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Full text of "Year book"

fc.i-O.'-J 



SOCIETY/ENGINEERS 

Y&RMDK 
1322 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

California State Library Califa/LSTA Grant 



http://archive.org/details/yearbook1927soci 



Society of Engineers 
Year Book 



92? 



Number Two 



Published by 

SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS 

952 Pacific Building. 

San Francisco, 

california 



The Copy, Fifty Cents. 



Foreword 



IT IS sufficiently) evident that an organization to successfully direct its purpose should 
bring the members of its profession together in social unity and mutual understanding. 
If this spirit of intended relationship can be developed and advanced through the 
medium of a publication, then it is suffice to say that the primary motive prompting this 
issue is justified. 

It is also intended and desired that our institutions and enterprises may profit by 
our interest as Engineers and our obligations as citizens in the physical and cultural 
development of our country, and endeavor to secure, for a more noble and useful purpose, 
a better understanding and adequate esteem of such possibilities as may benefit society, 
industry, commerce and governmental operations. 

In this fascinating age, in the midst of a vast mechanical contrivance known as 
social and industrial progress, excepting the human element, everything appears to be in 
a pronounced slate of transition with man merely adjusting himself to fit the atmosphere 
of his own creations. The remarkable facilities of communication and transportation 
furnished by a rapid development, has caused the comforts of life to be diffused among 
all sorts of conditions of men. Yet there is no repose. It is an age of complexity, each 
day furthering its demands for concentration of effort among all groups of professions, 
affecting every art, industry and science. But these movements and intensities result in a 
common good, for every pioneer energy, has for its motive, more conveniences and greater 
comfort for the business and pleasure of its people. 

When there are great structures and establishments to be built, described as Won- 
derful, extraordinary or colossal, America will build them, and as so represented, Cali- 
fornia and the far west, preponderate, occupies every stage and every field of progress 
indicative of this spirit, identified by its force and distinctness. Those who wish to study 
the effects of present day advancement, will find within its confines, every physical result 
of activitiy and ingenuity, thousands of miles of various types of paved highways touch- 
ing every clime and altitude, hundreds of irrigation achievements, unprecedented hydro- 
electric enterprises, huge dams, railroads constructed over difficult locations, every type 
of architecture, great educational institutions, and ten thousand industries characterized 
by exhaustless energy and accelerated development. In this land of paradoxes, the San 
Francisco Bay Region, to l(eep apace with the demands required by the influences of art, 
science, industry, and culture, will further produce monumental structures well calculated to 
the renown of this unique section and to the benefit of mankind. 

George E. Tonney. 



Contents 



Page 

FOREWORD - - 2 

THE STEVENSON TEST DAM - 5 

By Prof. Chas. D. Marx 

RADIO— PAST. PRESENT AND FUTURE - 7 

By G. Harold Porter 

CARQUINEZ BRIDGE— THREE UNIQUE FEATURES ■ 10 

By Prof. Chas. Derleth. Jr. 

MEETING TRAFFIC REQUIREMENTS IN MODERN HIGHWAY DESIGN - M 

By C. C. Cottrell 

DISCOVERY THAT AETHER WAVES ARE THE CAUSE OF UNIVERSAL 

GRAVITATION 17 

By Capt. Thos. J. J. See 

TODAY ACHIEVING THEIR METROPOLITAN DESTINY. THE EAST- 
BAY CITIES LOOK BACK. TO THE "GLORIOUS DAYS OF SPAIN" - 21 

By Ad Schuster 

THE STATE PARKS OF CALIFORNIA - 23 

By Prof. Chas. B. Wing 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE OAKLAND AIRPORT - 26 

By D. R Lane 

THE TREND OF ENGINEERING ....... 28 

By Prof. Raymond E. Davis 

THE ENGINEERS IN HAITI 30 

By Thos. Hawthorne 

AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC WELDING OF PIPES FOR THE MOKELUMNE 

WATER CONDUIT 32 

By Harry A. Storrs 

A TREATISE ON CORK 34 

By Frank E. WHrrrEMORE 

TIME AND THE OLD MILL - 36 

By Rudolph E. Beiter 

THE MERCATOR PROJECTION 38 

By Walter Landers 

FROM SWITZERLAND. A LETTER TO THE SOCIETY - - - - 39 

By Mark Kern 

WANTED— MEN TO CARRY "A MESSAGE TO GARCIA" ... 40 

By Albert J. Capron 

THE DESIGN AND DESCRIPTION OF A MODERN MANUALLY OPER- 
ATED TELEPHONE EXCHANGE 41 

By J no. Wallace 

THE RUSSIAN EXPLORER IN THE PACIFIC NORTH-WEST ... 43 

By A. E. Zimmerman 

•COME OUT OF YOUR SHELL. YOU ENGINEER" .... 45 

By Hans Graff 

"JIM JACKSON" 47 

By J. E. Beaman 

EPHRAIM DYER II AND EBENEZER HERRICK DYER .... 48 
By Glenn B. Ashcroft 

THE EVOLUTION OF FORTIFICATIONS AROUND SAN FRANCISCO 

BAY 50 

By Mai. O. W. Decen 

SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS. OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES - 52 

LETTERS TO THE SOCIETY 53 

LECTURES ... 56 

EDUCATIONAL VISITS ------ - 55 

DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS ... - 59 




The Water Temple at Sunol 



> i \r Book, l l >J7 



|5 



The Stevenson Test Dam 

By Chas. D. Marx, 
Consulting Engineer. Palo Alio. California 



The Stevenson Test Dam is located on Stevenson Creek, 
a tributary of the San Joaquin River in the Sierra Nevadas 
about sixty miles east of Fresno, California. Some interest 
attaches to the story how the dam came to be built. For 
many years we have had discussions in engineering papers 
on the theory of load distribution in arched dams, of a 
section too slight to resist the water thrust by gravity alone. 
The construction of the Bear Valley Dam in the San Bernar- 
dino Mountains in 1884 by F. E. Brown, a civil engineer 
of Los Angeles, led to many discussions in engineering 
papers on the stresses likely 
to occur in structures of this 
type. One of the best papers 
at the time was contributed by 
Messrs. Hubert Vischer and 
the late Luther Wagoner, 
Civil Engineers of San 
Francisco, published in the 
Transactions of the Technical 
Society of the Pacific Coast 
in Volume VI, Dec. 1889. 

Subsequent to the construc- 
tion of the Bear Valley Dam, 
many dams arched in plan, and 
depending for their stability 
on combined arch and gravity 
action, have been built. The 
reader is referred to the valu- 
able table of statistics on dams 
published by Western Con- 
struction News in the numbers 
of March 10 and 25 and 
^pril 10, 1927. From these 
tables it can be seen that there 
has been a great diversity in 
practice, and structures have 
been built more or less daring, 
according to the faith of the 
designing engineering in his 
assumption. 

In recognition of the fact 
that design of such structures 
as arch dams has been in the past based too much on as- 
sumptions, and realizing the importance of substituting a 
knowledge of the actual stresses set up in an arched dam 
for the theoretical assumptions. Dr. Fred A. Noetzli, a 
consulting engineer of Los Angeles, approached Director 
Alfred D. Flinn of the Engineering Foundation in New 
York, with the suggestion that Engineering Foundation 
sponsor research work along those lines. Mr. Noetzli was 
ably seconded by such well known Pacific Coast engineers 
as H. Hawgood of Los Angeles, M. M. O'Shaughnessy 
of San Francisco, Professor Derleth of the University of 
California, D. C. Henny of Portland, and others. To Mr. 
W. A. Brackenridge, Mem. Am. Soc. C. E., Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Southern California Edison Company, is due the 
credit for the suggestion of building an experimental dam 
comparable in size to a number of existing dams. In De- 
cember, 1923, Mr. Brackenridge offered, on behalf of the 
Southern California Edison Company, funds and the use 
of remarkably suitable facilities for the construction of 




Prof. Charles D. Marx 



such a dam. The generous contribution of $25,000 was 
a good starter for raising the $ 1 00,000, which it was esti- 
mated by the committee would be needed to build the ex- 
perimental dam. Through Mr. Hawgood, who was chair- 
man of the local committee at Los Angeles in charge of the 
construction of the dam, the Los Angeles Flood Control 
District contributed $15,000 toward the work. Many 
power companies, corporations, firms and individuals con- 
tributed and, counting on additional funds as the work 
progressed, construction of the dam was begun. 

The dam was designed to 
be built to a height of 60 
feet with a bottom thickness 
of 7.5 feet which at a height 
of 30 feet was decreased to 
2 feet. This thickness was 
carried to the top. The dam, 
curved in plan with a radius 
of 100 feet, has a crest length 
of 140 feet. It was built 
of concrete without any steel 
reinforcement. 

Placing of concrete in the 
dam was begun April 19, 
1926. The last pour was 
made on June 4, 1926, by 
which time the dam had been 
carried to a height of 60 
feet. While the concrete was 
being poured many instru- 
ments and reference marks 
were set in place so that the 
necessary measurements of 
strains and deflections could 
be made while the work was 
progressing and after the com- 
pletion of the dam. Select- 
ing of materials and mixing 
and placing of concrete was 
carefully controlled to get 
a concrete of usual character- 
istics but as uniform in 



strength and density as was feasible. To this end there 
was installed a Blaw Knox inundator, a device developed 
in recent years for controlling accurately the quantity of 
water and sand, taking account of the moisture in the sand 
as received at the mixer. The strength of the concrete has 
shown a high degree of uniformity. The average was 
slightly over 2000 pounds per square inch at 28 days. 
The strength aimed at was 1 800 pounds per square inch 
at 28 days. 

A complete series of tests on the properties of the con- 
crete used in construction of the Stevenson Creek Dam, 
has been carried out and is still being carried out at the 
University of California under the direct charge of Profes- 
sor Raymond E. Davis of the Department of Civil Engi- 
neering. Special financial assistance for carrying on this 
work was given by the Portland Cement Association. Re- 
sults obtained from these elaborate tests will be published 



6] 



Society of Engineers 



as part of the report on the entire work which Engineering 
Foundation will issue in the near future. 

The tests on the dam were begun, as stated above, with 
the first steps of construction. Water was first let into the 
reservoir for test purposes to a depth of 20 feet on July 12, 
1 926. These depths were varied from time to time, and a 
series of measurements made with the reservoir filled to the 
desired level and reservoir empty. The dam was put 
to a full head test on the night of September 18-19, which 
test was later repeated on September 21-22. Since that 
lime Mr. Slater, Engineer-physicist of the Bureau of 
Standards at Washington. D. C, who has been continu- 
ously in charge of the testing work at the dam, moved his 
force of assistants to Los Angeles where he has been busy 
working up the experimental data for their proper interpreta- 
tion. This work was under the direct charge of the local 
committee which Mr. Hawgood is chairman, ably assisted 
by Dr. F. A. Noetzli, Secretary of the Main Committee, 
and Mr. H. W. Dennis, Chief Civil Engineer of the 
Southern California Edison Co. The latter had special 
charge of the construction cf the dam. 

The writer is not in a position to report the final con- 
clusion to be drawn from the tests on the dam. It may be 
said that, in a general way, the theoretical assumptions as 
to stress distribution between cantilever and arch action in 
this dam are borne out by the facts. Detailed drawings 
showing this relation will be published in the near future. 

While the experiments on the Stevenson Dam were be- 
ing carried out, and while a sub-committee on Models of 



Dams, under the chairmanship of Mr. J. L. Savage, Chief 
Designing Engineer in Denver of the U. S. Reclamation 
Service, was being organized. Professor Beggs suggested 
to Engineering Foundation the possibility of getting data 
worth while from Experiments on a celluloid model of the 
Stevenson Dam, which he proposed to build and on which he 
intended to measure strains and deflections. His proposal 
was referred to the Main Committee on Arch Dams and, 
after some discussion, approved. The Power Section of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers also promised 
some financial assistance. Comparison to date of the results 
obtained by Professor Beggs and his assistant, Mr. Sloan, 
are very encouraging. In spite of the difference in materials 
— concrete in one case, celluloid in the other, they give 
promise that deflection measurements on models of pro- 
posed structures may give definite information as to the be- 
havior of full size structures. The tests which it is in- 
tended to carry out on concrete models of the Stevenson 
Dam and of the Gibson Dam will throw additional light 
on this very important subject. Should it be definitely 
shown that from tests on models of a proposed structure 
definite conclusions are warranted as to the behavior of the 
full sized structure, a great step forward will have been 
taken for the intelligent and economic design, especially of 
dams. If this proves true, those earnest movers for the 
carrying out of tests on a full sized structure, the generous 
contributors of funds, and the loyal cooperators in this 
work, deserve the unstinted thanks of the members of the 
engineering profession. 




Stevenson Creek Test Dam 



Year Book, 1927 



[7 



Past, Present and Future 



Manage 



By G. Harold Porter, 
Pacific Division Radio Corporation of An 



Radio dates back to the early wireless experiments of the 
Italian youth, Guglielmo Marconi, in the closing years of 
the last century. While the propagation and the detection 
of electromagnetic waves through space were well-known 
phonemena to savants and laboratory workers, it remained 
for young Marconi to envisage the commercial possibilites 
in harnessing these waves to flash intelligence from point to 
point. Working toward the realization of this goal he first 
spanned distances measured in feet; shortly after, in hun- 
dreds of feet and it was not long before he lengthened his 
experiments to miles. In England, 
Marconi found sympathetic minds 
will to aid him in the com- 
mercialization of the idea. And 
so started this gigantic develop- 
ment now collectively known as 
radio. 

For years the struggling wireless 
art found its application in the 
maritime world. Radio apparatus 
was installed aboard a few ships. 
Land stations were provided to 
furnish the link with the shore. 
Then in 1 909 came an incident 
which served to crystallize for the 
benefit of humanity the inestimable 
value of radio at sea. The steam- 
ship "Republic" met in collision 
the Italian ship "Florida", off 
Nantucket. The crash came in 
the middle of the night, and the 
first call for help flashed by a 
wireless operator thrilled a startled 
world. This was the famous 
C Q D signal sent out by Jack 
Binns, whose coolness and pres- 
ence of mind resulted in the saving 
of the lives of 1 500 men, women and children on the sink- 
ing ship. 

It soon became compulsory by international law, for all 
sea-going vessels carrying fifty persons or more, to carry 
radio apparatus and competent operators. And one by one 
the passenger ships, followed by lumbering freighters and 
even tramp ships, were equipped with radio, while land sta- 
tions grew in numbers to provide the necessary contact with 
land. 

Marine radio, to give it the modern name, has more than 
kept pace with the rapid developments in the newer branches 
of the radio art. Today the latest type of equipment is in- 
stalled on shipboard, with a corresponding improvement 
in the facilities of the land stations. Vacuum tube trans- 
mitters, with their powerful, sharply tuned, clean-cut con- 
tinuous-wave signals, have to a great extent replaced the 
early spark and arc transmitters, facilitating rapid changes 
in wavelength so as to provide more communication chan- 
nels, providing a better signal to combat interference, and 
in most instances more than tripling the former communica- 
tion range. The present-day RCA marine stations resemble 
nothing so much as a telephone central, with the plurality 
of transmitters and receivers and many operators on duty 




G. Harold Porter 



to permit the simultaneous operation of a number of radio 
circuits to and from ships at sea. 

Not only does radio provide the navigator with con- 
stant and reliable communication with other ships and shore, 
but it contributes to safety in the actual navigation of the 
ship itself. In the radio direction finder or radio compass, 
the navigator finds the greatest aid since the Chinese in- 
vented the magnetic compass. This latter-day device, in 
combination with radio beacons established at strategic 
points along our coasts, enables him to take bearings on 
known points and in locating 
other ships by means of their radio 
signals despite the blackest night 
or the densest fog. By means of 
this device, courses are now laid 
straight to a given point and the 
navigator proceeds ahead with the 
full assurance of safety. 

Yet all the while that radio has 
followed the activities of the sea, 
it has progressed in other directions. 
In fact, it became manifest long 
ago that this communication method 
might be employed in spanning 
even greater distances. It was in 
1907 that the first transoceanic 
wireless feat was accomplished be- 
tween Ireland and Nova Scotia, 
and in 1908 this circuit was open- 
ed for public use. Other high- 
power station soon followed. It 
became apparent at this time that 
commercial ambitions had grown 
far in advance of the art. The 
key to constant, reliable trans- 
oceanic service had not yet been 
found. Existing equipment could 
not generate sufficient power in suitable form to trans- 
mit radio messages continuously across the Atlantic. 

It remained for the grave emergency of the World War 
to bring home to the people of the United States the neces- 
sity for an independent and reliable communication service 
to all countries of the world, free from censorship, delays, 
relays and other obstruction. Meanwhile, the United States 
took the lead in technical research and invention, with the 
notable development of the Alexanderson alternator and 
improved radio receivers which, for the first time, made 
possible continuous and economical radio communication over 
great distances. The technical means of long-distance radio 
communication was now at hand. All that remained was 
the organization of capital and facilities and personnel to 
carry out the American world-wide communication service 
to a complete actuality. 

In the year 1919. the radio stations of the world were 
once more released for commercial service. It was in April 
of that year that the Radio Corporation of America was 
born out of the necessity of centralizing American radio 
efforts, and at the urgent invitation of the Government. This 
organization, amply financed, immediately purchased the 



Society of Engineers 



property of the British-controlled Marconi Company, se- 
cured rights under the important American patents, and 
quickly placed in service a number of stations connecting 
across the Atlantic to England, France, Germany and 
Norway, as well as across the Pacific to Hawaii and Japan. 

In the intervening years the progress of American world- 
wide radio service has been remarkable. Today the Radio 
Corporation of America is operating direct, high-power 
radio circuits between New York City and England, France, 
Germany, Sweden, Norway, Holland, Poland, Italy, Argen- 
tine and Brazil. Trans-Pacific radio circuits are in opera- 
tion between San Francisco and Hawaii and Japan, as well 
as to Java. A few weeks ago still another service was 
added direct to the Philippines. Soon we may expect serv- 
ice to several more Latin American countries, to China, and 
to other Far East nations. 

In the short span of six years, then, the American nation 
has achieved a development fully comparable to that of the 
British cable system with London as the hub, which re- 
quired a half century or more of constant effort. Although 
in its infancy, the American world-wide network is handling 
a fair share of inter- 
national traffic — ap- 
proximately 25 per- 
cent of the total traffic 
across the Atlantic, 
with 75 percent left to 
some nineteen subma- 
rine cables; 50 per- 
cent on the Pacific 
side, with the even 
balance to the limited 
cable facilities. 

Radio has not only 
assured reliable, di- 
rect, unhampered com- 
munication between 
the American people 
and the outside world 
— it has also scored a 
marked economic gain 
because of the speed 
with which radio traffic 
can be handled by the 

use of automatic transmitters and recorders. Ample power 
is available for spanning the transoceanic gaps, so that time- 
consuming repetitions are no longer required. These econo- 
mic gains have been reflected in lowered transmission rates, 
not only by radio itself but also by the cables compelled to 
meet their first competition in five decades or more of ex- 
istence. 

Transoceanic radio has gone still further ahead in antici- 
pating the future demands of the human race, ever knitting 
distant point and separated peoples together into the closely 
woven fabric of international trade. The photoradiogram, 
or image transmitting system, has been developed rapidly 
during recent years to a point where it is now possible to 
transmit entire messages as units, in facsimile form, without 
the double translation process imposed by the usual tele- 
graphic code. Letters, type matter, photographs, drawings, 
checks, commercial papers, maps — anything, in fact, can 
be sent as a unit by means of Photoradio over existing radio 
circuits without change in equipment other than the addition 
of the photoradiogram transmitter and receiver. Already 
the photoradiogram service is in extensive use; it is being 
steadily refined and new uses are daily being found for it. 

Marine and transoceanic radio deal with private commu- 




nication — point-to-point communication — individualized 
radio, in brief. But in 1920 the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, experimenting with radio tele- 
phone transmitters, invited a handful of the ten existing radio 
amateurs to listen in and report the results of the transmis- 
sion. Then, almost overnight, radio found an entirely new 
and unexplored field — mass communication — communica- 
tion on an enormous and broadcast scale. So did radio 
broadcasting come into existence. Beginning with the 
pioneer broadcasting station KDKA in Pittsburgh, other 
stations were rapidly established throughout the land until 
the numbers grew to many hundreds. 

The broadcasting phase of radio communication has of 
necessity been closer to the general public. It has pene- 
trated into the home circle and become an intimate part of 
everyday life. Many of us sometimes wonder, and with 
due cause, what our lives would now be without this broad 
contact with the outside world. 

Broadcasting technique has made enormous strides. At 
first the mere novelty of bringing voice and music into the 
home was sufficient to warrant the keenest interest on the 

part of the public. 
Later, however, as 
this novelty wore off, 
there came an insistent 
demand for real speech 
and real music. Then, 
with the attainment of 
utmost realism in radio 
rendition, there came 
before the microphone 
the world's greatest 
musicians and profes- 
sional talent, in place 
of the erstwhile phono- 
graphic and automatic 
piano music, common- 
place talks and lec- 
tures, and the mediocre 
musical talent which 
has been the routine 
in the pioneer days of 
broadcasting. 

Increased power, 
receiving ends, has 



The Broadcastinc Studio of the R. C. A. Station WJZ 

both at the transmitting and the 

come to solve the problem of year-round reliable 
radio service. Network broadcasting has brought the 
national centers, with their wealth of entertainment, en- 
lightment and important events, into the immediate neighbor- 
hood of all homes in cities and hamlets and rural districts. 

Broadcasting has been the greatest experiment of mod- 
ern times. It began as a mere test in radio telephone trans- 
mission. It developed as an experiment, so far as the 
economics of the thing were concerned. Costs rose rapidly 
with the demand for better programs. Nationwide pro- 
grams came to take the place of the individual programs, 
in large part, and required a unified broadcasting system. 
A national organization, therefore, became the urgent need. 

It remained for the Radio Corporation of America, al- 
ready charged with the stewardship of the nation's marine 
and transoceanic radio faciliites, to insure the permanency 
of the broadcasting institution. Accordingly, this company, 
in cooperation with its associates, the General Electric Com- 
pany and the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany, which had been operating the leading non-commerical 
stations of the nations, formed the National Broadcasting 
Company as a solemn pledge to the owners of radio re- 



Year Book, 1927 



[9 



ceivers that they would never want for good radio programs. 
The newly formed organization became owner of the well- 
known station WEAF in New York, together with the vast 
network facilities, as the nucleus of its forthcoming activi- 
ties. Shortly after, station WJZ of New York City was 
turned over to the management of the National Broadcasting 
Company. Two vast systems, the Red and Blue Networks, 
with these two stations as the key stations, became organized 
to serve the greater part of the nation. Still later came the 
formation of the Orange Network on the Pacific Coast, 
completing the nationwide coverage. In this manner, a 
coast-to-coast super-network has been realized for the broad- 
casting of national events and program features. The cli- 
max of the NBC gigantic network facilities came recendy 
in the broadcasting of the homecoming of Colonel Charles 
Lindbergh from his New \ ork to Paris flight, when the 
Red, Blue and Orange Networks were coupled together 
with a total of fifty stations. Here became assembled the 
greatest audience of history — over 35,000,000 people, 
scattered from Maine to California. Radio announcers and 
microphones were installed at every vantage point to provide 
a running description, together with the atmosphere of noises 
and whistles and roars, in bringing to every listener the full 
benefit of the event. Some 14,000 miles of wire line was 
used in this broadcasting; 350 engineers were stationed at 
broadcast transmitters and control rooms along the lines. 

Radio broadcasting, since the formation of the National 
Broadcasting Company, has found a solution to its economic 
problems. The national voice of network broadcasting has 
warranted the greatest efforts and the highest type of profes- 
sional talent before the microphones. Seekers of national 
good-will have not failed to appreciate the significance of 
this mighty voice that penetrates the four walls of six mil- 
lions or more homes, and have been most liberal in support- 
ing the costs of our broadcastnig institution. 

Whatever is placed on the air is bound to be taken out 
again, is a modern version of a very old saying. So with 
the development of broadcasting, radio receiving equipment 



has come into extensive use. Small crystal receivers gave 
way to one-tube receivers ; one-tube receivers and head- 
phones gave way to multi-tube receivers and loudspeakers ; 
and this last-mentioned combination in its turn has made 
way for the powerful receiver and loudspeaker with socket- 
power operation. The public, in its desire to get the most 
out of present-day broadcasting, has turned to still better 
equipment year by year. 

Hence the radio industry, starting with an annual business 
of two millions in 1920, prior to broadcasting, has now 
grown to an annual business in excess of 600,000,000 dol- 
lars, taking its place among the leading industries of the na- 
tion. Some 300,000 persons are engaged in various occu- 
pations of the radio industry. Some 42,000 radio shops 
are found from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

The future of radio, in its four major divisions, is bright 
and full of promise. Marine radio looks ahead to the day 
when every ship shall be equipped with the latest vacuum 
tube transmitter and the radio direction finder. Even the 
radio telephone, already installed on some shops, may be- 
come commonplace, linking with the usual land telephone 
service. 

Transoceanic radio looks ahead to an ever-increasing net- 
work of world-wide communication, providing direct, reli- 
able and low-rate service. The photoradiogram may even- 
tually enable us to handle messages as facsimile messages, 
in place of our brief, terse, radiograms and cablegrams. 

Radio broadcasting has but to continue its present march 
to achieve a wonderful future. Its economic problems have 
been solved ; interference problems are well on the way to 
practical solution through the splendid work of the Federal 
Radio Commission. Even an international exchange of pro- 
grams is within reach in the near future. 

Finally, the radio industry, having passed through the 
trying period of swaddling clothes and growing pains, seems 
well on the way to stability, permanency, and well-earned 
success. 




Control Room of Station WJZ 



10] 



Society of Engineers 



JCS Three Unique Features 



By C. Derleth, Jr., 

Chief Engineer, American Toll Bridge Company 

Dean, College of Civil Engineering, University of California. 



The Carquinez Bridge is the largest world bridge devoted 
solve to highway traffic. It removes the last water barrier 
to north and south transportation along the Pacific Coast 
highways, completing the link, eliminating all ferry service 
on the routes from the Mexican border near San Diego to 
the Puget Sound region and Canada. 

Only three other cantilever bridges compare with it in 
magnitude. All of these are railway bridges. They are: — 
the Forth Bridge in Scotland, the Quebec Bridge in Canada, 
and the Queensboro Bridge 
across the East River at New 
York City. Each of these 
structures has a larger tonnage 
of steel and two of them, the 
Fourth and the Quebec Bridges, 
have longer spans. None of 
them have presented more 
unique problems. 

Three features of construc- 
tion deserve special attention. 
They are ( 1 ) the central piers 
in deep water; (2) the lifting 
of the two suspended spans; 
(3) the construction of a fender 
system at the center piers to off- 
set ship collision. 

I. Central Piers. 

The water at the central 
piers is 80 to 90 feet deep. 
The rock upon which the piers 
are founded is at a depth of 
1 35 feet below mean high 
water. 

At the central pier there was 
about 45 feet of material over- 
lying bedrock. About 40 feet 
of this is extremely fine black 
mud above a 5-foot stratum of 
coarse sand and gravel. In 
places the mud was found very 
compact, stiff and hard, but 
when broken up and allowed 
to mix with water, due to 
the fineness of the particles th 
resemble emulsion. 

The waters of Carquinez Strait have a maximum tidal 
variation of 8 feet and a maximum current velocity of 7 
feet per second. The subaqueous currents vary with tidal 
ranges. At no time during a tidal range was the current 
velocity constant over the entire depth. Current velocities 
following an ebb tide were extremely variable. For a 
considerable period of time following an ebb tide the surface 
current was actually reverse in direction to that of the sub- 
surface current, with a zero point varying from water sur- 
face to bottom. Following flood tide the water mass all 
moved in one direction but with varying velocities from 
surface to bottom. These current conditions and their 
variations all required special treatment during the sinking 
of the caissons. 

The years 1923-4 were extremely dry years in Califor- 




Ciiarles Derleth, Jr 
resulting mixture would 



nia. The waters of Carquinez Strait therefore during 
1 924-5 were for long seasons highly impregnated with salt, 
encouraging the prevalence of teredo. 

It has been observed that for water salinties below 
0.5% teredos will die; for salinties between 0.5% and 
1.5% they are dormant; while between 1.5% and 3.0% 
they grow extremely active. 

During the flood flow of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin Rivers the runoff in Carquinez Strait for about 
six months is highly diluted 
with fresh water so that the 
salinity readily falls below 
0.5% in wet years. In dry 
years and for the low stages 
of flow at times for long periods 
the salinity rises to high figures 
producing a high degree of 
teredo destruction for timber 
works in these waters. 

To protect the timbers form- 
ing the exterior walls of the 
foundation cribs against teredo 
attack the outer surface after 
caulking was given a thorough 
coating with a timber preserv- 
ative paint, a compound of 
asphalt and creosote emulsified 
and applied with an air spray. 
The timbers were then covered 
with a layer of impregnated 
tarred felt tacked on. This felt 
layer was then given a spray 
coat of preservative paint and 
finally coated with an outer 
sheathing of plank spiked on, 
which sheathing also received a 
coat of preservative paint. This 
protection was sufficient to keep 
the timbers from attack over a 
period of at least one year. 

Pneumatic sinking was not 
feasible because of the depth 
of 1 35 feet to bedrock. Studies 
were made of various types of dredging or open 
caissons. Three schemes were studied: 1, A cylindrical 
steel shell with central dredging well; 2, cylindrical concrete 
shell with compartment dredging wells; 3, concrete filled 
square timber cribs with four dredging wells. 

The steel shell type was abandoned because of exces- 
sive cost. The concrete cylinder too was relatively high in 
cost with the added disadvantage of difficult flotation. 
Both of these schemes involved great hazard because the 
structures had to be floated, kept stable in vertical posi- 
tion, until a depth of nearly 1 00 feet is reached. 

The timber crib was adopted because of its lesser hazard, 
greater facility for flotation and less cost. With the timber 
crib the dredging wells did not require bulkheading at the 
bottom to produce flotation. Bulkheads would have been 
necessary had the steel shell or concrete type been adopted. 



Year Book. 1027 



I II 



The timber crib method proved to be the cheapest, quickest 
and safest. 

The illustration on page 1 3 is a general elevation of the 
Carquinez Bridge. It shows the central steel tower sup- 
ported on four foundation pedestals, before work had com- 
menced on the permanent fender protection. 

Each crib was anchored, floated and sunk to bed- 
rock within a guide frame. This anchor frame con- 



the judicious use of light charges of powder at the cutting 
edges. 

When bedrock had been reached the surface was cleaned 
and plugs of concrete placed by marine bucket under water 
in each dredging well to heights not less than 30 feet. 

When these concrete plugs had sufficiently set the wells 
were pumped of water, cleaned of laitance, after which 
the shafts were filled with concrete placed in the dry. 




Towing South Suspended Span From Construction Dock to Lifting Site. March 19, 1027 



sisted of six steel spuds driven into the Strait bottom 
in the form of a hollow square; two spuds on the 
east, side, two on the west, one each on the north 
and south side of a square plan. The tops of these 
six columns were conected by a framing of steel girders 
and wooden trusses upon which the working platform 
was built. 

The cutting edges of the crib were of structural steel. 
The lower walls of the dredging chambers were of solid 
timber. Four wells each 8 feet square were surrounded 
by flotation chambers. These flotation chambers eventually 
were filled with concrete of amounts from time to time to 
produce the required sinking as tier on tier of the structure 
was built on top. 

The cribs were started on shore on a launch way, 
were floated after they had reached a height of from 30 
to 35 feet and towed to the guide frame, one column and 
one side of the frame being omitted to allow the crib to 
float into place. 

After the crib had been landed in the guide frame, 
at this stage the sixth column was driven and the fourth 
side added to the frame. 

The guide frame was securely held in position in the 
Strait by cables running diagonally from the corners to four 
anchor barges from which in turn chains ran to 1 6,000 
pound anchors specially placed in the Strait bottom. 

When the cutting edge of the caisson approached the 
Strait bottom at depth of 80 feet to 90 feet tidal action 
produced scour of the bottom. This scour amounted to 
from 19 to 23 feet, requiring flotation in water to about 
100 feet maximum depth. 

At this stage the caissons were accurately located within 
the guide frame by blocks and spotted by quickly placing 
a sufficient weight of concrete in the flotation chambers. 

The piers were then sunk to bedrock by dredging in the 
four walls, by the use of water jets on all cutting edges, 
by adding weight through the deposition of concrete and by 



The upper portion of each pier was built within a detach- 
able octagonal cofferdam, reaching to depths, of 20 to 25 
feet below mean high water. Inside these cofferdams 
cyhndric forms were placed and the remainder of the piers 
poured of cyhndric shape of diameter 34 feet. 

The contractor for these foundations was the Missouri 
Valley Bridge and Iron Company of Leavenworth, 
Kansas, who built six of these piers ; four at the central 
tower and two under the north tower in the period April, 
1925, to August 26, 1926. 

The foundation work reached its peak in Carquinez 
Strait in March, 1926, when the foundations were being 
prosecuted most actively. 

II. Lifting of Suspended Spans. 

The total length of Carquinez Bridge between piers 
I and 12 is 4482 feet. Of this length 1 1 32 feet is an 
approach viaduct on the south side of the Strait. The 
main bridge is 3350 feet long, composed of two 500 feet 
anchor arms, one central tower 1 50 feet and two main 
fairways 1 1 00 feet each. Each fairway consists of two 
cantilever arms 333 feet and a suspended span 434 feet. 

The suspended spans were built on shore on specially 
constructed pile docks. The first of these spans was 
launched March 3 and lifted to place in the north fair- 
way: the second was launched and lifted March 19. 
The illustration on page 1 1 shows the second of these spans 
immediately after launching, supported on two specially 
constructed steel barges and being towed by four tugs. 

After the suspended span was completely erected on 
docks, some piles were pulled sufficient to give clearnce 
for the steel barges, which were placed under the truss at 
low tide. With the rising of tide and the use of hydraulic 
jacks, the trusses were lifted free of the dock, ready for 
towing. 

From the midpoint of each end diagonal web member of 
the cantilever arm, by means of temporary links, counter- 
weight boxes filled with sand were hung on huge pulleys. 



12] 



Society of Engineers 



These sand boxes were filled on barges, then hoisted into 
place. To the top of each counterweight box was attached 
a 2/2" steel wire rope cable which passed over two 5-foot 
sheaves directly over the boxes, upward along the end diag- 
onal of the cantilever trusses to the extreme of the upper 
chords. At these points the cables turned downward 
over two more 5-foot sheaves to the surface waters of 
the Strait. Here sockets were provided in the ends of the 
cables ready for attachment to the suspended spans. An 
8-part %" wire rope block and tackle was rigged to each 
counterweight box and its lead line passed back through 
snatch blocks to electric hoists on the floor of each canti- 
lever arm. On March 3, 1927, at low tide the first 
suspended span, jacked from the 
dock on two 40 feet by 1 30 
feet steel barges, was floated 
to position under the north 
cantilever arms and the coun- 
terweight cables attached to 
it. At ebb tide the weight 
of the span, about 650 tons, 
was transferred by hydraulic 
jacks from the barges to the 
cables. The span weight 
therefore was balanced by the 
counterweight boxes of sand. 
Each box weighed about 
22 tons more than one cor- 
ner of the span. This extra 
weight was balanced by the 
8-part block and tackle and 
the hoisting engine. When 
the hoisting engines upon the 
bridge floor had lifted the 
excess weight, the temporary 
links were removed holding 
the sand boxes to the in- 
clined members of the can- 
tilever arms. 

The four counterweight 
boxes thus freed were then 
lowered simultaneously, their 
extra weight being enough 
to overcome friction and other 
resistances. 

These operations were controlled by orders from one 
location on the cantilever arm, by a telephone system con- 
necting the various points of action. Instrument men were 
posted on the adjacent towers who readily reported the 
levels of the rising span to the control men. The span 
was kept level during the raising in order to prevent over- 
straining of the lateral or wind systems. 

The lifting of a span is illustrated on page 12. After 
the span was in place, men drove home the end pins, 
connecting the lifted span with eyebar hangers from the 
cantilever arms. 

The total operation from the time work was started at 
the dock preparing the span for flotation, lifting it and 
placing it, emptying the counter-weight boxes, etc., occupied 
ihe greater part of a working day. The actual time of 
lifting the span from the barge to its place in the structure 
and driving the pins was only about 35 minutes. 

The United States Steel Products Co. of New York 
and its subsidiary the American Bridge Co. were responsible 
for the fabrication and erection of all steel work. 
III. Center Pier Protection 

The War Department permit for the Carquinez Bridge 




Liftinc the South Suspended Span. March 19, 1927 



requires that fenders as may be found necessary in the inter- 
est of navigation and ordered or approved by the Chief of 
Engineers shall be constructed and maintained at each 
pier. 

Our center pier offers an unprecedented case. The 
water is 80 feet deep, the currents change twice each day 
and at flood conditions may exceed 7 feet per second down 
stream. Ocean going vessels frequent the Strait. While 
there are two 1 I 00 feet fairways for the passage of ships, it 
is necessary that every precaution be taken to prevent serious 
collision with the center pier group, not only in the interest 
interest of navigation but for the protection of the bridge 
itself. 

Because of the depth of water and the area to 
be protected these naviga- 
tion fenders require a diffi- 
cult construction of relatively 
high cost. 

Engineers of the American 
Toll Bridge Company have 
been studying this unique prob- 
lem from the very beginning of 
work in 1923 through frequent 
consultations with the War 
Department. The piers were 
completed August 26, 1926. 
Immediately thereafter riprap 
was deposited about the center 
pier to fill holes caused by 
erosion and to bring the level 
of the strait bottom to its orig- 
inal contour. The contract for 
this work was let in July, 1 926, 
and continued throughout the 
next nine months. In all about 
50,000 cubic yards of riprap 
have been placed. 

Construction of fenders of 
necessity had to be delayed 
because it was necessary to 
leave the spaces about the cen- 
ter pier group free for the 
erection of the steel work 
of the center tower and 
cantilevers. 

The first plans for an adequate tender protection were 
completed in November 1926 and consisted of additional 
rock fills about the piers brought to elevation -55. Upon 
this rock fill a timber pile dock was to be built. This dock 
was provided with a heavy timber floor whose pockets were 
filled with a sand cushion. 

As an alternative design a floating type of timber fender 
was developed anchored up and down stream and held by 
steel columns driven into the rock fill. 

Finally in December 1926 a combination of the timber 
dock and floating fender was devised. The timber dock or 
braced fender was to be built on rock fills at each of the 
four corners of the center pier cluster to ward off side 
blows. The floating cribs, V-shaped, pointed up and 
down stream, were held by anchors and steel columns. 
Their chief function was to react against head-on blows from 
a ship moving up or down stream out of its course. 

In case of a head-on collision this floating dock would 
first take the blow. Its anchor chains and inclined piles 
would give additional resistance. For a heavy blow the 
floating crib would move toward the piers and eventually 
butt against the pile dock construction. The entire theory 



•> l Ul Hook. I<>27 



ol this fender was to give adequate protection to the piers, 
yet of such a nature that the blow of a ship would be cush- 
ioned and thus prevent undue damage to the ship. 

When these various types of design were submitted to 
the San Francisco office of the War Department and had 
been examined by navigation interests, it at once appeared 
that navigators were not satisfied. They made strenuous 
objections claiming that the fenders were not adequate and 
that they should be sufficient to fully withstand a head-on 
blow of at least a 20,000 ton ship moving in any direction 
not less than 1 feet per second. At the hearings before the 
War Department the shipping interests insisted that they 
were not interested in a design which would cushion the 
blow and protect the ship, that they preferred a rigid 
fender which in an accident would sink the ship rather than 
cause serious damage to the piers or bridge. 

In February 1927 the Bridge Company prepared a new- 
design with braced docks at the four corners of the pier 
cluster, heavier floating cribs, up and down stream and 
elaborate bracing between the four corner docks holding all 
parts of the scheme together ; in other words, the earlier 
design was developed to greater proportions with heavier 
mass, more inclined piling in the docks and with heavier 
and more numerous anchors to the floating cribs. 

Early in April 1927 an alternate design was devised 
wherein the timber floating crib was replaced by a con- 
crete pontoon with double the number of anchors; these V- 
shaped pontoons pointing up and down stream and reacting 
against braced docks as in the earlier designs. 

Hearings held upon these schemes brought out equal pro- 
test from the navigation interests. They submitted plans 
consisting essentially of enormous rock fills rising to at least 
elevation -35 and in one type to elevation -5. Upon these 
tremendous rock fills they proposed to build in the first 
case a massive concrete dock and in the second case a tim- 
ber dock to ward off the collision from a ship approaching 
from any direction whatsoever. 

In the judgment of the Bridge Engineers these designs 
were entirely out of proportion for the purpose. They 
would have cost more than three times any reasonable and 
adequate expenditure ; in addition the most vital objection 
thereto was the effect of settlement or lateral movement of 
such enormous quantities of rock fill rising to such heights 
in the stream. Movements of such masses of rock would be 



a menace to the lateral stability of the center pier group, 
particularly in time of earthquake. Also such great masses 
of rock fill would decrease the water cross section of the 
Strait and seriously interfere with flood flows. 

The Bridge Company objected as much to these designs 
as the navigation interests had previously objected to the 
designs submitted by the Bridge Engineers. 

In May the Bridge Company devised an entirely new 
type of fender consisting of rock fills into which reinforced 
concrete piles were driven, some vertical, others inclined. 
Upon the tops of these piles a heavy concrete deck was 
placed. In plan the structure pointed up and down 
stream and entirely surrounded the center pier cluster. The 
cost of this type was double the earlier types submitted. 
From the standpoint of the Bridge Company in addition to 
higher cost it had also the disadvantage of rigidity which 
would be a menace to a colliding ship. Nevertheless the 
Company felt that the navigation interests would be satisfied 
with this design. To their astonishment they found that 
certain of the navigators still strenuously objected and made 
proposals increasing the rock fills, the numbers of concrete 
piles and in every way the size and cost of the concrete deck. 
Their revision produced a structure of great width, encroach- 
ing upon the 1 1 00 foot fairways and again doubled the 
cost to unreasonable figures. 

In all previous designs the Bridge Company had pur- 
posely prepared a structure free of the center pier cluster. 
With a desire to meet the demands of the navigation interests 
the Bridge Company's engineers next and finally proposed 
a design of rock fills about the piers, with concrete piles ver- 
tical and inclined supporting a concrete deck pointed up 
and down stream, entirely surrounding the piers but struc- 
turally connected with them by a huge circular girder of 
reinforced concrete. This design brought into play, there- 
fore, to react against the blow of a ship, not merely the 
mass of rock fills, the piles and the dock deck, but also the 
mass of the circular girder and the massess of the four foun- 
dations supporting the center tower of the bridge. 

Figures submitted by the Bridge Company amply showed 
that this structure had a mass and strength sufficient to 
more than twice over withstand any reasonable blow of a 
20,000 ton ship. 

Still the navigation interests and their engineers were not 

(Continued to Page 31) 




Carquinez Bridge on June 12. 1927 



14] 



Society of Engineers 



Meeting Traffic Requirements in Modern Highway Design 



D\) C. C. Cottrell, M. Am. Soc. C. £., 

Manager Highways Bureau, California Stale Automobile Association. 



While traffic requirements have been given a certain 
amount o^ consideration during the past decade in the mat- 
ter of highway location and design, there has been no such 
thing in highway construction as a really scientific study of 
these requirements nor the technical application of formulas 
such as has been the case in railroad locations, designs and 
betterments. 

There has been a growing tendency in the last few years 
to give more and more attention to traffic requirements in 
designing highways. But in actual practice this subject has 
never received the consideration 
that it merits. And it is a sub- 
ject that should justifiably receive 
a tremendous amount of investi- 
gation and study. 

The fault is not altogether 
chargeable to those who have had 
the responsibility of designing 
highways. The situation is due 
rather to the quickness with which 
this problem came upon us. Prev- 
ious to fifteen or twenty years ago, 
the traffic using our streets and 
roadways was almost wholly horse 
drawn vehicles. Today, and dur- 
ing the past few years, we have 
an altogether different class of 
traffic and an amount that would 
have been unbelievable a few 
years ago. 

This new traffic, not only be- 
cause of its nature and the speed 
with which it operates, but its quan- 
tity, has come upon us so suddenly 
that we have been wholly unable 
lo keep pace with its development 
in our highway construction and betterment. As a result, 
we have largely utilized ideas which were ingrained into 
us for many decades and which, as times goes on, we find 
are totally impracticable for present day usage. 

In the technique of railroad construction and operation, 
there has been developed a theory and practice which re- 
duces location and design almost to an exact science. This 
reduction is transformed from operating and maintenance 
costs to a justifiable capital investment. 

For instance, knowing the amount of actual and probable 
tonnage to be carried over a particular section of railroad 
line, we can compute the amount of motive power re- 
quired to carry this tonnage over a one and one-half percent 
grade or over a one percent grade. The difference in this 
motive power transformed into dollars and cents would 
naturally represent the saving in operating costs per year as 
between the two gradients. 

If that difference is then capitalized at the prevailing rate 
of interest, the railroad official has at hand data on which 
he can decide whether the road should be built on a one per- 
cent, rather than a one and one-half percent grade. 

And so it is with practically every item of railroad con- 
struction and operation. The relation between train speeds 
and the requirements upon road bed maintenance have been 



almost exactly determined with the result that railroad 
trains are operated with a justifiable balance between the 
maximum of speed and the the minimum damage to a road 
bed. ' I 

There is a direct analogy in this respect between railroads 
and highways. Because of its long years of development 
and its operation for profit, the railroad has become highly 
developed in this respect. But, because highways are prac- 
tically a new proposition, and because it has not appeared 
necessary to reduce such factors affecting highways into 
terms of profit, or dollars and 
cents, they have received prac- 
tically no consideration in this re- 
spect. 

In highway construction, the 
locating engineer is supplied with 
certain minimum requirements that 
he must meet. Generally speak- 
ing, as long as he can secure a 
semblance of directness and still 
meet this minimum requirement, he 
has made a satisfactory location. 
Very seldom, if ever, is he permit- 
ted to analyze in a technical way 
and from a capital investment 
standpoint, the justification for 
making a deeper cut, a higher fill, 
or cutting a piece of improved 
property. It is becoming daily 
more apparent to those connected 
with highway matters that this is 
the paramount reason for the ne- 
cessity of so much realignment 
and reconstruction of highways all 
over the country. 
Cottrell . . 

As an example, many 

of distance could have been saved on the main 
way between San Francisco and Sacramento 
this practice been invoked. Some people may 
that present day traffic requirements could not 
been anticipated at the time this highway was located 
and constructed. But, that is not a fact, for had the traffic 
of even ten to fifteen years ago been used as a basis of calcu- 
lation with but a small anticipated increase, we would today 
be travelling to Sacramento by a roadway which would not 
only save us ten or fifteen miles in distance, but which would 
have also eliminated many traffic hazards such as railroad 
grade crossings and sharp curves. 

The instances in which considerable distance could have 
been saved by a slight change of routing are almost too 
numerable to mention. If the simple application of capit- 
alizing upon the annual saving that would accrue to the 
motoring public by reason of such changes in alignment were 
considered, we would be supplying money in ever increas- 
ing amounts to put them into effect. 

Assume that it costs an average of seven cents per mile 
to operate a motor vehicle, and assume that there are a 
thousand motor vehicles passing over a given stretch of 
highway every day. That means that on each mile of that 
highway there is expended $70.00 per day for motor 




miles 
high- 
had 
claim 
have 



Yi-ar Book. 1927 



vehicle operation which is $25,550 per year and which 
capitalized at, say six percent, would justify the capital 
expenditure of $426,000 to eliminate one mile of such a 
highway. 

Most of my readers know of many highways used by 
more than one thousands vehicles per day on which a half 
or a quarter of a mile can be cut off the distance at much 
less than the apparent justifiable capital investment. 

In addition, there are usually two other justifications for 
making such a change, one being the time saved to the motor- 
ist, and the other the almost certainty of the betterment of 
safety factor, because practically all such changes in align- 
ment involve the elimination of curves. 

What is true of changes in alignment is likewise true of 
changes in gradients. It takes considerable more gasoline 
to drive a car or truck up a six percent grade than it does 
to use a grade of three percent, and should there be a com- 
pensating grade on the other side, there is not a compensat- 
ing saving in gasoline consumption. 

But the mistakes in the location of highways and the 
determination of minimum grades have not been as bad as 
those caused by lack of vision in securing rights of way and 
in making an actual design of the pavement. 

When a highway is located and a substantial pavement 
built, additional traffic is attracted to it almost immediately 
with a consequent improvement of property on each side 
of the roadway. But we have been too prone to think of 
the roadway which we build today as being of sufficient 
width to handle the traffic for many decades to come. That 
factor, together with shoulder widths and drainage ditches 
on each side, has usually been the determining factor of the 
width of needed rights of way. 

As a matter of fact, improvement of the property on 
each side of the roadway immeasurably increases local traffic 
which, coupled with the normal increase of through traffic, 
soon causes a congestion requiring an additional width of 
pavement for which there is often no room on the original 
right of way. The result is that either additional rights of 
way must be acquired at a tremendous expense or else the 
roadway must be built in a very cramped and unsatisfactory 
manner. 

Take for example, the conditions which exist on what 
we call the Peninsula Highway south of San Francisco. 
This pavement has been continually widened ever since 
motor vehicles first came into general use and even today, 
as wide as it may seem to be, it is not of a sufficient width 
to properly take care of the traffic desiring to go over it. 
It cannot, however, be widened any more on account of 
the extremely narrow right of way width which, in this 
case, is bounded on both sides by highly improved prop- 
erty, much of which is business property. If rights of 
way of the greatest possible width had been secured years 
ago, it would have been much less expensive than after 
property became highly developed along the roadway. 

In the matter of design, I want particularly to mention 
two items. One of these, super-elevated curves, is an im- 
portant requirement in modern highway design. The 
second, a crowned roadway, is a hindrance, rather than 
a service to the motorist. 

I doubt that there is today a super-elevated curve in 
our whole highway system with sufficient elevation to take 
care of traffic according to recognized formulas for super- 
elevation. If there are. they are certainly few and far 
between. 

The theory of super-elevated curves is that by changing 
the center of gravity of the vehicle in its relation to the 
plane of the road surface, there will appear to be no out- 



ward pull or thrust. To properly design a super-elevated 
curve, it is necessary to assume the weight of a vehicle and 
the speed with which it operates. This would naturally 
have to be an average, but in highway practice, as in rail- 
roading, that average can be ascertained. 

One gets the impression, when riding over some of our 
so-called super-elevated curves, that they have been de- 
signed for a speed of five or ten miles per hour which is 
very seldom, if ever, used. The result is that the require- 
ments of modern traffic are not met and, when the motorist 
negotiates a curve, he experiences a distinct pulling sensation 
which he is required to overcome by some physical effort. 
In addition, there is an element of danger attached to 
curves which are not properly super-elevated. 

In conection with the super-elevation of curves, consid- 
eration should also be given to the matter of easement 
curves. Without an easement curve at each end of a 
roadway curve, the transition from the level roadway to 
the super-elevation cannot be made in a proper manner. 

Super-elevation of curves in highway construction is 
relatively new. Previous to fifteen years ago, none of our 
state highways had any super-elevation whatever. We 
have gradually recognized the necessity for this, but have 
not yet fully met the requirements of traffic. Possibly one 
reason is that when a super-elevation is figured by the ordi- 
nary formula, the elevation seems to be so great and such 
a wide departure from what has been used that the engi- 
neer hesitates to put it into effect. 

While the motorist needs super-elevated curves, he has 
no need for a crown in the roadway. A crown, however, 
is sometimes necessary to drain water off the roadway, but 
this is the case only where the roadway has a level longi- 
tudinal grade. 

If the roadway has a longitudinal grade of say one and 
one-half percent, the longitudinal grade will remove the 
water with the same effectiveness as transversely with the 
crowned roadway. So why, then, use a crowned roadway 
where longitudinal grades can be employed for this pur- 
pose? The utilization of such a method would make 
driving an automobile much more enjoyable and would in- 
crease the safety factor to a considerable extent. 

Even on level sections of highway, in most instances, 
crowns are excessive and particularly is this true where oil 
macadam types of roadways are built. The tendency is 
toward the putting in of too much crown, rather than too 
little. 

In this connection, we must remember that crowns were 
more of a necessity, when the types of pavement used 
were susceptible to the percolation of water. Today prac- 
tically every type of pavement in general use is waterproof, 
and the danger from percolation of water, while not alto- 
gether nil, is greatly reduced. 

The two outstanding errors in selecting the type of pave- 
ment for any particular roadway result from the ability of 
"high powered" promoters to induce officials to select their 
particular type, regardless of its suitability for that par- 
ticular work, and in the employment of standardized speci- 
fications. 

Every section of roadway should receive special con- 
sideration, not only in selecting the type of pavement, but 
also in designing it as to width and thickness. Even when 
this is done, the specifications should be written for that one 
particular job. Failure to do this is costing taxpayers 
untold amounts of money. 

As an example, take the specifications for an ordinary 
asphaltic type of pavement, whether it be sheet asphalt, 
Topeka, or "coarse mix." A pavement of these types 



16 I 



Society or Engineers 



properly designed for Market street, San Francisco, would 
rapidly deteriorate and crumble up under the small amount 
of traffic using some of our residential streets. By the same 
token, a pavement of these types properly designed for a 
residential street having but little traffic, if built on Market 
street with its tremendous flow of traffic, would soon be- 
come so corduroyed or "wash boardey" that it could 
hardly be used, and certainly not with any comfort. 

The asphalt pavement on Michigan avenue in Chicago 
has about seventeen percent of rock dust, which produces 
a hardening effect. Due to the tremendous amount of 
traffic on Michigan avenue and the kneading effect of it, 
that pavement is built to withstand the wear and tear and 
impact. But that same pavement, however, with seventeen 
percent of rock dust on a street where there is very little 
traffic and, within a few months, it would crack to almost an 
unbelievable degree. Chunks of it would be thrown aside 
by traffic in almost the same manner you have observed in 
the drying and cracking of a mud puddle. 

If, on the other hand, a pavement containing a high per- 
centage of asphalt and only five percent of rock dust were 
put on Michigan avenue, because of its lack of hardness, 
it would not stand up under tarffic. The severe kneading 
effect that it would re- 
ceive would cause the 
asphalt binder to become 
more of a lubricant than 
a binder, and the pave- 
ment would wrinkle up. 

What is true of bitum- 
inous construction is in 
some degree true of ce- 
ment concrete work. Too 
often standard specifica- 
tions are used that do not 
recognize traffic require- 
ments. It is very difficult 
to design a pavement us- 
ing formulas that are 
workable for other types 
of engineering structures. 
The stresses and strains 
cannot easily be deter- 
mined and particularly is 
this true of those relating 
to temperature changes in the more rigid types of pave- 
ment. 

We are dependent to a very large extent upon results 
advantage of this. Too often, we standardize on a thick- 
of our experience. We do not, however, properly take 
ness of five to six inches for all subsoil conditions and all 
quantities of traffic. 

I have in mind a particular piece of road, the pave- 
ment of which is only four inches thick. For the last seven 
years, that pavement has withstood probably the heaviest 
traffic anywhere in California. Today it is in practically 
as good a condition as when first laid. The success of this 
pavement is partly due to the intelligence of its specifica- 
tions and partly to good workmanship, but more than any- 
thing, to the wonderful subgrade that was prepared for it. 
It is my opinion that no pavement can be any better than 
the sub-grade upon which it built. We have given a lot 
of attention to subgrades during the last few years, but 
much more is certainly needed. 

As regards the widths of pavement, you will remember 
that when the California Highway System was first under- 
taken back in 1912 the standard width of pavement was 




To Meet the Demands of Increased Traffic, Highways Are 
Constantly Widened ey Additional Strips. 



fifteen feet. T his was soon found to be too narrow and 
pavements have been gradually widened. Traffic require- 
ments today demand a pavement that should be not less 
than eighteen feet and this width should be increased as 
the requirements of traffic demand. 

We have in vogue today what is known as stage con- 
struction of highways. Under this principle, we built a 
pavement of sufficient width to take care of the traffic of 
today and of the immediate future. When it has be- 
come worn and the traffic too heavy, this pavement can be 
widened and given a new surface covering the entire width. 
This is the method employed by the California Highway 
Commission in the reconstruction of many of the old fif- 
teen foot pavements. There can be little criticism of this 
principle, if foresight is exercised in acquiring sufficient 
right of way widths, proper locations, super-elevation of 
curves, etc. 

Another thing which the motorist requires and which is 
absolutely necessary for the preservation of the life of the 
pavement is a smooth road surface. We have made con- 
siderable progress in this respect during the last few years 
but not enough to satisfy either the operators of motor 
vehicles or the taxpaying public. 

The impact of traffic 
going over an uneven sur- 
face destroys both the 
pavement and the ve- 
hicle. Impact shakes a 
machine to pieces and 
causes crystalization. This 
same impact hammers a 
pavement until disintegra- 
tion starts. It continues 
in an ever increasing 
manner until the pave- 
ment has to be rebuilt. 

As great as our prog- 
ress has been in this re- 
spect, too little attention 
is being given to it, even 
today. It is a joy both to 
the physical being and the 
pocketbook of a motor- 
ist to drive over an 
exceptionally smooth pavement. Thorough and com- 
petent inspection in this regard during the con- 
struction period would pay untold dividends in the life 
of a pavement. 

The points I have mentioned affect the pocketbook of 
the taxpaying public as well as the facility and comfort 
with which traffic may utilize our highways. If reduced 
into terms of justifiable capital investment, all of them 
would warrant many, many times more consideration than 
they are receiving at the present time. Many of them are 
contributing factors to accidents. Sharp curves, excessive 
crowns, rough roadways and narrow pavements, in some 
degree at least, are the cause of an untold number of acci- 
dents. Building pavements of the proper design and on a 
proper location cannot help but reduce this tremendous toll 
of deaths. 

We are making some progress but not as much as we 
should. The tremendous amount of money involved, the 
great number of people served, and the mounting death 
rate, all justify a more serious consideration of locating and 
designing our highways to more nearly conform to the needs 
of traffic. 



YlAlt Book. I"J7 



Discovery that Aether Waves Are the Cause of 
Universal Gravitation 



Profe 



Captain T. J. J. See, 
or of Mathematics. U. S. Navy, Government Astronomer ut Mare Island, Calif. 
|\Vrilten expressly for the Society of Engineers.] 



For over fifty years Waves in Sound have been known 
by laboratory experiments to produce the mutual attraction 
of certain bodies, observed to be visibly drawn towards the 
Source of the Sound. Yet the nature of this attraction 
was not understood till the mode of the operation of the 
Waves was worked out by me in 1917. As far back as 
1677, however. Sir Isaac Newton believed Universal Gravi- 
tation to be due to Impulses or Waves, yet he could not 
make out clearly the manner of the operation of the Aether 
in producing the chief phenomena of Nature. And even 
after a delay of 240 years I finally was able to solve New- 
ton's great problem only by getting at the secret of Accous- 
tic Attraction, which can be visibly illustrated and tested in 
our laboratories, by easily verified measurements, on which 
all experimenters agree. 

/. Attractions due to Waves, actually verified in our 
Laboratories. 

Accordingly it appears that the mystery of Universal 
Gravitation eluded Newton and his contemporaries and their 
successors for over two centuries, because the early experi- 
menters could not produce in the laboratory a similar artifi- 
cial attraction, and thus make out the mechanism of the 
unseen processes underlying the pulling between the planets 
and the Sun, between the Earth and Moon, and between 
the components of revolving Double Stars. 

But having at length unraveled this great secret of the 
centuries, I shall now present to the readers of the SOCIETY 
of Engineers' Year Book a simple account of one of 
the greatest discoveries of the age. The scientific proof 
has just been published in the 226th Volume of the Interna- 
tional Journal of Astronomy at Kiel, Germany, which has 
been running since 1 82 1 . The following popular account 
is for the lay reader, and can be followed by any pupil in 
the advanced grades of our schools. In fact it will be 
found invaluable to the teacher, the plates being easily 
understood and of extraordinary interest. 

About 1870 the phenomena of Attraction, due to the 
Waves of Sound, first became known to natural philoso- 
phers ; and was ex- 
perimentally con- 
firmed in Labora- 
tory Tests by Sir 
W m. 1 hompson, 
(Lord Kelvin), 
Professors Guthrie, 
Guyot, Schellbach, 
and others. 

Ytet half a cen- 
tury passed b y 
without any one ex- 
tending to Accous- 
tic Attraction New- 
ton's Rule of Rea- 
soning; that "to the 
same effects we are 
to assign the same 
causes" ; for if we 
could discover the 
Cause of Accouslic 




only 



.ccoustic Attr 

h propagates 

of the Balloons, 



Waye-T/hcory of Accoustic AttractioN 

Diagram of the working of the Sound Waves for producing 
wo Balloons S and S' are filled with Carbon Dioxide Gi 
0.78 as fast as Air: and thus the Waves in the Air, out: 
aves going through the Carbon Dioxide. When the Wave reaches the line 
the Balloons it has attained the more advanced position indicated by 12 outs 
the waves outside give the Balloons a shove from behind, and this explains the 
due to Sound Waves. In the case of the Heavenly Bodies the Aether Wave: 
very similar manner, traveling through the stars and planets more slowly th 
of them. 



Attraction, which is the action of Sound Waves, we should 
open the way also the Cause of Gravitation, by assigning the 
celestial attraction to Aether Waves. Thus half a century 
of time was lost in getting at the Cause of Cravialion after 
Accoustic Attraction was confirmed as a fact under the 
tests of eminent experimenters, 1870. 

In 1914 a way finally opened by which new light was 
shed on the problem of the Cause of Magnetism and Uni- 
versal Gravitation, when I attacked this great mystery of 
the Universe from the point of view of our experience in 
dealing with Accoustic Attraction, and proved that similar 
wave phenomena exist in Electricity and Magnetism. The 
Electro-Magnetic waves were taken to be in the Aether, 
that excessively rare medium which conveys to us the Light 
of the stars. In the earliest records of the Greeks, 3,000 
years ago, it was correctly associated with the gleaming 
brightness of the sky, by the Poet Homer, (I Iliad, XV, 20, 
and XVI, 365). We shall first explain the molecular 
process involved in Accoustic Attraction, and then resume 
the discussion of Gravitational Attraction. 

//. Nature of Accoustic Attraction illustrated by a 
Diagram. 

In the accompanying figure the two circles represent 
cross sections of two small balloons filled with Carbon 
Dioxide. This gas has a density of 1.53, fifty-three per 
cent greater than Air, and therefore propagates Sound 
Waves only 0.78 as fast. If each ballon be imagined to 
send out Sound Waves, they will travel towards the other 
Balloon, as shown in the diagram. 

It will be noticed from the inside and outside numbers, 
such as 1 1 and 12, that the waves travel around the bal- 
loon faster than they do through it. Thus they reach the 
back of each ballon and agitate the air there before the 
waves reach there direct through the Carbon Dioxide. 

Now the back of the balloon is an elastic membrane, and 
if the waves agitate behind this membrane the effect is 
equivalent to striking the balloon a small blow in the rear. 
Under these wave agitations it rebounds towards the other 

balloon ; and as the 
waves come from 
both balloons, the 
globes of Carbon 
Dioxide are set to 
rebounding towards 
each other, as if 
they mutually at- 
tracted. This simple 
outline of the wave 
movement gives a 
first view of the na- 
ture of attraction ; 
it is largely a shove 
of each balloon 
from behind, but 
there is also a pull- 
between them, 
which we shall ex- 
plain. 

It will be noticed 



18] 



Society or Engineer!) 



also that as the waves from either balloon continue 
to flow around the other balloon, they gradually 
work out some of the particles of the Air from 
between the balloons. The waves transfer these mole- 
cules around behind the other balloon as shown by the 
smaller circles and arrows. The result of the wave-agita- 
tion is to develop a Rarefaction or Tension in the Air be- 
tween the balloons, while on the rear of each balloon there 
is Increase of Pressure. Tension between the balloons tends 
to pull them together, as if they were connected by an elas- 
tic band of India Rubber. The Increased Pressure behind 
each balloon reacts in like manner, to force the balloons 
towards each other, — which confirms our first view of the 
mechanism of Attraction. 

This simple analysis of the molecular movement in Sound 
Waves makes known to us the whole secret of the Attrac- 
tion known to Physicists as Accouslic Attraction. The ar- 
rows in the accompanying diagram tell the story of the 
mystery of Attraction in a way which cannot be misunder- 
stood. 

My earliest reasearches on this problem were made some 
ten years ago, during the darkest days of the world war, 
but first published in the New Theory of the Aether, 1920- 
2 1 . The explanation was much extended in the Seventh 
Paper, 1922, which for the first time connected Magnetism 
with Gravitation by rigorous equations resulting from 
Gauss' General Theory of Terrestrial Magnetism, 1838. 
And quite recently, August, 1925, the Aether Wave- 
Theory has been further confirmed in an Eighth Paper, a 
Supplement on the Discovery of the Cause of Gravitation, 
published by the Aslronomische Nachricten at Kiel, 
Feb. 1926. In 1927 a Ninth Paper was developed, har- 
monizing every known law and phenomena of Energy, so 
that the Wave-Theory now is established forever. 

For it is found by profound mathematical research that 
just as Sound Waves generate Tension between the Carbon 
Dioxide Balloons, in the experiment described above, and 
Increase of Pressure beyond them — the very mechanical 
forces required to account for the Attraction observed in 
our Laboratories: so also the Aether Waves conveyed 
from the Sun to the Earth, and vice versa, from the planets 
to the Sun, generate the mighty Celestial Forces, all 
pulling in right lines, which hold the stars in their orbits, 
and thus secure the observed order and stability of the Solar 
System. 

Accordingly, it is perfectly certain that we have the true 
Cause of Gravitation in Aether Wave-action. It was held 
by Newton, as stated by him in 1678, and 1721, that 
Impulses in the Aether are the Cause of Gravitation. But 
Newton could not make out how these Impulses (Waves) 
act, and hence in that early period he deemed it best to 
frame no hypotheses. 

It should be pointed out that in Newton's day the phe- 
nomena of Accoustic Attraction was unknown. The great 
philosopher was anxious to put forth nothing which was 
not based on careful observations and laboratory experi- 
ments; and as he could not discern the unseen mechanism 
of Attraction, he left the problem to future ages. Little real 
light was thrown on this deep secret till 1870, and even 
after Accoustic Attraction was carefully confirmed as a 
fact, it was not followed up by investigators, many of 
whom of late years, have run after such delusive phantoms 
as Relativity and Non-Euclidian Geometry. 

These deceptions, with their indistinctness of ideas, un- 



fortunately have given us a considerable Literature which is 
misleading, admittedly worse than worthless, and which 
students of the present age will have to avoid until we again 
get back to the proper foundations of Mathematics and Na- 
tural Philosophy, as laid down by Euclid and Archimedes, 
Galileo and Newton. 

///. Some Details of the Aether as the Physical Medi- 
um of the Universe. 

The leading facts about the Aether are as follows: 

1. It is the World-Gas, with corpuscles, or Aelherons, 
smaller than any existing thing. The Electron is about 
1 : 1 750 of a Hydrogen Atom, but the Aetheron something 
like a thousand million times smaller yet. 

2. The Aetheron has a diameter of 1 :3620 of a Hydro- 
gen Molecule, and travels with an average velocity of 294,- 
000 miles per second, 23.5 times faster than the Electron, 
at its maximum speed. Light travels 3,000 times faster 
than the Electron at its average speed, which is some sixty 
miles per second ; and until the development of the A^eD; 



^i*T a \ f\ air- ■ i 



FIGURE 2. Illustration of the Law of decreasing; Amplitude of th 
Aether Waves from the Sun or a star. The base of the cone 
is four times larger than the smaller base s at twice the distanci 
This Rives a direct and simple explanation of why Gravitat 
varies inversely as the Square of the Distance 
satisfactory account of the operations observed 
the time of Newton and Halley, who were deepl 
this question in August. 16K4. 



Natl 



the first 



(h 



Theory of the Aether, 1920-27, philosophers could not 
explain the enormous velocity of Light, 1 86,000 miles per 
second. 

3. It thus appears that the Electron in no sense will 
account for the enormous velocity of Light, while the 
Aetheron will account for it perfectly, exactly as the mole- 
cular velocities of Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen mole- 
cules will explain the observed velocity of Sound in these 
Gases. The velocity of Light is 186,000 per second, and 
this stupendous speed must be explained before we can have 
any valid theory of the Universe. It is found that in a 
Monalomic Gas the Atoms move 1.57 times faster than 
waves of Sound in such a Gas; and hence 186,000 times 
1.57 equals 294.000 miles per second, which explains the 
velocity of the Aetheron. 



Yi M< Book, 1927 



I l'» 



IV. The Adherens as Fine as Smol(e, Common Atoms as 
Large as Lemons, Orange or Crape Fruil in Comparison. 

1. To show how small the Aetheron is compared to other 
Gases, imagine oranges or grape fruit vibrating about in a 
basket to represent the molecules of common Gases, such 
as Hydrogen and Oxygen ; then, on the same scale, the 
Aetheron will have a diameter of about a thousandth of an 
inch, — like the coarsest smoke from a cigar. On the same 
scale the Electron will be represented by one-twelfth of the 
orange's diameter, and thus about the size of a bullet, a pea, 
or a currant. Thus the Electron is a coarse heavy body 
compared to the superfine Aetheron, the finest and most 
rapidly moving of all existing things. 

2. In view of this superfine character of the Aether, 
and the rapidity of the motion of the Aetherons, we see that 
these corpuscles move through all solids — even the Earth, 
Sun and planets, — just as smoke would penetrate the spaces 
between the oranges or grape fruit in the basket. The 
Aetherons are enormously finer than any other corpuscles, 
and in excessively rapid motion, compared to the sluggish 
motion of large Gaseous Molecules. 

3. It is found by observation that music, from distant 
Radio Centres, is heard in deep mines — conveyed through 




RE 3. 


Illustration 


of the 


Aether 


Wave 


fields 


about 


two 


equal 


stars. 


The waves 


from e 


ther star tend 


to pu 


h the 


Aethe 


rons 


beyond 


the other 


star, a 


explai 


ned in 


Fig. 1 


abov 




i.l 


the 


result 


s that the 


Aether b 


etween 


the stai 




ider T 


nisi 




like 


a stre' 


ched band 


of india 


rubbe 


-, while 


outside the 


tw< 




tars 


there i 


s Inert use 


of Pressure al 


so drivi 


tig the 


stars 


tog* 


th 


er — 


just as 


the reaction of the 


compre 


ssed ail 


in the tire 


rf ai 




uto- 


mobile 


keeps the 


metal 


of the 


machi 


ne fro 


m touchi 


ig 


the 


granito 


id of the i 


oad. 

















the Earth by the Waves of the Aether. In the same way 
we know that all Radio Waves go through the Earth, but 
move more slowly in that solid globe than in the air above, 
and thus the Radio-wave is bent around our planet by re- 
sistance at the base, exactly as in a resisted water-rvave 
when rising up and curling over, as a breaker at the ocean 
beach. 

V . Magnetism also due to Waves lii(e Gravity. 

1 . Magnetism is proved to be due to Aether Waves, of 



about the same length as the Gravitational Waves. Among 
ether Aether waves ultra-violet chemical waves of the vis- 
ible solar spectrum are the shortest; then come the longer 
Light waves of green, yellow and orange, and finally the 
heat waves in the Red and Infra-Red. Beyond the Red, 
thousands of times longer, lie the Magnetic and Gravita- 
tional Waves. The length of these Gravitational Waves 
probably vary from a few inches or metres to several thous- 
and metres, or kilometres. 

2. In so-called Magnetic Storms, electric commotions 
known to astronomers for eighty years, it is found that 
waves from the disturbed spot areas in the Sun are passing 
the Earth, and naturally traveling with the velocity of 
Light. They occur at the same instant of Greenwich time 
in all parts of our globe; and are shown automatically by 
the photographic registration of a beam of light reflected 
from a small mirror attached to a delicately balanced Mag- 
netic Needle. This Magnetograph registration of the dis- 
turbances of the Earth's Magnetism has been in use for 
three quarters of a century, but until the proof of the Wave- 
Theory of Gravitation we could not interpret the trembling 
of the Needle. 

3. Not only are the Magnetic Needles set trembling by 
the Electro-magnetic waves uncovered by outbursts near 
Sun-spots, but our submarine cables and telegraph lines 
suffer under the induction by the wave disturbances pro- 
ceeding from the Sun. Moreover, the Aurora, Northern 
Light, has a periodicity identical with the Sun-spot cycle: 
end as the Sun is found to be a Magnet 80 times more 
powerful than our Earth, we easily see why the Electric and 
Magnetic state of the Earth should be thrown in commo- 
tion by outbursts effecting considerable areas of the Solar 
Surface. 

4. Finally, there is a true Semi-diurnal Tide in the 
Earth's Magnetism, which greatly perplexed Sir George 
Airy, Sir John Herschel. and other celebrated investigators, 
half a century ago, but which is now shown to follow from 
the Electrodynamic Law of Weber, under my new Law 
connecting Magnetism with Gravitation, 1922. 

It is not necessary to go into greater detail here, except 
to remark that every known phenomena of the Universe is 
accounted for. They are all referred to simple and perma- 
nent Laws like those of Gravitation and Magnetism; but 
we may remark that in Magnetism we have attraction to 
two centres, namely the two poles, whereas in Gravity we 
have attraction directed towards one point only, the center 
of Gravity of the Heavenly Bodies. 

VI. Magnetism and Gravitation Connected, both 
Forces due to Aether Waves, traveling xvith the velocity 
of Light. 

Thus it is possible to draw two definite conclusions: 

1 . That Magnetism is due to Waves, the rotary motion 
of the Aether particles being about the lines of force, which 
is also confirmed by Faraday's celebrated experiment on 
the magnetic rotation of a beam of polarized light, 1845. 

2. As Magnetism is connected with Gravitation by my 
Mathematical Law of 1922. it follows that Gravitation 
also is due to Waves like those of Magnetism. 

The planes of the Atoms in Magnetism, however, are 
mutually parallel, and all pull together very powerfully, 
because all act in perfect concert, whereas in Gravitation 
the Atomic planes lie tilted at all possible angles, and the 



20 1 



Society of Encineers 



NEWTONI ET LAPLACE] 
MDCCCCXXVII 




GRAVITATIS CAUSA AETHERIS UNDAE 



Figurk 5. Final Diayratn, 1927, illustrating the operation of the 
Wave-Theory of Gravitation at Perihelion and Aphelion. The 



Wave Amplitude A - 



the perpendicular 



tangent to the direction of the Planet's motion, coincides ' 
the radius vector at the apses of the ellipse. And as the li) 



velocity also = ~ the projected an 

Keplerian Law of Areas, as wel 
the Planetary Motions at Perihelii 
Intensity of Gravity, however. 



Amplitude, A- = 



the Linear Velocities of 
nd Aphelion, 
is as the square of the 

and thus as the Bases of two cones 



shown at P and A respect 
very useful for showing Kepi 



I. Accordingly this figure is 
Law of Areas. Newton's Law 
of Gravitation, and the manner of operation of the Aether 
Waves, as the Cause of Universal Gravitation, in the pro- 
duction of the Chief Phenomena of Nature. 



energies of the Waves therefore largely destroy one another 
mutually. Accordingly, Gravitation is a feeble force, 
whereas perfect Magnetism is something like a million times 
more powerful than the corresponding force of Gravitation. 

Now. as the Waves of Magnetism travel across space 
with the velocity of Light, it follows from the connection 
between Magnetism and Gravitation that Gravitation also 
is propagated across space with the velocity of Light. This 
result marks a new epoch in Astronomy, because it enables 
mathematicians to take account of the times of transmission 
of the planetary forces across the immensity of the Celestial 
Spaces. 

Altogether it may be said that the solution of the problem 
of the Cause of Gravitation was possible in but one way: 
and that way I fortunately chose, namely, by studying the 
Cause of Accostic Attraction, which we can experiment with 
in our Laboratories. By penetrating the secrets of Accous- 
tic Attraction, which depends on the action of Sound Waves 
in the Air, we could hope fully to turn to the Heavens as 
the greater Laboratory of Nature. In this way it was 
possible to resume and extend the unfinished researches of 
Sir Isaac Newton, after they had been neglected for over 
two centuries. Accordingly it is easily understood why 
such a definite solution of the profound mystery of the 
Cause of Universal Gravitation ranks as the first discovery 
of the age, and thus has awakened the deepest interest 
wherever Science is cultivated. 



--* — -«. 




y^o^O^B^ 



Newton's taw,(S8C, ■/ = 2!L» ' \X). 

I>iviJi,»tt) iy U) We jet: 



~((fa?)i(** + s'V 



{3J 



_ I 



**=* = 



p Zoooooo 



R , = -I 



, at Earth's Eynatoi 



-,at£art/c Pole 



Mil 



riGUME 4. Bird's-eye view of the waves proceeding from 7 cross-sections of ji Magnet. These 
waves are axes of rotation in the aether, and each tends to straighten out the rotation 
filament running to the other, so thai the line of force is nearly straight in the equatorial 
region of the Magnet. 



Year Book, 1927 



[21 



Today Achieving Their Metropolitan Destiny, the Eastbay 
Cities Look Back to the "Glorious Days of Spain" 



By Ad Schuster, Editor. 
Oakland Tribune. 



Let the newcomer to the Eastbay climb to the heights 
beyond our cities. There he may stand even as Portola 
stood, and marvel at that sweep of level lands which front 
the Bay. Where the soldier of Spain saw grasses and 
flowers, creeks and live oaks, a vista upon which no White 
had looked, he will see factories and homes, the checker- 
board of streets and designs geometric done in steel rails. 

The background of a community is as important as its 
statistics; the color and romance of the story carry inspira- 
tion and make for a proud citizenry, even as do the records 
of material achievement and the figures of population and 
trade. 

Today, this amphitheatre enclosed by hills and Bay pre- 
sents the modern drama. From the hills down over the 
rolling plains are the home of thousands, the churches, 
schools, University of California, Mills College, and St. 



the 



cho of 



bany, and part of San Leandro — all w 
Don Luis. 

Save for the few trails made by his horsemen ana the 
appearance of cattle on the slopes, Don Luis left the scene 
untouched. After twenty-two years he divided the rancho 
among his four sons, using the lines of the creeks, El Cer- 
rito, Strawberry, Indian Gulch, Creek of the Lion and San 
Leandro Creek as boundaries. Jose Domingo Peralta was 
lord of the north, then Vincente Peralta established on a 
big part of what is now Oakland and Berkeley; then An- 
tonio Maria Peralta, and Ignacio Peralta. They built 
houses of adobe, set up chapels for worship, erected store- 
houses, stables and corrals, and were the establishers of 
the rancho life with its Old World customs, its fiestas and 
its romance. They were the ones who put in the fruit, and 
the grain, and the vegetables. 




The Mission San Jose as It Appeared in 1 



Mary's. Way to the north and south, backing the business 
district, rounding the lake, clusters of bungalows, eminences 
of wealth, the residences of a home-loving, home-owning 
community. Near to the water, on the other side of that 
skyline of business which is constantly taking new form, the 
rails meet water, transcontinental lines reach their goal, the 
Pacific. Adding to the wealth of an ideal harbor, the 
estuary extends its length, doubly-guarded, as generous a 
gift as Nature could bestow upon a port of the sea. 

And it was scarcely more than a hundred years ago 
when the first settler came: Luis Maria Peralta, faithful 
soldier of Spain received a grant to what is all of Oakland 
and more in I 820. From San Leandro Creek to El Cerrito 
Creek extended the Rancho San Antonio. To the south, 
Senor Estudillo was master of Rancho San Leandro, and 
to the north. Senor Castro the head and life of Rancho San 
Pablo. At Temescal, now near the center of a metropolis, 
stood the old sweathouse of the Indians and there flowed 
a creek bordered by oaks. Deer fed on the grass, salmon 
came up the streams. Lake Merritt was a part of the sea. 
Oakland, Berkeley, Emeryville, Alameda, Piedmont. Al- 



The one who stands on the hills and looks down today 
may try to picture the Eastbay as it was then in the days 
of the glamorous Spanish period. Vaqueros herded the cat- 
tle, tiny spots here and there were the first farms ; dwellings 
and buildings, not more than a score or two, were the first 
since the tule huts of the Indians. A little cloud of dust 
down there? It is a train of horsemen, a party from one 
rancho on the way to visit another. One sees the blacks, 
reds, and yellows, broad hats, scarfs, sashes, hears song and 
laughter. 

There were bull fights, too, and wrestling matches, the 
great feasts of barbecued beef, tortillas and frijoles — all of 
this less than a hundred years ago! 

Marshall, building a sawmill, without knowing it, was 
getting ready to discover gold, and bring over the plains 
and around the Horn swarms of adventurers to write a new 
chapter and turn the page on the leisurely and hospitable 
days of New Spain. Sloat had sailed into Monterey Bay. 
Spain and Mexico quarreled, and then the United States 
and Mexico. 

With gold came the sudden change, for the Bay filled 



22] 



Society or Engineers 



with ships. Some of them were run on the shores, while 
passengers and crews, men and boys, clamored off and 
made their way to the foothills. The change on this side 
of the Bay was not sudden; men tarried little between San 
Francisco and the gold fields. This was what the new 
comers in San Francisco called "the opposite coast," though 
on some few maps the name "Oakland" was inscribed. 

In Oakland was Reverend Henry Durant, a missionary 
from New England, a man interested in educating youth. 
His private school for boys grew into a college and owned 
land and buildings. In time it was 
necessary to find new land with room 
for expansion ; the trustees went out to 
the hills and bought from the farmers 
what is now the grounds of the State 
University. In 1 868 the College of 
California as they called it, was turned 
over to the State, and a village was 
growing up around it. First, it was 
called Peralta, then Berkeley. North 
and South Halls were ready for occu- 
pancy in 1873. Farm lands lay be- 
tween the college and Oakland. 

Again, if the Eastbay resident tries 
to picture the scene as it was, he will 
note little villages spotting the plains. 
Temescal is absorbed in Oakland ; San 
Pablo is West Berkeley; Ocean View 
was down by the Berkeley wharf; 
Woodstock is merged into Alameda ; 
San Antonio, Albany, San Leandro, 
Hayward, were fresh sprung from the farm lands. 

There was laid from Oakland a line of rails, and a 
chugging, snorting little engine pulled the first interurban 
trains up Shattuck Avenue. The University grew, more 
houses came to line the dirt streets. In the winter it was 
very muddy, and in summer the dust blew. Cows still 
grazed within five blocks of Fourteenth and Broadway in 
Oakland. The San Francisco and Alameda Railroad 
was extended south to Hayward; people talked of squatters' 
rights and Senor Estudillo found his farm lands all cut up. 

An act of kindness started Oakland, for two brothers 
named Patton, over here to raise crops, found one Moses 
Chase, hunter, ill in a tent near Lake Merritt and stayed 
to care for him. They liked the place and bought land from 
Peralta upon which they erected homes. Clinton, it was 
called, that village which was on what is Fifth Avenue, 
near the lake, and this was in 1850, San Antonio grew 
next — the lumber business booming it along — and one could 
see teams of oxen moving from Dimond Canyon pulling 




Scene at Lake Merritt 



loads of redwood. Carpentier, Moon and Adams took 
land west of the lake, and Vincente Peralta, reading the 
signs, tried to keep them away. 

It was a small village which came into existence but filled 
with interests for controversies waged over "squatter's 
rights" and Spanish grants; men claimed land as settlers 
and others claimed it because they had bought it from 
Peralta. Everywhere in the country the Spanish ranches 
were broken up into farms — the old days were gone for- 
ever. 

The vision came of a great agricul- 
tural and horticultural country, and 
messengers were sent all around the 
Horn after seeds and trees. Where the 
Oakland Library now stands was a plum 
orchard. 

And that, skipping here and there 
without statistics, and omitting much, is 
a sketchy picture of the beginnings of 
the Eastbay community. The time 
came when railroads poked the very 
tips of their transcontinental lines down 
to the water, and then factories, one after 
another, arrived on this continental side 
of the Bay. Then did the citizens real- 
ize, even as did the soldier of Portola 
who wrote back to Spain, "Here is an 
admirable site for a settlement." 

There was great work to be done if 
the most would be made of Nature's 
bounties. No more than a quarter of a 
century ago did that realization come. 

Today, we look down from the heights and see a harbor 
which has been dredged and for the further improvement 
of which ten millions have been voted by the people. Over 
the hills and through them, way up to the Sierra is being 
stretched a pipe line to bring the pure mountain water for 
the future. There is a park around the lake which is no 
longer an arm of the sea, and all the little villages are parts 
of the cities. That State University, so valiantly started, is 
the largest in the world, and with it the Eastbay has Mills 
College, St. Mary's and a dozen smaller and private educa- 
tional institutions. At night we look down on a field of 
lights where once were campfires of the hunters and the 
lights, perhaps, are caught in the swirl of overhanging 
clouds. If we are romantically inclined, we may see in the 
shifting vapors, gay and splendid cavalcades, trappers 
stealthy and intent, bearded and booted miners — even the 
figure of Portola, with wonder in his eye, as he looks upon 
the Bay he had found. 



Vear Book, 1927 



|25 



The State Parks of California 



B_u Charles B. Wing. 
culi've Head, Department of Civil Engineering, 
Stanford University. 



The discovery of California, as far as recognition of 
its many and varied points of interest to the historian and 
nature lover, may be said to date from the beginning of 
the present century. 

It is true that the wonders of the ^ osemite had long 
been known to the world, but little attention before that 
time had been given to other equally distinctive wonders of 
nature. 

In this day of broadening interest of engineers in the 
adaptation of the forces of nature to the use and benefit 
of mankind, it may not be amiss to 
call attention to the need of conserva- 
tion and protection of California's 
Park resources. Although it is some- 
times hard to make people believe it, 
the engineer is really a human being at 
heart and is apt to realize fully his 
duty toward civilization, spiritually 
as well as materially. 

With the rapidly increasing dens- 
ity of populations, the engineer has 
always been the pioneer in discover- 
ing and developing new territory and 
now that in California the days of 
discovery are nearly past, it is time 
for the engineer to turn his thought 
to new ways in which Nature's handi- 
work can be made of greatest benefit 
to his fellowman. The engineer 
must be a pioneer of development as 
well as of discovery. One way to 
begin effort in this direction is to give 
publicity and aid to the efforts being 
made by a small group of devoted 
citizens to have made a survey of 
State lands for suitable park purposes, 
acquire title for the State to the 
same, have these lands dedicated for all time to the use 
and benefit of the public and provide by legislation for 
the orderly care and preservation of the same. 

As stated in the beginning, something has been done in 
the last twenty-five years, and many will undoubtedly be 
surprised at the extent and variety of the tracts acquired 
as shown by the following list of lands owned by the 
State and dedicated to park use. The list is given in the 
order of their date of acquisition as nearly as can be deter- 
mined by the records at hand. 

1 . Marshall's Monument. 
In 1887 the State purchased about thirty acres in the 
town of Coloma, Placer County, and erected a monument 
there to commemorate the discovery of gold at this point 
in California. Marshall's cabin, a guardian's cottage and 
water tower are located on this site. The State also owns 
a building known as Marshall's blacksmith shop, but does 
not own the land. 

2. Tahoe Clip Park. 
In 1 899 the State acquired by purchase thirteen acres 
on the shore of Lake Tahoe near Tahoe City as a site for 




Charles 



a fish hatchery. This property is now operated by the 
State Fish and Game Commission, as a free camping 
ground. 

3. California Redwood Parf(. 

About twenty-five years ago a group of citizens of 
Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties became aware of 
the fact that lumber companies operating in this region 
were about to begin cutting a tract of redwood timber 
known as the Big Basin, an area on the head waters of 
Waddell Creek noted for a wonder- 
ful growth of exceptionally large red- 
wood trees. 

An organization known as the 
Sempervirens Club was formed 
which, with the aid of public spirited 
citizens throughout the State, suc- 
ceeded in having legislation passed in 
1 90 1 through which the State pur- 
chased 2500 acres of virgin redwood 
in the heart of the Basin for $250,- 
000. The owners of the land pur- 
chased contributed 1 200 acres of 
partially cut over land adjacent to 
the tract, and later the U. S. Gov- 
ernment patented to the State for 
park purposes all vacant land in the 
two townships in which the basin is 
located. The total of this grant was 
3785 acres. 

In 1917 the State again appropri- 
ated $150,000 for purchase of addi- 
tional adjacent lands amounting to 
1 886 acres. Private individuals 
have donated 320 acres more. The 
total holdings by the State in this 
area is 969 1 acres. 
Much of the Government land is lightly timbered and 
not readily accessible but of considerable value as a game 
refuge. 

4. Mission San Francisco de Salona. 
This mission located in Sonoma County was purchased 
in 1903 with a portion of the Landmark's Fund* and pre- 
sented to the State without cost. 

5. The Old Monterey Theatre and Landing Place of 

Junipera Serra. 
The theatre building occupies a lot in the city of Mon- 
terey containing about one-half of an acre. This prop- 
erty was given to the State in 1901 by the California 
Landmark Commission. 

The Serra landing place is a small tract near the en- 
trance gate to the U. S. Military Reservation. 

The Serra monument, erected by Mrs. Jane L. Stanford 
in I 89 1 , is on the U. S. Government Reservation. 
6. Fort Ross, Sonoma Count}). 
In 1906 William Randolph Hearst gave to the State 



* This fund was raised by the San Francisco Examiner with the 
assistance of the California Hisloric Landmark's League and olher 
patriotic bodies. 



u J 



Society of Engineer.-. 



a tract of three acres, containing the site of an old Russian 
Fort. This is supposed to be the farthest south of the 
Russian possessions on the West Coast of North America. 

7. Bidwell Park, Chico, Bulte County. 
In 1908 Annie E. K. Bidwell gave to the State a 
strip of land on Arroyo Chico containing eighteen acres as 
a memorial to General Bidwell, one of the early pioneers. 

8. San Pasqual Monument. 

In 1919 William G. Henshaw and Edward Fletcher 
gave to the State an 
acre of ground in San 
Diego County on which 
to erect a monument to 
commemorate the battle of 
San Pasqual on Decem- 
ber and 7. 1846. 

In 1921 a sum of 
$5000 was appropriated 
for building the monu- 
ment. So far no work 
has been done on this 
site. 

9. Barney Falls Park 
In 1926 Frank and 

Ethel McArthur donated 
to the State 161 acres at 
Burney Falls in Shasta 
County, and in 1923 
the Mt. Shasta Power 
Corporation exchanged 
1 74 more acres at this 
point for certain rights of 
way across State lands. 

10. Mt. Diablo Parl( 
In 1921 the State set 

aside from the State 
school lands 320 acres 
on Mt. Diablo for park 
purposes, but so far 
nothing has been done to 
improve the same. 

1 1 . Humboldt Redwood 
Park 

The purchase by the 
State of the California Redwood Park and the building 
of roads opening these forests to the public has created 
widespread interest in the redwood — a species of Sequoia 
(Sequoia Sempervirens) of which the Sierra big tree is 
another interesting species (Sequoia Gigantea). 

The Sequoiae were once widely distributed over the sur- 
face of the earth, fossil remains of the same having been 
found as far north as Greenland. Today the Semper- 
virens is only found from Monterey north in a narrow strip 
to the Oregon boundary, the Gigantea in relatively small 
patches on the western slopes of the Sierra. 

Realizing that these remarkable trees — the oldest living 
things in the world — were rapidly being cut and that this 
generation was in duty bound to preserve typical areas in 
a state of nature for future generations to enjoy, a group 
of citizens formed an organization known as the "Save the 
Redwoods League." 

The original purpose of this organization was to pre- 
serve, wherever practicable, a strip of uncut forest beside 




one that mould result in great m 
lasting pride and satisfaction, the 



the right of way of the newly located State Highway 
from Willets to Scotia along the South Fork of the Eel 
River in Humboldt County. 

The response to their efforts was immediate and since 
1921 approximately 3000 acres of such timber has been 
acquired and deeded to the State for park purposes. This 
assures for all time that for nearly hundred miles the State 
Highway will continue to pass through alternate stretches 
of virgin forest with beautiful vistas through trees tens of 
centuries old to the running waters of Eel River or the 
dashing ocean surf north 
of Eureka on the coast 
route t o Del Norte 
County. 

In this enterprise the 
public and private indi- 
viduals have worked to- 
gether. The counties and 
state have appropriated 
considerable sums and 
private individuals of the 
state and nation have 
given the balance. Of 
the latter a notable in- 
stance is the purchase and 
dedication to the State of 
a beautiful tract known as 
the Boiling Grove. The 
relatives of Col. Boiling, 
residents of Massachu- 
setts, purchased this tract 
as a memorial to Col. 
Boiling, who was the first 
officer of high rank in the 
late war to give his life 
on the fields of France. 

Other tracts have been 
given in a similar spirit. 
The lumber companies 
have contributed their 
share. 

While much has been 
done, there still remains 
more work to do before it 
is too late. Efforts are 
now being made to event- 
ually preserve about two 
per cent of the remaining virgin redwood forest. At the 
present rate of cutting, the most available virgin timber 
will have nearly disappeared by the end of the century. 
California's thousand miles of coast would seem to offer 
endless opportunities for public enjoyment, yet many of 
the most easily accessible spots are already in private 
control. 

Point Lobos at Carmel should be acquired for its scenic 
beauty and also to preserve a few specimens of cypress and 
pine that are already nearly extinct in their native state. 

There are other ocean beaches that should be held for 
public use. The big trees grove of Calaveras County 
should never be cut. And so the list could be continued. 
So far the principal endeavor has been to acquire title 
for the State in desirable tracts suitable for park purposes. 
The time has now arrived to organize means to protect 
and preserve the areas acquired and at the same time make 
them available to the public for free use and enjoyment. 
Realizing this need, three bills were passed by the last 



ilerial and artistic benefit, a sourc 
preservation of these beautv spots. 



of 



Year Book. 1927 



legislature and received the approval of the Governor. 

Chapter 763 — Statues of 1927, provides that the de- 
partment of Natural Resources through a State Park Com- 
mission shall control the State park system including all 
parks, public camp grounds, monument sites and landmark 
sites and sites of historical interest outside of incorporated 
cities. 

Chapter 764 — Statutes of 1927. authorizes the depart- 
ment of Natural Resources through the State Park Com- 
mission to make a survey to determine what lands are suit- 
able and desirable for the ultimate development of a com- 
prehensive well balanced State Park system, and to define 
the relation of such a system to other means of conserving 
and utilizing the scenic and recreational resources of the 
State. 

Chapter 765 — Statutes of 1927, provides for a bond 
issue of six million dollars to enable the State Park Com- 
mission to acquire as part of the California State Park 
system such land and other properties as, in the judgment 
of the State Park Commission, shall be suitable for that 
purpose. 

This act further provides that money from this source 
shall only be available when there has been deposted with 
the State Treasurer a fund from private gift, city or county 



appropriations or from some source other than appropriation 
by the people of the State of California or the sale of 
state bonds, which shall be equal to the amount to be real- 
ized for the project intended to be accomplished from the 
sale of park bonds. 

It is believed that the legislation above outlined assures 
a comprehensive intelligent and orderly administration of 
State parks for the use and benefit of the public. 

The bond issue provisions of Chapter 765 will have to 
be ratified by a vote of the people in the fall of 1928. 

Those of us who have passed middle age recall with 
regret the many areas formerly open to the public that are 
now closed. California is unique in its delightful oppor- 
tunities for enjoyment of life in the open. In order that 
our children's children may experience some of the thrills 
that we have enjoyed by nights under star-lit skies away 
from the cares and conventions of city life, let us unite in 
furthering the aims of our State Park Commission by placing 
in their hands adequate funds for carrying on their great 
work. 

This can be accomplished if each lover of the out of 
doors — each pioneer engineer, will see that his friends and 
his friends' friends become thoroughly interested in Cali- 
fornia State Parks. 




'Trees grow bv laying hold of the opportunities within reach, and 
never heard of a successful one that did not fasten itself to the 
and lift its hands toward the s^Ji." 



26" 



Society or Engineers 



B\) D. R. Lane, 
Oakland Chamber of Commerce. 



The largest municipal airport in the west, perhaps the 
largest in the United States, is that recently established at 
Oakland. This enterprise, involving already more than 
$800,000 in expenditures, is remarkable rather for the 
speed with which it was created than for any novelty in 
engineering methods involved. 

Extremely rapid construction work was done in prepar- 
ing the port for use in the first trans-Pacific flight. Some 
three weeks before that historic date in June when Lieuten- 
ants Maitland and Hegenberger took off for Hawaii, F. 
Trubee Davidson, assistant secretary of war in charge of 
aeronautics, informed the port commission of Oakland that 
the army was planning a trans-oceanic airplane expedition 
and that, if Oakland's airport were ready, the flight would 
be started from it. 

At the time the field was a rough area, checked and 



on the spot, was dragged over the entire surface and after 
that a second rolling was given the ground. 

By these means a smooth, level runway, 7,020 feet long, 
300 wide at the upper end and 200 feet wide at the lower, 
was created within 1 9 days at an extremely low cost. 
Standard road machinery and tractors were used in all 
cases except for the levelling. 

This runway was used for the army flight and for that 
made later by Ernest Smith and Emory Bronte, which also 
succeeded in reaching Hawaii. After that, the port com- 
mission enlarged it to a width of 600 feet at the upper end 
and 300 at the lower, employing the same means as were 
used in the original work, and this enlarged portion was 
used by the competitors in the Dole flight. 

Meanwhile, work had been begun on grading an addi- 
tional portion of the easterly end of the airport property. 




Making Ready for the Trans-Pacific Flight 



cracked from the drying of marshy portions and traversed 
by a meandering slough. 

The port commissioners told Davidson they would pre- 
pare a field suitable for the army fliers' use and that it 
would be ready at the time set. At that date the airport 
area comprised 680 acres, only a small part of which, of 
course, would be needed for the take-off of the projected 
flight. 

An engineering staff was mobilized and work started. 
The first step was to break up the irregular surface with a 
disc plow. Like virtually all the other apparatus used, 
this was hauled by a Caterpillar tractor, which seemed 
peculiarly adapted to use on the type of ground encountered. 

After the discing, Russell graders mounting eight, ten 
or twelve foot blades were sent over the ground and then 
it was given a thorough rolling to compact the earth in all 
the hollows and interstices which had been filled by the 
graders. 

A leveller, constructed of boards by the working crew 



to give a "four-way field" so that landings could be made 
under all wind conditions, the original runway being 
adapted only for use in calm weather or during the trade- 
wind season, which comprises about eight months of the 
year. This additional work made available a space 1 ,800 
by 2,500 feet, thus permitting a minimum runway of 2,500 
feet for landing or taking off under the most adverse con- 
ditions. 

As the airport is surrounded by open land or tide flals 
on which a plane can come down in event of a mishap in 
taking off, this was regarded as sufficient. The grading 
cost was approximately $5,000. 

Since the Dole flight, with its necessary incidental inter- 
ruptions to construction work, the port commission has let 
contracts for a number of other improvements at the field. 

Oustanding among these is a drainage system under the 
whole of the rectangle at the head of the runway, so that 
winter rains will not interfere with use of the port. This 
system comprises four inch clay tile laterals spaced 60 feet 
apart across the entire area. They run north and south. 



Yi mi Book, 1927 



[27 



or parallel to the greater dimension of the drained area, 
and discharge into two mains which traverse the port from 
east to west. These mains vary in size from 12 to 30 
inches and, in turn, discharge into a trunk main 30 to 36 
inches in diameter. 

From this the drainage runs into a sump, where automatic 
pumps hoist it over a levee and into an arm of San Fran- 
cisco bay. The fall in the mains is 1.6 feet in 1,800; 
that in the laterals is 2 feet in approximately 620. 

Experience has shown that pumping will be necessary 
only four months each year. Nearby lands in the same 
section — a peninsula known as Bay Farm Island — are 
drained in this manner and pumps there operate only in the 
months of November. December, January and February. 

Besides relieving the airport area of the winter rainfall, 
the drainage system is an insurance against moistening of the 
surface by seepage, as might otherwise occur during high 
spring tides, since the elevation of the port is exactly the 
same as that of the highest tides experienced ( in this section, 
6 feet 4 inches. Heavy levees give protection against wash 
from wind-driven waves. These were already in place 
when the land was acquired and involved no effort on the 
part of the port commission's engineers. The drainage 
system contract calls for expenditure of $50,000 in round 
figures. 

Other improvements under way at the port include erec- 
tion of an administration building and two hangars, instal- 
lation of a complete lighting system and building of a road- 
way to connect the airport buildings with the highway 
which bounds the port on two sides. 

The hangars are steel-framed structures with concrete 
floors, conventional in everything but their clear height, 
which is 24 feet, or enough to accommodate the largest 
planes which can be foreseen at present. They are 90 by 
180 feet, with end doors and represent an outlay of $44,- 
000, a saving having been effected by using material al- 
ready on hand. 

The administration building is a new, highly modern 
affair, with bay-windowed office for the superintendent so 
he can see the whole field from his desk, first aid facilities, 
mail room, radio and telegraph room, waiting room, ticket 
office, pilots' quarters and other conveniences. 

From this building, remote controls operate the lighting 
system, which includes beside the conventional boundary, 
obstacle and approach lights a standard 24 inch revolving 
beacon, 180 degree B. B. T. floodlight, six portable flood- 
lights, markers on all buildings, illuminated wind cone and 
ceiling light. 

The portable floodlights each will use 1,500 watts in a 
single lamp and are so arranged that they can be plugged 
in almost anywhere around the boundaries of the field for 
use in illuminating the ground for night landings or provid- 
ing light for men working on a plane, loading and unloading 
mail and so forth. 

The B. B. T. floodlight will be mounted in front of the 
administration building and will use 2 1 ,000 watts of 
electricity. It is expected to give ample light for night 
landings as much as half a mile distant. 

All the wiring is underground; there is not a thing within 
a mile of the field which could be considered an obstruction 



to its air approaches except a 3 5- foot pole line which will be 
removed. This line now carries electric power to a dredge 
which will open a deepwater channel to the northerly edge 
of the airport. The dredgings are to be used in filling and 
levelling portions of the airport site not yet improved. 

Back of each hangar a shop building, 20 by 62 feet, is 
to be constructed. A restaurant building and a public 
comfort station also are to be erected for the use of the 
crowds that visit the airport, passengers arriving or depart- 
ing and the employes about the field. 

Maintenance of the field, for the present, will be carried 
on with the existing personnel, which includes a superin- 
tendent, assistant superintendent, mechanic and watchman. 
This work will be d:>ne with a grader and a roller, to 
haul which the port commission recently purchased a trac- 
tor. A light Fordson tractoi is already in use to haul 
planes into position. 

The road leading in from the highway is a 24-foot oil 
macadam affair with a ten-inch base. A gravelled 
shoulder on each side makes it possible for cars to pass 
easily outside the normal two lanes of traffic and there is, 
besides, a 12-foot parking space alongside. 

Additional purchases of land have brought the airport 
area up to 825 acres thus far, with purchase of another 600 
acres contemplated. Part of this land is submerged and 
will not be unwatered until increased air travel demands 
larger terminal facilities, unless, before that, the general 
plan for developing Oakland's port facilities provides for 
dredging whose spoil can be used to make the necessary 
fills conveniently. 

The governmental aspects of the Oakland airport are 
striking but not unique, in that they are based on the prac- 
tices developed at the port of Portland, Oregon. Briefly, 
the fundamental idea is that a port is a port, whether for 
air or marine commerce, and that the development of the 
two phases should proceed co-ordinately and under the 
same direction. 

The airport, from original conception of the plan to com- 
pletion of every facility requisite to a commercial port, will 
be just under 1 3 months old. That the city should ac- 
quire such a facility was proposed in October, 1926, by 
William H. Mayhew, president of the Chamber of Com- 
merce and, that body approving, a commiittee was named 
to arrange for the acquisition and development of an aerial 
terminal, to attempt establishment of the city as the terminus 
of air lines and to seek to bring in airchraft and allied in- 
dustries. Two weeks later a site on Bay Farm Island had 
been chosen and on November 1 6 the city council adopted 
a resolution for the purchase of approximately 625 acres at 
a price of $625,000. 

Legal obstacles intervened. Study indicated the port 
commission could handle the transaction, paying for the 
land out of funds under its control and early in February 
the city formally placed development of the air harbor 
under the same body which had charge of the marine har- 
bor work. This group is a non-political body, not subject 
to external control in the same way that elected officials are 
some times subject to pressure, and has proceeded with the 
work on a basis of business economy and sound engineering. 



28 



Society ok Engineers 



The Trend of Engitieeriini 



Profe 



By Raymond E. Davis, 
Of Civil Engineering. University of Califo 



The word engineer is derived from the Latin ingeniosus, 
meaning ingenious or possessing natural capacity. Hence 
in the original meaning the engineer is an ingenious person 
or one who contrives to do difficult tasks. 

Doubtless engineering is the most ancient of professions; 
and it seems fair to assume that certain of our prehistoric 
ancestors, even before they had shed their tails, must have 
taken ingenious advantage of some of the principles of me- 
chanics. That mankind managed to survive the intense 
cold of the glacial period is a tribute to our ancestors who 
developed the ability to fashion the implements of the stone 
age and to utilize fire. For many thousands of years after 
the dawn of civilization the ingenious men of the families and 
tribes — that is the engineers — con- 
tinued to develop skill in the art 
of creating the necessities and con- 
veniences then in demand. Later, 
as nations developed, labor was 
available at almost no cost, and 
while the art of building progress- 
ed, the builders were not concern- 
ed with the economic aspects of 
the problem. We marvel at the 
wonders of the Egypt of 6000 
years ago, but we are told that 
1 00,000 slaves were engaged in 
the construction of the great pyra- 
mid. More recently, when Nebu- 
chadnezzar's favorite wife, some 
3000 years ago, announced her in- 
tention of going home to father 
unless a bit of landscape garden- 
ing was done about the royal pal- 
ace, conditions as regards mater- 
ials and labor were not greatly al- 
tered, and the brick masons pro- 
ceeded with the execution of the 
columns and arches of the Hang- 
ing Gardens of Babylon on the 
general theory that anything will 
stand if it is sufficiently massive. It 

is not likely that such a thing as stress was remotely con- 
ceived by even the most imaginative of the builders of that 
period. 

Certainly the scientific side of engineering as compared 
with the act of building was slow in developing, and up to 
the latter part of the eighteenth century the engineer had 
been little more than an artisan of high skill and good judg- 
ment, following past practice with occasional improvements 
discovered by accident. With the development of the theory 
of mechanics begun by Newton and Galileo in the six- 
teenth century and as extended by Euler, the Bernoullis ana 
d'Alembert in the eighteenth century, and with some slight 
experimental knowledge of the behavior of the materials of 
construction, engineers began to inquire into the reason for 
things and to attempt rational design employing the scientific 
principles of statics, dynamics and hydraulics. It was not, 
however, until early in the latter half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury that that most brilliant scholar and prolific worker, Wil- 
liam Rankine, through his writings covered the entire field 
of engineering as then known and for the first time placed 




Raymond E. Davi 



the practice of the profession upon a scientific basis. By 
reason of his achievements he may be said to be the father 
of modern engineering. 

Following Rankine came the discoveries of Carnot, Gil- 
bert, Volta, Ampere, Henry, Faraday and others which are 
now generally used by mechanical and electrical engineers in 
problems dealing with the generation and transmition of 
energy. While in the old school engineering theories were 
mathematically demonstrated without much thought of 
physical proof, in the new school the experimental side ol 
engineering received much attention. Thus it is that the 
Twentieth Century has seen most rapid development 
of engineering laboratories covering all branches of 
the profession, so that today 
not only are there facilities for 
carrying on experimental work 
beyond the comprehension of the 
layman, but there is an army of 
workers who are continuously 
searching after new truths and are 
constantly adding to our fund of 
human knowledge. The science of 
engineering is now in that stage 
where new principles are not de- 
veloped except through experiment, 
and hence the future progress of 
engineering practice is dependent 
in a very great measure, in fact 
almost entirely, upon those engag- 
ed in engineering research. And 
the laboratories of our engineering 
schools, large corporations and 
government bureaus are endeavor- 
ing to meet the demand. 

In the field of materials of con- 
struction probably not many real- 
ize the magnitude of the facilities 
offered by the Materials Testing 
Laboratory of the University of 
California and few know of the 
variety of experimental studies 
which are now in progress in this laboratory. It is in fact the 
largest and most completely equipped testing laboratory 
in the West. The functions of the laboratory are three- 
fold: 

( 1 ) To familiarize undergradute students with methods 
of testing and with the physical and mechanical properties 
of materials commonly used in construction. This is done 
through regularly laboratory classes. 

(2) To carry on original investigations for purposes 
of determining the properties of materials, of establishing 
new principles, of improving materials and methods of con- 
struction and of experimentally verifying theories. 

(3) To make tests for private individuals or organiza- 
tions when these tests are of unusual character and cannot 
be performed in the ordinary commercial testing laboratory. 

There are in the laboratory nine machines for applying 
loads in tension, compression or cross-bending with capacities 
ranging from 10,000 pounds to 500,000 pounds. Columns 
up to 1 9 feet long and beams up to 20 feet long may be 
tested. In addition there is equipment for testing the tor- 



Year Book, 1927 



29 



sional strength of metals, the hardness of metals (Brinnell, 
Scleroscope and Rockwell machines), toughness of wood 
and metals as determined by impact (Hatt-Turner and 
Charpy machines), and fatigue of metals (Moore, Farmer 
and Upton-Lewis machines). 

In keeping with the importance of concrete as a building 
material, the cement and concrete laboratory is unusually 
well equipped with testing apparatus including furnaces, 
drying ovens, steam baths, moist closets, stone crusher, con- 
crete mixer, briquette testing machines, flow table, sieves 
and sieve shakers. For uniform curing conditions curing 
rooms have been constructed in which temperature of water 
sprays and air are kept constant by means of electric heaters 
and thermostatic controls. 

Equipment is also available for the testing of clays to de- 
termine their properties prior to and after firing and for 
the testing of soils to determine their suitability as subgrade 
materials. 

For tests to determine termal coefficient of expansion and 
the effect of high and low temperature an insulated room 
has recently been equipped with both refrigerating coils and 
electric heaters. By means of special controls the room may 
by brought to any desired temperature and held at that tem- 
perature within 1 °F. 

Unique features of the laboratory are special rooms in 
which both temperature and humidity may be maintained as 
desired. These are useful in determining shrinkage or ex- 
pansion due to change in atmospheric moisture conditions. 

In connection with nearly all original investigations special 
instruments and equipment must be devised. The laboratory 
has its own shops and its own staff of expert mechanicians 
who are engaged in the design and manufacture of laboratory 
apparatus for these special studies. As a result the labora- 
tory possesses a large variety of fine instruments — such as 
strain gages, extensometers. compressometers — of original 
design, as well as numerous pieces of larger testing equip- 
ment of its own manufacture. 

As this is written, more than forty men — including mem- 
bers of the laboratory staff, assistants, graduate students 
and thesis students — are engaged in original investigations 
in the laboratory. And the nature of the experiments 
ranges all the way from a study of the stresses in domes 
through the use of small models to the measurement of earth 
pressures. In the field of concrete alone a partial list of 
the subjects of investigation is as follows: 

Effect of vibration during the setting period upon 
strength. 

Coefficient of thermal expansion. 



Volumetric changes due to variations other than tem- 
perature. 

Effect of waterproofing compounds upon the permeability 
and other properties. 

Modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio, and the effect 
of age upon their values. 

Diatomaceous earth as an admixture. 

Effect of repeated high and low temperatures during the 
curing period upon the strength. 

Physical properties of high alumina cement concretes. 

The effect of water ratio, cement ratio, and character and 
gradation of aggregate upon the shrinkage of concretes. 

Flow of concrete under constant sustained compressive 
stress. 

Effect of end conditions upon the measured surface 
strains of concrete cylinders under direct compressive stress. 

It may be interesting to learn that more than a thousand 
cylinders have been tested to determine the effect of vibra- 
tion upon the strength of concrete, that the tests have already 
extended over a period of four years, and that probably five 
hundred more cylinders will be tested before the series is 
completed. 

More than three hundred concrete bars each 40 inches 
long are observed periodically and their changes in length 
and weight are determined. Some of these bars have now 
been under observation for three years. Some are stored 
in water at constant temperature, some are stored in air at 
constant temperature and humidity ; others are stored alter- 
natively in air and in water for varying periods of time. It 
is likely that the tests will extend over a period of ten 
years and perhaps longer. 

With the strain measuring apparatus for determining 
modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio observations are 
made to millionths of inches. Concretes from the age of 
six weeks to three years have been tested. 

In connection with certain tests, strains are measured by 
means of the change in electrical resistance of a stack of 
carbon disks embedded within the specimen. 

In studies of indeterminate structures small models are 
cut from cardboard or celluloid and are subjected to equiva- 
lent loads. The stresses in the actual structure are deter- 
mined by observing with the micrometer microscopes the 
strains and deflections in the model. 

Recently cylinders 1 8 inches in diameter and 36 inches 
long, each weighing 800 pounds, were broken in com- 
pression. These are perhaps the largest concrete cylin- 
ders ever tested. 



30| 



Society of Engineers 



The Engineers in Haiti 

By Thos. Hawthorne, Member 
Director of Irrigation in Haiti, 1921-1916. 



Since returning from Haiti in the fall of 1926, I have 
been asked where and what is Haiti so many times that 
I believe it will not be amiss to start this article with a 
little description and history of the country. 

The chief reasons for the apparent American lack of 
interest in Haiti are, probably, because its progress in 
civilization has been so slow as not to attract notice, its 
government has been too unstable to attract investors and its 
trade relations were mostly with European nations. 

The Republic of Haiti occupies the western one-third of 
the island of the same name which lies directly between 
Cuba and Porto Rico in the West Indies. The total area 
of the republic is about 10,000 square miles of which about 
one-third is level arable land along the sea coast, the re- 
mainder being rough and mountainous. It has a popula- 
tion of over 2,000,000, mostly negroes. 

Shortly after Columbus discovered the new world at 
San Salvador in 1492, he landed on the north coast of 
Haiti, took possession of the island in the name of Spain 
and planted here the first white settlement on the western 
hemisphere. His flag-ship, the Santa Maria, was wrecked 
at the entrance to the harbor of the present town of Cap 
Hatien on this trip. The anchor of his ship is still pre- 
served as an historical relic by the Haitian Gendarmerie. 

The whole of the island was under Spanish control from 
the time of Columbus to 1697 when France's claim to the 
area now comprising, approximately, the Republic of Haiti 
w'as recognized. 

Under the rule of Spain the aboriginal inhabitants dis- 
appeared and negro slaves, the ancestors of the present 
population were imported from Africa. Little progress 
was made in agriculture until French times when a period 
of agricultural development was started which resulted in 
changing the colony from a wilderness into one of France's 
richest possessions. Many more negro slaves were im- 
ported to do the field work. Thousands of flourishing 
plantations exported to the old world their coffee, sugar, 
indigo, cocoa, cotton and rum. 

Political conditions in France and Europe at the time 
of the French revolution, trouble with the French-negro 
mulattoes and dissension among the white colonists them- 
selves finally led to a weakening of control over the slaves 
and to their revolt. The blacks were, after a time, success- 
ful in their revolution and on January 1st, 1804, pro- 
claimed their independence under the negro emperor, Des- 
salines. 

Since that time Haiti has been an independent republic 
or empire according to the convictions or power of the 
ruler in control of the government. 

The ruling class, mostly mulattoes and comprising about 
10% of the population reside in the larger towns and the 
blacks mostly in the agricultural districts. 

Revolutions and banditry flourished under independence 
and many rulers were assassinated or resigned under press- 
ure. The fine French habitations were pillaged, burned 
and allowed to go to ruin until, at the time of the Amer- 
ican occupation, they bore little resemblance to their former 
prosperous state. 

There were no roads suitable for wheeled vehicles out- 
side of the towns, sanitation was practically non-existant, 



few city streets were paved and system of light houses and 
other aids to navigation were entirely inadequate. 

On July 28th., 1915, President Guillaume Vilbrun Sam 
(commonly known as Sam), who had been in office only 
four months, was driven from his palace by a mob and 
took refuge in the French legation from where he was 
hauled forth and cut to pieces. The same afternoon a 
detachment of U. S. marines was landed at the capital, 
Port au Prince, guards were placed at the French and 
American legations and patrols were established to pre- 
serve order throughout the city. 

The treaty between the United States and Haiti author- 
izing the present American occupation was signed in Haiti, 
on September 16, 1915 and proclaimed at Washington 
on May 3rd., 1916. 

Under this treaty and subsequent laws, a number of 
American officials reside in Haiti to assist the government 
in handling its finances, in preserving peace and order and 
in the development of its natural resources. 

Under the last heading comes the organization of the 
Public Works department, a special law for which was 
passed by the Haitian Council of State, on July 1 3, 1920. 

All public works of the state are carried on by the pro- 
visions of this law, under the supervision and administra- 
tion of a treaty engineer, entitled Engineer in Chief, nomi- 
nated by the president of the United States and commis- 
sioned by the president of Haiti. The engineer in chief is 
an officer of the U. S. Navy, who is assisted by a staff 
consisting of an executive officer and five directors of 
services, all of whom are also navy engineers with the ex- 
ception of the director of irrigation who is a civilian. The 
staff is assisted by a number of American and Haitian en- 
gineers, superintendents and foremen. 

The five departments or services of public works are, 
in the order of their average expenditures, as follows: 

1 . Municipal Improvements, including — public build- 
ings, lighting, streets, parks, sewers and water supply. 

2. Roads, trails and bridges, wharves and light 
houses. 

3. Irrigation and River Control, including — operation 
and maintenance of existing systems, hydrographic meas- 
urements, surveys and investigations for new projects and 
new construction. 

4. Communications, consisting of — telephones, tele- 
graph and wireless systems. 

5. Shops and Warehouses. 

On the taking over of all public works in 1920, the 
engineers found a situation consisting of systems run down 
and requiring rebuilding in some cases, a crying need for 
extensions and new construction, little money to operate 
with and a population either disinterested or opposed to im- 
provements. 

In 1 920 the total expenditure by the public works de- 
partment was approximately $800,000 but in 1925 it had 
increased to $1,700,000 and probably will continue to 
increase on account of the results obtained and the growing 
confidence of both the American and Haitian officials in 
the efficiency of the engineering department. 

The American engineer finds he has a lot to learn when 
he first starts to work in Haiti. Conditions are primitive, 






Year Book, 1927 



[31 



labor is inefficient unless properly handled, modern machin- 
ery is lacking and money is scarce. His first idea, usually, 
is to change everything and install up-to-date methods like 
he is accustomed to in the states but he soon finds that, to 
get results, it is necessary to compromise somewhat and 
adapt himself to ways of doing things that the natives 
understand. A great amount of personal supervision and 
attention to small details is required. 

So little had been accomplished in the way of public- 
improvements prior to the occupation, that small jobs com- 
pleted by the department were regarded as of exaggerated 
importance. A concrete diversion dam with steel head- 
gates was built in one of the streams used for irrigation 
at a cost of about $12,000, to replace a temporary brush 
and rock dam, thus saving leakage and providing for proper 
distribution of the water. The president of the republic 
was so pleased with this work that he made a special trip 
to dedicate the dam and open the headgates. 

The native population, who were to benefit from the un- 
dertaking however, were not so pleased, at its completion. 
I was rather puzzled by their lack of enthusiasm and ap- 
preciation until their point of view was explained. The 
job had provided employment for a large number of near- 
by inhabitants for several months and, with their proverb- 
ially happy-go-lucky natures they preferred their 30 cents 
per day wages to spend on cock fights and other amuse- 
ments to the benefits they would receive from the diversion 
dam. 

The soft, easy climate and the child-like nature of the 
negro laborer tend to make him indolent and irresponsible 
unless he has a powerful incentive to work. This incentive 
is usually supplied by means of vigorous sub-foremen, the 
giving of small contracts or by special rewards for work 
done. One American engineer speeded up the work of a 
crew on cobble-stone canal lining by setting a mark a little 
beyond their average distance completed per day and al- 
lowing them to lay off when the mark was reached. He 
kept setting the mark a little farther each day until the 
crew was lining about 5 r 7 more ditch than formerly and 
qutting work an hour or two earlier. 

The principal work of the Irrigation Service has been 
in rebuilding, improving and extending irrigation systems 
in four of the plains of Haiti, including about 55,000 
acres of irrigated land, most of which was under irriga- 
tion in French colonial times and now is being farmed 
in small tracts by the natives with occasional areas oper- 
ated by an American sugar company. 

Surveys and investigations have been made for more than 
a dozen new storage, power and irrigation projects that 
could be put in at reasonable cost if there was a demand 
for them and the money was available. These projects 
vary in size from a few thousand acres to that of the larg- 
est plain in Haiti, the Artibonite, comprising about 1 50,000 
acres of smooth, gently sloping land. This plain is travers- 
ed by the largest river in Haiti, with an average annual run- 
off of about two million acre-feet but has never been irri- 
gated, although irrigation is a necessity here for success- 
ful farming, on account of the magnitude of the work in- 
volved in diverting and controlling a river of this size. The 
project, however, is entirely feasible both from an engineer- 
ing and financial standpoint. 

The irrigation service has an operation and maintenance 
department, under the supervision of a former U. S. Bu- 
reau of Reclamation engineer with Haitian assistants, which 
operates and maintains the irrigation systems in the four 
rain gage stations all over the republic. Its head is an 
irrigated plains. 

The hydrographic division maintains stream gaging and 



American engineer, who is assisted by Haitian hydrograph- 
ers and gage readers. A hydrographer bulletin is printed 
annually, giving the previous year's record of all the prin- 
cipal streams and rainfall in all parts of Haiti. This di- 
vision has been in operation for about five years. 

Any developments which will assist and advance agri- 
culture in Haiti are of foremost importance as it is essenti- 
ally an agricultural nation with about 90% of its popula- 
tion engaged in farming. 

The treaty with Haiti has been in effect about ten years 
and has been extended for another ten years or to 1936. 

Order is well maintained in all parts of the republic. 

Revenues are honestly and intelligently handled and 
Haiti's financial situation is greatly improved. 

The operation, maintenance and extension of public 
works has gone forward at a rate in 'proportion to the funds 
available and many improvements of lasting benefit to the 
country have been accomplished. 

The sanitary service under the navy doctors has func- 
tioned very efficiently in operating clinics and hospitals in 
all parts of the republic, cleaning up towns and establish- 
ing sanitary regulations, all of which have greatly im- 
proved health conditions. 

It is my humble opinion that the experiment of the Unit- 
ed States in teaching the Haitians to help themselves, al- 
though not always appreciated, has been a great success 
and that its benefits will be more readily seen and recogniz- 
ed the longer it is continued. 



Carquimez Bridge 



(Continued from Page 13.) 



satisfied and it became apparent that the Bridge Company 
and certain shipping companies would never be able to 
agree and that the War Department would be obliged to 
finally settle the controversy. 

Accordingly it was agreed that both parties should ap- 
pear in Washington, D. C, in June 1927, before the of- 
fice of the Chief of Engineers. This conference was held 
on June 21, as a result of which, with certain slight modi- 
fications, the Bridge Company's final design was approved. 
The permit embodying these minor changes was signed by 
the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of War on Sept. 
12, 1927. 

IV. Conclusion. 

From these illustrations it must be evident that the Car- 
quinez Bridge is one of exceptional magnitude and nobility. 
Its building comprised at least three unique, difficult and 
spectacular features of construction. 

Surely this great bridge is the pioneer for an era of 
bridge building near San Francisco Bay, by which there 
will be hastened to fruition the full development of one of 
the greatest metropolitan centers on earth. For these reasons 
the Carquinez Bridge is more than an engineering achieve- 
ment. It is a lesson to the citizens of central California 
urging them toward timely and great developments in 
transportation facilities. 

It may not be long before at least four other great spans 
may become a reality; one near Martinez for the Southern 
Pacific Rairoad, replacing the antiquated Port Costa- 
Benicia ferry ; a second connecting Contra Costa County 
with the Marin peninsula by a bridge across San Pablo 
Strait from the City of Richmond toward the City of San 
Rafael; a third, a highway bridge from Oakland to San 
Francisco ; and finally, a fourth, from San Francisco across 
the Golden Gate to Sausalito. 



32] 



Society of Engineers 



Electric Welding of Pipes for the 

Mokelunine Water Conduit 



B\) Harry A. Storrs, Member 
Chief Inspector, East Baji Municipal Utility District. 



Rapid advances have been made in the past half dozen 
years in developing processes for applying welding to in- 
dustrial uses. Welding in place of riveting on structural 
steel buildings has been successfully used on several rather 
large buildings, the reduction of noise during erection being 
a valuable consideration in some instances. In airplane 
construction, welding is preferred because it reduces weight 
without sacrificing strength or reliability. In the Texas 
and other oil fields, hundreds of miles of pipe lines have 
been welded in the field and showed no breaks and very 
few leaks. Steam pipes of large size and designed to 
withstand high pressures have been welded throughout 
entire installations, eliminating many 
flanged bolted joints which are 
prone to leak. Other uses might be 
mentioned, such as the stills for oil 
refineries which must stand both 
temperature and pressure stress of 
unusual range. 

A noteworthy step was taken in 
the application of electric welding to 
the manufacture of water pipe of 
unusual length, size and weight, 
when a contract was entered into, 
September 29, 1925, by the East 
Bay Municipal Utility District for 
the construction of the Mokelumne 
Pipe Line which is to bring water 
for domestic and industrial uses 
from the Sierra Nevada mountains, 
across the San Joaquin Valley to 
the cities on the East side of San 
Francisco Bay. 

This pipe line, about 80 miles in 
length, is composed of sections 30 
feet long, 61 to 65 inches in 
diameter, 3-8, 7-16 and 1-2 inch 
in thickness, over 40% being 1-2 
inch in thickness. Each section is 
composed of two steel plates rolled 
to semi-cylindrical shape and welded together along 
two 30 foot seams, the welding being performed by auto- 
matic machines using carbon arc process for fusing the 
edges of the plates together. 

This work is being done by the Steel Tank & Pipe Co. 
in West Berkeley, where nine Lincoln "carbon arc" ma- 
chines and their accompanying generating sets were in- 
stalled early in 1926. It is expected that all pipe required 
to complete the line will be finished in February, 1 928. 

In this process, after the plates are rolled, the sections 
are assembled and the two halves lightly tack-welded to- 
gether at intervals of 1 8 inches along the 30 foot seams. 
They are then placed in the welding machines, where the 
joint to be welded is clamped between water-cooled copper 
fire-strips. A filler rod 9-32x3-4 is laid on top of the seam 
to be welded, in order that a reinforcing bead may be 
formed by fusing the rod as the edges of the plates are be- 
ing fused together. These filler rods contain 15% to 20% 
of carbon, vanadium and nickel, combining the rods with 




Harry A. Storrs 



the plate metal by fusing them in making the weld, the 
weld so produced is found to contain .04% to .07% of 
each of these elements. The carriage, on which the car- 
bon electrode and its feeding mechanism are mounted, is 
drawn along a track by a motor driven sprocket chain, 
enabling the electrode to travel along the seam while its 
lower end is kept within about 3-8 of an inch of the joint 
to be welded. The usual speed is about 1 2 feet per hour, 
the current is about 460 amperes and the arc voltage about 
42 volts, but these may be varied by the operator who 
watches closely to see that the crater formed by the arc 
indicates that a proper heat and speed are maintained to 
insure complete penetration and yet 
not overheat the metal. When the 
first seam is finished the clamps are 
released and the section is rotated 
1 80 degrees, bringing the second 
seam down to its proper position be- 
tween the fire strips and the pro- 
cess of welding is repeated. About 
six hours is required for welding an 
entire section, including the handl- 
ing, and on 24-hour operation the 
daily output of the plant is about 30 
sections, equaling 900 linear feet 
of pipe. 

When the welding is finished, 
each section is carefully inspected 
and all apparent defects in the 
welds are repaired by chipping and 
metallic arc rewelding by hand. 
After this the section is rolled into 
the testing machine where it is sub- 
jected to hydrostatic pressure suf- 
ficient to stress the plates nearly to 
their elastic limit, and while under 
this pressure, ten-pound sledge- 
hammer blows are delivered at in- 
tervals of one foot along both 
welded seams by means of 60 
suspended hammers which are tripped in rapid succes- 
sion. The internal pressures range from 3 1 2 pounds per 
square inch for pipes 65 inches in diameter, to 332 pounds 
per square inch for pipes 61 inches in diameter, thickness of 
plate metal being I -2 inch, with corresponding pressure for 
pipes of 3-8 inch and 7-16 inch thickness. 

For testing the quality of the welds produced by the auto- 
matic machines, sample welds are made regularly by each 
machine under regular operating conditions using plates 
cut from the pipe plates. Two test specimens are cut from 
each sample and are tested as follows: (I) Bending 
90 degrees, around a bar having a diameter three times the 
thickness of the plate metal, without fracture; (2) Ruptur- 
ing the weld by applying tensile stress in a U. S. Standard 
Riehle testing machine in the laboratory of Smith Emery 
& Company to show a tensile strength of not less than 45,- 
000 pounds per square inch, based on the thickness of the 
plate. As an indication of how well the test specimens 
conform to requirements, the test records for a recent set of 
welds, two each from nine machines, show for the bending 



Year Book. 1927 



»3 



test no failures, and for the tensile strength test an average 
ultimate strength of 53,590 pounds per square inch of plate 
metal, the weakest weld breaking at 44,837 pounds and 
the strongest at 59,197 pounds. 

In contrast with the longitudinal seams which are being 
automatically welded in the shop, the circumferential joints 
made in the field, were at first butt-welded, then were made 
with butt straps requiring welding to be done inside and out- 
side the pipe. Then riveting was substituted for welding, 
at first using double riveted butt straps, and finally bell 
and spigot ends involving the use of only a single row of 
rivets. By the last method, the required progress can be 



made with fewer operators and less field equipment than is 
required for welding the field joints. 

The bell ends at first involved some difficulties in the 
shop work, due to cracking the end portion of the automa- 
tic welds during the process of expanding the ends of the 
sections by repeated rolling, but at present metallic hand 
welding of a 10-inch length of the seams in the bell ends is 
giving satisfactory results. Field tests of the pipe line at 
normal working pressure, as well as the shop tests mentioned 
above, demonstrate that automatic welding is suitable for 
pipe lines constructed to meet conditions similar to those pre- 
sented by the Mokelumne conduit. 



The Road to Success 



Ask a group of business men what they think of the pro- 
fession of industrial engineering and about half of them are 
likely to respond they don't need any young college boys to 
teach them their business. This attitude is an unfortunate 
reaction from the early days when the science of industrial 
engineering had just become a fad. 

But today the need for first-class industrial engineering 
is as well understood as the fact that it takes more than 
assertion to establish the qualifications of a candidate for an 
industrial engineering position. The business world is ready 
to concede the fact that the line executive has about all the 
work he can handle without being called upon to perform 
special research. 

The decision to employ a budget system in handling the 
appropriations for a large public utility concern, or the de- 
cision to change a factory from having each group of work- 
men build one machine to having a machine progress down 
the line, with each workman performing one special oper- 
ation, is a matter that may involve a quarter of a million 
dollars. Someone ought to spend at least a full month in 
painstaking investigation of the problem, and that is the 
function of the industrial engineer, whether he is called by 
such a title or is merely an extra vice-president who is on 
the payroll to see that this sort of problem is met intelli- 
gently. 

As a preparation for industrial engineering, college train- 
ing is highly desirable, although not by any means essential. 
There are different branches of the work where special 
knowledge is useful. 

In planning factory operation a knowledge of mechanical 
engineering is desirable ; in rearranging office work the sug- 
gestions ought to be based on an understanding of account- 
ing problems. But the qualities most of all needed are tact, 
salesmanship and common sense. 

If the industrial engineer is a sufficiently good draftsman 
to prepare a neat and attractive chart of his findings, and 
has an understanding of the graphic handling of statistical 



material, this will help him more than any other part of his 
technical training. Frequently ideas of the utmost import- 
ance to the business have been floating around in the fac- 
tory, proposed from time to time by workmen or foremen, 
but not placed in sufficiently convincing form to attract 
attention from the higher executives. Where the specialist 
takes advantage of such information he must be particularly 
careful to give proper credit to the real originators of the 
proposal. 

Industrial engineering work handled on a truly scien- 
tific basis begins with a search for facts. Sometimes the 
expert will spend days or weeks just in familiarizing him- 
self with what is being done. Wfien the facts have been 
analyzed a recommendation is drawn from them and em- 
bodied in a report to the proper authority. Modern engi- 
neering firms in this field make it a rule never to propose 
any change on the authority of their own reputations, but 
to let the actual changes be a natural outgrowth of the logic 
of the facts presented. 

So far, it looks as though the industrial engineer has a 
very desirable job. He is practically his own boss, must 
have a keen understanding of business problems, and does 
fascinating work which brings him the respect of all the 
people with whom he comes into contact. But of course 
there is a catch somewhere. The catch is that you can hire 
plenty of young college graduates with three or five years' 
business experience to go into industrial engineering at $3600 
a year or less. At that, few lines give a better opportunity 
to take short cuts toward high position in a real producing 
organization. 

A man who is not a college graduate with experience 
in engineering or accounting should take stock of his own 
capacity very seriously before attempting the industrial en- 
gineering field, as there is nothing outside his own estimate 
to tell him whether he is the sort of man to whom people 
are ever likely to turn for professional advice. — Royal F. 
Munger, in Editorial Page of The Bulletin. 



34| 



Society of Engineers 



A Treatise on Cork 



By Frank E. Whittemore, Membe 



Few things in general use in the great world today have 
the approval of two thousand years set upon them. New 
materials, processes or commodities have followed advancing 
civilization and ensuing multiplication and alteration of 
man's economic needs, even where the demand for certain 
material to fulfill a particular function has continued 
through the centuries, widening knowledge of natural re- 
sources coupled with modern invention has usually found 
some substitute cheaper, more efficient, or better adapted for 
the purpose in question. 

Not so with cork. Recognized by the ancients as pecu- 
liarly suited for certain uses, time has vindicated their judg- 
ment; nothing has yet been discovered to supplant it in its 
wide sphere of usefulness. 

Theophrastus, the Greek philosopher and writer on botany, 
who flourished in the fourth century before Christ, was evi- 
dently familiar with the material, for he mentions the cork 
tree as being a native of the Pyrenees. For decades before 
the time of Horace cork was used for the stoppers of wine 
vessels. In fact, the poet tells one of his friends, about 25 
B. C, that on the occasion of a coming banquet he expects 
to "remove the cork sealed with pitch" from a jar of rare 
vintage of forty-six years previous, the first but not the last 
proceeding of this character of which history makes record. 

It remained for the elder Pliny, however, in his wonder- 
ful work on natural history, written in the first century of 
the Christian era, to make the most remarkable reference to 
the cork to be found in ancient literature: "The cork oak 
is but a small tree and its acorns of the very worst quality 

* * *; the bark is its only useful product, being 
remarkably thick, and if removed will grow again * * 
* . This substance employed more particularly attached 
as a buoy to the ropes of a ship's anchors and the drag- 
nets of fisherman; it is used also for the bungs of casks and 
as a material for winter shoes of women". Cork jackets — 
life-preservers — are mentioned by Plutarch. Thus five of 
the principal functions which cork fills in the world to-day 
were recognized two thousand years ago. 

In the fifteenth century glass bottles were introduced, 
which gave such great impetus to its general use that the 
real beginning of the cork industry may properly be said to 
date from that period. Some conception of its importance 
today may be gathered from the fact that the importations 
of the United States of crude and manufactured cork now 
aggregate nearly $7,000,000 in value annually. 

Where does cork come from? 

Listed according to the value of their exports, cork comes 
from the following countries: Portugal, Spain, Algeria, 
Tunis, Southern France, including Corsica, Italy, Sardinia, 
with Sicily and Morocco's cork forests not yet entirely 
developed. 

The word Cork is derived from the Latin Cortex, mean- 
ing bark. The cork oak, known as Quercus Subero, 
attains a height of from twenty to sixty feet and 
measures sometimes as much as four feet in diameter. Its 
wide spreading branches are rather closely covered with 
small evergreen leaves, thick, glossy, slightly serrated, and 
downy underneath. In April or May flowers of a yellow- 
ish color appear, succeeded by acorns which ripen and fall 
to the ground in the late fall. The cork oak acorns are bit- 
ter and not at all pleasant to the taste. They form one of 
the forest's chief sources of revenue, since fed to the swine 



they give to the meat a peculiarly piquant flavor. Un- 
fortunately, the herds in foraging for food destroy the 
young trees and do serious permanent injury by preventing 
new growth. The cork oak, as all other cork trees, have an 
inner and outer layer of bark, with the difference of the two 
more pronounced in the cork oak. 

The "cork wood" or cork of commerce, is the outer bark 
of the cork oak. When it has attained a diameter of from 
five to six inches, which it does in about twenty to twenty- 
five years, the virgin cork, as the first stripping is called, is 
rough, course, and dense in texture, and is of little commer- 
cial value. Its removal does not kill the tree, but seems to 
promote a further development, for the inner bark — the seat 
of the growing processes — undertakes at once the forma- 
tion of a new covering of a finer texture. 

Each year this real skin with its life-giving sap, forms 
two layers of cells — one within, increasing the diameter of 
the trunk ; the other without, adding to the thickness of the 
bark. After eight or ten years this is also removed, and, 
while more valuable than the virgin cork, it is not as fine in 
quality as the third and subsequent strippings, which follow 
at regular intervals of about ten years. 

At the age of about forty years the cork oak begins to 
yield its best bark, continuing productive as a rule for al- 
most a century, although cork trees several hundred years 
old are not unknown. Flourishing as it does in hot, semi- 
arid climate, there seems to be no reason why this valuable 
tree should not be successfully introduced in the southern 
and southwestern sections of the United States; in fact, in 
the year 1858 the United States Government took certain 
steps in this direction, and even went so far as to distribute 
seedlings to interested persons in several states. The Civil 
War interferred, however, and the experiments were never 
carried out. 

The bark stripping generally takes place during July 
and August, and is a process which demands skill and care 
if injury to the tree is to avoided. Some strippers use a 
crescent-shaped saw : while others use only a hatchet with 
a long handle, wedged-shaped at the end. The bark is cut 
clear through around the base of the tree and a similar in- 
cision is made around the trunk just below the spring of the 
main branches; the two incisions are then connected by one 
or two longitudinal cuts, followed so far as possible the 
deepest of the natural cracks in the bark. Inserting the 
wedge-shaped handle, the tree's covering is then pried off, 
care taken not to injure the inner skin at any stage of the 
process, for the life of the tree depends on its proper preser- 
vation; and if it is injured at any point, growth there ceases 
and the spot remains forever afterward scarred and uncov- 
ered. 

This first or "virgin" cut is around a tree five to six 
ir.ches in diameter and is cut about four feet high, then the 
second cut, some ten years later, the tree will possibly be 
two or three inches larger in diameter ; it can readily be 
seen that a very small quantity will be stripped in the first 
fifty years. 

In later years and as the trees gets older, the larger 
branches are stripped in the same manner, yielding thinner 
but generally a finer grade of cork than that from the trunk. 
1 he thickness of the bark is anywhere from one-half to two 
and a half inches, while the yield also varies greatly — from 
forty-five to five hundreds pounds — depending on the size 



Yi \r Book. 1927 



[35 



and age of the tree. As the bark is removed it is gathered 
up in piles and left for a few days to dry. Having been 
weighed, it is next carried either in wagons, or on the backs 
of burros to the boiling stations, where it is stacked and al- 
lowed to season for a few weeks. It is then ready for the 
boiling process, which at times is postponed until the crude 
material reaches some shipping point. But if the forest is 
distant, the water supply adequate, and the quantify of bark 
ample to justify such procedure, the vats are erected at some 
convenient spot and this operation carried out on the ground. 
The outside of the bark in its natural state is, as may well 
be imagined, rough and woody, owing to exposure to the 
weather. After boiling, this useless outer coating is readily 
scraped off, thereby reducing the weight of the material al- 
most twenty percent. The boiling process also serves to 
remove the tanic acid, increases the volume and elasticity of 
the bark, renders it soft and pliable, and flattens it out for 
convenient packing. 

After being roughly sorted as to quality and thickness, 
the bark is then ready for its first long journey, and, as the 
forests are generally located in hilly or even mountainous 
country, the faithful burro must again be called into serv- 
ice. To these larger factories or shipping points come, dur- 
ing the summer months, large supplies of the bark, from the 
hills and valleys a hundred miles around. There the bales 
as they come from the country are opened, the bark boiled 
and scraped, if this has not already been done, and then, 
after the edges have been trimmed, is sorted into a dozen or 
more grades of different quality and thickness. The im- 
portance of this last mentioned operation cannot be over- 
emphasized, as the whole problem of the successful and 
economical manufacture of cork centers about it. The ex- 
pert sorters having finished their work, the bark is ready to 
be rebaled for shipment. Broad sheets are placed in a 
baling box to form the bottom of the bale, and above them 
are laid smaller pieces, which are covered in turn with 
larger sections ; then the whole mass is subjected to pres- 
sure, under, or in hydraulic presses, to render it compact, 
afterward being bound up securely with steel hoops or wire. 
The material now being ready for shipment is loaded directly 
into ocean-going steamers, not infrequently a whole ship's 
cargo of cork at a time is transported to the American 
coast. In fact the largest cork factory in the world is the 
Pittsburg plant of the Armstrong Cork Company. From 
the mountain of cork unloaded at its doors a host of differ- 
ent articles are produced by means of wonderful ingenious 
machinery coupled with hundreds of keen brains, for the 
human element must always play a large part in cork 
manufacture. 

For whatever purpose it is to be used, all bark removed 
from the immense storage rooms is taken first to the sort- 
ing department, where, under skilled eyes, the twenty-five 
or more foreign grades are resorted into approximately one 
hundred and fifty different classes, according to quality and 
thickness. The speed and skill with which this work is 
done is astounding. So slight is the difference between 
some of the grades that to the inexperienced eye none can 
be seen whatever, and yet success hinges on the care and 
skill exercised in this and the other sortings that follow. 

In manufacturing corks, it must be understood in the first 
place that the thickness of a given piece of bark determines 
the maximum diameter of the stopper which can be made 
from it. as the cutting is done across and not with the grain. 
Leaving the sorting room, the corkwood is softened by plac- 
ing it in a warm vapor bath. This process increases its 
flexibility greatly, its bulk slightly, and prepares it to un- 
dergo mechanical operations which follow in rapid succes- 



sion. The keen edge of the slicing machine knife first con- 
fronts the sheets of bark, and it is at this point that the first 
mechanical obstacle in cork manufacture has to be over- 
come, for the soft light, elastic material is, withal, very dif- 
ficult to cut, as may be determined by simple personal ex- 
periment. But before the onslaught of a circular steel knife, 
revolving hundreds of revolutions every minute, with a 
peripheral speed of from three to five thousand feet per 
minute and with its edge kept at a razor-like sharpness, even 
this difficulty disappears, and the sheets are readily cut 
into strips whose width is determined by the length of cork 
desired. From the sheer the strips pass to the blocking 
machines, where, by means of a rapidly rotating tubular 
punch, cylindrical pieces are bored out and released with 
almost incredible speed. The operative, of course, must 
use care to avoid defective spots in the bark, and also to cut 
the corks out as closely together as possible so as to reduce 
waste to a minimum. This of course applies to the hand 
"punchers" or to the hand-operated blocking machine. For 
the past twelve years automatic blocking machines have been 
very successfully used, and though these automatics have 
no eyes to sort out the bad spots and wedge-shaped ends 
of the slices, consequently there is a little more loss with 
the use of automatics but this loss is more than made up for 
by the larger production, as the automatic machines run 
faster, take up less floor space, with one operative to run 
two machines, also a cheaper operative is used on the auto- 
matics as there is no grade to watch and no danger of the 
operative's hand coming in contact with the cutter. 

The stoppers which come from the blocking machines are 
round with parallel ends. If tapered corks are desired, 
larger at one end than at the other, the cylindrical or 
"straight" pieces must be passed through another machine, 
known as a tapering machine, which handles them deftly, 
holding them against the edge of another circular knife. 
Seemingly motionless, the outward indication of the speed 
with which the keen blade is revolving is the delicate shav- 
ing which curls upward for an instant, only to be drawn 
away through pipes by powerful air-suction to the mill 
building a hundred or more yards distant, where all such 
waste is ground up, to be disposed of in the form of various 
by-products. Both "straights" and "tapers" next journey 
to the washing rooms. There dumped in great vats, thous- 
ands at a time, they are carefully washed and then dried 
by being whirled dizzily in great revolving cylinders of 
wire net located in heated chambers. 

From the driers all corks are taken to the sorting rooms, 
where they are subjected to the last of the actual manufac- 
turing processes, and, from many standpoints, the most inter- 
esting of all. Here, again, the importance of proper grad- 
ing is paramount, and when one considers that five million 
or more corks pour into this department every working day. 
the magnitude of the task can be partly grasped. When 
the further fact is known that this enormous output is to be 
sorted into about twenty regular besides numerous special 
grades, one can still further appreciate what the problem 
involves. Experts exercise careful supervision and actually 
test each lot of corks as they come from the operatives in 
order that uniform standards may be maintained from day 
to day and month to month. 

Thousands of dollars' worth of corks are placed in the 
warehouses every year to remain there indefinitely. The 
reason for this is, of course, found in the fact that the raw 
material, no matter how carefully sorted at the outset, will 
not produce a finished product of uniform quality. Thus 
frequently it becomes necessary to work over a given lot 

(Continued to rag.- H ) 



36] 



SoCIETV OF ENCINEERS 



Time and the Old Mill Wheel 

By Rudolph E. Beiter, Member. 



Approximately three miles north of St. Helena, in the 
State of California and directly on the highway to Calis- 
toga, may be seen an old grist mill, a sight familiar to 
many acquainted with old New England towns. It was 
built shortly before the "gold rush", in 1846 as a matter 
of fact, for one Dr. E. T. Bale, who had been given a 
Mexican Grant of two leagues of land. This grant ex- 
tended from the Bale Slough near Rutherford up to the 
upper end of the valley, in which the doctor located his 
mill. He contracted with Ralph Kilburn to do the car- 
pentry and with John Conn, a stone mason, after whom 
Conn Valley was named, to do the masonry. The iron 
work was furnished by E. F. Kellogg and each of the 
three was given six hundred acres of land in lieu of cash. 

Of the masonry, little to-day 
remains, except the foundation and 
part of a flume adjacent to the 
building, which probably carried 
water to the first overshot wheel, 
then but 20 feet in diameter. Of 
the carpentry work, much is still 
in a fair condition. The wooden 
building, of typical California 
mining town style, with gable roof 
and false front to hide this, has a 
height of two stories not counting 
ihe basement which acted as a tail- 
race. Its floor, made of half tim- 
bers of about 8 inch diameter, 
closely spaced and covered with 
planks, rests on 10x12 inch beams 
supported by 1 4 inch diameter tree 
trunks. 

The present water wheel, also 
of an overshot type, is of 40 feet 
diameter, supported on trestles made 
from 14x14 inch beams and its 
shaft of about 5J-4 inches diameter 
is of wrought iron. The wheel 
was well made and is in good 
condition to this day. It is in good balance and can be 
easily revolved by hand. The buckets of approximately 
parabolic shape, are 35 inches wide with a radial depth 
of 1 2 inches and with a length of 1 9 inches and a 6 inch 
depth at this length probably developed about 53 horse- 
power with a speed of 2'/4 revolutions per minute. 

Larger wheels of this type have been built. At Troy, 
N. J. there is one of 62 feet diameter with a width of 
22 feet, weighting 230 tons, while on the Isle of Man 
one of 72 feet diameter develops 1 50 horse-power. 

But the day of Bale's mill has passed and in its place 
have come the super-power systems of today, with their 
staggering station capacities. Even the small stream with 
part-seasonal flow is being harnessed, in which the full 
automatic plant is playing an important role. 

From a national point of view it is desirable to harness 
all our water supply possible, for although many plants 
will have a greater capital cost than some using other forms 
of fuel, it remains a fact, that they are relatively free from 
strikes or labor shortage and attendant fluctuations of fuel 




The Old Bale Mill 



cost. Since their commodity is produced with less labor 
resulting from freedom of mining, or drilling for their fuel, 
the saving of labor can be applied to other fields and there- 
by increase our national wealth. Again in a national 
emergency, more labor will be available without lessening 
our power resources. In fact, the great handicap of the 
average hydro-electric plant, that of transmitting its energy 
over long distances, has been a stepping stone to its success, 
as it has sought and found markets for its product along 
the way. It has been created by men whose courage, fore- 
sight and faith in the future have enabled them to vision 
and finance it and those whose knowledge and skill have fit 
them to build it. 

It has grown on the Pacific Coast from the small low 
head plant of the past, to one of 
2,575 feet static head, with a 
spouting velocity of the jet of over 
4 J/2 miles per minute, while in 
Europe heads of 5,000 feet have 
been reached. Generators of 40,- 
000 K. W. capacity at .9 power 
factor and 50 cycles having stator 
frames of 40 feet diameter and 6 
feet high made of built-up plate 
steel sections welded together are 
under construction. This method 
of manufacture is in itself of recent 
date and in the said machine, the 
welded seams total about 2,000 
feet. 

Of the pipe lines for these high 
heads, little can be said in so short 
a space as is allowed, but they are 
generally forge-welded machined 
steel pipes, with seamless steel 
rings shrunk on the outside at def- 
inite intervals, as determined by 
the pressure. In determining their 
size, not only must the economic 
diameter be considered, but the 
pipe diameter must be such as to make governing of the water 
wheel possible, as plants have been built, in which the addi- 
tional power through opening of the gate, at times of large 
load demand, has been consumed by the increase of pine 
friction caused by greater water quantities supplied and 
the effect of a drooping efficiency curve toward full load. 

As Pelton wheels are more popular than turbines in 
California due to the natural topography of the state, a des- 
cription of one now being built by the Pelton Water Wheel 
Company for the Southern California Edison Company's 
Big Creek 2A project may be of interest. 

The machine, of double overhung type, with a capacity 
of 56,000 horse power at 250 R. P. M. has a normal ef- 
fective head of 2,200 feet and a static of 2,420 feet. Its 
pipe line 6,481 feet long, tapers from 66 inch diameter to 
34 inch at the entrance to the water wheel nozzle body. 

This nozzle, of the straight flow type, an entirely new 
development, rests on a cast steel arch, of horse shoe shape, 
that carries a thrust of some 568 tons to the foundation of 



Year Book. 1^27 



the power house. The arch itself weighs 21,340 pounds. 
The nozzle, which gives a straight flow to the water 
throughout its length, issues a jet of water 8 1 a inch di- 
ameter. Two Pelton governors, mechanically driven, de- 
liver pressure oil to the servomotors for actuating the needles 
within the nozzles controlling the jet diameters. Connected 
to the main nozzle body is an auxilliary nozzle, which by 
means of a dash-pot arrangement, discharges into a straight 
flow stream baffle at times of sudden load rejection and 
then slowly under spring action, 
closes so as to prevent water 
hammer in the pipe line. The 
coil springs are made from 1 Yj, 
inch diameter special steel rods. 
When fully open, each auxiliary 
nozzle discharges 28.000 H.P. 
which is absorbed in the stream 
baffles; a steel casting of 51 inch 
diameter and 22 inch height which 
splits the stream on a cone and 
turns it upon itself. It may be 
pointed out, that the destruction 
of large quantities of energy in 
small spaces, is in itself, as great 
a source of worry to the designer 
as its efficient generation in the 
first case. Vibration, noise and 
rapid wear, are the things to be 
avoided as much as possible. 

The jet discharged by the 
main nozzle, is received by cast 
steel buckets about 3 feet wide, 
which are bolted to a forged 
steel disc, in turn held by 
taper bolts acting as keys to a cast 
steel hub which is keyed and 
pressed on the shaft. The sim- 
licity of the wheel is its difficulty, as the placing of 
the buckets with respect to the center line of the jet 
as well as their lead, or position relative to the vertical 
center line of the wheel and their number, which must be 
such as to prevent any water from passing through the 
wheel without having fully reacted on the same, is one of the 




Pelton Impulse Rotor Develops 12,500 H.P 
at 257 R.P.M. 



principle factors which determines the efficiency of the 
wheel and calls for the best of the designer's skill and 
knowledge. 

The shaft which is of 26 inch diameter in the bearings 
and 40 inches in the generator rotor, is 38 feet 2 inches long 
exclusive of the exciter extension. A little detail of im- 
portance is that its endwise float in the bearings must be 
enough to take care of the shaft expansion due to its tem- 
perature increase when running. 

The bearings, of rigid type 
with a diameter of 26 inches and 
length of 78 inches are machines 
in themselves. They are provided 
with pressure oil for starting and 
ring oil lubrication when running; 
indicating thermometers are also 
supplied, whose bulbs imbedded 
in the babbitt of the lower shells 
tell their temperatures. As friction 
losses in large bearings vary from 
50 to 100 H. P. or more, the 
lower shells are direct water cool- 
ed. The shaft with its rotor and 
water wheels may be easily revolv- 
ed by hand, provided the machine 
has not been standing still too 
long. Normally, breaking noz- 
zles bring the unit to rest. 

The water wheels, enclosed by 
plate steel and cast iron housings 
open to concrete tailraces lined 
with Yl inch steel plates, which 
tailraces are well ventilated. 

But the names of the designers, 
like he of the old mill at St. Hel- 
ena, remain unsung. Working 
under the cloak of an organiza- 
tion, to others are unknown. But this may be said for them, 
their Work is their Monument; for may the concern be rated 
ever so high and their sales force be most excellent, it is 
the summation of engineering skill and initiative, that must 
finally be the criterion by which the organization is judged 
and through which its repeat orders are acquired. 



The Cover 



We are privileged to reproduce the tint block on the 
cover page through the courtesy of Mr. Newton B. Drury. 
Secretary of "Save THE REDWOODS League", an organ- 
ization founded on broader vision of having for its worthy 
purpose objects of public welfare whose importance and 
value cannot be overestimated. The Redwoods, the 
primitive nobility of the forest is an institute body most 
favored by nature in a vast complex of influence. Extend- 
ing over a period of two thousand years they have witnessed 
the drama of time, standing firmly and still with means of 



life in plenty. Majestically they wave their heads and 
strike some three hundred feet from the solitude of the 
quiet world below, seeking by instinct the grouping effect 
that typifies the splendor and glory of the hand of magic, 
while their foliage is penetrated by glow of the rare colors 
of nature. If trees can be invested with the categories of 
character so requisite to the qualities that govern the exis- 
tence and preservation of society, as it were, then these sturdy 
monarchs are truly representative of such desirable traits 
indicative of dignity, stability and endurance. — The Red- 
moods. 



J8 



Societv op Engineers 



The Mercator Projection 



By Walter Landers, Membe 



The problem to be contended with in making a map of 
any part or all of the earth's surface has its difficulty in the 
fact that the earth is a sphere, and a sphere cannot be 
spread out on a plane surface without being stretched or 
torn in some place or other. This difficulty is well illus- 
trated by attempting to flatten out a section of a rubber 
ball ; the central part will not come into the plane of the 
outer edge or rim without some stretching or tearing some- 
where on the outer edge. This is exactly the difficulty that 
has to be contended with in map making, and all map pro- 
jections have as their objective their own particular method 
of solving this problem. 

There are, however, some surfaces that can be spread out 
in a plane without stretching or tearing, and the two that are 
utilized in map projections are the cone and the cylinder. If 
a right circular cone is made of paper or cardboard, and is 
cut from any point on the base to the apex, the conical sur- 
face can be spread out in a plane without stretching or tear- 
ing. In the same way, if a hollow cylinder is made of the 
same material and cut from base to base, it can be rolled out 
flat in the plane, and any curve drawn on either of these two 
surfaces will have the same length after development that it 
had before. 

The Mercator Projection is a cylindrical projection tan- 
gent to the sphere at the equator. The meridians and par- 
allels are straight lines forming two parallel systems per- 
pendicular to each other, with the lines representing the 
meridians equally spaced. Since, on the sphere, the meri- 
dians in reality converge toward the poles, it is evident that 
there is a stretching of the parallels on the Mercator pro- 
jection that increases as the distance of the parallels from 
equator increases, and this stretching becomes infinite at the 
poles. We now come to the outstanding principle that 
designates the Mercator Projection, and it is this: The 
meridians are stretched in the same proportion as the par- 
allels, or in other words the longitude is stretched to make 
it equal to the stretching in latitude. In this way we get a 
conformal projection in which any small area is shown 
in practically its true shape, but in which large areas will be 
distorted by the change in scale from point to point. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that the Mercator Pro- 
jection does not give an equal area representation. The 
parallel of 60 latitude is just one-half the length of the 
equator. A square degree quadrangle at 60° of latitude 
has approximately the same length north and south as has 
such a quandrangle at the equator, but the extent east and 
west is just one-half as great. Its area then, is approxi- 
mately one-half the area of the one at the equator. Now, 
on the Mercator Projection the longtitude at 60 r is stretched 
to double its length, and hence the scale along the meridian 
has to be increased an equal amount. The area is there- 
fore increased four-fold. At 80° of latitude the area is 
increased to 36 times its real size, and at 89° an area 
would be shown more than 3000 times as large as an equal 
sized area at the Equator. 

This excessive exaggeration of area is most serious if 
the map be used for general purposes, and this fact should 
be emphasized because it is undoubtedly true that many 
people's general ideas of geography are based on Mercator 
Maps. On the map, Greenland shows larger than South 
America, but in reality South America is nine times as 



large as Greenland. In spite of these defects, however, the 
Mercator Projection has certain qualities and characteris- 
tics that render it invaluable and give to it the universal 
use it enjoys. Nautical charts in every country are made 
on it because it fulfills the requirements of navigators in a 
way that no other projection does. 

The shortest distance between any two points on the sur- 
face of the earth, considering the earth as a sphere, is along 
the arc of the great circle that joins them. A rhumb line, 
or loxodromic curve, is a line which crosses the successive 
meridians at a constant angle. A ship sailing a rhumb is 
therefore on one course continuously following the rhumb 
line. The only projection on which such a line is represented 
as a straight line is the Mercator, and the only projection 
on which a great circle is represented as a straight line is 
the Gnomonic ; but as any oblique great circle intersects the 
meridians of the Gnomonic projection as different angles, 
to follow such a line would necessitate constant alterations 
in the direction of the ship's head, an operation that would 
be impracticable. The choice is then between a rhumb 
line, which is longer than the arc of a great circle and at 
every point of which the direction is the same, or the arc 
of a great circle which is shorter than the rhumb line, but 
at every point of which the direction is different. 

Since it is impossible to steer a ship exactly along the arc 
of a great circle, yet for economical reasons it is imperative 
that the distance travelled shall be as short as human skill 
will permit, the problem is solved by selecting points that 
are convenient course distances apart along the great circle 
track from the place of beginning to the destination, so 
that the ship may be steered from one to the other along the 
rhumb lines joining them; and as the number of such points 
is increased, so does the track of the ship more nearly co- 
incide with the arc of the great circle, or shortest sailing 
distance. 

Because of the facility and ease with which these courses 
may be plotted upon it, the Mercator Projection, except in 
high latitudes, has attained an importance beyond all others. 
The great circle is plotted upon it from a Gnomonic chart, 
or by calculation, and the arc is then subdivided into con- 
venient sailing chords. If these courses are carefully fol- 
lowed, the port of destination will be reached by the short- 
est practicable route. 

It suffices for the mariner to measure by means of pro- 
tractor the angle which his course makes with any meridian. 
With this course corrected for magnetic variation and de- 
viation, his compass route is established. 

The Hydrographic Office, U. S. Navy, has prepared a 
series of charts in the Gnomonic projection which are most 
useful in laying off great circle courses. As any straight 
line on these charts represents a great circle, by taking from 
them the latitude and longitudes of a number of points along 
the line, the great circle arcs may be transferred to the Mer- 
cator system, where bearings are obtainable. It should be 
borne in mind, moreover, that in practice, the shortest course 
is not always necessarily the shortest passage than can be 
made. Alterations become necessary on account of the irre- 
gular distribution of land and water, the presence of rocks 
and shoals, the effect of set and drift of currents, and of the 
direction and strength of the wind. It, therefore, is neces- 
sary in determining a course, to find out if the rhumb line 



Year Book. 1927 



[39 



(or lines) to destination is interrupted or impracticable, and, 
if so, to determine intermediate points between which the 
rhumb lines are uninterrupted. The resolution of the prob- 
lem at the start, however, must set out with the great circle, 
or a number of great circles, drawn from one objective point 
to the next. In the interests of economy, a series of courses, 
or composite sailing, will frequently be the solution. 

Another advantage of the Mercator Projection is that 
meridians, or north and south lines, are always up and down, 
parallel with the east and west borders of the map, just 
where one expects them to be. The latitude and longitude 
of any place is readily found from its position on the map, 
and the convenience of plotting points or positions by 
straight edge across the map from the appropriate divisions 
on the border prevents errors, especially in navigation. A 
true compass course may be carried by a parallel ruler from 
a compass rose to any part of the chart without error. 



From the nature of the projection, any narrow belt of 
latitude in any part of the world, reduced or enlarged to 
any desired scale, represents approximately true form and 
shape for the ready use of any locality. All charts are 
similar, and when brought to the same scale, will fit exactly. 
Adjacent charts of uniform longitude scale will join ex- 
actly and will remain oriented when joined. 

The projection provides for longitudinal repetition so that 
continuous sailing routes east or west around the world may 
be completely shown on one map. 

Finally, as stated before, because of these advantages, 
and also because it is easily constructed, the Mercator Pro- 
jection, except in high latitudes, has attained an importance 
for navigational purposes which puts all others in the back- 
ground. 



Note: The writer is indebted to Chas. H. Deetz and Oscar S. 
Adams of the United States Coast & Geodetic Survey for con- 
siderable information in this article. 



JWltZ 



B\> Mark Kern, Memhe 
Basil, Switzerland. 



I held a position for five months on the secretariat of the 
"World Power Conference", sectional meeting of Basil. 
The conference you have heard about, since it was a meet- 
ing of world-wide importance, dealing with all kinds of 
problems on electrification of international concern. There 
were delegates of 34 nations present and among them 
many from the United States. I speak several languages 
and I translated for the conference a number of technical 
reports, and in this respect I secured a good insight into 
some of the interesting problems of world concern. 

Permit me to say a few words about the electrification 
of the Swiss Federal Railways. These railways are state- 
owned and represent a net-work of about 2868 ken or 
equivalent to about 1 750 miles. Electrification was 
started in the year 1918 as an outcome of the World War 
for Switzerland could not get a sufficient amount of coal 
from the other countries and therefore was suffering from a 
coal shortage. At present about 625 miles are electrified 
and the end of 1928 it is expected that this number will be 
increased to about 1000 miles and after this date electrifi- 
cation will come to a stand-still for about fives years in 
order to give the country an opportunity to regain its fin- 
ancial breath. 

At the close of 1928 all main lines will be electrified, 
only side lines will have steam traction. The cost of this 
work is very expensive. At present the national railway 
debt is approximately 140,000,000 Swiss francs or $28,- 
000,000.00. For this reason there will be no work after 
1928 and now the Federal Railways are dispensing with 
the services of a great number of engineers. 

It must be admitted that this electrification means a 
tremendous progress for the country. Traveling is more 
convenient; as an example, the line from Basil to Zurich 
which connects two of the largest cities of Switzerland by a 
distance of about 60 miles. Express trains make four stops 



between the two cities which are separated by a range of 
mountains. Formerly it took the steam-trains 1 hour and 50 
minutes to make the trip, today the electric trains cover this 
distance in 1 hour and 1 minutes. The electric trains 
gain time on the steep grades and in this respect can make 
60 miles per hour. At present the Federal Railways have 
about 350 electric locomotives and about 600 steam loco- 
motives. 

Other activities of engineering in Switzerland are the 
correction and rebuilding of the state highways and needed 
on account of the ever increasing number of automobiles. 
Today there are about 40,000 machines in the country and 
equivalent to about one car for every 1 00 people. Six 
years ago there were only about 4,000 cars in the country. 
The state highways and city streets are constructed of 
asphalt. 

The employment condition here is not encouraging. The 
country is simply crowded with young engineer graduates 
and they are willing to work for any salary. An engineer 
is offered a salary for which no street-cleaner or street car 
conductor would be willing to work. If an engineer suc- 
ceeds in getting a position they pay him from 200 to 300 
Swiss francs a month, which is equal to $40 to $60, 
and this amount does not represent a living wage. The 
outcome of the war crisis was unfavorable for this country, 
and the people in general have become rather discouraged. 
Naturally the population of the country shows a very small 
increase and those who can, emigrate, the majority going to 
Brazil and the Argentine. In 1915 the population of 
Switzerland was 3,882,829 and in 1925 it was 3,936,- 
330. These figures should already tell you enough, they 
tell you that this is no growth at all, but just plain stagna- 
tion. My own home town of Basil had 132,000 in 1910 
and today it has only increased to 1 40,000. As else- 
where in Europe conditions in any line of work and especi- 
ally in civil engineering are very bad. 



40] 



Society of Encinf.frs 



Wanted: Men to Carry "A Message to Garcia" 



Bv Albert J. Capron, Secretary. 



Folios mho never do any more than they get paid for. 
never gel paid for more than they do. — Elbert Hubbard. 



The world is always looking for the man who is able and 
willing to carry a message. 

He who is ready and willing to obey orders is wanted. 
Carrying "A Message to Garcia" involves more than 
simply taking a package to an individual. 

Forty million copies of "A Message to Garcia" have 
been printed and distributed by nations, corporations and 
individuals. 

The moral of that document from the pen Elbert Hub- 
bard has probably inspired countless thousands of men to 
greater achievement. 

The "message" has been translated into every written 
language including Chinese, Japanese and Hindoo. 

When national governments take notice, it is always 
something worth while. 

But did you ever read "A Message to Garcia?" If not, 
get a copy and don't go to bed tonight until you have. 

Then place it under your pillow and read it again in 
the morning before you go to work. 
It will make your task easier. 
It will put stuff in your backbone. 
It will make you look the world in the face fearlessly. 
It will brace your shoulders and impel you to go and do 
things worth while. 

May the Lord have mercy on the poor fellow who never 
made a success of anything. He needs Hubbard's "Mes- 
sage." 

Many an employer has told me that he is astounded at 
the number of employes who are wholly lacking individual 
initiative. 

Such individuals need a self-starter at their elbows 
every working hour of the day. 

Could such as they carry a message to Garcia? The 
great majority of them realize little and care less what 
it means. 

Have you ever looked up the meaning of the word 
introspection? 

It means self-examination; looking inside yourself, so to 
speak; sizing yourself up and determining what is lacking 
in your moral fibre. 

Once I asked an old top sergeant what he thought of 
the army as a career for a man. 

"If there is a drop of man in you, it will make a man 
out of you; if not, it will ruin one as sure as hell," he re- 
plied. 

Did it ever occur to you that there is only one reason for 
your employment and that is to make a profit out of your 
work? 

If there is no profit in your work do you believe your em- 
ployer will retain your services longer than it takes him to 
replace you? 

The more valuable you are to your employer the more 
certain it is that you have made a place for yourself with 
him. 

A short time ago I was shown through a large plant by 
its manager. As we passed along he remarked about sev- 
eral men at work somewhat like this: 

"That fellow is working only for his pay check. I 
shall let him go as soon as he can be replaced." 

Of another he said: "I can't get along without him; a 



valuable workman; worth a great deal to us; always on 
the job; does all he can to help make a success of the 
business." 

When we had completed the inspection I summed up 
his remarks and found that a large number of the plant's 
employes were due for early discharge. 

How do you stack up with your employer? 

Test yourself. 

If your employer wanted something done specially would 
he be likely to ask you to do it? 

Which concerns you most, your task or your pay check? 

Is your eye bright, or does it lack lustre? 

A "live" eye indicates a "live" brain. Beware of the 
"dead" eye. 

Perhaps you may not have a high voltage brain power, 
but be sure you use to the uttermost what you have . 

That is all you ever will have, but as it is used, so will it 
develop. 

It isn't the amount, it's how it operates. 

Since you left school how many hours have you put in 
in studying and reading? What periodicals do you sub- 
scribe for and read? 

In fact, what do you read? Something worth while, 
or something "light"? That, too, is important. 

A lot of maudlin sympathy is wasted on the ne'er-do- 
well and the "poor, downtrodden working man." 

There is plenty of room at the top of the ladder. 

How far up have you gone? 

In our many years of experience with employment the 
most pitiful case we have are the men who past middle 
life, are still "looking for job." 

Many a man has spent all his life "looking for a job." 

He should have made a place for himself in his younger 
days of service. 

Each man makes or unmakes himself; it's up to each man. 
No one can "make" us. 

Did you ever notice that no man works harder than the 
successful man? His are days of application to duty. That 
is what made his life a success. 

When something big is to be done it is the successful, 
busy man that is appealed to. 

The operation of this rule is emphasized forcibly in civic 
and organization work. 

Those busy, successful men can always be counted upon 
to take a message to Garcia. 

Were you called upon to carry a message to Garcia 
would you smile and say "sure" and be off? 

If your employer asked you to do something not ex- 
actly in your line or to your liking, would you hedge and 
explain: "I'm not paid to do that?" 

Whether you carry a dinner pail or eat in a restaurant, 
be ready and willing to help the employer. All of them 
are not flint-hearted. 

They usually back the men who are willing to do the 
work that they may be unexpectedly called upon to per- 
form. 

"Sure as shooting fish" there is a reward for the man 
who will carry a message to Garcia. 

It may not be immediate, but it will come in due time. 



Year Book. 1927 



Remember, your employer, too, is working for some- 
one — the company — the stockholders. 

There are more big jobs than there are men to perform 
them. 

Put yourself to the test; apply a good generous dose of 
introspection. 

When you find the "leaks" plug them up with a deter- 
mination to never be found wanting should you be called 
upon to carry a message to Garcia. 



A popular song has for its title: "The World Is Wait- 
ing for the Sunrise." 

That's lovely and sentimental and has its place. 

But what the world needs most is the man who will 
carry a message to Garcia. 

It is waiting for him eagerly and will welcome him with 
open arms. 

And don't you forget it. 



The Design and Description of a Modern 
Operated Telephone Exchange 



Bj> J. Wallace, 
Past Vice-President. 



Ever since man learned to express his thoughts in words 
he has been developing new methods of transmitting his 
words until today it seems that the art has about reached 
the limit of perfection; but as long as the engineering pro- 
fession progresses so may we expect to see greater im- 
provements in the line of communication. 

Let us look at one branch of the communication system, 
the telephone. 

In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell successfully developed 
a piece of apparatus by means of which he was able to 
transmit his voice over a short distance using electricity and 
a wire as the transmitting medium. 

From the rough instrument constructed by Mr. Bell to 
the modern telephone there has been many a trial and effort 
put forth by the engineer to bring it up to its present day 
efficiency. 

The telephone instrument by itself is of very little value 
in the communication field but when it is connected through 
the network of lines from the customer's premises to the cen- 
tral office equipment we are enabled to converse with our 
next door neighbor or to a distant relative thousands of 
miles away with as much ease as is required to speak to a 
person across the table. 

In order that a telephone system be established in a com- 
munity the Telephone Engineers are called upon to discuss 
the requirements of such a system. The Commercial En- 
gineer visits the community and after a survey of the city- 
decides the classes of service which will best serve the people 
at an economical rate. He then gives to the Traffic and 
Plant Engineers his estimate of the number of lines and 
stations of the various classes of service which will be served 
for a period of years. 

The Traffic and Plant Engineers will then determine the 
type and amount of equipment and outside plant required. 

The office of the Chief Engineer will then prepare detail 
plans and specifications. Estimates for the expenditures 
involved will be submitted to the executives of the company 
for approval. After approval the equipment and outside 
plant material is ordered and in due course of time the 
buildings are erected and the plant is installed ready for 
operation. A discussion of the details of the engineering, 
installation and testing would be very interesting but only 



some of the details will be described; suffice it to say that 
practically every branch of engineering is employed. 

In a metropolitan exchange area the engineers find it 
to be more economical to establish several offices which will 
be installed in the various localities. We will now con- 
sider such an exchange which will serve several thousand 
subscribers. 

The central office equipment will be housed in telephone 
buildings especially designed for this class of business, they 
are generally built to have an initial capacity for 8 years' 
growth of equipment and designed to care for a certain 
number of telephone units of 1 0,000 subscriber capacity. 

In one of the down-town offices there will also be in- 
stalled the necessary toll, telegraph equipment to handle 
the messages from and outgoing to all parts of the country ; 
besides the regular toll and telegraph business we might 
find the telephoto equipment, and equipment for connecting 
the toll lines to some of the radio broadcasting stations. 

The outside plant in the larger exchanges has in the 
down-town area and the main cable routes the wires layed 
in undeground conduit, which is made of vetrified clay pro- 
ducts,* wood pipe or fibre compound pipe. In the residential 
districts the wires or cables are supported upon poles. 

Cable varying from 1 9 pairs to 1 2000 pairs are used. 
The larger cables are used for trunk cables and main feed- 
ers whereas the smaller cables are connected to the main 
ones for the distribution lines to the outlying districts. 

It is to be understood that telephone service is entirely 
different from electric light and power, water and gas 
service in that each telephone subscriber has an individual 
pair of wires from his telephone to the central office in- 
stead of being tapped off of a common feeder pipe or wire 
as is the case with light, power, water and gas service. 

The telephone at the subscriber's premises generally con- 
sists of a be, transmitter and receiver, however, in some cases 
special apparatus is provided to meet the particular require- 
ments of service. In many cases the subscriber's service 
consists of a private branch exchange switchboard and as 
many telephones as are required to give the company the 
proper service. 

In connection with the work of the Commercial Engineer, 
he first secures maps of sufficient size to lay out the blocks 
of the entire city and on each block will be spotted the pros- 



SOCIETV OK ENCINKER.s 



pective subscribers for the initial installation period and also 
the possible future subscribers for a still longer period. 

The work of spotting these stations is very carefully 
studied, first by a personal survey of each block to deter- 
mine the present number of residences and places of busi- 
ness and then estimating the number of telephone possibil- 
ities. 

The Commercial Man will consult the past census fig- 
ures, the various city organizations to find out the trend 
of growth of the city for future growth, for as the city 
grows in population and new business enterprises will be 
started, so will the telephone business increase. 

With the commercial survey completed, a summary is 
made of the possibilities and the probable growth for the 
initial period which is generally adopted as three years is 
given to the Plant and Traffic Engineers. 

The Plant Engineer is given the commercial maps of 
the city upon which are spotted the probable subscribers. 
He thoroughly studies the possible routes for cable and 
wire to best serve the city. 

In this way he determines the best location of the central 
office or in a large city the location of the various offices 
of the exchange. The location of the offices are generally 
at the wire center ; which is the most economical point from 
which to distribute the wires to the subscribers' premises 
also the lines from one office to another which are called 
trunk lines. 

From the central office location conduits are laid in the 
various directions of the cable routes, sufficient ducts are orig- 
inally laid to meet the requirements for a period of years 
as it is very expensive to open up the streets to lay new 
conduit, therefore on the original installation we will find 
many vacant ducts. 

It will be found that starting from the office large cables 
are used both for subscriber as well as for trunks between 
offices ; 1 200 pair of wires are today being used very ex- 
tensively, as the cables are extended for a distance the sizes 
of them decrease until in some places of distribution they 
are as small as 19 pairs of wires to feed a block in the 
residential districts. 

Thus it will be seen the Plant Engineer determines the 
location of the wire centers which will be the most econom- 
ical places for the offices due to cable distribution, but it is 
not always possible to secure the real estate at this point due 
to the owner demanding too high a price or it might be a 
very undesirable location for the operators. The Plant 
Engineer will then change the cable routes to meet the new 
location of the office. 

The Traffic Engineer upon receiving the Commercial 
Estimate for the city will commence at once to estimate the 
amount of switchboards that will be required to handle the 
traffic so that at the peak load there will be no delay in the 
service. 

In the case of a single office this is a comparatively simple 
process but where there will be several offices, studies must 
be made to adequately provide for the service originating 
in one office and being completed in that office; also for 



that originating in one office and being completed in the 
various offices of the exchange. 

To handle the service between offices a sufficient num- 
ber of trunk lines must be provided to handle the traffic 
during the peak load of the busy hour, which generally 
is about 10 per cent of the entire day. 

After the traffic recommendations which cover the 
switchboard requirements, space for operators' rest-room, 
locker-room and dining-room have been received by the 
Equipment Engineer, plans are prepared to care for the 
initial three year equipment and future additions for the 
eight year period ; as it has been found advisable to build a 
building to care for an eight-year period. These equip- 
ment plans are then turned over to the building architect 
who designs the building to meet the eight year require- 
ments and framed to make additions for the future life of 
the ultimate office. 

The Equipment Engineer after laying out the floor plans 
proceeds to prepare his specifications and estimates for the 
equipment to meet the traffic recommendations and to pro- 
vide the necessary frames and racks to terminate the under- 
ground cables for the subscriber and trunk lines. 

A brief description of the Central is given below. 

The individual lines come into the central office through 
cable and are terminated on a main distributing frame hav- 
ing protective devices to guard against lightning and other 
high potential current. The lines are then connected to 
another frame to which are connected the subscriber and 
trunk switchboards. 

On the subscriber swithboard are located jacks and 
lamps for each subscriber line and jacks for each trunk 
line, each section of subscriber switchboard is arranged 
for three operators ; the number of sections installed depends 
upon the number of subscribers' calls that can be handled 
by an operator during the busy hour. 

On the trunk switchboard are located jacks for each 
subscriber's line and trunks from the various other offices 
in the exchange. Each trunk switchboard is generally ar- 
ranged for two operators who have approximately 48 
trunks each. Each section is equipped with 10,000 jacks 
or the capacity of the unit ; the number of sections required 
depends upon the number of subscriber calls to be handled 
in this office. A trunk operator will ordinarily handle 500 
calls per hour so that if there are 60,000 calls per day, and 
6,000 calls during the busy hour, 1 2 operators will be re- 
quired. Besides the 1 2 operators for the local service 1 
operator will be required for handling calls for toll service 
and 1 operator will be required as a trouble operator. 

Thus it will be seen to service such an office as above 
there will be at least between 6,000 and 8,000 answering 
jacks and lamps in the subscribers' switchboard of about 
30 positions, and 70,000 subscribers multiple jacks in 7 
trunk sections. 

The power plant required for a full unit office is a 
large installation in itself, consisting of the following: two 
motor generator sets of 800 ampere capacity each, two sets 
of ringing machines, two sets of message registers current 
machines, two sets of coin collect current machines, a power 
board arranged with the necessary panels, switches and 
protective devices, and two sets of storage batteries, one for 
24 volt and one for 48 volt current supply. 



Yi m< Book, 1927 



The Russian Explorer in the Pacific Northwest 



B\l A. E. ZlMMF.RMAN. .Wi'mfv 

Historical Committee 



Few people realize it was the Russians who first turned 
the eyes of the world upon the agricultural and climatic 
possibilities of California. Gold as a productive mineral 
in this country at the time of their adventure was unknown, 
although it lay in a vast territorial expanse scarcely a day's 
march from some of the scenes of their activity. The Spanish 
were the first to explore the southern portion of this coast, 
but they made no attempt to settle farther north than Mexico, 
until rumors of certain Russian activities along the North 
Pacific coast-line were heard in all of the European cap- 
itals, an event that even caused England to send out 
explorers to investigate the veracity of such statements. 

That the Russians were ambitious cannot be denied for 
history states that in the 1 6th century a robber chief by 
the name of \ ermak crossed the Ural Mountains, and was 
followed by other Russians who were able to conquer the 
entire territory of Siberia, that land of cold and desolation. 
Some expeditions ended at the 
Pacific sea-board — from this 
point Admiral Behring took 
up his work of exploring the 
North Pacific. 

It was in the year 1 74 1 
that Admiral Behring discov- 
ered and explored the north- 
ern channel of the Pacific 
leading into the Arctic Ocean 
and then sailed along the coast 
of Alaska, making rough 
charts of the shore line as far 
south as latitude 56 North. 
Communication being slow it 
was not until 1 765 that this in- 
formation reached the ears of 
European diplomats and caus- 
ed the Spanish to awaken to 
the danger of losing the coast 
to the Russian. The Spanish 
government started the work 
at once of occupying this land 
before it was lost to the north- 




ern men. 

It was about I 763 that the Russians decided to build 
a settlement at Sitka, Alaska, Latitude 5 7 North, this being 
a considerable distance north of any point reached by 
explorers of other countries. 

The next event of moment was the building of a ship 
of native wood, upon North American soil and launched 
in August 1 794. The vessel was christened "Phoenix" 
by Governor Baranoff of Sitka, and for many years it 
made regular trips across the Pacific. 

In 1 806 another Russian explorer Urey Liniansky, dur- 
ing a voyage from Sitka to Canton, China, without warn- 
ing found his ship to be aground upon a coral reef in the 
Hawaiian archipelago. It took three days of strenuous 
labor on the part of the seamen to save the boat from 
destruction and when again floating safely Liniansky sailed 
to an island located within the reef and went ashore. This 
island is 970 nautical miles from Honolulu, in an approxi- 
mately west, northwest direction, and to this day bears 
the name of Liniansky Island in honor of its discoverer and 
explorer. 



It was also in the year 1 806 that Governor Baranoff 
decided to locate a colony in California (New Albion). 
The climate at Sitka was very severe and as it was im- 
possible to raise agricultural products many of the food 
supplies for Sitka had to come from the vicinity of the Black 
Sea, China, and Siberia. Due to the long haul and un- 
certainty of delivery the little colony at times was threatened 
with starvation and it was necessary for them to locate some 
source of supply within a reasonable distance. 

Instructions were given to Chamberlain Resanof to sail 
for California in the ship "Juno" with orders to stop at San 
Francisco and trade with the Spanish and if possible to 
secure the necessary food supplies, also to carefully chart 
the coast line on his voyage and to find a suitable place for 
a settlement where a colony could favorably engage in 
agriculture. As Spanish authority was not recognized by 
the Russians any farther north than San Francisco Bay, it 
did not seem necessary to con- 
sult with them regarding the 
proposed settlement. 

In time Resanof returned to 
Sitka with the charts and con- 
siderable interesting informa- 
tion of the country between 
the Columbia River and San 
Francisco Bay. After care- 
fully studying the charts and 
hearing the reports Governor 
Baranoff ordered Kuskoff to 
sail on the ship "Kodiak" and 
definitely determine a settle- 
ment location. 

Kuskof made an attempt to 
enter the Columbia, but the 
bar was too shallow and he 
was forced to sail elsewhere. 
His next stop was at Trinidad 
and as this place appeared to 
be unfavorable he set sail for 
Bodega Bay (Port Rumiant- 
soff) ; here in the year 1809 
he constructed a few tempor- 
ary buildings, later to return to Sitka and report on his 
findings and location. 

In 1811, Kuskof again sailed for Bodega Bay for the 
purpose of further exploration. He found a favored spot 
at Ross (Madshui-nui), but continued to make further in- 
vestigations of portions of the adjacent territory. He ex- 
plored the Russian River for many miles inland, and 
after returning from a trip to the Santa Rosa Valley de- 
cided on Ross as the final location; here he immediately 
started work of the building of a fort and other structures. 
The fort at Ross is still standing but in a condition of 
decay. However the State of California is to have it condi- 
tioned and preserved as a remembrance of the early pioneer- 
ing enterprises of the Russians. 

From Ross as a center, activities flourished and fishing 
posts were established as far south as the Catalina Islands, 
including one on the Farallone Islands, and a trading post 
was erected at Sacramento. The Russians at Fort Ross 
were the only mechanics in California at the time of their 
exploitations. Their mechanical ability was recognized by 



The Tablet at Mt. St. Helena 



44] 



Society of Encineers 



the Spanish who engaged their services on intricate work, 
including the repair of fire arms. 

Russian surveys and charting extended from the Bering 
Sea on the north to the Catalina Islands on the south and 
from the Hawaiian Islands on the west to Sacramento on 
the east. 

One of the last of well known of scientists and explorers 
to visit California was Captain Otto Von Kotezebue. Part 
of his work included trips into 
local territory presently Marin 
County. the charting of 
Suisun Bay and the lower 
portion of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin Rivers. Dur- 
ing his trips he was accom- 
panied by a botanist of recog- 
nized authority. Dr. Esch- 
choltz. In later years Dr. 
Eschcholtz was honored by our 
citizens, and the yellow poppy, 
the California State flower is 
now botanically known as 
Eschcholtzia California. 

In the year 1 84 1 two 
Russians placed a hand- 
scribed bronze tablet on the 
summit of Mt. St. Helena, ele- 
vation 4343. In later years this 
tablet was removed, evidently 
at the hands of curio hunters, 
to be restored in fac-simile of 
the original June 1912 by The 
Native Sons of The Golden 
West, as occasioned by the 1 00th anniversary of the found- 
ing of Fort Ross. The history of this tablet is rather 
obscure and the reason for the placing of the tablet upon this 
chosen spot is not definitely known. The theory has been 




Russian Chapel at Fort Ross. Built 1811 



advanced and it appears logical, that during the Russian 
activities in Sonoma and the surrounding counties they 
realized that sooner or later they must leave this country 
or be forced backward by the already encroaching Mexicans 
and Americans, and as Mt. St. Helena was used as a survey 
base they placed this bronze tablet to mark to the advancing 
people, the center of Russian activities in this territory. 
It is worthy of note that the Indians never molested the 
Russians, in fact at all times 
they were the best of friends. 
Explorers and travelers were 
welcome to make camp with 
the Indians. 

So stands the work of the 
explorers, the men who charted 
the seas, the men who trod the 
weary miles in an effort to 
find a place to build a settle- 
ment, and last and most im- 
portant in our profession they 
brought the first man of me- 
chanical skill to this coast. 
The shaping of tools, the 
building of ships, the construc- 
tion of the first power-driven 
flour mill are real evidence of 
an undertaking important in 
the pioneer history of Califor- 
nia. Fort Ross, Bodega Bay 
and the summit of Mt. St. Hel- 
ena are truly historical spots 
and it is intended that the State 
of California should be in- 
terested in the extent of preserving such structures as may 
remain, that our coming generations be given the oppor- 
tunity of remembering the men who introduced skilled arts 
into the West. 



Treatise on Cork 



(Continued from iPage 35) 



of corks for which there is no demand into a smaller size 
for which orders are pouring in. 

But the manufacture of corks as well as of these other 
articles involves waste, and to an extent little dreamed of. 
In producing corks, fully sixty per cent of the raw material 
which started out on its journey through the factory, may 
be found later in the form of scrap at blocking and taper- 
ing machines; but even in this mutilated state, the cork is 
still valuable, and after proper treatment, appears in the 
form of some valuable by-product. As a matter of fact 
nothing is wasted; the smallest particles are utilized. Large 
quantities of scrap are ground up, sifted, and made into 
composition cork. From "Suberit" — as the finest variety 
of this material is termed — light, close grained, and tough, 
without the large pores of the natural cork — table mats to 
be placed under hot dishes, pin cushions, fishing line floats, 
polishing wheels, and instrument handles are manufactured; 
while from "Acme", a somewhat coarser grade, insoles, 
bath mats, washers, gaskets, and stomological cork. 



Part of the waste is used in making cork floor tiling. 
This material is made in three shades of brown, and its 
warmth of tone and delicately mottled and veined appear- 
ance give it a distinctive charm all its own. 

Cork flour is another by-product, and is manufactured 
from waste bark by much the same method as that em- 
ployed in grinding wheat. This beautiful light brown ma- 
terial is one of the chief constituents of high grade linoleum. 

The many different grades of granulated cork waste, find 
a wide sphere of usefulness for packing and insulating pur- 
poses. In the last mentioned field, the cork now ranks pre- 
eminent. Its peculiar structure as seen under the micro- 
scope, myriads of sealed air cells impervious to air and 
water — renders it not only splendid non-conductor of heat, 
but non-aborbent of moisture . 

Cork bark after its devious career in American fac- 
tories, performs a service similar to that of its early days in 
the hot climate of its native land, when, sheathing trunks 
and branches, it prevents the sun scorching rays, and the 
parching dins from heating and drying up the cool life- 
giving sap of its parent tree. 



Ylar Book. 1927 



Bij Hans Graff, Member. 



Engineer" 

— Hoover 



At the very beginning when engineering began to be rec- 
ognized as a profession and for many generations there- 
after, the engineer was a military officer charged with the 
construction of fortifications. He did the task assigned to 
him well and served his country unadvertised so that as 
the world moved on each period has witnessed increase in 
the range of his duties. He has always been and always 
will be a big factor in the progress of the world for normal 
human existence is to an ever increasing extent depending 
directly upon products of engineering and applied science. 
Truthfully it has been said that the progress and destiny of 
the world lies largely in the hands of the engineering pro- 
fession. No time has seen greater appreciation of the 
value of the engineer to the community, never before has 
he appeared in story or in moving pictures so prominently 
as at present. Yet — in face of all this the community at 
large regards him as a glorified hired man or mechanic who 
by his skill puts into material form the dreams of others 
and rarely thinks of the engineer as a business executive or 
a civic head or a political administrator. Yes, he is a 
dreamer, for without his vision of the structure or machine 
long before it takes form, and without his knowledge to 
formulate the dream into plan, and his skill to put that 
plan into being, nothing results. 

The engineer does not advertise for his ethical code for- 
bids, maintaining that while a man may advertise his goods 
yet he must not advertise himself. In the past it also has 
been the habit of the engineering societies which control the 
profession to hold themselves aloof from public and politi- 
cal affairs as collectively unethical. The engineer has 
dealt so long with matter that he has failed to consider his 
fitness and even his duty to deal with mankind, and false 
professional pride and indifference have held back many 
a high class man through unwillingness to mingle with 
and rub shoulder against the great majority. 

The engineer, as well as any other man, is judged by 
his achievements — the only form of judgment allowed man 
on this earth. He has to his credit achievements of the 
well nigh impossible as a result of his patience, his determi- 
nation, his hard work and all-abiding confidence. Fear 
and doubt which are the causes of most of the troubles of 
humanity resulting in centuries of retardation do not exist 
for there is nothing impossible of accomplishment. 

William Mulholland, the well known engineer and build- 
er of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, only recently said: 
"The trouble with a great many men who are brilliant in 
mathematics is that they don't or can't broaden mentally in 
other directions. Take engineers for example. I know- 
very few engineers who read books outside of the technical 
stuff of their profession, and consequently their views are 
not broad and their outlook on life is restricted. They 
come in contact with few people, so their knowledge of 
human nature is limited. I believe that with our limited per- 
sonal contact with men who do things, who know things, 
and who are leaders in thought and achievement, the only 
feasible way to study mankind is by reading good books 
written by men who are masters of their art. There are 
more great men dead than there are living, and the only 
way to find out what they knew is through reading. The 
proper study of mankind is man. The test of a man's 
mind is his knowledge of humanity, of the politics of human 
life, his comprehension of the things that move man." 



Stop ! You engineer ! Engrave these words deeply 
into your mind. Ask yourself, are you a good mixer and 
did you ever hear of the saying, "The mixer is the win- 
ner"? It is axiomatic beyond a doubt, that if you cannot 
make yourself interesting to other people, other people will 
not interest themselves in you. Your training has failed to 
teach you that the greatest task of all is the ability to 
persuade men; and unwillingness or inability to enter dis- 
cussion either through modesty or lack of knowledge or pre- 
paredness has held you back. You lack socialibility, you 
are not a ready mixer. Get out of your shell, you engi- 
neer, come in contact with other people besides those of 
your profession, see these other people and listen to them, 
listen to their ideas on a subject. It is surprising the ideas 
these people have, often people of little education will 
vouchsafe a solution to an engineering problem no matter 
how intricate, or how much mathematics in the proper solu- 
tion may be involved, or whether the problem is economical- 
ly sound. On the other hand great men like Washington 
and Lincoln rose to leadership because of their constant 
consideration of the human and economic requirements of 
their country and of their fellow man. 

Today the problem is to bring the engineer to the front. 
The Society of Engineers is seeking at the present time a 
wider recognition on the part of the public of the fact that 
the training of the engineer fits him for public service, that 
he should be recognized as a thinker and a leader. The 
Society is trying to give you a chance to improve yourself, 
to prepare you for this leadership, but, of course, it is en- 
tirely up to you individually, if you see fit to take advantage 
of your opportunity. The old saying, "Opportunity knocks 
but once at every man's door" is not true for Opportunity 
returns quite often, if you are prepared and listening for 
Opportunity's knocking. For the last two years classes in 
public speaking have been formed from members of the so- 
ciety out of which classes the members have derived a great 
many benefits, as confidence in themselves, fluency of speech, 
as well as a great amount of pleasure. Since the classes are 
limited to about twenty-five, the members became well ac- 
quainted with each other. There were speeches of a non- 
technical nature to be looked up, to be read up and to be 
prepared, and it was a treat to listen to the quaint discourse 
from your fellow member of the Society whom you had 
often seen during the regular monthly meetings sitting way 
off in a corner all by himself and never saying a word, 
and then there in the class, how different, what a delight- 
ful surprise and agreeable pleasure to listen to his views 
on the subject, after once the ice of timidity and bashful- 
ness and nervousness had been broken. How different from 
an actual case that I will tell you about. Some few weeks 
back I had occasion to see a man, an engineer quite promi- 
nent in a specializing line of work about an article for a mag- 
azine. Upon getting the information, desiring to close 
the article with a little touch of the human element in back 
of this industry, inquired about his hobbies. What was 
my surprise to learn that he had none, did not take interest 
in any sports whatsoever, did not read the daily papers or 
any good books, went to no lodges or shows, in fact, the 
sum and substance of his existence was his work and the 
articles apearing in technical journals on his particular spec- 
ialized work. Mind you — this man was quite prominent 
in his specialty and interesting while talking about his work 



46] 



Society of Engineers 



to one familiar with his specialty, but — in any other place 
than his office people would find him extremely dull, dumb 
and uninteresting, he would be all alone, lost in a crowd 
of people. Avoid progress along a too narrow technical 
line, you who through your training are eminently fitted 
to be leaders among men. 

You are trained through your studies, in those character- 
istics so highly necessary to a successful engineer and man- 
ager, in the art of observation, tempered with good common 
sense, and retained by a good memory. Grasp opportun- 
ities to develop, to familiarize yourself with human and 
commercial phases of business, and be not backward about 
shouldering responsibilities. Through the right relations with 
other human being, as your employes, your associates, or the 
public, one acquires social-mindedness, democracy, kindli- 
ness, understanding and sympathy, and the desire is created 
— a pre-eminent requirement for a good engineer and a good 
executive — to be a human being anxious to render service to 
society. Remember, the foremost thought in the mind of 
General Goethals was to build the Panama Canal, a 
project of the utmost service to society. This job honestly 
and well done resulted in wide publicity to him, so that 
without exaggeration, Goethals is one of the best known en- 
gineers of today. The same thing holds true about Her- 
bert Hoover, John Hays Hammond, and other well-known 
engineers. Service to society. Once you are in the lime- 
light let not false modesty cause you to hide your light under 
a bushel. Of John Hays Hammond the following story is 
told: One day a delegation of Britishers waited upon Mr. 
Hammond soliciting his services and said, "Mr. Hammond, 

the Co. Ltd. has been watching your work for some 

time and would appreciate your services if we can come to 
some agreement, what is the salary you expect?" Mr. 
Hammond, who had been getting $7,000 replied that fif- 
teen thousand a year would be the least for which he would 
undertake the project in Africa. As this amount was 
more than the delegation had been authorized to offer, 
before departing they requested and obtained three days 
of grace in which to telegraph to the London home office 
and get the sanction of their directors. So positive then 
was Mr. Hammond that he had over estimated his worth 
and that these men would not return that he dismissed the 
incident completely from his mind. What was his surprise 
as in the afternoon of the third day the same delegation 
waited upon him and informed him that his services at fif- 
teen thousand pounds had been accepted. Think of it, 
fifteen thousand pounds, about $73,000, nearly five times 
what he had asked, the delegation all the time thinking in 
pounds sterling while Mr. Hammond was thinking of our 
own American dollars. Incidents like this happen but once 
in a lifetime and only to a lucky few. There is not a chance 
in a hundred thousand that this would happen to you, but 
is illustrative of the fact that the engineer is constantly be- 
coming a more prominent factor in the field of important 
executive work and that capital is watching and is not dis- 
inclined to select the engineer for executives. Yes, as ex- 
ecutives, provided, that he has the qualifications so essential 
to an executive. These qualifications naturally vary for 
different localities and different industries but may be 
summed up as follows: To the engineer executive, expert- 
ness in his line is undoubtedly an asset for it is an advantage 
to him to know the details of his profession. Honesty, 
health, and energy both mental and physical are assets. 
But the one outstanding qualification for a good executive 
is that he must have the ability to handle his men, he must 
be a master in the human, the personal side of the enter- 
prise, that means he must have the ability to direct, to lead, 



to control, to win and hold confidence, to dominate by vir- 
tue of stronger yet sympathetic personality, to stimulate and 
inspire the worker to give his best efforts, to be ready to 
make decisions for others and to shoulder responsibilities. 
If the real spark is in a man from the start all the above 
can be developed and supplemented by environment, by 
education, by training and by experience. But the building 
of character must continue throughout life. 

Is it not a fact that the administration of our cities is 
nearly three-fourths, and that of our state and of our nation 
about one-half engineering — yet, how many people think 
of an engineer as "Mayor" or as "Governor" or as 
"President"? An engineering education, if properly inter- 
preted enables a man to think clearly and to analyze a 
problem correctly and to judge prudently administrative af- 
fairs. There is need today in our political administrations 
the good and governing judgment of men who can apply 
concrete thinking to the economic problems of civic affairs 
which very, very few of our average politicians of today 
are capable of doing, and if the engineer can be induced 
to take more interest in politics the welfare of the city 
would be tremendously enhanced. 

There are in this city and in other large cities many 
non-technical associations devoted to promoting the general 
welfare of the community, associations to which the leaders 
in business and professional men as doctors, lawyers, etc., 
but few engineers belong. Here subjects relating to the 
common interest of the populace as engineering, economical, 
social, political and business, are discussed, topics on which 
the engineer's viewpoint would be of particular benefit to 
all concerned. From the names of some of these we can 
get an idea of the aims or objects of these clubs as for 
instance "The Chamber of Commerce" and "The Science 
League of America". There are again other associations 
of equal importance whose aim is what might be called 
better business and public spirit as "The Commonwealth 
Club of California" or the "Kiwanis Club of San Fran- 
cisco". These clubs and others, will give you a chance 
to mingle with other people than those of your profession, 
will give you a chance to study people as they are, will give 
you a chance to express your views on the subjects being 
discussed, and if you are a mixer you surely will be the 
winner by associating yourself with these organizations. Re- 
member, come out of your shell, you owe it to yourself and 
to your fellow man. You owe "Service" and by and 
through "Service" you will be surprised how much hap- 
piness, pleasure and riches — riches perhaps not counted in 
dollars and cents but in the esteem of your fellow man — 
you will get out of this life. Remember, come out of 
your shell, you engineers! 



It is impossible adequately to promote the prosperity of 
our cities without the effective organization of business men, 
who not only understand needs and possibilities, but who 
are most competent to give direction to municipal effort. 
The development of the sense of civic responsibility always 
follows such co-operation and the gains to the community 
far exceed the mere material benefits to business enterprise. 
In the last analysis, the soundness of our national life will 
depend upon the standards maintained in our cities in which 
so large a degree are concentrated the activities of our ex- 
panding population. CHARLES EVANS HUGHES. 



Year Book. I l >27 



"Jim Jackson " 



Z3jj J. F. Beaman, Director 



Jim Jackson was an Engineer, 

At leas! he tried to be. 
But Jim was just a little queer. 

Perhaps like you and me. 
A job like his would make him so, 

As you can plainly see. 



That, if you'd learn to throw the bull 
That you would be surprised, 

The way you'd gather in the kale, 
Just like the other guys 

That talk, and talk, and talk; 
Come on young man, get wise." 



For. leaning on his drafting board. 

Or seated on a stool, 
He'd juggle with a guessing stick. 

With compass, scale, and rule, 
And wear a thousand pencils out; 

A regular figuring fool. 



"All right", said Jim, "If that's the 
I think that 1*11 come through ; 

I've tackled many tougher jobs. 
I think I'll have to do 

That very thing." Again, you see, 
Jim was like me and you. 



dope. 



With transit, level, rod, and tape. 

He worked, and schemed, and planned. 

He always had a pencil, and 
A notebook, in his hand. 

With formulas, and cryptic signs. 
No else could understand. 



So. Jim began to speechify 
And found, to his surprise, 

That knowledge wasn't needed, 
For people thought him wise 

If he talked often, loud, and lo 
Just like the other guys. 



He'd run a line of levels out. 
And then, he'd check it back. 

He'd never let an error ride 
Or fudge to take up slack. 

He'd run a traverse round the state 
And close right on the tack. 



So every chance he got. he'd talk; 

He started in for fair. 
No matter what the subject was. 

He'd never turn a hair; 
He d make a speech on anything, 

No matter when or where. 



He'd plan a bridge a mile in length. 

All figured to a hair; 
Then raise the members on by one, 

and hang them in the air; 
And all without an extra word. 

Except, sometimes, he'd swear. 



He talked of this, he talked of that. 
He talked of many things; 

Of shoes, and ships, and sealing wa 

And cabbages, and kings, 

And immigrants, and ipecac. 

And walleyed wumps with wings. 



And Jim was always on the job. 
Chock full of pep and vim; 

No matter where or what it wa: 
'Twas not too much for him. 

That famous man, Paul Bunyan, 
Had not a thing on Jim. 



With all this practice, Jim became 

More glib, from day to day; 
The words, that first came drop by drop, 

Soon issued like a spray, 
And then a flood that almost swept 

His listeners away. 



That is, in turning out the work. 
But. at one thing, he'd balk. 

When he was asked to make a speech. 
He'd go and take a walk. 

He'd learned to make most everything 
Except to make a talk. 



'Twas thus, throughout the land, his fame 

Was spread. AH recognized 
A man with such a flow of words 

Must be most wondrous wise; 
And Jim, who knew 'twas mostly bunk. 

Was very much surprised. 



So Jim let other fellows talk, 
He scorned the talky men. 

He thought that deeds meant mor 
But payday came and, then. 

They'd draw a hundred bucks 
While Jim drew nine or ten. 



No piffling C. E. title, now. 
To Jim could be applied; 

As Dr. Jackson he was known, 
And colleges took pride 

In handing him unearned degrees. 
His fame went far and wide. 



One day his old Dad said to him: 
"Jam, you must blow your horn. 

And blow it loud from morn till night; 
Likewise from night till morn. 

You need to advertise yourself; 
'Let words your wit adorn.' 



While others planned a mighty ' 
And built day after day. 
All Dr. Jackson had to do 
Was give it his O. K.; 

Then talk about it and grab off 
The glory, and the pay. 



Look at Bill Johnson over there; 

He doesn't do a thing 
But talk, and talk, and talk, and talk. 

He makes the welkin ring 
With words, and puts it over too, 

I do believe, by jing. 



If Jim could do a thing like that. 
Why couldn't I, and you? 
No matter if our knees do shake. 
There's just one think to do. 

We engineers must learn to talk. 
And learn it P. D. Q. 



48 



Society of Engineers 



Ephraini Dyer II and Ebenezer Herrick Dyer 

A Biographical Sketch Compiled bv Glenn B, AsHCROFT, Member 
Historical Committee. 



This is the story of two brothers who came to the Pacific 
Coast in the early days of the gold rush, and later became 
intimately associated with the United States public land 
surveys of California and Nevada. They were the child- 
ren of farmers descended from a long line of colonial an- 
cestry whose record runs back to the days of the first Eng- 
lish settlements in New England. Their grandfather — 
Ephraim Dyer I — was "pressed into the King's Navy" 
from which he escaped by swimming; joined the Continental 
Army, where he fought under Washington and La Fayette ; 
was at Valley Forge ; took part in several battles of the 
campaign against General Burgoyne, and witnessed his 
surrender. Their parents — Joshua Dyer and Elizabeth 
Sawyer — were New England farmers. 

Ephraim Dyer II was born at Sullivan, Maine, March 
2, 1828, the youngest in a family of 
nine children. He received little pub- 
lic schooling, but with the aid of an 
elder sister, Hannah, and by inces- 
sant study he became a self-educated 
man, and is said to have mastered five 
languages and higher mathematics. 
At Sullivan he was a shipyard clerk, 
school teacher, and a surveyor. About 
June I, 1850, at 22 years of age, 
he sailed from New York as a steer- 
age passenger on the steamer "Ohio" 
bound for California by way of the 
Isthmus of Panama. Some of the 
hardships of this journey are best told 
in his own words in the following let- 
ter written at Panama to his oldest 
brother at home: 

Panama, June 22, 1850. 

Dear Asa: — 

I arrived at Panama last Wed- 
nesday, twenty-one days from New 
York. We left New York 28th; arrived at Ha- 
vana the next Monday morning at sunrise — left at 
sunset — we were not allowed to go on shore. Here we 
transferred from the Ohio to the Falcon, a steamer about 
half the size and arrived at Chagres the next Monday 
morning. We had a pleasant voyage as far as the weather 
was concerned but our fare was of the very worst description. 

There were upward of four hundred steerage tickets sold 
when the steward was obliged to own that there was only 
two hundred and sixty or seventy-five berths. There was no 
such berth as mine aboard the ship, but I went aboard 
and picked out the best berth I could find and kept. There 
were some one and fifty who had to sleep where they could 
find a chance. 

Our food was fresh beef tea, coffee and hard bread, 
but served up in such shape that it was almost impossible 
for even a well man to eat it. I was just seasick enough 
to not eat anything for four or five days but a little gruel 
which you could not get without an order from the surgeon. 
Our food aboard the Falcon was better, but there were 
four hundred passengers and seventy berths and it was a 
matter of impossibility for all to get a chance to lie down 
under cover. The first night I laid (not slept) on the 
head of some flour barrels with the chines in my side. 




Here we had to pay a dime for a cup of gruel. And at 
Chagres you had to pay the boatman a dollar for landing 
you. 

The steamer had to lie out in the stream about a mile 
from the city, which lies on the east and the west side of 
Chagres River and commanded by an old Spanish fort 
built 300 years ago but now in ruinous condition. It was 
very much enlarged by the celebrated pirate (I have for- 
gotten his name) who used it to defend the passage of the 
river which was the great thoroughfare through which he 
brought his booty from the Pacific. He sacked and com- 
pletely destroyed Old Panama, whose ruins they say can 
be seen six miles down the coast. The west side is called 
the American side and has been built since the discovery 
of gold and consists principally of hotel (frame houses) 
say five or six, there are New York, 
American and European Hotels, at 
the last of which we dined, we had 
baked beans, roast meat, boiled ham, 
potatoes, rice and pilot bread — paid 
six dimes. 

We hired a boat for $ 1 1 0.00, 
eight of us started about four o'clock 
p. m., taking our own provisions 
which we purchased in New York. 
We got about two miles up the river 
when there came a thunderstorm, the 
rain came down in torrents, I never 
heard or saw such thundred and light- 
ning, it beggars description — it was as 
much as one man could do to keep 
the boat from sinking by bailing with 
two-quart pan. Finally got ashore at 
eight o'clock at a rancho five miles 
from Chagres, here we found about 
seventy-five before us, wet as well as 
ourselves, no sleep for us that night. 
All were thankful that we had a shelter. We had been 
there half an hour when we heard that there was a boat in 
distress down the river, a boat was immediately sent to their 
assistance — found their boat filled and the men clinging to 
the bushes. 

We started next morning at four, got breakfast at a can- 
tina ten miles from Chagres. Rice, sugar and coffee — two 
dimes. Eight dimes make a dollar in every place but Chag- 
res. Twenty miles from Chagres we put up for the night 
at two o'clock. Slept in a rancho for two dimes. No rain 
today. Started early in the morning, rain in the forenoon. 
Could get nothing to eat until night, though we got a first 
rate supper in a hotel for six dimes — butter, cheese, warm 
biscuit, tea, coffee, sugar and preserves, but we could get no 
lodgings. Slept in a tent of blankets in our wet clothes. In 
the morning we started to walk, rained again about three 
hours and swelled the stream so that we were glad to get 
into the boat. At two o'clock we arrived at Gorgana where 
we opened carpet bags and dried our clothes, everything I 
had was wet but the compass. I have had no dry clothes 
on me but once since I left Chagres. 

Gorgana is a very pleasant place and healthy. I stopped 
here four days with a Spaniard, one of the best men in the 
world. I have been learning Spanish from him. 



Year Book. 1027 



[•M 



Monday we started for Panama and arrived here Wed- 
nesday morning at eight o'clock. We have hired a room 
for one dime a day and found ourselves, it will be five dimes 
a day in all or five-eights of a dollar. We hope we shall 
not have to wait now more than a fortnight, but can not tell. 
It is as healthy as could be expected considering the hard- 
ships the emigrants have to undergo coming up the river, 
many got lost in the woods and were forty-eight hours with- 
out anything to eat, and I believe take the same number of 
persons and let them undergo the same hardships in Maine 
and there would be as many sick or nearly so. I have been 
well since I started till last night I was taken with dysentery. 
I am now better. I have suffered as much with heat in 
July as I have here yet. 

I have been offered work for two dollars a day and 
found myself, I do not know if I shall 
work or not, I suppose that I can get 
more. These are some who have 
been here ten weeks. 

Tell Simon that the ^ oung he told 
me about is here yet and in all prob- 
ability he shall get away as soon as 
he can. There is no trouble but that 
a man can earn his board if he is 
well. I will write again before I 
leave. 

So good bye. 

Ephriam Dyer. 

Contracting a fever at Panama and 
anxious to get away, he traded his 
steamer passage for a ticket on the 
British sailing vessel "Guinare" which 
finally arrived at San Francisco, Sep- 
tember 17, 1850, after a lengthy 
voyage in which the food supply was 
reduced to wormy ship biscuits. 

He managed to secure a tempo- ' " e 

rary job laying planks on Clay 
street, but finding the town full of returning miners 
who were "broke" and labor therefore plentiful, he turned 
his attention to farming, and went to work as a laborer on 
a ranch near Alvarado in Alameda county. The following 
year found him in Los Angeles as a partner in the firm of 
"Graves & Dyer", engaged in raising and shipping fruit. 
He made the attempt to ship grapes packed in sawdust, and 
introduced the first fruit brand, the "Spread Eagle," to 
the trade. After two years of successful operation in the 
South, he returned to Alvarado to engage in ranching and 
stockraising. 

In 1858 he returned east, leaving Placerville in August 
and arriving at St. Louis forty days later, being, it is said, 
the first through passenger on the Overland Stage line. He 
spent the winter and following spring in Illinois where he 
married, June 2, 1859, Ellen Frances Ingalls, formerly of 
Sullivan, Maine. While there he purchased a large herd of 
high grade Durham cattle which he sent back in charge of 
a brother who drove them across the plains and over the 
mountains to California, arriving in Otober, 1859. Tak- 
ing his bride he made a brief visit at Sullivan, and then 
returned by steamer to California and to his home at 
Alvarado. 

He resumed his practice of surveying, and worked for a 
time as a deputy under his brother. E. H. Dyer, who was 
County Surveyor of Alameda County from 1 860 to 1 864. 
His appointment as a United States Deputy Surveyor in 
1861 marks the beginning of his active connection with the 
public land surveys in California which continued for a 




period of some ten years. Space will not permit any de- 
tailed account of this, but under his various contracts with 
the U. S. Government he was responsible for the original 
surveys of a vast amount of public land in the northeastern 
portion of the state from Tahoe to the Oregon line, includ- 
ing the canons of the Bear, Yuba, and the Feather rivers, 
the meander lines of Tahoe, Donner, Independence, and 
Honey lakes, and much of the surrrounding territory. Mt. 
Dyer, a high peak in northern Plumas County, commemo- 
rates his name and work in this locality. 

Returning to agricultural work, he introduced the method 
of farming our heavy soils known as "Summer fallowing," 
and became interested with his brother E. H. Dyer in 
the first attempt at manufacturing beet sugar at Alvarado, 
and later with the company that finally brought the pro- 
cess to commercial success. Broken 
in health by the hardships and ex- 
posures of his pioneering life he died 
at Alvarado, October 3. 1883, and 
was buried nearby at Decoto. 

Ephraim Dyer and Ellen Frances 
Ingalls had six children. To the eld- 
est of these, Mr. Harold P. Dyer of 
Saratoga, California, and the young- 
est, Mr. Ephriam Dyer III of Lind- 
say, California, credit is due for much 
of the information that has made pos- 
sible this brief outline of their father's 
life. 

Ebenezer Herrick Dyer was born 
at Sullivan, Maine, April 17. 1822. 
He received such public schooling as 
the town afforded, and spent the early 
years of his life on his father's farm 
from which he drifted into the near- 
by logging camps and granite quarries. 
At about twenty-three years 
of age he entered a mercantile 
business which he continued for some thirteen years, 
until his brother, Ephraim, induced him to visit California 
in the spring of 1 85 7. Liking prospects there he returned 
to Sullivan and closed out his affairs. The following ex- 
tracts from an unpublished "Memoirs" in the possession of 
his son, Mr. Hugh Thomas Dyer of Auburn, Calif., re- 
lates to this period of his career: 

"I left Maine for California via. the Isthmus in April, 
1858, with my wife and two children. We arrived with- 
out accident in June and commenced housekeeping in the 
old hotel at Union City on the Alameda Creek. 

"It was the fall of this year that Ephraim (his brother) 
went East on the First Overland Stage, on his way to buy 
cattle. He left his sheep and other business in my charge. 
They were at this time on the Alameda Creek, near 
the Sunol's Rancho. There being two large bands, in 
different localities and they required considerable atten- 
tion, I built a small house on the Ranch and lived there 
with my family. 

"At times I leased land for Graves and Dyer, at a 
cash rental of, from $10 to $15.00 per acre, the amount 
as to acreage being purely a guess. While in Maine where 
I came from, that was as much as the sale value of the 
land. So it occurred to me that this guesswork was a 
very loose way of doing business — so having followed land 
surveying to some extent in Maine. I got hold of an old 
transit instrument, had it repaired and surveyed the land 
that was rented. 



H. P. Dyer. 
Surveying Instrument Was Used by H 
Father Ephriam Dyer. 



50 



Society of Engineers 



"In that way it became known that I was a surveyor, 
— Alameda County at that time was strongly Democratic. 
One Sunday Judge Ben Williams, a lawyer, came to my 
place in the mountains, and said that the Republicans 
wanted me to run for County Surveyor — I said to him that 
I suppose there was no chance to be elected, but that I 
was wanted to fill the ticket and help pay election ex- 
penses. — 'That is about the size of it', said the Judge. 

"However I was persuaded to run, and was elected 
with two other Republicans, the County Clerk and Treas- 
urer. I took office in 1 860, was re-elected in 1 862 and 
served in all four years. 

"In Sept. 1861, I was appointed U. S. Dept Sur- 
veyor by U. S. Surveyor General E. F. Beale and served 
in that capacity under different Surveyor Generals continu- 
ously for over 12 years." 

His work on the public land surveys covered a large 
and scattered area in the Upper Sacramento Valley of 
California, and in the northwestern portion of Nevada. 
He made the original surveys of most of the territory now 
covered by the Spring Valley Water Company's Calaveras 
development, and the lands of the old Mission San Jose. 

In 1 865 he purchased a place at Alvarado which he 
called "home" for the remainder of his life. Becoming in- 
terested in the possibilities of beet sugar production, he, 
with others, established at Alvarado in 1 869 the first fac- 
tory of that character in California. Under the manage- 



ment of imported advisers, the venture was a failure, and 
the plant was moved to Soquel in Santa Cruz County, 
where after extended trials the project was finally aband- 
oned. In spite of such a disastrous beginning, Mr. Dyer 
never lost faith in the future of the industry, and continued 
his efforts with indomitable energy and perserverance until 
1879, when he was able to establish another factory at 
Alvarado, which under his own management, became a com- 
mercial success. Encouraged by this success, he trained 
his sons for the industry, and organized the E. H. Dyer 
Co., for the manufacture of sugar machinery. This con- 
cern later became the Dyer Company of Cleveland, O., 
which has constructed more than half the existing beet sugar 
factories in the United States as well as cane sugar plants 
in Mexico and Brazil. 

Mr. Dyer lived to be over eighty-eight years of age. 
He died at his home in Alvarado, July 15, 1910, and was 
buried at Cypress Lawn cemetery, near Decoto. He was 
married twice. His first wife, Marian Wallace Ingalls 
of Sullivan, Maine, and two children accompanied him 
on his voyage to California. At Sunol a third child was 
born. Of these three children the eldest is yet living. Fol- 
lowing the death of his first wife in 1 865 he married her 
sister, Olive S. Ingalls, and of this union three children 
also were born; two of which are living. To the eldest 
of these, Mr. Hugh Thomas Dyer of Auburn, we are 
particularly indebted for many interesting facts concern- 
ing the early life of his father. 



The Evolution of Fortifications Around San Francisco Bay 



By Major O. W. Degen, 
C. £., Q. M. Corps, Fort Mason, Calif. 



The original inhabitants of California, long before the 
Spanish regime, were of the yellow race, coming from China, 
Siberia and Japan by way of the Aleutian Islands and the 
Bering Sea. They attained their highest culture and 
development in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras, and 
what may be termed the Maya civilization. 

The Spanish regime over California dates back to 1521- 
1822, and the Mexican rule from 1823 to 1848. 

Earl}) History 
By command of the Spanish Viceroy, Don Antonio 
Maria Bucarely, Lieut. Colonel Don Juan Bautista de Anza 
started an expedition from Tubac in Mexico in 1 774 to 
explore the bay of San Francisco, and on March 28, 1 776, 
chose the Cantil Blanco (white cliff), the present Fort 
Winfield Scott, for the location of a fort. He set aside 
3,000 veras for the present military reservation of Presidio 
and Fort Winfield Scott. After Anza left, the command 
was turned over to Lieut, Don Joseph Joachim Morago, 
who might be called the original builder of the Presidio of 
San Francisco, which was built in the form of a square 275 
feet on each side. These walls were of redwood palisades. 
They were replaced in 1 778 by adobe walls of same dimen- 
sions. After Lieut. Moraga's death, the command was tempo- 
rarily transferred to Lieut. Gonzales, who stayed only 
about eighteen months. The command then fell to Ensign 
Sal, who acted until the arrival of Lieut. Jose Dario Ar- 
guello, who was in command until March 1 , 1 806. It 



was on March 4, 1 792, that Ensign Sal submitted to the 
governor, Jose Antonio Romeu, the first plan for a fort, 
with a description as to how it was to be built. It was 
built in the form of a square 50 yards wide, three sides of 
which were to be occupied by adobe walls and houses built 
of mud and stones. The fourth side was protected by a 
primitive palisade fence. All the structures were roofed 
with tules, exposed to fire and wind. So poor was the 
construction, and so slow the building, that by the time a 
building or wall was erected, repairs would have to be 
made on the previous work. However, the elements won a 
victory; drift sand and storms demolished the fort, and 
a new one was erected in 1 794 on the site of the present 
Fort Point before the bluff was cut down. 

New Plans Approved 
Plans for this fort were prepared under Lieut. Jose 
Dario Arguello by Miguel Constanso, Engineer of Fortifica- 
tions, and submitted to Governor Jose Joaquin de Arrilago, 
who approved same and ordered the construction, naming 
it Castillo de San Joaquin. The fort was at first garrison- 
ed by a corporal and six artillerymen, and the armament 
consisted of 8 1 2-pounder guns, cast in Spain and sent 
by the Spanish Viceroy, Conde de Ravilla Gigedo. The 
cost of this fort was $6,400. It was built of 10-foot adobe 
walls with stone magazines laid up in mud and braced by 
redwood posts. It was built in an irregular form of a 
square 2 1 feet north and south and 1 40 feet east and 



YtAR Book. 1927 



[51 



west, with two main entrances. On two sides was a wide 
esplanade and in the center the barracks consisted of two 
large rooms, and a portico in size about 60 and 30 feet, 
also of adobe with tule roof. Under the Spanish regime 
the entire force stationed over California in 1 794 was only 
218 men. If we look back and consider that the whole of 
California could be policed by such a small force, consider 
the hardships endured in traveling, and beset by Indians on 
all sides, great credit should be given those conquestadores. 
The fort was considerably rebuilt with stones, and in 
general, made more formidable in the years that followed 
until in 1808, 1812 and 1813 severe earthquakes damaged 
the walls and barracks of this fort and practically wrecked 
the Presidio. In 1816 the Castillo de San Joaquin was 
rebuilt, partly in brick and stone. All magazines were 
brick lined. These bricks were I 1 inches wide, 1 5 inches 
long and 2'/2 inches thick. In 1820 the fort mounted 20 
guns, among which were 3 24-pounders. 

Mexican Occupation 

We come now to the close of the Spanish regime in 1 822 
and enter the Mexican occupation. During the Mexican 
occupation of California, as far as military defenses were 
concerned, no improvements worth mentioning were made, 
mostly due to the lack of funds and increasing political un- 
rest and the gradual influx of foreigners, principally Ameri- 
cans. By the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, on February 2, 
1848, Alta California passed into the possession of the Uni- 
ted States. The phenomenal development of San Francisco 
and bay region may be judged by the following: In 1844 
there were only 39 houses in San Francisco, and in 1847 
there were 1 5 7 houses and 459 inhabitants. *In 1 849 re- 
pairs were made to the old fort and four 32-pounders and 
two 8-inch howitzers were mounted in addition to the old 
armament. In 1 85 1 . under the direction of General Hitch- 
cock, who was then in command of the Third Division at 
Benicia. the Chief of Engineers was directed to appoint a 
board of engineer officers to devise and draw up plans for a 
modern fort. These plans were approved and in 1853 the 
work of taking down the old Fort San Joaquin commenced 
and the bluff was cut down to the water's edge and a new 
brick fort started, with Colonel L. Mason, of the Engineer 
Department, in charge. He was in turn succeeded by 
Major J. G. Barnard, Lieutenant Colonel R. E. DeRussy, 
Major Z. R. Tower, Lieutenant G. W. C. Lee, and Cap- 
tain I. F. Gilmer. The fort was finished in 1861 and in 
1862 the armament installed, consisting of 28 42-pounders 
in lower tier, 28 8-inch Columbiads and 1 224-pounders 
in second tier, 28 8-inch Columbiads and 2 24-pounders in 
in lower tier, 28 8-inch Columbiads and 1 2 24-pounders 
1 1 32-pounders in fourth tier, or 127 guns in all. 

The plan of Fort Point is a partial counterpart of Fort 
Sumpter. The fort provided for quarters for all the officers 
and men, storage of supplies for the garrison, and of am- 
munition. Water was stored in large concrete tanks under 
the floor of the fort. The fort is built mostly of brick with 
stone trimmings, stone flagging for main floors, and an 
asphaltic roof. The workmanship of all the brick and 
stone work on this fort may be classed as excellent in all de- 
tails. The cost was close to $2,800,000, exclusive of the 
cost of armament and granite sea wall. The wages paid 
during the construction were: master mason, $250 month; 
masons, bricklayers, stone cutters, $5 per day; carpenters, 
$4 per day ; laborers, $2 per day ; blacksmiths, $5 per day ; 
foreman stone cutter, $5.50 per day; foreman carpenter, 
$5 per day ; roofer, $6 per day. 

Mastic Melts 

The following firms furnished materials for Fort Point: 



All the granite was furnished by G. Griffith, Mormon 
Island Quarries near Folsom, at $20 per ton of 14 cubic 
feet. Bricks being the largest item in its construction, had 
to be obtained wherever possible. Most of the face brick, 
costing $30.50 per thousand, were made by J. Clay at 
Russian Hill. Common bricks were furnished by G. H. 
Harrison, warden at San Quentin for $13 per thousand; 
by John Fisher, from South San Francisco, at $ 1 4 per 
thousand; by P. Lubbermeir. from California City, at $14 
per thousand, John Lansman of Sacramento, received $12 
per thousand, also P. Calihunt & Co., of Sacramento. 
Prices were for delivery on wharf at Fort Point. Lime 
was furnished by Samuel Adams of San Francisco, at $2.25 
per barrel ; and also by Davis & Jordan. Scotch flagging 
was furnished by Daniel Gibb & Co., at 40 cents per square 
foot. The J. L. Mott Co., of New York, furnished a 
large part of the heavy iron casings, and another part was 
furnished by P. Donahue of San Francisco. The unit cost 
for castings ranged from 3 to 6 cents per pound. The 
iron railings and balustrade was erected by John McKib- 
bon, stairbuilder of San Francisco, at $3.50 per foot. All 
the coal was furnished by A. J. Ramsdall, at $24 per ton. 
Hay for the animals was furnished by Sherman & Dutton, 
at $16 per ton. All the mastic for the roof came from 
New York by boat, costing $ 1 40 per ton. The first cargo 
of mastic arrived in the ship "Dashaway" and it cost the 
Government $ 1 00 per day demurrage because the mastic 
had melted in the hold of the vessel and had to cut out, 
a slow process. The roofer for this job had to be obtained 
from New York, the Government paying his passage, cost- 
ing $ 1 00, second class. 

Fort Completed 
No sooner had Fort Point been finished when the granite 
sea wall was constructed at a cost of $140,000. The 
batteries on the bluff were also started. The Lime Point 
reservation, comprising Forts Baker and Barry, was pur- 
chased at a cost of $200,000. At the same time Fort 
Point was constructed the batteries at Alcatraz Island 
were under construction. We find that -duung the Civil 
War great activities were taking place in the way of build- 
ing fortifications around San Francisco Bay, and an ex- 
tremely large amount of money expended for that purpose. 
In addition to the 127 guns mounted at Fort Point there 
were 50 1 5-inch Rodman guns in batteries along the bluff 
from the oil tanks at Fort Winfield Scott to the road at 
Baker's Beach. On the Lime Point reservation were the 
Gravelly Cove batteries of 12 1 5 -inch guns, bluff batteries 
of 21 15-inch guns and 12 mortars. Point Cavello bat- 
tery had 6 1 5-inch guns and Cavello battery 1 5 1 5-inch 
guns, 2 mortars and 1 20-inch gun. 

Alcatraz Island mounted 1 3 batteries of 36 1 5-inch 
guns, and Black Point (Fort Mason) 3 15-inch, 6 10-inch 
gun and 6 25-pounders. 



It has taken endless ages to create in men the courage 
that will accept the truth simply because it is the truth. Ours 
is a generation of pioneers in this new faith. v Not many 
kind of us are endowed with the kind of mental equipment 
that can employ the scientific method in seeking for the 
truth, but we have advanced so far that we do not fear 
the results of that process. We ask no recantations from 
honesty and candor. We know that we need truth, and 
we turn to you me of science and of faith, eager to give 
you all encouragement in your quest for it. 

— President Coolidge. 



52 1 Society of Encineers 



.In Organisation Devoted to the Interests of Professional "Engineers 

Society of Engineers 

Regular meetings are always held the second Tuesday evening, 
caeli month. Blue Room, Palaee Hotel 

Secretarial Office : 
952 Pacific Building, San Francisco 
Telephone Sutter 5819 

BOARD OF DIRECTION 

George E. TonnEy, President 

John Wallace, Vice-President 

Robert G. Green, Vice-President 

W. G. RawlES, Treasurer 

Albert J. Capron, Secretary 
H. H. Ferrebee Geo. T. Waite 

Geo. H. GeislER J. F. Beaman 

Glenn B. Ashcroft, Past-President 

QUALIFICATION 
R. C. Briggs 

EDUCATIONAL 
A. A. Robish 

MEMBERSHIP 
H. H. Ferrebee 

AUDITING 
T. R. Plant 

MUSICAL 
John OllEr 

SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENT 
R. G. Green 

YEAR BOOK FINANCE 
Glenn B. Ashcroft 

HISTORICAL 

Louis F. LEUREY, Chairman 

R. C. Briggs A. E. Zimmerman Hans Graff 

PAST PRESIDENTS 
Jno. H. KnowlEs, 1919 Charles FI. Lee, 1924 

W. S. Wollner, 1920 Louis F. LeurEy, 1924 

G. Chester Brown, 1921 Volney D. Cousin, 1925 

Wm. FT. Phelps, 1922 * Reorganized, Oct. 1925 

George Mattis, 1923 C. H. Tucker, 1925 

Glenn B. Ashcroft, 1926 

* Formerly) San Francisco Chapter, American Association of Engineers. 



^ i M< Book, 1927 



[53 



Extracts froni Letters to the Society 



I have followed with interest the work and diversion, 
planned and effected by the Society of Engineers, and regret 
to the extreme, that I am so situated, regionally, that it is 
impossible for me to take an active part in the proceedings. 

I am entirely sincere in the statement that in my opinion 
the Society is doing more to further the interests of Engineers 
than any other organization. I am pleased with the code 
of ethics assumed by our organization and the method adopt- 
ed of devoting greater effort of educating the members by 
the course of practical engineering embodied in the many 
trips to interesting projects and the enthusiastic lectures at 
our regular meetings. 

The engineer is set apart from other professional lists 
and has never received the recognition that the profession 
merits. Generally speaking, he has failed to sell himself. 
He has a great staple commodity which has been placed on 
the market without that rigid program of advertisement and 
salesmanship which is so necessary in this age. Teach the 
engineer to sell this staple which is so necessary to the 
development of our nation, imbue him with the confidence of 
the crack salesmanship and the public will recognize the 
need of that which he represents and buy at a meritable 
figure the best product on the professional market of the 
world, namely, the services of the American Engineer. 

The engineer basks in the rays of reticence and is con- 
tent with the satisfaction that is given by the accomplish- 
ment of a difficult task. Has the engineer realized that in 
order to further the interests of his profession he must 
place himself before the public eye? No — His training 
has been in mechanical lines and like the machine there is 
no rumbling after the source of power has been shut off. 
Teach the engineer salesmanship, give him an insight in 
business and finance and above all things interest him in 
our system of government. Teach the engineer and in turn 
require him to teach the public to respect and appreciate 
the engineering profession. In other words train the en- 
gineer to "Toot his own horn". 
Pulga. Calif. G. R. MOLAND. 



All O. K. down here, the Military put the President in 
jail last night. 

Raining almost every day and when it does one wishes 
that it would continue as the mosquitoes all come out when 
it is dry. 

There are only two paved streets in town, the rest are 
all mud holes. 

Wishing you all good luck. 
Guyaquil, Ecuador. H. J. McGuiRE. 



Some days past I received a pamphlet from the Society of 
Engineers which I glanced thru with much interest. 

Unfortunately for us locally many of the prominent 
engineers in our city are not very active in our organizations 
and for that reason there is not enough attraction for the 
younger engineers. I am delighted that your west coast 
organization is getting along nicely. 

Harry O. Garman, Consulting Engr. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Glad to hear that the organization is growing. It is 
looked on with a great deal of respect in this vicinity. Good 
luck to all members of the Society. 
Gary, Indiana. JOHN H. Hanson. 



I have been glad to note your many good activities and 
am sorry that I am too far away to be on hand to have 
a share in them. Its too early for me to make plans for 
returning to Golden California, but I will be back some 
day. 
Toms River, New Jersey. Kay B. Knudsen. 

You people in San Francisco do not appreciate what 
one of your member who has temporarily strayed to this 
section would give for one full breath of your cool fog. 
St. Louis. Missouri. S. B. Lane. 

The Year Magazine was certainly an accomplishment 
to be proud of and I very heartily congratulate those whose 
time and energy were given to its production. The people 
in our office were interested in it as were some of my 
countrymen who know little about the U. S. A. or the 
organizations there which function for the benefit of the 
engineering profession. I had a good time going through 
the membership directory shaking hands with all my old 
friends and acquaintaces. 

Please remember me to all my friends and I feel that 
includes all of the Society. 

Kuala Lumpar. Selanger, C. L. LAYLAND. 

Federated Malay States. 

All in all, Costa Rica is not much of a place, there seems 
to be some sort of a contest on the see who can get along on 
the least and poorest food. I like rice and beans, so do you, 
but I also want something else with it. No one here seems 
to realize there is a lot of good decent food in the world. 

We go out at 6:00 a. m. with a cup of coffee under our 
belts and get back at 2 :00 p. m. for breakfast and the 
days' work is over. A queer way of doing it but it seems 
all right here. 

The weather's the cat's eyebrows. I suppose it needs 
to be told when the dry season is on, otherwise it won't 
stop raining. No one seems to have told it yet. 

I never saw a place that lives as poorly as Costa Rica, 
unless a fellow is hardened and used to tropical brush I 
would not suggest coming here. I can see that it is not 
home and mother to these boys out of school in Boston, 
they seem decidely out of place here. Its a sort of a train- 
ing ground for Panama, Honoduras, Nicaragua and Guata- 
maula and its a good place to leave. 
Limon, Costa Rica. C. M. BoWEN. 

I have received the Year Magazine of your Society 
and have made some preliminary study of the magazine 
that I intend to use in our organization work. That is 
some membership for a local society and speaks well for 
efficiency. There are just as many engineers here and we 
could do just as well if they would come out of their shells. 
I don't know if it is fear or jealousy that makes them so 
hide-bound, but I am very much inclined to think it is fear 
in many cases. 
Fairfield, Alabama. R. J. WlLSON. 

I am sure that the outline of the coming Year Magazine 
will be finer, if that be possible than the splendid edition 
of last year. I am certainly delighted to know that the 
program is progressing so well and am sure that it will be 
a credit to the Society. 
San Francisco. Louis F. LEUREY. 



54] 



Society of Encineers 



It is an unusual pleasure to come into possession of such 
a splendid volume as your 1926 Year Magazine, a copy 
of which has just reached me. 

The illustration on the front cover and the numerous 
articles concerning Mount Diablo among its contents, nat- 
urally pleases me very much. In this respect I wish to 
express in a measure my personal appreciation of your 
interest in that historic peak, its significance to the State as 
the scene of the earliest work of one of California's pioneer 
engineers, and its tremendous possibilities as a playground 
for future generations. 

It is impossible to glance through your Year Magazine 
without detecting the characteristics of the real engineer, 
namely, alert attention to details, precision and accuracy in 
compilation coupled with a deft artistic touch, for the issue 
is stamped with these features. I note the volume is your 
initial effort along this line and I believe you have more 
than justified succeeding issues. I congratulate you and 
assure you that I shall always treasure my own copy. 
Oakland, Calif. W. P. Frick. 

When we return from the Arctic Cruise in November, I 
shall be pleased to see any and all of the "Society of En- 
gineers" aboard and I believe, at that time, we shall have 
information of the suitability of a vessel of the "Northland's" 
type for Arctic work, which will be of interest. 

J. F. HOTTEL, Commanding Officer. 
U. S. Coast Guard Cutter Northland. 

Captain Capron: — My conscience is beginning to 
bother me, thanks to your gentle reminders. In order to 
ease it I am enclosing check for $15.00. This ought to 
keep you quiet until next April. 

I never had any middle name, so that "H" which you 
so persistently use in addressing me, is superfluous. 
San Leandro. William (H.) Kent. 

About the tougest work in the engineering game is the 
preliminary or reconnaissance survey in the mountains with 
the poorest kind of accommodations and the work from one 
to five miles from camp with only "Shanks Mare" for 
transportation. 

It is on this kind of work that one finds many with the 
old time spirit. Looking back I recall a few instances. 
Some years ago I was running a survey for a power com- 
pany, it was on the sunny side of a very brushy and steep 
hill. A young man, a Princeton undergraduate and a rel- 
ative of one of the wealthy officers of the company came up 
there for his vacation and was wished on me. I put him 
on brush cutting, he cut brush and did everything else he 
was told, did it well and was a favorite with the "gang". 

Recently I was running a grade line survey on a steep 
hillside covered with thick brush and no shade and we had 
to finish the survey by a certain date. The party consisted 
of a dozen men, three college graduates, five under-gradu- 
ates and four ordinary chainmen and axmen, their ages rang- 
ed from twenty to thirty, with one man about thirty-five. 
The work lasted one month and every man worked to the 
limit of his capacity, every man was a tired "hombre" at 
the end of the day's work. The accommodations were 
tents and army cots, with a pack train for supplies. The 
last part of the work was a three-hour hike along the brush 
line, it was not feasible to establish another camp, and it 
was impossible to reach this point with a pack train, so 
the boys would pack provisions for four meals and sleep 
out on the line every other night. No one considered quit- 
ting on the account of hardship, and all men worked alike, 
anything to finish the job, an old timer could not have 
done better. H. H. FERREBEE. 



Throughout the United States there has been a depression 
in engineering activities to a considerable extent. Best 
authorities aver that it stands for 1927, thus far, about 
twenty-five percent of 1926. 

Our experience may confirm that view by the end of 
this period. 

Apparently the Country has "caught up" with demands 
and there needs be a slowing down awaiting an absorption 
of the engineering output and until this is accomplished there 
will be a slacking off of demands for engineering talent. 

Some of the higher branches of engineering have not so 
much felt this situation as the lower grades, and as we view 
it, capitol which is always available for operations, does not 
see an outlet for funds until conditions may change for the 
better. 

Fortunate has been the engineer who as Edison said, 
"who can do more than one thing", he has found profit- 
able occupation in other lines and received about the same 
compensation as usual. 

Our service however, due in a measure to old and regular 
"customers" has not felt any loss, running along about as 
usual and placing the members and those who are not mem- 
bers on jobs with the regularity of clockwork. 

It has always been our aim to give employers exactly 
who and what they want, no guesswork, no posting of 
positions on the walls for the idler to see, but rather having 
the "specifications" send exactly whom may be wanted for 
a specific job. This saves the employer time and real money, 
not to mention patience. 

There is only one reason for an employer using an em- 
ployment service, that is to save his Valuable time. If he 
has to cull over half a dozen applicants te objective has been 
lost. 

No man unless he is an all around engineer, can give 
intelligent employment service. He is bound to make ex- 
asperating mistakes in assignments of engineers to specific 
positions and thereby lessens the value of such service to the 
employer. 

The employment service of this office is in the hands of 
an engineer of many years practical experience, he knows 
your wants from your "specifications" and fills the bill 
accordingly. 

That our service has always been satisfactory we quote 
just one part of letters, many of which have been received: 

"I wish to express my appreciation of your e:orts in our 
behalf in rounding up these men". This order called for 
ten high class engineers. 

Moreover and again, during the past four years we have 
furnished this very concern more than forty engineers. 

This office fully appreciated the value of the services of 
our loyal members, nearly five hundred of them, who have 
always given their employers information regarding this em- 
ployment service. 

This Office is the oldest engineering employment service 
in the United States, its foundation was long since laid in 
reinforced concrete, it will last as long as employers want 
service. 

We have no desire to penalize the engineer in seeking 
a position. All others exact, and they get the money, don't 
forget that for every position they get, rve have no fee, to 
members or others, you Mr. Employer, do you want your 
engineer to come to your burdened with 10% or 25% or 
even more for your position, or do you want to help your 
fellow man on in the world to success and knowing you 
as we do you will help every man in your employ to make 
a success of life both financially and socially. 

Albert J. Capron, 
Employment Manager. 



Year Book. 1927 



[55 



Educational Visits 
to Industrial Plants 



October 23, 1926— Hill-Hubbell & Co.. 1531 San 
Bruno Avenue. A visit to this establishment provided the 
members with a personal observation of the technique of 
the processes and materials employed in the manufacture 
of paint as well as educational information obtained from 
authoritative sources. Courtesy of Messrs. J. E. French, 
D. W. Boylan and Plant Superintendent G. L. Nagel. 



November 13, 1926 — Said the Bulletin — "Your visit 
is a pleasure for us. make yourself comfortable in our new 
home, if there is anything you wish to know about a mod- 
ern newspaper plant — don't hesitate to ask questions." All 
floors, all departments and all offices of this plant were open 
for inspection and the Bulletin spirit of courtesy and favor 
prevailed from basement to roof. The men in the press- 
room worked very quickly, apparently with ease for there 
was no confusion, it was Saturday afternoon, November 
the 13th., the day of the big foot-ball special. 



November 6, 1926 — Caterpillar Tractor Co., San Le- 
andro. An enterprise built upon the solid foundation of 
methodical planning, where the great road builders are 
being constructed under one mammoth roof — every part 
of these husky-powered, flexible monsters from the pre- 
cast metal and finished parts — to the assembled "Cat", 
the machine that walks like a bear. The visiting delegation 
readily resolved itself into class in tractor construction, tak- 
ing a four hour course instructed by officers of the Com- 
pany, who were intent in their desire that the explanations 
be fully understood to the satisfaction of the visitors. Di- 
rected by courtesy of Major Capron, U. S. A., and Capt. 
L. A. Miller. 



December 4, 1926.— Pelton Water Wheel Co., 2929 
1 9th. Street. Water and power legislation as an indoor 
sport would have never become a reality had hydraulic 
engineers been satisfied with army canteens and wooden 
water-wheels. This institution is one of the largest of its 
kind and its product is shipped to all parts of the world, 
turbines, water wheels, and pumps to meet every require- 
ment appears to be their every day obligation to indus- 
trial demands. Genial conductors, A. C. Beyer of Pelton 
and our own fellow member R. E. Beiter gave us the evi- 
dence and conclusive roof that water wheels are not merely 
"accidental". 



April 2, 1927 — National Lead Company, Oakland. A 
special invitation accorded to the Society by Mr. James 
B. Keister, Vice-President & General Manager. The 
Society — members witnessed this great establishment in full 
operation and viewed subjects of untiring and constructive 
efforts for here chemistry is an exact science specifying 
methods and combination to best separate the material into 
fractions, and then individual as well as their collective 
characteristics ascertained that the high grade quality of the 
final product be uniformly maintained. Arrangements were 
made by the officers of National to make the result of this 
visit instructive and educational, members were conducted 
by direction of Mr. A. W. Scott. Assistant Manager. 



April 29. — Ford Factory, Twenty-first and Harrison 
Streets. The San Francisco branch is a link in the chain 
of units which make up the self-contained Ford organiza- 
tion, giving the motoring public the advantage of a direct 
factory connection in the interests of good service. Here 
the Society members could follow the propagation theory 
and practice of producing Fords, as consecutive operations 
are placed one to another, the machines being placed in 
consequence makes it possible for each succeeding operation 
to be passed on to the next with a minimum of handling 
and delay. It was Ford who gave the denizens of the city 
jungles a chance to get out where the grass is green, where 
the family cow gives yellow butter, where the fat pigs grunt 
and the chickens produce hard boiled eggs. Courtesy of F. 
H. VlV'IAN, Foreman Maintenance Department. 



May 14. — Market Street Railway Co. A street-car 
knows no detour and never stops at a gas station. Details 
of car construction were inspected at the Company's shops, 
for in San Francisco they build their own. the very boys 
that motor up and down Market Street, enjoying their own 
personality, dressed as a mark of distinction, in a two color 
scheme. This public utility has 3,000 employees and 
operates 50 different routes over 300 miles of track. The 
program included a trip to the new sub-station in Visitation 
Valley, a secial car being provided by the Company for 
this purpose. Courtesy of J. M. Yount, V. P. ; Walter 
Birins, Supt. Sub. Sta. and J. Delaney, Supt. Shops. 



June 8. — Russ Building, the latest addition to San 
Francisco's group of great building, nationally known as 
the business home of leaders of western finance and com- 
mercial organizations, an architectural example of enduring 
strength and of monumental character, the tallest office 
structure on the Pacific Coast. The Society of Engineers 
enjoys the distinction of being the first organziation as a 
body to be extended the opportunity of viewing the many 
interesting features of the 1 300 offices, 1 6 elevators, 400- 
car garage and all of the power and mechanical equipment 
from the basement to the roof that is necessary to carry 
on the operations of this enterprise. Members were con- 
ducted throughout the building by Mr. George Chauvassus, 
Building Manager and Mr. W. G. Weber, Chief Engineer. 



July 23. — United States Coast Cutter Northland. Oak- 
land Harbor. The ship that replaces the historical "Bear" 
known to every man on the Pacific Coast, including Esquimos 
of Alaska. This new "Foating Department of the United 
States Government" is Diesel engine driven, electrically 
equipped, carrying airplanes and manned by a crew of 
seventy men with a supply for a year's cruise. "Open 
house" allowed members to view every portion of the ship 
from keel to mast. One of the outstanding features of the 
visit was the thoroughly definite arrangements by Captain 
Hottel, Commanding Officer and the courtesies extended 
by all officers and men of the "Northland" to members 
of the Society. The result of this visit gave to all members 
a better understanding and consideration of this particular 
branch of governmental service. 



56] 



Society of Engineers 



Nov. 9, 1926 — The Hercules Powder Co. As a 
contribution to the cause of industrial educational prepared 
a six-reel motion picture, represented in pictures by two 
imaginary characters "Turp" and "Tine" whose duty it 
appears is to explain the film as titled, "Method of Pro- 
ducing Gum Spirits of Turpentine and Steam Distilled 
Wood Turpentine". This film depicts scenes from every 
operation essential to the industry from the pine woods of 
the southern states to the finished product at the factory. 
Chemical processes were the outstanding features of these 
pictures, and many chemical effects carried through mechan- 
ical devices were unfolded before the eyes. By direction 
of Mr. Harry F. Kolb, West Coast Purchasing Agent. 

R. C. Briggs, Past Director of the Society delivered an 
interesting lecture titled, "The Story of Water" and ex- 
hibited two reels of pictures relating to hydrology, the prop- 
erty of the United States Geological Survey. Mr. Briggs 
gave a picturesque description of streams in the high Sierras 
and the methods employed by the government for the guag- 
ing of these streams. 



Dec. 14, 1926 — Du Pont de Nemours Powder Co., 
represented by Mr. A. C. Staples, Manager of Sales De- 
partment. "Dynamite a Basic Material of Modern Civil- 
ization". That the manufacturing field for high explosives 
is greater in commercial industries than the demand occas- 
sioned by war was fully explained by Mr. Staples in out- 
lining the various uses of dynamite, it helps to build dams 
and drive tunnels, it removes menaces to navigation, it re- 
moves mountains of copper and iron, opens up enormous 
quarries, builds railways and highways. The processes of 
manufacture and efforts to increase safety in the produc- 
tion and transportation of explosives was told in motion 
pictures. 



Feb. 8, 1927 — Will J. French, former President Cali- 
fornia State Industrial Accident Commission and present 
member of University of California faculty. An intensely at- 
tractive and highly entertaining travelogue lecture on New 
Zealand and Australia, that makes the world less remote, 
make for more neighborly acquaintance among people, and 
for a better understanding of the significant phases of social 
and political life and a better enjoyment of the scenic 
and natural wonders of these far away lands. Mr. French 
is intimately familiar with the customs and characteristics 
of the Maoris, the brown natives of New Zealand and his 
accounts of these strange people formed a colorful review, 
most interesting. 



March 8. — Commander Thos. J. Mayer of the United 
States Coast & Geological Survey U. S. S. "Guide", an 
explorer of a new order whose discoveries lie far beneath 
the surface of the Pacific Ocean, inaccessible to man. He 
told of the research work of his department and of its 
material benefit to navigation, the making of hydrographic 
surveys and the taking of soundings with special equipment 
for subaqueous purposes. 



President Charles J. Ullrich of the American Association 
of Engineers on a tour visiting the Chapters of his organiza- 
tion, a guest of the Society. President Ullrich is a public 
speaker of unusual ability, showing a command of language 
and clearness of expression put forth with a vigor that read- 
ily caused his hearers to feel the atmosphere of the friendli- 
ness he himself always labored to bring about in the pro- 
fession. The speaker was unreserved in putting forth a 
review of the efforts of his organization to raise the standard 



of professional ethics by the medium of orderly and ad- 
vanced current methods and the treatment of engineering as 
a profession not as a business. The untiring work of the 
national officers of the A. A. E. and of their desire to 
carry on its selected principles so that their progress and 
beneficial influence may be extended and possessed through- 
out the country most helpful to the profession, especially to 
the younger less experienced engineers. 



April 12. — Captain George B. Landenberger, U. S. N. 
and formerly in command of the Asiatic Fleet in China 
waters. Captain Landenberger stated that the Chinese are 
now approaching and have nearly reached their aim of the 
past half-century that of bringing practically all Chinese to- 
gether in a common cause. He told of their aims, particu- 
larly their object of making China a country solely for the 
Chinese. He also related incidents of the remarkable 
military feats performed by the various armies during their 
present warfare. 



A splendid program was given under the direction of Mr. 
Geo. W. Van Buren, Special Representative of the Paci- 
fic Telephone 6t Telegraph Company, assisted by nine 
young ladies from the central office especially trained to 
shows the workings of a complete switch-board and other 
apparatus, installed on the platform for this purpose, de- 
tailing a system of calls and answers. Music was furnished 
by The Telephone Company's Orien Girls' Trio. Mr. 
Van Buren's descriptive lecture was illustrated by two 
reels of pictures. Three hundred and fifty members of the 
Society were in attendance at this meeting. 



June 1 4. — The National Tube Company, represented 
by Mr. Forrest G. Harmon, Technical Expert. In the 
course of his lecture Mr. Harmon exhibited over a mile of 
film showing the processes of making steel pipe, from the 
raw material at the mine to the finished product. These 
pictures were of vital interest to all civil, electrical, mechan- 
ical, mining and chemical engineers for they covered at close 
view practically every operation of importance, in minute 
details with a clearness that give a ready apprehension of the 
various processes of manufacturing pipe varying in size from 
24 inch to 96 inch diameter. Two hours spent in viewing 
this film was time profitably spent. 



September 24. — The Best Foods Inc., 1900 Bryant 
Street. Samuel Johnson said: "Good food lubricates the 
appetite". Foods of unusual quality and flavor, especially 
those produced in large quantities for the commercial mar- 
ket is a task that must be studied, realized and built up, 
step by step. The selecting and blending of proper flavors 
to the minute degree must be successfully maintained, in 
order that the product may meet the favor of the ever scruti- 
nizing taste of its patronage. This plant a model of cleanli- 
ness, manufactures Nucoa butter and mayonnaise. Visit 
arranged by H. U. Brandreth, General Manager and H. 
B. Slack, Coast Manager. 



CONCERNING ORAL CONSTRUCTION 

Denistry has become remarkably proficient in the mechan- 
ical procedures of repair, restoration and replacement. 
Manual or digital dexterity here reaches a high point of 
perfection. No architect or engineers quite equals the 
practicing dentist. — Extract from editorial in Saturday 
Eoening Post. 



Year Book, 1927 



[57 



Subdrainage Under Traffic 



Perforated Metal Pipe Withstands the Strains of Live Loads and Unstable Foundations 



Railroad and highway maintenance men have long 
been faced with a serious difficulty in maintaining sub- 
drainage installations in locations where they are exposed 
to the strains and jars of traffic loads or to those incidental 
to settling and shifting sub-soils. In traffic yards where a 
tangle of tracks over wide areas render ordinary culverts or 
open drains impracticable, in long cuts, tunnels and seepage 




Installation of Perforated Armco Pipe for Vard drainage at the 
New Railroad Terminal at Houston. Texas. 

areas, and again where water in serious quantities is fre- 
quently spilled on the right of way, as in track-pan install- 
ations, the need has been keenly felt of some form of pipe 
which would gather the water from the surrounding soil 
throughout its length, which would not be subject to crack- 
ing and disjoining and would not admit such quantities of 
solids through comparatively open joints as to make fre- 
quent removals and cleanings necessary. Such removals, 
with incidental breakage, often prove almost as expensive 
as new installations. 

From recent experiences of various railroads it would 
seem that a practicable material for these purposes has been 
found in perforated Armco pipe. This is the ordinary cor- 
rugated pipe which is so extensively used for culverts, but 
which has been pierced with small holes in each corruga- 
tion throughout a portion of its circumference. The pipes 
are usually made in 20 foot lengths, to be joined by the 
regular band coupler or by a special lug connection which 
is sometimes preferred. 

Installation is simple and rapid ; and removal, if it ever 
proves desirable, can readily be accomplished and without 
any loss from breakage. Experiments have shown that 
holes of the size and spacing now employed serve to admit 
water from saturated soil up to the full capacity of the 
pipe in a comparatively short distance and yet to exclude 
most of the silt and all of the lighter debris. Somewhat 
surprisingly, it turns out that the pipes operate most effici- 
ently when placed with the perforated portions downward ; 
and this is the position recommended by the manufacturers 
for all ordinary locations. Where the drainage comes di- 
rectly from the surface, however, as in track-pan installa- 
tions, or where certain dryer areas are traversed where it is 
undesirable to have any outflow, the best position for the 
pipes is that with the perforations on the top. Since there is 
nothing about the pipe itself which prevents its placement 
either way, the engineer or official in charge is always at 



liberty to use his own judgment, and can, if he thinks best, 
place some portions with perforations downward and others 
in the opposite position. 

The illustrations show a typical use of this form of pipe 
in a raliroad freight yard. The toughness and resiliency of 
the pipe makes it especially appropriate for positions so near 
the tracks where the jars of traffic or slight lateral move- 
ments operate to destroy constructions of breakable ma- 
terials. The same things apply to tunnel locations and 
more especially to hillsides where there is a tendency to soil 
movement. It is practicable to check very serious slides by 
draining the saturated areas by means of well placed per- 
forated pipes. 

Another interesting use of this form of pipe which is 
shown in one of the photographs is that of an infiltration 




Infiltration Caller), 



Tucson. Arizon 



gallery. This is practically a horizontal well, constructed 
by placing a perforated corrugated pipe in water-bearing 
strata. At the Sopori Ranch, between Tucson and Nogales, 
Arizona, 500 feet of 36-inch perforated pipe was laid from 
eight to twelve feet below the bed of a "lost" river, where, 
during most of the year no water was visible. The product, 
carried through 200 feet of smooth galvanized pipe to an 
open canal, suffices to irrigate an area of approximately 
1200 acres, enabling it to yield highly profitable crops of 
grain, alfalfa and fruit. 



58 ] Society of Engineers 



Annual Dinner 

ROOF LOUNGE, CLIFT HOTEL 

May 10th, 1927 
Arranged b\) ihe Public Speaking Class 

Prof. Arnold Perstein. Toastmaster 

Music 
John Oller 

The Greatest Pioneer of All Times 
Ferrebee 

The City Engineer of San Francisco in 1950 
Schuyler 

Tales of Toonerville Trolley 
RoBISH 

Sound Engineering 
Zimmerman 

What My Wife Has Taught Me About Engineering 
Prenville 

Clams and Engineering 
AsHCROFT 

Music 
John Oiler 

Debate: 
"Did the Scandinavians Discover America?" 

Odemark - - - - Christiansen 

Picking Up Beans 
Gill 

The Dumb Engineer 
Delius 

Further Adventures of Paul Bunyon 
Eddy 

The Engineer in Poetry 
Adams 

A Lurid Explanation of the Einstein Theory of Relatively 
Graff 

Jim Jackson 

Beaman 

Music 

John Oller 



Yi.ar Book. 1927 



159 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS 



Adams. Charles E„ C. E. 

Quarter Master Department, U. S. A. 

1221 Carlotta Avenue. Berkeley. 
Adams. Clarence S., M. E. 

National Lead Co. 

2417 Foothill Boulevard. Oakland. 
Adamsen. Jas. J., Sll. Engr. 

1035 Haight Street, San Francisco. 
Adishian. P. K.. Tool Des.gner 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

1545 East 14th Street. San Leandro. Calif. 
Aeppli, Ernest. C. E. 

1308 Cole Street. San Francisco. 
Ahnger, Geo. A.. M. E. 

Calif ornia-Hawaii Sugar 

Crockett, California. 
Albers. Robert W.. Architect 

790 Oak Street, San Francisco. 
Alin. Ake L.. M. E. 

Washington Water. Power Co. 

Spokane, Washington. 
Alejo. Joe B., E. E. 

1353 Bush Street. San Francisco. 
Anaya, Marvin. Student 

1441 Ellis Street, San Francisco. 
Andrews, Berger, C. E. 

East Bay Utility District 

2702 Twenty-seventh Street. Oakland. 
Andrewson. Jno. D., Civil 

Sugar Pine Lumber Co. 

5219 Fairfax Avenue, Oakland. 
Antonenko. Basil P.. C. E. 

Golden Cate Ferry 

1114 Octavia Street, San Francisco. 
Alvord. Benj.. A. B.. C. E. 

Pacific States Telephone & Telegraph Co. 

140 New Montgomery Street. San Francisco. 
Armstrong, Jno. W., B. A., E. E. 

Great Western Power Co. 

3444 Rhoda Avenue. Oakland. 
Arelius, Hugo N.. M. E. 

29 Park Hill. San Francisco. 
Arnold. Ralph R., C. E. 

County Engineer 

Martinez. Calif. 
Ashcroft. Glenn B.. C. E. 

H. Meyers. Architect 

1823 Alameda Avenue. Alameda. 
Amos, E. W. 

Naval Constructor 

1921 Lake Street, San Francisco. 

Babel. Elmer H.. M. E. 

131 Oakes Street. San Leandro, Calif. 
Bachmeister, E. J., 

214 Grand Avenue. Oakland. Calif. 
Balfour, J. A.. Civil 

Pickering Lumber Co. 

Standard, Calif. 
Baughn, Eck L.. E. E. 

Bvson Pump Mfg. Co. 

52~87 Manila. Oakland. 
Baylor. Robt. E., C. E. 

A.C.C. N. Corp. 

Tocopilla 17, Chile, S. A. 
Beaman. Jay E.. B. S.. C. E. 

1306 Peralta Street. Berkeley. 
Beasley, Clarence, M. E. 

Shell Co. 

Campanile Hotel. Berkeley. 
Becker, Ernest. Civil 

Pacific Cear & Tool Co. 

380 Dolores Street, San Francisco. 

Bedell, Clifford, F. Surveyor 
Consulting 
Route I, Box 67. Santa Cruz. 



Behrens. Wm. H.. Civil 

Creat Western Power Co. 

Keddie, Calif. 
Beinhauer. Wm., Civil 

United Stales Engineers 

Rio Vista. Calif. 
Beiter. Rudolph E„ B. M. E. 

Pelton Water Wheel 

69 Casa Way, San Francisco. 
Belford, Alex. A., GenM Mgr. 

Rand Macnally cr Co. 

559 Mission Street. San Francisco. 
Bendel. E. H., M. E. 

1270 St. Charles Street, Alameda, Calif. 
Bensen. Norman, Supt. Const. 

1450 Leavenworth Street, San Francisco. 
Bergschold. Nils O.. C. E. 

417 Market Street, San Francisco. 
Bernard. Geo. R., E. E. 

Keuffel Esser Co. 

127 Central Avenue, San Francisco. 
Berry, D. M.. M. E. 

Marco Nordstrom V. Co. 

Iblb Ashby Avenue. Berkeley, Calif. 
Berry, Kel B., Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

Wendel, Calif. 
Bewley, F. E. Architect 

Southern Pacific Co. 

569 Kenmore Avenue, Oakland, Calif. 
Bichet. Stewart A., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1201 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

Bishop, H. N., B. S., C. E. 

Consulting 

1102 Bank Italy Building. San Jose, Calif. 
Blackburn. Wm. R., Civil 

Lactol Corporation 

4504 Cabrillo, San Francisco. 
Bold. Joe. A.. Student 

St. Mary's 

3421 East Eighteenth Street. Oakland. Calif. 
Booth. Edwin, Jr., Student 

Stanford University 

659 Melville. Palo Alto, Calif. 
Bosia. Louis C. B. S.. M. E. 

Shell Oil Co. 

850 Geary Street. San Francisco. 
Bowen, Clare N., Civil 

Sugar Pine Lumber Co. 

Minarets, Calif. 
Bradley. Willard. B. S.. C. E. 

Oregon-Ca/i/orm'a Power Co. 

2301 Eightieth Avenue. Oakland. Calif. 
Bramble, Lionel R.. Civil 

120 Hyde Street. San Francisco. 
Branch, Robert E.. M. E. 

American Can Co. 

1151 Regent Street. Alameda, Calif. 
Brier. Wm. W.. B. S.. C. E. 

Consulting 

625 Market Street, San Francisco. 
Briggs,, R. C, A. B., C. E. 

United States Ccological Survey 

303 Custom House, San Francisco. 



oocks, Harry T. Jr., A. S. 
Pacific Cas & Electric Co. 
Box 243, San Mateo, Calif. 



use. E. W., Civil 

Department of Public Works. New York 
231 Nichols Avenue, Syracuse, New York. 

okey. Walter W.. Civil 
Westley, Calif. 

Burke. Jas. J.. M. E. 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

Route 4, Box 270. Hayward. Calif. 



60] 



Society of Engineers 



Burcheil. Edw. H.. M. E. 

599 Twenty-second Street. Oakland. Calif. 
Burgess, Clarence E., Civil 

County Engineer 

Box 36, San Lorenzo, Calif. 
Burmeister, Edw. R., M. E. 

American Can Co. 

1572 Alice Street. Oakland, Calif. 
Bunting. Thos. B.. M. E. 

)'uha Manufacturing Co. 

Marysville. Calif. 
Brown. Phil W., Civil 

465 Ellis Street, San Francisco. 
Bernard, Harold T.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

974 Pine Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Calleri. A. J.. Civil 

Chde Fuller Smith 

Box 568 Hayward, Calif. 
Campbell. A. P., Civil 

2306 Rose Terrace, Berkeley. 
Canzi. Frank A., A. M„ B. A. 

85 Glen Avenue. Oakland. 
Capron, Albert J., Civil 

Secrelarv Socielv of Engineers 

952 Pac'ific Building. San Francisco. 
Carte', Ross, C. E. 

Consulting 

2129 Clinton Avenue, Alameda, Calif. 
Casorla. Ivan. Student 

3101 Summit. Oakland. 
Chalfant. A. J., Civil 

Feather River Power Co. 

Storrie, Calif. 
Chapman, Chas. E. Jr., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

Tiburon, Calif. 
Chase, Dee W.. C. E. 

2343 McGee Avenue, Berkeley. 
Child. McLaren C, Student 

Hcald's Engineering School 

1710 Berkeley Way, Berkeley. 
Chrimes, J. W.. Civil 

Sugar Pine Lumber Co. 

1203 O'Farrell, San Francisco. 
Christiansen. Paul, M. E. 

Dow Pump & Diesel Engine Co. 

1036 Polk Street, San Francisco. 
Clark. Baylies C, Ming. Engr. 

Sec.-V. P. Pac. States Savings Co. 

3535 Washington Street, San Frar.c : rc: 
Clarke, J. H. W., M. E. 

1'ufco Manufacturing Co. 

Marysville. Calif. 
Clark, Robt. S., B. S., M. E. 

Standard SanitarV Manufacturing Co. 

5977 Shafter Avenue, Oakland, Calif. 
Clevinger, David S.. Civil 

1546 Tenth Avenue, San Francisco. 

Cochrane, Clifford, W„ C. E. 

Board Appraisals Alameda Co. 

2242 Polk Street. San Franc.sco. 
Colby. Chas. W.. A. B., S. B. 

John D. Callowav, C. E. 

2908 Ellsworth Street, Berkeley, Calif. 

Condon, Thos.. Civil 
East Ely, Nevada. 

Cole. Jas. F., Civil 

Sugar Pine Lumber Co. 
Minarets, Calif. 

Cooledge, Victor R„ B. S.. C. E. 
Southern Pacific Co. 
918 Curtis Street, Berkeley, Calif. 

Cutler. Albert R.. Student 

Hcald's Engineering School 
Box 111, Cerber. Calif. 

Cowles, John, M. E., B. S. 

3247 Brings Avenue, Oakland. Calif. 



Cross. Jas. W.. Civil 

Albion Lumber Co. 

Albion. Calif. 
Crowley. J. J.. Civil 

Mills Estate 

1271 Thirtieth Avenue, San Francisco. 
Cuneo. Ernest V., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

6794 Mission Street, San Francisco. 
Crowley. John J., Student 

1611 Washington Street. San Francisco. 
Curlev. Jno. R.. Civil 

Cost Accounting 

1048 Larkin Street, San Francisco. 
Cutler. Sam'l L.. C. E. 

East Bav Utility District 

519 A. E. Lindsay, Stockton, Calif. 
Czeikowitz, R. R.. Civil 

1334 Twenty-third Avenue, San Francisco. 

Danna, Lewis, E. E. 

Columbia Steel Co. 

912 Steiner Street, San Francisco. 
Dahl. Bjarne C, Architect 

Dickey & Wood 

P. O. Box 2636. Honolulu. T. H. 

Dalve, Leonard L„ Civil 

Pacific Portland Cement Co. 

628 Maple Street, Redwood City. Calif. 
Daniel. W. R., Consulting 

1250 37th Avenue. Oakland. 
Davis, Earl J., Civil 

1376 Plymouth Avenue, San Francisco. 
Davis, Arthur P.. C. E. 

Chief Engineer. East Bav. Utility District 

505 Santa Ray Avenue, Oakland. 
Davis. Sarkus. H., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

170 Otis Street. San Francisco. 
Dawson, J. B.. Civil 

Assistant Engineer, S. P. Co. 

120 Bancroft Road, Burlingame, Calif. 
DeVelbiss, C. Dudley, C. E. 

Contractor 

Builders' Exchange, Oakland. 
Delius. Herbert A.. E. E. 

Leland & Halev 

1471 Portland Street. Berkeley. 
Demers, Lester A„ M. E. 

Instructor. Heald's Engineering School 

1328 El Centre Avenue. Oakland. 
DeVoney, John. M. E. 

American Can Companv, 

1748 10th Avenue, San" Francisco. 
Desmond, A. J.. Civil 

915 Court Street, Redding. Calif. 
Dice. Joseph O., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

427 Homer Street. Pallo Alto, Calif. 
Dieterich. J. W., Proprietor 

Dielerich-Posl Co. 

75 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 
Dinkins. Delbert F„ Civil 

Marland Oil Co. 

116 B Golden Gate Avenue. Long Beach. 
Dombitsky. Chas. W.. M. E. 

Western Butchers' Supph Co. 

156 4th Street, San Francisco. 
Dorcas, W. A., B. A. O. S., C. E. 

Red River Lumber Co. 

611 8th Street. Marysville. Calif. 
Douglas. Norval D., C. E.. 

California HighwaV Commission 

718 Ninth Street, Apt. H., Sacramento. 

Dresel, Gustave, M. E. 

Pacific Stales Telephone 6- Telegraph Co. 
1646 O'Farrell Street. San Francisco. 

Dresel. Rodolfo, B. S„ M. E. 
Pacific Cos 6- Electric Co. 
P. G. & E. Co., Oakland. 






1 I Ml I look. 1927 



Dreu. Frank U M. E. 

1167 Oxford Street. Berkeley. 
Driggs. Edwin L.. B. S.. C. E. 

East Bav Utility District 

601 Ray Building. Oakland. 
Dysinger. Glenn S., M. E. 

3032 Champion Street. Oakland. 
Dufour. P. E„ C. E.. Valuation Engineer 

Stale Railroad Commission 

1509 Hearst Avenue. Berkeley. 
Dua. Mehtab S., E. E. 

Pacific Cas 6- £/ecln'c Co. 

Box 408. Berkeley. 
Davis, Raymond E.. C. E. 
Professor Civil Engineering 

University of California. Berkeley. 

Ehrhart. Harold J.. Civil 

Alameda Countv 

1205 14th Street, Oakland. 
Elliott. Chas. E.. Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

1402 Cole Street, San Francisco. 
Ervin. Hugh M.. Civil 

Heah-Tibbills Co. 

541 63rd Street. Oakland. 
Eddy. Arthur E.. B. S.. M. E. 

Savage Arms Co. 

231 Rialto Building. San Francisco. 
Evans. Fred C Civil 

3015 Van Ness Avenue. San Francisco. 
Erickson, Clarence E.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

974 Pine Street. San Francisco. 
Eshleman. Wallace E.. Student 

Stanford I 'niversity 

659 Melville. Palo" Alto, Calif. 

Faries. Culbert W.. B. A.. C. E. 

Feather River Power Co. 

1203 Hobart Building, San Francisco. 
Farmer. George, M. E. 

Union Ice Co. 

2620 G Street. Bakersfield. Calif. 
Fenger, Emil, C. E. 

East Bav Utility District 

2516 Ridge Road. Berkeley. 
Ferguson. Andrew W.. Civil 

Casa Loma Apartments. Seattle, Wash. 
Fernandez. Juan R., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

2710 Webster Street, San Francisco. 
Fields. W. E.. Civil 

3884 Brighton Avenue, Oakland. 
Fischer, Adolph R.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

473 Hayes Street, San Francisco. 
Flood. Neil, Student 

St. Man's 

1235 Regent Street. Alameda. 
Folletle. Jos.. M. E. 

3663 Green Acre Road. Oakland. 
Forney, H. C. C. E., E. M. 

Valuation Dep't.. Great Western Power Co. 

535 Stockton Street. San Francisco, Calif. 
Forsburg, Geo. W., C. E 

Pacific Coast Cement Co. 

383 Woodside Road. Redwood City, Calif. 
Fox. Geo. L.. Civil 

440 Eddy Street. San Francisco. 
Fox. S. R.. M. E. 

Consulting 

4009 Harding Avenue. Oakland. 
Ferrebee. Harry H.. Civil 

Feather River Power Co. 

Storrie, Calif. 
Franklin. Clifford N.. Architect 

Southern Pacific Co. 

2526 Van Ness Avenue. San Francisco. 



Eraser, Donald J.. Civil 

Great Western Power Co. 

431 Sutter Street. San Francisco. 
Frietag. Kai, B. S.. M. E. 

Link Bell-Meese Codfried 

3700 Twentieth Street. San Francisco. 
Freuler. Geo. H.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

2044 Thirty-fourth Avenue. Oakland. 
Frontinsky. Michael. C. E. 

154 Eighth Street. Oakland. 
Furderer. A. J., E. E. 

Pacific Electrical Mfg. Co. 

589 Castro Street. San Francisco. 
Frykland. B. N„ Civil 

California Highway Commission 

37 Rigg Street. Santa Cruz, Calif. 
Futerman. Mark. M. E. 

242 Lily Avenue. San Francisco. 
Fisher, Robert E.. Vice-President 

Pacific Cas & Electric Co. 

245 Market Street. San Francisco. 

Gama, Gumercindo, Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

2623 Laguna, San Francisco. 
Gansiko. Jose, C. E. 

Mare Island Navv Yard 

218 Capitol Street, Vallejo. Calif. 
Gardner. Fred V.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

Route 1, Box 469. Hayward. Calif. 
Geisler. Geo. H-. Consulting. Refrigeration 

Enterprise Brewery Co. 

No. 1 Enterprise Street. San Francisco. 
Gibson. Fred W.. Civil 

Woodland. Calif. 
Gilbert. Henry D.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

Hotel Geary. San Francisco. 
Gill. Milton T„ Civil 

East Bav Utility District 

1503 Edith Street. Berkeley. 
Gill. Walter W.. Civil 

Alameda County 

1503 Edith Street. Berkeley. 
Glas. Analol. M. E. 

Western Sugar Refinery 

274 Roosevelt Way. San Francisco. 
Graff. Hans, Civil 

United States Engineers 

3350-A Twenty-third Street. San Francisco. 
Grant. Wallace A.. Civil 

Duncanson-H arelson Co. 

1623 University Avenue. Berkeley. 
Gravitt, Henry F., Civil 

1525 Fulton Street. Fresno, Calif. 
Gray, Tone R.. E. E. 

Pacific States Telephone rx Telegraph Co. 

3967 Sacramento Street, San Francisco. 
Greyson. F. Raymond. M. E. 

439 Forty-ninth Street, Oakland. 
Grayson, John T., C. E. 

1924 Larkin Street. San Francisco. 
Gray. Newenham A.. C. E. 

Pacific Coast Steel Co. 

555 Taylor Street. San Francisco. 
Cjreen, Robert G. C. E. 

Department Manager Rand-McNally (r Co. 

440 Bartlett Street. San Francisco. 
Grethel, Bernard W., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

757 Miller Avenue. Mill Valley. Calif. 
Grunewald. Donald C. E. E. 
Pacific Cas & Electric Co. 

496 Fairbanks Avenue. Oakland. 
Guelfroy. Werner A.. Civil 

270 Sanchez Street. San Francisco. 

Marsh Spur-Spring Gap. Calif. 



Society of Encineers 



Guida, Frank, E. E. 

American Can Company 

1471 McKinnon Avenue, San Francisco. 
Gurley. L. S., Civil 

2712 Rawson Street, Oakland. 

Haab, Werner, C. E. 

943 Culvert Street, Detroit, Mich. 
Hack, Walter K., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

157 Filmore Street, San Francisco. 
Hagopian, Henry, Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

77b Capp Street, San Francisco. 
Hanson, John H., Civil 

American Bridge Co. 

Riverside Hotel, Geary, Ind. 
Hardeman, Knute, Civil 

Pacific Cas Gr Electric Co. 

Emigrant Gap, Calif. 
Hardy, Fred L., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

651 Scott Street, San Francisco. 
Harris, Rex F., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1101 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 
Harris, Roy Monte, Student 

University of California 

1226 Church Street, San Francisco. 
Harper. G. P., Civil 

Madera Sugar Pine 

110 "A" Webster Street, San Francisco. 
Harrison, Bradshaw, C. E. 

California Water Supply Corporation 

825 W. Magnolia, Stockton, Calif. 
Harrison, Wm., M. E. 

575 Elizabeth Street, San Francisco. 
Hyams. Leo K„ B. S., M. E. 

Michel &■ Pfeiffer Iron Works 

579 Forty-fourth Avenue, San Francisco. 
Hunt, Leonard W„ M. E., Geologist 

952 Pacific Building, San Francisco. 
Hubbard, George A., C. E. 

Nevada State Highway 

Box 2051, Reno, Nevada. 
Hudson, Raymond A., E. E. 

Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Co. 

549 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco. 
Howard, Oliver O., Civil 

Miller & Lux. Inc. 

15 Mendocino Street, Willits, Calif. 
Hook. W. Lloyd, Civil 

Contractor 

357 Twelfth Street, Oakland. 
Hodgkinson, Marvin, Civil 

Creal Western Power Co. 

Keddie, Calif. 
Hobson, H. D., Student 

Stanford University 

Box 1883, Stanford, Calif. 
Hjort, Sigge I., C. E. 

1600 Fell Street, San Francisco. 
Hinnant, Earle R., C. E. 

California Highway Commission 

Sacramento, Calif. 
Hilton, E. M., Civil 

U. S. National Park Service 

Yosemite National Park, Calif. 
Hill, George S., B. S., C. E. 

yaluation, etc. 

36 Diamond Street, San Francisco. 
1 l.ll, Arthur O., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

2728 E. 16th Street, Oakland. 
Higgins, Jas. F., Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

516 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco. 
Hickman, Francis W., M. E. 

Chief Draftsman Pacific Cas & Electric Co 

41 1 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco. 



Henderson, R. S., C. E. 

Assistant Engineer Southern Pacific Co. 
116 Emerson Street, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Held, Herman E.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

668 Forty-fourth Avenue, San Francisco 
Heinkel, Geo. W.. M. E. 

Caterprillar Tractor Co. 

1260 103rd Avenue. Oakland. 
Healey, Arthur C, Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

444 Hyde Street, San Francisco. 
Heffernan, Thos. R„ Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

Y. M. C. A., San Francisco. 
Hebbron, J. E., Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

1516 Larkin Street, San Francisco. 
Heberling, Guy H., Civil 

539 Homer Avenue, Palo Alto, Calif. 
Haynes, Harold, Civil 

Surveying 

R. 304, 1045 Sansome Street, San F. 
Hayes, Chas. W., M. E. 

Schlage Lock Worlds 

51 Leland Avenue, South San Francisco. 
Hartsough, Justin, Civil 

Creal Western Power Co. 

431 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 
Hawthorne, Thomas, C. E. 

U. S. B. Reclamation 

1441 Welton Street, Denver, Colo. 
Hawkins, A. L., Civil 

Miller 6- Lux. Inc. 

Los Banos, Calif. 
Hayne, William, Civil 

Mare Island Navy Yard 
111 Boysen Street, Vallejo, Calif. 

Iliff, Albert E., Civil 

3785 S. Vermont Avenue, Los Angeles. 

Jakobsson, H. A., C. E. 

Lingren & Swinerlon 

State Life Building, Sacramento. 
James, Adelbert E., M. E. 

Baker. Hamilton & Pacific Co. 

36 Cook Street, San Francisco. 
Jones, Phil R., M. E., Chief Engineer 

Pacific Sanitary Manufacturing Co. 

203 Sixteenth Street, Richmond, Calif. 
Jiminez. Julio, Structural Engineer 

Thebo. Starr & Anderton 

2918 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco. 
Johnson, Emanuel, Civil 

939 Mission Street, San Francisco. 
Johnson, H. C, Civil 

East Bav Utility District 

2449 Dwight Way, Berkeley. 
Johnson, W. H.. C. E. 

California Highway Commission 

LaMoine, Calif. 
Johnston, Frederick, C. E., M. E. 

Consulting Engineer, Milo Williams 

2010 B. Vine Street, Berkeley. 

Kain, C. H., C. E. 

Ccneral Sun>cying 

Box 71. San Carlos, Calif. 
Kay, Albert E., C. E. 

California Highway Commission 

Redding, Calif. 
Kennedy, Jas. J., Civil 

Sugar Pine Co. 

Sugar Pine. Calif. 
Kennedy, Frank E., Civil 

Contra Costa Co. 

Martinez, Calif. 
Kennedy. Walter C, C. E. 

Standard Oil Co. 

1494 McAllister Street, San Francisco. 



Year Book, 1927 



|M 



Kern. Mark. C. E. 

Southern Pacific Co. 

1763 Oak Street, San F rancisco. 

Kent. Wm. M.. C. E. 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

-(47 Callan, Avenue. San Leandro. Calif. 
Kilner, Alfred. E. E. 
Hemh Iron Works 
450 Ellis Street. San Francisco. 
Kienzle. Fred.. M. E. 

California Packing Co. 

1452 Forty-ninth Avenue. San Francisco, 
Knudson. Kay B.. B. E.. C. E. 

Sincerbeaux, Moore & Chinn Co. 
Box 6P I Manasquan, New Jersey. 
Kiefer. John E.. Civil 

A. W. Webber. Consulting Engineer 
835 Pine Street. San Francisco. 
Killrell, Jack \V.. Student 

University of Washington 
1126 Grand Avenue. Everett. Wash. 
Klingen. Leendert. M. E. 
Shell Oil Co. 

1535 Pine Street, Martinez. Calif. 
Knapp. Sewell A.. M. E. 
Standard Oil Co. 

152 Moss Avenue. Oakland, Calif. 
Konevega, Vladimir. C. E. 

Pacific Electrical Manufacturing Co. 
1818 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 
Kotta. Rudolph D.. E. E. 
Southern Pacific Co. 
873 Broadway. San Francisco. 
Kotta. Raphael. J.. M. E. 

873 Broadway. San Francisco. 
Kramer, Harrv A.. Civil 

Pacific Cas & Electric Co. 
4226 Twenty- fourth Street, San Francisco 
Krueger. Frank. M. E. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
2726 Folsom Street. San Francisco. 
Kummer. Fred R.. C. E. 
Surveying 
Larkspur. Calif. 
Kunlenko. Kuzma, Civil 
Pacific Fruit Exp. 

3078 Cazador Street. Los Angeles. Calif. 
Kuykendahl. Earl O. Civil 

1 438' 2 Hyde Street. San Francisco. 
Kanner, A.. M. E. 

716 Eighth Street. Oakland. Calif. 
Karvonen. Archie W., Student 
Heald's Engineering School 
974 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

Lamb. Albert L.. Civil 

C. E. Kennedy. C. E. 

140 Chestnut "Street, Yuba City. Calif. 
Lane. Spencer, B., Civil 

Harrington, Howard & Ash 

Box 413. Blythe. Calif. 
Lane. Rex E.. Chief Engineer 

Madera Sugar Pine 

Madera. California. 
Landers. Walter. Cartographer 

Ran d McNalh & Co. 

119 Haight Street. San Francisco. 
Layland, Chas. L.. M. E. 

Guggenheim Bros. 

Ampang. Selangor. F. M. S. 
Leaman, Wm. D.. Civil 

Pickering Lumber Co. 

Standard. Calif. 
Learnmonth, Robert. M. E. 

Pacific Foundn Co. 

813 Miller Avenue. South San Francisco. 
Leister, Benj. PL M. E. 

Standard Oil Co. 

242 Turk Street, San Francisco. 



Lennen. Wm. E„ Civil 
Southern Pmih< Co. 
1018 Courtland Avenue. San Francisco. 

Leyer. F. H. 

1605 Second Avenue. Oakland. 
Leurey, Louis F ., F. E. 

Consulting Engineer 

58 Sutter Street. San Francisco. 
Littleton. Alfred, Student 

HealdS Engineering School 

3289 Twenty-second Street. San Francisco. 
Livengood. Jas. K., Civil 

2305 East Washington Sreet. Phoenix. Arizona 
Langworthy, Clyde F., Drafting 

California HighoaV Commission 

1021 Shasta Street.' Redding, Calif. 
Lozier. Allen S., B. A.. C. E. 

Consulting 

Route I. Box 173-A. Santa Cruz. Calif. 
Luczynski. Harry A., Student 

HealdS Engineering School 

787 Forty- first Avenue, San Francisco 
Luckenbach, R. B.. M. E. 

Stale Harbor Commission 

Room 20 Ferry Building. San Francisco. 
Luke. Walter. Student 

141 Third Street. San Francisco. 

Macintyre. J. G. S.. C. E. 

1631 Sixty-third Street. Berkeley. Calif. 
Marvin. Bernard. E. E., 

Pacific Cas & Electric Co. 

604 East Seventeenth Street. Oakland. Calif. 
Mason, Guy F.. Civil 

Superintendent Construction 

Box 118. Mill Valley. Calif. 
McGuire. H. J.. E. E. 

Phoenix Utility Co. 

Cassilla 1320, Guyaquil, Ecuador. 

McDonald. H. F„ B. S.. C. E. 
California Highaav Commission 
Orick. Calif. 
McKay. Jas. M., Civil 
Contra Costa Co. 
Martinez, Calif. 
McKeon. Edw. J.. Student 

HealdS Engineering Sch-ol 
1699 Oakdale Avenue. San Francisco. 
MacManaman. H. S.. Superintendent 
Colden Cate Atlas Materials Co. 
1685 Sutter. San Francisco. 
Marsac. Gerald. Architect 
Witmer 6- Watson 
Devore. Calif. 
Mead. Kenneth H., Civil 

Daniel Construction Co. 
4 Bennet Avenue, San Anselmo, Calif. 
Mendoza. Valentine P.. Student 
HealdS Engineering School 
Larkin and Sutter Streets. San Francisco. 
Messner, Paul, Student 

Heald's Engineering School 
614 D. Street. San Rafael. Calif. 
Meuter, Homer, Student 
St. Mary's 

436 Santa Clara Avenue. Alameda. Calif. 
Millner, Byron, Civil 

Pacific Cas & Electric Co. 
1461 Plymouth Avenue, San Francisco. 
Miller. Harry F.. Civil 
Miller & Lux Corp. 
Los Banos, Calif. 
Moland, G. R.. C. E. 

Apt. 408. 4210 Balboa Street. San Francisco. 
Moller. Dan H.. Civil 

994 Lovely Street. Portland, Oregon. 
Monzingo. John J.. B. A.. C. E. 
Western Union Telegraph Co. 
Mill Valley. Calif. 



w 



Society or Encinf.i its 



Moorehouse. Chas. R.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

230 Davisidero Street, San Francisco. 
Morris, Clifford R„ Civil 

Fred H. Tibbiis, C. E. 

Grass Valley. Calif. 

Muggli, John H„ E. E. 

' Shell Oil Co. 

Martinez. Calif. 
Muir, David M„ Civil 

Shell Oil Co. 

Martinez, Calif. 
Mullen. T. F„ Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

264 Twenty-eighth Street. San Francisco. 
Mullinix, Marion, Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1561 Pine Sreet, San Francisco 
Mott. Sene, C. E. 

United Stales Engineers 

401 Custom House. San Francisco. 
Murray, A. D., Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

Box 1777, San Francisco. 
McBeth. W. V.. Civil 

1410 Seventy-fourth Avenue, Oakland, Calif. 
Murphy, H. J., M. E. 

Engineer of Tests Union Pacific Railroad 

502 Union Pacific Headquarters, Omaha, Nebr 
Morgan. E. L„ M. E. 

Pacific Portland Cement Co. 

1096 Pine Street, San Francisco. 
Morisette Hector L„ Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

Third and Townsend Streets, San Francisco. 
Mason. M. M„ Civil 

2208 Ward Street, Berkeley, Calif. 

McNamara, F., Civil 

346 Richland, Ave.. San Francisco. 
Miles, David E., Civil 

Ely, Nevada. 
Miller, Harvey D., Agent 

New York Life Insurance Co. 

2641 Marlin Street, Oakland. Calif. 

Nelson, George, M. E. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. 

553 Dolores Street, San Francisco. 
Nevius. S. B., B. S.. C. E. 

Sidney E. Junkins Co. Ltd. 

605 Metropolitan Building, Vancouver, B. C. 
Newlan, Edwd. M.. E. E., M. E. 

801 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 
Newlove. M. E„ Student 

Stanford University 

78 Davis St., Santa Cruz, Calif. 
Nickel, Harry G., C. E. 

Clip of Los Angeles 

2222 Dana Street, Berkeley, Calif. 
Nickel. Water F., B. S.. C. E. 

Ceo. A. Kncese, Counl\i Engineer 

352 Everett Avenue, Palo Alto, Calif. 
Nilsson. Walter, Civil 

Long-Bell Lumber Co. 

Box 559, Tennant, Calif. 
Nordlund, T. Gerau. Civil 

Standard Oil Co. 

1301 Bonita Avenue. Berkeley, Calif. 
Norme, Harry D., Civil 

952 Pacific Building. San Francisco. 
Nunez, Leslie, Civil 

Concord, Calif. 

Odemark, Sven N„ C. E. 

Southern Pacific Co. 

1045 Franklin Street, San Francisco. 
Oksala. Kosti, M. E. 

3837 Broderick Street, San Francisco. 



Okulow. Nicolas K.. B. S.. M. E. 

1231 O'Farrell Street. San Francisco. 
Oiler. John, B. S., M. E. 

Feather River Power Co. 

44 Portola, San Francisco. 
O'Malley, M. M„ Civil 

1234 East Washington Street, Stockton, Calif. 
Omsled. Harold. C. E. 

5. C. Edison Co. 

Camp 7, Big Creek, Calif. 
Orme. Harry D., Civil 

Pacific Portland Cement Co. 

628 Maple Street, Redwood City, Calif. 
Oribin, Ernest, Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

30 Monticeto Avenue, San Francisco. 
Orr. J. H., Civil 

California Highway Commission 

Redding, California. 
Osbourne, Alan, C. E. 

Sharpies Specialty Co. 

686 Howard Street, San Francisco. 
Overstreet, Frank A„ B. S„ E. E. 

Construction 

Los Molinos, Calif. 

Peacock, Jas. H., Student 

University of California 

1505 Jac'kson Street, Oakland. Calif. 
Pearson, Vernon E., Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

2960 California Street, Oakland, Calif. 
Peterson, P. Y., Civil 

City Engineer 

Santa Maria, Calif. 
Pettebone, O. R., E. E. 

Slanley-Hiller Co. 

Vallejo, Calif. 
Piersol, Arnold B„ Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

92 1 Leavenworth, San Francisco. 
Pillars. Harry M„ M. E. 

924 Curtis Street, Berkeley, Calif. 
Pinckerl, Walter F., E. E. 

Salt River Valley Water Co. 

504 West Culver Street, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Piper, Dean I., C. E. 

State Highway Commission 

1426 Seventh Street, Sacramento, Calif. 
Plant. Tracey R., Civil 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

916 Chestnut Street, Alameda, Calif. 
Popow, Achim J., C. E. 

Norris K. Davis 

2408 McKinley Avenue, Berkeley, Calif. 
Post, F. A.. C. E. 

Claremont Real Estate Co. 

3020 Ashby Avenue. Berkeley, Calif. 
Post, R. C, Mgr. 

Dieterich-Posl Co. 

75 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 
Powell, Louis H., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1008 Larkin Street, San Francisco. 
Prenveille. Donald E., M. E. 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

4001 Woodruff Avenue, Oakland. Calif. 
Preston, Pierce Rue, Mining 

Pickering Lumber Co. 

Standard, Calif. 
Price, R. E., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

854 Long Ridge Road, Oakland. 
Providoshin, Paul S., Architect 

1863 Hayes Street, San Francisco. 
Purcell, Ernest. Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

1905 Golden Gale Avenue. San Francisco. 
Purser. Geo. E., Civil 

875 University Avenue. San Jose, Calif. 






Year Book. 1927 



Puzey. Rolla C, Civil 

E. j. Moser, C. E. 

425 Cough Street, San Francisco. 
Perelomoff. Michael D.. C. E. 

P. O. Box 452, Berkeley. Cahf. 
Phillips, Raymond L., Civil 

Inspector, City of San Francisco 

14° Detroit Street, San Francisco. 
Page. Wm. B.. Student 

St. Man's 

605 Walker Street, San Francisco. 
Peterson. Jno. W., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1 101 Sutter Street. San Francisco. 
Pollock. Paul V., Civil 

Feather River Potter Co. 

Storrie, Calif. 
Pennecuick. A. E.. M. E. 

L. S. Rosener 

1258 La Playea, San Francisco. 

Randolph, John D., Civil 

750 Santa Clara Avenue. Oakland. 
Rapson. Victor C. W., C. E. 

70 Gillies Avenue, Epsom Auckland. New Zea 

Rath. A. F.. C. E. 

Arizona Highway Commission 

Phoenix. Arizona. 
Rawles. Wm. G.. C. E. 

East Bav Utilitv District 

1923 East Twenty-ninth Street. Oakland. Calif. 
Ray. Don C Public Relations 

Pacific Cas 6- Electric Co. 

1533 Spruce Street, Berkeley. Calif. 
Reichmuth, Anton L., Civil 

342 Eighth Avenue, San Francisco. 
Reilly. Jos. R.. Civil 

/. B. Lacey 6- Co. 

920 Filmore Street, San Francisco. 
Reinhart. Geo. A.. C. E. 

American Can Co. 

1700 Golden Gate Avenue. San Francisco. 
Richofsky, Carl, Civil 

647 16th Street. Richmond. California. 

Robertson. Donald M., M. E. 
Caterpillar Tractor Co. 
1655 East Fourteenh Street, San Leandro. 

Robish. Albert A.. B. S.. C. E. 

Coast Counties Cas cr Electric Co. 
726 Sutter Street. San Francisco. 

Rogers, Geo. E., E. E. 

Assistant Engineer T. & P. Railwav 
1003 T. & P. Building. Dallas. Texas. 

Rordorf. Oscar H. Civil 

California Highway Commision 
San Luis Obispo, California. 

Ross, Floyd Irving, C. E. 
Ulen Construction Co. 
Manzinales. Columbia. South America. 

Rothrock, Walter. Civil 
Buckhee-Thorn Co. 
1054 Ellis Street, San Francisco. 

Rothschild. Clarence L.. Civil 

Department of Public Works. Mare Island 
620 El Dorado Street. Vallejo. California. 

Robbins, Enoch. Student 

Heald's Engineering College 

1576 Alice Street. Oakland. California. 

Roemer. Fred A., C. E. 

Treasury Department of United Stales 
2244 Cleveland Avenue. Chicago. 

Saarinen. A. J.. M. E. 
Associated Oil Co. 
1250 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 

Salmon, Val. J.. Architect 
Hunter-Hudson 
2940 Van Ness Avenue. San Francisco. 



Savage, Robt. E., Civil 

State Railroad Commission 

State Building. San Francisco. 
Schilder. Albert C. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

R.F.D. No. I. Box 124. Palo Alto. Califoi 
Scholten, H. A.. Civil 

M. of IV. S. P. Co. 

421 Baker Street. San Francisco. 
Scholt. Ralph E., C. E. 

Ceo. Kneese, County Engineer 

Redwood City. California. 
Scripko. Nick A.. C. E. 

Park Commission 

100 Edgwood Avenue. San Francisco. 
Schubert. Carl, Civil 

Sugar Pine Lumber Co. 

Minarets. California. 
Schuyler. Philip. B. S„ C. E. 

Managing Editor. Western Construction NeK 

24 California Street, San Francisco. 
Schwede. Fdk. A.. C. E. 

Harbor Department. Oakland 

Box 56, Station A, Berkeley, California. 
Sedych. M. D., C. E. 

General Electric Co. 

2375 Fruirvale Avenue. Oakland, California 
Seraphin, Anthony L.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1102 D Street. Hayward, California. 
Severe, Louis J., M. E. 

Jackson Apartments. San Francisco. 
Shea. Harry, Civil 

Creal Western Power Co. 

Box 143 K, R. F. D.. Menlo Park. Califo 
Sheusner. J. H.. M. E. 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

2355 Polk Street. San Francisco. 
Shimkin. Boris M., C. E. 

Pacific Electric Manufacturing Co. 

164 Sixth Avenue, San Francisco. 
Simpson. Eugene H., C. E. 

California Highway Commission 

Redding. California. 
Skytte. Johannes. C. E. 

2239 Parker Street. San Francisco. 
Sleeper. Charles L.. Civil 

Box 180. Upper Lake. California. 
Smallwood. Thos. Q.. C. E. 

East Bav Utility District 

Palace Apartments, Oakland. California. 
Smedegaard. Elfred J.. C. E. 

2230 San Pablo Avenue. Oakland. Californ 
Smith. Dwight A. 

Thebedeu & Smith. Patent Engineers 

578 Fourth Avenue. San Francisco. 
Smith. Morton B.. A. B„ B. S., M. E. 

/. T. Thorp &• Son, Inc. 

2364 Hilgard. Berkeley. California. 

Solomon. M. D.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

856 Bush Street. San Francisco. 

Solovieff, Stephen G.. C. E. 

1739 Pine Street. San Francisco. 

Sorrenti. S. S.. M. E. 

2539 Aetna Street, Berkeley. California. 

Sowash. George, Civil 

California Highway Commission 
San Luis Obispo, California. 

Spratling. Alex.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 
1242 Polk Street. San Francisco. 

Stephenson, L. J.. Civil 

Thebo, 5(arr & Anderlon 
Sharon Building. San Francisco. 

Stearns. Ernes E.. M. E. 

California Bridge & Tunnel Co. 

1437 Seventy-ninth Avenue, Oakland. Cahfor 



66 J 



Society ok Encineer> 



Slessin, Jno. T., C. EL. 

2022 Bancroft Way, Berkeley. 

Stevens. Jack D., Civil 

1275 Washington Street, San Francisco. 

Slocks, Albert J.. C. E. 

Assistant Engineer University of California 
304 California Hall, Berkeley, California. 

Stockstill. C. L.. Civil 

Architect. Stale Armory 

156 Beulah Street, San Francisco. 

Storrs, H. A., C. E. 

Chief Inspector East Bay Utility District 
1546 Spruce Street. Berkeley, California. 

Sundman, Gunnar, Civil 

Standard Oil Co. 

265 Fourth Street, Richmond, California. 
Sutcliffe, H. T., B. S., M. E. 

Pacific Cos &• Electric Co. 

2435 Union Street, San Francisco. 
Swafford, Prof. P. A.. C. E. 

University of California Instruction in Engine 

Hotel Donogh, Berkeley, California. 
Sargent, Jno. S., Civil 

3155 Scott Street, San Francisco. 
Schulz, Henry S., Civil 

U. S. B. P. Rds. 

Crestline, California. 
Shafer. Eugene W., Student 

Healds Engineering School 

5392 Locksley Street, Oakland, California. 
Steel, Guy, Civil 

1837 Fifth Avenue, Oakland, California. 
Stanley, Edwd. F., Civil 

Alpine Hotel, San Francisco. 

Simms, Sylvander, Civil 

952 Pacific Building, San Francisco. 
Spirz, Gustave Jr., Civil 

Clear Lal(e Engineering Co. 

Lakeport, California. 
Shields. Ralph I. M. E. 

437 Jefferson Avenue, Redwood City. 
Stransky, A. G., Valuation 

R. F. D. No. 1, Palo Alto, California 

Telford, E. T.. Civil 

Consulting 

327 East Noble Street, Stockton, California 
Tanner, H. J., M. E. 

Feather River Power Co. 

15 Woodland Avenue. San Francisco. 
Thomas, Howard K., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1420 "A" OTarrell Street, San Francisco. 
Thomas, Leonard H., C. E. 

3742 Grang Avenue, Oakland, California. 
Thomas, Willis, B. S., C. E. 

Superintendent of Construction 

534 Ripley Avenue, Richmond, California. 
Toby. Max E., M. E. 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

1304 Forty-eight Avenue, San Francisco. 
Tonney, Geo. E., C. E. 

Spring Valley Water Co. 

425 Mason Street, San Francisco. 
Todd, Walter, C. E. 

Contractor 

304 East Sixteenth Street, Oakland, California 
Tornoe, Axel, M. E. 

Schlage Lock Co. 

69 Flenry Street, Apartment 4, San Franci 
Trevor, Harry R., Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

Bakersfield, California. 
Tripp, Don E., C. E. 

Construction 

1720 Larkin Street, San Francisco. 
Troedson, Carl, Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

181 Byron Street, Palo Alto, California. 



Tronoff. Theo. V.. Civil 

Surveys 

2812 Ninth Street, Berkeley, California. 
Tschudy. Lionel C. B. S.. C. E. 

Feather River Power Co. 

Storrie. California. 
Tschudy, Wm. E. E., M. E. 

/. T. Thorpe & Sons, Inc. 

6647 California Street, San Francisco. 
Turner, Dewey M., Civil 

.Stale Irrigation Department 

220 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francis 
Taylor. Alva A.. E. E. 

Creal Western Power Co. 

Storrie. California. 
Taylor, J. W., Civil 

Rackerby. Yubo County, California. 



Student 
: Avenue, Oakland, Califo 



Treacy, Wilfred R.. 

St. Mary's 

1035 Lake Shor 
Turner, H. Payne 

Cellite Co. 

Lompoc, Calif. 



Underwood, R. H., C. E. 
Consulting 
1003 South Grand Avenue. Los Angeles. 

Vietz, W. C, Civil 

3001 Madera Avenue, Oakland, California. 
Van Acker, Julius J., Civil 

Valuation. Southern Pacific Co. 

146 Lenox Way, San Francisco. 
Van Bebber, W. C, Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1005 Larkin Street. San Francisco. 
Vance, V. C, E. I., M. E. 

Quarter Master Department, U. S. A. 

For Mason, California. 
Vaughan. Chas. A.. C. E. 

California Highway Commission 

Redding. California. 
Venet, Nick. M. E. 

Mare Island Navy Yard 

Box 193, Vallejo," California. 
Villegas. Dominador R., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1101 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 
Vincent, D. B., C. E. 

424 Sixtieth Avenue, Oakland, California. 
Vind, Herbert J., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

1575 Pine Street, San Francisco. 
Vinding, Randolph H., Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

2008 Shauck Avenue, Berkeley. 
Von der Lippe, Paul, C. E. 

Pacific Cos & Electric Co. Construction Departme 

Martell, California, 
von Seggern, Otto, Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

Box 854, Mill Valley, California. 
Vrendenburg, Edric, M. E. 

Cowell Portland Cement Co. 

Cowell, California. 
Van Zadelhoff. J. L., C. E. 

Valuation 

42 Broderick Street. San Francisco. 

Waite, Geo. T., M. E. 

California-Hawaii Sugar Co. 

2505 Derby Street, Berkeley. 
Wallace, John. E. E. 

Pacific Stales Telephone S- Telegraph Co. 

621 Victoria Street, San Francisco. 
Walters, Philip, Civil 

1624 Sacramento Street, San Francisco. 
Wansbury. Thos. G.. Civil 

Southern Pacific Co. 

4331 Nineteenth Street, San Francisco. 
Watson. Chas. H„ M. E., E. E. 

602 Mason Street. San Francisco. 






Yi-.ar Book. I°27 



[67 



el, California. 
Co. 



Watson, E. J.. M. E. 
Guggenheim Bros. 
972 Bush Street. Apartment 21. San I' rancisco. 

Webb. Harry. Civil 

( nileJ Stales Ceological Survcv 

Redd.ng. California. 
Weddle. Herman W.. Student 

University of California 

2618 College Avenue. Berkeley. 
Wehrheim. Henry C. Student 

HeaWs Engineering School 

228 Grand Avenue. San Raefa 
Wells. Benj. S.. S. B.. C. E. 

Pacific States Telephone & Telegraph 

1623 Beverly Place, Berkeley. 
Wencke. F. W.. C. E. 

4152 Twenty-third Street. San Francisco. 

Werber. Albert W., Civil 
Consulting 

1170 Munich Street, San Francisco. 

Wesley. Fdk. Chas.. Civil 

549 Kearny Street. San Francisco. 

Westergreen, E. E.. Publicity Engineer 

5c// 

1617 Central Bank Bldg.. Oakland. 

Winnegar. Wm. A. 

California Highwav Commission 
Mountain View. Calif. 

Wherry. Francis W.. C. E. 

5. C. Whittlesey, Consulting 
Pismo Beach. California. 

Whittlesey. Jas. T.. C. E. 
Consulting 
Engineers' Club. San Francisco. 

Whittemore. Frank E.. M. E. 
Pacific Coast Steel Co. 
South San Francisco. 

Wihl. Otto Harold. C. E., Radio 
Matson S. S. Co. 
556 California Street, San Francisco. 

Wilson. Robert S.. Civil 

2736 Webster Street. Berkeley. 

Wilby, B. R.. Civil 

JuJson Iron Works 

1516 Moraga, San Francisco. 



Co. 



Wilhelm, Geo. H.. C. E. 

Chief Engineer East Da\, Water 

East Bay Water Co.. Oakland. 
Wilke. Fred. H.. M. E. 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

6635 Dana Street. Oakland. 
Wilson. Jas. J., Architect 

Emporium 

1283 First Avenue. San Francisco. 
Willman. H. Leo. Civil 

Instructor 

1523 Bonita Avenue. Berkeley. 
Wolff. Theo.. Student 

Heald's Engineering School 

192 Sixteenth Avenue. San Francisco. 
Winters, Starling. Student 

University of California 

6426 Benvenue Avenue, Oakland. 
Wood. Lewis K„ M. E. 

California Bridge & Subway Co. 

2119 Addison Street, Berkeley. 
Wright. Sherwin H.. B. S., E. E. 

Weslinghouse Co. 

1100 South Avenue. Wilkinsburg Station, Pittsburg 
Wurth. Carl W., E. E. 

Pacific Cos & Electric Co. 

1274 Sacramento Street, San Francisco. 
Williams, Milo B.. C. E. 

Irrigation Engineer 

1038 Mills Building. San Francisco. 
Wilber, Chas. L.. Civil 

No. 7 Tenth Avenue, San Francisco. 
Woolsev. Robert E., Civil 

2049 Ninth Avenue. Oakland. 

Youngman. Le Roy, M. E. 

Stale Highway Commission 

2220 "M" Street, Sacramento California. 

Zimmerman. Albert E., M. E. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

36 Columbus Avenue. San Francisco. 
Zweifel. Fred A., M. E. 

Southern Pacific Co. 

825 Bush Street, San Francisco. 
Zinkel. Bert. Civil 

Southern Pacfic Co. 

1312 Page Street. San Francisco. 



^n qj^ 



Class in Public Speaking 



Prof. Arnold Perstein, Instructor 



Clarence S. Adams 
Geo. A. Ahnger 
Glen B. Ashcroft 
Jno. F. Beaman 
Robert E. Branch 
D. J. Fraser 
H. H. Ferrebee 
Walton W. Gill 
Hans Graff 
H. E. Knowles 
H. S. MacManaman 
A. E. 



Sven N. Odemark 
P. Christiansen 
J. J. Crowley 
H. A. Delius 
Arthur E. Eddy 
Chas. E. Elliott 
D. E. Prenyille 
A. A. Robish 
Philip Schuyler 
Geo. T. Waite 
Fred H. Wilke 
Zimmerman 



The pleasures of reading are. of course, in good part 
pleasures of the imagination; but they are just as natural 
and actual as pleasures of the sense, and are often more 
accessible and more lasting. — Charles W. Eliot. 



Employment Service Bureau 

Conducted by the Society of Engineers 



It offers a confidential, centralized service from which em- 
ployers of Engineers may, without charge, procure from its 
membership, selected, experienced and specially trained men 
in all branches of the profession to fill such positions as may 
be offered. 

Desiring the services of draftsmen, designers, detailers. 
office and field service men on location, construction and 
maintenance, salesmen, valuation, accounting experts, 
etc., affiliated with civil, mechanical, electrical, mining, 
architectural structural, irrigation and hydraulic branches 
of the Engineering profession. 

Inquiries confidential: Address Albert J. Capron, Sec- 
retary, 952 Pacific Building, San Francisco, Calif. Phone 
Sutter 5819. 



68 ] Society of Encineers 

A Short Explanation of Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures 

The basic principle underlying the water cement ratio gate is not determined, the following approximate amounts 

method of designing concrete mixtures is most simply stated °f f ree water > n the aggregate may be used: 

as follows: Condition of Aggregate Cations per Cu. Ft. 

r- ■ . . i j .... .; . ,i t Very wet sand % to 1 

tor given materials and conditions, the strength of con- Moderately wet sand \A 

crete is determined solely by the ratio of the volume of Moist sand J4 

mixing Water to the volume of cement used. In other words, Moist gravel or crushed stone % 

if a definite amount of mixing water is used for each sack 

of cement in a concrete mixture, the strength at a given age 

is fixed, regardless of the quantities of aggregates used, as 

long as the mixture is kept plastic and workable and the American life, so habitually treats art as a matter for the 

aggregates are clean and structurally sound. f ront parlor, where the shades are kept drawn except on 

Two Functions of Water Sundays, that every example of the humanizing of ordinary 

Water has two functions in concrete — first to hydrate things >s apt to arouse an almost disproportionate enthusiasm, 

the cement, and second to produce a workable consistency. This reflection is provoked by the recent Key Route ferry 

Upon the first function depends the strength of the con- boats, Peralta and Yerba Buena. Our attitude towards 

crete; upon the second depends the ease with which it boaU jn particuIar ; s elequent on this point Ordinarily 

may be handled and put into place. Quite obviously both a boat |s a thing ^ bg disregarded without the s l ightest 

of these factors must be considered in making concrete. A CQncern for appearance . But when we have a boat wherein 

certain degree or plasticity is necessary no matter where „„ ■ . -ii j i i • j ■ .„_ 

. • i i c i - i • an expensive patronage will demand luxurious design, we 

the concrete is to be used. Strength is always important. wi „ fi j, ft up ^ Corinthian co l onnades and endless other 

The water-cement ratio method for proportioning concrete trappings of the most outrageous l y inC ongrous constructional 

allows the user to get both strength and plasticity, ror the implications 
strength of concrete is determined, not by how wet or how 

dry the mix is, but by how much rvaler is used in propor- The Peralta and Yerba Buena exhibit a reassuring con- 

lion to the amount of cement used. A simple way to look cern for appearance, and one which remains within the 

at it is regard the cement paste produced by the mixture of bounds of common sense. I am not really thinking now 

cement and water as a glue which binds the aggregates to- of Robert Howard's painted maps, though they are tht 

gether. Addition of too much mixing water dilutes the mon conspicuous items of decoration as such. For these 

glue and reduces its power to bind. touches, pleasant alike in composition and color, we are not 

_ . _ _, „ . ungrateful. They stand isolated, however, and in a posi- 

Design Concrete for Given Strength tjon and mamler of setting they are not integra , ^ the 

Concrete of a required compressive strength can be pro- structure they adorn. The disposition to pay a competent 

duced by using a given quantity of mixing water to a given art j st f or pure decoration on a ferry boat remains none 

quantity of cement, regardless of the amount of aggregates the ] ess a hopeful gesture, 
used, provided the mixture be kept plastic and workable. 

If 2000 pound concrete is desired, for example, seven gal- But what interests me in particular about these boats 

Ions of water should be used for each sack of cement. Hav- is the evidence consideration given details which are of the 

ing this relation fixed, the aggregates may be added in such crafts themselves, and which are ordinarily disposed of as 

proportions as will produce a mix that is plastic enough for matters of thoughtless routine. The first thing to enlist 

the purpose desired. If too much aggregate is used, (usually attention is the exhilarating forward swing of the upper 

in an attempt at economy) the mix will be too dry for dec ks. They simultaneously spring from the structure below 

proper placing in the forms. Decreasing the quantity of and launch ahead in curves which are a delight to the eye 

aggregate will produce a more plastic mixture. The more and elequent of the steel of which they are built. On the 

fluid concrete is more expensive, since the proportion of lnslde the central clerestoned nave with its reflex-curved 

cement to aggregate is, of course, greater and more cement ceiling is graceful and airy, marred only by a few palatry 

is required per cubic yard of finished concrete. and apparently irrelevant iron scroll brackets. Windows 

n ■ • i ■ x i iL j c are straightforward and business-like and good in scale. 

Designing a concrete mix tor a given strength and tor .-, 6 , , , , , , , . , 

j L-i-. j .i r •. • i .■ ,l rloors on upper and lower decks are agreeably designed 

durability and economy, therefore, consits m selecting the , . , . . . T , ,, , , . , ., 

. I • i ii • .1 j . .i j and cheerful in color. In short, all or the minor details, 

water-cement ratio which will give the required strength and . . . . , lr . , . , , c , 

,u j i _ .l _u- c c j though logical, as bents a boat, and simple, as bents a pub- 
then determining the combination ot tine and coarse aggre- ■• i i i , ... , , , 
„ . -iii ii -n •» t ,l r .l l » he conveyance, show none the less that they have been the 
gate available which will permit or the use or the largest , . J . . ... . , . . ,. ■; f . ... 

c i . t objects ot intelligent consideration. A little intelligence, a 

quantity ot aggregates, maintaining a plastic mixture ot a ,. \ . . ° , , ,. r . . . . , , , 

workability which will readily flow into the corners of the 1,ttle f nsihveness and feeling for propriety, certainly help 

forms. According to specifications recently adopted by the to make ndln 8 a P ieasure - 

American Railway Engineering Association, the quantity Nor should I omit to mention that the seats seem to have 

of water to cement which will give definite concrete been designed with a knowledge that they were to serve 

strengths is as follows: the human body. — Irving F Morrow in The Architect 

1 500 lb. concrete — 8.00 U.S. Gal, of water per sack of cement and Engineer. 

2000 " " —7.00 

2500 " " —6.25 

3000 '■' " —5.50 

3500 " — 4.75 " The great law of human industry is this; that industry. 

Free moisture in the aggregate must be included as part working either with the hand or the mind, the application 

of the mixing water and must be subtracted from the of our powers to some task, to the achievement of some 

amount specified above. Where the moisture in the aggre- result, lies at the foundation of all human improvement." 



Yi \i< Book, ! q 27 



[69 



C. E. GRUNSKY CO. 

CONSULTING ENGINEKRS 
57 Post Street San Francisco, Calif. 



LOUIS F. LEUREY 

INDUS TRIAL APPLICATIONS 
of ELECTRICITY 



?S Sutter Street 



San Francisco 



CHARLES H. LEE 

Consi i ii\ii Hydraulic Engineer 

Water Supply and Sewerage 

Special Underground Water and 

Water-right Problems 

Si i i mi Street San Francisco, Cal. 

Telephone Sutter 6931 



EMERGENCY CAPITAL FOR YOU 
IK you get laid off — IE you become 
unable to work — When you get too 
old i" work — IF you die, an income 
for your family. The safest and sur- 
est was ever devised by mankind for 
saving money and providing' for 
emergencies is offered by the 
MOW FORK LIFE INSURANCE 
COMPANY 
Harvey I >. Miller, Agent 
210 Post Street, : San Francisco 



C. Dudley DeVelbiss 

CONSTRUCTION 



- '■' 



HOWE & PRICE 

CONSULTING CIVIL ENGINEERS 



24 California Street 
San Francisco 



Telephone 
Douglas 857 



The Engineer's Book Store 



To the Engineer's way of thinking the ideal bookstore 
would be one with thousands of volumes of the latest tech- 
nical and scientific books and not a single volume of fic- 
tion. The Technical Book Company operate just such a 
store in the Underwood Building at 525 Market street. 

This firm supply the major part of the technical books 
used on the Coast by Engineers, Libraries, Bookstores and 
Colleges. They are the Coast representatives of the follow- 
ing firms who publish the greater part of the Technical. 
Industrial and Business books published in this country. 

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 
D. Van Nostrand Company. 
Chemical Catalog Company. 
J. B. Lippincott Company. 
Longmans Green & Company. 
Prentice Hall Inc. 
Ronald Press Company. 
A. W. Shaw Company. 

The Technical Book Company will procure any book 
in print and supply it at the publishers catalog price. They 
maintain agents in London and Berlin and will import 
foreign language books at the prevailing rate of exchange. 

As this is the only shop of its kind in the West, there 
is hardly an Engineer or Industrial Firm on the Coast that 
does not have some of their books in their reference library. 
It is extremely difficult to secure a book of a technical na- 
ture through the ordinary book store. At times you see a 
new book reviewed in one of the current periodicals. It may 
be something of vital interest to you. The reviewer, however 
has not supplied the name of the publisher. Where shall you 
secure it? This is one of the many instances in which 
the Technical Book Company can assist you. There is 
hardly a technical book published that they do not receive 
at least one order. They will undoubtedly have the pub- 
lisher's name and can secure the book for you. Even if 
you know the publisher it is far easier to call them at 
Garfield 19, order your book and forget about it until 
the postman puts it on your desk. A phone call will take 
but half a minute to order direct, you have to write a letter 
and wait two weeks for the book to come from the East. 
If you phone the above company they may have the book 
in stock and you will have it the next day. 

Next time you are in the market for a book, Phone 
Garfield 19 and find the difference between an ordinary 
book store and one that specializes in your kind of books. 




Air Compressors, Blowers, Vacuum Pumps, 

Stationary and Portable Vacuum Cleaners, 

Blow Guns, Air Vacs, etc. 

Anything in Pressure, Air i>r Vacuum 

BAKER HANSEN MFG. CO., 
1900 Park St., : : Alameda, Calif. 



EXTRACT FROM A COLLEGE DAY LETTER 
OF THOMAS B. MACAULAY 

Cambridge, Wednesday, 
October, 1818. 
I can scarcely bear to write on Mathematics or Mathe- 
maticians. Om for words to express my abomination of 
that science, if a name sacred to the useful and embellish- 
ing may be applied to the perception and recollection of cer- 
tain properties in numbers and figures! Oh, that I had to 
learn astrology, or demonology, or school divinity ! Oh. 
that I were to pore over Thomas Aquinas, and to adjust 
the relation of Entity with the two Predicaments, so that I 
were exempted from this miserable study! "Discipline" 
of the mind! Say rather starvation, confinement, torturs, 
annihilation! But it must be. I feel myself becoming 
a personification of Algebra, a living trignometrical canon, 
a walking table of Logarithms. All my perceptions of 
elegance and beauty gone, or at least going. By the end of 
the term my brain will be "as dry as the remainder biscuit 
after a voyage." But such is my destiny, and since it so, 
be the pursuit contemptible, below contempt, or disgusting 
beyond abhorrence, I shall aim at no second place. But 
three years ! I cannot endure the thought. I cannot bear 
to contemplate what I must have to undergo. Farewell 
then Homer and Sophocles and Cicero. 

T. B. Macauley. 



70] 



Society of Encineers 



;raphy-«The Electrical Transmission 
of Pictures by Wire 



A few months ago a large underwriting house in New 
York City was in the process of underwriting a new issue. 
To complete the transaction it was necessary that thirteen 
previous issues be legally retired. This necessitated the 
appearance of an advertisement in certain newspapers for 
a given period of time to announce the fact that these issues 
were about to be retired. 

The day for the completion of the negotiations was at 
hand. The bankers, lawyers and financiers were in con- 
ference at a New York bank, the trustee of the new issue. 
A check was made of the affidavits from the newspaper 
proprietors certifying that the advertisements of the retiring 
of the issues had appeared as required. 

In the check-up it was discovered that no affidavit was 
at hand from a large newspaper in Chicago. The under- 
writers were in a quandry. If the affidavit was not re- 
ceived by five o'clock a postponement of the issue for 60 
days would be necessary and the negotiations would have 
to be repeated at great financial loss. To obtain the affi- 
davit from the publisher before the close of the meeting 
seemed impossible. 

Someone suggested telephotograph. Immediately the 
Chicago publisher was reached on the long distance tele- 
phone and requested to make the required affidavit. This 
was rushed to the telephotograph office in Chicago, photo- 
graphed and transmitted to New York, where it was 
brought before the meeting in accordance with legal re- 
quirements. The deal was concluded. 

Telephotography, or the electrical transmission of pic- 
tures by wire, has now been available for commercial use 
for two and a half years. Like the first steamboat, the 
first telephone and the first airship, its advent in 1925 was 
hailed with some skepticism. It was regarded as a novelty, 
a clever development of telephone engineers but without 
practical value in the day-to-day business world. This 
theory was quickly disproved and today telephotography 
is reaching into ever widening fields of use. The speed and 
accuracy with which it transmits subject matter of any 
character which can be photographed has earned for it a 
distinct place in the commercial world and hardly a day 
passes that an emergency does not arise necessitating its 
use in a new field. 

Correcting oversights in business, however, is only one 
valuable service of telephotography. Accuracy is as im- 
portant a virtue as speed. No matter how complex the 
text, the electric eye transmits it. Japanese characters, 
hieroglyphics, engineering plans, drawings, tabulations of 
figures and other material totally unsuited to other forms of 
rapid transmission give it no more trouble than forty-two 
point Roman caps. 

Mechanical and architectural drawings have been 
transmitted with complete success. The advantages of 
sending a facsimile of an intricate drawing with dimensions 
are too obvious to need elaboration. In one case the draw- 
ing of a rudder part of a disabled ship was transmitted to 
headquarters at New York and permitted replacement parts 
to be cast immediately whereas otherwise considerable delay 
would have been experienced. 

Telephotograph stations are now in operation in eight 
cities — San Francisco and Los Angeles, serving the Pacific 
Coast, and Boston, New York, Atlanta and Cleveland 



serving the East; Chicago and St. Louis, serving the Middle 
West. The sending and receiving apparatus in these cities 
is connected by the long distance telephone lines of the 
Bell System, over which the current carrying the pictures 
is transmitted. A picture may be transmitted from any one 
to another of the above cities, or simultaneously to any 
group of them. 

Reduced to its simplest terms, the problem of trans- 
mitting a picture electrically from one point to another calls 
for three essential elements. The first is some means for 
translating the lights and shades of the picture into some 
characteristic of an electric current; the second is an elec- 
trical transmission channel capable of transmitting the char- 
acteristic of the electric current faithfully to the required 
distance; the third is a means for retranslating the electrical 
signal as received into lights and shades, corresponding in 
relative values and positions with those of the original pic- 
ture. 

Analyzed for purposes of electrical transmission, a pic- 
ture consists of a large number of small elements, each of 
substantially uniform brightness. The transmission of an 
entire picture necessitates some method of traversing or 
scanning these elements. The method used in the present 
apparatus is to prepare the picture as a film transparency 
which is bent into the form of a cylinder. The cylinder 
is then mounted on a carriage, which is moved along on 
its axis by means of a screw, at the same time that the 
film cylinder is rotated. A small spot of light thrown upon 
the film is thus caused to traverse the entire film area in a 
long spiral. The light passing into the interior of the 
cylinder then varies in intensity with the transmission of 
tone value of the picture. 

The task of transforming this light of varying intensity 
into a variable electric current is performed by means of an 
alkali metal photoelectric cell. This device consists of a 
vacuum tube in which the cathode is an alkali metal, such 
as potassium. Under illumination the alkali metal gives 
off electrons, so that when the two electrodes are connected 
through an external circuit, a current flows. This current 
is directly proportional to the intensity of the illumination, 
and the response to variations of illumination is practically 
instantaneous. This cell is placed inside the cylinder 
formed by the photographic transparency which is to be 
transmitted. As the film cylinder is rotated and advanced, 
the illumination of the cell and consequently the current 
from it registers in succession the brightness of each ele- 
mentary area of the picture. 

At the distant point it is necessary to have the third 
element above mentioned, a device for retranslating the 
electric current into light and shade. This is accomplished 
in the present system by a device termed a "light valve". 
This consists essentially of a narrow ribbon-like conductor 
lying in a magnetic field in such a position as to entirely 
cover a small aperture. The incoming current passes 
through this ribbon, which is in consequence deflected to 
one side by the inter-action of the current with the mag- 
netic field, thus exposing the aperture beneath. Light pass- 
ing through this aperture is thus varied in intensity. When 
this light falls upon a photographic sensitive film bent into 
cylindrical form and rotating in exact synchronism with the 
film at the sending end, the film is exposed by amounts vary- 



Year Book, 1927 



[71 



ing in proportion to the lights and shades of the original 
picture. 

The process of developing the received picture is carried 
on in the same manner as the development of any other 
photographic film. The standard size picture prepared for 
transmission is five by seven inches. Pictures larger than 
this size may be reduced to the standard size or may be 
transmitted in their original sizes in sections. The time con- 
sumed in transmitting a picture is seven minutes, but photo- 



graphic routine brings the over-all time to approximately 
one hour and a half. 

To dwell on the thought that a picture or written matter 
in all its detail of light and shade can be reproduced and 
delivered across the continent in an hour and a half is, in- 
deed, a tribute to scientific research. A few years ago the 
acceptance of this thought as a fact would have strained to 
the breaking point the credulity of the most optimistic scien- 
tist. Today we see again the near miracle rapidly becom- 
ing another business necessity of our day and age. 



Insured Engineers 



The engineering profession is a peculiar one in numerous 
respects, it calls for high technical training, study and years 
of preparatory work, still the profession has more hazards 
than most lines of kindred endeavor, and why? — because 
a combination of circumstances that embrace engineering 
work are of such a changing nature that the engineer finds 
himself out of a job more frequently than most technically 
trained men. 

Large construction projects call for trained men to super- 
vise the work, trained men to handle details that only engi- 
neers are qualified to do, work goes on, the job is com- 
pleted, then several good engineers are usually out hustling 
jobs. 

Not only in the construction field effecting the civil engineer, 
but unemployment of capable engineers in the mining in- 
dustry is equally if not more apparent. Nor can it be said 
that this condition is the fault of the engineer, for he knows 
the value of steady work as well and better than the most 
man. He often becomes a member of a migratory class due 
to the demands of his profession and it is these periods of 
calm between jobs that cuts in on the average earnings of the 
engineer, in mining, the price of a certain metal controls the 
output, and duration of operations, are matters over which 
the engineer has no control of frequently side swipe his job, 
and his earning capacity that the engineer as a class should 
safeguard against just such conditions as the "job being 
finished" or the mine "shutting down." 

Experience and the law of averages of course plays 
an important and happy role in the life of the engineer. 
Thousands of men in this profession have permanent posi- 
tions and are far surrer of them than many men in other 
walks of life — the permanent engineering job or engineer- 
ing connection usually goes hand in hand with an excellent 
salary, the reward of several years, investment of diligent 
work and it is to this goal that all up and going men in 
the entire field of engineering are aspiring. 

How much easier it would be for the younger man, 
the chap who is trying to "win his spurs" and make a 
reputation for himself, if he could be sure of a reasonable 
income between jobs. Sooner or later when his chance 
comes he will fill a permanent nitch in the Engineering 
world, his worries about another job will be passe, a thing 
of the past. But until he meets that fortunate opportunity 
he must look to his laurels and make both ends meet as 
best he can. 

The rapidly increasing popularity and acceptance — and 
even necessity of insurance protection in every day, life 
and branch of modern industry gives rise to opportunity to 
either earn a considerable amount in spare time or to en- 



gage in a splendid business for the energetic man whose 
entire time is devoted to this class of work, the selling of 
insurance. 

The field is unlimited, not a cargo goes out to sea un- 
lesss it is insured, millions of privately owned feet of stand- 
ing timber carry insurance, the grain crops the world over 
are covered by insurance, to say nothing of the millions of 
dollars invested in personal effects that should be covered by 
fire and theft policies. Here is an opportunity for the young 
engineer to fill every minute of his spare time at a profit- 
able and permanent income producing plan — the sale of 
insurance policies to the individual, in the form of life in- 
surance, fire, theft and liability — on industrial policies to firms 
he has had connections with, or on jobs in the course of con- 
struction. 

There are innumerable possibilities for the wide-awake 
young and especially the engineer who is usually identified 
with the construction program before the actual work has 
begun. He has a contract or the element that makes for 
a contract before the average insurance man would be 
aware of any possible activities. 

A considerable amount of success is told of in one in- 
terview with L. B. Hoge, Vice-President of the Washing- 
ton Fidelity National Insurance Co., in San Francisco, re- 
cently and it is the belief of Mr. Hoge, that insurance offers 
an interesting and very profitable side line for the engineer 
who wishes to increase his income or to find a profitable 
investment for his spare time between jobs. 



Men band themselves together for the sake of association, 
no doubt, but also for something greater and deeper than 
that — because they are conscious of common interests lying 
outside their business occupation, because they are members 
of the same community and in frequent intercourse find 
mutual stimulation and a real maximum of vitality and power. 
— Woodrow Wilson. 



I hold every man a debtor to his profession, from which, 
as men of course do seek to receive countenance and profit, 
so ought they of duty to endeavor themselves, by way of 
amends, to be a help and ornament thereunto. 

— Francis Bacon. 



Every country in its daily life provides for itself certain 
artists who do their best to bring their visions of truth and 
beauty home to their fellow human beings, and from these 
efforts once and again fine creative things result. 

— Hugh Walpole. 



Society of Engineers 



DOW HOT OIL SURGE PUMPS 



Temperatures 
up to 1000° F. 



THOMPSON PATENT 



Pressures up 
to 3000 Lbs. 




We Build a Complete Line of Steam and Power Pumps for Industrial and Marine Service 

DOW PUMP & DIESEDENGINE CO. 



Main Office and Works, Alameda, Calif 



Mid-Continent Office, 805 Mayo Bldc, Tulsa, Okla. 



The 

West's 

Newest 

Cement 

Plant 

Yosemite Portland 
Cement Corp. of 
Merced, Calif. All 
Structural Work, 
Steels Tanks, etc.. 
Fabricated and In- 
stalled b y this 
Company. 




WESTERN PIPE & STEEL CO. 



444 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



OF CALIFORNIA 

FRESNO / TAFT / PHOENIX 



5717 Santa Fe Ave 
LOS ANGELES 



Year Book. 1927 




de Lavaud Centrifugal 
Cast Iron Pipe 

is ready for shipment in 
sizes from 4" to 20" 

There are already over 1,500,000 lengths of 

this pipe installed, and testimonials to its ease 

of installation — its efficiency and economy 

are constantly being received 

For long and permanent flow lines Sand-Cast 
Cast Iron Pipe is made in sizes up to 84 

The permanence, non-corrosive qualities and 
ease of handling, are among the reasons why 
waterworks engineers specify cast iron pipe 




Cerattifegal 

Cast Iron Pipe 



Write for further 
particulars 



Western Sales Office 
Third and Market Sts 

San Francisco 



and Kumiiidry Company 

Gatcml Offices, 

Burlington. New Jersey 



Engineers and Chemists 

ABBOT A. HANKS, Inc. 

Consulting — Testing — Inspecting 

624 Sacramento Street 
San Francisco, Calif. 

INSPECTION AND TESTS 
Abbot A. Hanks, Inc. 

It has become a recognized fact that a building which has 
had proper tests and inspection throughout its construction, 
by a reputable firm engaged in this work, is a better building 
than one upon which there has been no such inspection. 

Every manufacturer of building material and every contrac- 
tor on construction work endeavors to turn out satisfactory 
results, for if this were not so, his. reputation would soon be 
at fault. But errors are bound to creep in during any oper- 
ation of manufacturing and construction, which, if caught be- 
fore they are incorporated in a structure, will save trouble for 
Architect, Engineer, Contractor and Owner. 

The Architect or Engineer is very careful in his specifica- 
tions to state that materials shall meet certain standards which 
have been adopted by well established societies, such as The 
American Society for Testing Materials. Certificates of tests 
and inspection are most valuable records to exhibit, and give 
the client the assurance that the materials entering into the 
structure have been properly inspected. 

Would it not be a satisfaction, from the purchaser's point 
of view, to know that all structural material has been care- 
fully tested and inspected by a disinterested concern, and to 
have certificates presented showing that all was in accordance 
with the specifications? 

The time is not far distant when every structure of impor- 
tance will be required to pass a rigid set of inspection and test 
requirements by a responsible firm properly equipped to handle 
such work. It is already well established that Building and 
Loan or other investment companies are demanding such ser- 
vices where they are furnishing funds for construction pur- 
poses. Further, the benefits of inspection are reflected in 
lowering of insurance rates. 



BOOKS 

On Engineering in all its Branches 
Civil , Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, Industrial, Etc. 

We are Agents for the following Publishers 
D. Van Nostrand Company, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., J. B. 
Lippincott Company, Ronald Press Company, Longmans Green 
& Company, Chemical Catalog Company, Prentice Hall, Inc., 
A. W. Shaw Company. 

We have the largest stock of Technical, Scientific, Business and 
Industrial Books on the Pacific Coast 

TECHNICAL BOOK COMPANY 

525 Market Street - - San Francisco 
Garfield 19 

"We can secure any book in print" 



Washington Fidelity National Facts 

In addition to a complete line of accident and health policies 
that fit the needs and pocketbooks of every prospect, this com- 
pany is now writing ordinary life insurance, and is thus in a 
position to take care of all the needs in personal (life and 
disability) insurance. 

Write us for details of our district agent's contract 

WASHINGTON FIDELITY 
NATIONAL INSURANCE CO. 

Address 

Pacific Coast Department 

L. B. Hor.E, Vice-President 

Pacific Building - - San Francisco 



7-1] 



Society ok Engineers 



CALCO GATES 




Cairo Slide Headgate, Model 101 



with Rust Resisting 

Armco Corrugated Pipe 

An Unbeatable Combination for 

Efficiency and Durability 



Write for 
What Users Say 
of Calco Slide 
Headgates, 
Calco Automatic 
Drainage Gates, 
Calco Lateral 
Gates, 
Armco Irri- 
gation Gates, 
Armco Culverts, 
Armco ( Lennon 
Type ) Flumes 




Calco Automatic Drainage Gate, Model i oo 



409 Le 
Los 



California Corrugated Culvert Company 



Roy Street 
Angeles 



51H and Parker. Streets 
West Berkeley 



The letter below Was written by Capt. Albert J. Capron 

—now Secretary of American Association of Engineers, Pacific Bklg., San Francisco 

TO THE YOUNG MEN OF CALIFORNIA: 

My observation has been that one of the principal causes of discontent is the lack of good, practical, bread- 
winning education — not of the "high brow" kind, for that belongs to college professors — but that kind with which 
one may go out into the world and take a leading position in the marts of trade. 

"USE YOUR HEAD" is a common expression, but to use vour hands with reasonable intelligence is another 
thing, and unless one has trained both to work together, he will become one of those "underlings" of which there 
are far too many. 

Where then may we go to get such a training as may give us the proper equipment with which to meet the very 
conditions necessary in the battle, not of the Marne, but of life? Two years during which I have been a student in 
Hcald's has answered the question for me. It may answer the question for any young man who wants to get some- 
where and has the get up and get in his make-up. 

1 1 has been given me to watch the several hundred "fellow students" in this institution during study hours. The 
vim and vigor of these has been an inspiration to me, and it may be truthfully said, that if one is desirous of secur- 
ing an education in any line taught here, he can have it, and the better he applies himself the greater will be his 



The instructors are all practical men, each schooled in his branch equal to those in the higher institutions of 
learning, and while some of the latter are giving an education, desirable, of course, Hcald's is giving a PRACTICAL 
education with which to step out in the world into well paying jobs. You get there what you go after with a deter- 
mination to "get." It is there for the ambitious. 

ALBERT 1. CAl'RON. 



HEALD 



NIGHT SCH () O L 



TECHNICAL 

SCHOOLS 

Thos. B. Bridges 
President 



SUFFER AND LARKIN S'FRF. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



TS 



DAY SCH O O L 



V i m< Book, l l >27 



175 



NEPTUNE 






METER 

COMPANY 

NEW YORK CITY, N. V. 




STRAUS 
BONDS 


Manufacturers of the 

TRIDENT 

Disk. Crest Compound Protectus 

Water ^Meters 

More than 3,000,000 Tridents arc now in service 




Financing of a new building 
is as important as design or 
engineering. This House is 
in the market for sound first 
mortgage bond issues on new 
building construction projects 

S. W. Strauss & Co. 


Truly a remarkable record of achievement 

PACIFIC COAST BRANCHES 

Los Angeles San Francisco 

701 East jru Street 520 Market Street 

Portland, Ore. 

474 Glisan Street 




CHICAGO — NEW YORK 
Straus Bldc, 79 Post St., San Francisco 












Meet and Entertain Your Friends at 


Mt. Diablo 
Cement 

Awarded Gold Medal 
P. P. I. E. 




BERNSTEIN'S 

FISH GROTTO 

123 POWELL ST. 
6 SACRAMENTO ST. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Where the finest FISH DINNER in 
America is deliciously served 


Cowell Santa Cruz Lime 

Always Used Where Quality 
Count- 

Henry Cowell 
LimeandCementCo. 




A Fact 

Fish caught at 5 a.m., served here same day 




PHOTOSTAT 

Copies 
Blue Printing 

If in a Hurry, Call 


2 Market Street, San Francisco 

BRANCHES 

Oakland 
Santa Cruz Sacramento San Jose Portland 




Strecker Blue Print Co. 

142 Sansome Street 
4th Moot- 
Douglas 6796 or Douglas 2255 



Printed by 
•R-CtTY Printing Co. 
518-22 Broadway 
aklaxd, California 



n~"HE. existing generations are conspiring with a , bene- 
* hcier.ce, which in its workings for coming generations, 
sacrifies the passing one, which infatuates the most selfish 
men to act against their private interests for the public 
welfare. We build railroads, we know not for what or for 
whom; but one thing is certain, that we who build will 
receive the very smallest share of benefit. Benefit will 
accrue; they are essential to the country, but that will be 
felt not until we are no longer countrymen. We do the 
like in all matters. 

We plant trees, we build stone houses, we redeem the 
waste, we make prospective laws, we found colleges and 
hospitals for remote generations. We should be mortified 
to learn that the little benefit we chanced in our own persons 
to receive the utmost they would yield. — Emerson.