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Full text of "Yale, her campus, class-rooms, and athletics"

:k cam- 



; • CAMP 
WELCH 















ItKICANUNlVERSITY-SERIES 



YALE 

Her Campus, Class-Kooms, and Athletics 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



YALE 

Her Campus, Class-Rooms, and Athletics 



By 
LEWIS SHELDON WELCH 

AND 

WALTER CAMP 

WITH INTRODUCTION 

BY SAMUEL J. ELDER 



Illustrated 




BOSTON 
L. C. PAGE AND COMPANY 

(Incorporated) 
1899 



Copyright, i8gg 
By L. C. Page and Company 
( Incorporated ) 



SSntbcrsitg Jfrcsis 

John Wilson and Son, Cambridge, U. S. A. 



6337 . 



INTRODUCTION 

WHEN the last waiter has slipped from the room, 
and the incense rises over the tables, and the 
lights look out from under their colored fringes, and 
Yale is alone with itself, it falls to the lot of some one 
to push back his chair and rise up for the naming of 
the speakers. It is not often given to such an one to 
have peeped inside the leaves of the speeches which are 
to be, and to foretaste the evening's entertainment. 
But that has been my good fortune to-night. " Yale, 
— her Campus, Class-Rooms, and Athletics " lies before 
me in broad, smooth leaves, fresh from the press, ready 
for the binder's art. The casual glance I was to have 
given it, before announcing its speaking chapters to the 
world of Yale, has grown long, and the leaves have 
turned and turned well into the hours of the night. The 
old college and the new university, — the old days and 
the new days, — the old boys and the new boys, who 
are as dear comrades as the old ones, — the old crews 
and teams, and the later ones, — have passed before 
eyes that grew proud and tender, sad and laughing by 
turns, but confident and grateful all the time. New 
faces, new buildings, new courses, have come since our 
day. We have looked askance at the changes, — we 
have questioned each other under our breath if the 
Yale, as we knew it and believed it should be, was pass- 
ing away, — if the coming of wealth and fine raiment 
had left room for the sterling things we prized most. 

More than anything else to me this book answers the 
questions. It is the old Yale, full of fun, but robust, 



191':964 



vi INTRODUCTION. 

forceful, in earnest, and self-denying to reach results; 
believing that some things are forever worth while, that 
men are to be tried by what they do and are, that all 's 
well with the world, and that the nobility of Yale birth 
compels us to service of country and of her. 

We have wandered about the campus of late years 
and missed much. The old crowd was not at the fence, 
and the fence itself no longer faced the world, but had 
sought the cloister. The kaleidoscope had turned the 
stiff brick row into courts and quadrangles with fac- 
ings of granite and marble. The comfortable seats on 
the turf at Hamilton Park had spruced up into the 
Grand Stand of the Yale Field. The long nines had 
passed away, and the cheers, triumphant in two decades 
of Yale victories, rattled like musketry to the measure 
of a Greek poet. The young fellows about did not 
know us, and it all seemed strange. But this book 
makes me feel at home. However it may be when I 
next see New Haven, to-night I am one of the boys, 
and forever I am sure of the kinship of all Yale men. 

I have no better wish for the Yale Brotherhood, wher- 
ever it may be, — writing sermons, briefs, or prescrip- 
tions ; at the club, or on the ranch or railroad ; sitting 
by the city grate or country fireside, or fanning itself 
in the trenches about Manila, — than that it should find 
the comfort in this book which I have found. 

Gentlemen, — I have the pleasure of introducing to 
you — the authors. 

SAMUEL J. ELDER. 

Boston, April 3, 1S99. 



Contents. 



Page 

INTRODUCTION v 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xv 

THE POINT OF VIEW xvii 

ilart I. 
THE YALE CAMPUS. 

Chapter 

I. As TO MAKING A YaLE MaN I 

II. The Initiation 4 

III. The Sense of Membership 10 

IV. Living only in Yale 13 

V. Running Yale as Senior 19 

VI. Getting out of Yale — and into it again .... 22 

VII. The Fight to Save the Fence 27 

VIII. Living and Working by Classes 35 

IX. In Battell Chapel 43 

X. In the Yale Young Men's Christian Association 50 

XI. The Prom and the Prom Visitor 66 

Xll. Yale Journalism 75 

XIII. The Revival of Debate 92 

XIV. Tap Day and the Society System 99 

XV. The College Dean 120 

XVI. Yale Organization 129 

XVII. A Reunion 134 

XVIII. The Graduate and the University 141 

XIX. Some of the Ways of Yale 145 

XX. The Poor Student's Opportunities 154 

XXI. "For God, for Country, and for Yale" .... 161 



CONTENTS. 



APPENDICES. 
Chapter Page 

I. Yale Customs and Traditions i8i 

II. CONDKNSED HiSTORV OF DEBATING AT YaLE l86 

III. Yale Publications, Past and Present 192 

IV. Yale Societies 204 

V. Condensed Data of Yale's Voluntary, Organized 

Religious Work 210 



^art II. 
THE YALE CLASS ROOMS. 

I. Yale, the College and University 219 

II. Yale College 224 

III. The Scientific School 247 

IV. The Divinity School 256 

V. The Medical School 264 

VI. The Law School 271 

VII. The School of Fine Arts 276 

VIII. The Department of Music 283 

IX. The Graduate School 291 

X. Philosophy 301 

XI. Political and Social Science 306 

XII. History 312 

XIII. Semitic Languages and Biblical Literature . . . 319 

XIV. The Classics 324 

XV. Modern Languages 334 

XVI. English 342 

XVII. Natural and Physical Sciences 350 

XVIII. Mathematics, Engineering, and Astronomy . . . 366 

XIX. The Library 383 

XX. Moneys and Buildings 389 



CONTENTS. 



APPENDICES. 

Chapter Page 

I. Chronology of Yale College 395 

II. Chronology of the Sheffield Scientific School . 406 

III. Chronology of Yale Divinity School 410 

IV. Chronology of the Medical School 414 

V. Chronology of the Graduate School 418 

VI. Chronology of the Law School 420 

VII. Chronology of Yale School of the Fine Arts . . 423 

VIII. Tables of Attendance 424 

IX. Table of Gifts 429 

X. Table of Administrations 445 

XI. Representation by Sections 446 

XII. Record of Appointments 447 



Part III. 

ATHLETICS AT YALE. 

I. What Athletics has meant at Yale 451 

II. Rowing at Yale 458 

III. Football 513 

IV. Basebali 551 

V. Track Athletics 577 

VI. Outside Athletics 621 



List of Illustrations. 

PART I. 

Pack 

President Timothy Dwight Frontispiece 

Professor George J. Brush xvii 

Phelps Gateway 2 

The Old Senior Fence 20 

The Old Fence Corner 27 

Sophomore Fence (Feb. 22, 1899) 33 

Yale Infirmary. — Yale University Club 3S 

Battell Chapel 43 

The Old Library. — Dwight Hall 52 

Alumni Hall. — Theological School Buildings 93 

Skull and Bones Hall 99 

Scroll and Key Hall 102 

Wolf's Head Hall 107 

Junior Society Halls loS 

The Colony no 

The Cloister 112 

St. Anthony's 114 

York Hall 116 

St. Elmo .- . . iiS 

Professor Henry P. Wright 127 

Yale Platoon, Light Battery A., C. V 132 

Class Day Harvard-Yale Ball Game. — Commencement Day 

Procession 134 

A Reunion Group 138 

Scenes on the Campus I47 

College Characters 150 



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PART II. 

Page 

Welch Hall. — Osborn Hall 224 

White and Berkeley Halls 230 

Sheffield Scientific School Buildings 247 

Biological Laboratory 248 

South Sheffield Hall 252 

Sloane'Laboratory. — Kent Laboratory 254 

Professors of the Divinity School (I.) 256 

Professors of the Divinity School (II.) 260 

]\Icdical School 264 

Professors of the Medical School (I.) 266 

Professors of the Medical School (II.) 268 

Law School (as projected) 271 

Professors of the Law School (I.) 272 

Professors of the Law School (II.) 274 

Yale School of the Fine Arts 276 

Professors of the School of Fine Arts 280 

Professors of the Department of Music 285 

Peabody Museum (as projected) 291 

Late President Noah Porter 301 

Professors of the Department of Philosophy 304 

Professors of the Department of Political and Social Science 308 

Professors of the Department of History 314 

The Woolsey Statue 325 

Late William D. Whitney 328 

Professors of the Department of the Classics (L) . • . • 330 

Professors of the Department of the Classics (II.) .... 332 

Professors of the Department of Modern Languages . . . 337 

Professors of the Department of English 343 

Late James D. Dana 351 

Late Othniel C. Marsh. — Residence of Professor Marsh . 353 
Professors of the Department of Natural and Physical 

Sciences (I.) 354 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xiii 

Page 

Professors of the Department of Natural and Physical 

Sciences (II.) 358 

Professor Russell H. Chittenden 360 

Professors of the Department of Natural and Physical 

Sciences (HI.) 362 

Professors of the Department of Mathematics 369 

Professors of the Department of Engineering 374 

Late Hubert A. Newton 378 

Professors of the Department of Astronomy. — The Yale 

Observatory 380 

New Library 384 

Interior of Campus, looking from Durfee, while Old Build- 
ings were standing 391 

Vanderbilt Hall 394 

PART III. 

Professor Eugene L. Richards 452 

Mr. Robert J. Cook. — Yale Boathouse 460 

The Yale Record Crew (1888) 466 

Finish of Yale-Leandcr Race 488 

Crew of 1897 490 

Football Team of 18S1 519 

Football Team of 1884 521 

Football Team of 1890. — Football Team of 1894 .... 526 

Football Team of 1897 532 

Baseball Nine of 1888 556 

Baseball Nine of 1891. — Baseball Nine of 1S95 .... 558 

Baseball Nine of 189S 560 

Track Team of 1895 580 

Some Track Athletes 584 

New Gymnasium. — Old Gymnasium, now Commons . . . 628 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

THE third of the three divisions of this book, the story 
of Yale life on the field and river, is told by one 
who has been a part of it since it has taken its very large 
place in the College and University. The other author 
must here confess his responsibility for that contained in 
the other two divisions, but he cannot claim the credit that 
may attach to certain chapters. Many will recognize in 
the chapter on the Academic Department the researches 
and condensations of Prof. John C. Schwab of the 
Academic Faculty. Prof. Robert N. Corwin of the 
Scientific School Faculty has shown the methods and 
the ideals of that Department, in the chapter on the 
Scientific School. The sketch of the Art School is 
made by its Director, Prof. John F. Weir. In the 
chapter on the Divinity School, the Rev. Herbert J. 
Wyckoff has given his impressions of its spirit and plan 
in teaching theology; while the material for the sketch 
of the Medical School was carefully prepared by Mr. 
John F. Burnham of that Department. In the first 
division of the book, the chapter on Debating comes 
from one who has been leader in its revival at Yale, 
Walter Haven Clark of the Class of 1896. 

It is not possible to specifically acknowledge very 
material and indispensable assistance given by others, 
officers and graduates, who have willingly taken much 



xvi YALE. 

work upon themselves in friendly good-will for the 
book. May their labor not have been in vain. 

For historical references, particularly in the tables, 
constant use has been made of the late William L. 
Kingsley's " Yale College," whose two large volumes 
cover almost everything one can think of down through 
the first three quarters of this century; and Professor 
Baxter's " Yale University," which carries the story of the 
institution down to the end of the Porter Administration 
in a condensed, clear, and most reliable form. Although 
this book is in an entirely different field, acknowledg- 
ment should also be made for the help received from 
the very thoughtful study of Yale prepared by Professor 
Hadley a few years ago. For the data of many of the 
periodicals and some society statistics, Bagg's " Four 
Years at Yale " has been used. 

L. S. W. 




Professor George J. Brush 
Formerly Director of the Sheffield Scientific School 



THE POINT OF VIEW. 

YALE is a place for work. Our old friend of 
remote graduation reluctantly admitted it, when 
he said, " The College would be a pleasant place to live 
in, if it were not for its religious and literary exercises." 
He doubtless succeeded in a measure in removing for 
himself these drawbacks, but it is not much of a hazard 
to say that he was busy ; for few who go to Yale and 
stay are not. The student is held steadily to a reason- 
able measure of mental effort, whether or no he went to 
New Haven to learn from his teachers and his books. 
In his life with his fellows he is held as steadily and 
more relentlessly to some kind or other of labor. 
Otherwise he is not of that life. There are few excep- 
tions to this rule. 

Yale, as the place of work, is primarily the place of 
study and effort and training, and research, too. As to 
just how this workshop of the mind is outfitted, cata- 
logues and reports give specifications in plenty. But 
it may not be without interest, to those who really want 
to know about the place, to see some of those facts, in 
form other than the catalogue, and so as to be under- 
stood by those who do not follow in detail the march of 
the army of education. 

And so this book, in one of its divisions, tells of the sys- 
tems and ideals of education in the different departments 
of the University, and supplements that with something 



xviii YALE. 

about the different teachers and investigators in certain 
general departments of learning, showing how they co- 
operate in the Graduate School, to lead those who are 
pushing out beyond the common confines of a liberal 
education into their chosen fields. Such a sketch is 
bound to be only suggestive, but there is much to 
suggest. 

Those who come to work in Yale must live in Yale, 
and with their work they must have their play; and 
they make for themselves whole departments of Yale 
instruction, learning and teaching how to live together 
so as to get and give the most. So first we go to 
the campus where they live — into the Society of Yale 
— and try to tell you something about that. Then we 
go into their courses and laboratories and museums — 
into the Workshop of Yale. And from work to play, as 
it is in life — to the field, to the river, to the gymnasium, 
where there is another side of the Yale education. 
Upon the relative importance of these three ways of 
teaching young men and of letting young men teach 
one another, it is unnecessary to make declaration. 
In each are its innumerable opportunities, for him 
with strong and open heart and ready mind. 

Yale is very much like other colleges and universities in 
many ways, but in other ways it is unlike any. The 
place has its own character, grown out of two hundred 
years of life, and we have tried to suggest it. Students 
are in many ways like other young men of equal age 
and the same positions in life, and they are very dif- 
ferent in many ways. In the points of identity we are 
not interested. We do not consider them altogether 
strange creatures, neither to be explained nor especially 
located in the Divine economy, as some preach ; but 



THE POINT OF VIEW. xix 

they would be the strangest sort of creatures, if under 
the conditions of campus life they did not make a little 
world of their own, with many points of departure from 
the rest of the world. Some of these we try to show. 
There are possibilities in the influences of that little 
world which may well be matched against powers and 
spheres of influence that fill more columns in the news- 
papers and a hundred times more pages of history. 
Order that httle world as it may be ordered, not only 
in the class-room, but on the Fence, on the field, and 
on the window-seat, and that which goes into many 
columns and pages may therefore be much more worthy 
the record. 

Yale is one of the brotherhood of colleges. Some 
will have it that she is particularly the national institu- 
tion of America; but this is not the place for claims. 
It is enough to say that she is one of those whom God 
has called to light and lead a people. She may, with 
others, bend the higher course of a national force, which 
shall be greater than the world has yet seen. She is set 
among a people whose riches overflow; whose muscles 
are tense ; whose heart is restless with a sense of might 
and responsibility; among whom the thoughtful are 
anxious only that a power without parallel may be wisely 
applied for the blessing of the world. With her allies 
Yale stands up, yet prayerfully, to her godlike work ; 
their sympathy and co-operation she asks, and to them, 
as they labor to the same end, she offers her good-will 
and sends her hopes. Can there be among these co- 
workers any wrangling, or bitterness, or jealousy, or 
suspicion, without an outrage to the feelings of every 
patriot scholar? This book does not speak particularly 
of Yale's relations to Harvard, or Princeton, or Colum- 



XX YALE. 

bia, or Cornell, or to the great universities of the West 
and the South. It is assumed that every rational man 
shall think of these institutions as related by the com- 
mon ties of a high and holy responsibility. Every other 
feeling is so petty, so unworthy, that it can never be 
more than temporary. It is surely not worth the 
record. 

Except in athletics, where the history is complete, 
the body of this book is a story of modern Yale, a his- 
tory of our own times. The past is drawn on only as it 
seemed necessary to set forth the present. But, for 
those who desire a book of reference, chronological 
tables have been arranged, covering not only the history 
of the College and the different departments, but with 
records of attendance and of scholarship, figures of sec- 
tional representations and a table of gifts, marking the 
stream of generosities which made possible the begin- 
ning of Yale and her history. On the side of strictly 
student life, the histories of institutions which are par- 
ticularly characteristic of it have been given in con- 
densed form. These include the history of periodicals 
and publications, of all sorts of societies, of intercol- 
legiate debating contests, the origin of customs, and 
the story of the growth of Yale's voluntary religious 
work. 

Within a little more than a decade, the University 
has come out of the College, numbers of students have 
more than doubled, equipment of great value has been 
added, teachers and instructors to the number of twice 
the old force have been enlisted for the greater work. 
Some of the older men have gone, — lights of Yale, 
leaders in learning. Others have labored on in their 
footsteps to honor and usefulness. And of these things, 



THE POINT OF VIEW. xxi 

this book tries to set down some of those more easy of 
record. 

It is not attempted to characterize the administration 
of the President, under whose leadership these things 
have come about. Since the facts are here, such read- 
ers as the book may have, will easily reach their own 
conclusions. But, while we have been putting these 
facts together, the end is foretold by the President him- 
self of his own work. When the Corporation of Yale 
reluctantly accepted the fact that the second Dwight 
administration would close with the academic year 
1898-99, they put certain things on record which are 
well worth the reproduction here : — 

" The Committee, to which the President's letter of resig- 
nation was referred by the Corporation, respectfully reports, 
recommending the adoption of the following preamble and 
resolutions : 

"Whereas, at a meeting of the Corporation held November 
17th, 1898, the revered and distinguished President of the 
University, in a written communication, laid before it the 
resignation of his office, to take effect at the end of the current 
academic year, in view of the fact that he had reached the age 
of seventy years, and had long set for himself that limit to his 
administration ; 

"And Whereas, urgent representations on the part of the 
Corporation and of its committee have failed to persuade him 
to postpone, as the Fellows would unanimously desire, the date 
at which he proposed that his resignation should take effect ; 

" Therefore, Resolved : That the Corporation, in deference 
to President Dwight's matured decision and the reasons for it 
existing in his own mind, reluctantly accepts his resignation in 
accordance with its terms. 

" Resolved, further : That in the judgment of the Corpora- 
tion, the administration of President Dwight has abundantly 



XXll 



YALE. 



vindicated the wisdom of tliose who, twelve and a half years 
ago, at a critical moment in the history of this institution, called 
him to undertake it, and it v;ill be a memorable period of that 
history in all future time. Entering ujion his office just as the 
transition from College to University became an accomplished 
fact, he has guided the development of the new conditions and 
relations with courage, skill, patience, and resolution. ■ During 
this eventful period, the endowments entrusted to the Corpora- 
tion have more than doubled in amount ; new buildings have 
been erected of more than two millions of dollars in value ; the 
annual income of the Corporation for all purposes has increased 
more than one hundred and fifty per cent ; the number of 
officers and instructors has increased very nearly 125 per cent, 
and the number of students in all departments nearly 135 per 
cent. Nor do these figures more than proportionately indicate 
the advances which have been made in all directions. 

" In the progress thus exhibited, the personal character and 
personal service of President Dwight have been a most signifi- 
cant factor, and with noteworthy disinterestedness and devotion 
he himself has given the University considerably more than 
^100,000, or more than twice the amount of the remuneration 
to which his office was entitled. 

" The members of the Corporation, in this retrospect, mindful 
withal of the many years in which Dr. Dwight was a diligent, a 
scholarly, and a sympathetic instructor, and of the grateful remem- 
brance in which he is held by his students, find it difficult ade- 
quately to express their appreciation of his efforts in behalf of 
the various departments of the University or their personal 
regard for him. They desire, however, to place upon their 
records, and to give to the alumni and the public, at least this 
testimony to what he has accomplished, in justice to themselves, 
to the several Faculties, and to the general feeling of the city 
and the commonwealth, in the midst of which he has lived and 
wrought a great public service with eminent integrity, fidelity, 
and success. Into the well-earned retirement which he has 



THE POINT OF VIEW. xxiii 

chosen there will follow him the heartfelt wish of them all that 
his remaining days may be tranquil, that his life may be pro- 
longed, that he may richly enjoy every possible recompense of 
an honored and a useful career." 

It was a remarkable coincidence that the same meet- 
ing of the Corporation which was called upon to hear 
the reading of the President's resignation should have 
also been informed that he who had more than any 
other man made the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale 
University had felt it necessary to decline further active 
service. This is how the Fellows voiced their feelings 
concerning the significance of the close of the Brush 
administration : — 

" This body receives and accepts, with profound regret, the 
resignation of Prof. George J. Brush as Director of the Sheffield 
Scientific School. In so doing, however, it desires to put on 
record its regard for him as a scholar, as a teacher, and as a 
man, and furthermore its appreciation of the great work which 
he has accomplished during his long term of service. From 
the date of his induction into his professorship in 1855, he has 
given himself up, with untiring energy, to the cause of education 
in this institution, and has brought to its service both scientific 
and business qualifications of the highest order. It is to his 
unwearied and unselfish efforts that the department of the Uni- 
versity of which he has been the head owes largely its develop- 
ment and prosperity. The success that has crowned his efforts 
is as visible to all as it is gratifying to us, and must be to him ; 
for it is seldom the case that it is permitted to any one to wit- 
ness during his own lifetime results so conspicuous of ability, 
energy, and unswerving devotion to a high ideal. The Scien- 
tific School, which owes so much to him for its present flourish- 
ing condition, is a monument of his labors that speaks more 
strongly than can any words of ours ; yet we should feel that 
we had been unfaithful to our own convictions, if we did not 



xxiv YALE. 

ourselves bear testimony to the unselfishness, the zeal, and the 
efificiency which he has uniformly displayed during his more than 
forty years' connection with the University. Our good wishes 
will continue to follow him in his retirement, attended with the 
hope and belief that the inspiration which has enabled him to 
accomplish so great results with means so inadequate will remain 
with those who succeed to his cares and responsibilities." 

For Professor Brush a natural successor has been 
found, and the beginning of the directorate of Prof. 
Russell H. Chittenden has promised a future consistent 
with a splendid past. As for the Presidency, the way in 
which the alumni and the country at large have viewed 
the task of selecting a successor to President Dwight, 
has shown a general recognition of an opportunity for 
Yale and for education which it is hard, if at all pos- 
sible, to parallel. 

And so an era in Yale has closed. That is the point 
of view. And how is it with Yale as she reaches the 
close of this era? She has changed many ways and 
forms of life; indeed, is constantly experimenting. 
While the plates for this book were being cast, the 
ancient and honorable society of Phi Beta Kappa took 
the almost revolutionary step of refusing to be alto- 
gether bound by the marking book in the selection of its 
members ; the Faculty diminished by one half the great 
January feast of the beautiful : in more mundane matters, 
the " Record " editors declared that only Seniors were 
competent trustees of their paper, and " News " editors 
sought to save life by giving each contributor only a part 
of the paper to prepare, and not all of it, thereby changing 
immemorial custom. And may this healthy restlessness 
continue, no matter with how much disadvantage to the 
historian. 



THE POINT OF VIEW. xxv 

The changes that mean much are the slower ones ; 
and by telling of these and of the points which do not 
change, which mean the more, we hope that the pages 
on the Campus, which follow, will somewhat suggest 
the manner of life and the state of health of Yale, as she 
comes to her two hundredth birthday. 



PART I 



THE YALE CAMPUS 



By lewis SHELDON WELCH 



YALE. 

• 

CHAPTER I. 

AS TO MAKING A YALE MAN. 

MR. JOHN KENDRICK BANGS, according to 
his report to a learned society in New Haven, 
has a young son who always asks his father to bring 
back to him, from whatever point his travels take him, 
a peculiar product of the place. Just before Mr. Bangs 
took a trip to the South, two years or so ago, he received 
the usual final orders from his boy, and obeyed by car- 
rying back an alligator to the banks of the Hudson. 
When Mr. Bangs started a little later for New Haven 
to deliver a lecture before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, 
the usual parting conversation with the youth took this 
form : — • 

" Where are you going, Papa.-* " 

"To New Haven, my boy." 

"What do they make at New Haven, Papa.?" 

"Yale men, my son." 

"Bring me one, Papa." 

Because he already had an alligator, and for other 
reasons, the father declined to accept this commission. 

Mr. Bangs, besides commending himself to his audi- 
ence, suggested a study, which he did not further 
develop that night. Its treatment might have partially 



2 YALE. 

come under his subject of the evening — a study of 
humor — but the best of it would not have found place 
there. A i^lain talc may set in order some of the 
points in the making of a Yale man. 

The writer has in mind one of the sons of Yale 
who used to like to study out the relations of the place 
to the boys who went into it and the " boys " who keep 
a place in it till snows of years crown them and the 
three or four-score mark is past. This particular 
young fellow used to say that he woke up to the idea 
of being a part of the place called Yale, one night in 
the Fall term of Freshman year as he walked across 
the Green. It was a little after the close of the foot- 
ball season, and about the beginning of that other 
strenuous period, examination week. The youth never 
satisfactorily explained the significance of time and 
place. But some boys get that feeling in some such 
definite way and others have no definite ideas on the 
subject at all. It is worth while speaking of it, just 
to notice what came before and after it. 

This youth was about the usual kind of a Freshman, 
and could not claim to have seen or done or been any- 
thing out of the ordinary. He had gone to the Col- 
lege school at his own home, and so it was his first bit 
of foreign residence, of association with any place but 
his own town, and with any immediate friends but 
those of his own neighborhood. 

Like thousands of other boys he had been told about 
Yale, and had read about it, and looked forward to the 
time when he should go there. Like most of the 
others of those thousands, he felt a perfect stranger 
when he reached New Haven and first pressed his feet 
against the sand and the dock-weeds of the historic 




Phelps Gateway 



AS TO MAKING A YALE MAN. 3 

square. There were friends at the College, young 
men he had known at home; but what were they to 
him now, or he to them? This was a different world. 

He had begun to live in this new world with reason- 
able dispatch, not declining the opportunities to learn 
the place and the men who made the place. Let us 
go with him through a few of these opportunities, and 
let him tell us how they made him feel and how he 
finally came to be a Yale man, by going through col- 
lege and then by getting out of it and then by getting 
back into Yale in a rational way. It will be a ram- 
bling canter through the course, but afterwards we will 
come back and see more of special parts of it. 



CHAPTER 11. 

THE INITIATION. 

THE associations of Yale began to be very real to 
this Freshman on his first night in New Haven, 
when the Juniors, whom he conceived as a set of 
deities of a kindly disposition, had marched along 
under his window, giving the Yale cheer with the 
words of his own class at the end. 

It was an invitation to come out to the Hopkins 
Grammar School lot and become part of his first class 
formation, for that was the night of the "rush." In 
the "old days" (fifteen years ago more or less) this 
rush was really a rush. Present day formalities are, 
comparatively, the most gentle ceremonies. Then 
Sophomores and Freshmen met in a truly glorious 
strife. It was not in modern extended order. It was 
an attack after the old tactics, intensified a thousand 
fold. Each class was in the most perfect sardine for- 
mation. The members did not hold each other's 
arms; they put their arms around each other's bodies. 
They backed each other up so perfectly, that the 
different files not only stepped together, but had to 
breathe together, — that is, if it was before the meet- 
ing with the enemy and there was opportunity to 
breathe at all. 

It was called a "push rush." It cemented the 
classes. When these two bodies of men, knit together 



THE INITIATION. 5 

as tightly as woven cloth, moving slowly, but just as 
fast as a hundred or more young men can move in 
absolute unison, with no space between them, met 
their "friends the enemy" coming in the same for- 
mation from the opposite direction, there was at 
once an actual and physical unity most cohesive, in 
each of those two classes. 

This Freshman we have picked out was in the 
second row of his Class when the prearranged col- 
lision came. He stationed himself behind a future 
Captain of the University football team, and closely 
enveloped his sturdy form. The first line, and most 
of the second line, and all of the third line were 
formed very much of this same football material, 
and the same was true of the front ranks of the 
Sophomores, as far as they had football material to 
go around. 

They did not have much of that kind of material, 
and in those days of royal, man-hating class jealousies 
we of the Freshman Class used to say that they had 
little of any kind of material. As individuals we 
were fond of many of them, but as a class we truly 
despised them. But they were together, those Sopho- 
mores that night, and when the collision came, as we 
have said, this Freshman found himself in the midst of 
amalgamated forces, and he was made at once to feel 
not only that he was a part of his class, but undoubt- 
edly that he was many parts of the Class, and of the 
College, which was present in full ranks on the old 
Grammar school lot. 

And so he had had this fine old heroic dose of Yale 
organization. And immediately thereafter he had joined 
again the bruised and sore members of his class around 



6 YALE. 

the wrestling ring, and stayed with them through the 
fence rush. This was a magnificent example of a fight, 
which lacked all the elements of personal malice. 
The simple law of the fence rush was that the Fresh- 
men form two or three abreast on the sidewalk just 
in front of the Grammar School, and then keep to- 
gether on the sidewalk from there to Elm Street, a 
distance of one short block. They were given no 
rights as combatants, although some incidental privi- 
leges of that estate were always appropriated. They 
were supposed — ■ and when we say that they were 
supposed, we mean that there was a common law to 
that effect, more binding than Federal statute — 
simply to keep on that sidewalk close to the fence. If 
two or three Sophomores literally lit upon them and 
tried to throw them into the street, they were simply 
to hold on to the fence until either their arms or the 
fence or the connection between them was ingloriously 
broken by superior force. When any of these things 
happened, they expected to find themselves out in the 
street. If on their feet, they were lucky. The atten- 
tions of the Sophomores were no evidence of ill-will, 
but simply a definite proposition on their part that 
the Class of Eighty-eight was superior to the Class of 
Eighty-nine. 

There was no inclination in that proceeding to 
assume either the defensive or offensive attitude, in 
the usual ways of manly man. The Freshmen simply 
returned to the sidewalk and the fence with all speed, 
and continued the progression toward Elm Street. If 
they had been wise, they had put their hats in their 
pockets or still more obscure portions of their habili- 
ments, and had provided themselves with old and 



THE INITIATION. 7 

tough coats, turned inside out. The attentions to the 
dress of the Freshmen on the part of the Sophomores 
did not carry reciprocity privileges, but these were 
sometimes claimed with success. 

It was a glorious struggle. Three or four of the 
lustiest Freshmen would gather about some very strong 
fence post and hold on to it and each other. By 
that act of course they defied the whole Sophomore 
class. It was an organized effort to do what self- 
respecting Freshmen were supposed to do if self- 
respecting Sophomores could not stop them, — that 
is, to stay on the sidewalk. Flank and rear attacks 
on this group would generally result in a delightful 
scrimmage, followed by a general and an acceler- 
ated movement toward the street, which ended well 
beyond the middle of the highway, usually with the 
downfall of about three-fourths of the attacking and 
defending parties. Sometimes the post went with 
the group. 

This particular experience, of which I am writing, 
resulted in the levelling of two entire fences and the 
weakening of most of the rest of the line. It was one 
of the last fence rushes that Yale ever saw. The push 
rush went out two years later at the gentle request of 
the Faculty, and the same year marks the last of the 
fierce fence rushes. The custom lingered in a modified 
form until 1892. 

Of course the Freshmen kept staggering back to the 
sidewalk, moving on foot by foot along the Fence, and 
they would not give it up until they reached Elm 
Street. It was impossible for them to always keep on 
the walk, and it was impossible for the Sophomores to 
prevent them from staying on it a large part of the 



8 YALE. 

time and reaching the end of their journey, dirty, 
tattered, tired, jubilant. 

They gave a pretty good cheer for sub-Freshmen 
after the push rush. They gave a good deal better 
one when they came to Elm Street. And then a good 
many of them, happier than they had been since they 
came to this strange place called New Haven, went 
over to the corner of Chapel and College Streets, to 
the old Fence, the smooth rail Fence, and hovered 
around that sacred institution, thinking that somehow 
or other they had a right to be at least near it, for they 
had done something as a class ; that is, they had fought 
hard. There were warlike Juniors on hand who bade 
them seize their heritage, saying that it was now due, 
for there are many men on the Yale campus, as in 
every other station in life, who spend most of their 
energies in making trouble. One may be thankful 
that there are also peace-makers. Others of the 
majestic upper classes came to them and bade them 
go quietly home and get into no trouble. And this 
these Freshmen did. 

There is still the Grammar School Rush, so called, 
on the night before college opens, but it is confined to 
a rally of the Freshman class, and a series of wrestling 
matches between the strong men of the two classes. 
It shakes the newcomers together a bit, but it is not 
as thorough an initiation into the great society of Yale 
as the " barbaric " ways of old. 

The Sheff Freshmen (by which is meant the Fresh- 
men of the Scientific School) have a similar set of 
wrestling matches on the first Saturday night of the 
term in some vacant lot on Orange Street or Whitney 
Avenue. The rally and marching of the classes, par- 



THE INITIATION. 9 

ticularly of the Juniors — for Sheff has a three year 
course and no Sophomore class — is a rather more 
formidable ceremony than the gathering of the clans 
on the Hopkins Grammar School lot, and in former 
years this battle had many of the heroic features of 
the old academic ceremonies, like "shirting." 



CHAPTER III. 

THE SENSE OF MEMBERSHIP. 

OF all the other usual class experiences which 
this Freshman had gone through, none quite 
so quickly as this had made him feel at home at Yale. 
But all of them together, — ■ the shirt rush at the field, 
which is now but a memory; the sitting together in 
Chapel; the class meetings for election of officers, 
when all the athletic gods of the place spoke, and we 
listened like mortals who had been admitted to Olympus 
for a few brief moments ; the sad gathering for the 
passing of resolutions for one of the best who had 
dropped from the ranks; the recitation-room and the 
class-room at Dwight Hall ; some talking with upper 
class men about Sophomore societies; the Eating 
Club — these all had brought a comfortable feeling of 
being no longer a stranger. 

Of course he went to the great football games and 
cheered there, and that seemed to be like subscribing 
to a little more stock. Lamar had made his run and 
snatched a victory that fall that seemed to have 
already been won for Yale by the almost heroic efforts 
of freshly broken youngsters, and so in desperation all 
Yale had been drawn together, and there was much 
of the bitter-sweet to share in common. But, for all 
these and many other pleasant things, like the begin- 
ning of friendships, if something had happened to take 
that young Freshman from Yale at almost any time in 



THE SENSE OF MEMBERSHIP. ii 

the first two months, it would not have been an irrepa- 
rable loss to him. If such fate had crossed his path 
any time after the close of the fall term, it would 
have seemed almost more than a boy could bear. 

As I said, this young fellow never knew how it hap- 
pened. I presume a Glee club group was sauntering 
across the green, singing a Yale song which he was 
just beginning to love. He said the word " Yale " 
came into his mind, "or," he added, "came into me 
and thrilled me from my head to my feet. It came 
over me then, for the first time, what this connection 
was which I had made. I turned around and looked at 
the place, — saw the long row of lights in the old 
Brick Row, and felt as if I had some sort of a kinship 
with the men who were studying around those lamps, 
or smoking, chatting, singing, on those window-seats. 
The Chapel clock struck the three-quarters, — badly 
out of tune, as usual, — and clanked in the hard air 
against the walls of Durfee. But it was the Yale 
clock striking; it was striking for me as one of the 
* Yale men. ' " 

Youthful sentiment a good deal overdone, you may 
say. But the writer does not ask any one to endorse 
his own experiences. It is his particular business to 
set them down here. He does not choose other men's 
experiences, because he knows less about them. The 
autobiography may not be of any particular interest to 
any one else, but it 's honest autobiography. 

I was very young then and worshipful of the ath- 
lete, and I thought of the eleven which had fought 
so valiantly that fall and of the teams which should go 
out of the old Gym when another athletic season 
opened. The thought gave me much the feeling of 



12 YALE. 

the healthy American when he sees his troops going 
to the front. I thought of those who had been here 
before; how much they had left of fame to the place, 
and this I could share. I was joined to Yale, and 
Yale had been gathering her forces, and adding 
strength to strength, since long years before America 
was a nation. 

This feeling grows very peculiarly. At first one 
enters the old place as from the outside, and feels 
wonderfully grateful, as for something added, some- 
thing new and greater in his life. Later it becomes 
one's life. Once more it may nearly go out of that 
life, and still again it takes its place — this time its 
true place as an integral part of character-making 
experience. 

The last stage comes at a longer or shorter time 
after graduation. The time of absorption in Yale is 
of course the time one is living in Yale. Let us fol- 
low it along with more or less care, taking the trip 
through the academic course as the most typical. 



CHAPTER IV. 

LIVING ONLY IN YALE. 

BY the end of Freshman year one has finished those 
repressing experiences which were intended by 
the inscrutable wisdom of tradition to take all vain- 
glory out of men. They accomplished well their object. 
The process made youth feel that they were at the outset 
nothing; and that it depended entirely upon themselves 
whether they ever should be anything. Then comes 
at once the year when one must himself apply those 
disciplinary measures, to which before he had been 
subject. This does him some harm and the men under 
him much good. In the days of hazing, now gone by, 
both effects were much more marked than in these 
times of the simple denial of privileges, like cane carry- 
ing before Washington's birthday, dancing at the Prom, 
and sitting on the Fence. 

The old ways made on the whole a disagreeable 
creature of the Sophomore. As Yale individuals, you 
and I in our second academic year were obnoxious 
people. The sense of lordship over the Freshman class 
and the fact that those above us began to take us into 
the privileges of the Yale world, gave us a feeling of im- 
portance that was most trying to others. We felt our- 
selves full-fledged Yale men ; felt that we were beginning 
to know quite a good deal. Our hands were set against 
our neighbors; the Juniors had no great use for us; the 



14 YALE. 

Seniors were on too great heights to heed much for us. 
The Freshmen feared us — happy thought ! 

But we became absorbed in the new world ; and 
though we grew unpleasant to others we still were 
doing some work, making ourselves a part of the place. 
This process went very speedily on. How swift are the 
transitions and the successes and the rewards of college 
life ! The term is over before we hardly realize it is 
under way. The race for the prize, the competition for 
the team, the struggle for an editorship, fiercely main- 
tained, is rushed speedily to a close. 

There are some things which make Junior year better 
than any other. One is firmly established in the Yale 
family, and he is a great deal more than a year older 
than in Sophomore year. Development is very fast, and 
there dawns the consciousness of ignorance which brings 
appreciation of those about one who do know some- 
thing. Yale has begun to seem a very, very pleasant 
place. Friends have worn off their first strangeness, 
have exploited their weaknesses as well as their virtues, 
and begun to draw near you. 

As members of the College, of the University, you 
begin to feel that Yale is already trusting you. Re- 
sponsibilities come. The election of the Junior prome- 
nade committee, the guardians of the great social week 
at Yale, is a feature of almost the first week of Junior 
year. It is a swift rush of time from then to the 
election of new boards on the papers. To be sure that 
is far along in February, but what is the fall term, with 
the football season, and examinations, more than a day 
and a night? And what is January, with the Prom 
girl coming and going in it? 

Junior year is called jolly, care-free, but it has only 



LIVING ONLY IN YALE. 15 

been tasted, when these duties come, and, while they 
sober, they give satisfaction. 

On the side of College work, the attractive point 
is that one is then first appealed to on the ground of 
his intellectual ambitions and passions, or particular 
inclinations. These young men really do want to know 
something in particular fairly well. 

The year would be voted the pleasantest of all ex- 
cept for one thing. Time is hurrying toward the last 
honors and rewards of college life. Senior society 
elections are ahead. Half of the class are hoping for 
some share in the honors of tap-day. They cannot 
altogether get it out of their minds that it may come, 
and with this the fear that it may not come. The men 
who have taken some position, by which even a modest 
man may know that he may be expected to receive an 
election, will comfortably settle for themselves, wonder- 
ing who among their friends will go with them to one 
particular society rather than to another, and who may 
be left out. 

It is, on the whole, all taken in good part, and there 
is much every-day manliness, and much sweet charitable- 
ness, and wholesome, broad friendship gains in strength. 
Yet, things are uncertain, and fear and hope and sus- 
picion do steal across these sunny, careless skies of 
college life. These peculiar societies with the rewards 
which they administer, and the disappointments which 
they inflict, the happiness and the sadness of them, and 
their errors, are all a kind of foretaste of the life which 
is now getting nearer to the college man. 

Men cry, " Enlarge these societies ; if they are so 
much to those who are in them, why not make them as 
much to more?" Perhaps some day a prophet will 



1 6 YALE. 

arise who can give men in multitudes what now it is 
possible to impart to only a few together. Perhaps some 
order will arise whereby it will be easy to exclude the 
principle of honor and of special distinction ; but until 
such a day does come the Senior societies will be 
accounted part only of the common order, and an 
unusually effective illustration of many good points in 
universal practices. 

If you have not lost the slender thread of the argu- 
ment you will remember that we are trying to follow the 
Yale man, and the making of him. Certainly in this 
intense Junior year, he is more than ever absorbed by 
his college, which is altogether his life. He may have 
begun — though very few begin thus early — to travel 
on the long, laborious path that will lead him to some 
professional or peculiarly intellectual goal, and so an- 
ticipation of the things which are before him may be 
working into his life, and he, through them, slowly 
working out into the life of the world. But unless this 
is so, or he be unhappily entangled in love, he is really 
conscious of very little that is going on outside the 
domain of Yale. When he travels in vacation he is 
on the lookout for Yale men, or when he meets and 
makes friends outside the college it is two to one they 
are from some other college. 

He is beginning to get a very distorted view of the 
relation of things, — there is no question about that, — 
but he is enjoying life. Things are just snapping. His 
nature is full of fine thirsts, and he is constantly satisfy- 
ing them. He rises to the most enthusiastic worship 
of the great minds, which he now really begins to 
touch. He is learning in clear lines philosophies and 
systems, and men who are masters of them. How hope- 



LIVING ONLY IN YALE. 17 

lessly blind are the statesmen and the cabinets and con- 
gresses of the world, who fall down in stupid ignorance 
of fundamental truths ! 

The athletes of older days were heroic, but the 
achievem.ents of individuals of his day show almost 
superhuman organization and system. He is proud to 
be in college with such men as the captains and the 
players of his time. Barring breakfast and the restric- 
tion of Chapel, meal-taking is a mental and spiritual 
refreshment. There is not anything quite so delightful 
as an evening at his eating club. 

And there is Prom. All the glory thereof is a part 
of his life. The beauty of the Republic is here fore- 
gathering, because the Juniors, that is, his class, rise to 
the opportunities of a most superior promenade. The 
arrangements for that year surpassed in their general 
scope and management of details anything of which 
the social managers of former years dreamed. That 
rule about the order of hacks going down Meadow 
Street is a piece of legislation of unique importance. 

With an entirely unusual spirit and much original 
ability, the new editorial boards have taken up their 
duties. Here are innovations which publishers are 
beginning to inquire about. This policy of the "News" 
is going to work a revolution in college s^sntiment, and 
make a different place of Yale altogether. The " Lit." 
has at last set a real standard. The college is read- 
ing the " Courant" again, and the " Record " is actually 
laughable. 

These convictions are all as they should be. If there 
are those whose experiences are not consistent with 
them, let them look to their health. Mayhap, they 
have not the same athletic victories to stimulate them. 



i8 YALE. 

Let them unburden their souls to an Adee, or be so 
fortunate as to sit near a Curtiss in the grand-stand 
when the score begins to turn against Yale. If in any 
other respects that which is under the auspices of their 
class does not furnish ground for this satisfaction and 
enthusiasm and exhilaration let them reform things. 
Then will their class become more than right, and 
they who made it so will have the more to make them 
happy Juniors. 



CHAPTER V. 

RUNNING YALE AS SENIOR. 

AND SO, quite gloriously and hopefully, the Yale 
man comes into the estate of Senior year. 
Then he possesses the land. The years before have 
altogether absorbed him into the Yale life. As a 
Senior, he absorbs the Yale life. In his own con- 
sciousness he is that life, or, by all odds, the very 
largest and most important part of it. His activities, 
in whatever direction they have gradually developed, 
are now manifold, and absorbing to a degree to which 
he very likely will not attain in after life. 

It may be that he is studying " snappy " courses 
and devoting nine-tenths of his time to the enjoyment 
of life; but he is doing that in a more diverse and 
consistent and absorbing way than he is ever likely to 
again. If he be an industrious college man he is cer- 
tainly doing a great variety of things, and of course 
generally doing them from the position of commanding 
officer. He has all sorts of connections, editorial, 
social, athletic, and literary. It is not at all surpris- 
ing that the thought grows in these boys, or men, that 
they are carrying Yale. They are. 

Through it all, the best things of college life are 
coming to their fruit, — friendship, sense of individual 
power, the fine enthusiasms of the campus, association 
with the sympathetic, human, manly members of the 
Faculty. 



20 YALE. 

Something has been said about the disturbance of 
society elections in Junior year. The effect of this 
disturbance has sometimes been projected well into 
Senior year. There is less of that effect now — indeed, 
little of it. Those in and out of societies mingle 
freely in all kinds of class enterprise. There is a 
better philosophy, a truer view of the situation. A 
society election is recognized much less as the sine 
q7ta non of a college course. It is a fortunate inci- 
dent of the course for him to whom it has come. 
Those to whom it has not come find more and more 
compensations. 

An able, manly fellow who graduated within the 
last two years has first expressed, as far as I have 
seen, the conditions of Senior year as it is nowadays 
lived by the wholesome men of the class. He himself 
did not receive one of the Senior society elections and 
his omission in the list has been made the text of more 
than one sharp rebuke for the societies. The theme 
of his class oration was the supreme value of what a 
man has in himself, and its infinite superiority to any- 
thing he may acquire, — a good, healthy theme for a 
Class oration. What he said of particular application 
to this Senior year at Yale ran thus: — 

" If the general effect of any college education is to empha- 
size the value of individual effort, this Yale Course especially 
shows in what line that effort should be directed. It serves 
to correct the popular theory of success. The conditions 
which exist here, during the first three years, are similar in a 
measure to those of the actual world. There are prizes and 
rewards and distinctions. An intense competition for these 
begins from the day we enter as Freshmen. 

" But in the fourth year comes a cessation from this striving. 



RUNNING YALE AS SENIOR. 21 

Before taking up the fiercer struggle of the real world, we stop 
a moment and have a chance to get our true bearings. Senior 
year is a platform raised above the past and future from which 
we are enabled to see things in their right relations. The cur- 
tain is drawn aside, that calmly and without prejudice we may 
estimate the difference between true and false success. 

" For what do we value a man in this Senior year, this final 
analysis ? Not for his prizes and rewards. Some one among 
us may have won the highest distinction attainable and be lit- 
tle honored as he is viewed from this vantage ground. 

When freed from the artificial restraints imposed by the com- 
petition for external prizes, we do not honor a man for what he 
has gotten, but for what he is. 

" This Senior year shows the insignificance of getting as com- 
pared with being. An inexorable force compels the public 
opinion of the Class to rank its members not according to their 
acquisitions, but their worth. We grant a distinct superiority 
to manhood. The members of the Class with a vital power 
within themselves form a society above the societies. They 
constitute a Phi Beta Kappa of Character. And from this col- 
lege experience we may reasonably infer that when society at 
large stops without bias to put an estimate on us, it will not 
be on the basis of what we have gotten, which is incidental, 
but of what we are, which is intrinsic." 

It is trite enough to say how speedily this year burns 
itself out, — how quickly the sad, full days of June are 
on. Perhaps it is just as well not to go through all 
this Commencement business again. Those are rather 
lumpy days to go back into. I know if I ever went 
over it again it would be very hard to find me after 
I had taken my diploma. This good-bying does no 
good to anybody. 



CHAPTER VI. 

GETTING OUT OF YALE — AND INTO IT AGAIN. 

BUT it is all over at last, and perhaps you say, 
" Here is your full-fledged Yale man out in the 
world." This is generally far from true. 

It may be that he sails out of this port into life's 
sea on an even keel, and steadily and slowly makes 
his voyage, his course consistently projecting all the 
real influences of college life, and drawing them in 
gradually and surely, to make an effective part of his 
character as a man of business, of letters, of law, of 
divinity; as a man among men, as a neighbor, as a 
friend. Happy he is if this can be truly said of him. 
There are some exasperatingly even temperaments 
who, I have no doubt, pursue such a course. 

Most Yale men have what may — with all propriety 
— be called the devil's own time, at just this stage. 
Those next few months, that year, perhaps several 
years after that time, have been called the disillusion- 
izing period. That is a sad term with some truth in 
it and a great quantity of pernicious error. Even if 
one calls it the period of readjustment to normal, uni- 
versal experiences and conditions, the term is often 
taken to mean more than it ought to mean. 

A man who has been through college ought to retain 
the best of it. If one goes out from Yale with the 
idea that he must then learn to be "practical," by 
which is generally meant that theories and ideals must 



GETTING OUT OF YALE. 23 

be relegated principally to academic memories, — why 
did he ever go to Yale, — that is, why did he live 
there? There might have been many good reasons for 
studying there, but that is a different matter. If a 
man goes out from college willing to leave his enthu- 
siasms and ideals as soon as they clash with what 
are called practical conditions, he has literally thrown 
away the best ammunition he has gathered. 

The man is equally a fool who is willing, as soon as 
he has left the ideal conditions of campus life, to 
believe that he has ceased to meet men who are ready 
to meet him on the best planes on which men can 
meet; who has not accepted his college education as 
teaching him that men are most to be moved from 
their better sides, that they prefer to be appealed to 
on grounds of a little clearer reason or higher truth 
than those to which they are used ; who does not 
believe that in this land of ours the best rewards in 
any line, either direct or final, will come to him who 
stands sturdily and cheerfully for what he knows is 
truth, and for what he feels is right. 

I once heard a young woman say, as she came away 
from high school graduating ceremonies, that she loved 
to go to them and listen to the orators and the essay- 
ists, because of the spirit with which they attacked 
all the dire problems of creation. She called it an 
"uncrushed spirit." An uncrushed, uncrushable spirit 
seems to me the best legacy of a well-ordered course 
at Yale College. 

But we were talking of those few months or years 
immediately following graduation, when one passes 
out of a life surrounded with ideal creations and 
goes into life as it is. It goes without saying that 



24 YALE. 

there must be a change. Our Yale man heard very 
much in the lecture-room and read more of the condi- 
tions of life's problems, but he does not know them; 
and it takes a strong man not to feel utter povverless- 
ness when he begins to seriously consider into what 
particular collection of those altogether strange condi- 
tions he will steer the little craft, whose lines are his 
heart's hopes, and whose masts and spars and sails he 
has cut at such infinite pains. 

And with this honest doubt and confusion comes, if 
one will let it come, an overwhelming sense of loneli- 
ness. There is for many a feeling of loss in the time 
immediately following graduation, whose keenness it 
is hard to overstate. The end — the final closing for 
all time — of that life on the campus seems beyond 
accepting. The separation from those of kindred 
tastes and hopes and ideals and the clash with the 
coldest, hardest facts of the workaday world make a 
shock that leaves one for the time weak of spirit. It 
is hard to still believe the world a friend and the men 
you meet good fellows. College seems to have tricked 
you and the world to offer no excuse for effort and no 
ground for hope. 

There is great temptation to be a cynic, which is to 
cease to be a Yale man. This is the time of which we 
spoke when one may come so near to losing all con- 
nection with his college. The danger is not for all, 
but it is for many. It is for a longer or a shorter time, 
according to temperament. 

It surely sooner or later draws to its close, if one 
keeps a stout heart and learns to be humble. He need 
give up nothing but some measure of his own igno- 
rance. How blind he was ! He at last finds many a 



GETTING OUT OF YALE. 



25 



fellow sailor travelling according to his own precious 
chart. These are good fellows he is with. He gets 
on his keel again and learns how to look out for the 
storms. He does not give up the idea of carrying all 
the sail he can, but he does not try to fight with 
nature. He is not heading in just the direction which 
he first took. He believes in currents that favor him 
rather than in fighting when one need not fight. 
Again he looks on the world as his friend. The faith 
of youth, which was once threatened, has won him the 
victory. 

And so he goes back reverently and sanely to the 
place where that faith was born and nourished. He 
begins consciously to draw on the strength there. 
Once he became a part of Yale; now Yale has become 
a part of him. 

Just after graduation I sometimes listened to ad- 
dresses at alumni dinners and smiled at their enthusi- 
asm. In my wisdom I said they meant nothing. It 
was only a dallying in the pleasant places of memory. 
There was nothing that had to do with a real present. 

A year or two ago, I went to the general dinner of 
the Alumni, and heard a sturdy alumnus, who had 
been more than a quarter of a century out on life's sea, 
speak, with his heart in his words, of the great strength 
that came to him, and to his classmates, as they felt 
that they were a part of the brotherhood of Yale; that 
men whom they loved and admired had an interest in 
them; that there were friends ready to reach out a 
hand if they failed ; that there were voices ready with 
a "Well done," when their part was played as it should 
be played. Young as I was, I had a conviction of the 
truth of what he was saying, and I had that convic- 



26 YALE. 

tion reinforced as I watched the faces of str.ong, old 
men. 

Thus, as the years go on, one may really come into 
the heritage of Yale. It is not only the cherishing of 
the memory of those ideal years, but it is a real draw- 
ing of strength from the associations of the institution. 
One feels the fellowship of the saints and the goodly 
devils of two hundred years. He looks to those who 
hold the present trust of the life of Yale in their 
hands, not with envy, but with hope and with encour- 
agement. He sees in old and ever young Yale the 
possibilities of yet undreamed power and usefulness in 
the years that are to come, and gladly does what little 
he may to prepare her for her future. And the closer 
he keeps to his Alma Mater and the more he does for 
her, the more she continues to do for him. 

And now, if you think it worth your while, look 
with me at some of the institutions of this place called 
Yale. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE FIGHT TO SAVE THE FENCE. 

IN the spring of 1888, the Rev. Joseph H. Twichell 
of Hartford brought into a meeting of the Yale 
Corporation a strongly worded request to save the Yale 
Fence, This request came from the undergraduates of 
the University, in solemn mass meeting assembled, and 
from no less than twenty-one hundred graduates in vari- 
ous and nearly all parts of the world. 

It was the report of a gift of one hundred odd thou- 
sand dollars for a building on the Fence corner, that 
had started this remarkable petition. Whether the 
condition of location was really definitely made by the 
donor, or whether it was possible to reach and influence 
the donor, or to move the governors of hungry Yale, 
were points on which students and graduates had diverse 
opinions or no opinions at all. Of one thing they 
were sure, that there was hardly a spot in New Haven 
quite so attractive as the corner of Chapel and College 
Streets. 

That corner had a border of low fence with two 
round rails. Those round rails had some paint on them, 
but most of that which had once and again at long 
intervals been given them was scattered in infinitesimal 
portions among the trousers of generations of Yale men. 
Back of that fence was a stretch of bare ground, trod by 
the sons of Eli from time immemorial. Over all were 
the arching elms, which had withstood the bonfires of 



28 YALE. 

victories from at least as far back as the first race won 
against Harvard, when Mr. Twichell himself pulled an 
oar; which had shaded innumerable concourses both 
formal and impromptu ; which had sifted the harmonies 
and moonbeamed the sentiments of a thousand summer 
evenings ; which had guarded the home-comings of the 
sons of Yale from the time they first sat in fifties or in 
hundreds, with trembling and great joy, on the newly 
won rails, till they gathered feeble and few, at fourscore, 
for their last reunion. 

That was the kind of spot which the Yale youth of 
eighteen or the Yale youth of eighty did not propose 
to surrender without a fight in the last ditch. The 
mechanical equipments of the Academical Department, 
the ordinary three-dimension problem of teaching large 
numbers of men, meant nothing to them compared with 
the meaning of the fence. Land was valuable, but land 
could be bought. Not all the money in the world could 
buy a Yale Fence. New Haven was growing and Chapel 
Street was more and more a busy thoroughfare. The 
Fence corner was becoming a most public place. What- 
ever a Yale student did, from smoking a cigarette to 
a formal transfer of Fence rights, or the cremations in 
quantity of barrels or Brick Rov; blinds, was unfortu- 
nately before the public eye. The Yale youth, of eigh- 
teen or eighty, declared the growth and development of 
the city along that particular thoroughfare a mere acci- 
dent of environment which should not have any radical 
effect on the life of such an institution as the Fence. The 
Fence was Yale, he said, in miniature, and sometimes 
in life size. It had not been growing for two hundred 
years just to get out of the way of the trade on Chapel 
Street. As to some pedestrians' great embarrassment 



THE FIGHT TO SAVE THE FENCE. 29 

walking down the sidewalk in front of a row of two or 
three hundred young men squatted on those rails — 
well, no harm ever came of it, and even so there were 
other streets to walk on. » 

In short, there were to the mind of the Yale youth 
of various ages, no real objections to the Fence. On 
the other hand its existence was to them indispensable. 
On the mere ground of convenience, few people who 
lived on the campus, or who had lived there, could 
understand how they could get along without such a 
common meeting place. From the middle of April to 
the end of the summer term, from the first Wednesday 
night of " the thirteenth week after Commencement " 
until well towards the end of the fall season, it was the 
one place to be sure of finding any one. Students do 
not much live in their rooms. They sleep there some 
and arrive and depart at a few uncertain intervals dur- 
ing the day. During the outdoor season it is rather 
the exception than the rule to find one of them at his 
stated abode. 

But you could go to the Fence and be moderately 
sure to find within a reasonable length of time the most 
peripatetic individual. When one is looking for the 
bull's eye of all interrogation points of the campus, to 
wit, the Inspector of grounds and buildings, the best 
direction that can be given is to stand in the middle of 
the campus and wait for him to go by. In the same 
way, whomever you were looking for, the surest way was 
to sit on the Fence and watch and wait. 

And what were the graduates to do when they came 
back to reunions? From as far away as the lower 
corner of the Green they could see the old Fence cor- 
ner. Reviving and stimulating as it was, it was still more 



30 YALE. 

valuable as a standing and definite assurance to any 
home-coming son of Yale that he would there find any 
and all of those of his particular company who were in 
New Haven. He did not have to know where they 
roomed. He did not have to consult any register in 
the Library. He had only to put his package any- 
where he pleased and go to the Fence and wait for devel- 
opments. It is not a great wonder that his feeling 
towards the plan of digging up those ancient posts, of 
leaving those sacred rails the prey of memorabilia 
vultures, of digging a cellar in those sacred sands, or 
putting brick and mortar where elm-trees stood, was 
something short of enthusiasm. And as yet he is far 
from accustoming himself with resignation to the sight 
of the architecture of Osborn Hall, in place of that 
famous old stamping ground, which had come first to 
his view, for generations, as he returned to New Haven. 
Habit still has its way, and he even now pathetically 
pulls out some preserved section of the old Fence and 
sets it upright on the hard pavement of the corner, or 
perches himself on the steps of Osborn Hall and gathers 
his friends around him there. The instinct for the 
place was strong; even stronger was the sense of its 
eternal fitness for all the informal occasions when the 
children of Eli gathered themselves together. 

Those who worked the hardest to save that old 
Fence corner for just as many years as in the material 
possibility of things it could be saved, believed that it 
was the most tangible evidence and instrument of the 
best thing of Yale. They believed that it formed at 
once the opportunity for and inspiration of the demo- 
cratic community life of the place. They considered 
that the most important character of Yale was its cha- 



THE FIGHT TO SAVE THE FENCE. 31 

racter as a social institution, as a place where a young 
man was put in particularly happy and valuable rela- 
tions to a lot of other young men of as diverse traits as 
the confines of America could furnish. 

They believed it of inestimable value to perpetuate 
the idea that whatever the antecedents of a young man 
who came to New Haven, he stood or fell there, lived 
quietly by himself, or rose to the various activities of 
the place, according to the evidence which he could 
give of character and ability and the amount of in- 
dustry which he used in the application of them to 
the objects in which the community of Yale were 
interested. 

They held, not for the purpose of display in after- 
dinner oratory, but as strong convictions in regard to 
the most interesting place in which four years of their 
life had ever been spent, that this spirit had made 
possible the achievements of Yale as an institution in 
such contests as come before the public eye, and of 
Yale individuals, in as far as their life at New Haven 
had been taken into their character. 

These men saw in the Fence life a realization of the 
social life of pure democracy. Men of all tastes and 
modes of life were there together. They sat on the 
common rail, and the only mark of division was the 
mark of the arbitrary line of time which divided 
the classes. 

It was said by those who advised against any agitation 
that this Fence life would be transplanted into the in- 
terior of the campus, where it would be more peculiarly 
and particularly Yale and not a common and public 
place. To which it was replied that you could not trans- 
plaat institutions quite as readily as trees, and that the 



32 



YALE. 



power of cohesion for Yale life in that old Fence was in the 
famous traditions and the wealth of story gathered around 
it. A man who sat on his class Fence there, sat where 
whole Yale regiments had rested themselves before. 
When Sophomore orators turned over to the Fresh- 
man class there a few sections of that Fence, that made 
their class guardian of something which all the men 
of Yale from time immemorial had at one time in their 
college career counted the most valuable of their pos- 
sessions. The glorious bonfires had there blazed out 
the story of victory after victory. Class had there been 
pitted against class in battle royal. In older days the 
Fence had determined the battle-line between town and 
gown. Long after the sharpness of this old animosity 
had worn away, the Fence had marked the limit of direct 
municipal authority. When the blue-coated agents of 
that authority were first allowed within those limits fifteen 
years or so ago, the feeling that they were invaders made 
the most peaceable souls yearn to greet them with water 
pitchers and bootjacks. In later years police officers 
have lived upon the campus, but their conduct has 
never been such as to arouse a spirit of rebellion. 
They have shown such infinite tact and a sense of the 
fitness of things by choosing where they should be 
and where they should not be, that the most con- 
servative academics have given them the right hand 
of fellowship. 

The old Fence went. That hardly needs the record. 
Petitions and traditions availed not. President Dwight 
told the Fence Committee that it was the sense of the 
Corporation meeting that the improbability of lightning 
striking twice in the same place (a phenomenon which 
the President paused to explain by citing the observation 



THE FIGHT TO SAVE THE FENCE. 3$ 

of the small boy that it did n't have to) should lead 
them to decline the proposition to defy it this time. 
Yale was not anxious to have it repeat the phenomenon 
in this instance. The idea of the President probably 
was that if Yale ever took down the lightning rod which 
had the reputation of ever standing and of ever slant- 
ing towards the great banks with their silver and gold 
linings, the luck might turn the wrong way. 

Along the front of Durfee and down the Chapel walk 
in a semi-circular swing is the Fence of modern Yale. 
Here the main rights and privileges of the older institu- 
tion are maintained. Its use is very considerable. On 
the warmer summer evenings you will find some two 
hundred sitting and standing along the line, and of 
late one or the other or both of the Glee Clubs have 
been very regular in leading good congregational sing- 
ing there. The new Fence does not gather the Sheff 
men as the old Fence did, and it does not now gather 
the graduates, particularly those of the older classes, 
nearly as much. It is to be doubted if even those who 
have left Yale since the old Fence died will ever use 
this to such an extent as the old Fence was used by 
graduates. 

But neither of these things was to be expected. 
Sheff and Academic must in the future come together 
by some other means than an institution which had thus 
been made peculiarly one of the Academic Department. 
That is one of the problems of the future, and one of 
the great ones. The man who can solve the question 
of holding together the great University in any such way 
as the old college held together, will prove his title to 
the highest talent of organization. Perhaps some day 
Sheff and Academic will have courses of the same 

3 



34 YALE. 

length, and then a union on the line of the same 
common institutions will be easier. 

The University Club supplies this common meeting- 
place, for some purposes, to a limited number of men 
of the upper classes of the Academic and Scientific 
Departments, its membership being about one hundred 
and fifty. In its quarters, at the corner of York and 
Chapel Streets, which have recently been improved, it 
offers excellent club facilities to its members. Radical 
changes and very great expansion would be required 
to allow it to meet to any considerable degree the 
demand for a common rallying-point for the under- 
graduates. 

As for the returning graduate, his need can be sup- 
plied in some ways even better than the old Fence 
supplied it. But another chapter treats of the possi- 
bilities of the Graduates' Club. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LIVING AND WORKING BY CLASSES. 

THE time will come when the names of the faithful 
Class Secretaries of Yale will be enshrined on 
some roll of honor, and their statues adorn the length 
and breadth of a great University Hall. This bronze 
company would not require a niche and pedestal for 
every class. Far from it. There are class secretaries, 
and others who go by the name. Those who are 
secretaries do more than any other individuals to hold 
Yale together, and that is the University's debt to them. 
As to what they accomplish for their classes, in the 
way of preserving very bright memories and keeping 
all down the years the elbow touch of the recitation 
room, the Fence, the Chapel pew, and the banquet hall, 
the classes themselves know. 

It would be a very good thing to start such a roll 
of honor or gallery of heroes soon. Then would it be 
a source of great inspiration to him who is chosen 
hereafter to bear the burdens and receive the maledic- 
tions that go with the secretaryship, to play his part 
like a faithful slave and a true hero, continuing the all- 
the-year-round hunt for those who seek the reputation 
of being " the most elusive living graduate," and serving 
back for the curse words that come by mail fresh bulle- 
tins of events sad and happy, of arrivals and departures, 
of marriages and givings in marriage, of the winnings 



36 YALE. 

of gold and of oflfice, of honorable penury and glory- 
giving defeat. 

The University is beholden to them for their work 
of organization and inspiration, because the word " to- 
gether " is the great word at Yale. In the opinion of 
those who are simple enough to think that a college 
education is most important for its effect on character, 
and who are vain enough to think that there is no place 
on the footstool with as many favorable influences for 
the development of character as the place they call 
Yale, it sums up the best things of Yale life. 

It implies all those qualities which come to the sur- 
face in individuals when Yale as Yale is making her 
great efforts. It means endless, painstaking persever- 
ance the whole year round and four years together; 
faith that nothing can weaken, and a will unbreakable. 
It means all the noblest manifestations of college life, 
which more than balance in the scale against the un- 
worthy things which go with this " mass play," as Pro- 
fessor Perrin calls it, and of which his speech elsewhere 
quoted speaks with such detail and with such definite- 
ness and force as to make it idle to develop the idea 
further. It means besides this the opportunity for 
every one to get into the work, and the inspiration to 
do his part of it well, and carries with it the promise 
that there shall be recognition of that work well done 
and an opportunity for still larger work. 

And so the preservation of the class as the unit of 
the Yale organization is a thing very highly to be 
prized, and is a thing to which the greatest attention 
is given at Yale. There are all kinds of class functions 
common to colleges. It seems to me doubtful that 
there is any other college where so many of them are 



LIVING AND WORKING BY CLASSES. 37 

combined, and where are all the great activities of the 
place run so generally along the class lines. 

Men study together for two years in the Academic 
Department and for one year in Sheff before there 
is any appreciable break along the elective lines. For 
two hundred or more days in the year Yale College is 
gathered by classes in Battell Chapel ; and when the 
students conduct their own religious services under 
their own voluntary organization, their prayer meetings 
and their Bible study meetings are by classes. Of 
course, they row and play football and baseball by 
classes. They* loaf by classes, squatting together on 
the Fence rails. Again, in the College, and as a feature 
quite peculiar and most important, they break into 
secret societies by classes. They run their college 
journals by classes. They take up the various customs 
and privileges of college life, from the carrying of a 
cane and the wearing of a silk hat to the perfect liber- 
ties of top spinning and " nigger baby," by classes. 
One of the latest developments of debating is by 
classes. The Freshman Union followed the formation 
of the Union itself, and as one of the most promising 
evidences of social reform, as well as of debating 
interests, the Sophomore Wigwam came into being. 

This list of class activities, spiritual, physical, and 
social, would be practically complete if we could say 
that Yale men ate by classes. They do not do that 
while they are in Yale very much. They have just one 
class supper before they graduate, which is only a 
moderately successful institution. They used to have 
another class feast, about which there was nothing 
moderate whatever, to wit, the annual entertainment of 
Harvard at baseball in Freshman year, a custom that 



38 YALE. 

has worthily passed into the traditions. In older time 
there were annual jubilees, but there seems to have 
been some good reason for the death of this convention. 

While a sister institution is seeking to revive class 
feeling by class suppers, the Yale class spirit, seemingly 
content with the variety of its activities on the campus, 
has in later years developed the innovation of frequently 
recurring class meetings, whenever any particular event 
could bring a considerable number of the class together 
in New Haven or New York or any other good Yale 
centre. This is entirely apart from the stated feasts of 
triennial and sexennial and decennial and quin-decen- 
nial and vigintennial and quarter-centennial and trigin- 
tennial and all the others up to the sixtieth. 

May it thus ever be, and more so, prays the devout 
Yale man. If not more so, how are we going to gather 
our increasing families around the class hearthstone and 
feel it natural to Bill and Jack and Bob them? That 
should be the method of salute, but a most torturing 
one is it and one to be abhorred, unless most natural. 
It cannot be natural without even increased means of 
mixture. You occasionally find young men nowadays 
who speak of knowing all the class, as though that 
were something to be remarked upon. It should be 
something to be remarked upon, in language drawn 
reverently from the imprecatory Psalms, when this is 
not so. 

Men will say that these things are impossible as the 
University grows. To which it is proper to reply, in 
the first place, that we are not concerned with people 
who use the word " impossible," which has never been 
a favorite one at Yale and ought never to be. Secondly, 
we are not now treating of university growth, or any 



■'• r>- ^^Fv^-sf^. 



t 




Yale Infirmary 




Vale Uxiversity Club 



LIVING AND WORKING BY CLASSES. 39 

of those things which require general statement, or of 
those feelings which rejoice in totals. We are talking 
about class feeling as it gloriously exists at Yale Col- 
lege, and as it is growing to exist more gloriously in 
lusty Shefif. In other words, we are talking about that 
which made and which makes Yale so much of a thing 
and so dear a thing to you and to me and to all of us. 

This being towards the end of the century, and Yale 
now entering the period of preparation for her two 
hundredth birthday, it is proper to report how things 
are in respect to class feeling and the community life 
of Yale. 

They are good, in spite of it all. By in spite of it all, 
if I can explain this sentence backwards, I mean in spite 
of an environing element which has not been ordered 
with much, if any, regard to the community life of Yale. 
As it seems to the writer, the development of Yale 
materially has either ignored Yale socially, or has 
assumed that Yale socially is unimpressionable ; that 
the spirit of the place will persist under all circum- 
stances. But it is not the purpose of this chapter to 
go into this controversy. Those who believe most 
strongly that to follow a strictly business line in the 
renting of rooms, and thus in a measure reproduce the 
money line of the outside world on the Yale campus, 
is to injure Yale democracy, and those who have criti- 
cised because this is largely done without any evidence 
on the part of the distinguished Governors of Yale that 
the act troubles them at all, or is accomplished with 
regret, are still to be found as willing as any to recog- 
nize in the Yale of to-day the splendid persistence of 
the old qualities of discipline and organization and 
esprit de corps and fair play with a chance for all. 



40 YALE. 

They join hands with those most perfectly satisfied in 
all things that are done, in hailing New Yale as still 
Old Yale ; but they do not like to see an element enter 
the situation which threatens an idol of Yale, — her 
Democracy. And just as they hope to see the lack in 
the society equipment of the college made good and 
the unfavorable conditions of the present removed, so 
with much hope they look to a future wherein the 
campus of Yale, however closely it may be pressed 
and surrounded by a busy, developing city, may realize 
in its own particular life and in the material conditions 
of that life, the principles of a true democracy. 

What has this to do with classes? The whole subject 
is touched when we touch one end of it. But back to 
the first and the better part of this sentence. It is well, 
it was reported, with the class spirit and the community 
spirit of Yale. Yes, the Yale which labored and even 
floundered as it took on great size and tried to move 
along its old ways at the same time, is getting used to 
itself, and the old ways and the New Yale are adapting 
themselves to each other. There were years when the 
class feeling perceptibly weakened ; when men were 
cynical and scornful about their classmates, and liked 
to join in a cheap wit at the expense of class sentiment, 
or afi'ected a superior philosophy which avoids the 
dangers of gush. A favorite conversational pastime of 
the college for a few years not so long ago was the 
dissection of all those without the immediate group of 
dissectors, \yith particular reference to faults and vices. 
Those who received the most attention were those with 
whom they were thrown into the closest relations in 
Yale's social life, to wit, their classmates, and those 
others in whom they were compelled to take a more or 



LIVING AND WORKING BY CLASSES. 41 

less real interest, the leaders of Yale in her athletic life. 
There was a precocious maturity, a worldly wisdom, 
which affected ' the healthy Yale stomach as some 
horrible perversion of color affects the most susceptible 
artist. Alumni met undergraduates on trains or in 
hotels in other towns and listened to their incisive wit 
at the cost of their classmates or their College, or their 
dull grumble of reproach about captains and coaches, 
as long as they could tolerate it, and then asked them- 
selves if they had really met representative Yale men. 
They probably had met fairly representative Yale men. 
Some of the choicest spirits that came to the University 
at this time of transition became temporarily dyspeptic. 
There was something in the air wrong in those days. 
There are some traces of it left, but on the whole Yale 
has pulled herself together. 

The conditions are as different in the present time, 
of which I am writing with some detail, from those of 
a few years ago, as were the athletics of the football 
season of 1897 from those of the few years preceding. 
To those who know Yale athletics this will seem a 
strong statement. It is true. 

It is impossible to trace the development of the class 
spirit at Yale with any degree of definiteness. It varies. 
Sometimes it is wholesome from start to finish. Again 
it passes through diseased stages. Some classes are 
weakened by internal strife, of which the scars are not 
healed even at graduation, or until even the second or 
third reunion. Of course, a steady and natural develop- 
ment is the best. But even when that is the way, it is 
not unlikely to be severely shaken by the excitement 
and disappointments and sometimes bitterness that 
follows the society elections in the spring of Junior 



42 



YALE. 



year. This in a well-ordered class will wear off when 
Senior year is well under way. 

As a rule it is safe to say that the more solid satis- 
faction is taken in class reunions after the first or second 
gathering, by those who really wish to enjoy their 
fellows and find out about them and live it over with 
them again. The second reunion is, I am sure, much 
more calculated to carry out these objects than the 
first. The enthusiasm is not worn off, but some of the 
gunpowder has burned out. It is in the better sense 
of the word a rather more mellow occasion. 

But each one, I fancy, brings its own particular bless- 
ing with it, and none goes by without leaving with him 
who properly takes it a more realizing sense of the 
really valuable things which he found at Yale. The 
more sensibly and earnestly and worthily he has lived 
his life after graduation, the more he has taken up the 
opportunities of his particular situation in life, with the 
more zest, as the writer's observation goes, does he 
seem to return to these friendship feasts and observa- 
tion points. The stronger his life has been, whether in 
large or small sphere, the more he seems to appreciate 
what flowed into it from Yale. It seems to me quite 
safe to say also that the less does he regret that it is all 
over and the less does he say that he can never be as 
happy again, or indulge in any of those unhealthy 
feelings ; but rather the more, as he looks back, does 
he appreciate the preparation which Yale gave him for 
just those things which he is now doing, and which have 
the more meaning for him and the more satisfaction 
for him because to a greater or less extent he learned 
to appreciate the relations of things at Yale, and learned 
what really makes life worth the living. 




Battell Chapfx 



CHAPTER IX. 

IN BATTELL CHAPEL. 

THERE is nothing in Yale College much more 
worth the while joining in than the Doxology 
at the end of the Sunday morning service in Battell 
Chapel. It is about the heartiest expression of religious 
feeling that one can find. If it has been preceded 
by a sermon from some manly, magnetic, and forceful 
preacher, the effect is all the more soul-satisfying. If 
it has followed one of those mornings in Chapel which 
are more frequent than one likes to confess (although 
less common now than in the older days), then this 
Doxology singing is all the more striking and more 
thought-provoking than in the first case. The only 
other religious exercises to compare with it will be 
found in the purely voluntary student assemblies in 
Dwight Hall, which is the home of the greatest part of 
the real religious life of the institution. 

But you may miss the Doxology and you may miss 
the Sunday night meeting, and you may happen into 
an ordinary week day Chapel service. There is at 
least an even chance, under those circumstances, that 
you will go away with peculiar feelings about the 
religious susceptibilities and possibilities of the Yale 
student. You will see an audience of twelve or thir- 
teen hundred men, with perhaps half of them shot into 
the hall and rushed into their seats between nine and 
eleven minutes after eight, 8. lo being the time set for 



44 



YALE. 



the beginning of the service. Half of them have not 
gone through a decent toilet, and the variety extends 
all the way from a mackintosh and a pair of rubber 
boots, which are two out of three pieces of the attire 
of the student who wakes at eight and one-half minutes 
past eight, to the sweater costume, which may, after 
all, be the all day habit of its wearer. They nearly 
all have their books for their first recitation, and not 
a few of them, unless so near one of the Faculty senti- 
nel's eyes as to make it unwise, are willing to consult 
them at special or at all times during divine service. 
If they are so forehanded or so reckless as to be callous 
to their text-books, they have quite likely gathered in 
the morning paper; in not a few cases, and, in so far 
as that is safe to do, they devour its contents. 

If a sociable dog is lingering about Chapel between 
8.05 and 8.10, the chances are against his being out- 
side after 8. 10. Nobody in particular calls him in, but 
there is a general air of hospitality through all the 
stream of worshippers, and he will flow innocently 
along with them and into the centre aisle. 

As to the services themselves, the students take 
part in them to a very limited degree. Their congre- 
gational singing is done principally by proxy, to wit, 
by the choir, which performs that service much more 
acceptably now than it used to. The writer has in 
mind a class which was rather noted for its strong 
religious feeling, whose general influence was reforma- 
tory as to matters moral, and which did a great deal 
towards perfecting and strengthening the organization 
of the Y. M. C. A. of Yale. One of their favorite 
campus melodies was made of the last lines of a chant 
which had been sung with such persistence and trying 



IN BATTELL CHAPEL. 45 

regularity in Chapel as to be divested altogether of re- 
ligious meaning and to pass into the realm of humor. 
Every now and then you would hear from the Senior 
Fence, and ever and anon now rises from the class ban- 
quet board wherever it is spread, these few words : — 

"Soon shall the trumpet sound and we shall rise to immortality. 
Amen. Amen. Amen. Amen." 

The passage is rendered with a particular ferocity 
which makes it in the distance somewhat resemble 
the Greek yell. The song is joined in zealously by all, 
whatever their religious natures. It would be hard to 
convince any of them of impropriety, much less of flip- 
pancy or sacrilege, in this amusement. There are no 
sacred associations with that particular chant sung in 
that particular way. 

The members of another class, with an excellent 
reputation for piety, would often salute one of their 
members, a tenor soloist of the choir, with the pas- 
sage, rendered in excellent time and tone, — 

" Who is the King of Glory ? " 

The reply was always the tenor's name, which lent 
itself particularly well to the peculiar intonation. 
This was the effect of painful persistency in this 
chant by the choir of their day. 

But there has been a Musical Department at Yale 
since then, and there is more attention to the choir, 
and that part of the service is more like worship. 

There is another improvement in the arrangement of 
the Chapel, which has removed visitors from the back 
gallery, increasing classes having occupied all the 
room there. Only six or eight years ago it was usual 
for a third of the congregation, particularly at Prom 



46 YALE. 

time or any festive occasion, to rise with tlie choir and 
then turn around, back to the pulpit and face to the 
gallery. This inspection of the fair faces of the visi- 
tors was, of course, as thoroughly discourteous as it 
was irreverent. The temptation is removed by locat- 
ing visitors in the transept. 

A moderately respectful attention is paid to the 
prayer by half or two-thirds of the audience, but it is 
always better for any one's impressions to keep his 
own eyes closed. 

The President, following immemorial custom, walks 
down the centre aisle, the Seniors waiting to bow him 
out. This bowing ceremony is a very pretty thing in 
theory, and because it is a custom would as well be 
observed. As an impressive demonstration of respect 
of authority it fails in some points, when one notices 
the exquisite nicety of calculation by which those rows 
of heads go down, touching the nap but not the body 
of the cloth itself on the President's back, and the 
lack of any distance between the President and those 
who have fallen in line behind him. 

It may be that the average visitor will observe less 
of these incidents and be impressed more by the gen- 
eral features of the occasion. The gathering of twelve 
or thirteen hundred young men every morning, as 
around a great family altar; the conduct of prayers 
by their official head, the President of the University, 
and thus the daily emphasis of the dependence on God 
and the aim of the institution, cherished from its 
foundation, to strengthen the bulwarks of religion — it 
may be that these considerations will greatly move the 
onlooker. It will depend entirely upon his tempera- 
ment. Many will forget that these men are there 



IN BATTELL CHAPEL. 47 

because they have to be there, while to others it is 
impossible to overlook this feature or to fail to see 
the effects of it. To them such religious worship is 
not worthy of the name, and they say that a college 
that can support voluntarily such religious life as Yale 
has in her student organization has least of all excuse 
for this compulsion. 

Sunday morning offers less chance for the critic of 
the compulsory system. It is later in the day. The 
students have no immediate duties before them. They 
have all slept long, and generally feel in good humor. 
The service is not a long or tedious one except on 
rare occasions, and the custom of bringing the best 
preachers obtainable from other cities brings the 
students together in expectancy of something worth 
listening to. If the preacher be a Drummond or a 
Watson, you will scan the audience in vain for evi- 
dence of restlessness in this compulsory service. On 
the contrary, you will envy the preacher his opportu- 
nity of playing upon the sentiments of such highstrung 
and yet finely poised natures as are before him, and of 
appealing to the ideals and aspirations of men of fine 
parts, of best impulses, and of spirits unwarped and 
unwearied. These men will talk about that sermon for 
days and weeks afterwards. Isn't it, then, rather 
fanciful, you may ask, to believe that the ultimate 
effect is any less upon them because they must be in 
their seats or suffer certain penalties .'' If the preacher 
has once gained his audience, and gained a hearing 
from them, are they not as ready then for anything he 
may give them, as though they came of their own 
accord.-' To which your believer in religious elective 
freedom will reply that those on whom any permanent 



48 YALE. 

effects are produced would be in the Chapel that day 
of their own choice, to worship under such auspices 
and under such guidance; that proper effort can so 
order the exercises of the Sunday morning Chapel as to 
crowd the building on almost every Sunday ; that the 
resultant atmosphere of spontaneous religious feeling 
would intensify many times good effects which now 
have to break through the barrier set up by com- 
pulsion. 

Now and then some champion of the existing regu- 
lation of religious service at Yale will talk eloquently 
of the social effect of the bringing together of Yale 
College in one general exercise every morning. The 
mere collection of the members of this department 
under one roof strengthens the community life; the 
division in the sitting makes the class tie the stronger. 
A Cornell man, witnessing recently the Sunday morn- 
ing Chapel, told the writer that he considered it one 
of the finest things at Yale. Yale was together before 
his eyes, and all the traditions of her organization and 
of her spirit of unity seemed to be expressed there 
before him. 

But he who argues for compulsory religious service 
as a means of cementing the social unity of Yale will 
bring upon his head the vials of fierce wrath. That 
religion should be used merely as a part of a system of 
organization is abhorrent to those who take this prob- 
lem seriously. 

" If you want to get your Yale family together in the 
morning," protested an indignant member of one of 
the recent classes of Yale, who now wears the cloth 
most becomingly, "don't drive them with a lash to 
church and tell them to get together in the name of 



IN BATTELL CHAPEL. 49 

God. Rather than to apply such a theory you would 
better rip out the seats of Battell Chapel and put in 
breakfast tables, and make every man in the Academic 
Department take half an hour for his morning meal. 
And let it be one which will give him quiet satis- 
faction of spirit instead of moving him to profanity. 
Such a course would far more conduce to the material 
interests of Yale social life, and the spiritual welfare 
of her sons, than a morning round-up in the name of 
religion." 

A very strong argument in favor of the system of 
compulsory chapel is that afforded by the votes of the 
classes as they graduate. The records of the class- 
books for years back show that Seniors, closing their 
four years of compulsory chapel, have voted strongly 
in favor of the continuance of the system. One man, 
in commenting on his vote, expressed his view of the 
problem in this way: "The chapel habit is not hard to 
acquire." That view docs not show profound consider- 
ation of the problem, but the votes on the question 
are generally given in a serious mood and after much 
thought. 

What might be done vv'ith a changed order of service 
is of course problematical, although there are great 
possibilities of improvement in that direction. Should 
the means ever be found to ensure reverence, the oppo- 
sition to compulsory prayers would generally surrender. 



CHAPTER X. 

IN THE YALE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

BUT back to the spirit of the Doxology; back to 
the Sunday evening meeting. Let us trouble no 
more the waters of controversy. It is Yale that we 
are going through, and we would fain tell you what 
you may find there. 

We were talking at one of our class reunions about 
somebody we had known in college, whose career 
thereafter did not come up to Yale ideals. 

"I always thought him rather weak," said one, "but 
he lived a fairly decent life at college." 

"That is not so strange," said another. "He was 
easily influenced, and all the influences of his friends 
and of his life here were good. In fact, the influences 
for almost anybody at Yale are good unless he deliber- 
ately chooses to have them otherwise. The man who 
can't lead a pretty decent sort of a life at this place 
isn't liable to anywhere else." 

The sentiment was unanimously ratified by the com- 
pany. It is a sentiment that is ratified by fact and 
experience. There are exceptions. Men will turn 
their faces steadily away from that which is for their 
own and everybody else's good, and which is crowded 
upon them on every side, for a whole course at Yale, 
and will come to full consciousness afterwards and 
make their lives very useful and noble under much 
less favorable conditions than they found in their 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 51 

college course. There are still more who steer wildly 
for one or two or three years before they get their 
bearings and their ballast. 

But, on the whole, the men who have got it in them 
to appreciate good things and the right kind of people, 
and who are capable of trying to realize in their own 
lives and character any ideal, are quite apt to give 
abundant evidence thereof early in their college course. 

The Freshman has not yet reached New Haven before 
he has been made aware of a student organization 
which is ready to welcome him and aid him in many 
ways in getting on his sea legs. The handbook sent 
out by the Yale Young Men's Christian Association is 
sent to every member of the incoming classes of the 
two undergraduate departments long before the open- 
ing of the fall term. It is a compact compendium of 
main facts about Yale and New Haven which the new 
collegian should have in his possession at the earliest 
opportunity. The college cheer, in accurate Greek, 
is duly set forth. The text-books to be needed at once 
are described. The names of his Class Faculty and 
their departments are told him; the location of the 
Library and something about its contents and rules, 
and how to get to the Yale Field ; the equipment of 
the Yale Gymnasium and the rules thereof, and some- 
thing about the stores and wonders of the Peabody 
Museum ; how athletics and glee clubs and Commons 
are run ; where he may go if he is sick, and what are 
his college papers; the calendar of the college year, 
and the list of places worth knowing about in New 
Haven and near the city. It is not only a list of 
things to do and to see, but it has a list of things a 
Freshman would better not do, if he wishes to live in 



52 



YALE. 



peace in this new country of Yale, whose laws are 
peculiar, and of the inflexibility of the statutes of the 
Medes and Persians. 

Of course he is also told of the Yale Young Men's 
Christian Association itself, which sends him the book 
and which has its home in Dwight Hall. The col- 
lege generally calls the whole organization and its 
activities Dwight Hall, although the name is now 
inadequate since the Sheffield Department has taken a 
home of its own over on College Street. The various 
divisions of its busy work are briefly given with the 
names of its officers. In the lists he recognizes those 
which he has frequently seen before, if he has begun 
to follow Yale annals : men of editorial boards and 
Promenade committees and debating teams and nines 
and elevens and eights, and those on society lists; for 
the fact is most worth noting, because most signifi- 
cant, of all the facts of Yale's religious life, that those 
of influence and leadership in the college world and 
those who man the student religious organizations are 
in very many cases identical. 

It is very likely that this practical introduction to 
Yale and the Yale Young Men's Christian Association 
is not the first time that the influences of Yale's 
religious life have reached the prospective Freshman. 
There is something very direct, straightforward, and 
manly about the busy activities of this religious work 
of Yale. In the days of fierce campaigning for the 
under-class societies, it was not uncommon to argue 
with preparatory school youth, and even pledge them 
to one of the Sophomore societies a year or more 
before they could be initiated therein. This unhealthy, 
head-swelling system has gone by, and a much better 




Thk Old Library 




DwiGHT Hall 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 53 

system of campaigning has been substituted therefor. 
This campaigning is in the interest of the greater 
society of all Yale, to which every other society is 
subordinate. The campaign is in the interest of the 
better side of the life of this great society, in the 
interest of the moral health of the community, and 
the welfare of its individual members. 

The men who conduct these campaigns — the depu- 
tations, as they are officially known in the Young 
Men's Christian Association — are those who come 
out of the heat and dust of the daily fray and know 
what availeth therein and what is a handicap. They 
are managers, captains, editors. As they talk at the 
preparatory school, they preach no sophomoric ser- 
mons on virtue and vice. They tell about life on the 
campus as it is. They let their hearers know that 
there is no tradition of the place which asks a man to 
give up one tithe of his independence or to relax by 
one turn the lines of principle, however tightly drawn. 
They dispel certain illusions about the possibilities 
of wide ranging in the early part of the course. They 
tell what you and I, who have followed Yale life in 
the last decade or two, know, — that there is at New 
Haven an already high and a steadily developing ideal 
of the soldier and the gentleman; that the place is 
very happily conditioned for strengthening and devel- 
oping ideals, and offers a peculiar opportunity to one 
who is attracted by the thought of being useful in 
making more firm good influences. They add in 
frankness, these Yale campaigners, that there is quite 
another side of Yale life, which one can easily find ; 
but the advice is given to those not otherwise influ- 
enced, that if they are willing to wander that way, or 



54 YALE. 

are unwilling to make a reasonable effort not to, it 
were better, for their own satisfaction, not to go to 
Yale, a place where public sentiment is strongly 
against the student of lax morals and is allowing less 
and less margin to the overdrinker. 

This public standard, by the way, on the question of 
personal habits, is on the first point about what it has 
been for a good many years. Lines seemed to weaken 
a little here, as they did elsewhere, a few years ago, 
when Yale was wobbling and laboring under the burden 
of suddenly increased numbers and a large inflow of 
wealth. But that is now, as it has been, and rather 
more pronounced than before. As to excessive drink- 
ing, there is really very little of it. There is a great 
deal less of it than there was fifteen years ago. And 
these Dwight Hal] deputations, as they are called, tell 
the facts about these things and do very good work. 

But they can reach directly only a limited number. 
The handbook of which we were speaking goes to all. 
Two special invitations are given the Freshman in this 
book. One is to use Dwight Hall as headquarters 
until he is settled. He can leave his valise there, and 
there he can consult a long list of boarding-houses, 
and hear about them from a committee who have labo- 
riously inspected them and who can reveal such m3's- 
teries as may be revealed from without. The assistance 
in solving this mighty question of where shall the 
Freshman sleep and eat is most practical and valuable. 

Another invitation is to come with the rest of his 
Class on the first Friday night of the term to Dwight 
Hall and meet the upper class men and the Faculty 
who conduct and care most for it. This reception 
itself is an eye-opener to those who have taken as 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIy^TION. 55 

news of Yale any small fraction of the wonderful 
reports on it, which are now and then set before a 
curious reading public by journals, whose aim is, for 
various reasons, to exploit the sin of the world. If 
Yale opens into hell, as earnest persons have said, it 
opens with wonderful arts. Here, on this first Friday 
night, is as choice a company as you can gather from 
the ranks of the Yale army; and they are welcoming 
the incoming youth in a spirit of the most straightfor- 
ward and courteous hospitality, in the name of religion, 
but without any parading of it. It must be a genius 
who is bluffing so. How can such stuff be written ! 
But there will always be "much talk without." Let it 
rattle on. 

This seems to be a good crowd to be with. "Yes," 
says the occasional critic, who sees things all out of 
true on the campus; "so good that many men join it 
and work with it all through their course, who have no 
more religion than a war politician." The dig was 
made in the writer's own time, by an honest commen- 
tator, that there was underground connection between 
Dwight Hall and one of the Senior societies. 

It would take an over-zealous advocate to say that 
hypocrites are not to be found at Yale. It is a simple 
record of fact also, that there are few places on the 
footstool where they are more quickly found out and 
where their estate should excite more pity. 

But let us go with the Freshman a day or two longer, 
— through his first Sunday at Yale. This first Sunday 
is Communion Sunday in the college church, and 
those who wish come to Dwight Hall at a quarter 
before ten that morning for a preparatory service. 
Then comes the regular Chapel service, with commu- 



S6 



YALE. 



nion service following for those who are church mem- 
bers. In the academic class entering Yale in the fall 
of 1898, the church membership list was seventy per 
cent of the class. A recent graduating class of two 
hundred had one hundred and sixty-four church mem- 
bers. And while statistics are being given, it may as 
well be set down that the membership of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of Yale, which leads in 
numbers the college associations of the world, was last 
year thirteen hundred. Nine-tenths of this member- 
ship is drawn from the Academic and Scientific depart- 
ments, whose total enrolment . last year was seventeen 
hundred and eighty-four. Thus two out of three of 
the undergraduates of Yale are members of the volun- 
tary religious organization of the University. And 
for one thing more in the way of figures, which mean 
something, though far from everything, more than half 
of this total in the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion was made of active members, that is, of church 
members, who were to a greater or less extent work- 
ing members of the Association. 

Our Freshman has his Sunday afternoon to himself. 
If he gets quickly into the ways of the place, he takes 
a long walk, and his going and coming will be peace- 
ful, even though he be a Freshman. A company of 
Seniors in frock coats and high hats may recognize 
him on Hillhouse Avenue and obsequiously bend low. 
There is nothing worse than that. After dinner or 
supper — the habit varies with the landlords and ladies 
of New Haven, and thereby makes a double dinner 
possible for the student who properly orders his social 
connections — the general religious meeting in Dwight 
Hall is opened at twenty minutes before seven. It is 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 57 

the popular religious gathering of the week, and, being 
under the auspices of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, is purely voluntary. The attendance 
averages four hundred, and frequently crowds the big 
room in Dwight Hall and the hallway adjoining and 
the ante-room on the farther side until it is impossible 
to pass through either. The opening night of the year 
means a great crowd, with many Freshmen there. 

With a list so very well chosen all the year around, 
one can hardly go into particulars about any one 
speaker. But the man on the platform the first night 
is very sure to be one who will have the ears and some 
access to the hearts of the hearers. Who are some 
of these men who come from almost everywhere to 
talk to the young men of Yale.^ They are of all 
denominations and of all Christian creeds, — men of 
heart and head. Drummond was there ten years ago, 
and for more than one day. He stayed on at Yale, 
from Sunday to Monday, and through to another Sun- 
day, and then for a week again. I think I am right in 
times. It was not the date or limit of that visit that 
made its impression on those in College then. We 
felt him among us for months and years afterwards. 
You can still find Drummond at Yale. And Moody. 
He comes and comes again ; sometimes for a Sunday 
evening, and often for longer. He loves to strike 
sturdily at the manhood of Yale, and that manhood 
answers his simple appeal, because it is from the heart 
to the heart; spiritful, and with that overwhelming 
earnestness born of a creed that sees the realities of 
Heaven and Hell, and hears the clear word of Revela- 
tion, and knows and lives the power of love. George 
Gordon, too, is a Sunday night talker at Dwight Hall. 



58 YALE. 

His philosophy and his theology, his imagination and 
his heart — a good deal of all of them can flow under 
the stimulus of that earnest, enthusiastic roomful of 
young men. Twichell, of Hartford, is often there. 
He has rowed for Yale and fought for Yale in the old 
days when the town ever threatened the gown. He 
was a fighting chaplain of the Civil War, and has 
rejoiced as few have rejoiced to live to see the day 
when there is neither North nor South. He has his 
army story always, and his college story; but more, 
Jthe personal magnetism of an orator, who quickly 
makes that audience feel his affection for them. Of 
such timber is this company of Sunday night talkers 
at Yale. McKenzie, of Cambridge, is also there; 
Burrell, of New York; Tucker, of Dartmouth; Beh- 
rends, of Brooklyn; Vincent, of Topeka; Richards, of 
Plainfield, and a long list of men of the Faculty who 
get nearest to students. 

President D wight himself is now and again on that 
platform. He keeps very near to the religious life of 
the place, not only by address, but by counsel and by 
generous gift. His name heads a score of different 
lists of contributors to different branches of religious 
work. There is also another side of his giving which 
is so closely affiliated with this work that it is worth 
while speaking of it here. 

It is often remarked that the President is not so 
iiear to the students as in the older days. It is true 
as to the great body of them ; but he is not distant from 
any whom he can help, and his personal benefactions, 
made where they can never be known, are almost in- 
numerable. It is in no small measure due to the 
President's kindness towards, and interest in, so many 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 59 

students, that he is always so enthusiastically greeted 
by the undergraduates when he comes in contact with 
them. They would naturally acclaim him with some 
spirit as the head of Yale, and they doubtless feel the 
value of his large services to the University; but a 
belief in his personal interest in them, despite his 
practical separation from them in all but the formal 
exercises of Chapel, explains the intense enthusiasm 
which has met him at such gatherings as .he war 
meeting in the spring of 1898. 

This Freshman's first Sunday is our legitimate 
theme. Back to it and him. He has had a genuine 
taste of Yale's religion; and then at half -past seven, 
or about as soon as that first Sunday evening meeting 
is over, he goes to the Freshman room on the first floor 
of the building. To this meeting every member of the 
Class is especially invited. Here the Freshmen are 
told how to conduct their regular Class prayer meet- 
ings, are given explanatory and straightforward talks 
on the religious life of the place and the organiza- 
tion of it, and those who are ready to take their part 
actively therein are enlisted in the service. The 
meeting is at once well contained and impressive. It 
is a good starter. Thereafter the Freshman, like the 
others, holds his weekly meeting on Sunday noon, just 
after Chapel, and studies his Bible on Wednesday 
evenings. 

The plan of the whole organization of the student 
life at Yale, particularly in the Academic Department, 
in things social and athletic, as well as religious, is to 
train and try men before giving them power. The 
Freshmen do not elect class deacons. These religious 
leaders — four in number for each academic class, thre« 



6o YALE. 

for each class in Sheff — are not chosen until the be- 
ginning of the second year at Yale. Their class 
religious interests are in the mean while cared for by 
a committee appointed from their own number by the 
superior officers of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, on the basis of information gathered from 
preparatory schools. The members of this committee 
are not infrequently continued permanently in office as 
class deacons; but this is not necessary, and the choice 
of outsiders is not at all uncommon. 

The class deacon system makes the working machin- 
ery of the voluntary religious life of the place. The 
office of deacon existed in the first century of Yale's 
life. The deacon of the close of the nineteenth cen- 
tury is an end-of-the-century development. The class 
deacon of to-day is usually a class leader. Piety is not 
the only requisite for the office. The list for the last 
fifteen or twenty years back has many of the names 
most known and most favorably known in the social 
life of Yale of that period. Just when the change 
came it availeth not to set down. I do not know just 
when. But I greatly honor the wisdom of Yale's 
religious officers, who laid down the rule and enforced 
it, until it became an axiom, that only the best men 
whom the Class could produce were the ones worthy 
of the office. As the choices were made from year to 
year, the traditions of the office grew in reputation. 
As the religious organization of Yale began its swift 
development in the eighties, the responsibilities of 
office-holding became a constantly increasing demand 
for a high order of ability and character. 

It was when the present system was still developing 
and at a rather critical period of its history, that the 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 6i 

men who were in control, being of virile character 
and energetic spirit, took things so firmly in hand and 
worked their good pleasure, which was always for the 
public weal, so unerringly, that the flippant began to 
talk of the "Dwight Hall Machine," the "Oligarchy," 
the "O. D. P.," whatever that may have been. The 
Fence gossip had it that an under-class deacon who 
broke orders or disturbed or threatened the success of 
the general plan was sure of decapitation, whether the 
Constitution provided for the process or not. The 
notion of an admixture of politics and religion so took 
possession of the minds of some of the members of a 
class that graduated less than eleven years ago, that 
they were moved to fight on principle anything which 
the " Dwight Hall Crowd " wanted. They were known 
as the Holy Pokers. The entire class was drawn into 
one or the other camp, as leaders of the class formed 
the nucleus of each. Meeting after meeting divided 
along the lines of Dwight Hall and Holy Poker. 
Sophomore societies took sides, and Sophomore society 
feeling in those days ran well beyond the second year. 
The social life of the class was not a little broken by 
the ungodly schism. It has passed into the forgot- 
tens now, both for that particular class and for the 
college, and there is little to suggest it in modern 
conditions. 

The deacons from all the classes are the governors. 
With the President, a Senior, are vice-presidents from 
the departments, and a permanent graduate secretary. 
The interests under the charge of these officers are 
so many and so diverse that it is no wonder that the 
Freshman is not considered ready to choose officers 
to conduct them for at least a twelvemonth after 



6i YALE. 

he comes to New Haven. These activities may be 
briefly enumerated without regard to their character 
as class or department or association work. 

Leaders and subjects are to be provided for the 
four academic class prayer-meetings and the one in 
Sheff each Sunday noon. These gather a total of 
about two hundred each week. A special committee 
must arrange the leaders and courses for seven Bible 
study classes meeting Wednesday night. Four of 
these are for the academic classes, led by picked men 
from each class; one is for the Scientific School, led 
by some member of that department; and there are 
three others, normal, training, and graduate, of which 
the last two are conducted by graduates or members of 
the Faculty. From two Ijundred to two hundred and 
fifty students and graduates are thus occupied in 
serious, systematic, helpful study every week. 

The work of the Deputation Committee has already 
been characterized. Twenty-two different deputations 
were sent out in the year 1897-8, including fifty dif- 
ferent men. The students take plenty of exercise in 
sturdy work, and the report of the City Missions 
Committee is always one of the most important of the 
year's records. This covers the work of supplying 
Bible teachers at missions, speakers at meetings under 
the auspices of the Church Army, the conduct of meet- 
ings at the railroad Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, and the holding of out-of-door services and jail 
services. It also includes the conduct of a perma- 
nent mission in one of the tenement districts, which 
is known as the Yale Mission. It has a good practical 
system of work, and will begin the year 1899 in a new 
building, especially erected for it, at a cost of ten 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 63 

thousand dollars, gathered by subscription among under- 
graduates, graduates, and Faculty. This city mission 
work is done by over a hundred students. Another 
work of the same general nature is done by the Boys' 
Club, which is conducted by members of the Fresh- 
man class. This also draws about one hundred students 
into the service. 

Besides all this, a Foreign Missions Committee and 
the Volunteer Band, the latter made up of those who 
have offered their services for the foreign field, en- 
courage by special meetings a general interest in the 
subject, and drill those who are planning to do this 
kind of work in a systematic course of study of the 
foreign field. These young fellows also send speakers 
to churches in and about New Haven and in different 
parts of the State. Fifty-five places were visited in 
this way in the year 1897-8 and ninety-one talks were 
given. At the Third International Convention of the 
Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 
held in Cleveland in February, 1898, twenty-seven 
students were present from the Academic and Scientific 
Departments of Yale. 

A mission Sunday School carried on entirely by 
the students, and independent of any of the city 
churches, except the College church, contributed in 
1898 from bond fide collections $51.55 to the Connecti- 
cut Institute for the Blind. The Superintendent of the 
Bethany mission in 1897-8 was the University Foot- 
ball Manager. He reported an attendance of over one 
hundred, and running up towards two hundred about 
the Christmas season. Not the least feature of this 
school is a series of entertainments, for which any 
students with a talent for entertaining by song or 



64 YALE. 

otherwise freely give their service. This work is 
systematically supervised. 

And there are still committees to report. Mr. 
Moody's Northfield conference is the rallying-point of 
many Yale men every year, and a committee gathers 
these men during the year and provides for their 
quarters and special life there. Yale has usually the 
largest delegation. Another working body is called 
the Committee on Systematic Giving. This com- 
mittee reported in the Association Record for 1898 
that it had not secured as much money as it wanted 
— a familiar conclusion for Yale money gatherers. 
It raised eleven hundred dollars up to the first of 
May, but wanted seventeen hundred dollars, — twelve 
hundred dollars for the support of a Yale Missionary 
in Japan and five hundred dollars for the Boys' Club. 

The name of one of Yale's earliest and most powerful 
friends is perpetuated among other ways by the Berkeley 
Association, which is the organization of the Episco- 
pal students. The members meet Friday evenings in 
Dwight Hall for evening service, or to listen to an ad- 
dress from some clergyman or member of the Faculty. 

To keep all the different branches of this work in 
harmonious activity, a superintendent, known as a 
general secretary, is chosen annually from the lists of 
recent graduates. The personnel of the general secre- 
taries, since the foundation of the office in the year 
1886, has been of a quality very sure to stimulate the 
work of the undergraduate oflficers. The election is 
made by the Graduate Committee, the permanent body 
of control of the Association, and is ratified by the 
undergraduate members and by the Corporation of the 
University. The secretary has permanent quarters in 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 65 

Dwight Hall and regular office hours there. Those 
who have held this office up to the present time are: 
Chauncey W. Goodrich, '86, 1886-87; William L. 
Phelps, '8y, 1887-88; A. Alonzo Stagg, '88, 1888-90; 
Clifford W. Barnes, '89, 1890-92; Henry T. Fowler, 
'90, 1892-94; William H. Sallmon, '94, 1894-97; 
Thomas F. Archbald, '96, 1897-98. 

It will go without the saying of it that the power of 
this general secretary is very great, and the facts will 
bear out the saying, that they have quite invariably 
made their usefulness equal with their power. Mr. 
Sallmon, who served for the longest term of any, left 
a record of activity and development of the system, 
that justifies the very high place accorded him among 
the religious workers of modern Yale. 

We started with the Freshman entering Yale and 
his first Sunday therein. Some of the religious life 
to which that first Sunday introduced him, and in 
which his later experience may have led him, has been 
plainly told. It is rather a long tale, but there is 
much to say. If one desires the whole story in the 
most compact form, there is another way of putting it. 
This was chosen by Dwight L. Moody in a brief inter- 
view, to which he submitted at a time when the Uni- 
versity was the subject of much adverse talk in a 
certain weekly paper. This was his summary of the 
case : — 

" I have been pretty well acquainted with Yale for twenty 
years, and I have never seen the University in as good a con- 
dition religiously as it is now. My oldest son graduated here, 
and if my other son, who is now in the Freshman Class, gets as 
much good out of Yale as his brother did, I shall have reason 
to thank God through time and eternity." 

5 



CHAPTER XL 

THE PROM AND THE PROM VISITOR. 

THE specifications of the Junior Promenade of Yale 
can be easily given, although they are of com- 
paratively no value for the understanding of the subject. 
The institution's outlines may be plotted ; but the in- 
forming spirit of the season must have indwelt with the 
reader by experience of the occasion itself or some 
allied interest, in order to secure an appreciation 
thereof. 

The Promenade itself, never called anything but the 
Prom, is in theory a reception given to their friends by 
the Junior Class of the College, and is the outgrowth of 
the old Wooden Spoon celebration. It is really a uni- 
versity function, under the particular auspices of the 
Junior Class. The committee controlling it is chosen 
by them early in their fall term. For many years, 
since the Scientific School has grown so great and its 
members have played important parts in such univer- 
sity affairs as athletics, there has been agitation for the 
election of certain men of the Scientific School to this 
committee. One may expect to see this suggestion 
adopted, and thus a long step taken towards greater 
Yale unity, when the School adopts the four-year course. 
Whether that will be soon or never, it is not given 
me to say. Many of the outside friends of the school, 
very many of its graduates, and nearly all the under- 
graduates want it. The sfovernincr board of these last 



THE PROM AND THE PROM VISITOR. 67 

years of the century seem strongly determined to pre- 
vent any consideration of such a change for the present. 
The ordinary reasons given for the change by the 
student or graduate are connected with just such inci- 
dents of college life as the Promenade. They believe 
it would open to the Sheff men a large part of the 
education which is given outside the curriculum by such 
a university as Yale, 

But as it is, the committee of nine are all Junior 
academics, and they are happy ones. A position on 
the committee is generally rated a considerable social 
honor. It is almost entirely a question of personal 
popularity, which is one reason why Promenades cost 
so much. The committee's plans for that one Tuesday 
night call for an outlay of upwards of five thousand dol- 
lars. A part of it, twenty to thirty per cent, is the cost 
of inexperience, and the expensiveness of one-year con- 
trol, which is not necessarily an argument for any other 
system. There is money enough to spend. In the old 
days the Freshmen, who were then, as now, carefully 
excluded from the floor the night of the ball, were 
taxed most extortionately for its support. The approx- 
imate bank accounts of the different members of the 
class were known to the committee in a wondrously 
short time, and it was considered quite within the pro- 
prieties to secure subscriptions of from five to ten 
tickets each (at $3.00 per ticket), though he who 
subscribed them could use but one, and that for the 
doubtful privileges of a spectator and the opportunity 
to take part in the football practice about the " stag 
counter " at supper time. 

The evolution of the college code of ethics, or the 
increasing sources of revenue from increasing classes, 



68 YALE. 

has stricken the Freshmen from the subscription lists 
of the committee. Incidentally the opportunities are 
thus diminished for the purchase of tickets by any one 
who had from twenty-five cents to a dollar, according 
to the state of the market, and who did not mind going 
to a function where he or she was not supposed to be 
desired. There is no great credit in elimination of 
Freshmen when the only difficulty of the committee is 
an embarrassment of riches. But anything which 
keeps down the crowd of stags, who must be fed from 
one to four suppers apiece, relieves the occasion of a 
certain excitement which comes from expecting an 
outbreak of hungry men. These are days of milder 
manners, perhaps. Time was when the construction 
and equipment of a room for serving the suppers to 
stags required the outlay of all the military and engi- 
neering skill the committee could command. The 
Second Regiment armory, where the Proms of ten 
years have been given, has elbow room and opportuni- 
ties for seclusion. It was different, when the Hyperion 
Theatre was engaged for this function. I remember a 
supper whose service was entirely interrupted for half 
an hour or more, as the result of a direct attack by 
rebellious Freshmen on the commissary train of Italian 
waiters, carrying enormous salvers over their heads, 
and proceeding in single file from the base of supplies 
to the boxes and dancing floor. 

The quartermaster of the committee at once sought 
the caterer, who had come himself from New York to 
superintend this difficult contract. He was not in the 
kitchen ; he was not on the floor. He was nowhere in 
the gallery. Discovered at last in the farthest corner 
of the topmost box of the theatre, he fell on his knees 



THE PROM AND THE PROM VISITOR. 69 

before the astonished Junior, and calling on Heaven to 
witness his agony, thus summarized the state of man- 
ners at Connecticut's ancient seat of learning: 

" You hire me to feed nine hundert ladies und gentle- 
men, and you attack me mit a tausend volves." 

The Junior Prom was originally held in February, 
cheerfully varying the monotony of the long winter 
term near its central point. The Faculty recently or- 
dered it back to within the first two weeks of that 
term, to the end that the continuity of intellectual effort 
might be the less interfered with. The great reception 
itself was held on Wednesday, and the incidental func- 
tions of the season completely filled the preceding 
Monday and Tuesday. The Faculty said in 1893 that 
two days were enough of a social season, and to that 
end named Tuesday night as Prom night. And 
now the regular functions, the Glee Club concert, the 
Senior, Junior, and Sophomore germans, all come 
within those two nights ; but the various teas and re- 
ceptions and small germans which are a part of the 
social machinery of the season, do not find place in 
those already crowded forty-eight hours, and the 
" trouble " begins, as some of the distinguished profes- 
sors would put it, on the Saturday night before. One 
result is a much greater show of female loveliness in 
Battell Chapel on Prom Sunday. The Sheff dances, 
which are given in the society houses of the Scientific 
Department, and the Junior Fraternity dances, given 
in outside halls, are on Saturday night, and are estab- 
lished parts of Prom week. On Monday and Tuesday 
these same Sheff societies give receptions, while one or 
two large teas are offered by New Haven people for 
the purpose of still further acquainting the Prom vis- 



70 YALE. 

itors with themsclv^cs ; for only a limited few have ever 
seen each other before, coming as they do from all 
quarters of the land. Receptions in students' rooms in 
the campus, ordered often on a very handsome plan, 
were once common but were later discouraged by the 
Faculty. Something of the kind persistently survives, 
for small receptions on the campus are constantly being 
given during these three days. 

People who hunt solutions with figures say that Yale's 
annual entertainment of the " Prom Girl " cannot cost 
less than forty or fifty thousand dollars, from which it 
is at once argued that sumptuary laws are in order. 
While there is no dift"erence of opinion as to the unde- 
sirability of any undue display of wealth, the campaign 
for Prom reform cannot be carried to any great length 
until it is shown that it is not possible to really partici- 
pate in the gayeties of the occasion, without spending a 
great deal, which is not now the case. The reformers 
will also gain a better hearing when they give up the 
remarkable assumption that a student who invites a 
young lady to the Prom is supposed to pay the travel- 
ling and hotel expenses of this young lady and her 
chaperon. There is every year more or less efi'ective 
work by the students themselves towards the reduction 
of expenses. The committee members pass an annual 
vote to send no flowers to their own partners, and they 
ask the rest of the college to follow their example, 
which request is fairly well honored. They hedge 
about the auction sale of boxes with various restrictive 
conditions to prevent the price of the choice of positions 
from running into three figures; but here they meet 
the insurmountable obstacles of a fierce demand and a 
limited supply. As long as there are young men sent 



THE PROM AND THE PROM VISITOR. 71 

to college with unlimited allowances or with special 
privileges of drafts for special occasions, the work of 
keeping their money in their pockets will always be 
difficult. 

The writer once attempted to tell the graduates of 
Yale something about Yale's January visitor. It was 
just after she had gone. The utter failure to even ap- 
proach the subject may carry with it to the reader's 
mind some suggestions of the position which the Prom 
Girl holds in the eyes of Yale. This is how he " fell 
down " : 

" Mr. Bromley has written wondrous things — all true — 
about the ' Girls in Blue.' The closing sentences of his toast 
are frequent and always welcome guests at the hour of reflec- 
tion. They people the smoke clouds with visions the former 
Laureate should have seen before he wrote sundry lines. At 
their bidding forms of loveliness appear in the embers' glow in 
the costly, untaxed palaces of modern Yale, while under the 
roofs of the humbler student homes of primitive days their in- 
fluence prevails to make the thumping radiator (at the cooling- 
off hour) a thing melodious, a kind of curfew, or a sweet-toned 
call to silent worship of that which is divine. 

"But why think of them now? How can one not think of 
them now? Would not Mr. Bromley's own lips move uncon- 
sciously in the rendering of them, if he had moved across the 
campus on one of those snapping January afternoons of the 
first half of the second week after the first Tuesday in term 
time? Perhaps he would write another 'Girls in Blue, — Years 
After,' with some particular paragraph for the ' Prom Girl,' 
which would forever after be the classic of the second term 
for all that part of Yale which was in any way susceptible and 
had therefore gone into debt. 

"But we have no Prom Girl in literature yet, unless we have 
overlooked her in some of those alleged portrayals of campus 



72 YALR. 

life which sometimes sell well and which we don't read. It 
makes not much difference whether or no she ever comes upon 
our shelves, so long as she comes before our eyes every year, — 
that is, it makes very little difference to those of us whom the 
gods favor with abiding-places near the fountain of youth. To 
you who go from Mother Yale to a mother lode in Klondike, or 
to the peculiar pursuits of ' greater ' cities, it may seem differ- 
ent, and to you it might be very pleasant to behold a word 
picture of this one challenger by whom alone Yale is ever 
and consistently overcome. 

" We are not going to give one. There is no genius in our 
ranks. Nor is it possible at such a time to take up the task. 
It calls for freedom and cheer and inspiration. And now we 
are hanging our harps upon the willows. For while we write, 
she goes, and the heart of Yale is sad. And all the University 
is in thrall — to her, and — to others. To landlords and land- 
ladies ; to tailors ; to them also that deal in fine linen and in 
kidskins and dogskins ; to violet-mongers ; to the monopolist 
who works the endless chain of hacks, and to many others. 
And the committee treasurer, as such, alone has left a bank 
account worth the book-keeping, and knows not how he may 
properly annihilate it. And at this in soberer moments you and 
I grieve and we will grieve again. We have some things to say 
in time. Sir Elihu's treasury department needs a permanent 
secretary, and all these various occasions of incomes and 
outgoes may yet harmoniously — 

" Please forgive us. To-morrow is soon enough for reform. 
Yale is not yet herself. In twenty-four hours more her sons 
will shade their classic brows with those bandless and bacterial 
slouch hats and be ready for the serious business of life. To-day 
is the day of sad and sleepy good-byes and sweet reflections." 

These Prom girls, these girls in blue, are a part of 
Yale, — a very important part. Why not hear of them 
now from one who really could describe them? We 



THE PROM AND THE PROM VISITOR. 73 

shall not hear from Mr. Bromley again on any of those 
themes of which Yale was glad to make him the orator. 
While this little volume is a-making his voice has been 
hushed. Hardly was it used more effectively than in 
these closing lines of his speech at the New York Yale 
dinner, given, ten years or more ago, to the rowing 
master of the Blue, Mr. Robert J. Cook : — 

" If I were to violate custom by alluding to the toast, I should 
try to say something about those unnamed and unnumbered 
' Girls in Blue,' — Yale's sweethearts, wives, and mothers. We 
are mistaken if we think we read all of history in books, or that 
we can see through any printed records the real springs of the 
world's movements. It is not statecraft, or commerce, or trade, 
or steam, or lightning, but love that makes the world go round. 
On a public occasion like this it is upon the altar of friendship, 
of college friendship, deepest of all, that v/e lay our offerings. 
But none of us forgets that there is still a holier shrine, to which 
we come unsandalled and alone. It is there that we get our 
truest inspirations, our highest purposes, our best resolves. 

" If we think we see all there is of this great drama in the 
movement of Kings, Presidents, Cabinets, Parliaments, and Sen- 
ates, or in the march of armies across the stage, we deceive 
ourselves. The ' Girls ' are there at the wings. It is for the 
gentle flutter of their approval and not for the hoarse applause 
of the world in front, that the actors work and the play goes on. 
Once in awhile a 'Girl' comes out and speaks her lines, — 
Miriam takes up her timbrel ; Deborah marches against Sisera ; 
the Queen of Sheba parades before Solomon ; a swarthy Egyp- 
tian Queen paralyzes Rome ; Joan of Arc saves France ; Eliz- 
abeth leads England to the highest places among the nations ; 
Victoria comes to her jubilee year no less loved by her own 
people than honored by all the world, 

" But the part of these and their like in making history is in- 
finitesimal compared with the countless army of girls in all 



74 YALE. 

colors, of all ages and all climes, who walk invisible between the 
lines with fingers on their lips. I turn the leaves of my Trien- 
nial, and forth there issues a long procession of heroes, states- 
men, sages, poets, philosophers, divines, who have helped to 
make the world wiser and all life sweeter. They are Yale's 
' Boys in Blue ' — all honor to them ! 

" Is it idle fancy that I catch the rustle of muslin and lace and 
hear the flutter of wings invisible, as a great host of unnamed 
' Girls in Blue ' float out from between the Triennial's lines, 
making the air fragrant with tender influences and pure exam- 
ples ? ' Girls in Blue ! ' Our color ! Color of the starlit vault 
above us and the deep sea that wraps us round. Color in 
which Bob Cook first dipped his dripping oar ; color that flut- 
tered in ribbon and scarf, when he first crossed the line. They 
are ' Our Girls ' who wear it, sweethearts, wives, and mothers ; 
forever sweet, forever young, forever ours." 



CHAPTER XII. 

YALE JOURNALISM. 

ALUMNI who have been back to Yale for a decen- 
nial or perhaps a quindecennial, can hardly read 
present day discussions of Yale journalism with satisfac- 
tion. If they were the editors of their time they will 
much less relish what is said to the glory of the present, 
which is almost invariably based on the ridicule of the 
past. The efforts at paper making of those times are 
treated at best with sympathy, and are generally con- 
sidered useful as furnishing a background for braver 
deeds of days of light. At a banquet of the "Yale 
News " in the spring of 1898, one of the younger 
members of the Faculty, who was on the " Lit." 
board of his day, chose to illustrate the change of ten 
years towards accuracy and respectable typography, 
by giving a report of a meeting in Dwight Hall as it 
would appear now, and as it would have appeared ten 
years before. Here is the report which the " News " 
would give now, according to Professor Phelps : — 

" In Dwight Hall last evening the Re\^ G. Middleton Pratt 
delivered an address on the subject of Christian fortitude. He 
said among other things that youth was the period of greatest 
temptation, and that men in themselves were not sufficiently 
strong to fight with their sins. What was needed was addi- 
tional force, the force of Christianity. Christianity is a perfect 
force. It is the only safeguard for youth. Before the address, 



76 YALE. 

Mr. G. Parker sang a baritone solo, ' Calvary.' One hundred 
additional names were added to the list of the Y. M. C. A. 
Any student may become a member by paying the initiation fee 
and by signing the Constitution." 

This well-informed critic thought that the attempt to 
set forth these simple facts would have resulted in his 
own time, ten years before, about like this : — 

" In Dwight Hall last evening the Rev. G. Middletown Prance 
delivered a dress on the subject of Christian fortunes. He 
said among other things of youth that the period of greater 
temptation was not those men who were efficiently strong to 
fight with their sons. What was needed was additional force, 
the force of Christianity. Christianity is a perfect farce. It is 
the only signboard for South. Before the address, Mr. Grand 
Ville Porker sang a baritone solo, ' Cavalry.' One hundred 
additional names were anted to the list of the Y. VV. C. A. 
Any student may became a member by paying the initiation 
free and by singing the Constitution." 

Considering the mental calibre of men who are now 
successful lawyers, doctors, teachers, business men — 
seldom newspaper workers — the writer dislikes to say 
that this picture of their efforts at newspaper making is 
accurate. It does recall a good many things that did 
happen and do not happen. The venerable " Lit." in an 
issue at about that same time spelled Matthew with one 
/, and thereupon one of the Senior editors of the " News " 
stayed an extra half hour in his office. Editorials were 
in hand in plenty, written by contributors, on the 
orthodox topics. But this Senior felt that he could 
afford to disturb the order of things. The Sophomores 
could as well be told a day later that the " News " felt 
it necessary to remind them of Freshman year debts. 



YALE JOURNALISM. 77 

even if that meant pushing over still another day the 
eighth appeal to the Seniors to answer the statisticians' 
questions, and caused a general demoralization of the 
program of the second page, which stood in order for 
as far ahead as an industrious consultation with old 
files could erect it, according to inviolable traditions 
which varied less than the stars in their courses. This 
over-zealous editor assumed the prerogatives of a radical 
chairman, brushed this heap of regulars aside, and con- 
sidered the degeneracy of the "oldest college peri- 
odical " with the largest calibred projectiles which the 
President's English affords. Then he went to Mory's 
and talked it all over quietly and confidentially but most 
seriously, with those who were fitted to give the first 
twists to public problems. His well-earned rest was a 
long one. He had just finished a noon breakfast when 
the " News " was distributed. He lit his pipe and 
opened the paper with the satisfaction of a victorious 
general contemplating the scenes of his army's suc- 
cessful fight. And he found his leading editorial so 
hopelessly pied as to leave only one point clear — that 
the " News " had attempted to criticise the " Lit." for 
a typographical error. 

There was no great reason then why such things 
should not happen, though the foreman and the print- 
ing-house proof-reader would generally stop the worst 
of them. The lack of system and lack of interest that 
made the breaks possible and left the daily paper of 
the college as stale as a catalogue, as far as news was 
concerned, was due to the feeling that the process of 
getting on the " News," which for years has been 
one of the most arduous enterprises to which Yale 
industry is subjected, entitled the successful competitor 



78 YALE. 

to a comparative rest — with an hour of so-called 
proof-reading now and then, or an evening of putting 
together such chronicles of history and digests of the 
news columns of the outside press for the preceding 
forty-eight hours, or week, or month, as the contributors 
had furnished. The men who wanted editorships, — 
there were always plenty of them, — would find out 
everything that was going on. The chairman of the 
Senior Board and the business manager were the only 
editors who worked. The former generally overworked. 

Every effort to raise the standard of the paper from 
the days of which Professor Phelps spoke to the present 
have been handicapped by the persistent presence of 
this feeling, that editorship does not mean work and 
responsibility, but only occasional and perfunctory 
superintendence, and the prerogatives and emoluments 
of office. 

The "News" was founded only in 1878, and lived 
its first months as an anonymous anti-society publica- 
tion. This was a discreditable piece of cowardice, of 
course. It is to be regretted, however, that, for nearly 
all the time since it has been openly published by a 
responsible board of editors, it has seldom ventured to 
assert in legitimate ways the absolute independence of 
those early days. For long years it wore not one col- 
lar, but many. The " News " did not discuss the ath- 
letic situation ; it expressed the opinions of the athletic 
managers. Social matters were treated, if at all, not 
from the standpoint of general Yale interest, but accord- 
ing to the desires of those who controlled things so- 
cial. The Faculty might be criticised on some points, 
on which the students were in practical unanimity of 
opposition. 



YALE JOURNALISM. 79 

This was not a conscious surrender of independence 
by any means. Had the editors been questioned, they 
would have told you that it was the business of a Yale 
paper to support Yale interests ; and that the people 
respectively in control of those interests knew what was 
best and were actuated only by a desire to advance the 
welfare of Yale. If you admitted the general accuracy 
of the last part of their reply, but answered that it had 
nothing to do with the case, your position would not 
have been intelligible. 

Within the last five years some very sturdy blows 
have been struck against this theory by the " News " 
itself The manliness and courage which have been 
shown in this direction make one of the best grounds 
for belief that the " News " is taking its place. It does 
not seem to me enough to say, as many say, and as I 
humbly believe they truly say, that no Yale man need 
fear to match Yale's daily paper against any similar 
sheet on the Continent. Its development as a real 
newspaper and its improvement in literary form are 
not, valuable as they are, its most hopeful signs. It is 
coming to its rightful place as the independent recorder, 
exponent and critic of the things that are done at Yale. 
The quality of the men who have of late been gathered 
into its editorial board and who have worked so hard 
for the upbuilding of the paper, is the best guarantee of 
its future along this line. The changes in the methods 
of competition for an editorship, which are still very 
onerous, but which do not so much discourage the 
efforts of those who are best qualified for an editorial 
position, work to this same end. 

There is hardly a paper published which has a con- 
stituency so eager to listen to it. Its power is very 



8o YALE. 

great, which makes it worth the while to look thus 
somewhat in detail at the conditions with which it is 
contending in its development into an ideal product of 
Yale brains and character. Its editors are fighting 
their own problems out after the Yale way, and much 
credit is due them. When the work shall all be done, 
no one of them will regret any effort he has made. 

The principle of equal opportunity is applied relent- 
lessly and, as some think, to an extreme, in the com- 
petition for " News" editorships. The trial time lasts 
for eighteen weeks, and at the end of each of these con- 
tests from one to three editors are taken from each 
class. There are nine editors of the " News ; " the rest, 
who are subordinate to them, are associate editors. 
The full number is recruited gradually from the begin- 
ning of Freshman Year to the middle of Junior Year, 
when the Seniors give over the paper to their succes- 
sors. The competition for these places is unrestricted, 
save by membership in the academic or scientific 
department ; the whole class may try for all the places 
open to that class. On the first day of the competition 
all the way from thirty to seventy students gather in the 
" News " office to receive general instructions from the 
chairman as to what is expected of them and what it 
is costly and unwise to do. The increasing list of 
don'ts, issued by " News " chairmen, and the size of 
penalties attached thereto, is one of the most cheerful 
signs of the times. If the chairman be zealous, he 
makes these gatherings of the candidates quite frequent, 
and works in as many individual interviews as he can. 

At the beginning of the race there are from five to 
fifteen candidates for every place, and for three or four 
weeks this stout-hearted and sleepless army holds the 



YALE JOURNALISM. 8i 

news centres of Yale in a state of siege. " Heeler " 
is the word at first contemptuously applied to the man 
who undertook the day and night drudgery of a com- 
petition for " News " editorship. The word is no longer 
slang, nor does it imply any reproach. One does not 
try for the " News ; " he heels the " News." So it is with 
the " Record " and the " Courant," and even with the 
august " Lit." The campus swarms with these heelers 
in the first half of the competition, and it is not surpris- 
ing that the association president or athletic captain 
soon follows in the wake of railroad officers, on the 
occasion of accidents. College officers treat them with 
scant courtesy, and it has come to be the way with many 
professors, to serve notice on the " News " that any infor- 
mation in their possession will be at once forwarded to 
their office, provided they be allowed to sleep, eat, and 
work free from the note book and the interrogations 
of the heeler. So an index expurgatorius is posted on 
the " News " bulletin board, and some unnecessary labor 
is saved. 

The heeler nuisance comes from the fact that each of 
these contributors is supposed, for all or a large part of 
his time of trial, to cover the entire field of Yale. Large 
public events are often excepted, being assigned to 
special " News " editors, but the great mass of an ordi- 
nary day's detailed happenings have to come into his 
net in one form or another. If they do not, some one 
will gain on him in the reports of work done, Vv'hich are 
turned in every night by the editor-in-charge on exten- 
sive blanks, prepared expressly for the purpose. The 
basis of calculation is the length of the article in words ; 
but this may be increased or even doubled, trebled, or 
quadrupled by its peculiar excellence of construction 

c 



82 YALE. 

or by its character as a scoop. The nightly credit of 
the active heeler will run from eight hundred to two 
thousand words. 

The plan of expecting every one to report everything 
means that the main material for the " News " is gath- 
ered from five to ten times over every night; that the 
contributor who has any hope of success must put 
from five to ten hours daily on this single college 
activity, which is of course at the expense of almost 
every other college interest and to the danger of his 
stand and his health. Reforms which have been ex- 
ecuted within recent years by such men as Stokes, the 
Masons, and Day, point the line of evolution of the 
future. Frequent examinations early in the competi- 
tion, on the basis of knowledge of the campus and of 
the history of Yale, news sense, and ability to put the 
English language together into clear and creditable 
form, will cut down the surplusage of would-be editors, 
leaving the same equal opportunity for those who show 
capacity for the w^ork. The reservation for editors 
themselves of the important events of the day will 
relieve the apprentice from attempting work for which 
he has yet to show his fitness, and will reduce the gross 
total of the day's labor, which must be divided by two 
or three to make the work sane. This latter result of 
a diminished total of work will be still further ac- 
complished by the assigning of heelers to special pieces 
of work, in which they may receive considerable super- 
intendence from the editors, and to which they may 
give more time and thought. The "News" itself has 
blazed the way for reform along these lines. As it 
pushes on the work, it makes itself stronger with the 
college community, attracts better men into the com- 



YALE JOURNALISM. 83 

petition for editorships, and still further justifies the 
things which are said in its favor by independent 
critics. 

The " News " is much more of the life of Yale than the 
average newspaper is of the life of its community. Its 
power, when it chooses to exercise it, is far greater. 
Whatever is before it, yet to attain unto, it has at least 
a clean record. It has not been given to persecution 
or offensive personality; it has not yielded to the temp- 
tation to say nasty or smart things about " foreign 
powers," just to please the fire-eaters of the campus; 
except in such inconsequential formalities as an official 
report of the condition of the crew, which no one can 
understand, it honors well the last half of the Yale 
motto. 

But there are other papers which are also of the life 
of Yale as well as being peculiar and effective parts of 
the Yale self-education. I remember that less than 
twenty years ago the " Lit." board was of the opinion that 
certain public functions of the Junior Societies, which 
had the supreme sanction of tradition, violated public 
rights by impinging on the sensibilities of individuals, 
and were further inconsistent with principles of esthetics 
and the proper considerations of a self-respecting dignity. 
The " Lit." was not in those days a publication with 
whose contents the University at large debauched itself 
— to borrow the expression of a New Haven lawyer, 
in describing his attitude toward one of the city papers, 
of which he claimed to be a consistent reader and in 
which he had confessed to missing one of its news 
features of two or three months' standing. Appreciating 
this fact, the editors of that year, having sanctioned the 



84 YALE. 

careful and verbose insinuation in its notabilia, or 
editorial department, of the sentiments above referred 
to, expected to hear from these remarks only in those 
select circles of " deep thinkers," as the men were con- 
temptuously described who discussed the University 
spirit, the Tolstoian philosophy and other popular 
" Lit." themes of the day. 

These same " Lit." editors were members of the Junior 
Societies, on whose grotesque rites of elective announce- 
ment they had made careful remarks. It was a rude 
revelation to them of the keen glance of the general 
college eye towards their peculiar doings, when, a few 
days after the " Lit." for this particular month was issued, 
they found themselves marching and singing, in their 
respective society regiments, with men who wore on 
their white robes such sentiments, painted in large black 
letters, as " To the lamp-post with Chi Delta Theta," 
" We have had enough of reform," " To hell with the 
' Lit' " 

The Yale Literary Magazine (which is always known 
as the " Lit.") may be much of the life of Yale, and not 
infrequently is. The leader, the first article in each 
number, and always written by a member of the Board 
and signed by him, is sometimes hard to understand; 
and again it is simple and direct. And it usually voices 
an honest sentiment or sturdy principle of Yale life, 
whose expression does good. For the " Lit." is listened 
to when it talks to the campus. It has made a great 
name at Yale, and men who shine in the alumni roll 
have been its editors. The Hon. William M. Evarts, of 
its founders in the Class of 1837 ; Donald G. Mitchell, 
President Daniel C. Gilman of Johns Hopkins, the 
Hon. Andrew D. White, Prof. Thomas R. Lounsbury, 



YALE JOURNALISM. 85 

Edward Rowland Sill, and many another worthy, has 
left the college-day expression of his literary feelings 
and his best intellectual aspirations between the dull 
red covers and behind the sturdy form of the Saint of 
Yale. The power that comes with an election by the 
class adds to the strength of prestige. The academic 
Juniors meet each February, and, having considered 
with some care the totals of articles by members of 
their class printed in the magazine, and with less care 
the quality of those articles, vote for the five men to 
conduct the " Lit." on behalf of their class. The out- 
going editors reserve all rights, and may altogether 
annihilate the results of the election. Until the class 
elections are approved by them, they are not valid. 
When any name or names on the list furnished by the 
class are not acceptable, the Seniors refer the election 
back to the class and ask them to try it again. If a 
reasonable number of efforts in this direction fail, the 
editors appoint whom they will. 

It is an anomalous situation — a class election which 
may be no election at all. But the records show few 
instances where the Boards have exercised their supreme 
rights. The spirit of the class is almost invariably fair 
and the judgment on the fitness of the candidates, 
formed by those who read and study, permeates the 
class quite thoroughly. Where the spirit of the elec- 
tion is the right spirit, and the choices and omissions 
are not distinctly bad, the board will almost invariably 
accept the election. It is considered worth some 
sacrifice to encourage the spirit of responsibility in 
the class. A clash between class and board in the 
latter eighties left the magazine in charge of but four 
men through the year, the appointee of the board de- 



86 YALE. 

dining to accept a position which his class was not 
willing to give him. About thirty years ago, a dis- 
agreement among the editors themselves led to the 
publication of two magazines each month, each calling 
itself the " Lit." 

The history, of Yale's monthly is the record of the 
thought and literary taste and feeling of undergraduate 
Yale for more than sixty years. Its policy has not 
always been the same, but has in the main conserved 
the idea of its foundation; its standard has been at 
different heights, but quite invariably set at an arduous 
altitude. The creditable desire to encourage originality, 
and to recognize the relations of literature and life, has 
led it in recent years to accept many fantastic and feeble 
creations, called short stories. But these digressions 
are to be expected, and the idiosyncrasies correct them- 
selves. The " Lit." is earnest and zealous in the name 
of literature, and it strongly stimulates undergraduate 
effort at expression and thought. For the contributor's 
training does not end with his own effort at com.posi- 
tion. If his work shows any ground for hope he may 
meet the " Lit." editors at certain hours and receive 
suggestions and criticisms from them. These may lack 
the breadth and accuracy of the Professor's comments, 
but they are sent home by those who are close to the 
age and the viewpoint of the contributor, and have 
but lately stumbled along the path which he tries to 
climb. The " Lit." heeler is not quite so much in 
evidence as to his trials and fears and labors as the 
hurrying, wan, dark-eyed candidate for the " News " 
Board. But he has troubles in plenty, and no one more 
appreciates personal sympathy and helpful suggestion. 
It would be, indeed, discouraging for him if his piece 



YALE JOURNALISM. 87 

simply came back to him with the mark "H" (that is 
for the hell box) or " P " (for Purgatory). 

" In my time," quietly remarked Professor Beers at 
a "News" dinner a few years ago, " there was no 'News' 
because there was no news. The College ' Courant ' satis- 
fied us. [Derisive laughter.] It had a brief and peculiar 
way of pointing the way to some item of interest. Its 
columns would contain the remark that * a painful rumor 
circulated on the campus last week.' When the editors 
were privately approached as to the substance of that 
rumor, they would perhaps inform us that McDougall 
was an ass. McDougall was the name of the editors' 
unpopular business manager." 

These remarks, which are very freely reported, were 
meant to be only suggestive. The " Courant " and the 
" Record," Yale's two biweeklies, have at different 
times overshadowed each other, since the days of the 
latter's establishment as a rival newspaper. Each has 
had various characters. The " Record " is now firmly 
established as the comic paper of the campus. Its wit 
is variable, like every publication of its kind, but the 
story of much of the nonsense that makes the academic 
shades so refreshing is to be found in its columns. 
Now and again it produces an artist or cartoonist of 
no little talent and much more promise, who catches 
sentiments and follies and ideas, and records them in 
the only way in which they can be recorded. Its staff 
is not infrequently made up in part of those who 
are also " Lit." or " News " editors. The editorial 
columns are fun pokers of a wholesome nature. The 
paper was quite thoroughly reorganized in the year 
1889-90, and its ambition and success have both been 



8cS YALE. 

considerably enlarged since then. It stands well among 
papers of its kind in other colleges. Yale is generally 
quite satisfied with the " Record." The paper is under 
the control of a Senior Board, which in latter years 
has run to nine members, with nearly as many more 
assisting from the under classes. 

The " Courant," established in 1865, and thus ante- 
dating the " Record " by eight years, had had, up to 
1896, a precarious existence for a decade or more. 
The development of the " Record " along its present 
lines seemed to leave it no distinct field, and it bore 
for a number of years the reproach of being the reposi- 
tory for rejected "Lit." pieces. Its editorial boards 
included not a few men of literary ability ; but it was not 
until the last three years that the paper made again a 
peculiar place for itself. The unusual number of men 
of literary ability in these latter classes supplied " Cour- 
ant" boards of very superior personnel. These men 
made a fiii-de-siccle product of the " Courant," with 
poster-covers, decorated margins, uncut leaves, short 
and clever stories, blunt, unusual comments, choice bits 
of poetry. The " Courant " has been considerably read 
since this innovation. Of its future it is yet too early to 
decide. Its editors, five in number, are now taken exclu- 
sively from the incoming Senior Class of the College, 
although Scientific men are often represented in at least 
two of the papers mentioned, the " News " and " Record." 

The peculiar publication of Sheff is the " Scientific 
Monthly," which, established in 1894, is mainly made up 
of scientific papers of intrinsic value with editorial com- 
ments on current events and news of the Sheff graduates. 
The editors are seven Seniors. 

In 1891 the Yale "Law Journal," the organ of the 



YALE JOURNALISM. 89 

Law Department of the University, was founded. It is 
published monthly by a board of seven editors, and has 
a permanent organization, in which distinguished alumni 
and members of the Faculty are represented. By this 
means an assurance is given of a well maintained stand- 
ard, and the editors are enabled to secure articles from 
high legal authorities. 

The Yale " Medical Journal," estabhshed in the same 
year as the " Scientific Monthly," has the benefit of a 
permanent advisory board, made up of officers and 
graduates of the school, who pass upon the technical 
accuracy of the " Journal's " contents and enable it to 
secure articles of value. Five students make up its 
editorial board. Its standard, like that of the *' Law 
Journal " in its field, is well maintained. 

There are two annuals, or year books, in the under- 
graduate departments, the "Banner" and the "Pot 
Pourri," while each graduating class of the College, of 
Sheff and of the Law and Medical Schools, has its 
class book. 

Of details one more, and a very important one, should 
be added. One of the recent benefactors of Yale, Dr. 
Andrew J. White, arranged, in presenting the dormitory, 
White Hall, to the College, that it should contain per- 
manent homes for the four generally circulating papers 
of undergraduate Yale. 

The offices of the " Lit," the " News," the " Record," 
and the " Courant," in the basement of White Hall, are 
both handsome and convenient, and add a great deal to 
the pleasure and efficiency of Yale editorial work, 

Yale journalism is loyal to Yale. The " News " edi- 
tors of 1 891-2 conceived the idea, then altogether new, 



90 YALE. 

of a paper for the graduates. The result was a weekly 
edition of the " News," with special features for alumni. 
The idea was at once popular, and became a source 
of considerable revenue to the " News." In develop- 
ing their own creation, the editors made financial 
considerations secondary, and finally, by turning the 
paper entirely over to the graduates, in order to more 
nearly realize their own ideal of it, they altogether cut 
themselves off from a source of considerable revenue. 
The " News " is still in editorial and business relations 
with the " Yale Alumni Weekly," and receives certain 
moneys from it. But these sums are arranged on the 
basis of the value of the services performed by the 
"News," and the arrangement might be terminated, 
should such a step for any reason be desirable, by the 
act of either of the papers. 

This Yale graduates' paper, the "Alumni Weekly," 
has a circulation of over four thousand, and it is estimated 
that it reaches weekly, for ten months of the year, two- 
thirds of the graduates of Yale, whose total is between 
nine or ten thousand. It is published to give alumni 
news of the University and of other alumni, and for 
the discussion of matters of particular interest to all 
the sons and friends of Yale. For the record of the 
doings of the alumni and their friends it is in constant 
communication with class secretaries and Alumni As- 
sociation officers in all parts of the country, having a 
list of about two hundred such correspondents. Though 
entirely independent of official control, it has the in- 
dispensable and cordial co-operation of many officers 
and teachers of Yale. Its editorial policy is decided 
by its editor, with the counsel of an advisory board of 
representative alumni. Two Yale men of previous 



YALE JOURNALISM. 91 

newspaper training give their entire time to it, while 
several news editors and contributors act as reporters. 
Five persons are regularly employed in clerical and 
other positions in its business and news departments. 
There is no public fund back of it, but it promises to 
justify in the near future the outlay necessitated in its 
recent development. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE REVIVAL OF DEBATE. 

IN January, 1892, the inauguration of intercollegiate 
debates between Yale and Harvard first called 
attention to the interest in public speaking which for 
several years had been steadily increasing in those 
universities. For some thirty years debating had been 
regarded with the greatest indifference by the stu- 
dents, who evidently believed in common with the 
public that the press had effectually supplanted the 
voice in the moulding of public opinion. This leth- 
argy was in marked contrast to the enthusiasm of the 
palmy days of Linonia and Brothers. Early in the 
century they furnished the chief diversion of the stu- 
dents from regular college duties, and the most promi- 
nent undergraduates were usually the ablest speakers. 
Yale graduates, conspicuous at that time for their 
ability in public discussion, gratefully acknowledged 
the value of their early training in these societies. 

The first Yale debating society of which there is 
any record was the Critonian Society, and of this 
nothing remains but the name. It existed some time 
previous to 1750. In 1753, the Honorable Fellowship 
Club, to be known later as the Linonian Society, was 
founded, chiefly through the efforts of President Clap, 
for the furtherance of literature and oratory in the 
College. In 1768, owing to a disagreement over the 



THE REVIVAL OF DEBATE. 93 

admission of Freshmen to Linonia, the society of 
Brothers in Unity was founded. In 1819 the election 
of an obnoxious Northern man to the Presidency of 
Linonia resulted in the withdrawal of practically all 
the Southerners, and the founding of the Calliopean 
Society. These three societies flourished with great 
success until about the time of the Civil War. In 
1853 they occupied elaborately furnished rooms in the 
upper story of Alumni Hall, contributing over one half 
of the total cost of that building. 

The opening clause of the constitution of Brothers 
deserves to be noted, — " The grand design of every 
moral action is to procure enjoyment. " If to hold an 
office is "to procure enjoyment," Brothers must have 
been a conspicuous success, for it boasted no less than 
forty-seven. According to the records still extant, 
the literary exercises consisted of orationsf composi- 
tions, the consideration of questions, such as "What is 
the square root of ^f ths ? " or " What is the reason that, 
though all rivers run into the sea, yet the sea doth not 
increase.' " quaintly recorded by the secretary as "very 
profitable and agreeable," and ordinary debates on sub- 
jects ranging from " Can a finite nature commit an 
infinite crime .'' " to "Ought old maids to be taxed.?" 
At one time plays were introduced, but they led to 
such hilarity that they had to be abandoned. 

The probable cause of the downfall of such power- 
ful societies has been the subject of much discussion, 
but it is not unreasonable to conclude that the wide- 
spread belief in the supremacy of the press referred to 
above, and the intimate fellowship offered by the 
secret societies, contributed largely to the result. In 
i860 interest in debating had practically died out. 



94 YALE. 

and about 1870 the societies were voluntarily dissolved. 
Tlie Linonia and Brothers Library and the Reading 
Room remain, worthy monuments of their dignity and 
power. 

For the next twenty years debating was almost 
entirely ignored. An unsuccessful attempt to revive 
Linonia was made in 1878. In 1884 the Pundit Club 
was organized, but perished with the graduation of its 
members. In 1887 the temporarily successful Assembly 
proved that interest in debating was growing, though 
not as yet strong enough to support a society. In 
1890 the Union in the College and the Kent Club in 
the Law School were established, and have flourished 
with uninterrupted and increasing success up to the 
present time. 

In 1892 began the intercollegiate debates, which 
more thali anything else have created the present 
interest in debating. Beginning as mere exhibitions 
without judges, they were changed in 1893 into actual 
contests for supremacy. Yale debated against Harvard 
twice that year, and both times was defeated. She also 
gave an exhibition debate with Princeton. The follow- 
ing year Yale met Harvard twice without success, and 
in the spring of 1895 lost to both Harvard and Prince- 
ton. It was the critical period in Yale debating. The 
taunt of " Harvard brain and Yale brawn" was receiv- 
ing industrious circulation, and the mutterings of Yale 
alumni associations throughout the country grew 
ominously loud. The Union passed through a crisis, 
resulting in the resignation of a president who had ad- 
vocated a temporary withdrawal from the intercollegiate 
contests. At last, in May, 1895, the Freshman Union 
defeated the Harvard Freshman Union in a debate in 



THE REVIVAL OF DEBATE. 95 

Alumni Hall. The storm of enthusiasm which burst 
forth at the announcement of this minor victory showed 
the deep resentment of the students at Yale's unfortunate 
position. During that summer, through the generosity 
of the alumni in New York, Buffalo, Hartford, and 
Stamford, Conn., and the cordial co-operation of Pres- 
ident Dwight, Calliope Hall was entirely refitted for the 
use of the Union, which up to this time had been meet- 
ing in a recitation room in Osborn Hall. 

The first meeting of the Union in the new quarters 
in October, 1895, was an inspiration to those who had 
been working long and hard for Yale's success. Pres- 
ident Dwight and Professors Charles H. Smith and 
Wm. Lyon Phelps addressed a crowded hall, and the 
enthusiasm was unbounded. On December 6 Yale 
won her first victory by defeating Princeton at Prince- 
ton. In the following May Yale defeated Harvard at 
New Haven, and found herself at last in the position 
she had striven so hard to reach. 

In December, 1895, a committee from the Yale 
Alumni Association of New York visited the college, 
inquired into all the facilities offered for debate, and 
made an exhaustive report to their association. Later 
in the year this association presented gold medals and 
congratulatory resolutions to each member of the suc- 
cessful teams. Such action did not escape the serious 
attention of the undergraduates, and greatly enhanced the 
dignity of the debating societies. At that time the Union, 
Freshman Union, an interesting series of inter-eating-club 
debates, and an excellent course in Economic Debates 
under Professor Hadley, offered facilities for debating 
in the college. In the Law School the Kent Club and 
the Wayland Club gave opportunity for ordinary debate, 



96 YALE. 

while the regular societies for the trying of cases gave 
similar practice. The Leonard Bacon Club of the 
Divinity School had just been organized, and was soon 
followed by the Sheffield Debating Society of the 
Scientific School. The Wigwam, recently organized by 
the Class of 1900 as a class society, has thus far been 
very successful. 

In the intercollegiate debates as now conducted by 
Yale, Harvard, and Princeton, one college meets annually 
each of the others. The contests are held in college 
halls, the different colleges acting in rotation as the 
hosts of their opponents. The home college selects 
the question for discussion, leaving the choice of sides 
to the visitors, while it also appoints the board of 
judges, subject to its opponent's approval. The decision 
of the judges is of course based entirely on the merits 
of the debate, without regard .to the merits of the 
question. The teams are composed of three men each, 
chosen by a series of competitive debates in their re- 
spective colleges. After a period of study and con- 
sultation, the Yale teams are taken in hand by Professor 
Hadley and Dr. E. V. Raynolds, who are chiefly re- 
sponsible for Yale's gratifying progress, subjected to a 
series of searching practice debates against " scrub " 
teams, and sharply criticised. It is soul-trying drudgery, 
but the teams emerge from it inspired by the confidence 
that they have already encountered every important 
argument which their opponents are likely to present, 
yet sobered by a full appreciation of the task before 
them. The officials of the debate are men of distinc- 
tion, who, by their presence at the contest, and by their 
speeches at the banquet which follows, testify to their 
gratification at the revival of debating. An examination 



THE REVIVAL OF DEBATE. 97 

of the record of recent debates will show the attendance 
as officials of such men as ex-President Cleveland, Hon. 
E. J. Phelps, Dr. Chauncey M. Depevv, the Hon. John 
D. Long, Secretary of the Navy; General Porter, Sen- 
ators Hawley and Grey, Governors Russell and Wolcott, 
General Walker, Dr. Lyman Abbott, Carl Schurz, Col. 
Higginson, Elihu Root, James C. Carter, William B. 
Hornblovver, Judge Henry E. Hovvland, and Presidents 
Dvvight, Eliot, and Patton. 

Many suggestions have been offered by interested 
alumni looking to the further encouragement of 
debating in the University. Some have advocated the 
existence of two great societies in the Academical 
Department rather than the one Union, on the ground 
that inter-society rivalry will intensify the interest ; but 
the intercollegiate debates consume so much time and 
strength that there is little energy left for college con- 
tests. It is interesting to note in this connection that 
the experiment of two societies tried at Harvard 'has 
just been abandoned by a re-merging of the two into 
the original Harvard Union, and that Princeton men 
complain of the serious interference of their Whig-Clio 
debates with the intercollegiate contests. Money prizes 
have been suggested, but they are of doubtful value, as 
their tendency is to glorify form at the expense of sub- 
stance. In the successful Yale teams of late no attempt 
to commit speeches to memory is permitted, for a debate 
is not a series of polished orations, but a battle of clear, 
incisive, vigorous argument, and the debater who pre- 
sents a set speech will find himself seriously embarrassed 
by an opponent who can readily modify his argument 
to meet any attack. It may even be doubted whether 
money prizes furnish any material encouragement. Dur- 

7 



98 YALE. 

ing the decline of Linonia and Brothers there were 
offered in one year forty-two separate prizes in money, 
and less than twenty men altogether presented them- 
selves to try for them. When the Thacher debating 
Prizes of $200, so generously provided by the Class of 
'42, were first offered in 1894 as an independent contest, 
they attracted no attention. It was found necessary to 
offer them to the successful competitors for the inter- 
collegiate debating teams in order to have an oppor- 
tunity of awarding them at all. The debater, like the 
athlete, works for the honor of his college rather than 
for self, and money is out of place. The great need is 
not for two societies, nor for money prizes, but for men 
of intellectual power, who shall place themselves in the 
hands of Professor Hadley, Dr. Raynolds, and the 
graduate coachers, that they may be taught how to 
debate ; and then that the great secret societies, which, 
by the conferring of their coveted honors can spur men 
on to work for Yale in any field, shall stand as ready 
to recognize the debater as they now are the athlete. 
No disparagement of the athlete is intended. His de- 
votion to his college and his labors in her behalf 
deserve as much as the work of any debater, and it 
would be difficult to overestimate the influence of 
athletics in creating a wholesome, manly atmosphere 
among college men. Many speakers at the recent 
banquets have declared their satisfaction at the rise of 
intellectual as opposed to physical contests. Mr. Francis 
L. Stetson, a judge at Yale's first intercollegiate victory, 
displayed sounder judgment, when, pointing out that 
the Olympic games were at their height when the art 
and literature of Greece were in their greatest glory, he 
expressed a desire to see " not less athletics and more 
debating, but more of both." 







Skull and Bones Hall 



CHAPTER XIV. 

TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 

TAP DAY at Yale is a custom as peculiar as any 
in all the life of the campus. The institution 
is one on which no two observers would follow in 
comment either similar lines or Hnes to any extent 
parallel. From the standpoint of spectacular interest 
it varies, according to the temperament of the observer, 
between the most impressive and the most ludicrous 
exhibition. From the point of view of Yale welfare, 
the custom is either applauded as one consistent with 
the best traditions of the place, or tolerated as the 
only known expedient for a peculiar occasion, or con- 
demned as undignified and inhuman. 

Tap Day, if the reader has not seen it, is the day 
on which the Senior year societies of Yale College, 
Skull and Bones, Scroll and Key, and Wolf's Head, 
publicly announce their choices from the Junior Class. 
The ceremony occurs on a Thursday afternoon to- 
wards the end of May. It opens at five o'clock in the 
afternoon, rain or shine. It takes from an hour to an 
hour and a half. It gathers along the new Fence in 
front of Durfee Hall, at the northern end of the 
campus, practically all of the Junior Class, from whose 
ranks the elections are made, and a large part of 
the rest of the University, — academic, scientific, and 
departmental, — with many of the Faculty and of the 
people of New Haven and of the people of other 



loo YALE. 

parts of Yaledom, even to remote points. The ob- 
servers are thronged in the windows of Durfee and 
Farnam and North College, on the steps and roof of 
Dwight Hall, and all about the open campus. 

Each of the Senior societies has fifteen members, 
and, beginning at five o'clock and at intervals of from 
two to four minutes, each of those members emerges 
from his society hall, and proceeds to the campus, walk- 
ing alone, recognizing no one. With solemn face he 
invades the densest part of the crowd, where the most 
likely of the candidates from the Junior Class are 
gathered ; finds the one particular man whose election 
to that particular society has been delegated to that 
particular Senior; slaps that particular man on his 
back; tells him at the same time to go to his room; 
follows that man through the crowd and across the 
campus to his room, wherever it may be, preserving 
still the same unbroken silence and grave countenance ; 
announces within the seclusion of that room, in formal 
language, the election ; leaves the room, the dormitory, 
and the campus, in the same manner and with the 
same demeanor, and returns to his society hall, not 
again to emerge until the formal breaking up of the 
regular gathering of that Thursday evening. 

As to the man himself, who has received this elec- 
tion, he usually returns to the campus and to his 
friends, to receive their congratulations, and to talk 
it all over, and to compare lists, and to ask whether 
Jim has gone here or Jack has gone there, — to be 
happy with this man and to be sad with that. 

This young Junior may have been a man most con- 
spicuous in the college world, for athletic triumph or 
scholarly achievement or executive ability in the 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. loi 

management of college affairs, or any other proofs 
of leadership. If so, his election has been recognized 
as deserved, and he has heard a fierce outbreak of 
shouts from his friends as he felt the slap of the Senior 
on his back. He may have been a man of fine char- 
acter, and of some ability, whose qualities were not 
recognized outside of a few of his friends, who have 
still been cherishing the hope that the lightning would 
strike him; or he may have been a popular favorite 
who, up to that point, had received scant recognition 
from societies. In either of the latter cases his election 
was deemed uncertain, and when it came, it brought 
all the more joy, and was acclaimed by the shouts of 
scores and perhaps of hundreds. 

Or, he may have been one of those particularly 
favored by circumstance, and who had quite well im- 
proved the opportunities of auspicious environment; 
not widely known, and not much in the minds of 
men outside of the limited number of his associates. 
In that case he does not hear so loud a shout as that 
which acclaimed other choices. But the chances are 
that, whatever the popularity of the candidate or his 
unpopularity, he himself could not tell you intelli- 
gently or accurately of the events of that afternoon. 
To him it is almost invariably the time of most intense 
satisfaction and of the most nervous excitement of 
all his college course. He has attained what is rated as 
the highest social honor of Yale College ; has become 
a member of a society of known reputation and stand- 
ing wherever Yale is known, whose membership is a 
membership of the honored past as well as the honored 
present. 

When this ceremony is all over, and for hours and 



102 YALE. 

for days afterwards, the University talks about it, and 
this society is congratulated and another is con- 
demned; one has raised itself enormously in popular 
esteem, another has given itself such a name as will 
curse it for years. The rankest injustice has been 
perpetrated here, and the finest discrimination shown 
there. The man who mingles among students after 
Tap Day, will hear these opinions expressed in turn 
about each and every one of the societies which have 
taken part in the ceremonies of the afternoon. Each 
will be sincere and honest, according to the lights of 
the observer, and in very few cases v^'ill they be dic- 
tated by anything like envy or disappointment. And 
yet, that afternoon has left in the hearts of a score and 
more of men as sharp and painful and deep wounds 
as perhaps they will ever suffer in all the battles 
of life. They have lost, generally for reasons which 
they cannot tell, that which they most desired of all 
the honors their fellows could give them. Their 
friends, and the college at large, have seen them con- 
spicuously fail. The decision is irrevocable. A pecu- 
liar mystery is closed to them, a peculiar experience 
denied them, and a certain choice and helpful associa- 
tion prohibited. There is no undoing it all. The word 
has been given, and judgment has been passed. 

And there are scores of observing men who feel that 
in refusing to honor with election these certain Juniors, 
the societies have condemned themselves and worked 
a gross injustice. Almost invariably these find in the 
list men whose characters or achievements they know 
for a certainty are below what their particular favorites 
can show, and their sense of justice is outraged. They 
will be the ones to talk long and bitterly about it all. 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 103 

As to the societies themselves, they will maintain, 
and their members will maintain, absolute silence. 
They will not answer in any way the criticisms or 
comments on their acts of choice. When another year 
comes around they will appear again on the campus 
in the persons of those whom they elected on this 
particular May day, and they will try again the ideal 
task of apportioning their honors with fairness and 
with propriety in a very large field of unusually strong 
candidates. And the men who have most bitterly 
criticised them this year will probably be on the 
campus to watch them work again, and will be ready 
with whole-hearted congratulations for those who are 
so fortunate as to receive their favors, and with cheers 
even when the choice is particularly happy. They 
will show by their participation in this indirect way 
in the ceremonies, that the societies have not lost 
position in their estimation. 

It is the fact of the almost universal interest of Yale 
in these choices, and the enthusiastic whole-souled com- 
mendation of the best selections, with sincere con- 
gratulations for those who are given elections, which 
proves that on the whole the societies are rated as 
doing their work well. As to the system itself, as to 
the mistakes in the application of it, and as to the 
different standards which each of the societies strives 
to work out, it is utterly idle to argue. There they are, 
at the end of the Academic course at Yale, conferring 
their laurels upon those who, they think, can best wear 
them; conferring their privileges upon those who, they 
think, will make the best use of them. They are falli- 
ble, but they are unquestionably honest ; and if their 
standards were not high, and were not on the whole 



I04 YALE. 

very well maintained in the recognition of the right 
kind of Yale character, they could never command the 
interest or the indorsement, expressed or tacit, of the 
institution, which they undoubtedly receive. They 
assume privileges which the College would not for a 
minute tolerate if their record did not command respect. 

If they were not in the main consistent with the best 
ideas of the place, or at least did not appear to be 
honestly trying to follow out the best interests of Yale, 
they would arouse a spirit that would operate in 
active and dangerous opposition. It might not take 
the old form, which prejudice dictated twenty years 
ago and more, of disfiguring buildings, of blocking 
the gates to rooms where candidates were gathered, 
of personal attacks upon the members as they re- 
turned from their halls, and other violent acts of that 
sort. The spirit of the times would probably indicate 
a different course, and it would be much more deter- 
mined and effective than any such measures. 

The way in which Yale regards these institutions is 
spoken of here simply as the most pertinent observa- 
tion that can be made upon them. It is not offered 
by way of defence. Whether the three Senior societies 
are considered to need defence or not, it is not a part 
of this book to give it to them. And, indeed, whether 
they deserve favorable or unfavorable criticism, it is of 
no use to give it to them with the idea of producing 
any effect. The Senior societies will be treated accord- 
ing to their deserts. If they keep abreast of, or, better, 
a little ahead of, the best principles of the place, their 
own prosperity is assured in the prosperity of Yale. If 
to any extent they run against any of the prime forces 
of Yale life, they are bound sooner or later to become 
objects of sympathy. 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 105 

But it is interesting to talk about them, because they 
are pecuHar institutions. It is often said in their behalf 
that, unless they were all right, they would not command 
as they do the enthusiastic interest of men who are 
known as among the very best men on the University's 
list, always supporting every good work in the name of 
Yale, always considering the general good of Yale. As 
to this argument, the writer does not think much of it. 
However deeply the graduate is interested in Yale, he is 
not often interested enough to definitely analyze the 
social life of the place. The prejudice of the intensely 
close association of undergraduate days, kept up from 
year to year and increased by acquaintance with suc- 
cessive generations, would go a long way towards off- 
setting any rational view antagonistic to the societies. 

On the other hand, the fact of the close connection 
which such men hold with the society in which they 
served their novitiate as little more than boys, is interest- 
ing as showing the strength of the life of those places 
and the way in which they have organized their members 
into close relations to each other and very close relations 
to the College. It is proper to speak of it, because it is 
a fact patent to any observer of New Haven life, even if 
he never went through any department of Yale. 

Again, one hears the argument of the Faculty's in= 
tense interest in these societies and their members, and 
the way in which they conduct themselves, as showing 
that they must be all right, and a healthful and helpful 
part of the place. Not necessarily, in the writer's 
opinion. It does show, however, that they are very 
strong factors in undergraduate life, and that through 
them, directly or indirectly, student sentiment and 
student standards are affected to a great extent. 



io6 YALE. 

The fact of this influence shows the societies to be 
peculiar institutions and very strong institutions, and 
we come back to the question : Why are they so strong, 
and why are their idiosyncrasies not only tolerated but 
respected? The conclusion that has been given before 
this seems to me to be the only answer to this question. 
They are on the whole true to the principles of the 
place. If we claim the Senior societies to be harmful 
institutions, we must very severely criticise Yale itself. 
But it seems to be generally assumed that Yale life is 
built on sound foundations. It is impossible to believe 
that through any fear, or even through inertia, the 
men who have come in and gone out of Yale in all these 
years would submit to that which they believed wrong 
in itself, or wrongly directed from the standpoint of 
Yale's best interests. The power of prestige and tradi- 
tion, safeguarded in the most impenetrable mystery, is 
great; but I cannot believe that it is great enough to 
overcome the honesty and the sense of duty to Yale of 
the young men who make Yale. 

One thing more about these societies, — and again, it 
is possible to say it, out of that knovv^lege which comes 
from common observation of Yale affairs. Graduates 
of the College and friends of the College are watching 
these particular institutions with rather more interest 
now than ever before. They are watching to see just 
how well they are going to play their part in the work 
of holding the big place together, and so keeping up 
that community life which is so very characteristic of 
the New Haven institution. If they meet these op- 
portunities as they should be met by any Yale institu- 
tion, their position in greater Yale will be what it has 
been in the Yale of the past. But if any idea of self- 




"«ga.-i;^-"i^ic^= 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 107 

interest, which is separated from Yale interest, begins 
to appear in the operation of any or all of them, it is 
sure that they will pass into a comparative or com- 
plete obscurity, and that something else — I do not 
know what — will play the peculiar part which they 
have played at Yale. I have my own opinion as to 
which of these alternatives is more probable, but that 
is not germane. 

Skull and Bones was founded in 1832, Scroll and Key 
in 1842, and Wolfs Head in 1883. A peculiarity of the 
latter is the fact that it has not only filled up its mem- 
bership list from year to year since its foundation, but 
has reached back to former classes, where often hind- 
sight has been able to operate better than the foresight 
of the older societies. It affords an index of the 
fcillibility in the way of omission, by even such carefully 
operating societies as those of Senior year at Yale, to 
note how many men of great strength and reputation 
Wolf's Head has gathered into its graduate list. These 
three Senior societies have their society homes, which 
are conspicuous features of the architectural side of 
New Haven, and which are located on High Street, 
College Street, and Prospect Street respectively. 

But Tap Day means taking care of only forty-five 
men. There are three hundred odd now in every class 
in the College. Forty-five is a very small number, and 
if this is for each man the only means for particular 
social connection with this place, the equipment is 
rather short, looking at it from a numerical standpoint. 

Yale's equipment is short; there is no denying that. 
(Remember that we are speaking now of Yale College.) 
There are Junior societies and Sophomore societies, 



io8 YALE. 

and there is a University Club; but no one of them 
furnishes any general rallying point for the students, 
and not all of them combined hold the place together 
in a social way. Many say that in spite of all this, 
Yale holds together, by the remarkable traditional com- 
munity life of the place; by the favoring system of 
instruction, keeping the classes together in the first 
two years ; by Fence life and religious life and dormi- 
tory life. 

This statement is largely true. The Junior societies 
are lively, interesting organizations. There are four 
of them : Psi Upsilon, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Alpha 
Delta Phi, and Zeta Psi. The first three are, by virtue 
of age and particular agreements among themselves, 
in the positions of the greatest power. It is customary 
for the campaign committees of these societies to di- 
vide up what they consider the available material of 
the Sophomore Class, and so apportion it that each 
society will " weigh up " about even with the others. 
They each take twenty-five men from the Sophomore, 
that is, the incoming Junior Class, the class adding in 
each case ten more at different times during the rest of 
the course. The societies announce their elections 
with peculiar and very pretty ceremonies on the Tues- 
day preceding Tap Day. Each society robes itself in 
its appropriate color, — D. K. E. in red gowns and hats, 
Psi U. in white. Alpha Delta Phi in green, — and 
marches with full ranks, double file, behind a large 
calcium light. Each man is supplied with more or 
less fireworks, which makes it seem rather more inter- 
esting as the procession trails its way in and out of the 
campus and to different rooms in the various dormito- 
ries where the candidates are quartered. Each member 



Zeta Psi 




Delta Kappa 
Epsilon 



Psi Upsilon 



Alpha Delta Phi 

Junior Society Halls 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 109 

also reserves his voice to be specially spoiled that night, 
by helping to sing the particular songs of his fraternity 
a little louder than either of the other processions can 
sing the particular songs of its fraternity. 

As these processions first appear on the campus, D. 
K. E. from behind Dwight Hall on the west — Psi U. at 
the north end of the campus between Durfce and 
Alumni, and Alpha Delta Phi marching from their 
chapter house on Hillhousc Avenue through the Pass 
of Thermopylae between Durfee and Chapel, — they 
make an unusual and attractive scene, and if it is a clear 
summer night the campus is thronged with hundreds, 
or even thousands, to sec the show. When the lines of 
these processions converge and intersect, the more in- 
tense parts of the scene are presented. Since the 
Junior society renaissance of three or four years ago, 
acts which are in any way undignified have been for- 
sworn. It was not more than ten years ago that athletic 
training was even more necessary than musical culture. 
Alpha Delta Phi had then no chapter at Yale, there 
having been some misunderstanding in the chapter or 
with the fraternity in 1870, which resulted in the loss 
of the charter. In those days Psi U. and D. K. E. had 
the ground to themselves, and their duel was a genuine 
one. The only costumes were any grotesque parapher- 
nalia which student wit could devise or student coin 
purchase of a costumer. A common armament was a 
stuffed club. A common aim was to get as many hats 
from the heads of the other fraternity as could be 
stuffed under a man's jersey. A common result was a 
lively rush, several times repeated, which was remem- 
bered in colors by the participants several days, or even 
weeks, thereafter. 



I TO YALE. 

Now, it is merely a contest of voice, and, as has been 
said, there is no contest in the selection of men. Then, 
there used to be the liveliest kind of campaigning, which 
went back even into Freshman year. The present 
arrangement, which is in the nature of a trust, was 
made necessary when Alpha Delta Phi, which at first 
returned to Yale in 1888 as a three-year society, accord- 
ing to the regular rule of the fraternity, was made in 
1895 into an orthodox Yale Junior society. Its long 
absence from Yale had lost for it, naturally, some pres- 
tige, and in a straight fight for members by campaign 
committees it would ordinarily have suffered for some 
time. The other two societies were quite willing to 
make the concessions for a general agreement in the 
choice of men, based on simply the rule of even ap- 
portionment, because they thought that Yale needed 
another Junior society and this was a way to get it. 

The fourth society mentioned, Zeta Psi, is not a party 
to this general agreement, on account of certain fra- 
ternity restrictions and for other reasons. It came to 
Yale in 1888 and built in 1890. It announces its selec- 
tion on the same night, and takes from ten to fifteen 
men from the Sophomore Class at that time. The 
number is not definitely fixed. It is increased by five 
or six elections given in Junior year. As at present 
organized it pledges no men before Sophomore year. 

The Junior society revival, which has been spoken 
of, was brought about by an intense desire on the 
part of representative men in the different societies to 
extend the social privileges that there were at Yale, 
in order to allow opportunity for social enjoyment and 
development to a large number of men who were then 
excluded. The revival at the time was very thorough- 




►J ^ 
O Q 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. iii 

going as to the spirit and rule and life of the societies. 
A great deal of money was spent in remodelling the 
old Psi U. and D. K. E. buildings, and making them 
very much more attractive inside and out. Alpha 
Delta Phi had an excellent building on Hillhouse 
Avenue, and these three institutions, it was thought, 
would play a strong part in Yale social life. Per- 
haps if we go back to the year before, we will see 
one reason why this hope has not been altogether 
realized. 

There are at Yale Sophomore societies. Twenty 
years ago any society below Junior year was pro- 
hibited by the Academic Faculty. There were societies, 
nevertheless. Men insisted on getting together under 
one guise or another, as a debating club or else in 
absolute secrecy. 'H fiovX-q was started ostensibly as 
a debating society twenty years ago. It took only a 
few years to make it a strong Sophomore society and 
to breed a rival. Eta Phi. Each one of these re- 
stricted its membership to seventeen men, and made 
its choices very carefully. By this great exclusiveness 
and the very mystery of existence under the ban of 
the Faculty, membership in them became a coveted 
privilege of Yale. From that time until 1895, when 
a third similar society. Kappa Psi, was founded, these 
were, practically, the only social institutions before 
Junior year. They were, and are, very much pat- 
ronized by their members in the Junior and Senior 
societies, and thus they furnish means of associa- 
tion between the different classes, which are rather rare 
at Yale. They are therefore immensely helpful and 
valuable to their members. 



112 YALE. 

They developed naturally from the first a great deal 
of criticism, which was much increased, and given espe- 
cially good cause in certain years, by the manner in 
which their members formed cliques and were sepa- 
rated from the rest of the class. Their campaign com- 
mittees were chosen always with the utmost care, and 
their work was always so very thorough that they suc- 
ceeded in gathering in their ranks a large proportion 
of the men who were bound under any circumstances 
to become prominent in their class. In all criticism of 
Sophomore societies this element of the rare judgment 
and thoroughness of the campaign committees' work 
is generally left out. But criticism continually increased, 
and more and more reason for it was admitted by the 
members of the societies. It became plainly incon- 
sistent to have three strong Senior societies, who were 
supposed to give the final decisive honors of the course, 
choosing forty-five members ; to have Junior societies 
choosing over one hundred members, and to have 
Sophomore societies offer the opportunities of social 
development and the chance to show what was in them 
to only thirty-four men. Naturally another society was 
finally organized, — Kappa Psi, in 1895. This allowed 
fifty-one Sophomores a chance to get together. The 
effect lessened the grounds of criticism somewhat, but 
the principle of a distorted social system remained, and 
it remains to-day. The competition for places in the 
Sophomore societies is strong, and however honest the 
efforts of the campaign committees are, it is impossible 
for them to guard against the influence of circum.- 
stances which forward the chances of men whose real 
character it is absolutely impossible to determine. 

The natural thing is to have in Sophomore, and per- 







r-. "^ 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 113 

haps in Freshman year, societies taking in a large part 
of, if not the entire class, who would be gradually sifted 
through the Junior societies for the final favors of 
Senior year. This is the way it used to be at Yale 
in the days of Delta Kappa and Sigma Epsilon and 
Gamma Nu, which took in practically all the class, and 
of which the first two, the most important, became 
so uproarious that the Faculty prohibited their exis- 
tence. History does not often repeat itself. It would 
be rather unusual if the problem works itself out this 
way. At least this is clear : that the society op- 
portunities of the first part of the course are just at 
present quite inadequate to the complete realization 
of the ideal of the society system at Yale ; that Sopho- 
more societies are very pleasant and valuable things 
to their members, but that it is another story when 
one looks at it from the standpoint of the common 
good ; that they will probably survive and prosper 
until something better is put in their place, on account 
of the ineradicable student instinct to organize into a 
secret society ; that the belaboring of the societies by 
the mimerous critics of to-day keeps the subject alive, 
but does nothing beyond that. 

Most people would be very glad to have no societies 
earlier than Junior year, on the ground that two years 
is a short enough time for members of classes to learn 
each other, and how to make proper use of the Yale 
life which is open and free to all, and towards which 
the societies should, and to a great extent do, occupy 
merely the position of ministering agencies. It seems 
to be generally assumed, as we have already said, that 
the Sophomoric spirit is bent on organization in ;?ome 
.secret form, and most people assume this in consider- 

8 



114 YALE. 

ing the problem, wondering what there is which can 
compete successfully with the Sophomore societies in 
their own field, and furnish to a large majority of the 
class just what the Sophomore societies deny them, — 
an opportunity for social development, for acquain- 
tance with those in upper classes ; in short, for an 
introduction into the social side of Yale life. It has 
been frankly argued in later years that Yale, to keep 
her big classes together in the old Yale way, and to 
favor the democratic spirit of the place, must have some 
great club. It is a very perplexing question, because 
it presents a condition where every instinct of organi- 
zation seems to be rather against the interest of the 
community life of Yale. The small organization of 
Sophomore year is certainly a very powerful one, and 
has proceeded with much more success on its way than 
any of the big societies of the older time. The small 
secret society seems to be the one that succeeds, but 
where it is planted early in the course and operates to 
exclude any larger and better organization, it conflicts 
with interests which are a thousand times more im- 
portant than those of any society. 

The Freshman year, having thus far for many gen- 
erations been kept free from societies, will probably 
be left free. As to the next year, it would not be sur- 
prising to see Yale soon take serious counsel with her- 
self. If the members of the Academic Department 
could agree on what the situation demands, there is no 
reasonable doubt that their plan would be executed, 
whether it meant destruction or construction or both. 
After all, as has been once said, but cannot be too often 
said, it is the general interests of Yale social life that 
are the first of all to be considered, and any society 




^ 
^ 



"5> 



> c^ 



< 2 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 115 

organization is only to be encouraged or tolerated in 
so far as it teaches men to better appreciate the life 
of the place and to better minister to it according 
to their ability. This is frankly proclaimed as the 
policy of every society of which the writer has any 
direct or indirect knowledge. If the best students of 
the xA-cademic Department in these last years of the 
nineteenth century take up this problem, and carry it 
through on the sole line of finding out what the social 
life of Yale asks for, and what can and therefore should 
be given to it, they will serve their day and generation 
well, and rise to an opportunity not always given to 
the sons of Yale. There will be a rich compensation 
for any sacrifices which this might demand from any 
individuals or sets of individuals. 

One definite improvement can be reported in con- 
nection with the Academic society system, ^ — and in- 
deed the society system of all Yale. The exclusive 
principle of membership has never worked more un- 
fortunately than in the relations of graduates to the 
place. It has always been a very pleasant thing for 
a Senior society or Sheff society member to return 
to Yale. He is at once ushered into the heart of the 
college world, through the friendly associations, in 
his society membership, with the very men who are 
most of that life. It has been a different thing with 
the non-society member, who has had the privilege 
of watching his society friend go to his hall, while 
he departed for his hotel or boarding-house. The 
Graduates' Club has come to fill this hole, and it is 
filling it more and more completely each year. In 
another part of this book something more is written 
of this very successful institution. Its basis of mem- 



ii6 YALE. 

• 

bcrship is the same with the university chibs of New 
York and other cities, but it is naturally a club mainly 
composed of Yale graduates and Faculty members, 
and it is becoming every term more and more of a 
rallying point for all alumni who are drawn to New 
Haven on special occasions or who happen into the 
city. 

One thing more about academic societies. It is 
sometimes said that they encourage " toadying." They 
probably do. Any institution by which one man 
receives honor and privileges by the vote of other 
men encourages toadying. But this observation is 
general. The particular question is how much this 
particular system at Yale, by its special acts and 
record, discourages the tendency which is inherent in 
the system. Of the answer to that, in the writer's 
humble opinion, there is no possible doubt. Now and 
then the toad gets something by toadying, but to any 
rational observer his records are the plainest danger 
signals in all the highways and byways of Yale life. 

And Shefif comes to the end of the century with society 
problems of its own on its hands, and with evidences 
of its attempt to solve them according to the common 
good. It is quite a different country in the Yale world 
over there at the other end of College Street. It has 
grown to be a very large country and a rich one, and 
it takes just as large a place in all that the Yale world 
is doing as a department can which runs on a three- 
year basis. If there is any one thing more than an- 
other that compels the admiration of Academics for 
their Sheff brethren, it is the way in which they hold 
to all university interests, and keep up, as they are 




York Hall 

Clii Phi Society House 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 117 

doing remarkably in these latter days, the class tie, 
and generally hold together, without the cohesive in- 
fluences which are a part of the natural conditions of 
old Yale College. There is no college dormitory life 
at Sheff, and the governors of the department do not 
seem to v/ant any. There is no F"ence at Sheff, — in- 
deed, they have no campus of their own, no innocent 
and ridiculous sports of their own. Sheff men are not 
sent to chapel every morning. They study together 
for one year, and so cement the class tie with consider- 
able strength ; but this is against two years in the other 
department. 

And as to societies, the lines divide there as sharply 
as anywhere. The societies are not for a single year, 
but for the whole course. Members are taken in Fresh- 
man year. They live together from that time on ; for 
each of the leading societies has now its commodious 
dormitory, where a large part of its members find their 
rooms quite commonly for the last two years of the 
course. 

This society system has two very different results. 
The societies, by bringing their men together and 
giving them common dormitory life, create just so many 
centres of Sheff life, which correspond to the common 
campus life of the Academic Department. These differ- 
ent society homes furnish the rallying places for the 
graduates who return for commencements and reunions, 
besides gathering them in at stated periods during the 
year in the secret conclaves of the society, after the 
fashion of the academic Senior societies. 

On the other hand, it is rather in the nature of things 
for a three-year society to operate against strong class 
spirit. It is not for one not a member of the depart- 



ii8 YALE. 

ment to say how far-reaching this effect is; but it is 
interesting to notice that two of the strongest of the 
Sheff societies — Berzelius, and Book and Snake — 
have recently moved on the time for receiving Freshman 
members from December of Freshman year to the end 
of the following May ; and it is even whispered that this 
may not be the latest move in that direction. Outsiders 
generally suppose that the principal reason for this is 
the inherent difficulty in selecting the right men so 
early in Freshman year. This fact has probably con- 
siderable weight, but not so much as seems at first to 
be the case, when it is remembered that these socie- 
ties do not bind themselves to take a certain number 
more or less at a certain time, as do the academic 
societies, but hold only approximately to the fixed 
figures, and in the case of more than one of them do 
not hesitate to add to their elections later in the 
course by choosing men who belong to the class of 
later developments. 

Another development in the society life at Sheff 
which will bear watching as the social life of the depart- 
ment grows, is the relation the societies occupy towards 
the Faculty of the school, treated merely as organiza- 
tions who have more or less control of their members, 
and who have it in their power to influence strongly the 
social standards of their community. There seems 
to be a growing disposition on the part of the Sheff 
Faculty to recognize in a quasi-official way the rela- 
tions of the society members of their societies. It is 
not an altogether new development, but has been 
rather more noticeable in recent years, until it now 
approaches the corresponding relations in the Academic 
Department. 




St. Elmo 
Delta Phi Society House 



TAP DAY AND THE SOCIETY SYSTEM. 119 

There is nothing hke Tap Day or Calcium Light 
Night in the society hfe at Shefif, and, on the whole, its 
society life outside of the dormitory feature is kept much 
more from the public gaze than is the case in the Aca- 
demic Department. There seem to be no out-of-door 
customs like those sanctioned by tradition in the College. 
The secrecy is, however, more rigid, in the case of most 
of the societies, than in any except the Senior societies 
of the Academic Department. 

The Scholarship Society of Phi Beta Kappa, whose 
members are those receiving the first grade of appoint- 
ments in the Academic Department in Junior and Senior 
years, has lately assumed a social character through the 
acquisition of a room in the basement of White Hall. 
This room has been very handsomely furnished by 
some friend who withholds his name, and is a very con- 
venient retreat at all times for members of the society, 
for conversation, or reading, or study. The stated 
meetings are now better attended. 

In Shefif, the corresponding organization, is the Yale 
chapter of Sigma Xi, established in 1895. Sigma Xi 
is an organization of considerable power and of no 
little virility. Indeed the manner of its control has 
excited something more than interest through the 
School, and particularly among its officers. The sharp 
difference of opinion is in the drawing of the line of 
membership so as to make it strictly " scientific." This 
ruling does not exclude men of other departments than 
Shefr, but does not include all those of highest stand in 
Shefif. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE COLLEGE DEAN. 

" T ET'S go and see the Dean about it." ' 

i — > There is hardly an hour of the day that these 
words do not fall from the lips of some one at the New 
Haven College. They express the initiative of enterprise 
and the last resort of effort. The sentence comes as the 
impulse of the heart, and as the conclusion of the head. 
It is one of the general rules of life at Yale College. 
It is an instinct of the place; it is taught by experience 
on the campus. It may be a manager of organized 
Yale interests, an athletic captain, a " News " chairman, 
a Glee Club director, or a Phi Beta Kappa president, 
who says it. It may be the humblest member of the 
Yale community in discomfort or doubt. 

What might be the result if Yale did not have a 
Dean, — such a Dean as now for fourteen years she has 
had? I dread to think of it. 

On March lo, 1898, Professor Perrin delivered in 
Brooklyn, at a banquet of the Yale Alumni Asso- 
ciation of Long Island, an address which told more 
about the institution of Yale than I have ever read or 
heard in speech, among all the responses to this common 
theme. I do not apologize for repeating parts of it here, 
and perhaps parts of it elsewhere. It is a summary of 
Yale, in these latter years of the century, — of the 
broader characteristics of the University. It speaks 



THE COLLEGE DEAN. 121 

with a clear understanding and in plain English of the 
great question of college government in these words : 

" What problems of government present themselves in such 
a community, such a combination of college and university ! 
This combination you will remember is set in a small city 
which votes license. The student community forms one- 
fortieth of the entire population of the city. It is put in the 
very heart, the ' congested part ' of that city. Of course, then, 
every ebullition of our folly thrills out from centre to circum- 
ference, and things which would not be noticed in a larger 
city, and could not happen in a small town, are speedily noised 
abroad. 

" But now, considering the unusual degree of restriction and 
requirement which accompanies Yale life, we must plead fer- 
vently for the preservation of the freedom that still remains. 
Such a community cannot be governed by direct legislation 
and punitive enactments. It is impossible. It is too large a 
community in the first place. It is too representative a com- 
munity. All shades of thought, all manners of living, all ranks 
and callings are here represented. It would be folly to try to 
fit over this community any system of law in matters where 
other communities exercise Christian liberty. Such a com- 
munity can be governed only from within, by appeals to the 
best instincts and sentiments of the community itself, which is, 
after all, an educated community. The community must be 
educated into governing itself 

" This has been achieved in high degree by the present 
Dean of the College, and it is his distinct contribution to the 
growth of the University as such. Whatever mistakes in 
government are made, — and it seems to many that the puni- 
tive element is often robbed of its due efficiency, and that the 
sentiment of the community often demands greater severity 
towards patent transgression, — these mistakes are in the ap- 
plication of a noble principle, not in the principle itself. 



122 YALE. 

Tiiere must, after all, be a large element of freedom in any 
healthy university life. Who can be trusted with freedom if 
not American youth? Of this healthy university freedom we 
may be very jealous, especially when it is under malicious 
and mendacious attack. It must be one of the priceless 
privileges of the place. Of it we may even speak with some- 
thing of the ardor with which Lowell apostrophizes the larger 
ideal of civil liberty : — 

Her, our delight, our desire, 

Our soul's inextinguishable star, 

Our faith, our remembrance, our hope. 

Our present, our past, our to be. 

Who shall mingle her life with our dust, 

And make us deserve to be free ? 

" ' The atmosphere of the Yale life is light and truth/ from 
of old. It must also be an atmosphere of freedom." 

There is the general outline. Men who have been 
on the campus in the last ten years can amplify it as they 
will. As they develop it, the central figure in the pic- 
ture in their mind will be the personality of the Dean of 
Yale College. About it will be grouped the incidents 
of their own lives, when they touched his; of their own 
large or small experiences. 

It is hard to do more than to suggest that picture. 
I cannot write of Yale without speaking of the Dean's 
office. Yet it is for a Yale man as though he wrote of 
his own hearthstone. Yale has been called a family. 
The Dean's office is the hearthstone of that family's life. 
Like all the best things of any institution, of any com- 
munity, this part of Yale has grown with the place and 
developed according to its needs ; and the community 
itself has furnished, for a man to fill it, one who has gone 
through all its best experiences and has grown up as 



THE COLLEGE DEAN. 123 

a part of that institution. By that it is not meant that 
this place or the man who has filled it are the conven- 
tions of the College. The Deanship of Yale has been 
the outcome of deep and peculiar needs. The Dean of 
Yale has been a man in the fore of Yale's develop- 
ment, guided quite as much by the large possibilities 
of the future as by the safe precedents of the past. 

It is quite consistent that the Dean's home — by that 
I mean the Dean's home for Yale, or one might even say 
Yale's home — is most unpretentious and simple, — a 
modest, brick house, just across the street from the 
campus itself. The move to these quarters was made 
within only a few years from the too crowded accom- 
modations of a dormitory room. The house before was 
the home of one of the great lights of Yale, a man 
of simple and noble life, whose talents added to his 
university's fame in two continents. 

And what can we say about that little room, except 
that the Dean is there from ten to one every day, and 
that the door is opening and closing almost every 
minute of those three hours ? The best story of that 
office is the story of its inviolable confidences. But 
you can sit in a chair and await your turn, and hear a 
good deal that is interesting, and supply from your 
own experience a good deal more that is much more 
interesting. 

It is five to one that you will not miss the sight of 
the usually blase Senior, with an impossible record of 
marks and cuts, seeking some privilege utterly outside 
the pale of statute possibilities. He may secure it or 
he may not. It will all depend upon the conditions 
of his case, which you and I do not know. Perhaps 
his confessor alone knows it. There is many a man 



124 YALE. 

whose real self is discovered by the Dean before he 
himself has any definite knowledge on the subject 
I hear a man speak of " fooling the Dean," and I laugh 
at the ludicrous suggestion. It may be that, following 
out a tradition which obtains with feeble minds, that 
man has been allowed to go from the office thinking 
that he has misled this wise observer, before whose 
discriminating eye thousands of Yale men have passed. 
Some day he will undeceive himself 

" The Dean is too easy," say some men. It may be 
— I do not know. I do know that he is always reaching 
for the truest, strongest side of the man, and that it 
responds to his touch more than to almost any other 
influence in this place ; that many men, who seem to 
impose most abominably upon what has been called 
his " weak good-nature," have offered, in evidence of 
his clearer vision, and as " fruits meet for repentance," 
after lives of manly force, of usefulness, of charitable 
helpfulness, which seem to have bended toward their 
better ends when they first felt that at least one man 
of clear head and great heart trusted them. 

You do not see all, sitting there in the office, — all 
that makes it possible for one to write this confidently. 
The most important business of that office is not con- 
ducted in the public reception room. But you can see 
a good deal there. The football captain has come in. 
Thornton, a good fellow, and superb full-back, is hope- 
lessly footless, — the captain does not hesitate to use 
the expressive vernacular in the Dean's house, — on the 
verge of suspension, and on the danger-line of scholar- 
ship. Can't the Dean do something with him? Cap- 
tain and coach and classmates struggle in vain. The 
Dean will see about it. No deposition sets forth just 



THE COLLEGE DEAN. 125 

what the Dean did, but if that man is not on the safe 
side of 2.25 on November 20, he probably is not of 
the right kind of stuff for a football team anyway. 

There comes the " News " chairman. The Freshmen 
want to elect a Fence orator. The class has been 
abominably reckless, conspicuous for repetition of the 
worst mistakes of their predecessors. The Faculty are 
holding over their heads one of the worst penalties 
known at Yale, — cutting out from their experience 
as a class this cherished and peculiar custom. The 
" News " chairman must secure permission for a meet- 
ing before they can have one, and must open it for 
them. They have asked him to do what he can for 
them, and of course he has gone right to the Dean. 

In the mean while, three or four members of the 
Faculty — well-known faces, familiar names — have 
come and gone. Theirs may have been routine busi- 
ness, or a consultation over some knotty case of dis- 
cipline. It is not improbable that they have come to 
the Dean's office hoping for a suggestion from him, 
which will be their decision. He will not take the 
responsibility if he does not think it belongs to him. 

And when the head of the Department of Philosophy 
has left, the Junior has his turn, for advice about a 
room. He can afford ^3.00, but he can't afford $3.50. 
Where ought he to go? Can the Dean tell him of 
some one whom he can get to room with him ? The 
Senior, near his graduation, follows. He is uncertain 
of his future course. His mind is bent thus and so. 
Would he better study here, and if so is there a chance 
for a scholarship ? What would the Dean think of 
teaching for a year ? 

Some graduate follows him. The morning's mail 



126 YALE. 

had brought news that the family of one of the bene- 
factors of the University intended to be present at 
Commencement. This man graduated in such and 
such a class. Those of his classmates who are at 
New Haven ought to make his visit as pleasant and 
attractive as possible, and for his family. He did well 
for Yale. The Dean states the circumstances to this 
graduate, whom he had summoned, and that is all that 
is necessary. 

And in the mean while, a multitude of applicants, 
supplicants, defendants, plaintiffs, and those seeking 
only information, have come and gone, having done 
their business with the Dean's first lieutenant, the Reg- 
istrar. The position was created a few years ago, and a 
recent graduate of the College, of maturity and good 
judgment, was chosen to fill it. Mr. Merritt's depart- 
ment handles the detail of the administration of the 
College, while the Registrar himself relieves the Dean 
of not a little of his personal labors. He handles the 
cases in a spirit quite in key with the traditions and 
standards of the office. That room is a very important 
place in Yale College, and the time may not be distant 
when it will yet more directly and powerfully, in the 
same spirit and under the same control, act upon the 
forces of the college life. But there has yet been given 
only the most imperfect suggestion of the Dean's work 
and ways. A recent example of them comes to mind. 

Army blue was not uncommon at New Haven in 
the spring and summer of 1898. You remember how 
Yale answered the call to arms. Those boys attended 
to business at Niantic, but when something necessary 
allowed them leave of absence, of course they were at 
New Haven first. And if they were in the Academic 




Professor Henry P. Wright 

Dean of the Academic Faculty 



THE COLLEGE DEAN. 127 

Department, and went back to camp without five min- 
utes' talk with Dean Wright, it was because they could 
not find him. Nothing ever showed the feeling of that 
man for those who came under him, and who were 
worthy of that feeling, more than his regard for the 
Yale Volunteers. I often talked with him about them, 
and, well as I knew the Dean, it was a revelation to 
me to see how constantly they were in his mind, and 
how close they were to his heart. 

I have practically never found Professor Wright alone, 
— unless I boldly invaded his home, when one of those 
cases had come up where one simply must see the 
Dean, no matter where you disturb him. I do not see 
how he corresponds ; but he does write letters, and 
while all the tents at the State camp at Niantic were 
leaking and the sun was not seen for a week, and 
equipment did not come from Washington, and the feel- 
ing grew that the War Department did not care what 
became of Light Battery A, there was one thing that 
kept up spirits and good heart. In some way or other 
messages came again and again from New Haven and 
Dean Wright to this man or that, and the letter went 
the rounds, and the boys knew that Yale's heart was 
beating for them. Upper classmen who had exhausted 
all cuts and marks, as is usual at that time of the year, 
used to come to the Dean with some stories or argu- 
ments for the special privilege of a trip to Niantic. 
They thought it would do them good ; they had some 
special business to conduct with some man in the 
Battery, et cetera, et cetera. They were seldom al- 
lowed to finish their explanations. The Dean would 
break in with : " Well, go on. Go for a day, — take 
two days if you can. Cheer them up. Make it pleasant 



128 VALE. 

for them. Those boys are giving up a good deal more 
than you or I reahze, and vvc don't know what is ahead 
for them. You can't make a mistake." The Dean 
wore army bkie thirty-five years ago. 

Before this book has gone through the press the 
splendors of peace have again been flung over this 
great land. But if Light Battery A had early received 
the orders for which its young hearts yearned, and had 
the final word been given which meant that Yale's best 
blood should flow, hardly one heart, outside of these 
boys' own homes, would have been heavier than that 
of their College officer, whose chief business, according 
to the technical constitution of things, had been to keep 
them within the statutes of this peculiar community, 
and to inflict the penalties for their transgressions. 

This may be saying more than one should say of a 
man of the present. But I could not have written this 
part of the book without saying as little as this. Some 
day there will be more to write, and it will be better 
written. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

YALE ORGANIZATION. 

CARDS had been sent out on twenty-four hours' 
notice for a meeting of the Jingo Club, and on 
a Tuesday night of early May a roomful of the younger 
instructors and some of the graduate students had rein- 
forced themselves with war spirit, in one of the cosey 
attic chambers of the Physiological Laboratory, the old 
Sheffield homestead. The Jingo Club had not named 
itself in obedience to an academic sense of humor. 
The country faced a foreign foe. These young Yale 
instructors and students were warm-blooded Americans. 
They felt their pulses beating a little faster, and were 
aware, at the sight of their country's flag, of a feeling 
which most of them had never experienced before. 
They wanted to get together and talk it all over. 

That they did, and with great thoroughness. They 
had no idea of doing anything particular. There was 
at first thought apparently nothing for them to do 
beyond thus getting together, in which they were simply 
following out what you might call a Yale instinct. 

The next day, as I left my house for the office, I met 
Henderson. He was looking for the editors of the Yale 
papers, graduate and undergraduate, — the Jingo Club 
had sent him. They sent him with the message that 
Yale ought to be doing something. Two or three days 
before, the Government had gathered into its Navy one 

9 



I30 YALE. 

of the fleetest of trans-Atlantic liners, and it had been 
decided to rub out the name Paris and put on the 
name Yale. The Jingo Club had been talking about 
that little incident, quite unique in naval nomenclature. 
The compliment pleased them. They rated it an ex- 
traordinary honor that the Government had made an 
exception to ordinary rules, and had given the name of 
a university, as though it were a part of the nation, to 
one of its fighting vessels. Henderson had said at the 
meeting that Yale ought not to waste any time in say- 
ing " thank you " in just as handsome a way as she 
could. The Jingoes told Henderson to ask Yale to 
say so. 

When he came to the editor of the " Nev/s," he found 
this custodian of the general interests of the campus 
world already planning something, and willing to do 
much more. He found that the Yale graduate paper 
had been asking for suggestions as to what the Univer- 
sity men should do, and was also ready to obey orders. 
When these three had made rough plans, they found 
that some Yale men, less than one hundred miles away, 
had already been thinking of the same things and had 
already made an offer to the Navy. And when the men 
in New Haven and the men in New York met and talked 
it over, they decided that all of the University's sons 
were ready to claim an interest in this boat which bore 
the name they loved so well, and were ready to pay for 
their stock, too. 

It is a part of recent history — a very modest little 
chapter in the stirring story of the spring and summer 
of ninety-eight — how this was all carried out; how it 
was decided to ask Yale men to give five or six thousand 
dollars by way of practical indorsement and acknowl- 



YALE ORGANIZATION. 131 

edgment of their country's act, adding perhaps a little 
to the service which their boat might render. And it is 
quite well enough known how the sons of the New 
Haven University, whether they lived in Maine or in 
the Hawaiian Islands, had only to be told that here was 
an opportunity to take a little part in the name of Yale 
in the work their country had to do, and then, how 
soon they had to be told that they could keep their 
money for something else, — that the sum was all gath- 
ered, and half again as much as was asked for was at 
hand, with nothing in sight to spend it for. 

To organize is, of course, to obey an instinct of the 
age. Graduates of all colleges are unusually ready to 
obey that instinct. But it is a fact that Yale men 
are considered peculiar among all their fellows of other 
colleges and universities in their very thorough way 
of answering this instinct. The organization of grad- 
uate Yale is accomplished in all parts of the Republic, 
and often under circumstances which are most adverse. 
When one remembers that these associations have 
never any more definite purpose than merely to get 
men together once a year or oftener, according to the 
possibilities of their environment, — to sing together, 
to talk it all over once more, — the extent of this or- 
ganization is not without significance. 

There are sparsely settled States in the West, with 
perhaps threescore graduates, all told, within their 
confines. From a third to one half of these men will 
meet at an alumni dinner at least once a year. They 
think little of going one hundred and fifty to two hun- 
dred miles for such a reunion. Colorado, California, and 
Indiana furnish examples of this sort of alumni organi- 
zation. Not less than thirty-five of these different 



132 YALE. 

groups of the graduates of Yale maintain an organi- 
zation, and effect reunions of substantial size and the 
most intense interest to those who attend. Probably- 
half of them arrange their meetings twice to three or 
four times in the course of a year. 

This spirit of close organization is on the increase 
rather than on the decline, as the University grows 
with the growing country. Graduates are gathering 
in closer to each other rather than being more scat- 
tered. While this fact has been clear to those who 
have watched the University closely, it is not an exag- 
geration to add that Yale's answer to the call for 
money for gifts to the cruiser was a very genuine 
revelation of the strength of this organization, and of 
the common tie to the fostering mother. Members of 
the committee who raised that money say that they 
would only have had to keep quiet and not discourage 
contributions, to make the sum that was offered them 
twice what they asked for ; and that if they had been 
given the word that it would be much appreciated at 
Washington, if Yale men could find it possible to place 
a battery of eight or ten 4-inch rapid fire guns upon the 
cruiser, it would have been not at all a difficult matter 
to have raised fifty thousand dollars for such an object 
in the space of a very few weeks. 

To be sure, there was the added instinct of patriotism 
freshly aroused and intensely strong at the time among 
nearly all Yale men. Right from their campus they 
offered a full battery — 173 strong — of the best blood 
of undergraduate Yale, and insisted, when this offer 
was refused, on placing in the ranks, in one company 
or another, more than a hundred splendid young 
fellows. As to the graduates, those who looked through 



YALE ORGANIZATION. 133 

such records as could be gathered by Yale's graduate 
paper, found that out of the six or seven thousand 
Yale graduates fit for service by age, — men all in busy 
life, under responsibility, and bound as close as any by 
every tie that makes home-leaving hard, — upwards of 
three hundred shouldered their guns. That was much 
higher than the usual percentage through the country. 

Yes, the Yale man wanted to do everything, just as 
every good American did, to bring his country glori- 
ously through its struggle; to end the time of war 
and bring back the days of peace. But this Cruiser 
Yale work was all a Yale sentiment. The Government 
was not to send this splendid vessel on her lonely work 
as scout without armament. Yale asked only to pay 
for the guns, and Yale men were willing enough to pay 
all that was necessary, just to know that a part of what 
the Yale was to do her work with was given by Yale. 
The quick overwhelming way in which they did it 
shows how close they keep to the place. 



R 



CHAPTER XVII. 

A REUNION. 

EPUTABLE men never make a more disreputable 
appearance than at a Class reunion. Their 
exercises are conducted under the favorable circum- 
stances of a sympathetic and understanding environ- 
ment. Most of the people who see them appreciate 
the motive and the spirit of their abandon. A few 
don't appreciate it. By this fact is understood the 
waggings of the tongues of local gossips in remote 
and quiet settlements; the disappointment over the 
dashing of an ideal. But let us not be concerned with 
the large crimes of slander, and the horrid uncharit- 
ableness of men — and women. We are going to a 
triennial at Yale. 

The formal exercises are all set for Tuesday of Com- 
mencement week. If you want all of triennial you 
must get there by the Saturday before. The skirmish 
line of the class prospects the city at that time. These 
men drop into town in companies of two and three. 
They are investigating the conditions, and they will 
be ready on Tuesday to report to the main army under 
what terms the metropolis of Connecticut is willing 
to capitulate. 

These early comers have sailed the stormy sea of 
life for all of three years. They have begun to learn 
something of the value of the minor coins of the Re- 
public — something of the necessity of treating the 




Class Day Harvard-Yale Ball Game 




Commencement Day Procession 



A REUNION. 



135 



intangible asset of credit with some caution. Some of 
them are now earning ten dollars a week mayhap, but 
at home they ride trolleys and bicycles like the rest 
of us plain folk, even immediately after monthly settle- 
ments. But they have reached the old station in New 
Haven, and one of the chief impressions of the days 
they spent there, alas and alack ! was to make immedi- 
ate, unsparing use of any present resources. The 
instinct of the undergraduate is to live so thoroughly 
in the present as not to allow any part of it to escape 
into the future. " Can't we get up a dollar in the crowd 
and ride up ? " — that was the old way. Nov/ these 
men are back with several dollars in their pockets. Of 
course they will " ride up," and fight for the privilege 
of paying the hackman, some well-remembered minister 
of former days, who perhaps floated their paper then, 
and looks for rich interest now. 

They hurry to their quarters, by which is meant the 
place where they spend the few hours devoted to sleep 
the next week. It may be in one of the Divinity Halls 
or the Graduates' Club. They cannot get there soon 
enough to suit their desire to shake off, at the earliest 
opportunity, the conventional habiliments of civilized 
society. The common law of the campus in summer 
is to keep cool, and no one is very particular about 
methods. Waistcoats are an abomination. White 
ducks are the favorite for trousers, and the thinnest 
madras or cheviot is the general rule for the shirt. 
If the man is wealthy enough to support a blazer or 
a golf coat, he will wear it. He may, under great 
provocation, appear coatless. There is a fairly regular 
resort to the laundry for the care of this costume, but 
the academic mind is not pernickety, and this moderate 



136 YALE. 

approach to godliness is not observed in the care of 
headgear. Antiquity, and the evidences of long and 
careless usage, are the particular attributes of the col- 
lege hat in New Haven in these latter years. In winter 
it is a slouch that may have been a light gray origi- 
nally, and probably had a band when it came out of 
the factory ; but the origin of its color and its equip- 
ment must be put down as obscure and impossible to 
trace. If men are going to triennial, they are getting 
back to college as quickly as they can, and so these 
things at once become part of their attire, as far as 
they are able to gather them from the wrecks of the 
past, or their imitations in the student shops of the 
present. 

But if they have not those disreputable old hats, 
they can devise something for the occasion. A white 
canvas, at perhaps a cost of twenty-five cents, may be 
the fashion, as a year ago. If these are on all the 
class, it will present, at the beginning of the ceremonies, 
a very neat and impressive appearance. At times they 
lay aside the stiff straws of style for hayfield broad- 
brims. This rustic touch makes subsequent proceedings 
all the more anomalous. 

By Sunday a goodly number of triennial men will 
have found each other. This discovery does not always 
take place in the chapel. The returning graduate is 
almost unduly impressed with the limited accommoda- 
tions of even the enlarged house of worship on the 
campus. Baccalaureate is for the graduating class, 
and for its fathers and mothers, aunts and uncles, 
brothers and sisters, and other people's sisters. They 
need all the room there is. It is very warm, and it is 
uncharitable to crowd them. But Sunday is unevent- 



A REUNION. 137 

ful. The early ones are just doing what any one does 
when he comes back to New Haven, — looking over 
the place again, visiting old friends, calling on the 
Dean, or taking a trip to the shore. They have not 
thoroughly assumed their character as members of the 
Triennial Class. 

By Monday they become considerably more formid- 
able in number, and begin to realize their particular 
assignment. By Monday night the situation is fore- 
boding, perhaps critical. What they have then is 
generally called a little game. Game is a word ap- 
propriated by the college vernacular for that which 
nothing in the President's English seems quite to fit. 
The generally unerring sense of slang, particularly of 
college slang, is not quite so apparent here. The 
underlying sense of having a good time, in any game, 
is about all that justifies the appropriation. There arc 
all kinds of games. The word means neither studied 
sobriety of demeanor and refreshment, nor does it 
mean any extravagant outbreak. Two or three may 
be in a game, or half a hundred, if there is room 
enough. A game is generally an impromptu aff"air. 
The whole company may be of the sternest type of 
cold-water ethics. It may be quite the contrary; or 
a combination of both. When men have a game at 
triennial they simply get out of the ruts and rules of 
ordinary life and back to the naturalness of the older 
days they spent in New Haven. They may open 
nothing with corkscrews, but they will open up them- 
selves and be their old selves and their real selves. 
They will begin to breathe it all in again, — that unre- 
strained, healthy, careless spirit of campus days. They 
feel themselves changing back again to the character 



138 YALE. 

which they supposed they had lost, but which was 
only dormant. 

The greater game will separate, before the evening 
is over, into smaller games. There is where this 
reforming process goes on still faster. Men speak 
right to each other. The cautious reserve slowly dis- 
appears. The distrust, bred of bargaining, vanishes. 
The better side of the men, the more natural side, the 
old college-day side, is again in their eye. They are 
ready with the same old extravagant eulogy. They may 
not be quite so ready with the same old extravagant 
condemnation. Professor Beers sighs for the " uncon- 
sidering, unhesitating scorn or enthusiasm of our college 
days, when every one was either a perfectly bully fellow 
or else a beastly pill." I think that when men come 
back to triennial, though it may take them time to 
unlearn the reserve which the sterner duties of life have 
already begun to force into them, it is also true that 
they show the better side of what the training of their 
life off the campus has been, — less of a readiness to 
convict for unpardonable sins. With this temperate 
charitableness, the returning enthusiasm of approval 
makes a rejuvenating combination. It makes a spiritual 
tonic out of the reunion. 

The man who runs the business meeting of the class, 
the Triennial Class, must be a Thomas Brackett Reed, 
unless he wishes to transform the business meeting into 
another number on the gayer part of the program. 
These men are back for the fun of life. It was a part 
of their college education to get the fun out of every- 
thing that went by. When they have been out of 
college ten to forty years, they may take a fairly con- 
servative view of business meetings. It is different in 
these earlier reunions. 




^ 



>=• rN 



A REUNION. 139 

You have probably seen the rest, — the triennial 
march to the baseball game in the afternoon; the 
peculiar evolutions on the Field before taking a seat; 
wild dances on the steps of Osborn Hall and up and 
down Chapel Street. What a ridiculous, crazy set of 
men they are ! It is n't only at triennial, when they are 
boys, but at sexennial or decennial as well, or even in 
later years. 

Perhaps you have heard of triennial dinners breaking 
up after the fourth or fifth course, with no chance for 
speeches. You have seen the procession come back 
to the campus handling cannon crackers as though 
they were snowballs; firing Roman candles into the 
crowd or the windows of the New Haven House just 
for the fun of it ; dressed in most negligee attire, — 
coats off" or linen dusters on, and some individuals with 
paraphernalia of their own. At triennial our class 
could not get through more than one of the eight or 
ten speeches which were scheduled, and the attempt 
to render that was like a competition with a 13-inch 
gun, — nobody heard it, and the man lost his voice for 
a week. Dinner was hardly begun before everybody 
was up and waltzing around the tables, making Omega 
Lambda Chi processions. There were not many things 
thrown, and I do not recall that any one walked up and 
down the table ; but if one could have introduced into 
the gallery of that hall a calm, judicious spectator, 
who had lived in anything but a university town all 
his life, he would have said, when the evening was 
over, that he had just been given a revelation of the 
ways of young America which sadly weakened all 
foundation for a reasonable optimism. 

This is told simply to allow me to add this : That it 



I40 YALE. 

is no more possible or reasonable to trace to alcohol the 
unclassified phenomena of those meetings than to 
ascribe to artificial stimulation the antics of a well-bred 
hunting dog treated to the first sight of a gun in the 
fall, after a summer in a kennel. The men who made 
the most noise, who traced the most remarkable curves 
in the march up and down Chapel Street, who were seen 
with champagne bottles in their pockets, were quite as 
likely as otherwise to be those who made total absti- 
nence a principle. I remember one man returning to 
his home after that incident, to meet the report that he 
was disgracefully drunk on the streets of New Haven 
in Commencement Week. He was one of the most 
ardent of triennialists, but to the personal knowledge of 
the writer, his indulgence in artificial stimulant at that 
time consisted of one swallow from the loving cup as 
it went around for the Class, and another as it went 
around for the Class boy. 

These reunions are not quite the uproarious affairs 
that they once were. They are becoming somewhat 
more moderate year by year. New Haven and the 
University are getting too large. The cannon cracker 
and the sky rocket are not quite so much in evidence. 
Men do not so often hire a band to play all the evening, 
and then drive them home as soon as supper is over by 
putting crackers down the end of the horns. But I 
doubt very much if any of us shall live to see reunions 
of the earlier years after graduation that do not give the 
impression, to one who does not know the feelings of 
the returning graduate, of boisterous and uncontrolled 
revelry, with alcohol as the main excitement ; and this 
would be true though effective prohibition had become 
universal. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE GRADUATE AND THE UNIVERSITY. 

THE old graduate — he is always called " old " — 
has had many more apologists than he has asked 
for. It is customary in much of the writing on such a 
place as Yale, to make a feature, in any description of 
an improvement or development, of a little reasoning 
with the graduate, who is represented at the outset as 
" kicking " about it because there is a change. The grad- 
uate is not necessarily a fool, and the Yale graduate is 
one of the last men to ask the world to stand still. 
Rather than to describe him as consistently opposed to 
change, it is more to the point to mention his unshak- 
able faith in the wisdom of any course, no matter how 
much change it involves. That is the characteristic of 
nine out of ten of the wide-awake alumni of Yale. They 
have pushed in on the College from time to time, asking 
for certain things, and at present, knowing more of its 
affairs than before, they more frequently inquire and 
comment ; but still rarely criticise. 

Back in 1869, when Commencement came towards 
the end of July, the Associated Alumni of Yale, as they 
were then called, appointed Professor Noah Porter, who 
became soon after President, the Hon. William M. 
Evarts, Dr. Charles J. Stillc of Philadelphia, and Pro- 
fessor Franklin W. Fisk of Chicago, as a committee to 
report on the advisability of a change in the charter of 
Yale which would allow strictly alumni representatives 



142 YALE. 

in the Corporation. As a result of this agitation the 
places taken by six State senators on the Yale Corpora- 
tion were given to the alumni. There have been 
sturdy enough Yale men in these places since that time, 
and they have taken very active part in the delibera- 
tions of Corporation meetings. But it is a matter of 
some question just how much effect they have had 
upon the government of the College, which is even to 
this day practically a one-man government, the Corpo- 
ration quite invariably authorizing any step which the 
Administration takes. 

The alumni are generally content with v;hat is done, 
and whether they have or have not particular faith in 
their representatives in the council, they think that noth- 
ing bad can result. This easily satisfied condition was 
not exactly what was aimed at, and, indeed, this com- 
mittee, in making a report on the change, concerning 
whose advisability they refused to commit themselves, 
made the principal point in their recommendation that 
no such plan as this was in itself at all sufficient for the 
proper co-operation of the graduates with the govern- 
ment of the College. The following paragraph from 
their report sufficiently indicates their attitude in this 
matter : — 

" The necessity is imperative that the Associated 
Alumni who meet at the annual Commencement, the 
several local associations which are organized at the 
great centres of population, the several classes who are 
united with the common mother by the strong ties 
which bind their members to one another, should want, 
and should devise and execute measures by which to 
receive and diffuse information in respect to the wishes 
and wants of the College; by which they can be 



THE GRADUATE AND THE UNIVERSITY. 143 

brought into active sympathy with the Faculty and the 
Corporation ; by which they can diffuse a general sense 
of responsibility for the progress and development of 
the College, and can contribute to the common cause 
their munificent gifts with honest pride and their 
humble gifts without hesitation." 

The passage is reproduced here as stating an idea 
which in recent years has considerably developed. It 
seems to be more and more taken as a view in uni- 
versity government, that the graduates should be as 
closely connected with the institution as possible. The 
graduates of Yale are organized in this respect, and are 
informed in regard to the University, the writer is 
inclined to believe, rather mere definitely than ever 
before. Alumni association meetings have come to be 
of more practical value by their reports from head- 
quarters. The reports of the President of the Univer- 
sity have become more detailed and have expressed 
more fully the plans of the administration. And the 
desire to keep in touch with the place is evidenced 
by the foundation and steady development of a weekly 
alumni paper. 

It is safe to express the opinion that the future of 
these relations will show them closer rather than other- 
wise, and with increasing tendency on the part of the 
Administration to take the body of graduates more and 
more fully into confidence as to management and plans. 
There has been some growth in this direction within 
recent years. 

The question has sometimes been seriously asked 
why the graduates of Yale, with all their fame for 
enthusiastic and loyal support of it, do not accomplish 
more in the way of adding to its strictly educational 



144 YALE. 

resources. They built with a good deal of ready gen- 
erosity a gymnasium that cost nearly a quarter of a 
million dollars; put their hands in their pockets for the 
cause of athletics very frequently and very deeply, and 
for such an enterprise as placing guns on the cruiser, 
named after their University, can be counted on for 
almost any amount. But it is not true that the grad- 
uates have stopped there. In recent years a great deal 
of money has come into the University treasury from 
her graduates, in such bequests as that from the Sloane 
Estate, the Lampson Estate, and such gifts as the 
Waterman Scholarships. The prediction is therefore 
hazarded — that the increasingly confidential relation 
between the governors of Yale and her sons will turn 
streams of money more and more plentifully from 
Yale's own ranks into her treasury. 

Graduates, as we have said, do not oppose changes on 
principle, and exhibit rather a flattering confidence in 
those who have the responsibilities of government than 
an inclination to distrust them ; but they do feel some- 
times, and it is their right to feel so and their duty to 
express their feeling, that there are certain elements in 
the makeup of a Yale education which men who are 
carrying that education into the heat and dust of the 
day, and making steady, trying use of it there, will 
appreciate perhaps better than those who live constantly 
in the quiet of the academic atmosphere, and before 
whose eyes are constantly held the ideals of the Univers- 
ity's development on the lines of pure learning. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

SOME OF THE WAYS OF YALE. 

"\T /"HAT sets the graduate's mind most quickly at 
^ * rest in regard to the unchanged spirit of the old 
place he loves, are just those things which are most 
likely to startle and perhaps shock the earnest visitor 
to New Haven, who knows only the fame of Yale as a 
fane of learning, and who is on the loolcout for the 
thoughtful and pale faces of those who are to lead the 
world's advance in years to come in things of the mind 
and of the spirit. This stranger does not find exactly 
what he is looking for under an old slouch hat and 
over a more or less soiled sweater, or under no hat at 
all, with the offsettings of a negligee shirt and a dollar 
and a half crash suit; and he is moved to a great many 
questionings and wonderings in observation of the dock 
weeds and the dirt and the worn fence and the weird 
games that arc the features of the academic shades. 

But when your graduate has finished his evening 
meal at the New Haven House, and, on strolling across 
the campus, hears first the fire bell and then finds him- 
self in the midst of bedlam, he thinks it is all right, and 
that Yale youth is as it was and as it should be, — that 
is, I suppose, spontaneous. He does not count it at all 
strange, when he hears a hundred windows go up on the 
first stroke of the bell and sees heads out from every 
dormitory, and hears these men, who have just started 
on their Virgil or their " Pol. Econ.," or Calculus, sud- 

lO 



146 YALE. 

denly bawling " Fire ! " to the limit of their lungs. He 
watches and listens with an interested smile, until there 
is a slight pause, followed by a gentle " All over," started 
by some sentinel in a remote cornei* and passed along 
the line. Silence follows in a minute, and Yale life 
seems to be pretty well organized, and much as it ever 
has been. 

A very carefully dressed and accurate young man, of 
one of the classes that graduated less than ten years 
ago, was quite strangely thrown on his back by one of 
his good friends on a summer evening, to be subjected 
to the first fruiting operation on the Yale campus. He 
was probably more surprised than he would be now to 
see some similar tragedy enacted on a younger brother. 
It happened just about the way all these things happen; 
that is, nobody knovv^s just how it did happen. There 
were a few minutes to do nothing in, so something un- 
usual had to be done. This accurate young man prob- 
ably troubled his excellent friends, simply by being too 
dignified, and so they decided that some indignity 
should be ofi"ered to him. How any one conceived of 
putting him on his back, undoing his coat, and cutting 
off the flap on the end of his shirt bosom, cannot be 
explained ; but this was done. And it was no sooner 
done than the offending part of his costume was placed 
on the end of the knife which cut it off, and the illustri- 
ous youth in the group who had secured the trophy 
held it aloft, shouted " Fruit ! " and rushed across the 
campus to a favorite elm in front of Durfee. The 
others followed, and in due order the shirt tab was 
tacked to the tree. And then this group continued the 
pastime fiercely that night, and fiercely for several days 
thereafter, on those who seemed most tempting subjects 



SOME OF THE WAYS OF YALE. 



147 



for operation, until twenty-one of these curious trophies 
were pinned together on one elm-tree. And the game 
came to be called, first " Elm Fruit ; " then " Fruit." 
For a goodly while thereafter any man addicted to this 
way of having his shirts made had reason to expect a 
visitation at any moment. The amusement is not one 
that pertains to this particular date, because it is more 
diverting to find other means of employment, and also 
because shirts are not made that way so much as 
formerly. But things of that same general class of 
unclassifiables do take place from year to year, thus 
demonstrating that the student nature is unchanged 
and just as "different" as ever. 

Nigger Baby, the pastime of god-like Seniors, still 
persists, and shows no sign of a weakened hold upon the 
thoughtful men of the graduating class. You have not 
seen the game? You must see it. It is hard to de- 
scribe it. Its first stages are a bit exciting. There are 
certain formalities concerning little holes in the ground 
and a rubber ball, which is rolled towards said holes. 
Somebody should be hit with that rubber ball, after it 
rolls into a hole, the ball being thrown by the owner 
of the hole chosen by the rubber ball for its resting- 
place. The man who is hit is scored against. If no 
one is hit, the man who threw the ball is scored 
against. The man who is first scored against three 
times must proceed to the east wall of Alumni Hall, 
pause within two or three feet of it, and then, facing the 
building, form himself into two sides of a square, of 
which the wall and the ground between his feet and the 
wall form the other two sides. Those who have pre- 
vailed against him — to wit, all the others in the game 
— take position by turn at a distance of twenty paces 



148 YALE. 

and propel the rubber ball towards the upper and east- 
ern angle of the square of which we have spoken. 
Three attempts to hit the mark are allowed to each 
thrower. Cries of great joy fill the summer evening at 
every successful throw. Agile baseball men like the 
game. It is less popular with heavy football players. 
After three shots apiece have been fired, and several 
more, the process of selection begins again with the for- 
malities at the holes in the ground. 

Seniors spin tops as of yore. They roll hoops little. 
They play ball. Ah ! yes. Senior baseball is a firmly 
fixed convention. It is the most typical nonsense of 
the Yale campus. I don't know what people expect 
to do with this when the grass grows green from Dur- 
fee to Vanderbilt, and a " playground " is established 
at a " convenient distance from the campus." Rather 
than to try to move the game to a carefully arranged 
piece of land, which is not the campus, it were better to 
move the campus. It is quite as feasible. 

The sport is called baseball. It is built on the princi- 
ples of the great American game, but its evolutions and 
variations would trouble the keenest analyst of amateur 
sport. Exempli gratia, football is grafted onto it at 
times, and the base runner travels behind perfectly 
formed interference. As many of the interferers are 
allowed to score as the umpire deems best ; it depends 
on the success of the finale at the home plate. Consist- 
ent with mass play in base running is the simultaneous 
and adjacent work of several batteries and batsmen. It 
is a great game, and a successful social rallying point, on 
special occasions, for the Senior class and all the other 
classes, who watch the matches from their fences. Sev- 
eral crops of thin, weak grass have within the last two 



SOME OF THE WAYS OF YALE. 149 

years been raised on various enclosed plots of the Yale 
campus. Will grass-seed ever venture upon the sacred 
diamond of Senior baseball? The gods forbid! The 
School of the Fine Arts at one end of the campus — 
Senior baseball at the other. Let them ever remain, 
two harmonious elements of the Yale education. 

These are only some of the things that are done by 
way of relaxation from mental strain. Of the fixed 
feasts, some of the older times remain, and some have 
passed away. The greatest of those that are gone are 
the annual ministrations of Sophomores to Freshmen. 
Hazing is no more. Gone are the tooth-pick crews, 
the forced oration and song, the blindfold performances 
of all description. No longer are Freshmen required to 
give running races and tugs of war and other athletic 
exhibitions by moonlight at the Field. Whether for 
better or worse these are of the things of the past. 
They must needs have departed, as the classes doubled 
in size, and the University and the city, both fast grow- 
ing, crowded each other. There was too much oppor- 
tunity for abuse and friction. With smaller numbers, 
and in the close neighborly associations of an academic 
department of six hundred men, all that was done was 
under the common eye and easily regulated. 

And another way of Yale has gone, and there arc no 
regrets. Better means are found at present of informing 
a tutor that he \=> persona non grata than the breaking 
of his windows, the sealing of his room's lock with 
plaster, and the shying of firecrackers into his bed- 
chamber. It is not now necessary to build the tutor's 
door more strongly for the expected attack. It is 
doubtfiil if there is more mercy in the modern signals, 
but they are less violent and more within the law. 



I50 YALE. 

College characters, by which phrase is meant the 
peculiar attaches of the University, — the fruit and 
peanut and popcorn venders, the hack-drivers, the old 
clothes' buyers, the money lenders, — ■ are not the same 
from generation to generation. They would not fill 
their place if they were only of a class. The wonder- 
ful vocabulary of Hannibal is attached to but a single 
tongue in a generation. The bluff heartiness which 
made Murray's familiar welcome never unpleasant, and 
made of him one of the boys, young and old, whom he 
carried, is not given often to a man whose business is 
only to drive hacks. Few have the talent of blandly 
asking for money for his unfortunate able-bodied self 
and healthy family, and getting it. They don't make 
Davys every few years. And in the life of an institu- 
tion there will be but one Mrs. Moriarity. Her tradi- 
tions may live after her for a season, but her kingdom 
cannot long survive herself. Both were products of 
the times in which they were. 

Just now the peculiar ministers to the peculiar wants 
of Yale men do not seem as interesting as those who 
have been on the stage ; but time will come when 
tradition shall fill wonderful pages on " Mose " and his 
unilateral games, which are played for the purpose of 
deciding whether he shall be permitted to go through 
the Yale man's clothes closet and take what he will, 
giving thanks, or whether he shall carry off a single 
pair of trousers and leave a quarter in the expectation 
of stimulating interest in speculation and doing better 
next time. Rattle on of your worthies of the past. I 
glory in Mose ! He is honest. Yet, when he goes 
reeling from the campus, under a load of English 
woollens, it is all Wall Street to a penny bank that he 




Pop '' Smith. 



" MOSE." 

Handsome Dan." 



Mlkray. 



Daw. 



SOME OF THE WAYS OF YALE. 151 

has but a few minutes before utterly annihilated the 
fundamental proposition of Sumnerian economy, that 
there are two sides to a bargain. " Mose " is a genius. 

"Pop" Smith is not like any others who have gone 
before him. I take off my hat to that toothless old 
man, because he has reached and now occupies a pecu- 
liar position as mascot for Yale teams, without leaving 
any ground for explaining why he is where he is. The 
impossibility of his achievement is his glory, and the 
days that are gone cannot match it. But if we speak 
of mascots, then surely let the voices of the past be 
still. Was there ever before a " Handsome Dan ! " 
These fin-de-siecle days have produced the most virile, 
picturesque, inspiring embodiment of virtues that make, 
and vices that are held back from marring, the Yale 
spirit. When Handsome Dan died, the sporting blood 
of America was chilled, and Harvard athletic first trem- 
bled, and then lay the lid of a thoughtful eye on the left 
cheek. Most Yale people saw this noble animal at one 
time or another. The editor of the " Hartford Courant," 
Mr. Charles Hopkins Clark, Yale, '71, saw him many 
times, and studied him carefully, at a distance, and 
wondered. When the news came, in the spring of 1897, 
of the death in England of this bulldog, who had won 
all the prizes there were for himself, and most all the 
championships in sight for Yale, Mr. Clark thus voiced 
his grief and admiration : — • 

" ' Handsome Dan,' who at one time was conspicuous among 
Yale athletes, has died in England. Dan was a bulldog, and 
he wore the blue ribbon. This marked his allegiance to Yale, 
and also indicated his 'Murphyite' principles. He never 
looked upon the wine when it was red, but was satisfied with 
blood. In personal appearance he seemed like a cross between 



152 YALE. 

an alligator and a horned frog, and he was called handsome by 
the metaphysicians under the law of compensation. The title 
came to him ; he never sought it. He was always taken to 
games in a leash, and the Harvard football team for years owed 
its continued existence to the fact that the rope held. 

" Dan was no stranger hereabouts. He spent a summer 
with a Hartford family, and was taken by them to the Adiron- 
dacks. One day he insisted on starting with a party bound up 
Mount Hopkins. Part way up the climb, Dan, who weighed a 
good many ounces to the pound, gave out. He was tied to a 
tree beside the path, and this party went on and spent the day 
on the mountain. No other party went up, however, that day. 
Other parties proceeded until they met Dan ; then they went 
home to report progress. He thought he was detailed for 
guard duty — and so did they. 

" When the summer was over Dan had to come home in the 
baggage car, while his adopted family had a through sleeper. 
After midnight they were all awakened by a loud notification that 
nobody in the Albany depot, not the bravest baggage-smasher, 
could persuade the dog to leave the baggage car, and either he 
must be abandoned by his friends or the car be abandoned by 
the company. When he saw a friend he readily came out, and 
the railroad was able to continue business ; but he took no 
advice from strangers. If he took anything from them it was 
their peace of mind or their clothing or their sense of comfort. 

"Dan left us for England some time ago, and Yale and 
America, practically synonymous, have both survived the sepa- 
ration ; hence his death will not be an irreparable blow. In- 
deed, his presence was always felt a good deal more than his 
absence ; and if he has gone to that heaven which some humane 
people think exists for animals, we venture the prediction that 
there is music just now in the bulldog corner." 

There are some ways of undergraduate Yale that do 
not change at all. They are ways financial. The un- 



SOME OF THE WAYS OF YALE. 153 

dergraduate's ignorance of the character of business 
transactions, and the moral issues involved in them, is 
appalling. A bill is not an obligation; interest is only 
a term in finance or economics ; time is not a factor 
in transactions ; a dollar has no antecedents and no 
destiny. Would that it were not so ! Lots of trouble 
would be saved, legal business reduced to a minimum ; 
blood-sucking usury would be less common ; a much 
smoother and more satisfactory co-operation would be 
shown between town and gown. It is not wise to make 
youth old, but the parent who has common sense and a 
reasonable care for his student son, will not let him 
go to college ignorant of the rudiments of business 
methods and honor. Carelessness and inexperience 
cover more than they should. But this begins to 
read like an essay. These are not essays. 

And this chapter is not a census. Who shall enu- 
merate the ways of Yale? Mr. Porter has given his 
sketches of Yale Life, and, being given the taste, his 
readers wanted more. Professor Beers filled a book with 
these ways of a single consulship, and wrote as though 
he had only touched his choice vintage. Judge How- 
land pours his stories of the old times and the new into 
" Scribner's," and when his next speech is used by Presi- 
dent Dwight to hold the crowd in stifling Alumni Hall, 
this capitalist presents an unimpaired surplus. The Glee 
and Banjo Clubs go rollicking over the country twice 
a year, and their harmonies and nonsense unlock 
chambers of memory, and "when I was in college" is 
the preface, from New Haven to Denver, of a thousand 
chapters of the vagaries and the joys of golden pasts. 
These few pages are only touches. If they start ques- 
tionings and recollections, they have done their work. 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE POOR STUDENT'S OPPORTUNITIES. 

SOME questions were being asked about a year ago 
about the poor man at Yale, — how he stood with 
his class, and how easy or hard it was for him to make 
his way and have both ends meet at the end of the year, 
with three terms of Yale training added to his capital. 1 
turned over the whole question at the time to one who 
was in Yale and had been given peculiar means of know- 
ing the place. His answer to the first part of the question 
did not surprise me. I should have been greatly surprised 
if he had answered it differently. In his enumeration, 
which he said was only partial, of the opportunities for 
adding to one's revenue while studying at Yale, he 
somewhat surprised those of us who knew only that 
there were many opportunities, and who had never 
stopped to compile a rough list. I shall follow here 
the answer as he prepared it for the Alumni. 

The true test of college democracy is to be found in 
the social position which the man of limited.means holds 
in the college community, together with the opportuni- 
ties which it offers him for development; and it may 
be safely said that never in the history of Yale have 
there been more chances for a poor student to work his 
way, and never has there been greater respect paid to 
an earnest man thus employed, than at the present day. 

The three heads under which the different means of 
self-support naturally fall are : First, those offered by 



THE POOR STUDENT'S OPPORTUNITIES. 155 

the Faculty; second, those arising from distinctively 
student enterprises ; and lastly, those of a strictly busi- 
ness nature furnished by enterprises outside the college. 

First of the aids given to worthy students by the col- 
lege authorities is the remission of the charges for tui- 
tion and incidental expenses. Through this means all 
but forty dollars of the term bill is cancelled, provided 
the applicant is regular in attendance upon college ex- 
ercises, and maintains a stand of 2.50 in his studies. 
Over thirty thousand dollars is applied annually for 
this purpose by the Corporation. There is also a small 
fund which is loaned to those in need of financial assist- 
ance, with the understanding that it be repaid as soon 
as the circumstances of the recipient will permit. 

The prizes awarded each year to undergraduates 
along different lines of study amount to over fifteen 
hundred dollars. While the main object of these is, of 
course, not beneficiary, they are a powerful incentive to 
poor men of a scholarly tendency. The Hugh Cham- 
berlain Greek Prize at entrance yields ^50. The Wool- 
sey Scholarship for excellence in the Latin, Greek, and 
Mathematics of Freshman year affords ^50 a year 
throughout the course, while the competitors who are 
second and third in this examination receive ^50 each. 
Berkeley Premiums are also given at the same time to 
those who do superior work in Latin composition. If 
the student is proficient in English or Mathematics he 
may try for the McLaughlin ($50) or the DeForest 
($300) prizes. Prizes are offered in Sophomore year 
for Latin (Robinson $100), English (Betts $50), and 
Elocution (^25). Li Junior year the Winthrop Prizes 
(^250) are awarded in ancient languages, the Scott in 
modern languages, the Ten Eyck ($i2o), and the 



156 YALE. 

Thatcher ($150) in speaking. There is also a second 
set of Robinson Latin Prizes for Junior and Senior 
years. In the latter year the Tovvnscnd ($50) and the 
DeForest ($100) are awarded for composition and 
speaking. There are also undergraduate scholarships, 
amounting to $2,500 (the Scott Hurtt, Waterman, 
Daniel Lord, and Palmer), which are given to men 
of excellent character who have shown marked profi- 
ciency in scholarship during the first two years of the 
course. 

A number of men are appointed each year to mark 
the attendance at Chapel and in the lecture rooms. 
This work of course necessitates that the monitor be 
always present. Monitors are paid about $30 each, 
and are selected from the application list. If a man 
has sung in the college choir for the year preceding, he 
also receives in his Senior year a small salary for his 
services to the College along that line. 

Perhaps the surest and steadiest means of self-sup- 
port, if one is capable, is tutoring. Efficient tutors 
often receive as high as two dollars to three dollars an 
hour for their services. This work was, for some time, 
confined to the lower classes, and those preparing for 
the entrance examinations, digests and summaries of 
lecture notes taking its place for the last two years. 
But a late Faculty edict has practically killed digests, 
which means tutoring all through the course. Enter- 
prising students have given lectures for a small admis- 
sion fee, reviewing the notes of the year or reading 
rapidly over the text covered in Greek and Latin. 

There are several ways of reducing the ordinary col- 
lege expenses. The College Dining Hall offers board 
at $4 per week; but the waiting list here is so large 



THE POOR STUDENT'S OPPORTUNITIES. 157 

that applications must be made early to insure seats. 
The Co-operative Association, managed by a governing 
board of undergraduates, has a large assortment of 
books and student supplies, which it sells for a trifle 
less than the ordinary cost at the city stores. There 
is also the Andrews Loan Library under the charge 
of the University Librarian, from which needy students 
by permission from the Dean may draw many of the 
text-books, subject to return in good condition. 

So much for the opportunities which the College 
itself offers to needy undergraduates. Many of these 
are of course dependent upon the maintaining of a high 
stand, but nearly all are within the reach of conscien- 
tious students of fair ability. There are, however, a mul- 
titude of chances presented by the student community 
which allow scope for very different types of ability. 

All of the undergraduate publications are managed 
on strictly business lines, and any surplus remaining 
after the expenses of publication are met is divided 
among the Senior editors. There are twenty-nine edi- 
torial positions on the four college papers (nine on the 
" News," nine on the " Record," six on the " Courant," 
and live on the " Lit.,") and these are filled by competi- 
tion which is open to all. The privilege of issuing the 
"Yale Banner" is awarded annually to the highest sealed 
bid submitted ; and this, as well as the " Senior Class 
Book," if well managed, will handsomely repay the time 
spent in getting out the publication. Nearly all the 
papers in the large cities have correspondents among 
the students, who furnish the college news for daily or 
weekly publication. Men possessing special literary 
or artistic ability find plenty to keep them busy in 
magazine work, and in illustrating souvenirs. 



158 YALE. 

The various eating clubs, run by caterers and land- 
ladies, furnish a large number of men with places to 
earn their board by waiting on table. Sometimes stu- 
dents act as carvers or collectors, and receive the same 
reimbursement. Clubs are also run by students them- 
selves, who not only get the men together, but do the 
marketing and detail work as well. 

Every fall there is an opportunity to solicit subscrip- 
tions for the college papers and the " Banner," and 
oftentimes to do collecting for the various athletic 
organizations on commission. An energetic person can 
make such work very remunerative. Students with good 
business heads are frequently engaged to take charge of 
advertising, and in the appointment of clerical assistants, 
ushers, ticket-takers, and the like, the different athletic 
managers try as far as possible to make their selections 
from the undergraduates. 

There is one field in Yale, and a large one at that, 
which is not at present half filled. The student who 
can do typewriting creditably will generally find plenty 
of remunerative occupation the year around. There is 
a constant demand for this sort of work, and at certain 
seasons it is wellnigh impossible to get work done, even 
at the city offices. 

Thirty years ago, before the Faculty forbade the 
issuing of anonymous publications, there were numer- 
ous clever schemes devised to catch the eye and arouse 
the curiosity of the college community. Some will 
doubtless remember the prints of the "Burial of Euclid," 
and the " Battle of Shirtzka," which were sold in the 
sixties and seventies. Burlesques on college publi- 
cations were frequent, and often had a large sale. 
To-day, though the attitude of the College towards all 



THE POOR STUDENT'S OPPORTUNITIES. 159 

anonymous publications is one of repudiation, there are 
many original devices adapted to the changed college 
life. Souvenirs of the Promenade and the football game 
fmd a ready market. Photographs of college characters 
and college customs, which escape the observation of 
the ordinary city photographer, are eagerly purchased 
as mementos of the life here. One enterprising student 
is at present paying his way as manager of a " pant- 
pressing " concern, while another, obtaining a happy 
inspiration from the condition of the New Haven city 
water, sells spring water from his own home in the 
neighborhood. An eye quick to appreciate student 
wants will devise many other practical schemes. 

The work which presents itself outside the College is 
of course so varied in its nature as scarcely to admit 
of comprehensive treatment. The care of yards and 
furnaces in private families offers a chance for many in 
the winter and spring. Soliciting for the different truck- 
ing firms, when the students arrive in the fall and leave 
in the summer, may also be mentioned. Students as a 
rule are engaged to read the meters in private houses 
for the gas company, and at election time they are 
the ones who are hired to distribute political literature. 
There are opportunities for teachers in the evening 
classes of the city Young Men's Christian Association, 
as well as in the night schools, and men with good 
voices can command fair salaries in the city churches, 
which also look to the College for the superintendents of 
their missions and boys' clubs. Undergraduates some- 
times do telegraphing, clerking, and elevator work, with- 
out interfering with their college exercises. 

In connection with the College Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association there is an employment bureau, where 



i6o YALE. 

men desirous of obtaining work may enter their names. 
There is no fee for registration, the only condition im- 
posed upon the appUcant being that he takes cheerfully 
any legitimate work which is allotted to him. The ser- 
vice which the Association has rendered in this way to 
the College during the past three years cannot be over- 
estimated. In a single fall over thirty applicants from 
the Freshman class received permanent positions. 

In conclusion it may be interesting to note the pro- 
portion of men who have worked their way through 
college wholly or in part in the classes 1892-1897, 
according to statistics in the Class Books : — 

'92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 Total 

Entirely Self Supporting . . 7 12 10 11 20 5 65 

Partially Self Supporting . . 50 38 51 41 50 41 271 

Total Number Graduated 173 1S2 236 244 2S0 2S0 1395 

It is interesting to note that four of the Junior 
Promenade Committee in 1897, men elected to the 
highest social honor which the class can bestow, had 
done something towards paying their own expenses. 
It is well known that no man is ever kept out of the 
various class secret societies because of his lack of 
means. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

"FOR GOD, FOR COUNTRY, AND FOR YALE." 

HORACE BUSHNELL, speaking at Yale at the 
Commencement of 1865, in honor of the sons of 
Yale who had fallen in the War of the Rebellion, and 
pointing out, under the title of " Our Obligations to the 
Dead," the great results that would follow from the 
shedding of blood, said : " Our young men are not 
going out of college, staled, in the name of discipline, 
by their carefully conned lessons, to be launched on the 
voyage of life as ships without wind ; but they are to 
have great sentiments and mighty impulsions and souls 
alive all through with fires of high devotion." 

Thirty-three years after this oration was delivered, 
the prophecy was justified. The long peace, the great 
prosperity, the gathering of much gold, had made some 
doubt whether or not the American nation had not begun 
to live " as by cotton and corn and trade, keeping the 
downward slope of thrifty mediocrity." The fear was 
nowhere more thoroughly repudiated than by the 
young men and the old men of the College, now the 
University, to which Bushnell had spoken. The night 
of May 20, 1898, is one not to be forgotten in Yale tra- 
dition or to be overlooked in Yale history. At twenty 
minutes after seven that evening at the College Street 
Hall, President Dwight opened a meeting without pre- 
cedent in the history of Yale. It was called to send 
the message of united Yale to her tmitcd country. All 



x62 YALE. 

of Yale was there to send it, by worthy delegates and 
by as many of them as could crowd into the old church, 
body, galleries, aisles, choir loft, and vestibule. The 
Yale undergraduate was there, full hearted and full 
toned ; and those who had been Yale undergraduates, 
one or fifty years ago, perhaps; and the teachers of 
Yale were there, — the Dean of the College and the Dean 
of the Graduate School ; professors from the Scientific 
Department, teachers of Theology, the Director of the 
School of Fine Arts, Freshman year instructors, and one 
of the creators and builders of the Department of Music. 

It was hoped that it might be a representative meet- 
ing. Those who had counted most and worked hardest 
for its success had nothing more to desire after a look 
at pews and platform. To make it perfect, Yale was 
there from the camp as well as the Yale that was still at 
home. Just before the meeting opened, two young 
men in army blue were crowded unwillingly forward on 
the platform, and from the great crowd in College 
Street Hall rose a long roar of applause at the sight of 
Lieutenant Weston and Sergeant Chappell of the Senior 
class of the Scientific School and of the First Connecti- 
cut Light Artillery. 

The old church was all red and white and blue. A 
great flag almost covered the space behind the plat- 
form, and others draped the galleries and the speaker's 
desk. At one side of the choir loft in the rear of the 
church were the members of the Second Regiment 
Band, and the seats directly in front of the platform 
were held by the Glee Clubs in full ranks. Glee Club 
and band were there for a good purpose, and accom*- 
plished that purpose well. From the moment President 
Dwight announced "America" as the first ceremony of 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." 163 

the evening, the meeting was a success. There may 
have been members of that audience who did not join 
in the national anthem, but they were obscurely hidden. 
When it came to the " Star Spangled Banner," later in 
the evening, the spirit was all the more intense, and the 
whole audience followed the full verses of that rather 
difficult piece for congregational singing, with splendid 
effect. For a closing song " Bright College Years " was 
sung. It had not before that been really sung, how- 
ever superb have been the efforts of Glee Clubs to ren- 
der it. The old church shook with it, and when the 
last line was reached the great audience took time and 
emphasis like a trained club and rolled it out in such a 
volume that people stopped on the streets blocks away 
to listen. 

" For God, for Country, and for Yale." This last 
line, sung with such an emphasis and impressiveness, 
was the text of the whole meeting. President Dwight 
closed his brief introductory address with it, and set the 
applause going for minutes by the very happy expres- 
sion. The Rev. Dr. Lines made his most effective 
point in emphasizing the righteousness of the cause of 
the war, and made his most effective appeal to the Uni- 
versity audience present in asking them to use all their 
means and influence, whether they were at home or 
afield, to hold the country throughout the war, and 
after its close, true to the consecrated cause of the 
struggle. In Professor Perrin's closing address the one 
glowing thought was the subordination of every other 
need to the country's need, which, as he said, should 
close the University if occasion came, and the splendid 
affirmation of the principle that, whatever else a parent 
or a teacher may do in guiding young men at this 



i64 YALE. 

crisis, they never could afford to check or blunt the 
spirit of patriotism. 

The meeting was called to hear the report of the 
Cruiser Fund Committee and to formally present the 
guns and the colors ; but that was the least it did. It 
listened to the report and was audibly pleased to hear 
that Yale, despite a policy by the Comm.ittee of dis- 
couraging subscriptions when the work had hardly 
begun, had increased the total asked for by fifty per 
cent. The meeting listened to the reading of the reso- 
lutions with the closest interest and applauded them to 
the echo, and stood up as one man in favor of their pas- 
sage. But what these Yale men were there for was to 
express, as well as words and songs and cheers can ex- 
press, a feeling which came to them when they found 
their united country facing a common foe, and which 
had grown stronger and deeper with them with every 
day that had passed. That is what gave the ring to the 
cheers, the thunder to the applause, and the soul to the 
songs. 

The Yale cheer never played its part so well as on 
that evening, except, perhaps, when at the Commence- 
ment following it broke all precedents and all bounds 
and resounded through Battell Chapel at the mention 
of the name of the President of the Republic as a 
candidate for a degree from Yale. The inspiration 
was the same in both cases. 

This is the speech of Professor Perrin at this May war 
meeting, — a very clear expression of the Yale feeling 
towards the nation at a time of war : — 

" In the Old World, in Italy and Spain, they are closing uni- 
versities because the students are rioting against the government. 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." 165 

In the New World, in New Haven at least, we fear we may 
have to close the University because its students are thronging 
in such numbers to the. support of the government. In the 
earlier days of my manhood those who, like me, had been born 
too late to take part in the great Civil War, used to bemoan 
the fact that no great cause was likely to appear in our day 
which would stir our souls as the souls of the men of sixty-one 
had been stirred. There were political and economical issues 
enough, but somehow they did not warm us. And lo ! before 
our eyes, which were long blind, a great cause has been slowly 
evolving itself, — the cause of humanity against inhumanity, of 
progress against decay, of civil and religious freedom against 
civil and religious repression, of the nineteenth against the 
sixteenth century. And now again the land is full of ardent 
youth offering themselves up in their country's service. 

"It is needless to deny that many of us, undergraduates. 
Faculty, and graduates, deprecated war, and felt that war might 
have been and should have been either postponed or altogether 
averted. All honor to such conservatism ! But the day for 
conservatism is now past. When a government of the people, 
by the people, and for the people, after much longsuffering 
and under great provocation, deliberately, with full legislative 
process, and with a certain majesty, appeals to war to right the 
wrongs of others, all voices of criticism and dissent must cease. 
Alexander, still conquering on the outer verge of the world, 
received a letter from his regent in Macedonia, rehearsing at 
great length the caprices and intrigues of the queen mother 
Olympias. ' Lo ! ' said Alexander, ' Antipater knoweth not 
that one tear of the mother's eye will wipe out ten thousand such 
letters.' So one call from our country for fighting men to help 
her must drown all voices of complaint and chiding. 

" We all hear this call of our country for men to help her, 
and we all respond. But we cannot all respond in the same 
way. We cannot all go to the front in uniform. Some heroes 
must remain behind ; and oftener than not it is real heroism to 



J.66 YALE. 

remain. The dull round of common daily duties never seems 
so dull and common as when beloved comrades march away 
from us in the pomp and pageantry of. war. Theirs is the easier 
duty. All the martial inheritances of a fighting and conquering 
race light up their faces and thrill their souls as they file away 
from us crying, ' du/ce et decorum est pro patria mori^ Yes, 
but the plough must still be sped, seed sown, harvests gathered, 
mills run, the great machineries of commerce, justice, and 
legislation must still be kept moving ; our schools and colleges 
and universities must still train and educate. Happy heroes 
are they who face the brunt of the issue in the strenuous service 
of the camp or on the red edge of battle. Not unheroic are 
they who keep the old appointed path of duty in earnest and 
manly endeavor until some second, louder call shall come for 
fighting men. Then we '11 close the University, if necessary, 
and give the grass on the campus a chance to grow. 

" A college officer is not expected to get patriotic inspiration 
from a lot of ' sick excuse ' papers. But such was recently my 
lot. After reading several of the too customary sort, E drew one 
from the weekly pile which brought me to my feet standing, as 
the men of sixty-one were brought to their feet by the guns 
fired at Fort Sumter. 

" ' Dear Sir,' it read, ' Mrs. X and myself appreciate the 

fact that our son has overstepped the bounds of college disci- 
pline in his absences. We appreciate also the kind leniency 
of the Faculty in the case. The cause is all around us, in the 
minds of all, in the air. While we share in his enthusiasm, and 
may pardon ourselves if we think it inherited to a certain extent, 
the need for soldiers is not yet so apparent to us as it is to him. 
It is, however, assuming too great a risk for us to check in this 
boy too rudely a sense of duty which carried his father through 
four years of war, and which brought his mother's two brothers 
to their graves from gun-shot wounds in the War of the Rebel- 
lion. We must have a little time to think of this matter, and to 
talk it over with him. We want to keep his loyal spirit, and 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." 167 

keep our only son if we can consistently ; but if need be the hoy 
must go fir St. ^ 

" Yes, we want to keep the loyal spirit in the boys who stay 
with us to do the less congenial duty of the day, the spirit and 
the boys, if we can consistently ; but, if need be, the boys must 
go first. And as they go with glad faces forth to the dread 
uncertainties of war, we say to them, 'Yours is the more glori- 
ous, and so the easier duty. Do not scorn the heroes who 
remain behind to perform the humble duty. Our hearts go out 
with you to camp, transport, battle-ship, and all the stress and 
anguish of your war ; but we want your hearts to turn back to 
us, your brethren, that so the hearts of all Yale men may be 
knit together in this great cause, as they have been in the 
emulous ways of peace.' 

" And it is unto this end that we send our comrades to the 
front ; unto this end that we put Maxim guns upon the cruiser 
' Yale ; ' not that there may be war, but that, there being war, 
peace may the sooner come. ' Earnestly do we hope, fervently 
do we pray,' as our beloved Lincoln said nearly forty years ago, 
'that this awful scourge of war may speedily pass away.' Then 
shall the hearts of all Yale men be reunited in the greater work 
of peace, in beating back ignorance and vice, in lifting the 
fallen, cheering the faint, succoring the oppressed, administrating 
well the great agencies of the highest civilization, multiplying 
the blessings of mankind, and ushering in the everlasting 
kingdom of the Prince of Peace." 

This war meeting of Yale cannot be explained by the 
patriotism which at that time swept the whole country- 
like a wave. There was more than intensity in the 
spirit of the gathering. There was a sober sense, back 
of the glowing sentiment; there was a deep thoughtful- 
ness which gave a peculiar force to the spirit of devoted 
patriotism. The meeting, speaking for Yale, spoke as 
speaks a wcll-p'oised man who is tremendously in earnest. 



1 68 YALE. 

A place like Yale is made up of those who have been 
in it, whether as teachers or as students. If they were 
strong men, a portion of their spirit has rested with the 
place with which were some of their closest associations 
in life ; and what they have been and have achieved 
after they have left New Haven, has become often even 
more a part of the traditions, and more influences the 
spirit and standards of the place, than even what they 
were and what they did in their four years here. It 
adds to a man's Yale education to be reminded that the 
place in which he is studying has become the mother of 
colleges in America, by giving presidents and profess- 
ors and headmasters to administer the affairs of hun- 
dreds of institutions, great and small, all over the land. 
It makes him more appreciate the place, and it allows 
him to receive more from it, when he thinks of the sign- 
ers of the Declaration who were Yale men, of those who 
have labored in the public service in the Senate and the 
Congress of the United States, carrying a Yale degree; 
of the men who have spoken and acted for their coun- 
try at the capitals of foreign nations ; of the many 
times when Yale has been honored by the choice of 
one of her sons to a place in the highest court in the 
Republic. 

But it even more touches and awakens the spirit of 
young men to remember those of the company of Yale 
who gladly went to their death for their country's sake. 
I think there is more than the American idea of accom- 
plishing something to which one has put his hand, what- 
ever be the obstacles, in the Yale idea of determination, 
of fighting to the death, if need be, which has been the 
gospel of many of the Blue's athletic fields. The theory 
of life as a noble fight, with the necessity, which that 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." 169 

implies, of being always ready to face any danger in a 
good cause, seems, sometimes to my surprise, to thrive 
well in these academic shades. And so those who 
have gone out of Yale and have fought nobly, and will- 
ingly and almost gladly died in the good cause, have 
left perhaps the deepest impression of all upon the life 
of the place. The spirit of this meeting which we have 
described was due very largely to the heroes of earlier 
times. 

I have chosen two men, one of the first century of 
Yale's history, and the other of the second, as typical 
of those — of whom there are not a small company — 
who have made and perpetuated here the ideal of the 
soldier and the gentleman. They are chosen not with 
disparagement to others. There were many Yale he- 
roes besides Nathan Hale in the fight for Independ- 
ence, but no one seemed to give quite so much in quite 
such a manly, generous, chivalrous way as he. Henry 
Camp was only one of more than a hundred whose lives 
were given to their country in the great Rebellion ; but 
perhaps no one of them stood more conspicuously 
in college for the ideal qualities of college life, or 
seemed to carry those ideals more easily and grandly 
into the camp and march, the fight, the prison-pen, and 
to death itself. 

I like to think of young Miller, the manly trooper of 
the Rough Riders, who received his mortal wound at 
San Juan, only a year after he had taken his degree at 
Yale, and of the others who fought bravely the losing 
fight against the fever of the camps, as being moved and 
made strong to face whatever was before them, with good 
cheer and without regrets, by the spirit that the Hales 
and the Camps have left as legacies to the Yale band. 



I70 YALE. 

I shall not try to write anything new of these two 
Yale ideals. To remind the reader of the character of 
Major Henry W. Camp of the class of i860, I shall take 
two or three sketches of dififerent incidents in his life, 
furnished by those who were very close to him. The 
words are all familiar ones in Yale history, and rightly 
so, and should ever be. I choose first, with his permis- 
sion, the sketch of the athlete student Camp, given in 
Trumbull's " Knightly Soldier " by one who was very near 
to him here at Yale, the Rev. Joseph H. Twichell: — 

" In looking back to Henry Camp, as I knew him in college, 
it is impossible not to recall his singular physical beauty. The 
memory of it harmonizes very pleasantly with the memory of 
his beautiful daily life. Each became the other so well, while 
they were joined, that, though now his body has gone to dust, 
I find, while musing on my friend, an unusual delight in con- 
tinuing to associate them. He furnishes a beautiful example 
of the truth, ' Virtus prilchrior e pulcJu-o corporc venicns.^ His 
handsome face, his manly bearing, and his glorious strength, 
made that gentleness and goodness which won our love the 
more illustrious. I well remember, while in college, riding out 
one day with a classmate of his, and passing him, as, erect and 
light of foot, he strode lustily up a long hill, and the enthusiasm 
with which my comrade pronounced this eulogy : ' There 's 
Henry Camp, a perfect man, who never did anything to hurt 
his body or soul ! ' That was before I knew him well ; for, as 
I have intimated, we were not in the same class ; but what I 
heard and saw, made me so desirous of a better acquaintance, 
that when, in the summer of '59, our crew was made up for 
the college regatta, to take place at Worcester, and it fell out 
that he was assigned to duty in the boat as No. 3, while I was 
No. 4, I was more than pleased. 

"The six weeks of training that followed, culminating in the 
grand contest, witnessed by far the greater part of all our per- 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." 171 

sonal intercourse, for after that time our paths diverged. That 
was the last term of my Senior year, and the end was not far 
off. We parted on Commencement Day ; and though I after- 
ward heard from him, especially of the fame of his soldiership, 
and hoped to see him, we met again no more than once or 
twice. But, at the distance of five eventful years, the news of 
his death struck me with a sense of my bereavement so deep 
and painful, that, looking back to those six weeks, I could not 
reahze that they were nearly all I had intimately shared with 
him. Nor am I alone in this ; I know of others, whose private 
memories of Henry Camp, as limited as mine, stir in their 
hearts, at every thought of his grave, the true lament, ' Alas, 
my, brother ! ' 

" During the training season of which I speak, the crew had, 
of course, very much in common. We ate at the same table, 
and took our exercise at the same hours, so passing consider- 
able part of each day together besides the time we sat at our 
oars. Our hopes and fears were one, our ardor burned in one 
flame ; we used even to dream almost the same dreams. The 
coming regatta was our ever-present stimulus. To win, — 
there was nothing higher in the world. It quickens the pulse 
even now to remember how splendid success then appeared. 

" Camp gave himself up to the work in hand with that same 
enthusiasm of devotion that carried him to the forefront of 
battle on the day of his glorious death. He was always 
prompt, always making sport of discomforts, always taking 
upon himself more than his own share of the hard things. 
Severe training in midsummer is something more than a 
pastime. It abounds in both tortures of the body and ex- 
asperations of mind, as all boating men bear witness. Under, 
them, not all of us, at all times, kept our patience ; but Camp 
never lost his. Not a whit behind the best in spirit and in 
zeal, he maintained under all circumstances a serenity that 
seemed absolutely above the reach of disturbing causes. The 
long, early morning walk into the country, the merciless rigors 



172 



YALE. 



of diet, the thirst but half slaked, the toil of the gymnasium, 
the weary miles down the bay, under the coxswain's despotism, 
the return to childhood's bed-time, and other attendant afflic- 
tions, often outweighed the philosophy of all but No. 3. He 
remained tranquil, and diligently obeyed all the rules, serving 
as a balance-wheel among us, neutralizing our variableness, 
and making many a rough place smooth. He had a presence 
almost the happiest I ever saw, and a temper that betrayed 
no shady side. He carried all his grace with him everywhere, 
and had a way of shedding it on every minute of an hour, — 
no less on little matters than on great, — that gave his com- 
pany an abiding charm, and his influence a constant working 
power ; and so he went on working with all his might for the 
College, doing us good daily, gaining that skill and muscle, 
which afterward enabled him to pull so brave an oar through 
the stormy waves of Hatteras. 

" He had soldierly ways about him then. Discipline was 
his delight, and coolness never deserted him. We were upset 
one day, in deep water, under a bridge ; and, at first, each 
struck out for land, till Camp, remaining in mid-stream, called 
us back to look after the boat, which was too frail a structure 
to be left to chance floating. That Hatteras exploit, when we 
heard of it, did not seem at all strange. It was just like him 
to volunteer, and still more like him to be the last man to give 
up what was undertaken." 

And here are a few lines from the pen of his close 
friend and biographer, the Rev. Henry Clay Trumbull, 
telling how the young Lieutenant took his baptism 
of fire at Newberne : — 

" Camp had passed bravely the ordeal of battle. So cool 
was he, seemingly unmoved when the fight was hottest, and 
those about him most excited, that the men of his company 
called him their Iron Man, and told how efficient he was, in 
directing the fire of some, m giving assistance to others whose 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." 173 

pieces were out of order, and in speaking encouraging words 
to all, ever with ' the same pleasant look in his face.' " 

And this is the story of Camp's last day, October 13, 
1864, on the Darbytown road, and again from the pen of 
"the Chaplain." It was now Major Camp of whom he 
was writing: — 

" Dinner was brought up and eaten under fire. Then Camp 
stretched himself on the ground, and was lulled to sleep by the 
sound of the battle. Soon after noon, he was started up to lead 
a party of men down the road on a mission from the corps- 
commander. While he was away, Colonel Otis received orders 
to report at once with the remainder of his regiment to Colonel 
Pond, commanding the ist Brigade, at the extreme right of 
the division. No sooner was the new position reached than 
the formation of troops was seen to indicate an assault on the 
works in front, and a chill ran over many an old soldier's 
frame. The enemy was known to be strongly intrenched ; 
and an advance could be made at this point only by a dense 
thicket of scrub-oaks, and laurels, and tangled vines, through 
which a way could not be forced save slowly and step by step. 
A dashing, resistless charge was impossible, and the small force 
ordered was not likely to prove any match for the now heavily 
re-enforced lines of the foe. There was a disturbed look on 
the face of every officer, and from many outspoken protests 
were heard. 

" When the Chaplain saw the condition of affairs, his hope 
and prayer was that his friend would not return in season to 
share the perils of the assault, since he could probably in no 
way affect its result. But, while the column waited. Major Camp 
appeared, wiping from his face the perspiration caused by his 
exertions to rejoin his regiment without delay. As he came 
up, the Chaplain's face fell with disappointment. Reading the 
look. Camp said quickly and tenderly, 'Why, what is the 
matter, Henry; has anything happened?' — * No ; but I'm 



174 YALE. 

sorry you returned in time for this assault.' — ' Oh ! don't say 
so, my dear fellow ; I thank God I 'm back.' — ' But you can 
do no good, and I 'm afraid for you.' — ' Well, you would n't 
have the regiment go in with me behind, would you ? No, no ! 
In any event, I thank God I am here ! ' Then he moved 
about among his comrades with a bright and cheerful face, 
like a gleam of sunshine through gathering clouds. Never a 
word of doubt or distrust did he express as to the pending 
move, although his opinion was probably the same with the 
others as to its inevitable issue. Many near him were as re- 
gardless of personal danger as he, and would go as fearlessly 
into the thickest of the fray ; but few, if any, showed such 
sublimity of moral courage, in meeting, without a murmur, his 
responsibilities at such an hour. ' I don't like this blue 
talking/ he said, aside to his friend. ' The men see it, and it 
affects them. If we must go, we must ; and the true way is 
to make the best of it.' 

"The shattered remnant of the loth had the right of the 
assaulting column, which was formed in two lines of battle. 
Colonel Otis led the right and front. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Greeley led the right of the second line, the left of which 
was assigned to Major Camp. ' May I not as well take the 
left of the front line, Colonel?' Camp asked in his quiet way. 
'Certainly, if you prefer it,' was the reply; and he took his 
place accordingly, — not that the advanced position was more 
honorable, nor yet because it was more exposed ; but from the 
belief that it gave him a better opportunity to lead and en- 
courage the men. As he drew his pistol from its case, and 
thrust it loosely through his belt for instant use in the deadly 
struggle, and unsheathed his sword, he said to his friend : ' I 
don't quite like this half-hearted way of fighting. If we were 
ordered to go into that work at all hazards, I should know just 
what to do ; but we are told to go on as far as those at our 
left advance, and to fall back when they retire. Such orders 
are perplexing.' And they were ; for the men of the loth had 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." 175 

never yet failed to do the work assigned them, — never yet 
fallen back under the pressure of the enemy. 

" The two men talked of the possibilities of the hour, speak- 
ing freely of the delightful past and as to the probable future. 
' If we don't meet again here we will hope to meet in heaven,' 
said the Chaplain. ' Yes,' replied Camp ; ' and yet I have 
been so absorbed in this hfe, that I can hardly realize that 
there is another beyond.' After a few more words on this 
theme, the friends clasped hands, and Camp said warmly, 
' Good-bye, Henry ! good-bye ! ' The words sent a chill to 
the other's heart; and, as he moved to the right of the line, 
they rang in his ears as a sound of deep and fearful meaning. 
Good-bye ! that farewell had never before been uttered in all 
the partings of a score and a half of battlefields. It was first 
appropriate now. 

" The signal was given for a start ; the men raised the 
charging cry with a tone that rather indicated a willingness to 
obey than a hope of success ; and the doomed column 
struggled forward, through the impeding undergrowth of the 
dense wood, through the crashing sweep of grape and canister, 
and the fatal hiss and hum of flying bullets. Those latest 
words had so impressed the Chaplain with the idea that this 
hour was his comrade's last on earth, that he felt he must see 
him yet again, and have another and more cheering assurance 
of his faith than that natural expression of inability in the 
present to fully realize the eternal future." 

Then comes the story of the desperate plunge through 
the thicket, where moments which might separate the 
two friends forever seemed hours. The Chaplain over- 
took the Major at last and received from him in answer 
to his anxious question the calmest, simplest confession 
of his clear Christian faith. 

"With another good-bye, the two friends parted. The 
Chaplain turned to his work among the many dying and 



176 YALE. 

wounded. The Major struggled on, through the thicket, out 
to the open space before the enemy's works ; and there, when 
all at his left had fallen back, when only the brave men of the 
steadfast loth at his right were yet pressing forward, he stood 
for a moment to re-form the broken line which could not be 
maintained in the tangled wood. The rebel parapet was but 
a few rods in his front. From the double battle-line behind 
it, the rifles poured forth their ceaseless fire of death. His tall 
and manly form was too distinct a target to escape special 
notice from the foe. Waving his sword, he called aloud 
cheerily, ' Come on, boys, come on ! ' then turned to the color- 
sergeant just emerging from the thicket, that he might rally the 
men on the regimental standard. As he did so, a bullet passed 
through his lungs ; and, as he fell on his side, he was pierced 
again and again by the thick-coming shot. His eyes scarce 
turned from their glance at the tattered, dear old flag, ere they 
were closed to earth, and opened again beyond the stars and 
their field of blue." 

And now back to the hero of Yale's first century, 
whose early sacrifice set the loftiest standard for the 
Yale American. 

" The story of Nathan Hale's life," writes Dr. Munger, " is 
short because his life was short, and because he did only one 
thing worthy of mention ; he died for his country. He was 
born in Coventry, — a town twenty miles east of Hartford, where 
he grew up in a farmhouse and family of the better sort, and 
went to school to the parish minister, Dr. Huntington, who 
prepared him for college. He was a fine lad — strong, could 
run, leap, wrestle, throw, and Hft better than any of the boys 
about him. Well-bred, sweet-tempered, and handsome, he was 
greatly loved and admired. He came to Yale in his sixteenth 
year and entered the Class of 1773- 

" But little is known of his college life except that he stood 
well in his class, made a famous leap on the Green that was 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." i77 

marked out and shown for years, and that he was a devoted 
member of Linonia. So long as Linonia lived, Hale was a 
household word in Yale. ' Statement of Facts ' is almost 
forgotten even as a tradition, but Yale to-day offers nothing 
worthier and finer than the lining up of ' Linonia ' and 
' Brothers,' each with their chosen orators, who made a ' state- 
ment of facts ' as to the claims of their respective societies. 

" Nathan Hale was a member of Linonia, and at every 
* statement of facts ' half the college cheered his name to the 
echo. He was and he is to-day Yale's ideal hero. 

" After graduation Hale taught school in East Haddam during 
the winter, and in the spring took charge of a grammar school 
in New London, where the people went on loving and admiring 
him just as they had in New Haven and East Haddam ; for 
it appears that during his brief Hfe everybody had a common 
feeling towards him. It seems to have been a case where 
mind and heart and body and character said the same thing. 
He was five feet and ten inches in height, and well proportioned ; 
a full face, light blue eyes, a rosy complexion, brown hair, and 
a bearing that spoke of energy and strength, complete the pic- 
ture of him so far as we have it. The artist who depicts him 
must mould a figure of great strength, sweet and resolute and 
thoughtful, and clothe it with the spirit of heroism. 

" Before a year had passed news of the battle of Lexington 
reached New London. The next morning he assembled his 
pupils, talked and prayed with them, shook each one by the 
hand, and started with his company for Boston. He returned 
to New London for military duty there — missing Bunker Hill 
apparently — but September found him again in Cambridge, 
where he made a study of his new calling while Washington was 
besieging Boston. After the evacuation of the city he appeared 
in New York and bore some part in the disastrous battle of 
Long Island. The situation required above everything else a 
full knowledge of the enemy's works and plans, — a spy, in 



178 YALE. 

short. He must have intelligence as well as courage, and be 
able to talk as well as see. 

" Hale volunteered, but in coming to a decision he encountered 
several hard questions. Could he overcome the entreaties of 
his friends? Could he bring himself to play the part of a spy? 
— a question which he settled in accord with Vattel, of whom 
he had never heard, and stated in these memorable words : 
' I wish to be useful, and every kind of service, necessary 
for the public good, becomes honorable by being necessary.' 
But could he face the almost certain death of shame? His 
answer was : ' I am fully sensible of the consequences of dis- 
covery and capture in such a situation.' 

" What strikes one as remarkable in all this is the thorough 
way in which he thought the whole matter through and grounded 
his action on sound and accepted principles. There is no 
bravado, hardly any enthusiasm ; only a downright sense of 
duty. 

'' He received his directions in person from Washington, dis- 
guised himself as a schoolmaster, crossed the Sound well up 
the coast, and found his way into the Brifish camp in Brook- 
lyn and also in New York, where the army had taken posses- 
sion the day he left. He incurred no suspicion, made charts, 
took notes in Latin, and attempted to return as he came, but 
was recognized and arrested. His papers were found in his 
shoes, as Andr6 six years later had concealed his, — each mak- 
ing the same fatal and easily detected mistake. General Howe 
ordered his execution the next morning. He was permitted 
to write letters to his comrades and family, but the executioner 
tore them up, declaring that 'the rebels should never know 
they had a man who could die with such firmness.' He asked 
for a clergyman and a Bible, but was refused. 

" On Sunday morning at daybreak, Sept. 2 2d, 1778, he was 
led out to execution, his hands tied behind his back. His last 
words were : ' 1 only regret that I have but one life to lose 
for my country.' He was only twenty-one years old. He had 



"FOR GOD, COUNTRY, AND YALE." I'/y 

everything to live for, — home and a sweetheart in Coventry, 
friends in New Haven and New London and Cambridge and 
in the army, and hfe itself — not a thing easily laid down at 
twenty-one. It was a hard thing to be led out by a squad of 
soldiers, his hands tied behind him, without a friendly face to 
look into, without a word of sympathy, and hung upon a tree 
like a felon — it was hard, but he did not flinch. Of what 
did he think? Certainly of home, — the old farmhouse in 
Coventry, the poplars in front, the well-sweep, the cows wait- 
ing for the milking, the household astir for the duties of the 
day, the father who had sent him to college, the mother and 
sisters, who had spun and woven the clothes he wore ; the 
sweetheart he was to marry when the war was over ; the meet- 
ing-house where Dr. Huntington would soon be praying ; and 
he could hear the bell, but it did not seem to be calhng the 
people to church, but to be tolling for his own funeral. 

" It was hard, but he did not flinch. He thought of other 
things, — • duty which makes all things easy, and his country, for 
which he was glad to die. As his eyes grew dim doubtless the 
immortal line that he had learned in college mingled with his 
prayers : 

" ' Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori.' 

" LIow else should a patriot-scholar die ? " 



APPENDICES. 



I. 

YALE CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS. 

BELOW are given the main facts concerning some of the 
most famous of Yale customs and traditions. Those 
now extinct are marked with a star. 

Bowing to the President. 

At the close of morning chapel and on Baccalaureate Sunday, 
the Seniors remain standing until the President passes them, 
as he comes down the centre aisle, and then bow as he passes. 
The custom has descended from the old Puritan church, and 
was in vogue generally in English churches during the eight- 
eenth century. 

Bullyisnt and the College Bully ^ 

Toward the close of the last century each class elected a 
Bully or President, generally the strongest man in the class, to 
champion and lead it when attacked by town toughs. The 
Senior class bully was the College bully and carried the Bully 
club which had been captured in Fair Haven by students from 
oystermen and sailors. In 1840, the institution was abolished 
by the Faculty, and since that time no class has ever elected a 
president, all the class meetings being conducted by tempo- 
rary chairmen. 



i82 YALE. 

Burial of Euclid.* 

A custom, the first record of which is in 1843, but which was 
known to have been an annual one before that date. When 
the Sophomore class had mastered Euclid at the middle of the 
first term, a copy of the book was buried amid fitting funeral 
rites. Speeches were made and mock ceremonies performed 
on the steps of the Old State House and at the Masonic 
Temple, at the corner of Court and Orange. The Burial was in 
a vacant lot on Prospect Street. Abolished in 1861 by the 
Class of '64. 

Cheering the Faculty. 

At the close of the last recitation of the year, the members of 
each division gather outside the instructor's door and give the 
Yale cheer with the latter's name on the end. This custom has 
existed for over half a century. 

Cup Men. 

In 1886 the custom was originated of placing the names of 
six men, four Academic Seniors and two from the correspond- 
ing class in the Scientific School, on a large silver loving-cup, 
which was kept at Mory's, for long years a distinctively college 
resort of the English inn order. The method of election is for 
each man to choose his own successor. To have a name on 
the cup meant a reputation for good fellowship. The custom 
is maintained, but not so much is heard of it now as formerly. 

Cup Presentation. 

Inaugurated by the Class of '49. A silver cup is presented 
by the class at its triennial to the first male child born to one of 
its members after graduation. 

Fence. 

The custom of class distinctions on the college Fence has 
existed since time immemorial. The original fence was at the 



APPENDICES. 183 

corner of Chapel and College Streets. It was removed in 1888 
to make way for Osborn Hall, and is now situated inside the 
campus opposite Durfee. Senior, Junior, and Sophomore 
classes have separate divisions. The Freshmen are not allowed 
to sit on the fence unless they win their class ball game with 
Harvard. 

Freshman Restrictions. 
The Freshman is not allowed by college custom : 

(a) To smoke a pipe on the street or campus. 

(b) To carry a cane before Washington's Birthday. 

(c) To dance at the Junior Promenade. 

(d) To sit on the college Fence. 

(e) To play ball or spin tops on the campus. 

Jubilees.* . 

(a) Biennial. — Held at the close of Sophomore year after 
the biennial examinations. It consisted of a dinner with 
speeches and other jollifications in honor of having successfully 
passed through the ordeal of examination. Abolished in the 
Class of '67 and succeeded by the Freshman annual dinner. 

(b) Thanksgiving. — Held alternately in the haUs of Linonia 
and Brothers, and paid for by the Freshman class. It was a 
burlesque entertainment intended for those who stayed about 
the college on Thanksgiving Eve. It was restricted by the 
Faculty several times on account of its loose character, and 
finally abolished altogether. 

Omega Lambda Chi. 

The celebration of the abolishment of Freshman societies by 
the College, held on a Monday night in the last part of May. 
The whole college forms by classes and performs the Omega 
Lambda Chi dance about the campus, cheering each one of the 
buildings in turn. At the close, which is a later development, 
the Freshmen are compelled to run the gauntlet between two 
long lines of upper classmen. 



i84 YALE. 



Pow-wow.* 



The Freshman annual dinner, which took the place of the 
Biennial Jubilee. Inaugurated in '68. 

Procession at Commencement, 

From time immemorial the commencement exercises have 
always been preceded by a procession in double file headed by 
music and the sheriff of the county. The procession includes 
the President and corporation, various officials, candidates for 
degrees, and graduates in the order of their graduation. 

Rushes.* 

(a) Banger. — An ancient custom forbade Freshmen to carry 
bangers. Whenever a Freshman appeared with one the Soph- 
omores and Freshmen clashed, the former striving to wrest it 
away, the latter to retain it. The Banger rushes were a substi- 
tute for the Freshman-Sophomore football game, abolished by 
the Faculty in 1857. They were intermittent in character, and 
have disappeared altogether in the last decade. 

(b) Shirt. — Held in the old gymnasium the night before the 
year opened, and at Hamilton Park at the time of the fall game 
between Freshmen and Sophomores. They gradually became 
less violent in character, and in the eighties were superseded 
by the push rushes. These in turn were abolished in 1893, 
their place being taken by wrestling matches on the Grammar 
School lot. 

Wooden Spoon and Cochlaureati. 

The custom of presenting the wooden spoon was originated 
by H. T. Blake, '48, as a burlesque on the college Junior exhi- 
bition, based on a custom in vogue at the University of Cam- 
bridge in England. At first the nine cochlaureati, or electors 
of the wooden spoon man, were selected by non-appointment 
men from their o^vn number. But after a while scholarship 
was lost sight of entirely, and the elections were simply class 



APPENDICES. 185 

offices. The Spoon man was the highest elective honor in the 
Junior class. The cochlaureati became in 1871 the Junior 
Promenade Committee, and an annual dance took the place of 
the wooden spoon exhibition. It was first called the Regatta 
Ball and is now known as the Junior Promenade. 



II. 

CONDENSED HISTORY OF DEBATING AT YALE. 

Critonian Society. First known debating society in Yale 

College. Existed until about 1772. 
1753. Honorable Fellowship Club founded, to be known 

later as the Linonian Society. 
1768. Brothers in Unity founded. 
18 1 9. Calliopean Society founded. 

1853. Occupation by Linonia and Brothers of society rooms 
in Alumni Hall. 
Dissolution of Calliope. 
1870. Linonia and Brothers ceased to exist. 
1878. Attempt to revive Linonia. 
1884. Pundit Club founded. (Unsuccessful.) 
1 88 7. Assembly founded. (Unsuccessful.) 
1890. April. Yale Union founded. 

Oct. I . Kent Club founded in Law School. 
1892. Jan. 14. Yale-Harvard Debate at Cambridge. 

Subject : '• Resolved, That a young man casting 
his first ballot in 1892 should vote for the nominees 
of the Democratic party." 

Affirmative. — Yale : W. P. Aiken, W. E. Thorns, 
R. D. Upton. 

Negative. — Harvard : G. P. Costigan, A. P. Stone, 
R. C. Surbridge. 
Presiding Officer, Governor Russell. No judges. 
1892. March 25. Yale-Harvard Debate at New Haven. 

Subject: "Resolved, That immigration to the 
United States be unrestricted." 

Affirmative. — Harvard: J. S. Brown, F. W. Dal- 
linger, E. H. Warren. 



APPENDICES. 187 

Negative. — Yale: J. I. Chamberlain, T. Mullally, 
W. A. McQuaid. 

Presiding Officer, Chauncey M. Depew. No 
judges. 
1893. Jan. 18. Yale-Harvard Debate at Cambridge. 

Subject : " Resolved, That the power of railroad 
corporations should be further limited by national 
legislation." 

Affirmative. — Yale : H. S. Cummings, F. E. Don- 
nelly, E. R. Lamson. 

Negative. — Harvard : A. P. Stone, E. H. Warren, 
C. Vrooman. 

Presiding Officer, President Eliot. Judges, Profes- 
sor Seligman, President Andrews, Wm. E. Barrett. 

Won by Harvard. 
1893. March 15. Yale-Princeton Debate at Princeton. 

Subject : "'' Resolved, That the peaceful annexa- 
tion of Canada would be beneficial to the United 
States." 

Affirmative. — Princeton : D. McColl, J. F. Ewing. 
M. C. Sykes. 

Negative. — Yale : J. I. Chamberlain, W. D. Leeper, 
W. E. Thoms. 

Presiding Officer, Chancellor McGill. No judges. 
1893. May 2. Yale-Harvard Debate at New Haven. 

Subject : " Resolved, That the time has now ar- 
rived when the policy of protection should be aban- 
doned by the United States." 

Affirmative. — Yale : H. E. Buttrick, G. L. Gil- 
lespie, R. H. Tyner. 

Negative. — Harvard : F. W. Dallinger, H. C. 
Lakin, F. C. McLaughlin. 

Presiding Officer, President Dwight. Judges, 
President Low, President Gates, Prof. R. AL Smith. 

Won by Harvard. 



i88 YALE. 

1894. Jan. 19. Yale-Harvard Debate at Cambridge. 

Subject : " Resolved, That independent action in 
politics is preferable to party allegiance." 

Affirmative. — Yale : J. W. Peddie, W. H. Cox, 
W. H. Clark. 

Negative. — Harvard: H. L. Prescott, A. S. Ap- 
sey, A. S. Hayes. 

Presiding Officer, Colonel Higginson. Judges, Pro- 
fessor James, Carl Schurz, General Walker. 

Won by Harvard. 

1894. April 27. Yale-Harvard Debate at New Haven. 

Subject : " Resolved, That the members of the 
Cabinet should be made full members of the House 
of Representatives." 

Affirmative. — Yale : G. H. Baum, H. E. But- 
trick, H. H. Kellogg. 

Negative. — Harvard : W. P. Douglas, W. E. Hut- 
ton, C. A. Duniway. 

Presiding Officer, Chauncey M. Depevv. Judges, 
Dr. Rainsford, Governor Brown, Brander Matthews. 

Won by Harvard. 

1895. January 18. Yale-Harvard Debate at Cambridge. 

Subject : '■' Resolved, That attempts of employers 
to ignore associations of employees, and to deal with 
individual workmen only, are prejudicial to the best 
interests of both parties." 

Affirmative. — Harvard : T. L. Ross, R. C. Ring- 
wait, H. A. Bull. 

Negative. — Yale : E. M. Long, W. H. Clark, 
C. G. Clarke. 

Presiding Officer, Ex- Governor Long. Judges, 
Judge Barker, Professor Dewey, Bishop Lawrence. 

Won by Harvard. 
1895. May I. Yale-Princeton Debate at New Haven. 

Subject : " Resolved, That the income tax law of 



APPENDICES. 189 

1894 was, under the circumstances, a justifiable 
one." 

Affirmative. — Princeton : W. F. Burns, R. M. 
McElroy, B. L. Hirshfield. 

Negative. — Yale : H. E. Buttrick, H. F. Rail, C. 

E. Clough. 

Presiding Officer, Judge Rowland. Judges, Dr. 
Lyman Abbot, Laurence Hutton, Professor Cummings. 

Won by Princeton. 
1895. May 10. Yale-Harvard Freshman Debate at New 
Haven. 

Subject : " Resolved, that the President's term 
should be increased to six years, and that he should 
be ineligible for re-election." 

Affirmative. — Harvard : C. Grille, C. E. Morgan, 
H. T. Reynolds. 

Negative. — Yale: C. E. Julin, H. Bingham, Jr., 

F. E. Richardson. 

Presiding officer, Dr. W. L. Phelps. Judges, Gov- 
ernor Coffin, Ex-Governor Morris, Professor Burton. 

Won by Yale Freshmen. 
1895. Oct. II. Yale Union occupies Calliope Hall. 

October, Wayland Club founded in Law School. 
1895. Dec. 6. Yale-Princeton Debate at Princeton. 

Subject : " Resolved, That it would be wise to es- 
tablish in respect of all State legislation of a general 
character a system of Referendum similar to that es- 
tablished in Switzerland." 

Affirmative. — Princeton : R. B. Perry, R. O. 
Kirkwood, E. W. Hamilton. 

Negative. — Yale : C. U. Clark, A. Rice, E. H. 
McVey. 

Presiding Officer, Senator Grey. Judges, James C. 
Carter, Charles C. Beaman, Francis L. Stetson. 

Won by Yale. 



I90 YALE. 

1895. Dec. 1 1 . Leonard Bacon Club organized in the Divinity 

School. 

1896. March 12. Sheffield Debating Society organized in 

the Scientific School. 
1896. May I. Yale-Harvard Debate at New Haven. 

Subject : " Resolved, That a permanent court of 
arbitration should be established by the United States 
and Great Britain." 

Affirmative. — Harvard : W. B. Parker, A. M. 
Sayre, F. R. Steward. 

Negative. — Yale : R. S. Baldwin, W. H. Clark, 
A. R Stokes, Jr. 

Presiding Officer, Hon. E. J. Phelps. Judges, 
Elihu Root, Albert H. Shaw, W. H. Page. 

Won by Yale. 

1896. May 15. Yale-Harvard Freshman Debate at Cambridge. 

Subject : " Resolved, That there should be a large 
and immediate increase in the sea-going navy of the 
United States." 

Affirmative. — Harvard : P. G. Carleton, W. H. 
Conroy, W. Morse. 

Negative. — Yale : J. K. Clark, C. L. Darlington, 
E. T. Noble. 

Presiding Officer, Professor Hart. Judges, Pres- 
ident Capen, Professor Churchill, Henry Clapp. 

Won by Harvard Freshmen. 

1897. March 26. Yale- Harvard Debate at Cambridge. 

Subject : " Resolved, That the United States should 
adopt definitively the single gold standard, and should 
decline to enter a Bimetallic league even if Great 
Britain, France, and Germany should be willing to 
enter such a league." 

Affirmative. — Harvard : S. R. Wrightington, G. 
H. Dorr, F. Dobyns. 

Negative. — Yale : C. S. Macfarland, C. U. Clark, 
C. H. Studinski. 



APPENDICES. 19 T 

Presiding Officer, Governor Wolcott. Judges, Judge 
Aldrich, Professor Dewey, Professor Giddings. 

Won by Yale. 
1897. May 7. Yale-Princeton Debate at New Haven. 

Subject : " Resolved, That the power of the Speaker 
of the United States House of Representatives is det- 
rimental to the public interest." 

Affirmative. — Yale : E. H. Hume, H. W. Fisher, 
E. L. Smith. 

Negative. — Princeton : H. H. Yocum, N. S. 
Reeves, R. F. Sterling. 

Presiding Officer, Hon. E. J. Phelps. Judges, 
Josiah Quincy, Colonel Waring, Carroll D. Wright. 

Won by Princeton. 

1897. Dec. 3. Yale-Harvard Debate at New Haven. 

Subject : " Resolved, That the United States should 
annex the Hawaiian Islands." 

Affirmative. — Harvard : W. Morse, J. A. H. Keith, 
C. Grilk. 

Negative. — Yale: H. A. Jump, J. K. Clark, H. 
W. Fisher. 

Presiding Officer, Chauncey M. Depew. Judges, 
Wm. B. Hornblower, J. J. McCook, Professor Butler. 

Won by Yale. 

1898. Jan. 29. The Wigwam organized. 

1898. March 25. Yale-Princeton Debate at Princeton. 

Subject : " Resolved, That national party lines 
should be disregarded in the choice of councils and 
administrative officers in American cities." 

Affirmative. — Yale : N. A. Smyth, J. K. Clark, C. 
H. Studinski. 

Negative. — Princeton: H. H. Yocum, W. M. 
Schultz, M. Lowrie. 

Presiding Officer, Ex- President Cleveland. Judges, 
J. F. Jameson, Everett P. Wheeler, President Wilson. 

Won by Yale. 



III. 

YALE PUBLICATIONS, PAST AND PRESENT. 

THE following are the main facts about each of the peri- 
odicals and attempts at periodicals of Yale students of 
both the past and the present : — 

Literary Cabinet. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — November 15, 1S06. 

Editors — Thomas S. Grimke', Jacob Sutherland, Leonard E. 
Wales, all of the Class of 1S07. 

Time of issue — Fortnightly. 

Size and price — Eight page, octavo size, $ i per year. 

Remarks — Published one year. First Yale paper. Last issue 
in October, 1807. No advertisements. Profits given to in- 
digent students. 

Atheneum. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — February 12, 18 14. 

Editors — William B. Calhoun, Daniel Lord, George E. Spru- 
ill, William L. Storrs, Leonard Withington, all of the Class of 
1814. 

Ti7ne of issue — Fortnightly. 

Size and price — Eight page, octavo size, $1 per year. 

Remarks — Last issue August 6, 18 14. 

The Microscope. 

Character — Literary. 
Appeared — March 21, 1820. 

Editors — CorneHus Tuthill (1814), chief editor. Editors 
chiefly graduates. 



APPENDICES. 193 

Time of issue — Semi- weekly. 

Size and price — First, four pages, then increased to eight octavo 

pages. Three cents per number. Afterwards raised to four 

cents. 
Remarks — Last issue Sept. 8, 1820. First graduate magazine. 

Contains several poems of Percival. 

Yale Crayon. 

Character — Humorous and satirical. 
Appeared — 1823. 

Ke7narks — Short-lived magazine. Death probably due to its 
attacks on the Faculty. 

Sitting Room. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — March 17, 1830. 

Editors — Oliver E. Daggett, '28 ; William W. Andrews, '31. 

Time of issue — Weekly. 

Size and price — Four small pages. Six cents per copy, or 

fifty cents per term. 
Remarks — After six issues it was merged into the New Haven 

Palladium, occupying under its own title the last page of that 

paper, and in this shape made eight more appearances. Last 

issue July 31, 1830. 

Student's Companion. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — January, 1 83 1 . 

Editor — David F. Bacon, '31. 

Tirne of issue — Monthly. 

Size and price — 56 octavo pages. Seventy-five cents per 

quarter. 
Remarks — Last issue May, 1831. 

13 



[94 



YALE. 



Little Gentleman. 



Character Weakly satirical. 

Appeared — January i , 1 83 1 . 

Editors — Members of Senior Class and of the Law School. 

Time of issue — Irregular. 

Size — Diminutive i6mo. 

Remarks — Last issue April 29, 1831. 

The Gridiron. 

Character — Weakly satirical. 
Appeared — February, 1 83 1 . 
Editor — John M. Clapp, '31. 
Size — 32 pages, 12 mo. 
Remarks — Four numbers published. 

The Medley. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — March, 1833. 

Editor — Henry W. Ellsworth, '34, chief editor. 

Tijne of issue — Monthly. 

Size and price — 56 octavo pages. Seventy-five cents per 

quarter. 
Re??ia?'ks — Three numbers issued, the last being June, 1833. 

The Yale Literary Magazine. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — February, 1836. 

Editors — Five editors chosen from the Senior Class. 

Tiine of issue — Monthly. 

Size and price — At least 40 octavo pages. $3 per year. 

Remarks — The "Lit." is the oldest college publication. It 
was established through the exertions of William T. Bacon, 
'37. The five original editors chosen from and by the Class 



APPENDICES. 195 

of '37 were : Edwin O. Carter, Frederick A. Coe, William M. 
Evarts, Chester S. Lyman, and William S. Scarborough. 

Yale Literary Quidnunc. 

Character — Invective. 

Appeared — April, 1838. 

Editors — Published anonymously under the name of " Michael 

Lucifer «& Company." 
Size — 40 octavo pages. 
Remarks — Only two numbers published, the last being June, 

1838. Most of its pages were given up to personal attacks 

on the ''Lit." 

Yale Banner. 

Character — Catalogue of the College and the societies and 
miscellaneous organizations connected with it. 

Appeared — Nov. 5, 184 1. 

Editors — Editors chosen by " Lit." editors, who receive bids 
for the privilege. First editor, William E. Robinson, '42. 

Time of issue — Annually. 

Size and price — The size varies. $2 per year. 

Remarks — The Banner was first printed after the firemen's 
riot, and aimed to be the mouthpiece of the students. Then 
intended to be published weekly, but with Number 5 of 
Volume L its purpose was changed. Edited anonymously 
until 1879, and appeared as a four page sheet till 1865. 

Collegian. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — December i, 1841. 

Editor — Edited by " E. H." 

Time of issue — Intended to be fortnightly. 

Size and price — Single four page sheet. Six cents. 

Remarks — Only one number issued. 



196 YALE. 

Yale Banger. 

Character — Published by the Sophomore society of Kappa 
Sigma Theta, attacking its rivals and the College world in 
general. 

Time of issue — Published annually in the Fall of the six years 
1845-1850, and the spring of 1852. 

Size — Single four page sheet. 

Gallinipper. 

Character — Devoted to personal abuse of Faculty and indi- 
vidual students. 
Appeared ■ — February, 1846. 
Editors — Edited anonymously. 
Time of issjie — Issued at various intervals. 
Remarks — Last issue February, 1858. 

College Cricket. 
Character — Literary. 
Appeared — April, 1846. 
Editors — Edited anonymously. 
Size — Single four page sheet. 
Remarks — Only one number printed. 

City of Elms. 

Character — Literary. 
Appeared — June 3, 1846. 
Editors — Edited anonymously. 
Size — Single four page sheet. 
Retnarks — Only one number printed. 

Hornet. 

Appeared — December, 1847. 

Editors — Issued by the Freshmen of '51 to "sting their Sopho- 
more oppressors." 
Size — Single four page sheet. 



APPENDICES. 197 

Tomahawk. 

Character — Published by the Sophomore society of Alpha 
Sigma Phi, attacking its rivals and the College world in 
general. 

Ti7ne of issue — Five numbers published, the first being in 

1847. 
Size — Single four page sheet. 

Battery. 

Character — Published by the Freshman society of Delta Kappa, 

attacking its rivals and oppressors. 
Time of issue — Only one issue, February, 1850. 
Size — Single four page sheet. 

Arbiter. 

Character — Published in 1853 after the Sophomore-Freshman 
football game " in interest of impartial justice," to defend the 
claim of the Freshmen. 

Meerschaum. 

Appeared — January 23, 1857. 
Editors — Edited anonymously. 
Size — Eight small pages. 

Remarks — The paper was pointless, and issued without expec- 
tation of appearing a second time. 

Yale Review. 

Character — Critical. 

Appeared — February, 1857. 

Editors — Edited anonymously. 

Remarks — Only three numbers issued, February, March, De- 
cember, 1857. It abused Senior societies and criticised the 
"Lit." " A vehicle for the criticism of the pretentious and 



198 YALE. 

conceited literature of the College." Last number Decem- 
ber, 1857. 

Excuse Paper. 

Appeared — January, i860. 

Editors — Edited, it declares, " by men from every class in 

College." 
Size — Eight small pages. 
Remarks — Pointless. No second number issued. 

University Quarterly. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — January, i860. 

Editors — Flavius J. Cook, '62, was the originator, and thirty- 
eight Yale men were connected with the enterprise, several 
of whom were "Lit." editors. 

Time of issue — Quarterly. 

Size — About 200 pages per issue. 

Remarks — Last number, October, 1861. This was the most 
elaborate enterprise ever undertaken in the way of college 
journalism. The Quarterly was to be made up of news, local 
sketches, reformatory thought, and literary essays from all the 
principal seats of classical and professional learning. Twenty- 
eight institutions were represented in the Association which 
published it. 

Bulletin Catalogue. 

Character — Catalogue of the College, and the societies and 
miscellaneous organizations connected with it. Its object 
was " to preserve in a neat and convenient form the com- 
bined wisdom of the College Catalogue, Banner, and ' Lit.' " 

Appeared — November, 1863. 

Editors — Edited anonymously, probably by Seniors. 

Size — 32 pages. 

Remarks — Only one number edited. 



APPENDICES. 199 

The Yale Pot Pourri. 

Character — Catalogue of the College, and the societies and 
miscellaneous organizations connected with it. 

Appeared — 1865. 

Editors — Published by Seniors in the society of Scroll and 
Key. 

Time of issue — Annually. 

Size and price — Size varies. ^1.50 per year. 

Yale Courant. 

Character — Literary. 

Appeared — November 25, 1865. 

Editors — Five editors chosen by competition from the incom- 
ing Senior class. 

Time of issue. — Fortnightly. 

Size and price — Size varies. $2 per year. 

Remarks — The Courant was the first successful College news- 
paper. It was at first published weekly by a board of 
graduate and undergraduate editors giving the news of the 
College and also printing stories and poetry. The Cour- 
ant went through various changes. In 1867 the name was 
changed to the College Courant. In May, 1870, the under- 
graduate editors persuaded the publishers to print their de- 
partment on a separate sheet under the name of the Yale 
Courant. In the fall of 1870, the Yale Courant started on 
an independent basis. In 1876, published fortnightly on 
alternate Saturdays with the Yale Record. In 1886, dropped 
news department almost entirely. In 1897, it was made 
smaller in size, and now appears bi-weekly in the same form 
as the original Chapbook. 

Yale Index. 

Character — Catalogue of the College, and the societies and 
miscellaneous organizations connected with it. 



200 YALE. 

Appeared — June 30, 1869. 

Editors — Seniors. 

Time of issue — Annually, at the end of the second term. 

Size and price — 28 quarto pages. 30 cents. 

Remarks — Contained no advertisements. 

Yale Naughtical Almanac. 

Character — Burlesque. Illustrated. 
Appeared — 1872-75. 
Editors — Edited anonymously. 
Size and price — 45 pages. Price 35 cents. 
Remarks — It was a burlesque almanac issued for the purpose 
of attacking the Faculty and student institutions. 

Yale Record. 

Character — Humorous. 

Appeared — September 11, 1872. 

Editors — Editors chosen by competition from both Sheffield 
and Academic Departments. 

Time of issue — Fortnightly. 

Size and price — Size varies. $2.50 per year. 

Remarks — The Record was originally a newspaper, and was 
started in opposition to the Courant as a strictly college 
paper to represent all departments. It was published weekly, 
eight pages. In 1876 published fortnightly. At the retire- 
ment of the '86 Board the illustrated department was added, 
and the paper became more of a humorous publication. In 
1890 it became entirely a humorous paper. 

Yale News. 

Character — College newspaper. 
Appeared — January 28, 1878. 

Editors — Nine editors chosen by competition from each class 
during the first two and a half years of their college course. 



APPENDICES. 201 

Time of issue — Daily. 

Size and price — Four pages 1 1^ by I5><. $4 per year. 

Remarks — Price of first six issues (size 6 by 10) five cents. 
Then three cents for the next six. The paper was then 
doubled in size, and the price lowered to two cents. The 
paper was discontinued on June 19, 1878, and was revived 
again January 9, 1879, as a 7 by 10 sheet, price three cents. 
It has been enlarged four times since, — in 1881, 1884, i8gi, 
and 1898. Published anonymously for first few months of 
existence. 

Yale Year Book. 

Character — Contained lists of societies, students, and all stu- 
dent organizations. 

Appeared — First issue June 19, 1878. A second edition was 
issued on June 25th. 

Price — Ten cents a copy. 

Yale Critic. 

Character — Humorous. Illustrated. 
Appeared — March 24, 1882. 
Remarks — Died after a few issues. 

Yale Quip. 

Character — Humorous. Illustrated. 
Appeared — April, 1884. 
Remarks — Died after a few issues. 

Yale Alumni Weekly. 

Character — Newspaper in the field of the affairs of Yale and 
the doings of Yale graduates. 

First appeared — Fall of i8gi. 

Editors — At first two editors of the News, chosen from 
Senior Board. In the winter of 1895, ^ graduate editor and 
graduate associate editor were appointed, with whom the 



202 YALE. 

Senior News editors worked. In the summer of 1896, the 
paper was placed entirely under the control of graduate 
editors, working under the direction of an advisory board 
of graduates. News editors are always connected with the 
paper. 

Time of issue — Weekly during academic year, and all minor 
vacations, with one issue in July, and one in September. 

Size — At first four pages of size of News. Increased to eight 
pages in January, 1895, and since then usually of eight pages, 
but not infrequently of ten, twelve, or sixteen, with twenty to 
thirty for Commencement. Price was first $2. In the fall 
of 1896 it was increased to ^2.50, and in the fall of 1898 to 
^3.00. 

Remarks — The Weekly has no official connection with the 
College, and is on an independent editorial and financial 
footing. It is managed by the graduates in the interests of 
the University and the graduates. Its circulation in the 
year 1897-98 was over four thousand, and it is estimated to 
come under the eye of six or seven thousand of the ten 
thousand graduates of Yale. 

Yale Law Journal. 
Character — Legal. 
Appeared — October, 1 89 1 . 
Editors — Published by students of the Law School. The 

editors are chosen by competition. 
Time of issue — Monthly. 
Size and price — Size varies. $2 per year. 

AssocLATiON Record. 

Character — Records of the Y. M. C. A. 

Appeared — 1891. 

Editors — The Y. M. C. A. 

Time of issue — Annually. 

Size and price — Size varies. Sent free to all members. 



APPENDICES. 



203 



Remarks — The name was originally the Association Quarterly, 
and it was published four times a year. The nanae was 
changed to Record in 1893, and the publication was changed 
to an annual. 

Yale Shingle. 

Character — Records and souvenirs of the Law School Seniors. 

Appeared — 1893. 

Editors — Published by members of the Senior Class of the 

Law School. 
Time of issue — Annual. 
Size and price — Size varies. $1.25 per year. 

Yale Scientific Monthly. 

Character — Literary and scientific. 
Appeared — 1894. 
Editors — Chosen by competition. 
Time of issue — Monthly. 
Price — $2.50 per year. 

Remarks — Only publication edited and published by students 
of the Sheffield Scientific School. 

Yale Medical Journal. 

Character — Literary and medical. 

Appeared — 1S94. 

Editors — Five editors chosen from Senior class by election 

based on competitive work. 
Time of issue — Monthly. 

Senior Class Book. 

Character — Statistical, 

Editors — Published by the class statisticians of the Senior 

Class of the Academic and Sheffield Departments. 
Size and price — Varies. 



IV. 

YALE SOCIETIES. 

THE following is a list of the societies of Yale of the past 
and the present, arranged in the order of their founda- 
tion, with a few important facts of the history and character of 
each : 

SECRET SOCIETIES. 
Senior Academic. 

Skull and Bones. — Founded in 1832. Senior society. Fif- 
teen members elected from each incoming Senior class in May 
of Junior year. Society hall erected in 1856 on High Street. 

Scroll and Key. — Founded in 1842. Senior society. Fif- 
teen members elected from each incoming Senior class in May 
of Junior year. Society hall erected in 1869 on College Street. 

Sword and Crown. — A short-lived Senior society of fifteen 
members, known to have existed in 1843. 

Star and Dart. — Founded in 1843, went out of existence in 
185 1. Senior society. Fifteen members (if as many would 
accept elections) chosen from each incoming Senior class. 

Spade and Grave. — Founded in 1864. Went out of exis- 
tence in 1869. Senior society. Fifteen men elected from 
the incoming Senior class on the " Thursday before Presenta- 
tion Day " of each year. The society had rooms in the Lyon 
Building on Chapel Street. 

Wolffs Head. — Founded in 1883. Senior society. Fifteen 
members elected from each incoming Senior class in May of 
Junior year. Society hall erected in 1883 on Prospect Street. 



APPENDICES. 205 

Junior Academic. 

Alpha Delta Fhi (Yale chapter). — Established in i S3 6 as a 
Junior society. In 1873, after internal dissensions, it gave up 
its charter. Re-organized in 1888 as a three year society. 
Changed to a Junior society in 1895. Membership — thirty- 
five, chosen as follows: at the end of Sophomore year, 
twenty-five ; at the beginning of Junior year, six ; at the close 
of Junior year, three ; and in Senior year, one. Society hall 
erected in 1894 and 1S95 on Hillhouse Avenue. 

Psi Upsilon (Beta chapter). — Established in 1838, as a 
Junior society. Membership the same as Alpha Delta Phi. 
Society hall erected in 1870 on High Street. Enlarged in 
1896. 

Delta Kappa Epsilon (Phi chapter). — Established in 1844, 
as a Junior society. Membership the same as Alpha Delta 
Phi and Psi Upsilon. Society hall erected in 186 1 on York 
Street. Enlarged in 1896. 

(Until the recent campaign agreements between the three 
above-mentioned societies the membership in each was very 
irregular in its numbers, varying from twenty to fifty.) 

Zeta Psi (Eta chapter). — Established in 1888 as a Junior 
society. From ten to fifteen chosen at end of Sophomore year 
and five or six later. Society hall on York Street erected in 
1890-91. New hall built on old site in 1898-99. 

Sophomore Academic. 

Kappa Sigma Theta. — Founded in 1838, went out of exis- 
tence in 1858. Sophomore society. Rooms in Townsend's 
Block. 

Alpha Sigma Phi. — Founded in 1846, went out of existence 
in 1864 by decree of Faculty. Sophomore society. 

Phi Theta Psi. — Founded in 1 864, after the death of Alpha 
Sigma Phi, by the pledged men of Psi Upsilon in the Class of 
'67. Membership unHmited. Sophomore society. Rooms 



2o6 YALE. 

were in the Cutler Building, corner of Church and Chapel 
Streets, and afterwards (1870) in the Lyon Building. Abol- 
ished in 1875. 

Delta Beta XL — Founded in 1864, after the death of Alpha 
Sigma Phi, by the pledged men of Delta Kappa Epsilon in 
the Class of '67. Sophomore society, membership unlimited. 
Rooms were in Townsend's Block. Abolished in 1875. 

'H BouAr;. — Founded in 1875. Sophomore society. Seven- 
teen members chosen from each incoming Sophomore class, in 
May of Freshman year. Rooms on Chapel Street. 

Alpha Kappa. — Founded in 1878. Sophomore society. 
Twenty-five members. Died in 1879. 

Eta Phi. — Founded in 1879. Sophomore society. Seven- 
teen members, chosen from each incoming Sophomore class in 
May of Freshman year. Rooms on Church Street. 

Beta Chi. — Founded in 1883. Sophomore society. Abol- 
ished in 1884-85. 

Kappa Psi. — Founded in 1895. Sophomore society. Fif- 
teen members chosen from each incoming Sophomore class, in 
May of Freshman year, and two members chosen in October 
of Sophomore year. Rooms on Church Street. 

Freshman Academic 

Kappa Sigma Epsilon. — Founded in 1840. Died by decree 
of the Faculty in November, 1880. Freshman society. About 
twenty men were at first chosen from each Freshman class, 
but later each class was divided among Kappa Sigma Epsilon, 
Delta Kappa, and Gamma Nu. Rooms were in the Collins 
Building on Chapel Street. 

Delta Kappa. — Founded in 1845. Died by decree of the 
Faculty in November, 1880. Freshman society. Divided class 
with Kappa Sigma Epsilon and Gamma Nu, after latter's estab- 
lishment. Rooms were on Chapel Street near Church. 

Sigma Delta. — Founded in 1849, ^'^^ i^ i860. Freshman 
society. 



APPENDICES. 207 

Gamma Nu. — Founded in 1855; died a natural death in 

1889. Freshman society. Divided class with Kappa Sigma 
Epsilon and Delta Kappa. After their death was principally a 
debating society. Rooms were in Lyon Building ; later in 
Insurance Building. 

Sigma Nu. — Founded in 1888. Went out of existence in 

1890. Freshman society. 

Four Year Academic. 

Beta Theta Pi, — Founded in 1891. Academic society. 
Members chosen from the four classes of the Academic 
Department. 

Phi Kappa Sigma. — Founded in 1896. Academic society. 
Members chosen from the four classes of the Academic 
Department. 

Scientific. 

Berzeliiis. — Founded in 1848. Membership varies some- 
what, but about ten men are chosen from the incoming Junior 
class in May, of Freshman year, with occasional elections 
in Junior and Senior year. Society hall on Prospect Street, 
erected in 1877. Society dormitory. The Colony, on Hillhouse 
Avenue, erected in 1898. 

Book and Snake. — Founded in 1863. Membership varies 
somewhat ; but generally from ten to fifteen men are taken 
from the incoming Junior class in May of the Freshman year, 
with occasional elections in Junior and Senior years. Society 
hall, corner of High and Grove streets, planned for erection 
in 1899. Society dormitory, The Cloister, corner of Grove 
Street and Hillhouse Avenue, erected in 1888. 

Theta Xi (Beta chapter). — EstabHshed in 1865. Member- 
ship not over fifteen a year. Society rooms, in 1888 on 
Chapel Street, above Park ; then moved to 43 College Street, 
and finally to 81 Church. Does not appear in Banner of 
1898-99. 



208 YALE. 

Ddta Psi (Sigma chapter). — Established in 1868. Member- 
ship about ten men, taken in December of Freshman year, 
with occasional elections in Junior and Senior years. Society 
hall, corner of College and Wall Streets, erected in 1885. 
Society dormitory, St. Anthony's, adjoining hall on College 
Street, erected in 1893. 

Chi Phi (Yale chapter). — Established in 1878. Member- 
ship varies ; about ten men elected from Freshman Class. 
Society hall, formerly at corner of York and Wall Streets. 
Present dormitory, York Hall, and society hall, 96 Wall 
Street. 

Theia Delta C/// (Epsilon Deuteron chapter). — Established 
in 18S7. Society house and hall, 36 Elm Street. Member- 
ship varies. 

Delta Phi (Yale chapter). — Established in 1889. Member- 
ship, twelve men chosen in December of Freshman year. 
Society house, St. Elmo Hall, iii Grove Street, erected 
in 1895. 

Alpha Chi. — Established in the seventies. Freshman so- 
ciety. It continued for a few years. 

University. 

Phi Gamma Delta. — Founded in 1875. Re-established in 
1888. University society. Members from all departments. 

Law School. 

Corbey Court (Waite chapter of Phi Delta Phi). — The 
Waite Chapter of the Law School Fraternity, Phi Delta Phi, 
was established at Yale in 1886 as a Senior society. In 1S90 
it united with the Junior society of Corbey Court under the 
latter's name. Membership from all classes. Rooms, 83 Elm 
Street. 

Book and Gavel. — Founded in 1890. Membership the 
same as Corbey Court. 



APPENDICES. 209 

Medical School, 

Skull and Scepter. — Twelve to fifteen members from all 
four classes of the Medical School. 

Delta Epsilon Iota. — Twelve to fifteen members from all 
four classes of the Medical School. 

LITERARY AND SCHOLARSHIR 

Phi Beta Kappa. — Alpha of Connecticut, organized in 
November, 17S0, to encourage scholarship. The requirements 
for admission have varied from time to time. Originally all 
those who received an oration appointment or over were mem- 
bers. Then the society was limited to those receiving high 
orations. At present only those who receive philosophical 
orations for two years' work are eligible. In 1898 a roorfi 
was handsomely fitted up for the society in White Hall by a 
graduate who withheld his name. Meetings are held 
bi-weekly. 

Chi Delta Theta. — Established by Prof. James L. Kingsley, 
in 182 1, to encourage literary as distinguished from scholastic 
ability. Originally about one fourth of the Senior class were 
annually elected members. It was not a rival of Phi Beta 
Kappa, and many belonged to both societies. It died in 
1843-44. In 1868 it was revived by the editors of the "Yale 
Literary Magazine " as an institution connected with that paper. 
All " Lit." editors are members, and in addition two or three 
Seniors are elected annually who have shown interest in con- 
tributing to the magazine. Its rooms are in White Hall. 

Sigma Xi. — The Yale chapter of a scientific fraternity, with 
chapters at Cornell, Stevens, Rutgers, Rensselaer, and Union. 
Members are chosen from all departments of the University for 
interest in scientific research, not necessarily for general high 
standing. The society was founded in 1886, at Cornell, by 
Prof. H. S. Williams, Yale, '68 S. The Yale chapter was 
established in March, 1895. 

14 



V 



CONDENSED DATA OF YALE'S VOLUNTARY, 
ORGANIZED RELIGIOUS WORK. 

1879. In the fall of this year members of the Class of '80, with 
the co-operation of Dr. Barbour, the College Pastor, 
and Professor Northrop, organized the Yale Christian 
Social Union, the first voluntary organized union of 
Christian men of all classes. 

188 1. Upon the return of Charles E. Loughridge, '83, from the 

International Convention of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association at Cleveland, the Yale Christian 
Social Union was re-organized into the Yale Young 
Men's Christian Association. 

1882. In the spring of this year the idea of a building on the 

campus for the religious uses of the students was 
first proposed. Subscriptions amounting to about 
eighteen thousand dollars were pledged for the 
erection of such a building, and when the building 
was erected by Mr. and Mrs. Monroe nearly all 
these pledges were transferred to a fund " for the 
reference library and kindred objects connected 
with the usefulness of the building." 

1883. The first convention of the College Associations of 

New England was held at Yale in February. 

1884. Mr. and Mrs. Elbert B. Monroe offered to erect on the 

campus, in fulfilment of the wishes of their uncle, 
the late Frederick Marquand, a building primarily 
for the use of the Y. M. C. A. and for other religious 
uses of the students. 



APPENDICES. 211 

1885. Ground was broken for this building in July. The 

name of Dwight Hall was given to it in memory of 
Timothy Dwight, President of Yale College from 
1795 to 1817. 

1886. As the administration of the growing work of the Y. M. 

C. A. had proved a heavy burden upon its President, 
if'Tras thought best to secure the undivided attention 
and effort of a general secretary, who should be a 
recent graduate and might be elected annually. Mr. 
Chauncey VV. Goodrich, '86, was chosen to be the 
first General Secretary, and filled the position during 
the year 1886-1887. 
1886. On October 17, Dwight Hall was formally opened and 
dedicated. 

1886. The Dwight Hall lecture course was established. 

1887. The Fifth Annual Conference of the College Y. M. C. 

A.'s was held at Yale on February 18. 

1887. Mr. William L. Phelps, '87, served as General Secretary 

during the year 1887-1888. 

1888. The Yale Alission was founded during this year. 

Rooms were rented in Washington Hall on Grand 
Avenue and services held. The work reached many 
of the worst class in the city. 

1888. Mr. A. Alonzo Stagg, '88, succeeded Mr. Phelps as 

General Secretary, and filled the position for two 
years, 1S88-1890. 

1889. A boys' club was organized in the spring of this year 

by members of the Class of '92 and called the Grand 
Avenue Boys' Club. Information Bureau organized. 

1890. Mr. Clifford W. Barnes, '89, was chosen General Secre- 

tary and served until 1892. 
1890. In the spring the Boys' Club joined with the Associa- 
tion of Christian Workers in the United States and 
Canada. It was decided that each successive Fresh- 
man class should take charge of the club. 



212 YALE. 

189 1. The Woolsey Club was organized to bring the claims 
of the ministry before Yale students and help them 
to decide intelligently whether they should choose 
this as their profession. 

1891. When the Class of '94 took charge of the Boys' Club 

they took a room on Orange Street and changed the 
name of the club to the University Boys' Club. 

1892. Mr. Henry T. Fowler, '90, was chosen as General 

Secretary for the years 1892-1894. 

1893. In December the Boys' Club again changed its rooms 

and went to Welcome Hall on Oak Street. 

1893. On November 19 the Yale Mission was moved to 

215 East Street. 

1894. Mr. William H. Sallmon, '94, was chosen General 

Secretary, and filled the position until 1897. 

1895. Rooms were secured during the summer at 134 Col- 

lege Street for the use of the Scientific Department. 

1896. On Sunday, October 18, the tenth anniversary of the 

dedication of Dwight Hall was celebrated by special 
services, which were in charge of the Graduate Advi- 
sory Committee. 

1896. While the Class of igoo had charge of the Boys' Club 

they made changes in conducting it, forming inner 
clubs which met in their own room one evening each 
week. After holding a business meeting, these 
classes were taught certain branches of industrial 
work, such as drawing, basket-weaving, chair-caning, 
Venetian iron work, and mat making. 

1897. In the spring of this year Mrs. W. F. Cochran of 

Yonkers, N. Y., gave the house and lot at 138 Col- 
lege Street for the use of the Scientific Department. 
97. Mr. Thomas F. Archbald, '96, was chosen as General 
Secretary, and served one year, 

1898. Twenty-seven men attended the Third International 

Convention of the Student Volunteer Movement for 



APPENDICES. 213 

Foreign Missions, held in Cleveland, Ohio, February 
23-27. 
1898. The Yale Mission took temporary rooms at 785 Grand 

Avenue. 

1898. At the annual meeting of the Yale Y. M. C. A. it was 
voted that the Association be legally incorporated 
under the statutes of the State of Connecticut. 
Mr. Henry B. Wright, '98, was chosen to succeed Mr. 
Archbald as General Secretary. 

1898. A new departure, tried in the spring, which was very 
successful, was the holding of song services in the 
vicinity of Grand Avenue. 

1898. In the fall of this year ground was broken for the 
erection of a new mission building, on Franklin 
Street near Grand Avenue, which was completed 
Dec. 15, at an expense of eight thousand dollars. 



PART II 
THE YALE CLASS ROOMS 

By lewis SHELDON WELCH 

AND OTHERS 



COMMENCEMENT ODE. 

By EDMUND CLARENCE STEDMAN, Yale, '53. 

Written for the new Commencement Exercises, instituted in 1895, and 
sung at that time to music by Prof. Horatio VV. Parker. 



H 



" ARK ! through the archways old 
High voices manifold 
Sing praise to our fair Mother, praise to Yale ! 

The Muses' rustling garments trail ; 
White arms, with myrtle and with laurel wound, 

Bring crowns to her, the Crowned ! 
Youngest and blithest, and awaited long, 
The heavenly maid, sweet Music's child divine, 
With golden lyre and joy of choric song 
Leads all the Sisters Nine. 



IL 

In the gray of a people's mom, 

In the faith of the years to be, 
The sacred Mother was born 
On the shore of the fruitful sea ; 
By the shore she grew, and the ancient winds of the East 
Made her brave and strong, and her beauteous youth increased 
Till the winds of the West, from a wondrous land, 
From the strana of the setting sun to the sea of her sunrise 
strand, 



2i8 YALE. 

From fanes which her own clear hand hath planted in grove 

and mead and vale, 
Breathe love from her countless sons of might to the Mother 

— breathe praise to Yale. 

III. 

Mother of Learning ! thou whose torch 
Starward uplifts, afar its light to bear, — 
Thine own revere thee throned within thy porch, 
Rayed with thy shining hair. 
The youngest know thee still more young, — 
The stateliest, statelier yet than prophet-bard hath sung. 
O mighty Mother, proudly set 

Beside the far-inreaching sea. 
None shall the trophied Past forget 
Or doubt thy splendor yet to be ! 



CHAPTER I. 

YALE, THE COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY. 

IT is an ambitious scheme to try to indicate, in the 
hmits of such a volume as this, the plan and methods 
of the strictly educational work of the University of 
Yale. But it is well at least to suggest some points of 
it not usually included in catalogues and reports. 

The general stand of Yale is perfectly well known. 
That her educational system has been progressive in 
the last twenty years is plain enough ; that it is very con- 
servatively so, is also very plain. The New Haven Uni- 
versity stands midway. She has become a university, 
but she has also not ceased to retain in her Academic 
Department the old college idea. Many have plunged 
far beyond her in the course of free election, but she 
here holds and applies the theory that the young man 
who comes to her needs to be guided in the groundwork 
of his education for at least half of his course. 

A demonstration of Yale's combination of the College 
and the University was given by one of the liberal minds 
on the Yale Faculty, in a speech at an Alumni dinner, a 
part of which has already been quoted in another part 
of the book. It shows in such a clear way the some- 
times conflicting, but mainly co-operating forces of the 
two systems which Yale has merged, that I ask the right 
to again quote at some length from it. 

Said Professor Perrin of Yale, at the 1898 dinner of 
the Long Island Alumni : — 



220 YALE. 

" Not many years have passed since our popular edu- 
cation was mainly by compulsion. The apparatus and meth- 
ods of schools and academies, particularly in the country, 
were extremely simple, but extremely effective. A teacher 
with more or less formal knowledge laid a small section of that 
knowledge before the pupil, usually in unattractive form, and 
compelled him to acquire it within a given time under pain of 
punishment. There was little elucidation or enticement. The 
pupil was driven, not led. But the rude process fostered in 
the pupil a confidence in his own powers, an expectation of 
conquest and a delight in it, a vigor and persistency of effort, 
which many of us miss in the products of the modern educa- 
tional processes. 

" For now education is largely by seduction. From nursery 
and kindergarten up through grammar schools and high 
schools and academies, the approved tendency is to smooth 
difficulties away from before the pupil, to lure him on over easy 
and attractive paths, paths even of his own immature choice. 
Acquisitions may be larger and more varied under this modern 
system of education by seduction, but the mental fibre of the 
pupil lacks the aggressive vigor of the older days. In the face 
of a mountain of difficulty, the pupil's first instinct is to call for 
help rather than boldly attack and master the obstruction. 

" Now the old college system of training, as it survives at 
Yale in Freshman and Sophomore years, is to a great degree 
a continuation of the older spirit and method in education. 
Methods of teaching and apparatus of teaching even in these 
two years of 'required studies' have indeed improved vastly 
over those of earlier years. The influence of the new education 
is of course felt here. Subjects are made interesting to the 
student, and taught for his benefit rather than for that of the 
instructor. Zeal and ardor and a contagious enthusiasm now 
enliven the instruction here, and redeem it from scholasticism. 
But, after all, tasks are necessarily set the student in subjects 
which he did not directly elect to pursue, and he is rigidly held 



YALE, THE COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY. 221 

to frequent, almost daily, tests of the faithfulness with which he 
performs those tasks. 

" Such a system has its disadvantages. Where three or four 
hundred men are forced through the same course of study, 
regardless of their individual preferences or tastes, there results 
a kind of collective or mass individuality. The large divi- 
sions in which men are necessarily handled and the impos- 
sibility of individual treatment by the instructor, encourage 
mass intellectual plays. Genius suffers, of course, but learns 
the great lesson of standing shoulder to shoulder with fellow 
men, a lesson worth all it ever costs. And so this lower under- 
graduate life at Yale fosters mass movements of every kind ; 
keeps alive the old ' class-spirit,' with all its objectionable rival- 
ries and petty collisions ; brings out crowds of noisy boys to 
fires, processions, celebrations, and open air functions of every 
kind. We all know the tendency of a crowd to fall to the level 
of the lowest member of it. We know the cruelty and coward- 
ice and meanness of a crowd. A man will do in a crowd what 
he would never forgive himself for doing by himself. 

"These objectionable mass tendencies are nowhere more 
plainly seen than in our compulsory chapel services, from which 
not even the two upper classes are yet exempt, though they 
otherwise breathe tlie air of university election. The coughing 
and hawking, which makes the place suggest a large bench 
show ; the contagiousness of the idiotic laugh, or of the mis- 
chievous reminder of the flight of time ; all the acts and pos- 
tures and garbs which make the judicious among us grieve, are 
the result of this mass coherence which is so highly developed 
during the first two years of college requirements. 

" But there is a bright side to all this. Such responsiveness to 
good, soul-stirring leadership, such glorious momentum in good 
causes, such collective loyalty and enthusiasm, such energy in all 
the manifold enterprises of our undergraduate life, such slowly 
gathering but grandly culminating demands of public sentiment, 
and, even in chapel, such collective tributes to the really true and 



222 YALE. 

great and simple and pure — where else can they be found ? 
Besides, it is not in groups and squads and crowds that idleness 
thrives. And vice, as the late Lord Laureate said, ' vice some- 
times appears to me as the shadow of idleness.' Whatever else 
may thrive at Yale, idleness does not. Everybody belongs 
somewhere and is doing something. The work may not be 
entirely the work of the curriculum, but ' fervet opus. ' 

" Out of this old-fashioned college-period of close supervision 
in the performance of allotted tasks, the student is gradually, not 
abruptly, transferred into the larger and freer air of university 
election. Full university freedom in the continental sense he 
cannot have before the graduate departments ; but university 
election of courses, and university methods of instruction, and 
enlarged freedom in attendance, he can have in Junior and 
Senior years. 

" To this freedom he comes with no jaded appetite and with 
no distorted powers. The cohesive habits of the college period 
continue to exert their force, and to prevent that isolation in 
individual achievement which the smaller groups, the multiply- 
ing intellectual interests, and the larger freedom of the lecture 
and the examination, instead of the lesson and the recitation, 
would naturally bring. ' Class spirit ' continues, much to our 
surprise, and mass movements are apparently as popular, but 
tempered now with growing dignity. There is increased oppor- 
tunity for idleness and shirking, but increased susceptibility to 
nobler stimulus. The sense of increased freedom brings with 
it an increased sense of responsibility, more surely than if the 
freedom had not been, as it were, struggled for and won. 

" Yale is such a unique combination of college and university. 
It is an evolution, and, until now, a necessity. Whether the 
university freedom of the two upper years shall be extended 
into the two earlier years is the greatest question of the future. 
Much would undoubtedly be gained. Many of the exuberant 
follies that now characterize our undergraduate hfe might dis- 
appear. There would be less and less survival of the old-time 



YALE, THE COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY. 223 

feeling of resistance to the imparting of knowledge. The baffled 
look of the student, whom some unexpected Socratic device of 
the teacher has decoyed into learning something, would be less 
common. But more might be lost than gained. The secret 
of the much-heralded ' Yale democracy ' lies in this combina- 
tion. That power of adjustment to the needs of the community 
in which he puts himself, which now so pre-eminently character- 
izes the Yale man, might slowly disappear. The higher disci- 
plines even might pall on minds less hardened and exercised by 
required work performed in widest competition within the Uni- 
versity itself. The present administration I understand to be 
committed to the combination." 

The chapters which immediately follovi^ show the 
particular ideals and methods of the several depart- 
ments of the University, as they are at present con- 
stituted. Here and there the record of the past is 
considerably drawn upon in order to make more clear 
the present; but the mass of historical facts is reserved 
for the statistical tables at the close, which are arranged 
in a condensed chronological form for purposes of 
reference. 



CHAPTER II. 

YALE COLLEGE. 

THE course of study laid down for the student in 
Yale College, that is, in the Academic Depart- 
ment of the University, has always aimed to provide the 
foundation of a liberal education. The many changes 
which the curriculum has undergone have not obscured 
this main object. In the mean time the requirements 
for admission to the College have been constantly 
raised ; new departments of knowledge have been dis- 
covered and their educational tools utilized ; new meth- 
ods of study and of instruction have been developed ; 
and successive college generations, as they pass out into 
active life, are distributing themselves among the vari- 
ous vocations in widely differing proportions, gradually 
neglecting the learned professions, especially the minis- 
try, for the opportunities a business career offers. 

In 1766 a Freshman, on being admitted, was assumed 
to be famitiar with Cicero's Orations, with Vergil, and 
the Greek Testament, and to be proficient in common 
arithmetic. In 1822 a prospective Freshman in Yale 
College was examined in Cicero's Orations, Sallust, and 
Vergil; in Latin composition, grammar, and prosody; 
in Greek grammar and composition, and in the Greek 
Testament; also in arithmetic. By 1853 a part of 
Xenophon had been added to the list of requirements 
for admission ; also higher arithmetic, algebra as far as 




Welch Hall 




OsBORN Hall 



YALE COLLEGE. 225 

quadratic equations, geography, and English grammar. 
Thirty years later Caesar, Ovid, and Homer had been 
added to the list; also Roman and Greek history in the 
place of geography and English grammar, while plane 
geometry had been added to the mathematical studies 
required. 

Finally, at the present time, a knowledge of either 
French or German is required of every candidate; he 
is also examined in English, and the requirements in 
the above classical and mathematical subjects have 
been materially enlarged. 

The progressive development of the college curricu- 
lum is better shown by the increase in the number of 
subjects studied, and in their difficulty. So, for in- 
stance, a Yale student of about 1720 studied the ancient 
languages, including Hebrew, as well as logic during his 
first two years. In Junior year he added the study of 
physics, and in Senior year that of metaphysics and 
mathematics. During his entire course he was obliged 
to attend rhetorical exercises, converse in Latin with his 
fellow-students, and receive instruction in divinity, pre- 
sumably what later was called " evidences of Christi- 
anity." In the forties of the last century, the study of 
mathematics had been extended to geometry and as- 
tronomy, and geography and natural philosophy had 
been added. By 1766 some further additions to the 
curriculum had been made, and by 1778, at the acces- 
sion of President Stiles, the curriculum was arranged as 
follows : 

Freshman year: Vergil, Cicero's Orations, the Greek 
Testament, and arithmetic. Sophomore year : Horace 
and the Greek Testament, English grammar and rhet- 
oric, algebra, geometry and geography, and the " West- 

15 



2 26 YALE. 

minster Catechism." Junior year: Cicero Dc Oratore 
and the Greek Testament, trigonometry and philosophy. 
Senior year : Locke's " Human Understanding," ethics 
and natural theology, and, as heretofore, the Greek 
Testament. 

The Freshman of half a century later, say in the 
twenties of this century, studied some Greek ; he read 
Livy, wrote Latin composition and dipped into Roman 
antiquities, mastered the principles of arithmetic and 
the simpler ones of algebra, and perfected himself in 
geography and English grammar. The Sophomores 
of that time continued the study of geography, — which 
included some general history, — advanced in their 
mathematical studies to Euclid, conic sections, and 
spherical geometry. The classical authors read were 
Horace, Cicero, and Homer, and exercises in rhetoric 
and English composition were required. The Junior 
class continued the study of Cicero, and also read 
Tacitus, Some Greek authors were also read, for 
which, however, the study of Hebrew could be substi- 
tuted, presumably by prospective theologians. In math- 
ematics the class took .up spherical trigonometry, the 
calculus, and astronomy. The study of history was 
also begun, and the rhetorical and English exercises of 
the previous year were continued. In the fourth and 
last year of the course the classics gave way to logic, 
psychology and philosophy, ethics, natural theology, 
and evidences of Christianity, which, together with the 
usual rhetorical exercises and occasional lectures in 
the natural sciences, comprised the course of study of 
the Senior class. 

In the fifties many of the above studies had been 
pushed forward a year, and others had been added. 



YALE COLLEGE. 227 

The Freshman then read Livy and Horace, Homer 
and Herodotus, also the Greek Testament; he stud- 
ied Greek and Roman history and antiquities, and 
in mathematics he mastered algebra and Euclid. In 
Sophomore year the works of Horace and three of the 
philosophical works of Cicero were read ; in Greek, 
Xenophon's " Memorabilia," the orations of Isocrates, 
and the plays of Euripides and ^schylus. The mathe- 
matical studies included logarithms and the calculus, 
plane trigonometry, analytical and spherical geometry, 
navigation, and surveying. In Junior year Cicero and 
Tacitus were read ; also Plato and Thucydides. Applied 
mathematics were studied under the head of mechanics, 
physics, surveying, and astronomy; some natural phi- 
losophy was also studied, and mental philosophy begun. 
As Seniors the students made further advances in 
astronomy and natural philosophy; they rounded off 
their classical education with a dash of Demosthenes, 
and were, as formerly, thoroughly trained in psychology, 
ethics, natural theology, and the evidences of Chris- 
tianity. In addition, the more modern subjects of 
study, and especially those in which President Woolsey 
distinguished himself, were taken up by the Seniors. 
Such were political science, economics, and interna- 
tional law. Rhetorical and similar exercises were re- 
quired during the entire course. 

Thirty 5^ears later some further progress had been 
made in the required course of study. In 1883-4, the 
year before the present system of elective courses was 
adopted, a Freshman read one book of Herodotus and 
five of the Odyssey, one of Livy, an oration and a phil- 
osophical work of Cicero, and selections from Ovid. 
He also studied Greek and Latin composition and 



228 YALE. 

Roman history. In ihc mathematical Hne he mastered 
Euchd and finished Chauvenet, and was introduced to 
analytical geometry and plane trigonometry. Rhetori- 
cal exercises were required of him, and also attendance 
on some well-intentioned lectures upon hygiene. The 
Sophomores in 1883 read some of Demosthenes' ora- 
tions, — which their fathers did in Senior year, — a few 
Greek tragedies, some of Plato's works, and Xenophon's 
" Memorabilia," and among the Latin authors, Horace 
and Juv^enal, Tacitus and Cicero De Officiis. 

The Sophomores continued the study of analytical 
geometry and trigonometry (plane and spherical), and 
took up surveying, navigation, and mechanics. The 
exercises in rhetoric and English composition were con- 
tinued. In Junior year the dead languages yielded to 
the modern languages, and the study of German as well 
as of English was required. The Juniors in 1883 'ilso 
studied astronomy, physics, and chemistry, and began 
United States history and logic. The Seniors studied 
about what their fathers had studied in the fifties, 
namely, mental and moral philosophy, natural theology 
and evidences of Christianity, political science and eco- 
nomics, European history and elementary law; also 
some natural science. 

However great the changes in the curriculum were 
down to the early eighties, its contents remained meagre 
as compared v/ith the wealth of educational material 
which the newly developed lines of thought were bring- 
ing to light. It continued to lay the greatest stress on 
the study of the classics, formal and applied mathe- 
matics, and on mental and moral philosophy, while it 
gave but scant attention to the natural sciences, and 
even less to the historical and political sciences. A 



YALE COLLEGE. 229 

radically new step was taken when the study of a mod- 
ern language was required. This was in 1867, when the 
Juniors were required to study German one term ; after 
1875 this was extended through the whole of Junior 
year. However, down to the recent great changes in 
the curriculum by the adoption of the elective system 
and the corresponding changes in the requirements for 
admission, the study of the modern languages was prac- 
tically confined to teaching the elements of those 
languages. 

In 1884 the foundations of the present elective sys- 
tem were laid. To be sure, a meagre beginning with 
so-called elective courses had been made sixty odd 
years before. Then a Junior could choose during one 
term between Greek and Hebrew. Little by little the 
students' range of choice was widened, French being 
added in 1825. By the middle of the fifties a Sopho- 
more could choose during his third term analytical 
geometry in the place of the regular mathematical 
work; a Junior could substitute the calculus for the an- 
cient languages during two thirds of the year, and dur- 
ing the other third he v/as allowed to add a course in 
the classics, modern languages, or in applied mathe- 
matics to his regular work. In 1870 a Junior could 
substitute the calculus for his courses in Greek and 
Latin during two thirds of the year, and German for 
Greek during the other third; during the first term of 
Senior year German could be substituted for Latin or 
astronomy. From 1876 on, the principle of elective 
courses was systematized, and four exercises a week 
were required of the Juniors and Seniors, to be elected 
from a variety of courses in philology, history and 
political science, mathematics, pure and applied, and 



230 YALE. 

the natural sciences; courses in philosophy were added 
in 1877, and in the fine arts in 1879. 

Such, then, was the college curriculum in 1884, when 
the important changes were begun that have led up to 
the present arrangement of studies. Eighty-seven per 
cent of a student's work was in prescribed courses, 
largely along the lines which the curriculum had fol- 
lowed since time immemorial ; thirteen per cent of his 
work the student could choose from among a limited 
number of courses in a fev/ departments of learning. 

The change in 18S4 aimed at enlarging the amount 
of elective work in Junior and Senior years, and at 
pushing back the study of the modern languages into 
the first two years of the course. At first, the required 
courses retained in Junior and Senior years covered the 
natural sciences, astronomy, and mental and moral sci- 
ence. The first two were in a few years changed into 
elective courses, and mental and moral science has re- 
mained since 1893 the only required study during the 
last two years of the course. A further important 
change was made in 1893, by which the Sophomores 
were allowed to drop one of the six subjects, Greek, 
Latin, English, the modern languages (German or 
French), mathematics, or physics, pursuing the other 
five studies. 

To sum up the changes in the curriculum of Yale 
College during the past two centuries : from a rigid sys- 
tem prescribing all the studies of the students and divid- 
ing their time among the classics, mathematics, and 
philosophy, the present curriculum has been evolved, 
which requires that at least 12 per cent of a student's 
work during his four years shall be in the classics, y^g" 
in philosophy, 6 per cent in mathematics, 2V '^^ either 



YALE COLLEGE. 231 

French or German, and -^q in English ; the remaining 
two thirds of his time he is at liberty to divide as he 
chooses among a variety of courses which he may be fit 
to attend, provided only that in Sophomore year he 
chooses five of the six studies offered. 

These radical changes in the curriculum, which are 
certainly not final and will inevitably be followed by 
similar ones, can only be interpreted to mean that, 
while the aim of the college education is still the same, 
to provide the foundation for a liberal education, this 
goal can be reached by a variety of paths. The foun- 
dation of each student's liberal education was formerly 
of identical material; now it is constructed of a variety 
of materials. Formerly most importance was put upon 
zi>/ia( a student acquired, nowadays upon /lozu he ac- 
quires knowledge ; and it is now an accepted principle 
that, with the large and growing variety of educational 
tools offered us in the widening sphere of human knowl- 
edge, their selection may within reasonable limits be 
left to the good sense of the student. 

It is fair to say that this truth was not accepted at 
the outset, and did. not lead to the adoption of the prin- 
ciple of elective studies. These were the necessary 
result of the circumstance that, with the growth of the 
number of instructors and the multiplication of lines of 
scientific investigation, the instructors themselves, ad- 
vancing along their special lines of study, felt the incen- 
tive to broaden their teaching; and inasmuch as all 
students could no longer be required to study along all 
these lines, the problem was solved by inviting all the 
students to study along some of them. In 1822 the 
Academic Faculty consisted of the President; a pro- 
fessor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology ; a pro- 



232 YALE. 

fessor of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin; a professor of 
mathematics, natural philosophy, and astronomy; a pro- 
fessor of rhetoric; a professor of divinity; and six or 
seven tutors, who were the jacks-of-all-trades of the time. 
As compared with these thirteen teachers comprising 
the Faculty in 1822, their present number is over one 
hundred, divided among the various departments as 
follows: natural science, 21; ancient languages, 17; 
political science and law, 10; mathematics, 10; Eng- 
lish, 10; modern languages, 8 ; history,/; philosophy, 
7 ; art, 3 ; music, 3 ; biblical literature, 3 ; physical 
culture, 2; military science, i. While the Faculty in- 
creased eightfold, the number of students in the college 
increased from 371 to 1241, or something over 3|- times. 
This relatively and absolutely rapid increase of the 
teaching force enabled and encouraged it to open and 
utilize fields of instruction formerly untouched, and to 
greatly extend the old fields. As compared with the 
meagre opportunities for study offered in former years, 
the Juniors and Seniors alone are now offered courses 
of instruction, by lecture, recitation, or in the labora- 
tories, aggregating over three hundred hours per week; 
enough to keep them busy twenty years, if they under- 
took to attend all courses. The hours per week of 
instruction offered in the various departments during 
the year 1898-9 is as follows: 

Modern languages . ... 51 History 22 

Mental and moral science . 39 Biblical literature .... 18 

Ancient languages . . . . 3S Music 10 

Natural science 36 Art 8 

Political science and law . 27 Physical culture 2 

English 25 Military science I 

Mathematics 24 

Total 301 hours per week. 



YALE COLLEGE. 233 

With this great increase of instructors and the widen- 
ing of the sphere of instruction have gone hand in hand 
great changes in the methods of instruction. While 
the old-fashioned recitation is still retained in some lines 
of study, especially in the lower years, other depart- 
ments have been driven, by the size of their classes or 
the nature of their subjects, to give their instruction by 
means of lectures ; still other lines of work are carried 
on in the laboratories or in the equally intimate associ- 
ation with the instructor in small courses for special 
research. In adapting themselves to these various con- 
ditions three types of courses have been evolved. 
There is, first, the large course of from two to three 
hundred men, generally the beginners in some subject, 
whom the instructor lectures to in a body, supplement- 
ing his lectures with occasional examinations, or with 
regular written exercises. Such a course is Professor 
Hadley's in elementary economics and Professor Sum- 
ner's in the science of society, covering elementary 
anthropology and sociology. The former course is 
offered to Juniors, the latter to Seniors. The second 
type of courses is the one containing sometimes but a 
handful of students working under the personal and 
constant direction of their instructor, who directs their 
reading and supervises their investigations. It goes 
without saying that these courses are among the most 
valuable to the earnest students. Typical courses of 
this kind are the famous one of Professor Chittenden 
and his assistants on biology, taken by prospective 
medical students, and the courses for special research 
offered in the departments of history, philosophy, and 
the ancient languages. The third type of course com- 
bines in a way the advantages of the other two. It 



234 YALE. 

seeks to retain the intimate relation of the second, and 
the possibility of breadth of treatment of the first type. 
Professor Smith's courses in American history, ProTes- 
sor Wheeler's in European histor}^ and, in general, the 
courses in the lower classes containing usually from 
twenty to thirty men, illustrate this type. In it recita- 
tions are given more or less importance, according to 
the nature of the subject or the preference of the 
instructor, and are supplemented by formal or informal 
lectures. 

In the development of the large courses — in 1898 
there were eleven containing over one hundred Juniors 
and Seniors each — a serious problem is met. With 
the growing difficulty of properly preparing oneself for 
teaching one of the newer subjects, and with the in- 
creased demands made upon the teacher in the way of 
breadth of treatment, he finds it often physically im- 
possible to do justice to his subject and at the same 
time to come into personal and intimate relations with 
his scholars. If he attempts to teach by means of care- 
fully prepared lectures, which the size of his class often 
compels him to do, he has to give up the more direct 
method of teaching by question and answer. The stu- 
dent, on the other hand, is tempted to relax his efforts, 
if he is merely required to attend these lectures with 
a distant examination on their contents in view. To 
remedy this difficulty, a beginning has been made in 
more or less limiting the professors' activity to lecturing 
and in general supervising the study and reading of the 
students, and in leaving it to the younger instructors 
and assistants to follow up this by more personal and 
direct instruction, meeting the students individually 
or in small bodies. This method was adopted long 



YALE COLLEGE. 



235 



ago with success in the professional schools, where the 
quiz-master occupies an important and vvell-recognizcd 
position. It is interesting to note that this method of 
economizing the efforts of the teaching force, and of 
combining the experience of the older with the enthu- 
siasm of the younger teachers, was foreshadowed in the 
famous Report on a course of liberal education, made 
in 1829 by the college authorities. 

Another outgrowth of the modern conditions which 
surround the college education is the so-called Special 
Honor System, which is intended to encourage the 
students who distinguish themselves during Junior and 
Senior years in some one particular line of study. In 
former times, when all the students studied practically 
the same subjects, his position on the appointment list 
at graduation was not an unfair mark of each student's 
success as a scholar. But nowadays, when few students 
pursue exactly the same course, this system is distinctly 
unfair. In consequence the appointment list has lost 
much of its former importance, while the valedictorian 
and salutatorian have disappeared altogether. In the 
place of the incentive to good work with their books 
and in the class-room offered by the old ranking sys- 
tem, has come the special honor system, under which 
four hundred and fifty men in the past thirteen classes, 
or about 17 per cent of their members, have devoted 
at least a third of their time, in their Senior or in 
their Senior and Junior years, to work in one particular 
line, and have written theses sufficiently meritorious to 
warrant their being given honorable mention on the 
program of their Commencement exercises. 

A sketch of the present course of study would read 
as follows : On entering the College, the Freshman is 



236 YALE. 

given no choice in selecting the studies of his first year, 
except that he can choose between German or French, 
one of which he studies, being assigned to a class ap- 
propriate to his knowledge of the language. In Greek 
he reads five books of the Odyssey, the "Apology" of 
Plato, and selections from Herodotus. In Latin he 
reads two books of Livy, the comedies of Terence, and 
selections from other prose writers and poets; he also 
is practised in Latin prose composition. In mathe- 
matics he studies plane and solid geometry, trigonom- 
etry, and mechanics. In English he reads six plays of 
Shakespeare. 

In Sophomore year, as already explained, a student 
chooses five of the following six courses : 

I. Greek — reading of three tragedies and one com- 
edy, with lectures on the Greek drama and theatre. 

II. Latin — reading of Horace, Tacitus, and some 
plays of Plautus. 

III. German or French — a variety of advanced 
and elementary courses adapted to the needs of the 
student. 

IV. English — reading of Spenser, Shakespeare, 
Milton, Addison, Swift, Pope, and Gray, with an outline 
history of English literature ; also rhetorical exercises. 

V. Physics — a general course, using Ganot's " Phy- 
sics " as a text-book. 

VI. Mathematics — either the study of analytical 
geometry and elementary calculus, or the study of trig- 
onometry, surveying, navigation, and practical astronomy. 

Since 1893, when the above scheme for the work in 
Sophomore year went into eft"ect, on an average over 
98 per cent of the class have chosen German or French; 
a little less than 98 per cent, English ; 92 per cent, Latin ; 



YALE COLLEGE. 237 

84 per cent, physics ; 70 per cent, Greek, and 55 per 
cent, mathematics, which figures roughly indicate the 
relative popularity of these studies. 

Beginning with his Junior year the student chooses 
freely from among the large number of elective courses 
open to him, provided only he take the courses in logic, 
psychology, and ethics. Nine tenths of the class nowa- 
days choose the course in elementary economics under 
Professors Hadley and Fisher ; the same fraction of the 
class choosing one or more courses in history, especially 
Professor Adams' course in mediaeval history. Two 
thirds of the class usually continue their study of French 
or German; the same fraction taking advanced courses 
in English, especially under Professors Beers, Lewis, and 
W. L. Phelps. One third or more of the Junior class 
take one or more courses in the natural sciences, es- 
pecially in chemistry under Professor Gooch, or in 
physiology under Professor Chittenden. A smaller pro- 
portion of the class chooses courses in mathematics, in 
mental and moral science, in the ancient languages, and 
in Biblical literature, in art, and in music. 

In Senior year each student is now required to take 
one of a number of two-hour (per week) courses in 
philosophy. The rest of his time he divides at will 
among the large number and variety of elective courses 
open to him. Over nine tenths of each Senior class 
uniformly take one or more courses in political science, 
the favorite ones being Professor Sumner's on the science 
of society and Prof. E. J. Phelps' on constitutional and 
international law. Something less than nine tenths 
choose work in history, the favorite course being Pro- 
fessor Wheeler's well-known one in modern European 
history. History and political science have become 



238 YALE. 

pre-eminently the studies of Senior year, while the 
courses in the other departments are selected by a much 
smaller fraction of the class. During the past six years 
English courses have been chosen by a fraction of the 
class varying between 18 per cent and 60 per cent, ac- 
cording to the character of the courses offered and the 
popularity of the instructor. From a fifth to a third 
usually choose work in the natural sciences, the most 
important course being the one in biology mentioned 
above ; similar figures apply to the courses in mental 
and moral science, and in the modern languages. A 
much smaller number of Seniors enroll themselves in the 
remaining departments. 

As was intimated, the popularity of an individual in- 
structor will swell the attendance on a course, and, 
therefore increase the relative importance given by the 
students in their selection of courses to one particular 
department. Still, the changes in the personnel of the 
various departmental Faculties have not been as de- 
cisive in determining the choice of elective courses as 
the character of those courses, and the development of 
the newer fields of study. These newer studies have, 
no doubt, crowded back the older ones. So, for in- 
stance, in the purely elective work of the last two years, 
the attendance of courses in political science has in- 
creased fourfold since 1884; that on courses in history 
has increased one-half. The elective work in the classics, 
mathematics, and natural sciences, on the other hand, 
has fallen off. However, a fairer picture of the relative 
importance of each line of study is given by taking into 
account all four years of the academic course, the re- 
quired as well as the elective work. Here we see that 
the two classes, 1886 and 1899, are compared as follows 



YALE COLLEGE. 



239 



in the relative importance of the ingredients of their 
college education : 



Class of 1886. 
Per cent. 

35 
19 
10 

9 
9 
7 
7 
4 
o 

0-5 
o 
o 
o 



Modern languages 
English .... 
Philosophy . . . 
Natural sciences . 
History .... 
Political science . 
Biblical literature 
Art 



Class of 1899. 
Per cent. 

. 22 



Ancient languages . 

Mathematics 10 

• 13 

. 12 

. 10 



13 
0.8 

0-3 



Music o.T 

Military science . . . .0.1 
Physical culture .... 0.05 



It is seen from these figures that, since the establish- 
ment of the present elective system, the relative im- 
portance in the curriculum of the ancient languages has 
fallen off one fifth, that of mathematics nearly one half, 
while that of all the others has increased, to a slight 
extent in the case of philosophy and the natural sciences, 
to a considerable extent in the case of the modern lan- 
guages, including English, and that of history, and to 
the greatest extent in the case of political science. 
Moreover, some new departments of study have been 
originated and are being exploited, such as Biblical 
literature and military science. 

Taking the figures for the classes of 1895 to 1899, it 
may be said that the typical graduate of Yale College 
has enjoyed an academic education, consisting, one 
quarter of training in the classics ; one seventh in the 
modern languages ; about one tenth each in history, 
pohtical science, English, mathematics, and philosophy; 



240 YALE. 

about one fourteenth in the natural sciences, and the 
rest a seasoning of BibHcal literature, art, music, with a 
trace of physical culture and military science. A similar 
table of the ingredients of the typical Harvard College 
graduate's educational outfit shows that in Cambridge 
the ancient languages receive but a third as much at- 
tention, mathematics a little more than a third ; but the 
modern languages, history, the natural sciences, and 
English half as much again ; political science about the 
same, and philosophy about two thirds as much. 

The difference between the typical Yale and Harvard 
collegiate education is only to a small extent explained 
by the accidental differences in the popularity of cer- 
tain courses. The difference is more fully explained 
by the wider extension of the elective system at 
Harvard, and the consequently greater amount of " re- 
quired " studies at Yale. The greatest disparity is 
shown in the classics and in mathematics, in the teach- 
ing of which Yale far excels Harvard ; and in these 
two departments the amount of " required " instruction 
received by a class at Yale is larger than in any other 
department. Of all the instruction the class of 1898 
received in the classics, 95 per cent was required, and 
only 5 per cent elective ; in mathematics, the figures 
were 91 per cent and 9 per cent. The Yale and Har- 
vard figures are most nearly alike in the departments 
of history and political science, the two leading depart- 
ments in which there are no required courses at Yale. 

What was said above about a typical college educa- 
tion would be vitiated if that type were the result of. 
averaging a number of extreme cases; and the rela- 
tive importance of the ingredients of a typical educa- 
tional outfit would mean nothing if it were based on 



YALE COLLEGE. 241 

the distribution of their work by a large number of 
students, one devoting all his time to the classics, 
another to the natural sciences. The question sug- 
gests itself, then, to what extent do the students of 
to-day specialize their work and devote themselves 
exclusively to one line of study, which, no doubt, the 
modern curriculum enables them to do. After satis- 
fying the requirements of Freshman and Sophomore 
years, they are at liberty to divide their time among 
thirteen departments, and get a general view of a 
variety of lines of study ; or they can devote all their 
energies to one or two lines of study, always provided 
they enroll themselves in the philosophical courses 
required of Juniors and Seniors. 

It is noticeable that an insignificant number of 
Juniors and Seniors limit their attention to as few as 
even three departments. And then it is usually the 
case of a student to whom the college education is 
the preparation for his profession of teaching, and who 
is, therefore, devoting all his time to mastering the 
classics or mathematics, no doubt to his future 
pecuniary advantage, but also to the loss of a well- 
rounded liberal education. However, these are rare 
exceptions. During the past ten years about nine 
tenths of the Juniors are found in five or more depart- 
ments, and about one half the Seniors are equally 
widely distributed. In fact, there are on record the 
names of nine Juniors who were so comprehensive in 
their yearning for knowledge that they enrolled them- 
selves in eight courses in as many different lines of 
work. A solitary Senior, during the years since 1884, 
was equally ubiquitous. 

It would have been unfortunate if the curriculum, 

16 



^42 YALE. 

as it has been evolved of late years, had come to 
merely anticipate the work of the professional schools, 
the law and medical schools, the seminaries and the 
graduate schools, and had encouraged the college 
students to follow but one line of study, and neglect the 
rest. Such a curriculum might perhaps have enabled 
the student to earn his medical or legal fee, his 
teacher's or minister's salary, a few years sooner. It 
is to be hoped that Yale College will not be influ- 
enced by such bread-and-butter motives, but, however 
she changes her curriculum, will always aim to educate 
her sons with a view to developing their full intellectual 
manhood, and enabling them to maintain their honored 
position in the realm of thought and action, not so much 
by supplying them with a means of livelihood, as by 
teaching them to think correctly, broadly, and deeply. 

The need of such a broad college education is 
emphasized when we consider the fact that from being 
merely a preparation for one of the learned profes- 
sions, especially the ministry, a college education has 
come to fit men for a much wider variety of pursuits. 
Of the first fifteen classes graduated at Yale College 
(1704-18) an average of 78 per cent studied for the 
ministry; the figure for the first fifty classes (1704- 
1753) is 52 per cent; for the first one hundred classes 
(1704-1803), 40 per cent. The average fraction of a 
class that studied theology remained fairly constant 
(at between one quarter and one third) from the 
middle of the last to the middle of this century; since 
the forties, however, the fraction has permanently and 
rapidly declined to below one tenth. The fraction of 
a class which enters one of the learned professions, 
law, the ministry, medicine, teaching, and science, has 



YALE COLLEGE. 



243 



fallen from 80 or 90 per cent during the first third of 
this century to nearly 60 per cent in recent years. 
Though the law still uniformly attracts about one 
third of each class, and medicine one tenth, and 
teaching and the pursuit of science also about one 
tenth, — somewhat more than they did at the beginning 
of the century, — the defections from the clerical pro- 
fession and the enormous increase of the part of each 
class devoting itself to business, have greatly changed 
the distribution of the college graduates among various 
vocations. The law and business promise to perma- 
nently enlist two thirds or more of the members of each 
class. The typical Yale College graduate of the future 
will be a man who deals with men ; whose education 
will fit him to assume leadership in the affairs of the 
nation and of the community. 

The tables following put into mathematical form 
some of the statements of this chapter : — 



Composition of the Faculty of 


Yale 


College, 


1898. 




Professors. 


Assistant 
Professors. 


Tutors, In- 
structors, or 
Assistants. 


Total. 


Natural Science .... 
Ancient Languages . . 
Political Science and Law 

Mathematics 

English 

Modern Languages . . 

History 

Philosophy 

Art 

Music 

Biblical literature . . . 
Physical culture .... 
Military science .... 


9 

8 

5 
3 
2 

4 
4 
3 
3 

I 
I 




I 




10 

7 
4 
5 
5 
4 
3 
4 

I 


21 

17 
ID 
ID 
10 

8 
7 
7 
3 
3 
3 
2 
I 


Total 


45 


ID 


47 


102 



244 



YALE. 



o 

G 


1 


v^a lo r~,co o M ►- 1-1 CO 


IH l-< 




CO 


Y-a »J^ r^ O f 1 rrco -1 M- 


■o 

« d • 


eg 


-^c O C^ O O "^MD 1-1 '^ 


r) 1- • 


O 

1 




lO 

N " « 


o 

1 

00 


N^ ro O 0\ O M t^ " ro 


lO N d 


1 


~ $ ^ TOO CO ■* T « -^ 


-^ PI ■ 




--<i O « f) " ■* t^ • M 
^■^ ro ro « ►- CO 


ion 
vo d d 


NO 

iVo 


5^ CO " r^ r^ coco d ►- 
4>- M n w CO 


CO • • 


ro ■<^ t^OV 


^^ CO C^ 1-1 OO " . 


vo • • 


o 


Y ^ CO o CO c) CO r>, • 

^ ■- CO CO t^ 1-1 . 


C\ • CI 




>^ ci GnoO CO m vO • 

s^ '^r CO ON . . 


CO • • 






Law 

Ministry 

Teaching and Science 
Learned Professions . 
Business 

Journalism and Litera- 
ture 


Farming 

Unclassified .... 



YALE COLLEGE. 



245 



u 



^ " . *?^ T' ^ "T'^ 00 ro « O >- 



f) M HH 1-1 W 



J:r5. c-i d 'i- d ro ON dsco "do"' 

fl p_ M M M 



>-_ r;. "S- M >-• D t^ Tf CI 

J?^ -4 M -^co d d ON CN " d d 

f) M « n M 



q o 
d d 



d d 



r-. M i-O lA) Q\ oo rovo ro i-i 
5:^ r^ >- -i-z/i d On ro f J >-< d d 

M M « „ H« 



MD 00 "1 <^ 10 Tfvo CO M fl "- O 



5r5.co odt-j^dcdri-dddd 

M 1-, h-, M H< 



^ r^ r^ ^CO ds'VO ■^00 d O 



^vo 06 M d onco -^oo ►- o 



Gn ro rp '^ 01 vo r-^ 10 
S~^od 00 N 00 t-^ ds t^od ■-< O O 



ro CnvO »o r^ ro "^ N O 



^\q i-< ro 10 Tj-00 ro 

&^ d \o i^ m' 00 ONvd ON o o o 



ri tJ- tv. N vd d r^od 000 



5~^ ^ ro O On t^ d\OD t-^ O d O 

CO •-< HH 



M4, 



1-1 
Cj ^ -^ "^ " 



« 2 



.^ t;.« ^ « 1^ 2 S 






;^ S 2 3 • o .y 

S w E S ^ ;z; S < S S ^ 



246 



YALE. 



Relative Importance of Various Studies* in the Curriculum 
OF SOME American Colleges. 









Colleges. 




Yale, 
1895-9- 


Chicago, 
1896-7. 


Princeton, 
1896-7. 


Harvard, 

1895-7. 


Ancient Languages 
Modern Languages 
History 






% 
237 

14. 

II.6 

11.6 

ID. 
10.4 

9-5 
71 


% 
2S.3 

13.8 

10.7 

10.2 

8. 

6. 

II. 


% 
20.9 

7.2 

1.6 

8-5 

2.7 

14.1 

14.1 

16.6 


% 
8. 

22.4 

14-3 

II. 

16. 


Political Science . 
Englisli .... 




Mathematics . . 
Philosophy 




4-3 
6. 


Natural Sciences . 




II. 



* Art, music, and other minor studies are omitted. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

THE Sheffield Scientific School stands to-day, among 
the other departments of Yale University, as a 
recognition of the rights of science to equal rank with 
other disciplines in a collegiate training. But no keen- 
ness of vision could have seen its present position and 
importance foreshadowed in the simple act of the Cor- 
poration which gave it birth. In its simplicity and 
modesty, the establishment of the School was not un- 
like that of the College itself. It was in its initiation 
little more than an opportunity and a hope; but though 
in resources infinitely inferior, its ideals have always 
been no less lofty than those of the great foundations 
with which its founders and early promoters were 
familiar. 

The formal opening of the School is thus modestly 
announced in the catalogue of 1847: "Professors Silli- 
man and Norton have opened a laboratory on the Col- 
lege grounds for the purpose of practical instruction in 
the application of science to the arts and agriculture." 

Its progress, after. a somewhat precarious infancy, 
was secure, if not rapid. The time was propitious. Its 
early history fell in the days of the scientific awakening, 
which in its influences on all phases of life and of edu- 
cation has made the first part of the present century 
memorable, and its life spans almost the full period of 
modern scientific progress and enlightenment. The 



248 YALE. 

firm establishment of the School was assured by the 
confidence and munificence of the man from whom it 
gained its first endowment and permanent habitation, 
and its name. The wisdom of its principles and its 
ultimate success were assured by the counsel and in- 
struction of such men as Professors Silliman, Whitney, 
and Dana, and Presidents Walker and Oilman, and by 
men still connected with the School, whose counsel has 
been no less valuable and whose instruction no less 
scholarly. 

From this School, which was opened in the old Presi- 
dent's house on the campus, with two professors, eight 
students and no funds, has grown an institution which 
numbers seventeen professors, with forty-five additional 
instructors, five hundred and seventy-eight students and 
over two thousand graduates. Its five large and well- 
equipped halls are additional evidences of growth and 
stability. It is one of the departments of the University, 
having its separate funds, instructors, buildings, and 
regulations, governed like all others by the Corporation, 
and having equal privileges with other members of the 
University in the libraries, museums, reading-room, and 
dining-hall. 

So much for the position of the School among the 
other departments of the University. Of its wider in- 
fluence. President Gilman in his Semi-Centennial Dis- 
course says : " Not a few [institutions] have adopted 
the methods here followed or have called to their sup- 
port those who have here been trained. For one such 
institution, now celebrating its majority, permit me to 
acknowledge with filial gratitude, the impulses, lessons, 
warnings, and encouragements, derived from the Sheffield 
School, and publicly admit that much of the health and 



THE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 249 

strength of the Johns Hopkins University is due to 
early and repeated draughts on the life-giving springs 
of New Haven," 

To the first course in chemistry nine others have 
been successively added, as the resources of the School 
permitted, to investigate the new fields which science 
has opened and to satisfy the demands for instruction 
which new industries and pursuits are making on schools 
of science. But the twofold purpose of investigation 
and instruction, as exemplified in the first laboratory, 
has always remained a principle of the School. The 
announcement of 1847 does not differ in principle from 
that which for a long series of years has found a promi- 
nent place in the annual catalogue of the School. 
" The Sheffield Scientific School is devoted to instruc- 
tion and researches in the mathematical, physical, and 
natural sciences, with reference to the promotion and 
diffusion of science, and also to the preparation of 
young men for such pursuits as require special profi- 
ciency in these departments of learning." With this 
double purpose the School was founded, and by this 
double service — the advancement of science and the 
advancement of knowledge — the School has attained 
its place among colleges. But though in this depart- 
ment the study of science predominates, the Scientific 
School has never in the pursuit of science been forget- 
ful of the value of letters. A considerable acquaintance 
with Latin is required for admission. History, economics, 
the English language and literature, are well represented 
in the instruction of the School. That the humanities 
have not been assigned to a position of subordinate 
value and usefulness may be seen from the fact that 
for more than two decades the greatest American phil- 



250 YALE. 

ologist was the instructor in modern languages ; one of 
the greatest economists began here that inspiration 
of youth which later helped to make the Massachusetts 
School of Technology a worthy rival, and, in the Eng- 
lish language and literature, the instruction has been 
given for more than a quarter of a century by one 
whose works are known to the scholars of both 
continents. 

The undergraduate instruction of the Scientific 
School is arranged in ten distinct and parallel courses, 
among which the student is free to elect which he shall 
pursue. These courses are so arranged as to satisfy 
all the usual demands of young men desiring a scientific 
education. Each of the groups is a course well rounded 
out with general studies, each differing from the other 
only in subjects and instruments, but not in the general 
aim of a broad and thorough education based chiefly 
on discipline in science. For men who are properly 
equipped and for graduate students, special facilities are 
offered for scientific study in various directions up to 
practically any degree of proficiency. 

This system of group-electives, whereby the student 
elects the goal of his studies and the Faculty fixes the 
means by which this may best be compassed, has al- 
ways been a feature of the Scientific School. It was 
instituted at a time when the system of electives, now 
an increasingly important feature of all colleges, was 
practically unknown. The wisdom of this system of 
fixed elective courses, analogous in many respects to 
those of professional schools, has been confirmed by 
experience. The many problems of unrestricted elec- 
tives, vexatious alike to Faculty and student, have been 
solved, and a wise choice is insured. There is no jostling 



THE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 251 

or crowding of subjects, no overloading of the student. 
Loss of time and unprofitable study, which miglit result 
from the choice of studies unclassified and unrelated, 
is averted. 

During Freshman year the work is the same for all 
students. It has a general scientific basis of physics, 
chemistry, and mathematics, accompanied by the study 
of English and the modern languages, fitting the stu- 
dent alike for all courses and preparing him to choose 
intelligently his later special line of study. At the end 
of the first year the student elects the particular course 
to which he will devote himself. But though his time 
and interests are from now on chiefly given to the 
elected science or sciences, no conflict between these 
and the allied branches is allowed. No student gains 
promotion who neglects the latter. For every under- 
graduate course, however special, aims not so much to 
make a specialist in science, as through science to lay 
the broad foundations for a future career. A system 
of general studies, both scientific and literary, runs 
through all courses. Among these the study of the 
English language, both historical and critical, forms 
an important factor. Nor is linguistic training ignored. 
Both French and German are studied for two years by 
every member of the school, with the purpose not only 
of equipping the student for research in his special line 
of study, but also of obtaining through these languages 
some of that linguistic discipline which in academical 
schools is found in the study of Latin and Greek. 

One course — the Select — differs quite materially 
from the other courses, in that its training is more 
general in character and does not lead with the same 
directness toward any particular career. It is planned 



252 YALE. 

for those students who desire a liberal education based 
chiefly on discipline in science, but who do not as yet 
wish to specialize in any particular branch. It is elected 
by students who desire a general preparation for more 
special study later or for business. In this course the 
literary, historical, and economic studies predominate, 
but in connection with these there is a thorough train- 
ing in the more general sciences, — chemistry, physics, 
geology, zoology, botany, astronomy, and sanitary sci- 
ence. With this course, from its initiation, have been 
associated some of the ablest members of the Faculty, 
and many of the graduates, who have gained eminence 
in the various walks of life, were enrolled in this course. 

The course of undergraduate study extends over a 
period of three years. Additional entrance requirements 
and the better equipment of preparatory schools have 
increased the proficiency of the student on entering, and 
with the advanced starting point, and the consequent 
increase in the maturity of the student, together with the 
improvement in the means of instruction, it has been 
possible to continually increase the requirements for the 
baccalaureate degree without lengthening the course. 

The ample and varied provisions for further study in 
the graduate courses offer abundant opportunity and 
incentive for the continuance of study, and many 
graduates of this and other colleges avail themselves 
of the facilities here offered for more special profes- 
sional training in the natural and physical sciences and 
their applications. The Scientific School was a pioneer 
in graduate instruction. In the facilities and incentives 
offered for research work it has always been very 
strong, and a large proportion of its students have 
been enrolled in the graduate courses. 




South Sheffield Hall 



THE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 253 

The degrees offered in the graduate courses are those 
of Civil Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, Master of 
Science, and Doctor of Philosophy. The degree of 
Civil or Mechanical Engineer is conferred upon those 
who follow the prescribed courses of higher study, and 
acquire, under the supervision of the head of the 
Department, the requisite professional training. Those 
who engage in studies of a less technical character may 
become candidates for the degree of Master of Science 
or Doctor of Philosophy. The former degree will re- 
quire at least one year of resident graduate study, the 
latter three years. The requirements for the latter 
degree do not differ from those of the other sections 
of the Department of Philosophy and Arts. 

Provision is made also for special students not candi- 
dates for a degree, who have already acquired con- 
siderable proficiency in some department of science 
and who desire to pursue certain special studies under 
the persona] direction of the head of one of the 
departments. 

The methods of instruction in the Scientific School 
are somewhat analogous both to the professional school 
and to the College. The instruction is based on the 
recognition of the importance, in all future callings, of 
habits of accurate thought and expression, exact analy- 
sis and observation, accurate computation and deduc- 
tion. The various laboratories form one of the chief 
features of instruction. Here the student is, as early as 
possible, made acquainted with the instruments and 
methods of research, and taught to investigate and ob- 
serve. He learns to judge independently and at first 
hand, and to extend and perfect his knowledge. His 
instruction is throughout scientific, rather than tech- 



2 54 YALE. 

nical. The objects of his investigation and study arc 
the principles of science and the laws of its apphcation 
which underlie all professional and technical pursuits. 

In the general studies the men of the different courses 
recite in common. This discourages a too exclusive 
course spirit by keeping men of all courses in close 
touch, and it further encourages a healthy rivalry 
among the various courses. 

One of the ways in which good scholarship is recog- 
nized and rewarded is by the awarding of honors. At 
the end of Junior year and again at the end of the 
course, students who have shown especial proficiency 
in all the subjects of the course are awarded general 
honors. Those who have distinguished themselves in 
any particular study or studies receive special honors. 
An additional requisite for final honors is a meritorious 
thesis on some subject approved by the head of the 
department. 

In the discipline of the School little is heard of rules 
and regulations. It has never had any of those agents 
of compulsory virtue, — marks, proctors, dormitories, or 
chapel. Yet nothing is heard of rebellion against au- 
thority, or of disagreement between Faculty and students. 
There has always been a manly spirit and a high moral 
tone in the student body, and an entire absence of fric- 
tion between this and other departments of the Uni- 
versity. The traditions, the surroundings, and the spirit 
of the School all tell the student that he is here for 
a serious purpose, and that irregularity in his class- 
room work or in his life without the halls is not tol- 
erated. These agencies, most of them intangible and 
indefinable, foster both inside and outside the class- 
room a manly and upright spirit. But the strongest 








m 



1%. ^'sC 




THE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 255 

agency for good is the moral tone of the undergraduate 
world itself. The sentiment which pervades this body 
is a law which no student infringes upon with impunity. 
Its penalties are severe and its rewards are more highly 
prized than any other form of college honor. The 
judgment of his peers has accomplished and will 
accomplish what is entirely beyond the control or in- 
fluence of faculty laws and regulations. The unwritten 
but strictly enforced laws of the student world are the 
most potent promoters of good order and high ideals. 

With the School's increasing age and numbers have 
come reputation and prestige. With half a century of 
history looking down upon him, the student feels a 
pride in the traditions and spirit of the School, and in 
all that which distinguishes the representative Yale man 
he will be found no whit behind his academic brother. 
In social and athletic honors there is no distinction. 
All men are born into the undergraduate world free 
and equal. At the end of their course they will, like 
all Yale men, be rated according to their merits and 
accomplishments, in that intricate, but to an unusual 
degree, infallible, undergraduate honor system. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

MOST young men look forward to the professional 
school as a step, the final one perhaps, toward 
their chosen lifework. Few look back upon it without 
feeling that it was more than a stepping-stone, more 
than something to be gone through with for the sake of 
that which lay beyond. Especially does the graduate 
of the Yale Divinity School revert to his three or four 
years there as a distinct period of his life. 

Failure to train its students in the practical work of 
the profession would debar the Department from the 
right to call itself a professional school. But the thor- 
oughly successful application of this idea does not con- 
stitute the whole aim of the institution. The success of 
its other idea, the development of theological science, 
has proved the school's ability to do well two things 
at once. And while the two ideas seem discordant in 
theory, no one who has seen and felt the practical har- 
mony between them, as it is manifested by the instruc- 
tors, can refuse to discount the theoretical objection. 

The successful development of this second idea has 
led some to look askance at the School and to distrust 
its teaching. But this attitude in most instances follows 
that small degree of knowledge which is recognized 
as dangerous. The School is progressive; yet its 
friends know that it is rather conservative than radical, 
if one must describe it in no other terms than these. 




Gkokge B. Stevens, 

Dwight Froftssor oj Systematic TJieolagy 

Emt 
Ge(ir(;e p. Fisher, 
Titus Street Professor of Ecclesiastical History 



Samuel Harris, 
DuHght Frojessor of Systematic Tlieology^ 



and Dean of the Divinity School. 
I,Ewis O. Brastow, George E. Day, 

Professor of Hotniletics and the Holmes Professor of the Hebrew Language 



Pastoral Charge. 



and Literature, Emeritus. 



THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 257 

But it is conservative with tliat liberality which dares to 
prove all things, and hold fast that which is good. No 
scholarly interpretation, ancient or modern, is flouted, 
and the daring theories of brilliant speculators are gen- 
erously treated, and, if faulty, are courteously set aside 
for the more excellent way. It is an axicfm of the 
School that the truth lies somewhere between the two 
extremes; tradition does not contain the whole of it, 
nor are the results of critical investigation absolutely 
without it. So instead of holding to the one, right or 
wrong, and rejecting the other, wrong or right, the truth 
is the goal, sought in truest sympathy and in utter fear- 
lessness, and the incidental setting is wisely disregarded. 
Therefore the School has felt no shiver of apprehension 
at the announcement that the higher critics are in full 
retreat, nor has it felt bound to raise its voice in the 
slogan, " Back to Tradition ! " As it has never ad- 
vanced beyond the point of reasonable certainty or de- 
serted that which was felt to be true, no retreat is 
necessary or possible. It is well fitted to train a man 
to maintain an even balance and open mind. 

Take, for example, the work in Hebrew. This is the 
first work that impresses itself upon a Junior's mind ; 
for he toils at it four or five hours a day for the first few 
weeks, and about the only bright spots in the early part 
of the Hebrew course are the few moments each day 
when the instructor gives the results of Hexateuchal 
criticism of the passage before the class. The reading 
begins with the first chapter of Genesis, and the ideas 
about the creation of the world and of man, and the 
Garden of Eden, cherished from childhood, are trans- 
formed into the more accurate knowledge of adult age, 
yet withal so gradually and gently, that one feels no 



258 YALE. 

shock save that of surprise at his own ignorance. For 
the instructor speaks of all as reverently as if he were 
preaching the Evangel of Christ. There is no pride of 
attainment or display of learning. 

One man in each class is expected to love his Hebrew 
more than food and sleep, and to pursue it even unto 
Leipzig or Heidelberg. But the rest of the class wres- 
tle with it as best they can, learn their pages of word- 
lists, and hope devoutly that they are doing their duty. 
To the surprise of the men and the credit of the instruc- 
tor they come in time to a considerable fluency, and if 
they do elect the English optional at Christmas of the 
second year, with something of that feeling of relief that 
comes over a law student when he has finished Black- 
stone, every man of them is glad that he can, if neces- 
sary, go back of the " original English ; " and better 
than that, each may carry away with him the positive 
assurance that a practical v/orking harmony between 
the spirit of evangelical piety and that of scholarly 
investigation is possible ; for he has seen it. 

The work on the Greek of the New Testament also 
begins at the opening of the Junior year, and the ac- 
quaintance with the language made in college, and 
the familiarity of the subject-matter, free this course of 
the weights that burdened the beginner in Hebrew. The 
study is critical in method, but evangelical in purpose. 
The spirit of investigation is keen, but there is no attempt 
to read into the text a meaning that was not intended by 
the writer, or to read out what was meant to be under- 
stood. The same reverent spirit that characterizes the 
study of the Old Testament in the original tongue is to 
be found here, and one feels that he has gained, not a 
different, but a larger view of the Gospels and Epistles. 



THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 259 

There is something very familiar, too, about the 
course in philosophy which opens with the Junior year, 
although the study now specializes in the interest of re- 
ligion instead of dealing with the varied abstractions of 
the undergraduate courses. The old doubts and ques- 
tionings are revived, and new ones added ; some are 
answered, some are confessed unanswerable, and more 
have to be treated according to the advice of the dear 
old man who used to tell the class to hang the intellec- 
tual difficulties away out of sight for awhile, and when 
they were taken down for inspection they would be 
found much shrunken. New truths are seen and old 
truths in new lights, and with most faith grows stronger, 
and a God and a divine plan appeal more strongly to 
the reason. So that when, in the Middle year, this 
course takes up the various doctrines of Christianity, 
and the old and new controversies are discussed, one 
is stronger to grapple with the problems, and with 
good hope of coming to some solution. 

There is no course in dogmatic theology in this 
School ; partly, perhaps, because there is no creed by 
which the School is bound, its Faculty being inde- 
pendent of any ecclesiastical body; but more directly 
because of that fairness of mind and freedom from 
prejudice that pervades the whole place. Practically 
every shade of interpretation of the Scriptural basis for 
each doctrine is given with perfect impartiality, and 
whatever one's personal prejudices he is forced to admit 
the strong argument of opposite views, presented with 
a weight and clearness that seem to stamp them as 
the instructor's own beliefs — if one did not know better. 
From all this, each man takes what he believes to be 
true, and the fact that representatives of four or five 



26o YALE. 

denominations find the course wonderfully helpful, is 
the strongest proof of the wisdom of the method and 
of its able and generous conduct. A subject that is 
generally supposed to be dry and uninteresting is made 
as fascinating as an experimental course in physics. 
And every man feels a genuine regret when the course 
ends, for each has learned from the kindly treatment 
of opposed views a lesson of Christian courtesy and 
respect for differing opinions. 

The strictly practical side of the profession is pressed 
through the three years. And from first to last there 
is held before the class an ideal of duty and privilege 
and possibility that at once discourages by its im- 
mensity and inspires by its beauty. Preachers who 
are gone, but at whom the world still wonders, are the 
models studied ; the men make their first attempts at 
sermon-writing and delivery, and are criticised, un- 
mercifully by the class and with gentlest consideration 
by the instructor. The chances are that every bit of 
advice that was so kindly given will be treasured up 
and confidently employed to the extent of each man's 
ability. And many a young pastor will feel that his 
success in meeting the difficulties and solving the 
problems of his parish is due to the wise teaching and 
kindly patience of the professor of homiletics. 

Another part of the practical side of the preparation 
is the training of body and voice accurately to express 
the thought of the mind. This course is planned with 
a care that has not often met with proper appreciation. 

There has been no intention in the use of the word 
" practical," in the preceding paragraphs, to allow the 
inference that the other courses are unpractical. The 
subject-matter of a sermon is certainly not the least 




Frank K. Sanders, Bknjamin \V. Bacon 

Edward L. Curtis, 
Holmes Professor of tlie Hebrew Language 
and Literature. 
Frank C. Porter, William F. Blackman, 

Winkley Professor of Biblical Theology. Professor of Christmn Ethics. 



THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 261 

important part of the product, and it is difficult to 
imagine a sermon that owed nothing to the teaching 
of the instructor in Biblical theology. 

It seems a large undertaking to attempt in two years 
to get a clear conception of the religious institutions 
and ideas and teachings of the whole Bible. Such a 
course of study must of necessity be general. Only 
the outline is sketched for one, but it is drawn with 
bold, confident strokes, that preserve the fair contour 
indelible in spite of the many erasures that mark the 
repeated failures to fill in the exquisite details. The 
course runs far into the realm of theological science, 
dealing with all sorts of knotty questions and profound 
speculations; and yet there seems to be no hesitation 
on the part of him who leads, and the students follow 
with a confidence that is humanly perfect. 

One who fights God's battles needs to study previous 
campaigns. The course in church history in the 
Middle year, together with its sequel in the history 
of Christian doctrine in the Senior year, give one such 
knowledge of the ways and means, the struggles and 
opportunities of the Christian Church in the past, and 
trace a development that tends strongly to faith in its 
ultimate triumph. 

Without such happy outlook the sociological work 
of the Senior year would darken the whole future. 
The hideous and threatening and saddening features 
of the darker sides of modern life and modern society 
are put before the men in a stronger light than they 
have before seen them ; not only stated as facts and 
supported by statistics, but actually seen in a visit 
to the charity and correctional institutions of New 
York. 



262 YALE. 

There is optional work for those who find time for it, 
— private criticism of sermons, extra work in Hebrew 
and Greek and in German theology, a course in 
apologetics, readings from the Apocryphal writings, 
and an exercise in hymnology. Besides which, all the 
courses in the Undergraduate and Graduate Depart- 
ments are open to members of the Divinity School. 

The variety of opportunities might prove a tempta- 
tion to slight the regular work of the school, and, 
recognizing this, the Faculty, while placing no other 
restriction upon the choice of electives than that such 
extra work shall not conflict with that of the regular 
course, rightly refuse to allow such studies to count 
toward the B. D. degree. But for those who are strong 
enough to use aright these opportunities, the close 
connection with the University is another point in 
favor of the school. 

For those who desire to pursue theological study 
beyond the prescribed course there is a Graduate or 
Fourth Year Class, to which candidates are admitted by 
vote of the Faculty. The course is fully abreast of 
current thought, and the same spirit of free discussion 
and impartial statement prevails here as in the regular 
course. 

To speak of the courses of study alone would be to 
omit some of the strongest formative influences. The 
lectures by men who are making church history to-day; 
the quiet, sincere talks in the weekly prayer meetings; 
the united efforts at the jail, the Hospital, and the 
City Missions ; the work together in the Library, the 
time spent in the Music Room at the social hour after 
supper and at the frequent receptions when student 
and professor meet; the friendships that bind men 



THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 263 

together as College friendships can, — these are influ- 
ences whose force one cannot reckon. But those 
whose. lives and characters have been shaped by them 
look back to those three years with inexpressible 
pleasure, and join as heartily as any in the common 
labor of love, " for God, for country, and for Yale." 



CHAPTER V. 

THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

IN the fall of 1896 the Yale Medical School, for not 
the first time, demonstrated its progressive spirit 
by extending its term of instruction from a three to a 
four years' course. It is a matter of congratulation that 
the change was made without interrupting the usual 
yearly growth of the School. 

Chartered in 18 10, the Medical School becomes the 
oldest of the professional departments of Yale Univer- 
sity, and fifth in point of age among the medical schools 
now existing in the United States. For many years 
the School was affiliated with the Connecticut Medical 
Society, the professors being appointed by the College 
from nominations made by the Society, while a com- 
mittee from the Society acted jointly with the Faculty 
in examining candidates for graduation. 

The character of the work of a medical school has 
changed greatly since those early days. Then the stu- 
dent studied in the office of his preceptor, and received 
all his practical training from him. The Medical School 
had to furnish only a systematic presentation of the 
medical subjects, and to provide for anatomical dissec- 
tions. So for many years the work of the Yale Medical 
Department was carried on by a system of didactic lec- 
tures, extending only through the winter months, but 
well adapted to supplement the instructions of the pre- 
ceptor; and when the medical training began to de- 




Medical School 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 265 

velop, the Yale School was one of the first to add to 
the winter lectures a spring course of recitations and 
laboratory work in chemistry and microscopy. 

Identified with the School during its early years were 
such men as JEneas Munson, Jonathan Knight, William 
Tully, Nathan Smith, Henry Bronson, and Benjamin 
Silliman. 

That the Faculty and curriculum of the Yale School 
were well adapted to the requirements of the times in 
which it was founded, is evident from the position 
which it occupied ; but changes early took place in 
the character of the work required of a medical school, 
which materially aff"ected its prosperity. The preceptor 
system passed out, and in its wake came a demand upon 
the schools to furnish clinical instructions. This condi- 
tion could at that time be most easily and fully met in 
the larger cities. The increased facilities for transporta- 
tion further favored the movement to such schools as 
those of Boston and New York. Another element in the 
situation which acted unfavorably upon the prosperity 
of the Yale School in the forties and fifties, was furnished 
by the multiplication of similar institutions just at that 
time. Through all these years, however, the Medical 
School maintained its standard, and among the addi- 
tions to its Faculty list at that time were such names 
as David P. Smith, Francis Bacon, James K. Thacher, 
Charles A. Lindsley, and Moses C. White. 

The Medical School of to-day began in 1879, when, 
in advance of all the medical schools in this part of the 
country except Harvard, a graded three years' course 
was instituted, the year lengthened to nine months, and 
a system of matriculation examinations established. 
This change so far led rather than followed the demands 



266 YALE. 

of the profession, that the attendance was at once dimin- 
ished over sixty per cent. As other schools advanced 
their requirements to a Hke level, the relative severity 
of Yale's requirements was less marked, the numbers 
grew again, and Yale was ready for the next step which 
her standard should require. For medical science has 
in these last two decades pushed out so far into what 
were then scarcely discovered regions ; the specialties 
have so multiplied, and the demands of the public for 
more knowledge and experience on the part of their 
physicians have so increased, that the three years of 
undergraduate work were found all too short. In 1896 
the course was lengthened to four years, the require- 
ments broadened, and the facilities for observing and 
treating disease materially augmented. 

The Faculty now consists of fifteen professors and 
assistant professors, ten instructors and lecturers, and 
sixteen clinical assistants. The clinical instruction of 
the School is supplied principally by the New Haven 
Dispensary, whose buildings are situated upon the 
School grounds, and whose principal attending physi- 
cians and surgeons are professors or instructors in 
the School. During the year 1897-98, this institution 
treated a total of 16,300 patients, of whom over 5,000 
were new cases, and dispensed more than 20,000 pre- 
scriptions. The Dispensary requires the services of ten 
clinical professors, heads of departments, with twenty- 
four assistants. The new Dispensary building, whose 
early completion is promised, will aid materially in 
better utilizing this great store of clinical material. The 
building is to contain a commodious clinical lecture 
room, an operating theatre, and separate apartments for 
each of the specialties. 




Herbert E. Smith, 

Professor of Chemistry and Dcati of t/w 
Jiledical School. 

William H. Carmalt, 

Professor of the Principles and Practice 

of Surgery. 



Thomas H. Russell, 

Professor of Clinical Sicrgery and 

Surgical Anatomy. 

Charles A. Lindsley, 

Professor of the Theory and Practice 

of Medicine, Emeritus. 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 267 

Under the present system of instruction, the first two 
years are mainly spent in teaching methods of study, 
and in acquiring the mass of facts from minute and gross 
anatomy, physiology, and chemistry, which are necessary 
as a basis for the theoretical and practical work of the 
later years. Anatomy naturally claims a large share of 
attention for the whole of the first two years. Dissec- 
tions of the cadaver occupy the winter months of both 
years, and strict quizzes are required on the work done. 

In physiology, the student is given a recitation course 
for the first term, covering the elements of the whole 
subject. This is intended to familiarize him with the 
ground-work of the vital processes of the body, and to 
better enable him to comprehend the importance and 
application of other branches simultaneously pursued. 
During the rest of the first two years, lectures upon 
minute physiology are given, and profusely illustrated 
by all the more important physiological experiments. 
For this purpose the Department has an excellent 
equipment of apparatus. 

Chemistry occupies a still larger amount of time for 
the first year, and the course is made to include gene- 
ral, analytical, organic, and physiological chemistry. A 
large amount of experimental laboratory work is re- 
quired, which supplements a thorough course of recita- 
tions and lectures. The student is taught not only the 
common reactions of the metals, but also to identify 
and separate them from mixtures. 

Histology and embryology complete the studies of 
the first year. These subjects are taught by recitations, 
lecture and laboratory work. Each student is person- 
ally taught the use of the microscope, and methods of 
preparing specimens for microscopical study. 



268 YALE. 

Anatomy and physiology are continued through the 
second year. The student also makes the acquaintance 
of materia medica, which course is conducted for the 
first term in the laboratory, where personal instruction 
is given in preparing the more common drugs for 
medicinal use. Later, a short term in the prescription 
department of the Dispensary gives an excellent idea 
of how prescriptions are compounded and dispensed. 

Pathology occupies a good share of attention during 
this year; and the course includes recitations, lectures, 
microscopical work, and attendance on autopsies at the 
morgue. 

The immensely important subject of bacteriology is 
taken up in a lecture and laboratory course, in which 
all the common bacteria are cultivated, and their cultu- 
ral peculiarities observed. They are later stained and 
studied under the microscope. 

With the opening of the third year the instruction 
changes. The student then takes up those branches 
which more directly apply to the practice of medicine 
and surgery. The treatment of disease is approached 
from three standpoints. Under medicine, the study of 
the etiology, symptoms, physical signs, course, and 
treatment of all the diseases is pursued. Under thera- 
peutics, the materia medica are again discussed, as well 
as the other remedial agents. Best of all, in the clinics 
of the Dispensary, each student is personally instructed 
in the art of physical diagnosis, of utilizing all his senses 
in recognizing the different diseased conditions, and, in 
general, of identifying not so much the name of the dis- 
ease, as the exact pathological condition, and applying 
to it the rational corrective. 

The extensive subject of surgery is covered by a 




James Campbell, Oliver T. Osborne, 

Professor of Obstetrics mid the Diseases Professor of l\Iateria Medica and 

of Women and Children. Therapeutics. 

John S. Elv, 
Professor of *he Theory and Practice 
of Medicine. 
Harry B. Ferris, Moses C. White, 

Professor of Anatomy. Professor of Pathology. 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 269 

course of lectures extending over the whole of the last 
two years, by an extensive experience in the Dispensary, 
and by attendance at operations and ward clinics at the 
hospital. The New Haven Hospital is situated conven- 
iently near the School, and is naturally an invaluable 
adjunct to the department. In its amphitheatre oper- 
ating-room 283 major operations were performed in 
1897. In the hospital 1,154 cases received treatment. 
On its attending, visiting, and consulting staff are twenty- 
six of the most prominent physicians and surgeons of 
the city. During the last two years attendance is re- 
quired here on both surgical and medical clinics, in 
which all surgical procedures and therapeutical measures 
receive ample illustration. 

Obstetrics and gynecology are taught during this 
year by a course of recitations, and preparation is made 
for the practical training to follow. 

With the Senior year the student is no longer a spec- 
tator at the clinics, but becomes an active assistant of 
the several physicians and surgeons, and often, under 
their supervision, is allowed the entire handling of cases. 
He serves in rotation on medical and surgical clinics, as 
well as on those for the skin, nose, throat, ear, and eye. 
The clinics for children — in which babies make up 
seventy-five per cent of the cases — are especially large 
and instructive. Over thirteen hundred cases were 
treated in this clinic alone during the last year. He 
also serves on the gynecology clinic. 

Finally, residence is required of each student for a 
considerable length of time in the Dispensary building, 
where they serve as assistants in the midwifery service, 
under the supervision of the head of that department. 
Each man is required to attend and present a written 



2 70 YALE. 

report of at least two confinements. The specialties are 
all taken up in their order and thoroughly taught, not 
only by recitation and lecture, but by abundant clini- 
cal demonstration. The work of Senior year is thus 
almost entirely practical clinical experience. Lectures 
are, however, continued in surgery and therapeutics, 
while sanitary science, medico-legal jurisprudence, and 
insanity are also taken up. 

To recapitulate : the Yale Medical School strives for 
the first two years to lay a solid foundation, by incul- 
cating that great mass of facts which every physician 
must have at his command, and by cultivating a men- 
tal fitness for the acquirement of medical knowledge; 
in the third year, to ground her students in the soimd 
theory of the practice of medicine and surgery ; and, 
while continuing these theories in the fourth year, to 
also furnish ample clinical facilities for observing and 
treating the actual disease, and putting all the theories 
to the test. 

As to the standard of the School, the Medical Depart- 
ment has always prided itself on one point : that, while 
the requirements were high and the examinations rigid, 
the course of instruction was more than sufficient to 
qualify the pupils for them. Quizzing outside the 
course, and other similar helps outside the class-rooms, 
are rated as unnecessary, and are distinctly discouraged. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE LAW SCHOOL. 

THE Yale Law School is a school of direct instruc- 
tion. But it blends in instruction and instructors 
the scholarship of the law and the hard and the strong 
points of its application. It would fit the student to do 
the actual work of the lawyer as soon as he may. But 
it has not hesitated in these latter years, with their 
peculiar demands, to add another year to its course and 
to raise its standard of admission. 

The year 1898 saw a graduating class of Yale LL. B.'s 
who had spent three full years in study. The reasons 
for this lengthening of the course are quite familiar to 
any one who has at all familiarized himself with the prob- 
lems of a legal education. The increase in the amount 
of material to which a lawyer of to-day must have ready 
access, and the necessary elaboration of that system by 
which he is brought to it most quickly and most directly, 
have made a longer course of preparation absolutely in- 
dispensable. It is naturally better for some reasons that 
this additional year has been required, for it is apt to be 
true that at the end of the second year the student has 
acquired a legal taste and has formed habits of thought 
which enable him to read law more rapidly and intelli- 
gently. The system of jurisprudence has come more 
nearly within his grasp, and much more readily does he 
assign each topic to its subordinate position. From this 



i-ji VALE. 

point of view, the last year is more valued than the two 
previous. 

To describe the nature of the Yale legal education, — 
its way of getting at the point, — one might use the word 
"practical" in the best sense. The personnel of the 
Faculty most clearly illustrates the method of instruction. 
The majority of the Faculty and instructors are either 
judges or practising lawyers. There are to-day, on the 
teaching staff, two judges of the highest Court of Appeals 
in Connecticut and one judge of the United States Court, 
— all holding recitations in regular class-room work cov- 
ering ten subjects in the curriculum. The subtle science 
of pleading is taught by a judge of the highest court of 
original jurisdiction in the State. Besides the twenty- 
two professors and instructors who actually teach, the 
system of legal education at Yale is re-enforced by the 
most helpful and often inspiring presence of additional 
lecturers, who now number twelve, and who include such 
men as Edward J. Phelps, late Minister to England, and 
the Hon. Nathaniel Shipman, of the United States Circuit 
Court of Appeals, As a considerable number of men 
in each class always intend to practise in the State of 
New York, the School offers a course in the New York 
code of civil procedure which is taught by a New 
York lawyer in active practice. 

A very distinctive feature of the School, and one 
quite in line with its general principle of practical in- 
struction, is seen in the intimate relations between the 
instructor and student. This is illustrated almost con- 
stantly at the close of recitations, when the students 
gather in groups about the instructor's desk, receiving 
that personal and more minute direction which fastens 
on the mind theories promulgated in the general ex- 




Francis Wayland, Simeon E. Balhwin, 

Dean of the Law School and Pro/essor Professor of Co7istitiit tonal Law, 

of English Constitutional Law. Corporatiotis, and Wills. 

Morris F. Tyler, 
Professor of General furispriidence . 

William K. Townsend, Edward J. Phelps, 

Edward J. Phelf>s Professor of Contracts Kent Professor of La'w. 
and Admiralty jfiiris/>rudc7ice. 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 273 

position. Besides this, the courses include a very high 
percentage of recitations. 

The regular courses and lectures are supplemented 
by a series of addresses each year in the Storrs founda- 
tion. This course calls jurists of particular eminence 
from this country and abroad. 

It is the belief of the Faculty that the work of the 
first year should be chiefly confined to the study of text- 
books which treat of the main subdivisions of law. In 
addition there are prepared and printed by the School 
a carefully selected set of leading cases to accompany 
each separate subject, which must be read and recited 
upon in connection with the regular lesson. Daily reci- 
tations are held and every man is called up in each 
subject at least once every other time. 

In the Middle and Senior years reference to cases is 
constantly made during a recitation. Others are spe- 
cially assigned for study, and the students are encour- 
aged to read the reports freely. The School has an 
excellent library open both day and night, and students 
have free access to the shelves. 

Yale was the first school in the country to offer a 
graduate course in law. In 1898 the M. L. class num- 
bered twenty-three men. The School is still the only 
one to offer a four years' course culminating in the 
degree of Doctor of Civil Law. This course, in addi- 
tion to other subjects, requires a thorough study of 
Roman law and the French code. 

The mere raw bones of the history of the School 
shows its great increase in popularity in latter years. 
Another plain evidence of its substantial growth is its 
occupation of its new quarters on Elm Street, a building 
most excellently adapted to its purposes, making the 

18 



274 YALE. 

conduct of all its exercises far more easy, pleasant, and 
effective. The building is a few doors below College, 
fronting on the Green. This is the School's first home 
of its own. In a very practical way again the working 
part of the School has been attended to in this building 
before that which was not absolutely necessary. The 
building, as it now stands, is yet without its front, but 
there is not a little reason to hope that this condition 
will not continue long. 

The plan of the building is most convenient. On the 
ground floor is a large recreation room for the students, 
and another room containing lockers for the whole 
School, and lavatories. The first and second floors 
contain recitation rooms and smaller rooms which are 
used by the executive officers and by the debating and 
quiz clubs. The entire third story is given up to the 
library and reading room, the latter equipped with long 
oak tables. The outlook is pleasant; the light is 
perfect. 

The Yale Law School has always given a great deal 
of attention to debate. The Kent Club, dating back to 
1863, is the oldest living institution of its kind at the 
University. It is the public debating club of the School, 
holds weekly meetings in the School building, and is 
open to all classes. These debates take a wide range 
and are warmly contested. The smaller debating clubs 
are very valuable. They contain from eight to twelve 
members, and are usually presided over by a professor. 
They meet weekly, and each member is obliged to make 
a five minute speech off hand. 

The Junior class in the fall term is organized into 
clubs of twelve men each who meet weekly under the 
charge of the younger instructors, who conduct the 




Theodore S. Woolsey, 

Professor of Ittteritaticital La7u. 

John Wukts, 

I'ro/essor of Elcvseutary Law, Real 
Pro/>erty, ami Trusts. 



George D. Watrous, 
Professor of Contracts, Torts, ami Estates, 

David Torrance, 
Professor of Evidence. 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 275 

quizzes and review the work which has already been 
covered in the classroom. As the year advances, their 
programme is varied by moot courts. A printed state- 
ment of facts is given out, the counsel are appointed, 
briefs are prepared, and at the end of two weeks argu- 
ments are made and decision rendered. These clubs are 
carried on during the following years. 

A moot court for the whole school is convened each 
Tuesday. It is presided over by one of the Faculty, 
with whom are associated as judges two or more mem- 
bers of the Senior class. The clerk and other court 
officers are students. Cases are assigned to members 
of the lower classes for preparation for trial and argu- 
ment. The argument is conducted with all the formali- 
ties of a regularly constituted court. The decision 
is made by the presiding officer and the opinions are 
written by the associate judges. The character of the 
court is sometimes changed and the experience varied 
by jury trials, conducted with due regard to all details 
of such proceedings. 

In 1891 the Yale Law Journal was established. It 
is a student publication, controlled by a permanent 
board. The latter provision gives it character and 
reliability, and at the same time does not detract from 
the excellent effect upon the students themselves of con- 
ducting an enterprise of this sort. It commands contri- 
butions from leading graduates from all over the country, 
and is becoming the organ of the Connecticut Bar. 

It is not an uninteresting feature of the School that 
its secret societies are so healthfully conducted as to 
furnish much aid to the members in their studies. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS. 

THIS department of Yale University was founded 
by Augustus R. and Caroline M. Street, in 1864. 
A distinct department of the Fine Arts in the Univer- 
sity was a new feature in the general scheme of educa- 
tion which Yale has the credit of inaugurating in this 
country. Indeed, this step preceded the founding of 
chairs of instruction in the Fine Arts in similar insti- 
tutions abroad, a practice now become quite common. 

Yale had before this enjoyed the distinction of 
being the first institution of learning in this country 
to establish an art collection. In 183 1, a building was 
erected on the campus for the display of the paintings 
of Colonel Trumbull, which had been secured to the insti- 
tution by purchase. This collection consisted of several 
of the most important of Colonel Trumbull's works, in- 
cluding the " Signing of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence," " The Battle of Bunker Hill," and " The Death 
of Montgomery at Quebec," besides a collection of 
historical portraits and miniatures. 

When Mr. Street came forward with the proposition 
to found in Yale College a distinct Department of the 
Fine Arts, his aim was not simply to found a museum, 
but to establish " a school for practical instruction, 
open to both sexes, for such as proposed to follow 
art as a profession ; and to awaken and cultivate a 



THE SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS. 277 

taste for the Fine Arts among the undergraduates and 
others." 

A large and costly edifice was erected by Mr. Street, 
consisting of two main wings, one 34x80 feet, and the 
other 72X24 feet, connected by a central structure 45X35 
feet. The basement provides drawing and modelling 
class-rooms; the first story contains studios, libraries, 
a lecture room, and other class-rooms; the second story 
comprises fine galleries for the purposes of an art 
museum, and the third story has additional rooms for 
the " nude-life class " and an etching studio fitted up 
with a printing-press and necessary appliances of the 
etcher's art. The general property-value of the institu- 
tion, including endowments, is something above four 
hundred thousand dollars. 

In 1869, Mr. John F. Weir was elected Professor of 
Painting and Director of the School. To him was in- 
trusted the task of shaping and directing all the affairs 
of the School, including its course of instruction. At 
the same time, Mr. D. Cady Eaton was elected Pro- 
fessor of the History of Art, which chair, however, he 
resigned without having entered upon his duties in the 
School. In 1871 a foundation for a Professorship of 
Drawing was added through the liberality of Mr. Street, 
and Mr. John H. Niemeyer was appointed to fill this 
chair. In 1879 Professor James M. Hoppin was ap- 
pointed Professor of the History of Art. Other in- 
structors who have been, or are still, connected with 
the School, are: Dr. John P. C. Foster, Instructor in 
Anatomy; Harrison W. Lindsley, Instructor in Archi- 
tecture [deceased] ; Frederic R. Honey, Instructor 
in Perspective [resigned] ; Miles A. Pond, Assistant 
in Drawing, and George H. Langzettel, Clerk. 



2 78 YALE. 

When Professor Weir was called to take charge of 
the development of the School, the institution was with- 
out funds for immediate application ; but drawing-classes 
were opened, occasional lectures given, and the general 
plan of the School was definitely shaped. Funds were 
raised from various sources for equipping the class- 
rooms with the requisite material for instruction. The 
Trumbull Collection had been removed to the Art 
School, and the now celebrated Jarves Collection of 
early Italian art was deposited in the School, filling one 
of the large galleries. With the profits of a series of im- 
portant exhibitions, made up of masterpieces owned by 
private collectors in New York, Professor Weir secured 
funds for furnishing and equipping the class-rooms and 
for the purchase of casts. In 1872 a large purchase of 
casts was made in Europe, which has since been added 
to from time to time. A collection of Braun's " Auto- 
types " from the works of the masters was also formed, 
together with collections of etchings and engravings. 
Eventually, a small but valuable collection of original 
sketches by the old masters was secured, including 
Rembrandt's famous " Hundred-guilder print," while 
the library of art-works and technical hand-books grew 
rapidly. 

It was the intention of the founders, strongly empha- 
sized in conformity with the best professional advice 
and endorsed by the Board of Trustees, that the Yale 
School of Fine Arts should be, first of all, a professional 
art school, affording technical instruction in the arts of 
design — namely, painting, sculpture, and architecture, 
— including all that relates to the history, literature, 
and criticism of these arts. It was recognized at the 
start, and distinctly emphasized in the gift, that art is a 



THE SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS. 279 

liberal profession, and all its methods are an intellectual 
process. 

The School has attained its position by the thorough 
manner in which this governing idea has shaped its 
organization and development. As thus associated in 
the general university scheme, the School of Fine Arts 
takes its place with the other professional schools, and 
is accorded the same privileges. While providing for 
the technical instruction in art, the studio-practice is 
supplemented by courses of lectures in the history and 
criticism of art and related topics, while courses of illus- 
trated public lectures have contributed to broaden the 
scope of its instruction and usefulness as a department 
of the University. 

The technical instruction is given in the antique class, 
painting classes for portrait and still-life, nude-life 
class, modelling and composition classes, with courses 
of illustrated lectures in anatomy, perspective, com- 
position, and in the history of art. 

Among the prizes is a fellowship prize of fifteen 
hundred dollars [the William Wirt Winchester Scholar- 
ship] offered for competition once every two years, 
which enables the successful competitor to pass two 
years in study abroad. The degree of Bachelor of 
Fine Arts is conferred by the University upon ad- 
vanced professional students, who are recommended 
by the Faculty for marked ability, and who, having ful- 
filled the requisite elementary course in this or some 
other Art School, have passed satisfactorily an addi- 
tional course of advanced studies in the Yale Art 
School, covering two years, and who have produced 
an approved original composition in painting or sculp- 
ture, and a satisfactory thesis on some topic relating 



28o YALE. 

to the fine arts. Certificates bearing the signatures 
of the members of the Art Faculty are given to all 
those who fulfil the requirements of the elementary 
course of three years in the Art School. 

In addition to its own corps of instructors, the Faculty 
invite, from time to time, representative men in the 
various professions to assist in the instruction, to criti- 
cise the work of the composition class, to deliver lec- 
tures, and to exhibit their works in this connection, — 
thus bringing the students in touch with the profes- 
sional life of the day. Many of our most distinguished 
artists have assisted in this way. 

At the close of the college year, an exhibition of the 
work of the students in the various departments of the 
School is held and prizes are awarded. These exhibi- 
tions illustrate the two characteristics of the School, — 
the academic system employed in the earlier part of the 
course, and the individuality that is promoted among 
the advanced pupils, the latter feature being especially 
emphasized in the painting and composition classes. 

But that which gives the Yale Art School its peculiar 
prestige is the breadth of its course for the equipment 
of the professional student, the technical course being 
supplemented by that which aims to inform the pupil 
with all that relates to the history and literature of art. 
Courses of illustrated lectures are open to the under- 
graduates and the public. The class-rooms are equipped 
with suitable material for instruction, and for the life- 
classes three or four models are employed daily through- 
out the college year. The walls of the class-room for 
the nude life are hung with original studies by some 
of the most distinguished pupils of the Ecolc des Beaux 
Arts, including studies by Bastien le Page and Dagnan- 




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THE SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS. 281 

Bouveret, — that the pupil while at work may be aided 
by the best examples of students' work. 

The Art Library is an important adjunct to the class- 
room instruction, where the student may become fam- 
iliar with the art of the past and the present, through 
histories and periodicals. The library of the School 
contains full sets of the more important French, German, 
English, and American art publications, and a collec- 
tion of technical hand-books, histories, and biographies. 
The cases also contain portfolios of etchings, engrav- 
ings, and photographic reproductions. The library of 
the Art School is open freely for the use of the pupils 
of the School, while the University Library is also open 
to them, the students of the Art School being entitled 
to the same privileges accorded students in the other 
professional schools of the University. 

The number of students of all classes now receiving 
instruction in the Art School is between 250 and 300. 
The number of professional students averages about 60, 
while an "elective class" from the Junior and Senior 
classes of the Academic Department numbers about 
40. In addition to these there are classes in free-hand 
drawing from the Scientific School. 

In 1 87 1 the Jarves Collection of early Italian art was 
purchased for the School. This collection fills one of 
the main galleries, and numbers one hundred and twenty 
original examples, dating from the eleventh to the 
seventeenth centuries. Many of these ?i.rc tempera paint- 
ings, on panel. Some of the more important works are 
by Botticelli, Sodoma, Francia, Signorelli, Fra Diamenti, 
Fabriane, Lo Spagna, Mantegna, Matteo da Siena, Sano 
di Pietro, Gozzoli, Masolino, and Andrea del Sarto. 
This famous collection, originally formed by James 



282 YALE. 

Jackson Jarves, and the Alden wood-carvings purchased 
from the estate of Col. Bradford R. Alden, give the Yale 
Art Museum a distinction. The Alden collection com- 
prises three elaborately carved confessionals and about 
seven hundred and twenty square feet of carved oak wall 
panelling, of the seventeenth century, formerly belong- 
ing to a monastery chapel in Ghent. The workmanship 
belongs to the best period of Belgian wood-carving. 
The Jarves and Alden collections, the Trumbull col- 
lection, a collection of contemporary works, and the 
collection of casts numbering about one hundred ex- 
amples, comprise the Museum of the Art School, and 
the student has the advantage of these for purposes 
of study while engaged in the technical work of the 
class-room. 

The Yale Art School takes its position among the 
Art Schools of this country by reason of the breadth 
and thoroughness of its course of instruction and the 
peculiar advantages of its rich and diversified equip- 
ment. Its professional prestige has been well estab- 
lished. Its development has been marked by a steady 
growth and accretion, both in its technical equipment 
and its art collections. It is now looking for addi- 
tions to its building fund, as it already is cramped for 
space. It is also working for the founding of a chair 
of Architecture, with the necessary equipment for 
establishing instruction in this branch of Art. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC. 

WHEN Yale founded her Department of Music eight 
years ago, she not only pushed American Uni- 
versity development a long way forward, but indicated 
more clearly than by almost any other step the breadth 
of her own scheme of University instruction. The 
record of that department, in the number of its stu- 
dents and the quality of their work, has shown that the 
time was ripe for this step. The development of the 
department and particularly the quality of the men 
enlisted in the work, together with the standards which 
they have set, shows that a spirit of truest scholarship 
inspires the whole undertaking. It offers advantages 
to many which make immensely easier the conditions 
of musical education. It is, at the same time, relent- 
less in its thoroughness, and upholds the highest ideals. 
The department was not created complete, if indeed 
any such step would have been possible. No princely 
benefactor unlocked with a golden key all the possi- 
bilities of a musical education in an American univer- 
sity. It began humbly, as other departments began, — 
as the College began. It was in the autumn of i88S 
that the proposition was made at a meeting of the 
Fairfield County (Conn.) Yale Alumni Association to 
suggest to the Corporation the advisability of estab- 
lishing a School of Music which should be in all re- 
spects worthy of a place in Yale. 



284 YALE. 

At a meeting soon thereafter, the Corporation took 
up the matter and appointed an energetic committee 
to investigate the possibihties. At the head of this 
committee was Dr. Charles Ray Palmer, who had been 
the earliest of agitators for a department of music, and 
who has followed and aided the development of the 
school with greatest zeal. Dr. Munger is another 
member of the Corporation who was early and help- 
fully interested in the foundation of the department, 
while Professors Seymour and Perrin of the Academic 
Faculty were among its active friends. 

The Corporation's first definite act upon the propo- 
sition of the Fairfield County Alumni Association was 
the passage of a resolution, at the meeting in Novem- 
ber, 1890, to the effect that the plan for such a depart- 
ment was an excellent one, and that the University was 
ready to proceed with it when the sum of ^300,000 was 
in hand for that purpose. The beginnings of the de- 
partment were not, however, altogether deferred until 
the arrival of such a financially millennial era. At this 
time the Hon. Robbins Battell of Norfolk, Connecticut, 
became interested in the plan. Through the co-opera- 
tion of his sister, Mrs. Ellen Battell Eldridge, funds were 
soon forthcoming for the establishment of a Chair of 
Music, which the Corporation named the Battell Profes- 
sorship. Donations from this family for the benefit of 
this new school at Yale reached ultimately a handsome 
sum, which is but one of a series of noble generosi- 
ties on their part in the cause of Yale education. 

Dr. Gustave J. Stoeckel was the first to be called 
to this chair. He was an accomplished musician, who 
had been since 1855 the college organist. Previous 
to 189.0 Dr. Stoeckel had given some instruction in 







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THE DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC. 285 

music to those of the undergraduates who desired 
it, but this formed no part of the college curriculum. 
With the foundation of the professorship, however, 
he offered three courses, Harmony, Counterpoint, and 
Musical Forms, each in two hour recitations once a 
week. These were open to undergraduates, graduates, 
and special students of both sexes. In 1893, the 
degree of Bachelor of IMusic was established by the 
Corporation. In the following year Professor Stoeckel 
resigned his chair. 

It was a piece of no ordinary good fortune that the 
University secured at this time Mr. Horatio W. Parker 
of Boston as the incumbent of the chair thereafter 
known as the Battell Professorship of the Theory of 
Music. Mr. Parker was a pupil of Joseph Rheinberger 
of Germany. He brought with him to Yale not only 
a thorough equipment for the position of head of the 
Department, but a reputation as a composer and scholar 
that had already become more than national. His best 
known work is the oratorio, " Hora Novissima," but his 
writings extend over a great number of musical forms. 
They tend toward the ecclesiastical, in which depart- 
ment Professor Parker is the foremost American 
worker. A recent oratorio, " St. Christopher," which 
has been performed with much success in New York, 
is to strengthen Professor Parker's position at home 
and abroad as it becomes better known. 

At the same time with the appointment of Mr. Parker 
to the Battell chair, Mr. Samuel S. Sanford accepted 
the call to the Professorship of Applied Music. In the 
past three years he has co-operated with Professor 
Parker most successfully in the development of the 
Department. Mr. Sanford studied with some of the 



286 YALE. 

best teachers in America and Europe, and finished his 
education under Anton Rubenstein. To describe him 
as a pianist would be to use terms that would seem ex- 
travagant to any but the comparatively limited number 
who are familiar with his, in many respects, unexcelled 
power with this instrument. 

At this same time also Mr. Isidor Troostwyk, a 
pupil of Joachim, was made instructor in violin playing, 
and Mr. Harry B. Jepson, a graduate of Yale, 1893, 
was made instructor of organ playing. At this time 
also the three additional theoretical courses were of- 
fered of Strict Composition, Instrumentation, and Free 
Composition. 

And with this great increase of the Faculty and de- 
velopment of the course, came the next necessary and 
very valuable step. The College Street Church, which 
was situated only a few hundred feet from the campus 
proper, was acquired by the University, with the special 
purpose of using it in the Department of Music. It 
furnishes an audience room of considerable size for 
concerts, and also accommodates the piano and violin 
departments of the School. 

A feature which distinguishes this Department from 
similar ones in America, and places it on the same 
plane with the best schools of music in Europe, is the 
existence of the New Haven Symphony Orchestra, 
which has been organized in connection with this 
Department, under the direction and training of Pro- 
fessor Parker. In the short time since its establish- 
ment it has been brought to a very high standard, and 
is in itself a distinct addition to the musical opportuni- 
ties of New Haven. As an adjunct of the school it is 
invaluable, not only as an educator in the best works 



THE DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC. 287 

of the masters, but as giving to a pupil the opportunity 
to hear his own works played. This enables him to 
detect their weaknesses and to perfect his orchestral 
speech. The student himself may play in the Orches- 
tra if he is sufficiently advanced in his work. Some of 
the results of this practical training were shown by the 
concert in June, 1898, at which all the soloists were 
students, and an original composition of distinguished 
merit, by one of the members of this Department, was 
performed. 

The aim of the theoretical portion of the Department 
is to encourage the serious study of music in its noblest 
forms, with the ultimate purpose of waking an interest 
in original composition, and training composers. The 
theoretical courses are directly under Professor Parker, 
and while the recitations are in classes, he finds time 
personally to correct the work of students done outside 
the class-room. The class instruction is practical and 
direct, and largely by means of blackboard exercises 
on the staff, in which the student is required to take 
part, that he may receive the benefit of the criticism 
of the class on his work. 

Piano instruction is, of course, individual. Professor 
Sanford gives his personal care to training those stu- 
dents who have developed sufficient technique in en- 
semble and concert playing. The admission to the 
piano department is to those who have a practical 
acquaintance with the instrument. 

Mr. Troostwyk instructs his violin students individu- 
ally or in classes of two, as the student may elect. The 
violin students come under an instructor who combines 
an excellent technique with a high order of musical 
intelligence. 



288 YALE. 

The course in organ playing is under Mr, Jepson, 
whose lessons are given individually in Battel! Chapel. 
Mr. Jepson's work is in evidence constantly in his play- 
ing in the chapel services, and in frequent recitals. At 
the latter the audiences, in their size and character, 
show that the recitals are highly valued among the 
musical opportunities of New Haven. 

The object of the Department of Music is to " pro- 
vide adequate instruction for those who intend to be- 
come musicians, either by profession or teaching, and 
to afford a course of study to such as intend to devote 
themselves to musical criticism and the literature of 
music. The Department is open to undergraduates 
and graduates, also to special students, without dis- 
tinction of sex." The theoretical studies consist of 
Harmony, Counterpoint, the History of Music, Strict 
Composition, Instrumentation, and Free Composition. 
No student is admitted to the practical courses, which 
consist of Piano, Organ, and Violin-playing, unless he 
has already been admitted to one or more of the theo- 
retical courses. Of the theoretical courses, Harmon}-, 
Counterpoint, and the History of Music are considered 
elemental. On the completion of the course in Coun- 
terpoint, students " may become candidates for a Cer- 
tificate of Proficiency, in the Theory of Music, by 
passing an examination — conducted partly in writing 
and partly viva voce — in four-part Harmony and Coun- 
terpoint, in the History of Music, and in the Structure 
of Song and Sonata forms." An unprepared analysis 
of classical works is also required. 

The advanced courses of Strict Composition, In- 
strumentation, and Free Composition " are open only 
to students who are able to pass the examination re- 



THE DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC. 289 

quired preliminary to the granting of the Certificate of 
Proficiency in Theory." Members of these classes at 
the end of two years* work, or its equivalent, may be- 
come candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Music. 
The candidate is examined by the Faculty of the De- 
partment, and must give, prior to his examination, sat- 
isfactory proof of proficiency in the theory of music 
and in any two of the following languages (one of 
which must be a modern language) : Greek, Latin, 
French, German, and Italian. He must also, as a pre- 
liminary to his examination, furnish an original compo- 
sition in one of the forms designated by the Professor 
of the Theory of Music. The examination itself is 
in advanced Counterpoint, Canon, Fugue, the higher 
forms of Musical Composition, and impromptu orches- 
tration. 

Diplomas are awarded in the department of practical 
music " to those students who, having successfully com- 
pleted a three years* course of instrumental study, are 
qualified to act as teachers or to appear as soloists." 

There are five scholarships now available in the de- 
partment. Three of these were given by Mr. Morris 
Steinert of New Haven. One is of one hundred and 
fifty dollars, and is awarded for proficiency in playing 
the violin. The other two are of one hundred dollars 
each, and are given for piano and organ work. Last 
year the Lockwood Scholarships were founded by the 
will of the late Miss Julia A. Lockwood of South Nor- 
walk. The income is sufficient to pay the tuition of 
two students in the department. 

The friends of this Department now particularly de- 
sire, in conformity with their own high standards and 
with the invariable habit of Yale, a vastly increased 

19 



2 90 YALE. 

endowment. Since their desires for this are founded 
on such an excellent record, it does not seem unreason- 
able to believe that the Department will be generously- 
assisted to a work in the future commensurate with the 
possibilities of the Department and with the needs of 
the nation in this line of education. None of the 
famous conservatories of Europe is self-supporting. 
In some, notably the Paris Conservatoire and the ad- 
mirable institution in Brussels under Gevaert, instruc- 
tion is given for a nominal fee. In Brussels five francs 
yearly is charged. 

But the study of music is being pursued more seri- 
ously and effectively every year, and the conditions for 
study in America are improving constantly. The out- 
look for the future is bright enough when one remem- 
bers how old is Art and how young is our country. 



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CHAPTER IX. 

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL. 

'T^HE ambition of the first President Dvvight, at the 
■*• beginning of this century, in the development of 
Yale, was to make it, not merely a place where young 
men should pursue a curriculum, but to make it a place 
of research. In this spirit he established, besides the 
professorships of Science, Mathematics, and Classics, 
the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, for the 
purpose of bringing together the members of the Faculty 
and other men of learning and science, for the encour- 
agement of research. This idea was still further devel- 
oped in the establishment in 1818, by Professor Silliman, 
of the American Journal of Science, which was the organ 
of the Academy for fifty years. In the next year, 18 19, 
the American Geological Society was founded here 
and the Cabinet building was erected. The interest 
in this subject resulted in establishing the foundation 
of the magnificent collections of the Peabody Museum. 
This idea was extended in 1844 by the incorporation of 
a Philological Society, and by the gift of a valuable li- 
brary to the American Oriental Society on condition 
that it be deposited with the Yale Library. These cen- 
tres of scientific and philological life were the germs of 
the Department of Philosophy and the Arts, projected 
in 1846 for the purpose of affording at Yale the oppor- 
tunities for advanced study and research, which could 
only be secured at that time in the universities of 



292 YALE. 

Europe. The Graduate School of to-day has been 
developed through the years since 1846 along these 
lines. 

Courses of instruction were offered in 1847, by Presi- 
dent Woolsey, in Thucydides and Pindar; Professors 
Silliman in Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology; 
Kingsley, in Latin authors; Gibbs, in General Phil- 
ology; Olmsted, in Natural Philosophy and Astron- 
omy; Stanley, in Calculus or Analytical Mechanics; 
Porter, in Psychology, Logic, and the History of 
Philosophy; Salisbury, in Arabic; Silliman, Jr., in 
Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Metallurgy; and Norton, 
in the applications of Science to Agriculture, 

Truly a goodly opportunity for those days. The 
omissions in the courses of instruction offered are 
naturally striking to men of the present day. No lec- 
tures are proposed for Political and Social Science, and 
History: nothing is offered in Modern Languages, 
including English; nothing in Music or the Fine Arts. 
Of the honored Faculty of forty years ago, but one 
remains, — Prof. Edward Elbridge Salisbury, the pupil 
of Garcin de Tassy and of Lassen, the founder of the 
chair of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology. 

The Sheffield Scientific School had its beginning as 
a graduate department of the University, under the act 
of the Corporation in 1847, The explanation of many 
of the differences between the regulations for the two 
undergraduate departments of the University lies in the 
earlier development of the graduate branch of the Scien- 
tific School. For a time the undergraduate part of that 
School was so unimportant comparatively, that its mem- 
bers received the same freedom which was granted to the 
graduate students. 



THE GRADUATE SCHOOL. 293 

Yale created its first Doctors of Philosophy in 1861, 
— the late Eugene Schuyler, LL. D., U. S. Minister to 
Greece ; James Morris Whiton, well known as a teacher, 
Greek scholar, and theologian, and Arthur Williams 
Wright, Professor of Experimental Physics to-day at 
Yale. In 1871-72, Yale had 25 graduate students; in 
1872-73, 50; in 1873-74,60; in 1874-75,55; in 1875- 
76,60; in 1876-77,65; in 1877-78,50; in 1878-79,45. 
Obviously and naturally the number of students dimin- 
ished after the establishment of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, and the development of the Graduate Department 
of Harvard. To these causes were added the death 
and illness of several prominent Yale Professors, notably 
Hadley, Thacher, and Packard. 

In 1885-86, only 42 students were registered in the 
Graduate Department of Philosophy and the Arts. In 
1897-98, 270 students were so registered. The average 
increase, then, has been just seventeen per cent each 
year, but the most rapid advance has been made during 
the more recent years. Part of this is due to the admis- 
sion of women since 1892 to the courses which lead to 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy; but of the 283 
students of the years 1898-99, only 40 arc women. 

As to the number of courses of instruction offered, 
comparison with a score of years ago is somewhat diffi- 
cult, sinc.e the announcement of courses was then more 
informal, and the courses were often modified greatly to 
meet the needs of the particular students who presented 
themselves. Ten years ago about six or seven hours a 
week of strictly graduate instruction were given in the 
Department of Philosophy; while for 1898-99, 28 hours 
of graduate instruction are offered in those branches. 
In the Department of History, Political Science, and 



294 



YALE. 



Law, 45 hours a week of graduate instruction are offered, 
and even more in that of Semitic Languages and BibH- 
cal Literature. 

During recent years combinations have been made 
between related departments, so as to cover the whole 
field of learning better than ever before. The Theo- 
logical Seminary does not simply secure great advan- 
tages for its students from the courses of the Graduate 
School, but also contributes courses in History and 
Political Science as Vv^ell as in Biblical Literature. The 
Department of Philosophy unites with that of Greek in 
the study of Aristotle, with that of German in the study 
of Hegel, and with that of Natural Science in the study 
of the Theory of Evolution. 

Until 1892, the Graduate Department of Philosophy 
and the Arts was conducted by an executive committee 
of six professors, but little formal organization was 
attempted. In 1892, a dean was appointed; two years 
later, a more formal organization was effected with an 
Administrative Committee of twelve, and a dean's office 
opened, which has added' much to the convenience of 
the students and the efficiency of the Department. 

The Faculty of the Graduate School is composed of 
those professors in the University who devote a large 
part of their time to instruction in advanced courses, 
and of another large class who offer one or two courses 
in the Graduate School, although the bulk of their 
instruction is in the undergraduate department. 

The aids to study and research in particular lines, 
which the University offers, are indicated in a brief out- 
line of the contents of the University Library, and also 
in the chapters describing the different departments of 
study, with the laboratories, museums, and collections of 



THE GRADUATE SCHOOL. 295 

different kinds, briefly touclied upon in connection with 
their particular department of study. The Hst of volun- 
tary associations, where students and instructors meet 
for the reading of papers and discussions, include the 
Classical, Mathematical, Political Science, Philosophical, 
Semitic, Modern Language, English, Physics Journal, 
Engineers, Chemical, and French clubs. Some of these 
clubs, notably the Classical and Political Science clubs, 
have excellent quarters for their meetings and are 
equipped with special libraries of peculiar value to their 
members. The Philosophical Club has its laboratory. 

Since most of the degrees offered in the graduate 
courses are of long standing, and the requirements are 
so fully set forth in the publications of the University, 
it is unnecessary to give a description of them. The 
degree of Master of Science, however, was established 
only in 1897. It is conferred on graduates of Yale 
or other universities of two years standing or upwards, 
who " have taken their first degree in Science and who 
pursue successfully a higher course of study in Science 
under the direction of the Governing Board of the Scien- 
tific School." The course involves at least one year of 
resident graduate study. 

Besides the fourteen fellowships in the Graduate 
School, open to graduates of the Academic Department 
of Yale University, the Corporation has within recent 
years established, out of the income of University funds, 
five other fellowships yielding 1^400 each, open to gradu- 
ates of all colleges, with preference given to those who 
have already spent one year in graduate study and 
shown capacity for original work. 

Of scholarships, there are three open to graduates of 
Yale, and twenty others recently created by the Corpo- 



296 YALE. 

ration, from the income of University funds, yielding 
^100 each, which are open to graduates of all colleges. 

This is a part of the story of the workshop of Yale, 
but we will be a little out of order for the sake of show- 
ing how these graduate workers live. They are not of 
the campus — of the society of Yale — in a strict sense, 
but they have their own world, which is quite an addi- 
tion to the various college worlds of New Haven. Since 
it has come in these latter times, it is a part of the plan 
of this book to speak of it, and, in speaking of it, appro- 
priation will be made, almost verbatim, of a picture of 
it, sketched recently for the Hartford Courant by Mr. 
Francis Parsons, who has consented to its partial repro- 
duction here. 

" The Graduates' Club is the centre of social graduate life. 
The institution was founded about eight years ago, and began 
by holding modest but congenial gatherings in the old Anketell 
house on Elm Street, in front of the new Law School building. 
In 1894 the Club moved into its present quarters — the Day 
house on Chapel Street, opposite Trinity Church. The house 
is furnished very artistically, and contains many valuable pic- 
tures and a good deal of heavy old furniture. 

" The Graduates' Club is by no means an unimportant fac- 
tor in the university feeling at Yale. It serves to bring men 
together from all departments ; it gives them a common 
ground of companionship, and nourishes a certain university 
esprit de corps. Here tlie student meets his professor on other 
than class-room terms. The Club gives a personal and friendly 
quality to graduate work ; it furnishes an opportunity for men 
of like tastes and training to rub elbows and compare notes. 

" Our graduate student comes in about half-past six, throws 
his cap and sweater on the carved oak chest just inside the 
door, and goes upstairs, where the men are sitting about the 



THE GRADUATE SCHOOL. 



597 



rooms in the cane chairs, reading the magazines and waiting 
for dinner. More men drop in and say ' hello.' Somebody is 
writing busily at the desk in the corner, and a few groups are 
talking in subdued tones. Soon John in his white apron ap- 
pears at the door and says, ' Dinner is served.' 

" A small company of men dine at the Club regularly, and 
to their number are added the frequent transients. They are 
not all studying for degrees, but many of the younger instruc- 
tors, lawyers, and newspaper men are among them. They 
know each other well, and the conversation during dinner is 
intimate, embracing all manner of subjects. While the theo- 
logical student considers final appeals in matters of ethics, 
while the student of English deals summarily with licerary 
affairs, and the scientific tutor talks with authority of kathode 
rays and other disquieting topics, every one at the table can 
generally be depended upon to talk on any subject, whether he 
knows anything about it or not. And when the coffee has 
arrived and they have * matched ' for cigars, the whole com- 
pany has settled down into a satisfied, companionable spirit, 
and a knowledge that fate cannot harm them. 

" Sometimes the coffee is served in the large dining room 
upstairs. If there is a visitor at the Club that night it is pro- 
per to show him the Yale memorabilia on the walls, and allow 
him to admire the coziness of the small lunch room downstairs 
where there are ' boxes ' in the fashion of English coffee-houses, 
and wall paper with pictures on it of gentlemen in pink coats 
following the hounds. 

" Probably, however, our graduate student will have to hurry 
off to work, or to a meeting of his quiz-club, and then there 
is a burning of midnight oil, or a discussion of fine points of 
medicine or law for some time. But, perhaps, after the quiz, 
the reactionary spirit will prevail, and some one will go down- 
stairs to see if there is any beer in the house, while others 
group themselves in a semicircle before the fire. Then the 
man on the end of the semicircle will reach for the guitar and 
begin to sing softly as if to himself, till, as one by one the 



298 YALE. 

other voices take up the song, everybody forgets for a little 
while all about the liability of common carriers and other 
very worthy subjects. It is all one whether the man with the 
guitar has begun ' My Country, 'T is of Thee ' or ' She-e-e 
only answered ting-a-ling,' — and he is equally liable to 
begin either, — provided the fire is blazing merrily and the 
bull-terrier lies quietly enough on the window-seat to allow one 
to make considerable use of him as a pillow. 

" There have been times — for these graduate students are 
regular devils of fellows on occasions — when a few congenial 
souls would push this dissipation so far as to adjourn later to 
Mrs. Moriarty's with the avowed intention of getting a Welsh 
rarebit and a mug of ale. Sitting in that familiar resort, amid 
the familiar hunting pictures and collegiate relics, it almost 
seems to the Yale men as if their undergraduate days were 
back again." 



PREFATORY NOTE TO CHAPTERS ON 
DIVISIONS OF STUDY. 

THE chapters that immediately follow are intended 
to give an outline sketch of the instruction 
offered at Yale University in certain fields of learning. 
Emphasis is generally laid on the instruction given in 
the Graduate School, which, being of an advanced 
nature, best indicates quality and aims ; but the sketch 
may emphasize the system of undergraduate instruction, 
for each division is treated according to its particular 
characteristics. A brief historical sketch, or a few al- 
lusions to the past, indicate in each case the traditions 
of the Department. These chapters are not criticisms. 
If they give the reader a suggestion of the work that 
is done and the way in which it is done, they fulfil 
their object. 

The chapters that precede, on the Academic and 
Scientific Departments and professional schools, have 
been impersonal. These that follow are full of personal 
allusions, since by telling of the men at work in these 
various divisions of study, it is easier to tell what kind 
of study and teaching there is. It so happens that 
many men, who have done the best of work and made 
the best of names in Yale, do not appear in these 
sketches. Their work has been given almost entirely 
to the established curricula. And some of the makers 
of modern Yale have only been touched upon, or direct 
reference to them altogether omitted. Of such is Dean 
Phillips, by whose executive talent the Graduate School 
has attained such proportions in these last few years ; 
Dean Wayland, who should see his long, heavy labors 
for the Law School crowned in the completion of a 
building Tpcrliaps called Hcndric Hall, after the School's 
most generous benefactor), admirably adapted for its 



Soo YALE. 

work ; Dean Smith, who took up the Medical School's 
uphill financial fight without dismay, with a standard still 
set high and advancing, and who has already seen the 
beginning of a decent endowment, enlarging quarters, 
and, better than all, the making of more and more excel- 
lent records by graduates. Other names come without 
suggestion, — Harris of the Divinity School, author of 
" The Philosophical Basis of Theism " and " The Self 
Revelation of God ; " Stevens, of the same Faculty, a 
frequent and scholarly writer ; Brastow, whose work in 
the chair of Homiletics and the Pastoral Charge is one 
of the strong features of the Theological School. The 
work of medical men like Lindsley, Carmalt, and White, 
who have given such long and loyal and successful 
service, is only indirectly referred to. In the Law 
School, the reader is left to infer the debt which is due 
to the devotion, the scholarship, and high name of 
Baldwin ; to the inspiring enthusiasm of Townsend ; 
to the poise and strength of such men as Woolsey and 
Tyler and Watrous. Still one might go on with the 
list, adding particularly the names of strong assistants 
who pull the laboring oars. 

The names that follow are not, therefore, given as a 
register, or by way of discrimination, but for illustra- 
tion. Of those named, the points are given which are 
thought to be most helpful to the understanding of their 
work. Sometimes it is what a man teaches; again, 
what he has written or discovered. With the one, it is 
what the world says of him ; with the other, what his 
students say of him. Of one, all his degrees are named 
and his membership in honorary societies ; of another, 
these are not recorded. In a division like English, all 
the members of the staff may be included ; in others, 
like Natural Science, it has been possible to sketch the 
outline of the work and the equipment, with an incom- 
plete enumeration. 




Late President Noah Porter 



CHAPTER X. 

PHILOSOPHY. 

IN the history of the Department of Philosophy *at 
Yale, one meets such names as Jonathan Edwards, 
Bishop Berkeley, and Noah Porter. Of the first and 
last it is safe to say that no men have had wider or 
deeper influence on American philosophical thought. 
Bishop Berkeley's association with Yale, while person- 
ally less direct than that of the other two, is perhaps as 
significant from the exhibition of his personal interest 
in the gift of money and books. 

The general advance in studies psychological in the 
years since President Porter's day, has seen Yale abreast 
of it. The changes and growth in this Department in 
the last fifteen years can hardly be better emphasized 
than in the increase in and development of the Philo- 
sophical Department of the Graduate School. Fifteen 
years ago there was hardly any graduate work in Philoso- 
phy. A few students, generally in the Theological 
Department, would meet President Porter occasionally, 
and he would help them over difficult places in their 
own reading. The catalogue for the year 1898-99 
specified twenty-three graduate courses in the Depart- 
ment of Philosophy. 

In connection with this development of the graduate 
work, the friends of the School consider, with, naturally, 
a good deal of satisfaction, the number and quality 
of the students of philosophy coming from abroad, par- 



302 YALE. 

ticularly from Sweden and Japan, and the quality of the 
work of graduate students. Many of the theses from 
this Department, presented to the University for the 
Doctorate, have been recognized as valuable contribu- 
tions to the knowledge of the subject upon which they 
were written. 

The philosophical instructors of Yale are also pleased 
wfth the number of teachers which their Department has 
furnished to other institutions. Here they have more 
than kept pace with Yale's reputation for developing 
educators. There are now thirty-five or forty instructors 
in psychological philosophy and co-ordinate subjects in 
the universities, colleges, and high schools of the United 
States, Japan, and India, who have had one year's train- 
ing or more at Yale. Since 1889 at least twenty doctors 
of philosophy have gone out to special positions. About 
two thirds of the total number teaching are graduates 
of other colleges than Yale. Only four have taken 
their Ph.D. degrees from any other institution, and only 
ten have continued their studies elsewhere. In our own 
country these include professors of philosophy at Am- 
herst, Union, Williams, and University of Pennsylvania, 
In Japan, Yale is represented by the President of 
Doshisha College, and the only professor of Ethics 
under the Japanese Government is also a Yale man. 
In India, she is represented at Pasumalai, and in 
Sweden at Upsala. 

The introduction of laboratory methods, for the pur- 
poses of experiment and measurement, has been one 
of the latest developments. The Yale Laboratory, 
founded only six years ago, was one of the first to be 
established in this country. During these few years, 
it has published four volumes on its work, and the 



PHILOSOPHY. 303 

fifth is almost ready for the press. It is the only psy- 
chological laboratory of this country which publishes 
its results. It is excellently prepared both for teaching 
and for original research. 

The first name at Yale, in this Department, is Ladd. 
Professor Ladd has been very prolific in his writings, 
and his works have had an extensive circulation and 
have received the most flattering endorsements, not 
only here, but in England and on the Continent. His 
writings have been much used in India and two of his 
books have been translated in Japan. His reputation, 
and the reasons for it, are often not appreciated by the 
undergraduate student at Yale. This fact rests on the 
inherent difficulties of making the study of psychology 
compulsory. It is at least very hard to introduce a stu- 
dent successfully to this subject who approaches it in a 
spirit of indifference or worse. But the record of under- 
graduate opinion is not of importance here. 

The most advanced graduate courses are, very 
naturally, in charge of Professor Ladd, and these are 
for the most part conducted on the seminar plan, the 
object being, not to teach the tenets of any special 
school, but to inculcate a desire for the truth and 
to guide and stimulate to scientific methods of re- 
search. These courses sometimes take the form of 
careful and critical reading of some philosophical mas- 
terpiece, sometimes the investigation of some special 
problem or problems by the various members of the 
class. 

Prof George M. Duncan is next to Professor Ladd in 
point of service. In 1888, after several years of study in 
Germany and France, under such men asWundt, Heinze, 
Zeller, Paulsen, Ribot, and Janet, he came to Yale to de- 



304 YALE. 

vote most of his time to instruction. Professor Duncan 
carries a great deal of the regular undergraduate instruc- 
tion in Psychology and Philosophy, and offers, as well, 
various graduate courses in advanced Psychology and 
History of Philosophy for which his scholarship especi- 
ally fits him. He has recently translated selected por- 
tions of the writings of Leibnitz, and made various 
contributions to foreign magazines in the form of 
English bibliographies. 

Prof. E. Hershey Sneath of this Department has 
a peculiar reputation as a teacher. He has provided 
a series of text-books for the purpose of making the 
average undergraduate acquainted with some of the 
chief philosophical masterpieces. It was to this end 
that he organized and edited " The Series of Modern 
Philosophers" (8 vols.), and also the " Ethical Series " 
(6 vols.). He himself wrote the " Philosophy of Reid," 
and the " Ethics of Hobbes." Professor Sneath bears 
also a large share of the undergraduate instruction, and 
is peculiarly successful in it. He also offers graduate 
courses, conducted after the combined seminar and 
lecture method, in Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy and 
Literature, and Advanced Ethics. 

The work of the psychological laboratory of Yale 
has already been mentioned. Dr. E. W. Scripture, 
who conducts it, received his training under Wundt 
and other teachers, and came to Yale in 1892. Besides 
editing the " Studies," Dr. Scripture has edited two 
books ; one for the Chatauqua Society, entitled " Think- 
ing, Feeling, and Doing," and one for the Contemporary 
Science Series, entitled " The New Psychology." 

Lines for special work in Ancient Philosophy are fol- 
lowed by Dr. Stearns, a member of this Faculty, who 







O sS, 




CI. 



^ 



W a. 












PHILOSOPHY. 305 

has recently returned from study with Zeller, Erdman, 
and others. An interesting phase of the subject, to wit, 
the study of Psychology and Philosophy as Applied 
to Education, is taken up in a course offered by Dr. 
Gervase Green. 

The Department of Philosophy at Yale has the co- 
operation of some of the other departments, as it should 
have. Evolution can be studied not only from the 
psychological and philosophical standpoint, but in its 
biological aspect under Professor Williams of the De- 
partment of Physical Science. The course in Hegel, 
offered for 1898-99, was to be read in the original Ger- 
man under Professor Palmer of the Modern Language 
Department, this being preparation for the philosophical 
study of the author under Professor Ladd. 

As in the case of so many of the departments. Philo- 
sophy at Yale is aided by a club made up of students 
and professors in this Department. The papers which 
have been first presented here and freely discussed, 
have, in not a few cases, excited a very wide interest. 



CHAPTER XI. 

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. 

INTERESTING evidence of the growth of the social 
sciences can be had by a comparison of the cata- 
logue of Yale of half a century ago with that of the 
present. As the branches of this subject have been 
differentiated, and the spirit of scientific inquiry has 
spread to this field, it has become necessary to put a 
considerable number of men in charge of the work for- 
merly successfully conducted by a single one. In 1825 
we first find instruction given in Political Economy. It 
was limited to lectures delivered before the Senior class 
during the first two terms. While President Woolsey 
was at the head of the University he took entire charge 
of this Department, and it was not until 1872 that there 
was a professorship for this and allied subjects. 

In the catalogue of that year was the following state- 
ment: "Professor Sumner will instruct in Political 
Economy." This single sentence meant much. In- 
deed, as one looks back to the last quarter century of 
Yale teaching, he finds in this announcement more of 
significance as to the tone and force of the truth-loving 
teaching of Yale than he could find in almost any 
other similar sentence ; for no teaching at Yale has 
made such a general and such a deep impression 
as the teaching of Sumner, and no influence has been 
more wholesome than the loyalty to truth of this 
compelling reasoner. 



POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. 307 

But as bearing on the interest in and extent of the 
teaching, it is interesting to compare this provision for 
instruction with the condition of the Department to- 
day, when, aside from the elaborate undergraduate 
courses, there are twenty-seven courses offered to grad- 
uate students by seven men eminent in special branches 
of the subject. 

The American college student, as a rule, is interested 
in the history of the political and financial policy of his 
country, and desires a working knowledge of the law of 
economic forces. To gain this end the general under- 
graduate courses at Yale are well fitted, and the best 
men of Yale teach in these courses, which are most 
popular. Naturally, the instruction is developed along 
much more advanced lines by these same teachers in 
the graduate work, and what is offered there will best 
show the character and strength of this Department. 

In charge of the courses in Societology and Anthro- 
pology is Prof. William G. Sumner, who has now with- 
drawn all his courses in Political Economy. His works, 
with which the student of American politics is best 
acquainted, are " The Financier and Finances of the 
American Revolution," the Lives of Andrew Jackson, 
Alexander Hamilton, and Robert Morris, and "The 
History of Banking in the United States." Of all his 
writings, " What the Social Classes Owe Each Other," 
has had the widest circulation. Valuable assistance is 
rendered to the course in Anthropology by the collec- 
tions in the Peabody Museum. 

Prof. Henry W. Farnam, who is in charge of the 
Department of Political Economy in the Sheffield 
Scientific School, offers to the graduate student courses 
in Finance, Labor Organization, and Pauperism. He 



3o8 YALE. 

has been much interested in the problem of poor re- 
hef, and has written quite extensively on this subject. 
Among his articles along this line are " The State and 
the Poor," and " Progress and Poverty in Politics." 
Professor Farnam is senior editor of the " Yale Re- 
view," to which he has been a frequent contributor on 
questions of finance. He is not only a most generous 
siipporter of Yale, but one of her most public-spirited 
of teachers, and can add to the force of theoretical in- 
struction by the considerable experience which his civic 
and philanthropic activities bring him. 

The graduate courses in " Economic Problems of 
Corporations," and " The Relation between Economics 
and Ethics," are under Prof. Arthur T. Hadley. The 
appearance of " Railroad Transportation," in 1885, 
established Professor Hadley's position in his field, and 
since then his mastery of his science has brought him 
into very close relations with men in control of the 
largest railroad properties. Indeed, his case illustrates 
one of the interesting developments in the modern 
environment of University teaching. In such lines as 
these sciences it is not and cannot be so closely con- 
tained within the "academic shades," — so far separated 
from the w^orld outside — as of old. The blending of 
the theoretical and real is most wholesome. Professor 
Hadley has been Labor Commissioner of Connecticut, 
in which position also he showed his talent for dealing 
with facts in a spirit broad and practical. For all of 
this, he has not been drawn from the broader lines of 
economic study. On the contrary, he has so developed 
in them as to make his election to the presidency of 
the American Economic Association a very natural 
one. Among his writings may be mentioned his com- 








n 




4 









*^ 





Arthur T. Hadlev, John C. Schwab, 

Professor of Political Economy. Professor of Political Science. 

Henry W. Farnam, 

Professor of Political Economy. 

Irving Fisher, William G. Sumner, 

Professor of Political Economy. Pelatiah Peril Professor of Political ana 

Social Science, 



POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. 309 

paratively recent " Economics," which is not only a new 
text-book for students, but one most serviceable to the 
business man or general reader. 

Prof. William F. Blackman, who occupies the chair 
of Christian Ethics, takes up such problems of Ameri- 
can life as the negro, the immigrant, the defective, de- 
pendent, vicious, and criminal classes; the city, the wage 
and factory system, the family, communism, socialism, 
and anarchism. In connection with these courses are 
given the opportunity for the inspection of the work- 
ings of the charity and correctional institutions of New 
York City. 

The courses offered by Prof. John C. Schwab are in- 
tended to give the student a general knowledge of the 
fundamental principles of taxation and finance, together 
with a broad outline of the financial and industrial his- 
tory of this country. He is an authority on the finances 
of the Confederate States, and has written extensively 
along this line. He also offers a course on this subject, 
— the only one to be found in the catalogue of any 
American university. Professor Schwab is editor of 
the "Yale Review," to which he has made frequent 
contributions. 

What might be called the mathematical side of Po- 
litical Economy is not the side which appeals with per- 
haps the most interest to the general student or reader. 
It is a development of the science of the very greatest 
importance, and its future is most interesting. The 
interest in it is more general abroad. Perhaps for that 
reason. Prof. Irving Fisher's reputation is making even 
faster there than here. Professor Fisher was graduated 
from Yale only in 1888, but has done very unusual work 
in that time in this line of the development of the 



3IO 



YALE. 



mathematics of Economics. His " Appreciation and 
Interest," and a series of articles on " Capital," served 
to establish his position. In his " Theory of Value and 
Prices," he has applied to the problems of Political 
Economy the principles of Mechanics and Hydrostatics. 
In his mathematical work Professor Fisher has pre- 
pared an introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus. 

George L. Fox, head of the Hopkins Grammar 
School and connected with this department of instruc- 
tion in the Graduate School of Yale, offers a course on 
Comparative Municipal Government. He approaches 
his subject from a very practical point of view, and his 
course is thus adapted to teaching to the student his 
duties in politics. 

The increased size of the classes in the Department 
of Political and Social Science has suggested the 
scheme of assistants, who relieve the professors of part 
of the care of the class-room work. The plan makes 
the professors' work all the more valuable, and supplies 
the element which is sometimes missing in the treatment 
of large classes. 

In order to further the development of Political 
Science in the University, there was published in May, 
1892, the first number of the "Yale Review," which has 
since become one of the leading economic journals of 
the country. The magazine is edited by the professors 
in this Department, including Prof. Edward G. Bourne 
of the Department of History. " Committed to no 
school and to no party, but only to the advancement 
of sound learning, it aims to present the results of the 
most scientific and scholarly investigations in Political 
Science." 

One of the most useful adjuncts to the Department is 



POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. 311 

the Political Science Club, formed of the Faculty and 
graduate students interested in general economics. 
The meetings, which are held every two weeks, are 
occupied with the discussion of the questions of the 
day, or with the reading of one or more papers on any 
subject of interest to the members. Through the gen- 
erosity of Professor Farnam, the society has a room 
very tastefully furnished and provided with a good 
working library. The room is open to the members at 
all hours, and as the library is composed largely of 
reports and works in general demand, it is admirably 
fitted for purposes of reference. 



CHAPTER XII. 

HISTORY. 

A REVIEW of university study in this country for 
a half century shows a remarkable slowness in 
admitting to History a place as an advanced study. It 
shows also, that, when once its position was recognized, 
that position strengthened and developed everywhere 
with remarkable speed. Yale was not a pioneer in the 
history movement. She has, however, in recent years 
very freely responded to its impulse, and, in the rapidity 
of development of her historical courses, has forged 
well to the front. 

The distinctive feature of the organization at Yale of 
the work in History, is the separation of the graduate 
and undergraduate courses, which allows the closest 
adaptation of methods of instruction to the ends in 
view. The undergraduate work is more general in 
character, and is designed to interest the students in his- 
tory, to train them in intelligent judgment of historical 
events, and to help them to the acquirement of a fair 
amount of positive historical knowledge, by a discussion 
of the sources of information and by teaching them how 
to discriminate between the essential and the non-essen- 
tial. The graduate work, on the other hand, is more 
especially designed to train the students to certain 
methods of research and criticism. It presupposes a 
general knowledge of the period, and is directed towards 



HISTORY. 313 

the testing of accepted ideas or the extension of existing 
knowledge. 

The student who, after a general course of historical 
study, devotes two or three years to this practical work, 
will be equipped for the proper prosecution of historical 
investigation and for an independent solution of all his- 
torical problems, up to the limit of his intellectual power. 
He will know how the work ought to be done ; he will 
instantly discriminate between good and bad historical 
work, and so far as his natural gifts permit, he will him- 
self do good work. 

This very sharp differentiation between the graduate 
and the undergraduate work is maintained, because it is 
believed that the needs of the majority of the two classes 
of students are essentially different, and that the needs 
of each could be less perfectly met by any other system. 
If the individual student is not ready for the advanced 
work, he will be urged to take the undergraduate 
courses, and if he is a candidate for a doctor's degree 
he will be compelled to take them, unless he has covered 
the ground in some other perfectly satisfactory way. 

The teaching force, as now constituted at Yale, con- 
sists of four professors, one assistant professor, two lec- 
turers, and two assistants. Twenty-five years ago all the 
work in history was done by one man. Professor Wheeler, 
who is now the senior officer of the Department. 

When appointed, he was the first man chosen to the 
chair of History at Yale apart from Ecclesiastical His- 
tory. He is still in active service with apparently 
undiminished powers. It is certainly an uncommon 
distinction in one of the older colleges, for a pioneer 
of the Department to see such growth in his field of 
work as Professor Wheeler has witnessed. Before Pro- 



314 YALE. 

fessor Wheeler began his work as instructor thirty years 
ago, the historical teaching at Yale had been small in 
amount although scholarly in character. 

On the other hand, one or two terms work with a 
stirring teacher, fresh from study w^ith Laboulaye and 
Droysen, must have imparted new life to the latter 
months of a college course in the early seventies. 
Professor Wheeler had not been here long before he 
had secured a hold on the students, which has grown 
stronger with the lapse of years. He is always sure of 
a large student audience at any public lecture. He is a 
keen and incisive critic of character, and emphasizes 
effectively the element of personality in history. His 
thorough knowledge and independent judgment gain 
him the confidence of the student body, even when their 
assent to his views may be withheld. Of late his work 
has been mainly in modern European history, from 1789 
to the present day. His residence in Paris and Germany 
during the changes and the growth of the middle sixties 
has made him an especially interesting instructor and 
guide through the labyrinth of modern Continental 
history. 

Next to Professor Wheeler in length of service is Prof. 
George B. Adams, who came to Yale ten years ago as 
the successor of Professor Dexter in the Larned chair of 
American History. Two years later. Professor Adams 
was transferred to European History, and in this field 
now confines his teaching to the Middle Ages, with the 
exception of a course in English Constitutional History. 
Professor Adams' earlier studies were pursued under 
Professor Wheeler's direction. Later, after a period of 
teaching, he went to Leipzig, where he worked with 
Arndt and Maurenbrecher. As a teacher and writer he 




George B. Adams, 
Professor of History. 
Edward G. Bourne, 
Professor of History. 



Arthur M. Wheeler. 
Durfee Professor of History. 
Charles H. Smith, 
Lamed Professor of Aniericatr History. 



HISTORY. 315 

excels in lucid exposition, and this quality, supported 
by thorough scholarship, has enabled him to achieve 
remarkable success in presenting to the public, in a 
readable form, the results of modern scholarship. His 
" Civilization of the Middle Ages," and " French His- 
tory," are admirable specimens of such work. As a 
teacher Professor Adams is stimulating ahke to grad- 
uates and undergraduates. His energy and enthusiasm 
become contagious. His activity as an officer of the 
Department, as a member of the Council of the Ameri- 
can Historical Association, and as Chairman of the 
Editorial Board of the American History Review, has 
extended in the University and beyond its walls a 
powerful interest for the promotion of sound historical 
study. 

Prof. Charles H. Smith has occupied the Larned chair 
of American History for eight years. He came to Yale 
from Bowdoin. During his service here, the work in 
American History has developed very rapidly, reaching 
such proportions as to require a division of the field. 
Professor Smith now devotes much of his time to Con- 
stitutional History. Students think highly of his lec- 
tures. They " get a great deal " from them. His 
instruction is clear, well thought out, and pervaded by 
an admirable sanity of judgment and a natural fairness 
of mind. These qualities make him the trusted adviser 
as well as helpful teacher of a large portion of the stu- 
dent body. 

The general courses in American Political History, 
formerly given by Professor Smith, were in 1897-98 as- 
signed to Prof. Edward G. Bourne, who had returned to 
Yale in 1 895, to take a professorship in History. Pro- 
fessor Bourne was graduated from Yale in 1883, and was 



3i6 YALE. 

appointed an instructor in History and a Lecturer in 
Political Science in the College in 1886. After two 
years he left to accept a position at Adclbert College, 
where in 1890 he was made Haydn Professor of History, 
filling the position until his second call to Yale. Pro- 
fessor Bourne had before this been teaching European 
and English History. The change provides for an in- 
crease of the number of courses, and especially for more 
attention to Colonial History. It is also in accord with 
Professor Bourne's predilections, as American history 
has been the field of his special studies. Besides the 
political side Professor Bourne has investigated particu- 
larly the early discovery period. Among his writings, 
his studies on certain chapters of the Federalist and the 
formation of the Constitution, are particularly worth 
noticing. Professor Bourne's work, particularly with 
his graduate classes, shows a very progressive and 
thoroughly scientific spirit. 

The courses previously in Professor Bourne's charge 
are now in the hands of Assistant Professor Richardson, 
who graduated from Yale in 1889 and was Instructor 
in Political Science and History in Colorado College 
during 1889 and 1890. In 1892 he was appointed to 
the professorship of History in Drury College, filling 
this position until his call to Yale in 1897. A two 
years' leave of absence having been granted him in 
1895 by the authorities of Drury, he spent this time 
in work at Heidelberg with Winkelmann, Schaefer, and 
ErdmannsdorfFer. The public have received a very 
favorable impression of Professor Richardson's schol- 
arship and abilities from his recent volume, "The 
National Movement in the Reign of Henry the Third." 

An unusual and valuable feature of the history 



HISTORY. 317 

courses at Yale is the opportunity to study the mod- 
ern history of the far East, — China, Japan, and India, 
— and their relations with Europe. The events of the 
year 1898 and those which will flow from them in the 
future, will inevitably direct the attention of an increas- 
ing number of students to this field of study. This 
course, as well as two others on Ancient and Mediaeval 
Oriental History, is conducted by Mr. F. W. Williams, 
the son of the eminent Orientalist, Prof. S. Wells Wil- 
liams. Family associations, a childhood spent in the far 
East, and study and travel in Europe, give Mr. Williams 
an exceptional equipment for instruction in this field. 

And now as to the advanced courses of study designed 
primarily for graduates. Every candidate for a degree 
is expected to begin with the course in methods and 
criticism, conducted jointly by Professors Adams and 
Bourne. The first half of this course is designed to 
make the student familiar with the tools with which he 
has to work, and with processes of scientific historical 
investigation. Historical bibliography and internal crit- 
icism receive special attention, and the sphere of the 
studies auxiliary to history is reviewed. In the second 
half-year the work is wholly practical, and consists of 
the critical examination of texts, with the purpose of 
training the student in sound historical induction. 
Every candidate for the doctor's degree must have 
such a knowledge of general history as would be ac- 
quired in a successful prosecution of the college courses 
in European and American Plistory, and in his special 
field his knowledge must be detailed, thorough, and crit- 
ical. His mastery of the processes of historical investi- 
gation and generalization he must show in his thesis. 

Among the other twenty-six courses announced in 



3i8 YALE. 

the Graduate Pamphlet for 1 897-98, it is worth while to 
record, as indicating the general character of the work, 
Professor Wheeler's on Recent English Constitutional 
History ; Professor Smith's on the Political and Consti- 
tutional History of the United States from 1850 to 1877, 
a period not yet covered in a satisfactory way by any 
of the general histories ; Professor Adams' course on 
Mediaeval Institutions ; Professor Bourne's on the Diplo- 
matic History of the United States; Professor Richard- 
son's on English Political and Constitutional History 
from 1603 to 1688, Dr. Strong's on the Social and 
Economic History of the South. 

Prof. George P. Fisher, the Dean of the Divinity 
School, is attached to the staff in History in the 
Graduate School, where he offers a course in Church 
History. It might have been more appropriate to 
begin this chapter with such a name. It is none the 
less pleasant to close it with a mention of such a 
course and such a teacher. He has been before the 
world in his writings and his public services for fifty 
years. To the scholar or the general reader the names 
come at once of one or another group of his writings, 
" The Grounds of Theistic and Christian Belief," " The 
Beginnings of Christianity," " The Outlines of Uni- 
versal History," "The Manual of Christian Evidences," 
— and so we might run on. And his last work — if the 
critics are right — is his greatest. His "History of 
Doctrine," published in 1896, is a remarkably compre- 
hensive treatment of a vast field. It is so clear and 
condensed, that "every sentence is a definition." 



CHAPTER XIII. 

SEMITIC LANGUAGES AND BIBLICAL LITERATURE. 

A S a formally organized branch of the University, the 
■^^- Department of Semitic Languages and Biblical 
Literature is comparatively young. In 1886 the uni- 
versity chair of Semitic Languages was founded. Prof, 
William Rainey Harper, Ph. D., Yale, 1875, was the 
first incumbent, holding it till 1891, when he was called 
to the Presidency of Chicago University. 

In 1889 the Woolsey Professorship of Biblical Litera- 
ture was established, Professor Harper also assuming 
the responsibilities of this chair (1889-1891). Since 
1889 the instruction along these two lines of investiga- 
tion has been given by the same set of teachers. In 
1897 ^^ important forward step of organization was 
taken in the formal recognition by the Philosophical 
Faculty of the incumbents of the Divinity School pro- 
fessorships of Hebrew, New Testament Greek, and 
Biblical Theology as members of this Department for 
university instruction, thus affording at the present time 
a staff of one professor, two instructors, and two as- 
sistants, for the Department as a whole, and three other 
professors for special courses. 

No history of Semitic studies at Yale would be com- 
plete that failed to acknowledge the obligation of the 
Department to Prof, Edward E. Salisbury, LL. D., who 
was Professor of Arabic from 1841 to 1856. Not 



320 



YALE. 



only was he a strong factor in those earlier days in the 
progress of Semitic studies in this country, but he col- 
lected and gave to the University a special Semitic 
library, particularly rich in Arabic literature, known as 
the Salisbury collection. Professor Salisbury continues 
to show his interest in the work by providing for the 
enlargement of this library to keep pace with the rapid 
advance of Semitic research. The value of this working 
basis is inestimable. 

A large and unselfish service has been rendered to 
Yale and to the cause of Biblical scholarship by Rev- 
Prof. George E. Day, who held the Holmes Professor- 
ship of Hebrew for twenty-five years (i 866-1 891). 
Professor Day continues his interest in Semitic sub- 
jects, but no longer offers instruction. 

At the present time the university chair of Semitic 
Languages, formerly held by Professor Harper, is 
vacant. But it is none the less easy to judge the 
quality of the Department by the records of the in- 
structors who are at work. 

Prof. Edward L. Curtis, Yale, '74, Union Theologi- 
cal Seminary, '79, took his doctorate at Berlin after 
studying there from 1879 to 1881. For the next ten 
years he held the chair of Old Testament Literature 
and Exegesis at the McCormick Theological Seminary, 
Chicago. Since 1891 he has been the Holmes Profes- 
sor of Hebrew at Yale. Aside from constantly con- 
tributing to the leading Biblical periodicals, he was 
assigned the article on the Hexateuch in Johnson's 
Encyclopedia and a number in the new Dictionary of 
the Bible. For the Haupt Polychrome Bible he con- 
tributes Zephaniah, and for the International Critical 
Commentary he is to prepare the books of Chronicles. 



BIBLICAL LITERATURE. 321 

In graduate work he offers studies in the text, interpre- 
tation, and archaeology of the Old Testament. 

Prof. Frank C. Porter, Beloit, '80, Yale Divinity School, 
'86, Ph.D., Yale, '89, was made Winkley Professor of 
Biblical Theology in 1891. As an historical student his 
specialty is the period before and during the life of 
Christ. On the literature of this obscure period he is a 
recognized authority on both sides of the Atlantic. He 
contributed to the new Dictionary of the Bible an 
unusual article on the " Apocrypha." To the Inter- 
national Theological Library he is to contribute a 
volume on the Contemporary History of the New Testa- 
ment. For graduate students Professor Porter offers 
special courses in Palestinian and Hellenistic Jewish 
Literature and a seminar on the sources and methods 
of Gospel criticism. 

Prof. Benjamin W. Bacon, Yale, '81, Yale Divinity 
School, '89, became in 1896 the Buckingham Professor 
of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation. He, 
too, is a contributor to the Bible Dictionary and to 
the critical journals. At present he is preparing a 
volume in the new Handbook series on New Testament 
Introduction. For graduate students he holds a seminar 
on the Teachings of the Jews. 

Prof Frank K. Sanders, Ripon, '82, spent four years 
in India as a college instructor, came to Yale for 
advanced studies, and took his doctorate in 1889. 
Appointed in 1888 as assistant to Professor Harper, he 
became in course of time his successor as Woolsey Pro- 
fessor of Biblical Literature, with charge of the combined 
Department. He comes much before the public as a 
lecturer, as instructor at summer assemblies, and as a 
promoter of popular Bible study, and in his contribu- 



322 



YALE. 



tions to periodical literature. He is co-editor of the 
Students' Historical Series, about to be announced 
by Scribner's. He has recently published a volume 
entitled " The Message of the Earlier Prophets," the 
first of a contemplated series, and is at work upon two 
volumes of Outlines for the Study of Biblical History 
and Literature. With graduate students his work varies 
according to the special needs of classes. It always in- 
cludes a seminar on some phases of Biblical history and 
literature. 

Of the other instructors, Dr. Harlon Creelman, Yale 
Divinity School, '89 and Ph.D., '94, gives special atten- 
tion to the courses in Hebrew and Biblical Literature, 
while Dr. H. W. Dunning, Yale, '94, Ph.D., '97, offers 
advanced courses in Arabic, Syriac, and Ethiopic. Mr. 
William J. Moulton, Amherst, '88, and Yale Divinity 
School, '93, took the Hooker fellowship and spent three 
years at Gottingen. He has returned to Yale, and offers 
courses in the critical use of the Septuagint and on the 
Maccabean period. Mr. M. Wolodarsky, a student at 
Nemerof and Kiel in Russia and for some years at Yale, 
offers reading courses in Rabbinic literature and instruc- 
tion in modern Hebrew. 

The departmental instructors and students maintain 
a club which meets at least monthly to discuss original 
papers and reviews. 

The Department has had a successful career during 
the thirteen years of its existence. It has furnished 
occupants of no less than sixteen important Biblical 
or Semitic chairs in this and other countries, and has 
trained as many more who did not aim at professional 
work. The latter function of the Department is an in- 
creasingly important one. There are many clergymen 



BIBLICAL LITERATURE. 323 

who desire the breadth of outlook and the scholarship 
implied by the winning of the doctorate degree, but do 
not care to abandon their profession. To train such 
men as these is an enterprise as much in line with Yale's 
historic mission as to swell the ranks of those who wish 
to give instruction. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE CLASSICS. 

THE " revival of learning " in this country really 
dates from 1805, when the course of study at 
Harvard was improved, and James Luce Kingsley, a 
graduate of only six years' standing, who had been 
tutor since 1801, was appointed by Yale her Professor 
of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. In order that his chair 
might not be a sinecure, he was to lecture also on 
Ecclesiastical History, and to serve as college librarian. 
As yet Harvard had no permanent Professor of Greek 
or Latin, her learned Dr. Popkin being appointed in 
181 5. Indeed, at that time the number of students at 
Harvard was decidedly smaller than at Yale, which for 
some years had held the " primacy " among American 
colleges. But we should not suppose that Professor 
Kingsley gave all the instruction in the subjects of his 
professorship. On the contrary, the teaching was done 
mainly by tutors, and he had fewer hours of class-room 
exercises than his successors of to-day. He had the 
general supervision of the work, and met each class 
during one term of its course for lectures. After 
twelve years, in 18 17, Professor Kingsley was relieved 
of his duties in connection with Ecclesiastical History; 
and fourteen years later, in 183 1, Theodore Dwight 
Woolsey came to Yale as Professor of Greek, while a 
little before this the instruction in Hebrew had been 
put under the care of Professor Gibbs. But Professor 




The Woolsey Statue 



THE CLASSICS. 325 

Kingsley continued to be Professor of Latin until 185 1, 
the term of his service as instructor being rounded out 
to a full half-century. 

Dr. Woolsey achieved so high a reputation later as 
the President of Yale College and an authority on all 
matters of international law, that his services as a class- 
ical scholar are relegated to the background in the or- 
dinary picture of college life. But he was the first 
scholar of our country to receive a thorough philolog- 
ical training in Germany and in France, a contemporary 
of George Ticknor, the historian of Spanish literature, 
and George Bancroft, the historian of America. Wool- 
sey continued to perform the duties of his Greek pro- 
fessorship, together with those of the President of the 
College, until 185 1, and his Greek books, which he finally 
presented to the college library, bear witness to the 
breadth and depth of his classical study. Probably no 
one else in America during the fifteen years between 
1 83 1, when he was made professor, and 1846, when he 
was elected President, studied so thoroughly the " cor- 
pus " of Greek inscriptions, Plato, Aristotle, and Theo- 
critus, to say nothing of the Greek drama. In those 
da}'s advanced graduate students were not many in this 
country, but Dr. Woolsey had a graduate class which 
included James Hadley, and another which included 
William Dwight Whitney and the younger President 
Dwight. His editions of Greek plays and Platonic 
dialogues were not only far better than any which this 
country had known, but even better than any of the 
same aim in England or Germany To Kingsley and 
Woolsey, as pioneers, classical learning in this country 
owes more than it at present recognizes. 

But Kingsley did not stand alone as Professor of 



326 YALE. 

Latin during that long half-century. In 1842 Thomas 
Anthony Thacher, a graduate of the Class of 1835, 'ifter 
service of four years as tutor, was appointed Assistant 
Professor of Latin, and was promoted to the full pro- 
fessorship on Kingsley's retirement in 185 1. His labors 
for the College ended only with his death in 1886. He 
was a thorough and able scholar; but his skill in the 
management and care of students was so great and 
unusual that his scientific work was often interrupted, 
and his influence on scholarship in the country at large 
was by no means so great as on college government 
and the general problems of higher education. He was 
perhaps the first (in 1843) to advocate the establish- 
ment of a regular course of instruction for graduate 
students, such as Yale now has in her Graduate School. 
Shortly after Dr. Woolsey's accession to the Presi- 
dency of Yale College, James Hadley, of the Class of 
1842, was made Assistant Professor of Greek — in 1848 
— and in 185 1 was promoted to the full professorship. 
He had a thoroughly scientific mind, of crystal clear- 
ness. A high authority, who knew well his early work, 
said that the best mathematician in the country was 
spoiled when Hadley devoted himself to Greek. He 
was interested in the whole field of human knowledge, 
and lectured on Roman law as well as on Homer. The 
outlying districts, the less frequented paths of Greek 
literature, interested him. His accuracy was extraordi- 
nary, and some of his learned discoveries attracted such 
attention abroad as to be translated and published in 
Germany. His death in 1872 was a severe blow to 
Classical Philology in America. He was then at the 
height of his powers, and if he had lived would have 
published far more in the next score of years than he 



THE CLASSICS. 327 

had done already. His influence on the scholarship of 
the country was only in its beginning. If Hadley had 
lived until now, classical scholarship in Yale and in the 
whole country would have advanced to a higher plane 
even than at present. 

In 1863 Lewis Richard Packard was made Assistant 
Professor of Greek, as associate to Hadley, and was 
soon promoted to a full professorship. He was a bril- 
liant scholar, with mind as clear-cut as his face, but 
after years of physical suiTering he met a premature 
death in 1884, leaving undone much work for which 
he was well fitted. 

The historian of classical studies in America will not 
forget to mention that Prof. Chauncey A. Goodrich 
of Yale, son-in-law of Noah Webster and reviser of his 
dictionary, prepared for the use of schools a translation 
of a German Greek grammar, which for a score of years 
was the text-book of the subject most used in our coun- 
try; nor that Prof. William A. Larned not only used 
Demosthenes's oration on the Crown as a text-book in 
teaching rhetoric, but also prepared the best rhetorical 
commentary ever published on this oration ; nor that 
Evangelinus Apostolides Sophocles, afterwards the 
learned professor of Classical and Byzantine Greek at 
Harvard, here, shortly before 1840, began his work in 
connection with American colleges; nor will he over- 
look the Philological Studies of the elder Professor 
Gibbs. 

No sketch of Classical Philology at Yale or in the 
country would be complete without the mention of 
what has been done at this University in the field of 
Sanskrit and Comparative Philology. In this depart- 
ment Yale preceded her rivals and associates. Only 



328 YALE. 

three or four universities in the world had professors of 
Sanskrit in 1841, when Edward Elbridge SaHsbury (who 
still lives in an honored old age) was appointed Profes- 
sor of Oriental Languages at Yale, after long study with 
Lassen at Bonn and Garcin de Tassy in Paris. In 1854 
Professor Salisbury provided a permanent endowment 
for the chair of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, 
and resigned it to William Dwight Whitney, who did 
more than any other man of his time to establish sound 
views of the origin and growth of language, and re- 
mained more honored, both at home and abroad, than 
any other American scholar in any department of sci- 
ence until his death in 1894. It was chiefly under 
Whitney and Hadley that an advanced course in Phil- 
ology was established at Yale, the first in the country 
which might vie with like courses in Germany. 

So much for the past of the Department of Classical 
and Indo-Iranian Philology at Yale, Never before was 
it so strong as at present, never before offering so many 
advanced courses of instruction. It is a simple state- 
ment of fact that no other university of the country has 
so large a Faculty in this department. 

The senior officer of the department, and its chair- 
man by the election of his colleagues, is Prof. Tracy 
Peck, Yale, '61, who after study in Germany and Italy, 
two terms in the tutorship, and ten years of service 
as Professor of Latin at Cornell, was called to Yale 
as professor in 1880. For the year 1898-99, he re- 
ceived leave of absence from university duties, in order 
to serve as Director of the recently established Ameri- 
can School of Classical Studies in Rome, — a service 
for which he is specially qualified by his familiarity with 
Rome, where he has recently passed nearly two years. 




The Late William D. Whitney 
Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology 



THE CLASSICS. 329 

Professor Peck was President of the American Philolog- 
ical Association in 1885-86, and has read a number of 
learned papers before that body, on the Authorship 
of the Dialogus dc Oratovibus, on Latin Alliteration, 
Roman Quantity, Cicero's Hexameters, and kindred 
subjects. He is one of the editors-in-chief of the Col- 
lege Series of Latin Authors, and has edited part of the 
history of Livy for that series. His most important 
graduate courses are on Lucretius, Early Latin, the 
Satires of Horace, and Latin Philology. 

Prof. Henry P. Wright, Yale, '68, a pupil of Thacher, 
Whitney, and Hadley, has taught Latin at Yale since 
1872. Like his predecessor. Prof. Thomas A. Thacher, 
his unusual fitness for certain important duties of ad- 
ministration has drawn him somewhat from special 
philological work, to the deep regret of his colleagues 
in this department ; but he unites with Professor 
Ingersoll in giving courses in Latin Lyric Poetry, and 
Latin Satire and Comedy. 

Prof. Edward P. Morris, Yale, '74, after study in 
Germany and service as teacher in other institutions, 
was called to Yale in 1891. He is best known, perhaps, 
as a Plautine scholar, having edited three plays of that 
author. His chief work has been in the field of syntac- 
tical investigations, several of which have appeared 
in the American Journal of Philology, and he has 
shown peculiar skill in stimulating and guiding re- 
search. His most important graduate courses are on 
Plautus, Historical Syntax, and Catullus. 

Prof. Henry R. Lang, a graduate of the University 
of Strassburg, a high authority in the department of 
Romance Languages, gives courses in Low Latin which 
are of interest and high value for students of classics, 



330 YALE. 

Prof. Hanns Oertel gives two courses on the Italic 
Dialects, and one in the writing of Latin prose. 

Prof J. D. Ingersoll, Yale, '92, offers a course in 
Latin Comedy, and Dr. J. J. Robinson one in Roman 
Law. 

The senior officer of the Greek Department is Prof. 
Thomas D. Seymour, Yale, '70, who, after study in 
Germany and eight years of service in teaching in the 
Western Reserve College, was called to Yale in 1880. 
He was president of the American Philological Associa- 
tion in 1888-89. Since 1887 he has been Chairman of 
the Managing Committee of the American School of 
Classical Studies of Athens, and since 1889, Associate 
Editor of the Classical Review. He is one of the edi- 
tors-in-chief of the College Series of Greek Authors, 
and has published two volumes of a college edition of 
the Iliad, an edition for the use of schools of six books 
of the Iliad, an introduction to Homeric Language and 
Verse, and Selected Odes of Pindar. He has read 
papers on Homer, Pindar, ^schylus, Xenophon, etc., 
before the Philological Association. He has received 
the honor of election to honorary membership in the 
Archaeological Society of Greece. His principal gradu- 
ate courses are on Epic Poetry, .^schylus, Pindar, 
Plato, and the Greek orators. 

Prof. Bernadotte Perrin, Yale, '69, a student of the 
Graduate School of Yale in the time of its high glory 
under Hadley and Whitney, and later of German 
universities, was called to Yale from the Western Re- 
serve University in 1893. He was president of the 
American Philological Association in 1896-97, and has 
read papers before that body on the Crastinus Episode 
at Palaeo Pharsalus, Equestrianism in the Doloneia, 



THE CLASSICS. 331 

and Genesis and Growth of an Alexander myth. He has 
published also an edition of Caesar's Civil War, and two 
volumes of a college edition of the Od)'ssey, as well as a 
commentary for the use of schools on eight books of 
the Odyssey. His important graduate courses are one 
on Thucydides and the historical tradition of the Pen- 
tekontaetia, a similar course on Herodotus, another on 
the Alexander tradition, and one on Pausanias. 

Prof. Thomas D. Goodell, Yale, ''j'j, came to Yale 
as assistant professor in 1888, and was advanced to a 
full professorship in 1893. During the year 1894-95 
he had leave of absence in order to serve as Professor 
of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 
He has published a book entitled Greek in English, 
and Greek Lessons, and articles on the Use of the 
Genitive in Sophocles, Quantity in English Verse, 
the Order of Words in Greek, Aristotle and the 
Athenian Arbitrators, Dorpfeld's book on the Greek 
Theatre, and some special work in the Journal of 
Archaeology. His Graduate courses are on Sophocles, 
and Greek Art. 

Prof. Horatio M. Reynolds, Yale, '80, has taught 
Greek at Yale since 1883, being advanced to a full pro- 
fessorship in 1893. He has devoted himself particu- 
larly to literary themes. His most important courses 
for graduates are on Aristotle's Poetics, Late Greek 
Poetry, and Euripides, and a course with Professor 
Oertel on Greek Inscriptions. 

The Rev. Cornelius L. Kitchel, Yale, '62, has taught 
in all at Yale about thirteen years. He has edited 
Plato's Apology and Crito. He offers a course on 
the Choephori of ^schylus, the Electra of Sophocles, 
and the Electra of Euripides. 



332 



YALE. 



Dr. T. Woolsey Heermancc, Yale, '93, offers a course 
in Modern Greek. He studied for two years in connec- 
tion with the American School at Athens, and has pub- 
lished several articles in the American Journal of 
Archaeology. 

Dr. Thomas C. Stearns, Yale, '86, who has had several 
years of study of this subject at Yale and in Germany, 
offers two courses in Greek Philosophy. 

In Indo-Iranian Philology and Linguistics, Prof. E. 
Washburn Hopkins, Columbia, '78, after graduate 
study in Germany, and service as a teacher at Colum- 
bia and at Bryn Mawr, was called to Yale as Professor 
Whitney's successor in 1895. He has published a 
large work on the Religions of India, and many papers 
in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, and 
in other learned periodicals. He gives instruction not 
only in Sanskrit, Sanskrit Literature, the Avestan Lan- 
guage and Literature, and Pali, but also in Comparative 
Syntax. 

Professor Oertel, in addition to his courses on Greek 
inscriptions, and in connection with the Latin Depart- 
ment, gives courses of instruction in Linguistics (an in- 
troduction to the scientific study of language, intended 
for students of the classics and of modern languages). 
Phonetics, and on the phonology and morphology of 
the Latin language. He has published in the Journal 
of the Oriental Society extensive and important papers 
as the outgrowth of his studies in Sanskrit, and has 
published articles on linguistics in the American Journal 
of Philology. In no other university of America is the 
field of Indo-Iranian Philology and Linguistics so fully 
covered as at Yale. 

In connection with the more formal courses, the less 





Edward P. Morris, 

Professoy o/ the Latin Language and 
Literature. 



Thomas D. Goodell, 

Professor of the Greek Language ami 

Literature. 



Horatio M. Reynolds, 

Talcott Fro/essor of the Greek Language 
and Literature. 



Bernadotte Perrix, 

Professor o/ the Greek Language and 

Literature, 



THE CLASSICS. 333 

formal work of the Classical Club should be mentioned. 
This is constituted of the instructors and ^the graduate 
students of the Department, and has for its headquar- 
ters the principal room of Phelps Hall. It meets every 
Saturday, and spends that evening in reading and dis- 
cussing the work of some classic author, with reports 
and original papers in the field of Greek and Latin 
philology. 

Particularly important for those who are engaged in 
classical, philological, and archaeological studies, is the 
apparatus provided by the University library, particu- 
larly in serial literature. Probably no other library of 
the country has a better collection of philological peri- 
odicals and publications of learned bodies, and only 
one other in America has so good a collection of 
general classical books. The library of the American 
Oriental Society is deposited in the Yale University 
Library, and is at the command of students and 
all investigators. In addition to this apparatus, the 
Classical Club has in its large reading-room in Phelps 
Hall more than twenty-five hundred volumes of texts, 
commentaries, works on antiquities, etc., as a depart- 
mental library, which are at all times ready to be used 
by the advanced student, and which furnish to him the 
advantages of an excellent private library. Few col- 
lege libraries of America are richer in the important 
works of this Department than this special library of 
the Classical Club. 



CHAPTER XV. 

MODERN LANGUAGES. 

THE development of the teaching of Modern Lan- 
guages into a consistent, thoroughly organized 
department of instruction at Yale has been accom- 
plished since 1890. Up to that time friends of the 
Department felt that it was receiving unusually scant 
appropriation of University resources and insufficient 
attention in the development of the University curri- 
culum. Judged by the ambition of members of its 
staff it is not yet what it should be. But of what de- 
partment may that not be said? The Department of 
Modern Languages is well organized, with high stand- 
ards and an unusually even excellence of instruction. 

It is strongest in the undergraduate work, which 
is arranged with particular reference to the general 
needs, and carries out its ideas very successfully. In 
its graduate department, the students are not as num- 
erous as in some other branches, but are increasing, 
while the courses are extending and covering more 
and more thoroughly the field of European languages 
and literature. That it is a progressive department, is 
shown by the appointment last spring of Dr. Andreen 
to the instructorship of the Scandinavian Department, 
with a leave of absence for two years for courses at 
Upsala and Christiania, and is also indicated by the 
plan to establish in the near future a German sem- 



MODERN LANGUAGES. 335 

inary with an excellent working library for advanced 
students. 

The department is called a young one. So it is if 
rated from the time of its thorough organization. But 
for more than seventy years Modern Languages have 
been taught as a part of the curriculum at Yale, though 
with a good deal of irregularity. Before 1825 provi- 
sion was made for instruction, though no official recog- 
nition of such instruction occurs. In that year the 
catalogue officially recognizes the Modern Languages, 
and instruction is offered in French during the third 
term of Junior year. This course was optional with 
Fluxions, Greek, or Hebrew. The next year an in- 
structor, M. Charles Roux, was appointed in French 
and Spanish, and one of these two languages might 
be taken as an optional in the third term of Junior 
year. 

The next step was in the year 1831-32, when Julius 
Meier was appointed to an instructorship in French 
and German. No provision was made, however, at 
the time for the study of German in the curriculum. 
Though French and Spanish were continued as op- 
tional, it was not until 1841 that German was added to 
the choice of optionals in the third term of Junior year. 
In the following year Italian was added. 

Instruction by regularly appointed instructors in 
French was given from this time on with the excep- 
tion of one or two years, but in Spanish and Italian 
there were long intervals of suspended animation. 
German was taken care of by special instructors from 
the year 1843 to 1847, but not again after that until 
1854, when William D. Whitney was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Sanskrit and Instructor of German. 



336 YALE. 

Important steps were taken in 1S57, when the onus 
of extra expense to the student for instruction in Ger- 
man and French was removed. These studies remained 
as optional for the third term of Junior year. The 
next move was in 1864, when Dr. E. B. Coe returned 
as Street Professor of Modern Languages. At that 
time French was taught in the third term of Sopho- 
more year as a required study, and German in the 
second term of Junior year, also as a part of the re- 
quired curriculum, with an elective added in advanced 
German during the first term of Senior year. The next 
year, 1868, French was required for two terms, the last 
term of Freshman and the first term of Sophomore year. 

In the year immediately following this, the curricu- 
lum widened out considerably in both German and 
French. Soon after the appointment of Franklin 
Carter, now President of Williams, as Professor of 
German, in 1872, there came a very marked develop- 
ment. German was soon required for the entire Junior 
year, with an optional of four hours a week in Senior 
year, with lectures as well during the first term of the 
last year. An optional of four hours a week in both 
Junior and Senior years was offered in French. 

The appointment of Professor Knapp in 1879 marks 
a further extension of instruction in the Romance lan- 
guages. But Professor Carter retired in 1881, and for 
ten years thereafter the chair of German was left un- 
filled. The work in that language was most fortunately 
in charge of Assistant Professor Ripley, an instructor 
of unusual ability, who brought the Department to an 
excellent condition and is still one of its most loyal 
friends. His departure in 1888 to accept a business 
position in Boston caused very sincere regret. 






Arthur H. Palme?., 

Professor of the German Language and 

Literature. 

Jules Luquirns, 
Street Professor of the Romance Lan- 
guages and Literatures. 



GUSTAV Gruener, 
Professor of German. 

Henry R. I-ano, 
Professor of Romance Philology. 



MODERN LANGUAGES. 337 

The year 1891 marks the beginning of a determined 
and successful ert'ort for the development of the Depart- 
ment. In that year Professor Palmer was called to the 
chair of German in the Academic Department, while 
A. Guyot Cameron was made Assistant Professor of 
French, in charge of the instruction in that language 
in the Scientific School, a position which he held until 
1897, when he left to accept a position at Princeton, 
his alma mater. During that time he aroused extraor- 
dinary enthusiasm in his classes by the spirited quality 
of his instruction and his lectures, as well as by his 
personality, and his departure from the school was 
made the occasion of an unusual demonstration by 
both students and graduates. The appointment of Pro- 
fessor Palmer and of Assistant Professor Cameron in 
1891 was followed, in 1892, by the appointment of Pro- 
fessor Luquiens to the chair of Romance Languages 
and Literature, to make good the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of Professor Knapp. In that same 
year, 1892, Dr. Henry R. Lang was made instructor 
in Romance languages, and has since been made 
Professor of Romance Philology. 

Between 1884, which marks the beginning of the 
optional system, and the year 1891, the only changes 
in the system worth noting were the placing of the 
study of Modern Languages in Freshman and Sopho- 
more year, and a final reorganization which confined 
both elementary French and German to the first two 
terms of the curriculum. As to advanced graduate 
work, the year 1891 was the beginning of carefully 
organized departments and a systematic development 
of graduate study and teaching. 

This is sketching only the Academic Department. 



33S YALE. 

In the Scientific School, from almost the beginning, 
a knowledge of French and German was required for 
the degree of Ph.B., and in the year i860, in the es- 
tablishment of a fixed course of studies there for the 
attainment of this degree, both languages w^ere in- 
cluded in the curriculum, of which they form an im- 
portant part at present. 

The tw^o main divisions in the scheme of study of 
Modern Languages at Yale are, first, Romance ; second, 
Germanic. The Romance is sub-divided into French 
proper, and, secondly, other Romance languages. The 
Germanic Department is subdivided into German and 
Scandinavian. 

The first department of the Romance studies is under 
Professor Luquiens. Professor Luquiens received his 
doctor's degree from Yale, and was formerly Professor 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has 
also been one of the lecturers of the Lowell Institute, 
has edited a number of text-books, and has contributed 
critical studies of French literature. His courses cover 
French literature from the earliest period to modern 
times, and include linguistic work in early and later 
French. 

The other Romance languages are under the direc- 
tion of Professor Lang, a Ph.D. of Strassburg, whose 
name is particularly associated with scientific contribu- 
tions to romance philology and folk lore. He is the 
editor of " The Song Book of King Denis of Portugal," 
and is an authority on Portuguese and Provengal. His 
courses cover Spanish and Italian, w^ith special courses 
in Dante and Petrarch, in Provencal and Low Latin, — 
a complete gradation of courses covering Romance 
philology from the earliest times. 



MODERN LANGUAGES. 



339 



Among the other graduate and undergraduate courses 
may be mentioned those of Mr. R. L. Taylor in the 
masterpieces of French Hterature, and also in Nine- 
teenth Century French Literature. The French of the 
first two years is in charge of Mr. Taylor, with whom is 
associated Mr. Holbrook, who has returned to Yale as 
tutor of Romance languages after studying three years 
in Europe, chiefly in Paris. The more elementary 
work is done by Messrs. F. O. Robbins, Yale, '96, and 
Mr. M. A. Colton, also a Yale graduate. 

Besides good library facilities, the work of this De- 
partment is supplemented by the French Club, com- 
posed of students and instructors, and the Modern 
Language Club, whose meetings and papers offer their 
peculiar stimulus to the student. 

The first division of the Germanic languages, Ger- 
man, is under Prof. A. H. Palmer, who formerly occu- 
pied a chair in Western Reserve. Professor Palmer's 
writings have been confined to text-books and articles 
on German literature. He gives courses in German 
Philology, including Old Norse, Gothic, and Old High 
German, together with comparative Germanic grammar, 
and also advanced undergraduate courses covering the 
history of German literature. 

Prof. Gustav Gruener is associated with Professor 
Palmer. He received both his bachelor's and doctor's 
degree from Yale, has edited text-books, and contri- 
buted articles on German literature. His particular 
part of the instruction covers the Middle High Ger- 
man and the Reformation periods, together with ad- 
vanced undergraduate courses in modern German 
literature. 

Professor Corwin, of the Scientific School, also offers 



340 



YALE. 



graduate instruction in German literary criticism, and 
Dr. \V. A. Adams offers courses in modern German 
literature. Mr. H. A. Fair, Yale, '96, has charge of the 
elementary work in German. The complete system 
covers the history and development of the German 
language and literature from the Gothic to the present 
time, forming a full course in German, with detailed 
study of particular periods. The method of instruction 
combines lectures and recitations. The particular value 
of the Library facilities is in the valuable texts and 
complete sets of periodicals, well supplemented by 
general literature and scientific monographs. 

German in the Scientific School is under the direc- 
tion of Assistant Prof. Robert N. Corwin, whose doc- 
tor's degree was taken at Heidelberg. He is assisted 
by Dr. Herbert D. Carrington. also a Ph.D. of Heidel- 
berg, and by Mr. F. B. Luquiens, Yale, '97, The French 
and Spanish of the School are taught by Mr. William 
Henry Bishop, the novelist, and Mr. Charles C. Clarke, 
who took up his work in 1898, after spending many 
years in Paris. Mr. O. G. Bunnell, Yale, '92, is associ- 
ated with them. The courses in the two branches are 
systematic and well arranged, designed to give a prac- 
tical knowledge of these languages for use in advanced 
work, and to give the students some philological train- 
ing. The instruction is well adapted to these ends, and 
has been very successful. The instructors are broad 
in their sympathies and in close affiliation with the 
College and University work. 

The Scandinavian division is at present in charge 
of Professor Palmer, whose courses include Old Norse 
and modern Scandinavian. As indicated earlier in this 
chapter, the plans at present writing promise early de- 



MODERN LANGUAGES. 341 

velopment of this Department, which is to be placed 
in charge of Dr. Andreen, who has been sent abroad 
to complete his preparation for the work. The plans 
cover systematic study and instruction in Old Norse 
and the modern Scandinavian, both language and lit- 
erature, together with Germanic Mythology and An- 
tiquities. For this work in Scandinavian the Yale 
Library is particularly valuable on account of its re- 
cent acquisition of the library of Count Riant, which 
is the most valuable collection of books of its kind in 
America. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

ENGLISH. 

IN 1848 (just half a century before a most aggressive 
fighter among Yale graduates made his fierce as- 
sault upon its English Department), all instruction in 
the language and literature of our mother tongue at Yale 
was given by Professor Earned. Professor Goodrich gave 
a course in Eloquence, but did not properly belong to the 
Academic Faculty. The courses of English in Fresh- 
man year consisted of " Lectures on the Structure of 
the Language, and Composition; " in Sophomore year, 
" Elocution, Declamation, and Composition ; " in Senior 
year, " Forensic Disputations." One looks in vain for 
announcements of courses in Shakespeare and the 
Drama, in Milton and his contemporaries, and in our 
Modern Poetry ; in short, for what we call to-day 
literary courses. 

On the other hand, in the field of language, Yale was 
building up a very strong reputation. Her peculiar con- 
tribution in the field of English was Noah Webster's 
American Dictionary of the English Language, com- 
piled by a graduate of the Class of 1778, which has kept 
its character as a Yale production by successive revis- 
ions by Professor Goodrich, and later by Professor Por- 
ter, while Professors Thacher, Hadley, Dana, Gilman, 
and Whitney were conspicuous contributors to it. The 
selection of Professor Whitney for the editorship of the 
Century Dictionary, and his subsequent work, added 





p 


V S. Cook, 

e English Li 
Literature. 


T 


1 g-^^ 




<l 




\ 



ENGLISH. 343 

materially to the sum of Yale's achievements in this field. 
Professor Whitney added to his influence by his English 
grammar, while Professor Hadley, in his philological 
essays, and in his history of the language in Webster's 
Dictionary, contributed his generous quota to Yale's 
work along this line. Professor Hadley's history prob- 
ably suggested to Professor Lounsbury his own work 
on the same subject, which carried the scholarly achieve- 
ments of the past into the present. 

It must be admitted that the very extent of these 
achievements in language study emphasized the one- 
time great neglect, in the Yale course, of ample instruc- 
tion in literature and belles-lettres. This neglect was 
not alone observed in Yale's curriculum, — it was char- 
acteristic of her sister colleges. It is only within the 
last decade that the reform began in good earnest at 
Yale, — a reform which has now been carried so far as to 
make it quite unnecessary that the anomalous situation 
should be continued, of American students seeking op- 
portunities to study and investigate their own tongue 
and literature in German universities. 

In conformity with the purpose of this book, to give 
a picture of the Yale of to-day, Yale's record in this De- 
partment will be traced no farther back than 1892. In 
the fall of that year the English Faculty in the Aca- 
demic Department consisted of three men, — Professor 
Beers, Professor Cook, and Professor McLaughlin. The 
two former devoted their time to the Senior and Junior 
classes, offering in all eight courses, aggregating fifteen 
hours ; while for the two lower classes there was but one 
instructor. Professor McLaughlin. Necessarily there 
could be no English in Freshman year, and in Sopho- 
more vear there was but four months' work in each sec- 



344 



YALE. 



tion of the class. It is worth while to recall this, if only 
to add, that, even under these circumstances, Professor 
McLaughlin made such an impression on the intellectual 
life of the place as has not been duplicated. Others on 
the Faculty of Yale have been far more widely known, 
but in recent times no other, of whom the writer has 
knowledge, has moved on the mind and spirit of those 
who came under him with quite the same power of 
personal inspiration. A literary atmosphere, largely 
of his own creation, was felt by the most careless. 
And he died almost at the beginning of his work as a 
teacher. 

There were three then on the English Faculty of Yale 
College. In 1898, only six years later, there were nine 
professors and instructors on the English staff of the 
Academic Department. English has been introduced 
into the Freshman curriculum, and continued through- 
out Sophomore year ; a department of Rhetoric has been 
established, and the number of Junior and Senior elec- 
tives has risen from eight to fourteen, aggregating twen- 
ty-six instead of fifteen hours. The work has been fairly 
well systematized, and various courses arranged forming 
an harmonious plan, while the English of the Graduate 
Department has been placed on a substantial basis. Of 
the Scientific School Faculty three members give instruc- 
tion in English. 

Prof. Thomas R. Lounsbury is senior professor of 
English at Yale and at the head of the English Depart- 
ment in the Scientific School. He was appointed in- 
structor in 1870. English students at Yale are generally 
eager to seek the courses of the author of " The History 
of the English Language," of the " Life of Cooper," 
and of " Studies in Chaucer." Of the latter work Prof. 



ENGLISH. 



345 



Brander Matthews has said in the " Century" that it is one 
accepted by all " as the most important contribution yet 
made by an American scholar to the great unwritten his- 
tory of English literature." As such glimpses as may 
be given of the men composing the staff of any one de- 
partment are the best evidence of what that department 
is, and as another has done this work for us, it may be 
allowable to quote still further from this same critic : 
"A Professor of English is rare who has both philo- 
logic training and aesthetic perception, as Professor 
Lounsbury has. And he has also a rarer quality, — 
the temper of the true scholar. ... In fact, whether the 
study he presents be linguistic or literary, whether it be 
spelling reform or the English language, whether it be 
the prose novels of Cooper or the poetic tales of Chau- 
cer, Professor Lounsbury handles it with the same firm 
grasp, with the same understanding and sanity, with 
the same wholesome good-humor." Professor Louns- 
bury has taken a particular interest in the Yale Library, 
and is not a little responsible for its very judicious selec- 
tion of English works. 

Prof. Henry A. Beers, the senior professor of English 
in the College, began his work at Yale as a tutor in 
English in the year 1871. When the English Depart- 
ment was under fire in the winter of 1898, one of the 
most noticeable features of the comments of Yale grad- 
uates was the unanimity of opinion expressed in regard 
to the quality of the scholarship of Professor Beers. 
The one regret concerning Professor Beers, which is 
expressed most frequently, is that he has not had more 
time for creative work. This regret is based on the 
quality of some of his short stories and sketches. 

Professor Beers offered in 1890-91 a graduate course 



346 YALE. 

on the development of the Romahtic Movement in 
Enghsh Literature which marks an epoch in the 
teaching of Enghsh Literature at Yale. It was a very- 
stimulating course, and was perhaps most highly valued 
of any graduate work for a number of years thereafter. 
" The Beginnings of the English Romantic Movement," 
published by Dr. William Lyon Phelps in 1893, which 
was a distinct contribution to English literary studies, 
was one of the first fruits of this teaching by Professor 
Beers. It made a study of a special department of the 
general field treated in Professor Beers' course. This 
book. was the thesis offered by its author as a candidate 
for the doctor's degree, after a course in the English De- 
partment of Yale under the direction of Professor Beers. 

The noteworthy characteristic of this course in the 
development of Romanticism was the application of 
the spirit of what is now called the study of Compara- 
tive Literature. It was the investigation of a special 
chapter in the story of the evolution of English Litera- 
ture, — of the evolution of tastes and standards and 
forms. It was, in short, literary history in the best 
sense. Of such a general nature is the course on the 
English Renascence, by Professor Lewis ; on fiction, 
by Professor Cross ; on lyrical poetry, by Dr. Reed. 
Dr. H. A. Smith's course on Literary Criticism, offered 
in recent years while he was connected with the De- 
partment, was another good illustration. 

Professor Beers' range of subjects of instruction is 
wide, and he frequently changes them. Of late his 
graduate courses have been in Shakespeare and the 
Modern Drama, Milton and his Contemporaries, Victor- 
ian Literature, and Theories of Metrical Translation. 

Prof. Albert S. Cook was called from the University 



ENGLISH. 347 

of California to begin his work at Yale in the fall of 1 889. 
He is a man of tireless energy, his labors having been 
particularly arduous and successful in the field of Old 
and Middle English. He translated and adapted Siever's 
" Grammar of Old English," and this and his own first 
book of Old English are standard. Probably his best 
reputation rests on his edition of the Old English 
poem, "The Judith," which is a perfect philological 
product. Professor Cook is almost exclusively occu- 
pied in the Graduate Department, and is less known to 
the undergraduates than most of the other members 
of the English staff. He has published a book on 
" Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose Writers." 
He has recently assumed the editorship of the depart- 
ment of English in the newly established Journal of 
Germanic Philology. 

Assistant Prof. William L. Phelps became an instructor 
at Yale in the fall of 1892. He is one of the younger 
members of the Faculty, having graduated from Yale in 
1887. Prof Phelps has a conspicuous talent for teach- 
ing. He is unconventional to the point of arousing con- 
siderable criticism as to methods, always attacking his 
subjects with a peculiar directness and freshness. He 
has of late withdrawn from the required work and his 
electives are in Chaucer, Seventeenth Century Litera- 
ture, American Literature, Tennyson, and Browning. 

Assistant Prof Wilbur F. Cross began work at Yale in 
1894. He has charge of the Freshman English in the 
Scientific School. His specialty has been English 
fiction, particularly in its origins, and its connection 
with foreign literature. This is his principal work in 
the Graduate Department, where his course is very 
much prized. 



348 YALE. 

Assistant Prof. Charlton M. Lewis, a graduate of the 
College in 1886, turned to the teaching of English 
after a few years in the study and practice of law. He 
came to Yale in 1895, and three years later received his 
doctor's degree and an assistant professorship. The 
choices for the college year 1898-99 made his course 
in Nineteenth Century Literature the largest English 
elective. He also offers a special course in the 
English Renascence. 

In these six years of advance, Yale further increased 
her staff by three recent graduates of the College. One 
is Dr. Edward B. Reed, who was recently given charge 
of the Freshman work. He took his doctor's degree in 
1896, and spent the following year in study in Paris and 
Munich. Another addition to the force was Dr. Frank 
H. Chase, valedictorian of the Yale Class of 1894. Dr. 
Chase's specialty has been the study of Old English syn- 
tax. In the year before coming to Yale he studied at 
the British Museum in Berlin. Upon appointment to 
the Yale staff, he was given for his work for the year 
1898-99 the English of Freshman year, and has an elec- 
tive on the History of the English language. In the 
fall of 1898, Mr. George H. Nettleton, Yale, '96, was 
made an instructor in the Scientific School. 

In the last three years Assistant Prof. Charles S. Bald- 
win has organized a Department of Rhetoric, where, it 
is unnecessary to say, the amount of work is enormous, 
and where, it is only fair to say, the results of the work 
have been very satisfactory to those who are watching 
the growth of the English Department at Yale. The 
characteristic of the teaching is the large proportion 
of time given to personal criticism of the theme. 
This work has been entirely with the Sophomore class, 



ENGLISH. 



349 



though Professor Baldwin has of late been able to offer 
an elective to the Juniors. Professor Baldwin had up to 
1898-99 one assistant, Mr. Chauncey Wetmore Wells, 
Yale, '96. A second assistant, Mr. Emerson Gifford 
Taylor, was added for the year 1898-99. Mr. Taylor 
was graduated from Yale in 1895. 

For the year 1898-99, six professors and assist- 
ant professors were scheduled for eighteen graduate 
courses in English. A very large proportion of these 
courses were offered by Professor Cook, who, having 
but one undergraduate elective, devotes practically his 
entire time to the advanced students. What Germany 
has had hitherto to offer in graduate work is pre- 
eminently Old and Middle English. In Professor 
Cook, a pupil and friend of Professor Siever, Yale has 
enlisted an authority in our early language. His work 
is supplemented by Dr. Chase, while in Chaucer there 
is Professor Lounsbury, whose name is particularly 
associated with studies of this poet. 

The special incident most encouraging in all the recent 
work in English at Yale, was the performance in 1898 of 
Beaumont and Fletcher's " Knight of the Burning Pes- 
tle." This was prepared by the students themselves, 
without the knowledge of their instructors, before whom 
it was produced as an unexpected demonstration of the 
success of their own teaching. These students had been 
making a special study of the Jacobean drama. Their 
excellent presentation of this play is said to be the first 
ever made in this country. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

YALE College, conspicuous for the training of 
young men in the old knowledge and wisdom 
of the fathers, has taken a place, both as a College and 
as a University, in the teaching and the development 
of the sciences, which is somewhat of a revelation to 
those not intimately acquainted with her work. A brief 
survey of the field will show the position of her men 
and her methods in this century of prodigious scientific 
advance. 

In 1804, Benjamin Silliman was appointed " Profes- 
sor of Chemistry and Mineralogy." Educated as a 
lawyer, it was necessary for him to go to Scotland, 
England, and France, to find instruction to fit him for 
his new professorship, and to take the few minerals 
Yale College then possessed to Dr. Seybert of Phila- 
delphia, the only American to be found who was 
versed in such subjects, for identification. For the 
first quarter century. Professor Silliman led the way 
among Americans in teaching science. 

In the year 1838, the science-teaching at Yale was 
done by three men, namely, Silliman, the Professor of 
Chemistry, Pharmacy, Mineralogy, and Geology; Olm- 
sted, the Professor of Mathematics and Natural Phil- 
osophy, and C. U. Shepard, assistant to the Professor 
of Chemistry. The Sophomores then studied survey- 
ing and Olmsted's Natural Philosophy and Mechanics; 




Late James D. Daxa 
Si/limau Professor of Geology and Mineralogy 



NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 351 

the Juniors listened to experimental lectures on Chem- 
istry, Mineralogy, Geology, and select subjects of Natu- 
ral Philosophy, and Astronomy, given by Silliman. 

In the following sixty years the force engaged in 
teaching science has grown, from two professors and 
an assistant, to twenty full professors, six assistant pro- 
fessors and directors, and forty instructors and assist- 
ants, — a force of sixty-six men, not including those 
engaged in teaching pure matliematics, or those teach- 
ing the medical applications of science in the Medical 
School. Eleven of the full professors are members of 
the National Academy of Science, and all of them have 
made, in their special departments, notable contribu- 
tions to the advancement of science. 

This group of related sciences is naturally divided 
into four departments, namely, I, Mineralogy, Geology 
and Paleontology; II, Physics; III, Chemistry; IV, 
Biology. All of these were taught by Prof. Benjamin 
Silliman alone, less than a century ago. 

Mineralogy and Geology. . 

The late Prof. James D. Dana did more than anyone 
else in America to reduce the innumerable facts of Ge- 
ology to a science, to show the system in the history 
of the American continent, and also to systematize the 
science of Mineralogy. His "Manual of Geology" 
and " System of Mineralogy " are both classics. The 
former, in its fourth edition, is still the standard ex- 
ponent of American Geology the world over. 

As the Scientific School developed, active investiga- 
tion in the field of Mineralogy was shifted to that de- 
partment, and in 1864 George J. Brush was appointed 
Professor of Mineralogy. In the next twenty years 



352 YALE. 

he described many new minerals, and co-operated with 
Professor Dana in issuing the successive supplements 
and new editions of his "System of Mineralogy." In 
1874 he published his "Manual of Determinative Min- 
eralogy." He has also accumulated a large and ex- 
ceedingly valuable collection for the special purpose 
of teaching Mineralogy. This collection is probably 
better adapted for its purposes than any other in the 
land, and is always available for purposes of investi- 
gation and instruction. His laboratory became the 
training place of many of the present experts in the 
science, including his successors, Professors E. S. Dana 
and Penfield. As Director of the Sheffield Scientific 
School, Professor Brush's services, not only to Miner- 
alogy, but to all the sciences, have been even more 
important than they could have been had he restricted 
his attention to his favorite science alone. 

Any suggestion of scientific work at Yale leads early 
to the Peabody Museum, which Darwin longed to visit, 
and of which Huxley spoke in terms which Yale's 
friends proudly repeat to visitors. The building is 
at once a source of great Yale satisfaction and great 
Yale regret. Large as it is, it is now altogether too 
small for the great collections which have been gath- 
ered. For their proper display alone, and for the 
future development of science at Yale, the University 
longs for a friend to send the message that will make 
it possible to continue at once with the plan for the 
building, in which the present structure is only one 
wing. 

Prof. O. C. Marsh is the head of the Museum, and 
University Professor of Paleontology. He has also 
been connected with the United States Geological Sur- 




I- 1 



■^ ^ 







^ 



"^ &. 



5 s 

— <» 



NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 353 

vey for many years, in charge of Vertebrate Paleon- 
tology. Professor Marsh directs the studies of advanced 
students in Vertebrate Paleontology. Great advances 
and discoveries in Paleontology of the present century 
are closely connected with his work. His discovery and 
study of the fossil fauna of our Western States is a well- 
known story. Out of more than three hundred pamphlets 
and volumes, it is difficult to select the most important, 
but to students the most striking of his works are : 
" The Discovery and Explanation of Birds with Teeth," 
in his Monograph on "The Odontornithes ; " "The 
Discovery and Description of the Gigantic Eocene 
Mammals, Dinocerata," in his volume on that group ; 
"The Discovery and Study of the Great Saurians of 
the Mesozoic Time ; " and the tracing of the successive 
genera of the horse-type from the Eohippus of the 
Eocene to the modern horse. His standing is shown 
by his repeated election to the Presidency of the Na- 
tional Academy, and by his receipt of the Cuvier prize, 
and various other similar honors. 

The Professorship of Historical Geology in the Shef- 
field Scientific School is held by Charles E. Beecher, 
who offers courses in Invertebrate Paleontology, and 
who is most closely associated with Professor Marsh 
in his work. The collections of the Peabody Museum 
furnish abundant material for illustration. Professor 
Beecher is particularly known for his works on the 
structure, development, and affinities of brachiopods 
and trilobites, investigations which were begun while 
he was connected with the New York State Museum. 
He is one of the editors of the "American Geologist." 

The Peabody Museum is stored with material for 
comparison and study in Paleontology. The Verte- 



354 YALE. 

brate fossils donated by Professor Marsh form the best 
collection in existence of these relics. The Inverte- 
brate fossil collection is large, and includes many 
type-specimens, and a large number of beautiful pre- 
parations made by Professor Beecher. In Mineralogy, 
besides the elaborate, systematic exhibition collection 
in charge of Professor Dana, there are the Brush col- 
lection and several students' collections. The Petro- 
graphical collection, in charge of Professor Pirsson, 
includes typical rocks and sections from all lands. 

The Mineralogical Department, formerly cared for 
by Professor Brush, is in the hands of Prof. Samuel L. 
Penfield, a graduate of the Scientific School in the 
Class of 1877. Yale has long enjoyed the reputation 
of being the leader among American universities 
in this special department of Mineralogy. Few repu- 
tations in science, at home or abroad, are better than 
that of the head of this Department. It rests par- 
ticularly upon his investigations in chemical mineralogy 
and crystallography and descriptions of new species. 
His accuracy and painstaking assistance to special stu- 
dents, added to the advantages of the Brush collection 
and library, and a laboratory well equipped with ap- 
paratus and appliances for studying the chemical, crys- 
tallographic, and physical properties of minerals, make 
this a favorite place for the enthusiastic student. 

Prof. E. S. Dana, though holding the chair in Physics, 
has made his peculiar reputation in the field of Miner- 
alogy, the field in which his father was pre-eminent 
fifty years before. The name of Dana is held to its 
high reputation particularly by the " New System of 
Mineralogy," written by the son. One of his best- 
known pieces of work is on the crystallographic form 







Edward S. Dana, 
Professor of Physics and Curator of 
the Mineralogical Collection. 

Hen'ry S. Williams, 
Silliman Professor of Geology. 



Samuel L. Punfield, 
Professor of Mineralogy. 

Arthur \\'. \\'right. 
Professor of E.r/'eriinental Physics. 



NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 355 

of native copper. Besides this work, Professor Dana 
has pubHshed a "Text-Book on Mineralogy" and "Min- 
erals and How to Study them," both of which are stand- 
ard works which bring the science within the grasp of 
the general student. 

Prof. Louis V. Pirsson has charge of the instruction 
in Physical Geology in the Sheffield Scientific School, 
and of the graduate courses in Petrology. He has con- 
tributed a number of important papers dealing with 
theoretical problems in Petrology, and has also done 
valuable geological work in Montana, for the United 
States Geological Survey, results of which are em- 
bodied in the following four bulletins : " Castle Moun- 
tain," " Highwood Mountain," " Bear Paw Mountain," 
and "Judith Mountain." Students in this branch are 
given active work in determining and classifying rocks 
by optical and chemical methods and in studying their 
history and origin. 

Leaving the Scientific School group, we come to the 
successor of the late James D. Dana in the Silliman 
Professorship of Geology, Henry Shaler Williams. He 
is chiefly known for his studies of the relations of 
organisms to geology. His course, Geological Biology, 
and his book with the same title, treat of fossils as 
determining geological formations and their relation to 
environment and past evolution. As a member of the 
United States Geological Survey he is known for his 
work and numerous papers on the Devonian, and on , 
the principles of correlation in stratigraphical geology. 
His high standing, on the other side, is indicated by 
his position as American member of the International 
Geological Congress. An outgrowth of his paleonto- 
logical and zoological studies is the course on the 



356 YALE. 

Philosophy of Life and Organisms, in which life is dis- 
cussed in relation to other natural forces, and evolution 
is reduced to a systematic science. His laboratory, 
with its select collection of fossils, and his rich working 
library on Paleontology, are open to students. 

PJiysics. 

In the domain of physics Yale has, in the Academic 
Department, the Sloane Laboratory, with equipment 
very thoroughly organized for methods of experimen- 
tation and original investigation in modern physics. It 
is under the charge of Prof Arthur W. Wright, of the 
Chair of Experimental Physics, whose investigations 
have been particularly in the fields of electricity and 
light. He has been making particular study for a 
number of years of the phenomena of electric dis- 
charge, shadow effects, and chemical changes accom- 
panying it, and was the first man on this side of the 
water to confirm the discovery of the Roentgen rays. 
His studies on the volatilization of metals in exhausted 
tubes, and the application of the method to the for- 
mation of metal-covered glass specula, have been of 
importance in the formation of electrodes in the vacuum 
tubes employed in X-ray work. Professor Wright is 
assisted by several instructors. 

Prof Charles S. Hastings, who holds the chair of 
Physics in the Scientific School, has associated his 
name with improvements in the telescope, result- 
ing from his researches in the field of optics. His 
study of the solar spectrum and sun spots, and the dis- 
covery that chemical compounds exist in the sun, are 
some of the more important theoretical results of his 
labors. His investigations of the laws of double re- 



NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 357 

fraction in Iceland spar, and the principles of refraction 
of light in general, have been of the highest practical 
value in the determination of causes of imperfection of 
sharpness of detail in images, and spherical and chro- 
matic aberration, and for calculating the forms of sur- 
face, and determining the chemical composition of the 
materials necessary for the production of the most per- 
fect astronomical (and also microscopical) objectives. 
Professor Hastings' laboratory covers one floor of the 
spacious Winchester Hall, and is admirably equipped 
for general physical work and study, more especially 
in its technical applications. 

In this Department, Assistant Prof Frederick E. 
Beach is occupied mainly with the work of instruction, 
having charge of the Scientific Freshman class. 

Prof J. Willard Gibbs occupies the chair of Mathe- 
matical Physics. Professor Gibbs' theoretical work, 
though performed purely from the mathematical stand- 
point, forms to a very great extent the basis of the 
science of Physical Chemistry as it is known to-day. 
His most important published works are those on the 
"Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances," "Ther- 
modynamics," and " Graphic Methods." Professor 
Gibbs' work is entirely in the post-graduate depart- 
ment, where he offers extended courses. 

Chemistry. 

The four-storied brick Sheffield Chemical Labora- 
tory is the newest and most modern building devoted 
to chemistry in the University, and is considered a 
peculiarly well-appointed laboratory, with means for 
a very excellent quality of work. This building sug- 
gests the group of men in the Scientific School who 
are in this special branch of science. 



358 YALE. 

Before enumerating the active corps, one naturally 
turns to the Emeritus Professor of Agricultural Chem- 
istry, who has been connected with the School from its 
earliest day, and who has been an exceptionally active 
investigator. Prof. Samuel W. Johnson has been a 
prolific writer. His two standard works — " How Crops 
Grow" (published in 1868), and "How Crops Feed" 
(published in 1870), have been translated into German, 
French, Russian, Swedish, Italian, and Japanese. Pro- 
fessor Johnson was influential in organizing the first 
Agricultural Experiment Station, that of Connecticut, 
and has been very influential in the general establish- 
ment of these stations throughout the country. 

Among the present generation of Sheff students. 
Professor Mixter is perhaps more generally thought of 
in connection with the government of the student body. 
His peculiar success in this direction has naturally drawn 
him a great deal from his particular work, but has by 
no means made him inactive in this branch. He has 
written not a little, especially in organic chemistry, in 
which his work on amido-bodies is perhaps the best 
known, and is the author of a " Text-Book on Ele- 
mentary Chemistry." 

Horace L. Wells, Professor of Analytical Chemistry 
and Metallurgy, is known particularly for his extended 
investigations on double salts, and for his work on the 
perhalides of the alkali metals. His researches along 
these lines have materially widened the knowledge of 
the compounds formed by the very rare elements, 
caesium and rubidium. His writings are very frequent 
on subjects in Mineralogical and Analytical Chemistry. 
At the head of the latter Department at Yale, he offers 
courses for research and advanced study in this and 
allied branches. 




Louis V. Pirsson, 
Professor of Physical Geology. 

Horace L. Wells, 

Professor of Atialylical Chetnistry 
atid Metallurgy. 



Charles E. Beecher, 
Professor of Historical Geology, 

Frank A. Gooch, 
Professor of Chemistry. 



NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 359 

The presence of :; considerable corps of instructors 
and assistants make it possible to widen the scope of 
the laboratory's work. Among these are several who 
offer advanced courses and opportunities for research 
in their respective specialties. William J. Comstock 
and Dr. H. L. Wheeler are in charge of the organic 
work. Dr. Wheeler has specialized on tautomerism, in 
which field his work is particularly well known. Dr. 
James Locke conducts the work of students engaged 
in general preparative inorganic chemistry. The 
laboratory also has a room especially equipped for 
research in physical chemistry, in charge of Dr. B. B. 
Boltwood. A considerable number of scientific articles 
are published from the laboratory annually. Its officers 
have also issued an extended list of text-books, among 
which, in addition to those already named, are Pro- 
fessor Wells' "Qualitative Analysis," and re-edition of 
" Fresenius," with translations of Classen's " Electro- 
chemistry," and Menschutkin's " Analytical Chemistry," 
by Doctors Boltwood and Locke respectively. 

The chemistry of the Academic Department is housed 
in the Kent Laboratory, a large three-story brown stone 
building, the gift of Albert E. Kent of San Rafael, Cal. 
At its head is Prof. F. A. Gooch, who is aided by As- 
sistant Prof. Philip E. Browning, and four assistants. 
Professor Gooch is an analyst whose contributions have 
been principally to the practical side of quantitative 
chemistry, both in apparatus and methods. The intro- 
duction of the Gooch crucible has materially modified 
quantitative chemistry. About seventy-five papers have 
been published from the laboratory since its opening 
in 1888, relating chiefly to analytical and inorganic 
chemistry. Many of the recent iodine methods of Pro- 



36o YALE. 

fessor Gooch are included in this series, as well as the 
adaptation by Professor Browning of his amyl-alcohol 
method to the separation of the alkaline earth metals. 

It is impossible to close the subject of chemistry at 
Yale without referring for the second time in this chapter 
on Science to Professor Gibbs, simply as the author 
of the Gibbs-Phase-Rule. This rule is of such im- 
portance in Chemistry, that in several universities entire 
courses of lectures are devoted to it alone. The stu- 
dent at Yale may therefore feel that he has a particular 
advantage in this branch of the science, in being able 
to hear the rule explained and treated in all its bearings 
by its enunciator himself. 

As in nearly every department of study at Yale the 
work in chemistry is aided by a departmental club. The 
Chemical Club is composed of instructors, graduate 
students, and others interested in this science. It holds 
fortnightly meetings for the discussion of papers and 
reviews of recent work. 

Biology and Physiology. 

Russell H. Chittenden is the Professor of Physiologi- 
cal Chemistry, but his name and particular work are 
not entered under that head because his chief activities 
and successes are in the direction of Physiology. He 
is the recognized head of his science in America. 
While yet a student, he made the discovery that 
glycocoll was a constituent of animal tissues, and since 
that time has been very actively engaged in the investi- 
gation of physiological chemical problems, such as the 
primary cleavage products of proteids, the influence 
of various substances — drugs, poisons, alcohol, and the 
like — on digestion and metabolism, and the distribu- 




Professor Russell H. Chittenden 
Director of the Sheffield Scioitific School 



NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 361 

tion of poisons in the body and their ehmination from 
the system. His most important work was the investi- 
gation of the chemistry of the digestive processes, 
summed up in his book entitled " Digestive Proteolysis," 
published in 1894. From these investigations much of 
our knowledge upon this subject has been derived. 
" Studies," published from 1885 to 1889, presents in 
printed form much of the work of the laboratory during 
those years. Professor Chittenden is President of the 
American Physiological Society, and has just been made 
Director of the Department of Physiological Chemistry 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia 
University. With Professor Gooch he represents the 
chemists of the University in the National Academy of 
Sciences. Professor Chittenden is seconded in his 
experiments by Assistant Prof Lafayette B. Mendel, 
whose best work is on the physiology of lymph forma- 
tions. The laboratory possesses unusual facilities for 
research work, as is shown by its many publications; 
and the excellence of the undergraduate courses is 
attested by the high rank which its graduates attain in 
the medical profession. 

Instruction in General Biology, Comparative Ana- 
tomy and Embryology, both for undergraduate and 
advanced students, is under the personal direction of 
Professor Sidney I. Smith and Dr. W. R. Coe. Pro- 
fessor Smith has held the position of professor of Com- 
parative Anatomy since 1875. He is the author of 
numerous works describing the Crustacea of America, 
including the embryology of certain species. 

In Zoology, the student at Yale has access to the 
large collection in the Pcabody Museum. Professor 
Addison E, Verrill has filled the chair of Zoology since 



362 YALE. 

1 864, and his connection for many years with the United 
States Fish Commission has enabled him to describe 
a great number of marine invertebrates, collected under 
his direction. His published articles, notices, and works, 
exceeding two hundred in number, deal with nearly 
every class of invertebrate animals. Among the most 
important of these articles are those treating of the 
echinoderms and corals of the west coast of America 
and the invertebrates of the West Indies and the 
Atlantic coast of North America. His own private col- 
lection, containing type-specimens of many North 
American invertebrates, is also deposited in the Pea- 
body Museum. The extent of Professor Verrill's in- 
vestigations have not allowed him to be drawn too 
deeply into specialized work to the neglect of syste- 
matic zoology and morphology. 

Agriculture. 

Yale's work in the application of science to agricul- 
ture has been, since 1864, in charge of Prof. William 
H. Brewer, who has in this time been the Professor of 
Agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School. His life 
has been one of ceaseless activity, and his work has 
carried him into public positions of many kinds in the 
City, the State, and the Nation. His writings, generally 
in the form of reports or contributions to scientific 
journals, are very numerous, and cover the widest range 
of subjects. He wrote the " Botany of California," 
a standard work, which is as much the basis of similar 
study in that part of the country as is Gray's Botany 
here. He has specialized on the laws of heredity 
until he has become an authority on the vastly im- 
portant questions of stock breeding. He has sketched 




Sidney I. Smith, 
Professor of Comparatwe Aiuitoiny, 

William H. Brewer, 
Norton Professor of Agriculture. 



Addison E. Verrill, 

Professor of Zoolog-y and Curator of 

the Zoological Collection. 

William G. Mixter, 

Professor of Chemistry. 



NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 363 

the " First Century of the Republic's Agricultural 
Progress," and has contributed v^aluable geological 
papers to the " American Journal of Science." He 
has lectured on all kinds of practical agricultural topics, 
and is a recognized authority on many of the problems 
of forestry. Within recent years he has entirely re- 
written a Physical Geography. And so the list might 
be indefinitely extended. His power of acquisition 
and his energy seem limitless. 

But the story of his work for Science would be 
hardly half told if it did not include his successful 
labors in the upbuilding of the Sheffield Scientific 
School. Since his connection with it he has been 
indefatigable and indispensable, co-operating with Pro- 
fessor Brush in every good work. His energy and 
store of knowledge of men and things have been con- 
stantly at the service of the School. Professor Brewer 
is a member of the National Academy. 

Department of Botany. 

In the Department of Botany, which is in charge of 
Dr. A. W. Evans, access is possible to the herbarium 
of the late Daniel C. Eaton, who was the first Professor 
of Botany at Yale, and held the position from 1864 
until his death in 1895. It comprises over sixty thou- 
sand sheets, mostly different species, and is particularly 
rich in the flora of North America, and in the mosses 
and ferns. Of the latter this collection is most com- 
plete. It was in this field that Professor Eaton held 
particular authority. 



364 YALE. 

The Journal of Science. 

For eighty years the American Journal of Science has 
been edited and pubhshed by men of the Yale Faculty. 
Professor Benjamin Silliman established this paper in 
18 18, when the many branches of physical and natural 
science, now recognized, had, with the single exception 
of astronomy, hardly gained a footing in this country. 
It was not the least of Professor Silliman's large work 
for science and for Yale, that he foimded, and through 
many discouragements, maintained and developed to 
the highest point of reputation throughout the scientific 
world, the " American Journal of Science." For twenty 
years Professor Silliman carried on both the editorial 
labors and the business part of the work. In 1838, his 
son, Benjamin Silliman, Junior, later Professor of 
Chemistry at Yale, was associated with him. With the 
beginning of the second series, James D. Dana, his son- 
in-law, soon to be made Professor of Geology and 
Mineralogy, became one of the editors-in-chief. After 
a period the editorial labors devolved almost entirely 
on Professor Dana, and later, these duties were assumed 
by his son, Edward S. Dana, whose name appears among 
the editors-in-chief in 1875. The latter has conducted 
the paper to the present date. With the vast develop- 
ment of the field of scientific research and the increas- 
ing specialization by scientific workers, journals devoted 
exclusively to single branches of scientific work have 
arisen, sharing the field which this journal held so long 
alone. Its standard and its good name, have, however, 
been upheld, and it is to-day an excellent index of the 
scientific spirit of Yale. In the list of its associate 
editors are found such names as Dr. Wolcott Gibbs, 



NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 365 

Dr. Asa Gray, Professor Louis Agassiz, and many of 
the best known investigators of the present day. The 
Journal has thus had cordial support among the workers 
elsewhere, and especially at Harvard University. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

MATHEMATICS, ENGINEERING, AND ASTRONOMY. 
Mathematics. 

A STEADY growth from the first and a very rapid 
development hi the last ten years are the features 
of the history of the Department of Mathematics at 
Yale. 

In the old days a single professor taught both Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy, but in 1836, by the 
election of Professor Stanley, Mathematics had a chair 
of its own. When Professor Stanley died in 1853, Pro- 
fessor Newton, although only twenty-five years of age, 
was appointed to fill the vacancy. For more than forty 
years, that is, till his death in 1896, the Department was 
under Professor Newton's vigorous and progressive 
administration. During this time the Department in- 
creased from one professor and two tutors to a staff, in 
the Academic Department, of five professors and four 
instructors, and in the Sheffield Scientific School of 
two professors and four instructors, — a total of seven 
professors and eight instructors. In the Academic 
Department are Professors Gibbs, Richards, Beebe, 
Phillips, and Pierpont, and the instructors are Messrs. 
Strong, Westlund, Hawkes, and Sellew. In the Sheffield 
Scientific School are Professors Clark and Smith, and 
the instructors are Messrs. Starkweather, Lockwood, 
Marshall, and Granville. 



MATHEMATICS. 367 

The instruction in the undergraduate department may 
be considered first. In looking over the course of study 
followed half a century or more ago, one is surprised at 
first sight to observe how small the change is when 
compared with that which has taken place in the De- 
partment of Natural Sciences. In 1836, the year of 
Professor Stanley's appointment to the chair of Mathe- 
matics, the Freshmen studied Day's Algebra and Play- 
fair's Euclid. In the Sophomore year Euclid was 
finished and Solid Geometry, Plane and Spherical 
Trigonometry, Logarithms, Mensuration, Conic Sec- 
tions, Surveying, and Navigation were taken up. In 
the Junior year Astronomy was required, and Fluxions 
(the Calculus) was offered as an optional. 

These studies are largely what are given to-day. The 
reason why so little change has been necessary is to be 
found in the fact that Mathematics is not only one of 
the oldest sciences, but also the most exact. Geometry 
received from the Greeks a form so perfect that later 
generations can add but little. The Elements of Euclid 
and the Conies of Apollonius of Perga still enjoy the 
admiration they excited twenty centuries ago. And this 
is true, though to a less degree, of the other branches 
of Mathematics, — Algebra, Trigonometry, Analytical 
Geometry, and the Calculus, the youngest of which was 
venerable before many of the sciences which crowd our 
college curriculum of to-day were born. 

But, even under these circumstances, changes have 
been taking place in undergraduate instruction in Mathe- 
matics. Perhaps the most radical has been the intro- 
duction of the Calculus into the Sophomore year. To 
effect this, the courses of study in this year were divided 
into two parts. The first is the traditional course in 



368 YALE. 

Mensuration, Surveying, and Navigation, under the 
charge of Professors Richards and Beebe. The second, 
under Professor PhilHps, embraces Graphic Algebra, 
Analytical Geometry, and the Calculus. The advantages 
derived from this radical change are obvious. Students 
who wish to make an extended study of Mathematics or 
Physics and Astronomy, will reach the Junior and Senior 
years prepared for much more advanced work than 
hitherto. For these students advanced courses are now 
offered in Algebra and Analytical Geometry, Higher 
Analysis and Higher Geometry, the last two being really 
graduate courses. In addition a course of much more 
advanced character than ever before is given in the 
Differential and Integral Calculus. 

The instruction in Mathematics in the Graduate 
School is as radical and as extensive as in any of the 
other departments. In the first announcement in 1847 
of the courses in the newly founded Graduate School, 
or, as it was then called, the Department of Philosophy 
and the Arts, the only course in Mathematics was one 
offered by Professor Stanley on the Calculus and Ana- 
lytical Mechanics. On Professor Stanley's death. Pro- 
fessor Newton offered for a number of years " such 
branches of higher mathematics " as might be " agreed 
upon with the student." In i860 the lectures were 
divided into three sections, of which Mathematics and 
Physics formed one. Professor Newton had charge of 
the Mathematics, and his courses were announced briefly 
as " Pure and Mixed Mathematics." Professor Loomis 
had charge of Astronomy. 

The year 1871 is memorable in the annals of this 
Department, as it marks the entrance of Professor Gibbs 
into the school as Professor of Mathematical Physics. 






Andrew W. Phillii's, 

Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the 
Graduate School. 

William Beebe, 

I'rofessor of Mathematics and Instructor 

in Astronomy. 



J. WlLLAlU) GiBKS, 
Professor of J/athonatical physics. 

John E. Clark, 

James E. English Professor of 

Mathematics. 



MATHEMATICS. 369 

He offered the Theory of Wave Motion, Capillarity, and 
the Potential Function. The number of courses offered 
by him soon grew, and they now form a stately series 
of lectures covering nearly the whole range of Mathe- 
matical Physics, an object of just pride to all the friends 
of Yale. 

In the same year Professor Newton offered the Cal- 
culus, Statics, Dynamics of a Particle, Lunar and 
Planetary Theories, and Higher Geometry, These re- 
mained, with an occasional change to courses on shoot- 
ing stars and meteors, and the Calculus of Probabilities, 
the subjects he taught till his death. In 1873 the De- 
partment received the addition of Professor Clark's in- 
struction, who began to lecture regularly on Definite 
Integrals, Differential Equations, Determinants, Ana- 
lytical Mechanics, Numerical Approximations, and Least 
Squares. 

Since then the Department has been steadily growing. 
In 1884 Professors Beebe and Phillips began to give 
graduate instruction, the former turning his attention to 
Geodesy and Practical Astronomy, while the latter 
devoted himself to Geometry, Curve Tracing, and Map 
Projection. Professor Phillips inaugurated a movement 
at Yale which has been so successfully carried out in 
Germany. It has been his constant effort, by the con- 
struction of geometrical models and machines, to ren- 
der graphic and geometrically intuitive many results of 
advanced geometry and the theory of equations. The 
collection of mathematical models and machines has 
gradually grown under his ceaseless activity to be one 
of the largest in the country. 

Some details may give a more exact notion of the 
field covered by the Department in the last few years 

-4 



370 YALE. 

(1896-98). Professor Gibbs, besides his lectures in 
Mathematical Physics already alluded to, gives courses 
in Vector Analysis, with its application to Geometry, 
Astronomy, and kindred subjects, and an advanced 
course in Multiple Algebra, which embodies for the 
most part his own investigations in this direction. It is 
deeply to be regretted that this author, who is so 
widely and favorably known abroad for his epoch- 
making researches in Thermodynamics, does not pub- 
lish an account of his ideas and methods in Multiple 
Algebra. 

Professor Clark lectures at present on Determinants, 
Theory of Equations, and Differential Equations ; Pro- 
fessor Phillips on Advanced Calculus; Professor Barney 
on Geodesy and Practical Astronomy, and Professor 
Beebe on Comparison of Orbits and Practical Astron- 
omy and Surveying. 

Professor Pierpont devotes himself to the analytical 
side of pure Mathematics, and has given courses on 
Introduction to Higher Analysis, Substitution Theory, 
Galois' Theory of Algebraic Equations, Functional 
Theory of Real and Complex Variables, Elliptic Func- 
tions, Linear Differential Equations, Modular Func- 
tions, Theory of Continuous Groups, and Theory of 
Numbers. Finally, Professor Smith, representing Mod- 
ern Geometry, has given, since his return from Europe 
in 1896, Differential Geometry, Modern Geometry of 
the Plane and of Space, Algebraic Curves and Surfaces, 
and the Theory of Transformations of Space. In this 
latter course the theory of Lie's continuous groups play 
a dominant role. 

With this influx of new and thoroughly modern 
courses, a change in the method of teaching has been 



MATHEMATICS. 37 1 

made. Instruction, which in the older days was often 
hmited to directing the reading of the students and 
explaining difficult passages, is now given entirely by 
formal lectures. The seminary method, which is so 
efficacious abroad in training young men to be inde- 
pendent thinkers and investigators, has replaced the 
old custom of solving ingeniously devised problems of 
more or less trivial nature, which we inherited from 
England, and which the Mathematical Tripos still un- 
fortunately fosters there. 

In close connection with the seminary is the Mathe- 
matical Club, founded in 1877 by Professor Gibbs. 
This is one of the prominent features of mathematical 
life at Yale, The fortnightly meetings, held in the 
Sloane Laboratory, are largely attended, and the number 
of papers to be presented exceeds the limits of the 
time. Two series of papers were, among others of mis- 
cellaneous character, on the program for the fall of 
1898: one on the relation between our intuitional and 
analytical notions of a curve, the other on hypercom- 
plex numbers, of which the well-known quaternions are 
a type. 

An important factor in the education of students 
of mathematics at Yale is found in the recently 
equipped seminary library rooms. Two pleasant and 
conveniently situated rooms have been set apart for 
this purpose, and friends of the Department, by dona- 
tions of money and books, have provided a well- 
equipped and thoroughly modern departmental library. 
There are separate drawers and shelves for the books 
and papers of the students. These rooms are forming 
a central place of meeting for students in the Depart- 
ment, and everything is done to this end, in the belief 



372 YALE. 

that the daily intercourse of students among themselves 
has an educational value of great importance. 

Yale has always stood for an educational force; its 
professors have not only done their part to advance 
science by original contributions, but they have in an 
unusual degree helped to make science accessible by 
writing excellent text-books. This has been particularly 
true in Mathematics. At the commencement of the 
century Yale had taken a prominent position in this 
respect. The mathematical series of Professor Day, 
afterwards President of the College, had a widespread 
popularity. The series prepared by Professor Loomis 
numbered fifteen volumes, and embraced, not only pure 
mathematics, but its application to surveying, naviga- 
tion, and astronomy, as well as a treatise on the allied 
subjects of natural philosophy and meteorology. The 
records show that over one million copies of these 
books have been sold. This fact makes comment on 
their value superfluous. The tradition so early estab- 
lished is being continued. A short time ago, at the 
request of Messrs. Harper and Brothers, Professor 
Phillips undertook to prepare a new series of text- 
books on Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Analytical 
Geometry, and the Calculus, which are to be fully 
abreast of the best methods and advances in the 
science. A characteristic feature is the admirable 
photogravures of the figures of Solid Geometry, made 
from models in this subject belonging to the Yale col- 
lection. The constant efforts of Professor Phillips, 
already referred to, to derive all possible benefit from 
our geometrical intuition by the help of models, is thus 
bearing fruit in a new and broader field. 



ENGINEERING. 373 

Engineering. 

The history and character of the Engineering Depart- 
ment of Yale is consistent with the general history and 
character of the Scientific School, of which it is an im- 
portant part. This means that this Department of 
instruction was established and developed, and is to- 
day maintained, by strong men, who have, from the 
first, held their standards high and formed their in- 
struction on the principle of teaching a profession. 

Norton, Lyman, Trowbridge, DuBois, Hastings, and 
Richards — these are the names of the men who have 
made the Department. The first three are gone. In 
1883 the death of Prof. William Augustus Norton 
closed a service in the chair of Civil Engineering of 
more than forty years, and ended a well-rounded life 
of seventy-three years. Professor Norton's energies 
and abilities were lived into the School ; in its making 
he played a large part. His sweetness and strength of 
character were lived into the life of the place — into 
the characters of hundreds who came and went at 
Yale. 

The next name, that of Prof. Chester S. Lyman, is 
the name of another who lived for the School, and who 
also gave to it forty years of the most loyal service. It 
was in 1859 that he was appointed professor of Indus- 
trial Mechanics and Physics. His was another case 
where the personal element was a most important part 
of the instruction for those in his courses, and his 
memory in the School answers in many points to that 
of Professor Thacher in the Academic Department. 
The increase of the School made it necessary to relieve 
him of some of his duties, and in 1872 the title of his 



374 YALE. 

chair was changed to Astronomy and Physics. Until 
1884 Professor Lyman controlled these two Depart- 
ments, but in that year retired from the professorship 
of Physics on account of his impaired health, a new 
chair having just been created for that Department. 

Captain William P. Trowbridge was called to Yale in 
1870. He graduated at West Point at the head of his 
class, and for a number of years was in charge of an 
important section of the United States Coast Survey. 
When called to Yale, he was Vice-President and 
Manager of the Novelty Iron Works, then one of the 
three great engineering works of the country. He 
served in Yale until 1877, when he resigned to accept a 
professorship at Columbia. At Yale he was the first 
professor of Dynamical (afterwards known as Mechani- 
cal) Engineering. After leaving Yale he served, until 
his death in 1892, at the head of the Engineering De- 
partment of the School of Mines at Columbia. Pro- 
fessor Trowbridge is said to have been the first en- 
gineer to suggest the idea of the cantilever bridge. 

Of the men now in the service of the School, Prof. 
A. Jay DuBois came to Yale in 1877 to fill the vacancy 
in the Department of Dynamical Engineering, left 
vacant by Professor Trowbridge's withdrawal. Pro- 
fessor DuBois served in this Department until 1884, 
when he was transferred to the chair of Civil Engineer- 
ing, which had been left vacant by the death, a year 
before, of Professor Norton. The chair of Mechanical 
Engineering was filled at that time by the appointment 
of Charles B. Richards. 

Professor DuBois is a graduate of the Scientific 
School in the Class of '69. He took the degree of 
Civil Engineering in 1870 and the degree of Ph. D. in 




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ENGINEERING. 375 

1873. He studied mining at Freiburg in Saxony, and 
from 1875 to 1877 was professor of Civil and Mechani- 
cal Engineering at Lehigh. His work, entitled " Stresses 
in Framed Structures," is an almost universal authority 
for engineers and builders. He has also published 
an extensive work on " Theoretical Mechanics." The 
many translations, made by Professor DuBois, of for- 
eign works on engineering subjects have furnished 
text-books which are used in nearly all engineering 
schools. 

The Civil Engineering Department includes at the 
present time about sixty students. To the staff in this 
Department was added, in 1895, Assistant Professor 
Barney, who was graduated from the School in '79 and 
received the Civil Engineering degree in 1885, and who 
has had much outside experience in western railroads. 
John C. Tracy, a graduate of the School of '90, who 
received his civil engineering degree in 1892, is also 
an instructor in this Department. 

The head of the Department of Mechanical Engineer- 
ing, Prof Charles B. Richards, was elected at the 
February meeting of the Corporation in 1884. The 
School, in making this selection, filled the chair with 
one who had demonstrated his mastery of principle and 
practice in the conduct of large industrial undertakings. 
Mr. Richards was connected for more than thirty years 
with some of the largest engineering works of the 
country. For ten years he was superintending engineer 
of the Colt Works at Hartford; and from 1880 until 
the time of his call to Yale, he occupied the same 
position in the Southwark Foundry and Machine Com- 
pany of Philadelphia. He had served also as consult- 
ing engineer in the construction of a number of public 



376 YALE. 

buildings, devoting himself particularly to the problems 
of warming and ventilation. In i860 he made a 
very notable improvement in the steam engine in- 
dicator. His invention made possible further investiga- 
tions, greatly stimulating the study of the steam engine 
and initiating a series of rapid developments in its 
efficiency. 

Professor Richards served as one of the United States 
Commissioners at the last Paris Exposition. He is 
one of the revisers of the Webster's Dictionary, and has 
published sundry reports and monographs. 

At the present time, four instructors, all graduates of 
the Scientific School, assist Professor Richards. They 
are William Wallace Nichols, M. E., Edwin H. Lock- 
wood, M. E., George P. Starkweather, M. E., Ph.D., 
and William C Marshall, M. E. Mr. Starkweather is 
principally occupied with the Mathematics of the De- 
partment. Mr. Nichols has had seven or eight years 
of practical experience, and Messrs. Lockwood and 
Marshall have both also had experience outside. 

The Department of Electrical Engineering is under 
Prof. Charles S. Hastings, a graduate of the Scien- 
tific School in 1870. He received his doctor's degree 
from Yale in 1873, went abroad for study in Germany 
and France, and returned in 1875 to accept a position 
of Associate in Physics in Johns Hopkins University, 
where he was made Associate Professor of Physics in 
1882. He came to Yale in 1884. Something further 
of Professor Hastings' record has been given in the 
chapter on Natural Science. He is assisted in the 
Electrical Engineering work by Dr. Henry A. Bum- 
stead, who graduated at Johns Hopkins in 1891 and 
received the doctor's degree from Yale in 1897. 



ENGINEERING. 377 

As has already been implied, the system of instruc- 
tion in the Engineering Department has been developed 
on the plan of thoroughly grounding the student in the 
sciences on which engineering as a profession is based. 
This plan opposes any undue expansion towards in- 
struction in the practice of the various handicrafts 
with which the engineer is brought into contact after 
entering upon his professional work. 

This does not mean that the instruction is in pure 
theory, without that knowledge of the practical side 
which makes the mastery of principle of value. The 
civil engineering student is very carefully taught the 
'use of the instruments in field work and road location, 
and in the designing of structures. In the Mechanical 
Engineering and the Electrical Engineering Depart- 
ments very careful attention is given to machine drawing 
and design, and to practice in experimental processes 
and investigations, through the use of machinery and 
arpparatus in the engineering laboratories. In these 
respects the courses have been greatly improved and 
largely developed in late years. The generous gift of 
the late Mrs. Winchester made a peculiarly valuable 
addition to the laboratory facilities, Winchester Hall 
containing an instructive collection of machines and 
apparatus. 

The libraries of the Engineering Department are lib- 
erally supplied with cur-ent periodicals, and with many 
series of bound volumes of great value. Resides this, 
the Engineers' Club of the School, which is an active or- 
ganization, gives an opportunity to both graduate and 
undergraduate students of listening to lectures on techni- 
cal subjects by professional experts from different parts of 
the country, who represent a great variety of industries. 



378 YALE. 

The relative numerical importance of the Engineering 
Department may be estimated from the fact that the 
courses contain only a little less than one half of all the 
students in the Junior and Senior classes of the Scien- 
tific School. 

Astronomy. 

In Astronomy at Yale, emphasis has been laid on 
investigation and practical work. The teaching of it, 
however, has not by any means been neglected. As far 
back as i825,Denison Olmsted, later professor of Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy, taught Astronomy. At 
the time of the great meteoric shower of 1833, Pro- 
fessor Olmsted of Yale and Professor Twining, a Yale 
alumnus, were the first to recognize the significance of 
the radiant point as showing meteors to be not terres- 
trial or atmospheric, but truly cosmical bodies, travel- 
ling in swarms about the sun. This suggested what 
has since been confirmed, namely, the close connection 
between comets and meteors. Later, Professor Her- 
rick of Yale was the first to notice the disintegration of 
Biela's Comet in 1846, a discovery which went a long 
way toward confirming the theory of Olmsted and 
Twining. 

Then Prof. H. A. Newton took up the subject in 
i860. His investigations led to the discovery of the 
thirty-three year period for star showers, radiating like 
the shower of 1833 from the constellation Leo. He pre- 
dicted that there would be another display in 1866 or 
1867, a prediction which was grandly realized. Professor 
Newton's contributions to the study of comets and 
meteors, particularly the latter, formed an epoch in 
the history of the advance of astronomical science. 




The Late Hubert A. Newton 
Professor of Mathematics 



ASTRONOMY. 



379 



In 1874, Professor Lyman of Yale added another valu- 
able contribution to the science by discovering the 
luminous ring encircling the planet Venus at the time 
of a transit. 

In 1858, Mrs. Cornelia L. Hillhouse gave Yale a tract 
of land on Prospect Hill for an astronomical observatory. 
In 1870, Oliver F. Winchester deeded to the College 
twenty acres of land adjoining this as an endowment 
for the Observatory. The present building was erected 
in 1882, largely through the energy of Professor Newton, 
who was made the first director, and who served as act- 
ing director until a short time before his death, which 
occurred in 1896. One of Professor Newton's last acts 
for the Observatory was to procure the appointment, 
as Director, in 1896, of Dr. Elkin, the Astronomer of 
the Observatory. Mr. Robert F. Brown, Yale, '57, has 
held the position of secretary since the erection of the 
present building in 1882. 

It was the Yale idea at the outset, and a character- 
istic one, to provide herself with an equipment which 
would enable her to do better work along certain lines 
than could be done elsewhere in America. Accordingly 
there was ordered of the Repsolds of Hamburg a new 
heliometer, which should be the finest and most im- 
proved instrument of its kind that had up to that time 
been produced. 

Two years later, that is, in 1884, Dr. W. L. Elkin, who 
received his doctorate at Strassburg in 1880, was called 
from the Royal Observatory of the Cape of Good Hope 
to the Yale Observatory. Under his able direction the 
Observatory has performed some of the most refined 
work in parallax and proper motion that has yet been 
executed. The larger problems, that have been com- 



38o YALE. 

pleted and are now in print in the volumes of Transac- 
tions of Yale University Observatory, include the fol- 
lowing: A Triangulation of the Principal Stars in the 
Group of the Pleiades, by Dr. W. L. Elkin; the Orbit 
of Titan and Mass of Saturn, by Dr. Asaph Hall, Jr., 
formerly assistant astronomer of Yale ; A Triangulation 
of the Principal Stars about the North Pole, by Dr. 
Elkin; the Orbit of Mitchell's Comet, by Dr. Margaretta 
Palmer, the paper being her thesis for a doctor's degree, 
one of the first to be given to a woman by Yale ; A Trian- 
gulation of the Principal Stars in the Coma Berenices 
Cluster, by Dr. F. L. Chase. Dr. Chase graduated at 
the University of Colorado in 1886, received the doctor's 
degree at Yale in 1891, and has been connected with 
the Observatory since 1890. A considerable number 
of short papers have been published from the Observa- 
tory in the Astronomical Journals. Dr. Elkin has also 
completed, from a very extended series of observations, 
a determination of the parallax of the ten first-magnitude 
stars in the northern celestial hemisphere. The work 
is largely through the press. 

The Observatory took an important part in the recent 
elaborate determination of the solar parallax, from ob- 
servations of three of the minor planets. The work on 
this was in co-operation with the Royal Observatory 
at the Cape of Good Hope and with several of the 
foremost German observatories. Since 1892, both Dr. 
Elkin and Dr. Chase have been engaged upon an 
investigation of the parallaxes of a number of stars 
which have the largest proper motions, with the hope 
of finding among them some comparatively near 
neighbors of the solar system. Dr. Elkin has ob- 
served thirteen of these stars and Dr. Chase eighty- 




Yale Observatory. 




William L. Elkix, 
Director of the Observatory. 



Fredektck I.. Chase. 
A ssisiant A stronomer. 



ASTRONOMY. 381 

five of them. Over four thousand observations have 
been made, and the work of observation and discussion 
is well under way. 

In addition to investigations with the heliometer, the 
Observatory has been the first to take ujd systematically 
the photography of meteors. It has for this purpose 
an instrument of unique design, carrying eight cameras, 
the lenses being of six to eight inches in diameter, and 
directed to slightly different regions of the sky and 
with an area of about twenty degrees square. All are 
carried by a single driving clock. Very recently a 
somewhat smaller instrument of similar design was 
constructed. This carries four cameras, and is mounted 
in a small new building in Hamden, about two and a 
half miles distant from the Observatory. The use of 
these two instruments, at different stations, makes it 
possible to ascertain the parallax of the meteors 
photographed. 

The Observatory has a very good eight-inch Grubb 
equatorial and a transit instrument. It has for a num- 
ber of years maintained a time service, furnishing accu- 
rate time to the New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. 
and to the Standard Electric Time Co. 

One of the best illustrations of the quality of the 
photographic work done at this Observatory, was the 
discovery, by the examination of the plates made of 
the meteoric shower of November, 1898, of the Chase 
comet, so called from the name of the assistant astrono- 
mer of Yale, whose eye first caught it. The comet was 
so far distant as to be very difficult of observation by 
the strongest glass. 

Besides this, the Academic and Scientific Departments 
each possess a good telescope for class-room work. 



382 YALE. 

The work of teaching, it should be recorded, was 
carried on after Professor Ohnsted's death by Prof. 
FA'ias Loomis, who served from i860 till the time of his 
death in 1889. Professor Loomis directed by his will 
that his entire fortune of ^300,000 should ultimately 
be used for the support of the Observatory. It is held 
in trust by the University, and the income from one 
third of it is now available. 

Elementary elective courses in Astronomy are now 
offered in the Academic Department by Professor Beebe 
and in the Scientific School by Dr. Chase, while a course 
in determination of latitude, particularly designed for 
civil engineers, is given by Professor Barney. 

And here, as in other fields, Yale has the advan- 
tage of very scholarly investigations by Prof. J. Willard 
Gibbs. His work for Astronomy has been principally 
in improved methods of computation of orbits, the 
theory of perturbations, and kindred subjects. 

Thus it will be seen that in this Department, in which 
the work has been very quietly carried on, Yale has 
done and is doing work of no mean order. And as her 
Observatory comes into possession of several bequests 
which have been made, still further expansion may be 
expected. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE LIBRARY. 

YALE poverties have been exploited so frequently 
and with such moving eloquence, that a part of 
the public, at least, is sometimes sceptical as to the con- 
dition of the petitioner. It will probably be always a 
puzzle why the receipt of more moneys means that still 
more moneys are wanted. But Yale ambitions and 
actual needs grow with every increase of possession. 
The more good things the present shows, so much the 
more is it right to expect the future to give, in order 
that that already in hand may be the more effective. 

In 1896 Yale's friends began to take counsel with 
themselves, — not always quietly, — as to the resources 
of the Library. It was, of course, assumed that they 
were not at all what they should be, and the case proved 
to be a more than ordinary illustration of Yale need. 
Following in the wake of an intelligent and serious dis- 
cussion of the problem, came an act of the Corporation 
laying aside for the uses of the Library a very generous 
bequest from the estate of a very generous Yale bene- 
factor, the late Thomas C. Sloane, Yale '68. This sum, 
netting ^190,000, following a number of other smaller 
contributions, makes the present funds for the mainte- 
nance and development of the Library something over 
$300,000. The friends of the Library want as much 
more or twice as much more, and it should really come 
to them soon. But the danger point has been passed, and 



384 YALE. 

assurance is given that the collection of books, gathered 
with rare discretion and discrimination, shall not lose any 
of its value by the insufficiency of present resources. The 
careful work of the past may now be carried out and 
developments on new lines are possible. 

The point was freely emphasized in the discussion, 
that the Library was the heart of the University, — a 
truism which cannot be too often repeated. In other 
chapters some directions are mentioned in v/hich this 
great central organ of university life is able to dis- 
charge its functions particularly well. Only a few 
special points will be here taken up to suggest the 
value of its general contents. 

The University Library is divided into two depart- 
ments. The smaller of these was formed by the libra- 
ries of the Linonia and Brothers Societies, which were 
made a part of the University Library in 1871. These 
Society collections form a library of general literature, 
as opposed to a library of research ; a library for circu- 
lation, rather than for reference. It is naturally strong 
in modern English literature, including fiction, and in 
periodical literature. It is a custom of the University 
Library to keep the collection of books in this depart- 
ment at about twenty-five thousand. When they in- 
crease much beyond the latter point, the older volumes, 
which have ceased to circulate generally, are transferred 
to the shelves of the University Library proper. 

Including this collection, the University Library con- 
tained in 1898 about 265,000 volumes. This does not 
take account of the libraries of the schools and depart- 
ments, which would add 25,000 more volumes, making 
290,000 in all. 

Of the various special collections in the Yale Library, 



THE LIBRARY. 385 

which are of peculiar value, the one whicli is to be first 
mentioned bears tlie name of one of the Library's most 
generous friends. It is the Salisbury Collection of 
Oriental Languages and Literature. It has 4,500 vol- 
umes, containing sets of the leading Oriental journals 
and large works on Egypt by Champollion, Rossellini, 
and Lepsius. It has also a large collection of Ara- 
bic and Sanskrit texts and about 100 Arabic manuscripts. 
Besides these there is a special collection of Chinese 
Literature, of about 3,500 volumes, from the Honorable 
Yung Wing, Mr. F. W. Williams, Yale '79, and Mr. F. 
E. Woodruff, Yale '64. This collection includes a full 
set of the dynastic histories of China in 217 volumes. 
There is also a special collection of Japanese Literature 
of 4,500 volumes, the gift of Prof. O. C. Marsh, Yale '60, 
and Mr. F. W. Stevens, Yale '58. 

In the department of Congregational History and 
Polity and the History of the Pilgrims, the Library is 
immensely strengthened by the Dexter Collection of 
1,850 volumes, the gift of the Rev. Dr. H. M. Dexter, 
Yale '40. Dr. Dexter was in a peculiarly good position 
for gathering this collection, and spent a great deal of 
money upon it. Many of these books are beyond 
price to-day. 

A friend of Yale, whose name has never been given, 
has added very greatly to the strength of the Library in 
Russian Literature by a collection of 7,000 volumes, 
including periodicals and society publications, and 
covering literature, history, geography, language, and 
bibliography. 

The Riant Library was recently acquired through the 
generosity of Mrs. Henry Farnam. It is made up of 
some 5,000 volumes, relating to Scandinavia, and is a 

25 



386 YALE. 

collection not equalled in this country. Besides the 
books, there are theses by Scandinavian students to the 
number of not less than 15,000. 

In the department of the Drama, the Library has 
made particular efforts, and not without considerable 
success. The collection of English plays is particularly 
good. In French Drama it has the collection once pos- 
sessed by Charles Reade, containing nearly 6,000 differ- 
ent plays. These were all separately published, and are 
outside of the works of the great French dramatists, 
which would naturally be on the shelves of any com- 
plete library. 

The Yale Library is rich in its collections of the pub- 
lications of learned societies and scientific journals. A 
good deal of work has also been done in gathering the 
English periodicals, particularly those of the last cen- 
tury, of which there are something like two hundred 
sets in the Library. Probably nine tenths of the English 
periodicals mentioned in Poole's Index are also to be 
found on the Yale shelves. In American History and 
American Genealogy also, the Library contains collec- 
tions of rather unusual completeness and value. They 
include the United States Congressional documents 
complete since 1825, as well as a great many before that 
time. In the department of Meteorology the library of 
the late Professor Loomis makes an important feature. 

And going outside of the Library proper, two collec- 
tions of the Divinity School would be especially worthy 
of mention, — the Lowell Mason Library, devoted to 
music, and the Foreign Missions Library, which is of 
unusual completeness. 

The Library now increases annually about seven or 
eight thousand volumes, though special acquisitions 



THE LIBRARY. 387 

often swell this total very materially. Such an increase 
is equal in number to all the books that came to Yale in 
the first one hundred and twenty-five years of her life. 
In 1743 the number of volumes in the Library was 
2,600. Twelve years later it had reached 3,000. In 
1766 the total was 4,000, but in 1791 it had dropped 
back to 2,700. The Library was removed to the central 
part of the State during the Revolution for greater 
safety, and a great many of the volumes did not find 
their way back. The totals at certain points in the 
present century are as follows: 1808, 4,700; 1823, 
6,500; 1835, 10,000; 1850, 21,000; i860, 35,000; 
1870, 55,000; 1880, 120,000; 1890, 180,000; 1898, 
265,000. 

The present Librarian of Yale, Mr. Addison Van 
Name, has served since 1865, or during the period when 
its Library increased from about 40,000 volumes to its 
present size. Prof. Franklin B. Dexter has been 
Assistant Librarian since 1869, and Mr. J. Sumner 
Smith has served in a similar capacity since 1876. 
Until 1894, when Mr. Borden took up that particular 
work, Mr. Smith devoted himself mainly to the care of 
the Linonia and Brothers Library. 

For a great many years the Library's income was 
chiefly furnished by the frequent gifts of comparatively 
small amounts from the constant friends of Yale. Since 
1833 gifts of ^5,000 or more for the permanent funds 
have been received as follows : In 1833, Mr. John T. 
Norton, ^5,000; 1836, Dr. Alfred E.Perkins, ;^io,ooo; 
1849, Addin Lewis, ^5,000; iSGy-yd, Dr. Jared Linsly, 
$5,000; 1877, Mrs. William A. Larned, ;^5, 000; 1890, 
Hon. James E. English, ;^io,ooo; 1890, Mr. Geo. 
Gabriel, ^10,000; 1892, Mr. Henry W. Scott, ;^5,ooo; 



388 YALE. 

1893, Mrs. Azariah Eldridgc, ^15,000; 1895, Prof. 
Henry W. Farnam, ;^io,0(X»; 1895, Mr. M. C. D. Borden, 
$6,000. These and many other gifts of less amounts, 
together with the Sloane fund, made the total perma- 
nent funds of the Library in the fall of 1898, $306,000. 



CHAPTER XX. 

MONEYS AND BUILDINGS. 

THESE developments, touched on in the pages that 
have preceded, have meant the income and 
outlay of great funds. In 1896, President Dvvight, re- 
viewing in a Commencement address the record of a 
decade, told of gifts in that time of four millions of 
dollars, and a doubling of the invested funds of the 
University. Those funds in 1886 were estimated at 
two millions of dollars. The reports of Mr. Farnam, 
the treasurer, for the two years following 1896, have 
shown an increase of nearly half a million dollars 
in the funds. In these figures is included no part of 
the Lampson bequest, which has been estimated at 
upwards of four hundred thousand dollars and which, 
despite litigation and long and laborious processes of 
settlement, seems sure to come in full to the Univer- 
sity Treasury. Not only have very generous gifts been 
received by Yale in this time, but the funds of the Uni- 
versity, it is universally admitted, have been handled 
by the Treasury with discretion and success. President 
Dwight, early in his administration, had practically the 
entire responsibility for this matter, the treasurership 
having been left vacant by the sudden death, in De- 
cember, 1886, of Mr. Henry C. Kingsley, who had 
served for nearly twenty-five years.- In 1888, however, 
the care of the funds was again assumed by an officer 
appointed for that purpose, Mr. W. W. Farnam, Yale 



390 YALE. 

'66, the present University treasurer, taking his position 
at that time. The maturing of bonds of a high rate 
of interest is one of the unpleasant features of the pres- 
ent financial condition of Yale — and indeed of many 
other educational institutions. This University has also, 
in recent years, been seriously threatened by the town, 
in tax suits, and by the legislature in hostile acts. The 
defence has been successful, but legal processes are 
costly. 

The statistics printed in another part of this volume 
tell the particulars of the special generosities of Yale's 
friends in recent times — as well as in ancient times. It 
has been possible to give, in the chapters that precede, 
but a passing reference to the increase of the Univer- 
sity's equipment in the past twelve years, which has 
included the addition of fifteen new buildings (whose 
erection is also recorded in the abridged histories of 
the different departments of Yale), and the substantial 
enlargement of several others. 

But what is being done in the way of Yale education 
in these new quarters of the University has been at 
least suggested, except in the case of the work in the 
new Gymnasium, which should have a chapter of its 
own. The careful and systematic and scientific care 
which is here put on the undergraduates of Yale, by 
way of examination and direction in proper physical 
training, makes an important part of a scheme which 
contemplates a sound mind in a sound body. 

But if mention is made of new buildings, the writer 
cannot forbear to speak of old buildings. 

An English university man of letters and distinction, 
visiting New Haven a few years ago and wandering 
about the college buildings, asked the most of his 



MONEYS AND BUILDINGS. 391 

questions and spent most of his time before old South 
Middle. Indeed, it was the only bit of Yale architecture 
which seemed to arouse in him any great interest. He 
admired much in the material equipment which the last 
fifteen years have brought, and doubtless wondered at it 
all, and counted it a typical American development. But 
the point which really touched his spirit, as a man who 
came from a university with a past of glorious centuries, 
was this simple monument of the earliest days of Yale, of 
which any such record in brick and mortar remains. At 
home, he would have counted it a young enough build- 
ing, almost an upstart in the college group ; but he 
realized its relative character, and seemed for the first 
time impressed with the personality of the institution, as 
he stood under the shadow of this dormitory. 

Yale had been fifty years established when this was 
constructed ; but for all this. South Middle's history 
reached back to the early days of Yale, and the view of 
it brought in upon him, as it has upon a hundred others 
who have thoughtfully gone through the unkempt cam- 
pus, the fact that the history of New Haven's college is 
woven in with almost the earliest history of its country; 
that it began to send out men to fill their parts in the 
new world when the great republic was yet to be born ; 
that while the colonies grew and fought and won, and 
thereafter through all the wonderful years of the na- 
tion's life, Yale's sons were doing their work in that 
life ; that for two hundred years her teachers have been 
here, impressing upon the civilization of a young 
country the standards of a high education in things 
of mind and spirit. 

I do not know whether this visitor entered South 
Middle. He would have been interested if he had ; 



392 YALE. 

though I would not be sure what his comments might 
have been. He must needs, had he entered, have found 
himself in the Yale Co-operative store. It would have 
been not a little of a shock to his historical remini- 
scences to have found in this monument of the past 
one of these modern academic department stores, by 
which the students of great colleges supply themselves 
with almost all of their needs, from lead pencils to spiked 
shoes. It is an interesting institution, and were the space 
at hand we would like to describe its growth from very 
humble beginnings to its present very considerable mer- 
cantile dimensions, and its independent command of a 
large and profitable corner of the New Haven market. 

What a rough and ready way Yale has of using her 
historical relics, not to mention the disposing of them ! 
This instance is even more interesting than the turning 
of the old Gymnasium, associated with the triumphs of 
scores of years of Yale's athletic life, into a general eat- 
ing house or commons, where that which sustains the 
student's inner life can be had with more or less satis- 
faction for $4. a week. The old Gymnasium was not so 
very old, and it is a good deal better adapted to a com- 
mons than it ever was to a gymnasium. South Middle 
is very old — old for America. To hammer it to pieces 
inside to make clumsy quarters for a lively commercial 
institution does not, in the minds of a great many 
people, suggest an attitude which is very promising as 
to the future. But it is one of the many signs of the 
present disposition of Yale towards the visible things 
of the past. 

It is one of the points around which a very lively dis- 
cussion has taken place. Those who believe that the 
past of an institution — its old life, and achievements, 



MONEYS AND BUILDINGS. 393 

and heroes — are a tangible part of its assets as an 
educator, and are made a hundred-fold more accessible 
and effective when they are represented by such memor- 
ials as South Middle, count it a remarkable waste of the 
resources of Yale to remove it. Harvard's tender care 
of the old brick structures that have lived through her 
storied past, with the resultant air of age and prestige 
which their presence imparts to the college yard, are 
adduced as an evidence of the folly of the threatened 
course of Yale. 

One of the most effective addresses ever made at an 
alumni meeting, was that of Wallace Bruce in 1896, 
when, speaking for the alumni, or at least, he said, for 
the Class of 'G'j , he offered almost any price in money or 
in labor to save South Middle. If the relentless exigen- 
cies of light and air, or the demands of a decently ar- 
tistic treatment of the quadrangle, made it no longer 
possible that South Middle should stand, the alumni of 
Yale would bear it tenderly, brick by brick, to some 
other point on the soil of Yale, and there rebuild it. 
Alumni Hall answered with applause that shook its 
walls. 

The Bi-Centennial, which will be the great rallying 
time for all the sons as well as the friends of Yale, 
ought to see, if we may be pardoned a little editorial 
writing, a substantial agreement among those who man- 
age Yale and Yale's friends, as to just what relation is to 
be held between the past and the present, — between the 
development of Yale University and the preservation of 
Yale College, materially, socially, and spiritually. South 
Middle is only the most patent illustration of the whole 
problem. The University must grow, as a tmivcrsity. 
The work of research, advancing on this or that line the 



394 YALE. 

world's knowledge, must be more and more the noble 
opportunity of Yale ; but shall it be any less a sacred 
trust to preserve all those ways and means of the older 
time, which made Yale College a close community, and 
the social progress through it an education in character? 
The imposing ceremonies of the new Commencement 
are the insignia of Yale the University, The ancient 
dormitory, lifting its simple brick walls close to the 
towers of Vanderbilt, and linking the old and new, wit- 
nesses among the glories of the present, the glory of 
the past, which may still be the glory and the strength 
of the present, — the simplicity and the wholesomeness 
of the College community, the Yale democracy. 



APPENDICES. 



I. 

IN the tables immediately following, the main points of 
the history of the different departments of the Uni- 
versity are given in condensed form in chronological 
order. In disputed dates, we have tried to follow the 
authority of Prof, F, B. Dexter, using his history of the 
University, published in 1886, and the records contained 
in such convenient and condensed form in his triennial 
catalogue. The reports of President Dwight have fur- 
nished facts for the history of the last administration. 

The record of the Professorship of Divinity, a chair 
which has always included the care of the College 
Church, and which has been vacant since the retirement 
of Dr, Barbour in 1887, is placed in the historical table 
of the Divinity School. 

Where not otherwise stated, the date of the erection 
of a building means the date when its erection was 
begun. 

YALE COLLEGE. 

1597. Rev. John Davenport, the originator of tlie College 

scheme, born in Coventry, England, 
1647. ^ tract of land called " College Land " was set apart for 

the purpose of a collegiate school, and a house (stand- 



396 APPENDICES. 

ing where the New Haven House now stands), was 

offered to the authorities for use in this connection. 
1655. A subscription was taken up amounting to ^^540 for the 

purpose of a collegiate school. 
1657. Fact made known of Governor Eaton's delivery to Mr. 

Davenport of books for college use. 
1660. Bequest from Governor Hopkins. 

1700. The College founded as a collegiate school. Ten of 

the principal ministers were selected " to stand as 
trustees or undertakers to found, erect, and govern 
the College." These Trustees met in New Haven and 
formed themselves into a body, and to their next 
meeting, in this or the following year, at Branford, 
each member brought books which he presented to 
the body for the foundation of a college in the 
Colony. 

1 701. October 16, (probably) a college charter was obtained 

from the legislature and an annual subsidy of £60 
granted from the State treasury. On November 1 1, the 
first meeting of the trustees at Saybrook was held, and 
Rev. Abraham Pierson was chosen Rector, students to 
receive instruction at his house at Kenilworth. 

1702. March. Jacob Heminway, the first student, entered 

the College. 
September. First Commencement held at the house 
of Rev. Mr. Buckingham at Saybrook. Eight students 
in the College. Mr. Daniel Hooker, a graduate of 
Harvard, elected tutor. 

1707. March 5, Rector Pierson died. Rev. Samuel Andrew of 
Milford put in nominal charge as Rector. Senior class 
assembled at Milford. The other classes were put 
under two tutors at Saybrook. Library removed from 
Kenilworth to Saybrook. 

17 16. Oct. 17, trustees voted to remove the College to New 
Haven. Rival school started at Wethersfield. 



YALE COLLEGE. 397 

17 17. September 11, first Commencement exercises at New 

Haven, conducted by Rector Andrew. 
October 8, frame of new college hall erected. 

1 718. Governor Yale sent to the College East India goods 

which sold for ^562 12s.; also three hundred books, 
and a portrait of the King (the latter still preserved). 
The name Yale College bestowed at Commencement 
upon the institution in recognition of the bounty of 
Governor Yale. 

1 719. March 24, Rev. Timothy Cutler chosen Rector. 
Wethersfield school adjourned to New Haven in June. 

172 1. July 8, Governor Yale died. 

1722. Rector Cutler dismissed on account of his strong ten- 

dency toward the Church of England. Test of theo- 
logical soundness on part of officers adopted 
thereafter and retained until 1823. 
President's house built. 

1722-26. College without a Rector. 

1726. September 13, Rev. Elisha Williams made permanent 
Rector. 

1732-33. Bishop Berkeley made gifts of books, ninety-six 
acres of land, and a house, to the College. 

1739. Rector Williams resigned. 

1740. April 2, Rev. Thomas Clap installed as Rector. 

1745. May. New college charter obtained. The name Yale 
College became a legal title, and the Rector was 
called the President and the Trustees the Fellows. 

1750. South Middle erected. 

1 76 1. New chapel, afterwards known as Athenaeum, begun. 

1763. New chapel opened. 

1766. September 10, President Clap resigned. 

October 22, Rev. Naphtali Daggett elected to the 
Presidency pro tempore. 

1767. January, President Clap died. 

177 1. Professorship in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy 



398 APPENDICES. 

established. Rev. Nehemiah Strong appointed to fill 
the position. 

1777. March 25, Dr. Daggett resigned. 

July 20, Senior class dismissed without public exami- 
nation or exhibition, owing to the conditions of 
war. 

1778. June 23, Rev. Ezra Stiles, D.D., made President. In- 

augurated July 8. 

1780. Dr. Daggett died from the effects of wounds received 

in resisting the advance of the British on New Haven. 
Public commencement resumed. 
November. The Phi Beta Kappa Society, Alpha of 

Connecticut, organized among the students. 

1 78 1. Rev. Nehemiah Strong resigned on account of friction 

over his Tory views. 

1782. First Dining Hall built. 

Mr. James Hillhouse made treasurer of the College. He 
served for fifty years. 

1794. Mr. Josiah Meigs appointed to the chair of Mathe- 

matics and Natural Philosophy. 
1793-4. Union Hall, afterwards known as South College, 
erected. 

1795. May 12, President Stiles died. Rev. Timothy Dwight 

of Greenfield Hill elected to succeed him, and inaugu- 
rated September 8. 

1798. Dining Hall enlarged. New President's house begun on 

the college square. 

1799. President Dwight took part in establishing the Con- 

necticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

1800. Berkeley Hall (afterwards known as North Middle), and 

Lyceum, erected. 

1801. Rev. Jeremiah Day elected to succeed Professor Meigs, 

who resigned the chair of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy. 

1802. Mr. Benjamin SilHman made Professor of Chemistry 



YALE COLLEGE. 399 

and Natural History, serving until 1853, when he was 
made Professor Emeritus. 

1804. Fagging abolished. System of fines for punishment 

disappeared a little later. 

1805. Mr. James L. Kingsley appointed Professor of Languages. 
1807. Perkins' and Gibbs' collections of mineralogical speci- 
mens obtained by the College. 

181 7, Jan, 17, President D wight died. 

July 23, Professor Day inaugurated President. 

Rev. C. A. Goodrich elected Professor of Rhetoric and 

Oratory. 
Mr. Alexander M. Fisher succeeded Professor Day in 

the chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, 

serving as adjunct professor until 1820, when he was 

made full professor. 

1819. New Dining Hall erected. Old Dining Hall fitted up 

as a chemical laboratory. Cabinet Building erected. 

1820. North College built. 

1822. Professor Fisher lost his life by shipwreck. Rev. Matthew 

R. Dutton succeeded him. 
1823-4. A new chapel built. Old chapel used for recitation 

rooms. 

1825. Mr. Denison Olmsted chosen to succeed Professor 

Dutton, who died July 17. 
Gibbs' cabinet purchased. 

1826. A gymnasium fitted up on the College grounds. 

Judge David Daggett made Professor of Law, serving 
until 1848. Chair made Kent professorship in 1833. 
1828. Bread and Butter Rebellion. 

1830. Conic Sections Rebellion. 

183 1. Professorship of Languages divided. Professor Kings- 

ley made Professor of Latin, and Mr. Theodore D. 
Woolsey Professor of Greek. 
Colonel Trumbull presented his collection of paintings 
of the American Revolution to the College. 



400 APPENDICES. 

Trumbull Gallery, now known as the Treasury Building, 
erected. 
1833. Mr. Wyllys Warner made Treasurer of the College and 

served until 1852. 
1836. Chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy divided. 
Professor Olmsted took Natural Philosophy and Mr. 
A. D. Stanley was made Professor of Mathematics. 
1839. Prof. Chauncey A. Goodrich transferred to Divinity 
School as Professor of Pastoral Charge. 
Mr. W. A. Larned made Professor of Rhetoric and 
English Language. 
1 84 1. Mr. Edward E. Salisbury appointed Professor of Arabic 

and Sanskrit Languages and Literature. 
1844. Prizes for best original composition in the English 
• language (Townsend premiums) first given. 
Library building erected. 

1846. President Day resigned. Prof. Theodore D. Woolsey 

chosen President, and began his duties in October. 
Rev. Noah Porter of Springfield elected to the chair 
of Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics. 

1847. Gov. Clark Bissell and Hon. Henry Dutton made Kent 

Professors of Law. 
1S48. Mr. James Hadley made Assistant Professor of the 

Greek Language and Literature, to succeed President 

Woosley. Made full professor in 185 1. 
1850. Mr. James D. Dana became Professor of Geology and 

Mineralogy. 
1S51. Prof. James L. Kingsley made Emeritus Professor of 

Greek. 
Asst. Prof. Thomas A. Thacher made Professor of Latin. 

1852. De Forest prize for speaking first awarded. 
Death of Prof. James L. Kingsley. 

Mr. E. C. Herrick made Treasurer, serving until 1862. 

1853. Alumni Hall erected. 
Professor Stanley died. 



YALE COLLEGE. 401 

1854. Mr. William D. Whitney elected Professor of Sanskrit 

Language and Literature and Comparative Philology. 

1855. Mr. Hubert A. Newton elected Professor of Mathematics. 
1859. Old Gymnasium — now the University Dining Hall — 

erected. 
i860. Mr. Elias Loomis made Professor of Natural Philosophy 

and Astronomy. 
1S62. Mr. H. C. Kingsley made Treasurer, serving until 1886. 
Prof. W. A. Larned died. 

1863. Mr. Cyrus Northrop made Professor of Rhetoric and 

English Literature. 
Asst. Prof. Lewis R. Packard made Professor of Greek 
Language and Literature. 

1864. Rev. Edward B. Coe elected Professor of Modern 

Languages. 
Professor Silliman died. 
Mr. Addison Verrill made Professor of Zoology. 

1865. Mr. Arthur M. Wheeler elected Professor of History. 
Mr. Addison Van Name made Librarian of the 

University. 
1867. August 22, President Day died. 

1870. Farnam Hall erected. 

187 1. Act passed substituting in the Corporation six alumni for 

the six senior members of the State Senate. 
President Woolsey resigned. 
Oct. II, Prof. Noah Porter succeeded President 

Woolsey. 
Dr. J. Willard Gibbs made Professor of Mathematical 

Physics. 
Dr. Arthur W. Wright made Professor of Chemistry and 

Molecular Physics. 
Durfee Hall erected. 
187 1-2. The books of the Linonia and Brothers' libraries were 

brought together as a branch of the College library. 

1872. Chairs of German and Political and Social Science 

26 



402 APPENDICES. 

founded, with Mr. Franklin Carter in the first and 

Rev. William G. Sumner in the second. 
Prof. James Hadley died. 
1874-6. Peabody Museum erected. 
Battel] Chapel erected. 
Asst. Prof. Henry P. Wright made Dunham Professor of 

Latin. 
1877. j\Ir. Franklin B. Dexter made Professor of American 

History. 
Dr. Samuel Wells Williams made Professor ot Chinese 

Language and Literature. 

1879. Professor Coe resigned, succeeded by Prof W. I. Knapp. 
Mr. E. S. Dana made Professor of Natural Philosophy 

and Astronomy. 
Dr. F. D. Allen made Professor of Greek Language and 
Literature, resigning in 18S0. 

1880. Prof. Tracy Peck made Professor of the Latin Language 

and Literature. 

Prof. T. D. Seymour made Hillhouse Professor of Greek. 

Asst. Prof. H. A. Beers made Professor of English Lit- 
erature. 

188 1. Hon. E. J. Phelps made Kent Professor of Law. 

Prof George T. Ladd made Professor of Mental and 

Moral Philosophy. 
Professor Carter called to the Presidency of Williams. 

1882. Observatory Buildings on Prospect St. begun. 
Sloane Physical Laboratory erected. 

1884. Professor Northrop called to the Presidency of the 

University of ISIinnesota. 
Professor Packard died. 
Prof. S. W. Williams died. 
Prof. H. P. Wright made Dean of the Academical 

Department. 

1885. Dr. Frank A. Gooch made Professor of Chemistry. 
Dwight Hall erected. 

Lawrence Hall erected. 



YALE COLLEGE. 403 

1 886. Professor Thacher died. 

Mr. Arthur T. Hadley appointed Professor of Political 

Science. 
Dr. Wm. R. Harper made Professor of the Semitic 

Languages. 
July I, President Porter's resignation took effect. 
Prof. Timothy Dwight elected President in May and 

inducted into office July i. 
Dec. 19, Mr. Henry C. Kingsley, treasurer for twenty-five 

years, died. 

1887. March, the College was legally made a university. 
Kent Chemical Laboratory erected. 

1888. New Library erected. 

Nov. 8, Mr. W. W. Farnam elected Treasurer of the Uni- 
versity. 

Old Laboratory Building removed. 

Professor Dexter resigned the Professorship of American 
History. Prof. George B. Adams succeeded him. 

Henry James Ten Eyck Prizes established for Junior 
exhibition. First competed for the following year. 

Osborn Hall erected. 

1889. July 5, Ex-President Woolsey died. 

New gymnasium begun ; completed in 1892. 

Prof. W. R. Harper made Woolsey Professor of Biblical 
Literature. 

Prof. A. S. Cook made Professor of the English Lan- 
guage and Literature. 

August 15, Prof. Elias Loomis died. 

Waterman scholarships founded. 

1890. Cabinet Building removed. 

Prof. Charles H. Smith made Professor of American 

History. 
Asst. Prof. E. S. Dana made Professor of Physics. 
Prof. Gustave J. Stoeckel made Battell Professor of 

Music. 



404 APPENDICES. 

1 89 1. Prof. W. R. Harper resigned to accept the Presidency 

of Chicago University. 
Prof. Arthur H. Palmer made Professor of German. 
Prof. E. P. Morris made Professor of Latin. 
Asst. Profs. A. W. Phillips and E. L. Richards made 

Professors of Mathematics. 
Welch Hall erected. 

1892. Yale Infirmary erected. 

March 4, Ex- President Porter died. 

Prof. H. S. Williams made Professor of Geology. 

Prof. W. I. Knapp resigned ; succeeded by Prof. Jules 

Luquiens. 
Professor Hadley made Dean of the Graduate Department. 

1893. Asst. Prof. E.'T. McLaughlin made Professor of Rheto- 

ric and Belles Lettres. He died in the summer of 

this year. 
Prof. Bernadotte Perrin made Professor of Greek. 
Asst. Profs. T. D. Goodell and H. M. Reynolds made 

full Professors of Greek. 
Vanderbilt Hall erected. South College and Athenaeum 

demolished. 

1894. White and Berkeley Halls erected. 
June 7, Prof. W. D. Whitney died. 

Prof. J. D. Dana made Professor Emeritus. 

Prof. Gustave J. Stoeckel resigned from the Battell Pro- 
fessorship of Music and was made Professor Emeritus. 

Mr. H. W. Parker made Battell Professor of the Theory 
of Music, and Mr. S. S. Sanford, Professor of Applied 
Music. 

Dean's office on Elm St. opened. 

Asst. Prof. G. M. Duncan made Professor of Philos- 
ophy. 

Asst. Prof. F. K. Sanders made Professor of Biblical 
Literature. 

North Middle demolished. 



YALE COLLEGE. 



405 



1895. Phelps Memorial Gateway erected. 
Whitman Gateway erected. 

April 13, Prof. J. D. Dana died. 

June 29, Prof. Daniel C. Eaton died. 

Professor Hadley resigned as Dean of the Graduate 

Department, and Professor PhilHps succeeded him. 
Prof. E. W. Hopkins elected to succeed Professor 

Whitney. 
Prof. E. G. Bourne made Professor of History. 

1896. Pierson Hall erected. 
Old Chapel demolished. 

August 12, Prof. H. A. Newton died. 

President Woolsey's statue dedicated at Commencement. 

Dr. H. R. Lang made Professor of Romance Philology. 

1897. Asst. Prof. Gustav Gruener made Professor of German. 

1898. Asst. Prof. John C. Schwab made Professor of Political 

Economy. 

Asst. Prof. E. H. Sneath made Professor of Philosophy. 

Asst. Prof. Irving Fisher made Professor of Political 
Science. 

Nov. 17, President Dwight announced his resignation, 
to take effect at end of academic year. 

Asst. Prof. William Beebe made Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 

Asst. Prof. J. P. Pierpont made Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 



II. 

THE SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

1847. Commencement Day, Department of Philosophy and 

the Arts estabUshed at Yale, and eight students 

enrolled. 
Opening of fall term, John P. Norton, the Professor 

of Agricultural Chemistry, and Benjamin Silliman, 

Jr., Professor of Applied Chemistry, both having been 

appointed in 1846, became associated in the opening 

of a Chemical Laboratory, established in a dwelling 

house on the College campus long occupied as the 

President's residence. 
1 849. Removal of Professor Silliman, who went to the Medical 

School at Louisville, Ky. 
1852. September 5, Prof. J. P. Norton died. 

Prof. W. A. Norton, a graduate of West Point, made 

Professor of Civil Engineering, thus establishing a 

School of Engineering. 
Graduation of the first class which had completed a 

course of Scientific study, and a degree of Ph. B. 

given to six by the Corporation of Yale, George J. 

Brush and William H. Brewer among this number. 
Prof John A. Porter made Professor of Agricultural and 

Analytical Chemistry. 
1854. Classes in Chemistry and Engineering associated under 

the name of the Yale Scientific School. 
1S55. Prof. James D. Dana of the Academical Department 

made an instructor in the School. 
Mr. George J. Brush made Professor of Metallurgy. 



THE SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 407 

1856. Prof. John A. Porter changed to chair of Organic 
Chemistry. 
Samuel W. Johnson made Professor of Agricultural 
Chemistry. 
1859. Joseph E. Sheffield purchased the building corner of 
Grove and Prospect Streets, enlarged and refitted it 
for the School, and gave ^50,000 for the endowment 
of Professorships of Chemistry, Engineering, and 
Metallurgy. In recognition of this the Corporation 
gave his name to the School. 
Entrance examination first required. 
Rev. C. S. Lyman appointed Professor of Industrial 
Mechanics and Physics. 
i860. The new building (Sheffield Hall) occupied. 

The select course of study was established, and Prof. W. 
D. Whitney invited to instruct in modern languages. 

1863. The State devoted income of government grant of 

$135,000 to the School. 
Mr. Daniel C. Oilman appointed Professor of Physical 
and Political Geography. 

1 8 64. Mr. W. H. Brewer, Mr. S. C. Eaton, and Mr. A. E. Ver- 

rill were appointed to the chairs of Agriculture, Bot- 
any, and Zoology respectively. 

Prof. George J. Brush made Professor of Mineralogy. 

Prof. John A. Porter resigned on account of his health. 

1865. Mr. A. P. Rockwell was elected Professor of Mining. 
Sheffield Hall was further enlarged, through the gen- 
erosity of Mr. Sheffield. 

1 866. Prof. John A. Porter died. 

Mr. O. C. Marsh made Professor of Palaeontology. 

1868. Professor Rockwell resigned. 

1870. The Higgin Professorship of Dynamical Engineering 
was endowed by Mrs. Susan K. Higgin, of I^iver- 
pool, with ^5,000, and William P. Trowbridge was 
called to the chair. 



4o8 APPENDICES. 

187 1. Mr. Thomas R. Lonnsbury made Professor of Englisli 

Language and Literature. 
Mr. Oscar D. Allen made Professor of IVIetallurgy. 

1872. Mr. Francis A. Walker elected to the chair of Political 

Economy and History. 
Professor Oilman resigned. 

Professor Brush made Director, having resigned his chair 
of Metallurgy in 1871. 

1872-73. North Sheffield Hall, costing over $100,000, com- 
pleted and presented to the School by Mr. Sheffield. 

1872. The title of the Professorship of Industrial Mechanics 
and Physics changed to the Sheffield Professorship of 
Astronomy and Physics, this chair being occupied 
by Prof C. S. Lyman. 

18 73. Mr. John E. Clark appointed to the Chair of Mathematics. 

1874. Mr. Samuel W. Johnson made Professor of Theoretical 

and Agricultural Chemistry. 

1875. Mr. Sidney I. Smith elected Professor of Comparative 

Anatomy. 
Mr. William G. Mixter made Professor of Chemistry. 
1877. Resignation of Professor Trowbridge, who went to 
Columbia College. 
Mr. A. Jay DuBois appointed Professor of Dynamical 
Engineering, succeeding Professor Trowbridge. 
1880. Resignation of Professor Walker to become President of 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Mr. Henry W. Farnam succeeded Professor Walker. 

1882. Chair of Physiological Chemistry founded, and Prof. 

Russell H. Chittenden appointed to fill it. 
Death of Joseph E. Sheffield. 

1883. Death of Prof. W. A. Norton. 

Prof. A. Jay DuBois transferred from the Department 
of Mechanical Engineering to the Department of Civil 
Engineering. 

1884. Mr. Charles B. Richards appointed to the chair of 

Mechanical Engineering. 



THE SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 409 

The chair of Physics and Astronomy (Professor Ly- 
man) divided. 

Prof. Charles S. Hastings elected to the Professorship 
of Physics. 
1887. Prof. Oscar D. Allen resigned. 

1889. Death of Mrs. Joseph E. Shefiaeld. 

Sheffield homestead on Hillhouse Avenue transformed 

into a Biological Laboratory. 
Professor Lyman made Emeritus Professor. 

1890. January 29, death of Prof Chester S. Lyman (chair of 

Astronomy). 

189 1. Winchester Hall erected. 

1892. Government appropriations withdrawn by Legislature. 
Asst. Prof. Samuel L. Penfield appointed Professor of 

Mineralogy. 
Asst. Prof Horace L. Wells appointed Professor of 
Analytical Chemistry and Metallurgy, succeeding Pro- 
fessor Allen in the latter chair. 

1894. Chemical Laboratory erected. 

1895. June 29, Prof Daniel C. Eaton died. 

1896. Prof. S. W. Johnson resigned from chair of Agricultural 

Chemistry, after forty years' service. 

Professor Johnson made Emeritus Professor. 

Land grant controversy between State of Connecticut and 
the Scientific School permanently settled. $154,604 
damages adjudged as due to the School. 

1897. Asst. Prof. Charles E. Beecher appointed Professor of 

Historical Geology. 
Asst. Prof. Louis V. Pirsson appointed Professor of 
Physical Geology. 
1S98. November, Prof George J. Brush declined a re-election 
as Director, and Prof. Russell H. Chittenden was made 
Director. 
Professor Brush resigned his Professorship, and was 
made Emeritus Professor. 



III. 

YALE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

1755. Dr. Naphtali Daggett, the first Professor of Divinity, ap- 
pointed. 

1 766. Prof. Naphtali Daggett succeeded Thomas Clap as Presi- 
dent, and continued as Professor of Divinity also. 

1777. Dr. Naphtali Daggett resigned as President but con- 

tinued his professorship. 

1778, Dr. Ezra Stiles made Professor of Ecclesiastical History. 
1780. Professor Daggett died. 

17S2. Rev. Samuel Wales of Milford elected to succeed Dr. 
Daggett as Professor of Divinity. 

1793. Professor Wales retired. 

1795. President Stiles died. Prof. Timothy Dwight, who suc- 
ceeded him, acted as Professor of Divinity. 

1805. President Dwight made Professor of Divinity. 

1806. President Dwight took first steps towards the establish- 

ment of a separate Theological Department. 
18 1 7. January 11, President Dwight died. 

Rev. Eleazar T. Fitch succeeded President Dwight as 

Professor of Divinity. 
1822. First distinct Theological class organized, composed of 

fifteen students. 
Chair of Didactic Theology established, and Rev. 

Nathaniel W. Taylor (from Center Church) was ap- 
pointed to this chair. 
1826. Mr. Josiah W. Gibbs appointed Professor of Sacred 

Literature. 
1836. First building of the Theological Department completed, 

and called Divinity College. (On the present site of 

Durfee Hall.) 



YALE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 411 

1839. Rev. Chauncey A. Goodrich, Professor of Rhetoric and 
Oratory, transferred to the Divinity School, as Pro- 
fessor of the Pastoral Charge. 
1852. Professor Fitch resigned. 
1854. Rev. George P. Fisher appointed to succeed Dr. 

Fitch. 
1858. Death of Prof. Nathaniel W. Taylor. 

Mr. Timothy Dwight made Professor of Sacred Liter- 
ature. 
i860. Prof. Chauncey A. Goodrich died. 

1861. Prof. Geo. P. Fisher transferred to the chair of Ecclesi- 
astical History. 
Prof. Josiah W. Gibbs died. 
Prof. James M. Hoppin elected Professor of the Pastoral 

Charge. 
Mr. Henry H. Hadley appointed to the chair of 
Hebrew, but remained only one year. 
1863. Rev. W. B. Clarke made Professor of Divinity. 
Professor Fitch made Emeritus Professor. 

1866. Prof. George E. Day made Professor of Hebrew Lan- 

guage and Literature. 
Professor Clarke resigned. 

1867. Rev. O. E. Daggett made Professor of Divinity. 

1870. East Divinity Hall completed in September. 
Professor Daggett resigned. 

187 1. Rev. Samuel Harris, D.D., elected Professor of Sys- 

tematic Theology. 
Lectureship on preaching established, by gift of Henry 

W. Sage. 
Marquand Chapel, the gift of Mr. Frederick Marquand, 

built on p]lm Street. 
Professor Fitch died. 
1S74. West Divinity Hall completed. 

1876. Graduate Fellowship endowment received. (Memorial 
of Mrs. Hooker.) 



412 APPENDICES. 

1877. Rev. Dr. Wni. M. Barbour, of Bangor Theological 
Seminary, appointed Professor of Divinity. 

1879. Professor Hoppin resigned from the chair of the Pas- 

toral Charge. 

1880. A course in Elocution established in this Department. 

1 88 1. Erection of Bacon Memorial Library. 

1885. Rev. Dr. Lewis O. Brastow appointed to the chair of 
Homiletics and the Pastoral Charge. 
Lyman Beecher Course of Lectures on Preaching 

established. 
Mr. John E. Russell appointed to the Winkley chair of 
Biblical Theology. 
18S6. Prof. G. B. Stevens made Professor of New Testament 
Criticism and Interpretation. 

1887. Professor Barbour resigned from chair of Divinity. 

1888. Professor Day appointed Dean of the Theological 

Faculty. 

1889. Prof. John E. Russell resigned from the chair of Biblical 

Theology, to go to Williams College. 

1890. Provision made by Hon. Robbins Battell, for special 

instruction in music in this Department. 

189 1 . A Foreign Missionary Library started in this Department. 
Resignation of Professor Day from the Holmes Profes- 
sorship of the Hebrew Language and Literature. 

Professor Day requested to continue as Dean of the De- 
partment, and to give instruction in the Encyclopedia 
of Theology. 

Rev. Edward L. Curtis, Ph.D., D.D., chosen to fill the 
Holmes Professorship. 

Dr. Frank C Porter elected to the Winkley Professor- 
ship of Biblical Theology, in which he had previously 
given instruction. 

East Divinity Hall badly damaged by fire. 
1893. Professorship of Christian Ethics established, through 
the generosity of Mr. J. H. Whittemore, of Nauga- 



YALE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 



4^3 



tuck, and Rev. William F. Blackman appointed to 
the chair. 
1895. P^of- George E. Day resigned as Dean of the Theologi- 
cal Faculty. Made Emeritus Professor. 

Prof. Samuel Harris resigned from the Dwight Profes- 
sorship of Systematic Theology. Made Emeritus 
Professor. 

Prof. George B. Stevens transferred from the chair of 
New Testament Criticism and Interpretation to the 
Dwight Professorship of Systematic Theology, suc- 
ceeding Professor Harris. 

Prof. George P. Fisher elected Dean of the Theological 
Faculty, succeeding Professor Day in that capacity. 
1897. Rev. Benjamin Wisner Bacon, D.D., elected to the 
Buckingham Professorship of New Testament Criticism 
and Interpretation, originally called the Professorship 
of Sacred Literature. 

Society for Sacred Music and Liturgies established. 



IV. 

THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

1806. The question of the foundation of a medical Professor- 
ship in the college first agitated by Rev. Dr. Nathan 
Strong. 

18 ID. President Dvvight and Professor Silliman obtain the 
charter for the Medical School from the General 
Assembly. 

181 2. April, Dr. Mason F. Cogswell of Hartford made Pro- 

fessor of Surgery and Anatomy, and Dr. Jonathan 

Knight Assistant Professor in the same Department. 

Dr. Cogswell never entered upon his duties. 
September, ^Eneas Munson, M.D., made Professor of 

Materia Medica and Botany. 
'Nathan Smith, M.D., made Professor of the Theory and 

Practice of Surgery and Obstetrics. 
EU Ives, M.D., made Professor of the Theory and 

Practice of Physic. 
Benjamin SiUiman, M.D., LL.D., made Professor of 

Chemistry, Pharmacy, Geology, and IMineralogy. 
Jonathan Knight, M.D., made Professor of Anatomy 

and Physiology. 

18 1 3. October, Medical School opened with thirty-one stu- 

dents in a building on Grove Street near College. 
181 5. The first student. Dr. Jared P. Kirtland, matriculated. 
1826. Dr. ^neas Munson died. 
1829. Dr. Thomas Plubbard made Professor of Surgery and 

Obstetrics. 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 415 

Dr. Nathan Smith died. 

Dr. Eli Ives was transferred to the Professorship of 
Theory and Practice of Medicine, and Dr. William 
Tully succeeded to Dr. Ives' former position. 
1830. Dr. Timothy P. Beers made Professor of Obstetrics. 
1838. Dr. Hubbard died. Dr. Knight was transferred from 
the Professorship of Anatomy to succeed Dr. Hubbard. 
Dr. Charles Hooker took Dr. Knight's place. 
1842. Dr. Bronson elected Professor of Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics in place of Dr. Tully. 

1852. Dr. Ives made Professor Emeritus of Materia Medica. 
Dr. Worthington Hooker made Professor of Theory and 

Practice to succeed Dr. Ives. 

1853. Dr. Charles Hooker made Dean of the Medical School. 
1855. Dr. T. P. Beers resigned. 

Dr. Jewett succeeded Dr. Beers. 

1858. September 22, Dr. Beers died. 

1859. Dr. Tully died. 
i860. Medical Hall erected. 

Dr. Chas. A. Lindsley succeeded Dr. Bronson. 
1861. Dr. Eli Ives died. 

1863. Dr. Hooker died. 

Dr. Lindsley made Dean of the Medical School in 

place of Dr. Hooker. 
Dr. L. J. Sanford elected to succeed Dr. Hooker in 

his professorship. 
Dr. Jewett resigned. 

1864. Drs. Knight and Silliman died. 

Dr. Francis Bacon succeeded Dr. Knight. 
Dr. Stephen J. Hubbard succeeded Dr. Jewett. 
1867. Dr. Moses C. White made Professor of Pathology and 

Microscopy. 
Dr. George F. Barker made Professor of Physiological 

Chemistry and Toxicology. 
Dr. Charles L. Ives elected to succeed I )r. Hooker. 



41 6 • APPENDICES. 

1873. Dr. Ives resigned. 

Dr. David P. Smith succeeded Dr. Ives. 
Dr. Barker resigned. 
1877. Dr. Bacon resigned. 

Dr. D. P. Smitli transferred to Professorship of Surgery. 
Dr. Lucian S. Wilcox appointed to succeed Dr. Smith. 
1S79. Dr. Sanford transferred to Professorship of Anatomy. 
Dr. James K. Thacher made Professor of Physiology. 
Dr. William H. Carmalt made Professor of Ophthal- 

mology and Otology. 
The course was changed from a lecture course to one 
in personal training and laboratory work. From this 
time three years of study and a final examination 
were required. 

1880. Dr. Hubbard resigned. 

Dr. F. E. Beckwith succeeded Dr. Hubbard. 
Dr. Smith died. 

1 88 1. Dr. Carmalt resigned his Professorship to succeed Dr. 

Smith as Professor of Principles and Practice of 
Surgery. 
18S3. Dr. Lindsley resigned his Professorship. Dr. Thomas 
H. Russell succeeded Dr. Lindsley. 

1885. Dr. Lindsley resigned the position of Dean. 

Dr. Lindsley succeeded by Dr. Herbert E. Smith, who 
was also made Professor of Chemistry. 

Dr. Frank E. Beckwith made Professor of Clinical 
Gynecology. 

1886. Dr. James Campbell made Professor of Obstetrics. 

1 888. Dr. Sanford resigned and was succeeded by Dr. S. 
W. Williston. 
Medical School Alumni Association founded. 
1890. Dr. Beckwith and Dr. Williston resigned. 

Dr. Talcott presented his valuable medical library to 
the School. 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 417 

1 89 1. Dr. Thomas H. Russell made Professor of Clinical 
Surgery and Surgical Anatomy. 
Dr. Thacher died. 
1893. New Laboratory Building erected. 

1895. Dr. Henry L. Swain made Professor of Diseases of 

Throat and Ear. 
Dr. Harry B. Ferris made Professor of Anatomy. 
Dr. Graham Lusk made Professor of Physiology. 
Dr. Oliver S. Osborne made Professor of Materia Medica 

and Therapeutics. 
Dr. Louis S. De Forest made Professor of Theory and 

Practice of Surgery. 
Course of study lengthened from three years to four. 

1896. December 12, Dr. Sanford died. 

1897. Dr. John S. Ely made Professor of Theory and Practice 

of Medicine. 
Dr. Lindsley made Emeritus Professor. 

1898. Prof. Graham Lusk resigned. 



27 



V. 

GRADUATE SCHOOL. 

1 841. First step taken toward the organization of graduate 
instruction. 
Appointment of Edward E. Salisbury to the chair of 
Arabic and Sanskrit. 

1846. Establishment of a Professorship in Agricultural Chem- 

istry (or the Application of Science to Agriculture), 
with Prof. John P. Norton as incumbent. 
Establishment of Professorship in Practical or Applied 
Chemistry (or Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology) 
with Professor Benjamin Silliman as incumbent. 

1847. Formal establishment of this new Department, called the 

Department of Philosophy and the Arts. 

Courses of instruction offered in Greek, Latin, Mathe- 
matics, Philosophy, and Science. 

Chemical Laboratory opened for the Graduate Depart- 
ment in the building previously used as the President's 
house. 
1852. Degree of Bachelor of Philosophy first conferred, after 
two years' study in this Department. 

Chair of Civil Engineering established, with Prof. Wil- 
liam A. Norton as incumbent. 
1854. Establishment of a separate Professorship in Sanskrit, 
and Mr. William D. Whitney appointed. 

Instruction in Chemistry and Engineering separated 
from other instruction in the Graduate Department, 
and designated the Yale Scientific School. 
1866. Chair of Paleontology established, with Prof. Othniel C. 
Marsh as incumbent. 



GRADUATE SCHOOL. 419 

187 1. Degree of Doctor of Philosophy first confened. 
(Upon Eugene Schuyler, LL.D., James Morris 
Whiton, and Arthur Williams Wright.) 

1892. Women first admitted to the Graduate Department. 

An office of Dean of the Graduate Department created, 
and Prof. Arthur T. Hadley elected to the position. 

1894. The second floor of the house, corner of Elm and High 

Streets, furnished for the use of young women in 
this Department. 

1895. Professor Hadley resigned as Dean of this Department. 
Prof. Andrew W. Phillips elected to succeed Professor 

Hadley, as Dean of the Graduate Department. 
Formal organization effected, with Administrative Com- 
mittee of twelve, and a Dean's office opened at 90 
High Street. 



VI. 

THE LAW SCHOOL. 

THIRST instruction in Law in New Haven conducted by 

■*■ Hon. Seth P. Staples (Yale, 1797), early in the present 
century. 

1 80 1. Professorship in Law established at Yale by President 
Dwight, more for the purpose of lectures than pre- 
paration for practice, and Hon. Elizur Goodrich ap- 
pointed to the chair. 

18 10. Resignation of Professor Goodrich, because of pressure 
of other duties. 

1822. Samuel J. Hitchcock invited to assist Hon. S. P. Staples 
in instructing his law pupils. 

1824. Mr. Staples removed to New York, leaving Mr. Hitch- 
cock and Judge Daggett in charge of his school. In 
this year, names of Mr. Staples' pupils were published 
in the "College Catalogue." 

1826. Connection between Yale College and the private Law 
School made more distinct through the election of 
Judge David Daggett to the Kent Professorship of 
Law at Yale (a professorship established by the friends 
of Chancellor Kent). 

1842. Isaac H. Townsend began instruction in Law. He was 

appointed full professor in 1846, but died the follow- 
ing year. During this period also, Judge William L. 
Storrs and Mr. Henry White assisted in instruction. 

1843. The Staples School, conducted by Samuel J. Hitchcock 

and Judge David Daggett, formally placed under con- 
trol of the College Corporation. Degree of Bachelor 
of Laws conferred upon graduates for the first time. 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 421 

1845. Death of Professor Hitchcock. 

1846. Judge William L. Storrs appointed Professor of Law, 

succeeding Judge Hitchcock. 

1847. Judge Daggett, Judge Storrs, and Mr. Henry White re- 

signed. 
A new Law Faculty formed, consisting of Governor Clark 

Bissell and Hon. Henry Dutton. 
1855. Professor Bissell resigned, and Hon. Thomas B. Osborne 

appointed to succeed him. 
1865. Resignation of Hon. Thomas B. Osborne. 
1869. Death of Governor Dutton. 

Law Department placed in charge of Messrs. Simeon 

E. Baldwin, William C. Robinson, and Johnson T. 

Piatt. 

187 1. Jewell prizes founded. 

1872. Hon. Francis Wayland appointed Professor of Law, and 

Dean of the School. 
Messrs. Robinson, Baldwin, and Piatt appointed to full 

Professorships. 
The Law School provided, with apartments in the 

County Court House. 

1874. Townsend prize founded. 

1875. Betts prize founded. 

1876. An advanced course in Law and Political Science 

provided. 

1878. A chair of International Law established, and Mr. 
Theodore S. Woolsey appointed thereto. 

1 88 1. A chair of Pleading established, and Mr. Wm. K. Town- 
send appointed Professor. 

1887. Edward J. Phelps professorship founded. 

1888. The Edward J. Phelps professorship assigned to Wm. K. 

Townsend. 
1890. January 33, Prof. Johnson T. Piatt died. .. 
1894. Work on the new Law School Building begun in 

June. 



422 APPENDICES. 

Decision made to lengthen the course of study from two 

years to three years. 
Mr. Morris F. Tyler appointed Professor of General 

Jurisprudence. 
1895. The Law School moved into its new building on Elm 

Street, between Temple and College Streets. 
Prof. William C Robinson resigned. 
Asst. Prof. George D. Watrous elected full Professor of 

Contracts and Torts. 

1897. Asst. Prof. John Wurts elected to full Professorship in 

Elementary Law, Real Property, and Trusts. 
Three years course inaugurated. 

1898, Hon. David Torrance of the Supreme Court of Errors 

appointed full Professor of Evidence. 



VII. 

YALE SCHOOL OF THE FINE ARTS. 

1831. Trumbull Gallery erected for the exhibition of the paint- 
ings of Col. Trumbull. 

1857-8. A course of Art lectures first given. 

1864-66. A building erected on Chapel St. between College 
and High Sts. 

1866. A department added by the Corporation, called the 

Yale School of the Fine Arts. 

1867. Collection of Trumbull paintings transferred from Trum- 

bull Gallery to the new School of Fine Arts, 
1869. Mr. John F. Weir elected Professor of Painting and 
Design, and Director of the School. 
Mr. D. Cady Eaton elected Professor of the History 
of Art. 
1871. Mr. John H. Niemeyer elected Professor of Drawing. 
1876. Professor Eaton resigned. 

1879. James M. Hoppin appointed Professor of the History 
of Art, succeeding Professor Eaton. 
Courses of technical instruction provided, and both 
sexes admitted. 
189 1. Degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts conferred for the first 
time, in June. 
Alice Kimball English prize founded. 

1894. A fellowship prize of fifteen hundred dollars established 

by the Corporation, to be awarded in June, 1897. 

1895. William Wirt Winchester Fellowship Prize founded. 
Preparation of a plaster cast for the statue of President 

Woolsey, by Professor Weir. 
1897. The Winchester prize awarded for the first time. 
The Alden wood-carvings purchased. 



VIII. 

TABLES SHOWING ATTENDANCE OF STUDENTS AT 
YALE IN EACH YEAR FROM ITS FOUNDATION. 



IN the following table, in the years from 1710 (at which time 
the four-year course is known to have been established) to 
1796, the attendance is estimated from the number of men in 
each class at graduation, no other records being available. 



Year. 


Academic 
Dept. 


Year. 


Academic 
Dept. 


Year. 


Academic 
Dept. 


I7CI-I702 


I 


I733-1734 


81 


1765-1766 


116 


1 702-1 703 


8 


I 734-1 735 


82 


1 766-1 767 


98 


I 703-1 704 


* 


I735-I736 


68 


1767-1768 


93 


I 7 04- I 705 


* 


I736-I737 


70 . 


I 768-1769 


87 


I 705-1 706 


* 


^737--i72,^ 


66 


1769-1770 


97 


I 706-1 707 


* 


1738-1739 


68 


I 770-1 77 I 


108 


1707-1708 


* 


I 739-1 740 


82 


1771-1772 


124 


1708-1709 


* 


1740-1741 


76 


1772-1773 


134 


1 709-1 7 10 


* 


1741-1742 


83 


I773-1774 


154 


1710-1711 


17 


1742-1743 


78 


1774-1775 


164 


1711-1712 


17 


I 743-1 744 


82 


1775-1776 


163 


1712-1713 


18 


1744-1745 


103 


1776-1777 


'57 


1713-1714 


20 


I 745-1 746 


99 


1777-1778 


128 


1714-1715 


24 


1746-1747 


104 


1778-1779 


114 


1715-1716 


25 


1747-1748 


98 


1779-1780 


122 


1716-1717 


32 


174S-1749 


76 


1780-17S1 


147 


1717-1718 


41 


1 749-1 7 50 


70 


1781-1782 


190 


1718-1719 


36 


1750-1751 


69 


1782-1783 


215 


1719-1720 


43 


1751-1752 


70 


I783-I784 


231 


1720-1721 


51 


1752-1753 


89 


1784-1785 


214 


1721-1722 


46 


1 7 53-1 7 54 


112 


I 785-1 786 


174 


1722-1723 


61 


1754-1755 


139 


17S6-1787 


147 


1723-1724 


60 


1755-1756 


165 


1787-1788 


116 


1724-1725 


54 


1756-1757 


165 


1788-I7S9 


"5 


1725-1726 


62 


1 7 57-1 7 5S 


154 


1789-1790 


122 


1726-1727 


57 


1758-1759 


154 


1790-1791 


120 


1727-1728 


60 


I 7 59-1 760 


147 


1791-1792 


126 


I 7 28-1 7 29 


71 


1760-1761 


142 


I792-1793 


126 


1729-1730 


70 


1761-1762 


160 


1 793-1 794 


126 


1730-1731 


66 


1 762-1 763 


154 


I 794-1 795 


125 


1731-1732 


77 


1763-1764 


136 


I 795-1 796 


118 


1732-1733 


73 


1764-1765 


137 







* Unknown. 



TABLES OF ATTENDANCE. 



425 



Unless otherwise stated, the following tables are compiled 
from catalogues now in existence : 



Year. 


Academic 
Dept. 


Year. 


Academic 
Dept. 


Year. 


Academic 
Dept. 


1796-1797 


"5 


1802-1803 


242 


180S-1809 


183 


I 797-1 798 


123 


I 803- I 804 


^ZZ 


1809-1810 


228 


179S-1799 


168 


1S04-1805 


200 


1810-1811 


255 


1 799-1800 


195 


1805-1806 


222 


1811-1812 


305 


1800-180 I 


217 


1 806-1807 


204 


1812-1813 


yz 


1801-1S02 


217 


1807-1808 


196 







Medical Department added, 1813, and first mention of 
Resident Graduates, found in 18 14. 



Year. 


Academic 


Resident 


Medical 


Total. 


Department. 


Graduates. 


Department. 


1813-1814 


291 




37 


328 


1814-1815 


277 


16 


57 


350 


1815-1816 


271 


17 


64 


352 


1816-1817 


251 


18 


29* 


298 


1817-1818 


262 


21 


5° 


333 


1818-1819 


265 


29 


55 


349 


1819-1820 


282 


30 


64 


376 


1820-1821 


319 


31 


62 


412 


182I-1822 


325 


4 


78 


407 


1822-1823 


371 


18 


92 


481 


1823-1824 


374 


28 


71 


473 



* Estimated from records of graduation in triennial catalogue. 



Theological and Law Departments added. 



Year. 


Acad. 


Res. 


Medical 


Theol. 


Law 


Total. 


Twice 


Net 


Dept. 


Grad. 


Dept. 


Dept. 


Dept. 


Inserted. 


Total. 


1824-1825 


349 




80 


17 


13 






459 


1825-1826 


3S6 




75 


23 


16 






470 


1826-1827 


329 


4 


80 


31 


10 






454 


1827-1828 


335 


5 


91 


50 


20 






501 


I 828-1829 


325 


7 


68 


54 


20 






474 


1829-1830 


359 


6 


6i 


49 


21 






496 



426 



APPENDICES. 





Acad. 


Res. 


Medical 


Theol. 


Law 


Total. 


Twice 


Net 




Dept. 


Grad. 


Dept. 


Dept. 


Dept. 


Inserted. 


Total. 


I830-I83I 


346 


4 


69 


50 


33 










502 


I83I-I832 


331 


4 


48 


42 


44 










469 


I832-I833 


354 




46* 


49 


31 










480 


I833-I834 


376 




50* 


55 


39 






• 




520 


1834-1835 


354 




.S3* 


53 


43 










503 


I835-I836 


413 


5 


60 


(33 


31 










572 


I836-IS37 


411 


2 


50 


7b 


31 










570 


I837-I838 


403 


2 


48 


82 


33 


568 


4 


564 


I83S-I839 


411 




46 


74 


32 


5^3 


2 


^.^l 


1 839- 1 840 


438 


2 


45 


78 


45 










608 


I840-I84I 


429 




52 


61 


32 










574 


I84I-I842 


410 


3 


47 


59 


31 










550 


I 842- I 843 


376 


3 


52 


7b 


30 










537 


I 843-1 844 


383 


6 


60 


66 


44 










559 


I 844- I 84 5 


394 


5 


43 


64 


36 










5f 


1845-1846 


424 


5 


53 


67 


39 










588 


1 846-1 S47 


422 


5 


52 


53 


52 










584 



* Estimated from records of graduation in triennial catalogue- 



Department of Philosophy and the Arts added. (Resident 
Graduates included under head of Philos. and the Arts.) 



Year. 


Acad. 
Dept. 


Med. 
Dept. 


Theolog. 
Dept. 


Law 
Dept. 


Philos. 

and the 

Arts. 


Total. 


Twice 
Inserted. 


Total. 


1847-1S48 


379 


45 


44 


41 


II 






520 


I 848- I 849 


.385 


38 


45 


35 


14 






517 


I 849- I 8 50 


,386 


41 


52 


33 


20 


532 


I 


.531 


1850-1851 


432 


38 


38 


26 


21 






55.S 


1851-1852 


440 


37 


38 


27 


16 






558 


1852-1853 


446 


35 


37 


39 


46 






603 


1853-1854 


443 


41 


27 


38 


45 - 






594 


1854-1855 


450 


46 


24 


25 


60 






605 


1855-1856 


473 


32 


25 


26 


63 






619 


1856-1857 


472 


27 


23 


30 


46 






598 


1857-1858 


447 


29 


22 


31 


36 






565 


1858-1859 


4S6 


34 


21 


33 


36 


580 


2 


.578 


1859-1860 


502 


45 


27 


28 


40 


642 


I 


641 


1860-1861 


521 


38 




30 


38 






649 


1861-1862 


462 


38 


27 


28 


44 






599 


1862-1863 


460 


51 


25 


34 


47 






617 


1863-1864 


471 


45 


28 


31 


57 






632 


1864-1865 


458 


47 


23 


32 


84 






644 


1865-1866 


490 


41 


24 


35 


92 






682 



TABLES OF ATTENDANCE. 



427 



The tabulation of students in the Department of Philosophy 
and the Arts is divided into two parts : I. Graduate students 
in philosophy, etc., and Special students in same, and II. 
Graduates and undergraduates in the Sheffield Scientific 
School. 



Year. 


Acad. 
Dept. 


Med. 
Dept. 


Theol. 
Dept. 


Law 

Dept. 


Philos. 
and the 

Arts. 


Sheffield 
Scienlific 
School. 


Total. 


serted 
Twice. 


Total. 


1866-1S67 


500 


31 


30 


26 


3 


119 




709 


I 867- I 868 


.SOS 


24 


32 


16 




120 






699 


1868-1869 


S19 


23 


25 


17 


8 


132 




. . 


724 


1869-1870 


.Si« 


28 


35 


18 


2 


139 


740 


4 


736 


187O-187I 


522 


33 


55 


23 


2 


123 


7S« 


3 


7SS 


1871-1872 


527 


26 


69 


21 


27 


147 


817 


^ 


809 



School of Fine Arts added. 



> 


•6 D. 

So 




e5« 


|l 


•a 


i-P 


1< 

in 




•a 

4) S 




H 


I872-I873 


.S17 


24 


96 


36 


54 


200 


13 


940 


36 


904 


I 873-1 874 


512 


32 


lOI 


46 


64 


242 


6 


1003 


48 


955 


I874-I875 


S37 


SO 


103 


S3 


62 


248 


21 


1074 


43 


1031 


I875-I876 


S82 


42 


99 


76 


63 


224 


30 


II16 


65 


1051 


I876-I877 


S69 


36 


9S 


60 


69 


206 


16 


IO5I 


30 


1021 


I877-IS7S 


S77 


S« 


107 


S9 


SO 


-194 


23 


1066 


27 


1039 


I878-I879 


SS7 


s« 


67 


68 


46 


194 


30 


1050 


28 


1022 


I879-I880 


S8i 


32 


88 


74 


39 


17s 


39 


1028 


25 


1003 


i88o-i88i 


612 


2S 


93 


64 


29 


190 


46 


1059 


22 


1037 


1881-18S2 


601 


21 


97 


68 


44 


18 s 


SO 


1066 


24 


1042 


1882-1883 


611 


30 


106 


«S 


41 


206 


40 


III9 


23 


1096 


1883-1884 


612 


31 


99 


69 


30 


212 


49 


I 102 


10 


1092 


1884-1885 


S8o 


27 


107 


68 


37 


249 


40 


1 108 


22 


1086 


1885-1886 


S63 


28 


no 


62 


42 


2SI 


48 


I 104 


28 


1076 


I 886- I 887 


S70 


27 


108 


79 


S6 


279 


44 


I 163 


29 


"34 


1887-1888 


614 


26 


117 


94 


69 


291 


S« 


1269 


24 


1245 


I 888- I 889 


688 


3S 


133 


106 


79 


308 


47 


1396 


31 


1365 


I 889-1 890 


73(5 


S4 


136 


III 


81 


343 


42 


1503 


26 


1477 


1890-1891 


832 


6.3 


139 


116 


104 


379 


44 


1677 


32 


1645 


1891-1892 


888 


74 


122 


155 


76 


461 


37 


I813 


29 


1784 



428 APPENDICES. 

Department of Music added. 













■a m 




• 1 - 


















C " 






a 








1^ 


-6 a, 

IS 




•Is- 




V 




11 

u 


Q 




1^ 


1 


I 892 -1893 


966 


76 


109 


171 


125 


529 


31 


7 


2014 


45 


1969 


I893-I894 


1086 


80 


119 


188 


143 


601 


30 


9 


2256 


54 


2202 


I894-I895 


1 1 50 


100 


116 


195 


'^^ 


662 


41 


25 


2427 


77 


2350 


I895-I896 


1 199 


125 


105 


224 


176 


584 


46 


S3 


2512 


97 


2415 


I896-I897 


1237 


i3« 


104 


213 


227 


553 


53 


76 


2601 


106 


2495 


I897-I898 


1241 


128 


102 


198 


262 


543 


78 


70 


2622 


122 


2500 


1898-1899 


1224 


no 


95 


194 


283 


567 


84 


76 


2633 


122 


2511 



These are mentioned in the catalogues but are not included 
in the totals. 

1896-1897 Courses for Teachers 120 

1897-1898 " " 145 

1898-1899 " " 163 



IX. 

TABLE OF GIFTS. 

THE following table shows the main sources from which 
the larger gifts of money and land and books and build- 
ings have come to Yale since her foundation. 

This cannot be absolutely complete, for the records, particu- 
larly of the early times, are far from perfect. It is believed, 
however, that there are here set forth the main sources of in- 
come of the earliest time, and all the gifts of considerable 
amount in latter days. In the case of land and books, it is 
not always attempted to give the valuation. The great 
Lampson bequest is not mentioned, being at this time still in 
Htigation. The tabulations in Ebenezer Baldwin's history, the 
records in Kingsley's "Yale College," and in Dexter s " Yale 
University," and the tabulations in President Dwight's reports are 
the sources chiefly used. The table follows : — 

Administration of Abraham Pierson, 1701-1707. 

For use of College, by Hon. James Fitch, 1701, six hundred acres 
in Killingly. 

Annual subsidy by Legislature, ;fi2o "country pay" which 
equalled ;^6o 

Small house by Nathaniel Lynde, 1702. 

Administration of Samuel Andrew, 1707-1719. 

Seven hundred and twenty volumes " of great value " sent from 
England by several famous Englishmen, in 1714. 

For buildings, by the State, 17 15 £2^0 

Realized from goods sent by Governor Yale, 1718 . . . ^^562, I2J 

For College expenses by Madame Saltonstall, 17 17 ;fio 

For College expenses by Jahaleel Brenton, 17 18 )Cy> 

Several gifts of land by New Haven people. 



430 APPENDICES. 

Administration or Timothy Cutter, 1719-1722. 

For rector's house by private subscription, about jCS^ 

The General Assembly by impost on rum for the same purpose £11 S 

Administration of Elisha Williams, 1726-1739. 

Extra government grants three hundred acres. 

Estate of Whitehall near Newport, ninety-six acres by George 
Berkeley, 1733. 

One thousand choice volumes by George Berkeley, 1733, valued 
at ^400 

Subscription for surveying instruments, etc., by Joseph Thompson 
and sundry other gentlemen ^^58 

Administration of Thomas Clap, 1740-1766. 

1742. General Assembly for a new kitchen and fence about the 
rector's house, and new covering for the President's house . . . ;^I30 

South Middle and land on which it stands by Colony Legisla- 
ture, from a lottery, 17 50-1 7 52 (valued at) ;^ 1,660 

Towards fund for Professor of Divinity by Hon. Col. Philip Liv- 
ingston ^28, lOJ. 

Land for house for Professor of Divinity by President Clap . ^40 
For house for Professor of Divinity, by subscriptions .... ;^I02 

For building the chapel by popular subscriptions ^^205 

By the General Assembly toward finishing the chapel . jC^4S> ^3^- 
Richard Jackson toward finishing the chapel ;^ioo 

Administration of Naphtali Daggett, 1766-1777. 

1770. Governor Trumbull, land $100.00 

1777. Mrs. Elizabeth Smith . . $200.00 

Administration of Ezra Stiles, 1778-1795. 

178 1. Towards a fund for endowment of Professorship of He- 
brew, by Richard Salter, a tract of land, avails now amount to $3,700.00 

Permanent fund by Dr. Daniel Lathrop .;^500 

Towards fund for purchase of philosophical apparatus, by 

Samuel Lockwood ;^ioo 

For benefit of library by Samuel Lockwood $1,122.33 

As a result of a closer union with the State, grants were ob- 
tained amounting to ^2,500, and South College built, 1793-94; also 
fund for Professorships started. 



TABLE OF GIFTS. 431 

1807. Hon. Oliver Wolcott for a library fund .... $2,000.00 
1813. Nineteen hundred acres of land in Holland, Vt., by Isaac 
Beers of New Haven. 

Administration of Timothy Dwight, 1795-1817. 
Medical School building by the State, 1814 $30,000.00 

Administration of Jeremiah Day, 1817-1846. 

Without conditions, by Noah Linsley $3,000.00 

For library fund, by John T. Norton $5,000.00 

For library fund, Dr. Alfred E. Perkins $10,000.00 

1822. Endowment fund for new Theological Professorship, by 
popular subscription $27,612.44 

Donations to Sacred Literature Professorship $9,229.22 

Donations for Theological purposes $1,530.00 

Endowment of Professorship of Natural Philosophy, by Israel 
Munson $15,000.00 

1823. For use of College, by Sheldon Clark, property in Ox- 
ford, Conn., value now about $38,000.00 

For use of College, from David C. De Forest $5,000.00 

1825. Popular subscription in New Haven and New York to pur- 
chase " Gibbs Mineralogical Cabinet " $14,300.00 

Endowment of Silliman Professorship of Natural History, by 
Edward E. Salisbury and others upwards of $10,000.00 

Arthur Tappar of New York $4,100.00 

1831. From the Legislature $7,000.00 

Raised by popular subscription, 1S31-1836, $100,000.00, of which 

$82,950.00 was given especially for the support of the Academical 
Department. 

1832. Trumbull Gallery (now Treasury Building) from the State $7,000.00 
Fund for indigent students by Solomon Langdon, 1835 . . $4,000.00 

Administration of Theodore Dwight Woolsey, 1846-1871. 

Endowment for the Professorship of Modern Languages by 
Augustus R. Street $12,560.00 

1848. Donation by Mr. Lewis $2,545.85 

Four Scholarships for Freshmen by President Woolsey, $1,000.00 
each $4,000.00 

The Bristed Scholarship for Sophomores and Juniors, so called 
because given by Charles Astor Bristed, 184S $1,350.00 

Subscriptions started in 1852 and completed in 1854 and called 



432 APPENDICES. 

"Fund of 1854," amounted to ^106,390.00 

of which $70,000.00 was devoted to Academical Department. 

1853-1857. From Linonia and Brothers for Alumni Hall Fund $11,099.88 

1854. Battell fund for sacred music $5,000.00 

1855. Funds for Scientific Agriculture and applied science $15,000.00 
Funds for the Theological Department by Chauncey A. Good- 
rich $10,000.00 

Benjamin Hoppin $15,000.00 

Miss Lucretia Deming $5,000.00 

Legacy of William Burroughs $10,000.00 

1859. ^°^ the Sheffield Scientific School, J. E. Sheffield purchased 
and enlarged the old Medical College, and stocked it with apparatus, 

at an expense of $150,000.00 

For fund for endowment of Professorships in the Sheffield Scien- 
tific School, by J. E. Sheffield $50,000.00 

1861. Fund for Professorship of Modern Languages . . $5,955.60 

1863. Donations for Sanskrit Professorship Fund . . . $12,000.00 
1865. Donations for a library fund for Sheffield Scientific School 

by J. E. Sheffield $10,000.00 

1864. Donations to New Chapel Fund $3,000.00 

to Professorship of Botany fund $20,000.00 

For library fund Academic Department accumulations of legacy 

bequeathed by Addin Lewis $5,000.00 

1864. Root scholarship fund in Theological School . . $18,500.00 
Funds for instruction in Theological School by Governor William 

A. Buckingham . $25,000.00 

Endowment for the chair of Ecclesiastical History by Augustus 

R. Street, 1868 $50,000.00 

For Sheffield Scientific School, from the State the income of $135,000.00 
Museum of Natural History, by George Peabody, 1866 . $150,000.00 
Building for School of Fine Arts, by Augustus R. Street (1864) 

approximately $200,000.00 

Endowment and gifts for same by Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Street $117,000.00 
Endowment for Professorship of Hebrew, by Samuel Holmes, 

1868 $14,000.00 

Holmes Scholarship in the Academical Department by Samuel 

Holmes $1,000.00 

East Divinity Hall, by Messrs. A. and C. Benedict, 1870 . $20,000.00 

William E. Dodge $10,000.00 

Prof. S. F. B. Morse = $10,000.00 

Aaron Benedict $10,000.00 

By Daniel Hand $10,000.00 

other sums amounting to $93,000.00 



TABLE OF GIFTS. 433 

1871. Marquand Chapel, building, heating apparatus, carpeting, 
and furniture, by Frederick Marquand, over $27,000.00 

A reference library for the Divinity School, by Henry Trow- 
bridge, 1870, 2,000 volumes. 

For foundation of a lectureship on Preaching, in the Divinity 
School by Henry W. Sage $10,000.00 

Farnam Hall, by Hon. Henry Farnam $60,000.00 

1S70. (Total cost of Farnam Hall $125,000.00) 

Durfee Hall, by Bradford M. C. Durfee, 187 1 .... $130,000.00 

Endowment for Professorship of Sanskrit, by Edward E. Salis- 
bury, 1870 $50,000.00 

Endowment for Professorship of Dynamical Engineering, by 
Mrs. Susan K. Higgin, Liverpool, England ;^S,ooo 

Permanent fund for Endowment of Sheffield Scientific School by 

J. E. Sheffield $75,000.00 

others $55,000.00 

For Observatory, by Mrs. James A. Hillhouse and daughters, six 
acres, 1858. 

For same purpose, by Hon. O. F. Winchester, 1 871, thirty-two acres. 

Administration of Noah Porter, 1871-1886. 
West Divinity Hall by Frederick Marquand, one half expense, 

1874 $80,000.00 

For the same purpose by Charles Benedict $10,000.00 

James E. English $5,000.00 

Wells Southworth $5,000.00 

John De Forest $5,000.00 

Eli Curtis $5,000.00 

Daniel Hand $7,000.00 

Other subscriptions $43,000.00 

Soldiers' Memorial Fellowship, by Mrs. Theodosia D. Wheeler, 

1875 $10,000.00 

Douglas Fellowship, by Mrs. Mary Ann Douglas Miller, 1873 [in- 
come equals $600]. 

Foote Fellowship, by H. W. Foote $25,000.00 

Fund in Elocution in Divinity School, by Frederick Marquand, 

1874 $5,000.00 

For musical Library Fund in Divinity School, by Mrs. Irene Bat- 
tell Earned, 1877 $5,000.00 

For same purpose, other subscriptions $18,000.00 

Woolsey Fund, by general subscription $168,000.00 

Funds for Academical Department, by Dr. T. Dwight Porter, 
1878-1880 $115,000.00 



434 * APPENDICES. 

Without conditions (used for aid of needy students in Academi- 
cal Department) estate of Henry T. Morgan $S6,ooo.oo 

Assistance of indigent students, bequest of Hon. Henry L. Ells- 
worth died in 1S58, available first in 1876, now amounts to . $56,000.00 
Lawrance Hall by Mr. and Mrs. Francis C. Lawrance, parents of 

Thomas Garner Lawrance, '84, 1 885-1 886 $50,000.00 

Dwight Hall, by Elbert B. Monroe, 1885-1886 $60,000.00 

Battell Chapel, by Hon Joseph Battell, 1874 .... $200,000.00 
North Sheffield Hall, by Joseph E. Sheffield, land on which it 

stands, and building valued at (1S75) $100,000.00 

Dunham Fund, by Austin Dunham $10,000.00 

others $12,623.00 

Endowment of chair of Biblical Theology, by Henry Winkley $50,000.00 
General Fund of the Divinity School, by Asa Otis . . . $25,000.00 

For books for Law School Library, by friends $25,000.00 

Permanent library fund for Law School, by James E. Eng- 
lish $10,000.00 

General Fund of Medical School, by John De Forest, 1877 $5,000.00 
Endowment of Professorship of Common Law, by Hon. La Fay- 
ette S. Foster, 1880 $60,000.00 

For Department of Comparative Anatomy, by Dr. Henry Bron- 

son, in 1878 $5,090.00 

1880 $5,000.00 

1883 $5,000.00 

For library funds in the Academical Department, by the Class 

1872 $2,095.00 

For Leavenworth Scholarship Fund, by Elias W. Leavenworth $5,400.00 
For Kent Laboratory, by Albert E. Kent, 1885 .... $30,000.00 

Administration of Timothy Dwight, 1886-1898. 

1886-1887. 

Professorship of Comparative Anatomy, by Dr. Henry Bronson 

(in addition to $15,000 previously given) $2,500.00 

To increase the De Forest Fund for Mathematical Prizes, by 

Erastus L. De Forest $4,000.00 

For the furtherance of Latin studies, by the daughters of Lucius 

F. Robinson of Hartford $5,000.00 

For Woolsey Fund by Rev. Edgar L. Heermance . . . $1,000.00 

For Sloane Laboratory by John Sloane $5,000.00 

For Sloane Laboratory by Thomas C. Sloane $3,000.00 

For Leavenworth Scholarship Fund, by Hon. Elias W. Leaven- 
worth, in addition to $5,400.00 previously given $2,500.00 



TABLE OF GIFTS. 435 

For Kent Laboratory by Albert E. Kent in addition to $30,000.00 

previously given $45,000.00 

Edward J. Phelps Professorship of Commercial Law and Contracts 
in the Law Department, by an anonymous donor .... $25,000.00 
For general fund of the Theological Department by Morris K. 

Jesup $2,500.00 

Chittenden Library by Hon. Simeon B. Chittenden . . . $100,000.00 
Mrs. Miriam Osborn for a new building for lecture and recita- 
tion rooms .... $125,000.00 

For fund and expenses of the Semitic Professorship, small sums 

amounting to $7,700.00 

For the expenses of the Observatory, a total of ... . $1,850.00 

For new gymnasium a total of $5,450.00 

Hugh Chamberlin Scholarship, by Hon. Daniel H. Chamber- 
lin $1,500.00 

1887-1S88. 
For the Department of Comparative Astronomy by Dr. Henry 

Bronson (in addition to previous gifts) $10,500.00 

For general purposes by Alexander Duncan $20,000.00 

For general purposes from estate of Mrs. Urania Battell Humph- 
rey $15,000.00 

To increase Earned Scholarship Funds from estate of Mrs. Urania 

Battell Humphrey $6,000.00 

To increase funds for instruction in Music from estate of Mrs. 

Urania Battell Humphrey $5,000.00 

For funds for instruction in Mathematics, by Erastus L. De 

Forest $10,000.00 

Fund for Scholarships from estate of Dr. Charles L. Ives $5,000.00 
For foundation of a Professorship of Greek by Dr. Alvan Tal- 

cott $25,000.00 

For Henry J. Ten Eyck Prizes, by the Kingsley Trust Associa- 
tion $2,600.00 

For general purposes by Rev. Dr. Burdett Hart .... $6,388.00 
For funds of the University by Oliver B. Jennings . . . $5,000.00 
For Recitation Building from the donor an additional . . $35,000.00 
For aid of students in the Divinity School, by an anonymous 

donor . $2,000.00 

For Professorship of Semitic Languages $3,200.00 

For general fund of the Divinity School, by Robert Peck $1,000.00 
For the income of the Medical School by an anonymous donor $1,260.00 
For the salary of an Assistant in the Department of Semitic Lan- 
guages, by an anonymous donor $3,000.00 



436 APPENDICES. 

For Chittenden Library, by Hon. Simeon B. Chittenden, in ad- 
dition to $100,000.00 previously given $25,000.00 

Also a memorial window. 

Avails of the estate of Henry L. Ellsworth .... . $25,000.00 

For funds of the Divinity School by Alfred S. Barnes . . $1,000.00 

From a friend for the aid of students $1,200.00 

For scholarship funds in the Divinity School, by Walter W. 

Seymour $9,000.00 

For John C. Holley Memorial Fund $2,000.00 

1888-1889. 

Funds for Academical Department, from estate of Philip Marrett 
of New Haven $130,000.00 

Avails of the estate of Henry L. Ellsworth . . . . . . $13,641.52 

Repairs on Farnam Hall, by Mrs. Henry Famam . . . $2,000.00 

For foundation of Woolsey Professorship of Biblical Literature 
by "certain gentlemen" $50,000.00 

For foundation of the John Sloane Fellowship, by John Sloane, 
New York $10,000.00 

For Department of Comparative Anatomy by Dr. Henry Bronson 
in addition to $28,090.00 previously given $24,963.65 

The George W. Nichols Memorial Fund, by Rev. Dr. George W. 
Nichols $5,000.00 

For foundation of Scott Hurtt Scholarship, in Academic Depart- 
ment, by classmates and friends of B. Scott Hurtt, '78 . . $5,000.00 

For foundation of William L. Storrs Lectureship in the Law De- 
partment, by the Misses E. T. and M. A. Robinson . . . $5,000.00 

For Holmes Professorship of the Hebrew Language and Litera- 
ture, in the Theological Department, by Samuel Holmes (in 
addition of $14,000.00 previously given) $11,000.00 

For Holmes Scholarships in the Academical Department by 
Samuel Holmes (in addition to $1,000 formerly given) . . $3,000.00 

To the income of the Medical School from two anonymous 
donors $2,750.00 

For Sheffield Scientific School, from estate of Joseph E. Shef- 
field, real estate, including the Sheffield mansion and grounds, 
appraised value $182,000.00 

For Professorship of Semitic Languages, by Hon. Robbins Battell 
and Miss Anna Battell $2,000.00 

For aid of students in the Divinity School, by "a friend" $1,000.00 

For the salary of Assistants in the Department of Semitic Lan- 
guages, by "two friends of Bible study " $1,500.00 



TABLE OF GIFTS. 437 

For Osborn Hall, by Mrs. Osborn (in addition to $160,000.00 pre- 
viously given) $20,000.00 

For Astronomical Observatory, by Prof. Elias Loomis, the income 
of $100,000.00 

For fund for new Gymnasium, contributions (in addition to $12,450.00 
previously given) amount to $137,000.00 

For Professorship in Semitic Languages, sums amounting to $1,675.00 

1889-1890. 

For Department of Comparative Anatomy, by Dr. Henry Bronson 

(in addition to $53,053.65 previously given) $27,246.35 

For general funds of the University, by Mrs. Harriet T. Leaven- 
worth $15,000.00 

For funds of the University Library, from estate of George 

Gabriel $10,000.00 

For scholarship funds of the Theological Department by the 

same $5,000.00 

For a new Dormitory building on the College grounds, for Aca- 
demical Department, by "a friend" (Pierce N. Welch) . $125,000.00 
Salary of Professor of Music, by Mrs. Ellen Battell Eldridge $1,000.00 
For Income of the Sheffield Scientific School, by Mrs. Henry 

Farnam $4,000.00 

Improvements at the Sloane Laboratory, by Thomas C. Sloane $1,125.71 
For aid of students in the Divinity School, by " a friend". $1,000.00 
For the Astronomical Observatory, from estate of Prof. Elias 

Loomis $12,415.51 

For purchase of the Barringer Collection of Egyptian Antiquities 

by Hon. William Walter Phelps $1,500.00 

For the income of the University Library by the same donor $3,000.00 
For foundation of Waterman Scholarships in the Academical De- 
partment, from estate of Thomas Glasby Waterman .... $40,000.00 

For Henry Allis Scholarship Fund in the Theological Depart- 
ment, from estate of Mrs. Emily W. Colton $9,000.00 

For organ in Marquand Chapel, by "a friend" $1,750.00 

Contributions for new Gymnasium (in addition to $149,450.00 pre- 
viously mentioned) $28,050.00 

Charles Jesup Fund in the Divinity School, by Morris K. 

Jesup $50,000.00 

Contributions to the Alumni University Fund $9,238.60 

For books for Kent Laboratory, by Albert E. Kent . . . $1,000.00 
From two friends for the salary of Assistants in Semitic Lan- 
guages $1,500.00 



438 APPENDICES. 

1890-1891. 

For general funds of the University, from estate of Daniel B. 

Fayerweather $74,300.94 

For general funds of the Sheffield Scientific School, from estate of 

Daniel B. Fayerweather $37,150.46 

Endowment for Professorship of Mathematics in the ShefiQeld Sci- 
entific School, from estate of James E. English $20,000.00 

Funds for the University Library, from estate of James E. Eng- 
lish $10,000.00 

New building for Sheffield Scientific School, by Prof. Henry W. 

Farnam $10,250.00 

For income of the University Library, by Hon. William Walter 

Phelps $3,000.00 

For Sloane Laboratory, from estate of Thomas C. Sioane $75,000.00 
Salary of Professor of Music, by Mrs. Ellen Battell Eldridge $1,000,00 
For Marett Scholarship Fund, from estate of Philip Marett $2,294.95 
For Medical Department by Mrs. Henry Farnam . . . $5,000.00 
For income of Sheffield Scientific School, by Mrs. Henry Far- 
nam $2,000.00 

For further endowment of the Edward J. Phelps Professorship in 

the Law School, by J. Pierpont Morgan $25,000.00 

For Scholarship fund of the Academical Department, from estate 

of Joseph A. Christman $22,631.53 

Salary of an instructor in English in the Academical Department, 

by Edward W. Southworth $1,000.00 

For Henry W. Allis Scholarship Fund in the Theological Depart- 
ment, from estate of Mrs. Emily W. Colton (in addition to $9,000.00 

previously mentioned) $2,000.00 

For the aid of students in the Divinity School .... $1,000.00 

For repairs on East Divinity Hall, a total of $6,600.00 

For Yale Infirmary, sums amounting to $13,248.00 

For the Medical School by Dr. Job Kenyon $1,000.00 

For the new building for Sheffield Scientific School, by Prof. 

George J. Brush $1,000.00 

Thomas G. Bennett $1,000.00 

A. B. Hill $1,000.00 

Contributions to the Alumni University Fund .... $6,499.61 
For Sheffield Scientific School, by United States appropria- 
tions $48,000.00 

Contributions to new Gymnasium (in addition to $177,500.00 pre- 
viously mentioned) $22,071.87 

For Susan B. Dwight Fellowship in the Theological Department, 
by " a friend " $3,500.00 



TABLE OF GIFTS. 439 

For general funds of the University, from estate of Russell A. 
Bigelow $2,000.00 

1891-1892. 

For the Yale Infirmary, by Mrs. William Walter Phelps through 
Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt, Treasurer of the New York Committee of 
Ladies, by several ladies in Pittsburgh, and by other subscrip- 
tions $22,150.00 

Winchester Hall, by Mrs. Jane E. Winchester .... $130,000.00 
Alfred Barnes Palmer Scholarship in the Academical Depart- 
ment, by Rev. Charles Ray Palmer $5,000.00 

Repairs on Farnam Hall, by Mrs. Henry Farnam . . . $1,000.00 
Mrs. Henry Farnam for Medical School Building Fund . $1,000.00 
For income of Medical School, by Mrs. Henry Farnam . $4,000.00 
For Henry W. Allis Scholarship Fund, in the Theological De- 
partment, from estate of Mrs. Emily W. Colton (in addition to 

$11,000.00 previously mentioned) $3,043.50 

Salary of a stenographer for the University, by Matthew C. D. 

Borden $1,000.00 

From estate of D. B. Fayerweather for funds of University $79,940.65 

Sheffield Scientific School $37,970.32 

For new building for Sheffield Scientific School, by Hon. William 

Walter Phelps $5,000.00 

For Medical School Building Fund by Hon. William Walter 

Phelps $1,000.00 

three friends $6,000.00 

small sums $6,290.00 

Mrs. Henry Farnam $1,000.00 

For income of the University Library, by Hon. William Walter 

Phelps $3,000.00 

Contributions to the Alumni University Fund .... $6,712.67 
of which $5,000.00 was assigned to income of year. 

To provide for the chair of Professor Sumner, during his absence 
in Europe, by H. F. Dimock, O. H. Payne, and W. C. Whitney $2,000.00 
For aid of students in Divinity School, by " a friend " . . $1,000.00 

small sums $1,093.20 

For ^Sheffield Scientific School, by United States appropria- 
tion $18,000.00 

Salary of Professor of Music, by Mrs. Ellen Battell Eldridge $1,000.00 

For aid of students, by " a friend" $1,230.34 

Funds for instruction in the Theological Department, from estate 

of Mrs. Caroline E. Washburn $25,000.00 

For new Gymnasium (in addition to $197,571.87 previously men- 
tioned) $11,919.91 



440 APPENDICES. 

For general fund of the University, from estate of Lyell T. 
Adams $4,000.00 

For purchase of remarkable specimen of meteoric iron, by friends 
and sons of Professor Loomis $1,250.00 

For purchase of furniture for the Infirmary, a total of . . $3,307.00 

From estate of Mrs. E. P. Fogg for W. H. Fogg scholarship 
fund $38,000.00 

1892-1893. 

Vanderbilt Hall, by Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
For foundation of Scott Hurtt Fellowship in the Academical De- 
partment, by Mrs. Sarah I. Hurtt $12,000.00 

To found Thacher Memorial Prize Fund, by Class of 1842. $3,000.00 
Yale Infirmary Endowment fund, by Mrs. Timothy D wight $1,000.00 

White Hall, by Dr. Andrew J. White $150,000.00 

For Theological Department, from estate of Mrs. Mary C. L. 

Fitch $1,000.00 

from estate of Ezekiel H. Trowbridge $5,000.00 

by small sums $1,656.35 

For University Library, by Hon. William Walter Phelps (the in- 
come of the Phelps legacy) $3,000.00 

For income of the Medical Department, by Mrs. Henry Far- 

nam $3,000.00 

For repairs in Farnam Hall $1,000.00 

For new building for the Law Department, contributions amount- 
ing to $53,000.00 

Contributions to the Alumni University Fund $7>749-^S 

For Woolsey Fund, payments in liquidation of National Bank of 

Missouri $1,830.20 

For enlargement of Battell Chapel, by Hon. Robbins Battell and 

Mrs. Ellen Battell Eldridge $27,472.67 

Alice Kimball English Prize Fund in Art School, by Mr. and 

Mrs. Henry F. English $1,000.00 

Furniture for the Trophy room, by the Class of 1877 . . $1,500.00 
For the new Gymnasium, a total of (in addition to $209,491.78 

previously mentioned) $9,013.68 

For University Library Fund, from estate of Mrs. Ellen Battell 

Eldridge $15,000.00 

From a friend for poor students in the Divinity School . $1,000.00 
For increase of endowment of Battell Professorship of Music, 

from estate of Mrs. Ellen Battell Eldridge $20,000.00 

For the foundation of two graduate scholarships, to be known as 



TABLE OF GIFTS. 441 

the Ellen Battell Eldridge Scholarships, from estate of Mrs. Ellen 

Battell Eldridge $24,000.00 

From Mrs. E. K. Hunt for the Medical School .... $25,000.00 

1893-1S94. 

Benedict Fund by Frank W. Benedict $1,000.00 

For foundation of Austin F. Howard Scholarship, in Academical 

Department, from estate of James T. Howard $4,426.81 

For part expense of new Steam Heating Plant, by Cornelius Van- 

derbilt $14,000.00 

For photographic apparatus for Observatory, by National Acad- 
emy of Science (an appropriation from income of a fund bequeathed 

the Academy by Prof. J. Lawrence Smith) $2,000.00 

For White Hall, by Dr. Andrew J. White (in addition to $150,000.00 

previously mentioned) $i3,539-2i 

For University Library, by Hon. William Walter Phelps . $1,500.00 
For income of the University, from Alumni University Fund $12,500.00 
For Daniel Lord, Jr., Memorial Scholarship in Academical De- 
partment, by Daniel Lord $5,000.00 

For Medical School Building Fund, by Pierce N. W^elch . $1,000.00 
For income of the Academical Department by Mrs. Henry Far- 

nam $1,000.00 

For new Chemical Laboratory of Sheffield Scientific School, by 

Mrs. Henry Farnam $3,000.00 

For income of the Medical School, by Mrs. Henry Farnam $i,Soo.oo 
For salary of Professor of Christian Ethics, in Theological De- 
partment, by J. H. Whittemore $2,400.00 

For foundation of Mary A. Hotchkiss Scholarship, in Theological 
Department, by Female Educational Society of New Haven $1,000.00 
For income of the Infirmary, small sums amounting to . $3,169.82 

Dr. Andrew J. White for White Hall $13,539.21 

For new Law School Building, a total of $11,000.00 

From M. C. D. Borden for the Borden fund in the University $20,000.00 
For aid of students in the Divinity School, a total of . . $1,760.00 
From E. C. Billings for Emily Sanford Professorship of Eng- 
lish $52,500.00 

1894-1895. 

For foundation of William Wirt Winchester Prize Fellowship, in 
the School of the Fine Arts, by Mrs. Jane E. Winchester . $15,000.00 

White Hall, by Dr. Andrew J. White, (in addition to $163,539.21 
previously given) $^,7S'\-°7 



442 APPENDICES. 

For erection of Whitman Gates, by Mrs. Henry Farnam . $3,500.00 

For income of Academical Department, by Mrs. Henry Far- 
nam $1,000.00 

For income of tlie Medical Department by Mrs. Henry Far- 
nam $1,500.00 

For Emily Sanford Professorship (in addition to $52,500 already 
given) $17,500.00 

For University Library Fund, by Matthew C. D. Borden . $6,000.00 

For Henry W. Allis Scholarship Fund, in Theological Department 
from estate of Mrs. Emily W. CoJton (in addition to $15,275.00 
previously given) $16,020.00 

For University Library, from income of legacy of John J. 
Phelps $1,383-33 

From estate of Martin S. Eichelberger $40,500.00 

For new Gymnasium, a total of $4,026.89 

(in addition to $218,505.48 previously mentioned). 

For erection of Phelps Hall, from bequest of Hon. William 

Walter Phelps $50,000.00 

by his family $20,000.00 

For Theological Department, from estate of Mrs. Emily M. 
Fitch $30,000.00 

For University Library, by Professor Henry W. Farnam . $10,000.00 

For income of Theological Department, by J. H. Whittemore $3,200.00 

For Elias W. Leavenworth Scholarship Fund, in the Academical 
Department, from estate of Elias W. Leavenworth .... $1,375.00 

For foundation of Learned Scholarship, in the Academical De- 
partment, by Hon. William Law Learned $2,000.00 

For new building for the Law Department, by John W. Hen- 

drie ^5,000.00 

Henry F. English $5,000.00 

Pierce N. Welch $5,000.00 

Prof. Simeon E. Baldwin $1,000.00 

Prof. William K. Townsend $1,000.00 

small sums $3>997-54 

From estate of Daniel B. Fayerweather for general fund of Uni- 
versity $28,500.00 

for funds of Scientific School $14,250.00 

1895-1896. 

To found the Rochfort Fund, from estate of Thomas E. Rochfort, 
a legacy $1,000.00 

To establish a departmental library for use of students in Social 
Science in Academical Department, by Mrs. Mary Boocock $4,000.00 



TABLE OF GIFTS. 443 

For immediate use in purchase of books for same, by Mrs. Mary 

Boocock ;?i,ooo.oo 

For foundation of Susan C. Clarke Scholarship in Theological 
Department, from estate of Miss Susan C. Clarke .... $5,000.00 
For Building Fund in Law Department, by John W. Hendrie (in 

addition to $15,000.00 previously given) $10,000.00 

For income of Theological Department, by J. H. Whittemore $3,200.00 
For foundation of Downes Prize Fund, in Theological Depart- 
ment, by William E. Downes $3,000.00 

For University Library by New York City Yale Alumni Associa- 
tion $1,600.00 

For Sheffield Scientific School, by State of Connecticut . $154,604.45 
(This sum is the equivalent of the sum constituting the Congres- 
sional Grant of 1S62, together with interest due on same.) 

From a friend for the Law Department $12,600.00 

For purchase of Riant Library, for University Library, by Mrs. 

Henry J'arnam $3,000.00 

From estate of Thomas C. Sloane $150,000.00 

For income of University Library, by Mrs. Henry Farnam $1,000.00 
For repairs on Farnam Hall, by Mrs. Henry Farnam . . $2,000.00 
For income of Medical School, by Mrs. Henry Farnam . $1,000.00 
For purchase of the Curtius Library, by Joshua M. Sears $5,000.00 
To establish The President's Fund, in aid of students of limited 

means, by Class of 1842 $1,000.00 

Funds for University Library, by Junior Promenade Committee of 
the Class of 1897 $1,500.00 

1896-1897. 

For University Library Funds, from estate of Miss Anna H. Chit- 
tenden $1,000.00 

For Marett Scholarship Fund, in the Academical Department, 
from estate of Philip Marett $19,789.52 

For income of the University, by Treasurer of the Alumni Univer- 
sity Fund Association $8,709.80 

For income of the Theological Department, by J. H. Whitte- 
more $3,200.00 

For Medical School, from estate of George Bliss .... $50,000-00 

For Building Fund of Law Department, by John W. Hendrie (in 
addition to $25,000.00 previously given) $25,000.00 

For repairs on Farnam Hall, by Mrs. Henry Farnam . . $1,000.00 

For income of Medical Department by Mrs. Henry Farnam $900.00 
two anonymous donors $2,750.00 



444 APPENDICES. 

For an isolating pavilion in connection with the care of the sick 
through Mrs. Josephine M. Dodge, Treasurer $8,142.26 

For Sheffield Scientific School, from estate of Dr. John P. At- 
water, a plot of ground with a block of five houses valued at j^20,ooo.oo 

For Daniel C. Eaton Graduate Scholarship, by Mrs. Caroline K. 
Eaton $2,000.00 

To establish the Daniel C. Leavenworth Memorial Fund in the 
Medical Department, by Mrs. Daniel C. Leavenworth . . $1,000.00 

From estate of D. B. Fayerweather for University funds . $113,467.48 
Scientific School l9i-3374 

From Thomas C. Sloane estate $40,706.64 



X. 



TABLE OF ADMINISTRATIONS. 

THE following table shows the number of students at the 
beginning of each administration and the number of 
students at the close of the administration. The same is 
shown of the number of men on the Faculty. 

The number of students given under the various Adminis- 
trations down to and including the beginning of the first Timo- 
thy Dwight's, were found by adding together the lists of graduates 
for four successive years, found in the triennial catalogue. 







rtT3 


rt g 




"o"© 


"o-a 




<d 




Z<, 


M ° 


A 


t <* 


«< 




'S 




•a ° 


ll 




•2'S 
E a . 


1° 


■3 


1 




2m 




3 


all 


^li 




< 
"3 






"^< 




S >,.2 




_c 


W) 


"O 


•^.Q^ 


.Q 


a 


J3^ C 


J2.S *; 


rt 


« . 


w 


6-°. 2 


£ Si 


V 


£ ?. E 


£ =-S 


2i 


11 


Oh 


D C C 


^% 




P 




= cj C 


c 


1701-1707 


Abraham Pierson . . • 


I 


'? 


18 


I 


2 


I 


1707-1719 


Samuel Andrew (pro tern.) 


19 


36 


17 


2 


2 





1719-1722 


Timothy Cutler .... 


36 


46 


10 


2 


2 





1726-1739 


Elisha Williams .... 


57 


68 


II 


2 


3 


I 


1740-1766 


Thomas Clap .... 


82 


116 


34 


3 


5 


-1 


1766-1777 


Naphtali Daggett {pro tern) 


98 


157 


59 


4 


5 


I 


1778-1795 


Ezra Stiles 


128 


125 


(-)3 


6 


7 


I 


I795-1817 


Timothy Dwight . . . 


118 


325 


207 


7 


14 


7 


1817-1S46 


Jeremiah Day .... 


283 


588 


305 


16 


36 


20 


1846-187 1 


Theodore Dwight Woolsey 


584 


755 


171 


37 


65 


28 


1871-1886 


Noah Porter 


809 


1076 


287 


7' 


114 


43 


1886-1898 


Timothy Dwight . . . 


1 134 


2511 


1377 


120 


260 


140 



XI. 



REPRESENTATION BY SECTIONS. 

IN the following table, which shows the sectional distribution 
of the students of Yale at different times between 1800 
and 1898, the States and territories are divided as follows : — 

New England — Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut. 

Eastern — New York, New Jersey, Delaware, District of 
Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania. 

Middle — IlUnois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. 

Southern — Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Missouri, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklohoma, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West 
Virginia. 

Western — California, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Min- 
nesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South 
Dakota, Washington, Wyoming. 

The small figures at the right of the others indicate what 
percentage of the whole number of students came from that 
section : — 





1800. 


.825. 


1850. 


18-5. 


1898. 


New England . . 


igo^^ 


2-905 


30655 


515^' 


1072*3 


Eastern 


16- 


IOO-3 


148^7 


203-^5 


S0332 


Middle 




12-^ 


21* 


170I6 


278U 


Southern .... 


10^ 


31^ 


641^ 


41* 


1421^ 


Western .... 






& 


43' 


142'' 


Foreign 


I 


t 


IQl 


19- 


63-2 




217 


429* 


555 


1,051 


2,500 



« Theological and Law Students, 39 in number, are not included in 
this list. 



XII. 



RECORD OF APPOINTMENTS. 

THE following table presents the number of Junior appoint- 
ments in each grade for the last twenty-five years. This 
covers what may be called the athletic era. The noticeable 
feature of the tables is not only the increasing number of ap- 
pointments in latter years, but the increased ratio of appoint- 
ment men to the total number of students in the class. The 
tables follow : — 



Class. 


'74 


'75 
4 


'76 
6 


'77 
4 


'78 
6 


'79 
6 


'80 
4 


'81 
8 


'82 
8 


'83 
7 


•84 
12 


'Ss 
II 


'86 


Philosophical . . . 




2 


9 


High Orations . . 




II 


3 


7 


2 


12 


15 


13 


7 


6 


15 


II 


8 


9 


Orations 




12 


8 


5 


9 


10 


15 


10 


17 


5 


21 


'7 


II 


«4 


Dissertations . . . 




8 


3 


5 


7 


II 


8 


6 


8 


16 


IS 


II 


'5 


16 


First Disputes . . . 




7 


6 


8 


8 


5 


13 


II 


8 


8 


16 




12 


10 


Second Disputes . . 




8 


II 


10 


7 


5 


12 


5 


9 


6 


8 


13 


9 


5 


First Colloquies . . 




3 


9 


9 


8 


13 


7 


12 


9 


'5 


7 


II 


•S 


10 


Second Colloquies . 




6 


4 


17 


>5 


9 


8 
84 
.58 


II 
72 
•54 


7 
73 

•53 


15 
79 
.60 


4 
93 

■57 


II 
97 
.61 


7 
8S 

.62 


II 


Total no. of Applicants 


57 


48 
•53 


67 
•49 


60 
•49 


7' 
•52 


84 


Percentage of the Class 
receiving Appointments . 


•44 


.56 



448 



APPENDICES. 



Class. 


'S7 


'SS 

6 
13 

9 
10 

7 
8 
II 
12 


•Sg 

6 
II 
12 

9 
14 
10 

8 
14 

84 


'90 

5 

>5 
12 
13 
'5 
16 

13 
'S 

104 
.69 


'91 

12 
II 
14 
7 
12 
16 
24 
30 

126 
.66 


•92 

7 

9 
18 
14 
20 

17 

12 

no 
•59 


'93 

12 

8 
18 
17 
23 
14 
•3 

22 

127 

.65 


'94 

12 

ID 
26 
14 
16 
24 
21 

33 

156 

.67 


'95 

17 
'5 
23 
16 
18 
24 
32 
20 

165 
.67 


■96 

28 
21 

28 

19 
26 

33 
27 
20 

202 
•71 


'97 

22 

19 
27 
17 
23 
28 
30 
30 

196 
.67 


'98 

31 
24 
24 
26 

'7 

26 
26 
35 

209 
.68 


'99 


Philosophical 

High Orations 

Orations 

Dissertations . . . . 

First Disputes 

Second Disputes .... 
First Colloquies .... 
Second Colloquies . . . 


7 

ID 
ID 
13 
13 
'7 
II 
13 


16 

19 
28 
•9 
30 
26 
33 
22 


Total no. of Applicants. . 


94 


76 


•93 


Percentage of the Class 
receiving Appointments . 


.60 


•S9 


.66 


•63 



PART III 



ATHLETICS AT YALE 



By WALTER CAMP 



29 



CHAPTER I. 

WHAT ATHLETICS HAS MEANT AT YALE. 

NOT closer does the ivy cling to the walls of the 
classic buildings on the campus than does the 
memory of athletic trials and triumphs to reminiscences 
of the man who has been four years at Yale. There 
has been, ever since athletics in this country meant 
anything, a peculiar connection between them and the 
life and virility of the college. And previous to the 
day of the new man and new woman, — before athletics 
meant anything save the rowdy associations of prize- 
fighters or the gambling incident to a professional foot- 
race, — even then there was a something in the college 
life that took the place of the modern athleticism. It 
was the springing up of strong, robust health in the 
youth, — the desire as of the strong man to run a race, 
— and it found its vent in many manifestations, not all 
of which were satisfactory either to the young man or 
to his preceptors. 

" Town " and " Gown," long since lost sight of, gate 
stealing, all sorts of mischievous and often dangerous 
larks, are among the recollections of the early days 
before the dawn of athletics. 

At New Haven, pre-eminently, were these escapades 
of frequent and sometimes of serious occurrence, owing 



452 YALE. 

most likely to the fact that in those days the "Town" 
and " Gown " of New Haven were by no means un- 
equally matched in point of numbers available for 
sudden conflict. The stabbing and death of Pat. O'Neill 
was the culmination of these disturbances, and the 
gravity of the situation entailed by this tragedy sobered 
many. But, as has been most ably shown by Professor 
E. L. Richards in his charts plotting the disciplinary 
records of the college, since the dawn of the new era of 
athleticism, disturbances of this nature, and, in fact, all 
trespasses upon the discipline of the college, have 
grown steadily less. 

So athletics at Yale have a right to a place of honor, 
not alone for themselves, but for their indirect effect 
upon the college life. To make a man hale and strong 
is good ; to make a university more amenable to dis- 
cipline is better ; but best of all is the establishment of 
an all-around standard of clean morals and health, and 
an esprit dii corps that carries the typical Yale man far 
towards the best goal in all his efforts. 

The present — 1898 — general organization of Yale 
athletics is remarkable in its simplicity, and, while it 
might be impossible or impracticable at other universi- 
ties or colleges, for one reason or another, has been 
productive of magnificent successes in developing that 
side of student life at New Haven. 

Each of the four main branches of athletics, — 
namely, baseball, boating, football, and track athletics — 
has a distinct organization of its own. The principal 
officers of each are a president (or manager as he really 
is), an assistant manager, and a captain. The manager 
has in his charge all matters connected with and apper- 
taining to the business end of the association, while the 




Professor Eugene L. Richards 
Professor of Mathematics and Director of the Gymnasium 



ATHLETICS AT YALE. 453 

captain's province is that of practical overseer of the 
candidates for positions. The manager and his assist- 
ant are elected by the university at an annual mass 
meeting, while the captain is chosen by the men who 
made up the team, nine, or crew of the previous season 
in the most important contests. Barring the unusual, 
the assistant manager progresses to the office of manager 
in his second year. The four managers, together with a 
graduate treasurer, compose the Financial Union, and 
all funds are received and disbursed through this agency, 
which acts as a common pool. Each manager, however, 
prides himself upon the showing of his own association, 
for all the moneys are credited to the individual organi- 
zation which turns them in, and the expenditures of 
each are kept in separate accounts, and an annual re- 
port of these is published in the columns of the " Yale 
News." 

The Yale Field Corporation ov/ns the Yale Field. This 
corporation is composed of graduates with, ex-officio, the 
managers of the three field organizations. The field cor- 
poration receives such appropriations from the Financial 
Union as its needs require, and these appropriations 
take the place of an annual rental. The Boat Club, also 
incorporated, owns the boat-house, which was erected 
by popular subscription something over twenty years 
ago. There have been graduate advisory committees, 
both general, and for the separate organizations; but 
their functions have not been onerous, and, in fact, the 
general advisory committee has not acted for many 
years, although in the early eighties in boating matters 
it was called upon several times for advice, which it ren- 
dered satisfactorily. Each manager is practically omni- 
potent in his special branch. He is his own master, and 



454 YALE. 

responsible only to the university. He does not tres- 
pass upon the captain's province, but is his aid in all 
matters toward a successful season. He furnishes or 
applies the sinews of war ; and while he enforces econ- 
omy in expenditure, he does it with a view toward the 
results to be obtained, and the general welfare in the 
university of that branch over which his jurisdiction 
extends. Thus, while the captain chooses the men to 
represent the university on the field and on the water, 
the president or manager arranges all the business details 
incident to the season ; and for a really successful year 
the two must both be able men, possessed of consider- 
able executive ability, and acting in the greatest harmony. 
For this reason, it would seem that some provision would 
be necessary for the deposition of an incompetent in- 
cumbent of either of these offices. As a matter of fact, 
however, there is no direct method of getting rid of an 
unsuitable man. But the indirect ways are numerous, 
and, while seldom put in operation, are likely to be 
effective. 

Various reasons have been assigned for the long series 
of successes in athletics that have come to the wearers 
of the blue in the last twenty years. Most of these rea- 
sons have been far-fetched, and, while some of them have 
borne a measure of truth, a large proportion have been 
false. That is, they have been but parts of a very con- 
sistent whole, and have been only incidents rather than 
reasons. To one who is willing to eliminate the con- 
tributory, it comes home that Yale in her system and 
her practice most thoroughly appreciated the fact that 
the one-man element — the czar principle, if it might so 
be called — of management and direction was the more 
certain to produce in the long run the best results. 



\ 



ATHLETICS AT YALE. 



455 



Yale, while never formally placing any man in charge, 
save the undergraduate manager and captain, for twenty 
years has had her policy mapped out and directed some- 
times by one individual and sometimes by another, but 
always by an individual who during his tenure of the 
unnamed office could effect results in his own way and 
without interference. By interference here is not meant 
criticism. Expression of opinion was always possible, 
but there was no practicable method by which the 
critics could reach the individual or the organization 
under his control. The captains and managers were 
always loyal to him, and the undergraduate body, so 
far as the influential men in the community were con- 
cerned, were always unflinchingly and unwaveringly 
loyal to the management. 

A great many people who have followed the athletic 
fortunes of Yale from the standpoint of outsiders, and a 
number of others who fancy they have from conversation 
with Yale men enjoyed the view-point of the inside man, 
will instance numerous exceptions to the above state- 
ment. But this is because the men who have been 
responsible for Yale's athletic work and policy, victories 
and defeats, have not worn their hearts upon their sleeves, 
either winning or losing, and, when there has been an 
explanation of the result, that explanation has not been 
given to the public, either the general public or the rank 
and file of the undergraduates, but has been most care- 
fully treasured and considered, and made the means to 
further triumphs or to return of prestige through re- 
newed victories. 

By means of this loyalty men have been brought back 
to coach; through this loyalty they respected the policy 
that might be mapped out, and relying upon this loyalty 



45 6 YALE. 

the individual who might be tlie adviser of the manage- 
tnent was always able to see that his tenets were upheld 
and his plan carried through. This loyalty is and has 
been the Yale spirit, and it is that spirit and its effect 
that has enabled Yale to play an uphill game, carry 
through an adverse season, or recover a lost champion- 
ship in such a way as to render the term " Yale spirit " 
synonymous with bull-dog pluck and tenacity of pur- 
pose wherever the expression is heard. Should one 
fancy for a moment from the above statements that the 
body of coaching graduates, the managers, and the cap- 
tains form merely a mutual admiration society, the judg- 
ment would be erroneous. But what must be said, the 
point that is in discussion, is brought at once to head- 
quarters and settled, many times entirely without the 
knowledge even of the men who form the teams or 
crews. Once settled, it is not resurrected, unless the 
conditions surrounding it are altered. 

There is no mystery about the matter. The appall- 
ing averages of Yale's successes during the last twenty 
years offer a fascinating field for those who like to seek 
out by means of elaborate investigations what they are 
pleased to term the hidden causes of such a record. 
They open all the closet doors they can find, take 
the word of the bystander as to the contents of those 
they cannot unlock, and then draw their conclusions. 
They state as facts what their only means of knowing is 
hearsay, and they have the unanswerable argument in 
favor of their statements being truth that they are not 
denied by the men who really know. Unanswerable 
surely, for such statements will never be answered save 
in the most general and impersonal way. 

It has been stated that the reason for Yale's triumphs 



ATHLETICS AT YALE. 457 

lies in the fact that the institution is not situated in or 
near a large city. Probably the attractions offered by 
the social life, and the temptations of the pleasures of 
metropolitan life, are such as to take away some of the 
men who would otherwise prove acceptable candidates 
for athletic organizations ; but the recent record of the 
advance of the University of Pennsylvania makes the 
theory of the incompatibility of city life and university 
athletic successes untenable. These two principles re- 
ferred to in the case of Yale, — namely, one man direct- 
ing and loyalty to him, — have triumphed over the 
attractions of the city. 

In the treatment of the principal branches of Yale 
athletics in this book. Rowing, or Boating as it has long 
been called by the college man, will receive the first 
place and the major part, as it has been for the longest 
period a recognized and organized side of the athletic 
development of the institution, and its history in detail 
becomes thus of the highest importance in studying the 
athletic life of the university. 



CHAPTER II. 

ROWING AT YALE. 

THE Yale Navy was formally organized in June, 
1853, with officers as follows: A Commodore 
from the Senior Class, a first Fleet Captain from the 
Junior Class, a second Fleet Captain from the Sheffield 
Scientific School, and a Secretary and Treasurer from 
the Sophomore Class. The first race with Harvard 
was held the previous year at Lake Winnipiseogee in 
August, Harvard winning decisively. The first boat 
actually purchased for a 'varsity crew, and not for a 
separate club, was the Yale, afterwards called the Ata- 
lanta, a six-oared shell, forty-five and a half feet long, 
built by James of Brooklyn in 1858. This boat was 
not, however, used in the Harvard-Yale race of that 
year, but instead a four-oared boat called the Volante, 
built by Dalton of St. Johns, carried the crew. 

In 1862 it cost a freshman $10 to join the boat club, 
and the electioneering was keen. Up to that time forty 
boats had been owned by the Yale Navy, and eighteen 
still remained, principally eight-oared shells. In the 
following autumn the membership of the Navy was 330 
men. In the next four years the membership ran 
down to 196. 

In 1870 a new constitution was adopted, and the 
Yale Navy, with its commodore and fleet captains, etc., 
became the Yale University Boat Club, with president, 
vice-president, secretary, and treasurer. The commo- 



ROWING AT YALE. 459 

dore had come to be the captain of the crew, but with 
the new regime the president was not to be a member 
of the crew, and from that time dated the election of a 
captain by the crew themselves. In 1873 a formal 
adoption and printing of a constitution took place. 
This constitution was further altered and perfected in 
September of 1875. Membership in the Yale University- 
Boat Club could be obtained by any member of the 
departments of Yale upon the payment of a minimum 
sum of five dollars. This was later reduced to three 
dollars. 

In the fall of 1877, there were in the Yale boathouse 
fifty boats of various patterns, including designs by 
Clasper of England, Elliott of Greenpoint, Keast and 
CoUins of New Haven, and Waters of Troy. The 
original cost of these boats was something over $7,000. 
The number of boats in condition for active service is 
now considerably less, but they are principally eight- 
oared shells and barges, the paper ones built by 
Waters, and the cedar imported. 

Yale's first boathouse was Riker's Loft, near Tom- 
linson's bridge. In 1859 a makeshift boathouse was 
built. This, however, was no more than a shed erected 
at the foot of Grand Street in an old lumber yard. In 
1866 the first real boathouse was erected near Tomlin- 
son's bridge, at an expense of $3,300. of which the 
undergraduates raised $1,000, the graduates $150, and 
the balance was borrowed on mortgage. The ground 
was taken on a five years' lease. 

In 1874 the present boathouse was begun, and after 
several delays was finally finished at an expense of 
$16,500, of which $4,500 was for the land, $2,000 for 
dredging, bridges, piling, and float, and $1,500 for in- 



46o YALE. 

tcrior fitting and furniture. It was dedicated June 9, 
1875. No very large sums have been expended upon 
this boathouse, and it has stood well. It is probable, 
however, that the piling upon which it stands and 
some of the flooring must be replaced within the next 
few years. The roofing and piazza floorings were re- 
newed and painted in 1897. 

The slender eight-oared shells that shoot down the 
Thames have little about them to suggest the clumsy 
four-oared Whitehall boat that was the pioneer of Yale 
boating. That boat, manned by its crew of four, and 
three substitutes, marking the beginning of rowing at 
Yale, carried for its annual expense fifty dollars, as 
against the modern crews' $10,000! 

The first boat at Yale was nineteen feet long and 
four feet beam. It was built by De la Montagnie & 
Son of New York, in 1837, but sold to a Yale junior, 
Mr. Weeks, in 1843. It cost, with four twelve-foot oars, 
just $29.50. A club of seven used the Pioneer, as she 
was called, from May of 1843 to August of 1844, when 
the boat was sold for $12. The total expenses of this 
year of boating was in exact figures $62.35. 

The first real racing boat, however, at Yale was the 
Excelsior, built by Brooks Thatcher in 1844. It was 
thirty feet in length and manned by six oars. The first 
eight-oared boat was the Augusta, which was brought 
to Yale in 1845. It was thirty-eight feet long, and cost, 
when new, some years before, $300. At the time of its 
purchase for Yale it brought $170. 

As mentioned above, the first boats used in this 
country by college crews were four-oared Whitehalls, 
but in the year 1844 the boats at Yale consisted of a 
four-oared Whitehall, an eight-oared lapstreak gig, and 



ROWING AT YALE. 461 

a log canoe. In 1845 there was added a six-oared 
thirty-foot racing boat. From 1844 to 1854 there were 
fifteen boats owned at Yale. Of these six were eight- 
oared, six four-oared, and three six-oared. In 1852, 
the year of the first Yale-Harvard race, the boats used 
were eight-oared barges with coxswains. The Oneida, 
the Harvard boat, measured 37 feet in length. In 1855. 
boats of various sizes, and manned by varying numbers 
of men, were used in the race. Harvard had one boat, 
an eight-oared barge, 40 feet long, with coxswain, and 
a four-oared lapstreak, 32 feet long, with frame outrig- 
gers and without a coxswain. Yale had two boats, 
both six-oared, with coxswains. In 1858, Harvard used 
for the first time a pine shell, six-oared, 40 feet long, 
and weighing 150 pounds. In that year there was no 
race, owing to the sad accident to one of the Yale crew, 
Mr. Dunham, who was drowned. In 1859, Harvard's 
six-oared pine shell won the race. 

In 1865, Yale went in with a six-oared Spanish cedar 
shell, 49 feet long, with 22-inch beam and 1 1 inches 
deep, and weighing 176 pounds. This boat was 
matched against the Harvard cedar shell, 46 feet long, 
25-inch beam, 8 inches deep, with a slight keel, and 
weighing 195 pounds. The Yale boat won. The time 
made was 17 minutes 42-|- seconds over the mile and a 
half and return, at Lake Ouinsigamond. The weather 
was fine and the water smooth. Up to this period the 
best time for the course had been 18 minutes and 53 
seconds. Harvard the follov/ing year had her shell built 
10 feet longer than that of the previous year, and 17 
feet longer than Yale's of the previous year. 

It was 56 feet long, and had a 19-inch beam, and won 
the race easily. In the following year Harvard increased 



462 YALE. 

the beam and shortened the length, having a 5ofoot boat, 
as in 1865. The year after this Harvard again won in 
a boat of the same measurements. In 1870, Yale intro- 
duced the sliding seat, and her boat came in one minute 
and forty-five seconds ahead of Harvard, but owing to a 
foul the race was given to Harvard. In 1877, both Yale 
and Harvard used paper shells built in Troy. In 1881, 
Yale used the Davis rigging, and, rowing up in the 
forties, won by a length and a half. The following year 
Yale extended the Davis ideas to a boat 6S feet long, in 
which the men sat in pairs. Harvard, in an ordinary 
boat, won by half a length. 

The most interesting feature in connection with boat- 
building of the last thirty years has been the introduc- 
tion of the sliding seat and the questions thereby raised. 
It is not absolutely known who invented the sliding seat; 
but it is certain that the idea came from America, and 
the invention originated here. It is also positive that 
Yale was the first college crew to use it. There are two 
individuals who have been called the inventors, — a cer- 
tain Captain J. C. Babcock, and Walter Brown, at one 
time the American champion in single sculls. The 
greatest number of authorities favor Brown, and he is 
supposed to have first got the idea of the sliding seat 
from observing Renforth and Taylor slipping or sliding 
on their seats when rowing. This was when Brown was 
in England in training for a race with J. Sadler, in 1869. 
Sliding seats were first used in England in November, 
1871, although they had been tried by Yale in her race 
with Harvard in 1870. In this English race, which was 
for the championship of the Tyne, in four-oared boats, 
VVinship's crew, who rode on sliding seats, quite easily 
beat Chamber's crew, who used the fixed seats. What 



ROWING AT YALE. 463 

seemed at that time to settle the value of the sliding 
seat was that these same crews met shortly afterward 
in America, both rowing on fixed seats, and the result 
was reversed, as in two meetings Chamber's crew beat 
Winship's, and in the third meeting had a safe lead of 
150 yards at the turning point, but lost by going out 
of their course. 

A most interesting discussion was carried on in the 
journals of that day by Mr. Knollys, of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, the winner of the Diamond and VVingfield 
sculls in 1872, and Mr. E. Warre. The gist of the 
matter was, however, that sliding seats were pretty thor- 
oughly approved of, although Warre, in one of his final 
letters, wrote as follows : — 

" But the advocates of the sliding system must not expect 
to see sliding crews always victorious over those who use fixed 
seats. Until I see the Henley course done in seven minutes 
by the sliding crew, I will not be rash enough to augur that 
the pace of that fine London crew of 1868, and of the Oxford 
Etonians of 1870, can be much improved upon by sliding." 

But, as Mr. Lehmann said to the writer, in dis- 
cussing some of these points recently, " We have done 
all that." 

The only thing that has militated against the slide, 
and that has tempted men to train crews on fixed seats 
at Yale and other colleges, — at any rate for a time in 
the earlier part of their training, — has been the tendency 
to slide too soon and lose control over the slide; so 
that there is no fixed point for the catch on the first 
grip of the water by the blade, and then the slide hesi- 
tates in its course, and also moves when back. For a 
long time among English oarsmen there had been a 



464 YALE. 

question as to whether the slide should move quickly 
or slowly. All saw that it was necessary to feel the 
water well before sliding, and to get the first part of 
the stroke on before the seat commenced to move ; 
but there was much discussion as to whether, then, the 
slide should shoot back or go back slowly. One of 
the best authorities summed it up, however, by saying, 
he would as soon have said in the old system, " Put 
your weight on very slowly," as he would now, "Slide 
slowly." It might not pay for a crew to slide with a 
jerk, but the crew that shoots back after they get the 
power on will get the greatest drive. American crews 
have been taking a longer slide than the English crews, 
but are now shortening up again, and getting more 
body swing. In fact, all the crews at Poughkeepsie 
in 1897, and New London in 1898, exhibited a great 
deal more body swing than we have ever seen in this 
country since the introduction of the sliding seat. 
Yale's ideas in this direction, as also probably Cornell's, 
came from their respective visits to Henley, and the 
contact with the English system. 

The type representing the Yale rowing man is diffi- 
cult to select. There has been more or less fashion 
about it, crews running for some years to the heavy, 
beefy type, and again to the lighter and more wiry. 

In eight-oared races probably the heaviest crew that 
has ever rowed in a college contest in this country was 
the Harvard crew in 1892. The average weight was 
177I pounds. The crew was beaten nearly a minute. 
The average age was 23^- years. The heaviest Yale 
crew was that of 1882, which averaged 1775^ pounds 
in weight. They were beaten by Harvard by three 
seconds. 



ROWING AT YALE. 465 

Columbia's winning crew at Poughkeepsie two years 
ago, 1895, was a comparatively heavy crew, averaging 
173 pounds. The youngest crew of whom there is any 
record in college eight-oared contests was the Harvard 
crew of 1877. They averaged only 20 years of age, but 
they won their race by seven seconds. This was the 
first year of Crocker, Legate, Jacobs, Schwartz, and 
Smith. It was the famous Bancroft crew which won for 
three years. 

The largest of the crews in these eight-oared was the 
Harvard crew of 1890. They averaged 6 feet and ^ 
inch. They were beaten by 1 1 seconds. 

It appears from these records, as well as others, that 
crews that are extreme in any way, either weight or 
height, as a rule, go down before the more average 
crews. This has been Yale's experience. 

It is interesting also to note something of the dis- 
tribution of the men who have rowed in the Harvard- 
Yale contests. The Harvard crews have been made up, 
more than half, of men coming from Massachusetts, 
one-tenth from New York, and the rest scattering ; 
while the Yale crews have been about one-third from 
New York, one-third from Connecticut, and the rest 
scattering. 

It is generally reported that in England it is not con- 
sidered good form to defeat a crew badly; but in the 
earlier days there were some bad beatings administered 
upon occasions. In the Oxford-Cambridge races the 
greatest defeats administered were in 1839, when Cam- 
bridge won by i minute and 45 seconds, in 1875, when 
Oxford won by ten lengths, and in 1878, when Oxford 
won by ten lengths. 

In America there has been but little sentiment against 

30 



466 YALE. 

winning by all the water possible, and both Yale and 
Harvard have at times shown no mercy. 

In Yale-Harvard races the worst defeat was the one 
administered by Harvard to Yale in 1855, which was 
won by 2 minutes and 34 seconds. In 1879, Harvard 
won by over a minute and a half, and in 1888 Yale won 
by about twenty lengths. 

The closest race was that of 1882, when Harvard won 
by less than half a length. 

In Morgan's investigation into the effects of rowing 
upon the after-health of Oxford and Cambridge Univer- 
sity oars, it appears that of the six crews that rowed 
from 1839 to 1842 only three men showed any later ill 
effects, while of the two crews in the single year of 1845 
no less than five men were returned in the statistics as in- 
jured. The race in that year was rowed nearly a month 
earlier than any previous race, which may possibly have 
had something to do with it. Of the former races three 
were rowed in June and three in April ; while the race of 
1845 was rowed on the 15 th of March. 

Then, too, in the next year's race, which was rowed 
on April 3, two were returned as injured. During the 
next seven races there Wc^s but one very close contest, 
and only one man of the fifty-six was on the injured list. 
In the next four races there were four men on the in- 
jured list, but in one of these races Cambridge sank, 
which may have accounted somewhat for the record. 

The statistics of Yale-Harvard have not been so 
closely followed, only a brief mortality record having 
been made. From a compilation made in 1887, of the 
115 men who had rowed in Yale and 127 men who 
had rowed in Harvard 'Varsity races, the record of 
deaths is as follows : — 




K o 






H|^ 



ROWING AT YALE. 467 

Yale. Harvard. 
Crew of '58 ....... I Crew of '52 3 

'59 I '55 4 

'68 I '58 2 

'72 I '59 I 

'76 I '60 I 

'78 I '65 2 

'80 I '76 I 

Total 7 Total 15 

This seems a good record for the subsequent health 
and stamina of boating men. No more recent data 
regarding American crews have been gathered, but the 
only trouble that seems to afflict the average Yale 
rowing man is to become unduly stout. 

Yale's great rival in boating, as well as in other sports, 
has been of course Harvard. There have been, besides 
those contests usually reckoned as 'varsity races, several 
incidental to these but of less importance. Many are 
the interesting memories connected with these 'varsity 
contests, and many are the prominent names one finds 
in the records. 

Away back in the fifties Harvard and Yale began their 
boating contests with a race at Lake Winnipiseogee, 
August 3, 1852. It was a two-mile race, and rowed in 
eight-oared barges. A strange feature of the occasion 
was what was called an informal or practice race between 
the crews over the same course in the morning. Both 
races were won by the Harvard crew. In 1858 the 
" Harvard Magazine " proposed the establishment of an 
annual intercollegiate regatta, and delegates from Har- 
vard, Yale, Brown, and Trinity met. But Harvard and 
Yale came back to their dual contest again in 1864. It 
was not until 1872 that the Rowing Association of 
American Colleges was fairly established. In that year 



468 YALE. 

there were four crews entered besides Yale and Har- 
vard, and the race was rowed at Springfield and won by- 
Am herst. 

Probably had Harvard or Yale won the first of these 
contests the association would not have grown to its 
speedily unwieldy shape. But the success of a small 
college held out hopes to other small colleges, and the 
rush to join the association was something remarkable. 
In 1873, there were eleven colleges represented, among 
them, for the first time, Cornell. Yale won the race, 
with Wesleyan second and Harvard third. In 1874, 
there were nine crews, — Yale, Harvard, and Cornell 
were among them, — and they were all defeated by 
Columbia. The following year thirteen crews con- 
tested, and Cornell, for the first time, won. Alleging 
the unsatisfactoriness of the contest as a reason. Har- 
vard and Yale determined to return to their old dual 
contests once more. Other reasons having weight, un- 
doubtedly, were that there was no real settlement of the 
relative merits of their two individual crews in this 
crowded regatta, where fouls were frequent, and that 
it really was not thoroughly palatable to be defeated 
annually by some of the smaller colleges. 

So, in 1876, they agreed to withdraw. The newspa- 
pers made a stir about it, and talked of the snobbish- 
ness of such exclusiveness ; but it was impossible to 
prevent the move, although Harvard did row that one 
last season in the intercollegiate. Yale defeated Har- 
vard by twenty-nine seconds in four miles, and Cornell 
defeated Harvard by four seconds in three miles. The 
result of the two races was a most heated discussion 
as to the merits of Cornell and Yale, which awaited 
adjustment up to 1897. So arose between the boating 



ROWING AT YALE. 469 

enthusiasts of both universities the interesting question 
of 1876: "Has Cornell or Yale the boating suprem- 
acy?" Since then there were occasions upon which 
Cornell and Yale have rubbed shoulders, but never 
raced until 1897. In the boating traditions that are 
handed down at each university, there are various tales 
of challenges that have passed, and one that came very 
near to a race at New London, when both crews were 
there to row others. In that mysterious way in which 
a college quarrel assumes great proportions, the status 
of affairs between Yale and Cornell had come to be 
regarded as fixed. Yale was supposed to be offended 
because, when unwilling to saddle themselves with an- 
other race, they were met with the charge of cowardice, 
and Cornell was believed to have a sense of injured 
dignity because Yale would not row her. Yet individu- 
ally, Cornell and Yale men were permitted to have 
friendships and meet together. 

Two or three years ago another college quarrel 
sprang up, which had its effect upon this one. Har- 
vard and Yale disagreed, and a most complicated con- 
dition of affairs ensued. If they did not row each other, 
whom should they row? Here Cornell again became 
a factor. Harvard made a two years' arrangement with 
Cornell, and Yale went to Henley. Individually, both 
these quarreUing parties were sensitive lest some one 
should point the finger of scorn and say, "You have 
no race; your quarrel is hurting you." Then, to fur- 
ther complicate matters, a decided anxiety forced itself 
upon Cornell. This university had sent a crew to Hen- 
ley the year before, and that crew had failed to carry 
off the Grand Challenge Cup. Suppose Yale should 
do it! But there was no great danger. Yale returned 



470 YALE. 

beaten, as Cornell had returned beaten. Harvard was 
defeated by Cornell at Poughkeepsie ; so that of the lot 
Cornell had by far the most satisfaction out of the Har- 
vard-Yale quarrel. 

And now came a still more interesting part of the 
complication. Harvard and Yale wished to patch up 
their peace. But Harvard had a contract to row Cor- 
nell one more year. All this gave rise to months of 
cogitation; but finally, Yale having expressed her will- 
ingness to become a party to a three-cornered race, 
if Harvard put the question to Cornell, a suitably- 
framed letter to Cornell v/as written by Harvard, and 
immediately an answer was returned consenting to the 
admission of Yale. So, without having affected the 
dignity of their positions, Cornell and Yale came to- 
gether once more. 

The meeting in 1897 between Harvard, Cornell, and 
Yale was the first time that representatives of these 
three universities had ever met in a race by themselves, 
save once, twenty-three years ago, when, on the 1 5th of 
July, 1874, in the annual single-scull contest at Saratoga, 
the contestants were E. L. Phillips of Cornell, 1875, A. 
L. Devins of Harvard, 1874, and A. Wilcox of Yale, 
1874. The race was a two mile one, and was won by 
Wilcox, who finished ten lengths ahead of Devins of 
Harvard, who in turn was some five lengths ahead of 
Phillips of Cornell. The time made was 14 minutes 
8| seconds. In 'varsity contests, however, where there 
were other representatives as well, Yale and Harvard 
had met Cornell in the following years: 1873, when 
Yale won; in 1874, when Yale and Harvard fouled and 
Columbia won; and in 1875, when Cornell won. The 
triumph was a double one for Cornell, as she also won 



ROWING AT YALE. 471 

the freshman race, beating Harvard, Brown, and Prince- 
ton, Yale entering no crew. In the single scull race 
Cornell entered no man, and Kennedy of Yale defeated 
Weld of Harvard. 

The 'varsity race of 1875 was rowed in six-oared 
shells with coxswains. Cornell's crew averaged 22 years 
8 months in age, 159 pounds in weight, and 5 feet 
9|- inches in height. The course was a three mile 
straightaway, and Cornell's time was 16 minutes 53. V 
seconds. Harvard finished third and Yale sixth. The 
time was not as good as that made by Columbia the 
previous year, they covering the same course in 16 
minutes 42 1- seconds. In 1897, ^^1 ^^^ strokes were 
low, averaging not far from 34. Cornell finished first, 
with Yale second and Harvard third. 

Harvard and Yale 'varsity crews have been meeting 
each other, with occasional omissions of a year or so at 
a time, ever since that initial race in 1852. The exact 
number of 'varsity races in which, whether accompanied 
by other crews or by themselves, they have met, has 
been up to 1898 thirty-six. So strong is the general 
impression produced by the results of the last twenty 
years, that many will be surprised to learn that Har- 
vard still has, in 1898, the lead in the number of times 
her boat has finished ahead of the Yale boat. Since 
eight-oared shell-racing was adopted, however. Harvard 
has been rarely able to take one race out of every three, 
the record standing Yale two to Harvard's one. 

In those early days, when the crews rowed but little 
before the race lest " they should blister their hands," 
and thus incapacitate themselves for the actual contest, 
there was little of modern methods either in boats or 
men. But there were names which have since become 



472 



YALE. 



prominent in other walks of life, and it certainly took 
fully as much pluck to row a race in those days of no 
preparation, but extreme willingness, as it does to-day, 
with the more advantageous equipment and better 
training. In the Yale boat of i860 sat H. Brayton 
Ives, now the New York banker, and Eugene L. Rich- 
ards, now the Yale professor of mathematics. About 
that time the Harvard boat always contained a Crown- 
inshield. When it came down to the sixties, we find 
in the list of those manning the Yale boat familiar 
names like Wilbur Bacon, George Adee ; and in the 
Harvard boat William Blaikie and Alden Loring, who 
captained the Harvard crew that went to England, and 
Robert C. Watson, who has since been prominent in 
Harvard rowing affairs. 

In 1872, first appears the name of Robert J. Cook, 
Yale's special boating genius. Richard Dana was cap- 
tain of the Harvard crew that year; and Cook's first 
initiation into rowing was a defeat of i minute and 16 
seconds. Harvard finishing the course in 16 minutes 
and 57 seconds, and Yale in 18 minutes and 13 seconds. 
But the following year the tables were turned, and 
Cook, then captain, won with his crew against Dana's 
crew, finishing in almost the identical time made by 
Dana's crew the previous year. 

Bancroft, one of Harvard's most prominent coaches, 
and later mayor of Cambridge, first sat in a Harvard 
boat in 1876, and captained it, but was defeated by 
Yale in that year. The next three years, however, 
Bancroft's crew won, and the men who sat in those 
boats are well remembered yet at Cambridge, • — Stow, 
Schwartz, Smith, Brigham, Jacobs, Legate, Peabody, 
Crocker, and Trimble. Those were days when, indeed, 



ROWING AT YALE. 473 

it seemed that Yale's boating star had set forever. But, 
as before, it is a long lane that has no turning ; and of 
late years it has been Harvard that could see no light 
ahead. 

What have been known as professional strokes and 
methods have from time to time had an influence upon 
Yale and general college boating; and although no one 
has been able really to quite distinguish where and 
when the line of demarcation appears, it is worth while 
to note their presence. 

Back in the early days, when the crews had first 
begun to realize the advantages of training, we find in 
the seventies the professionals, Ellis Ward, Josh. Ward, 
and Hamill of Pittsburg, coaching some of the college 
crews. They gave them plenty of work and a restricted 
diet, and sometimes they were successful under these 
methods ; the victory of the Amherst Agricultural Col- 
lege, won in 1871, and Amherst in 1872, being due to 
this kind of coaching. In 1873, the visit of Mr. Cook 
to England imported new ideas, but they were received 
with a good deal of scepticism ; and in fact, when Mr. 
Cook came back in May he had trouble in getting his 
crew to follow out his instructions, and the college 
viewed the new stroke decidedly askance. The news- 
papers joked about it a good deal, and finally the Yale 
freshmen entirely rejected it and engaged one of the 
above professionals — Hamill of Pittsburg — to coach 
them. In the regatta Mr. Cook's crew won, but so 
also did the freshmen. 

One of the most sensational affairs in the annals of 
college rowing occurred in 1873, when the mistake was 
made of delivering the championship flags to Harvard, 
who started with them for Boston, but were stopped at 



474 YALE. 

Worcester and the flags sent back to Yale. The trouble 
arose over the finish line, which ran diagonally across 
the Connecticut River at Springfield. There was a 
decided bend in the river, and the line, therefore, did 
not run at right angles to the bank. It was nearly dusk 
when the race was finished, and Harvard supposed they 
had won; but the judges awarded the race to Yale. 

In 1874, at Saratoga, occurred another episode that 
materially affected the boating relations of the colleges. 
This was the bumping between the Harvard and Yale 
boats. The episode provoked so much hard feeling 
that it really became the beginning of the breaking up 
of the intercollegiate regatta. So many crews were 
entered that it was well-nigh impossible that the race 
should be rowed without a foul. The race started, and 
Harvard went into the lead. The Yale crew followed, 
and rowing at 33 slowly crept up on the Harvard crew, 
which had shifted over into Yale's water. Yale steered 
to the right and forged ahead. After they had attained 
the lead Harvard spurted, and the bow of their boat ran 
into Yale's rudder, cutting it off, and breaking the oar 
of Harvard's No. i. Yale dropped out entirely, and 
Harvard stopped for a moment, but eventually went 
on and came in third, Columbia winning. Some very 
strong language seemed necessary between members 
of the two crews before the situation was properly 
characterized. 

As a means of comparing the rowing of professionals 
and college crews, reference may be made to two con- 
tests at Boston, and one at New Haven. Of these rather 
remarkable races, two were rowed on the Charles River, 
one late in the seventies, and the other about 1885. The 
first was between Bancroft's crew and eight of the best 



ROWING AT YALE. 475 

oarsmen that could be picked up from about Boston, 
practically a professional crew. In that professional 
crew sat Faulkner, as well as such men as Plaisted, Ross, 
and Gorkin. The two crews paddled down to the start- 
ing-point at Brookline Bridge, and the race was then 
rowed over the two-mile course. In describing it, an 
old Harvard oarsman says that when the University 
crew had reached the Union boathouse, their profes- 
sional rivals had carried the boat into the boathouse 
and were wiping her off. The other contest, of 1885, 
was between a scratch crew containing Faulkner, Hos- 
mer, Casey, Gorkin, and Kilrain, and others. This 
time, however, the Harvard crew not only defeated 
the professionals in two miles, but in the several half- 
mile spurts pulled away from them. 

The race rowed in New Haven harbor between the 
Atlantas and " Phil " Allen's crew was even more remark- 
able in its way. The Atlantas, though amateurs, rowed 
what was known as the professional stroke. The race 
was a four mile one, and before it was a quarter over 
Allen, the Yale stroke, broke his oar. Yale was then 
leading by some lengths. Allen, speedily realizing the 
situation, jumped overboard, and was picked up by the 
launch following the race. The Yale crew, with seven 
men, and stroked by S. B. Ives, the son of Brayton Ives 
named earlier in this book, went on and maintained 
their lead after the coxswain and crew had somewhat 
adjusted themselves to the new conditions. 

One can hardly do better in such a restricted com- 
ment upon the general province of boating as the study 
of it at one university must be, than to glance at the 
theories that have governed the actions of the individual 
leaders in that sport. 



476 YALE. 

One might fairly divide the subject in three parts: 
the theory of the government of that branch of the uni- 
versity's athletic interests, the theory of the relation that 
the university boating interests shall bear toward outside 
boating bodies, and the theory of the work itself, — 
strokes, rigging, selection, etc. Taking these in inverse 
order, the theory of strokes brings up an interesting 
history. 

Those who speak of strokes, English and American, 
usually take it for granted that the English stroke has 
always been a long, slow stroke, while the typical Amer- 
ican stroke has been a rapid one. This is a mistaken 
idea, for the Englishmen have been through the question 
of high strokes, and some of them were by no means 
unbelievers in the quick stroke back in the late sixties. 
Archibald McLaren, at that time one of the authorities 
on boating in England, wrote in the early seventies, 
lamenting the increased love of the high stroke, as 
follows : " Too often we have found that a short, quick 
stroke, by which the boat is kept at an almost uniform 
rate of speed throughout, is a vast saving of propelling 
power. The difference between this and the old stroke 
resembles that between an unbroken, even level run- 
ning, and a succession of leaps or bounds." So high 
did the strokes of some of the crews run in 1872 that 
an old water-man, after watching the race, made this 
remark, " The crew that can bucket it the fastest will 
win the race, if they don't bust." In 1874, McLaren 
wrote that " the average ' racing pace ' is forty to the 
minute. In spurting it will rise as high as forty-three 
or forty-four strokes to the minute." 

There has always been a temptation toward high 
strokes, and especially in short races. In long racing, 



ROWING AT YALE. 477 

however, the slow stroke has usually demonstrated its 
superiority. The best record ever made by the fast 
stroke was in an American race between Yale and Har- 
vard at New London in 1882. The Yale crew were an 
ideal crew for the fast stroke, and for a part of the race 
certainly made a most remarkable performance. Their 
stroke ran all the way from forty to forty-six. This 
race is described a little later in this book. 

What might be called tJie stroke in the early Amer- 
ican college boat races was a high one. In 1859, in the 
closest race up to that time rowed, namely, a race on 
Lake Quinsigamond for the Worcester citizens' prize, 
the Yale crew, which finally won the contest while row- 
ing for the most part at forty-six to forty-eight, spurted, 
after Harvard had the lead upon them, to fifty, and then, 
it is credibly reported, to sixty, at the finish, and won by 
two seconds. Something may be said in extenuation of 
such a pace, for the crew, it seems, had, up to a short 
time before, been rowing with thirteen-foot oars and a 
stroke of only thirty-eight, but their new oars were only 
ten and a half feet long, and they found themselves 
unable to get and keep way on the boat save at a high 
stroke. But the demon of the fast stroke had seized 
upon them, for the next year they ran it up to a similar 
point, and were beaten by Harvard, but by only twelve 
seconds. In 1864 and 1865, the Yale stroke was still 
quick, but not so short as in the race of i860, the last 
previous race. In 1866, however. Harvard quickened 
her stroke up to forty-two, while Yale altered hers to 
a much longer and slower one. Harvard won by a half 
minute. In 1867, Harvard again won, but in 1868, led 
away, as seems almost always the case, when once 
thoroughly in love with a fast stroke, they ran it up still 



478 YALE. 

higher, forty-five, and shortened their oars still more. 
True, they won again, but the crew they sent to Eng- 
land in the following year was rowed down by the 
Oxford four in the last two miles of the race. For 
all this in 1870 both Yale and Harvard rowed a high 
stroke, Yale as high as forty-four, and Harvard as high 
as forty-eight, and, although they had the 'Varsity race 
to themselves, both their Freshmen crews were beaten 
by Brown. Yale did not row in the next regatta, but 
Harvard did, and was beaten easily by the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College. 

Harvard and Yale were both beaten by Amherst the 
following year, and then Cook went to England and 
brought back the principles of the longer, slower stroke. 
With this stroke Yale won in 1873; but the following 
year both Yale and Harvard pulled thirty-two to thirty- 
four, and were beaten by Columbia at thirty-eight in 
the first mile. What the eventual outcome might have 
been no one can tell, for Harvard and Yale fouled, and 
Columbia won. Again the next year Cornell, with her 
higher stroke, — higher, that is, than the stroke Yale 
and Harvard were rowing, — won. In 1876, Yale pulled 
thirty-two to thirty-four, and defeated Harvard, pulling 
from thirty-five to forty; but Harvard was defeated by 
Cornell again at a point or two higher still. In 1879, 
again we find Harvard pulling a stroke averaging two 
points higher than Yale's, though only going up to 
thirty-eight, winning the race; and in 1880, Yale, at 
an average of two points higher than Harvard, thirty- 
eight to forty, winning. In 1881, both crews got up 
still another peg and Yale going from thirty-eight to 
as high as forty-four, with Harvard only to forty, the 
race went to Yale. 



ROWING AT YALE. 479 

But in 1882 occurred what was unquestionably the 
most remarkable exposition of a fast stroke that has 
ever been seen. The whole story of the stroke and 
what led up to it is worth telling. 

The year before, Davis, a professional, had had more 
or less influence in leading the Yale men to practise a 
high stroke. There was a good deal of discussion about 
the matter, and some questionings among the old grad- 
uates as to the advisability of the high stroke. The 
boating men were rather divided, although the under- 
graduates and crew were strongly impressed with the 
statements made by Davis. Finally, it came to be a 
question that must be determined, and Davis offered to 
build a boat, and rig it according to his ideas, and if the 
crew with a fast stroke in this boat did not beat the time 
that was the record on the harbor, that is, beat the best 
time ever made by any Yale crew over the four-mile har- 
bor course, by more than a minute by the first of May, 
they could turn him and his boat adrift. The offer was 
accepted, and, in spite of the thorough disbelief of many, 
the fast stroke in the peculiar rig, the men being seated 
in pairs, did accomplish all that had been claimed for it. 
The test was made before a number of the graduate com- 
mittee of the boat club, and the time was 20 minutes, 9 
seconds. 

The Davis rig and stroke, therefore, won the day, and 
the crew went to New London thus equipped. On the 
day of the race there had never been a more confident 
Yale crew. They had repeatedly beaten time records 
in their practice work, and felt sure of success. They 
started off at a stroke of forty-six, letting it down to 
forty-four, but never at any period below forty, and the 
boat entered the third half mile of the race a clear two- 



48o YALE. 

boat lengths ahead of Harvard, and evidently good to 
keep up that pace indefinitely. Here happened the 
most inexplicable thing that has occurred in college 
boat racing on this side of the water, — a thing for which 
all sorts of explanations have been offered, but none of 
them thoroughly satisfactory. In that half mile they 
rowed the same high stroke, but the boat was as if 
anchored, and Harvard gained eight boat-lengths before 
the end of that half mile, thus making up the two 
lengths that they were behind, and putting their boat in 
the lead by some six lengths. This portion of the 
course was called the " eel grass " section, and was 
over the flats, while the Harvard boat was in the 
channel. But it does not seem as if this would have 
been enough to make the remarkable difference. From 
that point on to the finish Yale gained at every stroke, 
and at the last quarter mile was lapping Harvard, and 
had Yale's coxswain not mistaken the course, and steered 
outside of some boats, the fast stroke might even then 
have triumphed, for Harvard finally finished by a scant 
half-length ahead. 

Although defeated, the Yale crew, with the fast stroke, 
and in spite of the stop in the third half-mile, had rowed 
the course in faster time than any Yale crew before 
them ; and it is no wonder that among the men who 
rowed in this boat, there are some settled convictions 
as to the advisability of the fast stroke. 

But upon the heels of this almost convincing exploit- 
ation of the high stroke followed a year of disaster to 
the devotees of that school which has never been over- 
come. The Yale crew of 1883 rowed, or meant to row, 
40-46. They had been trained to row at the same rate 
as the crew of the previous year; but as a matter of fact 



ROWING AT YALE. 481 

the stroke was so badly overtrained that he could not 
force the pace up. Thus before the race was half over 
the beatings of their oars upon the water seemed Hke 
feeble efforts of a wounded bird, and Harvard, rowing 
37-39, finished 15 lengths ahead. The defeat was so 
severe that the stroke was dubbed the " Donkey En- 
gine " stroke, and was then and there practically aban- 
doned. In 1884, Harvard started at 37, but ranged from 
36-38; while Yale rowed as high as 40 at the start, but 
came down to 38, and won by four lengths. For the 
last eight or ten years, Yale's stroke has ranged from 32 
to 36, with Harvard's on the whole a couple of points 
higher, and almost without exception Yale has won. At 
the last meeting of the two alone, namely, the race at 
New London in 1895, after starting at 36 Yale speedily 
dropped to 32, and rowed the race at from 32 to 34. 
Harvard went off at 38, dropped to 34, but soon went 
up again to 36, and at the Navy Yard were rowing 38. 
Yale won easily. But the Freshmen crews of the two 
institutions had a most exciting race. Yale began after 
a few quick strokes to row at 34. Harvard, at a point 
or two higher, led them during the first mile, but only 
by a slight margin. Yale then lifted her stroke to 36- 
38, and at one time touched 20 for the half-minute. At 
this spurt the Yale boat secured a slight lead, which 
was maintained to the finish, although clear water was 
never opened up. At Poughkeepsie, in 1897, the strokes 
of the three crews were all low. Cornell had the longest 
slide, and Harvard the most noticeable body swing. All 
three had, however, adopted much of the English body 
swing. 

Cornell's stroke at Henley was severely commented 
upon by the English papers as short and lacking in body 

31 



482 YALE. 

swing. In the heat when they were defeated it was a 
high stroke, and to the men in their condition, to all 
external appearances, a killing one. Yet in the earlier 
days of their work upon the river they made excellent 
time, even in comparison with the best of the English 
crews. At Poughkeepsie, too, in that year, Columbia's 
longer swing proved victorious over Cornell's American 
crew. Next year, however, the stroke of the Ithacans 
was manifestly longer and slower, and the reach had 
lengthened out materially. With this stroke they rowed 
Harvard down after the middle of the course had been 
passed, and in the following year defeated both Yale 
and Harvard. 

The stroke of the Sho-wae-cae-mettes was the highest 
stroke we have had any fair record of, and, as was shown 
in one of their heats at Henley, as well as in numerous 
races in this country, it certainly carried their boat rap- 
idly. Thus we have the Shos, the Yale crew of 1882, 
and the Cornell-Henley crew as examples of what has 
been looked upon by the public as a high stroke ; and 
there is no avoiding the issue that at certain times in the 
course of their work each one of these crews was making 
phenomenal time. But two of these crews broke down 
at the moment of possible victory, and the third — put 
it how one likes — rowed their race just enough slower 
than their rivals to miss the winning. In England, 
where there are twenty, even thirty, crews to our one, 
where their rowing record antedates ours by a score and 
more of years, and where, if anywhere, there are unlim- 
ited opportunities of comparison, the question of stroke 
seems to have been settled in favor of the slow stroke 
with the long reach and the comparatively short slide. 
Not that the English crews do not spurt on the short 



ROWING AT YALE. 483 

Henley course up to and even beyond forty, but the 
stroke is a long one, cut off a bit, and never the " shut- 
tle-like " action of what we call our fast stroke here. 
And with all the old questions among boating enthusi- 
asts it seems almost a pity that there does not happen 
to be in a race some year one crew with a fast stroke and 
an ability to execute it like some one of these above- 
mentioned crews. Not until such a crew with such a 
stroke rows out a race from start to finish by the side of 
some representative crew of the other school will the 
doubts be laid at rest. When a crew breaks down, its 
supporters naturally are not satisfied with the test. The 
statement that men are not machines, and hence cannot 
keep up the high stroke, is usually true so far as the 
evidence has gone; but there come from time to time 
phenomenal men who, when grouped together, produce 
phenomenal crews, and the actual time records of some of 
these high-stroke crews are hard to face, and would be still 
harder if one of them should win a race. Then the only 
remaining question for argument would be, "Could the 
same crew, being such phenomenal men, not have rowed 
even faster had they used a different stroke?" And in 
that we have one of the fascinations of the sport, — that 
it cannot be freed from an element of mystery and un- 
certainty ; that there may be as yet undiscovered reasons 
for speed ; that the shape of a shell, the cut of an oar, 
the incline of a slide, — any one of these, or a dozen 
other things, may mean victory or defeat, and that, too, 
outside and beyond the marvellous thirty or forty articuli 
of the stroke itself. It is fair to say that in the question 
of strokes Yale has, while experimenting less than Har- 
vard, actually carried the study quite as far. Harvard 
has, however, in the bringing about of Mr. Lehmann's 



4^4 YALE. 

visit to this country in 1897, 1898, performed her share 
in the advancement of the sport. 

As to his relations with outside rowing bodies, the 
Yale oarsman has been conservative. He has wanted to 
keep up his annual contest with Harvard, and with but 
few exceptions has made this apparent. He has not felt 
the need of championships, or been in any sense depend- 
ent upon popular reputation. Hence the excursions of 
the Yale boatman into outside waters have been few. 
His desire has been to meet and, if possible, defeat Har- 
vard. For many years that desire was but half fulfilled. 
He met the Harvard oarsman, but he never could, as 
described elsewhere in this book, carry out the rest of 
the programme. But with Harvard and others he did 
sometimes try his hand against the Englishman. 

Attempts have always been made from time to time 
to bring together two eight-oared crews from leading 
American and English universities for a four-mile con- 
test, but they have never yet been crowned with success. 
One of the most serious obstacles is the fact that the 
time of rowing the annual races of Oxford-Cambridge 
and Harvard-Yale differ by so many months. The near- 
est approach to a race, and what would have developed 
into an assured contest had not Harvard defeated Yale, 
was in 1891. In that year Oxford had practically ac- 
cepted a challenge from Yale, based, however, on the 
condition of Yale's winning her American race. There 
Harvard upset the arrangements by running off with the 
victory and leaving Yale stranded. 

The only distinctively college contest between English 
and American crews was in 1869, between representative 
four-oared crews of Harvard and Oxford. On the 6th 
of April of that year, W. H. Simmons, then captain of 



ROWING AT YALE. 485 

the H. U. B. C, sent the president of the O. U. B. C. a 

challenge to row a race in outrigger boats from Putney 
to Mortlake, on some date to be later decided upon, be- 
tween August 15 and September i. He sent a similar 
challenge to Cambridge. Both Oxford and Cambridge 
accepted the challenge, the latter conditionally, however. 
As soon as Simmons received his acceptances he in- 
vited A. P. Loring, one of the most prominent of Har- 
vard oarsmen, to take the captaincy and stroke of the 
boat, Loring did captain the crew, but left Simmons at 
stroke and went himself to bow. The Harvard crew was 
made up, in addition to Loring and Simmons, of S. W. 
Rice and George Bass, but these two were later replaced 
by the substitutes, Fay and Lyman. Harvard took over 
a boat built by Elliott, of Greenpoint, this country. But 
after their arrival there they ordered a new boat from 
Salters, of Oxford. The race was finally rowed, how- 
ever, in the Elliott boat. The four men who manned 
the Oxford boat were all Etonians. They had all rowed 
in winning boats in their college matches, and had also 
each been seated in winning boats at Henley. The 
most prominent was F. Willan, of Exeter College. He 
had rowed four times in a winning boat in the university 
race. J. C. Tinne, the president of the O. U. B. C, had 
rowed three times in a winning boat. A. C. Yarborough 
and A. Darbishire had each rowed twice in winning boats, 
and Darbishire had been stroke of his university crew. 

The race was rowed on the 27th of August at a quar- 
ter past five in the evening. Harvard, having won the 
choice, took the outside course, and by a brilliant spurt 
secured the lead, so that by the time Bishop's Creek was 
passed they had a half a boat length. At the Crab Tree 
Inn (one mile) they had opened a still greater lead, and 



486 YALE. 

there was over a boat length of clear water between the 
two crews. Oxford, however, by a spurt, closed up this 
gap so that Harvard led by only three quarters of a 
length at the Soap Works. But Harvard responded to 
the spurt, and by the time the crews passed under Ham- 
mersmith Bridge there was clear water between them 
again. Here, it is said, the English crowd called on the 
Oxford stroke to spurt. But he calmly shook his head 
and kept on at the same slow stroke. Soon after this 
the Harvard crew began to come back gradually to the 
Oxford boat, and when they reached Chiswick Ait (two 
miles and a half of the course) the boats were level. 
From this time on Oxford drew ahead and finished by 
what was reported to be three lengths, although the 
judge at Mortlake decided a length and a half. 

The Centennial Regatta in 1876 at Philadelphia on 
the Schuylkill was another opportunity of testing Amer- 
ican, and particularly Yale, rowing against English crews. 
The regatta was held in August, and at that time a four- 
oared crew went to Philadelphia to represent Yale. This 
crew consisted of Kennedy, stroke, Kellogg, Colin, and 
Cook, bow. Wood, who had expected to row at bow, 
was disabled by a felon. Yale won the second heat, lead- 
ing the Vespers and Crescents of Philadelphia. The 
next day Yale was drawn against the London Rowing 
Club, and were beaten by three feet. The race was a 
hot one, and there are to this day claimants who believe 
that the Yale four were jockeyed out of the race on 
account of the bend in the course of the river. The 
London Rowing Club were on the inside, and when Yale 
was even with them swung slowly out. Yale yielded, 
and the London boat went back into its course again. 
As Yale was on the outside this forced them to row far- 



ROWING AT YALE. 487 

ther, and the same thing happened again, which added 
still more to the distance they had to row. This prac- 
tice it was stated was not against the Enghsh racing 
rules, but was not looked on with favor here. 

At any rate it was an excellent race, and the men who 
sat in the Yale boat were considered phenomenal. The 
time of the race was 8 minutes and 5 1 seconds over a 
mile and a half course. The Beaverwicks of Albany 
finally won from the London Rowing Club in slower 
time than this. 

On September i, Yale beat Columbia in the collegiate 
match, First Trinity, of Cambridge, England, who was 
entered, withdrawing. 

Cornell's trip to Henley produced in the end more 
excitement and interest than almost any other interna- 
tional match that we have had. Their style was unfa- 
vorably commented upon as soon as they reached the 
Thames, and it was said they did all the work with their 
arms, which was untrue, and was merely an illusion pro- 
duced by their straight backs and the use of the slide. 
It is a fact that they rowed a high stroke, well up in the 
forties, but in their earlier time races, before they had 
become exhausted either by the severity of their work 
or the effect of the climate (some say one, others an- 
other) they did row the course in close to seven minutes, 
making it in 7 min. 4 sec, 7 min. 10 sec, and 7 min. 
15 sec. A week or ten days before the race, however, 
they began to go off quite markedly, and two or three 
of them were hardly fit for the severe effort when the 
time of trial came. They won a heat against Leander, 
who failed to get off at the word, and by accepting the 
heat thus by default Cornell incurred a good deal of 
enmity. In the next heat they were drawn against 



488 YALE. 

Trinity Hall, the crew that finally won the cup. When 
the umpire gave the word, Cornell started at the rate of 
46 to the minute, and Trinity at 42. The boats were 
nearly level at the top of the island, Cornell was leading 
by a few feet at the quarter mile, and gained from this 
point to the half mile. At Fawley Court they were 
three quarters of a length in the lead. Trinity, how- 
ever, now began to gain, and at the Bushey Gate they 
were only half a length behind. At the mile they had 
closed up the gap to a quarter length, and at the 
Isthmian boathouse they had pushed the nose of their 
shell ahead of Cornell's boat. At this point there ap- 
peared to be a general collapse in the Cornell boat, 
the oars suddenly beginning to go sadly out of time, 
and a moment later the men had stopped rowing. The 
Trinity men had kept on at the same pace, and crossed 
the finish in 7 minutes and 15 seconds. 

The visit of the Yale crew to Henley in 1896 is too 
recent, and hence too fresh in our minds to require much 
comment. Leaving on the " City of Berlin," the Yale 
crew arrived at Southampton June 15, and went direct 
to Henley. The impression gained by the representa- 
tives of the English sporting papers of their style was 
distinctly unfavorable. Both the London " Field" and 
the " Daily Graphic " commented upon this, the former 
even stating frankly that the stroke was the same as the 
Cornell stroke, and bearing no resemblance to what was 
expected, namely, the English stroke in a modified forni. 
Later on the comments were less unfavorable. Yale 
drew Leander in the first drawings, and was defeated by 
some lengths. Two of her men were badly pumped at 
the finish, though they rowed the race out. Leander 
finally won the cup by defeating New College in an ex- 



ROWING AT YALE. 489 

citing and close finish. Mr. Lehmann, later the coach 
of the Harvard crew, for two years was the coach of the 
winning Leander. 

The government of the rowing interests at Yale Uni- 
versity has been commented upon briefly elsewhere in 
this boating chapter. The theory has varied from time 
to time. It has been debatable and debated, whether 
the captain or the commodore or the president or the 
coach should have the final say in matters of policy. 
But it has always resolved itself into keeping that branch 
of sport in safe hands, and essentially well administered. 

From 1886 to 1890, inclusive, Yale defeated Har- 
vard with regularity every year at New London. In 
1 89 1, Harvard took one race, but since that time up 
to and including 1898 Yale has finished ahead of 
Harvard. In 1890, under the captaincy of "Phil" 
Allen, Yale developed a crew that had the nucleus of a 
powerful eight; but in the following year, owing it is 
believed by many to mixing up strokes, she finished 
last for the first time since 1885. In that year the 
experiment was tried of putting Hagerman, a former 
Cornell oarsman, at No. 7. The effect seemed to be 
that in the race the port and starboard oars were each fol- 
lowing a different stroke, and the result was disastrous. 
Another reason which has been alleged for the defeat was 
too great weight in one or two individuals sitting in the 
waist of the boat. After this defeat there was a period 
of most unpleasant prospects for Yale boating, and it 
was not until Hartwell, at that time in the medical school, 
accepted the position of captain upon the resignation of 
Gould, that things began to look brighter. Even then 
it was a hard, long, uphill fight, but in the end Hartwcll's 
crew, stroked by Gallaudct, won the race. In 1893, 



490 



YALE. 



under the captaincy of S. B. Ives, who had rowed at 
seven in the Yale boats in 1890, 1892, and 1893, the 
crew was brouglit to a winning point, and that, too, in 
spite of some lack of material. In 1894, F. A. Johnson, 
who had for two years rowed at bow, was put in captain, 
and went to stroke. There was some difficulty about 
the crew's following him, but for all that they won, al- 
though in rather slow time. In 1895, under Armstrong, 
who had rowed bow in the 1894 crew, and with Langford 
at stroke, the crew lengthened out into a nearer approach 
to the stroke of some years before than had been seen 
for several summers on the river. They won their race, 
but were not sufficiently pressed to make the best time. 
While preparations were making for this race, the quar- 
rel developing between Harvard and Yale came to a 
head, and this w^as looked upon as the last race for some 
years. In 1896, Yale, therefore, sent a crew to Henley. 
The result of the visit was a salutary one in many ways, 
not the least of which being the lesson learned by Yale, 
that there was something in the English boating ideas 
after all. Yale made a fair showing, but was defeated 
in a trial heat. In 1897, ^^ale and Harvard having come 
together again, but the latter having a contract to row 
with Cornell, Yale, in order to accommodate all parties, 
entered into a triangular race at Poughkeepsie. In this 
race Cornell defeated Yale by ten seconds, and Yale 
defeated Harvard by sixteen seconds. 

Not the least eventful of Yale's boating contests was 
the race rowed at New London in June of 1898. It is true 
that the same universities were represented by crews as 
competed on the Hudson in 1897, but the test was not 
a snap one like that. There is no doubt that all three 
coaches looked forward with anticipation to the race of 



ROWING AT YALE. 491 

1898 as one In which each man should do his best to 
vindicate his own idea of what rowing should be. Al- 
though there was much of preliminary college politics 
exhibited, it was practically a foregone conclusion that 
Cornell, Harvard, and Yale would meet at New London. 
So Mr. Cook, who was the Yale coach, spent the winter 
and spring in New Haven; Mr. Lehmann, the Harvard 
coach, and a gentleman whose visit was worth much to 
the tone of our boating, came twice from England, and 
had trusty lieutenants in his absence ; Mr. Courtney 
spent, as usual, all his time at Ithaca. The victory of 
Cornell in 1897 gave them the position of favorites, 
especially as their crew was a veteran one. Both Yale 
and Harvard were younger and much less seasoned. It 
was necessary to postpone the race the first day on 
account of rough water, and it was not rowed until 
noon of the following day. Yale pushed a little to the 
front at the start, and at ten strokes or so had the nose 
of her boat quite a little ahead ; but Cornell swung out 
with 32 strokes to the minute, putting every pound they 
could into the sweeps, and gradually overhauled Yale. 
From that point on the race was never in doubt, al- 
though in the last half of the fourth mile Yale crept 
up a little. Cornell finished first by some four or five 
lengths, with Yale second, and Harvard farther behind 
Yale than was Yale behind Cornell. Thus for two years 
Cornell has been a factor in the Yale-Harvard races, 
and in both years has won. Later, at Saratoga, in the 
race between Pennsylvania, Cornell, Wisconsin, and 
Columbia, Pennsylvania defeated the same eight that 
a week previously defeated Yale and Harvard. 



492 



YALE. 



i 
(5 


8-oared barges. 

Oneida 37 ft. long. Coxswains. 

Yale boats — 6-oared, coxswain. 

Harvard boats — Iris, 8-oared 
barge, short free outriggers, 
coxswain, 40 ft. ; Y. Y., 4 
oared lapstreak, framed out- 
riggers, no coxswain, 32 ft. 

Yale — 4-oared. 

Harvard — pine shell, 6-oared, 

40 feet, 150 lbs. 
Brown — 6-oared. 
Trinity — 6-oared. 

Yale — 6-oared shell with cox- 
swain, 45 ft. 

Harvard — 6-oared pine shell, 
40 ft. 150 lbs. 

Brown — 6-oared lapstreak, 44 ft. 

Avon — 6-oared lapstreak, 42 ft. 

Yale — 6-oared cedar shell, cox- 
swain. 

Harvard — 6-oared pine shell, 
40 ft. 

Brown — 6-oared cedar shell, 
coxswain. 

Yale — 6-oared cedar shell. 
Harvard — 6-oared cedar shell, 
4S ft. 22 in. beam. 


J 


•S S« • <» K - 

^ ?Ja ■ E E i 


c 
o 


•" EE ; " " ^ 


c 
c 


Oneida of Harvard. 

Iris of Harvard. 
Y. Y. of Harvard. 

The death of Mr. 
George E. Dun- 
ham, of the Yale 
crew, by drowning 
at Springfield, pre- 
vented the race. 

Harvard. 

Harvard. 
Yale. 


c 
rt 

a> 
a 
o 
U 


Halcyon (or Shaw- 
niut) of Yale. 

Oneida of Har- 
vard. 

Nereid of Yale. 
Nautilus of Yale. 
Iris of Harvard. 
Y. Y. of Harvard. 

Volante of Yale. 

Harvard. 

Brown. 

Trinity. 

Yale. 
Harvard. 

Atalantaof Brown. 
Avon of Harvard 
(Class of '60). 

Yale. 

Harvard. 

Brown. 

Yale. 
Harvard. 


3 
O 

U 


Lake Winnipesaukee. About 

two miles straight away. 

Weather fair and calm. Water 

smooth. 
Connecticut River, Springfield. 

I J miles down stream and 

return. Weather lowering. 

Smooth water, light breeze; 

11 sec. per extra oar allowed 

to small boats. 

Connecticut River, Springfield. 
First regatta of American 
Colleges. 

Lake Quinsigamond. Second 
Intercollegiate regatta; ij 
miles and return. Cloudy, 
fresh wind, choppy water. 

Lake Quinsigamond. Third In- 
tercollegiate regatta ; ij miles 
and return. Fine weather, 
strong wind, water not smooth. 

Lake Quinsigamond. Fourth 
Intercollegiate regatta; li 
miles and return. Fine wea- 
ther, good water. 


Q 


1852 
Aug. 3 

1855 
July 21 

1858 
July 23 

1859 
July 26 

i860 
July 24 

1864 
July 29 



ROWING AT YALE. 



493 





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ROWING AT YALE. 



501 



Yale and Harvard University Oarsmen. 
The names are arranged from bow to stroke, except 
in the earliest Yale crew, the positions of which rest 
only on the authority of the memory of their classmates. 



1852. 



Halcyon of Yale, 10 w, 5 j. 
Albert E. Kent, '53. 
Joseph S. French, '53. 
Wm. C. Brewster, '53. 
Edward Harland, '53. 
Joseph Warren, '53. 
Arthur E. Skelding, '53. 
William L. Hinman, '53. 
James Hamilton, '53 (Capt). 
Richard Waite, '53 (Cox.). 



Oneida of Harvard, 10 w. 
Charles Miles, '53. 
Charles F. Livermore, '53. 
Wm. H. Cunningham, '53. 
John Dwight, '52. 
Charles J. Paine, '53. 
Sidney Willard, '52. 
Charles H. Hurd, '53. 
Thomas J. Curtis, '52. 
Joseph M. Brown, '53 (Capt. and 
Cox.). 



1855- 



Nereid of Yale, 23 m. 38 s. 
Adrian Terry, '54 S. 
Chas. F. Johnson, '55. 
Henry W. Painter, M. S. 
Theodore W. E. Belden, '57. 
Storrs O. Seymour, '57. 
Joseph W. Wilson, L. S. (Capt.). 
Nathaniel W. Bumstead,'55 (Cox. 



Iris of Harvard, 22 m. 
Joseph N. Willard, '57. 
William G. Goldsmith, '57. 
Channing Clapp, '55. 
Charles F. Walcott, '57. 
Benj. W. Crowinshield, '58. 
William H. Elliott, '57. 
John Homans, '58. 
Samuel B. Parkman, '57 (Capt.). 
James M. Brown, '53 (Cox.). 



Nautilus of Yale, 24 m. 38 s. 
Jeptha Garrard, '58. 
Ed. Curtis, '59 S. 
George Lampson, '55. 
Granville T. Pierce, '55. 
George M. Dorrance, '56. 
Samuel Scoville, '57 (Capt.). 
George Tucker, '57 (Cox.). 



Volante of Yale {no race). 
Fred W. Stevens, '58. 
Henry L. Johnson, '60. 
George E. Dunham, '59. 
Wm. D. Morgan, '58 (Capt.). 



1855- 



Y. Y. of Harvard, 22 w. 3 5. 
Alexander Agassiz, '55. 
Stephen G. Perkins, '56. 
Langdon Erving, '55. 
John Erving, L. S. (Capt.). 



1858. 



University of Harvard (no race). 
Hey ward Cutting, '59. 
Joseph H. Wales, 'or. 
Joseph H. Ellison, '59. 
Robert B. Gelston, '58. 
Casper Crowninshield, '60. 
Benj. W. Crowninshield, '58 
(Capt.). 



502 



YALE. 



1859 



Yale, 20 m. 18 s., and 19 tn. 14 s. 
Fred H. Colton, '60. 
Charles H. Owen, '60. 
Henry W. Camp, '60. 
Joseph H. Twichell, '59. 
Charles T. Stanton, '61. 
Henry L. Johnson, '60 (Capt.). 
Hezekiah Walkins, '59 (Cox.). 



Harvard, igm. 18 s., andig m. 16 s. 
Joseph H. Ellison, '59 (Capt.). 
Joseph H. Wales, '61. 
Henry S. Russell, '60. 
Edward G. Abbott, '60. 
William H. Forbes, '61. 
Casper Crowninshield, '60. 



i860. 



Vale, 19 m. 5 s. 
H. Brayton Ives, '61. 
Eugene L. Richards, '60. 
Edward P. McKinney, '61. 
Wm. E. Bradley, '60. 
Charles T. Stanton, '61. 
Henry L. Johnson, '60 (Capt.). 
Charles G. Merrill, '61. 



Harvard, 18 w. 53 J. 
Joseph H. Wales, '61. 
Henry Ropes, '62. 
William H. Ker, '62. 
Edward G. Abbott, '60. 
Calvin M. Woodward, '60. 
Casper Crowninshield, '60 (Capt.). 



1864. 



Yale, ig m. i s. 
William W. Scranton, '65. 
Edmund Coffin, '66. 
Edward B. Bennett, '66. 
Louis Stoskopf, '65. 
Morris W. Seymour, '66. 
Wilbur R. Bacon, '65 (Capt.). 



Harvard, 19 m. 43^ s. 
Edwin Farnham, '66. 
Edward C. Perkins, '66. 
John Greenough, '65. 
Thomas Nelson, '66. 
Robert S. Peabody, '66. 
Horatio G. Curtis, '65 (Capt.). 



1865. 



Yale, 17 m. a,2\ s. 
William W. Scranton, '65. 
Edmund Coffin, '66. 
Isaac Pierson, '66. 
Louis Stoskopf, '65. 
Edward B. Bennett, '66. 
Wilbur R. Bacon, '65 (Capt.). 



Harvard, 18 m. g s. 
Charles H. McBurney, '66. 
Edward H. Clarke, '66. 
Edward N. Fenno, '66. 
William Blaikie, '66. 
Edward T. Wilkinson, '66. 
Fred Crowninshield, '66 (Capt.). 



1866. 



Yale, 19 m. 10 s. 
Frank Brown, '66. 
Edmund Coffin, '66. 
Arthur D. Bissell, '67. 
Wm. E. Wheeler, '66. 
Wm. A. Copp, '69. 
Edward B. Bennett, '66 (Capt,). 



Harvard, 18 m. 43 s. 
Charles H. McBurney, '66. 
Alden P. Loring, '69. 
Robert S. Peabody, '66. 
Edward N. Fenno, '66. 
Edward T. Wilkinson, '66. 
William Blaikie, '66 (Capt.). 



ROWING AT YALE. 



503 



1867. 



Va/e, ig m. 23^ s. 

Geo. A. Adee, '67 (Capt.). 
William H. Ferry, '68. 
James Coffin, '68. 
William H. Lee, '70. 
Samuel Parry, '68. 
William A. Copp, '69. 



Harvard, iS m. 13 j. 

Geo. W. Holdrege, '66. 
Wm. W. Richards, '68. 
Robert C. Watson, '69. 
Thomas S. Edmunds, '67. 
William H. Simmons, '69 
Alden P. Loring, '69 (Capt.). 



z868. 



Vale, iS m. 38I s. 

Roderick Terry, '70. 
Sylvester F. Bucklin, '69. 
Geo. W. Drew, '70. 
William H. Lee, '70. 
William A. Copp, '6g. 
Samuel Parry, '68 (Capt.). 



Harvard, ly m. 



Geo. W. Holdrege, '68 (Capt). 
Wm. W. Richards, '68. 
John W. McBurney, '69. 
Wm. H. Simmons, '69. 
Robert C. Watson, '69. 
Alden P. Loring, '69. 



i86g. 



Yale, 18 m. \i s. 

Roderick Terry, '70. 
Edgar D. Coonley, '71. 
William H. Lee, '70. 
David McCoy Bone, '70. 
William A. Copp, '69 (Capt.). 
Geo. W. Drew, '70. 



Harvard, 18 m. 2 s. 



Nathaniel G. Read, '71 (Capt.). 
George L Jones, '71. 
Grinnell Willis, '70. 
Joseph F. Fay, L. S. 
Theophilus Parsons, '70. 
Francis O. Lyman, '71. 



1870. 



Yale, 18 m. 45 s. 

Carrington Phelps, '70. 
Wilbur W. Flagg, '73. 
William L. Gushing, '72. 
Edgar D. Coonley, '71. 
Willis F. McCook, '73. 
David McCoy Bone, '70 (Capt.). 



Harvard tvoti by a foul. 

Nathaniel G. Read, '71 (Capt.). 
Robert S. Russell, '72. 
James S. McCobb, '71. 
Grinnell Willis, '70. 
George I. Jones, '71. 
Francis O. Lyman, '71. 



1871. 



Yale (no race). 

Frederick W. Adee, '73 (Capt.). 
Charles S. Hemingway, '73. 
Jeremiah Day, '73. 
Daniel Davenport, '73. 
Willis F. McCook, '73. 
Wilbur W. Flagg, '73. 



Harvard {no race). 

Nathaniel G. Read, '71 (Capt.). 
William T. Sanger, '71. 
William C. Loring, '72. 
George L Jones, '71. 
Alanson Tucker, '72. 
George Bass, '71. 



504 



YALE. 



1872. 



Yale, 18 m. 13 J. 
Frederick W. Adee, '73. 
George M. Gunn, '74. 
Robert J. Cook, '75. 
Henry A. Oaks, '75. 
Willis F. McCook, '73 (Capt.). 
Jeremiah Day, '73. 



Harvard, 16 m. 57 s, 
Francis Bell, '73. 
William J. Lloyd, '73. 
John Bryant, '73. 
William L. Morse, '74. 
Wendell Goodwin, '74. 
Richard H. Dana, '74 (Capt.). 



1873- 



Ya/e, 16 m. 59 s. 
Herbert G. Fowler, '74. 
Jeremiah Day, '73. 
Julian Kennedy, '75 S. 
WiUis F. McCook, '73. 
Henry Meyer, '73. 
Robert J. Cook, '76 (Capt.). 



Yale (broke an oar). 
George L. Brownell, '75 S. 
Frederick Wood, '76 S. 
David H. Kellogg, '76. 
William C. Hall, '75 S. 
Julian Kennedy, '75 S. 
Robert J. Cook, '76 (Capt.). 



Haj'vard, time uncertain. 
Arthur L. Devens, '74. 
Tucker Daland, ^^-i)' 
Wendell Goodwin, '74. 
William L. Morse, '74. 
Daniel C. Bacon, '76. 
Richard H. Dana, '74 (Capt.), 



1874. 



Harvard, 16 m. 54 s. 
Walter J. Otis, S. S. 
William R. Taylor, '77. 
William L. Morse, '74. 
Wendell Goodwin, '74 (Capt.). 
Daniel C. Bacon, '76. 
Richard H. Dana, '74. 



1875. 



Yale, T7 w. 14^ s. 
George L. Brownell, '75 S. 
William C. Hall, '75 S. 
David H. Kellogg, '76. 
Charles N. Fowler, '76. 
Julian Kennedy, '75 S. 
Robert J. Cook, '76 (Capt.). 



Yale, 22 m. zs. 
John W. Wescott, L. S. 
Frederick Wood, '76 S. 
Elbridge C. Cooke, '77. 
David H. Kellogg, '76. 
William W. Collin, '77. 
Oliver D. Thompson, '79. 
Julian Kennedy, '75 S. 
Robert J. Cook, '76 (Capt.). 
Charles F. Aldridge, '79 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 17 m. 5 J. 
Francis R. Appleton, '75. 
Montgomer}' James, S. S. 
Wm. R. Taylor, '77. 
Daniel C. Bacon, '76 (Capt.). 
Charles W. Wetmore, '75. 
Walter J. Otis, S. S. 



1876. 



Harvard, 22 w. 31 s. 
Albert W. Morgan, '78. 
George Ir\'ing, '75. 
Edward D. Thayer, S. S. 
Martin R. Jacobs, '79. 
William M. Le Moyne, '78. 
Montgomery James, S. S. 
Joel C. Bolan, '76. 
William A. Bancroft, '78 (Capt.). 
George L. Cheney, '78 (Cox.). 



ROWING AT YALE. 



50s 



1877. 



Yale, 24 m. 43 s. 

Gerald T. Hart, '78 S. 
Herman Livingston, '79. 
Frank E. Hyde, '79. 
William K. James, '78. 
Elbridge C. Cooke, '77. 
Oliver D. Thompson, '79. 
William W. Collin, '77 (Capt.). 
Frederick Wood, L. S. 
Charles F. Aldridge, '79 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 24 m. 36 s. 

Alvah Crocker, '79. 
Nat. M. Brigham, '80. 
Burton J. Legate, '77. 
William M. Le Moyne, '78. 
Martin R. Jacobs, '79. 
William H. Schwartz, '79. 
Frederick W. Smith, '79. 
William A. Bancroft, '78 (Capt.). 
Frederick H. Allen, '80 (Cox.). 



1878. 



Yale, 21 m. 29 j. 

Julian W. Curtiss, '79. 

Frank E. Hyde, '79. 

Bruce S. Keator, '79. 

Herman Livingston, '79. 

Flarry W. Taft, 'So. 

Geo. B. Rogers, '80 S. 

David Trumbull, T. S. 

Oliver D. Thompson, '79 (Capt.). 

Chas. F. Aldridge, '79 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 20 z«. 45 s. 



Alvah Crocker, '79. 
Nat. M. Brigham, '80. 
Burton J. Legate, '77. 
Martin R. Jacobs, '79. 
Van Der Lynn Stow, '80. 
William H. Schwartz, '79. 
Frederick W. Smith, '79. 
William A. Bancroft, '78 (Capt. 
Frederick H. Allen, '80 (Cox.). 



1879. 



Yale, 23OT. 58 s. 

John B. Collins, '81. 

T. H. Patterson, L. S. 

Charles B. Storrs, '82. 

Oliver D. Thompson, '79 (Capt.). 

John N. Keller, '80. 

Geo. B. Rogers, '80 S. 

Harry W. Taft, '80. 

Philo C. Fuller, '81. 

Agustine Fitzgerald, '82 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 22 m. 15 j. 

Richard Trimble, '80. 
Nat. M. Brigham, '80. 
Francis Peabody, Jr., L. S. 
Martin R. Jacobs, '79. 
Van Der Lynn Stow, '80. 
William H. Schwartz, '79. 
Frederick W. Smith, '79. 
William A. Bancroft, '78 (Capt. 
Frederick H. Allen, '80 (Cox.). 



1880. 



Yale, 24 w. 27 s. 

John B. Collins, '81. 

Philo C. Fuller, '81. 

Frederick W. Rogers, '83. 

Nathaniel T. Guernsey, '81. 

Louis K. Hull, '83. 

Geo. B. Rogers, '80 S. (Capt.). 

Chas. B. Storrs, '82. 

Harry T. Folsom, 'S3. 

Mun Yew Chung, '83 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 25 m. 9 s. 

Edward W. Atkinson, '81. 
Wm. Freeland, '81. 
Herbert B. Howard, '81. 
Edward D. Brandegee, '8l. 
James Otis, '81. 
Nat. M. Brigham, 'So. 
Robert Bacon, 'So. 
Richard Trimble, 'So (Capt.). 
Sabin Pond Sanger, '2>;^ (Cox.). 



So6 



YALE. 



1881. 



Va/e, 22 m. 13 s. 

John B. Collins, '81 (Capt.)- 
I'hilo C. Fuller, '81. 
Frederick W. Rogers, '83. 
Nathaniel T. Guernsey, '81. 
Louis K. Hull, '83. 
Geo. B. Rogers, L. S. 
Chas. B. Storrs, '82. 
Harry T. Folsom, '83. 
Mun Yew Chung, '83 (Cox.). 



Harvard 22 m. 19 j. 



Edward D. Brandegee, '81 (Capt.) 

Fred. L. Sawyer, '83. 

Edward T. Cabot, '83. 

Chas. M. Hammond, '83. 

Oscar J. Pfeiffer, M. S. 

Seymour I. Hudgens, '84. 

Wm. Chalfant, Jr., '82. 

Chas. P. Curtis, '83. 

Julius Buchman, '83 (Cox.). 



1882. 



Yale, 20 m. 5O2 s. 

Henry R. Flanders, '85. 
Joseph R. Parrott, '83. 
Frederick W. Rogers, 'S3. 
Nathaniel T. Guernsey, L. S. 
Louis K. Hull, '83 (Capt.). 
Wm. H. Hyndman, '84. 
Chas. B. Storrs, '82. 
Harry T. Folsom, '83. 
David Plessner, '85 (Cox.). 



Yale, 26 m. 59 s. 

Henry R. Flanders, '85. 
Joseph R. Parrott, '83. 
Louis K. Hull, '83 (Capt.). 
Nathaniel T. Guernsey, L. S. 
Frank G. Peters, '86. 
Wm. H. Hyndman, '84. 
Frederick W. Rogers, '83. 
Harry T. Folsom, '83. 
D. B. Tucker, '83 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 20 m. 47^ s. 

Wm. W. Mumford, '84. 

Fred. L. Sawyer, '83. 

Robert P. Perkins, '84. 

Chas. N. Hammond, '83 (Capt.). 

Edmund A. S. Clark, '84. 

Seymour I. Hudgens, '84. 

Wm. Chalfant, Jr., '82. 

Chas. P. Curtis, '83. 

Sabin Pond Sanger, '83 (Cox.). 



1883. 



Harvard, 25 m. 462 s. 

Wm. W. Mumford, '84. 

Wm. G. Borland, '86. 

James J. Storrow, '85. 

Chas. M. Hammond, '83 (Capt). 

E. A. S. Clark, '84. 

Fred. L. Sawver, '83. 

Chas. M. Bels'haw, '83. 

Robert P. Perkins, '84. 

S. P. Sanger, '83 (Cox). 



1884. 



Yale, 20 m. 31 s. 

Richard S. Storrs, '85. 

Chas. B. Hobbs, '85. 

H. W. Patten, '86 S. 

Alfred Cowles, Jr., '86. 

Frank G. Peters, '86. 

J. R. Parrott, L. S. 

J. F. Scott, '84. 

H. R. Flanders, '85 (Capt.). 

L. E. Cadwell, '86 S. (Cox.). 



Harvard, 20 m. 48 s. 

J. R. Yocum, '85. 

A. Keith, '85. 

J. J. Storrow, '85. 

F. L. Sawyer, L. S. 

W. G. Borland, '86. 

S. T. Hudgens, '84. 

W. S. Biyant, '84. 

R. P. Perkins, '84 (Capt.). 

Chas. Davis, '84 (Cox.). 



ROWING AT YALE. 



507 



1885. 



Va!e, 26 m. 30 s. 

C. S. Dodge, '85. 

R. S. Storrs, '85. 

H. W. Patten, '86 S. 

C. S. Hobbs, '85. 

Alfred Cowles, Jr., 86. 

J. R. Parrott, L. S. 

F. G. Peters, '86. 

H. R. Flanders, '85 (Capt.). 

L. E. Cadwell, '86 S. (Cox.). 



Harvard, 2^ m. 15J J. 

H. W. Keyes, '87. 

J. J. Colony, '85. 

T. P. Burgess, '87. 

G. S. Mumford, '87. 

J. R. Yocum, '85. 

W. A. Brooks, '87. 

J. J. Storrow, '85 (Capt.). 

R . A. F. Penrose, Jr. P. G. 

T. Q. Browne, Jr., '88 (Cox.). 



1886. 



Vale, 20 m. 41^ s. 

R. Appleton, '86. 
John Rogers, Jr., '87. 
J. W. Middlebrook, '87. 

F. A. Stevenson, '88. 

G. W. Woodruff, '89. 

A. Cowles, Jr., '86 (Capt.). 

C. W. Hartridge, '87. 

E. L. Caldwell, 'S7. 

L. E. Cadwell, '86 S. (Cox.). 



Harvard, 21 m. 15^ J. 

G. S. Mumford, '87 (Capt.). 
J. J. Colony, '85. 
J. R. Yocum, '85. 
Franklin Remington, '87. 
T. P. Burgess, '87. 
W. A. Brooks, Jr., '87. 
H. W. Keyes, '87. 
R. A. F. Penrose, Jr., P. G. 
T. Q. Browne, '88 (Cox.). 



1887. 



Yale, 22 7)1. 56 s. 

R. M. Wilcox, '88 S. 

C. O. Gill, '89. 

John Rogers, Jr., '87 (Capt. 

T. W. Middlebrook, '87. 

G. W. Woodruff, '89. 

F. A. Stevenson, '88. 

G. R. Carter, '88 S. 
E. L. Caldwell, '87. 

R. Thompson, '90 (Cox.), 



Harvard, 23 »«. io| .r. 

A. P. Butler, '88. 

J. W. Wood, Jr., '88. 

H. W. Keyes, '87 (Capt.). 

C. E. Schroll, '89. 

J. T. Davis, Jr., '89. 

E. C. Pfeiffer, '89. 

W. A. Brooks, Jr., '87. 

E. C. Storrow, '89. 

T. Q. Browne, '88 (Cox.). 



1888. 



Yale, 20 m, 10 s. 

R. M. Wilcox, "88 S. 
C. O. Gill, '89. 
G. S. Brewster, '91. 
J. A. Hartwell, '89 S. 
W. H. Corbin, '89. 

F. A. Stevenson, '88 (Capt. 

G. R. Carter, '88 S. 
S. M. Cross, '88. 

R. Thompson, '90 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 21 vi. 24 s. 

E. C. Storrow, '89 (Capt.). 
J. B. Markoe, '89. 
P. D. Trafford, '89. 

B. T. Tilton, '90. 
J. T. Davis, '89. 

C. E. Schroll, L. S. 
J. R. Finlay, '91. 
W. Alexander, L. S. 

J. E. Whitney, '89 (Cox.). 



5o8 



YALE. 



i88g. 



Yale, 21 ni. 30 J. 

C. F. Rogers, 'go S. 

C. O. Gill, '89. 

G. S. Brewster, '91. 

J. A. Hartwell, '89 S. 

W. H. Corbin, '89. 

G. W. Woodruff, '89 (Capt.). 

P. Allen, '90 S. 

E. L. Caldwell, T. S. 

R. Thompson, '90 (Cox.). 



Harvard f 21 m. 55 j. 

G. Perry, '89. 

T. N. Perkins, '91. 

E. C. Storrow, '89 (Capt). 

J. S. Cranston, '92. 

J. R. Finlay, '91. 

B. T. Tilton, '90. 

J. P. Hutchinson, '90. 

R. F. Herrick, '90. 

J. E. Whitney, '89 (Cox.). 



1890. 



Yale, 21 m. 29 J. 

C. F. Rogers, '90 S. 

W. A. Simms, '90 S. 

G. S. Brewster, '91. 

J. A. Hartwell, P. G. 

A. B. Newell, '90. 

H. T. Ferris, '91. 

S. B. Ives, '93. 

P. Allen, '90 S. (Capt.). 

R. Thompson, '90 (Cox.). 



Ha7"iiard, 21 m. 40 s. 



G. L. Nelson, Sp. 

F. B. Winthrop, '91. 
J. H. Goddard, '92. 
T. N. Perkins, '91. 
R. D. Upham, '90. 
B. T. Tilton, '90. 

G. H. Kelton, '93. 

J. P. Hutchinson, '90 (Capt.) 
H. M. Battelle, '93 (Cox.). 



1891. 



Yale, 21 m. 57 s. 

W. A. Simms, M. S. 

A. J. Balliet, '92. 

C. R. Ely, '91. 

R. D. Paine, '94. 

W. W. Hefflefinger, '91 S. 

G. S. Brewster, '91 (Capt.). 

P. Hagerman, L. S. 

J. A. Gould, '92 S. 

H. S. Browns, '93 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 21 m. 23 j. 

M. Newell, '94. 

T. N. Perkins, '91 (Capt.). 

N. Rantoul, '92. 

F. Lynam, M. S. 

C. K. Cummings, '93. 

D. R. Vail, '93. 

G. H. Kelton, '93. 
J. C. Powers, '92. 

H. M. Battelle, '93 (Cox.). 



1892. 



Yale, 20 m. 48 s. 

F. A. Johnson, '94 S. 

A. J. Balliet, '92. 

A. L. Van Huyck, '93 S. 

R. D. Paine, '94. 

A. B. Graves, '92 S. 

J. A. Hartwell, M. S. (Capt.). 

S. B. Ives, '93. 

E. F. Gallaudet, '93. 

F. E. Olmstead, '94 S. (Cox.). 



Harvard, 21 m. &,z\ s, 

M. Newell, '94. 
N. Rantoul, '92. 

B. G. Waters, '94. 
R. Acton, M. S. 

C. K. Cummings, '93. 

F. B. Winthrop, L. S. 

G. H. Kelton, '93 (Capt.). 
F. Lynam, M. S. 

V. Thomas (Cox.). 



ROWING AT YALE. 



509 



1893. 



Yale, 24 m. 59 s. 

F. A. Johnson, '94 S. 
C. L. Messier, '94 S. 
A. L. Van Huyck, '93 S. 
J. M. Longacre, '95. 
J. M. Goetchius, '94 S. 
A. r. Rogers, '94 S. 
S. B. Ives, '93 (Capt.). 

E. F. Gallaudet, '93. 

F. E. Olmstead, '94 S. (Cox.). 



Harvard, 25 m. 17 s. 

E. H. Fennessy, '96. 

C. K. Cummings, '93. 

D. R. Vail, '93 (Capt.). 
G. R. Fearing, '93. 

L. Davis, '94. 
M. Newell, '94. 
W. S. Johnson, '94. 
G. E. Burgess, '93. 
Victor Thomas, '95 (Cox.). 



1894. 



Yale, 23 vt. 45I s. 

R. Armstrong, '95 S. 

H. C. Holcomb, '95 S. 

W. M. Beard, '96. 

A. P. Rogers, '94 S. 

A. W. Dater, '95 S. 

W. R. Cross, '96. 

R. B. Treadway, '96. 

F. A. Johnson, '94 S. (Capt.). 

F. E. Olmstead, '94 S. (Cox.). 



Harvard, 24 m. 38 s. 

A. M. Kales, '96. 
E. H. Fennessy, '96. 
L. Davis, '94 (Capt.). 
T. G. Stevenson, '96. 
R. M. Townsend, '96. 
K. H. Lewis, '96. 
J. R. Billiard, Jr., '96. 
J. Piirdon, '95. 
P. Day (Cox.) 



1895. 



Yale, 21 7)1. 29! s. 

R. Armstrong, '95 S. (Capt.) 

H. C. Holcomb, '95 S. 

W. M. Beard, '96. 

A. W. Dater, '95 S. 

J. M. Longacre, '96. 

W. R. Cross, '96. 

R. B. Treadway, '96. 

G. Langford, '97 S. 

T. L. Clarke '97 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 22 ;//. 10 s. 

E. N. Wrightington, '97. 
J. A. Stillman, '96. 

J. E. Chatman, '96. 
L. D. Shepard, '96. 
S. Hollister, '97. 

F. N. Watris, L. S. 
E. H. Fennessy, '96. 

J. R. Bullard, Jr., '96 (Capt.). 
P. D. Rust, '97 (Cox.). 



1896. 



Yale, 7 m. 17 j. 

J. H. Simpson, '97. 

A. Brown, '96. 

W. M. Beard, '96. 

J. O. Rodgers, '98. 

P. H. Bailey, '97. 

J. M. Longacre, '96. 

R. B. Treadway, '96 (Capt.). 

G. Langford, '97 S. 

T. L. Clarke, '97 (Cox.). 



Leander, 7 m. 14 j. 



J. W. N. Graham. 

J. A. Ford. 

H. Willis. 

R. Carr. 

T. II. E. Stretch. 

G. Nichols (Capt.). 

W. F. C. Holland. 

H. G. Gold. 

E. A. Stafford (Cox.). 



510 



YALE. 



1897. 



Yale, 20 m. A,.\ s. 

D. F. Rogers, '98. 

P. Whitney, '98. 

H. G. Campbell, '97. 

J. C. Greenway, 1900. 

P. H. Bailey, '97 (Capt.). 

F. W. Allen, 1900. 

W. E. S. Griswold, '99. 

G. Langford, '97 S. 
L. Greene, '99 (Cox.). 



Harvard, 21 m. 



G. D. Marvin, '99. 

C. C. Bull, '98. 

E. N. Wrightington, '97. 
A. A. Sprague, 2d, '97. 
J. H. Perkins, '98. 
J. F. Perkins, '99. 

D. M. Goodrich, '97 (Capt.). 

E. A. Boardman, '99. 

R. S. Huidekoper, '98 (Cox.). 



Cornell, 20 w. 34 s. 

W. S. Wakeman, '99 E. E. 
W. Bentley, '98 E. E. 
C. S. Moore, '99 C. E. 
A. C. King, '99 Agr. 
M. M. Odell, '97 Let. 
E. O. Spillman (Capt.). 

E. J. Savage, '98 Opt. 

F. A. Briggs, '98 Let. 

F. D. Colson, '98 Let. (Cox.). 



i8g8. 



Yale, 24 m. 2 s. 

P. Whitney, '98 (Capt.). 

H. P. Wickes, 1900. 

J. P. Brock, 1900. 

R. P. Flint, '99 S. 

J. H. Niedeken, igoo. 

F. W. Allen, 1900. 

J. C. Greenleaf, '99 S. 

W. B. Williams, 1900. 

J. McL. Walton, '99 S, (Cox.). 



Harvard, 24 w. 35 J. 

G. S. Derby, M. S. 
R. F. Blake, '99. 

E. Wadsworth, '98. 

F. L. Higginson, 1900. 
C. L. Harding, 1900. 

J. H. Perkins, '98 (Capt.). 
N. Biddle, 1900. 

F. Dobyns, '98. 

G. P. Orton (Cox.). 



Cornell, 23 m. 48 s. 

W. C. Dalzell, '99 M. E. 

W. Bentley, '98 E. E. 

S. W. Wakeman, '99 E. E. 

T. L. Bailev, '99 Phil. 

C. S. Moore, '98 C. E. 

R. W. Beardslee, 1900 E. E. 

E. J. Savage, '98 Opt. 

F. A. Briggs, '98 L. 

F. D. Colson, '98 L. (Cox. and Capt.). 



ROWING AT YALE. 



5" 



First Boat Club at Yale. 1843. 

Henry W. Buel. 
John W. Dulles. 
Virgil M. D. Marcy. 
John P. Marshall. 
John McLeod. 
Wm. Smith. 



Second Boat Club, ^1844. 

Edwin A. Bulkley. 
Henry P. Duncan. 
Henry C. Birdseye. 
James S. Bush. 
Henry Byne. 
Chas. H. Meeker. 
Howard Smith. 
Hannibal Stanley. 
Samuel A. Fisk. 



MISCELLANEOUS ROWING CONTESTS OF YALE 
CREWS WITH OUTSIDE CLUBS. 



Hartford, July 4, 1856. 

Boats. 

Transit S. S. S. 
Undine of Hartford, 
Virginia of New York, 
Distance, 3 miles. 
Won by Virginia, Transit, second. 

New London, July 6th, 1858. 
Boats. 

Eight-oared Olympia S. S. S. 
Four " " " 

Seven other boats of various 
patterns, including whale boats, 
wherries, etc. 

Distance unmeasured, 4 miles. 
Won by eight-oared Olympia, — 

time, 32 m. 25 s. 
Four-oared Olympia, second, — 
time, 35 m. 50 s. 

New London, July 4th, 1859. 
Boats. 

Varuna, Yale. 

Pequot, New London. 

Eaglet, " " 

Bonita, " " 

Naukeak, Mystic. 

Mother Bailey, Groton. 

Sassacus, Mystic. 
Won by Pequot, — time, 22 m. 28 s. 
Second, Eaglet, — time, 22 m. 50 s. 
Varuna, fifth, — time, 24 m. 27 s. 



MiDDLETOWN, CoNN., July 4, 
1859. 

Boats. 

Six-oared Atlanta, Yale. 

Eight-oared Olympia, Yale. 

Atalanta, Hartford. 

Aliotus, Hartford. 
Won by six-oared Atlanta, Yale, 

— time, 23 m. 10 s. 
Second, eight-oared Olympia, 

Yale, — time, 23 m. 30 s. 

Providence, July 4, i860. 
Boats. 

Yale University. 

Thulia, Yale Sophomores. 

Une of Providence. 
Won by Yale University, — time, 

21 m. 28 s. 
Second, Thulia, — time, 22 m. 25 s. 

Worcester, July 25, i860. 
Boats. 

Gersh Banker, Newburgh, N. Y. 

Yale University. 

Union Boat Club, Boston. 

Quickstep, Boston. 
Won by Gersh Banker (Josh 

Ward stroke), — time. iS m. 37 s. 
Second, Yale University, — time, 

19 m. 10 s. 



Sii 



YALE. 



Lake Saltonstall, July lo, 1871. 
Boats. 

Atalanta, New York. 

Yale Sophomores. 
Won by Atalanta, — time, 19 rn. 

Second, Yale Sophomores, — 
time, 19 m. 15^ s. 

Lake Saltonstall, November 

17, 1875. 
Single sculls, two miles with turn. 

Julian Kennedy, Yale. 

R. B. Brainbridge, Atalantas. 
Won by Kennedy, — time, 14 m. 

56 s. 
Second, Brainbridge, — time, 15 m. 

52 s. 

Philadelphia, Aug. 22-24, I076. 
Mile and a half. 
Boats, Four-oai-ed Shells. 
Atalanta, New York. 
Beaverwyck, Albany. 
Yale, New Haven. 
Columbia, New York. 
Vesper, Philadelphia. 
Won by Atalanta. 

Columbia withdrawn in the finals. 

Time, 9 m. 37f s. 
Yale was beaten in the trial 
heats by Atalanta and Beaverwyck. 

Philadelphia, Aug. 28, 29, 30, 

1876. 

Four-oared sJiells, mile and a half. 

Boats. 

Eureka, Newark. 

University Dublin, Ireland. 

Argonauta, Bergen Point. 

Yale, New Haven. 

Vesper, Philadelphia. 

Crescent, Philadelphia. 

Columbia, New York. 

Elizabeth, Portsmouth, Va. 

Quaker City, Philadelphia. 

Beaverwyck, Albany. 

DuQuesne, Allegheny City, Pa. 

Falcon, Burlington, N. Y. 

Watkins, New York. 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Malta, Philadelphia. 

London Rowing Club, England. 



Northwestern, Chicago. 

Atalanta, New York. 

First Trinity, Cambridge, Eng. 

Oneida, Burlington, N. Y. 
Won by Beaverwyck, — time, 9 m. 

6 s. 
Second, London, — time, 9 m. 62 s. 
Third, Watkins, — time, 9 m. 16 s. 
Yale was beaten in third trial heat 
by London in 8 m. 515 s. Yale mak- 
ing 8m. 52 J s. 

Philadelphia, Sept. i, 1876. 
Four-oared shells, mile and a. half. 

Yale. 

Columbia. 

First Trinity. (Withdrew.) 
Won by Yale, — time, 9 m. lof s. 
Second, Columbia, — time, 9 m. 21s. 

Harlem, Oct. 2, 1S77. 
Junior Singles, one mile. 
Won by Herman Livingston of 
Yale, — time, 6 m. 5 s. 
Second not recorded, — time, 6 m. 
14s. 

Newark, Aug. 20, 1878. 

Mumford, New Orleans. 

Kennedy, Vale. 

McMillan, Philadelphia. 

Keator, Yale. 
Won by Mumford, — time, 10 m. 

i7is. 

Harlem, Oct. 19, 1878. 
Double Sculls, 

Yale, (H. & E. P. Livingstone). 

Olympics. 

Athletics. 
Won by Yale, — time, 7 m. 152- s. 
Second, Olympics, — time, 7 m 

24 s. 

Single Sculls. 

H. Livingstone, Yale. 

E. Mills. 

H. P. Dana. 
Won by Mills, — time, 8 m. ^\ s. 
Second, Livingstone. 

Junior Sculls. 

B. S. Keator, Yale. 

I. A. Lyon. 
Won by Lyon, — time, 7 m. 40I s. 
Second, Keator, by four lengths. 



CHAPTER III. 

FOOTBALL. 

IF one were to make an invidious distinction, it 
would perhaps be fair to say that foot ball of all 
sports had held the spot closest to the Yale man's 
heart, at least in the last twenty years. The sport was 
originally a contest between Sophomores and Freshmen 
of the nature of an annual rush. The match took place 
on the Green, and was girt about with many formali- 
ties, so far as the challenges and acceptances were 
concerned ; but when the game began, difficulties, too 
strong to be overcome by politeness, usually resulted 
in a general scramble with more or less roughness. 
From the beginning of the forties for ten years this 
contest went on, but in 1849 the class of 1852, then 
Sophomores, refused to play with the Freshmen. This 
sporadic outburst of decorum lasted only a year, how- 
ever, and the next year the game was played as usual. 
A few years later the game was once more omitted 
for a couple of years, and when 1861 challenged i860, 
the Faculty stepped in and put an end to these con- 
tests. With this, however, came another difficulty, an 
unforeseen one. It had always been contended that 
Yale students had a right to use the Green for a play- 
ground, and in order to preserve the rights of the stu- 
dents it was necessary to have some sort of a game 
played on the Green from time to time. At any rate 
this was the belief of the College crowd. For all that, 

33 



SH YALE. 

however, the city passed a by-law in 1858 forbidding 
the playing of these games either on the streets or on 
the public squares of the city. 

From i860 to 1870 football practically disappeared 
from the curriculum ; but in the early seventies a re- 
vival took place, and in 1872 a Yale Football Associ- 
ation was organized. This revival was due largely to 
the personal efforts of David Schaff aided by Samuel 
Elder and Miller. The game as it was played at that 
time was more nearly after the Association order than 
the more modern Rugby Union. The players were 
not allowed to pick up the ball, pass it or carry it, but 
they did bat it with the hand, and baby it along the 
ground with the foot. The game was played with 
teams of twenty men each; and in the fall of 1872 Yale 
challenged Columbia, and the first legitimate game be- 
tween colleges was played. Yale won by a score of 
three goals. No other games were played in that 
year. 

In 1873, however, a Convention was called in New 
York in October. Harvard sent regrets, but Prince- 
ton, Columbia, and Rutgers were represented, and a 
code of rules was adopted similar to those under which 
the Columbia- Yale game the year before had been 
played. Yale played three games that season, winning 
the one with Columbia, losing the one with Princeton, 
but winning what was that year considered a very im- 
portant and interesting game, the one against the Eton 
eleven. 

The writer remembers this game very vividly for, 
although he was only a boy in preparatory school, like 
all the rest who had any interest in sport, he was pres- 
ent. The Eton team, so called, was a team made up 



FOOTBALL. 515 

of eleven Englishmen, many of them from New York, 
and captained by Allen, an Eton man. The score card 
impressed us greatly, for there was a marquis on the 
team; there was also on the English team one of the 
tallest men we had ever seen on the football field. 
His height was given me after the game as six feetj 
seven inches, and he certainly looked all of this. 
When he punted the ball with that long leg of his, 
it seemed as though it would never stop going. 

In 1874, the growth of the game had been such that 
it was more violent, and bigger, stronger men were 
selected. The day of the agile "peanutter" was fast 
disappearing. In 1875, class series were organized and 
a constitution adopted. In October of that year dele- 
gates from Harvard and Yale attended a Convention at 
Springfield in order to see if they could not compro- 
mise on some set of rules that would bring the two 
universities together in a match. Harvard at that time 
had taken up the Rugby Union and was playing games 
with Canadian teams, while Yale still stuck to the 
American game, which, as mentioned earlier, was far 
more like the Association game. 

A compromise was effected, but the mongrel game 
which resulted v/as unsatisfactory to both universities, 
and the only interest to be gained from it was the 
pleasure of seeing the Harvard men run with the ball. 
The writer perfectly remembers the many brilliant 
runs, and the general expertness of play exhibited by 
the Harvard team on this occasion. The score was 
given as four goals and two touch downs to nothing; 
but as the writer remembers it, it seemed as though 
Harvard scored whatever they pleased. This year 
ended the American game at Yale. 



5i6 YALE. 

In 1876, Yale, at the instigation of Harvard, adopted 
the Rugby Union rules entire. Harvard, after mak- 
ing a triumphant tour in Canada, came down to New 
Haven to play with Yale on November i8th. Previ- 
ous to the game Yale used every effort to persuade 
Harvard to play more than one match. This was 
owing to the belief entertained by Captain Baker and 
those who counselled him, that if Yale could get tv/o 
or three matches with Harvard during that fall, she 
could learn enough about the game to make a respec- 
table showing the following year. Harvard, however, 
replied to this invitation for a series that it was only 
out of courtesy to Yale that they had kept their men 
in trim for this match, as the season was practically 
over, and they would not play any more games that 
year. Thus ended Yale's endeavor to learn by actual 
contests the arts of running, tackling, and dodging, 
in which, from the previous year's experience, they 
knew Harvard to be greatly their superior. The dis- 
appointment was quite severe, for many things had 
arisen in the last few weeks of training to show us 
how little we knew of the mysteries of the Rugby 
Union. For instance, we had been unable to secure 
an oval-shaped Rugby ball, and had been playing with 
the round rubber ball of the American game up to 
within a week or ten days of this Harvard match. In 
fact. Harvard had, I believe, loaned us the only ball 
v/e had for practice. Any one who has seen the round 
rubber ball can easily appreciate how much at sea we 
found ourselves, when we endeavored to catch, kick, 
and pass the egg-shaped ball of the Rugby Union. 

The day of the match dawned, and all our friends 
were condoling with us throughout the morning on the 



FOOTBALL. 517 

sad fate which awaited us. With memories of the 
previous year's annihilation at the hands of the Har- 
vard team, there were very few of our eleven, for the 
game was played with eleven then, who did not expect 
to be rendered ludicrous in the contest. But if ever 
men had worked hard, we had. And if ever a captain 
had done his best to instill into the minds of every 
man on his team the best spirit, Captain Baker was 
that man. The betting, for there was betting in those 
days, was said to be five to one in favor of Harvard; 
and I remember the speculation on the score was some- 
thing appalling. By agreement between the Captains 
the Rugby rule of that day counting goals only was 
agreed upon. Touch-downs were to count nothing un- 
less they were converted into goals. This as after 
events proved was a lucky provision for Yale. The 
game began and our stage fright soon wore off. After 
fifteen minutes of play we knew that Harvard was the 
better team, but that the discrepancy was by no manner 
of means as marked as it had been the previous year, 
and, furthermore, that our team excelled them in physi- 
cal condition. In the first half of forty-five minutes 
the ball did not progress very far toward either goal. 
We had been instructed to put every effort on prevent- 
ing scoring by Harvard, as it seemed that in that line 
lay our best chance. The result was that the half 
ended with no score. In the second half we had man- 
aged to carry the ball within kicking distance of Har- 
vard's goal, and it was passed back to Thompson for a 
play which we had in a dim way comprehended, of try- 
ing a field kick at goal. Thompson was a man who, 
while not graceful, had an unlimited amount of aggres- 
siveness, and always a thorough belief in Yale's com- 



5i8 YALE. 

ing out ahead. People say that he had no idea of 
kickmg the goal, that is, no idea that his kick would 
be successful. Upon this point I disagree with them 
entirely. Thompson had very little idea of the drop 
kick as performed by the modern kickers, or in fact as 
performed by him himself a year or two later, but when 
he hit the ball with his ankle (if it did not even hit 
higher than that on his leg), I am sure he expected and 
firmly believed that he was going to make a goal, and 
this he did, much to the astonishment of both the Yale 
and Harvard teams. Harvard braced up after this, 
and by brilliant rallies secured two touch-downs, both 
of which, however, they failed to convert. 

On Thanksgiving day of the same year, Yale played 
Princeton at the St. George's Cricket grounds, Hobo- 
ken, winning by a score of two goals to nothing, and 
on the 9th of December they played their most memo- 
rable game of that year, at least so far as weather was 
concerned, with Columbia. The thermometer was not 
as low as it was when in that same year the Freshmen 
teams played in Boston, namely, several degrees below 
zero ; but the mercury actually registered only 8° above, 
and the men who did not play in the rush line found 
it rather chilly. Yale won by an overwhelming score. 

In 1877, owing to a disagreement as to the number 
who should constitute a team. Harvard and Yale did not 
meet. Harvard contended that the number should be 
increased to fifteen ; but Yale stuck to eleven, and the 
match fell through. Later in the season, Yale played 
Princeton with fifteen, because Princeton, like Harvard, 
refused to play with eleven, and Yale made two touch- 
downs, but failed to convert them into goals. In 1878, 
after violent opposition, Yale, finding that both Har- 



FOOTBALL. 519 

vard and Princeton would not play with less than fif- 
teen men, yielded to them and defeated Harvard at 
Boston, late in November, by a score of one goal to 
nothing, but were defeated by Princeton four days 
later by the same score. 

This year Yale began her contention of making 
scoring such as to insure victory or defeat for one team 
or the other, and after a good deal of work on her part 
accomplished her end in a measure, that is, touch-downs 
were allowed to score, but not safeties. Not until 1881 
did Yale and Harvard agree to count safeties, but only 
in this way : in case neither side made any other score, 
the team which made four less safety touch-downs than 
their opponents was to win the game. In spite of this 
agreement between Yale and Harvard, in which both 
supposed Princeton concurred, Princeton still refused 
to count safeties, and in that year evaded the matter 
by passing the ball into touch-in-goal. To return to 
1879; in this year both the Yale-Harvard and Yale- 
Princeton games turned out draws. Harvard making 
four safety touch-downs, while Yale made two, and 
Princeton making five safeties to Yale's two. 

In 1880, the game with Harvard was played in Bos- 
ton in a pouring rain on the Boston ball grounds, 
which were so flooded as to render an accusation made 
by Harvard, that Yale was trying to drown one of her 
men by holding him down, not without some ground. 
During the entire first half neither side scored. And 
it was not until after the referee had said that there 
was only five minutes left to play, that Yale, having 
worked the ball down to Harvard's thirty-five yard 
line, realizing the desperatcncss of the occasion, tried 
a drop-kick for goal ; the ball was heavy with water, 



520 YALE. 

but it just skimmed the goal bar, thus settling the 
game in Yale's favor. Inspired by this, while Har- 
vard was disheartened, Yale succeeded in crowding the 
ball over the goal line within the next four minutes, 
though the time was not sufficient in which to kick 
another goal. 

The game with Princeton was played in New York, 
in a snow-storm, on a field that had been cleaned off 
during the morning by a large force of men. This 
game was another repetition of the block game : Prince- 
ton making eleven safeties to Yale's five. In 1881, 
the Harvard game was played in New Haven in a rain- 
storm quite equalling that of the previous year at Bos- 
ton, and no goals or touch-downs were made. Harvard, 
however, made four safety touch-downs, and by the 
agreement as stated above thus lost the game. The 
Princeton game was another repetition of the defen- 
sive tactics, and really put an end to the block game, 
for it so disgusted spectators that it was absolutely 
necessary to make a change. The association realized 
the situation, and formally awarded the championship 
to Yale, as Yale defeated Harvard, while Princeton 
played a draw with Harvard. 

Yale's teams were becoming better and better every 
year, and the general development of the game at New 
Haven was so much ahead of the playing throughout 
most of the colleges as to make it certain that, barring 
accidents, and accidents occur very seldom in football, 
Yale would win any game into which she v/ent. In 
1882, Yale won from Harvard by one goal and three 
touch-downs to nothing. Harvard defeated Princeton, 
and Yale did the same, although Princeton scored on 
Yale by a magnificent place kick after a fair catch 




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FOOTBALL. 52' 

from the fifty-yard line. In 1883, definite scoring 
points were adopted which have been, with changes in 
values, in existence up to the present day. A goal 
from a touch-down counted six, a goal from a field 
kick, five, a touch-down, two, and a safety by the op- 
ponents, one. Both the Harvard and Princeton games 
were played this year in New York. In the Prince- 
ton game, Yale scored inside the first ten minutes, and 
no farther score was made by either side. In the Har- 
vard game, however, Yale scored twenty-three points 
to Harvard's two. 

It was in this year that the Harvard Athletic Com- 
mittee insisted upon certain rules of theirs being ob- 
served, and refused to allow Harvard to play the match 
unless these rules were carried out. In 1884, the Yale- 
Princeton game was played in New York on the 28th 
of November; Yale made a touch-down and kicked the 
goal in the early part of the game; Princeton suc- 
ceeded in making a touch-down, but failed to convert 
it. A short time after this Princeton, taking excep- 
tion to decisions of the referee, refused to continue the 
game, and it was not until almost dark that they con- 
sented to go on. Not long after this the game had to 
be called on account of darkness, leaving the score 
Yale 6, Princeton 4. The Yale-Harvard game was 
hardly worth mentioning on account of the weakness 
of the Harvard team. Yale won by a score of 52 to o. 

In 1885, there was no game with Harvard owing to 
the fact that the Harvard Athletic Committee forbade 
the playing of any Intercollegiate football by Han-ard 
teams that season. The Yale-Princeton game, how- 
ever, made up in its excitement for any lack of inter- 
est that might have been occasioned by the failure of 



52 2 YALE. 

Harvard to put a team in the field. The Princeton 
team was a veteran one, and every one expected that 
Yale, with her nine green men, would easily succumb 
to the Jersey men ; but the team at New Haven, under 
Captain Peters, had been worked carefully and well, 
and before the game had progressed fifteen minutes it 
was evident that the dash and enthusiasm of the new 
men was a match for the greater experience and accu- 
racy of the veteran visitors. Yale secured the ball 
toward the latter part of the first half within kicking 
distance of Princeton's goal, and Watkinson sent a 
drop-kick skimming over the bar. The score of 5 to o 
continued until within five or six minutes of the end of 
the second half. After a determined effort of Prince- 
ton's, which carried the play down to Yale's five-yard 
line, the ball was secured by Yale on three downs, and 
carried steadily up the field until it was at the middle. 
Here Yale, over-confident at the sure expectation of 
victory, and with only a few minutes to play, instead 
of continuing the running game, sent a punt down 
towards Princeton's goal. It struck Toler, one of 
Princeton's backs, in the chest and glanced off, while 
Lamar, who was backing him up, came running for- 
ward and, taking the ball on the bound, was in an in- 
stant past the Yale rushers, who had concentrated on 
Toler, where the ball was falling. Lamar ran up the 
field, but still had two men to pass, one of them Bull, 
Yale's later famous full-back. He and his companion, 
instead of running forward to meet Lamar, endeavored 
to force him out of bounds on the side. Lamar made 
a quick turn which practically brought these two men 
together, and came inside, thus having a clear field, 
and eventually depositing the ball directly behind 



FOOTBALL. 523 

Yale's goal. From this touch-down a goal was quickly 
made, and although the Yale team played with desper- 
ation during the few minutes remaining, the final score 
stood 6 to 5 in Princeton's favor. The following year, 
1886, Harvard was defeated by Princeton, two goals to 
nothing, and therefore went into the Yale game with 
a feeling of hopelessness. The game was played in 
Cambridge, and Yale easily won by a score of 29 to 4. 

The Yale-Princeton game was played on Princeton's 
ground, and owing to the agreed-upon referee not being 
present at the time when the game was to have com- 
menced, the kick-off was delayed for nearly an hour. 
Finally Mr. Harris, of Princeton, was prevailed upon 
to act, and the game began at half-past three. It was 
a rainy day, and the ground and ball both showed evi- 
dences of it. It was certain v/ithin half an hour that 
if the game were delayed any farther it would be im- 
possible to finish it, for, owing to the clouds, it was an 
especially dark day. Yale scored a touch-down, but 
failed to kick a goal, farther delays ensued, finally the 
crowd rushed on the field and it took a long time to 
clear it. At last, some fifteen minutes before the full 
time had elapsed, the referee called the game on ac- 
count of darkness. The annual convention passed the 
following rather remarkable resolutions: "That this 
Convention cannot, as a convention, award the cham- 
pionship for 1886. Resolved, that Yale, according to 
the points scored, should have won the championship." 

In 1887, the present plan of two officials, an umpire 
and a referee, was instituted. Formerly the game 
had been managed by the referee alone ; although, 
in the early days, two judges had acted as advocates, 
each for his own side, the referee being the final court 



524 YALE. 

of appeal. Princeton was defeated by Harvard at Cam- 
bridge by two goals to nothing, and the Yale-Princeton 
game was played previous to the Yale-Harvard game. 
This Yale-Princeton game was an exciting one from 
start to finish, and some of the most remarkable players 
for years took part. There was no marked difference 
between the two teams in individual prowess, but the 
tactics and the generalship of Yale was the better, and 
finally won by two goals to nothing. 

The Yale-Harvard game was played in New York on 
Thanksgiving Day before one of the largest audiences 
that up to that time had ever witnessed a game. The 
play was even more exciting than that exhibited in the 
Yale-Princeton game. Harvard, thanks to the remark- 
able running of her half-backs, notably Porter, contin- 
ually forced Yale down the field, until the latter, after 
securing the ball, would, with a well-directed punt, 
regain the lost ground. This continued until the bet- 
ter strategical work of Yale gave them possession of 
the ball within kicking distance of Harvard's goal. 
The ball was passed back to Bull, but his drop-kick 
missed. A short time after he tried again with im- 
proved aim but still unsuccessfully. The third time, 
however, he put the ball fairly over. This was thirty 
minutes from the beginning of the first half. Not long 
after Yale secured a touch-down which was converted 
into a goal, making the score 1 1 to o in favor of Yale. 
In the second half Harvard went in more vigorously 
than ever, and, a blocked kick aiding them, secured 
the ball near Yale's line, where on the next down. 
Porter, with a ten-yard run, secured a touch-down. 
Just previous to this, on another blocked kick, Yale 
had been forced to a safety, so that the score now stood 



FOOTBALL. 525 

Yale II, Harvard 8. It was now Yale's turn to brace, 
and their team worked together with a will until they 
got the ball within thirty-five yards of Harvard's goal; 
on the next play Wurtenburg, the Yale half, made a 
run of thirty-five yards for a touch-down, the goal was 
converted, thus leaving the final score 17 to 8 in Yale's 
favor. 

The discipline and general perfection to which Yale 
was carrying the sport told most strongly on her work 
the following season, for she went through the year 
without being scored upon by any one, and making a 
total of six hundred and ninety points. 

The next year, 1889, the football season opened 
with a most remarkable game between Princeton and 
Harvard at Cambridge, in which Harvard, although 
leading at the end of the first half by a score of 1 5 to 10, 
was overwhelmed in the second, and finally defeated 41 
to 15. The game between Yale and Harvard at Spring- 
field was therefore looked upon as one likely to be of 
large scores ; but instead Yale won by a score of 6 to 
o, and this touch-down from which the goal was kicked 
was made only at the very end of the first half. The 
Yale-Princeton game was played at Berkeley Oval, 
New York, and although it did not rain during the 
game, the continued down-pour of the previous day 
made the field in some spots nothing more than a quag- 
mire. Sawdust was generally distributed over this 
mud, but had little effect. The first half was ended 
with no score by either team ; but in the second half 
Princeton repeated her strong finish as exhibited at 
Cambridge, and won by a score of 10 to o. 

Yale therefore started in the next season under the 
weight of a deal of discouragement, with a defeated 



526 YALE. 

team and no great amount of material. It looked 
as though there was little chance of a successful 
season. Added to this, in the second game of the 
year, a game against Crescent, the Brooklyn players 
scored a touch-down and goal ; but from this time on 
Yale's work steadily improved, until it reached its 
maximum on the day of the match with the University 
of Pennsylvania; this game Yale won by a score of 60 
to o, one week before the Harvard game. 

The Harvard game was played at Springfield, and 
both teams looked forward to a hard contest. Twenty- 
four hours before the match, Yale's centre, Holcomb, 
was taken with inflammatory rheumatism ; but so great 
was the confidence of Yale in Captain Rhodes and the 
men who carried the blue, that they felt even with this 
handicap they would be able to win. During the first 
half, Yale had the benefit of the wind, but failed to 
score, owing to Harvard's magnificent defence, and the 
strong kicking of Trafford. In the second half, after 
nearly twenty-five minutes of play, Lee of Harvard, 
who had replaced Lake, made a long run around Yale's 
left end for a touch-down, which was quickly converted 
into a goal. Hardly had the ball been put into play 
after this, when Dean, Harvard's quarter-back, break- 
ing through and taking advantage of a misplay in the 
centre, seized the ball with an open field and ran^fifty 
yards to a touch-down. The goal was again kicked, 
and the score stood 12 to o in favor of Harvard. From 
this point on Yale made a most heroic effort, and car- 
ried the ball down to Harvard's goal, making a touch- 
down and converting, by a difficult kick, what looked 
like four points only into six. Immediately after the 
kick-off they continued their aggressive work, and 




Football Team of 1R90 

B. Morison Wallis McClimg Heffelfinger S. Morison Hartwell Williams 
Crosby Lewis Rhodes (Capt.) 

Harvey Barbour Bliss 




Football Team of 1S94 

Terrems McCrea Greenvvav Stillman Armslmni;;^ 

Cliadwick Murpliy Buttervvortli Thome 

L. Hinkey F. Hinkey (Capt.) 

Beard Adee 



Bass 
Hickok 
Letton 



FOOTBALL. 527 

fought their way down to within a few yards of the 
Harvard goal again before time was called; but the 
effort was too late, and the game closed with a score 
of 12 to 6 in Harvard's favor. This and the tremen- 
dous up-hill work of Harvard already referred to in 
the game at New York, in 1887, are the two most 
memorable instances of heroic struggles on the foot- 
ball gridiron. 

The Yale-Princeton game was played at Eastern 
Park, Brooklyn, on Thanksgiving Day ; and here Yale, 
having taught her green centre, Lewis, how to play 
the position, took sweet revenge for the defeat of the 
previous week, scoring sixteen points in each half, or a 
total of thirty-two to Princeton's nothing. The fol- 
lowing year, 1891, there was a most marked advance 
again in Yale's development of the game. She began 
where she had left off the previous year, and developed 
her team with amazing skill to such a point of perfec- 
tion as to make the results of her games well-nigh un- 
questioned. Throughout the entire season no team was 
ever able to score a point against her, and when she 
met Harvard at Springfield before an audience of 
nearly twenty-five thousand she forced the crimson 
players to the defensive almost from the start, the final 
score being 10 to o. 

Fully forty thousand assembled for the Yale-Prince- 
ton game in New York on Thanksgiving Day; and 
although, by a most excellently executed defensive 
kicking game, Princeton was able to hold Yale off 
during the first part of the game, the discipline and 
steadiness of the latter's play told heavily in the 
second half, and in the end proved altogether too 
much for Princeton. 



528 YALE. 

The season of 1892 exhibited once more the gap 
which separated Yale from the other universities in 
the tactics of the game. Pennsylvania was beaten 28 
to o, Harvard 6 to o, and Princeton 12 too. It was 
gradually dawning upon the Yale management that 
three games of this nature every season was something 
of a contract, and the care which they exhibited for 
their players in the Harvard game was rendered abso- 
lutely necessary by the close proximity of the match 
with Princeton. Even this year there were many who 
complained that the Pennsylvania game added more 
than it should to the burden which the team must bear. 
For all that it was played and played with vigor, as 
the score indicates. 

In 1893, there was a general upheaval in the Inter- 
collegiate Association against the continuance of grad- 
uate players, and rules were passed restricting this 
eligibility. The University of Pennsylvania felt that 
Yale and the others were voting this reform simply to 
get rid of Pennsylvania's strong team. Pennsylvania 
having tendered her resignation to the Association, 
however, Yale agreed to play whatever team Pennsyl- 
vania should put in the field. Up to this time no 
score had been made against Yale during the season. 
The match was played in New York, and there was an 
unusual amount of interest. The final result was Yale 
14, Pennsylvania 6, the latter securing a touch-down, 
from which a goal was kicked in the second half of the 
game. The play was fast and furious. Pennsylvania 
using flying interference to good effect, while Yale 
practically confined herself, in accordance with her 
traditional policy at that period in the season, to a few 
elementary plays. The Yale team showed the effects 



FOOTBALL. 5^9 

of this contest for a considerable time, and although 
they won from Harvard by a score of 6 to o, they were 
defeated in the final game of the season by Princeton 
by the same score. 

The following year, 1894, the Yale team was brought 
to a higher scoring perfection, though slightly at the 
expense of her defensive play. West Point scored on 
her, and so did Harvard ; but Yale defeated both these 
teams and went into the Princeton game in good con- 
dition, easily running up a score of twenty-four points, 
while Princeton failed to cross the Yale line. But 
Yale was developing individual players more strongly 
than usual. This was probably the effect of having 
some marvellously strong runners behind her line, upon 
whom, in spite of the efforts of the management, the 
teams grew to rely, and fell behind in that general team 
play which had been so characteristic of New Haven 
elevens. In 1895, this tendency became especially 
marked, and, as one of the coachers said, "This team 
can score against anybody." And before the Princeton 
game the record of the team had been an unusual one. 
In the first place the Crescent Athletic Club had forced 
them to a safety touch-down ; the Orange Athletic 
Club had scored twelve points on them. Meantime, 
however, they had been scoring twenty-four points on 
Orange. West Point scored eight on them ; but once 
more Yale demonstrated the remarkable scoring ability 
of her team by running up twenty-eight points. The 
only game of the season which apparently found her 
lacking in this quality was a tie game with Brown. 
There was no Harvard game this season on account of 
the bitter feeling engendered by the match of 1894 at 
Springfield, the general recrimination incident to that 

34 



530 YALE. 

match having brought about a cessation of athletic re- 
lations between the two universities. With the day of 
the Princeton game approaching, it was hard to predict 
what the result of the match between these two teams 
would be. Princeton had made a reputation for strong 
playing, and their defence was superior to that of most 
of the other teams; besides this they were, like Yale, 
a strong, offensive, scoring team. The match was one 
of the most interesting and remarkable ever played 
between the two universities, but the star playing of 
Thorne, the Yale captain, turned the tables in Yale's 
favor at critical moments, and Princeton was finally 
defeated by a score of 20 to 10. 

An era of depression seemed to follow as a result of 
the tendency to rely upon brilliant individual effort. 
The material that offered during the season of 1896 
was unsatisfactory, and there were many times when 
veterans with injuries were of necessity called upon to 
play in the early practice matches, simply because there 
were not enough reasonably good new men to take 
their places. As the season went on, every one realized 
that the Yale team was far from being up to its usual 
standard. For all that, so many times had the public 
been surprised by Yale's tremendous power for finish- 
ing strongly that, in the absence of any Harvard game 
in which to measure the calibre of Yale's 1896 team, 
the general public believed that it would be a close 
match with Princeton. But Princeton not only won, 
but administered to Yale the most severe defeat her 
team had ever suffered in its history. It is true it did 
not equal the thrashing that Yale had administered to 
Princeton at Eastern Park when Captain Rhodes' team 
defeated the men from New Jersey 32 to o; but it made 



FOOTBALL. 531 

every one feel before the game was over how absolutely 
powerless the Yale eleven was before the mighty on- 
slaughts of Princeton's interference. The final score 
was Princeton 24, Yale 6. 

The season of 1897, therefore, opened for Yale with 
visions of a gigantic undertaking. The relations 
with Harvard were renewed, and a match was arranged 
with them to take place at Cambridge. Yale's eleven 
of the previous year was more than half gone, and, from 
memories of the Princeton game of 1896, it seemed 
well-nigh impossible to develop a new team to meet 
the veteran organization and wipe out that score of 24 
to 6. But Yale went at it manfully; her material was 
most promising, but the progress was slow. Game 
after game went by without the development of that 
peculiar getting together so characteristic of good Yale 
teams. Brown nearly tied Yale; West Point did tie 
them, and in fact up to the last few minutes had the 
game won. Up to the game with the Chicago Athletic 
Association no one could hope for anything but defeat 
at the hands of both Harvard and Princeton. But by 
this time the needs of the Yale team had been care- 
fully diagnosed, coaches had been set at every weak 
position, the general defence was carefully laid out, 
and in that game — the one mentioned above with 
Chicago — 'the team came up to something like its 
usual form. The next week was spent in the most 
tremendous effort to smooth out the rough places, and 
when the team went to Cambridge it was by no means 
an inferior team, although it was green and erratic. 
For the first few minutes of the game the men seemed 
to lose their heads, but after that steadied down and 
the final result was a tie. This gave the team just 



53- 



YALE. 



the experience necessary to enable them to cope with 
Princeton; but as the organization from New Jersey 
was regarded as one of the most remarkable in the 
history of that university, the general outsider went up 
to New Haven expecting to see Yale annihilated. But 
the Princeton team had passed the point of their high- 
est development, and, during the period intervening 
between their last important game and the day of the 
Yale match, had fallen off physically very much. 
Yale went in with dash and fire that was almost irre- 
sistible, and although Princeton more than held their 
own for a time, the strength of the Yale team gradu- 
ally wore them down, overmatched their points of 
superior skill, and in the second half scored and won 
the game, 6 to o. It was the most remarkable triumph 
of the Yale system ever displayed in her football 
history. 

Yet upon the very heels of this followed a season of 
reverses. Yale carried over an especially strong body 
of men as candidates for positions behind the line, 
among them De Saulles, McBride, Dudley, Corvvin, and 
Benjamin, all of whom had taken part in the final re- 
markable work of 1897 and were expected to furnish 
such evidence of improvement as should insure Yale the 
strongest back-field in the country for the season of 
1898. But the forward line was materially weakened 
by losses, Cadwalader, Rodgers, Hall, and Hazen all 
being missed. Most of all, however, was felt the entire 
absence of graduate coaches until at the very end of the 
season, when they hurriedly assembled, but too late to 
be of service. The play of the team at the outset was 
fair behind the line, but lamentably loose in the for- 
ward. In fact, there was never a time when the backs 



FOOTBALL. 533 

could rely upon any assistance from the men before 
them, as the few good men were all the time obliged to 
help out the weaker portions of the line and had no 
spare strength to give the halves. This condition of 
affairs began after a time to result in injury and over- 
training or overworking of the men behind the line, and 
before the season was half over the goodly array of 
material for backs was fast becoming decimated. To 
crown the troubles of the team De Saulles, upon whom 
so much reliance had been placed, and whose play in 
1897 had been so precious to Yale in emergencies, met 
with an incapacitating accident in the shape of a sprained 
ankle, which, in spite of time, refused to strengthen, and 
after an heroic attempt to play in the Princeton game 
he was laid up for the rest of the season. Although the 
conditions just previous to the first big match were 
reversed from those of the last year, Princeton only 
tying West Point and Yale defeating the same team, it 
was generally believed that Yale and Princeton were 
very evenly matched, especially as Princeton would 
have the advantage of home grounds. For all this the 
result was unexpected in the way it came about. Yale 
developed unhoped-for solidity of defence and an ability 
to pierce the Princeton line with short plunges, so that 
the play was early transferred to Princeton territory. 
While nearly at Princeton's goal and apparently mas- 
ters of the situation, the Yale team, through one of the 
half-backs losing the ball after making his distance, 
were thrown into consternation by Poe, the Princeton 
end, seizing the ball and running entirely unopposed the 
length of the field, securing a touchdown which was 
easily converted into a goal. From that time on neither 
side scored, although Yale continued to exhibit individ- 



534 YALE. 

ual weaknesses in catching kicks and in holding the ball. 
Princeton's offensive game was never strong enough to 
make an impression upon the Yale line, but her han- 
dling of the ball on punts was far superior. When the 
game ended there was great confusion of ideas as to 
what the outcome of the Harvard game would be. 
Outside the fumbling Yale was accredited with a de- 
cidedly better showing than her coaches had expected 
or had any fair reason to hope. Thus it happened that 
the majority of her adherents, especially those who had 
had no practical experience in the severe undertaking 
of teaching and perfecting a team in the kicking depart- 
ment, fell into the error of believing that Yale had an 
equal chance with Harvard in the coming contest. 
No team has ever yet been able in the last week of a 
season to develop a kicking game, or, in fact, in that 
short space of time to add very materially to their skill 
in that department of play. An eleven that has no 
special control over that branch before mid-season has 
never been able to effectively master it, and has usually 
been equally unable to meet such play by the opponents. 
The Yale team of 1898 only demonstrated this fact. 
There were times during the match with Harvard when 
Yale's running game was for a short period equal to that 
of Harvard. There were momentary spells of that stiff 
defence exhibited at Princeton, but never was there a 
time when Yale approached in any degree to Harvard's 
skill in the punting department. Her ends were not 
down in field on the ball, her kicks were neither long 
nor accurate, and in catching or running back of punts 
she was completely out-classed. The day opened most 
depressingly with a heavy rain, which continued to fall 
well into the afternoon. The Freshman match was 



FOOTBALL. 535 

played out and won by Harvard in a perfect sea of mud 
and water. The crowd were not in the least daunted by 
the conditions, however, and assembled bravely for the 
big match of the afternoon. The field had been well 
treated, and while moist was by no means bad. Harvard 
quickly took the lead, and with the wind and aided by 
excellent concerted play forced Yale speedily into the 
position of defenders. Harvard's running game was, 
during the first fifteen minutes, the best she has ever 
exhibited; and although later in the match Yale im- 
proved in meeting that running she never stood a chance 
of meeting Harvard's kicking game, and the only wonder 
was that the score was not even larger. Towards the 
end traditional dogged pluck on the part of the wearers 
of the blue enabled her team to carry the ball down 
within trying distance for' a field goal, but this was 
missed, and Yale's last hope of scoring disappeared. 
Yale exhibited at times considerable ability in united 
team action in the short runs, but there was a lamentable 
lack of individual skill in catching, kicking, and covering 
kicks. Harvard was phenomenally strong in each one 
of these particulars. 

The result was so manifestly a logical one as to leave 
no ground for cavil, and in fact the congratulations 
extended to Harvard came from no sincerer source 
than from the Yale players themselves and the Yale 
body in general. 



536 



YALE. 



Football Championships. 



Year. 


Contestants. 


Winner. 


Remarks. 


1876 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Columbia. 


Yale. 


Yale not in Association, but defeated 
every member of it. 


1S77 


Yale. 
Princeton. 


Not awarded. 


Yale not in Association. Yale made two 
touchdowns to Princeton's nothing ; 
this, by the rules, a draw game. 


187S 


Yale. 

Princeton. 

Harvard. 


Princeton. 


Yale defeated Harvard this year by one 
goal to nothing. 


1879 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Columbia. 


Not awarded. 


Yale's game with Princeton and Har- 
vard, by the rules, draw games. 
Princeton 5 safeties, Yale 2. 
Harvard 4 safeties, Yale 2. 


1880 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Columbia. 


Not awarded. 


Yale defeated Harvard by one goal and 
one touchdown to uothmg. Draw game 
with Princeton. 


1881 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Columbia. 


Yale. 


Yale defeated Harvard by no safeties to 
four and tied Princeton, neither scor- 
ing, except Princeton made touchdown 
in goals. 


1882 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Columbia. 


Yale. 


Yale defeated Harvard by a goal and 
three touchdowns to nothing ; and 
Princeton by two goals to one. 
Harvard defeated Princeton. 


1883 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Columbia. 


Yale. 


Yale rush line averaged 185 lbs. 


1884 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Wesleyan. 


Not awarded. 


Harvard beaten by four colleges this 
year. Yale defeated Princeton 6-4 in 
an unfinished game. 


188s 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Wesleyan. 
Univ. of Penn. 


Princeton. 


Harvard kept out of football by her 
Faculty. 
Princeton defeated Yale 6 to 5. 


1886 


Yale. 

Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Wesleyan. 
Univ. of Penn. 


Not awarded. 


Yale defeated Princeton 4-0 in an un- 
finished game. 
Princeton 12, Harvard 0. 


1887 


Yale. 

Princeton. 
Harvard. 
Univ. of Penn. 
Wesleyan. 


Yale. 


Harvard defeated Princeton, 12-0. 
Audience of about 20,000 at Yale- 
Harvard game. 


1888 


Yale. 
Harvard. 
Princeton. 
Univ. of Penn. 
Wesleyan. 


Yale. 


Yale played thirteen games and ended 
the season without being scored against, 
and havinc; made 6go points. 
Harvard forfeited to Yale. 



FOOTBALL. 



537 



Year. 


Contestants. 


Winner. 


Remarks. 


1S89 


Yale. 


Princeton. 


Harvard witlidrew from the Association 


Harvard. 




after being defeated by Princeton by a 




Princeton. 




score o£ 41-15. 




Univ. of Penn. 








Wesleyan. 






1890 


Yale. 


Harvard. 


Harvard defeated Yale on Nov. 22 by a 


Princeton. 




score of 12 to 6, but not being a member 




Univ. of Penn. 




of the Intercollegiate Association, the 




Wesleyan. 




championship went to Yale, who had 
scored 168-0 in the three championship 
games. 


1891 


Yale. 


Yale. 


Yale also defeated Harvard by a score of 


Princeton. 




10 to 0. 




Univ. of Penn. 








Wesleyan. 






1892 


Yale. 
Princeton. 
Univ. of Penn. 
Wesleyan. 


Yale. 


Yale also defeated Harvard 6 to 0. 


1S93 


Yale. 


Princeton. 


Wesleyan withdrew from the league 


Princeton. 




after her first game, which was with 




Univ. of Penn. 




Princeton. 




Wesleyan. 






1894 


Yale. 

Harvard. 

Princeton. 


Yale. 




1S95 


Yale. 








Princeton. 


Yale. 




i8g6 


Yale. 


Princeton. 


In these years Pennsylvania met and 




Princeton. 




- defeated Harvard, but had no games 
with Yale or Princeton. 


1897 


Yale. 

Harvard. 

Princeton. 


Yale. 




1S9S 


Yale. 


Harvard. 


Princeton defeated Yale and Harvard 




Harvard. 




defeated Yale and Pennsylvania. 




Princeton. 







53? YALE. 

Freshmen Intercollegiate Football Record. 



Date. 



1S76. 
Dec. 2. 

1S77. 
Nov. 17. 

Dec. II. 

1879. 
Nov. 22. 

Nov. 29. 

18S0. 
Nov. 17. 

1881. 
Nov. 12. 



Nov. II. 
Dec. 2. 

18S3. 
Nov. 29. 

1884. 
Oct. 22. 

Nov. 5. 

1886. 
Nov. 27. 

1887. 
Nov. 26. 

1888. 
Dec. I. 

1889 
Dec. I. 

1890. 
Nov. 29. 

1 891. 
Nov. 28. 

1892. 
Nov. 26. 

1S93. 
Dec. 4. 

1894. 
Dec. I. 

1895. 
Nov. 27. 

i8g6. 
Nov. 25. 

Nov. 13. 
Nov. 20. 

1898. 
Nov. 19. 



Place. 



Boston. 

New Haven. 

Boston. 

New Haven. 

Cambridge. 

Springfield. 

Springfield. 

Middletown. 

Cambridge. 

Cambridge. 

Hartford. 

New Haven. 

Cambridge. 

New Haven. 

Cambridge. 

New Haven. 

Cambridge. 

New Haven. 

Cambridge. 

New Haven. 

Cambridge. 

New Haven. 

Princeton. 

New Haven. 

Cambridge. 

New Haven. 



Contestants, 



Yale 'So. 
Harvard 'So 
Yale '81. 
Harvard '81 
Yale '81. 
Harvard '81 

Yale '83. 
Harvard 'S3 
Yale '83. 
Harvard '83 
Yale '84. 
Harvard '84 
Yale '85. 
Amherst '85. 

Yale '86. 
Wesleyan '85 

Yale '86. 
Harvard '86 

Yale '87. 
Harvard '87 
Yale 'SS. 
Amherst '88. 
Yale '88. 
Wesleyan '8: 

Yale '90. 
Harvard '90. 

Yale 'gi. 
Harvard '91 
Yale '92. 
Harvard '92 
Yale '93. 
Harvard '93 

Yale '94. 
Harvard '- 
Yale '95. 
Harvard ' 



94 



95 



Yale '96. 
Harvard ' 
Yale '97. 
Harvard 



■96. 



97 



'98 



Yale 'v--- 
Harvard 
Yale '99. 
Princeton '99. 

Yale igoo. 
Princeton igoo. 
Yale igoi. 
Princeton igoi. 
Yale igoi. 
Harvard igoi. 

Yale 1902. 
Harvard igo2. 



Harvard '80. 
Harvard '81. 
Harvard '81. 
Yale 'S3. 
Yale '83. 
Yale '84. 
Yale '85. 
Wesleyan '85. 
Tie game. 
Tie game. 
Yale '88. 
Yale '88. 
Harvard '90. 
Harvard '91. 
Harvard '92. 
Harvard 'g3. 
Harvard 'g4. 
Yale '95. 
Tie game. 
Yale '97. 
Harvard '98. 
Yale '99. 
Princeton 1900. 
Yale 1901. 
Harvard 1901, 
Harvard. 



Score. 



3 goals to o. 
I goal to o. 

1 touchdown to o. 

2 touchdowns to o. 

I goal, 3 touchdowns 
to o. 

3 goals, I touchdown 
to o. 

Amherst 4 safeties. 
I touchdown to o. 

6-6 

5-S 
58-0 

8-2 
22-4 

6-2 
3&-4 
3S-I2 
14-4 
24-0 

6-6 
30-4 
12-6 
16-6 
14-4 

lO-O 

34-0 

6-0 



FOOTBALL. 

Yale University Football Games. 



539 



Date. 



Teams. 



1S72. 
Nov. 10. 

1873- 
Oct. 25. 

1874. 
Nov. 18. 

" 21. 
Dec. 5. 

1875. 
Nov. 6. 
Nov. 13. 
Nov. 16. 
Dec. 4. 

1876.* 
Nov. 18. 
Nov. 30. 
Dec. 9. 

1877.* 
Nov. 3. 

" 21. 

« 24. 
Dec. 8. 

1878. 
Nov. 2. 

" 9- 

" 13- 

" 23. 



Yale f J. Columbia (twenties) 

" vs. Rutgers " 

" vs. Princeton " 

" vs. Rutgers " 

" vs. Columbia " 

"vs. " " 

" vs. Rutgers " 

" vs. Harvard (fifteens) 

" vs. Wesleyan (twenties) 

" vs. Columbia " 

" vs. Harvard (elevens) 

" vs. Princeton " 

" vs. Columbia " 

" vs. Tufts " 

" vs. Trinity " 

" vs. Stevens Institute .... " 

" vs. Princeton (fifteens) 

" vs. Amherst " 

" vs. Trinity " 

" vs. " " 

" vs. Harvard " 

" vs. Princeton " 



3-1 
0-3 

6-0 

5-1 
6-1 

4-1 
0-4 
6hd 
2-3 

I-O 

2-0 
2-0 

1-0 

7-0 

13-0 
Draw. 

2-0 
2-0 

3-0 
i-o 
o-i 



5-1 

4-0 

II-O 

17-0 
(•2^) 



Date. 



1879- 

Nov. 



8. 
IS- 



Teams. 



Yale vs. Univ. of Pennsylvania . 

" vs. Harvard 

" vs. Rutgers 

" vs. Columbia 

" vs. Princeton 



(fifteens) 



3-0 

5-0 
2-0 



5-0 

3-0 
3-0 



2-4 

2-S 



* In these years only goals counted. 



540 



YALE. 



Date. 



Nov 


lO. 


" 


13 


« 


17- 

20. 


1 88 


25 
I. 


Oct. 

Nov. 


29. 

2. 


" 


5- 


" 


12. 


" 


16. 


« 

i88 


24. 


Oct. 


7 


" 


21 


" 


28. 


Nov. 


4- 


" 


8 


« 


18. 


" 


25. 


^* 


30- 



Teams. 



Yale vs. Columbia .... 

" vs. Brown 

" vs. Univ. of Pennsylvania 

" vs. Harvard 

" vs. Princeton .... 



(elevens) 



Amherst .... 
Univ. of Michigan 
Amherst .... 
Harvard . . . - 
Columbia . . . 
Princeton . , . 



Wesleyan . . . . 

Rutgers 

Rutgers 

Inst, of Technology 
Amherst . . . . . 
Columbia ... 
Harvard . . . . , 
Princeton . . . , 



1 


it 


13-0 


8-0 

8-0 


5-0 

I-O 


I-O 


I-O 


2-0 


4-0 


2-0 




4-0 


8-0 


1-0 




9-0 




9-0 


.3-<3 


6-0 


i-i 

2-0 


9-0 


I-O 


II-O 


S-o 


1-0 


3^ 


2-1 





2-9 
5-" 



0-4 



0-3 



0-2 
i-i 



Date. 


Teams. 


S 

e 




ii 

si 

OH 


a 

1 
•a 

•g 

9 

H 


w 
W 


c 

"0 


1883. 
Sept. 26. 

" 29. 
Oct. 7. 
Nov. 6. 

" 17. 

" 21. 

" 24. 

" 29. 
1884. 
Oct. I. 

" II. 

" 18. 

" 22 


Yale vs. Wesleyan .... 
" vs. " .... 
" vs. Stevens Institute . . 

" vs. Rutgers 

" vs. Columbia .... 
" vs. Univ. of Michigan . 
" vs. Princeton .... 
" vs. Harvard 

" vs. Wesleyan .... 
" vs. Stevens Institute . . 
" vs. Wesleyan .... 
" vs. Rutgers 


3-0 
4-0 

I-O 

4-0 

2-0 
2-0 

3-0 
2-0 

5-0 


6-0 
1 0-0 

5^ 
9-0 

I I-O 

8-0 

I-O 

2-0 

I-O 

12-0 

3-0 

I I-I 

14-0 

5-0 


3-0 
3-0 
5^ 
6-0 
2-0 
2-0 

O-I 

2-0 
3-0 
5-0 
2-1 
4-0 
3-0 


^3 
0-4 

0-3 
0-7 
0-3 
0-2 

O-I 

O-I 
O-I 

O-I 

0-4 
0-2 


60-0 
90-0 

48-0 
98-0 

93-0 
64-0 

23-2 
31-0 

96-0 
63-0 

76-10 

1 13-0 

46hd 


" 25. 
Nov. 5. 


" vs. Dartmouth .... 
" vs. Wesleyan .... 


I-O 



FOOTBALL. 



541 



Date. 



Teams. 



Nov. 22. 

" 28. 

1885. 
Oct. 10. 

" 14- 
" 28. 

" 31- 

Nov. 14. 
" 21. 
" 25- 



Oct. 



" 23. 

" 30- 
Nov. 13. 

" 20. 

" 25. 

18S7. 
Oct. 6. 

" 15- 

« 22. 

" 29. 
Nov. 5. 

" 12. 

" 19. 

" 24. 

1888. 
Sept. 30. 
Oct. 6. 

" 13- 
" 16. 
" 19. 



Nov. 



24. 

27. 

3- 

" 6. 
" 10. 

" 17- 
" 24. 
1889. 
Sept. 28. 



Yale vs. Harvard . 
" vs. Princeton 



vs. Stevens Institute . . 
vs. Wesleyan .... 
vs. " .... 

vs. Inst, of Technology . 
vs. Univ. of Pennsylvania 
vs. Princeton .... 
vs. Wesleyan .... 

vs. Wesleyan .... 



vs. Inst, of Technology . 
vs. Stevens Institute . . 

vs. Williams 

vs. Wesleyan .... 
vs. Univ. of Pennsylvania 

vs. Harvard 

vs. Princeton .... 



vs. Wesleyan .... 
vs. " .... 

vs. Williams 

vs. Univ. of Pennsylvania 

7JS. Rutgers 

vs. Wesleyan .... 
vs. Princeton .... 
vs. Harvard 



Wesleyan .... 

Rutgers 

Univ. of Pennsylvania 
Wesleyan .... 

Amherst 

Williams 

Inst, of Technology . 
Stevens Institute . . 
Univ. of Pennsylvania 
Crescent A. C. . . 

Amherst 

Wesleyan .... 
Princeton .... 



vs. Wesleyan 



3-0 



5-0 
3-0 
3-1 
i-o 

3-0 

I-O 



1-0 
1-0 



« 3 

o o 
OH 



6k3 
1-0 

4-0 
1-0 

4-0 
4-0 

1-0 

O-I 

7-0 
8-0 

9-0 
13-0 

5-0 

8-0 
22-0 

7-0 
4-0 



3-0 

9-0 

6-0 

12-0 

1 0-0 

2-0 

2-1 



4-0 
o-i 

4-0 

3-0 
4-0 
2-0 
7-0 

i-o 

2-0 
3-0 
3-0 
6^ 
i-o 
7-0 

O-I 

I-o 

4-0 
3-0 

S-o 
3-0 

3-1 



6-0 
5-0 
5-0 
3-0 
4-0 
6-0 
9-0 
6-0 



6-0 

4-0 
4-0 
I-o 
8-0 
2-0 
S-o 



I-o 
2-0 



8-0 

II-O 



5^ 
8-0 



0-3 
0-2 
0-2 



O-I 

^3 

O-I 

0-2 



0-2 
0-2 

O-I 
O-I 
O-I 

I-o 



O-I 
O-I 



O-I 
O-I 



4-0 3-0 



52-0 

6-4 

55-0 
18-0 
71-0 
51^ 
53-5 
5-6 
61-0 

75-0 
62-0 
96-0 

54-0 

76-0 

136-0 

75-0 

29-4 

4-0 

38-0 
106-0 
74-0 
50-0 
74-0 
74-4 
12-0 
17-8 

76-0 
65-0 

34-0 
46-0 

39-0 
-^o-o 
6S-0 
69-0 
5S-0 
2S-0 
70-0 
105-0 

lO-O 

38-0 



542 



YALE. 



Date. 



Oct. 9 

" 12 

" 1 6 

" 19 

" 24, 

" 26. 

" 30 

" 31 

Nov. 5, 

" 9 

" 12 

" 13 

" 16 

" 23 

" 28 
1890. 

Oct. I 

" 4 

" 8 

" II 

" 15 

" 18 



Nov. 





4 
8 




IS 
22 


" 27 
I89I. 

Sept. 30 
Oct. 3 


« 


7 

ID 


Nov. 


14 
24 

31 

3 


" 


7 
II 


" 


M 



26, 



Teams. 



Yale z'J'. Wesleyan .... 

" vs. Williams 

" vs. Cornell .... 

" vs. Amherst 

" vs. Trinity 

" vs. Columbia .... 

" vs. Univ. of Pennsylvania 

" vs. Stevens Institute . . 

" vs. Crescent A. C. . . . 

" vs. Cornell 



Amherst . 
Williams . 
Wesleyan 
Harvard . 
Princeton 



vs. Wesleyan .... 
vs. Crescent A. C. . . . 
vs. Wesleyan .... 

vs. Lehigh 

7/s. Trinity 

vs. Orange A. C. - . . 
vs. Williams . . . • 

vs. Amherst 

vs. Wesleyan .... 
vs. Crescent A. C. . . . 

vs. Rutgers 

vs. Univ. of Pennsylvania 

vs. Harvard 

z's. Princeton .... 



Wesleyan .... 
Crescent A. C. . . 

Trinity 

Williams 

Stagg's Team . . . 
Orange A. C. . . . 

Lehigh 

Crescent A. C. . . . 
Wesleyan .... 

Amherst 

Univ. of Pennsylvania 

Harvard 

Princeton .... 



3-0 
6-1 

5-0 
(^o 

7-0 
o-i 

5-0 
2-0 
9-0 
4-0 
9-0 
6-0 

I-O 
0-1 



3-1 
2-0 

3-0 

4-0 

I-O 

4-0 

I-O 

5-0 

8-0 
7-0 
4-0 
1-2 
4-0 

2-0 

3-0 
4-0 
7-0 

3-0 
2-0 

3-0 
9-0 
8-0 

I-O 

6-0 

I-O 

1-0 



2-0 

4-0 

^o 

3-0 
7-0 

5-0 
5-1 

I-O 

4-0 
2-0 
4-0 
4-0 

O-I 



5-0 

2-0 

4-0 

2-0 

3-0 

I-O 
I I-O 
I-O 

7-0 

9-0 
2-0 

4-0 

2-0 

3-0 

I-O 

2-0 

6-0 
5-0 
4-0 
7-0 
4-0 
3-0 

I-O 

2-0 



O-I 
O-I 



O-I 
O-I 



O-I 
O-I 



50-6 

3&-3 
60-6 
42-0 
64-0 
62-0 
22-10 
30-0 
iS-o 
70-0 
32-0 
70-0 
52-0 
6-0 

O-IO 

8-0 
18-6 
34-0 
26-0 
40-0 
16-0 
36-0 
12-0 
76-0 
52-0 
70-0 
60-0 
6-12 
32-0 

28-0 
26-0 
36-0 
46-0 
28-0 
36-0 
38-0 
70-0 
76-0 
27-0 
48-0 
1 0-0 
19-0 



FOOTBALL. 



543 



octr 




<( 


8. 


" 


12. 


" 


IS- 


" 


19- 


" 


22. 


" 


26. 


" 


29. 


Nov. 


s- 


<> 


8. 


" 


12. 


" 


19. 


" 


24. 


1893. 1 


Oct. 


4- 


" 


7- 


" 


14. 


« 


18. 


" 


21. 


" 


2S- 


" 


28. 


Nov. 


7- 


" 


II. 


" 


25- 


" 


,10. 


1894. 1 


Sept 


^o. 


Oct. 


.1- 


" 


7- 


(( 


10. 


" 


IS- 


" 


17- 


" 


20. 


" 


24. 


" 


28. 


Nov. 


3- 


" 


7- 


" 


10. 


" 


14. 




24. 


Dec. 


I. 


1895. 1 


Sept 


28. 


Oct. 


2. 




S- 



Yale vs. Wesleyan 

" vs. Crescent A. C 

" vs. Williams . . 

" vs. Manhattan A. 

" vs. Amherst . . 

" vs. Orange A. C. 

" c/j'. Springfield Y. M. C. A 

" vs. Tufts . . 

" 7's. Wesleyan 

" vs. New York A. C. 

" vs. Univ. of Pennsylvania 

" vs. Harvard . . 

" vs. Princeton 



vs. Brown. . . 
vs. Crescent A. C 
vs. Dartmouth . 
vs. Amherst . 
vs. Orange A. C. 
vs. Williams . . 
vs. West Point . 
vs. New York A. C. 
vs. Univ. of Pennsyl 
vs. Harvard . 
vs. Princeton 



vs. Trinity 
vs. Brown . . 
vs. Crescent A. C. 
vs. Williams . . 
vs. Lehigh 
vs. Dartmouth . 
vs. Orange A. C. 
vs. Boston A. A. 
vs. West Point . 
vs. Brown . . 
vs. Tufts . . . 
vs. Lehigh . . 
vs. Chicago A. C. 
vs. Harvard . . 
vs. Princeton 



vs. Trinity 
z's. Brown 
vs. Union . 



E g 



i-o 

O-I 



1-0 

2-0 



1-0 

4-0 
3-0 
3-0 

2-0 

7-0 

S-<5 

4-0 
10-0 
4-0 
4-0 

I-O 

2-0 
1-0 



4-0 
7-0 
7-0 
13-0 
4-0 

i-i 

i-o 

O-I 

3^ 
4-0 
i-o 

I-O 

3-0 

4-0 

3-0 
2-0 
2-0 
7-0 
7-0 
6-0 
2-0 
4-0 



3-0 



I-o 

3-0 
I-o 

3-0 
4-0 
5-0 

5-0 
3-0 

6-0 
I-o 



I-o 
I-o 
2-0 
I-o 
I-o 

3^ 
2-0 



I-o 
I-o 

3-1 
I-o 
I-o 



5-0 

2-0 



2-0 
I-o 
2-0 



6-0 
28-0 
32-0 

22-0 
29-0 

58-0 

50-0 

44-0 

72-0 

48-0 

28-0 

6-0 

12-0 

iS-o 
16-0 

28h3 
46-0 
50-0 
82-0 
2S-O 
42-0 
14-6 
6-0 
0-6 

42-0 
2S-O 
lO-O 

23-4 
34-0 
34-0 
24-0 
23-0 

I --5 
12-0 
67-0 
50-0 
3S-0 
12-4 
24-0 

8-0 

4-0 

26-0 



544 



YALE. 



Date. 



Teams. 



Oct. 


9- 


« 


12. 


" 


16. 


" 


19. 


'^ 


2.1- 




26. 


" 


,30. 


Nov. 


2. 


" 


6. 


(( 


9- 


(1 


16. 


" 


2,3- 


1896. 1 


Sept 


26. 


" 


,30. 


Oct. 


7- 


" 


10. 


" 


14. 


'^ 


17- 


" 


21. 


" 


24. 


" 


28. 


« 


31- 


Nov. 


3- 


<( 


7- 


« 


14. 


" 


21. 


1897. 1 


Sept 


29. 


Oct. 


2. 


<( 


6. 


" 


9- 




16. 


" 


20. 


" 


2-^. 


« 


30. 


Nov 


6. 


" 


13- 




20. 



Yale vs. Amherst . . 

" vs. Crescent A. C. 

" vs. Dartmouth . 

" z's. Orange A. C. 

" vs. Williams . . 

" vs. Boston A. A. 

" vs. Dartmouth . 

" vs. West Point . 

" vs. Carlisle School 

" vs. Brown . . 

" vs. Orange A. C. 

" vs. Princeton 

" vs. Trinity . . 

" vs. Amherst . . 

" vs. Brown . . 

" vs. Orange A. C. 

" vs. Williams . . 

" vs. Dartmouth . 

" vs. Wesleyan 

" vs. Carlisle School 

" vs. Elizabeth A. C 

" vs. West Point . 

" vs. Boston A. A. 

" vs. Brown . . . 

" Z'S. New Jersey A. C. 

" vs. Princeton 

" vs. Trinity . . 

" vs. Wesleyan 

" vs. Amherst . . 

" vs. Williams . . 

" vs. Newton A. C 

" vs. Brown . . 

" vs. Carlisle School 

" vs. West Point . 

" vs. Chicago A. C 

" vs. Harvard . . 

" vs. Princeton 



4-0 

3-0 
2-2 

7-0 

2-0 
3-0 
3-0 
i-i 
2-0 
2-1 



2-0 
3-0 

3-0 
5-0 
2-0 
2-1 
2-1 
i-o 

I-O 

I-I 

2-0 

1-2 
1-0 

5-0 
3-0 
4-0 
i-o 



3-0 
2-0 
2-0 
3-0 
3-0 

5-0 
2-2 



3-0 



I-O 

3-0 

1-0 



2-0 

1-0 

3-0 

1-0 

0-3 

1-0 



2-0 
I-O 

0-2 

O-I 



FOOTBALL. 



S4S 



Date. 


Teams. 





ij 

li 

OH 


c 

1 

3 

H 


'Si 


c 
'0 

(1, 


1898. 
Sept. 24. 
Oct. I. 


Va 


le 7's. Trinity 




3-0 


3-1 

I-O 

6-0 
4-0 

I-O 

4-1 

3-0 
2-0 

I-O 
O-I 

0-3 






18-0 

34-0 

23^0 

6-0 

22-6 


" 5- 
8. 

" 15- 
" 19. 
" 22. 
" 29. 
Nov. 5. 
" 12. 
" 19- 


' vs. Amherst 

' vs. Williams .... 
' vs. Newton A. C. . . . 
' vs. Brown 




4-0 
3-0 

I-O 
2-1 


' vs. Carlisle School . . 


O-I 


3^ 


18-S 
1 0-0 


' vs. Chicago A. C. . . . 
' vs. Princeton .... 
' vs. Harvard 


I-O 


O-I 

0-2 


lO-O 

c-6 
C-17 



zs 



546 YALE. 

Yale University Football Men. 
1872. 

W. F. McCook, C. S. Hemingway, E. S. Miller, S. L. Boyce, L. W. 
Irwin, J. P. Peters, H. A. Strong, '73; W. S. Halstead, R. H. Piatt, P. A. 
Porter, R. W. Kelly, J. L. Scudder, J. A. R. Dunning, H. Scudder, 
H. D, Bristol, T. T. Sherman, '74 ; H. A. Oaks, C. H. Avery, W. H. 
Hotchkiss, '75; R. D. A. Parrott, '74 S. ; (D. S. Schaff, '73, ^<r//«^ 
Captain). 

1873. 
C. Deming, '72 ; J. P. Peters, '73 ; W. S. Halstead [CapL), H. D. Bris- 
tol, J. L. Scudder, T. T. Sherman, G. M. Gunn, C. D. Waterman, E. D. 
Robbins, W. E. D. Stokes, L. Melick, W. O. Henderson, C. E. Hum- 
phrey, G. V. Bushnell, J. A. R. Dunning, P. A. Porter, '74; W. H. 
Hotchkiss, F. L. Grinnell, H. J. McBirney, '75; E. V. Baker, '77. 

1874. 

C. Deming, '72; J. P. Peters, '73; H. D. Bristol, '74; H. J. McBirney 
{Capt.), C. H. Avery, C. W. Cochran, W. S. Fulton, F. L. Grinnell, 
C. Maxwell, F. T. McClintock, '75; W. Arnold, A. H. Ely, M. H. 
Phelps, D. Trumbull, F. W. Vaille, W. J. Wakeman, F. N. Wright, '76; 
E. V. Baker, '77 ; W. L. R. Wurts, '78 ; W. C. Hall, '75 S. 

1875- 
J. P. Peters, '73; W. Arnold {Capt.), W. J. Wakeman, D. Trumbull, 
C. Johnston, F. N. Wright, M. H. Phelps, F. W. Vaille, '76 ; E. V. Ba- 
ker, G. T. Elliott, '77; W. L. R. Wurts, E. W. Smith, '78; O. D. 
Thompson, G. D. Munson, '79; D. R. Alden, '76 S. ; (E. D. Robbins, 
G. V. Bushnell, '74 ; B. B. Seeley, '76 ; F. W. Davis, '77 ; T. E. Roch- 
fort, '79, on the twenty, not ofi the pif teen) . 

1876. 

Forwards. — G. H. Clark, '80; W. H. Taylor, '78 ; C. C. Camp, '77 ; 
W. V. Downer, '78 ; N. U. Walker, '77. Halfbacks. — W. C. Camp, '80; 
W. D. Hatch, '79; O. D. Thompson, '79. Backs.— \N. L. R. Wurts, 
'78 ; W. T. Bigelow, '77 ; E. V. Baker, '77 (Capt.). 

1877. 

Forwards. — W. V. Downer, '78 ; B. B. Lamb, '81 ; J. S. Harding, '80 ; 
W. L. R. Wurts, '78. Halfbacks. — W. C. Camp, '80 ; G. H. Clark, '80 ; 
O. D. Thompson, '79; F. W. Brown, '78 S. Backs. — W. J. Wakeman, 
M. S. ; D. Trumbull, L. S. ; E. V. Baker, '77 (Capt.). 



FOOTBALL. 547 

1878. 
Forwards. — ^. V. Farwell, '79; L. K. Hull, '82; H. I^res, '81; J. S. 
Harding, '80; B. B. Lamb, '81 ; J. Moorhead, '79 S. ; F. M. Eaton. '82. 
Halfbacks. — F. W. Brown, P. G. ; W. A. Peters, '80 ; O. D. Thompson, 
'79; R. W. Watson, '81 S. ; W. C. Camp, '80 {Capt.). Backs. — y^. J. 
Wakeman, M. S. ; W. K. Nixon, '81 ; W. I. Badger, '82. 

1879. 
Forwards. — F. M. Eaton, '82 ; J. S. Harding, '80 ; L. K. Hull, '82 ; 
B. B. Lamb, '81 ; H. H. Knapp, '82 ; J. Moorhead, '79 S. ; F. Reming- 
ton. C. S. Beck, '83. Halfbacks. — W. I. Badger, '82 ; W. C. Camp, '80 
(Capt.); G. H. Clark, '80; W. A. Peters, '80; R. W. Watson, '81 S. 
Backs. — W. K. Nixon, '81 ; C. W. Lyman, '82. 

1880. 
Rushers. — P. C. Fuller, '81 ; C. S. Beck, '83 ; L. K. Hull, '83 ; J. S. 
Harding, '80; B. B. Lamb, '81; C. B. Stprrs, '82 ; F. M. Eaton, '82. 
Quarterback. — W. I. Badger, '82. Halfbacks. — R. W. Watson, '81 S. 
(Capi.) ; W. C. Camp, '80. Back. — B. W. Bacon, 'Si. 

1881. 
Rus/iers. — n. H. Knapp, '82 ; R. Tompkins, '84; L. K. Hull, '83 ; 

B. B. Lamb, 'Si ; C. B. Storrs, F. M. Eaton, '82 (Cap/.) ; C. S. Beck, '83. 
Quarterback. -^ W. I. Badger, '82. Halfbacks. — E. L. Richards, Jr., '85; 
W. Terry, '85. Back. — B. W. Bacon, T. S. 

1882. 
Buskers.— L. K. Hull, '83; H. H. Knapp, L. S. ; R. Tompkins, '84 
(Capi.); A. L. Farwell, '84 ; F. G. Peters, '86; W. H. Hyndman, '84; 

C. S. Beck, '83. Q7tarlerback. — H. B. Twombly, '84. Halfbacks.— 
E. L. Richards, Jr., '85 ; W. Terry, '85. Back. — B. W. Bacon, T. S. 

1883. 
Buskers. — R. Tompkins, '84 (Capi.) ; L. K. Hull, L. S. ; W. H. Hynd- 
man, '84 ; S. R. Bertron, '85 ; F. G. Peters, '86 ; H. H. Knapp, L. S. ; 
A. L. Farwell, '84. Quarterback. — II. B. Twombly, '84. Halfbacks. — 

E. L. Richards, Jr., '85 ; W. Terry, '85. Back. — B. W. Bacon, T. S. 

1884. 
Rushers. — W. N. Goodwin, '88 ; L. F. Robinson, '85; A. B. Co.xe, '87 ; 

F. G. Peters, '86 ; H. R. Flanders, '85 ; S. R. Bertron, '85 ; F. W. Wal- 
lace, '88. Quarterback. — T. L. Bayne, '87. Halfbacks. — E. L. Richards. 
Jr., '85 [Capt.) ; W. Terry, '85. Back. — M. H. Marlin, '86 S. 



54^ YALE. 

1885. 
Rushers. — F. W. Wallace, '88 ; G. R. Carter, '88 S. ; A. C. Lux, '88 ; 
F. G. Peters, '86 ^Capt.) ; G. W. Woodruff, '89; H. L. Hamlin, '87 S. ; 
R. N. Corwin, '87. Quarterback. — H. Beecher, '88. Halfbacks. — G. A. 
Watkinson, '89; W. T. Bull, '88 S. Back. — E. L. Burke, '87. 

1886. 

Rushers. — v.. N. Corwin, '87 {Capt.); G. R. Carter, '88 S. ; G. W. 
Woodruff, '89 ; W. H. Corbin, '89; T. W. Buchanan, '89 ; C. O. Gill, '89; 
F. W. Wallace, '88. Quarterback. — H. Beecher, '88. Halfbacks. — G. A. 
Watkinson, '89 ; S. B. Morison, '90. Back. — W. T. Bull, '88 S. 

1887. 
Rushers. — Y. W. Wallace, '89; C. O. Gill, '89; G. R. Carter, '88 S. ; 
W. H. Corbin, '89; G. W. Woodruff, '89; S. M. Cross, '88; F. C. Pratt, 
'88 S. Quarterback. — Yi. Beecher, '88 {Capt.). Halfbacks.— W. P. 
Graves, '91 ; W. C. Wurtenburg, '89 S. Back. — W. T. Bull, '88 S. 

1888. 

/?«j,^<'rj. — F. W. Wallace, '89 ; W. C. Rhodes, '91 ; W. W. Heffel- 
finger, '91 S. ; G. W. Woodruff, '89; C. O. Gill, '89 ; A. A. Stagg, P. G. ; 
W. H. Corbin, '89 [Capt.). Quarterback. — \N. C. Wurtenburg, '89 S. 
Halfbacks. — W . P. Graves, '91 ; T. L. McClung, '92. Fullback. — W. T. 
Bull, P. G. 

1889. 

Rteshers.—]. A. Hartwell, P. G. ; C. O. Gill, T. S. [Capt.]; W. W. 
Heffelfinger, '91 S. ; A. A. Stagg, T. S.; W. C. Rhodes, '91; A. B. 
Newell, '90; B. Hanson, '90. Quarterback — W. C. Wurtenburg, M. S. 
Halfbacks.— T. L. McClung, '92; S. B. Morison, '91. Fullback. — H. 
McBride, '90 S. 

1890. 

Rushers. — ]. A. Hartwell, M. S. ; B. L. Crosby, '92 ; A. H. Wallis, 
'93; W. M. Lewis, M. S. ; W. C. Rhodes, '91 (Capt.) ; W. W. Heffel- 
finger, 'gi S. ; S. N. Morison, '92. Quarterback. — F. E. Barbour, '92 S. 
Halfbacks. — H. L. Williams, '91 ; P. W. Harvey, '91 ; T. L. McClung, 
'92; L. T. Bliss, '93 S. Fullback. — S. B. Morison, '91. 

i8gi. 

Rushers.—]. A. Hartwell, M. S.; F. A. Hinkey, '95 ; A. H. Wallis, 
'93; G. F. Sanford, '9s; W. C, Winter, '93 S. ; W. W. Heffelfinger, 
'91 S. ; S. N. Morison, '92. Quarterback. — F. E. Barbour, '92 S. 
Halfbacks. — T. L. McClung, '92 {Capt.); L. T. Bliss, '93 S. Fullback. 
V. C. McCormick, '93 S. 



FOOTBALL. 



549 



1892. 

Rushers. — J. C. Greenway, '95 S. ; F. A. Ilinkey, '95; A. H. Wallis, 
'93; J. A. McCrea, '95 S.; W. C. Winter, '93 S.; W. O. Hickok, '95 S. ; 
P. T. Stillman, '95 S. Quarterback. — Y. C. McCormick, '93 S. {Capt.). 
Halfbacks. — Q. D. Bliss, '93; H. S. Graves, L. S.; L. T. Bliss, '93. 
Fullback. — F. S. Butterworth, '95. 

1893. 

Rushers. — J. C. Greenway, '95 S. ; F. A. Hinkey, '95 {Capt.) ; A. M. 
Beard, '95 ; J. A. McCrea, '95 S. ; F. T. Murphy, '97 ; W. O. Hickok, 
'95 S. ; P. T. Stillman, '95 S. Quarterback. — G. T. Adee, '95. Hal/backs. 

— S. B. Thorne, '96; R. Armstrong, '95 S. ; E. H. Hart, '95 S. Fullback. 

— F. S. Butterworth, '95. 

1894. 

Rushers. — A. M. Beard, '95 ; F. A. Hinkey, '95 {Capt.) ; L. M. Bass, 
'97 ; J. A. McCrea, '95 S. ; P. T. Stillman, '95 S. ; W. O. Hickok, '95 S. ; 

F. T. Murphy, '97 ; C. Chadwick, '97 ; L. Hinkey, '97. Quarterback. — 

G. T. Adee, '95. Halfbacks. — S. B. Thorne, '96 ; R. Armstrong, '95 S. ; 
H. W. Letton, '97 S. ; A. N. Jerrems, '96 S. Fullback. — F. S. Butter- 
worth, '95. 

1895- 
Rushers. — L. Hinkey, '97 ; F. T. Murphy, '97 ; C. Chadwick, '97 ; H. P. 
Cross, '96; W. R. Cross, '96; J. O. Rodgers, '98; L. M. Bass, '97. 
Quarterback. — C. M. Fincke, '97. Halfbacks. — S. B. Thorne, '96 {Capt.) ; 
C. Dewitt, '96. Fidlback. — A. N. Jerrems, '96 S. 

1896. 
Rushers. — W. B. Conner, '99; F. T. Murphy, '97 [Capt.) ; A. II. Uur- 
ston, '99 S.; L. Murray, '97 S. ; J. O. Rodgers, '98; C. Chadwick, '97 ; 
L. M. Bass, '97 ; B. C. Chamberlin, '97 S. Quarterback. — C. M. Fincke, 
'97. Halfbacks. — K. H. Hine, M.S.; H. F. Benjamin, '98 S. ; P. D. 
Mills, '97 S. ; L. H. Van Every, '97 S. Fullback. — L. Hinkey, '97. 

1897. 
Rushers. — J. J. Hazen, '98 ; J. O. Rodgers, '98 {Capt.) ; C. Chadwick, 
L. S. ; G. L. Cadwalader, 1901 ; F. G. Brown, 1901; B. C. Chamberlin, 
P. G. ; J. A. Hall, P. G. Quarterback. — C. A. H. de Saulles, '99 S. 
Halfbacks. — W. F. Benjamin, '98 S. ; A. F. Corwin, '99 S. ; C. T. Dud- 
ley, 1900 S. Fullback. — yi. L. McBride, 1900. 



55° YALE. 

i8g8. 

Rushers. — G. W. Hubbell, Jr., 1900; G. S: Stillman, 1901 ; F. G. 
Brown, Jr., 1901 ; G. B. Cutten, T. S. ; E. E. Marshall, '99 S. ; B. C. 
Chamberlin, P. G. (Capt.) ; E. M. Eddy, '99 S. ; S. L. Coy, 1901 ; R. J. 
Schvveppe, 1900. Quarterbacks. — M. U. Ely, L. S. ; C. A. H. de Saulles, 
'99 S. Halfbacks. — A. H. Durston, '99 S. ; H. F. Benjamin, P. G.; C. T. 
Dudley, 1900 S. ; R. Townshend, 1900 S. ; A. F. Corwin, '99 S.; A. B. 
Marvin, '99. Fullback. — M. L. McBride, 1900. 



CHAPTER IV. 

BASEBALL. 

THE history of baseball at Yale extends back to 
the times when the aggregate scores made by 
two nines might be anywhere from fifty to a hundred. 
In fact, in 1859, it was pretty difficult to keep room on 
the scoring paper to mark down all the runs made. In 
1865, when the first intercollegiate game was played, 
Yale defeated Wesleyan by a score of 39 to 13, and in 
that same year, in a game between Yale and Water- 
bury, Yale made fifty-two runs to Waterbury's thirty. 
In 1867, Yale played a game with Columbia, defeating 
that nine 46 to 12. In that same year, Yale played 
some outside nines and made a very creditable record. 
Hooker's pitching, at that time as well as the follow- 
ing year, being worthy of special comment. 

In 1868, Yale for the first time met Harvard in 
baseball, and was beaten by a score of 25 to 17. 
McCutcheon, Yale's short stop, at that time did a 
great deal for baseball ; and not long ago he sent the 
writer the original copy of the first constitution of the 
baseball association. It was hardly more than a sub- 
scription paper, but had some well known names upon 
it. In this year, also, Yale played Princeton for the 
first time, defeating them by a score of 30 to 23. Erom 
that date on, Yale's baseball history for several years 
was a record of attempts to defeat Harvard, resulting 
invariably in failure. Yale played some good outside 



552 YALE. 

games, and in man> instances it seemed as though it 
were possible for Yale to win the Harvard series, but 
not until 1874 was she successful. In that year the base- 
ball contests between these two old rivals were held at 
Saratoga during race week, and, thanks to the work of 
Charles Hammond Avery, Yale at last turned the 
tables against Harvard, winning both games, the first 
4 to o, and the second 7 to 4. Avery's pitching was 
phenomenal, and Harvard was unable to master it. In 
the following year, 1875, Avery was captain of the 
nine, and in spite of the fact that in the second game 
with Harvard he was unable to pitch or even play on 
account of a lame shoulder, he was still able to see 
his nine win two straight games from Harvard. He 
pitched in the first game, but in the second was inca- 
pacitated. The value of this man to Yale's baseball 
interests can hardly be overestimated. 

But from 1875 up to 1880 the old story began again. 
Yale might win one game, or, if the series were best 
three out of five, Yale might win two games, but she 
seemed unable to last it out, and Harvard's succession 
of victories began to look overwhelming. In 1879, it 
was thought that Yale would surely avoid the overcon- 
fidence of the previous year, and make good her claims 
over Harvard. In the first game Yale won easily by a 
score of II to 5. Harvard won the second game 2 to o. 
Yale won the third game 9 to 5, but five days later, in 
Providence, after securing what looked like a com- 
manding lead in the first inning, was finally beaten 9 
to 4. In 1880, however, the tables were finally turned, 
and Yale won the series. 

Late in the year 1879, the first intercollegiate base- 
ball association was formed. The colleges taking part 



BASEBALL. 



553 



in this convention were Harvard, Princeton, Brown, 
Dartmouth, and Yale. At the meeting of organization, 
however, the point was brought up as to whether any- 
one should be eligible for a nine who had previously 
played on a professional nine. One of the colleges 
represented had a battery which had thus forfeited its 
amateur standing. The refusal of the association to 
take certain definite action on this matter led to the 
withdrawal of Yale, but in the following year she ap- 
plied for admission and was taken into the association. 
In spite of the fact that Yale was not a member of the 
association in the baseball season of 1880, it was in 
that year that she made her most remarkable baseball 
record, and at last turned the tide of defeat by Har- 
vard to one of glorious victory. The first game of the 
series was played in New Haven, where the Yale nine, 
although without the services of Captain Hutchison, 
who was ill at his home in Norwich, overwhelmingly 
defeated the Harvard nine, making twenty-one base 
hits, with a total of thirty-three, and winning the game 
by a score of 21 to 4. The following game, played at 
Cambridge, was however a close one, Yale winning by 
a score of 2 to i. The game at New Haven which fol- 
lowed was a victory for Harvard, neither nine doing 
any striking batting; score 3 to i. At this point the 
croakers began to predict the usual result — Yale 
winning the first twO games and Harvard the next 
three; but this time they were mistaken, for in the 
final game of the season, played in Cambridge, Yale 
shut out her rivals, and won by a score of 3 to o. 

This entire year was remarkable in Yale baseball 
annals. As mentioned above, Yale's captain was 
taken ill with rheumatism previous to the first Har- 



554 YALE. 

vard game, and in fact previous to the first Princeton 
game, which was scheduled for May 12th at Princeton. 
When the nine were leaving for Princeton a telegram 
was received, telling them not to come as the game 
would be postponed. No definite reason was given for 
this, and the Yale nine started. They were met in 
New York by the Princeton management with the 
statement that as their pitcher was laid up the game 
would have to be postponed. Yale felt that, being 
without the services of her captain, she perhaps might 
have asked a postponement, but had certainly not felt 
justified in doing this, and the result of the conference 
finally was the journeying of the Yale nine to Prince- 
ton, where the umpire, Princeton refusing to play, 
gave the game to Yale, 9 to o. There was consider- 
able hard feeling exhibited, and Princeton was accused 
of being afraid to play. Some went so far as to say 
that they did not believe the Princeton nine would 
come to New Haven for the return game on account of 
the fear of defeat. Princeton did come, however, and 
on the 9th of June Yale defeated them 8 to i. 

Yale thus defeated the winners of the association 
championship, for Princeton won the first place in the 
association. There is little doubt that Yale's nine 
during this year of 1880 was stronger in proportion to 
the abilities of most of the nines of the country than at 
any other period in her history. In that year she beat 
the league champions, and, out of thirteen games played 
with professional nines, won eleven. 

From this time on, for a number of years, Yale's 
success in baseball became phenomenal. In 1881, 
Yale won the association championship, winning seven 
out of ten games, losing to Harvard at Cambridge, but 



BASEBALL. 555 

winning from Harvard at New Haven. This defeat at 
Cambridge was attributed to the fact that Yale was 
without a pitcher upon that occasion, Lamb being laid 
up. Yale was also defeated by Dartmouth at Spring- 
field in a rather remarkable game. Lamb, who had 
not recovered the use of his arm, attempted to pitch, 
and in the first inning was hit by the heavy Dartmouth 
batters to the extent of some half a dozen runs. He 
was then replaced by Hutchison, whom Dartmouth 
proved unable to hit, and Yale crept up on her rivals, 
but not enough to tie the score, the final result being 
6 to 3 in Dartmouth's favor. In 1882, Yale again won 
the championship of the association, although she lost 
her first game to Harvard in New Haven. In 1883, 
Yale once more won the championship, defeating Har- 
vard this time three games in succession, then playing 
an unfinished game with Harvard in New York, where 
the score stood 2 to i in favor of Yale when the game 
was called, and finally playing a fifth game with Har- 
vard in Philadelphia, and defeating them 23 to 9. This 
was the first time that Yale had had an opportunity to 
really even scores with Harvard for some of the old 
defeats, and the management evidently enjoyed taking 
Harvard to various places throughout the country, and 
demonstrating Yale's baseball supremacy. In 1884, 
Yale once more won the association championship, be- 
sides winning a final game with Harvard in Brooklyn 
by a score of 4 to 2. Harvard won the first game at 
Cambridge, and Yale the second game at New Haven. 
In the third game at Cambridge, Harvard, however, 
overwhelmingly defeated Yale 17 to 4. Yale evened 
up matters at New Haven three days later by winning 
a game 6 to 2, and the last game played at Brooklyn 



556 YALE. 

was therefore full of excitement. The Yale pitcher, 
Otlell, finally, by his excellent work, enabled Yale to 
win by a score of 4 to 2. 

The tables were turned against Yale, however, in 
1885, when Harvard, with several of her players of the 
previous year, and under the captaincy of Winslow, 
who had gone through his experience of defeat, and 
had then persistently worked to secure a good nine, 
won all the games of the championship series, not only 
against Yale but the other colleges in the association. 
In 1886, Yale retrieved her fallen fortunes, and won 
the championship, losing but two of the games in that 
series. Yale was, however, defeated by Columbia in 
a single game at New Haven that year. In 1887, Yale 
once more demonstrated her superiority to the other 
colleges in the league, which by this time had been 
reduced to a membership of three, by winning seven 
out of eight games played. Dartmouth had dropped 
out the year before, owing to the attitude of Harvard 
and Princeton, and after the series of 1886 the drop- 
ping of Brown and Amherst was practically effected by 
the formation of a new association, consisting of Har- 
vard, Princeton, and Yale. In 1888, Yale took the 
championship for another year, Stagg and Dann carry- 
ing on the strong work that they had put up the pre- 
vious year. Yale lost the second game to Harvard, 
and the first game to Princeton, but eventually won the 
championship, and also evened up matters with Colum- 
bia by winning two games from them. In i88g, the 
Yale nine, under Captain Noyes, won the champion- 
ship once more, taking at the same time four victories 
from Harvard, two at New Haven and two at Cam- 
bridge. Princeton defeated Yale one game, but lost 




o 

U3 u 



BASEBALL. 557 

the other three. The following year, Harvard having 
withdrawn from the triangular league of 1890, Yale 
had two series, one with Princeton and one with 
Harvard. 

There never was a year in which the baseball games 
between the colleges were so interesting and thrilling 
as this one of 1890, ten years from the time when Yale 
made her most remarkable record against professionals. 
This year Yale's first game was with Princeton at New 
Haven, and after a most thrilling contest Yale won by 
a score of 3 to 2. On the 17th of May, two weeks 
later, Yale played Harvard at New Haven, defeating 
them 8 to o. On the 24th of the same month, how- 
ever, Yale went to Princeton and was beaten in a close 
game, by a score of i to o. A week later Harvard de- 
feated Yale by a single score, 9 to 8, at Cambridge. 
On the 1 6th of June Yale met Princeton for the decid- 
ing game at New York. After a most remarkable 
contest the game was stopped by the rain, each side 
having scored eight runs. The tie was played off two 
days later, at Brooklyn, in a game in which the vary- 
ing fortunes of baseball were never more forcibly 
illustrated, and when Yale finally won by a score of 6 
to 5 it was almost impossible for the spectators to rise 
from their seats, so exhausted were they by the excite- 
ment of the contest. Three days later Yale journeyed 
to Cambridge and lost another most remarkable game 
by a score of 4 to 3. Tliree days after Yale defeated 
Harvard at New Haven 7 to i. This left a tie to be 
played off with Harvard, and the game took place at 
Springfield on the 28th, Yale winning by a single 
run. The outside games in this year were less inter- 
esting, Yale defeating the University of Pennsylvania, 



558 YALE. 

Brown, Columbia, but losing games to Amherst and 
Brown. 

The following year an attempt was made to arrange 
a satisfactory series of games between the three col- 
leges, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale. After a good 
deal of correspondence, the three captains met and 
arranged such a series; but the whole plan was upset 
later by the refusal of the Harvard Athletic Committee 
to permit the arrangement made by Captain Dean to 
stand. This finally gave rise to so much feeling that 
no game was played between Harvard and Yale that 
year. Princeton, however, defeated Yale two games 
out of three, Yale winning most of her outside games 
decisively. In 1892, separate series were arranged 
with Princeton and Harvard. Yale won the first two 
games against Princeton and lost the third. Harvard 
won one game and Yale one game in the Yale-Harvard 
series, each winning the home game, but no third 
game was played owing to their failure to agree. Yale 
played a series of three games with the University of 
Pennsylvania, losing one and winning two. Yale also 
played two games v/ith Brown, winning the first and 
losing the second. In this year Yale was defeated by 
the University of Michigan 3 to 2, and also by Holy 
Cross. During the few years there had been a resur- 
rection of some of the old hostility between Yale and 
Harvard; but matters soon reached a better adjust- 
ment, everybody feeling how foolish it was to have 
such quarrels as led to an unsettled series with Harvard 
because the two could not agree upon a third game. 

After the dissolution of the Intercollegiate Base- 
ball Association, and some desultory attempts made 
to form a permanent triangular league. Harvard's with- 




Baseball Xine of 1S91 

Murphy Jackson Case Beale 

McClung Poole Bowers Gushing Mattliews 

Kedzie Calhoun (Capt.) Bliss 




Baseball Nine of 1S95 

Wilcox Carter Speer Harris 

Stevenson J. Quinby Fincke Rustin (Capt.) Trudeau Redington 

Keator Greenvvay S. Quinby 



BASEBALL. 559 

drawal from associations finally resulted in Yale 
arranging separate series with both Harvard and 
Princeton. As has already been shown, this was not 
brought about without some friction. It was consid- 
ered unfair at New Haven to ask Yale to play separate 
series with each unless her two rivals met one another. 
However, the adjustment was finally reached, although, 
as above mentioned, at the expense of a series with 
Harvard in 1891. In 1892, the first game was played 
at Cambridge, Harvard shutting Yale out, but Yale 
winning the next game 4 to 3, as stated elsewhere. In 
1894, Yale won the game at Cambridge 5 to i, and the 
game at New Haven 2 to o. In 1895, Yale also won at 
Cambridge 7 to 4, and at New Haven 5 to o. The 
following year, owing to the rupture of relations with 
Harvard, no series was played. In 1897, Harvard won 
both games, the first 7 to 5, and the second 10 to 8. 
In 1894, Yale defeated Princeton at New Haven 5 to 3, 
and in New York 9 to 5, but was defeated by Prince- 
ton at Princeton 4 to 2. In 1895, Yale won both her 
Princeton games, but by extremely close margins, the 
first I to o, and the second 9 to 8. In 1896, however, 
Princeton took revenge, shutting out Yale in two games 
in Princeton, the first 13 to o, the second 5 to o; while 
Yale managed to get one game in New Haven 7 to 5, 
and eventually the game in New York 8 to 4. In 1897, 
Yale won the first game in New Haven 10 to 9, but 
lost the second at Princeton, as well as the final one 
at New Haven. In 1898, Yale's baseball fortunes 
seemed to be rejuvenated, for, in spite of a most de- 
cided slump in playing at mid-season, the New Haven 
nine finally won both the series. The games were 
especially interesting, requiring three with each to 



56o YALE. 

settle the series, Yale defeating Harvard at New Haven 
and New York, but losing at Cambridge; while with 
Princeton, Yale lost the home game, winning the one 
at Princeton and the final at New York. Captain 
Greenway's pitching was most instrumental in Yale's 
success, for although suffering with a lame arm he 
went in and pitched his way to victory. 



BASEBALL. 
Yale University Baseball Games. 



561 



Date. 


Contestants. 


Place. 


Score. 


1865 








Sept. 30 


Yale vs. Wesleyan . . . 


New Haven . . 


39-13 


1867 








Oct. 19 


Yale vs. Columbia . . • 


New Haven . . 


46-12 


1868 








June 25 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


New Haven . . 


30-23 


July 25 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


Worcester . . . 


17-25 


1869 








June 28 


Yale vs. Williams .... 


New Haven . . 


26-8 


Julys 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


Brooklyn . . . 


24-41 


1870 








July 4 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


New Haven . . 


22-24 


" 6 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


New Haven . . 


12-49 


1871 








Julys 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


New Haven . . 


19-22 


1872 








June I 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


New Haven . . 


^2-Z^ 


" 8 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


Boston .... 


17-19 


1S73 








May 10 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


Princeton . . . 


9-2 


" 21 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


New Haven . . 


9-10 


" 24 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


New Haven . . 


15-16 


" 31 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


Cambridge . . . 


5-29 


Oct. 15 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


Princeton . . . 


4-18 


1874 








June 29 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


Hartford . . . 


I6-I 


July 7 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


New York . . . 


1 1-3 


" 14 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


Saratoga . . . 


4-0 


" IS 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


Saratoga . . . 


7-4 


1875 








May 26 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


Princeton . . . 


14-4 


" 29 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


New Haven . . 


0-3 


June 25 


Yale z'j. Amherst .... 


Amherst . . . 


s-i 


" 26 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


Boston .... 


9-4 


" 28 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


New Haven . . 


1 1-4 




Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


(Forfeited) . . . 


9-0 


'1876' 








May 17 


Yale vs. Trinity .... 


New Haven . . 


9-4 


" 20 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


Princeton . . . 


12-9 


" 27 


Yale vs. Brown .... 


Providence . . 


13-S 


June 3 


Yale vs. Harvard 


Cambridge . . 


3-4 


" 6 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


New Haven . . 


13-3 


" 26 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


New Haven . . 


7-6 


July I 


Yale vs. Harvard .... 


Hartford . . . 


'-5 


1S77 








May 19 


Yale vs. Amherst .... 


Amherst . . . 


9-4 


" 23 


Yale vs. Princeton . . . 


Princeton . . . 


6-4 



36 



c;62 



YALE. 



Date. 


Contestants. 


Place. 


Score. 


1877 










May 26 


Yale vs. 


Harvard .... 


New Haven . . 


s-o 


June 2 


Yale vs. 


Trinity 








Hartford . . 






5-0 


" 9 


Yale z'j-. 


Princeton 








New Haven 






8^ 


" 15 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








New Haven 






4-5 


" 22 


Yale z/j. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






I-IO 


" 25 


Yale z'j-. 


Trinity 








New Haven 






I7-I 


" 27 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








Hartford . 






24-8 


" 30 


Yale z^j. 


Harvard . 








Hartford . 






2-5 


1878 




















April 17 


Yale vs. 


Trinity . 








Hartford . 






6-1 


" 27 


Yale Z/J-. 


Wesleyan 








New Haven 






lO-I 


May 15 


Yale 57^. 


Princeton 








Princeton . 






4-S 


" 18 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






4-3 


" 22 


Yale z/j-. 


Trinity . 








New Haven 






25-0 


" 25 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






"-5 


June 4 


Yale I'j. 


Amherst . 








New Haven 






lO-O 


" 5 


Yale w. 


Princeton 








New Haven 






10-2 


" 21 


Yale vs. 


Princeton 








New York . 






10-3 


" 24 


Yale z/i-. 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






3-1 1 


" 26 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






2-9 


" 29 


Yale z/.?. 


Harvard . 








Hartford . 






3-16 


1879 




















May 3 


Yale z/j. 


Princeton 








Princeton . 






13-8 


" 10 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






1 1-5 


" 17 


Yale z'j. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






0-2 


" 24 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








Amherst 






15-1 


" 30 


Yale Z/J-. 


Brown 








New Haven 






2-0 


" 31 


Yale z/j. 


Princeton 








New Haven 






3-0 


June 9 


Yale vs. 


Brown 








Providence 






2-3 


" 21 


Yale z-j. 


Amherst . 








New Haven 






10-4 


23 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






9-5 


" 25 


Yale z'j. 
Yale z/j. 


Harvard . 
Brown 








Cambridge 
(Forfeited) 






3-7 

9-0 


'" ' 28 


Yale vs 


Harvard . 








Providence 






4-9 


1880 




















May 12 


Yale z-j. 


Princeton 








(Forfeited) 






9-0 


!! '5 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






21-4 




Yale z'j. 


Amherst . 








Amherst 






8-0 


" 29 


Yale z'j- 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






2-1 


June 5 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








New Haven 






14-3 


" 9 


Yale z/j 


Princeton 








New Haven 






8-1 


" 28 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . . 








New Haven 






1-3 


" 30 


Yale z'j'. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






3-0 


1881 




















May 7 


Yale z/j. 


Princeton 








New Haven 






6-5 


" 14 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






9-14 


" 21 


Yale z'j'. 


Dartmouth 








Springfield 






3-6 


" 25 


Yale vs. 


Brown 








New Haven 






19-4 



BASEBALL. 



5<^3 



Date. 


Contestants. 


Place. 


Score. 


1881 










May 28 


Yale vs. 


Harvard .... 


New Haven . . 


8-5 


" 30 


Yale vs. 


Brown . . 








New Haven . 






S-2 


Tune I 


Yale z'j. 


Princeton 








Princeton . . 






6-7 


" 8 


Yale z/j. 


Dartmouth 








New Haven 






15-5 


" 17 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . . 








New Haven 






19-9 


« 25 


Yale z/j. 


Amherst . . 








New Haven . 






^3 


1882 




















May 10 


Yale vs. 


Brown 








New Haven 






4-2 


" 23 


Yale z/j. 


Brown 








Providence 






8-9 


" 24 


Yale Z/J-. 


Amherst . 








New Haven 






1 3-1 


" 27 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






7-10 


" 30 


Yale 7/j. 


Princeton 








New York . 






15-8 


June 3 


Yale vs. 


Dartmouth 








New Haven 






5-4 


" 6 


Yale z/j. 


Dartmouth 








New York . 






0-3 


" 10 


Yale z'i-. 


Rutgers . 








New Haven 






12-2 


" 22 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






5-4 


" 24 


Yale z^j. 


Princeton 








New York . 






7-8 


" 27 


Yale vs. 


Princeton 








New York . 






9-5 


" 28 


Yale z'J. 


Amherst . 








New Haven 






21-8 


1883 


















. 


May 5 


Yale z/j. 


Amherst . 








New Haven 






3-1 


" 12 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






3-0 


" 19 


Yale z/j. 


Brown 








Providence 






6-4 


« 26 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






5-1 


« 30 


Yale z/j. 


Princeton 








New York . 






5-4 


Tune 2 


Yale z'j. 


Brown 








New Haven 






8-0 


" 13 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








Amherst 






4-2 


« 20 


Yale z/j. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






4-1 


" 23 


Yale vs. 


Princeton 








New York . 






2-3 


" 26 


Yale z'j 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






I-O 


July 3 


Yale z'j. 


Harvard . 








New York . 






2-1 


" 4 


Yale vs 


Harvard . 








Philadelphia 






23-9 


1884 




















May 3 


Yale z/j. 


Brown 








Providence 






8-3 


" 10 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






8-1 


" 14 


Yale z/j. 


Dartmouth 








New Haven 






6-2 


" 17 


Yale Z/J-. 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






7-8 


" 24 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








Amherst 






17-4 


" 30 


Yale z/j-. 


Princeton 








New York . 






10-3 


June 2 


Yale vs. 


Dartmouth 








New Haven 






1 2-1 1 


" 5 


Yale z'j. 


Amherst . 








New Haven 






4-3 


" 17 


Yale z'^ 


Brown 








New Haven 






9-6 


" 19 


Yale vs 


Princeton 








New York . 






9-0 


" 21 


Yale z'j- 


Harvard . 








Cambridge 






4-17 


" 24 


Yale vs 


Harvard . 








New Haven 






6-2 


" 27 


Yale z/j 


Harvard . 








Brooklyn . 






4-2 


1885 










May 9 


Yale z'j 


Princeton . . . 


New Haven . . 


5-3 



564 



YALE. 



Date. 


Contestants. 


Place. 


Score. 


1885 
May 13 


Yale vs. 


Brown .... 


New Haven . . 


II-9 


" 16 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . . 








New Haven . . 


4-12 


" 20 


Yale OT. 


Trinity . . 








New Haven . . 


20-7 


" 22 


Yale z'j. 


Dartmouth . 








New Haven . . 


15-6 


" 27 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . . 








Amherst . . . 


10-9 


" 30 


Yale z'i'. 


Williams 








New Haven . . 


13-4 


Tune T 


Yale vs. 


Brown . . 








Providence . . 


8-4 


^ " 6 


Yale w. 


Princeton 








Princeton . . . 


5-" 


" 10 


Yale z/j. 


Dartmouth 








New Haven . . 


5-3 


" 13 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








New Haven . . 


14-2 


" 20 


Yale z/j-. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge . . 


2-16 


" 23 


Yale vs. 


Princeton 








New Haven . . 


13-15 


1886 














April 27 


Yale z/J-. 


Univ. of Penn. 






Philadelphia . . 


13-3 


May I 


Yale z/J. 


Williams . . 






Williamstown 


1 1-3 


" 12 


Yale vs. 


Brown 








New Haven . . 


6-1 


" 19 


Yale z/j. 


Columbia 








New Haven . . 


1-3 


" 22 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








Amherst . . . 


4-5 


" 29 


Yale z/J. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge . . 


2-14 


" 31 


Yale z'j. 


Williams . 








New Haven . . 


10-3 


June 2 


Yale vs. 


Princeton 








Princeton . . . 


9-8 


" 5 


Yale z/i-. 


Princeton 








New Haven . . 


12-2 


" 9 


Yale vs. 


Amherst . 








New Haven . . 


9-5 


" 12 


Yale wj-. 


Brown 








Providence . . 


7-0 


" 19 


Yale z/j. 


Harvard . 








New Haven . . 


6-5 


" 26 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








Cambridge . . 


1-5 


" 29 


Yale w. 


Harvard . 








New Haven . . 


9-10 


July 3 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








Hartford . . . 


7-1 


1887 
















April 30 


Yale z/j. 


Princeton 








Princeton . . . 


2-1 


May 10 


Yale z/j. 


Trinity . 








New Haven . . 


9-1 


" 14 


Yale vs. 


Harvard . 








New Haven . . 


14-2 


" 17 


Yale z^j 


Cornell 








New Haven . . 


9-1 


" 21 


Yale vs 


Columbia 








Staten Island . . 


20-1 


Tune 4 


Yale z/j 


Princeton 








New Haven . . 


15-0 


" 8 


Yale z/f 


Harvard . 








Cambridge . . 


5-7 


" II 


Yale vs 


Princeton 








Princeton . . . 


9-3 


" 17 


Yale z'j 


Princeton 








New Haven . . 


9-6 


" 18 


Yale vs 


Princeton 








New Haven . . 


10-4 


" ''i; 


Yale z/j 


Harvard . 








Cambridge . . 


5-4 


" '^ 


Yale z'j 


. Harvard . 








New Haven . . 


6-3 



BASEBALL. 



56s 



Date. 



Contestants. 



Score. 



Apri: 


25 
28 


May 


5 


" 


12 


« 


IS 
i6 


K 


19 
23 
26 


" 


30 


June 


2 


" 


5 


** 


7 


« 


9 
16 


'.! 


23 
26 



April 9" 
" II 
" 18 



" 


20 


May 


8 


" 


II 


" 


18 


" 


22 


" 


25 


June 


4 


" 


12 


" 


15 


" 


20 


" 


22 


" 


2S 


189 





April 


9 


*' 


IS 




20 


« 


30 


May 


3 




7 


" 


17 


" 


24 


" 


31 


June 


lb 


" 


18 


i< 


21 


« 


24 


« 


28 



Yale vs. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'J'. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z/J. 
Yale z'J'. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j'. 
Yale ^'j. 

Yale vs. 
Yale t'J'. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z/j-. 
Yale z^j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j-. 
Yale vs. 
Yale wj. 
Yale z'J. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j'. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z/J. 
Yale z'j. 

Yale 7'^. 
Yale vs. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j'. 
Yale wj. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j'. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z/J. 



Amherst . . 
Princeton 
Princeton 
Williams 
Amherst . . 
Holy Cross . 
Harvard . . 
Columbia 
Princeton 
Columbia 
Williams 
Princeton 
Univ. of Penn. 
Harvard . . 
Princeton 
Harvard . . 
Harvard . . 

Tufts . . . 
Trinity . . 
Univ. of Penn 
Univ. of Penn 
Princeton . 
Amherst . . 
Princeton 
Princeton 
Harvard . . 
Univ. of Penn 
Lafayette 
Princeton 
Harvard . . 
Harvard . . 
Harvard . . 

Univ. of Penn. 
Holy Cross 
Amherst . 
Williams 
Princeton 
Columbia 
Harvard . 
Princeton 
Harvard . 
Princeton 
Princeton 
Harvard . 
Harvard . 
Harvard . 



7-4 
S-6 
10-4 
6-1 
S-4 
S-6 
7-1 
S-' 
7-3 
6-0 

9-4 
9-1 
16-6 

3-7 

8-0 

S-3 

9-3 
23-2 

9-8 
^S 
11-14 

4-5 
12-9 

13-1 
15-3 
24-0 

13-3 
6-S 

5-4 
7-S 
8-4 

6-S 
23-0 
6-8 
5-2 
3-2 
12-3 
8-0 
o-i 
8-9 
8-8 
6-S 
3-4 
7-1 
4-3 



566 



YALE. 



Date. 



1891 
April 14 

" 15 

" 20 

" 25 

May 2 

" 9 

" 13 

" 18 

" 23 

" 20 

" 27 

" 30 

June 3 

" 6 

" 9 

" 13 

" 16 

" 17 
" 23 
1892 
April 12 

" 14 
" 16 



May 



30 



" 


4 


'* 


5 


** 


7 


** 


9 


« 


16 


« 


23 
26 


June 


4 
6 


" 


11 


" 


i8 


« 


23 


« 


28 


1893 
Mar. 30 


Apri 


31 

I 


'* 


3 


** 


4 


" 


5 


" 


10 



Contestants. 



Score. 



Yale vs. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'J. 
Yale 7^^. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale 7'.?. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j-. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j'. 
Yale wj. 

Yale vs. 
Yale z'j'. 
Yale vs. 
Yale wj. 
Yale z/j-. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j-. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale z/j. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'.f. 
Yale vs. 
Yale z'j. 
Yale z'j. 



Williams 
Williams 
Columbia 
Lehigh . . 
Williams 
Brown . . 
Brown . . 
Trinity . . 
Princeton 
Univ. of Michigan 
Amherst . . 
Univ. of Penn. 
Amherst . . 
Princeton . , 
Univ. of Penn. 
Princeton . , 
Univ. of Vermont 
Brown . . 
Univ. of Penn. 



Williams 
Fordham 
Univ. of Penn. 
Univ. of Penn. 
Williams 
Brown . . 
Holy Cross . 
Cornell . . 
Amherst . . 
Holy Cross . 
Amherst . . 
Brown . . 
Princeton 
Univ. of Michig 
Wesleyan 
Univ. of Penn 
Princeton 
Princeton 
Harvard . 
Harvard . . 



Yale vs. Univ. of Penn. 
Yale vs. Washington Y.M.C.A 
Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia 
Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia 
Yale vs. Johns Hopkins 
Yale vs. Univ. of Penn. 
Yale vs. Boston .... 



2-9 

6-4 
16-2 

13-3 
13-0 

7-6 
1 1-7 
7-14 

4-1 
2-0 

6-3 
6-2 

7-1 

7-1 1 

2-5 
5-3 
4-5 
8-5 

17-3 
8-5 
2-6 

6-4 
9-8 
2-0 
6-n 

5-1 
8-12 

6-7 
9-4 
2-7 

I-O 

2-3 

9-0 

5-1 
3-1 
2-12 

0-5 
4-3 

6-1 1 
13-8 
14-8 
1 1-4 

7-7 
8-7 
5-8 



BASEBALL. 



5^7 



Date. 


Contestants. 


Score. 


1893 






April 14 


Yale vs. Dartmouth .... 


7-0 


" 17 


Yale vs. New York . . 






4-10 


" 19 


Yale vs. N. Y. A. C. . 






4-6 


" 22 


Yale vs. Brooklyn . . 






6-13 


" 26 


Yale vs. New York . . 






c-9 


" 29 


Yale vs. Williams . . 






1 0-0 


May 2 


Yale vs. Brown . . . 






7-0 


" 6 


Yale vs. Univ. of Penn. 






5-4 


" 8 


Yale vs. Wesleyan . . 






2-4 


" 10 


Yale vs. Brown . . . 






0-2 


" 13 


Yale vs. Orange A. C. . 






13-6 


" 15 


Yale vs. Amherst . . . 




6-3 


" 20 


Yale vs. Princeton . . 




5-' 


-3 


Yale vs. Wesleyan . . 




3-2 


" 30 


Yale vs. Orange A. C. . 






16-9 


" 31 


Yale vs. Andover . . . 






2-0 


June 3 


Yale vs. Amherst . . . 






1-5 


7 


Yale vs. Andover . . . 






6-2 


" 10 


Yale vs. Princeton . . 






2-0 


" 13 


Yale vs. Univ. of Vermont 






3-4 


" 17 


Yale vs. Princeton . . 






14-7 


" 24 


Yale vs. Harvard . . . 






2-3 


" 27 


Yale vs. Harvard . . . 






3-0 


July I 


Yale vs. Harvard . . . 






4-6 


1894 






Mar. 22 


Yalew. Washington Y.M.C.A. 


2-6 


" 23 


Yale vs. Univ. of N. Carolina 


7-4 


" 24 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia 


28-4 


" 26 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia 




13-11 


" 27 


Yale vs. Georgetown . . 




2-14 


" 28 


Yale vs. Annapolis . . 






3-4 


April 2 


Yale vs. Williams . . 






9-6 


« 6 


Yale vs. Boston . . . 






5-3 


7 


Yale vs. Boston . . . 






4-4 


" 14 


Yale vs. Brooklyn . . 






4-3 


" 18 


Yale vs. Wesleyan . . 






8-7 


" 21 


Yale vs. Brown . . . 






3-2 


" 26 


Yale vs. Columbia . . 






5-3 


May 2 


Yale vs. Amherst . . . 






4-0 


S 


Yale vs. Brown . . . 






4-2 


" 9 


Yale vs. Wesleyan . . 






13-12 


" 12 


Yale vs. Univ. of Penn. 






18-28 


" 16 


Yale vs. Amherst . . . 






7-1 


" 21 


Yale vs. Princeton . . 






5-3 


" 23 


Yale vs. S. I. A. C. . . 






3-1 


" 26 


Yale vs. Orange A. C. . 






6-0 


" 28 


Yale vs. Georgetown 






4-3 


" 30 


Yale vs. Brown . . . 




4-1 



568 



YALE. 



Date. 


Contestants. 


Score. 


1894 






May 31 


Yale vs. Andover 


5-3 


June 4 


Yale vs. Univ. of Penn. . . 


13-5 


9 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


2-4 


" 16 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


9-5 


" 21 


Yale vs. Harvard 


5-1 


« 26 


Yale vs. Harvard 


2-0 


1895 






Mar. 30 


Yale vs. Trinity 


14-2 


April 3 


Yale vs. Murray Hill . . . 


19-1 


" 6 


Yale vs. New York .... 


5-7 


" 10 


Yale vs. New York Univ. . . 


I4HD 


" II 


Yale vs. Georgetown . . . 


5-20 


" 12 


Yale vs. Norfolk 


7-6 


" 13 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia . . 


16-9 


" 15 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia . . 


6-3 


" 16 


Yale vs. Baltimore .... 


2-17 


" 17 


Yale vs. New York .... 


0-17 


" 20 


Yale vs. Williams .... 


14-4 


" 24 


Yale vs. Toronto 


4-6 


« 27 


Yale vs. Brown 


9-8 


May I 


Yale vs. Wesleyan .... 


"-5 


" 3 


Yale vs. Andover .... 


9-1 


" 4 


Yale vs. Brown 


3-2 


" 7 


Yale vs. Lafayette .... 


lO-I 


" II 


Yale vs. Edgewood .... 


12-2 


" 13 


Yale vs. Amherst 


12-2 


" ^;§ 


Yale vs. Amherst 


1-2 


" 18 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


I-O 


" 22 


Yale vs. Oritani Field Club . 


11-12 


" 25 


Yale vs. Orange A. C. . . . 


4-6 


" 30 


Yale vs. Brown 


3-12 


June I 


Yale vs. Holy Cross .... 


"-3 


" 8 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


9-8 


" 15 


Yale vs. Williams .... 


9-2 


" 20 


Yale vs. Harvard 


7-4 


" 25 


Yale vs. Harvard 


5-0 


1896 






April 2 


Yale vs. Hampton .... 


32-S 


" 4 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia . . 


12-4 


" 6 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia . . 


8-7 


" 7 


Yale 7's. Univ. of N. Carolina 


4-8 


" 8 


Yale 7JS. Georgetown . . . 


16-12 


" II 


Yale vs. Wesleyan .... 


11-7 


" 14 


Yale vs. New York .... 


0-4 


" 18 


Yale vs. Williams .... 


4-5 


" 25 


Yale vs. Brown 


6-9 


" 28 


Yale vs. Amherst 


13-0 


May I 


Yale vs. Andover .... 


5-3 



BASEBALL. 



569 



Date. 


Contestants. 


Score. 


1896 






May 2 


Yale vs. Brown 


1-6 


" 6 


Yale vs. Lafayette .... 


1 1-6 


" 9 


Yale vs. Orange A. C. . . . 


9-1 1 


" II 


Yale vs. Wesleyan .... 


8-4 


" 13 


Yale vs. Graduates .... 


15-3 


" 18 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


0-13 


" 20 


Yale vs. Oritani Field Club . 


^2-" 


" 23 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


7-5 


« 27 


Yale vs. Univ. of Chicago . . 


20-1; 


" 30 


Yale vs. Brown 


4-6 


June 3 


Yale vs. Univ. of Vermont 


19-7 


" 6 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


o-S 


" 13 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


8-4 


" 23 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


3-4 


1897 






April 3 


Yale vs. Johns Hopkins . . 


28-0 


" 7 


Yale vs. Wesleyan .... 


3-4 


" 10 


Yale vs. New York .... 


3-1 1 


" 14 


Yale vs. Manhattan .... 


9-8 


" IS 


Yale vs. Georgetown . . . 


8-7 


" 16 


Yale vs. Hampton . . . . ' 


10-4 


" 17 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia . . 


5-12 


" 19 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia . . 


15-12 


" 20 


Yale vs. Univ. of N. Carolina 


19-15 


" 24 


Yale vs. Williams .... 


lO-I 


" 28 


Yale vs. Amherst 


9-2 


May I 


Yale j/j. Brown 


6-2 


" 5 


Yale vs. Lafayette .... 


8-II 


" 8 


Yale vs. Wesleyan .... 


1 0-3 


" II 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia . . 


5-4 


" 14 


Yale vs. Andover 


7-6 


" IS 


Yale vs. Brown 


^5 


" 19 


Yale vs. Amherst 


15-2 


" 22 


Yale vs. Orange A. C. . . . 


5-4 


« 26 


Yale vs. Lehigh 


22-3 


" 29 


Yale vs. Brown 


9-16 


" 31 


Yale vs. Edge wood .... 


21-3 


June 2 


Yale vs. Holy Cross .... 


1 1-3 


" S 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


10-9 


" 12 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


8-16 


" 19 


Yale vs. Princeton .... 


8-22 


1898 






Mar. 30 


Yale vs. Holy Cross .... 


6-4 


April 2 


Yale vs. Wesleyan .... 


1 2-5 


" 6 


Yale 7'j. Manhattan .... 


3-10 


" 7 


^'ale vs. Georgetown . . . 


5-3 


« 8 


Yale vs. Hampton .... 


12-0 


" 9 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virginia . . 


3-6 



57° 



YALE. 



Date. 


Contestants. 


Score. 


1898 
April II 


Yale vs. Univ. of Virgin 


ia . . 


5-0 


" 12 


Yale vs. Georgetown 








9-6 


" 20 


Yale vs. Williams 








12-3 


" 23 


Yale vs. Amherst . . 








t^ 


" 30 


Yale vs. Brown . . 








8-3 


May 4 


Yale vs. Lafayette 








0-3 


" 12 


Yale vs. Wesleyan 








14-3 


" 14 


Yale vs. Brown . . 








2-17 


" 19 


Yale vs. Columbia . 








22-1 


" 21 


Yale vs. Orange A. C. . 








19-15 


" 27 


Yale vs. Newton A. C. 








9-8 


« 28 


Yale vs. Andover . . 








7-6 


" 30 


Yale vs. Brown . . 








3-4 


June 4 


Yale vs. Princeton 








7-12 


" II 


Yale vs. Princeton 








6-4 


" 18 


Yale vs. Princeton . 








8-3 


" 23 


Yale vs. Harvard . . 








4-9 


" 28 


Yale vs. Harvard . . 








7-0 


July 2 


Yale vs. Harvard . . 








3-1 



Yale-Harvard Freshmen Series. 



Contestants. 


Date and Place. 


Score. 


Yale '69 vs. Harvard '69 . 


Worcester, July 26, 1866 . . 


36-33 




' '70 vs. ' 


'70 . 


Worcester, July 18, 1867 • • 


3S-18 




' '71 vs. ' 


'71 . 


Worcester, July 23, 186S . . 


19-39 




' '72 vs. ' 


'72 . 


Providence, July 6, 1869 . . 


28-19 




' '73 ^'-f- 


'73 • 


Springfield, June 25, 1870 . . 


2I-1S 




' '74 vs. 


74 • 


New Haven, June 26, 187 1 


15-10 




• '75 vs. 


'75 • 


New Haven, June 25, 1872 


8-1 




' '7657^'. ' 


' '76 . 


New Haven, May 31, 1873 


4-25 




' '77 vs. 


'77 . 


Boston, June 22, 1874 • • • 


4-10 




' '77 vs. 


'77 • 


Boston, June 23, 1874 . . . 


2S-14 




' '77 vs. 


'77 ■ 


Boston, June 24, 1874 . . . 


7-16 




' '78 vs. 


' '78 . 


Cambridge, June 5, 187^ . . 


3-6 




' '7SVS. 


' '78 . 


New Haven, June 17, 1875 


18-8 




' '78 vs. ' 


' '78 . 


Springfield, June 25, 1875 • • 


17-4 




' 'jgvs. 


'79 • 


New Haven, May 3, 1876 . . 


14-13 




' '79 vs. 


'79 • 


Cambridge, June 17, 1876 . . 


9-14 




' '79 vs. 


'79 • 


Hartford, June 24, 1S76 . . 


12-20 




' '80 vs. ' 


'80 . 


Cambridge, May 12, 1877 . . 


7-8 




' '80 vs. ' 


'80 . 


New Haven, June 2, 1877 . . 


1 5-1 



BASEBALL. 



571 



Contestants. 


Date and Place. 


Score. 


Yale '8 1 vs. Harvard 


'81 . 


New Haven, May 11, 1878 . 


8-1 


" '81 vs. 


'81 . 


Cambridge, June i, 1878 . . 


4-1 1 


" '82 vs. " 


'82 . 


New Haven, April 26, 1879 . 


19-II 


" '82 vs. 


'82 . 


Cambridge, May 31, 1879 . . 


6-5 


" '83 vs. 


'83 • 


New Haven, May 22, 1880 


I-O 


« '83 vs. 


'83 • 


Cambridge, June 5, 1880 . . 


5-5 


" '84 vs. " 


'84 . 


New Haven, May 21, 18S1 


15-2 


" '84 vs. 


'84 . 


Cambridge, June 4, 1881 . . 


21-2 


" '85 vs. 


'85 . 


New Haven, May 10, 1882 


5-4 


" '85 vs. 


'8s . 


Cambridge, June 10, 18S2 . . 


7-6 


" '86 vs. 


'86 . 


New Haven, May 19, 1S83 


8-1 


" '86 OT. 


'86 . 


Cambridge, June 9, 1883 . . 


9-16 


" '86 vs. 


'86 . 


Springfield, June 23, 1883 . . 


6-4 


" '87 vs. 


'87 . 


New Haven, May 31, 1884 


17-8 


" '87 vs. 


'87 . 


Cambridge, June 7, 1884 . . 


1-5 


" '88 OT. 


'88 . 


Cambridge, May 16, 1885 . . 


ii-ii 


" '88 vs. 


'88 . 


New Haven, May 23, 1885 


14-4 


" '89 vs. 


'89 . 


Cambridge, May 19, 1886 . . 


4-1 1 


" '89 ^'J. 


'89 . 


New Haven, June 12, 1886 . 


7-8 


" '90 vs. " 


'90 . 


Cambridge, May 18, 1887 . . 


19-7 


" '90 Z/J. " 


'90 . 


New Haven, June 8, 1887 . . 


10-2 


" '91 vs. " 


'91 . 


Cambridge, May 19, 1888 . . 


6-9 


" 'qi vs. " 


'91 . 


New Haven, May 26, 1888 


8-7 


" '^2 vs. 


'92 . 


Cambridge, May 22, 18S9 . . 


9-13 


" '92 w. " 


'92 . 


New Haven, June i, 1889 . . 


27-0 


" '93 vs. 


'93 • 


Cambridge, May 24, 1890 . . 


7-1 1 


" 'q-i vs. " 


'93 • 


New Haven, June 14, 1S90 . 


0-7 


" '94 vs. 


'94 . 


Cambridge, May 16, 1891 . . 


16-13 


" '94 vs. " 


'94 . 


New Haven, May 30, 1891 


5-15 


" '95 vs. 


'95 • 


Cambridge, May 14, 1892 . . 


13-2 


" '95 vs. 


'95 • 


New Haven, May 28, 1892 


9-10 


" '96 w. " 


'96 . 


No games. 




" '97 Z'J'. 


'97 • 


Cambridge, May 19, 1894 . . 


3-5 


" '97 vs. " 


'97 • 


New Haven, May 31, 1894 . 


lO-I 


" '98 vs. 


'98 . 


No games. 




" '99 Z/J. " 


'99 . 


No games. 




" 1900 Z/J. " 


1900 


New Haven, May 22, 1S97 


2-7 


•' 1900 vs. " 


1900 


Cambridge, May 31, 1S97 . . 


^1 


" 1 90 1 Z/J. " 


1901 


New Haven, May 14, 1898 . 


9-8 


" 1901 vs. " 


1 901 


Cambridge, May' 30, 1898 . . 


5-4 



572 








YALE. 








Yale-Princeton Freshmen Series. 




Contestants. 


Date and Place. 


Score. 


Yale 


'93 vs. Princeton 


'93 


New Haven, June 10, 1890 . 


13-10 




'94 vs. 


" 


'94 


Princeton, May 23, 1891 . . 


6-3 




'95 ^-f- 


" 


'95 


New Haven, May 21, 1892 


2-1 




'96 vs. 


" 


'96 


No game. 






'97 Z/J. 


" 


'97 


New Haven, May 5, 1894 . . 


4-3 




'97 vs. 


" 


'97 


Princeton, May 12, 1894 . . 


15-7 




'98 Z/J. 


" 


'98 


No game. 






'99 Z/J. 


" 


'99 


New Haven, May 9, 1896 . . 


22-8 




'99 vs. 


a 


'99 


Princeton, May 30, 1896 . . 


1-6 




1900 Z/J. 


" 


190c 


New Haven, May 9, 1897 . . 


2-5 




1900 vs. 


" 


1900 


Princeton, June 5, 1897 . . . 


lO-II 




1 90 1 Z'J-. 


" 


I9OI 


New Haven, May 21, 1898 


2-1 




1 90 1 Z'J-. 


<( 


I9OI 


Princeton, May 28, 1898 . . 


5-7 



Yale University Baseball Men. 

1865. 
H. W. Reeve; J. Coffin, '68 {Capt.); C. A. Edwards, '66; Jewell, 
J. U. Taintor, '66; E. Coffin, '66; L. E. Condict,'69; C. F. Brown, '66; 
A. H. Terry, '65. 

1866. 
C. F. Brown, '66 ; G. P. Sheldon, '67 ; J. U. Taintor, '66; T. S. Van 
Volkenburgh, '66 ; C. A. Edwards, '66 ; J. L. Varick, '68 ; J. Coffin, '68 
{Capt.) ; L. E. Condict, '69; H. W. Reeve. 

1867. 
J. Coffin, '68 {Capt); J. G. K. McClure, '70; L. E. Condict, '69; 
J. W. Shattuck, '70 ; T. Hooker, '69 ; B. A. Fowler, '68 ; E. G. Selden, 
'70 ; E. A. Lewis, '70 ; T. McClintock, '70. 

1868. 
T. McClintock, '70; E. A. Lewis, '70; L. E. Condict, '69; H. A. 
Cleveland, '70 ; T. Hooker, '69 [Capt) ; S. S. McCutchen, '70; W. Buck, 
'70; C. Deming, '72 ; E. G. Selden, '70. 

1869. 
T. McClintock, '70; C. Deming, '72; T. Hooker, '69; S. S. Mc- 
Cutchen, '70 (Ca/A) ; C. French, '72 ; L. E. Condict, '69; G. Richards, 
'72 ; W. B. Wheeler, '72 ; E. A. Lewis, '70. 



BASEBALL. 



573 



1870. 
W. Buck, '70; W. B. Wheeler, '72 ; G. Richards, '72; G. F. Bentley, 
'73 ; H. S. Payson, '72 ; S. S. McCutchen, '70 [Capt.) ; C. O. Day, '72 ; 
C. H. Thomas, '73; C. Deming, '72. 

1871. 
A. B. Nevin, '74; G. Richards, '72; C. Deming, '72 {Capt.); H. C. 
Deming, '72 ; C. Maxwell, '75 ; G. F. Bentley, '73; P. Barnes, '74; C. O, 
Day, '72 ; W. B. Wheeler, '72. 

1872. 
H. C. Deming, '72 ; P. Barnes, '74; G. Richards, '72; C. Deming, '72 
{Capt.) ; C. Maxwell, '74; G. F. Bentley, '73; A. B. Nevin, '74; C. O. 
Day, '72 ; F. W. Foster, '74. 

1873- 
C. Maxwell, '74 ; C. H. Avery, '75 ; G. F. Bentley, '73 ; J. L. Scudder, 
'74 ; S. J. Elder, '73 ; A. B. Nevin, '74 [Capt.) ; F. II. Wright, '73 ; F. W. 
Foster, '74 ; W. H. Hotchkiss, '75. 

1874. 
W. H. Hotchkiss, '75; A. B. Nevin, '74; G. F. Bentley, '73; C. H. 
Avery, '75 (Capt.); J. L. Scudder, '74; E. E. Osborn, '74 S. ; C. Max- 
well, '74 ; E. C. Smith, '75 ; F. W. Foster, '74. 

1875- 
W. H. Hotchkiss, '75 ; Morgan. '78 ; Knight ; C. H. Avery, '75 (Capt.) ; 
C. Maxwell, '75 ; W. I. Bigelow, '77 ; D. A. Jones, '75; E. C. Smith, '75; 
F. W. Wheaton, '77. 

1876. 
Morgan, '78 ; W. I. Bigelow, '77 (Capt.) ; F. W. Wheaton, '77 ; C. M. 
Dawes, '76; C. F. Carter, '78 ; L. A. Piatt, '77 ; W. V. Downer, '78; 
Williams, '77 ; L. W. Maxson, '76. 

1877. 
F. W. Wheaton, '77 ; Morgan, '78 ; W. I. Bigelow, '77 (Capt.) ; G. H. 
Clark, '80 ; Williams, '77 ; E. W. Smith, '78; W. V. Downer, '78 ; C. F. 
Carter, '78; O. W. Brown, '78. 

1878. 
W. F. Hutchison, '80 ; W. Parker, 'So ; E. W. Smith, '78 ; A. L. Rip- 
ley, '78; W. V. Downer, '78 (Capt.) ; II. T. Walden, '81 ; F. W. Brown, 
'78 S.; C. F. Carter, '78; G. H. Clark, '80. 



574 



YALE. 



1879. 
W. F. Hutchison, '80 (Capt.) ; W. Parker, '80 ; B. B. Lamb, '81 ; H. T. 
Walden, '81 ; S. C. Hopkins, '82; W. C. Camp, '80; G. H. Clark, '80; 
R. \V. Watson, '81 S.; A. L. Ripley, P. G. 

1880. 
W. Parker, '80; B. B. Lamb, '81 [Capt.); G. H. Clark, '80; W. F. 
Hutchison, '80; W. C. Camp, '80; H. T. Walden, '81 ; S. C. Hopkins, 
'82 ; R. W. Watson, '81 S. ; W. I. Badger, '82. 

1881. 
H. T. W^alden, '81 {Capt.) ; H. B. Piatt, '82 ; B. B. Lamb, '81 ; W\ F. 
Hutchison, P. G. ; W. C. Camp, M. S. ; S. C. Hopkins, '82; R. W. 
Watson, '81 S.; H. Ives, '81 ; W. I. Badger, '82. 

1882. 
A. Hubbard, '83 S. ; W. C. Camp, M. S.; H. B. Piatt, '82; S. C. Hop- 
kins, '82; W. I. Badger, '82 (Capt.) ; A. E. Smith, '83; D. A. Jones, '83; 
H. C. Hopkins, '84; D. H. Wilcox, Jr., '84. 

1883. 

A. Hubbard, '83 S. [Capt.); C. M. Griggs, '83; H. C. Hopkins, '84; 
S. B. Childs, '83; D. A. Jones, '84; W. Terry, '85; J. L Souther, '84; 
O. McKee, '84; D. A. Carpenter, L. S. 

1884. 
H. C. Hopkins, '84 {Capt.); W. Terry, '85; J. I. Souther, '84; O. Mc- 
Kee, '84; W. S. Brigham, '86; J. C. Oliver, '85; S. A. Booth, '84; P. B. 
Stewart, '86 ; S. K. Bremner, '86. 

1885. 
S. K. Bremner, '86; W. Terry, '85 (Capt.) ; F. A. Marsh, '86 S. ; A. A. 
Stagg, '88; W. B. Sheppard, '87; J. A. Merrill, '85; P. B. Stewart, '86; 
W. B. Hickox, '86 S. ; P. G. Willett, '88. 

1886. 
J. C. Dann, '88 S. ; A. A. Stagg, '88 ; J. F. Cross, T. S. ; F. A. Marsh, 
'86 S.; P. B. Stewart, '86 (Capt.) ; S. K. Bremner, '86; W. S. Brigham, 
'87 ; W. B. Sheppard, '87 ; H. F. Noyes, '89. 

1887. 
J. C. Dann, '88 S. (Capt.); A. A. Stagg, '88; A. K. Spencer, '89 S. ; 
C. B. McConkey, '88; P. B. Stewart, P. G. ; H. F. Noyes, '89; W. S. 
Brigham, '87 ; J. F. Hunt, L. S. ; F. S. Kellogg, '87 S. 



BASEBALL. 575 

1888. 
A. A. Stagg, '88 {Capt.) ; J. C. Dann, '88 S. ; H. McBride, '90 S.; G. 
Calhoun, '91 ; C. B. McConkey, '88 ; H. F. Noyes, '89 ; S. J. Walker, '88 ; 
J. F. Hunt, L. S. ; A. G. McClintock, '90. 

1889. 
H. F. Noyes, '89 {Capt.); A. A. Stagg, T. S. ; W. F. Poole, Jr., '91; 
H. McBride, '90 S. ; G. Calhoun, '91 ; T. L. McClung, '92; \V. S. Dal- 
zell, '91 ; H. W. Gushing, '91 ; N. McClintock, '91. 

1890. 
G. Calhoun, '91 (Capt.); A. A. Stagg, T. S. ; W. F. Poole, Jr.. '91 ; 
H. McBride, '90 S. ; L. S. Owsley, '92 S. ; W. S. Dalzell, '91; H. W. 
Cashing, '91 ; W. H. Murphy, '93 ; A. G. McClintock, '90. 

1891. 

G. Calhoun, '91 (Capt.) ; II. O. Bowers, '92; W. F. Poole, Jr., '91; 
T. L. McClung, '92; L. T. Bliss, '93 S. ; W. 11. Murphy, '93; U. W. 
Gushing, '91 ; M. li. Beall, '93 S. ; G. B. Case, '94. 

1892. 
W. H. Murphy, '93 (Capt) ; H. O. Bowers, '92; W. F. Carter, '95; 
H. T. Jackson, '92 S. ; W. Norton, L. S. ; A. F. Harvey, '93; L. T. Bliss, 
'93 S. ; M. H. Beall, '93 S. ; G. B. Case, '94. 

1893. 

J. H. Kedzie, Jr., '93 S. ; W. F. Carter, '95; F. B. Stephenson, '95 S. ; 
M. H. Beall, '93 S. ; L. T. Bliss, '93 S. {Capt.) ; F. Rustin, '95 S. ; T. S. 
Arbuthnot, '94 ; W. H. Murphy, '93 ; G. B. Case, '94 ; J. B. Speer, '95. 

1894. 
J. C. Greenway, '95 S. ; W. F. Carter, '95 ; F. B. Stephenson, '95 S. ; 
F. T. Murphy, '97 ; F. Rustin, '95 S. ; T. S. Arbuthnot, '94 ; J. B. Speer, 
'95 ; G. O. Redington, P. G. ; G. B. Case, '94 (dipt). 

1895. 
J. C. Greenway, '95 S. ; W. F. Carter, '95 ; E. I.. Trudeau, '96; F. B. 
Stephenson, '95 S. ; J. R. Quinby, '95 S. ; F. Rustin, '95 S. (Capt.) ; S. L. 
Quinby, '96 S. ; J. B. Speer, '95 ; G. O. Redington, P. G. ; H. M. Keator, 
'97 ; H. W. Letton, '97 S. 

1896. 

F. T. Murphy, '97 ; E L. Trudeau, '96; G. C. Greenway, Jr., '98 S. ; 
H. W. Letton, '97 S.; C. A. H. de Saulles, '98 S. ; S. E. Quinby, '96 S. 
(Capt.) ; F. B. Smith, '96 S. ; A. N. Jerrems, '96 S. ; II. M. Keator, '97; 
C. G. Bartlett, '99. 



576 YALE. 

1897. 

H. M. Keator, '97 {Capt.); J.J. ilazen, '98: H. W. Letton, 97 S.; 
G. C. Greenway, Jr., '98 S. ; E. ¥. Hamlin, M. S. ; B. W. Farnham,'97 S. ; 
S. B. Camp, 1900 ; H. B. Wallace, '99; C. M. Fincke, '97 ; A. C. Good- 
win, 1900 ; M. L. Fearey, '98. 

1898. 

C. A. H. de Saulles, '99 S.; J. W. Wadsworth, '98; J. W. Wear, '99; 
G. C. Greenway, '98 S. (Capt.) ; H. B. Wallace, '99 ; S. B. Camp, 1900 ; 
J.J. Hazen, '98; C. E. Sullivan, 1900; M. L. Fearey, '98; E. M. Eddy, 
'99 S. 



CHAPTER V. 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 



TRACK athletics at Yale were, during their in- 
fancy, really but a side show of intercollegiate 
boating. It is true that the first field games of the 
athletic association were held in New Haven in 1872; 
but the first games of any real interest were in 1874, 
when Yale sent two representatives to the intercolle- 
giate contest at Saratoga. These two men were Nevin 
and Maxwell. Natural athletes in every sense, there 
was no style or form, according to present day stand- 
ards, about either; but both were racers, and, when they 
got on their marks against other men, were pretty sure 
to get in ahead. This was demonstrated at that meet- 
ing at Saratoga, when Nevin, although slipping and 
almost going down at the start of the hundred, still 
finished ahead and was credited with ten and a half 
seconds. Maxwell, who ran in the hurdles, also won 
his event, but in twenty and a half seconds, time 
which under present day records seems very slow and 
out of all proportion to the time accredited to Nevin 
in the hundred. There is no question, however, but 
that the time has improved more in the hurdle than in 
the short event. The writer well remembers both 
these men. They not only represented Yale in track 
athletics, but on the ball nine as well, Maxwell being 
a very clever second baseman, and Nevin a speedy 
pitcher. 



578 YALE. 

At the outset the athletic association was under con- 
trol of the boating and baseball association, and the 
events were very limited; but the interest inspired by 
the winning at Saratoga brought forth good results, 
and in 1875, Maxwell went up again and won the 
hurdle, while Trumbull won the half mile and took a 
second in the quarter mile. Trumbull was a fine speci- 
men of manhood, over six feet in height, and weigh- 
ing in condition over a hundred and ninety pounds. 
He ran a very even pace throughout the entire distance, 
and was a very graceful performer. He was on the 
crew as well ; but shortly after the race at New London 
the following year he was drowned while endeavoring 
to save a child who had fallen overboard from a yacht. 
In 1876, Yale brought out one of the leaders in the 
development of hurdle racing. This was Wakeman, 
who ran the 120 yard hurdle in i8|- seconds. He was 
the first man to take a fixed number of steps between 
the hurdles, and his work was much commented upon 
and greatly admired. 

During the first few years of the track games at New 
Haven it was a difficult thing to secure entries. The 
writer remembers being asked by one of the Doles (for 
the Dole Brothers were of very great assistance in 
bringing out the track athletes about this time) to 
take part in the games. The writer was then playing 
on the ball nine, and had stepped over to the track to 
watch the work of the track men. Upon asking what 
event. Dole replied, "Why, any that you like." After 
going down and examining the prizes, which were on 
exhibition in a tailor's window, the writer concluded 
that the prize for the hurdle was by far the most valu- 
able. He therefore entered for that event, and, after a 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 579 

day's practice and at the expense of sore shins, won the 
race and a silver pitcher. At this time, 1877, the 
intercollegiate games were held at Mott Haven for 
the first time ; and for three years in succession 
Columbia won the cup. 

Yale's work in these years in track games was very 
mediocre, and it was not until 1880 that the work of 
Cuyler, a Yale mile runner, who established the then 
phenomenal record of 4 minutes, 37I seconds, brought 
back some of the old enthusiasm that had been stirred 
into being by Nevin, Maxwell, and Wakeman. Har- 
vard won the cup in 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 
1886, although in this last year the result depended 
upon the decision of the judges between Rodgers and 
Sherrill in the 100 yards. For all this, in 1882, Yale 
sent out a man who was of the greatest credit to the 
university, H. S. Brooks, who ran the 100 yards in 
10^, and the 220 in 22|-. This man also beat Myers, 
the most noted athletic club runner, in a 220-yard race 
in New York. Yale did nothing of note in the way of 
production of men after this until Sherrill came to the 
front in 1886. Coxe came out also this year and broke 
the intercollegiate record of hammer throwing. The 
following year Yale won the cup, having, in addition 
to the men already mentioned. Shearman, who made 21 
feet 7^ inches in the broad jump, and Harmar, who 
lowered the mile record to 4 36|. In 1888, Yale 
dropped back to second place, although Sherrill won 
both the 100 and 220, and Harmar the mile run, and 
Shearman the broad jump and pole vault. Yale's 
weakness was in her second string men. In 1889, ^ale 
paid more attention to second places, and won the cup 
with four firsts and five seconds, Sherrill again win- 



58o YALE. 

ning both his events, Shearman taking the broad jump, 
and Clark the two-mile bicycle. The following year 
Yale had to be content with second, although Wil- 
liams, who took second place the year before in the 
hurdles, came to the front and lowered the record to 
1 6^ seconds. 

The next year Yale and Harvard formed a dual 
league in track athletics, although both universities 
still stayed in the intercollegiate. The games between 
Harvard and Yale were held at Cambridge, and Yale 
was disastrously defeated, her best man, Sherrill, 
breaking down completely. Harvard also won the 
intercollegiate games, Yale barely getting out ahead 
of Princeton. In 1892, the Yale-Harvard games were 
held at New Haven, and Harvard again won, though 
by a margin of only ten points. In New York, Har- 
vard repeated the victory, taking the intercollegiate 
cup. Yale, however, brought out a man in the short 
distance events who won easily, and who in that year 
and the next never failed to get in ahead of his field, 
no matter how many times he was sent. That was 
Swayne. Allen, another Yale man, ran a close second 
to Swayne in the 100 yards and 220, and would un- 
doubtedly have won first place from anybody but 
Swayne. 

Since 1892, the heroes at Yale in these Intercollegi- 
ates have not been the sprinters, but have been more 
apt to appear in the other events. Richards was too 
much for the English runners, as well as those of Har- 
vard, in the short distances ; but at the Intercollegiates 
he could not show at the front, as the pace was too 
high. In the high hurdles, however, Yale has had in 
Perkins a man able to win in the field of all colleges 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 581 

as soon as Chase of Dartmouth was out. Until Kraenz- 
lein of Pennsylvania appeared Perkins was master of 
the situation. In the weights, Chadwick rose above 
the rest; and in the pole vault Allis, Johnson, and 
Clapp raised the bar above their competitors. Shel- 
don also stood out in the broad jump. In distance 
running, Yale has never, up to the present date, been 
strong, Morgan getting the nearest to the front. The 
four-forty has always been a weakness for Yale, as has 
also the high jump. The usual effect of the presence 
of a fine performer at Yale has been to stimulate inter- 
est in that particular event in which this leader was 
especially conspicuous. PYom this followed naturally 
as a result the improvement of the performances in 
that event, and when the leader graduated there were 
usually for a number of years able men to succeed him. 
In this way the university once sending out a special- 
ist, not infrequently followed him with several other 
star men in the same line. 

But there are other things beside star performers 
necessary, to keep steady, and of regular interest, this 
branch of athletics. Individualism tends so strongly 
in track athletics to break down united interest, and 
the cohesive element of team work, so strong in other 
sports, being lacking, there must needs be extraneous 
stimulus introduced from time to time. 

Thus Track Athletics at Yale are marked by certain 
epochs from which should be dated the rise and fall of 
interest in that particular branch. Generally speak- 
ing, these epochs arc the institution of the Mott Haven 
games, the formation of the Harvard-Yale Cup Asso- 
ciation, the visit to Oxford, and the match with Cam- 
bridge in this country. 



582 YALE. 

Previous to the advent of certain heroes, and the 
issue into prominence of Yale at the Mott Haven 
games, track athletics had been looked upon as that 
branch of sports to which the man unfit for rowing or 
baseball turned as a last resort. In the early days all 
the men of prominence in track athletics were loaned 
to the Athletic Association by the baseball nine. 
Nevin was the pitcher of the nine, and when he came 
on to the track during the few moments he could spare 
from the nine, all the lesser running lights were 
dimmed into insignificance. When Maxwell, the sec- 
ond base man, came over and tried the hurdles, he 
eclipsed every one at once. Later Trumbull of the 
football team and crew and Wakeman of the football 
team lent their prowess to the Athletic Association. 

But the time came when the track men could stand 
up for themselves, when they gave Cuyler, the mile 
runner, to the football team, when their sprinters could 
defeat any of the fast men of the other organizations. 
Then it was that this branch began a career of its own. 
The Mott Haven contests became of interest to the 
college at large. Men began to train regularly and 
specifically for this branch of sport. The entries of 
other colleges extended, the events were made more 
attractive to spectators in various ways, and track 
athletics became as stable an annual sport at Yale 
as the boat race. 

With the growth of the Intercollegiate Athletic 
Association, due to the addition of more colleges to its 
membership and the increased number of entries from 
each college, came, however, a feeling that, as a meas- 
ure of the relative merits on track and field of the 
Harvard and Yale representatives in these sports, the 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 583 

annual meeting was a failure. The veterans of former 
teams, men most interested in this line of sport, desir- 
ing to have as thorough a test and as interesting a 
rivalry here as had grown up between the two colleges 
in boating and other sports, collected a committee com- 
posed of representative graduates of both universities, 
and this committee devised the plan of offering a cup 
to be competed for annually for a series of years, by 
teams representing Yale and Harvard. A formal deed 
of gift was drawn up, and was accepted by the two Uni- 
versity organizations. Thus was inaugurated a sec- 
ond and, if anything, a still more enduring guarantee 
that track athletics should be perpetuated. 

The next feature marking the progress of this branch 
at Yale was that of International competition. For a 
number of years it had been in the minds of those 
especially interested in boating that an International 
race with Cambridge or Oxford should take place. It 
had been approached, but had never taken on sufficient 
form to bring it to a head. Suddenly the same desire 
seized upon the track athletes, or rather upon the 
graduate advisers of these young men ; and as the ob- 
stacles to such a meeting were in this case far less 
formidable than in the case of the crew, it was not 
long before such a contest became not only possible 
but very probable. The presence in England of one 
of Yale's former heroes of the cinder path and his 
indefatigable vigor resulted in an arrangement for a 
Yale team to visit Oxford and to meet later at the 
Queen's Club grounds, London, a representative team 
of Oxford track men. The Yale men went over and 
enjoyed a most delightful visit, but were beaten in the 
meeting, winning only 3.] firsts, and those points due 



584 YALE. 

largely to their weight men. It had been in earlier 
days presumed that the quicker, more highly-strung 
American athlete would show to advantage in sprints, 
rather than in the more heavy work of weight putting; 
but the presence of the phenomenal hammer and shot 
putter, — phenomenal in that day, though now surpassed 
— Captain Hickok, and the rather unusually mediocre 
sprinters reversed such a result. 

It was not long before Yale wanted another chance 
at her British cousins; and an interchange of corre- 
spondence, assisted once more by the good graces of 
Mr. Sherrill, brought about a visit from the Cambridge 
team, — the team that had recently defeated Oxford in 
their annual games. Here the tables were completely 
turned, Yale winning by an even greater margin at 
Manhattan Field, New York, than had Oxford on the 
Queen's Club Grounds. 

Meantime Yale had also been making a most envi- 
able showing at the Intercollegiate meets; for all of 
which proper credit should be given Murphy, their 
trainer, and the graduates who also assisted in the 
development of the teams. But in 1896 the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania began to make strides in the 
direction of track athletic successes, and in 1897 the 
team from that University, which had the previous 
year secured the services of Murphy, came to the front 
and defeated Yale in the Intercollegiates, Yale win- 
ning her dual contest with Harvard, however. In 1898, 
Yale fell still farther behind in this branch, being 
defeated by Harvard in the dual games, and completely 
swamped by Pennsylvania, and beaten out by Harvard 
and Princeton in the Intercollegiate. 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 



"Winners of Intercollegiate Meets. 



1876. 


Princeton. 


1S84. 


Harvard. 


1892. 


Harvard. 


IS77. 


Columbia. 


1885. 


Harvard. 


1893. 


Yale. 


1878. 


Columbia. 


1886. 


Harvard. 


1S94. 


Yale. 


1879- 


Columbia. 


1SS7. 


Yale. 


1S95. 


Yale. 


IS80. 


Harvard. 


1888. 


Harvard. 


1896. 


Yale. 


I88I. 


Harvard. 


18S9. 


Yale. 


1897. 


U. of P. 


1882. 


Harvard. 


1890. 


Harvard. 


1898. 


U. of P. 


ISS3. 


Harvard. 


1891. 


Harvard. 







586 



YALE. 



o 
o 

o 



o 


Wakeman, Yale. 

Young, Dartmouth. 
White, Wesleyan. 
Green, Princeton. 
Noble, Princeton. 
Mann, Princeton. 


"Soy 


<j ^ • ■ ^ r-" 

CJ 1> u c ^ ^ 
. Q , tn t/> (D ■-! •— "^ 

" aj o ^^j^ w „|^-^H^' 








Stevens, Williams . . . 
W. J. Wakeman, Yale . . 
Stevens, W^illiams . . . 
R. A. Green, Princeton . . 
Stimson, Dartmouth . . 
W. M. Watson, C. C. N. Y. 
J. Pryor, Columbia . . . 
H. L. Willoughby, U. of P. 
J. M. Mann, Princeton . . 


> 






loo-yards dash . . 
i20-yards hurdle . . 
440-yards run . . . 
Half-mile run . . . 
One-mile run . . . 
One-mile walk . . 
Running high jump . 
Running broad jump 
Putting the shot . . 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 



587 









£ o 2 o 



s, U. 
tranc 
mmo 
atson 


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588 



YALE. 





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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



589 













rt . ^ trJ • 




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YALE. 





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n, Columbia, 
ale. 

isell, Columbi 
Columbia, 
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, Harvard. 
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, Columbia. 


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nes, Y 

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sr, U. of P. . 
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e, Stevens . 
Columbia 
ts, Yale . . 










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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



591 





rt pj 














c 

8 


enkins, Jr., 
Trovvbridg 
enkins, Jr., 
Willson, P 
Parker, 1) 
orndike, H 

Herrick, '. 
Sayre, Col 
Thayer, U. 
.rrinian, Pr: 

Wilson, L 
Porter, Co 
lliston, Hai 




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Wendell, Harvard 
ow, Lehigh, . . 
Wendell, Harvard 

Ballard, U. of P. . 
Coolidge, Harvard 
, W. Cuyler, Yale 
. Sayre, Columbia . 
oren, Harvard . . 
Jenkins, Jr., Colum 

. Dalrymple, Lehig 

Moore, Stevens . 

Montgomery, Colu 
. Reed, Columbia . 
:eton. 












> 




M 


ards da 
ards hu 
ards da 
ards rui 
mile ru 
mile rut 
mile wa 
ling hig 
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vault , 
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iwing th 
■mile bi 
of war 








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ri ri -t^ '^ -^ V V - - ;-c !-H ;-. 



592 



YALE. 





ai 




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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



591 



u "3 >-" 



o 5-1 -, 

X . f 



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ROOO'^CC 3 =-0 3^>3 



594 



YALE. 



■6 


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olumbia. 
olumbia. 
ell, Yale. 


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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



595 






e« OS 


rt 


C 


2^3 


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596 



YALE. 



• 

C 
O 


C. H. Sherril), Jr., Yale. 
J. D. Bradley, Harvard. 
E. H. Rogers, Harvard. 
A. Coit, Yale. 

C. N. B. Wheeler, Harvard. 
E. P. Holton, Amherst. 

H. H. Bemis, Harvard. 
H. L. Clark, Harvard. 
R. D. Smith, Harvard. 
T. G. Shearman, Yale. 

D. B. Chamberlain, Harvard. 
D. B. Chamberlain, Harvard. 
J. C. Kulp, Yale. 


'11 


. . -^i i.s.B c.s.s y 

O tJ CJ U So ■" =" •" Cfl 

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a .rt. j^ "^ <•< " ro C7\\0 


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E. H. Rogers, Jr., Harvarc 
W. H. Ludington, Yale 
W. Baker, Harvard . . 
S. G. Wells, Harvard . 

F. R. Smith, Yale . . 
R. Faries, U. of P. . . 
E. C. Wright, Harvard 
W. B. Page, U. of P. _ . 
C. H. Mapes, Columbia 
A. Stevens, Columbia . 
A. B. Coxe, Yale . . 
A. B. Coxe, Yale . . . 
C. B. Keen, U. of P. . 
Harvard. 


> 






loo-yards dash . . 
120-yards hurdle . . 
220-yards dash . . 
440-yards run . . . 
Half-mile run . . . . 
One-mile run . . . 
One-mile walk . . 
Running high jump 
Running broad jump 
Pole vault .... 
Putting the shot . . 
Throwing the hammer 
Two-mile bicycle 
Tug of war .... 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 



597 





"O-U <U 




^ l3 13 . c« ?, .2 


-d 


arvar 
le. 

Yale 
lumb 
, Har 
, Har 
arvar 
olum 
Yale 
Yale 
Lafa 

olum 


3 




M 


. Rogers, 

Berger, 

. Robins 

. Banks, 

Davenp 

Davenp 

Wright, 

Richards 

. Robins 

Shearni 

Rohrba 

rinton, U 

Maguire 






apQ?:s<<u>.?=Oi;«< 




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59S 



YALE. 



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>-, >-< >-.u::. 1 A ^ >^ r r fl) 'z; ci . . 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 



599 



•6 
o 


E. C. Moen, Harvard. 
J. P. Lee, Harvard. 
W. C. Downs, Harvard. 
A. S. Vosburgh, Columbia. 
W. Harmar, Yale. 
J. E. How, Harvard. 
W. B. Greenleaf, Harvard. 
H. L. Williams, Yale. 
H. L. Williams, Yale. 
R. G. Leavitt, Harvard. 
V. Mapes, Columbia. 
T. G. Shearman, Yale. 
H. A. Elcock, Yale. 
H. F. Allen, Harvard. 
Princeton. 


"So u 

Is 
n 




c 
1 






C. H. Sherrill, Yale . . . 
C. H. Sherrill, Yale . . . 
W. C. Dohm, Princeton . 
W. C. Downs, Harvard 
C. O. Wells, Amherst . . 
T. Mcllvaine, Columbia 
F. A. Clark, Yale .... 
H. Mapes, Columbia . . 
H. Mapes, Columbia . . 
T. D. Webster, U. of P. . 
T. G. Shearman, Yale . . 
R. G. Leavitt, Harvard . . 
H. H. Janeway, Princeton 
A. J. Bowser, U. of P. . . 
Columbia 


a 
1 






u 


^ ~ ' ' ri ' 


lOO-yards dash 
220-yards dash 
440-yards run . 
Half-mile run . 
One-mile run . 
One-mile walk 
Two-mile bicycle 
120-yards hurdle 
220-yarcls hurdle 
Running high juir 
Ruiming broad ju 
Pole vault . . 
Putting the shot 
Throwing the han 
Tug of war . . 



6oo 



YALE, 



S 2 8 « rt ° -5 o S J3 -o 

•C C Pi n -S c ^- 1^ > S^ S 

rt rt o (^ iz; ^ "! • 






si 

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. . . 0) 4) i;5 i< ^ C 

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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



6oi 



Mo 



rf rt c3 " ~ ?^, b 

3 „-42 Ah 12 ;^ rt 

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YALE. 



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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



603 



O JJ ^ ^ 






05 





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YALE. 




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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



605 



T3 

C 



W. M. Richards, Yale. 
W. M. Richards, Yale. 
F. H. Koch, U. of Cal. 
C. Kilpatrick, Union. 
C. Kilpatrick, Union. 
E. Dyer, U. of Cal. 
E. H. Cady, Yale. 
H. T. Houghton, Amherst. 
W. D. Osgood, U. of P. 
*J. D. Winsor, U. of P. 
A. Stickney, Jr., Harvard. 
t W. W. Hoyt, Harvard. 
H. P. Cross, Yale. 
A. A. Knipe, U. of P. 


"My 

1^ 


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J. V. Crum, U. of Iowa . . 
J. V. Crum, U. of Iowa . . 
W. H. Vincent, Harvard . 

E. HoUister, Harvard . . 
G. W. Orton, U. of P. . . 
S. Chase, Dartmouth . . 
J. L. Bremer, Harvard . . 

F. C. Thrall, Yale . . . 
R. E. Manley, Swarthmore 
* N. T. Leslie, U. of P. . . 
L. P. Sheldon, Yale . . . 
t C. T. Buckholtz, U. of P. 
W. 0. Ilickok, Yale . . 
\V. 0. Hickok, Yale . . 


> 






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120-yards hurdle . 
220-yards hurdle . 
One-mile walk 
Two-mile bicycle 
Running high jump 
Running broad jump 
Pole vault . . . 
Throwing the hamm 
Putting the shot . 



S JS 



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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



6oi) 



Yale-Harvard Dual League. 



Date. 


Place. 


Winner. 


Points. 


May 1 6, 1S91 


Cambridge . . 


Harvard . . . 


85-27 


May 20, 1892 


New Haven . . 


Harvard . . . 


61-51 


May 13, 1893 


Cambridge . . 


Harvard . . . 


66i-4Si 


May 12, 1894 


New Haven . . 


Yale .... 


59-53 


May 20, 1S95 


Cambridge . . 


Yale .... 


65-47 


May 15, 1897 


New Haven . . 


Yale .... 


So-24 


May 14, 189S 


Cambridge . . 


Harvard . . . 


56-4S 



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TRACK ATHLETICS. 



617 



Yale-Oxford Athletic Games. 
Queen's Club Grounds, London, July 16, 1894. 



Yale. 


Oxford. 


W. 0. Hickok, '95, S. (Capt.) 


C. B. Fry (Capt.), Wadham. 


A. Brown, '96. 


G. Jordan, University. 


L. P. Sheldon, '96. 


G. \V. Robertson, New. 


J. E. Morgan, '94. 


W. J. Oakley, Christ Church. 


E. H. Cady, '95, S. 


T. G. Scott, Hertford. 


G. F. Sanford, L. S. 


W. H. Greenhow, Exeter. 


A. Pond, '96, S. 


G. M. Hillyard, University. 


W. S. Woodhull, '96. 


H. R. Sykes, Christ Church. 


G. B. Hatch, 96. 


E. D. Swanwick, University. 




F. W. Rathbone, New. 



Oxford — 5^ first places, 4 second places. 
Yale — 32 first places, 4 second places. 



Event. 



IOC-yards dash . . . . 
Throwing i6-lb. hammer 
120-yards hurdle . 
One-mile run . . 
Running broad jump 
44D-yards run . . 
Putting i6-lb. shot 

Running high jump 

Half-mile run . . 



First. 



Fry, O. . . 
Hickok, Y. 
Oakley, O. . 
Greenhow, O. 
.Sheldon, Y. 
Jordan, O. . 
Hickok, Y. 

Sheldon, Y. 

Swanwick, O 
Greenhow, O. 



Second. 



Jordan, O. 
Brown, Y. 
Scott, O. 
Morgan, Y 
Fry, O. . 
Sanford, Y 
Brown, Y. 

Cady, Y. 

Rathbone, O 



Time, Height, 
or Distance. 



io§ sec. 
no ft. 5 in. 

i6f sec. 
4 m. 24i sec. 
22 ft. II in. 

51 sec. 
41 ft. 7l in. 

5 ft. 8| in. 

2 m. I sec. 



6i8 



YALE. 



Yale-Cambridge Athletic Games. 

Manhattan Field, New York, October 5, 1895. 



Yale. 






Cambridge 




W. 0. Hickok, '95, S. 
W. M. Richards, '95. 

E. H. Cady, '95, S. 
J. H. Thompson, '97. 
P. W. Crane, '95. 

J. E. Morgan, L. S. 

G. B. Hatch, '96. 

L. P. Sheldon, '96 (Capt.). 

R. W. Burnet, '97. 

D. C. Byers, '98. 

W. H. Wadhams, '96. 

F. E. Wade, '96. 
H. P. Cross, '96. 
A. Brown, '96. 

R. Mitchel, '96, S. 


F. S. Horan (Capt.), Trinity. 
C. H. Lewin, Trinity. 

E. H. ^yildi^g, Pembroke. 
L. E. Pilkington, Kings. 
W. M. Fletcher, Trinity. 

F. M. Jennings, Canis. 

A. B. Johnston, Pembroke. 
W. Fitzherbert, Trinity. 
W. E. Luytens, Sidney. 
H. J. Davenport, Trinity. 
E. J. Watson, Trinity. 


Event. 


First. 


Second. 


Time, Height, 
or Distance. 


lOo-yards dash . . . 
120-yards hurdle (cinder) 
120-yards hurdle (turf) . 
300-yards dash . . . 
Half-mile run .... 
One-mile run .... 

Running high jump . . 

Throwing i6-Ib. hammer 
Putting i6-lb. shot . . 
Quarter-mile run . . . 
Running broad jump 


W. M. Richards, Y. 

E. H. Cady, Y. . . 
G. B. Hatch, Y. . 
W. M. Richards, Y. 

F. S. Horan, C. . . 
W. E. Luytens, C. . 

J. H. Thompson, Y. 

W. 0. Hickok, Y. . 
W. 0. Hickok, Y. . 
C. H. Lewin, C. . . 
L. P. Sheldon, Y. . 


R. W. Burnet, Y. . 
G. B. Hatch, Y. . . 
W. M. Fletcher, C. 
C. H. Lewin, C. . 
P. W. Crane, Y. 
J. E. Morgan, Y. . 
i F. M. Jennings, C. 
1 L. P. Sheldon, Y. . 
H. P. Cross, Y. . . 
A. Brown, Y. . . . 
W. M. Richards, Y. 
F. M. Jennings, C. . 


io§ sec. 
16 sec. 
16 sec. 
32? sec. 
2 m. f sec. 
4 m. 35J sec. 

5 ft. 8J in. 

130 ft. 7 in. 
42 ft. 2 in. 

49s sec. 
21 ft. 4i in. 



TRACK ATHLETICS. 



119 



Best Intercollegiate Records. 



Event. 


Record. 


Winner. 


College. 


Year. 


loo-yards dash . . . 


*94sec. 


B. J. Wefers . . . 


Georgetown . 


1896. 


220-yards da^h . . . 


t2ij sec. 


B. J. Wefers . . . 


Georgetown . 


1896 




440-yards run .... 


492 pec. 


G. B. Shattuck . . 


Amiierst . . 


1891 




Half-mile run .... 


I m. 55 J sec. 


E. Hollister . . . 


Harvard . . 


1896 




One-mile run .... 


4 m. 233 sec. 


G. W. Orton . . . 


Pennsylvania 


i8<-)i; 




120-yards hurdle . . . 


15? sec. 


A. C. Kraenzlein . . 


I'ennsylvania 


1.S9S 




220-yards hurdle . . . 


1 232 sec. 


A. C. Kraenzlein . . 


Pennsylvania 


1S9S 




One-mile walk .... 


6 m. 45I sec. 


W. B. Fetterman, Jr. 


Pennsylvania 


189S 




Running broad jam;) 


23 ft. 7f in. 


Myer Prinstein . . 


Syracuse . . 


1898 




Running high jump . . 


6 ft. 3 in. 


J. D. Winsor . . . 


Pennsylvania 


1897 




Putting i6-lb. shot . . 


43 ft. 8 in. 


J. C. McCrachen . . 


Pennsylvania 


1S98 




Throwing i6-lb. hammer 


149 ft. 5 in. 


J. C. McCracken . . 


Pennsylvania 


1S98 




Pole vault 


t 1 1 ft. 4J in. 


( R. G. Clapp . . . 
} W. W. Hoyt . . . 


Yale . . . 
Harvard . . 


189S 




Bicycle : 

Quarter-mile. .... 


32b sec. 


f J. T. Williams, Jr. . 
) H. K. Bird . , . 


Columbia . . 




Half-mile 


I m. 6g sec. 


G. Ruppert .... 


Columbia . . 




One-mile 


2 m. 138 sec. 


Ray Dawson . . . 


Columbia . . 




I''ive-miles 


II m. 50 J sec. 


Ray Dawson . . . 


Columbia . . 




One-mile tandera . . . 


2 m. loj sec. 


( Ray Dawson . . . 
i J. A. Powell . . . 


Columbia . . 







* Equals World's record, 
t World's record. 



t Made in vaulting off tic. 



620 



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CHAPTER VI. 

OUTSIDE ATHLETICS. 

THERE are but four main branches of athletics at 
Yale, namely, boating, football, baseball, and 
track athletics. These four are the only members of 
the Yale Financial Union, and practically govern the 
athletic side of college life. But this is not saying that 
there are not many other forms of exercise enjoyed by 
the Yale student, and that he has not other clubs that 
would properly be classed under the head of athletic 
clubs. 

Of all the others tennis is perhaps the most promi- 
nent. There is a University Tennis Club, with presi- 
dent, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer. There 
are University tournaments, and Yale enters represen- 
tatives in the Intercollegiate Tournament, which has 
been usually held at the New Haven Lawn Club 
grounds. 

A more recent institution is the Yale Golf Club, 
which was organized in the fall of 1896. Matches 
were played with many prominent golf teams; and in 
May, 1897, the Yale team, consisting of R. Terry, Jr., 
'98, (Capt.); W. B. Smith, '99; W. R. Betts, '98; S. 
A. Smith, '99; J. Reid, Jr., '99; and C. Colgate, '97 
S., won the Intercollegiate Championship at the tour- 
nament held at Ardsley, New York. Yale, Harvard, 
Princeton, and Columbia were represented. The sec- 
ond Intercollegiate Golf Tournament was held on the 



622 YALE. 

links of the Ardsley Club in May, 1898, when the same 
colleges were represented. Yale again won the cham- 
pionship, the team being composed of R. Terry, Jr., 
'98, (Capt); John Reid, Jr., '99; W. R. Betts, '98; 
W. B. Smith, '99; R. H. Crowell, '98; and T. M. 
Robertson, 1901. 

There is the Dunham Boat Club, founded in mem- 
ory of George Dunham, of the Yale crew of 1858, who 
was drowned a few days previous to the date, July 23d, 
set for the race, and in consequence of whose death the 
race for that year was abandoned. This club owns 
several singles, beside barges and shells. The club 
was very popular at first, and was well represented in 
the fall and spring regattas. Then for a time it lost its 
strength, there being little interest in rowing, outside of 
the University and Class races. In the spring of 1897, 
however, the interest in " scrub crews " was revived, 
and the Dunham Boat Club is once more flourishing. 

The Yale Gymnastic Association, organized in Oc- 
tober, 1893, is one of the most prominent of those 
independent organizations. A contest is held each 
winter, at which the winner receives the coveted " Y," 
an adornment of only 'varsity athletes, and receives 
the title of "College Gymnast." The college gym- 
nasts have been as follows: for 1894-1895, George L. 
Buist, Jr., '96; for 1 895-1 896, F. A. Lehlbach, '98; 
for 1 896- 1 897, H. M. L. Hoffman, '97; for 1897- 1898, 
H. L. Otis, 1900. The "Gym. Team" gives several 
exhibitions each year in adjoining towns, and also gives 
a joint exhibition with Princeton. 

The importance of the Yale Gun Club was greatly 
increased in the spring of 1898 by the formation of an 
Intercollegiate Shooting Association. A champion- 



OUTSIDE ATHLETICS. 



623 



ship cup was provided by popular subscription, and 
will become the property of the team which first wins 
the championship three times. The first semi-annual 
match was held in New Haven, on May 7, 1898, and 
was won by Harvard, with a score of 131 out of a pos- 
sible 150. Thus establishing a new intercollegiate 
record. 

The records of the Gun Club are as follows : 



Date. 



Contestants. 



1892 
Nov. 19 

•893 
May 29 

1893 
Nov. 24 

1894 
June 9 



Nov. 23 



,895 
Nov. I 



Nov. 7 



1897 
May 28 



1897 
Dec. 4 



May 7 



Yale. 
Harvard. 

Yale. 

Harvard. 

Princeton. 

Yale. 
Harvard. 

Yale. 
Princeton. 

Yale. 

Harvard. 

Princeton. 

Yale. 

Harvard. 

Princeton. 

Yale. 

Harvard. 

Princeton. 

Yale. 
Harvard. 
Princeton. 
Columbia. 
U. of P. 

Yale. 
Princeton. 

Yale. 
Harvard. 
Princeton. 
U. of P. 



Place. 



Springfield, Mass. 

Wellington, Mass. 

Hartford, Conn. . 
Princeton . . . 

Hartford, Conn. . 

Dayton Gun Club 
grounds, Prince- 
ton 



Winner. 



Cambridge . . . 

Wellington, Mass. 

Travers Island . 
New Haven . . 



Harvard . 
Yale . . 
Harvard . 
Princeton 

Yale . . 
Princeton 

Yale . . 

Yale . . 
Princeton* 
Harvard . 



Scores and Remarks. 



Harvard 114, Yale 105. Thirty 
single keystone targets per man. 

Yale 128, Harvard 126, Prince- 
ton, loS. 

Harvard 119, Yale 113. Thirty 
single keystone targets per man. 

Princeton 130, Yale iii. 

Yale lot, Harvard 92, Princeton 
87. Thirty single keystone tar- 
gets per man. 

Princeton 120, Harvard 116, Yale 
gS. Thirty single keystone tar- 
gets per man. 

Ya