and indiitation diould preToni Iheir undertaking further. 

" Indeed, there is e^cnt difBcntty to support libctty. to cvertite guveromcDi, 
to lulntaiu subotdin.itioD. and at the nine time to prevent Ihe uperaliun of 
licenbou* and levelling prtnciplei, which maoy very c-july imbilic. The pulse 
of a New England man beats high for h'bcity : bi» cngaccmcnl in the .-Mtrvice 
he think* purely volnolary ; Ihererorc, when the time of enlistment is out, ha 
think* hiniDclf n»t holdca wilhoul further engagcmoiil. Thiivfatthccate in the 
last war. I ((realty (car its operation amongst ihe soldiers of the other colonica, 
aa t am scn&ible this is the genius and spirit o( our people. The union of the 
colonics and the internal union of each, are «( the utmost importance. 1 dclcr> 
mine to caQ the General Asicmbly uf ihb colony to meet at New flnvcn on 
Thnmlay. the 14th iiuiant. Please to notify me of any matters <fo» think profior 
to Mi£gcsl fix consi delation. Vuu may depend on tlieir real and ardof toaap. 
port the cnmnaoii cxasc. \a fumiifa nur quota, and to riert ibcir nlmoat UreHgth 
for the defence of Ihe righti of Iheae colonies. Vnur eandor and gcMidncsc will 
suggest to your conddention, that the conduct of our troops ik nut a rule 
whereby to judge o( the tetaper and spirit ol tlie uilony." 

General Greene wrote that these Connecticut troops " met with tseh an un. 
favorable reception at home that many arc returning to camp already. The 
people on Ihe road expreucd so much ablwwrence ol their ^Bitting the amy, 
that Jl wM with difficalty they BOt proviuOM." 

'"It uwithSurpriseandAstoniiliment The (jcneral tcorat that notwiihalaiid* 





Cambkidce, 4 DemnbcT, 1775- 

I had the honor of writing to you on the 30th. ult., 
incIosing^ inventory of the military stores, taken on 
board the brig Nancy, by Capt. Manly, of the armed 
schooner Lee. I have now to inform you tltat he has 
since sent into Beverley a ship named the Concord, 
James Lowrie. master, from Greenock in Scotland, 
bound to Boston. She has on board dry goods and 
coals to the value of ^3606. 9. 7. sterling, shipped by 
Crawford, Anderson, & Co. and consigned to James 
Anderson, merchant in Boston. It is mentioned in 

inc die Infnrmulion iIiai wu cjiiiiniiiiicated to tlic Cunntvlivul Troops of ihe 
Relief being prdeced tii «up[>ly tlidr i>Ucc». liy the loih of this Month ; thml 
mitn]' of llirtn Vixvc taken llirir )imi« ntth them anrl giine olT, not otily wllhoiil 
k«vE, but cantno' i<> uprcm <>nlcr>, thin is iticrefoTe lo inforcn tho*c who re- 
main, thai the Ifeneml hns &eni nn nprcK to Ihe Governor of Connecticut, with 
the namct of nch men h hnvc left Ilie Camp, in order that Ihcy tnay be deah 
with in a manner luitccl lo tlic Igiioniiny of their behaviour. Tl)c (jcncral aba 
infnrni^ ihoKC whn remain, ihni ii it ncceuuiry fnr them In obtain a writlcn (tiiu 
chai^ (roRt the Commaaditi}; Officer of Ihe RueI. tbejr belon|; lo, whcit Ibcyiue 
diimiued on the loth Instant that they may be didinguixhed from and not 
treated aa Deierten. 

"The Colonels and commuidinc ofTiccnof the Connecticut RcgitneiitK, nrcto 
jItb in the Names of >U tliosc ol tlieir resiicciivc reglnicnts (or ilic puipose 
abovementioneKl." — Ordfrly lieek, 3 I>e<!«nber, 1775. 

" Tlie General has been iurornicJ mure ihau once or twice, ihat an Idc» piv- 
Hil* ftmonfp.t tome of the Fint I.iputpnanU, iijiiin the new «»iAl)IiHhmcnt, that 
t( their CnplAlni do not recmii a (.-ompany, the rommanil of it vrill be lalt^n 
away, and given to mch Firti I.icuicnantK, provitlcd he can (ill it up : whirh 
tnalcM the Fir?i Li-mlenants imJiflcreni. and liitc-warm . in The recruiting bust, 
ne«s, whence such an opinion could ariw is not *n*y to *ny, but if il be poosible, 
th&t tlieic irc any OFTiciTf in thi<i Army nciunicd by auch principles, the General 
miMl podlively nuiircs them, that they ni^l only deceive Iheroielvet, but if proirf 
can be given of such ■ tliat^f, -lUvlt guilty enemic* to their counlfy, will triib 
dlifmce he di'smixned from the CunLinvnIal Army h service faroTer. The Gen- 
eral ihoi^l It his duty to give them ihiE pnhlie notice." — Ordtriy Bosk. 32 No- 
vember . 1775. 





the letters found on board, that this cargo was for the 
use of the army, but on a strict examination I find it 
is really the property of the shippers and the person 
to whom consigned. Pray what is to be done with 
this ship and cargo ? And what with the brigantine 
which brought the military stores ? 

It was agreed in the conference last October, " that 
all vessels employed merely as transports and unarmed, 
with their crews, to be set at liberty upon giving 
security to return to Europe, but that this indulgence 
be not extended longer than till the first of April 
next." In the shipper's letter they mention : "that 
you must procure a certificate from the general and 
admiral of the Concord's being in the government 
ser>'ice, such as the Glasgow packet brought with her, 
which was of great service, procured a liberty to arm 
her which was refused us ; also gave her a preference 
for some recruits that went out in her." In another 
part of their letter they say : "Captain Lowrie will 
deliver you the contract for the coals. We gave it to 
him. as it perhaps might be of use as a certificate of 
his ship's being employed In the government service." 
E%'er>' letter on board breathes nothing but enmity to 
this country-, and a vast number of them there are.' 

It is some time since I recommended to the Con- 

' " 1 un otdibly infonned Hut June* Andcrcon, the cousignee And put 
owDcrol the thlp Coucunl And car][D, itnol only unfriendly lo Amrricau libcny, 
bul Really in urmi ogninil tK. being captain lA the ^cutdi C(ni]|ia.n}r *X. Bo&ion. 
VpHtttbcr yuui btiiig Ktigu&uitcil with ihis cUvuinuaDcc wUl op«taie agAiDM the 
v««cl and OTgo, f wtU not tiUte upon me to uy ; but ilverc are many uticlcioD 
HnH, to Bbiolulely BftetMuy fnr the urmj', thai whrMhrr the it made • priieoi 
nni, wc niu«l bav« 'Ouem"—Watkitigtai% la tht Prttidtmt «f CeHcrtii, 7 De- 
cember, I77S. 




gress, that they would institute a court for the trial of 
prizes made by the Continental armed vessels, which I 
hope they have ere now taken into their considera- 
tion ; otherwise 1 should again take the liberty of 
urging it in the most pressing manner. 

The scandalous conduct of a great number of the 
Connecticut troops has laid me under the necessit>' of 
calling in a body of the militia, much sooner than I 
apprehended there would be an occasion for such a 
step. 1 was afraid some time ago, that they would 
incline to go home when the time of their enlistment 
expired. I called upon the officers of the several 
regiments, to know whether they could prevail on the 
men to remain until the ist of January, or till a suffi- 
cient number of other forces could be raised to sup- 
ply their place. I suppose they were deceived them- 
selves. I know they deceived me by assurances, that 
I need be under no apprehension on that score, for 
the men would not leave the lines. Last Friday 
showed how much they were mistaken, as the major 
part of the troops of that colony were going away with 
their arms and ammunition. We have, however, by 
threats, persuasions, and the activity of the people of 
the country, who sent back many of them, that had 
set out, prevailed upon the most part to stay. There 
arc about eighty of them missing.' 

' " 1 have tycoiniiiaiidur his Ejicellency General W>tsh]n[;ton, to inform you. 
that the Connecticut forcc» (deaf to the entreaties of their awn oa well u all 
olhet ofiicers, and rcgardLeia of the oonicmpt wiili n-hidi their own government 
tlitMlenc to Itwi them upon their Wurn), have absolutely refund K> tariy HO 
the 1st. Uay of Jtnu>r>'' ^'^^ ^'^ liiit l^e linc^ od tbe 6th. oi December. They 
have deceived us fttid thcii offiLcrs, by pretending there would he no diHiculCy 
with them, till they have gut %a near the close of their term, &nd now to Ihatr 




1 have called in three thousand men from this prov- 
ince ; and General Sullivan, who lately returned from 
the province of New Hampshire, having informed me 
that a number of men were thereready at the shortest 
notice, I have demanded two thousand from that prov- 
ince. These two bodies, i expect, will be in by the 
tenth instant, to make up the deficiency of the Con- 
necticut men, whom I have promised to dismiss on that 
day, as well as the numbers to whom I was obliged to 
grant furloughs before any would enlisL As the same 
defection is much to be apprehended, when the time 
of the Massachusetts Bay. New Hampshire.and Rhode 
Island forces is expired, I beg the attention of Con- 
gress to this important affair. • 

I am informed, that it has been the custom of these 
provinces in the last war. for the legislative power to 
order every ^own to provide a certain quota of men 

elcmat infamy, dein&nil a bounty to induce them to tany only three weeks. Thtt 
is ncli ftn iitnilt to every American, that we m <i<t«rain«d to rtleuc tlMOi, at 
the capirttioD of their Icnn. «t kll haionls, ind And ounclvct o1i1t};ei] iaimedi- 
Biety l« oipply their place with troo[u troRk New Hampihire and MasMchuwtH 
B«y." — GeruraJ SfUivan t» tht Xevf Ilamfthirt CvmmUtn */ Safety, JO N»- 
Tcmbet, I77S- 

' Mr. Lynch, who had been ane of the committee at conference in camp, 
wrote to General WnliinKtOR, nfter reliunlag toCoii|;TCW, la icgatd tothcitaic 
of the army here dncTJbcd ; — 

" Ptovideoce lavon ui ev«fyvh«T« ; our fncotM in every operation »xe**is 
wr inaat unguiae espectitdoiu ; and yet, vrhen God is ready to deliver our op- 
presson Into out hand*, thai men cannot be found willing to rewive them. It 
truly lurpriiing. With grief and ahamc it muiri. b« oonfe*»eJ, that the whole 
lilamc lie* not with the army. You will Cnd your lianda alialfhicncd [nttcad 
of strengthened. What ihe event will be. it i< iinpoaaoble to foretec ; peihapa 
it is ooly intended to force the contincat tiilt> I'leii own t'cmiB, and lo show ihal 
ncilhci GencrtI nor CongrcM shall be pcimitted to control the army : feihapi 
to moitiry the favoritei of Congrea*, Be IhU at It may, rtfolation xnd firmoecc 
ouglit lo r\il« out counciU. A ttep yielded to iaipropei end intcmpciale dc- 
niandttnaybe iiretiievable." 




for the campaign. This, or some other mode, should 
be at present adopted, as I am satisfied the men can- 
not be had without. This the Congress will please to 
take into their immediate consideration. My suspi- 
cions on this head I shall also communicate to the 
Governors TrumbuU and Cooke, also to the New 
Hampshire Convention. 

The number enlisted in the last week is about thir- 
teen hundred men. By this you sec how slow this 
important work goes on. Enclosed is a letter written 
to me by General Putnam, recommending^ Colonel 
Babcock ' to the brigadier-generalship now vacant in 
this army. I know nothing of this gentleman, but I 
wish the vacancy was filled, as the want of one is at- 
tended with very great inconveniences. An express 
is just come in from General Schuyler, with letters 
from Colonel Arnold and General Montgomery, copies 
of which I have the honor to enclose. Upon the whole, 
I think affairs carry a pleasing aspect in that quarter. 
The reduction of Quebec is an object of such great 
importance, that I doubt not the Congress will give 
every assistance in their power for the accomplishing 
it this winter.' 

' Henry Uabcock. "He (hU dny l>e«n very serviceable in ascUtibg m« 
in quelling a. mutiny and bringing back a number of 4»cncrs." — Putnam It 
WaikinstoTi, 1 December. 1775. 

*C<n.eriil Howe wrate to Lord Dartmouth, on the 3d of December, com- 
munlcating intelligence qI the lasd ul St. Jolin'» and MontnMil, and the reirest 
af General Carleion to Quebec, and cxprcMing »pp re lie nitons thai the entire 
province would (^11 intu llie Itandii of the invaden., .it tlii-ii? wns little rrasuti (o 
believe the capital would be nhle to wilhsland the expected attack. He added, 
olao, that, suppDung It poisible the Americ[in6 ml^ht be encouraged by their 
*ucccb3» in Canndn. and llic arms recently taken in ihe btigonline Nancy, and 
think of & project itKaimt Hnlifax, he should imuicdiatclyKud a reliifurccmcnt 






By the last accounts from the armed schooners sent 
to the River St Lawrence. I fear we have but little to 
expect from them. They were falling short of pro- 
vision, and mentioned that they would be obliged to 
return ; which at this time is particularly unfortunate, 
as, if they chose a proper station, all the vessels coming 
down that river must fall into their hands.' The 

to Ihtti pitce. As the rwovery o( Canada was a ptimary object, he recom- 
nenilcd Out ihc army for effecting it Lbould ooiuist a\ not less than t«'e1ve 
ibuufajtrl fiifhliiiE men, rcprc.^cniinji il die same Umc the incxpcditncy of 
■bocdDning the plan heretofore KUggesteil of taking p^isneuiim o{ KhiHlc Ivluid 
Mid New York, licce Ihc enemy wuuW be more liistrcwcJ by ■" »it«ck on this 
iriilnerablc iWc, than by any iuccchcs agnin»i tiicm in Canaila. — MS. I^tur, 

The (flllowing Inlelligence was contained In a letter from GeR«ni] Howe, 
forwarded «l the »oine time as the abo»c. " The enclosed an origintl tcttetv 
found in Mr. Cushlng'n Louic. They arc from Dr. Frankhn anil Mr. Slcpheo 
Sayre, and of a nature that pointii out the train carried on by thcte gentlemen 
to Ulow up this uuunlry into a rchcllion." 

The troops in fiotion suffered much for want of fad. The following cxin* 
ordiiuiy order will «how, that the deitruciion of hoiuet to supplythU wautwaa 
far from being approved by the British canimandcr. 

" The frequent depredatium cuinmilled by the utldien In pulling down 
homes and fences, in ilcfmntx <i( iC]icatol ordett, have induced the Cocninander- 
In^bfef to direct llic PtovotC to go Ins totindi atlendcil by the exccutioocn, 
with ofderi to hang up. upon the spol, the tirtl min he UiaJl detect in Ihe act. 
wilhoat vailing for furtlic^r proof by trial." — Ctneral JJo'wt'i Ordtriy B^ti, 
December 51b. 

' '• 1 believe 1 iwld you that Broughton and Sellman w«r«ivtiinic(l ; Ihey itever 
entered the river St. Lawiencc." — Mvyitut to Retd, 3 January, 177&. 

" My fears, that Broughlun and Sclinaii would not cRcct any good purpow. 
were too well founded. They are returned, and brought with ihetn three of 
the principal inhabitants from the island of At. Juhn'n. Mi. Callbcck, an pnfr- 
Idem of the council, acted at governor. They tiroughl the govcrnor'a comini»> 
t»on ud the Province >eal. Ai the captaini ic ted without any warrant foTMCh 
Modnet, I have thought it but justice 10 dtschiirgc ihcie gentlemen, wlwfe 
fnttiliea were left in the ulmmt A\stnM."—iVaskimgtom lo tkt Prttident •/ 
C»mgnti, t r>ecrmbcr. 1775. 

Uruughton and Selman cninmande'l the two armed vev«li> heretofore dico- 
tioned. tliat had been despatched by Washington, in compliance with an order 
oi CongrcM, to intercept in the Kirer St. Lawrence two briganlinvi, which, it 
baid been ondcrstood. wcie to t^ (nnn Enghwd to Quebec, laden with anna 

s6x THE WRITINGS OF [1775 

plague, trouble, and vexation I have had with the 
crews of aH the armed vessels, are inexpressible. I 
do believe there is not on earth a more disorderly set. 
Every time they come into port, we hear of nothing 
but mutinous complaints. Manly's success has lately, 
and but lately, quieted his people. The crews of the 
Washington and Harrison have actually deserted 
them ; so that I have been under the necessity of 
ordering the agent to lay the latter up, and get hands 
for the other on the best terms he could.' 

«»(] am mil nit ion, »nd wilhoiit convoy. After a cnliw of several i«ys, the 
Atnerican capininx liiicovcrcd no sudt Te»els. but they committed a very uii- 
^ustifiaMe iicl in ronltrng a <)nccTit on the uUn<l of St, John't, pill.iging the 
dercnccless inhabilnnU. and bringing awn./ tome of them pritonen. The 
gcDtlemcn Ihus bioughl off, among vrham was Mr Callbcck. ptescnicd %, 
nemarial to General Wasbinglun, in whicli they ilnted, that the govcnwr'e 
houKSJid other private dweUingswctc broken open, ai>d robbed o( iJicir plate, 
carpet), curtains, luukhig-glasscs, inblc linen, wearing apparel, and wlijilever 
eliS was of vaIud and could be tal[«n «M'ay. This was done by the captain*, of 
courw, without a thajlow nt licence from llicir iiiKCniciions thtnigh appatonlly 
nther through iterance of the cuiiomajy riile^ of warfare, than by any con- 
•cious vioUlion of the Inws <ti ct^uilyand honor. Sveh conducl, howevei.couM 
not fail to excite the indienaiion ol tlic Coinntander-tn-chief. and he relea»^ 
the cnpttvcs iminedialely. Iicitling them with all piiwtiblc kindnrw and rctpeet. 
Onim were given fi)r TCstonng the goods, which had been iiiHaged, and from 
the following note, written by Mi. Callbcck, it ma; be prcsumcit, that he at 
least wa& satisfied. 

" I ihould ill dc»crvc [he generous Ircaimeoi, which your ExceUency has 
been pleased to show tne. had 1 not gratiiudc 10 acknowledge so great a favn. 
I cannot aJKribe nny part o\ it to my own mrrii, bill mutt impute the whole ta 
the philanthropy and humane disposition, that no truly characterise Gencml 
W«)ihini,1ijn. Be \a obliging, Therefoie, as lo accept the only return in my 
power, that of my mosl pjateful thanki," 

' " Manly i> truly our hero of the «a ; poor [probably Hartindalc. com- 
mander of the WashitiutDo] U gone lo England: his vmscI wm not at all 
calculated for the lervice ; she wu fitted out nt an en«mnou» expense, did 
iwthing, and atnick without firing a gun. Coit T look upon to be a mete 
blubber, and — ~—- are indolent and inactive souls. Their lime was out 
yesleiday, and from frequent rubs they got from me (under the Uen era!'* wing*) 
they (eel soic, and decline serving longer." — AfcryJamofiffit,3jt.nv.i.Ty, 1776. 






The House of Representatives and the honorable 
Board have sent me a vote of theirs relative to the 
harbor of Cape Cod, which you have herewith. I 
shall send an officer thither to examine what can be 
done for its defence, though I do not think I shall be 
able to give them such assistance as may be requisite ; 
for I have at present neither men. powder, nor cannon 
to spare. The great want of powder is what the at- 
tention of Congress should be particularly applied to. 
I dare not attempt any thing oflfcnsivc, let the temp- 
tation or advantage be ever so great, as I have not 
more of that most essential article, than will be abso- 
lutely necessary' to defend our lines, should the enemy 
attempt to attack them. 

By recent information from Boston, General Howe 
is going to send out a number of the inhabitants, in 
order, it is thought, to make more room for his ex- 
pected reinforcements. There is one part of the 
information I can hardly give credit to. A sailor 
says, that a number of those coming out have been 
inoculated, with the design of spreading the smallpox 
through this country, and camp. I have communi- 
cated this to the General Court, and recommended 
their attention thereto. They arc arming one of the 
transports in Boston, with which they mean to decoy 
some of our armed vessels. As wc arc apprized of 
their design, I hope they will be di.iappointed. My 
best respects wait on the gentlemen in Congress, and 
1 am, Sir, your most humble. &c. 

P. S. I was misinformed when I mentioned that 
one regiment had arrived at Boston. A few compa- 




nies of the 17th and arttltery were all that are yet 
come. Near jpo persons are landed on Point Shirley 
from Boston.' 


Causxioce, % December, (77$. 


I have of late met with abundant reason to be con- 
vinced of the impracticability of recruitings this army 
to the new establishment, in any reasonable time by 
voluntary enlistments. The causes of such exceed- 
ing great lukewarmness I shall not undertake to point 
out ; sufficient it is to know, that the fact is so. Many 
reasons are assigned ; one only I shall mention, and 
that is, that the present soldiery are in expectation 
of drawing from the landed interest and farmers a 
bounty, equal to the allowance at the commencement 
of this army, and that therefore they play off. Be 
this as it may. I am satisfied that this is not a time 
for trifling, and that the exigency of our affairs calls 
aloud for vigorous exertions. 

By sad experience it is found, that the Connecticut 
regiments have deserted, and are about to desert, the 
noble cause we are engaged in. Nor have I any 
reason to believe, that the forces of New Hampshire, 
this government, or Rhode Island, will give stronger 
proofs of their attachment to it, when the period 
arrives that they may claim their dismission. For 
after every stimulus In my power to throw in their 
way, and near a month's close endeavor, we have 

' Received and md in Congress, 13 Dccombci. 1775* 





men. one thousand five hundred of 

which are to be absent at a time on furlough, until 
all have gone home in order to visit and provide for 
their families. 

Five thousand militia, from this government and 
the colony of New Hampshire, are ordered to be at 
this place by the toth instant, to relieve the Connec- 
ticut regiments and supply the deficiency, which will 
be occasioned by their departure and of those on fur- 
lough.' These men, I have been told by officers. 
who were eyewitnesses to their behavior, are not to 
be depended on for more than a few days ; as they 
soon get tired, grow impatient, ungovernable, and of 
course leave the service. What will be the conse- 
quence, then, if the greatest part of the army is to 
be composed of such men ? Upon the new estab- 
lishment twenty-six regiments were ordered to be 
raised, besides those of the artillery and rillemen ; of 
these New Hampshire has three. Massachusetts six- 
teen, Rhode Island two. and Connecticut five. A 
mode of appointing the ofificers was also recom- 

' " Ii was mentioned lu me jreiterddy In cniivcriAiluii itut ibe oiUitift v( thia 
gOTemment who were tinlered in to iu[ii>ly Ihe pLwe* of tli* Connecticut tmopt, 
ar« «ll«wcil 4C^ pci inonlli uf 39 ilajh. The 5i>( I bi^lily *ii{irovcd v(, ti««auae 
I wa> uawilting to see any inndinius distinction in pay, the netcr failing consc- 
ciuence of wbich is JMloiuy and diicord. Bnt, Sir, if the G«neKil Conn of thi* 
Colony have molvcd on the latter, yov mint pv< me leave to odd, that it ninu 
the muii fatal lut) to the peate of itiiii anny thai ever vraji eivch, and thai l.oid 
Nofth himieK conld not liave dcvii«il a more eSectnal blaw to the renuiiing 
Sttvicc Excniw me, Sir, (oi itic vtrcoKth of these exptcuion*. If my infoi- 
maiion iswTi>ne(l had it from Gcoenl flntli. whouythehAd ii from a mem- 
bet of your Court) ihcy arc altogether improper and I ctivc )'Our pardon (or 
diein ; If riehi my Z<al in the Asiciioui caii» muit plead my cxtuic."— W'^tk- 
iMgttm t» tkt frtiiifmt ej Uu CttimtH »/ Matia^Atueitt Bay, bl>e<xmbet, ITJ$. 




mended, and as strictly adhered to as circumstances 
would admit of. These officers arc now recruiting', 
with the success I have mentioned. 

Thus, Sir, have I given you a true and impartial 
state of our situation, and submit it to the wisdom of 
your and the other three New England colonies, 
whether some vigorous measures, If the powers of 
government are adequate, ought not to be adopted, 
to facilitate the completion of this army without offers 
ing a bounty from the public, which Congress have 
declared against, thinking the terms, exclusive there- 
of, greater than ever soldiers had.' I have, by this 
conveyance, laid the matter before Congress, but the 
critical situation of our affairs will not await their de- 
liberation and recommendation ;, something must be 
done without further delay. 

I am. Sir. &c.' 

' *' Vou entreat ihc gcncrnl officers lo recammcnd to Ccngrcss ihc giving of 
a bounty. But his Excellency Genemt WashiRgtun has c(i«n iLs,ure<l ■ai. tliai 
the ConpvM woukl not giv« a bnutiCy, and before they would giv«aboualy 
ihey would give up Ilie dispute. Tlie Lcnienl l>etwecn the Northern and Soulh- 
em colonin is nnt rery strong if forty ihoutand Uwrul will induK the Congreu 
lo give us up," — GtHera! Grant tt Cfvcmor Warii. 

* At this time theomiy at Cambridge was suSering much distrMcfor the want 
of firewood and hay. The Aa-nembly o{ Massachusetts undertook Co :iup|i1y 
theae aiticie*^, by calling on the iDwn*; wiihin twenty miles of Boston, to furuish 

at tialcd llmrs sprcilic quantities, acconLiug to the population of each town, 

and itH distance from camp. Thi* rcquisilion was generally complied «rith by 
the Mleclmen and committees of the tonvns. although it was isjiued only in the 
fonn of a recommcndBCioii, and the wants of the army were effectually relieved. 
ThcK supplies wcTt furnished nl the charge uf the coluny. A caniinillee of 
the A»embly via likewise nuthorized to procure wood from such woodlands as 
Ihcy ihought ptijpiT, even without the consent of the owner, a reasonable price 
bdnc paid ftif the wood \}iaj,taV.t,niitKf.—JfHrHal 0/ tkt AittmMy, Dcccmher 
3d, tbth. and 93d. 







Cambxidcb, 5 December, 1775. 

Dear Sir. 

Your much esteemed favor of the 2 2d ultimo, 
covering Colonel Arnold's letter, with a copy of one 
to General Montgomery' and his to you, I received 
yesterday morning. It gave me the highest satisfac- 
tion to hear of Colonel Arnold's being at Point Levi, 
with his men in great spirits, after their long, fatiguing 
march, attended with almost insuperable difficulties, 
and the discouraging circumstance of being left by 
near one third of the troops, that went on the ex- 
pedition. The merit of this gentleman is certainly 
great, and I heartily wish, that fortune may dis- 
tinguish him as one of her favorites. I am convinced, 
that he will do ever)' thing that prudence and valor 
shall suggest, to add to the success of our arms and 
for reducing Quebec to our possession. Should he 
not be able to accomplish so desirable a work with 
the forces he has. I flatter myself, that it will be 
effected when General Montgomery joins him, and 
our conquest of Canada be complete. 

1 am exceeding sorry to find you so much plagued 
and embarrassed by the disregard of discipline, con- 
fusion, and want of order among the troops, as to 
have occasioned you to mention to Congress an in- 
clination to retire. I know that your complaints are 
too well founded ; but 1 would willingly hope, that 
nothing will induce you to quit the ser\'ice, and that, 
in time, order and subordination will take place of 
confusion, and command be rendered more agreeable. 




I have met with difficulties of the same sort, and 
such as I never expected; hut they must be borne 
with. The cause we are engaged in is so just and 
righteous, that we must try to rise superior to every 
obstacle in its support ; and. therefore, I beg that you 
will not think of resigning, unless you have carried 
your application to Congress too far to recede, I am, 
dear Sir, with great esteem and regard, yours, &c.' 


CAMiiKii>aB, 5 DccembeT, I77S> 

Dear Sir, 

Your letter of the 8th ultimo, with a postcript of 
the 14th from Point Levi, I have had the pleasure to 
receive. It is not in the power of any man to com- 
mand success, but you have done more, you have 
deserved it ' ; and before thts I hope you will have 
met with the laurels, which are due to your toils, in 
the possession of Quebec. My thanks are due, and 
sincerely offered to you, for your enterprising and 
persevering spirit. To your brave followers 1 like- 

' General Schuj-ler had written in the letter lo wliidi thb Is a icyly : — 
" Nnllhiriig <«n Biirpue the iaipalience of thu troops (rom the New England 
colonics to i;«l lo ihcit fire5i<ilei^. Ncarlbr«« liiiiiiilr?d of them arHveil n {cw days 
ago, unable to do any duly : hut ns soon as I administered that giand spcdiic, a 
disekorge, they instantly aoquirfd health, nnd rathet than be detained a few 
days lo uv«i Lake George, tlicy undertook a mardi from bctc of (w4 bundled 
tnilet with ihc Ereaicsi alacrity. 

" Oor army rccjuircs to be put on a different foiling. HelMtuaied to order, 
I oinnot. witliuut tJic most extreme p4iii, sec that disregard uf disuplinc, con- 
fusion, and inaltcntion, which reign so generally in thii quarter, and I am 
therefore determined ta ictir«. Of this resolution 1 have adviied CoagreM." 

* This was a Tavoriic phrase with WB.^hin(;la[i. He iiscs it in his letter lo 
Deputy Cavernor Cuoke, p. IBS anU. 





wise present them. I was not unmindful of you, or 
them, in the establishment of a new army. One out 
of twenty-six regiments (lately General Putnam's) 
you are appointed to the command of, and I have 
ordered all the officers with you to the one or the 
other of these regiments, in the rank they now bear, 
that in case they choose to continue in service, and 
no appointments take place where they now are, no 
disappointment may follow. 

Nothing very material has happened in this camp 
since you left it. Finding we were not likely to do 
much in the land way, I fitted out several privateers, 
or rather armed vessels, in behalf of the continent, 
with which we have taken several prizes to the amount, 
it is supposed, of fifteen thousand pounds sterling; 
one of iheni, a valuable store-ship, (but no powder in 
it,) containing a fine brass mortar, thirteen-inch, two 
thousand stand of arms, shot, &c. &c. 

1 have no doubt but a juncture of your detachment 
with the army under General Montgomery is effected 
before this. If so, you will put yourself under his 
command, and will, 1 am persuaded, give him all the 
assistance in your power, to finish the glorious work 
you have begun. That the Almighty may preserve 
and prosper you in it, is the sincere and fervent prayer 
of, dear Sir, &c. 

P. S. You could not be more surprised than I 
was, at Enos's return with the division under his 
command. I immediately put him under arrest, and 
had him tried for quitting the detachment without 




your orders. He is acquitted on the score of pro- 


Causridcb, It December, 1775, 


Captain Manly, of the Lee armed schooner, has 
taken and sent into Beverly two prizes since I wrote 
you last, (which was the 7th instant) One of them 
is the ship yenny. Captain Forster, who left London 

'On Decembar 3lb Congras itppoioted ■ slnnding cominiUee, compi»«! of 
one mtmbcT from each Cotonf, tn examine into and Kpon upon ihc qu&lilicalioRs 
of coch penoiu U nilg}it apply for offices in the Continental army. The namet 
of the mcmben ve given in the yeiimali, & December, 1775, oaA 16 January, 

" The GenemI has great pleajrure in thanking CoL Bridge and the Officers el 
th« 37th. Rcgt. (who fivin a peculiarity uf circuiu»tAucu), ur want of vacaocict, 
hare no apiKiintnicrt in (he new uubliihrd Army) for their polite addrett to 
him ; he considera the at«ur»nc« which they have given, of their detenniDatiofl 
to continue in serrioc (if required) until the new Reyiment^ arc cnmplcntcd, in a 
very favurable light, eipecially. u it i« accompanied wiUi furllicr usurancts. that 
the men of the 37lh. Regt. >rc consentiug thereto. i>iiich a conduct, at thi* im- 
jiortant cri.iu, citnnot fail of giving plcuurc to every wcll-wiihcT to his counuy, 
Lnd next to engnging for another year, is the highest prnof ihoycan give, of 
their attachment to the noble cause oE Lihctty, at the same lime that it leflectk 
honor upon thcmicli'cs, it may under providence give posterity reason to hIcM 
th«m. as the happy Im-tntmeniti: of their delivery from those chaing which were 
actnally fo^ng for them. 

" Four Coinpauio of the New Hunpthlre Militia^ ue to march to Roxbury 
for the Keinfarci^tncnl of that divinion ; The Cnptain will receive Genl, Ward*» 
Ordcrt what Rcgiiiiculi they arc to be nllached lo ; The rest of the New Hamp- 
ihlte Mill lia are to join the Brigades on Winter and Prospect hills, in Cambridge 
&c., and together with the Companies of Mihtia from Mossachusetii, wrhich are 
ordered Xv j«in Prescott'a. Gtcaton'» & Nixon's Regiments arc to be appointed to 
the new established Regiments, at the Majors and Brigadien General shall think 
ht (or the moil equal distrihuMon of them. 

" The Captains of the several Militia Companies from the Moisacbusclts Mid 
New Hampshire Govcmmenis, are to make exact Rolb of their Companiet and 
retarn them signed wiliout delay, lo the Adjutant General." — Ordirfy B^tk, 
10 December, 1775. 





late in October. He has very unfortunately thrown 
all his papers overboard, and is not yet arrix'ed at 
camp. If he does before I close this, I will let you 
know what information I get from him. His vessel 
is loaded with coal and porter ; of the latter he has 
about one hundred butts. The other is a brigantine 
from Antigua, called the Little Hannah, Robert 
Adams, master. Her cargo consists of one hundred 
and thirty-nine hogsheads of rum, one hundred cases 
of Geneva, and some other trifling articles.' Both 
cargoes were for the army and navy at Boston. I 
have great pleasure in congratulating you on this 

The numbers enlisted last week are men. 

If they go on at this slow rate, it will be a long time 
before this army is complete 1 have wrote to the 
Governors of Connecticut and Rhode Island, also to 
the Convention of New Hampshire, on this subject 
A copy of my letter to them I have the honor to 
enclose herewith. A letter to the same purport I 
sent to the legislature of this province. 

The militia are coming in fast. I am much pleased 
with the alacrity, which the good people of this prov- 
ince, as well [as] those of New Hampshire, have 
shown upon this occasion, I expect the whole will 
be in this day and co-morrow, when what remains of 

■ " There ire limec. Uinom and oranges on board, wtiidi, being peridiable, 
you mujil sell immedUtclj'. Th.e General will want same o( uch. as well of 
dte swcetmcati and picklcf thai an on boaid, ii his lidj will be h«re lodajr or 
tOtMSTOW. Voa will pleue lo pick up iu<h thing* on boatd u jom think will 
be acceptable to her, and icril ihem as tooo sa poauble ; he don not mean to 
recdn any OiinK without \a.^mfax." — Mtflam to IVUliain Bariktt, 10 
De««mber, 1775. 




the Connecticut gentry, who have not enlisted, wl!! 
have liberty lo jjo to their firesides. The Commis- 
sary- General is still (by his indisposition) detained 
from camp. He committed an error when maicing 
out the ration list, for he was then serving out. and 
has continued so to do. six ounces pr. man pr. week 
of butter, tho' it is not included in the list approved 
of by Congress. I do not think it would be expedi- 
ent to put a stop thereto, as everything that would 
have a tendency to give the soldiery room for com- 
plaint, must be avoided. 

The information I received, that the enemy in- 
tended spreading the smallpox amongst us, I could 
not suppose them capable of. I now must give some 
credit to it, as it has made its appearance on several 
of those, who last came out of Boston. Every 
necessary precaution lias been taken to prevent its 
being communicated to this army ; and the General 
Court will take care, that it does not spread through 
the countrj'. 

I have not heard that any more troops are arrived 
at Boston ; which is a lucky circumstance, as the 
Connecticut troops, 1 now find, are for the most part 
gone off/ The houses in Boston are lessening every 

' " I was much plcai«(I lo hear of the leal of the people uf Contiecticuc. ■id 
the Tesdint-st of ih« inhAbilanti of the^ren! towiti; to inarch tothiictunp, upon 
their bdny acquainted with the behavior and Jcitrtiuii of ihcir troops. I have 
nnthing lo megesl fni ihe Cfinsiticration cil ynur Auicmbiy ; I am confirienc Ihcy 
will not be wanting in their exertions for supportioi; Ihe jufcl and conilitalional 
rights of the colonics."— Ifiw^tB^pn to Cevtrner TrumhuU, 15 Dcccmbd, 

" I was la hope^ Ihat aura would not have ducrtcd tlic cnuse of their 
country. liiii they icrm lo be so sick uE this way u( life, and » honicaick. ihal 
I fear the greater part and the best of the imupE from onr colony would go 




day ; they are pulled down, either for fire-wood, or to 
prevent the effects of fire, should we attempt a bom- 
bardment or an attack upon the town, Cobble Hill 
is strongly fortified, without any interruption from 
the enemy.' 

Colonel Enos has been tried and acquitted ; upon 
what principle you will see by the process of his trial, 
which I now send you. As the time of Colonel Enos's 
engagement was near expired, a doubt arose whether 
he could then be tried by a court-martial. This it 
was, which occasioned his trial to come on before 
Colonel Arnold's evidence could be had.' This is 
what at present occurs from, Sir, &c. 

P. S. The weekly returns of inlistment not being 

Imnv. TKv Connfrctiml troops are gmng Itome in ■faoaU tbi* daj'. Five tboo- 
und of the iDilitik. three from this Provlncr and two from New Hampshire are 
called in to lake their place. There is K**** tlefeciion among their Itooih, hut 
(ram the tpint aoil rcMlution of the pcoflc «I that pravlocc, I moke no duubt 
they will luttiith Ihcit propurlion irilhmil delay. New Hampshire hehavcs 
nobly: iheir ln>op« engngc cheerfully. ... I tent home same recrviiing offi. 
ccn. bnl ihcy kdI Katrcly a man, and report there are none to be had iherc." 
— Gtmtral GrtfMf la Gntrttor Ward, lo December, I77S. 

' "To reward and entourage Military Merit, The Congrcu thought proper to 
incraue the pay of the Captobn and Subalicmi of the Contincnul Artny ; and 
■s vnifnrmity and decency in dreis, are euentially neeeuary In Appcanuicc & 
regularity of nn Army Kia Excellency racomniends il eanicktly tu Ihg Oliicent 
■o pot ihemiclva in • propa uniform — The Field Officer* <rf each of the new 
Corps, irlll Ml Ihe examjile, bjr cloathing themselves in a Regiraental of their 
K»p«ctive Corp» -, and il is not di^ubted but the Ceptaint an<l Suballcnu, will 
Imiaedialely follow the example : The General by no niefins teeom mends, or 
decireic Ofiicen in run inta costly, or e«penuve Regimenlalt ; no mailer bovr 
plain, or coanc, hi Ihcy are but uniform iu their coluur. Cut and Faabiun ; 
The ofAcm bclnngine to ihcoc Regiment* whnoe nnlfonnB arc not yet 6ied 
(ipoB, bad better delay making their RepmenlAls until they an." — Orittfy 
B*»k, nth December 177; : 

* The proceedings of the ooun-mmlal are given hi Force, Amrritan Artkivtt. 
Fe«nh SeTic^ ill,, 1709. 




yet received for more than ten regiments, amounting 
to 735 men, I cannot fill up the blank in this letter ; 
but this added to the former makes in the whole, 



CAinEiscx, 14 Dcctmbct. inS* 


I received your favor of the 2d instant, with the 
several resolves of Congress therein enclosed. The 
resolves relative to captures made by Continental 
armed vessels only want a court established for trial, 
to make them complete. This, I hope, will be soon 
done, as 1 have taken the liberty to urge it often 
to the Congress. 

I am somewhat at a loss to know whether I am to 
raise the two battalions of marines here or not. As 
the delay can be attended with but little incon- 
venience, I wiii wait a further explanation from Con- 
gress, before I take any further steps thereon. 1 am 
much pleased that the money will be forwarded with 
all possible expedition, as it is much wanting ; also 
that Connolly and his associates are taken. It has 
been a very fortunate discovery. I make no doubt, 
but that Congress will take every necessary measure 
to dispossess Lord Uunmore of his hold in Virginia. 

' " A lettec trom Gencn) Washiogton dalcd uib Dccembci bciiie ddivcrad 
b]F two ttmngen wwi read. Uttoh'td thni the lArae Ite commiMed lu llie Secret 
Ccmmiltcc, wtio urc directed to confer wilL [hi; bearers, and puf^uc aucli aicW' 
nrea u they m:iy think |>ropcr (ot the interest of the United Col antes, "—^^nr- 
na{s bJ CoHffres] (MS.), 30 December, 1775. 




The sooner steps are taken for that purpose, the more 
probability there will be of their being effectual.' 

Mr. William Aspinwall and Mr Lemuel Hayward 
were appointed surgeons at Roxbury in the first for- 
mation of the army. They were confirmed by Doctor 
Church, who promised them to write to the Congress 
in their behalf. They applied to me during his con- 
fmement here, at a time that I had notice of Doctor 
Morgan's appointment. I referred them to his arrival, 
and inclosed you have his sentiments relative to them, 
also of Doctor Rand, surgeon to the smallpox hos- 
pital and his mate. I have to remark to you that when 
we had some time past got the better of the small- 
pox. Doctor Rand applied to me for a continuance 
of him in that department, which from a principle of 
not multiplying offices. I declined. He is at present 
wanting, and says that by only attending occasionally 
he loses his country practice ; of course his livelihood. 
You will please to lay these matters before Congress 
for their consideration. 

1 was happy enough to anticipate the desire of 
Congress, respecting Mr. Croft and Mr. Trot They 
both declined. The latter did not choose to serve, 
the former's ambition was not fully gratified by the 
offer made to him of a majority, and higher rank 
must have turned out Col. Burbcck, or Major Mason, 

* Coo^PMi detenninad on 1}«cetnber 9 lo Mnd Ihe recentljr eqttipp«d conti- 
avnlal nMwla againat l-ord DuDmore, Bnil piloli were aent for from Virginia. 
Two of the ben pilou. Edwtrd Cooper and William Itallwd. cainc up to Phil». 
Mphl* Mw« after Chriuinaa 1775, Iml the appearance of two Briiidi vkmIi in 
Ihe ChcMpcakc, put an end (« the Bltcnpt. Ritlmrd Htmrf Lt* f» AHMnr Ist, 
6 Jaly. 1783. 




who had served in those characters in that regiment 
to acceptation. 

I hope Colonel Knox will soon finish the business 
he is upon, and appear here to take the honorable 
command conferred on him by Congress." 

1 will make application to General Howe, and pro- 
pose an exchange for Ethan Allen. I am much 
afraid I shall have a like proposal to make for Cap- 
tain Martindale and his men, of the armed brigantine 
Washington, which, it is reported, was taken a few 
days past by a man-of-war, and carried into Boston. 
We cannot expect to be always successful. You will 
doubtless hear of the barbarity of Captain Wallace 
on Connanicut Island, ere this reaches your hands.* 

About a hundred and fifty more of the poor in- 
habitants arc come out of Boston. The smallpo.x 
rages all over the town. Such of the militarj', as had 
it not before, are now under inoculation. This, I 
apprehend, is a weapon of defence they are using 
against us. What confirms me in this opinion, is. 
that I have information, that they are tearing up the 
pavement, to be provided against a bombardment 
I wrote to you this day by Messrs. Penet and de 
Pliarne, who will lay before the Congress, or a com- 
mittee thereof, proposals for furnishing the continent 
with arms and ammunition. I refer you to themselves 
for further particulars.* I have the honor to be. &c 

I Heniy Knox was appointed OiIoDel of ihrrfffiment of artillery by Coagnw, 
Mt ttie 171)1 ol November. 

* Connanicut b a. smd] islnnd oppoaiic Newport, in Namoiisct Bajr- Cap> 
lain WbllaCF inndeil an the islnnd with a body uf snilon nnd marinec, biunt 
levecftl houses, pltiti(l«i»l Itic pccple'n gcnKLs, snd drove <if[ ihc cattle, 

* " I do myKir the honor to address this letter to yon by Mr. Prenet and 


Cahbmdob, 15 De<«mber, 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

Since my last, I have had the pleasure of receiving 
your favors of the 28th ultimo, and the 2d instant I 
must again express my gratitude for the attention 
shown Mrs. Washington at Philadelphia. It cannot 
but be pleasing, although it did, in some measure, 
impede the progress of her journey on the road.' I 

another Ft«nch gcntlemmi, who arrived her* [Providenccj liM Mg'M, with Cap* 
lain tUiLidc*, Irom Cape Francois, wIid were ilcspaidieil lacnc time since frori 
this place for pnwdcr. Mr. Prenel como t-xlmnelj well rKion)ni«nd«d to our 
commiltee, fur providin); potrder, (n>ni a merchant a( charMlcr, al the Cape. 
He luUh proposoU to make for supplying the United Colonies hIiIi armi and 
varllke stores. 1 am Intoimed that ibe olhvt gentleman U a perNun of xume 
C0(uc<iuencc" — Cvttrinir C^ake la fVaiAiugf^u, ll December, 1775. " I hftvv 
beard ihcir propaiali and plaiu fur mpplytni; the continent with amit and am- 
mnntlion, which appear plauiiblc, nnd In promite kuccccs. But noi ihinking 
myicli BUlhorixcd to «nlcr into any contract rctpccting the 6uae, and being not 
fully acquainted with tlie mciuicmni Con^rest bave adopted fur procuring theac 
ttticles, I bave prevailed upon them ta go to Philadelphia, and recoininended 
thctu, and a conaidcratian of tlicii plan, ta that body, when ihv matter will be 
finally agreed upon, or rejected." — Waskingbnt U> Gtnrmmr Caok^, 14 llccem- 

b«f. 177s. 

Pcnct and riiame wvrc meichants of Nantes in France. »ai were aficrwartb 
employed by Coajfreu (or furuisblii(> luiliiary Huppliei. S«e note to the letter 
fron IVaikiuglert to Omgreti, 7 October, iTjb,/^/. 

' " Philadelphia. Nov. m. Vcalcrday the Ijwiy o( hii ExccUencT Gknehal 
Washinctox arrived heir, upon her way to New KngUiid. Shewai^met at the 
IxiwGi Ferry by like oCIicen of the diflerenl baltatluos, the troop of light honie, 
and the light infantry of the tccond hatlalioD, who ctcortcd her into the cttjr." 
— J'rmm. Gatetu, n Novembw, IJ75. 

" Pbiladelphia, N'oveinbcr 39. On Monday U*t [tlie 37th), the Lady o( Hii 
Excellency ticneral Washimcton. the Lady o( <iencral Oafes, J. CUKrts. 
Eiq; and Lady of Wakkkr t.KWit, r.11] ; m^ out for Cambrid^, Tbey wete 
McvrMd by the OSiccri of the Fimt and Second baitalionx^ the IJsht [nfanuy 
of the Fint and Third battoliono. and by the troop of hono."— /'fivit. Gatftu, 
NoTembor 39. 

" New Yorli, December 4. Wednesday evcDlug [Nov. aqih] last arriTcd at 
NcwBik, tn tbeii wajr 10 the Provlnckl Camp at Cambridge, Ibo Lady ot hii 




am much obliged to you for the hints contained in 
both of the above letters, respecting the jealousies 
which you say are gone abroad.' I have studiously 
avoided in all letters intended for the public eye, I 
mean for that of the Congfress, every expression that 
could give pain or uneasiness ; and I shall observe 
the same rule with respect to private letters, further 
than appears absolutely necessary for the elucidation 
of facts. I cannot charge myself with incivility, or. 

Excellency Genertl Wiuhinf^on, the L«dy of AdjuUnt-C^enerftl GUo, John 
CntUia, E»q : and hia Luly, uid Wuiicr Lewis. Em) ; llicy wen etcocteil from 
EluAbcth-Tnwii by ihe cumpany a( light hnrw, Mid mMi; of the principal gmtW* 
men uf thai )}oroi)(;h ; ■ml on t}i<ir nrrival nl Newark, lh« hpllii werctel ringing, 
and Col. Allan'i comjinny of rainuie men itnmfdinlcly mountctl giiixrd. About 
to o'clock on Thursday morning LaiJy Waihinglon and Lady G«i», &c. esc<wt«d 
by 0. party of LlliAbcth-Tuwn light honu;, and a great number o\ (gentlemen antl 
ladles from Newark, set out for Uobb'i Ferry, in ontci to jmsk [he North-mer 
at thai [ilocr, in Uteir way \a the Provincial Cannp." — Ptnn. CaulU, Deoember 6, 

Mn. Washingion arrived in camp on the nth of Deeembci. ll teem*, thai 
•omc pcrtant thought hci in danger al Mount Vciiion, which iBacccttibleioaracd 
alripa of the largect riie. Lund Washington had wrilien to the Ceneral ; — 
" Many people have made a ttir about Mr^, Wojiiiigtcm.'!! CDnitauing at Mount 
Vcinon, but I cannot tliink tliete is any danger. The thnught I believe origi- 
nated tn Alexandria ; from thence it gr.t (o Loudoun, and I am inid th« people 
cf Loudoun talk of ending a guard to cnnducl her Co Berkeley, with aomc o( 
their principal iam\ to persuade her lo Ictive this place and accept ilieir oBet. 
Mr. John Auguitinc Waihington wrote, prtming her to leave Mount Vcmoa. 
She docs not believe hcr^lf in dajiger. Lord l>unuiorc will haidly himicif 
venture op this river ; nur do I believe he will tenti on that errand. Surely hte 
o\A acquain lance, the attorney [John RanJvlphJ, wlio, with liis family, is o« 
board hi» ship, would prevent his doing any act of that kind, You may depend 
I will he watchful, and upon the least alarm persuade her to remove." 

' These jealoiuiei were undtjabtedly those exhibited between the SoulhoB 
and New England delr^atek, of vrbt-.h jiciuil' mention has already been made. 
Circumitonci^ii had lendeil to incrcnae rather than diminish these jealotinics, and 
aaa renult had bcrioualy obstructed the action of Congress. The NcwEnglaadcn 
were oppoted to General .Schcylor. while their ilcmocraiic ideas were very dia- 
pleaaing to the South. When Horrisan and Lynch visited the camp fn October, 
what ihcy heard not a little surprised them, " You ought, my (ricnd to be a 
Utile more upon your guaxd Itt dedanng your Republican Mntlmentfc to the 




what in my opinion is tantamoynt, ceremonious 
civility, to the gentlemen of this colony; but if such 
my conduct appears, I will endeavorat a reformation, 
as I can assure you. my dear Reed, that I wish to 
walk in such a line as will give most general satisfac- 
tion. You know, that it was my wish at first to 
invite a certain number of gentlemen of this colony 
every day to dinner, but unintentionally I believe by 
anybody we some how or other missed it If this 

Southern people. Virgininn* and Cirollniim %n nol yrt prrpMcd for weh 
doctnucK. . . . They seem tv mc withoat exception to be exaclljr in the wbim- 
aica] lUic of the prince of LUlput. hobbling with one tug)! itioc ind one lair one 
— ktmiHts fui Htc telam strtiitatem ^fi fioiintif, n*f Ulam Hh*rtaUm. . . . 
Poot CAiea, who ii u mad an cittbusiast ai Colonel Rainbold hinucU has 
fri^itened 'em out tti their v\tx."—Ckartrt la Rtnjsmin fCutk, lo anil so 
Octob*r, 1775. The prajudicc wai often perMtnal. "One of our meinbere of 
Congrr^ (Jnhn Adamt] miIx (mi today for New England. Whether his intent* 
be wicked ot not. I doubt much : he should be wBtc.bed."^Z)«wA t« H'aiking^ 
lam, 8 DcMinbei, IT?}. The deciwoii lo ytiy (he Ito<>|» liy calcnilar nionih* 
appears to hsTc been a measure lapporlcd by the Southern coJonies, as the New 
England c«>loni«« had abvady decided lo pAf by lh« lunar month ; so alto ihe 
opposition loa boitnty came fiom the South. "Von entreat the general oRiccra 
10 rrcommend to tlic Confrre^ the giving of a bounty. But hi* Excellency, 
General Washington, has often a&mred ns that the C«if[Teai would not give a 
Iranatyi aiul befoia tbay would ciie a bounty they would give op the dispute. The 
cement between the Northern and 5autbem colonies is not very ttnuig, il forty 
Aoaaaad tawfnl. will induce the CoogrMS to give vs np. Although T do not 
imagine thai the nccewily of allowing a bounty would have brokea the Union, 
yet It wai a uitiicicni lutiuaikni iliat ilie bare nicniion was diiagreabte. . . . 
MokI of the gcneraJt belong lo the Noi(h«Tngov«nimenti : if the Congreas refute 
10 bear ibcit dde^atea, I apprehend they would the generals alto."— Grtfra/ 
G'MU to Samuff iVarJ. ji December, 1775. Also J«km Adami to Joiefh 
ffnvflry, J5 Norembcr, 177S. The trade policy of Congrcw was regarded as 
beaming nitoqiully on the different colonies, and was a snbfcrt of dctiala ortm 
mad hotly. Behind all this waw the cuotei-t between those who still hoped tor a 
MOoacilialioo with Britain, and those who were urging Congre» to rut away all 
comtection with the muther country. *' It ii almoat impoaalblc lo move any 
lUng [in Congrest), but yon instantly see private frieitdships and enmiiies, 
and prorindal views and prcjadices iDleraiinglc In the consultation," — John 
Adans. II. 448- ^ee alto Genercl Gmmr to SamtuI (I'on/, 31 December. 177J. 

has given rise to the jealousy, I can only say that I 
am sorr)' for it ; at the same time I add, that it was 
rather owing to Inattention, or, more properly, too 
much attention to other matters, which caused me to 
neglect it. The extracts of letters from this camp, 
which so frequently appear in the Pennsylvania 
papers, are not only written without my knowledge, 
but without my approbation, as 1 have always thought 
they must have a disagreeable tendency ; but there is 
no restraining men's tongues, or pens, when charged 
with a little vanity, as in the accounts given of, or 
rather by, the riflemen. 

With respect to what you have said of yourself, 
and your situation, to what I have before said on this 
subject I can only add. that whilst you leave the door 
open to my expectation of your return, 1 shall not 
think of supplying your place. If ultimately you 
resolve against coming, 1 should be glad to know it, 
as soon as you have determined upon it. The Con- 
gress have resolved well in respect to the pay of and 
advance to the men ; but if they cannot get the 
money-signers to despatch their business, it is of very 
little avail ; for wc have not at this time money 
enough in camp to answer the commissary's and 
quarter-master's accounts, much more to pay the 
troops. Strange conduct this 1 

The account, which you have given of the senti- 
ments of the people respecting my conduct, is ex- 
tremely flattering. Pray God, that I may continue 
to deserve them, in the perplexed and intricate situa- 
tion I stand in. Our enlistment goes on slowly. By 
the returns last Monday, only five thousand nine 




hundred and seventeen men are engaged for the en- 
suingf campaign ; and yet wc arc told, that we shall 
get the number wanted, as they arc only playing off 
to see what advantages are to be made, and whether 
a bounty cannot be extorted from the public at large, 
or individuals, in case of a draft Time only can 
discover this. I doubt the measure exceedingly. 
The fortunate capture of the store-ship has supplied 
us with flints, and many other articles we stood in 
need of ; but we still have our wants. We arc secur- 
ing our approach to Lctchmorc's Point, unable upon 
any principle whatever to account for their silence, 
unless it be to lull us into a fatal security to favor 
some attempt they may have in view about the time 
of the great change they expect will take place the 
last of this month. If this be the drift, they deceive 
themselves, for if possible, it has increased my vigi- 
lance, and induced me to fortify all the avenues to our 
camps, to guard against any approaches upon the Ice. 
If the Virginians are wise, that arch-lraiior to the 
rights of humanity. l>ord Dunmore, should be in- 
stantly crushed, if it takesthe force of the whole colony 
todoit ; otherwise, like a snow ball, in rolling, his army 
will get size, some through fear some through prom- 
ises, and some from inclination joining his standard. 
But that which renders the measure indispensably 
necessary is the negroes. For if he gets formidable, 
numbers will be tempted to join, who will be afraid 
to do it without.' I am exceeding happy to find that 
that villain Connolly is seized ; I hope if there is any 

' On NoTcmbcT 7 Unnmorc h^d i*saed « proclamalioD declaring the colonj 
to be under manlkl Law tad tumiiio«litg every pcnon capable o( bcuing UIM 




thing to convict him, that he will meet with the pun- 
ishment due to his demerit and treachery, 

Wc impatiently wait for accounts from Arnold. 
Would to God we may hear he is in Quebec, and 
that all Canada is in our possession. My best re- 
spects to Mrs. Reed. I am. &c. 

P. S. The smallpox is in every part of Boston. 
The soldiers there who have never had it, are, we 
are told, under innoculation, and considered as a 
security against any attempt of ours. A third ship- 
load of people is come out to Point Shirley. If 
we escape the smallpox in this camp, and the country 
around about, it will be miraculous. Evcr>' precau- 
tion that can be is taken, to guard against this evil, 
both by the General Court and myself. 


CAHf AT Camukiuue, i8 Dccoinbct, 1775. 


We have just been informed of a circumstance, 
which, were it not so well authenticated, I should 
scarcely think credible. It is that Colonel Allen. 

lb KMrttohisHajesty'ssLandanl, ot be lMlt«d Upon u trttumdo hii MaJeUy'i 

CKnm *nd govemmenl. Bill the part thfti gave the most rMttiic \(t Ibe ool- 
oniob was ihc prnmiM; ai {cecUom lu aJl indenttd ecrvsjiU, noi[rue> »nd odtcn 
" appeTUtning to rrbclt" who i^haulcl join lik lr<xip<. Congress interpreted 
diitt proclamalioQ u one "tearing up Ihc fuuii'taCions uf civil authorilj and 
govcmmcal " wiihjn the colony ci( Virginia, and ndvised that sucti a forrn of 
government should be eiiabiiihed oi should lien produce the happiness of the 
people and most ciTcciually Mcure peace and good order in tlic colony during 
the continuance uf the dispute with Britain. Jevrnait, 4 December. 177$. 
A nionlh before the procUmatior wa^ iftnied Dnnmore had sworn "by the li»* 
ing God, that if any injury or inrall was aiTcred to hinuielf, he would declare 
Ireedom to the itaret." See John Adami. ii.. 4S9. 




who, with his small party, was defeated and taken 
prisoner near Montreal, has been treated without re- 
gard to decency, humanity, or the rules of war ; that 
he has been thrown into irons, and suffers all the 
hardships inflicted upon common felons. 

T think it my duty. Sir, to demand, and do expect 
from you, an eclaircissement on this subject At 
the same time. I flatter myself, from the character 
which Mr. Howe bears, as a man of honor, gentle- 
man, and soldier, that my demand will meet with his 
approbation. I must take the liberty, also, of in- 
forming you, that I shall consider your silence as a 
confirmation of the report; and further assuring you, 
that, whatever treatment Colonel Allen receives, 
whatever fate he undergoes, such exactly shall be the 
treatment and fate of Brigadier Prcscott, now in our 
hands.' The law of retahation Is not only justifiable 
in the eyes of God and man, but absolutely a duty, 
which, in our present circumstances, we owe to our 
relations, friends, and fellow-citizens. 

Permit me to add. Sir, that we have all here the 
highest regard and reverence for your gKat personal 
qualities and attainments, and that the Americans in 
general esteem it as not the least of their misfortunes. 

■ Wlwn EtliBii Allen wm caplttred lit Montreal, he wm Uk«n before the Brll- 
Ub General, TreKotl, who trcoied him not only with cRtmnc nidcncM, but 
ctuelljr. Allen nrriies, (hat. after receiving trum him much peruiiial nbuie, "lie 
ordered one nf hu nfficcn to lahe mc on board the Cu[m«, Kchnoner nf vu, 
and courinc me, hands ant) feet, in irons, whidi wax done the »axvx «Etcrnuoii 1 
w« taken. "—A'irr<i/iir, &c., p. 36. Tile acconnl o( ihi6 trNlineni w«t con- 
CTBe<l to General Monlttomerr. after h« had Uken Moiim«l ; and when Gen- 
eral Tiocott fcU inio tiis hands, tic gare ooiicc 10 General Schuyler of U» |ire- 
vtoiu conduct. 




that the name of Howe, a name so dear to them,' 
should appear at the head of ihc catalogue of the 
instruments employed by a wicked ministry for their 

With due respect, I have the honor to be. Sir, 
your most obedient humble servant' 

P. S. If an exchange of prisoners taken on each 
side in this unnatural contest is agreeable to General 
Howe, he will please to signify as much to his most 
obedient, &c.^ 

' AUiultng to Lord Howe, a broilicr of General Howe, who ]iad bctn slain 
in the Insi war ai the oiisclt on T iconilcrogii under General Abetctomby. He 
vns an officer of great mcril, and extrvmcly populur ia the coloaicb. The 
pTovinuc ur Mtt'isatliusctLs caused a itionumcm lo be creeled to hb memory in 
WeilmintltT Abbey. — Holehimwn's Histtry of Manoikusfllr, VoL iii.. p. 71, 

* By boaUrjr pcrwoa and a>;cavo(s jusi from Butitou, 1 am informed that the 
niinuitmal army is in very ^real dUlresi fur want of (rcih pxovbiion*, and hnr- 
ln|t received intelligence thai iherc on; two hundred fai cuttle on Block Ulsnd, 
and *ome tranipon vessel* o-uuing that way in i^u-cst of neccuoiiu for the 
anny. I inuw te<)ue!.l you to have the cattU. Sc. removed from theme, imiue- 
dinlrly - am] from every other place whMC Ihcii nhipd: can come and take th«tn 
ofl. It ii a matter ai llic utmtl^t itiipurtaiiii:e ti> |iicvrnt their celling a supply ; 
if they can be hindered now. ihe advant^ed seatcm of ihe year, and the incle- 
ment weolhcr, which we mny cili»cI era long, will put jt oat ol their poww." — 
Wai/kingMn At Govtrner Coait, 17 December, 177s. 

*The part of the above letter, concemlag Colonel All«n. wan wntt»nln ooa- 
Kqucuce of an order trom Caiigresa. It had aLso been resolved by Congrcaa, 
thai an exduLn^e of prbuncn wni proper. i:iiizcn!i for ciiuent, ofiiceta for otficen 
of o(|iiii] mnk, and soldier fnr ijoldior. 

General Howe in hU reply, wriltcn on the 3j(h, after itating that Allen waa 
In cbirgc of General Carlelon, and therefore outside nl bit command, added :— 

" It » with regret, considering the character you have always maintained 
ajiion^ )'((ur friends, a^ a t^cnilcman of the atriclc&l honor and delicacy, that I 
find cauke to resent a sentence in Ihe cunduKioo of your lelier, tiig with invec- 
1iv« against niy ^tiperior^, anil inRalling to inyaelf, which should obstruct nay 
funhcr intercourse between us," 

The day after reieiving Washingtan's letter, that it. onthe iQthof D«t«inber, 
Ceneral Howe wrote to L,ord Dartmouth as (oUowi : 

" Mr. Washington, pmumini; upon ihc number and rank of [he prisoncre in 
his possesKiun. hat threatened retaliation in point of treatment lo any priaoneta 


CAuniDRi:, tS DMvmher, 1775. 


Captain Manly, of the Let armed schooner, took 
and sent into Beverly the sloop Betsey, A. Atkinson 
master. She is an armed vessel, despatched by Lord 
Dunmore, with Indian com, potatoes, and oats, for 
the army in Boston. The packets of letters found on 
board, I have the honor to send you with this by 
Captain James Chambers, they being of so much 
importance, that I do not think it would be prudent 
to trust them by a common express. As Lord Dun- 
more's schemes are fully laid open in these letters, I 
need not point out to the Congress the necessity 
there is of a vigorous exertion being adopted by 
them, to dispossess his Lordstiipof the stronghold he 
has got in Virginia. 1 do not mean to dictate, but 1 am 

of Uicin in oBf power ; uid propot«* Kn cx<h«age, which U a drconistanoe I 
Aall not aii!(iircr in poMiivn terms ; nor ihall I enter H|)on rach a measure with- 
owl lbs King'contera. Your Ij^rdihip, lias encIoM^, % publication esnacted froiD 
ibeminutMof (hfC^ntinvDlalCoosms in Tef«renf« to hit Majeity'i prockma- 
litm of the ijd of August, on the pKncipla of vhich Mt. Wuhingion scens U> 
have rounded his threats,"— .WX Letter. 

Thin proclainn(i<vii declared the colonies to ba in open relienioa against lliB 
CKHra. and nil the Kin;;'* oBteen, civil and military, vcre ontetcdla ^ivc infnr- 
matioD of such pcTsonta« should be found aiding or aheititig tho», who were in 
anm ogatntt the govern men I, or holding any correspondence with them, " in 
order to bring to condign puniihmcnt the authors, pcrpctniore, and abettors of 
inch traitorous deiigns." After considering thit proclamatioii, the Congrem 
declared and ptiblikhcd, "that whatever puniahmeni shall be inflicted tipoci any 
penuru in the [Kiwer uf nur cnemiei for favoring, aiding, or abetting the cauic 
o< American liberty, shall be rrtaliaicd in the mric kind and the (am* dep** 
Bptm iboaein oui power, who hare favored, aided. of abetted, tii i>hall favor, aid, 
or abM the ^stcm of mitiioctial opprevUon. The casential diflctence b«t«een 
r eaiue, and that of our enemica, roi^l juatify a tcreter puniihment ; the law 
fA retaliation will unqucaiiofiably wairanl one equally levere." — Krmrmiramefr, 
Vol. i., p. 148.— yoMnuilt tfCenfmt, OeetmbertlA. l^^i. 




sure they will pardon me for giving them freely my 
opinion, which is, that the fate of America a good 
deal depends on his being obliged to evacuate Nor- 
folk this winter or not 

I have Kirkland ' well secured, and think I will 
send him to you for examination. By most of the 
letters relative to him, he is a dangerous fellow. 
John Steuart's letters and papers are of a very inter- 
esting nature. Governor Tonyn's and many other 
letters from Sl Augustine show the weakness of the 
place ; at the same lime, of what vast consequence it 
would be for us to possess ourselves of it, and the 
great quantity of ammunition contained in the fort' 
Indeed these papers are of so great consequence, that 
I think this but little inferior to any prize our famous 
Manly has taken. 

We now work at our ease on Lechmere's Hill. On 
discovering our party there yesterday morning, the 
ship which lay opposite began a cannonade, to which 

' Colonel Kirkland wax describeil by Ivord Dunmute as nn American " Irulj 
welMispoied to his Mnjcsty's ieTvice."a man of " real worlh and spirii." 

* See Jtumaii af Cangreir, January, 1776. In t!ic piintcil edition of tbcte 
yeurnah two of tlie resolutions are omillMi. I take ihcni fioai MS. JoumaL 
" Jittolvt4, That the Mixing and securing the barraclcE wA castle fl( Sl. Atigat- 
tine will grcBlly vonfil^utc lo the Mfety of tbct>c ColonivH. Uicrcfoic, ll U can- 
estly recommended to the Coloniet of Snuth CniQlina, North Carolina and 
Ceof^a 10 itn-lertitke the rcijurtion of Si. Augustine, if It be ihouglit practicable. 

" Jftiolvcd, That the litsl resolution together vrith copies 01 exttact.n of .lucfa 
of the intercepted letien ȣ lend lo ihow itie state of the forts and garrison at 
St. Au^itinc, be transmiltcd by cxprcsi to Henry Middlelon, and John 
Rutledge. E^in.. luembers of Congiess, to be by iheni laid before chc commit. 
tc» direcled lo meet in consetjiLencF of ihc above rcsoluliun. and in cati; the 
enterprise be judged prai;tii.'uble, thut iinmediBte jirepiirBlionB be made by iIm 
joint force of the jaidColoniesanil the expedition be nudcrtoken without delay at 
th« «Kpenee of the Unilod Colonies." The iniercoptcd leiterv may be found la 
Force, jimfrirarf Artkivrt, /■'pHrfi Serin, iii. 




Mount Horam ' added some shells. One of our men 
was wounded. We fired a few shot from two eighteen 
pounders, which are placed on Cobble Hill, and soon 
obliged the ship to shift her station. She now lies in 
the ferry-way ; and, except a few shells from the 
mount in Boston, (which do no execution.) we have 
no interruption in prosecuting our works, which will 
in a very short time be completed. When that is 
done, when wc have powder to sport with. I think, if 
the Congress resolves on the execution of the pro- 
posal made relative to the town of Boston, that it can 
be done. 

1 have sent a letter this day to General Howe, of 
which a copy goes herewith. My reason for pointing 
out Brigadier-General Prescott as the object, who is 
to suffer Mr. Allen's fate, is, that, by letters from 
General Schuyler, and copies of letters from General 
Montgomery to Schuyler, I am given to understand 
that Prescott is the cause of Allen's sufferings. I 
thought it best to be decisive on the occasion, as did 
the generals whom 1 consulted thereon. 

The returns of men enlisted since my last amount 
to about eighteen hundred, making in the whole 
seven thousand one hundred and forty. The militia 
that are come in, both from this province and New 
Hampshire, are very fine-looking men, and go through 
their duty with great alacrity. The despatch made, 
both by the people in marching and by the legislative 
powers in complying with my requisition, has given 
me infinite satisfaction. Your letter of the 8th 




instant, with the explanatory resolve respecting^ my 
calling forth the militia and mintite-men, is come to 
hand ; to which I shall pay all due attention. You 
have removed all the difficulties, which 1 labored 
under, about the two battalions of marines. I shall 
obey the orders of Congress in looking out for proper 
officers to command that corps." I make no doubt 
but, when the money arrives to pay off the arrears 
and the month's advance, that it will be a great en- 
couragement for the men to enlist. 

Enclosed is a letter I lately received from Mr. James 
Lovell. His case is truly pitiable. I wish some 
mode could be fallen upon to relieve him from the 
cruel situation he is now in. I am sensible of the im- 
propriety of exchanging a soldier for a citizen ; but 
there is something so cruelly distressing in regard to 
this gentleman, that I dare say you will take it under 
your consideration.' I am, with great respect, &c.> 



CAMSaiDce, tS December, 1775. 


Dear Sir. 

Your favors, the first of the 28th ultimo, and the 
two last of the 9th instant, with their enclosures, I re- 

'fiy ihefini resolve o[ Congress rrspeciiDg these twobRtLnlionsDf mvincs, ihcf 
were to be raised out of llie anny. Uiwm Ihe representatinn of Generaj Wuh. 
irgton, thm thii wooM cnuse an imcrfeience with liis irniUKciiienls, it wbs voted 
that the muincs alioiilil be raised in addition to the proposed itrmy. Congress 
bad also tinpowered the Com mnnrter- in-chief to cill oat the militia io the Ne» 
England foloni<-« whenever he should find il necessary, ani] requested ihoic col^ 
nies scverslly to Bflonl him all the asiiituiee in their power to effect Hut object. 

* Jottmals of Comgrtts, 5 J^runry, 1776. 

• Received by Congress. December 30. Rctcrred tu Lynch, Hooper, Wythe, 
Dcftnc and J. Adauis. 




ccived. I am happy to hear of your being better, and 
heartily wish, that you may soon be perfectly recov- 
ered from your indisposition. 

I should have been very glad, if Mr. Carleton had 
not made his escape. I trust ere long he will be in 
our hands, as I think we shall get possession of Que- 
bec,' from whence he will not easily get away. 1 am 
much concerned for Mr. Allen, and that he should be 
treated with such severity. 1 beg that you will have 
the matter and manner of his treatment strictly in- 
quired into, and transmit me an account of the same, 
and whether General Prcscott was active and instru- 
mental in occasioning it. From your letter, and Gen- 
eral Montgomery's to you. I am led to think he was. 
If so, he is deserving of your particular notice, and 
should experience some marks of our resentment for 
his cruelty to this gentleman, and his violation of the 
rights of humanity. As some of the prisoners had 
attempted to escape, I doubt not of your giving the 
necessar)' orders, that they may be prevented. U is 
a matter that shoultl be attended to. In a letter from 
the Reverend Dr. Wheelock, of Dartmouth College, 
of the 2d instant, I had the following intelligence: — 

" That the dajr before, two soldiers returning from Montre-il in- 
formed him, Uiat our officeri were ussured by a Frenchman (a 
captain of the artillery wliom they had taken captive}, that Major 

> "Th«aTCniiigbefoi«GenaTfll Monteomery haded on the ibIumI of Monnva], 
Mr, Cofleton embarked tua garriioiioTi bocrdof somcTCBebaoi) nnillcnlt, and 
made two ■.tiempta to pacs oui t)alleri«« near Ihv niouth of ihe Sorel. tiui M*a& 
diir«n b«ck by Colonel Euton, wh^ hiu behaved wilh bntveiy And ranch tlcrt- 
acai. Oa ibe iqili Mr. Cvlcton, diicui»d as a Canadian, aw] accompankil by 
m |i«*mits. (nimd mrans lu maki: hit escape. Brigadkr-t^enernl PmootI rar- 
nndend ont day by ca|]ilulalioo." — Gfrnfmi SeMiyirr'i t^lUr. 




Rogers was second in command under General Carlcton,and that 
ht! hsd b«en in Indian ii:ibit through our encampment at St. 
John's, had given 3 plan of them to the Cicncral. and supposed 
that hv made his escape with ihe Indians, which were at St. 

You will be pleased to have this report examined 
into, and acquaint me as to the authenticity or prob- 
ability of the truth of it. If any circumstances can, 
be discovered to induce a belief, that he was there, he 
should be apprehended. He is now in this govern- 

' Major Rogen bft4 been celebrated (or bis adventiLreE adiJ (eaU of valot ta 
the Fiench wax u the compuDion of Puinani and Slaik. He wrutc ■ journal of 
tb<Ke events, which is not without aliiUtj and inlereit. l-le wok once governor 
of MichOlimackinac. Af[«i the pei^ce he lived in New Hamp^lun:, and c»attD- 
ucd. an nfficcr on half>pay. l)r. Wheclock'i IciIct, (roin which Ihc above is vt 
eitiact, contitini some other curious particnlan about him ; whether trne or 
(abulottt, Ibc render matt judge. 

" On (lie 13th itltliDo." Myi Dr. Wleeloclc, " the fatnnui Major RoEcrt came 
to my house, fmmalavemin the neighbourhnoH where he called (at refreshment. 
I had never before seen Itiin. He was in but ui urdinary babil for one of Ua 
character. He treated mc with great ropccC ; said he came from London hi 
July, and had spent twenty days with the Congreii in Pluladelphia, and I for- 
get how many at New York ; had been ofTcrcd and urged to take a commlwioB 
in (avnr oE the eulonie^ . but, as he was now un huU.jiay from the crown, !»• 
thought proper not la accept it ; that he had fought two battles in Allien under 
the riey : that he was now on a design to take cure of lome large graitts of land 
made to him : that he wnt going to vj^it his siF^er at Moot's Town, and thm to 
rctam by Mcrrimac River to viiit his wife, whom he hud not yet *ecn since hi* 
return from England -, ihnt he had got a pan, or ticcasc to Invcl. from theCno- 
tinental Congreii : that lie colled to offer his services to procure a large interett 
fur thiscoUcge; that the reputation o£ it waa great In Bntlland ; that Lord Dart- 
mouth atid many other nublcuicn had spukcti uf it in his hearing, wjih czpre^ 
(ioai of the highest esteem and reapeet : that Captain Holland, lurveyor-gettetal, 
now at New York, was a great Eriend to me and the college, ud would Mnit 
me In the affair : and That now n-as the motl favoraliCe time to apply foi a large 
grant of lands for It. 

"1 thaiiknl him for theae eiprcniona of h!s kindntsa ; but, after 1 had shown 
some colilnesi in accepting it, he prnjiosed to write to rae on hi* joiimey. andhtt 
nie know whora T mi^ht reply to him ; aitd he should be ready to perform Uir 




The Congress have sent me several accounts against 
' the rifle companies, one of which is against Captain 
Morgan, which I enclose to you. and desire it maybe 
transmitted to Colonel Arnold, who will have proper 
steps taken for the payment of it, as Captain Morgan 
is with him. 

I flatter myself that your next favor will give me 
an account of General Montgomery's joining Col. 
Arnold, and that Quebec is, or soon will be, reduced 
to our possession. Should our arms be crowned with 
such success, to me it appears that Administration will 

friradly office in tha sfTair. He miil he vu in hftste to punue his jonnejF that 

About a tnonth artcr visiting Di. VHicclock, the Majot appeared ai MctKod. 
near ibe cunp, and wrote 10 GeiienI Wiiihiiigtan miuecting bitn to sign n cer- 
tificate pcrmilliiig him to travel unmiolcstcil ia the cuuotry. Such a ccitiiiota 
oc pcmiil hacl been lint granted by the Commitlee of Safety in rhiladclphia, 
who, (torn luspit'iouc circuni fiances, and liceauM hewn actually ■ ItritUh officer, 
had made liin a prisane, when Ivc arrircd in that place (ram Kngland. The 
certificate waa (urnlshed to him in conM\|uence of a parole, wherein he " m>I- 
emnly promised and engaged oa the honor of a gentleman and loldier, that be 
would iu>t bear arm^ acauul the American tTniled Coionta in any manner vtliat- 
■nerct, during tbi^ American cantoii with Gieal Bintain " ; and in his letl« to 
Washington lie luiyi : " 1 love America ; it ii my native (otinlry and thai oJ mj' 
family, and I intend lo (pcnd the evening of my days in ii ." Thctc profcsaons 
being apparenlty tinc«re. Wasbiogtun unt General SuUlrut lu i-ntmlne him on 
certain poiuti, and report the rciiult. Ho owned the accuracy of Uj. Whcclock'a 
letter, except the pail rclnltng lu Canada, which he denied, though he liail been 
to the wcsl of Altuny. At no good reason appeared why he came io camp, or 
why be wished to travel ihruugli lh« country, the UcnetBl did not thick it «s- 
pedinit to receive a visit Tram him, nor lo sign bb pennil : bnt as this had al- 
ready been tigned by the Preaideot of the New VorV Congrea, and the Chair- 
man of the New 14amp»hin Comiaittee of Safety, he luflercd the Major (u de- 
part at hii option, and to enjoy aucb acciiriiy as bla papen, Ihua authenticated, 
might procure him. 

There wai a saipicion, sIrenKihciicd by hia subsequent ootiducl. thai he waa 
ai this time a spy, or at least pracliting a Tory unworthy artiticc for aciulring a 
conBdcnce, to which hit political MBlioieat* did not entitle bim. Se Ihi* lu it 
may, hs aooa after joined the enemy's ranlu^ and waa raued lo be a oolonol ia 




be much embarrassed and stand in a very disagree- 
able predicament. 1 am, &c.' 


Caubridge, 34 DFC«mber, 1775. 

Dear Sir» 

Your favor of the 1 5th instant came yesterday to 
hand, with copies and extracts of your late letters to 
Congress. I have with great attention perused them. 
I am very sorry to find by several paragraphs, that 

the Bnli»li Mtny, notwittnttauding hu parole of honor, uid his love of AmeiiCAi 
It may be ui<), perhaps, in eitcnuBiioii. IliaC lie conitidercil his parole eilorted 
from hiin at nlime.wlhen there were no just groiincli fortiurktioningliti motives, 
Uid by on authority, which he did not feci bonnd to ccspcct. — Sfarht. 

' "Should ihc force wiled from Boston, be deslincil for Rhode t»Iuid, T tremble 
(or the coniec|ueiMW» ; oji the colony, in It* pr**ent exhuuited state, cannot, 
without usistaacc defend ll^c island. At ibcir [the ccucial commiUce) niuuii- 
moiut rc(|uesl, I apply to your excellency for a deUchment fmin (he Coniinentat 
army of one refrimcnt, in be atntioned upon Rhode Island ; and thai yon will 
pleftv; In appoint A general officer, lo inkc coinin«n<l of the whole force ihere. 
They also desired me lo inform yuu, that Geii. Lee would be very acceptable ta 
ihc cotciiy ; nod lo rctiucst that Ihc geiicml nlltcci who may be apjioinled, may 
kct oui imnicdinicly. to talct coinniand of ilie Irixips upon ihe iiilnml. and pin it 
in the licsl potturc of defence." — Governor Coifihe lo H'ashingttiit. 19 Jleccmbcr, 


Washington rcpltci) on the 3olh : " Under my prcMnt ins[ractions,and more 
etp^elally in my preterit sjlualion, I could not justify the sending a regiment 
from thi» line to you, unless there wai an appaicnt design of landing a body o( 
ininiilcrial troops on Rhode Island : ai |>icsciii I da not think tliis Is lo be 
apprehended, nje a deterter out of Boston idnce my last, it particular in declaring 
tlwl only fuuT cumpania amouiitiuc to Utile more than loa men, iniliorkcd Lt 
was said for Halifax . agreeing uilh othen ihal invalids Rtid the officen of Uie 
tBIh and £Qlti Regiments who are going home lo recruit, httd soiled for 

' ' The intention of my last containing the Informaclon. ai it was received wa» 
only de&igned to jml you upon your guojd, imi ihsl 1 capected a vikit vra> iq- 
lendcd you. If my buiuII body of iroops move frum bcnce southeriy, t have no 
expectation of ihejc mopping shorl of Virginia, nnleu it shonld be onapillagins 





both ynu and General Montgomery incline to quit 
the service. Let me ask you. Sir, when is the time 
for brave men to exert themselves in the cause of 
liberty and their countrj", if this is not ? Should any 
difficuhies that they may have to encounter at this 
important crisis, deter them ? God knows, there is 
not a difficulty, that you both very justly complain of, 
which I have not in an eminent degree experienced, 
that I am not every day experiencing: but wc must 
bear up against them, and make the best of mankind 
as they are, since we cannot have them as we wish. 
Let me, therefore, conjure you and Mr. Montgomery 
to lay aside such thoughts, — thoughts injurious to 
yourselves, and excessively so to your country, which 
caJIs aloud for gentlemen of your abilities. 

You mention in your letter to Congress of the 20th 
ultimo, that the clothing was to remain at Albany, as 
General Montgomery would provide the troops in 
Canada. I wish they could be spared for this army, 
for we cannot get clothing for half of our troops.' 
Let me hear from you on this subject as soon as 

The proofs you have of the ministr^-'s intention to 

t " Notiritlucandins (be gretl paini taken l>r the quuUmiiiiler ficoeni to 
pnmil blanked for the onny, be findt it tinpo«blc to procuie % nniuber 
adkieftt. He has tried the diSeiCDt places to the wuihwatd, witbunl nicceai ; 
■• wlMt w«r« there, arc eng«gcil (o ■■'ppl)^ llic Iroop* in each place. Out 
aoUien are in gical dislicui ; and I know of no other way to rcmcilT the erfl, 
thu applying to 700. Cannot uime \\r. got rrnm tho dlilereni tawns 1 Meat 
boDNa could spue one \ >oineo( them muiy." — Wathin^t^n to irrvtrm«r Cuitt, 
and Prtfidcnt d Ihc New lUmpthiic Convention, 13 Occcinbcr. I77S- Om 
and eighty blanltcu wm« thui coUecied " lull a* Urp ■ ntunber ai I 
to pfocan " tlie govemoi mote. 




engage the savages against us are incontrovertible.* 
We have other confirmations of it, by several de- 
spatches from John Stuart, the superintendent for 
the southern district, which luckily fell Into my hands, 
being found on board a sloop, sent by Lord Dun- 
more, bound to Boston. She was taken by one of 
our armed vessels. These, with many letters of con- 
sequence from his Lordship, I have lately sent to the 

I hope soon to hear, that Colonel Knox has made 
good progress in forwarding the artiller)'. It is much 
wanted for the works we have lately thrown up. I 
have written a letter, of the i8th instant, to General 
Howe respecting Mr. Allen, of which and the answer 
you have copies enclosed. I am, with great regard. 
Sir, yours, &c. 


CAMBKincB, 9$ Deoembcr, 1775. 


I had the honor to address myself to you on the 
19th instant, since which I have received undoubted 
information, that the genuine instructions given to 

' " The Indians delivered lis a sjieech od the laih. in whirh they related (h« 
■absiance of all th« conferencei Col, Johnson had with them (he liit iu&iin«r. 
condnding with ihil nl Monlicnl. where he delivered to each of tlie CiUiadian 
tribes a WOT belt and the listchei. wlio ai'cepled it. After which lh«y urcre in- 
vited to feast on a Bostonian *,nd drink hu blood, an ra. lieing loaitcd \aa ihe 
purpose, and a pipe ol win« to drink. The wsi song was also sun^. One ol 
the chiefs of lh« ^xn Nations thnl attended nl that conference, accepted of a vof^ 
larg« black war b«lt with a hatchet depictarcti in it, but would neither vaX nor 
drink, nor sing the war sork. This famous belt ihcy have delivered up. and we 
have now n full proof that the ministerial servants have attempted to engojfe the 
■ava^jca a^txioat ua." — SihuyUr to C^ngreii, 14 Deccuihci. J775. 





Connolly have not reached your hands ; that they 
are very artfully concealed in the tree of his saddle, 
and covered with canvass so nicely, that they are 
scarcely discernible ; that those, which were found 
upon him, were intended to deceive, if he was caught. 
You will most certainly have his saddle taken to 
pieces, in order to discover this deep-laid plot.' 

Enclosed is a copy of General Howe's letter in an 
swcr to the one I wrote to him on the i8th instant. 
The conduct I am to observe towards Brigadier Pres- 
cott, in consequence of these letters, the Congress 
will oblige me by determining for me. The gentle- 
men by whom you sent the money are arrived. The 
sum they brought, though large, is not sufficient to 
answer the demands of tlie army, which at this time 
are remarkably heavy. There is three months' pay 
due, one month's advance, two dollars for each 
blanket, the arms, which are left by those who are 
dismissed, to be patd for, besides the demands, on 
the commissary and quartermaster-generals. You will, 
therefore, see the necessity of another remittance, 
which I beg may be as soon as you conveniently 
can.' I will take the opportunity of the return of 

' Alleo CAm«mn. Doctor John Smith (or Smylhl »nd John Connolly were iip- 
prehcndcd ai Haccn Town bjr lltc Comntituc of Frederick Couniy, Mwybnil, 
uid tome incriminaling documenti found on Ihera. Connolly had bem com- 
■ODcd by Gvpe ta ni»t « company in the liack country and Canada, and was 
cd when 00 hii way to the ndavatc Indian* hearing a spcerh from l>no> 
nore 10 mliit their eflorii against ihe coloni&a. Cameron wu to be tppointad 
■ bcotcnant, and Sinilb, a mrgctiii in the new company. Both were Scotchmen. 
Connolly wu kcjit a i>ri*onee till tbe end or the wu. A nomilvc of hb cxpcri. 
■KM » printed in the Pnmyivania Magaaimt a/ Hilary »h4 BUgrafhy. IMS 
and 1889. !^ alw note la ibc lelln- of Wnikingtom to ^ngrni, 30 Jftaaaiy, 

1376, />»"■ 
* " A ([roa> calculation of tb< aum wanted tft pay oS the army ttpon tlw old 




these gentlemen, to send Colonel Kirkland to you for 
examination, and that you may dispose of him as to 
you may seem proper. 

A committee from the General Court of this 
province called on mc the other day, informing mc 
that they were in great want of ordnance for the 
defence of the colony; that, if what belonged to 
them, now in use here, was kept for the continent, 
they will be under the necessity of providing them- 
selves with other ; of course, what is kept must be 
paid for. There are many of the cannon of very 
little use; such of them as are good, I cannot at 
present part with ; perhaps when I receive the supply 
from New York and Canada, it may be In ray power 

ctUbliahtnent bikI to pajr one month's pay advance to the new eitablidi«d rcgi- 
mcnls, with <hc othn' nrccuaiy coniiDgent nod inddenta.! charges. 
To Ihc pay ol 34 old icgimciiu fur ifac monifaE of Oclobcr, 
Novembfri and December, ftven^«l at ^3500 each 

»£■>)■ C"'' j£ 119,000 

To the rcGimcnt of arlillery (or the same lime, 3.96o 
To th« i*\ <'>f vj rrgimcntf, nrw rttublithinant, for tha raonth 

of January, at 161S. 13 L-stch. 43>50a 

To the Tpgiracnit of nrllllery lor January Ii979 
To 1376 dollars advanced each of the new corp« to 

blankets II.US 

To a compoiiy of artificers for 4 tnonlha ftSo 

To purchsM: of amis for (he new r«;;iincnl8 l%,%(lfO 

Til the pay of 5U00 mih'iia for ^ii tvccka ao.OOO 

To the rlcmands of Ihc «iniRiitsary fienoral 50,000 

To ditto y[ the quart crmo-itcr general S,ODD 

Tn 4 months' expense ol gcocrtl I lokpitul atimalcd al 4.000 

To do. ol Ihc General and Staff OHiccra, eiiCiinalcd at 3,96o 

Lawful monc)' ^379,338 

reduced to dollan amouni to 927,439 \ 

N. B. The live Connectirut regicnenis upon (he otd cstahliahmcni an not 
included in the above account, they beiog gone home, and will be de«red off bf 
llie colony," — BaUMii't it* UUtr tv Cemgrtts, 




to spare ihcm. Mr. Wadsworth * has sent in his 
report respecting Cape Cod harbor, a copy of which 
you will receive herewith. Also a letter from a Mr. 
Jacob Bayley, put into my hands by Colonel Little. It 
contains some things that may not be unworthy the 
consideration of Congress. 

We have made good progress in the works on 
Lechmere's Point. They would have been finished 
ere this, but for the severity of the weather, which 
prevents our people from working. I received a 
letter from Governor Cooke, which expresses the 
fears of the people of Rhode Island, lest the ships, 
which we had information were sailed with some 
troops on board, were destined for Newport. 1 sent 
Major-Gcneral Lcc there, to point out to them such 
defence as he may think the place capable of. I sin- 
cerely wish he may be able to do it with effect, as that 
place, in its present state, is an asylum for such as are 
disaffected to American liberty.' Our returns of en- 
listments, to this day. amount to eight thousand five 
hundred men. I have the honor to be, &c.* 

> Pdeg Wadtwortli. 

* latclUcicace luul been iwdvcd Iram Boeion, thAi cigbi Luxe »lup« «ad two 
•umII one* tuled out of the harbor on the i&th. Foot dsjn ftfterwArdK General 
LM9Bt ed for N«iri>oiTt. BttcndHibfaguard And a party of riflemen, lie w^nt 
and retnmcd ihrtni^ fmvidencc, aticl wan abxent from camp Icn Hays. Ilcadct 
glvliig directiona re^pcciing ihe foiitlkalioiii and other nivaiit of defence at 
M«wpMi, he called before hiai Kvera] obruni'Ous persons, and letiderol to thcfn 
tlH oath of lidcliiy to the country. Two cuatom-hoiuc ofliccn and another [>er> 
son, rcfoBtig \a take the ualh, were put under gaud and aent lo Pruvitkncc 

* Read 3 January, 1776. 





Camdriuub. 35 December. 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

Since my last your favors of the 7th and 1 ith are 
come to hand, as also the 8th ; the first last night, the 
second by Wednesday's post. For the several pieces 
of information therein contained, I thank you. 

Nothing new has happened in this quarter since my 
last, except the setting in of a severe spell of cold 
weather, and a considerable fall of snow ; which to- 
gether have interrupted our work on Lechmere's 
Point ; which otherwise, would have been compleated 
before this. At first we only intended a bomb bat- 
tery there, but afterwards constructed two redoubts, 
in one of which a mortar will be placed at a proper 
season. A line of communication extends from the 
point of wood this side the causey, leading on t<y 
Lechmere's Point, quite up to the redoubt. From 
Boston and Bunker's Hill both, we have received 
(without injury, except from the first case shot) 
an irregular fire from cannon and mortars ever 
since the 17th, but have returned none except 
upon the ship; which we soon obliged to move off. 
At the same time that I thank you for stopping 
visitors in search of preferment, it willl give me pleas- 
ure to show civilities to others of your recommenda- 
tion. Indeed no gentleman, that is not well known, 
ought to come here without letters of introduction, 
as it puts me in an awkward situation with respect to 
my conduct towards them. 

I do not well understand a paragraph in your 





letter, which seems to be taken from mine to Colonel 
Hancock, expressive of the unwillingness of the Con- 
necticut troops to be deemed Continental. If you 
did not misconceive what Col. Hancock read, he read 
what I never wrote ; as there is no expression in any 
of my letters, that I can either recollect or find, that 
has a tendency that way ; further than their unwill- 
ingness to have officers of other governments mixed 
in their corps, in which they are not singular, as the 
same partiality runs through the whole. I have in 
some measure anticipated the desires of the Connec- 
ticut delegates, by a kind of representation to each of 
the New England governments of the impracticability 
(in my eye) of raising our complement of men by 
voluntary enlistments, and submitting it to their con- 
sideration, whether, (if the powers of government are 
sufficiently coercive,) each town should not be called 
upon for a proportionate number of recruits. What 
they will do in the matter remains to be known. The 
militia, which have supplied the places of the Con- 
necticut regiments, behave much better than I ex- 
pected under our want of wood, barracks (for they 
are not yet done), and blankets, &c. With these, and 
such men as are retinlisted, I shall hope, if they will 
be vigilant and spirited, to give the enemy a warm 
reception, if they think proper to come out Our 
want of powder is inconceivable. A dally waste and 
no supply administers a gloomy prospect 

I fear the destination of the vessels from your port 
is so generally known, as to defeat the end. Two 
menHsf-Wcur (forty guns), it is said, put into New York 




the other day, and were instantly ordered out, sup- 
posed to be for Virginia. 

I am so much indebted for the civilities shown to 
Mrs. Washington on her journey hither, that I hardly 
know how to go about to acknowledge them. Some 
of the enclosed (ail of which 1 beg the favor of you 
to put into the post-office) are directed to that end, 
and I shall be obliged to you for presenting my 
thanks to the commanding officers of the two battal- 
ions of Philadelphia for the honors done to her and 
me, as also to any others, equally entitled. I very 
sincerely offer you the compliments of the season, 
and wish you and Mrs. Reed, and your fireside, the 
happy return of a great many of them, being, dear 
Sir, yours, Sec 


CAMBttTDCE. Z6 December, 1775. 

Dear Sir. 

Your favor of the 6th instant did not reach this 
place till Saturday afternoon. The money, which 
accompanied it, came seasonably, but not, as it was 
so long delayed, quantum sufficit, our demands at this 
time being peculiarly great for pay and advance to 
the troops; pay for their arms and blanketing, inde- 
pendent of the demands of the commissary and 
quartermaster general. 

Lord Dunmore's letters to General Howe, which 
very fortunately fell into my hands, and were enclosed 
by me to Congress, will let you pretty fully into his 
diabolical schemes. If, my dear Sir, that man is not 





crushed before spring, he will become the most for- 
midable enemy America has; his strength will in- 
crease as a snow ball by rolling ; and faster, if some 
expedient cannot be hit upon to convince the slaves 
and servants of the impotency of his designs. You 
will see by his letters, what pains he is taking to in- 
vite a reinforcement at all events there, and to trans- 
plant the war to the southern colonies. I do not 
think, that forcing his Lordship on shipboard is suf- 
ficient; nothing less than depriving him of life or 
liberty will secure peace to Virginia, as motives of 
resentment actuate his conduct, to a degree equal to 
the total destruction of the colony. I fear the desti- 
nation of the naval armament at Philadelphia is too 
well known to answer the design, I have heard it 
spoken of in common conversation, at this place, near 
a fortnight ago ; and the other day was told, that two 
men-of-war, going into the harbor of New York, 
supposed to be those for the relief of the Asia, were 
ordered and accordingly sailed immediately out, as it 
is imagined for Virginia. 

My letters to Congress will give you the occur- 
rences of this place. I need not repeat them, but I 
must beg of you, my good Sir, to use your influence 
in having a court of admiralty, or some power ai> 
pointed to hear and determine all matters relative to 
captures ; you cannot conceive how I am plagued on 
this head, and how impossible it is for me to hear and 
determine upon matters of this sort, when the facts, 
perhaps, are only to be ascertained at ports, forty, 
fifty, or more miles distant, without bringing the par- 




ties here at great trouble and expense. At any rate, 
my time will not allow me to be a competent judge of 
this business. I must also beg the favor of you, Co 
urge the necessity of appointing a brigadier-general 
to the vacant brigade in this army. The inconveni- 
ence we daily experience for want of one is very 
great ; much more than the want of a colonel to a 
regiment, for then the next officer in command does 
the duty ; in a brigade this may not with propriety 
happen, and seldom ornever is done with any kind of 
regularit>'. Perfectly indifferent is it to me. whom 
the Congress shall please to appoint to these offices ; 
I only want it done, that business may go regularly 
on. My best respects to the good family you are in, 
and to your brothers of the delegation ; and be as- 
sured, that I am, dear Sir, your most obedient and 
a,lTrectionate servant' 

■ " kf, the lirnc is just nl linnd, when ihe Matnochusotls, New Hampshire & 
Rhode island Troops (not aGua inlikltd) will he tcUoicd from their prcscat 
KngAgcmcnl. the GL'ncial rcconmcndi [o Ihctn 10 con^dcT what may be tbe 
comer) uence ol their ibnipt departnte Irom the lines; ihould any acdd«nt 
happvD Id them, hefvtc the Nlm Aimy ^cU grcaici Hlicngth, they not only fix 
clemiil disgrace upoti Ihetntclvcs as noldien, but inevitable Ruin |»eihap« npon 
thdT ooiiniTy and (■miiies, 

" It U from no dislike Co the Conducing the ORicenlhat theGcnetnl requests 
the men to slay nilhout Ihem but in the tirU plue tiecftuse it Is uunetMury 10 
burthen, the ■Continent vrith a gtedtnitumbcrof ofBcertlhan ore ic(|uikitc lo tlic 
men ; auil in the iie»t, bccnuse it rciorJs the forminii anj the proper Govcni- 
iDeni «( the new re^tnenlv. 7'hoiie nnn-cflmniiEkiotied Officers Sl Saldieis 
therefore, who b.ive iheir Countries welUore w much at heart, aji to Bt*y 'till 
tlie last of J^inuary, if Nccc!uary, may join any Company in any nfthr new E>- 
Uhli<ihed Regiment-i tliey plea^. provided they do not in'Creftte the nutnb«ro( 
Rank & File in such Company, to more thao Seventy-six men, moie UiU 
which no Company it to exceed — AH the Oftceis A SoMler* at preacnt of oiker 
reg;iraenti, but appointed tn, nrinlisted in Cols. Learned' 1, Pan«n't, Josepk 
K«ad'*, Hautldedon'n. Ward'n, Wyllya' and B'oilcy's Kcgiiucnia, ace lu join then 
tomorrow, at which time uiy Oflicer or Soldier, in either of thote regimcnU 






Camvkiuub, 9g DecRDbtr, 177$. 


Having never considered the four Independent 
Companies which have been doing duty at Braintree, 
Weymouth, and Hingham, in the same point of view, 
as the rest of the army, although some Orders may 
have gone to or for them, through the hurry of busi- 
ness; nor Included them in my returns to Congress, 
according to the Brigade Major's report from Rox- 
buo' ; I do not think myself Authorized to direct 
pay for them ; without first laying the matter before 
Congress, which I shall do by inclosing an exact 
transcript of your representation of the case, with 
this single remark, that is they were not regimented, 

which )>«tongeIh to other r^mentt attder the bcw E()kbli«hn)«nt in to j«in. 
In like tiMnncT all the OfRccn & Soldim (uniicr the new c!>imhli«hiiicnt> who 
belong [oCclanclsPrcscol, Glover's, PailersoD'E. Sef;g«aiil'&. FhiDncy'&, Arnold'i^ 
Ctcnton's & Baldwin'^ Kegimenlt, *n to join on Satordaf next ; whco any OSi- 
een ot Solitlcts lu either of thoic ftcfdnenU, bclongint; 10 oibcr KcgimcnU, m 
nlao to remove to Ihem. On Sunday the nme change it to t^ke pUce widi 
reipect to Colooclt jAnic& Read, NUon's. SltrkS, Wbiuumb'i, Rom', Varnuoi'i 
llitcbcnck'*, I.ilile'i, Wcbb'i, Bonil't, And Hutchinwm'* Reiptnent. 

" ll is Keommended lo the Colonels a( each of the above nim'd Kegim«nts, 
to send ^ffivcri al the time appointed to teccive and moicli the men (rom the 
Re^imenis ihey are inlisied uui of, [o Iboic they are to jola, thai ii may be ef- 
fected with more legularity and caie, and the change mode with a* little cnnfa- 
■ton «» puMible. ll n ej(|iccicd of uich men a» are ilctcrrnineil not to coDltnue 
in the Service, another Campaign, that they vill sell their Blanket! to IhoM 
who do, and are in want of Ihcm, the itame thing is alao reoommended to the 

" In ■ppraliiag (he Amu. ihe General expects that Ihey be Dombered and 
marked, in tuch manner, ns the owncn of them ar>d Ihe prices, mity at iny linM 
be uccrxnincd, upon the delivery of them by the Cuanninaiy of the floret. AD 
Arm< ihnt sppraiMd. and liken for Ihe nseof the public m<ut be delivered into 
the care of the CooiH^MMy of the Ordnance Slore» bat may be reJinwn itnme- 
dUtdy. If ibp Colonel will pass his Receipt lor them and acconnt for the 
delivery lo his nen." — Order If B»»k, 18 December, 177$. 




and were doing duty at some distance from these 
Camps. I did not know whether to consider them 
as part of the Continental Army, aiid therefore had 
not ordered them payment heretofore.' 

With respect to the other requisition contained in 
your resolve of the 20, 1 do not think myself at lib- 
erty to extend the guards of this camp beyond, 
Squantum and Chelsea, both fit places for observa- 
tion. — This was my sentiment of the matter, when 
the Committee did me the honor to call ye^sterday ; 
but, as it appeared to be of some importance to this 
government, I did not care to determine upon it 
without asking the opinion of some of the principal 
Officers in this Army, whose sentiments 1 am happy 
to find coincide with my own. 

This might be assigned as one, among other rea- 
sons to shew, that I did not consider these four 
Companies as part of the Continental troops ; that 
there were times in the course of the past summer 
when I should not have suffered them to have re- 

' ** 1 h»ve the opportunity of floquainiiitg you thst Congress has just rcccivMt 
» IcUer £ri>m General Washincton cndoaing n copy ol ao applies I itin of wur 
Ccneml A&!.eiiibly Co him to order paymenl lo four companies suiioneil at 
BnliHree, Wej-mouth and H Ingham. The General say* ibty wer< never r^- 
mcntol, knd lie c&nnul cainiily with ihe rcqucsl o[ the Atacnibly tvttlicut ike 
dircctiun of Congrws. A commillee i» appoinlcil lo consider ihc letter, of' 

which I HiTi one, 1 fedr llicrc vrillW adiHicully, and Thr^»-(nrc 1 hhall eadovdit 
Ifl prevent a report on this port of the Icllet. utiles I see a protpecl of juatioe 
being done to Ihe Colony, till lean recdvefrom you aiilbenlicevidmcc olthoM 
eompaniei having been actually «mploye<l by the Continental officers, tu I oon- 
ceivc they have been, fa ihc service of the Cotilincnt. I wish you would iBfotm. j 
mc whether the two eompaniet kUtioued al Chelien and Mitden were paid au( 
of the Continent's ^he^l. I »vipp<)t>c they were ; and if oo, I cannot tee rcaaoB 
lot any hesitation altoui ihepnymeol of iheic." — Samtui Adams tajehm AJoMt^ 
tj and l6 January. 1776. 




mained at the places they were posted, if I had con- 
ceived myself vested with power to have withdrawn 

1 would not have it inferred from hence that I do not 
think it my duty, and with the greatest chearfiilness 
shall undertake, to march troops if these lines are not 
to be exposed by it, to anyplace in this or the neigh- 
bouring Governments, to oppose an invasion ; But 
whilst the body of the ministerial Troops continue in 
Boston, and the circumstances of this army remain as 
they arc, it must be my first object to Guard these 
lines. I am. &c.' 


CAUlitiinr.K, 31 Dtovnber. 1775. 


I wrote to you on the 35th instant, since which I 
am not honored with any of your favors. The esti- 
mate I then enclosed to you was calculated to pay the 
troops up to the first of January. That cannot be 
done for want of funds in the paymaster-general's 
hands, which causes a great murmuring amongst 
those who are going off. The monthly expenses of 
this army amount to near two hundred and seventy- 

' "The Ccacrnl wai in ercat hopea tkal a sufficient >tim uf tnone)' wiMsld 
have beta teal from rhilndrlphia lo hare paid the ttoopt for tttc montlu of 
October, Nonrember ft Dcuoiber, but » w>ny to tnlonn ih«M, tlui Uietc i« 
BO more yel vrticd ihui vill kllow one months pay, the advaacc p«)r lo ths 
New Anrif anil Blanket Money, (urnuhing at the lame lliae the CommluaiT' 
A 1^- Mr. Cenerib, with Rich lunu as aiw lUcenary lor conducting butincM. 
The General ha.-. alrrjii])r wrvic npicaa to Coogren fat mors money an<l hupn 
tpre<l)1y lo he ruttiiKhe<i «ilh a uiflicieat mm to pay (hen is i<aXV''—Or4*rly 
3^k, >9 l>ei:«ntb«T, 1775. 





five thousand dollars, which I take the liberty of 
recommending to the observation of Congress, that 
their future remittances may be governed thereby. 

It sometimes happens that persons would wish to 
deposit money in the hands of the paymaster-general, 
for his bills on the treasury at Philadelphia, He has 
hitherto declined such offers, not havinj; authority 
from Congress to draw. Would it not be proper to 
give this power? If it should be approved of, you 
will please to point out the mode, that the Congress 
would chuse to have it done in.' 

The clothing sent to the Quartermaster-general is 
not sufficient to put half our army into regimentals, 
nor is there a possibility of getting any quantity here. 
I have wrote to Cen'l Schuyler that I wish what was 
lodged at Albany could be spared for these troops, as 
General Montgomery would clothe the men under his 
command at Montreal. If this can be done, it will 
bt; of infinite service, and no time should be lost in 
forwarding them to this camp. 

In forming the regiments for the new establish- 
ment, I thought it but justice to appoint the officers 
detached under Colonel Arnold to Commissions in 
them. Their absence at present is of verj* great 
detriment to the service, especially in recruiting. I 
would therefore wish if the Congress intends raising 
troops in or for Canada, that they could be taken in 
there. The sooner I have their opinion of this mat- 
ter the better, that if they can be commissioned in 
Canada, I may appoint officers here to replace them. 

J 775] 




Enclosed you have a copy of a representation sent 
to me by the legislative body of this province respect- 
ing fourcompaniesstationedat Braintree, Weymouth, 
and Hingham. As they were never regimented, and 
were doing duty at a distance from the rest of the 
army, 1 did not know whether to consider them as a 
part of it ; nor do I think myself authorized to direct 
payment for them without the approbation of Con- 

It has been represented to me that the free negroes, 
who have served in this army, are very much dissatis- 
fied at being discarded. As it is to be apprehended, 
that they may seek employ in the ministerial army, I 
have presumed to depart from the resolution respect- 
ing them, and have given license for their being en- 
listed. If this Is disapproved of by Congress, I will 
put a stop to it' 

'GcBCtal Calcic' nrd«r (giwtn on pngeijof Ibis volume), exdndMl ncgreet, 
from enlirtments. On Scptembct 36 Edwnrd KuO«dcc in Conerm rocrvcd ikc 
dbcbargc of all the ncgrort tn the ann;. ticing sUuR^-ly suppuncd by msny of 
Ihc southtni delcgnle* ; but ihe motion wii loit. Baiursfl, The contcreacr 
oomniiticc cuiiMdncd ibc qualioa " Otiglii not ncf;ruc» lo t>c excluded frocn 
t!i« new ciiliilment, npeciAlly Mich tu ore lUre*? A)l were (houghi iirijim^er 
by tbveoiinci! of officer*.' And thcd«dnoD wa»; ''.ffrrA^, ibaithe; be rejected 

The Tollowing extract from the Ordntjr Itonli k indlcstiTe of the spirit duii 
pfcrailed in ^nliiting the new Briny, 

"November iiih. Tu ptcveni Mich i'ontcnii«ns, u hnvc ori.ica from the 
tasat persan liein|[ enliiteil bydiflcFentiitlicen and fur diHetcnt rcgimenU, ti U 
pokilivcl^ otticroi, opftn pain o( Wing c:aiihic>^, thai iio "fiicci knowingly pre- 
sume la enliil any M>ldier, who has l)een previmL-Jy cnliMcd hy nnithcr officer. 
When «urh a mittake ha[)i>cn>i undesignedly, the Anl enliitnienl ft 10 lake 
place. The officers are lo be careful not lo enlbt any penon iiupcclcd of 
being unfriendly to ibe libcrtiet of America, ot any ibandoncd vacibond to 
wham all caaui and eoontries ai« equal and alike indiRerent. The fightv of 
manklDd and freedom of America will haTeoumbcra tulBctcnt lo »uppon ihem, 
wllhont RM>rtin][ to aucb wretched miiiancc. Let those, who wiib 10 pM 




I believe Colonel Gridley expects to be continued 
as chief engineer in this army. It is very certain that 
we have no one here better qualified. He has done 
very little hitherto in that department ; but if the 
Congress choose to appoint him I will take care that 
he pays a proper attention to It. Before I quit this 
subject 1 must remark, that the pay of the assistant 
engineers is so very small, that we cannot expect men 
of science will engage in it. Those gentlemen, who 
arc in that station, remained under the expectation, 
that an allowance would be made them by the respec- 
tive provinces in which they were appointed, additional 
to that allowed by the Congress.' 

Captain Freeman arrived this day at camp from 
Canada. He left Quebec the 24th ultimo, in conse- 
quence of General Carleton's proclamation, which I 
have the honor to send you herewith. He saw Colo- 
nel Arnold the 26th, and says that he was joined at 
Point aux Trembles by General Montgomery, the 1st 
instant ; that they were about two thousand strong, 
and were making every preparation (or attacking 

fhmcktei npon freemen, lill tbeirnnlu with wich mtuteantt, uul place their 
confidunci: hi rhcin. Nciilict negroes, buys un&blc tu bear luiut, agi oU men 
until In i-iidutc the faIlK«ics itt the cmnpnii^n, art to be cnlixled." 

This slcp taken iK the very timn I,oTd Dunmorc in Virginia wa* 
promuiiis Ifccdom in ail tlavcsi who should repair to his standard iiad take up 
annv for the King. " A^ the gcnerst \i infonnci! ihai numbcn ol free negroes 
are deriroai of enliitin^. he K>v«i leave lo the recniiling officers to ^ifteilain 
llicm and pri>inla» lo lay ihe matter before thcC«ngrct>&, who, he doubla not, 
will approve a\ it." — Gt-ntml Onitrt. 30 Det-'Cinber, I77S' On the i6lh of 
Jiinuir]', 1776. Congr«« reMlvcd : "That the Erer negrr>e», who have ^rved 
faithfully in the army at CamliriJce. may herc-etiliited ibercin. bnl noalhcrt.** 

' Cangresa directed that Cnl, Gridicy tliould be continued chief engineer in 
the army at Cnmbridec, if the Gcneial " Ihmight proper," and fixed (he pay «f 
ajtiiilants at iC>| diUars a month. 




Quebec ; that General Carleton had with him about 
twelve hundred men, the majority of whom are sail- 
ors: that it was his opinion the French would give 
up the place, if they get the same conditions, that 
were granted to the inhabitants of Montreal. 

Captain Adams of the Warren, armed schooner, 
sent into Marblchead the sloop Sally, bound from 
Lisbon to New York with 2 pipes and 136 quarter 
casks of rum. This sloop was made a prize of by the 
Nigier man of war. somewhere near Bermudas, the 
captain of whom put his mate and his hands on board 
with orders to proceed with her to Boston. The 
sloop and cargo belong to Mr. Peter Barberie of 
Perth Amboy in New Jersey. 

Captains Semple and Harbeson take under their 
eare Mr. Kirkland, who appears to be a much more 
illiterate and simple man than his strong recommen- 
dations bespoke him. Captain Mathisand Mr. Rob- 
inson will accompany them. The two latter were 
taken prisoners by Lord Dunmore.' who was sending 
them to Boston, from whence there is little doubt, but 
that they would be forwarded to England, to which 
place 1 am credibly informed Captain Martindale and 
the crew of the Washinglon are sent ; also Colonel 
Allen, and the prisoners taken with him in Canada. 
This may account for General Howe's silence on the 

' " Of the people on tMMrd h t incmber nA their PTavhKU CoAgrcu. two 
fithcr p«nonfl tA note, whon Lord Dunroore h«il uhen priwfi«rK ^ttA at^rtA la 
BfHIun to U: trieii, it ia lU|>]>OMrd (ot iheii li<e-."— v*nin«»Ti»ir«j Lctlrr. Brvtriy, 
■o necrmber. t;?;. MMIbewx wax a capiain of the tninuic men. llw /j»M^ 
CmfUf, 96 r^eccmtxT, 177s, g<*o« the nam* of ih« in«nib«r tA Ifct ConpMa aa 




subject of an exchange of prisoners mentioned in tKf 
letter to him. 

General Lee is just returned from his excursion to 
Rhode Island. He has pointed out the best method 
the island would admit of for its defence. He has en- 
deavored all in his power to make friends of those 
that were our enemies. You have, enclosed, a speci- 
men of his abilities in that way, for your perusal. I 
am of opinion that, if the same plan was pursued 
through every province it would have a very good 
effect. ' 

I have long had it on my mind to mention to Con- 
gress, that frequent applications had been made to- 
me respecting the chaplains' pay. which is too small 
to encourage men of abilities. Some of them, who 
have left their /locks, are obliged lo pay the parson 
acting for them more than they receive. I need not 
point out the great utility of gentlemen, whose !iv<»s 
and conversation are unexceptionable, being employed 
for that service in the army. There arc two ways of 
making it worth the attention of such ; one ts an ad- 
vancement of their pay ; the other, that one chaplain 
be appointed to two regiments. This last, I think, 
may be done witlioul inconvenience.' I beg leave ta 
recommend this matter to Congress, whose sentiments 
hereon I shall impatiently expect. 

Upon a farther conversation with Captain Free- 

' "He [I'Cc] hu uken the Tories in linDd nnd swom ihcm by ■ very aoleBiB. 
Mlh Ibai lliey would aoi, (or the lulure, grant niiy supplies to the eacmjt. 
directljr oi indhcctly, noi give thctn niLy kind of intelligence, not suffer it to U( 
done by uihcn. wiihoiii Kiviii|> infunnncion." — Greene Lift of Grtene, i., 125. 

* Cangrcu adopted ihit Kccoiid lu^-cKtion, and fiicd the pay at 33J dollan a 




man, he is of opinion, that General Montgomery has 
with him near three thousand men including Colonel 
Arnold's. He says that Lord Pitt had received re- 
pealed orders from his father to return home ; in 
consequence of which, he had embarked some time in 
October, with a Captain Green, who was master of a 
vessel belonging to Philadelphia. By a number of 
salutes in Boston harbor yesterday, I fancy Admiral 
Shuldham is arrived. Two lai^e ships were seen 
coming ill. Our enlistments now amount to nine 
thousand six hundred and fifty. 

Those gentlemen, who were made prisoners by 
Lord Dunmore, being left destitute of money and 
necessaries, I have advanced them a hundred pounds 
lawful money belonging to the public, for which I 
have taken Captain Malthews's draft on the Ireasur)' 
of Virginia, which goes enclosed. I have the honor 
to be, &c.' 

■ Received in Coni^eujmnuarjisth. Referreil lo Wythe. Ad»mi and Wilson. 

" Thi; day eiving onnnnrnccmcnt tn the new anny, which, in every point of 
view IK eniirely Continenial ; The eenciml flallen him»elf, th*[ a Laudable Spiril 
or nnuliilion, will nnw talcp placr, tutrl prnade the whole or ii : without iiudi a 
Sfirit, (ew Ofliwra have e»er arrived to any At^gttt of Reputation, nor did 
any Army «vcr become fonnidablt. \\\f, Encrlk-ucy hopes thai the Impnnance 
of the great <'aiiie w« are engojced in, will be deeply imptmed upou etery 
nan'* min-il, and withci it to be M>i»i<li;(ci), that an Army without Order, Rcg- 
aUrity, DiKciplinc, n no belter ilian a CommisBioned Mob; Let hn l)inc- 
fora, when evety thing dear anit valuable to Prwrncn it at Make : when mir 
VDoatitral ["atcnt i> threatening o( ui with dealmclion from eircry (|iiarter, en- 
deavotir by all the Skill and UiKiplincinour powef. loacqnire that knowledge. 
Mid conduct, which i» necemary in wnr. Our men are braue and joimI ; iJien 
wbo with pleasnrv it i* ubacrved, arc addicted to (ewer vices ihaauccoRiinonly 
found in Armtri, but it in tuhonli nation and Disctpline (the life and aoul tA an 
Anny) which neat under providence is to make ua fennidable to nor cnemie*. 
boDOunbIc inourielvea, andreapectcd in ike wurU; andbcrein btobe^ovn 
ihc goodncu ol tl>« odker. 

"la vam is it for a General to iaaue ovden, If order* arc not attended lt>, 


Cambriiigr, 4 Janiuu;, 1776. 


Since my last of the 31st ultimo. I have been hon- 
ored with your favor of the aid, enclosing sundry 
resolves, which shall, in matters they respect, be 
made the rule of my conduct. The resolution rela- 
tive to the troops in Boston. I beg the favor of you, 
Sir, to assure Congress, shall be attempted to be put 
in execution the first moment I see a probability of 
success, and in such a way as a council of oflicers 
shall think most likely to produce it ; but if this 

K<iiially vain in it for a. few officen to eierl (heiiiselvei if Ihe ume spirit tlow 
nut aniiTinte Ihe whnk, il it therefore cupccteil, (it ■» no't inuAlcil (i|Kiii) thai 
cnch Brignrlitrr, will ht nlteniivc In the diicipUne of hi* Brigade, In Ihe cxer- 
eite nf. and ihe conduct obwivod in il. nlling the CoIoncK and Field Oflic«n 
cl every Regimml, lc> severe account toi nei;!cct, or diiobeilicnce o( orders — ■ 
The same atienilon h lo be paid by llic FidJ offitcr* to their respective Com- 
ponie:! of llieir RcgimenU, by the Cnplaint to their uiIiftllcrtiG and to on : and 
tliat llic |>!ci> of [^n»iani-e, nhidi ie av exoiic for ibe ■ict:lci;i of orilnn (bat 
rather an igKravmiion) may not be offcr'd. it i« ordered and directed, that not 
ovljr every regimeni, but every company do keep an Ordcrlj' BooL, lo which 
frequeni iccoune it to be had it bdag cupcctcd that a]1 ttaadingoTdenbcrifid- 
ly obeyed. untU altered or cuuntermanded. U la also expected, that all ofdent 
which are nccck^ary to be communicated to the men, he legulduly read and car*. 
fully eipUincd tu tlicni. Aa it in the finl wiili uf the General la have ihs 
bu«itie» of the Army conducted vithoiii pumOimeni, lo accomplish which. h« 
•amircs every officer Soldier, tliat as far m it is in hti power, he will ri:iir«id 
nich lu patiiciiUrly di«iiiigiii«h ihemMlvct, al ihc tame time he dccUres ibal 
be will puniih every Ictiid ci neglect ur mixbehaviur. in an eiceinplar}' nuniKT. 
A* tbc gieal variety of occuircntcii and tlic multiplicity of bu»neM, in whtcb 
Ihc OenenU iit ncce»arily enira£ed. may withdraw his ntleiitioii Iron) many ob- 
jects and things which mighi be improved to ndvaniagt, he takes this oppor- 
tunity ol dcclarinE, thai be will thank any oilicer, of whatfocvor Rank, for aoy 
useful liintB, or prolitablv InfonnationB. but lo avoid irivial malicrv; at. bis 
time ia very much engrossed, he requires that il mo.y be tnlniduced throiif[h lh« 
chanDcl of a Gcncnl Oflicct, whu ui la weigh die itiipotUncc before he coat- 
launicalR it. 

" AH itanding onlcrs hcietofota iuuMl for the Government of tiu late Anoy, 




should not happen as soon as you may expect, or my 
wishes prompt to, I request that Congress will be 
pleased to advert to my situation, and do mc the 
justice to believe, that circumstances, and no want of 
inclination, arc the cause of delay. 

It is not in the pages of history, perhaps, to furnish 
a case like ours. To maintain a post within muskct- 
shot of the enemy, for six months together, with- 
out' , and at the same time to disband one 
army, and recruit another, within that distance of 
twenty-odd British regiments, is more, probably, than 
ever was attempted. But if we succeed as well in the 

of w]iich ttVTf RcKiment lias, or onelil lo lure cofrics, are to he sirictlr com- 
plied with, uatil chftng«d0r count«mAfi<i«l." — Orderly B«»i. 1 JanvAiy, T776. 

" It «ras vith no siull degree of tarv^t^. that the General fc^lerdair uw, 
after the repeat^ otilers. thai had been ^vcn foi having the Tenit (•& «oun u 
■tic Batiackt wcic ixX, to \x enlcr'd) r«1umcil to ihc (Jr. Mr. Gctieml, icv- 
cral of them ^Uuidiac tiiiinhabiled ani) in a (lis|;nu.'cfu1 nunout situftluiii, and 
tnotvover hnn, that oth«n wrve only for bedding, the of&ccn who have Bnflercd 
thii neglcGt, are infonncii that thi> is the la>t admiMution that will !>« prvn oo 
tills head. 

" It ii expected (hat the cointnanding offioera of ReglineBlk O'fll be excevd. 
lagjj attentive 10 the irsining, cicrcUiiiK and disciptiniag Ihcir men, brioipiig 
thein aa WKin aa pcuibk, aoquatnicd with the dlflertai EvolulioDi aDd Ma» 
nernvTM, neceuaijr to be practiced, aiMl at nothing reflects mare dii^Taee ajMn 
an i>fliccr at ia more peniiciou* or danccrcMu in ilscli than wffioins Arm* lo 
be In bad order ; the GciKral luureii Ihc Ofiiccn and men that he will never 
tweriook, or pardon, a neglect of this kind. There are many pradicct in rtg- 
miar itrvUt hi^y w«nhy oi Imitation bat naao more caaeniial than ihi*. and 
keeping wiUlien alwayc dean anil neat : The lirat. ti alnolutety neceatary (or 
aelf ptevervaiion ; the otlier for heflllk and appearance ; for if a Soldier cannot 
t)C indnceit to take pride in hU jier^on he will atw* bccMOc a Sloven, and la- 
diflurenl 10 eveiything else, WhikI wo hive men therefore whnin erery reaped 
are aopcriOT- to mercenary Troop*, that are hghtifig lor ttm p^Htf t>t lirrf ^rtt(f 
a day ; whjr cannot we In appearance al«o be (iipcrior to ihcm. when we &ght 
for Life, Liberty. I'roperty and our Cunniry ?"— Urrf/r/rtf***, 3jannar>'. 177ft. 

' L«ft bkak in t&c origtaaJ to guard against the dan|[cr of miKarriagc. Read, 
" widtoMt pttadrr" 




last, as we have heretofore in the first, I shall think it 
the most fortunate event of my whole h'fe. 

By a very- intelligent gentleman, a Mr. Hutchinson 
from Boston, I learn, that it was Admiral Shuldham 
that came into the harbor on Saturday last; that 
two of the five regiments from Cork arc arrived at 
Halifax; two others have sailed for Quebec (but 
what was become of them could not be told) ; and 
the other, the fifty-fifth, has just got into Boston. 
Certain it is, also, that the greater part of the seven- 
teen regiments is arrived there. Whether we are to 
conclude from hence, that more than five regiments 
have been sent out, or that the companies of the 
seventeen, arrived at Boston, are part of the regi- 
ments destined for Halifax and Quebec, I know not. 
We also learn from this gentleman and others, that 
the troops, embarked for Halifax, as mentioned la 
my letter of the 16th, were really designed for that 
place, but recalled from Nantasket Road, upon advice 
being received of the above regiments there. I am 
also informed of a fleet now getting ready, under the 
convoy of the Scarborongh and Fotvey men-of-war. 
consisting of five transports and two bomb-vessels, 
with about three hundred marines, and several flat- 
bottomed boats. It is whispered, that they are 
designed for Newport, but generally thought in 
Boston that they are meant for Long Island; and it 
is probable they will be followed by more troops, as 
the other transports are taking in water, to lie, as 
others say. in Nantasket Road, to be out of the Ice. 

A large quantity of biscuit is also baking. 



As the real design cannot with certainty be known, 
I submit it with all due deference to the superior 
judgment of Congress, whether it would not be con- 
sistent with prudence to have some of the Jersey 
troops thrown into New York, to prevent an evil, 
which would be almost irremediable, should il happen, 
I mean the landing of troops at that place, or upon 
Long Island near ic As it is possible you may not 

' The BritUli commander had no desi^ of taking hnmediatc poaaBian at 
Kh«d« Itland or New Vork. as w« hav« m<b by fonnn rettnact tohb corr»- 
■poadcntc, ftlchoa^h bolb that parpcoci were in pnspccl. The larc«i, ibat 
niled (roui Botioii, in tlie month ol Janutuy, andci cotiiriiand of General 
ClinCAn, were bound to North Carolina, with the intention to join Lord Com- 
walKs in a cruid cutcrpmc acainst that guluoj', wIulIi ilic miiubti7 had plnjiiicd 
several month* befntc. in con-icquenoe of the report* and mlicicaiion of 
Governor Martin, It was fuppoicd, that there ironid bo a general rinng among 
the lo7^t»ls in that country, when suppnricd by a formidable force, nnd 
npptied with Bras, and thus a wcufe hold would be gained oii all the lioutheni 
piovinrci. The >Rair luiixtl oiil lo lie a ti^iial failure, an iliil raiMl of itiiMCvn- 
derlaketi at ihc Mij^cslioii of the colonial gotcrRntsandicaloui piirtisana of the 
ett>wn. vrhoee wiiihcsand hopes belrajied tbcmtaloadeplorable ignorance of the 
ifaitc of the country and character of the people. 

On the 13th of December, Govcnior Tryon wrote ■ letter la General Howe, 
dated on board hit Mnjeity'b xhip Uitcheu of Gordon, in the harbor of New 
York, iiiformini; him, thai the hpirit of rebvlliua vai decrcakiug; tn that colony, 
and that five Ihouiand regular troop* only were wanting lo reiinre oommerce 
and the old government ; ihAt in«ny eonntiet were wrll affected, nnd in oibera 
were friend:^ who called for proieciifin from the tnmlu at the inaiui^Dta. If 
G«i)eril Clinton, or tome other officer, would come with a nijtable force. Gov. 
emor Tryon wiu ready to take Ihr lield nrider him, and believed he could 
collect a Iiody ftt I wo or three ihouaand loyalitu, provided hcwcrcauihoiij«d 10 
pnl them on Ihc eclabliiihmenl of regnlart. At all etenU, he refjoeiieil three 
tlwuftBd fiieanna, and one hundrcil ihoukand caitridfct; but, in his prMeat 
OOlMlition, he taw no prmpcct n( getting oihnre to roume hia (rovcnimcnt. 

General Howe replied, that it was impossible lo send the force requir^l »t 
that lime, as the amiy in llo<>Ion could not be divided, but he miijhl expect Ihc 
carlieat uaiscanic in the ^prinu- Meanilnie be ad>i*ed, that the Nillin£nea» of 
the friettdx of the crown lo take up %nas chould not be known, but rather tlut 
the inauixcnU ikouU receive the improaiun of their ncutraliiy, of eTca of their 
bting ditNlitfcd with the coTcmment. since no iroopa had been sent to their 




yet have received his Majesty's *' mcst gracious*' 
speech, I do myself the honor to enclose one of 
many, which were sent out of Boston yesterday. It 
is full of rancor and resentment against us, and ex- 
plicitly holds forth his royal will to be, that vigorous 
measures must be pursued, to deprive us of our con- 
stitutional rights and liberties. These measures, 
whatever they be. I hope will be opposed by more 
vigorous ones, and rendered unavailing and fruitless, 
though sanctioned and authorized by the name of 
majesty, a name which ought to promote the happi- 
ness of his people, and not their oppression.' 1 am, 
Sir, &c. 

to joseph reed. 

Dear Sir, 

Since my last I have received your obliging favours 
of the 19th and 23d ulto., and thank you for the arti- 
cles of intelligence therein contained, as I also do for 
the buttons which accompanied the last letter, 
although I had got a set better. 1 think, made at 
Concord. I am exceeding glad to find that things 
wear a better face in Virginia than they did some 
time ago ; but I do not think that any thing less than 
the life or liberty will free the colony from the effects 
of Lord Dunmore's resentments and villainies. 

nippon. In ihis i(l«.i he itcclined forwarrting the aims and tmrnunilloii, 
because iiich a ttep, before they could be used, would only >e(ve (o alarai th* 
inaurgcnu. \i it cuuld be suppojcd po&ilble to gain &nd keep posscialon of New 
Vork, with the farce deiired, it should be deiipBlched wathuutdeU.y ; bnC of snell 
a resuU ibeic could Ik: nu jutt liopc, — MS. LtlUn. 
' Rend in Congest Jsnuary 13th. 




We are at length favored with a sight of his 
Majesty's most gracious speech, breathing sentiments 
of tenderness and compassion for his deluded Ameri- 
can subjects ; the echo is not yet come to hand ; but 
we know what It must be, and as Lord North said, 
and we ought to have believed (and acted accord- 
ingly,) we now know the ultimatum of British justice. 
The speech I send you. A volume of them was sent 
out by the Boston gentry, and, farcical enough, we 
gave great joy to them, (the red coats I mean,) 
without knowing or intending it ; for on that day, the 
day which gave being to the new army, (but before 
the proclamation came to hand,) we had hoisted the 
union flag in compliment to the United Colonies.' But, 
behold, it was received in Boston as a token of the 
deep impression the speech had made upon us, and 
as a signal of submission. So we learn by a person out 
of Boston last nighL By this time I presume they 
begin to think it strange, that we have not made a 
formal surrender of our lines. Admiral Shuldham is 
arrived at Boston. The 55th and the greatest part, if 
not all, of the 17th regiment, are also got in there. 
The rest of the 5 regiments from Ireland were 

' " Notwilbstandii^ Um ei]uippin); <A tlkiifl««t [oriertd by L'ori|[re** in Octo- 
ber, t77Sl> tlic ii«L-cM]tyor a cDntaoDn natianal flAg ttcmt aoi lit Imivc been 
thoughi nf. uniil IhKlor Ftmnklin, Mr. I.jmdi, and Mr Harrtuin were 
■ppmnlcd to i-cin>Klct the «ul>jtct and aMeii>bt»<I at the camp at Catiibridg*. 
The rcAilt nf ihm conference wa» the reicniion <if the kinti'* oottvn dt union 
jack nrpici«ntlB|> ihe yet mnifnUvd fioverrigniy of England, but co»|>lcil 
t9 thinccn itripc» oltentatc red and white emblematic of the union of lh« 
ihiitccn culuiilei aicsinit iti tyranny and oppmaiou, id place of the hitherto 
laya) nd etitign,*' Preble, Origin and Prtgttu »f lM» Fl»g »J tk* VnUt4 
Staut. ij]. The Mine wurk ipvM mudi lotcmtiac iafonnailon on ihi* raiataK 
oElhe Aae, taken from Americgm and Eaflitb aonrcei. 




intended for Halifax and Quebec ; those for the first, 
have arrived there, the others we know not where they 
are got to. 

It is easier to conceive than to describe the situa- 
tion of my mind for some time past, and my feelings 
under our present circumstances. Search the vast 
volumes of history through, and ! much question 
whether a case similar to ours is to be found ; to wit, 
to maintain a post against the flower of the British 

troops for six months together, without . and 

at the end of them to have one army disbanded and 
another to raise within the same distance of a rein- 
forced enemy. It is too much to attempt. What 
may be the final issueof the last manoeuvre, time only 
can tell. I wish this month was well over our heads. 
The same desire of retiring into a chimney-comer 
seized the troops of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, 
and Massachusetts, (so soon as their time expired,) 
as had worked upon those of Connecticut, notwith- 
standing many of them made a tender of their 
services to continue, till the lines could be sufficiently 
strengthened. We are now left with a good deal less 
than half raised regiments, and about five thousand 
militia, who only stand ingaged to the middle of this 
month ; when, according to custom, they will depart, 
let the necessity of their stay be never so urgent 
Thus it iSf that for more than two months past, I 
have scarcely immerged from one difficulty before \ 
have [been] plunged into another. How tt will end, 
God in his great goodness will direct. I am thankful 
for his protection to this time. We are told that we 





shall soon %<tt the army completed, but I have been 
told so many things which have never come to pass, 
that I distrust every thing. 

I fear your fleet has been so long in fitting, and the 
destination of it so well known, that the end will be 
defeated, if the vessels escape.' How Is the arrival 
of French troops in the West Indies, and the hostile 
appearance there, to be reconciled with that part of 
the Kingf's speech, wherein he assures Parliament, 
■' that as well from the assurances I have received, as 
from the general appearance of affairs in Europe, I 
see no probability that the measures, which you may 
adopt, will be interrupted by disputes with any foreign - 
power"? I hope the Congress will not think of ad- 
journing at so important and critical a juncture as this. 
I wish they would keep a watchful eye to New York. 
From Captain Sears' account, (now here.) much is 
to be apprehended from that quarter. 

A fleet is now fitting out at Boston, consisting of 
five transports and two bomb-vessels, under convoy 
of the Scarborough and Fowey men-of-war. Three 

■ Spkrki sap : " At llib time Gov«m« TryiMi, wli« wm «a ■Uj^JxMnl fn 
the harbour of Nrw York, had spies in PhilBilclphia, nho infonncil hint of 
evMjf ocairreiic«. They eifen oblalned eiuacts (rom ihe joumak o( CoiiKtm, 
wrote down the icsuilvEk, the appoinlincnt an<1 doingt of coiiimitlce*, the »pin- 
iuiu ul many of the (lcle|{aies, their convnutious, piujccts, ami aim), all 
of whicii wmv fomrded through G«7V«mar Tr7on and General Howe lo the 
Britijb ninistry. In this iray General Mvwc wAt made acqusinteil with the 
ilctaik ol the lilting out of the (lc«t at I'tiiladclphia, about lo tail under Com* 
nnodure Hopkinn. I^lach veuel *u miDUlely deicribcd, vith the number of 
guu, weight of mcul, numbct of men, n»tncs of the officers, and other par- 
ticularv" Jamn Brattle, itIiu had fuiniriljr lived wiifa Tr^un, was nuw a 
Mtvani of Jame* Ptiane, a menbcr of the ConliDenial Congreu, whose minute* 
he was in the habii of oai^yxx^ and sending (o the Briliab. — Force, ^hmtmwm 
ArtkiWJ, FfiUTIk StritJ. v., 44. 




hundred, some say, others more, troops are on board, 

with flat-bottomed boats. It is whis|}ered, as if de- 
signedly, that they are intended for Newport; but it 
is generally believed that they are bound either to 
Long Island or Virginia; the other transports arc 
taking in water and a good deal of bisquet is baking, 
some say for the shipping to lay in Nantasket Road, 
to be out of the way of ice, whilst others think a more 
important move is in agitation. All, however, is con- 
jecture. 1 heartily wish you, Mrs Reed and family, 
the compliments of the season, in which the ladies 
here and family join.' 


CAMSklDOt. 6 J«Diijti7, i77«, 


1 received your favor of the ist instant, and return 
you my thanks for the blankets and your promise of 

' " The raglmBiiUU whkh hnvr bern mttde up. Bad d rawa far. msy tw 1 
•red tft the tc»p*rtivc L'aloncli by tht Qr. Mr. (Jeoeml, to ihe OkIct 
thOM Colond«, who drew them al <>nch prices, lu they Iiaic cost ihc CoDiincai. 
which ii iiiiicli dienper thati cuulil iiiherwii.c be ubuiriwl. — K\ natbii^ adils 
more to thu j> p p rx rarwc uf a iimii, (liaii iUc»i, anil a j>n>|>ci degree of cleimli* 
ncu in his pcman. the Ocncral haiici xaA npccis ibal each ReEimcfil will cnn- 
lend for ihr mn^i Soldierlike appcannce. 

** lie ■« nlw) vi-ry deiirioua of havinj- the men iiittmct«<l, at ipcealily at [iiii li 
hlc in all pnrti of their duty, vsxA nrcommmfls it to nit the Colonels, to be Tcry 
orrful in th« choice 0/ their non.comni&aioiied officers, and to their Capiaini, 
to divide thcii companies into tmall M]ua<l», appointing a Sergeant and Corfv- 
rtl to each, from whom ihc uimuit dillt|;en» U expected, 'rhne ScrEcaniJi and 
Carp«T«I> arc by no mcsnii tn mffcr the Armt, and Acfimlrementx ol any bur 
in their Sc)uad!i, to bi: dirty or unBt (or ukc, and *a lat as in llicm licb, tv 
(he men appear ncnt. rlenn. and «nliJicr-Iit(c.->Ntglccl of duly in thcic 1 
ttancea, they may rely upf>n it will reduce ihem 10 the ranks. — These Ord< 
arc not intended to ciempt ihc commi^ioned olScerB of the Campanica, fram' 
the «iiict»l aiienlion to ihe^e tbingt ; un the coniraiy. an il ier»ei to ahow the 
General'^ nolidludc in having the men, and their arm«nppcar in the best order. 
It U hoped they will double their iliUigetm." — Orderly Book, sth January, 1776. 



31 f 

having more procured, as they arc much wanted. I 
did not see Mr. Hale, who brought them, nor the ac- 
count, or the money should have been transmitted to 
you by his return. You will be pleased to draw on 
the quartermaster-general, and it shall be immediately 
paid. I have seen General Lee since his expedition, 
and hope Rhode Island will derive some advantage 
from it. 

I am told that Captain Wallace's ships have been 
supplied for some time by the town of Newport, on 
certain conditions stipulated between him and the 
committee. When this truce first obtained, perhaps 
it was right ; then there might have been hojiesofan 
accommodation taking place ; but now, when every 
prospect of it seems to be cutoff by his Majesty's late 
speech; when the throne, from which we had suppli- 
cated redress, breathes forth vengeance and indigna- 
tion, and a firm determination to remain unalterable 
in its purposes, and to prosecute the system and plan 
of ruin formed by the ministry against us. should not 
an end be put to it, and every possible method be 
fallen upon to prevent their getting necessaries of any 
kind ? We need not e;cpect to conquer our enemies 
by good offices: and I know not what pernicious con- 
sequences may result from a precedent of this sort. 
Other places, circumstanced as Newport is, may follow 
the example, and by that means their whole Heet and 
army will be furnished with what it highly concerns 
us to keep from them.' 

■ W«IUcc lud mode hiiBMK TC17 BBpopvUr by tBlemiprlng the indc of llie 
putt, klop^ag kad dcuintDg tetKit, aod even laking po*M>«U>n of private pn>p- 
cftjr. Wben pnnruiMu were wilUield from hti votcb b) the loonspeoplc he 
taMrccptad fcrriw. marl«t and fub boatt, *nd iheKby redaced Newport to « 




I received a letter from Governor Trumbull of the 
1st instant, by which I am informed, that the Con- 
necticut Assembly are very unanimous in the com- 
mon cause ; and, among others have passed an act for 
raising and equipping a fourth of their militia, to be 
immediately selected by voluntary enlistments ; with 
such other able, effective men, as are not included in 
their militia rolls, who incline to enlist, to act as 
minute-men for their own or the defence of any of 
the United Colonics, and this under proper encour- 
agements ; — another act for restraining and punishing 
persons inimical to us, and directing proceedings 
therein ; — ^no person to supply the ministerial army or 

Male *A tf> gR«i dijitcH thii the Anembljr penntlied it lo miikc an ftrrmnge- 
oicnt iriih Wallace for supplying the licet with provisions on coiulition thit ha 
would aai interfere wilh the iowd. (Ociober. t77£-) Thic arrui|[ement was 
cfiBtitiued. atiil cauld not liul caM out crilicism, Ht(\'rdi tfthf C*ivmyof Rh^dt 
Ittandt vii, 381, 339, 430, 4f>i). The A.iicmhly autharired a certain allowance 
of beef and beer to be 6upplic<3 " w long as he (WallacfJ sliall rtmain peace- 
ably within the colony, without commttling nny dcprctUtian-^ upcn the i^and*, 
or upon any (A the lands of the colony." Do. 431). Mr. Ward, one ol tbe 
EOiod-c IkIuikI delegntes in the Coiilineoiol Cungrea, to which bodj Ihe matter 
waa referred, wrote ; ' ' We bhould Dol do juhtive lo the bcnevolciicc of Cougroas. 
or lo ihc distressed simailun of the town. If wc did not acquaint you, that all 
tho gentlemen who Epol^e in this debate, expressed the most lender re^^ard (or 
the distrEsscd people : nnd gave ii as their opinion, that, u long a* the ships of 
war now in our harbor, could be supplied wilh frv&h prcvbioni, beer and such 
like necesturiei, merely for Uieir own imntcdiate support, coQjdxtenil)' wilh the 
(;rci[ prind^Ica of (he general guod and safely of Amcnvai, the low n uoghl to 
be permitted lu funiiiih Ihcm - Ibc i;reatCEi care being Utkcn hy govern men 1, 
thai no more thun the barely necessary supplies be fumishi'd iVirm from lime \tf 
time, lot the cunLinun enemy in other parts of the conlincni, ihould through 
them obtain provitinns," In consequence of this partia] endorsement tbe 
Aaicmbly voted to continue the supplic* ; but a^ Wallace might " canDonade, 
and even burn, llic town, s discrcliotiary paHrer, by a private role, which it is 
deidgned nhould be kept i prnfuund Kecrel, in given 10 the oomtnnnder of the 
furves on Rhode Island, lo pvrmil ivpphci>, in cases o{ iinuiinctit danger, untS 
the next sciMon,"— fi>Vf/r«rof C^eke lo Wa^hin^tan, 3i January. 1776. 





navy, to give them intelligence, to enlist, or procure 
others to enlist, in their service, to pilot their vessels, 
or in any way assist them, under pain of forfeiting his 
estate, and an imprisonment not exceeding three 
years ; — none to write, speak, or act against the pro- 
ceedings of Congress, or their acts of Assembly, under 
penalty of being disarmed, and disqualified from 
holding any office, and be further punished by im- 
prisonment, &c.; — for seizing and confiscating, for the 
use of the colony, the estates of those putting or con- 
tinuing to shelter themselves under the protection of 
the ministerial fleet or army, or assist in carrying on 
their measures against us ; — a resolve to provide two 
armed vessels, of sixteen and fourteen guns, with a 
spy-schooner of four, and four row-galleys; — an act 
exempting the polls of soldiers from taxes, for the 
last and ensuing campaigns ; — another for encoura- 
ging the making of saltpetre and gunpowder, a con- 
siderable quantity of both Mr. Trumbull hopes to 
make early in the spring. He says the furnace at 
Middlctown is smelting lead, and likely to turn out 
twenty or thirty tons, and that ore is plenty. They 
have also passed an act empowering the Commander- 
in-chief of the Continental army, or officers command- 
ing a detachment, or outposts, to administer an oath 
and swear any person or persons to the truth of mat- 
ters relative to the public service. The situation of 
our affairs seems to call for regulations like these, and 
I should think the other colonies ought to adopt 
similar ones, or such of them as they have not already 
made. Vigorous measures, and such as at another 




time would appear extraordinar)'. are now become 
absolutely necessary, for preserving our country 
against the strides of tyranny making against it. 
Governor Trumbull, in his list, has not mentioned 
an act for impressing' carriages, &c., agreeable to the 
recommendation of Congress. This, I hope, they 
have not forgotten. It is highly necessarj', that such 
an authority should be given, under proper restric- 
tions, or we shall be greatly embarrassed, whenever 
the army, or any detachment from it, may find it 
necessary to march from hence. I am, &c. 


CambkidUK, 7 January. 1776. 


Your favor of the i Inst. 1 received and heartily 
thank you for your kind salutations — I was happy 
to hear of the great unanimity in your Assembly, & 
of the general salutary- laws they passed ; which shew 
them to be well attached to the common cause & to 
have taken proper measures for supporting it. 

Inclosed you have the amount of lead from Crown 
Point, agreeable to your request. The account of 
the smelting furnace and your expectations to make 
a considerable amount of saltpetre and powder, please 
me much. I wish your most sanguine endeavors may 
be more than answered. 

As to gun locks it is not in my power to furnish 
any. The information you had was groundless, for 
there were no spare ones in the Ordnance Stores, 




which fell into our hands, none were ever found that 
I have heard of, nor is there mention of them in the 
I nvoice. 

Having undoubted intelligence of the fitting out a 
fleet at Boston — and of the embarkation of troops 
from thence, which from the season of the year and 
other circumstances, must be destined for some ex- 
pedition South of this; and having such information 
as I can depend upon, that the Inhabitants of Long 
Island, in the Colony of New York, or a great part 
of them are inimical to the rights and liberties of 
America, and from their conduct and professions 
have discovered an apparent inclination to assist in 
subjugating their fellow citizens to ministerial tyr- 
anny; there is the greatest reason to believe that 
this armament if not immediately designed against 
the City of New York, is nevertheless intended for 
Long island ; and as it is of the utmost importance to 
prevent the Enemy from possessing themselves of 
the City of New York and the North River, which 
would give them the command of the country and 
the communication with Canada, I shall dispatch 
Major General Lee with orders to repair thither, 
with such Volunteers as are willing to join and can 
be expeditiously raised (having no troops to spare 
from hence) to put the City and fortifications on the 
North River in the best posture of defense the season 
and circumstances will admit of ; and for disarming 
all such persons upon Long Island, and elsewhere 
whose conduct and declarations have rendered them 
justly suspected of designs unfriendly to the views of 

Congress.' I have directed him to call upon the 
commanding officer of the Jersey troops for such 
assistance as he can afford, and being Informed by 
Captain Sears, and Mr, Woodward, who will deliver 
you this, and whom Genl Lcc will follow in a day or 
two, that he apprehends looo or iioo Volunteers 
may be readily raised in your government in the 
town through which Mr. Lee will pass, 1 beg the 
favor of you to interpose your good offices and inter- 
est in the matter, to encourage men to go on this 
important service and as expeditiously as possible for 
counteracting any designs our Enemies may have 
against us in that Quarter. — Every necessary expence 
attending their march and stay will be borne by the 
publia' I have just receivd. advice from Chelsea, 

' " Von will cucusc mc for reminding you of our coovenalion the olher even- 
ing, when I informcil you, ihat General Lcc's depadurc for New York » 
advUable upon lh« plnn of his letter, and, tinder th« drirutnjitanMn 1 then lueo- 
tioned, ought not t« bc^lclnycd. In giving mc fouf opinion of this mattcfi I 
hare no <luubt (if your Iakhi|j a comiirchciiiivc view of il : that ii, you viU not 
only consider the propriety of the mcftiiirc, hut nf the execution ; whether mich 
m step, though right in itscK. may not lie looked u|>on m beyond tny llitc. 

" If it c«ii1il hti made convcnieni and agreeable to you to take pot-luck with 
IB« to-day, 1 thai] be very gUd of your company, and we c*n talk the matter 
over at Urge, flcAKe 4o (om-snl General Lee's letter to mc." — tVajAiiij[t»M if 
fohn Adams, 7 January. 1776. 

* Washington wrote to the Cemmitlee ol iinfely of New York on the follcv. 
ing day ;— 

■' I have thooghl it c«pedient to despatch Major .General I.ce, with «nch 
yoluiilociH as lie can f|uifltly assemble on hi* march (for I h»»c not troopa to 
span- (rum hence, if the distance and time would admit ol ut), to pal ttie city 
of New York iji the best posture of defence, which the sooMin and circutn- 
>laii«c> will admit of. To his in&truclions, which 1 have deviicd him to lay be- 
fore y<>u, I beg leave to rcfci ; linnly persuaded, that your honorable body will 
give every nsviilnnce in their power to faeilitaie the end of his coming, as there 
nccdii no other aiEiunent, than a ntreapcclivc view of Ihc coaducl of the min- 
iatcrial troops in Boston, and the cunsri|uimccv rcsullinn (mm it, to prove what 
a fatal slab it would give to the interest* of America, to suffer the diy of Nnr 
York to fall into the hands of oui enemies." 




about 9 or lo miles from this, that several ships have 
sailed from Nantasket road that were lying there. I 
shall write to the Honorable the Convention of New 
York by General Lee and direct his instructions to 
be laid before them, praying their assistance to facili- 
tate the purposes of his going ; I am, &c. 



H»ving undoubted intelligence of the fitting out of a fleet at 
Boston, and of the cmbarltauon of troops from thence, which, 
from the season of the year and other circumsUoces, must be 

' GcDcnl Lcc wBt jn^i mumcd ro amp (rom Norpon. and tind vrriitcn to 
Ibe Commander- in- cliief ; — " N*w York muM be itcuwd, Imi it will neier, I 
■a afnidi be wcured \>f <luc order of tbc Congr«M, for obviout rcMoni. They 
find themiclvci awkwardlj tiliulcd on ituN head. Yuu mum alcj) in to theb 
relief. I am sensible that no men can be cptrcd iTom ihe linct, under pre«- 
cni drcuin*ian«c» i but I would pni|io(C ihu you xhnuld dclndi tne into Con- 
neciicut. and lend your name for collecting a body of volunteers. I am uxured 
tbat I ihall liitd no dlfiiciilty in auemlilinf; a mfiicient nnmber for (he purpotea 
vanicd. Thit body, in conjuQciian (it theic trbould appear occAHon to sam- 
maa Ihein) with Itie Jerwy reyimeiit. uiidei Ihe cuaimand of Lord Stlrting now 
at El ira1>et blown, will cRccl the ucarity of New York, and Ihe expulsion or 
sopprcviion oi ibat danj^rotra liandilti uf loriea, who hare apjiwcd on Long 
lalaod u-ith the profcucd intention of aaing agointi the auihnrily of the Con- 
gnn. Net to cniUi lhe«e aerpcnU, before tbetr rallies are pwm, would be 

" Thii tnanafuvre I not only think pfudent and righi. but absolutely necet- 
•aiy lo our Mlvalioai a&d if it mectt, ai I ardcnttj' hope i( wiU, with your 
■ppTobaiion, the uyinct it it entered upon the better : indeed, the delay of ■ 
angle day may be fatal." 

Mr. Adami replied in writing to General Washinf^on't letter, hif-lily a|i)>itiv. 
lag the plan, and cpoke on one point of inquiry ah fotlowK.— " That i1 is wilhiii 
the Itmiu o( yoxir KsccUency'* cominand, is, in my mind, peKecily eloar. 
Yout commiasion conbiilutcii you Comiuaiidci of all the force* now taiicd, and 
of aO olhetR who diall m^luntonty offer their acrvice, and join the army for the 
dercnce of AmCn'ean liWrty, am! (or repelliog every hoatile invasion thereof; 
■nd yon are vested with full power and authority to act an you ihaU ihinli for 
tbt good and welfaie of Ihe icrvicc. " 




destined for a southern expedition ; ftnd hftvtnf{ eucb information 
as I can rely on, that the inhabitanis, or a great pan of them, on 
Long Island in the colony of New York, are not only inimical to 
the rights and libertio of Americn, but, by their conduct and 
public profession, have discoviricd a disi^ositioQ to aid and assist 
in the reduction of that colony to ministerial tyranny ; and as it 
IK a matter of the utmost importance to prevent the enemy from 
taking possession of the city of New York, as ihey wrill thereby 
command the country, and the communication with Canada; it 
is of too much consequence to hazard such a post at so alarm- 
ing a crisis, since we find by his Majesty's speech to Parliament, 
that, dUregarding the petition of the united voice of America, 
nothiag less than the total subversion of her rights will satisfy 

You will, therefore, with such volunteers as are willing to joio 
you, and can be expeditiously raised, repair to the city of New 
York ; and callini; upon the commanding officer of the forces of 
New Jersey for such nssrslance as he can afford, and you shall 
rcqnire, you arc to put that city into the best posture of defence, 
which the season and circumstances will admit, disarming alt such 
persons upon Long Island and elsewhere, (and if necessary other- 
wise securing them,) whose conduct and declarations have ren- 
dered them justly suspected of designs unfriendly to the views of 

You are, also, to inquire into the state and condition of the 
fortiiicalions up (he North River, and as far as ^hall be consist- 
ent with the orders of Congress, or not repugnant to them, to 
have the works guarded against surprises from a body of men, 
which might be transported by water near the place, and then 
marched in upon the back of them. 

Vou will also endeavor to have the medicines, shirts, and blan- 
kets, now at New York, belonging to the ministerial troops, 
secured, and forwarded to this army. Captain Sears can give 
you particular information cuoceroing them.' 

' %tKj«MmaU 0/ Qmgrfii, 3 January, 1776. 

* Captain Sean had been moa imiIoui nnd ciGcicni iimon(> ilia r»mi of Hbtrty 

ill New York, and luid »ctcd « c«ii»picuDgt pari in that city duriiigtbc cxcilc- 
ments occasioned by the Uoaton Poit-Blll. aail afterwatxLa. He had alio ticen 




In dll oth«T nutters relative to tbe execution of the general 
plan j'ou are going u]ion, your own judgment (as it is impose. ibie 
with propriety to give particular directions), and the advice of 
those vrhont you have reason to believe are hearty in the cause, 
must direct you ; keeping always in view the declared intentions 
of Congres*. 

I am persuaded I need not recommend despatch in the prose- 
cution of this business. The imporcance of it alone is a suflicicot 
incitement. I would advise a dismission of the voluntccm, whose 
necessary expenses will be boroe, so soon ae the ser\-icc will 
admit of it ; and that you endeavor as much as possible at all 
limes to be in readiness to join the army, i/ the exigency of our 
affairs here should call fur it, Given under my hand, at Head* 
Quarters, Cambridge, this Sth day of January, 1776.' 

a member of the New Vofk Provincial Conjreia, At this time he ■!» in 
WuliiDelon's camp, and wu sent fonrartl in *dvanc« of General Lcc to pnv 
note ibe nUing of volunie«n tn ConnecikuL — See Lijtef G^uvtrnfmr Sferrtt. 
Vol. i. I>p. 65. 74- 

' " Ttw Genenl thinks Major Kootton, and the Oflicera and Soldicn. who 
were under hii command Its! night, for the ipint, Conduct and Sccrrc)-, with 
wluch they burnt tbc Ilou>a, ucai the enemy'* wtMltN upoa Itunkcrt-IIJll. 
The (jeiicnl was in 1 more pankuUr manner pleased, wilb the resoluilon the 
party diccovercd in not Bring a Shot, u nothing belrayi greater signi of leir, 
and \a» of ihc Soldier, than to bcgla • looac undirected and unmcftninn Fir«, 
fiom whence no sofwi can ictult. nor any volnable purpoan uiawcr'd. 

" ll t« almost cerlaiu, thai the Doemy will Attempt to rcvm|-c thir latult, 
which wu cast upon thcin l&it night, for which reutnn the grealctt Vigilance, 
aad Cue, U reconuuended, a* it abo is, that the out-posts be always guafded 
1>y espericnced Officen, and good Soldier* who arc to be coiuidercd in olhci 
duties. Et b alau ai;ain. and a^aia ordered that the men aie not kullcrcd to 
nunUe from or lie out of their quarters contrary to repeated orden, tm lfai« heed, 
and thai their Amui, and AcCDUtrvmenla be always in aider. 

" To rcinnn; present douM* and prevent fntmc mistake*, it Ss hereby cxptcwljr 
ordered and directed. t)\*i no {i«m;« do proceed to discharge the duty of any 
OAoe. nith-oui a reguUr appolnltDeot by Coimniuion (nta the Congress 
Warrani or Crcncral Order from lb< Coinuiiidei in Chief ; no allowance wfU 
b« naide to any one, who acu contrary to itm ordef : Alt I'ersont therefore for 
th«ir own-iakca arc dcaircd 10 lake notice of it, and goicnt ilKnucIvea accord- 
ingly, that no ComplainU may hereafter be exhihited for Mrvicet unwarrMited." 
— Ordtrty B«ok, 9 Janoaty, 1776, 





Camuidgk, lojsnuvy, 177A. 


In the confused and disordered state of this army. 
occasioned by such capital changes as have taken 
place of late, I have found it almost impossible to 
come at exact returns of the strength of our lines. 
Not till last night was I able to get in the whole, 
since the dissolution of the old army. By these I 
find myself weaker than I had any idea of, and under 
the necessity of requesting an exertion of your in- 
fluence and interest to prevail upon the militia of this 
government, now in the pay of the Continent, to 
continue till the last of the month and longer, if 
requisite. I am assured that those of New Hamp- 
shire will not stay any longer than they engaged for, 
notwithstanding our weak state and the slow progress 
we make in recruiting, which by the last week's report, 
amounts to but little more than half of our usual com- 
plement, owing it is said to the number of men going 
or expecting to go into the provincial service at or 
near their own homes. 

I am more and more convinced that we shall never 
raise the army to the new establishment by voluntary 
enlistments. It is, therefore, necessary that the 
neighboring governments should consider in time 
and adopt some other expedient for effecting it. 

The hurr>' I was in the other day, when your com- 
mittee did me the honor to present a petition from a 
person, (whose name I have forgot,) wanting to be 
employed in the Continental army, prevented me 
from being so full on the subject as I wished. 




I shall bcgf leave, therefore, at this time to add, 
that I hope your honorable Board will do me the 
justice to believe, that it will give me pleasure at all 
times to pay a proper respect to any recommendation 
coming from them, and that the reason why I do not 
now encourage such kind of applications, as was then 
made, is, that the new army was arranged, as near the 
plan and agreeable to the orders of Congress, (al- 
though some unavoidable departures and changes 
have taken place.) as it was in my power to comply 
with ; and the officers thus constituted ordered to 
recruit. Every attempt, therefore, of others not of 
this appointment must counteract, and has been of 
infinite prejudice to the service. They infuse ideas 
into the minds of men they have any inHuence over, 
that, by engaging with them, or, which Is tantamount, 
not engaging with others, they shall be able to force 
themselves into the service. Of this we have num- 
berless instances. I am, therefore, anxious to dis- 
courage every attempt of the kind, by convincing 
such persons, that their engaging a company will not 
bring them in. If such persons could once be con- 
vinced of this, the business of this army would go on 
more smoothly, and with much more regularity and 
order. In short, gentlemen, it is scarce possible for 
me to convey to you a perfect idea of (he trouble and 
vexation I have met with, in getting this matter fixed 
upon some settled footing. One day an officer would 
serve ; another, he would not, and so on, till I have 
hardly known what steps to pursue for preserving of 
consistency, and advancing the good of the service, 
which are the only objects I have in view. I have no 




friend whom I want to bring- in, nor any person with 
whom I am in the least connected, that I wish to 
promote. I am, gentlemen, with much esteem, &c. 


CAMRttiDGf:. It Janasry, 1776. 


Every account I have out of Boston confirms the 
embarkation of troops mentioned in my last, which, 
from the season of the year and other circumstances, 
must be destined for some expedition to the south- 
ward of this. I have therefore thought it prudent to 
send Major-General Lee to New York. I have given 
him letters recommendatory to Governor Trumbull, 
and to the Committee of Safety at New York. I 
have good hopes that in Connecticut he will get 
many volunteers, who, I have some reason to think, 
will accompany him on this expedition, without more 
expense to the continent than their maintenance. 
But should it be othenvise, and should they expect 
pay. I think it is a trifling consideration, when put in 
competition with the importance of the object, which 
is to put the city of New York, with such parts of 
the North River and Long Island, as to him shall 
seem proper, in that state of defence, which the sea- 
son of the year and circumstances will admit of, so as. 
if possible, to prevent the enemy from forming a 
lodgment in that government, which, I am afraid, 
contains too many persons disaffected to the cause of 
liberty and America. I also written to Lord 




Stirlingf to ^ve him all the assistance that he can. 
with the troops under his command in the Continental 
service, provided it does not interfere with any orders 
he may receive from Congress relative to them.' 

I hope the Congress will approve of my conduct 
in sending General Lee upon this expedition. 1 am 
sure I meant it well, as experience teaches us. that it 
is much easier to prevent an enemy from posting 
themselves, than it is to dislodge them after they 
have got possession. The evening of the 8th. instant 
a part}' of our men under the command of Major 
Knowiton were ordered to go and burn some houses 
which lay at the foot of Bunker's Hill, and at the 
head of Charlestown ; they were also ordered to bring 
off the guard which we expected consisted of an of- 
ficer and 30 men. They crossed the milldam about 
half after eight o'clock and gallantly executed their 
business, having burnt eight houses, and brought 
with them a sergeant and four privates of the 10th 
Regiment. There was but one man more there, who 
making some resistance they were obliged to despatch. 
The gun that killed him was the only one that was 
discharged by our men. tho' several hundreds were 

' Wtlliam Alounder, known by the tttk of the Earl of Stirling, wk horn in 
New Vmh. H« •ervc<l in > miliUry capitcily, <lBring llic former war. under 
General Shirley, and pa»ed »cvenU yean in Enghmd. While there, he made 
a daim to lh« Scctliali carldnm of Slirliitg. which he was believed to have 
legally eslabliiihcd. but the decision ol the ilovse of LArdi wu anfavoiablc. 
By contlay. hawcrei. the tiile wai always aflerwatda granted lo hint. On bia 
fclnm to Atn«riea, \t took np hi* reddence in Nev JetMy. lie wjis by Ccn- 
gnai appuinlnl culonci a( the dnt battalion of Nc* Jersey triHipi, on the 7th 
of Novraibri, 1775. and in Murvh following u'»( raited to the rank of brigadier- 
f«n«nl. A brief and well written tkrlch of th< life <A Lord Stirting may be 
found in Sedgwick's Mtmoir ffthf Lift tf iVitliam /.iviiifiMm, p. 213. 




fired by the enemy from within their works, but in 
so confused a manner, that not one of our people 
was hurL Our inlistments go on very heavily.' 


CAMBXtDUK, isjanuuy. 1776. 


Your favor of the 5th ultimo from before Quebec, 
enclosing the returns of your detachment, is come to 
hand. From the account you give of the garrison, 
and the state of the walls, I expect soon to hear from 
you within them, which will give me vast pleasure. 

I am informed that there are large quantities of 
arms, blankets, clothing, and other military stores in 
that city. These arc articles, which we are in great 
want of here ; I have, therefore, written to General 
Montgomery, or whoever is commanding officer in 
that quarter, to send me as many as can be spared 
from thence. If you can assist in expediting them, 
you will much oblige me. 

I understand that the Congress have it under their 
consideration to raise an army for the defence of 
Canada, on a new establishment When 1 received 
this information, I applied to Congress to know 
whether it was their intention, that you and the of- 
ficers in your detachment were to be appointed there, 
or remain as you were appointed in this army as 
newly arranged ; to which 1 have not yet received 
their answer. 

' Read in Can|!resi Jiuiuary 33. 





The want of so many good officers is felt here, 
especially in the recruiting service, which does not go 
on so briskly as 1 could wish. I think It will be best 
for you to settle for the arrearages, due to your men 
since October last, with the paymaster of the army at 
your place. 1 do not know any better way for you 
or them to receive it. I am. Sir, yours, &c' 

' Tbc foIlowtnB Older, iatucd by G«n«nl Howe, pmont* a tomewfcat curlou 
piclorc of the habits and appearance nf ihc Koldicn undci hii command in 

"Th« cvBunandinK oftcer is nrprised to find th« nccnsity o\ repeating 
unteni. (bal long iincc ought to bavc been complied wllh, a^ the men on all 
liutict ap]t«sr in (he rulliiwing manner, «it. hair not nnooih and badly |itnr- 
■lereil, >cvcnl wiihoul alingk to their Gretwcka, liaU nut bound, puncbcs in a 
fiunieful and dirty coiidttian. no frilU lo their »hirti^ and ihcit linen rcry dirty, 
lef^n^ hanging in a slovenly manner about their knees, aoine iii«a wilhcntt 
■nitomi slocks, and their amm and accoutrctnenu by no means so clean as ihey 
uu|[hi to be. TheM uniioldierlike neglects must be immediately remedied." — 
GtUffa! Hevrt't Ordtrly HmM, January 13th. 

In this state at diacijilinc it requited some assurance in General Howe to 
write lo Lord Danmauih. as he did a shun lime before : " We ara n«t under 
the least apprthcnnon of an attack upon this place from the rebels by surprise 
or othcnrisc. aa taken notice of in your Lordship's letter : on the coBtiary, it 
were to be wished, tboi they would attempt to rash a itep, and quit those iXtaa^ 
intrenchfflcnts lu which ilicy may attribute ihcii present safely." 

" Mis Excellency the commander in Chief, having been pleased to order aa 
AdTcnfsemcnl in the several newspaper* of this, and the adjoining Colonies 
commaiKlini; ' all officcns. nun-comminioiwd Officers and iioldicrs now absent 
upon any leas'e or pietenee whslsoevrr to join their respective Regiments ai 
Roibaty & Cambridge, by the First day of February neit, and all oftcen 
neglecting lo pay due obedience thereto, will be fo«thwich ca^Icrcd. and crciy 
■un-eomniiaioned officer, or soldier failing therein tu be ttynl and punished ai 
DcceHers.' The Colonelt and commandinf; oHiceni <4 Rcgimmls, and Corps, 
are ikow poutively ordercf 1, nut lo grant any mac (urlougbs, or leares of abicQce 
to any officrrs, non-commissioned officers, or soldiers, any former Otdor, or 
permisMon heretofore given notarithstanding. His Bacetlency tbcrefore az- 
pecta every Colonel A Comraaading OIRcer of Regiments & Corps, will direct 
all those nbient from Iheir Reiginenls or Corps, to pay strict obedience to this 
Order, Ihat no person may plead, or be allowed lo plead Ignunncc thereof. " 
—OrArty Biti. II Jaiuiaty, 1776. 





CAUmtiMiB, 13 January, 1776. 


It is exceedinyiy painfull to me to give you so 
much trouble as I have, and am like to do, in the sup- 
port of our lines and the arrangement of the new 
Army ; but my difficulties must in their consequences 
devolve trouble on you. 

To my very great surprize 1 find, that the whole 
number of arms, which have been stopped from the 
discharged soldiers amount to no more than 1620 
and of that number no more than 120 are in store, 
the rest being redelivered to the recruits which have 
come in. I also find from the report of the recruiting 
officers, that few men are to be inlisted, who have 
arms in their hands, and that they are reduced to the 
alternative of either getting no men or men without 
arm,s. Unhappy situation! What is to be done, 
unless these governments will exert themselves in pro- 
viding arms from the several Towns, or in such other 
manner as to them, shall seem speedy and effectual. 

To account for this great deficiency would b 
tedious and not much to the purpose. Suf^ce it 
generally to say, that it has arisen from two causes : 
the badness of the arms of the Old Army, which the 
Inspectors and valuers of, did not think fit to detain : 
And to the disobedient Regiments, which in spite of 
every order I could issue to the contrary (even to a 
solemn threat of stopping the pay for the months of 
November and December of all those, who should 
carry away their arms) have, in a manner by stealth 
borne them away. 




I am glad to hear by a Gentleman of your Honora- 
ble body, who does me the honor to be the bearer of 
this letter, that you have for some time past been collect- 
ing arms at Watertown, whilst a good deal of dispatch 
has been used in making them elsewhere I beg to 
know how many I can rely upon ; as the recruits now 
coming in from the country will be useless without. 

It is to no purpose 1 find, to depend upon imported 
arms — What you can furnish 1 must take in behalf 
of the Continent ; and will upon notice, send some 
gentleman to receive them. Will it be prudent to 
apply to such of the Militia as are going away, for 
their arms ? leaving it optional in them cannot be 
amiss, but will the necessity of the case justify the 
policy of detaining them? I ask for Information — 
being with great truth and esteem &c.' 


CaUBMDCE, 14 J*aa±rj, I776. 


I am exceedingly sorry, that I am under the neces- 
sity of applying to you, and calling the attention of 
Congress to the State of our Arms, which is truly 
alarming. Upon the dissolution of the old Army, I 

' A letter at Mine tenor to Gov, Cocke &nd Matthew ThoiBlon. 

" We uc obliged to retain their ipuu, whelhei prime or public propertj. 
They ate priied ind the own*ris paid ; but u gunt )ul tpriaj; were verj' high, 
the OOnimillcc ilwl values theiii mih them much lower than ibc price they were 
pvrdiated at. Thit U looked upon to be both (franniol and unjiut. I am very 
■eery Utal necMcuty force* hit Kxcellency 10 adopt any mcauiies dicagrceable 10 
the people. But the army caniwi be provided for in an;r otJier way." — Gmnvi 
GrttH*. On January 4 be again wrote : " Undoubtedly Dm dcuinitig of arms 
bdng private propcny i> reputSiuDt to nanjr principle* of dvil and natuial law, 
•sd hath dbi^uUcd many. But the yreat law of neccaity mnn joati^ die a- 
p«di«ni till we C4n be oihcrwitc furaii.hcd. 




was apprehensive that the new, would be deficient in 
this instance, and that the want might be as inconsid- 
erable as possible. I gave it in orders that the arms of 
such men as did not reinlist, should be (or such of 
them as were good) retained at the prices which 
should be affixed by persons appointed to Inspect 
and value them : and that we might be sure of them, 
I added, that there would be a Stoppage of pay of 
the months of Nov, and Deer, from those, that should 
carr)' their Firelocks away, without their being first 
examined. — By these precautions 1 hoped to have 
procured a considerable number; But, Sir, I find 
with much concern, that from the badness of the 
arms, and the disobedience of too many in bearing 
them off without a previous inspection, that very few 
were collected, — Neither are we to expect that many 
will be brought in by the new recruits — the officers 
who are out inlisting having reported that few men 
who have Arms will engage in the Service, and that 
they are under the disagreeable alternative of taking 
men without arms, or of getting none. — Unhappy situ- 
ation indeed and much to be deplored! Especially 
when we know that we have to contend with a for- 
midable Army, well provided of everj- necessary, and 
that there will be a most vigorous exertion of Min- 
isterial vengence against us, as soon as they think 
themselves in condition for it I hope it is in the 
power of Congress to afford us relief ; If it is not, 
what must, what can be done ? 

Our Treasury' is almost exhausted and the demands 
against it, very considerable ; a constant supply of 





money to answer every claim and exigency, would 
much promote the good of the Service ; In the com- 
mon affairs of life, it is useful ; in War, it is abso- 
lutely necessary and essential. — I would beg leave 
too, to remind you of Tents, and of their import- 
ance; hoping if an opportunity has offered, you have 
procured them. 

1 fear that our Army will not be raised to the new 
establishment in any reasonable time, if ever; the 
Inlistments go on so verj- slow, that they seem almost 
at an end. 

In my letter of the 4 Inst, I wrote you. that I had 
received certain Intelligence from a Mr. Hutchinson 
and others, that 2 of the 5 Rcgimts from Cork, now 
arrived at Hallifax i at Boston, and the other 3 had 
sailed for Quebec, and had not been heard of. — 1 am 
now assured as a matter to be relyed on by four 
Captains of Ships who left England about the 2d of 
Novr, and who appear to be men of veracity, that the 
whole of these Regiments (except the three Com- 
panies, which arrived at Boston some time ago) when 
they sailed, were at Milford Haven, where they had 
been obliged to put In by a violent storm the 19th of 
October, — that they would not be able to leave it for 
a considerable time, being under the necessity of re- 
pairing their Vessels and taking some new ones up. 
— Such is the Incertaint)' and contradiction in what I 
now hear that it is not possible to know, what to be- 
lieve or disbelieve. 

I wrote to the General Court yesterday and to the 
Convention at New Hampshire immediately on being 




acquainted with the g^reat deficiency in our Arms, 
praying that they would Interest themselves in the 
matter and furnish me with all in their power. 
Whether I shall get any or what quantity, I cannot 
determine having not received their answers, the 
same application will be made to the Governments of 
Connecticut and Rhode Island. 

1 do myself the honor to send you Sundry* News- 
papers I received from the above mentioned Captains, 
as they may be later than any you have seen, and con- 
tain some Interesting Intelligence.' 


Caubridok, 14 JtuinuT, 1776, 

Dear Sir, 

The bearer presents an opportunity to me of ac- 
knowledging the receipt of your favor of the 30th 
ultimo, (which never came to my hands till last night,) 
and. if I have not done it before, of your other of the 
23d preceding. 

The hints you have communicated from time to 
time not only deserve, but do most sincerely and cor- 
dially meet with my thanks. You cannot render a 
more acceptable service, nor in my estimation give a 
more convincing proof of your friendship, than by a 
free, open, and undisguised account of every matter 
relative to myself or conduct. I can bear to hear of 
imputed or real errors. The man, who wishes to 


' K«iul in CongRM JiDuar? 35th. 

Kcferred to Uie Caminitice of Coire* 




Stand well in the opinion of others, must do this; 
because he is thereby enabled to correct his faults, 
or remove prejudices which are imbibed against him. 
For this reason, I shall thank you forgiving me the 
opinions of the world, upon such points as you know 
me to be interested in : for, as I have but one capital 
object in view, I could wish to make my conduct 
coincide with the wishes of mankind, as far as I can 
consistently ; 1 mean, without departing from that 
great line of duty, which, though hid under a cloud 
for some time, from a peculiarity of circumstances, 
may nevertheless bear a scrutiny. My constant at- 
tention to the great and perplexing objects, which 
continually rise to my view, absorbs all lesser con- 
siderations, and indeed scarcely allows me time to re- 
flect, that there is such a body in existence as the 
General Court of this colony, but when I am reminded 
of it by a committee ; nor can I. upon recollection. 
discover in what instances (1 wish they would be 
more explicit) I have been inattentive to, or slighted 
them. They could not. surely, conceive that there 
was a propriety in unbosoming the secrets of an 
army to them ; that it was necessary to ask their 
opinion of throwing up an intrenchment, forming a 
battalion, &c., &c It must, therefore, be what 1 be- 
fore hinted to you ; and how to remedy it I hardly 
know, as I am acquainted with few of the members, 
never go out of my own lines, or see any of them in 

I am exceeding sorry to hear, that your little 
fleet has been shut in by the frost I hope it has 




sailed ere this, and given you some proof of the 
utility of it, and enabled the Congress to bestow a 
little more attention to the affairs of this army, which 
suffers exceedingly by their overmuch business, or 
too little attention to it. We are now without any 
money in our treasury, powder in our magazines, arms 
in our stores. We are without a brigadier (the want 
of which has been twenty times urged), engineers, 
expresses (though a committee has been appointed 
these two months to establish them), and by and by, 
when we shall be called upon to take the field, shall 
not have a tent to lie in. Apropos, what is doing 
with mine ? 

These are evils, but small in comparison of those. 
which disturb my present repose. Our enlistments 
are at a stand ; the fears I ever entertained are real- 
ized ; that is, the discontented ofilicers (for I do not 
know how else to account for it) have thrown such 
difficulties or stumbling-blocks in the way of recruit- 
ing, that I no longer entertain a hope of completing 
the army by voluntary enlistments, and I see no 
move or likelihood of one, to do it by other means. 
In the last two weeks we have enlisted but about a 
thousand men ; whereas I was confidently bid to 
believe, by all the officers I conversed with, that we 
should by this time have had the regiments nearly 
completed. Our total number upon paper amounts 
to about ten thousand five hundred ; but as a large 
portion of these are returned not joined, I never ex- 
pect to receive them, as an ineffectual order has once 
issued to call them in. Another is now gone forth^ 




peremptorily requiring all officers under pain of being 
cashiered, and recruits as being treated as deserters, 
to join their respective regiments by the ist day of 
next month, that 1 may know my real strength ; but 
if my fears are not imaginar)'. I shall have a dreadful 
account of the advanced month's pay. In conse- 
quence of the assurances given, and my expectation 
of having at least men enough enlisted to defend our 
lines, to which may be added my unwillingness of 
burthening the cause with unnecessary expense, no 
relief of mlUtia has been ordered in, to supply the 
places of those, who are reJeased from their engage- 
ments to-morrow, and on whom, though many have 
promised to continue out the month, there is no 
security for their stay. 

Thus am 1 situated with respect to men. With 
regard to arms I am yet worse off. Before the disso- 
lution of the old army. I issued an order directing 
three judicious men of each brigade to attend, review, 
and appraise the good arms of every regiment ; and 
finding a very great unwillingness in the men to part 
with their arms, at the same time not having it in my 
power to pay them for the months of November and 
December, I threatened severely, that everj' soldier, 
who carried, away his firelock without leave, should 
never receive pay for those months : yet so many 
have been carried off, partly by stealth, but chiedy 
as condemned, that we have not at this time one 
hundred guns in the stores, of all that have been 
taken in the prize-ship and from the soldiery, not- 
withstanding our regiments are not half complete. 




At the same time I am told, and believe it. tliat to 
restrain the enlistment to men with arms, you will 
get but few of the former, and still fewer of the latter, 
which would be good for any thing. 

How to get furnlslicd I know not. I have applied 
to this and the neighboring colonics, but with what 
success time only can tell. The reflection on my 
situation, and that of this army, produces many an 
uneasy hour when all around me are wrapped in 
sleep. Few people know the predicament we are in, 
on a thousand accounts ; fewer still will believe, if any 
disaster happens to these lines, from what causes it 
flows. I have often thought how much happier I should 
have been. if. instead of accepting of a command under 
such circumstances, I had taken my musket on my 
shoulder and entered the ranks, or, if I could have jus- 
tified the measure to posterity and my own conscience, 
had retired to the back country, and lived in awigwam. 
If I shall be able to rise superior to these and many 
other difficulties, which might be enumerated, I shall 
most religiously believe, that the finger of Pro^-idcnce 
is in it, to blind the eyes of our enemies ; for surely if 
we get well through this month, it must be for want of 
their knowing the disadvantages we labor under. 

Could I have foreseen the difficulties, which have 
come upon us ; could 1 have known, that such a 
backwardness would have been discovered in the old 
soldiers to the service, all the generals upon earth 
should not have convinced me of the propriet)' of 
delaying an attack upon Boston till this time. When 
it can now be attempted, I will not undertake to say ; 




but thus much I will answer for, that no opportu- 
nity can present itself earlier than my wishes. But as 
this letter discloses some interesting truths, 1 shall 
be somewhat uneasy until 1 hear it gets to your 
hands. aUhough the conveyance is thought safe. 

We made a successful attempt a few nights ago 
upon the houses near Bunker's Hill. A party under 
Major Knowlton crossed upon the mill-dam. the night 
being dark, and set fire to and burnt down eight out 
of fourteen which were standing, and which we found 
they were daily pulling down for fuel. Five soldiers, 
and the wife of one of them, inhabiting one of the 
houses, were brought off prisoners ; another soldier 
was killed ; none of ours hurt' 

Having undoubted information of the embarkation 
of troops, somewhere from three to five hundred, at 
Boston, and being convinced they are designed either 
for New York government (from whence we have 
some very disagreeable accounts of the conduct of 
the Tories) or Virginia, I despatched General Lee a 
few days ago. in order to secure the city of New 
York from falling into their hands, as the conse- 
quences of such a blow might prove fatal to our 
interests. He is also to inquire a little into the con- 
duct of the Long-Islanders, and such others as have, 
by their conduct and declarations, proved themselves 
inimical to the common cause. 

To effect these purposes, he is to raise volunteers 
in Connecticut, and call upon the troops of New 
Jersey, if not contrary' to any order of Congress. 




By a ship just arrived at Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire, we have London prints to the 2d of November, 
containing the addresses of Parliament, which con- 
tain little more than a repetition of the speech, with 
assurances of standing by his Majesty with lives and 
fortunes. The captains (for there were three or four 
of them passengers) say, that we have nothing to 
expect but the most vigorous exertions of administra- 
tion, who have a dead majority upon all questions, 
although the Duke of Grafton and General Conway 
have joined the minority, as also the Bishop of Peter- 
borough. These captains affirm confidently, that the 
five regiments from Ireland cannot any of them have 
arrived at Halifax, inasmuch as that by a violent storm 
on the 19th of October, the transports were forced, 
in a very distressful condition, into Milford Haven 
(Wales) and were not in a condition to put to sea 
when they left London, and the weather has been 
such since, as to prevent heavy loaded ships from 
making a passage by this time. One or two trans- 
ports, they add. were thought to be lost ; but these 
arrived some considerable time ago at Boston, with 
three companies of the 1 7th regiment 

Mr. Sayre has been committed to the Tower, upon 
the information of a certain Lieutenant or Adjutant 
Richardson (formerly of your city) for treasonable 
practices; an intention of seizing his Majesty, and 
possessing himself of the Tower, it is said in "The 
Crisis." ' But he is admitted to bail himself in five 

' "On ihc oalli at one RIchardMn, an American and on officer, whoiwore 
that Ssyrtr. > lute piilriot aud banker of bad credit, had come ta hira in the 
TAwer, and taking him into a pEivale iuuir,ha(l offered him tjoo/. to ajifcta htm 
inaeiEing ihc Tower, am! the King ax he went lo the House uC LoriU, and thca 




hundred pounds, and two sureties in two hundred and 
fifty pounds each. 

What arc the conjectures of the wise ones with 
you, of the French armament In the West Indies? 
But previous to this, is there any certainty of such an 
armament? The captains, who are sensible men, 
heard nothing of this when they left England ; nor 
does there appear any apprehensions on this score in 
any of the measures or speeches of administration. 
I should think the Congress will not, ought not. to 
adjourn at this important crisis. But it is highly 
necessarj', when I am at the end of a second sheet of 
paper, that 1 should adjourn my account of matters to 
another letter. I shall, iherefore. in Mrs. Washing- 
ton's name, thank you for your good wishes towards 
her, and with her compliments, added to mine, to Mrs. 
Reed, conclude, dear Sir, your sincere and afTectionate 

force htm to ca]I a new Pniliinicni, Ibe^ held a cuundl and lent Tot Lotd 
M«niiA«Id and the Altomoy-Omntl : llic fint w altaid to s[)[>car. and ihfl 
lattet nould not, laughing at the (dlly of the charge, as CTcrybady did (he mi^ 
mcni ihajr heard il. They oosld gel nobod/ but blind Jutticc Fidding and hit 
detk. Hoiir«v«r, on *o abivid an alleftUion, supporlcd but by one wttn<«t. 
Lord Rochforil xnl tnciOcnBCK ilic neat morniiiK to Sayrc's bouse, who. for 
■ear be Kboald eccape. (old a lie. arid laid (li«y lud |{ul a forged note or hand la 
Ulk to him abottl. He <«m« to them, and they »«u<d liim and carried him !>«. 
(ok Lord Roditord, where he behaved very civilly, but lirat sent for Heyn-alih, 
Wilkes'^ lawyer, (of hJa counsel. At he had been thcrifl. they [>mrndfd that 
in compliment to the city (h«y committed him lo the Tower, allowing nctiody 
bni hii w)(e to have acctu to him, Klchanbon. the cvidcoce, piuvcd la have 
a Tciy bad chnracler. The Minitten, it wac tuppoxed m justify their proceed- 
ingi bad inlcrGcptcd trcatooablc kttcra of Sayre to America. Thai tlii> waa 
. . . had talked indiiciceily. was probable. 23 Oclolicr, 177$. z&*h. 
S«7>* wai catritd by Habeai Corpa* berore Lord MamAcId, who** dafiardly 
■pint ipm dbplaycd ittelf by hii jirofute civility lo Sayre, whom he allowed 
to be bailed."— Wal pole. J^mmal »J lAe /ietgn e/ /Cin£ Gtergtlkt Third, i.. 
SfA, $15, 





Cambuoce, 16 JanuAty, 1776, 

Dear Sir, 

Your favor of the 5th instant, enclosing copies of 
General Montgomerj-'s and General Woostcr's letters, 
I received ; for which I return you my thanks.* 

It was from a full conviction of your zealous attach- 
ment to the cause of our country, and abilities to serve 
it. that I repeatedly pressed your continuance in com- 
mand : and it is with niuch concern, Sir, that I find 
you have reason to think your holding the place you 
do, will be of prejudice and incompatible with its 
interest. As you are of this opinion, the part you are 
inclined to take is certainly generous and noble. But 
will the good consequences you intend be derived 
from it ? I greatly fear they will not. I shall leave 
the matter to yourself, in full con6dence, that in 

'General .Schuyler hAd wriiicn lu Wasliinirto'ii, iniimiilin); his desire >nd 
inlrntton lo leave lh<! amiy, and closiitg tiit r<initilc<i on ttie subject as follows . 

" 1 luve already inlonned yon of the diugtccalile lituation I have been in 
iluriiiE the campaign : but 1 would waive that, were it not that it fa&!> chiefly 
aricen fiam prejudice and ieoJouEy ; for t cnnld point out partitnlar penonii of 
rsnic in (he army, who have frccjucnlly dt^lnred, that the gciicr;il, ct>tnn)nndui£ 
in this quarter, ought lo be of the colony from H'hcnrc the mnjnrily of the 
troops came. But it is not from opinions or principleii of indlviduat*. that I 
have drawn the following conctUMon. Ihat Irwifi from tkf €ol«my .•/ Conn^ititut 
will HVt itar imth a gtnet-al from .innlAer (oioHy ; It ii from the daily and com- 
inoii convenalion of nil ranks of people from that colony, both in a.iid out of 
the army. And I usacc yuu, thai I ituccrcly Uuu'iil, thut people of no much 
puhlic virtue should, be actuated by tuch an unbci'oinin^ jcalouiy, founded on 
such a narrow principle ; a principle extremely unfriendly to our righteous 
cause, at it lend* lo alienate the alTections of numhen io ihu colony, in ipitc of 
llie mo^t favunl)le coiiJiiruciiout, that piudent Tiieii aud reil Ainericant amongii 
ii« alCempt lo put upon it. And although I frankly avnw, that I feel a T<sent- 
mcnl, yet I shall tonlinuc to sacrttice ii to a noblci ohjecl, — the wcoJ of that 
country in which T have drjwii the breath of life, resolved everio seek with tio- 
wcaried ovsiduily (or oppoiluoitis to fulfiJ my duty lo it." 





whatever sphere you move, your exertions for your 
country's weal will not be wanting. 

Whatever proof you may obtain, fixing or tending 
to support the charge against Mr. Prescott, you will 
please to transmit to me by the first opportunity.' t 
am apt to believe the intelligence given to Dr. Whee- 
lock, respecting Major Rogers, was not true*; but 
being much suspected of unfriendly views to this 
country, his conduct should be attended to with some 
degree of vigilance and circumspection. 

I confess I am much concerned for General Mont- 
gomery and Colonel Arnold ; and the consequences 
which will result from their miscarriage, should it 
happen, will be very alarming: 1 fear, not less fatal 
than you mention. However, 1 trust that their dis- 
tinguished conduct, bravery, and perseverance will 
meet with the smiles of fortune, and put them in 
possession of this important fortress. I wish their 
force was greater; the reduction would then be 

I am sorry that Ticonderoga and Fort George 
should be left by the garrisons, and that your recruit- 
ing officers meet such ill success. It is too much the 
case in this quarter, and from the slow progress made 
in enlisting. I despair of raising an army to the new 
establishment. Should it be effected, it will be a long 
time first 

Our Caghnawaga friends are not arrived yet. I 
will try to make suitable provision for them during 

' Rcs|)ecliiig GcBCTml Prracott's harah ucumcni ol Eltm AUen, ud the 
priconen Uken w-ilh bim U Montreal. 
* ThAt is, in regmrd to hU tiavinc t>ecn witb the cnenijr ia Cuutda. 




their stay, and use ever>' means In my power to con- 
firm their favorable disposition towards us. They 
will not, I am fearful, have such ideas of our strength, 
as I could wish. This, however, shall be strongly 

If Quebec is in our possession. I do not sec that 
any inconvenience will result from Mr. Gamble's 
going there upon his parole * ; but if it is not, how- 
ever hurtful it may be to him. however disagreeable 
to me, to prejudice the interest of an individual, I 
cannot consent to his return. I am much distressed 
by applications of a like nature. If Mr. Gamble's 
request is granted, others in the same situation will 
claim the same indulgence. Further, I think a partial 
exchange should not be made, and my proposition 
for a general one was rejected by Mr. Howe, or, what 
is the same, it was unnoticed. I could wish that his 
application had been to Congress. They might have 
complied with it, had they thought it reasonable. ♦ ♦ * 

I am much pleased that the artillery was like to be 
got over the river, and am in hopes that Colonel 
Knox will arrive with it in a few days. It is much 
wanted. On reading the copy of General Wooster's 
letter, I was much surprised to find, that he had 
granted furloughs to the Connecticut troops under 
his command, in preference of discharges. What ad- 

' The Clfhnawmiiu were a tribe □( Indians, residing on the Rivet St. 
Lawrence, n few miles nbnve Montreal. A puny of them had visiiccl Uenersl 
Schuyler, and propped to go fgrward lo the cump nl Cambridge. 

' Mr. Gamble was « deputy (|iiBncrTnaKer-gcncral in Che Rritiih anny. and 
made priioner with General Prncott fl(l«r the ca^tulation of Montreal. H* 
hod tolicited penuitsiou to g« t» (Quebec od hii pafoLe. 




vantage could he imagine they would be of to the 
continent, when they were at their own homes ? If 
he could not continue them in the service they were 
upon, their discharges would certainly have cased the 
country' of a considerable expense. Giving you In 
return, the compliments of the season, and wishing 
you every happiness. 

I am, dear Sir, &c. 


Caxbridcb, i6Jaau&r7, i;;^. 


Your several resolves, in consequence of my letters 
of the 10 and 15 instant have been presented to me 
by a committee of your honorable body. 1 thank 
you for the assurances of being zealously disposed to 
do every thing in your power to facilitate the re- 
cruiting of the American army: and, at the same 
time I assure you I do not entertain a doubt of the 
truth of it, I must beg leave to add, that 1 conceive 
you have mistaken the meaning of my letter of the 
10th, If you suppose it ever was in my Idea, that you 
should offer a bounty at the separate expense of this 

It was not clear to me, but that some coercive 
measures might be used on this as on former occa- 
sions, to draft men to complete the regiments upon 
the Continental establishment But as this is thought 
unadvisable, I shall rely on your recommending to 




the selectmen and committees of correspondence, &c. 
to exert themselves in their several towns, to promote 
the enlistments for the American army." 

In the mean while, as there is no appearance of 
this service going on but slowly, and it is necessary 
to have a respectable body of troops here as soon as 
possible, to act as circumstances shall require, I must 
beg that you will order in. with as much expedition 
as the nature of the case will admit of, seven rai- 
ments, agreeable to the establishment of this army, 
to continue in service till the ist of April, if required. 
You will be pleased to direct, that the men come 
provided with good arms, blankets, kettles for cook- 
ing, and if possible with twenty rounds of powder 
and ball. 

With respect to your other resolve relative to 
arms, I am quite ready to make an absolute purchase 
of such as shall be furnished either by the colony or 
individuals. I am also ready to engage payment for 
all the arms, which shall be furnished by the recruits, 

' " I ihink the mtvic* has suffered and the enlistmente been embamssed, by 
the low Klatc in which you keep your tr««^ury here. Had the general been abU 
10 have [iBid olf tlie olil .irniy to the Uvt of December, when iheJi Icrai cxpitcd, 
and to give assurances for the pa; ai the militia when their coniinuance in the 
anny ahvuM cii'). ii minht have pro<iuccd many good cflectb — among others 
added tome thousands lo the army. Vuu will be lurprited, perhaps, wh«n I 
tell vou Ihcrc is but almul lOiOOO dollars hi-rr : unrl llial left by the nece*^iy 
parsimony of the gcncril, not knowini; what ucouion there might be lot a lit- 
tle, The time (or which oiii iriiUtis cune in. cnd« to-itinrrow. Wc have prfr- 
Himeil M) much on (he public spirit o( out countrymeD as to make no other 
piDviuon, chuuKh everything depends on ihdr staying, and ihey wish to be at 
home. Out houKc ocljoumed yevterday moriiiiiB, and (he member* went dowtt 
among them tt> u>>c their iniluencc. 1 flattei myself moHt of Ihcm will itay la 
the last of thi* month." — garnet Worrtn to Samuel AJami, 14 Januai^. 1776. 
<Masi^a. Hilt. Soc. Proc. Jiv., 277. 




if lost in the public service ; but I do not know how 
far I could be justified in allowing for the use of 
them, when I know it to be the opinion of Congress, 
that every man shall furnish his own arms, or pay for 
the use of them if put into his hands. To do other- 
wise is an indirect way of raising the pay. 1 again 
wish, that the honorable Court could advise some 
method of purchasing. 

I beg leave to return my thanks for the kind offer 
of fifty thousand pounds for the Continental use. I 
will accept of a loan, upon the terms mentioned, of 
half that sum to secure payment of the militia, whose 
time of service will be up the last of this month ; till 
when I shall not have occasion to make use of the 


I am, with great respect, &c.' 

' The view* of Ihe Brituh toenmiuuler in Bosion, T*«p«MrdnK ihe iiale of 
air«in ai ihii time, may be known by ihc following cxtrui Itobi ■ letter, dated 
on th>F iTiih of January, and written by him to Lani UaitmouUi. 

" From what 1 can Icini of the design? of the leaders n( the rebeli," sa.y% 
General Howe, " they «eem detemiitied, nncc the receipt of the Kind's speech 
among Ihem. to make the moil diligent {iivparations for an actit« war : and it 
iv my Kmi opinion, Ihnl Ihey will no! rclrocl until ibey have tried iheir fortune 
in a batltc. and ore defeated. But I am under the rtceeuiiy of repeating to ycnir 
Lonlvbip, that ihc ap^Kirenl Klrenglb of the tmiiy for the tpring doea not flatter 
mc with Ihe hopei uf tirinipni; tlie rebt-lk to a dccit,iv« action. With ■ proper 
aimy of twenty thouund men, having twelve ihouiand al New York, ux ihmis- 
Uid at Rhode Iiland, and two Ihoufand at HatifaK. excltiaivr of an army for the 
proriocc of Quebec, the prcwnt unlavotable appearance of thinjc^ woulij peolia- 
bly wear a lery diflereni a*pcct before the end of the entuing (ampaign. Wilh 
fewer tn»[«. the mcceis of any oflentive upennionv will be very doubtful, the 
enemy poueuiac advaaU|[e!i llial will uol readily be avcicomc by a una)) force ; 
neither in their army by any means to be deipiaed, havinn in it many Eurupean 
aoMlen, and all or moct of the young men af tpjril in ihe countfy, who ore ea- 
cecdingly ililigcnt and ailcntJTe lo tbetr mililory profemiea." 


Cambbiuuk. i6 January, 1776, 


The alarming and almost defenceless state of our 
lines, occasioned by the slow progress in raising 
recruits for the new army, and the departure of a 
great number uf the militia, which had been called in 
for their support until the ] 5th instant, rendered it 
necessary for me to summon the general officers 
in council, to determine on proper measures to be 
adopted for their preservation. For this purpose 
they met at Head Quarters yesterday and to day, and 
finding that it was with the utmost difficulty and per- 
suasion, that such of the latter as are now here, have 
been prevailed on to continue till the last of the 
month, after which there is not the remotest proba- 
bility of their staying a moment, they have judged it 
expedient and absolutL-ly ncccssarj', that thirteen regi- 
ments should be forthwith raised, equal to those of 
the new establishment, to be officered according to the 
usual mode of their respective governments ; which are 
to repair to this camp by the last instant if possible, to 
beinrcadinesstoactinsuch manner, till the ist of April, 
as circumstances may require. Of this number they 
apprehend the Massachusetts should furnish seven, 
Connecticut four, and your government two, being 
agreeable to the proportion settled by Congress. 

In order that each regiment may consist of a proper 
number of officers and men, I have enclosed you a 
list for their regulation, and of the Continental pay. 




I must earnestly solicit your attention and regard 
to arms, ammunition, blankets, kettles, and clothings 
that they may come as well provided with these neces- 
saries as possible, particularly the first ; as from the 
amazing deficiency here I shall not have it in my 
power to supply them. 

The situation and exigency of our affairs calling 
for this assistance, I have the most pleasing assurance 
that your honorable body will exert themselves for 
complying with all possible despatch. 


Camiixiduk, \% Juinuy, 1776. 

Dear Sir, 

1 received your favor of the 13th instant with its 
enclosures, and am heartily sorrj' and most sincerely 
condole with you upon the fall of the brave and 
worthy Montgomery, and those gallant officers and 
men, who have experienced a like fate. 

In the death of this gentleman, America has sus- 
tained a heavy loss, having approved himself a steady 
friend to her rights, and of ability to render her the 
most essential services. I am much concerned for 
the intrepid and enterprising Arnold, and greatly 
fear, that consequences of the most alarming nature 
will result from this well intended but unfortunate 

It would give mc the greatest pleasure, if I could 
be the happy means of relieving our fellow citizens 
now in Canada, and preventing the ministerial troops 




from exulting long, and availing themselves of the 
advantages arising from this repulse. But it is not 
in my power. Since the dissolution o{ the old army, 
the progress in raising recruits for the new has been 
so very slow and inconsiderable, that five thousand 
militia have been called in for the defence of our 
lines. A great part of these have gone home again, 
and the rest induced to stay with the utmost difficulty 
and persuasion, though their going would render the 
holding of them truly precarious and haz-ardous. 
in case of an attack. In short I have not a man to 

In order that proper measures might be adopted, I 
called a council of general officers, and upon Mr. 
John Adams, and other members of influence of the 
General Court to attend, and laid before them your 
letter and proposition." .A,fter due consideration of 
their importance, they determined that the Colonics 
of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut 
should each immediately raise a regiment to continue 
in service for one year, and to march forthwith to 
Canada, agreeably to the route proposed in your let- 
ter to Congress. This determination, with a copy of 
your letter and the several enclosures, will be imme- 
diately transmitted to the different governments for 
raising these regiments, which I have reason to believe 
will be directly complied with, from the assurances 1 
have received from such of the members of the General 

I The [tropontion wat, th«l General Washington ohouM »end, wiUi all poa 
1>1e (Inpnich. h rrinfarccuiiriLl of ihrec ihauMntl men inlu Ci.nwla, hf the my 
of Onion Rivet &nd Lake ChiunpliLiti. 






Court as attended in council, and the general officers 
promising to exert their utmost interest and influ- 
ence in their respective colonies. If these regiments 
should not be raised so soon as I could wish, yet I 
would willingly hope, from the accounts we have re- 
ceived, that Colonel Arnold and his corps will be 
joined by a numt>er of men under Colonel Warner, 
and from Connecticut, who, it is said, marched im- 
mediately on getting intelligence of this melancholy 
afTair. If this account be true, I trust they will be in 
a situation to oppose and prevent Mr. Carleton from 
regaining possession of what he has lost, and that, 
upon the arrival of the reinforcement, to be sent from 
these colonies, the city of Quebec will be reduced to 
our possession. This must be effected before the 
winter is entirely over, otherwise it will be exceed- 
ingly difficult, if not impracticable, as the enemy will 
undoubtedly place a strong garrison there. Should 
this desirable work be accomplished, our conquest in 
that quarter will be complete ; but yet the loss of the 
brave Montgomery will ever be remembered. 

It gives me pleasure to find, that you will continue 
in service, and afford your assistance to relieve your 
country- from the distresses, which at present threaten 
her in the North.' • • • 

* Cmtgmt had already resotml, before the news of the fulnrc of ihe aiUick 
CO QuebM r«4ch«d ihem, that nine battaUoni should b« kept up and main- 
uincd the praeat xcar for the defence of Canada. Among thtic wai iacluded 
a baitallcn of CanatUaiu, to be comiiiandeil by Coloiwl Jaine> LiTing^ion. 11 
vat likewiM determined to nUM a lecoitd Canadiaa Kgiment, (o conuit of ono 
(huoaand men dividetl into fout liaiialtuna, and ciimmandcd by a coloacl, li«u- 
lenanuceionel. and fovr majon. Hofoi Hajcii itas appointed cotunel. Bulk 
he and Livingston wen reaidenla in Canada, aiid look aii active part with the 




None of the letters gives an account how this unfor- 
tunate affair ended. In Colonel Campbell's letter of 
the 31st ultimo, the division which Col. Greene was in 
he seems to think was in a very disagreeable situation ; 
and drawing it off at night, or throwing in a party to 
sustain it, was an object he had much in view. Here 
his information stops. In his letter of the 3d instant 
he says nothing about it ; but I dread further intelli- 
gence of the matter.' 

General Putnam is of opinion, that it will be better 
for the troops, which may be raised in the western 
part of Connecticut, to go to Albany, than the route 
you have mentioned by Number Four,' and that you 
pointed out this way upon a supposition, that the 
reinforcement would be detached from this army. If 
you concur in sentiment with him, please to inform 
Governor Trumbull of it by letter, that he may give 
the necessary orders. 1 am, dear Sir, yours, &c. 

oolonict at Chft beginning ol the conlcsl. Ilaieiv wki a CAfilain on half paj, 
nnd Congcen igmed 10 IniJcinnify liim fur any luan Itc: vci\^\ •lu^tain liy cnici- 
ing into thrir (cnirc. The Artiiltj of War were (mntlnlcl \vAn French, and 
printed copiM sent to Cinkila. — -JoHrtmU pf Cvngrttt, Jaiiwiry Sth, afl«l, Jjd, 

' The rcpnW of ihc ARirricnn (nicci in Cannila amn«nf Congress to a little 
more eneim' in considering ih? needi^aMd situation uf Ihr armj'. Th« preailiig 
emergency being provided for to far a» " rewLves " could provide for il, attco- 
tivo was ilirccieil lu ilic (utuic cooduci and dctcrmiitniion of mititajy iiuttrrs, 
and Ihc expediency uf eninliliuhing n " war office " wa.i luggeiiled. A commit, 
tec «f M-'vcii wAt appoiutctl uii Jaiiuary 34 to report oa ihc iimilcr, oaA ibe 
memhcrt chuocii were l.ync:h, Kmnkliit. Kuclcdi.'c, llarriucin. Wsnl. Samuel 
Adam*, and Morris. Thcieporl M.ns handed into Congrcw on Aprit i8lh, but 
wa» not adopted until June ts, when ihc aame of the proposed Board was nwJc 
" Buunl of War aiiJ Urdnanie." On the following; the ojcniben were cliiMen: 
John Adiunt, Sherman, llorrii^on, Wilwin and If. Kuttedge. 

* Now Charlcstcrwn, in New Hunpahire, on tlic Connecticut RiTcr. 


■ 776] 




Cambridge. 19 Jwiuwy, 1776- 

Taking it for granted, that General Schuyler has 
not only informed you of the fall of the brave and 
much-to-be-lamcnted General Montgomery, but of the 
situation of our affairs in Canada, (as related by Gen- 
eral Wooster, Colonel Arnold, Colonel Campbell, and 
others.) 1 shall not take up much more of your time 
on this subject, than is necessary to enclose you a 
copy of his letter to me, with the result thereon, as 
appears by the council of war, which I immediately 
summoned on the occasion, and at which Mr. 
Adams, by my particular desire, was good enough to 

It may appear strange, Sir, as I had not men to 
spare froni these lines, that I should presume, with- 
out first sending to Congress, and obtaining an ex- 
press direction, to recommend to the governments of 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire, to 
raise each a regiment, on the Coniinental account, for 
this service. I wish most ardently, that the urgency 
of the case would have admitted of the delay. I 
wish, also, that the purport of General Schuyler's let- 
ter had not, unavoidably as it were, laid me under an 
indispensable obligation to do it ; for, having informed 
you in his letter, (a copy of which he enclosed me,) of 
his dependence on this quarter for men, I thought 
you might also have some reliance on my exertions. 
This consideration, added to my fears of the fatal 
consequences of delay, to an information of your 




having designed three thou&and men for Canada, to a 
belief, founded chiefly on General Schuyler's letters, 
that few or none of them were raised, and to my ap- 
prehensions for New York, which led me to think, that 
no troops could be spared from that quarter, induced 
me to lose not a moment's time in throwing in a force 
there; being well assured, that General Carleton will 
improve to the utmost the advantages gained, leaving 
no artifices untried to fix the Canadians and Indians, 
(who. we find, are too well disposed, to take part with 
the strongest,) in his interest. 

If these reasons are not suflficient to justifie my con* 
duct in the opinion of Congress, if the measure con- 
travenes any resolution of theirs, they will please to 
countermand the levying and marching of the regi- 
ments as soon as possible, and do me the justice to 
believe, that my intentions were good, if my judg* 
mcnt has erred.' 

The Congress will please also to observe, that the 
measure of supporting our posts In Canada appeared 
of such exceeding great importance, that the general 
ofificers, (agreeing with me in sentiment, and unwilling 
to lay any burden which can possibly be avoided, al- 
though It may turn out an ill-timed piect: of parsi- 
mony,) have resolved, that the three regiments for 
Canada shall be part of the thirteen militia regiments, 
which were requested to reinforce this army, as ap- 
pears by the minutes of another council of war, held 

' When ihe CongTMs lonk thUlcitcr tnio consiiIcralii>D. they resolved thai the 
conduct of the Oeneral In calling (ut these ii<iup» " wan pnideni. coruUlent urith 
hia duty, ftiLd ■ (urtlici maiutctlalion of hU comuicndftMc leal lor Lhc good oC 
bU crMrtWf. "^-JomriHiSt. January 20(h. 





on the 1 6th instant.' I shall, being much hurried and 
fatigued, add no more in this letter, than my duty to 
Congress, and that I have the honor to be, &c 
P. S. I enclose you a copy of my letter to the govern- 
ments of Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Hamp- 
shire, also a copy of a resolution of this colony in 
answer to an application of mine for arms. 

Since writing the above I have been informed by a 
message from the General Court of Massachusetts 
that they have a resolution upon the raising of a regi- 
ment for Canada, and appointed the field officers for 
it in the western parts of this government I am also 
informed by express from Governor Trumbull that he 
and his Council of Safety had agreed upon the raising 
of a regiment for the same purpose which was antici- 
pating my application to that government. 

* A council of nr vm convened on the t6lli of JanusrT> >>■ ohjch the Gen- 
cnl elated il lo l>e "in bit jud|[menl indii^nsably neccaarjr to make n bold 
■Uentpl to cpaq«ci ihc ministcri*) imopt in Beaton before Ibcjr coulil be rein- 
forced in the tpring. if ihc mcaiu cnuld be provided, aod * faTntnble oppoTtu> 
niljr iluHild offer," ind he desired Ihe ojilniou o( the counclL It was agived tint 
such U ntlempt ought (o be niBde, but Ikal ihc pictent force wu iaailcjunlc ; 
nnd tbe council adrixed iIk- Coinminilcr-iu-chicf it> icqneii uf the nciftfaborint 
eoltmics Ititrcecn rcgimrnit of milicin. to verv« till th« let of Apri!; thai it. from 
Mafta*cl)usct[b Bcrci) rtcinenlti, CunDccticvt four, and New Hampbhirc iwo, 
Rhode lUand «-»• exempted from thiicall, '* on account of liMrepcfllrdinmlliof 
llw«nemy'«sliip«af war, andlheexpoMd iitualianoftlieaca-co*itofthBlcol«tiy." 

On tbe i6th, anotbci council wa* held to consider the letters received llw 
cwBing before from Canada, canvvyinK IntcDlgenoe of the (all of Moolgouiety 
and the dbatter al Quebec. When the i)ucilioA wat put, it wa* maltvd to be 
inetpcdieni, tn the prc»cnl weakened tlaie of the lines, to send a detadiiucnt 
frooi the main army to Canada ; but il wat deiermined io re(|aru Mamachu- 
iclt*, Cuuneclicut, and N«w tJampthire tn raise Ihrcv ivprncnii of 73S men 
cufa, trilh all poaaJblc deijuich for ihe Canada eapcdilion, whoac lime of wr- 
viottbonMcoviinue till the im of January tollowing; and II waadwidtd, th«t 
Uwae three regiaenla thouht be coiaidcied at ■ part of the thineen already r»- 
^ulred. Icavlag ten only for ihc Koay at Canbiidfe. 




If commissions (and they are applied for) arc to be 
given by Congress to the three regiments going to 
Canada, you will please to have them forwarded, as 1 
have none by me for the purpose.' 


Camskiiiqk, igjannkry. 1776. 



The enclosures, herewith sent, convey such full ac- 
counts of the sad reverse of our affairs in Canada, as 
to render it unnecessary for me, in my present hurry. 
to add aught to the tale. 

Your spirited colony will, I have no doubt» be suffi- 
ciently impressed with the expediency of a vigorous 
exertion to prevent the evils, which must follow from 
the repulse of our troops. It docs not admit of a 
doubt, but that General Carleton will improve this 
advantage to the utmost ; and. if he should be able to 
give another current of sentiments to the Canadians 
and Indians, than those they seem inclined to adopt. 
words are unnecessary to describe the melancholy 
effect, which must inevitably follow. 

I am persuaded, therefore, that you will exert your- 
selves to the utmost to throw in the reinforcements. 
by the route mentioned in General Schuyler's letter, 
that is now required of your colony ; as the doing of 
it expeditiously may prove a matter of the utmost 

' Rudjanvauy S7tb. Referred 10 Ljrndi. Wytlic. Sbcrmui, Wanl and S. 
Adnmii. Lynch did not serve an the Ctunmitiee allhuugh hit name is endorsed 

no the letter. 




You will perceive, by the minutes of the council of 
war enclosed, that the regiment, asked of you for 
Canada, is one of the seven applied for in my letter 
of the i6th instant, and that the only difference, with 
respect to the requisition, is the length of time, and 
place of service ; as no good would result from send- 
ing troops to Canada, for a shorter period than the 
Continental army is raised for, to wit, till the 1st of 
January, 1777- I am. Gentlemen, &c 


CAmKtIME, J>Djr 3»t, I776. 


In the hurry of my last dispatches to you of the 
19 Instt. I forgot to Intimate, that for the Encour- 
agement of the Regimt destin'd for Canada, a months 
advanced pay will be allowed Officers and Soldiers 
by me, in behalf of the Congress — At the same time 
I think it but right that you should be Apprized of 
the Intention of this Government to advance their 
Regiment another month's pay to enable the men to 
provide for so long and fatiguing a march, and in the 
mean time have something for their Families to sub- 
sist on during their absence. 

I have no doubt but that this last advance will be 
pleasing to Congress and that the money will be 
speedily refunded, but as I have no authority to 
direct, and would not appear by any act of mine, to 
put those three Regmts for Canada, upon a different 
footg from those, which have been raising for this 




Army, I only give you a hint of the Intention of this 
Government, if you think proper, that the Kegiment 
from your Colony may be placed upon the same 
footing, as I know all kind of distinctions are consid- 
ered by troops with an evil and jealous Eye. 

Such necessaries as are absolutely requisite for the 
March of this Regiment you will please to have pro- 
vided upon the best terms you can, and a regular 
account with vouchers thereof kept, that payment 
may be made. 

The importance of dispatch will I am persuaded, 
appear in so urgent and pressing a light to you, that 
] need add nothing on this head, but sliall be glad to 
hear what progress you make in the business, being 
with the sincerest regard and esteem &c.' 


CAMBRiDaE, 33 January, 1776. 


I received your favor of the i6th instant, and am ex- 
ceedingly sorry to hear, that Congress countermanded 
the embarkation of the two regiments intended against 

' " Tic Colonel or Commiuidine OflSccr of each Regiment, Ik (orthwitli 10 
ceotl out one, or two pniileni ind ^c^iisiklc nRiters. to )juy up saA Atnu M MV 
vrftnicd for liis rcgiiuenl, TKcu: ul1iter» to be alio {.ijoiI Judgca of xims, and 
thoy arc dirccied to purchue none, but (nch at arr prnpcr and in the bcsl 1^ 
pairs, mid it po<isibl« to g«l ihcm with Bayoneti, bul riot to refuhe a good fin- 
locV without-- The ofiiccn going apan this duly, arc lo be furnished with 
caah (rom their rcvpe«l»e CoIoiieU. or Communding Oflicen. out of the moncjn 
designeil for the month'i ftdvnncc pay, lor llie Kccruilt, which money will 
icpUccd as uanicd. — Tlic nuiiics of the of^ccis ieiit upuii tbix buaJnCfN, with 
nimi advanced ibem, arc lu be, immcdiaicly icurined lo the Adjutant General 




the Tories on Long Island.' They. I ^oubt not, had 
their reasons ; but to me it appears, that the period 
is arrived, when nothing less than the most decisive 
and vigorous measures should be pursued. Our ene- 
mies, from the other side of the Atlantic, will be 
sufficiently numerous ; it highly concerns us to have 
as few internal ones as possible. 

As Congress seem to have altered their views in 
this instance, and the men, which went with you from 
Connecticut, are upon a very different footing from 
what I expected, it will be right to give Congress the 
earliest notice of your proceeding, and to disband 
your troops as soon as you think circumstances will 
admit of it' 

In consequence of the melancholy reverse of our 
affairs in Canada, an application was made to me for 
succour, and happy should I have heen, if the situa- 
tion of this army could have afforded it All I could 
do was to lay the matter before this and the govern- 
ments of Connecticut and New Hampshire, and urge 
the expediency and necessity of their sending thither 
a reinforcement of three regiments there immediately. 
Mr. Trumbull and his Council of Safety had antici- 
pated my request. The other two colonies have 

b; the Coknielii — Tfacae oficvn are not to be abacnl lontcT. lluut tlic 4lh of 
Fcbraaty nrxt. 

" Alt KM^mita who shall lumish ili«ir own annt (pr<xr»d4<il ihej' am good) 
duU b« patil U4IC dollar foi the luc of ihcin. ahaU Imtc tbc Pririlcge of aknying 
theni nraj when ibeir lime ia unl. and id aw iher are IcM (thfough bo defaoh 
of their ovrn) iJtall b« paid (or ihcm, at the end of the f m pa ign. "—Oiidfrfy 
Bmk, lilt Januaiy. 1776. 

' St^ y^tnta/ 0/ Cmgnrt, Janiury yd aiad lotti. 

* For an accouirt ol (Jenenl l.«e'> proceeding* in New Vork, mw tli* U/r »f 
CMrvrrwrmr Af^nii, roL i, pp. 74-6A. 




adopted the measure. The three regiments are now 
raising, and, I would willingly hope, will arrive in 
time to reinstate matters in that quarter, and give 
them a more agreeable aspect than they now have. 

1 shall be much obliged by your pressing Colonel 
McDougall to forward the shells mentioned in his 
letter of the 2d instant, as they are much wanted, 
and also to spare me some powder if he possibly can.' 
You know our stock of this necessary' article is small 
and inconsiderable, and you know, too, that wc have 
a demand for a further supply. 

The progress in raising recruits for the new army 
being very slow, I have applied to this colony, Con- 
necticut, and New Hampshire, for ten regiments of 
militia, to continue in service till the ist of April 
next, which they have granted me. As soon as they 
come in, and I can get provided with proper means. 
I am determined to attempt something. Of this I 
would have you take no notice. 

Within a few days past several persons have come 
out of Boston. They all agree, that General Clinton 
has gone upon some expedition. Some say he has 
between four and five hundred men, others, part of 
two regiments. What his force consists of is not 

' In Jane, 1775. the New Vork Provjociol Congrfa* hod fonn«d a ichcme for 
raisitiic a baitalioii, to t«Dslsi of four rcgimcnls. and on ihc 30(h of that nootll 
Alesander McDougall wi» njipointed rolimel of the lif*t regiment. He hid 
be«i extrv'iDcly xchIums in ibc of li'licrty, acting at an caily tiour a \xAA 
and decided pan, by a coirapvndcnce with lendcni in ttic attier column, and 
by promoting efficient mvatnimH in New Vark. Two «r three years heforc. bo 
tiad been impmoncd by tlic old colonLal Asembly, on suspicion of writii^ aaill 
pnblialiing lii» senliinfnts luu (rccly coni-crning the chicattci and dclibcnlions 
of thut hudy. His principles and cflndnci thiAughoul the wnt accorded with 
thcM early pledges of fidelity to Uis country's iuterCftU. 

precisely known : but I am almost certain he has 
gone with some. His destination must be south of 
this, and vcr)' probably for New York. I thought it 
necessary to give you this information, that you may 
be on your guard, and prepared to receive him as 
weli as you can. 

I shall be glad to hear from you frequently, and to 
be informed of any occurrences you may think 
material. I am. dear Sir, with great regard, &c. 


CAMBlinOE, 3J Jwiuary. 1776. 

Dear Sir, 

Real necessity compels me to ask you, whether I 
may entertain any hopes of your returning to my 
family? If you can make it convenient, and will hint 
the matter to Colonel Harrison, I dare venture to 
say, that Congress will make it agreeable to you in 
every shape ihey can. My business increases very 
fast, and my distresses for want of you along with iL 
Mr. Harrison is the only gentleman of my family, 
that can afford me the least assistance in writing. He 
and Mr. Moylan, whose time must now be solely 
employed in his department of commissary, have 
heretofore afforded me their aid ; and I have hinted 
to them in consequence of what you signified in some 
former letter, that, (as they have really had a great 
deal of trouble.) each of them should receive one 
third of your pay, reserving the other third contrary 
to your desire for yourself. My distress ajid embar- 




rassment are in a way of being very considerably 
increased by an occurrence in Virginia, which will, I 
fear, compel Mr. Harrison to leave me, or suffer con- 
siderably by his stay. Me has wrote, however, by 
the last post to sec if his return cannot be dispensed 
with, if he should go. I shall really be distressed 
beyond measure, as I know no persons able to supply 
your places, (in this part of the world.) with whom I 
would choose to live in unbounded confidence. In 
short for want of an acquaintance with the people 
hitherward. I know of none which appear to me 
qualified for the office of secretary. 

The business, as I hinted to you before, is consid- 
erably increased, by being more comprehensive, and 
at this time, (from the great changes which are hap- 
pening every day) perplexed ; so that you would 
want a good writer and a methodical man, as an 
assistant, or copying clerk. Such a one I have no 
doubt will be allowed, and the choice I leave to your- 
self, as he should be a person in whose integrity you 
can confide, and on whose capacity, care, and method 
you can rely. At present, my time is so much taken 
up at my desk, that I am obliged to neglect many 
other essential parts of my duty. It is absolutely 
necessary, therefore, for me to have persons that can 
think for me, as well as execute orders. This it is 
that pains me when I think of Mr. White's expecta- 
tion of coming into my family if an opening happens. 
I can derive no earthly assistance from such a man, 
and my friend Baylor is much such another, although 
as good and obliging a person as any in the world. 





As it may be essential that the pay of the under- 
secretary should be fixed, that you may, if you incline 
to return and should engage one, know what to 
promise him, I have wrote to Colonel Harrison and 
Mr. Lynch on this subject. 

The interruption of the post has prevented the 
receipt of any letters from the sou.thward since this 
day week, so that wc have but little knowledge of 
what is passing in that quarter. The unfortunate 
repulse of our troops at Quebec, the death of the 
brave and much to be lamented General Montgomery, 
and wounding of Col. Arnold, will, I fear, give a very 
unfavorable turn to our affairs in that quarter, as I 
have no opinion at all of W [ooste] r's enterprising 

Immediately upon the receipt of the unfortunate 
intelligence, and General Schuyler's intimation of his 
having no other dependence than upon me for 
men, I addressed Massachusetts, Connecticut, and N. 
Hampshire (in behalf of the Continent) for a regi- 
ment each, to be marched forthwith into Canada, and 
there continued, if need be, till the ist. of January, 
upon the same establishment as those raising for 
these lines. It was impossible to spare a man from 
hence, as we want eight or nine thousand of our 
establishment, and are obliged to depend upon militia 
for the defence of our works : equally improper did 

it appear to me to wait (situated as our affairs were) 

^ , h 

I " Kiwx ulUmcheUctrnvinced [roinS«liuylci'*conTcnaU«ntlut hewiabe* 
to be «vaiM)d iclkag a« gencTAl, xnA Worcester [Woosier], il Is upon >II hud« 
■freed, U too inferior for that seTviet."—C«bt ta CkatUi Lte, aa jan'y, 1776. 
Lcc Papery i., ajE. 

for a requisition from Congress, after several day's 
debate, perhaps, when in the meantime all might be 
lost The urgency of the case, therefore, must apolo- 
gize to Congress for my adoption of this measure. 
Governor Tn:mbiiII, indeed, anticipated my request, 
for he and his Council of Safety had voted a regiment 
before my request had reached him. The General 
Court here have also voted another, and I have no 
doubt of New Hampshire's doing the like, and that 
the whole will soon he on their march. I have this 
instant received a letter from New Hampshire, in 
answer to mine, informing me that they have fully 
complied with my request of a regiment, appointed 
the fieldnafificers, and will have the whole in motion 
as soon as possible. Col. Warner, and others, we are 
told, are already on their march, so that It is to be 
hoped, if these bodies have but a good head, our 
affairs may still be retrieved in Canada, before the 
king's troops can get reinforced. 

They arc pulling down the houses in Boston as fast 
as possible, and we have lately accounts from thence 
which it is said may be relied on, that General Clin- 
ton is actually sailed from thence with a detachment 
(no accounts making it more than 500) for the south- 
ward ; some say Virginia, others New York, but all In 
conjecture. Whether this is the fleet that has been 
making up for some time at Nantasket, or another, 
I cannot with certainty say. In my last I informed 
you, 1 think, of the expedition I had sent General 
Lee on to New York. Should Clinton steer his 
course thither, I hope he will meet with a formidable 




and proper reception. I shall conclude with inform- 
ing you that we should have had a formidable work 
on Letchmore's Point long ago, if it had not been for 
the frost, and that if Congress mean that we should 
do any thing this winter, no time must be lost in for- 
warding powder. I have ordered in militia to take 
advantage of circumstances, but I see no appearances 
as yet of a bridge. I am, &c. 



Camuudcb, 34 January, 1776. 

The Commissary General being at length returned 
from a long and painful tllness, I have it in my power 
to comply with the requisition of Congress in for- 
warding an estimate of the expencc attending his 
office, as also that of the Quartermaster General. 
You will please to observe that the Commissary, by 
his account of the matter, has entered into no special 
agreement with any of the persons he has found oc- 
casion to employ (as those to whose names sums are 
annexed arc of their own fixing) but left it to Con- 
gress to ascertain their wages: I shall say nothing 
therefore on this head further than relates to the 
proposition of Mr. Miller, to be allowed \ for his 
trouble and the deliver}- of the other \ of provisions, 
which to me appears exorbitant in the extreme, how- 
ever, conformable it may be to custom and usage. I 
^ therefore think that reasonable stipends had better be 
^1 fixed upon. Both the Quartermaster and Commis- 





sary generals assure me that they do not employ a 
single person uselessly, and as I have too good an 
opinion of them to think they would deceive me, I 
believe them. 

I shall take the liberty of recommending the ex- 
pediency, indeed the absolute necessity, of appointing 
fit and proper persons to settle the accounts of this 
army. To do it with precision requires lime, care, 
and attention. The longer it is left undone, the more 
intricate they will be, the more liable to error, and 
difficult to explain and rectify ; as also the persons in 
whose hands they are. if disposed to take undue ad- 
vantage, will be less subject to detection. I have 
been as attentive, as the nature of my office would 
admit of. in granting warrants for money on the pay- 
master; but it would be absolutely impossible for me 
to go into an examination of all the accounts incident 
to this army, and the vouchers appertaining to them, 
without devoting so large a portion of my time to the 
business, as might not only prove injurious, but fatal 
to it in other respects. This ought, in my humble 
opinion, to be the particular business of a select 
committee of Congress, or one appointed by them, 
who, once in three months at farthest, should make 
a settlement with the officers in the different 

Having met with no encouragement from the gov- 
ernments of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, as 
to my application for arms, and expecting no better 
from Connecticut and Rhode Island, I have, as the 
last expedient, sent one or two ofificers from each 




regiment Into the country, with money to try if they 
can buy. In what manner ihey succeed, Congress 
shall be informed as soon as they return. Con- 
gress, in my last, would discover my motives for 
strengthening these lines with the militia ; but 
whether, as the weather turns out exceedingly mild, 
(insomuch as to promise nothing favorable from ice,) 
and as there is no appearance of powder, I shall be 
able to attempt any thing decisive, time only can de- 
termine. No man upon earth wishes more ardently 
to destroy the nest in Boston, than I do; no person 
would be willing to go greater lengths than t shall, to 
accomplish it. if it shall be thought advisable. But if 
we have neither powder to bombard with, nor ice to 
pass on, we shall be in no better situation than we 
have been in all the year ; we shall be worse, because 
their works are stronger. 

I have accounts from Boston, which I think maybe 
relied on, that General Clinton, with about four or 
five himdred men, has left that place within these four 
days. Whether this is part of the detachment, which 
was making up (as mentioned In my letter of the 
fourth instant, and then at Nantasket) or not, it is 
not in my power to say. If it is designed for New 
York or Long Island, as some think, throwing a body 
of troops there may prove a fortunate circumstance. 
If they go farther south, agreeably to the conjectures 
of others, I hope there will be men to receive them. 
Notwithstanding the positive assertions of the four 
captains from Portsmouth, noticed in my letter of 
the 14th, I am now convinced from several cor- 




roborating circumstances, the accounts of deserters 
and of a Lieut. Mill of Lord Percy's regiment, who 
left Ireland the 5 of November, and was taken by 
a privateer from Newburypon, that the 17th and 
55th regiments are arrived in Boston, and other 
troops at Halifax, agreeable to the information of 
Hutchinson and others. Lieut. Hill says that the 
transports of two regiments only were forced into 
Milford Haven. 

Congress will think me a little remiss, I fear, when 
I inform them, that I liave done nothing yet towards 
raising the battalion of marines ; but I hope to stand 
exculpated from blame, when they hear the reason, 
which was, that already having twenty-six incomplete 
regiments, 1 thought it would be adding to an ex- 
pense, already great, in officers, to set two entire 
corps of officers on foot, when perhaps we should 
not add ten men a week by it to our present 
numbers. In this opinion the general officers have 
concurred, which induced mc to suspend the matter 
a little longer. Our enlistments, for the two last 
weeks, have not amounted to a thousand men, and 
are diminishing. The regiment for Canada, it is 
thought, will soon be filled, as the men are to choose 
all but their field-officers, who are appointed by the 

On Sunday evening, thirteen of the Caghnawaga 
Indians arrived here on a visit. I shall take care that 
they be so entertained during their stay, that they 
may return impressed with sentiments of friendship 
for us, and also of our great strength. One of them 


is Colonel Louis, who honored me with a visit once 
before.' I have, &c.' 


CAHUtiiuaB, 27 January, 1776. 

Dear Sir, 

Your favor of the aid enclosing Colonel Arnold's 
letter of the 2d, explaining the doubt we were in re- 
specting his detachment, is received. Happy would 
it have been for our cause, if that part)' could have 
got out of the city of Quebec ' ; as I am much afraid 
by the complexion of the letters from that place, that 
there is little hope of Arnold's continuing the block- 
ade without assistance from Woosler, which he is de- 
termined not to give, whether with propriety or not, 
I shall not at this distance undertake to decide. 

' " 177^1 J*»<ttry 24. WednctidAy. Bc%*ti my )«Hirn«y (v Pbibi3d)fhi«L. DEntid 
St C. MiAin'ii, at Canibndge, trilh G. Wftkhingiuii and (jatrv 3tut ihcir ladict, 
and half a doim kachem^ >nt) warHon of the Frrnch Caghniwaga tiibe, with 
ibcir wivci xaA cbildnn. Williun* U one who wai captured in his inUncy ani 
wloplcd. Thcrr \s a miiturc n\ while blood. Frmt'h or English, in most ol 
(h«m. Louis, their i^rincipAl, ^peiki En|{li<h and French, u well t% Indiui. 
It was a Mva|[C leaal, caniivoraiu animals devuuiing thcii |iiG]r ; yet ihty wcte 
WDttdnnii |>olitc, Thr CcnirnI introduced mc to tlictn ax une erf the grand 
coMncil fir« al fhiladclphin, upnii which the)' made me many lia<r« and a conlia] 
rcceptiuB."— John AdamV Diary, tVarks. ii., 431. 

■ Keid in Congrcu. feliniary 91b. Kefrtred to Cha^ir. j. Adama, Pcnn, 

Wythe, >iii1 KutU'dgc. 

" Ndthct IVovinons. nur thi- Value u( them, are to be imanl to Ofliccn or 
SoldicK when upon Fnrlmii^h. Furlought are always contidcrvi] as ininTious to 
llie aetrice, but too vflen granted lor the i^tifiulion of Individuals — The 
General ihcicfoce, wu not a little huriiriwd to find, that il had contrary lu 
CBMom and comman Justice, become a quextion, whether ahientecs, w«re nol 
•nllllcd to the aamc allowance of pn>vibion!t. an if they were pracal aad 
actnally doing duty."— OralrrJJp Book, 14 January. 1776. 

' The party of tTO0]>« that alladied the dly iin^' Arnold, the moal of wImmh 
were lalien priaimen. 




The sad reverse of our affairs in that quarter calls 
loudly for every exertion in your power, to restore 
them to the promising aspect they so lately wore. 
For this reason, notwithstanding you think the neces- 
sity of troops from hence is in some measure super- 
seded, I will not countermand the order and appoint- 
ment of ofificers, which are gone forth from this 
government, Connecticut, and New Hampshire, for 
raising a regiment each, till Congress, (who are in- 
formed of it.) shall have decided upon the measure. 

I consider, that the important period is now ar- 
rived, when the Canadians and consequently their 
Indians must take their side. Should any indecisive 
operations of ours, therefore, give the bias against 
us, it is much easier to foresee, than to rectify, the 
dreadful consequences, which must inevitably follow 
from it. I consider, also, that the reinforcement, un- 
der the command of Colonel Warner, and such other 
spirited men as have left the western parts of the 
New England governments, is only temporary, and 
may fail when most wanted ; as we find it next to 
impossible to detain men, (not fast bound,) in service, 
after they get a little tired of the duties of it and 

These, my dear Sir. are the great outlines which 
govern me in this affair. If Congress mark them as 
strongly as I do, they will not wish to starve the 
cause at so critical a period. If they think difTerently, 
they will direct accordingly, and I must stand cor- 
rected for the error my zeal hath led me into. 

Colonel Porter, said to be an exceedingly active 
man, is appointed to the command of the regiment 







from this government ; Colonel Burrell to the one 
from Connecticut ; and Colonel Bedel to that from 
New Hampshire. The two last are represented to 
me as men of spirit and influence: so that, from 
these accounts, I have no doubt of their getting into 
Canada in a very short time, as I have endeavored to 
excite the spirit of emulation. I wish most ardently, 
that the state of your health may permit you to meet 
them there. The possession of Quebec, and entire 
reduction of Canada this winter, so as to have leisure 
to prepare for the defence of it in the spring, is of 
such great and extensive importance to the well-being 
of America, that I wish to see matters under the 
direction, — but I will say no more, you will come at 
my meaning. 

I am a little embarrassed to know in what manner 
to conduct myself with respect to the Caghnawaga 
Indians now here. They have, notwithstanding the 
treaty of neutrality, which I find they entered into 
with you the other day (agreeably to what appears to 
be the sense of Congress). signJAcd to me a desire of 
taking up arms in behalf of the United Colonies. 
The Chief of them, and who I titidersland is now the 
first man of the nation, intends, as it is intimated, to 
apply to mc for a commission, with the assurance of 
raising four or five hundred men when he returns. 
My embarrassment docs not proceed so much from 
the impropriety of encouraging these people to de- 
part from their neutrality, (accepting their own volun- 
tary offer rather), as from the expense, which probably 
may follow. \ am sensible that, if they do not desire 
to be idle, they will be for or against us. I am sensi- 




ble. also, that no artifices will be left unassayed to 
engage them against us. Their proffered services, 
therefore, ought not to be rejected ; but how far, 
with the little knowledge I have of these people's 
policy and real intentions, and your want of their 
aid, I ought to go. is the question that puzzles me. 
I will endeavor, however, to pleiise them by yielding 
in appearance to their demands; reser\*ing, at the 
same time, the power in you to regulate their num- 
bers and movements, of which you shall be more 
fully informed when any thing is fixed.' At present 
what ihey have mentioned is a kind of out door talk. 
They expect and arc waiting to see Col. Bedel (who 
promised to meet them here), before theyo|>en them- 
selves fully. 

' Gencrft! Schnylrr re|>!ir'(1 in itgnrH to l^Me Inttixm : " It i» cxtrentelf 
<liEliciiU tu <Jct?naiiic wliat tliioultl be dune, in what you mention rcapccllDg the 
offer made by Ilie Caghnawaga Indians : bui i( we can gel decenily rid of tbctr 
ofTet, I woiuld pr«ler it to employing Ibem. The expense we ar« at in ibc In- 
dian dcpaitmcnt la novf amacinfi ; It wJtl be more x> wlicn ihey coiuider thrra- 
telvRs 31^ in uiir service ; nof would llieit intervention be uf mi*ch oontequcnM. 
-ualcu iKt cuulil ]irricure tliX nl ihv otlier iiatiunB. Tliv hautrur ul Ihc Indiuu 
is much diniiniihcd «incc the taking of Montreal : ihcy evidently mc that thej 
cBunut yet any ^upplicv but llirough us," 

" Un Che 37th ULlu. I hod the pleasure of willing to you anJ then niciitiuned 
my bdng under some cnibairftismciii rripcciini: the appiioition which I ci- 
pc-iTled fram our tUglmawagn Iriends — I havp now the plcamirr to jnfonn yivo 
that in tt ulk tiicy hoiiured ni<; witb yckterday, Ihey put the matter upon tkc 
footing I w-iihcd : that it to join the forces in Canada whenever you Uiall caU 
lor their Assiktaacc. Th*y rM{ueat»d tne to ceriily my approbation of the 
treaty ihcy had coiKiudcd with you, which I did. Upon the occiMun ihey ci- 
]irc»ed iiiucli sttfitfactiuii mil xtid. ilmt (hey were now ha|ipy that a firm peace 
wiu inndc between them and rhrir Ttrolhcru ami thM Ihey were now like the 
New England penplc. 1 heartily wish that thii union may he tiutiiig and thai 
iiolhlng may caul up to intrrnipl it. The expediency of calling uptiii ibcni 1 
ihall leave to you— Circumitancc* and policy will 
ty<aktMj[iaK to Central SeAmjfitt, i February, 1776. 

FugKeat Ihc QccasioB."— | 





What can you do in compliance with Arnold's re- 
quest of mortars, &c? If Knox disfurnished you, I 
am almost sorry for it, as I believe 1 shall never get 
wherewithal to feed them here. 

I congratulate you upon the success of your expe- 
dition into Tr)'on county. 1 hope Genera! Lee will 
execute a work of the same kind on Long Island, &c. 
It is high time to begin with our internal foes, when 
we arc threatened with such severity of chastisement 
from our kind parent without. That the Supreme 
Dispenser of every good may bestow health, strength, 
and spirit on you and your army, is the fervent wish 
of, dear Sir, your most affectionate and obedient 


Cawbudgk. 17 Jftuuary, 1776. 

Dear Sir. 

On the I 7th instant 1 received the melancholy ac- 
count of the unfortunate attack on the city of Quebec, 
attended with the fall of General Montgomery and 
other brave officers and men, and your being wounded. 
This unhappy affair affects mc in a very sensible man- 
ner, and I sincerely condole with you upon the occa- 
sion ; but, in the midst of distress, I am happy to find, 
that suitable honors were paid to the remains of Mr. 
Montgomer)' ; and our officers and soldiers, who have 
fallen into their hands, were treated with kindness and 

' DMriti( ibe nigtit of tKe ttuck an Qoebcc ih«r« w«.« > tempMtaoiu now- 
Moral. Tbc IkkUcs oJ llic penanN tlain nndcr ibc clilT of C«pa Diamond were 

Having received no intelli^fence later than the copy 
of your letter of the 2(1 to General Wooster. I would 
fain hope, that you are not in a worse situation than 
you then were ; tlioiigli, I confess, I Imve greatly 
feared, that those misfortunes would be succeeded by 
others, on account of your unhappy condition, and 
the dispirited state of the officers and men. If they 
have not, I trust, when you are joined by three regi- 
ments now raising in this and the governments 
of Connecticut and New Hanipshire, and two 
others ordered by the Congress from Pennsylvania 
and the Jerseys, with the men already sent off by 
Colonel Warner, that these misfortunes will be done 

not discovered lUI moniiiijc, when iticy were founit nearly envetopeil in (Dow. 
They wcr« taken inlu thp cily on s "Jni. Three of ihrnn wm litiamt (o b« 
officen, nod (rom llic inilinU R. M. wrillcii in » fut cap, |>ick«d up at the plncc 
o( the Iiltmdjr catusiioplie, Ji wu conjetlutcd lo h*vc liirloiigeil to Gcne»l 
Montgomery. Iliv (r^aiurct were dinfigured bya wcmnd. uhich he had rcccired 
in the Ivwcr pari uf ilie hvaJ mid neck. At Icncih a n'uinan and a boy were 
Ittoitgtil. who hnd Intrlj tome itili) ilic city from ihe Amcriran camp, ui<) who 
had often acen the prirtHpil oAicn^. They idcritiHtJ the bodtevof Montgotncry. 
Caplkia McPhcraoii, Captain Chccseinan, and on oriierly icrecani. 

Mr. CrainiLhe, an oIKter in the Urituh army, and foi a time lieaicnant- 
g^vemAr nf Cftnudii, had nerved in the InCe n'Ar with M<int{^Rnciy, and enlet- 
[ained fur 1ii:n a wi\riii {iciiuiial uiladirnciii. lie aiVcil (icrtniMoii of Grncnl 
Ctirlclon to bury hit friend with marlis of hoimi and respect. This « aKf>tantcd 
in part, and n tnfFin lined «nil covered with blntli wo* proiided. But tlic Go*- 
crnoi did nol cnnMnI lo the leArlin^ of the funeral Krvlce, |)tubably itut ileFM- 
ing Ilii« indulgence cun Conn title to military rules. Bui when ihe time nf buriaJ 
ftppioflcbcd, Mr. CTamuhc inviicJ a clGi:)ryiiiaii lu be present, wtiu read the icr- 
vice privjtlcly am! nnnmluled. The ulhcr aflttieni wcreliiirietJat aiibortdtnaact 
frfim ihdr general, Imt wilhonl coffins, and in the miltt.iiy manner. All the 
graves were within the walli of ihc dly. and near the I'orl of St. Lonls. 

These parliculjiis were camniiiiiiiated to nic by Mr. William Smith of Qae- 
bec, who had received them from devcial persons aeijuainlcd with ihcm at (he 
time, and cspcdally from Mr. Thmnpiuri, who aijiitd at ihc litiiini of Mont* 
gomery. and who pointed out the place of hiK grave a few yc-an ago, when fail 
remaint were taken up and lemnvcd lo New York. — ^arii. 





away, and things will resume a more favorable and 
promising appearance than ever. 

1 need not mention to you the great importance of 
this place, and the consequent possession of all 
Canada, in the scale of American affairs. You are 
well apprized of it. To whomsoever it belongs, in 
their favor, probably, will the balance turn. If it is 
in ours, success I think will most certainly crown our 
virtuous struggles. If it is in theirs, the contest at 
best will be doubtful, hazardous, and bloody. The 
glorious work must be accomplished in the course of 
this winter, otherwise it will become difficult, most 
probably impracticable; for administration, knowing 
that it will be impossible ever to reduce us to a state 
of slavery and arbitrary rule without it, will certainly 
send a large reinforcement there in the spring. I am 
fully convinced, that your exertions will be invariably 
directed to this grand object, and I already view the 
approaching day, when you and your brave followers 
will enter this important fortress, with ever)' honor 
and triumph attendant on victory. Then will you 
have added the only link wanting in the great chain 
of Continental union, and rendered the freedom of 
your country secure. 

Wishing you a speedy recovery, and the possession 
of those laurels, which your bravery and perseverance 
justly merit, I am, dear Sir, yours, &c' 

* " CoTcnimenl b«uig full; conriiic«d of the»e Facta, wll] mo«l MUimllj mimI 

a MIODK and cousldcrmbk Rdnforccmcni (o Quebec, caily in the Sprtng, 
irUch will tender the reduction u( it, esce«din(;ly difficult, if out impncUcable. 
The Kt««i aad intportAnt «rotk mti»t Ibcn be accomplished in tic courw of 
the pnient Winter, uc the rightK of Ainenca may be lost foitvci. 1 mmi 





Ohmudok, 18 JinnuT. t77& 


I received your agreeable letter of the 26th instant, 
giving an account of your having taken and carried 
into Plymouth two of the enemy's transports. Your 
conduct in engaging the eight-gun schooner, with so 
few hands as you went out with, your attention in 
securing your prizes, and your general good behavior 
since you first engaged in the service, merit my own 
and your country's thanks." 

You may be assured, that every attention will be 
paid to any reasonable request of yours^ and that you 
shall have the command of a stronger vessel of war; 
but as it will take up some time before such a one 
can be fitted out, my desire is, that you continue in 
the Hancock until the end of the cruise. When that 
is out, you will come to Head-Quarters, and we will 
confer together on the subject of the other ship. 1 
wish you could engage men at Plymouth to make 
your complement at least forty strong. It would 
enable you to encounter the small tenders, that may 
fall in your way; though I would rather have you 
avoid an engagement, until you have a ship, that will 
place you upon a more equal footing with your enemy. 

therefoie inlccal yoti, in cue Hcncnil Schuyler'K ui<li(paritio» tliaultl ■oxA per- 
mit him (u act, to «Kort yourMlf upon Ibc uccuion, «t> mvch m r^ii pMonbly 
can. nnii tngivc every luiristaiicc in yniir fiDwti for cnm plea line nui conqncsi in 
ihiii qtiartcr." — WatkingioH te Gfnrrel Vi'mtttr, aj January. 1776. 

' " Captain Manlcy look cwo priica lul iicck itnd tOMvc himscK. wuoblignl 
10 run hia vt^iad ashore ri North Kivcr niiil left her ; t]ie enemy boarded b«, 
Init Minly gave ihem mch heavy lire thai tliey were obliged lo quit her, taking 
nolhin£, !«ve unc owivcl i;vii. wbii:li giui lic aoni.cItiDC before bumntnl o\ 
lhmTi."^G*nerttl Arttmas Wardle Cengrttj, 3 Febraary, 1776, 




I need not recommend to you to proceed again and 
pursue your good fortune. 

I wish you could inspire the captains of the other 
armed schooners under your command with some of 
your activity and industry. Can you not appoint 
stations for them, where they may have the best 
chance of intercepting supplies going to the enemy? 
They dare not disobey your orders, as it is mentioned 
in the instructions I have given to each of them, that 
they are to be under your command as commodore ; 
and as such I desire that you will give them such in- 
structions in writing, as to you will appear proper for 
the good of the service. I am, Sir, wishing you a 
continuance of success, yours, &c.' 


Cambkioce, joJannAry, 1776. 


Your favors of the 6th and of the lotli instant I 
received yesterday, with the several resolves of Con- 

' " As iha GcnermI la con>cni)nK to and ilcslrous of th« milieu dnvring the 
Mine pair, ai lh« ConlinoitiU Troopi. the nfiicen of ihote Companies %n here- 
)>r infoKRCd, tliai tdn^-c the first of January, ibcir pay will lie tbc tune at iKotc 
offiocn (of equal Kank) upon the new enUbluhmenl but before tbat dale. 00 
nuiTv than nh.1l ua» drann under the oM mahliEhmeni. cao he alloircd them, 
of till* ihcy arc to Ukc panitular notice, that no mutakc may tiappcn. 

" W hen the militia are diKharged the colunelt ot commaDding oQ'iceis, of 
the R«^inent« with whom the; hare done duty are to take special care that 
cTCiy ounce of AniinDnilitni is lecdvcd from iliciii (belooi^iiit: >o tbc pBlilic) at 
ako nich men ai joined ihcir Regimenta lor a mnnlh. If any man altemiita to 
eany off a «in|;le grain of nmmunilion nul known (o be hiit own, ha wit) be 
pumed, brought bacli and severely punished. 

" 'l*he Coloneli. or commandinf OSiceri of Keglmenta. ue tequetted 10 hnjr 
any good aim* which the militia may volunlarily incline lo tetl. They are alio 
to make out jiay^biliAcli. for Ihoac men whu joinrU their Resimcni^ for the 
notilh of Jannary. conlining ii to thai monU) (hat winanls may inue tsxtx^- 
in^y."—OrJtrly BffvA, 38 January, l^^(>. 




gress alluded to; for wh[ch I return you my thanks. 
Knowing the great importance Canada will be of to 
us, in the present interesting contest, and the relief 
our friends there stand in need of, I should be happy, 
were it in my power, to detach a battalion from this 
camp ; but it cannot be done. On the 19th instant. I 
had the honor to write to you a letter, which will 
fully convey the resolutions of a council of war, an 
the sentiments of the general officers here, as to the 
propriety and expediency of sending troops from 
these lines, for the defence of which we have been 
and now are obliged to call in the militia ; to which I 
beg leave to refer you.' You may rest assured, that 
my endeavors and exertions shall not be wanting, to 
stimulate the governments of Connecticut and New 
Hampshire to raise and forward reinforcements as 
fast as possible ; nor in any other instance tliat will 
promote the expedition.' 

' ytmmais 0/ CtmgTtsi, iq jMiuiry, 1376. 

* The f(«iierout and humane coiiiluci of General Culeton, lof^it^ 49J 
pcnuDD ukcnat ihc iirift>riunftlea»uull on Quebec, uusht not lebtl 
Allhoii^li lie hiui acquicic'cd in the h»nh treatment of Etban Allen, yet the 
priHOncn who fell inio his h.tndson the abcve disaFitroiJi occa»on, according lo 
ihcir own iiccniiiit, mci w tth a linage in every tcspcci u gooti »a that ol the 
Briliih toLdien. evtepi in ibi? necessary reiiraints or confmenieai. Tkii wu 
declnred in a leller to Waihinglon from Major Meigi^, when he letumcd on hu 
[uuvk the summci foUowing. The nuldiun were cmLrineJ in tbc Je^iuia' Col- 
lege, and Ihe oflicen in the Seminar]-. The Inlicr, afiet the si^e wai raised, 
h^ permituon to walk in a iaigjc fnideu adjnininc their tjtiarten^ Majiw 
Mcics left three hnnHred priKtiicrii in Quebec, ahnni ilic miitdlc of May, Wbcn 
they wcic released for evchnnt^e, cJenenil Carleton supplied theiu with i 
of cblhing, in which they were deficient, ll was taid, thfti when some of 
olSccn> spoke to him of thi* itt. an lu unusual tieyree of lenity tomranls priion- 
en of war, he replied, — " Since wc hove iTied in vnin to make ihem oeknowl- 
edjfc Uii as licothen, let ui at least icnd ihem away dinpoMii lo re^anl ua as firrt 
coiuios," Having been uifoimcd, thai maoy pusons niSeiiug (rota wounds 




I shall, in obedience to the order of Congress, 
though interdicted by General Howe, propose an 
exchange of Governor Skene ' for Mr. Lovell and his 
family, and shall be happy to have an opportunity of 
putting this deserving man, (who has distinguished 
his fidelity and regard to his countr>' to be too great 
for persecution and cruelty to overcome.) in any post 
agreeable to his wishes and inclination. I do not 
know, that there is any particular rank annexed to 
the office of aid-de-camp. Generally they are cap- 

and various iliutrden were concealed iii (he W00(1« Bn<l obtcurc pincck, (coring 
l]Ht if thcr Appeared openly iliejr would be leitcd an priioneni anil severely 
Itcated, Iw iuucd a procliimation comtnanding the mtlitja oKcck to tearch fr>r 
svcb per>o&>, brini; them to Iht general hoapilol, and jirocurc f«r ibem all 
neceaury iclicf at ihc public chiirgc. lie also invited all such perstmt lo come 
forvotd volnnurily, and receive (he auUiance they ne«d«l, tunufag ihen. 
" ibat a* won m Oivit hcAlOi ^uuld lie tcalorcil. ihcy ahouU liav« fm liberty 
10 nFliiro (o their r»|icctire provinces." 

I'oitenty hat daoe jiucice ta ih« humane chatacier of General Caricton. 
Few namea, that stand out in the hiitory ol ihc events in which he was con- 
cemed. are letueinbeied willi more resjied. even in the cuunuy ol his (oec. — 

' Philip Skene enlered the Drilish army in 1736 and served in European wan 
until he came to America in 17^6. He became a captaiTi in the ayih tcgitncRl 
in 1757, majoi ol brigade in 1759. and commanded at Ctown Point tn Octvlier 
ol ihe lame ^eax. In 1761 be patticipaicd in the Wctt Indian expedition and 
waa one of the linl to enter the breach at ihe itorming of Havana, ketaming 
to New Vo«k (1763] ho obtained (i;6s)a patent for the towutliip of Skeaeaboro 
(now Whitehall), and resided there after 1770. ninning a line between Canada 
and the Colonies, and tuperinlcading the Mltleoii-nt of the then uninhibited 
bordef country. In 177) he applied to Lord Dartmontlt to recommend him 10 
the King for tite appuintmeni of Governor o( that repon. The ap[)oiniBteDt 
wal civcit antl lie wai, empowered to :aii>e a icpnient in Ainerica, functiom that 
biuoEkthuB to the allcntion nf the Continental CangrtM aod led to his aneat 
in Philadelphia, in June 177$. (Jmmali ef Cmgrrrt, Junr 8, 177s.) In 
October 177^ be vra* exchanged, joined Butgoyne aa oomntiander of > loyal 
ABKilcan tceimeut. and wai again captured at Saraioga, bis properly l>ciBK 
con&acated by New Voti in 1779. KelomiDg lo England, he died 9 October 
1810. t'trmtnt XnerJi, i., 153; MS. JfewitrUl in tit Shttt P«ffr Ofift, 




tains, and rank as such ; but higher rank is often 
given on account of particular merit and particular 
circumstances. Aids to the King have the rank of 
colonels. Whether any distinction should be made be- 
tween those of your Commander-in-chief, and the other 
generals. I really know not. I think there ought' 

You may rely, that Connolly had instructions con- 
cealed in his saddle. Mr. Eustis,' who was one of 
Lord Dunmore's family, and another gentleman, who 
wishes his name not to be mentioned, saw them cased 
in tin, put in the tree, and covered over. He proba- 
bly has exchanged his saddle, or withdrawn the papers 
when it was mended, as you conjecture. Those that 
have been discovered are sufficiently bad ; but I doubt 
not of the others being worse, and containing more 
diabolical and extensive plans. I hope he will be 
taken proper care of, and meet with rewards equal 
to his merits. 

1 shall appoint officers in the places of those, who 
are in Canada, as I am fully persuaded they will wish 
to continue there, for making our conquest complete 
in that quarter. I wish their bravery and valor may 
be attended with the smiles of fortune. 

It gives me great pleasure to hear of the measures 
Congress are taking for manufacturing powder. I 
hope their endeavors will be crowned with success. 

' ThcK four vordti arc in Wudiingbin's writing, xildcd arter llic letter lu>d 
|]«cn writlen. ByavoCeofCangK&^.ihcCoTiiiuBndor-in-chicf waii allowed three 
aiilirf-iic-camp, who were lo rank wt Iieuteiianl-<vloiticU; and the tuajor-.f^nerab 
two •![]» etch, to rank u ro^jon. 

* John Eustace, who had been in Lord Ounintire'!. charge fof three yean. 
" The duly laiilt t know iu Iiiiu (i( luult it ca.n tw called ia a boy) it thut be i» a 
little loo vnUtile.'*— iJwMiBonr to General Hovt, 3 December, 177J. 




I too well know and regret the want of it It is 
scarcely possible to describe the disadvantages an 
army must labor under, when not provided with a 
sufficient supply of this necessary. It may seem 
strange after having received about 11 tons, added 
to about 5 tons which I found here, and no general 
action has happened that we should be so deficient in 
this article and require more. But you will please to 
consider besides its being in its nature subject to 
waste, and whilst the men lay in bad tents was una- 
voidably damaged by severe and heavy rains (which 
could not have been prevented, unless it had been 
entirely withdrawn from them, and an attack haz- 
arded against us without ammunition in their hands), 
that the armed vessels, our own occasional firings, 
and some small supplies I have been obliged to afford 
the seaport towns threatened with destruction, to 
which may be added the supply to the militia, and 
going off of the old troops, have occasioned and ever 
will a lar^e consumption of it, and waste, in spite of 
all the care in the world. The king's troops never 
have less than 60 rounds a man in their possession, 
independent of their stores. To supply an army of 
20,000 in this manner would be near 400 barrels, 
allowing nothing for stores, artillery &c I have 
been always afraid to place more than 12 or 15 
rounds at a time in the hands of our men. lest any 
accident happening to it, we should be left destitute 
and be undone. I have been this particular not only 
to show our poverty, but to exculpate myself from 
even a suspicion of unnecessary waste. 




I shall inform the Paymaster genera! of the resold 
tion of Congress, respecting his drafts, and the m* 
and amount of them. 

The companies at Chelsea and Maiden are and 
have always been regimented. It was not my inten- 
tion to replace with Continental troops the inde- 
pendent companies at Hingham, Weymouth and 
Braintree. These places are exposed, but not more 
so than Cape Ann, Beverly, Salem, Marblehead, &c. 


Is it the intention of Congress that the officers of 
the army should pay postage ? They are not ex- 
empted by the resolve of the gth. inst. 

The Congress will be pleased, I have no doubt, to 
recollect that the 500,000 dollars now coming are but 
little more than enough to bring us up to the first day 
of this month, that tomorrow will be the last of it, and 
by their resolve the troops are to be paid monthly. 

I wish it was in my power to furnish Congress with 
such a general as they desire, to send to Canada.' 
Since the unhappy reverse of our affairs in that quar- 
ter, General Schuyler has informed me, that, though 
he had thoughts of declining the service before, he 
would now act My letter of the nth will inform 
them of General Lee's being at New York. He will 
be ready to obey their orders, should they incline to 
send him ; but, if I am not greatly deceived, he or 
some other spirited, able officer will be wanted there 
in the spring, if not sooner ; as we have undoubted 
intelligence, that General Clinton has sailed with 

' yournals ef Cmgms, aojatiuary, 1776. 




some troops. The reports of their number are vari- 
ous, from between four and five hundred to nineteen 
companies of grenadiers and tight infantry'. It is 
also imagined, that the regiments, which were to 
sail the ist of December, are intended for that 
place or Virginia. General Putnam is a most valu- 
able man, and a fine executive officer; but I do not 
know how he would conduct in a separate depart- 
ment He is a younger major-general than Mr. 
Schuyler, who. as I have observed, having deter- 
mined to continue in the service, will. I expect, repair 
into Canada. A copy of my letter to him on this 
and other subjects, I enclose to you, as it will explain 
my motives for not stopping the regiments from these 

When Captain Cochran arrives, I will give him 
every assistance in my power, in obedience to the 
orders of Congress ; but I fear it will be the means 
of laying up our own vessels, as these people will not 
bear the distinction.' Should this be the consequence, 
it will be highly prejudicial to us, as we sometimes 
pick up their pro vision -vessels, and may continue to 
distress them in this way. Last week Captain Manly 
took a ship and a brig bound to Boston from White 
Haven, with coals chiefly and some potatoes for the 
army. I have, for his great vigilance and industr)', 
appointed him commodore of our little squadron ; and 
he now hoists his flag on board the schooner Hamotk. 

' Capt. Cochnn had omnc to PhiladelphU rnxn Soadi CaroMnt to ncrall 
(Mmea (er ikit oolAitjr. CtMigma referred him to Wuhin^n. ^uriuUt 
o/ Cmgnn, 19 Jaauuy, iTjfy, 




I congratulate you upon the recovery of Smith,' and 
am exceedingly glad to hear of the measuresCongress 
are taking for the general defence of the continent 
The clouds thicken fast ; where they will burst, I 
know not ; but we should be armed at all points. 

I have not succeeded in my applications to these 
governments for arms. They have returned for an- 
swer, that they cannot furnish any. Whether I shall 
be more lucky in the last resource left me in this 
quarter, I cannot determine, having not received re- 
turns from the officers sent out to purchase of the 
people. I greatly fear, that but very few will be pro- 
cured in this way, as they arc exceedingly scarce, and 
but a small part of what there are, fit for service. 
When they maku their port, you shall be informed. 

The Quarter master general has just received from 
General Schuyler clothing for the soldiery, amounting 
to about ^1700 York currency. It has come verj- 
seasonably, as they are in great want, and will con- 
tribute a little to their relief. 

Since writing the above, I have seen Mr. Euatis; 
and mentioning that nothing had been found in the 
tree of Connolly's saddle, he told me there had been a 
mistake in the matter ; that the instructions were art- 
fully concealed on the two pieces of wood, which are 
on the mail-pillion of his portmanteau-saddle ; that, 
by order of Lord Dunmorc, he saw them contrived 
for the purpose, the papers put in, and first covered 
with tin, and over that with a waxed canvass cloth.* 

' One o[ ConnoUy'f ^uxociiies, who hsd Mcaped, hnt had been rccaptared. ' 

* " My iniitrucEionK and connmission were t'iincrnk<l in the ttickt of m^ Kf- 
vatit's mail pillion, Brlfullyconirived for the purpose . , , My tenant, whowu 




He is so exceeclingly pointed and clear in his inform- 
ation. that I have no doubt of its being true. I could 
wish them to be discovered, as I think they contain 
some curious and extraordinary plans. In my letter 
of the 24th instant, I mentioned the arrival of thirteen 
of our Ca^hnawaga friends. They honored me with 
a talk to-day, as did three of the tribes of St. John's 
and Passamaquoddy Indians, copies of which I beg 
leave to enclose you. 1 shall write to General 
Schuyler respecting the tender of service made by the 
former, and not to call for their assistance, unless he 
shall at any time want it, or be under the necessity of 
doing it to prevent their taking the sides of our 

I had the honor of writing to you on the 19th of 
November, and then I informed you of having engaged 
two persons to go to Nova Scotia on the business 
recommended in your letter of the loth ; and also 
that the state of the army would not then admit of a 
sufficient force being sent, for carrying into execution 
the views of Congress respecting the dock-yards, &c. 
I would now beg leave to mention, that, if the persons 
sent for information should report favorably of the 
expediency and practicability of the measure, it will 

* man o( |[rettt fidelity and •HrmincM, WM not cMiBntd; and u Ite Iiad 
cathcTcd tcotc flight intimRtion ttut mitiera of importaBce wcrr in ibe |hIMod 
slicbi, «nd aliiftving ibe uddle and its appcoKUgts Eiiap«ndt>il In an ad|(^iiing 
sbcti, alici baTing andergDne a Mv<rc bul (niftlcti Knitiny by the CMamiltec, bt 
iciicd a ravursbte Bioment in the dead of nielit, opened (he ulckk. oasiincd 
their eonienU liy lh« light o( t fin. and finding of whai iin[M>rtance Uie^ werv, 
dotro^rcd ihcBi all, cuccfil mj cwnadMion. Thit Uc »eid<d tip, and conveyed 
10 me. wiih a note inforraing tnr of wlut he had doae. tiy mean* of i negro 
girl, that had be(«tc been proved (o be faithful." — C»HH^fy't Xtrm/iw. 

not be in my power to detach any men from these 
lines. The situation of our affairs will not allow it 
I think it would be advisable to raise them in the 
eastern parts of this government. If it is attempted, 
it must be by people from the countr)-. A Colonel 
Thompson, a member of the General Court from the 
province of Maine, and who is well spoken of by the 
Court, and a Captain O'Brien have been with me. 
They think the men necessary may be easily engaged 
there, and the measure practicable, provided there 
are not more than two hundred British troops at 
Halifax. They are willing and ready to embark in 
the matter, upon the terms mentioned in their plan, 
which [ enclose to you. 1 wish you to advert to the 
considerations inducing them to the expedition, as I 
am not without apprehension, should it be undertaken 
upon their plan, that the innocent and guilt}* will be 
involved in one common ruin. I presume they do not 
expect to receive more from the Continent, than the 
five or ten thousand pounds mentioned in their 
scheme, and to be at every expense. If we had men 
to spare, it might be undertaken for less than either, 
I conceive. Perhaps, if Congress do not adopt their 
proposition, they will undertake to raise men for that 
particular purpose, who may be disbanded as soon as 
It is effected, and upon the same terms that are allowed 
the Continental troops in general. Whatever may be 
the determination of Congress upon the subject, you 
will please to communicate it to me immediately ; for 
the season most favorable for the enterprise is ad- 
vancing fast ; and we may expect in the spring, that 




there will be more troops there, and the measure be 
more difificiilt to execute. I have the honor tobe.&c' 



CAMBXIIXilt, 39JMIUU7, 1776. 

I wrote to yoii the 23d instant, and then informed 
you, that General Clinton had gone upon some ex- 
pedition with four or five hundred men. There is 
good reason to believe, that Tryon has applied for 
some troops, and that he would join them with a 
great number of inhabitants ; so that you will see the 
necessity of your being decisive and expeditious in 
your operations in that quarter. The Tories should 
be disarmed immediately, though it is probable that 
they may have secured their arms on board the 
King's ships, until called upon to use them against 
us. However, you can seize upon the persons of the 
principals. They must be so notoriously known, that 
there will be little danger of your committing mis- 
takes, and happy should I be if the Governor could 
be one of them. 

Since writing the above, your favor of the 24th has 
come to hand, with the sundry enclosures, which I 
have with attention perused, and very much approve 
of your conduct. I sincerely wish that the letter you 
expect to receive from Congress may empower you 
to act conformable to your own and my sentiments 
on this occasion. If they should order difTcrently, we 

' K«ad in Congtew, Ketyniirjr 9th. Rdenwl lo Chue, J. Adanu, Pean, 
Wytkc m4 EtlwAfd RulMgc. 




must submit, as they doubtless will have good reasons 
for what they may determine." 

The Congress desire I should send an active gen- 
eral to Canada. I fancy, when they made the de- 
mand, that they did not think General Schuyler 
would continue in that station, which he has given 
me to understand, in some late letters from him, that 
he would. Should they not approve of the New 
York expedition, and think another general necessary 
for the northern department, it is probable they will 
fix on you to take the command there. I should be 
sorr)' to have you removed so far from this scene ; 
but if the service there requires your presence, it will 
be a fine field for the exertion of your admirable 
talents. There is nothing new here. Let me hear 
often from you. and believe me, &c' 

' General Lee wu iiuw nl Stamford, in Connecticul, whnetie irks prcp ari i^ 
to ciitcr New York willi sti<:ti ituDpb u lie hnd collected. Iii hi!> letter to Con- 
greu from Sl-iin ford, he hAd \lmii(>ly urged ihe expediency of diHrmingihe 
Toriei, rcijuiriiig aa oath ol Ili«m 10 kcI olTeniiively and >icfei»ivel)- in uipport 
of the common rights. And b pledge of one ho] I o( their properly u a sccuriiy 
((It their i>uo(l behavior. Congreai ■ppojnled a comtiiitiee (Hairiion. Lyndi 
und Atlcn) to re|iair lo New Vock, Co cfmiult aii-d ailviiic wilh the coancilof 
safely and Gcneml on tlic deftntc of the ciiy, yeurHah if C»Hgrt»t, lb 
Jnmiary. \^^ii. 

* Lee uTivcd in New York on February 4tli " almost al the lame instant " 
with CMnton. " He (Clinton) hu brciught no ttoopi trith him, uid pledget hi^ 
honor that none are coming. He «ayi it is merely a viili 10 his friend Tryen. 
If it it really %q, it is the most whim^cal piece of civility 1 ever hcud of. He 
informs us llinl hi* iniciilion i^ for North Cirolina. where he expecbt five reji- 
menu from EnglaiiH : thM he only hrrnvghi twn compAnirs of light iafanir; 
from lloslon. This it certainly • droll way of ]>n>cecding ; lo eommunicatc hit 
lull plan 10 the enemy it loo novel tr> be credited." Ltf t« Waskingtrn, % 
Febniory, 1776. II would appear, however, that Clinton ipokc truly. "1 
have furnished him (Clinton) with Mich Infunnition vf ihc southward oolonia 
118 I am hopeiiil may be of tome service." Covmur Trym A* tMt Btrl »/ 
Daiim>mlM, $ February, 1776. 






Camhkiock, 31 Juitury, 1776. 

Dear Sir, 

In my last, (date not recollected) by Mr. John 
Adams, I communicated my distresses to you on 
account of my want of your assistance. Since this I 
have been under some concern at doing of it, lest it 
should precipitate your return before you were ripe 
for it. or bring on a final resignation which I am un- 
willing' to think of, if your return can be made con- 
venient and agreeable. True it is, that from a variety 
of causes my business has been, and now is, multiplied 
and perplexed; whilst the means of execution is 
greatly contracted. This may be a cause for my 
wishing you here, but no inducement to your coming, 
if you hesitated before. 

1 have now to thank you for your favors of the 
15th, t6th. and 20th inst, and for the several articles 
of intelligence, which they convey. The account 
given of your navy, at the same time that it is ex- 
ceedingly unfavorable to our wishes, is a little pro- 
voking to me, inasmuch as it has deprived us of a 
necessary article, which otherwise would have been 
sent hither; but which a kind of fatality I fear will 
for ever deprive us of. In the instance of New York, 
we are not to receive a particle of what you expected 
would be sent from thence ; the time and season 
passing away, as I believe the troops in Boston also 
will, before the season for taking the field arrives. I 
dare say they arc preparing for it now. as we have 
undoubted intelligence of Clinton's leaving Boston 




wltTi a number of troops, (by different accounts, from 
four or five hundred to lo companies of grenadiers, 
and nine of light infantry), believed to be designed 
for Long Island, or New York, in consequence of 
assurances from Governor Tryon of powerful aid 
from the Tories there. 

I hope my countrymen of Virginia will rise supe- 
rior to any losses the whole navy of Great Britain 
can bring on them, and that the destruction of Nor- 
folk, and the threatened devastation of other places, 
will have no other effect, than to unite the whole 
country in one indissoluble band against a nation 
which seems to be lost to every sense of virtue, and 
those feelings which distinguish a civilized people 
from the most barbarous savages. A few more of 
such flaming arguments, as were exhibited at Fal- 
mouth and Norfolk,' added to the sound doctrine 
and unanswerable reasoning contained in the pamph- 
let " Common Settse," will not leave numbers at a loss 
to decide upon the propriety of a separation. 

By a letter of the 21st instant from Wooster, I 
find, that Arnold was continuing the blockade of 
Quebec on the 19th. which, under the heaviness of 
our loss there, is a most favorable circumstance, and 
exhibits a fresh proof of Arnold's ability and perse- 
verance in the midst of difificulties. The reinforce- 
ments ordered to him will, I hope, complete the entire 
conquest of Canada this winter; and but for the loss 
of the gallant chief, and his brave followers, I should 

' The tnwn a! Norfolk, in Virginia, had been bomb<rd«d •nd burnt by Lord 
Dunmore on Lhe ist of Jaouaiy. 




think the rebuke rather favorable than otherwise ; for 
had the country been subdued by such a handful of 
men, it is more than probable, that it would have 
been left to the defence of a few, and rescued from 
us in the spring. Our eyes will now be open not 
only to the importance of holding it, but to the num- 
l>ers which are requisite to that end. In return for 
your two beef and poultry vessels from New York, I 
can acquaint you that our Commodore Manly has 
just taken two ships from White Haven to Boston, 
with coal and potatoes, and sent them into Plymouth, 
and fought a tender (close by the light house where 
the vessels were taken), long enough to give his 
prizes time to get ofT, in short, till she thought 
it best to quit the combat, and he to move off 
from the men-of-war, which were spectators of this 

In my last I think I informed you of my sending 
General Lee to New York, with the intention of 
securing the Tories of Long Island, and to prevent, 
if possible, the King's troops from making a lodg- 
ment there ; but I fear the Congress will be duped by 
the representations from that government, or yield to 
them in such a manner as to become marplots to the 
expedition. The city seems to be entirely under the 
government of Tryon and the captain of the man- 

Mrs. Washington desires I will thank you for the 
picture sent her. Mr. Campbell, whom I never saw, 
to my knowledge, has made a very formidable figure 
of the Commander-in-chief, giving him a sudlicient 




portion of terror in his countenance.' Mrs. Wash- 
ington also desires her compliments to Mrs. Reed, as 
I do, and, with the sincerest regard and affection, I 
remain, dear Sir, your most obedient servant. 


OMSKloaE, I Feby, 1776. 

My Dear Sir, 

I had wrote the letter herewith enclosed before 
your favor of the 21st came to hand. The account 
given of the behavior of the men under General 
Montgomery, is exactly consonant to the opinion 
I have formed of these people, and such as they 
will exhibit abundant proofs of, in similiar cases' 
whenever called upon. Place them behind a para- 
pet, a breast-work, stone wall, or any thing that will 
afford them shelter, and, from their knowledge of a 
firelock, they will give a good account of their enemy ; 
but I am as well convinced, as If I had seen it, that 
they will not march boldly up to a work, nor stand 
exposed in a plain ; and yet, if we are furnished with 
the means, and the weather will afford us a passage, 
and we can get in men, for these three things arc 

' This mutotinto is dractibcd by Bakei [EHcravrJ P^mitt of Wiukii^»f»'i, 
anil tepmcnlcd W&shinglon in "fall figure in nnifona and cocked hit, on 
honeback. advancing (o ihc righL A drmwu tword in the right hand is betd 
kcrosii the body, a Lattic in the riglii (lUunce," Mr. Dukci concludes tbtl 
*' Iti every scnie lliey [the C^ampbell iioUnJci al Wo^liinglonj miy be cluaed 
aiiiuii[> ihf lietiliouK poHrnil*. . . . The prfMimjttion it thul the portnulorS 
ponnils . . were manufactured nt tlir be^iniimg of the re>*ohtttonuT'i 

war, (or aouie enlcTpritiDg piibliihci either id Lonion or on the Continent, ia 
thccxprcu purpotc ol beini; enKcnvcd, in anticipation of a demand which it 
was felt mubt atuc." 




necessary, something must be attempted.' The men 
must be brought to face danger ; they cannot always 
have an intrcnchmcnt or a stone wall as a safeguard 
or shield ; and it is of essential importance, that the 
troops in Boston should be destroyed if possible 
before they can be reinforced or removed. This is 
clearly my opinion. Whether circumstances will admit 
of the trial, and, if tried, what will bi; the event, the 
All-wise Disposer of them alone can telL 

The evils arising from short, or even any limited 
inlistment of the troops, are greater, and more ex- 
tensively hurtful than any person (not an eye-witness 
to them) can form any idea of. It takes you two or 
three months to bring new men in any tolerable de- 
gree acquainted with their duty ; it takes a longer 
time to bring a people of the temper and genius of 
these into such a subordinate way of thinking as is 
necessary for a soldier. Before this is accomplished, 
the time approaches for their dismissal, and you are 
beginning to make interest with them for iheir con- 
tinuance for another limited period; in the doing of 
which you are obliged to relax in your discipline, in 
order as it were to curry favor with them, by which 
means the latter part of your time is employed in un- 
doing what the first was accomplishing, and instead 

' '* I ihink then wc mighi have atuckcd 'cm loiig before thu and witb 
(acc««, were our troupa iliflercntljr i-oniitilutcd ; but the lata) penuaiion has 
taken deep root in the wiodt al ibe Am<ri«:aitt fruni the lli^iot to Uic la«e«l 
order that they are no aiatch for the Rcgnlari, bul when covered by a waJl or 
braatt work. This notion U still further tlrengtheae^l by the cn^tlen woifu we 
are thrawins up. In »bort naicH wc caa remove the idea (and it inaxt Iw do»e 
by degietttl Du ^lirited anion no be veniured on wlibotii the gmtesl ruk." 
•—CJkarhi t.*f I* Stnj. Jtmik, tg September, 177;. 




of having men always ready to take advantage of 
circumstances, you must govern your movements by 
the circumstances of your Inlistment This is not 
all : by the time you have got men arm'd and cquip'd, 
the difficulty of doing which is beyond description, 
and with every new sett you have the same trouble 
to encounter, without the means of doing it. — In 
short, the disadvantages arc so great and apparent 
to me, that I am convinced, uncertain as the continu- 
ance of the war is, that Congress had better deter- 
mine to give a bounty of 20, 30, or even 40 Dollars 
to every man who will Inlist for the whole time, be it 
long or short. I intend to write my sentiments fully 
on this subject to Congress the first leizure time I 

I am exceeding sorry to hear that Arnold's wound 
is in an unfavorable way ; his letter to mc of the 14th 
ulto. says nothing of this. I fancy Congress have 
given some particular direction respecting GenL 
PrescotL I think they ought for more reasons than 
one. i am, &c. 

Be so good as to send the enclosed letter of Ran- 
dolph's to the Post-office.' 

' " The CvntincnCaJ Coogiess havtnf; been pleM«d to grder. •nd direct, tint 
Ihere Khali bo one Clmplain to two Rc^mcntt am) ihm the pay of Mcb Cluq>liia 
shall be Tkirly.lhrtr dollan * one third, pr. Kilerwlar Month. The Rcvd. 
Abkl Leonard is appointed CluLplain tu the Rc|;iineat of Ariitlciy. under the 
command of Col. Knox, uid to the lOth R<^nicrl. m present coimaoBdMil by 
I.l. Col. Purliee. 

" A.i [hctc ctn be hut founccn Chnplftins ander thii csUblidunent, lo the jS 
Rrgimrati (incliidiiig lh« AnilUry & Riflle KegimeplO and a> prefriviice utll 
he given lo tho«e ChuplBini who tcrved liul yew, provided their coudud. »wd 
ititeiidADCC, have bccii uii exceptionable ; The Hri]tadict!i are tu enquire iuto 








Cambridcb, 6 FebmuT, 1776. 


I received your favors of the 2 and 5 Inst, and 
agreeable to your request have ordered payment of 
the bailance of the expences attending the journey of 
the two French gentlemen to Philadelphia to be 
made [to] Wm. Bacon Post rider, for your use, which 
I hope will come safe to hand. 

I am happy to hear of your having received 12.500 
dollars from Congress for the troops going upon the 
Canada expedition, and heartily wish that no other 
difficulties may occur to impede their march and pre- 
vent their giving early and timely succor to our 
friends there, which they certainly stand in great 
need of. 

As to replacing the money advanced by your Col- 
ony to the regiments which served the last campain, 
it is not in my power. It is what I did not expect 
and therefore have made no provision for it I 
should have paid them in the same manner I did 
others, had I not been prevented by the Colonels, 
who expressed their inclination to receive the whole 

Uilt. waatt and with the Coluneln and ComnmiMling OScen of the MvenI 
Rc^tncnlt. ■miigc thrm agrc«ble to th« above dirMtion, and inakt itporl 
iliemrf tlui odlcn may iuuc ncconlinglr. 

" Th« Command inc Officm of ih? rrgtmeBts Bpon the new nublithmrni 
arc each of them lo apply to Commimty Checvet, to moiTow Mominc ; (ot 9mt 
Band of powder, wtih .1 proportionaUc qianbty of Ball and Canridgr-paper : 
which they <ue ta order Id be inunediately made up In caitrldge*. and put up 
lu a fnupcr tantiacr, according to the dinciionb Cotntnbaair Chccvcr will girc. 
I'bU Ammunition, the Coramandini; Officers are to keep in a tafc place, under 
their innvdiaU Care, lo be ready to be delivmd, when occuioa may call (ai 
itsbdnsdjitribmed,"— Oi^r/v BmIi. 7 Fcbniaiy. 1776. 

at one time, after the expiration of the service and 
on their return home. This being the case, I always 
imagined, that the sum advanced by you, would be 
taken in when Congress came to form a general 
account against the colonies, and be applied to your 
credit which I presume they will shortly do, as I 
have wrote to them, and pointed out the neccssit)' 
of having all the accounts respecting this Army ad- 
justed and liquidated at proper periods. Had I con- 
ceived that this application for repayment would have 
been made to me, l should certainly have included 
the sum advanced by you in my estimates and taken 
care lo have had a sufficiency of money to discharge 
it. But I did not I am unprovided, and have not 
more than will answer the claims I was apprized of 
antecedent to the last, day of December. They are 
large and numerous, and in a few days will drain our 
treasury of every Shilling now in it. I am exceed- 
ingly sorry that matters should be so circumstanced 
as to give you the least disappointment or trouble; 
But I doubt not Congress upon your application will 
refund what you have advanced, or settle it in such a 
way, as shall be perfectly agreeable to you. 

I shall take care to have the three battallions of the 
militia paid which are coming here for the defence of 
our lines in the same manner, that the rest are when 
the time of their engagement expires. They certain- 
ly might have come thus far without the advance you 
have been obliged to give. 

Having lately examined into the state of our pow- 
der and finding the deficiency to be much greater than 




what I had any Idea of, and hearing that the mtlitta 
from your Colony, and I fear from the others too. are 
coming without any. or with but very little, I cannot 
but confess my anxiety and concern to be very great. 
I therefore again repeat the request I made this 
morning, and beg and entreat your most strenuous 
and friendly exertions to procure what we are told is 
important, or such part as you possibly can, and send 
it to me with the utmost expedition ; I am already 
much alarmed on account of the scarcity', and the 
Militia coming in without a proper supply fills me 
with apprehensions of the most disagreeable nature — 
this I would mention in confidence, as It might give 
great uneasiness if it was generally known and trust- 
ing that nothing in your power will be wanting to re- 
heve usatthisolarmingand important crisis, I am,&c. 



CANBunos. 9 Febniuy, 17^ 


In compliance with the resolves of Congress. I have 
applied to General Howe for the exchange of Mr. 
Lovell. A copy of my letter and his answer thereto 
you have inclosed. 

Captain Waters and Captain Tucker, who com- 
mand two of the armed schooners, have taken and 
sent into Gloucester a large brigantine laden with 
wood, 1 50 butts for water and 40 suits of bedding, 
bound from La Havre in Nova Scotia for Boston. 
She is one of the transports in the ministerial sen'Icc. 




The captain says he was at Halifax the 1 7th January, 
and that General Massey was arrived there with two 
regiments from Ireland. 

The different prizes were all libelled immediately 
on receipt of the resolves of Congress pointing out 
the mode, but none of them yet brought to trial, 
owing to a difference between the law passed in this 
Province, and the resolutions of Congress. The 
General Court are making an amendment to their 
law by which the difficulties that now occur will be 
removed, as I understand it is to be made conformable 
to your resolves. The unavoidable delay attending 
the bringing the captures to trial is grievously com- 
plained of by the masters of these vessels, as well 
as the captors. Many of the former have applied 
for liberty to go away without awaiting the decision, 
which I have granted them. 

I beg leave to call the attention of Congress to 
their appointing a commissary in these parts, to at- 
tend the providing of necessaries for the prisoners 
who are dispersed in these provinces. Complaints 
arc made by some of them, that they are in want of 
bedding, and many other things ; as I understand 
that Mr. Franks has undertaken that business, I wish 
he was ordered to find a deputy immediately, to 
see that the prisoners get what is allowed them by 
Congress. Also to supply the officers with money as 
they may have occasion. It will save mc much time 
and much trouble. 

There are yet but few companies of the militia 
come in. This delay will, I am much afraid frustrate 







intention of their being called upon 
is slipping fast away when they may bt 

The demands of the army were so very pressing 
before your last remittance came to hand, that I was 
under the necessity ofbonrowing ^2 5,000 lawful money 
from this province. They very cheerfully lent it, and 
passed a vote for as much more if required. 1 have 
not repaid the sum Iwrrowed, as I may stand in need 
of it before the arrival of another supply, which the 
demands of the commissar)- general. Quartermaster 
general, and paying off the arrearages, will very soon 

Your esteemed favor of the 29th ultimo is just come 
to hand. It makes me very happy to find my con- 
duct hath met the approbation of Congress. I am 
entirely of your opinion that should an accommoda- 
tion take place, the terms will be severe or favorable, 
in proportion to our ability to resist, and that we 
ought to be on a respectable footing to receive their 
armaments in the spring. But how far wc shall be 
provided with the means, is a matter I profess not to 
know under my present unhappy want of arms, am- 
munition and 1 may add men. as our regiments are 
very incomplete. The recruiting goes on very slow, 
and will I apprehend be more so, if for other ser\'ice 
the men receive a bounty, and none is given here. 

I have tried every method I could think of to pro- 
cure arms for our men. They really are not to be had 
in these governments belonging to the public, and if 
some method is not fallen upon in the southern gov- 
ernments to supply us. we shall be in a distressed situ- 




alien for vvaiu of them. There are near 2000 men 
now in camp without firelocks. I have wrote to the 
committee of New York this day. requesting them to 
send me those arms, which were taken from the dis- 
affected in that government The Congress interest- 
ing themselves in this request will doubtless have a 
good eflfect. I have sent officers into the country with 
money to purchase arms in the diflferent towns ; some 
have returned and brought in a few ; many axe still 
out, what their success will be, I cannot determine. 

I was in great hopes that the expresses resolved to 
be established between this place and Philadelphia 
would ere now have been fixt It would, in my opin- 
ion, rather save than increase the expcncc, as many 
horses are destroyed by one man coming the whole 
way. It will certainly be more expeditious and safer 
than writing by the post, or private hands, which I am 
often under the necessity of doing. I am, &c' 


CAHBUIWE, 9 Kebntvy. 1776. 


The purport of this letter will be directed to a 
single object. Through you I mean to lay it before 

' Keccivu'l pL-bniary iintj. On tlic 33d i uvnuuittcc cvinpw»cil of fuac, W 
ion, lluntjnginn. I-<:c nni) Ixwii Miinix, w^sniuncd to mncroct (or the ni*kiii| 
of muilceii fliiil bayt-nete, *nd to consider oi fArther meant ai pntmotinf umI 
encouraging the nanufBCtuiG of fircannb 111 all poitk of the niiitnl coionio. 
The »eavl commiltccwabalKi tuihomcU to export accilaiii amiiuni of prodiiot 
to br exchanged far nrms. It vriu not until March I4lh ihjit 1 |[eBeral refla- 
tion rccomrncndini: the dixannine gt the " nntariaiuly dlaaffcclcd '' lhT<ni|[hoat 
ihc colonin wa& adapted, the anns taken to be paid for. 




Congress, and, at the same time that I beg their 
serious attention to the subject, to ask pardon for 
intruding an opinion, not only unaslced. but, in some 
measure, repugnant to their resolves. 

The disadvantages attending the limited enlistment 
of troops are too apparent to those, who are eyewit- 
nesses of them, to render any animadversions neces- 
sar>' ; but to gentlemen at a distance, whose attention 
is engrossed by a thousand important objects, the 
case may be otherwise. 

That this cause precipitated the fate of the brave 
and much-lo-be-lamented General Montgomerj-, and 
brought on the defeat, which followed thereupon, I 
have not the most distant doubt of ; for. had he not 
been apprehensive of the troops leaving him at so 
important a crisis, but continued llic blockade of 
Quebec, a capitulation, from the best accounts 1 have 
been able to collect, iiuist inevitably have followed. 
And that we were not obliged at one time to dispute 
these lines, under disadvantageous circumstances, 
(proceeding from the same cause, to wit, the troops 
disbanding of themselves before the militia could be 
got in,) is to me a matter of wonder and astonish- 
ment, and proves, that General Howe was either 
unacquaintt.*d with our situation, or restrained by his 
instructions from putting any thing to hazard, till his 
reinforcements should arrive. 

The instance of General Montgomery — I mention 
it, because it is a striking one, — for a number of 
others might be adduced proves, that, instead of hav- 
ing men to take advantage of circumstances, you are 




in a manner compelled, right or wrong-, to make cir- 
cumstanccs yield to a secondary consideration. Since 
the ist of December, I have been devising evei^- 
means in my power to secure these encampments ; 
and though I am sensible that we never have, since 
that period, been able to act on the offensive, and at 
times not in a condition to defend, yet the cost of 
marching home one set of men, bringing in another, 
the havoc and waste occasioned by the first, the 
repairs necessary for the second, with a thousand 
jncidental charges and inconveniences, which have 
arisen, and which it is scarce possible either to recol- 
lect or describe, amount to near as much, as the 
keeping up a respectable body of troops the whole 
time, ready for any emergency, would have done. 

To this may be added, that you never can have a 
well disciplined army. 

To bring men [to be] well acquainted with the 
duties of a soldier, requires time. To bring them 
under proper discipline and subordination, not only 
requires time, but is a work of great difficulty, and, 
in this army, where there is so little distinction be- 
tween the officers and soldiers, requires an uncommon 
degree of attention. To expect, then, the same ser- 
vice from raw and undisciplined recruits, as from 
veteran soldiers, is to expect what never did and per- 
haps never will happen. Men, who are familiarized 
to danger, meet It without shrinking ; whereas troops 
unused to service often apprehend danger where no 
danger is. Three things prompt men to a regular 
discharge of their duty in time of action ; natural 




bravery, hope of reward, and fear of punishment 
The two first are common to the untutored and the 
disciplined soldier ; but the last most obviously dis- 
tinguishes the one from the other. A coward, when 
taught to believe, that, if he breaks his ranks and 
abandons his colors, will be punished with death by 
his own party, will take his chance against the enemy ; 
but a man, who thinks little of the one, and is fearful 
of the other, acts from present feelings, regardless of 

Again, men of a day's standing will not look for- 
ward; and from experience we find. that, as the time 
approaches for their discharge, they grow careless of 
their arms, ammunition, camp utensils, &c Nay, even 
the barracks themselves have felt uncommon marks 
of wanton depredation, and lay us under fresh trouble 
and additional expense in providing for every fresh 
set, when we find it next to impossible to procure 
such articles, as are absolutely necessary in the first 
instance. To this may be added the seasoning, which 
new recruits must have to a camp, and the loss con- 
sequent thereupon. But this is not all. Men en- 
gaged for a short, limited time only, have the officers 
too much in their power ; for, to obtain a degree of 
popularity in order to induce a second enlistment, a 
kind of familiarity takes place, which brings on a rel- 
axation of discipline, unlicensed furloughs, and other 
indulgences incompatible with order and good gov- 
ernment ; by which means the latter part of the time, 
for which the soldier was engagwl, is spent in undoing 
what you were aiming to inculcate in the first. 

To go into an enumeration of all the evils we have 
experienced, in this late great change of the army, 
and the expenses incidental to it, to say nothing of the 
hazard we have rvin, and must run, between the dis- 
charging of one army and enlistment of another, (un- 
less an enormous expense of militia is incurred.) 
would greatly exceed the bounds of a letter. What I 
have already taken the liberty of saying will serve to 
convey a general idea of the matter ; and therefore I 
shall, with all due deference, take the freedom to give 
it as my opinion, that, if the Congress have any reason 
to beheve. that there will be occasion for troops an- 
other year, and consequently for another enlistment, 
they would save money, and have Infinitely better 
troops, if they were, even at a bounty of twenty, 
thirty, or more dollars, to engage the men already en- 
listed (till January next.) and such others as may be 
wanted to complete the establishment, for and during 
the war. I will not undertake to say, that the men 
can be had upon these terms ; but I am satisfied, that 
it will never do to let the matter alone, as it was last 
year, till the time of service was near expiring. The 
hazard is too great, in the first place ; in the next, the 
trouble and perplexity of disbanding one army and 
raising another at the same instant, and in such a 
critical situation as the last was, are scarcely in the 
power of words to describe, and such as no man, who 
has experienced them once, will ever undergo again. 

If Congress should differ from me in sentiment 
upon this point, I havt^ only to beg that they will do 
me the justice to believe, that I have nothing more in 





view, than what to me appears necessarj' to advance 
the public weal, although in the first instance it wil! 
be attended with a capital expense; and that I have 
the honor to be, &&' 



Cambbidue, lo Kcbniary, 1776. 

Dear Sir, 

Your obliging favors of the 28th uU, and rst inst. 
are now before me, and claim my particular thanks 
for the polite attention you pay to my wishes in an 
early and regular communication of what is passing 
in your quarter. 

If you conceive, that I took any thing wrong, or 
amiss, that was conveyed in any of your former 

■ Rckd III Congtok, Fcbcuuy ». Kclencd loihcCommiuec of ihc WbuJc. 

"H«iiy ailempu liave been made to get « buuniy lor Ihc New Kngland 
troofX, hut wilhoiit rflccl. The C«ngr«M ate rcolvol yixj t.liall atianJ^tn lti« 
Unei anil t!>ve up ihcir (.nunlry to tw ravacnl. if they will nut derentl it npun 
the tame lerms A&ihoKcnlistcdhcT?. (such at match to Cankda nnl;r»^~epted)L*' 
—KftJtt IfaihiiigtffH, 3 March. 1776, 

" The (ruth it I iicvci opp«m;l) the mj«n]; of uicii iluring ike war. . . Dut 
I ocMteniled that I knew th« nunilwr lu be obtained in tbl^ atanner would be 
toy MnaU ia New Eiiglaiid, fioui whence ahuMt ihc wliuU army wai denvtd. 
A rcgimctit might pcusitily be obtained, udlicmeade*!, idlest, tniM) iiilemfieraic 
and wcinhl«s,s, but no moir. A tegimeni vas ao army to d^ lend lhi« country. 
We miut luTi; iradcuncn's Mina, and farmcn' sota, wr wcabuuld be wilhput ilc- 
fence, and such men ceriaintT would not enlist duiJng ih« war, at (or long 
p«riodi, at yet. The lervice wai loo new ; ihey had not y«l be<cme attached 
10 It by liahil. Wkb ti crolil'le thai men who could £« at home belter livinf, 
more cnmforlable lodijinipi, mure than double the waBca, in ufciy. not expoavd 
le th« Mckncte of tha e*mp, wonM bind (hoouvlve* daring ihr war ? I knew it 
10 be impowble. In the Middle SlaiM, where they imiioned from Irehind and 
(Smnany, m> many lrana:pancd conrleta and redeinptlonurs, ii wa& povdblt they 
night obtain lome. Let tbtns try. . . Bat i wanted (bos agatiui depending 
oa lo EaprotMblc a mourcc for ihcdcfence of the cuuiiify. Congms cnofcucd 
the vnankwerableforceof thikreatnntng." — John A6aias.,.4ulfbiograpky,\i\.,f/t, 

letters, yon are really mistaken. I only ineani to 
convince you, that nothing would give more real 
satisfaction, than to know the sentiments, which arc 
entertained of me by the public, whether they be 
favorable or otherwise ; and I urged as a reason, that 
the man. who wished to steer clear of shelves and 
rocks, nuisC know where they laj'. I know — but to 
declare it, unless to a friend, may be an argument of 
vanity — the integrity of my own heart. I know the 
unhappy predicament I stand in ; I know that much 
is expected of me ; I know, that without men, with- 
out arms, without ammunition, without any ihiny fit 
for the accommodation of a soldier, little is to be 
done : and, whicli is mortifying, I know, that I can- 
not stand justified to the world without exposing my 
own weakness, and injuring the cause, by declaring 
my wants, which I am determined not to do, further 
than unavoidable necessity brings every man ac- 
quainted with them. 

If, under these disadvantages, I am able to keep 
above water, (as it were) in the esteem of mankind. I 
shall feel myself happy ; but if, from the unknown 
peculiarity of my circumstances, I suffer in the opin- 
ion of the world, I shall not think you take the 
freedom of a friend, if you conceal the reflections 
that may be cast upon my conduct My own situa- 
tion feels so irksome to me at times, that, if I did not 
consult the public good, more than my own tranquil- 
lity, 1 should long crc this have put every thing to 
the Ciist of a Dye. So far from my having an army 
of twenty thousand men well armed, I have been 





here with less than half of it, including- stck, fur- 
loughed. and on command, and those neither armed 
nor clothed, as they should be. In short, my situa- 
tion has been such, that I have been obliged to use 
art to conceal it from my own officers. The Con- 
gress, as you obser\"e, expect, I believe, that I should 
do more than othcrs.^for whilst they compel me to 
inlist men without a bounty, they give 40 to others, 
which will, I expect, put a stand to our Inlistmcnts ; 
for notwithstanding all the pubHck virtue which is 
ascrib'd to these people, there is no nation under the 
sun, (that I ever came across) pay greater adoration 
to money than they do — I am pleas'd to find that 
your Battalions arc cloathed and look well, and that 
they are filing off for Canada. I wish I could say 
that the troops here had altered much In Dress or 
appearance. Our regiments are little more than half 
compleat, and recruiting nearly at a stand — In all my 
letters I fail not to mention of Tents, and now per- 
ceive that notice is taken of yr. application. I have 
been convinced, by General Howe's conduct, that he 
has either been very ignorant of our situation (which 
I do not believe) or that he has received positive or- 
ders (which. I think, is natural to conclude) not to put 
anything to the hazard till his reinforcements arrive ; 
otherwise there has [not] been a time since the first 
of December, that we must have fought like men to 
have maintained these Lines, so great in their exienL 
The party to Bunker's Hill had some good and 
some bad men engaged in it. One or two courts 
have been held on the conduct of part of it. To be 




plain, these people — among friends — arc not to bt- 
depended upon if exposed ; and any man will fight 
well if he thinks himself in no danger. 1 do not 
apply this only to these people. 1 suppose it to be 
the case with all raw and undisciplined troops. You 
may rely upon it, that transports left Boston six 
weeks ago with troops ; where they are gone, unless 
driven to the West Indies, I know not You may 
also rely upon General Clinton's sailing from Boston 
about three weeks ago, with about four or five hun- 
dred men ; his destination I am also a stranger to 
I am sorry to hear of the failures you speak of from 
France. But why will not Congress fonvard part of 
the powder made in your province ? They seem to 
look upon this as the season for action, but will not 
furnish the means. I will not blame them. 1 dare 
say the demands upon them are greater than ihey 
can supply. The cause must be starved till our re- 
sources are greater, or more certain within ourselves. 
With respect to myself, I have never entertained an 
idea of an accommodation, since I heard of the meas- 
ures, which were adopted in consequence of the 
Bunker's Hill fight. The King's speech has confirmed 
the- sentiments I entertained upon the news of that 
affair ; and, if every man was of my mind, the minis- 
ters of Great Britain should know, in a few words, 
upon what issue the cause should be put. I would 
not be deceived by artful declarations, nor specious 
pretences ; nor would I be amused by unmeaning 
propositions; but in open, undisguised, and manly 
terms proclaim our wrongs, and our resolution to be 




redressed. I would tell them, that we had borne 
much, that we had long and ardently sought for 
reconciliation upon honorable terms, that it had been 
denied us, that all our attempts after peace had proved 
abortive, and had been grossly misrepresented, that 
wc had done every thing which could be expected 
from the best of subjects, that the spirit of freedom 
beat too high in us to submit to slavery, and that, if 
nothing else could satisfy a tyrant and his diabolical 
ministry, we are determined to shake off all connex- 
ions with a state so unjust and unnatural. This I 
would tell them, not under covert, but in words as 
clear as the sun in its meridian brightness, 

I observe what you say, in respect to the ardor of 
the chimney-corner heroes. I am glad their zeal is in 
some measure abated, because if circumstances will 
not permit us to make an attempt upon B[oston], or if 
it should be made and fail, we shall not appear alto- 
gether so culpable. I entertain the same opinion of 
the attempt now, which I have ever done. 1 believe an 
assault would be attended with considerable loss, and 
I believe it would succeed, If the men should behave 
well As to an attack upon B| unker's] Hill, (unless 
it could be carried by surprise,) the loss. I conceive, 
would be greater in proportion than at Boston ; and, 
if a defeat should follow, .it would be discouraging to 
the men, but highly animating if crowned with suc- 
cess. Great good, or great evil, would consequently 
result from it. It is quite a different thing to what you 
left, being by odds the strongest fortress they possess, 
both in rear and front. 

The Congress have ordered all captures to be tried in 
the courts of admiralty of the different governments to 
which they are sent, and some irreconcilable difference 
arising between the resolves of Congress, and the law 
of this colony, respecting the proceedings, or some- 
thing or another which always happens to procrasti- 
nate business here, has put a total stop to the trials, 
to the no small injury of the public, as well as the 
great grievance of individuals. Whenever a condem- 
nation shall take place, 1 shall not be unmindful of your 
advice respecting the hulls, &c. Would to heaven the 
plan you speak of for obtaining arms may succeed. 
The acquisition would be great, and give fresh life 
and vigor to our measures, as would the arrival you 
speak of; our expectations are kept alive, and if we 
can keep ourselves so, and spirits up another summer. 
I have no fears of wanting the needful after that As 
the number of our Inlisted men were too small Co 
undertake any offensive operation, if the circumstances 
of weather, &c, should favor, I ordered in (by appli- 
cation to this Govt., Connecticut and New Hampshire) 
as many regiments of militia as would enable us to 
attempt something in some manner or other. — they 
were to have been here by the first of the month, but 
only a few straggling companies are yet come in. 
The Bay towards Roxbur>- has been froze up once 
or twice pretty hard, and yesterday single persons 
might have crossed, I believe, from Litchmore's 
Point, by picking his way;— a thaw, I fear, is again 

We have had the most laborious piece of work at 




Lechmere's Point, on account of the frost, that ever 
you saw. We hope to get it finished on Sunday. It 
is within as commanding a distance of Boston as Dor- 
chester Hill, though of a different part. Our vessels 
now and then pick up a prize or two. Our Commo- 
dore (Manly) was very near being catched about eight 
days ago, but happily escaped with vessel and crew 
after running ashore, scuttling, and defending her. 

I recollect nothing else worth giving you the 
trouble of, unless you can be amused by reading a 
letter and poem addressed to me by Mrs. or Miss 
Phitlis Wheatley. In searching over a parcel of 
papers the other day, in order to destroy such as 
were useless, I brought it to light again. At first, 
with a view of doing justice to her great poetical 
genius, 1 had a great mind to publish the poem; but 
not knowing whether it might not be considered 
rather as a mark of my own vanity, than as a compli- 
ment to her, I laid it aside, till I came across it again 
in the manner just mentioned. I congratulate you 
upon your election, although I consider it as the coup 
de grtue to my expectation of ever seeing you a resi- 
dent in this camp again.' I have only to regret the 
want of you. if that should be the case ; and 1 shall 
do it the more feelingly, as 1 have experienced the 
good effects of your aid. I am, with Mrs. Washing- 
ton's compliments to Mrs. Reed, and my best respects, 
added, dear Sir, your most obedient and alTectionate 

' At R ii|>rcial election held im Januarf 96ih. Kccd, then chaiimmn ill thr 
Cvmmittcc o( Safely, wa* «Icct«<< « mcmbci uf Uk AMVinbly 





CAMItttDCS, lOFobrnftiT', 177b. 


Notwithstanding I have taken every method my 
judgement could suggest to procure a sufficient num- 
ber of firelocks for the soldiers of this Army, by ap- 
plication to the Assemblies and Conventions of those 
Governments, as well as by sending Officers out with 
money to purchase, I am constrained by necessity to 
inform you, that the deficiency is amazingly great, 
and that there are not nigh enough to arm the troops 
already here — It is true that all the officers gone 
upon the business arc not yet returned, but from the 
small success of those who have made report, I can- 
not promise myself many more. 1 must therefore 
beg leave to sollicit your kind attention to this inter- 
esting and important concern, and would submit it to 
your consideration whether if your honorable Court 
were to depute some of their Members to make ap- 
plications to the different towns, they might not pro- 
cure a considerable quantity. I will most cheerfully 
furnish them with money for the purpose or pay for 
them on their delivery- here, as you shall think most 
advisable — I shall only add that I hope the exigencj- 
of our Affairs at this critical crisis will excuse this re- 
quest, and my confidence of your readiness and 7eal 
to do every thing in your power for promoting the 
public good and am, &c 

P. S. I have heard that there are several King's 
Muskets in the Country— for every good one with a 
Bayonet that have not been abused I will give 12 




Dollars, and in proportion for other Guns fit for 



CAitBUDGK, 14 FebniAiy, 173b. 

Through you, I beg leave to lay before Congress 
the enclosed letter from Lord Drummond to General 

' " I imnMeinc that tbetc uc sevctsi bcloni^ni' (o tlic Colony, sod bavE bcca 
InrornKiI ol nuny Tories being dUsnncd and therefore exjicct, Chit It will Ik 
[■ lh«ir power toObUiDine atoniidenble supply." — tVaiAtHgUm t» Ntw Ytrt 
CemmittK, iw Fcbnuiry, 1776, 

" The Ueneral beinK informed Uiat i^veral oX the luililia sie c«imiii£ in with- 
o«l araif, ordcn th*t ihc Brigidicrt, to wtla^e Brigftilcs they ux joined, do ex- 
amine into this iratlci nnil ilttchiUKc cvcrj' Man who has not Anns k* ihej 
ooaic IR, keeping an account thereof, lo deliver when called for. 

■' It is with no imall dcgre« o( oatoniihtncnl. that the Oencnd ob»crve« by 
the relunu of lost week, that Kveatccn oicn have been disiDi»ed the scrvkc 
out of which number Col. Whiiconb alone has diceh«igcd seven : h« in there- 
fore callcil upon, to be at Head Quarters to-iaonoir mornint;, at ten O'Clock, 
to account foi hit conduct In this Instance : al the same lime it it declared and 
{Mrticular attention u-ill b« p«i<l to it, that if any CaWel, or Commandinf; 
OKoct of a Rc^nicni, prctmntc in future to dLichaigc a man without proper 
Anlhoritj, for su doing, he will be put in arrcKl and tried (or dinibedience uf 
order*. To have men inlinled one ilay, and djichargnl ia it wer« the next, 
without any action, or apparent cause, to diwpialify men for icrrice. must bare 
a bad appearaacc in the returnik lent to Coagits», e^ecially when the lut ol 
De*cft<T]i, cornea to be ad<lcd to it. 

" To renedy these evils, a* (ar as posntble. it b directed. In cases vrherc di^ 
diarfej are mlly necetxory. that the Comnanding OfTicer of the regiment do 
produce the man. (soQiciling the dischari^) to the BripidicT Gcitt. ol bii 
bri|[ade, who is to examine accurately into the Matter, and not to give a dis- 
cbifge for SickoMs of a temporary duration. In caie of deiertion, the Com- 
mandiac OlSccr of (he rcginicoior Corpi, isimmctltatcly lorcpcnthc Dcacrter, 
or I>«cnen. to his Brii^iet General, giving an exact detciiptlon of the man, 
ibe lown be comes from Jte. — who ia to camw: proper Step* to be tahea lor 
apprehend] UK ibem — A Rewaril «f Five dollar*, will be paid to any person, or 
pcr«oDs. who dull apprehend and brinf; a l>ciener Inlo the CaiB|i upon al>> 
laining a ecrtijicate from the Brigadier o4 the senicc performed. " — Qntrrfy 
8«tk, 13 February. 1776, 

Robertson, which came to my hands a few days ago, 
in order to be sent into Boston. 

As I never heard of his Lordship's being vested 
with power to treat with Congress upon tlie subject 
of our grievances, nor of his having laid any propo- 
sitions before them for an accommodation, I confess 
it surprised me much, and led me to form various 
conjectures of his motives, and intended application 
to General Howe and Admiral Shuldham for a 
passport for the safe conduct of such deputies, as 
Congress might appoint for negotiating terms of 
reconciliation between Great Britain and us. What- 
ever his intentions are, however benevolent his de- 
signs may be, I confess that his letter has embarrassed 
me much ; and I am not without suspicion of iu 
meaning more than the generous purpose it pro- 

I should suppose, that, if the mode for negotiation. 

' Two altmipts were node by Lord UnminDnd to prtppoae a pUn of 
dHaiiori hclwwn Great Rriiain ind the colnnics. The firs! nolicc of ihe mm- 
ler tK contain dd in & Ieti« from Mr. Lynch lo Ccnenl Washington, daiH il 
Philadelphia, 16 January, 1776, In which ht aayt ; 

'' A genllcmiin well kiiown in Maryland. I^onf Drmnmaiid, Juxt fnim Eng- 
land, IcIU mc, thai he hsus had ni*ny convcrMtion* wilh iho miniitry, awl 
ihowcd me a paper apgiruvcd by each of tlicm, and whicli he in \un win be 
Hippojted in both IIciutMn. The suhi^iaiicc of it is. — America lo be devland 
Iicc in point of taxation and internal police; judgM toW approved by tkt 
judges of England, and commli^ioned during i;oo(l behaviour, apoa uattd and 
luffidenl Mipport to lie Uittediy aungncd them by the colnnioi ; ell chaiten ID 
be held sncrcH ; that of Bmtton lo be rc»lorc'1 , Britain lu rvswlnte trade W_ 
meiin : .ill dniics laid fnr tlif pmrpniif of rcipilatinn to be piifl into the 
Ireuury where they ari^e, applicable to Itj. tues by in uwn legv&latBR, im I 
of which, America ^hall 1>y duties on sneh article* as viill probftbljr keep paca 
in ill cuniumpiion with Uic Hm «r declenniun of the colony, laid by each I 
lature by i>ermanenl act of A««einMy, ^n.tit lowaids the general vayyaiK d the 
empire annual aum!i in prupurtion to five thousand pounds sterling fcv tUa 




which he points out. should be adopted (which I hope 
will never be thonght of), it ought to have been fixed 
and settled previous to any application of this sort; 
and at best, that his conduct in this Instance is pre- 
mature and officious, and leading to consequences of 
a fatal and injurious nature to the rights of this 
countrj". His zeal and desire, perhaps, of an ami- 
cable and constitutional adjustment taking place, may 
have suggested and precipitated the measure. Be 
that as it may, I thought it of too much importance 
to suffer it to go in without having the express direc- 
tion of Congrejts for that purpose : and that it was 
my indispensable duty to transmit to them the origi- 
nal, to make such interpretations and inferences as 
they may think right. 

Messrs. Willard and Child, who were sent to Nova 
Scotia in pursuance of the resolve of Congress, have 
just returned, and made their report, which I do 

colony. A* tlti* iBDi b litUc mvic (han haJf of wlwt >iii) iruc by datie* berdo- 
forv I>)iM In ihb pincc. f 'Inulitcd his infonnalion, hui w» asured ibai mlnlttry 
wanted nothing bat i diov* of n>-eniie to hold dp to I*u1iMDeiit, w U>e]r arc 
afraiil lu pnj(Mnc ncoiiclllaiiuii without -Avinc what ihf stiff uM Kii{lislimen 
tSill the honor of the nation. Hit Lonhhtp came htibcr ihroi^h Halifax, 
Boilon, and N«iv Vork, wWrf I (aniry hf iitH what initurad him to hint <k<c« 
oi nricr at bc^nning with ■ luipcnvion of arm*. t« which 1 tnnntil a rciy tlcnf 
ear. well knowing that the -bCaMin uf winiei is otirs, anil thai mucli may be ilunc 
tiy April ncil. I «ini;ctcl<r wish I had jrour wnlimcntf on tha*c htatb. I ihall 
jmpcwc than to the (.-untidcratioa of Conicrcvi an man as the moM urxnit 
silAJra a» over. I Ibinh Ihcy merit ti." 

Three wecLi afl«rwanJ>. when Mr. Lynch wai in New Votk. v one ol a 
■.-ominJltca fmn ConCTcH to consult with Cimcnl I^c mprciing the roillfinn. 
liow and defence *A thai dty, be there met lj>rd Drammond, lod wmie again 
to GsKf al \Vashj»ettm : — 

" I meniimicd tuyonaume time ago ccnain ptDpatitioMv w hich l^ril Dnim- 
mond had l>«cn lalkiag (a anc of, G«n«ra3 Rolmison wHlrt to him hy CtinlOn, 
liiu he (Oinion) i* very deunTiu of being inMrumemal in bringing about the 




myself the honor to enclose. They have not an- 
swered the purposes of their commission by any 
means, as they only went a little way into that coun- 
try, and found their intelligence upon the information 
of others. You will see the reasons they assign in 
excuse or justification of their conduct, in the report 

Last night a party of regulars, said to be about 
five hundred, landed on Dorchester Neck, and burned 
some of the houses there, which were of no value to 
us \ nor would they have been, unless we take post 

Mtme eni4. Il is mynlcriou* to me 'how mch a man shonld Le Mnl on •oi.'ii an 
c'nind. Be II VI It nisy, il vrill uui proiluic aii; rcmiuiun u[ our nnng ihc 
jireivnl rnontrnt to i^rrni;then mirirlvcK and wcftkcii nai cnrmicf. l»Td D. 
mond'* great point is lo gtt ^ome mrnnbcr of Ccngreu to go liotn«, to i 
ihc cahinci of the real (lc^irc^ and inicnlians a\ thai l>o(l)r rcq)«clin{ tlic icc^ 
lablislimmt of peac*. To promole ihi* jiurpoie lie liai desired me lo enrlotc 
jwx a IcUcr, which, nlUr you liavc tc»>1 il, if ;vu tliinK il fxa do no hvm, fom 
will be 10 kind 0.1 lo TorKanl la Robcrtwn, and to nciid his uuwcr 10 U* 
Lonlihip onder your cover. Robertson will doabtlen send It optr lo yon," 

The letter wu as follow* : 

"Juri u I wak siitiii^down to write to you, 1 received joim by GeiKrol 
Clinton, but hive tiot *( yet had nn oppoitiinjiy of vcing him. During the 
very few mcinths I wu «ith you *i Bo.ilDn, I ctpre!»Eil my wish of bong 
able to known at Philadelphia the dUpouiJon in En(;land laward* an 
acooinmoJation upon libertl Icrinn, and mch u were loundcd in oquity Mid 

" You then euiururred wilh me in thinking, that however ranch these guid^ 
men. «li'isc [.>rovim.c it now i* lo think for the public, mi|[bt be held Upu 
aiming at a toui >oiaration. they hnd &\ ihcir wlc ahjci:t mch a recoocUfaiion 
at would give B conirftutional *ecurity 10 their children. In lhi« apjnion I 
think we were not deceived. I'rom all (he couvcifation 1 had at Philoddphi 
will) llioM' Kenilcmcii. who allow me. I hope. Co rnnk amiing the nuniber 
Their friends, I have every rcaiion tn think them most arriomly ditpMed lowatd^ 
rcociQcillation ; itur am I wittioot liupu of :^ucctss. Should such an c\cnl take 
place, it i» not impoulblr but a deputation from hcnc« nioy l>e found ex| 
est, and ill that caie a powport requisite for ■ Mcurity ^pinsl ICnglUh crui»cr«, 
Such n passport must be left blank, far Tdling up namca. and sent by the >aine 
coiiveyaiiL-e that this paMCti tliraugh. Il will be ncedlen to caution yon .igaintt 




there ; they then might be of some semce. A de- 
tachment went after them as soon as the fire was 
discovered ; but before it could arrive, they had 
executed their plan, and made their retreat' 

Inclosed is a letter for David Franks. Esqr. from 
Mr. Chamicr in Boston, upon the subject of victual- 
ling such of the King's troops as may be prisoners 
within the limits of his contract, which I beg^ the 
favor of you to deliver him, and that proper agents 
may be appointed by him to sec that it is done. I 
could wish too that Congp-ess would fall upon some 

dcUy My tiliEKt iicquainiincc witli General Homc and Aiimira] Shu]il1i«in 
'ill fnraitfa you «-iIh an it'olo)^' fnr m>t roakinc x more dircci a)ipUcition. 

" P. S. Lei mf guard ymi ignind Iptting ihw gel to thr puhlic, till we «e 
bow fkr my hopta wc »«ll gtwunJcJ." Vmmi^^HJ to /istvrii,ti, 5 l-'cbraory. 


TUt lettMwas forwifiled lo Onml Waihinglon m CanbHdge, with thr 
Tinr uf its bcioE scn\ by hiiu inio 6a^<on, but h« cnclineil ii lo CongrcB, 
CoKgRM insUiKlctl tbcir Ptctideiit to infoim tbcCoflimandcr-in-^hiff thM Ibey 
liighly approved hit on antl attention in stoppinf; Lord Dmtninond'i letter, 
and CDlircly concurred with him. in rcgkrd to his I.ordsbip'i^ offidoDs and tin. 
wunntablc teaL Hence the letter nei«r (uund tts way lo Ceneral KobertMin. 

" Tbc letter riuin Lord Dniiamoad vltkh teemed lo derive inipottaiiM frvra 
tbe iranoniHion oi il l>y General Wa«Jiinj[i<>n, irat a (itc ciiEinc in |i)ay cold 
waWr Ml the fiic of independence. They |opponsntsof indepcndeme j mi il in 
opeiatiou witb great teal and activity, [t wras ind«ci) a wry airy phantom, and 
ought not to haw been tent ut by tbe Uencrftl. who »hould only have refenol 
■•Old DniBimand lo Congmt. Unl there wet« aboni bead-<|uaiten noine who 
were as weak and warcrinc as uur niembcn. ... In short, il [Lonl 
Dranimond's Inter] wic to Him«y a reil, that tbe purblind might <k tfannigh 
it. Bat yet it wa* made imtro mental of mnch <lelay and amuMmcnt to mem- 
ben." J*Ai ASaiHi' Aml»ii^r»fihy. 'in., 31-33. 

■ [n dcacribing this adventure. (General Havre wrote 10 Lnid Dartmovtb. 
thai, il licinic underttood the enemy intended to take poascuion of [>oicheitct 
Poinl. or Neck, » detachnieni wai. ordered (ram Caitle William under ihc cum- 
iiiand ol I.ieulenant-Cnionol l««Ik. and anoihtr n( grenadiers and light 
infanlry commaiKled l>y Major Muncrave, with direction* to pan over the 
loe and destroy every tioubr and every kind of cover on the peninnila, which 
wai caecuted, and tix of the enemy's gnardi taken pciionera. 




mode for supplying ttie officers witTi sucK money as 
they may really stand in need of, and depute proper 
persons for that purpose and furnishing the privates 
with such clothing as may be absolutely necessary ; 1 
am applied to and wearied by their repeated requests. 
In some Instances I have desired the Committees to 
give the prisoners within their appointments what 
they should judge absolutely necessary for their sup- 
port, as the only means in my power of relieving their 
distress. But I imagine that if there were persons to 
superintend this business, that their wants would be 
better attended to, and many exorbitant charges pre- 
vented and saved to the Continent, and the whole 
would then be brought into a proper account.' 

' Rml in Coii)[i«u Fetiniary 39th. Referral to CIimc, J. Adatiu, PeiiDi 
Wylbe. *nt] Rtirkdec 

" AH the Kegimenlii are imineitUtel]' lo he complrsterf, to Twenty foi 
mandfi o\ Amniunltiun a man, Tlic Colonel, or Ctimtnandiog 0(!)L«r nf 
)« to pius his nceipl to the Cflmmivuiy fo> ihp Cdririilgcii, nt Powder ft 
neceimry, lo do this ; and to l«ke reccHiili fmin lh*ir »eTefa! Capuiin, fo* 
total qunntity in each Ci>nnpaii;. The CaplainR &rc to do the littc fram txA 
of iheit men, who are to occount MtUfactorily, for every Io«tl they hii»e paocd 
their recflpl for, ai pnjr Four-pence for tknh dcliLicnl. The (tolonch or Coni' 
mnnJinic oflici:ra ut Rcj-imciiis uic to tiikc ipcd&l v^rt that l]ii.i Order U 
titnct]]> complied with, thnt thoKc l-'tnct nre charged without fnJl to the dcJia* 
quent Soldiers, and creilil given for theiu in iimkinf; out the pa; nbstrncl*. 
This order i* to be nwil to, snd imprcwcH Qjion ihc mind* of ercry man by 
tlidr officers. 

"The (jcncral it rarpriscd to find the Militia applying (or Cartouch Boan 
and olher Avcoiitri-inc»l!i, when h« had not a doubt, but ihey would hue come 
complently equipt. Ac Ihr caxe, however, is olherwhe, hi- directs ihal th«y 
f.hnuld be .served with Powdcr-hoxnn and Shot pouches, in lieu of Cartouch 
Buses *nd ihai every ihing which is delivered lo them he charged lu the 
Regiment that received it, that it may be redelivered, 01 paid for at the c«pira- 
tiun of the term Tor wbicli ihcy tUnd cngEiged. and to ihi& the Qr, Ur. 
Genl. and Cnmmissary of Scores, are to give porticulsT Attention, wUiau! 
further direction up^n this held." — OtJtrfy float, 16 February, 1776. 





CAMBKincE, 18 Febnwrj', 1776. 


The late freezing weailier having formed some 
pretty strong ice from Dorchester Point to Boston 
Neck, and from Roxbury to the Common, thereby 
affording a more expanded and consequently a less 
dangerous approach to the town. I could not help 
thinking, notwithstanding the militia were not all 
come in, and we had little or no powder to begin our 
operation by a regular cannonadt- and bombardment, 
that a bold and resolute assault upon the troops in 
Boston, with such men as we had (for it could not 
take many men to guard our own tines, at a time 
when the enemy were attacked in all quarters), might 
be crowned with success : and therefore, seeing no 
certain prospect of a supply of powder on the one 
hand, and a certain dissolution of the ice on the 
other, 1 called the general officers together for their 
opinion, (agreeably to the resolve of Congress, of the 
22d of December.) 

The result will appear in the enclosed council of 
war*; and, being almost unanimous. 1 must sup- 

* The remtn of Fcbmary tMh. showed h force of 6,797 men 61 (or duly, bc- 
■ita ofteen txA 1,40$ men an mnimiml who might b« onleivd to {ojn llifir 
ra^KtiTC («|[imcnts tmmediatcly. The mtUlU ftom the New Eii|[l«Dd kovctd- 
nenu, arrived or about to nnivc in tamp, would, if the regimen It were campleie. 
number 7,3(6, officers inclwlr'l. Th* inicQtgmce from Bo»l«n indicated an 
aciivc force of tmtr 5,000, A urokc ai tliu time might ptil an end to the wai. 
but (nun ihc Uck of poudei. the main reliance muU be liad In the «RiaU anu^ 
■nd iwil it) cuuiaa and monare. Tkv ct<«ing <A the ice kSofdcd a palb for an 
na»«h. and It ahould lie made before the exjKclcd [einforccmcDta were arrived. 
These eon*tderatio4i« were laid tiefote a council of war, held nn the I6(h, but 
w«n not tl«enc<] sufficieni I" wnxr^nl A" asnult, un the (ground*, that there wa<. 




pose it to be right ; although, from a thorough con- 
viction of the necessity of attempting something 
against ttie ministerial troops before a reinforcement 
should arrive, and while we were favored with the ice, 
1 was not only ready, but willing, and desirous of 
making the assault, under a firm hope, if the men 
would have stood by me, of a favorable issue, 
notwithstanding the enemy's advantage of ground, 
artillery, &c. 

Perhaps the irksomeness of my situation may have 
given different ideas to me, from those which in- 
fluenced the gentltmen whom I consulted, and might 
have inclined me to put more to the ha;tard, than was 
consistent with prudence. If it had, I am not sensi- 
ble of it. as I endeavored to give it all the considera- 
tion, that a matter of such importance required. True 
it is, and I cannot help acknowledging it, that I have 
many disagreeable sensations on account of my silua- 

itDt force oiQiiEti for mdi tn attempt, that The anti;^ wts defident In amu and 
jinwi^rr, and Ihal iKc imprcuton or the (ielil-onicen gcn«rtilly wak iinfatOrMblc 
tu incli a nicns-uTC- It wiu, huwcver. rv&ulfcd. (Iiat a caTiiiunaile and bmnbanJ- 
m«nl wmild be aiivissMc Kr. soon ax iliere «hnuld be a proper supply of powder, 
»xA that in the moanttine plcp.iratiom i)U);1il lu Iw tntdc for lakint; poi4«Hwn 
of DorchcMcr llciihi;. and of Nocldk't f^land al.>o. if ll could be cOcucil. 

On the 3<!>th. writing to Jcsepli Keeil, hv »aitt : " I prupo^ed tt (an ataaullj 
■I) counn:]! ; titil behold, thnugh wc lixl l>ccn M.iiting atl ihc }'cnr (•ur litis (aviv 
aljle event. Ilie enterpriic wn» tlmughl luu ilangenjus. Pvrhnpi it uraK ; perfaaiM 
Ihc irksomcnesA nf my siluaiio» led mv tn iinderlake more llian could be war- 
ranted by prudence. I did uoi ibink m>, and 1 am auie ■ft\, that tbc «Dtcr7Wi«c, 
if It bad been umknakca iciih rcialuiion. nmtl hitvc succeeded ; wltliooil It, any 
would {nil : bul it is now it an end, .rnd I nm preparing to take poti on 
Dorcheater, lo try if tbc ciiciii) will be so kind as t« tiiiiic uut to us. Ten rtgi- 
menlii nf niUitii. y«ii roiikl know, had trutnr lo Kirrngilicn my hnnib for oRcnMve 
RieoMi'CTi ; bul what I hnvc here taiil ri^ipfilini* Ihc drteriiiinalions in councB, 
and the po9Ksain]> of Dorcbcslcr Point, is spoken under the roM,*' 





tion ; for, to have the eyes of the whole continent 
fixed with anxious expectation of hearing of some 
great event, and to be restrained in ever>* military' 
operation, for want of the necessary means of carry- 
ing it on, is not ver>* pleasing-, especially as the means. 
used to conceal my weakness from the enemy, con- 
ceals it also from our friends, and adds to their 

I do not utter this by way of complaint. I am 
sensible that all that the Congress could do, they 
have done ; and I should feel most powerfully the 
weight of conscious ingratitude, were I not to ac* 
knowledge this. But as we have accounts of the 
arrival of powder by Captain Mason, I would beg to 
have it sent on in the most expeditious manner ; 
otherwise we shall not only lose all chance of the 
benefits resulting from the season, but of the militia, 
who arc brought in at a most enormous expense, upon 
a presumption that wc should, long ere this, have 
been amply supplied with powder, under the contracts 
entered into with the committee of Congress. 

The militia contrary to an express requisition are 
come and coming in without ammunition. To sup- 
ply then alone with 24 rounds, which is less by Jths 
than the regulars are served with will take between 
fifty and 60 barrels of powder, and to complete the 
other troops to the like quantity will take near as 
much more than about 60 barrels, besides a few 
rounds of cannon cartridges ready filled for use. 
This, Sir, Congress may be assured is a true state of 
powder, and will, I hope, bear some testimony of my 




incapacity for action in such a way as may do any 
essential service. 

Ft-bruary 2\%t. Wiien 1 began this letter I pro- 
posed to have sent it by express, but recollecting that 
all my late letters have been as expressive of my want 
of powder and arms as I could paint them, and that 
Mr. Hooper was to set off in a day or two. 1 thought 
it unnecessary to run the Continent to the expcnce 
of an express merely to repeat what I had so often 
done before when i am certain that Congress know- 
ing our necessities will delay no time that can possi- 
bly be avoided in supplying them. My duty is 
offered to Congress, and with great respect and 
esteem, 1 have the honor &c 

P. S. Hearing of the arrival of a small parcel of 
powder in Connecticut 1 have been able to obtain 
3000 weight of it, which is in addition to the 60 
barrels before mentioned. 


CAMSBtDRC. 19 Kebnuur, 1776. 


I am grieved to find that instead of Six or Eight 
thousand weight of powder, which I fondly expected 
to receive from Providence (agreeable to your Letter), 
that I am likely to get only 4217 lbs, Including the 
3000 Weight belonging to this Province, (if to be 

My situation in respect to this Article is really 

distressing ; and while common prudence obliges me 
to keep my want of it concealed, to avoid a discover)' 
thereof to the Enemy; I feel the bad effect of that 
concealment from our friends ; for not believing our 
distress equal to what it really is, they withhold such 
small supplies as are in their power to give. I am 
restrained in all my military movements, for want of 
these necessary supplies ; that It is impossible to 
undertake any thing effectual ; and whilst I am fret- 
ting at my own disagreeable situation, the world I 
suppose is not behind hand in censuring my inactivity. 

A golden opportunity has been lost, perhaps to not 
be regained i^ain. this year. The late freezing weather 
had formed some pretty strong ice from Dorchester 
to Boston Neck, and from Roxbury to the Common, 
which would have afforded a less dangerous approach 
to the town than through the lines or by water. The 
advantages of this, added to a thorough conviction 
of the importance of destroying the Ministerial 
troops in Boston before they can be reinforced, and 
10 a belief that a bold and resolute assault, aided in 
some small degree by artillcrj' and Mortars might be 
crowned with success, I proposed the attempt a day 
or two ago to the general officers, but they thought, 
and perhaps rightly, that such an enterprise in our 
present weak state of men (for the Militia are not 
yet half arrived) and deficiency of powder would be 
attended with too much hazard and therefore that we 
had better wait the arrival of the last, and then to 
begin a bombardment in earnest 

This matter is mentioned to you in confidence. — 

Your zeal, activity and attaclimcnt to the cause ren- 
ders it unnecessary to conceal it from you, or our 
real stock of powder ; which after furnishing the 
Militia (unfortunately coming in without and will 
require upwards of Fifty BarreUs) and compleating 
our other troops to 24 rounds a man which are less 
by one half than the Regulars have, and having a few 
Rounds of Cannon Cartridges fitted for immediate 
use, will leave us not more than 160 Barrells In store 
for the greatest emergency inclusive of the 42 1 7 lbs 
from Providence, if we get it. 

This, my Dear Sir is melancholy ! But ic is a 
truth, and at the same time that it may serve to con- 
vey, some idea of my disagreeable feelings under a 
Icnowledge of it. will evince the necessity of vigorous 
exertions to throw without delay evcrj' or,, that can 
be procured into this camp : otherwise the great ex- 
pence of sending in the Militia will be entirely sunk 
without any possible good resulting from it ; but 
much evil, as they will contribute not a little to the 
consumption of our ammunition, &c.. &c 

For want perhaps of better information, I cannot 
help giving it as my opinion, that at a time when our 
military operations are entirely at a stand for want 
of powder principally and arms,' it is inconsistent 

' •* NotwilhaUnditig I have adoptcJ every mcMun which my Jtideciucfil 
(lircctctl (or itrocuhiig artiii in ilicii; tiovrMimcnis (wt Ihc Army under m\ 
cnirnnniid, as udl by niiplicatinnx (o Ihc %cv'l AvKcnililici atid CoBvcntiunt, i<. 
Iiy !<citdiii{,- Olfikcri lu ihc scrcnil Tuwnii tu {lutchaAC, I *m unilcr the diMfjrcc- 
able & melancholy n»-c>«ily of tnrormine ynu that thcK i» at ihk Imponinl 
•.riiis «, very great deficiency, »iiil that there ia bow a conaiikmble number o( 
men at ihnc Bn<ampniciitt w!thoul any in ihcit liaiut^ ; nur do 1 kiiuw that 
there ifi any priMjiccl ur probahiliLy uf provi(lin|[ them— Can yvix, my Dear Mr, 




with good policy to hoard up town stocks with either. 
Better it is to fight an Enemy at a distance, than at 
one's door. Prudence, indeed, points out the expe- 
diency of providing (or private as well as publick 
Exigencies. But if both are not to be done, I should 
think there can be no hesitation in the choice ; as 
the army now raised and supported at a considerable 
expence can be of little use if it is not sufficient to 
prevent an Enemy from disturbing the quiet of the 
interior towns of these governments. 

I am, &c' 

■riit IBB with any (rom your psrl» ? If yau can iirocure or purchase any in the 
Towiu fit for use, I licg that >>ou will do )(, and liarr Ihcm fi>rwar<lc<l wUh all 
pouiblc cupediiion to iiic. t will pay for ihcm immediately on delivery and (tic 
charges for bringing them. I am told that a Major !>ancan ai Schenactotly hat 
alxi«l 300 Kincs Sxrai, thnc or bucti of ihcm as aic good & ici viceablc will be 
of great <»«, and I doutit not may be readily, procured : If they can, I ne- 
fOctt— ihat they may 1; be foruorded «itli nny oihcn thai you may get with 
the prlce^I would col be ihiK pressing & thus IrDponiinatc. were II not for 
nj aituation whidi Ik truly alarming A dblreuiug : To be withio Muufnei tliut 
of « l«mii<ikl»lc Amiy well provided with every ucceuary, without having the 
meau on my pan of mainiainitig even a defcniive war." — H'oikiHtteit I9 
SehuyUi; »S Kebmaty, 1776, 

' " As it ia neccuary that cvciy Regiment ihould be fumttlied willi coI«ra, 
and that ihucc colors Oiould. if ii caii l>c dune, bear Mmc kind of aimilitode to 
the uniform of ike regiment to which they belong, the colonel* with their le- 
>fieclivc Bri{puJicr'> and the Qr. Mr. Gonl. may fia upon such at arc proper, 
ud. can be procureil. There matt be lo each Regiment, the Ktandard (or Rcgi- 
netital colott) ond Colon for each Grand Division, the uhalc to be unal) and 
light. The Number uf the Kcgimciit i* to be mark'd on the colore, and nch 
a Motto, at the colonel may chouM, in fixing njion wbicb. the Geiieiol adviMt 
a connillalton amongst iliem. 

" Tbc ColoDeU arc to delay nn lime, in gelling tbb matter lited, that the 
Qr. Ur. Geal. may provide the colors aii soon am possible. They arc alno to 
conaidcr what Com p'E(|vi page may be further Dcccavary, that no lime may 
be 1c»( in pnniiling it. at tlie leason i> lakt apiwoacblng foi taking the Aeld. 

" The tntncnl cannot again help urging it in the ilimigeit lennt to the culo. 
nela the neceioity of the ilricleit attention lu ilio iliadpline vi their men. leant- 





Cambmoce, a6 F«bniAiy, 1776. 


I had the honor of addressing you on the i8th and 
2 1 St Instt by Mr. Hooper, since which nothing mate- 
rial has occurred. 

We are making every necessary preparation for 
taking possession of Dorchester Heights as soon as 
possible with a view of drawing the enemy out.^ 
How far our expectations may be answered, time 
can only determine : But I should think, if any thing 
will induce them to hazard an engagement, It will be 
our attempting to fortifie these heights ; as on that 
event's taking place, we shall be able to command a 

\-ng tiiein to march and perlonn all the dl0erent e\-ohition» and manixuveis; 
vrhich U of more caMQUal wrricc, ibui dwcUuiij; tuu long upou tlic MaDuol £■- 
ercii«. He abo r«cotninctids to tht colont^U a )>nipa atimlton la lh« ctouhinc 
Af their officers and men, that they may appear in a Mldierllk« numaer." 
— Ordrrfy Boot 30 February. 1776. 

" The (ieueral liiving thv crrdil ul tliik army, much at heart, and aaziotK 
Itial it iihiitild not »iily l^ w«lt, hut lonk well ; t ccommcndh it to, Util dor* 
expect ihm. every OfBcer fruni ilie higlicit lu llie lowoi. ilolh exert himself to 
acconi|tliiih thiHc ends : m attain w-Ciich, the Brigadiere are licsirvd to be atten- 
tive to every niatier, and ihin)-. relative to their Brij^CK. & when Otden are 
not, or cannot he cnmpticd with, im mediately lo report the reason thereof. 

" From hcnceiorward it b expected, that the Weekly Retunu of evt^ Regi- 
nwni will, before titcy arc brought into ilie commander ui CKlcf, be uanuncil 
and certified by the Brigadier, to whime Drigndc ibcy res|)ectively I>clong. vho 
is alxu lo direct hit Major of Itriga^lc, to keep .1 Boob, and have them repilarh 
entered, >Al<rayi coni|iaiing the Rciiim |i> he made, with the one |>rcc«din]£. and 
enquiring minutely into the cauic of every change, or alteration (torn ibe last. 
— ^The oalcufl, or Commanding (Iftlcer of every Regiment it to ol>i«rv« the 
same couduii with rcificci tii l)ie Returns at hii coiiipaiiio, and keep a book 
(or the regular entry ihercitf — Thc^ prvcaiitionii arc t^kcn ti> prevent the eainj 
Bluuder» And Mt>l>kei, vrhicfa have herctofurc happen'd in making out the Paj 
Abstracts, all of which, for ibc futuic. aic lo be iDtpeclcd by the Brigadim. 
compared with th«ir book%, and certified by them ; before a Warrant will be 
gianicU. A very strict atleniion vviil be expected to ihih order, fur it ihcK 




great part of the town, and almost the whole harbor, 
and to make them rather disagreeable than other- 
wise, provided we can get a suAicient supply of what 

[■we greatly want. 

Within three or four days, I have received sundry 
accounts from Boston of such movements there, such 
as taking the mortars from Bunker Hill, the putting 
them with several pieces of heavy ordnance on board 

Eof ships, with a quantity of bedding, the ships all 
taking in water, the baking a large quantity of bis- 
cuit, &c., as to indicate an embarkation of the troops 
from thence. A Mr. Ides who came out yesterday 
says that the inhabitants of the town generally be* 

boolcB mre oUled for, uid do not correipond with ihii order, the ORit'cr neglect, 
iufwfll mMt wilh no favor. 

" The canrniandin]: Officer of each Re|;inienl, maj nppljr (or a waijant far 
fi«».buadr«d doU«ri. to pul into (he hands of suchOfficcr%ai they tend Into the 
cotuiCry, on ihe recruiting Service, to buy armt, but luch as arc good, and fit 
(<x tminedjate uie. Kiiie's MuMgucli, <ir (iumas near that qnaliCjra^ can be had, 
UiouM he got, and with Bayonets if pouiblc. A* there is s commillcc in each 
of the coonlies of the Munckn*elts-Ba]'. appointed lijr the General Court, to 
purthaM aims for ihtt army, the Officers big to take care, not to raiic the price 
by bidding againit each tuAxtt." —Ordtrly U^t, S4 Vebmaty, tJ76, 

" II beingn niaiicr o( too much iinp<ir(ance, lo inttusl the vrounils and liwk, 
of Officen and ^^oldien to umktllFiil Surgt^fino ; The (jeneral ictjueiti ihe l>itec- 
tnr General, and Ihe Siirjmn* i>f the Hospiul, taking also lo their AMittance, 
Mich Regimental Snrgeonv a.*, upon cxaminniinii ihcy approve of - will »ii and 
•mntne the Swjgeras. A Hates. o( ihe whole Amy. and give ceniltcaiu to 
those, who are found qualified to ditcharge the Duties of ifaeii Oflicc, in Older 
that thcr majr receive commiwionv — Geoclcmen uf caadaf. and knowledge in 
their profesiion, will see the utility n[ tliia meature. nnd ap]irovc of it, aons but 
tboae who an conactonv of ihcir inahilily will decline tbe examination. 

" The Surgeon of ever? Rcgimcni. it immediately lo rcpon. to the Director 
CeMisl of the UmtpiUl, b what manner he, and hit male, are at prewni fur. 
luabcd wilb InatrumciitK. Mcdicincb, Bandaga ftc thai the true ttate and con- 
dition, may be koovrn. The firti Court of CHminatinn trill kit on Tuesday 
next, at Ihe convaletL-cnl H<M|iiial, in Cambridge, at eleven in the forenoon at 
which all tho Sutgeniu nnd their Male*, of Genl. Sullivan'* Bri^de are m 
UknA,"^Or^*riy B««t. 35 February, I77fi. 




Heve that they are about to remove cither to New 
York or Virginia, and that every vessel in the harbor 
on Tuesday last was taken up for Government's ser- 
vice and two months' pay advanced them. Whether 
they really intend to embark or whether the whole is 
a feint is impossible for mc to tell. However I have 
thought it expedient to send an express to GenL Lee 
to inform him of it, in order that he may not be taken 
by surprize if their destination should be against 
New York, and continued him on to you. If they 
do embark, I think the possessing themselves of that 
place and the North River is the object they have in 
view thereby securing the communication with Can- 
ada and rendering the intercourse between the North- 
ern and Southern United Colonies exceedingly pre- 
carious and difficult To prevent them from effecting 
their plan is a matter of the highest importance and 
will require a large and respectable army and the 
most vigilant and judicious exertions. 

Since I wrote by Mr. Hooper some small parcels 
of powder have arrived from Connecticut, which will 
give us a little assistance. 

On Thursday night, a party of our men at Rox- 
bury made the Enemy's out Sentries, consisting of a 
Corporal and two privates prisoners, without firing a 
gun or giving the least alarm. 

I shall be as attentive to the enemies' motions as I 
can, and obtain all the intelligence in my power, and 
if I find 'cm embark, shall in the most expeditious 
manner detach a part of the light Troops to New 
York and repair thither myself if circumstances shall 




require it. T shall be better able to judge what to 
when the matter happens ; at present I can only 
that I will do every thing that shall appear proper 
and necessary. 

Your letter of the 12th Inst by Coll Biil) came to 
hand yesterday evening, and shall agreeable to your 
recommendation pay proper notice to him. The sup- 
ply of cash came very seasonably as our Treasury- was 
just exhausted and nothing can be done here without it 

P. S. This letter was intended to have been sent 
by Express but meeting with a private conveyance 
the Express was countermanded.' 



CAnmiDUE. i6 Febniiry. 1778. 

Dear Sir, 

I received your esteemed favor of the 14th instant, 
which gave me great pleasure, being impatient to 
hear from you. I rejoice to find that you arc getting 
better, and could not avoid laughing at Captain 
Parker's reasons for not putting his repeated threats 
into execution.' 

' Resd in CongicH Miurh 6tb. Referred 10 CIuk, J. Aduits, Pens, Wjihc, 
and RntMge. 

'CcMnl Lcc b«l wnitcn Fcbruuy tfUi : " The (onrnor, 4nd tbc csptain 
ol ■ OMB.of.wKi, hacl ihieaicned perdition in ihe town, if the onnuii verc le- 
atovcd bom the batteries and wharves ; bui 1 ertr considered iheir iluctlx u a 
trmtmm /m/hi'm, •ad even iMniutded ll»c town inbcor the Mine «•; ol iltiiiktne. 
We acrardincljr conveyed them to % plicc uf uletjr ia the middle of ibe day. and 
tiA caaooaade entued. ('«{>t&iii farkcf |iubli«bet a {ileaMuit rcaton fur lu* 
pudvc «)aduct. He Ht)r^ that il -n^ nianifeatlj tnf intention, and ihal of the 
K«w ICitglaad nm under my commaai). tn briag dMtruction an this to«m. ai 
halxl fiir ill l<iyal (iriiK-iplet, but that he wat determined not to indul|[c u> ; to 




1 take notice of your intended dispositions for de- 
fence, which I request you will lose no time in putting 
into execution, as, from many corroborating accounts 
I have received, the enemy seem to prepare for their 
departure from Boston. They have removed the two 
mortars from Bunker's Hill, and carried them with a 
great part of their hea\'3' brass cannon on board their 
ships. They have taken all the topsail vessels in the 
harbor into the service. They are ready watered, and 
their sails bent All this show may be but a feint ; but 
if real, and they should come your way, I wish you may 
be prepared to receive them. If 1 find that they are 
in earnest, and do go off, 1 will immediately send you 
a reinforcement from this camp, and, if necessary, 
march the main body to your assistance, as circum- 
stances may require. I shall keep a good watch on 
their motions, and give you the speediest information 

Lechmere's Point is now very strong ; 1 am send- 
ing some heavy cannon thither. The platform for a 

nnulncd quiet nni oF »piic. 'Die pcnpic htrr Inugli ni hi.i nuincnie. aiul he^xi 
lo dexpJM! ttic meoaees, which (onncily usedtuthtow «in into i.-onTiil»ou, Tu 
do oin JuMkc. the whole show a wonilerfal Alacrity; viA, in rcmtmi^ Um 
cannon, men and linys »r all ajfcs wnrkcfl wiili tlie [•rcaicsi teal and plcawrt. I 
r«ally bellovo thai thp genrnliiy ut ai well affcciE/l is any on the eonliatfnt." 

A tilde diflcrcni lUiry wiu j;ivcn by (^ivcmui Tryoii : " The ice licepii)£ tba ' 
ihip* of war w near within shore, [h«i he [Paikrrl ■*»» of npinion hecoalill 
not bring the nhipt unficf hi* command to loy oB the (orl ami batlety wlxre the 
■nillery and chief [Wt of the 6torE& were dcpMllcii without jficai risk lo the 
king's (hips froni Ihc ice it thai Kcvere »eaton, I'he dcilrucliun. tberefon, of 
lite dty where there were w> many (riendt to gnvcniment, with the lOM of aD 
their propcny und the const dcrstinn of prcicrving the town fi» the king's usiy. 
«'«Tt thought to be LOO greai ucriAcn (o make for only ritarHing itw remonl 
I'f ihe artillery and siorc*" ffnyrttfr y'ryvrt tf Ijfd Grfrge Grn-amt, 6 Apnl, 




mortar is preparing to be placed in the works there ; 
another at Lamb's Dam ; and we are making the 
necessary disposition to possess ourselves of Dor- 
chester Heights, which must bring them on if any 
thing will." If they do noc interrupt us in that work, 
I shall be confirmed in my opinion, that they mean 
to leave the town. A little time must now determine, 
whether they are resolved to maintain their present 
ground or look out for another post. 1 will now re- 
turn to your letter. 

The account you give of our New York brethren is 
very satisfactory. I should be glad to know how many 
men you are likely to have, that you can depend upon 
remaining with you. I very much fear, that the sailing 
of Clinton will keep back those, whom you expected 
from Pennsylvania. Let me hear from you upon this 
and every thing else that concerns you, as soon and as 
often as you possibly can. I shall pay due attention 
to yourrecommcndationsof Captain Smyth and Capt. 

I " Act un nuking rII poidble |iRp«nUion in lake [hmsckouci of ihe Htights 
ol Di^rdwMcr, («l«<Ji I C»pert I A4IJ In »Wr l- m.-«nnpliHh l>y tbe ialtcr cod of 
this week.) it it esjieclcri thai thii. i( any Itaing can. will bring the enemy oui of 
llouon t« oppnw. •• at Ctinrlestnwn. nur erecTin|[ any wurk^ lhn«. Ta «-eiili«* 
(nr lint* on ibc noelh ride «' Cdioliridgc Kivci. to i^ttvnglhtii ikiMc of I>i>rchc!>- 
ter bclore wiy in(i<rcmciil U maile ihai w«y by ilie enemy, may nrillitr l-c wm. 
•iitlritt irilh pnidenoe nor good policy : and to delay it till alter an attack i* 
iMgun, wuuld be loo late, as the luiiicsi will Mwn be deudcd for or a^init db. 
after tbt« luppenv Undet ihn datr of Ihe maticr. inil to avoid pulling an 
aflair of w inucli imponanee l« a doubtful iitue, whcK aoder Prwidenee il may 
be reduced to a certainly, I tubBait il to the wHdoin of your Hoa/il. vrlicltter it 
might dot be liai to (lii«cl the militia of certain towitt. mnnt c»nlig«oua la 
IkArcheiler and Rnxbury, to reinair ia the tin« at IhoM place*, with their am*, 
annxHinition. ami accoitircmenb. tnilantly upon a aigna] fiven. If jrou approve 
of tUt, ymi will please In li^ with General Thomaa (who wain oa you for thai 
purpose), upon ihc lignal to be giTen, and iwuc your nvlicc* ncconlintly.'' 
— WMkit^t^ $t lit Ceumit «f MatiatknMm Bmy. vb February. I77«. 

Badlam. Wltlj respect Co the Canada expedition, I 
assure you, that it was not my intention to propose 
your going there. I only meant what I thought 
would happen, that the Congress would make you 
that proposal. I am now of opinion that you will 
have work enough upon your hands where you are ; 
and make no doubt but your presence will be as 
necessary there, as it would be in Canada.' I am 
glad that Colonel Rit2ema is gone to Congress, and 
hope they will expedite an army thither, not only to 
preserve what we have already got. but also to pos- 
sess ourselves of Quebec before it can be reinforced 
from Europe or elsewhere. It is an object of such 
vast importance, that it will be madness not to strain 
every sinew for effecting that purpose. I am in some 
pain for our little fleet, as 1 ain iniormed that the 

■ Br ■ mahrt of CongrMs on Ihe t7lli of F«bniMry. C^neral Lcc wu orddnd 
la lihc ihc command in Canada, and Geatnil Scliuyk-i lu t*kc liii pl»ce io New 
Vork, But "from xn unduubieil authority thai it [Uie umlh] will he it prinripal 
Mxnc »( Ai;lion." chit airftii^uicot wKt cl'ian|;c<1, Licfurc il was<,-aTTicd intocflecc 
On the 27lh of Fcliruirj'. Caneros fonncii what were callol ihe niddlr uhI 
lAulliern militAry Heparlmenls ; Ihe former candtttnf* of N«w \oik. New S*f**Y. 
I'cniiKylrania, Delaware, and Maryland i and the latter u( ^'irginia. Suclb 
CaruUiia. ^utli Cvulina. aud (ieuigia. (icneral l>e« tran ilirccled. March to. 
to tilee cmiiniftntl of the Miilhrni .Iqiartiiiciit, ami nu the 7th hr left New Veak, 
in cnmplionce witli thai imJcc. ,Si» hriEodifln. John rtrmstmng. William 
TlompMni. Andrew Lewi^ Kolwn Howe, Lord Stirliii)*. and Jame« Moon, 
were appnintc'l the Mine day. of whom f->iir (Amidlrvnt:. l.«wu, Ko*rc, awl 
Moore) wcic likcwiic ordered to that ilepartmeni. 

" I wftji jiiRt about tn congratulate ymi on your nppninrment to the mmnuikl 
iti Canada, wlien I reveivcd the accuunl thai yuur dc^liiiniion wax oltcreil. A.- 
■A Virginian. I niiiti rcjnicr at the change : liui vt aii Am«ncan, I IMnk foa 
would have done more euenliol service to the cornmon cante in f^anada. F<», 
bcHidestlw adrofltogc of »pcakiii|' oiid thiidiiiiff tn French, on olBoet nrka b 
acquainted with their nunijien and tiulutni. and hai> liavelled in Ihrti connuy. 
miut certainly take the »CiAn|>««t hold iif their ■HvL'linn and cuotidence.'' 
tVtuUngtm lo L«, 14 March. 1776, 




Asia and Phcenix are sailed in quest of them.' You 
doubtless had good reasons for the appointment you 

^ mention having made'; as it is temporarj\ it can 
have no bad effect. I am with great regard. &c* 
* "The «blp* ol war which w«ra heie lu.v« b«en (ripened away. The Awa 
Up bciwDon Nullcr't and Dcdloe's Itland ; the Duchess of Cunluo, with hU 
Vtetilencj* i'loij. Tryoii. u under her ilern : the Plxmii it klatinord « Wgiie l>r> 
low tlK> Nnrrciwt ; the Mercury and Ccnentl Clinton inuvl iiieTiubljt fall into the 
hanib of oiir fleet, iinlen they aie ailccp." — Ucie WiajAtHgitm. ig Fcbrvafy. it?'"- 

* Id Cenernl Ln't leliei he had tatd t " Vou iniui pardon rae for a Itbertjr I 
have lalicD. Vou know that Scan wa« to collect our volnnlccn in Conncclicul. 
tiul he tbousht he could nut mciecU. uiilcu he had Mme iiifminkl uffi<.'e anc< 
rani. 1 accnrilingl]- mewl impiidenily. Iiy virtue nf the power <l«piii«d by n^u 
ici me (which po«-cr you no^ct <icpulodl, appuiiile<l him aJjutant-eeneroI, wiih 
ilie rank oT lieulciiaRi-cnlonel. for the cxpedilion. ]| can have no bad eaii«e- 
iiueneet- The man wai mivch ticklMl. and ll addeil tpiirt lo hi* kal, []c U a 
craatnrc <>( [uu(;h <>j)iril and [xiblic vinue, and 'lughl i<> hate his back tJappeil.*' 

* "All olficen, nun .turn niiuiiiineil Olbcen aiid Nildien are jxiiilively fnrtuil 
playinK at cardk. anj uther i^ames ol chani:e. At (hit (inie nf public dnlren men 
nay lind enoi^h to do in the tcnive of ihcir (kx], anil their Country, withoui 
ahotulnninji themtelvM lo vice aiid im morality." — O^derh- Boi^.^t Vthniuy. 


" It ipim me ureat pleaaure la hear that you are Imfiruvinir fn y«Mir heatlh. 
before long I miwt sincerely hope you "ill be so recvvereH. a« tc he able to j^x 
to ibc Army to Canada, where I am Convinced you arc much wanted, and would 
be nf ilie liifitiesi service at ihiit Imjmrtaiii citiM. I doubt not of there being x 
ff>aA deal fd i-onfution and ditordei in Ihal quarter which I Hatter niyaetf vou'd 
to a crcat taau»Tt uibsiJc & be i.-oin|Mt«<l by jfur iircwnce. It b natural 
eBOUj[h llul .Mr, Walker'* retentmcnt ^nald be up for the wrongs he hiu tuf • 
fered. It i> incMcnt to humanity, bat yet the paaaiinnii of IndiTiduaN ot^^l oevei 
iu prevail m far a.s to Injure the Stale. 

" t am Scnry tu 6nd that ihequaniityal Anilleryand Military Store* uioamall 
anil Inconaitlcrable a> t^pe«r» b> the Ketara, I had hoped (hat jou were heiler 
provided with the farmer, and alio with much more amuiittion than yvnt have . 
paritimtarlT' powder and that (he disttMsM no where else were equal to mine lot 
want of this Capital ncccMary. Would Fortune but give you poatesdon of 
Qiieliec. there wuuLI our wanK be moatly tuppbed. — may the tniile prupfdutii 
aoil vour nirluous stru|[gle( be crown«d with tuceeai. — The reduction of thit 
Fonrcis wnotil lie aliended with ani!>ci{ueuc>ei of the maul haiipy and Salutary 
na(ure to our Greai Cause, and as Oneral Arnold niih a handful of men hu 
been able to maintain the lllockade I look forwati] wiih a pleannc cnnlidence lo 
the ilay wlioa y<ju bein( properly rghifarscd. wUl Oblidge II to Surrender. ■ • « 





CAHBRtDOR. «8 Febnuuy, 1776. 

Miss Phelms, 

Your favor of the 26th of October did not reach 
my hands, till the middle of December. Time enough. 
you will say, to have given an answer ere thiSu 
Granted. But a variety of important occurrences, 
continually interposing to distract the mind and with- 
draw the attention, I hope will apologize for the 
delay, and plead my excuse for the seeming but not 
real neglect. I thank you most sincerely for your 
polite notice of me, in the elegant lines you enclosed ; 

" Wbcn 1 teni Colo. Knox hi punu!t of Artillery \ (lid not doiga Ihil 
^haiil'l have Wen dithimithed, I unlj- mctinl thu he EhouUI bavs braug^ 
Cftniulu aiicK OiUinuiive tta yuu could uanicntcDlly ^imtc \ Inil rtom j-uur LcUcr 
•nd 1I1C Krium. I am Icil lo chink tliAt you aur in unni —1 hute Xten infoniicd 
Ihal Ccftl. Lcc linih LAtdy iccureJ a krj^c Number of lIcAvy Cannon & ||ui 
ihnl were at Ngw Vi>rk, fruni whence I iiuuiai^iiic you may ^cl s ^luppljr of whtt 
ynu wnnt which you cAntiol lie supplied with clt« wrh«ro. If f«u vill a«|4ikiai 
mc, I will iDont readily i;iv« yau every Asutlonce in my povrrr ft Oecai myidl 
hippy if t c&n contribuic t» rcliere yniir ■iccnsii)^ in any manner."— Wt^kimf 
/ill* A> SeAuyUr. 97 Kcbfuary. 1776. 

" Ai the season i^ now ImI ajip roach iii|! when every man niurt expect to be 
drawn inlii ihe field of ictiini, ii ik highly nccetuiry Ihal be Kfaoald pnrfMfr hjf 
mind, a'^vw'll as every thing tin-euary for it, tt is ■ noble Cause we u^ttt^fi^tA 
in, it in the cnuxe of virlae and tnankiikd. cvciy lempural advantage and com/on 
to UK, and our piMieriiy ilcprnikiipnn lbs Vigor uf our eKeniont : id thott. Free- 
dam 01 Slavery mui^t be the result of out tunduct, there can Uicrcfoie he nn 
l^Bicr Inducement to men to behave veil : But it niAy 1101 lie amua fnr the 
TroopG to linow. that if any man in action hhall presume loiJciilk. hide hiiuwK. 
or retreat from the cnamy, without the orders of his cvmmaadini; ofiicei, he 
will he inidinlfy sk,'t dii:cn. tts an rvnmplc nf Cnn-ardicc ; Co-wards liavinK ltti> 
fretioently disconeerted the best formed Troops, by their da^lLrdly behaeiflar, 

" Next to the favor of divine prvvidcncc nothing is more cwcntiolly niiiimiij 

to pvc thi" Army lite viciury ulf dl ili> enemiefi. than EuctneM of ducipline. 

nnlevi the Arms are Itejvl clean itnd in gar\i\ fifing Order, it is impMsible I* van- 

quinh the enemy, and ClennlinoH nf llic pei'Kin Rive* health, and •otiilet-liie 

. 4ppeuanc«. That no confusion may bomic wheu the Troo|tt ore called tu 










and however undeserving I may be of such encomium 
and panegyric, the style and manner exhibit a striking 
proof of your poetical talents ; in honor of which, 
and as a tribute justly due to you. ! would have pub- 
lished the poem, had I not been apprehensive, that, 
while I only meant to give the worid this new instance 
of your genius, I might have incurred the imputation 
of vanity. This, and nothing else, determined me 
not to give it place in the public prints. 

If you should ever come to Cambridge, or near 
head-quarters, 1 shall be happy to see a person so 
favored by the Muses, and to whom nature has been 

■diAn : ihc C.ciictnl hi" onlcrnl all ihc iiij!il», ami cvbiiIh of itic Him. and 
radoubts. to he «> Ak'iI and rcgiiUtn!, a* every officer and •olctier may knoiv hi^ 
place, and hisduty ; anil lo i»iifirm the order and diwipliue, lh« Cenervl order*, 
that ibe ofliMrni and men. whn arc tn maiint guftrd. do parade ncry momlnK ai 
eight n'clnck, upoti Ihcir n.-giincnlal pamdes. where they are la he revirircd by 
ihr adjnlani, in ibc prcsciKC uf a Field Offii-ci. wito is to icc tlut tlicir Anni.. 
ammiinitinn anil accnutmnmti \n nimplcnt. And [he mcti drencd in i uiMicr- 
like manner. T he Adjutant is th«n to march (hen ta the poraile •>( the brigade, 
and deliver them over lo the Vtajor uI l)(i|;adc, who U Tcry niiniiicljr to inopcci 
the whcile, and ihcn march ibein to the KnuuU|iamOe. where the ttrtgadier, wiih 
the Field Of)ii.-cn <A the ilaj. will attend, tn wc all the i;iiaf(l<k paradtil ami 
march in ihcit several itc%liiintinn!> -. With ibc Brigadiet Mill cnnslontly niunnt. 
his Major of btif^lir. vrlin is alwayb to make up the guonU upon the grand 
parade, aud report all ex) m ordinaries \o his Brigadier Ceneril. — The Brigidirt 
■4 the day. «ill gi>c hi> orders to the Field Officers of the day. ai wh&i lioie he 
woaM have them to £<i to the visiting and ipwid roundi ; and lull an h<nir be- 
(oiv (lay. u4(kr all the Eiunla iv ke under iVmi!). aud properly posted, vjsii ifae 
imlpiwit. ICC that the eo^rdii iie properly pliced, and that ereiy thing \\ in good 
i>rder for de(en<«, in cue rif an attack. All Olficeri cotnmandinc gtiank, air 
to report to Ihc Uriga<licr o( the day. who i* to report to the Commander \a Chief. 
The (iuards ii> lie mode up on ihe pinutd parade ar«, Leiclunore pnint. Cobble- 
hill, llfiugh'd Itdl, Whilc-hoiuc. main guard on tVoaipect hill, the South. Nnnh 
ft Middle Kcdmibti, [«tchmtire's |Hiint.liridi:c. anil the main Guard for Caa- 
bridgv. antl Wiiiwr-hill— All orbcr Oiurdt arc to be sent from the ftri^ilF. 
porodvi (the Qnarter Cnard of the Regimenti excepted} vhu are parade! oa 
ifacJr Rcpmenial ^tAv<'' ^Ordrrly Bpok, 37 Fcbmaiy. 1776. 

44 > 



SO liberal and beneficent in her dispensations. 1 am, 
with great respect, your obedient humble servant" 

' Phitlb WhNlley vnu born in Afric:i. and brnuglu to BoMou in a jJave^faip. 
in lh« jear 1761, thrn hetwccn sevtMi anil eight yenn □( age. !«he wu por- 
churd by Mr, ^Vheatiey, but ihe noon Ubcovcred quoliliet !k> inteTatuig and 
|ieculiar, tlut the wd<> ticAied more at nii inniAir of the family, ihan as a tlave. 
Slic made an exlrnonlinitr^r prafr«s> in acrguiring ihtr EnJllikh ta^aagc, 
willitml any advninagc from vhooU, learned raidlne and wilting, ant) maai 
fmtcd ibr grcaliMii «ii]{Fnie» fur ylpuuiiig knowledge. Her tMl« indinvd [u 
poetr)' ; sliv rrul mnl ceUsheil \\\< bcit 3uthi>ri>, and toon brgaa In coiii|>um 
vcncs. Meantime iht ntientiim of ihr cnminunil) nas tamed to ■%o tingulai b 
pbenomenon. and vhc wr& risllcd ind noticed by people ol the 6ni characln. 
Her GOtTctpondcncc wili sought, and it eKtended to perxont of dif-tiBCtioA even 
ID EnKlanil. amony wliom may he namrd the Counlns of Huntingdon. Whitc- 
(i eld. and the Earl of Uirltnouih. In 177;, wben tthe was nineteen yean ol 
age. a votumi: a\ her pucuis waa pubtbhcd in liOndoo, kinue u( wliivli had b««ii 
irrtucn 5ve ot six yi-an. Thit Tolutnc i» dedicated to the Cimntcm of Hint. 
inf[dan, nnd in the prefaof art. the name^ of the Covemot nf MaMachuac 
and acvcral oihci cmincnl geiillenicD, beaiing tcatinony 10 tbetc belief of 
having been the genuine wriiei u! ihc poenii. She wa.^ uijnivd. in 1778. 10 
Mt. Jiihn Pctem, (1 man af hct own color, whom tradition report* to have btcn 
little qiiatilicd for ccinfcrTin£ hajipineu 0:1 mo gifted a companion. She died at 
Bosioji, December Jib. 1784. -igct] lliiTl]' .one years. 

Th< feffening Ltrrren a'ni \'ttiiV.i. ^•rrt turiNm by tki Jmm^m PHILUb 
Whcatlev, lh( A/ritam Pitttis, ami frtxtttint t« hi% EitelUntjr £tn. 


I have taken ihi- freedom to addrew your Kacellency in the cncliMcd 
and cmical your ■cccpiance. tltoueh I nm not invniMhle of iti ineccnraciaCJ 
Your lieinu nppDiuied by the Grand Conilncnlal Congrcsh to be Ocncialtutmsi 
of the anniea of North America, together witli the fame of yuui virtues, excite 
lensalioDs noi easy to sappTeofc Your generosity, (lierrfite, I presume, «-il1 
[Mtdon the nttempt, . wiihing your Excellency all poniihlc iuccc-is in the 
great cause you are aa genemuily engaged in. I etn, 

Youi Excellency* most ntiedteni humble nervant 

Providemt, Oct. aft. 1775, PHILUS WhkatuiT, 

Hii £x«tleney Gtn, Wathingtvtt. 

Celestial choir ^ enthtoii'd in realmn of lit[ht. 
Columbia't acetic* of glorious luiU I write. 
^Hiile freedom'! cauie heranxioua breaai alamii. 
She fla^he^ drendfal tn refiilgcni artnt. 
Sec molhci earth her oSa-print;'! Ute bemoan. 
And nationigaie iil scenes before unknown ' 
Sec the bright licams of hcavcn'n revolving light 
Inrolvol in stirrow-. and Ihc veil of iiiifht ! 
TheftoddesK ramet, the movei divinely fair, 





CAHniiPGB, 3 Marcb, 1776. 

Deak Sik. 

The foregoing' was intended for another conveyance, 
but being hurried with some other matters, and not 

OHvr Knd Uurel binili ti«r goldm hsJr : 
Wherever shin«« ihii luitive o( the ddei, 
Unniunber'd chBirnt and reccnl gracn (i»c. 

Mtue 1 bow proptlimu while my pen relxlo; 
Huw pour hcT annick l1iroug;li a Ihuutaml ^Ict ; 
As wlifn EoIqh heiTcnS f»ir fac* ilerormi. 
Enwnpp'd In temper and ■ ninhi of stonns : 
Attoaish'd otcAn fccU the wild nproai. 
The reflaent surgei licit the i>iiundi»|[ itiore ; 
Or thick » Icavct in Auliimn'* golden reign. 
Such, »nil so many, raarc« the warrior^ train. 
In bright array they >eek the work of wai. 
Where high unfuil'd ihe ciinign wavc* in aJr. 
Shall 1 10 Washington Oiclr praise redlc? 
Cniiugh thou know'd Ihutn in ihe fidtl of fight. 
Thee lii«t in place and bonount, — kc dcmntid 
The grace and glory uf thy msilul hml. 
Katn'd (or thy valour, for thy virtues tnore, 
Hear every tongue thy gjardinn aid implurc ' 
One century m^ucc |>cifiinned its dt-itin'd round. 
When Gallic jiowen Columbia'" (nry (ouiwl ; 
And Ml may you, whoever datct dii^mce 
The land o( fr««dom't heaven-drfended nee T 
Fix'd are the cyc)' of nations on Ihe tt«ki^ 
For ia ihrir hopci ColnmMs'n arm prcialbi. 
Anim RiitAnnia droopt ihc prnEJvc head. 
Wlilc round incrcise the riung hill? of dead. 
.\h ' vriiel tiliticlncw to Colnmhia'* state ! 
LameDt thy thim o( boundlest power loo kte. 
fVocecd, great chief, with lirtue on thy nde, 
Thy ev'ry action let the godaleM ijnide. 
A erown, a manaion, «n<l a throne thai shine. 
With gold nnfading, WANHi.sdTon ! be ihtne. 
(From ihc PennKylTania Ma^nna, for April, 1776. page iq}.) 

The EvtnittK Ptil and Gttttral AJf^rtijer in Octwt-cr. ITT"*. puhli«hcd pto- 
|NMali lot printing by lubtctiptinn a volnme ft poem* and letters by Philli* 
Petm, and this ode to Washington wat to be inch) dad. Thevnlnme wa« never 
iraned. ' Letter of 14 February, 177^. 




able to complete it, it was delayed ; since which your 
favors of the 28th of Januarjs and ist and Sth of 
February, are come to hand. For the agreeable 
accounts, contained in one of them, of your progress 
in the manufacture of powder, and prospect of getting 
arms, I am obliged to you ; as there is some consola- 
tion in knowing, that these useful articles will supply 
the wants of some part of the Continental troops, 
although I feel too sensibly the mortification of having 
them withheld from me : Congress not even thinking 
it necessary to take the least notice of my application 
for these things. 

I hope in a few nights to be in readiness to take 
post on Dorchester, as we are using every means in 
our power to provide materials for this purpose ; the 
ground being so hard froze yet, that we cannot in- 
trench, and therefore are obliged to depend entirely 
upon chandeliers, fascines, and screwed hay for our 
redoubts. It is expected that this work will bring on 
an action between the King's troops and ours. 

General Lee's expedition to New York was founded 
upon indubitable evidence of General Clinton's being 
on the point of sailing. No place so likely for his 
destination as New York, nor no place where a more 
capital blow could be given to the interests of 
America than there. Common prudence, therefore, 
dictated the necessity of preventing an evil, which 
might have proved irremediable, had it happened. 
But I confess to you honestly. I had no idea of run- 
ning the Continent to the expense, which was in- 
curred, or that such a body of troops would go from 

1 7761 




Connecticut as did, or be raised upon the terms they 
were. You must know, my good Sir, that Captain 
Sears was here, with some other gentlemen of Con- 
necticut, when the intelligence of Clinton's embarka- 
tion (at least the embarkation of the troops) came to 
hand. The situation of these lines would not afTord 
a detachment. New York could not be depended 
upon ; and of the troops in Jersey we had no certain 
information, either of their numbers or destination. 
What then was to be done ? Why Scars and these 
other gentlemen assured me. that if the necessity of 
the case was signified by me, and General Lee should 
be sent, on^ thousand volunteers, requiring no pay, 
but supplied with provisions only, would march im- 
mediately to New York, and defend the place, till 
Congress could determine what should be done, and 
that a line from me to Governor Trumbull to obtain 
his sanction would facilitate the measure. This I 
accordingly wrote in precise terms, intending that 
these volunteers, and such of the Jersey regiments as 
could be speedily assembled, should be thrown into 
the city for its defence, and for disarming the Tories 
upon Long Island, who, I understood, had become 
extremely insolent and daring. When, behold, in- 
stead of volunteers, consisting of gentlemen without 
pay. the Governor directed men to be voluntarily 
enlisted for this service upon Continental pay and 
allowance. This, you will observe, was contrary to 
my expectation and plan ; yet, as I thought it a mat- 
ter of the last importance to secure the command of 
the North River. I did not think It expedient to 

countermand the raiangf of the Connecticut regi* 
mcnts on account of the pay. If I have done 
wrong, those members of Congress, who think the 
matter ought to have been left to them, must con- 
sider my proceedings as an error of judgment, and 
that a measure is not always to be judged of by the 

It is moreover worthy of consideration, that in cases 
of extreme necessity (as the present), nothing but de- 
cision can ensure success ; and certain I am, that 
Clinton had something more in view by peeping into 
New York, than lo gratify his curiosity, or make 
a friendly visit to his friend Mr. Tryon. However, 
I am not fond of stretching my powers ; and if the 
Congress will say. "Thus far and no farther you 
shall go, " I will promise not to offend whilst I con- 
tinue in their service. 

I observe what you say in respect to my wagon. I 
wanted nothing more, than a light travelling- wagon, 
such as those of New Jersey, with a secure cover. 
which might be under lock and key, the hinges being 
on one side, the lock on the other. I have no copy 
of the memorandum of the articles, which I desired 
you to provide for me. but think one dozen and a 
half of camp stools, a folding table, rather two. plates. 
and dishes, were among them. What I meant, there- 
fore, was, that the bed of this wagon should be con- 
structed in such a manner, as to stow these things to 
the best advantage. If you cannot get them with 
you. I shall despair of providing them here, as work- 
men are scarce, and most exorbitantly high in their 





charges. What I should aim at is, when the wagon 
and things are ready (which ought to be very soon, as 
I do not know how soon we may beat a march), to 
buy a pair of clever horses, of the same color, hire a 
careful driver, and let the whole come off at once ; 
and then they are ready for immediate service. 1 
have no doubt but that the treasury, by application 
to Mr. Hancock, will direct payment thereof, without 
any kind of difliculty, as Congress must be sensible, 
that I cannot take the field without equipage, and 
after I have once got into a tent I shall not soon quit 
it. I am. &c.' 


' " No Officer, *r Soldier, under my pretence i> lo be al»cnt from lii> (lort, 
widiciut lean: in wtiiing from hit Brigadier GcncnU, whn it nni lo gnat litierty 
of running hackvrirds ft (oru'anis, fTom hence to Rosbury, bnt in very Mpedal 

" Aft it ii nol nnliltd)' tint ■ contest may wan be brought on. bctvrecn the min> 
i>tnul Troo{)fi. *nd thi* Annj ; The CAn«ral Hatien himMlf. i^l ev«ry Oft- 
en, ■ad.'^dier, Hillcndcavniircogivc, «uchdi»tingtii»li'd prixif»a(lu»ccnMlKt, 
and good behaviour, av liecomev inm. fightinj- for evcr^hin^ thai \i dear, 
and valuable lo Kreemcn ; Tcmcaiibcring at the Mine Itnie whatdiigniccful poo. 
iduitcM Kill attend ■L-uiiinrr behaviour. — EVC17 tnin'scuudua irill bcmarlol 
■ad rewarde'l, or punitlied accnnlinglj- and rowardice in .1 most cxeHi|>lary 
manner. — Tb« Colotteb, or commanding OScen of rtnimcnts arc to »«« tikat 
ikdr aevenl R^mcnti are properly told ofl, and the supemumctarr Officer* to 
poritd ai to ke«p the men lu their duty : pATttcubr care b 10 be laken to pte- 
v«nl their tiring at too greal a ditlmcc, a» one Kiic «fcU niai'it doca nor* cxc* 
cutloa ikan adeuen SI tongvhul. . . . 

" .\i. it hu been (uggmed 10 tbe C«neral that nutny of the loieni-|Moi>l« fce. 
— influenced by a tea) (or the caiue of ihdr cvuniry. arc incUned In tAraw aid, 
hi cue the Army iJiciuld be called to aclion — The GanenJ drsiret that Ifaey •111. 
(1(1 (ircvent any kind of conftinon, at di>>ard«i| joio diHercot C<>in{Mit>ci in the 
aevciml regiment*, as they ihallchooic. or form ihcmMlvn into u distinct Corp^. 
Wtder Officers u( thetr own (.'hoo&iRg. and put ihenitelveii under ihc immniiaie 
eoanMiid oJ tome Brigadavr, thai tli«y may not be Mnnderrd or act, as an 
indapcndcnl Comiiany," — Ordertj Book, 3 March, ■77(<- 





Cambmpcii, 7 Much, 177&. 


On the 26th ultimo I had the honor of addressing 
you, and then mentioned that we were making prepay 
rations for taking possession of Dorchester Heights. 
I now beg leave to Inform you, that a council of 
general officers having determined a previous bom- 
bardment and cannonade expedient and proper, in 
order to harass the enemy and divert their attention 
from that quarter, on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday 
nights last, wc carried them on from our posts at 
Cobble Hill, Lechmere's Point, and Lamb's Dam.' 
Whether they did the enemy any considerable and 
what injury, 1 have not yet heard, but have the pleas- 
ure to acquaint you, that they greatly facilitated our 
schemes, and would have been attended with success 
equal to our most sanguine expectations, had it not 
been for the unlucky bursting of two thirteen an 
three ten inch mortars, among which was the brass 
one taken in the ordnance brig. To what cause to 
attribute this misfortune, I know not; whether to 
any defect in them, or to the inexperience of the 

' " On the 13 AiigT. 177s, Ukc work of Fonifiriu|; L«ml>'<> Dam ^na bcEvo. »xA 1 
upon ihc com|>lctiiiii nf ihnl viork, Ihc line o( fonilicalinn wni Mlvanced toa 
point a litlle «niith ndhr prcKoni Northnmpitnn Street,!>'i Dam cxUndvd 
from about the junctiun of Hninptlcn and .\ll»ny Hu. lo a poini neat the pKt- 
cnt Watrtit pincc. It wan originally buill tq keep ihc tide frnm OT«rflowlti( 
Uie raan^he*. and loHowert very nearly ihe present line of Nonluiniplnti Sucet, 
divcr^iiL^ iliglitly 10 the MuihM.inl oi it ncircd the hi^hwair. At the tcnaiaa- 
Uon of the Uatn, cm the uplanil, 1 itrong hrcailwork w*kci>ni>tractcd, aRdfmm 
thai the inlrench mentis eslendcd acroHH the highway. The W'Ork'i vrerc compteled 
Sept. 10, 1775." — C<iiten. Evitetiaihn. la. 






But to return ; on Monday evening, as soon as our 
firing commenced, a considerable detachment of our 
men, under the command of Brigadier-General 
Thomas, crossed the neck, and took possession of the 
two hills, without the least interruption or annoyance 
from the enemy ; and by their great activity and in- 
dustry, before the morning, advanced the works so 
far as to be secure against their shot. They are now 
going on with such expedition, that in a little time I 
hope they will be complete, and enable our troops 
stationed there to make a vigorous and obstinate 
stand. During the whole cannonade, which was in- 
cessant the two last nights, we were fortunate enough 
to lose but two men ; one, a lieutenant, by a cannon- 
ball taking off his thigh ; the other, a private, by the 
explosion of a shell, which also slightly wounded four 
or five more. 

Our taking possession of Dorchester Heights is 
only preparatory to taking post on Nook's Hill, and 
the points opposite to the south end of Boston. It 
was absolutely necessary, that they should be pre- 
viously fortified, in order to cover and command them. 
As soon as the works on the former are finished, 
measures will be immediately adopted for securing 
the latter, and making them as strong and defensible 
as we can. Their contiguity to the enemy will make 
them of much importance and of great service to us. 

As mortars are essential, and indispensably neces- 
sary for carrying on our operations, and for the 
prosecution of our plans, 1 have applied to two fur- 
naces to have some thirteen-inch ones cast with all 




expedition imaginable, and am encouraged to hope, 
from the accounts I have had, that they will be able 
to do it. When they are done, and a proper supply 
of powder obtained, I flatter myself, from the posts 
we have just taken and arc about to take, that it will 
be in our power to force the ministerial troops to an 
attack, or to dispose of them in some way, that will 
beof advantage to us. I think from these posts they 
will be so galled and annoyed, that they must cither 
give us battle or quit their present possessions. I am 
resolved that nothing on my part shall be wanting to 
effect the one or the other. 

It having been the genera! opinion, that the enemy 
would attempt to dislodge our people from the hills, 
and force their works as soon as they were discovered, 
which probably might have brought on a general en- 
gagement, it was thought advisable, that the honor- 
able Council ' should be applied Co. to order in the 
militia from the neighboring and adjacent towns. 1 
wrote them on the subject, which they most readily 
complied with ; and, in justice to the militia, I can- 
not but inform you, that they came in at the ap- 
pointed time, and manifested the greatest alertness, 
and determined resolution to have acted like men en- 
gaged in the cause of freedom.* 

When the enemy first discovered our works in the 
morning, they seemed to be in great confusion, and, 

' The CouDcU of the MuuachuaclU IcgiiitBliire. 

* " His Excellency tlie Ucnenl. reLumx his tlianlc lo the Militia of the «ur> 
Towiiiing districts, (of their irpirited and ilert mareh W Roibwy. Uti Satunbj 
■ad Sunday, ant) fur the nalitconlor dicy (li»covcrcil in defencB of tbe cuiae iff 
Liberty aud their country." — Onttrljf BteA, S March., l77(^ 






from their movements, to have intended an attack. 
It is much to be wished, that it had been made. The 
event, I think, must have been fortunate, and nothing 
less than success and victory on onr side, as our offi- 
cers and men appeared impatient for the appeal, and 
to possess the most animated sentiments and deter- 
mined resolution. On Tuesday evening, a consider- 
able number of their troops embarked on board of 
their transports, and fell down to the Castle, where 
part of them landed before dark. One or two of the 
vessels got aground, and were fired at by our people 
with a field-piece, but without any damage. What 
was the design of this embarkation and landing, 1 
have not been able to learn. It would seem as if they 
meant an attack ; (or it is most probable, that, if the}' 
make one on our works at Dorchester at this time, 
they will first go lo the Castle, and tome from thence. 
If such was their design, a violent storm that nighty 
and which lasted till eight o'clock the next day, ren- 
dered the execution of it impracticable. It carried 
one or two of their vessels ashore, which they have 
since got off.' 

'"Ob the sd iiwt it nigbl tbey bf^an « nnnonMk vpon A* lo«m ; tiie 
aae was repeated on the evenin|> of the yH ukI 4lh. On tk? %'Cii in the monk' 
log It vai riUcowRd (hat the cn«my h»d (htown up Ihrw v«ry ei(eu%iv« wArb 
with HniDg abjituci oti ilic cuniinuidioK hilU uii Uorchcblcf Neck, vrluch rnnat 
lut« been the cinplajrmeni nt at Icatt i3,ooo men. In a tituation to critical i 
detcrminti] upon unRirdiat* attack ; lh» anlaur of the troop« encouraged mo in 
IIm hsMrdoHi cntcfpriM, and legimemt were cspcdilioutly cint»rkc<l on boanl 
lniia|iona to (all (town the lurbuur. but ihe wind unfortuiuiely coming con. 
■ raiy and blowing \tf^ hard the thipt were not abk ti> gel lo (heii debliiutfon. 
. . > Th« waathet conbnuinic boiatcmni ibc next day aad nicht i;iitc the 
eoem]i time lo impRiTe ihdr works lo bring up (heir cannon, aiul to pul thon- 
<«lici <nln Mch a stale ■>( defence llul I ccmtd piotniac iDy«elf little iwcceu \*f 




In case the ministerial troops had made an attempt 
to dislodge our men from Dorchester Hills, and the 
number detached upon the occasion had been so 
great as to have afforded a probability of a successful 
attack's being made upon Boston ; on a signal given 
from Roxbury for that purpose, agreeably to a set- 
tled and concerted plan, four thousand chosen men, 
who were hold in readiness, were to have embarked 
at the mouth of Cambridge River, in two divisions, 
the first under the command of Brigadier-General 
Sullivan, the second under Brigadier-General Greene ; 
the whole to have been commanded by Major- 
General Putnam. The first division was to land 
at the powder-house, and gain possession of Bea- 
con Hill and Mount Horam ; the second at Barton's 
Point, or a little south of it. and, after secur- 
ing that post, to join the other division, and force 
the enemy's gates and works at the neck, for letting 
in the Roxbury troops. Three floating batteries 
were to have preceded, and gone in front of the 
other boats, and kept up a heavy fire on that part of 
the town where our men were to land. 

How far our views would have succeeded, had an 
opportunity ofTered for attempting the execution, it 
is impossible for me to say. Nothing less than 
experiment could determine with precision. The 
plan was thought to be well digested ; and, as far as 

attacking them under suth disadvanlages ; trherefurc I judged il tnou tidvinblc 
lo prepare forlhc rvaaifttion nf the town, . . . This ap«ration ww «9«ew«l 
on the 7th, and all the rear |i:uaril embarked at 9 o'clock in the monring, wftli- 
out the leait lo^&, ineguUrilror acddenl." — Grneral{fMKlotkf£arlofD»ft- 
mi^tA, 21 March, 1776. 




I could judge from the cheerfulness and alacrity, 
which distinguished the officers and men, who were 
to engage in the enterprise. I had reason to hope for 
a favorable and happy issue. 

The militia, who were ordered in from the adjacent 
towns, brought with them three days' provision. 
They were only called upon to act under the idea of 
an attack's being immediately made, and were all dis- 
charged this afternoon. 

I beg leave to remind Congress, that three major- 
generals are essential and necessary for this army ; 
and that, by General Lee's being called from hence 
to the command in Canada, the left division Is with- 
out one. I hope they will fill up the vacancy by the 
appointment of another. General Thomas is the first 
brigadier, stands fair in point of reputation, and is 
esteemed a brave and good oflficer.' If he Is pro- 
moted, there will be a vacancy in the brigadier-gen- 
erals, which it will be necessary to supply by the 
appointment of some other gentleman that shall be 
agreeable to Congress ; but justice requires me to 
mention, that William Thompson, of the ritle regi- 
ment, is the first colonel in this department, and, 
as far as I have had an opportunity of judging, 
is a good officer and a man of courage. What 
I have said of these two gentlemen, I conceive 
to be my duty, at the same time acknowledging, 

■ Born in Miinhftdd, Muc, 179$, and <Ued in dumblM, 9 June, 1776. 
"B]r (be waj. I niuit do justice lo Thumaa; he b « eoocl oIEmi, tnd b 
mtMincd. W« have nu irouble wiih hi* camp ; it it aimp in |[uod order, 
••d tltiiigv ar« coDilncted with di|[nit^ anil spirit in the mlKUry tly)*." — Jamtt 
Wtrrtn u Samitfi Adami, ai Jane, 1775. 




whatever promotions are made will be satisfactorj* 
to mc 

March <^th. Yesterday evening a Captain Irvine 
who escaped from Boston the night before with six 
of his crew, came to head quarters and gave the fol- 
lowing intelligence: — 

That our bombardment and cannonade caused a good deal 
of surprise and alarm in town, as many of tbe soldiery $aid thcT 
never heard or (houf^ht wv had mortars or shells ; that several of 
the officers acknowledged they- were well and jiroperly directed : 
that they made much distress and confusion ; that the cannon 
shot for the greatest part went thro' the houses, and he was told 
that one took ofl' the legs and arms of six men lying in the bar- 
racks on the Neck ; Ihat 3 soldier who came from the lines there 
on Tuesday morning informed him that lo men had been 
wounded the night before. It was reported that others were 
also hurt, and one of the light horse lorn to pieces by the explo- 
sion of a shell. This was afterwards contradieled. That early 
on Tuesday morning Admiral Shuldham diKcovering the works 
our people were throwing up on Dorchester Heights, immediately 
sent an exprcis to General Howe to inform him, and that it was 
necessary they should be attacked and dislodged from thence, or 
he would be under the necessity of withdrawing the ships from 
the harbor, which were under his command ; that preparations 
were directly made for that purpose as it was said, and from 
twelve In two o'clock about 3000 men embarked on board the 
transport which fell down to the Castle with a design of landing 
on that part of Dorchester next to it, and attacking the works on 
the Heights at 5 o'clock next momiog ; that Lord Percy was 
appointed to command ; that it was generally believed the at- 
tempt would have been made, had it not been for the violent 
storm which happened that night, as I have mentioned before ; 
that he heard several of the privates and one or two ^rgeants 
say as they were embarking, that it would be another Bunker 
Hill aGfair. He further informs that the army is preparing to 
leave Boston, and that they will do it in a day or two ; that the 





tra.n9ports necessary for their etnharVation were getting ready 
vritb the utmost ex)>editioii ; thut there had been great move- 
ments and confusion among the troops the oight aod day preced- 
ing his coming out, in hurrying down their cannon, artillery and 
other store)! to ihc wharves with the utmost precipitation, and 
were putting 'cm un board the ships in such haste that no ac- 
count or memorandum was taken of them ; that most of the can- 
non were removed from their works and embarked or embark- 
ing ; that he heard a woman say, which he took to bean officer's 
wife, that she had seen men go under the ground at the lines on 
the Neck without returning ; that the ship he comnu^.dcd was 
taken up, plates fitted and fitting for officer's to lodge, and sev- 
eral shot, shells and cannon already on board ; that the tones 
were to have the liberty of going where they please, if they can 
get seamen lo man the vessels, of which there was a great scarci- 
ty ; that on that account many vessels could not be carried 
away and would be burnt; that many of the inhabitants appre- 
hended the town would be destroyed, and that it was generally 
thought their destination is Halifax. 

The account given by Captain Irvine, as lo the 
embarkation, and their being about to leave the town, 
I believe true. There are other circumstances cor- 
roborating ; and it seems fully confirmed by a paper 
signed by four of the selectmen of the town (a copy 
of which I have the honor to enclose to you), which 
was brought on yesterday evening by a flag, and de- 
livered to Colonel Learned, by Major Bassett, of the 
tenth regiment, who desired it might be delivered 
me as soon as possible. I advised with such of the 
general offtcers upon the occasion as 1 could imme- 
diately assemble ; and we determined it right (as it 
was not addressed to me, nor to any one else, nor 
authenticated by the signature of General Howe, or 
any other act obliging him to a performance of the 




promise mentioned on his part), that I should give it 
no answer ; at the same time, that a letter should be' 
returned, as going from Colonel Learned, signifying 
his having laid it before me ; with the reasons as- 
signed for not answering it A copy of this is sent* 
To-night I shall have a battery thrown up on 

* Th« rvKUAtion of Boston by ihc Brititili troops, atlcr hftriiic hckL ] 
non of ihc town (or eleven monilu, «&« a kouicv of no Irra J07 in Aoic 
ttun of aflonitlimcnt in Kngland. [nKlligeoce of ihls «v«>t vtK publuhed I 
the ministi)- on the 31] of May, in ■ »bart puugrsph, wluch madr kant 
llMt "hii Majmy'k fo[c» liad embarked fruiu Boston wiUi thegrvaietl < 
Mid regularity, And uilbout the Icut inlerruption frimi iht rebeh," and 
denlinctl t(i( Halifax. Parliament bdng then iu MMion, ihe inbjcct wu 1 
up by tlic Duke oi Manchciitcr, on ihc loih of May, who propoicd a nMion fd 
an iddres Iu hii Majotly, ibut he would Ire pkastNl to aider the late dctpWC 
of General Howe K\A Ailmiral Stiiildhnm to be laid befnrc the Hou»e nf Ij 
A loHi; sikI warm debate eii^ufil, in wUicti tlie luinUlcn were KT»cnly win 
for tke recent occurrence* i» America. 

The Duke of Mancticsiei said : " To conic now, m; Ijorda. lo thai wblcfa 
bas cast the decposl i^aiii on the glory of the British arnu, lo that which lai 
rouse the indignatjon of all, nho feci (or hci dii^racc ; the trtny of Britain,' 
equipped with e»ciy posvble estcniial of war, a clio*en army, with chotcn oft- 
cer«, backed by ilie power of a mighty Heel, unl la correct revolted twbjectv 
sent to cfioatiw a rcaUtIng cily, Knt lo oiAert Griiain'» anlhorily, has for 1 
tfKlious months been impn'sancd ^\'ithiti thai town hy the prOTindal army, who, 
their watchful piardx, jicniiiltRil thi-m 110 inlvl to the country, who braicd all 
their cflort». an<3 dcfiecl all thai thcit likill and sliilitics of war cunid even 
tempt. One way indeed of escape i& left : the lleet u Uill rexpccted ; to 
fleet the army ha> recourse ; otid Britiah generals vihoK namo nmr met wii 
a bloi of dishonor, are [ot<«il to quit ihot luwn, which wa» the lint objci;i 
tbe war, the immcdinie cauiw of hnsitlities, the place t>\ ann«, which has «wt 
thin nation more (hnii a million lo defend. We are informed of thlt alntoi- 
dinary erenl hy a puelte, jniblithed Iiy luihorily from govcmmenl, in which H 
ii related, ihat General Howe had ijuilled Botlon ; no circnmslanoca ni«»- 
lioncd to palliate the event, no veil but lUat of lilcncc 10 cut ovet the di^^race. 
Rul, my Lord*, though the Bovcnimciii atcouiir ii ■hon and ancircnrnKianlial, 
yel {irivalc intelligence, public report, an uhiHi, lill il in with authenticity de- 
nied. 1 niu:>t rely, inruini!> us. thai General Huwe quilled not Bmton of Ul 
own free will ; bill ihni n nupcriar enemy, by rqicaiwi effons. hy exlraordinaiy 
works, by tbs lire of their ballerie*. rendered the place unleiiable." 

Tbe EnrI of Suffnlk, in defence of the tninislry, told the Hntue that iheie 




Nook's Hill (Dorchester Point), with a design of act- 
ing as circumstances may require ; it being judged 
advisable to prosecute our plans of fortification, as 
we intended before this information from the select- 
men came. 

It being agreed on all hands, that there is no pos- 

wii nethir^ ex inordinary In the cvkcuniion (A ItMtan, tbftt il irat not IntCBded 
lo purauc the war in MuaachusclU kincc the diulfcclion liad become gencraJ, 
that orden hid Xvtxn lait uul for a reni-oval of the troops whm the coniinander 
fthoDid think prop«r, and thai he liad tMolved on i)u« *iq> ten dayt b«fore il 
actsallj took place. "The nublc Duke." he aiMcd, ''s«)ra there must have 
been a conveDdoD belweon Gcoeni) Howe mil (be raliel comBiaodei, vMch, I 
do aBttf* hi* Grace, w*t bf no nteant the cue : no convention, (tipulalton, 
conceviOD, ot caiaprDtniic whauvci. having been made. The General ihoughi 
proper to ikift kit petilivn, in nnler. in llic fin-t place, tu pratei.*i Haliliu. aiul, 
aftei 1^1 object van ictun'd, io penetrate by that way into the inlcrioi tonaliy 
and parmc hia foiurr intended njicraiionv" The Marquis of RoLkingham re- 
pUeil. after itjiling certain particulars, which hnd ctinic ihrough a priraie chan- 
Bcl: "U lh«e Bccounis arc tnic, of which I have vciy little doobt, y«Mt 
l^onUhipi will petceire, Uion^h jMMsibly there might have been nu formal con- 
vcntinn or eapitolation dgned, which I understood wmt avoided by the g«ner«l« 
on both lidea (or particular rtaaona, thai, in irhaleret loanner the bwdneu 
■Igkt have been negotiated, it had every <^ubsiantia) iBquiKiie of a tnaty or 
conptoniise, aa much u if it bad been ever >o ^lemnly authenticated or mb- 
scribed. The troopti were permitted to evacuate the town without intcrrap> 
ticm. becanae they enja)^ on the ulber band not tu bum or deatniy it. either 
pnirioua to their depaiturc, or after ihey had got on boatxl ihcir «hi|ia." The 
same lentimenti were expicued by Lord Shelhume, and other l.orda in tbr 
oppmilloa. but the mlnt«ter perviied that he hod oo knowM^or belief of 
mch a ma Iter. 

Tbc facts in the cate. however, prove to have been very naily aa rcfire* 
senled bj the Marqtiit of Rockingham. Tlw inhabitmnti ol Boitoa, fearmf; 
Ihc coaueqiMOcn of aa attack, at General Howe bad prepared to Kt the lown 
oa fire in lacfa an event, ucre very antioui to avert a calamiiy, that would iti> 
voire them in ruin. An inrormal ttatemeni waa drawn up, signed by the Se- 
lectmen. addrcwed to nobody, but Jnicndcd for General Wathiagion, An exact 
tranacrtpl from the utiginal hi here iMerted. 

*• Boston, 8 Manh. i;?^. 

" Aa his EaccUency General Howe b determined to leave the town with the 
troofw ondrr hia enmmand. a number of the raqMctablt inhabilanit. I<«tag very 
asaiom f«r iti peescrvalion and lafety, have applied to General Robertson for 




sibility of stopping them in case they determine to 
go, I shall order look-outs to be kept upon all the 
head-lands, to discover their movements and course, 
and moreover direct Commodore Manly and his little 

thia piirjiMt, who nt lh«ir request hu oommaflicated the Mme l« hu Eseel. 
lency <>cncral Kowc. wlio hit usurcd hini, (hat he h&& iio intention of de- 
stroying ihe Inwn. iitileu the irnops under hii. ccitnmaiul ur nia)e«Icd ilariif 
thcii etnbftikation uc at iheii <lepartiire, by the aime<l force unthotit ; vhkli 
dccUraiinn he gave Gniend RnbcrLion Irsvc to cammiinicatc to the inhabt< 
tanti. ir «uch an oppotiilion aUoiUd uke place, we have the greatest retooe la 
expect the tgwn will be e^pOied to entire dcttmction. Our fcan aic qsMtod 
with rc|[aitl tu (ienenl Hui«c*t inicntiuns. We beg we may ha>c xome : 
ancc, that ea dreadful a calfltnily may not be hrnught on hy any m4 
without. A) a icslimunj' of tbe truth of the above, we have signed ov 
names to thi« paper, carried mil f)y Messrs. Thomas and Jonathan Amaarntd 
Peter Johonnoi, who have at t)i« eaxneai enireatiet of the inhabitants, Ikrongli 
the Licuicnant-Gavenior, solicited a flag of trace for tliia purpmc. 

■' JOHS Stoi-i-A%. 

"Samuel Airsrin." 

This piper na» lAkcn in ihc lilies at Roxbury, ind given to Colonel Leftniedfj 
who earned it To head-quarters. He retunied, and handed to the ineMengen, ' 
whu had been the be&tcn of it the follovring Icilcr : — 

" Koxvuav, g yLMr^. 1776. 
" Ckkh.kuem. 

'' Af^Tccably to a iiroiuibc ni&dc tu you nt the linei yeaieiday, I nnited u)Mia 

his Excellency Gcneml Washington, and pFesenteil to bitn the paper handed to 

me by you, front the Selectmen of Button. The answer I received from hlK 

w«i to this effect : — ' That, as il wru an unftiithenlicatcd paper, without an ad- 

drea^, ajid not utiligaiory upon (ienerat How«, he would take no notice of it.' 

I am, with esteem and mpecl, Gentlemen, your mott obedient tcrvant, 


" Tn Mkkjks. Amokv anci JOKOifNOT." 

Nntwtlhalanding thi> apparently nncampromiting antwet, yet, on Ihc paper 
evidently cuovcyc-il the din [><»iti unit »f General Howe, and as Wnxhington 
could have no widi lo destroy Ihe town, hut tm the contrary the strongest mo 
tivei for |ir«iiervln{; \i, no direct annoyance wax afcerwardi offered 10 the Biit- 
idi iroopi, nnd this mutual undcn-ianding doublJeu uvcd much dotnictiott of 
property nnd much bloodshed, 


squadron to dog them, as well for the same purpose, 
as for picking up any of their vessels, that may 
chance to depart their convoy. From their loading 
with such precipitancy, it is presumable they 'II not 
be in the best condition for sea. 

If the ministerial troops evacuate the town and 
leave it standing, I have thoughts of taking measures 
for fortifying the entrance into the harbor, if it shall 
be thought proper, and the situation of affairs will 
admit of it. Notwithstanding the report from Bos- 
ton, that Halifax is the place of their destination. 
I have no doubt but that they are going to the 
southward, and, I apprehend, to New York. Many 
reasons lead to this opinion. It is in some measure 
corroborated by their sending an express ship there, 
which, on Wednesday week, got on shore and bilged 
at Cape Cod. The despatches, if written, were de- 
stroyed when she was boarded. She had a parcel of 
coal, and about four thousand cannon-shot, six car- 
ri^e-guns. a swivel or two. and three barrels of 

I shall hold the riflemen and other parts of our 
troops in readiness to march at a moment's warning, 
and govern my movements by the events that hap- 
pen, or such orders as I may receive from Congress, 
which I beg may be ample, and for*'ardcd with all 
possible expedition. 

On the 6th insL a ship bound from London 
with stores for the ministerial army, consisting 
of coal, porter and krout, fell in with our armed 
vessels, four of them in company, and was carried 




Into Portsmouth. She had had a long passage, and 
of course brought no papers of a bte dale. The only 
letters of importance or the least interesting that were 
found, 1 have enclosed. 

I beg leave to mention to Congress that money is 
much wanted. The mititia from these governments 
engaged till the first of April, are then to be paid, 
and if we march from hence, the expencewill be very 
considerable, must be defrayed, and cannot be ac< 
complished without it The necessity of making the 
earliest remittance for these purposes is too obvious 
for me to add more. 

When I wrote that part of this letter which is an- 
tecedent to this date, I fully expected It would have 
gone before now by Col. Bull, not deeming it of 
sufficient importance to send a special messenger, but 
he deferred his return from time to time, and never 
set off till to-day. These reasons I hope will excuse 
the delay and be received as a proper apology for 
not transmitting it sooner.' 



Cawbridcr, 7 Hkrch, t77& 

Dbar Sir, 

The Rumpus which every body expected to see 
between the Ministerialists in Boston, and our troops, 
has detained the bearer till this time. On Monday 
night I took possession of the Heights of Dorchester 
with two thousand men under the command of Gen* 




eral Thomas. Previous to this, and in order to 
divert the enemy's attention from the real object, 
and to harass, we began on Saturday night a cannon- 
ade and bombardment, which with intervals was con- 
tinued througli the night — the same on Sunday and 
on Monday, a continued roar from seven o'clock till 
daylight was kept up between the enemy and us. In 
this time we had an officer and one private killed, 
and four or five wounded ; and through the ignorance, 
I suppose, of our artillerymen, burst five mortars 
(two thirteen inch and three ten inch) the " Con- 
gress," ' one of them. What damage the enemy has 
sustained is not known, as there has not been a crea- 
ture out of Boston since. The cannonade, &c., ex- 
cept in the destruction of the mortars, answered our 
expectations fully ; for although we had upwards of 
300 teams in motion at the same instant. carr>'ing on 
our fascines, and other materials to the Neclc. and 
the moon shining in its full lustre, we were not dis- 
covered till daylight on Tuesday morning. 

So soon as we were discovered, every thing 
seemed to be prepared for an attack, but the tide 
failing before they were ready, about one thousand 
only were able to embark in six transports in the 
afternoon, and these falling down towards the Castle, 
were drove on shore by a violent storm, which arose 
in the afternoon of that day, and continued through 
the night : since that they have been seen returning 
to Boston, and whether from an apprehension that 

' Knoini hy tlkc BHli«h lu ■'iImoMww." PutOBm named It ih« '"Congrfw" 
when it htd l>«cn brouiiht to BoMan ft-ota I'lcondtroga. 




our works are now too formidable to make any im- 
pression on, or from what other causes I know not, 
but their hostile appearances have subsided, and they 
are removing their ammunition out of their magfazine. \ 
whether with a view to move bag and baggage or 
not I cannot undertake to say, but if we had powder, 
(and our mortars replaced, which I am about to do 
by new cast ones as soon as possible) I would, so 
soon as we were suflficiently strengthened on the 
heights to take possession of the point just opposite J 
to Boston Neck, give them a dose they would not 
well like. 

We had prepared boats, a detachment of 4000 
men, &c.. &c., for pushing to the west part of Bos- 1 
ton. if they had made any formidable attack upon 
Dorchester. ( will not lament or repine at any act 
of Providence because I am in a great measure a 
convert to Mr. Pope's opinion, that whatever is, is 
right, but I think everything had the appearance of 
a successful issue, if we had come to an engagement 
on that day. It was the 5th of March, which I re- 
called to their remembrance as a day never to be 
forgotten ; an engagement was fully expected, and \ 
never saw spirits higher, or more prevailing.* 

Your favor of the 18th ultimo came to my hands 
by post last night, and gives mc much pleasure, as I 
am led to hope I shall see you of my family again. 
The terms upon which you come will be perfectly 
agreeable to me, and I should think you neither can- 
did nor friendly, if your communications on this sub- 



Ject had not !>een free, unreserved, and divested of 
that false kind of modesty, which too often prevents 
the elucidation of points important to be known. 
Mr. Baylor seeming to have an inclination to go into 
the artillery, and Colonel Knox desirous of it, I have 
appointed Mr. Moylan and Mr. Palfrey my aids-de- 
camp, so that I shall, if you come, have a good many 
writers about me. 

I think my countrymen made a capital mistake, 
when they took Henry out of the senate to place him 
in the field ; and pity it is, that he does not see this, 
and remove every difficulty by a voluntary resigna- 
tion.' I am of opinion, that Colonel Armstrong, if he 
retains his health, spirits, and vigor, would be as fit a 
person as any they could send to Virginia, as he is 
senior officer to any now there, and 1 should think 
could give no ofTence ; but to place Colonel Thomp- 
son there, in the first command, would throw every 
thing into the utmost confusion ; for it was by mere 
chance that he became a colonel upon this expedition, 
and by greater chance that he became first colonel in 
his army. To take him then from another colony, 

' Oa August 5, 1775. the Convention of Viigiaia had elected Henry, colcv 
Ml of ilie tint rcgfamit of kbuIw. and commindcr-lo-cliicf of all the Vir- 
^nia (orcec raiited (or the ilefenM of that colony, hut he wax exprexdy enjrnne<l 
to obey the onlcra of the Cunvenlian and the Cuinmtllcci o( Safety. VVhcii 
(he lirei occadon (or fighting occurrtsl.— the maich agiinti Dunmore. — thU lal- 
ter body, dUtoutthig Henry's mililory capacity, paued him over, and appoinl«d 
> suboriiiualc. Colonel Woodford, to the command. This >Iighi va« relented 
l>7 Iltrury, and urOi fatlowed by othcn. cuch at tlte refuul u( Wuodfofd to 
give altcniioii lo hi<i ordcrt, (h« transfer of the ■.'ommand to Robert IIuwc of 
Norlh Carolina, and linaily, wlien the regimentt were iiimni over <o the Conii- 
netit, the lauic of a colonel't commisstoo, and not at he had hoped, &n appotnl- 
Bwat a* br^adier-cenenO. He rcdgned hit mihiary ol&cci 38 Fchruoiy, 1776. 




place him over the heads of several gentlemen, under 
or with whom he has served in a low and subordinate 
character, would never answer any other purpose, 
than that of introducing endless confusion. Such a 
thing surely cannot be in contemplation ; and, know- 
ing the mischiefs it would produce, surely Colonel 
Thompson would have more sense, and a greater 
regard for the cause he is engaged in, than to accept 
of it, unless some uncommon abilities or exertions 
had given him a superior claim. He must know, that 
nothing more than being a captain of horse in the 
year 1759 (I think it was) did ver)' extraordinarily 
give him the start he now has, when the rank was 
settled here. At the same time, he must know another 
fact, that several officers now in the Virginia service 
were much his superiors in point of rank, and will 
not I am sure serve under him. He stands first 
colonel here, and may, I presume, put in a very good 
and proper claim to the first brigade tliat falls vacant : 
but I hope more regard will be paid to the service. 
than to send him to Virginia. 

The bringing of Colonel Armstrong Into this army 
as major-general, however great his merit, would in- 
troduce much confusion. Thomas, if no more, would 
surely quit, and I believe him to be a good man. If 
Thomas supplies the place of Lee, there will be a 
vacancy for either Armstrong or Thompson; for I 
have heard of no other valiant son of New England 
waiting promotion, since the advancement of Frye, 
who has not, and I doubt will not, do much service 
to the cause ; at present he keeps his room, and talks 





learnedly of emetics, cathartics, &c. For my own 
part, I see nothing but a decHning life that maccers 

I am sorr^' to hear of your ill-fated (Icct. Wc had 
it, I suppose because we wished it, that Hopkins had 
taken Clinton, and his transports. How glorious 
would this have been ! We have the proverb on our 
side, however, that "a bad beginning will end well." 
This applies to land and sea service. The account 
given of the business of the commissioners from 
England seems to be of a piece with Lord North's 
conciliator^' motion last year, built upon the same 
foundation, and. if true that they are to be divided, 
among the colonics to offer terms of pardon, it is as 
insulting as that motion * ; and only designed, after 
stopping all Intercourse with us, to set us up to view 
in Great Britain, as a people that will not hearken to 
any propositions of peace. Was there ever any thing 
more absurd, than to repeal the very acts, which 
have introduced all this confusion and bloodshed, and 
at the same time enact a law to restrain all inter- 
course with the colonies for opposing them ? The 
drift and design are obvious ; but is it possible that 
any sensible nation upon earth can be imposed upon 
by such a cobweb scheme, or gauze covering.^ But 
enough, or else upon a subject so copious I should 
enter upon my fifth sheet of paper. I have, if length 

' " Poor Tzj I kcAven mmI evth were moTMl lo get ktm ta ; Mnr I aippoic we 
*haU Ikw bo more vA \"—Rtefi b H'tuimctan. 15 HsrUi. 1776' 

' U wu ai Bnt repotted, thai ii was ihe (Ictign of the Itritidi pmnunmt \o 
wnd over a \m^ nuinbrt of uMnmiuioncn to Amerie*, uiA IhM tboy irerc la 
nak« ■dwKca tn Ihe rokmics KiMmtdy. 




of letter will do it, already made you ample amendj 
for the silence which my hurr)' in preparing for what 
I hoped would be a decisive stroke, obliged nie to 
keep. My best respects to Mrs. Reed, in which Mrs. 
Washington joins, concludes me. dear sir, &&' 

March t^th. — Colonel Bull's still waiting to see aj 
little further into the event of things gives me an op- 
portunity of adding, that from a gentleman out of 
Boston, confirmed by a paper from the selectmen 
there, we have undoubted information of General 
Howe's preparing with great precipitancy to embark 

' " That there miy not be the least pretext foi delay (u the Genersl u dcHf- 
iniaed to miirch ihc whole, oi any port uf tbu Army, the utsMui uccasiaB iImII 
rcfiuire) HU Excellency- deum that nol a moment'i liuir mty be loal id pre- 
paring (or the much. The Colonels will pay particular atiention to the doatlung 
nf their men, To prcTcai wiy unucccuary prcpuBiione, the General inforaw ] 
the olficen mid toldlen thai i[ U hL( desire atid cjipt^iatimi, tint they encwnber 
ihemtelvo with »> link- haggagc >» puuibU, u apart (root the mpmou) ci- 
pence lu the Conltnent, Teams canno>l be procured for superlluous Articles, ii 
win t>r utLI 1/ suflicient can be fottnd to answer all requinte lervjoes — The 
NatDfc of the »crv)oe wc are cDgKgcd in, i» such a* require light Troo^ ready 
U all timea. aud upon all occasioni. tor forced tnaichea, the lest baggage thci^ 
fore, officers ftnd men are encumbered with, the better. 

" Tbc recruicinc Service is to be oonliaiied, bvt the recmita, and all the ■<« 
upon furlough, are to join ihcir respective rcgimontii immediately. 

" The General being desirous of selecting a particular namber of men as ■ 
Gnard for himself, and l>«ggnge. The Cnlcincl. or Commanding OfScer, of each 
eA the esial)li*hed Reijimeois, (the Andkry and Killlemen excepted) will lumltli 
hiin with four, itiat the number »>i)lcd Ri>,y lie clic>>en out o( them. Hi» Ex- 
cellency ilcpciids upon the Cobncls for good men, such oa they can recammcnil 
for their fiobriety. hnne«iy, and good behavior: he withes thera to be front fin^ 
feet, eight Inches high, to five feet, ten Inches ; bandaomely and weU made, 
and a<i there \s noltiing in his cyca more desirable, than Clcantincss in a Soldier, 
he desires that particular aiiention may tie made, in the choice of Mich men, n 
arc neM, and »pnicc. They are all to be at Head Quarter^ lomorrvw prtdidf j 
at twelve, at niD>n, when tlic N'uimber wanted will be fixed upon. TheGcneid' 
nailher wanU men with uisifoim, or .^mti, nor does he de«irt any man to be senl 
to him. that \% not perfectly willing, and de»irou», of heinK "^ ^i* p^^^- Tlwy 
ihould be drilled nven"—OnUw{y Book, 11 Match. 1776. 


his troops ; for what place we know nol ; Halifax, it 
is said. The selectmen, being under dreadful appre- 
hensions for the town, applied to General Robertson 
to apply to General Howe, who through General 
Robertson has informed them, that it is not his inten- 
tion to destroy the town, unless his Majesty's troops 
should be molested during their embarkation, or at 
their departure. This paper seems so much under 
covert, un authenticated, and addressed to nobody, 
that I sent word to the selectmen, that I could take 
no notice of it ; but I shall go on with my prepara- 
tions as intended. The gentlemen above mentioned 
out of Boston say, that they seem to be in great con- 
sternation there, that one of our shot from Lamb's 
Dam disabled six men in their beds, and that the Ad- 
miral upon discovering our works next morning in- 
formed the General that, unless we were dispossessed 
of them, he could not keep the King's ships in the 
harbor; and that three thousand men, commanded 
by Lord Percy, were actually embarked for that pur- 
pose. Of the issue of it you have been informed be- 
fore. I am, &c. 



CAMBKrucc, IJ March, 177&. 


In my letter of the 7th and gth instant, which I 

had the honor of addressing you, I mentioned the in- 

^■telligence I had received respecting the embarkation 

of the troops from Boston ; and fully expected, before 

this, that the Town would have been entirely evacu- 





uated. Although I have been deceived, and was 
rather premature in the opinion I had then formed. I 
have little reason to doubt but the event will take 
place in a very short lime, as other accounts, which 
have come to hand since, the sailing o\ a great num- 
ber of transports from the harbor to N antaskei 
Road, and many circumstances corresponding there- 
with, seem to confirm and render it unquestionable. 
Whether the town will be destroyed is a matter of 
much uncertainty ; but it would seem, from the de- 
struction they are making of sundry pieces of furni- 
ture, of many of their wagons and carts, which they 
cannot take with them as it is said, that it will not ; 
for, if they intended it, the whole might be involved 
in one general ruin. 

Holding it of the last importance in the present 
contest, that we should secure New York, and pre- 
vent the enemy from possessing it, and conjecturing 
they have views of that sort, and their embarka- 
tion to be for that purpose, I judged it necessary, 
under the situation of things here, to call a council of 
general officers to consult of such measures, as might 
be expedient to be taken at this interesting conjunc- 
ture of affairs. A copy of the proceedings I have the 
honor to enclose to you. 

Agreeable to the opinion of the council, I shall de- 
tach the ritie regiment to-morrow, under the com- 
mand of Brigadier-General Sullivan, with orders to 
repair to New York with all possible expedition ; and 
which will be succeeded the day after by the other 
five in one brigade, they being all that it was thought 

■ i776j 





dvisable to send from hence, till the enemy shall have 
quitted the town. Immediateiy upon their depart- 
ufc. i shall send forward Major-General Putnam, and 
Follow myself with the remainder of the army, as soon 
as I have it in my power, leaving here such a number 
of men, as circumstances may seem to require. 

As the badness of the roads at this season will 
ijreatly retard the march of our men, I have, by ad- 
vice of the general officers, written to Governor 
Trumbull by this express, to use his utmost exertions 
for throwing a reinforcement of two thousand men 
into New York, from the western parts of Connecti- 
cut ' ; and to the commanding officer there, to apply 
to the Provincial Convention or Committee of Safety 
of New Jersey, for a thousand more for the same pur- 
pose, to oppose the enemy and prevent their getting 
possession, in case they arrive before the troops from 
hence can get there ; of which there is a probability, 
unless they are impeded by contrary winds. This 
measure, though it may be attended with considerable 
expense, I flatter myself will meet with the approba- 
ion of Congress. Past experience, and the lines in 
Boston and on Boston Neck, point out the propriety, 
and suggest the necessity', of keeping our enemies 
^;from gaining possession and making a lodgment. 

' In his Idler to Govrrnvr Trumbull, dtet •peakioy of the " Ehunvfttl re- 
\ iTval " (he Brituh were making rrom Roklon, \Vuikinglon wrato - — 

" Vim axK scnublc, Sir. a\ the grail inportance of ■ itrenaoui, ncftion ftt 
ihucrilinl peri™!.— o period which may iniit contctjuFDrc^ d«<<nnine i he fate 
«f Amerin. The tciO and sctiTilir htietoforc shown by the %ooA people ol 
yvu Covrinincnl in defence of ihc libcnic* ol America, leave* me ao rooro la 
■laohl iheii readinMi on the pre«eiil ')tiBuaiaa''—Watkimf*m u CMvm^ 
TnumMi, 14 March, 1776, 

Should their destination be further southward, or for 
Halifax, (as reported in Boston.) for the purpose of 
going into Canada, the march of our troops to New 
York will place them nearer the scene of action, and 
more convenient for affording succour. 

We have not taken post on Nook's Hill, and forti- 
fied it, as mentioned that we should in my last. On 
hearing, that the enemy were about to retreat and 
leave the town, it was thought imprudent and unad- 
visable to force them with too much precipitation, 
that we might gain a little time and prepare for a 
march. To-morrow evening we shall take possession 
of it, unless they are gone, 

As New York is of such importance, prudence and 
policy require that every precaution, that can be de- 
vised, should be adopted to frustrate the designs, 
which the enemy have of possessing it. To this end 
I have ordered vessels to be provided, and held ready 
at Norwich, for the embarkation and transportation 
of our troops thither. This I have done with a view 
not only of greatly expediting their arrival, as it will 
save several days' marching, but also that they may 
be fresh and fit for intrenching and throwing up 
works of defence, as soon as they get there, if they do 
not meet the enemy to contend with ; for neither of 
which would they be in a proper condition, after 
a long and fatiguing march in bad roads. If Wallace, 
with his ships, should be apprized of the measure, and 
attempt to prevent it by stopping up the harbor of 
New London, they can but pursue their march by land 

You will please to obser\^e, that it is the opinion of 


the general officers, if the enemy abandon the town, 
that it will be unnccessarj- to employ or keep any 
part of this army for its defence ; and that I have 
mentioned, on that event happening, I shall immedi- 
ately repair to New York with the remainder of the 
army not now detached, leaving only such a number 
of men here as circumstances may seem to require. 
What I partly allude to is. that, — as it will lake a 
considerable time for the removal of such a body 
of men. and the divisions must precede each other in 
such order as to allow intermediate time sufficient for 
them to be covered and provided for. and many 
things done previous to the march of the whole, for 
securing and forwarding such necessaries, as cannot 
be immediately carried, and others which it may bt- 
proper to keep here, — directions might be received 
from Congress respecting the same, and as many men 
ordered to remain for that and other purpo-ies, as they 
may judge proper. I could wish to have their com- 
mands upon the subject, and in time, as I may be 
under some degree of embarrassment as to their views. 
Congress having been pleased to appoint Colonel 
Thompson a brigadier-general, there is a vacancy for 
a colonel in the regiment he commanded, to which I 
would beg leave to recommend Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hand. I shall also lake the liberty of recommending 
Captain Hugh Stephenson, of the Virginia riflemen, 
to succeed Colonel Hand, and to be appointed in his 
place as lieutenant-colonel, (there being no major to 
the regiment, since the promotion of Major Magaw 
to be lieutenant<oIonel of one of the Pennsylvania 





battalions, who ts gone from hence.) He is, in my 
opinion, the fittest person in this army for it, as well 
as the oldest captain in the service, having dtstin- 
gtiished himself at the head of a rifle company all the 
last war, and highly merited the approbation of his 
superior officers. 

Col. Mifflin informed me to day of his having 
received tent cloths from Mr. Barrell of Philadelphia, 
to the amount of ^7500 Pennsylvania currency, and 
applied for a warrant for payment of it. But as our 
fund is low and many necessarj- demands against it 
which must be satisfied and our calls for money are 
and will be exceedingly great, I could not grant it, 
thinking it might be convenient for payment to be 
made in Philadelphia by your order on the treasur>- 
there. I have the honor, &c.' 

' Read in Conf^ii Marcb aand. 

" Ai the MinisCcrisl I'roops in Btwiun both fTom iaionnalian and sppeuancc. 
%xt piepnrinji tu evacuate that Town. The General cxprcuii- orden, Ihu 
neither Officer, or SnIHier, presume to gn inln Ronion, withniii Invp (rom t^ 
General in Chief at Cambti'd£c. or the commanding Ocneral at ftoabury : «> 
the enem}' with a malicious aMiduity. havr tjirea'l the inreclion of ih« «ruU- 
pon through oil pDrti of the town, nothing but the utmoit caution on oui lurl, 
can prevent thai (aioI dltea^e from spreading thru* the anny. and oeiutij. lo 
the inliiiitp detrineni ul huth, Hm Cicellency eapresdy comiBaiuis vtcff 
ufTicer, (» jutv ihc cmclcsl oheiliEiicc i" ihiK ordei- 

" \i npun the retrexl uE ihe Enemy any pervin whatsoever, ii detected In pil- 
U]png, he may be a»ur«d the savai«el puniahmenl will be hli tot. lit 
unhappy Inhabitant* ol that diatiesi'd Town, have already Htfler'd too bcarily 
from the I nan hand of oppression ' — Thdt Countrymen surely will not be bac 
ennugh to add to their mitilurtune ; 

"After Ordern. Hi&ExccUcDcy the ComuiaodcT in Chief utdcm, that the Rtflc 
Rattalinn, with Staik'a. Webb's. PniteTnon'a, Oreaton'a. and Bond's RegUBtntt. 
be imme<liatfly relieved frrrni duty, and hold themcflvef in readbfift t« nmdi, 
on Friday Morning next, except the Ride Baitation, which marchea lomorrQW." 
— OriteHy 8i>o». 13 March, 1776. 






CAMBklcxrt, 14 MMch. 1774. 


I have stronger reasons, since 1 last wrote to yow. 
to confirm me in my opinion, that the army under 
General Howe is on its departure. All their move- 
ments pronounce It ; but lest it be but a feint. I must 
continue on my guard, and not weaken my lines too 
much, until \ have a certainty of their departure. It 
is given out. that they arc bound to Halifax : but 
I am of opinion, that New York is the place of their 
destination. It is the object worthy of their atten- 
tion, and it is the place that we must use every en- 
deavor to keep from them. For should they get that 
town, and the command of the North River, they 
can stop the intercourse between the northern and 
southern colonies, upon which depends the safety of 
America. My feelings upon this subject are so strong, 
that I would not wish to give the enemy a chance of 
succeeding at your place. 1 shall, therefore, despatch 
a regiment, and some independent companies of 
riflemen this day ; and to-morrow, or as soon as it 
conveniently can be done, five more regiments will 
set out from this camp. I cannot part with more 
while the enemy remain in sight ; but I have wrote 
to Governor Trumbull to send you two thousand 
men, as soon as he possibly can. If you can get 
one thousand from New Jersey, with the militia of 
the countrjf called in, (if not repugnant to the will 
of Congress.) I think you can make a sufficient 
stand, until I can with the main body of this army 

join you : which you may depend upon will be as 
soon as possible, after I can with any degree of cer- 
tainty tell their route. The plan of defence formed 
by General Lee, is from what little 1 know of the 
place, a very judicious one. I hope, nay. I dare say. 
it is carr>'ing into execution with spirit and industr>'. 
You may judge from the enemy's keeping so long 
jKissession of the town of Boston against an army 
superior in numbers, and animated with the noble 
spirit of liberty ; ! say, you may judge by that. 
how much easier it is to keep an enemy from form- 
ing a lodgment in a place, than it will be to dis- 
possess them, when they get themselves fortified. As 
I have in my last told you, that the fate of this cam- 
paign, of course the fate of America, depends upon 
you and the army under your command, should the 
enemy attempt your quarter. 1 will dwell no more 
thereon, though the vast importance of the subject 
would make an apolog>' for repetitions needless. I 
am. Sir. &c.' 

' LoTi] Stirling coolc ihc commmd nl New Vork, on Cenenl V-Cf't dtpartarv 
loi the southwaiO. MaTch 7lh, and thin Ictlor wni feccivc<l )>; htm. lie replied 
on ihc 30th :^ 

" I ftm hippy to find, that the aid 1 cnUed in from N«w Jeney and CannH- 
iicul exactly ooncun with your sentiment*. The two r<^nicnta c{ Conncctirai 
now here, (onaiitinit of about tiic liundrcd rank and tile each, are imiuiHeiit lo 
g(> tii'iine, Mt many of iheiti «rc farmcn who want lo mnkc aul uiinn)er'> 
work. The liint' of their cnt^tt^vmcnt wiih Cienera! Lee cntl» it«i MnnditT' 
1 have iiwd ny h«i enclmvor* lo prevail on ihem to «ay, lill iheir placet are 
lupplied Iram ihnt qaarter, but it ii still doubifnl «h«lhei they will content lo 
il. Of ihit I have appriicd Governor Trumbull, and have rtqiKslcd him id 
make up the vrhole two thoiuanil (roro that colony. From New Jer*ej- 1 havt 
rcijiiesleil one thousand men ; ittxiut twr> huiiitred of them arc cuinc <n. About 
ooc ihouiand are ordered from die norlhcni cmuitietof (his prorince. None ol 
1 hem is yet arrived. 

" W« have now in \h\% pla« and on Long Itland aboal tvro ihouuuid (ft 



HiaM^uaxtus. CAmMtitrGX, 19 Muxfa. 177A. 


It is with the greatest pleasure I inform you that 
n Sunday last, the 17th instant, about nine o'clock 
n the forenoon, the ministerial army evacuated tht 
town of Boston, and that the forces of the L^nited 
Colonics are now in actual possession thereof. I 
beg leave to congratulate you. Sir, and the honorable 
Congress, on this happy event, and particularly as it 
was effected without endangenng the lives and prop- 
:y of the remaining unhappy inhabitants.* 


busdred men. Including the above two ConaccUeni regimcBts. The militia in 
town antonnt to about m many more. Near one hall o( the whole are on 
(at^c every day. cairyinc into cxocntivn tbe pkn of defence (oratt^ by Ccn- 
end l-ee. They go on with peat ipirit and indiutry. The Congren have 
ordend eight thounnd men (or the defence a( ihii diy and province. The 
ntpa ID make up ihii number arc four rcgimentt ftom Pennsylvania, one (rom 
New Jeney. nnil four from ihix province, none of which it yet arrived, and mott 
of tbciu arc incom^iUle *ik1 until to match, eii|i«dally lho<« of thin province, of 
wfcoM not above two hundred ore yet in town ; and aovat of llicin I find art la 
b« amploytd on Hudson'i River, and in the northern pulK of the prorince.*' 

" The Regiments and Comjiiniet of Artillery, mentioned in Voterday'i Or- 
der*, are not to march before Sim^rise lomormv morning, when cveirthini; 
beloMflng to them ia to he ready 10 move off. The men are tioi to pul ihelr 
pAckk in the cuts ; their proviaona being carried for them, Ihe CcDcraJ exp<el» 
the whole 10 carry Iheir own pack*. Any Officer or Soldier, who u known to 
coinroil my watte, or deftmciion to any of the barrack*, ot barrack ntenalii. 
upon their removing, wilt be puniilied with Ihe utmool severity. The Qr. Mr 
Ctncnl lo order hit a^ti^lanU. to sec ex-ery Article taken proper care ol, when 
the Troopa march."— t"-,£fr^ ****. 15 March, 177*. 

" Aa ihe weithcr i> m bad, and the roada an mirey the Rcgimcnti and Com- 
panies of ArtUlery. ordered to march this morning, are lo halt nnli) lontoncrw 
mormng." — OrJtrly B^k, 16 March. 1776, 

' " 1 have the pleamire lo inform you, that this morning the ntiniderial Iroiip* 
evacuated the town of Boston, witbool