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Full text of "Yaggy's graphic record, giving the resources and conditions of nations"

RDlllT 27^5 




EQUATORIAL DIAM 




PACIFIC SLOPE COAST MTS- 



NEVADA 

DESERT PLATEAU 



COLORADO 

ROCKY MTS. 



CROSS SECTION OF THE UNIT] 






C a r p a t 




CROSS SECTION OF EUROPE 




KANSAS 

GREAT CENTRAL PLAIN 



E N T U C 



STATES ABOUT 40 TH PARALLEL 



VIRGINIA 

ALLEGHANY NITS. 



■V a ■ 






ATLANTIC SLOPE 




TWEEN PARALLELS 40 & 50 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy A West 




EQUATORIAL DIAi 




CALIFORNIA 

"PACIFIC SLOPE COAST MTS 



DESERT PLATEAU 



COLORADO 

ROCKY MTS. 



CROSS SECTION OF THE UNIT 



<%> $ e 3 <( \ 




CROSS SECTION OF EUROPE 



YAGGY'S 

3)0 

GRAPHIC RECO 



^ 



GIVING THE 



RESOURCES AND CONDITIONS 



OF 



NATIONS. 



L. W. YAGGY. 



HOUSTON, TEXAS: 
t 

LONE STAB PUBLISHING HOUSE, 

1887. 

270812 






COPTBIGHT, 1886, 
BY 

YAGGY & WEST. 



IPrelpaqb,. 



IT has been the aim in this work to collect all the important facts 
relative to the formation, development, progress, and present con- 
dition of our country, and of the principal contemporaneous countries. 
The facts thus collated have been carefully analyzed and classified, in 
the form most convenient for ready reference and practical use, so that 
the entire subject is presented in the clearest and simplest form com- 
patible with comprehensiveness of scope and accuracy of detail. To 
reach this end, maps and diagrams have been extensively used, illus- 
trative of the substantial facts treated. 

Yaggy's Graphic Record embraces every subject relating to the 
life of the country — the establishment, development, and continued 
progress of the nation in its educational, religious, political, agricult- 
ural, manufacturing and commercial interests and industries. In a 
word, the work comprises the whole intellectual, moral and economic 
history of the American Republic. 

A special feature in this work is found in the clear and logical 
arrangement of the various topics presented. A general and compre- 
hensive classification gives the country itself, its geologic structure, its 
topography and physical features, and its minerals and metals. The 
country was first, the people came afterward. The ethnological history 
is touched upon lightly, but sufficiently for the connection ; and the his- 
tory of the American people proper is given with regard to their arts 
and accomplishments. Following both country and people are the 
resources of both, thus forming a complete whole. Much has necessa- 
rily been left out ; but nothing essential to a complete presentation of 
the subject is wanting. 

A great deal of the most important matter of this book has never 
before been published ; and by far the greater part of it has existed 



(iii) 



IV PREFACE. 

nowhere outside the libraries of the favored few. The subject of "Labor 
Wages and the Cost of Living," for example, contains matter of the 
highest present interest and importance, but which has never been 
known to the public generally. This, with the parts on " Education," 
" Population," etc., in foreign countries, has been collated after exten- 
sive research and large expense from the official records of those coun- 
tries. 

Acknowledgment is hereby made of services rendered by A. G. 
McCoy, Ph. D., associate editor of the Chicago Mail and a contributor 
to the Encyclopedia Americana; also, to the Hon. John A. Logan, Sena- 
tor from Illinois ; Hon. William R. Morrison, Congressman ; Genera 
W. B. Hazen, Chief of the Signal Service Bureau; Hon. F. R. Powell, 
Superintendent of the Government Geological Survey, and others. 



CONT6NTS. 



GEOLOGY. 



America tlie "New World" in what Respect. — Geologically tlie Old World. — The First Land. 
— Condition of Europe when the American Continent Appeared. — The Geologic Structure of 
the United States. — The Government Surveys. — Private Explorations.— Valuable Eesultsof these 
Surveys. — The Work Still Incomplete.— The Geologic Divisions. — Compass of the Formations. 
— Favorable Opportunities for Geologic Study. — The Atlantic Plain Kegion. — The Rocky Mount- 
ain District. — The Laurentian Hills. — Azoic Dei^osits. — The First Continent. — The Succession 
of the Ages. — Later Formations.— Period Determined by Fossils.— Higher Mountains of Later 
Periods. — Reasons Therefor. — Causes of Disturbed Strata. — Age of Appalachian and Cordilleran 
Ranges. — Geological Table of North America 18-20. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 

General Shape of the Continent. — Position of the United States. — Area of the Country 
with Latest Acquisitions. — The Purchases of 1867. — Position of Mountains and Plains.— Con- 
trasted with Conformation of European Countries.— Framework of the United States.— The 
Appalachian System. — Extent and Arrangement of the System. — Different Ranges in the Appa- 
lachian System. — Mean Altitude. — Height of Noted Peaks — Variations in the Ranges. — Rock 
Structure.- — The Potomac River Cut. — The Cordilleran System. — The Backbone of the Con- 
tinent.— Great Length, Height and Bulk.— Three Distinct Ranges.— The Rocky Mountains. — 
Lofty Peaks of the Rockies.— The Desert Plateau.— The Coast Ranges.— Colossal Peaks.— The 
Three Great Plains.— The Atlantic Slope, Position and Extent.— The Central Plain. —General 
Slope of the Mississippi Valley. — Prairies. — The Sandy Plain. — Movement of the Rainfall. — The 
Three Sections of the Central Plain.— Comparison of Altitudes of Different Places in the Cen- 
tral Plain.— Cross Section of the United States.— The Four River Systems of Drainage.— Rivers 
of the Atlantic Slope.— The Gulf System of Rivers.— The Mississippi and its Tributaries.— 
The Northern Lakes, Area and Importance.— The Mississippi Valley. — Chief Tributaries of the 
Mississippi.— Rivers of the Pacific Slope.— Land Below the Sea Level.— Shore Line of the 
United States. — Value of Extended Coast Line.— Prospects of the Country. 21-28. 



CLIMATE. 



Wide Climatic Range.— Influence of Seas and Mountains on Climate.— Variations in Climate. 
— Prominent Characteristics.— Greatest Equability.— Atlantic Coast Climate.— Compared with 
Same European Latitudes.— Influence of the Gulf Stream.— Compared with Other Portions of 
the Country— Cimate of Central Plain.— The Lake Region.— Gulf Region.— Causes of Extreme 
Cold.— The Mountain Climate.— Course of Isothermal Lines.— Altitude Does not Determine 
Temperature.— Climate of Montana.— Northwest Compared with Eastern Climate.— The Pacific 
Coast.— Causes of Mild Climate.— Sitka and Puget's Sound.— Oregon and Washington.— South- 
ern California.— Southern Alaska.— Tables of Temperature.— Rainfall and Forestry.— Distribu- 
tion of Rainfall.— Signal Service Observations.— Cost of Signal Service.— Tables of Average 
Rainfall.— Rains of Atlantic Slope.— Rains of the Mississippi Valley.— Southern and Northern 
Ends of the Valley.— Rainfall in Rocky Mountains.— Insufficient Rainfall.— Influence of Forests. 
— The Supply of Forests.— Hard and Soft Woods.— Isolated Forests.— Forests of California.— Of 



VI CONTENTS. 

Oregon, Washington and Alaska.— Forest Planting.— Tables Showing Effect of Wind on Rain. 
— ExTDlanation of Districts. — Amount of Eainfall for Sugar, Eice, etc. — For Wheat, Corn, etc. — 
Healthfulness of the Climate 29-48- 



POPULAR WEATHER PROVERBS. 

How Collected. — Origin and Source of Common Proverbs. — Proverbs Eelating to Animals. 
— Proverbs Eelating to Birds. — Proverbs Eelating to Clouds. — Proverbs Eelating to Dew. — Prov- 
erbs Eelating to Fish. — Proverbs Eelating to Fog or Mist. — Proberbs Eelating to Frost. — Prov- 
erbs Eelating to Insects. — Proverbs Eelating to the Moon. — Proverbs Eelating to Plants. — 
Proverbs Eelating to Eain. — Proverbs Eelating to Eainbows. — Proverbs Eelating to Eeptiles. — 
Proverbs Eelating to Stars or Meteors. — Proverbs Eelating to Snow. — Proverbs Eelating to the 
Sun. — Proverbs Eelating to Thunder and Lightning. — Proverbs Eelating to Trees. — Proverbs 
Eelating to Wind. — Instrumental and Other Local Indications of Approaching Storms. — Gen- 
eral Phenomena Indicative of Approaching Storms 49-130 



MINERALS AND METALS. 

Abundance and Distribution. — Accessibility. — Kinds Found. — Coal. — Importance of Coal. — 
Origin of Coal. — How Formed. — Vegetable Deposits and Coal Veins. — Time and Pressure 
Eequired. — Position of the Coal Seams. — Eeasons for Divergence from Horizontal Position. — 
Coal-Producing Area of England, France, Belgium, Europe. — Comparison with Area of United 
States. — Thickness of Coal-Bedsin England and United States. — Four Kinds of Coal. — Anthra- 
cite of Pennsylvania. — Anthracite iu Europe. — Other Places in United States.— Area and Depth 
of Pennsylvania Beds. — The Southern, Middle, and Northern Fields. — Semi-Bituminous Coal. — 
Area and Where Found. — Bituminous Coal. — The Allegheny Field. — Isolated Fields. — The Cen- 
tral Field. — Other Fields: Area and Extent. — Lignite. — Where Found and Extent. — Annual Pro- 
duction and Consumption of all Varieties of Coal. — Commercial Output of Coal for Five Years. — 
Output including Local and Colliery Consumption in 1882, '83 and '84. — Total Coal Production 
of the World for Latest Year. — Manufacture of Coke. — Statistics of Coke for Five Years. — Iron 
Ore: where found. — First Discovery of Iron in America. — First Attempt to Manufacture Iron. — 
Iron Manufacturing in 1643. — At the Beginning of the Eevolution. — Effect of the Morrill Tariff 
on Iron.— Statistics of Iron Industry in 1810.— Statistics for 1870 and 18S0.— The World's 
Production of Coal, Iron and Steel. — Gold and Silver. — The Two Gold Districts.— Gold Deposits 
of the Cordilleras. — How Gold is Found. — The Silver Mines. — Number and Capital Stock of 
Deep Mines. — Extent of Deep Mines. — Number of Men Employed in Deep Mining. — Labor in 
Deep Mines. — Scale of Wages Paid Workmen. — Bullion Product in 1884. — Total Production of 
Gold and Silver to December 31, 1884.— Eank of States in Production of Gold. — Profits of 
Mining. — Statistics of Mining in 1883 and 1884.— Financial Showing of Mining Companies. — 
Consumption of Gold and Silver in Trade. — Output of the World in Gold and Silver. — Employes 
of Ontario Mill. — Scale of Wages Paid. — Scale of Comstock Mills. — Long Tunnels of the World. 
—Petroleum. — Origin of. — Kinds of. — Greatest Production in Pennsylvania. — Production for 
Fourteen Years. — Number of Wells in Thirteen Years. — Output of New York and Pennsylvania 
Fields. — Lead: how found and where.— Production of Lead for Twelve Years. — Sources of Pro- 
duction of Lead. — Copper: where found. — Lake Superior Eegion.— Development of Copper 
Industry.— Statistics of Copper Industry from 1845 to 1884.— Specific Tables for 1882, 1883 
and 1884. — Cost of Producing Copper. — Prices of Copper in 1884. — Copper Production of the 
World from 1879 to 1884.— Mercury: where found.— Product of Mercury from 1875 to 1884. 
—Price List of Mercury in San Francisco and London. — World's Production of Mercury.— Zinc: 
where found. — Production in United States for Six Years. — Production by States for Four Years. 
— World's Production of Zinc. — Graphite: where found. — Amount Produced. — Nickel. — Annual 
Production from 1876 to 1884.— Tin: where found.— Grindstones.— Salt.— Product for 1883 
and 1884. — Mica. — Output for Three Years. — Mineral Springs 131-172. 



/ 



CONTENTS. VII 

EARLIEST INHABITANTS. 

Beginning of North American History. — A Pre Historic People. — What the Spaniards 
Thougnt of the Natives. — How the Name "Indian" was Applied. — State of the Country when 
Discovered.— The Indians not the First Inhabitants.— The Indications of Previous Occupancy. 
A Higher Civilization.— The Mound Builders.— A Race Trior to the Mound Builders. — The Evi- 
dences Isolated and Inconclusive. — Pre-Historic Animals. — Pre-Historic Belies Mentioned. — 
Belies of the Mound Builders. — Their Abundance and Wide Distribution. — Where Found.— The 
Mounds.— Shape and Size of the Largest.— The Ohio Mounds. — Peculiarity of Mounds in Wis- 
consin. — The Purpose and Intention of the Mounds. — Evidence of Copper Mining.— The Belies 
Found in Colorado.— The Investigation of the Mounds Incomplete.— General Facts Established 
by the Belies Found 173-175. 



THE INDIANS. 

Distribution at the Time of the Discovery of America. — The Higher Civilization of the 
Southern Indians.— Estimated Number on the Continent.— Number in the United States. — 
Families and Tribes of Indians. — The Algonquin s — Number and Distribution of the Algonquin 
Family.— The Country Occupied by the Algouquins.— Principal Tribes of the Algonquins. — 
Historic Characters Among the Algonquins. — The Huron-Iroquois Family. — Territory of the 

Huron-Iroquois.— Tribes of the Huron-Iroquois. — The "Six Nations." — Their Confederation. 

Historic Iroquois. — Bemnants of the Six Nations. — The Mo'uilian Family.— Where Found and their 
General Character.— Principal Tribes of the Mobilians.— The ^herokees and Seminoles. — The 
Natchez. — The Dakota or Sioux Family. — Where Found.— Their Habits.— The Chief Tribes of 
the Dakotas. — Present Population of the Indians. — Eatio not Decreasing. — The Indian Beserva. 
tion. — The Most Highly Civilized Tribes. — The Government and the Indians. — A Perplexing 
Problem 176-178. 



THE DISCOVERY. 

Columbus not the Original Discoverer. — The Norse in Greenland. — First White Man who 
Saw America. — Colonization by the Norsemen. — Vinland. — First White Child Born in America. 
—Last of the Norse Settlement.— The Beal Discovery.— V jyages and Discoveries of Columbus. — 
The First Land.— First European Colony.— English Discovery of North America.— Error of the 
Spaniards Eegarding the West Indies.— The Cabots.— Naming the New Continents.— Portuguese 

Discoveries. — The Spaniards in North America. — Spanish Explorations. — Conquest of Mexico. 

First Settlement Attempted in the United States. — Failure of the French Colonization. The 

Oldest Towns in the United States.— First English Colonies.— English Land Grants.— The Lon- 
don Company.— The Plymouth Company.— First Permanent Settlement in the United States.— 
The Plymouth Council.— Puritans in New England.— Dutch Colonization.— New Netherlands. — 
The Swedes and Finns. — New Sweden. — Conflicts Between Dutch and the Swedes. — Troubles of 
the Puritans and Dutch. — English-Holland Treaty. — Positions of French. English and Spaniards 
in America. — The Proportion of Territory Claimed by Each in 1737. — Eise of English Suprem- 
acy. — Wars between the English and French Settlers.— The Treaty of Paris.— New Map of North 
America. — National Traits of Character Exhibited in the Settlement of America. — Activity, 
Foresight and Ingenuity of the French.— Eapacity, Cruelty and Intolerance of the Spaniaids. — 
The Sturdy Briton. — America Certain to Become Wholly English. — What Stopped England's 
Dominancy 179-186. 



POPULATION. 

Primary Object of the Census. — Cost of Taking Census. — Facts in this Work. — The Popula- 
tion by States with Sex, Nativity and Bace. — Increase in Population from 1790 to 1880 by 
Percentage. — Density of Population from 1790 to 1880. — Distribution in Elevation Above Sea 
Level. — Distribution in Accordance with Topographical Features. —Distribution in Accordance 



VIII CONTENTS. 

■with Mean Annual Temperature. — Distribution with Mean Temperature ( of July. — Distribution 
with Mean Temperature of January. — Distribution in Accordance with Maximum Temperature. 
— Distribution in Accordance with Minimum Temperature. — Distribution in Accordance with 
the Eainfall of Spring and Summer. — With the Annual Rainfall. — Distribution in Latitude. — In 
Longitude.— Population by States as Native and Foreign-born. — By Color.— Number of Chinese, 
Japanese and Civilized Indians. — Population Distributed According to the State in which Born. 
—The Country of Birth of the Foreign-born Population.— Population of Cities having 4,000 and 
Over. — Population of Foreign Countries- Difficulty in Obtaining Reliable Statistics.— Foreign 
Population of Great Britain and Ireland. — Large Towns of Great Britain. — Increase since 1871 
in Great Britain. — Population of Great Britain According to Sex. — Emigration from Great 
Britain and Ireland, Number and Destination. — Population of English Colonial Possessions. — 
Population of British North America. — Australasia. — German Empire: Area and Population. — 
Population by Sex and Households in Germany. — Nationalities of the German Empire. — Emigra- 
tion from Germany. — Population of Chief Towns in Germany.— Population of the States of 
Europe: Comparative Table. — Population of the Countries in America. — Number and Distribu- 
tion of the Three Great Paces in Europe. — Area and Population of the Foreign Possessions of 
each European Country. — France: Histoi-y of Changes in Territory and Population. — Present 
Population by Districts and Sub -Districts. — Increase and Decrease in Population of France. — 
Emigration, Number of Households and Nationality of France. — French Possessions. — Area and 
Population of Algeria. — Possessions in America. — In Africa. — In Asia. — In Oceanica. — Austro- 
Hungary: Area and Territorial History.— Area in 1795. — Losses and Gains. — States in Imperial 
Council: Area and Population. — Countries of the Hungarian Crown: Area and Population. — 
Population by Sex and Households. — Foreigners in Austro- Hungary. — Eussia. — History of Terri- 
torial Changes. — Population by Governments.— Italy: Area and Population. —Population by Sex, 
Households and Nationalities. — Changes in Territory with Population. — Switzerland: History of 
Territorial Changes. — Area and Population by Cantons.- Foreigners in Switzerland.— Area of 
Lakes. — Houses and Households. — Belgium: History of. — Area and Population by Provinces. — 
Holland: Territorial History. — Area and Population by Provinces. — Nationality and Religion of 
Population. — Denmark: History of. — Area and Population by Divisions.— Religion and Popula- 
tion of Chief Towns. — Sweden: History. — Area and Population. — Religion of People. — Popula- 
tion of Chief Cities. — Norway: Area, Population. Nationality and Chief Towns. — Spain: History 
and Condition of. — Area, Religion, and Population. — Portugal: Area, Population and Chief 
Towns. — Greece: History of. — Religious Creeds.— Chief Towns. — Area and Population by 
Nomachies. — Roumania, Servia, and Montenegro: Area and Population. — Turkish Empire: Area 
and Population by Sanjaks. — Roumelia and Anatolia. — Turkish Possessions in Europe and Asia: 
Area and Population. — Mexico: Area and Population by States. — Republics of South America. — 
United States of Colombia: Area and Population. — Venezuela. --Ecuador. — Peru. — Bolivia. — 
Chili. — Argentine Confederation. — Paraguay. — Uruguay. — Brazil: Area and Population by Prov- 
inces. — Population by Sex. — Religion and Principal Towns. — Japan: Area and Population. — 
Nationalities, Principal Towns, etc. — China: Area and Population. — Foreign Population in China. 
—Population of the Chief Towns in China , 187-292. 



POLITICS. 

The Commencement of American Politics. — The Magna Charta and Bill of Rights. — Effect 
in Shaping American Politics. — Whigs and Tories of England. — The French and Indian Wars in 
America. — Attitude of English Parties Toward These Wars.— Triumph of Whig Principles. — The 
Imperialism of Parliament. — The Declaratory Act. — The Famous Stamp Act. — Effect on the 
Colonies. — Whigs and Tories in America. — Revocation of the Stamp Act.— The Tyranny of Par- 
liamentary Attitude. — The First Step Toward Independence. — First Continental Congress. — The 
Spirit of England.— Lexington. — Beginning of the Revolut on. — The Constitutional Congress. — 
Declaration of Independence. — Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. — The Conduct 
of the War. — The Final Treaty with Eagland. — Complete Separation. — Difficulties of Transition 
to a Nation. — The Annapolis Convention. — The Philadelphia Convention. — Adoption of the 
Constitution. — Ratification by the States. — Development of American Parties. — Federalist and 



CONTENTS. IX 

Anti-Federalist. — The Choice of Presidential Electors. — Choosing a President and Vice-Presi- 
dent. — Commencement of the First Administration. — Principal Acts of the First Administrations. 
— The Officers of the Government in all Succeeding Administrations, with the Important Acts. 

293-330. 



EDUCATION. 

Great Interest in General Education. — Early Establishment of Public Schools. Enlargement 

of the System.— Ample Provisions for All. — High Estimate of the Common School. — The Control 

of the Educational System. — Local Self- Government, the Basis of the Public School System. No 

Federal Law. — Public Schools a State Institution. — Similarity Among the States. — Early Diver- 
sity of Social and Educational Condition. — Free Schools of the North. — The Slave States. Mex- 
ican Acquisitions. — General Similarity in Later Years. — The National Bureau of Education.— No 
Interference with State Management.- -Aim and Purpose of the Bureau. — Indirectly Influences 
the Conduct of the Schools. — The Actual Government of the Schools Local. — Compulsory Attend- 
ance Laws.— The Functions of the States. — General Superintendence Only. — Duties of the Local 
Municipal Authorities.— The First State School Laws.— The Model for all Later Systems.— The 
Political School Unit.— Sub-Districts.— Local Officers and Duties. — County Superintendents.— 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction. — Support of the Public Schools. — The Underlying 
Principle of Support. — State School Funds. — The School Section. — Large Area of Public Lands 
Given to Support the Schools.— United States Deposit Fund. — State Tax. — Local Taxation. — 
Schools for Higher Instruction. — The Illustrations in this Work. — The Number, Nativity and 
Bace of the Minor Males in the United States. — Females.— Number, Nativity and Bace of the 
Legal School Population, by States. — Receipts and Expenditures for Schools. — Number of Teach- 
ers, Average Salaries and Number of School Months. — School Attendance by Color and Sex.— 
Annual Expenditure for Schools by States. — Per Capita of Expenditure. — School Population, 
Enrollment, etc., from 1873 to 1883.— Comparative White and Colored Enrollment in the 
Becent Slave States. — Table of Colored Schools. — Normal Schools, Business Colleges and Kin- 
dergarten.— Public and Private Normal Schools. — Elementary and High Schools, Value of Prop- 
erty, etc., by States. — Preparatory Schools, Colleges, Universities, etc. — Schools for Secondary 
Instruction, by States. — Schools for Superior Instruction of Women. — Universities and Colleges 
by States. — Number of Students in Higher Institutions, by States. — Schools of Science. — Schools 
of Theology. — Schools of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmacy. — Illiteracy from Ten Years Old.— 
Minors of Legal School Age.— Illiteracy by States in I860.— Hliteracy in 1870.— Illiteracy in 
1880. — Number of Idiots, Blind and Insane, a Four Decades. — The Insane, with Sex, Nativity 
and Bace, by States. — The Idiotic, with Sex, Nativity and Bace, by States. — The Blind, with Sex. 
Nativity and Bace, by States. — Deaf Mutes, with Sex, Nativity and Bace, by States. — Paupers, 
with Sex, Nativity and Bace, by States. — Newspapers and Periodicals of the World, by Countries, 
■ — Number and Languages of Newspapers in the United States. — Newspapers of the United 
States Classified. — Beligious Newspapers by Denominations.— Newspapers by Periods of Issue. 
— Education in Great Britain. — Statistics of Schools in England for Ten Years. — Schools and 
Scholars of England and Scotland by Beligious Creeds. — Illiteracy in England, Shown by Mar- 
r iage Becords. — Schools and Education in Scotland and Ireland. — Newspapers and Books in 
Great Britain and Ireland. — Education in France. — Number of Schools, Enrollment and Expend- 
itures.— Illiteracy in France. — Newspapers and Books in France.— Educational Statistics of 
Germany. — Schools and Universities. — Books, Newspapers and Periodicals of the German Em- 
pire 331-386. 



RELIGION. 

National Character.— Bule for Determining Character. — Early Settlers of America. — Their 
Motives and Objects. — Early Colonists Protestants. — Beligious Character of the Different Colo- 
nies. — Cause of their Emigration. — Beligious Asylums. — Two Civilizations. — Two Streams of 
Influence. — Gradual Assimilations in Modern Times.— The Anglo-Saxon Colonist. — The Norman. 
— Peculiar Character of American Colonies. — From the Middle Class of Society. — Their Intelli- 
gence.— Their Uprightness.— Their Eeligioiis Life.— Some of their Faults.— Beligious Character 



X CONTENTS. 

of America Modeled after the Mother Countries. — History of the Change. — Union of Church and 
State. — The Separation. — The Three Original Influences. — The Puritan. — The First Constitu- 
tion. — Plymouth Colony. — Persecutions. — Their Virtues. —Second Influence. — Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians. — The Model of the American Constitution. — Third Influence. — The Huguenots. — 
Distribution of the Colonies. — Eeligion in United States. — Outlines of Present Work. — -Religious 
Population. — Percentage of Different Denominations. — Religious Trend. — Piincipal Religious 
Denominations of the United States. — Increase in Churches and Membership in the United 
States in 105 years. — The Unitarian, Universalist and Catholic Churches in the United States. — 
Statistics of the Denominations in the United States. — Churches in British North America. — 
Religious Statistics of Great Britain. — Ratio of Roman Catholic to Entire Population in Great 
Britain. — Number of Clergymen by Churches and Countries in the World. — Number of Organi- 
zations, Clergy, etc., of Every "Denomination in the United States. — Membership in Certain 
Chief Churches of the World by Countries. — General Religious Divisions of the World. — Mem- 
bership of the Principal Religious Bodies in Europe by Countries 387-402. 



OCCUPATIONS. 

Number of Persons Engaged in Gainful Occupations in the United States with Age and Sex. 
— Distribution According to Sex. — Comparison of Sex in Occupations. — Comparative Increase in 
Ten Years. — Statistics of Occupations in Cities. — Number and Sex Engaged in Agriculture by 
States. — In Professional and Personal Services. — In Trade and Transportation. — In Manufactures 
and Mechanical and Mining Industries. — Occupation, with Age, Sex and Nativity by States. — 
Number Engaged in Professional and Personal Services with Age and Sex by States. — Same with 
Nativity. — Engaged in Trade and Transportation with Age and Sex by States. — Same with 
Nativity. — Engaged in Manufactures and the Mechanical and Mining Industries, with Age and 
Sex by States. — Same with Nativity. — Persons of All Classes with Age and Sex in Fifty Principal 
Cities. —Same with Nativity. — Number of all Persons with Sex and Nativity in the United States 
by Classes of Occupations 403-426- 



LABOR, WAGES AND LIVING. 

Importance of Labor Question. — Cost of Living Intimately Associated with Wages. — 
Scope and Aim of this Chapter. — Comparison of Trade Wages of Europe and Chicago and New 
York. — European Cities Compared with Chicago. — Wages Paid in Seven European Countries in 
1878 and 1884 Compared with Chicago to Show Increase. — Iron Trades of England Compared 
with United States. — Wages of Railway Employes in Europe and United States. — Prices of 
Provisions in Five Principal Countries in Europe by Specified Articles. — Wages Paid in the 
General Trades in New York. — To Printers, etc., in Chicago. — In Foundries, Machine Shops, 
etc. — Railway Employes in Chicago. — Clerks in Stores. — Household Servants.— England: Sta- 
tistics of Industrial Classes. — Number of Females in Trades. — Wages Paid in the General Trades. 
— In Certain Cities. — Cost of Living in England. — Wages Paid Railway Employes. — Character of 
Working Classes. — Wages of Household Servants. — The Land Tenure System. — Wages of Agri- 
cultural Hands. — Contrast of English and American Farmers. — Table of Prices of Provisions. — 
Cost cf House Rent. — A Sample Case. — Scotland: Statistics of Wage Workers.— Wages Paid in 
General Trades. — In Factories and Mills.— In Iron Works. — To Railway Employes. — To House- 
hold Servants. — To Clerks in Stores. — To Farm Laborers. — Price of Provisions. Ireland: 

Statistics of Laborers. — Condition of Laborers. — Causes of Emigration. — Wages Paid in Gen- 
eral Trades. — Farm Wages. — Wages in Factories and Mills. — In Foundries and Iron Works. — 
Sample Cases of Irish Laborers. — France: General Condition of Labor.— Wages Paid in the 
General Trades. — To Household Servants. — In Stores.— Condition of the Working Classes. — A 
Case in Illustration. — Germany: Number and Classification of Laborers. — Wages in the General 
Trades by Districts. — Habits of the Working Classes.— Wages in Factories or Mills. — Of Rail- 
way Employes. — Clerks in Stores. — In Foundries and Machine Shops. — Wages Paid Miners. — 
To Household Servants. — Farm Wages by the States. — Prices of Provisions. — An Estimate of 



, CONTENTS. XI 

Wages and Living. — An Actual Case Presented. — Emigration and its Causes. — Belgium: Labor 
and Laborers. — Wages Per Week in tlie General Trades. — Condition of Working Classes. — Food 
Prices. — A Belgian Workman. — Switzerland: Character of Labor. — Habits of the Working 
People. — Wages Paid in the General Trades. — Swiss Factory Laws. — Wages in Factories or 
Mills. —To Household Servants. — To Farm Hands. — To Clerks in Stores. — Condition of the 
Working Classes. — Prices of Provisions and Clothing. — Austro-Hungary, Labor Population. — 
Character of Laboring Classes. — Wages in the General Trades. — Cost of Necessaries of Life. — 
Political Condition of Laborers. — Holland: Wages in General Trades. — Character of Laboring 
Classes. — Cost of Provisions. — Condition and Habits of the People. — An Example from Life.— 
Causes of Emigration. — Denmark: General Facts. — Wages in General Trades.- -Wages to Farm 
Laborers. — Wages Paid Women. — Cost of Necessaries of Life. — A Yearly Budget of Wages and 
Living. — Spain: Character of Laboring Classes. — Wages Paid in General Trades. — Case of a 
Spanish Workman. — Italy: Statistics of Labor Population. — Wages Paid to Women. — Wages 
Paid in the General Trades.— Wages and Condition of Farm Laborers. — Household Ser- 
vants. — Food Prices i 1 Enme. — Russia: General Condition of Working Classes. — Wages Paid in 
General Trades. — Political Condition. — Farm Wages. — Character and Condition of Working 
Classes. — Cost of Provisions. — Canada: General Condition of Labor. — Wages Paid in the Gen- 
eral Trades. — Prices of Provisions. — Employment of Women.— Mexico: Character of Labor 
Population. — Social and Political Status.— Wages Paid Farm Hands. — Of Household Servants. 
— Wages in General Trades. — Intellectual Condition. — Cost of Living. — United States of Colom- 
bia. — Wages Paid in General Trades. — Provisions and Rent. — Venezuela. — Wages in General 
Trades. — Habits of Working Classes. — Food Prices.— Brazil. — Wages in General Trades. — Clas- 
sification of Working People. — How they Live. — Prices of Provisions. — Turkey in Asia. — Con- 
dition of Labor.— Women Laborers. — Wages in General Trades. — Difficulties Among Workmen. 
— Palestine: Chai'acter of the People. — Different Nationalities, Class and Caste. — Wages Paid in 
the General Trades in Jerusalem. — The Expense of Living. — Australasia. — The Workingman's 
Paradise. — Wages Paid in the General Trades. — Wages Paid Farm Laborers. Cost of Living 
and Table of Food Prices 427-540. 



DISEASES AND DEATHS. 

System of Registration. — Definition of Vital Statistics. — Purpose of Registration of Vital 
Statistics. — Death Rate in the United States. — Death Rate in Colored Population. — Deaths by 
Sex. — Deaths by Age. — Causes of Deaths.— Diphtheria. — Enteric Fever. — Malaria Fever. — Con- 
sumption. — Deaths in each State with Distinction of Sex. — Deaths by States with Distinction of 
Sex and Color. — Deaths in each State with Distinction of Sex and Certain Specified Ages. — 
Number of Deaths from Measles in each State and Territory.— Scarlet Fever.— Diphtheria.— 
Whooping Cough. — Enteric Fever. — Diarrheal Diseases. — Consumption. — Diseases of the Nervous 
System.— Diseases of the Respiratory System.— Diseases of the Digestive System.— Excess of 
Deaths in Males from Certain Causes— Number of Deaths in the United States from Causes Speci- 
fied. — Number in Fifty Principal Cities.— Proportion of Male to 1,000 Female Deaths in the 
United States from Specified Causes.— Proportion of Deaths of Children to 1.000 Total Birth- 
in Cities and Rural Districts of the Unit3d States 541-554. 



ARMY AND NAVY. 

Military Power of the United States Peculiar.— No Standing Army.— Real Military Strengths 
—American Patriolism and Defensive Power. -American Wars.— Number of Soldiers in the 
Revolution.— War of 1812.— Number of Officers and Men Engaged.— Mexican War.— Number 
Engaged.— Number Killed.— Number Wounded.— The Rebellion.— Troops Furnished.— Colored 
Troops Furnished.— Number of Men Drafted.— Bounties Paid.— Extent of Casualties to Both 
Sides.— Present Standing Army.— Number of Officers and Men Enlisted.— Military Departments. 
- Commissioned and Non-Commissioned Officers.— Retired Army Officers.— Generals in Com- 
mand.— Allowance to Officers.— Pay of Officers in Active Service.— Pay of Retired Officers.— List 
of Generals since 1775.— Strength of Regular Army from 1789 to 1885.— The Armies of the 



Xn CONTENTS. 

"World. — Annual Cost. — Cost to Each Inhabitant. — The United States Navy. — Number of Vessels. 
— Active List of the Navy. — Betired List. — Navy Yards. — Officers of the Navy.— Years of Service. 
— Pay of All Connected With the Navy.— Navies of the World.— Number of Vessels and Men.— 
Cost of Naval Service.— Pensions. — Troops Engaged in Wars Previous to the Bebellion.— Pensions 
Allowed. — Comparison of Pensions Paid with Interest on Public Debt. — Pensions Paid Survivors 
and Widows of the war of 1812.— Appropriations and Expenditures of Pension Office from 1862 
*o 1886. — Number of Pension Agencies. — Pensioners on the Poll. — Pensions paid in each 
State from 1861 to 1886.— Table of Pension Eates.— Summary of Pension Expenses from 1862 
to 1886 555-578. 



AGRICULTURE. 

How the Statistics are Gathered.— What is a Farm?— Number of Farms in the United States 
by States and Groups.— Proportion of Farms to Total Land Surface.— Table of Farms Tilled by 
Owner and Renter. — Increase' in Farms in Thirty Years. — Classification of Farms by Size. — Dairy 
Products.— Statistics of Cereal Productions. — Acreage and Yield of Cotton. — Tobacco. — Sugar 
and Molasses.— The Grass Crop.— Poultry and Eggs.— Orchard Products. — Number of Oxen and 
Farm Animals. — Fences and Cost of Fencing. — Number of Acres in Farms in 1860. 1870 and 
1880, by States.— Improved Land in 1870 and 18S0 by States.— Value of Farms, Farm Imple- 
ments and Machinery, by States.— Production of Barley and Buckwheat for Thirty Years, by 
States.— Indian Corn and Oats. — Eye and Wheat.— Cotton and Wool.— Hay and Tobacco. — Pota- 
toes.— Number of Live Stock by States. — Horses, Mules and Asses, Oxen, Milch Cows, Other 
Cattle, Sheep and Swine. — Production of Butter and Cheese, by States.— Barley, Buckwheat, 
Indian Corn, Oats, Eye, Wheat, Orchard Products, Hay, Hops, Sugar-Cane, Eice, Cotton, 
Tobacco and Potatoes. — Tables Showing the Production of the Cereals, Grasses and Vegetables 
in Each State in the Union, by Counties. — Table Showing the Number of Horses in the United 
States by States.— Mules and Asses. — Milch Cows. — Other Cattle. — Sheep. — Swine. — Butter. — 
The Average Yield Per Acre and Price Per Bushel of Corn by States. — Wheat. — Oats. — Eye. — 
Barley. — Buckwheat. — Potatoes.— Hay .—Tobacco. — Cotton. — Eules for Inspection of Spring 
Wheat at Chicago.— Corn.— Oats 579-676. 



MANUFACTURES. 

Method of Collecting Statistics. — Increase of Manufacturing Industry. — Value of Products. 
— Capital Invested in Manufactures. — Increase of in Ten Years. — Agricultural Rank of the 
States. — Manufacturing Bank of Each State. — Increase in Each State in Certain Manu- 
facturing Eespects. — Statistics of Various Trades. — Value of Production of Certain Industries. 
— Supply of Food. —Manufacture of Iron and Steel. — Saw-Mill Industry. — Lumber Industry. — 
Foundries. — Machine Shops. — Cotton Goods. — Silk Manufacture.— Woolen Goods. — Manufac- 
ture of Clothing. — Boots and Shoes. — Leather Tanning Industry of the United States. — Sta- 
tistics of Carpentering and Blacksmithing in each State. — Manufacture of Furniture. — Agricul- 
tural Implements. — Carriages and Wagons. — Distillation of Sjririts. — Malt Liquors. — Manufac- 
turing Centers of the United States. — Population of the United States. — Increase of.— National, 
ity in Manufacturing Industries. — Bank of the Seven Leading Cities in Each Industry Specified. 
—Women and Children in Manufacturing Industry. — Statistics of Manufactures by States. — 
Number Employed in Fifty Principal Cities by Age and Sex. — Eelation of Wages and Materials 
to Products.— Statistics of Blast Furnaces. — Bank of Six Leading Industries in Thirty Cities 
Specified. — Manufactures by Totals of States and Territories. — Power Used in Manufactures in 
the United States.— The United States by Specified Industries in 1880. — Number of Establish- 
ments. — Capital — Number of Hands Employed — Wages Paid— Materials and Products.677-716. 



WEALTH, DEBT AND TAXATION. 

Standing of the United States in the Commercial World. — Estimated Wealth of the World 
by Countries. — Value of the Industrial Products of the World by Countries. — Balance Sheet of 
the United States. — Eeceipts of the United States from all Sources from 1789 to 1884. — Expen- 



CONTENTS. XIII 

ditures of the Country for All Purposes from 1789 to 1884. — Assets and Liabilities of the 
United States in 1885. — Assessed and True Valuation of the Country by States.— Amount of 
Money in Circulation. — Form and Location of the Circulation. — History of the Fractional Cur- 
rency by Periods of Issue and Value. — Deposits and Purchases. — Number of Banks, Capital, 
Circulation, etc., by States. — Number and Denominations of Bank Notes with the Time of 
y Issue. — Number of Outstanding Bank Notes at Three Periods. — Taxes Collected from National 
Banks from 1S64 to 1885. — Amounts and Kinds of Outstanding Notes Each Year from 1865 to 
1885. — Amount of Gold and Silver Mined in 1884, by States. — Annual Production from 1845 
to 1885. — Coinage in 1885. — Number and Standard Value of Pieces Coined. — Gold Coinage Each 
Year from _793. — Silver Coinage from 1793 with Denominations of Coins. — Minor Coinage by 
Denominations from 1793. — Public Debt Each Year from 1791 to 1885.— Proportion of Taxes 
Levied for School and for Other Purposes by Groups of States. — Analysis of Interest-Bearing 
Debt.— Amounts and Kinds of Outstanding Bonds from 1865 to 1885.— Total and Per Capita 
Taxes Levied by States.— Taxation of Cities Having a Population of 7,500, by States. 

717-746 



TRADE AND COMMERCE. 

Internal Commerce. — Material Resources of the United States. — Prices of Wheat Each 
Month for Fifteen Years in Chicago. — Corn. — Oats. — Pork. — Prime Steam Lard. — Live Hogs. — 
Average Price of Staple Articles for Fifty Years. — Weekly Price of Wheat in San Francisco.— 
Internal Revenue. — Amount Collected from Specified Sources. — Receipts for 1885 by States. — 
Statistics of Spirits for Five Years. — Taxes Collected from National Banks from 1864 to 1885 — 
Taxes on Circulation, Deposits, etc., from 1864. — Production, Area and Value of the Tobacco 
Crop from 1868.— Tobacco Used in Manufactures from 1872 to 1884. — Condition of Tobacco 
Business in 1885 by States.— Value of Imports, Exports, etc., from 1791 to 1884.— Value of 
Merchandise Imported by Countries.— Value of Domestic Merchandise Exported by Countries. 
—Value of Merchandise Imported by Articles.— Value of Domestic Merchandise Exported by 
Articles. — Total Value of Imports and Exports of Merchandise by Countries. — Raw Cotton 
Exported from 1875 to 1884 by Countries.— Value of Imports and Exports with Method of 
Carriage, etc., from 1856 to 1885.— Financial and Economic Transactions of the United States 
from 1877.— Receipts and Expenditures for Last Fiscal Year.— Same Itemized.— Miles of Rail- 
road Constructed Annually from 1830 to 1885.— Miles of Railway in Operation by States.— 
Mileage, Capital, Cost, etc., of Railroads, by States.— Receipts and Expenses of Railroads by 
States.— Number, Tonnage, etc., of Shipping, by States.— Tonnage of Vessels Built from 1857. 
—Proportion of Steam and Sailing Vessels.— Merchant Marine Service.— The Fishing Trade. 
Seaport Clearances from 1864.— Nationality of Foreign Tonnage, etc., Cleared from 1857.— 
Schedule of Transportation Rates.— Joint Rates.— Railway Transportation by Articles.— Steam- 
ship Rates by Articles.— Lake Freight Rates, Chicago to Buffalo.— Ocean Freight Rates by 
Articles.— Postofflce Department.— Statistics from 1790 to 1885.— Cost of Railway Mail Service 
from 1830 to 1885.— Number of Postofflces by States.— Receipts and Expenditures of Depart- 
ment for 1885 — Classification of Mail Matter— Rates of Postage to Foreign Countries. 747-812 



MAPS AND DIAGRAMS. 



Distribution or Plants, etc., by Altitude. Comparative Heights of Principal Mountains. 

Cross Sections of the United States Frontispiece. 

Distribution of Animals, Reptiles, Fishes and Birds of the World 18 

Growth of Vegetables of the World 24 

Elevation of the United States, Starting from the Sea Level 28 

Mean Annual Temperature of the World 30 

Mean Annual Temperature of the United States 32 

Minimum Temperature of the United States 36 

Maximum Temperature of the United States 40 

District Map of the Signal Service Bureau 44 

Mean Temperature of July in the United States 54 

Mean Temperature of January in the United States 64 

Mean Cloudiness in Spring, in Summer, in Autumn and in Winter 74 

Moisture in Spring, in Summer, in Autumn and in Winter 88 

The Annual Rainfall of the United States 104 

Distribution of Rainfall of the Spring and Summer 118 

Density of Forests in the United States 134 

Distribution of Pines in the United States 142 

Distribution of Oaks in the United States 152 

Walnut Distribution of the United States 160 

Distribution of Ashes in the United States 168 

Human Races of the World 178 

Increase in Population in the States from 1800 to 1880 190 

The Population by States, with Nativity, Color, Etc 198 

Density of Population of the United States 204 

Ratio of Colored to Total Population 214 

Degrees of Density of Predominating Sex 222 

Density of Population per Square Mile and per cent of Foreigners in each State 244 

Ratio of Foreign to Total Population of the United States 280 

Vote of each State for 1880: for 1884 318 

School Interests in each State and Territory 342 

Number of Insane, by Sex, Color, Etc 350 

Number of Blind, by Sex, Color, Etc 358 

Number of Deaf Mutes, by Sex, Color, Etc 368 

Number of Newspapers compared with the Population 376 

Progress of Education in Different Nations 380 

School Population, Enrollment and Attendance 381 

Religious Denominations of the United States 388 

Church Accommodation, by States 394 

Gainful Occupations, by States 418 

Average Wages per Month by Group of States 432 

Death Rate under One Year; from One to Five; From Consumption; Rheumatism among Troops — 542 

Death Rate by Color and Race 544 

Death Rate at Different Ages 545 

Death Rate from Malarial Diseases 548 

(xiv) 



MAPS AND DIAGRAMS. XV 

Death Rate fkom Consumption 548 

Death Rate from Certain Fevers 549 

Death Rate from Intestinal Diseases 549 

Death Rate among Irish and German-Americans 552 

Death Rate among White and Colored Population 552 

Death Rate in United States and Europe 552 

Death Rate in Thirty-one Cities 552 

Death Rate in North-Eastern States 552 

Death Rate in Southern States 552 

Death Rate from Rheumatism; from Catarrhs 553 

Death Rate from Enteric Fever; from Typho-Malarial Fever 553 

Death Rate from Pneumonia ; from Bronchitis 553 

Death Rate from Diarrhcea ; from Malaria 553 

Comparative Diagram of Nations 562 

Farms and Farm Products by. States 578 

Increase of Values of Agricultural Products 579 

Consumption and Production of Sugar 579 

Unimproved Land— Cereal Production 580 

Cotton, Average Yield ; Total Production 581 

Average Yield of Corn ; Wheat ; Oats ; Barley 584 

Acreage of Cotton— Value of Farm Animals 585 

Value of Live Stock— Yield of Hay 588 

Number of Milch Cows ; other Cattle 588 

Number of Horses; Mules; Swine; Sheep 589 

Yield of Wheat per Acre; Product per capita 592 

Progress of Wheat Production in Thirty Years 593 

Product per Head, of Wheat, of Europe and United States 593 

Average Yield of Rye; Buckwheat; Potatoes; Tobacco 598 

Corn Production by States ; Annual Variation 602 

Value of Farms— Farmer's Income— Farm Wages 603 

Tobacco Interests in the United States 603 

Value of Farm Products— Increase of Farm Animals 608 

Increase of Production of Cereals 609 

Proportion of Land in Farms to total Land Surface '--- 609 

Product per Head, of Cereals in Europe and United states 614 

Production and Export of Cotton 1841—1884 614 

Product and Export of Cereals— Increase of Farm Area 615 

Ratio of Yield of Grain to Area of Improved Land 620 

Average Yield of Wheat per Acre, in bushels 624 

Average Yield of Corn per Acre, in bushels 632 

Average Yield of Oats per Acre, in bushels 638 

Average Yield of Barley per Acre, in bushels 644 

Production of Rye per Acre of Improved Land 650 

Production of Buckwheat per Acre of Improved Land 658 

Income per Acre from Cereal Products, by States 666 

Product of Corn per Acre; per capita 670 

Yield of Corn by Group of States 671 

Effect of Varying Product on Price of Corn 671 

Steam and Water Power used in United States 696 

Taxation, per capita, by States 720 

Valuation of Property, per capita, by States 721 

Total net Indebtedness of the United States 730 

Outstanding Bonded Debt of United States 731 

National Debts of Different Countries 740 

Product and Export of Corn and Wheat 748 

Prices of Corn, Wheat, Oats, Rye, Timothy Seed, Cotton, Rice and Hops 756 

Prices of Sugar, Hams, Mackerel, Codfish, Rio, Molasses, Lard, Leather and Flour 764 

Prices of Tobacco, Wool, Cheese, Butter, Mess Pork, Mess Beef, Tallow and Hides 772 

Pr.icES of Glass, Linseed Oil, Salt, Hard Coal, Tea, Iron, Nails, Clover Seed and Lead 780 



Contents 



The Country. 



The People. 



The Resources. 



GEOLOGY. 

When America is spoken of as the "New World," reference is to the 
discovery, the settlement, and to the development of her natural resources. 
In these regards the continent is much younger than those of the Eastern 
hemisphere. When we come to consider the formation of the world from 
chaos, the rise and configuration of the earth from all-pervading water, 
America ranks all the continents in priority of existence. The "dry land" 
was first made to appear in any considerable size in that portion of the 
globe which is now a part of our own land. When the whole surface of 
what now constitutes the continent of Europe was only a great sea of 
boiling, seething flood, with here and there a small island rising above the 
surface, America was a continent, stretching from Nova Scotia to almost 
where the Mississippi Valley touches the base of the Rocky Mountains. 

The geologic structure of the United States is not well known. For 
more than twenty years, the government has had parties of experts en- 
gaged in making surveys, and many private explorations in different por- 
tions of the country have been made; the results thus attained, though 
exceedingly valuable, are far from complete. The surveys have been 
made by different parties and in different sections, and the reports as given 
to the world are only of these distinct sections. Extremely valuable as 
the result of these investigations is, both to the development of the mineral 
resources of the country and also to the fuller understanding of the science 
of geologic structure, much time must yet elapse before a complete and 
trustworthy map of the geology of the country can be given. The 
territory is vast and the difficulties to accurate investigation are many. 

The geology of the United States is usually arranged in two divisions, 
the first comprising the most ancient of all the geologic formations, and 
denominated the "Atlantic Plain Region." The other comprises the com- 
paratively recent formations, and is called the " Rocky Mountain District." 
The latter includes the larger part of the country and is least known. 
Nowhere in the world, so far as scientific research has extended, are the 
conditions for the study of rock formations more favorable than in the 
United States. The whole story of the rocks, from the earliest period of 
lifeless history down to the very latest upheavals, is plainly written, and, 
for the most part, easily accessible for those who can read it. 

(17) 



18 GEOLOGY. 

The range of hills which lie partly in Canada and partly in the United 
States, stretching from near the Gulf of St. Lawrence south and west into 
the Upper Mississippi Valley, are of remarkable geological interest. 
Though of insignificant height, never rising above 2,000 feet from 
the level of the sea, and seldom reaching even that altitude, the Lauren- 
tian Hills are the oldest land in America, and, indeed, in the world.* The 
rocks are granitic and belong to the Azoic, or period of no life in the his- 
tory of the earth. Along the base of these hills are strewn the deposits 
of the Azoic age, the first stratified beds of which the geologist has any 
record. This long stretch of country, almost continental in area, extend- 
ing its greatest distance from northeast to southwest, was the first 
appearance and shape of the Continent of America. The beginning of 
the formation of the United States was from the north toward the south. 

As the geologic periods succeeded, other parts of the land surface ap- 
peared, some gently, some with tremendous force, leaving the surface 
diversified with mountain, hill, valley and plain as we now see it. ^ The com. 
position of the rocks, where these are sufficiently exposed for study, indi- 
cate the time of the formation and the nature of the upheaval. Some of the 
later formations, as in the Cordilleran Mountains, show a much greater 
elevation than those which appeared earlier; the stratification of the rocks 
is also much disturbed. This disturbance can be readily seen in the min- 
erals which lie between strata, as coal, iron, lead, etc.; often the uniform 
layer of mineral is interrupted only to appear at some other place, and the 
dip of the seams often varies from the horizontal, the natural position, to 
one almost vertical. 

The fact of the higher elevations attaching to the rocks of later for- 
mation is explained on a very simple principle. At the first formations, as 
the Azoic of the Laurentian Hills, the crust of the earth was thin and soft ; 
the force sufficient to break it was not great, and, consequently, the height 
to which the broken crust would be carried would be correspondingly 
small. But when ages had passed and the crust had become thicker and 
harder, the force to break it must have been incalculably great. When 
such force was accumulated, the height to which the burst crust would be 
carried and the dislocation of the stratified rocks would be great. This 
piling to immense altitudes and disarrangement of strata, we now see ex- 
actly in the highest mountains of the world as correct reasoning would 
lead us to expect. 

From this general principle, we would expect that the rocks which 
form the ribs of the high mountains of the Appalachian and Cordilleran 



H— 




'---' >.' '.* • * <-' 



^vVs.u -» r 



GEOLOGY. 19 

systems, would indicate a much later geologic formation than those in the 
plains and lower hills. This is indeed the case. The entire continent 
almost from the southern base of the Azoic formations in the Laurentian 
hills, belongs, generally, to the cretaceous and tertiary periods. 

It is not possible in a work of this sort to enter into any exhaustive 
discussion of the geology of our country ; nor is it desirable. Scientific 
text-books abound in which such information can be readily obtained. 
The aim here is to show, by the accompanying maps, something of the 
various minerals which abound in our country and their distribution. 
The surveys thus far made have had a practical importance in determin- 
ing in what localities it is probable and possible for certain metals and 
minerals to be obtained. In the state of New York, for example, much 
labor and expense have been devoted to searching for coal ; geology has 
determined that coal measures can not exist in the rocks which are 
found within the area of that state. No intelligent man would now 
think of searching for coal in that state. 

Some of the states have prosecuted the geologic study of the territory 
with great vigor and with satisfactory results. In the state of Ohio and 
Illinois, for instance, the production of coal has increased largely since the 
publication of the state reports. Prospectors have been aided and encour- 
aged in their endeavors to open up new fields in localities where the geo- 
logic survey had assured them coal could be found, and fruitless efforts, 
outside the coal measures, have practically ceased. The surveys in the 
states and territories where the precious metals are to be found, have 
been most thorough and exhaustive ; and the results have contributed to 
greatly aid intelligent search for gold and silver. 

Nearly all the various states have their geological societies main- 
tained at the public expense. They are engaged in the further prosecution 
of the study of the formation of the different strata underlying the territory 
of the state, verifying what is already comparatively well understood, and 
in surveys and explorations of those parts less known. Where the rocks 
are exposed, this study can be carried on readily and the results attained 
are comprehensive and satisfactory. In the vast territories lying to the 
west, the surveying is done under the immediate direction of the gen- 
eral government. The results reached, both in the states and by the 
government parties is published from time to time, and, ere long, a com- 
plete and accurate map of the geology of our country can be prepared. 

The annexed table exhibits the geology of North America according 
to the latest arrangement and discoveries : 

Albertson Public Library 

ORLANDO, FLORIDA 



20 



GEOLOGY. 



ERAS. 



AGES. 



PSYSCH0Z010. 




Age of Man. 



Age of 
Mammals. 



Age of 
Reptiles. 



PERIODS. 



Human. 



QUATERNARY. 



Tertiary. 



Cretaceous. 



Jurassic. 



Teiassic. 



EPOCHS. 



Historical. 



Terrace. 

Champlain. 

Glacial. 



STRATA. 



Cave Deposits. 
Peat. Alluvium. 



Terraces. Loess. 

Saxicava Sand. 

Forest Bed. 

Champlain Clay. Erie Clay. 

Glacial Drift. 



Pliocene. 
Miocene. 
Eocene. 



Upper Cretaceous. 
Middle Cretaceous. 
Lower Cretaceous. 
Wealden. 



Oolitic. 
Liassic. 



Keuper. 

Muschelkalk. 

Bunter-Sandstein. 



Sumter Beds. 
Yorktown Beds, 
c Vicksburg Beds. 
I Jackson Beds. 
( Claiborne Beds. 



Fox Hill Group. 
Pierre Group. 
, Benton Group. 
1 Dakota Group. 

(Wanting?) 
(Wanting?) 



Jurassic Strata. 
Nebraska, Colorado. 
Utah, Nevada. 
California, Sonora. 



Triassic Sandstones. 
Marl, Coal, &c. 
Atlantic Coast. New Mexico 
Arizona, California. 
Sonora, &c. 



Permian. 



Permian. 



Carboniferous, 

or Age of 

Coal Plants 

and 
Amphibians. 



Permian Dolomites. 
Kansas and Nebraska. 



Carboniferous. 



Upper Coal Measures. 
Lower Coal Measures. 
Garb. Conglomerate. 



Sub- 
Carboniferous. 



Upper Sub-carboniferous 
Lower Sub-carboniferous 



Catskill. 



Catskill. 



PALEOZOIC. 



Chemung 



Chemung. 
Portage. 



Devonian, 

or 

Age of Fishes. 



EOZOIC. 



Silurian, 

or 

Age of 

MoLLUSKS 



Eozoic 



Hamilton. 



Genesee. 

Hamilton. 

Marcellus. 



CORNIFEROUS. 



Corniferous. 

Schoharie. 

Cauda-Galli. 



Oriskany. 



Oriskany. 



Helderberg. 



Helderberg. 



Salina. 



Saliferous. 



Upper Coal Measures. 
Lower Coal Measures. 
Carb. Conglomerate. 



Sub-carb. Limestone. 

j Shales and 
( Sandstone. 



Sub-carb. 



Catskill. 



Chemung Group. 
Portage Group. 



Genesee Shale. 

Tully Limestone. 

Moscow Shale. 

Encrinal Limestone. 

Ludlowville Shale. 
Marcellus Shale. 



( Corniferous Limestone. 
( Onondaga Limestone. 
Schoharie Grit. 
Cauda-Galli Grit. 



Oriskany Sandstone. 



f OpperPentamerus Limestone. 

Ecrinal Limestone. 
-j Delthyris Shaly Limestone. 
| Lower Pantamerus Limestone 
[ Water-Lime Group. 



Onondaga Salt Group. 



Niagara. 



Hudson. 



Trenton. 



Calciferous. 



Niagara. 
Clinton. 
Medina. 



Primordial. 



Eozoio. 



Hudson. 
Utica. 



f Leclaire, Guelph and 
•' Niagara Limestones. 
( Niagara Shale. 
Clinton Group. 
Medina Sandstone. 
Oneida Conglomerate. 



Hudson River Shales. 
Utica Shales. 



Trenton. 
Chazy. 



Calciferous. 



Potsdam. 



Huronian. 
Laurentian. 



f Trenton Limestone. 
] Black River Limestone. 
( Bird's-eye Limestone. 
Chazy Limestone. 



( Quebec Group. 

( Calciferous Sandrock. 



( Potsdam Sandstone. 
( St. John's Group. 



Huronian System. 
Laurentian System. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 

The entire Continent of North America, if viewed from a sufficient alti- 
tude, would present an appearance not unlike a fan. If the observer were 
placed above the Isthmus of Panama, the handle of the fan would be 
beneath him. The extension would have one abrupt and somewhat irreg- 
ular development, to fully satisfy the figure, when the tracing reaches the 
northern boundary of the Gulf of Mexico. After this, however, the dis- 
tension is nearly regular, reaching its greatest breadth, 2,862 miles, in the 
northern part of the United States and at the 40 of north latitude. 

The central, and by far the most valuable part of this Continent, is 
occupied by the Republic of the United States. The territory belonging 
to the Republic, exclusive of Alaska and the outlying islands of the 
oceans, is extensive, reaching from the 49th parallel of latitude southward 
almost to the tropic of Capricorn, and stretching from the Atlantic ocean 
on the east to the Pacific on the west. The mean breadth of the country, 
east and west, is over 2,600 miles, and the mean distance north and south, 
over 1,100 miles. The area thus included is above 3,000,000 square miles. 
In 1867 the territorial limits were enlarged over 500,000 square miles by 
the purchase of Alaska from the Russians, and the transfer of the islands 
of St. John and St. Thomas from Denmark. With these acquisitions — 
the last that have been made — the United States has now an area of 
3,602,990 square miles, or more than one-twentieth of the entire land sur- 
face of the globe. 

Throughout the continent, and most markedly within the United 
States, the interior of the country consists of extensive plains, while the 
territory adjoining the ocean coasts, both eastern and western, is broken 
by mountain chains, vast in length and height, and of great breadth and 
bulk. This configuration is in striking contrast with the Eastern hemi- 
sphere generally and particularly with that of Europe, where the central 
parts of the continent are, for the most part, occupied by regions of 
greater or less altitude, while plains and low-lands stretch out in every 
direction to the surrounding seas. 

The natural framework of the United States consists of two great 
mountain systems, both of which rise in the British Possessions to the 
north, where they are widely separated, and extend southward, gradually 

(21) 

270812 



22 TOPOGRAPHY. 

converging as they near the Gulf. The one system extends along and 
practically parallel with the Atlantic coast at distances varying from 
fifty to 150 miles from it. The entire system is called the Appa- 
lachian mountains, sometimes the Allegheny, from its principal range. 
It extends from the Gulf of St. Lawrence southwest until it terminates in 
a series of peaks, more or less isolated, in the northern parts of Georgia 
and Alabama, a distance of about 1,550 miles. The Appalachian range 
is not continuous, being broken in several places by valley and rivers ; the 
Hudson river and valley cut across the mountains at almost right angles. 
These interruptions divide the system into various ranges of mountains 
which are generally parallel to each other, thus maintaining the common 
direction of the system. These different ranges have distinct local 
names. In Vermont they are called the Green mountains, in New 
Hampshire the White, and further south they are called the Allegheny, 
the Blue Ridge, the Smoky Hill, the Cumberland, etc. The mean alti- 
tude of the system does not reach beyond 2,500 or 3,000 feet; it is high- 
est in the northern parts, where it rises beyond 6,000 feet above the level 
of the sea, and lowest where the base line is broadest. Among the higher 
peaks of the Appalachian system are Mount Washington, the culminating 
point of the White mountains, which is 6,294 ^ ee ^ aDove the sea level; 
Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks, 5,379 feet; the Peaks of Otter in Vir- 
ginia, 4,260 feet; Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, which is the highest 
point east of the Rocky mountains, 6,732 feet. 

The Appalachian system is not a chain of mountains in the old world 
use of the term. It is rather a continuous plateau with more or less reg- 
ularity, crested with several ranges, as indicated above, and which are 
separated from each other by wide and elevated valleys. Northeast of 
the Hudson river depression the mountains are chiefly of granitic forma- 
tion, with the summits rounded and often covered with bogs and turf; the 
group of mountain tops are distributed irregularly and lack any marked 
direction. Going south and west of the Hudson valley, and the structure 
of the mountains changes greatly. The rocks are of limestone and sand- 
stone formations, or of others of less violent igneous production. In 
Pennsylvania and Virginia the mountains take the shape of long, parallel 
ridges, much higher above the level of the sea than are the tops above 
the valleys. At Harper's Ferry in Maryland, where the Potomac river 
cuts through, the mountains are from 1,200 to 1,500 feet above the 
river. In the northern part of Georgia, this regular continuity disap- 
pears; the mountains are broken up into irregular ranges and cross 



TOPOGRAPHY. 23 

ranges, and into isolated peaks, some of which rise to considerable 
heights. 

The Cordilleran system of mountains extends along the western part 
of the United States. It is sometimes called the Rocky mountain sys- 
tem, the Rockies being the principal chain of the system, and the back- 
bone of the American continent. The Cordilleran consists of a continu- 
ous belt of lofty chains of mountains and high table lands, generally 
parallel to each other. It comprises not only the greatest mountains of 
North America, but one of the important ranges of the globe. It com- 
mences with broken ridges near Behring's strait, and extends south and 
southeast, nearly parallel with the Pacific coast. It seems to vanish from 
mountains into the plateaus and Cordilleras of Mexico and Old California, 
but re-appears in South America as the Andes range. It occupies the 
whole western side of the United States, and the entire length of the sys- 
tem is about 4,600 miles, the greater part of which lies within the United 
States. In mean height and bulk, the Cordilleran mountains exceed the 
Andes of South America, and in breadth are more than twice as great. 

This western system consists of three distinct and separate belts. 
The one farthest east, and in all respects except altitude, by far the most 
important, is the grand double chain of the Rocky mountains. West of 
this range lies a belt of high, wide and very much broken table lands, 
from 300 to 500 miles across. These are lower than the Rocky 
mountains on the east and the Pacific mountains on the west; but 
they lie very high and are much disturbed. Bounding these table lands 
on the west and overlooking the Pacific ocean, comes the third of the 
component ranges. This is a lofty range for the most part, partially vol- 
canic, and extremely rugged and convulsed. It comprises the Cascade 
ranges of Oregon and Washington, the Sierra Nevada and the Coast 
ranges of California. 

The eastern range of the Cordilleran system is on a much grander 
scale than the Alleghenies. The base of the Rocky mountains is about 
300 miles across in the broadest places, and the height of the 
range generally is from 10,000 to 12,000 feet above the level of the 
ocean, while the summits of many peaks rise beyond the timber line and 
the clouds and are covered with everlasting snow. The Spanish, Long's, 
Pike's and Laramie's peaks are from 10,000 to 14,000 feet above sea level. 
Fremont's peak has a height of 13,568 feet, Mount Hooker of 15,700 
feet, and Mount Brown of 15,990 feet. The central part of the Cordil- 
leran system, the Great Western Desert plateau, is a wide, long and lofty 



24 TOPOGRAPHY. 

region, with a mean elevation above the sea of about 5,000 feet. It is 
much lower than the two mountain ranges on either side, but considera- 
bly above the level of the great valley east of the Rocky mountains, the 
height of which varies from 300 to 700 feet above the sea level. 

The western range of the system is loftier for the most part than the 
Rocky mountains, but has not the breadth and bulk. Some of the loftiest 
peaks of the continent are here found scattered from the extreme north- 
ern end to the southern. Mount Jefferson, Hood, St. Helen's, in the 
Cascade range near the Columbian river, rise 15,000 feet and higher 
above the level of the sea. The last named and Mount Regnier are liv- 
ing volcanoes though rather torpid. Mount Fairweather and Mount St. 
Elias, 14,782 and 17,850 feet respectively, and the culminating points of 
the range, are both living volcanoes. 

The remaining area of the United States can be divided into three 
plains, called the Atlantic or Eastern slope, the Central plain and the 
Pacific or Western slope. The Atlantic slope comprises all the territory 
lying east of the Appalachian mountains and reaches to the Atlantic 
ocean. The Central plain is the largest and by far the most important 
section of territory in the Republic, embraces all that lies between the 
Appalachian and the Cordilleran mountains, and extends north and south 
through the entire length of the country. The Pacific slope contains the 
land between the Cordilleran mountains and the Pacific ocean. All the 
arable land of the country is not contained in these three plains. Within 
the limits of the mountain systems are many rich valleys and table lands, 
some of them quite extensive, and are valuable for agricultural and graz- 
ing purposes. 

The Atlantic slope is a long and rather slender belt of territory 
extending from the British possessions to the Gulf of Mexico. It varies 
in width from fifty to 150 miles. It is high and rather rugged in Maine, 
but sinks to a low, level and sandy plain in New Jersey and further south. 

The Central plain comprises the basins of the Mississippi river and 
its tributaries. Its greatest breadth — about the 47th degree of latitude — 
is not less than 1,800 miles from east to west. The territory included in 
this plain is now the most highly cultivated, fertile and productive of the 
country, and is seldom excelled on the globe for agricultural purposes and 
for grazing. It is generally hilly in the eastern parts, along the base of 
the Appalachian mountains, as in Western New York, Western Pennsyl- 
vania, Eastern Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee. In general there is a 
decline from the base of the mountains westward until a level of from 300 



C T I 



C E A 




Antarctic Circle 



E A JV 



r J T 



»./._._? 



KEY OF SHADE8. 

TORRID ZONE Tropical— Fruits 

Cereals — Farming 



TEMPERATE 
FRIGID 

BENEDICT & CO. ENGR'S CHICAGO 




Snow — Hunting 



160 



140 



TOPOGRAPHY. 25 

to 500 feet above the sea level is reached ; thence the plain stretches west- 
ward over the great prairies of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska 
in the northern parts. These prairies are treeless for the most part, level 
or gently rolling, rich and fruitful almost beyond exhaustion. After the 
Mississippi river is passed, the lowest part of the plain, there is a con- 
tinuation of the prairie level for a distance of from 700 to 1,000 
miles; then an incline begins which continues to the base of the Rocky 
mountains, which are abrupt on the eastern side. Until recent years 
this more elevated part of the plain was considered a barren waste, 
covered more or less with sand, and on which sufficient rain did not fall 
to make it fitted for agricultural uses, and made grazing difficult and ex- 
pensive. But it has been discovered that when the native buffalo grass 
which covered the region was broken by the plow and tame grasses 
grown, the effect of the rainfall was not to lie upon the thick masses 
which form the roots of the buffalo grass until evaporated by the sun, but 
to sink into the earth, fertilizing it. Another remarkable change, too, is 
observed in the moving westward of the area of the rainfall. This has 
been done gradually and somewhat evenly, the line of sufficient rainfall 
running nearly north and south, and moving from five to ten miles annu- 
ally. The arid lands of Western Kansas and Nebraska and of Eastern 
Colorado are now largely farmed with great profit and with little or no 
dependence on artificial irrigation. 

Thus, the Great Central plain may be divided into three separate sec- 
tions: The eastern part wooded, hilly, and with an altitude above sea 
level of from 600 to 1,000 feet; the central part composed of extensive 
prairies, treeless by nature, and ranging from 300 to 700 feet above the 
ocean level; the western section is higher, rising sometimes to 1,500 feet 
above the sea level, though the mean height is much less than this, is 
nearly level and treeless. In time there is little doubt but it will become 
as higlily cultivated and fruitful as the central part. 

Aside from the general slope of the Central plain from the east and 
west toward the center, it has also a general and gentle slope toward the 
south. The elevation at the mouth of the Missouri at St. Louis is 388 
feet, while at the falls of St. Anthony at Minneapolis it is only 856 feet. 
From the two sides toward the center the descent is very gentle. At 
Pittsburgh, 600 miles from the Mississippi in a straight line, the 
elevation is 700 feet; at the mouth of the Republican river in Kansas, 350 
miles in the opposite direction, it is 927 feet. Compare these altitudes 
with that of the Mississippi at the point of intersection, which is about 390 



26 TOPOGRAPHY. 

feet, and we have from the north a descent .of 466 feet in about as many 
miles; from the east, 310 feet in 600 miles: and from the west, 537 feet 
in 350 miles. The descent from the west is much greater than from 
other direction. 

If a vertical plane were passed through the United States at its great- 
est breadth, that is at the 40th parallel, it would pass in the neighbor- 
hood of Philadelphia, Springfield in Illinois, Denver in Colorado, and touch 
the Pacific at Cape Mendocino. If an observer could place himself at 
sufficient height to see the entire cross section of the country thus laid 
open, the appearance would be approximately like that indicated in the 
diagram facing title page. The different topographical sections thus laid 
open would be of the approximate lengths as follows: 

1. The Pacific Slope about. . 100 miles. 

2. Coast Mountains do . . . 150 do, 

3. Desert Plateau do . . . 650 do, 

4. Rocky Mountains do . . . 250 do, 

5. Central Plain do. . . 1,250 do 

6. Appalachian Mountains do . . . 300 do, 

7. Atlantic Slope do ... . 150 do, 

Total length of section ' 2,850 do, 

Four systems of rivers drain the country of the United States. The 
first system drains the Atlantic slope or all that portion of the country 
lying east of the dividing ridge of the Appalachian mountains. These 
rivers take their rise in the highlands of the mountains, flow eastward 
generally and southeast and empty into the Atlantic ocean, either directly, 
or through some arm of it. The principal of these rivers are : the Con- 
necticut, Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, Potomac, James, and the 
Savanna, and are all navigable for a considerable distance inland. Aside 
from their utility in draining, they are of great commercial importance. 

The second system of rivers are those which take their rise in the 
southern part of the United States, and flow southward, emptying into 
the Gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi is not included in this system. The 
most important of the southern, or gulf system of rivers, are the Appalachi- 
cola, Suanee and Mobile east of the Mississippi, and the Brazos and Rio 
Grande west of it. 

The third or central basin system, comprises the Mississippi and its 
numerous and important tributaries. These, with the great lakes in the 
north, drain the extensive and valuable Central plain of the continent. Of 
the northern lakes, Michigan and Champlain alone lie wholly within the 
United States, the others being boundary lines between it and the British 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



'27 



possessions. The magnitude of these lakes is immense; they are in real- 
ity inland seas, and navigation upon them is attended with all the difficul- 
ties and dangers of the Baltic, the Black, or the Mediterranean seas of 
Europe. The following exhibit presents the area, depth, etc., of these 
fresh water seas : 





Mean length. 


Mean width. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Height above 
the sea. 


Mean depth. 


Superior 


400 miles. 
220 " 
240 " 
240 " 
180 " 


80 miles. 
70 " 
80 " 
40 " 
35 " 


32,000 

24,000 

20,000 

9,600 

6,300 


596 feet. 
578 " 
578 " 
565 " 

232 " 


900 feet. 


Michigan 

Erie 


1,000 " 

1,000 •' 

84 " 

500 " 



The united area of these five lakes is thus seen to be 91,900 square 
miles ; to this must be added 360 square miles for Lake St. Clair, between 
Lakes Huron and Erie, giving a total of 92,260 square miles, an area 
nearly 10,000 square miles greater than the island of England. Lake 
Champlain, between New York and Vermont, is 128 miles long and from 
one to sixteen miles wide, and discharges its waters into the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence through the Richelieu river. It has been computed that these 
lakes, all told, contain 14,000 cubic miles of water, which is more than 
five-sevenths of all the fresh water on the globe. The extent of country 
they drain, counting from the northwest angle of Superior to the St. Law- 
rence, and including the area covered by the waters of the lakes, is esti- 
mated at upward of 335,000 square miles. 

The larger part, however, of the Great Central plain of the United 
States is drained by the Mississippi river and confluent streams. This 
river rises in Northern Minnesota and is a comparatively insignificant 
stream until it reaches Minneapolis. At this point there is a fall of from 
fourteen to sixteen feet. The early French explorers say that the fall 
was upward of fifty feet when visited by them in the last century. The 
Present fall creates a great water-power which is now used extensively in 
the manufacture of flour and lumber, some of the largest flouring-mills of 
the country being located there. From a few miles below the falls the 
river is navigable to its mouth. The general direction of the river is 
south. Its chief tributaries on the east are the Wisconsin, the Illinois, the 
Ohio, the Tennessee and the Yazoo. The Ohio is the most important of 
these eastern branches and is 945 miles long in a direct line from its for- 
mation at Pittsburgh, though more than 1,100 miles by its actual course. 



28 TOPOGRAPHY. 

On the west side the chief rivers which flow into the Mississippi are the 
St. Peters, Des Moines, Missouri, Arkansas and the Red river. The 
most important of these is the Missouri, the entire length of which, count- 
ing from its source to the Gulf, is nearly 5,000 miles, and the longest 
river in the world. 

The fourth and last system of rivers are those which drain the Pacific 
slope. They take their rise at the dividing ridge of the Cordilleran 
mountains and flow west and south, emptying into the Pacific ocean. 
The principal of these rivers are the Yukon in Alaska, the Columbia, the 
Sacramento, the San Joaquin and the Colorado. 

The old American Desert or Soda Valley , which lies in the south part 
of California, and through which the Southern Pacific railway runs, and 
another smaller area in the eastern part of the same state, are the only 
two places in the United States which lie below the level of the sea. 
The depression in both cases is about 200 feet; the regions are arid and 
barren. 

The entire coast line of the United States available for commercial 
purposes is about 30,000 miles. This includes both oceans with their 
numerous bays and estuaries, the south sides of the boundary lakes, the 
north line of the Gulf of Mexico and the navigable rivers. It does not 
include Alaska, which has a coast line of from 2,000 to 3,000 miles of its 
own, part of which will eventually become valuable in commerce ; at the 
present it is not much used on account of the high latitudes and the 
unsettled condition of the interior country. In round numbers, the shore 
line of the oceans may be put at 18,500 miles, the lakes at 1,000, the rivers 
at 10,500, making the total above named. The entire area of the United 
States, exclusive of Alaska, is 3,014,459 square miles, which gives one 
mile of coast line to every 100 square miles of territory. 

It is worthy of remark in this connection, that the nations of the past 
which attained the highest civilization as well as established the highest 
commercial prosperity, were those countries which bordered on the sea 
and whose coasts were indented with numerous bays, sounds, gulfs, etc. 
Such position and configuration is peculiarly adapted to commerce. The 
extensive natural advantages which the United States has for foreign and 
internal commerce, taken in connection with the vastness of the area of 
arable land — except a few mountains, the entire area is fitted for agricult- 
ure — the abundance of the minerals found, both precious and useful, the 
variety and excellence of the natural forestry ; these all give the country 
opportunities for becoming great and prosperous. 



CLIMATE. 

In a country like the United States, having such a wide territorial 
scope, the range of climatic condition is necessarily great. The position 
of the country, its extensive sea environments, its topographical structure, 
its numerous lofty and bulky- mountains, all these tend to influence the 
climate. Here, as in other places, the climate is not strictly that of lati- 
tude and season ; indeed, it is rarely so. The seas, mountains and valleys 
exercise their influence upon wind-currents, upon the degree of moisture 
and dryness, upon the rainfall and drought ; and these, in turn, condition 
cold and heat. 

• Hence, we find the climate varying from that of Northern Europe to 
that of the tropics in kind, "and in quality from the humidity of the Low- 
lands to the dryness of Castile. A prominent feature of the climate every- 
where is its inconstancy, the sudden and wide variations in the atmos- 
phere, its excessive humidity and droughtiness. Except in a few places, 
as in Florida where the variation rarely exceeds 12 , and in some parts 
of California where the equability is about the same, the country is sub- 
ject to inconstancy of climatic condition. 

In the Atlantic coast regions, the presence of the ocean on one side 
and of the Appalachian mountains on the other tends to give stability to 
the climate, and it conforms more to regular seasonal changes and varia- 
tions of latitude. The temperature, however, is lower by ten degrees 
and more, than corresponding latitudes in Europe. New York City, for 
instance, is about the same latitude as Madrid, in Spain, and has a much 
lower temperature. The presence of the gulf stream, a warm ocean 
current flowing northward, mitigates the severity of the atmosphere 
greatly. It has been calculated, and with some show of reliability, that 
if the gulf stream should change its course from the Atlantic coasts, the 
temperature of the entire United States would be reduced to 3 below 
zero. The Atlantic slope has a much more severe climate than places 
within the same parallels on the western shores. The coid currents of the 
ocean between the gulf stream and the shore, create cold winds which 
blow over the region from the northeast, giving a raw, chilling and dis- 
agreeable tinge to the atmosphere. 

The climate of the Central plain between the Appalachian and Cordil- 

leran mountains, lacking, as it does, the oceanic influences of both eastern 

(29) 



30 CLIMATE. 

and western regions, has little to prevent a conformation to regular 
changes of season, and to natural variations of latitude. The northern 
part of this valley, called "the lake region," is influenced considerably 
by the presence of these large bodies of water. The influence does not 
extend far. The southern part of the valley is much modified by the Gulf 
of Mexico, its currents, uninterrupted by any mountains or even consider- 
able hills, sweep northward, carrying coolness, moisture and equability 
over the regions which otherwise would be subject to great disadvantages 
of heat and dryness. The influence of the gulf, both on the temperature 
and on the humidity of the valley for a long distance inland, is very 
marked. The climate of the valle}^ from one end to the other is rarely 
oppressive. It being open at both ends, warm winds from the south in 
winter and cool winds from the north in summer literally pour into the 
basin, so suddenly and uninterruptedly that extreme changes are frequent ; 
a variation of 20 or even of 40 within twenty-four hours is not rare. 
The climate of the mountain regions which occupy so considerable a 
portion of the western part of the country, has some peculiarities. The 
natural course of the isothermal lines is directly east and west; but a 
glance at the map shows that this is not the case in the United States. 
We see a deflection from the direct line in passing from the Atlantic 
regions into the Central plain, and when the region of the Cordilleras is 
reached, still more deflection. This is caused by the presence of the 
mountains; the isothermals bend toward the south immediately on reach- 
ing the mountain regions. The common belief that the actual altitude of 
a region above the level of the sea has much, if not everything, to do 
with its temperature, is incorrect; such actual height has little to do with 
determining the temperature. We see an illustration of this in. the cli- 
mate of the central part of Montana, where, with a very great altitude, the 
climate is comparatively soft and mild. Indeed, the climate of the entire 
elevated plateau between the Rocky mountains and those of the Pacific 
coast shows a regularity in the course of the isothermals equal to that of 
the plain regions; there is even a bending toward the north, in Montana. 
The temperature of Fort Benton, in Montana, for the spring season aver- 
ages with that of Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania, which is eight degrees south. 
The average temperature of the summer season is about the same as that 
of New York City, and for the winter, the same as New Haven, in Con- 
necticut. The weather reports show that the average temperature in the 
summer season on the Saskatchawan river, in the British possessions, is 
the same as that of New Haven, io° further south, and the winter tem- 



Xongitude West from Greenwich 



4U "At 




CO. ENGR'J CHICAGO 




1 J? C T I 



CLIMATE. 31 

perature agrees with that of Plattsburgh, in New York, which is i6 l /i° 
south. The mildness of the regions north and east of the Cordilleran 
mountains is caused by the gaps in the mountains through which the 
warm winds of the Pacific penetrate without losing much of their heat. 

The Pacific coast regions have a climate peculiarly mild and pleas- 
ant. From the 49th parallel to San Diego, the winters are short and 
mild, the summers are long and delightful. This is not caused alone by 
the presence of so great a body of water as the Pacific ocean; but also to 
the high and abrupt barricade of the coast ranges of mountains which 
confine the warm wind currents and shut out colder ones from the north 
or east. The winds which blow from the Pacific are kept continually 
warm by the flow of the Gulf stream, just as the Japan current, flowing 
through the Atlantic, moderates the climate of western Europe. Ice is 
almost unknown in the northwest of Washington Territory. Sitka, in 
Alaska has an average temperature nearly the same as Washington 
City, 1 8° further south. On Puget sound the winters are as mild 
as they are at Norfolk in Virginia; the latitude of the former is 48 , of 
the latter, 37 north. The temperature of the Gulf stream being about 
the same along the entire Pacific coast, the climate does not increase in 
temperature as we go south. On along the coast until San Francisco, 
there is the same cool, mild, equable climate. The climate of Oregon 
and Washington is very similar to that of Ireland, and for the same reasons. 
The climate of southern California is semi-tropical though lacking the de- 
pressing and debilitating consequences so generally associated with such 
regions. The country produces almost every variety of tropical fruits 
which grow to a remarkable degree of perfection. Much of Alaska, the 
southern part being all that has been explored accurately, is adapted to the 
production of the hardier fruits and cereals, and is especially adapted to 
grazing and stock-raising. It is destined to be a very rich and productive 
region in the future. 

The climate of Southern California is remarkable for its equability. 
Careful observations for ten years (from 1876 to 1885, both inclusive) 
embracing 3,653 days, show that there were 3,533 days on which the 
mercury did not rise above 8o°. The remaining 120 days were dis- 
tributed as follows: In 1876, 8 days; in 1877, 12 days; in 1878, 10 days; 
in 1879, 19 days; in 1880, 9 days; in 1881, 7 days; in 1882, 4 days; in 
1883, 23 days; in 1884, 13 days; in 1885, 15 days. Only 120 days in 
ten years in which the thermometer marked a higher temperature 
than 8o°. 



32 



CLIMATE. 



The following tables of temperature are compiled from the reports of 
the Smithsonian Institute ; they show the location of the different points at 
which the observations were taken, the temperature at different seasons 
of the year and the mean for the entire year, while the last column shows 
the number of years in which observations have been made. 

Tables of temperature in the United States. 



Places. 



Alabama : 

Green Springs 

Huntsville 

Mobile 

Alaska: 

Sitka 

Akizona: 

Camp Goodwin 

Camp Tucson 

Arkansas: 

Little Kock 

Washington 

California: 

Benicia Barracks 

Fort Yuma 

San Diego 

San Francisco 

Colorado: 

Fort Garland 

Connecticut: 

Hartford 

New Haven 

Dakota: 

Fort Abercrombie 

Fort Randall 

Delaware: 

Fort Delaware , 

Wilmington 

District of Columbia: 

Washington 

Florida: 

Fort Barancas (near Pensacola) 

St. Augustine 

Jacksonville 

Key West 

Georgia: 

Athens 

Atlanta 

Augusta 

Savannah 

Idaho: 

Fort Boise 



Latitude. 



32 50 
34 45 
30 41 

57 03 

32 52 

32 13 

34 40 

33 44 

38 03 
32 46 

32 42 
37 48 

37 32 

41 46 
41 18 

46 27 
43 01 

39 35 
39 44 

38 54 

30 21 

29 54 

30 20 
24 33 

33 58 
33 45 
.33 29 
32 05 

43 40 



Height 
feet. 



Spring. 



500 63.18 

600 59.96 

15 66.87 



20 



660 

64 
200 
150 
130 



39.91 

65.52 
67.49 

60.76 
62.26 

57.73 
73.40 
60.14 
54.96 



Sum- 
mer. 



8365 


42.93 


60 


47.89 


45 


46.76 




38.66 


1245 


43.28 


10 


51.70 


115 


52.74 


75 


55.77 


20 


68.41 


25 


68.69 


20 


69.27 


10 


75.85 


850 


61.15 


1050 


58.27 


150 


64.25 


42 


67.06 




52.03 



78.45 
75.62 
79.00 

53.09 

84.50 

85.52 

81.57 
78.19 

67.00 
92.07 
69.67 
58.04 

64.39 

69.75 
69.63 

70.94 
74.61 

75.23 
73.56 

76.33 

81.60 



Au- 
tumn. 



62.35 
59.80 
66.27 

43.90 

67.89 
71.46 

64.29 
61.20 

61.59 
75.66 
64.53 
57.81 

43.49 

51.70 
51.28 

43.81 
49.06 

57.61 
53.64 

56.43 



Winter 



46.29 
42.15 
52.43 

31.28 

46.85 
50.24 

44.21 
44.61 

48.75 
57.96 
54.09 
50.09 

20.63 

29.89 
28.32 

7.95 
20.93 

34.23 
31.71 

36.11 



Year, 
mean. 



69.58 54.37 
58.25 
55.62 
70.44 



80.36 


71.90 


80.98 


70.04 


83.35 


78.55 


75.74 


60.77 


74.87 


58.44 


79.49 


62.63 


80.61 


66.81 


75.04 


52.97 



62.57 
59.38 
66.14 

42.05 

66.19 

68.68 

62.71 
61.56 

58.77 
74.77 
62.11 
55.23 

42.86 

49.81 
49.00 

40.34 
46.97 

54.69 
52.91 

56.16 

68.49 
69.80 
68.98 
77.05 



46.06 160.93 
41.86 i 58.36 



46.82 
62.56 

29.81 



63.30 
66.76 

52.46 



No. of 

years 

and 

months 



10 
13 
10 (l 

16 11 

3 10 

4 0. 

2 1 
22 1 

15 7 

14 11 
20 10 

11 2 

15 3 

16 7 
86 

10 1 

12 8 

18 10 
1 10 

12 3 



20 


2 


25 


4 


12 


4 


26 


6 


6 


6 


5 


2 


7 


5 


26 


1 



5 10 



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MAP SHOWING 

MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE. 

(Drawn from the Smithsonian Temperature Tables-) 





CLIMATE. 
Tables of temperature in the United States. — Continued. 



33 



Places. 


Latitude. 


Height 
feet. 


Spring. 


Sum- 
mer. 


Au- 
tumn. 


Winter. 


Year 
mean. 


No. of 
years 
and 

months 


Illinois: 


40 12 

41 54 

38 44 

39 31 
41 20 

40 43 
39 48 

39 04 
39 47 

38 10 

39 50 

38 45 

35 48 

41 16 
41 30 

41 36 

42 30 

40 25 

41 26 

39 21 

38 58 

39 15 

37 40 

38 18 

39 06 
38 15 

30 26 
32 31 
29 56 

43 55 
43 54 
43 39 

38 58 

39 16 
39 24 

42 22 
42 21 
42 23 
41 39 


500 
600 
620 
683 
500 
512 
550 

509 
698 
350 
850 
525 

560 

1327 
737 
780 
680 
600 
586 

896 
850 
896 

900 
450 
500 
810 

41 

100 

25 

50 

74 
50 

20 
36 

274 

267 
82 
60 
90 


50.33 
43.55 
56.55 
51.16 
47.07 
50.63 
48.37 

51.98 
49.34 
54.85 
50.02 
54.46 

61.08 

50.84 
45.86 
49.99 
47.33 
50.09 
47.03 

53.69 
53.43 

50.87 

56.28 
55.71 
53.82 
51.54 

68.90 
71.53 
69.37 

41.96 
42.26 
40.11 

52.33 
53.01 
51.10 

44.17 
45.61 
44.93 
44.80 


72.83 
66.76 
77.69 
73.90 
72.05 
74.46 
74.02 

75.61 
72.64 
75.92 
71.79 
76.41 

79.13 

75.48 
71.60 
71.80 
71.71 

74.77 
69.08 

75.24 
75.82 
74.24 

75.58 
73.96 
75.06 

72.75 

81.36 
80.95 
81.08 

65.36 
65.11 
63.73 

75.71 
75.08 
73.40 

67.58 
68.68 
69.47 
66.95 


52.66 
48.32 
56.60 
53.34 
51.22 
52.94 
48.94 

53.90 
51.96 
55.87 
52.52 
55.38 

61.44 

51.46 
49.46 
48.59 
49.16 
54.05 
48.81 

54.35 

53.08 
52.02 

58.56 
55.79 
56.09 
53.06 

68.13 
59.30 
69.80 

47.62 
47.59 
46.49 

57.53 
57.04 
54.76 

47.99 
51.04 
50.45 
52.27 


27.67 
24.78 
34.13 
28.88 
25.32 
27.40 
27.62 

30.88 
28.71 
34.25 
29.16 
32.48 

40.25 

22.06 
22.42 
25.39 
22.55 
29.37 
22.99 

29.35 
31.64 
28.69 

37.84 
37.34 
34.14 
32.45 

54.20 
43.87 
56.00 

23.88 
22.63 
21.69 

35.95 
34.50 
33.11 

24.15 
28.08 
26.96 
30.21 


50.87 
45.85 
56.24 
51.82 
48.92 
51.36 
49.74 

53.09 
50.66 
55.22 
50.87 
54.68 

60.48 

49.96 
47.33 
48.94 
47.69 
52.07 
46.98 

53.16 
53.49 
51.45 

57.07 
55.70 
54.78 
52.45 

68.15 
63.91 
69.06 

44.71 

44.40 
43.00 

55.38 
54.91 
53.09 

45.97 
48.35 
47.95 
48.56 


26 9 




17 3 




15 1 




15 6 




18 9 


Peoria 


14 9 




5 7 


Indiana: 

Aurora 


5 9 


Indianapolis 


6 5 


New Harmony 


19 5 




12 3 
5 11 


Indian Teekitory: 
Fort Gibson 


29 10 


Iowa: 
Council Bluffs 


6 


Davenport 


9 3 




3 10 


Dubuque 


18 10 


Keokuk 


2 5 




27 6 


Kansas : 


39 11 


Lawrence 


7 9 


Leavenworth City 


7 6 


Kentucky: 
Danville 


12 7 


Louisville 


4 6 


Newport Barracks 


23 


Paris 


4 


Louisiana : 


28 


Monroe 


10 


New Orleans 


32 9 


Maine : 
Bath 


10 7 


Brunswick 


51 3 


Portland 


37 3 


Maryland : 

Annapolis 


13 10 


Baltimore 


36 


Frederick City 


15 6 


Massachusetts : 
Amherst (College) 


17 6 




38 5 


Cambridge 


48 5 




58 1 



34 



CLIMATE. 
Tables of temperature in the United States. — Continued. 



Places. 



Massachusetts. — Continued. 

Newburyport 

Williamstown ( Williamstown College) . . 

Worcester 

Michigan: 

Detroit 

Fort Mackinac 

Grand Rapids 

Lansing 

Minnesota : 

Fort Snelling 

Minneapolis 

St. Paul 

Mississippi: 

Columbus 

Jefferson Barracks 

Natcbez 

Vicksburg 

Missouri : 

St. Joseph 

St. Louis 

Montana : 

Fort Shaw 

Helena City 

Nebraska : 

Fort Kearney 

Omaha 

Nevada : 

Fort Churchill 

New Hampshire : 

Concord 

Hanover 

Manchester 

Portsmouth 

New Jersey : 

Burlington 

Newark 

Trenton 

New Mexico : 

Fort Craig 

Santa Fe 

New York : 

Albany 

Auburn 

Buffalo 

Ithaca 

Kingston 

Malone 

Newburgh 



Latitude. 


Height 
feet. 


42 48 


46 


42 43 


686 


42 16 


528 


42 20 


597 


45 51 


728 


43 00 


780 


42 46 


895 


44 53 


820 


44 58 


856 


44 56 


800 


33 31 


227 


38 28 


472 


31 34 


264 


32 23 


350 


39 45 




38 37 


481 


47 30 


6000 


46 37 


4150 


40 38 


2360 


41 15 


1300 


39 17 


4284 


43 12 


374 


43 42 


530 


42 59 


300 


43 05 


38 


40 04 


60 


40 44 


35 


40 14 


60 


33 36 


4576 


35 41 


6846 


42 39 


130 


42 55 


650 


42 53 


600 


42 25 


417 


41 55 


188 


44 50 


703 


41 31 


74 



Spring. 



42.45 
43.44 
45.01 

45.46 
37.06 
44.69 
45.20 

45.12 
40.12 
41.29 

62.18 
56.37 
65.49 
65.79 

52.80 
55.09 

45.22 
33.76 

46.53 
48.40 

52.45 

43.62 
40.87 
47.80 
44,02 

49.71 
47.86 
50.46 

61.86 
50.06 

46.54 
44.57 
42.92 
46.48 
48.70 
43.17 
47.81 



Sum- 
mer. 



66.69 
67.25 
68.16 

68.05 
62.26 
69.75 
68.43 

71.05 
68.34 
68.03 

78.90 
76.82 
79.81 
80.52 

74.74 
76.12 

67.50 
70.28 

72.41 
74.26 

75.18 

67.52 
65.15 
70.02 
66.99 

72.01 
70.35 
73.03 

80.10 
70.50 

70.43 
68.43 
67.73 
68.29 
70.30 



Au- 
tumn. 



49.96 
47.36 
49.96 

48.82 
44.92 
48.55 
47.63 

46.12 
45.33 
44.98 

62.16 
56.03 
65.46 
65.54 

51.12 

55.88 

47.74 
48.94 

49.26 
51.10 

54.36 

48.64 
44.76 
51.14 

47.88 

54.81 
53.04 
54.90 

59.88 
51.34 

49.56 
48.30 
50.33 
49.51 
51.28 
64.19 | 44.98 
70.67 152.92 



Winter. 



24.91 
23.28 
25.67 

26.61 
19.84 
24.62 
24.96 

15.79 

12.87 
15.09 

45.50 
33.96 
50.43 
50.45 

34.32 
32.90 

25.41 
19.16 

21.91 
23.36 

34.55 

22.81 
19.17 
25.90 
25.15 

31.22 
30.75 
32.66 

39.62 
30.28 

25.26 
25.88 
26.58 
28.86 
28.29 
21.31 
28.57 



Year 
mean. 



46.00 
45.33 
47.20 

47,24 
41.02 
46.90 
46.55 

44.52 
4167 
42.32 

62.19 
55.79 
65.30 
65.57 

53.24 
55.00 

46.47 
43.04 

47.53 
49.28 

54.13 

45.65 
42.49 
48.72 
46.01 

51.94 
50.50 
52.76 

60.37 
50.54 

47.95 
46.80 
43.89 
48.29 
49.64 
43.41 
49.99 



No. of 
years 
and 

months 



6 1 
36 8 

31 9 

30 3 

27 6 
11 3 

7 3 

42 2 

6 2 

8 5 

15 9 

32 11 
15 5 

8 11 

2 1 
41 

3 4 

1 7 

15 11 

4 

7 10 

22 2 
20 
14 1 

9 11 

13 3 

24 5 

11 

13 10 

18 6 

45 11 

28 

12 7 
20 10 

19 10 
3 

27 1 



CLIMATE. 
Tables of temperature in the United States. — Continued. 



35 



Places. 


Latitude 


Height 
feet. 


Spring 


Sum- 
mer. 


Au- 
tumn. 


Winter 


Year 
mean. 


No. of 

years 

and 

months 

1 


New York.— Continued. 
New York 


40 50 
43 05 

41 24 

35 58 
35 48 

39 06 
41 30 
39 57 
39 10 
41 36 

39 28 
41 20 

40 25 

41 40 

46 11 
45 30 

40 29 

39 49 

40 16 

39 56 

41 30 
41 50 

33 32 
32 26 
32 47 

34 02 

35 56 
35 00 

35 98 

36 09 

30 17 

29 18 
29 25 

40 46 

44 28 
44 02 
44 17 


25 
4"3 
167 

317 

540 
643 
834 
1150 
587 
670 
800 
670 
604 

52 
45 

704 

624 

375 

36 

25 
155 

565 
14 
20 

315 

1000 

1626 

262 

533 

650 

30 

600 

4260 

346 

398 
540 1 


48.26 
44.77 
49.27 

58.85 
56.92 

54.13 

46.28 
53.56 
50.01 
45.46 
51.98 
46.46 
50.99 
46.90 

48.72 
50.12 

50.23 
49.83 
51.76 
50.07 

44.84 
45.27 

61.32 
62.47 
65.49 
61.95 

55.80 
57.57 
60.86 
59.85 

67.17 
69.35 
70.48 

49.93 

41.61 

42.39 
38.10 


72.62 
67.17 
72.24 

76.80 

77.24 

75.24 
69.68 
74.44 
70.44 
71.33 
71.29 
70.62 
72.60 
70.20 

59.52 
67.72 

71.69 
71.62 
75.61 
73.00 

68.12 
67.95 

77.36 
80.67 
79.55 

77.89 

74.73 
77.29 
79.53 
76.32 

81.68 
83.73 
83.73 

73.57 

66.66 
67.20 
64.02 


54.54 
48.33 
54.11 

60.46 
59.79 

55.21 
51.67 
50.95 
5] .64 
53.24 
52.85 
51.59 
52.52 
50.83 

52.41 
54.85 

51.99 
51.19 
55.38 
54.00 

53.42 
51.01 

61.96 

65.63 
62.79 

58.62 
59.73 
60.32 
57.42 

66.88 
70.92 
71.56 

53.56 

47.26 
47.66 
47.61 




31.93 
24.71 
30.26 

42.92 
40.14 

34.28 
28.32 
34.22 
30.52 

28.52 
32.84 
27.52 
31.22 
28.88 

39.35 
40.23 

30.87 
29.88 
32.18 
30.05 

31.16 
27.41 

45.82 
48.47 
51.46 
45.48 

37.82 
41.10 
42.12 
39.67 

51.16 
53.51 
52.74 

30-38 

20.97 
21.01 
21.32 


51.83 

46.25 
51.47 

59.76 

58.52 

54.72 
49.99 
53.29 
50.65 
49.64 
52.24 
49.05 
51.83 
49.20 

50.00 
53.23 

51.19 
50.63 
53.73 
52.01 

49.39 
47.91 

61.61 

65.53 
62.03 

56.74 
58.92 
60.71 

58.32 

66.72 
69.38 
69.29 

51.86 

44.12 

44.57 
42.76 


21 8 


Utica 


27 2 


West Point 


46 5 


Nobth Carolina: 
Chapel Hill 


20 


Raleigh 


2 11 


Ohio: 
Cincinnati 


36 8 


Cleveland 


17 1 


Columbus 


3 


Hillsboro 


32 4 


Kelley's Island 


11 9 


Marietta 


49 10 


Oberlin 


8 5 




39 11 


Toledo 


13 10 


Oregon: 
Astoria , 


18 3 


Portland 


2 


Pennsylvania: 

Alleghany 


33 2 




24 2 




29 3 


Philadelphia 


57 


Rhode Island: 
Newport 


40 


Providence 


34 8 


South Carolina: 
Aiken 


8 8 


Beaufort 


1 5 


Charleston 


24 8 


Columbia 


4 11 


Tennessee: 
Knoxville 


6 4 


Lookout Mountain 


4 5 




11 3 


Nashville 


6 7 


Texas: 
Austin 


19 


Galveston 


3 1 


San Antonio 


2 4 


Utah: 
Great Salt Lake City 


9 


Vermont: . 

Burlington 


29 6 




10 1 




2 5 



36 



CLIMATE. 

Tables of temperature in the United States. — Continued. 



Places. 


Latitude. 


Height 
feet. 


Spring. 


Sum- 
mer. 


Au- 
tumn. 


Winter. 


Year 
mean. 


No. of 

years 

and 

months 


Virginia: 


38 48 
37 00 

36 51 

37 32 

38 09 

47 11 

38 53 

39 20 

44 29 

42 41 

43 05 
43 04 

41 20 

42 12 


56 

8 

20 

172 

1387 

250 

573 

732 

780 

1088 

604 

6656 
4472 


o 

52.42 

57.34 
56.50 
56.51 
51.08 

49.20 

54.38 
51.05 

40.46 
44.75 
43.47 
43.04 

38.75 
46.93 


76.57 
77.07 
76.53 
75.56 
73.60 

63.42 

71.40 
73.30 

68.10 
70.43 
69.11 
67.02 

62.98 
72.59 


56.20 
61.92 
61.43 
58.03 
52.93 

51.83 

54.65 
53.79 

47.43 

48.25 
48.20 
48.96 

42.56 
49.39 


34.23 
41.77 
41.57 
40.03 
37.56 

38.78 

36.66 
29.65 

18.62 
20.84 
20.84 
24.00 

20.81 
29.31 


54.86 
59.52 
59.01 
57.53 
53.79 

50.81 

54.27 
51.95 

43.65 
46.07 
45.40 
45.75 

41.27 
49.56 


6 8 


Fortress Monroe 


45 5 


Norfolk 


25 


Richmond . . 


7 2 




2 3 


Washington Territory: 
Fort Steilacoom 


17 7 


West Virginia: 


7 10 




3 1 


Wisconsin: 


3 


Janesville 


8 6 


Madison 


9 3 




26 7 


Wyoming: 
Fort Bridger 


10 6 


Fort Laramie 


17 9 







The amount and regularity of the rainfall, and the quantity and distribu- 
tion of natural forestry, have much to do with conditioning the tempera- 
ture and humidity of a region. For agriculture, rainfall is peculiarly essen- 
tial; not alone the quantity but also the regularity and seasonableness of 
its coming. There is wide divergence in the rainfall of the United States. 
On the Atlantic coasts and the middle and eastern parts generally, there 
is abundance and regularity sufficient for all requirements of the soil cult- 
ure. Within the boundaries of the Cordilleran mountains, the supply is 
inadequate; and for considerable distances east of the Rocky mountains, 
there has always been an uncertainty with regard to the rain. 

The government of the United States has established a weather 
bureau which is conducted under the War Department. Stations are 
established all over the country and all the conditions of the weather are 
telegraphed, at a designated moment, to the department headquarters. 
From these, daily bulletins are compiled and sent forth, which show the 
state of the weather at every point and the prognostications for the 
immediate future. A map of the section into which the Signal Service has 
divided the country is presented opposite page 72. 



sir 89 ' 



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MAP SHOWING THE 

LOWEST TEMPERATURE. 

(Drawn from the Smithsonian Temperature Tables.) 



,127' 12: 




' 23 ' ™' "*' "?• Ho' 113- 111- 109- m~- re 



103' 101- 





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30° to 40° " 

20° to 3u° "' 



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50° and over. 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy & West 




CLIMATE. 37 

To show the extent of the operations of this bureau, hereto is appended 
a statement of the amount appropriated by congress for its support. The 
report is for a recent year: 

Statement of amounts appropriated for the support of the Signal Service, U. S. Army, 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1 884. 

LEGISLATIVE, EXECUTIVE, AND JUDICIAL. 

Regular clerks, messengers, etc , $ 10,660.00 

Scientific experts, clerks, etc 40,000.00 

Postage stamps, Postal Union countries, allotted by the Secretary of War 1,200.00 

Stationery allotted by the Secretary of War 3,400.00 

Rent of building for Signal Office 7,000.00 

Official postage allotted by Secretary of War 40,000.00 

Fuel and light allotted by Secretary of War ' 1,107.24 

Total 103,367.24 



SUNDRY CIVIL EXPENSES. 

Observation and report of storms : 

Manufacture, purchase, and repair of instruments $ 5,500.00 

Telegraphing reports 136,000.00 

Expenses storm signals 10,000.00 

Cotton-belt reports ' 7,000.00 

Connection life-saving stations 5,500.00 

Instrument shelters 500.00 

Rents, etc., of offices outside of Washington 40,000.00 

Office furniture in Washington 1,000.00 

River and flood reports 5,000.00 

Maps and bulletins 25,000.00 

Books, periodicals, and stationery 6,000.00 

Incidental expenses 1,000.00 

Total 242,500.00 

Maintenance and repair of military telegraph lines 35,000.00 

Observation and exploration in the Arctic seas 33,000.00 

Pay, etc., of the Signal Corps : 

Pay of officers .$ 19,500.00 

Pay of enlisted men 200,000.00 

Mileage to officers 5,000.00 

Pay of contract surgeons • 3,600.00 

Commutations of quarters to officers 7,000.00 

Total 235,100.00 

Subsistence Department : 

Stores, Lady Franklin Bay if 5,000.00 

Stores, Point Barrow 3,000.00 

Subsistence and commutation rations, Signal Corps 148,727.72 

Commutation of rations, men with expeditions 8,052.00 

Total 164,779.72 



38 CLIMATE. 

Statement of amounts appropriated for the support of the Signal Service, U. S. Army, 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1 884. — Continued. 

sundry civil expenses. — Continued. 

Quartermaster's Department — Regular supplies : 

Fuel $ 6,295.00 

Commutation of fuel, at $9 per month 23,760.00 

Commutation of fuel, at $8 per month 23,328.00 

Forage for mules and horses • 3,100.00 

Stationery 100.00 

Stoves , 706.25 

Lights 362.50 

Total 57,651.75 

Quartermaster's Department — Incidental expenses : 

Horse and mule shoes $ 500.00 

Blacksmiths' tools 550.00 

Veterinary supplies 300.00 

Fire-apparatus, disinfectants, etc 125.00 

Total 1,475.00 

Quartermaster's Department — Transportation : 

Supplies, etc .$25,000.00 

Officers and men 8,875.00 

Means of, mules 700.00 

Means of, spring- wagon 200.00 

Means of, repairs to 500.00 

Total 35,275.00 

Quartermaster's Department — Barracks and quarters : 

Commutation of quarters $84,108.00 

Work and supplies at Fort Myer 1,800.00 

Total 85,908.00 

Quartermaster's Department — Clothing, camp, and garrison equipage : 

For sergeants $ 6,937.50 

For corporals 1,375.20 

For privates 14,182.4o 

For detailed men 990.00 

Total 23,485.10 

Medical Department : 

Medical attendance and medicines, officers and men, Signal Corps $3,500.00 

Medical attendance and medicines, officers with Signal Corps 100.00 

Medical and hospital supplies, Fort Myer 900.00 

Medicines from depots, etc 1,000.00 

Material, repairs to hospital, Fort Myer 200.00 

Total 5,700.00 

Support of the Army : 

Expenses Signal Service, United States Army $5,000.00 

Grand total $1,028,241.81 



CLIMATE. 



39 



Observations, running through a number of years, have been taken at 
three separate points, namely, at 30 , at 35 and at 42 north latitude to 
determine the average yearly rainfall. The results are as follows: In 
the Mississippi valley, nearly forty-five inches fall annually; on the Atlan- 
tic slope, from thirty-five to forty inches; on the Pacific slope the varia- 
tion is great, ranging from twenty-five to thirty inches at San Francisco 
to about forty four inches in Northern Oregon. As much as 120 inches 
of rain has been known to fall in Washington Territory in a single year. 
During the spring season when rain is most needed to revive vegetation 
and stimulate grains and fruits, the largest part of the rain falls in those 
regions of sufficient rainfall; about ten inches on the Atlantic slope and 
fourteen in the Mississippi valley. On the Pacific coasts the major part 
of the rain falls during the budding months, establishing a distinct season, 
called the "wet season." 

The following- table shows the rainfall in inches as measured at differ- 
ent places in the United States for a number of years: 

Average annual rainfall of different sections of the United States. 



Location. 



NEW ENGLAND. 

Eastport, Me 

Portland, Me 

Mount Washington, N. H 

Boston, Mass 

Block Island, R. I 

New Haven, Conn 

New London, Conn 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. 

Albany, N. Y 

New York City.N. Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Barnegat City, N. J 

Cape May, N. J 

Sandy Hook, N. J 

Delaware, Breakwater, Del. . . . 

Baltimore, Md 

Washington, D. C 

Cape Henry, Va 

Chincoteague, Va 

Lynchburg, Va 

Norfolk, Va 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

Charlotte, N. C 

Hatteras, N C 



Rainfall. 



Inches. 

49.02 
38.67 
83.86 
48.21 
52.26 
50.99 
47.75 



38.05 
42.68 
41.22 
42.18 
51.74 
47.63 
51.26 
31.76 
41.98 
43.30 
57.82 
37.60 
41.34 
52.13 

51.24 
75.44 



Location. 



south Atlantic states.— Continued. 



Kitty Hawk, N. C .. 

Macon, Fort, N. C 

Smithville, N. C ;.. 

Wilmington, N. C ? . 

Charleston, S. C ? . 

Augusta, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Jackson villle, Fla 



Rainfall. 



FLORIDA, PENINSULA. 

Cedar Keys, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Sanford, Fla 

Punta Rasa, Fla 



EASTERN GULF STATES. 



Atlanta, Ga : 

Pensacola, Fla . . . 

Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala. 
Vicksburg, Miss. . 
New Orleans, La . 



WESTERN GULF STATES. 



Shreveport, La. . . 
Fort Smith, Ark. . 
Little Rock, Ark . 



Inches. 

64.90 
63.81 
52.86 
57.42 
59.89 
49.91 
52.86 
55.33 

58.95 
40.66 
44.61 
42.61 



56.91 

70.22 
65.84 
53.68 
60.44 
64.69 



54.11 
46.65 

57.64 



40 CLIMATE. 

Average annual rainfall of different sections of the United States. 



Location. 



western gulf states.— Continued. 

Galveston, Tex 

Indianola, Tex 



Inches. 

51.43 

38.22 
Palestine, Tex I 43.49 



Rainfall. 



RIO GRANDE VALLEY. 



Brownsville, Tex 

Eio Grande City, Tex. 



OHIO VALLEY AND TENNESSEE. 



Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Knoxville, Tenn 
Memphis, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Louisville, Ky 

Greencastle, Ind 

Indianapolis, Ind. . . 
Cincinnati, Ohio. . . . 
Columbus, Ohio. . . . 
Pittsburgh, Pa 



LOWER LAKES. 



Buffalo, N. Y. . . . 
Oswego, N. Y . . . 
Kochester, N. Y . 

Erie, Pa 

Cleveland, Ohio . 
Sandusky, Ohio . 
Toledo, Ohio. . . . 
Detroit, Mich... 



UPPER LAKES. 



Alpena, Mich 

Escanaba, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich. . 
Mackinaw City, Mich. 

Marquette, Mich 

Port Huron, Mich 

Chicago, 111 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Duluth, Minn 



UPPEK MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 

Saint Paul, Minn 

La Crosse, Wis 

Davenport, Iowa 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Cairo, 111 

Springfield, 111 

Saint Louis, Mo 



32.02 
25.12 



59.42 
53.20 
55.38 
53.63 

48.83 



47.59 
44.09 
44.62 
37.04 



37.03 
36.05 
37.23 
42.39 
38.40 
41.78 
33.07 
35.27 

38.21 
35.30 
39.17 
38.97 
32.68 
35.26 
37.57 
33.87 
33.87 



29.83 
34.26 
35.96 
42.72 
39.41 
38.57 
46.33 
48.61 
37.88 



Location. 



MISSOURI VALLEY. 



Lamar, Mo 

Leavenworth, Kan. . 

Omaha, Neb 

Bennett, Fort, Dak . 

Huron, Dak 

Yankton. Dak 



EXTREME NORTHWEST. 



Moorhead, Minn 

Saint Vincent, Minn. 

Bismarck, Dak 

Buford, Fort, Dak... 
Tofcten, Fort, Dak... 



NORTHERN SLOPE. 



Assiniboin, Fort, Mont. 

Benton, Fort, Mont 

Custer, Fort, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Maginnis, Fort, Mont. . . 

Poplar River, Mont 

Shaw, Fort, Mont 

Deadwood, Dak 

Cheyenne, Wyo 

North Platte, Neb 



MIDDLE SLOPE. 



Denver, Col 

Pike's Peak, Col. . . 
West Las Animas, 
Dodge City, Kan . . 
Elliott, Fort, Tex. 



Col. 



SOUTHERN SLOPE. 



Sill, Fort, Ind. Ter. 
Concho, Fort, Tex. . 
Davis, Fort, Tex. . . . 
Stockton, Fort, Tex. 



SOUTHERN PLATEAU. 



Santa Fe, N. M. Ter. 

El Paso, Tex 

Apache, Fort, Ariz . . 

Grant, Fort, Ariz 

Prescott, Ariz 

Thomas, Camp, Ariz. 
Yuma, Ariz 



MIDDLE PLATEAU. 



Winnemucca, Nev 

Salt Lake City. Utah 

Thornburgh, Fort, Utah. 



Kainfall. 



Inches. 



38.97 
36.45 
18.17 
25.68 
28.21 

29.48 
18.62 
21.27 
16.08 
17.36 

13.93 

12.50 
14.36 
15.13 
13.29 

8.24 
13.87 
26.47 
10.72 
19.97 

14.98 
31.60 
13.41 
20.09 
21.48 



33.38 
29.18 
19.83 
19.43 



13.89 
12.11 
22.75 
15.71 
14.51 
10.31 
2.04 



9.62 
16.91 



--<—'■«■' 











vj \. 



\.An 




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) \r: 




MAP SHOWING THE 

HIGHEST TEMPERATURE 

{Drawn from the Smithsonian Temperature Tables.) 


















I 



\\'i)ili'») 



Zey 0/ Shades. 

Below 90° 

90° to 95o 

95° to 100° 

. 100° to 105° 

105° to 110° 

110° to 115° 

115° and over. 




V ■( 



g^frf-aSy 






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copyrighted 




CLIMATE. 41 

Average rainfall of different sections of the United States.— Continued. 



Location. 


Rainfall. 


Location. 


Rainfall. 


NORTHERN PLATEAU 


Inches. 

13.30 
17.85 
28.11 
20.31 

45.71 
59.72 
75.18 
54 64 


north pacific ooast.— Continued. 
Roseburg, Ore 


Inches. 
35.72 


Lewiston, Idaho 


MIDDLE PACIFIC OOAST. 

Cape Mendocino, Cal 










17.99 


Spokane Falls, Wash 


Red Bluff, Cal 






28.27 


NORTH PACIFIC COAST. 




21.68 


San Francisco, Cal 


22.80 


Canby, Fort, Wash 


SOUTH PACIFIC COAST. 

Los Angeles, Cal r 




Olympia, Wash 




Tatoosh Island, Wash 


14.56 


Portland, Ore 




9.48 









The average annual rainfall in other parts of America and in Europe 
is seen from the subjoined tables: 



Average annual rainfall in some other parts of America. 



Inches. 

Bermuda 55.34 

Cayenne 116.00 

Cordova, Mex 112.08 

Havana 91.02 



Inches. 

Maranham 277.00 

Rio Janeiro 59.02 

San Domingo 107.06 

St. John's, N. Brunswick, 51.12 



Inches. 
St. John's, Newfoundl'd, 58.30 

Toronto, Canada 35.17 

Vera Cruz, Mexico 183.20 



Average annual rainfall in Europe. 



Inches. 

Aberdeen, Scotland 28.87 

Armagh, Ireland 36.12 

Bath, England 30.00 

Bergen, Norway 88.61 

Berlin, Prussia 23.56 

Bordeaux, France 34.00 

Borrowdale, England . . . 141.54 

Brussels, Belgium 28.06 

Cambridge, England 24.09 

Cracow, Austria 13.03 

Coimbra, Portugal 118.08 



Inches. 

Cork, Ireland 40.02 

Copenhagen, Den 18.35 

Dublin, Ireland 21.01 

Geneva, Switzerland .... 31.07 

Glasgow, Scotland 21.33 

Limerick, Ireland 35.00 

Lisbon, Portugal 27.01 

Liverpool 34.05 

London 24.04 

Manchester, Eng 36.02 

Mannheim, Ger 22.47 



Inches. 

Marseilles, France 23.04 

Milan, Italy 38.01 

Naples 29.64 

Paris 22.64 

Prague, Austria 14.01 

Rome 30.86 

Stockholm, Sweden 20.04 

St. Petersburg 17.03 

Truro, England 44.00 

York, England 23.00 



The rains for the Atlantic slope come from the ocean adjacent ; the pre- 
vailing winds are from the northeast, and are generally cold, moist, chilly, 
with frequent fogs. The rains for the Mississippi valley are largely from 
the Gulf of Mexico. The warm currents of air from the water are cooled 
in passing over the land. At first the cooling is more rapid and, conse- 



42 CLIMATE. 

quently, the condensation of the vapor with which these winds are sur- 
charged, takes place with great rapidity; the result is a copiousness of 
rainfall in the states adjoining the gulf greatly superior to the states which 
lie in the interior. When these winds reach the states further north they 
have been divested of much of their vapor ; the rainfall, however, is ample 
for the entire valley, except in the vicinity of the Rocky mountains. Here 
it has not exceeded twenty inches annually ; this is enough for most pur- 
poses of agriculture did it come at proper times, which has not been the 
case. In the higher altitudes of the Cordillei-as the fall of rain is sufficient 
and the air seldom loses that degree of moisture required for comfort and 
for the successful culture of the soil. But in the intervening valleys of 
these ranges there is seldom sufficient moisture and rain. Irrigation has 
to be resorted to — a process rendered comparatively easy by the number 
and situation of the mountain streams. In Arizona and the southern 
portions of Nevada and some parts of southern California, agricult- 
ure can only be conducted by employing artificial irrigation. It is 
worthy of remark that the region of lowest rainfall is that of highest 
temperature. 

The forests of the country affect the moisture of the climate, not by 
increasing the amount of rainfall as is sometimes erroneously said, but by 
retaining and economizing the quantity which does fall and would fall were 
no trees growing. There is an indirect effect in the trees in retarding the 
progress of moist winds thus causing a greater condensation of vapor than 
would have occurred, had the passage of the current been more rapid. In 
Washington Territory, for example, where the forests are massive and 
the trees very lofty, is the record of the most remarkable rainfall. For- 
ests require moisture in order to thrive well, and the shade afforded by 
their foliage serves to prevent rapid evaporation, thus securing for them 
the very effect desired and demanded for their vigorous growth. 

It is to be observed, too, that in large deciduous forests, the leaves 
catch much of the descending water and, in its evaporation, the air is 
cooled for a considerable distance adjacent. The shade produced by the 
foliage also prevents rapid evaporation from the earth underneath, thus 
retaining the cooled atmosphere for a longer time than where there is no 
shade and much more rapid evaporation. This difference of atmosphere 
is perceptible to one approaching a forest. The conditions thus created 
have their effect on each succeeding cloud, surcharged with vapor, and, 
taken altogether, they account largely for the increased rainfall in the 
forest regions. 



CLIMATE. 43 

The United States has an abundant supply of forestry. Those of 
Maine have been culled for years for ship-building, domestic uses and for 
export. The drain has been excessive, but the supply is far from ex- 
hausted. The valleys and mountain sides of the White mountains are 
covered with extensive and valuable trees. The same is true of the Cats- 
kill, the Adirondack and the Allegheny mountain regions. In the south, 
the forests of the Carolinas and Georgia contain soft woods which arc 
practically inexhaustible and produce vast quantities of turpentine, tar, 
pitch, resin, etc., being the world's supply of these commodities, while the 
timber is being more and more utilized for ship-building and other uses. 
These soft-wood forests extend through Florida and along the Gulf re- 
gions generally, and consist of white pine, cedar of very fine grain, juni- 
per, c} T press, etc. In portions of Texas, Tennessee, Alabama and Arkan- 
sas are valuable and extensive forests of hard woods. 

In general, the entire eastern portion of the country is wooded. If a 
line were drawn in a south and southwestern direction from the western 
part of Minnesota to the central parts of Texas, it would approximately 
define the western limit of the natural forestry. On the western coasts, 
the forests reappear in most remarkable conditions. In the Rocky mount- 
ains are some forests; but the Sierras and the Cascade mountains are 
clothed with forests of which the trees attain gigantic heights. There are 
districts along the Coast ranges of forests of large trees. Oregon and 
Washington and far into Alaska, contain the most wonderful forests of 
the world. The trees stand so thickly together as almost to crowd each 
other and attain sizes and heights that astonish; ioo, and 250 feet height 
with proportionate diameter, is nothing unusual. It is a market that will 
supply the Pacific coasts, South America, China and Japan, where a large 
trade is already opened, for a great number of years to come. In addi- 
tion to these great forest regions, there is a sufficient amount scattered 
over the country in most places to supply the local demands, while through 
the encouragement of the general government and through private enter- 
prise, many of the former treeless regions, especially on the prairies, have 
now abundance of timber, planted and grown. 

The accompanying maps show the forestry distribution of the country 
in various degrees of density. These maps have reference only to natural 
forestry, and not to what has been produced by cultivation. Other maps 
show the distribution and density of some of the trees of chief commercial 
importance and practical use, as the oaks, ashes, walnuts, etc. From these 
maps the wealth and convenience of the forestry of our country can be 
seen at a glance. 



44 



CLIMATE. 



The following table is the result of observations made in certain geo- 
graphical districts and collated by the government. It contains valuable 
information regarding the influence of winds on rain or snow. The fol- 
lowing observations show the result of twelve years over the U. S. 
Winds most likely to be followed by rain or snow. 



Geogbaphical District. 



January. 



February. 



March. 



April. 



May. 



June. 



Eastern Gulf States 

Key West and Punta Rassa 

Lower Lake Region 

Lower Mississippi Valley . . . 

Middle Atlantic States 

Middle Eastern Rocky Moun - 
tain Slope 

Middle Pacific Coast Region 

Middle Plateau District 

Missouri Valley 

New England States 

Northern Rocky Mountain 
Slope 

North Pacific Coast Region . 

Northern Plateau District . . 

Ohio Valley 

Rio Grande Valley 

South Atlantic States 

Southeastern Rocky Moun- 
tain Slope 

South Pacific Coast Region . 

Southern Plateau District . . 

Tennessee 

Upper Lake Region 

Upper Mississippi Valley.. . 

Western Gulf States 



StoE 
SE to NE 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 
SE to NE 

NE to NW 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 
NE to NW 
SW to SE 

NE to NW 
SW to SE 

Wto S 
SW to SE 
SE to NE 

EtoN 

EtoN 

StoE 

WtoS 

SWtoSE 

SW to SE 

StoE 

StoE 



StoE 
StoE 
SW to SE 
StoE 
StoE 

EtoN 
SW to SE 
SWtoSE 

NE to NW 
SW to SE 

NE to NW 

WtoS 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 

SE to NE 
SE to NE 

StoE 

WtoS 

WtoS 

SW to SE 

SW to SE 

StoE 

StoE 



SW to SE 
StoE 

SW to SE 
StoE 
StoE 

EtoN 

SW to SE 

SW to SE 

StoE 

StoE 

NE to NW 
SWtoSE 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 
SE to NE 
WtoS 

StoE 

WtoS 

SW to SE 

SW to SE 

SE to NE 

StoE 

StoE 



SW to SE 
StoE 

SW to SE 
StoE 
StoE 

EtoN 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 
SE to NE 

StoE 

NE to NW 
SW to SE 
NW to SW 
SW to SE 
SE to NE 
SW to SE 

StoE 

WtoS 

WtoS 

SW to SE 

SE to NE 

StoE 

StoE 



SW to SE 
SE to NE 

WtoS 
SWtoSE 
SW to SE 

SE to NE 
SW to SE 
NW to SW 

StoE 
SW to SE 

NE to NW 

WtoS 

WtoS 

SW to SE 

SE to NE 

SE to NE 

StoE 

WtoS 

SW to SE 

SW to SE 

StoE 

StoE 

StoE 



SW to SE 
SE to NE 

WtoS 
SWtoSE 
SWtoSE 

StoE 

SW to SE 
NE to NW 

StoE 
SW to SE 

SE to NE 

WtoS 
NW to SW 
SW to SE 

StoE 
SW to SE 

StoE 
SW to SE 

StoE 

WtoS 

SW to SE 

SWtoSE 

StoE 



Geogbaphical District. 



Eastern Gulf States 

Key West and Punta Rassa . 

Lower Lake Region 

Lower Mississippi Valley. . . 

Middle Atlantic States 

Middle Eastern Rocky Moun- 
tain Slope 

Middle Pacific Coast Region 

Middle Plateau District 

Missouri Valley 

New England States 

Northern Rocky Mountain 
Slope 

North Pacific Coast Region. 

Northern Plateau District . . 

Ohio Valley 

Rio Grande Valley 

South Atlantic States 

Southeastern Rocky Moun- 
tain Slope 

South Pacific Coast Region . 

Southern Plateau District . . 

Tennessee 

Upper Lake Region 

Upper Mississippi Valley . . . 

Western Gulf States 



July. 



SW to SE 
SE to NE 

WtoS 
NWtoSW 
SW to SE 

StoE 

SWtoSE 

Nto W 

StoE 
SW to SE 

StoE 
WtoS 
WtoS 
WtoS 

StoE 
SW to SE 

StoE 

WtoS 

SW to SE 

WtoS 

SWtoSE 

SW to SE 

StoE 



August. 



StoE 

SE to NE 

Wto 3 

SW to SE 

SW to SE 

StoE 

WtoS 

SW to SE 

StoE 
SW to SE 



September. 



StoE 
SE to NE 

WtoS 
SWtoSE 

StoE 

StoE 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 

StoE 
SW to SE 



SE to NE >NE to NW 
SW to SE : SW to SE 
NW to SW NW to SW 
W to S I SW to SE 
SE to NE ' SE to NE 
SWtoSE SEtoNE 



October. 



StoE 
SE to NE 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 



November. December. 



StoE 
SE to NE 
SW to SE 

StoE 
SW to SE 



StoE 
SE to NE 
SW to SE 
SE to NE 
SW to SE 



SE to NE NE to NWj E to N 



StoE 
NW to SW 

StoE 

WtoS 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 

StoE 



StoE 
N to W 
SWtoSE 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 
SWtoSE 

StoE 



SW to SE 
SW to SE 

StoE 
SWtoSE 

NE to NW 
WtoS 
WtoS 
SW to SE 
SE to NE 
SE to NE 

StoE 
WtoS 
SW to SE 
SWtoSE 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 
StoE 



SW to SE 
WtoS 

NE to NW 
SW to SE 

NtoW 

SWtoSE 

SW to SE 

SW to SE 

EtoN 

EtoN 

EtoN 
WtoS 
StoE 
SW to SE 
WtoS 
StoE 
StoE 



SW to SE 
SW to SE 

NE to NW 
NE to NW 

NE to NW 

StoE 
SW to SE 
SW to SE 
SE to NE 
SW to SE 

EtoN 
StoE 
WtoS 
WtoS 
WtoS 
StoE 
I StoE 



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CLIMATE. 



45 



The table below indicates the winds least likely to be followed by 
rain or snow. The observations were taken in various sections of the 
country by the signal service bureau for the years 187 1 to 188 1 inclu- 
sive, and have, therefore, a degree of accuracy as high as can be obtained. 



NW to SW 

NW to SW 

NE to NW 

NtoW 

NtoW 

NWtoSW 

EtoN 
EtoN 
WtoS 

SE to NE 

StoE 

NE to NW 
NE to NW 

NtoW 
NWtoSW 
NW to SW 

NW to SW 
NE to NW 
NE to NW 
NtoW 
EtoN 
NW to SW 
NW to SW 



Geographical District 

Eastern Gulf States 

Key West and Punta Rassa 

Lower Lake Region 

Lower Mississippi Valley. . . 

Middle Atlautic States 

Middle Eastern Rocky Moun- 
tain Slppe 

Middle Pacific Coast Region 

Middle Plateau District 

Missouri Valley 

New England States . . . 

Northern Rocky Mountain 
Slope 

North Pacific Coast Region . 

Northern Plateau District . . 

Ohio Valley 

Rio Grande Valley 

South Atlantic States 

Southeastern Rocky Moun- 
tain Slope . . 

South Pacific Coast Region . 

Southern Plateau District . . 

Tennessee 

Upper Lake Region 

Upper Mississippi Valley . . . 

Western Gulf States 

Geographical District. 

Eastern Gulf States NE to N W 

Key West and Punta Rassa. NE to NW 

Lower Lake Region E to N 

Lower Mississippi Valley ... E to N 

Middle Atlantic States E to N 

Middle Eastern Rocky Moun- 
tain Slope NW to SW 

Middle Pacific Coast Region NE to NW 
Mdidle Plateau District. . . . SE to NE 

Missouri Valley NW to SW 

New England States N to W 

Northern Rocky Mountain 

Slope NW to SW 

North Pacific Coast Region. SE to NE 
Northern Plateau District. . SE to NE 

Ohio Valley E to N 

Rio Grande Valley N W to SW 

South Atlantic States N to W 

Southeastern Rocky Moun- 
tain Slope N to W 

South Pacific Coast Region. EtoN 
Southern Plateau District. . NE to NW 

Tennessee NE to NW 

Upper Lake Region N to W 

Upper Mississippi Valley. . . NtoW 
Western Gulf States NE to NW 



January. February. 



NW to SW 
NtoW 

NE to NW 
NtoW 
NtoW 

NW to SW 
EtoN 
NtoW 
WtoS 
NtoW 

WtoS 
NE to NW 
NE to NW 
NE to NW 
NW to SW 

NtoW 

NW to SW 

NE to NW 
EtoN 
NtoW 
NtoW 

NW to SW 
NtoW 



March. 



NtoW 
NtoW 
NE to NW 
NtoW 
NtoW 

NW to SW 

NE to NW 

EtoN 

WtoS 

NtoW 

WtoS 
EtoN 
EtoN 
NtoW 
NW to SW 
NtoW 

NW to SW 

NE to NW 

EtoN 

NtoW 

NtoW 

NWtoSW 

NW to SW 



April. 



NtoW 
NtoW 
NtoW 
NtoW 
NtoW 

NW to SW 
EtoN 
EtoN 

NWtoSW 
NtoW 

WtoS 
EtoN 

NE to NW 

NE to NW 

NW to SW 

Nto W 

NWtoSW 

EtoN 
E toN 
NtoW 
NtoW 
NtoW 
NtoW 



May. June. 

N to W NE to NW 
N to W N to W 
E to N E to N 
NE to NW E to N 
N to W NE to NW 

NWtoSW NWtoSW 
E to N NE to NW 
E to N W to S 

NW to SW NW to SW 
N to W N to W 

W to S NW to SW 
SEtoNE SEtoNE 

E to N E to N 
NE to NW E to N 
NWtoSW, NWtoSW 

N to W NE to NW 



NtoW 
EtoN 
NE to NW 
NtoW 
NtoW 
NtoW 
NtoW 



NtoW 
EtoN 
NtoW 

NE to NW 
NtoW 

NE to NW 
Nto W 



July. 



August. September. October. November. December. 



NE to NW NW to SW NW to SW 
N to W N to W NW to SW 
E to N NE to NW NE to NW 
E to N NW to SW N to W 
N to W N to W N to W 

WtoS NWtoSW NWtoSW 

E to N E to N NE to NW 

E to N E to N E to N 

N to W NW to SW NW to SW 

N to W N to W N to W 

NW to SW SW to SE SW to SE 

SE to NE E to N E to N 

S to E S to E E to N 

E to N N to W E to N 

NW to S W N W to S W N W to S W 

NtoW NtoW NWtoSW 

NtoW NWtoSW NWtoSW 

S to E S to E SE to NE 

NE to NW 

NtoW 

EtoN 

N to W 

NtoW iNWtoSW^NWtoSW 



NE to NWjNE to NW 
EtoN I NtoW 
NtoW I NtoW 

NEtoNWI EtoN 



NW to SW 

NtoW 

NE to NW 

NW to SW 

NtoW 

NW to SW 

SE to NE 

EtoN 

WtoS 

NtoW 

SE to NE 
EtoN 
EtoN 
NtoW 
WtoS 

NW to SW 

NW to SW 
NE to NW 
NE to NW 
NtoW 
EtoN 
NWtoSW 
NW to SW 



NW to SW 
NtoW 

NE to NW 
NtoW 
NtoW 

WtoS 
EtoN 
EtoN 
WtoS 
NW to SW 

WtoS 

NE to NW 

NE to NW 

NtoW 

W to S 

NtoW 

NW to SW 

NE to NW 

EtoN 

NtoW 

EtoN 

NW to SW 

NW to SW 



Eastern Gulf States. — Eastern Mississippi, Alabama, and Northwest- 
ern Forida. 

Lower Lake Region. — Lakes Erie and Ontario with adjacent territory. 



46 CLIMATE. 

Lower Mississippi Valley. — A belt of country 200 miles broad, from 
Cairo to Vicksburg. Below Vicksburg the character of the country so 
changes that it is no longer described as a valley. 

Middle Atlantic States. — New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Virginia as the Middle 
States, and that part of those States lying east of the Alleghanies as the 
Middle Atlantic States. 

Middle Eastern Rocky Mountain Slope. — Eastern Colorado, South- 
ern Nebraska, Kansas, northwestern portion of Indian Territory, portion 
of northern Texas, also a portion of Northeastern New Mexico. 

Middle Pacific Coast Region. — Those portions of California west of 
the Sierra Nevadas and north of the 37th parallel of latitude. 

Middle Plateau District. — Western Colorado, Utah, Nevada, south- 
western corner of Wyoming and the portions of California lying east of 
the Sierra Nevadas. 

Missouri Valley. — A belt of country 200 miles broad, from Fort 
Sully, Dak., to Jefferson City, Mo. 

New England States. — Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. 

Northern Rocky Mountain Slope. — Those portions of Montana and 
Wyoming lying east of the Rocky mountains, Southwestern Dakota, and 
Northwestern Nebraska. 

North Pacific Region. — Those portions of Oregon and Washington 
Territory lying west of the Cascade range. 

Northern Plateau District.— Portion of Western Wyoming, Western 
Montana, Idaho, and the portions of Oregon and Washington Territory 
lying east of the Cascade range. 

Ohio Valley. — The belt of country, about 200 miles broad, from 
Pittsburg, Pa., to Cairo, 111. 

Rio Grande Valley. — Southwestern Texas below the junction of the 
Rio Pecos with the Rio Grande. 

South Atlantic States. — North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 
and Northern and Eastern Florida. 

Southeastern Rocky Mountain Slope. — Southeastern New Mexico, 
Central and Western Texas. 

South Pacific Coast Region. — Those portions of California west of 
the Sierra Nevadas and south of the 37th parallel of latitude. 

Southern Plateau District. — Western New Mexico, Arizona, and 
Southeastern California. 

Upper Lake Region.— Takes Superior, Huron, and Michigan with 
adjacent country. 

Upper Mississippi Valley. — The belt of country, about 200 miles 
broad, from Saint Paul to Cairo. 

Western Gulf States. — Western Louisiana, Western Arkansas, East- 
ern Texas, Southern Missouri, and southeastern portion of Indian Terri- 
tory. 



CLIMATE. 47 

Certain grains and berries require more moisture than others for their 
profitable culture. Sugar, rice, etc., require a large amount of rain; and, 
hence, we find that the regions where these are most profitably grown 
have an annual rainfall of about fifty-five inches. Cotton will grow where 
there is as great rainfall as this, but it has been demonstrated to do best 
where the fall is about forty-five inches yearly. Wheat, corn, oats and 
such cereals can be- successfully cultivated with one-half the rainfall that 
cotton requires; indeed, wheat does well where there is no more than 
twenty inches. The rain must be seasonable in localities of such limited 
quantity. 

Take it altogether, its inconstancy, its wide variations of temperature, 
its abrupt changes^ its bitter cold and oppressive heat, and the climate of 
the United States has as many advantages as that of almost any other 
country. Vital statistics show that the mean healthfulness is as good as 
most countries and the prevalence of virulent epidemics very rare. A 
reference to the tables and diagrams in another part of the work will show 
this clearly. Although the extent of the territory is great, so many 
means of rapid transit are in operation that, in a few hours, any desired 
degree of temperature may be reached. 



POPULAR WEATHER PROVERBS. 



Through the kind assistance of General Hazen, of the Signal Service, 
of the Weather Bureau Of Washington, D. C, we are enabled to present, 
for the first time, to the public, many hundred of the most valuable and 
interesting weather proverbs and sayings which were gathered from all 
sources of this country by the government. 

Much valuable matter has also been obtained from the following 
authorities : 

"Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland," by Arthur Mitchell, 
M. D., Edinburgh, Ne-w Philosophical Journal; "Weather Lore," by 
Richard Inwards, F. M. S., London, 1869; "A Hand-book of Weather 
Lore," by Rev. C. Swainson, M. A., Edinburgh, 1873. 

The attempt to foretell the weather is not of recent date ; the ancients 
carefully studied the sky and clouds, and endeavored to predict the kind 
of weather that was likely to ensue; and a number of the popular prog- 
nostics of the weather of his time are recorded by Aristotle in his work 
on meteors. In later times, our forefathers studied the weather, and as they 
had no instruments to guide them, they observed natural objects, and 
noticed the appearances of the sky and clouds, and also the movements of 
animals, birds, plants, etc. Shepherds and sailors, especially being exposed 
to all kinds of weather, would naturally be on the lookout for any signs 
of a ' coming change, and, after a time, would begin to associate certain 
appearances with certain kinds of weather. A good deal of weather wis- 
dom of the above character has been thrown into proverbs, trite sayings, 
and popular verse. 

The increase of aqueous vapor in the atmosphere is indicated by its 
effect upon animal and vegetable organization. Animals are observed to 
become restless before rain, and many prognostics are based upon the 
action of birds, beasts, fish, reptiles, and insects. Plants and trees also 
indicate change in the hygrometric condition of the surrounding atmos- 
phere by the expansion and contraction of their leaves or flowers. The 
increase of aqueous vapor is indicated by the expansion or contraction of 
various substances, such as wood, whalebone, cat-gut, sponge, and hair, 
which, when colder than the air, condenses the moisture upon them, and, 
this being absorbed, increases the temperature, thus causing expansion or 
contraction. This action of heat and vapor upon these various substances 
has been utilized by meteorologists in the construction of hygrometers, 
and a number of the prognostics herewith express the effect of moisture 
on the articles named. 

(49) 



50 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

PROVERBS RELATING TO ANIMALS. 

Ass. 

An old adage says: 

When the ass begins to bray, 
j Be sure we shall have rain that day. 

Beaver. 

In early and long winters, the beaver cuts his winter supply of wood 
and prepares his house one month earlier than in mild late winters. 

Bears. 

When bears lay up food in the fall, it indicates a cold winter. 

If the tracks of bear are seen after the first fall of snow, an open, mild 
winter may be expected. 

Bears and coons are always restless before rain. 

The bear comes out on the 2d of February, and if he sees his shadow, 
he returns for six weeks. 

Expect rain when dogs eat grass. 

Buck's Horn. 

If dry be the buck's horn 
On Holyrood morn, 
'Tis worth a vest of gold; 
But if wet it be seen 
Ere Holyrood e'en, 
Bad harvest is foretold. 

Bull. 

If the bull leads the van in going to the pasture, rain must be expected ; 
but if he is careless and allows the cows to precede him, the weather will 
be uncertain. 

Cats. 

When cats sneeze it is a sign of rain. 

The cardinal point to which a cat turns and washes her face, after a 
rain, shows the direction from which the wind will blow. 

If the cat is basking in the sun of February, it must go again to the 
stove in March. (German.) 

When cats are snoring, foul weather follows. 

When cats are washing themselves, fair weather follows. 

Cats with their tails up and hair apparently electrified indicate approach- 
ing wind. 

It is a sign of rain if the cat washes her head behind her ear. (Old lady 
on Cape Cod.) 

Cats claw table-legs, tree-trunks, etc., before storms. 

When a cat scratches itself, or scratches on a log or tree, it indicates 
approaching rain. 



\ 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 51 

If sparks are seen when stroking a cat's back, expect a change of 
weather soon. 

When a cat washes her face with her back to the fire, expect a thaw 
in winter. 

When cats lie on their head with mouth turned up, expect a storm. 

Cats purr and wash; dogs eat grass; sheep eagerly eat and turn in the . 
direction of the wind-point ; oxen sniff the air, and swine are restless before 
rain. 

Cats have the reputation of being weather-wise, an old notion which 
has given rise to a most extensive folk-lore. It is almost universally 
believed that good weather may be expected when the cat washes her- 
self, but bad when she licks her coat against the grain, or washes her face 
over her ears, or sits with her tail to the fire. As, too, the cat is supposed 
not only t ^ have a knowledge of the state of the weather, but a certain 
share in the arrangement of it, it is considered by sailors to be most un- 
wise to provoke a cat. Hence they do not much like to see a cat on board 
at all, and when one happens to be more frisky than usual, they have a 
popular saying, that the cat has a gale of wind in her tail. A charm 
often resorted to for raising a storm is to throw a cat overboard; but, 
according to an Hungarian proverb, as a cat does not die in water its 
paws disturb the surface; hence the flaws on the surface of the water are 
named, by sailors, "cat's-paws." In the same way, also, a large flurry on 
the water is a "cat's-skin;"and, in some parts of England, a popular name 
for the stormy northwest wind, is the "cat's-nose." 

Chipmunk. 

In cold and early winters, the chipmunk is very abundant on the south 
shore of Lake Superior, and are always housed for the winter in October. 
In short and mild winters, they are seen until the ist of December. 

Cattle. 

When a storm threatens, if cattle go under trees, it will be a shower; 
if they continue to feed, it will probably be a continuous rain. (New 
England.) 

When cows fail their milk, expect stormy and cold weather. 

When cows bellow in the evening, expect snow that night. 

In Texas, when cattle hasten to timber, expect a "norther." 

When a cow stops and shakes her foot,- it indicates that there is bad 
weather behind her. 

When cows refuse to go to pasture in the morning, it will rain before 
night. 

When cattle collect near the barn long before night, and remain near 
the barn till late in the morning, expect a severe winter. 

Expect rain when cattle low and gaze at the sky. 

Cattle are also said to foreshow rain when they lick their forefeet, or 



52 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

lie on the right side, or scratch themselves more than they usually do 
against posts or other objects. 

When cattle go out to pasture and lie down early in the day, it indicates 
early rain. 

Deer.* 

When deer are in gray coat in October, expect a severe winter. 

Dogs. 

Dogs digging or making deep holes in the ground are said to indicate 
rain thereby. 

If a dog howls when some one leaves the house, it indicates rain. 

When a dog or cat eats grass in the morning it will certainly rain 
before night. 

When dogs eat grass, rain follows. 

Dogs refusing meat, is an indication of rain. 

Donkey. 

When the donkey blows his horn, 
'Tis time to house your hay and corn. 

Domestic Animals. 

Domestic animals stand with their heads from the coming storm. 

Flying-Squirrels. 

When the flying-squirrels sing in midwinter, it indicates an early spring. 

Foxes. 

Foxes barking at night, indicates storm. 

Ground -Squirrel. 

When the ground-squirrel is seen in winter, it is a sign that snow is 
about over. 

Ground-Hog. 

If on Candlemas day (2d February) it is bright and clear, the ground 
hog will stay in its den, thus indicating that more snow and cold are to 
come ; but, if it snows or rains, he will creep out, as the winter has ended. 
(German.) 

Goat. 

The goat will utter her peculiar cry before rain. 

Hares. 
Hares take to the open country, before a snow-storm. 

Hogs. 

Hogs pick, and store straws, leaves, etc., before cold weather. 
Hogs rubbing themselves in winter, indicates an approaching thaw. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 53 

Horse-Hair. 

If the hair of the horse grows long early, expect an early winter. 
The hair of a horse appears rough, just before rain. 

Horses and Cattle. 

When horses and cattle stretch out their necks, and sniff the air, it 
will rain. 

Horses, as well as some other domestic animals, foretell the coming of 
rain, by starting more than ordinary, and appearing in other respects, rest- 
less and uneasy on the road. 

Horses and mules, very lively, without apparent cause, indicate cold. 

When horses assemble in the corner of a field, with heads to leeward, 
expect rain. 

Kine, when they assemble at one end of a field, with their tails to 
windward, often indicate rain or wind. During the dead calm before a 
storm, we may often see them extending their nostrils, with the head 
upwards, snuffing the air; this prognostic has been noticed of old, by 
Virgil, and, after him, by Lord Bacon and others. 

Mole. 

If the mole dig his hole two-feet and a half deep, expect a very severe 
winter; if two-feet deep, not so severe; if one-foot deep, a mild winter. 
When the moles throw up the earth, rain follows soon. 

Musk-Rat. 

The musk-rats build their houses twenty inches higher, and very much 
warmer, in early, and long winters, than in short ones. 

Noise. 

Animals making unusual noise, indicate change of weather. 

Oxen and Sheep. 

When oxen or sheep collect together, as if they were seeking shelter, 
a storm may be expected. (Apache Indians.) 

Pigs. 

Pigs uneasy, grunting, and huddling together, indicate cold. 

When pigs busy themselves, gathering leaves and straw, to make a 
bed (in fall), expect a cold winter. 

When, in winter, pigs rub against the side of their pen, it is a sure sign 
of a thaw. 

If the forward end of a pig's melt is thicker than the other end, the 
first part of winter will be the colder. If the latter end is thicker, the 
last part of winter will be the colder. 

When pigs go about with sticks in their mouths, expect a "norther," 
in Texas. 



54 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Prairie Dogs. 

Prairie dogs bank up their holes with grass and dirt before a storm; 
if they are playful, it is a sign of fair weather. 

Partridges. 

Partridges drum only in fall, when a mild and open winter follows. 

Rabbits. 

In cold, long winters, rabbits are fat in October and November; in 
mild, and pleasant winters, they are poor in those months. 
Rabbits seek the woods before a severe storm. 

Rats and Mice. 

Much noise made by rats and mice indicates rain. 

Swine. 

If swine be restless and grunt loudly ; if they squeal, and jerk up their 
ears, there will be much wind. Whence the proverb, "Pigs can see the 
wind. 11 

Swine make lairs on south side of shelter before cold weather. 

Squirrels, etc. 

When squirrels and small animals lay away a larger supply of food 
than usual, it indicates that a long and severe winter will follow. 

When squirrels lay in a winter supply of nuts, expect a cold winter. 

When he eats them on the tree, 

Weather as warm as warm can be. 
When squirrels are scarce in the autumn it indicates a cold winter. 

Sheep. 

If sheep ascend hills and scatter, expect clear weather. 
Sheep bleat and seek shelter, before snow. 

You may shear your sheep, 

When the elder blossoms peep. 

Sand Mole. 

The sand mole makes a mournful noise just before frost. 

Spaniels. 
When the spaniel sleeps, it indicates rain. 

Wolves. 

Wolves always howl more before a storm; deer and elk come down 
from the mountains atjeast two days before a storm. 

If the wolves howl and foxes bark during the winter, expect cold 
weather. 

If wolves howl in the evening, expect a "norther." (Texas.) 



12'' "9' 117* 115" 113" 111" 109= 107' 105" 103' 101" 





Key of 


C'oiors. 




1 


BeZoui 60° 




2 
3 


60" to 65° 

65° to 70° 


4 


70° to 75° 


IB 75" to 80° 


jjJj 80° to 85° 


H 85 ° io m ° 


■■■ .90° Utttf '"''-/•. 






117 II.. 



Ip^^^^UlllJij" 



- 1 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy & West. 




MEAN TEMPERATURE OF 

JULY 

{Drawn from* the Smithsonian Temperature Tables.) 






WEATHER PROVERBS. 55 

Mammals as Weather Prophets. 

Dr. C. C. Abbott showed that the autumnal habits of certain animals, 
that are popularly supposed to be indicative of the character of the com- 
ing winter, could not be depended upon, although, by the majority of peo- 
ple living in the country, they were considered as sure indications of what 
the winter would prove to be. Dr. Abbott had kept a careful record, 
extending over twenty years, regarding the building of winter houses 
by musk-rats, the storing of nuts by squirrels, and other habits of these 
mammals, and, had found that the habits referred to, or their omission in 
certain autumns, bore no relation to the character of the coming winter. 
(Trenton Nat. Hist. Soc, meeting February 13, 1883.) 



PROVERBS RELATING TO BIRDS. 

Birds of Passage. 

When birds of passage arrive early in their southern passage, severe 
weather may be looked for soon. 

When birds cease to sing, rain and thunder will probably occur. 

If birds, in general, pick their feathers, wash themselves, and fly to 
their nests, expect rain. 

A dry summer will follow when birds build their nests in exposed 
places. 

Birds flying in groups during rain or wind, indicate hail. 

Birds and fowl oiling feathers, indicate rain. 

Birds singing during rain, indicate fair weather. 
If birds in the autumn grow tame, 
The winter will be too cold for game. 

Bats. 

Bats flying late in the evening, indicate fair weather. 

Bats that squeak flying, tell of rain to-morrow. 

If bats flutter and beetles fly about, there will be a fine morrow. 

Blackbirds. 

Blackbirds' notes are very shrill in advance of rain. 

Blackbirds flying south in autumn, indicate an approaching cold winter. 

Blackbirds bring healthy weather. 

Blackbirds flocking in the fall, indicate a spell of cold weather. 

Buzzards. 

A solitary turkey -buzzard at a great altitude, indicates rain. 
Buzzards flying high, indicate fair weather. 

Bluebirds. 

When bluebirds twitter and sing, they call to each other of rain. 



56 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

i 
Chickens. 

Chickens, when they pick up small stones and pebbles and are more 
noisy than usual, afford, according to Aratus, a sign of rain. Other 
authors prognosticate the coming of rain from the habit fowls have of 
rubbing in the dust and clapping their wings. 

When chickens crow before sundown, it is a sign of rain next day. 

Chickens are said to be very noisy just before rain, and cocks to crow 
at unusual hours. 

If chickens go out in the rain, it will rain all day. 

When chickens come down from roost at night, rain will soon follow. 

During rain, if chickens pay no attention to it, you may expect a con- 
tinued rain; if they run to shelter, it won't last long. 

When chickens light on fences during rain to plume themselves, it 
will soon clear. 

Chimney Swallows. 

When chimney swallows circle and call, they speak of rain. (Zuni 
Indians.) 

Cocks. 

Cocks are said to clap their wings in an unusual manner before rain, 
and hens to rub in the dust and seem very uneasy. 
If the cock moult before the hen, 
We shall have weather thick and thin ; 
But if the hen moult before the cock, 
We shall have weather hard as a block. 

If the cock crows more than usual, or earlier, expect rain. 

Cormorants. 

When cormorants fly from the sea, and sea fowls seek their prey in 
pools or ponds, expect wind. 

Cranes. 

If cranes appear early in the autumn, expect a severe winter. 
There will be no rain the day the crane flies down the creek. 
When cranes make a great noise, or scream, expect rain. 
Cranes follow the last frost. 

If cranes come early in autumn, expect a severe winter. 
If cranes place their bills under their wings, expect rain. 
When the cranes early (in October) fly southward, it indicates a cold 
winter. 

Crows. 

One crow flying alone, is a sign of foul weather; but, if crows fly in 
pairs, expect fine weather. 

If crows fly south, a severe winter may be expected ; if they fly north, 
the reverse. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 57 

If the crows make much noise, and fly round and round, expect rain. 

Cuckoo. 

If the cuckoo is heard long after St. John's day, it means harsh times. 
(German.) 

When the cuckoo comes to the bare shorn, 
Sell your cow, and buy your corn; 
But when he comes to the full bit, 
Sell your corn, and buy your sheep. 
In April he opens his bill; 
In May he sings all day; 
In June he alters his tune ; 
Come August, go he must. 
Cuckoos hallooing in low lands, indicate rain ; on high lands, indicate 
fair weather. 

Dove. 

Don't plant your corn when the turtle-dove cries. 

Domestic Fowl. 

Domestic fowls dress their feathers when the storm is about to cease. 
Domestic fowls look toward the sky before rain. 
Domestic fowls stand on one leg before cold weather. 
When fowls collect together and pick, or straighten their feathers, 
expect a change of weather. 

When fowls roost in day-time, expect rain. 

February Birds. 

If birds caught in February are fat and sleek, it is a sign of more cold 
weather. 

Finch. 

When the finch chirps, rain follows. 

Geese. 

Wild geese fty high in pleasant weather, and low, in bad weather. 
The whiteness of a goose's breast-bone, indicates the amount of snow 
during winter. 

If the November goose bone be thick, 
So will the winter weather be ; 
If the November goose bone be thin, 
So will the winter weather be. 
A very heavy plumage of geese in fall, indicates an approaching cold 
winter. 

Everything is lovely, and the goose hawks high (not hangs high, as is 
usually stated). Geese flying high, is a sign of fair weather. 

If the breast-bone of a goose is red, or has many red spots, expect a 



58 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

cold, and stormy winter; but if only a few spots are visible, the winter 
will be mild. 

When you see geese in water, washing themselves, expect rain. 

Geese wash and sparrows fly in flocks before rain. 

When geese fly at ten o'clock, or in the first part of the night, it is a 
sign of cold weather. 

If domestic geese walk east and fly west, expect cold weather. 

When geese and ducks go into the water and flap their wings, throw- 
ing the water over their backs, rain is approaching. 

When geese or ducks stand on one leg, expect cold weather. 

To read the winter of any year, take the breast-bone of a goose hatched 
during the preceding spring. The bone is translucent and it will be found 
to be colored and spotted. The dark color and heavy spots indicate cold. 
If the spots are of light shade and transparent, wet weather, rain, or snow, 
may be looked for. 

Grouse. 

When grouse drum at night, Indians predict a deep fall of snow. 

Gulls. 

Gulls will soar to lofty heights, and, circling round, utter shrill cries 
before a storm. 

Hawk. 

When men-of-war-hawks fly high, it is a sign of a clear sky; 
When they fly low, prepare for a blow. 

Hedge Sparrow. 

If the hedge sparrow is heard before the grape-vine is putting forth its 
buds, it is said that a good crop is in store. 

Heron. 

When heron fly up and down as in doubt where to rest, expect rain. 

Hen. 
When the hen crows, expect a storm within and without. 

Jackdaws. 

These birds frequent the flocks of rooks, and with them go out to feed, 
as if they were aware of the superior sagacity of the rook in finding out 
the most productive pasture, and had learned to avail themselves of it. 
Starlings sometimes do the same. Sometimes, before the change of 
weather, the daws make a great noise in the chimneys wherein they build, 
and the sound coming down the flue is distinctly heard in the chamber. 

Jackdaws are unusually clamorous before rain. 

Kites. 

Kites flying unusually high are said to indicate fair weather. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 59 

Larks. 

Larks, when they sing long and fly high, forebode fine weather. 
As long as the lark is heard before Candlemas day (in Europe), that 
long will it be silent afterward on account of cold yet to come. (German.) 
Field larks, congregating in flocks, indicate severe cold. 

Loon. 

Hunters say that the direction in which the loon flies in the morning 
will be the direction of the wind next day. 

Magpies. 

Magpies, flying three or four together and uttering harsh cries, pre- 
dict windy weather 

Missel Thrush. 

Missel thrush have been observed to sing particularly loud just before 
a storm. 

Martins. 

When martins appear, winter has broken. 

No killing frost after martins. 

Martins fly low before and during rainy weather. 

Migratory. 

Migratory birds fly south from cold, and north from warm weather. 
When a severe cyclone is near, they become puzzled and fly in circles, 
dart in the air and can be easily decoyed. (Observer on North Carolina 
coast.) 

Owls. 

Owls hooting indicate rain. 

If owls scream in foul weather, it will change to fair. 

If owls hoot at night, expect fair weather. 

The various omens which vulgar credulity has attached to the hooting 
and screaming of this bird deserve particular attention. When an owl 
hoots Or screeches, sitting on the top of a house or by the side of a win- 
dow, it is said to foretell death. The fact seems to be this : The owl, as 
Virgil justly observes, is more noisy at the change of weather, and as 
it often happens that patients with lingering diseases die at the change of 
weather so the owl seems, by a mistaken association of ideas, to forebode 
the calamity. Both the screech owl and the howlet seem to be alluded to 
among the harmful fowls in Spenser's Fairy Queen. 

Screech Owl. 

A screeching owl indicates cold or storm. 



60 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Parrots. 

Parrots whistling indicate rain. 

It is said that parrots and canaries dress their feathers and are wakeful 
the evening before a storm. 

Peacocks. 

When the peacock's distant voice you hear, 
Are you in want of rain? Rejoice, 'tis almost here. 
When the peacock loudly bawls 
Soon we'll have both rain and squalls. 
If the peacock cries when he goes to roost, and, indeed, much at any 
time, it is a sign of rain. 

When peacocks and guinea fowls scream, and turkeys gobble, expect 
rain. 

The squalling of the peacock by night, often foretells a rainy day. 
Peafowls utter loud cries before a storm, and select a low perch. 

Petrels. 

Petrels gathering under the stern of a ship, indicate bad weather. 

The stormy petrel is found to be a sure token of stormy weather. 
When these birds gather in numbers under the wake of a ship, the sailors 
are sure of an impending tempest. 

Pintado. 

Before rain, the pintados, or guinea fowls called comebacks, squall more 
than usual. 

Pigeons. 

Pigeons return home unusually early before rain. 

It is a sign of rain, when pigeons return slowly to the dove-houses 
before the usual time of day. 

Prairie Chickens. 

Prairie chickens, coming into the creeks and timber, indicate cold 
weather 

When the prairie chicken sits on the ground with all its feathers ruf- 
fled, expect cold weather. 

Quail. 

When quails are heard in the evening, fair weather is indicated for 
next day. 

Quails are more abundant during an easterly wind. 

Red Breasts. 

Red breasts grow bolder, and perch against the window, in advance 
of unusually severe weather. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 61 

Robins. 

First robins, indicate the approach of spring. 

Long and loud singing of robins in the morning, denote rain. 

Robins will perch on the topmost branches of trees, and whistle when 

a storm is approaching. 

Rooks. 

If rooks fly irregularly and high, and seem to fall, expect rain. 

Rooks dart and swoop through the air, sparrows group together and 

keep up a discordant chirping before rain. 

Rooster. 

A crowing rooster during rain, indicates fair weather. 
When the roosters go crowing to bed they will rise with watery head. 
If a rooster crows on the ground, it is a sign of rain; if he crows on 
the fence, it is a sign of fair weather. 

Sea Birds. 

If sea birds fly toward land and land birds toward the sea, expect 

wind without rain. o«„ r»..u„ 

Sea-uulls. 

If sea-gulls fly inland, expect storm. 

When sea-gulls fly to land, a storm is at hand. 

Snowbirds. 

When snowbirds gather in flocks, and light on fences and hedges, 
expect rain. Storks. 

If storks and cranes fly high and steady, expect fair weather. 

Summer Birds. 

When summer birds take their flight, the summer goes with them. 

Swallow. 

When swallows, in evenings, fly high and chirp, fair weather follows; 
when low, rain follows. 

When the swallow's nest is high 

The summer is very dry; 

When the swallow buildeth low, 

You can safely reap and sow. 
When the swallows fly low, or when the geese fly, expect storm or cold. 
Swallows skimming along the ground indicate rain. 
Swallows flying low indicate rain. 
Circling swallows indicate rain. 

Swan. 

The swan builds its nest high before high waters, but low when there 
will not be unusual rains. 



62 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Thrush. 

When the thrush sings at sunset, a fair day will follow. 

Turkeys. 

Turkeys perched on trees and refusing to descend, indicates snow, 
Water turkeys, flying against the wind, indicate falling weather. 

Vultures. 

Vultures are considered as evil omens, in consequence, probably, of their 
following armies for the sake of carcasses of the slain, whereon they feed. 
When they scent carrion at a great distance, they indicate that state of the 
atmosphere which is favorable to the perception of smells, which often fore- 
bodes rain. 

Water Fowl. 

If water fowl scream more than usual and plunge into water, expect 
rain. 

If water fowl make more noise than usual, also if robins approach nearer 
houses than usual, expect frost soon. 

Wild Ducks. 

Wild ducks scattered around the lakes near Lake Superior, form in 
large flocks and go south one month earlier in cold or early winters than in 
mild or pleasant winters. 

Wild Geese. 

Wild geese flying over in great numbers, indicates approaching storm. 
Wild geese, wild geese, going to the sea, 
Good weather it will be ; 
Wild geese, wild geese, going to the hill, 
The weather it will spill. 
Wild geese moving south, indicates approaching cold weather; moving 
north, indicates that most of winter is over. 

When wild geese fly to the southeast in the fall, in Kansas, expect a 
blizzard. 

Wild geese flying directly south and very high, indicates a very cold 
winter. When flying low and remaining along the river they indicate a 
warm winter in Idaho. For spring, just the reverse when flying north. 
(Old settler.) 

Wild geese flying past large bodies of water indicates change of 
weather ; going south, cold ; going north, warm. 

Woodcock. 

An early appearance of woodcock indicates the approach of a severe 
winter. 

Woodpecker. 

When the woodpecker leaves, expect a hard winter. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 63 

When woodpeckers peck low on the trees, expect warm weather. 

The ivory-billed woodpecker commencing at the bottom end of a tree 
and going to the top, removing all the outer bark, indicates a hard winter 
with deep snow. Wrens. 

When wrens are seen in winter, expect snow. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO CLOUDS. 
Storm- Presaging Clouds. 

[From the New York Herald.] 

An English meteorologist, the Hon. F. A. R. Russell, who, for many 
years, has been a cloud observer, has recently given his conclusions as to 
the predictive value of the upper clouds. ' As a celebrated example of the 
clews given by cirrus clouds to coming weather, he mentions that the Rev. 
Mr. Ley, on a fine day, noticing certain indications of the upper clouds in 
London, telegraphed from the Strand to the meteorological office, order- 
ing warnings of a heavy thunder-storm for four o'clock that afternoon, 
which, at the pre-announced hour, came crashing over the metropolis. Mr. 
Russell's researches lead him to the conviction that the cirrus cloud is 
often a more timely monitor of approaching storms than the barometer, 
and that the "bar or ribbed cirrus," though somewhat uncommon, is "at 
least equal in value to the falling barometer as a danger signal." He 
finds also that "detached patches of cirrus, like little masses of wool or 
knotted feathers, in a clear sky and of unusual figure, moving at more 
than the average rate, precede disturbances of great magnitude." 

From Aristotle's time, the value of cloud signs in storm and rain prog- 
nostications has been recognized ; but their interpretation has only recently 
become possible, since the movement of storm centers over wide areas has 
been systematically traced. The irregular motions of the high clouds, 
perhaps more than their forms (presenting the appearance of having been 
divided and torn by uprushing currents), indicate dangerous cyclones. If 
the equatorial air current, in which cyclones are borne along, is undisturbed 
by a cyclonic vortex, the clouds floating in its higher strata would sail on it 
at a uniform rate. But if we suppose that a storm is moving in the great 
current, the ascending air in the storm's center is ceaselessly invading the 
cloud stratum above. It is this uprushing air which divides the clouds. 
But, as the interchange between the surface and upper air in the cyclone 
center tends to retard the swift upper current which transports the cirri- 
form clouds, the motion of these clouds both over the storm center and far 
out in front of it, must often be retarded. The very rapidly moving cirrus 
clouds which Mr. Russell says precede great disturbances must precede them 
at great distances from their centers — a fact which enhances their predict- 
ive value and shows the importance of observing them systematically. The 
terrible loss of life and property in the British gale of October 14, 1881, this 



64 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

writer thinks, might have been less had the cloud portents been duly 
watched and heeded, as the cirrus indications of the day previous gave 
sufficient warning of the coming storm. 

Anvil Clouds. 

Anvil-shaped clouds are ver}^ likely to be followed by a gale of wind. 

Appearances. 

Soft-looking delicate clouds foretell fine weather with weak, moderate, 
or light breezes. Hard edged, oily appearing clouds, wind. A dark, 
gloomy, blue sky indicates wind. A bright blue sky, clear fine weather. 
Generally, the softer the clouds the less wind. Small inky clouds foretell 
rain. 

Assemblage of Clouds. 

If an assemblage of small clouds spread out or become thicker and 
darker, expect rain. 

Against the Wind. 

If you see a cloud rise against the wind, when that cloud comes up to 
you the wind will blow the same way that the cloud came, and the same 
rule holds good of a clear place when all the sky is equally thick except 
one clear edge. (Shepherd.) 

Bull's Eye. 

A small, fast-growing, black cloud in violent motion seen in the tropics, 
is called the Bull's Eye, and precedes the most terrible hurricanes. 

Black Clouds. 

Black clouds in the north in winter indicate approaching snow. 

Black Scuds. 
Small black scuds (clouds), drifting from southwest, is a sign of rain. 

Bright— Dark. 

If clouds be bright, 
'Twill clear to-night; 
If clouds be dark, 
'Twill rain, do you hark? 

Blue Sky. 

Enough blue sky in the northwest to make a Scotchman a jacket is a 
sign of approaching clear v/eather. 

Cirro-Cumuli. 

When cirro-cumuli appear in winter, expect warm and wet weather. 
When cirri threads are brushed back from a southerly direction, ex- 
pect rain and wind. 




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WEATHER PROVERBS. 65 

Cirri and Cumulus. 

When cirri merge into cirro-stratus, and when cumulus increase 
towards evening and become lower clouds, expect wet weather. 

Cumulus Clouds. 

If a fair day, with cumulus clouds, expect rain before night. 

Curdly Sky. 

A curdly sky will not leave the earth long dry. 
A curdly sky will not be twenty-four hours dry. 

Cross-Wind Clouds. 

If you see clouds going cross wind, there is a storm in the air. 

Clouds— Wind. 
Clouds flying against the wind indicate unsettled weather. 

Dusky Clouds. 

Dusky or tarnish-silver colored clouds indicate hail. 

Disperse. 

When clouds, after a rain, disperse during the night, the weather will 
not remain clear. 

Dark Sky. 

If the sky becomes darker without much rain and divides into >wo 
layers of clouds, expect sudden gusts of wind. 

Dark clouds in the west at sunrise indicate rain on that day. 

Equinox. 

If it blows in the day, it generally hushes toward evening. 
The vernal equinoctial gales are stronger than the autumnal. 

East Wind. 

If rain falls during an east wind, it will continue a full day. 

East Clouds. 

Clouds in the east, obscuring the sun, indicate fair weather. 

Evening and Morning. 

Evening red and morning gray will set the traveler on his way; 

But evening gray and morning red will bring down rain upon his head. 

Fair. 

If the sky, beyond the clouds, is blue, 
Be glad, there is a picnic for you. 
When there is enough clear sky to patch a Dutchman's breeches, 
expect fair weather. 



66 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Fleecy Clouds. 

If, in winter, the clouds appear fleecy with a very blue sky, expect 
cold rain or snow. 

If there be a fleecy sky, unless driving northwest, expect rain. 
When the clouds are formed like fleeces but dense in the middle and 
bright toward the edge, with the sky bright, they are signs of a frost, 
with hail, snow, or rain. 

If the woolly fleeces strew the heavenly way, 
Be sure no rain disturb the summer day. 

Fine Weather. 

If clouds, ?t the same height, drive up with the wind, and gradually 
become thinner and descend, expect fine weather. 

Gusts. 

If there be a cloudy sky and dark clouds driving fast under higher 
clouds, expect violent gusts of wind. 

General Cloudiness. 

When a general cloudiness covers the sky and small, black fragments 
of clouds fly underneath, they indicate rain, and probably it will be lasting. 

Hen Scarts. 

Hen scarts and filly tails 
Make lofty ships wear low sails. 

High, Dark Clouds. 

If high, dark clouds are seen in spring, winter, or fall, expect cold 
weather - Heavy Sky. 

If the sky after fine weather becomes heavy with small clouds, expect 

ram ' High Clouds. 

If clouds form high in air in their white trains like locks of wool, they 
portend wind and probably rain. 

Hues. 

Clouds being soft, undefined, and feathery, will be fair. Generally, 
any deep, unusual hue of clouds indicate rain and wind, while the more 
quiet and moderate tints indicate fair weather. 

Heavy Rains. 

If clouds float at different heights and rates, but generally in opposite 
directions, expect heavy rains. 

Horizontal Clouds. 

Narrow, horizontal red clouds after sunset in the west indicate rain 
before thirty-six hours. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 67 

Hills. 

When clouds are on the hills 
They'll come down by the mills. 

Isolated Clouds. 

When on clear days isolated clouds drive over the zenith from the 
rain-wind side (see table on "Wet and Dry Wind") storm and rain follow 
within twenty-four hours. i,,«c 

It never clouds up in June nights for a rain. 

Lookout Mountain. 
When Lookout Mountain has its cap on, it will rain in six hours. 

Low Clouds. 
Clouds floating low enough to cast shadows on the ground are usually 
followed by rain. Mackerel Sky. 

Mackerel sky, mackerel sky, 
Never long wet, never long dry. 

Mackerel Clouds. 

The mackerel clouds always indicate storm if the first appear about 
1 5° north of west. (Kansas.) 

Mackerel scales and mare's tails 
Make lofty ships carry low sails. 

Mackerel clouds in sky, 
Expect more wet than dry. 

Mackerel Scales. 

Mackerel scales, 

Furl your sails. 

A mackerel sky, 

Not twenty-four hours dry. 

Mountain Clouds. 

When the clouds hang on the mountain side after a rain and the sun 
shines on the top of the mountain, the storm is over. When gray clouds 
are seen for several days on the tops of high mountains, in the fall, they 
indicate an early winter. (Apache Indians.) 

Northwest Clouds. 

If a layer of thin clouds drive up from the northwest, and under other 
clouds moving more to the south, expect fine weather. 

Opening. 

If clouds open and close, rain will continue. 



68 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Red Sky. 

When it is evening, ye say it will be fair weather, for the sky is red; 
and in the morning it will be foul weather to-day, for the sky is red and 
lowering. (Matthew xvi. 2, 3.) 

When clouds are gathered toward the sun at setting, with a rosy hue, 
they foretell rain. 

If there be red clouds in the west at sunset it will be fair ; if the clouds 
have a tint of purple it will be very tine, or if red bordered with black in 
the southeast. 

Rounded Clouds. 

A cloud with rounded top and flattened base carries rain-fall on its 
face. 

Red clouds at sunrise indicate storm. 

Red clouds at sunrise indicate rain on the following day. 

Storm. 

Behold there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea like a man's hand. 

Prepare thy chariot and get thee down that the rain stops thee not. 
And it came to pass in the meanwhile, that the heaven was black with 
clouds and wind and there was great rain. (Kings xviii. 44, 45.) 

Stratus. 

Stratus or fall cloud is a fog or mist, so called from being strewed 
along the ground, and from its consisting of particular kinds of clouds, 
which fall at night-time to the ground. A stratus in the morning, in 
autumn, often ushers in some of the finest days we enjoy. 

Sunday Sunset. 

If Sunday sunset is obscured, expect rain before Wednesday. 

Salt Lake Valley. 

A horizontal streak or band of clouds immediately in front of the 
mountains on the east side of Salt Lake valley is an indication of rain 
within one or two days. When black clouds cover the western horizon, 
rain will follow soon, and extend to the eastward over the valley. ( Ob- 
server at Salt Lake.) 

Storm. 

If clouds look like they had been scratched by a hen, 

Get ready to reef your topsails then. 
If the clouds be of different heights, the sky being grayish or dirty 
blue, with hardly any wind stirring, the wind, however, changing from 
west to south, or sometimes to southeast, without perceptibly increasing 
in force, expect a storm. 

South Clouds. 

If clouds appear suddenly in the south, expect rain. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 69 

Sunrise. 

If clouds fly to the west at sunrise, expect fine weather. 
If, at sunrise, many clouds are seen in the west, and disappear, expect 
fine weather for a short time. 

Strips of Clouds. 

If long strips of clouds drive at a slow rate high in the air, and grad- 
ually become larger, the sky having been previously clear, expect rain. 

Streamers. 

When streamers point upward, the clouds are falling and rain is at 
hand. When streamers point downward, the clouds are ascending and 
drought is at hand. Salmon Clouds. 

A long strip of clouds called a Salmon, or Noah's Ark, stretching east 
and west, is a sign of stormy weather, but when it extends north and 
south, it is a sign of dry weather. 

North and south the sign of drought, 

East and west the sign of blast. 

Tints. 

Light, delicate, quiet tints or colors, with soft, undefined forms of 
clouds, indicate and accompany fair weather; but unusual or gaudy hues, 
with hard, definitely-outlined clouds, foretell rain, and probably stormy 

weather - Thin Light Clouds. 

If there be a light-blue sky with thin, light, flying clouds, whilst the 
wind goes to the south without much increase in force, or a dirty-blue 
sky when no clouds are to be seen, expect storm. 

Tails or Feathers. 

If there be long points, tails, or feathers hanging from thunder or rain 
clouds, five or six or more degrees above the horizon, with little wind in 
summer, thunder may be expected, but storm will be of short duration 

Two Currents. 

Two currents of clouds indicate approaching rain, and, in summer, 

thunder. _, 

Thunder. 

Against much rain the clouds grow rapidly larger, especially before 

thunder. ^_ . _,, . 

Terraces of Clouds. 

When the clouds rise in terraces of white, soon will the country of the 
corn priests be pierced with the arrows of rain. (Zuni Indians.) 

Variety. 

The different kinds of clouds indicate rain. 



70 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

West Clouds. 

When ye see a cloud rise out of the west, straightway ye say there 
cometh a shower, and so it is. (Luke xii. 54.) 

Brassy-colored clouds in the west at sunset indicate wind. 

White Clouds. 

If, on a fair day in winter, a white bank of clouds arises in the south, 
expect snow. 

If small white clouds are seen to collect together, their edges appear- 
ing rough, expect wind. Wind. 

If the wind blow between north and east or east, with clouds for some 
days, and, if clouds be then seen driving from the south high up, rain will 
follow plentifully, sometimes forty-eight hours after; if, after the rain, the 
wind goes to the south or southwest, better weather will follow. 

Yellow Sky. 

A light yellow sky at sunset presages wind. 
A pale yellow sky at sunset presages rain. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO DEW. 

Absence of Dew. 

The absence of dew for three days indicates rain. 
If nights three, dewless there be, 
'Twill rain, you're sure to see. 

Easter. 

The number of dews before Easter, will indicate the number of hoar 
frosts to occur after Easter, and the number of dews to occur in August. 

Heavy Dew. 

If there is a heavy dew and it soon dries, expect fine weather; if it 
remains long on the grass, expect rain in twenty-four hours. 
Heavy dew indicates fair weather. 
Clouds without dew indicate rain. 
If there is a heavy dew, it indicates fair weather; no dew indicates 

rain " Haying Season. 

In haying season, when there is no dew, it indicates rain. 
Much dew after a fair day indicates another fair day. A calm and 
a fair day followed by absence of dew indicates rain. 

Midnight. 

With dew before midnight, 

The next day will sure be bright. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 71 

Plentiful Dew. 

If the dew lies on the grass plentifully after a fair day, it indicates that 
the following day will be fair. If there is no dew, and no wind after a 
fair day, rain will follow. 

Southerly Winds. 

A heavy dew in the middle latitudes is said to indicate southerly 
winds. 

A heavy dew with a south to east wind, fair — with a northwest wind,, 
rain. (New England.) 

Summer Dew. 

During summer a heavy dew is sometimes followed by a southerly 
wind in the afternoon. 

Wet Feet. 

If your feet you wet with the dew in the morning, you may keep them 
dry for the rest of the day. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO FISH. 

General. 

When fish bite readily and swim near the surface, rain may be ex- 
pected. 

Fish become inactive just before thunder showers, silent, and won't 
bite. 

Fish bite the least 
With wind in the east. 
Fishes in general, both in salt and fresh waters, are observed to sport 
most and bite more eagerly against rain than at any other time. 

Black-fish. 

Black-fish in schools indicate an approaching gale. 
Blue-fish, Pike, etc. 

Blue-fish, pike and other fish jump with heads toward the point 
where a storm is frowning. 

The approach of blue-fish to the Middle Atlantic coast is a true indi- 
cation of a shift of wind to the north within twenty-four or thirty-six 
hours. The observer furnishing the above states that he has not known 
this saying to have failed once in the past twenty-five years, and assigns, 
as a reason, that in autumn all fish go south, and the blue-fish, it appears, 
is able to anticipate this change and approaches the coast, where it may 
strike the feed-fish on their way south. 



72 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Clam-Beds. 

Air-bubbles over the clam-beds indicate rain. 
Porpoises in harbor indicate coming storm. 

Cat-fish. 

Fish swim up stream, and cat-hsh jump out of water before rain. 
If the skin on the belly of the cat-fish is unusually thick, it indicates a 
cold winter; if not, a mild winter will follow. (Negro.) 

Cockles. 

Cockles and most shell-fish are observed against a tempest to have 
gravel sticking hard into their shells, as a providence of nature to stay or 
poise themselves, and to help to weigh them down, if raised from the 
bottom by surges. 

Cod-fish. 

The cod is said to take in ballast before a storm. It is said by Ser- 
geant McGillivry, Signal Corps, U. S. A., that there is one instance of this 
saying well authenticated, as follows : A number of cod were taken twelve 
hours before a severe gale, and it was found that each had swallowed a 
number of small stones, some of the stones weighing three or four ounces. 

Crabs and Lobsters. 

The appearance of crabs and lobsters indicates that spring has come, 
and that there will be no more freezing weather. Lake Ontario black 
bass leave shoal water just before a thunder-storm. This has been ob- 
served twenty-four hours before a storm. 

Cuttles. 

Cuttles, with their many legs, swimming on the top of the water and 
striving to be above the waves, presage a storm. 

Cuttle-fish. 

Cuttle-fish swimming on the surface of the water indicate the approach 
of storm. 

Dolphins. 

Dolphins, as well as porpoises, when they come about a ship, and sport 
and gambol on the surface of the water, betoken a storm; hence they are 
regarded as unlucky omens by sailors. 

Eels. 

If eels are very lively, it is a sign of rain. 

Equinox. 
In equinoctial storms, fish bite the best before the sun crosses the line. 

Fish— Flies. 
When fish jump up after flies expect rain. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 73 

Frog-fish. 

Frog-fish crawling indicate rain. 

Lake Trout. 

In the northern lakes of the United States, white-fish and lake trout 
leave reefs for deep water one month earlier in stormy falls than in mild, 
calm falls, with little winds. (Chippewa Indians.) 

Lobsters and Craw-fish. 

When lobsters or craw-fish heighten their holes about the surface of 
the ground, it is a sign of approaching rain. 

( Moon. 

Fish bite the best when the moon is in the tail. 

Mullet. 

Mullet run south on the approach of cold northerly wind and rain. 

North Wind. 

Fishermen, in anger, froth 
When the wind is in the north; 
For fish bite the best 
When the wind is in the west. 

Pike. 

When pike lie on the bed of a stream quietly, expect rain or wind. 

Porpoises. 

Porpoises, when they sport about ships and chase one another as if in 
play, and indeed their being numerous on the surface of the sea at any 
time, is rather a stormy sign. The same may be said of dolphins and 
grampus. That the cause of these motions is some electrical change in 
the air seems probable. Wilsford, in his Secrets of Nature, tells us "Por- 
poises or sea-hogs when observed to sport and chase one another about 
ships, expect then some stormy weather." 

Porpoises are said to swim in the direction from which the wind is 
coming. 

Porpoises run into bays and around islands before a storm. 

Salmon and Trout. 

Salmon and trout plentiful in river (Columbia) show an abundance of 
rain in the surrounding country by which the river has risen. 

Sea-urchins. 

Sea-urchins thrusting themselves into the mud, or striving to cover 
their bodies with sand, foreshow a storm. 



74 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Shad. 

Shad run south when the weather changes cold. 

Shark. 
Shark go to sea at the approach of a cold wave. 

Skate. 
Skate jump in the direction that the next wind will come from. 

South Wind. 
Wind in the south, catch fish in the mouth. 

Trout. 

Trout bite voraciously before rain. 

When trout refuse bait or fly, 
There ever is a storm nigh. 

Trout and Salmon. 

When the trout or salmon-trout jump late in the fall, the Indians of 
Washington Territory predict an open winter and an open spring. 

Trout and Herring. 

Trout jump and herring schools more rapidly before rain. 
Whales and Porpoises. 

When porpoises and whales spout about ships at sea, storm may be 
expected. 

Winds. 

The appearance of a great number of fish on the west Gulf coast indi- 
cates bad weather and easterly winds. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO FOG OR MIST. 

August. 

The number of August fogs indicate the number of winter mists. 

In the Mississippi Valley, when fogs occur in August, expect fever and 
ague in the following fall. 

A fog in August indicates a severe winter and plenty of snow. 

Observe on what day in August the first heavy fog occurs, and you 
may expect a hard frost on the same day in October. 

April Fog. 

Fog in April foretells a failure of the wheat crop next year. (Alabama.) 
If the first three ^.ays of April be foggy, there will be a flood in June. 
(English.) 






WEATHER PROVERBS. 75 

Continued Fog. 

If there be continued fog, expect frost. 

Dew. 

When the dew is seen shining on the leaves, the mist rolled down 
from the mountain last night. (Zuni Indians.) 

Damp Fog. 
If there be damp fog or mist, accompanied by wind, expect rain 

Fog Clouds. 

When light fog clouas on evenings are observed to rise from the val- 
leys and hang around the summit of mountains, rain follows. 

February Fog. 

A fog in February indicates a frost in the following May. 

Fog Frost. 

He that would have a bad clay must go out in the fog after a frost. 

Frost. 

During frosty weather, the dissolution of mist, and the appearance of 
small detached cirro-cumulus clouds in the elevated regions of the atmos- 
phere are said to foretell that the termination of frost is at hand. 

Fog and Rain. 

When the fog goes up the hill, the rain comes down the mill. 

Fog after Frost. 

Fog after hard frosts and fog after mild weather indicate a change in 
weather. 

Falling Fog. 

When the fog falls, fair weather follows; when it rises, rain follows. 

Heavy Fog. 

Heavy fog in winter, when it hangs below trees, is followed by rain. 

Hunting and Fishing. 

When the fog goes up the mountains, you may go hunting ; when it 
comes down the mountain, you may go fishing. In the former case, it will 
be fair ; in the latter, it will rain. 

Light Fog. 

Light fog passing under the sun from south t-o north in the morning 
indicates rain in twenty-four or forty-eight hours. 



76 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

March, May and August. 

So many mists in March we see, 
So many frosts in May shall be; 
So many fogs in August we see, 
So many snows that year will be. 

Mirage. 

A mirage is followed by a rain. (New England.) 

Mist— Sea. 

When the mist takes to the sea, 

Then good weather it will be. (English.) 

Misty Mornings. 
Three foggy or misty mornings indicate rain. (Oregon.) 

Morning Fogs. 

When a morning fog turns into clouds of different layers, the clouds 
increasing in size, expect rain. 

Mountain Mist. 

When mountains extend north and south, if fog or mist comes from 
the west, expect fair weather. If mist comes from the top of mountains, 
expect rain in summer, snow in winter. (Apache Indians.) 

October Fog. 

For every fog in October there will be a snow during the winter; for 
each heavy fog, a heavy snow, and for each light fog, a light snow. 

Rising Fog. 

A rising fog indicates fair weather. If the fog settles down, expect 
stormy weather. 

Seaward and Landward. 

Fog from seaward, fair weather; fog from landward, rain. (New 
England.) 

Summer Fog. 
A summer fog is a good indication of fair weather. 

Southerly Wind. 

In summer, when fog comes with a southerly wind, it indicates warm 
weather; when it comes with a northerly wind, it is a sign of heavy rain. 

Weather. 

When the mist is on the hill, 
Then good weather it doth spoil. 

Winter Fog. 

A winter's fog will freeze a dog. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 77 

PROVERBS RELATING TO FROST. 

Bearded- Frost. 

Bearded-frost is a forerunner of snow. 

Birds of Passage. 
If birds of passage arrive early from the north, expect frost. 

Corn Frost. 
With the coming of frost grows the corn old. (Zuni Indians.) 

Dark-moon Frost. 

Frost occurring in the dark of the moon kills fruit, buds and blossoms; 
but frost in the light of the moon will not. 

Early Frosts. 

Early frosts are generally followed by a long and hard winter. Light 
or white frosts are always followed by wet weather, either the same day 
or three days after. 

Easter Frost. 

Past the Easter frost the fruit is safe. 

Fences— Trees. 

In winter, if the fences and trees are covered with white frost, expect a 
thaw. 

Frosty Trees. 

If the trees are frosty and the sun takes it away before noon, sign of 
rain. 

First Katydid. 

The first frost of the season occurs six weeks after we hear the first 
katydid. 

Frosts. 

Heavy white frost indicates warmer weather. 

Black frost indicates dry cold weather. 

Bearded frost indicates colder weather and snow. 

Frost— Rain. 

Hoar frost indicates rain. 

Foul Weather. 

Frosts end in foul weather. 

First Frost. 

If the first frost occurs late, the following winter will be mild, but 
weather variable. If first frost occurs early, it indicates a severe winter 



78 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Gray Sky. 

If there be a dark, gray sky, with a south wind, expect frost. 

Heavy Frosts. 

Heavy frosts are generally followed by fine, clear weather. 

Hoar Frost. 

If there be an abundance of hoar frost, expect rain. 

Ice. 

If the ice crack much, expect frost to continue. 

June Frosts. 

There will be as many frosts in June as there are fogs in February. 

Moonlight. 

Moonlight nights have the hardest frosts. 

Mist. 

When the mist is on the hill, 

Then good weather it doth spoil; 

When the mist takes to the sea, 

Then good weather it will be. (England.) 

Rain— Frosts. 

Heavy frosts bring heavy rains; no frosts, no rain. (California.) 

Six Months. 

Six months from last frost to next frost. (South.) 

Spider Webs. 

Spider webs floating at autumn sunset, 
Bring a night frost, this you may bet. 

Three Frosts. 

Three frosts in succession are a sign of rain 
Three white frosts and then a storm. 

White Frost. 

A very heavy white frost in winter is followed by a thaw. 
White frost on three successive nights indicates a thaw or rain. 

Water Snakes. 

When small water snakes leave the sand in low, damp lands, frosts 
may be expected in three days. (Apache Indians.) 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 79 

Wind, Northwest. 

Frosts will probably occur when the temperature is 40 and the wind 
northwest. 

A high wind prevents frost. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO INSECTS. 

Ants. 

If ants their walls do frequent build, 
Rain will from the clouds be spilled. 
When ants are situated in low ground, their migration may be taken 
as an indication of approaching heavy rains. 

Expect stormy weather when ants travel in lines, and fair weather 
when they scatter. 

If, in the beginning of July, the ants are enlarging and building up their 
piles, an early and cold winter is at hand. 

An open ant-hole indicates clear weather; a closed one an approaching 
storm. 

Ants, Crickets, Gnats, etc. 

Ants are very busy ; gnats bite ; crickets are lively ; spiders come out 
of their nests, and flies gather in houses just before rain. 

Butterflies. 

The early appearance of butterflies is said to indicate fine weather. 
When the white butterfly flies from the southwest, expect rain. 
When the butterfly comes, comes also the summer. (Zuni Indians.) 

Bees. 

When bees remain in their hives or fly but a short distance, expect 
rain. 

Bees early at work will not perform a full day's work. 
Bees will not swarm before a near storm. 

Bees returning hastily and in large numbers are said to indicate 
approaching rain, although the weather may be clear. 
When bees to distance wing their flight, 
Days are warm and skies are bright ; 
But when their flight ends near their home, 
Stormy weather is sure to come. 
A bee was never caught in a shower. 

If bees remain in the hive or fly but a short distance from it, expect 
rain. 

Black Insects. 

When little black insects appear on the snow, expect a thaw. 



80 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Cockroaches. 

When cockroaches fly, it is a sign of approaching rain. 

Crickets. 

If the crickets sing louder than usual, expect rain. 

Chrysalides. 

When the chrysalides are found suspended from the under side of rails, 
limbs, etc., as if to protect them from rain, expect much rain. If they are 
found on slender branches, fair weather will last some time. (Western 
Pennsylvania.) 

Fleas. 

When fleas do very many grow, 
Then 'twill surely rain or snow. 

When eager bites the thirsty flea, 
Clouds and rain you sure shall see. 

Flies. 

A fly on your nose, you slap and it goes, 

If it comes back again, it will bring a good rain. 

When flies congregate in swarms, rain follows soon. 

When flies bite greedily, expect rain. 

Fall-bugs. 

Fall-bugs begin to chirp six weeks before a frost in the fall. 

Fire-flies. 
Fire-flies in great number indicate fair weather. 

Garden Spiders. 

If the garden spiders break and destroy their webs and creep away, 
expect continued rain. 

Glow-worms. 

Before rain: 

Glow-worms numerous, clear and bright, 

Illuminate the dewy hills at night. 
When the glow-worm glows, dry hot weather follows. 

Gossamer. 

Gossamer (the fine web of certain species of spider) is said when 
abundant in the air to afford a sign of a fine autumn. 

Gnats. 

Gnats flying in a vortex in the beams of the sun, fair weather will 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 81 

follow ; when they frisk about more wildly, increasing heat is indicated ; 
when they seek the shade and bite more frequently, the signs are of coming 
rain. 

Gnats in October are a sign of long, fair weather. 

Many gnats in spring indicate that the autumn will be warm. 

If gnats fly in large numbers, the weather will be fine. 

If gnats, flies, etc., bite sharper than usual, expect rain. 

When gnats dance in February, the husbandman becomes a beggar. 

If gnats fly in compact bodies in the beams of the setting sun, expect 
tine weather. 

If many gnats are seen in the spring, expect a warm autumn. 

When gnats dance in March, it brings death to sheep. (Dutch.) 

Hornets. 

Hornets build nests high before warm summers. 

When hornets build their nests near the ground, expect a cold and early 
winter. 

House Flies. 

House flies coming into the house in great numbers indicate rain. 

Harvest Flies. 

When harvest flies sing, warm weather will follow. 

Insects. 

The early appearance of insects indicates an early spring and good crops. 
(Apache Indians). 

Insects, flying in numbers just at evening, show change of weather to 
rain. 

Katydids. 

Katydids cry three months before frosts. (South.) 

Locusts. 

When locusts are heard, dry weather will follow, and frost will occur in 
six weeks. 

Spider Webs. 

When spiders' webs in air do fly, 
The spell will soon be very dry. 

Spider webs scattered thickly over a field covered with dew glistening 
in the morning sun, indicate rain. 

When spiders work at their webs in the morning, expect a fair day. 

Spiders strengthening their webs indicate rain. 

Long, single, separate spider webs on grass is a sign of frost next night. 
(Irish.) 

Spiders in motion indicate rain. 



82 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

If spiders break off and remove their webs, the weather will be wet. 

If spiders make new webs and ants build new hills, the weather will be 
clear. 

If the spider works during rain, it is an indication that the weather will 
soon be clear. 

When the spider cleans its web, fair weather is indicated. 

If spider webs fly in the autumn with a south wind, expect east winds 
and fine weather. 

Spiders generally change their webs once every twenty-four hours. If 
they make the change between 6 and 7 p. m., expect a fair night. If they 
change their web in the morning, a fine day may be expected. If they 
work during rain, expect fine weather soon, and the more active and bus)" 
the spider the finer will be the weather. 

Spiders, when they are seen crawling on the walls more than usual, 
indicate that rain will probably ensue. This prognostic seldom fails. This 
has been observed for many years, particularly in winter, but more or less 
at all times of the year. 

If spiders in spinning their webs make the terminating filaments 
long, we may, in proportion to their lengths, expect rain. 

When you see the ground covered with spider webs which are wet with 
dew and there is no dew on the ground, it is a sign of rain before night, 
for the spiders are putting up umbrellas; but others say when the spiders 
put out their sunshades, it will be a hot day. 

Scorpions. 

When scorpions crawl, expect dry weather. 

Tarantulas. 

When tarantulas crawl by day, rain will surely come. (California.) 

Wasps. 

Wasps building nests in exposed places indicate a dry season. 
Wasps in great numbers and busy indicate fair and warm weather. 

Wood-lice. 

If wood-lice run about in great numbers, expect rain. 

Worms, Snails, etc. 

Worms come forth more abundantly before rain, as do snails, slugs, 
and almost all our limaceous reptiles. 

Yellow Jackets. 

Yellow jackets building nests on top of ground indicate an approach- 
ing dry season. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 88 

PROVERBS RELATING TO THE MOON. 
April Full Moon. 

Full moon in April brings frost. 

A Saturday's Moon. 

If it comes once in seven years, comes all too soon. 

Bean. 

Go plant the bean when the moon is light, 
And you will find that this is right ; 
Plant the potatoes when the moon is dark, 
And to this line you always hark; 
But if you vary from this rule, 
You will find you are a fool; 
If you always follow this rule to the end, 
You will always have money to spend. 

Beans. 

Plant garden beans when the sign is in the scales they will hang full. 

Cloudy Morning. 

In the old of the moon, a cloudy morning bodes a fair afternoon. 

Cool Weather. 

When the moon runs high, expect cool or cold weather. 

New moon far in north in summer, cool weather; in winter, cold. 

Change. 

If the moon changes (full or new) in fair or warm part of the day, it 
indicates a warm moon, and if it changes in the cool part of the day, it 
indicates that the weather will be cool during the moon. 

If the moon is rainy throughout, it will be clear at the change, and 
perhaps the rain will return a few days after. 

If there be a change of weather at the time of the quarters (under the 
same conditions as above), the new condition will probably last some 
time. 

Drought— Flood. 

The further the moon is to the south, the greater the drought ; the 
further west, the greater the flood, and the further northwest, the greater 
the cold. 

Dry Weather. 

When the horns of the moon are sharp, it indicates dry weather. 
New moon far in the south, indicates dry weather for a month. 

Dry Moon, 

A drv moon is far north and soon seen. 



84 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Day Moon. 

When the moon is visible in the day-time, the days are relatively 
cool. 

East Wind. 

If the moon changes with the wind in the east, the weather during that 
moon will be foul. 

Fifth Day of Moon. 

The fifth day of the new moon indicates the general character of the 
weather until the full of the moon. 

Full Moon. 

In Western Kansas it is said that when the moon is near full it never 
storms. 

The full moon eats clouds. (Nautical.) 

Fair Moon. 

If the moon be fair throughout and rain at the close, the fair weather 
will probably return on the fourth or fifth day. 

Fair Weather. 

Phases of the moon occurring in the evening, expect fair weather. 

Five Changes. 

Five changes of the moon in one month, denotes cool weather in sum- 
mer and cold in winter. 

Flood. 

Two full moons in a calendar month bring on a flood. 

Fine Weather. 

If the full moon rises clear, expect fine weather. 

Gale Moon. 

If the moon is seen between the scud and broken clouds during a gale, 
it is expected to scuff away the bad weather. 

Halo. 

The larger the halo about the moon, the nearer the rain clouds and the 
sooner the rain may be expected. 

A lunar halo indicates rain, and the number of stars inclosed, the num- 
ber of days of rain. 

The moon with a circle brings water in her beak. 

Horns of Moon. 

When Luna first her scattered fear recalls, 

If, with blunt horns, she holds the dusky air, 

Seamen and swain predict abundant showers. (Virgil.) 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 85 

Moon-shield. 

If the moon show a silver shield, 
Be not afraid to reap your field; 
But if she rises halved round, 
Soon will tread on deluged ground. 

Moon-ring. 

Last night the moon had a golden ring, 
But to-night no moon I see. 

Moon, Wind-clouds, etc. 

When first the moon appears, if then she shrouds 

Her silver crescent, tipped with sable clouds, 

Conclude she bodes a tempest on the main, 

And brews for fields impetuous floods of rain. 

Or, if her face with fiery flushings glow, 

Expect the rattling wind aloft to blow; 

But four nights old (for that is the best sign), 

With sharpened horns, if glorious then she shine, 

Next day, not only that, but all the moon, 

Till her revolving race be wholly run, 

Are void of tempests both by land and sea. 

Moon Halo. 

A large ring around the moon and low clouds, indicate rain in twenty- 
four hours ; a small ring and high clouds, rain in several days. 

Moon, Points of. 

If the new moon appears with the points of the crescent turned up, 
the month will be dry. If the points are turned down, it will be wet. 

Note. — About one-third of the sailors believe in the direct opposite of 
the above. The belief is explained as follows : ist. If the crescent will 
hold water, the month will be dry; if not, it will be wet. 2nd. If the 
Indian hunter could hang his powder-horn on the crescent, he did so and 
staid at home, because he knew that the woods would be too dry to still 
hunt. If he could not hang his powder-horn upon the crescent, he put it 
on his shoulder and went hunting, because he knew that the woods would 
be wet and that he could stalk game noiselessly. 

Mist. 

If there be a general mist before sunrise near the full of the moon, the 
weather will be fine for some days. 

New Moon. 

New moon on its back, indicates wind; standing on its point, indicates 
rain in summer and snow in winter. (Dr. John Menual.) 



86 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

North Wind. 

A new moon with a north wind will hold until the full. 

North and South Moon. 

If the new moon is far north, it will be cold for two weeks, but 
if far south, it will be warm. 



October Moon. 

Full moon in October without frost, no frost till full moon in 
vember. 

Old Moon. 



No- 



In the old of the moon, 

A cloudy morning means a fair afternoon. 

The old moon seen m the new moon's arms is a sign of fair weather. 
If the new moon, first quarter, full moon, last quarter, occur between — 
Summer: 12 and 2 a. m. Fair. 



Winter : 



2 and 


4 a. m. 


Cold and showers. 


4 and 


6 a. m. 


Rain. 


6 and 


8 a. m. 


Wind and rain. 


8 and 


10 a. m. 


Changeable. 


10 and 


12 m. 


Frequent showers. 


12 and 


2 p. m. 


Very rainy. 


2 and 


4 p. m. 


Changeable. 


4 and 


6 p. m. 


Fair. 


6 and 


8 p. m. 


Fair, if wind northwest. 


8 and 


10 p. m. 


Rainy, if wind south or southwest. 


10 and 


12 p. m. 


Fair. 


12 and 


2 a. m. 


Frost, unless wind southwest. 


2 and 


4 a. m. 


Snow and stormy. 


4 and 


6 a. m. 


Rain. 


6 and 


8 a. m. 


Stormy. 


8 and 


10 a. m. 


Cold rain, if wind west. 


10 and 


1 2 m. 


Cold and high wind. 


12 and 


2 p. m. 


Snow and rain. 


2 and 


4 p.m. 


Fair and mild. 


4 and 


6 p. m. 


Fair. 


6 and 


8 p. m. 


Fair and frosty, if wind northeast or north. 


8 and 


10 p. m. 


Rain or snow, if wind south or southwest. 


10 and 


12 p. m. 


Fair and frosty. 



Points of Moon. 

If the points of a new moon are up, then, as a rule, no rain will fall 
that quarter of the moon ; a dull pale moon, dry, with halo, indicates poor 
crops. In the planting season, no grain must be planted when halo is 
around the moon. (Apache Indians.) 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 87 

Pale Rise. 

If the full moon rise pale, expect rain. 

Rheumatic Diseases. 

Therefore the moon, the governor of the floods, 

Pale in her anger, washes all the air 

That rheumatic diseases do abound. (Shakespeare.) 

Red, Dim or Pale Moon. 

A dim or pale moon indicates rain, a red moon indicates wind. 

The moon, her face if red be, 

Of water speaks she. (Zuni Indians.) 

If the full moon rises red, expect wind. 

When the moon rises red and appears large, with clouds, expect rain 
in twelve hours. 

Rain. 

When the moon is darkest near the horizon, expect rain. 
When phases of the moon occur in the morning, expect rain. 
If the moon turns on its back in the third quarter, it is a sign of rain. 
The moon, if in house be, cloud it will, rain soon will come. (Zuni 
Indians.) 

Ruddy. 

If on her cheeks you see the maiden's blush, 
The ruddy moon foreshows the winds will rush. 

South Moon. 

A south moon indicates bad weather. 

Snow. 

As many days old as the moon is at the first snow, there will be as 
many snows before crop-planting time. 

Snow coming two or three days after new moon will remain on the 
ground some time, but that falling just after full moon will soon go off. 

There will be as many snow-storms during the winter as the moon 
is days old at the first snow-storm. 

Stars in Halo. 

Moon in a circle indicates storm, and number of stars in circle the 
number of days before storm. 

Sixth Day of Moon. 

If the weather on the sixth day is the same as that of the fourth day 
of the moon the same weather will continue during the whole moon. Said 
to be correct nine times out of twelve. (Spanish.) 



88 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Storm. 

The rising or the setting of the sun or moon, especially the moon, will 
be followed by a decrease of a storm which is then prevailing. 

Saturday Moon. 

A Saturday moon, if it comes once in seven years, it comes too soon. 
A Friday's moon, come when it will, comes too soon. 

Saturday Change. 

One Saturday change in the moon is enough, as it is always fol- 
lowed by a severe storm. 

Stormy, Wet Weather. 

If there be a change from continued stormy or wet to clear and dry 
weather at the time of a new or full moon, and so remains until the second 
day of the new or full moon, it will probably remain fine until the follow- 
ing quarter; and if it changes not then, or only for a short time, it usually 
lasts until the following new or full moon ; and if it does not change then, 
or only for a very short time, it will probably remain fine and dry for 
four or five weeks. 

Threatening Clouds. 

Threatening clouds, without rain, in old moon indicate drought. 

Thursday. 

Thursday before the moon changes rules the moon. 

Way to Wane. 

The three days of the change of the moon from the way to the wane 
we get no rain. 

Warm Weather. 

When the moon runs low, expect warm weather. 

Warm and Cold Weather. 

If the moon changes in the morning, it indicates warm weather; if in 
the evening, cold weather. 

A change in the moon which occurs between sunrise and sunset will 
be followed by warm weather; when the change occurs between sunset 
and sunrise, it will be followed by cold weather. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO PLANTS. 

Ash Leaves. 

When the ash leaves come out before the oak, expect a wet season. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 89 

African Marigold. 

If this plant does not open its petals by 7 o'clock in the morning, it 
will rain or thunder that day. It also closes before a storm. 

Aspen Leaf. 

Trembling of the aspen leaf in calm weather indicates an approaching 
storm. 

Berries. 

When the bushes are full of berries, a hard winter is on the way. 

When berries are plentiful in the hedge, on the May-bush and black- 
thorn, a hard winter may be expected. 

Berries in the hedges often forebode a hard winter, and severe weather 
frequently occurs in seasons when they are particularly plentiful on the 
May-bush and blackthorn. This rule is not, however, without its excep- 
tion. But, at all events, peculiarities of the seasons have a wonderful 
influence on the quantities of berries, particularly those of holly. The 
peculiarities of the seasons and their influence on plants constitute a very 
curious subject of research ; it comprehends the whole doctrine of special 
blights, whereby only certain tribes of plants are affected. Epidemics 
and epizootics come under the same class and are referable to specific 
conditions of the atmosphere. 

Beech-nuts. 

When beech-nuts are plenty, expect a mild winter. 

Beans. 

Be it weal or be it woe, 

Beans must blow ere May doth go. 

Convolvulus. 

The convolvulus folds up its petals at the approach of rain. 

Cherries. 

As long as the cherries bloom in April, it is said that the grapevine 
will be in bloom. 

Chickweed. 

The flowers of the chickweed contract before rain. 

The chickweed, at 9 o'clock in the morning, if the weather is clear, 
straightens its flowers, spreads its leaves, and keeps awake until noon. If, 
however, there is rain in prospect, the plant droops and its flowers do not 
open. 

Corn-husk. 

A double husk on corn indicates a severe winter. 

Ears of corn are covered with thicker and stronger husks in cold 
winters. 

If corn is hard to husk, expect a hard winter. (Apache Indians.) 



90 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Cockle-burrs. 

When cockle-burrs mature brown, it indicates frost. 

Clover Leaves. 

Clover leaves turned up so as to show light under-side indicate ap- 
proaching rain. 

Clovers contract at the close of a storm. 

Cottonwood— Quaking Asp. 

Cottonwood and quaking asp trees turn up their leaves before rain. 

Corn-fodder. 

Corn-fodder, dry and crisp, indicates fair weather ; but damp and limp, 
rain — very sensitive to hygrometric changes. 

Dandelions. 

The dandelions close their blossoms before a storm; the sensitive 
plant its leaves. The leaves of the May trees bear up so that the under 
side may be seen before a storm. 

Dandelion and Daisy. 

The flowers of the dandelion and daisy close before rain. 
Dogwood Blossoms. 

When the blooms of the dogwood tree are full, expect a cold winter. 
When blooms of same are light, expect a warm winter. 
Frost will not occur after the dogwood blossoms. 

Dead Nettles. 

Dead nettles blow early and all the year; the red or purple kind are 
scarce all winter. They afford a sign of a mild season when they come 
in winter in abundance. 

Early Blossoms. 

Early blossoms indicate a bad fruit year. 

Flowers. 

When the perfume of flowers is unusually perceptible, rain may he 
expected. 

Fox-fire. 

Fox-fire seen at night indicates cold. 

Frost— Cockle. 

Frost has never been known to catch the cockle or blackberry in 
bloom. 

Fennel. 

When fennel blooms, frost follows. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 91 

Fall Apples. 

If the fall apples are one-sided, with thick, rough skins, a severe winter 
may be expected. 

Grasses. 

Grasses of all kinds are loaded with seeds before a severe winter. 

Goat's-beard. 

When goat's-beard closes its petals at mid-day, expect rain. 

Hay. 

Better it is to rise betimes 
And make hay while the sun shines, 
Than to believe in tales and lies 
Which idle monks and friars devise. 

(Robins's Almanac.) 
Hog-thistle. 

If the hog-thistle closes for the night, expect fair weather ; if it remains 
open, expect rain. 

Jonquils. 

Jonquils, of which there are several sorts, blow in the open ground in 
March and April. The great jonquil and the odorous jonquil blow about 
the middle of March, the lesser or proper jonquil, somewhat later. When 
they blow well and early, they forebode a fine season. 

Leaves. 

If, in the fall of the leaves, in October, many of them wither and hang 
on the boughs, it betokens a frosty winter and much snow. 

If the leaves are slow to fall, expect a cold winter. 

If the falling leaves remain under the trees and are not blown away by 
the wind, expect a fruitful year to follow. 

When leaves of trees are thick, expect a cold winter. 

Late Blossoms. 

Late blossoms indicate a good fruit year. 

Marigold. 

The marigold opens between 6 and 7 in the morning and generally keeps 
awake until 4 in the afternoon. In such cases, the weather will be steady. 
If, on the other hand, it does not open by 7 o'clock in the morning, you may 
expect rain that day. 

Mi Ik -weed. 

Milk-weed closing at night indicates rain. 



92 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Mountain Moss. 

When the mountain moss is soft and limpid, expect rain. 
When mountain moss is dry and brittle, expect clear weather. 

March Flowers. 

" March flowers make no summer bowers," because if the spring is 
very mild, vegetation becomes too far advanced and is liable to injury 
from frost. 

Mushrooms. 

When mushrooms spring up during the night, expect rain. 
Mushrooms and toad- stools are numerous before rain. 

Nuts. 

Nuts with a thick covering denote a hard winter. 

Onion-skins. 

Onion-skins very thin, 
Mild winter coming in; 
Onion-skins thick and tough, 
Coming winter cold and rough. 

Pitcher-plant. 

The pitcher-plant opens its mouth before rain. 

Pimpernel. 

When this plant is seen in the morning, with its little red flowers widely 
extended, we may generally expect a fine day; on the contrary, when the 
petals are closed, rain will soon follow. This plant has been styled the 
poor man's weather-glass. 

Red Sandwort. 

When the corona of red sandwort contracts, expect rain. 

Sensitive Brier, 

The sensitive brier closes up its leaves on the approach of rain. 

Sycamore. 

Sycamore tree, peeling off white in the fall, indicates a cold winter. 

Sunflower. 

Sunflower raising its head indicates rain. 

Scotch Pimpernel. 

When the corona of the Scotch pimpernel contracts, expect rain. 

Speedwell. 

When the corona of the speedwell and stitchwort contracts, expect 
rain. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 93 

Sea- weed. 

Sea-weed becomes damp and expands before wet weather. 

Sea Grape. 

In the West Indies and along the coast of Florida, there grows a small 
fruit-bearing tree called the sea grape, which, when its fruit is abundant 
and ripens early, it is said by the Seminole Indians and natives of the 
Bahama Islands to be a sign that there will be a hurricane before the end 
of the season. The usual time of ripening of this fruit is during Septem- 
ber, and the hurricane season extends from the first of August till the end 
of October. 

Silver Maple. 

The silver maple shows the lining of its leaf before a storm. 

Sea- weed. 

A piece of kelp or sea-weed hung up will become damp previous 
to rain. 

Tulips and dandelions close just before rain. 

Trefoil. 

If the trefoil contracts its leaves, expect heavy rains. 

Tree Limbs. 
When tree limbs break off during calm, expect rain. 

Tree Moss. 
North side of trees covered with moss indicates cold weather. 

Trees. 

Trees grow dark before a storm. 

Tree Leaves. 

When the leaves of trees curl, with the wind from the south, it indi- 
cates rain. 

Wild Indigo. 

Just before rain or heavy dew, the wild indigo closes or folds its leaves. 

Wheat. 

For wheat, a peck of dust in 
March is worth a king's ransom; 
Or wet and soddy, the land 
Must go to oats and corn. 



94 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

PROVERBS RELATING TO RAIN. 

Clearness. 

Unusual clearness in the atmosphere, objects being seen very dis- 
tinctly, indicates rain. 

Evening and Morning. 

Evening red and morning gray 
Are sure signs of a tine day. 

Evening gray and morning red, 

Put on your hat or you'll wet your head. 

Electricity. 

Increasing atmospheric electricity oxidizes ammonia in the air and 
forms nitric acid which affects milk, thus accounting for souring of milk 
by thunder. 

Hours of Commencing. 

If rain commences before daylight, it will hold up before 8 a. m. ; if it 
begins about noon, it will continue through the afternoon ; if it commences 
after 9 p. m., it will rain the next day; if it clears off in the night, it will 
rain the next day; if the wind is from the northwest or southwest, the 
storm will be short; if from the northeast, it will be a hard one; if from 
the northwest, a cold one, and from the southwest, a warm one. 

If rain ceases after 12 m., it will rain next day. 

If rain ceases before 12 m., it will be clear next day. 

Morning Rain. 

If rain commences before day, it will stop before 8 a. m. ; if it begins 
about noon, it will continue through the afternoon; if not till 5 p. m., it 
will rain through the night; if it clears off in the night, it will rain the 
next day. 

If it rains before seven, 

It will clear before eleven. 

If rain begins at early morning light, 
'Twill end ere day at noon is bright. 

North Rain. 

With the north rain, leaves the harvest. 

Northeast Rain. 

With the rain of the northeast comes the ice fruit (hail). (Zuni 
Indians.) 

Rain from the northeast (in Germany region of dry winds) continues 
three days. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 95 

Notice. 

Rain long foretold, long last; 
Short notice, soon past. 

October and November. 

Plenty of rain in October and November on the North Pacific coast 
indicates a mild winter; little rain in these months will be followed by a 
severe winter. 

Scalp-Locks. 

When the locks of the Navajoes turn damp in the scalp-house, surely 
it will rain. 

South Thunder. 

Rain with south or southwest thunder, squalls occur late each suc- 
cessive day. 

South Rain. 

Rain from the south prevents the drought, but rain from the west is 
always best. 

South winds bring rain. (California.) 

The south rain brings with it the beautiful odors of the land of ever- 
lasting summer and brightens the leaves of growing things. (Zuni 
Indians.) 

Rain which sets in with a south wind on the north Pacific coast will 
probably last. 

September Rain. 

Rain in September is good for the farmer, but poison to the vine 
growers. (German.) 

Seven and Eleven. 

If it rains before seven, 
It will cease before eleven. 

Sunrise. 

If it rains before sunrise, expect a fair afternoon. 

Sunshiny Rain. 

If it rains when the sun shines, it will rain the next day. 

Swallows and Crickets. 

Rain is indicated when — - 

Low o'er the grass the swallows wing, 
And crickets, too, how sharp they sing. 

September. 
Heavy September rains bring drought. 



96 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Squalls. 

When rain-squalls break to the westward, it is a sign of foul weather. 
When they break to leeward, it is a sign of fair weather. ( North- 
east coast.) 

Tide. 

Rain is likely to commence on the turn of the tide. 
In threatening, it is more apt to rain at the turn of the tide, especially 
at high water. 

Toad -stools. 

If toad-stools spring up in the night in dry weather, they indicate rain. 

West Rain. 

When rain comes from the west it will not continue long. 
The west rain comes from the world of waters to moisten the home 
of the She Wi. (Zuni Indians.) 

Wind and Rain. 

Marry the rain to the wind and you have a calm. 

Wind. 
With the rain before the wind, your topsail halyards you must mind. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO RAINBOWS. 

Clear. 

The rainbow has but a bad character: she ever commands the rain 
to cease. 

Color. 

If the green be large and bright in the rainbow, it is a sign of rain. 
If red be the strongest color, there will be rain and wind together. After 
a long drought the rainbow is a sign of rain. After much wet weather, it 
indicates fair weather. If it breaks up all at once, there will follow severe 
and settled weather. If the bow be in the morning, rain will follow; if at 
noon, slight and heavy rain; if at night, fair weather. The appearance 
of two or three rainbows indicates fair weather for the present, but set- 
tled and heavy rains in a few days. 

Evening - Rainbow. 

If there is a rainbow at eve, 
It will rain and leave. 

East and West Rainbow. 

Rainbow in the east indicates that the following day will be clear. A 
rainbow in the west is usually followed by more rain the same day. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 97 

Rainbow in the Sierras (Y. £., in the east) in evening indicates no more 
rain. ( California.) 

Fair Weather. 

The boding shepherd heaves a sigh, 
For see, a rainbow spans the sky. 

High Rainbow. 

When rainbow does not touch water, clear weather will follow. 

Indications by Colors. 

The predominance of dark red in the iris shows tempestuous weather; 
green, rain; and if blue, that the air is clearing. 

Low Rainbow. 

A rainbow that comes near a camp-fire, or low down on the mountain 
side, is a bad sign for crops. If seen at a great distance, it indicates fair 
weather. 

Morning and Evening Rainbow. 

Rainbow in the morning, shepherds take warning ; 
Rainbow at night, shepherds delight. 
A morning rainbow indicates rain ; an evening rainbow, fair weather. 
A rainbow in the morn, put your hook in the corn ; 
A rainbow at eve, put your head in the sheave. 

Night and Morning Rainbow. 

Rainbow at night, sailors 1 delight; 
Rainbow in morning, sailors' warning. 

Spring Rainbow. 

A rainbow in spring indicates fair weather for next twenty-four to 
forty-two hours. 

Sudden Disappearance. 

If a rainbow disappears suddenly, it indicates fair weather. 
West and East Shower. 

Rainbow in morning shows that shower is west of us, and that we will 
probably get it. Rainbow in the evening shows that shower is east of us 
and is passing off. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO REPTILES. 

Frogs. 

Frogs singing in the evening indicate fair weather for next day. 
Frogs croak more noisily, and come abroad in the evening in large 
numbers, before rain. 



98 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

When frogs croak three times, it indicates that winter has broken. 

As long as frogs are heard before Saint Mark's day, that long will they 
keep quiet afterward. 

Croaking frogs in spring will be three times frozen in. 

When frogs warble, they herald rain. (Zuni Indians.) 

Frogs must be frozen up three times in spring after they begin to 
croak. 

The louder the frogs, the more's the rain. 

The color of a frog changing from yellow to reddish indicates rain. 

Tree-frogs piping during rain indicates continued rain. 

Tree-frogs crawl up to the branches of trees before a change of 
weather. 

Yellow Frogs. 

Abundance of yellow frogs are accounted a good sign in a hay-field, 
probably as indicating tine weather. 

Glow-worms. 

Glow-worms numerous and bright, indicate rain. 

Worms. 

If, after some days of dry weather, fresh earth is seen which has been 
thrown up by worms, expect dry weather. 

When worms creep out of the ground in great numbers, expect wet 
weather. 

Snails. 

Snails moving on bushes or grass, are signs of rain. 

When black snails cross your path, 
Black clouds much moisture hath. 

Leech. 

A leech placed in a jar of water will remain at the bottom until rain 
is approaching, when it will rise to the surface, and, if thunder is to follow, 
will frequently crawl out of the water. 

Leeches kept in glass jars move about more frequently just before rain. 

Lizards. 

When lizards chirrup, it is a sure indication of rain. 

Snakes. 

Hanging a dead snake on a tree will bring rain in a few hours. 
(Negro.) 

Note. — Snakes are out before rain, and are, therefore, more easily 

killed. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 99 

In Oregon the approach of snakes indicates that a spell of fine weather 
will follow. 

When snakes are hunting food, rain may be expected; after a rain, 
they can not be found. 

Hang up a snake skin and it will bring rain. 

Snakes and snake-trails may be seen near houses, roads, etc., before 
rain. 

Snakes expose themselves on the approach of rain. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO STARS OR METEORS. 

Comets. 

Comets bring cold weather. 

After an unusual fall of meteors, dry weather is expected. All comets 
evidence the approach of some calamity, such as drought, famine, war, 
floods, etc. (Apache Indians.) 

Comets are said to improve the grape crop, and wine produced in 
years when comets appear is called comet wine. (French.) 

Falling Stars. 

If there be many falling stars during a clear evening in summer, ex- 
pect thunder. 

If there are no falling stars on a bright summer night, expect fine 
weather. 

Fair Weather. 

When the stars set still, the times are to be pleasant. (Zuni Indians.) 

Flickering. 

When the stars flicker in a dark background, rain or snow follows 
soon. 

Huddling Stars. 

When the stars begin to huddle, 
The earth will soon become a puddle. 

Many Stars. 

When the sky is very full of stars, expect rain. 

Many stars in winter indicate frost. 

In summer, when many stars twinkle, clear weather is indicated. 

Milky Way. 

The edge of the Milky Way which is the brightest, indicates the di- 
rection from which the approaching storm will come. 



) 



100 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

North Star. 

When the stars above 45 ° in altitude or the North Star flickers 
strangely, or appears closer than usual, expect rain. 

Numerous Stars. 

When stars appear to be numerous, very large, and dull, and do not 
twinkle, expect rain. 

Snow. 

Many meteors presage much snow next winter. 

Shooting Stars. 

If meteors shoot toward the north, expect a north wind next day. 
Many shooting stars on summer nights indicate hot weather. 

Tempest. ft 

When a star tows the moon and another chases her astern, tempestu- 
ous weather will follow. The phenomenon is probably styled a big star 
chasing the moon. (Nautical.) 

• Twinkling. 

Excessive twinkling of stars indicates very heavy dews, rain, and 
snow. 

When the stars twinkle very brightly, expect stormy weather in the 
near future. 

The Maltese say, " The stars twinkle; we cry, ' wind.' " 

Wind and Rain. 

If the stars appear large and clear, expect rain or wind. 

Thaw. 

If shooting stars fall in the south in winter, there will be a thaw. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO SNOW. 

Animation. 

Snow is generally preceded by a general animation of man and beast 
which continues until after the snow-fall ends. 

Corn. 

Corn is as comfortable under snow as an old man is under his fur 
cloak. (Russian.) 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 101 

Christmas. 

If it snows during Christmas night, the crops will do well. 
So far as the sun shines on Christmas day, 
So far will the snow blow in May. (German.) 

Dry or Wet Snow. 

When the snow falls dry it means to lie, 
But flakes light and soft bring rain oft. 

Ditch Snow. 

When now in the ditch the snow doth lie, 
'Tis waiting for more by and by. 

Dry or Wet Snow. 

If the snow that falls during the winter is dry and is blown about by 
the wind, a dry summer will follow; very damp snow indicates rain in 
the spring. (Apache Indians.) 

First Snow. 

There will be as many snow storms during the season as there are 
days remaining in the month after the time of the first snow. 

When the first snow remains on the ground some time, in places not 
exposed to the sun, expect a hard winter. 

Last Snow. 

The number of days the last snow remains on the ground indicates 
the number of snow storms which will occur during the following winter. 

Heavy Snows. 
Heavy snows in winter favor the crops of the following summer. 

January Snow. 

If there is no snow before January, there will be the more snow in 
March and April. 

Leaves. 
When dry leaves rattle on the trees, expect snow. 

Light and Heavy Snow. 

A heavy fall of snow indicates a good year for crops, and a light fall 
the reverse. (Dr. John Menaul.) 

Mountain Snow. 

If much snow be spread on the mountains in winter, the season of 
planting will be made blue with verdure. (Indian.) 



102 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

March Snow. 

In March much snow 

To plants and trees much woe. (German.) 

Mud. 

When snow falls in the mud it remains all winter. 

November. 

A heavy November snow will last until April. (New England.) 
If the snow remains on the trees in November, they will bring out but 
few buds in the spring. (German.) 

Popping Wood. 

Burning wood in winter pops more before snow. 

Snow Fertile. 

Snow is the poor man's fertilizer, and good crops will follow a winter 
of heavy snowfall. • 

Snow Trees. 

If the first snow sticks to the trees, it foretells a bountiful harvest. 

Snowball. 

Cut a snowball in halves ; if it is wet inside, the snow will pass off with 
rain; if it is dry inside, the snow will be melted by the sun. 

Snow-flakes. 

If the snow-flakes increase in size, a thaw will follow. 

Snow-moon. 

If a snow-storm begins when the moon is young, the rising of the 
moon will clear away the snow. 

Snow-health. 

The more snow the more healthy the season. (John Ayres, Santa Fe.) 

Snow-year. 

A snow year, a rich year. 

As many days as the snow remains on the trees, just so many days 
will it remain on the ground. 

It takes three cloudy days to bring a heavy snow. (New England.) 

White Christmas. 

A white Christmas, a lean graveyard. 

Sleet. 

Much sleet in winter will be followed by a good fruit year. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 103 

PROVERBS RELATING TO THE SUN. 

Aurora. 

Aurora borealis denotes cold. 

If Aurora with half-open eyes 
And a pale sickly cheek salutes the skies, 
How shall the vines with tender leaves defend 
Her teeming clusters when the storms descend. 

(Virgil.) 

Candlemas Day. 

So far as the sun shines in on Candlemas day (2d of February) 
So far the snow will blow in before the first of May. 

Cloudy Sunset. 

The sun sets weeping in the lowly west, 
Witnessing storms to come woe and unrest. 

(Shakespeare.) 

When the sun sets unhappily (with a hazy veiled face) then will the 
morning be angry with wind, storm, and sand. (Zuni Indians.) 

Color. 

Since the colors and duration of twilight, especially at evening, depend 
upon the amount of condensed vapor which the atmosphere contains, these 
appearances should afford some indications of the weather which may be 
expected to succeed. The following are some of the rules which are relied 
upon by seamen: When, after sunset, the western sky is of a whitish- 
yellow, and this tint extends a great height, it is probable that it will rain 
during the night or next day. Gaudy or unusual hues with hard, defin- 
itely outlined clouds, foretell rain and probably wind. If the sun, before 
setting, appears diffuse and of a brilliant white, it foretells storm. If it sets 
in a sky slightly purple, the atmosphere near the zenith being of a bright 
blue, we may rely upon fine weather. 

Days. 

As the days begin to shorten 
The heat begins to scorch them. 

Dark Clouds. 

If the sun sets in dark, heavy clouds, expect rain next day. 

If at sunrise there are many dark clouds seen in the west and remain 
there, rain will fall on that day. 



104 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Double Setting-. 

Sun setting double indicates much rain. Red sun indicates fair 
weather. Orange sun, usually foul weather. Mock suns in winter are 
usually followed by intense cold. 

Dull Color. 

When the sun appears a pale or dull color, expect rain. 

Drawing Water. 

Rays of the sun appearing in a cloud forebode rain. This phenomenon 
is, in fact, caused by the image of the sun being reflected in an interven- 
ing cloud, the reflected image radiating in the cloud. It is noticed by 
Aristotle. 

When the sun draws water, rain follows soon. 

Sun drawing water indicates rain. 

If the sun draws water in the morning, it will rain before night. 

Easter. 

If sun shines on Easter, it will shine on Whit Sunday. 

Fiery Red. 

In fiery red the sun doth rise, 

Then wades through clouds to mount the skies. 

Friday. 

If the sun sets clear Friday evening, it will rain before Monday night. 

Golden Set. 

The weary sun hath made a golden set, 
And by the bright track of his fiery car 
Gives token of a goodly day to-morrow. 

(Richard III.) 

Halo. 

When the sun is in his house (in a halo or circle) it will rain soon. 

(Zuni Indians.) 
A solar halo indicates bad weather. 

A halo around the sun indicates the approach of a storm, within three 
days, from the side which is the more brilliant. 

If there be a ring or halo around the sun in bad weather, expect fine 
weather soon. 

A bright circle around the sun denotes a storm, and cooler weather. 



95 " 93 " 




WEATHER PROVERBS. 105 

Haze. 
Haze and western sky purple indicate fair weather. 

Haziness. 

A blur or haziness about the sun indicates a storm. 

Hot Sun. 

If the sun burn more than usual, or there be a halo around the sun in 
fine weather, "wet." 

Looming Twilight. 

Twilight looming indicates rain. 

Low and High Dawn. 

A low dawn indicates foul weather. A high dawn indicates wind. 

Murky Clouds. 

When the sun rises with dim, murky clouds, with black beams, clouds 
in the west, or appears red or green, expect rain. 

Pale Twilight. 

Pale, yellow twilight, extending high up, indicates threatening weather. 

Pale Set. 

If the sun sets pale, it will rain to-morrow. 

Pale Sunrise. 

If the sun rises pale, a pale red, or even dark blue, there will be rain 
during the day. 

Pale Sunset. 

A pale sunset, a golden sunset, or a green sunset, indicates rain. 

Red Clouds. 

If the clouds at sunrise be red, there will be rain the following day. 

Red. 

A red evening indicates fine weather; but if the red extends far 
upwards, especially in the morning, it indicates wind or rain. 

Red Morn. 

"A red morn: that ever yet betokened 
Wreck to the seamen, tempest to the field; 
Sorrow to shepherds, woe unto the birds, 
Gust and foul flaws to herdsmen and to herds." 

(Shakespeare: Venus and Adonis.) 



106 WEATHER PROVERBS, 

Red Sky. 

A very red sky in the east at sunset indicates stormy winds. 

Red skies in the evening precede tine morrows. 

In winter if the sun rises with a red sky, expect rain that day; in 
summer, expect showers and wind. 

If the sun set with very red sky in the east, expect wind ; in the south- 
east, expect rain. 

Sun Spots, 

Wet seasons occur in years when sun-spots are frequent. 

Red Sun. 

A red sun has water in his eye. 

Scorching- Sun, 

When the sun in the morning (to 9 a. m.) is breaking through the 
clouds and scorching, a thunder-storm follows in the afternoon. 

When the sun is scorching (i. e., reflected from roofs and water sur- 
face), rain follows soon. 

Sea-green Sky. 

When the sky during rain is tinged with sea-green, the rain will 
increase; if with deep blue, the rain will be showery. 

Spotted Clouds. 

If the sun rises covered with a dark spotted cloud, expect rain on that 
day. 

Spring. 

If the sun appears dead, not bright and clear in the early spring, ex- 
pect poor crops and very little rain. This sign usually comes in April. 
Dry winds may also be expected. (Apache Indians.) 

Sun-dogs. 

Sun-dogs indicate cold weather in winter or storm in summer. 
A sun-dog at night is the sailor's delight; 
A sun-dog in the morning is the sailor's warning. 

Sunrise. 

If de sun git up berry early and go to bed before he git up, it's a sign 
it rains before noon. (Negro.) 

If the sun rises clear, then shadowed by a cloud, and comes out again 
clear, it will rain before night. 

Sunshining Shower. 

Sunshining shower won't last half an hour; 
Sunshine and shower rain again to-morrow. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 107 

Ten and Two. 

Between the hours of ten and two, 
Will show you what the day will do. 

Yellow Streaks. 

Red or yellow streaks from west to east indicate rain in forty-eight 
hours. 

Yellow Sunset. 

A bright yellow sunset indicates wind; a pale yellow, wet; a neutral 
gray is a favorable sign in the morning, and unfavorable in the evening. 
The sun reveals the secrets of the sky, 
And who dares give the source of light the lie. 

(Virgil.) 

PROVERBS RELATING TO THUNDER AND LIGHTNING. 

Birds. 

If the birds be silent, expect thunder. 

Cattle. 

If cattle run around and collect together in the meadows, expect 
thunder. 

Christmas Thunder. 

Thunder during Christmas week indicates that there will be much 
snow during the winter. (Kansas.) 

Death — Plunder. 

Winter thunder is to old folks death, and to young folks plunder. 

Distant Thunder. 

The distant thunder speaks of coming rain. 

Early Thunder. 

Early thunder, early spring. 

Early and Late Thunder. 

Thunder and lightning early in winter or late in fall indicates warm 
weather. 

East Thunder. 

If the first thunder is in the east, aha ! the bear has stretched his right 
arm and comes forth, and the winter is over. (Zuni Indians.) 

East Wind. 

If an east wind blows against a dark, heavy sky from the northwest, 



108 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

the wind decreasing in force as the clouds approach, expect thunder and 
lightning. 

Evening Thunder. 

If there be thunder in the evening, there will be much rain and show- 
ery weather. 

Thunder in the evening indicates much rain. 

Fall Thunder. 

Thunder in the fall indicates a mild, open winter. 

February Thunder. 

Thunder and lightning in February or March, poor sugar (maple) 
year. 

First Thunder. 

The thunder-storms of the season will come from the direction of the 
first thunder-storm. 

First thunder in winter or spring indicates rain and very cold weather. 
(Dr. John Menual.) 

With the first thunder the gods of rain open their portals. (Zuni.) 

Forked Lightning. 

Forked lightning at night, 
The next day clear and bright. 

Frogs and Snakes. 

The first thunder of the year awakes the frogs and snakes from their 
winter sleep. 



Heat. 



Lightning brings heat. 



July Thunder. 

Much thunder in July injures wheat and barley. 

Lightning without Thunder. 

If there be lightning without thunder after a clear day, there will be a 
continuance of fair weather. 

March Thunder. 

Thunder in March betokens a fruitful year. (German.) 

May Thunder. 

If there is much thunder in May, the months of September and August 
will be without it. 

Morning Thunder. 

Morning thunder is followed by a rain the same day. 
When it thunders in the morning, it will rain before night. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 109 

North Lightning. 

Lightning in the north will be followed by rain in twenty-four hours. 
Lightning in the north in summer is a sign of heat. 

North — South. 

Lightning in the north indicates rain in twenty-four hours. Lightning 
in the south, low on the horizon, indicates dry weather. (Kansas.) 

North Star. 

Lightning under North Star will bring rain in three days. 

NW. Thunder. 

Thunder-storm from NW. is followed by fine, bracing weather; but 
thunder and lightning from NE. indicates sultry, unsettled weather. 
(Observer at Santa Fe.) 

North Thunder. 

Thunder in the north indicates cold weather and rain from the west. 
If the first thunder is in the north, aha ! the bear has stretched his left 
leg in his winter bed. (Zuni Indians.) 

North Wind. 

With a north wind it seldom thunders. 

November Thunder. 

Thunder and lightning on the northern lakes in November is an indica- 
tion that the lakes will remain open until the middle of December or until 
Christmas. (Said to be reliable.) 

m Red and Pale Lightning. 

When the flashes of lightning appear very pale, it argues the air to be 
full of waterish meteors; and if red and hery, inclining to winds and 
tempests. 

September Thunder. 

Thunder-storms in September mean plenty of snow in February and 
March, and a large crop of grape wine. (German.) 

If it thunders much at the beginning of September, much grain will be 
raised the following year. 

Spring Lightning. 

Lightning in spring indicates a good fruit year. 

Spring Thunder. 

If there be showery weather, with sunshine and increase of heat in the 
spring, a thunder-storm may be expected every day, or at least every 
other day. 

First thunder in the spring — if in the south it indicates a wet season, 
i. in the north it indicates a dry season. 



110 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

South or Southeast Thunder. 

Thunder from the south or southeast indicates foul weather, from the 
north or northwest fair weather. 

Sheet Lightning. 

If there be sheet lightning with a clear sky on spring, summer, and 
autumn evenings, expect heavy rains. 

South Thunder. 

If the first thunder is in the south, aha! the bear has stretched his right 
leg in his winter bed. (Zuni Indians.) 

Summer Lightning. 

Lightning in summer indicates good healthy weather. 

West Thunder. 

If the first thunder is in the west, aha! the bear has stretched his left 
arm in his winter bed. (Zuni Indians.) 

Winter Thunder. 

A winter's thunder 
Is a summer's wonder. 
When thunder is heard in winter, it indicates cold weather. Thunder 
in the north indicates dry weather. 

Thunder in winter means famine in summer. 

Winter's thunder 
Bodes summer hunger. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO TREES. 

Ash and Oak. 

Ash before oak, 

There'll be a smoke; 
Oak before ash, 

There'll be a smash. 

(Meaning heat and wind.) 
Dead Branches 

Dead branches falling in calm weather indicate rain. 

Leaves. 

Early falling leaves indicate an early fall. 

Logs. 

An easy-splitting log indicates rain. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. Ill 

Leaves. 
Leaves turned up so as to show the underside indicate rain. 

Maple. 

When the leaves of the sugar-maple tree are turned upside down, 
expect rain. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO WIND. 

Aches and Pains. 

As old sinners have all points 

O 1 the compass in their joints, 
Can by their pangs and aches find 

All turns and changes of the wind. 

Blast. 

The sharper the blast, 
The sooner 'tis past. 

Barometer. 

When the glass is low, 

Look out for a blow; 
When it rises high, 

Let all your kites fly. 

Backing Wind. 

If the wind backs against the sun, 
Trust it not, for back it will run. 

Brisk Wind. 

A brisk wind generally precedes rain. 

Changing Wind. 

It is a sign of continued fine weather when the wind changes during 
the day so as to follow the sun. 

Winds changing from foul to fair during the night are not permanent. 

Candlemas Day. 

Where the wind is on Candlemas day 
There it will stick till the end of May. 

Clear Sunset. 

When the sun sets in a clear — 

An easterly wind you need not fear. 



112 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Chenook Wind. 

A Chenook wind is a warm wind which comes from the mouth of the 
Columbia river or Chenook Point. A Walla Walla wind is a cold wind 
which blows down the Columbia river. (Indian, North Pacific.) 

Drought and Blast. 

North and south the sign of drought, 
East and west the sign o' blast. 

East Wind. 

In summer, if the wind changes to the east, expect cooler weather. 

When the east wind toucheth it, it shall wither. (Ezekiel, chap, 
xvii., 10.) 

And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted with the east wind came up. 
(Genesis xli., 6.) 

The east wind brought the locust. (Exodus x., 13.) 

God prepared a vehement east wind. (Jonah, chap, iv., 8.) 

The east wind hath broken thee in the midst of the seas. (Ezekiel, 
chap, xvii., 26.) 

An east wind brings no good to man or beast. 

Easter Sunday. 

As the wind blows on Easter Sunday from 8 a. m. to 12 m., the wind 
will be from that direction for the next forty days. (Chippewa Indians. ) 

Equinox. 

The wind being north-northeast and east three days before the sun- 
crosses the line, then southeast by way of east, then calm on the 23d, will 
bring rough and stormy winds from east and west all the winter. 

East and West Wind. 

When the wind is in the east, 
The fish bite the least. 
When the wind is in the west, 
The fish bite the best. 

Fixed East Wind. 

If the wind becomes fixed in the east for the space of forty-eight 
hours, expect steady and continuous rain, with driving winds in the south- 
west during summer. 

Gale. 

A gale moderating at sunset will increase before midnight, but if it 
moderates after midnight, the weather will improve. 

Fognand Mist. 

Fog and mist raise higher seas than wind. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 113 

Heat. 

If the wind be hushed with sudden heat, expect heavy rain. 

Indiana Winds. 

In Southern Indiana a southwest wind is said to bring rain in thirty- 
six hours. 

Indian Proverbs Relating to Winds. 

Wind from the north, cold and snow. 

Wind from the western river of the northland, snow (northwest wind). 

Wind from the world of waters, clouds (west wind). 

Wind from the southern river of the world of waters, rain (southwest 
wind). 

Wind from the land of the beautiful red, lovely odors and rain (south 
wind). 

Wind from the wooded canons, rain and moist clouds (southeast 
wind). 

Wind from the land of day, it is the breath of health and brings the 
days of long life. 

Winds from the lands of cold, the rain before which flees the harvest 
(northeast wind). 

Winds from the lands of cold, the fruit of ice (northeast wind). 

Wind from the right hand of the west is the breath of the god of sand 
clouds. (Zuni Indians.) 

Increasing Winds. 

If the wind increases during a rain, fair weather may be expected 
soon. 

Milk Cream. 

Milk cream makes most freely with a north wind. 

Northerly and Southerly Winds. 

If the wind is from the northwest or southwest, the storm will be 
short; if from the northeast, it will be a hard one; if from the northwest, 
a cold one; and from the southwest a warm one. After it has been rain- 
ing some time, a blue sky in the southeast indicates that there will be fair 
weather soon. 

North Wind. 

If there be within four, five, or six days two or three changes of wind 
from the north through without much rain and wind, and thence again 
through the west to the north with rain or wind, expect continued show- 
ery weather. 

The north wind driveth away rain. (Proverbs xxv., 23.) 

Northeast Rain. 

As a rule northeast rains indicate cold and damp soil, poor prospects 
for small seeds, melons, etc. (Apache Indians.) 



114 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

North, East, South, and West Winds. 

When the wind is in the north, 
The skillful fisher goes not forth; 
When the wind is in the east, 
'Tis good for neither man nor beast ; 
When the wind is in the south, 
It blows the flies in the fish's mouth; 
But when the wind is in the west, 
There it is the very best. 

(Izaak Walton.) 
Northeast Wind. 

If the wind changes to the northeast or north, expect cold weather. 

If there be northeast or east winds in the spring, after a strong 
increase of heat, and small clouds appear in the different parts of the sky, 
or if the wind changes from east to south at the appearance of clouds pre- 
ceded by heat, expect heavy rains. 

Northwest and East Winds. 

When the wind is in the northwest 
The weather is at its best ; 
But if the rain comes out of the east 
'Twill rain twenty-four hours at least. 

Northwest and Northeast Winds. 

Northwest wind brings a short storm; 
A northeast wind brings a long storm. 

New Year's Eve. 

If New Year's Eve night wind blow from south, 

It betokeneth warmth and drouth; 

If west, much milk, and fish in sea; 

If north, much cold and storm there'll be; 

If east, the trees will bear much fruit; 

If north, flee it man and beast. 

Northwest Winds. 

Northwest wind brings only rain showers. 

If there be a change of wind from the northwest or west to the south- 
west or south, or else from- the northeast or east to the southeast or south, 
expect wet weather. 

If the northwest or north winds blow with rain or snow during three 
or four days in the winter and then the wind passes to the south through 
the west, expect continued rain. 

In summer if the wind changes to the northwest, expect cooler 
weather. 

If a northwest wind shifts to northeast, remaining there two or three 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 115 

days without rain, and then shifts to the south, and then back to the 
northeast, with very little rain, fair weather may be expected during the 
following month. , (Observer at Cape Mendocino.) 

November— December. 

As the wind is in the month of November, so will it be in the month 
of December. 

No Wind. 

No weather is ill 
If the wind is still. 

Night Winds. 

Winds at night are always bright, 

But winds in the morning, sailors take warning. 

Pigs. 

When pigs carry straws to their sty, a wind-storm may be expected. 

Rising Wind. 

First rise after very low 
Indicates a strong blow. 
Fast rise after a low 
Precedes a stormy blow. 

Rain-Wind. 

Wind before a rain, set your topsails fair again ; 
Rain before the wind, keep your topsails snug as rind. 

South Wind. 

When ye see the south wind blow, ye say there will be heat; and it 
cometh to pass. (Saint Luke xii., 55.) 

A wind in the south 
Is in the rain's mouth. 

The rain comes south 

When the wind is in the south. (Scotch.) 

Brisk winds from the south for several days in Texas are generally 
followed by a "norther." 

If there be dry weather with a light south wind for five or six days, 
it having previously blown strongly from the same direction, expect tine 
weather. (Texas.) 

The southern wind doth blow a trumpet to his purpose, and by his 
hollow whistling in the leaves foretells a tempest and a blustering day. 
(Shakespeare.) 



116 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Southwest Wind. 

In fall and winter if the wind holds a day or more in the southwest, a 
severe storm is coming; in summer, same of northeast wind. 

A southwest blow on ye 

And blister ye all over. (Shakespeare.) 

Three southwesters, then one heavy rain. 

The third day of southwest wind will be a gale, and 'wind will veer to 
northwest between i and 2 a. m. (in winter) with increasing force. 
(From Fisherman on North Carolina coast.) 

If the wind shifts around to the south and southwest, expect warm 
weather. 

Southeast Wind. 

If the wind blows from the southeast during September 20th and 21st, 
the weather from the middle of February to the middle of March will be 
warm. 

Shifting During Drought. 

In Texas and the southwest when the wind shifts during a drought, 
expect rain. 

September Winds. 

If the wind blows from the south on the 21st of September, it indicates 
a warm autumn. 

Sun. 

Winds that change against the sun 
Are always sure to backward run 

Storm. 

When a heavy cloud comes up in the southwest and seems to settle 
back again, look out for a storm. 

Wind-storms usually subside about sunset, but if they do not the storm 
will probably continue during the following day. 

Always a calm before a storm. 

Squalls. 

Squalls making up on the flood-tide will culminate about high-water; 
those making on ebb-tide will culminate about low-water. (South Atlan- 
tic coast.) 

West Wind. 

Wind in the west, weather at the best. 

Wind in the east, neither good for man or beast. 

A west wind north about 

Never hangs lang out. (Scotch.) 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 117 

West, East, South, and North Wind. 

The west wind always brings wet weather, 

The east wind cold and wet together, 

The south wind surely brings us rain, 

The north wind blows it back again. (English.) 

Veering Wind. 

A veering wind indicates fair weather, a backing wind foul weather. 

Unsteady Winds. 

The whispering grove betrays the gathering elemental strife. 
Unsteadiness of the wind is an indication of changeable weather. 

Whirlwinds. 

When numerous whirlwinds are observed, the rotation being opposite 
to that of the sun, look for wind and rain. 

Weather. 

Every wind has its weather. 

White Clouds. 
Heavy, white, rolling clouds in front of a storm denote high wind. 



INSTRUMENTAL AND OTHER LOCAL INDICATIONS OF 
APPROACHING STORMS. 

[Compiled from reports made to the Chief Signal Officer by observers 
of the Signal Service, U. S. A.] 

Albany, N. Y. 

Storms set in with southerly winds, and are always preceded by falling 
barometer, and usually by falling temperature, with nimbus or cumulo- 
stratus clouds. 

Alpena, Mich. 

Cirrus, cirro-cumulus or cirro-stratus clouds in upper, and a dull haze 
in lower atmosphere. Lower winds from westerly direction, falling barom- 
eter and rising temperature. 

Atlantic City, N. J, 

Coronas and halos; prevalent haziness in lower atmosphere; cirro- 
stratus clouds; unusual amount of humidity; stationary barometer occur- 
ring after either a considerable rise or fall of the mercury ; backing winds. 



118 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Augusta, Ga. 

Slowly falling barometer, with rising temperature, and wind from the 
east or southeast, usually indicates rain, which continues until wind veers 
to the west or northwest; cirro-stratus clouds precede wind and rain, and 
are frequently noted from one to three days in advance. 

Baltimore, Md. 

General storms by very high barometer, dense haze, light, variable 
winds from east or northeast. 

Southeast and southwest storms preceded by high temperature, low 
barometer, and brisk northwest winds. 

Local storms preceded by unusually high temperature, cumulus clouds, 
and rapidly falling barometer. 

Fort Benton, Montana Ter. 

Wind storms, preceded by low barometer, low humidity, cirrus or 
cumulus clouds, with wind from west or southwest, generally the latter. 

Rain, preceded by cumulo-stratus clouds, with wind from west to north 
and northeast, barometer moderately low, remaining stationary during 
storm. 

Snow-storm, same condition as rain, except that barometer falls and 
stratus clouds prevail. 

Bismarck, Dak. 

Rapidly falling barometer, rising temperature, and light southerly 
winds indicate rain or snow, according to season of year. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, with wind from northeast or 
east, indicate snow. 

Fine cirrus and cirro-stratus, floating low, presage wind. 

Haze in night or early morfnng, or cumulus clouds, sharp and well 
defined, moving from west or southwest, indicate fair weather. 

When snow is falling, and the wind backs from east to north, with 
decreasing velocity, clear weather may be expected. 

Breckenridge, Minn. 

Sudden movement of barometer in either direction, rising temperature, 
light cumulus clouds, with northwest wind, precede wind-storms. 

Sudden depression of barometer, rising temperature, cumulus or 
cumulo-stratus clouds, with southeast wind, precede rain or snow storms. 

An approaching storm is indicated by unusual clearness of the atmos- 
phere, and frequently by lunar halos. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Rising barometer, with comparatively clear sky, mild temperature 
and light to fresh winds from west to southwest. 

Light cirrus or cirro-stratus clouds move from the west, apparently 




Key of Shades 

Below 5 inches. 
5 to 10 inches. 
10 to 15 " 
15 to 20 " 
20 to 25 " 
25 to 30 " 
30 inches and ovei 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy & West 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 119 

very high in the atmosphere, humidity and wind decrease, and, occa- 
sionally, a calm ensues. This is followed by light winds from northeast, 
east, or southeast. Barometer begins to fall, and temperature to rise 
slowly; humidity increases steadily; cumulus clouds appear, moving slowly 
from west or southwest, and are soon followed by cumulo-stratus; wind 
increases in velocity, and shortly before precipitation occurs a dense white 
vapor, resembling haze, and moving with the surface current, gradually 
covers the sky. 

Wind-storms are preceded by unusually rapid barometric depression, 
increase in temperature and humidity, stratus or cumulo-stratus clouds, 
with southwest winds. Water at the head of Lake Erie rises in advance 
of the storm. 

Burlington, Vt. 

Rapidly falling barometer, rising temperature, and cumulo-stratus or 
stratus clouds, with wind from south or southwest. 

Cairo, III. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, stratus or cumulo-stratus, with 
wind from the south or southwest, precede rain; wind-storms are preceded 
by rising barometer, falling temperature, and cirro-stratus clouds, with 
brisk wind from west or northwest. Well defined lunar halos are followed 
by rain. 

Cape Henry, Va. 

Northeast storms are preceded by rapidly rising barometer and upper 
clouds (usually cirrus), moving rapidly from northeast in long white sheets 
changing to stratus in short time, and covering the whole sky. 

Southeast storms are preceded by rapidly falling barometer, unusually 
low humidity and variable southwest winds. Heavy ocean-swell in 
advance of storm and from same direction in which storm is advancing. 

Cape Hatteras, N. C. 

Winter rain storms preceded by rapidly falling barometer and heavy 
cirro-stratus clouds, with wind from southeast or southwest. 

Upper clouds moving from southwest indicate rain, but if from west 
or northwest, fair weather. 

Heavy ocean-swell from southeast indicates rain from that direction. 
Wind storms preceded by dense haze, rapidly falling barometer, and ris- 
ing temperature with southerly winds and with northerly winds, rising- 
barometer, and falling temperature with low humidity. 

Cape May, N. J. 

Easterly storms are generally preceded from twelve to twenty-four 
hours by an unusually clear atmosphere, with high barometer and tem- 
perature. Light winds prevail and mirage in various forms, but more 
particularly the variety known as "loom," which enlarges distant objects 
in such a manner as to render distance very deceptive. The sea comes 



120 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

in with a long, heavy, easterly ground swell, and a decided increase 
occurs in the rise of the tides. An unusual twinkling of stars is observed, 
and a larger number of them are visible, extending nearly to the horizon. 
The first clouds are generally cirrus, from the west or southwest, followed 
often by haze, which gradually thickens and lowers into a stratus, forming 
a heavy bank in the southwest, which gradually extends over and into the 
northeast, the whole mass deepening and lowering until nimbus clouds 
form and appear moving with the wind. Storms of the greatest severity 
and duration are generally with the wind from north-northeast to east- 
northeast, and rapidly increase in violence. They are attended with, or 
preceded by, a rapid depression of the barometer. Temperature rises for 
a veering, and falls for a backing wind. 

Easterly storms, slowly forming, are attended by moderate winds. 

Storms from the southeast are often violent, but of short duration, last- 
ing only from six to twelve hours, and shifting suddenly to the opposite 
direction. 

Charleston, S. C. 

During the months of April, May, June, July, August, and September, 
storms are preceded by slowly diminishing pressure, rising temperature, 
increasing humidity, and cumulus clouds, with wind from the west and 
northwest. 

Winter storms come from the northeast and southeast. Those from 
the northeast are preceded, for several days, by brisk wind from that 
direction, rapidly rising barometer, slowly falling temperature, increasing 
humidity, with stratus clouds moving slowly from the northeast until the 
whole sky is covered and a dense mist begins to fall, which soon becomes 
rain as the clouds approach the earth. Storms from the southeast are the 
most dangerous. They are preceded by light and variable southeast 
winds, falling barometer, and rising temperature. The day immediately 
preceding the storm is generally a fine one, with a few cirrus or cirro- 
stratus clouds, increasing humidity, wind variable, and rising slowly. 

Cheyenne, W. T. 

Rain-storms are preceded by a low barometer from twenty-four to 
forty-eight hours before their arrival, with wind from southeast, east, north- 
east, and north. 

Snow-storms strike the station from southwest, northwest, or north, all 
storms of magnitude coming from the latter direction. 

Wind-storms are preceded by a low barometer, with much briefer 
warning than in the case of rain and snow storms, often occurring within 
two or three hours after the first instrumental premonition. Tempera- 
ture rises and humidity increases; cirrus clouds move from west to north- 
west. _ _, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Ordinary rain storms, preceded by falling barometer, increased tem- 
perature, hazy atmosphere, cirrus clouds, and northeast wind. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 121 

Corsicana, Tex. 

Approach of norther indicated by bank of clouds in north or northwest 
when the balance of sky is clear. 

Gentle or brisk east wind precedes rain. Southwest or west wind 
indicates the approach of clear, dry weather. 

Davenport, Iowa. 

Rain storms generally preceded by an east, southeast, or south wind. 
Wind storms preceded by steadily falling barometer, with light wind 
from southwest. 

Denver, Colo. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, cirro-stratus clouds, with 
westerly winds. Most reliable indications of storms are seen to the north 
and west on the mountains. A cap of clouds on the high peaks, or low 
cumuli below the summits, presage rain or snow. For wind, a black wall 
of cloud generally forms between high peaks and the foot-hills, completely 
hiding the peaks and extending only five or ten degrees above the horizon. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Falling barometer from twelve to twenty-four hours in advance of 
storm, with wind from southeast or northeast. 

Dodge City, Kans. 

Falling barometer, with light southeast wind, hazy atmosphere, cirrus 
clouds, and low humidity. 

Dubuque, Iowa. 

Wind storms preceded by rapid fall of barometer, with cirro-stratus 
and stratus-clouds moving from the west ; wind changeable, backing from 
southeast to west. 

Rain-storms preceded by slowly falling barometer and large masses 
of cirrus and cirro-cumulus moving from southeast. Surface winds south- 
west, south, and southeast. 

Duluth, Minn. 

Northeast storms, preceded by hazy atmosphere and fog over the 
lake, the former turning to stratus and the latter to nimbus cloud as 
storm approaches. Falling barometer, increasing humidity, and falling 
temperature. 

Northwest storms by low and falling barometer, rising temperature, 
high and increasing humidity, with cumulus and cumulo-stratus clouds. 
This class of storms most frequent in winter and spring. 

Northern storms by falling barometer, falling temperature, increasing 
humidity, and cumulus clouds; most frequent in winter, and accompanied 
by snow. 

Southern storms by falling barometer, rising temperature, increasing 
humidity, with hazy atmosphere. 



122 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Eastern storms by high and rising barometer, rising temperature, 
increasing humidity, with stratus clouds. 

Western storms by falling barometer, high or rising temperature, 
and humidity, with heavy banks of stratus clouds in western sky. Occur 
at all seasons of year. 

Fogs are usually followed by rain within twenty -four hours. 

Eastport, Me. 

Northeast storms are preceded by slowly falling barometer, falling 
temperature, stratus clouds in the east, which spread over the entire sky. 

Southeast storms are preceded by heavy fall of barometer, falling tem- 
perature, increasing humidity, stratus clouds, and detached "scud," with 
wind shifting from east to southeast. 

In summer a continuance of southeast wind is followed by rain. Sea- 
gulls gather together in flocks near the shore, uttering a peculiar cry. 

Erie, Pa. 

Storms from north, northwest, and west are preceded by falling barom- 
eter, brisk to high southerly winds, rising temperature, and increasing 
humidity. 

Storms from the southwest to southeast are preceded by slowly falling 
barometer, rising temperature. With steady south wind at any season 
of the year rain is probable within twelve hours. 

Fort Gibson, Indian Ter. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature and low humidity, the latter 
forming an important element. If wind veers suddenly from southwest 
to west, rain follows; if this change occurs slowly, wind follows. 

Cirro-stratus changing to cumulo-stratus twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours in advance of storm. 

Fort Sully, Dak. 

Rapidly rising and very high barometer, low temperature, cirrus or 
cirro-stratus clouds moving from the north or northwest, with surface 
wind from southeast, backing to north and northwest. High summer 
temperature, usually followed by brisk and high south and southeast 
wind. 

Galveston, Tex. 

"Northers, "preceded by slowly falling barometer, decreasing humidity, 
wind south or southeast, veering to north, with cirrus or cirro-cumulus 
clouds moving from west or northwest. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Sudden storms, by sudden fall of barometer, increase of temperature, 
high humidity, with haze in lower and cirrus clouds in upper atmosphere, 
moving from the west. 

Winter storms, by high and rising barometer, rising temperature, low 



WEATHER PROVERBS, 123 

humidity, cirrus and cirro-stratus clouds moving from tne west. These 
followed by falling barometer, with wind veering to east and southeast, 
and stratus clouds. 

Indianola, Tex. 

"Northers" are preceded by protracted southeast winds, rapid rise of 
barometer from four to six hours in advance of storm, high humidity, with 
cirrus clouds moving from the west. 

Jacksonville, Fla. 

Falling barometer and rising temperature from four to six days in 
advance of storm. Hazy atmosphere, wind north to northeast, cirrus 
clouds moving from west and southwest ; wind veering to east, southeast, 
and southwest. 

Keokuk, Iowa. 

Falling barometer and cirrus clouds, with fresh easterly wind, precede 
rain or snow, according to season. 

Key West, Fla. 

"Northers," from October to May, preceded by hazy atmosphere, 
easterly winds veering to southerly, cirrus, cirro-stratus, and cirro-cumu- 
lus clouds, moving slowly from the southwest and west, and finally a bank 
of stratus clouds in the western horizon, apparently stationary. Falling 
barometer, high and rising temperature and humidity. 

Cyclones from July to November are preceded by northerly and east- 
erly fresh and brisk winds, drizzling rains at intervals, for several days, 
low and nearly stationary barometer, steady, high temperature, dark scud 
flying low, with surface wind, and cirrus, cirro-stratus, and cirro-cumulus 
clouds above, moving slowly from the south and west. The height and 
action of barometer and state of weather are the most notable signs. 

Rain storms prevail from May to November,* are preceded b}' hazy, 
close atmosphere, average low barometer, high temperature, rising of 
"thunder heads" in the horizon in the direction from which rain is to be 
expected, with an almost imperceptible motion and an appreciable fall of 
barometer, several hours before storm approaches. 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

Barometer moves rapidly for a storm of short duration, temperature 
rises, wind from east-southeast, south and southwest, from eight to twenty- 
four hours previously, with upper clouds moving from the west, wind 
stronger and of greater duration, with rising rather than falling barom- 
eter. Rapid movement of cirro-stratus clouds indicates wind, but is sel- 
dom observed. 

La Crosse, Wis. 

Barometer falls steadily for twenty-four hours, with rising tempera- 
ture, increased humidity, and cirro-stratus clouds before rain. Wind 



124 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

storms same as above, with addition of cirrus of great elevation moving 
in opposite direction to surface wind, and apparently highly electrified. 
Winter storms are preceded by gentle south or southwest wind, veering 
to north or northeast. 

Leavenworth, Kans. 

Rain storms are preceded from twelve to forty-eight hours by barom- 
eter falling steadily, increasing humidity, high temperature, with wind 
east or south, cirro-stratus clouds in southern or western horizon, and 
eastern horizon obscured by haze. 

Red sky at sunrise indicates strong winds; if humidity is much below 
the mean, the color is usually a brilliant scarlet; if humidity is high, the 
color is more crimson, with a purple tinge and rain follows. When wind 
backs from northwest to southwest, clear weather follows. 

Lexington, Ky. 

Local storms are preceded by falling barometer, unusually high tem- 
perature, low humidity, and cumulus clouds; northwest storms, by falling 
barometer, cirrus clouds and wind veering to east; southwest storms, by, 
falling barometer, unusually high temperature with wind backing to east 
and northeast. 

Louisville, Ky. 

Barometer falling slowly for forty-eight hours, unusually high tem- 
perature and humidity, cirro-stratus clouds in morning for two or three 
days in advance of storm, and light south wind. 

Winter storms are generally from the northwest, with falling barom- 
eter for twenty-four hours in advance. 

Long Branch, N.J. 

For northeast storm, falling barometer, rising temperature, cirro- 
cumulus or cirro-stratus clouds, moving from west or southwest with 
lower atmosphere hazy- If wind backs to northeast from southwest, pre- 
cipitation is greater than when it veers to the same quarter. For eastern 
storms, same conditions, except that upper clouds move from the west- 
ward. For northwestern storms, the fall of barometer is most rapid. 

Lynchburg, Va. 

Long continued rain-storms are preceded from six to twelve hours by 
rising barometer, cirrus-clouds moving from the southwest, with surface 
wind for the northeast. 

Hazy and smoky atmosphere indicates rain.. Before rain, especially 
when wind is in the south, the leaves of the maple, aspen, poplar, and 
willow trees curl up so as to show their under side. When cumulus clouds 
drift over low enough to cast perceptible shadows, rain generally follows 
within forty-eight hours. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 125 

Marquette, Mich. 

Falling barometer for twenty-four or forty-eight hours, rising tempera- 
ture, southerly wind, with cirro-stratus clouds moving from a westerly or 
southwesterly direction. 

Memphis, Tenn. 

Northwest storms are preceded by slow fall of barometer at first, fol- 
lowed by a more rapid fall as storm approaches; fresh southwest winds, 
backing to southeast, rising temperature and humidity, with slow forma- 
tion of stratus clouds. 

Greatest rainfall occurs with southeasterly winds. 

Southwest and west storms are preceded by winds from the northeast 
and east, with same instrumental indications as for northwest storms. 

Mobile, Ala. 

Barometer falls slowly ten or twelve hours, and more rapidly two or 
three hours before storm ; stratus clouds with southeast wind. 

Morgantown, W. Va. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature and humidity, with southwest 
or west winds, and cirrus-clouds moving from the westward. 

In winter a storm usually follows a falling barometer, with south wind. 
If barometer falls one-tenth of an inch between 7 a. m. and 12 m., bad 
weather follows within thirty hours. In winter, high temperatures are 
generally followed by bad weather, especially if accompanied by winds 
varying from northwest to northeast. 

Increase of humidity between 12 m. and 3 p. m. is usually followed by 
rain before night on same day. 

Backing of wind to southward, with falling barometer, nearly always 
followed by bad weather. 

All wavy forms of cirro-stratus are sure signs of an approaching storm. 
In summer, when cirrus moves from northwest or north a storm follows 
within thirty-eight hours. 

Mount Washington, N. H. 

Falling barometer, falling temperature, and cirro-stratus clouds mov- 
ing from a northerly direction. When in small quantities these clouds 
indicate wind, and when in large quantities, rain. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Barometer falling slowly from twelve to forty-eight hours, increasing 
temperature and humidity, cirro-stratus clouds moving from southwest, 
with easterly surface wind from one to three days in advance of storm. 

Crimson sky in morning is generally followed by rain within twelve 
hours. 



126 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

New Haven, Conn. 

(Furnished by Prof. E. Loomis.) 

Great storms are frequently preceded by an unusually pleasant day, so 
that a very transparent atmosphere may, perhaps, be regarded as an indica- 
tion that a storm may be looked for within twenty-four hours. 

One of the first indications that we are on the edge of a great storm 
consists in a slight turbidness of the atmosphere which would scarcely 
attract the attention of an ordinary observer, but which is sufficient to 
cause solar halos during the day and lunar halos during the night, if there 
is a moon. During the colder months of the year, our great storms are 
usually preceded by a rise of the barometer above the mean and a veering 
of the wind to the northeast. If the barometer rises considerably above 
the mean, and is accompanied by a fresh wind from the northeast, a storm 
is pretty sure to follow within twelve hours. 

A considerable fall of snow is very frequently preceded for several 
hours by the same signs (high barometer and northeast wind), together 
with a feeling of extreme chilliness, much greater than is usually experi- 
enced with the existing state of the thermometer. 

During the warmer months a strong breeze from the south, accom- 
panied by towering cumulus clouds, is pretty sure to be followed by rain 
within a few hours, generally a thunder-storm. The phenomenon which 
is most decidedly local in New Haven is the direction of the prevalent 
wind, together with the diurnal change in the wind's direction. During 
the six colder months of the year the prevalent wind is from the north- 
northwest, and the diurnal change in the wind's direction is slight. Dur- 
ing the six summer months the wind in the morning usually blows from 
the north or northwest, but by noon, and sometimes by 10 a. m., it veers 
to the south or southwest, and continues thus for the remainder of the day. 

This peculiarity is supposed to be due to the difference of temperature 
between the land and the neighboring water, and it modifies, very sensi- 
bly, the direction of the New Haven wind in the neighborhood of the 
storm center. During the passage of a great storm the wind at New 
Haven is much more northerly than is experienced at interior stations 
similarly situated with reference to a storm center. 

New London, Conn. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, cirrus and cirro-stratus clouds 
moving from the westward, light scud over the sea horizon moving with 
the surface wind, which is usually from the southwest, humidity increases, 
and tides are of unusual height. 

New Orleans, La. 

Rapid movement of upper clouds, with little or no wind at surface. 
Falling barometer for several days in advance of storm, with rising tem- 
perature. Southerly winds precede rain, with cirro-stratus clouds moving 
from the westward. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 127 

New York, N. Y. 

Rain-storms, preceded by falling barometer, rising temperature, increas- 
ing humidity, cirrus-clouds in upper with stratus in lower atmosphere, 
spreading gradually over the whole sky from the eastward. 

Wind-storms from an easterly direction, preceded by rapidly falling 
barometer, with frequent oscillations, rising temperature, increasing humid- 
ity moving rapidly at a great height. 

Westerly storms, by rapidly rising barometer, free from oscillations, 
falling temperature, increasing humidity, changeable winds, with cirrus 
clouds in upper and stratus in lower atmosphere. 

Norfolk, Va. 

High, and rapidly falling barometer, rising temperature, low humidity, 
unusually clear atmosphere, with southeast and east winds. 

North Platte, Neb. 

Low, followed by rising barometer, cumulus and cumulo-stratus clouds 
moving rapidly from northwest and west. 

All storms approach from the northwest without reference to direc- 
tion in" which wind may blow previously. 

Rain-storms are preceded by north or northeast wind. 

Omaha, Neb. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, high and increasing humidity, 
and easterly winds. Oswego, N . Y. 

Wind-storms are preceded by rapid fall of barometer, with wind Veer- 
ing from southeast to southwest, west, and northwest. 

Rain-storms, by oscillating barometer, with downward tendency, hazy 
atmosphere, gradually changing to cirro-stratus or cirro-cumulus clouds 
moving from the westward. 

Northeast storms, by high barometer and low temperature. 

Local storms, by sudden fall of barometer, rising temperature, low 
humidity, cumulo-stratus clouds in west or southwest. 

Pembina, Dak. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, with wind from south, south- 
east, or southwest. 

Philadelphia, Penn. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, easterly wind, haziness in 
upper atmosphere, followed by cirro-stratus clouds moving from the north- 

wesL Peck's Beach, N.J. 

Rising barometer for two or three days, followed by sudden fall with 
heavy ocean-swell from the eastward, six or eight hours in advance of 
storm. 



128 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Falling barometer fifteen to thirty hours in advance, rising tempera- 
ture, variable easterly to southerly wind, with cirro-stratus clouds moving 
from southwest or west. A dense fog or haze indicates rain within 
twenty-four hours. 

Port Huron, Mich. 

Thick heavy haze or clouds in northwest, with southeast wind, indicates 
rain. Low and falling barometer, with wind from the west-northwest or 
east-northeast, indicates wind. 

Portland, Me. 

Rain-storms are preceded by falling barometer, falling temperature, 
and southwest wind. 

Wind-storms by falling barometer, northwest wind veering to south- 
east, cirro-stratus and cumulo-stratus clouds moving from the southeast. 
Southeast storms are often preceded by hazy atmosphere in southeast. 

Punta Rassa, Fla. 

Falling barometer, west or southwest wind, cirrus clouds changing to 
cirro-stratus with high humidity. 

If the change to cirro-stratus occurs rapidly, rain will probably follow 
within twenty-four hours. 

Halos seen on successive nights indicate rain within twenty-four hours. 
Birds fly about wildly a few hours before a storm occurs, and men-of-war 
hawks, usually high fliers in clear weather, fly low in contracted circles. 
Cyclones and tornadoes are preceded by hazy, slaty, and ominous appear- 
ance of sky, atmosphere sultry, wind variable, and generally from east or 
southeast, clouds bank up in the east, stratus clouds float unusually low 
and move swiftly, detached inky-looking scuds still lower and swifter. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, east or southeast wind, low 
humidity, and clouds moving from the southwest. A northeast wind 
backing to northwest or west, or veering to southwest in winter, indicates 
rain or snow. 

Sandy Hook, N. J. 

Low and falling barometer, high and rising temperature, hazy atmos- 
phere, with cumulo-stratus clouds moving from the west and southwest, and 
roaring sea. 

San Diego, Cal. 

Wind-storms are of rare occui-rence, and are preceded by warm east 
wind, with upper clouds moving from the west ; oscillating barometer, 
with downward tendency, several days in advance of disturbance. 



WEATHER PROVERBS. 129 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Rain-storms are preceded by falling barometer, low but rising tem- 
perature, and west wind. During the rainy season if wind veers to south- 
east, rain follows. 

Santa Fe, N. Mex. 

Slight fall of barometer and rise of temperature, with cirrus clouds in 
their various formations, moving from the southwest. 

Savannah, Ga. 

Barometer above mean and rising slowly for twenty-four hours, 
remaining nearly stationary for six or eight hours, and then falling slowly, 
temperature opposite to movement of barometer, cirrus clouds forming 
near zenith, and moving to northeast. 

Shreveport, La. 

High and falling barometer, low humidity, and cirrus clouds calm or 
moving from the west. 

Saint Louis, Mo. 

Winter storms are preceded by falling barometer, southeast wind, 
cirro-stratus clouds and haze if temperature is high, and by stratus clouds 
if it is low. Summer storms, by stationary barometer, temperature above 
the mean, with cumulus and cirro-stratus clouds, the former in large 
masses. 

Saint Mark's, Fla. 

Barometer rises twenty-four hours before storm, with hazy atmosphere 
and south wind, the barometer beginning about six hours before storm 
to fall rapidly with rising temperature, and formation of cumulo-stratus 
clouds. 

The tide rises rapidly. 

Saint Paul, Minn. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, low humidity, southeast wind, 
with cirrus and cirro-stratus clouds. 

Squan Beach, N. J. 

Falling barometer, rising temperature, and dense haze; cirro-stratus 
clouds indicate wind and rain. 

Toledo, Ohio. 

Barometer falling rapidly, rising temperature, low humidity, easterly 
winds, cirrus clouds in western horizon moving eastward, followed by 
stratus until sky is obscured. 

Tybee Island, Ga. 

Northeast storms are preceded by rising barometer, falling tempera- 
ture, low humidity, light cirrus clouds in bands from northwest to south- 



130 WEATHER PROVERBS. 

east, and moving from north or west, with light to fresh surface wind 
from the south, and heavy sea swell from the northeast. 

Southern storms by falling barometer, rising temperature, high humid- 
ity, heavy masses of cumulo-stratus clouds, moving from the southwest, 
smoky sky, heavy rolling surf, and gentle, variable, and shifting north to 
east winds. 

When the wind backs from northeast to west a gale generally follows. 

Vicksburg, Miss. 

Slowly falling barometer, high and rising temperature, sky of dull, 
whitish appearance, resembling haze near horizon; cirrus clouds followed 
by dense masses of cumulus; wind in light puffs from an easterly direc- 
tion. 

Virginia City, Mont. 

Winter-storms are preceded by low barometer, falling temperature, 
winds shifting suddenly from some westerly quarter to an easterly one. 

Summer storms by falling barometer and temperature, with westerly 
winds and dense stratus clouds. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

Southeast storms are preceded by rapidly falling barometer, rising 
temperature, increasing cloudiness and humidity, wind backing to an east- 
erly direction from the southwest or west, and cirro-stratus clouds mov- 
ing from the west or northwest. 

Northeast storms by high and rising barometer, falling temperature, 
increasing haziness, cirro-stratus clouds moving from the southwest, with 
light winds veering to the northward and variable. 

Southwest storms by falling barometer, high temperature, and fair 
weather. Thunder-storms by low or falling barometer, unusually high 
temperature, cumulus clouds in western horizon, wind shifting suddenly 
from south or southwest to the northward. 

GENERAL PHENOMENA 

i. Sky becoming overcast with cirro-stratus clouds moving from the 
southwest, west, or northwest. 

2. Increasing haziness, especially in the upper atmosphere after a spell 
of fair weather. 

3. Halos and corona. 

4. Variable light wind veering and backing frequently, with a tend- 
ency to an easterly direction. 

5. Sun setting red among threatening clouds or giving the horizon a 
greenish tinge. 

6. Heavy dews in summer. 

7. Driving scud, with increasing humidity. 



MINERALS AND METALS. 

The minerals of the United States are exceedingly abundant, largely 
distributed, easily accessible for the most part, of excellent quality where 
found, and they have been, are, and will continue to be in increasing- 
degree, a source of great wealth to the country. Almost every mineral 
and metal of any commercial value, is found within the boundaries of this 
country. Coal, iron, gold, silver, petroleum, lead, copper, mercury, graph- 
ite, slate and building rock, gypsum, whetstones, kaolin, salt, marl, the 
phosphates, etc., all are found, some in great abundance, and all in sufficient 
quantities to make their development a matter of commercial importance. 

COAL. 

Among these minerals no one is more largely found nor of greater im- 
portance than coal. The development of almost every other mineral is clue 
to the existence of coal in such quantities and localities as made it easily 
available. Coal is undoubtedly a vegetable product; no chemical process 
nor mechanical appliance has been discovered by which it can be produced. 
The creation of such vast beds as have been found, can be the result of noth- 
ing but great pressure during a very long time. The geologist has discov- 
ered, with indisputable accuracy, that during the long period denominated 
the "Carboniferous Age," the surface of the earth was densely covered with 
immense forests and luxuriant vegetation. By the falling of these trees 
in the shallow water at their roots, age after age, were formed thick beds 
from which have come the coal measures of to-day. The water and very 
tropical atmosphere acted as an anti-septic in preventing the decomposi- 
tion and decay which attack fallen vegetable matter now. By the cover 
ing of these beds with the deposits of after ages, a pressure was created 
which, in time, changed the vegetable matter into the shape we now find 
it as coal. It has been calculated that it required a vegetable accretion 
six times the depth of the present coal seam; that is, to have a coal vein 
of six feet, required a deposit of no less than thirty-six feet of trees, flags, 
leaves and other vegetable elements. To produce the great Anthracite 
vein of Pennsylvania, which averages sixty feet, would require the enor- 
mous aggregation of 360 feet of vegetation. It has further been estimated 
that it required at least 7,500 years of pressure to produce a vein of coal 



measuring three feet. 



(131) 



132 MINERALS AND METALS. 

4 

The layers or seams of coal are generally of even thickness and hori- 
zontal position. This is true largely of the bituminous deposits. The 
surface of the earth must necessarily have been nearly level at the time 
of the rank vegetable growth; else the water would not have lain upon it 
in such even depth as to stimulate and }'et not smother the growth. Some 
indentations there were, possibly, and these may have been the cause of 
the thick "pockets" of coal which are sometimes found, especially in the 
lignite beds west of the Rocky mountains. In the anthracite veins, how- 
ever, and sometimes in other kinds of coal, there is often a dip in the 
position of the seams, and not infrequently a breakage. These variations 
from the natural position are accounted for by the scientists as due to 
upheavals of the earth's surface by internal force. 

Outside the United States, the coal-producing area of the world is 
comparatively small. England has an area of 12,00c square miles where 
coal is found; many of the veins, however, counted in this area, are not 
of sufficient thickness to be available for mining, so that the actual area 
of coal measures is not more than half what has been named — one author- 
ity placing it at 6,195 square miles, and another at 5,000. More than half 
the coal area of the entire continent of Europe is found in England. 
France has a coal field of 4,000 square miles, though no more than 1,000 
square miles can be operated to advantage. Belgium has about 500 
square miles of workable coal area. The entire coal field of the continent 
is put at 10,000 square miles. This, compared with the area of the con- 
tinent, 3,750,000 square miles, gives one square mile of coal to every 375 
square miles of territory. The United States has an area of a little over 
3,000,000 square miles of territory and has upward of 200,000 square miles 
of workable coal area, or one square mile of coal for every fifteen of area. 
The whole coal field of the United States is not yet fully known ; new 
fields are being constantly discovered, and the ratio to the entire territory 
is reduced accordingly. Extending the comparison further, we rind that 
the estimated thickness of the coal measures of England is thirty-five feet ; 
but many of the seams which make up this depth are very thin, ranging 
from twelve inches to six feet, and the number of seams is great. In 
Pennsylvania, the available coal bed is fully sixty feet, the seams are few 
in number and all of sufficient depth to be operated to advantage. The 
average thickness of the coal bed of the United States, counting only 
seams which are thick enough to be worked, is safely put at twenty feet. 

The coal found in the United States is of four kinds : Anthracite, or 
hard coal; semi-bituminous, or the transition from anthracite to bitu- 



MINERALS AND METALS. 133 

minous coal; bituminous, or soft coal; and lignite, or brown coal. These 
are found in the country in the order named, beginning from the east and 
going- west. 

Nearly all the anthracite of the United States, and, indeed, of the 
world, is found in Pennsylvania and east of the Allegheny mountains. It 
is found in Virginia in one place of small area. It is found in small 
quantities and of inferior quality in Rhode Island. It is also found in 
New Mexico, near Santa Fe, and on Queen Charlotte's Island. In Europe 
it is found in the south of Wales, in the south of Ireland, in France, in 
Saxony, and in Russia; but in all these places, the area is small and the 
quality of the mineral very inferior to that of Pennsylvania. The whole 
anthracite area of the Pennsylvania field is 472 square miles, with an 
average thickness of sixty feet. At the lowest calculation, this wili pro- 
duce 60,000 tons to the acre, and by taking additional care with regard 
to supports, etc. in mining, the quantity per acre can be doubled. The 
prominent places where the anthracite is mined are: Pottsville, Locust- 
dale, Shamokin, Scranton, Pittston and Wilkesbarre. The distribution in 
these fields is as follows: 

Southern, or Schuylkill 146 square miles. 

Middle, or Shamokin 50 

Mahoning 41 

Lehigh 37 

Northern, Wyoming and Lackawanna 198 

Total area 472 

The semi-bituminous coal is a sort of mean between the anthracite of 
Eastern Pennsylvania and the bituminous of Western Pennsylvania and 
further west. It is found only in the Allegheny mountains, west or south 
of the anthracite regions. It covers an area of about 550 square miles, 
and is chiefly used in generating steam of locomotives on sea and on 
land. It is found along the head waters of the Susquehanna and 
Juniata rivers, with some near the head waters of the Allegheny. The 
coal found near Cumberland, in Maryland, is similar to the semi-bitumi- 
nous of Pennsylvania. 

The bituminous coal field is large and widely distributed. The main 
field, called the Allegheny, has an area of no less than 60,000 square 
miles. It lies wholly west of the Appalachian mountains. It underlies 
the whole of Western Pennsylvania, most of Ohio, and extends southwest 
along the mountain slope, including West Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, 
Eastern Tennessee, Northwestern Georgia and Northern Alabama. At 
its greatest breadth, which would be represented by a line drawn from 



134 MINERALS AND METALS. 

Cumberland in Maryland to Newark in Ohio, it is about 180 miles. Tow- 
ard the southern extremity, as in Northern Alabama, it is less than thirty 
miles broad. There are a few isolated beds of bituminous coal east of the 
Allegheny mountains. Those in Virginia are in three divisions and aggre- 
gate about 185 square miles. In North Carolina there is a field called the 
"Deep River,' 1 which has an area of from sixty to 100 square miles; the 
seams nearest the surface are thin and difficult to work but a shaft sunk 
360 feet has discovered a seam of five feet and of good quality. Cannel 
coal, a sort of bituminous coal used extensively in generating steam, is 
found in Ohio ; block coal in Indiana. 

Ohio has a coal held of about 7,000 square miles; Kentucky, 10,000; 
Tennessee, 3,700; Michigan, 6,700; Kansas, 22,256; Arkansas, 10,000; 
Texas, a surveyed field of 5,000; Iowa, of 16,000, etc. The "central coal 
field' 1 lies within the States of Illinois, Western Kentucky and Indiana. 
The distribution is about as follows: Illinois, 40,000 square miles; 
Indiana, 7,700, and Kentucky, 3,888. The fields of Iowa and Missouri 
belong to the same bed, being separated from the central field by the 
Mississippi river. These beds lie at a distance of from 200 to 400 feet 
below the level of the prairie. Besides these beds, which are all more or 
less connected and similar, there are some seams of bituminous coal on 
the Pacific coast, found in considerable quantities in Washington and 
further north. 

Lignite is a species of unformed coal, or of coal that has not reached 
the perfect state of bituminous coal. It is valuable for fuel, but can not be 
utilized for the manufacture of the metals. It is found west of the bitu- 
minous fields. It begins in Western Kansas and Nebraska, and extends 
through Colorado and all along the eastern base of the Rocky mountains. 
It is found in Utah, Wyoming, and generally in the regions west of the 
Rocky mountains. It is found in beds rather than seams. Some of these 
beds are over twenty-five feet in depth. The entire area of the lignite 
region is estimated at 60,000 square miles. The average annual produc- 
tion of coal of all varieties in the United States is about 98,000,000 tons. 
The annual consumption in the United States is about 75,000,000 tons; 
in Canada, about 15,000,000 tons; leaving 8,000,000 tons for export. 

The following table shows the commercial output during five years, 
by states and territories, in long tons. In the case of a few of the smaller 
items, originally estimated in short tons, it has not been deemed advisable 
to convert the figures into long tons, the difference being less than the 
probable error, and the round figures being preferable. 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



135 



Coal produced in the several states and territories, not including the local and colliery 

consumption. 



States and Tereitories. 



Pennsylvania, anthracite . . 
Pennsylvania, bituminous. 

Illinois 

Ohio 

Maryland 

Missouri 

West Virginia 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Virginia 

Kansas 

Michigan 

Rhode Island 

Alabama 

Georgia 

Colorado , 

Wyoming 

New Mexico 

Utah 

California 

Oregon 

Washington 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Montana 

Dakota 

Idaho 

Indian Territory 



Total 



1880. 



Long tons. 

23,437,242 

19,000,000 

4,000,000 

7,000,000 

2,136,160 

1,500,000 

1,400,000 

1,100,000 

1,600,000 

1,000,000 

600,000 

100,000 

550,000 

75,000 

10,000 

340,000 

100,000 

390,183 

275,000 

(?) 

225,000 

175,000 

30,000 
175,000 



65,218,585 



18 81. 
Long tons. 

28,500,016 

20,000,000 

6,000,000 

8,250,000 

2,261,918 

1,750,000 

1,500,000 

1,771,536 

1,750,000 

1,100,000 

750,000 

100,000 

750,000 

100,000 

10,000 

375,000 

150,000 

631,021 

375,000 

(?) 

225,000 

125,000 

30,000 

175,000 



1882. 
Long tons. 

29,120,096 

22,000,000 

9,000,000 

9,450,000 

1,540,46(5 

2,000,000 

2,000,000 

1,976,470 

3,500,000 

1,300,000 

850,000 

100,000 

750,000 

130,000 

10,000 

800,000 

175,000 

947,749 

631,932 

146,421 

250,000 

150,000 

30,000 

225,000 



1883. 



76,679,491 



87,085,134 



Long tons. 

31,793,027 

24,000,000 

10,350,000 

8,229,429 

2,206,172 

2,250,000 

2,805,565 

2,560,000 

3,881,300 

1,650,000 

1,000,000 

225,000 

900,000 

135,000 

10,000 

1,400,000 

200,000 

1,097,851 

696,151 

188,703 

250,000 

175,000 

50,000 

300,000 

100,000 

75,000 

60,000 

50,000 

10,000 

175,000 



96,823,li!8 



1884 



Long tons. 

30,718,293 

25,000,000 

10,000,000 

7,650,062 

2,469,051 

2,500,000 

3,000,000 

2,260,000 

3,903,458 

1,550,000 

1,200,000 

300,000 

1,100,000 

135,000 

10,000 

2,000,000 

200,000 

1,008,950 

805,911 

196,924 

250,000 

150,000 

50,000 

300,000 

100,000 

150,000 

60,000 

40,000 

20,000 

400,000 

97,527,649 



Including the local and (colliery consumption, the figures for the last 
three years would be as follows (the values being values at the mine): 



Total coal output of the United States, 1882, 1883 and 1884. 





ANTHRACITE. 


BITUMINOUS. 


TOTAL. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1882 . : 


Long tons. 
31,358,264 
34,336,469 
33,175,756 


$70,556,094 
77,257,055 
66,351,512 


Long tons. 
60,861,190 
68,531,500 
73,730,539 


$76,076,487 
82,237,800 
77,417,066 


Long tons. 

92,219,454 
102,867,969 
106,906,295 


$146,632,581 
159,494,855 
143,768,578 


1883 


1884 





136 MINERALS AND METALS. 

The following table shows the total output of coal of the world for the 
last calendar years of which statistics are available. With the exception 
of the figure for the United States, the table has been compiled by the 
secretary of the American Iron and Steel Association. Long tons of 
2,240 pounds are used in giving the statistics of Great Britain, the United 
States, Russia, and "other countries, 1 ' and metric tons of 2,204 pounds ^ or 
all the continental countries of Europe except Russia. As the difference 
between the long ton and the metric ton is so trifling, it is not necessary 
to change official figures. 



Countries. Tons. 



Great Britain (1884) 

United States (1884) 

Germany and Luxemburg (1883). 

France (1884) 

Belgium (1884) 

Austria and Hungary (1883) 

Eussia (1882) 

Sweden (1882) 

Spain (1880) 

Italy (1882) 

Other Countries (1883) 

Total 



160,757,815 

106,906,295 

70,442,648 

20,127,209 

18,041,000 

17,047,961 

3,742,380 

250,000 

847,128 

220,000 

8,000,000 



406,382,436 



From this it will be seen that the annual coal production of the United 
States is now one-fourth of that of the world. 

The manufacture of bituminous coal into coke has become an impor- 
tant industry. In the following table are contained the statistics of the 
coking interests of the United States from 1880 to 1884. From this 
table it appears that the number of establishments making coke in the 
United States increased from 186 in 1880 to 250 in 1884, an increase of a 
little over 34 per cent. The number of ovens built increased from 12,372 
in 1880, to 19,557 m !884; an increase of 58 per cent. The amount of 
coal used to make coke increased from 5,237,741 short tons in 1880 to 
7,951,974 tons in 1884, an increase of nearly 52 per cent. The coke pro- 
duced increased from 3,338,300 short tons in 1880 to 4,873,805 tons in 
1884, an increase of about 46 per cent. It will be noticed that the coal 
consumed and coke made in 1883 were both greater than in 1884. The 
total value of coke at the ovens increased from $6,631,267 to $7,242,878, 
an increase of about 9.2 per cent. The value of the coke produced in each 
of the years 1881, 1882 and 1883, however, was greater than in 1884. The 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



137 



value of the coke at ovens decreased from $1.99 in 1880 to $1.49 in 1884, 
a decrease of about 25 per cent. 

Statistics of the manufacture of coke in the United States, 1880 to 1884, inclusive. 



.Number of establishments 

Ovens built 

Ovens building 

Coal used, short tons 

Coke produced, short tons 
Total value coke at ovens 
Value coke at ovens, per ton . . 
Held of coal in coke, per cent 



1880. 



186 

12,372 

1,159 

5,237,741 

3,338,300 

$6,631,267 

$1 99 

63 



1881. 



197 

14,119 

1,005 

6,546,662 

4,113,760 

$7,725,175 

$1 88 

63 



18 8 2. 



215 

16,356 

712 

7,577,648 

4,793,321 

$8,462,167 

$1 77 

63 



1883. 



231 

18,304 

407 

8,516,670 

5,464,721 

$8,121,607 

$1 49 

64 



1884. 



250 

19,557 

812 

7,951,974 

4,873,805 

$7,242,878 

$1 49 

61 



IRON. 



The iron ores are found in almost every section of the country. Some- 
tim_; these are in isolated districts but more frequently in extensive 
seams, and when so found are generally between strata and in the vicinity, 
if not in connection, with coal measures. This latter fact is very impor- 
tant, as aiding in the smelting and the further preparation of the ores. 

Iron ore, generally magnetic, is found in New England generally; in 
the Adirondack^ in New York are quite extensive beds of iron-producing 
ore of excellent quality ; New Jersey is rich in magnetic ore ; Pennsylvania 
exceeds all the states in the amount of ore and in its manufacture. Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky are richly supplied. 
Missouri has two beds of iron ore of very pure quality; one at Pilot 
Knob, the other at Iron mountain, six miles distant. The former con- 
tains sixty per cent of pure iron, the latter seventy per cent. Untold and 
inexhaustible quantities of very rich ore are found around Lake Superior, 
having the peculiarity of existing without connection with either coal or 
limestone. The ore is found along the eastern slope of the Rocky mount- 
ains. All told, the United States contains twice as much coal and iron 
as all the rest of the earth combined. The manufacture of the ore into 
iron and steel products is carried on by above 1,000 establishments, in- 
cluding blast furnaces, bloomaries, forges, rolling mills, etc. The capital 
invested in manufacture is above $250,000,000, employing 150,000 work- 
men and the total value of all the products is about $300,000,000. 

The first discovery of iron ore within the limits of the United States 
was made in North Carolina in 1585, 300 years ago, by the expedition 
fitted out by Sir Walter Raleigh, and commanded by Ralph Lane, which 



138 MINERALS AND METALS. 

made in that year, on Roanoke island, the first attempt to plant an 
English settlement on the Atlantic coast. 

The first attempt to manufacture iron in the American colonies dates 
from 1619, in which year the Virginia Company of London sent a num. 
ber of skilled iron-workers from England to Virginia to "set up three 
iron-works" in the colony. These iron-works were "set up" during the 
next three years, but before they had made any iron they were destroyed 
by the Indians in 1622, and no further attempt to manufacture iron in 
Virginia was made for many years. 

In 1643 the first successful iron enterprise in the colonies was under- 
taken at Lynn, in the colony of Massachusetts Bay, by "The Company of 
Undertakers for the Iron-works," composed of eleven English gentlemen 
and a few enterprising colonists. This enterprise embraced a blast 
furnace and foundry, for producing castings and "sowe iron," and a forge 
for refining the "sowe iron" into "barr iron." The furnace was in opera- 
tion in May, 1645, and the forge was in operation in September, 1648. 
These dates may be accepted as definitely determining, respectively, the 
first successful attempts in this country to make iron in a blast furnace 
and to produce bar iron in a refinery forge from the cast iron of the furnace. 
For 100 years after its settlement in 1620, Massachusetts was the 
chief seat of the iron industry in the colonies; but about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, Pennsylvania became the leading iron-producing 
colony, and this distinction has ever since been maintained. 

At the beginning of the Revolution nearly all the colonies were 
actively engaged in the production of iron. Georgia was the only colony 
that did not at this time produce even small quantities of iron. During 
the long struggle for independence the colonies produced iron in sufficient 
quantities to supply their armies with cannon, cannon balls, muskets, and 
camp kettles, and they manufactured also most of the steel that was 
required for swords and bayonets. All the steel made during the Revolu- 
tion appears to have been blister steel. Henry Hollingsworth, of Elkton, 
in Cecil county, Maryland, was one of the manufacturers of muskets for 
the Continental army. Some of his bayonets were complained of as being 
too soft, "which he ascribed to the bad quality of the American steel with 
which they were pointed." 

After the Revolution the manufacture of iron in the United States 
was extended from the Atlantic coast into the interior; but the aggregate 
production of the country did not greatly increase for many years, owing 
partly to the depressing effects of foreign competition, partly to the slow 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



139 



orowth of the country in population, and partly to the really restricted 
use of iron in the days before the introduction of railroads. The railroad 
era in the United States had its beginning about 1830, but even after the 
new demand for iron for railroads had been created in our country the 
influence of foreign competition operated for many years to prevent an 
active development of our iron industry. This activity was reached at 
the beginning of our Civil War in 1861, the Morrill tariff of that year and 
the war itself co-operating to create a greatly increased demand for iron 
of domestic manufacture, and contributing greatly to the establishment 
of the steel industry, which had previously existed under precarious and 
wholly embryonic conditions. " A tremendous mechanical revolution in 
the production of steel has combined with other influences to increase a 
thousand-fold the production of American steel. The world has not yet 
learned to attach deserved importance to the inventions of Bessemer, 
Mushet and Siemens because it has become too much accustomed to 
thanklessly receive every new invention as a matter of course and to 
accept its fruits as a matter of right. 

There are no statistics of the production of iron in this country in the 
colonial period, nor of any other industry, nor of the population itself. 
Our forefathers were too intent upon getting for themselves homes, and 
too much employed in protecting these homes from imaginary or actual 
attacks by unfriendly Indians, to give attention to dry statistical details or 
economic problems. The first industrial statistics of the country date 
from 1 8 14, in which year there was published "A statement of the arts 
and manufactures of the United States of America," as they existed in 
1810, prepared by Tench Coxe, under the authority of Albert Gallatin, 
Secretary of the Treasury. From this statement the following table show- 
ing the condition of our iron industry in 18 10 is compiled. 

In the totals for the United States the values are believed to be cor- 
rect, as they include returns from every state, but some of the quantities 
given are not strictly accurate, because some of the states did not report 
quantities although they reported values. 

The figures for Pennsylvania are included in the figures for the coun- 
try at large. The tons used are long tons, of 2,240 pounds. 

The iron industry of the United States in 1810. 



Establishments and Products. 



Number of blast furnaces. 
Number of air furnaces . . . 



United States. 



153 



Pennsylvania. 

( 44 

6 



140 MINERALS AND METALS. 

The iron industry of the United States in 1810. — Continued. 



Establishments and Products.— Continued. 



United States. 



Pennsylvania. 



Tons of cast iron made (pig iron and castings) 

Value of cast iron made 

Number of bloomaries 

Tons of iron made 

Value of iron made 

Number of forges 

Tons of bar iron, etc., made 

Value of bar iron, etc., made 

Number of trip hammers 

Product of trip hammers in tons 

Value of product of trip hammers 

Rolling and slitting mills 

Tons of rolled iron made 

Product of slit iron in tons 

Value of rolled and slit iron 

Number of naileries 

Pounds of nails made 

Value of nails made 



53,908 

.$2,981,277 

135 

2,564 

$226,034 

330 

24,541 

$2,874,063 

316 

600 

$327,898 

34 

9,280 

$1,215,946 

470 

15,727,914 

2,478,139 



26,878 

$1,301,343 

4 



$16,000 

78 

10,969 

$1,156,405 

50 



$73,496 

18 

4,502 

98 

$606,416 

175 

7,270,825 

$760,862 



The growth of our iron and steel industries from 1810 until 1880 is 
shown by a comparison of the figures of the above table with the statistics 
of production of each leading branch of these industries in the census years 
1870 and 1880, as follows, in short tons of 2,000 pounds: 

The iron industry of the United States in the census years 1870 and 1 880. 



Ieon and Steel Products. 



Pig iron and castings from furnaces . 
All products of iron-rolling mills . . . 
Bessemer steel finished products 
Open hearth steel finished products . 

Crucible steel finished products 

Blister and other steel 

Products of forges and bloomaries . . 

Total , 



1870. 



Short tons. 

2,052,821 

1,441,829 

19,403 



1880. 



28,069 

2,285 

110,808 



3,655,215 



Short tons. 

3,781,021 

2,353,248 

889,896 

93,143 

70,319 

4,956 

72,557 



7,265,140 



The following table shows the world's production of coal, of iron, and 
of steel according to the latest procurable statistics: 





Coal area 

in square 

miles. 


1. MINERAL COAL. 


2. CAST OR PIG 
IRON. 


3. STEEL. 18 8 3. 


Countries. 


Years. 


Tons of 
2,240 lbs. 


Years. 


Tons of 

2,240 lbs. 


Tons of 
2.240 lbs. 
Ingots. 


Tons of 

2,240 lbs 

Rails. 


Great Britain 


11,900 

192,000 

1,770 


1884 
1884 
1884 


160,757,779 
99,851,807 
63,945,416 


1884 7.811.727 


1,299,676 
1,540,595 
1,255,000 


784,968 


United States 


1884 
1884 


4,589,613 
3,572,155 


1,116,621 




515,000 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



141 



The world's production of coal, of iron, and of steel, etc. — Continued. 



Countries. 



France 

Belgium 

Austria-Hungary . . 

China 

Russia 

Australia 

Canada 

Sweden 

Spain 

India 

Italy 

Japan 

Vancouver's Island 

Nova Scotia 

Chili 

All other countries . 



Total. 



Coal area 

in square 

miles. 



2,086 

510 

1,800 



30,000 



3,500 
2,000 



5,000 



1. MINERAL COAL. 



Years. 



1884 
1884 
1883 
1881 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1882 
1883 
1883 
1882 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1881 
1883 



Tons of 
2,240 pounds. 



19,624,718 

18,041,000 

19,000,000 

4,000,000 

4,000,000 

2,521,457 

1,646,487 

250,000 

900,000 

4,000,000 

220,000 

900,000 

300,000 

1,422,553 

50,000 

8,000,000 



409,431,217 



2. OAST OR PIG 
IRON. 



Years. 



1884 
1884 
1883 



1882 
1883 
1884 
1883 
1883 
1877 
1883 
1877 



Tons of 

2,240 lbs. 



1,885,247 
738,105 
701,037 



3. STEEL. 18 8 3. 



Tons of 

2,240 lbs. 

Ingots. 



509,045 
179,803 
271,733 



498,400 

3,434 

44,081 

422,627 

139,920 

12,500 

53,000 

7,400 



100,000 



20,579,246 



225,140 



50,878 
2,800 



20,000 



Tons of 

2,240 lbs. 

Kails. 

371,432 
170,000 
146,972 



203,310 



5,354,670 3,308,303 



GOLD AND SILVER. 



The gold and silver resources of the country are great, mines of both 
metals having been known from the earliest times of the country. 
Latterly it has become an industry of considerable magnitude. The gold 
is found in two distinct districts: one belongs to the Appalachian mount- 
ains, the other to the Cordilleran. The extent of gold in the Appalachian 
district is small compared with the other, and the mines have never been 
worked to any great extent or profit. The ore is found in small portions 
of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia, and lies in a narrow belt, almost 
parallel with the mountains. 

The gold deposits of the Cordilleras are found generally on the western 
slope of the Sierra Nevadas, the veins running parallel with each other 
and with the mountains. The largest and richest mines are found in the 
basins of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. The gold-bearing rocks 
extend all along the western slopes of the Sierras, through California and 
Oregon into Washington, though the mines of the last-named have not 
been very well opened. The gold ore is found in a quartz rock and is 
quarried with great labor, crushed in mills adapted to the purpose, and 
the gold extracted by the application of heat and quicksilver. Gold is 



142 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



also found in Idaho, east of the Oregon mines, in Colorado, Wyoming, 
and in Arizona and New Mexico. 

The silver mines of the United States are the richest of the world, 
rivaling those of Old Mexico and South America. They are found for 
the most part along the eastern slope of the Cordilleran mountains. 
Nevada stands first among the silver-producing states, Colorado coming- 
close behind. The Comstock Lode of Colorado is the richest silver-bear- 
ing quartz that has ever been discovered. The entire area covered by 
the gold and silver fields of the country is estimated at 150,000 square 
miles. 

The number of deep mines of gold and silver with the nominal capital 
stock at the last reliable census, was as follows: 



Number and capital stock of deep mines. 



State 

or 

Terbitort. 


Number of 
corporations 
making re- 
turns. 


Capital stock 
(nominal). 


| 

State 

or 

Territory. 


Number of 
corporations 
making re- 
turns. 


Capital stock 
(nominal). 


The United States 


422 


$2,030,702,550 


Montana 


9 

78 
1 
2 
6 
2 

42 
3 
1 


$19,950,000 




Nevada 


759,645,000 


California 

Colorado 


38 
66 
126 
21 
3 
13 
11 


196,490,000 
376,901,250 
325,902,300 
118,800,000 

1,510,000 
54,145,000 

6,400,000 


1 New Hampshire. . 
i New Mexico 

North Carolina . . . 

Oregon 


500,000 
2,600,000 
5,500,000 
5,000,000 


Dakota 


Utah 


156,2i 0,000 




Virginia 


759,000 
400,000 




Washington 



This table includes the foreign corporations, the pound sterling being 
taken at $5.00 and the franc at 20 cents. The list covers only such mines 
as came within the standard fixed for investigation. The total is there- 
fore far smaller than one which would include all the claims which have 
been placed upon the market by incorporated companies, the practice in 
the Pacific states being to capitalize almost invariably at $10,000,000, in 
100,000 shares of $100 each, without regard to the value or prospective 
value of the property. Thousands of such companies have been floated 
in San Francisco. 

The opening of a deep mine for the precious metals is either by sink- 
ing a shaft or by means of a tunnel. The following table gives the 







THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE 

P INE S 

(Compiled from the Government Forestry Reports.) 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



143 



statistics of the number of deep mines in the United States, with the man- 
ner of opening, by the several states and territories : 

Deep mines: extent of workings. 



State or Territory. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Dakota 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Maine 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Mexico 

North Carolina 

Oregon 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Mines re- 
ported. 



iTotal length 

of shafts 
and inclines 



Number. 
885 



2 

61 

88 

251 

57 

9 

84 

11 

68 

111 

3 
13 
12 

9 
88 

5 

1 
12 



Feet. 

399,686 



480 

42,058 

63,777 

86,216 

4,218 

1,546 

7,086i 

1,556 

17.809J 

119,547 

435 

4,133 

2,876 

1,631 

43,108 

978 

2,231 



Total length 

of tunnels 
and galleries 



Feet. 
1,992,191 



1,100 

76,714 

253,911 

279,818 

27,166 

4,177 

61,976 

1,587 

61,459 

994,914 

278 

23,997 

4,245 

12,661 

178,593 

5,241 

159 

4,195 



Total length 
of winzes 
and up- 
raises. 



Feet. 
222,017 



30 

2,900 

48,984 

24,742 

914 

87 

13,388 

80 

6,986 

100,133 

C58 

328 

2,067 

20,446 

344 

230 



Greatest 
depth of 
workings 
(vertical). 



Feet. 
3,027 



60 
450 

1,530 

1,075 
300 
138 
900 
245 
700 

3,027 
280 
170 
332 
576 

1,600 

142 

40 

210 



Greatest hor- 
izontal de- 
velopment. 



Feet. 
4,000 



600 
1,110 
3,764 
2,400 
1,160 

600 
3,200 

500 
3,000 
4,000 

250 

800 

900 
1,200 
2,350 
1,610 

159 
1,000 



The totals in miles, neglecting fractions, would be as follows: 

Miles. 

Total length of shafts and inclines 76 

Total length of tunnels and galleries 377 

Total length of winzes and upraises 42 

Total 495 



The following table shows the number of workmen employed in the 
deep mines of the different states and territories: 

Deep mines: personnel. 



I 


PERSONNEL. 




State or Territory. 


Total. 


Staff. 


Foremen 


Miners. 


Surface 
men. 


Number 
of mines 
reported. 


The United States 


19,147 


732 


635 


13,770 


4,010 


693 






Alabama 


17 
853 


1 

54 


2 
42 


7 
573 


7 
184 


2 




52 



144 



MINERALS AND METALS. 
Deep mines: personnel.- — Continued. 





PERSONNEL. 




State or Territory. 


Total. 


Staff. 


Foremen. 


Miners . 


Surface 
men. 


Number 
of mines 
reported. 


California 


3,159 

6,120 

960 

145 

431 

131 

1,164 

3,550 

26 

215 

529 

116 

1,530 

105 

7 

89 


63 
192 
66 
10 
35 

9 

32 

138 

2 

8 
21 

8 
86 

3 


75 

212 

32 

10 

20 

12 

61 

84 

1 

13 

14 

6 

42 

3 

1 

5 


2,291 

4,522 

604 

60 

317 

74 

771 

2,713 

21 

150 

309 

80 

1,143 

73 

2 

60 


730 

1,194 

258 

65 

59 

36 

300 

615 

2 

44 
185 

22 
259 

26 
4 

20 


87 


Colorado . . 


55 


Dakota 


58 


Georgia 


10 


Idaho 


34 


Maine 


8 




67 


Nevada 


88 


New Hampshire 


3 


New Mexico 


13 


North Carolina 


12 




9 


Utah 


82 




5 


Washington • 


1 


Wyoming 


4 


7 







The present examination could not result in ascertaining the total 
number of miners employed in the deep precious metal mines, since only 
those reaching a certain standard were taken into consideration. The 
table, therefore, probably represents not more than two-fifths of those who 
habitually gain their livelihood by mining. Indeed, in considerable areas, 
especially in most parts of the Great Basin, almost the whole population 
is either directly or indirectly dependent upon the mines for support. 
The table, however, serves to illustrate the numerical relations which the 
different classes of employes bear to one another. The preponderance of 
the staff over foremen is to be accounted for by the fact that in many 
comparatively small mines the superintendent acts as foreman, although 
not participating in the manual labor, while, in large mines, there is often 
a considerable staff of clerks, assayers, etc., in addition to the superin- 
tendent. 

The average pay, as deduced from the returns, is 26.7 cents an hour, 
or, say, $2.67 a day of ten hours. Under "surface men" in the foregoing, 
various classes are included, such as blacksmiths, carpenters, and other 
mechanics, as well as unskilled laborers, and the average price paid to 
this class, therefore, varies very greatly. The wages paid to the miners 
per shift, on the other hand, are pretty regular over extensive areas as 
the table below shows. They are highest in the Great Basin, but lower 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



145 



in Utah than in Idaho, Nevada and Arizona on account of the presence 
of Mormon settlements. Mormons seldom become miners, but furnish 
the mining population with supplies and transportation cheaper than these 
necessaries can be furnished in the western portion of the basin. The 
hours of labor vary much more than the wages, though ten hours is the 
usual day's work. The ordinary length of shift on the Comstock lode, 
where the work is extremely trying on account of the high temperature, 
is eight hours, but is often reduced to six hours for men employed in 
excessively hot places. Eight-hour shifts are in use away from the Com- 
stock in a considerable number of mines where it is desirable, for any 
reason, to press the work; but it is well understood that the night shift is 
less efficient than the others. The mines in which the men are called 
upon to work twelve hours are few in number and most of them are in 
the southern states. 

In estimating the total amount of wages paid to deep precious-metal 
miners it must be remembered that very few of them are never out of 
work. In most camps there is always a large number of men who, though 
miners by occupation, are temporarily idle. It is not probable that the 
50,000 miners (estimated) actually receive more than an average of $2.00 
per day each for 300 days, or in the aggregate $30,000,000 per annum. 

Deep mines: usual wages per shift of miners and foremen. 



State or Territory. 



Alabama . 
Arizona . . 
California 
Colorado . 
Dakota. . . 
Georgia . . 

Idaho 

Maine 

Montana . 



Miners. 


Foremen. 


$1 00 


$1 00 


4 00 


5 00 j 


3 25 


5 00 


3 00 


5 00 | 


3 50 


5 50 


1 00 


2 00 


4 00 


5 00 


1 50 


2 00 


3 50 


5 00 



State or Territory. 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Mexico 

North Carolina 

Oregon 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Miners. 


$4 00 


1 50 


2 75 


1 00 


3 00 


3 25 


1 25 


2 50 


3 00 



Foremen. 



$6 50 



00 
50 
00 
00 
00 
25 



4 00 



The wages given in this table are representative. They were obtained 
as averages, but the expressions of odd cents would complicate the data 
without serving any useful end. 

Mr. J.J. Valentine, vice-president and general manager of Wells, Fargo 
& Co., has prepared the following statement of the bullion product of the 
states and territories west of the Missouri river in 1884, including value 



146 



MINERALS AND METALS, 



of base bullion (lead and copper), and also including the partial products 
of British Columbia and the west coast of Mexico. 



States and Territories. 



California . . . 

Nevada 

Oregon 

Washington . 

Alaska 

Idaho ....... 

Montana 

Utah 

Colorado 
New Mexico 

Arizona 

Dakota 



Total 

Mexico (west coast) 
British Columbia . . 



Total. 



Gold dust 
and bullion 
by express. 



$12,282,471 

1,527,859 

368,315 

45,964 

35,014 

1,010,077 

1,875,000 

31,501 

2,575,861 

157,688 

360,791 

2,726,847 



Gold dust 
and bullion 

by otner 
conveyances. 



22,997,388 
285,256 
647,719 



23,930,363 



614,123 



184,157 
22,982 
80,000 

150,000 



Silver 

bullion by 

express. 



1,504,705 

5,905,304 

2,695 

1,179 



4,134 



60,000 
100,000 
150,000 



1,365,396 
140,000 



1,505,396 



812,100 
6,175,000 
2,657,054 
4,877,888 

906,248 
3,139,628 

110,000 



Ores and 

base bullion 

by freight. 



871,689 
1,455,776 



26,091,801 
2,257,144 



28,348,945 



1,570,000 
3,812,000 
4,697,147 
12,780,000 
2,536,678 
3,455,960 



31,179,250 
12,000 



31,191,250 



Total. 



.$15,272,988 

8,888,939 

555,167 

70,125 

115,014 

3,542,177 

11,862,000 

7,389,836 

20,233,749 

3,660,614 

7,056,379 

2,986,847 



81,633,835 

2,554,400 

787,719 



84,975,954 



The values of the gold, silver, copper, and lead, segregated, were: 





Per cent. 


Value. 


Gold 


30.90 

53.90 

7.16 

8.04 


$26,256,542 




45,799,069 




6,086,252 




6,834,091 




84,975,954 



As nearly as can be ascertained, the total production of gold in the 
United States since 1804 has been $1,676,914,670 and of silver, $669, 
683,217; total, $2,346,597,887. 

Production of gold and silver in the United States to December 31, 1884. 



Periods. 



Gold. 



Silver. 



Total. 



Output of the Southern states from 1804 to the discovery 
of gold in California in 1848 (based on estimates of Prof. 
J. D. Whitney) 

Product from 1848 to 1879, inclusive, by fiscal years 

Fiscal year ending June 30, 1880 (census figures, covering 
a period one month earlier, assumed) 



$ 13,243,475 
1,484,041,532 

33,379,663 



$ 422,722,260 
41,110,957 



$ 13,243,475 
1,906,763,792 

74,490,620 



MINERALS AND METALS. 147 

Production of gold and silver in the United States to December 31, 1884. — Continued. 



Periods. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Total. 


July 1, 1880, to Deoember 31, 1880 (estimated on the basis 
of half the product of the fiscal year 1881, as reported by 
Hon. Horatio 0. Burchard, Director of the Mint) 

Calendar years 1881 to 1884, inclusive (as reported by Hon. 
Horatio 0. Burchard, Director of the Mint) 


18,250,000 
128,000,000 


21,050,000 
184,800,000 


39,300,000 
312,800,000 






Total product of the United States to close of 1884 


1,676,914,670 


669,683,217 


2,346,597,887 



The rank held by the different states and territories in the production 
of gold and silver in 1884 is shown below: 



Gold. 


Silver. 


Total. 


1. California. 


1. 


Colorado. 


1. 


Colorado. 


2. Colorado. 


2. 


Montana. 


2. 


California. 


3. Nevada. 


3. 


Utah. 


3. 


Montana. 


4. Dakota. 


4. 


Nevada. 


4. 


Nevada. 


5. Montana. 


5. 


Arizona. 


5. 


Utah. 


6. Idaho. 


6. 


( California. 
} New Mexico. 


6. 


Arizona. 


7. Arizona. 


7. 


Idaho. 


8. Oregon. 


8. 


Idaho. 


8. 


Dakota. 


9. New Mexico. 


9. 


Dakota. 


9. 


New Mexico 


10. Alaska. 


10. 


Oregon. 


10. 


Oregon. 


11. North Carolina. 


11. 


" Other." 


11. 


Alaska. 


12. Georgia. 


12. 


North Carolina. 


12. 


North Carolin 


13. Utah. 


13. 


Washington. 


13. 


Georgia. 


14. Washington. 


14. 


South Carolina. 


14. 


Washington. 


15. "Other." 






15. 


"Other." 


16. South Carolina. 






16. 


South Carolina. 


17. Wyoming. 






17. 


Wyoming. 


18. Virginia. 






18. 


Virginia. 



In the first complete report made by the government, some statistics 
were collected regarding the profits in mining. In this report it was 
said: "The production of gold and silver, like that of other commodities, 
is of course not one of clear profit. Indeed, a saying that it costs $1.00 in 
coin to produce $1.00 in bullion has gained more or less credit, and though 
this opinion has been abundantly shown to be unfounded, and, while also 
any attempt to estimate the profit gained to the country by the mining of 
the precious metals is mere guesswork, it is still quite probable that 
$500,000,000 of the gross total has been net profit.'" This opinion was 
based upon a consideration of the large profits which attended the earlier 
mining enterprises. The margin of profit, especially in gold mining, is 



148 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



undoubtedly smaller now than formerly. It is impossible to ascertain the 
actual returns to investors, owing to the large number of mines not oper- 
ated by corporations and from which no reports are published; but the 
following statement has been made from the published returns for 1883 
and 1884, from which it appears that in these years the reported dividends 
were not greatly in excess of the reported assessments. Still it must be 
remembered that the returns are very imperfect, and that, for obvious 
reasons, the published announcements of assessments are proportionately 
nearer the truth than the reports of dividends, while a vast number of 
smaller unincorporated mines, which could not be operated at a loss, are 
not represented. 



Assessments and dividends reported in 1883. 





Assessm'ts. 


Dividends. 


States and Territories. 


Amount. 


Mines. 


Number of 
dividends. 


Amount. 


Alaska 


$20 9,50 

165,500 

1,196,044 


3 
13 
17 
3 
1 
4 
5 
6 
1 
5 


14 
56 
31 
18 

6 
16 
39 
25 

5 
13 






$600,000 


California 


1,00 t,976 




1,200,750 


Dakota 


10,000 


645,500 




24,000 






85,000 






513,824 


New Mexico . . 


4,244,490 


584,000 
500,000 


Utah 


52,000 


1,582.000 






Total 


5,688,284 


58 


223 


6,740,050 











Assessments and dividends reported in 1884. 



Alaska 

Arizona 

California . . . 
Colorado 

Dakota 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico . 

Utah 

Vermont 



Total . 



States and Territories. 



Assessm'ts. 



Dividends. 



Amount. Mines, ^nl^of Amount . 



$3,400 
137,000 
768,350 



3,632,950 
68,000 



4,609,700 



3 

13 

14 
3 

8 
5 

2 
5 

1 



54 



4 
69 
34 
34 
38 
18 

3 
24 

3 



227 



$117,500 

1,850.948 

1,419,000 

578,250 

922,000 

201,500 

190,000 

2,257,500 

31,000 



7,567,698 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



149 



Financial showing of mining companies whose stocks were dealt in at the San Fran- 
cisco boards at close of census year, for that and previous years. 





DIVIDENDS. 


ASSESSMENTS. 


Profit. 




Company. 


No. 


Amount. 


No. 


Amount. 


Lobs. 


Was oe mines 


399 


$115,871,100 


1,000 


$61,715,535 


$97,547,430 


$43,391,865 






Alpha Consolidated 






12 
17 

6 

7 
14 

3 
19 
22 

3 
17 

4 
19 
14 
31 


330,000 

1,317,000 

54,000 

172,500 

425,000 

45,000 

1,015,000 

1,990,000 

162,000 

942,590 

25,000 

332,000 

3,352,000 

1,935,000 




330,000 


Alta 








1,317,600 
54,000 


Amazon Consolidated 








American Flat 








172,500 


Andes 








425,000 

45,000 

1,015,00(1 


Atlantic Consolidated . . 








Baltimore Consolidated ... . 








Belcher 


38 


15,397,200 


13,407,200 




162,000 


Best & Belcher 








942,590 


Brilliant 








25,000 


Buckeye 








332,000 










3,352,000 










1,935,000 


California 


34 


31,320,000 


31,320,000 




Challenge Consolidated ....... 


1 

3 

11 

11 

1 

15 

1 

5 

41 

6 

5 

7 

10 

2 

1 

8 

15 

2 

3 

4 

3 

1 

1 

37 

14 

64 

5 

3 

4 

12 

32 

13 


10,000 

168,000 

256,320 

1,125,000 

50,000 

411,200 

8,000 

125,000 

2,373,370 

49,500 

91,800 
390,000 
750,000 

25,000 

10,000 
126,000 
530,000 

35,000 
100,000 


10,000 


Chollar 








168,000 


Confidence 


6 


78 000 




178,320 


Consolidated Imperial 




1,125,000 


Consolidated Dorado 








50,000 


Consolidated Virginia 


51 


42,390,000 


41,978,800 




Consolidated Washoe 


8,000 


Cosmopolitan 








125,000 


Crown Point 


50 


11,588,000 


9,214,630 




Crown Point Ravine 


49,500 




2 


56,000 




35,800 


I >ardanelles 




390,000 










750,000 


De Haro 








25,000 










10,000 










126,000 


Exchequer 








530,000 










35,000 


Flowery 








100.000 


Franklin 










George Douglass 






45,000 

10,000 

100,000 

3,152,000 




45,000 
10,000 










Golden Gate 








100,000 


Gould & Curry 


36 


3,826,800 


674,800 




Green 




Hale & Norcross 


36 


1,598,000 


3,306,000 

14,700 

18,000 

95,000 

1,229,000 

3,230,000 

300.000 




1,708,000 


Hartford 




14,700 


Insurance 








18,000 


Joe Scates 








95,000 


Julia Consolidated 








1,229,000 










3,230,000 




32 


1,252,000 


952,000 



150 



MINERALS AND METALS. 

Financial showing of mining companies, etc. — Continued. 



Company, 



Kossuth 

Lady Bryan 

Lady Washington 

Lee 

Leviathan 

Mackey 

Mary Ann 

Maryland 

Mexican 

Midas 

Mint 

Mount Hood 

Mountain View 

Nevada 

New York 

Niagara 

North Bonanza 

North Carson 

North Consolidated Virginia. 

North Sierra Nevada 

Occidental 

Ophir 

Original Gold Hill 

Original Keystone 

Overman 

Patten 

Peytona 

Phil. Sheridan 

Pioneer 

Potosi 

Prospect 

Sabine 

Savage 

Scorpion 

Segregated Belcher 

Segregated Gold Hill 

Senator 

Sierra Nevada 

Silver City 

Silver Hill 

Solid Silver 

South Comstock 

South Utah 

Saint Louis 

Succor 

Sutro 

Tolo 

Trojan 

Union Consolidated 

Utah 



DIVIDENDS. 



No. 



24 



52 



11 



Amount. 



$1,595,800 



4,460,000 



102,500 



22,800 



ASSESSMENTS. 



No. 



4 
1 
1 

10 
3 
1 
1 

11 
2 

22 
3 
1 
3 

22 
5 
5 
9 

16 
2 
6 

35 
8 
3 

45 
2 
2 
9 
2 
3 
6 
2 

42 
7 

16 
1 
1 

63 
1 

10 
3 
6 
4 
1 

24 
4 
2 

12 

14 

30 



Amount. 



$421,200 

200,000 

21,600 

5,000 

315.000 

35,000 

10,500 

5,400 

1,243,000 

21,000 

142,500 

35,000 

25,000 

18,000 

900,000 

99,000 

175,000 

160,000 

820,000 

10,000 

112,500 

2,689,400 

102,000 

125,000 

3,162,800 

20,000 

70,000 

145,000 

15,000 

168,000 

260,000 

25,000 

4,964,000 

122,000 

264,000 

12,000 

10,800 

3,850,000 

15,775 

1,620,000 

75,000 

79,000 

35,000 

16,200 

798,000 

25,680 

25,000 

315,000 

860,000 

1,030,000 



Profit. 



Loss. 



$421,200 

200,000 

21,600 

5,000 

315,000 

35,000 

10,500 

5,400 

1,243,000 

21,000 

142,500 

35,000 

25,000 

18,000 

900,000 

99,000 

175,000 

160,000 

820,000 

10,000 

112,500 

1,093,600 

102,000 

125,000 

3,162,800 

20,000 

70,000 

145,000 

15,000 

168,000 

260,000 

25,000 

504,000 

122,000 

264,000 

12,000 

10,800 

3,747,500 

15,775 

1,620,000 

75,000 

79,000 

35,000 

16,200 

775,200 

25,680 

25,000 

315,000 

860,000 

1,030,000 



MINERALS AND METALS. 

Financial showing of mining companies, etc. — Continued. 



151 





dividends! 


ASSESSMENTS. 


Profit. 




Company. 


No. 


Amount. 


No. 


Amount. 


Loss, 








3 

2 
5 

14 
6 

37 


$ 35,000 

44,000 

198,000 

264,600 

630,000 

4,638,000 




$ 35,000 


Vermont Consolidated 








44,000 


Ward 


* 






198,000 










264,600 


Woodville Consolidated 








630,000 


Yellow Jacket 


25 


.$2,184,000 




2,454,000 








Bodie Mines 


23 


1,225,000 


160 


2,671,500 


$1,150,000 


2,596,500 






Addenda 






3 
4 
4 
6 
8 
2 
5 
1 
6 
2 
2 
1 
2 
5 
3 
8 
1 
6 
1 
8 
4 
5 
7 
2 
2 
3 
4 
6 
7 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
7 
6 


60,000 
39,000 
75,000 
93,000 

112,500 
75,000 

130,000 
30,000 

145,000 
15,000 
15,000 
60,000 
7,500 
70,000 
22,500 




60,000 


Aurora tunnel 








39,000 


Bechtel Consolidated 








75,000 










93,000 








112,500 


Bodie Consolidated 


8 


400,000 


325,000 




Booker Consolidated 


130,000 










30,000 










145,000 










15,000 










15,000 


Consolidated Pacific 








60,000 










7,500 


Defiance 








70,000 


Double Standard 








22,500 


Dudley 






144,000 
25,000 

105,000 
15,000 

134,000 




144,000 


Glvnndale Consolidated 








25,000 


Goodshaw 








105,000 


Ida 








15,000 


Jupiter 








134,000 


Maybell Consolidated 






30,000 

90,000 

225,000 

18,000 

27,000 

50,000 

32,000 

46,000 

105,000 

50,000 

5,000 

5,000 

6,000 

7,500 

50,000 

145,000 

87,500 




30,000 


McClinton 








90,000 


Mono 








225,000 


Noonday 








18,000 


North Noonday 








27,000 


Orient 








50,000 


Oro 








32,000 


Queen Bee 








46,000 


Red Cloud Consolidated 








105,000 


Richter 








50,000 


Riqueza 








5,000 


Rough and Ready Consolidated. 








5,000 


Rustler 








6,000 


Santa Mina 








7,500 


South Bodie 








50,000 


South Bulwer 








145,000 


South Standard 








87,500 


Standard Consolidated 


15 


825,000 


825,000 






5 
9 
5 


90,000 

175,000 

55,000 


90,000 


Tioga Consolidated. 








175,000 










55,000 



152 



MINERALS AND METALS. 
Financial showing of mining companies, etc.— Continued. 





DIVIDENDS. 


ASSESSMENTS, 


Profit, 




Company. 


No. 


Amount. 


No. 


Amount. 


Loats. 


Nevada (excepting Washoe) . 


187 


$12,221,499 


327 


■$8,613,561 


$9,745,000 


$6,137,062 


Adams Hill Consolidated 






10 
2 

10 
5 
1 
1 

24 
1 
6 

10 

14 
1 

13 
4 
2 
2 
5 
7 
3 
7 
3 
9 
6 
2 

11 
9 

13 
3 
6 

15 
2 
7 
2 
3 
6 
2 


99,500 

30,000 
300,000 
100,000 

10,000 

30,000 
615,000 

25,000 

85,000 
140,000 
210,000 

10,000 
587,500 
125,000 
100,000 

20,000 
100,000 
170,000 
225,000 
305,000 
110,000 
140,000 
135,000 

12,000 
227,500 
450,000 
372,500 
150,000 
750,000 
480,000 

25,000 
162,500 

37,500 

50,500 
155,000 

25,000 




99,500 


Albion Consolidated 








30,000 


American Flag 








300,000 


Argenta 


2 


40,000 




60,000 
10,000 


Atlas 




Belle Isle 


6 


300,000 


270,000 




Belmont 


615,000 


Columbia Consolidated 








25,000 


Day 








85,000 


De Frees 








140,000 


Eagle 








210,000 


East Mount Diablo 








10,000 


El Dorado South Consolidated . 








587,500 










125,000 


Eureka Consolidated 


55 


4,330,000 


4,230,000 




Fourth of July 


20,000 


General Thomas 








100,000 


Gila 


2 
4 


50,000 
400,000 




120,000 


Grand Prize 


175,000 




Hamburg 


305,000 


Hillside 








110,000 


Hussey Consolidated 








140,000 


Independence 


9 
5 


225,000 
102,000 


90,000 
90,000 




Indian Queen , . 




Jackson 


227,500 


K. K. Consolidated 


4 
6 
7 
3 
17 


50,000 

162,500 

400,000 

90,000 

1,260,000 




400,000 


Leopard 




210,000 


Manhattan 


250,000 




Martin White 


660,000 


Meadow Valley. . 


780,000 




Metallic 


25,000 


Monitor-Belmont 


3 


75,000 




87,500 


Mount Diablo 




37,500 


Mount Potosi Consolidated. . . . 








50,000 


Navajo 








155,000 


North Belle Isle. . . 








25,000 


Northern Belle 


31 
1 


1,525,000 
31,999 


1,525,000 




Original Hidden Treasure 

Panther 


11 

11 

1 

22 

2 

14 

10 

7 

4 

3 

5 

10 


330,061 
87,500 
25,000 


298,062 




87,500 


Paradise Valley 








25,000 


Phoenix 










Pleiades 






10,000 
740,000 
355,000 
157,500 

65,000 
130,000 

50,000 

94,500 




10,000 


Raymond & Ely 


23 


3,075,000 


2,335,000 




Real del Monte 


355,000 


Rye Patch Consolidated 

Silver Prize 


9 


105,000 




52,500 




65,000 


Star 








130,000 


Tuscarora 








50,000 










94,500 



95' 93" 91° 89" 




THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE 

OAKS. 

(.Compiled from the Government Forestry Reports.) 



MINERALS AND METALS. 

Financial showing of mining companies, etc. — Continued. 



153 





DIVIDENDS 


ASSESSMENTS. 


Profit. 




Company. 


No 


Amount 


No. 


Amount. 


Loss. 


California (except' g Bodie). . 


39 

4 
34 


$584,000 


33 


$1,542,500 


$486,500 


$1,445,000 


Comanche 


47,500 
486,500 


3 


100,000 




52,500 


Consolidated Amador 


486,500 




4 
9 
10 
6 
1 


275,000 
600,000 
430,000 
112,500 
25,000 


275,000 


Modoc Consolidated 


1 


50,000 




550,000 






430,000 










112,500 
25,000 




















Dakota 


17 


510,000 


16 


840,000 


310,000 


640,000 












7 
4 
3 
2 


290,000 
200,000 
150,000 
200.000 




290,000 










200,000 










150,000 


Homestake 


17 


510,000 


310,000 








Arizona 


9 


450,000 


5 


195,000 


450,000 


195,000 












1 


25,000 




25,000 


Silver King 


9 


450,000 


450,000 




Tip-Top 


4 


170,000 


170,000 












Idaho 


13 


500,000 


24 


890,000 




390,000 








Florida Hill 






2 

22 


20,000 
870,000 




20,000 


Golden Chariot 


13 


500,000 




370.000 








Utah 


7 


78,000 


1 


6,000 


72,000 








Leeds 


7 


78,000 


1 


6,000 


72,000 








Scattered 






7 


111,750 




111,750 












Revenue 






1 

6 


50,000 
61,750 




50,000 


Silver West Consolidated 








61,750 













Recapitulation. 



Location of Mine. 



Total 

Washoe 

Nevada (excepting Washoe). . 

Bodie 

California (excepting Bodie) . 

Dakota . . „ 

Arizona 

Idaho 

Utah 

Scattered 



DIVIDENDS. 



No. 



694 



399 

187 

23 

39 

17 

9 

13 

7 



Amount. 



$131,439,599 



115,871,100 

12,221,499 

1,225,000 

584,000 

510,000 

450,000 

500,000 

78,000 



ASSESSMENTS. 



No. 



1,663 



1,090 

327 

160 

33 

16 

5 

24 

1 

7 



Amount. 



$76,585,846 



61,715,535 

8,613,561 

2,671,500 

1,542,500 

840,000 

195,000 

890,000 

6,000 

111,750 



Net profit. 



$58,090,503 



54,155,565 
3,607,938 



255,000 
72,000 



Net loss. 



$3,236,750 



1,446,500 
958,500 
330,000 



390,000 
111,750 



Total dividends . . . 
Total assessments . 



$131,439,599 

76,585,846 

Total net profits . . . . $54,853,753 



154 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



In 1883 the value of the gold and silver consumed in the United 
States in the manufacture of chemicals, watches, jewelry, instruments, 
plate, etc., and in repairs, was stated at $14,223,448 gold, and $5,392,777 
silver; total, $19,616,225. In 1884 the corresponding amounts were esti- 
mated at $14,500,000 gold, $5,500,000 silver, and $20,000,000 total. 
This consumption has attracted much attention, in view of the heavy 
draft upon the coin circulation of this country, and in consideration of 
the similar absorption of the precious metals, especially of gold, which is 
going on abroad. If the figures are correct, the apparent consumption of 
gold in the arts is nearly one-half of the total gold product. It should be 
remembered, however, that a considerable portion of the gold and silver 
temporarily absorbed in this way returns again into circulation as coin, 
and that of this total consumption only about one-half is domestic bullion 
produced in the same year. Thus, in 1884, the industrial consumption of 
new bullion, produced by mines of the United States in that year, is esti- 
mated by Mr. Burchard to have been only $6,000,000 gold, $4,500,000 
silver, and $10,500,000 total. 

The annexed table shows the total output of the precious metals in the 
world, as nearly as can be estimated. For several of the countries there 
are no official figures, and, in some cases, it has been necessary to repeat 
earlier statistics, in the absence of fresh reports. The yield of gold 
appears to be steadily declining, while that of silver is increasing. The 
annual contribution of the United States to the world's stock of the pre- 
cious metals is now about one-third of the total gold supply and about two- 
fifths of the silver. 

The world's production of gold and silver. 



COUNTRIES. 



United States 

Russia 

Australia 

Mexico 

Germany 

Austria-Hungary . . . 

Sweden 

Norway 

Italy 

Spain 

Turkey 

Argentine Republic. 



1881. 



Gold. 



$34,700,000 

24,371,343 

30,690,000 

858,909 

232,610 

1,240,808 

665 



72,375 



4,918 
78,546 



Silver. 



Countries. 



$43,000,000 

332,198 

164,983 

27,675,540 

7,771,304 

1,303,280 

48,875 

199,987 

17,949 

3,096,220 

71,441 

420,225 



Colombia. . 
Bolivia 

Cbili 

Brazil .... 

Japan 

Africa 

Venezuela 

Canada 

France 



Total. 



Gold. 



$4,000,000 

72,375 

128,869 

741,694 

466,548 

1,993,800 

2,274,692 

1,094,926 



Silver. 



$1,000,000 

11,000,000 

5,081,747 

916,400 



68,205 



$103,023,078 $102,168,354 



MINERALS AND METALS. 
Force employed at the Ontario mill. 



155 



Class. 



Foreman 

Chief engineer 

Assayer 

Clerk 

Night boss . 

Ore- weigher 

Rock-breaker 

Carmen and drying-furnace feeders 

Ore-driers 

Battery-feeders 

Amalgamators 

Carmen- 

Furnacernen 

Cooling-floor men 

Engineers 

Firemen 

Salt-feeders 

Watchmen 

Carpenters 

Machinists 

Machinists' helpers 

Ketorter 

Melter 

Storehouse-keeper 

Blacksmiths 

Wood haulers and team 

Assayer's helper 

Tailings-pit man 



Number 
employed. 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

12 
3 
4 
2 
6 

12 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 



Length of 
shift hours. 



Wages 
per shift. 



12 
10 

10 
12 



12 
12 
8 
8 
12 
12 
12 
12 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



$4 50 
4 00 

3 00 

4 00 
$3 00 and 3 50 



3 00 to 



00 
50 
00 
00 
00 
00 
50 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
50 



3 75 

3 25 and 5 00 

7 50 

■ 2 50 

3 00 



Rate of wages of different classes of employes in the Comstock mills. 



Class. 


Wages per shift. 


Class. 


Wages per shift. 


Agitatormen 


$3 50 

4 00 

5 00 
$3 00 to 3 50 

5 00 to 6 00 
3 50 to 4 00 

4 00 
5 00 to 7 00 
3 00 to 4 00 

4 00 
5 00 to 6 00 




$3 00 to H 00 


Amalgamators 


Masons 


6 00 


Blacksmiths 


Oilers 

Panmen 


3 50 to 4 00 


Blanket-sweepers . . 


4 50 to 5 00 


Carpenters 




3 50 to 4 00 


Chargers 


Refiners 

Tankmen 


4 00 to 4 50 


Driers 


3 50 to 4 00 


Engineers 


Teamsters 


3 50 


Feeders 




3 50 to 4 00 


Firemen 


Woodmen 


3 50 


Foremen 











156 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



Rate of wages paid per shift for different c/asses of employes in the Comstock mines. 



Blacksmiths $4 00 to $ 

Blacksmiths' helpers 4 00 

Brakemen 4 00 to 

Carmen 4 00 to 

Carpenters 5 00 to 

Engineers 4 00 to 

Firemen 4 00 to 

Foremen 6 00 to 



6 00 

4 50 


4 50 


6 50 


7 00 


4 50 


10 00 



Laborers and surfacemen .... $3 50 to %-k 00 

Machinists 5 00 to 6 00 

Miners 4 00 to 4 25 

Pumpmen 4 00 to 6 00 

Oilers 2 50 to 4 00 

Kopemen 4 00 to 5 00 

Shift bosses 5 00 to 6 00 

Wood-passers and sawyers ... 4 00 



The following table shows the dimensions of some of the long tunnels 
of the world: 



Name of Tunnel,. 



Hoosac 

Musconetcong 

Sutro (including laterals) 

Nesquehoning 

Allegheny 

Sandidge 

New Sandidge 

Leeds 

Billy 

Nerthe 

Saint Martin 

Blaisy 

Bildstock 

Frejus 

Saint Gothard 

Dudley Canal 

Huddersfield Canal 

Kennel and Avon Canal 

Pensar Canal 

Thames aDd Medway 

Thames and Severn Canal 

Sierra Madre 

San Carlos and Union Pacific. 

Severn tunnel 

Wochtestongo 

Ernst August 

Georg tunnel 

Joseph II., Schemnitz 



Country. 



Mont Cenis France, Italy 



United States. 

. ... do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

England 

. ... do 

....do 

France 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Germany 

France 

Switzerland . . , 
England 

... do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Mexico 



England . 
Mexico . . 
Germany 
...do.... 
... do ... . 



Length. 



Feet. 
24,416 
4,879 
29,897 
3,800 
4,711 
16,035 
16,305 
11,119 
11,319 
15,220 
31,826 
13,452 
18,915 
12,833 
48,887 
11,328 
16,650 
13,200 
11,550 
11,880 
12,540 
63,390 
13,200 
23,760 
21,659 
71,280 
56,760 
48,840 
40,138 



Width. 



Feet. 
26 
26 
10 to 12 
16 
26 



Height. 



24.20 
26.20 
26.20 
26.25 



30 
15 



11 



Feet. 
22f 

21 
8 to 9 

19 
19.50 



19.2 
24.50 

18 
26.25 



38 
15 



13 



PETROLEUM. 



The well-known oil " Petroleum " has been found in great abundance 
in the United States. Until this time, the area in which it has been pro- 
duced is comparatively small; but geologists assert that the oil-bearing 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



157 



rocks of the country cover an area of 200,000 square miles. The origin 
of the oil is accounted for on several theories, none of them entirely satis- 
factory. All agree, however, that it is a product of sea-weed confined in 
and under salt water, as coal is produced by terrestrial vegetation under 
fresh water 

The most extensive oil regions that have been discovered are found 
in northwestern Pennsylvania, and in the vicinity of the Allegheny river 
and its tributaries. It is also found in considerable quantities in West 
Virginia along the valley of the Little Kanawa river. Oil is found in 
Ohio, Kentucky, Michigan, and California. In all these localities, the oil 
is generally found in pools or "pockets," and hitherto has been pumped 
out of each fissure in a short time. The annual production of petroleum 
for any number of years can not be given with any accuracy, varying, as 
it does, so greatly. 

In the following table, the first column shows the total number of gal- 
lons of crude petroleum produced in the different years ; the last column 
shows the shipments of crude petroleum and the refined petroleum reduced 
to crude equivalent, out of the Pennsylvania and New York oil fields. 



Years. 



1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 



Production. Shipment. 



5,205,234 
6,293,194 
9,844,744 

10,926,945 
8,787,506 
8,968,906 

13,135,475 



5,664,791 
5,899,947 
9,499,775 
8,821,500 
8,942,938 
10,164,452 
12,832,573 



Yeabs. 



1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 



Production. 



15,163,462 
19,785,176 
26,027,631 
27,376,509 
30,053,500 
23,117,229 
23,622,758 



Shipment. 



13,676,000 
15,886,470 
15,677,492 
20,284,235 
21,900,314 
21,979,369 
23,657,597 



The following table shows the number of wells and the average daily 
production in gallons, of the Pennsylvania and New York. oil fields from 
1872 to 1884: 



Yeabs. 


Number of 
wells. 


Average 

daily 

production. 


Yeabs. 


Number of 
wells. 


Average 

daily 

production. 


1872 


4,205 
4,109 
3,276 
3,098 
4,694 
7,383 
9,561 


17,194 
27,106 
29,937 
24,075 
24,505 
35,988 
41,544 


1879 


11,283 
13,234 
16,668 
19,027 
17,918 
21,531 


54,206 


1873 


1880 

1881 


71,114 


1874 


75,004 


1875 


1882 


82,338 


1876 


1883 :. 


63.335 


1877 


1884 


64,544 


1878 











158 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



The following table shows the total gallons of stocks of crude petro- 
leum in the Pennsylvania and New York oil fields for the three last months 
of the years named : 



Yeabs. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


1871 


495,102 

914,423 

1,452,777 

3,134,902 

3,672,101 

3,040,108 

2,504,012 

4,221,769 

7,794,634 

16,877,019 

25,309,361 

32,608,533 

35,613,915 

38,192,317 


502,960 

886,909 

1,493,875 

3,449,845 

3,701,235 

2,955,092 

2,471,798 

4,289,309 

8,051,469 

18,025,409 

25,509,285 

33,728,555 

35,506,653 

37,925,756 


532,000 


1872 


1,084,423 


1873 


1,025,157 


1874 


3,705,639 


1875 


3,550,207 


1876 


2,551,199 


1877 


3,127,837 


1878 


4,615,299 


1879 


8,470,490 


1880 


18,928,430 


1881 


26,019,704 


1882 


34,596,612 


1883 


35,745,632 


1884 


37,366,126 







LEAD. 

Lead ore is found usually in connection with copper and silver. 
It is found variously along the northeastern coasts of the United States, 
from the British provinces to North Carolina, bu~t in small areas and quan- 
tities. The Mississippi valley contains the largest and richest mines of 
lead. The field which lies within Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin covers an 
area of 4,800 square miles. The largest single mine is found at Galena 
in Illinois. Copper is also found at Galena. Lead is found in large quan- 
tities in Missouri and in Arkansas ; in both these states, it lies at consider- 
able distance below the surface. 

The lead mines of Arkansas have not been developed extensively, 
and their full extent and value are not definitely known. In Missouri, the 
most important lead-producing center is at Grandley, in the southwestern 
part of the State. A vast deposit has been found here; and though it 
lies far below the surface, its development has proved very profitable and 
the industry is increasing. 

Up to the year 1873, no specific data concerning the relative lead output 
of the different producing districts were available. For the succeeding 
years the quantities of desilverized lead and of non-argentiferous lead 
and the percentage of the former in the total have been added because 
they reveal clearly the growing importance of the former industry, which 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



159 



has its seat in the Rocky mountains; while almost the whole of the non- 
argentiferous lead is produced in Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, and Wiscon- 
sin, only a small quantity being made in Virginia. In the following table 
the tons are short tons of 2,000 pounds: 

Production of lead in the United States. 



Years. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Desilverized 
lead. 


Non-argen- 
tiferous 
lead. 


Percentage 

of 

desilverized 

lead. 


1873 


Short tons. 

42,540 

52,080 

59,640 

64,070 

81,900 

91,060 

92,780 

97,825 

117,085 

132,890 

143,957 

139,897 


Short tons. 

20,159 


Short tons. 

22,381 


Per cent. 

47.7 


1874 




1875.. 


34,909 

37,649 

50,748 

64,290 

64,650 

70,135 

86,315 

103,875 

122,157 

119,965 


24,699 
26,421 
31,152 
26,770 
28,130 
27,690 
30,770 
29,015 
21,800 
19,932 


58.5 


1876 


58.8 


1877 


62.0 


1878 


70.6 


1879 


69.7 


1880 


71.7 


1881 


r <3.7 


1882 


78.3 


1883 


84.8 


1884 


86.4 






Total 


1,873,134 













An effort has been made to trace the source of the lead produced in 
the United States, in order thus to obtain some clew to the comparative 
importance of the different states and territories as producers of this 
metal. Such an inquiry is beset with a great many difficulties, due to the 
active interchange between the different political divisions of the West. 
Ore goes from one state or territory to another, and its lead contents 
appear in the returns of the state in which the smelter is located by which 
it was treated. A majority of the refining and desilverizing works smelt 
ores also, often buying them through sampling works, so that they are 
ignorant of the source from which they came. Some of these works 
refine only a part of the base bullion obtained in their own smelting works, 
shipping the balance to other refiners. The lead thus loses its identity 
and the returns of refiners and smelters, the preparation of which alone 
requires much labor, must be thoroughly examined. These returns have 
been kindly furnished by the different refining works and by many of the 
large smelting works known to handle more than simply local ores. But 
even with all the data at hand, only an estimate can be submitted, abso- 



160 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



lute accuracy being unattainable. The following figures are the results 
of the investigation: 



Source of the lead produced in the United States in 1 883 and 1884, by states and 

territories. 



States and Territories. 


1883. 


1884. 


Utah 


Short tons. 

29,000 
6,000 

70,557 
5,000 
6,000 
2,400 
1,500 
1,700 

21,600 
200 


Short tons. 
28,000 


Nevada 


4,000 


Colorado 


63,165 


Montana 


7,000 


Idaho 


7,500 


New Mexico 


6,000 




2,700 


California , 


1,600 


Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, and Wisconsin 


19,676 


Virginia 


256 






Total 


143,957 


139,897 



COPPER. 

Copper is found in a remarkably pure state, but more frequently in 
connection with other substances, as sulphur, oxygen, etc. North Caro- 
lina has the richest copper mines east of the Mississippi river. It is found 
in small quantities along the Allegheny mountains, also in California and 
Idaho. The great copper region of the country is in Michigan, along the 
borders of Lake Superior. It is here found in an entirely pure state. 

In the face of all the discouraging circumstances of the past few years, 
the United States has forged ahead to the position of the greatest copper, 
producer of the world, and now occupies a leading rank as a contributor 
of raw material to its markets. American copper goes abroad now in 
the form of ore, of matte, of black copper, of refined metal, and of elec- 
trolytic copper, every important producing region participating in the 
movement. It, is to be regretted that we have not, during the past two 
years, made any substantial progress in placing the metal in foreign 
markets in a manufactured form. In the earlier stages of manufacture in our 
rolling-mills rule of thumb reigns supreme, and the practice in mixing 
alloys and in melting is spoken of as very crude by men of unquestioned 
authority. It is in the subsequent mechanical process of shaping the 
metal, in the taste shown in the make-up of the goods, and in their ex- 
ceptionally high quality, that American rolling-mills and brass and bronze 



121" 110° 117 



115' 113' HI" 109' 107' 



105" 103- lor 




Key of Shades. 



I 



1 Species, 

2 « 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy & West 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



161 



manuiactones are said, by experts, to be far in advance of foreign rivals. 
Our own producers look with some impatience to the time when the home 
sales will be enlarged by a demand for raw material for manufactures to 
be exported, which would go hand in hand with lower prices for manufact- 
ured goods in this country, and therefore lead to an expanded home 
consumption. 

The growth in the production of copper in the United States, com- 
piled up to 1884, inclusive, from the best data available, is shown in the 
following table. It proves in a striking manner how preponderating 
was, until the past few years, the influence of the Lake Superior district; 
and again of one great mine in it, the Calumet and Hecla, for more than 
a decade. In order to point out more clearly how preponderating has 
been the output of the Lake district from 1847 to ^So, a column has 
been added giving its percentage of the total product from year to year. 
It should be stated that the yield of copper from pyrites is not here 
included. 



Production of copper in the United States from 1845 to 1884, inclusive. 



Years. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Lake 
Superior. 


Calumet 

and 
Hecla. 


Percent- 1 
age of Lake 
Superior 
of total 
product. 


Years. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Lake 
Superior. 


Calumet 

and 
Hecla. 


Percent- 
age of Lake 
Superior. 
of total 
product. 


1845... 


Lonq tons. 

100 

150 

300 

500 

700 

650 

900 

1,100 

2,000 

2,250 

3,000 

4,000 

4,800 

5,500 

6,300 

7,200 

7,500 

9,000 

8,500 

8,000 

8,500 


Long tons. 

12 

26 

213 

461 

672 

572 

779 

792 

1,297 

1,819 

2,593 

3,666 

4,255 

4,088 

3,985 

5,388 

6,713 

6,065 

5,797 

5,576 

6,410 


Long tons. 


12.0 

17.0 
71.0 
92.5 
96.0 
88.0 


1866.. 
1867.. 
1868.. 
1869.. 
1870.. 
1871 . . 
1872.. 
1873.. 
1874.. 
1875.. 
1876.. 
1877.. 
1878.. 
1879.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1882.. 
1883.. 
1884.. 

Total. 


Long tons. 
8,900 
10,000 
11,600 
12,500 
12,600 
13,000 
12,500 
15,500 
17,500 
18,000 
19,000 
21,000 
21,500 
23,000 
27,000 
32,000 
40,467 
51,574 
63,555 


Long tons. 
6,138 
7,824 
9,346 
11,883 
10,992 
11,942 
10,961 
13,433 
15,327 
16,089 
17,085. 
17,422 
17,719 
19,129 
22,204 
24,363 
25,439 
26,653 
30,916 


Long tons. 


68.8 


1846.. 




603 

2,276 

5,497 

6,277 

7,242 

7,215 

8,414 

8,984 

9,586 

9,683 

10,075 

11,272 

11,728 

14,140 

14,000 

14,309 

14,788 

17,812 


78.2 


1847.. 




80.6 


1848.. 




95.1 


1849... 




87.2 


1850... 




91.9 


1851... 




86.6 


95.7 


1852... 




72.0 
64.9 
71.1 
86.4 
91.6 
88.7 
74.3 
63.3 
74.8 
89.1 
67.4 
67.0 
69.7 
75.4 


87.3 


1853... 




87.6 


1854. . 




89 4 


1855... 




88.9 


1856... 




82.9 


1857... 




82.4 


1858... 




83.2 


1859. . . 




82 2 


1860. . . 




76.1 


1861... 




62.1 


1862... 




50.1 


1863... 




48.4 


1864... 
1865... 








512,146 


376,047 


173,901 


73.4 











162 



MINERALS AND METALS. 






There are a few small mines in the Lake Superior region from which 
no official figures are procurable; their product is estimated at 60,000 
pounds for 1884, and this added to the product of the mines giving reliable 
reports, namely 69,188,633, gives the total product for the region at about 
69,250,000 pounds. The following table gives the production and distri- 
bution of copper for three }^ears. 

The figures include all the mines from which reports were procurable, 
and are from official sources. The year 1884 is the last of which com- 
plete and reliable statistics can be obtained. 



Total copper production in the United States in 1882, 1883, and 1884. 



Source. 



Lake Superior 

Arizona 

Montana 

New Mexico 

California 

Colorado 

Utah 

Wyoming 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Missouri 

Maine and New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Southern States 

Middle States 

Desilverizers, etc 



Total domestic copper 
From imported pyrites 



Total, including copper from imported pyrites . 



1882. 



Pounds. 
56,982,765 
17,984,415 

9,058,284 
869,498 
826,695 

1,494,000 
605,880 
100,000 
350,000 



294,695 

290,000 

1,265,000 

400,000 



125,000 



90,646,232 
1,000,000 



91,646,232 



1883. 



Pounds. 

59,702,404 

23,874,963 

24,664,346 

823,511 

1,600,862 

1,152,652 

341,885 

962,468 

288,077 



1884. 



260,306 
212,124 
400,000 
395,175 
64,400 
782,880 



115,526,053 
1,625,742 



117,151,795 



Pounds. 

69,250,000 

26,734,345 

40,612,783 

59,450 

876,166 

2,013,125 

265,526 

100,000 
46,667 
230,000 
249,018 
655,405 
317,711 
2,114 
950 870 



142,363,180 

2,858,754 



145,221,934 



From this table it appears that about one-half the copper of the United 
States comes from the mines on Lake Superior. Copper mining there 
will show to a better advantage than at any other place. It has generally 
been believed that the mining of this ore was very remunerative ; this is 
not altogether true. The following table of the principal mines of the 
Lake Superior region, giving the cost of production in the years 1875, 
1 88 1, 1882 and 1883, will furnish some means of gauging the capacity to 
meet the market and of tracing the result of the efforts to reduce the cost. 
No figures are available upon which it would be possible to base any 
authoritative estimate concerning the cost price per pound of the Calumet 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



163 



and Hecla mine; but it may be stated that it is certainly lower, 
excluding construction account, than that of any mine in the list. 

Cost of production of Lake copper, per pound. 





Production (in pounds). 


Cost of production (in cents per pound). 


Yield (per cent). 


Mines. 


1883. 


1882. 


1884. 


1883. 


1882. 


1881. 


1875. 


1884. 


1883. 


1882. 


1881. 


1875. 


Quincy 


6,012,239 
4,256,409 
2,682,197 
1,268,556 
1,751,377 
3,489,308 
1,171,847 


5,665,796 
4,176,782 
2,631,708 
1,353,597 
1,683,557 
3,264,120 
1,482,666 


8.63 
11.24 
10.88 

13.46 
11.62 


9.00 
12.21 
12.56 
15.40 
15.98 
12.96 
21.47 


9.55 

12.97 
13.80 
14.76 
17.38 
13.00 
17.00 


10.03 


15.79 


2.70 
1.17 

.75 

.85 
1.45 


2.86 
1.21 

.68 
1.90 

.86 
1.38 
1.01 


3.21 

.69 

2.20 

.85 

1.10 

1.00 


2.62 
1.29 

.72 
1.58 

.95 

1.38 


.... 


Atlantic 

Central 

Allouez 


13.68 
14.24 
19.32 


22.12 
15.81 


.78 
2.65 


Pewabic 


16.36 







The following table shows the fluctuations in the prices of Lake cop 
per and of good Western brands as follows : 

Prices of copper in 1884. 



Months. 



January . . , 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November . 
December . 



Lake copper in 
New York. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Per lb. 


Per lb. 


$0 15 


$0 141 


15 


141 


15 


a 141 


15 


bUi 


141 


141 


141 


14 


141 


131 


14 


131 


121 


cl3 


131 


12| 


13 


121 


121 


11 

i 



Good ordinary West- 
ern brands in 
New York. 



Per lb. 

$0 141 
141 
131 
13£ 
131 
131 
13 
121 

121 

12 

Hi 

Hi 



Lowest. 



Per lb. 

$0 131 
13£ 
13f 
13f 
131 
121 
12f 

m 

12 
llf 

iii 

101 



Averae 
month] 


e 
y 


price 

of Chili 

bars 

in London. 


Long ton. 


£58 


6 


56 1 


3 


54 15 


6 


56 3 10 


56 10 





54 18 





54 7 


3 


54 9 


6 


54 4 


5 


53 15 


7 


52 5 





48 18 


3 



Average 
monthly 

price 
of copper 

ore in 
Liverpool, 
25 per cent. 



Per unit. 

£0 11 b 
11 
10 10 

10 9 

11 11 
10 61 
10 3f 
10 
10 
10 

9 
9 



Average 
monthly 
price 
of precipi- 
tate in 
Liverpool. 



Per unit. 

£0 11 10 
11 101 
11 4 

11 21 
11 81 
11 31 
10 111' 
10 104 
10 91 
10 91 
10 51 
9 111 



a For export, 13 cents. 



b For home consumption, 14 cents. 



c For home consumption, 13 cents. 



The copper production of the world, 


1879 to 188c 


', inclusive. 




Countries. 


1883. 


1882. 


1881. 


1880. 


1879. 


Europe 


71,740 
54,171 
49,805 
6,575 
5,000 
12,500 


66,249 

42,868 

51,108 

6,316 

2,800 

8,512 


64,595 
34,551 
44,389 
4,067 
1,900 
10,000 


59,297 

28,950 

47,816 

5,239 

1,900 

9,700 


53,866 


North America 


24,950 


South America 


53,815 


Africa 


4,828 


Asia 


1,900 


Australia , 


9,500 






Total 


199,791 


177,853 


159,502 


152,702 


148,859 







164 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



MERCURY. 



Mercury, or quicksilver, is found in the Coast hills, about twelve 
miles from San Jose; these mines are among the richest in the world. It 
is found in a few other places in California and elsewhere, generally con- 
tiguous to mines of gold and silver. For several years the few Califor- 
nia mines in operation have either been worked with a slender margin of 
profit or at a loss; and one by one the list of producers has dwindled, the 
survivors being of course the richest and best equipped establishments. 
The New Almaden was the only one which paid a dividend in 1884. The 
actual production is exclusively from the California mines, of which the 
New Almaden and Guadalupe, in Santa Clara county; the New Idria, in 
Fresno county; the Sulphur Bank, Redington and Great Western, in 
Lake county, and the Napa and ^Etna, in Napa county, have furnished 
nearly all of the recent supply. In the table of production the yield of a 
number of the less important mines in past years is stated individually. 
In 1876 about thirty mines were productive, but only eleven yielded any 
quicksilver in 1884, of which only six produced over 1,000 flasks, and the 
number was still further reduced at the end of the year. Even the 
Guadalupe and the Sulphur Bank mines, well equipped with plant for 
mining and treating ores, have now practically ceased work. The ac- 
tive mines in 1885 number but six, with fifteen furnaces in operation. 
The following table shows the product of quicksilver from some of the 
principal mines of California with the total from all mines, in the years 
named. 

Product of quicksilver mines of California to the close of 1884. 



Years. 


C8 

a 

S3 


New Idria. 




.a 


u 



am 

02 


P. 

a 
a 


Total yearly 
production 
of Califor- 
nia mines. 


1875... 


Flasks. 
13,648 
20,549 
23,996 
15,852 
20,514 
23,465 
26,060 
28,070 
29,000 
20,000 


Flasks. 
8,432 
7,272 
6,316 
5,138 
4,425 
3,209 
2,775 
1,953 
1,606 
1,025 


Flasks. 
7,513 
9,183 
9,399 
6,686 
4,516 
2,139 
2,194 
2,171 
1,894 
881 


Flasks. 

5,372 

8,367 

10,993 

9,465 

9,249 

10,706 

11.152 

5,014 

2,612 

890 


Flasks. 
3,342 
7,381 
6,241 
9,072 
15,540 
6,670 
5,228 
1,138 
84 
1,179 


Flasks. 
50.250 


1876 


75,074 


1877 


79,396 


1878 


63,880 


1879 


73,684 


1880 


59,926 


1881 


60,851 


1882 


52,732 


1883 


46,725 


1884 


31,913 







MINERALS AND METALS. 



165 



The following table shows the prices per flask of quicksilver in San 
Francisco and in London for ten years: 





San Fbanoisoo. 


London. 


Yeaks. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


1874 l 


$118 55 
118 55 
53 55 
44 00 
35 95 
34 45 

34 45 
31 75 
29 10 
28 50 

35 00 


$91 80 
49 75 
34 45 
30 60 
29 85 

25 25 
27 55 
27 90 
27 35 

26 00 
26 00 


£26 0s Od 

24 

12 

9 10 

7 5 

8 15 
7 15 
7 
6 5 

5 17 6 

6 15 


£19 0s Od 


1875 


9 17 6 


1876 


7 17 6 


1877 


7 2 6 


1878 


6 7 6 


1879 


5 17 6 


1880 


6 7 6 


1881 


6 2 6 


1882 


5 15 


1883 


5 5 


1884 


5 2 6 







The following is a summary of the world's production of quicksilver 
from 1850 to the close of 1884: 



Localities. 



California 

Spain 

Austria 

Total 

Estimated present yearly production of Italy and other countries 



Number 
of flasks. 



1,389,316 
1,088,550 

288,982 

2,766,848 



2,000 



Pounds 
avoirdupois 
to the flask. 



76.50 
76.07 
76.07 



ZINC. 

Zinc and spelter are found in various places in the United States, 
notably in New Jersey, though no where so extensively as in England and 
Germany and some other countries. 

The records of the production of spelter and zinc in the United States 
are very incomplete. The following figures are the only ones worthy of 
consideration which are available : 



Production 


of spelter in the United States. 




Years. 


Short tons. 


Yeaks. 


Short tons. 


1873 


7,343 
15,833 
23,239 


1882 


33,765 


1875 


1883 


36,872 


1880 (census year ending May 31) 


1884 


38,544 







166 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



Zinc statistics are sometimes stated in pounds. For 1883 and 1884, 
the figures would be 73,744,000 and 77,088,000 pounds respectively. The 
production during the last five years may be segregated as follows, by 
states: 

Production of spelter in the United States, 1 881 to 1884, inclusive, by states. 



States. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 




Short ions. 

16,250 

5,000 

2,750 

(?) 


Short tons. 

18.201 

7,366 

2,500 

5,698 


Short tons. 

16,792 

9,010 

5,730 

5,340 


Short tons. 

17,594 

7,859 

5,230 

7,861 




Missouri 






Total 


(?) 


33,765 


36,872 


38,544 







In addition to the output of metallic zinc there has been a considerable 
production of zinc white (oxide), made directly from the ore. 

The production of spelter in the world, in 1882 and 1883, compiled 
from the best sources available, was as follows: 

The world's production of spelter. 



Countries. 



1882. 



1883. 



Germany 

Belgium 

France 

England 

Spain 

Austria 

Hungary 

Poland 

United States. 



Metric tons. 


Metric tons. 


115,346 


116,688 


72,947 


75,366 


18.525 


a 15,000 


6 25,990 


6 28,104 


4,973 


4,233 


4,791 


4,539 


605 


a 600 


b 4,470 


b 3,843 


30,628 


c 33,459 



Total. 



278,275 



281,832 



a Estimated. 



6 Estimated by Henry Merton & Co., .London. 



c Equivalent to 36,872 short tons. 



GRAPHITE. 

Graphite, or plumbago, is found in Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecti- 
cut, North Carolina and New York. The mine near Ticonderoga, in 
New York, is large and rich. It has been observed in many places 
throughout the Pacific states and territories; only in California, however, 
where its occurrence seems most frequpnt, have any attempts been made 



MINERALS AND METALS. 167 

to mine and market or otherwise utilize it in a large way. The deposit 
which has been most worked in that state is situated one mile north of the 
town of Sonora, Tuolumne county, from which, some twenty years ago, 
about 1,000 tons of graphite were extracted, the most of which was ship- 
ped to England, France and Germany, and there sold at the rate of about 
$100 per ton, a price that afforded the shippers some profit. But the im- 
possibility of securing here any large quantity sufficiently pure for com- 
mercial purposes put an end to the enterprise, the labor of concentrating 
the crude material, which was largely mixed with slate and other foreign 
matter, having been expensive. Besides the Sonora deposits, graphite has 
been found in California at the following places : near Summit City, Alpine 
county; on the border of Tomales bay in the coast range of Marin county; 
near Fort Tejon, Kern county ; at Tejunga, Los Angeles county, and at 
Boser hill, Fresno county (both recent discoveries), and at several places 
in Sierra, Plumas, Marin, and Sonoma counties. In 1883 a deposit of 
graphite was found in the Sierra mountains, Humboldt county, Nevada. 
The mineral here occurs in numerous small veins, some of it being quite 
pure; but like the deposits elsewhere on the Pacific coast, this possesses, 
just now, no special value. Graphite has also been found recently in 
Beaver county, Utah, but the quality of the mineral and the extent of the 
deposit remair to be tested. A deposit in Albany county, Wyoming, is 
reported as about twenty inches thick and sufficiently pure to be worked; 
no developments have been made, and the extent of the deposit is un- 
known. 

During 1883 the Ticonderoga mines produced 550,000 pounds, and 
estimating the output of various other workings at 25,000 pounds, the 
total production for 1883 was 575,000 pounds, representing, at an average 
spot value of 8 cents per pound, $46,000. The output in 1884 was prac- 
tically nothing. The accumulated stocks and the industrial depression 
caused the suspension of work at the Ticonderoga mines during 1884, and 
it is not known that any other mine was operated on a commercial scale- 

NICKEL. 

The only metallic nickel now made in the United States is produced 
at the American Nickel Works at Camden, New Jersey, opposite Phila- 
delphia, by Joseph Wharton. These works, which suspended operations 
at the close of the } T ear 1882, were started again in 1883, but did not reach 
full activity until October, 1884. In 1883 and 1884, the ore treated was 
exclusively from the Gap mine, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. The 



168 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



production of the works since 1876, including the nickel contained in cop- 
per-nickel alloy, was as follows: 

Annual production of nickel in the United States from and including 1 876. 



Yeahs. 


Pure 

grain 
nickel. 


Nickel 
contained 
in copper- 
nickel 
alloy. 


Total. 


Average 

price per 

pound. 


Value. 


1876 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 
201,367 
188,211 
150,890 
145,120 
233,893 
265,668 
281,616 
58,800 
64,550 


$2 60 
1 60 
1 10 
1 12 
1 10 
1 10 
1 10 
90 
75 


$523,554 
301,138 


1877 






1878 






165,979 


1879 






162,534 
257,282 
292,235 
309,777 


1880 . 






1881 






1882 


277,034 
6,500 


4,582 
52,300 
64,550 


1883 


52,920 
48,412 


1884 








Total 






1,590,115 


1 33 


2,113,831 









It is impossible to state the quantity of nickel salts produced in the 
United States annually. They are made by several different establish- 
ments. The quantity is estimated to be from 15,000 to 25,000 pounds. 



TIN. 

The chief ore of tin, and the only ore which has yet been found in any 
notable quantity in the United States, is the stannic oxide (Sn0 2 ), known 
to mineralogists as cassiterite, and among miners as "tinstone.'" It is 
a hard, heavy, crystalline, or massive substance without metallic appear- 
ance, usually of a brown to black color, and an adamantine or vitreous 
luster. The streak of powder is usually a light reddish brown. It is 
brittle and easily crushed, and, when washed in a gold pan or in a sluice 
box with ordinary earth and minerals, it settles to the bottom and may be 
separated from them in the same way that gold is separated by washing. 
It is about as hard as quartz, and the specific gravity ranges from 6 to 7. 
It is commonly found in the older and crystalline rocks, especially in the 
coarsely crystalline granite rocks and dikes. 

GRINDSTONES. 

The principal source of grindstones in the United States is the geo- 
logical formation known as the Berea Grit which underlies large areas in 
the northeastern part of Ohio. It is a fine-grained sandstone, but differs 
greatly in texture and hardness in different localities. It is quarried for 




THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE 

ASHES. 

(Compiled from the Government Forestry Reports.) 



95' 93" 



89" 87° 



"127' 125" 



121" 119- 117 




Key of Shades. 



;. ,i v Species. 



Copyrighted 7886 by Yaggy & West 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



169 



this purpose mainly at Berea, Amherst, Independence, Massillon, Lorain, 
Grafton and Marietta, and the principal locality for the manufacture of 
the stones is Cleveland, Ohio. The Berea stone has a white color, a fine 
and sharp grit, and is used generally for sharpening edge tools. The 
Amherst stone is brownish white in color, with a soft, loose grit, and is 
used to sharpen edge tools and saws. That from Independence has a 
grayish white color and a coarse sharp grit. It is used for grinding 
springs and files and for dry grinding of castings. The Massillon stone 
is yellowish in color, with a grit very similar to the last, and is used for 
similar purposes. Near Grindstone City, Michigan, there is found a 
fine-grained argillaceous stone, of a uniform blue color, which is in gene- 
ral use for finishing work, especially where a very fine edge is required. 
The production during the year 1883 is estimated to have had a value of 
about $600,000. In 1884 the production was not quite as great, being esti- 
mated at $570,000. 

SALT. 

Salt is found in many places, as New York, Michigan, Kansas, West 
Virginia, etc. The most important and extensive works are found at 
Syracuse, in New York. The following table shows the total production 
in the United States in 1883 and 1884. In it the quantities have been 
reduced to barrels of 280 pounds, as being the most common unit, though 
the returns are also reported in bushels of fifty-six pounds and in tons, the 
latter unit being generally used where salt is handled in bulk. Stated in 
other terms, the total output in 1883 would be 1,733,824,680 pounds, or 
30,961,155 bushels, or 866,912 short tons of 2,000 pounds; and that of 
1884 would be 1,824,182,360 pounds, or 32,574,685 bushels, or 912,091 
tons. 

Sa/t product of the United States in 1883 and 1884. 



Michigan . 
New York . 
Ohio 



West Virginia 

Louisiana 

California 

Utah 



1883. 



Nevada , 

Illinois, Indiana, Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, and other States and Terri- 
tories, estimated 



Total 6,192,231 



1884. 



Barrels. 


Barrels. 


2,894,672 


3,161,806 


1,619,486 


1,788,454 


350,000 


320,000 


320,000 


310,000 


265,215 


223,964 


214,286 


178,571 


107,143 


114,285 


21,429 


17,857 


400,000 


400,000 



6,514,937 



170 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



Mica is found in many places though the industry is not largely devel- 
oped. During the last three years the output is estimated as follows: 



Years. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1882 


100,000 
114,000 
147,410 


$250,000 


1883 


285,000 


1884 


368,525 





In the foregoing statement the average price of sheet mica marketed is 
assumed to be $2.50 per pound throughout the three years. This is 
probably a fair average, for while whole lots often command $3.50 per 
pound and exceptionally large and clear sheets sell at still higher rates, 
there is a large proportion which bring only about $2.00 per pound. The 
estimates do not include "waste" and ground mica. 

MINERAL SPRINGS. 

It has long been well known that the United States abounds in min- 
eral springs, among which all classes of water may be found. That the 
majority are unimproved is due mainly to the comparative newness of our 
country and the consequent sparseness of population, especially in the 
territories and extreme western states, and also to the fact that our springs 
have not, as yet, been made the subjects of careful and complete investiga- 
tion as in the case of so many foreign springs. Many of the springs allowed 
to run to waste would, in most European countries, be of considerable value. 

From an economic point of view, mineral springs are interesting in at 
least three different ways: First, as places of resort they add to the wealth 
and population of their localities; secondly, the waters when bottled are 
shipped to distant portions of the country and not infrequently ai"e sent 
abroad; and, thirdly, the bottled waters, or, in some cases, the salts left 
upon evaporation of the water, become a portion of the stock in trade of 
druggists and dealers in mineral waters. 

Mineral springs of the United States. 



States and Territories. 





oro 


*H ■ 


°tf 


°s 


u 


n"S 


u* 




a> r> <o 


a> m . 


fi K to 

H t4 <P 




_, a m 


a*x3 


afla 


3 *■& 


^.u 


•z,""" 


Z" s 


35 


43 


18 


11 


25 


8 


30 


43 


10 


18 


23 


5 


16 


20 


2 



di'-'S o 

g.S y no 



p 2 

a 
•° a 



O H >■* 

1- sS 

3_3 H a> • 
4-1 



North Atlantic States 

Maine 

New Hampshire . . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Connecticut 



MINERALS AND METALS. 



171 



Mineral springs of the United States. — Continued. 



States and Territories. 



North Atlantic States. — Continued. 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic States : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Northern Central States : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Dakota 

Kansas 

Southern Central States : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory 

Arkansas 

Western States and Territories : 

Alaska 

Wyoming 

Montana 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



Total, 2,544 



O CO 

o 
u o 



"Co 



213 
13 

44 

5 
24 
93 
35 
66 
28 
52 
25 

76 

104 

49 

39 

73 

22 

20 

124 

9 

7 

112 

169 
83 
76 
15 
91 
8 

107 

25 
39 
41 
68 
35 
26 
32 

104 
31 
10 
34 

207 



H A 

ST" 



309 
13 

75 

5 

78 
270 

62 
147 

32 
256 

37 

95 

151 

58 

71 

131 

35 

46 

398 

9 

32 

282 

290 

218 

99 

28 

456 

10 

456 

25 

2,254 

144 

354 

90 

30 

118 

153 

113 

15 

55 

354 



8,008 



> DO . 

, O CD 

1*3 -| 

, to cC 






70 

7 
28 



4 
75 
19 
18 

6 
20 

4 

14 

30 

10 

26 

55 

5 

8 

23 

5 

6 



14 

18 
5 


10 

5 



7 

8 

37 

11 

3 

5 

6 

2 

1 

8 

41 



^■^ CD 

0.2 CO Qn 

E <D M J 

fl Pi!G & CD 

F4 



735 



23 

1 

15 


3 
53 
15 
29 
5 
29 
10 

16 

17 

6 

17 

15 

2 

4 

21 



3 

16 
.57 
23 
10 

6 
20 

3 
23 

1 

4 
6 

14 
5 

3 

10 
3 
2 

11 

38 



567 



S3 

p eg 

H a 



34 

4 


1 

20 
6 
7 
1 
2 


6 
7 
3 
4 
15 
1 
3 
6 

2 

4 

7 
5 
1 

7 

5 


1 

1 
1 





1 

2 
9 



189 



o § * 

■HftS 



a? 



a> 



"S o e £ 

H>^ CO d) 
55 &— « 



20 


2 


1 

12 
5 
6 
1 

2 

6 
6 
3 
2 
11 
1 
2 
4 

2 

1 

4 
5 
1 

5 

5 




1 
1 





1 
1 

2 
129 



172 MINERALS AND METALS. 

OTHER MINERALS. 

Marble and granite are found in extensive quantities and of excellent 
quality in New England, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and other states. 
Precious stones have been found in many localities in the United States, 
but never in such beds as have attracted any great attention. Beryl, 
topaz, diamonds, etc., have been found in different places. Many other 
minerals and metals are found, though the ones of principal commercial 
importance have been given. All varieties of building stone, clays, min- 
eral paints, kaolin, platinum, tellulide, hones, etc., are among the number. 



HISTORY. 

THE EARLIEST INHABITANTS. 

The history of the United States, or of the North American continent, 
begins properly with the date of its discovery to the inhabitants of Europe ; 
all facts connected with the country previous to that event, are wholly 
pre-historic. When the Spanish and Portuguese navigators landed upon 
the American shores, they found here a race of people totally different 
from any heretofore known. At first these were supposed to be identical 
with the races of India, and their connection with the Indian races of Asia 
has been stoutly asserted, and is still maintained by some. Subsequent 
investigation soon disproved the Spanish supposition, but the name then 
given the people has remained with them. It is now probable that to the 
end of history the aboriginal inhabitants of North America will be 
designated as the "Indians." 

The Europeans came to America in the latter part of the fifteenth 
century. Then the country was in a state of nature, over which wild 
beasts and still wilder men roamed at will ; neither men nor beasts could 
tell aught of their origin or early history. The men were savage or semi- 
barbaric, with no written language or records, and whose language was 
largely that of signs. The beasts were of many varieties wholly unknown 
to other parts of the earth, fully one-fourth of the present number of 
species being peculiar to America. 

When the country had been more fully explored and settled, and its 
study had been prosecuted with more vigor and with the accuracy of later 
equipments, it was discovered that the Indian inhabitants of the fifteenth 
century were not the first inhabitants. Clear and unmistakable indica- 
tions of e previous occupancy by a people different from the Indians as 
now known, possessing different race characteristics, and holding a higher 
place in the scale of civilization, have been found in many places. This 
anterior race has been called the "Mound Builders," partly for want of a 
more definita name, and partly because the first and principal evidences 
of their existence have been found in mounds of earth. 

It has been claimed that evidence of a race, still older than the Mound 
Builders, has been found. This evidence rests upon isolated instances, so 
far as man is concerned, which have never been found in such quantities 

(173) 



174 THE PEOPLE. 

and positions as to give any reliable data for the assertion that they were 
before and different from the Mound Builders. The remains of pre-historic 
animals of mammoth size have been found in great abundance; the con- 
nection of human remains with those of these ancient and extinct animals 
is the principal part of the authority for the theory of the ante-mound 
builders. Human remains have been found in South America in bone 
caves alono- with bones of animals that are now unknown. A skull was 
claimed to have been found near Los Angeles, in California, at the depth 
of 150 feet. Some utensils have been found in California at a depth of 
thirty feet, the use of which can not be conjectured. A human skeleton 
was found at New Orleans below four successive cypress forests, and at a 
depth of sixteen feet. The remains of a mastodon were found in Missouri 
in 1880, which were partially consumed by fire; the assumption is that if 
there was fire, there were human beings, and that the fire had been kindled 
to destroy the animal, it being fastened in the mire. All this is very 
ingenious and interesting, but it needs further confirmation to rest 
assurance upon. 

Subsequent to this hypothetical race and prior to the Indians of the 
fifteenth century and of to-day, there are many and most distinct evi- 
dences of the existence of the people we have named the Mound Builders. 
They must have inhabited a large portion of the United States as the 
relics are found in many and widely separated portions. We find traces 
of their lives, government, customs, manufactures, manner of living, etc. 
No remains of this race have yet been found north of the lake region of 
the United States, and only two or three doubtful ones within the Atlantic 
region. But in the Mississippi valley and in some -southwestern states 
bordering thereon are most abundant evidences of their existence and 
characteristics. 

Chief among these indications, and the one to which they owe the 
name we have given them, is the existence of the numerous mounds. 
These are very plentiful throughout the Mississippi valley, many of them 
of very extensive size and regular shape. They are, for the most part, 
simply piles of earth in some regular figure, sometimes circular, sometimes 
rectangular, octagonal, or in the form of man or some animal. The 
largest of all the mounds is found on the level prairie of Illinois near St. 
Louis. It is an exact rectangle, 700 feet long, 500 feet wide, ninety feet 
high and contains eight acres. One at Miamisburg, in Ohio, is circular, 
with a circumference of 852 feet and a height of sixty-eight feet. At 
Grave Creek, in Virginia, is another circular mound which has a circum- 



THE PEOPLE. 175 

ference of 1,000 feet, and is seventy feet in height. One at Seltzertown, 
in Mississippi, covers nearly six acres. These are among the largest and 
best known of the mounds. There are no less than 10,000 in the state of 
Ohio, more than 200 in Illinois and many hundreds in Wisconsin. Those 
in Wisconsin are not nearly so elevated as those further south, and have 
the peculiarity of being, generally, in the form of some fish or bird. The 
celebrated Turtle Mound near Waukesha has a body of fifty-six feet and 
a tail five times that length, and about six feet high. There are found a 
few mounds outside Wisconsin which represent some animal. One in 
Adams county, Ohio, is in the form of a serpent over 1,000 feet long, with 
distended jaws swallowing an egg; the egg is nearly perfect in shape and 
measures 103 feet one way, thirty-nine feet the other. 

These mounds seem to have been variously used. Some were 
undoubtedly used for sepulture of the dead, as is evidenced by the existence 
of vaults within which are found human remains. Others, perhaps, were 
used for the celebration of some sort of religious rites. Others still were 
used for dwellings, or for signal stations, or for fortifications. Some com- 
paratively recent discoveries have shown that the copper mines in the 
Lake Superior region have been worked at some prior periods. In these 
excavations are now found growing trees which show an age of from 300 
to 400 years, thus taking the period of original operations far remote. It is 
well known, too. that the Indians seldom had any copper utensils or 
implements. 

West of the Mississippi river, are found a large class of distinct relics, 
which have only become known to any great extent, since 1874. They 
consist of the ruins of various kinds of buildings, as cases grandes, pue- 
blos, cave-houses, cliff houses and elevated towers. These are found in 
Southern Colorado and the adjacent regions in other territories. Various 
utensils and a pottery of superior make, have been found in and near these 
ruins. The same class of ruins extend into Mexico, Central America, 
and Yucatan, in more perfect preservation and more extensive scale than 
have yet been found in the United States. These ruins are of stone in 
the north and sometimes of adobe, or sun-dried brick, in the south. The 
facts concerning this ancient people are still meagre, and the deductions 
concerning them may be found to be erroneous in some important details. 
The matter is being more thoroughly examined by private parties and the 
government, and the results given to the public from time to time. As 
to the existence of such a people, who. possessed a higher degree of skill 
and civilization than that reached by any Indians of whom we have any 



176 THE PEOPLE. 

knowledge, who were a people with some of the arts and sciences, a fixed 
government and of large numbers in some parts of the country, especially 
the central valley, is indisputable. Whence they came, and the causes 
of their decline and extinction, is wholly lost to us at this time. They 
left not one trace of a written "language, and only indications of civilization 
as have been indicated. 

THE INDIANS. 

At the coming of the white race to the western shores, the Indians 
were found distributed over the larger part of what is now the United 
States. They were of a red or reddish-brown complexion, and were, for 
the most part, nomadic in habits, roaming hither and thither at will, with 
a seemingly little affection for a stationary life. Some of the more 
southern tribes had more settled habits, and they remained practically 
within the same boundaries from year to year. Particularly was this the 
case with the Indians south of the United States, as in Mexico, and South 
America; there the houses were built of stone, and were substantial 
abodes. These southern Indians, too, evidenced a higher grade of civiliza- 
tion; cultivated the soil and its fruits to a small extent, and had some 
rude arts among them. The number of all the inhabitants of the New 
World has been estimated at 5,000,000, which is without a certain data of 
foundation. Of this number, 1,000,000 are accredited to what is now the 
United States ; of this number, from 300,000 to 400,000 were east of the 
Mississippi river. 

These Indians, though possessing some main characteristics in common, 
and it is generally conceded that they belong to one great family, were, 
when found, divided into many separate families. These families differed 
considerably from each other, and were generally at bitter strife. These 
families were again divided into many tribes, federated for mutual protec- 
tion and defense; the confederation, however, was frequently merely 
nominal and easily ruptured. 

The most important Indian family of the United States, in numbers 
and the extent of territory controlled, were the Algonquins. They 
numbered, at the time Columbus landed at San Salvador, not less than 
250,000, and were the most powerful family of the continent. They have 
declined in the past four centuries to a few thousands; according to their 
own accounts, the decline had begun before the coming of the whites. 
They controlled the larger part of the United States east of the Missis- 
sippi river, extending from Hudson's Bay to the Tennessee and Roanoke 



THE PEOPLE. 177 

rivers in the south, and from the Atlantic ocean to the Mississippi river, 
excepting the territory occupied by the Hurons and the Iroquois. The 
Algonquin country included the New England states, most of the middle 
states, and the larger parts of Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee. 
The) 7 were composed of many tribes, each having its local name and tra- 
ditions. For the most part, they were hunters and fishers, cultivating 
the soil but little. 

The principal of the Algonquin tribes were the Montagnais on the St. 
Lawrence river, the Algonquins proper on the Ottawa river, the Abena- 
quis in Maine, the Narragansetts, Pequods, Massachusetts and Mohigans 
of the southern parts of New England, the Delawares, Powhattans and 
Shawnees further south, the Chippewas, Menomonees and Miamis through 
the northwestern parts of this territory, and the Sacs, Foxes, Kickapoos 
and Illinois through the western parts. The Algonquin family has fur- 
nished some of the noblest specimens of the Red man in his purely normal 
state; the character drawn for them by such writers of fiction as 
J. Fenimore Cooper are widely overdrawn and clothed with a 
poetic charm which the facts do not warrant. Massasoit, King Philip, 
Powhattan with his daughter Pocahontas, Tecumseh, Pontiac, Black 
Hawk and other chiefs who figure in continental history, all belonged to 
this family. 

The Huron-Iroquois territory lay wholly within that of the Algonquins 
and bordered the southern and eastern sides of Lakes Huron and Erie. 
The family was composed of the Hurons, who had their villages east of 
Lake Huron, the Andastes among the head waters of the Susquehanna river, 
the Eries along the south side of the lake of that name, and the Iroquois 
proper who inhabited the central parts of New York state, from the Hud- 
son river to the Genesee. At first accounts the Iroquois was a confedera- 
tion of five separate nations, and took the name among the whites of the 
"Five Nations." The names of these were the Mohawks, Oneidas, 
Ohondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. In 1712 the Tuscaroras was admitted, 
and since that date, the Iroquois have been known altogether as the "Six 
Nations." Their league of confederation was republican and very strong. 
It was seldom broken by any tribe. Red Jacket and Cornplanter were 
chiefs among the Iroquois who are well known to colonial history. It has 
been estimated that the Huron-Iroquois family never exceeded 20,000. 
The Jesuit missionaries did much effective work among the Hurons. A 
branch of this family, called the Neutral Nation, dwelt north of Lake Erie 
in Canada. Remnants of the family are still to be found scattered through 



178 THE PEOPLE. 

New York, Wisconsin and some other states ; they have given their names 
to many of the rivers, lakes and towns in those states. 

The Mobilians dwelt, or rather roamed, south of the Algonquins, and 
over the territory from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, and from the Gulf 
of Mexico to the country of the Algonquins. Though possessing the 
character and habits common to all the Red men, they gave more atten- 
tion to agriculture and the ways of a settled life. Among one tribe, at 
least (the Cherokees), a much higher grade of civilization prevailed than 
among their northern neighbors; this tribe is sometimes classed as a dis- 
tinct family. The chief tribes of the Mobilians were the Yamasees and 
Creeks of Georgia; the Catawba, which dwelt partly in South and partly in 
North Carolina ; the Cherokees of Northern Georgia, a bold and warlike peo- 
ple ; the Lichees of Georgia, small and weak ; the Choctaws and Chickasaws 
of Mississippi ; the Natchez of Northern Mississippi along the river, and the 
Seminoles of Florida. The Cherokees were among the latest of these 
tribes to remove to the reservation of the Indian Territory, the transfer 
being made in 1838. They gave many soldiers to the Confederacy in the 
recent Civil War. Toward the close of the war these warriors deserted, 
and either returned to their homes or came into the Federal army, 9,000 
joining the National forces at one time. The Natchez were fire-worship- 
ers, and laid claim to being the oldest of the nations on the continent. 
They were nearly exterminated by the French settlers in the early history 
of the Mississippi valley. Osceola, a chief of the Seminoles, led in a 
revolt against the National Government within the present century. 
Parts of this tribe have refused all efforts at removal, and are still to be 
found in the Everglades of Southern Florida. 

The great family of the Dakotas, or Sioux, roamed over all the coun- 
try west of the Mississippi river and east of the Rocky mountains, from 
the far north to the northern line of Texas. They were all nomadic, 
changing with the seasons, or the moving of the game upon which they 
subsisted. A few tribes, as the Winnebagoes, kept on the east side of 
the river in Wisconsin. The Dakotas were a fierce and warlike people, 
continually at bitter strife with each other, and have given the white set- 
tlers much trouble, even within very recent years. The Minnataree were 
the principal tribe of the upper Missouri region. The Comanches, a wild, 
warlike and untractable tribe, occupied the territory which is now the state 
of Texas. In the southwest were the Shoshones. West of the Rocky 
mountains were the Indian families of the plains. Among these were the 
Selish, Klamaths and the Californians with their numerous tribes and clans. 



THE PEOPLE. 179 

It is generally asserted and believed that the Indians have been slowly 
but surely decreasing in numbers and power, and that they are now com 
paratively small and insignificant. Some very careful statisticians assert, 
on the contrary, that the number of Indians is now as great, if not greater, 
than it was at the coming of the white race. The ratio of the whites is 
very much greater, and the power of the Red man is decreased in the 
same proportion. In some tribes there has been marked depletion, even 
extinction in some cases; but this had doubtless gone on for ages before 
the coming of the white man to the western world. The larger and 
stronger tribes would combine to exterminate the smaller and weaker. 

Most of the Mobilian tribes were long since removed to the Indian 
reservation south of Kansas, where each has his own domains and enjoys 
the general protection of the government. Numbers of the tribes of the 
Sioux have also been removed to the territory. Protected and encour- 
aged here by the government and by private benevolent and religious 
societies, some of these tribes have made large progress in the arts of civ- 
ilization, in education and in local government. The Cherokees, Creeks, 
Chickasaws, Choctaws and Seminoles have formed a sort of local confed- 
eration, have established schools, introduced the arts of the white man, 
and are rapidly advancing to a higher civilization than was formerly 
thought possible to the Red man. The Cherokees have advanced the 
furthest in these directions of any tribe of Indians on the continent. 

The relations of the general government to these Indian tribes has 
always been a perplexing problem. In the main, the government has 
always endeavored to deal fairly toward them, and has generally kept its 
faith; but the duplicity of some of its agents has often caused serious 
troubles, both in former and in more recent times. The present plan of 
granting them absolute control of certain lands until their advancement 
warrants granting them the privileges of citizenship, seems the best that 
can be devised. Many wrongs have been inflicted upon the unfortunate 
race; but, on the whole, their condition now is vastly' better than it was 
before the advent of the white man. 



ADVENT OF EUROPEANS. 

The evidence, based on the latest investigations, seems now all but 
conclusive that white men from the north of Europe visited the North 
American shores centuries before the coming of the Spaniards and 



180 THE PEOPLE. 

Portuguese. Indeed, it is claimed, and careful research seems to bear out 
the claim that the Norsemen did visit, at several times, the coasts of New 
England, remaining there for some time, and even established a colony 
on what is now part of Rhode Island. Their discoveries amounted to 
nothing of permanent good to the world, and is noteworthy only because 
a fact of history which can not be overlooked. 

Iceland was settled by the Norwegians in 874. Greenland was acci- 
dentally discovered in 876, but rediscovered and settled in 985. In 986, 
Biarn Herjulfson, in attempting to pass from Iceland to Greenland, was 
blown out of his course by a storm, and lost his way in the fog. He 
sighted a strange shore, and sailed along it some distance. This is sup- 
posed to have been Newfoundland, or Labrador. He did not make a 
landing, but is probably the first white man who saw the North American 
continent. In the year 1000, Eric the Red, with thirty-five sailors, sailed 
south and came upon a shore which is now thought to have been New- 
foundland, where he landed. He afterward sailed further south, touching 
the second time at a " wooded shore," probably Maine. His next stop- 
ping place was a "pleasant land/' which he named Vinland, and there 
he remained until spring. This Vinland has been identified with Rhode 
Island. Two years later came Thorwald, and remained two years at 
what is now Cape Cod. A colony was planted at Vinland, but which 
soon after broke up with internal strife, and by combats with the natives- 
This colony was begun in 1007. It is on Icelandic record that one child, 
named Snorri, was born during the stay of this colony, which was the rirst 
white child born on the American continent. The celebrated Danish 
sculptor, Thorwaldsen, claims descent from Snorri. A later colony was 
attempted at Vinland, in 1011, but was soon abandoned. This was the 
last of the Norsemen in America. Practically, the continent remained an 
unknown and undiscovered land. 

The real discovery of America was made nearly 500 years later. 
Christopher Columbus, an Italian navigator, under the patronage of the 
Spanish monarchs, sailed from the port of Palos on the 3d of August, 
1492. He had three vessels and 128 men with him. He sailed out south 
and then west, with the avowed purpose of discovering a passage to China 
and Japan by sailing in this direction. His confidence in his purpose rested 
in a belief in the sphericity of the earth. He expected to reach the coasts 
of Japan in about 3,000 miles. 

Land was sighted at sunrise on October 12, 1492. A landing was 
made, the island taken possession of in the name of Spain, and named San 



THE PEOPLE. 181 

Salvador, a name still retained. Other of the West Indies group were dis- 
covered by Columbus on this and three subsequent voyages. On the 
fourth voyage he discovered the continent of South America at the mouth 
of the Orinoco river. This was in 1498. The first real colony of the 
New World was planted by Columbus on the Island of Hayti, in 1493, 
and the town named by him Isabella. It was near where is now Monte 
Christi. 

The English were the real discoverers of the continent of North 
America. On this ground they afterward based their claims to such large 
portions. Failing to make this claim good, they tried the next resort of 
Englishmen. It succeeded. Before the Spaniards suspected that the 
West Indies islands, which they had found, were not parts of a new con- 
tinent, and fourteen months before Columbus saw the South American 
continent, an English expedition, under command of John Cabot, reached 
the shores of North America. In the early part of the following year, May, 
1498, another expedition, under command of Sebastian Cabot, saw and 
gave name to Newfoundland. After which Cabot sailed south along the 
eastern coast of the United States, as far south as Chesapeake Bay. Then 
he returned to England and reported a new continent found. 

The southern continent received its name of America from the geog- 
rapher, Americus Vespucius, who accompanied a Spanish expedition in 
1499 to the regions about the Orinoco. When he returned to Europe, he 
published an account of the new land, his being the first account that had 
been published widely. In course of time the name America became so 
fixed on both continents, that no after sense of justice to Columbus could 
make it Columbia. 

The Portuguese, under Cabral, discovered Brazil in 1500. The Span- 
iards made their first discoveries in North America in 1 5 1 3 . On Easter 
Sunday of that year, Ponce de Leon landed in Florida, near where St. 
Augustine now is, and claimed the country in the name of Spain. In the 
same year another Spaniard, named Balboa, crossed the Isthmus of Darien 
and discovered the Pacific ocean. Three years previous to this the Span- 
iards had planted a colony on the isthmus, the first Spanish colony on the 
continent, of North America. The Spaniards were the first to undertake 
any great exploration inland. In 1528 a company of 300, under com- 
mand of Narvaez, marched northward from the west coasts of Florida 
and penetrated as far as the Appalachee bay. A dozen years later, De 
Soto, with 600 men, made a more extended exploration northward and 
westward, and discovered the Mississippi river. Most of the Spanish 



182 THE PEOPLE. 

i 
exploration during this period, and for many years previous, had been in 

the south, through Mexico, Central America, and South America, and were 

inspired with hopes of finding the precious minerals, of which they had 

fabulous accounts from the natives. Mexico, itself, had been subjugated 

by them, Cortez having entered the capital city in 15 19. 

The first permanent settlement attempted within the present limits of 
the United States, was begun by the French under Admiral Coligny. In 
1562 he landed a company at Port Royal harbor in South Carolina. The 
aim of Coligny was similar to that of the Puritans — who selected New 
England — to make a home for religious freedom in the forests of Amer- 
ica. A fort was built on Port Royal harbor and named Caroline. The 
effort of Coligny failed at this time. It was renewed two years later by 
another company. A second Fort Caroline was erected further south and 
near the mouth of the St. John's river. The following } T ear, 1565, a 
company of 3,000 Spaniards founded St. Augustine in Florida, which still 
remains, and is the oldest town in the United States. The Spaniards of 
St. Augustine were Catholics, and the French colony of Fort Caroline 
were Huguenots. They soon came into conflict, and the latter was utterly 
destroyed. Santa Fe, in New Mexico, was founded by the Spaniards on 
account of silver mining, in 1595. It still remains, and is the second old- 
est town in the United States. 

The first English attempt at permanent settlement was made in 1585, 
when Sir Walter Raleigh came out with 108 emigrants to occupy the 
regions abandoned by the French. This attempt failed, and a second 
attempt at Roanoke, in 1587, suffered a similar fate. The larger part of 
the present area of the United States, was, in 1606, granted by James I., 
to two companies for colonization purposes. The first of these was the 
"London Company," with a grant of all lands between parallels 34 and 
38 north latitude, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The other 
company was the " Plymouth," whose grant included all lands between 
parallels 41 and 45. The intermediate lands, between parallels 38 and 41, 
were to be neutral territory, open to all settlers. 

The first permanent English settlement was made by the London 
Company in 1607. It was at Jamestown, in Virginia, on the James river, 
and about fifty miles from its mouth. The Plymouth Company failed to 
accomplish any permanent colonization. After many difficulties within 
itself and with the government, the company was eventually merged into the 
"Plymouth Council," whose land grant included all the territory between 
parallels 40 and 48, more than 1,000,000 square miles. A company 



THE PEOPLE. 183 

of Puritan refugees from England, landed in New England in December, 
1620, and began the colonization of the country. 

The Dutch began their colonization in 16 13. The island of Manhat- 
tan, in New York, was the place chosen, and the city of New Amsterdam 
was begun the year named. This was eight years after the founding of 
Jamestown by the English, and seven years before the landing of the 
Puritans in New England. The Dutch laid claim to all territory between 
Delaware Bay and Cape Cod, and named such territory the New Nether- 
lands. This, of course, encroached, in its northern limit, on the claims of 
the Plymouth Council; and this was the cause of no little trouble between 
the early Dutch and the Puritans. 

The Swedes and Finns came to America in 1638. Landing in Dela- 
ware Bay, they bought from the Indians all the lands bordering on the 
bay and river from Cape Henlopen to the falls in the river near Trenton, 
in New Jersey. This territory the)' named New Sweden. It encroached 
in its northern and northwestern boundaries on the state of New Nether- 
lands, which was the cause of conflict with the Dutch. Colonists poured 
into New Sweden from the old country and, in 1643, the governor moved 
his residence to where now the suburbs of Philadelphia extend. In 1654, 
seventeen years after the rise of New Sweden, it ceased to exist. The 
conflict with the Dutch resulted in the whole state yielding submission to 
New Netherlands. Three years previous to this, in 165 1, the Dutch and 
English of New England had come to an amicable adjustment of their diffi- 
culties and the boundary line agreed upon. A few years after this adjust- 
ment, a war between England and Holland extended to their colonies in 
America. The English sailed into New York harbor and took possession 
of New Amsterdam and the regions along the Hudson. To New 
Amsterdam the}' gave the name of New York and to Fort Hudson that 
of Albany, names still retained. Nine years after this, again the Dutch 
re-captured their city of New Amsterdam, only to retain it fifteen months 
when, by the English-Holland treaty, it and all the territory of New 
Netherlands were ceded to the English. 

At the close of the seventeenth century, the French were in possession 
of the northern parts of the continent, embracing what is now Canada and 
parts of the United States. The English were south of them, holding the 
central parts of the United States along the Atlantic coasts. The Span- 
iards were south of the English and occupied the southern parts of the 
United States, Mexico and large portions of South America. The first 
half of the eighteenth century was given to furthering the settlement of 



184 THE PEOPLE. 

the country by these respective peoples, the Spaniards still keeping to the 
south, the English in the center, moving westward slowly but surely, while 
the French pushed out boldly and rapidly from both north and south into 
the great Mississippi valley. In 1757 the area of the country as occupied 
by French, Spaniards and English was in about this ratio: Of twenty- 
five parts, the French held twenty, the Spaniards four, and the English 
one part. That is, the English had only one twenty-fifth of the whole 
continent, while the French held four-fifths. 

It was in this year that William Pitt rose to eminence in the manage- 
ment of English politics. From the moment of his ascendency, the aggres- 
sive might and irresistible power of England began to be felt over the 
entire world. Wars between the English and French of the old world 
were supplemented by wars between the English and French settlers in 
America. Conflicting grants of the English and French governments 
caused untold troubles among the colonists. The Indian natives, Span- 
iards, and other European colonists were involved in these colonial wars. 
The English were uniformly successful ; nothing seemed able to stay their 
advances. In 1763 an international treaty was made at Paris whereby all 
these difficulties were adjusted. This is known in history as the "Treaty of 
Paris." 1 By this treaty, the map of North America was greatly changed and 
a complete re-adjustment of its territory made. France ceded to the Eng- 
lish all the country north of the St. Lawrence river, including what is now 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and part of the state of Maine ; also, all the 
country east of the Mississippi river. To Spain, France ceded her claims to 
all the lands west of the Mississippi river. Spain ceded Florida to Eng- 
land; its limits at the time of the cession were much wider than the present 
state of the name. 

In their settlement of America, the French, English and Spaniards 
exhibited much of national traits and dispositions. The French were 
active, enterprising, quick to discern and apprehend advantages, but rest- 
less and fickle. They pushed farther and wider than either English or 
Spaniard, and displayed a keenness of discrimination in seizing and fortify- 
ing strategetic points. The old French forts that were located in the 
wilderness, much of which must have been unexplored and consequently 
unknown, show how accurately the engineers had reckoned — each fortifica- 
tion being a key to a large region. The Spaniards showed the natural 
indolence of their nature by keeping within the soft and mild climates of 
the southern areas. In all their explorations, they carried with them a 
greed for gold and an intolerant religious spirit. Unlike the French, they 



THE PEOPLE. 185 

cared little for securing everything safely behind them: they dropped one 
region as soon as they had skimmed over it and taken away what its sur- 
face afforded, and pushed on in search after gold and silver mines, or for 
wealth already garnered by the natives. In their dealing with the native 
peoples, they were cruel, rapacious and conscienceless. They treated other 
European colonists with equal disregard to humanity, when they dared to, 
and were careless and indifferent to progress and advancement in what 
constitutes real growth. The Spanish towns in America are not much 
different from what they were three centuries ago. 

The English chose their settlements with, reference to permanency of 
occupation. They advanced in a body, moving out from a central base of 
support. Nothing was skimmed over, nothing left unprotected. The) 7 
moved much more slowly than the French in their territorial acquisitions, 
but when once a region was occupied, it was firmly held. Some adversi- 
ties might drive in their outposts for a time ; the repulse was only tempo- 
rary. Out from their central support came larger bodies and stronger 
columns, and their progress was irresistible. Slowly but surely, French, 
Spaniard and Indian gave way before the march of the sturdy Briton who, 
whenever he planted his foot, did so with a firmness that meant an eternal 
stay. There was only one power great enough, strong enough, persistent 
enough to impair English dominancy in America; that power was itself; 
England could compel obedience to English dictation among all peoples 
except among Englishmen. The control of the entire continent of North 
America by England was eventually certain, when, toward the close of 
the eighteenth century, occurred an event which resulted in a republic of 
English in America, but independent of England. 

The history of Spanish, French, and English occupancy of America, is 
a repetition, in clearer coloring, of what has taken place frequently before. 
The Spaniards carry their national characteristics with them, and leave 
the impress on the conquered provinces. The French show the ingenuity 
and activity of the national mind, as well as its fickleness. They flit about 
gathering in more than they can hold, and abandoning whatever seems 
not to pay rapidly its cost. The English move less rapidly, but with 
irresistible force. They profit b} T the pains, as well as by the mistakes 
of others. They seldom put forth great effort for the acquirement of ter- 
ritory which does not promise ample reward. 



POPULATION. 

The last complete census of the United States was taken in the month 
of June, 1880, the time being limited by Act of Congress, passed March 3, 
1879, to one month for the rural population and small towns, and to two 
weeks in large cities. While the primary object of the establishment 
of the Census Bureau was the collection of statistics relating to the 
population, many other matters of interest and importance were incor- 
porated in the provisions of the bill. These, so far as they related to 
population, are concerned about the distribution and classification of the 
population. The age, sex, nationality, color, etc., of the people are given 
in the accompany ing tables of this book. The relative number of per. 
sons dwelling in cities and towns of 4,000 and over, and .those dwelling 
in strictly rural districts, are given. Also the distribution of the people 
according to latitude, longitude, temperature, altitude, etc., are all shown 
in the tables. 

Many of the items presented were collected at the late census for the 
first time. The largest provision was made by the government for mak- 
ing this enumeration comprehensive, accurate and complete in every way; 
$3,000,000 were appropriated for taking the census, and as much more 
for compiling and publishing the returns. Though six years have elapsed 
since the completion of the census, the report is not yet published in full. 
Several volumes are yet in course of preparation. The whole will com. 
prise nearly twenty large quarto volumes, and will be generally inaccessible 
to the people. 

The facts herewith presented have been compiled from official sources, 
much of which is to be found only in the unpublished reports of the depart- 
ment. Care has been taken to avoid the unnecessary multiplication of 
details which would prove uninteresting and unprofitable to the majority 
of the people to whom this volume may come. Nothing, however, has 
been omitted that is of prime importance to a full, comprehensive and 
accurate presentation of this department. 

The graphic delineation of many facts presented in the statistical 
tables, is more thorough and complete than anything heretofore offered 
to the public. 

(187) 



188 



POPULATION. 



The entire population of the United States by sex, nativity and race in the several 

states and territories. 



States and Territories. 



The United States. 

Alabama , 

Arkansas , 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire .... 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Ehode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Total. 



Male. 



Female. 



Nath 



Foreign. 



50,155,783 25,518,820 24,636,963 43,475,840 6,679,943 



1,262,505 

802,525 

864,694 

194,327 

622,700 

146.608 

269,493 

1,542,180 

3,077,871 

1,978,301 

1,624,615 

996,096 

1,648,690 

939,946 

648,936 

934,943 

1,783,085 

1,636,937 

780,773 

1,131,597 

2,168,380 

452,402 

62,266 

346,991 

1,131,116 

5,082,871 

1,399,750 

3,198,062 

174,768 

4,282,891 

276,531 

995,577 

1,542,359 

1,591,749 

332,286 

1,512,565 

618,457 

1,315,497 

40,440 

135,177 

177,624 

32,610 

39,159 

119,565 

143,963 

75,116 

20,789 



622,629 

416,279 

518,176 

129,131 

305,782 

74,108 

136,444 

762,981 

1,586,523 

1,010,361 

848,136 

536,667 

832,590 

468,754 

324,058 

462,187 

858,440 

862,355 

419,149 

567,177 

1,127,187 

249,241 

42,019 

170,526 

559,922 

2,505,322 

687,908 

1,613,936 

103,381 

2,136,655 

133,030 

490,408 

769,277 

837,840 

166,887 

745,589 

314,495 

680,069 

28,202 

82,296 

83,578 

. 21,818 

28,177 

64,496 

74,509 

45,973 

14,152 



639,876 

386,246 

346,518 

65,196 

316,918 

72,500 

133,049 

779,199 

1,491,348 

967,940 

776,479 

- 459,429 

816,100 

471,192 

324,878 

472,756 

924,645 

774,582 

361,624 

564,420 

1,041,193 

203,161 

20,247 

176,465 

571,194 

2,577,549 

711,842 

1,584,126 

71,387 

2,146,236 

143,501 

505,169 

773,082 

753,909 

165,399 

766,976 

303,962 

635,428 

12,238 

52,881 

94,046 

10,792 

10,982 

55,069 

69,454 

29,143 

6,637 



1,252,771 

792,175 

571,820 

154,537 

492,708 

137,140 

259,584 

1,531,616 

2,494,295 

1,834,123 

1,362,965 

886,010' 

1,589,173 

885,800 

590,053 

852,137 

1,339,594 

1,248,429 

513,097 

1,122,388 

1,956,802 

354,988 

36,613 

300,697 

909,416 

3,871,492 

1,396,008 

2,803,119 

144,265 

3,695,062 

202,538 

987,891 

1,525,657 

1,477,133 

291,327 

1,497,869 

600,192 

910,072 

24,391 

83,382 

160,502 

22,636 

27,638 

111,514 

99,969 

59,313 

14,939 



9,734 

10,350 

292,874 

39,790 

129,992 

9,468 

9,909 

10,564 

583,576 

144,178 

261,650 

110,086 

59,517 

54.146 

58,883 

.82,806 

443,491 

388,508 

267,676 

9,209 

211,578 

97,414 

25,653 

46,294 

221,700 

1,211,379 

3,742 

394,943 

30,503 

587,829 

73,993 

7,686 

16,702 

114,616 

40,959 

14,696 

18,265 

405,425 

16,049 

51,795 

17,122 

9,974 

11,521 

8,051 

43,994 

15,803 

5,850 



POPULATION. 189 

The entire population of the United States by sex, nativity, race, etc. — Continued. 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan" 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire .... 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



White. 



43,402,970 



662,185 

591,531 

767,181 

191,126 

610,769 

120,160 

142,605 

816,906 

3,031,151 

1,938,798 

1,614,600 

952,155 

1,377,179 

454,954 

646,852 

724,693 

1,763,782 

1,614,560 

776,884 

479,398 

2,022,826 

449,764 

53,556 

346,229 

1,092,017 

5,016,022 

867,242 

3,117,920 

163,075 

4,197,016 

269,939 

391,105 

1,138,831 

1,197,237 

331,218 

880,858 

592,537 

1,309,618 

35,160 

133,147 

118,006 

29,013 

35,385 

108,721 

142,423 

67,199 

19,437 



Colored. 



6,580,793 



600,103 

210,666 

6,018 

2,435 

11,547 

26,442 

126,690 

725,133 

46,368 

39,228 

9.516 

43,107 

271,451 

483,655 

1,451 

210,230 

18,697 

15,100 

1,564 

650,291 

145,350 

2,385 

488 

685 

38,853 

65,104 

531,277 

79,900 

487 

85,535 

6,488 

604,332 

403,151 

393,384 

1,057 

631,616 

25,886 

2,702 

155 

401 

59,596 

53 

346 

1,015 

232 

325 

298 



Chinese. 



105,465 



Japanese. 



4 
133 

75,132 

612 

123 

1 

18 

17 

209 

29 

33 

19 

10 

489 

8 

5 

229 

27 

24 

51 

91 

18 

5,416 

14 

170 

909 



109 

9,510 

148 

27 

9 

25 

136 



6 

5 

16 

1,630 

238 

13 

3,378 

1,765 

57 

501 

3,186 

914 



148 



Indians. 



66,407 



213 

195 

16,277 

154 

255 

5 

180 

124 

140 

246 

466 

815 

50 

848 

625 

15 

369 

7,249 

2,300 

1,857 

113 

235 

2,803 

63 

74 

819 

1,230 

130 

1,694 

184 

77 

131 

352 

.992 

11 

85 

29 

3,161 

3,493 

1,391 

5 

165 

1,663 

9,772 

807 

4,405 

140 



190 



POPULATION, 



Percentage of increase of population, from 1790 to 1880, in the severa states and 

territories. 



States and Territories. 


1870 
to 

1880. 


I860 

to 

1870. 


1850 

to 

1860. 


1840 

to 

1850. 


1830 

to 

1840. 


1820 

to 

1830. 


1810 

to 

1820. 


1800 

to 

1810. 


1790 

to 

1800. 




26.6 

318.7 
65.6 

54.3 
387.4 
15.8 
853.2 
17.2 
34.8 
43.5 

117.4 
21.1 
17.7 
36.0 


3.4 


24.9 


30.6 


90.8 


142.0 
















Arkansas 


11.2 

47.4 
16.2 
16.8 
193.1 
11.4 
75.4 
33.7 
11.9 


107.4 
310.3 


115.1 


221.0 


113.1 
















Colorado 












Connecticut 


24.0 


19.6 


4.1 


8.1 


5.0 


4.3 


54 






Delaware 


22.5 
45.2 
60.5 
16.6 


17.2 
18.2 
60.5 
31.0 


1.7 

9.7 

56.8 

33.7 


5.4 
20.5 


0.1 
37.5 


13.0 

70.4 


87 


District of Columbia 




Florida 




Idaho 


51.5 


35.0 


55.1 


97.0 


Illinois 


48.3 
24.4 

76.9 


101.0 

36.6 

251.1 


78.8 
44.1 

345.8 


202.4 
99.9 


185.4 
133.0 


349.1 

500.2 




Indiana 


334.6 




Iowa 




Kansas 


173.3 239.9 












Kentucky 


24.8 
29.3 
3.5 
19.7 
22.3 
38.2 
77.5 
36.6 
25.9 
90.1 

267.8 
46.5 
9.0 
24.8 
30.1 
15.9 
30.6 
19.9 
92.2 
21.6 
27.2 
41.0 
22.5 
94.4 
65.8 
0.5 
23.4 

213.5 
39.9 
24.7 

127.9 


14.3 

2.6 
a 0.2 
13.6 
18.3 
58.0 
155.6 
4.6 
45.6 


17.6 
36.7 

7.7 
17.8 
23.7 
88.3 
2,730.7 
30.4 
73.3 


25.9 
46.9 
16.2 
24.0 
34.8 
87.3 


13.3 

63.3 

25.6 

5.1 

20.8 
570.9 


21.9 
41.0 
33.9 
9.7 
16.6 
260.9 


38.7 
99.7 
30.4 
7.0 
10.8 
84.0 


83.9 


199 8 






Maine 


50.7 
11.4 
11.6 


571 


Maryland 


68 


Massachusetts 


116 


Michigan 










Mississippi 


61.4 

77.7 


174.9 
173.1 


81.0 
111.0 


86.9 
219.2 


355.9 












326.4 

519.6 

a 2.3 

34.8 

a 1.7 

12.9 

7.9 

13.9 

73.3 

21.1 

24.4 

0.2 • 

13.4 

35.4 

115.4 

4.9 

&4.4 

106.6 
















Nevada 
















New Hampshire 


2.5 

37.2 

51.9 

25.2 

14.2 

18.1 

294.6 

25.7 

18.3 

5.2 

10.6 

184.2 

253.8 

0.3 

12.2 


11.7 
31.1 


5.6 
16.3 


10.3 
15.6 


13.7 
12.9 


16.6 
16.2 


29 5 


New Jersey 


14 6 






New York 


27.5 
15.3 
30.3 


26.5 

2.0 

62.0 


39.8 
15.5 
61.3 


43.0 

15.0 

151.9 


62.8 
16.1 

408.6 


731 


North Carolina 


21 4 


Ohio 




Oregon 




Pennsylvania 


34.0 
35.5 
12.4 
20.9 


27.8 

11.9 

2.2 

21.6 


28.7 
17.0 
15.6 
61.2 


29.3 

7.9 

21.1 

61.5 


34.4 

11.2 

20.1 

147.8 


38 6 


Rhode Island , 


04 


South Carolina 


38 7 


Tennessee 


195 8 


Texas 




Utah 














Vermont 


7.5 
14.6 


4.0 
2.3 


18.9 
13.7 


8.2 
9.2 


41.0 
10.7 


80 8 


Virginia 


17 7 
























35.9 


154.0 


886.8 











































a Decrease. 



6 Of Virginia and West Virginia together. 



































THE INCREASE 


IN POPULATION 


r 


States. 


1800 




1810. 


1820. 


1830 






1 Virginia __ 

2 Pennsylvania 

3 New York _ 

4 North Carolin 

5 Massachusetts 

6 South Carolin 

7 Maryland — 

8 Connecticut 

9 Kentucky — 

10 New Jersey - 

11 New Hampshi 




) 

i> 








) 






( 880,200 

_J 602,365 

f 589,051 


rv» 


974,600 "L^^ 


^yN.Y. i472,iii 

^^/Va. 1,065,116 


SU.X. 1,918,608 \_ 


< J 
/Pa. 1,348,238 \_ 




TN^Y" 


959,049 'U*^ 


^^/Va. 1,211,405 "> 


X 

X 




(Pa. 

rrc r. 

„ /Mno» 


8in nm l 

472,040 V 
415,115 I ^S 
406,511 l*-^^ 


f\>„ 1047R07 
l"N fl KS8 89.Q 


> 


a _/ 478,103 

_J 422,845 

a — I 345,591 

[ 341,548 


) 


/O. 937,903 V^. 


/O. 581,295 


* ,/N.C. 737,987 V 


) 
\ 


, , f a r 


,. Jj&y- 564,135 
^TS/Mass. 5'23.15B 


) — 


_/Ky 687,917 \ 
/Tenn. 6Hl,yU4 V^ 




s^- 


. f 251,002 


K. 


^^/Md. 


380,546 \ 


7\/S. C. 502,741 


)*«• 


><C/Mass. 610,408 •» 
^^VB.O. 581,195 \ 


T 220,955 


y 


**^^/Conn 


261,942 I ^N 


/ Tl'enn. 42'2,77i 


y 


i 211,149 




/Tenn 


261,727 1*-V/ 


^S^Md. 407,350 


s~. 


/Ga. 516,823 U- 


re 4 183,858 
__[ 162,686 


\ r^ 


/N/N.J. 




f« *m Qa* 


1 


"""""-••J'Md. 447,040 I 


v/r| 


245,562 Lj/ 


\ ■ /Me. 298,269 
^Vn/N. J. 277,426 




I Me aQfl^RR \ 


) 


/Ind. 343,031 \/ 


/O. 


230,760 V 


^3 


^ / / M" 


228,705 X/r 
217,895 \^^ 


Vconn. 275,148 




*"*>C/N.J. 320,823 \ 


/I 


15 Tennessee — 

16 Rhode Island 

17 Delaware — 


__/ 105,602 


/ 


^Vs/vt. 


Aj, 








^/N. H. 244,022 


/ /Ala. 309,527 i/ 


\1\ 


1 69,122 


Vn.h. 


214,460 j "^ 


"^^jTt. 235,966 




^S/ Conn. 297,675 \ 


/M 


__[ 4.273 




^* JB.I. 


76,931 V 


^JLa. 152,923 




>^«^/Vt. 280,652 \ 








v >[La. 


76,556 1—*^ 


/Ind. 147,178 


N/JN.H. 269,328 I 


19 Mississippi . 


___J 8,850 


/^Del. 


72,674 \ 


\/ /Ala. 127,901 




"\rjja. 215,739 \_\ 
/111. 157,445 y 


f ?<M1 




"^^/Miss. 


40,352 k^S/ 


XfR. I. 83,015 




21 Louisiana 

22 Missouri 


V ' 


""^-^Ind. 


24,520 y 


>^*^/Mi66. 75,448 




/{ Mo. 140,455 y 


f M„ 


20,845 L 
12,282 k^,/ 
4,762 L/ 


/ N/Del. 72,749 




J^^^/Miss. 136,621 y 


23 Illinois 






/Til 


^">JMo. 66,557 


N/B.I. 97,199 L 


24 Michigan 






(Mich 


""--•.JILL 55,162 




"Vj'Del. 76,748 I 


25 Alabama _ 








w ^JArk. 14,255 


^ 


/Fla. 34,730 1 


2o Arkansas 












^N/Mich. 8,765 






27 Florida 










^N/Ark. 30,388 l^ 


sTF 


28 Iowa 
















— e 


29 Wisconsin 

30 Texas 




































31 California _ 
S2 Oregon 






































33 Minnesota - 




































































































39 West Virginia 


































Copyrighted 



THE INCREASE IN POPULATION 



States. 



1800. 



880,200 



1 Virginia _ 

2 Pennsylvania __/ 602,365 

3 New York _ 



__/ 589,051 

4 North Carolina _/478,103 J, 

5 Massachusetts __/ 422,845 \ 

6 South Carolina — / 345,591 I 

7 Maryland — 

8 Connecticut 

9 Kentucky 

10 New Jersey 

11 New Hampshire - [ 183,85 8 

12 Georgia 

13 Vermont 

14 Maine 



15 Tennessee 

16 Ehode Island —f 

17 Delaware 

18 Ohio 

19 Mississippi 

20 Indiana 

21 Louisiana 

22 Missouri 

23 Illinois 

24 Michigan 

25 Alabama 

26 Arkansas 

27 Florida 

28 Iowa 

29 Wisconsin 



30 Texas 



31 California 



32 Oregon 



33 Minnesota 



34 Kansas 

35 Colorado 

36 Nebraska 

37 Nevada — 

38 Dakota . 



1810. 



1820. 



1830 




39 West Virginia 



POPULATION. 191 

Density of population, in different periods, in the several states and territories. 

(The figures of this table have been obtained by dividing the population by the total land area of the state or territory.) 



States and Territories. 


1880. 


1870. 


I860. 


1850. 


1840. 


1830. 


1820. 


1810. 


1800. 


17 90. 


Alabama 


24.5 

0.4 
15.1 

5.5 

1.9 
128.5 

0.9 

74,8 

2,960.4 

5.0 
26.1 

0.4 
55.0 
55.1 
29.3 
12.2 
41.2 
20.7 
21.7 
94.8 
221.8 
28.5 

9.8 
24.4 
31.5 

0.3 

5.9 

0.6 

38.5 

151.7 

1.0 

106.7 

28.8 

78.5 

1.8 

95.2 

254.9 

33.0 

36.9 

6.1 

1.7 
36.4 
37.7 

1.1 
25.1 
24.2 

0.2 


19.3 

0.0 

9.1 

3.5 

0.3 

110.9 

0.0 

63.7 

2,195.0 

3.4 

20.0 

0.1 

45.3 

47.0 

21.5 

4.4 

33.0 

16.0 

20.9 

79.1 

181.2 

20.6 

5.5 

17.8 

25.0 

0.1 

1.6 

0.3 

35.3 

121.5 

0.7 

92.0 

22.0 

65.3 

0.9 

78.2 

200.3 

23.3 

30.1 

3.1 

1.0 

36.1 

30.5 

0.3 

17.9 

19.3 

0.0 


18.7 


14.9 


11.4 


6.0 


2.4 








Arizona . 








Arkansas . 


8.2 

2.4 

0.3 

95.0 


3.9 
0.6 


1.8 


0.6 


0.3 








California 






















Connecticut 


76.5 


64.0 


61.4 


56.8 


54.0 


51.8 


49.1 






Delaware 


57.3 

1,251.3 

2.5 

17.9 


46.7 

861.4 

1.6 

15.4 


39.8 

437.1 

1.0 

11.7 


39.2 

398.3 

0.6 

8.7 


37.1 
330.4 


37.1 
240.2 


32.8 
140.9 


30.2 


District of Columbia 

Florida. 




Georgia 


5.8 


4.3 


2.8 


1.4 


Idaho 




Ilbnois 


30.6 
37.6 
12.2 

• 1.3 
28.9 
15.6 
21.0 
69.6 

153.1 

13.0 

2.2 

17.1 

17.2 


15.2 

27.5 
3.5 


8.5 

19.1 

0.8 


2.8 
9.6 


1.0 
4.1 


0.2 
0.7 






Indiana 


0.2 




Iowa 




Kansas 












Kentucky 


24.6 

11.4 

19.5 

59.1 

123.7 

6.9 

0.0 

13.1 

9.9 


19.5 

7.8 
16.8 
47.7 
91.8 

3.7 


17.2 
4.7 
13.4 
45.3 
75.9 
0.6 


14.1 

3.4 

9.9 

41.3 

65.1 

0.1 


10.2 
1.7 

7.7 
38.6 
58.7 

0.0 


5.5 


1.8 


Louisiana 




Maine 


5.1 
34.6 
52.6 


3.2 


Maryland 

Massachusetts 


32.4 

47.1 


Michigan 




Minnesota. . . 






Mississippi 


8.1 
5.6 


2.9 
2.0 


1.6 
0.9 


0.9 
0.3 


0.2 




Missouri 




Montana 






Nebraska 


0.4 

0.0 
36.2 
90.1 

0.8 
81.3 
20.4 
57.4 

0.6 

64.6 

160.9 

23.3 

26.6 

2.3 

0.5 
34.5 
24.6 

0.2 
















Nevada 
















New Hampshire 

New Jersey 


35.3 
65.7 

0.5 
65.0 
17.9 
48.6 

0.1 

51.4 

136.0 

22.2 

24.0 

0.8 

0.1 
34.4 
21.9 


31.6 
50.1 


29.9 
43.0 


27.1 
37.2 


23.8 
32.9 


20.4 
28.3 


15.8 
24.7 


New Mexico 




New York 


51.0 
15.5 
37.3 


40.3 
15.2 
23.0 


28.8 
13.2 
14.3 


20.1 

11.4 

5.7 


12.4 

9.8 
1.1 


7.1 


North Carolina 


8.1 


Ohio 




Oregon 

Pennsylvania 




38.3 

100.3 

19.7 

19.9 


30.0 
89.6 
19.3 
16.3 


23.3 
76.5 
16.7 
10.1 


18.0 

70.9 

13.8 

6.3 


13.4 

63.7 

11.5 

2.5 


9.6 


Rhode Island 


63.4 


South Carolina 


8.2 


Tennessee 


0.8 


Texas 




Utah. 














Vermont 


32.0 
19.1 


30.7 
18.7 


25.8 
16.4 


23.9 
15.0 


16.9 
13.6 


9.4 


Virginia 


11.5 


Washington 




West Virginia 

Wisconsin 
















14.2 


5.6 


0.6 












Wyoming 































192 POPULATION. 

The distribution of population in elevation above sea- level. 



Height above sea-lbvel. 



Feet. 

0- 100 

100- 500 

500- 1,000 

1,000- 1,500 

1,500- 2,000 

2,000- 3,000 

3,C00- 4,000 

4,000- 5,000 

5,000- 6,000 

6,000- 7,000 

7,000- 8,000 

8,000- 9,000 

9,000-10,000 

Above 10,000 









Aggregate. 


Foreign. 


Colored. 


9,152,296 


1,891,247 


1,466,233 


10,776,284 


942,196 


2,958,864 


19,024,320 


2,469,816 


1,704,158 


7,904,780 


934,178 


354,013 


1,878,715 


185,850 


59,556 


664,923 


94,218 


24,983 


128,544 


15,357 


8,172 


167,236 


49,931 


1,314 


271,317 


55,159 


1,676 


94,443 


19,112 


729 


15,054 


2,423 




24,947 


6,792 


454 


26,846 


5,775 


311 


26,078 


7,888 


330 



The distribution of population in accordance with topographical features. 



Region. 



Total. 



North Atlantic coast 

Middle Atlantic coast 

South Atlantic coast 

Gulf coast 

Northeast Appalachian region 

Central Appalachian region 

Region of the great lakes 

Interior plateau 

Southern Appalachian region 

Ohio valley 

Southern interior plateau 

Mississippi river belt, south 

Mississippi river belt, north 

Southwest central region 

Central region . i 

Prairie region 

Missouri river belt 

Western plains 

Heavily timbered region of the Northwest . 

Cordilleran region 

Pacific coast 



Aggregate. 



50,155,783 



2,616,870 

4,376,135 

875,086 

1,056,034 

1,669,229 

2,344,089 

3,049,402 

5,714,683 

2,697,958 

2,440,339 

3,625,545 

710,250 

1,990,917 

2,932,676 

4,403,662 

5,721,836 

835,694 

324,268 

1,123,419 

931,910 

715,781 



Foreign. 



6,679,943 



559,945 

1,008,755 

10,054 

91,876 

278,995 

264,250 

932,353 

660,291 

18,738 

2413,218 

15,123 

12,573 

441,930 

109,801 

240,183 

929,104 

106,643 

48,300 

224,528 

255,996 

227,287 



Colored. 



6,752,813 



31,482 

518,632 

485,589 

448,195 

10,997 

44,615 

30,747 

724,096 

433,538 

138,427 

1,972,449 

459,854 

79,954 

640,834 

411,501 

83,894 

64,361 

7,490 

13,540 

88,754 

63,864 



POPULATION. 193 

Distribution of population in accordance with the mean annual temperature. 



Groups. 


Population, 

1880. 


Foreign. 


Colored. 


Below 40° 


273,581 

3,498,226 

13,698,854 

16,285,833 

7,466,685 

5,204,826 

3,293,261 

423,456 

11,061 


86,553 

829,714 

2,673,171 

2,179,077 

576,845 

131,654 

142,524 

54,653 

5,752 


1,986 

13,856 

177,024 

818,218 

1,685,604 

3,226,994 

1,552,050 

151,849 

3,212 


40 to 45 . . 


45 to 50 - 


50 to 55 '. 


55 to 60 


60 to 65 


65 to 70 


70 to 75 


Above 75 





Distribution of population in accordance with the mean temperature of July. 



Groups. 


Population, 
1880. 


Foreign. 


Colored. 


Below 60°. 


244,593 

783,256 

5,147,657 

19,551,956 

16,518,718 

7,799,258 

93,655 

16,690 


107,160 

182,242 

971,499 

3,987,747 

1,124,476 

278,293 

23,867 

4,659 


1480 


60 to 65 , 


3,892 
39 093 


65 to 70 


70 to 75 


314,907 

2,987,571 

3,221,286 

12,564 


75 to 80 


80 to 85 


85 to 90 .... . 


Above 90 







Distribution of population in accordance with the mean temperature of January. 



Groups. 


Population, 
1880. 


Foreign. 


Colored. 


Below 5° 


50,078 

266,041 

1,760,680 

3,482,498 

10,292,914 

9,146,951 

10,150,706 

5,611,319 

3,588,008 

3,495,278 

1,824,138 

456,750 

24,930 

5,491 


25,570 

95,309 

465,706 

678,343 

1,841,070 

1,286,495 

1,660,441 

107,901 

72,011 

106,624 

254,448 

76,087 

7,177 

2,761 


224 


5 to 10 


802 


10 to 15 


4,493 
15,920 


15 to 20 


20 to 25 


102,801 

231,272 

655,051 

1,487,092 

1,568,243 

1,723,924 

655,278 

131,243 

2,845 

1,605 


25 to 30 


30 to 35 


35 to 40 


40 to 45 


45 to 50 


50 to 55 


55 to 60 


60 to 65 


Above 65 





194 POPULATION, 

Distribution of population in accordance with the maximum temperature. 



Groups. 


Population, 
1880. 


Foreign. 


Colored. 


Below 85° . '.. 


539 

173,221 

658,742 

26.169,737 

20,394,098 

2,688,145 

49,632 

21,669 


225 

52,512 

186,772 

4,182,269 

1,955,161 

286,269 

11,719 

5,016 




85 to 90 


1,292 


90 to 95 


3,042 


95 to 100 


1,901,764 


100 to 105 


4,450,723 


105 to 110 


223,972 


110 to 115 , 













Distribution of population in accordance with the minimum temperature. 



Groups. 


Population, 
1580. 


Foreign. 


Colored. 


Below 55° 


16,949 

9,155 

134,218 

673,178 

3,856,905 

5,718,754 

8,471,652 

11,807,385 

6,614,689 

2,623,122 

2,159,390 

2,103,963 

3,625,371 

1,095,847 

667,518 

157,935 

90,369 

329,383 


4,021 

2,123 

52,625 

236,350 

770,094 

1,443,712 

1,487,669 

1,262,469 

835,508 

91,304 

24,630 

21,324 

39,451 

93,759 

123,592 

39,053 

24,240 

128,019 


246 


45 to — 50. 




40 to 45 


1,626 


35 to 40 


2,476 


30 to — 35 


18,130 


25 to 30 


64,862 


20 to — 25 


85,911 


15 to 20. 


518,216 


10 to — 15 


815,452 


5 to 10. . 


714,191 


to — 5 


822,926 


to 5 


940,832 


5 to 10 


1,924,296 


10 to 15 


469,054 


15 to 20 


192,210 


20 to 25 


3,743 


25 to 30 


3,616 


Above 30 


3,006 







Distribution of population in accordance with the rainfall of the spring and summer. 



Classes— inches or rainfall. 



Population, 

1880. 



Foreign. 



Colored. 



35 and above 

30 to 35 

25 to 30 

20 to 25 

15 to 20 

10 to 15 

5tol0 

Below 5 



80,671 

1,278,610 

9,138,302 

30,880,014 

7,329,341 

972,376 

395,613 

80,856 



1,578 

17,977 

401,729 

4,276,749 

1,590,692 

271,977 

100,708 

18,533 



37,191 

708,673 

3,289,715 

2,435,856 

96,364 

8,968 

3,359 

667 



POPULATION. 

Distribution of population in accordance with the annual rainfall. 



195 



Classes— inches of rainfall. 



Population, 

1880. 



Foreign. 



Colored. 



60 and above 

55 to 60 

50 to 55 

45 to 50 

40 to 45 

35 to 40 

30 to 35 

25 to 30 

20 to 25 

15 to 20 .... . 

10 to 15 

Below 10 



856,787 

2,816,959 

4,311,873 

12,754,684 

11,356,390 

10,018,518 

4,993,847 

1,217,286 

829,303 

530,856 

314,984 

154,296 



68,332 

26,561 

65,894 

2,014,196 

1,048,732 

1,406,853 

1,188,095 

319,213 

278,802 

152,592 

61,884 

48,789 



368,201 

1,026,049 

2,207,280 

1,826,118 

686,953 

363,293 

77,918 

8,877 

8,293 

2,985 

3,539 

1,287 



Distribution of population in latitude. 



Degrees. 


Aggregate 
1880. 


Foreign. 


Colored. 


48-49 


16,444 

79,083 

215,111 

483,143 

1,767,795 

2,678,388 

5,357,851 

5,938,011 

7,862,855 

6,265,029 

3,995,956 

2,831,270 

2,170,098 

2,077,826 

1,805,477 

1,939,598 

1,938,653 

1,059,689 

865,084 

673,441 

60,655 

36,262 

20,707 

8,664 

8,693 


6,497 

31,630 

73,864 

140,177 

405,733 

596,812 

1,126,563 

1,174,151 

1,425,864 

730,681 

432,870 

232,547 

24,050 

23,015 

21,804 

21,613 

36,460 

14,236 

29,848 

91,067 

6,975 

13,429 

11,223 

4,429 

4,405 




47-48 


225 


46-47 


746 


45-46 


1,905 


44-45 , 


4,343 


43 44 


10,132 


42-43 


42,448 


41-42 


64,705 


40 41 


124,521 


39-40 


382,401 


38 39 


473,789 


37 38 


492,299 


36 37 


565,038 


35 36 


588,137 


34-35 


722,204 


33 34 


884,250 




1,089,887 




474,330 


30 31 


404,928 




234,783 




14,210 




1,872 




686 




386 




2,568 







196 



POPULATION. 

Distribution of population in longitude. 



67-68. 

68-69. 

69-70. 

70-71. 

71-72 . 

72-73. 

73-74. 

74-75. 

75-76 . 

76-77. 

77-78. 

78-79. 

79-80. 

80-81 . 

81-82 . 

82-83 . 

83-84. 

81-85 . 

85-86. 

86-87. 

87-88 . 

88-89. 

89-90. 

90-91. 

91-92 . 

92-93. 

93-94 . 

94-95. 

95-96. 

96-97. 

97-98. 

98-99 . 
99-100. 
100-101. 
101-102. 
102-103. 
103-104. 
104-105. 
105-106. 
106-107. 
107-108. 
108-109. 
109-110. 
110-111. 
111-112. 
112-113. 
113-114. 
114-115. 
115-116. 
116-117. 
117-118. 
118-119. 
119-120. 
120-121 . 
121-122. 
122-123. 
123-124. 
124-125. 



Degrees. 



Aggregate 
1880. 



52,817 

129,818 

201,523 

606,091 

1,763,023 

920,934 

3,036,838 

1,603,823 

2,590,596 

2,220,018 

1,760,637 

1,376,026 

1,670,342 

1,559,376 

1,682,841 

1,571,917 

2,049,446 

2,577,572 

2,181,397 

1,830,855 

2,258,544 

2,051,999 

1,854,884 

2,235,722 

1,480,185 

1,263,943 

1,401,493 

1,260,639 

994,554 

900,318 

722,221 

367,321 

126,877 

48,151 

4,948 

10,853 

32,909 

86,244 

97,390 

95,033 

26.213 

15,540 

12,561 

23,912 

119,156 

55,980 

21,370 

11,231 

13,030 

23,838 

58,680 

58,532 

71,324 

119,050 

257,813 

474,697 

96,011 

16,727 



Foreign. 



8,725 

12,035 

10,278 

88,349 

440,597 

168,778 

898,498 

294,960 

405,687 

197,948 

102,057 

108,740 

157,118 

102,135 

128,751 

106,868 

210,555 

229,314 

145,486 

94.080 

409,924 

290,579 

190,596 

341,694 

167,334 

137,164 

154,376 

125,437 

117,341 

128,515 

107,927 

58,234 

19,927 

9,246 

1,240 

2,524 

7,616 

14,063 

15,953 

15,273 

4,192 

2,997 

3,627 

9,778 

38,007 

17,138 

6,033 

3,365 

4,973 

8,922 

11,336 

13,886 

11,728 

36,208 

81,397 

169,316 

18,825 

2,293 



Colored. 



192 

472 

3,510 

20,317 

10,423 

49,439 

39,769 

148,687 

356,727 

457.486 

301,986 

337,795 

297,756 

348,316 

242,673 

300,742 

422,479 

307,168 

335,735 

348,072 

301,423 

354,985 

469,597 

329,103 

167,713 

150,158 

136,526 

141,023 

119,410 

56,792 

8,480 

2,202 

1,429 

"'300 

589 
1,377 
824 
797 
118 



100 
301 
325 
107 



53 
288 
100 
200 
166 
1,551 
4,426 
587 



POPULATION. 



197 



Population of the United States as native and foreign-born, in different periods, by 

the several states and territories. 



States and Territories. 



Native. 



1870. 



1860. 



Foreign-born. 



1880. 



1870. 



1860. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia, 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Ehode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

"Washington 

West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



43,475,840 



32,991,142 



27.304,624 



6,679,943 



5,567,229 



1,252,771 

24,391 

792,175 

571,820 

154,537 

492,708 

83,382 

137,140 

160,502 

259,584 

1,531,616 

22,636 

2,494,295 

1,834,123 

1,362,965 

886,010 

1,589,173 

885,800 

590,053 

852,137 

1,339,594 

1,248,429 

513,097 

1,122,388 

1,956,802 

27,638 

354,988 

36,613 

300,697 

909,416 

111,514 

3,871,492 

1,396,008 

2,803,119 

144,265 

3,695,062 

202,538 

987,891 

1,525,657 

1,477,133 

'99,969 

291,327 

1,497,869 

59,313 

600,192 

910,072 

14,939 



987,030 

3,849 

479,445 

350,416 

33,265 

423,815 

9,366 

115,879 

115,446 

182,781 

1,172,982 

7,114 

2,024,693 

1,539,163 

989,328 

316,007 

1,257,613 

665,088 

578,034 

697,482 

1,104,032 

916,049 

279,009 

816,731 

1,499,028 

12,616 

92,245 

23,690 

288,689 

717,153 

86,254 

3,244,406 

1,068,332 

2,292,767 

79,323 

2,976,642 

161,957 

697,532 

1,239,204 

756,168 

56,084 

283,396 

1,211,409 

18,931 

424,923 

690,171 

5,605 



951,849 

431,850 

233,466 

31,611 

379,451 

3,063 

103,051 

62,596 

137,115 

1,045,615 



1,387,308 

1,232,144 

568,836 

94,515 

1,095,885 
627,027 
590,826 
609,520 
970,960 
600,020 
113,295 
782,747 

1,021,471 



22,490 

4,793 

305,135 

549,245 

86,793 

2,879,455 

989,324 

2,011,262 

47,342 

2,475,710 

137,226 

693,722 

1,088,575 

560,793 

27,519 

282,355 

1,201,117 

8,450 

360,143 

498,954 



9,734 

16,049 

10,350 

292,874 

39,790 

129,992 

51,795 

9,468 

17,122 

9,909 

10,564 

9,974 

583,576 

144,178 

261,650 

110,086 

59,517 

54,146 

58,883 

82,806 

443,491 

388,508 

267,676 

. 9,209 

211,578 

11,521 

97,414 

25,653 

46,294 

221,700 

8,051 

1,211,379 

3,742 

394,943 

30,503 

587,829 

73,993 

7,686 

16,702 

114,616 

43,994 

40,959 

14,696 

15,803 

18,265 

405,425 

5,850 



9,962 

5,809 

5,026 

209,831 

6,599 

113,639 

4,815 

9,136 

16,254 

4,967 

11,127 

7,885 

515,198 

141,474 

204,692 

48,392 

63,398 

61,827 

48,881 

83,412 

353,319 

268,010 

160,697 

11,191 

222,267 

7,979 

30,748 

18,801 

29,611 

188,943 

5,620 

1,138,353 

3,029 

372,493 

11,600 

545,309 

55,396 

8,074 

19,316 

62,411 

30,702 

47,155 

13,754 

5,024 

17,091 

364,499 

3,513 



4,138,697 



12,352 



3,600 
146,528 

2,666 
80,696 

1,774 

9,165 
12,484 

3,309 
11,671 



324,643 

118,284 

106,077 

12,691 

59,799 

80,975 

37.453 

77,529 

260,106 

149,093 

58,728 

8,558 

160,541 



6,351 

2,064 

20.938 

122.790 

6,723 

1,001,280 

3,298 

328,249 

5,123 

430,505 

37,394 

9,986 

21,226 

43,422 

12,754 

32,743 

18,513 

3,144 

16,545 

276,967 



198 



POPULATION. 



Population of the United States, as white and colored, in different periods, in the several 

states and territories. 



States and Territories. 



White. 



1880. 



1870. 



1860. 



Colored. 



1880. 



1870. 



1860. 



The United States. 



43,402,970 



33,589,377 



26,922,537 



6,580,793 



4,880,009 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania ; . . 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



662,185 
35,160 
591,531 
767,181 
191,126 
610,769 
133,147 
120,160 
118,006 
142,605 
816,906 
29,013 

3,031,151 

1,938,798 

1,614,600 
952,155 

1,377,179 
454,954 
646,852 
724,693 

1,763,782 

1,614,560 
776,884 
479.398 

2,022,826 

35,385 

449.764 

53,556 

346,229 

1,092,017 
108,721 

5,016,022 
867,242 

3,117,920 
163,075 

4,197,016 
269,939 
391,105 

1,138,831 

1,197,237 
142,423 
331,218 
880,858 
67,199 
592,537 

1,309,618 
19,437 



521,384 

9,581 

362,115 

499,424 

39,221 

527,549 

12,887 

102,221 

88,278 

96,057 

638,926 

10,618 

2,511,096 

1,655,837 

1,188,207 

346,377 

1,098,692 

362,065 

624,809 

605,497 

1,443,156 

1,167,282 

438,257 

382,896 

1,603,146 

18,306 

122,117 

38,959 

317,697 

875,407 

90,393 

4,330,210 

678,470 

2,601,946 

86,929 

3,456,609 

212,219 

289,667 

936,119 

564,700 

86,044 

329,613 

712,089 

22,195 

424,033 

1,051,351 

8,726 



526,271 



324,143 

323,177 
34,231 

451,504 

2,576 

90,589 

60,763 

77,746 

591,550 



1,704,291 

1,338,710 
673,779 
106,390 
919,484 
357,456 
626.947 
515,918 

1,221,432 
736,142 
169,395 
353,899 

1,063,489 



28,696 

6,812 

325,579 

646,699 

82,924 

3,831,590 

629,942 

2,302,808 

52,160 

2,849,259 

170,649 

291,300 

826,722 

420,891 

40,125 

314,369 

1,047,299 

11,138 



773,693 



600,103 

155 

210,666 

6,018 

2,435 

11,547 

401 

26,442 

59,596 

126,690 

725,133 

53 

46,368 

39,228 

9,516 

43,107 

271,451 

483,655 

1,451 

210,230 

18,697 

15,100 

1,564 

650,291 

145,350 

346 

2,385 

488 

685 

38,853 

1,015 

65,104 

531,277 

79,900 

487 

85,535 

6,488 

604,332 

403,151 

393,384 

232 

1,057 

631,616 

325 

25,886 

2,702 

298 



475,510 

26 

122,169 

4,272 

456 

9,668 

94 

22,794 

43,404 

91,689 

545,142 

60 

28,762 

24,560 

5,762 

17,108 

322,210 

364,210 

1,606 

175,391 

13,947 

11,849 

759 

444,201 

118,071 

183 

789 

357 

580 

30,658 

172 

52,081 

391,650 

63,213 

346 

65,294 

4,980 

415,814 

322,331 

253,475 

118 

924 

512,841 

207 

17,980 

2,113 

183 



4,441,830 



437,770 

111,259 

4,086 

46 

8,627 

21,627 

14,316 

62,677 

465,698 

7,628 

11,428 

1,069 

627 

236,167 

350,373 

1,327 

171,131 

9,602 

6,799 

259 

437,404 

118,503 

82 

45 

494 

25,336 

85 

49,004 

361,522 

36,673 

128 

56,949 

3,952 

412,320 

283,019 

182,921 

59 

709 

548,907 

30 



1,171 



THE POPULATION OF EACH STATE AS FOREIGN, NATIVE COLORED, NA' 




Nutlre White bom oot of the Stote. 



I 1 Native White born in the State. 





N.Y. 




TENN. 





MASS. 





ARK. 



W.VA 



MINN. 



KAN. 



HITE, AND AS BORN WITHIN OR WITHOUT THE STATE OF RESIDENCE. 




Explanation. 
In, the left-hand upper figure appear the 
names represented by the different rect- 
angles. The other figures are all similar. 



Persons born out of 
the United States. 

Native Colored 
born in the State. 

Native Colored 
born out of the State 

Native White 
born in the State. 

Native White 
born out of the State- 



Living In other States. 



White.. 



Colored 




OHIO. 




IND. 



J 




MO. 




ILL. 




J 



ICH. 






N.C. 





WIS. 




ALA. 




DEL. 



NEB. 









1 


1 



N.J, 




m 



NEV. 



ORE. 



N.H. 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy &. West 



THE POPULATION OF EACH STATE AS FOREIGN, NATIVE COLORED. NA' 












MASS. 





GA. 








v 




DL 



W.VA. 



MINN. 



KAN. 



VT. 



THE POPULATION OF EACH STATE AS FOREIGN, NATIVE COLORED. 




I 



Nativ 



WHITE, AND AS BORN WITHIN OR WITHOUT THE STATE OF RESIDENCE. 




□0» 



GA. 

31 



Persons born out ol 
the United States. ■ 
Explanation. Na[lve Co , ored 

In the left-hand upper figure appear the barn in theState. 

names represented by the different reel- Native Colored 

angles. The other figures are all similar- born out of the Statel 



Native White 
born out of the State. 



Living In other States. 









HI ■ HI ■! O 

I — S 1 u ^f^ v 




II HI 91 i' 



Copyrighted ]886 by Yaggy A 



POPULATION. 



199 



The Chinese, Japanese and civilized Indians of the United States, at different periods, 
by the several states and territories. 





Chinese. 


Japanese. 


Civilized Indians. 




1880. 


1870. 


I860. 


188 0. 


1870. 


I860. 


1880. 


1870. 


I860. 


The United States . . 


105,465 


63,199 


34,933 


148 


55 




66,407 


25,731 


44,021 




4 

1,630 

133 

75,132 

612 

123 

238 

1 

13 

18 

17 

3,379 

209 

29 

33 

19 

10 

489 

8 

5 

229 

27 

24 

51 

91 

1,765 

18 

5,416 

14 

170 

57 

909 












213 

3,493 

195 

16,277 

154 

255 

1,391 

5 

5 

180 

124 

165 

140 

246 

466 

815 

50 

848 

625 

15 

369 

7,249 

2,300 

1,857 

113 

1,663 

235 

2,803 

63 

74 

9,772 

819 

1,230 

130 

1,694 

184 

77 

131 

352 

992 

807 

11 

85 

4,405 

29 

3,161 

140 


98 

31 

89 

7,241 

180 

235 

1,200 


160 


Arizona . 


20 

98 

49,277 

7 

2 




2 














48 




34,933 


86 


33 




17,798 


Colorado. 


Connecticut . 




6 






16 


Dakota . . 






2,261 


Delaware . 












District of Columbia 


3 




4 






15 

2 

40 

47 

32 

240 

48 

914 

108 

569 

499 

4 

151 

4,926 

690 

809 

75 

157 

87 

23 

23 

16 

1,309 

439 

1,241 

100 

318 

34 

154 

124 

70 

379 

179 

14 

229 

1,319 

1 

1,206 

66 


1 


Florida . 






1 


Georgia 


1 

4,274 
1 










38 


Idaho 












Illinois 




3 






32 


Indiana 






290 


Iowa 


3 










65 


Kansas 










189 


Kentucky 


1 

71 
1 
2 

87 
1 










33 


Louisiana 










173 


Maine 










5 


Maryland 












Massachusetts 

Michigan 




8 
1 
1 


10 
1 




32 
6,172- 


Minnesota . . . 


2,369 


Mississippi 


16 

3 

1,949 








2 


Missouri 










20 














Nebraska 










63 


Nevada 


3,152 




3 








New Hampshire 








New Jersey 


5 




2 


10 






New Mexico 


10,507 


New York 


29 




17 
1 
3 
2 

8 






140 








1,158 


Ohio 


109 

9,510 

148 

27 

9 

25 

136 

501 


1 

3,330 
13 








30 


Oregon 






177 


Rhode Island 


1 




7 
19 




1 










88 


Tennessee 










60 


Texas 


25 
445 










403 


Utah 










89 


Vermont 










20 


Virginia 


6 

3,186 

5 

16 

914 


4 
234 










112 






1 






426 


West Virginia 








Wisconsin 












1,017 


Wyoming, 


143 

























200 



POPULATION, 



The native-born population of the United States distributed according to the state or 

territory of birth. 



States and Territories. 


Born in tho 

United States 


C3 

a 

I 

5 


Arkansas. 


California. 


6 

-d 

as 
h 

_o 
"o 
o 


1 1 

o 
CD . 

go 

O 


CD 
U 

a 
is 
5s 
o 
R 


O 

S 


The United States 


43,475,840 


1,319,189 


"520,740 


355,157 


31,827 


538,832 


155,517 


1^4,518 




1,252,771 

792,175 

571,820 

154,537 

492,708 

137,140 

259,584 

1,531,616 

2,494,295 

1,834,123 

1,362,965 

886,010 

1,589,173 

885,800 

590,053 

852,137 

1,339,594 

1,248,429 

513,097 

1,122,388 

1,956,802 

354,988 

36,613 

300,697 

909,416 

3,871,492 

1,396,008 

2,803,119 

144,265 

3,695,062 

202,538 

987,891 

1,525,657 

1,477,133 

291,327 

1,497,869 

600,192 

910,072 

24,391 

83,382 

160,502 

22,636 

27,638 

111,514 

99,969 

59,313 

14,939 


1,014,633 

39,013 

1,381 

452 

131 

7 

12,023 

17,009 

3,319 

892* 

378 

1,605 

1,854 

23,263 

13 

216 

143 

231 

168 

75,558 

5,358 

208 

81 

20 

150 

793 

642 

727 

238 

306 

21 

891 

22,200 

93,625 

8 

477 

51 

163 

130 

53 

300 

63 

61 

79 

156 

73 

26 


863 

436,677 

2,478 

760 

10 

5 

148 

545 

2,470 

563 

532 

3,084 

1,136 

4,298 

17 

54 

24 

95 

90 

3,852 

13,752 

270 

108 

4 

26 

106 

186 

294 

1,058 

147 

7 

113 

3,867 

41,365 

4 

110 

58 

63 

322 

60 

71 

279 

45 

182 

51 

403 

88 


21 

168 

326,000 

555 

216 

22 

26 

50 

969 

267 

746 

683 

127 

87 

244 

143 

745 

397 

183 

52 

1,222 

305 

4,004 

102 

236 

1,551 

26 

487 

6,011 

552 

104 

11 

93 

873 

74 

53 

41 

233 

2,162 

101 

145 

535 

264 

1,131 

607 

2,417 

116 


17 
66 

330 

26,363 

8 

1 

14 
21 

250 
75 

403 

634 
20 
13 
22 
12 

105 
90 
51 
14 

521 

225 
82 
13 
55 

239 

6 

87 

206 

98 

7 

3 

18 

182 
20 
12 
13 

121 
65 

201 
18 
86 

160 

455 
77 

191 

157 


266 

143 

3,904 

1,226 

398,211 

217 

500 

531 

9,417 

1,837 

5,062 

2,791 

342 

227 

517 

715 

20,574 

6,333 

2,711 

138 

2,234 

1,928 

294 

842 

6,071 

38,662 

190 

9,003 

465 

6,162 

7,825 

210 

253 

723 

1,211 

418 

179 

4,235 

130 

527 

675 

106 

135 

133 

238 

228 

93 


42 

64 

473 

232 

190 

110,643 

70 

46 

1,596 

1,593 

939 

567 

159 

105 

23 

8,207 

288 

642 

189 

68 

936 

267 

41 

14 

4,113 

1,247 

67 

1,671 

74 

19,034 

116 

21 

54 

237 

15 

480 

122 

267 

19 

61 

346 

14 

25 

17 

63 

34 

26 


4,209 


Arkansas 


445 


California 


163 


Colorado 


66 


Connecticut 


104 


Delaware 


15 


Florida 


173,481 




5,840 




164 


Indiana 


101 


Iowa 


80 




103 




90 




1,572 




50 




128 


Massachusetts 


185 




64 


Minnesota 


35 


Mississippi 


1,000 




239 




34 




18 




18 




191 




645 




185 


Ohio 


111 




19 




240 


Rhode Island 


63 


South Carolina 


536 




276 




3,601 




13 




130 




23 




49 




22 




11 


District of Columbia 


122 

4 




15 




14 


TJtah 


14 




13 




17 







POPULATION. 

The native-born population of the United States, etc. — Continued. 



201 



States and Tebbitobies. 


•& 

to 
O 
01 

© 


*3 

.a 
a 


a 
a 

a 

■■B 
a 


a 

o 
i— i 


a 

CO 

S 
M 


M 


a 
a 

*to 

'3 
o 




The United States... 


1,719,068 


2,263,409 


1,798,490 


954,695 


279,151 


1,856,310 


817,492 


745,272 


Alabama 


95,782 

36,715 

1,234 

918 

359 

37 

32,601 

1,395,214 

1,947 

1,284 

388 

1,579 

2,171 

15,172 

65 

472 

557 

213 

131 

29,159 

4,030 

247 

76 

41 

493 

2,239 

3,338 

809 

187 

730 

123 

7,641 

19,481 

61,407 

28 

695 

97 

197 

169 

70 

449 

88 

98 

80 

116 

93 

48 


686 

12,238 

17,254 

12,993 

813 

79 

538 

224 

1,709,520 

27,201 

102,820 

106,992 

5,675 

699 

. 196 

552 

1,747 

9,699 

16,199 

890 

103,290 

45,583 

1,296 

326 

1,140 

6,504 

143 

10,013 

7,804 

4,129 

287 

49 

2,968 

19,643 

286 

322 

579 

16,471 

682 

4,528 

540 

1,142 

1,548 

607 

2,230 

3,228 

1,056 


785 

8,528 

8,164 

5,231 

227 

55 

339 

242 

91,388 

1,354,565 

59,278 

77,096 

18,445 

663 

79 

406 

430 

18,216 

8,342 

659 

60,094 

20,403 

509 

47 

427 

2,040 

224 

27,202 

5,055 

2,591 

55 

37 

2,840 

9,094 

64 

330 

759 

6,207 

373 

1,669 

533 

576 

769 

460 

475 

2,027 

492 


92 

1,527 

9,160 

7,520 

224 

20 

134 

51 

16,555 

4,590 

737,306 

55,972 

810 

104 

95 

152 

541 

2,682 

10,916 

103 

30,564 

34,489 

704 

122 

272 

1,928 

29 

4,609 

6,969 

1,814 

62 

12 

370 

2,772 

122 

139 

320 

5,018 

320 

7,823 

176 

879 

1,188 

292 

1,602 

2,846 

700 


31 

1,675 

1,993 

4,011 

76 

6 

64 

31 

4,350 

2,136 

3,722 

233,066 

341 

63 

35 

47 

146 

892 

330 

33 

13,305 

2,474 

115 

32 

104 

552 

37 

1,444 

1,505 

562 

30 

9 

419 

2,046 

29 

79 

148 

453 

160 

241 

69 

308 

361 

337 

118 

801 

365 


2,624 

18,039 

7,851 

3,786 

155 

45 

668 

1,136 

61,920 

73,928 

12,920 

32,978 

1,402,112 

6,564 

42 

■ 422 

502 

1,732 

2,151 

7,844 

102,799 

4,034 

578 

47 

483 

1,720 

365 

32,492 

2,754 

1,829 

76 

194 

24,868 

34,121 

28 

2,087 

4,361 

1,410 

446 

519 

509 

437 

712 

429 

409 

879 

305 


1,785 

9,649 

2,412 

416 

188 

20 

578 

516 

2,472 

874 

515 

1,782 

1,244 

728,322 

58 

395 

465 

259 

220 

13,809 

4,699 

317 

176 

25 

388 

2,211 

129 

1,235 

158 

741 

62 

118 

1,560 

37,972 

37 

392 

106 

231 

123 

90 

317 

50 

106 

92 

55 

82 

41 


171 




339 


California 


14,497 


Colorado 


2,619 


Florida 


2,431 
131 
502 


Georgia 


292 




7,451 




1,165 




5,783 


Kansas 


3,538 


Kentucky 


264 


Louisiana 


387 


Maine 


563,015 


Maryland 


506 


Massachusetts 


68,226 


Michigan 


5,079 


Minnesota 


12,511 


Mississippi 


133 


Missouri 


2,108 


Nebraska 


2,133 


Nevada 


1,198 


New Jersey 


14,130 
1,961 


New York 


7,206 


North Carolina 


139 


Ohio 


2,386 


Oregon 


1,453 


Pennsylvania 


3,345 


Rhode Island 


2,846 


South Carolina 


135 




194 


Texas 


867 




1,361 




346 


West Virginia 


186 


Wisconsin 


7,861 


Arizona 


441 


Dakota 


1,494 


District of Columbia . . . 


855 
381 


Montana 


603 


New Mexico 


117 


Utah 


375 


Washington 


1,882 


Wyoming 


229 







202 POPULATION. 

The native-born population of the United States, etc. — Continued. 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire .... 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Caroliua 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Soiith Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



958,141 



1,889 

1,329 

3,152 

1,047 

834 

9,562 

604 

1,459 

12,396 

7,429 

6,169 

4,431 

2,257 

4,875 

158 

762,641 

1,838 

1,433 

1,001 

2,464 

7,421 

1,704 

247 

165 

4,556 

7,842 

630 

20,691 

478 

38,826 

863 

437 

1,463 

3,168 

135 

7,942 

8,114 

955 

217 

327 

24,562 

109 

254 

146 

116 

219 

186 



1,356,295 



368 

374 

19,145 

3,638 

22,643 

264 

852 

625 

20,481 

3,195 

9,378 

5,395 

797 

641 

10,066 

1,337 

1,088,565 

9,591 

7,223 

195 

4,765 

3,524 

1,037 

20,561 

6,583 

42,501 

336 

10,854 

1,291 

10,010 

23,320 

350 

519 

1,568 

8,295 

878 

450 

8,274 

564 

1,292 

1,693 

251 

523 

237 

645 

805 

396 



920,661 



186 

887 

5,451 

3,654 

426 

38 

215 

78 

12,985 

9,188 

10,616 

13,012 

397 

213 

118 

220 

940 

803,306 

5,539 

68 

5,351 

7,853 

569 

142 

627 

7,700 

38 

11,403 

1,281 

2,422 

109 

24 

625 

2,148 

238 

255 

119 

6,933 

231 

2,509 

338 

199 

485 

132 

412 

745 

236 



341,750 



43 

144 

1,546 

816 

140 

15 

52 

36 

2,062 

537 

6,130 

2,784 

85 

47 

100 

40 

310 

859 

302,371 

32 

1,347 

2,277 

68 

95 

109 

835 

8 

614 

828 

512 

63 

5 

157 

606 

75 

38 

42 

5,672 

32 

8,766 

97 

127 

382 

72 

71 

632 

71 



1,056,993 



13,046 

35,248 

1,440 

527 

52 

7 

757 

1,516 

3,066 

682 

591 

3,452 

1,983 

38,421 

22 

177 

120 

243 

197 

863,185 

4,507 

367 

55 

112 

146 

526 

531 

1,043 

158 

294 

29 

430 

19,632 

62,835 

33 

420 

108 

159 

100 

93 

236 

57 

63 

80 

146 

61 

40 



1,567,284 



572 
29,508 
20,749 
12,435 
164 
83 
204 
237 
39,493 
5,688 
20,677 
60,228 
5,417 
2,962 
57 
372 
371 
1,416 
2,390 
2,095 
1,268,641 
10.503 
1,176 
65 
442 
1,886 
135 
3,873 
10,754 
1,624 
47 
62 
3,776 
43,168 
50 
474 
589 
1,785 
914 
1,520 
316 
1,393 
2,493 
883 
1,224 
3,160 
1,163 



113,478 



18,256 



26 

107 

725 

932 

20 

2 

16 

6 

1,004 

323 

3,005 

4,350 

39 

8 

18 

24 

57 

294 

229 

11 

2,203 

95,790 

58 

10 

34 

199 

5 

342 

637 

180 

15 

2 

21 

220 

12 

10 

22 

351 

18 

633 

36 

153 

180 

34 

381 

363 

373 



10 

2,603 

102 

2 

9 

1 

82 

19 

107 

82 

4 

4 

11 

10 

26 

28 

14 

1 

95 

45 

13,732 

4 

13 

52 

2 

32 

256 

38 

1 

1 

4 

30 

8 

6 

3 

38 

112 

24 

6 

84 

55 

6 

34rf 

112 

33 



POPULATION. 203 

The native-born population of the United States, etc. — Continued. 



States and Territories. 



The United States. . . . 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



is 



371,262 



97 

99 

3,469 

737 

2,047 

71 

248 

157 

6,582 

879 

4,743 

2,088 

181 

109 

9,458 

177 

54,088 

3,300 

3,593 

59 

1,269 

1,148 

231 

242,757 

1,121 

7,380 

56 

2,626 

345 

2,026 

1,725 

47 

130 

349 

11,780 

234 

94 

3,778 

134 

559 

564 

67 

140 

49 

150 

214 

107 



906,005 



4,753,547 



227 

270 

3,760 

1,479 

4,067 

2,238 

369 

469 

14,636 

5,448 

6,357 

4,631 

710 

249 

212 

2,354 

3,137 

7,903 

1,862 

144 

3,497 

2,318 

344 

178 

725,614 

47,266 

248 

10,487 

457 

44,843 

854 

175 

377 

1,024 

262 

1,349 

470 

2,907 

156 

402 

1,107 

98 

234 

81 

372 

229 

134 



1,668 

2,290 

43,749 

15,593 

39,172 

1,321 

2,375 

2,570 

120,199 

26,506 

82,690 

42,779 

3,745 

3,038 

1,835 

5,733 

35,628 

229,657 

47,006 

1,187 

32,126 

29,341 

3,287 

3,739 

94,692 

3,556,394 

889 

64,138 

5,443 

100,490 

6,416 

1,070 

3,082 

7,909 

13,733 

5,382 

1,565 

86,588 

1,735 

9,135 

5,952 

1,269 

2,470 

666 

2,715 

2,981 

1,599 






1,638,058 3,302,656 



23,269 
19,727 
1,749 
846 
544 
69 
6,297 
24,156 
9.279 
20,884 
3,990 
5,709 
9,738 
6,202 
48 
1,232 
893 
1,040 
373 
23,128 
15,925 
809 
97 
38 
650 
2,274 
1,344,553 
3,971 
645 
1,427 
170 
17,297 
41,918 
23,277 
38 
22,505 
1,208 
296 
90 
101 
753 
99 
146 
52 
218 
233 
95 



1,477 

5,254 

17,759 

11,759 

1,272 

96 

685 

514 

136,884 

186,391 

120,495 

93,396 

27,115 

1,576 

219 

1,942 

2,160 

77,053 

15,560 

1,023 

78,938 

31,800 

1,603 

271 

2,409 

11,599 

257 

2,361,437 

6,201 

27,502 

198 

122 

5,035 

7,949 

348 

1,275 

27,535 

20,512 

954 

3,806 

1,872 

1,044 

1,841 

826 

791 

2,727 

1,174 



81,608 



1 

16 

3,358 

81 

14 

2 

13 

6 

474 

210 

198 

198 

19 

11 

16 

6 

43 

44 

30 

8 

174 

59 

159 

1 

12 

76 

5 

63 

67,942 

48 

10 

4 

42 

104 

5 

23 



4,184,180 



65 
178 

49 

21 

999 

149 

9 

44 
6,583 

36 



1,199 

2,673 

15,374 

11,387 

3,223 

11,059 

855 

1,000 

89,467 

51,234 

77,357 

59,236 

6,032 

1,394 

522 

26,986 

4,775 

36,064 

15,032 

1,071 

37,220 

25,079 

1,575 

403 

46,754 

56,155 

891 

138,163 

3,342 

3,385,693 

1,280 

429 

3,311 

5,568 

372 

5,541 

18,841 

19,099 

812 

4,305 

5,587 

804 

1,703 

693 

1,628 

1,823 

1,169 



■° 3 

O M 



201,722 



67 

75 

1,812 

368 

8,325 

37 

126 

252 

2,100 

377 

907 

612 

85 

69 

526 

229 

17,258 

974 

729 

39 

505 

427 

95 

711 

1,075 

6,252 

77 

889 

111 

1,645 

152,487 

64 

87 

193 

320 

118 

40 

913 

64 

159 

209 

17 

64 

30 

53 

99 

51 



204 POPULATION. 

The native-born population of the United States, etc. — Continued. 



States and Territories. 



The United States.. 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia. . 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



S3 a 



1,183,311 



35,764 

15,107 

969 

203 

299 

64 

18,522 

50,195 

2,122 

1,627 

531 

899 

1,530 

9,495 

70 

663 

708 

213 

108 

31,157 

2,637 

160 

52 

35 

660 

2,696 

16,121 

968 

122 

1,159 

140 

952,395 

11,698 

22,124 

24 

898 

127 

139 

55 

62 

508 

29 

77 

45 

70 

13 

21 



1,787.504 



23,859 

87,593 

5,609 

1,961 

87 

17 

833 

10,717 

37,400 

10,969 

5,372 

15,649 

54,386 

5,382 

30 

258 

268 

764 

481 

31,820 

72,454 

1,560 

268 

34 

2J0 

952 

5,194 

3,770 

2,469 

793 

22 

547 

1,313,552 

83,158 

18 

4,967 

369 

693 

308 

216 

400 

309 

335 

252 

402 

606 

101 



915,020 



1,254 

10,860 

1,981 

1,043 

65 

13 

190 

584 

1,302 

431 

402 

4,057 

741 

7,322 

18 

121 

123 

237 

97 

1,933 

4,797 

416 

60 

9 

118 

550 

224 

384 

261 

251 

15 

110 

1,450 

870,705 

26 

332 

75 

114 

522 

108 

134 

70 

92 

1,027 

122 

137 

137 



430,041 



128 

189 

4,681 

1,568 

3,476 

76 

199 

187 

14,593 

2,211 

12,297 

4,914 

257 

135 

1,482 

340 

26,943 

12,588 

7,869 

89 

2,575 

3,209 

414 

15,040 

1,337 

31,271 

154 

7,064 

644 

3,601 

1,543 

53 

262 

557 

251,780 

213 

134 

12,554 

232 

1,315 

525 

153 

260 

111 

328 

312 

178 



2,118,460 



24,279 

13,292 

5,906 

2,441 

1,722 

642 

3,329 

14,606 

27,904 

24,538 

15,531 

15,336 

36,515 

21,321 

276 

26,754 

4,766 

3,069 

1,901 

28,816 

54,058 

4,425 

486 

213 

4,789 

12,586 

19,486 

51,647 

1,835 

20,189 

1,076 

4,058 

38,059 

27,874 

137 

1,435,124 

135,599 

1,519 

349 

575 

29,009 

336 

475 

301 

442 

612 

257 



u 



440,213 



72 

126 

337 

417 

35 

9 

38 

29 

2,718 

1,988 

2,521 

3,644 

1,736 

157 

8 

2,397 

95 

272 

413 

212 

2,687 

1,042 

45 

10 

107 

293 

154 

12,812 

95 

5,274 

30 

12 

165 

405 

4 

1,641 

397,267 

165 

18 

69 

451 

36 

57 

21 

17 

74 

38 



£ 



893,945 



988 

678 

5,488 

3,910 

365 

53 

305 

167 

21,757 

1,784 

40,380 

15,016 

318 

101 

183 

877 

819 

10,775 

44,178 

64 

6,730 

16,931 

599 

146 

426 

3,683 

174 

2,727 

2,118 

1,317 

174 

136 

374 

1,317 

271 

179 

77 

693,177 

185 

11,685 

227 

368 

783 

135 

275 

1,187 

338 



Territories. 



51 



33 

2 



9,089 



4 

3 

369 

13 

4 



5 
6 

17 
8 

14 

12 
2 

47 
1 
3 

25 
3 
1 



11 

8 
10 



3 

27 

1 

19 

13 

21 

1 

1 

9 

73 

3 

4 

3 

7 

3,166 

5 

5 

5 

10 

52 

58 

27 

10 



08* 91' 89* 87" 85* 81T 81° 



77" 75" 



71 ' 09 " 07 • 05 * 




POPULATION. 205 

The native-born population of the United States, etc. — Continued. 





Territories. 


a . 


States and Territories. 


S 

o 

■a 


8.£ 

.2 3 


o 
o 




J 
o 


6 
O 

fe*M 


1 
P 


a . 

to -2 


a 


a ca 
god 

00 . 

3* 


The United States.. 


20,640 


102,428 


7,753 


4,410 


8,687 


113,788 


92,130 


22,425 


4,091 


291 


Alabama 


5 

15 

56 

93 

7 

1 

2 

5 

91 

25 

650 

132 

10 

4 

4 

14 

6 

56 

336 

1 

96 

397 

4 

1 

11 

36 

2 

25 

98 

102 

3 

2 

7 

51 

1 

6 

2 

116 

3 

17,796 

6 

38 

172 

3 

10 

96 

43 


247 

155 

668 

159 

288 

88 

738 

207 

860 

307 

259 

300 

213 

390 

89 

4,768 

680 

215 

156 

240 

717 

170 

45 

46 

691 

2,259 

98 

730 

59 

2,270 

227 

72 

278 

331 

33 

1,925 

256 

126 

61 

72 

80,702 

22 

52 

24 

30 

52 

53 


2 

5 

211 

24 

2 


13 

791 

94 

99 

4 


1 

8 

166 

53 

2 


5 
9 

297 
9,501 

10 
1 
4 
9 

82 

26 

27 
106 
8 
6 
1 
5 

42 
175 

20 
4 

81 
113 

41 
3 

39 

113 

1 

68 

20 

43 
1 
1 
8 
546 
4 

28 
8 

14 
1,144 

35 

14 
7 

23 
101,046 

13 
3 

33 


31 

1,131 

241 

36 


4 

9 

538 

21 

5 


2 

6 

111 

234 

1 


1 


Arkansas 


1 


California 


40 


Colorado 


5 


Connecticut 


1?, 


Delaware. . . 






1 
1 

20 
26 
76 
28 

6 
21 

3 

7 

8 

48 
24 
71 

6 

2 
17 

2 

21 

355 

19 

1 

3 
31 

1 

15 

80 

25 

4 

5,992 

106 

5 

258 

190 

36 


5 

10 

183 

36 

54 

685 

22 

43 

4 

9 

11 

52 

46 

19 

404 

110 

6 

3 

10 

52 

9 

89 

32 

38 

1 

1 

63 

1,202 

3 

17 

3 

12 

8 

19 

8 

6 

9 

24 

5 

80 

16 


2 
1 

63 
8 

72 
150 
9 
2 
3 
1 
5 

16 

39 
5 

94 

37 

40 
3 
2 

'30 
1 

33 
115 

13 
2 
1 
8 

29 

12 
3 
5 

21 
8 

84 

82 
7,225 
16 
84 
86 
47 


1 

2 

128 

47 

394 

126 

6 

8 

12 

9 

182 

70 

30 

2 

192 

208 

800 

98 

14 

260 

3 

112 

182 

32 

25 

1 

9 

27 

4 

4 

12 

69 

1,338 

104 

9 

3,205 

554 

18 

81,716 

234 

451 


3 

1 

25 

11 

44 

48 

7 

3 

10 

5 

12 

66 

16 

35 
22 
20 
13 

3 
31 

5 

29 

1,650 

41 

3 

29 

21 
1 
6 
3 
9 

24 
6 

10 
201 

65 

2 

7 

19,359 

2 


47 

37 
17 
50 
51 
2 


5 


Georgia 


1(V 


Illinois 


15 


Iowa 


3 

8 


Kansas 


4 


Kentucky 


q 


Louisiana 


2 3 


Maine 


1 
4 
ft 


1 


Maryland 


9 


Massachusetts 


8 




17 1 12 




18 4 


Mississippi 


2 


Missouri 


42 

194 

38 

1 

3 

17 

8 

21 

67 

26 

1 

2 

21 

24 

1 

8 
11 
12 
74 
12 
59 
71 
11 
231 
32 
2,496 


9 


Nebraska 


1 


Nevada 


1 


New Hampshire 

New Jersey 


1 
11 


New York 


35 


North Carolina 


1 


Ohio 


1 


Oregon 


5 


Pennsylvania 


13 


Rhode Island 


1 


South Carolina 




Tennessee 


22 


Texas 


14 


Vermont 


1 


Virginia 




West Virginia 


I 


Wisconsin 


j 


Arizona 


2 


Dakota 


4 
2 


District of Columbia 

Idaho 


Montana 




New Mexico 




Utah 




Washington 




Wyoming 









206 



POPULATION. 



The place of birth of the foreign-born population of the United States in the several 

states and territories. 



States and Terbitobies. 



The United States, 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan.. 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia , 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



6,679,943 



9,734 

10,350 

292,874 

39,790 

129,992 

9,468 

9,909 

10,564 

583,576 

144,178 

261,650 

110,086 

59,517 

54,146 

58,883 

82,806 

443,491 

388,508 

267,676 

9,209 

211,578 

97,414 

25,653 

46,294 

221,700 

,211,379 

3,742 

394,943 

30,503 

587,829 

73,993 

7,686 

16,702 

114,616 

40,959 

14,696 

18,265 

405,425 

16,049 

51,795 

17,122 

9,974 

11,521 

8,051 

43,994 

15,803 

5,850 



2 S 



2,204 



149 

17 

86 

13 

14 

15 

78 

129 

57 

11 

17 

34 

10 

270 

5 

28 

124 

17 

14 

77 

38 

11 

5 

3 

41 

156 

24 

40 

6 

71 

11 

123 

39 

274 

6 

8 

2 

29 

3 

4 

9 

14 

3 

1 

106 

5 

7 



1,054 



3 

4 

16 

7 

1 

5 

6 

2 

35 

12 

13 

7 

6 

13 

6 

7 

54 

14 

21 

5 

17 

1 

1 

2 

16 

81 

1 

32 

2 

49 

3 

3 

16 

571 



.2 ■= 

d a 
ra cd 



7,512 



5 

1 

3,356 

5 

79 

1 

291 



431 

3 

15 

11 

8 

11 

29 

29 

2,421 

22 

8 



9 
17 
12 



26 

137 

3 

203 

8 

35 

185 



1 

10 
7 
5 
2 
22 
2 
53 
6 
1 



40 
2 



4,906 



2,055 

64 

35 

11 

45 

11 

208 

37 

117 

75 

24 

77 

27 

44 

107 

106 

49 

4 

108 

43 

81 

16 

80 

341 

5 

135 

100 

242 

11 

5 

9 

61 

7 

15 

5 

228 

31 

28 

7 

9 

10 

4 

133 

75 

6 



CO O 

3 is 



38,663 



121 

106 

1,948 

453 

287 

22 

46 

71 

2,608 

511 

1,473 

1,285 

142 

275 

19 

401 

308 

1,025 

2,607 

126 

1,655 

2,346 

162 

44 

864 

6,530 

10 

1,681 

317 

2,317 

28 

46 

111 

3,474 

5 

73 

62 

4,601 

53 

131 

75 

18 

60 

15 

22 

106 

23 



15,535 



10 

22 

1,092 

49 

76 

1 

13 

31 

1,464 

503 

357 

432 

105 

193 

14 

44 

219 

979 

615 

11 

505 

208 

25 

5 

255 

1,288 

14 

754 

95 

552 

20 

9 

12 

109 

9 

9 

8 

5,267 

14 

41 

22 

11 

20 

6 

5 

35 

7 



85,361 



39 

68 

239 

91 

124 

2 

3 

33 

13,408 

306 

10,554 

2,468 

43 

24 

1 

1,169 

279 

1,789 

7,759 

12 

3,342 

8,858 

15 

10 

429 

8,748 

14 

6,232 

109 

1,058 

29 

31 

30 

2,669 

4 

21 

34 

13,848 

7 

1,337 

16 

5 

25 

13 

3 

53 

10 



717,157 



271 

787 

18,889 

5,785 

16.444 

246 

446 

348 

34,043 

5,569 

21,097 

12,536 

1,070 

726 

37,114 

988 

119,302 

148,866 

29,631 

309 

8,685 

8,622 

3,147 

27,142 

3,536 

84,182 

425 

16,146 

3,019 

12,376 

18,306 

141 

545 

2,472 

24,620 

585 

295 

28,965 

571 

10,678 

452 

584 

2,481 

280 

1,036 

2,857 

542 



POPULATION. 207 

The place of birth of the foreign -born population, etc. — Continued. 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire .... 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



1,966,742 



3,238 

3,620 

42,532 

7,012 

15,627 

1,179 

978 

2,956 

235,786 

80,756 

88,268 

28,034 

30,413 

17,475 

688 

45,481 

16,872 

89,085 

66,592 

2,556 

106,800 

31,125 

2,213 

789 

64,935 

355,913 

950 

192,597 

5,034 

168,426 

1,966 

2,846 

3,983 

35,347 

396 

3,759 

7,029 

184,328 

1,110 

5,925 

5,055 

750 

1,705 

729 

855 

2,198 

801 



a a 



707 



1 

2 

188 

1 

11 



5 
2 
8 

12 
5 

53 
3 

18 



1 

27 
27 
10 

3 
11 
12 
18 
48 
18 
65 

7 
10 

8 
29 
10 

1 

7 
14 
31 
14 



15 
1 
2 
3 

2 
1 



Great Britain and Ireland. 



2,772,169 



4,407 

3,937 

96,059 

19,947 

90,683 

7,561 

1,765 

5,760 

193,202 

40,508 

76,587 

35,052 

23,737 

17,127 

18,822 

30,678 

287,432 

98,240 

38,551 

4,120 

70,147 

21,213 

10,338 

17,683 

132,882 

651,359 

1,774 

[143,267 

7,913 

366,865 

50,990 

3,664 

8,767 

16,537 

15,434 

8,650 

9,503 

78,057 

2,312 

7,560 

10,040 

3,478 

4,229 

1,272 

26,579 

4,721 

2,760 



662,676 



935 
1,176 

24,657 

8,797 

15,453 

1,433 

866 

1,144 

56,318 

11,093 

22,519 

14,172 

4,100 

2,582 

3,716 

5,231 

47,263 

43,202 

8,495 

1,047 

15,798 

8,207 

4,146 

3,497 

31,285 

116,362 

738 

41,555 

2,896 

80,102 

12,500 

670 

1,956 

6,528 

2,253 

2,781 

2,051 

24,916 

708 

2,311 

1,648 

1,594 

1,249 

339 

19,654 

1,653 

1,080 



1,854,571 



2,966 

2,432 

62,962 

8,263 

70,638 

5,791 

652 

4,148 

117,343 

25,741 

44,061 

14,993 

18,256 

13,807 

13,421 

21,865 

226,700 

43,413 

25,942 

2,753 

48,898 

10,133 

5,191 

13,052 

93,079 

499,445 

611 

78,927 

3,659 

236,505 

35,281 

2,626 

5,975 

8,103 

11,657 

4,835 

6,459 

41,907 

1,296 

4,104 

7,840 

981 

2,408 

795 

1,321 

2,243 

1,093 



170,136 



426 

229 

6,465 

1,673 

4,157 

285 

216 

395 

15,645 

2,731 

6,885 

3,788 

982 

659 

1,397 

2,645 

12,507 

10,731 

2,964 

303 

3,641 

2,230 

671 

1,102 

7,633 

28,066 

408 

8,946 

1,129 

20,735 

3,039 

354 

516 

1,659 

1,006 

893 

622 

5,770 

250 

940 

495 

253 

324 

110 

3,201 

628 

432 



£ 



83,302 



69 

99 

1,920 

1,212 

407 

51 

23 

52 

3,694 

927 

3,031 

2,088 

394 

71 

283 

924 

873 

830 

1,103 

12 

1,766 

624 

315 

21 

863 

7,223 

12 

13,763 

165 

29,447 

167 

10 

302 

221 

514 

135 

369 

5,352 

57 

205 

56 

641 

246 

28 

2,390 

193 

154 



Great 

Britain 

(not 

specified) 



1,484 



11 

1 

55 

2 

28 

1 

8 

21 

202 

16 

91 

11 

5 

8 

5 

13 

89 

64 

47 

5 

44 

19 

15 

11 

22 

263 

5 

76 

64 

76 

3 

4 

18 

26 

4 

6 

2 

112 

1 



13 
4 
1 



208 POPULATION. 

The place of birth of the foreign -born population, etc. — Continued. 



States and Territories. 


u 

o 
53 


T3 
CI 

n 

o 

w 


u 
S> 

ED 

a 
3 
W 


■6 
a 
a 

PM 


>> 


CO 


& 
00 


1 
1 

<X> 
IS) 

'% 

m 


The United States 


181,729 


58.090 


11,526 


48,557 


44,230 


35,722 


194,337 


88,621 


Alabama 


24 

33 

1,765 

354 

168 

6 

79 

23 

16,970 

182 

21,586 

1,358 

21 

78 

99 

108 

639 

3,520 

62,521 

56 

373 

2,010 

119 

79 

229 

2,185 

10 

178 

574 

381 

56 

5 

25 

880 

10 

29 

3 

49,349 

45 

13,245 

19 

276 

174 

17 

1,214 

580 

74 


27 

66 

694 

115 

122 

10 

19 

36 

5,012 

1,368 

4,743 

749 

262 

170 

16 

362 

586 

17,177 

1,581 

27 

1,122 

753 

21 

11 

4,281 

8,399 

23 

2,455 

127 

1,068 

51 

16 

66 

228 

10 

125 

19 

5,698 

14 

140 

71 

10 

24 

6 

141 

53 

16 


60 

58 

216 

49 

76 

1 

8 

55 

691 

77 

244 

291 

47 

40 

6 

71 

82 

193 

356 

14 

354 

189 

15 

272 

4,440 

4 

1,477 

36 

1,168 

5 

18 

123 

104 

5 

33 

39 

447 

14 

64 

35 

13 

10 

7 

7 

5 

7 


47 

191 

1,026 

154 

225 

8 

26 

62 

6,962 

917 

403 

1,200 

124 

164 

24 

642 

681 

5,421 

2,218 

79 

801 

1,128 

64 

11 

748 

11,999 

18 

2,039 

92 

3,790 

97 

128 

212 

995 

5 

59 

18 

5,263 

43 

219 

116 

17 

32 

22 

16 

37 

14 


114 

132 

7,537 

335 

879 

43 

77 

82 

1,764 

198 

122 

167 

370 

2,527 

90 

477 

2,116 

555 

124 

260 

1,074 

62 

1,560 

32 

1,547 

15,113 

42 

1,064 

167 

2,794 

313 

84 

443 

539 

30 

281 

48 

253 

104 

71 

244 

35 

64 

73 

138 

71 

15 


44 

77 

1,013 

278 

65 

9 

32 

33 

1,276 

320 

535 

8,032 

63 

158 

54 

213 

462 

1,560 

2,273 

76 

340 

3,281 

41 

7 

301 

5,438 

11 

610 

379 

1,040 

25 

29 

70 

279 

8 

39 

19 

312 

25 

6,493 

67 

17 

25 

16 

54 

205 

19 


119 

211 

4,209 

2,172 

2,086 

71 

231 

138 

42,415 

3,121 

17,559 

11,207 

95 

270 

988 

177 

4,756 

9,412 

39,176 

302 

3,174 

10,164 

317 

131 

1,622 

11,164 

24 

1,186 

983 

7,575 

776 

63 

251 

1,293 

68 

49 

21 

8,138 

106 

3,177 

51 

323 

280 

39 

3,750 

648 

249 


173 


Arkansas 


240 




5,308 


Colorado 


551 


Connecticut 


680 


Delaware 


48- 


Florida 


43 


Georgia 


107 




8,881 


Indiana 


3,695 


Iowa 


4,587 


Kansas 


2,668 


Kentucky 


1,130 


Louisiana 


674 


Maine ., 


31 


Maryland 


33g 


Massachusetts 


604 


Michigan 


2,474 


Minnesota 


2,828. 


Mississippi 


144 




6,064 


Nebraska 


1,579 




709 




27 




3,040 




10,721 


North. Carolina 


67 


Ohio 


11,989 




730 




6,343 




122 


South Carolina 


73 




1,026 


Texas 


1,203 




45 


Virginia 


174 




810 


Wisconsin 


6,283 




117 




386 


District of Columbia 


196 




225 




171 




54 


Utah 


1,040 




174 




49 







POPULATION. 209 

Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

ALABAMA. 



AKIZONA TERRITORY. 



Tucson Pima 



7,007 3,065 3,942 3,224 1,026 2,198 





County. 


1880. 


1870. 




Total. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Huntsville 


Madison 


4,977 
29.132 
16,713 

7,529 


4,857 
26,195 
16,062 

7,248 


120 

2,937 
651 
281 


4,907 
32,034 
10,588 

6,484 


4,741 

27,795 
9,802 
6,183 


166 

4,239 
786 
301 


Mobile 


Mobile 




Montgomery. . . 


Selma 









ARKANSAS. 



Little Rock Pulaski 13,138 \ 11,692 1,446 12,380 11,044 1,336 



Bridgeport. . 

Bristol 

Danbury. . . . 

Derby 

Enfield 

Greenwich . . 
Groton .... 
Hartford . . . 
Killingly. . . . 
Manchester . 
Meriden .... 
Middletown. 



CALIFORNIA. 



COLORADO. 



CONNECTICUT. 



Fairfield 

Hartford 

Fairfield 

New Haven . . 
Hartford 

Fairfield 

New London , 

Hartford 

Windham.. . . 

Hartford 

New Haven . . 
Middlesex . . . 



27,643 
5.347 

11,666 

11,650 
6,755 
7,892 
5,128 

42,015 
6,921 
6,462 

15,540 
6,826 



20,204 
4,420 
9,533 
8,189 
4,521 
6,518 
4,809 

31,420 
5,166 
4,395 

11,149 
5,355 



7,439 

927 

2,133 

3.461 

2,234 

1,374 

319 

10,595 

1,755 

2,067 

4,391 

1,471 



Alameda 


Alameda . . 


5,708 
11,183 

4,321 

4,022 
34,555 
21,420 
233,959 
12,567 
10,282 

5,987 


3,568 

7,979 

2,509 

2,467 

23,534 

14,372 

129,715 

8,733 

6,852 

4,053 


2,140 
3,204 
1,812 
1,555 
11,021 
7,048 
104,244 
3,834 
3,430 
1,934 


1,557 

5,728 
4,738 


869 
3,724 
2,358 


688 
2,004 
2,380 




Los Angeles 


Marysville 


Yuba 




Nevada 


Oakland 




10,500 

16,283 

149,473 

9,089 

10,066 








Sacramento 


10,081 

75,754 

5,334 

5,964 


6,202 

73,719 

3,755 

4,102 




San Francisco 

Santa Clara 




San Joaquin . . 

















El Paso 


4,226 
35,629 
14,820 

5,040 


3,711 

26,924 

10,902 

4,465 


515 
8,705 
3,918 

575 








Denver 


Arapahoe 


4,759 


3,621 


1,138 






Silver Cliff 























18,969 


13,585 


5,384 


3,788 


3,256 


532 


8,753 


7,175 


1,578 


8,020 


5,623 


2,397 


6,322 


4,037 


2,285 


7,644 


6,198 


1,446 


5,124 


4,738 


386 


37,180 


26,363 


10,817 


5,712 


4,538 


1,174 


4,223 


3,021 


1,202 


6,923 


5,005 


1,918 



210 POPULATION. 

Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

CONNECTICUT— Continued. 



Name of place. 



Naugatuck . . 
New Britain . 
New Haven . . 
New London . 
Newtown 

Norwalk 

Norwich 

Plainfield 

Portland 

Putnam 

Southington . 

Stafford 

Stamford 

Stonington. . . 
Stratford 
Thompson . . . 

Vernon 

Wallingford. . 
Waterbury . . 
Winchester . . 
Windham.. . . 



Athens 

Atlanta 

Augusta . . 
Columbus . 

Macon 

Savannah . 



Count*. 



New Haven . . 

Hartford 

New Haven . . 
New London. 

Fairfield 

Fairfield 

New London. 
Windham . . . 
Middlesex . . 
Windham . . . 

Hartford 

Tolland 

Fairfield 

New London . 

Fairfield 

Windham 

Tolland 

New Haven . . 
New Haven . . 
Litchfield 
Windham 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



4,274 

11,800 

62,882 

10,537 

4,013 

13,956 

15,112 

4,021 

4,157 

5,827 

5,411 

4,455 

11,297 

7,355 

4,251 

5,051 

6,915 

4,686 

17,806 

5,142 

8,264 



3,012 
8,103 

47,214 
8,715 
3,173 

11,807 

11,434 
2,875 
2,648 
3,888 
4,285 
3,448 
8,823 
6,093 
3,582 
3,106 
4,564 
3,755 

12,505 
4,277 
6,069 



1,262 

3,697 

15,668 

1,822 

840 
2,149 
3,678 
1,146 
1,509 
1,939 
1,126 
1,007 
2,474 
1,262 

669 
1,945 
2,351 

931 
5,301 

865 
2,195 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign, 



2,830 



50,840 
9,576 
3,681 

12,119 

16,653 
4,521 
4,693 
4,192 
4,314 
3,405 
9,714 
6,113 
3,032 
3,804 
5,446 
3,676 

10,826 
4,096 
5,412 



2,024 



36,484 
7,881 
2,966 
9,969 

12,025 
3,040 
2,775 
2,608 
3,573 
2,982 
7,446 
5,199 
2,681 
2,752 
3,626 
2,956 
6,933 
3,165 
4,017 



GEOKGIA. 



Clarke 

Fulton . . . 
Kichmond 
Muscogee. 

Bibb 

Chatham . 



6,099 


5,963 


136 


4,251 


4,147 


37,409 


35,993 


1,416 


21,789 


20 699 


21,891 


20,693 


1,198 


15,389 


13,937 


10,123 


9,829 


294 


7,401 


7,037 


12,749 


12,263 


486 


10,810 


10,179 


30,709 


27,715 


2,994 


28,235 


24,564 



806 



14,356 
1,695 

715 
2,150 
4,628 
1,481 
1,918 
1,584 

741 

423 
2,268 
1,114 

351 
1,052 
1,820 

720 
3,893 

931 
1,395 



DELAWARE. 


Wilmington 


New Castle 


42,478 


36,804 


5,674 30,841 


25,689 


5,152 








DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 








Georgetown 




12,578 
147,293 


11,763 
133,051 


815 

14,242 


11,384 
109,199 


10,364 
95,442 


1,020 


Washington 




13,757 






FLORIDA. 


Jacksonville 


Duval 


7,650 
9,890 
6,845 


6,920 
4,548 
6,304 


730 

5,342 

541 


6,912 
5,016 
3,347 


6,485 
2,733 
3,066 


427 




Monroe 


2,283 


Pensacola 


Escambia 


281 









104 

1,090 

1,452 

364 

631 

3,671 



POPULATION. 211 

Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 



ILLINOIS. 



Name of place. 



Alton 

Aurora 

Belleville 

Bloomington 

Braidwood 

Cairo 

Champaign 

Chicago 

Danville 

Decatur 

East Saint Louis 

Elgin 

Freeport 

Galena 

Galesburg 

Jacksonville .... 

Joliet 

Kankakee 

La Salle 

Lincoln 

Litchfield 

Mattoon 

Mendota 

Moline 

Monmouth 

Ottawa 

Paris 

Pekin 

Peoria 

Peru 

Quincy 

Rockford 

Rock Island .... 

Springfield 

Sterling 

Streator 

Waukegan 

Anderson 

Aurora 

Columbus 

Crawfordsville . . 

Elkhart 

Evansville 

Port Wayne 
Goshen 



County. 



Madison 

Kane 

Saint Clair. . . 

McLean 

Will 

Alexander . . . 
Champaign . . 

Cook 

Vermilion . . 

Macon 

Saint Clair . . 

Kane 

Stephenson . . 
Jo Daviess . . 

Knox 

Morgan 

Will 

Kankakee . . . 

La Salle 

Logan 

Montgomery . 

Coles 

La Salle 

Rock Island . 

Warren 

La Salle 

Edgar 

Tazewell 

Peoria 

La Salle 

Adams 

Winnebago. . 
Rock Island . 
Sangamon . . . 
Whiteside . . . 

La Salle 

Lake 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign. 



8,975 

11,873 

10,683 

17,180 

5,524 

9,011 

5,103 

503,185 

7,733 

9,547 

9,185 

8,787 

8,516 

6,451 

11,437 

10,927 

11,657 

5,651 

7,847 

5,639 

4,326 

5,737 

4,142 

7,800 

5,000 

7,834 

4,373 

5,993 

29,259 

4,632 

27,268 

13,129 

11,659 

19,743 

5,087 

5,157 

4,012 



6,952 
9,241 
7,729 

13,689 
2,943 
7,870 
4,306 
298,326 
6,614 
8,381 
6,694 
6,574 
6,572 
4,574 
8,586 
9,109 
8,509 
3,993 
4,951 
4,875 
3,627 
5,170 
3,166 
4,708 
4,501 
5,940 
4,074 
4,470 

22,134 
3,067 

20,706 
9,857 
8,308 

15,459 
4,268 
3,668 
3,099 



2,023 

2,632 

2,954 

3,491 

2,581 

1,141 

797 

204,859 

1,119 

1,166 

2,491 

2,213 

1,944 

1,877 

2,851 

1,818 

3,148 

1,658 

2,896 

764 

699 

567 

976 

3,092 

499 

1,894 

299 

1,523 

7,125 

1,565 

6,562 

3,272 

3,351 

4,284 

819 

1,489 

913 



187 0. 



Total. Native. Foreign. 



8,665 
11,162 

8,146 
14,590 



6,267 
4,625 
298,977 
4,751 
7,161 
5,644 
5,441 
7,889 
7,019 
10,158 
9,203 
7,263 



5,200 



3,852 



3,546 
4,166 
4,662 
7,736 
3,057 
5,696 

22,849 
3,650 

24,052 

11,049 
7,890 

17,364 
3,998 
1,486 
4,507 



6,013 

8,091 

5,060 

10,692 



5,022 
3,667 
154,420 
3,785 
6,164 
3,291 
3,989 
5,602 
4,546 
7,022 
7,105 
4,959 



3,101 



2,596 
2,431 
4,084 
5,556 
2,846 
3,915 
15,492 



16,319 
8,008 
5,145 

12,908 
3,288 
1,136 
3,321 



2,652 
3,071 
3,086 
3,898 



1,245 

958 

144,557 

966 

997 

2,353 

1,452 

2,287 

2,473 

3,136 

2,098 

2,304 



751 



950 
1,735 

578 
2,180 

211 
1,781 
7,357 



7,733 
3,041 
2,745 
4,456 
710 
350 
1,186 



INDIANA. 



Madison 

Dearborn 
Bartholomew . 
Montgomery . 
Elkhart ...".. 
Vanderburg. . 

Allen 

Elkhart 



4,126 


3,805 


321 


3,126 


2,787 


4,435 


3,735 


700 


3,304 


2,581 


4,813 


4,414 


399 


3,359 


2,926 


5,251 


4,910 


341 


3,701 


3,241 


6,953 


6,222 


731 


3,265 


2,910 


29,280 


23,177 


6,103 


21,830 


15,554 


26,880 


21,028 


5,852 


17,718 


12,677 


4,123 


3,646 


477 


3,133 


2,661 



339 
723 
433 
460 
355 
6,276 
5,041 
472 



212 POPULATION. 

Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

INDIANA— Continued. 



Name of place. 



Indianapolis . . . 
Jeffersonville . . 

Kokomo 

La Fayette 

La Porte 

Lawrenceburg . 
Logansport. . . . 

Madison 

Michigan City . 

Muncie 

New Albany . . . 

Peru 

Eichmond 

Seymour 

South Bend . . . 
Terre Haute . . . 

Valparaiso 

Vincennes 

Washington . . . 

Burlington .... 
Cedar Rapids . . 

Clinton 

Council Bluffs . 

Creston 

Davanport 

Des Moines. . . . 

Dubuque 

Fort Madison . . 

Iowa City 

Keokuk 

Lyons 

Marshall 

Mount Pleasant 

Muscatine 

Oskal x>sa 

Ottumwa 

Sioux City 

"Waterloo 

Atchison 

Emporia 

Fort Scott 

Lawrence 



Countj. 



Marion 

Clark 

Howard 

Tippecanoe. . 

La Porte 

Dearborn 

Cass 

Jefferson 
La Porte .... 
Delaware. . . . 

Floyd 

Miami 

Wayne 

Jackson 

Saint Joseph 

Vigo 

Porter 

Knox 

Daviess 





1080. 






1870. 


Total. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


Native. 


75,056 


62,446 


12,610 


48,244 


37,587 


9,357 


8.138 


1,219 


7,254 


5,957 


4,042 


3,893 


149 


2,177 


2,078 


14,860 


12,047 


2,813 


13,506 


9,867 


6,195 


4,630 


1,565 


6,581 


4,576 


4,668 


3,766 


902 


3,159 


2,472 


11,198 


9,373 


1,825 


8,950 


6,994 


8,945 


7,502 


1,443 


10,709 


8,515 


7,366 


5,143 


2,223 


3,985 


2,400 


5,219 


4,951 


268 


2,992 


2.752 


16,423 


14,011 


2,412 


15,396 


12,734 


5,280 


4,605 


675 


3,617 


3,114 


12,742 


10,956 


1,786 


9,445 


7,745 


4.250 


3,836 


414 


2,372 


2,074 


13,280 


9,854 


3,426 


7,206 


5,841 


26,042 


22,050 


3,992 


16.103 


13,002 


4,461 


3,803 


658 


2,765 


2,203 


7,680 


6,493 


1,187 


5,440 


4,344 


4,323 


3,811 


512 


2,901 


2,493 



Foreign. 



10,657 

1,297 

99 

3,639 

2,005 

687 
1,956 
2,194 
1,585 

240 
2,662 

503 
1,700 

298 
1,365 
3,101 

562 
1,096 

408 



IOWA. 



Des Moines. . . . 

Linn 

Clinton 

Pottawattamie . 

Union 

Scott 

Polk 

Dubuque 

Lee 

Johnson 

Lee 

Clinton 

Marshall 

Henry 

Muscatine 

Mahaska 

Wapello 

Woodbury. . . . 
Black Hawk . . . 



19,450 


14,594 


4,856 


14,930 


10,173 


10,104 


7,854 


2,250 


5,940 


4,560 


9,052 


6,556 


2,496 


6,129 


4,344 


18,063 


14,496 


3,567 


10,020 


7.206 


5,081 


4,262 


819 


411 


284 


21,831 


14,936 


6,895 


20,038 


11,737 


22,408 


18,205 


4,203 


12,035 


9,557 


22,254 


16,107 


6,147 


18,434 


11,910 


4,679 


3,769 


910 


4,011 


2,843 


7,123 


5,415 


1,708 


5,914 


4,308 


12,117 


9,850 


2,267 


12,766 


9,229 


4,095 


2,985 


1,110 


4,088 


2,844 


6,240 


5,217 


1,023 


3,218 


2,644 


4,410 


4,008 


402 


4,245 


3,824 


8,295 


6,604 


L691 


6,718 


4,991 


4,598 


4,264 


334 


3,204 


2,990 


9,004 


7,661 


1,343 


5,214 


4,275 


7,366 


5,345 


2,021 


3,401 


2,259 


5,330 


4,759 


871 


4,337 


3,628 



4,757 

1,380 

1,785 

2,814 

127 

8,301 

2,478 

6,524 

1,168 

1,606 

3,537 

1,244 

574 

421 

1,727 

214 

939 

1,142 

709 



KANSAS. 



Atchison 

Lyon 

Bourbon 
Douglas . 



15,105 


13,263 


1,842 


7,054 


5,248 


4,631 


4,110 


521 


2,168 


1,856 


5,372 


4,927 


445 


4,174 


3,480 


8,510 


7,489 


1,021 


8,320 


6,886 



1,806 
312 
694 

1,434 



POPULATION. 



213 



Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

K A NTS AS.— Continued. 



Name or place. 



Leavenworth . . 

Ottawa 

Parsons 

Topeka 

Wichita 

"Wyandotte 

Bowling Green . 

Covington 

Frankfort 

Henderson .... 
Hopkinsville . . . 

Lexington 

Louisville 

Maysville 

Newport 

Owensboro 

Paducah 

Baton Rouge . . 

New Orleans . . . 
Shrevoport 

Auburn 

Augusta 

Bangor 

Bath 

Belfast 

Biddeford 

Brunswick 

Calais 

Camden ....... 

Cape Elizabeth 

Deering 

Eastport 

Ellsworth 

Gardiner 

Lewiston 

Portland 

Rockland 

Saco 

"Waterville 



County. 



Leavenworth 

Franklin 

Labette 

Shawnee 

Sedgwick .... 
Wyandotte . .. 



1880. 



Total. 



16,546 
4,032 
4,199 

15,452 
4,911 
6,149 



Native. Foreign. 



13,164 
3,680 
3,860 

13,590 
4,501 
5,460 



3,382 
352 
339 

1,862 
410 
689 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



17,873 
2,941 



5,790 
2,940 



13,363 

2,538 



4,978 
2,430 



4,510 
403 



812 
510 



KENTUCKY. 



Warren ... 

Kenton 

Franklin . . 
Henderson 
Christian . . 
Fayette . . . 
Jefferson . . 

Mason 

Campbell . . 

Daviess 

McCracken 



5,114 


4,815 


299 


4,574 


4,153 


29,720 


23,233 


6,487 


24,505 


17,453 


6,958 


6,607 


351 


5,396 


4,999 


5,365 


4,992 


373 


4,171 


3,750 


4,229 


4,115 


114 


3,136 


2,978 


16,656 


15,575 


1,081 


14,801 


13,717 


123,758 


100,602 


23,156 


100,753 


75,085 


5,220 


4,789 


431 


4,705 


4,149 


20,433 


15,422 


5,011 


15,087 


10,290 


6,231 


5,842 


389 


3,437 


3,128 


8,036 


7,479 


557 


6,866 


6,255 



421 

7,052 
397 
421 
158 

1,084 

25,668 

556 

4,797 
309 
611 



LOUISIANA. 



East Baton Rouge 

Parish. 
Orleans Parish . . . 
Caddo Parish .... 



7,197 


6,822 


375 


6,498 


5,882 


216,090 


174,933 


41,157 


191,418 


142,943 


8,009 


7,495 


514 


4,607 


3,982 



616 

48,475 
625 



MAINE. 



Androscoggin . 

Kennebec 

Penobscot 
Sagadahoc . . . 

Waldo 

York 

Cumberland . . 
Washington . . 

Knox 

Cumberland . . 
Cumberland . . 
Washington . . 

Hancock 

Kenneoec 
Androscoggin . 
Cumberland . . 

Knox 

York 

Kennebec 



9,555 


8,763 


792 


6,169 


5,992 


8,665 


7,844 


821 


7,808 


7,357 


16,856 


14,362 


2,494 


18,289 


15,275 


7,874 


7,100 


774 


7,371 


6,754 


5,308 


5,144 


164 


5,278 


5,063 


12,651 


8,141 


4,510 


10,282 


7,540 


5,384 


4,203 


1,181 


4,687 


4,148 


6,173 


4,049 


2,124 


5,944 


3,558 


4,386 


4,311 


75 


£,512 


4,448 


5,302 


4,733 


569 


5,106 


4,462 


4,324 


3,971 


353 






4,006 


2,742 


1,264 


3,736 


2,605 


5,052 


4,838 


214 


5,257 


4,925 


4,439 


4,204 


235 


4,497 


4,314 


19,083 


12,394 


6,689 


13,600 


10,5C2 


33,810 


26,908 


6,902 


31,413 


24,401 


7,599 


7,276 


323 


7,074 


6,754 


6,389 


5,880 


509 


5,755 


5,384 


4,672 


3,844 


828 


4,852 


4,305 



177 
451 

3,014 
617 
215 

2,742 
539 

2,386 

64 

644 



1,131 

332 
183 
3,008 
7,012 
320 
371 
547 



214 



POPULATION. 



Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1 880 and 1870. 

MAKYLAND. 



Name of place. 


County. 


1380. 


1870. 




Total. 


Native. 


Foreign . 


Total. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Annapolis 


Anne Arundel 

Baltimore City 

Allegany 


6,642 

332,313 

10,693 

8,659 

6,627 


6,235 
276,177 
9,271 
8,158 
6,373 


407 

56,136 

1,422 

501 

254 


5,744 
267,354 
8,056 
8,526 
5,779 


5,238 
210,870 
6,585 
7,884 
5,442 


506 


Baltimore 


56,484 

1,471 

642 

337 


Cumberland 


Frederick 

Hagerstown 


Frederick 

Washington 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



Adams 

Amherst 

Andover 

Arlington 

Athol 

Attleborough 

Barnstable 

Beverly 

Blackstone 

Boston 

Brockton 

Brookline 

Cambridge 

Canton 

Chelsea 

Chicopee 

Clinton 

Danvers 

Dedham 

Eastkampton .... 

Everett 

Fall River 

Fitchburg 

Framingham 

Franklin 

Gardner 

Gloucester 

Grafton 

Great Barriugton 

Haverhill 

Hingham 

Holyoke 

Hopkinton 

Hyde Park 

Lawrence 

Leominster 

Lowell 

Lynn 

Maiden 

Marblehead 



Berkshire . 
Hampshire 

Essex 

Middlesex . 
Worcester . 

Bristol 

Barnstable 

Essex 

Worcester . 
Suffolk .... 
Plymouth . 
Norfolk . . . 
Middlesex . 
Norfolk ... 
Suffolk .... 
Hampden . 
Worcester . 

Essex 

Norfolk . . . 
Hampshire 
Middlesex . 

Bristol 

Worcester . 
Middlesex . 
Norfolk . . . 
Worcester . 

Essex 

Worcester . 
Berkshire . 

Essex 

Plymouth . 
Hampden . 
Middlesex . 
Norfolk . . . 

Essex 

Worcester . 
Middlesex . 

Essex 

Middlesex . 
Essex 



5,591 


3,826 


1,765 


12,090 


8,146 


4,298 


3,940 


358 


4,035 


3,701 


5,169 


4,011 


1,158 


4,873 


3,846 


4,100 


3,020 


1,080 


3,261 


2,309 


4,307 


3,973 


334 


3,517 


3,244 


11,111 


8,555 


2,556 


6,769 


5,337 


4,242 


4,065 


177 


4,793 


4,646 


8,456 


7,311 


1,145 


6,507 


5,826 


4.907 


3,243 


1,664 


5,421 


3,372 


362,839 


248,043 


114.796 


250,526 


162,540 


13,608 


11,585 


2,023 


8,007 


6,701 


8,057 


5,421 


2,636 


6,650 


4,357 


52,669 


37,001 


15,668 


39,634 


27,579 


4,516 


3,290 


1,226 


3,879 


2,829 


21.782 


17.187 


4,595 


18,547 


14,595 


11,286 


6,780 


4,500 


9,607 


6,103 


8,029 


5,079 


2,950 


5,429 


3,340 


6,598 


5,330 


1,268 


5,600 


4,633 


6,233 


4,615 


1,618 


7,342 


5,432 


4,206 


3,029 


1,177 


3,620 


2,536 


4,159 


3,367 


792 


2,220 


1,826 


48,961 


25,386 


23,575 


26,766 


15,288 


12,429 


9,958 


2,471 


11,260 


8,743 


6,235 


4,832 


1,403 


4,968 


3,898 


4,051 


3,240 


811 


2,512 


2,155 


4,988 


4,117 


871 


3,333 


2,783 


19,329 


14,054 


5,275 


15,389 


11,382 


4,030 


3,154 


876 


4,594 


3,367 


4,653 


'3,806 


847 


4,320 


3,489 


18,472 


15,364 


3,108 


13,092 


11,089 


4,485 


3,857 


628 


4,422 


3,803 


21,915 


11,000 


10,915 


10,733 


5,243 


4,601 


3,577 


1,024 


4,419 


3,260 


7,088 


5,385 


1,703 


4,136 


2,909 


39,151 


21,885 


17,266 


28,921 


16,204 


5,772 


5,040 


732 


3,894 


3,505 


59,475 


36,421 


23,054 


40,928 


26.493 


38,274 


31,234 


7,040 


28,233 


23,298 


12,017 


9,569 


2,448 


7,367 


5,650 


7,467 


6,728 


739 


7,703 


6,803 



3,944 

334 
1,189 

952 
• 273 
1,432 

147 

681 
2,049 
87,986 
1,306 
2,293 
12,055 
1,050 
3,952 
3,504 
2,089 

967 
1,910 
1,084 

394 

11,478 

2,517 

1,070 

357 

550 
4,007 
1,227 

831 
2,003 

619 

5,490 

1,159 

1,227 

12,717 

389 

14,435 

4,935 

1,714 

900 



POPULATION. 



215 



Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1 880 and 1 870. 

MASSACHUSETTS— Continued. 



Name of place. 



Marlborough . . . 

Medf ord 

Melrose 

Methuen 

Middleborough . 

Milford 

Millbury 

Montague 

Natick 

Needkara 

New Bedford . . . 
Newburyport . . . 

Newton 

North Adams . . . 
Northampton . . . 
Northbridge 
North Brookfield 

Palmer 

Peabody 

Pittsfield 

Plymouth 

Provincetown . . . 

Quincy 

Randolph 

Rockland 

Salem 

Salisbury 

Somerville 

Southbridge 

Spencer 

Springfield 

Stoneham 

Stoughton 

Taunton 

Wakefield 

Waltham 

Ware , 

Watertown 

Webster 

Westborough 

Westfield 

West Springfield , 

Weymouth 

Woburn 

Worcester 

Adrian 

Alpena 



County. 



Middlesex . 
Middlesex . 
Middlesex . 

Essex 

Plymouth . 
Worcester . 
Worcester . 
Franklin . . 
Middlesex . 
Norfolk ... 

Bristol 

Essex 

Middlesex . 
Berkshire . 
Hampshire 
Worcester . 
Worcester . 
Hampden . 

Essex 

Berkshire . 
Plymouth . 
Barnstable 
Norfolk . . . 
Norfolk . . . 
Plymouth . 

Essex 

Essex 

Middlesex. 
Worcester . 
Worcester . . 
Hampden. . . 
Middlesex . . 

Norfolk 

Bristol 

Middlesex . . 
Middlesex . . 
Hampshire. . 
Middlesex . . 
Worcester . . 
Worcester. . 
Hampden . . 
Hampden . . 

Norfolk 

Middlesex . . 
Worcester . . 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



10,127 

7,573 

4,560 

4,392 

5,237 

9,310 

4,741 

4,875 

8,479 

5,252 

26,845 

13,538 

16,995 

10,191 

12,172 

4.053 

4,459 

5,504 

9,028 

13,364 

7,093 

4,346 

10,570 

4,027 

4,553 

27,563 

4,079 

24,933 

6,464 

7,466 

33,340 

4,890 

4,875 

21,213 

5,547 

11,712 

4,817 

5,426 

5,696 

5,214 

7,587 

4,149 

10,570 

10,931 

58,291 



7,578 
5,964 
3,943 
3,227 
4,881 
7,213 
3,146 
3,317 
6,780 
3,841 
20,922 
11,130 
12,905 
7,595 
9,159 
2,635 
3,465 
3,872 
6,851 
10,170 
6,246 
3,381 
7,715 
3,264 
3,899 
20,115 
3.672 
19,252 
3,962 
5,103 
25,807 
4,063 
4,175 
16,084 
4,350 
8,736 
3,044 
3,915 
3,451 
4,291 
6,477 
3,239 
9,154 
7,730 
42,667 



2.549 

1,609 

617 

1,165 

356 

2,097 

1,295 

1,558 

1,699 

1,411 

5,923 

2,408 

4,090 

2,596 

3,013 

1,418 

994 

1,632 

2,177 

3,194 

847 

965 

2,855 

763 

654 

7,448 

407 

5,681 

2,502 

2,363 

7,533 

827 

700 

5,129 

1,197 

2,976 

1,773 

1,511 

2,245 

923 

1,110 

910 

1,416 

3,201 

15,624 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



8,474 

5,717 

3,414 

2,959 

4,687 

9,890 

4,397 

2,224 

6,404 

3,607 

21,320 

12,595 

12,825 



10,160 
3,774 
3,343 
3,631 
7,343 

11,112 
6,238 
3,865 
7,442 
5,642 



5,908 
4,402 
2,858 
2,455 
4,400 
7,313 
2,679 
1,786 
5,000 
2,648 
17,645 
10,666 
9,469 



24,117 
3,776 

14,685 
5,208 
3,952 

26,703 
4,513 
4,914 

18,629 
4,135 
9,065 
4,259 
4,326 
4,763 
3,601 
6,519 
2,606 
9,010 
8,560 

41,105 



7,441 
2,457 
2,555 
2,578 
5,693 
7,947 
5,699 
3,076 
5,648 
4,643 



2,566 

1,315 

556 

504 

287 

2,577 

1,718 

438 

1,404 

959 

3,675 

1,929 

3,556 



2,719 
1,317 

788 
1,053 
1,650 
3,165 

539 

789 
1,794 

999 



18,033 


6,034 


3,341 


435 


10,553 


4,132 


2,921 


2,287 


2,747 


1,205 


19,773 


6,930 


3,722 


791 


4,121 


793 


14,024 


4,605 


3,347 


788 


6,460 


2,605 


2,727 


1,532 


3,083 


1,243 


2,694 


2,069 


2,942 


659 


5,542 


977 


1,999 


607 


7,719 


1,291 


6,124 


2.436 


29,159 


11,943 



MICHIGAN. 



Lenawee 
Alpena . . 



7,849 
6,153 



6,490 
2,891 



1,359 
3,262 



8,438 6,779 1,659 



216 



POPULATION. 



Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

MICHIGAN— Continued. 



Name of place. 



Ann Arbor . . . 
Battle Creek . . 

Bay City 

Coldwater 

Detroit 

East Saginaw . 

Flint 

Grand Haven . 
Grand Rapids 

Ionia 

Ishpeming 

Jackson 

Lansing 

Ludington . . . 

Manistee 

Marquette .... 

Monroe 

Muskegon .... 

Niles 

Pontiac 

Port Huron. . . 

Saginaw 

West Bay City 
Ypsilanti . . 

Faribault 

ManKato 

Minneapolis . . 

Bed Wing 

Rochester 

Saint Paul. . . . 

Stillwater 

Winona 

Jackson 

Meridiar. 

Natchez 

Vicksburg . 

Carthage 

Chillicothe 

Hannibal 



County. 



Washtenaw . 

Calhoun 

Bay 

Branch 

Wayne 

Saginaw . . . 
Genesee 

Ottawa 

Kent 

Ionia 

Marquette . . 
Jackson 

Ingham 

Mason 

Manistee . . . 
Marquette . . 
Monroe 
Muskegon . . 

Berrien 

Oakland 

Saint Clair . 
Saginaw. . . . 

Bay 

Washtenaw . 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



8,061 
7,063 

20,693 

4,681 

116,340 

19,016 
8,409 
4,862 

32,016 
4,190 
6,039 

16,105 
8,319 
4,190 
6 V 930 
4,690 
4,930 

11,262 
4,197 
4,509 
8,883 

10,525 
6,397 
4,984 



6,269 
6,229 

11,389 
4,169 

70,695 

11,660 
6,654 
3,114 

22,016 
3,419 
2,656 

12,977 
7,033 
2,573 
3,761 
2,765 
3,861 
6,722 
3,428 
3,374 
5,028 
6,473 
3,591 
4,204 



1,792 

834 
9,304 

512 

45,645 

7,356 

1,755 

1,748 

10,000 

771 
3,383 
3,128 
1,286 
1,617 
3,169 
1,925 
1,039 
4,540 

769 
1,135 
3,855 
4,052 
2,806 

780 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



7,363 

5,838 

7,064 

4,381 

79,577 

11,350 

5,386 

3,147 

16,507 

2,500 



11,447 
5,241 



3,343 
4,000 
5,086 
6,002 
4,630 
4,867 
5,973 
7,460 



5,471 



5,575 
5,140 
3,789 
3,868 

44,196 
6,284 
4,194 
1,639 

10,782 
1,991 



8,999 
4,403 



1,686 
1,927 
3,777 
3,158 
3,656 
3,914 
3,113 
4,329 



4,463 



1,788 

698 

3,275 

513 

35,381 

5,066 

1,192 

1,508 

5,725 

509 



2,448 
838 



1,657 
2,073 
1,309 
2,844 
974 
953 
2,860 
3,131 



1,008 



MINNESOTA. 



Rice 

Blue Earth . 
Hennepin . . 
Goodhue . . . 
Olmsted. . . . 

Ramsey 

Washington. 
Winona 



5,415 


4,044 


1,371 


3,045 


2,127 


5,550 


4,099 


1.451 


3,482 


2,309 


46,887 


31,874 


15,013 


13,066 


8,613 


5,876 


3,537 


2,339 


4,260 


2,335 


5,103 


4,002 


1,101 


3,953 


3,022 


41,473 


26,398 


15,075 


20,030 


11,343 


9,055 


5,215 


3,840 


4,124 


2,052 


10,208 


6,742 


3,466 


7,192 


4,512 



918 
1,173 
4,453 
1,925 

931 
8,687 
2,072 
2,680 



MISSISSIPPI. 



Hinds ..,.., 
Lauderdale . 

Adams 

Warren . . . . 



5,204 


4,947 


257 


4,234 


3,830 


4,008 


3,873 


135 


2,709 


2,575 


7,058 


6,542 


516 


9,057 


8,475 j 


11,814 


10,875 


939 


12,443 


11,027 



404 

134 

582 

1,416 



MISSOURI. 



Jasper 

Livingston 
Marion .... 



4,167 

4,078 

11,074 



3,959 
3,728 
9,809 



208 

350 

1,265 



3,978 
10,125 



3,554 
8,493 



424 
1,632 



POPULATION. 217 

Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

MISSOUEI— Continued. 



Name of place. 



Jefferson City 

Joplin 

Kansas City . . 

Louisiana 

Moberly 

Saint Charles , 
Saint Joseph . 
Saint Louis . . . 

Sedalia 

Springfield . . . 
Warrensburg . 

Lincoln 

Nebraska 

Omaha 

Plattsmouth . . 



County. 



Cole 

Jasper 

Jackson 

Pike 

Randolph 

Saint Charles 

Buchanan 

Saint Louis City . 

Pettis 

Greene 

Johnson 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



5,271 
7,038 

55,785 
4,325 
6,070 
5,014 

32,431 

350,518 

9,561 

6,522 

4,049 



4,403 
6,558 

46,484 
3,991 
5,311 
3,835 

26,775 

245,505 

8,442 

6,182 

3,841 



868 
480 

9,301 
334 
759 

1,179 

5,656 
105,013 

1,119 
340 
208 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



4,420 



32,260 
3,639 
1,514 
5,570 

19,565 

310,864 

4,560 

5,555 

2,945 



3,374 



24,581 
3,333 
1,297 
3,781 
14,339 
198,615 
3,968 
5,089 
2,722 



1,040 



7,679 

306 

217 

1,789 

5,226 

112,249 

592 

466 

223 



NEBRASKA. 



Lancaster 

Otoe 

Douglas . . 
Cass 



13,003 
4,183 

30,518 
4,175 



10,596 
3,452 

20,588 
3,271 



2,407 
731 

9,930 
904 



6,050 

16,083 

1,944 



4,664 
9,763 
1,396 



1,386 
6,320 

548 



NEVADA. 



Carson City . . 

Eureka 

Gold Hill 

Virginia City. . 

Claremont .... 

Concord 

Dover 

Keene 

Manchester . . . 

Nashua 

Portsmouth . . 

Rochester 

Somersworth. . 

Atlantic 

Bayonne 

Bordentown . . 

Bridgeton 

Burlington 

Camden 

Chambersburg 



Ormsby 
Eureka . 
Storey . 
Storey . 



4,229 

4,207 

4,531 

10,917 



2,583 
1,920 
2,682 
6,126 



1,646 

2,287 
1,849 
4,791 



7,048 



3,592 



3,456 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Sullivan 

Merrimack . . 
Strafford .... 
Cheshire .... 
Hillsborough 
Hillsborough 
Rockingham . 

Strafford 

Strafford .... 



4,704 


3,956 


748 


4,053 


3,518 


13,843 


11,978 


1,865 


12,241 


10,577 


11,687 


9,257 


2,430 


9,294 


7,848 


6,784 


6,003 


781 


5,971 


5,304 


32,630 


20,151 


12,479 


23,536 


16,378 


13,397 


9,832 


3,565 


10,543 


8,218 


9,690 


8,430 


1,260 


9,211 


8,205 


5,784 


4,911 


873 


4,103 


3,712 


5,586 


3,492 


2,094 


4,504 


3,572 



535 
1,664 
1,446 

667 
7,158 
2,325 
1,006 

391 

932 



NEW JERSEY. 



Atlantic 

Hudson 

Burlington . . 
Cumberland , 
Burlington . , 

Camden 

Mercer , 



5,477 
9,372 
4,258 
8,722 
6,090 
41,659 
5,437 



4,939 
6,162 
3,848 
8,314 
5,613 
37,164 
3,870 



538 

3,210 

410 

408 

477 

4,495 

1,567 



1,043 



6,830 

5,817 

20,045 



929 



6,476 

5,358 

17,462 



114 



354 
459 

2,583 



218 POPULATION. 

Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1 880 and 1 870. 

NEW JEESEY.— Continued. 



Name of place. 



Elizabeth 

Gloucester 
Hackensack . . . 

Harrison 

Hoboken 

Jersey City .... 
Larnbertville . . 

Millville 

Morristown .... 

Newark 

New Brunswick 

Orange 

Passaic 

Paterson 

Perth Ainboy . . 
Phillipsburg. . . 

Plainfield 

Rahway 

Salem 

Trenton 

Union 

Santa Fe 

Albany 

Amsterdam .... 

Auburn 

Batavia 

Binghamton . . . 

Brooklyn 

Buffalo 

Canandaigua. . . 

Catskill 

Cohoes 

College Point . . 

Corning 

Cortland 

Dunkirk 

Edgewater 

Elmira 

Flushing 

Geddes 

Geneva 

Glens Falls .... 



County. 



Union 

Camden . 

Bergen 

Hudson .... 

Hudson 

Hudson 

Hunterdon . 
Cumberland 

Morris 

Essex 

Middlesex . . 

Essex 

Passaic 

Passaic 

Middlesex . . 
Warren 

Union 

Union 

Salem 

Mercer 

Hudson . 



1880. 



Total. 


Native. 


28.229 


20,644 


5,347 


4,168 


4,248 


3,516 


6,898 


4,364 


30,999 


18,004 


120,722 


81,464 


4,183 


3,632 


7,660 


7,245 


5.418 


4,410 


136.508 


96,178 


17,166 


13,788 


13,207 


9,453 


6,532 


4,297 


51,031 


32,329 


4,808 


3,396 


7,181 


6,138 


8,125 


6,696 


6,455 


5,476 


5,056 


4,761 


29,910 


24,191 


5,849 


3,467 



7,585 

1,179 

732 

2,534 

12,995 

39,258 

551 

415 

1,008 

40,330 

3,378 

3,754 

2,235 

18,702 

1,412 

1,043 

1,429 

979 

295 

5,719 

2,382 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign. 



20,832 
3,682 



4,129 

20,297 

82,546 

3,842 

6,101 



105,059 

15,058 

9,348 



33,579 

2,861 



5,095 
6,258 
4,555 
22,874 
4,640 



14,080 
2,736 



2,239 
9,963 
50,711 
3,209 
5,591 



69,175 

11,684 

6,117 



20,711 
2,170 



4,189 
5,076 
4,185 
17,855 
2,362 



6,752 
946 



1,890 

10,334 

31,835 

633 

510 



35.884 
3,374 
3,231 



12,868 
691 



906 

1,182 

370 

5,019 

2,278 



NEW MEXICO TERRITORY. 



Santo Fe 



6,635 6,151 484 4,765 4,487 



278 



NEW YORK. 



Albany 

Montgomery 

Cayuga 

Genesee 

Broome 

Kings 

Erie 

Ontario 

Greene 

Albany 

Queens 

Steuben 

Cortland 
Chautauqua . 
Richmond . . . 
Chemung 

Queens 

Onondaga . . . 

Ontario 

Warren 



90,758 


66,993 


9,466 


7,494 


21,924 


16,981 


4,845 


3,867 


17,317 


14,815 


566,663 


388,969 


155,134 


103,866 


5,726 


4,579 


4,320 


3,840 


19,416 


11,844 


4,192 


2,517 


4,802 


3,894 


4,050 


3,686 


7,248 


4,911 


8,044 


4,980 


20,541 


16,967 


6,683 


5,207 


4,283 


3,028 


5,878 


4,617 


4,900 


4,081 



23,765 
1,972 
4,943 

978 

2,502 

177,694 

51,268 

1,147 

480 
7,572 
1,675 

908 

364 
2,337 
3,064 
3,574 
1,476 
1,255 
1,261 

819 



69,422 
5,426 

17,225 
3,890 

12,692 

396,099 

117,714 

4,862 

3,791 

15,357 
3,652 
4,018 
3,066 



15,863 
6,223 
3,629 
5,521 
4,500 



47,215 
4,264 

12,583 
2,975 

10,350 
251,381 

71,477 
3,714 
3,149 
7,947 
1,980 
3,084 
2,775 



12,472 
4,625 
2,443 
4,176 



22,207 

1,162 

4,642 

915 

2,342 

144,718 

46,237 

1,148 

642 

7,410 

1,672 

934 

291 



3,391 
1,598 
1,186 
1,345 



POPULATION. 



219 



Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

NEW YORK.— Continued. 



Name of place. 



Gloversville 

Green Island .... 
Hoosick Falls . . . 

Hornellsville 

Hudson 

Ithaca 

Jamestown 

Johnstown 

Kingston 

Lansingburg 

Little Falls 

Lockport 

Long Island City 

Malone 

Matteawan 

Middletown 

New Brighton 

Newburgh 

New York 

Ogdensburg 

Oswego 

Owego 

Peekskill . . . : 

Plattsburgh 

Port Jervis 

Poughkeepsie 

Rochester 

Rome 

Saratoga Springs 

Schenectady 

Seneca Falls 

Sing Sing 

Syracuse 

Troy 

Utica 

Watertown ...... 

West Troy 

Whitehall 

Yonkers 

Charlotte 

New Berne 

Raleigh . . .■ 

Wilmington 



County. 



Fulton 

Albany 

Rensselaer .... 

Steuben 

Columbia 

Tompkins 

Chautauqua . . . 

Fulton 

Ulster 

Rensselaer 

Herkimer 

Niagara 

Queens 

Franklin 

Dutchess 

Orange 

Richmond 

Orange 

New York 

Saint Lawrence 

Oswego 

Tioga 

Westchester . . . 

Clinton 

Orange 

Dutchess 

Monroe 

Oneida 

Saratoga 

Schenectady . . . 

Seneca 

Westchester . . . 

Onondaga 

Rensselaer 

Oneida 

Jefferson 

Albany 

Washington . . . 
Westchester . . . 



t 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



7,133 

4,160 

4,530 

8,195 

8,670 

9,105 

9,357 

5,013 

18,344 

7,432 

6,910 

13,522 

17,129 

4,193 

4,411 

8,494 

12,679 

18,049 

1,206,299 

10,341 

21,116 

5,525 

6,893 

5,245 

8,678 

20,207 

89,366 

12,194 

8,421 

13,655 

5,880 

6,578 

51.792 

56,747 

33,914 

10,697 

8,820 

4,270 

18,892 



6,370 

3,148 

3,362 

7,050 

7,354 

8,034 

6,777 

4,201 

14,506 

5,866 

5,710 

10,250 

11,259 

3,165 

3,631 

7,380 

8,660 

14,273 

727,629 

6,874 

15,555 

4,972 

6,017 

4,025 

7,511 

16,413 

62,744 

9,698 

6,911 

10,936 

4,910 

•5,306 

38,774 

39,809 

24,581 

8,253 

6,393 

3,499 

13,274 



763 
1,012 
1,168 
1,145 
1,316 
1,071 
2,580 

812 
3,838 
1,566 
1,200 
3,272 
5,870 
1,028 

780 
1,114 
4,019 
3,776 
478,670 
3,467 
5,561 

553 

876 
1,220 
1,167 
3,794 
26,622 
2,496 
1,510 
2,719 

970 
1,272 
13,018 
16,938 
9,333 
2,444 
2,427 

771 
5,618 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign. 



4,518 
3,135 



4,552 
8,615 
8,462 
5,336 

3,282 



6,372 

5,387 

12,426 

3,867 



2,406 
6,049 



17,014 

942,292 

10,076 

20,910 

4,756 

6,560 

5,139 

6,377 

20,080 

62,386 

11,000 

7,516 

11,026 

5,890 

4,696 

43,051 

46,465 

28,804 

9,336 

10,693 

4,322 

12,733 



4,056 
2,197 



3,770 
7,001 

7,427 
4,028 
2,719 



4,796 
4,078 
8,937 
2,300 



2,027 
4,878 



12,668 
523,198 

6,004 
13,989 

4,174 



3,524 

5,226 

15,655 

41,202 

8,239 

5,989 

8,412 

4,999 

3,504 

29,061 

30,246 

18,955 

6,707 

7,139 

3,136 

8,080 



462 
938 



782 
1,614 
1,035 
1,308 

563 



1,576 
1,309 
3,489 
1,567 



379 
1,171 



4,346 

419,094 

4,072 

6,921 

582 



1,615 
1,151 
4,425 

21,184 

2,761 

1,527 

2,614 

891 

1,192 

13,990 

16,219 

9,849 

2,629 

3,554 

1,186 

4,653 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



Mecklenburgh 

Craven 

Wake 

New Hanover. 



7,094 


6,901 


193 


4,473 


4,305 


6,443 


6,353 


90 


5,849 


5,736 


9,265 


9,098 


167 


7,790 


7,651 


17,350 


16,822 


528 


13,446 


12,876 



168 
113 
139 
570 



220 



POPULATION. 



Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

OHIO. 



Name of place: 



Akron 

Alliance 

Ashtabula 

Bellaire 

Canton 

Chillicothe 

Cincinnati 

Circieville 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Dayton 

Defiance 

Delaware 

East Liverpool 

Elyria 

Findlay 

Fremont 

Galion 

Gallipolis 

Hamilton .- 

Ironton 

Lancaster 

Lima 

Mansfield 

Marietta 

Massillon 

Middletown 

Mount Vernon 

Newark 

Norwalk 

Piqua 

Pomeroy 

Portsmouth 

Salem 

Sandusky 

Springfield 

Steubenville 

Tiffin 

Toledo 

Urbana 

Van Wert 

Warren 

Wooster 

Xenia 

Youngstown 

Zanesville 

Portland ! 



County. 



Summit 

Stark 

Ashtabula . . . 

Belmont 

Stark 

Ross 

Hamilton 
Pickaway 
Cuyahoga . . . 

Franklin 

Montgomery . 
Defiance 
Delaware 
Columbiana . 

Lorain 

Hancock 
Sandusky . . . 
Crawford 

Gallia 

Butler 

Lawrence . . . 
Fairfield 

Allen 

Bichland 

Washington . 

Stark 

Butler 

Knox 

Licking 

Huron 

Miami 

Meigs 

Scioto 

Columbiana . 

Erie 

Clarke 

Jefferson 

Seneca „ 

Lucas 

Champaign . 

Van Wert 

Trumbull. . . . 

Wayne 

Greene 

Mahoning . . . 
Muskingum. . 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



16,512 

4,636 

4,415 

8,025 

12,258 

10,938 

255,139 

6,046 

160,146 

51,647 

38,678 

5,907 

6,894 

5,568 

4,777 

4,633 

8,446 

5,635 

4,400 

12,122 

8,857 

6,803 

7,567 

9,859 

5,444 

6,836 

4,538 

5,249 

9,600 

5,704 

6,031 

5,560 

11,321 

4,041 

15,838 

20,730 

12,093 

7,879 

50,137 

6,252 

4,079 

4,428 

5,840 

7,026 

15,435 

18,113 



12,901 

4,159 

3,652 

6,873 

10,315 

9,295 

183,480 

5,543 

100,737 

42,576 

31,432 

4,751 

6,006 

4,612 

3,667 

4,250 

7,077 

4,765 

4,144 

9,587 

7,647 

6.087 

6,614 

8,371 

4,788 

5,381 

3,821 

4,735 

8,424 

4,842 

5,159 

4,457 

9,695 

3,731 

11,283 

17,646 

10,150 

6,650 

35,788 

5,579 

3,871 

3,732 

5,233 

6,436 

10,678 

15,996 



3,611 

477 

793 

1,152 

1,943 

1,643 

71,659 

503 

59,409 

9,071 

7,246 

1,156 

888 

956 

1,110 

383 

1,369 

870 

256 

2,535 

1,210 

716 

953 

1,488 

656 

1,455 

717 

514 

1,176 

862 

872 

1,103 

1,626 

310 

4,555 

3,084 

1,943 

1,229 

14,349 

673 

208 

696 

607 

590 

4,757 

2,117 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



10,006 
4,063 
1,999 
4,033 
8,660 
8,920 
216,239 
5,407 

92,829 

31,274 

30,473 
2,750 
5,641 
2,105 
3,038 
3.315 
5,455 
3,523 
3,711 

11,081 
5,686 
4,725 
4,500 
8,029 
5,218 
5,185 
3,046 
4,876 
6,698 
4,498 
5,967 
5,824 

10,592 
3,700 

13,000 

12,652 
8,107 
5,648 

31,584 
4,276 
2,625 
3,457 
5,419 
6,377 
8,075 

10,011 



7,402 
3,495 
1,638 
3,165 
7,037 
7,111 
136 : 627 
4.845 
54,014 
23,663 
23,050 
2,072 
4,739 
1,643 
2,339 
2,898 
4,383 
2,814 
3,456 
8,019 
4,604 
4,005 
3,832 
6,507 
4,353 
3,952 
2,476 
4,327 
5,413 
3,666 
4,840 
4,173 
8,530 
3,420 
8,396 
10,483 
6,460 
4,490 
20,4 C 5 
3,632 
2,487 
2,896 
4,730 
5,686 
5,258 
8,448 



2,604 

568 

361 

868 

1,623 

1,809 

79,612 

562 

38,815 

7,611 

7,423 

678 

902 

462 

699 

417 

1,072 

709 

255 

3,062 

1,082 

720 

668 

1,522 

865 

1,233 

570 

549 

1,285 

832 

1,127 

1,651 

2,062 

280 

4,604 

2,169 

1,647 

1,158 

11,099 

644 

138 

561 

689 

691 

2,817 

1,563 



OREGON. 



Multnomah 17,577 11,265 6,312 8,293 I 5,715 2,578 



POPULATION. 



221 



Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 



Name of place. 



Allegheny 

Allentown 

Altoona 

Ashland 

Beaver Falls 

Bethlehem 

Bradford 

Bristol 

Carbondale 

Carlisle 

Chambersburg . . . 

Chester 

Columbia 

Conshohocken . . . 

Corry 

Danville 

Dunmore 

Easton 

Erie 

Franklin 

Harrisburg 

Hazleton 

Huntingdon 

Johnstown 

Lancaster 

Lebanon 

Lock Haven 

McKeesport 

Mahanoy 

Meadville 

New Castle 

Norristown 

Oil City 

Philadelphia 

Phoenixvilie 

Pittsburgh 

Pittston 

Plymouth 

Pottstown 

Pottsville 

Beading 

Saint Clair 

Scranton 

Shamokin 

Sharon 

Shenandoah 

South Bethlehem 

South Easton 

Sunbury 



County. 



Allegheny 

Lehigh 

Blair 

Schuylkill 

Beaver 

Northampton 

McKean 

Bucks 

Lackawanna 

Cumberland. . . . 

Franklin 

Delaware 

Lancaster 

Montgomery 

Erie 

Montour 

Lackawanna 

Northampton . . . 

Erie 

Venango 

Dauphin 

Luzerne 

Huntingdon 

Cambria 

Lancaster 

Lebanon 

Clinton 

Allegheny 

Schuylkill 

Crawford 

Lawrence 

Montgomery .... 

Venango 

Philadelphia 

Chester 

Allegheny 

Luzerne 

Luzerne 

Montgomery .... 

Schuylkill 

Berks 

Schuylkill 

Lackawanna .... 
Northumberland 

Mercer 

Schuylkill 

Northampton . . . 
Northampton . . . 
Northumberland 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



78,682 

18,063 

19,710 
6,052 
5,104 
5,193 
9,197 
5,273 
7,714 
6,209 
6,877 

14,997 
8,312 
4,561 
5,277 
8,346 
5,151 

11,924 

27,737 
5,010 

30,762 
6,935 
4,125 
8,380 

25,769 
8,778 
5,845 
8,212 
7,181 
8,860 
8,418 

13,063 
7,315 
847,170 
6,682 
156,389 
7,472 
6,065 
5,305 

13,253 

43,278 
4,149 

45,850 
8,184 
5,684 

10,147 
4,925 
4,534 
4,077 



59,245 

16,233 

17,618 

4,502 

4,343 

4,811 

7,653 

4,600 

5,724 

5,974 

6,483 

12,159 

7,415 

3,542 

4,265 

6,995 

3,508 

10,933 

20,031 

4,448 

28,446 

5,260 

3,849 

7,119 

22.390 

8,460 

5,143 

6,311 

5,135 

7,631 

7,237 

11,413 

6,037 

642,835 

5,278 

111,784 

4,966 

3,938 

5,099 

11,130 

39,654 

2,889 

29,993 

6,992 

4,189 

6,904 

3,841 

3,794 

3,957 



19,437 
1,830 
2,092 
1,550 

761 

382 
1,544 

673 
1,990 

235 

394 
2,838 

897 
1,019 
1,012 
1,351 
1,643 

991 
7,70<> 

562 
2,316 
1,675 

276 
1,261 
3,379 

318 

702 
1,901 
2,046 
1,229 
1,181 
1,650 
1,278 
204,335 
1,404 
44,605 
2,506 
2,127 

206 
2,123 
3,624 
1,260 
15,857 
1,192 
1,495 
3,243 
1,084 

740 

120 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



53,180 

13,884 

10,610 

5,714 

3,112 

4,512 



3,269 
6,393 
6,650 
6,308 
9,485 
6,461 
3,071 
6,809 
8,436 
4,311 

10,987 

19,646 
3,908 

23,104 
4.317 
3,034 
6,028 

20,233 
6,727 
6,986 
2,523 
5,533 
7,103 
6,164 

10,753 

2,276 

674.022 

5,292 

86,076 
6,760 
2,684 
4,125 

12,384 

33,930 
5,726 

35,092 
4,320 
4,221 
2,951 
3,556 
3,167 
3,131 



37,872 
11,853 
9,119 
3,775 
2,634 
4,117 



2,849 
4,061 
6,249 
5,793 
7,492 
5,495 
2,175 
5,080 
6,372 
2,454 
9.664 

12,718 
3,313 

20,309 
2,876 
2,787 
4,566 

16,858 
6,355 
6,103 
2,153 
3,372 
5,744 
5,252 
9,133 
1,824 
490,398 
3,810 

58,254 
3,613 
1,686 
3,861 
9,672 

30,059 
3,437 

19,205 
3,488 
2,990 
1,679 
2,450 
2,481 
3.021 



15,308 

2,031 

1,491 

1,939 

478 

395 



420 

2,332 

401 

515 

1,993 

966 

896 

1,729 

2,064 

1,857 

1,323 

6,928 

595 

2,795 

1,441 

247 

1,462 

3,375- 

372 

883 

370 

2,161 

1,359 

912 

1,620 

452 

183,624 

1,482 

27,822 

3,147 

998 

264 

2,712 

3,871 

2,289 

15,887 

832 

1,231 

1,272 

1,106 

686 

110 



222 POPULATION. 

Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

PENNSYLVANIA.— Continued. 





County. 


1880. 


1870. 




Total. 


Native. 


Foreign . 


Total. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Tamaqua 


Schuylkill 


5,730 

9,046 

4,292 

7,046 

23,339 

18,934 

13,940 


4,678 

6,694 

4,105 

6,529 

17,039 

16,636 

12,893 


1,052 
2,352 
187 
517 
6,300 
2,298 
1,047 


5,960 

8,639 

3,571 

5,630 

10,174 

16,030 

11,003 


4,382 
6,185 
3,364 
5,150 
7,517 
13,404 
9,855 


1,578 

2,454 

207 


Titusville 


Crawford 


Washington 


Washington 


West Chester 




480 


Wilkesbarre 


Luzerne 


2,657 


Williamsport 


Lycoming 


2,626 


York 


York 


1,148 



RHODE ISLAND. 



Bristol 

Burrellville 

Coventry 

Cranston 

Cumberland 

East Providence . . 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

Newport 

Pawtucket 

Providence 

South Kingstown. 

Warren 

Warwick 

Westerly 

Woonsocket 

Charleston 

Columbia 

Greenville 

Chattanooga 

Jackson 

Knoxville 

Memphis 

Nashville 

Austin 

Brenham 

Brownsville 

Dallas 

Fort Worth 

Galveston 



Bristol 

Providence . . 

Kent 

Providence . 
Providence . 
Providence . 
Providence . 
Providence . 
Newport . . . 
Providence . 
Providence . 
Washington 

Bristol 

Kent 

Washington 
Providence . 



6,028 


4,783 


1,245 


5,302 


4,288 


5,714 


3,835 


1,879 


4,674 


3,250 


4,519 


3,643 


876 


4,349 


3,654 


5,940 


4,516 


1,424 


4,822 


3,313 


6,445 


3,975 


2,470 


3,882 


2,611 


5,056 


4,145 


911 


2,668 


2,316 


5,765 


4,501 


1,264 


4,192 


3,211 


13,765 


7,206 


6,559 


7,889 


4,569 


15,693 


12,000 


3,693 


12,521 


9,741 


19,030 


13,463 


5,567 


6,619 


4,359 


104,857 


76,782 


28,075 


68,904 


51,727 


5,114 


4,748 


366 


4,493 


4,212 


4,007 


2,678 


1.329 


3,008 


2,251 


12,164 


8,305 


3,859 


10,453 


7,056 


6,104 


4,919 


1,185 


4,709 


3,873 


16,050 


8,720 


7,330 


11,527 


5,933 



1,014 

1,424 

695 

1,509 

1,271 

352 

981 

3,320 

2,780 

2,260 

17,177 

281 

757 

3,387 

836 

5,594 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Charleston 
Richland. . 
Greenville . 



49,984 


46,034 


3,950 


48,956 


44,064 


10,036 


9,698 


338 


9,208 


8,722 


6,160 


6,027 


133 


2,757 


2,712 



:,892 

575 
45 



TENNESSEE. 



Hamilton . 
Madison. . 

Knox 

Shelby . . . 
Davidson . 



12,892 


12,173 


719 


6,093 


5,618 


5,377 


5,180 


197 


4,119 


3,923 


9,693 


9,164 


529 


8,682 


8,050 


33,592 


29,621 


3,971 


40,226 


33,446 


43,350 


40,325 


3,025 


25,865 


23,056 



475 

196 

632 

6,780 

2,809 



TEXAS. 



Travis 

Washington. 
Cameron. . . . 

Dallas 

Tarrant 

Galveston. . . 



11,013 
4,101 
4,938 

10,358 
6,663 

22,248 



9,628 
3,674 
2,279 
9,035 
6,137 
17,202 



1,385 
427 
2,659 
1,323 
. 526 
5,046 



4,428 
2,221 
4,905 



3,812 
1,941 
1,612 



13,818 10,204 



616 

280 
3,293 



3,614 




Key of Shades. 

Females in excess. 

Males in excess less than 5 per 



1 



5 to 10 per cen 
" 10 to 20 " 
" above 20 " 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy & West 




Key of Shades. 

Females in excess. 

Males in excess less than 5 per cent. 



mi 



" 5 to 10 per cent. 
" 10 to 20 " 
" above 20 " 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy & West 



POPULATION 



223 



Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

TEXAS.— Continued. 



Name of place. 



County. 



Houston Harris 

Marshall Harrison . . 

San Antonio j Bexar 

Sherman I Grayson . . . 

Waco I McLennan 



Brattleboro' 

Bennington 

Burlington 

Colchester 

Rutland 

Saint Albans 

Saint Johnsbury. 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



16,513 
5,624 

20,550 
6,093 
7,295 



14,240 
5,309 

14,952 
5,709 
6,793 



2,273 
315 

5,598 
384 
502 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



9,382 
1,920 
12,256 
1,439 
3,008 



7,811 
1,820 
8,136 
1,413 

2,804 



Windham . . 
Bennington . 
Chittenden . 
Chittenden . 

Rutland 

Franklin . . . 
Caledonia . . 



5,880 


5,250 


630 


4,933 


4,387 


6,333 


5,319 


1,014 


5,760 


4,713 


11,365 


8,633 


2,732 


14,387 


8,219 


4,421 


3,040 


1,381 


3,911 


2,527 


12,149 


9,401 


2,748 


9,834 


6,871 


7,193 


5,468 


1,725 


7,014 


4,831 


5,800 


4,566 


1,234 


4,665 


3,607 



1,571 
100 

4,120 

26 

204 



UTAH TERRITORY. 


Ogden 


Weber 


6,069 1 4,084 
20,768 13,095 


1,985 
7,673 


3,127 

12,854 


2,066 
7,604 


1,061 


Salt Lake Citv 


Salt Lake . . 




5,250 








VERMONT. 



546 
1,047 
6,168 
1,384 
2,963 
2,183 
1,058 



VIRGINIA. 



Alexandria 

Danville 

Fredericksburg . 

Lynchburg 

Manchester 

Norfolk 

Petersburg 



Portsmouth 
Richmond . . 
Staunton . . . 
Winchester . 



Alexandria 

Pittsylvania 

Spotsylvania .... 

Campbell 

Chesterfield 

Norfolk 

Chesterfield, Prince 
George, and Din- 
widdle. 

Norfolk 

Henrico 

Augusta 

Frederick 



13,659 


13,060 


599 


13,570 


12,763 


7,526 


7,417 


109 


3,463 


3,433 


5,010 


4,914 


96 


4,046 


3,867 


15,959 


15,561 


398 


6,825 


6,554 


5,729 


5,629 


100 


2,599 


2,559 


21,966 


21,131 


835 


19,229 


18,490 


21,656 


21,300 


356 


18,950 


18,505 


11,390 


10,864 


526 


10,590 


10,082 


63,600 


60,260 


3,340 


51,038 


47,260 


6,664 


6,426 


238 


5,120 


4,895 


4,958 


4,873 


85 


4,477 


4,375 



807 
30 
179 
271 
40 
739 
445 

508 

3,778 

225 

102 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



Charleston . . 
Martin sburg . 
Parkersburg. 
Wheeling 



Kanawha . 
Berkeley . 
Wood 
Ohio 



4,192 


3,953 


239 


3,162 


2,948 


6,335 


5,974 


361 


4,863 


4,375 


6,582 


5,985 


597 


5,546 


4,745 


30,737 


24,623 


6,114 


19,280 


15,127 



214 

488 

801 

4,153 



WISCONSIN. 



Appleton 
Beloit 



Outagamie 
Rock 



8,005 
4,790 



5,655 
3,998 



2,350 
792 



4,518 
4,396 



2,990 
3,518 



1,528 

878 



224 POPULATION. 

Population of places of 4,000 inhabitants and over, by nativity, in 1880 and 1870. 

WISCONSIN.— Continued. 



Name of place. 



Eau Claire . . . 
Fond du Lac 
Green Bay . . . 
Janesville . . . 

Kenosha 

La Crosse . . . 

Madison 

Manitowoc . . 
Milwaukee . . 

Neenah 

Oconto 

Oshkosh 

Portage 

Racine 

Sheboygan . . 
Stevens Point 
Watertown . . 
Wausau 



County. 



Eau Claire 

Fond du Lac 

Brown 

Rock 

Kenosha 

La Crosse 

Dane 

Manitowoc 

Milwaukee 

Winnebago 

Oconto 

Winnebago 

Columbia 

Racine . • 

Sheboygan 

Portage 

Dodge and Jefferson 
Marathon 



1880. 



Total. Native. Foreign 



10,119 

13,094 

7,464 

9,018 

5,039 

14,505 

10,324 

6,367 

115,587 

4,202 

4,171 

15,748 

4,346 

16,031 

7,314 

4,449 

7,883 

4,277 



6,289 
9,564 
5,153 
7,079 
3,632 
9,125 
7,620 
3,871 

69,514 
2,845 
2,423 

11,094 
3,041 

10,327 
4,693 
3,085 
4,811 
2,517 



3,830 
3,530 
2,311 
1,939 
1,407 
5,380 
2,704 
2,496 
46,073 
1,357 
1,748 
4,654 
1,305 
5,704 
2,621 
1,364 
3,072 
1,760 



1870. 



Total. Native. Foreign. 



2,293 
12,764 
4,666 
8,789 
4,309 
7,785 
9,176 
5,168 
71,440 
2,655 
2,655 
12.663 
3,945 
9,880 
5,310 
1,810 
7,550 
1,349 



1.529 
8,735 
2,851 
6,554 
2,995 
4,336 
6,062 
2,591 
37,667 
1,773 
1,431 
8,122 
2,432 
5,889 
2,920 
1,243 
3,966 
755 



764 
4,029 
1,815 
2,235 
1,314 
3,449 
3,114 
2,577 
33,773 

882 
1,224 
4,541 

1,51a 

3,991 
2,390 

567 
3,584 

594 



The population of the United States for different periods dwelling in cities. 



Date. 


Population of 
United States. 


O 
6 


o 

d 
.2 

aj • 

P, m 3 

S' 3 


Inhabitants of 
cities in each 
100 oi ihe total 
population. 


1790 


3,929,214 

5.308,483 

7,239,881 

9,633,822 

12,866,020 

17,069,453 

23,191,876 

31,443,321 

38,558,371 

50,155,783 


6 

6 

11 

13 

26 

44 

85 

141 

226 

286 


131,472 

210,873 

356,920 

475,135 

864,509 

1,453,994 

2,897.586 

5,072,256 

8,071,875 

11,318,547 


3.3 


1800 


3.9 


1801 


4.9 


1820 


4.9 


1830 


6.7 


1840 


8.5 


1850 


12.5 


1860 


16.1 


1870 


20.9 


1880 


22.5 







POPULATION. 225 



FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

The number and general condition of the people in the older countries 
of the world, are so different from what they are in our own land, as to 
make it hardly possible to convey an adequate notion. They have been 
settled so much longer, are more densely populated, have little or no out- 
lying territory to supply the surplus population with homes, and all the 
manufactories are over-crowded ; thousands are emigrating to our own 
land every year, and as many, perhaps, to other less densely populated por- 
tions of the globe. 

It may be interesting to many to have, in connection with the popula- 
tion statistics of our own country, those of other countries. In the subjoined 
pages are to be found the latest attainable statistics with reference to the 
principal countries outside America. In many of these the reports are 
incomplete and unsatisfactory; nor has it been found practicable to pre- 
sent these in the concise, tabulated form of the statistics of the United 
States. These facts have been gathered from official returns made 
in the countries named, and from numerous private publications of 
the countries. In the main, they will be found accurate. What was 
given, only could be reproduced. On many points of interest, no facts, 
are obtainable. 

In some of the European countries, as England and Germany, the most 
careful and thorough provisions have been made for the accurate collec- 
tion of statistics regarding the population. In others, no such provision 
has been made by the governments ; consequently, the statistics are left to 
private parties, or to the fortuitous reports of government agents. In the 
countries of Asia and Africa, nothing is obtainable but the uncertain esti- 
mates of the European inhabitants. The wild and vague reports of the 
native governments have been proved to be wholly unreliable. In the 
South American countries, generally, and in Mexico, there is some reliance 
to be placed upon the statistics afforded. In the matters of which they 
treat, they have been found to be reasonably accurate. The private reports 
of the European or American inhabitants, or travelers, contain much val- 
uable information, and serve to correct the errors of native reports. 

It will be proper to begin with Great Britain, a country so intimately 
related to our own, and whose people are of the same .race. 



226 



POPULATION. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 
Foreign Population of Great Britain and Ireland. 

It is difficult to ascertain with perfect accuracy the number of 
foreigners living in England and Wales. It is supposed that there are 
140,090 foreigners in England and Wales, 40,909 of whom reside in London. 
Of this number of foreigners 28,644 are Germans (16,082 of whom dwell 
in London); Austrians, 1,669; French, 12,989; Dutch, 5,442; Swedes 
and Norwegians, 5,417; Poles, 3,616; Italians, 4,489; Danes, 2,534; 
Swiss, 2,341; Belgians, 2,031; Russians, 1,633; Spaniards, 1,337; other 
European countries, 1,577; North Americans, 7,861; other parts of 
America, 1,641; Africans, 518; Asiatics, 358. 

The number of English dwelling in other parts of Europe are 64,969 ; 
of whom, in France, 25,844; Germany, 7,365; Italy, 5,467; Belgium, 
4,092; Switzerland, 1,124. Outside this number are 125,379 in India, 
including 85,008 in the army. 

In 187 1 there were living in England and Wales, 139,445 persons 
who were born in foreign lands. 

In 1 841 there were only 36,446 such cases and in 1851 there were 
61,708, and in 1861, 101,832. Of the 1871 total, 66,101 lived in London. 

The large towns with their population. 



England. 



London 

Liverpool 

Manchester with Salford 

Birmingham , 

Leeds 

Sheffield 

Bristol 

Bradford 

Stoke-upon-Trent 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Hull 

Portsmouth 



Scotland. 



Glasgow . . 
Edinburgh 
Dundee 



Ireland. 



Dublin . 

Belfast . 



1801. 



958,865 
82,295 
94,876 
70,670 
53,162 
45,755 
61,153 
13,265 



77,058 
81,404 



1851. 



1,362,226 

375,955 

401,321 

232,841 

172,270 

135,310 

137,328 

103,778 

84,02.7 

87,784 

84,690 

72,096 



329,097 

191,221 

78,931 

258,369 
100,301 



1861. 



2,803,989 
443,938 
441,171 
296,076 
207,165 
185,172 
154,093 
106,218 
101,207 
109,108 
97,661 
94,799 

394,864 

201,749 

90,417 

304,710 
120,777 



1871. 



3,254,260 
493,405 
475,990 
343,787 
259,212 
239,946 
182,552 
145,830 
130,985 
128,443 
121,982 
113,569 

547,538 
197,581 
119,141 

295,841 
174,394 



1877. 



=8 



o 



555,933 
218,729 
142,951 

333,623 
202,641 



POPULATION. 

Table showing the population of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 800 to 1 878. 



227 



Yeab. 


England ;ind 
Wales. 


Scotland. 


Ireland. 


Total. 


Isle of Man & Channel Islands. 


1801 

1811 

1821 

1831 

1841 

1851 

1861 


8,892,536 
10,164,256 
12,000,236 
13,896,797 
15,914,148 
17,927,609 
20,119,314 
21,348,971 
23,944,459 
24,244,010 
24,547,309 
24,854,397 


1,608,420 
1,805,864 
2,091,521 
2,364,386 
2,620,184 
2,888,742 
3,066,633 
3,366,375 
3,495,214 
3,527,811 
3,560,715 
3,593,929 


5,216,331 
5,956,460 
6,801,827 
7,767,401 
8,175,124 
6,552,385 
5,788,415 
5,386,708 
5,309,494 
5,321,618 
5,338,906 
5,350,950 


15,717,287 
17,926,580 
20,893,684 
26,028,584 
26,709,456 
27,368,736 
28,974,362 
31,513,442 
32,749,167 
33,089,237 
33,446,930 
33,881,966 


89,508 

103,710 

124,040 
52,387 90,739 
52,469 90,977 


1871 


54,042 90,596 


1875 




1876 




1877 




1878 





From 1800 to 1871, the increase in the population of Great Britain 
and Wales was 155 per cent; in Scotland, 100 per cent; in Ireland a 
decrease of 34 per cent; in the whole Kingdom, an increase of 95 per 
cent. The increase in the islands named in the same period was 68 per 
cent. From 1837 to ' l &76 the population of the United Kingdom increased 
29 per cent. 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland includes an area 
of 121,305 square miles, viz.: England and Wales, 58,311 square miles; 
Scotland, 30,362 square miles, and Ireland, 32,531 square miles. The 
islands in the British seas occupy an area of 193,647 acres, viz.: the Isle 
of Man, 145,325 acres; Jersey, 28,717 acres and Guernsey, with the adjacent 
islands, 19,605 acres. 

The Isle of Wight contains 54,042 inhabitants; the Isle of Anglesea 
contains 51,040 inhabitants; Orkney Islands contain 31,274 inhabitants; 
Shetland Islands contain 31,608 inhabitants. 

The number of families in England and Wales in 187 1 was 5,049,016. 
Great Britain shows a marked increase in population when compared 
with France and Prussia. From 1861 to 1870, there was an increase of 
13.23 per cent in Britain, no gain in France, and a loss of nearly 2 per 
cent in Prussia. From 1867 to 1872, there was a gain of 13 per cent in 
Britain, a loss of 1.01 per cent in France and of 2.32 per cent in Prussia. 
This included the time of the Franco-Prussian war, and when England 
was at peace. The differences in the three countries is not due to a less 
number of births, or a greater number of deaths; but more largely to 
immigration. 



228 POPULATION. 

The population of Great Britain and Ireland, according to sex, in different periods. 





England and Wales. 


Scotland. 


Ireland. 




Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


1861 


9,801,152 
11,093,123 
11,656,400 
12,097,547 


10,318,162 
11,680,689 
12,288,059 
12,756,850 


1,453,496 
1,607,276 
1,673,105 
1,724,320 


1,615,908 
1,760,646 
1,822,109 
1,869,609 


2,831,783 
2,626,661 
2,572,088 
2,638,260 


2,956,632 


1871 


2,768,346 
2,737,406 
2,795,380 


1875 

1878 





Those of the people not dwelling in the country in 1871, viz.: those 
of the Land Forces, Navy and Commercial Marine are not included; 
they are numbered 216,080. The disproportion between the sexes has in- 
creased during the last twenty years. In 1851 the figures stood at 13,369,- 
442 males against 14,074,314 females, a difference of 704,872. In 1861 the 
difference was 803,271, and in 1871 it had risen to 882,611. If the soldiers 
and absent sailors are included, there is still a disproportion of 687,115. 
This is doubtless the result in a great measure of the Colonial possessions 
together with the Indian and Crimean wars and the enormous migration 
of the Irish. It is remarkable that the difference is not still greater in 
Ireland — a sign of universal emigration. 



The emigration from Great Britain and Ire/and for different periods and the principal 

destinations. 



Year. 



1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1878 



Total No. 
Emigrants. 



128,469 
91,770 
121,214 
223,758 
208,900 
209,801 
204,882 
195,953 
196,325 
258,027 
256,940 
252,435 
295,213 
310,612 
241,014 
163,809 
138,222 



To United 
States. 



87,500 

49,764 

58,706 

146,813 

147,042 

147,258 

161,000 

159,275 

155,532 

203,001 

196,075 

198,843 

233,747 

233,073 

148,161 

134,823 

54,554 

54,069 



To British 
N. America. 



9,786 
12,707 
15,522 
18,083 
12,721 
12,211 
13,253 
15,503 
21,062 
33,891 
35,295 
32,671 
32,205 
37,208 
25,450 
22,283 

9,335 
10,697 



To 
Australia. 



24,302 

23,738 

41,843 

53,054 

40,942 

37,283 

24,097 

14,466 

12,809 

14,901 

17,065 j 

12,227 j 

15,876 i 

26,428 J 

53,958 ' 

28,882 

32,196 

36,057 



Annual Aver- 
age to other 
Places not 
stated. 



y 3,535 



4,772 



8,889 



13,384 



POPULATION. 229 

The English colonies and foreign possessions. 

The English colonies and foreign possessions are scattered over all parts 

of the world. The following is a list of them, together with the manner 
and time of their coming into British possession: — 

Colonies. Manner of possession. . Ua P e .f > . f 

1 Newfoundland By settlement and conquest from France 1608 

2 Prince Edward's Island. .By settlement and conquest from France 

3 Nova Scotia By settlement and conquest from France 1654 

4 Bermuda Settlement 1609 

5 St. Christopher Settlement 1623 and 1650 

6 Barbadoes Settlement 1625 

7 Nevis Settlement 1628 

8 Bahamas Settlement 1629 

9 Turk's Island Settlement 1629 

10 Gambia Settlement 1631 

11 Antigua Settlement 1632 

12 Moutserjat Settlement 1632 

13 Jamaica Conquest from Spain 1655 

14 Gold Coast Settlement 1661 

15 Virgin Islands Settlement 1666 

16 Honduras .Ceded by Spain 1670 

17 St. Helena Exchanged 1651 

18 Gibraltar Conquest from Spain 1704 

19 Canada Conquest from France 1759 and 1763 

20 Dominica Ceded by France 1763 

21 Grenada Ceded by France 1763 

22 Tobago Ceded by France 1763 

23 St. Vincent Ceded by France 1763 

24 New Brunswick Separated from Nova Scotia '. 1784 

25 Sierra Leone Settlement. Ceded by Holland 1787 

26 Gambia Settlement. Ceded by Holland 1871 

27 New South Wales Settlement 1787 

28 Ceylon Conquest from Holland 1796 

29 Trinidad Conquest from Spain 1797 

30 Malta Conquest from France 1800 

31 Guiana Ceded by Holland 1803 

32 St. Lucia Conquest from France 1803 

33 Tasmania Settlement 1803 

34 Cape of Good Hope Conquest from Holland 1806 

35 Mauritius Conquest from France 1810 

36 Heligoland Ceded by Denmark 1814 

37 Ascension Settlement 1827 

38 West Australia Settlement 1829 

39 South Australia Settlement 1836 

40 Natal Settlement 1838 

41 New Zealand Settlement 1839 

42 Falkland Isles Settlement in 1765 and ceded by Spain 1837 

43 Hong Kong Ceded by China 1843 

44 Labuan Ceded by Sultan of Borneo 1846 

45 Victoria Separated from New South Wales 1850 

46 Columbia Settlement 1858 

47 India \ Settlement and conquest from 1625 and 1849 

' ( Transferred from East India Company 1859 



230 



POPULATION. 



The English colonies and foreign possessions. — Continued. 



iolonies. Manner of possession. . V&te of 

Acquisition. 

Queensland Separated from New South Wales 1859 

Caff reland Separated from the Cape 1860 

Transvaal Annexation April 12 1877 

Straits Settlements Treaty and Settlement 1786 and 1824 

Vancouver's Island Settlement 1792 

Lagos Conquest and Treaty 1874 

Fiji Islands Ceded in 1874 

Cyprus Convention, June 4th 1878 



These possessions embraced, according to the official returns in 1877, 
8,078,370 square miles, with a population of 233,930,338. The dealings 
of the mother country with the various colonies are not uniform. Those 
which are simply military positions are ruled absolutely, while those colo- 
nies with European populations have their parliaments and govern them- 
selves, as far as their internal affairs are concerned, as free and independ- 
ent countries. Thus act the various colonies in Australia, Canada and the 
Cape. They have the power of determining their requirements, and 
voting the supplies to meet them. It is only as regards the military that 
the mother country continues her supervision, and even that she has con- 
tracted of late years by withdrawing most of the troops. 

Possessions in Europe. 



Area 
sqr. miles. 



Population. 



Inhabitants 
per sqr. mile. 



Gibraltar 

Malta and Gozo. 
*Cyprus 



H 

115 

4,000 



25,148 
149,270 
200,000 



1,266 
62 



Military population of 6,448 not included. 

British North America. 



The earlier provinces of Upper and Lower Canada (which were 
united in 1839), together with New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince 
Edward's Island have, since July 1, 1867, been formed into a Confedera- 
tion, under the name of the Dominion of Canada. Upper Canada bears 
the name of Ontario, and Lower Canada of Quebec, the chief town of the 
Confederation being Ottawa. 

By an Act passed March 9, 1869, the lands of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany were added to the Confederation, and, in June of the same year, New- 
foundland was likewise added. Since 1866 Vancouver's Island and British 



POPULATION. 



231 



Columbia have been united to the Dominion of Canada, 
and population is as under: — 



The total area 





Square miles. 


Population. 


Population 
to sqr. mile. 


Ontario (Upper Canada) 


101,736 

187,702 

27,177 

20,900 

40,200 

a 200,000 

a 13,000 

2,173 


1,620,851 

1,191,516 

285,594 

387,800 

146,536 

10,586 

a 

94,021 


15.9 


Quebec (Lower Canada) 


6.3 


New Brunswick 


10.5 


Nova Scotia 


18.5 


Newfoundland 




British Columbia 




Vancouver's Island 




Prince Edward's Island .... 
















Total Dominion of Canada 


605,561 

14,340 

2,750,000 


3,720,904 
11,945 

28,700 




Add Manitoba 




Add Northwest Territory 








Total of British North America 


3,370,000 


3,763,549 









a Exclusive of Indians. 



Neither the lands of the Hudson's Bay Company nor those of British 
Columbia have any well-defined frontier lines. 

The population of the first four lands consisted in 1871 of 1,764,311 
males, and 1,721,450 females. The nationalities were exceedingly mixed, 
of— 



Scandinavians 

Italians 

Spaniards and Portuguese . 

Poles and Russians 

Jewish 

Africans 

Indians 



1,623 

1,035 

829 

607 

123 

21,496 

23,035 



French origin 1,082,940 

English 706,369 

Welsh 7,773 

Scotch 549,946 

Irish 846,414 

German 202,991 

Dutch 29,662 

Swiss 2,962 

Australasia. 
In a most remarkable manner, a whole division of the earth has, by 
colonization, attained to civilization. On May 13th, 1787, a ship left 
England and reached Port Jackson on the 26th January, 1788, having on 
board the refuse of English society, 565 male and 192 female convicts, 
together with 208 officers and soldiers, and 65 women and children. 
These were landed and employed in the construction of rude huts on the ' 
spot where now stands the flourishing city of Sydney. This was the first 
attempt at forming an English colony in Australia. It continued to be 
little more than a convict settlement, and, to a great extent, unproductive, 
until 1 82 1. The discovery of rich gold fields in 1851 acted as a great 
incentive to a better and more extended development of the colony. 



232 



POPULATION. 



At that time, there were seven separate independent centers, each 
under a separate governor. In 1824, Van Diemen's Land was made an 
independent colony, with a legislative council of its own and a supreme 
court of legislature; South Australia, in 1834; Victoria, in 1851; and 
Queensland, in 1859. The development of Victoria was exceedingly rapid 
from the year 1834. Previous to this, there had been two unsuccessful 
attempts to form a colony — viz., in 1803 and 1826. From 1834 to 1851, 
it formed part of New South Wales, but, in 1851, it became an independ- 
ent colony. 

The following tables give the various colonies with their acreage and 
population: — 



Colonies. 



New South Wales . 

Victoria 

South Australia . . . 

Queensland 

West Australia . . . 

Tasmania 

New Zealand 



Total. 



Area in 
square miles. 



3,123,581 



Total cultiva- 
tion in acres, 

1875. 



310,938 


451,139 


88,198 


1,126,831 


914,730 


1,444,586 


678,600 


77,347 


1,000,000 


47,571 


26,215 


332,824 


104,900 


607,138 



4,087,436 



Population. 



Colonies. 



New South Wales . 

Victoria 

South Australia . . . 

Queensland 

West Australia 

Tasmania 

New Zealand 



Total . 



1865. 



411,388 

626,639 

156,605 

87,775 

20,260 

95,201 

201,712 



1,599,580 



1871. 



503,981 
731,528 
185,626 
120,104 
24,785 
99,328 
256,393 



1,921,745 



1873. 



560,275 
790,492 
198,075 
146,690 
25,761 
104,217 
295,946 



2,121,456 



1874. 



584,278 
808,437 
204,623 
163,517 
26,209 
104,176 
341,860 



2,233,100 



1875. 



606,652 
823,272 
210,442 
181,288 
26,709 
103,663 
375,856 



2,327,882 



1877. 



662,212 
860,787 
231,383 
195,092 
27,838 
107,104 
417,622 



2,464,560 



Most of the inhabitants are of British nationality. In 1866, there 
were, however, 8,119 Germans in South Australia, and 1,999 ^ n New 
Zealand, besides 24,732 Chinese. In 1871, there were, throughout the 
whole of the Australian colonies, 34,322 Germans, viz., 9,264 in Victoria, 
8,317 in Queensland, 8,309 in South Australia, 5,467 in New South 
Wales, 2,416 in New Zealand, 506 in Tasmania, and 43 in West Aus- 
tralia. The natives are rapidly disappearing. In 1858, there Were 1,768; 
in 1871, there were 1,330. In South Australia, in 1855, there were 3,450. 
In Tasmania, in 1866, there were only 14, whereas 57 years previously 
there were 5,000. 



POPULATION. 



233 



GERMAN EMPIRE. 



Table showing the area and population of the German Empire. 



States and Dominions. 



( Kingdom of Prussia 

\ Dukedom of Lauenburg 

2 Kingdom of Bavaria 

3 Saxony 

4 Wurtemburg 

5 Grand Duchy of Baden 

6 Grand Duchy of Hesse 

7 Grand Duchy of Mechlenburg-Schwerin. . 

8 Grand Duchy of Saxe- Weimar 

9 Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 

10 Grand Duchy of Oldenburg 

11 Grand Duchy of Brunswick 

12 Saxe-Meimngen 

13 Saxe-Altenburg 

14 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 

15 Anhalt (Dukedom) 

16 Schwarzburg-Rudolphstadt (Principality) 

17 Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen 

18 Waldeck (Principality) 

19 Reuss (old line) 

20 Reuss (new) 

21 Schaumburg-Lippe 

22 Lippe (Principality) 

23 Free Town of Lubeck 

24 Bremen 

25 Hamburg 

26 Alsace-Lorraine 

Total 



English 
sqr. miles. 



Population 
in 1877. 



134,503 


25,742,404 


190 


451 


49,546 


109 


29,299 


5,022,390 


171 


5,783 


2,760,586 


477 


7,526 


1,881,505 


250 


5,825 


1,507,179 


258 


2,955 


884,218 


299 


5,145 


557,897 


108 


1,403 


286,183 


203 


1,105 


96,982 


87 


2,466 


316,640 


128 


1,424 


311,764 


218 


956 


187,957 


196 


510 


142,122 


278 


760 


174,339 


229 


903 


203,437 


225 


361 


75,523 


209 


329 


67,191 


264 


435 


56,242 


129 


116 


45,094 


388 


318 


89,032 


279 


170 


32,059 


188 


435 


111,135 


255 


108 


52,158 


482 


95 


122,402 


1,288 


159 


338,974 


2,131 


5,591 


1,531,804 


273 



210,493 42,727,360 



Population 

to the 

English 

sqr. mile. 



202 



The number of inhabitants was estimated, in 1818, at 30,157,638 
(certainly too low a number); in 1865, at 46,412,000, an increase, there- 
fore, of 16,254,400, or almost 54 per cent (more exact, 53.89 per cent). 
If we subtract the population separated from the original registered 
number — viz.: that of German, Austrian, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg and 
Limburg as 9,743,451, and the then population of the Prussian and Posen 
provinces and Schleswig as about 2,639,300, we shall see that the popula- 
tion of Germany, now, without Alsace-Lorraine, has increased at the rate 
of 63.78 per cent. The increase, however, is very unequal in the various 
lands. 



234 



POPULATION. 



Table showing the population by sex, the differences, and the number of households and 
dwelling-houses in the several states of the German Empire. 



Prussia 

Laueuburg 

Bavaria 

Saxony 

Wurtemburg 

Baden 

Hesse 

Mecklenburg-Schwerin 

Saxe- Weimar 

Mecklenburg-Strelitz . . 

Oldenburg 

Brunswick 

Saxe-Meiningen 

Saxe-Altenburg 

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 

Anhalt 

Sobwerin-Rudolphstadt 
Schwerin-Sondersheim . 

Waldeck 

Reuss (old) 

Reuss (new) 

Schaumburg 

Lippe 

Lubeck 

Bremen 

Hamburg 

Alsace-Lorraine 



12,1 

2, 
1, 



Men. 


Women". 


Difference. 


House- 
holds. 


141,082 


12,498,624 


357,542 


5,116,804 


24,958 


24,588 


370 


10,706 


368,558 


2,494,892 


126,334 


1,062,374 


248,799 


1,307,445 


58,646 


539,304 


876,164 


942,375 


66,212 


397,980 


711,551 


749,011 


37,460 


300,235 


421,849 


431,045 


9,196 


180,260 


272,034 


285,863 


13,829 


117,264 


139,352 


146,831 


7,479 


60,848 


47,062 


49,920 


2,858 


21,047 


156,701 


159,939 


3,238 


66,689 


155,355 


156,409 


1,054 


70,254 


92,107 


95,850 


3,743 


39,799 


69,255 


72,869 


3,612 


31,940 


84,377 


89,962 


5,585 


39,085 


99,858 


103,579 


3,721 


43,295 


36,837 


38,686 


1,849 


16,328 


32,668 


34,523 


1,855 


15,221 


26,387 


29,837 


3,450 


11,535 


22,240 


22,845 


614 


9,969 


43,443 


45,589 


2,146 


19,161 


15,903 


16,156 


345 


6,742 


54,637 


56,498 


1,861 


23,721 


25,104 


27,054 


1,950 


12,013 


59,275 


63,127 


3,852 


24,388 


165,306 


173,668 


8,367 


74,904 


760,040 


789,547 


29,502 


356,461 



Dwelling 
Houses . 



2,892,396 

6,117 

795,000 

339,169 

273,928 

204,772 

126,072 

60,000 

47,241 

9,438 

51,192 

34,556 

27,688 

20,526 

26,899 

26.598 

11,822 

11,337 

8.503 

5,226 

11,177 

4,678 

15,624 

6,163 

18,297 

26,250 

' 265,590 



It must be remembered that the statement of houses is very inade- 
quate upon which to form a comparison, as it represents here, equally, the 
mansions in the great towns, and the wooden huts or cottages in the 
country. There is a great variety in the houses of large cities; look at 
London, with its houses arranged for one family, and at Paris, with its 
houses erected to contain a dozen families. 



The nationalities of the German Empire. 

The best sign by which to judge of these is the mother-tongue. 
Taking this as the best method, we find that the whole population of the 
middle and small states, with the exception of some 50,000 Wends in 
Saxony, speak German (the Wends in Altenburg speak German). Fur- 
ther, there are some 240,000 — 250,000 French in Alsace-Lorraine. Metz 
and its suburbs are almost entirely French. Most of the provinces of 



POPULATION. 



235 



Prussia contain a pure German population. The other provinces, how- 
ever, contain 2,900,000 who are not Germans. Taking into consideration 
the increase of the population, since the numbering of the nationalities in 
Prussia in 1861, the following non-German inhabitants must not be lost 



sight of: 

Poles 2,500,000 

Wends 150,000 

Czechs 60,000 



Total Sclavonians 2,710,000 



Lithuanians 150,000 

Danes 150,000 

French 250,000 



Total, including Sclavonians 3,260,000 



In December, 1871, there were, within the empire, 194,202 foreigners 
from European countries, and 12,553 foreigners from other parts of the 
world, of whom — 



.were in Prussia 
. were in Bavaria 



83,145 Europeans 

4.159 others 
37,373 Europeans 

1,496 others 
23,048 Europeans ) „„>_ ■ Q _„„ 

1,350 others | were m Saxony 

12,929 Europeans ( j B d 

882 others ) 

Of these, 206,755 foreigners — 

75,702 were from Austria and Hungary 

24,518 were from Switzerland 

22,042 were from Holland 

14,535 were from Russia (including Poles) 

10,698 were from United States 

10,105 were from Great Britain 

4,671 were from France 

5,094. .were from Turkey and its dependencies 
192 were from Greece 



9,263 Europeans ) ■ -.xt , , 

L393 others \ were ln Wurtemburg 

104 others ( ' ' - were m Alsace-Lorraine 

6,090 Europeans / • tt u 

L258 others \ were in Hambur & 

802 Europeans ) ■ t> 

562 others \ were m Bremen 

44 were from Portugal 

15,163 were from Denmark 

12,346 were from Norway and Sweden 

5,097 were from Belgium 

4,828 were from Luxemburg 

4,019 were from Italy 

310 were from Spain 

86 were from Lichtenstein 

1,896 without accurate information 



Emigration from the German Empire. 

The first great emigration from Germany to North America took 
place in the year 1780, in Wurtemburg and the Palatinate; the next and 
still larger, at the time of the famine in 18 17-18. 

According to the most correct information, the number of emigrants 
from Germany to the United States, between the years 1820-30, was not 
more than 7,729. From 1831-40 the number rose to 152,454. From 
1841-51 to 434,621, and from 1851-60, to 951,667. From the middle of 
the year 1850, the emigrants from Germany have exceeded those from 
Ireland. The unfavorable reports from the United States caused an im- 
portant decrease in 1855; indeed, 18,000 returned to their fatherland. 



-236 



POPULATION. 



Since that time an increased emigration has set in. All estimates of the 
extent of emigration are only approximately correct. As far as we can 
judge, the total number of German emigrants to the United States alone 
was, in — 



1845 74,000 

1846 94,581 

1847 109,531 

1848 81,895 

1849 89,102 

1850 82,404 

1851 112,547 

1852 162,301 

1853 157,180 



1854 251,931 

1855 81,698 

1856 98,573 

1857 115,976 

1858 53,266 

1859 45,100 

1860 49,669 

1861 35,427 



The following table gives the number of German emigrants, and the 
ports at which they embarked: 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1878. 


1877. 


1878. 


Bremen 


48,608 
51,432 


17,913 

24,093 

1,536 

1,576 

2,511 


12,620 

15,826 

268 

2,066 

1,489 


10,972 

12,706 

202 

4,488 

1,258 


9,328 

10,725 

75 

1,836 


11,329 




11,827 
85 


Stettin 


Antwerp 


3,598 
6,776 


976 


Havre 










Total 


110,414 


47,629 


32,269 


29,626 


21,964 


24,217 







It must not be forgotten that emigrants to all other countries are 
omitted in the calculation, especially those to Australia, California direct, 
British North America, South America, and to other European lands. 

From 1819-55, the total number of German emigrants, according to 
Gabler, amounted to 1,799,853. In the 20 years, 1847-66, there landed in 
New York alone, 1,345,619 Germans, which number increased to 2,052,- 
343 by the year 1873. If it be taken into consideration how many Prus- 
sians and Austrians are not included, how many emigrants wend their 
way to other lands than those named, and that the emigrants are, as a 
rule, the young and vigorous of the population, it will then be seen how 
great the loss is to the country. 



The towns of Germany. 

Germany, as regards its possession of large towns, stands far behind 
England and France. According to the returns of 1875, there was only 
one town of more than half a million of inhabitants, viz., Berlin, with 



POPULATION. 



237 



826,000, and none between 250,000 and 500,000; and yet, German towns,, 
as a rule, are in a nourishing condition. There are nine towns with a 
population varying between 100,000 and 250,000, viz.: 



Hamburg 240,000 

Breslau > 208,000 

Dresden 177,000 

Munich 170,000 

Cologne 129,000 



Magdeburg 114,000 

Konigsberg 112,000 

Leipzig 107,000 

Hanover 104,000 



Of medium-sized towns, Germany possesses, Dy means of her conquest 
of Alsace-Lorraine, a larger number than France. Twenty-two of these 
towns have a population above 50,000, and are here given. 



Stuttgart 92,000 

Dantzic 89,000 

Nurnberg 83,000 

Stettin 76,000 

Altona 74,000 

Elberfeld 71,000 

Chemnitz 68,000 

Crefeld 57,000 

Mainz 54,000 

Halle 53,000 

Metz 51,000 



Frankfort A. M 91,000 

Strasburg 86,000 

Bremen 83,000 

Aix-la-Chapelle 74,000 

Barmen 74,000 

Dusseldorf 69,000 

Brunswick 58,000~ 

Posen 56,000 

Mulhausen 53,000 

Essen 51,000 

Augsburg 51,000 



Seven towns have a population between 40,000 and 50,000, viz.: 
Cassel, Dortmund, Potsdam, Erfurt, Frankfort on the Oder, Gorlitz and 
Wurzburg. Twenty-one towns contain a population varying from 25,000 
to 40,000. Such are Lubeck, Mannheim, Darmstadt, Carlsruhe, Wiesba- 
den, Coblenz, Kiel, Elbing, Rostock, Duisburg, Regensburg, Bromberg, 
Zwickau, Schwerin, Stralsund, Gladbach, Ulm, Bonn, Brandenburg, Bam- 
berg and Halberstadt. Twenty-one towns contain a population of from 
20,000 to 25,000. 

Germany contains 1,985 towns of more than 2,000 inhabitants, making 
a total of 13,162,864, while 27,847,135 live in communes and villages. 

Certain colonial possessions were annexed to the German Empire in 
the year 1884, lying on the west coast of Africa, namely, the territory of 
Togo, Bagida, Bimbia, the island of Nikol, Malimba, Plantation Criby, 
and the coast of Damara Land. In the Pacific ocean, Hermit Island, 
Duke of York group and a part of New Britain. The estimated area of 
the total territory annexed is 450,000 square miles and the population,, 

355> 000 - 



238 POPULATION. 

Table showing the area and population of the states of Europe in round numbers in 1 870. 



Countries. 


Area in English 
square miles. 


Population. 


Popnlationto 
square mile. 


Great Britain and Ireland 


121,305 

204,031 

210,493 

240,462 

2,088,274 

114,325 

15,977 

68 

11,379 

12,707 

999 

55,356 

170,928 

122,825 

195,716 

35,739 

19,342 

49,247 

19,135 

3,400 

136,620 


33,881,966 

36,905,788 

42,727,360 

38,000,000 

74,145,223 

28,209,620 

2,759,854 

8,664 

5,476,668 

3,865,456 

205,158 

2,070,300 

4,484.542 
1,807,555 
16,809,913 
4,745,124 
1,679,775 
5,376,000 
1,860,824 
243,329 
8,477,214 


279 




180 




202 


Austro-Hungary . . 


185 




35 


Italy 


246 




172 




127 




481 


Holland 


304 


Luxemburg . . .... 


205 




37 


Sweden 


26 


Norway 


14 


Spain 


76 




132 


Greece 


86 


Roumania 


109 


Servia 


97 


Montenegro 


71 




62 


Total 


3,828,328 


313,740,333 


148 







Russia extends over considerable more than half (five-ninths) of the 
whole area of Europe. It is 9 times as great as Austro-Hungary, which 
ranks next in dimensions. It possesses nearly one-quarter (23 per cent) 
of the total population of Europe. 

Table showing the area and population of the states of America in 1870. 



Countries. 



Area in 
square miles. 



United States of North America 

Mexico 

Central America (five States) 

Colombia 

Venezuela and Ecuador 

Peru, Bolivia, and Chili 

Argentine States, with Paraguay and Uruguay 

Brazil 

Hayti and San Domingo 

European Possessions 

Greenland, and land at North Pole 

Terra del Fuego and Falkland Islands 

Canadian Seas, etc 

Total 



16,409,060 



Population. 



3,603,884 


38,925,598 


743,948 


9,389,461 


174,346 


2,460,754 


318,930 


2,951,984 


457,133 


2,650,331 


1,138,600 


7,160,669 


1,748,390 


2,610,834 


3,218,166 


11,108,291 


29,766 


800,000 


3,691,073 


7,750,000 


808,556 


11,000 


382,716 


30,000 


93,552 







85,848,922 



POPULATION. 



239 



Table showing the number and distribution in states of the three principal races of 

Europe. 



Teutons. 



Germans in — 

Germany 39,400,000 

Austria 9,600,000 

Switzerland 2,000,000 

Eussia and Poland . . 1,500,000 

Holland 3,800,000 

Belgium 2,800,000 

Scattered 600,000 

Total Germans. . . . 59,700,000 

Britons 27,500,000 

Scandinavians 8,200,000 

Total Teutons 95,400,000 



Latin. 



French in — 

France 33,000,000 

Belgium 2,300,000 

Switzerland 700,000 

Scattered 800,000 

Total French 36,800,000 

Italians 27,500,000 

Spanish and Port- 
uguese 20,000,000 



Total Latin race.. 84,300,000 



Slavs. 



Russians — 

Kussians 60,000,000 

Poles and Lithua- 
nians in Kussia 5,700,000 

Austria 18,000,000 

Prussia and Saxony. 2,800,000 

On the Danube and 
Turkey 6,000,000 

Total Slavs 92,500,000 



The three principal races are thus represented in nearly equal num- 
bers. Language is accepted as the usual test of nationality, and, as a 
general rule, it answers well ; but there are exceptions to the rule. Indi- 
viduals who are placed for a long time in any other country than their own, 
frequently fall into the language of that country, and their descendants 
almost unavoidably adopt it. In many cases, language indicates rather 
education and surroundings, than origin. It certainly is no mark of 
nationality, when it has been introduced among a people by wide-spread 
conquest. Among the languages of civilized nations, English is the most 
widely spread; it is the mother tongue of about 80,000,000 of people; 
German of between 50,000,000 and 60,000,000; French between 40,000,000 
and 50,000,000; Spanish 40,000,000, and Italian 28,000,000 of people. 
Russian is the language of between 55,000,000 and 60,000,000. 

Table showing the foreign possessions of European states. 



Area English 
square miles. 



Population 
in 1870. 



Great Britain 

Bussia 

Turkey 

Holland 

Spain 

France 

Portugal 

Denmark. ... 

Total.... 



8,551,760 

5,251,028 

2,019,890 

660,609 

116,255 

318,930 

497,726 

42,524 



17,458,722 



252,702,000 

12,000,000 

30,000,000 

24,000,000 

8,291,442 

6,000,000 

2,000,000 

48,000 



335,041,442 



240 POPULATION. 



FRANCE. 



Before the Great Revolution, the kingdom was composed of 35 prov- 
inces which had very different regulations and privileges; 12 bore the 
title of Duchies, 13 of Counties, the remainder being called Districts or 
Lordships. For administrative purposes, there was a further division into 
29 Generalities, which were named after the chief towns. The National 
Assembly, with a view of destroying all provincial differences, made 
(22nd December, 1 789) the departmental arrangement by which all the 
old relations were purposely overthrown. 

The Revolution and the Empire produced great enlargements. 
First, the possessions of German princes of the Empire (Munpelgard, 
which belonged to Wurtemburg, etc.) were, in accordance with the wish 
of the majority of the inhabitants, treated as French possessions. Next, 
on September 14, 1791, the incorporation of the papal county of Avignon, 
and on November 27, 1792, and January 31, 1793, that of Savoy and Nice 
was completed. Swiss territories followed. At the Peace of Campo 
Formio, October 17, 1797, Austria ceded Belgium to France. The 
Peace of Luneville, February 9, 1801, gave to it the whole German left 
bank of the Rhine, about 1,200 square miles, with nearly 1,000,000 souls. 
There were afterward united to France, September 11, 1802, Piedmont; 
on 21st July, 1805, Parma; on 27th October, 1807, Etruria (Tuscany); 
on 17th May, 1809, Rome; on the 9th July, 18 10, Holland; on the 12th 
November, in the same year, Verlais; and on the 10th December, the 
mouths of the Ems, the Wiser, and the Elbe, together with the Hanse 
towns (600 square miles, with more than 1,000,000 inhabitants); then 
Oldenburg, etc. The number of departments, which, at first, were only 83, 
rose to 130, with a population estimated at 42,365,434 souls. The first 
Peace of Paris, May 30, 18 14, granted to France, not only the dominions 
which she possessed before 1789, but also Avignon, Munpelgard, part of 
Savoy, and several border cantons of Belgium, etc. By the second Peace 
of Paris, November 21, 181 5, France lost Savoy, the Belgian border can- 
tons, Saarbruck and the right bank of the Queich, as well as the fortresses 
of Landau (occupied since 17 13) Saarlouis, Marienburg and Philippeville. 
In 1830, Algiers was conquered. In consequence of a treaty with the 
Italian government, the union of Savoy and Nice with France took place 
in June, i860. The newly acquired country (with 669,059 inhabitants) 



POPULATION, 



241 



was divided into three departments, Savoy, Upper Savoy, and Alpes 
Maritimes. The arrondissement of Grasse, which had, till then, belonged 
to the department of Var, was assigned to Alpes Maritimes. By a treaty 
with the Prince of Monaco, Mentone and Roccabruna were also acquired, 
in 1 86 1. The war of 1870 ended with the loss of Alsace-Lorraine. On 
February 26, 187 1, followed the conclusion of the preliminary treat)", by 
which a cession of territory, and an indemnity of £200,000,000 were 
granted to Germany; this agreement was sanctioned by the National 
Assembly at Bordeaux on March 1st, and the final treaty of peace was 
concluded at Frankfort-on-Main on the 10th May, 1871. The State 
lost, thereby, territory to the extent of 5,209 English square miles, in 
which there dwelt, according to the French census (1866) a civil pop- 
ulation of 1,597,238 — altogether 3 departments, 11 districts (arrondisse- 
ments), 76 cantons, and 1,559 communes. 

The population by districts, with the area of each, and the number of sub-divisions. 

Since the loss of Alsace-Lorraine, the French territories in Europe 
contain 204,031 English square miles, and the census taken in March,, 
1872, gave the population at 36,102,921, exclusive of the troops in Algeria 
and the colonies. The census of December, 1876, gave 36,905,788 — the 
increase in the four years and seven months amounting to 802,867, equal 
to 2.17 per cent. This increase is partly owing to immigration from 
Alsace-Lorraine. The European territory of France is divided into 86 
departments, which are subdivided into 362 arrondissements (districts), 
2,873 cantons, and 35,989 communes. Previous to the war of 1870, there 
were 89 departments, 373 districts, 2,914 cantons, and 37,548 communes. 



Districts. 



Ain 

Aisne 

Allier • [1,815,167 

Alpes (Basses) 

Alpes (Hautes) 

Alpes (Maritime) 

Ardeche 

Ardenne 

Ariege 

Aube 

Aude 

Aveyron 

Belfort Territory 



English 


1872 


1876 


Dis- 


Can- 


Com- 


acres. 






tricts. 


tons. 


munes. 


1,432,345 


363,290 


365,462 


5 


36 


45a 


1,815,944 


552,439 


560,427 


5 


37 


837 


1,815,107 


390,812 


405,783 


4 


28 


317 


1,717,684 


139,332 


136,166 


5 


30 


251 


1,380,633 


118,898 


119,094 


3 


24 


189 


948,233 


190,037 


203,604 


3 


25 


150 


1,365,082 


380,277 


384,378 


3 


31 


339 


1,292,523 


320,217 


326,782 


5 


31 


501 


1,208,785 


246,298 


244,795 


3 


20 


336 


1,482,343 


255,687 


355,219 


5 


26 


446 


1,559,370 


285,927 


300,665 


4 


31 


436 


2,159,602 


402,474 


413,826 


5 


32 


289 


150,151 


56,781 


68,600 


1 


6 


106- 



242 



POPULATION. 

The population of France by districts, etc. — Continued. 



Districts. 



English 


1872. 


1876 


Dis- 


Can- 


acres. 






tricts. 


tons. 


1,260,902 


554,911 


556,379 


3 


27 


1,363,617 


454,012 


450,220 


6 


38 


1,418,143 


231,867 


281,086 


4 


23 


1,467,767 


367,520 


313,950 


5 


29 


1,685,945 


465,653 


465,628 


6 


40 


1,778,233 


335,392 


145,613 


3 


29 


1,448,924 


302,746 


311,525 


3 


29 


2,160,610 


258,507 


262,701 


5 


62 


2,141,776 


374,510 


377,663 


4 


36 


1,700,748 


622,295 


630,957 


5 


48 


1,375,370 


274,663 


278,423 


4 


25 


2,268,092 


480,141 


489,848 


5 


47 


1,291,204 


291,251 


306,094 


4 


27 


1,610,822 


320,417 


321,756 


4 


29 


1,471,539 


377,874 


377,874 


5 


36 


1,450,952 


282,622 


283,075 


4 


24 


1,660,116 


642,963 


666,106 


5 


43 


1,441,383 


420,131 


423,804 


4 


40 


1,553,600 


479,362 


477,731 


4 


39 


1,551,236 


284,717 


283,546 


5 


29 


2,405,859 


705,149 


735,242 


6 


48 


1,530,906 


429,878 


445,053 


4 


36 


1,661,280 


589,532 


602,712 


6 


43 


1,678,439 


277,693 


281,248 


4 


23 


1,510,083 


317,027 


314,875 


3 


24 


2,047,466 


575,784 


581,099 


4 


45 


1,233,520 


287,634 


288,823 


4 


32 


2,302,363 


300,528 


303,508 


3 


28 


1,568,677 


268,801 


272,643 


3 


24 


1,175,626 


550,611 


590,613 


3 


30 


1,225,675 


308,732 


313,721 


3 


28 


1,698,016 


602,206 


612,972 


5 


45 


1,672,483 


353,021 


360,903 


4 


31 


1,287,299 


281,404 


276,512 


3 


29 


1,322,428 


319,289 


316,920 


4 


35 


1,351,023 


135,190 


138,319 


3 


24 


1,758,869 


518,471 


517,258 


5 


34 


1,464,309 


544,776 


539,910 


6 


48 


2,020,568 


386,157 


407,780 


5 


32 


1,536,260 


251,196 


252,448 


3 


28 


1,277,145 


350,637 


351,933 


3 


27 


1,295,263 


365,137 


404,609 


4 


29 


1,538,283 


284,725 


294,059 


4 


28 


1,679,059 


490,352 


506,573 


4 


37 


1,683,690 


33S\917 


346,822 


4 


25 


1,403,174 


1,441,764 


1,519,855 


7 


61 


1,446,199 


396,804 


401,618 


4 


35 


1,506,030 


398,250 


392,526 


4 


36 


1,631,590 


761,158 


793,140 


6 


44 


1,963,775 


566,463 


570,207 


5 


50 


1,882,797 


426,700 


431,525 


5 


40 



Com- 
munes. 



Bouches du Rhone 

Calvados 

Cantal 

Charente 

Charente Inf 

Cher 

Correze 

Corsica 

Cote-d'Or 

Cotes-du-Nord .... 

Creuse 

Dordogne 

Doubs 

Drome 

Eure 

Eure-et-Loire 

Finisterre 

Gard 

Garonne (Haute). . 

Gers 

Gironde 

Herault 

Ille-et-Vilaine 

Indre 

Indre-et-Loire .... 

Isere 

Jura 

Landes (Haiden). . 

Loir-et-Cher 

Loire 

Loire (Haute) 

Loire Inferieure . . . 

Loiret 

Lot 

Lot-et-Garonne 

Lozere 

Maine-et-Loire 

Manche (Channel) . 

Marne 

Marne (Haute) .... 

Mayenne 

Meurthe-et-Moselle 

Meuse (Maas) 

Morbihan 

Nievre 

Nord 

Oise 

Orne 

Pas-de-Calais 

Puy-de-Dome 

Pyrenees (Basses). 



108 
764 
264 
426 
479 
291 
287 
363 
717 
389 
263 
582 
636 
372 
700 
426 
285 
347 
584 
465 
551 
335 
352 
245 
281 
555 
584 
331 
297 
328 
262 
215 
349 
321 
319 
194 
380 
643 
665 
550 
274 
596 
587 
248 
313 
661 
701 
511 
904 
456 
558 



POPULATION. 

The population of France by districts, etc. — Continued. 



243 



Districts. 



English 
acres. 



1872. 



1876. 


Dis- 


Can- 


tricts. 


tons. 


238,037 


3 


26 


197,940 


3 


17 


705,131 


2 


29 


304,052 


3 


28 


614,309 


5 


49 


446,239 


4 


33 


268,361 


4 


29 


373,801 


4 


28 


2,410,849 


3 


28 


798,414 


5 


51 


347,323 


5 


29 


561,990 


6 


36 


336,061 


4 


31 


556,641 


5 


41 


359,232 


4 


35 


221,364 


3 


24 


255,703 


3 


28 


414,781 


4 


22 


411,281 


3 


30 


320,916 


5 


31 


336,061 


4 


27 


407,082 


5 


30 


359,070 


5 


37 



Com- 
munes. 



480 
231 
264 
583 
588 
386 
327 
317 
72 
759 
529 
685 
356 
833 
317 
194 
145 
150 
298 
300 
302 
531 
485 



Pyrenees (Hautes) . . . 
Pyrenees Orientales. 

Rhone 

Saone (Haute) 

Saone-et-Loire 

Sarthe 

Savoie 

Savoie (Haute) 

Seine 

Seine Inf erieure 

Seine-et-Marne 

Seine-et-Oise 

Sevres (Deux) 

Somme 

Tarn 

Tarn-et-Garonne . . . . 

Var 

Vaucluse 

Vendee 

Vienne 

Vienne (Haute) 

Vosges 

Yonne 



1,118,774 
1,018,161 

689,226 
1,318,960 
2,112,279 
1,553,049 
1,422,522 

844,036 

117,448 
1,490,222 
1,416,878 
1,384,101 
1,481,970 
1,521,816 

430,313 

918,879 
1,502,562 

876,284 
1,655,764 
1,721,681 

876,284 
1,451,510 
1,836,725 



235,156 
191,856 
670,247 
303,088 
598,344 
446,603 
267,958 
273,027 
2,220,060 
790,022 
341,490 
580,180 
331,243 
557,015 
352,718 
221,610 
293,757 
263,451 
401,446 
320,598 
322,447 
392,988 
363,608 



The increase and decrease in the population of France. 

Including the 3 departments acquired in i860, the population in- 
creased in the 5 years (1861-1866) from 37,386,161 to 38,067,064, show- 
ing a total of 680,751, equalling 0.36 per cent annually. In each of these 
censuses it was shown that, although the population was increasing in the 
greater part of the country, it had decreased in many departments. 

The number of departments showing increase and those showing 
decrease of population in the years 1836 to 1867, were: — 





1836-40. 


1841-45. 


1846-50. 


1851-55. 


1856-60. 


1861-65. 


1866-72. 


1873-76. 


Increase 


70 
16 


81 

5 


61 

25 


32 

54 


58 

28 


58 
31 


14 

72 


66 


Decrease 


20 







The increase confirmed by the census of 1866 in the 58 departments 
amounted to 788,401; the decrease in 31 departments to 107,650. 

The census of 1872 showed an increase of population in 14 depart- 
ments only, which consisted of 231,697, against a decrease in 72 depart- 
ments of 600,801 ; the total decrease amounted to 369,104. 



244 



POPULATION. 



The increase in population occurred chiefly in the larger manufactur- 
ing towns. Of 42 communes, with more than 30,000 inhabitants, 30 had 
an increase of 167,867, and 12 a decrease of 31,371, giving an increase 
here of 136,496. The most considerable increase was in Paris — viz. r 
26,518; Versailles, 17,665; St. Etienne, 14,194; Marseilles, 12,733; 
Havre, 11,925; Rheims, 11,260; and Roubaix, 10,896. Brest showed the 
largest decrease — viz., 13,375. The female population in 1866 exceeded 
that of the male by 38,906, and, in 1872, in consequence of the war, this 
disproportion had risen to 138,410— males numbering 17,982,000; and 
females 18,120,410. The preponderance of the female population is shown 
by the following: 



Year. Preponderance. 

1800 725,225 

1806 481,725 

1821 868,325 

1831 669,033 

1836 619,508 

1841 445,382 

1846 318,738 



Year. Preponderance. 

1851 193,242 

1856 299,024 

1861 97,217 

1866 38,906 

1872 138.410 

1876 158,510 



Notwithstanding this increase, France has still a comparatively smaller 
female population than almost all the other states of Europe. The differ- 
ence between 1806 and 1821 explains itself by the great wars. After 
these years, we approach a more even balance until a new disturbance was 
produced by the Crimean campaign. 

Emigration, number of households, and the nationality of the population of France. 

EMIGRANTS 

The number of emigrants in the ten years, from 1849 to 1858 (ac- 
cording to the ministerial returns), amounted, altogether, to less than 200,- 
000 individuals, whereas, during the same period, Germany lost 1,200,- 
000, and Great Britain 2,750,000 by emigration. The following notes 
are for single years: — 



Year. 


Emigrants. 


To foreign 
countries. 


To Algiers. 


1856 


17,997 
18,809 
13,813 
9,164 
8,752 
6,800 
5,771 


9,433 
10,817 
9,004 
6,786 
6,334 


8,564 


1857 


7,992 


1858 


4,809 


1859 


2,378 


1801 


2,418 


1862 




1863 


4,285 


1,486 







In the ten years, from 1865 to end of 1874, the number of emigrants 



DENSITY OF 

POPULATION 

Per square mile. 




! Less than 2 per cent for. bornT 
2 to 10 " " " " 

10 to 25 " " " " 

25 to 50 " " " " 

50 and over '' " " " 



THE PER CENT OF 

FOREIGNERS 

In each State. 




POPULATION. 



245 



was 60,245, or annually somewhat over 6,000, though, taking individual 
years, the number, since 1870, has been larger. 



1871 
1872 



.7,109 
.9,581 



1873 
1874 



. 7,561 
.7,080 



HOUSEHOLDINGS. 



In the year 1856 there were 9,387,561 

In the year 1866 there were 9,997,360 

Diminished territory 1872 9,525,717 

equal to 3.71 persons to a household. The number of dwelling houses in 
1872 was 7,704,913, viz., 7,409,614 inhabited, 254,391 uninhabited, and 
40,908 in course of building. This is exclusive of 35,867 uninhabited 
public buildings, as well as workshops, warehouses and sheds. 

NATIONALITY. 

In 1876, the nationalities were given as follows: — 



Frenchmen 36,069,524 

Belgians 374,498 

Germans 59,028 

Austro-Hungarians 7,498 

Italians. 165,313 

Spaniards 62,437 

Swiss 50,203 

British 30,077 

Dutch 18,099 



Americans 9,855 

Portuguese 1,237 

Russians and Poles 7,992 

Scandinavians 1,622 

Greeks 892 

Turks and Egyptians 1,174 

Roumanians and Serbs 702 

Chinese, Indians and other Asiatics 419 

Unknown 4,542 



Algeria. 

The area of this country was fixed, in the report of the Minister of 
War for 1850, at about 15,051 square miles. The boundaries are but ill- 
defined. The coast line is given in a ministerial survey of 1854, as 250 
hours 1 journey (lieus). A more recent estimate makes the colonized land 
to extend 50,743 square miles, of which 12,429 square miles belong to the 
territory of Algiers, 14,725 to Oran, and 23,569 to Constantine. 

The total population is given in a report of the Governor-General, 
October, 1875, as 2,448,691, not including the military. 

Population 1875. 



Departments. 


French. 


Other 
Euro- 
peans. 


Moham- 
medans. 


Jews. 


Total. 


Algiers 


59,632 
41,191 
43,248 


42,535 
48,331 
25,645 


796,194 
420,215 
938,711 


10,929 
14,111 

7,949 


909,290 


Oran 


523,848 




1,015,553 


Total 


144,071 


116,511 


2,155,110 


32,989 


2,448,691 







Among the Europeans there were 71,366 Spaniards, 18,351 Italians, 
11,512 Maltese, 4,933 Germans. 



246 



POPULATION. 



In the following years there were of Europeans. — 



1856 , , . .159,282 

1866 217,990 



1831 3,228 

1836 14,561 

1846 99,801 

Colonies proper are chiefly under the direction of the Admiralty, and 
are ranged into two principal groups, one of which enjoys most of the 
privileges of the mother country, while the second is governed by extra- 
ordinary laws. Under the first comes Martinique, Guadaloupe and Re- 
union, while under the second we have Guiana, Indian possessions, Sene- 
gal. Cochin China, and the various little scattered islands. 

In America. 



Settlements. 



Martinique 

Guadaloupe and its dependencies . 

French Guiana 

St. Pierre and Miquelon 

Barthelemy 



Area in 
acres. 



243,808 

654,853 

1,778,400 

51,840 

560 



Population 
in 1876. 



164,995 

175,516 

22,510 

9,175 

2,374 





In Africa. 






Settlements. 


Area in 
acres. 


Population 
in 1876. 






197,272 
183,786 




620,365 

44,460 
37,050 
16,466 




Madagascar. 


9,311 

7,741 
6,948 




St. Maria 





In Asia 



Dependencies of — 

Pondicherry .... 

Karikal 

Yanaon 

Mahe 

Cochin China 



Area in acres. 



47,155 

25,546 

4,302 

13,472 

13,585,000 



Population 
in 1876. 




In Oceanica. 



Society Islands, Tahiti and Morea . 

New Caledonia 

Marquesas Islands 

Tuamotu Archipelago 

Tubuai Islands 



Area in acres. 



289,920 

4,080,400 

276,640 



Population 
in 1876. 



16,142 

55,078 

10,000 

1,352 

345 



POPULATION. 



247 



The kingdom of Camboja appears as a protected state, under the pro- 
tection of France; it has a population of about a million and a-half. The 
king of Siam solemnly recognized the protectorate of France over Cam- 
boja by a treaty concluded in July, 1867. The chief products of the French 
colonies are — sugar, syrup, coffee, cotton, cocoa, cloves, vanilla, pepper, 
tobacco. 

AUSTRO-HUNGARY. 

The Empire contained 1 14,814 English square miles under Ferdinand I. 
Lusatia was lost to Saxony in 1635 by the Peace of Prague; Alsace to 
France by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Then followed the trans- 
formation of Hungary into an hereditary kingdom under the Hapsburgs, 
1687, and at the same time the sovereignty of Transylvania was secured. 
Servia, parts of Wallachia, Croatia, and Bosnia were subjected by the 
Peace of Carlowitz in 1699, and of Passarowitz in 17 18. Austria, there- 
fore, obtained only a comparatively small part of the " Spanish Inherit- 
ance" by the Peace of Rastadt and Baden, in 17 14, viz., the Spanish Neth- 
erlands, Milan, Naples, and Sardinia ; this last was exchanged for Sicily in 
1720. Naples, Sicily, and part of Milan were lost again in 1735, and 
1738, and only Parma, and Piacenza obtained in place of them. The 
Peace of Belgrade, 1739, cost Servia; and Frederick II. took the 
greater part of Silesia in 1740. In 1772, Austria acquired Galicia and 
Lodomeria, by the first division of Poland. The Buckowina was ceded 
by the Porte in 1777. By the Peace of Teschen the state acquired the 
district of the Inn from Bavaria, beside some Swabian Provinces; and 
West Galicia was obtained at the third partition of Poland in 1795. Aus- 
tria embraced in 1795: — 



English 
sqr. miles. 



Population. 



Hereditary Duchy of Austria 

Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Friuli, and Trieste) 

Upper Austria (Tyrol and the Vorarlberg) 

Further Austria (Breisgau, Ortenau, Burgau Hohenburg, Constance, Frick- 

thal in Switzerland, Falkenstein on Rhine) 

Kingdom of Bohemia, with Eger and Asch 

Margraviate of Moravia and rest of Silesi a 

Netherlands, with Luxemburg and Limburg, but not Liege 



12,119 
18,326 
10,971 

2,849 
20,262 
10,227 

9,780 



1,639,800 

1,561,800 

520,300 

428,800 
2,916,400 
1,611,500 
2,251,200 



Total 

Countries beyond Germany. 
Austrian Italy (Lombardy, with Pavia, Cremona, Lodi, Como, and 

Mantua, Castiglione, Solferino) 

Hungary, with adjoining countries, and military frontier 

Transylvania with military frontier 

Galicia and Lodomeria, with Buckowina 



84,534 



3asale ; 



5,613 

101,823 

23,579 

51,645 



Total 

Grand total . 



182,660 



10,929,800 



1,203,840 
7,710,000 
1,260,000 
4,792,600 



14,966,440 



25,896,240 



248 POPULATION. 

The peace of Campo Formio, October 17, 1797, robbed the state of 
the Netherlands, Lombard} 7 , and Falkenstein. It received in exchange 
the territory of Venice together with the city of Venice, lying east of the 
Adige, and Dalmatia. The peace of Luneville, (after the campaigns of 
Marengo and Hohenlinden) February 9, 1801, further cost Austria the 
Breisgau and Frickthal, and procured for it the archbishoprics of Trent 
and Brixen. On August 11, 1804, the sovereign declared himself "Heredi- 
tary Emperor of Austria. 11 After the campaigns of Ulm and Austerlitz, the 
peace of Presburg, December 26, 1805, compelled Austria to cede Venice, 
with all her other Italian possessions, to the kingdom of Italy; to Bavaria 
she had to give up Burgau, Eichstadt, her share in Passau, the Tyrol, 
Vorarlberg, Hohenembs, Rothenfels, Tetnang, Argen, and Lindau; to 
Wurtemburg she was compelled to cede the five towns on the Upper 
Danube, the county of Hohenberg, the landgraviate of Nellenburg, the 
bailiwick of Alforf, and part of Breisgau. To Baden she had to cede the 
remainder of the Breisgau, the Ortenau, and Constance: total loss, 25,429 
English square miles. Austria obtained in exchange Salzburg, Buchtis- 
gader, the Gillerthal, etc., 3,954 English square miles. 

The losses sustained by the peace of Vienna, October 14, 1809, (after 
the battle of Wagram) were the circle of Villach, Carinthia, Trieste, the 
six military frontier districts, and the greater part of the district of Agram, 
out of which Napoleon formed the " Illyrian Provinces. 11 Austria further 
ceded to the duchy of Warsaw, West Galicia, the circle of Jamos, and a 
district near Cracow; to Russia, part of East Galicia, and the Tarnopel 
circle, with 400,000 inhabitants; to Bavaria, Salzburg, the district of the 
Inn, the greater part of the district of Hansruch, and Berchtesgaden. The 
total loss was estimated at 42,278 English square miles, and 3,304,272 of 
population. 

The peace of Paris, 18 14, and the Vienna congress of 181 5, gave to 
Austria her present constituent parts, together with Lombardy and 
Venice. Cracow, being a "free city, 11 was not incorporated until after 
the meeting of the protesting Powers (Austria, Russia, and Prussia) in 
1846. 

Austria, previous to 1848, was a conglomerate of various states. After 
many attempts to construct a constitution, it was transformed into an abso- 
lute indivisible monarchy. The Imperial Diploma of i860 and the Patent 
of 1 86 1 laid the basis of a charter which, after a suspension of two years, 
came into full force in December, 1867, though with important modifica- 
tions, rendered necessary by the independence of Hungary. 



POPULATION. 



249 



Since the year 1867, Austria and Hungary form a dual state— Austria 
the Cis-Leithania, and Hungary, the Magyar or Trans-Leithania ; these 
both have a common head, a common representation in foreign affairs, and 
a common military system, so far as the army in active service is con- 
cerned, while the Landwehr and Honveds are distinct in the two divisions 
of the Empire. 

The monarchy thus embraces, on the one hand, the countries repre- 
sented in the Imperial Council (Cis-Leithania), and, on the other, the 
dominions of the Hungarian Crown, making an area of 240,462 English 
square miles, and according to the last census, with a population of above 
38,000,000. 

Countries represented in the Imperial Council, are as follows: 



Area in English 
square miles. 



Population 
1876. 



Population 

to the 
square mile. 



Austria below the Enns 
Austria above the Enns. 

Salzburg 

Styria 

Carinthia , 

Carniola 

Trieste 

Gorz 

Istria 

Tyrol 

Vorarlberg 

Bohemia 

Moravia 

Silesia 

Galicia 

Bucko wina 

Dalmatia 



7,654 
4,632 
2,767 
8,670 
4,005 
3,856 
36 
1,140 
1,908 

10,319 
1,004 

20,062 
8,583 
1,987 

30,310 
4,035 
4,939 



2,143,928 
746,097 
154,184 

1,178,067 
338,705 
469,996 
136,138 
215,755 
271,006 
792,023 
103,630 

5,361,506 

2,079,826 
558,196 

6,000,326 
548,518 
467,534 



Total 

With the Military . 



115,907 



21,565,435 
21,743,000 



280 
158 

55 
135 

84 

127 

3,780 

189 

142 

76 
103 
267 
242 
281 
197 
133 

94 



185 



Countries belonging to the Hungarian Crown. 



Hungary Transylvania. 

Finme 

Croatia and Sclavonia . . 

Military District 

Military 

Total 



Square miles. 



108,269 

7 
8,852 
7,303 



124,431 



Population 
1870. 



13,561,245 

17,884 

1,138,970 

699,228 

92,128 



15,509,455 



Population 

to 
square mile. 



124 



A division of the inhabitants into sexes and households (parties dwell- 



250 



POPULATION. 



ing together), give the following results in the countries represented in the 
Imperial Council, including 177,449 of the military. 



Males. 



Females. Households. 



Lower Austria . . 
Upper Austria . . 

Salzburg 

Styria 

Carinthia .._.... 

Carniola 

The coast lands . 
Tyrol- Vorarlberg 

Bohemia 

Moravia , 

Silesia 

Galicia 

Buckowina 

Dalrnatia 

Total 



1,003,544 
363,095 
75,217 
561,970 
162,813 
223,070 
306,739 
436,123 

2,468,104 
967,583 
244,345 

2,687,19] 
257,359 
234,334 



987,164 

373,462 

77,942 

576,020 

174,881 

243,264 

293,786 

449,666 

2,672,440 

1,049,601 

269,007 

2,757,498 

256,045 

222,627 



404,597 
163,419 

31,894 
213,589 

65,559 

92,996 
115,259 
194,811 
1,210,656 
466,3?,6 
122.057 
1,178,957 
113,275 

81.772 



9,991,487 



10,403,403 



4,455,167 



In countries belonging to the Hungarian Crown, there were numbered 
7,653,560 males, and 7,763,767 females. 

In Cis-Leithania the female exceeded male population by 412,006, and 
in Hungary by 110,207; making a total of 522,213. 

Foreigners dwelling in Austro- Hungary are classified as follows: 





In Austria. 


Hungary. 


Total. 




64,438 
29,496 
5,116 
4,543 
4,105 
2,269 
1,528 
2,378 


4,708 
4,267 
1,863 
575 
198 
373 
460 
260 


69,146 




31,763 




6,979 




5,118 




4,303 




2,642 




5,988 




2,638 






Total 


113,873 


12,704 


128,577 







Austrians and Hungarians dwelling in Foreign Lands are as follows: 
Cis-Leithanians — Germany, 41,500; Italy, 17,300; Russia, 11,400; Tur- 
key, 10,600; America, 9,900. Hungarians — Germany, 2,000; Turkey, 
1,700; Roumaniaj 17,100; Servia, 3,100. 



POPULATION. 251 

RUSSIA. 

The colossal growth of the Empire began in 1581, in which year the 
Cossack, Hetman Jermak Temogefew, surrendered to the Czar, Ivan II., 
Siberia, which he had conquered; but it was not until the time of Peter I., 
that Russia was held in any regard by the more civilized nations. In 1707 
Peter took possession of the newly-discovered Kamchatka, and what was 
of more importance, Russia obtained from Sweden (by the Peace of 
Nystadt, 1721,) Ingria Carelia, parts of Finland, Esthonia, and Livonia. 
Azov, which was taken from the Turks in 1699, was lost again in 1711. 
On the other hand, the Czar took from the Persians, Daghestan, Shirwan, 
Khilan, and Derbent, large portions of which were, however, lost in 1732 
and 1736. The Kirghiz Kassaks were subdued in 1731, and the Ossetes 
in 1 742 ; the most easterly part of Siberia, the Aleutian Islands and Beh- 
ring's Islands were also incorporated with Russia in the same year. The 
Finnish province of Kymenegard was gained by the Treaty of Abo, 
August 12, 1743. The three partitions of Poland took place under Kath- 
erine II., in 1772, 1793, and 1795. Russia acquired nearly two-thirds of 
this once powerful state. By the Peace of Kuchuk-Kainardshi, July 22, 
1774; the Turks gave up Azov, part of the Crimea (the other part was 
taken possession of in 1783), and Kabardah; and by the Peace of Jassy, 
Januar}' 9, 1792, Oczakov; Georgia also came under the protection of 
Russia in 1783, and Courland and Leni in 1793. 

In 1793, followed the conquest of Persian territory as far as the Kur; 
in 1 80 1, the formal annexation of Georgia was effected. Although con- 
quered in the war of 1807, Russia nevertheless acquired by the Peace of 
Tilsit, July 7, the Province of Bjalystok, which had been taken from her 
ally, Prussia. The Peace of Vienna, October 14, 1809, assured to Prussia 
the circle of Turnopole from Austria, and a part of Eastern Galicia, with 
400,000 souls. The Peace of Friederichshaven, November 17, 1809,. 
robbed Sweden of the whole of Finland ; the Peace of Bucharest, May 
28, 1 81 2, took Bessarabia from the Turks; that of Tiflis, in 181 3, deprived 
the Persians of parts of the Caucasus, and then the Vienna Congress of 
181 5 gave Poland to Russia. After fresh wars the Persians lost the prov- 
inces of Erivan and Nakhichevan (now called New Armenia), by the 
Peace of Turkmansheir, February 22, 1828, and the Turks lost Anapa, 
Poti, Akhalzirk and Akhalkalaka by the Peace of Adrianople, September 
2, 1829. The desire to possess further dominions of the Sultan (the "Sick 
Man") led to a war in 1853, in which England and 'France joined in 1854^ 



252 



POPULATION. 



in which Sardinia also took part, and which ended in the Peace of Paris, 
March 31, 1856. The Russians were compelled, for the first time for 
more than a century, to agree to a cession of territory; that is to say, to 
restore to Moldavia the left bank of the Danube in Bessarabia, including 
the fortresses of Ismail and Kiala. This district, however, was again re- 
stored to her by the Congress of Berlin, July, 1878. Russia has lately 
acquired, by agreement with China, the sparsely populated, but widely 
extended district of the Amoor; the subjection of Caucasia was accom- 
plished in 1859 and 1864, and considerable conquests have followed since 
1 866, both in Turkestan and the rest of Central Asia. A Ukase of Feb- 
ruary 29 (or 1 2th March), 1868, annihilated the last remains of the inde- 
pendence of Poland by incorporating it completely in the Czardom. On 
the other hand, Russian America was sold to the United States. This 
region, however, was not actually the possession of the state, but rather 
the property of a trading company. Its area was estimated at 516,666 
English square miles and a population of 54,000 souls. 

The extent of the Russian territory under different monarchs was 
about as follows: 



Ivan Vasilivitch I . . . 
Vasili Ivanovitch . . . 
Ivan Vasilivitch II. . 
Alexi Michaelovitch. 
Peter I 



Anna 

Katharine II 
Alexander II 





English 




sqr. miles. 


1462 


382,716 


1505 


510,288 


1584 


1,530,864 


1650 


5,039,094 


1689 


5,953,360 


1730 


6,888,888 


1775 


7,122,770 


1868 


7,866,940 



The population was estimated thus: — In 



1722 14.000,000 

1742 16,000,000 

1762 19,000,000 

1782 27,500,000 

1793 34,000,000 

1803 36,000,000 

1811 42,000,000 



1815 45,000,000 

1829 50,500,000 

1838 59,000,000 

1851 65,000,000 

1870 78,000,000 

1877 86,250,000 

1878 87,722,500 



The countries acquired during the last two centuries comprise an ex- 
tent of territory ten times as large as Germany. According to a Russian 
calculation, the area, in the first 20 years of the reign of Alexander II., 
increased 751,547 English square miles, and the population increased by 
22,546,000. A constant advance has been made also toward the civilized 
countries of the west. 



POPULATION. 



253 



In spite of its autocratic rule, the Russian government is not in a 
position to ascertain the extent and population of the various parts of its 
enormous empire. The statements concerning its area are based upon 
the calculations of maps of the country, in which considerable discrepan- 
cies appear. Fixed "censuses" or " revisions " of the population occur at 
long intervals, the chief object of which is to discover the number of men 
liable to taxation, and as little heed is paid to those not liable, incorrect 
returns are the result. The local census made annually by the police 
authorities are even of less value. The following table is founded on the 
calculations of the "Central Committee of Statistics of the Ministry of the 
Interior. 1 ' In order to render the survey easier, we add the names of the 
governments and districts, as well as the countries which form them. 
The area is estimated without the great inland lakes, and the population 
according to the census of 1871 and local census of 1872, 1873, and 1877. 

Great Russia, or the Original Empire, has nineteen governments, con- 
taining 837,552 English square miles, and 24,457,534 inhabitants, as follows: 



Governments. 



1 Archangel 

2 Yaroslav 

3 Kaluga 

4 Kostroma 

5 Kursk 

6 Moscow 

7 Nischni Novgorod. 

8 Novgorod 

9 Olonetz 

10 Orel 

11 Pskov 

12 Riasan 

13 Smolensk 

14 Tambov 

15 Tula 

16 Tver 

17 Vladimir 

18 Vologda 

19 Voronetz 



English 
sqr. miles. 


Inhabitants. 


293,288 


281,112 


13,756 


1,001,748 


11,949 


996,252 


32,700 


1,176,097 


18,901 


1,954,807 


12,863 


1,913,699 


19,794 


1,271,564 


47,244 


1,011,445 


52,517 


296,392 


18,051 


1,596,881 


16,882 


775,701 


16,244 


1,477,433 


21,559 


1,440,015 


25,684 


2,150,997 


11,949 


1,167,878 


25,216 


1,528,881 


18,859 


1,259,923 


155,510 


1,003,039 


25,450 


2,153,696 



Little Russia has four governments, containing 80,242 English square 
miles and 7,635,361 inhabitants. 



Governments. 



1 Charkov . . . 

2 Kiev 

3 Pultava 

4 Tchemigov. 



English 
sqr. miles. 



21,240 
19,688 
19,263 
20,241 



Inhabitants. 



1,698,015 
2,175,132 
2,102,614 
2,659,600 



254 



POPULATION. 



South Russia, mostly conquest from Turkey since the 18th century, 
has three governments, i province and i district; 153,192 English square 
miles; 5,500,174 inhabitants. 



Governments. 



English 
sqr. miles. 



Inhabitants. 



a Bessarabia 

1 Kherson 

2 Jekatarinosslay 

3 Tauria 

a Country of the Don-Cossacks 



13,947 
27,491 
26,152 
23,600 
61,914 



1,078,932 
1,596,809 
1,352,309 
704,997 
1,086,264 



Western Russia, or the country won by the three partitions of Poland, 
with the exception of the so-called Kingdom of Poland, contains eight gov- 
ernments; 162,314 English square miles; 9,838,131 inhabitants. 



Governments. 



Grodno . . 
Kovno . . . 
Minsk . . . 
Mohilev . 
Podolia. . 
Wilna . . . 
Vitegestr 



8 Volhynia 



English 
sqr. miles. 



14,968 
15,691 
35,273 
18,561 
16,220 
16,464 
17,434 
27,746 



Population. 



1,008,521 
1,156,041 
1,182,230 

947,625 
1,933,188 
1,001,909 

888,727 
1,719,890 



The Baltic Provinces and Petersburg, which were taken from Ger- 
many and Sweden, have four governments; 63,367 English square miles; 
3,270,866 inhabitants. 



Governments. 

1 Eethonia 

2 Courland 

3 Livonia 

4 St. Petersburg 



English 
sqr. miles. 



Population. 



7,611 
10,545 
17,838 
33,771 



323,961 

619,154 

1,000,876 

1,326,875 



Czardom of Kasan contains five governments; 246,086 English square 
miles; 8,688,381 inhabitants. 



Governments. 

Kasan : 

Pensa 

Perm* 

Ssinbirsk 

Vyatka 

* 48,668 English square miles of the area are reckoned as belonging to Asia. 



English 
sqr. miles. 



Population. 



24,600 
14,989 
128,252 
19,114 
59,129 



1,704,624 
1,173,186 
2,198,666 
1,205,881 
2,406,024 



POPULATION. 



255 



Czardom of Astrachan contains five governments: 
square miles; 6,455,335 inhabitants. 



300,432 



English 



Governments. 



1 Astrachan* 

2 Orenburg^- 

3 Ufa 

4 Samara 

5 Saratov 



English 
sqr. miles. 



86,685 
73,905 
47,031 
60,213 
32,615 



Population. 



601,514 

900,547 

1,364,925 

1,837,081 

1,751,268 



Kingdom of Poland, which was acquired in 1814 and 18 15, contains 
ten governments now, but formerly only five: 49,157 English square miles; 
6,026,421 inhabitants. 



Governments. 


English 
sqr. miles. 


Population. 




5,612 
4,720 
4,401 
3,890 
4,209 
4,847 
4,762 
6,506 
4,677 
5,528 


925,639 

682,495 
669,261 
518,730 
471,938 
524,489 
532,466 
707,098 
449,699 
504,066 


2 Piotrkov 


3 Kalish 


4 Kyleetz 


5 Plotzk 


6 Suvalki 




8 Lublin 




10 SiedJetz 





Grand Duchy of Finland, which was taken from Sweden, 1809, con- 
tains eight governments; 141,137 English square miles; 1,773,612 inhabi- 
tants. 



Governments. 



English 
sqr. miles. 



Population. 



1 Abo-Bjorneburg 

2 ELnopio 

3 Nyland 

4 St. Michel 

5 Tavastehus 

6 Uleaborg 

7 Vasa 

8 Viborg 



9,334 

16,509 

4,592 

8,823 

8,334 

63,956 

16,074 

13,532 



293,633 
217,948 
168,215 
155,169 
185,900 
179,161 
297,059 
276,527 



* With the districts of the Calmucbs and Kirghises of the interior. 

t With the districts of the Cossacks of Orenburg and of the Ural; 17,456 square miles of this area and the next 
mentioned Government are reckoned as belonging to Asia. 



256 



POPULATION. 



The Caucasus, Stadtholdership, contains six governments, 3 provinces,. 
3 districts; 172,860 English square miles, and 4,893,332 inhabitants. 



Settlements. 



English 
sqr. miles. 



Population. 



1 Stavropol 

2 Tiflis 

3 Kutais 

4 Eliza bethpol 

5 Baku 

6 Erivan , 

a Kuban 

b Dagestan 

c Region of Terek . . . 

a District of Sakatal 

6 Sukhum-Kale 

7 Black Sea District . 



'26,641 

15,606 

7,994 

17,115 

15,169 

10,673 

37,165 

11,524 

23,260 

1,615 

3,338 

2,732 



437,138 

606,584 

605,691 

529,412 

513,560 

452,C01 

672,224 

448,299 

485,237 

56,802 

70,701 

15,703 



Siberia, in Northern Asia, contains four governments and four prov- 
inces; 4,810,888 English square miles; 3,428,867 inhabitants. 



Settlements. 



1 Tobolsk 

2 Tomsk 

3 Jenisseisk 

4 Irkutsk 

a Transbackal 

b Takutsk 

c Province of the Amoor 

d Maritime Province, of East Siberia 



English 
sqr. miles. 



531,464 
328,327 
992,935 
303,004 
233,520 
1,417,313 
173,530 
730,880 



Population. 



1,086,848 
838,756 
372,862 
378,244 
430,780 
231,977 
44,400 
45,000 



Central Asia contains only one general government and the Kirghise 
Steppes; 1,107,707 English square miles, and 3,191,291 inhabitants. 

The following approximate calculation may be made on the basis of 
the above uncertain, though apparently correct, figures. 



Settlements. 



English 
sqr. miles. 



Population. 



European Russia with Poland (I. to VIII.) including the inland lakes, 

and Nova Zembla* 1,920,589 

Grand Duchy of Finland 

Country of the Caucasus 

Siberia 



144,156 
172,222 
4,826,474 
Central Asia 1,233,196 



71,900,000 
1,800,000 
4,900,000 
3,300,000 
3,200.000 



* The area of the Island of Nova Zembla was formerly estimated at 89,300 English square miles, but modern 
calculation states it as not exceeding 35,443. The area of the Lakes is divided thus— the Sea of Azof 13,565 English, 
square miles ; Lake Ladoga, 7,058 ; Lake of Onega, 3,401 ; and Lake Peipus, 1,403. 



POPULATION. 



257 



In the statistical abstract presented to the English Houses of Parlia- 
ment in 1877, the area and population of Russia are thus given: — 



Settlements. 


English 
sqr. miles. 


Population. 


Russia in Europe 


1,894,949 

49,144 

144,181 


65,704,559 
6,528,017 
1,912,647 


Poland 


Finland 






Total 


2,088,274 


74,145,223 




Russia in Asia 


172, r t 

4,825,032 
1,276,874 


4,893,332 
3,428,867 
3,800,628 


Siberia 


Central Asia 




Total 


6,274,696 


12,122,827 




Total, Russian Empire 


8,362,970 


86,268,050 





The power of the state lies in the European territory. The posses- 
sions in Asia may be regarded much in the same light as India is by the 
English, or as Algeria is regarded by France. If Archangel, Vologda and 
Finland are excluded, there are about 40,000,000 of souls living within an 
area of 691,015 English square miles. 

The last general census gave the number of inhabitants according to 
sex, thus: females, 35,275,904; males, 33,655,824, making the enor- 
mous difference of 1,630,080. 

In Poland, which is not included in the calculation, the numbers, with- 
out the fluctuating population, were: females, 2,750,193; males, 2,586,- 
017, making a difference of 164,176. 

In these figures we see a result of the system of maintaining a stand- 
ing army, with lengthened service, and also of the destructiveness of war 
among the male population. 



258 



POPULATION, 



ITALY. 



Italy, which was formerly divided into seven states, has become an en- 
tirely united state since 1870; if we exclude the two semi-sovereign domin- 
ions of San Marino and Monaco. The kingdom is divided into 69 provinces, 
with a sub-division into 197 circuits (circondarii) and 97 districts (Dis- 
tretti). These altogether contain 1,811 cantons (Mandamenti), and (in 
1875) 8,307 parishes. 

The following is the area and population of the different provinces of 
Italy, according to the latest official reports: 



Provisoes. 



English 
sqr. miles. 


Population. 


11,333 


3,027,596 


2,055 


874,616 


9,077 


3,589,527 


9,053 


2,769,594 


7,815 


2,174,579 


3,718 


567,131 


3,745 


936,035 


9,284 


2,192,292 


4,599 


841,140 


6,673 


1,315,197 


6,975 


2,834,982 


8,536 


1,488,218 


6,660 


1,240,772 


11,287 


2,736,505 


9,395 


658,479 



Piedmont 

Liguria 

Lonibardy 

Venetia 

Emilia 

Umbria 

Marches 

Tuscany 

Lazia 

Abruzzi Molise 

Campania 

Puglia 

Calabria 

Sicily 

Sardinia 



The number of families or households amounted at the last census to 
5,675,151. There were 5,063,943 houses, of which 4,139,481 only were 
occupied. The population, according to sex, in 1876, was 13,980,158 
males and 13,789,317 females; the preponderance of males, therefore, 
190,841, a rare occurrence in Europe. 

There are, altogether, 8,382 communes; of these, 10 have more than 
100,000 inhabitants; 12 have from 50,000 to 100,000; 25 from 30,000 to 
50,000; 52 from 20,000 to 30,000; 261 from 10,000 to 20,000; 729 be- 
tween 5,000 and 10,000; 442 between 4,000 and 5,000; 858 between 
3,000 and 4,000; 1,399 between 2,000 and 3,000; 2,351 between 1,000 
and 2,000; 1,410 between 500 and 1,000; 515 between 300 and 500, and 
242 have a less number. The meaning expressed by the word community 
or parish is very varied. In many parts of the kingdom it comprises ex- 
tensive districts of several square miles, involving figures which can only 



POPULATION. 259 

mislead. Thus the Commune Capaunori, near Lucca, has 43,313 inhabi- 
tants, but they are scattered over a district of 64 English square miles; in 
the district itself there were, in 1861, only 482 souls. There are 8 cities 
with a resident population of more than 100,000, and 6 with from 50,000 
to 100,000; 25 with 25,000 to 50,000, and 157 with 10,000 to 25,000. 

Italy enjoys more than most other nations the very important advan- 
tage of possessing a population which entirely belongs to the same nation- 
ality. Of other than Italian origin there are 134,435 French, 20,392 
Germans, 5,546 English, and 1 13,383 individuals speaking other languages. 
In the districts of Aosta, Pinerolo, and Susa, there are 119,369 speaking a 
French dialect, and in the provinces of Novara and Turin, 3,649 speaking 
a Burgundian dialect. The number of Albanians in the south of Italy, 
and in Sicily, is 55,453; Greeks, 20,268; Slavs, 27,000. The Albanians, 
or Arnauts, are descendants of those who, in the years 1461, 1532 and 
1744, took refuge in Apulia, Calabria and Sicily. They are generally, 
but erroneously, called Greeks. The Albanian language is not a modern 
Greek dialect, as some suppose, but a distinct Aryan tongue, probably 
representing the old Illyrian of the Balkan peninsula. 

The inhabitants are almost entirely Roman Catholics. The census of 
1 86 1 for the kingdom of Italy, exclusive of the States of the Church, re- 
turned only 64,005 who were not Roman Catholics. Of these, 32,932 
were Evangelical, many of whom were the Waldenses, so cruelly op- 
pressed in former times, 29,233 Jews, and 1,840 members of other relig- 
ious sects. 

In 1 87 1, there were 26,662,580 Roman Catholics, 58,651 Protestants, 
35,356 Jews, and 44,567 either members of other religious sects or no 
religion at all. 

The city of Rome includes an area of 5^ square miles. There are 
347 Catholic and 8 Protestant churches. In the year 1198, under Pope 
Innocent III., there were only 35,000 inhabitants. In 1377, when the pope 
returned from Avignon, there were only 17,000; in 15 13, under Leo X., 
there were 40,000 inhabitants; in 1521, the number increased to 90,000. 
Under Clement VII., there were 165,047; and in 1793, 166,948. In 1809 
and 1813 a great diminution occurred — viz., to 136,268 and 117,882. The 
number rose again in 1823 to 136,269, and in 1830 to 147,235. At the 
accession of Pope Pius IX., (1846) there were 180,199. 

In 1869, 6,400 of the inhabitants of Rome belonged to the religious 
orders, exclusive of 5,210 nuns; 4,682 were Jews, and 637 belonged to 
other than Catholic bodies. 



260 



POPULATION. 



The changes in the territory of Italy have been man)' and great. The 
following shows the provinces, with their area and population in 1858: 



Provinces. 



1 Sardinia. 

2 Lombardo-Venezia 

3 Duchy of Parma 

4 Duchy of Modena 

5 Grand Duchy of Tuscany 

6 States of the Church, including San Marino 

7 The two Sicilies 

Total 



English 
sqr. miles. 



118,487 



Population. 



29,235 


5,167,542 


17,562 


5,173,054 


2,402 


500,000 


2,338 


605,000 


8,568 


1,807,000- 


15,499 


3,130,000 


42,883 


9,117,000 



25,499,596 



The union of the former states into one "Kingdom of Italy," began in 
1859. By the Peace of Zurich, November 16, 1859, Austria was com- 
pelled to cede the greater part of Lombardy to Napoleon III., who made 
over the ceded territory to the King of Sardinia. Popular rebellions in 
various parts of the country led to the following annexations: — Emilia, 
Parma, Modena, and Romagna, on March 18, i860; Tuscany, March 22; 
the Marches, Umbria, and the kingdom of the two Sicilies, on December 
17, in the same year. The king was obliged by the Treaty of March 24, 
i860, to cede his inheritance of Savoy, as well as Nice, to France. The 
title "Kingdom of Italy" was first used March 17, 1861. The war of 
1866, which brought nothing but defeat to the land and sea forces of Italy, 
yet led to the acquisition of Venice by the Treaty of Peace concluded 
October 3, 1866. The war between France and Germany in 1870, and 
the fall of Napoleon, released the French Government from the obliga- 
tions which it had undertaken for the maintenance of the temporal power 
of the Pope, and on September 20, 1870, the Italian troops occupied 
Rome, after a short struggle with the Papal troops. On October 2, the 
people of the Papal Dominions declared unanimously in favor of union 
with the Kingdom of Italy. 

SWITZERLAND. 

The various Cantons became united at the dates which follow: — 1. 
The Cantons, Urie, Schwytz and Unterwalden in 1308; the latter subse- 
quently was sub-divided into Upper and Lower Walden. 2. The Can- 
tons which first joined the Confederacy were Lucerne in 1332, Zurich in 
1 35 1, Glarus in 1352, Berne in 1353, and Zug in 1362. This formed the 
basis of the confederacy. 3. Freiburg and Soleure joined in 1481, Schaff- 
hausen in 1501, Basle in 1501 (divided subsequently into town and dis- 



POPULATION. 201 

trict), Appenzell in 15 13 (divided in 1597 into inner and outer Rhodes); 
this forms the league of 13 old cantons. The new cantons, St. Gall, 
Thurgau, Aargau, Vaud, Grisons and Tessin all joined either in 1798 or 
1803; the neivest cantons, Valais, Geneva and Neuchatel, in 181 5. 

Before the time of the French Revolution, the thirteen places scarcely 
occupied 9,567 English square miles, with a population of 970,000, and 
formed little more than a nominal Confederacy. Various small states at- 
tached themselves, while retaining a condition of semi-independence, either 
to the Confederacy or to separate cantons. There were the associated 
places, many of which again separated themselves from the Confederacy. 
Others were called "Associates of the Confederacy," with the privilege of 
sending delegates to the Diet; such were the Abbey of St. Gall and the 
towns of St. Gall and Bienne ; others were considered as confederates or co- 
allies ; such were the Grisons, Valais, the town of Mulhausen (in Alsace), the 
principality of Neuchatel, the town of Geneva, and part of the bishopric 
of Basle; still lower were reckoned the mere " Protected Associates," 
such as the abbey of Engelberg, the parish or commune of Gersan, and 
the other part of the bishopric of Basle. To these were added the 
" united subjects," or districts which were subjected by war, and which 
belonged to one or more of the thirteen Confederate States. 

Of the thirteen districts, seven had an aristocratic, six a democratic 
form of government ; in four of the former, viz., Berne, Soleure, Freiburg 
and Lucerne, an aristocracy of race, or patriciate governed; in three, viz., 
Zurich, Basle and Schaffhausen, an aristocracy of citizens or townsmen. 

The democratic cantons of Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, Zug, Glarus 
and Appenzell had subjects outside their own immediate circuit, and who 
lived in the united governments ; for ex-Uri possessed the Levine Thai; 
Schwytz possessed the March, Kussnacht and Einsiedeln; to Zug belonged 
the bailiwicks of Hunenberg, Cham, Steinhausen, Risch and Walchwyl ; 
to Glarus belonged the lordship of Werdenberg. Unterwalden and Ap- 
penzell had no possessions. 

The most important united lordships were the Thurgau (the present 
canton of Tessin), the Valley of the Rhine, which was in the possession 
of the eight old districts, and Appenzell; Vaud, and part of the Aargau, 
which was subject to the Bernese ; and the independent allies again owned 
subject districts ; Valteline, Bormio, and Chiavenna. The Frickthal be- 
longed to Austria. The French Revolution effected an entire change. 
The inhabitants of the bishopric of Basle proclaimed a separate republic 
in 1702. In 1793 France seized upon Pruntrut (in Berne), and in 1797 it 



262 POPULATION. 

took possession of Erguel. The inhabitants of the Valteline, Chiavenna, 
and Bormio, to whom equality of rights was refused by the League, united 
themselves with the "Cisalpine Republic " (Italy). Vaud separated itself 
from Berne in January, 1798, and became the canton of Leman. After 
the Bernese had been overcome by the French troops, the Confederation 
was dissolved, and a united state, called the Helvetian Republic, was 
formed; this was divided into eighteen cantons, but not independent ones. 
Berne was sub-divided into four, viz.: — Berne, Oberland, Aargau, and 
Leman. Baden, Thui"gau, Lugano, Bellinzona and Valais were changed 
into cantons; while, on the other hand, Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, and 
Zug were united into one canton called Waldstatten. Appenzell, St. Gall 
and the Rhine valley formed the canton of Santis. Geneva and Muhl- 
house were incorporated with France. This centralization was unwelcome 
to the Swiss. Disunion was encouraged on the part of France. In Feb- 
ruary, 1803, the "Act of Mediation" was proclaimed by Bonaparte. The 
cantons were again established with about their former area (Vaud and 
Aargau were, however, still separated from Berne). They were again 
permitted to manage their own internal affairs, while the general affairs 
were referred to a Diet, to which each of the larger cantons sent two 
members or deputies, and the smaller cantons one. Neuchatel and Valais 
were united by Napoleon to France ; thus there were nineteen cantons. The 
Congress of Vienna endeavored to restore the old state of things; the 
constitution of 181 5 decreed the sovereignty of the cantons, the number 
of which was increased by three, Geneva, Valais, and Neuchatel. The 
former bishopric of Basle was united with the canton of Berne. Sardinia 
ceded the small district of Carouge to Geneva, on account of its proximity. 
Austria gave the dominion of Razuns to the Grisons, and the Frickthal, 
Lauftnburg and Rheinfelden to Aargau. Muhlhouse was retained by 
France; and the Valteline, Chiavenna and Bormio by Lombardy. 

The establishment of an aristocratic oligarchical government could not 
be acceptable to the Swiss. The movement which passed over Europe in 
1830 was made use of to transform the constitution of most of the can- 
tons in a democratic sense. The district of Basle was then separated 
from the town. A perpetual struggle was carried on between the two 
opposing elements. Seven cantons at length formed a " special confed- 
eracy," viz., Lucerne, Schwytz, Uri, Unterwalden, Zug, Valais, and Frei- 
burg. This was destroyed by force of arms, November, 1847. The 
Swiss wisely took advantage of the disturbances of the year 1848 to recon- 
stitute their country. 



POPULATION. 



203 



Neuchatel shook off the Prussian yoke, and a new confederate consti- 
tution was formed, September 12, 1848, by which, without injuring the 
autonomy of the cantons in their internal affairs, the national strength 
was united in all essential matters. The organs through which the nation 
announces its will are the National Council and the Council of the States, 
which, together, choose seven men, the "Bundesrath" (Confederate Coun- 
cil), as the highest executive authority. Each canton sends two repre- 
sentatives to the Council of the States, without respect to its size; each 
half canton sends one representative. The National Council, on the other 
hand, is composed of representatives chosen at the rate of one for every 
20,000 of the population. After a quarter of a century, the gradual 
changes in their condition led the Swiss to desire a modification in the 
constitution of their confederacy; and as a simple majority of the citizens 
is sufficient in Switzerland to cany a resolution, a new constitution of the 
confederacy was proposed by a decree of January 31, 1874, with regard 
to the representation of the people. This being sanctioned by the voice 
of the people on the 19th of April, the new constitution was announced 
en May 29, 1874. This rests upon the same democratic basis as the 
former constitution ; the public organs are also unchanged, but the power 
of the confederacy over the separate cantons is moderately increased, and 
the principles of freedom are more extended and developed in various 
directions. 

Area, 15,977 English square miles, and population, according to the 
census of 1870, 2,669,147. A calculation in the middle of 1876 gives it 
as 2,759,854. 

The country is divided into twenty-two cantons, three of which, how- 
ever, are sub-divided, making in all 25, which are united into one confed- 
erate state. 





« . 

S3 

< 




■3 a 
p 

S ft 

M 


a 


. 

•£ CO 

3 th 





ACCORDING TO CREEDS. 


Cantons. 


1 d 

CD +- 

O 
U 

Ph 


O 




to 

O 


ED 

h3 




665 
2,659 
579 
415 
373 
183 
112 
266 
92 


623 

2,078 
528 
184 
254 
154 

84 
173 

74 


294,994 
528,670 
133,316 
16,900 
49,216 
15,009 
11,983 
36,179 
21,775 


263,730 

436,304 

b,823 

80 

647 

358 

66 

28,238 

878 


17,942 
66,015 
128,328 
16,018 
47,047 
i4,055 
11,632 
6,888 
20,082 


2,610 

2,747 

79 

1 

4 

7 
17 


504 




1,400 
98 


Lucerne 


Uri 


8 


Schwytz 


7 




2 


TJnterwalde, Lower 


3 


Glarus 


17 


Zug 


16 



204 



POPULATION. 



Switzerland by cantons and sub-divisions. — Continued. 



Cantons. 



Freiburg 

Solotburn 

Basle (city) 

Basle (country) 

Schaff hausen 

Appenzell outside Rhode . 
Appenzell within Rhode . . 

St. Gall 

Graubunden, or Grisons. . 

Aargau. 

Thurgau 

Tessin, or Ticino 

Waadt, or Vaud 

Neunburg 

Geneva 

Valais 



S3 



644 
302 
13 
162 
113 
100 
61 
779 

2,773 
541 
381 

1,087 

1,244 
311 
107 

2,025 



a 5 



567 
277 

11 
156 
108 

97 

54 
661 
517 
517 
322 
726 
1,053 
220 

89 
930 



a 
a 

o . 

*s 

p. 
o 



113,952 
77,803 
51,515 
55,548 
38,925 
48,879 
11,907 

196,834 
92,906 

201,567 
95,074 

121,768 

242,439 

102,843 
90,352 

100,490 



ACCORDING TO CREEDS. 



16,819 
12,448 
34,457 
43,523 
31,466 
46,175 

188 

74,573 

51,887 

107,703 

69,231 

194 

211,686 

84,234 

43,639 

900 



93,951 
62,072 
12,301 
10,245 
3,051 
2,358 
11,720 

116,060 
39,843 
80,180 
23,454 

119,350 
17,592 
11,345 
47,868 
95,963 



0) 05 

■a'S 

of 

O 



15 

101 
496 
228 
180 
171 
1 
190 

35 
449 
531 

40 

1,812 

931 

771 

20 



47 

92 

506 

131 

24 

82 

192 

17 

1,541 

84 

36 

610 

671 

964 

4 



Of foreigners dwelling in Switzerland, there were, in 1870, 150,907, 
of whom 62,228 were French; 57,245 Germans; 18,073 Italians; Sfil 2 
Austrians; 36 Hungarians; 2,297 English; 1,599 Russians; 1,404 Ameri- 
cans; 492 Belgians; 349 Spaniards; 260 Dutch; 216 Scandinavians. 

Area of the principal lakes. 



Lakes. English 

sqr. miles. 

Geneva* 221 

Constancet 206 

Neuchatelj 91 

Lago Maggiore 82 

Lucerne 40 

Zurich 34 

Lugano 19 



Lakes. English 

sqr. miles. 

Thun 18 

Bienne 16 

Zug 14 

Brienz 10 

Morat 10 

Wallensee 8 



Number of houses occupied. 

In 1870 there were 387,148, with 2,395,902 habitable apartments; 
number of households, 557,018; population: — 1,304,833 males; 1,364,314 
females. According to civil position : — husbands and wives living together, 
799,346; actually divorced, 40,892 ; separated, 8,546; widowed, 172,297; 
single, 1,648,066; 1,442,301 of the population have the right of domicile in 
their native place, 781,263 in other places than their own native, commune, 
yet within the same canton; 294,036 foreigners have right of domicile or are 
naturalized in the canton in which they live ; persons without homes, 640. 

*Geneva, of which only 131 belong to Switzerland. fConstance. of which only 70 belong to Switzerland. 

JNeuchatel, of which only 16 belong to Switzerland. 



POPULATION. 



265 



BELGIUM. 



The formerly Spanish, afterward Austrian Netherlands, embraced, at 
the end of the last century, an area of about 8,632 English square miles, 
with a population of 2,250,000. The Bishopric of Liege formed a sepa- 
rate state with 220,000 inhabitants. 

The country fell into the hands of France by the peace of Luneville; 
it was divided into nine departments, viz. : Lys, Scheld, Jemappes, Dyle, 
Nethen, Sambre, Ourthe, Lower Maas, and Forets. This district was 
united with Holland, under the title of Kingdom of the Netherlands, by 
the "Congress of Vienna." The struggles at Brussels from September 21 
to 27, 1830, led to the separation of the two countries. November 30, 
1830, the independence of Belgium was proclaimed by the National 
Congress. Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was chosen king, June 4,1831, 

The different provinces, their area and population, are shown below: 



Provinces. 



Antwerp 

Brabant 

West Flanders. 
East Flanders . 

Hainault 

Xiiege 

Xjmburg 

Luxemburg . . . 
Namur 



Total 
In 1878 



English 


Population 


sqr. miles. 


1876. 


1,094 


538,381 


1,269 


936,062 


1,250 


684,468 


1,158 


863,468 


1,437 


956,354 


1,118 


632,228 


933 


205,237 


1,707 


204,201 


1,413 


315,796 


11,379 


5,339,185 



5,476,668 



Of the total population in 1876, 2,256,860 spoke French; 2,659,890, 
Flemish; 38,070, German; 340,770, French and Flemish; 22,700, French 
and German ; 1 ,790, Flemish and German ; 5 ,490 spoke the three languages ; 
7,650, only foreign languages; 2,070 were deaf and dumb. 

The population is almost entirely Roman Catholic. There are only 
12,000 Protestants, and about 3,000 Jews, and these mostly in the prov- 
inces of Antwerp and Brabant. 

These nine provinces contain 41 arrondissements, 303 administrative 
cantons, and 2,572 communes or parishes. In 1876 there were 4 com- 
munes with more than 100,000 inhabitants; 13 between 25,000 and 100,000; 



266 POPULATION. 

15 between 15,000 and 25,000; 25 between 10,000 and 15,000; 102 
between 5,000 and 10,000; 205 above 3,000; 245 over 2,000; 731 over 
1,000; 775 above 500, and 460 communes with less than 400 inhabitants. 



HOLLAND. 

Previous to the French Revolution, the Republic of the United Nether- 
lands consisted of, first, the seven united provinces, Holland, Gelderland r 
Zeeland, Utrecht, Friesland, Over-Yssel, and Groningen; second, the lit- 
tle district of Drenthe, and, third, the land in which all these communes had 
a share, viz.: Hertogenbusch, Breda, Bergen-op-Zoom, Maastricht, Ven- 
loo, Sluys, and Hulst. The population was estimated at 2,500,000. After 
the conquest of the country by the French in 1795, the state was trans- 
formed into the Batavian Republic, formed on the plan of the French 
Republic, and divided into eight departments, Flanders, Maastricht, and 
Venloo, containing 122,000 inhabitants, being ceded to France by com- 
pulsion. The colonies, which had been lost in war, with the exception of 
Ceylon, were restored to the state by the peace of Amiens, but not so the 
districts that had been ceded to France. Again the colonies were lost in 
the newly-begun war. Napoleon dictated changes in the constitution, and 
at length (May 24, 1806,) the Republic was made into a kingdom under 
his brother Louis (nominal father of Louis Napoleon III.). The Emperor 
incorporated the district lying between the empire and the Maas with his 
dominions as early as 1807, also part of Zeeland, and the fortresses of 
Bergen-op-Zoom, Hertogenbusch, Gertrudenburg, Middleburg, and Flush- 
ing, in return for which East Friesland, Jever, Kniphausen, and Varel were 
given to Holland. The kingdom, divided into eleven departments, now 
contained but 12,281 English square miles, and 2,001,416 inhabitants. 

In 1810 the Emperor further took possession of the states of Brabant, 
Zeeland, and part of Gelderland, and formed out of them the French 
departments of the Rhine and "Bouches de 1' Escaut " (mouths of the 
Scheldt). When the nominal king afterward laid down the crown, Napo- 
leon incorporated the rest of Holland with the French dominions, Jul)- g r 
1810. 

The oppressed people rose at the end of 18 13 to shake off the foreign 
yoke. In July, 1814, the Vienna Congress framed a "kingdom of the 
Netherlands " out of the former republic, the Austrian Netherlands, and 



POPULATION. 



267 



the greater part of the bishopric of Liege. Luxemburg, elevated into a 
grand duchy, was to serve the new king as a compensation for the pos- 
sessions which he had been obliged to give up to Nassau. Marienburg 
and Philippeville were also united to the state by the second peace of Paris. 
<The Cape of Good Hope, Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice were lost as 
colonies by Holland. Belgium was torn from it by the Revolution of 1830. 
In order to compensate the German Confederacy for the partial loss of 
Luxemburg, Limburg was nominally incorporated with Germany. In 
consequence of the events of 1866, this duchy was again completely sepa- 
rated from Germany. 

Holland knew not only how to extend her East Indian colonies, but 
also to make them useful in a high degree; and the exchange of her pos- 
sessions in Malacca for Bencoolen, by a treaty with England in 1824, 
greatly facilitated this. 

The Dutch possessions on the Gold Coast (Africa) were ceded to 
Great Britain in 1871 and 1872. 

The following shows the area and population of Holland by the differ- 
ent divisions: 



Provinces. 


1879. 

Area in 

English sqr. 

miles. 


Population 

in 1877. 


North Holland 


1,056 
1,166 

514 

687 
1,979 

856 
1,964 
1,291 
1,027 

886 
1,281 


642,073 


South Holland 


763,636 


Utrecht 


186,164 


Zeeland 


187,046 
456,709 


North Brabant 


Limburg ' 


235,135 


Gelderland 


453,624 


Over-Yssel 


267,826 


Drenthe 


113,773 


Groningen 


242,065 




317,405 






• 


12,707 


*3,865,456 



*1,913,486 malee and 1,951,970 females. 



The population in 1829 was 2,613,427; in 1839, 2,860,450; in 1849,. 
3,056,879; in 1859, 3,293,577; in 1869, 3,574,529. 

The different nationalities is approximately as follows: 
1. Dutch (Batavians), about 2,400,000 in Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, 
and Gelderland; their language is a cultivated low German. 2. Frisians, 
nearly 500,000 in Friesland, Groningen, Drenthe, Over-Yssel, and several 



268 POPULATION. 

other islands, speaking a low German dialect, akin to the Dutch. 3. Flem- 
ings, about 400,000 in North Brabant and Limburg. 4. Low Germans, 
about 50,000 in Limburg. It was found by the last census that 3,139 of 
the population were born in Dutch colonies; 36,961, in Germany; 19,683, 
in Belgium; 1,218, in Great Britain, and 5,234 in other foreign countries. 

The different religious sects were as follows: 

Protestants, 2,193,281, including 1,808,311 Low German Reformers, 
9,689 French Reformers, 5,270 Remonstrants, 65,470 Separatists, 41,865 
Anabaptists, 54,318 Lutherans, 9,822 Old Lutherans, 334 Moravian 
Brothers, 576 Anglicans, 96 Episcopalians, 424 Presbyterians. 

Roman Catholics, 1,313,084. Monasteries, 38, with 820 members; 
nunneries, 137, with 2,187 nun s- 

Jews, 68,003, including 60,409 Low German, and 7,594 Portuguese. 

Other sects, 291,088, including Jansenists, 5,337, and 37 Greek 
Catholics. 

DENMARK. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Norway and Schleswig- 
Holstein were still subject to Denmark. Norway was ceded to Sweden 
on January 14, 18 14, in accordance with a resolution arrived at at the 
peace of Kiel. The king received Swedish Pomerania as ostensible com- 
pensation, but subsequently resigned it to Prussia for Lauenburg and 
£150,000. 

The attempt to incorporate completely the Elbe Duchies with Den- 
mark, led to the war with Prussia and Austria in 1864, which ended with 
the peace of Vienna, October 30, 1864. By this, Denmark finally lost the 
three duchies, with the exception of the little Island of Aroe, in place of 
which, domains in Jutland had to be given up. The treaties of Micolas- 
burg and Vienna in 1866 opened out a prospect of the re-acquirement of 
part of Northern Schleswig, but this is of slight importance at present. 

The present condition of Denmark is far better than what it has been. 
The country has lost in political power and prestige, but has gained in 
the character and manners of its people. The Danes are a frugal, indus- 
trious, and a generally contented people. The lot of the workingmen is 
as good as that in contiguous countries. The emigration has never been 
such as to materially affect the country, though many are constantly 
seeking new homes. The causes which impel the emigrant are, in 
general, a desire to better his condition and to provide better things for 
his children than he has enjoyed. 



POPULATION. 



209- 



The area and population of Denmark and subject lands is given 
below: 



Kingdom of Denmark. 



Area in 

English sqr. 

miles. 



Population 
in 1878. 



Zeeland, Moen, Samsoe. . 
Furien, Langland, Aroe. 

Lalland, Falster 

Bornholm 

Jutland 



2,839 

1,317 

648 

226 

9,754 



693,000 

253,000 

94,000 

34,000' 

866,000 



Total. 



14,784 



1,940,000 



SUBJECT LANDS. 



Faroe, 17 inhabited islands. 

Iceland* 

Greenland, colonized 

Danish Antilles 



514 

39,553 

386 

119 



11,000 

72,000 
|9,800 
37,500 



Total.... 
Total of. 



40,572 
14,784 



130,300 
1,940,000 



Gross total. 



55,356 



2,070,300- 



*16,159 English square miles are uncolonized. 



12313 are Europeans; the remainder are natives. 



The population has more than doubled since 1801, when it was only 
929,001. 

In 1870 there were only 14,142 persons who did not belong to the 
Lutheran State Church. Of these 4,290 were Jews, 1,857 were Roman 
Catholics, 1,433 °^ tne Reformed Church, 3,223 Baptists, 2,128 Mennon- 
ites, and 1,211 Sectarians and persons of no religion. 

The population of the principal towns of Denmark is as follows: 
Copenhagen, including Frederiksborg, 250,000; of Copenhagen alone, 
181,291 ; Odense, 16,970; Aarhuus, 15,025; Aalborg, 11,354: Randers, 
11,354; Horsens, 10,501 ; Elsinore, 8,891 ; Frederica, 7,186; Viborg, 6,422. 

Iceland has its own administration, though not independent of Den- 
mark. 

SWEDEN. 



At the beginning of the present century, Finland, Rugen, Vor-Pome- 
rania and the town of Wismar belonged to Sweden. In 1803 Wismar was 
sold to Mecklenburg. The war against Napoleon in 1806 cost Sweden 
the loss of Pomerania. Finland was ceded to Russia in 1809, and 



270 



POPULATION. 



Pomerania regained in 1810. The war with Napoleon, in 1813, gave 
Norway to Sweden, January 14, 18 14. Norway was recognized as an 
independent state and Pomerania had to be relinquished for the con- 
cession. St. Barthelemy in the West Indies was the only foreign posses- 
sion of Sweden, and this was ceded to France in 1877. 

The area is estimated at 170,928 English square miles, of which 13,926 
square miles are covered with lakes, and the population in December, 
1877, numbered 4,484,542.* 

It is difficult to obtain quite accurate information in such a wide-spread 
and scantily peopled country as Sweden, but the following seems to be the 
division of land and people: 



Name op Place. 



In Swea Rike, i. e., Sweden Proper, including the city of Stockholm and "] 
its suburbs, Upsala, Soderrnanland, Westmanland, Orebro, Wermland J- 
and Kopparborg. J 

In Gota Rika, i. e., Gothland, including Malmohus, Christianstad, Blekinge, "] 
Kronoberg, Jonkoping, Calmar, East Gothland, Halland, Skaraborg, )- 
Elsfborg, Gothenborg and Bohus. J 

In Norrland and Lapland, i. e., Gefleborg, Westnorrland, Jemtland, Wester- ) 
botten and Norrbotte. ) 




Population 



1,305,834 

2,544,126 
634,582 



Sweden rejoices in a homogeneous population; in 1870 there were only 
6,71 1 Lapps (belonging to the Finnic branch of the Mongolo-Tartar stock) ; 
14,932 Finns; about 70 gipsies, and 12,015 persons born in foreign coun- 
tries, viz.: 2,856 in Germany, 2,795 in Denmark, 2,570 in Norway, 2,018 
in Finland, 806 in Russia, and 976 in other lands. 

The Lutheran creed was the prevailing one until 1870; since then, how- 
ever, freedom of religious belief has been established by law, so that now 
admission to all offices of state is open to all Swedes, and not, as hitherto, 
only to the professors of the pure Evangelical Lutheran Church. In 1870 
there were, in addition to Evangelical Lutherans, 573 Catholics, 30 United 
Greeks, 3,809 Baptists, Methodists, and Mormons, 190 of the Reformed 
Church, and 1,836 Jews. 

According to calculation, not census, in 1876 there dwelt in 



Stockholm 157,215 

Gottenborg 68,756 

Malmoe 33,292 

Norrkoping 26,787 

Gefle 17,617 

Carlscrona 17,290 



Jonkoping 13,744 

Upsala 13,049 

Lund 12,794 

Orebro 10,496 

Helsingborg 10,066 

Calmar 10,009 



*In 1878 the population numbered 4,531 ,1 



POPULATION. 271 



NORWAY. 



The extent of area, including the lakes, is about 122,823 English 
square miles. A census is taken every ten years. The population in 
1875 was 1,807,555. In 1865 it numbered 1,701,478; 835,947 males and 
865,809 females. 

Exclusive of the Norwegians (Germanic race), there are 7,637 Quaens 
(Finns); 15,601 domiciled, and 1,577 nomadic Lapps, called, in Norway, 
Finns; also from 700 to 800 gipsies. Of mixed races there are 1,913 Nor- 
wegians and Quaens; 1,048 Norwegians and Finns; 909 Quaens and Finns. 
The number of the population not born in Norway, was 21,260, of whom 
15,784 were Swedes, 1,791 Danes, 1,257 Germans. 

The inhabitants are, with the exception of 5,105 persons, all Lutherans. 
Of the 5,105, 1,038 are Mormons, 331 Catholics, 25 Jews, and the 
remainder are colonists or English sects. 



*&■■ 



Principal towns, 1875. 

Christiania 76,327, with the incorporated suburbs in 1878 99,000 

Bergen 33,885 

Trondheim (Drontheirn) 22,167 

Stavanger 19,029 

Drammen 18,608 

Christiansand 11,764 



SPAIN. 

It is not probable that the Pyrenean peninsula contained 40,000,000 
inhabitants at the time of the Romans, as has been asserted; but on the 
other hand it may be assumed that there were 20,000,000 at the time 
of the Arabs. Then followed quickly one after the other the expulsion of 
2,000,000 Moors, 800,000 Jews, and at least 600,000 Moriscoes. 

The all-depressing influence of spiritual and temporal despotism con- 
tributed more to the depopulation of the country than did the colonization 
of America or than war. 

The Spanish government purchased the Peace of Basle, 1795, from 
the French Republic with the price of her share in St. Domingo; and the 
Peace of Amiens was obtained in 1802 by the surrender of Trinidad. In 



272 POPULATION. * 

1 80 1 Spain acquired the fortress of Olivenca from Portugal. In return for 
the elevation of the heir apparent of Parma, a Spanish Infanta, to the 
throne of Etruria, the Royal family ceded Louisiana to France; it was^ 
however, immediately sold by Napoleon to the United States for 
£2,400,000. 

During the sanguinary War of Independence all the Spanish posses- 
sions on the continent of America shook off the foreign yoke. The 
Spanish colonies, up to 180S, had extended over more than 6,591,220 
square miles, with about 18,000,000 inhabitants. These colonies were 
Mexico, with Texas and California ; the whole of Central America ; New 
Granada, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, Chili, and the Argentine 
Republic. 

Spain embraces an area of 195,716 square miles. The population in 
1879 numbered 16,809,913; of whom 8,342,564 are males, and 8,467,349 
are females. The proportion of the unmarried is 56.7 per cent;. the mar- 
ried, 36.5 per cent; and widowed, 6.8 per cent. Fifty-seven men and 16S 
women were stated to be above 100 years old. 

The prevailing religion is Roman Catholic, 60,000 only acknowledge 
other creeds. 

The actual Spaniards are a mixture of the nations who formerly dwelt 
there (Celts, Romans, Alans, Goths, Suevi, Vandals, Moors, Arabs; the 
Moorish-Arabian element prevails, especially in Andalusia). In addition 
to these there are about 500,000 Basques and 60,000 Medejares (descen- 
dants of the Moors), in the valleys of the Sierra Nevada, and in the Apu- 
liares. Also about 1,000 descendants of German colonists in the Sierra 
Morena, 45,000 gipsies, and a small number of Jews. At the census of 
i860, 20,917 foreigners were stated to be domiciled in Spain, and 13,995 
to be temporarily staying in the country. 

Previous Censuses. 

(In the year 1594 there were about 8,250,000 inhabitants.) 



Year. 

1723 7,625,000 

1768 9,309,814 

1787 10,409,879 

1797 10,541,221 



Year. 

1822 11,661,815 

1832 11,158,264 

1846 12,162,872 

1857 15,464,340 



The dry and exceedingly mild climate, especially in the province of 
Andalusia^offers strong inducements to invalids or to those who can not 
endure a rigorous atmosphere. The number of foreigners who tempora- 
rily sojourn in this country is, therefore, great. 



POPULATION. 273 



PORTUGAL. 

The participation of Portugal in the war against France and Spain 
ended in 1801 with the loss of the frontier fortress of Olivenca. French 
troops entered the country in 1807, and the royal family fled to Brazil. 
The claims of Portugal upon Olivenca were recognized after the Penin- 
sular war, by the Congress of Vienna, but Spain did not restore it. The 
court did not return from Brazil till after the revolution of 1820, when this 
colony asserted its independence. 

Since the year 1835 the mainland has been divided into seventeen 
districts, and the islands into four districts, making together twenty-one. 
As, however, the division into provinces is the only one recognized by 
Central Europe, and is also that which best agrees with the history of the 
country, we shall adhere to it, though at the same time giving the names 
of the districts in each province. A subdivision gives 295 smaller 
districts. 

The total area of the mainland is 34,507 square miles and of the 
islands, 1,232. Population of mainland 4,348,551, of the islands, 396,573,, 
total, 4,745,124. Of these 2,314,623 were males and 2,430,501 were 
females. 

The population of Lisbon is 265,032; Oporto, 108,346; Braga, 20,258; 
Setuval, 15,598; Funchal, 20,606; Ponta del Garda, 17,949. 



GREECE. 

Modern Greece owes its existence to the popular rebellion of 1821, but 
it was not until 1832 that it was recognized by the great powers as a 
kingdom. The Greeks did not succeed in obtaining a constitution until 
the revolution of September 3, 1843. The rebellion of October, 1862, 
led to the overthrow of King Otto. In accordance with a protocol con- 
cluded by the three "protecting powers," June 5, 1863, Prince William 
of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg was placed on the throne 
under the title of George I. In a treaty of November 14 of the same year, 
(1863) England renounced her supremacy over the Ionian islands, which. 



274 POPULATION. 

were declared an integral part of Greece with the advantage of perpetual 
neutrality; the union with Greece took place May 28, 1864, and the pres- 
ent constitution adopted in 1864. 

The congress of Berlin, at the sitting of July 5, 1878, decided upon a 
"re-adjustment of boundaries, 11 or rather an extension of the frontier in the 
north of Greece, and declared "the Porte is invited by the congress to 
conclude a compact with Greece for the regulation of boundaries. The 
congress is of opinion that the basis of this rectification should be a line 
extending from the river Salambria in Thessaly to the river Kalana in 
Epirus, opposite to Corfu. The Powers offer their services in making the 
agreement, in case any difficulties should arise in the negotiation between 
the Porte and Greece." Although no exact division has been arrived at, 
we may assume that Greece will obtain an accession of territory which 
may be estimated at least at 4,252 English square miles, with about 
300,000 inhabitants, which will bring the population to 1,979,775. 

The Ionian islands had formed a possession of the Republic of Venice, 
from the 14th century. The Peace of Campo Formio brought them under 
the dominion of France; in 1799 they fell into the hands of the Russians 
and Turks. A treaty of March 21, 1800, changed the Ionian islands 
into a "Federal Republic,' 1 (the Republic of the Seven Islands) which was 
to be under Turkish protection. By the Peace of Tilsit, the islands again 
fell into the hands of France, which nominally gave them a special con- 
stitution. The English, however, occupied the most important of the 
islands in 18 10. By a treaty of November 5, 18 15, made by the great 
powers, they were to form an independent state, under British "protec- 
tion," but were treated by the English as a conquered country, and did 
not even enjoy the rights which belong to the inhabitants of English 
colonies. Hence arose a constant desire for union with Greece. 

There were only 67,941 of the inhabitants of Greece at the census of 
1870 who did not speak Greek, viz.: 37,598 Albanians (Arnauts*), 1,217 
Macedo-Wallachians, and 29,126 of other nations. The number of 
strangers residing in Greece in 1870 was 19,958; of whom there were 
50,511 Turks, 2,099 English, 1,539 Italians, 526 Germans, 41 5 French, 141 
Russians, and the remaining few from other countries. 

The orthodox Greek is the prevailing creed; there are only 12,585 
Christians belonging to other creeds; 2,582 Jews (in the Ionian islands), 
and 917 persons of whom no returns are given. The Roman Catholics, 
whose numbers formerly were over-estimated, live in Syra, Athens, and in 

* A mixed race of Albanians and Sclavonians. 



POPULATION. 



275 



the Ionian islands. Protestants are only found here and there. The Mo- 
hammedans are fairly driven out of Greece; a very few only are to be 
met with in Ghalkis. The population divided according to creed was 
thus given in 1870: — 

Orthodox Greeks 1,441,810 

Other Christians 12,585 

Jews 2,582 



Individuals holding other creeds or none 



917 



Total -. 1,457,894 



Towns. 



The most important are — 



Inhabitants. 

Athens 44,510 

Hermopolis 20,996 

Patras 19,641 



Inhabitants. 

Zante 17,516 

Corfu 15,452 

Piraeus 10,963 



The area and population of Greece and of the Ionian islands, which be- 
long to Greece and have an almost exclusively Grecian population, 
are as follows: 

Greece proper. 



NOMAOHIES. 



English 
sqr. miles. 



POPULATION IN 1879. 



Males. 



Females. 



Total. 



Attica and Boetia 

Phthiotis and Phocis . . 
Acarnania and iEtolia. 
Argolis and Corinth . . . 

Achaia and Elis 

Arcadia 

Messenia 

Laconia 

Eubcea 

Cyclades 



Ionian Islands* 

Corfu 

Cephalonia 

Zante 

Land and sea troops 

Sailors who engage in foreign service 

Total 



2,466 
2,062 
3,019 
1,445 
1,913 
2,019 
1,233 
1,679 
1,573 
935 

425 
297 

276 



99,640 
65,381 
71,647 
68,679 
95,908 
78,130 
81,855 
60,842 
49,543 
65,112 

55,126 
39,579 
23,935 
20,523 
5,180 



85,724 
63,059 
66,797 
67,402 
85,724 
70,775 
73,905 
60,274 
45,593 
66,908 

50,983 
40,964 
20,587 



185,364 
128,440 
138,444 
136,081 
181,632 
148,905 
155,760 
121,116 
95,136 
132,020 

106,109 

80,543 

44,522 

3,220 

5,180 



19,342 



881,080 



798,695 



1,679,775 



*The Ionian islands contain 998 English square miles. 



276 POPULATION. 



THE NEW SOVEREIGN STATES. 

By the resolutions of the Berlin congress, a group of sovereign states, 
and semi-self-governing territories have arisen out of lands which were 
before either wholly or partially subject to Turkey. Roumania, Servia, 
and Montenegro, over which the Porte formerly claimed sovereignty, have 
declared themselves independent. Another new creation is the tributary 
principality of Bulgaria. Bosnia and Herzegovina are freed from the 
Turkish sway, and have been placed under the administration of Austro- 
Hungary. South of the Balkans the province of Eastern Roumelia has been 
called into existence, nominally under the rule of the Porte, but actually 
possessing a limited form of self-government. The Island of Candia is 
likewise to obtain a certain form of self-government. Toleration of every 
creed is enforced throughout those states which have become sovereign 
states, and in all of which Jews were formerly precluded from the higher 
rights of citizenship, and were frequently subjected to severe persecutions. 
The tribute money which these provinces were formerly compelled to fur- 
nish, will be now capitalized. Servia and Montenegro are obliged to 
undertake a part of the Turkish state debt, corresponding with the amount 
of territory newly acquired. Whilst these alterations were being made 
with regard to European territories, England assumed to herself the right 
of occupation in Asia, including the actual possession of Cyprus, nomi- 
nally under Turkish rule. 

All these states and territories are really withdrawn from Osman sway. 
They no longer gravitate toward Constantinople, but in various other 
directions. Those states only will be noticed here that have declared 
themselves entirely independent. The tributary state of Bulgaria, and 
the remaining districts mentioned above, still appear, politically, as com- 
ponent parts of the Osman empire, even those which have been transferred 
to England and Austro-Hungary. 



Roumania. 

The new prin^irjality of Roumania is divided into three districts: Tul- 
cha, Kustendj^l ||jistria. The total area of the principality is 49,247 
English squa P^B^ ^ e population 5,376,000. 

The popw 5jLfjR.oumania is very mixed. There are 772,700 



POPULATION. 



277 



foreigners, viz.: Jews, 400,000; Gipsies, 200,000; Slavs, 85,000; Germans, 
39,000; Hungarians, 29,500; Armenians, 8,000; Greeks, 5,000; French, 
2,000; English, 1,000; Italians, 500, and 2,700 of Turks, Poles, Tartars, 
and others. 

The Greek faith predominates in Roumania. There are, however, as 
nearly as can be estimated, 114,200 Catholics, 13,860 Protestants, 8,000 
Armenians, 6,000 Ligowaners (an order of monks similar to the Jesuits), 
400,000 Jews, and 2,000 Mohammedans. 

Of the principal towns Bucharest has a population of 177,646, of whom 
82,632 are males, and 95,014 are females; 132,997 are orthodox Greeks, 
16,990 are Catholics, 5,854 are Protestants, 20,749 are Jews, and 1,056 
are members of other creeds, or having none. 

Jassy, 90,020; Galatz, 80,000; Botochani, 39,941; Ploesti, 33,000; 
Braila, 28,272; Berlad, 26,568; Crajova, 22,764; Ismail, 21,000; Giur- 
gevo, 20,868; Focsani, 20,323; Piatra, 20,000. 



Servia. 



The result of the Russo-Turkish war was to increase the territory of 
the principality by the addition of the arrondissements of Nish, Pirot, 
Vranja, and Toplitza, and some other strips of territory, which had been 
joined to the arrondissements of Alexinatz and Podringe. A census of 
these new additions to the state give the following figures: 



Nish . . 
Vranja 
Pirot . . 



Inhabit- 
ants. 


Houses. 


115,906 

64,883 
74,845 


10,745 
10,136 
10,745 



Toplitza 

Additions to Alexinatz 
Podringe 



Inhabit- 
ants. 



41,167 

2,963 

494 



Houses. 



5,821 
413 
115 



The population, therefore, of the additional territory is 300,258; 153,- 
798 being males, and 146,460 females, and the number of houses 44,791, 
and the additional area 6,378 English square miles. 

The area and population of the whole principality is as follows: 19,135 
English square miles, and the population, in 1879, was 1,860,824. 

Of the inhabitants there are : — 



Servians 1,651,268 I Gipsies 

Roumanians 180,000 | Other Nationa, 




24,556 
5,000 



278 POPULATION. 



Montenegro. 

It is very difficult to give the exact area and population of Montenegro, 
as the Porte has not fulfilled its part in the re-adjustment of the frontier, as 
demanded by the Berlin treaty. The area has hitherto been about 1,700 
English square miles, and the population between 180,000 and 200,000. 
In a letter from the prince to the czar, written in 1877, the population is 
given as 193,329. The newly acquired territory is also estimated at 1,700 
square miles, and the population at 50,000; so that the area of the whole 
state is about 3,400 square miles, and the population 243,329. With the 
exception of from 24,000 to 26,000 Roman Catholics, and a few Moham- 
medans, all the population are orthodox Greeks. 

Antivari, with its sea coast, is incorporated with Montenegro, but it 
is not permitted to maintain any war marine, nor to own any ships of war. 
The marine and sanitary police arrangements are here exercised by 
Austro-Hungary. No fortresses are allowed to be erected between the 
Lake of Scutari and the sea. 

Notwithstanding the many difficulties with which Montenegro finds 
herself surrounded, she is making great progress in social and intellectual 
development. 

In the spring of 1879 the first bookseller's shop and the first reading 
club were opened in Cettinje, and other signs are not wanting to indicate 
an advancement toward the rank of a constitutional kingdom. Since 
that time there has been marked progress in the means of the distribu- 
tion of general intelligence, in books, periodicals, etc. Education is by 
no means general, but the progress in this direction is encouraging. 
With this advancement there is a corresponding growth in the ideas of 
civil and political rights, and a general improvement in law .and order. 



TURKISH EMPIRE. 

As reliable statistical information is almost entirely wanting, we are 
mostly dependent on m<o're or less uncertain estimates even for the part 
which lies in Europe., / We must build our figures on the basis of the con- 
dition of things pmj/ious to the last war. Jakschitsch calculates the area 
of European Turkey at 136,620 English square miles, and the population 



POPULATION. 



279 



at 8,477,214, of whom 4,792,443 are Christians, 3,609,606 are Moham- 
medans, and 75,165 are Jews. This estimate of the population, in which 
the city of Constantinople appears with only 327,750, is undoubtedly too 
low. Kutschera gives in Behni and Wagner a survey of the male popu- 
lation according to the official publications for 1873—74, which we arrange 
as in the following table, with the addition of Jakschitsch's estimate of the 
area (division into vilayets, sub-divisions into sanjaks, the latter following 
in parentheses). 



Governments or 
Vilayets. 



Jedirne 

Tuna 

Selanik 

Ianioa 

Bitolia 

Scutari 

Bosna 

Herzegovina 



Provinces or Sanjaks. 



Adrianople (Adrianople Philippo- ) 
poli, Slivno, Kodosto, Gallipoli) ) 

Donau (Bustschuk, Tultcha, Var- 
na, Tirnova, Sofia, Widdin, Nish 

Salonica (Salonica, Seres, Drama) 

Janina (Janina, Prevesa, Argyro- 
kastro, Berat, Tirchala) 

Monastir (Goritche, Uskup, Pres- 
rend, Dibre) 

Scutari 

Bosnia (Serai ^vornik, Travnik 
Novi-Bazar, Banaluca, Behacz) 

(Herzegovina again united) 



Total. 



English 
sq. miles. 



25,515 

38,781 
14,925 

13,862 



20,156 
23,388 



MALE POPULATION. 



Christians. 



136,627 



401,148 

715,938 
124,157 

467,601 

305,808 
112,000 

264,250 
42,457 



2,433,356 



medans. 



235,587 

455,768 
124,828 

250,749 

397,993 

88,000 

270,050 
39,472 



1,862,447 



Total. 



636,735 

1,171,706 
244,985 

718,350 

703,798 
200,000 

534,000 
81,929 



4,291,503 



If we assume the female population to be only equal to that of the 
male, we have 8,591,606 inhabitants. The Sainameh (Ottoman imperial 
year book) for the year 1294 of the Hegira (1877 and 1878) publishes 
official statistics of the empire, from which Ubicini gave a French extract. 
The empire was divided, in 1870, into twenty-nine "vilayets," or govern- 
ments, and these again into sanjaks, or provinces ; a further sub-division was 
into cazas, or circles. Turkey in Europe contained eleven vilayets, forty- 
four sanjaks, 276 cazas. Turkey in Asia and Tripoli numbers eighteen 
vilayets, seventy-nine sanjaks, and seventy-two cazas, and this exclusive 
of Constantinople and the island of Samos. The total population of the 
twenty-nine vilayets is reckoned at 13,679,648 males, which allows us to 
assume a total of 27,359,296 individuals, of which Samos contains 34,141 
inhabitants. Constantinople and its suburbs contain 65,262 houses, which, 
reckoning eight inhabitants to a house, allows us to estimate the popula- 
tion at 522,096. To these must be added the people in the Khans and 



280 



POPULATION. 



magazines, the monks of different creeds, softas, etc., from 100,000 to 
120,000 and, lastly, 80,000 of fluctuating population, making a total of 
722,000 at Constantinople. 

Roumelia. 



Vilayets. 



Edirneh (Adrian ople) 

Tuna (Donau) 

Sofia 

Bosnia 

Ersek (Herzegovina) 
Selanik (Salonica) . . . 





cj 






N 


a 




O 


Qj'£ 


. 


O 


"33 


M 


CO 

at 


S3 
" ft 


"a 







ft 








ai 


U 




5 


40 


652,676 


5 


32 


907,774 


2 


14 


350,180 


6 


43 


1,023,568 


2 


13 


120,075 


3 


19 


393,029 



Vilayets. 



Monastir 

Yania (Janina) 

Ushkudra (Scodra). 
Jezair (Archipelago) 
Kryt (Crete) 



03->3 

"3 ci 



539,054 
187,513 
135,000 
178,582 
232,831 



Anatolia. 



Kudavendikiar (Brussa, etc.) 

Aidin (Smyrna, etc.) 

Angora 

Konia 

Kastamuni 

Sivas 

Trapezun (Trapezunt) 

Erzeronm 

Van 



4 


26 


267,985 


4 


24 


772,022 


4 


22 


301,878 


5 


25 


410,393 


4 


21 


422,900 


3 


22 


406,388 


4 


25 


469,070 


6 


33 


782,833 


1 


14 


233,629 



Diarbekr 

Cham (Syria) 

Adana 

Haleb (Aleppo) 

Bagdad . . .' 

Basra 

Yemen 

Hejaz (Mecca and Medina) 
Tharabuluci (Tripoli) 



5 


24 


9 


43 


4 


16 


4 


36 


7 


37 


3 


13 


4 


23 


2 


7 


5 


26 



332,300 
562,000 
204,372 
296,760 

1,604,476 
395,524 
266,000 
240,000 

1,010,000 



Add to these 1,400,000 nomads, 560,000 men in the army and police, 
and 300,000 foreigners, we have a total of 30,175,533. 

In consequence of the decisions of the congress of Berlin, which sanc- 
tioned, in addition to the loss of territory in Europe, the cession of about 
12,757 English square miles in Asia (the districts of Ardhan, Kars, and 
Batoum), with a population of about 800,000 souls, to Russia, and a small 
concession to Persia (the town and district of Khotur), the possessions 
remaining to the Osman Empire are as follows: 

The direct possessions in Europe and Asia. 





English 
square miles. 


Population. 




69,001 
712,908 


5,500,000 
16,000,000 






Total 


781,909 


21,500,000 








The absence of color indicates a population 
of less than 2 to a square mite'. 



Copyrighted 788Sby Yarjgij & West. 




FOREIGN POPULATION 

IN PROPOHTION 

TO THE AGGREGATE POPULATION 

of the UNITED STATES. 
{Compiled from the Last Census,) 



POPULATION. 



281 



The indirect possessions in Europe are: 



Bulgaria 

East Roumelia 

Bosnia, Herzegovina 
Crete 

Total 



English 
square miles. 



24,451 

13,385 

20,180 

3,401 



61,417 



Population. 



1,700,000 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 

200,000 



3,900,000 



In Asia. 



Cyprus . . 
Samos. . . 

Total 




236,000 



In Africa. 



Egypt 

Nubia, Soudan, Darfur 

Tripoli, with Fezan 

Tunis 

Total 



English 
square miles. 



180,727 

744,176 

340,192 

46,776 



1,311,871 



Population. 



5,200,000 

10,000,000 

1,200,000 

1,800,000 



18,200,000 



This gives a total of more than 2,000,000 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of nearly 44,000,000. 

Where a population is so numerous as in Turkey, it would be difficult, 
even in a highly civilized country, to distinguish between the various 
nationalities and creeds, so as to give accurate statistics of one or the other. 
According to a Greek estimate, there were in European-Turkey, not 
including the protected states previous to the war, 4,200,000 Moslems, 
3,550,000 Heleno-Pelasgians, 250,000 Roumanians, 2,676,000 Slavs, 150,- 
000 of various other nationalities, making a total of 11,120,000. The 
Turks are much more numerous in the Slavonic provinces than in the 
Greek provinces. In Epirus and Thessaly the proportion of Turks to 
Greeks is as one to three. On the islands there are 150,000 Turks to 
700,000 Greeks. On the other hand, in Bosnia, Bulgaria, and Herzegovina 
the Mohammedan population is almost as numerous as the Slavonic. In 
1876 a statement appeared in London which gave the number of Christ- 
ians as 6,225,000, of whom 5,600,000 were Greek Catholics, 280,000 



282 POPULATION. 

Roman Catholics, 300,000 Gregorian Armenians, 45,000 Protestants; then 
3,000,000 Mohammedans, 75,000 Jews, and 150,000 Gipsies. 

A statement in the North German Journal concerning Macedonia T 
gave the number of Turks, or, rather, Mohammedans, living there, as 
2,022,081, the Greeks as 1,076,676, and Bulgarians 35401,042. In Thrace 
there were 1,149,626 Mohammedans, 253,302 Greeks, 1,697,763 Bulga- 
rians. In Epirus 415,965 Greeks, 318,955 Mohammedans, 2,300 Jews. 
In Thessaly 341,850 Greeks, including many Albanians and Kutz-Vlacks ;. 
38,730 Mohammedans, and 3,650 Jews. 

In Asiatic-Turkey the statistics are somewhat fuller and more reliable. 

There is a great variety in the inhabitants of Asia Minor in respect to 
race and religion. 

Thus we find among the professed Moslems the following distinct 
races, or off-shoots of races: Osmanli Turks, Arabs, Turcomans, Kurds, 
Circassians, and Tartars. It is impossible to make an absolutely reliable 
estimate of the whole number of Moslems in Asiatic-Turkey ; including- 
Syria, the best authorities place the number at about 12,000,000. The 
majority of this Moslem population exhibit little or no desire for intel- 
lectual improvement ; they are absorbed in the struggle for existence 
There are also 1,000,000 Greeks, 2,000,000 Armenians, 1,000,000 Kurds, 
and 1,000,000 Arabs. 

Of individual provinces, there are dwelling in Erzeroum 272,000 
Turks, 357,000 Kurds, 411,000 Christians, 1,200 Jews, 2,000 Yezides, 
158,000 Persians, 29,000 Turkomans. Among the 411,000 Christians are 
287,000 Armenians, 111,000 Nestorians, 8,000 Roman Catholics, 4,000 
Greeks, and 1,300 Protestants. 

Syria. — Population, 2,250,000, of whom 1,400,000 are Mohammedans, 
100 Ansariyeh, 260,000 Maronites, 180,000 Oriental Greeks, 50,000 Cath- 
olic Greeks, 3,000 Roman Catholics, 40,000 Jews, 30,000 Gipsies, 7,000 
Armenians, 15,000 Jacobites, 5,000 Protestants, 90,000 Druses, 70,000 
Arabs and Bedouins. 

Turkish Arabia. — Population, 5,502,150, of whom 3,250,000 are 
in Hejaz, and 2,252,150 are in Yemen. 

Principal Towns. 



In Europe. Population. 

Constantinople* . . ,, 855,000 

Salonica 60,000 to 80,000 

Adrianople 50,000 to 70,000 



In Asia, Population. 

Smyrna 155,000 

Damascus 120,000 

Aleppo 70,000 to 100,00& 



* With the floating population, 1,075,000. 



POPULATION 



283 



MEXICO. 

The republic of Mexico has an area of about 743,948 square miles and 
contains, according to a calculation made a few years since, a population 
of 9,389,461. The divisions made under the empire are now set aside 
and there are now twenty-seven confederated states and these with the 
federal district of Mexico and the territory of Lower California, form the 
Mexican Republic. The states, with their area and population, are as 
follows : 



States. 



1 Sonora 

2 Chihuahua . 

3 Coahuila 

4 Nuevo-Leon 



Northern States 



5 Tamaulipas. 

6 Vera Cruz . . 

7 Tabasco 

8 Campeche . . 

9 Yucatan 



The Gulf States. 



10 Sinaloa . . . 

11 Jalisco 

12 Colima 

13 Michoacan 

14 Guerrero . . 

15 Oaxaca .... 

16 Chiapas . . . 



Pacific States . 



17 Durango 

18 Zacatecas 

19 Aguascalientes . . 

20 San Luis Potosi 

21 Guanajuato 

22 Queretaro 

23 Hidalgo 

24 Mexico 

25 Morelos 

26 Puebla 

27 Tlaxcala 



Central States . . 
Federal District 



Lower California Territory 
Total 



Sqr. miles. 



79,021 
83,746 
50,890 
23,635 



237,292 



30,225 
26,232 
11,851 
25,832 
29,567 



123,707 



36,198 
39,168 
3,743 
25,689 
24,550 
33,591 
16,048 



Population. 



110,809 
180,758 
104,131 

189,722 



585,420 



178,987 



42,510 

22,998 

2,895 

27,500 

11,411 

3,207 

8,163 

7,838 

1,776 

12,021 

1,620 



141,939 
461 



140,000 

504,950 

83,707 

86,170 

282,934 



1,097,761 



189,348 
953,274 
65,828 
661,947 
301,242 
718,194 
208,215 



3,098 047 



190,816 
413,603 
89,715 
525,110 
768,208 
173,576 
427,340 
683,323 
154,519 
697,788 
133,498 



61,562 



743,948 



4,257,526 
327,512 



23,195 



9,389,461 



Chief towns. 



Ures 

Chihuahua 
Saltillo .... 
Monterey . . 



Ciudad Victoria 

Vera Cruz 

San Juan Baptista. 

Campeche 

Merida 



Culiacan 

Guadalajara . . . 

Colima 

Morelia 

Tixtla 

Oaxaca 

San Christobal . 



Durango 

Zacatecas 

Aguascalientes . 
San Luis Potosi . 

Guanajuato 

Queretaro 

Pachuca 

Toluca 

Cuernavaca 

Puebla 

Tlaxcala 



Mexico , 



Inhabitants. 



8,000 
12,000 

8,000 
14,000 



6,000 
10,000 

8,000 
14,000 
30,000 



10,000 
68,000 
23,599 
25,000 
4,000 
26,366 
10,500 



12,000 
16,000 
31,842 
34,000 
56,012 
27,570 

8,410 
12,000 
12,000 
65,000 

4,000 

230,000 



284 



POPULATION. 



The inhabitants are either of European origin (white), or colored. 
The first are divided into real Europeans, about 40,000; Creoles, about 
300,000, and Chapetones, of mixed European and Indian blood, about 
800,000. Wappaus gives the numbers thus: — 

There are about 1,004,000 whites, 1,190,000 mixed, 4,800,000 Indians, 
6,000 negroes. All religions are tolerated but nearly all are Roman 
Catholics. 

STATES OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

These consist of five separate republics, as follows: 



States. 


Square miles. 


Population. 


Chief Towns. 


Inhabitants. 


Guatemala 


40,397 
7,441 
46,776 
58,470 
21,262 


1,190,754 
600,000 
300,000 
250,000 
120,000 


Guatemala 

San Salvador 


30,000 to 45,000 


San Salvador 


20,000 to 40,000 




Comayagua . 


8,000 to 18,000 


^Nicaragua 


Leon 


20,000 to 30,000 




San Jose 


- 18,000 to 25,000 






Total 


174,346 


2,460,754 









Whites about 150,000; a number of mixed races and from 1,000,000 
to 1,500,000 Indians. The latter are divided into Ladinos or Quiche 
(that is to say dependent converted Catholics), and Bravos or Barbaros, 
independent and free. 



UNITED STATES OF COLOMBIA. 

This is a federal republic, and was formerly called New Granada. It 
contains an area of about 318,930 square miles. The government esti- 
mates the area at 513,775 English square miles; but states at the same 
time that only 114,106 are inhabited. The population in 1870 was esti- 
mated at 2,951,984. The nine Confederate States and their population are: 



Panama 

Bolivar 

Magdalena 

Santander 

Antioquia 

Boyaca 

Cundinamana 

Cauca 

Tolima , 



In addition six territories 



224,032 
241,704 
88,928 
433,178 
365,974 
498,541 
433,658 
435,078 
230,891 

^951,984 
53,466 



Total 2,985,450 



POPULATION. 



285- 



Chief towns are Bogota with between 40,000 and 50,000 inhabitants; 
Medelin 30,000, and Panama with 18,000. About one-half of the whole 
population are whites and half-castes; 900,000 Africans; 126,000 inde- 
pendent Indians; and 466 half-caste Indians and Negroes. 

VENEZUELA. 



This republic is divided into twenty separate states, the area of which 
embraces about 212,620 English square miles, and is divided into three 
regions, viz. : the Tierra Caliente or hot region, which extends to about 
700 metres above the sea, the average temperature is 25 C; the Tierra 
Templada, or temperate region, extends to 2,000 metres above the sea, 
of which the mean temperature is 18 ; and the Tierra Fria, or cold region: 
snow line, 4,100 to 4,500. The population, 1,784,194, among whom, at 
the former census, were 298,000 whites; 500,000 mixed races, of whom 
the largest numbers are Mulattoes; about 180,000 Creoles, 48,000 who 
were formerly slaves (slavery has been abolished here since 1854) 
160,000 converted Indians, 14,000 subject Indians, and 52,000 independ- 
ent Indians. 

The principal towns are: 



Towns. 



Caracas 

Valencia 

Barquisimeto 

Maracaibo 

Maturin 

San Carlos . . 



Inhabit- 
ants. 



48,897 
28,594 
25,664 
21,954 
12.944 
10,420 



Towns. 



Merida 

Cumana 

Ciudad Bolivar 

Coro 

Barcelona 

La Guayra 



Inhabit- 
ants. 



9,727 
9,427 
8,486 
8,172. 
7,674 
6,793 



ECUADOR. 

The extent of area (which includes Quito, Guayaquil, and Assuy), is 
about 244,513 English square miles, and contained a population (accord- 
ing to the Minister, Leon, in 1875) of 866,037, not including about 200,000 
wild Indians. The town of Quito, which is the capital, contains between 
70,000 and 80,000 inhabitants. The principal port is that of Guayaquil. 

PERU. 

The area embraces about 510,288 English square miles; the popula- 
tion in 1876 was 2,699,945, °f whom 1,365,895 were males and 1,334,050 
were females. The number of wild Indians (not included in the figures- 



286 



POPULATION, 



above) is estimated at 350,000 The capital of the republic is Lima, 
which contains 101,488 inhabitants; and Callao, the next largest town 
35,520. There were, it is said, between 15,000 and 20,000 Chinese in 
these two cities, and about 60,000 in the whole of Peru, but their number 
is now reduced to about 35,000. 

There are, of Catholics, 2,644,055; Protestants, 5,087; Jews, 498; 
members of other creeds, 27,073; creed not stated, 23,393. 

There are 18,082 Europeans, of whom 1,672 are Germans, 1,699 Spanish, 
2,647 French, 6,990 Italians, 373 Portuguese, 160 Swedes, and 91 Swiss. 

There are 50,032 Asiatics, 20 Africans, 2,625,758 Americans, 30 
Australians, and 5,184 nationality not known. 

BOLIVIA. 



The area extends over 500,740 English square miles. The population 
was estimated in 1877 at 2,325,000; about one-fourth are Indians, many 
of whom have become Roman Catholics, though the larger portion 
adhere to the worship of their gods. The language spoken in Bolivia is 
Spanish. The principal towns are: — 



Towns. 



La Paz 

Cockabamba, 
Sucre 



Inhabit- 
ants. 



76,372 
40,678 
23,976 



Towns. 



Potosi 

Santa Cruz . 



Inhabit- 
ants. 



22,850 
9,780 



CHILI. 

The area is estimated (the boundaries are very indefinite) at about 
127,472 English square miles, and the population at 2,136,724. 

Among the population are 23,579 foreigners, including 4,678 Germans, 
4,267 English, 3,314 French, 1,983 Italians, 1,223 Spaniards, 931 North 
Americans, 7,183 Argentines. There are about 250,000 Negroes, and 
many baptized and unbaptized Indians. The principal towns and inhab- 
itants are: 



Principal Towns. 



Santiago 

Including suburbs, 

Valparaiso 

Chilian 



Inhabit- 
ants. 



129,807 

150,367 

97,737 

19,044 



Principal, Towns. 



Concepcion 

Talca 

Serena 



Inhabit- 
ants. 



18,277 
17,496 
12,293 



POPULATION. 287 

ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION. 

This republic, one of the few districts in South America in which 
settled conditions have begun to be established, contains fourteen states 
(incorrectly called provinces, the most important of which is Buenos Ayres), 
three territories, and Patagonia, which last is inhabited only by independ- 
ent Indians. Its area, including Patagonia, is 1,619,470 English square 
miles, and its population 1,877,490 (of whom 495,107 dwell in Buenos 
Ayres), including 93,137 Indians. 

At the faking of the census in 1869 there were found to be 211,993 
foreigners, viz.: 71,442 Italians, 34,080 Spaniards, 32,383 French, 1,966 
Portuguese, 10,709 English, 5,860 Swiss, 4,997 Germans, 15,206 Oriental- 
ists, 10,911 Chilians, 6,200 Bolivians, 6,065 Brazilians, 1,095 North 
Americans, and 7,073 whose nationality is not stated. The principal 
towns are: 

Inhabitants, 1869. 

Buenos Ayres • 177,787 

Cordova | 28,523 

Eosario 23,163 

Tucuman 17,438 

Salta 11,716 

Corrient.es 11,218 

Santa Fe 10,670 

Parana 10,098 

Of the population in 1869, 897,780 were males and 845,572 were 
females. 

Of the whole population 360,683 could read, and 312,01 1 of this number 
could also write. 

729,287 were under the age of fourteen, and of this number 153,882 
were illegitimate. 

The official language is Spanish, but the natives speak three different 
languages. The population is almost entirely Roman Catholic. Every 
form of religion is tolerated, and there are two Protestant colonist com- 
munities. 

PARAGUAY. 

Area, about 56,769 English square miles. At the census taken in 
1876 there were 293,844 inhabitants. In 1873 the population was 221,079, 
of whom 86,079 were children, 106,254 were women, and only 28,746 
males over fifteen years of age ; so destructive to life had been the war 
from 1865 to 1870 with Brazil and the neighboring countries. In 1857 
the population had numbered 1,337,431. 



288 



POPULATION. 



The number of foreigners dwelling in Paraguay in 1876, after the- 
departure of the foreign troops, was as follows: 1,500 Brazilians, 2,500 
Italians, 600 Portuguese, 400 Argentines, 250 Spaniards, 150 Austrians, 
120 French, 90 Germans, 80 English, 80 Uruguayans, and 230 of other 
nationalities. 

URUGUAY. 

The Republica Oriental del Uruguay, also called Montevideo from its 
capital, contains about 72,151 English square miles within its area, and 
has a population of 440,000 individuals, 91,167 of whom dwell in the cap- 
ital, Montevideo. 

BRAZIL. 

In extent and elements of strength, Brazil occupies the first place 
among the states of South America. The area is estimated at 3,218,166 
English square miles, and the population at 11,108,291, including 1,000,- 
000 wild Indians. The empire is divided into twenty-one provinces, viz.: 



Provinces. 



1 Amazonas 

2 Para 

3 Maranhao 

4 Piaubi 

5 Ceara 

6 Eio Grande do Norte 

7 Parhiba 

8 Pernambuco 

9 Alagoas '. 

10 Sergipe 

11 Babia 

12 Espirito Santo 

13 Rio de Janeiro 

14 Santa Catbarina 

15 Rio Grande do Sul 

16 Minas Geraes 

17 Matto Grosso 

18 Goyaz 

19 San Paulo 

20 Parana 

21 Municipality neutral 

Total 

Add wild Indians 

Communes not enumerated 

Grand total 



Area in Eng- 
lish square 
miles. 



732,249 

443,788 

177,515 

116,493 

40,240 

22,289 

28,846 

49,560 

22,577 

15,088 

164,580 

17,709 

26,627 

28,624 

91,329 

221,894 

532,345 

288,462 

112,078 

85,429 

536 



3,218,166 



Free. 



56,631 
247,779 
284,101 
178,427 
689,773 
220,959 
354,700 
732,511 
312,268 
153,620 
211,792 

59,478 

490,087 

144,818 

367,022 

1,669,276 

53,750 
149,743 
680,742 
116,162 
226,033 



8,419,672 



POPULATION IN 1876. 



Slaves. 



979 
27,458 
74,939 
23,795 
31,913 
13,020 
21,526 
89,028 
35,741 
22,623 

167,824 
22,659 

292,637 
14,984 
67,791 

370,459 

6,667 

10,652 

156,612 
10,560 
48,939 



1,510,806 



Total. 



57,610 
275,237 
359,040 
202,222' 
721,686 
233,979 
376,226 
841,539 
348,009 
176,243 
1,379,616 

82,137 

782,724 

159,802, 

434,813 

2,039,735 

60,417 
160,395 
837,354 
126,722 
274,972 



9,930,478 

1,000,000 

177,813 



11,108,291. 



POPULATION. 

Population according to sex — provinces only. 



289 





Sex. 


Free. 


Slaves in 1870. 




4,318,699 
4,100,973 


805,170 




705,636 








Total 


8,419,672 


1,510,806 







The predominant creed is Roman Catholic, to which all the slaves 
belong. There are only 27,766 not Catholics. 

There are 8,176,199 free Brazilians, and 243,481 foreigners, among 
whom are 221,246 Portuguese, 45,829 Germans, 44,580 Africans, 6,108 
French. Of the slaves, 138,570 were born in Africa. Of the 9,930,478 
inhabitants, 3,787,289 belong to the Caucasian race, 386,955 to the Amer- 
ican race, 3,801,782 are mulattoes and negroes. 



Principal towns in 1872. 

Inhabitants. 



Eio de Janeiro 228,743 

Kio de Janeiro (with suburbs) 274,972 

Bahia (S. Salvador) 128,929 

Itecife (Pernambuco) 116,671 

Belem 35,000 



Maranhao . . . 
San Paulo . . . 

Para 

Porto Alegre . 
San Pedro. . . 



Inhabitants. 
31,602 
25,000 
25,000 
25,000 
18,000 



JAPAN. 

In an incredibly short time, viz.: from 1872, when the first census was 
taken, the Japanese government have succeeded in establishing a regular 
system of statistics. 

In 1875 the southern part of the island of Saghalien was given over to 
Russia, but the area of Japan was increased in 1876 by the possession of 
the " Bonin Islands." 

In 1877 the Japanese minister published in the journal Logoshaban, the 
area of Japan in the following manner: 



Principal Islands. 


English 
square miles. 


Population 
in 1874. 


Nipkon 


86,746 

14,951 

7,033 

1,001 

35,999 

803 

32 


25,478,834 

4,986,613 

2,434,528 

362,177 

144,069 

167,073 

75 


Kiou Siou 


Mikodu 




Yeso and Kourile 


Loo-choo 


Bonin Islands 






Total 


146,565 


33,623,279 





290 POPULATION. 

The census of 1876 gave the population of the whole kingdom as 
34,338,504, of whom 16,918,619 were females, and the classification was 
as follows: 

Inhabitants. 

Imperial family 37 

Upper nobility 2,965 

Lower nobility 1,894,484 

Commoners 32,372,759 

Priests of Sinto 116 

Priests of Buddha 66,430 

Buddhist nuns 1,713 

The census of 1878 gave the population of Yeddo or Tokio alone as 
1,036,771. 

The number of foreigners living in Japan in 1879 was 5,503, of whom 



Chinese 3,028 

English 1,106 

Americans 479 



Germans 300 

French 230 

Russians 209 



the remaining 151 being Dutch, Italians, Austrians, Danes and Swiss. 

The number of English firms was 155 in 1874, but fell to ninety-two 
in 1878. Those of other countries have fallen from 215 to 151. The 
English element is very powerful in Japan, and the English language is 
used in speaking and negotiating with foreigners. Of the 5,503 foreign- 
ers, 500 are teachers, missionaries and high-classed mechanics. 

Inhabitants. 

Tokio (formerly Yeddo), the chief town of the East 1,036,771 

Kioto (Miako), chief town of the West 238,663 

Koumamotou 300,000 

Osaka 281,119 

Kogosima 200,000 

Yokohama 61,553 

Kanagawa 600,000 

Nagasaki 47,412 

In 1878 the number of foreigners residing in Yokohama was 3,220, 
viz.: 1,850 Chinese, 515 English, 300 Americans, 120 French, 175 Ger- 
mans, 59 Dutch, 73 Portuguese, 21 Russians, 31 Spaniards, 22 Swiss, 15 
Italians, 16 Swedes and Norwegians, 7 Danes, 5 Austrians, 5 Belgians, 6 
Hawaiians. 



POPULATION. 



291 



CHINA. 

The area of China proper is estimated at 1,556,277 English square 
miles, and the dependent states at 2,418,715. The last have but a scanty 
population, while the former is more densely populated than any country 
in the world, and nearly double the population of the states of Europe 
together. 

According to Behm and Wagner, the area and population are as 
follows : 



Name of Place. 



Area in Eng- 
lish square 
miles. 


Population. 


57,265 


36,879,838 


53,762 


29,529,877 


65,949 


17,056,925 


66,913 


29,069,771 


40,138 


39,646,924 


53,981 


36,596,988 


68,875 


26,513,889 


45,747 


22,799,556 


35,659 


8,100,000 


69,459 


28,584,564 


83,204 


20,048,969 


81,192 


10,309,769 


259,520 


19,512,716 


184,997 


35,000,000 


90,215 


20,152,603 


81,207 


8,121,327 


122,524 


5,823,670 


66,738 


5,679,128 


13,971 


2,500,000 


14,957 


3,020,000 


1,556,277 


401,946,514 


366,700 


12,000,000 


1,303,621 


2,000,000 


651,528 


1,687,898 


91 r 408 


236,784 


5,358 


Uninhabited 


3,974,892 


420,871,196 



Pe-Chih Li 

Chantung 

Shansi 

Honan 

Kiang-tsu 

Nganhoei 

Kiangsi 

Fohkien 

Tchkiang 

Houpe 

Hoonan 

Shensi 

Kansuh 

Setcbuen 

Quangtong 

Kwangse 

Yunnan 

Kweichow 

Island of Hainan 

Island of Formosa 

Total of China Proper 

DEPENDENCIES. 

Mantchuria 

Mongolia 

Thibet 

Corea 

Neutral land between Corea and Lia-tong 

Grand total 



292 



POPULATION. 



The foreign population of China. 

A census of the foreign residents, taken in 1879, gives the following 
particulars: — 



Nationality. 


Firms. 


Persons. 


English 


220 
35 
49 
9 
1 
2 
1 
1 

17 
1 


1,953 
420 






384 




224 


Dutch 


24 




69 




35 




163 




55 


Austnans 


38 




10 






17 


Japanese 


9 
6 


81 




341 






Total 


351 


3,814 





The population of the Treaty Ports is estimated at 4,990,000. 

Principal towns. 



Inhabitants. 

Pekin 1,648,814 

Canton 1,500,000 

Tientsin 930,000 

Hankow 700,000 



Futchen 



600,000 Amoi 



Shanghai . 
Takao and Taiwan 

Chinkiang 

Ningpo 



Inhabitants. 
278,000 
335,000 
140,000 
120,000 
88,000 



POLITICS. 

The political history of the United States begins in England, since 
the country, prior to the revolution of 1775, was nothing more than a 
colony of Englishmen, holding to and reflecting, substantially, the same 
political sentiments which prevailed in the mother country. 

The Magna Charta, wrested by the barons from the unwilling King 
John, with the petition of rights and the bill of rights, forced from Charles 
I., are justly considered the bulwarks of English liberty; these have con- 
tributed largely to shaping the destiny of America. The principles of the 
freedom of conscience, and the right and power of self-government, were 
questions which entered into the politics of England from the time of 
Magna Charta onward. In 1648 these principles culminated in the forma- 
tion of two antagonistic political parties, the Whigs and the Tories. The 
Whigs were advocates of liberty of conscience, the right of the people to 
local self-government, and for the Protestant succession. The Tories 
were, according to Dr. Johnson, those who "adhered to the ancient con- 
stitution of the state, and the Apostolical hierarchy of the church of 
England." This original separation of partisan politics in England has 
continued to the present time, with such modifications as changing times 
have necessitated. The Tories were the crown party, the Whigs were 
the parliamentary; the Tories favored kingly prerogative, the Whigs 
were for parliamentary independence; the Tories were for the monarchy 
with a strong central government ; the Whigs were for the monarchy with 
local self-government. 

During the French and Indian wars in America, the Tory party of 
England were opposed to the policy of driving the French entirely out of 
the country, on the ground that a French province, contiguous to the 
American colonies, would be such a continual menace as to put these 
colonies under obligations and of dependence on the mother country. 
The Whigs, on the other hand, favored a vigorous prosecution of the war 
and the complete expulsion of the French from American soil. The 
Whig policy triumphed, the French were driven from America in 1760, 
and Canada was ceded to British America by the treaty of Paris in 1763. 

In the next year, 1 764, to disprove the allegations and quiet the fears 

(293) 



294 POLITICS. 

of the Tories, and at the same time to maintain its authority in the prov- 
inces, the parliament passed the "Declaratory Act,' 1 which was a resolu- 
tion that parliament had the right and power to tax the colonies at will. 
This may be placed as the opening wedge of American independence. A 
remonstrance, feeble, yet firm, was passed against the principle of this 
act by the Virginia House of Burgesses. In the beginning of the year 
1675, the parliament passed a specific act under the general provisions of 
the Declaratory Act. This was the famous "Stamp Act," by which all 
legal papers executed in America were to be null and void unless they 
were upon a certain kind of paper bearing a stamp, the stamp costing 
from three pence to four pounds, according to the value of the transaction 
recorded. The Stamp Act was to take effect November 1, 1765. It 
aroused great indignation in the colonies, and gave a significance to the 
terms "Tory" and "Whig" which had not been attached to them before. 
The great mass of the colonists became Whigs of the extremest kind, 
while the governors and their subordinates, with a few of the old school 
of colonists, were Tories. 

The indignation and the protestations of the colonists caused the 
revocation of the Stamp Act soon afterward, but the attitude of parlia- 
ment toward the colonies remained the same. It was manifested by 
frequent evidences of imperial dictation, which tended to fan the already 
glowing spirit of liberty among the colonists, and to unify and consolidate 
the Whig party in America. 

The first movement looking toward American independence, was 
made when, on the invitation of Massachusetts, representatives from all 
the colonies met at Philadelphia, September 5, 1774, to consider the 
situation. This is called the "First Continental Congress." Two 
colonial congresses had previously met — one at Albany, in 1754, and one 
at New York, in 1765. The continental congress sat with closed doors 
until October 14. It adopted a declaration and resolutions, of little less 
importance than the Declaration of Independence, made two years later. 
By these acts the colonies bound themselves together by a non-importa- 
tion, non-exportation, non-consumption agreement, practically cutting 
themselves off from commercial relations with England. In addition to 
this colonial "Bill of Rights," the congress drafted a petition to the king 
setting forth their grievances and making an exhibit of their rights. 

The meeting of parliament followed soon after this. Such a spirit of 
hostility was manifested, and such an attitude toward the colonies was 
maintained, that all reasonable hope of reconciliation or amicable adjust- 



POLITICS. 295 

ment was taken away. The colonists began the collection and manufact- 
ure of arms and munitions in case of emergency. An attempt to take 
and destroy a magazine of these at Lexington, in Massachusetts, in April, 
1775, by a detachment of British troops, brought on an engagement with 
the local militia, in which blood was shed on both sides. This was the 
beginning of the war for independence. 

The principles of the Continental Congress of 1774 were matured by 
another, which met in Philadelphia in 1776, and, on the 4th day of July of 
that year, a Declaration of Independence was formally made. On July 9th 
" Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union" were signed. The 
Revolutionary War followed. It was conducted under the immediate 
direction of the Continental Congress and by the terms of the Articles of 
Confederation. 

During the continuance of this war no plan for the closer union of the 
states was considered. After independence was attained and acknowl- 
edged, diplomatic negotiations were opened with England for the settle- 
ment of all the complications of the war, and the full recognition of 
national standing. These negotiations were concluded by a treaty 
signed at Paris, September 3, 1783. This treaty act completed the 
separation of the United States from England. It also completely 
severed all relations between the Whigs and Tories of England and 
their namesakes in America. From this time forward, the politics of 
America were distinctively American. 

In the preparatory measures which looked to the transition of the 
confederated colonies into a nation, two parties were developed. The 
dread of a centralized power was oyer many; cut loose from England 
now, these were loth to acknowledge any power superior to their own 
individual state. Fears of drifting again into monarchy prevailed among 
the ultra Republicans. How to form a nation with sufficient centralized 
power to maintain its dignity and authority, and yet not to encroach upon 
the rights of the states and the liberties of their citizens, was the perplexing 
problem. Experience had already demonstrated that the powers vested 
in the states were too great, and that in the federal government too little. 
After much inter-colonial inconvenience had been experienced and the 
subject thoroughly discussed through the press and otherwise, the State 
of Virginia proposed a conference. Representatives from five or six of 
the states met at Annapolis, Maryland, in obedience to this invitation, in 
1786. This convention, having no authority, simply discussed the matter 
of federal union, and recommended a general convention to be held in 



206 POLITICS. 

Philadelphia in May, 1787. This convention met at the time and place 
appointed, and organized by choosing General Washington its presiding 
officer. It went deeply and minutely into the subject for which it had 
been called, and drafted the constitution. This was to be submitted to 
conventions in the several states for adoption, with the proviso that so 
soon as nine of these should adopt it, the federal union was to be estab- 
lished. The requisite nine states ratified the constitution as soon as 
conventions could be called, and the others followed shortly after. Thus 
was the old fabric of a federal government taken down and a new one 
erected in its place. 

The new government rested upon the constitution adopted by the 
states. This constitution is that which is now in force in this country. 
Its provisions allowed amendments as the future should show the need, 
and specified the manner in which these should be made. Various amend- 
ments have, consequently, been added from time to time and are essential 
parts of the constitution, equal in binding force to the original articles. 

During the debates in the first constitutional convention in Philadel- 
phia, and in the subsequent ratification conventions in the states, two 
sets of ideas were developed, supported by two sets of men. These were 
known at the time, and subsequently, as the "Federalists" and the 
"Anti-Federalists.' 1 They were the first two political parties of the 
United States proper. About 1791, the Anti-Federalist party took the 
name of the "Republican-Democratic. 11 

Under the conditions of the new constitution, an election for electors 
for President and Vice-president of the United States was held on the 
first Wednesday of January, 1789. These electors were to vote on the 
first Wednesday of the following February. 

There were sixty-nine electors. Of these, sixty-nine, or the entire 
number, cast their votes for Washington for President. John Adams 
received thirty-four votes for Vice-president, and the remaining thirty- 
five votes were scattered among various other candidates. Washington 
and Adams were duly inaugurated on the 30th of April, 1789, and thus 
began the first administration of the United States. 

Since the inauguration of Washington, in 1789, twenty-four adminis- 
trations, of four years each, have been completed. The twenty-fifth was 
begun on March 4, 1885. The President, Vice-president, cabinet officers 
and the more important acts passed during the administration, will 
appear from the following exhibits: 



POLITICS. 

FIRST ADMINISTRATION, 
Federal Party. 

From 1789 to 1793. 



297 



Sec. Treasury, 
ALEX. HAMILTON. 


GEO. WASHINGTON, 

President. 

JOHN ADAMS, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
THOMAS JEFFERSON. 


Sec. of War, 
HENRY KNOX. 


Sec. of Navy, 
HENRY KNOX. 


P. M. General, 
SAMUEL OSGOOD, 

To 1791. 

TIMOTHY PICKERING. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
EDMUND RANDOLPH. 



Jefferson and Randolph of the Cabinet, were Anti-Federalists. North 
Carolina, November, 1789, Rhode Island, May, 1790, Vermont, March, 
1 791, Kentucky, June, 1792, were admitted to the Union. Laws for a 
Protective Tariff were adopted by Congress. Amendments to the Constitu- 
tion guaranteeing freedom of speech, religion, person and property, were 
made and ratified. National debt, incurred by the war, was assumed by 
the government to be paid at par. Capitol to be moved to Washington 
in ten years. A United States Bank was established. The capital was 
$20,000,000 of which the government subscribed $2,000,000. 



SECOND ADMINISTRATION. 
Federal Party. 

From 17 9 3 to 17 97. 



Sec. Treasury, 
OLIVER WOLCOTT. 


GEO. WASHINGTON, 

President. 

JOHN AHAMS, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
THOMAS JEFFERSON, 

To 1794. 

EDMUND RANDOLPH, 

To 1795. 

TIMOTHY PICKERING. 


Sec. of War, 

T. PICKERING, 

To noe. 

JAMES McHENRY. 


Sec. of Navy, 
T. PICKERING, 

To 1790. 

JAMES McHENRY. 


P. M. General, 
T. PICKERING, 

To 1795. 

JOS. HABERSHAM. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorne y-gener al, 
WM. BRADFORD, 

To 1795. 

CHARLES LEE. 



298 



POLITICS. 



Tennessee admitted to the Union, June, 1 796. French Revolution 
and wars in Europe agitate public sentiment in this country. Efforts 
made by France to enlist the United States with her. Republicans and 
the Democratic clubs sympathize with France. Washington issues his 
famous proclamation of national neutrality, April 22, 1793. The eleventh 
amendment to the Constitution adopted. A commercial treaty with 
England made. Partisan spirit grows more bitter, and the administra- 
tion attacked by Republican-Democrats for the neutrality stand against 
France, and for the treaty with England. The result showed the wis- 
dom of both actions, but too late to save the party. 



THIRD ADMINISTRATION. 
Federal Party. 

From 17 9 7 to 18 01. 



Sec. Treasury, 




Sec. of State, 


OLIVER WOLCOTT, 


JOHN ADAMS, 


TIM. PICKERING, 


To 1800. 


President. 


To 1800. 


SAMUEL DEXTER. 


THOS. JEFFERSON, 


JOHN MARSHALL. 


Sec. of Wak 
JAMES McHENRY, 

To 1800. 

SAMUEL DEXTER, 


Sec. of Navy, 
GEORGE CABOT, 


To 1801. 

JOHN MARSHALL, 

In 1801. 

ROBT. GRISWOLD. 


Vice-president. 


To 1798. 

BENJAMIN STODDERT. 






Attorney-general, 


P. M. General, 


Sec. Interior. 


CHARLES LEE, 


JOS. HABERSHAM. 


(Not created until 1849.) 


To 1801. 




9 


THEOPHILUS PARSONS. 



The troubles with France, begun with the previous administration, 
continued through this one. The request for the withdrawal of the 
French minister was followed by the banishment of the American minis- 
ter from France. The division of the politics of the administration was 
embarrassing and obstructive. The fall of the Jacobin power in France 
opened the way for a speedy and happy settlement between the coun- 
tries. A Stamp Act was passed, levying a duty on stamped vellum, parch- 
ment and paper. It was considered obnoxious by many people. Alien 
and sedition laws were passed, giving the government the power to banish 



POLITICS. 



299 



foreign emissaries from the country. This has been marked as the 
death warrant of the Federal party. It was used by the Democrats and 
Republicans as a dangerous extension of centralized power. A natural- 
ization law was passed. It required fourteen years' residence in the 
country, necessary to citizenship. Kentucky and Virginia legislatures 
passed resolutions to the effect that when congressional action seems to 
be unconstitutional to a State, it can declare all such acts null and void. 



FOURTH ADMINISTRATION. 
Democratic-Republican Party. 

From 1801 to 1805. 



Sec. Treasury, 


THOS. JEFFERSON, 


Seo. of State, 


ALBERT GALLATIN. 


President. 
AARON BURR, 


JAMES MADISON. 


Sec. of Wab, 


Sec. of Navy, 
BENJAMIN STODDERT, 


HENRY DEABBOEN. 


Vice-president. 


In 1801. 

ROBERT SMITH. 


P. M. General, 
JOSEPH HABERSHAM, 


Sec. Interior. 


Attorney-general, 


In 1801. 

GIDEON GEANGER. 


(Not created until 1849.) 


LEVI LINCOLN. 



In the popular election of 1800, Jefferson and Burr each received 73 
votes of the Electoral College. Adams received 65 and Pinckney re- 
ceived 64. The law was that the two highest should be President and 
Vice-president. There being no election, the matter went to the House 
of Representatives. After six days 1 discussion, ten States voted for 
Jefferson and four for Burr. A first act of the administration was to 
change the manner of voting, allowing a direct vote for President and 
Vice-president. Louisiana was purchased from France, for $15,000- 
000. The reason for the sale was the fears of France that the territory 
might fall into the hands of England. The territory embraced all of 
the United States lying west of the Mississippi river and east of the 
Rocky mountains. Jefferson abolished all the stateliness which had 



300 



POLITICS. 



attended Washington and the Federal administrations, adopting a style of 
the utmost simplicity, even on state occasions. This made the adminis- 
tration popular with the radical Republican sentiment of the country. 
He was re-elected by an overwhelming majority, receiving 162 votes, 
against 14 cast for Charles C. Pinckney, the candidate of the Federal 
party. 

FIFTH ADMINISTRATION. 

Democratic- Republican. 

From 1805 to 1809. 



Sec. Treasury, 
ALBERT GALLATIN. 


THOS. JEFFERSON, 

President. 

GEORGE CLINTON, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
JAMES MADISON. 


Sec. op War, 
HENRY DEARBORN. 


Sec. of Navy, 
J. CROWINSHIELD. 


P. M. General, 
GIDEON GRANGER, 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
ROBT. SMITH, 

hi 1805. 

JOHN BRECKENRIDGE, 

To 181)7. 

OJSSAR A. RODNEY. 



A new commercial treaty with England was made in 1806. Jeffer- 
son refused to sign it because England would not concede her right to 
search American vessels. In June, 1807, a British frigate boarded an 
American ship off Hampton Roads and forcibly impressed four English 
seamen. Three Americans were killed in the encounter. This aroused 
great indignation throughout the country, and although England offered 
reparation, an Embargo Act was passed in December, 1807, prohibiting 
all American vessels from leaving port. England and France were then 
in fierce war. England passed an act prohibiting all American vessels 
or vessels from American ports, to enter any foreign port. The Em- 
bargo Act was opposed by the Federals and the New Englanders 
engaged in commerce. It was repealed near the close of the administra- 
tion. In the elections of 1808, the Democratic-Republicans were 
successful, James Madison receiving 122 electoral votes, against 47 cast 
for C. C. Pinckney, the Federal candidate. 



POLITICS. 



301 



SIXTH ADMINISTRATION 
Democratic-Republican. 

From 1809 to 1813. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
ALBERT GALLATIN. 


JAMES MADISON, 

President. 

GEORGE CLIKTOX, 

Died March 4, 1809. 

W1I. H. CRAWFORD, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
ROBERT SMITH, 

To 1811. 

JAMES MONROE. 


Sec. of War, 
WILLIAM EUSTIS, 

To 1813. 

JOHN ARMSTRONG. 


Sec. of Navy, 
PAUL HAMILTON. 


P. M. General, 
GIDEON GRANGER. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
C. A. RODNEY, 

To 1811. 

WILLIAM PINCKNET. 



Chief event of this administration was the War of 1812. Louisiana 
was admitted to the Union, April 30, 181 2. Foreign and domestic policy 
of Jefferson was carried out. Diplomatic attempts to settle difficulties 
with England failed. An attempt to re-charter the United States Bank 
failed by one in the House, and the Vice-president's vote in the Senate. 
Affairs with England so strained, an embargo on all vessels departing for 
sixty days was laid in April, 181 2. War was declared against England 
June 18, 1 81 2. In the elections of 181 2, a part of the Democratic- 
Republican party split off and nominated De Witt Clinton for President. 
They were opposed to the war policy of the party. They are known in 
history as the " Clintonites. 1 ' James Madison was re-nominated by the 
Democratic-Republicans for President, and received 128' electoral votes. 
Elbridge Gerry received 131 votes for Vice-president. De Witt Clinton 
received 89 votes for President, and Jared Ingersoll, 86 for Vice-president. 
Madison and Clinton were duly inaugurated at the constitutional time and 
the government proceeded with little change. Albert Gallatin was con- 
tinued secretary of the treasury and James Monroe, secretary of state. 
Gallatin was a member of the committee at the famous treaty of Ghent,, 
and, with Henry Clay, was most influential in securing favorable terms. 
Monroe afterwards rose to the presidency. 



302 



POLITICS. 



SEVENTH ADMINISTRATION 
Democratic-Republican. 

From 1813 to 1817. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
ALBERT GALLATIN, 

To 1814. 

GEORGE W. CAMPBELL, 

To 1816. 

ALEX. J. DALLAS. 


JAMES MADXSOX, 

President. 

ELBRIDGE GERRY, 

Died March 4, 1813. 

JOHN GAIitlARD, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
JAMES MONROE. 


Sec. of War, 
JOHN ARMSTRONG, 

To 1814. 

JAMES MONROE, 

To 1815. 

WM. H. CRAWFORD. 


Sec. of Navy, 
WM. JONES, 

To 1814. 

B. W. CROWINSHIELD. 


P. M. General, 
GIDEON GRANGER, 

To 18U. 

ROBERT J. MEIGS, JR. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
WM. PINCKNEY, 

To 1814. 

RICHARD RUSH. 



Federal party and New England generally opposed to the war with 
England. Massachusetts and Connecticut refuse to levy soldiers. Wash- 
ington City was sacked and burned by the British in August, 1814. 
The famous "Hartford Convention, 1 ' held to protest against the war and 
demand certain constitutional amendments. Peace with England was 
secured by the treaty at Ghent, December 24, 1814. A National Bank 
was chartered in 18 16 to exist until 1836. A new protective tariff law 
was passed, advocated by Clay, Calhoun, and the Republicans generally. 
In 1816, James Monroe was nominated for the Presidency by the Repub- 
licans; Rufus King by the Federalists. Indiana admitted to the Union 
on December 11, 18 16. James Monroe received 183 electoral votes for 
President and Daniel D. Tompkins the same for Vice-president. Rufus 
"K'ing received 34 votes for President, John E. Howard, 22 for Vice- 
president. James Ross received 5 votes for Vice-president, John Mar- 
shall, 4; and Robert G. Harper, 3. The electoral majority for Monroe 
was much greater than for his predecessor, Madison; the latter received 
but 128 of 217 electoral votes, while Monroe received 183, or nearly four- 
fifths of the entire vote. The number of electoral votes was the same in 
both cases. 



POLITICS. 



303 



EIGHTH ADMINISTRATION 

Democratic- Republican. 

From 1817 to 1821. 



Sec. or Treasury, 
WM. H. CEAWFOED. 


JAMES HOIBOE, 

President. 

DAJf'L ». TOMPKINS, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
JOHN Q. ADAMS. 


Sec. of Wab, 
GEOEGE GEAHAM, 

Ad interim. 

JOHN C. CALHOUN. 


Sec. of Navy, 
B. W. CEOWINSHIELD, 

To ISIS. 

SMITH THOMPSON. 


P. M. General, 
EETUEN J. MEIGS. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
EICHAED EUSH, 

In 1817. 

WILLIAM WIET. 



February 22, 1819, a treaty was made with Spain, by which the 
United States purchased Florida for $5,000,000. In 1820 began in 
Congress the discussion over the admission of Missouri to the Union. 
It was the beginning of that contest which eventually led to secession and 
Civil war, and the settlement of the slavery question by the arbitrament 
of the sword. From the beginning of the government under the consti- 
tution, there had been a considerable party opposed to the tolerance of 
slavery at all, and a much larger one against its further extension. The 
question came into Congress whenever the creation of a new territory or 
the admission of a state was asked. The discussion was prolonged 
over two years, and was settled by a compromise, by which it was 
agreed that hereafter slavery should not exist in states west of Mis- 
souri and north of parallel 36 30'. Mississippi in 181 7, Illinois in 1818, 
Alabama in 18 19, Maine in 1820, Missouri in 1821, were admitted to 
the Union. Monroe was re-elected without opposition, save one elec- 
toral vote for John Quincy Adams. Monroe received 231 electoral 
votes; Daniel D. Tompkins received 218 votes for Vice-president; Rich- 
ard Stockton, 8; Daniel Rodney, 4; Robert G. Harper, 1; and Richard 
Rush, 1. 



304 



POLITICS. 

NINTH ADMINISTRATION 
Democratic-Republican. 

From 1821 to 1825. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
WM. H. CRAWFORD. 


JAMES MONROE, 

President. 

DAN'E I>. TOMPKINS, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
JOHN Q. ADAMS. 


Sec. of War, 
JOHN C. CALHOUN. 


Sec. of Navy, 
S. THOMPSON, 

To 1S23. 

JOHN RODGERS, 

In 1823. 

SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD. 


P. M. General, 
R. J. MEIGS, 

To 1823. 

JOHN McLEAN. 


Sec. Interior. 
{Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
WILLIAM WIRT. 



This administration is denominated the "Era of Good Feeling." The 
political parties were blended and no faction existed. The most impor- 
tant debates of the American Congress took place during this time, 
engaged in by Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Hayne, 
and others. The President promulgated the famous "Monroe Doctrine," 
which was called forth by a proposed coalition of the republics of America 
against foreign aggressions. In the election of 1824, no party nomina- 
tions were made. The electoral vote was 99 for Andrew Jackson, 84 for 
John Quincy Adams, 41 for William H. Crawford, and 37 for Henry 
Clay. John C. Calhoun received 182 votes for Vice-president. The elec- 
tion for President went to the House. There were then 24 states. Of 
these, 13 voted for Adams, 7 for Jackson, and 4 for Crawford. The 
choice was decided by Henry Clay and his friends voting for Adams. 
This was the first occasion to test the alternative provision of the consti- 
tution in the choice of the chief executive. The states voting for Henry 
Clay controlled the situation; for whichever of the two leading candidates 
their votes would be cast, a majority would be given. These votes went 
to Adams. There was great excitement over this and talk of a bargain 
and sale. There was nothing ever discovered which gave any color to 
this charge, and history has cleared the memory of Clay from any odium 
connected with the election. The suspicion, however, made the friends 
of Jackson bitter against Clay and his party. 



POLITICS. 



305 



TENTH ADMINISTRATION 
Democratic- Republican. 

From 1825 to 1829. 



Sec. of Treasury, 


JOHN Q. ADA3IS, 


Sec. of State, 


EICHAED BUSH. 


President. 


HENEY OLAY. 


Sec. of "War, 
JAMES BABBOEB, 


JOHX C. CALHOUN, 


Sec. of Navy, 


To 1828. 

P. B. POETEE. 


Vice-president. 


SAMUEL L. SOUTHAED. 


P. M. General, 


Sec. Interior. 


Attorney-general, 


JOHN MoLEAN. 


(Not created until 1849.) 


WILLIAM WIET. 



Party feeling broke out again on the election of Mr. Adams. The 
appointment of Clay for secretary of state gave rise to the report of a 
bargain between Adams and Clay. It brought about a coalition of the 
friends of Jackson and Crawford against the administration. The old 
Democratic-Republican party was divided. The followers of Jackson 
and Crawford formed a new party which was first called the "Jackson- 
ites, 11 but afterward took the name of " Democratic, 11 which is still retained. 
The Adams and Clay party united and called themselves the "National 
Republican 11 party, which was shortly afterward changed to that of 
"Whig. 11 Few national measures were passed. A bill to increase the 
tariff was defeated by the vote of the Vice-president. The government 
and the state of Georgia came into controversy over the removal of the 
Creek Indians. The doctrine of nullification was freely advocated. A 
new tariff, called the " Tariff of 1828, 11 was passed. It was very distaste- 
ful to the southern states. The Anti-Masonic party was organized in 
New York. The election of 1828 was between John Quincy Adams and 
Andrew Jackson. Jackson received 178 electoral votes, Adams 83. 
Calhoun received 171 votes for Vice-president. This election was con- 
sidered a vindication of Jackson and proof of the charges of corruption 
against Adams and Clay. It was in truth nothing of the sort. It was 



306 



POLITICS. 



the bursting forth of a new party from the decaying branches of the old 
one. The Democratic-Republican party had done its work and was ready 



to die. 



Hereafter it was Democratic and Whig. 



ELEVENTH ADMINISTRATION 
Democratic. 

From 1829 to 1833. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
SAMUEL D. INGHAM, 

To 1831. 

LEWIS McLANE. 


ANDREW JACKSON, 

President. 

JOHN C. CALHOUN, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
M. VANBUEEN, 

To 1831. 

EDWAED LIVINGSTON. 


Sec. or War, 
JOHN H. EATON. 


Sec. of Navy, 
JOHN BEANCH, 

To 1831. 

LEVI WOODBUEY. 


P. M. General, 
WM. T. BAEEY. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general , 
T. M. BEEEIEN, 

To 1831. 

EOGEE B. TANEY. 



With Jackson was inaugurated the " Spoils System." Celebrated 
Webster and Hayne debate in the Senate. A bill to re-charter the 
National Bank was vetoed by the President in 1832. One million two 
hundred thousand dollars was voted for internal improvement. The tariff 
of 1828 was repealed by a new bill in 1832. The nullifiers of South Caro- 
lina were coerced by military force. In the election of 1832 the Anti- 
Masons held a national convention, the first ever held. They nominated 
William Wirt for President, at Baltimore, in September, 1831. The other 
parties held national conventions this year at Baltimore. The National 
Republicans nominated Henry Clay, the Democrats Andrew Jackson for 
President. Jackson received 219 electoral votes; Clay, 49; Floyd, 11; 
and Wirt, 7. Martin Van Buren received 189 votes for Vice-president; 
John Sergeant, 49; Henry Lee, 11; Amos Ellmaker, 7; and William 
Wilkins, 30. This election showed the Democratic party at the height 
of its strength. The Whigs had not yet begun to develop much strength, 
but their day was coming. The principles inaugurated by Jackson were, 



POLITICS. 



307 



many of them, very pernicious to good government and have been pro- 
ductive ot incalculable corruption since, and from which the people in 
recent years have been struggling to free themselves. The "spoils sys- 
tem " still controls politicians. 



TWELFTH ADMINISTRATION. 
Democratic. 

From 1833 to 1837. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
WM. J. DUANE, 

In 1833. 

EOGER B. TANEY, 

To 1834. 

LEVI WOODBURY. 


ANDREW JACKSON, 

President. 

MARTIN VANBIJREN, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
LOUIS McLANE, 

To 1834. 

JOHN FORSYTHE. 


Sec. of War, 
LEWIS OASS. 


Sec. of Navy, 
LEVI WOODBURY, 

To 1834. 

MAHLON DICKERSON. 


P. M. General, 
W. T. BARRY, 

To 1835. 

AMOS KENDALL. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
ROGER B. TANEY, 

To 1834. 

BENJ. F. BUTLER. 



A compromise tariff bill, advocated by Clay, was passed in 1833. The 
government deposits were removed from the National Bank. The Whig 
party was formed in 1834 of National Republicans, Anti-Masons and some 
nullifiers from the Democratic. The question of recognizing the inde- 
pendence of Texas from Mexico was discussed. Arkansas was admitted 
to the Union in 1836, and Michigan in 1837. Troubles with the Indians 
and the Seminole war. Martin Van Buren was nominated by the Demo- 
crats, and William Henry Harrison by the Whigs. Van Buren received 
1 70 electoral votes ; Harrison, 73. Richard M. Johnson received 147 votes 
for Vice-president; this being less than a majority, the election went to 
the Senate, where Johnson received 33 votes, and Francis Granger, 16. 
This was the first square contest between the Democratic party and the 
Whig. While it showed the Democratic largely in the majority, there 
was sufficient Whig strength developed to foreshadow the coming power. 
The downfall of the Democratic party in the near future was owing 



308 



POLITICS. 



largely to disaffection in its own ranks. The leaders were at enmity and 
the Jacksonian policy was far from receiving unanimous indorsement from 
the people. 

THIRTEENTH ADMINISTRATION. 
Democratic. 

From 18 37 to 1841. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
LEVI WOODBURY. 


MARTIN VAN BUREN, 

President. 

RICH'O M. JOHNSON, 

Vice-president. 


Seo. of State, 
JOHN FORSYTHE. 


Sec. of War, 
JOEL R. POINSETT. 


Sec. of Navy, 
M. DICKERSON, 

To 1838. 

JAMES K. PAULDING. 


P. M. General, 
A. KENDALL, 

To 1840. 

JOHN M. NILES. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
B. F. BUTLER, 

To 1838. 

FELIX GRUNDY, 

To 1840. 

HENRY D. GILPIN. 



Great financial panic of 1837, caused by withdrawing deposits from 
National Bank and Jackson's proclamation of specie payment. Two 
attempts to establish a sub-treasury failed. A bill was offered in 1838 
with regard to annexation of Texas, which started the anti-slavery agita- 
tion. The Anti-Slavery party was organized at Warsaw, New York, in 
November, 1839. The " Liberal " party was organized. In the election 
of 1840, the Abolitionists nominated James G. Birney for President, the 
Whigs, William Henry Harrison, the Democrats, Martin Van Buren. 
Harrison received 234 electoral votes ; Van Buren, 60. John Tyler received 
234 votes for Vice-president; Richard M.Johnson, 48; L. W. Tazewell, 1 1 ; 
James K. Polk, 1. Birney received 7,059 popular votes. The over- 
whelming majority for Harrison showed how completely public sentiment 
had changed in the four years. The campaign of 1840 was one of the 
most exciting the country has ever witnessed; business was almost 
entirely suspended in many sections for weeks prior to the election. It was 
the day of triumph for the Whig party. 



POLITICS. 

FOURTEENTH ADMINISTRATION 
Whig. 

From 1841 to 1845. 



309 



Sec. of Treasury, 
THOS. EWING, 

In 1341. 

WALTER FORWARD, 

To 1843. 

JOHN C. SPENCER, 

To 1344. 

GEO. M. BIBB. 


WM. II. HARRISON, 

To April 4, 1841. 

JOHN TYL.ER, 

President. 

JOHN TYLER, 

In 1841. 

S. H. SOUTHARD, 

To 1842. 

W. P. MANGUM, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
DAN'L WEBSTER, 

To 1343. 

H. S. LEGARE, 

In 1843. 

A. P. UPSHUR, 

To 1844. 

JOHN C. CALHOUN. 


Sec. of War, 
JOHN BELL, 

In 1841. 

JOHN C. SPENCER, 

To 1843. 

JAS. M. PORTER, 

To 1844. 

WM. WILKINS. 


Sec. of Navy, 
GEO. E. BADGER, 

In 1841. 

A. P. UPSHUR, 

To 1343 

D. HENSHAW, 

To 1344. 

T. W. GILMER, 

In 1844. 

JOHN Y. MASON. 


P. M. General, 
FR. GRANGER, 

In 1841. 

CHAS. A. WICKLIFFE. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorn ey-gener ad, 
JNO. J. CRITTENDEN, 

In 1841. 

H. S. LEGARE, 

To 1843. 

JOHN NELSON. 



Harrison's inaugural address and a proclamation calling a meeting of 
Congress for May 31, were the only acts done by him. He died April 4, 
1841. During Tyler's term, the Sub-treasury Act was repealed. An 
attempt to create a new bank of the United States was vetoed by the 
President. This act produced a rupture between the President and his 
party, the Whigs. In 1842, a tariff law on imports was passed. The 
" Native American " party was organized in 1843. A treaty with Texas 
for annexation was defeated in the Senate. The Liberal party nomi- 
nated James G. Birney for President; the Whigs, Henry Clay; the Dem- 
ocrats, James K. Polk. Oregon was organized into a territory in 1844. 
A bill to annex Texas and Florida was passed on March 3, 1845, the 
last day of the administration. The triumph of the Whig party was short- 
lived. After the death of Harrison and the accession of Tyler to the 
presidency, the demoralization of the administration was great. The 
blunders made were eagerly seized upon by the opposition and magnified 
many times over. The defeat of the party was a foregone conclusion. 
Even the influence of the great leader, Clay, at the head of the ticket, 
opposed by an almost unknown man, could not save the party. Polk was 
elected and the Democratic party re-instated in power. 



310 



POLITICS. 



FIFTEENTH ADMINISTRATION 
Democratic. 
From 1845 to 1849. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
ROB'T J. WALKER. 


JAMES K. POEK, 

President. 

GEORGE JI. DALLAS, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
JAMES BUCHANAN. 


Sec. of War, 
WM. L. MARCY. 


Sec. of Navy, 
GEO. BANCROFT, 

To 1846. 

JOHN Y. MASON. 


P. M. General, 
CAVE JOHNSON. 


Sec. Interior. 
(Not created until 1849.) 


Attorney-general, 
JOHN Y. MASON, 

To 1S46. 

NATHAN CLIFFORD, 

To 1848. 

ISAAC TOUSEY. 



Northwest boundary settled by treaty with England. The Mexican 
war. Battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, and Buena 
Vista. Surrender of the Capital to General Scott. New Mexico con- 
quered by General Kearney, California by General Fremont and Commo- 
dore Stockton. California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico 
transferred to the United States by treaty. Gold found in California. 
The Wilmot Proviso. Iowa and Wisconsin admitted to the Union. In 
the nominations of 1848, Lewis Cass was the Democratic, and Zachary 
Taylor the Whig candidate for President. Taylor received 163 electoral 
votes; Cass, 127. The administration of Polk was attended with many 
events of importance to the country. The war with Mexico led to the 
acquisition of valuable territory in the southwest and settled finally the 
incessant disputes with that country. The explorations of Fremont in the 
Rocky Mountain regions led to important results in after years, and 
brought the engineer into such prominence that he afterward became 
presidential candidate for a great party. The discovery of gold caused a 
great flux of immigrants to California in the last year of the administra- 
tion and the following one, which served not only to add largely to the 
wealth of the country, but to settle rapidly the present great state of 
California. 



POLITICS. 



311 



SIXTEENTH ADMINISTRATION 
Whig. 

From 184 9 to 185 3. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
WM. M. MEREDITH, 

To 1850. 

THOS. OORWIN. 


ZACHAKY TAYLOR, 

To July 9, 1850. 

MILLARD FILLMORE, 

President. 

MILLARD FILLMORE, 

To July 9, 1850. 

WILLIAM R. KING, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
JNO. M. CLAYTON, 

To 1850. 

DAN'L WEBSTER, 

To 1852. 

EDWARD EVERETT. 


Sec. of War, 
GEO. W. CRAWFORD, 

To 1850. 

■ CHARLES M. CONRAD. 


Sec. of Navy, 
WM. B. PRESTON, 

To 1650. 

WM. A. GRAHAM, 

To 1852. 

JNO. P. KENNEDY. 


P. M. General, 
JACOB COLLAMER, 

To 1S50. 

NATHAN K. HALL, 

To 1852. 

SAM'L D. HUBBARD. 


Sec. Interior, 
THOS. EWING, 

ToA850. 

ALEX. H. H. STUART. 


Attorney-general, 
REVERDY JOHNSON, 

To 1850. 

JNO. J. CRITTENDEN. 



California admitted to the Union by Henry Clay's "Omnibus Bill." 
Southern Arizona secured by the Gadsden purchase. Death of Clay, 
Calhoun and Webster. Fugitive Slave Law opposed by personal liberty 
laws in some states. The Democratic candidate in 1852 was Franklin 
Pierce; the Whig, Winrleld Scott; Free Soil, John P. Hale. Pierce 
received 254 votes; Scott, 42. The popular vote for Hale was 156,149. 
The total vote for Pierce was 1,601,474; for Scott, 1,386,578, which, 
with the vote for Hale, was a total of 3,144,201. Hale did not receive a 
majority of votes in an}' state; Ohio gave him the largest vote, 31,682, 
New York following close with 25,329, and Massachusetts coming still 
nearer with 28,023. Scott had majorities as follows: Kentucky, 2,997; 
Tennessee, 1,880; Vermont, 508; and Massachusetts a plurality over 
Pierce of 8,114. Pierce had majorities in all the other states except 
Connecticut and Ohio, where he had only a plurality over Scott. South 
Carolina still chose its electors by the State Legislature. 



312 



POLITICS. 



SEVENTEENTH ADMINISTRATION 

Democratic. 

From 1853 to 1857. 



Sec. of Treasury, 


FBABfKLIN PIERCE, 


Sec. of State, 


JAMES GUTHRIE. 


President. 
WILLIAM R. KING, 

In 1853. 

DAVID R. ATCHISON, 

To 18S4. 


WM. L. MARCY. 


Sec. of War, 


Sec. of Navy, 


JEFFERSON DAVIS. 


JESSE D. BRIGHT, 
Vice-president. 


JAMES C. DOBBIN. 


P. M. General, 


Sec. Interior, 


Attorney-general, 


JAMES CAMPBELL. 


Robert McClelland. 


CALEB CUSHING. 



World's Fair in New York. Perry's expedition to Japan. Explora- 
tions for Pacific railroad. " Ostend Manifesto " by three American 
ministers, looking to the acquisition of Cuba. Organization of Kansas 
and Nebraska. Border warfare. Rise of Republican and American, or 
" Know-nothing," parties. Senator Charles Sumner was assaulted in 
the Senate Chamber by Preston S. Brooks, May 22, 1856. The Ameri- 
can party nominated Millard Fillmore ; the Democratic, James Buchanan ; 
the Republican, John C. Fremont. Buchanan received 174 electoral 
votes; Fremont, 114, and Fillmore, 8 — the state of Maryland. The popu 
lar vote of the American party was 874,534. The total popular vote 
aggregated 4,053,967, of which Buchanan received 1,838,169, and 
Fremont, 1,341,264. The total vote for Fremont and Fillmore was 
2,215,798, or 377,629 more votes than were cast for Buchanan. Bu- 
chanan's plurality over Fremont, however, was 496,905. Fillmore had 
a majority in the state of Mar} T land of 8,064 v °tes. Fremont carried 
the states of Connecticut, 5,105; Maine, 24,974; Massachusetts, 49,324; 
Michigan, 17,966; New Hampshire, 5,134; Rhode Island, 3,112; Ver- 
' mont, 28,447; an d Wisconsin, 12,668 majority; he had pluralities over 
Buchanan in Iowa, 7,784; New York, 80,129; Ohio, 16,623. Buchanan 
had majorities in all other states save Illinois, where his plurality over 
Fremont was 9,159. 



POLITICS. 

EIGHTEENTH ADMINISTRATION 
Democratic. 

From 185 7 to 1861. 



313 



Sec. of Treasury, 
HOWELL COBB, 

To I860. 

PHIL. F. THOMAS, 

To 1861. 

JOHN A. DIX. 


JAMES BUCHANAN, 

President. 

J. C. BRECKENBIDGE, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
LEWIS CASS, 

To 1860. 

JERE. S. BLACK. 


Sec. of War, 
JNO. B. FLOYD, 

To 1861. 

JOSEPH HOLT. 


Sec. of Navy, 
ISAAC TOUSEY. 


P. M. General, 
AAEON V. BROWN, 

To 1859. 

JOS. HOLT, 

To 1861. 

HORATIO KING. 


Sec. Interior, 
JACOB THOMPSON. 


Attorney-general, 
JERE. S. BLACK, 

To 1860. 

EDWIN M. STANTON. 



Minnesota and Oregon admitted. John Brown's invasion of Virginia. 
Division of Democratic party. Election of Abraham Lincoln. Ordi- 
nances of secession in South Carolina, Georgia, and the Gulf States. Jeffer- 
son Davis elected President of the Confederate States. United States 
forts and arsenals seized by Southern forces. The southern wing of the 
Democratic party nominated John C. Breckenridge; the northern, Stephen 
A. Douglas. The American party nominated John Bell; the Republican, 
Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln received 180 electoral votes; Douglas, 12; 
Bell, 39; Breckenridge, 72. The popular vote for Lincoln was 1,866,350; 
Douglas, 1,375,157; Bell, 589,581; Breckenridge, 845,763. 

The Republican National Convention was held in Chicago on May 
16, i860. The prominent candidates were Abraham Lincoln, William 
H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase and Edward Bates. There were 466 
votes in the convention. On the third ballot, Mr. Lincoln received 354 
of these votes and was declared the nominee. The Democratic National 
Convention met in Charleston, South Carolina, April 23, i860. The 
question of the extension of slavery in the territories led to such dissension 
that the delegates from seven Southern states withdrew; after 57 ineffect- 
ual ballots, the convention adjourned to meet in Baltimore, June 18. 
Here Douglas and B. Fitzpatrick were nominated, but the latter declin- 
ing, H. V. Johnson was substituted. The seven seceding states' dele- 
gates nominated Breckenridge and Lane. 



314 



POLITICS. 



NINETEENTH ADMINISTRATION 
Republican. 

From 1861 to 1865. 



Sec. op Treasury, 
SALMON P. CHASE, 

To 1864. 

WM. P. FESSENDEN. 


ABRAHAM LINCOLN, 

President. 

HANNIBAL HAMLIN, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. op State, 
WM. H. SEWARD. 


Sec. of War, 
SIMON CAMERON, 

To 1862. 

EDWIN M. STANTON. 


Sec. of Navy, 
GIDEON WELLES. 


P. M. General, 
MONTGOMERY BLAIR, 

To 1864. 

WILLIAM DENNISON. 


Sec. Interior, 
CALEB B. SMITH, 

To 1863 

JOHN P. UPSHUR. 


Attorney-general, 
EDWARD BATES, 

To 1863. 

JAMES J. SPEED. 



1861. — Bombardment and fall of Fort Sumter. Eleven states in Seces- 
sion. Separation of West Virginia. Union defeat at Bull Run. McClellan 
commander-in-chief. Blockade of southern Atlantic coast. The " Trent 
Affair " set right by United States Government. Recapture of Hatteras 
Inlet, Port Royal Entrance, and Tybee Island. 

1862. — Forts Henry and Donelson taken by Grant. Battle of Shiloh. 
Capture of Island No. 10, Memphis, and Fort Pillow. Federal victory 
at Pea Ridge. Bragg's campaign in Kentucky. Confederate defeats at 
Iuka, Corinth, and Murfreesborough. Capture of New Orleans by Far- 
ragut and Butler. Merrimac and Monitor in Hampton Roads. McClel- 
lan 's march to Richmond. Second defeat at Bull Run. Invasion of Mary- 
land. Battle of Antietam. Union defeat at Fredericksburg. 

1863. — Emancipation of all slaves in seceded states. Enlistment of 
50,000 negroes in Federal armies and navies. Union defeat at Chancel- 
lorsville; death of " Stonewall' 1 Jackson Riots in New York. Invasion 
of Pennsylvania. Confederate defeat at Gettysburg. Surrender of Vicks- 
burg and Port Hudson ends the war on the Mississippi. Morgan's raid 
in Indiana and Ohio. Campaign of Chattanooga ends in Union victories 
at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. 

1864. — Grant, as lieutenant-general, at head of United States armies. 
Battles of the "Wilderness" costly and indecisive. Battle of Cedar 



POLITICS. 



315 



Mountain saved by " Sheridan's Ride." Sieges of Richmond and Peters- 
burg begun. Sherman defeats Hood, burns Atlanta, marches through 
Georgia to the sea, captures Savannah. Re-election of President Lin- 
coln. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were Republican nomi- 
nees, George B. McClellan and George H. Pendleton, the Democratic. 
Lincoln received 212 electoral votes; McClellan, 21. The popular vote 
for Lincoln was 2,216,067; ^ or McClellan, 1,808,725. 



TWENTIETH ADMINISTRATION. 
Republican. 

From 1865 to 1869. 



Sec. of Tbeasukt, 

hugh Mcculloch. 


ABRAHAM EINCOEN, 

To April 14, 1865. 

ANDREW JOHNSON, 

President. 

ANDREW JOHNSON, 

To April 14, 1865. 

L.. C. FOSTER, 

To 1867. 

BENJAMIN F. WADE, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
WM. H. SEWARD. 


Sec. of War, 
E. M. STANTON, 

To 1867. 

U. S. GRANT, 

To 1868. 

LORENZO THOMAS, 

In 1868. 

JOHN M. SCHOFIELD. 


Seo. of Navy, 
GIDEON WELLES. 


P. M. General, 
WM. DENNISON, 

To 1866. 

ALEX. W. RANDALL. 


Sec. Interior, 
JAMES HARLAN, 

To 1866. 

0. H. BROWNING. 


Attorney-general, 
JAS. J. SPEED, 

To 1866. 

HENRY STANBERRY, 

To 1868. 

WM. M. EVARTS. 



1865. — Burning of Columbia and part of Charleston. Sherman's 
march through the Carolinas. Abandonment and burning of Richmond. 
Surrender of Lee's and Johnston's armies. Murder of President Lincoln. 
Nevada admitted and territories organized. 

Andrew Johnson, 1865- 1869. " Reconstruction Policy " of the Presi- 
dent differing from that of Congress, he is impeached, but acquitted. 
Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution secures the civil rights of 
freedmen. Most of the Southern states repeal their ordinances of seces- 
sion, and are re-admitted to the Union. Submarine telegraph success- 
fully established between Ireland and America, 1866. Purchase of Alaska. 
Burlingame embassy from China makes a treaty of friendship. Ulysses 
S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax were nominated by the Republicans ; Hora- 
tio Seymour and Frank P. Blair, by the Democrats. Grant and Colfax 



31G 



POLITICS. 



received 214 electoral votes; Seymour and Blair, 71. The Republican 
popular vote was 3,015,071; Democratic, 2,709,613; Republican plurality,, 
3o5,458- 



TWENTY-FIRST ADMINISTRATION. 
Republican. 

From 1869 to 1873. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
GEO. S. BOUTWELL. 


ULYSSES S. GRANT, 
President. 

SCHUYJLER COL.FAX, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
E. B. WASHBURNE, 

In 1S69. 

HAMILTON FISH. 


Sec. of War, 
JNO. A. KAWLINS, 

In 1S69. 

WM. W. BELKNAP. 


Sec. of Navy, 
ADOLPH E. BORIE, 

In 1809. 

GEO. M. ROBESON. 


P. M. General, 
JNO. A. J. ORESSWELL, 

To 1S74. 

MARSHALL JEWELL. 


Sec. Interior, 
JACOB D. COX, 

To 1870. 

COLUMBUS DELANO. 


Attorney-general, 
E. R. HOAR, 

To 1810. 

A. T. ACKERMAN, 

To 1871. 

GEORGE H. WILLIAMS. 



Pacific Railroad completed. Texas, last of the seceded states, resumes 
place in Congress. Treaty of Washington provides for settlement of all 
differences between England and the United States. Alabama claims, 
fixed by International Board at Geneva, amounting to $15,000,000, are 
paid by Great Britain. Fires in Chicago, the northwestern forests, and 
in Boston. Grant's Indian policy. Murder of General Canby by the 
Modocs. The temperance party was organized as a political factor in 
1872, and nominated James Black for President, John Russell for Vice- 
president. The Anti-Masons nominated Charles Francis Adams and J. L. 
Barlow; the Republicans, Ulysses S. Grant and Henry Wilson; the Lib- 
eral Republicans nominated Horace Greeley and B. Gratz Brown; the 
Democrats endorsed Greeley and Brown. Grant received 286 electoral 
votes. Greeley died before the meeting of the electoral college; 42 of the 
66 Democratic votes were cast for Thomas A. Hendricks. The popular 
Republican vote was 3,015,071; Democratic, 2,706,613; Temperance, 
5,5o8. 



POLITICS. 



317 



TWENTY-SECOND ADMINISTRATION, 

Republican. 

From 1873 to 1877. 



Sec. of Treasury, 
WE A. RICHARDSON, 

To 1874. 

BENJ. H. BRISTOW, 

To 1876. 

LOT M. MORRILL. 


ULYSSES S. GRANT, 
President. 

HENRY WIESON, 

To 1875. 

THOS. W. FERRY, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
HAMILTON FISH. 


Sec. of War, 
WM. W. BELKNAP, 

To 1876. 

ALPHONSO TAFT, 

In 1876. 

JAS. D. CAMERON. 


Sec. of Navy, 
GEORGE M. ROBESON. 


P. M. General, 
MARSHALL JEWELL, 

To 1876. 

JAS. N. TYNER. 


Sec. Interior, 
COLUMBUS DELANO, 

To 1875. 

ZACHARIAH CHANDLER. 


Attorney-general, 
GEORGE H. WILLIAMS, 

To 1875. 

E. S. PIERREPONT, 

To 1876. 

ALPHONSO TAFT. 



Commercial panic and distress. Ring robberies in great cities. Con- 
gress passes a Specie Resumption Act. Colorado becomes a state. Cen- 
tennial Exposition at Philadelphia. War with the Sioux. Massacre of 
General Custer and his army. Joint High Commission from Senate, Rep- 
resentatives, and Supreme Court decide the results of the Presidential 
election of 1876. The Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes and 
William A. Wheeler; the Democrats, Samuel J. Tilden and Thomas A. 
Hendricks; the Greenback party, Peter Cooper and Samuel F. Cary; the 
Prohibitionists, Greene B. Smith and R. T. Stewart. The Republican 
popular vote was 4,033,768; Democratic, 4,285,992; Greenback, 81,740; 
Prohibition, 9,552. The Republicans had 173 electoral votes certain, and 
the Democrats, 184. The votes of Louisiana and Florida were claimed 
by both. A committee was appointed under a special Act of Congress, to 
settle the votes of these two states. This committee was called the "Joint 
High Commission." It consisted of fifteen. The great point to be decided 
first was whether the return certificates of the governors should be accepted 
as final, or whether the Commission should go beyond that and canvass 
the votes. The latter was settled upon. After a thorough investigation, 
the Commission decided by a vote of eight to seven, to give the electoral 
votes to Hayes and Wheeler. The Commission gave them to Hayes and. 
Wheeler, making their vote 185. 



318 



POLITICS. 

TWENTY-THIRD ADMINISTRATION, 
Republican. 

From 1877 to 1881. 



Sec. of Treasury, 


R. B. HAYES, 


Sec. of State, 


JOHN SHERMAN. 


President. 


WM. M. EVARTS. 


Sec. of War, 
GEO. W. McCRARY, 


WM. A. WHEELER, 


Sec. of Navy, 
RICHARD W. THOMPSON, 


To 1879. 


Vice-president. 


To 1S81. 


ALEX. RAMSEY. 




NATHANIEL GOFF, JR. 


P. M. General, 






DAVID McK. KEY, 


Sec. Interior, 


Attorney-general, • 


To 1880. 


CARL SCHURZ. 


CHARLES DEVENS. 


HORACE MAYNARD. 







Pledges of peace and civil service reform. Railway riots suppressed. 
Chinese Question in California. Act to set aside the Burlingame Treaty 
passed by Congress but vetoed by the President. Resumption of gold 
payments, January, 1879. The Republicans nominated James A. Garfield 
and Chester A. Arthur; the Democrats, W. S. Hancock and William H. 
English; Greenback, James B. Weaver and Benjamin Chambers; the 
Prohibitionists, Neal Dow and A. H. Thompson. Garfield received 214 
electoral votes; Hancock, 155. The popular Republican vote was 
4,454,416; Democratic, 4,444,952; Greenback, 308,578; Prohibition, 
10,305. The administration of Hayes was a remarkably clean one. At 
the first there was much friction with politicians, but the last two years 
were very harmonious. The coercive policy toward the Southern States, 
pursued by Grant, was dropped and the states thrown completely on their 
own self-government. There was a general dread throughout the North 
at this bold step, but the event proved the wisdom of Mr. Hayes. The 
nomination of Mr. Garfield was a tacit commendation of the Hayes policy. 
The closing part of Mr. Hayes' administration and the election of his 
successor by so large majorities, seemed to presage the dawning of a new 
" era of good feeling." The issues of the war and all its bitter animosi- 
ties were being out but of sight. Had Mr. Garfield been permitted to live 
out his term on the same line of policy, the era no doubt would have come. 



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POLITICS. 

TWENTY-FOURTH ADMINISTRATION. 
Republican. 

From 1881 to 1885. 



319 



Sec. of Treasury, 
WM. WINDOM, 

In 1881. 

CHAS. J. FOLGEE. 


JAMES A. GARFIELD, 

To Sept. 19, 1881. 

CHESTER A. ARTHUR, 

President. 

CHESTER A. ARTHUR, 

To Sept. 19, 1881. 

DAVID DAVIS, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
JAS. G. BLAINE, 

In 1881. 

F. T. FEELINGHUYSEN. 


Sec. of War, 
EOBT. T. LINCOLN. 


Sec. of Navy, 
WM. H. HUNT, 

To 1882. 

WM. E. CHANDLEE. 


P. M. General, 
THOS. L. JAMES, 

In 1881. 

TIM O. HOWE, 

To 1883. 

WALTER Q. GEESHAM, 

To 1884. 

PRANK HATTON. 


Sec. Interior, 
SAMUEL J. KIEKWOOD, 

To 1882. 

HENEY M. TELLEE. 


Attorney-general, 
WAYNE MACVEAGH, 

In 1881. 

BENJ. H. BEEWSTEE. 



A rupture between President Garfield and senators from New York. 
Republican party divided in New York, Pennsylvania and other places. 
Democratic party divided in Virginia, on payment of state debt. Garfield 
was shot July 2, 1881, and died September 19. Mr. Arthur was sworn 
into office at midnight of same day. An Anti-polygamy Bill was passed 
in 1 88 1. Bill to further the corporate existence of the national banks. 
River and Harbor Bill passed over veto. An Anti-Chinese Bill became a 
law in 1882. First session of the forty-seventh Congress the longest since 
1876; it consumed 254 days in partisan legislation. James G. Blaine and 
John A. Logan were nominated by the Republicans, Grover Cleveland 
and Thomas A. Hendricks by the Democrats, Benjamin F. Butler by the 
Greenback party, and John P. St. John by the Prohibitionists. Blaine and 
Logan received 182 electoral votes, Cleveland and Hendricks, 219. The 
Republican popular vote was 4,851,981; Democratic, 4,874,986; Green- 
back, 175,370; Prohibitionist, 150,369. Cleveland over Blaine, 23,005. 
The election of Mr. Cleveland was the first interruption of Republican 
dominancy since the election of Mr. Lincoln in i860. Cleveland repre- 
sented the moderate, progressive wing of his party and received many 
votes from Republicans who dreaded a return to the most radical Republi- 
can policy as represented in the party candidates. 



320 



POLITICS. 

TWENTY-FIFTH ADMINISTRATION 
Democratic. 

From 1885 to 1889. 



Sec. of Tkeastjky, 
DANIEL MANNING. 


GROVES CLEVELAND 

President. 

THOS. A. HEIDEICKS, 

To Nov. 25, 1885. 

JOHN SHERMAN, 

Vice-president. 


Sec. of State, 
THOS. F. BAYARD. 


Sec. of Wak, 
¥1. C. ENDICOTT. 


Sec. of Navy, 
WM. G. WHITNEY. 


P. M. General, 
WM. F. VILAS. 


Sec. Interior, 
LUCIUS Q. C. LAMAK. 


Attorney-general, 
AUGUSTUS H. GARLAND. 



Previous to the election of 1824, no report of the popular vote for 
President was preserved with any fullness or accuracy. During the earlier 
elections the states, or the most of them, chose their presidential electors 
by their Legislatures, and not by the popular vote as now. Even in 1824. 
six states still voted by their Legislatures, while South Carolina did not 
resort to popular vote until 1868. The total vote cast for the opposing 
candidates from 1824 to 1884 is shown in the following: 



Election. 






IE bfl 

a. 2 


Total vote. 


INCREASE. 








Date. 






oq| 


Vote. 


Per 

cent. 


1824 


John Q. Adams 

Andrew Jackson 


Jackson, Crawford, Clay. . . 


34 


352,062 






1828 


24 


1,156,328 


*an,266 


*228.4 


1832 


Andrew Jackson .... 


Clay, Floyd, Wirt 


24 


1,250,799 


94,471 , 


8.2 


1836 


Martin Van Buren. . 


Wm. H. Harrison, etc 


26 


1,498,205 


247,406 


19.8 


1840 


Wm. H. Harrison . . . 


Van Buren, Birney 


26 


2,410,778 


912,573 


60.9 


1844 


James K. Polk 


Clay and Birney 


9,6 


2,698,611 


287,833 


11.9 


1848 


Zachary Taylor 


Cass and Van Buren 


30 


2,871,908 


173,297 


6.4 


1852 


Franklin Pierce 

James Buchanan 


Scott and Hale 


31 
31 


3,144,201 
4,053,967 


272,293 
909,766 


9.5 


1856 


Fremont, Fillmore 


28.9 


1860 


Abraham Lincoln . . . 


Breckenridge, Bell, Douglas 


33 


4,676,853 


622,886 


15.4 


1864 


Abraham Lincoln. . . 
Ulysses S. Grant 


Geo. B. McClellan 

Horatio Sevmour 


25 
34 


4,024,792 
5,724,684 






1868 






1872 


Ulysses S. Grant 


Horace Greeley, etc 


37 


6,466,165 


.|1,789,312 


|38.3 


1876 


Rutherford B. Hayes 




38 


8.412,733 


1,946,568 


30.1 


1880 


James A. Garfield . . . 


Winfield S. Hancock, etc. . 


38 


9,204,428 


791.695 


9.4 


1884 


Grover Cleveland . . . 




38 


10,052,706 


848,278 


8.4 



* Tho electors of six states for 1824: were chosen by the Legislatures; in 1828 they were all chosen by the people, 
except in South Carolina. This will explain the great increase of the popular vote at the election of 1828. 
t Increase from 1800 to 1872. 

In the tables which follow, the popular vote from 1824 to 1884 is given 
by the several states: 



POLITICS. 

The popular vote for President from 1824 to 1832, by states. 



321 



STATE6. 



Alabama 

Connecticut .... 

Delaware 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania . . . 
Rhode Island . . . 
South Carolina . 

Tennessee 

Vermont 

Virginia 



Total. 



1824. 



2,416 

7,587 

1,542 
3,095 



6,870 
14,632 
30,687 

1,694 
311 

4,107 

9,110 



12,280 
5,440 
2,145 

* 

216 
3,189 



105,321 



9,443 



* 
• 1,901 
7,343 
6,453 

* 

2,330 
14,523 



3,234 

987 

643 

10,985 

* 

20,415 
18,457 
36,100 



* 

20,197 
* 

2,881 



155,872 



1828. 



17,130 

4,448 

4,349 

18,709 

6,763 

22,237 

39,081 

4,605 

13,527 

24,578 

6,019 

6,763 

8,032 

20,692 

21,950 

140,763 

37,857 

67,597 

101,652 

821 



44,090 

8,205 

26,752 

647,231 



G? 



1,938 

13,829 

4,769 



1,581 
17,052 
31,172 

4,097 
20,773 
25,759 
29,836 

1,581 

3,422 
24,076 
23,758 
135,413 
13,918 
63,396 
50,848 

2,754 



2,240 
24,784 
12,107 



1832. 



t 
11,269 

4,110 
50,750 
14,147 
31,552 
36,247 

4,099 
33,291 
19,156 
14,515 

5,919 

5,192 
25,486 
23,856 
163,497 
24,862 
81,246 
90,983 

2,120 



28,740 

7,870 

33,609 



509,097 687,502 



17,755 
4,276 



5,429 
15,472 
43,396 

2,528 
27,204 
19,160 
33,003 



X 

19,010 

23,393 

154,896 

4,563- 
76,539 
56,716 

2,810 



1,436 
11,152 
11,451 



530,189 



* By Legislature. 



t Unanimously. 



t Majority. 



In the election of 1824 there were four candidates for the presidency,, 
each of whom received a number of electoral votes, but no one a majority. 
Andrew Jackson received a plurality of the electoral votes, ninety-nine 
having been cast for him, and also of the popular vote, receiving 155,872. 
As there was no election, it devolved on the House of Representatives to 
elect, according to the provisions of the twelfth amendment to the constitu- 
tion. The voting in the House was by states, and for the three candidates 
receiving the largest number of votes, Jackson, Adams and Crawford. 
The friends of Henry Clay supported Adams, giving him the votes of 
thirteen states; Jackson of seven, and Crawford of four. 



322 POLITICS. 

The popular vote for President from 1836 to 1844, by states. 





1836. 


1840. 


1S44. 


States. 


o3 
el 

'a 

o 
a 

a g 
t o 

a a 


J2 
0, tu; <u 

Is a 

jS a a 

/O 

a a a 

.2 M.rH 

a ^^ 

w 


ll 

.3 


O 

B.S 

la 


a 

c 


s» 

O 

g53 

a J. <d 

o^ 

l-a 


a 

1 



^' d 

a "3 

ga 

a o 

1-5 


a 
« a 

w 


'g 
S 
a 

in 

P h 
a A 

1-5 


Alabama 


19,068 

2.400 

19,234 

4,155 

22,126 

18,097 

32,480 

33,435 

3,653 

22,300 

22.167 

23,501 

7,360 

9,979 

10,995 

18,722 

26,347 

166,815 

26,910 

96,948 

91,475 

2,964 


15,637 

1,238 

18,466 

4,738 

24,930 

14,983 

41,281 

36,955 

3,383 

15,239 

25,852 

41,093 

4,000 

9,688 

8,337 

6,228 

26,892 

138,543 

23,626 

105,405 

87,111 

2,710 


28,471 

5,160 

31,601 

5,967 

40,261 

45,537 

65,302 

58,489 

11,296 

46,612 

33,528 

72,874 

22,933 

19,518 

22,972 

26,158 

33,351 

225,817 

46,376 

148,157 

144,021 

5,278 


33,991 

6,049 

25,096 

4,884 

31,933 

47,470 

51,695 

32,616 

7,617 

46,201 

20,752 

51,948 

21,098 

16,995 

29,760 

32,670 

31,034 

212,519 

34,218 

124,782 

143,676 

3,301 




37,740 

9,546 

29,841 

5,996 

44,177 

57,920 

70,181 

51,988 

13,782 

45,719 

32,676 

52,846 

27,759 

25,126 

41,369 

27,160 

37,495 

237,588 

39,287 

149,117 

167,535 

4,867 


26,004 

5,504 

32,832 

6,278 

42,100 

45,528 

67,867 

61,255 

13,083 

34,378 

35,984 

67,418 

24,337 

19,206 

31,251 

17,866 

38,318 

232,482 

43,232 

155,057 

161,203 

7,322 




Arkansas . . 






Connecticut 

Delaware . 


174 


' 1,943 


Georgia . . . 






Illinois 


149 


3,570 


Indiana 


2,106 


Louisiana 










Maine 

Maryland 


194 


4,836 


Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Mississippi 

Missouri 


1,621 
321 


10,860 
3,632 






New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . . 


126 

69 

2,798 


4,161 
131 

15,812 


Ohio .*... 


903 
343 

42 


8,050 


Pennsylvania. . . . 
Rhode Island .... 
South Carolina* . 


3,138 

107 


Tennessee 


26,120 
14,037 
30.261 


35,962 
20,991 
23,368 


60,391 
32,440 
42,501 


48,289 
18,009 
43,893 




59,917 
18,041 
49,570 


60,030 
26,770 
43,677 




Virginia 


319 


3,954 




7,050 




Total 


761,549 


736,656 


1,275,011 


1,128,702 


1,337,243 


1,299.062 


62,300 



*By Legislature. 

In 1836 there was no election of vice-president, although Van Buren 
received a majority of twenty-three of the electoral college, and nearly 
25,000 of the popular vote. Richard M.Johnson received 147 electoral 
votes for vice-president, which was just one-half the whole number. 
The election of vice-president devolved upon the senate, and Mr. 
Johnson was chosen. In 1840 General Harrison's majority in the 
electoral college was 174, or almost four-fifths, while on the popular 
vote it was only 139,250, or about one-seventeenth. In 1844, Polk's 
electoral majority was sixty-five, or about three-fifths, while on the popular 
vote he lacked about 24,000 of a majority. 



POLITICS. 323 

The popular vote for President for 1848 and 1852, by states. 



States. 



1848. 



■ a 
1* 



O o 

s » 

go 



•r3 cd 



1852. 



c o 

S o 

^ a 

CD 

go 



02 o 



CD S 

I s 



a 8 

-SPn 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . . 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. . . . 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina * . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 



30,482 
7,588 



31,363 
9,300 



30,314 
6,421 
3,116 

47,544 

53,047 

69,907 

11,084 

67,141 

18,217 

35,125 

37,702 

61,070 

23,940 

25,922 

32,671 

14,781 

40,015 

218,603 

43,550 

138,360 

185,513 

6,779 



27,046 

5,898 

1,847 

44,802 

56,300 

74,745 

12,093 

49,720 

15,370 

39,880 

34,528 

35,281 

30,687 

26,537 

40,077 

27,763 

36,901 

114,318 

31,869 

154,775 

171,176 

3,646 



5,005 
80 



15,774 
8,100 
1,126 



12,096 
125 

38,058 
10,398 



7,560 

829 

120,510 



35,354 

11,263 

730 



26,881 

12,173 

40,626 

33,246 

6,318 

4,318 

34,705 

80,597 

95,340 

17,763 

53,806 

18,649 

41,609 

40,020 

44,569 

41,842 

26,876 

38,353 

29,997 

44,305 

262,083 

39,744 

169,220 

198,568 

8,735 



15,038 

7,404 

35,407 

30,357 

6,293 

2,875 

16,660 

64,934 

80,901 

15,856 

57,068 

17,255 

32,543 

35,066 

52,683 

33,859 

17,548 

29,984 

16,147 

38,^56 

234,882 

39,058 

152,526 

179,174 

7,626 



64,705 
4,509 
23,122 
45,124 
13,747 



58,419 
10,668 
10,948 
46,586 
15,001 



13,837 

9 

10,418 



57,018 
13,552 
13,044 
73,858 
33,658 



58,898 
4,995 
22.173 
58,572 
22,240 



100 

3,160 

62 



9,966 
6,929 
1,604 



8,030 

54 

28,023 

7,237 



6,695 

350 

25,329 



31.682 

8,525 

644 



8,621 
8,814 



Total 1,360,099 1,220,544 291,263 1,602,474 1,386,578 155,825 



* By Legislature. 

In 1848 the majority for General Taylor in the' electoral college was 
thirty-six; on the popular vote he lacked 151,708 of having a majority. 
Pierce received the overwhelming majority of 212 in the electoral college, 
and only 50,071 majority of the popular vote. These figures are inter- 
esting, and are certainly arguments against the system of electing a 
President by electoral voting. 



324 POLITICS. 

The popular vote for President for 1856 and 1860, by states. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky . , 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi ....... 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina * . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia . . . 
Wisconsin 



1856. 



at 

a a 



fig 

SE 3 

II 



46,739 

21,910 

53,365 

34,995 

8,004 

6,358 

56,508 

105,348 

118,670 

36,670 



74,642 
22,164 
39,080 
39,115 
39,240 
52,136 



35,446 
58,164 



32,789 
46,943 

195,878 
48,246 

170,874 



230,710 
6,680 



73,638 
31,169 
10,569 
89,706 



52,843 



o o 

Ed 

CD $ 



20,691 

42,715 

308 



96,189 
94,375 
43,954 



314 



67,379 

281 

108,190 

71,762 



38,345 

28,338 

276,007 



187,497 



147,510 
11,467 



39,561 
291 



66,090 



Total „ 1,838,169 1,341,264 874,534 1,866,352 845,763 1,375,157 589,580 



as 



feS 



I860. 



28,552 

10,787 

36,165 

2,615 

6,175 

4,833 

42,228 

37,444 

22,386 

9,180 



67,416 
20,709 

3,325 
47.460 
19,626 

1,660 



24,195 

48,524 



422 
24,115 

124,607 
36,886 
28,126 



82,175 
1,675 



66,178 

15,639 

545 

60,310 



579 



.9 
£1 

o M 

S a 

3§ 

2 
-5 ft 



39,173 

43,692 

3,815 



60 , 
T3 O 

'^a . 
° s $ 

in 2 

&i 

«£§ 

d-g.S 

d a "3 



172,161 

139,033 

70,409 



1,364 

62,811 

2,294 

106,533 

88,480 

22,069 



17,028 



37,519 

58,324 

362,645 



231,610 

5,270 

268,030 

12,244 



33,808 
1,929 



86.110 



48,831 
28,732 
34,334 
14,641 

7,347 

8,543 
51,889 

2,404 
12,295 

1,048 



3 o 

tog <£ 



Pi O 2 



53,143 

22,681 

6,368 

42,482 

5,939 

805 

748 

40,797 

31,317 



2,112 



48,339 

11,405 

3,000 

178,871 



64,700 

47,548 

218 

74,323 



13,651 

5,227 

38,516 

15,522 

1,023 

367 

11,590 

160,215 

115,509 

55,111 



25,651 

7,625 

26,603 

5,966 

34,372 

65,057 

11,920 

3,283 

58,801 



25,881 

62,801 

312,510 

2,701 

187,232 

3,951 

16,765 

7,707 



11,350 



6,849 
16,290 



65,021 



a 
3 

pq c to 

-§££ 



27,825 
20,094 
6,817 
3,291 
3,864 
5,437 
42,886 
3,913 
5,306 
1,763 



66,058 

20,204 

2,046 

41,760 

22,331 

405 

62 

25,040 

58,372 



441 

t 

t 

44,990 

12,194 

183 

12,776 



69.274 

15,438 

1,969 

74,681 



161 



* By Legislature. t Fusion. 

In 1856 Buchanan received a majority of fifty-two in the electoral 
college, but lacked 377,629 of having a majority of the popular vote. 



POLITICS. 



325 



The popular vote for President from 1864 to 1876, by states. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado * 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida* 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

Hew Hampshire.. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

"Virginia 

"West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 



Total. 



1864. 



c a 



62,134 



44,691 
8,155 



189,496 

150,422 

89,075 

16,441 

27,786 



61,802 
40,453 
126,742 
91,521 
25,060 



72,750 



9,826 

36,400 

60,723 

368,735 



265,154 

9,888 

296,391 

13,692 



42,419 



23,152 
83,453 



2,216,067 



J'i 

CD O 

5 a 

Ma 



43,841 



42,285 
8,767 



158,730 
130,233 

49,596 
3,691 

64,301 



44,211 
22,739 
48,745 
74,604 
17,375 



31,678 



6,594 

32,871 

68,024 

361,986 



205,568 
8,457 

276,316 
8,470 



13,321 



10,438 

65,884 



1,808,725 



1872. 



CO CD 

.3* 



76,366 
22,112 
54,583 



50,995 
7,625 



57,134 

250,303 

176,548 

120,399 

31,048 

39,566 

33,263 

70,493 

30,438 

136,477 

128,550 

43,545 



86,860 

9,729 

6,480 

38,191 

80,131 

419,883 
96,769 

280,223 
10,961 

342,280 
12,993 
62,301 
56,628 



44,167 



29,175 

108,857 



3,015,071 



a 
.-I 



S.2 

EC S 



SO 

w 



72,088 
19,078 
54,077 



47,952 
10,980 



142,722 

199,143 

166,980 

74,040 

13,990 

115,890 

80,225 

42,460 

62,357 

59,408 

97,069 

28,075 



55,628 

5,439 

5,218 

31,224 

83,001 

429,883 

84,601 

238,606 

11,125 

313,382 

6,548 

45,237 

26,129 



12,045 



20,306 
84,707 



2,709,613 



CO A 
to o> 

.£?« 
P 



90,282 
41,373 
54,020 



50,638 
11,115 
17,763 
62,255 

241,944 

186,147 

131,566 
67,048 
88,766 
71,663 
61,422 
66,760 

133,472 

138,455 
55,117 
82,175 

119,196 

18,329 

8,413 

37,168 

91,656 

440,736 
94,769 

281,852 
11,819 

349,589 
13,665 
72,290 
85,655 
47,406 
41,481 
93,468 
32,315 

104,997 






33 



79,444 
37,927 
40,718 



3,597,070 



45,880 
10,206 
15,427 
76,356 

184,938 

163,632 
71,196 
32,970 
99,995 
57,029 
29,087 
67,687 
59,260 
78,355 
34,423 
47,228 

151,434 

7,812 

6,236 

31,424 

76,456 

387,281 
70,094 

244,321 
7,730 

212,041 
5,329 
22,703 
94,391 
66,500 
10,927 
91,654 
29,451 
86,477 



2,834,079 



1876. 



CO S 

W| 
PQ a 

'o o 

<S3 

K 3 

2& 



M 



68,708 
38,669 
79,279 



59,034 

10,752 

23,849 

50,446 

278,232 

208,011 

171,326 

78,322 

97,156 

75,315 

66,300 

71,981 

150,063 

166,534 

72,962 

52,605 

145,029 

31,916 

10,383 

41,513 

103,517 

489,207 

108,417 

330,698 

15,206 

384,184 

15,787 

91,870 

89,566 

44,803 

44,428 

95,558 

42,046 

130,070 



4,033,768 



a 



a) 






102,989 
58,071 
76,468 



61,934 

13,381 

22,927 

130,088 

258,601 

213,526 

112,121 

37,902 

159,696 

70,508 

49,917 

91,780 

108,777 

141,095 

48,799 

112,173 

203,077 

17,554 

9,308 

38,509 

115,962 

521,949 

125,427 

323,182 

14,149 

366,202 

10,712 

90,896 

133,166 

104,803 

20,350 

139,670 

56,495 

123,926 



4,285,992 



* The presidential electors in Colorado are chosen by the legislature, 
and, hence, no record of the popular vote for these can be made 



326 



POLITICS. 



The popular vote for President for 1880 and 1884, by states. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut .... 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky ...... 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . . 
Rhode Island . . . 
South Carolina. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia . . . 
Wisconsin 

Total 



fa a 






56,221 

42,436 

80,348 

27,450 

67,071 

14,133 

23,654 

54,086 

318,037 

232,164 

183,927 

121,549 

106,306 

38,637 

74,039 

78,515 

165,205 

185,341 

93,903 

34,854 

153,567 

54,979 

8,732 

44,852 

120,555 

555,544 

115,874 

375,048 

20,619 

444,704 

18,195 

58,071 

107,677 

57,893 

45,567 

84,020 

46,243 

144,400 



4,454,416 



1880. 



M a 

81 



* 



91,185 

60,775 

80,426 

24,647 

64,415 

15,275 

27,964 

102,470 

277,321 

225,522 

105,845 

59,801 

149.068 

65,067 

65,171 

93,706 

111,960 

131,597 

53,315 

75,750 

208.609 

28,523 

9,613 

40,794 

122,565 

534,511 

124,208 

340,821 

19,948 

407,428 

10,779 

112,312 

128,191 

156,428 

18,316 

128,586 

57,391 

114,649 



4,444,952 






4,642 
4,079 
3,392 
1,435 
868 
120 



969 
26,358 
12,986 
32,701 
19,851 
11,499 
439 

4,408 
818 

4,548 
34,895 

3,267 

5,797 
35,135 

3,950 



528 

2,617 

12,373 

1,126 

6,456 

249 

20,668 

236 

566 

5,917 

27,405 

1,215 



9,079 
7,986 



308,578 



J-g 

p-s 



409 



443 



592 

25 

258 



93 



682 
942 
286 



180 

191 

1,517 



2,616 



1,939 
20 



43 



69 



10,305 



1884. 



Pflo 

63 



59,591 

50,895 

102,416 

36,290 

65,923 

12,951 

28,031 

48,603 

337,474 

238,463 

197,089 

154,406 

118,122 

46,347 

72,209 

85,699 

146,724 

192,669 

111,923 

43,509 

202,929 

76,912 

7,193 

43,249 

123,440 

562,005 

125,068 

400,082 

26,860 

473,804 

19,030 

21,733 

124,078 

93,141 

39,514 

139,356 

63,096 

161,157 



4,851,981 



S 9 



^° 

> g 
SP 



93,951 

72,927 

89,288 

27,723 

67,199 

16,964 

31,766 

94,667 

312,355 

244,990 

177,316 

90,132 

152,960 

62,540 

52,140 

96,932 

122,481 

149,835 

70,144 

76,510 

235,988 

54,391 

5,578 

39,183 

127,798 

563,154 

142,952 

368,280 

24,604 

392,785 

12,391 

69,890 

133,258 

225,309 

17,331 

145,497 

67,317 

146,459 



3S 

a o 
pa a 

3 a 

S a> 

(8 tp 

'S"-h 
Ol— ' 

pq 



873 
1,847 
2,017 
1,958 
1,688 
6 



145 

10,910 

8,293 



16,341 
1,691 



3,953 
531 

24,443 

42,243 

3,583 



26 

552 

3,496 

16,994 

5,179 

726 

16,992 

442 



957 
3,321 

785 



810 
4,598 



4,874,986 ,175,370 



o a 
. o 

P/-3 



612 



2,920 

761 

2,305 

55 

72 

195 

12,074 

3,028 

1,472 

4,495 

3,139 



2,160 

2,794 

10,026 

18,403 

4,684 



2,153 

2,899 

1,571 

6,159 

25,016 

454 

11,069 

492 

15,283 

928 



1,131 
3,534 
1,752 
138 
939 
7,656 



150,369 



The foregoing table shows the votes of the states at the last election 
of the old Republican party and the first of the new Democracy. 



POLITICS. 



327 



The following is a summary of popular and electoral votes for Presi- 
dent and Vice-president of the United States, 1 789-1884: 



, 


CD 
CP 

C3 

53 

•4-1 


6 
S5 




c 
t> 

d 

"ca 



Political Partt. 


* Presidents. 


* Vice-presidents. 


CD 

"3 . 


Candidates. 


Vote. 


Candidates. 


to 




| 


Popular. 


u 


CD 



> 



3 


1789 t10 


73 

135 
138 

138 
176 




George Washington. 




69 








15 
16 

16 
17 




John Adams 








34 






John Jay 










9 






R. H. Harrison 










6 






John Rut-ledge 










6 






John Hancock 










4 






George Clinton 










^ 




Samuel Huntingdon. 










2 






John Milton 










2 
















1 






Benjamin Lincoln. . . 










1 






Edward Telfair 










1 




Federalist 

Federalist 

Republican . . . 


Vacancies 






4 
132 




4 


1792 


George Washington. 












John Adams 








77 




George Clinton 










50 




Thomas Jefferson . . . 










4 






Aaron Burr 










1 




Federalist 

Republican . . . 
Federalist .... 
Republican . . . 


Vacancies 






3 
71 




3 


1796 


John Adams 












Thomas Jefferson . . . 








68 




Thomas Pinckney . . . 










59 




Aaron Burr 










30 














15 
















11 
















7 
















5 
















3 






George Washington . 










9, 
















?, 
















9, 




Charles C. Pinckney. 










1 


1800 


Republican . . . 
Republican . . . 

Federalist 

Federalist 


Thomas Jefferson . . . 






£73 
















f78 














65 




Charles C. Pinckney . 










64 




John Jay 










1 


1804 


Republican . . . 


Thomas Jefferson . . . 


15 




162 


George Clinton 


162 



*Previous to the election of 18(H each elector voted for two candidates for President; the one rnceiving the 
highest number of votes, if a majority, was declared elected President; and the next highest Vice-president. 

fThree States out of thirteen did not vote, viz.: New York, which had not passed an Electoral Law; and 
North Carolina and Khode Island, which had not adopted the Constitution. 

JThere having been a tie vote, the choice devolved upon the House of Representatives. A choice was made 
on the 36th ballot, which was as follows: Jefferson— Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North 
Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia— 10 States; Burr— Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hamp- 
shire, and Rhode Island— 4 States; Blank— Delaware and South Carolina— 2 States. 



328 



POLITICS. 









Summary 


of popular and electoral votes. — Continued. 




& 


"3 

CO 

o 



S5 


■7* 

$ 
O 
> 

C 

QD 
9 

3 

c 


Political Pabty. 


Presidents. 


ViOE-PBESIDENTS. 


"3 


Candidates 


Vote. 


Candidates. 


i 


■w 9 

o .2 


CO 
CD 

+3 

CO 


Popular. 


"3 

u 
o 
o 
to 






> 
o 

CD 






17 

18 
19 

24 
24 

24 
24 

26 

26 
26 


176 

218 
221 

235 
261 

261 

288 

294 

294 
275 


Federalist 

Republican . . . 
Federalist 


Charles C. Pinckney . 
Charles C. Pinckney . 


2 

12 

5 




14 

122 

47 

6 


Rufus King 


14 


1808 




George Clinton 

Rufus King . . . 


113 






47 






John Langdon 

James Madison 

.Tames Monroe 

Elbridge Gerry 

Jared Ingersoll 


9 












3 














3 


1812 


Republican . . . 
Federalist 

Republican . . . 
Federalist 


James Madison 

De Witt Clinton 


11 

7 




128 

89 

1 

183 
34 


131 




86 






1 


1816 


James Monroe 

Rufus King 


16 
3 




D. D. Tompkins 
John E. Howard .... 
James Ross 


183 






22 








B 














John Marshall 

Robt. G. Harper 


4 














3 




Republican . . . 
Opposition 

Republican . . . 

Coalition 

Republican . . . 
Republican . . . 








4 

231 

1 

3 

*99 

84 

41 

37 


4 


1820 


James Monroe 


24 




D. D. Tompkins 


218 




8 










3 


1824 


Andrew Jackson .... 

Wm. H. Crawford . . . 
Henry Clay 


10 

8 
3 
3 


155,872 
105,321 

44,282 
46,587 


John C. Calhoun .... 

Nathaniel Macon. . . . 

Andrew Jackson 

M. Van Buren 

John C. Calhoun 

Richard Rush 

William Smith 

M. Van Buren 

John Sergeant 

Henry Lee 

Amos Ellmaker 

William Wilkins .... 


182 
30 
24 
13 






9 


1828 


Democratic . . . 
Nat. Repub . . . 


Andrew Jackson .... 
John Q. Adams 


15 
9 


647,231 
509,097 


178 
83 


171 
83 

7 


1832 


Democratic . . . 
Nat. Repub . . . 


Andrew Jackson 

Henry Clay 


15 

7 
1 
1 


687,502 
530,189 

33,108 


219 
49 
11 

7 


189 
49 




John Floyd ) 


11 




Anti-Mason . . . 


7 
30 




Democratic . . . 
Whig 








2 
170 
73 
26 
14 
11 
234 
60 


2 


1836 


Martin Van Buren . . 
Wm. H. Harrison . . "i 
Hugh L. White .... 1 

Daniel Webster | 

W. P. Mangum J 

Wm. H. Harrison . . . 
Martin Van Buren . . 
James G. Birney . . 


15 
7 
2 
1 
1 

19 
7 


761,549 
736,656 

1,275,017 

1,128,702 

7,059 


R. M. Johnsont 

Francis Granger 

John Tyler 

William Smith 


147 

77 




Whig 


47 




Whig 

Whig : . . . 

Whig . 


23 


1840 




•>M 




Democratic . . . 
Liberty 


R. M. Johnson 


48 










L. W. Tazewell 

Geo. M. Dallas 

T. Frelinghuysen .... 


11 


1844 


Democratic . . . 
Whig 


James K. Polk 

Henry Clay 


15 
11 


1,337,243 
1,299,068 


170 
105 


170 
105 



* No choice having been made by the Electoral College, the choice devolved upon the Honae of Representa- 
tives. A choice was made on the first ballot, which was as follows: Adams — Connecticut, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts. Missouri, New Hampshire, New York. Ohio, Rhode Island and Vermont 
— 13 States; Jackson — Alabama, Indiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Tennessee — 7 
States; Crawford— Delaware, Georgia, North Carolina and Virginia — 4 States. 

tNo candidate having received a majority of the votes of the Electoral College, the Senate elected R. M. 
Johnson Vice-president, who received 33 votes, Francis Granger received 16. 



POLITICS. 



329 



Summary of popular and electoral votes. — Continued. 



o 


GO 

1 

02 





m 

o 

> 

c5 

a> 

"3 
o 

H 


• Political Party. 


Presidents. 


Vice-presidents . 


-*3 

o 

CO 


Candidates. 


Vote. 


Candidates. 


en 

0; 


CO 

o 

u 
as 
CO 
X 


00 

CO 

1 

02 


Popular. 


u 
O 

Co 

H 


O 
u 

CO 








Whig 


James G. Birney 




62,300 
1,360,101 








1848 


30 


290 


Zachary Taylor 


15 


163 


Millard Fillmore .... 


163 








Democratic . . . 


Lewis Cass 


15 


1,220,544 
291,263 


197 


Wm. O.Butler 


127 








Free Soil 








Chas. F. Adams . 




1852 


31 


296 


Democratic . . . 


Franklin Pierce 


27 


1,601,474 


254 


Wm. R. King 


254 








Whig 


Winfield Scott 


4 


1,386,578 

156,149 

1,838,169 


49 


Wm. A. Graham .... 


42 




31 


296 


Free Dem 

Democratic . . . 


John P. Hale 




174 


Geo. W. Julian 




1856 


James Buchanan .... 


19 


J. C. Breckenridge. . . 


174 








Republican . . . 


John C. Fremont. . . . 


11 


1,341,264 


114 


Wm. L. Dayton 


114 








American 


Millard Fillmore 


1 


874,534 


8 


A. J. Donelson 


8 


1860 


33 


303 


Republican . . . 


Abraham Lincoln . . . 


17 


1,866,352 


180 


Hannibal Hamlin . . . 


180 








Democratic . . . 


J. C. Breckenridge . . 


11 


845,763 


72 


Joseph Lane 


72 








Cons. Union . . 
Ind. Dem 


John Bell 


3 

2 


589,581 
1,375,157 


39 
12 


Edward Everett 


3Q 




S. A. Douglas 


12 


1864 


*36 


314 


Republican . . . 


Abraham Lincoln . . . 


22 


2,216,067 


212 


Andrew Johnson .... 


212 








Democratic . . . 


Geo. B. McClellan... 


3 


1,808,725 


21 


G. H. Pendleton 


21 




|37 


317 


Republican . . . 


Vacancies 

Ulysses S. Grant .... 


11 
26 




81 
214 




81 


1868 


3,015,071 


Schuyler Colfax 


?,14 








Democratic . . . 


Horatio Seymour .... 


8 


2,709,613 


80 


F. P. Blair, Jr 


80 




37 


366 


Republican . . . 


Ulysses S. Grant .... 


3 
31 




23 

286 




23 


1872 


3,597,070 


Henry Wilson 


286 








Dem. & Lib. . . 




6 


2,834,079 




B. Gratz Brown 


47 








Democratic . . . 






29,408 




Geo. W. Julian 


5 




38 


369 


Temperance . . 






5,608 


42 

18 
2 
1 

17 
185 


A. H. Colquitt 

John M. Palmer 
T. E. Bramlette 

W. S. Groesbeck 

Willis B. Machen . . . 


5 




Thos. A. Hendricks . . 




3 






B. Gratz BrowD 






3 






Charles J. Jenkins . . 






1 






David Davis 






1 




Republican . . 


J Not counted 






11 


1876 


Rutherford B. Hayes 


21 


4,033,950 


Wm. A. Wheeler 


185 








Democratic . . . 


Samuel J. Tilden 


17 


4,284,885 


184 


Thos. A. Hendricks . . 


184 








Greenback .... 
Prohibition . . . 


Peter Cooper 




81,740 

9,522 

2,636 

4,442,950 










Scattering 












38 


369 












1880 


Republican . . . 


James A. Garfield . . . 


19 


214 


Chester A. Arthur. . . 


214 








Democratic . . . 


Winfield S. Hancock . 


19 


4,442,035 


155 


Wm. H.English 


155 








Greenback 


James B. Weaver. . . . 




306,867 
12,576 




B. J. Chambers 






Scattering 








1884 


38 


401 


Republican . . . 


James G. Blaine 


18 


4,851,981 


182 


John A. Logan 


182 








Democratic . . . 


Grover Cleveland .... 


20 


4,874,986 


219 


Thomas A. Hendricks 


219 








Greenback 


Benj. F.Butler 




175,370 




Benj. H. West 










Prohibition . . . 


John P. St. John .... 




150,369 




William Daniels 





* Eleven states did not vote, viz.: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. 

+ Three states did not vote, viz. : Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia. 

t Three electoral votes of Georgia cast for Horace Greeley, and the votes of Arkansas, 6, and Louisiana, 8, cast for 
TJ. 8. Grant, were rejected. If all had been included in the count, the electoral vote would have been 300 for U. S. 
Grant, and 66 for opposing candidates. 



EDUCATION 



Great interest is manifested in the United States, both by the govern- 
ment and the people, in the subject of general education. Among the 
first acts of the early colonists was the establishment of schools for the 
education of their children. As the country has grown older, and been 
more widely developed, the interest in this cause has increased. The 
largest provisions are made, and the most ample opportunities are afforded 
to the children of every citizen to acquire, at the public expense, such an 
amount of knowledge as will enable them to grow into intelligent men 
and women, capable of living wisely and happily, and enjoying the full 
benefits of a free country. • No country has devised more liberally for the 
education of its youth. No people prize more highly, or guard more jeal- 
ously, their free school system. 

A distinguishing feature of the public school system of the country is, 
that it is largely, if not entirely, in the hands of the people themselves. 
The general principle of local self-government, so strenuously insisted upon 
by the American people, is the basis of their school laws and government. 
Unlike European countries, in which education is general, we have no 
national system of education. No federal education law, embracing and 
controlling all the states, has ever been enacted; the few attempts to 
engraft this idea on the public school system have all failed. The duty 
of maintaining the school system devolves wholly upon the several states. 

The system of free education for all classes is now substantially the 
same in all the states. In the earlier years of the country, the social and 
educational conditions of different parts of the country were widely differ- 
ent. The various sections were settled with people of diverse notions 
about social life and political control; the means, too, of inter-state com- 
munication were not so many, nor so rapid, as at present, so that the 
interchange of ideas and of customs was slow and difficult. In the North 
and West, a great interest has always been manifested in the cause of 
education, and its general promulgation was esteemed, not only the great- 
est blessing, but an absolute condition of peace and prosperity in a self- 
governing people. While slavery existed in the Southern states, the 
public school was an impossibility, and, with few exceptions, the schools 
of the South were either private or parochial until about 1870. Since 

(331) 



332 EDUCATION. 

that time, the system, as it has prevailed in the North, has been generally 
adopted, and is rapidly advancing to perfection. In some of the territories 
acquired from Spain and Mexico, where religious intolerance had prevailed 
so long, the free public school was looked upon as an unmitigated evil. 
But, as these territories have been filled up with settlers from the states, 
this prejudice has either been modified or borne down by an overwhelming 
public sentiment, and the same school system is being introduced as pre- 
vails throughout the country. 

A National Bureau of Education was established by Congress in 1867. 
It does not propose to interfere, in any way whatever, with the manage- 
ment of the schools by the states. Even in the territories, where the 
power of Congress is supreme, the operations of the Bureau are advisory 
only. The whole aim and purpose of this Bureau, as stated in its own 
reports, is for collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condi- 
tion and progress of education in the several states and territories, and for 
diffusing such information respecting the organization and management of 
school systems and methods of teaching as shall aid the people of the 
United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school 
systems, and to otherwise promote the cause of education. The Bureau 
confines its operations wholty to the collection of facts and the diffusion 
of information concerning the education of the people. It thus influences 
the management of the schools in an indirect manner only. 

While it is true that each state has its own educational system, and 
manages it as a state institution, the practical control of each school is 
under local authority ; the state, as a state, interferes but little. It reserves 
to itself a general supervision. In eleven states, a compulsory education 
law is in force, but, otherwise, attendance at the public school is voluntary. 
Even where a compulsory law has been enacted, actual attendance at the 
public school for a specified time is not insisted upon where education is 
secured by other means. 

The state arranges the school system in its general features, designates 
the various kinds of schools to be established, supported and managed by 
the public authorities, and sometimes prescribes, more or less, the branches 
of knowledge to be taught. It provides how districts may be created, 
divided or consolidated with others, and how moneys are to be raised by 
and for them. It prescribes the organization of the schools, their officers 
and their powers, the time and manner of filling and vacating offices, and 
the functions of each officer. The state prescribes the school age, the 
conditions of attendance, and provides, in some cases, for the investment 



EDUCATION. 333 

and application of the funds derived from the general government. The 
local authorities organize the school districts under the provisions of the 
state laws, elect school officers, levy and collect taxes for school purposes. 
The local school officers examine, appoint and fix the salaries of teachers, 
when not otherwise done, build school-houses, procure school supplies, 
arrange courses of study, prescribe the rules and regulations for the con- 
duct of the schools, and administer the school funds. 

Massachusetts was the first state in which a common school law was 
enacted. Throughout all the New England states, and most of the other 
states, the school system is modeled after much the same as the Massa- 
chusetts plan. The township is the political unit upon which lies the 
obligation to make provision for education and the area of the school 
district. These township districts are composed of various sub-districts. 
The schools are managed by local committees, generally elected by the 
people of the district. In some states these are called school committees; 
in others, directors, trustees, boards, etc. ; but, whatever the name, they 
are all similar in character and function. Between the state and the town- 
ship there is a county supervision. This consists of an officer, usually 
termed the county superintendent, who oversees the schools of the entire 
county, and secures uniformity of management in all. All the states, 
except Delaware and the territory of Alaska, have state superintendents 
of instruction, whose duties are similar to those of the county superin- 
tendent, with the state as the area of jurisdiction. 

The schools are maintained by funds collected annually. If there is 
any one question on which the people of the United States are practically 
unanimous, it is in the support of their public schools. This support is an 
outgrowth of belief in the principle that it is the duty of the state to pro- 
vide for the education of the citizens. The principle is recognized that 
the state has a stake in the young, and that, to guarantee her own future, 
she must see that they do not lack means of improvement. Education is 
by the people, for the public good. 

The support of the public schools comes from three sources: the state 
school funds, state taxes, and local taxes. The state school fund arose 
from an Act of Congress in 1785, setting aside Section 16 of every town- 
ship of the public domain for school purposes. This section is every- 
where known as the " school section." In some of the states of later 
organization, as Oregon, Minnesota, Kansas, etc., Section 36 is also 
reserved for school uses. Since the enactment of this law, an area greater 
than Great Britain and Ireland has been given to school purposes in the : 



334 EDUCATION. 

United States. In most of the older states, these lands have been sold 
and the proceeds invested in permanent funds. In 1836, a surplus in the 
treasury of the general government was apportioned among the several 
states. Most of the states applied their apportionment to school use, 
creating a fund which is known as the United States Deposit Fund. 
Though this is only a loan, and subject to recall, no part of it has ever 
been called in, and probably never will be. 

The state tax is that levied in most of the states for school support. 
It is generally based on the population of legal school age, and the amount 
thus raised is not large. 

The local tax is the main support of the common school. The amount 
of this tax may vary with each year, being conditioned by the needs of 
the schools in the local districts. These needs are well known to the 
authorities whose duty it is to levy the tax. In ordinary circumstances, 
the expense of conducting the schools remains about the same from year 
to year, and the tax laid is substantially the same. An extraordinary 
demand, as the building of a school-house or of procuring some new 
school supplies, is met by an increase of the tax for that year. 

In addition to what is known as the common schools, the states have 
made provision for more advanced education. Schools for secondary 
instruction, for specialties, have been established by the states, and are 
maintained at the public expense. Among these are found high schools, 
normals, academies, reformatories, colleges, universities, and institutions 
for the education of the defective, dependent and delinquent classes. 

In the maps, tables and diagrams which appear in this work, are 
found all the main facts concerning the public schools of the country, pre- 
sented in a concise, condensed and graphic manner. Only the latest facts 
derived from the highest official sources have been consulted. 

By a later act of Congress, provision was made by land grant for the 
support of these schools of higher education in those states and territories 
where land could be had. In the older states, annual appropriations of 
sufficient money to pay current expenses are made by the legislatures of 
the states. In every respect are these institutions considered in the light 
of public necessities, to be supported and nurtured by the state. It is 
noticeable that in later years, these state schools have been growing in 
popularity among the people, and the patronage of them is increasing. 

In the maps, tables and diagrams which appear in this work, are 
found all the main facts concerning the public schools of the country, pre- 
sented in a concise, condensed and graphic manner. Only the latest facts 
derived from the highest official sources have been consulted. 



EDUCATION 



335 



A table showing number, nativity, and race of the minor males in the school popula- 
tion of the several states and territories. 



States and Territories. 



Native white 
males. 



Foreign 
white males. 



Total white 
males. 



Colored 
males. 



Total 
males. 



Total 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . . . ^ 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



6,690,860 



358,631 



7,049,491 



1,118,154 



8,167,645 



107,019 

107,490 

92,488 

21,282 

68,019 

19,661 

29,190 

116,449 

492,934 

343,236 

292,998 

174,434 

239,988 

63,771 

104,029 

119,877 

152,190 

233,446 

119,786 

93,956 

340,337 

72,243 

4,210 

28,082 

145,445 

749,229 

151,471 

508,760 

29,475 

664,849 

24,963 

48,110 

209,794 

90,272 

47,293 

163,477 

109,751 

225,324 

2,916 

14,478 

14,207 

4,285 

4,138 

13,272 

19,659 

10,711 

1,866 



387 

631 

4,568 

2,112 

4,374 

356 

682 

195 

37,227 

6,092 

19,574 

10,682 

1,344 

704 

6,448 

2,714 

13,220 

33,682 

25,719 

339 

7,808 

10,960 

357 

2,567 

7,761 

55,986 

258 

18,772 

925 

31,414 

3,555 

114 

678 

3,915 

3,038 

753 

683 

26,192 

1,461 

5,856 

275 

336 

313 

375 

2,312 

633 

284 



107,406 

108,121 

97,056 

23,394 

72,393 

20,017 

29,872 

116,644 

530,161 

349,328 

312,572 

185,116 

241,332 

64,475 

110,477 

122,591 

165,410 

267,128 

145,505 

94,295 

348,145 

83,203 

4,567 

30,649 

153,206 

805,215 

151,729 

527,532 

30,400 

696,263 

28,518 

48,224 

210,472 

94,187 

50,331 

164,230 

110,434 

251,516 

. 4,377 

20,334 

14,482 

4,621 

4,451 

13,647 

21,971 

11,344 

2,150 



103,639 

38,040 

4,810 

441 

1,227 

4,718 

27,560 

116,951 

7,572 

6,572 

1,841 

8,666 

35,894 

71,045 

338 

36,578 

1,632 

3,718 

684 

135,032 

24,914 

411 

507 

71 

4,967 

8,741 

101,695 

13,252 

1,716 

11,546 

612 

84,779 

76,835 

34,590 

189 

128,464 

4,861 

1,159 

1,010 

330 

6,506 

229 

571 

1,308 

148 

1,649 

136 



211,045 

146,161 

101,866 

23,835 

73,620 

24,735 

57,432 

233,595 

537,733 

355,900 

314,413 

193,782 

277,226 

135,520 

110,815 

159,169 

167,042 

270,846 

146,189 

229,327 

373,059 

83,614 

5,074 

30,720 

158,173 

813,956 

253,424 

540,784 

32,116 

707,809 

29,130 

133,003 

287,307 

128,777 

50,520 

292,694 

115,295 

252,675 

5,387 

20,664 

20,988 

4,850 

5,022 

14,955 

22,119 

12,993 

2,286 



33(3 



EDUCATION. 



A iab/e showing the number, nativity, and race of the minor females in the school 
population of the several states and territories. 



States and Territories. 

Total 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts , 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia ' 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington : . . . 

Wyoming 



Native white 


Foreign 


Total white 


Colored 


Total 


females. 


white females. 


females. 


females. 


females. 


6,611,147 


361,298 


6,972,445 


1,124,999 


8,097,444 


106,474 


272 


106,746 


104,948 


211,694 


103,401 


496 


103,897 


38,794 


142,691 


91,821 


4,532 


96,353 


3,064 


99,417 


18,428 


1,482 


19,910 


353 


20,263 


66,680 


4,380 


71,060 


1,329 


72,389 


19,181 


423 


19,604 


4,550 


24,154 


28,395 


734 


29,129 


28,935 


58,064 


113,043 


185 


113,228 


114,193 


227,421 


491,042 


37,356 


528,398 


7,704 


536,102 


339.380 


6,015 


345,395 


6,887 


352,282 


286,576 


17,843 


304,419 


1,768 


306,187 


164,433 


9,596 


174,029 


8,740 


182,769 


234,421 


1,462 


235,883 


35,413 


271,296 


63,951 


798 


64,749 


71,145 


135,894 


101,860 


7,188 


109,048 


331 


109,379 


119,485 


2,933 


122,418 


37,614 


160,032 


150,689 


13,612 


164,301 


1,677 


165,978 


227,136 


31,970 


259,106 


3,811 


262,917 


118,081 


24,071 


142,152 


687 


142,839 


91,528 


278 


91,806 


137,722 


229.528 


332,844 


7,415 


340,259 


25,394 


365,653 


67,834 


10,000 


77,834 


450 


78,284 


4,357 


366 


4,723 


332 


5,055 


27,449 


2,661 


30,110 


69 


30,179 


144,931 


8,161 


153,092 


5,156 


158,248 


766,334 


65,447 


831,781 


9,907 


841,688 


146,735 


223 


146,958 


102,125 


249,083 


509,151 


19,309 


528,460 


13,732 


542,192 


28,465 


863 


29,328 


450 


29,778 


668,462 


32,662 


701,124 


13,444 


714,568 


24,928 


3,635 


28,563 


639 


29,202 


46,102 


124 


46,226 


83,050 


129,276 


204,757 


665 


205,422 


78,524 


283,946 


84,729 


3,611 


88,340 


34,419 


122,759 


45,713 


3,042 


48,755 


188 


48,943 


161,124 


700 


161,824 


130,524 


292,34& 


106,517 


753 


107,270 


4,596 


111,866 


223,384 


25,089 


248,473 


1,065 


249,538 


2,380 


1,161 


3,541 


643 


4,184 


13,219 


5,539 


18,758 


• 320 


19,078 


14,804 


306 


15,110 


7,439 


22,549 


8,929 


298 


4,227 


38 


4,265 


3,614 


189 


3,803 


496 


4,299 


12,754 


351 


13,105 


1,195 


14,300 


18,937 


2,324 


21,261 


134 


21,395 


10,163 


529 


10,692 


954 


11,646- 


1,526 


249 


1,775 


51 


1,82& 



EDUCATION. 



337 



A table showing the number, nativity, and race of the legal school population in 

the several states and territories. 



States and Territories. 



Native white. 



Foreign white. 



Total white. 



Colored, Ori- 
ental, and In- 
dian. 



Total. 



Total 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah -. 

Washington 

Wyoming 



13,302,007 



719,929 



14,021,936 



2,243,153 



16,265,089 



213,493 

210,891 

184,309 

39,710 

134,699 

38,842 

57,585 

229,592 

983,977 

682,616 

579,574 

338,867 

474,409 

127,722 

205,889 

239,362 

302,879 

460,582 

237,867 

185,484 

673,181 

140,077 

8,567 

55,531 

290,376 

1,151,563 

298,206 

1,017,911 

57,940 

1,333,311 

49,891 

94,212 

414,551 

175,001 

93,006 

325,601 

216,268 

448,708 

5,296 

27,697 

29,011 

8,214 

7,752 

26,026 

38,596 

20,874 

3,392 



659 

1,127 

9,100 

3,594 

8,754 

779 

1,416 

380 

74,583 

12,107 

37,417 

20,278 

2,806 

1,502 

13,636 

5,647 

26,832 

65,552 

49,790 

617 

15,223 

20,960 

723 

5,228 

15,922 

121,433 

481 

38,081 

1,788 

64,076 

7,190 

238 

1,343 

7,526 

6,080 

1,453 

1,436 

51,281 

2,622 

11,395 

581 

634 

502 

726 

4,636 

1,162 

533 



214,152 

212,018 

193,409 

43,304 

143,453 

39,621 

59,001 

229,872 

1,058,559 

694,723 

616,991 

359,145 

477,215 

129,224 

219,525 

245,009 

329,711 

526,234 

287,657 

186,101 

688,404 

161,037 

9,290 

60,759 

306,298 

1,636,996 

298,687 

1,055,992 

59,728 

1,397,387 

57,081 

94,450 

415,894 

182,527 

99,086 

326,054 

217,704' 

499,989 

7,918 

39,092 

29,592 

8,848 

8,254 

2,752 

43,232 

22,036 

3,925 



208,587 

76,834 

7,874 

794 

2,556 

9,268 

56,495 

231,144 

15,276 

13,459 

3,609 

17,406 

71,307 

142,190 

669 

74,192 

3,309 

7,529 

1,371 

272,754 

50,308 

861 

839 

140 

10,123 

18,648 

203,820 

26,984 

2,166 

24,990 

1,251 

167,829 

155,359 

69,009 

377 

258,988 

9,457 

2,224 

1,653 

650 

13,945 

267 

1,067 

2,503 

282 

2,603 

187 



442,739 
288,852 
201,283 

44,098 
146,009 

48,889 
115,496 
461,016 
1,073,835 
708,182 
620,600 
376,551 
543,522 
271,414 
220,194 
319,201 
333,020 
533,763; 
289,028. 
458,855. 
738,712; 
161,898 

10,129 

60,899 

316,421 

1,655,644 

502,507 

1,082,976- 

61,894 

1,422,377 

58,332; 

262,279' 

571,253. 

251,536 

99,463 

585,042 

227,161 

502,213 

9,571 
39,742. 
43,537 

9,115 

9,321 
29,255 
43,514 
24,639 

4,112 



338 EDUCATION. 

The total receipts and expenditures for the schools in the several states and territories. 



States and Territories. 



EXPENDITURES. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas a 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia . . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina ....... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Dollars. Dollars. 

96,857,534 a79,339,814 



505,201 

103,028 

500,978 

3,525,527 

526,126 

1,441,255 

137,817 

177,653 

476,957 

129,907 

659,560 

50,234 

9,850,011 

7,267,700 

6,288,167 

2,163,261 

1,132,202 

498,409 

1,074,554 

1,452,557 

4.696,612 

3,792,740 

2,012,987 

742,765 

3,930,003 

76,302 

1,252,898 

275,967 

559,133 

1,881,103 

32,171 

11,035,511 

553,464 

11,085,315 

340,932 

8,126,827 

541,607 

405,551 

973,198 

921,595 

176,048 

462,139 

1,287,526 

120,549 

875,913 

2,701,413 

36,161 



Dollars. 
55,745,029 



Dollars. 
6,643,313 



430,131 

61,172 

382,637 

3,031,014 

400,205 

1,335,234 

183,257 

172,455 

438,567 

117,724 

653,464 

38,411 

7,536,682 

4,504,407 

4,347,119 

1,819,561 

1,162,944 

455,758 

991,297 

1,395,284 

4,720,951 

3,112,468 

1,622.919 

679.475 

3,092,332 

68,002 

1,079,966 

212,164 

568,103 

2,039,938 

28,973 

9,936,662 

383,709 

7,707,630 

316,885 

7,306,692 

530,167 

367.259 

786,088 

782,735 

170,887 

452,693 

889,862 

112,615 

720,967 

2,163,845 

28,504 



388,128 

56,744 

331,750 

2,271,219 

190,839 

986,989 

81,311 

110,931 

287,872 

99,177 

616,096 

33,421 

4,587,046 

3,175,275 

2,907,446 

1,101,211 

1,025,659 

373,081 

777,692 

1,117,145 

3,906,516 

1,920,618 

956,571 

653,351 

2,261,058 

53,785 

565,651 

131,019 

415,777 

1,391,550 

28,002 

7,438,277 

328,717 

4,972,541 

212,348 

4,504,802 

401,738 

308,230 

634,587 

713,908 

130,187 

361,039 

716,153' 

95,582 

527,099 

1,570,997 

25,894 



2,904 

623,515 

185,743 

92,357 

87,047 

69,513 



45,598 



1,778 
572,801 
887,284 
426,520 
306,490 
15,622 



74,801 

100,917 

490,015 

6356,237 

157,889 



121,510 

2,928 

188,789 

46,694 

:,924 

;,036 



1&92 

272,03 



500,905 

16,152 

711,835 

67,798 

c855,169 

52,930 

8,060 

64,926 

20.139 

9.566 

43,167 

29,341 

4,385 

65,057 

149,971 



Dollars. 
16,951,472 



42,003 

1,524 

27.372 

574,052 

117,009 

261,198 

32,433 

61,524 

105,097 

18,547 

37,368 

3,212 

2,376,835 

941,848 

1,013,153 

411,860 

121,663 

82,677 

138,804 

177,222 

324,420 

835,613 

508,459 

26,124 

709,764 

11,289 

325,526 

34,451 

137,402 

376,352 

971 

1,997,480 

38,840 

2,023,254 

36,739 

1,946,721 

75,499 

50,969 

86,575 

48,688 

31,134 

48,487 

144,368 

12,648 

128,811 

442,877 

2,610 



a Exclusive of expenditures connected with state offices of public instruction, schools of the grade of normal 
schools and colleges, and schools for Indian children. 
b Includes repairs. 
c Includes rents, except in Philadelphia. 



EDUCATION. 



339 



The number of teachers employed, the average monthly salaries, and the aggregate 
months of school in the several states and territories. 





TEACHERS. 


Average amount paid 
monthly per teacher for 
services!. 


<4-l 



00 




J. ffi 

a o 

a 
u 

■f" 


White. 


Colored. 


J5 

N 

a§ 

£g 

a) 

to 
a> 
u 
M 
to 
< 


States and Territories. 


"a 


a 




a 


The United States 


236,019 


96,099 


124,086 


10,520 


5,314 


$36 21 


1,462,174 


Alabama 

Arizona . . 


4,637 

101 
2,823 
3,556 

559 
2,719 

520 

526 

425 
1,151 
6,146 

129 

15,912 

11,906 

12,794 

6,619 

7,706 

1,713 

4,797 

3,038 

7,336 

8,608 

5,100 

5,473 

10,802 

167 
3,418 

195 
2,620 
3,422 

164 

20,738 

6,266 

16,875 

1,141 

19,388 

902 
3,204 
5,937 
6,764 

434 
2,597 
4,933 

532 

4,156 

7,000 

70 


1,873 

48 

1,807 

1,173 

215 

573 

212 

239 

21 

546 

2,676 

74 

6,148 

6,862 

4,380 

2,958 

4,380 

540 

1,344 

1,064 

922 

2,496 

1,824 

1,834 

5,552 

62 

1,319 

52 

395 

943 

128 

5,641 

3,113 

7,913 

518 

8,993 

145 

1,078 

3,464 

3,871 

222 

731 

2,507 

199 

2,986 

2,027 

31 


1,230 
53 

563 
2,383 

344 
2,146 

308 

280 

255 

326 
1,742 
55 
9,718 
4,923 
8,414 
3,632 
2,507 

741 
3,453 
1,587 
6,411 
6,098 
3,276 
1,396 
4,661 

105 
2,099 

143 
2,225 
2,430 
36 
15,049 
1,178 
8,740 

623 
10,359 

756 

975 
1,244 
1,514 

212 
1,866 
1,630 

333 

1,055 

4,973 

39 


1,093 


441 


21 66 
76 54 

37 62 
76 99 

57 97 
40 36 

32 31 
27 99 
67 74 

25 50 
30 26 
54 73 

38 78 
38 90 

30 59 

27 56 

26 00 

40 02 

28 20 
42 19 

58 49 

29 05 

33 84 

29 10 

36 33 
63 21 

31 38 
89 45 
28 12 

41 42 

30 67 
40 71 
21 27 

37 79 

38 63 
33 52 
48 25 

25 21 
28 45 

28 01 

42 48 
21 81 

26 63 
35 97 

27 61 

29 96 
60 23 


17,893 
7,413 


Arkansas 

California . . 


352 


101 


8,660 

28,521 


Colorado 






3,013 


Connecticut 






23,294 


Dakota . . 






2,458 


Delaware »• 

District of Columbia 
Florida 

Idaho 


1 

12 

183 
983 


6 

137 

96 

745 


3,920 

4,150 

3,832 

19,545 

604 


Iowa 


31 

76 


15 

45 


112,508 
79,329 
93,771 


Maine . . . 


23 

480 
287 


6 
339 
145 


36,553 

37,711 

9,073 

27,118 


Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota . . . 


231 
1 
6' 


156 

2 
8 


22,198 
59,740 
66,095 
26,376 


Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 


1,411 
340 


832 
249 


21,149 

58,359 

804 


Nebraska 






17,244 


Nevada 






1,383 


New Hampshire 






14,376 


New Jersey 


15 


34 


31,861 


New Mexico 


899 


New York 


6 

1,430 

126 


42 

545 

96 


163,782 


North Carolina 


15,120 


Ohio 

Oregon 


127,944 
5,138 


Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 


19 
1 

787 

894 

1,105 


17 

364 
335 
274 


128,897 
7,827 


South Carolina 


11,712 


Tennessee 

Utah 


21,098 

25,194 

2,695 


Vermont 






16,548 


Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 


539 


257 


26,509 
2,647 


88 


27 


17,586 
49,299 


Wyoming 






328 











340 EDUCATION. 

The number of pupils by color and sex in attendance in 1 880. 



States 

and 

■ Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

Dist. of Columbia . . . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas , 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin , 

Wyoming , 



NUMBER OF PUPILS WHO ATTENDED SCHOOL DURING THE YEAR. 



P 



9.946.160 



187,550 

4,212 

108,236 

161,477 

22,804 

118,589 

13,718 

26,412 

26,439 

43,304 

237,124 

5,834 

704,041 

512,201 

425,665 

246,128 

292,427 

81,012 

150,811 

149,981 

316,630 

362,459 

186,544 

237,065 

486,002 

4,667 

100,871 

8,918 

64,670 

205,240 

4,755 

1,027,938 

256,422 

752,442 

37,437 

950,300 

42,489 

134,842 

291,500 

176,245 

25,792 

73,237 

220,733 

14,780 

143,796 

299,514 

2,907 



White. 



9,090,248 



111,889 

4,212 

81,363 

160,659 

22,760 

118,232 

13,677 

24,178 

18,472 

27,672 

150,501 

5,830 

698,561 

504,231 

425,160 

239,238 

263,507 

46,370 

150,758 

123,448 

316,193 

360,822 

186,515 

115,463 

461,956 

4,621 

100,661 

8,901 

64,660 

201,463 

4,755 

1,022,154 

161,262 

740,713 

37,430 

938,275 

42,454 

61,832 

230,130 

131,616 

25,782 

73,159 

152,455 

14,644 

139,690 

299,023 

2,901 



4,687,530 



60,660 

2,104 

43,153 

82,687 

11,363 

61,586 

7,016 

12,839 

9,200 

13,642 

80,615 

3,028 

360,087 

266,077 

216,558 

124,542 

135,928 

24,316 

73,522 

63,708 

156,922 

180,286 

93,470 

59,749 

240,565 

2,386 

52,847 

4,526 

33,517 

99,961 

2,484 

516,838 

87,051 

389,086 

19,353 

485,079 

21,465 

32,179 

119,293 

68,627 

13,569 

37,255 

78,757 

7,210 

75,484 

155,422 

1,518 



4,402,718 



51,229 

2,108 

38,210 

77,972 

11,397 

56,646 

6,661 

11,339 

9,272 

14,030 

69,886 

2,802 

338,474 

238,154 

208,602 

114,696 

127,579 

22,054 

77,236 

59,740 

159,271 

180,536 

93,045 

55,714 

221,391 

2,235 

47,814 

4,375 

31,143 

101,502 

2,271 

505,316 

74,211 

351,627 

18,077 

453,196 

20,989 

29,653 

110,837 

62,989 

12,213 

35,904 

73,698 

7,434 

64,206 

143,601 

1,383 



Colored. 



855,912 



75,661 



26,873 

818 

44 

357 

41 

2,234 

7.967 

15,632 

86,623 

4 

5,480 

7,970 

505 

6,890 

28,920 

34,642 

53 

26,533 

437 

61,637 

29 

121,602 

24,046 

46 

210 

17 

10 

3,777 



c?5,784 

95,160 

11,729 

7 

12,025 

35 

73,010 

61,370 

44,629 

grlO 

- 78 

68,278 

M36 

4,106 

491 

6 



433,329 



40,416 



13,426 

420 

24 

164 

16 

1,296 

3,599 

7,778 

4^301 

2 

2,652 

4.009 

242 

3,429 

14,640 

17,574 

25 

13,521 

211 

a50 

14 

60,515 

11,770 

19 

110 

8 

4 

1,895 



e2,963 

47,725 

5,907 

3 

5,933 

16 

37,460 

30,883 

23,697 

2 

45 

34,270 

c71 

2,169 

252 

3 



422,583 



35,245 



13,447 

398 

20 

193 

«25 

938 

4,368 

7,854 

43,322 

2 

2,828 

3,961 

263 

3,461 

14,280 

17,068 

28 

13T012 

226 

787 

15 

61,087 

12,276 

27 

100 

9 

6 

1,882 



/ 2,821 

47,435 

5,822 

4 

6,092 

19 

35,550 

30,487 

20,932 

08 

33 

34,008 

c65 

1,937 

239 

3 



a Indians. 

6 Includes 20 Indians, 
c Includes 15 Indians. 
d Includes 29 Indians. 



e Includes 17 Indians. 
/ Includes 12 Indians. 
g Includes 5 Indians. 
h Includes 30 Indians. 



EDUCATION. 



341 



The number of teachers employed in the public schools and the average monthly 

salary in the states and territories. 



States. 



Number of teachers. 



Male. 



Female. 



Average monthly 
salary. 



Male. 



Female. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California . . . 

Colorado 

Connecticut . 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 



Kansas 

Kentucky e 

Louisiana e 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 



Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . . . 
Rhode Island. .. . 
South Carolina. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia . . . 
Wisconsin 



2,938 

(83) 

1,977 

1,156 

270 

c617 

(e56) 
e222 | 
678 

(6,351) 
8,076 | 
7,274 
6,044 | 

(62) 
3.342 I 
4,195 
773 I 
(7,797) 
1,220 
1,079 
3,887 
cl,025 
(5,253) 
(22) 
6,028 
1,862 
54 
477 
911 
7,123 
3,586 
11,086 
662 
9,051 
J.-258 
1,940 
4,083 
3,767 
653 
3,181 
3,045 
2,456 



1,626 

441 

2,621 

630 

d2,503 

e305 
448 

14,225 

5,985 

16,037 

4,808 

2,715 

811 

1,977 

7,858 

0,580 

d3,338 



5,776 
3,507 
148 
3,117 
2,594 

24,110 
1,587 

13,049 
750 

12,778 

fcl,052 
1,473 
1,604 
1,270 
3,723 
2,416 
1,315 
7,631 



a($21 52) 



I 






) 


$79 67 
(6) 
63 44 


$64 48 
(6) 
35 94 


i 


/31 49 


/27 56 




r/50 oo 

46 86 
<?38 40 
35 20 


g'iO 00 
37 76 

e33 20 
27 46 


\ 


31 42 


24 95 



(A23 87) 
(31 50) 
37 39 
J40 00 
102 90 
41 56 
36 50 
(29 10) 

44 00 

i37 50 

101 59 

36 45 

56 96 

(43 28) 

(j24 11) 

39 00 

43 95 

35 12 

77 44 

26 00 

(24 65) 



22 40 
i40 00 
34 32 

27 44 

28 50 

38 00 
i29 34 
76 73 
22 36 
33 41 



29 00 
31 63 
28 89 
43 53 
23 97 



Total for States. 



(290,028) 



30 52 
29 47 
27 87 
38 91 


18 24 
25 61 
30 64 
25 40 











Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia 

Idaho 

Montana. 

New Mexico 

Utah 



Washington .... 

Wyoming 

Indian : 

Cherokees . . 

Chickasaws . 

Choctaws . . . 

Creeks 

Seminoles . . 



44 

346 

35 I 
(200) 
64 I 
128 
283 I 

(89) 
149 
31 



82 
687 
425 

127 

36 

296 

205 
39 



84 06 
33 00 
91 13 
60 00 
75 74 

(30 67) 
46 43 I 



68 19 
26 00 
61 27 
50 00 
64 20 

26 03 



(60 23) 



Total for Territories. 



(3,266) 



Grand total. 



(293,294) 



a For white teachers ; for colored teachers, the average salary is reported as $21.88. 

6 The average salary of male teachers in graded schools is $100.97 ; in ungraded schools, $54.52 ; for female 
teachers the salaries are,_respectively, $67.39 and $50.02. 

c Number employed in winter. 

d Number employed in summer. 

e In 1.881. 

/For white schools in 1881 ; the average monthly salary of colored teachers for 1881 was $22. 

9 In 1880. 

h For white schools in the counties ; the average for teachers in graded schools for whites in the cities is $71.25 ; 
in public high schools, $88.97. 

i Estimated. 

j For white teachers ; for colored teachers, the average salary is $19.93. 

k Includes evening school reports. 



342 EDUCATION. 

A table showing the annual expenditure, etc., of public schools. 





ANNUAL EXPENDITURE, 




.States and Territories. 


Sites, buildings, 
furniture, li- 
braries, and 
apparatus. 


3-S 

m a 

CD 
CO S 

.£ a 

t-iT 1 

.2S 

S3 ft 
CO 


u 

O) 
O ID 

2 ® 
"3 

05 


CO 
P 

O 
CD 
CI 

CD 
O 

CO 

§ 


"3 
o 


Estimated real v 
of sites, bnildi 
and all other scl 
property. 






$11,579 


$375,887 
388,616 

2,406,781 
300,128 

1,056,268 

/ 138,819 
104,240 


a$16,136 

13,255 
411,117 

77,440 
337,659 
/64,472 


$403,602 

c-503.857 

3,122,666 

626,965 

1,553.065 

/r/207,281 

C133.260 

584,174 

8,567,675 

4,793,704 

5,525,449 

2,194,175 

el.248,524 

e441,484 

1,081,834 

1,651,908 

c5,881,124 

3,789,291 

1,993.364 

e757,758 

c3,753,224 

1,358,346 

cl54,327 

578,702 

1,987,671 

11,422,593 

s509,736 

8,820,914 

. 346,961 

8,263,245 

it591,886 

g878,886 

827,154 

803,850 

c476,478 

1,157,142 

879,820 

?«2,132,807 


$264,457 




6 $42,077 
304,768 
249,397 
159,138 


254 218 






7,237,669 
1,235,491 








/ 2,300 




e/i450 000 






89 868 












1,252,190 
764,605 
658,913 
434,367 


i74,841 


4,985,770 

£3,143,529 

3,075,870 

ml,296 256 


2,254,874 

8&5,570 

21,648,216 

463,552 


jl7.994.176 
12,310,90:. 
9,977 142 






142,450 




4,796,368 
e2,395 752 








e?il2,760 
99,522 
194.498 
842,867 
951,960 
394,856 
e68,327 


el9,667 
29,918 
28,000 

168,197 


e374,127 

p952,394 

1,146,558 

p4,144,722 

m2.193,267 

1,054,523 

e644,352 

2,226,610 

702,127 

s70,385 

417,016 

pl,621.338 

7,986,261 

S374.009 

5,376,087 

249,378 

4,863,718 

«417,553 

349,696 

718,921 

714,207 

381.608 

896,274 

553,509 

1,437,349 


e34,930 


o700 000 


Maine 


3,073,576 


Maryland 


282,852 
432,589 
644,064 
r510.515 
e32,472 


2,900,000 
22,062 235 




9,848,493 
3,947,857 




33,470 
el2,607 






7,521,695 

2,234,464 

240 137 




297,262 
6s2,581 


27,349 


331,608 
s9,356 
146,957 






14,729 


2,341,679 




366,333 

1,752,015 

S74.712 

1,204,589 

64,728 

1,229,232 

76,312 

10,683 

56.263 

621,903 


6,270,778 


New York 


114,600 
sl8,732 
152,903 
8,575 
80,000 
10,292 
18,507 
15,800 
24,395 


1,569.717 

s42,283 

£2,087,335 

24,280 

2,090,295 

it87,679 


30,332,291 




367,671 


Ohio 


23 610 K58 


Oregon 


684,298 




28,341,560 




2,064 693 




407,606 




36,170 
43,345 


1,186,219 


Texas 










114,711 

138,739 
332,304 


44,577 
22,942 
46,600 


101,580 

1)164,630 

316,554 


1,346,657 




1,823,987 




5,569,962 




Total for States 


12,172,612 


1,123,030 


57,138,153 


15,161.502 


89,504,852 


213,882,762 












98,268 

c314,484 

579,312 

46.855 

106.688 

28.973 

185,538 

/H2.615 

28,504 

52,300 
33,550 
31,700 
26,900 
7,500 


116 751 






8,616 
7,380 






532 267 




176,079 


317,229 


78,624 


1,326,888 
/31.000 
140 758 






7,500 


10,000 


80,000 
28,002 
119,537 
/ 95,582 
25,894 


9,188 

971 

21,746 

/ 12,648 

2,610 


New Mexico / 


13,500 
316 462 


Utah 


42,755 
/ 4,385 


1,500 




/ 161,309 
40 500 






Indian: 






































































230,719 


27,496 


666,244 


125,787 


1,653,187 


2.679,435 


Grand total 


12,403,331 


1,150,526 


57,804,397 


15,287,289 


91,158,039 


216,562,197 





a Includes $15,500 spent for normal schools. 

b Includes expenditure for repairs. 

c Items not fully reported. 

d Includes balance on hand from last school year. 

e In 1881. 

/ In 1880. 

g Includes $1,690 expended for colored schools outside of 

Wilmington. 
h For white schools only. 
i Salaries of county superintendents only. 
j Exclusive of the value of normal school property. 
k Total amount expended from tuition revenue. 



I Includes salaries of secretaries and treasurers, interest 

on bonds, etc. 
m Includes salaries of superintendents. 
n Buildings, repairs, rents etc 
o In 1878. 

p Includes miscellaneous expenditure. 
q Total of reported items [of $58,000. 

r Includes total expenditure for high and normal schools 
s Several counties failed to report this item 
t Includes interest on bonds. 

u Includes evening school reports. [quent lists. 

v $50,255 of this are for sheriffs' commissions and delin- 
w Exclusive of cost of normal schools. 



V 



DIAGRAM SHOWING SCHOOL INTERESTS 



States 

and 

Territories. 



Number of 
Schools, Elemen- 
tary and High. 



Total 
Expenditure. 



Teachers' Salary 
per Month. 



Expenc 

per I 

per Ce 



Pennsylvania. 
New York 
Ohio......... 



. ( 16,478 ) ....• 

Illinois 15,203 

Iowa _J 12,635 U. 

Indiana- 11.621 -i» 

Missouri C 10.329 

Michigan 



Kentucky J 7,3921 / 

y — \ / 

Texas 6.692 *./ 

Massachusetts— _ — -/ 6,604 V' 



Wisconsin 
North Carolina* 
Kansas 
Georgia 
Tennessee 



Mississippi- — — — — — [ 5,166 
Yirginia 4 ,876 

Minnesota 
Maine 




Alabama • { 4.628 

West Virginia - ■ 3,874 

California— — — — — { 3, 446 

Nebraska 

New Jersey, 

South Carolin 

Arkansas 

Connecticut 



Vermont — ^ 2,587 

New Hampshire 
Maryland 



HE SEVERAL STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



Number of 
Normal Schools. 



Pupils in 
Normal Schools, 
Seminaries, Etc. 



Number of 

Universities and 

Colleges. 



Total Value of 

University and 
College Property. 




DIAGRAM SHOWING SCHOOL INTERESTS 



States 

and 

Territories. 



Number of 
Schools, Elemen- 
tary and High. 



Total 
Expenditure. 



Teachers' Salary 
per Month. 



Expenc 

per "S 

per Ca 




Pennsylvania, 
New York- 

Ohio ^ 16,473 y . 

Illinois • 

Iowa _/ 12,635 U 

Indiana 

Missouri 
Michigan 

Kentucky \ 7,392] ^ 

Texas . 6,692 \ / 

Massachusetts— _ — -J 6.604JT 
Wisconsin 
North Carolina- 
Kansas 

Georgia ■ ( 5,939 

Tennessee 

Mississippi— — — — — [ 5,166 

Virginia 4,876 

Minnesota 

Maine 



Alabama 
West Virginia 

California [ 3,446 

Nebraska 3,286 

New Jersey 
South Carolina 

Arkansas 

Connecticut 

Vermont _—— — ( 2,597 

New Hampshire 2,552 

Maryland 

Louisiana 

Florida- 

Oregon 1,068 

Rhode Island — _/" 

Delaware v 

Colorado f 

Dakota f 

Nevada— •—-«---— ^ 185V** 



DIAGRAM SHOWING SCHOOL INTERESTS IN THE SEVERAL STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



States 

and 

Territories. 



1 Pennsylvania. 

2 New York 

3 Ohio ,— pg3ray - 

I Illinois- '5,203 







12,635 

l( Indiana-- -[ »,62s )-- 

T Missouri ^______ 

8 Michigan 

9 Kentucky... 

10 Texan 

11 Massachusetts 

12 Wisconsin 

13 North Carolina- 

14 Kansas 

15 fiporgia - -- 

16 Tennessee - 

17 Mississippi- — — — 

18 'Virginia — 

19 Minnesota 

20 Maine 

21 Alahama 

22 West Virginia 

23 California— — — — — ( 3,446/ 

24 Nebraska - - 

25 New Jersey. 

26 South Carolina 

27 Arkansas 

28 Connecticut ■ 

29 Yermoni 

3d New Hampshire 

31 Maryland. 

32 Louisiana 
S3 Florida- — 

34 Oregon 

85 Rhodelsland — [ 850) / 

36 Delaware ■ *— — — — 

37 Colorado. 

38 Dakota 

39 Nevada 



EDUCATION. 
Table showing per capita of expenditure in public schools. 



343 



States and Territories. 


Expenditure in 
the year per cap- 
i t a of school 
population, a 


Expenditure i n 
the year per cap- 
ita of pupils en- 
rolled in public 
schools, a 


Expenditure in 
the year per cap- 
ita of average 
attendance i n 
public schools. 
a 


Expenditure i n 
the year per cap- 
ita of popula- 
tion between 6 
and IB. a 


Per capita be- 
tween ti and 16, 
including inter- 
est on the value 
of all school 
property, a 


Massachusetts . . . 


6$15 83 
dU 72 
613 11 

10 55 

d9 56 
9 53 

e9 50 
9 00 
8 60 
8 45 
8 18 
8 10 
7 12 
7 11 
6/6 93 
6 73 
fg& 39 

65 75 

65 43 
5 19 
5 17 

65 13 
5 05 

65 00 
4 88 

d4 86 
4 67 
4 45 
4 31 
3 41 

63 30 

el 93 
1 65 

61 60 
6el 58 
1 37 
1 32 
1 17 
1 15 
1 10 
1 01 
99 


6$15 40 

dl8 92 

616 88 

11 17 


6$21 59 

d29 20 

626 46 

16 35 


c$18 30 




Nevada . 




California . 






New Hampshire 






ArizoDa 






Connecticut 


ii 50 

el5 16 

12 06 
15 00 

13 10 
12 16 
11 65 
10 36 
10 24 

6/9 81 
10 96 

/Sr8 12 
68 17 

67 59 
8 96 
8 47 

68 25 
7 31 

67 52 
6 62 


19 18 

el9 97 

18 29 

18 00 
22 55 

19 50 

20 40 
16 33 
13 04 

6/14 85 
20 05 






District of Columbia 


elO 18 


e$ll 96 


Rhode Island 




Montana 






Colorado 


10 54 
13 09 


11 00 


Iowa 


14 67 


Nebraska 




Illinois 






Ohio 


9 29 


11 00 


Wyoming 




New York 






Delaware 






Indiana 


613 34 






Michigan 






Oregon 


12 37 
15 64 






New Jersey 






Minnesota 






Maine 


10 59 






Pennsylvania 






Kansas 


11 02 






Idaho 






Missouri 


7 10 
9 12 
7 02 
4 75 

65 25 

e3 38 
4 25 

63 94 
6e6 89 
2 56 
2 80 
2 25 
2 28 
2 18 
2 27 
6 09 
6 43 

d5 48 








Maryland 


17 66 






Wisconsin 






West Virginia 


7 66 
68 12 
e4 75 

7 15 

68 25 

5e9 41 

5 34 


4 38 


5 04 


Utah 




Mississippi 






Virginia 


2 36 


2 57 


Arkansas 




Louisiana 






Florida 






South Carolina 






Tennessee 


3 53 
3 56 
3 88 
3 52 
9 20 
9 98 
d!3 00 






Georgia 






North Carolina 






Alabama 






New Mexico 






Vermont 






Texas 

















a In estimating these items only the interest on amount expended under 
the head of "permanent" (i. e., for sites, buildings, furniture, libraries, and 
apparatus) should be added to the current expenditure for the year. 

b Estimated by the Bureau, 6 per cent being the rate used in casting 
interest on permanent expenditure. 

c Total expenditure per capita of population between 5 and 15. 

d An estimate including per capita of total permanent expenditure for 
the year. elni88i. /"In 1880. ^Does not include expenditure for books. 



344 EDUCATION. 

The school population, enrollment, attendance, income, expenditure, etc., from 1873 

to 1882, inclusive. 







Number re- 
porting. 




© 

O 




Year. 






In States. 


£ 






States. 


Terri- 
tories. 




<D 

d 

M 


r 


1873 


37 


11 


13,324,797 


134,128 




1874 


37 


11 


13,735,672 


139,378 




1875 


36 


8 


13,889,837 


117,685 




1876 


37 


8 


14,121,526 


101,465 




1877 
1878 


38 
38 


9 
9 


14,093,778 
14,418,923 


133,970 




157,260 




1879 


38 


9 


14,782,765 


179,571 




1880 


38 


8 


15,351,875 


184,405 




1881 


38 


10 


15,661,213 


218,293 


> 


1882 


38 


10 


16,021,171 


222,651 


1873 


35 


10 


7,865,628 


69,968 




1874 


34 


11 


8,030,772 


69,209 


i 


1875 


37 


11 


8,678,737 


77,922 


> 


1876 


36 


10 


8,293,563 


70,175 




1877 
1878 


38 
38 


10 
10 


8,881,848 
9,294,316 


72,630 

78,879 




1879 


38 


10 


9,328,003 


96,083 




1880 


38 


10 


9,680,403 


101,118 




1881 


38 


10 


9,737,176 


123,157 


L 


1882 


38 


10 


9,889,283 


124,543 




1873 


31 


5 


4,166,062 


33,677 




1874 


30 


4 


4,488,075 


33,489 




1875 


29 


5 


4,215,380 


36,428 




1876 


27 


5 


4,032,632 


34,216 


Number in dailv attendance j 


1877 
1878 


31 
31 


4 
5 


4,886,289 
5,093,298 


33,119 




38,115 




1879 


32 


8 


5,223,100 


59,237 




1880 


34 


8 


5,744,188 


61,154 




1881 


34 


9 


5,595,329 


69,027 


> 


1882 


38 


10 


6,041,833 


76,498 


1873 


22 


5 


472,483 


7,859 




1874 


13 


5 


352,460 


10,128 




1875 


13 


5 


186,385 


13,237 




1876 


14 


3 


228,867 


9,137 




1877 
1878 


12 
12 


4 

4 


203,082 
280,492 


6,088 
6,183 




1879 


19 


4 


358,685 


7,459 




1880 


21 


4 


561,209 


6,921 




1881 


20 


2 


564,290 


5,305 


• 


1882 


20 


2 


562,731 


5,143 


1873 


35 


6 


215,210 


1,511 




1874 


35 


8 


239,153 


1,427 




1875 


36 


9 


247,423 


1,839 




1876 


37 


9 


247,557 


1,726 


Total number of teachers < 


1877 
1878 


37 
38 


9 
9 


257,454 
269,162 


1,842 




2,012 




1879 


38 


9 


270,163 


2,523 




1880 


38 


10 


280,034 


2,610 




1881 


38 


9 


285,970 


3,189 




1882 


38 


9 


290,028 


3,266 



EDUCATION. 



345 



The school population, enrollment, attendance, income, expenditure, etc. — Continued. 



Number of male teachers. 



Year. 



Number of female teachers . 



Public school income . 






Public school expenditure. 






Amount of school funds. 



Number re- 
porting. 



States. 



1873 


28 


1874 


28 


1875 


31 


1876 


32 


1877 


33 


1878 


34 


1879 


34 


1880 


35 


1881 


36 


1882 


35 


1873 


28 


1874 


28 


1875 


31 


1876 


32 


1877 


33 


1878 


34 


1879 


34 


1880 


35 


1881 


36 


1882 


35 


1873 


35 


1874 


37 


1875 


37 


1876 


38 


1877 


37 


1878 


38 


1879 


38 


1880 


38 


1881 


38 


1882 


38 


1873 


36 


1874 


35 


1875 


34 


1876 


36 


1877 


37 


1878 


38 


1879 


38 


1880 


38 


1881 


38 


1882 


38 


1873 


28 


1874 


28 


1875 


28 


1876 


30 


1877 


26 


1878 


32 


1879 


30 


1880 


33 


1881 


34 


1882 


35 



Terri- 
tories. 



10 

10 

8 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

9 

9 

10 

8 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

1 



In States. 



75,321 

87,395 

97,796 

95,483 

97,638 

100,878 

104,842 

115,064 

107,780 

105,596 

103,734 

129,049 

132,185 

135,644 

138,228 

141,780 

141,161 

156,351 

158,588 

164,808 

880,081,583 

81,277,680 

87,527,278 

86,632,067 

85,959,864 

86,035,264 

82,767,815 

82,684,489 

86,468,749 

92,587,205 

77,780,016 

74,169,217 

80,950,333 

83,078,596 

79,251,114 

79,652,553 

77,176,354 

78,836,399 

83,601,327 

89,504,852 

77,870,887 

75,251,008 

81,486,158 

97,227,909 

100,127,865 

106,138,348 

110,264,434 

119,184,029 

123,083,786 

128,483,681 



529 

499 

656 

678 

706 

789 

985 

948 

1,018 

1,080 

786 

731 

963 

898 

986 

1,027 

1,342 

1,306 

1,805 

1,897 

$844,666 

881,219 

1,121,672 

717,416 

906,298 

942,837 

1,020,259 

1,255,750 

1,673,339 

1,739,983 

995,422 

805,121 

982,621 

926,737 

982,344 

877,405 

1,015,168 

1,196,439 

1,510,115 

1,653,187 

137,507 



323,236 
1,526,961 
2,106,961 
1,506,961 
2,776,593 
3,694,810 
1,089,015 
1,089,015 



346 



EDUCATION. 



Comparative school population and enrollment of the white and colored races in the 
recent slave states, with total expenditure, in 1 882. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

District of Columbia 

Total 



White. 



224,464 

6212.940 

c33,133 

e49,641 

£/261,884 

e477,215 

el29,224 

e245,009 

/ 190,919 

706,850 

286,324 

e94,450 

408,364 

6173,942 

314,827 

208,178 

e29,592 



4,046,956 



107,949 
676,598 
c26,578 

/24,933 
161,377 

c238,440 
c38,870 
131,011 

clll,655 
467,911 
144,835 
65,399 
207,680 
105,179 
172,034 
151,098 
cl7,716 



2,249,263 



<D Pi 
MO • 

sis 



48 
36 
c80 
50 
62 
c50 
c30 
53 
58 
66 
51 
69 
51 
60 
55 
73 
60 



Colored. 



176,538 

669,113 

C4.152 

e47,583 

^234,889 

7j94,578 

el42,190 

e74,192 

/253,212 

41,790 

176,836 

el67,829 

140,815 

657,510 

240,980 

8,420 

el3,945 



1,944,572 



69,479 

623,139 

c2,544 

/ 27,012 

95,055 

i 20,223 

c23,500 

28,934 

cl25,633 

£24,838 

88,236 

80,575 

56,676 

37,781 

85,328 

4,446 

c9,583 



802.982 



-^ o 

© ft 
-' °_; 

ca ara 

s p p 



Dh 



39 

33 
c61 
57 
40 
d21 
cl7 
39 
50 
59 
50 
48 
40 
66 
35 
53 
69 



c 2 
a - 

*13 



$403,602 

503,857 

d207,281 

133,260 

584,174 

j 1,248,524 

o441-,484 

1,651,908 

c757,758 

3,753,224 

7509,736 

378,886 

827,154 

803.850 

1,157,142 

879,820 

579,312 



14,820,972 



In Delaware, in addition to the school tax collected from colored citi- 
zens, which has heretofore been the only State appropriation for the sup- 
port of colored schools, the legislature now appropriates annually $2,400 
from the State treasury for educating the colored children of the State; 
in Maryland, there is a biennial appropriation; in the District of Columbia, 
one-third of the school funds is set apart for colored public schools; in 
South Carolina, the school moneys are distributed in proportion to the 
average attendance, without regard to race; and in the other States men- 
tioned above, the school moneys are divided in proportion to the school 
population, without regard to race. 

6 As far as reported ; several counties failed to make race distinctions. 

c In 1881. 

d In 1880. 

e United States Census of 1880. 

/ Estimated. 

g Four counties failing to report. 

h Number of colored children in Kentucky between the ages of 6 and 20 according to the United States Census 
of 1880 ; in 1882, the school age for colored children was changed by law from 6-16 to 6-20. 

i According to return for 1880 ; since then the legal school age for colored children has been lengthened by four 
years. 

j For 1881 ; in 1882 the per capita of the white child of legal school age and the colored child of legal school age 
was made the same, thus giving to the colored children equal advantages with the white children in the common 
school fund of the State. 

fc Thirty-two counties failing to report, 

I Fifteen counties failing to report. 






EDUCATION. 347 

A table of the institutions for the instruction of the colored race for 1 882. 





Public schools. 


Normal schools. 


Institutions for sec- 
ondary instruction. 


States and Territories. 


ft 

. 

ftfl 

i-H 

■go 

02 


CD 

a 

o 
u 
a 


CO 

"o 

O 

J= 
o 
02 


CO 
H 

CD 

O 
CO 
CD 

H 


'3, 

Ph 


CO 

O 

o 
02 


CD 
J3 

o 

CIS 
CD 
H 


CO 

'ft 
a 
Pn 


Alabama 


176,538 

69,113 

4,152 

47,583 

234,889 


69,479 
23,139 
2,544 
27,012 
95,055 


7 
2 


31 
11 


1,050 
429 


4 

2 


20 


611 


Delaware 






Florida 








2 
7 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 


10 

25 


313 


Georgia 


3 


7 


441 


1,181 




Kentucky 

Louisiana 


94,578 
142,190 

74,192 
253,212 

41,790 
176,836 


20,223 
23,500 
28,934 
125,633 
24,838 
88,236 


1 
3 

2 

o 
O 

1 

9 
1 
1 
5 

8 
2 
4 
1 
3 


8 

5 
10 
22 

6 
32 

1 

7 
28 
49 

6 
62 

8 
14 


317 

95 

246 

485 

148 

898 

7 

257 

1,061 

1,691 

50 

820 

230 

284 


9 
6 

2 


192 
255 


Maryland 


60 


Mississippi 


100 


Missouri 




North Carolina 


3 
1 


15 
3 


375 


Ohio 


60 


Pennsylvania . . 








South Carolina 


167,829 
140,815 

57,510 

240,980 

8,420 

13,945 


80,575 
56,676 
37,781 
85,328 
4,446 
9,583 


6 
1 

7 
3 


40 

2 

19 

13 


1,722 


Tennessee 


75 


Texas 


962 


Virginia 


658 


West Virginia . . 




District of Columbia 










1 


3 


68 
















Total 


1,944,572 


802,982 


56 


307 


8,509 


43 


167 


6,632 




Universities and 
colleges. 


Scho 


ols of t 
ogy. 


ieol- 


Sch 


X>ls Of 


law. 


States. 


CD 

"o 
o 
A 
o 
02 


to 

u 

CD 
.C 
O 
CS 
CD 

H 


CO 

'ft 

a 


CO 

"o 

O 
XI 

02 


CO 
M 
CD 

X, 

CD 

C3 
CD 
H 


CO 

ft 
a 


CO 

"o 

O 
.G 

o 
02 


CO 

h 

CD 
-C 
O 

a 

CD 

H 


a 

ft 

3 
Pi 


Alabama 








3 


5 


89 








Arkansas 














Delaware 




















Florida 




















Georgia 


2 


24 


50 


1 
























Kentucky 


1 

3 


9 
14 


104 
345 


1 
3 
1 
1 


9 

5 
4 
5 


10 
65 
30 
30 








Louisiana 


1 


4 


20 


Maryland 




Mississippi 


2 


12 


526 
















North Carolina 


2 
1 

1 

2 
2 


21 

7 


306 
171 
182 
294 
273 


2 
1 
1 
3 
3 


8 


106 








Ohio 








Pennsylvania 


5 

8 

17 


14 

33 

137 








South Carolina 


23 
17 


1 
1 


3 

5 


8 







348 EDUCATION. 

A table of the institutions for the instruction of the colored race for 1882. 





Universities and col- 
leges. 


Schools of theol- 
ogy. 


Schools of law. 







A 
o 

CO 


CO 
U 

a 

A 

a! 
CD 

EH 




m 

■ o 

o 
A 
o 
CO 


u 

CD 
A 
o 
a 

CD 

H 


CO 

■ft 
a 


CD 




A 

o 
CO 


CD 

U 

o 
H 


i 

3 


Tex 








1 
1 


1 

5 


13 
63 








1 






! 
















District of Columbia 


1 


6 


47 


2 


7 


75 


1 


4 


20 


























Total 


18 


133 


2,298 


24 


79 


665 


4 


16 


53 








Schools of medi- 
cine. 


Schools for the deaf 
and dumb and the 
blind. 


States and Tekeitories. 


"o 

o 
A 
o 

co 


o 
o 

CO 
CD 

H 


m 

d 


CO 

o 

o 

A 
o 
CO 


CD 
A 
o 
ca 

CD 

H 


a 


Georgia 








2 
1 
1 
1 

1 


5 
15 


2 


Maryland . ... 








32 










14 


North Carolina 


1 
1 
1 


1 

13 
9 


3 

29 
93 


60 


Tennessee 


8 


District of Columbia 












Total 


3 


23 


125 


6 


20 


116 







Ta6/e showing the number of schools for the colored race and enrollment in them by 
institutions, without reference to states, for 1882. 



Class of institutions. 


Schools. 


Enrollment. 


Public schools 


15,932 

56 

43 

18 

24 

4 

3 

6 


802,982 


Normal schools 


8,509 


Institutions for secondary instruction 


6,632 


Universities and colleges 


2,298 


Schools of theology 


665 


Schools of law 


53 


Schools of medicine 


125 




116 






Total 


16,086 


821,380 







There are 391 schools with 31,125 pupils 
making the total 16,323 schools, 834,107 pupils. 



in states not reported here, 



EDUCATION, 



349 



The following is a comparative summary of normal schools, instructors, and pupils reported 
to the Bureau of Education for the years 1873 to 1882, inclusive: 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


Number of institutions 

Number of instructors 

Number of students 


113 

887 
16,620 


124 

966 

24,405 


137 
1,031 
29,105 


151 
1,065 
33,921 


152 

1,189 
37,082 


156 
1,227 
39,669 


207 

1,422 
40,029 


220 
1,466 
43,077 


225 
1,573 

48,705 


233 

1,700 
51,132 



The following is a comparative exhibit of colleges for business training, 1873-1882: 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


Number of institutions 

Number of instructors 

Number of students 


112 

514 
22,397 


126 

577 
25,892 


131 

594 

26,109 


137 

599 

25,234 


134 

568 
23,496 


129 

527 

21,048 


144 
535 

22.021 


162 
619 

27,146 


202 

794 

34,414 


217 
955 

44,834 



The following is a comparative summary of Kindergarten, instructors, and pupils from 1873 
to 1882 inclusive: 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


Number of institutions 

Number of instructors 

Number of pupils 


42 

73 

1,252 


55 

125 

1,636 


95 
216 

2,809 


130 

364 

4,000 


129 

336 

3,931 


159 
376 

4,797 


195 
452 

7,554 


232 

524 

8,871 


273 

676 
14,107 


348 

814 

16,916 



Kindergarten table. 



States. 


<4H 

o . 

a-g 


q-t 
O . 

CO 

II 


Number of 
pupils. 


States and Territories. 


o . 

3 to 
SZi 


o . 

CO 

o 

« ° 


O 

gft 


Alabama 


2 
28 
6 
2 
27 
7 
4 
3 
1 
2 
2 
6 
41 
5 
7 
1 


2 

49 

12 

4 

55 

15 

12 

5 

1 

6 

3 

10 

53 

8 

23 


26 

1,050 

160 

31 

701 

165 

199 

116 

20 

94 

58 

93 

724 

193 

243 


Missouri 


65 

1 
12 
38 

2 
18 

1 
31 

4 

3 
17 

1 
10 

1 


233 

3 
29 
95 

4 
36 

2 
68 
13 

7 
42 

1 
22 

1 


a8,076 


California 


Nebraska 


57 


Connecticut 


New Jersey 


. 443 


Delaware 


New York 


1,600 


Illinois 

Indiana 


North Carolina 

Ohio 


60 
539 


Iowa 


Oregon 


21 


Kansas 


Pennsylvania 


845 


Kentucky 


135 


Louisiana 




63 


Maine 




918 


Maryland 




16 


Massachusetts 


District of Columbia. . . 


270 


Michigan . 






Total 




Minnesota 


348 


814 






al6,916 


Mississippi 











a Includes some pupils receiving primary instruction. 



350 EDUCATION. 

A general summary of statistics of public and private normal schools for 1882. 





NUMBER OF NORMAL SCHOOLS SUPPORTED BY — 


States 


State. 


County. 


City. 


All other agencies. 


and 
Territories. 


o . 

CD O 
J3 O 

3-° 


*H ■/ 

o a 

o 

CD o 
3 CO 


= 

8 a 

X> CD 

§3 

53 co 


O . 
to 

a> o 

•° 2 

s-g 


■se 

CD o 
-O 3 
Bi3 

M CO 

il.g 


O 8 

00 

£ O 

£1 a) 

S'S 

§3 

!5« 


O . 
00 

<U o 

s-S 

CO 


.a s 
Z.2 


*ge 
X a 

— CD 

I 2 


o . 

CD 

CD o 

■° 2 

s-S 

3 /. 


■W CO 

u° 

CD o 

Si 

rt CD 

S5.S 


o « 

CD 

J^co 




4 

2 
2 
1 
1 
1 


19 

7 
17 

9 
5 


384 
96 

548 
17 

123 
40 














4 
1 
2 
1 


20 
5 
5 


172 


Arkansas 














36 


California 








1 


3 


140 


30 


Colorado 










Connecticut. . . . 


















Florida 


































2 
9 

10 
9 
3 
4 
3 

c2 
1 
3 
4 


7 

52 

92 

40 

18 

37 

9 

9 

4 

17 

19 


201 


[llinois 


2 
1 
2 
2 
bl 


26 

12 

8 

11 

2 


660 
529 
374 
253 


1 


9 


223 








824 


Indiana 


2 
1 


4 
1 


48 
18 


5,112 


Iowa 




. 




833 


Kansas . . . 








318 


Kentucky 














513 
















143 




4 

2 
6 
2 
3 
2 
5 
2 
1 
1 
7 
10 


21 
20 
57 
13 
34 
15 
50 
10 
4 
20 
107 
87 


498 

276 

904 

401 

776 

192 

1,231 

339 

51 

233 

2,620 

1,211 








1 


3 


9 


102 


Massachusetts . 








45 








3 


16 


117 


56 










321 
















Mississippi 

Missouri 














3 
1 
1 


17 

7 

16 


194 








1 


4 


68 


54 












New Hampshire 
New Jersey .... 








1 
1 

2 


1 
10 

48 












28 
1,477 














3 

5 
8 


16 
96 


19 










166 


Ohio. 








4 


29 


161 


3,562 




2 

10 

1 


11 
140 

8 


61 

3,154 

159 










Pennsylvania . . 
Rhode Island . . 








1 


28 


965 


7 

1 

5 

11 

2 


32 


442 






















28 
53 

7 


365 


Tennessee 

Texas 


1 
1 
3 

d2 
6 
4 

el 


9 
7 
16 
52 
19 
59 
3 


175 
165 

474 
442 
423 

1,088 
17 














965 














50 


Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia. . 






















1 


2 


49 


2 
1 

2 


12 

8 

14 


73 








230 








1 


2 


14 


79 


Dakota 

Dist. of Col . 
















1 


3 


15 


4 


15 


138 


Utah 


el 
el 


4 


41 

7 










Washington. . . . 






































Total 


97 


882 


17,964 


1 


9 


223 


21 


154 


3,109 


114 


655 


15,043 



a This summary contains the strictly normal students only, as far as reported. 
6 A department of an institution endowed by the national grant of land to agricultural colleges, 
c Receive an allowance from the State. , , 

d One of these institutions is partially supported from the proceeds of the national grant of land to agricultural 
colleges, the normal school being part of an institution so endowed, 
e Territorial appropriation. 



Areas of Circles proportional. 
Shale T)350 to the square inch. 




CH 

SHOWING THE A( 



INS 

and the proportion of male 
native or foreign; alsi 

( Compiled from I 



Comparative view of the distribution of 

(These figures refer to 




OHIO MASS. ILL. IND. MO. 

The shaded segments represent males,the white segments repreffi 



Comparative view of the distr 

(.These figures refer to th« 




Comparative view of the inc 

(The thickness of 1 




T 

ATE NUMBER 

Females, white or colored, 
icrease in ten years. 

Vines'Charts ) 



Ity by sex and nativity in the several States 

:ure In the left upper corner.) 



'■ ARK - TEX - MISS. MINN. 




R.I. 














VA - KY. CAL. TENN. MICH. WIS. N.J. MD. 

lies, the upper smaller divisions represent foreigners, and the lower, Natives. 

of Insanity by sex and color, 

i in the right upper corner ) 



I- ARK. TEX. MISS. MINN. R.|. S.C. W.VA. LA. 
















S.C. W.VA. L A. N.H. ALA. . GA. 








N.C. ME. IA. CONN. 




N.H. ALA. GA. VT. 




KY - CAL - TENN. MICH. WIS. N.J. MD. N.C. ME. IA. CONN. 



the number of Insane in ten years 

Ti represents the increase. ) 



ARK. TEX. MISS. 








'A. KY. 






CAL. 









MINN. R.l- S -C. W.VA. LA. N.H. ALA. GA. VT 



TENN. MICH. WIS. N.J. MD. N.C. ME. IA. CONN. 

Copyrighted 1836 by Yaygy &. West. 



Areas of Circles proportional. 
Scale 5350 to the square inch. 




CI 

SHOWING THE A 

( 

I HI 

and theproportion of male 
native or foreign; als 

(Compiled from I 



Comparative view of the distribution oj 



€> €) 

FLA. NEB. 



(These figures refer to 



DEL. KAI 




OHIO MASS. ILL. IND. MO. 

The shaded segments represent males,the white segments represe 



Comparative view of the disti 

(.These figures refer to thi 




Comparative view of the inc 

( The Ihiekuess of 




N.Y. 



OHIO 



MASS. 



Areas »/ Circles proportional. 
i§caU MIjQ/o the square inch. 




CHART 

SHOWING THE Agg.f, ECiAT E NUMBER 

INSANE 

and tht proportion of mala, anUFemcdes, white or colored, 
native or foreign; also the increase in ten years. 

( Compiled from p te ,, H wines'Charts ) 




Comparative mew of the distribution of humility by sex and nativity in the several States 

(These figures refer Utht 1,^ figure Id the left upper corner.) 
FLA. NEB. DEL. K AN . 0R . ARK . TEX . M | SS . MINN. R.I. S.C. W.VA. , , N.H. 









OHIO MASS. ILL. IND. MO. VA. KY. CAL. TENN. MICH. WIS. N.J. MD. 

The shaded segments represent males,the white segments represent mules, the upper smaller divisions represent Foreigners, and the lower, Natives. 
Comparative view of the (Iktribiifiou of Insanity by sex and oof or, 

(These figures Mer to Ihe large opi:, in the right upper vomer ) 



' GA - VT. 



N.C. ME. IA. CONN. 




EDUCATION. 

Table of public normal schools. 



351 



States 

and 

Territories. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Florida 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire . 
New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . . 
Rhode Island .... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia . . . 

Wisconsin 

Dakota 

Dist. of Columbia 

Utah 

Washington 

Total 






10 
4 
2 

11 
1 
1 
1 



119 



19 

7 
20 



9 

5 
35 
16 

9 
11 

2 
2d 
20 
73 
13 
34 
15 

54 

10 

5 

30 

155 

87 

29 

11 

168 

8 

9 

7 

16 

54 

19 

61 

3 

3 

4 



NUMBER OF STUDENTS. 



1,045 



677 
201 
740 
17 
123 
155 
1,885 
577 
399 
455 



739 

406 
1,035 

582 
1,102 

383 

1,468 

339 

51 

261 

5,832 

1,388 

282 

61 

5,258 
159 
175 
225 

517 

550 

515 

2,056 

35 

15 

41 

7 



28,711 



Number of normal 
students. 



216 

79 

96 

7 

3 

23 

291 

222 

111 

103 



168 

17 

592 

10 

120 

17 

592 

355 

281 

150 



135 

31 
216 
167 
277 
126 

(130) 
645 
130 

2 
35 

(461) 
640 
599 
31 
29 
1,777 
13 
75 
63 
(122) 
119 I 
282 I 
249 
408 
3 


23 




372 
247 
805 
234 
499 
66 

524 

209 

49 

226 

2,996 

612 

130 

32 

2.342 
146 
100 
102 

233 

209 

174 

694 

14 

15 

18 

7 



(713) 
7,226 I 13,357 



Number of other 
students. 



158 

65 

9 



59 

456 



5 
80 



135 
40 
43 



56 
546 



2 
122 



135 

40 

1 

(181) 

146 

95 

(101) 
33 



97 
88 
13 

180 
96 

35 



(151) 
661 
87 
63 



598 



35 

22 

35 

48 

430 

8 







923 
90 
58 



541 



25 

21 

24 

44 

524 

10 







(433) 
3,269 I 3,713 



1,017 

400 

1,800 



1,600 



10,408 
2,500 
2,200 
1,504 



4,014 
3,050 
14,455 
4,656 
3,164 
1,400 

3,950 

2,150 
300 
538 

15,939 

515 
710 
256 

20,673 
1,200 

10,000 
900 

2,175 

2,743 
2,050 
4,713 



120,980 



352 



EDUCATION. 



The public schools, elementary, high, etc., buildings, and value of school property in 

the several states and territories. 





PUBLIC SCHOOLS, ELEMENTARY 
AND HIGH. 


BUILDINGS AND SITTINGS. 


o 

ft 


States and Tekhitobies. 


O 

s 





CD 

"o 


o 

<H 

e a 

r— g 

c9 

2 5 
3,2 

fto 


CCS 
■JSrH 
~ IH ° 

° 2 

2-dfl 

*'a a 


"o 
o 
.d 

o 

CO CO 

be 
«H S3 
«| 

a 




CD 

M 

_g 
Si 

a 






o 

■a 

© 

> 

"co 
O 

H 


The United States 


225,880 


16,800 


5,430 


164,832 


8,968,731 


Dollars. 
211,411,540 


Alabama 


4,629 

101 

2,768 

3,446 

514 

2,601 

508 

519 

415 

1,135 

5,939 

128 

15,203 

11,623 

12,635 

6,148 

7,392 

1,669 

4,736 

2,551 

6,604 

8,608 

4,784 

5,166 

10,329 

159 

3,286 

185 

2,552 

3,241 

162 

18,615 

6,161 

16,473 

1,068 

18,616 

850 

3,077 

5,688 

6,692 

383 

2,597 

4,876 

531 

3,874 

6,588 

55 


1,525 


118 

3 

52 

67 

10 

12 

3 

3 

3 

21 

12 


1,819 

84 

1,570 

2,222 

313 

1,643 

361 

369 

97 

880 

4,529 

116 

11,880 

9,679 

11,148 

5,315 

6,183 

763 

4,324 

1,934 

3,343 

6,412 

3.978 

2,683 

8,552 

131 

2,900 

93 

2,230 

1,588 

46 

11,927 

4,216 

12,224 

937 

12,857 

453 

2,863 

4.072 

1,054 

334 

2,450 

4,405 

487 

3,654 

5,685 

29 


145,222 

5,027 

109,384 

162,649 

20,128 
110,912 

13,223 

23,616 

21,526 

43,048 
221,148 
6,166 
694,106 
437,050 
429,202 
236,635 
321,087 

72,499 
178,271 
128,306 
319,749 
446,310 
154,122 
188,303 
329,983 
4,370 

90,752 
8,035 

81,131 
187,352 
5,580 
763,817 
209,233 
676,664 

39,873 
961,074 

41,524 
120,918 
205,904 


299,599 


Arizona 


113,074 


Arkansas (ci) 


601 
3 


273,302 


California 

Colorado 


6,949,983. 
710,503 






3,454,275 


Dakota 


&1 

50 
115 
301 

1,688 


214,760 


Delaware 


440,788 


District of Columbia 


1,206,355 


Florida 


134,804 


Georgia 


1,046,026 




31,000 


Illinois 


76 
121 


113 

285 

141 

28 

163 

16 

83 

109 

204 

132 

56 

106 

239 

3 

40 

12 

51 

135 


15,876,572 




11,907,541 




9,460,775 


Kansas 


45 

823 
479 


4,723,043 


Kentucky 


2,143,013 


Louisiana 


752,903 


Maine 


3,027,602 


Maryland 


436 


2,083,013 


Massachusetts 


21.660,392 


Michigan 


18 


8,982,344 


Minnesota 


3,460,458 


Mississippi 


2,147 

558 

1 


553,610 


Missouri 


7,810,924 


Montana 


132,507 




2,061,059 


Nevada 




282,870 






2,328,796 


New Jersey 


59 


6,298,500 




13,500 


New York 


30 

2,146 

220 


268 


31,235,401 




248,015 


Ohio 


348 

17 

2,159 

7 

66 

60 

104 


21,643,515 




249,087 


Pennsylvania 


87 

1 

1,205 

1,179 

1,507 


25,919,397 


Rhode Island 


1,895,877 


South Carolina 


407,256 


Tennessee 


1,025,858 




130,762 


Utah 


27,134 

77,209 

186,581 

15,800 

119,085 

325,854 

3,139 


372,273 






83 


1,427,547 




1,256 


1,246,283 




5 


161,309 




122 


1,686,999 




92 
1 


5,287,570 


Wvominsr 




40,500 









a Repeated efforts failed to obtain returns from the counties of Little River and Polk, Arkansas. The statistics 
for those counties, therefore, are not included in the total for the state. 6 Indian school. 



EDUCATION. 



353 



In the following table, a comparative statement of the statistics of 
preparatory schools from 1873 to 1882 inclusive, is given: 

Preparatory Schools. 





1873. 1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


Number of instructors 

Number of students 


86 91 

690 697 

12,487 11,414 


102 

746 

12,954 


105 

736 

12,369 


114 

796 
12,510 


114 

818 

12,538 


123 

818 

13,561 


125 

860 
13,239 


130 

871 
13,275 


157 

1,041 

15,681 



In the following table, the number of institutions and departments of 
schools of science each year from 1873 to 1882, inclusive, is given. 
These numbers include the National Military and Naval Academies. 



Schools of Science. 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 1879. 1880. 

1 


1881. 


1882. 


Number of institutions 

Number of instructors 

Number of students 


70 

749 

8,950 


72 

609 

7,244 


74 

758 

7,157 


75 

793 

7,614 


74 

781 
8,559 


76 

809 

13,153 


81 

884 

10,919 


83 

953 

11,584 


85 

1,019 

12,709 


86 

1,082 

15,957 



In the following table, the aggregate number of universities and col- 
leges each year from 1873 to 1882, is given: 

Universities and Colleges. 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


Number of institutions 

Number of instructors 


323 

3,106 
52,053 


343 

3,783 
56,692 


355 

3,999 

58,894 


356 

3,920 

56,481 


351 

3,998 
57,334 


358 

3,885 
57,987 


364 

4,241 

60,011 


364 

4,160 
59,594 


362 

4,361 

62,435 


365 
4,413 

64,996 



In the following table, a comparative summary of the number of 

institutions for secondary instruction from 1873 to 1882, inclusive, is 

given : 

Institutions for Secondary Instruction. 



Number of institutions 
Number of instructors . 
Number of students . . . 



1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


944 

5,058 
118,570 


1,031 

5,466 

98,179 


1,143 

6,081 

108,235 


1,229 

5,999 

106,647 


1,226 

5,963 

98,371 


1,227 

5,747 
100,374 


1,236 

5,961 

108,734 


1,264 

6,009 

110,277 


1,336 

6,489 
122,617 



1882.. 



1,482. 

7,449 

138,384 



354 



EDUCATION. 

General statistical summary of pupils receiving secondary instruction. 





CO 

"o 
o 
-d 
o 

CO 
J) 

2 

'o 


CO 

"o 
o 
A 
o 

"3 

a 

u 
O 

a 


In institutions for second- 
ary instruction. 


co 

"o 

O 
-C 
CO 

>-. 

u 


co 

CO 

O. 
ai 
u 

» 


In preparatory depart- 
ments of — 




States and Territories. 


O 

a S« 
o 2 

gao 


"3 

o 
a 

C3 

CO CO 

CD CD 

23 M 

.Th CD 
CO— < 

u 
CD 

> 
'3 


CD 
CJ 

a 

9 

'o 

CO 



"o 



ja 

o 
02 


"3 

o 






658 
353 

52 

115 
240 

1,304 
866 
283 

1,028 
303 
40 
232 
179 
154 
181 
326 
235 
233 
99 


1,833 
1,196 
4,764 

458 
1,668 

713 

829 

11,465 

7,010 

2,341 

4,677 

350 
4,684 
1,178 
2,161 
2,904 
3,167 
1,154 
1.476 
3,283 
4,083 
1,264 




267 


208 

547 

1,541 

323 


41 
34 


3,007 
2,164 




68 
1,652 

132 
1,319 

110 


California 


469 

60 

950 


494 


9,006 


Colorado 


973 


Connecticut 


52 


3,989 


Delaware 






823 












944 




781 

2,294 

1,294 

484 

420 

974 

218 

1,033 

1,570 

8,030 

2,634 

89 


406 

590 

545 

90 

614 

472 

3,178 

100 

374 


529 

203 

45 

199 

56 

864 

110 

16 

44 

80 

14 

28 

370 

479 


132 

3,398 

1,655 

1,907 

881 

544 

837 


748 
71 

219 
21 


14,301 
14,870 


Illinois 


Indiana 


6,965 


Iowa 


7,661 


Kansas 


2,735 


Kentucky 


7,369 


Louisiana 


2,383 


Maine 


4,056 


Maryland 


366 
172 

1,688 
489 
483 

1,358 

504 

40 


6 

274 

309 

14 


5,541 


Massachusetts 


14,781 


Michigan 


5,771 


Minnesota 

Mississippi 


2,408 
4,645 


Missouri 


985 


7,821 
1,881 


Nebraska 


Nevada 




26 
184 

25 

1,776 

363 

325 

25 
141 


66 




498 
1.139 

4,295 


1,735 
224 

804 

1,322 

696 
879 

60 

43 
309 

92 
1,256 

18 
145 


2,089 
4,399 
18,449 
4,793 
3,618 
1,619 
9,824 

592 
2,883 
7,589 
4,990 
2,826 
2,368 

573 
2,247 


736 

563 

2,761 

484 

1,357 

616 

30 

373 

166 
217 

367 


3,507 


New Jersey 


68 
3,026 

359 
3,575 

692 
1,996 


243 

20 

1,133 


6,194 


New York 


32,042 


North Carolina 


5,739 


Ohio 


4.555 
196 

2,382 
233 


13,604 


Oregon. 


2,552 


Pennsylvania . . 


18,155 
1,441 


Rhode Island 


South Carolina 


313 
533 
167 

42 
242 

39 
233 


385 

1,500 

1,467 



69 

67 

833 


30 
218 


4,337 


Tennessee 


522 

72 


11,396 


Texas 


6,756 


Vermont 


3,077 


Virginia 


654 


4,077 


West Virginia 


771 


Wisconsin 


680 


5,616 


Dakota 


18 


District of Columbia 


268 


1,071 

54 

571 

135 

1,427 

2,946 

553 

110 


65 




317 




1,866 


Idaho 




54 


Indian 














571 


Montana 














135 


New Mexico 






98 








1,525 


Utah 








193 

218 




3,139 


Washington 










771 


Wyoming 










110 


















Total 


39,581 


14,464 


138,384 


15,681 


8,284 


31,838 


3,381 


251,613 







a In 159 cities. 6 Strictly normal students are not included. 



EDUCATION. 



355 



The following is a comparative summary of institutions for the superior instruction of 
women from 1 873 to 1 882, inclusive: 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


Number of institutions 

Number of instructors 

Number of students 


205 

2,120 

24,613 


209 

2,285 
23,445 


222 

2,405 

23,795 


225 

2,404 
23,856 


220 

2,305 

23,022 


225 

2,478 
23,639 


227 

2,323 

24,605 


227 

2,340 

25,780 


226 

2,211 
26,041 


227 
2,721 

28,726 



A table showing the institutions for the superior instruction of women. 



States. 



Corps of instruction. 



s? 



- — 



£3 a 



3 =>.2 



a 3 o t-< 
g as o tm 



in a 



Alabama 

California 

Connecticut . . . 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 
Michigan 



Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . . 
South Carolina. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia . . 
Wisconsin 

Total 



11 
4 
2 

14 

12 
2 
3 
1 

20 
4 
3 
6 

10 
2 
2 
9 
9 
1 
3 
3 

16 

10 

13 
1 

14 
6 

18 
7 
1 

14 
3 
3 

227 



92 
57 
30 

125 

151 
33 
40 
21 

167 
32 
18 
59 

195 
13 
21 
66 

102 

8 

35 

33 

230 
84 

173 
13 

133 
50 

157 

37 

9 

130 
29 
43 

2,386 



20 

14 

10 

44 

38 

1 

2 

4 

53 

9 

9 

11 

51 

1 

3 

14 

19 

2 

14 
15 
45 
21 
43 



43 

14 

33 

16 

4 

31 

9 

3 

596 



72 
43 
20 
73 

113 
32 
38 
17 

114 

23 

9 

48 

144 
6 

18 
47 
83 
6 
21 
18 

185 
63 

130 
13 
90 
36 

124 
21 
5 
71 
20 
40 

1,743 



1,105 
789 
270 

2,031 

1,261 
278 
696 
183 

2,519 
425 
237 
404 

1,736 

91 

228 

1,105 

1,390 

70 

485 

299 

3,378 

1,115 

1,304 
186 

1,359 
786 

2,129 

796 

93 

1,322 
219 
437 

28,726 



10 
1 



12 

7 
2 
2 
1 

17 
4 ! 
2 
2 
2 



5 
5 

15 
7 
1 

10 
3 
1 

142 



9,375 
8,575 
3,030 

10,668 

12,450 
4,200 
2,280 
1,000 

13,300 
1,973 
4,550 
7,426 

50,096 
1,400 
1,050 
5,421 
6,225 
280 
2,500 
3,800 

21,975 
9,400 

16,366 
600 

11,188 
2,937 

27,175 
1,178 
1,000 

10,400 

5,590 
257,408 



$487,000 
270,000 

40,000 
599,500 
543,500 

30,000 

50,000 
150,000 
608,000 

81,500 
134,000 

97,500 
1,103,500 

60,000 

60,000 
188,000 
412,000 

30,000 
165,000 
140,000 
1,775,941 
161,000 
946,000 

60,000 
431,000 
107,000 
566,500 

51,000 

85,000 
399,500 

10,000 
175,000 

10,017,441 



356 



EDUCATION. 









A table of universities an 


d colleges. 








1 


w 

(D 

(C . 
03 Q) 

> u 

4-1 O 

si 

a 




PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT. 


COLLEGIATE DEPARTMENT. 


States and Terri- 


9 

j_, m 

Oj o 

as 

25 


Students. 


o 

a 

Id 

«H O 
ED 

a 
u 

o 
O 


O 

u 

o> 
-° m 

is 

am 

O to 

1 


Students in classi- 
cal course. 


Students 

in scientific 

course. 




5 



H 




6 

■3 

a 


6 


"c3 

a 


o3 
re 


G 

13 

a 

s 

fa 




4 
5 

11 
3 
3 
1 
7 

28 

15 

19 
8 

15 
9 
3 

11 
7 
9 
5 
3 

17 
5 
1 
1 
4 

28 
9 

35 
7 

26 
1 
9 

19 

10 
2 
7 
3 
7 
5 
1 
2 


1 

20 

61 

5 


208 

a547 

al,541 

323 


208 

48 

1,293 

175 


62 
145 
148 


46 

15 

119 

20 

74 

8 

52 

230 

143 

172 

69 

120 

59 

33 

147 

151 

116 

65 

21 

211 

39 


277 

262 

652 

57 

939 

54 

392 

1,815 

1,307 

1,639 

462 

1,206 

319 

377 

1,292 

1,929 

1,013 

492 

241 

1,881 

34 












672 

199 
6c44 
6842 
8 
6260 
6e725 
6714 
6509 
6166 

158 
6132 

347 
6270 
1,665 

173 

130 
71 

175 
16 


619 
40' 

1 
68 
11 

166 

678 

6226 

21 

11 

5 

20 

64 

39 

45 

28 

10 

77 

8 






California 


207 


56 


Connecticut 














33 

20 

290 

102 

246 

86 

144 

83 

3 

26 

14 

124 

68 

74 

127 

4 




Georgia 


16 
76 
40 
36 
12 
22 
25 


al32 

a3,398 

al,655 

al,907 

881 

544 

837 


108 
2,156 
961 
1,094 
570 
490 
741 


2 

1,034 

390 

652 

311 

54 

96 




Illinois 


170 


Indiana 


53 


Iowa 


137 


Kansas 


58 


Kentucky 


17 


Louisiana 


3 






Maryland 


15 

6 

25 

10 

4 

22 

10 

1 


366 
172 

al,688 
489 
483 

al,358 

a504 

a40 


348 
172 
468 
278 
407 
982 
389 


18 

400 
211 

76 
364 

69 


9 


Massachusetts .... 
Michigan 


88 


Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 


38 

4 

36 


Nebraska 


5 






New Hampshire . . . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 






18 
73 

421 
70 

271 
38 

276 
17 
49 

139 
70 
22 
66 
27 
85 
41 


235 
650 

3,620 
786 

2,611 
425 

2,438 
270 
233 

1,441 
929 
97 
887 
211 
603 
156 


235 

477 

62,001 

326 

61,154 

6107 

61,264 

263 

143 

298 

6392 

82 

6186 

38 

216 

112 








2 

104 
11 
92 
12 
52 


68 
3,026 
a359 

a3,575 
a692 

al,996 


68 
2,768 

284 
2,530 

209 
1,556 


258 
10 
985 
123 
363 








6281 

72 

6318 

584 

82 

2 

9 

6233 

12 

18 
42 


650 
30 

309 
37 

479 
7 

12 
89 

144 


322 
39 


Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island . 


16 


South Carolina. . . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 


16 

28 

35 



5 

6 

24 

10 

4 


385 

al,500 

al,467 



69 

67 

a833 

317 

193 

a218 


305 

1,048 

802 



69 

52 

577 

304 

108 


80 

329 

435 



15 

138 

13 

85 


6 

28 
43 






Virginia 


2 

22 

136 

33 




West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

Dist. of Columbia. 
Utah 


2 
65 


Washington 


12 


26 


3 




2 










Total 


365 


808 


o3l,838 


21,568 


6,866 


3,605 


32,258 


6^13,973 


62,030 


3,603 


1,275 







a Sex not reported in all cases. 

6 A small number of scientific students included here. 



c Includes 36 sex not given. 

d Classification not reported in all cases. 



EDUCATION. 

A table of universities and colleges. 



357 



States and Territories. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware , 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi , 

Missouri , 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

"West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

District of Columbia. 

Utah 

"Washington 



Total . 



2 <o 

a. 2 
M s 

•32 

© « 

,2 o 

a u 



16,200 

2,620 

52,451 

4,300 

157,155 

6,000 

29,800 

120.841 
86,188 
59,974 
28,378 
50,626 
37,600 
58,146 
54,400 

303,126 

65,412 

24,750 

8,600 

111,197 
13,821 



55,000 

69,700 

313,346 

36,927 

161,902 

9,620 

184,353 

53,522 

20,600 

53,580 

11,206 

34,855 

105,000 

5,600 

48,450 

54,587 

2,826 

1,926 



2,514,585 



r5 CS 



p. 2 

J= O 

a<° 

3 



3,500 



5,860 

200 

25,000 

3,500 

14,500 

15,889 

16,774 

8,850 

3,617 

15,794 

2,000 

1,600 

2,850 

41,645 

5,000 

1,100 

3,400 

7,600 

250 



1,450 
21,500 
22,600 
23,550 
44,075 

1,050 

73,408 



6,700 
10,421 

1,921 



14,500 

200 

2,600 

300 





403,204 



Property, inoome, etc. 



be =° 

0} 

°2§ 
S3 2 

Sou 

■3* ft 



$300,000 

111,000 

1,300,200 

250,000 

472,884 

75,000 

682,300 

2,423,400 

1,220,000 

1,197,000 

559,500 

850,500 

777,000 

813,500 

1,369,500 

1,310,000 

1,296,451 

539,419 

435,000 

1,494,000 

209,000 



125,000 
1,210,000 
8,080,187 

639,000 
/ 3,192,840 

248,450 
3,939,350 
1,250,000 

337,000 
1,532,249 

390,000 

395,000 
1,450,000 

220,000 

839,600 

1,800,000 

36,000 

115,000 



3 

T} . 
O to 

ft 3 

«4Ht5 

O^ 
> 



$312,000 
8,000 

1,725,000 
17,934 

1,904,483 

83,000 

345,967 

1,366,816 
925,477 
836,410 
222,500 
878,227 
328,313 
712,105 

3,027,600 

6,290,257 

1,109,366 
801,497 
552,000 

1,116,600 
34,425 



500,000 

1,511,819 

8,976,347 

290,120 

2,748,124 

226,074 

4,061,772 

641,217 

528,333 

1,288,584 

27,000 

240,000 

380,000 

140,000 

897,990 

18,900 



6,000 



/43,485,330 



45,080,257 



S3 



01 o 

o-a 



$24,600 
750 

101,650 
1,282 
85,517 
4,980 
17,500 
99,000 
47,215 
57,549 
13,100 
50,133 
15,156 
43,404 

229,734 

291,812 
78,819 
51,456 
33,440 
74,440 
3,762 



25,000 

93,015 

469,317 

17,824 

202,510 

19,282 

242,822 

40,157 

23,940 

82,387 

2,700 

14,000 

23,700 

8,400 

62,789 

7,950 



600 



as 

C im 



-2 CD 

go 

ttfjO 



1,500 



187,880 



65,354 
10,000 
16,052 
3,500 
40,580 

120,859 
6,290 

633,648 

1,100 

12,694 

45,450 



100,000 
116,313 
487,565 

15,300 
149,510 

55,000 

37,000 
137,468 

65,400 
4,410 

40,000 
5,000 

19,000 
17,997 




2,661,692 



2,394,870 



/ The productive funds of one college included here. 



358 



EDUCATION, 



A table of students in institutions for superior instruction (not including students in pre- 
paratory departments). 



States and Territories. 


Number of students in 
colleges. 


a 

CO CD 

CD 3 

£2 

(fiq-l 

O cc 

•p 

a* 


Number of students in 
schools for the supe- 
rior instruction of 
women. 


a.2 

"^CO 

'Sod 

u *'& 
a> c 3 
•° n."S 

Sua 
o,2-a 


Alabama 


277 

262 

652 

57 

939 

54 

392 

1,815 

1,307 

1,639 

462 

1,206 

319 

377 

1,292 

1,929 

1,013 

492 

241 

1,881 

34 


84 

4 

150 

208 

226 

27 
163 
281 

61 
264 
312 
321 

53 

86 
296 
859 
219 


838 


1,199 

266 




California 


295 


1,097 
265 


Colorado 


Connecticut 


218 


1,383 

81 




Georgia 


1,502 

1,058 
233 
497 
127 

1,655 
315 
221 
360 

1,656 

77 

200 

735 

911 


2,057 
3,154 
1,601 
2,400 
901 


Illinois 


Indiana 


Iowa 


Kansas 


Kentucky 


3,182 
687 


Louisiana 


Maine 


684 


Maryland 


1,948 
4,444 
1,309 


Massachusetts 


Michigan 


Minnesota 


692 


Mississippi 


291 

138 

12 


1,267 


Missouri 

Nebraska 


2,930 
46 


Nevada 


44 
301 
274 

1,602 
752 
979 
161 

1,218 


44 


New Hampshire 


235 
650 

3,620 
786 

2,611 
425 

2,438 
270 
233 

1,441 
929 
97 
887 
211 
603 
156 
26 


108 
264 

4,643 

125 

133 

60 

2,048 


644 


New Jersey 


1,188 


New York 


9,865 




1,663 


Ohio 


3,723 


Oregon 


646 


Pennsylvania 


5,704 


Khode Island 


270 


South Carolina 


153 


473 

1,596 

629 

51 

1,080 
180 
204 


859 


Tennessee 


3,037 


Texas 


258 

42 

592 


1,816 
190 


Vermont 




2,559 


West Virginia ; 


391 




95 


902 


District of Columbia 


156 


Washington 






26 










Total 


32,258 


12,576 


20,442 


65,276 







Areas of circles proportional 
Scede— 4,000 to the square inch 




N.Y. 



N.V. 







PA. 



OHIO 



ILL. 







PA. 



OHIO 



ILL. 



CH 

Showing the aggi 

BL 

and the proportion of male 

native or foreign, also i 

(Compiled from Fre 



Comparative view of the distribution of Blindness by sei 

( These figures refer to the large figure in the left 








KY. 



VA. 



IND. MO. TENN. N 



The shaded segments represent Ma 
upper smaller dimensions represen 



Comparative view of the distribute 

( These figures refer to the large figure 








KY. 



VA. 



IND. 



MO. 



TENN N 



Comparettive view of the increase in the ; 



OOOooooooc 



PA. 



OHIO 



ILL. KY. 



VA. IND. MO. TENN. N 



umber of the 

nales, white or colored, 
ase in ten years. 

'Charts.) 




Unity in the several States. 



NEB OR. DEL. FLA. MINN. KAN. R.I. W.VA. N.H. VT. CAL. 








MASS. GA. ALA. S.C. LA. MICH TEX. IA. WIS. MD. N.J. A RK. ME. MISS. CONN. 



kite segments, Females. The 
tiers, the lower, Natives. 



idness by sex and color. 

' upper corner. ) 



NEB. OR. DEL. FLA. MINN. KAN. B.I. W.VA. N.H. VT. CAL. 






HASS. GA. ALA. s.C. LA. MICH. TEX. IA. WIS. MD. N.J. ARK. ME. MISS. CONN. 



f the Blind in ten years. 



.oOOOOOOOOO 

NEB. OR. DEL. FLA. MINN. KAN. R.I. W.VA. N.H. VT. CAL. 



DO OO 0000 000 0000 

IASS. GA. ALA. S.C. LA. MICH. TEX IA. WIS MD. N.J. ARK. ME. MISS. CONN. 

' Copyrighted 1886 by Yaggy & West 



Areas of circles proportional 
Scale— 4,000 to the square inch 





N.Y. 



N.Y. 






PA. 



OHIO 



ILL. 







PA. 



OHIO 



ILL. 



CH 

aggi 
BL 

and the proportion of male 
native or foreign, also 

(Compiled from JPre 



Comparative view of the distribution of Blindness by sea 

(These figures refer to the large figure in the left 








KY. 



VA. 



IND. 



MO. TENN. 



The shaded segments represent Ma 
upper smaller dimensions rcpresen 



Comparative view of the distribute 

( These figures refer to the large figure 








KY. 



VA. 



IND. MO. TENN N 



Comparative view of the increase in the 



OOOooooooc 



N.Y. 



PA. 



OHIO 



ILL. 



KY. 



VA. IND. MO. TENN. N 



Areas of circles proportional 
Seale-i,000 to the square inch 












CHART 
Showing the aggreg ate number of the 

BLIND , . 

and the proportion of male» antlfemaltV' 1 ' 1 '' or colored > 
native or foreign, also the ;„«*' '« ten years. 

(CbmptUdfrom n„, u KX JCharl'-) 



Comparative view of the distribution of Blindness by sex and nativity in the several States. 

( These figures refer la Ute large figure in Ihr left » mr meTt 









NEB 0R DEL. FLA. MINN. KAN. R.I. W.VA. N.H. VT. CAL. 



PA. OHIO ILL. KV. VA. IND. MO. TENN. NX. 



The shaded segments represent Malawi 
upper smaller dimensions represent 



F(IT'i<l' 



Comparative view of the distribution of Blindness by sex and color. 

( These figures refer to the huge figure in rherinhr njiprr earner.) 







MASS. GA. ALA S.C. LA. MICH TEX. IA. WIS. MD. N.J. 

white segments, Females. The 
'tiers, the lower, Natives. » 



ARK. ME. MISS. CONN. 



OHIO ILL. KY. 



IND. MO. TENN N.C. 



Comparative view of the increase in the numl f of the Blind in ten years. 



• ® ® *> w W WJ WJ WJ %J WJ 

NEB. OR DEL. FLA. MINN. KAN. R.I. W.VA. N.H. VT. CAL. 



MftSS GA - ALA - S.C. LA. MICH. TEX. IA. WIS. MD. N.J. ARK. ME. MISS. CONN. 



OOOOOOOOOQOOoo 



o o o OOOOOOO 

EB. OR. DEL. FLA. MINN. KAN. R.I. W.VA. N.H. VT. CAL. 



OOOOOOO OOOO 

PA. OHIO ILL. KY. VA. IND. MO. TENN. GA. ALA sc ^ M |CH. TEX IA. WIS MD. N.J. ARK. ME. MISS. CONN. 



1 



Copyrighted 1886 by taggy & V.v*t. 



EDUCATION. 

A table of statistics of schools of science. 



859 



States. 



Preparatory de- 
partment. 



Students. 



Scientific department. 



Students. 



a O 
■_rt o 



a £ 



02-3 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado * . . . 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total 

U. S. Military Academy 
U. S. Naval Academy . . , 

Grand total 



46 



48 



(a) 



3 



(a) 



(a) 



(a) 




16 

(a) 



69 



41 
(a) 






(«) 





o 



3 

33 
4 

27 
3 



81 

4 

58 

81 

181 

24 



3 


24 





661 





19 




27 
30 



(129) 



452 
60 

142 
16 



(a) 



6 





(a) 

274 

45 

14 

(a) 







213 

20 

41 



30 



(a) 



167 
11 

77 
5 



(a) 





(a) 

15 
(a)' 



19 

23 

12 

18 

14 

11 

3 

9 

7 

54 

13 



(a) 



13 

15 

3 



163 

262 

48 

238 

307 

321 

52 

81 

49 

299 

200 

(a) 

276 

36 

12 



10 

10 

19 

5 





184 





400 





305 
17 

(a) 
15 



22 
2 






30 



12 



11 
14 
53 
15 
19 
4 
13 



(a) 

10 
(a) 




145 
(a) 



53 
(a) 
31 



43 
40 
90 

77 

110 

60 

42 

(a) 

127 

(a) 
258 

22 
418 
(a) 

95 



10 


47 



2 
24 



12 
40 
128 
96 

60 
50 



(a) 





12 



(a) 



275 

93 



200 
65 



J (129) 
I 1,499 390 



69 



524 



4,155 



504 



102 



2,321 



45 

57 



242 

247 



(129) 
1,4991 390 



626 



4,644 



504 102 



2,321 



60 




21 





22 



2 




17 
51 

"io 

195 



195 



a Included in summary of statistics of universities and colleges. 



360 



EDUCATION. 

A table of statistics of schools of science. — Continued. 





Libraries. 


Property, income, 


ETC. 


States. 


O H u 

sag 

33® 


<3i 

O M W 

H.9 g 

SS" 

3 3-E 
S5 


■3<jj 

a a 

3 

O en 2 

gU a 

3 a a 


<H 3 

a p* 
3 33 
o a 

£ 3 
1^ 


o g a 

OSS 

a ft* 






2,500 


$100,000 
150,000 
(a) 

50,000 
200,000 
(a) 


$253,500 
130,000 
(a) 


$20,280 


Arkansas 


(a) 
(a) 

50 
5,000 
6,200 


10,400 


California 




(a) 


Colorado 






Connecticut 


665,000 
83,000 
121,400 
242,202 
319,000 
340,000 
637,806 
361,206 
165,000 
318,313 
131,300 
112,500 
507,045 
339,058 
(a) 

227,150 
279,000 


35,711 


Delaware 


(a) 


4,980 


Florida 


10,004 


Georgia 


3,500 
13,000 
2,730 
4,920 
3,500 




180,000 
400,000 
300,000 
1,000,000 
109,109 
110,000 
350,000 
145,000 
100,000 
522,745 
338,472 

(a) 

218,000 

130,000 


16,954 


Illinois 





19,010 


Indiana 


17,000 


Iowa 




48,136 




300 


28,424 


Kentucky 


9,900 


Louisiana 


17,000 
4,200 




14,556 


Maine 




7,700 


Maryland 


1,500 
400 


6,975 


Massachusetts 


5,200 

6,135 

(a) 

1,350 

2,500 


23,834 


Michigan 


23,734 


Minnesota 





(a) 




11,679 


Missouri 




13,950 














(a) 

100,000 
(a) 
(a) 

&6,000 

400,000 

4,000 

451,616 

(a) 

200,000 
(a) 

260,000 
(a) 

507,011 
(al 
200,000 


(a) 

80,000 
(a) 

(a) 

125,000 

537,868 

60,000 
500,000 

50,000 
191,000 
405,000 
204,000 




New Hampshire . . 


2,000 
(a) 
(a) 
2,000 
2,400 
500 
3,500 
(a) 

27,000 
(a) 
1,100 
(a) 
2,432 

(a) 
(ai 




4,800 


New Jersey 


(a) 


1,000 


(a) 


New York 


(a) 


North Carolina 


7,500 


Ohio . 


31,622 




500 
2,350 
(a) 
2,200 
(a) 


5,000 


Pennsylvania 


30,000 


Rhode Island . 




South Carolina 


11,500 


Tennessee 


24,410 


Texas 


14,280 


Vermont . . 




8,130 




150 

(a) 
(a~i 


432,000 

(a) 

267,000 


25,000 


West Virginia 


(a) 




15,322 






Total.... 


116,217 


10,900 


6,531,953 


8,084,348 


500,791 






U, S. Military Academy 


28,609 

22,297 




c2,500,000 
1,357,390 






U. S. Naval Academy 

















167,123 


10,900 


10,389,343 


8,084,348 


500,791 





a Included in summary of statistics of universities and colleges. 
b Value of buildings only. 



c Value of grounds and buildings. 
d Congressional appropriation. 



EDUCATION. 



361 



A table of statistics of schools of theology. 



States. 



Alabama 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia 

Total 



3 
3 
1 
3 

2 
20 
3 
4 
1 
7 
4 
2 
6 
7 
2 
3 
1 
4 
1 
5 
14 
2 

13 
14 
2 
6 
2 
4 
4 
2 



145 



5 
15 

4 
32 

2 
94 
11 
11 


26 

6 

9 
31 
63 

7 

9 

5 
19 

2 
38 
75 

8 
52 
84 

8 
38 

3 
18 
30 

7 



11 

1 

19 



13 
2 
3 



18 
26 

19 
23 



712 i 164 



89 

12 

1 

177 

13 

554 

65 

57 



174 

67 

48 

380 

241 

49 

41 

30 

197 

8 

294 

657 

106 

301 

537 

33 

227 

20 

162 

166 

75 



4,781 



x> d 

s 
65 



2,284 
10,000 



46,000 
41,950 



29,900 
200 
18,500 
76,000 
76,350 
2,000 



300 

13,250 

50 

89,988 

120,611 

2,500 

40,100 

102,593 

1,300 

3,500 



26,300 
16,900 



720,576 



Pbopeety, income, etc. 



o a . 

OS to 



$17,000 
104,000 



540,000 
558,710 



14,049 



65,500 



105,000 
145,000 
731,835 



40,000 

20,000 

150,000 



938,586 

1,668,000 



317,000 

410,870 

25,000 

58,000 



255,000 

238,250 

40,000 



6,441,800 



O )> 

a £ g 

b j- a 



$5,000 
149,230 



321,031 

20,000 

1,041,181 



48,611 



362,295 
193,000 



1,612,972 
55,000 
50,000 



40,000 



1,673,571 

2,215,012 



415,000 

1,000,628 

22,000 

2,500 



250,000 
57,000 
25,000 



9,559,031 



t-i 4_) 

ooS 
o t. K 
a ch 



$3,450 
6,370 



27,71d 
62,370 



4,075 
31,809 
12,000 



98,397 
3,700 
4,000 





89,368 
129,823 



22,100 
58,400 

11,549 



15,000 
2,400 



582,525 



The number of schools of law each year from 1 873 to 1 882, inclusive, with the num- 
ber of instructors and number of students. 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


Number of institutions 

Number of instructors 

Number of students 


37 

158 

2,174 


38 
181 

2,585 


43 

224 
2,677 


42 

218 

2,664 


43 
175 

2,811 


50 

196 

3,012 


49 

224 

3,019 


48 

229 

3,134 


47 

229 

3,227 


48 

249 

3,079 







362 EDUCATION. 

A table of statistics of schools of medicine, of dentistry, and of pharmacy. 





co 

o 

o 
ja 
o 

CO 

o 

t-i 
CD 

S 
3 


a 

o 

o 



u 

.3 

o 

CO 

ft 

u 
O 

o 


00 

.9 

CO 

a 

a> 
3 
00 


03 

QJ 
*(- 

ce 

.s 

CD 

a 

. > 

q-i 
O 
h 
CD 

s 

3 


Property, income 


ETC. 


States. 


■A 

r^ co 
a a 
■°.-S 
■ >3 

"8 5 

9 a 

*a 

(4-1 cc3 
O m 
CD M 

s a 


CD 

CD 

3 

o 
t-l . 

■gS 

a 

3 
O 

a 
< 


CD 
_£ 

O 

d 

o 

t-i - 
f\3 

a a 

o o 
C"h 

CD 

a 

o 
o 
n 


I. Medical and subgical. 

1. Regular. 

Alabama 


1 

1 

2 
1 
1 
3 
5 
5 
3 
4 
1 
2 
3 
2 
3 
1 
8 
1 
1 
8 
2 
6 
1 
4 
1 
5 
1 
1 
3 


9 
17 
29 
15 
18 
32 

112 
80 
36 
45 
16 
18 
57 
65 
61 
32 

108 
14 
13 

194 
4 
90 
11 
93 
11 
68 
21 
5 
40 


60 

36 
123 

20 

30 
319 
982 
292 
434 
558 
217 
12-J 
562 
260 
525 

62 
579 

30 

94 
2,026 

15 
1,052 

35 
1,082 

56 
546 
190 

52 
163 


500 


$150,000 

12,000 

130,000 


$0 




Arkansas 




California 








Colorado 








Connecticut 






30,995 


$1,963 


Georgia 


5,500 


125,000 

240,000 

4,500 

50,000 
162,000 

80,000 

20,500 

175,500 

6,000 

30,000 
100,000 

50,000 
9,000 

40,000 
516,500 

35,000 

142,500 

7,000 

307,000 

40,000 
166,300 

12,000 


Illinois 






Indiana \ 


400 

300 

4,000 

1,000 

4,000 






Iowa 






Kentucky 






Louisiana 



2,500 





Maine 


140 


Maryland 




Massachusetts 


2,000 
185 
190 

1,700 
150 

1,800 

7,255 
600 

4,000 
100 

4,937 


1,420 


228,588 


12,557 


Michigan 


Minnesota 






Missouri 






Nebraska .... 






New Hampshire 




6,000 





New York 


335 


North Carolina 




Ohio 






Oregon 






Pennsylvania 


50,000 



1,000 


3,000 


South Carolina 





Tennessee 


60 


Vermont 




Virginia 








District of Columbia 


20 


103,000 


2,200 


154 






Total 


80 


1,314 


10,523 


40,057 


2,713,800 


321,283 


18,209 






2. Eclectic. 

California 


2 
1 


10 
11 
14 

17 


32 

61 

157 

24 




20,000 

7,000 

75,000 






Georgia 















Indiana 




3,000 


























Missouri 


10 
30 

8 


125 
236 

272 


100 
1,300 






a 


New York 


46,600 
80,000 






Ohio 













Total 


10 


100 


907 


1,400 


228,600 


3,000 









EDUCATION. 

A table of statistics of schools of medicine, etc. 



363 



-Continued. 





to 

"o 

o 

-G 
O 
CC 

«w 

u 

CD 
jQ 
S 
3 

z 


d 
_o 

"5 

3 
u 

to 

a 

«n 
o 

ft 
t-< 



o 


CM 

oo 

QO 

a 

to 
-^» 

a 

CD 
3 


Number of volumes in libraries. 


Property, income 


, ETC. 


States. 


t3 
"3. to 

& 3 
. CD 

r§ a 
a » 
° & 

O w 

*l 

uh a 

° CD 

CD M 

a a 

CD - " 

> 


CD 

O 

3 

O 

■gl 

3 

a 
o 
S 
■< 


CD 
_t> 

'■£ 

3 

O 
t-< . 

o s 

«4— « 

<D 

s 

o 
o 
3 


I. Medical and surgical— Cont'd. 

3. Homoeopathic. 
Illinois 


2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 


38 
8 
29 
7 
13 
45 
28 
20 


501 

44 

110 

88 

42 

193 

186 

145 


400 

300 

1,800 


$125,000 






Iowa 






Massachusetts. . 


110,000 






Michigan 






Missouri 










New York 


30 








Ohio 


25,000 
50,000 








2,000 










Total 


11 


188 


1,309 


4,530 


310,000 












II. Dental. 
Indiana 


1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
3 
1 
1 
3 
2 


23 

8 


23 
36 


20 


1,500 
1,500 


$0 


$0 












39 
36 
8 
42 
22 
13 
52 
33 


89 
83 
75 
25 

138 
70 

216 
65 




10,000 
8,000 






Massachusetts 


64 











Missouri 




1,000 






New York 









Ohio 




15,000 






Pennsylvania 


4,000 
2,000 






Tennessee 


50,000 




1,568 






Total 


18 


276 


820 


6,084 


87,000 




1,568 






III. Pharmaceutical. 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 


4 
5 
3 


47 

168 

45 




3,000 
3,000 
7,000 










300 


12 


Kentucky 


150 










Maryland 


6 
4 

13 
4 

10 
3 
7 
5 
4 


98 
102 
100 
102 
373 

95 
407 

20 

35 


300 
3,400 


8,000 
6,000 






Massachusetts 


5,000 


300 






Missouri 




3,500 
71,000 

1,000 
75,200 






New York 


1,145 
450 


1,500 


60 


Ohio 





Pennsylvania 








Tennessee 






District of Columbia 


250 


2,500 












Total 


15 


68 


1,592 


5,695 


180,200 


6,800 


372 






Totals. 
Medical and surgical. 
Regular 


80 
10 
11 
18 
15 


1,314 
100 

188 

•276 

68 


10,523 
907 

1,309 
820 

1,592 


40,057 
1,400 
4,530 
6,084 
5,695 


$2,713,800 

228,600 

310,000 

87,000 

180,200 


$321,283 
3,000 


$18,209 


Eclectic 


Homoeopathic 




Dental 




1,568 
372 


Pharmaceutical 


6,800 






Grand total 


134 


1,946 


15,151 


57,766 


3,519,600 


331,083 


20,149 





■3G4 



EDUCATION. 



Table showing the illiteracy by states and territories. 



States and Territories. 



The United States. 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi '. 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

"West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wvoming 



PERSONS OF 10 YEARS OP AGE AND UPWARD. 



Enumerated. 



Number. 

36,761.607 



851,780 
32,922 
531,876 
681,062 
158,220 
497,303 
99,849 
110,856 
136,907 
184,650 

1,043,840 
25,005 

2,269,315 

1,468,095 

1,181,641 
704,297 

1,163,498 
649,070 
519,669 
695,364 

1,432,183 

1,236,686 
559,977 
753,693 

1,557,631 

31,989 

318,271 

50,666 

286,188 

865,591 

87,966 

3,981,428 
959,951 

2,399,367 
130,565 

3,203,215 
220,461 
667,456 

1,062,130 

1,064,196 

97,194 

264,052 

1,059,034 

55,720 

428,587 

965,712 

16,479 



Returned as unable 
to read. 



Number. 

4,923,451 



370,279 

5,496 

153,229 

48,583 

9,321 

20,986 

3,094 

16,912 

21,541 

70,219 

446,683 

1,384 

96,809 

70,008 

28,117 

25,503 

258,186 

297,312 

18,181 

111,387 

75,635 

47,112 

20,551 

315,612 

138,818 

1,530 

7,830 

3,703 

11,982 

39,136 

52,994 

166,625 

367,890 

86,754 

5,376 

146,138 

17,456 

321,780 

294,385 

256,223 

4,851 

12,993 

360,495 

3,191 

52,041 

38,693 

427 



Per cent 

13.4 



43.5 
16.7 

28.8 

7.1 

5.9 

4.2 

3.1 

15.3 

15.7 

38.0 

42.8 

5.5 

4.3 

4.8 

2.4 

3.6 

22.2 

45.8 

3.5 

16.0 

5.3 

3.8 

3.7 

41.9 

8.9 

4.8 

2.5 

7.3 

4.2 

4.5 

60.2 

4.2 

38.3 

3.6 

4.1 

4.6 

7.9 

48.2 

27.7 

24.1 

5.0 

4.9 

34.0 

5.7 

12.1 

4.0 

2.6 



Returned as unable 
to write. 



Number. Per cent. 

6,239,958 17.0 



433,447 

5,842 

202,015 

53,430 

10,474 

28,424 

4,821 

19,414 

25,778 

80,183 

520,416 

1,778 

145,397 

110,761 

46,609 

39,476 

348,392 

318,380 

22,170 

134,488 

92,980 

63,723 

34,546 

373,201 

208,754 

1,707 

11,528 

4,069 

14,302 

53,249 

57,156 

219,600 

463,975 

131,847 

7,423 

228,014 

24,793 

369,848 

410,722 

316,432 

8,826 

15,837 

430,352 

3,889 

85,376 

55,558 

556 



50.9 

17.7 

38.0 

7.8 

6.6 

5.7 

4.8 

17.5 

18.8 

43.4 

49.9 

7.1 

6.4 

7.5 

3.9 

5.6 

29.9 

49.1 

4.3 

19.3 

6.5 

5.2 

6.2 

49.5 

13.4 

5.3 

3.6 

8.0 

5.0 

6.2 

65.0 

5.5 

48.3 

5.5 

5.7 

7.1 

11.2 

55.4 

38.7 

29.7 

9.1 

6.0 

40.6 

7.0 

19.9 

5.8 

3.4 



EDUCATION. 365- 

The number of minors of legal school age, etc., as computed by the Bureau of 

Education. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut . . , 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . . 
Rhode Island . . . 
South Carolina. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia . . 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

Dist. Columbia. 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Under legal 
school age: 



298,750 

170,522 

93,426 

22,956 

49,896 

22,029 

34,387 

312,124 

497,764 

308,522 

230,110 

151,704 

296,872 

179,822 

51,122 

122,954 

179,307 

207,850 

117,209 

195,876 

373,269 

72,156 

7,512 

30,573 

134,716 

559,020 

276,512 

485,639 

18,440 

660,399 

28,585 

206,871 

296,854 

432,830 

34,091 

234,687 

117,716 

144,222 

4,669 

19,721 

24,825 

4,184 

3,146 

22,589 

30,140 

10,310 

3,272 



Of legal 
school age. 



Total 7,780,150 16,265,089 



422,739 

288,852 

201,283 

44,098 

146,009 

48,889 

115,496 

461,016 

1,073,835 

708,182 

620,600 

376,551 

548,522 

271,414 

220,194 

319,201 

333,020 

533,763 

289,028 

458,855 

738,712 

161,898 

10,129 

60,899 

316,421 

1,655,644 

502,507 

1,082,976 

61,894 

1,422,377 

58,332 

262,279 

571,253 

251,536 

99,463 

585,042 

227,161 

502,213 

9,571 

39,742 

43,537 

9,115 

9,321 

29,255 

43,514 

24,639 

4,112 



Over legal 
school age. 



70,160 
60,877 



104,635 



59,509 
57,371 



Under 6 
years old. 



20,983 

207,048 

35,317 



49,410 



3,020 
39,365 
70,322 



3,957 



26,871 
99,780 



217,531 

6,598 



28,984 



10,804 



7,895 
8,670 



1,189,107 



256,501 

170,522 

111,937 

22,956 

75,807 

22,029 

52,659 

312,124 

497,764 

308,522 

274,482 

181,384 

296,872 

179,822 

77,481 

146,956 

215,861 

248,733 

139,524 

235,769 

373,269 

85,693 

7,512 

36,724 

162,055 

672,781 

276,512 

485,639 

27,378 

660,399 

34,489 

206,871 

296,854 

333,910 

41,019 

281,550 

117,716 

217,018 

4,669 

23,329 

24,825 

4,947 

4,652 

19,414 

30,140 

12,282 

2,870 



Between 6 
and 16. 



332,290 
211,105 
167,165 
28,373 
120,098 
32,866 
69,959 
404,793 
734,224 
484,387 
397,311 
248,732 
428,880 
239,936 
128,964 
217,705 
327,283 
■i 59,404 
183,762 
305,318 
548,841 
105,767 
8,822 
60,728 
245,203 
1,030,009 
356,982 
741,888 
39,008 
982,416 
52,428 
262,279 
407,587 
410,487 
66,873 
388,268 
163.540 
312,832 
6,138 
25,421 
37,511 
5,863 
5,177 
28,386 
37,599 
15,968 
2,861 



Over 16 
years old. 



School popu- 
lation not be- 
tween 6 and 
16 years. 



8,272,222 11,771,437 



132,698 
77,747 

85,767 
15,725 

60,877 
16,023 

27,265 

160,858 
339,611 
223,795 

178,917 

98,139 
179,151 

88,849 

64,871 

98,477 
176,231 
168,793 

82,951 
113,644 
239,281 

42,594 
4,327 

33,385 
114,201 
511,874 
145,525 
341,088 

17,905 
439,961 

26.871 

99,780 
163,666 
157,500 

32,260 
149,911 

63,621 

145,569 

3,433 

10,713 

16,830 
2,489 
2,638 

11,939 

14,585 
6,699 
1,653 



5,190,687 



90,449 

77,747 

34,118 

15,725 

25,911 

16,023 

45,537 

56,223 

339,611 

223,795 

223,289 

127,819 

119,642 

31,478 

91,230 

101,496 

5,737 

174,359 

105,266 

153,537 

189,871 

56,131 

1,307 

171 

71,218 

625,635 

145,525 

341,088 

22,886 

439,961 

5,904 

163,666 

al58,951 

32,590 

196,774 

63,621 

189,381 

3,333 

14,321 

6,026 

3,252 

4,144 

869 

5,915 

8,671 

1,251 



4,493,652 



a In Texas the school population was less than the number between 6 and 16. 



366 EDUCATION. 

Table showing the illiteracy by states and territories in 1860. 



States and Territories 



The United States. 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota , 

Delaware 

District of Columbia . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia a 

Washington 

West Virginia ....'... 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



CANNOT READ AND WRITE— PERSONS 20 YEARS OF AGE AND UPWARD. 



Total. 



1,218,311 



38,060 



23,665 
19,693 



8,833 
77 

13,169 
6,881 
5,461 

44,257 



Native. 



871,418 



37,302 



23,587 
11,509 



925 

60 

11,503 

4,860 

5,150 

43,550 



Foreign- 
born. 



346,893 



758 



78 
8,184 



7,908 

17 

1,666 

2,021 

311 

707 



Whice. 



Male. 



467,023 



14,517 



9,379 
11,835 



3,405 
62 
2,838 
1,258 
2,378 
16,900 



Female. 



659,552 



23,088 



14,263 
7,154 



5,083 
15 
3,823 
2,248 
2,963 
26,784 



Colored. 



Male. 



41,275 



192 



10 

497 



181 



3,056 

1,151 

48 

255 



Female. 



50,461 



263 



13 

207 



164 



3,452 

2,224 

72 

318 



59,364 
62,716 
19,951 

3,067 
70,040 
19,010 

8,598 
37,518 
46,921 
18,485 

4,763 
15,636 
60,545 



39,748 

55,903 

12,903 

2,695 

65,749 

15,679 

2,386 

33,780 

2,004 

8,170 

1,055 

15,136 

51,173 



19,616 

6,813 

7,048 

372 

4,291 

3,331 

6,212 

3,738 

44,917 

10,315 

3,708 

500 

9,372 



24,786 

24,297 
7,806 
1,228 

28,742 
8,051 
4,282 
7,290 

16,969 
8,596 
2,382 
6,256 

24,255 



33,251 

36,646 

11,976 

1,776 

38,835 

9,757 

4,270 

8,529 

29,293 

8,845 

2,369 

9,270 

35,405 



634 

150 

4,717 

23,081 

32,785 

121,878 

74,977 

64,828 

1,511 

81,515 

6,112 

16,208 

72,054 

18,476 

323 

8,916 

86,452 

438 



357 

40 

1,093 

12,937 

31,626 

26,163 

74,877 

48,015 

1,200 

44,930 

1,202 

15,792 

69,262 

11,832 

162 

933 

83,300 

207 



277 

110 

3,624 

10,144 

1,159 

95,715 

100 

16,813 

311 

36,585 

4,910 

416 

2,792 

6,644 

161 

7,983 

3,152 

231 



317 
138 

2,023 

8,436 

16,008 

47,703 

26,024 

23,297 

762 

27,560 

2,057 

5,811 

27,358 

8,514 

98 

4,467 

31,178 

295 



304 

5 

2,660 

10,840 

16,750 

68,262 

42,104 

35,345 

737 

44,596 

3,795 

8,981 

43,001 

9,900 

225 

4,402 

42,877 

142 



16,546 



2,663 



13,883 



7,465 



8,983 



632 

869 

92 

25 

1,113 

485 

25 

9,904 

291 

558 

6 

50 
371 



6 

6 

15 

1,720 

12 

2,653 

3,067 

2,995 

7 

3,893 

119 

633 

743 

25 



27 

5,489 

1 



53 



695 

904 

77 

38 

1,350 

717 

21 

11,795 

368 

486 

6 

60 

514 



7 

1 

19 

2,085 

15 

3,260 

3,782 

3,191 

5 

5,466 

141 

783 

952 

37 



20 

6,908 



45 



a Includes West Virginia. 



EDUCATION, 



367 



Table showing the illiteracy by states and territories in 1 870. 



States and Territories. 



cannot 

READ. 



Persons 

10 years of 

age and 

over. 



CANNOT WRITE— PERSONS 10 YEARS OF AQE AND UPWARD. 



Total. 



Native. 



Foreign 
born. 



White. 



21 and over. 



Male. 



Female. 



Colored. 



21 and over. 



Male. 



Female. 



United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana ..'. 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



4,528,084 



5,658,144 



4,880,271 



777,873 



748.970 



1,145,718 



862,243 



349,771 

2,690 

111,799 

24,877 

6,297 

19,680 

1,249 

19,356 

22,845 

66,238 

418,553 

3,293 

86,368 

76,634 

24,115 

16,369 

249,567 

257,184 

13,486 

114,100 

74,935 

34,613 

12,747 

291,718 

146,771 

667 

2,365 

727 

7,618 

37,057 

48,836 

163,501 

339,789 

92,720 

2,609 

131,728 

15,416 

265,892 

290,549 

189,423 

2,515 

15,185 

390,913 

1,018 

48,802 

35,031 

468 



383,012 

2,753 

133,339 

31,716 

6,823 

29,616 

1,563 

23,100 

28,719 

71,803 

468,593 

3,388 

133,584 

127,124 

45,671 

24,550 

332,176 

276,158 

19,052 

135,499 

97,742 

53,127 

24,413 

313,310 

222,411 

918 

4,861 

872 

9,926 

54,687 

52,220 

239,271 

397,690 

173,172 

4,427 

222,356 

21,921 

290,379 

364,697 

221,703 

7,363 

17,706 

445,893 

1,307 

81,490 

55,441 

602 



382,142 

262 

133,043 

9,520 

6,568 

5,678 

758 

20,631 

26,501 

71,235 

467,503 

138 

90,595 

113,185 

24,979 

20,449 

324,945 

268,773 

7,986 

126,907 

7,912 

22,547 

5,558 

312.483 

206,827 

394 

3,552 

98 

1,992 

29,726 

49,311 

70,702 

397,573 

134,102 

3,003 

126,803 

4,444 

289,726 

362,955 

203,334 

3,334 

3,902 

444,623 

804 

78,389 

14,113 

266 



870 

2,491 

296 

22,196 

255 

23,938 

805 

2,469 

2,218 

568 

1,090 

3,250 

42,989 

13,939 

20,692 

4,101 

7,231 

7,385 

11,066 

8,592 

89,830 

30,580 

18,855 

827 

15,584 

524 

1,309 

774 

7,934 

24,961 

2,909 

168,569 

117 

39,070 

1,424 

95,553 

17,477 

653 

1,742 

18,369 

4,029 

13,804 

1,270 

503 

3,101 

41,328 

336 



17,429 

1,167 

13,610 

12,362 

2,305 

8,990 

403 

3,466 

1,214 

3,876 

21,899 

315 

40,801 

36,331 

14,782 

5,994 

43,826 

12,048 

6,516 

13,344 

30,920 

17,543 

8,041 

9,357 

34,780 

399 

956 

474 

3,361 

14,515 

14,892 

73,208 

33,111 

41,439 

1,085 

61,350 

5,922 

12,490 

37,713 

17,505 

1,137 

6,867 

27,646 

.437 

15,181 

17,637 

326 



31,001 

767 

21,770 

9,837 

2,074 

13,683 

306 

4,566 

2,542 

5,600 

40,531 

107 

56,857 

57,651 

19,825 

6,175 

62,725 

15,540 

6,775 

19,422 

52,890 

17,986 

10,109 

13,746 

50,124 

81 

1,169 

126 

4,225 

21,916 

17.135 

116,744 

62,728 

68,449 

1,096 

116,261 

10,152 

17,901 

68,825 

19,845 

2,180 

6,445 

40,351 

179 

24,545 

22,670 



91,017 

1 

23,681 

468 

63 

627 

6 

3,765 

7,599 

16,806 

100,551 

4 

3,969 

3,182 

635 

2,772 

37,889 

76,612 

69 

27,123 

822 

1,015 

44 

80,810 

18,002 

34 

93 

15 

38 

2,881 

58 

3,912 

68,669 

7,531 

48 

5,758 

291 

70,830 

55,938 

47,235 

8 

45 

97,908 

15 

3,186 

185 

33 



946,332 



98,344 

22,689 

339 

48 

704 

12 

4,205 

10,757 

18,052 

112,361 

9 

4,082 

3,181 

673 

2,839 

43,277 

79,437 

57 

32,582 

1,044 

941 

37 

87,327 

20,587 

15 

50 

6 

32 

3,509 

24 

4,874 

76,177 

8,07.3 

28 

7,469 

421 

77,924 

63,248 

47,583 

10 

37 

109,687 

9 

3,442 

115 

12 



368 



EDUCATION. 

The insane, by sex, nativity, and race, in 1880. 



States and Territories. 



The United States . 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Total. 



91,997 



1,521 
21 
789 
2,503 
99 
1,723 
72 
198 
938 
253 
1,697 
16 
5,134 
3,530 
2,544 
1,000 
2,784 
1,002 
1,542 
1,857 
5,127 
2,796 
1,145 
1,147 
3,310 
59 
450 
31 
1,056 
2,405 
153 
14,111 
2,028 
7,286 
378 
8,304 
684 
1,112 
2,404 
1,564 
151 
1,015 
2,411 
135 
982 
2,526 
4 



Male. 



44.408 



719 
16 
375 
1,720 
59 
745 
42 
96 
701 
119 
817 
13 
2,542 
1,695 
1,336 
531 
1,492 
443 
694 
865 
2,253 
1,292 
584 
521 
1,662 
53 
245 
22 
465 
1,145 
75 
6,219 
858 
3,454 
264 
3,983 
293 
503 
1,149 
807 
73 
472 
1,171 
101 
477 
1,243 
4 



Female. 



47,589 



Native. 



65,651 



802 
5 
414 
783 
40 
978 
30 
102 
237 
134 
880 
3 
2,592 
1,835 
1,208 
469 
1,292 
559 
848 
992 
2,874 
1,504 
561 
626 
1,648 
6 
205 
9 
591 
1,260 
78 
7,892 
1,170 
3,832 
114 
4,321 
391 
609 
1,255 
757 
78 
543 
1,240 
34 
505 
1,283 



1,475 
9 

776 
885 
66 
1,214 
33 
169 
492 
238 
1,662 
8 
3,019 
2,912 
1,716 
759 
2,482 
834 
1,374 
1,612 
3.343 
1,845 
388 
1,107 
2,443 
28 
250 
15 
927 
1,445 
136 
7,790 
2,023 
5,313 
264 
6,164 
455 
1,077 
2,336 
1,358 
58 
834 
2,311 
68 
886 
1,050 
2 



Foreign. 



26,346 



46 
12 
13 

1,618 
33 
509 
39 
29 
446 
15 
35 
8 
2,115 
618 
828 
241 
302 
168 
168 
245 
1,784 
951 
757 
40 
867 
31 
200 
16 
129 
960 
17 
6,321 
5 
1,973 
114 
2,140 
229 
35 
68 
206 
93 
181 
100 
67 
96 
1,476 
2 



White. 



85,840 



1,110 
19 
629 
2,368 
91 
1,691 
69 
150 
814 
168 
1,286 
16 
5,058 
3,462 
2,535 
961 
2,439 
698 
1,535 
1,598 
5,085 
2,758 
1,140 
715 
3,165 
57 
446 
30 
1,056 
2,323 
149 
13,916 
1,591 
7,124 
361 
8,133 
670 
651 
2,040 
1,258 
149 
1,010 
1,719 
131 
945 
2,517 
4 



Colored. 



6,157 



411 
a2 
160 

bl35 
c8 
d32 
c3 
48 
124 
85 

cUll 

76 

e68 

9 

d39 

345 

d304 

dl 

259 

d42 

/38 

d5 

432 

145 

d2 

d4 

el 

82 
c4 

fir 195 

d437 

dl62 

7il7 

171 

dl4 

461 

364 

d306 

d2 

5 

692 

ii 

37 



a Including 2 Chinese. / Including 5 Indians. 

6 Including 84 Chinese, 1 Japanese, and 11 Indians. g Including 1 Chinese, 10 Indians, and 2 Fast Indians. 

c Including 2 Indians. ft, Including 14 Chinese and 2 Indians. 

d Including 1 Indian. i Including 2 Chinese and 2 Indians. 

e Including 1 Chinese. j Including 8 Indians. 

The total number of insane Chinese is 105 ; Japanese, 1 ; Indians, 53 ; East Indians, 2. 



A reas of Circles proportional 
Scale: 4850 to the square inch 




N.Y. 




N.Y. 



DICT & CO. ENGF'6 CH1CA80 






PA. 





OHIO 




OHIO 



OHIO 




IND. 




IND. 



IND. 



crj 

SHOWING t| 

DEA1I 



and the proportion ofrr 
native or foreign, 

(, Compiled I'rom in 



Comparative view of the distribution of Dec 

( These Diagrams refer to tl 



OR. FLA. NEB. [ 







MO. 



KY. TENN, 



Comparative view of the distri 

( These diagrams refer to t 

© © © 

OR. FLA. NEB 







ILL. 



MO. 



KY. 



TENN. 




ILL. 



MO. KY. TENN. 

The thickness of the shaded 



E NUMBER 

FTES 

females, white or colored, 
increase in fen years. 

veD by Fred H. Wines.) 




i by sex and nativity in (he several States. 

in the left upper corner ) 



R.l. KAN. CAL. LA. MINN. N.H. VT. SC. W.VA. N.J. MiSS. ARK 



TEX. 



IA. VA. MASS. MICH. WIS. CONN, ALA. MD. GA. ME. 









Deaf Mutism by sex and color. 

n the right upper comer.) 



»-!■ KAN. CAL. LA, MINN. N.H. VT. S.C. W.VA. N.J. MISS. ARK. TEX. 









2. IA. VA. MASS. MICH. WIS. CONN. ALA. MD. GA. ME. 



mber of Deaf Mutes in ten years. 



R.I. KAN. CAL. LA. MINN. N.H. VT. S.C. W.VA. N.J. MISS. ARK. TEX. 








0. IA. VA. MASS. MICH. WIS. CONN. ALA. 

isents the increase in ten years . 



MD. GA. ME. 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaygy & West. 



Areas of Circles proportional. 
Scale: 48.">0 to the square inch 




N.Y. 




N.V. 




N.V. 






PA. 




PA. 




OHIO 




OHIO 




OHIO 




IND. 




IND. 




IND. 



SHOWING T 

DEA1 

and the proportion ofn 

native or foreign, 

(Compiled 1'rom in 



Comparative view of the distribution of Dei 

( These Diagrams refer to tl 



OR. FLA. NEB 







MO. KY. 



TENN. 



Comparative view of the distr 



( These diagrams refer to t 



OR. FLA. NEB 







ILL. 



MO. KY. 



TENN 



Comparative view of the increase 



OR. FLA. NEB 







ILL. 



MO. KY. TENN. 

The thickness of the shaded 



OICT & CO. ENOR'6 CHICAGO 



Areas of Circles proportional 
Scale: 4850 to the square inch 
















CHART 

SHOWING THE WHOLE NUMBER 

UK 

DEAF MUTES 

and the proportion of males and females, whiteor colored, 
native or foreign; also Ike increase in tin years. 

(Compiled from informaliun given by Fred H. Wines.) 




Comparative vieio of the distribution of Deaf Mutism by sex and nativity in (he several States. 



OR. FLA. NEB. DEL. R.|. <AN. CAL. LA. MINN. N.H. 



VT. SC. W.VA. N.J. 



MISS. ARK, TEX. 



KY. TENN. N.C. 



VA. MASS. MICH. WIS. CONN. ALA. MD. GA. ME. 



Comparative view of the distribution of Deaf Mutism by sex and color. 

( These diagrams refer to the Urge figure jr, the right Upper comer.) 




OR. FLA. NEB. DEL. S.I. KAN . CAL. 




LA MINN. N.H. VT. 



i.C. W.VA. N.J. M |SS. ARK. TEX. 



ILL. MO. KY. TENN. N.C. |A yft Mftss M|CH _ w|s cotlNt ALA. M D. GA. ME. 



Comparative view of the increase in the number of Deaf Mutes in ten years. 

OR. FLA. NEB. *L .... KAN . CA , ^ V^_ W W W W Y ^ Y*. \f*. 





MO. KY. TENN. N.C. |A 

The thickness of the shaded rim represents the increase in ten yei 



yeai% 



MASS. MICH. WIS. CONN. ALA. MD. GA. ME. 



Copyrighted JS8G by Yaygy A West. 



EDUCATION. 
Table showing illiteracy by states and territories in 1 880. 



369> 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois * 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Bhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



WHITE PERSONS OF 21 


YEARS 


COLORED PERSONS OF 2 


YEARS 


OF AGE AND UPWARD. 


OF AGE AND UPWARD. 


Enumerated. 


Returned as unable 
to write. 


Enumerated. 


Returned as unable 
to wriie. 


Number. 


Number. 


Per ct. 


Number. 


Number. 


Per ct. 


21,984,202 


2,056,463 


9.4 


2,937,235 


2,147,900 


73.1 


294,941 


60,174 


20.4 


246,075 


206,878 


84.1 


23,125 


3,550 


15.4 


3,075 


633 


20.6 


254,461 


50,235 


19.7 


88,690 


68,444 


77.2 


424,636 


22,625 


5.3 


75,189 


22,100 


29.4 


125,131 


7,025 


5.6 


2,142 


465 


21.7 


358,679 


23,339 


6.5 


7,239 


1,497 


20.7 


74,629 


3,206 


4.3 


1,085 


458 


42.2 


63,032 


6,462 


10.3 


12,658 


7,935 


62.7 


65,681 


3,569 


5.4 


32,777 


19,447 


59.3 


65 713 


10,885 


16.6 


53,897 


39,753 


73.8 


370,984 


71,693 


19.3 


293,421 


247,318 


84.3 


16,023 


510 


3.2 


3,288 


943 


28.7 


1,481,945 


99,356 


6.7 


24,327 


10,397 


42.7 


941,763 


77,076 


8.2 


19,834 


8,806 


44.4 


768,677 


35.815 


4.7 


5,228 


1,958 


37.5 


447,526 


17,095 


3.8 


20,315 


11,498 


56.6 


623,438 


124,723 


20.0 


120,349 


90,738 


75.4 


213,172 


34,813 


16.3 


218,167 


178,789 


82.0 


376,382 


16,234 


4.3 


1,238 


335 


27.1 


371,698 


34,155 


9.2 


100,107 


66,357 


66.3 


1,051,684 


81,671 


7.8 


12,026 


2,221 


18.5 


848,590 


48,291 


5.7 


11,417 


3,758 


32.9 


372,591 


27,645 


7.4 


1,945 


769 


39.5 


214,122 


27,789 


13.0 


262,744 


208,122 


79.2 


940,668 


89,924 


9.6 


66,321 


40,357 


60.9 


24,311 


525 


2.2 


2,381 


777 


32.6 


216,924 


7,821 


3.6 


1,424 


496 


34. a 


34,952 


1,807 


5.2 


6,653 


1,638 


24.6 


215,706 


10,694 


5.0 


448 


81 


18.1 


587,736 


37,348 


6.4 


21,921 


7,844 


35.8 


54,185 


33,623 


62.1 


5,641 


5,209 


92. 3 


2,826,859 


182,050 


6.4 


41,348 


.0,134 


24.5 


405,082 


116,437 


28.7 


215,649 


174,152 


80.8 


1,588,507 


92,616 


5.8 


40,940 


14,152 


34.6 


81,826 


2,904 


3.5 


8,651 


2,387 


27.6 


2,151,246 


174,286 


8.1 


48,869 


15,551 


31.8 


158,522 


18,611 


11.7 


4,221 


1,139 


27.0 


182,518 


34,335 


18.8 


244,129 


200,063 


81.9 


507,413 


118,734 


23.4 


166,839 


126,939 


76.1 


534.783 


65,117 


12.2 


155,069 


121,827 


78.6 


60,681 


5,385 


8.9 


958 


518 


54.1 


191,593 


12,872 


6.7 


541 


129 


23.8 


425,224 


71,004 


16.7 


267,612 


214,340 


80.1 


35,614 


1,011 


2.8 


4,553 


1,884 


41.4 


261,681 


45,340 


17.3 


11,899 


7,539 


63.4 


637,221 


45,798 


7.2 


2,857 


981 


34.3 


12,327 


285 


2.3 


1,078 


144 


13.4 



370 EDUCATION. 

The number of insane, idiotic, blind, and deaf-mutes in the United States in the 

years named. 



Class. 



1870. 



1860. 



1850. 



Insane 

Idiots 

Blind 

Deaf-mutes 

Totals. 



91,997 

76,895 
48,928 
33,878 



37,432 
24,527 
20,320 
16,205 



24,042 
18,930 
12,658 
12,821 



15,610 

15,787 
9,794 
9,803 



251,698 



98,484 



68,451 



50,994 



The total population for each of the years named was as follows: In 1850 it 
was 23,191,876; in 1860, 31,443,321; in 1870, 38,558,371; and in 1880, 50,155,- 
783. In other words, although the population has a little more than doubled 
in thirty years, the number of defective persons returned is nearly five times as 
great as it was thirty years ago. 

The number of insane, idiotic, blind and deaf-mutes in each million of the popula- 
tion in each of the years named. 



Class. 


1880. . 


1870. 


1860. 


1850. 




1,834 

1,533 

976 

675 


971 
636 
527 
420 


765 
602 
403 
408 


673 




681 


Blind 


422 


Deaf-mutes 


423 






Totals 


5,018 


2,554 


2,178 


2,199 







The number of insane, idiots, blind, and deaf-mutes in the United States, by sex, 

nativity and race. 



Class. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


White. 


Colored. 




91,997 
76,895 
48,928 
33,878 

251,698 


44,408 
45,309 
26,748 
18,567 


47,5S9 
31,586 
22,180 
15,311 


65,651 
72,888 
40,599 
30,507 


26,346 
4,007 
8,329 
3,371 


85,840 
67,316 
41,278 
30,661 


a6,157 


Idiots 

Blind 


69,579 
c7,650 


Deaf-mutes 


d3,217 






Totals 


135,032 


116,666 


209,645 


42,053 


225,095 


26,603 



The number of individuals in each 1 00,000 in each of the classes named, who are 
male or female, native or foreign, white or colored. 



Class. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


White. 


Colored. 


Insane 


100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 

100,000 


48,271 
58,923 
54,668 
54,805 


51,729 
41,077 
45,332 
45,195 


71,362 
94,789 
82,977 
90,050 


28,638 
5,211 

17,023 
9,950 


93,307 
87,543 
84,365 
90,504 


6,693 


Idiots 


12,457 


Blind 


15,635 


Deaf-mutes 


9,496 






Totals 


53,648 


46,352 


83,292 


16,708 


89,431 


10,569 







EDUCATION. 



371 



The idiotic, by 


sex, na 


f ivity, and race 


«, in 1880. 






States and Territories. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


White. 


Colored. 


The United States 


76,895 


45.309 


31,586 


72,888 


4,007 


67,316 


9,579 








2,223 

11 

1,374 

507 
77 

817 
80 

269 

107 

369 
2,433 
23 
4,170 
4,725 
2,314 
1,083 
3,513 
1,053 
1,325 
1,319 
2,031 
2,181 

729 

1,579 

3,372 

15 

356 
18 

703 
1,056 

122 
6,084 
3,142 
6,460 

181 
6,497 

234 
1,588 
3,533 
2,276 

148 

803 

2,794 

47 

1,367 

1,785 

2 


1,344 

7 

811 

313 

49 

504 

48 

165 

69 

221 

1,412 

17 

2,451 

2,789 

1,411 

649 

2,083 

618 

764 

806 

1,220 

1,287 

442 

964 

1,985 

10 

202 

10 

398 

608 

67 

3,512 

1,835 

3,737 

103 

3,779 

142 

924 

2,084 

1,321 

86 

482 

1,710 

29 

815 

1,025 

1 


879 

4 

563 

194 

28 

313 

32 

104 

38 

148 

1,021 

6 

1,719 

1,936 

903 

434 

1,430 

435 

561 

513 

811 

894 

287 

615 

1,387 

5 

154 

8 

305 

448 

55 

2,572 

1,307 

2,723 

78 

2,718 

92 

664 

1,449 

955 

62 

321 

1,084 

18 

552 

760 

1 


2,217 

7 

1,368 

451 
73 

767 
56 

263 
97 

364 
2,426 
18 
3,764 
4,550 
2,096 

983 
3,495 
1,035 
1,273 
1,287 
1,861 
1,863 

538 

1,577 

3,247 

14 

290 
16 

678 

977 

117 
5,555 
3,142 
6,153 

172 
6,193 

210 
1,581 
3,518 
2,180 

105 

747 

2,787 

46 

1,355 

1,374 

2 


6 
4 

6 

56 

4 

50 

24 

6 

10 

5 

7 

5 

406 

175 

218 

100 

18 

18 

52 

32 

170 

318 

191 

2 

125 

1 

66 

2 

25 

79 

5 

529 

307 

9 

304 

24 

7 

15 

96 

43 

56 

7 

1 

12 

411 


1,354 

8 
1,050 

493 
75 

802 
73 

214 
54 

213 
1,499 
23 
4,123 
4,643 
2,300 
1,024 
3,026 

587 
1,323 

959 
2,017 
2,154 

717 

801 

3,130 

13 

352 
16 

698 
1,011 

113 
6,023 
2,134 
6,307 

177 
6,393 

223 

806 
2,817 
1,636 

148 

800 

1,839 

44 

1,326 

1,776 

2 


a 869 




53 




6 324 




cU 




d2 




a 15 




el 




55 


District of Columbia 

Florida 


53 
156 




934 








47 




a 82 




14 




659 




487 


Louisiana 


a 466 




2 




360 


Massachusetts 


614 


Michigan 


/27 


Minnesota 


gl2 


Mississippi 


a 778 


Missouri 


242 




52 




64 




a2 


New Hampshire 


5 




45 


New Mexico 


/i9 


New York 


61 


North Carolina 


h 1,008 


Ohio 


a 153 


Oregon 


e4 


Pennsylvania 


104 


Bhode Island 


all 


South Carolina 


6782 


Tennessee 


a 716 




a 640 


Utah 






3 




955 


Washington 


i3 


West Virginia 


41 




i9 


Wyoming 









a Including 1 Indian. 

o Including 2 Indians. 

c Including 3 Chinese and 9 Indians. 

d Including 2 Chinese. 

e Including i Indians. 

The total number of idiotic Chinese is 5 ; Indians, 84. 



/ Including 15 Indians. 
g Including 12 Indians. 
h Including 5 Indians. 
i Including 3 Indians. 



372 



EDUCATION. 

The blind, by sex, nativity and race in 1 880. 



States and Territories. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


White. 


Colored. 


The United States 


48,928 


26,748 


22,180 


40.599 


8,329 


41,278 


7,650 


Alabama. 


1,399 

27 

972 

644 

104 

618 

63 

127 

164 

215 

1,634 

6 

2,615 

2,238 

1,310 

748 

2,116 

845 

797 

946 

1,733 

1,289 

448 

1,071 

2,258 

12 

220 

24 

412 

829 

358 

5,013 

1,873 

2,960 

87 

3,884 

300 

1,100 

2,026 

1,375 

126 

486 

1,710 

47 

625 

1,075 

4 


740 

17 

492 

418 

72 

318 

37 

60 

80 

115 

821 

4 

1,562 

1,226 

770 

436 

1,085 

483 

455 

477 

944 

743 

270 

553 

1,209 

7 

134 

14 

232 

482 

215 

2,766 

903 

1,675 

47 

2,225 

151 

503 

1,048 

751 

66 

251 

859 

29 

360 

641 

2 


659 

10 

480 

226 

32 

295 

26 

67 

84 

100 

813 

2 

1,053 

1,012 

540 

312 

1,031 

362 

342 

469 

789 

546 

178 

518 ■ 

1,049 

5 

86 

10 

180 

347 

143 

2,247 

970 

1,285 

40 

1,659 

149 

597 

978 

624 

60 

235 

851 

18 

265 

434 

2 


1,382 

13 

961 

394 

94 

497 

37 

107 

139 

196 

1,604 

5 

1,978 

2,002 

997 

664 

2,027 

759 

703 

818 

1,240 

903 

239 

1,057 

1,996 

11 

161 

21 

373 

613 

338 

3,306 

1,864 

2,340 

78 

2,916 

210 

1,070 

2,001 

1,228 

49 

379 

1,682 

40 

581 

524 

2 


17 
14 
11 

250 
10 

116 
26 
20 
25 
19 
30 
1 

637 

236 

313 
84 
89 
86 
94 

128 

493 

386 

209 
14 

262 

1 

59 

3 

39 

216 

20 

1,707 

9 

620 
9 

968 
90 
30 
25 

147 
77 

107 

28 

7 

44 

551 
2 


755 

26 

759 

518 

104 

589 

60 

101 

82 

94 

861 

6 

2,573 

2,181 

1,298 

695 

1,777 

366 

794 

694 

1,700 

1,242 

439 

468 

2,082 

11 

217 

9 

410 

765 

309 

4,909 

1,161 

2,874 

81 

3,776 

287 

434 

1,542 

1,017 

122 

484 

897 

39 

597 

1,069 

4 


644 


Arizona. . . 


a 1 


Arkansas . 


a 213 


California 


b 126 




24 




c 3 




26 




a 82 


Florida .... 


121 




a 773 








42 




57 




12 




d 53 




a 339 




a 479 


Maine 


c 3 


Maryland 


252 




33 


Michigan ' 


e 47 




/9 
a 603 


Mississippi 




a 176 


Nebraska 


al 




flr-15 

2 


New Hampshire .... 




64 


New Mexico 


h49 




HOi 




.7 712 

86 


Ohio 




fc6 


Pennsylvania 


108 




13 


South Carolina 


666 




484 




358 


Utah 


I 4 


Vermont 


2 




813 




J8 
28 


West Virginia 


Wisconsin 


c 6- 











a Including 1 Indian. 

6 Including 21 Chinese and 97 Indians. 

c Including 2 Indians. 

d Including 7 Indians. 

e Including 30 Indians. 

/Including 3 Indians. 

The total number of Chinese who are blind is 22; Indians, 244. 



g Including 15 Indians. 

h Including 47 Indians. 

i Including 1 Chinese and 3 Indians. 

j Including 8 Indians. 

fc Including 6 Indians. 

I Including 4 Indians. 



EDUCATION. 

Paupers, by sex, nativity and race, in 1880. 



373 



a Including 10 Chinese and 17 Indians. 
6 Including 2 Indians. 
c Including 1 Indian. 
d Including 4 Indians. 



e Including 2 Chinese. 
/Including 5 Chinese. 
g Including 1 Chinese and 1 Indian. 
A Including 3 Indians. 



States 


S 

a 
M 

IB 

< 






INMATES 


> OP ALMSHOUSES. 






OUTDOOR 
PAUPERS. 


and 
Territories. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


White. 


Colored. 


Total. 


The United States.. 


88,665 


67,067 


35,952 


31,115 


44,106 


22,961 


61,310 


5,757 


21,598 


Alabama 


793 

4 

190 

1,671 

47 

1,799 

24 

390 

184 

107 

1,278 

17 

4,275 

3,965 

2,133 

579 

2,059 

141 

3,211 

1,334 

5,423 

2,300 

496 

547 

1,800 


514 

4 

105 

1,594 

46 

1,418 


228 

4 

45 

1,377 

41 

776 


286 

60 
217 

5 
642 


462 
3 
103 
607 
25 
961 


52 
1 

2 

987 

21 

457 


305 

4 

85 

1,528 

43 

1,331 


209 


279 






Arkansas 


20 

a 66 

3 

87 


85 


California 


77 


Colorado 


1 


Connecticut 


381 


Dakota 


24 




387 

184 
45 

550 

7 

3,684 

3,052 

1,165 

355 
1,366 


190 

89 

33 

222 

7 

2,108 

1,586 

689 

223 

646 


197 
95 
12 

328 

1,576 

1,466 

476 

152 

720 


328 

142 

44 

534 

2 

1,917 

2,428 

752 

278 

1,183 


59 

42 

1 

16 

5 

1,767 

624 

413 

77 

183 


280 

111 
24 

385 

7 

3,628 

2,965 

1,147 

308 
1,043 


107 
73 
21 

165 

56 

6 87 
18 
47 

323 


3 


Dist. of Columbia 

Florida 


62 


Georgia 


728 


Idaho 


10 


Illinois 


591 


Indiana 


913 


Iowa 


968 




224 


Kentucky 


693 




141 


Maine 


1,505 
1,187 
4,469 
1,746 
227 
345 
1,477 


786 
664 
2,460 
1,048 
156 
148 
779 


719 
523 
2,009 
698 
71 
197 
698 


1,268 
911 

2,971 

1,074 

96 

334 

1,012 


237 
276 
1,498 
672 
131 
11 
465 


1,488 
857 

4,392 

1,680 
226 
165 

1,284 


cl7 

330 

77 

d66 

cl 

180 

cl93 


1,706 


Maryland 


147 


Massachusetts 


954 
554 




269 




202 


Missouri 


323 






Nebraska 


166 

96 

2,037 

2,981 

37 

15,217 

1,943 

7,463 

76 

12,646 

553 

720 

1,444 

533 

33 

1,564 

3,138 

17 

1,197 

2,028 

9 


113 

95 

1,198 

2,462 


67 

84 

591 

1,393 


46 

11 

607 

1,069 


60 

• 29 
1,002 
1,526 


53 

66 

196 

936 


106 

92 

1,187 

2,291 


c7 

e3 

11 

171 


53 


Nevada 


1 


New Hampshire 

New Jersey 


839 
519 




37 


New York 


. 12,407 

1,275 

6,974 

51 

10,157 

526 

519 

1,136 

210 


6,174 
491 

3,879 
45 

5,608 
263 
206 
453 
120 


6,233 

784 

3,095 

6 

4,549 

263 

313 

683 

90 


5,685 

1,271 

5,136 

32 

6,182 

366 

460 

1,063 

184 


6,722 

4 

1,838 

19 

3,975 

160 

59 

73 

26 


12,166 

803 

6,616 

44 

9,585 

492 

277 

830 

134 


241 

472 

&358 

/7 

#572 

34 

242 

306 

76 


2,810 


North Carolina 

Ohio 


668 
489 


Oregon 


25 


Rhode Island 

Tennessee 


2,489 

27 

201 

308 


Texas 


323 


Utah 


33 


Vermont 

Virginia 


655 

2,117 

11 

711 
1,018 


347 
973 
10 
334 
609 


308 

1,144 

1 

377 

409 


537 

2,064 

3 

671 

400 


118 

53 

8 

40 

618 


651 

1,090 

11 

641 

1,008 


4 
1,027 

70 
ft 10 


909 
1,021 


TVashington 


6 


Wisconsin 


486 
1,010 




9 





















The total number of pauper Chinese is 18; Indians, 33. 

There are no returns of almshouses from the State of Louisiana, pro- 
vision being made with private institutions by the several parishes for the 
maintenance and care of their poor. 



371 



EDUCATION. 

The deaf-mutes, by sex, nativity, and race in 1880. 



States and Tereitohies. 



The United States. 



Alabama 

Arizon a 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont. 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Total. 



33,878 



693 

7 

489 

382 

85 

565 

63 

84 

169 

118 

819 

7 

'2,202 

1,764 

1,052 

651 

1,275 

524 

455 

671 

978 

1,166 

500 

606 

1,598 

9 

287 

10 

221 

527 

70 

3,762 

1,032 

2,301 

102 

3,079 

150 

564 

1,108 

771 

118 

212 

998 

24 

520 

1,079 

11 



Male. Female. Native. Foreign. White. Colored. 



18,567 



383 

6 

249 

232 

44 

318 

37 

39 

121 

69 

420 

3 

1,239 

967 

582 

372 

669 

296 

258 

366 

524 

637 

297 

320 

872 

8 

159 

8 

125 

265 

40 

1,998 

578 

1,227 

56 

1,697 

85 

297 

599 

447 

60 

114 

544 

15 

295 

622 



15,311 



310 

1 

240 

150 

41 

247 

26 

45 

48 

49 

399 

4 

963 

797 

470 

279 

606 

228 

197 

305 

454 

529 

203 

286 

726 

1 

128 

2 

96 

262 

30 

1,764 

454 

1,074 

46 

1,382 

65 

267 

509 

324 

58 

98 

454 

9 

225 

457 

3 



30,507 



684 

6 

483 

306 

74 

505 

32 

80 

162 

111 

812 

5 

1,876 

1,669 

893 

583 

1,248 

505 

428 

629 

806 

929 

327 

604 

1,501 

9 

228 

9 

201 

456 

66 

3,168 

1,027 

2,082 

87 

2,820 

114 

559 

1,098 

718 

69 

194 

992 

22 

510 

810 

10 



3,371 



9 

1 

6 

76 

11 

60 

31 

4 

7 

7 

7 

2 

326 

95 

159 

68 

27 

19 

27 

42 

172 

237 

173 

2 

97 



30,661 



59 

1 
20 
71 

4 
594 

5 

219 

15 

259 

36 

5 
10 
53 
49 
18 

6 

2 

10 
269 

1 



405 

7 

417 

365 

84 

559 

62 

72 

133 

55 

499 

7 

2,179 

1,739 

1,046 

629 

1,107 

328 

454 

515 

969 

1,152 

500 

317 

1,523 

7 

284 

9 

219 

520 

58 

3,736 

724 

2,255 

97 

3,047 

145 

301 

868 

614 

118 

212 

705 

24 

510 

1,074 

11 



3,217 



288 



72 

a 17 

1 

6 

61 

12 

36 

63 

320 



23 

25 

6 

22 

168 

196 

1 

156 

9 

cl4 



289 

75 

d2 

S 

61 

2 

7 

el2 

26 

308 

646 

/5 

32 

5 

263 

240 

157 



6 293 



10 
9$ 



a Including 2 Chinese and 6 Indians. 

b Including 1 Indian. 

c Including 7 Indians. 

d Including 2 Indians. 

The total number of Chinese who are deaf-mutes is 3 ; Indians, 37. 



e Including 11 Indians. 

/ Including 1 Chinese and 4 Indians. 

g Including 3 Indians. 



EDUCATION. 375 

Newspapers and periodicals of the principal countries, as given by the "Newspaper 
and Bank Directory of the World." 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 



Countries. 



United States 

British America . . . 
Austria-Hungary . 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Denmark 

France 

German Empire. . . 

England 

Scotland 

Ireland 

Wales 

Greece 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Sweden 

Norway 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Russia 

Spain 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

British India 

Chinese Empire. . . . 

Hong-Kong 

Japan 

Malay Archipelago . 

Algeria 

Egypt 

South Africa 

West Africa 

Mexico 

Central America . . . 

West Indies 

Cuba 

Argentine Republic. 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chili 

Ecuador 

Peru 

Uruguay 

U. S. of Colombia . . 

Venezuela 

Australia 

Tasmania 

New Zealand 

Polynesia 



50,183,015 
4,515,933 

37,741,413 
5,476,668 
1,859,000 
1,989,464 

39,066,372 

45,194,172 

24,608,391 
3,734,370 
5,159,839 
1,359,895 
1,679,775 

27,769,475 
3,866,456 
4,568,900 
1,806,900 
4,432,050 
5,073,000 

85,426,142 

16,625,860 
2,846,102 

19,990,000 

193,596,603 

400,000,000 

139,144 

34,338,304 

30,187,829 
2,867,626 
5,517,627 
1,406,496 
1,598,070 

10,000,000 
2,650,000 
4,500,000 
1,508,761 
2,500,000 
2,000,000 

10,000,000 

2,500,000 

1,350,000 

2,700,000 

450,000 

3,000,000 

1,882,236 

2,743,256 

115,600 

489,500 

303,985 



970 
67 

150 
81 



57 

363 

863 

154 

22 

20 

4 

16 

148 

39 

11 

20 

29 

16 

88 

220 

62 

30 

35 

8 

7 

83 

16 

2 

11 

6 



Is 



41 
10 
47 
38 
11 

2 
68 
64 

2 
15 
18 
10 
15 
45 

4 
45 



4,314,249 
237,788 
928,535 
730,215 



127,395 

3,887,650 

3,577,799 

3,250,875 

477,065 

210,998 

36,000 

23,900 

630,600 

182,760 

69,400 

57,550 

147,600 

27,100 

404,024 

619,359 

217,950 

57,600 

51,458 

23,670 

5,300 

428,000 

38,200 

2,700 

26,000 

23,500 



102,826 

17,660 

85,200 

76,700 

34,300 

2,500 

151,950 

60,290 

3,600 

16,400 

37,400 

9,500 

28,950 

135,000 

7,000 

104,850 



175 
33 

180 

15 

6 



386 
1,848 

127 
18 
32 
6 
13 
88 

115 
97 
61 
14 
1 
37 
29 

160 
27 
15 



39 

15 

19 

1 

16 



28 
1 

34 
4 
8 
1 

22 

13 
6 
2 
7 
3 
4 

88 
4 

36 
1 



8,674 

444 

584 

373 

3 

4 

1,505 

1,335 

1,563 

170 

139 

70 

49 

450 

267 

74 

42 

113 

2 

131 

389 

156 

53 

183 

7 

2 

19 

10 

14 

11 

47 

6 

146 

32 



5 

27 

12 

88 

263 

4 
61 
14 



sa 



1,121 

60 

338 

92 

1 



574 

517 

1,034 

56 

31 

22 

10 

256 

3 

50 

45 

12 



119 

57 

65 

9 

103 

6 



, 


a-a 




a 

o 


el 




<a 










o 


w 


a . 






0) a, 






P H 




— 


5 c 




- 


-^e^ 








O 


"3 o,q 



38 
7 

14 
1 

2 



40 
12 
24 



17 


13 


19 




24 




166 


12 


15 


3 



4 
5 
4 
2 

46 
6 

25 
2 



11,207 

624 

1,803 

591 

11 

61 

3,265 

5,529 

3,460 

271 

227 

103 

89 

1,174 

435 

303 

181 

179 

19 

454 

750 

512 

121 

373 

22 

14 

251 

51 

54 

26 

72 

8 

283 

71 

213 

81 

39 

27 

279 

95 

8 

26 

57 

40 

117 

451 

19 

170 

21 



CO CI 



34,673,771 

1,626,400 

2,769,775 

2,856,145 

6,800 

164,395 

11,593,535 

20,499,566 

25,594,905 

2,479,477 

1,204,822 

536,856 

66,800 

2,357,660 

1,070,844 

594,550 

253,300 

306,142 

32,700 

1,177,169 

1,702,316 

941,360 

145,530 

288,399 

38,127 

10,900 

666,000 

52,410 

48,240 

62,100 

122,800 

2,600 

378,096 

101,500 

211,930 

113,500 

42,500 

8,960 

363,950 

102,390 

11,400 

29,200 

50,650 

51,800 

102,025 

536,700 

25,152 

268,375 

20,905 



376 



EDUCATION. 



In the following table, the total number of all the newspapers and 
periodicals published in the United States, as determined by the last com- 
plete census, is given; also, the language in which such paper is printed: 



Number 


and 


Language of 


Newspapers. 












States and Territories. 


'a 

-u 

H 


a 
S 

I 

o 

m 


"3 
a 


-G 

a 
s 

u 
Eh 


a 

CS 

a 

u 
CD 




13 



O 

w 


a 
a 

hH 


a 

1 


ta 

\ CD 

s 

3 

O 

Ch 


a 

C3 



GG 

a a 

S C3 

■a-g 
.2 5 
a a 

a* 


'3 

C3 

ft 

m 




The United States 


11,314 


13 


10,515 


41 


641 


9 


3 


4 


2 


49 


26 


5 


Alabama 


125 

17 

117 

«361 

87 

139 

67 

26 

44 

45 

200 

10 

61,017 

467 

3 

569 

347 

205 

112 

123 

143 

427 

464 

223 

123 

530 

18 

189 

37 

87 

215 

18 

cl,411 

142 

774 

74 

973 

44 

81 

193 

280 

22 

82 

194 

29 

109 

340 

11 


"4' 
"i' 

"i' 

"3' 
"i 

"1' 

"2" 


125 
16 

116 

328 
84 

134 
65 
25 
41 
45 




















Arizona 
















1 




Arkansas 


"5' 


1 
15 
3 
5 
1 
1 
3 














California 

Colorado 






3 




2 


6 




Connecticut 
















Dakota 










1 






Delaware 












District of Columbia 
















Florida 
















Georgia 


199 




1 
















Idaho 


10 

920 
435 
1 
523 
334 
















Illinois 


1 


70 
32 

36 
11 
11 

4 










20 






Indiana 












Indian Territory 


2 


2 
1 












Iowa 






6 
2 










Kentucky 


194 












Louisiana 


93 
123 

134 
422 
439 
202 
123 
494 

18 
175 

37 

87 
196 

14 

1,280 

142 

683 

72 
884 

42 

80 
192 
261 

22 

82 
189 

29 
107 
287 

11 


15 
















Maine 
















Maryland 


"4" 

2 
1 


9 
1 

15 
13 
















Massachusetts 
















Michigan 


6 








2 

7 






Minnesota 




Mississippi 












Missouri 


1 


34 












1 




Montana 














Nebraska 




11 










2 






Nevada 












New Hampshire 




















New Jersey 




19 
















New Mexico 












4 
9 




New York 


10 


97 






1 


1 


4 


4 


North Carolina 




Ohio 


1 

"i' 


89 
2 

87 
1 
1 
1 

13 
















Oregon 
















Pennsylvania 








1 






1 


Ebode Island 




















Tennessee 
















Texas 












5 




Utah 






' 








Vermont 




















Virginia 




5 
















Washington 
















West Virginia 




2 
47 
















Wisconsin 


1 








3 































a 2 Chinese papers. 



6 2 Polish. 



c 1 Irish and 1 Catalan. 




MAP SHOWING THE NUMBER OF 

NEWSPAPERS PUBLISHED 

COMPARED WiTH THE POPULATION. 
(Compiled from Last Census.) 



US' HI' 109" 10T 105- 103" 101 • 




EDUCATION. 



377 



The classification of newspapers and periodicals published in the United States dur- 
ing 1880. 





3 

o 


Character of publication. 


States and Territories. 


■L si 

o 2 

O cC 

-a a 

$ 04 

is 

a" 


3 
O 

jSo 

M 


"3 

u 


jS 

Si 

h a 

ti 

•<* 


cd 

S 

a 

c3 
<D 

O 

Q> 

a 
a 



[3 

*o 

C6 

25 


CO 

TJ 
C3 


a 
a 

CD 

id 

cS 
3 

CO 

a 
54 


T3 

a 
.3 

CD 
U 

3 <D 

2 a 

" M 

£a 

CD 

a m 

£ S 

189 


h 
O) 
M 
u 

3 

CO 

-a 
a 
3 
a> 

'0 

-3 

CD 

114 


45 


'3 

as 

O 

a> 

a 

T3 

a 
3 

CD M 

?'a 
S 

02 

68 


[J 

O . 

£d ° 

rH © 

^a 
. a 

CS 

a a 

r 
r; — 

B • 

CD .2* 

149 




.3 

<£ 

a 
« . 

■a a 

£.2 
.2 "3 

04:2 

°3 

.2 3 

a & 
248 




CO 

C3 

a 
3 
02 

'a . 

CD CO 

- - 

~ s 

rH ft 

G ft 

219 


O 

a 

a 



CO 


The United States 


11,314 


8,863 


553 


173 


284 


330 






Alabama 


125 

17 

117 

361 

87 

139 

67 

26 

44 

45 

200 

10 

1,017 

467 

3 

569 

347 

205 

112 

123 

143 

427 

464 

223 

123 

530 

18 

189 

37 

87 

215 

18 

1,411 

142 

774 

74 

973 

44 

81 

193 

280 

22 

82 

194 

29 

109 

340 

11 


114 
17 

106 

270 

78 

110 

67 

24 

20 

41 

177 

10 

736 

422 

3 

519 

322 

1(52 

96 

91 

105 

281 

413 

207 

115 

425 

17 

178 

35 

74 

294 

17 

816 

118 

576 

60 

675 

39 

68 

147 

254 

15 

74 

135 

28 

100 

301 

11 


5 


2 












1 






3 






Arizona 


















5 

12 

2 

3 


2 

7 
1 
4 








1 
4 


1 
3 


"3 


1 
3 

2 
1 








1 




17 
1 


8 


2 


7 
1 
5 


6 

1 

11 




19 




1 


Connecticut 






2 


1 




9, 


Dakota 










Delaware 


1 

"i 




















1 

2 






Dist. of Columbia 


2 
4 


2 
1 






2 
1 
2 


1 


2 


1 


3 


11 


Florida 




Georgia 


3 






1 




5 


1 


Idaho 










Illinois 


49 
13 


15 

7 


55 

2 


1 


10 

1 


9 


8 
2 


5 


5 
2 


13 

6 


19 
9 


47 


45 


Indiana 


3 


Indian Territory 




Iowa 


15 

4 

13 

7 

9 

10 

30 

11 

3 

4 

28 

"2 


4 
5 
6 
1 
4 
5 
6 
5 
3 
3 
7 
1 
3 








2 
2 
3 


"i 
4 
1 

2 
2 

7 


1 

1 

2 


1 

2 
1 
5 
2 


7 
3 
2 
1 
2 
3 
6 
5 
2 


15 
3 
5 


"l 
5 


5 


Kansas 








6 


Kentucky 


4 
1 
1 
3 
14 
3 
2 






1 


Louisiana 


1 


4 


Maine 


"i 


2 
4 


8 

3 

20 

1 


3 

4 
15 
9 
2 
1 
11 


14 
4 
1 


3 


Maryland 


4 


Massachusetts 


9,7 


Michigan 

Minnesota 


4 
3 


Mississippi 

Missouri : . . . . 
















14 




3 


5 


8 


3 


2 


9 


15 


Montana 




Nebraska 


1 






2 










2 


1 




Nevada 






2 






New Hampshire. . . 


3 
3 
1 

97 
12 
57 
5 
75 


1 
1 








5 
3 






1 
4 


1 
4 


1 


1 


New Jersey 


2 






1 


1 


1 


1 


New Mexico 






29 
4 

12 
1 

13 


98 

21 
1 

29 


12 
"3 


15 

2 
3 
1 
9 


77 
2 
2 
2 

18 


38 
1 

11 
1 

13 


6 
4 


28 
4 


16 

2 

12 


35 
1 

19 
2 

23 
2 
1 
9 
1 


39 
37 
'50 

6 

"i 

6 


105 


North Carolina 




Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 


16 
1 


13 


3 


15 
3 
2 

4 
2 


34 


South Carolina. 


10 

14 

14 

4 

3 

11 

1 

3 

7 




















Tennessee 

Utah 


"2 
1 
2 
6 


3 
2 




1 


5 
2 


3 


1 




1 
2 
1 


Vermont 








1 

2 










2 
15 




Washington . 


2 




1 


2 


2 


1 


4 


7 


^Vest Virginia 










1 

2 








1 

7 


2 
8 


"i 


9, 


Wisconsin 


4 


5 










1 


4 


Wyoming 

































378 



EDUCATION. 



The subjoined table exhibits the total number of newspapers and 
periodical publications in the United States in the year 1880, which are 
distinctively religious in character; also, the name of the denomination 
in whose interest the periodical is issued: 



Number and Denomination of Religious Periodicals. 



States and Territories. 


H 




CO 


d 

_as 
O 


a 

Is 

bH 

si 

a 
o 


CD 

*o 

CO 

o 


T3 

as 

a 

3 

p 


as 
ft 
O 
o 

"S 


-i 

u 
s 
as 
!> 




o 

1-5 



a! 

CD 

22 

3 
2 

3 

2 
3 

7 
1 

1 


'3 

c 
H 

9 
6 

i 

2 


+^ 
-5 

c 

|g 

?. 

75 

3 
2 

1 

3 

5 

i 

3 
3 
1 

4 
2 
2 

1 
2 

1 

9 
4 
6 

1 
5 

2 
4 
4 
1 
1 
2 

2 


d 
-~ 

'? 

as 
u 

2 
2 


d 

: 


Sh 

o 

4 
1 

3 


d 
. B 
'^ 

a> 
as 

42 

1 
1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

2 
5 

4 
2 
1 

9 

5 
3 

2 

1 


d 

'E 

_ 

s 

2 
1 

i 


a* 

1 



<*^ 
cu 

11 
1 

2 

1 
2 
5 


o 

"c 
aa 

as 

u 

s 



70 

1 
1 

6 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 
2 
3 

2 

1 

20 

9 
1 
8 

1 

1 
2 


i 
>» 

<! 
a 

~cj 
0Q 

12 
1 

1 
1 

4 
3 

1 
1 


+3 

CD 

'ft 

X 

7 
1 

1 

2 

1 
1 
1 


d 

"fiU 

O 

X 

a 

CD 
CD 
OS 

3 

1 
1 

1 


d 

as 

cc 

'3 
P 

4 

2 

1 

1 


D *» 

7 

1 

4 

1 


to 

H§ 
9 
1 

1 
2 

1 

3 

1 


as 

t) 

CD 

G 


The United States. 
Alabama 


553 

5 

5 

12 

2 

3 

1 

7 

49 
13 

15 

4 

13 

7 

9 

10 

30 

11 

3 

4 

28 

2 

3 

3 

1 

a 97 

12 

57 

5 

75 

10 

14 

14 

4 

3 

11 

1 

3 

7 


63 
3 

2 

i 

3 
4 

1 

1 

1 

2 
1 

2 
5 

3 

9 

4 
4 

3 

1 
5 

4 

1 
3 


4 

i 

l 

'i 
i 


14 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
3 

1 

2 
1 
1 

1 


11 
1 

2 

1 
1 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 


4 

1 
3 


33 
1 

1 

2 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

11 
1 

1 
1 
3 

1 

1 
2 


27 

1 
2 

4 
1 

2 
8 

7 

2 


5 

2 
3 


16 
2 

1 
1 

1 

6 
3 
1 

1 


9& 


Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 


1 


Connecticut 

Delaware 




Georgia 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Kansas 


15 

a 

5 
1 
ft 


Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 


4 
1 


Massachusetts 

Michigan 


5 

1 


Minnesota 

Mississippi 


1 


Missouri 

Nebraska 


ft 






New Jersey 

New Mexico 


1 


New York 


28 


North Carolina 




Ohio 


8 


Oregon 




Pennsylvania 


1-1 


South Carolina 






1 


Texas 


1 


Utah 




Vermont 




Virginia 




West Virginia 


•- 











a 1 Shaker included in gnand total, and omitted in denominational columns. 



EDUCATION, 



379 



The total number of newspapers and periodicals, published in the United States dur- 
ing 1 880, by periods of issue. 





u 

CO 

a 
I 

o 
H 


PERIODS OP ISSUE. 


AGGREGATE CIRCULA- 
TION PER ISSUE. 


States and Territories. 


'3 
O 


CD 
CD 


>> 

CD 
O 

a 

CO 

m 


CO 

te 
1 

H 


CD 
CD 

I 


a 





a 
'a 

CO 

02 


a 

a 


a 




a 

3 


Co 

a 


3 
a 

a 

CO 


<D 

'3 
Q 


u 

CO 

■g 



< 


United States 


11,314 


971 


8,633 


133 


73 


40 


1,167 


160 


2 


13 


116 


6 


3,566,395 


28,213,291 




Alabama 


125 

17 

117 

361 

87 

139 

67 

26 

44 

45 

200 

10 

1,017 

467 

3 

569 

347 

205 

112 

123 

143 

427 

464 

223 

123 

530 

18 

189 

37 

87 

215 

18 

1,411 

142 

774 

74 

973 

44 

81 

193 

280 

22 

82 

194 

29 

109 

340 

11 


6 
6 
6 

58 

19 

17 

9 

5 

5 

3 

16 

'74 
40 

'30 
20 
11 
13 
12 
15 
39 
33 
10 
• 5 
43 

4 
15 
14 
10 
27 

3 

115 

13 

56 

7 
98 

8 

4 
12 
30 

5 

5 
20 

4 

2 
21 

3 


109 
11 

104 

250 

63 

99 

57 

20 

23 

40 

163 

7 

758 

390 

3 

500 

310 

160 

94 

90 

111 

279 

397 

205 

109 

415 

14 

165 

22 

66 

163 

15 

892 

113 

584 

59 

674 

31 

69 

154 

231 

8 

72 

124 

23 

96 

283 

8 




1 




7 


2 










9,660 

3,600 

5,030 

157,814 

26,375 

47,490 

4,500 

15,800 

36,500 

2,600 

27,830 


83,413 
9,950 

98,471 

482,212 

69,369 


Arizona 










Arkansas 


1 

11 
1 
2 
1 


2 




2 
32 

4 
15 


4 

6 










California 






2 




Colorado 


Connecticut 

Dakota 


2 


1 


1 


2 




190,170 
32,443 


Delaware 






1 
15 












18,625 


District of Columbia . . . 














1 




177,423 


Florida 


2 
3 
2 
17 
1 












24,732 




4 
1 
6 
3 




11 


3 










241,236 












5,650 
2,150,352 

588,413 
4,060 


Illinois 


3 
1 


118 

27 


18 
5 


1 




21 


1 


270,923 

72,698 




Indian Territory 










Iowa 


3 
1 


1 


2 

"l 
1 


31 
15 

23 

2 

18 

12 

80 

19 

6 

3 

50 


1 
1 

2 






1 




38,455 

21,396 

33,492 

38,065 

18,940 

132,613 

280,399 

62,839 

28,493 

4,200 

122,660 

912 

18,630 

17,155 

9,070 

50,776 

2,000 

996,561 

7,934 

216,336 

11,070 

578.227 

41,402 

7,750 

30,995 

30,297 

7,950 

4,200 

32,172 

1,100 

4,100 

33,400 

1,986 


508,885 


Kansas 


259,333 

364,072 

93,565 


Kentucky 


171 9 










Louisiana 


1 


1 
1 










Maine 








1 
1 
7 
1 


"i 


1,195,520 
282,080 

1,732,530 
558,135 
193,581 


Maryland 


4 
1 
4 
1 




1 




13 
3 

"i 

2 


1 
3 
1 

5 
8 


7 
2 

i 


Michigan 


Minnesota 


Mississippi 










83,704 


Missouri 


8 




2 


1 




842,625 


Montana 


19,915 


Nebraska 


1 






7 

1 

7 

13 


1 










135,940 


Nevada 










10,590 








1 

2 


3 










176,898 


New Jersey 


6 


1 




■ 1 


2 




198,702 








4,355 


New York 


24 
3 
4 


5 
2 

8 


10 
"3 


282 
7 

90 

6 

159 

3 

3 

16 

14 
4 
3 

33 
2 
6 

20 


35 
4 

18 
1 

16 




5 


40 


3 


8,377,573 


North Carolina 


97,567 


Ohio 




1 


11 

1 

16 


"i 


2,877,595 
74,716 


Oregon 


Pennsylvania 


3 
1 
1 

2 
2 
4 


4 

"3 

1 


1 
1 


4,452,834 


Rhode Island 


55,719 


South Carolina 








1 

2 




62,152 


Tennessee 


6 
2 
1 
1 
2 




1 


262,293 


Texas 


232,992 


Utah 










28,225 


Vermont 




1 


1 
3 




125,992 


Virginia 


6 


5 




224.299 


Washington 


15,651 


West Virginia 


2 
2 


1 
3 


1 
3 








1 




81,858 


Wisconsin 


8 






403,176 














3,700 












"T" 









.380 



EDUCATION. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

Compared with the school system of America, that of Great Britain 
is not good. Very much more is now done for the schools than was 
formerly. Previous to the year 1830, the whole education of the people 
was left to private industry. In 1833, the government for the first time 
applied funds to the erection of school-houses; in 1839, the Board of Edu- 
cation was established and given authority to expend $150,000 annually. 
The expenditure by the government for schools has increased greatly since 
1840. Exclusive of Ireland, which will be considered by itself, the follow- 
ing is the exhibit of the statistics of schools of Great Britain for the years 
named: 



Years. 



1850 

1854 
1858 
I860 
1864 
1868 
1872 
1876 
1880 



Number 

of 
schools. 


Average 
number of 
scholars. 


2,613 


225,389 


3,825 


461,445 


6,641 


761,027 


7,272 


884,234 


8,438 


1,057,745 


9,894 


1,241,780 


12,713 


1,651,425 


17,787 


2,830,523 


20,291 


3,583,148 



Amount 

expended 

by the 

government. 



$ 549,740 
1,632,180 
2,799,870 
3,622,015 
3,275,180 
4,103,775 
5,193,100 



Capital 
Wealth. 



$41,550,000 



44,800,000 



Whole pop- 
ulation. 



31,205,000 



34,505,000 



The following tables show the number of schools and pupils for 1876 
under government support, according to religious creeds: 



Creeds. 



England and Wales. 
Schools connected with tbe Church of England. . 

Dissenting schools 

Roman Catholic schools 

School Board schools 



Total 

Scotland. 
In schools connected with Church of Scotland 

Free Church schools 

Episcopal schools 

Roman Catholic schools 

Public schools 



Total . 



Schools. 



6,382 

1,549 

350 



8,281 



1.251 

527 

90 

65 



1,933 



Scholars. 



1,779,902 
467,246 
166,234 
491.745 



2,905,127 



64,134 
26,625 
11,356 
29,486 
287,313 

416,914 



32 

© 
I— I 

H 

-*! 

H 

(—1 
ft 

o 
© 

M 

^ 
U 
P 

ft 

© 

oe 

© 
ft 

P 

i— I 
H 

ft 

ft 

© 
© 

pa 
« 
H 

35 

k; 
i— i 
H 

i— i 

ft 

i— i 

M 

ft 




Diagram, showing sehool population,the enrolment in public schools 
and the average attendance thereon, in the Union fro?n,l813 to 1880 


16,000,000 


YEARS 


16,000,000 


1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 


15,000,000 




















15,000,000 


14,000,000 










„«pl 


1U^ 01 


* 






14,000,000 


13,000,000 


/ 




sc 


■HOOV. 


pOr 










13,000,000 


12,000,000 




















12,000,000 


11,000,000 




















11,000,000 


10,000,000 




















10,000,000 


9,000,000 












X, 




Ht 




9,000,000 


t tft£ 


8,000,000 






..a 


\aC 


&o° } 


6* 

» 


kH° U 






8,000,000 


7,000,000 






p\yv 














7,000,000 


6,000,000 




















6,000,000 


5,000,000 
















>M*c£ 




5,000,000 


4,000,000 






a,VER 


pS& 


M* 


* 


p,TTet*' 






4,000,000 


3,000,000 




















3,000,000 

























EDUCATION, 



381 



In Ireland, education makes but slow progress. In 1861, out of 803,- 
364 children, only 262,823 attended the free schools regularly (33 per 
cent). In 1871, of 1,021,700 children, only 363,850 (^6 per cent) attended 
regularly. Catholic schools conducted by monks and nuns are not taken 
into consideration. Of the children taken into the Industrial schools, 53 
per cent can neither read nor write. The number of schools in Ireland 
rose from 6,586 in 1868 to 6,806 in 1870. Included in this number are 
151 convent schools, with 35,193 scholars, and 147 workhouse schools 
with 8,376 scholars. 

In 1872, education was made compulsory in England. In every 100 
persons married there have been, and still are, many who can not write 
their names in the register, as the following tables will show: 



Period. 


Men. 


Women. 


Average 
per cent. 


1841-45 




32.6 
31.4 
30.2 
27.1 
23.6 
20.5 
19.4 
18.5 
16.3 


48.9 
46.2 
42.6 
38.1 
32.9 
28.3 
26.8 
25.2 
22.1 


40.8 


1846-50 




38.9 


1851-55 




36.9 


1856-60 




32.6 


1861-65 




28.3 


1866-70 




24 4 


1871 




23.1 


1875 




21.8 


1876 




19.2 









In 1839, of 121,083 couples married, 40,587 men and 58,959 women 
could not write their names. In 1868, out of 176,962 couples married, 
35,628 men and 49,244 women could not write their names. In 1871, out 
of 190,112 marriages, this ignorance occurred in 36,907 men and 51,005 
women. In 1876, 77,536, or 19.2 per cent of the 403,748 persons who 
were married still signed the marriage register with marks, so that there 
is much yet to be desired in the way of education. In the year 1871, 
London stood highest in this respect, for 90.8 per cent of the bridegrooms 
and 85.3 per cent of the brides could write. Next came Westmoreland, 
where the men who could write stood at 89.3 per cent and the women at 
88.4. The most unfavorable were in Staffordshire, where only 35 per 
cent of the men, and 44 per cent of the women were capable of writing 
their names, and in Monmouthshire, where only 34 per cent of the men 
and 40 of the women could sign their names. In South Wales, only 29 
per cent of men and 30 of women. Bedfordshire, 29 per cent of men and 
38 per cent of women. 

The condition of Scotland is much more favorable. Even as early as 
1867 there were only 10 per cent of the men and 20 per cent of the 



382 EDUCATION. 

women who could not sign their names to the marriage contract. In 
county Kinross, all could write. In Selkirk, all the men, and 98 per cent 
of the women; whereas in Ross, 39 per cent of men, and 54 of women; 
and in Cromarty 28 per cent of men, and 46 of women, had not learned 
to write. 

In this respect Ireland is very backward — 30.3 per cent of bride- 
grooms, and 36.7 of brides, could not write their names. 

In 1865, nearly 30,000 inferior officers and men of the Royal Navy 
were unable to read and write satisfactorily. 

In 185 1, there were 563 public journals published in Great Eritain. In 
1874, there were 1,185 public journals, viz., in England, 1,229, of which 
314 are in London. In Wales, 58. In Scotland, 149. In Ii eland, 131. 
In Channel Islands, 18. 

Of this total, 282 are political newspapers, of which 131 are pub- 
lished daily. 

In 1877, there were 1,744 published in the United Kingdom — Eng- 
land: London, 336; Provinces, 1,106; Wales, 59; Scotland, 173; Ire- 
land, 141; the Isles, 19. Of these, 112 are daily papers in England, 3 in 
Wales, 21 in Scotland, 19 in Ireland, and 3 in the Isles, 24 in London, 72 
in the English Provinces, 2 in Wales, 13 in Scotland, 18 in Ireland, and 2 
in the Channel Islands. 

The number of monthly and quarterly journals amount to 639, of 
which 242 are of a religious character. 

The total number of literary productions, in 1869, amounted to 5,316; 
in 1872, 4,814; in 1873, 4,991. There were 242 original works imported 
from America — 770 were theological writings, 413 philosophical and scho- 
lastic, 257 for the young, 834 romances, 142 relating to law, 588 upon art 
and its history, 159 upon commerce and political economy, 283 travels and 
geographical discoveries, 428 histories and biographies, 329 poems ,and 
dramas, 243 year books and annuals, 179 medicine and surger}', 199 fine 
arts and science treatises, 185 miscellaneous; making a total of 4,976. 

There was an increase in printed books exported during the six months, 
ending midsummer, 1877. The value was $2,005,620, against $1,986,370 
of previous year. The literary trade is carried on by means of 377 pub- 
lishers, 830 booksellers and stationers, 66 lending libraries, 958 news 
agents, 124 advertisement offices, 1,030 printers, 27 type founders, 26 stere- 
otype foundries, 382 literary institutes, 81 steel and copper plate factories. 



EDUCATION. 



383 



FRANCE. 



Going back to 1864, it is found that there then were 20,703 schools 
for boys, 26,592 for girls, and 17,683 for both sexes. Among the boys' 
and mixed schools, 2,752, and of the girls' schools, 2,177 were free. The 
boys' and the mixed schools had 2,399,293 children in average attendance, 
employed 35,348 secular teachers and 3,038 Congregationalists. In the 
girls' schools, there were 1,014,537 pupils, with 5,998 secular and 8,061 
religious teachers. In this year, 818 of the Communes had no schools 
at all. 

In the following year, 694 Communes had no schools; the boys' and 
mixed schools had increased by 243, and the girls' by 662. The number 
of free secular schools had risen to 2,864, or a little over 10 per cent; and 
the number of ecclesiastical schools to 646, or 20 per cent increase. The 
number of pupils had increased b}' 135,014, of which 42,882 were in the 
free schools. The whole number of pupils in the free schools was 
1,917,074. 

In the year 1855, the amount spent by the state for support of the 
public schools was $1,200,000; by the several departments, $1,000,000; 
by the Communes, $2,300,000, besides the school fees of $1,800,000, and 
the receipts of the normal schools and the stipends, amounting in all to 
$6,500,000. While the state appropriated only $1,200,000 for educational 
purposes, it gave $92,600,000 to maintain its land and naval forces, and 
$112,000,000 for the national debt. About as much money was lavished 
on the court as was given for schools. 

The first attempt to classify the population of France with reference 
to their education was made in 1866. At that time it was found that 
32.84 per cent of the population, aggregating 14,847,803 persons, could 
neither read nor write. Those who could read and not write were 3,886,- 
324, or 11.47 P er cent - Those who could both read and write numbered 
18,878,380, or 55.69 per cent, while, of 454,557 persons returned by the 
census, no record was made of their educational condition. 

The result of this enumeration by sex and condition is seen from the 
following table: 



Condition. 



Neither read nor write 

Head only 

Read and write 



MALE CIVIL. 



Number. Per cent. 



4,806,376 

1,615,217 

10,174,689 



28.96 

9.73 

61.31 



MALE MILITARY. 



Number. Per cent, 



58,948 

29,299 

226,485 



18.73 

9.31 

71.96 



Number. Per cent. 



6,266,811 
2,241,808 
8,477,206 



36.89 
18.21 
49.90 



384 



EDUCATION. 



The attempt which was begun in 1866 has continued, notwithstanding 
the difficulty of collecting the information. At the census of 1872, the 
population was divided into three classes : — 

I. Under 6 years of age, in which a knowledge of reading and writing can not be demanded. 

II. Between 6 and 20 years, the proper period for education. 

III. Above this age, a period at which instruction, as a rule, no longer takes place. The 
result was : — 



Age. 



Neither read 
nor write. 



Only raad. 



Read and 

write. 



Notknown. 



Total. 



Under 6 years 

Between 6 and 20 years 
Above 20 years 



3,540,101 

2,082,338 
7,702,362 



292,348 
1,175,125 
2,305,130 



151,595 

5,458,097 

13,073,057 



38,042 

70,721 

214,005 



Together . 



13,324,801 



3,772,603 



18,682,749 



322,768 



4,022,086 

8,786,281 

23,294,554 



36,102,921 



The proportion is very unequal in the different departments. 
Independently of those persons about whom we have no details, this 
gives the following percentage: — 



Under 6 

years. 



Between 
6 and 20. 



Above 20. 



Mean 

between 

two latter 

classes. 



Fully taught 

Able to read only .... 
Able to read and write 



88.85 
7.33 
3.82 



23.89 
13.48 
62.63 



33.37 
9.99 

56.64 



30.77 
10.94 
58.29 



From this it appears that one-third of those above twenty years of age 
can neither read nor write; among the adult males, 27.41 per cent are 
wholly untaught, and among adult females, 33.47 per cent. Of the entire 
population, from six years old and upward, 30.8 per cent were illiterate. 

In 1863, there were published in France 4,768 periodicals, while, during 
the same year, there were 9,889 periodicals in Germany. It appears that 
there were 12,269 publications, exclusive of periodicals, in France in the 
year 1869, against only 8,831 in 1870. 

The number of periodicals amounted, on November 1, 1869, to 2,204^ 
548 of which were political, 88 of these in Paris. In the departments,, 
there were 873, in Paris, 603 non-political periodicals. 

In the year 1872, 785 periodicals of all kinds appeared in Paris, of 
which 54 were political newspapers, 99 purely scientific papers, 121 peri- 
odicals on jurisprudence, administration, and national economy, and 82 
exclusively devoted to literature. 

In the year 1866, the number of copies of Paris newspapers amounted 
daily to about 350,000, 130,000 of which were the Moniteur du Soir. 
The non-political press issued daily about 800,000 copies. 



EDUCATION. 385 

In the year 1875, there passed through the press 21,006 publications, of 
which 14,195 were books — brochures and edicts — that is 2,278 more than 
in 1874; of music, 4,195 publications, 304 above the number in 1874; 
cards and journals, 2,666 — viz., 470 in excess of 1874. 

Export of literary productions in 1875, valued at $5,228,295; in 1876, 
$4,852,220; in 1877, $5,216,950. 

There are now published in Paris alone, 836 newspapers and journals, 
of which 51 are daily political papers. 

GERMANY. 

The educational statistics of the German Empire are not given in the 
classification with which we are familiar. The following divisions are 
given with the facts under each: 

There are twenty principal schools or universities, viz. : — nine in Prussia 
(Berlin, Bonn, Breslau, Halle, Greifswalde and Konigsberg, Gottingen, 
Marburg and Kiel, besides the academy at Munster) ; three in Bavaria 
(Munich, Wurzburg, Erlangen); two in Baden (Heidelberg and Frei- 
burg) ; one in Saxony (Leipsic) ; one in Wurtemburg (Tubingen) ; one in 
the Saxon Duchies (Jena); one in the Grand Duchy of Hesse (Giessen); 
one in Mecklenberg (Rostock) ; and lastly, one in Alsace-Lorraine (Stras- 
burg). 

The German professors at these universities, in the year 1870, num- 
bered 1,505; in 1879, 1,914; the number of students in the year 1870* 
numbered 13,765; in 1879, 18,629. The universities most frequented in 
the summer of 1873, were, Leipsic, 2,720 students; Berlin, 1,590; and 
Munich, 1,128. In 1879, Leipsic, 2,861 (2,038 were foreigners); Berlin, 
2,569; and Munich, 1,364. 

There are 318 Gymnasia, of which 213 are in Prussia, 28 in Bavaria, 
12 in Saxony, 7 in Wurtemburg, 9 in Baden, 6 in Hesse, 6 in Schwerin, 
4 in Oldenburg, 3 in Weimar, 4 in Anhalt, 6 in Brunswick, 4 in Alsace- 
Lorraine, 2 each in Coburg-Gotha, Meiningen, Lippe, Reuss (the younger 
branch), and Sondershausen; lastly, 1 each in Schaumburg, Rudolstadt, 
Waldeck, and in each of the three Hanse Cities. With respect to relig- 
ion, these gymnasia are divided into 173 Protestant, 53 Roman Catholic, 
and 92 which are equally divided between the two faiths; in Prussia, 150 
Evangelical, 47 Roman Catholic, and 16 in which both faiths are pro- 
fessed; in Bavaria, 4 Protestant, 3 Roman Catholic, 21 mixed. 

There are 214 preparatory and Latin schools. 

Polytechnic Schools. — These are a rapid growth of modern times, and 



386 EDUCATION. 

there are many schools bearing this or a similar name, but the seven here 
given are the only ones considered as really perfect polytechnic schools; 
Munich (with 1,335 students in the beginning of 1874), Hanover, Dres- 
den, Berlin, Carlsruhe, Stuttgard, and Aix-la-Chapelle. There are on an 
average 36 teachers and 450 students in every polytechnic school. Com- 
mercial gymnasia 14, grammar schools 167. The middle-class schools 
number about 180,000 scholars. There are about 60,000 public schools 
with a total of 6,000,000 pupils. 

In 1814, there were issued 2,529 publications in Germany; in 1830 
5,920; in 1846, 11,086. From 1846 on until 1869, there was a decrease, 
the number reaching only 8,497 m x 849. In 187 1, there was exported to 
the United States alone, books, music, and pictures to the amount of 
$290,375. 

In 1877, 14,000 independent works, containing over 20,000 volumes, 
were published, independently of anonymous publications. These books 
were written by 10,000 authors, and may be thus classified: — 372 ency- 
clopedias, Bibliography, and scientific literature; 1,253 theology; 1,329 
law, politics, and statistics; 755 medicine; 740 natural science, chemistry, 
and pharmacy; 163 philosophy; 347 military works; 525 commerce and 
industry; 378 architecture, mining, engineering, and navigation; 520 
classics, Oriental languages, and antiquities; 739 history; 445 modern lan- 
guages; 311 geography; 166 mathematics and astronomy; 525 commerce 
and industry; 133 shooting, hunting, fishing, and management of forests; 
392 agriculture and horticulture; 540 popular works; 1,126 belles lettres; 
17 Masonic books; 507 miscellaneous; 336 maps, making a total of 

The number of copies of the works, 2,400,000. If all these copies 
had been sold, and each to a different individual, every twentieth person 
out of the 42,000,000 Germans would have had a book. It is, however, 
true that only one-half of what is published is sold, and that to a class in- 
cluding only two per cent of the population; 8,000,000 almanacs, not 
included in the above computation, afe annually bought by 98 per cent of 
the population. 

The press has assumed gigantic proportions in this country. Forty 
political papers appear twice or thrice daily, 520 once a day, 500 three or 
four times daily, 780 twice a week, 500 once a week. 

The total of 2,350 political papers have 4,000,000 subscribers. To 
each 1,000 inhabitants there are 103 subscribers in all Germany. The 
proportion is much larger in the south than in the north. 






RELIGION. 



The character of a nation ought to be determined by what its founders 
were and the purpose they had in view when the foundations of the nation 
were laid. This rule obtains everywhere. A man is said to be Irish, 
Swedish, African, or Chinese, if his ancestors were native to Ireland, Sweden, 
Africa or China; an institution is said to be commercial, educational, 
religious, or charitable as the intent of its founders and the conditions of its 
charter determine. Measuring our country by the same rule, and what 
is the decision? Manifestly, that the United States is a religious nation. 
Its founders were men of religious character and life ; the prime object for 
which they came to the shores of the New World and laid the foundations 
of a great empire was that they might have liberty to maintain that char- 
acter and life; they had no conception of a lasting government which did 
not rest upon religion. Whatever may be the present mind of the people 
of the United States; whatever may be the condition and tendency of the 
civil institutions; and whatever of further drift the future may see, the 
historical fact is clear that the government was founded by men of the 
Protestant faith for whom there could be no civil rule independent of the 
recognition of and dependence upon divine guidance. 

With few exceptions, the first colonists of America were Protestants. 
Maryland, colonized by Lord Baltimore, was the only distinctively Roman 
Catholic colony founded; it was intended for an asylum for the oppressed 
and persecuted of that faith, as the other colonies were for Protestants 
similarly affected. But even in Baltimore's grant, the Catholics were in 
the large numerical minority for a long time prior to the war of independ- 
ence; the great body of them had sacrificed much, some of them their all, 
for the Protestant religion. 

It is worthy remark, that a large proportion of the first comers in all 
the colonies were driven from Europe by oppression. The colonies in 
Virginia and the Carolinas were not established expressly as asylums for 
religious refugees, yet, during the revolutionary times in England under 
Charles I., and the commonwealth, they became such for both Catholic 
and Protestant, as they afterwards did for the Huguenots of France and 
the Reformers of Holland and Germany. New Engalnd was the home 

(387) 



388 RELIGION. 

for the homeless Puritan; Maryland, for the persecuted Cavalier ; Virginia, 
for Cavalier, Churchman and Roundhead; Georgia, for oppressed Protest- 
ants; the Swedish colony in Delaware, for "the whole Protestant world," 
as Gustavus Adolphus averred, when planning the colonization. New 
York, though settled by the Dutch for purely commercial ends, became 
a refuge for the exiles from Bohemia and the valleys of Italy and Switz- 
erland. All of these earlier colonies were, more or less, peopled by the 
victims of oppression. Bancroft says, with truth: "Tyranny and injus- 
tice peopled America with men nurtured in suffering and adversity. 
The history of our colonization is the history of the crimes of Europe." 

Two civilizations, more or less distinctly marked, were apparent in 
the settlement of that part of North America now embraced in the 
United States. These have been manifest in the civil institutions of the 
country through all its history, and the demarcation lines are not yet 
entirely effaced. The social, religious, educational and political depart- 
ments of the earlier years of the nation's existence were molded after 
the peculiar cast of the men who formed them; and as these institutions 
enlarged with the increasing demands of the years, each carried with it 
the distinctive features of original existence. The Civil War of 1860-5 
did more for America than to break the shackles of slavery ; it was the 
first potent agent which broke down the barriers of caste, erected a 
century before by Puritan and Cavalier to perpetuate in America a 
separation that had disappeared in England. Since the baptism of 
fraternal blood, our nation is slowly but surely becoming a homogeneous 
people. 

New England was colonized by the Anglo-Saxon race; the South, 
by men of Norman blood. Both sections were settled first on their 
eastern borders, whence they spread out westward with little variation of 
latitude; so that, generally speaking, the whole North became impressed 
with the character which was stamped upon New England by its first 
colonists, and the South by that of the first settlements of its territory. 
The Saxons, as a race, were remarkable for the simplicity of their 
manners, a jealous regard for the equal rights of men, and an intense love 
of liberty. The Normans were aristocratic in spirit and bearing, and 
their manners were characterized by elegance and dignity of demeanor. 
Slavery in the South helped very materially to intensify and perpetuate 
the original diversity between Saxon and Norman on American shores. 

The colonies which grew up in America were remarkable. They 
stand alone, among all the colonists of history, in several important 



Denominations 



COMPARISON OF PRINCIPAL RELIGIOU 



Communicants 



Clergymen 



Organized 
Congregations 



1 Roman Catholic ( 3,178, 42 

2 Baptist Regular ( 2,102,03 

3 Methodist Episcopal ^1,487,17" 

4 Methodist Episcopal South- — • ( 765,337> -. 

5 Lutheran — — — — ~ < 696,42' 

6 Presbyterian Church ( 567,855 )'' 

7 Disciples ■ ■ — ( 397,246 

8 Congregationalistr- ( 865,447) *' 

9 ' Episcopal Protestant & Kef d. -— < ( 320,17 5 

10 Reformed Dutch & German - — ( 167.28? 

11 United Brethren; / 143,88 

12 Evangelical Association ( 128,634 

13 Mormons - ■ ( 130, 000^ 

14 Presbyterian Church South- • ( 114,378; '''' \/ 

15 Presbyterian Cumberland -/ 106,253 V 

16 Presbyterian United & Refd.— 106,217 )- 

17 Friends or Quakers — ( 1 00,14: ' 

18 Baptist Free Will / 75,826 

19 Jews ( 57,500' 

20 Universalist ( ' 45,21 

21 Unitarians . ■ -■ ^ 31,780 



{ Bap.R. 24,49? ) 




(R.Cath. 8,"l7(i 



-. .' 



/Pres. 4T9U1K XM.E.So.7^43> - — 

S >% v .-*' 

>^ 
,♦* V 

'• <M.ESo. 3,721) -'' XPres. 5,269> .y, 

XC'oiig'l. 379^, 




OMINATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




Denominations 



COMPARISON OF PRINCIPAL RELIGIOXJ 



Communicants 



Clergymen 



Organized 



1 Roman Catholic ( 3,178,420 

2 Baptist Regular ( 2,102,03 

3 Methodist Episcopal < (l,487,177 

4 Methodist Episcopal South- ■ 765,337 

5 Lutheran — — ( 696,42 

6 .Presbyterian Church - ■ < 567,855) '" 

7 Disciples — - ( 397,246 

8 Congregationalist ( 365,447) *'' 

9 Episcopal Protestant & Ref d. < ^ 320,175 

10 Reformed Dutch & German ~ 167,284 

11 United Brethren / 143,88 

12 Evangelical Association < ^ 12 8,634' 

13 Mormons 120, 000^ 

' \ - ' ' 

14 Presbyterian Church South- ( 114,378 ;'*''%/ 

15 Presbyterian Cumberland -/ 10(;,25i>V" 

16 Presbyterian United & Ref d.— 106,317) - 

17 Friends or Quakers ■ — ( 100,14 

18 Baptist Free Will —~ < ^ 75,826 

19 Jews ( 57,500' 

20 Universalist ( ' 45,21 

21 Unitarians-. — — — <^ 31,780 




X Bap.R. 14,95| ( Bap.R. 24,49* ) 



M.E. 11,303) — (M.E. 17,337 



-(R.Cath. 8,17 



("R.Cath. 5,548) — 
X^' 4iiiul> v , < M.E.So. 7,543) - 



\ 



N 



^- <M.E.So. 3,721> '* XPrcs. S^X . 




Copyrighted 1886 bij Yaqgij & Wast 



COMPARISON OF PRINCIPAL RELIGIOn s Typ^rv MINATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 




RELIGION. 389 

particulars. For one thing, they came from the great middle class of 
society. They were not of the rich and aristocratic, with the almost 
invariable concomitants of the class— idleness, voluptuousness, effeminacy 
and profligacy ; nor, on the other hand, were they from the lower strata 
of society, with attendant poverty, spiritlessness, dependency and help- 
lessness. 

For another thing, they were intelligent and well-informed; some of 
the leaders among the colonists were remarkably so for the age in which 
they lived. With intelligence and knowledge, they combined thought- 
fulness; they were pre-eminently a thinking people. The range of 
thought was somewhat circumscribed and was rarely untrammeled; but 
within its limits it was active and aggressive. In both particulars already 
named, the American colonists contrasted greatly with those of ancient 
Egypt, Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, or with less ancient France, Spain and 
Portugal. 

Further, they were a virtuous people. Their morality has been noted 
and praised by almost all who have written about them. Unlike the 
men of unbridled passion and basest lust who colonized Mexico and South 
America, the early settlers of our country were men and women of 
elevated moral character and pure lives. Whatever misconceptions they 
cherished, whatever errors they committed, whatever of light they lacked, 
it can never be said of any single community that it countenanced moral 
improbity of speech or action. Their errors were on the side of right; 
their intolerance was in the interests of a purer life and civil administra- 
tion; their narrowness was in a groove cut by the plane of divine truth 
awkwardly handled. 

Moreover, they were a religious people. The different communities, 
considered each as a whole, possessed a religious tone ; no taint of philos- 
ophy, falsely so called, nor of infidelity and atheism was ever attached to 
them. True, it was a religion of that age, and not of ours; it must be 
judged by the standard of its own time. Some things they did we con- 
demn as harsh; others, as superstitious; others, as foolish ; others, still, as 
loose and perhaps immoral. Posterity has dealt hardly with the religious 
convictions and practices of Puritan and Cavalier by weighing these in 
the re-adjusted balances of a later age. Our fathers were in thralldom, 
to a large degree, to the errors and prejudices of the times precedent to 
their own, especially with regard to the rights of conscience; but, withal, 
it must be conceded that they were far in advance of the rest of the 
world, and they founded an empire in which religious liberty was enjoyed 



390 RELIGION. 

more fully than anywhere else on earth, and which has developed, in 
their descendants, into the perfection of freedom of conscience, religious 
opinion and religious condvict. 

The religious institutions of America were molded after the pattern 
of those existing in the older countries. Among the earlier colonists 
were found large numbers from Scotland, Ireland, France, Holland, and 
other parts of the continent, driven hither, for the most part, by religious 
persecution. The religious and political institutions of America are 
largely due to the influence of these colonists. In the older countries 
there was an intimate connection between the civil and religious institu- 
tions; the church was considered an integral part of the state, entitled to 
protection and support from, civil power. This conviction was imported 
to the American colonies, and became a part of their economy; it 
remained until the war for Independence as the belief and policy of the 
colonists, irrespective of sect, nationality or creed. In their mother 
countries, these colonists had never known any other policy than that of 
connecting church and state as mutual allies; it would have been asking 
too much of them that, with all other great problems forced upon them 
for solution, they should have grappled with this one and reached any 
other conclusion than they did. 

Generally speaking, the church has been separate from and independ- 
ent of the state from the beginning of the national period of American 
history, except so far as the conduct of the church does not interfere with 
the civil rights guaranteed by the constitution. Soon after the revolution 
the legislatures of the several states abolished the connection between the 
state and the church. The Congregational church in New England con- 
tinued longest in its connection with the civil power, and it was not until 
1833 that all connection between this church and the state of Massachu- 
setts was severed. 

Analyzing the primal influences which have given tone and character 
to the religious institutions of our country, it is found that three stand 
pre-eminent. The first of these was the Puritan; the second, the Scotch- 
Irish, and the third, the Huguenots and Reformers from various parts of 
Europe. 

The Puritans were the first to colonize New England, landing there 
December 22, 1620. Among their first acts was the adoption of a con- 
stitution. This was the first attempt of an American colony to frame a 
constitution; it may be set down as the beginning of the long and most 
remarkable series of efforts put forth in America toward fixing the 



RELIGION. 391 

foundations of independent, voluntary, self-government. This document 
was very general and incomplete as a basis for legal enactments. It was 
brief and not so well known as to make its insertion here unwarrantable: 

" In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, 
the loyal subjects of our dread sovereign lord, King James, by the grace 
of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, having undertaken, 
for the glory of God and advancement of the Christian faith, and honor 
of our king and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern 
parts of Virginia, do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the 
presence of God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves 
together into a civil body politic for our better ordering and preservation 
and furtherance of the ends aforesaid, and by virtue hereof to enact, con- 
stitute and frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions 
and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and conven- 
ient for the general good of the colony; unto which we promise all due 
submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder sub- 
scribed our names, at Cape Cod, the nth of November [O. S.], in 
the year of the reign of our sovereign lord, King James, of England, 
France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, Anno 
Domini 1620." 

The colony thus established in poverty and suffering, flourished in the 
succeeding years, sent out numerous shoots and was largely instrumental 
in molding the character of all the colonies for many years. The 
Puritans did more than any other one single agency in giving character 
to American institutions. Viewed in the light of modern progress it must 
be conceded that some of their penal laws were unreasonably and unjustly 
severe, some were frivolous, and some were ridiculous. Some usages 
were dictated by ideas of propriety that were decidedly false. They 
were indisputably intolerant of those who differed with them in religion, 
following a common rule that the intensity of their bitterness was 
inversely as the differences. They persecuted the Quakers and Baptists, 
and held all Roman Catholics in utter abhorrence. Much of all this was 
due to the spirit of the times in which they lived, kept aflame by the 
history behind them. With all this, they were a grand people, and 
they did for America what no other colony did, or could have done. 
Their religion was that of the Written Word, as they read and interpreted 
it; to "the law and the testimony" was their constant resort and the 
arbiter of all disputes. They were friendly to the diffusion of knowledge, 
and did all they could to make education general. They proved their 



392 RELIGION. 

attachment to their convictions by many and great examples of self- 
denial and suffering. Their religion, though not granting it, was favora- 
ble to liberty of conscience. The spirit that afterwards conceded entire 
freedom in all matters of pure conscience, was in the fathers of New 
England, which spirit still is found, expanded and enlightened, in their 
descendants of the ninth generation. 

Next to the Puritans, and closely approximating them in point of 
influence in forming the religious character of America, were the Presby- 
terians from Scotland and the north of Ireland. The original cause 
operating in the emigration of the Scotch was the unwise attempt of 
King James and his son Charles to fasten prelacy on the country. They 
resisted even unto blood. Later on, in the reigns of James II. and 
Charles II., of England, thousands of them left their native land, a land 
to which they were attached with all the ardor of their very intense 
natures, and came to America. They brought with them their sturdy 
character, their industrious habits, their thrift, and their inflexible 
religious convictions. They settled in many places in America, though 
the first principal center of Presbyterians was in east New Jersey, where 
it is still to be found. Generally speaking, the Scotch kept more nearly 
to the central parts of the country, south of the Puritans. Pennsylvania 
was the place of largest emigration, and the home of Presbyterianism 
for many years, and where its influence is still all-powerful. From New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, the Scotch-Irish moved out west and south, 
forming large colonies in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina. 

The Scotch-Irish Presbyterians did much, not only in their own com- 
munities, but throughout the entire country, in giving a staunch tone to 
religious and civil institutions. Their industry, skill and foresight rapidly 
developed the resources and wealth of the country. The whole civil 
polity of the United States is derived largely from the principles of Pres- 
byterian government. The civil government of our country is little more 
than Presbyterianism applied to secular affairs. Virginia was the first 
state to move in the entire severance of the church from the state; and 
the Presbyterian Presbytery of Hanover, in that state, was the first 
ecclesiastical body to move in a petition to the legislature in the accom- 
plishment of that end. 

Next in rank to the Puritans and Presbyterians, in point of influence 
in giving religious character to America, stand the French Huguenots. 
This devoted people had suffered untold hardships in their own country 
for their religious opinions. The Edict of Nantes had secured to them 



RELIGION. 393 

a measure of toleration. The revocation of this edict by Louis XIV. 
produced such a persecution of the Huguenots that the attachments for 
their sunny homes were burst asunder. They left their country in large 
numbers, a clo.se estimate placing 'the number at five hundred thousand 
who were self-exiled in a few years. These exiles scattered themselves 
throughout the Protestant countries of Europe. Large numbers, how- 
ever, came to America. They were warmly welcomed by the Puritan, 
Quaker, Presbyterian and Lutheran colonies. The warm climate of the 
south was more congenial to their natures and more like the land from 
which they had been driven, and hence South Carolina became the chief 
resort of the Huguenot emigrants for many years. Later on, they 
settled in considerable numbers in New York, Virginia and other places. 
But, in a general way, the Puritans kept to the north, the Presbyterians 
to the central parts, and the Huguenots to the southern portions of the 
country in the formative years of religious character. Of the Huguenots 
it need only be said that their patient and skillful industry soon made 
their colonies prosperous; while their sterling character, frugal habits, 
and their profound convictions and devoted attachment to their religion 
made a deep and lasting impression on the national character of the country. 
Other denominations and other nationalities have contributed to the 
formation of the religious character of the country. But to the three 
named must be given the pre-eminent rank. Their power was all but 
supreme in the colonial period, showed itself in the transition to a nation, 
and has perpetuated its influence through all the succeeding years, and 
is a living power to-day. 

There is no national church in the United States, and no state support 
given to any. All denominations co-exist with the utmost freedom and 
independence. The greatest liberty of conscience is guaranteed by one 
of the earlier amendments to the constitution, and the right to freedom of 
creed and expression of opinion has never been questioned nor denied in 
any of the states. 

In the tables, maps and diagrams of this work are found the statistical 
information of the various religious bodies of the world. This informa- 
tion is taken from accounts furnished by these bodies themselves, and 
though not accurate in every part, is as nearly so as it is possible to make 
it. It is shown that the total membership in the United States, exclusive 
of the Roman Catholic church, is nearly twenty per cent of the whole 
population, or about 10,000,000. A much greater number than this, 
probably two and one-half times as great, are under religious influence, 



394 RELIGION. 

so that nearly one-half of the present population of the country may, with 
safety, be said to be connected, directly or indirectly, with the Protestant 
religion. The Roman Catholic church claims an adherent population of 
three and one-half millions; their mode of calculation includes all as mem- 
bers of the church who have family connection with it, thus embracing 
many children and others who have not even a nominal membership. 
The actual membership, determined by the rule of the Protestant denom- 
inations where only adults in actual connection are counted, can not be 
much above two and one-half millions. Adding to this number those who 
are under the indirect influence of the church, and combining this with 
all Protestants, the aggregate falls little, if any, short of 30,000,000, or 
about three-fifths of the entire population of the United States are under 
Christian influence. 

The Methodist and Baptist churches, including all minor subdivisions, 
constitute more than three-fifths of the entire Protestant church of the 
country, the Methodist having over one-third and the Baptist over one- 
fourth. Other denominations stand prominent in the religious history of 
the country for other reasons than those of numerical strength. The 
Moravians have always been noted for their intense missionary zeal and 
self-sacrificing labors ; the Presbyterians for their aggressiveness in foreign 
missionary work', their liberality and staunchness in good work; the 
Quakers for their moral uprightness, inoffensiveness, and anti-slavery 
record; the Congregationalists for intellectual attainments, etc. 

The trend of the religious bodies for the last two decades has been 
toward larger liberty of conscience and worship, and to more intimate 
union with each other. Organic union is hardly possible in the near 
future; but practical harmony in all the essentials of doctrine, and co- 
operation in all religious work, is fast approaching a realization. 





Ph 



^^^^M^J^W"'''- ''-^' 7 ^'':.- 




1-4 



THE UNITED STATES 

The above diagram shows the eight denominations having 
the largest accommodation for church service: the nint7i,or 
one to the right,represents all other dcnominationsnot in- 
cluded in the eight. The space between the inner square and 
the outer lines shows the part of the whole population for 
which no accommodation is provided. 





Methodist 
Baptist 
Presbyterian 
Roman Catholic 
Congregational 
Episcopal 
Jjutheran 
Christian 
Dutch Reformed 
TTniversalist 
Mormon 
All other 
Denominations 




GEORGIA 



The entire square represe, 
of the population unprov 
largest denominations; tl 




ALABAMA 



ILLINOIS 





MAINE 



MARYLAND 



MASSACHUSETTS 



MICHIGAN 






MEW JERSEY 



TENNESSEE 





NEW YORK 




;Y-y.sv,ss',Y,v;g 



^m^m^WI»^w^w\mW,'fr^ 



NORTH CAROLINA 










. 






n 




^■\\\V\\\'\'TO^ : 


; 








i 




| 


m 


; 


1 
1 


1 





VERMONT 



VIRGINIA 



CH ACCOMMODATION: 

We population; the shaded space rcprcse?its the part 
the first four colored spaces show the capacities of four 
lored space shows the capacity of all the other denominations. 



Copyrighted 1886 by Yaqgij & West, 




WISCONSIN 



DIST of COLUMBIA 



NORTH WEST TERR. SOUTH WEST TERR- 



RELIGION. 



395 



Table showing the statistics of the principal denominations of the United States without 

regard to subdivisions. 



Denominations. 



Methodist 

Baptist 

Presbyterian 

Congregationalist 

Lutheran 

Episcopalian 

Reformed 

United Brethren 

Evangelical Association, 

Disciples 

Friends 

Moravian 

Unitarian 

Universalist 

All Others 

Roman Catholic 



Number of 
Organizations. 



25,278 
15,829 
7,824 
2,887 
3,032 
2,835 
1,727 
1,445 

815 
2,478 

692 
72 

331 

714 
2,368 
4,127 



Number of 
Communicants 



2,499,052 

1,497,256 

713,457 

306,518 

388,538 

347,781 

236,065 

157,835 

112,197 

591,821 

60,000 

9,491 



4,600,000 



Number of 
Church Ed- 
ifices. 



21,337 

13,962 

7,071 

2,715 

2,776 

2,601 

1,613 

937 

641 

1,772 

662 

67 

310 

602 

2,210 

3,806 



Number of 


Value of 


Colleges. 


Colleges. 


57 


$ 11,050,600 


46 


10,368,016 


41 


7,073,947 


28 


9,704,595 


17 


1,388,000 


12 


8,759,715 


8 


1,456,107 


7 


515,782 


1 


147,000 


23 


3,112,200 


6 


1,255,000 


1 


5,657,491 


5 
6 


1,621,100 


52 


5,250,300 



The increase in churches, members, etc., of the United States in 105 years. 



Year. 


Population of 
United States. 


Number 
of organi- 
zations. 


Number of 
ministers. 


Number of 
communicants. 


Rating mem- 
bers to pop- 
ulation. 


Increase 
in number of 
communi- 
cants. 


1775 


2,640,000 

5,305,925 

23.191,876 

38,558,371 

50,152,866 


1,918 

3,030 

43,072 

70,148 

97,090 


1,435 

2,651 

25,555 

47,609 

69,870 








1800 


364,872 

3,529,988 

6,673,396 

10,065,963 


1 in 14.50 
1 in 6.57 
1 in 5.78 
1 in 5.00 




1850 


3,165,116 


1870 


3,143,408 


1880 


3,392,567 







Statistics of the Unitarian, Universalist and Roman Catholic Churches in the 

United States. 





a 

cfl 
M 
u 
o 

a a 

"C2 

c6*3 

3.3 
P 


Universalists. 


Roman Catholics. 


Year. 

\ 


CO 
CD 

•a 


CO 
CD 
J3 

CO 

% 

a 
Oh 


Oco 
* ® 

gl 




_Z CD 
Pi 

55 


OS co 


~a . 

w CO 


CD tl, 

» 1 d 
111 

® 3 

HO 


1830 


193 








232 






500,000 


1835.. 


308 
512 
640 
685 
625 
729 


653 
853 
1,069 
1,264 
917 
956 










1840. 


230 
246 
254 
328 
335 


622 
1,245 
2,519 
3,912 
6,817 


685 
1,302 
2,316 
3,966 
6,402 




87 
108 
223 
295 
386 


1,000,000 
1,614,000 
2,789,000 
4,600,000 
6,367,330 


1850 




1860 

1870 

1880..... 


57,611 
257,600 
423,383 





.396 



RELIGION. 



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POPf 



tn 5 

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cSH 

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ri ™ 
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RELIGION. 

The denominations of the principal of the British Provinces in America. 



397 





I860. 


1870. 


Denominations. 


Upper 
Canada. 


Lower 

Canada. 


New 
Brunswick 


Nova 
Scotia. 


Upper 
Canada. 


Lower 

Canada. 


New 
Brunswick 


Nova 
Scotia. 


Koman Catholic . . 
Baptist 


258,151 

70,524 

311,559 

9,357 

614 

24,299 

350,373 

74 

303,374 

7,383 

34,889 

17,373 

8,121 


943,253 
7,751 

63,487 

4,927 

572 

857 

30,844 

3 

43,735 

121 

8,811 

1,477 

5,728 


85,238 

57,730 

42,776 

1,290 

9 

113 

25,637 

7 

36,632 

38 

2,048 

12 

517 


86,281 

62,941 

47,744 

2,183 


274,166 

86,630 

331,484 

12,858 

518 

32,399 

462,264 

460 

356,449 

7,106 

35,863 

4,908 

13,849 


1,019,850 

8,686 

62,636 

5,252 

549 

496 

34,100 


96,016 

70,597 

45,481 

1,193 

48 

82 

29,856 

59 

38,852 

26 

2,861 

131 

392 


102,001 
73,430 


Church of Engl'd. 
Congregational. . . 
Jews 


55,143 
2,538 


Lutheran 

Methodist 

Mormon 


4,382 

34,167 

27 

88,755 

158 

1,905 


4,958 

40,871 

15 


Presbyterian 

Friends 


46,165 
116 

11,780 

420 

1,461 


103,539 
96 


Other Denomina's 
No Creed 


3,724 
116 


Not Given 


2,314 


1,353 


Total Population . 


1,396,091 


1,111,566 


252,047 


330,857 


1,620,851 


1,191,516 


285,594 


387,800 



The religious denominations of the British Islands according to latest reports. 





Clergy. 


Parishes ok 
congregation s. 


Communicants. 


Denominations. 


a 

a 

a w 
"S3 


t3 

a 

C3 

O 
o 

m 


13 

d 

08 

Q 
U 


a 

C3 

73 . 
co 

Sift? 




CCS 


o 


5 

C3 


■a 
a 

n 

73 . 
P CO 
CCS CLi 

it 


73 

a 

a 
o 
m 


2 

U 


Church of England. . . 


23,000 


232 


1,800 


40 

2,427 

3,277 

327 

38 


226 










Free Church of Eng . . 










Baptist 


1,704 

2,572 

265 


79 
121 


17 
20 


88 
106 


30 
30 


271,163 

1 376,064 

14,500 

5,604 


9,234 


1,251 


Friends 






Moravian 














Presbyterian Estab'd. 


258 
600 

2,158 
170 

1,142 

370 

18 

182 


1,530 
1,060 




1,420 
1,043 




515,786 
300,000 




Pres. Free Church 

Pres. United 1 


632 


276 
593 


674 


54,135 
183,221 


104,769 


Pres. Reformed Synod 
Pres. Orig. Seceders 1 


8 
32 


31 


13 

40 


40 


1,197 
5,150 


4,438 




Methodist, Wesleyan 2 




6,859 
437 
4,302 
1,238 
2,256 
577 




401,141 

20,950 

182,691 

64,712 

7,360 

20,043 




Meth. New Connection 














Meth. Primitive 














Meth. United Free . . . 














Meth, Pefnrm TTnion . 














Meth. Bible Christian 














Meth. Conference. 




244 








25,186 


Meth. Calvinistic 


920 
1,942 




1,319 
1,264 






118,251 
1,000,000 






276 


3,450 


279 


2,371 




4,141,933 









1 Including Scotland and Ireland. 

2 3Tor Scotland and Ireland save where otherwise specified. 



398 



RELIGION. 



The conflict between the Catholic and Protestant population of the 
British Islands has been long and, in many cases, very bitter and cruel. 
It is an important portion of the history of the English nation. The con- 
test for supremacy was long doubtful, but eventually resulted in the 
ascendancy of the Protestants. Since the beginning of this century the 
two bodies have dwelt in peace. It may be interesting to note the ratio 
of the Roman Catholic population to the entire population at this time. 





England and 
Wales. 


Ireland. 


England, Wales 
and Ibkland. 


Religious Oeganizations. 


at 

a 
a 

7a 




"o . 
fS_§ 
O c8 

a! 
S g, 

° 2 

n » 


h 

a> 

a 

a 
3 


EH 


0> 
O eS 


EQ 

h 

X! 

a 
a 

'3 

o 
H 


1§ 

C 03 

a, g, 

u s 

h » 

a> 
Oh 


Roman Catholic 


1,000,000 


4.07 


4,141,933 
683,295 
577,531 


76.7 
12.6 
10.7 


5,141,933 


18.2 






Other Protestant 





















7"Ae number of ministers belonging to the principal denominations by countries. 



Countries. 


Anglican 


Baptist. 


Congre- 
gational. 


Metho- 
dist. 


Mora- 
vian. 


Presby- 
terian. 


Sweden- 
borgian. 


Unita- 
rian. 


United States 


3,400 

829 

220 

4 


18,331 

523 

91 

3 


3,654 

88 

26 

1 


25,373 

1,682 

108 

27 

5 

25 

5,080 

37 

5 98 

48 

96 

10 

6 


75 
71 
89 

16 

72 
57 

162 


9,082 
704 

27 
4 


89 
2 


335 


British America 


2 


West Indies 




Mexico 








South America 


66 
25,032 


2 

1,800 

a 1,191 

6 85 

16 

172 

3 

13 

c3 

246 

30 

12 


2,718 
dlOl 

el30 

2 

/IB 

141 
50 
14 

104 
g 141 

145 

340 


19 

4,151 

51 

h 2,285 

i83 


34 

1 
1 
1 






330 


France 




Germany 






Italy 






Scandinavia 






Spain, Portugal 


60 




5 








Austria 






2,123 

139 

64 

25 

50 

108 

631 

51 

31 


1 

3 




India 


659 


164 
143 

8 

177 
435 


7 

64 

6 




China 










Western Asia 




1 


Africa 


300 
680 


44 
95 




Australasia 


















40 

















a Including Holland 

6 Including Switzerland. 

c Including Greece and Turkey. 

d Including Belgium. 

e Including Switzerland. 



/ Including Turkey. 

g Including Madagascar. 

h Including Belgium, Holland and Switzerland 

i Including Piedmont. 



RELIGION. 



399 



The annexed table shows the number of organizations of the principal 
religious denominations of the United States ; also, the number of minis- 
ters and communicants connected with each denomination named: 



Denominations. 



Baptist, Regular, North 

Baptist, Begular, South 

Baptist, Begular, Colored 

Baptist, Free- Will 

Baptist, Minor Free-Will 

Baptist, Anti-Mission 

Baptist, Seventh Day 

Baptist, Seventh Day, German 

Baptist, Six Principles 

Congregational, Orthodox 

Disciples 

Dunkard 

Episcopal, Protestant 

Episcopal, Reformed 

Evangelical Association 

Friends 

Lutheran General Council 

Lutheran, General Synod, South . . 
Lutheran, General Synod, North. . 

Lutheran, Independent 

Lutheran Synodical Conference . . . 

Methodist Episcopal 

Methodist Episcopal, South 

Methodist Episcopal, African 

Methodist Episcopal, African Zion. 

Methodist Episcopal, Colored 

Methodist Congregational 

Methodist, Free 

Methodist, Primitive 

Methodist, Protestant 

Methodist, Reformed 

Methodist, Union-American 

Methodist, Wesleyan 

Mennonites 

Moravians 

Presbyterian General Assembly . . . 
Presbyterian Gen. Assembly, South 

Presbyterian, United 

Presbyterian, Cumberland 

Presbyterian, Synod of Reformed . 
Presbyterian, Gen. Synod of Ref , . 
Presbyterian, Welsh Calvinistic . . 
Presbyterian, Associate Syn.,South 

Presbyterian, other bodies 

Reformed Church, Dutch 

Reformed Church, German 

Second Advent 

Second Advent, Seventh Day 

United Brethren 

Winebrennarian 

Bible Union and others 



Total. 



1870. 



Congrega- 
tions. 



5,857 

10,777 

811 

1,355 

174 



78 

20 

22 

3,121 

2,478 

300 

2,752 



815 
392 
998 
214 
997 



1,183 



270 

72 

4,526 

1,469 

729 

1,600 

87 

60 



464 

1,179 

225 



1,445 

400 



70,148 



Ministers. 



4,112 
6,331 

375 
1,116 

163 



86 

17 

20 

3,194 

2,200 

250 

2,803 



587 
364 
527 
121 
591 



686 

9,193 

2,922 

560 

694 



100 

128 

20 

423 



766 

250 

325 

66 

4,238 

840 

553 

1,116 

86 

54 



493 
526 



881 
350 



47,609 



Members. 



495,099 

790,252 

125,142 

65,605 

8,549 



7,609 
2,000 

306,518 

450,000 

40,000 

207,762 



73,566 
57,405 
129,516 
16,662 
91,720 



150,640 
1,376,327 
598,350 
200,560 
164,694 



6,000 

7,866 

2,020 

72,423 

3,000 

54,562 

20,250 

39,100 

7,634 

446,561 

82,014 

69,805 

80,000 

8,577 

6,000 



4,500 
10,000 
61,444 
96,728 
56,000 
10,000 
118,936 
30,000 



6,673.396 



1880. 



Congrega- 
tions. 



6,782 

13,827 

5,451 

1,432 



900 

94 

25 

20 

3,743 

5,100 

250 

3,000 



1,477 
392 

1,151 
214 

1,285 
913 

1,990 



300 

84 

5,489 

1,928 

813 
2,457 

117 
50 

137 

112 



510 
1,405 

800 

640 
4,524 

400 



97,090 



Ministers, 



5,280 
8,227 
3,089 
1,213 



400 

110 

20 

12 

3,654 

3,782 

200 

3,432 

100 

893 

200 

624 

122 

841 

369 

1,176 

12,096 

3,887 

1,738 

1,800 

638 

225 

260 

52 

1,385 



101 

400 

350 

94 

5,041 

1,060 

684 

1,386 

111 

32 

100 

121 



544 

748 
600 
144 
2,196 
350 



69,870 



Members. 



608,556 

1,296,413 

661,358 

78,012 

25,000 

40,000 

8,539 

3,000 

2,000 

384,332 

591,821 

60,000 

338,333 

9,448 

112,197 

60,000 

184,974 

18,223 

123,813 

69,353 

554,505 

1.755,018 

832,189 

387,566 

300,000 

112,938 

13,750 

12,318 

3,369 

135.000 

3,000 

2,250 

17,087 

50,000 

9,491 

578,671 

120,028 

82,119 

111,863 

10,473 

6,800 

11,000 

6,686 

10,000 

80,208 

155,857 

70,000 

15,570 

157,835 

30,000 

25,000 



10,065,963 






400 



RELIGION. 



The number of communicants of certain evangelical denominations in the principal 

countries of the world. 



Countries. 



Anglican 
Church. 



Baptist. 



Congrega- 
tional. 



Methodist. 



Moravian. 



Presbyterian. 



United States 

British North America. 

West Indies 

Mexico 

Central America 

South America 

British Islands 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Scandinavia 

Spain 

Russia, Poland 

India 

China 

Japan 

Western Asia 

Africa 

Australasia 

Polynesia 

East Indies 



353,049 
494,744 



2,452,878 

76,541 

28,352 

150 



384,332 

6,676 

3,673 

173 



214 

281,648 

a 1,191 

b 15,827 

420 

21,581 

cl40 

5,833 

40,169 

1,822 

76 



376,074 



cl90 



3,603 
7,918 



9,182 

3,696 

514 

6,383 

cl 75,337 



30.275 



3,775,753 

173,361 

51,905 

1,087 

1,086 

4,958 

881,137 

2,041 

b 21,276 

e 2,586 

13,150 

c398 

44 

10,005 

2,884 

628 



51,657 
/ 75,153 



9,491 

1,245 

14,576 



242 
5,619 
3,361 



5,878 



15 

2,588 
30 



1,017,848 
125,000 

7,228 
4,207 



1,189 
1,168,996 

3,700 
h 72,628 
g 16,571 



224 



5,696 

4,837 

1,189 

2,251 

32,234 

22,100 

872 

85,500 



a Includes Holland. 
b Includes Switzerland. 
c Includes Portugal. 
d Including Madagascar. 



e Including Malta. 
/ Including Polynesia. 
g Including Piedmont, 
ft Including Austria. 



Table showing the religious divisions of the world. 



I Roman Catholic 201,000,000 

Christians — viz . : < Protestants 106,000,000 

I Eastern Churches 81,000,000 



388,000,000 



Buddhists 400,000,000 to 600,000,000 

Mohammedans 207,000,000 

Brahmins 175,000,000 



Followers of Confucius . 

Shinto Religion 

Jews 



80,000.000 

14,000,000 

7,000,000 





Whole 
Population. 


Roman 
Catholics. 


Protestants. 


Eastern 
Churches. 


America 


84,500,000 

301,600,000 

798.000,000 

203,300,000 

4,400,000 


47,200,000 

147,300,000 

4,700,000 

1,100,000 

400,000 


30,000,000 

71,800,000 

1,800,000 

1,200,000 

1,500,000 




Europe 


69,350,000 




8,500,000 


Africa 


3,200,000 


Australia and Polynesia . . 








Total 


1,392,000,000 


201,200,000 


106,300,000 


81,050,000 



RELIGION. 

Religious denominations in Europe. 



401 



Countries. 


Catholics. 


Protestants. 


Greek church. 


Other Chris- 
tian denom- 
inations. 


Jews. 


Mohamme- 
dans. 


Germany 


14,867,000 

28,200,000 

36,300,000 

5,500,000 

7,000,000 

27,500,000 

1,100,000 

5,300,000 

1,400,000 

204,000 

2,000 

600 

350 

16,000,000 

4,280,000 

20,000 

114,000 

3,500 

25,000 

280,000 


26,600,000 

3,600,000 

585,000 

20,700,000 

4,000,000 

60,000 

1,600,000 

12,000 

2,300,000 

850 

1,980,000 

4,420,000 

1,800,000 


3,000 
3,200,000 


100,000 
80,000 
30,000 
5,600,000 
550,000 
45,000 
11,500 


530,000 

1,450,000 

50,000 

40,000 

2,277,000 

45,000 

7,500 

3,000 

80,000 

600 

4,300 

1,850 

25 


100 


Austria. . . . 


300 


Prance 


3,100 






European Russia 

Italy 


57,200,000 


2,092,000 


Switzerland 






Belgium 






Holland 




10,000 




Luxemburg 






Denmark 




5,000 
4,000 
4,800 




Sweden 






Norway 












Portugal 












Greece 


2,500 

13,800 

400 


1,600,000 
4,500,000 
1,580,000 
225,000 
5,600,000 


1,000 
14,000 


2,600 

400,000 

1,500 




Roumania 


2,000 


Servia 


5,000 


Montenegro 








45,000 


300,000 


75,000 


3,600,000 


Total 


148,096,450 


67,719,550 


73,908,000 


6,755,300 


4,968,375 


5,702,500 








OCCUPATION. 



The following list shows the total number of persons reported in 
1880 as pursuing gainful avocations, their division into certain classes as 
to age and sex, and also their distribution among the four great classes of 
occupations, viz.: " Agriculture," "Professional and personal services,"' 



"Trade and transportation," and 
ical and mining industries: 



'Manufactures," including the mechan- 





Persons 
occupied 


AGE AND SEX. 


Classes. 


All Ages. 


10 to 15 


16 to 59 


60 and over. 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Fem'le. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Fem'le. 


All occupations 


17,392,099 


14,744,942 


2,647,157 


825,187 


293,169 


12,986,111 


2,283,115 


933,644 


70,878 




Agriculture 


7,670,493 
4,074,238 
1,810,256 
3,837,112 


7,075,988 
2,712,943 
1,750,892 
3,205,124 


594,510 

1,361,295 

59,364 

631,988 


584,867 
127,565 
26,078 
86,677 


135,862 

107,830 

2,547 

46,930 


5,888,133 
2,446,962 
1,672,171 
2,978,845 


435,920 

1,215,189 

54,849 

577,157 


602,983 
138,416 
52,613 
139,602 


22,728 
38,276 
1,968 
7,901 


Professional and personal services 

Trade and transportation 

ManTg, mechanical and mining. 



It appears from the foregoing table that the aggregate number of per- 
sons returned as having gainful avocations, was 17,392,099, being 34.68 
per cent of the entire population of 1880, and 47.31 per cent of the popu- 
lation 10 years of age and upward. 

In 1870 the total number of persons borne on the lists of occupations 
was 12,505,923, being 32.43 per cent of the population of that date, and 
44.3 per cent of the population 10 years of age and upward. 

Distribution according to sex. 

If we ask how the relative excess of occupations in 1880 over 1870 is 
distributed according to sex, we shall find that of the total excess, viz., 
1,105,636, as stated, nearly one-quarter is of females, the number of 
females reported as pursuing gainful occupations having increased from 
1870 to 1880 in a higher ratio than the number of males. Thus — 

Number of females in gainful occupations in 1870 1,836,288 

Increased by the ratio of increase in the female population since 1870, viz. : 

29.03 per cent , 2,369,362 

Actual number returnedin 1880 2,647,157 



Relative excess. 



277,795 



Of this excess, about two-thirds appear in the last of the four classes 
indicated, showing the effect upon the employment of women produced 
by the extension of the factory system. 

If we inquire how the same excess is distributed according to age, we 
shall find that a disproportionate share falls in the class between io and 
15 years of age, showing a further effect of the extension of the factory 
system in the increased employment of young children. Thus — 

(403) 



404 OCCUPATION. 

Number of persons of both sexes between 10 and 15 years of age reported in 1870 as 

in gainful occupations 739,164 

Increased by 18.65 per cent, the ratio of increase in the population of this age from 

1870 to 1880 , 877,018 

Actual number reported 1,118,356 

Relative excess 241,338 

The following table makes comparison between the number of inhab- 
itants of either sex in each of the periods of life, taken for the purposes of 
these tables, and the corresponding number of persons returned as pursu- 
ing gainful occupations: 





Aggre- 
gate. 


TOTAL 10 YEARS AND 
UPWARD. 


10 TO 15. 


16 to 59. 


60 AND OVEB. 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Population (over 10 years) 
No. on occupation tables. 


36,761,607 
17,392,099 


18,735,980 
14,744,942 


18,025,627 
2,647,157 


3,376,114 

825,187 


3,273,369 
293,169 


13,907,444 
12,986,111 


13,377,002 
2,283,115 


1,452,422 
933,644 


1,375,256 
70,873 


Unaccounted for 


19,369,508 


3,991,038 


15,378,470 


2,550,927 


2,980,200 


921,833 


11,093,887 


518,778 


1,304,383 



It will be seen that the total number of males io years and upward 
unaccounted for in these tables is 3,991,038; of females, 15,378,470. 

The number of persons of the two sexes between 10 and 15 years 
thus unaccounted for, viz.: 2,550,927 males and 2,980,200 females, is 
substantially equal to the number of children attending school who do 
not, through any considerable portion of the year, pursue any gainful 
avocation. There is, of course, a residue consisting of invalid children, 
of vagrants, of inmates of institutions of charity or correction, etc. 

Between 16 and 59 the number of males unaccounted for is 921,333. 
This number is made up chiefly of the following classes: First, those 
students who are pursuing courses of instruction beyond the age of 16; 
second, those who are afflicted by permanent bodily or mental infirmities, 
disqualifying them from participating in the industry of the country; 
third, the members of the criminal and pauper classes. The number of 
men of this period of life, not disabled, who are not returned as of some 
occupation by reason of inherited wealth or of having retired from busi- 
ness is hardly important enough in this country to be mentioned. The 
number of females between 16 and 59 not accounted for in these tables 
is, naturally, vastly larger, and amounts to 11,093,887. That body is 
made up of the three classes just mentioned when speaking of the males of 
this period of life, and of the far greater classes of women — wives, mothers,. 
or grown daughters, keeping house for their families or living at home 
without any special avocation. 



OCCUPATION. 



405 



The explanation of the number of persons 60 years of age and upward 
returned without occupation is so manifest as not to require to be even 
alluded to. Of these there are: of males, 518,778; of females, 1,304,383. 

These tables embrace only gainful and reputable occupations. They 
do not seek to account for those persons, in whatever sphere of life, who 
have no recognized avocation for which they receive compensation in the 
shape of wages, salary, or profits, or derive products of a merchantable 
character. All persons, moreover, whose means of livelihood are crim- 
in?l, or, in the general judgment of mankind, shameful, are excluded. 



Comparative increase in occupation and in population, 1870 to 1880. 



States and Territories,. 



The United States. 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 



ALL 


OCCUPATIONS 




Increase 


1880. 


1870. 


Increase. 


in popu- 
lation. 


Number. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


17,392,099 


12,505,923 


39 


30 


492,790 


365,258 


35 


27 


22,271 


6,030 


269 


319 


260,692 


135,949 


92 


66 


376,505 


23g,648 


58 


54 


101,251 


17,583 


476 


387 


241,333 


193,421 


25 


16 


57,844 


5,887 


883 


853 


54,580 


40,313 


35 


17 


66,624 


49,041 


36 


35 


91,536 


60,703 


51 


44 


597,862 


444,678 


34 


30 


15,578 


10,879 


43 


117 


999,780 


742,015 


35 


21 


635,080 


459,369 


38 


18 


528,302 


344,276 


53 


36 


322,285 


123,852 


160 


173 


519,854 


414,593 


25 


25 


363,228 


256,452 


42 


29 


231,993 


208,225 


11 


4 


324,432 


258,543 


25 


20 


720,774 


579,844 


24 


22 


569,204 


404,164 


41 


38 


255,125 


132,657 


92 


78 


415,506 


318,850 


30 


37 


692,959 


505,556 


37 


26 


22,255 


14,048 


58 


90 


152,614 


43,837 . 


248 


268 


32,233 


26,911 


20 


47 


142,468 


120,168 


19 


9 


396,879 


296,036 


34 


25 


40,822 


29,361 


39 


30 


1,884,645 


1,491,018 


26 


16 


480,187 


351.299 


37 


31 



406 OCCUPATION. 

Comparative increase in occupation and in population, 1870 to 1880. — Continued. 



States and Terbitohies. 



Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . , 
Rhode Island . . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington . . . 
West Virginia . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



ALL OCODPATIONS. 



1880. 



Number . 

994,475 

67,343 

1,456,067 

116,979 

392,102 

447,970 

522,133 

40,055 

118,584 

494,240 

30,122 

176,199 

417,455 

8,884 



1870. 

Number. 

840,889 

30,651 

1,020,544 

88,574 

263,301 

367,987 

237,126 

21,517 

108,763 

412,665 

9,760 

115,229 

292,808 

6,645 



Increase, 



Per 



cent. 
18 

120 
43 
32 
49 
22 

120 

86 

9 

20 

209 
53 
43 
34 



Increase 
in popu- 
lation. 



Per cent. 
20 
92 
22 
27 
41 
23 
94 
66 
1 
23 

214 
40 
25 

128 



Several things are well worthy of note in the foregoing table: 

First. That in certain states and territories the ratio of increase in 
population is greater, in some cases much greater, than the ratio of 
increase in gainful occupations reported. This is due to the fact that 
these communities are losing something of the frontier character and 
taking on more of the social and domestic character of older communities. 
Thus we have Arizona gaining 319 per cent in population and only 269 
per cent in reported occupations; Idaho, 117 against 43; Kansas, 173 
against 160; Montana, 90 against 58 ; Nebraska, 268 against 248; Nevada, 
47 against 20; Washington, 214 against 209; Wyoming, 128 against 34. 
In a word, these figures indicate the growth of homes with women and 
children, in the place of the lumbering camp or the ranch, occupied by 
men only, all of whom were workers. 

Second. In another group of states and territories, where we must 
suppose that the same force which has produced the above-noted effects 
is in operation, the rapid incoming of immigrants during the decade, pre- 
dominately males of adult years, has overpowered this force and caused 
an increase in the proportion of bread-winners greater than the increase 
in population. Such are Arkansas, Colorado, Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, 
New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, and Utah. 

Third. Throughout the country, generally, we have an increase of 
occupations reported greater than the increase of population. In part 
this is probably due to the closer enumeration conducted under the pro- 
visions of the Act of March 3, 1879, which, by making the districts 



OCCUPATION, 



407 



smaller, secured in a much higher degree than had previously been attained 
that house-to-house canvass which is essential to a correct census, espe- 
cially as regards the details of enumeration. 

In a still higher degree probably the increase of reported occupation is 
due to the growth of the factory system, to the minuter organization of 
industry, and to the resulting differentiation of occupations, allowing 
women and children to find places where they can be useful and earn a 
livelihood, both in trade and in manufactures, more readily than was the 
case ten years ago. 

Statistics of occupations in cities. 

The following table exhibits the total number in occupations reported 
in each of the principal fifty cities of the United States, and the proportion 
existing between that number and the total number of inhabitants of both 
sexes and all ages: 



City. 



Albany, N. Y 

Allegheny, Pa . . . 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md . . , 

Boston, Mass 

Brooklyn, N. Y.., 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 
Camden, N. J 
Charleston, S. C. , 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio . 
Cleveland, Ohio. . 
Columbus, Ohio . 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Col 

Detroit, Mich 

Fall Kiver, Mass . 
Hartford, Conn . . 
Indianapolis, Ind 
Jersey City, N. J. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Lawrence, Mass . 
Louisville, Ky . . . 
Lowell, Mass 



a 
o 

"■i 

"3 

p, 


Pn 


as 

C8"J3 

Ip. 


ca 

a 

o 

a* 


Number. 


Number. 




90,758 


32,153 


35 


78,682 


25,958 


33 


37,409 


17,078 


46 


332,313 


130,364 


39 


362,839 


149,194 


41 


566,663 


209,065 


37 


155,134 


54,647 


35 


52,669 


20,021 


38 


41,659 


15,085 


36 


49,984 


20,325 


41 


503,185 


191,760 


38 


255,139 


100,454 


39 


160,146 


56,919 


36 


51,647 


18,737 


36 


38,678 


14,184 


37 


35,629 


15,737 


44 


116,340 


39,245 


34 


48,961 


22,685 


46 


42,015 


17,212 


41 


75,056 


27,966 


37 


120,722 


42,356 


35 


55,785 


25,081 


45 


39,151 


19,153 


49 


123,758 


45,244 


37 


59,475 


29,781 


50 



City. 



Lynn, Mass 

Milwaukee, Wis . . . 
Minneapolis, Minu 
Nashville, Tenn . . . 

Newark, N. J 

New Haven, Conn . 
New Orleans, La . . 
New York, N. Y... 

Paterson, N. J 

Philadelphia, Pa . . 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Providence, R. I . . 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y . . . 
Saint Louis, Mo. . . 
Saint Paul, Minn. . 
San Francisco, Cal 

Scran ton, Pa 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Toledo, Ohio 

Troy, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 
Wilmington, Del. . 
Worcester, Mass . . 



a 
_o 

C3 

"3 

Pi 

o 

Ph 


i£ 

a 3 
•8 a 
_ o 

la 


Number. 


Number. 


38,274 


16,728 


115,587 


40,900 


46,887 


21,302 


43,350 


16,738 


136,508 


49,066 


62,882 


24,155 


216,090 


78,336 


1,206,299 


513,377 


51,031 


22,570 


847,170 


348,900 


156,389 


52,173 


104,857 


43,878 


43,278 


15,623 


63,600 


24,550 


89,366 


34,276 


350,518 


139,985 


41,473 


17,809 


233,959 


104,650 


45,850 


16,829 


51,792 


20,409 


50,137 


17,691 


56,747 


23,745 


147,293 


57,262 


42,478 


19,281 


58,291 


22,535 



44 
35 
45 
30 
36 
38 
36 
43 
44 
41 
33 
42 
36 
39 
38 
40 
43 
45 
37 
39 
35 
42 
39 
45 
39 



408 OCCUPATION. 

Number and sex of persons engaged in each class in the several states and territories. 



States 

AND 

Territories. 



Total 
population 



The United States 



Alabama 851,780 

Arizona 32,922 

Arkansas 531,876 

California 681,062 

Colorado 158,220 

Connecticut 497,303 

Dakota 99,849 

Delaware 110,856 

Dist. of Columbia . . 136,907 

Florida 184,650 

Georgia 1,043,840 

Idaho 25,005 

Illinois 2,269,315 

Indiana 1,468,095 

Iowa 1,181,641 

Kansas 704,297 

Kentucky 1,163,498 

Louisiana 649,070 

Maine 519,669 

Maryland 695,364 

Massachusetts 1,432,183 

Michigan 1,236,686 

Minnesota 559,977 

Mississippi 753,693 

Missouri 1,557,631 

Montana 31,989 

Nebraska 318,271 

Nevada 50,666 

New Hampshire . . . 286,188 

New Jersey 865,591 

New Mexico 87,966 

New York 3,981,428 

North Carolina. . . . 959,951 
Ohio 2,399,367 



36,761,607 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . 
Rhode Island . . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia. 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



130,565 

3,203,215 

220,461 

667,456 

1,062,130 

1,064,196 

97,194 

264,052 

1,059,034 

55,720 

428,587 

965,712 

16,479 



Total 
engaged in 
all classes 
of occupa- 
tions. 



17,392,099 



492,790 

22,271 

260,692 

376,505 

101,251 

241,333 

57,844 

54,580 

66,624 

91,536 

597,862 

15,578 

999,780 

635,080 

528,302 

322,285 

519,854 

363,228 

231,993 

324,432 

720,774 

569,204 

255,125 

415,506 

692,959 

22,255 

152,614 

32,233 

142,468 

396,879 

40,822 

1,884,645 

480,187 

994,475 

67,343 

1,456,067 

116,979 

392,102 

447,970 

522,133 

40,055 

118,584 

494,240 

30,122 

176,199 

417,455 

8,884 



ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. 



Total. Male. Female 



7,670,493 



380,630 

3,435 

216,655 

79,396 

13,539 

44,026 

28,508 

17,849 

1,464 

58,731 

432,204 

3,858 

436,371 

331,240 

303,557 

306,080 

320,571 

205,306 

82,130 

90,927 

64,973 

240,319 

131,535 

339,938 

355,297 

4,513 

90,507 

4,180 

44,490 

59,214 

14,139 

377,460 

360,937 

397,495 

27,091 

301,112 

10,945 

294,602 

294,153 

359,317 

14,550 

55,251 

254,099 

12,781 

107,578 

195,901 

1,639 



7,075,983 



291,477 

3,423 

195,002 

78,785 

13,462 

43.936 

28,368 

17,609 

1,445 

47,465 

329,856 

3,847 

433,796 

329,614 

302,171 

205,234 

315,445 

147,538 

81,887 

89,176 

64,746 

239,346 

130,817 

252,324 

351,681 

4,504 

89,881 

4,146 

44,299 

58,819 

14,025 

375,213 

314,228 

396,120 

27,000 

299,809 

10,910 

208,672 

275,620 

330,125 

14,470 

55,037 

238,951 

12,709 

106,980 

194,380 

1,635 



594,510 



89,153 

12 

21,653 

611 

77 

90 

140 

240 

19 

11,266 

102,348 

11 

2,575 

1,626 

1,386 

846 

5,126 

57,768 

243 

1,751 

227 

973 

718 

87,614 

3,616 

9 

626 

34 

191 

395 

114 

2,247 

46,709 

1,375 

91 

1,303 

35 

85,930 

18,533 

29,192 

80 

214 

15,148 

72 

598 

1,521 

4 



ENGAGED IN PROFESSIONAL, AND 
PERSONAL SERVICES. 



Total. 



4,074,238 



72.211 

8,210 

23,466 

121,435 
24,813 
51,296 
14,016 
17,616 
39,975 
17,923 

104,269 
3,861 

229,467 

137,281 

103,932 
53,507 

104,239 
98,111 
47,411 
98,934 

170,160 

143,249 
59,452 
49,448 

148,588 

6,954 

28,746 

10,373 

28,206 

110,722 
19,042 

537,897 
69,321 

250,371 
16,645 

446,713 
24,657 
64,246 
94,107 
97,561 
11,144 
28,174 

146,664 

6,640 

31,680 

97,494 

4,011 



Male. 



2,712,943 



41,187 

7,870 

15,284 

103,207 
21,233 
30,647 
11,655 
12,055 
23,664 
12,098 
62,027 
3,651 

157,084 

100,056 
69,575 
38,289 
63,438 
66,138 
31,604 
59,057 

100,445 

103,244 
39,741 
28,563 

102,403 
6,539 
20,766 
9,275 
16,158 
75,763 
17,241 

332,068 
34,774 

173,909 
14,688 

318,194 

15,497 

34,309 

60,304 

70,178 

9,271 

16,022 

87,681 

5,829 

22,361 

64,259 

3,642 



Female. 



1,361,295 



31,024 
340 

8,182 
18,228 

3,580 
20,649 

2,361 

5,561 
16,311 

5,825 
42,242 
210 
72,383 
37,225 
34,357 
15,218 
40,801 
31,973 
15,807 
39,877 
69,715 
40,005 
19,711 
20,885 
46,185 
415 

7,980 

1,098 
12,048 
34,959 

1,801 

205,829 

34,547 

76,462 

1,957 
128,519 

5,160 
29,937 
33,803 
27,383 

1,873 

12,152 

58,983 

811 

9,319 

33,235 

369 



OCCUPATION. 409 

Number and sex of persons engaged, in each class, in the several states and territories. 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin , 

Wyoming 



ENGAGED IN TRADE AND TRANS- 
PORTATION. 


ENGAGED IN MANUFA 
AND MECHANICAL ANL 
INDUSTRIES. 


CTURES 
MINING 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


1,810,256 


1,750,892 


59,364 


3,837,112 


3,205,124 


631.988 


16,953 


16,609 


344 


22,996 


19,461 


3,535 


3,252 


3,235 


17 


7,374 


7,272 


102 


9,233 


9,158 


75 


11,338 


10,632 


706 


57,392 


56,621 


771 


118,282 


109,690 


8,592 


15,491 


15,338 


153 


47,408 


46,439 


969 


29,920 


28,888 


1,032 


116,091 


89,192 


26,899 


6,219 


6,180 


39 


9,101 


8,790 


311 


4,967 


4,704 


263 


14,148 


12,284 


1,864 


9,848 


9,176 


672 


15,337 


12,681 


2,656 


6,446 


6,386 


60 


8,436 


7,803 


633 


25,222 


24,693 


529 


36,167 


28,954 


7,213 


1,327 


1,321 


6 


6,532 


6,468 


64 


128,372 


125,328 


3,044 


205,570 


177,471 


28,099 


56,432 


55,292 


1,140 


110,127 


98,696 


11,431 


50,872 


50,212 


660 


69,941 


61,499 


8,442 


26,379 


26,119 


260 


36,319 


33,292 


3,027 


33,563 


32,761 


802 


61,481 


53,788 


7,693 


29,130 


28,041 


1,089 


30,681 


26,459 


4,222 


29,790 


29,090 


700 


72,662 


55,884 


16,778 


49,234 


46,785 


2,449 


85,337 


70,614 


14,723 


115,376 


109,154 


6,222 


370,265 


272,246 


98,019 


54,723 


53,317 


1,406 


130,913 


118,284 


12,629 


24,349 


23,979 


370 


39,789 


35,511 


4,278 


12,975 


12,849 


126 


13,145 


11,353 


1,792 


79,300 


77,721 


1,579 


109,774 


98,211 


11,563 


2,766 


2,759 


7 


8,022 


7,946 


76 


15,106 


14,983 


123 


18,255 


16,529 


1,726 


4,449 


4,431 


18 


13,231 


12,878 


353 


11,735 


11,208 


527 


58,037 


40,675 


17,362 


66,382 


63,874 


2,508 


160,561 


131,647 


28,914 


3,264 


3,252 


12 


4,377 


4,042 


335 


339,419 


324,304 


15,115 


629,869 


492,679 


137,190 


15,966 


15,793 


173 


33,963 


28,416 


5,547 


104,315 


101,445 


2,870 


242,294 


210,362 


31,932 


6,149 


6,106 


43 


17,458 


16,770 


688 


179,965 


169,664 


10,301 


528,277 


451,417 


76,860 


15,217 


14,641 


576 


66,160 


46,072 


20,088 


13,556 


13,147 


409 


19,698 


15,887 


3,811 


23,628 


23,196 


432 


36,082 


32,442 


3,640 


34,909 


34,649 


260 


30,346 


28,238 


2,108 


4,149 


4,026 


123 


10,212 


9,401 


811 


8,945 


8,772 


173 


26,214 


22,586 


3,628 


30,418 


29,804 


614 


63,059 


54,607 


8,452 


3,405 


3,389 


16 


7,296 


7,132 


164 


10,653 


10,510 


143 


26,288 


24.840 


1,448 


37,550 


36,454 


1,096 


86,510 


75,969 


10,541 


1,545 


1,528 


17 


1,689 


1,615 


74 



410 



OCCUPATION. 



Occupation, with age, sex and nativity, in the several states and territories. 



States and Territories 



The United States. 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Pop. (10 yrs. and over.) 



Persons 
occupied. 



17,392,099 



492,790 

22,271 

260,692 

376,505 

101,251 

241.333 

57,844 

54,580 

66,624 

91,536 

597,862 

15,578 

999,780 

635,080 

528,302 

322,285 

519,854 

363,228 

231,993 

324,432 

720,774 

569,204 

255,125 

415,506 

692,959 

22,255 

152,614 

32,233 

142,468 

396,879 

40,822 

1,884,645 

480,187 

994,475 

67,343 

1,456,067 

116,979 

392,102 

447,970 

522,133 

40,055 

118,584 

494.240 

30,122 

176,199 

417,455 

8,884 



36,761,607 



AGE AND SEX. 



10 to 15. 



Male. 



825,187 



64,918 

205 

28,300 

3,430 

815 

5,803 

714 

2,704 

617 

6,532 

65,329 

101 

37,100 

32,628 

17,832 

13,225 

36,643 

24,682 

4,087 

11,121 

12,306 

11,610 

4,961 

32,330 

31,662 

100 

3,816 

109 

2,593 

9,957 

1,945 

38,534 

55,623 

31,282 

966 

53,895 

3,604 

31,765 

44,292 

36.934 

2,292 

2,598 

34,741 

337 

9,842 

10,240 

67 



3,376,114 3,273,369 



Female. 



293,169 



25,490 

20 

7,416 

1,043 

171 

4,010 

179 

840 

594 

3,312 

31,704 

17 

7,096 

3,550 

2,462 

1,222 

5,387 

20,041 

1,647 

4,706 

9,062 

3,479 

1,504 

17,562 

4,763 

25 

730 

42 

1,709 

4,338 

252 

22,162 

18,979 

7,251 

103 

18,546 

2,804 

20,113 

10,056 

10,790 

311 

1,054 

11,858 

54 

1,242 

3,448 

25 



16 to 59. 



Male. 



12,986,111 



275,222 

21,362 

191,612 

321,801 

94,080 

170.897 

53,001 

40,539 

44,C84 

62,193 

350,298 

14,876 

813,162 

517,055 

439,119 

277,935 

401,297 

220,890 

171,395 

238,180 

494,878 

470,903 

213,678 

252,112 

567,953 

21,375 

133,420 

30,129 

96,485 

300,656 

34,621 

1,382,481 

305,495 

786,815 

60,865 

1,108,079 

78,039 

218,698 

320,814 

404,959 

33,554 

87,386 

341,673 

27,875 

143,437 

332,471 

8,262 



13,907,444 



Female. 



2,283,115 



94,058 

442 

22,254 

26,592 

4,563 

43,678 

2,632 

6,754 

18,518 

13,688 

115,485 

269 

97,650 

46,972 

41,790 

17,789 

47,045 

70,333 

31,192 

51,941 

162,199 

50,725 

23,301 

89,040 

56,654 

477 

9,573 

1,431 

27.820 

60,992 

1,911 

331,497 

64,264 

103,281 

2,625 

193,816 

26,529 

94,658 

44,07i 

46,453 

2,416 

14,649 

67,596 

990 

9,903 

42,165 

434 



60 and over. 



Male. 



933,644 



28,594 

233 

10,164 

13,072 

1,577 
15,963 

1,278 

3,409 

2,265 

5,027 
29,903 
310 
43,417 
33,975 
26,506 
11,774 
27,492 
22,604 
22,983 
16,331 
39,407 
31,678 
11,409 
20,647 
30,401 
273 

4,923 

492 

13,262 

19,490 

1,994 

103,249 

32,093 

63,739 

2,733 
77,110 

5,477 
21,552 
26,456 
21,297 

1,322 
12,433 
34,629 
847 
11,412 
28,351 
91 



13,377,002 1,452,422 



Female. 



70,873 



4,508 

9 

946 

567 

45 

982 

40 

334 

546 

784 

5,143 

5 

1,355 

900 

593 

340 

1,990 

4,678 

689 

2,153 

2,922 

809 

272 

3,815 

1,526 

5 

152 

30 

599 

1,446 

99 

6,722 

3,733 

2,107 

51 

4,621 

526 

5,316 

2,281 

1,700 

160 

464 

3,743 

i9 

363 

780 

5 



1,375,256 



OCCUPATION. 411 

Persons engaged in professional and personal services, by age and sex. 



States and Territories. 



Persons 
occupied. 



AGE AND SEX. 



10 to 15. 



Male. Female. 



16 to 59. 



Male. 



Female. 



60 and over. 



Male. Female. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



4,074,238 



127,565 



107,830 



2,446,962 



1,215,189 



138,416 



72,211 

8,210 

23,466 

121,435 
24,813 
51,296 
14,016 
17,616 
39,975 
17,923 

104,269 
3,861 

229,467 

137,281 

103,932 
53,507 

104,239 
98,111 
47,411 
98,934 

170,160 

143,249 
59,452 
49,448 

148,588 

6,954 

28,746 

10,373 

28,206 

110,722 
19,042 

537,897 
69,321 

250,371 
16,645 

446,713 
24,657 
64,246 
94,107 
97,561 
11,144 
28,174 

146,664 

6,640 

31,680 

97,494 

4,011 



9,913 

102 

1,963 

1,252 

240 

443 

107 

610 

288 

603 

7,298 

33 

4,310 

4,717 

1,667 

996 

4,649 

3,637 

620 

2,893 

1,293 

2,160 

775 

2,688 

4,302 

40 

404 

53 

253 

1,988 

970 

8,932 

6,757 

5,662 

182 

15,110 

241 

3,704 

6,950 

4,612 

697 

406 

9,997 

59 

1,249 

1,708 

33 



4,477 

17 

1,238 

793 

155 

854 

164 

629 

544 

582 

5,123 

17 

5,050 

2,954 

2,197 

1,112 

4,069 

3,450 

580 

3,358 

1,605 

2,914 

1,353 

1,990 

3,755 

22 

634 

38 

345 

823 

208 

10,254 

5,962 

5,220 

93 

11,569 

212 

3,220 

4,125 

3,264 

247 

875 

7,898 

47 

1,006 

2,763 

25 



29,261 

7,708 
12,192 
98,833 
20,642 
27,726 
11,423 
10,579 
22,006 
10,801 
51,813 

3,559 
145,587 
91,133 
65,014 
36,065 
56,407 
59,654 
28,287 
53,259 
90,627 
97,020 
37,801 
24,372 
94,352 

6,448 
19,964 

9,085 

14,458 

69,131 

15,376 

303,176 

25,997 

159,325 

14,117 

284,711 

14,166 

28,945 

50,441 

62,976 

8,314 
14,180 
72,024 

5,649 
19,908 
58,866 

3,584 



24,688 
319 

6,597 
17,036 

3,392 
19,076 

2,175 

4,686 
15,283 

4,951 
35,061 
190 
66,569 
33,518 
31,879 
13,929 
35,399 
26,084 
14,821 
34,999 
66,169 
36,668 
18,201 
17,628 
41,588 
388 

7,274 

1,038 
11,346 
33,145 

1,527 

199,249 

26,845 

69,962 

1,826 
113,947 

8,586 
25,024 
28,375 
23,215 

1,550 

10,961 

48,513 

752 

8,069 

30,072 

339 



2,013 

60 

1,129 

3,122 

351 
2,478 

125 

866 
1,370 

694 
2,916 
59 
7,187 
4,206 
2,894 
1,228 
2,382 
2,847 
2,697 
2,905 
8,525 
4,064 
1,165 
1,503 
3,749 
51 

398 

137 
1,447 
4,644 

894 

19,960 

2,020 

8,922 

389 
18,373 
1,090 
1,660 
2,913 
2,590 

260 
1,436 
5,660 

121 

1,204 

3,687 

25 



38,276 



1,859 

4 

347 

399 

33 

719 

22 

246 

484 

292 

2,058 

3 

764 

453 

281 

177 

1,333 

2,439 

406 

1,520 

1,941 

423 

157 

1,267 

862 

5 

72 

22 

357 

991 

66 

4,326 

1,740 

1,280 

38 

3,003 

362 

1,693 

1,303 

904 

76 

316 

2,572 

12 

244 

400 

5 



412 OCCUPATION. 

Persons engaged in professional and personal services, by nativity. 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky .... 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . . . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Ehode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Nativity. 



United 
States. 



3,076,768 



71,100 

3,440 
22,043 
50,993 
18,012 
32,095 

8,273 

15,282 

36,178 

16,945 

103,004 

2,231 

152,935 

122,324 

79,085 

46,386 

97,087 

88,522 

39,949 

87,203 

93,160 

87,677 

29,635 

48,562 

118,760 

4,231 
20,376 

4,089 
22,382 
72,337 
17,396 
317,201 
68,941 
200,364 

9,627 
351,332 
13,669 
63,429 
92.331 
82,160 

6,024 

22,629 

145,267 

3,737 
29,869 
56,145 

2,351 



415,854 



Ireland. 



240 

465 

559 

15,041 

1,829 

14,335 

982 

1,838 

2,157 

110 

640 

198 

23,054 

4,910 

5,453 

1,466 

3,393 

3,574 

2,627 

5,012 

52,684 

7,059 

3,496 

357 

12,274 

649 

1,393 

625 

2,220 

24,232 

198 

128,527 

95 

17,217 

827 

56,410 

7,582 

413 

991 

1,814 

221 

1,642 

686 

491 

851 

4,490 

427 



Germany 



218,867 



188 

332 

265 

6,389 

1,030 

1,380 

1,022 

159 

745 

68 

263 

158 

27,076 

6,910 

7,886 

1,822 

' 2,752 

2,495 

46 

5,009 

1,763 

10,998 

6,300 

175 

11,483 

474 

2,601 

404 

67 

7,418 

133 

42,844 

67 

20,678 

640 

23,532 

206 

210 

292 

2,478 

186 

39 

269 

358 

667 

18,327 

263 



Great 
Britain. 



70,963 



113 

199 

152 

4,360 

1,075 

1,306 

547 

230 

454 

106 

157 

336 

6,604 

1,194 

2,260 

1,321 

372 

558 

656 

756 

5,304 

5,850 

1,138 

98 

1,922 

280 

867 

585 

369 

3,257 

80 

16,844 

50 

5,261 

510 

6,189 

936 

88 

173 

958 

2,675 

284 

242 

315 

153 

2,515 

264 



Scandi- 
navia. 



52,860 



29 

26 

40 

1,301 

526 

424 

1,599 

15 

17 

31 

27 

104 

9,601 

377 

4,845 

916 

17 

84 

97 

53 

1,061 

3,217 

12,863 

37 

555 

92 

1,089 

106 

65 

500 

11 

2,899 

3 

313 

246 

1,534 

217 

15 

34 

369 

635 

17 

8 

141 

1 

6,634 

69 



British 
America. 



90,614 



17 

92 

61 

2,453 

849 

1,054 

947 

18 

83 

58 

35 

91 

3,296 

496 

1,714 

637 

115 

145 

3,779 

113 

13.605 

23,600 

3,585 

24 

861 

515 

605 

731 

3,019 

384 

55 

13,359 

10 

2,128 

335 

1,746 

1,613 

14 

29 

279 

83 

3,486 

36 

312 

40 

3,999 

108 



Other 
countries 



139,312 



424 
3,656 

346 

40,898 

1,492 

702 

646 
74 

341 

605 

143 

743 
6,901 
1,070 
2,689 

959 

503 
2,733 

257 

788 
2,583 
4,848 
2,435 

195 
2,733 

713 
1,815 
3,833 
84 
2,594 
1,169 
16,223 

155 
4,410 
4,460 
5,970 

434 
77 

257 

9,503 

1,320 

77 

156 

1,286 

99 

5,384 

529 



OCCUPATION. 

Persons engaged in trade and transportation, by age and sex. 



413 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi , 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire , 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania , 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina , 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Persons 
occupied. 



AGE AND SEX. 



1,810,256 



16,953 

3,252 

9,233 

57,392 

15,491 

29,920 

6,219 

4,967 

9,848 

6,446 

25,222 

1,327 

128.372 

56,432 

50,872 

26,379 

33,563 

29,130 

29,790 

49,234 

115,376 

54,723 

24,349 

12,975 

79,300 

2,766 

15,106 

4,449 

11,735 

66,382 

3,264 

339,419 

15,966 

104,315 

6,149 

179,965 

15,217 

13,556 

23,628 

34,909 

4,149 

8,945 

30,418 

3,405 

10,653 

37,550 

1,545 



10 to 15. 



Male. 



26,078 



378 
5 

81 
429 
100 
391 

30 

59 
197 

80 

441 

7 

1,564 

648 

330 

176 

499 

522 

179 

797 

1,193 

500 

208 

154 

1,137 

3 

87 

11 

71 
978 

30 

6,856 

306 

1,785 

52 
3,418 
214 
183 
361 
465 

86 

80 
374 

15 
122 
463 

13 



Female. 



2,547 



11 



1 

27 
2 

70 
2 
2 

18 



14 



179 

19 

16 

8 

18 

21 

12 

75 

175 

56 

6 

2 

59 



7 

132 

1 

931 

11 

146 

1 

386 

15 

8 

7 

7 

15 

3 

13 



9 
60 



16 to 59. 



Male. 



1,672,171 



15,592 

3,209 

8,881 

54,843 

15,088 

27,354 

6,111 

4,400 

8,729 

6,115 

23,608 

1,299 

121,123 

53,039 

48,777 

25,602 

31,303 

26,301 

27,514 

44,554 

103,580 

51,368 

23,422 

12,343 

75,277 

2,741 

14,751 

4,370 

10,618 

60,806 

3,172 

307,563 

14,910 

95,415 

5,930 

160,049 

13,806 

12,577 

22,172 

33,537 

3,850 

8,285 

28,412 

3,338 

10,066 

34,866 

1,505 



Female. 



54,849 



307 

17 

67 

714 

149 

951 

37 

251 

636 

49 

484 

6 

2,829 

1,087 

630 

249 

755 

971 

673 

2,230 

5,941 

1,333 

358 

110 

1,484 

7 

120 

18 

518 

2,285 

11 

13,774 

136 

2,623 

40 

9,469 

549 

347 

401 

239 

97 

167 

554 

16 

127 

1,016 

17 



60 and over. 



Male 



52,643 



639 

21 

196 

1,349 

150 

1,143 

39 

245 

250 

191 

644 

15 

2,641 

1,605 

1,105 

341 

959 

1,218 

1,397 

1,434 

4,381 

1,449 

349 

352 

1,307 

15 

145 

50 

519 

2,090 

50 

9,885 

577 

4,245 

124 

6,197 

621 

387 

663 

647 

90 

407 

1,018 

36 

322 

1,125 

10 



Female. 



1,968 



26 



7 
30 

2. 
11 



10 
18 
11 
31 



36 

34 

14 

3 

29 

97 

15 

144 

106 

17 

6 

14 

36 



2. 
91 



410 
26 

101 
2 

446 
12- 
54 
24 
14 
11 
3 
47 



7 
20 



414 



OCCUPATION. 



Persons engaged in trade and transportation, by nativity. 



States and Territories. 



The United States . 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire .... 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



002 
P 



1,351,695 



15,357 

1,534 

8,005 

27,667 

11,458 

23,501 

4,043 

4,540 

8,373 

5,203 

23,399 

829 

85,445 

47,608 

39,447 

21,887 

28,373 

21,562 

27,572 

41,367 

92,863 

37,402 

14,314 

11,514 

59,554 

1,961 

11,084 

2,289 

10,414 

50,008 

2,516 

225,349 

15,394 

77,957 

3,831 

143,513 

11,974 

12,170 

21,444 

26,426 

2.161 

7,556 

28,940 

1,548 

9,391 

21,877 

1,075 



138,518 



369 

79 

348 

6,009 

1,059 

3,544 

406 

204 

630 

89 

579 

37 

10,359 

2,121 

2,864 

1,171 

1,418 

1,548 

590 

2,022 

11,071 

2,484 

1,521 

271 

5,477 

142 

908 

225 

492 

5,944 

175 

43,684 

68 

5,949 

300 

16,044 

1,724 

328 

837 

1,742 

93 

498 

531 

163 

563 

1,752 

116 



c5 



152,491 



638 

169 

488 

7,473 

857 

991 

352 

94 

517 

166 

775 

72 

16,813 

4,651 

3,959 

1,321 

2,854 

2,605 

78 

4,482 

1,301 

4,329 

2,727 

632 

9,335 

174 

1,186 

358 

52 

6,019 

185 

39,170 

254 

12,801 

519 

11,305 

171 

705 

611 

2,632 

78 

44 

538 

168 

502 

7,273 

67 



oS 



56,498 



16,214 



138 
70 
97 

3,400 
695 
818 
216 
77 
129 
121 
207 
134 

5,316 
794 

1,488 
755 
363 
542 
321 
610 

3,259 

2,838 
858 
109 

1,821 
113 
523 
238 
136 

2,524 

66 

13,406 

63 

3.201 
316 

5,346 
664 
115 
228 
839 

1,268 

98 

196 

206 

102 

1,559 
115 



'S 2 
t» 

CO d 

° a 

02 " 



ffl-3 



33,119 



30 

9 

22 

1,143 

164 

57 

565 

7 

7 

40 

19 

16 

3,370 

156 

1,174 

321 

10 

84 

57 

95 

287 

485 

2,672 

38 

238 

39 

416 

36 

8 

141 

10 

1,348 

5 

146 

79 

367 

24 

8 

28 

209 

93 

1 

6 

91 



2,045 
48 



26 

42 

37 

1,498 

485 

385 

431 

6 

25 

48 

52 

46 

2,910 

358 

888 

491 

101 

96 

980 

95 

4,445 

5,507 

1,346 

25 

972 

226 

385 

235 

602 

323 

47 

4,908 

9 

1,165 

160 

708 

448 

11 

47 

258 

66 

727 

28 

116 

22 

1,280 

53 



53 a 



61,-721 

395 

1,349 
236 
10,202 
773 
654 
206 
39 
167 
779 
191 
193 

4,159 
744 

1,052 
433 
444 

2,693 
192 
563 

2,150 

1,678 
911 
386 

1,903 
111 
604 

1,068 
31 

1,423 

265 

11,554 

173 

8,096 
944 

2,682 
212 
219 
433 

2,803 

390 

21 

179 

1,113 
73 

1,764 
71 



OCCUPATION. 415 

Persons engaged in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, with age and sex. 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois , 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

,r voming 



Persons 
occupied. 






AGE AND SEX. 






10 to 15. 


16 to 59. 


60 and 


over. 
















Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


3,837.112 


86,677 


46,930 


2,978,845 


577,157 


139,602 


7,901 


22,996 


773 


394 


17,226 


3,067 


1,462 


74 


7,374 


9 


3 


7,188 


99 


75 




11,338 


138 


39 


9,993 


639 


501 


28 


118,282 


621 


193 


105,363 


8,324 


3,706 


75 


47,408 


140 


8 


45,781 


956 


518 


5 


116,091 


3,755 


3,083 


81,185 


23,589 


4,252 


227 


9,101 


7 


1 


8,681 


309 


102 


1 


14,148 


401 


173 


11,252 


1,657 


631 


34 


15,337 


121 


32 


12,037 


2,584 


523 


40 


8,436 


200 


50 


7,169 


567 


434 


16 


36,167 


895 


659 


26,364 


6,456 


1,695 


98 


6,532 


11 




6,351 


64 


106 




205,570 


3,228 


1,557 


168,092 


26,299 


6,151 


243 


110,127 


1,850 


324 


92,513 


10,926 


4,333 


181 


69,941 


625 


80 


58,156 


8,252 


2,718 


110 


36,319 


272 


19 


31,974 


2,963 


1,046 


45 


61,481 


1,354 


415 


49,903 


7,162 


2,531 


116 


30,681 


478 


154 


24,018 


3,922 


1,963 


146 


72,662 


1,320 


1,045 


51,121 


15,518 


3,443 


215 


85,337 


1,921 


1,017 


65,122 


13,389 


3,571 


317 


370,265 


8,591 


7,272 


250,508 


89,921 


13,147 


826 


130,913 


1,765 


433 


112',251 


11,974 


4,268 


222 


39,789 


309 


97 


34,201 


4,149 


1,001 


32 


13,145 


188 


121' 


10,404 


1,647 


761 


24 


109,774 


2,180 


694 


92,893 


10,706 


3,138 


163 


8,022 


6 


1 


7,830 


75 


110 




18,255 


92 


13 


16,047 


1,694 


390 


19 


13,231 


8 


3 


12,714 


344 


156 


6 


58,037 


1,257 


1,353 


37,222 


15,808 


2,196 


201 


160,561 


5,113 


3,377 


121,180 


25,252 


5,354 


285 


4,377 


18 


34 


3,938 


290 


86 


11 


629,869 


13,719 


10,899 


457,597 


124,798 


21,363 


1,493 


33,963 


1,231 


779 


24,898 


4,563 


2,287 


205 


242,294 


6,106 


1,795 


193,762 


29,620 


10,494 


517 


17,458 


95 


4 


16,288 


676 


387 


8 


528,277 


19,326 


6,486 


413,928 


69,432 


18,163 


942 


66,160 


2,957 


2,576 


41,278 


17,372 


1,837 


140 


19,698 


425 


283 


14,184 


3,415 


1,278 


113 


36,082 


643 


196 


29,885 


3,343 


1,914 


101 


30,346 


265 


34 


26,927 


2,041 


1,046 


33 


10,212 


158 


32 


8,773 


711 


470 


68 


26,214 


442 


166 


20,565 


3,361 


1,579 


101 


63,059 


1,769 


577 


49,136 


7,634 


3,702 


241 


7,296 


38 


2 


6,955 


159 


139 


3 


26,288 


527 


32 


23,120 


1,378 


1,193 


38 


86,510 


1,328 


425 


71,275 


9,978 


3,366 


138 


1,689 


2 




1,597 


74 


16 





416 



OCCUPATION, 



Persons engaged in manufactures and the mechanical and mining industries, 

by nativity. 



States and Territories. 



The United States 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado , 

Connecticut 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa . 

Kausas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana , 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon , 

Pennsylvania , 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas „ , 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin , 

Wyoming 



2,611,325 



United 
States. 



21,139 

4,328 
10,092 
48,084 
31,694 
78,465 

5,417 
12,327 
12,950 

6,449 
34,910 

2,397 
116,492 
89,974 
50,180 
28,560 
50,245 
22,826 
59,723 
67,743 
238,255 
74,058 
20,867 
11,914 
74,703 

3,994 
12,712 

4,912 

42,200 

109,696 

3,219 

385,693 

33,271 

172,097 

8,245 
388,836 
40,278 
18,819 
33,546 
22,460 

4,249 
19,738 
61,191 

3,796 

22,861 

44,879 

841 



Ireland. 



284.175 



311 

553 

201 

9,669 

3,030 

15,940 

470 

858 

728 

79 

401 

431 

12,297 

2,419 

2,067 

993 

2,103 

1,245 

2,016 

2,686 

52,358 

5,226 

1,359 

290 

5.882 

855 

555 

1,688 

3,282 

14,532 

189 

70,487 

97 

8,209 

622 

43,246 

9,108 

260