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AnJipim- QE^ndastral 9nninarff 







Secretary Washington Office and General Committee on Army and 
Navy Chaplains of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 

in America 

$1.00 IN PAPER 
$1.50 IN CLOTH 



105 East 22nd Street, New York City 

937 Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 



Theological Librapy 

Cambhila^c, mass. 

/7A 2-7 

Copyrighted, 1922, by 





Foreword '. •.'.. '.. :...: t 5 


Section I. Directory of Religious Bodies with Synopsis of 

History, Doctrine and Polity 7. 

Section II. Directory of Federal Council of the Churches of 

Christ in America with Affiliated, Coopera- 
tive and Consultative Bodies 247 

Section III. Directory of Inter-Church, National and Inter- 
national Organizations 271 

Section IV. Directory of Chaplains in the Army and Navy 

of the United States, with Summary of Relig- 
ious Work in both branches of- the Service... 835' 

Section V. Religious Statistics and Information 355 

Section VI. Bibliography of the Federal Council of the 

Churches of Christ in America 387 























































All titles other than "Rev.," "Rt. Rev.," or "Bishop" have been 
avoided. These are used simply to distinguish clergy from laymen. 


The Year Book of the Churches for 1921-22 has been greatly 
enlarged in scope and materially changed in plan and arrange- 
ment of matter as compared with previous editions. This 
edition arranges the matter in six distinct sections. 

Section I is a Directory of the Religious Bodies. In addi- 
tion to the Directory there is in this section a synopsis of 
History, Doctrine and Polity of each religious body. The 
Directory has been carefully revised and brought up to date 
through conference with officials of each body. The synopsis 
of History, Doctrine and Polity was in most instances con- 
densed from that published in the Religious Census of 1916, 
but after such condensation and revision was submitted to 
some representative, in most cases, the recognized historian of 
each body, and changes suggested by such representative were 
made. A few of the synopses were entirely rewritten. The 
statement of History, Doctrine, and Polity is therefore, from 
the standpoint, practically, of each denomination. We believe 
this addition to the Year Book will proVe valuable. 

Section II is a Directory of the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America, and bodies holding an affiliated 
cooperative or consultative relationship with the Federal 
Council. Some of the commissions and committees of the 
Federal Council and some of the affiliated bodies are also listed 
under other sections with cross reference from each to the 
other section in which listed. The statistics of each of these 
bodies will be found in the Special Religious Statistics section. 

Section III is a Directory of Interchurch, National, and 
International organizations for service. This section of the 
Year Book has been greatly enlarged and in addition to dis- 
tinctly church and interchurch agencies . presents a directory 
with statement of purpose of the major organizations in the 
United States that are national or international in scope, and 
which, while not distinctively of the church, are manifestly in 
accord with the spirit and purpose of Christ in the work for 
which they have been organized. This Directory may have 
omitted some organizations that should have been included and 
may have included some that should have been omitted, defects 
which we hope to remedy in future editions. The matter for 
this section has been carefully gathered from representatives 
of the organizations listed, and previous editions of the Year 
Book of the Churches, the ** Handbook of Social Resources of 
the United States," by Genevieve Poyneer Hendricks, pub- 
lished by the American Red Cross, June, 1921 ; the * * Directory 
of Social Agencies of New York," 1921, by Lina D. Miller, 

published by the "Charity Organization Society" in New York 
City; and the "Congressional Directory." Especial attention 
is called to the number and character of governmental agencies 
listed in this section. 

Section IV is a Directory of Chaplains in the Army and 
Navy of the United States, with a summary of religious work 
and miscellaneous facts concerning both branches of service. 

Section V contains tables of Religious Statistics and Gen- 
eral Information. 

Section VI is a Bibliography of the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ, 

Great care has been taken in preparing the ' ' Index. ' ' 
If the Index is used freely it will add greatly to the value of 
the Tear Book as a handbook of ready reference. We were 
anxious to include a "Name Index," but found that such a 
list of names would make a small book in itself. The contem- 
plated Name Index may soon be brought out as a "Who's 
Who of Eeligious Workers in America." 

We have sought to make the Tear Book invaluable as a 
handbook of ready reference for facts to be found nowhere 
else in aueh form. We believe it will not only be useful to 
church leaders, but that it should have a place on the table of 
every one interested in what is doing and who is doing it for 
the betterment of mankind. Certainly, it should find a place 
in all libraries, and newspaper and business offices, secular as 
well as religious. 

We would acknowledge here our great indebtedness to the 
representatives of the church bodies, and other organizations, 
who have aided us by critical review of the matter and by fur- 
nishing data relating to their organizations. 





With Synopsis of History, Doctrine and Polity 



The ** Advent Movement" originated with William Miller; 
born 1782, died 1849. Mr. Miller became convinced that the com- 
ing of Christ in person, power and glory must be premillennial ; 
and that not only was the Advent at hand, but its date might be 
fixed with some definiteness. He confidently expected it to occur 
some time between March 21, 1843, and March 21, 1844. The 
first general gathering of those interested was held in Boston, 
October, 1840. 

In its beginning, the Adventist Movement was wholly within 
the existing Churches. In 1845, however, there was a general 
organization of the adherents of the Adventist doctrine. At a 
Conference, held in Albany, New York, in April, 1845, a dec- 
laration of principles was adopted embodying the views of Mr. 
Miller respecting the personal and premillennial character of 
the second advent of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, and 
the renewal of the earth as the abode of the redeemed, together 
with kindred points of doctrine. The organization then formed 
continued for ten years to include practically all the Adventists. 
Growing out of the original Adventist movement the Advent 
Christian Church wjas organized in 1855, the Seventh-Day Ad- 
ventists in 1860; Life and Advent Union in 1864; the Church of 
God (Adventist) in 1866; and the Churches of God in Christ 

Jesus in 1888. 


General Conference, biennial. 

Fifty-two subordinate conferences, four publication associa- 
tions, two foreign missionary societies. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. I. F. Barnes, 22 Grant Street, Bangor, 
Maine; Sec, Rev. C. H. Hewitt, Peace Dale, R. I.; Treas.y Mr. 
I. C. Triplett, Charlotte, N. C; General Directory Rev. L. F. 
Reynolds, 160 Warren St., Boston, Mass.; Regional Directors, 
Rev. H. W. Hewitt, 42 Dexter Street, Providence, R. I. ; Rev. S. 
H. Perry, 618 29th Avenue, North, Minneapolis, Minn.; Rev. 
G. A. Osman, 2819 North Johnson Street, Los Angeles, Calif.; 
Rev. B. A. L. Bixler, Live Oak, Fla. 

American Advent Mission Society, 160 Warren St., Boston, 
Mass. Pres,, Rev. Henry Stone; Sec.-Treas,, Rev. Charles F. King. 
Organ: Advent Christian Missions, Editor, Rev. Charles F. King. 

Woman's Home and Foreign Missions Society, 5 Whiting St., 
Boston, Mass. Pres., Rev. Maude M. Chadsey; Clerk, Mrs. Nellie E. 
Felloi^s; Treas., Rev. Maude M. Chadsey. Organ: Advent Christian 
Missions, Editor for W. H. and F. M., Rev. Maude M.. Chadsey. 


10 Year Book of the Churches 

Young People's Society of Loyal Workers. Pres., Rev. J. W. 
Denton, 177 Church St., New Haven, Conn.; Cor. Sec, Miss Lillian 
F. Welch, 160 Warren St., Boston, Mass. 


Name Location President 

Aurora CoUege Aurora, 111 Orrin R. Jenks 

New England School of Theology Boston, Mass. . . . Guy L. Vannah 

Sanderlin Atadhmy While, Tenn A. J. Sanderlin 

Periodicals (Weekly) 

WorltTs Crisis, Boston, Mass., Editor, D. F. L. Pip^r; Otur Hope, 
Mendota, 111., Editor, Rev. Fim Murra; Messiah's Advocate, Oakland, 
California, Editor, Rev. J. J. Schaumburg; Present Truth Messenger, 
Live Oak, Fla., Editor, Rev. B. A. L. Bixler. 


This branch of thie Adventists holds simply to the general im- 
minence of Christ's return, but takes the position that "no man 
krioweth the day nor the hour wherein the Son of Man cometh." They 
also emphasize that side of their faith which deals with the nature 
of man, and hold that through sin man forfeited immortality and can 
only become immortal through faith in Christ. 

The only ordinances recognized are baptism and the Lord's 
Supper, immersion being considered the only true baptism. Admissioh 
to the church is by vote of the majority, after baptism and profession 
of faith. Open conununion is practiced and the invitation to the 
Lord's Supper is general, participation being left to the individual. 
The first day of the week is held to be the proper Christian Sabbath. 



The Advent Christian Church is congregational in church gov- 
ernment. For fellowship and the better conduct of such work as be- 
longs to them in common, the churches are associated in annual con- 
ferences, which are grouped in four districts, and the Advent Chris- 
tian General Conference represents the entire denomination. 


General Conference, quadrennial. 

Twelve union conferences in the United States and Canada. 

Officers: Pres., A. G. Daniells; Sec, W. A. Spicer; Treas.^ 
W. T. Knox. 

Headquarters: Takoma Park, Washington, D. C. 

Publishing, educational, medical, and other general activities 
are under the charge of a General Conference Committee, with 
a secretary for each department. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 
Name Location President 

Broadview Theological Seminary Lagrange, 111 H. 0. Olson. 

Clinton Theological Seminary Clinton, Mo J. H. Schilling. 

Hutchinson Theological Seminary Hutchinson, Minn H. M. Johnson. 

Emmanuel Missionary College .-. Berrien Springs, Mich. < . . . F. Grisrgs. 

Loma Linda Medical College Loma Linda. Cal N. G. Evans. 

Paiiiflc Union' College St. Helena, Cal W. E. Nelson. 

Union College College View, Neb H. A. Morrison. 

Walla Walla CoUege College Place, Wash W. I. Smith. 

Washington Missionary College Takoma Park, Wash., D. C. . . M. E. Cady. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 11 


Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, Washington, D. C, Editor, 
F. M. Wilcox; Signs of the Times, Mountain View, Calif., Editor, 
A. 0. Tait; Watchman, Nashville, Tenn,, Editor, A. W. Spalding. 


A few persons in New England, formerly of the First-Day Ad- 
v«ntists, began in 1845 to observe the seventh day of the week, and 
to preach the doctrines which now constitute the distinctive tenets of 
the Seventh-Day Adventists. At a Conference, held in Battle Creek in 
1860, these were organized under the name **Seventh-Day Adventist 
Denomination^" and three years later a General Conference was or- 


The Seventh-Day Adventists have no formal or written creed, 
but take the Bible, as their rule of faith and practice. They hold that 
the seventh day of the week, from sunset on Friday to sunset on 
Saturday, is the Sabbath established by God's law and should be ob- 
served as such; that immersion is the only proper form, of baptism; 
that man is not by nature immortal, but i;^ives eternal life only 
by faith in Christ; that the state to which man is r^uced at death 
is one of unconsciousness; that the personal, visible coming of Christ 
is near at hand, and is to precede the millennium; that at the close of 
the millennium Christ with His people will return to the earth, the 
resurrection of the wicked will occur, and Satan, the originator of 
all sin, will, with his followers, meet final destruction; that the earth 
will then be made the fit abode of the people of God throughout the 
ages, where the righteous shall dwell forever, and sin will never 
again mar the universe of God. The service of washing one another's 
feet is observed at the quarterly meetings, the men and women meet- 
ing separately for this purpose, previous tti, the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper, during which they meet together. 

With regard to thfe time of the Advent, they hftye,.ijipver set a 
definite date, believing that it is near, but that the day and hour 
have not been revealed. 


The local church is congregational in its government, although 
under the general supervision of the conference of which it is a 


General Conference. Last meeting August, 1919, Stan- 
berry, Mo. ' 

Officers: Pres., S. W. Mentzer, Robiii^, la.; Vice-Pres., G. T. 
Rodgers, Stanberry, Mo.; Sec, Chester Walker, Albany, Mo.; 
Treas., A. N. Dugger, Stanberry, Mo. 

Executive Committee. Chmn,, L. L. Presler, Oraftno, Nebr. 


Bible Advocate (weekly), Stanberry, Mo., Editor, A. N. Dugi^er; 
Sabbath School Missionary (semi-weekly), Stanberry, Mo., Editor, 
Mrs. Alice Lippincott. 


In 1865 a number of Seventh-Day Adventists in Michigan with- 
drew from the main body and a year later were organized under the 
name "Church of God." 

12 Year Book of the Churches 

Dcctrine and Polity 

The fundamental doctrines of the Church of God are the same 
afi those of the Seventh-Day Adventists, with variance in their views 
of prophecy and its application. The polity of the denomination is 
essentially congregational. 



! Periodicals 

\ Herald of Life, Editor, H. L. Babcock, 47 Orange St., New Haven, 

! History 

j Organized in 1864. 

I Doctrine 

! Iii matters of doctrine the members of this organization are in 

accord with the earlier Adventists except in regard to the resur- 

I rection and the millennium. They hold that the righteous dead only 

will be raised, and that eternal life is bestowed solely at the second 
coming of Christ; that the millennium, the one thousand years of 

j Revelation, had its fulfillment in the past, and instead of being a time 

of peace and happiness, was a period of religious persecution and 
suffering; that this earth, purified by fire and renewed in beauty, will 
be the eternal inheritance and dwelling place of God's people, in 
which the wicked dead shall have no place. 


In polity the Life and Advent Union is distinctly congregational ; 
associations are for fellowship, and have no ecclesiastical authority. 


No general organization; 9 state conferences, annual. 

. . .1 • . 


Restitution, Editor, William H. Brown, Elizabeth, N. J.; Resti- 
tution Herald^, Oregon, 111., Editor, S. J. Lindsay; Gospel Trumpet, 
Paris, Ark., Editor, J. H. Shelton. 

Organized in 1888. 


In eeneral accord with the Adventist bodies, and classed with 
them, although the term "Adventist" does not appear in its title. 
The Bible is recognized as the only creed. 



American Catholic S>'nod, at call of Exarch and Archbishop. 
Last meeting of the Synod April 10 and 11, 1920. American 
Catholic Consistory, quarterly. 


His Eminence J. R. Vilatte, D. C, Metropolitan, 4427 N. Mulligan 
Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 13 

The Most Rev. F, E. J. Lloyd, D. D., Mus. D., Archbishop and 
Primate, Box 406, Chicago, 111. 


Name Location Dean 

American Catholic Seminary Chicago J. R. Vilatte 


American Catholic Quarterly, Box 406, Chicago, 111., Editor, the 
Most Rev. Archbishop Lloyd. 


Organized for the special purpose of bringing together 
American Catholics interested in the Old Catholic movement. 
It is in close fellowship with the Old Roman Catholic Church, 
but distinct from it in Cjcclesiastical organization. 

In doctrine all of these churches are in full accord with 
the Old Catholic churches of Europe. They accept the seven 
ecumenical synods of the universal and undivided church prior 
to 1054, rejecting the filioque, papal supremacy and infallibility, 
and all union of church and state. 


(Formerly American Salvation Army) 

Council, annual. 

National headquarters: 2827 Prankford Ave.^ Philadelphia, 

Officers: Pres., Gen. James William Duffin; Vice-Pres, and 
Treas,, Brig. Gen. George A. Crider. 

Executive Committee. Chmn,, Brig. Gen. Geo. A. Crider. 
Advisory Committee. Chmn., Brig. Gen. Geo. A. Crider. 

Rescue Herald (quarterly). Editor^ George A. Crider. 


In 1882 Thomas E. Moore, connected with the Salvation Army, 
with a number of the American officers of that organization with- 
drew because of controversy in regard to financial administration. 
These headed a movement of independent work which was incor- 
porated in 1884, and in 1885 was granted an amended charter under 
the name of the "Salvation Army of America." In 1913 the name 
was changed to "American Rescue Workers." 

Doctrine and Polity 

American Rescue Workers recognize the sacraments of baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, and are both an evangelistic and philanthropic 
organization. Their doctrines may be briefly stated as follows: The 
Bible is the inspired word of God, and is the rule of faith and guide 
to action; Jesus Christ was God manifest in the flesh; all who truly 
accept Christ as a personal Savior may be saved. The board of 
directors is elected to represent the corporation, the majority of them 

It • Year Book of the Churches 

being laymen. Titles to property are vested in the board and not 
in the general. Corps having real estate have their own local boards. 
Should a corps cease to exist, the board of directors is qualified to 
become the custodian of the property for purposes of the organization. 


Rt. Rev. Bishop Tirair, Armenian Prelate of America; Rev. 
Father Atik Tzotzigian, Secretary, 65 Laurel Street, Worcester, 

Central Committee on Religion. Sec, Rev. Father S. Ner- 
shabouh. . 

Central Finance Committee. Sec, Mr. M. D. Mannelian. 

There are fourteen general parishes in America, each including 
the parishes adjacent to the city giving name, as follows; Worcester, 
Boston, Lowell, Providence, Connecticut, New York, Chicago, Detroit, 
California, Richmond, Cleveland, St. Louis, Canada and South 

, History 

For many years Armenians have been coming to this country, 
driven here by political disturbances and the disappointment of po- 
litical hopes. Some of these belonging to the Protestant Armenian 
Church, on coming to America identified themselves with the Con- 
gregational or Presbyterian denominations. The greater number, 
however, belong to the national church in Armenia and adhete to that 


The doctrinal system is founded on the Nicene Creed without the 
addition made by the Western Church in regard to the Procession of 
the Holy Ghost from the Son, as well as from the Father. Their 
creed is explicit in teaching, that Christ was perfect God and perfect 
man. The authorized version of the Scriptures is the translation 
made early in the fifth century by St. Mesrob and other fathers of 
the Armenian Church. Seven sacraments are accepted. Baptism is 
invariably administered by immersion, generally eight days after 
birth, and is followed immediately by the sacrament which is ad- 
ministered by the anointing with chrism or sacred oil, and by the 
laying oh of hands by the officiating priest. Holy Communion is 
administered in both kinds, even to infants, so that practically every 
baptized Armenian is also a communicant. Auricular confession is 
practiced and priestly absolution is given. Every communicant is 
required to present himself to the priest, even if he has no sins to 
confess, and receive individual absolution before he can receive the 
Holy Communion. Prayers for the dead are offered. The saints 
and the Blessed Virgin are venerated, but the doctrine of the Im- 
maculate Conception is not a part of the creed. 


The government of the Armenian Church is both democratic and 
at the same time hierarchical, every officer being chosen by the people, 
but every minister having to be ordained by a Bishop who can trace 
his own commission to the Apostles through bishops in apostolic suc- 
cession. The Catholicos of Etchmiadzine is the supreme head of all 
the Armenian churches throughout the world. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 15 


General Council, annual. 

Headquarters: 336 W. Pp,cific Street, SpringiSeld, Mo. 
Officers : Chmn., Rev. E. N. Bell, Springfield, Mo. ; Sec, Rev. 
J. W. Welch, Springfield, Mo. 

Executive Presbytery and Missionary Committee. Chmn,, 

Rev. J. W. Welch. 


Name Location Principal 

Bethel Bible School Newark, N. J Frank Boyd. 

Beulah Heights Missionary Training School. N. Bergen, N. J E. L. Whitcomb. 

Pacific Bible and Missionary Tuaining School . San Francisco, Calif .R. J. Craig. 
Middle West Bible Training Sdiool Auburn, Neb S. A, Jamieson. 


Pentecostal Evangel (bi-weekly), Sunday School Helps, Spring- 
field, Mo., Editor, J. T. Boddy. 

History * 

Following upon, the great revival in 1907, a number of churches, 
missions, or assemblies in the United States and Canada entered upon 
an individual and distinctly evangelistic type of mission work. This 
was at first purely independent and vohintary, but some associa- 
tion and mutual fellowship became recognized as valuable . and . in 
1914 a call was made for all interested in Bible order, system and 
united doctrine to meet at Hot Springs, Arkansas. About 100 dele- 
gates came to this meeting, representing a variety of denominations, 
. some of them never having belonged to any denomination. An or- 
ganization was agreed upon and incorporated in Arkansas in Oc- 
tober and in Missouri in November, under the name of "Assemblies 
of God, General Council." ... 


The Assemblies of God are mostly Armenian in doctrine. Dis- 
tinctive tenets appear to be special emphasis upon the baptism of the 
Holy Ghost; sanctification as the goal for all believers; divine heal- 
ing; the premillennial and imminent coming of Jesus to judge the 
world in righteousness, while reigning on earth for a thousand years ; 
everlasting punishment for the wicked, and a new heaven and a new 
earth for the believers. "The Assemblies of God" are conscientiously 
opposed to participation in war. 


The polity of the denomination is a combination of the congre- 
gational and presbyterial systems, The local churches are congre- 
gational in the conduct of their affairs. They act, however, under 
the advice and suggestions of elders or presbyters. 

There are state bodies called district councils, and there is a 
General Council, for the consideration of affairs belonging to the 
church at large. 


Priest : Hanna Koorie, 930 Broadway, Woodcliff, N. J. 

Congregations are in the New England states, New York, New 
Jersey and Pacific states. Very Reverend Hanna Koorie is t^le 
only priest in America. He preaches in the Assyrian Language 

16 Year Book of the Churches 

in the Protestant Episcopal churches in the cities and cooperates 
with them. 


Beth Nahrin (Mesopotamia), 307 Sussex St., Paterson, N. J., 
Editor, N. E. Palak. 


The Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church traces its orijifin to the 
first twelve apostles of Christ, particularly to St. Peter, who was 
the first Patriarch of Antioch. 

The Assyrian fathers were the first Christian missionaries. 
From the beginning of Christianity, they went to Gaul, Persia, India, 
China and Africa, where under extreme persecutions they succeeded 
in establishing numerous schools and monasteries. From the dawn 
of Christianity the Assyrians have been constantly persecuted by the 
various Roman, Greek, Persian and Turkish rulers. Judg^ing from 
the continuous numerous outrages, it seems that the Turks and the 
Arabs aimed to exterminate all the Assyrian Christians. In the face 
of all these persecutions, the Assyrians gallantly faced death and to 
this day ably uphold their Christian faith. 

On account of the contact with American missionaries who had 
established schools in various localities, the attention of the Assyrians 
was turned to America. The people fled from the rule of the bar- 
barous Turk and sought shelter under the American flag. Soon 
there were several large Assyrian communities. Some of these were 
members of the Assyrian Roman Catholic Church, others belonged to 
the Assyrian Protestant Church, while still others belonged to the 
Assyrian Nestorian Church or the Chaldean Church. On coming 
here all except the Nestorians identified themselves with their respec- 
tive American denominations. As the number of the immigrants 
continued to increase the national Church services were in great de- 
mand, for the majority of the people were members of the Assyrian 
Jacobite Apostolic faith. 

In April, 1907, the Assyrian Americans sent Deacon Hanna 
Koorie, then of Patorson, N. J., to Jerusalem. There he was or- 
dained priest and later a koorie (cvhoorie). He returned to this 
country on September 28th of the same year. Immediately after 
returning to America, he assembled the wandering Assyrians, for 
the first time, to worship in St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Paterson, 
N. J. His people are mostly scattered in various states throughout 
the continent, particularly in the New England, the Middle Atlantic, 
the East-North Central and the Pacific states. 

In 1919 the Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church was built in 
West Hoboken, N. J. In other localities, arrangements are frequently 
made with the rectors of different churches for the weekly services of 
the Assyrian congregation whenever the priest makes his regular 
calls. In some places halls are rented for Church services. 


The doctrine of the Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church is based 
on the Nicene Creed. It varies, however, from the Western Church 
concerning the "Procession of the Holy Ghost" and uses "The Holy 
Ghost proceeded from the Father and is with the Son." It accepts 
the canons of the first three General Councils of the Church, namely, 
the Nicene, Constantinople and Ephesus, as well as the writings of 
the recognized fathers of the Church of the period of these councils. 
It teaches that Christ was perfect God and perfect man. The inter- 
pretation of the Bible, the ecclesiastical ordinances, as well as the 
tradition of the Church, are held equally important. The seven sacra- 
ments. Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 17 

Orders and Matrimony, are accepted. Baptism is administered by 
pouring or immersion, chiefly the latter, usually several days after 
birth and is followed immediately by confirmation which the officiating 
priest administer^ by anointing with the sacred oil or chrism in 
the form of a cross and by laying on of the hands. The minister also 
breathes on the child and the water. Auricular confessioh is ac- 
cepted. Holy communion is the sacrament which contains the body 
and blood of Christ under appearance of bread and wine. It is re- 
ceived fasting and is given to the laity in one kind, the form of 
bread. Saints and the Blessed Virgin are venerated, and prayers 
are offered for the dead. 


The organization of the Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church cen- 
ters on the Patriarch who resides at Mardin, Dair el Zahfaran, and 
his authority is supreme in faith and all Church matters. Next in 
rank is the Mifrian who resides in Mosul and who alone can become 
Patriarch. Then follow the Iskiffs and the Mitrans, who, together 
with the Mifrian, act as the advisers of the Patriarch and as heads 
of various commissions or congregations which have charge of the 
Church administration. Only a Mifrian can become a Patriarch. The 
Mifrian is chosen from the Mitrans, all of whom are celibates. The 
Iskiffs can not rise higher in rank because they are widowed. Then 
follow the office of Koorie (Cvhobrie), Rhahib, priest and deacon, 
respectively. A deacon who is under thirty years of age can not 
be ordained to the office of priesthood. A celibate deacon can be or- 
dained to the office of Rhahib, Mitran, Mifrian and Patriarch. A 
married deacon can become a Priest, a Koorie (Cvhoorie), and Iskiff. 

The government of the Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church is 
democratic because every officer of the Church from the lowest to 
the highest is chosen by the people. It is also in a sense hierarchical, 
for every minister must be ordained by a bishop whose commission 
is traced to the Apostles through the apostolic succession of bishops. 


i ( 

For universal religion, brotherhood and peace.'' 
Annual Convention, meets April 22 to 26, 1922, in Chicago. 
Officers : Pres., Mountf ord Mills, 2211 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y. ; Sec, Alfred E. Lunt, 89 State St., Boston, Mass. ; Chmn. 
Library Com., Mr. Chas. Mason Remey, P. O. Box 1319, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 


Star of the West, Box 283, Chicago, 111.; Reality, 415 Madison 
Ave., New York City; Teaching Bulletin, Sec, Marian Haney, The 
Mendota, Washington, D. C. 


Parallel with the prophecies of different religions relating to the 
establishment of a divine dispensation or kingdom among men have 
been prophecies relative to the coming of a great divine teacher, or 
divinely manifested "One," who would reform religion, restore its 
pristine purity, secure its wider adoption, and establish spiritual 
unity among the peoples of all the different nations, races, and re- 
ligions. In Persia in 1844 a young man named Ali Mohammed de- 
clared himself to be such, calling himself the Bab (Arabic for door 
or gate), forerunner of the Promised Divine One whom he heralded 
as "He Whom God Would Manifest," 

18 Year Book of the Churches 


The general principles of the Bahais founded by teachings of 
the "Bab" are: The oneness of the relig^ions of the world; the one- 
ness of all humanity; the universal brotherhood of man; universal 
peace; and the perfect harmony of relig^ion and science. Bahaism has 
no clergy, no religious ceremonial, no public prayers. Its only do^n^^ 
is belief in God and His manifestations. In international relations 
the Bahais urge the necessity of a universal language to bring men 
into closer fellowship and mutual understanding, emphasize the in- 
cumbency of a Parliament of Man — a universal tribunal of justice 
or arbitration for the adjustment of international affairs — and teach 
the power of the Holy Spirit in the life of humanity. 


There is no regular organization of Bahais. One may be a 
Bahai and still retain active membership in another relig^ious body. 



The Baptist bodies of today trace their origin as distinct com- 
munities to the Protestant Reformation. 

As soon as the Reformation gave men opportunity to inter- 
pret the teachings of the Scriptures for themselves, and to em- 
body their convictions in speech and act, persons holding 
Baptist doctrines began to appear. In the first quarter of the 
sixteenth century they were found in Germany and Switzerland, 
and were called Anabaptists (Re-Baptizers), because they in- 
sisted that persons baptized in infancy must, upon profession of 
conversion, and in order to gain admission into church fellow- 
ship, be baptized again, although they do not appear to have 
insisted always on immersion. 

The first Calvinistic or Particular Baptist church was formed 
in London in 1638, its members seceding peaceably from an older 
Separatis congregation. In 1641 a further secession from the 
same Separatist church occurred, and the new group became 
convinced from study of the New Testament that the apostolic 
baptism was immersion. They sent one of their number to Hol- 
land, where he was immersed by a minister of the Collegiate 
church at Rhynsberg, where the practice of immersion had been 
introduced, and on his return the rest of the church were 

The first Baptist church in America was probably established 
by Roger Williams in Providence, R. I., in 1639, although this 
is disputed by the First Baptist Church of Newport, R. I., 
organized, it is claimed, with John Clarke as its pastor, the same 
year or shortly after. Roger Williams baptized Ezekiel Holli- 
man, who in turn baptized him. Williams then baptized ten 
others, and this company of Baptist believers organized them- 
selves into a church. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 19 

The history of the early Baptist churches in New England is 
one of constant struggle for existence. The Puritan govern- 
ment of Massachusetts was so bitter in its opposition that nearly 
a century after Roger Williams there were but eight Baptist 
churches in that colony. Conditions elsewhere were similar, 
although farther south there was less persecution. 

With the general emancipation from ecclesiastical rule that 
followed the Revolutionary War, all disabilities were removed 
from the Baptists in the different states, and the new Federal 
Constitution effaced the last vestige of religious inequality. 

In 1792 the Baptists of England organized a missionary so- 
ciety to send William Carey to India, and many of the Baptist 
churches in the United States became interested in the movement 
and contributed toward its support. The first foreign mission- 
ary society in America was the American Board, organized in 
1810, in which Congregational, Presbyterian, Reformed, and 
other churches united, * and among its first missionaries were 
Adoniram Judson, his wife, and Luther Rice. Knowing that in 
India they were to meet Baptists, they made special study of 
Baptist doctrine, and before landing came to the conclusion that 
believers' baptism by immersion was the true method. Judson 
inmiediately sent word of their change of view, and Rice soon 
after returned to America to present the cause of Baptist mis- 
sions, and succeeded in arousing much interest in the churches. 
To meet the new conditions it became evident that some organi- 
zation was essential, and in 1814 The General Missionary Con- 
vention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States of 
America for Foreign Missions was formed. 

The missionary work of this organization, however, repre- 
sented only a part of its scope or achievement. It was, indeed, 
the first step toward bringing the various local churches to- 
gether, overcoming the disintegrating tendencies of extreme 
independence, and arousing denominational consciousness. A 
home missionary society was organized in 1832. A tract society 
had been formed in 1824, which in 1840 was renamed the ** Amer- 
ican Baptist Publication Society. * ' 

As the discussion in regard to slavery became acute, there 
arose the differences which resulted in the present three conven- 
tions — Northern, Southern, and National. The southern 
churches withdrew in 1845 and formed the Southern Baptist 
Convention, whose purpose was to do for the southern Baptist 
churches just what the general convention had hitherto done for 
the entire Baptist denomination. It was not a new denomina- 
tion; simply a new organization for the direction of the mis- 
sionary and general evangelistic work of the churches of the 
Southern states. 

The development of the National Baptist Convention, repre- 
senting the J^egro churches, was necessarily slow, and was not 

20 Year Book of the Churches 

complete until many years after the organization of the Southern 
Baptist convention. 

These early American Baptist churches belonged to the Par- 
ticular, or Calvinistic branch. Later, Arminian views became 
widely spread for a time, but ultimately the Calvinistic view of 
the atonement was generally accepted by the main body of 
Baptists in the Colonies. The divisions which now exist began 
to make their appearance at a relatively early date. In 1652 the 
church at Providence divided, one party organizing a church 
which marked the beginning of the General Six Principle Bap- 
tists. The Seventh Day Baptist body organized its first church 
at Newport in 1671. Arminianism practically disappeared from 
the Baptist churches of New England about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, but General Baptists were found in Virginia 
before 1714, and this branch gained a permanent foothold in the 
South. As a result of the revival movement, which followed 
Whitefield's visit to New England in 1740, the Separate Bap- 
tists came into existence and at one time were very numerous. 
The Free Baptists, in 1779, once more gave a general and widely 
accepted expression in New England to the Arminian view of 
the atonement. 

Soon after the Revolutionary War the question of the evan- 
gelization of the Negro race assumed importance, and a Colored 
Baptist church was organized in 1788. With the general revival 
movement at the close of the eighteenth and the beginning of the 
nineteenth centuries, to which the Free Baptists owed no small 
part of their groWth, there developed, especially in the moun- 
tain sections of the Middle West and in the Southern states, a 
reaction toward a sternier Calvinism, which, combined with the 
natural Baptist emphasis upon individualism, produced a num- 
ber of associations strictly, even rigidly, Calvinistic, some df 
them going to the extent of dualism, as in the doctrine of the 
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists. 

About the same time, as missionary work became organized 
into societies, many of these associations opposed, not so much 
mission work itself, as its organization, through fear of a 'de- 
veloping eeclesiasticism. These were variously termed **01d 
School, '''' Anti-Mission, ''''' Hard Sliell, ^ " and ^ * Primitive ' ' Bap- 
tists; but gradually the term '* Primitive'' became the most 
widely known and adopted. In contradistinction to these, the 
associations, or cliurchoM, which approved of missionary socie- 
ticM, eanle to be designated Missionary Baptists, though there was 
no definite denominational organization under that name. 

Tlie denominations mentioned, however, do not represent all 
who hold Baptist views, for during the revival period just re- 
ferred to, the Disciples of Christ, or Churches of Christ, arose, 
who in practice are essentially Baptists, although they differ 
from the other bodies in some interpretations, \yith them also 

Directory of Religious Bodies 21 

may be classed the Adventists, the Brethren (Dunker, Plymouth, 
and River), Mennonites, and certain other bodies. The Arme- 
nian and Eastern Orthodox Churches practice baptism by im- 
mersion, but do not limit it to those of mature years. 

By far the largest body of Baptists, not only in the United 
States, but in the world, is that popularly known as ** Baptists," 
though frequently referred to, and listed in the census of 1890, 
as ** Regular Baptists.*' Other Baptist bodies prefix some de- 
scriptive adjective, such as *' Primitive, ' ' ** United,'' ** General," 
*'Free," etc., but this, which is virtually the parent body, com- 
monly has no such qualification. Its churches, however, are ordi- 
narily spoken of as *' Northern," '* Southern," and '* National," 
or ** Colored. " This does not imply any radical divergence in 
doctrine or ecclesiastical order. All are essentially one in these 
respects, and the division into the three major groups is largely 
for administrative purposes. 


The cardinal principle of Baptists is implicit obedience to the 
plain teachings of the Word of God. Under this principle, while 
maintaining with other evangelical bodies the great truths of 
the Christian religion, they hold: (1) That the churches are 
independent in their local affairs; (2) that there should be an 
entire separation of church and state; (3) that religious liberty 
or freedom in matters of religion is an inherent right of the 
human soul; (4) that a church is a body of regenerated people 
w'ho have been baptized on profession of personal faith in 
Christ, and have associated themselves in the fellowship of the 
gospel; (5) that infant baptism is not only not taught in the 
Scriptures, but is fatal to the spirituality of the church; (6) 
that from the meaning of the word used in the Greek text of the 
Scriptures, the symbolism of the ordinance, arid the practice of 
the early church, immersion in water is the only proper mode of 
baptisiti; (7) that the scriptural officers of a church are pastors 
and deacons; and (8) that the Lord's Supper is an ordinance 
of the church observed in commemoration of the sufferings and 
death of Christ. 

The beliefs of Baptists have been incorporated in confessions 
of faith. Of these, the Philadelphia Confession, originally issued 
by the London Baptist churches in 1689 and adopted with some 
enlargements by the Philadelphia Association in 1742, and the 
New Hampshire Confession, adopted by the New Hampshire 
State Convention in 1832, are recognized as the most important. 
The Philadelphia Confession is strongly Calvinistic. The New 
Hampshire Confession modifies some of the statements of the 
earlier documents, and may be characterized as moderately Cal- 
vinistic. But while these confessions are recognized as fair ex- 
pressions of the faith of Baptists, there is nothing binding in 

22 Year Book of the Churches 

them, and they are not regarded as having any special authority. 
The final court of appeal for Baptists is the Word of God. 
Within limits, considerable differences in doctrine are allowed, 
and thus opportunity is given to modify beliefs as new light may 
break from or upon the **Word.'' Among Baptists, heresy trials 
are rare. 


Baptist church polity is congregational or independent. Each 
church is sovereign so far as its own discipline and worship are 
concerned, calls or dismisses its own pastor, elects its own dea- 
cons or other officers, and attends to its own affairs. Admission 
to church membership is by vote of the church, usually after 
examination of the candidate by the church committee. There 
is no specific age limit, although the admission of very young 
children is discouraged. All members have equal voting rights 
in church matters, except that in some churches they are re- 
stricted to those over a certain age. The officers are the pastor 
and deacons, who, with such other persons as the church may 
elect, constitute a church committee, usually called the^sttoding 
committee, and have general care of the affairs of the church, 
but no authority, except as it is specifically delegated to them 
by the church. Church property is held sometimes by a board of 
trustees, sometimes by the entirig society, and sometimes by a 
special committer of the church. 

For missionary and educational or other purposes. Baptist 
churches usually group themselves into associations. The oldest 
is the Philadelphia Association, organized in 1707, which stood 
alone until 1751, when the Charleston Association was formed 
in South Carolina. These associations meet annually and are 
composed of messengers sent by the churches. They elect their 
own officers, receive reports from the churches, and make recom" 
mendations with regard to work or other matters in which the 
churches are interested. They have, however, no authority to 
legislate for the churches, and no power to enforce any action 
they may take. 

Applicants for the ministry are licensed to preach by the 
church in which they hold membership. If after a period of 
service as licentiate, ordination is desired, a council of sister 
churches is called by the church in which membership is held, 
and on the recommendation of this council the church arranges 
for ordination. In both cases the right to license and the right 
to ordain are held by the individual church. Previous to ordi- 
nation there is always an examination of the candidate on mat- 
ters of religious experience, call to the ministry, and views on 
scriptural doctrine. During his ministry a pastor is usually a 
member of the church which he serves, and is amenable to its 
discipline. When a question of dismissal from the ministry 

Directory of Religious Bodies 23 

arises, the individual church calls a council of sister churches 
for the examination of charges, and on the recommendation of 
this council, the church usually bases its decision. 

Besides local associations, Baptists have also organized state 
conventions or state mission societies, state educational societies, 
city mission societies, etc. These larger bodies attend to mis- 
sionary or educational work in the various states or districts, and 
are supported by the churches. 


Convention, annual; next meeting, Indianapolis, Ind., June 
13-20, 1922. 

Thirty-seven state conventions and about 1,200 associations. 

Officers: Pres,, Mrs. W. A. Montgomery, Rochester, N. Y. ; 
Exec, Sec, Rev. W. C. Bitting, 503 8th Ave., Asbury Park, 
N. J. ; Treas., Fran^ L. Miner, 608 Flynn Bldg., Des Moines, la. 

General Board of Promotion. Gen, Direc, Rev. J. Y. Aitchi- 
son, 276 Fifth Avenue, New York City; Ex. Sees., Rev. F. W. Padel- 
ford, Rev. Hugh A. Heath; Treas., James C* Colgate; Bus, Manager, 
H. R. Greaves. 

American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, 276 Fifth Ave., 
N. Y. C. Pres., Rev. W. S. Abernethy, Chastelton Apt., Wash., D. C; 
Sec8,f Rev. James H. Franklin, Rev. J. C. Robbins; Associate and 
Rec, Secy.f W. B. Lipphard; Treas,, George B. Huntington; Foreign 
and Candidate Sec, Rev. P. H. J. Lerrigo. 

American Baptist Publication Society, 1701 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. Pres,, L. S. Chapman, N. Y. C. ; Gen, Sec, Rev. 
Gilbert N. Brink; Trees,, George L. Estabrook; Bus, Mgr,, H. E. 
Cressman; Book Editor, Rev. D. G. Stevens; Editor-in-Chief, Sunday 
School Publications, Rev. W. E. Raffety; Religious Educ, Sec, Rev. 
W. E. Chalmers; Social Education Sec, Rev. S. Z. Batten; Bible and 
Field Sec, Rev. S. G. Neil. 

American Baptist Home Mission Society, 23 E. 26th St., New 
York City. Pres,, Charles R. Brock; Exec Sec, Rev. C. L. White; 
Sec, English-Speaking Missions and Indian Work, Rev. L. C. Barnes; 
Supt, of Work in Latin N, A,, Rev. C. S. Detweiler; Sec, of Educa- 
tion, Rev. G. R. Hovey; Sec, City and Foreign-Speaking Missions, 
Rev. C. A. Brooks; Architect Sec, George E. Merrill; Sec, Social 
Service and Rural Community Work, Rev. Rolvix Harlan; Dept, of 
Evangelism, Rev. H. F. Stilwell; Treas,, Samuel Bryant, New York. 

Woman's American Baptist Fcmieign Mission Society, 276 
Fifth Ave., New York City. Pres,, Mrs. Andrew MacLeish, Illinois; 
Foreign Vice-Pres,, Mrs. Nathan R. Wood, Mass.; Home Vice-Pres., 
Mrs. H. E. Goodman, Illinois; Treas,, Miss Alice M. Hudson; Foreign 
Sec, Miss Nellie G. Prescott; Acting How,e Sec, Miss Helen Hudson. 

Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society, 276 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. Pres., Mrs. G. W. Coleman, Boston; Exec, Sec, 
Mrs. Katherine S. Westfall; Missionary Correspondence Sec, Clara 
E. Norcuttr Treas., Mrs. Mary C. Bloomer; Org, Sec, Ina E. Burton; 
Christian Americanization Sec, Alice W. S. Brimson, Chicago, 111.; 
Candidate Sec, Jessie Dodge White. 

World-Wide Guild (Home and Foreign). Sec, Miss Alma J. 
Nohle, 218 Lancaster Ave., Buffalo, N. Y.; Field Sec, Miss Helen 
Crissman. • 

24 Year Book of the Churches 

Children's World Crusade (Home and Foreign). Sec, Misa 
Mary L. Noble, 218 Lancaster Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Board of Education, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City. Sec, Rev. 
F. W. Padelford; Asst, Sec, Rev. Geo. R. Baker. 

Ministers and Missionaries Benefit Board, 276 Fifth Ave., 
New York City. Pres,, E. H. Haskell, 176 Federal St., Boston, Mass.; 
Exec Sec, Rev. E. T. Tomlinson; Associate Sec, Rev. Peter C. 
Wright; Treas,, A. M. Harris. 

Baptist Young People's Union of America, 125 N. Wabash 
Ave., Chicago, 111. Pres,, Rev. C. W. Atwater, Cincinnati, 0.; Gen, 
Sec, Rev. J. A. White; Treas., 0. 0. Montague, Chicago, 111. 

Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President or Deem 

Berkeley Divinity School Berkeley, Calif C. M. HUl. 

Divinity School, University ot Chi- 
cago < Chica«ro, 111 Shailer Mathews. 

Colgrate Theological Seminary Hamilton, N. Y J. F. Vichert. 

Crozer Theological Seminary Upland, Pa Milton G. Evans. 

Kansas City Baptist Theological 
Seminary Kansas City, Kans P. W. Crannell. 

Newton Theological Institution Newton Centre, Mags . George E. Horr. 

Northern Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary Chicago, 111 X5. W. Taft. 

Rochester Theological Seminary Rochester, N. Y C. A. Barbour. 

Training Schools 

Baptist Missionary Training School . Chicago, 111 Mrs. Clara D. Pinkham. 

Kansas City Training School Kansas City, Kans P. W. Crannell. 

Baptist Institute for Christian 
Workers .Philadelphia, Pa J. M. Wilbur. 

Danish Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary Des Moines, Iowa N. S. Lawdahl. 

Hungarian Traininir School Cleveland, Ohio Stephen Orosz. 

Norwegian Baptist Divinity House. . Chicago, 111 H. Gundersen. 

Russian Training School New York City John Bokmelder. 

Slovak Training School Chicago, 111 V. Kralicek. 

Swedish Training School St. Paul, Minn G. A. Hagstrcwn. 

Colleges and Universities 

*Bates College Lewiston, Me C. D. Gray. 

Brown University Providence, R. I W. H. P. Faunce. 

Bucknell University lyewisburg, Pa Emory W. Hunt. 

Carleton College Northfleld, Minn Donald J. Cowling. 

Uhiversity of Chicago Chicago, 111 Harry Pratt Judson. 

Colby College Waterville, Me Arthur J. Roberts. 

Colgate University , Hamilton, N. Y E. B. Bryan. 

Denison University Granville, Ohio Clark W. Chamberlain. 

Des Moines University Des Moines, Iowa John A. Earl. 

Franklin College Franklin, Ihd C. E. Goodell. 

Grand Island College Grand Island, Neb Charles Firth. 

*Hillsdale College Hillsdale, Mich A.C. Hageman (Act'g). 

Kalamazoo College Kalamazoo, Mich H. L. Stetson. 

Keuka College Keuka Park, N. Y Arthur H. Norton. 

McMinnville College McMinnville, Oreg Leonard W. Riley. 

Ottawa University Ottawa, Kans S. E. Price. 

Rio Grande College Rio Grande, Ohio Simeon H. Bing. 

University of Redlands Redlands, Calif Victor L. Duke. 

University of Rochester Rochester, N. Y Rush Rhees. 

Shurtleff College Alton, 111 George M. Potter. 

Sioux Falls College Sioux Falls, S. D V. C. Coulter. 

Temple University Philadelphia, Pa R. H. Conwell. 

Vassar College Poughkeepsie, N. Y Henry N. MacCracken. 

William Jewell College Liberty, Mo D. J. Evans. 

* Founded by Free Baptists. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 25 

Junior Colleges 

Name Location President or Dean 

Alderson Baptist Academy Alderson, W. Va Eroma S. Alderson. 

Broaddus College Philippl, W. Va M. F. Forbell. 

Cedar Valley C6ll«re Osage, Iowa W. R. Barbour. 

Colorado Woman*s College Denver, Colo J. W. Bailey. 

Frances Shimer School Mt. Carroll, 111 William P. McKee. 

Hardin College Mexico, Mo J. W. Million. 

Lagrange College Lagrange, Mo D. J. Scott. 

Stephens College Columbia, Mo James M. Wood. 


Bethel Academy St. Paul, Minn A. J. Wingblade. 

Cobum Classical Institute Waterville, Me D. T. Harthorn. 

Colby Academy New London, N. H Gains H. Barrett. 

Cook Academy Montour Falls, N. Y . . B. C. Cate. 

Doane Academy Granville, Ohio H. R. Hundley. 

Hebron Academy Hebron, Me <E. C. Morrison (Act'g). 

Higgins Classical Institute Charleston, Me William A. Tracy. 

Keystone Acad^ny Factoryvllle, Pa .Curtis P. Coe. 

Maine Central Institute Pittsfleld, Me D. E. Andrews. 

Peddie Institute Hightstown, N. J JR. W. Swetland. 

Pillsburg Academy Owatonna, Minn Milo B. Price. 

Ricker Classical Institute Houlton, Me E. H. Stover. 

Southwest Academy Bolivar, Mo John Cavlin Pike. 

Suffleld School Suffleld, Conn H. G. Truesdell. 

Vermont Academy Saxtona River, Vt Hajrmond McFarland. 

Wayland Ac^emy Beaver Dam, Wis E. P. Brown. 

Will Mayfield Academy Marble Hill, Mo A. F. Hendrick. 

Worcester Academy Worcester, Mass S. F. Holmes. 

Official Periodicals 

The Baptist, 417 So. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., Editor, Arthur 
W. Cleaves; Missions, 276 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y., Editor, Rev. 
H. B. Grose. 

Other Periodicals 

Chrestinul (Rumanian) (semi-monthly), Detroit, Mich., Editor, 
Rev. J. R. Socacin; Jugend-Herold (German) (monthly), Cleveland, 
O., Editor, Rev. F. W. C. Meyer; Muntere Saeman (monthly), Cleve- 
land, O., Editor, Rev. Gottlob Fetzer; Sendbote (weekly), Cleveland, 
O., Editor, Rev. Gottlob Fetzer; Wegweiser (monthly), Cleveland, O., 
Editor, Rev. Grottlob Fetzer; Evahgelista (Spanish) (monthly), San 
Juan, P. R., Editor, H» W. Vodra; Forsamlingen och Hammet 
(Swedish) (monthly), Chicago, 111., Editor, Thorsten Clafford; II 
Cristiano (Italian) (weekly), Brooklyn, N. Y., Editor, A. Mangano; 
Nya Vecko-Posten (Swedish) (weekly), Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. E. 
Wingren; Sondagsskolan och Hemmet (Swedish) (quarterly), Chi- 
cago, 111., Editor, Rev. E. Sjostrand; Svenska Standaret (weekly), 
Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. E. Sjostrand; Va^gteren (Danish-Nor- 
wegian) (weekly), Harlan, la.. Editor, Rev. R. J. Petersen; Watch- 
man-Examiner (weekly). New York, N. Y., Editor, Rev. Curtis Lee 
Laws; Watur (Welsh) (monthlv), Utica, N. Y., Editor, G. Griffith; 
Baptist Observer (weekly), Indianapolis, Ind.. Editor, Rev. T. J. Par- 
sons; Baptist Record (weekly), Pella, la.. Editor, Rev. R. R. Sadler; 
JourruU and Messenger (weekly), Cincinnati, O., Editor, Rev. G. W. 


After the withdrawal of the Southern churches, 1845, the Bap- 
tist churches of the North continued to grow. The intense contro- 
versies of the eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth 
century were no longer manifest. Educational institutions developed 
and there came to be a general unity of purpose and of life. The 
individualism which distinguished earlier times gradually gave place 
to a closer associationalism. Various organizations which had al- 
ready proved their value elsewhere were adopted into the denomina- 

26 Year Book of the Churches 

tional life, all tending toward mutual church action. The Youiudj 
People's Union rallied the forces of the young: people, both for church 
life and general denominational activity. The Baptist Confess 'was 
formed for the consideration of matters affecting the general welfare 
of the churches. The American Baptist Missionary Union, which had 
fallen heir to the foreign work of the general convention, the Amer- 
ican Baptist Home Mission Society, the American Baptist Publica- 
tion Society, and other organizations, were carried on with energy. 
The chief change in denominational methods of late years was the 
organization of the Northern Baptist Convention, at Washington, 
D. C, in 1907, as a strictly delegated body from the Baptist churches 
of the North and West. The three great denominational societies, 
including the separate societies of women, have placed themselves 
under its direction, and report each year to the convention. A single 
committee prepares a budget for the following year, based on the 
estimates of the societies, which is apportioned according to states, 
associations, and churches. Organic union of the societies is beset 
with legal difficulties, but this method secures the chief advantages of 
organic union. The result has been to consolidate agencies, eliminate 
useless expenditures, prevent overlapping of missionary work, and in 
general to secure a unitv, economy, and efficiency that was before 
sadly lacking. Increasingly satisfactory results along these lines have 
been observable from year to year, especially in the line of compact- 
ness of organization. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The doctrine and polity of the Northern Baptist churches have 
been set forth in the general statement on Baptists. In general, the 
Northern churches are held to be less rigidly Calvinistic in their doc- 
trine than the Southern churches. Membership and ministry are in- 
terchanged on terms of perfect equality. In the Northern Conven- 
tion, the dividing line between the white and Negro churches is not 
as sharply drawn as in the Southern. There are Negro members of 
white churches, and Negro churches in white associations, while white 
and Negro associations mingle more freely. 


Annual; next session held in Jacksonville, Fla., May 17-22, 

There is in each state a State Convention or General Asso- 
ciation. The Southern Baptist Convention, the State Conven- 
tions, and the district associations are composed of ministerial 
and lay members. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Edgar Young MuUilis, Louisville, Ky. ; 
Sees., Rev. Hicrht C. Moore, Nashville, Tenn., J. Henry Burnett, 
Macon, 6a. ; Treas., George W. Norton, Louisville, Ky. 

Executive Committee. Chmn., Rev. Edgar Young Mullins, 
Louisville, Ky.; Sec^ Rev. Hight C. Moore, Nashville, Tenn. 

Foreign Mission Board, P. O. Box 1595, Richmond, Va. Pres., 
R. E. Gains; Cor, Sec, Rev. J. F. Love; Asst. Sec, Rev. T. B. Ray; 
Treas., George N. Sanders. 

Home Mission Board, 1004 Healev Bldg., Atltota, Ga. Pres., 
Rev. John F. Purser; Cor, Sec, Rev. B. D. Gray; Educational Sec, 
Victor I. Masters; Enlistment Sec. Rev. O. E. Bryan. 

Sunday School Board, 161 8th ^ve., North Nashville. Tenn. 
Pres., Rev. W. F. Powell: Cor. Sec and Treas., Rev. I. J. Van Ness. 

Laymen's Movement, Knoxville, Tenn. Chmn. Exec Com,, J. H. 
Anderson: Gen, Sec. J. T. Henderson. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 27 

Education Board, 317 Jefferson Bank Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. 
Prea., Frank S. White; Cor. Sec, Rev. W. C. James. 

Woman's Missionary Union (auxiliary to Southern Baptist 
Convention), Jefferson Bank Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. Prea,, Mrs. 
W. C. James, Birmingham, Ala.; Ccr, Sec, Miss Kathleen Mallory; 
TrecLa,, Mrs. W. C. Lowndes, 2114 Mt. Royal Terrace, Baltimore, Md. 
Organ: Roy cU Service (monthly). Miss Kathleen Mallory. 

Relief and Annuity Board, 618 Slaughter Bldg., Dallas, Tex. 
Prea,, Rev. Wallace Bassett; Cor, Sec, Wm. Lunsford; Treaa,, Stew- 
art D. Beckley. 

Colleges and Univeraitiea 

Name Location President or Secretary 

Anderson College Anderson, S. C John E. White. 

Baptist Bible Institute New Orleans, La B. H. DeMent. 

Baylor Female College Belton^ Tex J. C. Hardy. 

Baylor University Dallas, Tex. Samuel P. Brooks. 

Bessie Tift College Forsjrth, Ga .' . J. H. Foster. 

Bethel CcHlege Russellville, Ky George F. Dasher. 

Bethel Female Ccrilege Hopkinsville, Ky J. W. Gaines. 

Blue Mountain College Blue Mountain, Miss W, T. Lowrey. 

Burleson College Greenville, Tex. . .x .W. I. Thames. 

Carson-Newman College Jefferson City, Tenn Oscar £. Sams. 

Central College Conway, Ark Doak S. Campbell. 

Chowan College Murfreesboro, N. C Preston S. Vann. 

Clark Memorial College Newton, Miss John P. Carter. 

Coker College Hartsville, S. C... E. W. Sikes. 

Columbia College (of Florida) . .Lake City, Fla A. P. Montague. 

Cumberland College Williamsburg, Ky A. R. Evans, Act'g. 

Decatur College Decatur, Tex J. L. Ward. 

Doyle College Doyle, Tenn W. T. Hallo^^'cU. 

Furman University Greenville, S. C W. J. McGlothlin. 

Georgetown College Georgetown, Ky M. B. Adams. 

GreeDville Female College Greenville, S. C D. M. Ramsay. 

Hardin College Mexico, Mo S. J. Vaughn. 

Hillman College Clinton, Miss W. T. Lowrey. 

Hollins College Hollins, Va Miss Matty L. Cocke. 

Howard College East Lake, Birmingham, 

Howard Payne College Brownwood, Tex L. J. Mims. 

Jacksonville College Jacksonville, Tex B. J. Albritton. 

John B. Stetson University De Land, Fla Lincoln Hulley. 

Judson College for Young 

Ladies Marion, Ala .Paul V. Bomar. 

Lagrange College Lagrange, Mo John W. Crouch. 

Limestone C<rilege Gaffney, S. C Lee Davis Lodge. 

Louisiana College Pineville. La C. Cottingham. 

Mars Hill College Mars Hill, N. C R. L. Moore. 

Mercer University Macon, Ga Rufus Weaver. 

Meredith College Raleigh, N. C C. E. Brewer. 

Mississippi College Clinton. Miss J. W. Provine. 

Mississippi Woman's College Hattiesburg. Miss J. L. Johnson. 

Oklahoma University Shawnee, Okla J. A. Tolman. 

Ouashita College Arkadelphia, Ark C. E. Dicken. 

Oxford College for Girls Oxford, N. C F. P. Hobgood. 

Shorter College Rome, Ga A. W. Van Hoosc. 

Simmons College Abilene, Tex T. D. Sandef er. 

Southern Female College Laarrange, Ga C. W. Minor. 

Southwest Baptist College Bolivar, Mo J. C. Pike. 

Stephens College Columbia, Mo James M. Wood. 

Tennessee College for Women. .Murfreesboro, Tenn George J. Burnett. 

Union University .Tackson, Tenn H. E. Watters. 

Virginia Intermont College Bristol. Va H, G. Noffsinger. 

Wake Forest College Wake Forest, N. C W. L. Poteat. 

We«*thampton College Richmond College, Va F. W. Boatwright. 

William Jewell College Liberty, Mo D. J. Evans. 

Will Mayfleld Cdllege Marble Hill, Mo A. F. Hendricks. 

Woodland College Jonesboro, Ark .W. M. Harrell. 

Theological Seminaries 

Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary Louisville, Ky E. Y. Mullins. 

Southwestern' baptist Theologi- 
cal Seminary Fort Worth, Tex L. R. Scarborough. 

28 Year Book of the Chui'ches 


Alabama Baptist (weekly), Birmingham, Ala., Editor, Rev. L. L. 
Gwaltney; Baptist Advance (weekly). Little Rock, Ark., Editor, Rev. 
J. S. Compere; Baptist Boys and Girls (weekly), Nashville, Tenn., 
Editor, Rev. Hight C. Moore; Baptist and Reflector (weekly), Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. J. D. Moore; Baptist Chronicle (weekly), 
Alexandria, La., EJditor, E. 0. Ware; Baptist Courier (weekly), 
Greenville, S. C, Editor, Rev. Z. T. Cody; Baptist Flag (weekly), 
Fulton, Ky., Editor, Rev. T. F. Moore; Baptist Messenger (weekly), 
Oklahoma City, Okla., Editor, Rev. C. P. Stealy; Baptist Record 
(weekly), Jackson, Miss., Editor, Rev. P. I. Lipsey; Baptist Review 
and Expositor (quarterly), Louisville, Ky., Editor, Rev. E. Y. Mul- 
lins; Baptist Standard (weekly), Dallas, Tex., Editor, Rev. E. C. 
Routh; Biblical Recorder (weekly), Raleigh, N. C, Editor, Rev. Liv- 
ingston Johnson; Central Messenger, Brownwood, Tex., Editor, 
W. R. Earp; Chatty and Children, Tnomasville, N. C, Editor, Archi- 
bald Johnson; Child's Gem (weekly), Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. 
Hight C. Moore; Christian Index (weekly), Atlanta, Ga., Editor, 
Louie D. Newton; Convention, Southern, Publications (quarterly), 
Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. E. C. Dargan; Kind Words (weekly, 
semi-monthly, monthly), Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. Hight C. 
Moore; Home and Foreign Fields (monthly). Editor, Rev. G. S. Dob- 
bins, Nashville, Tenn.; Our Missionary Helper (monthly), Decatur, 
Ga., Editor, Mrs. C. E. Kerr; News and Truths (weekly), Murray, 
Ky., Editor, Rev. H. B. Taylor; Religious Herald (weekly), Rich- 
mond, Va., Editor, Rev. R. H. Pitt; Western Evangel (weekly), Abi- 
lene, Tex., Editor, Horace I. Trout; Western Recorder (weekly), Louis- 
ville, Ky., Editor, Rev. V. I. Masters; Word and Way (weekly), 
Kansas City, Mo., Editor, Rev. S. M. Brown; Florida Baptist Wit- 
ness, Jacksonville, Fla., Editor, Rev. J. W. Mitchell; ChVfrch Life 
(monthly), Baltimore, Md., Editor, Rev. K. A. Handy. 


At the time of the formation of the Triennial Convention in 1814, 
the Baptist population was chiefly in New England and the Middle 
and Southern seaboard states, and the center of executive adminis- 
tration was located first at Philadelphia and subsequently at Boston. 
With the growth of migration to the South and Southwest, the num- 
ber of churches in those sections of the country g^i-eatly increased, 
and it became difficult to associate in a single advisory council more 
than a small percentage of the Baptist churches in the United States, 
especially as means of transportation were deficient and expensive. 
At the same time the question of slavery occasioned much discusssion 
between the two sections. 

This led to formal withdrawal of the various Southern state con- 
ventions and auxiliary foreign mission societies, and to the organi- 
zation at Augusta, Ga., in May, 1845, of the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention. About 300 churches were represented. In all the discussions 
and in the final act of organization, there was very little bitterness, 
the prevalent conviction being that those of kindred thought would 
work more effectively together. The specific purpose of the conven- 
tion, as plainly set forth, was to carry out the benevolent purposes 
of the churches composing it; to elicit, combine, and direct their 
energies for the propagation of the gospel, and to cooperate for the 
promotion of foreign and domestic missions and other important ob- 
jects, while respecting the independence and equal rights of the 
churches themselves. 

Previous to the Civil War the convention met biennially; since 
that time it has met annually. Two boards were organized, both of 
which were appointed by and reported to the convention — a foreign 

Directory of Religious Bodies 29 

mission board, located at Richmond, Va., and a domestic or home mis- 
sion board, located first at Marion, Ala., afterwards at Atlanta, Ga. 
Subsequently boards were added to administer funds contributed for 
Bible distribution and to carry on Sunday school work. The Bible 
Board was afterwards consolidated with the Home Mission Board. 
The Sunday School Board failed through financial difficulties, but in 
1891 a new board of the same nature was established at Nashville, 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Southern Baptist churches are in general har- 
mony with those of the North, although as a rule they are more 
strictly Calvinistic, and the Philadelphia Confession of Faith is more 
firmly held than in the northern churches. In polity, likewise, there is 
no essential difference. The northern and southern churches inter- 
change membership and ministry on terms of perfect equality, and 
their separation is administrative in character, not doctrinal or ec- 



Convention, annual; next meeting, Los Angeles, Calif., Sep- 
tember, 1922. 

Officers : Pres.y Rev. E. C. Morris, Helena, Ark. ; Sec, Prof. 
R. B. Hudson, Selma, Ala.; Treas., Rev. A. J. Stokes, Montgom- 
ery, Ala. ; Statistician, Rev. C. H. Parrish, Louisville, Ky. 

FoREicN Mission Board, Philadelphia, Pa. Sec, Rev. J. E. East. 
Organ: The Mission Herald, 

Home Mission Board, Wynne, Ark. Sec, Rev. W. F. Lovelace. 
Organ: Baptist Vangttard, 

Sunday School Publishing Board, Nashville, Tenn. Sec, Rev. 
A. M. Townsend. 

Educational Board, Nashville, Tenn. Sec, Rev. S. N. Vass. 

Baptist Young People's Board, Nashville, Tenn. Sec, Rev. 
E. W. D. Isaac. ' 

National Baptist Benefit Board, Greenville, Miss. Sec, Rev. 
E. G. Masou. 

Church Extension Board, Memphis, Tenn. Sec, Rev. B. J. 

Woman's Auxiliary Board, Washington, D. C. Sec, Miss N. H. 


Name LocaJtUm President or Dean 

National Baptist Theological Seminary. Nashville, Tenn H. Owens. 

Training School for Women and Girls. Washington, D. C Miss N. H. Burroughs. 


National Baptist Voice (ofRcial organ), Nashville, Tenn., Editor, 
J. D. Crenshaw. 

New England Baptist Missionary Convention. An historic 
group of National Baptists, organized 1874, covering the states from 
Maine to the District of Columbia. President, Rev. J. C. Jackson, 
3837 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 


The early history of the Negro Baptists in the United States is 
closely interwoven with that of the white Baptists, and yet from the 

30 Year Book of the Churches 

period prior to the War of the American Revolution until the present 
day there have been distinctive Negro Baptist churches — that is, 
churches whose members, officers, and pastors were of the Negro race. 
The first organization of this kind of which there is any record was 
at Silver Bluff, in Aiken County, S. C. It was formed by eight slaves 
on the plantation of George Galpin in a settlement on the Savannah 
River, near Augrusta, Georgia, and appears to have dated from some 
years previous to 1778. In 1805 the Joy Street Baptist Church, the 
first in New England, was organized in Boston; in 1808 the Abys- 
sinian Church in New York City; in 1809 the First African Baptist 
Church in Philadelphia. These three were the first Neg^o Baptist 
churches in the North. 

The first Baptist Church of Washington, D. C, was organized 
in 1802, including in its membership many Negro pieople. In 1833, 
when the congregation moved to a new edifice, the Neg^^o members 
were encouraged to continue in the old building. In 1839 they or- 
ganized as the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church and the building 
passed into their hands. This experience in Washington was re- 
peated in many places in the South where the Negro members wor- 
shipped with white organizations, until it seemed wise for them to 
have their own churches. 

The first effort at ecclesiastical organization of Negro Baptists 
appears to have been the formation of tifie Wood River Association of 
Illinois in 1888. An association was also established in Louisiana in 
the same year. The first state convention was organized in North 
Carolina in 1866 and in 1867 the second, third and fourth, in Alabama, 
Arkansas, and Virginia, and in 1869 the fifth in Kentucky. In 1886 
the National Baptist Convention was organized in St. Louis, Mo. 
In 1898 the National Educational Convention was organized in Wash- 
ington, D. C. In September, 1895, the Foreign Missionary Convention 
of the United States of America, the National Baptist Convention, 
and the National Baptist Educational Convention met in Atlanta, 
Georgia, and all united in the present National Baptist Convention. 
The preamble to the constitution adopted at that meeting says: ''It 
is the sense of the colored Baptists of the United States of America, 
convening in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, September 28, 1895, in 
several organizations known as the Baptist Foreign Missionary Con- 
vention of the United States of America, engaged in missionary work 
on the west coast of Africa, the National Baptist Convention, which 
has been engaged in missionary work in the United States, and the 
National Baptist Educational Convention, which has sought to look 
after the educational interests, that the interest of the Kingdom of 
God requires that these several bodies above named should unite in 
one body. The object of this convention shall be to do missionary 
work in the United States of America, in Africa and elsewhere, and 
to foster the cause of education." 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine and polity the Neg^^o Baptists are in close accord with 
the Northern and Southern Conventions. They represent the more 
strictly Calvinistic type in doctrine, and in polity refer the settlement 
of any difficulties that may arise to an ecclesiastical council. Their 
churches unite in associations, generally along state lines, for the 
discussion of topics relating to church life, the regulation of diffi- 
culties, the collection of statistics, and the presentation of annual re- 
ports. These meetings are consultative and advisory rather than 

In addition to the associations there are conventions which are 
held for the consideration of the distinctly missionary side of church 
life and not infrequently extend beyond state lines. 

t)irectory of Religious Bodies 31 


(The International Old Baptist Union) 

Two annual conferences in the United States. 

OfScers: Presiding Bishop of International Old Baptist 
Union, Rev. T. H. Squire, Allisonville, Ontario, Can. Pres. 
Rhode Island Conf., Rev. Warren Dawley, West Kingston, R. I. ; 
Pres,, Pa, Conf., J. H. Billings, Nicholson, Pa. 

Divine Light and Truth (monthly), London, Eng. 


In 1653 a number of members of the Baptist Church at Provi^ 
dence, R. I., withdrew and organized the General Six Principle Bap- 
tist Church, the six principles being those mentioned in Hebrews 
vi, 1-2 — repentance, faith, baptism, laying on of hands, resurrection 
of the dead, and eternal judgment. Other churches were organized 
on the same basis and in time two conferences were formed, one in 
Rhode Island and Massachusetts and one in Pennsylvania. These 
conferences are members of an international body, entitled ''The Old 
Baptist Union in All the World," which is represented by an inter- 
national council, consisting of a bishop of the union, an international 
secretary, a treasurer, and representatives elected by the churches 
in the different countries. This council has authority to act in all 
"matters relating to the world-wide union or extension minutes," 
but the churches in each country or state manage their own internal 
affairs without interference from the international council or from 
the churches of any other country or state. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine these churches are in sympathy with the Arminian 
rather than the Calvinistic Baptists. Their distinctive feature is 
still the laying on of hands when members are received into the 
church. The general ecclesiastical organization corresponds to that 
of other Baptist bodies. 


General Conference, annual; next meeting, Ashaway, R. I., 
August, 1922. 

Officers : Pres,, M. Wardner Davis, Salem, W. Va. ; Cor Sec, 
Rev. Edwin Shaw, Plainfield, N. J.; Treas,, Rev. William C. 
Whitford, Alfred, N. Y. 

Missionary Society. Pres,, Rev. Clayton A. Burdick, Westerly, 
R. I.; Cor, Sec, Rev. Edwin Shaw, Plainfield, N. J.; Treas,, Samuel 
H. Da'vis, Westerly, R. I. 

Education Society. Pres., Rev. William C. Whitford, Alfred, 
N. Y.; Cor, Sec,, Paul E. Titsworth, Alfred, N. Y.; Treas,, Earl P. 
Saunders, Alfred, N. Y. 

American Sabbath Tract Society. Pres,, Corliss Fitz Ran- 
dolph, Newark, N. J.; Cor, Sec, Rev. Edwin Shaw, Plainfield, N. J.; 
Treas,, F. J. Hubbard, Plainfield, N. J. 

Sabbath School Board. Pres,, Alfred E. Whitford, Milton, 

32 Year Book of the Churches 

Wis.; SeCt A. L. Burdick, Janesville, Wis.; Treas,, L. A. Babcock, 
Milton, Wis. 

Woman's Executive Board. Pres,, Mrs. Allen B. West, Milton 
Jet., Wis.; Cor, Sec, Mrs. J. H. Babcock, Milton, Wis.; Treas,, Mrs. 
Alfred E. Whitford, Milton, Wis. 

Young People's Board. Pres., Ben F. Johnson, Battle Creek, 
Mich.; Cor. Sec, Mrs. Frances F. Babcock, Battle Creek, Mich.; 
Treaa., E. H. Clarke, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Trustees of Memorial Fund. Prea., Henry M. Maxson, Plain- 
field, N. J. ; Sec, William C. Hubbard, Plainfield, N. J. ; TrecLa., Frank 
J. Hubbard, Plainfield,* N. J. 

Commission of the General Conference. Chmn., M. Wardner 
Davis, Salem, W. Va.; Sec, Rev. Edwin Shaw, Plainfield, N. J.; For- 
ward Movement Director, Rev. Ahva J. C. Bond, Salem, W. Va. 

Historical Society. Pres., C. F. Randolph, Newark, N. J.; 
Sec, A, F. Randolph, Plainfield, N. J.; Treaa,, F. J. Hubbard, Plain- 
field, N. J. 


Name Location President or Dean 

Alfred College Alfred, N. Y Boothe C. Davis. 

Milton College Milton, Wis Alfred E. Whitford. 

Salem College Salem, West Va S. Orestes Bond. 

Theological Seminary 

Alfred Theological Semi- 
nary Alfred, N. Y Arthur E. Main. 


Sabbath Recorder (weekly), Plainfield, N. J., Editor, Rev. Theo. 
L. Gardiner; Sabbath Viaitor (weekly), children's paper, Plainfield, 
N. J., Editor, Miss Evalois St.. John; Helping Hand (quarterly). Sab- 
bath school help, Plainfield, N. J., Editor, Rev. William C. Whitford; 
Sevenf\ Day Baptist Year Book (annual), Plainfield, N. J. 


From the earliest periods of the Christian Church there have 
been those who claimed, in respect to the Sabbath, that Christ by 
his example and teaching preserved in its full significance the Sab- 
bath, while removing from it the formal burdens and restrictions 
which had been imposed upon it by the Pharisees. Accordingly, they 
have held that loyalty to the law of God and to the teachings of 
Christ and the Apostles, as recorded in the Bible, required continu- 
an<He cf the observance of the seventh day as the Sabbath. 

At the time of the English Reformation the question of the Sab- 
bath came to the front, and a considerable number forsook the ob- 
servance of Sunday and accepted the seventh day as the Sabbath. 
Foui-teen Seventh Day Baptist churches were soon established in dif- 
ferent parts of England, the earliest being the Mill Yard and Pin- 
ner's Hall Churches in London; the former, dating its orig^in in 1617, 
is still in existence. 

The first Seventh Day Baptist Church in America was established 
at Newport, R. I., in 1671. Other organizations were effected, at 
Philadelphia, Pa., as early as 1700, and at Piscataway, Middlesex 
County, N. J. From these three centers Seventh Day Baptist 
churches have been established in almost every part of the United 
States. It was from one of these communities that the impulse 
came for the founding of the Ephrata Community of German Bap- 
tist Brethren, resulting in the organi2tation of German Seventh Day 
Baptists in 1728. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 33 


In doctrine the Seventh Day Baptists are evangelical. They be- 
long to the regular group of Baptists, being distinguished by their 
observance of the seventh dav instead of the first day as the Sabbath. 

Originally the Seventh Day Baptists were restricted communion- 
ists; but at present, although no concerted official action has been 
taken, the matter of partaking of the communion in their own or in 
other churches is left to the private judgment of each individual. 
Church membership, however, is granted only to those who have been 
immersed for baptism. 


In polity the Seventh Day Baptists have always been strictly 
independent congregationalists. Each local church is independent 
in its own affairs, and all union for denominational work is volun- 
tary. For administrative purposes chiefly, the churches are organized 
into a General Conference, including all the churches of the world. 
This is a delegated body, with only advisory powers. It exercises, 
however, the prerogative of determining what churches shall con- 
stitute its membership; also the right of recognizing, or refusing to 
recognize, as ministers of the denomination, those who have been or- 
dained by the local churches. 


Free Baptists are in the process of merging their national 
organizations with those of the Northern Baptist Convention, 
and of blending their local associations and societies with simi- 
lar bodies connected with the Northern Baptist Convention. 
Foreign missionary and home missionary interests have already 
been consolidated. The majority of Free Baptist ministers, 
churches, and members are now included in the enumeration of 
the Northern Baptist Convention. 

The General Conference of Free Baptists, quadrennial, will 
meet only as called. It maintains its separate existence as a 
legal corporation for the administration of funds and interests 
which await final settlement and transfer. 

OfScers: Pres., J. W. Mauck, Hillsdale, Mich.; Cor. Sec.- 
Treas., Rev. Alfred Williams Anthony, 156 Fifth Ave., New 
York City. 


Address E. L. Phillips, Ayden, N. C. 


The first organization in Wales, 1701 ; in America at Perquimans, 
N. C, in 1727. In early history no distinctive name. Afterwards 
called "Free Will Baptists/' and later "Original Free Will Baptists," 
later still dropped the term "Original" and are called simply "Free 
Will Baptists." In 1836 they were represented by delegates in a 
General Conference of Free Will Baptists throughout the United 
States, but after the Civil War they held their own conferences. In 
recent years they have drawn to themselves a number of churches of 
similar faith throughout the southern states, and have increased 
greatly in strength. They hold essentially the same doctrines as the 

84 Year Book of the Churches 

Free Baptist churches of the north, have the same form of ecclesi- 
astical polity, and are to some degree identified with the same inter- 
ests, missionary and educational. 

As the movement for the union of the Free Baptist churches with 
the Northern Baptist CojpVention has extended, some who did not 
care to join in that movement have affiliated with the Free Will 
Baptists, though as yet there has been little formal action in that 

^ Doctrine 

The Free Will Baptists accept the five points of Arminianism 
as opposed to the five points of Calvinism, and in a confession of faith 
of eighteen Articles, declare that Christ "freely gave Himself a ran- 
som for.aP, tasting death for every man'"; that "God wants all to 
come to repentance''; and that "all men, at one time or another, are 
found in such capacity as that, through the grace of God, they may 
be eternally saved." Believers' baptism is considered the only true 
principle, and immersion the only correct form; but no distinction 
ifi made in the invitation to the Lord's Supper, and Free Will Bap- 
tists uniformly practice open communion. They further believe in 
foot-washing and anointing the sick with oil. 

In polity the Free Will Baptists are congregational. 


(Formerly United American Free Will Baptists) 

General Conference, triennial; next meeting at Hyden, N. 
C, December 5, 1923. 

OfScers : Oen. Mod., Rev. R. Becton, Dover, N. C. ; Oen, Sec, 
Rev. N. A. Harrington, Dunn, N. C. ; Oen. Treas., Rev. E. M. 
Hill; Oen. Ed. Treas., Rev. W. T. Barney; Oen. Fin. Sec, Rev. 
W. B. Edmondson. 

Publishing House, Kinston, N. C. Treaa., Rev. K. W. Artis. 

. College 

Name Location President 

Kinston College Kinston, N. C L. E. Rasbury. 


Free Will Baptist Advocate (weekly), Kinston, N. C, Editor and 
Manager, J. W. C. Smith. 


For some years after the Civil War the lines between the white 
and Negro Free Will Baptist churches in the southern states seem 
not to have been drawn very sharply. As, however, the latter in- 
creased in number and in activity, there arose among them a desire 
for a separate organization. Their ministers and evangelists, to- 
gether with others, had gathered a number of churches in North 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Florida and had met with such 
success that in 1901 they were organized as a separate denomination. 
While ecclesiastically distinct, these negro Baptists are in close re- 
lation with the white Free Will Baptist churches of the southern 
states, and trace their origin to the early Arminian Baptist churches 

Directory of Religious Bodies 35 

of the Carolinas and Virginia and the Free Baptist movement in New 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Colored Free Will Baptists are in substantial 
agreement with the white churches of the same faith. In polity the 
local churches are not as completely autonomous as is the case in the 
other Free Will Baptist bodies. The denomination has a system of 
quarterly, annual and general cohferences, with a graded authority. 


Officers: Clerk of Quarterly Meeting, J. P. Cotton, Hollis 

Center, Me. ; Clerk and Sec. of Society, Harry L. Cotton. 

All Christian and missionary work is done through other 



The movement started by Benjamin Randall in New Hamp- 
shire in 1780, which resulted in the organization of the body known 
as ''Free Baptists,'' spread in Maine, where a considerable number of 
churches were formed. In 1835 there was a division, and some of the 
ministers, including John Buzzell, Charles Bean, Jeremiah BuUock 
and others, with their churches, withdrew from the Free Baptists. 
These again separated under the leadership of Jeremiah Bullock and 
John Buzzell, and their followers were frequently nicknamed "Bul- 
lockites" and "Buzzellites." The latter have practically disappeared 
as a distinct body, though a few remain in Maine under the name 
"General Provision Baptists," their leading minister being Reverend 
George Stevens, South Windham, Maine. The former continue to 
exist in Maine, retaining the earlier name "Free Will Baptists." 
They have, however, no denominational connection with the churches 
of the same name in the southern states. 


General Association, annual; 35 district associations. 
Sec.'Treas., J. P. Cox, Owensville, Ind. 


Name Location Pretident 

Oakland College Oakland City, Ind W. P. Dearing. 

The Messenger (weekly), Owensville, Ind. 


The General, or Arminian, Baptists trace their origin as a dis- 
tinct denomination to the early part of the seventeenth century. Their 
first church is believed to have been founded in Holland in 1607 or 
1610 and their first church in England in 1611. Organizing in Vir- 
ginia in 1714, spreading to North Carolina and other colonies south. 

The historical origin of those Baptist bodies in the United States 
now bearing appellation ''General Baptists" is somewhat uncertain, 
but it seems probable that they represent colonies sent to the Cum- 
berland region by the early General Baptist churches of North Caro- 
lina. The first very definite information concerning them is that in 
1323 a General Baptist church was organized in Vanderburg County, 

36 Year Book of the Churches 

Indiana, by Benoni Stinson and others. The following year Liberty 
Association was or^s^anized with four churches. The movement grrad- 
ually extended to Kentucky, Illinois, Tennessee, Missouri, Arkansas 
and Nebraska. More recently churches have been established in Okla- 
homa. In .1915 the General Association of the General Baptists 
formed a cooperative union with the Northern Baptist Convention. 


The confession of faith of the General Baptists consists of eleven 
articles, which, with but two slight changes, are identical with those 
formulated by Benoni Stinson in 1823. The distinctive feature of 
this confession is the doctrine of a general atonement (whence the 
name ''General Baptist") which is that Christ died for all men, not 
merely for the elect, and that any failure of Salvation rests purely 
with the individual; that it is possible for a Christian to fall from 
grace and be lost; baptism of believers by immersion; and the Lord's 
Supper open to all believers. Some of the churches practice "foot- 


Congregational. In accord with other Baptist bodies. 


Address Elder Morgan Scott, Edinburg, Ind. 


The term "Separate" as applied to church bodies had its origin 
in what is known as the "Separatist Movement" in England toward 
the close of the sixteenth century and early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. It indicated primarily a withdrawing from the Anglican 
Church, without implying any specific doctrinal or ecclesiastical char- 
acter. Among the churches which thus withdrew were some dis- 
tinctively Baptist churches, though the first definite date appears to 
be that of 1662, when a church called the "English Puritan Separate 
Baptist Church" is said to have been organized. This in common 
with some of the other independent churches was compelled to* emi- 
grate to the colonies, and came to America in 1695. In the early 
part of the eighteenth century a somewhat similar condition existed 
in New England. The revival movement in which Whitefield took 
so prominent a part, and which culminated in the Great Awakening, 
caused sharp discussion and resulted in the withdrawal or "Sepa- 
ration" of a number of churches. In all of these "separate" churches 
there were Baptists. These Separate Baptist Churches were distin- 
guished from the regular Baptist Churches by their milder Calvinism 
and their willingmess to receive those who practiced infant baptism, 
even though they themselves preferred the form of immersion. 

In 1787 the Regular and Separate Baptists in Virginia formed a 
union, adopting the name "United Baptist Churches of Christ in 
Virginia." In course of time similar unions were formed in most 
of the other states in which the southern branch of the Separate. Bap- 
tists had organizations. A few Separate Baptist Churches, however, 
refused to join in this movement, and have maintained distinct or- 
ganizations until the present time. Owing largely to difficulty of 
communication, some practically kindred associations, such as the 
Duck River Association and others of similar character have not 
identified themselves with the distinctive Separate Baptist body. In- 
dividuid members of these associations have expressed their willing- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 37 

ness to be classed with the Separate Baptists, but no official action 
in that direction has been taken. 

Doctrine and Polity 

Separate Baptists reject all cr^eeds and confessions of faith, but 
the various associations publish, in the minutes of their yearly meet- 
ings, articles of belief. These are not always worded exactly alike, 
but in the main are in substantial agreement with the doctrinal be- 
lief of Baptists generally. They recognize three ordinances: baptism, 
by immersion only; the Lord's Supper and foot-washing. 

The strict Calvinistic doctrines of election, reprobation, and fatal- 
ity have never been accepted by the Separate Baptist churches, the 
special points of emphasis in their preaching being the general atone- 
ment of Jesus Christ and the freedom of salvation for all who will 
come to Him on the terms laid down in His Word. The Lord's Sup- 
per is observed in the evening and is regarded, not as a church table, 
but the Lord's table. Strictly congregational in polity. 


Address Joseph P. Adams, Asheville, N. C. 


Sword and Shield (monthly), Dry Creek, Ky., Editor, Elder 
Joseph Hall; Regula/r Baptist (monthly), 1608 Holly St., Nashville, 
Tenn., Editor, W. W. Mullens; Western Regular' Baptist (monthly), 
Moberly, Mo., Editor, Elder William Huff; Baptist Chronicle 
(monthly), Paintsville, Ky., Editor, Elder E. J. Harris. 


Regular Baptists represent the original English Baptists before 
the distinction between Calvinistic or Particular and Arminian or 
General became prominent. They are thus distinguished from the 
Primitive Baptists, representing the extreme of Calvinism, and the 
General, Free Will, and other Baptists, inclining more to the Armin- 
ian doctrine; but are in general sympathy with the United Bap- 
tists and Duck River and Kindred Associations of Baptists. Some 
use the term "Regular" alone, and some the term "Regular Primi- 
tive." They are to be found chiefly in North Carolina, Virginia, 
Tennessee, Kentucky and the adjoining states. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Regular Baptists are essentially at one with the 
United Baptists and hold that God gives no command without giving 
the individual corresponding ability to comply; that all for whom 
Christ died may comply with the requirements and conditions neces- 
sary to eternal salvation; and that, therefore, since Christ tasted 
death for every man and all men are commanded to repent, the 
eternal salvation of all men is possible and those who are lost might 
have complied with the gospel command and been saved. 

The different confessions of faith adopted by other Baptists, such 
as the London Confession, the Philadelphia Confession, and the New 
Hampshire Confession, are not in use. They are strict in admission 
to the Lord's Supper, practicing close communion, and for the most 
part obi^erving the ceremony of foot-washing. 

In polity the Regular Baptists are distinctly congregational. 

38 Year Book of the Churches 


Address Joseph P. Adams, 75 Park Ave., Asheville, N. C. 


With the immigration of Baptists from the New Eng^land and 
Middle states into Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, and Ken- 
tucky, and the more intimate fellowship that g^ew up in those iso- 
lated communities, the distinction between the different Baptist 
bodies, Calvanistic or Particular, and Arminian or General, became 
in many cases less marked, and a tendency toward union was appar- 
ent. In Virginia and the Carolinas, particularly, and also in Ken- 
tucky, during the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the 
nineteenth centuries, a considerable number of the Separate Baptists 
and those who were known as "Regular Baptists,'' claiming to repre- 
sent the original English Baptists before the distinction' between 
Particular and General became prominent, combined under the name 
of "United Baptists." The Separate Baptists emphasized less 
strongly the Arminian characteristics of their belief, while the RegfU- 
lar Baptists were more ready to allow special customs, particularly 
foot-washing, wherever they were desired. This movement, which 
took definite form in Richmond, Va., in 1794, and in Kentucky in 
1804« for a time gained strength and the associations kept dieir 
identity; but gradually, as thev came into closer relations with the 
larger Baptist bodies of the North and South, many United Bap- 
tists churches ceased to be distinct and became enroUed with other 
Baptist bodies. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the United Baptists hold beliefs in common with 
other branches of Baptists. They observe the ceremony of foot- 
washing, and are strict in their practice of close communicm. In 
polity they are strictly congregational. 


(See also ** Regular Baptists'*) 
Address Samuel F. Shelton, Beechgrove, Tenn. 


Baptist principles gained a particularly strong foothold in the 
mountain regions of Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia and Alabama. 
One of the earliest associations to be organized in this section was 
the Elk River Association, founded in 1808, which, was strongly 
Calvinistic in doctrine and thoroughly independent in polity. With 
the growth of the more liberal influences of the revival movement of 
that time and the introduction of Methodism there grew up a counter 
movement, emphasizing a stricter theology and making for a more 
rigid rule in the church. This manifested itself especially in the 
growth of the Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists. In this 
controversy the Elk River Association was divided. A minority, hold- 
ing to the milder form of doctrine, organized the Duck River Asso- 
ciation, and this furnished the nucleus for a number of churches 
holding essentially the same general doctrines as the Separate Bap- 
tists, but not identifying themselves with the latter, largely because 
of local conditions. Later, the discussion arose as to the legitimacy 
pf missionary societies, and there came another division, sQme with- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 39 

drawing and identifying themselves with the churches that became 
known as the Missionary Baptists, ledving the others bound still 
more closely together. This fellowship included in 1906 seven asso- 
ciations, located in Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi. 


In doctrine the Duck River and its kindred associations are Cal- 
vinistic, though liberal. 


In polity they are congregational, in accord with other Baptist 


No regular organization. Address Elder C. H. Cayce, Mar- 
tin, Tenn. 


Primitive Baptist Churches in strict interpretation of Scriptural 
institutions oppose all benevolent, missionary, Sunday school and 
similar organizations on the ground that such did not exist in Apo- 
stolic days and that there is no Scriptural warrant for them now. 
Apparently the first definite announcement of this position was made 
by the Kehukee Baptist Association of North Carolinaf in 1827 unan- 
imously condemning all ''modem, money-based, so-called benevolent 
societies'' as contrary to the teaching and practice of Christ and His 
Apostles, and announcing that it could no longer fellowship with 
churches which indorsed such societies. Other. Baptist associations 
in the north, south, east and west, during the next ten years, took 
similar action. 


In matters of doctrine the Primitive Baptists are strongly Cal- 
vinistic. Immersion of believers is held to be the only form of bap- 
tism, and is a prerequisite to the Lord's Supper. In some sections 
the Primitive Baptists believe that washing the saints' feet should be 
practiced in the church, usually in connection with t^e ordinance of 
the Lord's Supper. Most of the churches are earnestly opposed to 
the use of instrumental music of any kind in church services. Sun- 
day schools and secret societies are claimed not to be in accordance 
with the teachings of the Bible. 


The various Primitive Baptist associations have never organized 
as a denomination. There are no state conventions or general bodies 
of any kind. Strictly congregational in polity. 


Has salaried ministry, missions and Bible study. 
Address Elder Wm. H. Grouse, Cordele, Ga., or Elder E. W. 
Thomas, Danville, Ind. 


The Bcmner-Hemldf Cordele, Ga. 


Calvinistic in doctrine, holding the doctrines of eternal, particular 
and unconditional election, substitutionary atonement for the elect 

40 Year Book of the Churches 

only, effectual calling or regeneration by the Holy Spirit, preserva- 
tion of the saints, resurrection of the dead, the eternal happiness 
of the righteous and the everlasting punishment of the wicked. 

Evangelistic in spirit. Ministry supported by fre-will offerings. 
Use musical instruments in their song service. Have Bible study, 
but opposed to modem system of Sunday schools. Have chartered 
organization for the relief of the poor and needy, publication of 
literature, and spread of the Gospel. 


Annual conference, meets in June. 
Headquarters : Britt, la. 

Officers: Pres,, Rev. John Edgren, L. Box 325, Britt, Iowa; 
Sec, Rev. C. M. Sundell. 

Missions Board. Chmn,, John Forstrom; Sec, Rev. Carl A. 
Johnson, R. No. 1, Warren, Minn. 


Vittnet, Editor, Rev. John Edgren; Sanningena Van, Editor, 
Rev. N. P. Truedson. Both monthly. 



Address Rev. J. R. Christopher, Athens, Ala. 


The Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists as a distinct 
body arose early in the nineteenth century, by a protest of the more 
rigid Calvinists against what some considered a general laxity of 
doctrine and looseness of church discipline consequent upon the 
prevalence of Arminian doctrines as set forth by Methodism. This 
protest found its fullest expression in the mountain regions of Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky, but extended throughout the entire south and 
west. Its great leader was Elder Daniel Parker, a native of Virginia, 
who was ordained in T<ennessee in 1806, and labored in that state, and 
in Illinois and Texas until his death. Intensely Calvinistic in doctrine 
and equally independent in polity, these Baptists formed scattered 
churches rather than an organized denomination, and developed only 
in a minor degree an associational character. They differed from the 
Primitive Baptists chiefly in the degree to which they carried their 
theological opinions and ecclesiastical principles, and were frequently 
called by the same names, "Primitive," "Old School," and "Hard 
Shell," though the special feature of their belief was gradually recog- 
nized and they became popularly known as the "Two-Seed Baptists." 


Their doctrine is as follows: 

The phrase "Two-Seed" indicates one seed of evil and one of 
good, emanating from two different sources (as positive and nega- 
tive), the earthly generation (or mankind) being the field through 
which both are manifested, the field yet being no part of either. 
Neither has it (the field) any power of its own to resist, but must, 
and does, develop or manifest what is sown in it, as in the parable of 
the wheat and tares; neither can one change from one to the other, 
but each produces after its kind. We do not divide the Adamoic race 

Directory of Religious Bodies 41 

neither do we change the decrees of God, but as He declared the 
origin and destiny of the parent or progenitor in the beginning, we 
claim that, as He can not change, neither does it change either the 
origin or destiny of any one of His generation. This being the visible 
or representative character, then we also claim that both the good 
and the evil being set forth as seed-fathers and progenitors, we can 
not use the term father, mother or child except as the other also is 
implied or understood; in both of these spiritual generators He also 
gives origin and destiny, and that can not be changed. Thus, it is 
the crop which grows in the field that we gather in our barn; we 
do not gather the field, nor has the field any power of resistance, 
but has to develop whatever is sown in it; and the atonement, or 
offering, being for the redemption of something, must necessarily 
mean that something was onoe possessed and then lost. We also 
claim the price demanded was paid, the debt of divine justice satis- 
fied, nothing more charged against them; but as the sufferings of thie 
Saviour were visible, then we suffer temptations while in the flesh, 
or, in other words, both grow together in the field, but when the 
harvest is come then the crop is gathered, not the field it g^^ew on. 

Foot-washing is observed in the churches of this religious body, 
and many of the denomination are strongly opposed to a paid min- 
istry. They do not believe that the help of a minister is needed to 
reach and save sinners. Christ carries on the work of salvation with- 
out the help of man. 


In their church government the Two-Seed Baptists are thor- 
oughly independent, each church standing by itself. Associations 
are formed, but for spiritual fellowship rather than for church man- 


(Conservative Dunkers) 

General Conference, annual. 

Forty-seven district conferences. 

OfScers: Mod,, Rev. H. C. Early, Pen Laird, Va. ; Beading 
Clerk, Otho Winger, N. Manchester, Ind. ; Writing Clerk, Rev. 
Jas. M. Moore, Lanark, 111. 

General Mission Board. Chmn., Rev. H. C. Early; Vice Chmn,, 
Otho Winger, North Manchester, Ind.; Acting Gen. Sec, Chas. D. 
Bonsack, Elgin, 111.; Treaa,, Clyde M. Gulp, Elgin, 111; Missionary 
Educational Sec, H. Spenser Minnich, Elgin, 111. ; Home Mission See., 
M. R. Zigler, Elgin, 111. 

General Sunday School Board. Chmn,, Rev. H. K. Ober, Eliza- 
bethtown. Pa.; Vice-Chmn,, C. E. Ikenberry, Daleville, Va.; Sec, Ezra 
Flory, Elgin, 111.; Treas,, Rev. James M. Mohler, Leeton, Mo. 

General Educational Board. Chmn,, D. W. Kurtz; Sec-Treas., 
Rev. H. Spenser Minnich, Elgin, 111. 

Temperance and Purity Committee. Pres,, D. W. Kurtz, Mc- 
Pherson, Kans.; Sec-Treas., J. S. Noffinger, 358 60th St., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Peace Committee. Chmn,, Rev. W. J. Swigart, Huntingdon, Pa.; 
Sec, Rev. I. W. Taylor, Elizabethtown, Pa.; Treas,, Rev. Jacob Funk, 
Pomona, Calif. 

Homeless Children Committee. Pres,, Rev. Frank Fisher, 

42 Year Book of the Churches 

Mexico, Ind.; See., Rev. P. S. Thomas, Harrisonburg, Va.; Treaa,, 
Rev. £. £. John, McPherson, Kans. 

Dress Reform Committee. Pres., Rev. E. M. Studebaker, Mc- 
Pherson, Kans.; Sec, Miss L. £. Taylor, Mt. Morris, 111. 

GiSH Committee. Chmn,, Rev. J. E. Miller, Elgin, 111. 

Sister's Aid Societies. Prea,, Mrs. M*. C. Swigart, 6611 Ger- 
mantown Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec-Treas,, Mrs. S. L. Whisler, 
Milledgeville, IlL 

Tract Examining Committee. J. P. Dickey, Chairman, La 
Verne, Calif. ; H. Spenser Minnich, Secretary, Elg^in, 111. ; Edgar Roth- 
rock, Holmesville, Nebr.; E. B. Hoff, 1306 S. 17th Ave., Maywood, 
111., Jas. A. Moore, Lanark, 111.; T. T. Myers, Huntingdon, Pa. 

Music Committee. Cora M. Stahly, Chairman, Nappanee, Ind.; 
Wm. Beery, Secretary, Elg^in, 111.; J. B. Miller, Treasurer, Curry- 
ville. Pa. 

Central Service Committee. W. J. Swigart, Chairman, Hunt- 
ingdon, Pa.; J. M. Henry, Secretary, 337 North Carolina Ave. S. E., 
Washington, D. C; I. W. Taylor, Elizabethtown, Pa.; Advisory 
Member, Chas. D. Bonsack, Elgin, 111. 

Conference Program Committee. W. 0. Beckner, Chairmam, 
McPherson, Kans.; G. A. Snider, Secretary, Lima, Ohio; J^ A. Dove, 
Cloverdale, Va. 

Auditing Committee. E. M. Butterbaugh, Warsaw, Ind.; J. J. 
Oiler, Waynesboro, Pa. 

Member of Advisory Board of American Bible Society. Albert 
C. Wieand, 832 S. Humphrey Ave., Oak Park, 111. 

General Railway Transportation Agent. Dr. S. B, Miller, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Annual Meeting Treasurer. E. J. Stouffer, Mulberry Grove, 


Schools and Colleges 

Name Location President or Dean 

Bethany Bible School 8485 Van Buren St., Chicago. .A. C. Wieand. 

Blue Ridge College. New Windsor, Md Ross D. Murphy. 

Daleville College Daleville, Va J. G. Ikenberry. 

Elizabethtown College Elizabethtown, Pa .J. G. Meyer. 

Juniata College .Huntingrdon, Pa^ I. Harvey Brumbaugh. 

La Verne College La Verne, Calif I. V. Funderburgh. 

Manchester College North Manchester, Ind Otho Winger. 

McPherson College McPherson, Kans D. W. Kurtz. 

Mt. Morris College Mt. Morris, 111 A. J. Brumbaugh. 

Bridgewater College Bridgewater, Va. J. S. Flory. 

Hebron Seminary Nokesville, Va. R. J. Franklin Byer. 


The Gospel Messenger, Editor, Rev. Edward Frantz; Our Young 
People, Editor, Rev. J. E. Miller; The Missionary Visitor, Editor, 
Rev. H. Spenser Minnich. All, Elgin, 111. 


Among the various communities which arose toward the close 
of the seventeenth century for the purpose of emphasizing the inner 
life of the Christian above creed and dogma, ritual and form, and 
ceremony and church polity, one of the most influential, though not 
widely known, was that of the Pietists of Germany. They did not 
arise as Protestants against Catholicism, but rather as Protestants 
against what they considered the barrenness of Protestantism itself. 
An organization was effected at Schwarzenau in 1708. The mem- 
bers waived the question of apostolic succession, subscribed to no 
written creed, differed from other Pietists in that they were not ad- 
verse to church organization, did not abandon the ordinances which 
Christianity, as a whole, held to be necessary for salvation. Grad- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 43 

ually they worked out their doctrine, polity and practice, following 
in many respects the same general line as the Quakers, Mennonites 
and similar bodies, though they had no association with them, and 
are to be held as entirely distinct. 

The "Brethren" fled from Schwarzenau to America in 1719 and 
1720, settling in Germantown, Pennsylvania. After the Brethren 
came to America the details of the organization were developed and 
individual congregations increased in number — ^flrst in the immediate 
vicinity of Philadelphia; then in New Jersey, southern Pennsylvania, 
northern Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas ; then reaching west- 
ward over the old Braddock road, immediately after the Revolu- 
tion, to western Pennsylvania, and from the Carolinas into Kentucky, 
they were among the first to enter the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, 
and from 1790 to 1825 the great central plain was rapidly populated 
bv Brethren. The Brethren of Colonial times (then toown generally 
as Dunkers) were for the most part German or Dutch farmers. They 
retained their own language. As conditions changed they developed 
different practices and to some extent different conceptions, which re- 
sulted in the formation of separate communities. The first to with- 
draw were John Conrad Beissel and his followers, who founded^ in 
1728, the famous monastic community at Ephrata, Pa. From that 
time there was no further division until 1881, when a comparatively 
small company withdrew in protest against certain modifications 
which they felt to be inconsistent with their early history. The next 
year another division took place, based chiefiy upon objection to the 
form of government which had gradually developed within the larger 


The Church of the Brethren in general terms is classed as Ortho- 
dox Trinitarian. 

Bantism is by trine forward immersion, the person baptized being 
confirmed while kneeling in the water. The rite of foot-washing and 
the love feast or agape immediately precede the communion or 
eucharist, the entire service being observed in the evening. Sisters 
are expected to be veiled during prayer, and especially at communion 
services. In case of illness anointing with oil in the name of the 
Lord. is administered. The rule of the eighteenth chapter of Matthew 
with resnect to differences between members is observed. Plain at- 
tire, excluding jewelry, is advocated. The civil law is resorted to but 
little. Taking an oath is forbidden, all affidavits being made by af- 
firmation. Nonresistance is taught, and all communicants are asked 
to be noncombatants. Any connection, direct or indirect, with the 
liquor business is prohibited, and there is a corresponding insistence 
upon total abstinence. The ideal in all these ceremonies and beliefs 
is the reproduction and perpetuation of the life and activities of the 
Drimitive Christians, and, while its effect is manifest in a somewhat 
stem and legal type of relgious life, mysticism or the Pietistic temper 
has modified it in the direction of a quiet moderation in all things. 


The polity of the church corresponds more nearly to the Presby- 
terian than to any other specific ecclesiastical form. The local con- 
gregation, usually presided over by the bishop of that body, is gov- 
erned by the council of all the members. The power of discipline, 
including trial and excommunication, rests with the local congrega- 
tion. The individual congregation elects delegates, lay and clerical, 
to a state district meeting, connected with which there is also an 
elders' meeting, composed of the bishops of the respective congrega- 
tions. Above the state district meeting is the General Conference of 
all the brotherhood. 

44 Year Book of the Churches 



Yearly meeting; next meeting in Ohio. 

- OflScers: Foreman, Elder Michael Montgomery, Fairview, 

Mo.; Beading Clerk, J. J. Stitely; Writing Clerk, E. M. Sen- 



Vindicator (monthly), Brookville, Ohio, Publishing Agent, J. M. 


As social customs developed along more modem lines during the 
latter part of the nineteenth century, certain influences were mani- 
fested among the Dunker communities which tended to lessen the 
emphasis upon many of the special customs of the earlier times. Ac- 
cordingly, some of the members, fearful lest the traditions of the 
founders of the denomination should be overborne, and "the Scriptures 
suffer violence," and desirous of perpetuating the type of life, as 
well as of belief, observed by the early Brethren, withdrew in 1881 
and formed the organization known as the "Old Order German 
Baptist Brethren." 

Doctrine and Polity 

In certain matters of doctrine and also in some features of 
church organization the Old Order Brethren are in essential agree- 
ment with the other branches. They accept the literal teaching of the 
Scriptures in regard to the Lord's Supper and f oot- washing ; hold 
close communion ; practice nonconformity to the world in war, politics, 
secret societies, dress and amusements; refuse to swear or take oath 
under any circumstances; reject a salaried ministry; anoint with oil 
those who are sick, not so much for the healing of the natural body 
as for spiritual healing; strictly enjoin temperance upon all their 
members and allow none to traffic in alcoholic or malt liquors. They 
believe that nothing but death can break the marriage vow, and re- 
fuse to perform a marriage ceremony for any divorced person. 


General Conference, annual. 

Officers: Mod., Rev. Charles A. Bame, N. Manchester, Ind. ; 
Sec, Rev. DyoU Belote, 1803 Fourth St., S. E., Canton, 0. 

General Missionary Secretary oh the Brethren Church, Wil- 
liam A. Grearhart, Dayton, 0. 

Committee on Education. Chmn,, Prof. L. L. Garber, Ash- 
land. Ohio. 

Committee on Social Service. Chmn., Rev. H. L. Goughnour, 
Waterloo, Iowa. 

National Ministerial Association. Pres., Rev. G. W. Rench, 
South Bend, Ind.; Sec.-Treaa., Rev. W. E. Ronk, Roann, Ind. 

National Sunday School Association. Prea., Rev. Jesse F. 
Watson, Johnstown, Pa.; Sec-Treas., Albert Trent, Johnstown, Pa. 

Christian Endeavor Union. Pres., J. A. Garber, Ashland, 0.; 
Gen, Sec, Rev. G. C. Carpenter, Peru, Ind. 

Committee on Inter-Church Relations. Chmn,, Rev. G. W. 
Rench, South Bend, Ind. 

Committee on Temperance. Chmn,, R^v. E. L. Miller, Nap- 
panee, Ind. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 45 


Name Location President 

College and Seminary Ashland, O Edwin E. Jacobs. 


Brethren Evangelist (weekly), Editor, Geo. S. Baer; Woman's 
Outlook (monthly), Editor, Miss Mae Smith, Milford, Ind.; Sunday 
School Helps, Editor, A. D. Gnagey, Ashland, Ohio. AH publications 
issued by the Brethren Publishing Company, Ashland, Ohio. 


A division in 1882 when those who preferred the simple con- 
^egational form of government organized under the name of ''The 
Brethren Church," thoufrh generally known as "Progressive Dunkers." 
Of late years there has been a movement toward the reunion of the 
two bodies. 

Doctrine and Polity 

Officers : Mod., Rev. C. H. Holaday, R. R. No. 3, New Castle, 

In doctrinal matters the Brethren Church is in general accord 
with the Church of the Brethren. In polity, however, the Brethren 
Church is firm in its insistence upon the rights of the individual be- 
liever, denying that any ecclesiastical body has the right to bind the 
conduct or the conscience of any believer in Christ. 


Conference, annual; next meeting, New Castle, Ind., Sep- 
tember, 1922. 

Ind. ; Asst. Mod., C. S. Fife, Camden, Ind., Sec, Marie Johnston, 
Millville, Ind.; Treas., Cecil Rector, R. R. No. 12, Anderson, 

Mission Board. Chmn., Rev. C. H. Holaday, Newcastle, Ind.; 
Sec, Albert Kugler; Trea^,, Cecil Rector. 

Church News, Monon, Ind., Editor, Rev. Geo. Elmore. 


The Church of God (New Dunkers) was organized in 1848 by 
George Patton, Peter Eyman and others, who withdrew from the 
German Baptist Brethren. The church claims that "Bible things 
should be called by Bible names" and that the Bible nanie for the 
church foretold by prophecy as the new name, is "The Church of 
God." It refuses to adopt a human creed or confession of faith, as 
the Scriptures are given to this end and are infallibly right. Baptism 
(a burial or birth of water), is administered to those who profess 
faith in Christ and experience sorrow for sin, that they may receive 
the remission of sins and the gift of the Holy Ghost. The observance 
of the communion, the literal washing of the saints' feet, the saluta- 
tion of the kiss, and the anointing of the sicH are held to be essen- 
tial; and the second Advent of the Lord, and the future rewards and 
punishments are taught. 

An annual conference is held. Home missionary work is under the 
care of the mission board. There is no educational or philanthropic 

46 Year Book of the Churches 


Annual meeting. 

Officers : Pres., C. L. King, New Enterprise, Pa. ; Sec, Emma 
Monn, Quincy, Pa. 

Missionary Board. Sec, Rev. J. A. Peutz, Waynesboro, Pa. 


Among the earlier members of the Dunker community in the 
United States was John Conrad Beissel, who, with others, landed at 
Boston in 1720, the year after Peter Becker settled in Germantown, 
Pa. Beissel had not been identified with the Schwarzenau commmiity, 
altiiough he had sojourned there for a short time, but had acquired 
strong mystical tendencies as a result of his acquaintance with the 
writings of Gottfried Arnold, and the teachings of Jacob Boehme and 
other Inspirationists, and his association with the Kosicrucians at 
Heidelberg. After his arrival in Ame^ca* Beissel spent a short time 
in Germantown and then removed with three companions to Cones- 
toga, Pa., at that time almost a wilderness, where they lived as 
hermits. In 1724 they were visited by Peter Becker, of the Dunkers; 
Beissel was chosen pastor. It was not long, however, before his 
ascetic and mystical tendencies, together with outside influences to 
which he was subjected, led him to embrace and teach doctrines such 
as celibacy and the observances of the seventh day as the Sabbatii, 
which were widely at variance with the tenets of the Dimkers, and 
finally, in 1728, he and his followers formally withdrew from the 
Dunker Church, and organized as the German Seventh-Day Baptists. 

In 1732 Beissel left his congregation and removed to Ephrata, 
Pa., a few miles distant, there again to live as a hermit. Here he 
was joined from time to time by others of both sexes who shared his 
mystic and ascetic ideas and whom he organized into the ''Ephrata 
Society." Celibacy was enjoined upon the members, and separate 
houses were built for the two sexes, each of which was organized in 
monastic fashion, the "Brothers' House" having its prior and the 
"Sisters' House" its prioress. The society grew rapidly, and its ac- 
tivities were entered into with enthusiasm. Industries were organized 
on the communistic plan, which flourished for a time; but under the 
influence of Beissel, who thought them out of harmony with the 
spiritual purposes for which the community was organized, they were 
^oon greatly curtailed and were kept subordinate to the religious idea. 
Ephrata had, however, one of the first schools (1735) in that part 
of the country, and its printing establishment (1750) was one of 
the earliest and best. 

With the advancing tide of civilization and the disappearance of 
the wilderness the most characteristic features of the community 
lost their prominence. The celibate membership diminished. In 1764 
there were 21 males and 25 females, while in 1769 there were but 
14 celibate males in the brotherhood, and this is the last record of the 
exact number of celibates. By 1830 the community was so scattered 
that it was agreed that members might cast their votes in business 
. meetings by proxy, and some years later celibacy as a feature of 
the society had disappeared entirely. The only trace of the com- 
munistic feature remaining is the ownership of the property by the 
society, under control of a board of trustees. At the present time the 
denomination affiliates regularly with the Seventh-Day Baptist Gen- 
eral Conference. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 47 


These bodies have no ecclesiastical organizations, but are 
divided by the U. S. Bureau of the Census into six groups, as 
follows : 

I. Address P. D. Ijoizeaux, 1 B. Thirteenth St., New York 

II. Address D. T. Bass, 420 W. Fifth Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

III. Address H. B. Whelpley, 68 William St., New York 

IV. Address H. M. Bailey, care Gospel Book and Tract Depot, 
Bible House, New York City. 

V. Address J. T. Armet, 4431 Garfield Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

VI. Address William Magowan, 349 Genesee St., Rochester, 

N. Y. , / ■ 


Early in the nineteenth century there appeared in England and 
Ireland, especially in the Anglican Church, considerable restiveness 
occasioned largely by dissatisfaction with the close connection between 
church and state, with the stereotyped forms of worship, and with the 
church organizations by which believers were separated from each 
other and were gathered into so many different sects. As a result a 
number of independent gatherings sprang up spontaneously, both in 
England and Ireland, in which men and women who were desirous of 
a "spiritual communion based on New Testament religious princi- 
ples" met together for the "breaking of bread" and for prayer. Of 
such gatherings, the most important, from an historical standpoint, 
was one at Dublin, Ireland, in the spring of 1827. There were also 
meetings of importance at Plymouth and Bristol, England, and the 
fact that the meeting at Plymouth at the first had some prominence 
in members and teachers, eventually gave rise to the name "Plymouth 
Brethren," which has come to be their popular designation, though 
it has never been adopted by the different communities, who speak of 
themselves simply as "Believers," "Christians," "Saints" or "Breth- 

In the absence of any ecclesiastical organization, and the presence 
of an intense individualism and sense of personal responsibility, divi- 
sions naturally arose, and the congregations gathered around different 
leaders. The movement first came to America as a result of the emi- 
gration of a number of Brethem to the United States and Canada 
about the middle of the nineteenth century. As in England, so in the 
United States, divisions have arisen, but no exact classification is 
recognized. Some meetings are called "exclusive" and others "open," 
but there is no one term that applies accuratelv to any single divi- 
sion. The various divisions are I, II, III, IV, V, VI. 


In doctrine the different bodies of Brethren are in substantial 
accord. They acknowledge no creed, but look upon the Scriptures 
as their only guide. 


The view of the Church held by the Brethren is that it is one 
and indivisible — "Christ is the head of it, the Holy Spirit the bond 
of union, and every believer a member. It was begun at Pentecost 
and will be completed before the second Advent." They acknowledge 

48 Year Book of the Churches 

no ritual or definite ecclesiastical organization, and do not believe in 
human ordination of the ministry. They have no presiding officers 
in their assembly meetings, but anyone who has the g^ift is privileged 
to exercise it. Women take no part in the public ministry. They 
observe the ordinance of baptism, usually by Immersion, meet every 
Sunday to "break bread" (which is the term they use to designate 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper), and have meetings for prayer 
and Bible study, and gospel meetings for the unconverted. They own 
few church edifices, but meet in halls and private houses. 



In the latter part of 1750 about thirty Mennonite families 
in Canton Basel, Switzerland, after a long period of persecu- 
tion, went first to England and, in the fall of 1751, set sail 
for America. One company settled near the Susquehanna River 
in the southwestern part of Lancaster County, Pa., in the spring 
of 1752. As time passed and the communities increased they 
were designated as brotherhoods. There was thus the Brother- 
hood down by the River, meaning in the southern part of Lan- 
caster County ; also the Brotherhood in the North ; the Brother- 
hood in Dauphin; the Brotherhood in Lebanon; the Brother- 
hood in Bucks and Montgomery, etc. The outlying brotherhoods 
looked to the brotherhood in the southern part of Lancaster 
County as the home of the organization, and it was probably due 
to this fact that the general term '* River Brethren" was given 
to the entire body. 


(Known as Tunkers in Canada) 

General Conference, annual; next meeting in eastern Penn- 
sylvania in June, 1922. 

Officers : Mod., Bishop Jacob N. Engle, Abilene, Kans. ; Sec, 
Bishop C. N. Hostetter, Washington Boro, Pa. ; Reading Clerk, 
Enos H. Hess, Grantham, Pa. 


Chas. Baker, Batteaux, Ont. 

Jacob K. Bowers, Trappe, Pa. 

C. C. Burkholder, Upland, Calif., Box 294. 

J. N. Engle, Abilene, Kans., R. D. 6. 

M. G. Engle, Abilene, Kans., K. K. 

David R. Eyster, Thomas, Okla., R. D. Box 4. 

Fred Hahn, Kindersley, Sask. 

B. F. Hoover, Mansfield, Ohio, R. D. 4. 
J. N. Hoover, West Milton, Ohio, R. D. 1. 

C. N. Hostetter, Washington Boro, Pa., R. D. 1. 
H. K. Kreider, Campbellstown, Pa. 

Jonathan Lyons, Elsie, Mich., R. D. 1. 
Levi O. Musser, Florin, Pa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 49 

Jacob M. Myers, Greencastle, Pa., R. D. 2. 

Martin H. Oberholser, Chambersburg, Pa., R. 2. 

John Reichard, Fordwich, Ont. 

H. C. Shank, Waynesboro, Pa. 

John Sider, Marshville, Ont., R. D. 1. 

J. H. Smith, Weilersville, Ohio. 

Wilbur Snider, 3423 N. 2d St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Peter Steckley, Gormley, Ont. 

H. P. Steigrerwald, Bulawayo, South Africa. 

Isaac Stem, Roaring Sprincrs, Pa. 

S. B. Stoner, Grantham, Pa. 

John A. Stump, New Paris, Ind. 

Henry L. Trump, Polo. 111. 

Orville Ulery, 1325 Maiden Lane, Springfield, Ohio. 

J. H. Wagaman, Waukena, Calif. 

J. D. Wingert, Fayetteville, Pa., R. D. 2. 

General Executive Board. Chmn,, Bishop H. L. Trump, Polo, 
111.; Sec, Bishop Henry K. Kreider, Campbellstown, Pa.; Trecus., Amos 
Wolgemuth, Mt. Joy, Pa. 

Foreign Mission Board. Chmn., Bishop C. N. Hostetter, Wash- 
ington Boro, Pa.; Sec, Rev. Irwin W. Musser, Mt. Joy, Pa.; Treas,, 
Rev. S. G. Engle, 4014 Spring Garden St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Home Mission Board. Chmn., Bishop M. G. Engle, Abilene, 
Kans.; Sec, Jesse Brechbill, Detroit, Kans.; Treas., Samuel H. Wen- 
ger, Chambersburg, Pa. 

Examining Board. Chmn., Bishop C. C. Burkholder, Upland, 
Calif.; Sec-Treas., Bishop L. O. Musser, Florin, Pa. 

Sunday School Board. Chmn., Benton Eavey, Grantham, Pa.; 
Sec-Treas., Rev. Wm. Page, Detroit, Kans. 

Publication Board. Chmn., Bishop 0. B. Ulery, Springfield, 
Ohio ; Sec, Enos N. Engle, Thomas, Okla. ; Trea^., Jesse Gulp, Goshen, 

Beneficiary Board. Chmn., Bishop John A. Stump, New Paris, 
Ind.; Sec, Rev. J. B. Funk, Cleona, Pa.; Treas., Bishop D. R. Eyster, 
Thomas, Okla. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Messiah Bible School and Mis- 
sionary Training Home Grantham, Pa C. N. Hostetter. 

Evangelical Visitor, Nappanee, Ind., Editor, Rev. V. L. Stump. 


At first the organization of the River Brethern was simple, but 
as their numbers increased a more permanent form became necessary, 
and about 1820 the present ecclesiastical organization was adopted. 
During the Civil War some of the members, although proclaiming 
the doctrine of nonresistance, were drafted for military service, and 
it became evident that the denomination must secure legal recogni- 
tion as a religious organization holding that doctrine. Steps to se- 
cure such recognition were taken at a private council held in Lan- 
caster, Pa., as early as 1862, at which time those who remained 
after the separation of the other two branches, and who constituted 
the great majority of the Brethren, decid«i to adopt the name 
"Brethren in Christ" instead of "River Brethren," which was done 
the following year. In 1904 the organization was incorporated ac- 
cording to the laws of the state of Pennsylvania as "a religious body 
for the worship of Almighty God," with headquarters at Harris- 

50 Year Book of the Churches 


The Brethren in Christ have not accepted any historical creed or 
confession, but adhere to the generally recognized Christian doc- 
trines. They hold that trine immersion is the only proper form of 
baptism, practice confession of sins to God and man, and observe 
the sacrament of the Eucharist, accompanying it by the ceremony of 
foot-washing. The doctrine of nonresistance is a prominent feature 
of their belief. 


The ecclesiastical organization of the denomination includes the 
local church, a system of district councils, and a General Conference. 
The officers of the church are bishops, ministers and deacons. 


Address, S. H. Sherer, Mt. Joy, Pa. 


In 1843 a number of River Brethren withdrew from the main 
body, claiming that the original doctrines of the founders were being 
departed from, particularly in regard to nonresistance and noncon- 
formity to the world. Most of those who withdrew resided in York 
County, Pa., whence they received the name of "Yorkers," or "Yorker 
Brethren." They are also known as the "Old Order Brethren," and 
thus are sometimes confused with the Old Order German Baptist 
Brethren. They have no church edifices and the services are fre- 
quently held in large bams. 


Address, Henry C. Light, Cleona, Pa. 


Questions of administration or ceremonial detail, particularly in 
connection with a church building, arose among the River Brethren 
in 1852. The next year about fifty persons in Dauphin County, Pa., 
withdrew and organized under the leadership of Matthias Brinser 
as their first bishop. They were thus generally called "Brinsers," but 
later adopted the name "United Zion's Children." They are found 
principally in Dauphin, Lancaster and Lebanon Counties, Pennsyl- 

Their doctrine is essentially the same as that of the Brethren 
in Christ, and their confession of faith is essentially the same. 


Address Rev. S. R. Rintoul, 417 W. 57th St., New York City. 


This communion does not claim exclusive right to the name of 
Catholic Apostolic Church, but maintains that the one Catholic and 
Apostolic Church includes everyone who believes in the Lord Jesus 
and is baptized according to His commandment, whether by sprink- 
ling or immersion, by layman or priest, no matter in what sect or 
denomination he may be found. The movement had its inception ap- 
proximately at the beginning of the second quarter of the nineteenth 

Directory of Religious Bodies 51 

century. Their leaders claimed manifestations of the presence and 
power of the Holy Ghost, similar to those of the apostolic age and in 
1832 as result of "prophetic revelations," certain men were regarded 
as called to the office of apostle. In 1835 twelve such had been diosen. 
Their mission was to testify to the personal return of the Lord and 
to minister to the whole church the full apostolic measure of the Holy 
Ghost and the aspostolic gifts and blessings so that corporate unity 
may be manifested and the church prepared to receive their Lord. 

The first church in the United States was organized at Potsdam, 
New York, and the second in New York City in 1851. 


The standard of doctrine is found in the three historic Catholic 
creeds — ^the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian. The church 
also includes among its tenets the unquestionable authority and in- 
spiration of the canon of the Holy Scripture; the "sacramental na- 
ture" of the ordinances of baptism, the Lord's Supper, and ordina- 
tion to the ministry, as recognized by the different denominations of 
the Christian Church; the indissolubility, except by death, of the sac- 
ramental union in marriage; the restoration of the ordinance of the 
laying on of hands by the apostles for the imparting of the fullness 
of the gift of the Holy Ghost; the necessity of the gifts of the Spirit, 
tongues, phophecy, and other gifts, for the perfecting of the Church; 
the payment of the tithe as due to Christ, the High Priest, in addi- 
tion to the making of voluntary offerings ; and the hope of the Lord's 
speedy personal coming to raise the dead, translate the living mem- 
bers of His Church, and bring in His reign of peace on the earth, 
commonly spoken of as the Millennium. 


The principle upon which the organization of the Catholic Apos- 
tolic Church is based is that a twelvefold apostleship, as in the first 
days of the Church, is ttie Lord's only ordinance for supreme rule over 
the whole Church and for revealing His mind. Local churches are 
each under the charge of a bishop, designated angel, with a staff of 
priests and deacons, whose call, consecration, appointment, and rule 
are subject to the apostles. There is no election of ministers by the 
clergy or laity, except that deacons, to the number of seven in any 
one church, may by permission of the apostles be chosen by the 
people. A call from the Lord by word of the Holy Ghost through 
prophets is a prerequisite to admission to the office of priest or 



Christadelphian Advocate, 6718 Oxford Ave., Chicago, 111.; The 
Faith, 626 Eureka, St., Waterloo, la.. Editor, A. H. Zilmer. 


Among those who identified themselves with the Disciples of 
Christ in their early history was John Thomas, M. D., an English- 
man, who came to the United States in 1832. As he pursued the 
study of the Bible, his views changed^ and he became convinced that 
the cardinal doctrines of the existing churches corresponded with 
those of the apostate church predicted in Scripture; that the only 
authoritative creed was the Bible, the originals of which were in- 
spired of God in such a manner and to such an extent as to secure 
absolute truthfulness; and that the churches should strive for a 

52 Year Book of the Churches 

return to primitive Christianity in doctrine, precept, and practice. 
He soon beg^an to publish his views, and organized a number of so- 
cieties in tiie United States, Canada, and Great Britain, the cen- 
tral thought in his mind being not so much the immediate conver- 
sion of the world as the ''taking out of the Gentiles a people for His 
name/' No name was adopted for the societies until the breaking 
out of the Civil War, when the members applied to. the Government 
to be relieved from military duty in consequence of conscientious 
scruples. It then appeared that they must have a distinctive name, 
and accordingly that of "Christadelphians," or "Brothers of Christ," 
was adopted. 


The Christadelphians do not accept the doctrine of the Trinity, 
but hold that Christ was Son of God and Son of Man, manifesting 
divine power, wisdom, and goodness in working out man's salvation, 
of which He is the only medium, and that He attained unto power 
and glory by His resurrection. They believe that the Holy Spirit is 
an "effluence" of divine power; that man is by nature mortal, and 
that eternal life is given by God only to the righteous; that Christ 
will shortly come personally to the earth to raise and judge His 
saints, who will reign with Him a thousand years, and to set up 
the Kingdom of God in place of human governments; that this king- 
dom will be established in Palestine, where the twelve tribes of 
Israel will be gathered ; and that at the end of a thousand years judg- 
ment will be pronounced upon all men, the just receiving eternal 
life and the unjust, eternal death. 

Admission to membership is contingent upon profession of faith 
in the doctrines of the Bible, and baptism by immersion in the name 
of Jesus for the remission of sins. Participation in the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper is restricted to members of the church. 


In polity the Christadelphians are thoroughly congregational. 
They do not accept the name "church" for the local organization, but 
call it an "Ecclesia." 


Annual Council; next meeting Nyack, N. Y., May 15-19, 

Headquarters : 690 Eighth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Paul Rader; Vice-Pres., Rev. F. H. 
Senft ; Gen. Sec, Rev. W. M. TurnbuU ; Treas., David Crear. 

Finance Department. Sec, W. S. Polling. 
Educational Department. Sec, Rev. W. M. Turnbull. 
Foreign Department. Acting Sec, Rev. A. C. Snead. 
Home Department. Sec, Rev. E. J. Richards. 
Publication Department. Sec, Rev. F. H. Senft. 


Name Location - Dean 

Missionary Training Institute. . Nyack, N. Y W. M. Turnbull. 

Toccoa Falls Institute Toccoa Falls, Ga R. A. Forrest. 

Boyden Institute Boyden, Va A. E. Funk. 

Alliance Training Home St. Paul, Minn 

Simpson Bible Institute Seattle, Wash W. W. Newberry., 

Alliance Weekly. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 53 


The Christian and Missionary Alliance originated in a movement 
started by Rev. A. B. Simpson, in the year 1881. Dr. Simpson severed 
his connection with a pastorate of the Presbyterian Church in New 
York City and withdrew from the presbytery to engage in evan- 
gelistic work amon^ the unchurched masses. Two societies were or- 
ganized for Home and Foreign Missionary work, one known as the 
Christian Alliance for home work; the other the Missionary Alliance 
for the neglected communities in non- Christian lands. In 1895 the 
two societies were united in the Christian and Missionary Alliance 
and since then have labored in the double function of home and for- 
eign evangelism. 

The local organizations have been reported among the inde- 
pendent churches, but in 1916 were combined to form one body. 


The Christian and Missionary Alliance is strictly evangelistic 
in its doctrine. It stands firmly for the inspiration of the Scriptures, 
the atonement of Christ, the supernaturalism of religious experi- 
ence, and a lite of separation and practical holiness. It has no strict 
creed, but expresses the great essential features of its testimony in a 
simple formula known as the fourfold gospel of Christ, as Savior, 
Sanctifier, Healer and Coming Lord. It is not a sectarian body, but 
allows liberty in the matter of baptism and church government, and 
is in fraternal union with evangelical Christians of all denominations, 
accepting missionaries from the various churches, provided they are 
in full sympathy with the evangelical standards of the Alliance. 


There is no close ecclesiastical organization, though the society 
has in the United States and Canada about a dozen organized dis- 
tricts with between two and three hundred regular branches. Only 
a small proportion of these are organized churches, as the society 
seeks to avoid a sectarian aspect and is averse to the establishment 
of independent churches. Each local branch is entirely self -directing, 
and in most cases is primarily evangelistic in character and a center 
of missionary conference. An annual council meets in the spring, to 
which reports are submitted from all branches and fields, and which 
passes such legislation as may be needed concerning the government 
and administration of the work. Many of the most liberal and ac- 
tive supporters of this work are still in active membership in various 
Protestant churches, giving their support to the Alliance in its evan- 
gelistic work. 



American Christian Convention, quadrennial; next meeting, 
Burlington, N. C, October, 1922. Biennial district conventions 
of grouped states, annual conferences within the states and in 

Headquarters: Dayton, Ohio. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. Frank 6. Coffin, Albany, Mo. ; Sec, Rev, 
John F. Burnett, Dayton, Ohio. 

64 Year Book of the Churches 

Executive Board. Composed of the officers of the Convention 
and the secretaries of the seven departments. They meet annually 
and compose the Board of Trustees of the Convention. With the 
trustees of the Christian Publishing!: Association they constitute a 
Board of Church Polity. 

Home Mission Board. Sec, Kev. Omer S. Thomas, Dayton, 

Foreign Mission Board. Sec, Rev. W. P. Minton, Dayton, Ohio. 

Board op Education. Sec, Rev. W. G. Sargent, Providence, R. I. 

Sunday School Board. Sec, Hermon Eldredge, Erie, Pa. 

Christian Endeavor Board. Sec, Rev. A. B. Kendall, Spring- 
field, Ohio. 

Pi}BLiSHiN6 Department. Sec, 0. W. Whitelock, Huntington, 

Woman's Board por Home Missions. Sec, Mrs. Athella How- 
sare, Dayton, Ohio. 

Woman's Board por Foreign Missions. Sec, Mrs. Alice V. 
Morrill,. Defiance, Ohio. 

The Christian Publishing Association, Fifth and Ludlow Sts., 
Dayton, 0.; Mgr,, Netum Rathbun. 

Sunday School Department. Sec, Hermon Eldredge, Erie, Pa.; 
Editor Sunday School Literature, Rev. S. Q. Helfenstein; Supt. of 
Adult DepU, Rev. H. G. Rowe; Editor of Officers* and Teachers* 
JourrvaX, Hermon Eldredge; Supt, of Elementary Dept,, Mrs. F. Bul- 
lock; Supt. of Teacher Training, Rev. H. H. Short, Bluff ton, Ind.; 
Supt, of Secondary Dept,, Hermon Eldredge. 

Standing Committee on Christian Unity, Rev. Frank G. Cof- 
fin, Albany, Mo. 

Bureau op Social Service, Rev. E. A. Watkins, Lima, Ohio. 

Committee on Every Member Canvass, Rev. Omer S. Thomas. 

Superintendent op the Forward Movement, Rev. W. H. Deni- 
son, Dayton, Ohio. 


Name Location President 

Defiance College Defiance, O A. G. Caria. 

Elon College Elon College, N. C W. A. Harper. 

Prankllnton Christian College. Franklinton, N. C S. A. Howell. 

Palmer Institute and Starkey 

Seminary Lakemont, N. Y Martyn Summerbell. 

Jireh College Jireh, Wyo D. B. Atkinson. 

Palmer College Albany, MO F. G. Coffin. 

Union Christian College . Merom, Ind C. B. Hershey. 

Weaubleau College Weaubleau, Ma O. B. Whitaker. 


Herald of Gospel Liberty (weekly), Dayton, Ohio, Editor, Rev. 
Alva M. Kerr; Christian Missionary, Dayton, Ohio (monthly). Edi- 
tors, Rev. Omer S. Thomas and Rev. W. P. Minton; The Christian 
Sun (weekly), Burlington, N. C, Editor, C. B. Riddle; The Christian 
Vanguard (monthly), Drayton, Ont., Editor, J. N. Dales; Christiam, 
Annual, Editor, Rev. J. F. Burnett. 


Following? the War of the Revolution, the Rev. James O'Kelley, 
a Methodist minister in Virginia, opposed very earnestly the develop- 
ment of the authority of the episcopacy, especially so far as it gave 
the bishops absolute power in the matter of appointments of pas- 
tors. He, with a number of others, plead for the right of appesd to 
the General Conference from any mandate of the bishop. When this 
was denied, they withdrew from the conference in 1792, and later- 
organized under the name of "Republican Methodists." In 1794 they 
resolved to be known as "Christians" only, taking the Bible as their 

Directory of Religious Bodies 55 

Ruide and discipline, accepting no test of church fellowship other 
than Christian character, and making the government of the church 
absolutely congregational. O'Kelley and his associates carried their 
evangelistic campaigns over much of Virginia and North Carolina, 
and adjacent territory, establishing many congregations which shared 
their faith. 

A similar movement arose among the Baptists in New England, 
led by Dr. Abner Jones, who organized a Christian church at Lyndon, 
Vermont, in 1801. The central idea of this movement was that minor 
matters of opinion should not constrict Christian fraternity. From 
this source spread the Christian Church movement over New Eng- 
land, New York, and other portions of the east. 

A third and like movement sprang up in Kentucky following 
the great Cane Kidge revival in 1804, when a number of ministers, 
without friction with their denominations, formed a group to be 
known simply as "Christians" with the Bible as their only creed, and 
Christian character alone as a basis of fellowship. Leading names in 
this movement were Robert Marshall, John Dunlavy, Richard Mc- 
Nemar, Barton W. Stone, John Thompson, and David Purviance. 
Their peculiar message was carried over much of the central west, 
resulting in a number of organizations of people who indorsed their 

These three movements, O'Kelley in the south. Jones in New Eng- 
land, and Stone in Kentucky, were in the beginning independent and 
unrelated; in fact, each was ignorant of the existence of the others. 
Later, as they learned of the other movements, identical in kind and 
purpose, they became coordinated and unified into the organization 
known only as "The Christian Church," the general official conven- 
tion of which is "The American Christian Convention." The Christian 
Church is not infrequently confused with the Disciples of Christ, 
founded by Alexander Campbell, though their histories and identities 
are distinct. For the sake of clearness their identity is sometimes 
written "Christian Church (American Christian Convention)." 


The various elements out of which this organization has resulted 
accepts the Bible as their sole guide in faith, and have no other creed 
or statement of doctrine.. Their intemretation of the teachings of the 
Bible is in accord with that of most evangelical organizations* They 
do not bar any follower of Christ from membership because of dif- 
ferences in theoloerical belief. A like liberty extends to the ordinances 
of the church. Baptism is not made a requisite to membership. 
While immersion is generally practiced, no one mode is required. 
The churches practice open communion and labor to promote the 
spirit of unity among all Christians. 


The c^eneral polity of the denpmination is congregational. Each 
local church is independent in its organization, but at a very early 
neriod conferences were organized, which admitted ministers to mem- 
bership, and in which the churches were represented by lay delegates. 
These conferences were at first advisory only, but have largely de- 
veloped into administrative bodies. 

The American Christian Convention, with two incorporated de- 
nartinents. the Mission Board of the Christian Church, and the Chris- 
tian Publishing Association, is primarily the aerent of the churches, 
for the conduct of their general work. It meets quadrennially for the 
consideration of topics affecting the general church life and the 
formation of plans of work. 

56 Year Book of the Churches 


General Council, quadrennial ; next meeting in Indiana, May, 

Eleven state councils, meeting annually. 

OfScers: Pres,, Rev. A. C. Thomas, Milo, la.; Sec, Rev. J. 
W. Hyder, Excelsior Springs, Mo. ; Cor. Sec, Rev. D. L. Vanda- 
ment, Greencastle, Ind. ; Treas., Rev. C. W. Cartwright, Renard 
Mills, Ohio. 

Home and Foreign Mission Board. Pres., Rev. P. F. Meek, 
Gilman City, Mo.; Sec, Rev. J. C. Cupp, Thomville, Ohio; Treas., 
J. F. Goodie, Milo, la. 


Christian Union Witness, Excelsior Springs, Mo. 


The Christian Union traces its origin to the movement in the 
first half of the nineteenth century, for a larger liberty in religious 
thought, a greater freedom from ecclesiastical domination, and a 
closer affiliation of men and women of different creeds and lines of 

A convention of those interested gathered at Columbus, Ohio, 
February 3, 1864, and adopted a declaration of principles. 

The next year, 1865, a general convention was held in Terre Haute, 
Indiana, reaffirming the action of the previous convention and adopt- 
ing a summary of principles as follows: (1) The oneness of uie 
Church of Christ; (2) Christ the only head; (3) the Bible the only 
rule of faith and practice; (4) good fruits the only condition of fel- 
lowship; (5) Christian union without controversy; (6) each local 
church self-governing; (7) political preaching discountenanced. 

Doctrine and Polity 

Apart from the brief summary already given, the Christian 
Union can scarcely be said to have a system of doctrine. The local 
church or congregation is absolutely self-governing. 



Address Bishop W. H. Plummer, 15 Arnold St., Boston, 


In the latter part of the year 1896 William S. Crowdy, a Negro 
man employed on the Sante Fe railroad as a cook, claimed to have a 
vision from God, calling him to lead his people to the true religion, 
and giving him prophetic endowment. He immediately gave up his 
employment, went into Kansas, commenced preaching, and soon after 
orgranized the Church of God and Saints of Christ, at Lawrence. At 
first only a few persons joined him, but the numbers increased 
rapidly, and the headquarters were removed to Philadelphia. He was 
appointed bishop of the new body, and two white men who were as- 
sociated with him were subsequently raised to the same office. 

Believing that the Negro race is descended from the ten lost 
tribes of Israel, Crowdy taught that the Ten Commandments and a 

Directory of Religious Bodies 57 

literal adherence to the teachings of the Bible, including both the Old 
and New Testaments, are man's positive guides to salvation. In or- 
der, however, that the faithful may make no mistake as to the com- 
mandments which they are to follow, a pamphlet has been published 
by the church called the "Seven Keys," which includes Bible refer- 
ences giving the authoritv for the various customs and orders of 
the church. Among these customs are the observance of the Jewish 
calendar and feast days, especially the Jewish Sabbath, and the use 
of the corresponding Hebrew names. 

Admission to the church follows repentance for sin, baptism by 
immersion, confession of faith in Christ, the reception of unleavened 
bread, and water at the sacrament of* the Lord's Supper, the wash- 
ing of the feet by an elder, and the pledge of the holy kiss. The last 
mentioned is also a general form of greeting, but, having been criti- 
sized severely, it is frequently omitted. 


The organization of the church centers in an executive board or 
council, called a "presbytery," consisting of 12 ordained elders and 
evangelists, whose duty it is to look after the general business of the 
church. The prophet, who is presiding officer both of the executive 
board and of the church, is not elected, but holds his position by virtue 
of a divine call. He is believed by his followers to be in direct com- 
munication with the Deity, to utter prophecies by the will of God, 
and to perform miracles. On his death, the prophetic office lapses 
until a new vision appears. 

There are district annual and general assemblies, composed of 
the different orders of the ministry, and including delegates from 
each local church or tabernacle. The ministerial order includes min- 
isters not in full ordination, elders fully ordained, evangelists (elders 
engaged in general missionary work), and bishops, the last mentioned 
not exceeding four in number. The ministers hold office during good 
behavior. The temporal affairs of the church are cared for by 
deacons under general supervision of the assemblies. 


General Assembly, quadrennial; next session, 1923. 

Forty district assemblies. 

Headquarters: 2109 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

OflScers : Gen. Supts., Rev. H. F. Rejoiolds, 2109 Troost Ave., 
Kansas City, Mo. ; Rev. J. W. Goodwin, 1850 N. Sierra Bonita 
Ave., Pasadena, Calif; Rev. R. T. Williams, 208 N. Rosemont 
Ave., Dallas, Texas ; Oen. Sec, Rev. E. J. Fleming, 2109 Troost 
Ave., Kansas City, Mo. ; Gen. Statistical Sec, Rev. C. A. Kinder, 
2109 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Mo.; Gen. Railroad Sec, Rev. 
De Lance Wallace, 2109 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Mo.; Oen, 
Treas., Rev. E. G. Anderson, 2905 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

General Board of Foreign Missions. Pres,, Rev. H. F. Rey- 
nolds; Sec-TrecLS., Rev. E. G. Anderson. 

General Board of Home Missions and Evangelism. Pres,, 
Rev. L. Milton Williams; Sec.-Treas., Rev. N. B. Herrell. 

General Board of Publication. Pres., Rev. William E. Fisher; 
Sec, John T. Benson. 

General Board of Education. Pres., Rev. Jas. B. Chapman; 
SeC'Treas., Rev. H. Orton Wiley. 

58 Year Book of the Churches 

General Board of Church Extension. Prea., Dr. Edwin 
Burke; Sec, Rev. Jos. N. Speakes. 

General Board of Social Welfare. Pres,, Dr. J. Howard Sloan; 
Sec.t Miss Lue Miller. 

General Orphange Board. Pres.^ Rev. Theodore E. Ludwig; 
Sec, Rev. Oscar Hudson. 

General Board of Mutual Benefit. Pres,, Rev. F. M. Mes- 
senj^er; Sec-Treas,, Rev. E. J. Fleming. 

General Board of Ministerial Relief. Pres., Rev. F. M. Mes- 
senger; Sec.'Treas.f Rev. E. J. Fleming. 

General Colportage Board. Pres., Rev. C. E. Cornell; See., 
Rev. C. A. Kinder. 

Address for the Board, 2109 Froost Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 


Name Location President 

Bethany-Peniel College Bethany, Okla A. K. Bracken. 

Eastern Nazarene College Wollaston, Mass F. J. Shields. 

Olivet University Olivet, 111 J. E. L. Moore. 

Northwest Nazarene College. .... .Nampa, Idaho H. Orton Wiley. 

Pasadena University Pasadena, Calif A. O. Hendricks. 

Trevecca College Nashville, Tenn C. B. Hardy. 

Junior Colleges 

Central Nazarene College Hamlin, Tex E. D. Cornish. 

Arkansas Nazarene Seminary Vilonia, Ark R. £. Dunham. 

Nazarene Bible School and Acad- 
emy Hutchinson, Kans H. M. Chambers. 

Missouri Holiness College Clarence, Mo H. O. Fanning. 

Peniel Academy and Theological 
Seminary , Peniel, Tex R. A. Thornton. 


Herald of Holiness (weekly), Editor, B. F. Haynes; Youth's 
Comrade (weekly). Editor, Miss Mabel Hanson; The Other Sheep 
(monthly), Editor, E. G. Anderson. Address for all periodicals, 2109 
Troost Avenue, Kansas City, Mo. 


Toward the close of the nineteenth century a movement developed 
in various parts of the United States corresponding somewhat to liiat 
of the revival period of a century previous. It manifested itself dif- 
ferently, so far as organization was concerned, in different sections. 
In the southern states it was chiefly an independent movement, and 
each congregation held itself apart from every other. In the west 
and in the east the tendencies were toward a closer affiliation, re- 
sulting in organization. 

The principle at the basis of these movements has been a belief 
in the power of Jesus Christ to make Christians, holy in this present 
life, and they represent thus a renewed emphasis upon the doctrine of 
entire sanctification. The immediate occasion was the feeling that 
full liberty to emphasize this doctrine, which came to be called the 
"full Gospel," was not allowed the churches. 

Three movements, one in New England, one in New York City, 
and one in Los Angeles, Calif., were organized almost simultaneously, 
in 1894, to carry out these principles. 

In the annual meeting of each body in 1906, a basis of union was 
prepared, and delegates were authorized to call the first convention 
of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, the name proposed for 
the new denomination. That convention met in Chicago in 1907 in 
its first general assembly. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 59 


In doctrine this body is essentially in accord with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. It accepts, in general, the Apostles' Creed, but 
gives special prominence to the doctrine of entire sanctification. 


The ecclesiastical organization is congp^egational. Each church 
is absolutely independent in its management, being governed through 
a church board elected by the congregation. The churches are asso- 
ciated for such general purposes as belong to all alike, particularly 
for missionary activity. 



Cor, Sec, Henry Schurra, 1002 McKenzie St., Los Angeles, 

Calif, Station T. 

Messianic Publishing Co., 1002 McKenzie St., Station T, Los 

Angeles, Calif. 


Among the developments resulting from the introduction into the 
United States of the study of various phases of Oriental religions, 
especially those in India emphasizing the mystical union of the human 
and divine, was the organization of the Christian Yoga Society. The 
founder, A. K. Mozumdar, gathered a number of followers and a 
society was organized at Spokane, Washington, in February, 1911, 
with 50 active members. For some time it developed somewhat slowly, 
but gathered membership in different parts of the United States. 
After a time the organization was disbanded, and Mr. Mozumdar or- 
ganized the Universal Messianic Church, or the Church of the Uni- 
versal Messianic Message. 


The purpose of this church is to bring about unity with om- 
nipresent God on the part of its members, in imitation of the Great 
Master Jesus Christ; to heal the sick by an appeal to God for inter- 
position of divine power; to teach, preach, and demonstrate the great 
mystery of life; and to endeavor to secure that health and inspiration 
which comes from living a life close to God. 

It recognizes no creed or confession and observes no sacrament, 
the only condition imposed on members being that they have an earn- 
est desire to help humanity to a higher and holier idea of €rod and 
their fellowmen. The attitude toward other creeds is one of good 
will and brotherly love, holding that all have their place in the sdiool 
of the evolution of man. 


The societies or churches are distinctly independent in their or- 
ganization. In the beginning there were ordained ministers, but sub- 
sequently the ministerial office was discontinued. 


No general organization, but numerous independent churches. 
Address J. W. Shepherd, 430 Grand Boulevard W., Detroit, 

60 Year Book of the Churches 


In their early history, in the United States, the churches which 
gathered under the leadership of Thomas and Alexander Campbell, 
Barton W. Stone, and others, emphasized the distinctly apos- 
tolic character of the individual church, not merely as a 
worshiping congregation and a working force, but as an autonomous 
ecclesiastical body. As set forth in the "declaration and address," by 
Thomas Campbell, they deplored human creeds and systems and 
protested against considering anything as a matter of faith and duty 
for which there could not be produced a "Thus saith the Lord,'' either 
in expressed terms or from approved precedent, and held that they 
should follow "after the example of the primitive church exhibited 
in the New Testament without any additions whatever of human opin- 
ions or inventions of men." With this basis of action they adopted 
as the keynote of their movement, "Where the Scriptures speak, we 
speak; where the Scriptures are silent, we are silent." 

As the churches increased in membership and wealth, however, 
there arose what seemed to some to be a desire for popularily and 
for such "human inventions" as had been deplored in the beginning 
of the movement. Chief among these "inventions" were a general 
organization of the churches into a missionary society with a "money 
basis" of membership and the use of instrumental music in church 
worship. The agitation for the organization of a missionary society 
began soon after 1840, and continued imtil the American Christian 
Missionary Society was formed in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1849. Al- 
though this received Mr. Campbell's approval, many of his brethren 
were dissatisfied and held firmly to the earlier position, quoting his 
own language in speaking of the apostolic Christians. 

A society with a "money basis" and a delegated membership, it 
was urged, was the beginning of apostasy from New Testament 

There was also decided opposition to instrumental music in the 
services of the Church and controversy over pastors and methods of 
raising money. 

This church in the census of 1890 and of 1906 was confused with 
the Disciples of Christ, and its membership, in some cases, reported in 
statistics of that body. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine and polity the Churches of Christ are, in some re- 
spects, in accord with the Disciples of Christ. They reject all human 
creeds and confessions of faith, consider the Scriptures a sufficient 
rule of faith and practice, emphasize the "divine sonship of Jesus" 
and the "divine personality of the Holy Spirit," and regard the Lord's 
Supper as a memorial service rather than as a sacrament, to be ob- 
served each Lord's Day. The church, with such officers as belonged 
to it in apostolic times, is considered a divine institution. Each local 
church is independent; elects its own officers, calls its own ministers, 
and conducts its own affairs. Membership is on the general basis of 
faith in Christ, repentance, and baptism (immersion). The minis- 
terial office is not emphasized, and there are no ministerial associa- 
tions. Each elder is a member of the church which he serves, and is 
subject to its discipline. In general, a doctrine of nonresistance is 


General Assembly, annual; next meeting, November 2-8, 
1922, Cleveland, Tenn. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 61 

OflScers: Gen. Overseer, A. J. Tomlinson, 2525 Gaut St., 
Cleveland, Tenn. 

Foreign Missions. Sec, J. S. Llewellyn, Cleveland, Tenn. 
Home Missions; Sec, T. L. McLain, Cleveland, Tenn. 


Name Location Superintendent 

Bible Training School Cleveland, Tenn A. J. Tomlinson. 


Church of God Evangel, Cleveland, Tenn., Editor, A. J. Tomlin- 


The denomination known as the General Assembly of the Church 
of God had its origin in the conviction of a number of people, in 
different denominations in Tennessee, that existing bodies with which 
they were acquainted were not strictly in accord with their views of 
Scripture, and in the belief that their wishes for a body conform- 
ing to their own views must be satisfied. The first organization was 
formed in August, 1886, in Monroe County, Tennessee, under the 
name "Christian .Union." In 1902 there was a reorganization under 
the name, "Holiness Church," and in January, 1907, a third meeting, 
at Union Grove, Bradley County, Tennessee, adopted the name, 
"Church of God," with a membership of 150, representing five local 
churches in North Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee. From that time 
the body has grown until it is represented in 22 states and has 
churches in the British West Indies. 


In doctrine this body is Arminian and in accord with the Meth- 
odist bodies. It recognizes no creed as authoritative, but relies upon 
the Bible "as a whole rightly divided" as the final court of appeal. 
It emphasizes sanctification as a second definite experience subse- 
quent to regeneration. Conditions of membership are profession of 
faith in Christ, experience of being "bom again," bearing the fruits 
of a Christian life, and recognition of the obligation to accept and 
practice all the teachings of the church. The sacraments observed 
are: The Lord's Supper, feet-washing, and water baptism by im- 


The ecclesiastical organization is described as "a blending of Con- 
gregational and Episcopal, ending in theocratical, by which is meant 
that every question is to be decided by God's Word." 

The officers of the churches are bishops, deacons, and evangelists. 
Bishops and deacons must be at least 24 years of age, have experi- 
enced sanctification and baptism of the Holy Ghost, evidenced by 
speaking with other tongues as the Spirit gives utterance, and must 
prove themselves to have lived what they profess. There is no age 
limit for evangelists. All are required to have a fair general edu- 
cation, good judgment, wisdom, and ability to speak. 


General Eldership, quadrennial. 

Headquarters: Harrisburg, Pa. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. J. L. Updegraph, Findlay, Ohio ; Clerk, 

62 Year Book of the Churches 

Rev. S. Fulmer, Mt. Pleasant, Pa.; Treds,, C. B. Miller, Pen- 
brook, Pa. 

Executive Board. Pres., Rev. F. W. McGuire, Rohrerstown, Pa. 
Board of Missions. Sec, Rev. J. L. Updegnraph, Findlay, Ohio. 
Publishing House. Prea,, Rev. S. G. Yahn, Harrisburg, Pa. 


Name Location President 

Findlay College Findlay, O W. H. Ouyer. 

Church Advocate (weekly) , Harrisburg, Pa., Editor, S. G. Yahn. 


The founder of this denomination was John Winebrenner, who 
in 1820 as a minister of the German Reformed Church, now the Re- 
formed Church in the United States, entered upon the pastorate in 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. His preaching was of a distinctly revival 
character and awakened strong opposition, resulting in severing Mr. 
Winebrenner's connection with the German Reformed Church in 1828. 
In 1829 he organized an independent church, calling it simply the 
"Church of God." The movement was more fully organized m 1845 
and in 1896 changed to the present name and organization. 


In doctrine the Churches of God are evangelical and orthodox, 
and Arminian rather than Calvinistic. They hold as distinctive views, 
that sectarianism is antiscriptural ; that each local church is a church 
of Grod, and should be so called; that in general, Bible things, as 
church offices and customs, should be known by Bible names, and a 
Bible name should not be applied to anything not mentioned in the 
Bible; and that there are not two, but three, ordinances that are 
pe2*petually obligatory, namely. Baptism, the Lord's Supper, and the 
religious washing of the saints' feet. The last two they regard as 
companion ordinances, which are always to be observed together, and 
in the evening. The only form of baptism recognized is the immer- 
sion of believers. They have no written creed, but accept the Word 
of God as their only rule of faith and practice. They insist strongly 
on the doctrines of the Trinity, human depravity, atonement tiirough 
the sacrifice of Christ, the office and work of the Holy Spirit, man's 
moral agency, justification by faith, repentance and regeneration, 
practical piety, the observance of the Lord's Day, the resurrection of 
the dead, the eternal being of the soul, and future and eternal rewards 
and punishments. 


The polity of the churches is presbyterian. Each local church 
votes for a pastor, but the annual elderships make the appointments 
within their own boundaries. The church elects its own elders and 
deacons, who, with the pastor, constitute the church council, and 
are the governing power, having charge of the admission of mem- 
bers and the general care of the church work. The ministers within 
a certain territory, and an equal number of laymen elected by the 
various churches (or charges), constitute annual elderships, corre- 
sponding to presbyteries, which have the exclusive right to ordain 
ministers. The different annual elderships combine to form the Gen- 
eral Eldership, which meets once in four years, and is composed of 
an equal number of ministerial and lay representatives, men and 
women as nearly as possible in equal numbers. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 63 


Under this head are included three bodies of Negro Churches, 
similar in general type, though differing in many details. 


No directory obtainable. 


This is a group of Negro churches in Texas, organized about 
1908 as a separate body, in protest against what they deem the wrong 
subservience of the regular denominations to class and race preju- 
dice. They hold that not only the white but Negro denominations 
have erred greatly in their interpretation of the Bible; and that as 
the Negro race had advanced since 1865 most rapidly in its spiritual 
life, notwithstanding the iniquities and prejudices of very many, they 
should seek the union for which Christ prayed in an organization 
based distinctly on His Word. 


(Christian Workers for Fellowship) 

Synod, annual. General Assembly meets annually in No- 

Officers: Chief, Eev. William Christian, 1126 Woodlawn St., 
Memphis, Tenn.; Vice-Chief, Eev. C. L. Bryant, 3316 Colby 
St., Dallas, Tex. ; Sec, Mrs. E. L. Christian. 

Chief's cabinet: Rev. William Christian, Rev. C. L. Bryant, 
Rev. George Williams, Rev. A. W. Thompson, Rev. I. J. Big- 
gers. Rev. B. M. Campbell, Rev. W. B. Bowen, Rev. J. J. 
Palmer, Rev. M. L. Gibson, Rev. R. J. Bryant, Rev. B. T. Webb. 

Elect Sisters' Work. Gen. Sec, Mrs. Mary E. M. Cieddwell, 
Texarkana, Ark. 

Sisters' Home Mission. Gen. Sec, Mrs. Mary Burton, R. No. 4, 
Box 11, Dallas, Tex. 

College and Seminary 

Name Location President 

Church of the Living God Seminary Ponta, Tex C. L. Bryant. 


The Brotherhood Reporter, Editor, E. L. Christian, 1126 Wood- 
lawn St., Memphis, Tenn. 


The Church of the Living God "Christian Workers for Friend- 
ship" was 'organized at Wrightsville, Arkansas, in 1889, by Rev. Wil- 
liam Christian. In 1915 the name was changed to Christian Workers 
for Fellowship. There have been two secessions from this church: 
The Church of the Living God (Apostolic Church), now known as the 
Church of the Living God, General Assembly; and the Church of 
Christ in God, which more recently has consolidated with the parent 

The distinctive characteristics of the church are believers' bap- 
tism by immersion, the washing of the saints' feet, and the use of 
water and unleavened bread in the Lord's Supper. The local organi- 
zations are known as "temples" rather than as "churches," and are 

64 Year Book of the Churches 

subject to the authority of a general assembly. The presiding officer 
is styled the "chief," or "bishop," and the ministry includes evangel- 
ists, pastors, and local preachers. 

A considerable number of ministers are engaged in general mis- 
sionary work for the extension of the church ; Sunday schools occupy 
a prominent place in the church life; and there is a gospel extension 
club engaged in works of mercy, particularly along the lines followed 
by fraternal societies, rendering assistance in the care of the sick and 
the burying of the dead. 


General Assembly, biennial; next meeting August 3, 1923. 
Headquarters: Louisville, Ky. 

Officers: Bishop, J. A. Edmondson ; Cor, Sec. and Treas., 
Eev. C. Davis, Houston, Tenn. ; Sec, Chas. Cha^e. 

Church Extension Board. Nat, Sec, Rt. Rev. E. J. Cain, 
Louisville, Ky. 


Guiding Star of Truth, Houston, Tex., Editor, Rev. James 


The Apostolic Chuch, also called the ''Christian Fellowship 
Workers," withdrew from the Church of the Living God, Christian 
Workers for Fellowship, in 1902, partly because of opposition to the 
head of that body and partly because of a different conception of 
certain articles of faith and diurch government. For several years 
the churches composing it were in a somewhat unsettled and disor- 
ganized state, with no stable form of government, name, or perma- 
nent leadership. In 1908 the presiding officer. Apostle Chas. W. 
Harris, called together the ministers and representatives from the 
different local churches,, who then organized themselves into one 
association known as the General Assembly, Church of the Living God. 

In this body the presiding apostle is styled officer instead of chief 
or bishop, and it has eight orders among its ministers — apostles, lead- 
ers, prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons. 

The General Assembly of synods meets annually in the month of 
November at Waco, Texas, and this place of meeting is spoken of 
among the worshipers as Jerusalem. 

In doctrine and general organization the church corresponds 
closely to the Methodist churches. 



The churches of the New Jerusalem, popularly called Swe- 
denborgian, are two in number. The early history of both is 
given in the statement of the General Convention of the New 
Jerusalem, the older body; while the movement which resulted 
in the organization of a second body, and the points on which it 
differs from the General Convention, are set forth in the state- 
ment of the General Church of the New Jerusalem. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 65 



General Convention, annual; next meeting June, 1922, in 

Ten associations, meeting annually or semi-annually (also 
two others in Canada). 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Wm. L. Worcester, 5 Bryant St., Cam- 
bridge 38, Mass. ; Bee. Sec., Benjamin A. Whittemore, 134 Bow- 
doin St., Boston 9, Mass.; Treas., James R. Carter, 246 Devon- 
shire St., Boston 9, Mass. 

General Pastors 

Rev. George H. Dole, Penn Ave. and Broome St., Wilmington, 

Rev. John Goddard, 52 Brookside Ave., Newtonville, Mass. 
Rev. Charles W. Harvey, 315 N. 35th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Rev. Louis G. Hoeck, 2822 Highland Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Rev. John F. Potts, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 
Rev. Wm. L. Worcester, 5 Bryant St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Board of -Home and Foreign Missions. Pres., Ezra H. Alden, 
1217 Commercial Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Rev. Paul 
Sparry, 1437 Q St., N. W., Washington, D. C. ; Treas., Lloyd A. Frost, 
Guaranty Trust Co., Cambridge, Mass. 

Augmentation Fund. Chmn., Geo. C. Warren, 142 Berkeley 
St., Boston, Mass.; Sec, Albert P. Carter, 60 State St., Boston, Mass.; 
Trea^., James R. Carter 

Board of Publication, 3 W. 29th St., New York City. Pres., 
Robert Alfred Shaw; Sec, Charles D. Allen; Trtas., John F. Seekamp. 

Committee on Education. Chmn., Rev. Lewis F. Hite, 42 
Arlington St., Cambridge 40, Mass. 

American New-Church Sunday School Association. Pres. 
Rev. Wm. F. Wunsch, 57 Avon Hill St., Cambridge 40, Mass.; Sec- 
Treas., John V. Horr, Cleveland, Ohio. 

American New-Church League. Pres., Philip M. Alden, 834 
So. 43rd St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Miss Eleanore Borton, 11218 
Primrose Ave., Cleveland, Ohio; Treas., Chauncy G. King, 1453 Mars 
Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 

National Alliance of New-Church Women. Pres., Mrs. 
Edwin 0. Munyer, 830 Oakwood Blvd., Chicago, 111.; Sec, Mrs. E. O. 
Woodward, 48 Harvard St., Newtonville 60, Mass.; Treas., Mrs. Carle- 
ton M. Moody, The Wallingford, W. Philadelphia, Pa. 

New-Church Lecture and Publicity Bureau. Chmn., Rev. 
Walter B. Murray, 510 Steinway Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Social Service Commission. Chmn., Rev. C. W. Harvey; Eg^c 
See., Rev. John W. Stockwell, 2129 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Theological Semirvary 

Name Location President 

New Church Theological School Cambridge, Mass W. L. Worcester. 


Urbana University School Urbana, Miss Louis O. Hoeck. 

Waltham School for Girls .WaJtham, Mass Martha Mason. 


New-Church Review (quarterly), Boston, Mass., Editor, Rev. 
Lewis F. Hite; New Church Messenger (weekly), Boston 9, Mass., 

dd Year Book of the Churches 

Editor, Rev. E. M. L. Gould; The Helper (weekly), American New- 
Church Tract and Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa.; New-Church 
League Journal (monthly), Chicago, 111.; Sunday Afternoons 
(weekly), Boston 9, Mass. 


The Church of the New Jerusalem, known also as the "New 
Church," was first organized in London in 1787. It is based upon 
the theological writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, 1688-1772. 

The first New Church society in America was founded at Balti- 
more in 1792, and in 1817 the General Convention of the New Jeru- 
salem in the United States of America was organized. In 1890 a 
consid^able number withdrew and later organized the General Church 
ojP the New Jerusalem. 


The general doctrines of the New Church teach that there is one 
God, even the Lord God, the Saviour, Jesus Christ; that there is in 
Him a Trinity, not of persons, but of essence. Father, Son, and Holy 
Spirit; that the Father is the inmost Divine Essence, or Love, from 
which all things are; that the Son is the Divine Wisdom and Word, 
by which the Divine Love is manifested and acts; and the Holy 
Spirit is the Divine Proceeding and Operation; and that these three 
are related to each other in God, as are soul, body, and operation, in 
man. Thus they teach that the Lord Jesus Christ, as the one Divine 
Person, in whom is the Father, and from whom is the Holy Spirit, is, 
in His glorified humanity, the one God of heaven and of earth, and 
the supreme and sole object of worship for angels and men. 

With regard to revelation, they teach that the Word of God con- 
tained in the Bible is not written like any other book, and can not be 
subjected to the same methods of criticism; that it is plenarily in- 
spired by the Lord Himself, and like Nature, is a divine symbol; that 
besides the literal sense adapted to men, it contains a spiritual sense 
adapted to angels; that these senses are connected with each other 
by the great law of correspondence, in accordance with which the 
universe is created; and it contains the rule of life for angels and 

With regard to redemption, they teach that the one God, Jehovah, 
the Creator of the universe, came down upon earth in the assumption, 
by birth from a virgin, of a human nature in order that He might live 
a human life, and, by purging it, redeem it; that in doing so He met 
and overcame in Hiis temptations all the enemies of the human race, 
and reduced them to eternal subjection; and that He continues to hold 
them in subjection in the mind and heart of every man who will co- 
operate with Him by faith and obedience; and that the application of 
this redeeming work in those who believe in Him and keep His com- 
mandments is salvation. 

With regard to death and the spiritual world, they teach that 
when a man dies he is raised up in his spiritual body in the spiritual 
world, and there lives forever, in heaven or in hell, his state being 
determined by the spiritual character he had formed for himself by 
his life in this world; the judgment occurs immediately after death, 
in the world of spirits, which is intermediate between heaven and 
hell, and it consists in a man's coming to know himself in the light 
of the eternal realities of the Word of God. 

Besides these cardinal points, the doctrines of the New Church 
have much to say about the laws of divine order and of divine provi- 
dence; about faith and charity; about free will and imputation, re- 
pentance and regeneration; about marriage; about mental develop- 
ment in childhood and age; about the successive churches or divine 
dispensations that have existed on this earth, and the judgments ter- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 67 

'minatinj? each; all of which teachings, based on the Word of the 
Lord, the believers hold to be in complete harmony with each other, 
and with the deductions of sound reason and the analogies. of nature. 
Baptism is administered in the scriptural formula, "in the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," to children as 
well as to adults who come on confession of their faith. Infant bap- 
tism is followed by the rite of confirmation or ratification in maturer 
years, which is usually identified with the first communion, and this 
■profession, of faith in the essential doctrines of the church is ,re- 
firarded as the appropriate gate of admission to the sacrament of the 
Lord's table. 


The polity of the church is a modified episcopacy, but the socie- 
ties and associated bodies are left the utmost freedom in the adminis- 
tration of their local affairs. 

The General Convention is held annually, and every church mem- 
ber has a right to take part in the deliberations, be appointed on com- 
mittees, and be elected to office, but the right to vote is limited to min- 
isters whose official acts are reported to the convention, and to 
delegates of associations. In some cases women are sent as delegates. 

The convention is an ecclesiastical, a legislative, and a judicial 

A council of ministers, which consists of all the ministers belong- 
ing to the convention, has charge of matters pertaining to the 

The ministry includes ministers, pastors, and general pastors^ 

The worship of the church is generally liturgical, chants being 
extensively used, but great latitude is observed in different societies 
and localities. 


Consistory; meets weekly. 

Headquarters : Bryn Athyn, Pa. 

Officers: Sec, and Treds., Rev. W. H. Alden, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 


N. D. Pendleton, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 

W. F. Pendleton (Emeritus), Bryn, Athyn, Pa. 

Executive Committee. Pres,, Dr. F. A. Boericke; Viee^Pres,, 
Raymond Pitcaim; Sec, Paul Carpenter; Treas., Rev. W. H. Alden. 

Committee on Church Extension. Chmn., Dr. F. A. Boericke; 
Treas,, Rev. W. H. Alden. 


Name Location President 

Academy of the New Church Bryn Athjm, Pa...i N; D. Pendleton. 


New Church Life (monthly). Editor, Rev. W. B. Caldwell; 
Bulletin (monthly), Wm. Whitehead. 


The General Church of the New Jerusalem traces its origin as an 
independent ecclesiastical body to the development, at the very begin- 
ning of the New Church in England and America, of a movement 
"toward a strict adherence to the doctrines and principles revealed in 
the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, and toward distinctiveness of 
teaching, worship, and life, in the Church of the New Jerusalem." 

68 Year Book of the Churches 

This separate organization, beginning in 1876, through various 
changes, was reorganized in 1897 under the name "The General 
Church of the New Jerusalem." 


In doctrine the General Church of the New Jerusalem differs from 
other branches of the organized New Church simply in its attitude 
toward the theological writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, which it 
regards as being "Divinely inspired and thus the very Word of ttie 
Lord, revealed at His second coming." 


The polity of the General Church is based upon the principle 
of "practical unanimity," to be secured through deliberation and free 
cooperation in "council and assembly." 


(Called also The Community of True Inspiration) 

Communistic. The affairs of the community are managed 
by a board of 13 trustees who meet monthly. 

Officers : Pres., George Heineman, S. Amana, la. ; Vice-Pres., 

Jacob F. Moershel, Homestead, la.; Sec, William F. Moershel, 

Amana, la. 


About the time that the Dimkers in Germany were developing 
under the influence of Pietism there arose a community more thor- 
oughly representative of the mysticism of the period, the members 
of which were convinced that the days of direct inspiration by God 
had not passed, but that persons then living were endowed with the 
same divine power. Gradually they gathered streng^th, and in 1714 a 
small company of them under the leadership of Johann Rock and 
Eberhard Gruber met in Himbach, Hesse, and gave expression to 
their belief by a somewhat loose organization. They increased in 
numbers and in influence, but suffered severely at the hands of the 
government. On the death of Johann Rock, in 1749, "the gift of in- 
spiration ceased.'' 

His successors continued the work along the lines of the founders, 
but the congregations diminished in number until 1817, when a new 
impulse was given by Michael Kraussert and a peasant girl of Alsace, 
Barbara Heinemann, both of whom were recognized by a number of 
the older members as inspired and endowed wiQi the gift of prophecy. 
With them, later, was associated Christian Metz, find these leaders 
traveled considerably and gn*adually strengthened the scattered organi- 
zations. By 1826 it became apparent that the Inspirationists, of 
whom there were many in Wurtemberg and other provinces, would 
have to renounce their faith and return to the fold of the state 
church, or leave their homes and seek refuge where tiiey could follow 
their religious customs unmolested. A large estate at Marienbonit 
Hesse, was leased, to which other properties were added, and by 1835 
the community was quite prosperous. Difficulties with the govern- 
ment, however, arose again. The authorities would not accept ^rma- 
tion as the equivalent of the oath, which the members of ttie society 
refused to take. Already a revelation had come to Metz that they 
should be led out to a land of peace, and in 1842 it was decided that 
he and some other members should come to America. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 69 

They arrived in New York on the 26th of October of that year, 
and learning that the Seneca Indian reservation, near Buffalo, was 
available, secured the property. Little by little the entire commu- 
nity, numbering some 800 people, came over from Germany, and the 
society was organized in 1843 under the name of the Ebenezer So- 
ciety, and houses were arranged in four villages. Lower, Middle, 
Upper, and New Ebenezer. Each village had its store, meetinghouse 
or place of worship, and school, and its own local government con- 
sisting of a board of elders. As the numbers increased, the quar- 
ters became too narrow and another change was suggested, which re- 
sulted, in 1855, in removal to the present location in Iowa County, 
Iowa, where the villages of Amana, East, Middle, High, West, and 
South Amana, and Homestead were established. 

In 1859 the society was incorporated as a religious and benevo- 
lent society under the name of the ''Amana Society," although the 
term "Community of True Inspiration" is also used. The purpose of 
this association is declared to be an entirely religious one, for the 
service of God, the salvation of souls, and the demonstration in the 
community of faithfulness in inward and outward service. In order 
to accomplish this in full for all members, the entire property remains 
as a common estate, with all improvements and additions. Every 
member at the time of joining the society, is in duty bound to give his 
or her personal or real property to the trustees for the common fund. 
For such payments each member is entitled to a credit on the books 
of the society and to a receipt signed by the president and secretary, 
and is secured by a pledge of the common property of the society. All 
claims for wages, interest, and sharing income are released and each 
member is entitled to support through life. All children and minors, 
after the death of parents or relatives, are under the special guardi- 
anship of the trustees, and credits not disposed of by will, or debts 
left by parents, are assumed by their children. Persons leaving the 
society either by their own choice or by expulsion, receive the amount 
paid by them into the common fund, without interest or allowance for 
services during the time of their membership. 


The confession of faith is founded on the revealed Word of God 
manifest in the Scriptures and in the words of the instruments of 
true inspiration. Since the death of Christian Metz, in 1867, and of 
Barbara Heinemann, in 1883, no one is believed to have had the gift 
of inspiration. 
• Polity 

The general government of the society is in the hands of a board 
of 13 trustees, who were elected annually out of the board of elders. 

Religious meetings are held in the meeting houses twice on Sun- 
day and sometimes on week days. A short prayer meeting is held 
every evening. 


(Commonly called Shakers) 

A society of celibate Christian Communists. 
The Ministry : Composed of two Brothers and two Sisters. 
Official meetings are held as circumstances require. 
Headquarters : Mount Lebanon, N. Y. 

70 Year Book of the Churches 


Elder Walter Shepherd, Mt. Lebanon, N. Y. 
Elder Arthur Bruce, East Canterbury, N. H. 
Eldress Sarah Bur^^er, Mt. Lebanon, N. Y. 
Eldress M. Catherine Allen, Mt. Lebanon, N. Y. 


The movement of which this society was the outcome orig^btiated 
in England about the middle of the eighteenth century. In their meet- 
ings a spiritual power was experienced, so strong that their bodies 
were exercised in various ways, and they were called in derision, 
"Shaking Quakers." Ann Lee, who later became their leader, after 
being greatly concerned for many years over human depravity, came 
to the conviction that the root of evil in the world was the uncon- 
trolled, undirected use of the sexual relation, and that the way to 
purity of life lay in abstinence and control of passion. The plain 
preaching and fervent exercises of her company became so offensive 
that a severe persecution broke out, and several times she narrowly 
escaped death. While imprisoned, in Manchester in 1770, she received 
a further vision, and taught that the Christ Spirit which had anointed 
and inspired Jesus now rested upon and spoke through her; that it 
was necessary that Christ should come a second time, through a 
woman, to complete the perfect way of salvation; and that the Holy 
or Mother Spirit was manifested through a woman, as the Father 
Spirit had been manifested through Jesus. 

Persecution ceased, but the new doctrines, accepted by the little 
company, were not widely adopted, and, after two years of quiet Ann 
Lee, with eight followers, conceived the idea of emigrating to Amer- 
ica. The little party landed at New York on August 6, 1774. Only one 
of the number, John Hocknell, had means, and he paid the fare of the 
party and afterwards purchased a tract of land in the woods of 
Niskeyuna, or Watervliet, where, in 1776, they built their first rude 
log cabin and made preparation for the increase in numbers whidi 
Mother Ann, as she was known, firmly believed would follow. 

The neriod of greatest missionary activity was from 1805 t« 
1835, during which time societies were planted in Kentucky, Ohio, 
Indiana, and the Eastern States, and the membership came to number 
fully 5,000. 

From the beginning Ann Lee and her followers were practical 
believers in the intercouse of spirits within and without the body» 
anticipating thus by many years the advent of modem spiritualism. 
The period from 1837 to 1848 is known as the time of ''Spirit Man** 
festation," or ''Mother Ann's Second Coming," and during this time 
remarkable spirit phenomena are said to have been observed in all of 
the societies. 

Since 1860 there has been a steady decline in numbers. They 
believe that a new revival of true Shaker living is certain to come in 
due time. They are not greatly concerned whether the revival is to 
find expression in a resuscitation of the existing communities, or 
whether it shall build for itself new forms, better adapted to the 
needs of the new day. 


Shakerism is claimed to be "a kind of Christian Socialism, whose 
basis is the spiritual family, founded on the type of the natural 
family." The duality of Deity is recognized, man having been made 
in the image of God. Hence, father and mother are coequal, and the 
spiritual parents, at the head of the order and of each family, are 
equal in power apd authority, and this equality of the sexes extends 
through the entire membership and all departments of life. Of the 

Directory of Religious Bodies 71 

principles that are the foundation of Shakerism the ones most em- 
phasized are "virgin purity, peace or nonresistance, brotherhood, and 
community of goods.'*^ 


The organizations include the family or local society, consisting 
of one or more families, and a central ministry, or bishopric, presiding 
over all subordinate bishoprics and societies. 


National Council, biennial ; next session at Springfield, Mass., 
October, 1923. 

Officers: Mod,, Rev. William B. Barton, Oak Park, 111.; See, 
Rev. Charles B. Burton, 289 Fourth Ave., New York City; 
Treas., Prank F. Moore, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 14 
Beacon St., Boston, Mass. Pres., Rev. Edward C. Moore; Cor, Sees., 
Rev. James L. Barton, Rev. Cornelius H,' Fatton;Editorial Sec, W. E. 
Strong; Asso, Sees,, E. F. Bell, D. B. Eddy; Treas,, F, A. Gaskins. 

American Missionary Asisociation, 287 Fourth Ave., New York 
City. Pres,, Rev. Nehemiah Boynton; Cor, Sees,, Rev. George L. 
Cady, Rev. Fred L. Brownlee; Sec, of Bureau of Woman's Work, Mrs. 
F. W. Wilcox; Treas., Irving C. Gaylord. Organ: The American 

Congregational Home Missionary Society, 287 Fourth Ave., 
New York City. Pres., Rev. J. Percival Huget; Gen. Sec, Rev. 
Charles E. Burton; Sec of Missions, Rev. Frank L. Moore; Sec. of 
Promotion, Rev. W. S. Beard; Sec. of Woman's Dept., Miss Miriam 
L. Woodberry; Treas., Charles H. Baker. 

Congregational Education Society, 14 Beacon St., Boston, 
Mass. Pres., Rev. Charles R. Brown; Sec, Rev. F. M. Sheldon; Sec 
for Social Service, Rev. A. E. Holt; Treasi, H. M. Nelson. 

Congregational Church Building Society, 287 Fourth Ave., 
New York City. Pres., Rev. J. Percival Huget; Gen. Sec, Rev. 
Charles E. Burton; Sec. of Church Bldg., Rev. Jas. Robt. Smith; 
Treas., Charles H. Baker. 

Congregational Sunday School Extension Society, 287 Fourth 
Ave., New York City. Pres., Rev. J. Percival Huget; Gen. Sec, Rev, 
Charles E. Burton; Extension Sec, Rev. W. Knighton Bloom; Treas., 
Charles H. Baker. 

Congregational Board of Ministerial Relief, 287 Fourth Ave., 
New York City. Pres., Rev. Henry A. Stimson; Sec, Rev. Charles S. 
Mills; Treas., B. H. Fancher. 

Annuity Fund for Congregational Ministers, 287 Fourth Ave., 
New York City. Sec, Rev. Charles S. Mills; Treas., B. H. Fancher. 
Administers income of the $5,000,000 Tercentenary Memorial Fimd. 

Woman's Board of Missions, 14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 
Pres., Mrs. Franklin H. Warner; Foreign Sec, Miss Kate G. Lamson; 
Home Sec, Miss Helen B. Calder; Editorial Sec, Miss Alice M. Kyle; 
Treas., Mrs. Frank G. Cook. Organ: Life and Light for Women. 

Woman's Board of Missions of the Interior, 19 S. La Salle St., 
Chicago, 111. Pres., Mrs. George M. Clark j Sec, Mrs. Lucius 0. Lee; 
Treas., Mrs. S. E. Hurlbut. Organ: Mission Studies. 

Woman's Board of Missions for the Pacific, 417 Market St., 
San Francisco, Cal. Pres., Mrs. E. D. Evans, Mill Valley, Cal.; 
Home Sec, Mrs. C. A. Kofoid; Foreign Sec, Mrs. E. R. Wagner; 
Treas., Mrs. W. W. Ferrier. Organ: Our Work. 

Woman's Home Missionary Federation. Pres., Mrs. Williston 

72 Year Book of the Churches 

Walker; Gen. Sec, Mrs. John J. Pearsall, 289 Fourth Ave., New York 
City; Treaa., Mrs. P. S. Suffem. 

American Congregational Assocution, Library, Congr^a- 
tional House, Boston, Mass. Prea., Rev. E. M. Noyes; Cor. and Rec. 
Sec, Thomas Todd, Jr.; Treas., Augustus S. Lovett; Librarian, Rev. 
William H. Cobb. 

Congregational Board of Pastoral Supply, 14 Beacon St., Bos- 
ton, Mass. Ch/mn., Rev. Watson L. Phillips; Sec, Rev. Arthur J. 

Colleges and Universities 

Name Location President or Dean 

American International College Springfl^d, Mass C. S. McGown. 

Auiherst College Amherst, Mass Alexander Meiklejolu. 

Atlanta University Atlanta, Ga E. T. Ware. 

Beloit College Beloit, Wis M. A. Brannon. 

Bowdoin College Brunswick, Me Kenneth Sills. 

Carleton College Nonhfleld, Minn D. J. Cowling. 

Colorado College Colorado Springs, C0I0..C. A. Duniway. 

Dartmouth College Hanover, N. H Ernest M. Hopkins. 

Doane Ccrilege Crete, Neb J. M. Bennett 

Drury College Springfield, Mo T. W. Nadal. 

Fairmount College Wichita, Kans W. H. Rollins. 

Fargo College Fargo, N. D E. Lee Howard. 

Fisk University NashvUle, Tenn F. A. MacKenzic. 

Grinnell College Grinnell, Iowa J. H. T. Main. 

Illinois College Jacksonville, 111 C. H. Rammelkamp. 

Kingfisher College Kingfisher, Okla H. W. Tuttle. 

Marietta College Marietta, Ohio E. S. Parsons. 

Middlebury OAlege MiddJebury, Vt 

Mount Holyoke College South Hadley, Mass Mary E. Woolley. 

Northland College Ashland, Wis J. D. BrownelL 

Oberlin College Oberlin, Ohio H. C. King. 

Olivet College Olivet, Mich 

Pacific University Forest Grove, Ore Robert F. Clark. 

Piedmont College Demorest, Ga F. E. Jenkins. 

Pomona College Claremont, Calif J. A. Blaisdell. 

Redfleld College Redfield, S. D E. A. Fath. 

Ripon College Ripon, Wis H. C. Culbertson. 

Rollins College Winter Park, Fla Geo. M. Ward. 

Smith College Northampton, Mass. . . . ^ . .W. A. Neilson. 

Straight University New Orleans, La H. A. M. Briggs. 

Tabor College Tabor, Iowa Nelson W. Wehrhan. 

Talladega College Talledega, Ala F. A. Sumner. 

Tillotson College Austin, Tex h\ w. Fletcher. 

Tougaloo College Tougaloo, Miss W. T. Holmes. 

Washburn College Topeka, Kans Parley P. Womer. 

Wellesley College Wellesley, Mass Ellen F. Pendleton. 

Wheaton College Wheaton, 111 C. A. Blanchard. 

Whitman College Walla Walla, Wash S. B. L. Penrose. 

Williams College \ Williamstown, Mass H. A. Garfield. 

Yale College New Haven, Conn A. T. Hadley. 

Yankton College Yankton, S. D H. K. Warren 

Theological Semina/ries 

Andover Theological Seminary Cambridge, Mass F. L. Shipman 

Atlanta Theological Seminary Atlanta, Ga F. L. Shipman. 

Bangor The<riogical Seminary Bangor, Me W. J. Moultcm. 

Chicaaro Theological Seminary Chicago, 111 0. S. Davis. 

Hartford Theological Seminary Hartford, Conn W. D. Macl^nzie. 

Oberlin Theological Seminary Oberlin, Ohio Henry Churchill King. 

Pacific Theological Seminary Berkdey, Calif 

Talladega College Theological De- 
partment Talladega, Ala F. A. Sumner. 

Yale School of Religion New Haven, Conn Charles R. Brown. 


Congregationalist (weekly), Boston, Mass., Editor, Rev. Howard 
A. Bridgman; Missionary Herald, Editor, Rev. William E. Strong, 14 
Beacon St., Boston, Mass.; Pox:ific, San Francisco, Cal.; American 
Missiona/ry, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City; Life and Light, 14 
Beacon St., Boston, Mass.; Mission Studies, 19 So. La Salle St., Chi- 
cago, 111.; Our Work, 760 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 73 


The Reformation in England developed along three lines: Angli- 
canism, Puritanism, and Separatism. The Anglicans held to the old 
English Church, minus the papacy and the distinctively papal fea- 
tures. The Puritans held to the National Church, but calleid for a 
world reformation recognizing the right of the members to a voice 
in the selection of ministers, in the management of the local church 
and the adoption of creed. The Separatists held that the whole sys- 
tem of the Establishment was an anti-Christian imitation of the true 
church and could not be reformed and that the only thing to do was 
to withdraw. Naturally the Separatists suffered even greater perse- 
cution than the Puritans, especially after the passage of the Act of 
Uniformity in 1559. The movement, however, could not be sup- 
pressed and under John Robinson began the development of the Sep- 
aratists into Congregationalists in 1604. Robinson and a number of 
friends and followers went into exile, first to Amsterdam and then to 
Leyden. After a few years they decided to move to America. The 
first band of Pilgrim Separatists, 102 persons under the leadership 
of Brewster, Bradford, and Winslow, landed at Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1620 and founded there the first Congregational Church 
upon American soil, Robinson remaining in Leyden. They were fol- 
lowed after a few years by the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay. So 
long as they were in England the differences between the Puritans 
and Separatists were accentuated, but after their arrival in America 
the many points on which they agreed became more apparent, and the 
essential elements of both Separatism and Puritanism were combined 
into Congregationalism. By 1640 all but two of the churches in New 
England were Congregational, and Congregationalism became prac- 
tically the State church. The withdrawal of the Massachusetts char- 
ter in 1684, replaced Congregationalism by Episcopacy, but a new 
charter in 1691 restored the former condition to a considerable degree. 
With the organization later of other denominations Congregationalism 
gradually ceased to be the State religion. 


The principle of autonomy in the Congregational churches in- 
volves the right of each church to frame its own statement of doc- 
trinal belief, a right which has always been asserted by all. The 
equally important principle of fellowship of the churches assumes that 
a general consensus of such beliefs is both possible and essential to 
mutual cooperation in such work as may belong to the churches as a 
body. As a result, while there is no authoritative Congregational 
creed, acceptance of which is a condition of ecclesiastical fellowship, 
there have been several statements of this consensus, culminating in a 
creedal statement which, while it has no formal ecclesiastical endorse- 
ment, is widely accepted as a fair statement of the doctrinal position 
of the Congregational churches. The first of these statements, called 
the "Cambridge Platform," drawn up by a synod summoned by the 
Massachusetts legislature, 1648, simply registered general approval 
of tiie Westminster Confession. Certain phraseology in that confes- 
sion, however, proved unacceptable to many churches, and the Massa- 
chusetts revision, in 1680, of the Savoy Confession, and the Saybrook 
Platform of 1708, embodied the most necessary modifications, but still 
approved the general doctrinal features of the Westminster Confes- 
sion. The First National Council in 1865 adopted the "Burial Hill 
Declaration," expressing "our adherence to the faith and order of the 
apostolic and primitive churches held by our fathers, and substan- 
tially as embodied in the confessions and platforms which our synods 
of 1648 and 1680 set forth or reaffirmed." At the same time it held 
forth the right hand of fellowship to all believers "on the basis of 

74 Year Book of the Churches 

those ^reat fundamental truths in which all Christians should agree." 
In the changing conditions this was not entirely satisfactory, and in 
1880 the national council appointed a commission to prepare "a for- 
mula that shall not be mainly a reaffirmation of former confessions, 
but that shall state in precise terms in our living tongue the doc- 
trines that we hold today." 

The commission, composed of 25 representative men, finished its 
work in 1883. The statement, or creed, was not presented as a report 
to the council, but was issued to the world "to carry such weight of 
authority as the character of the commission and the intrinsic merit 
of its exposition of truth might command." While there has been no 
official adoption of this creed by any general body, either the national 
council or the state associations, as binding upon the churches, it has 
furnished the doctrinal basis for a great many of the churches, and in 
the main has represented their general belief. 

While it can scarcely be identified exclusively with any one of the 
great theological systems, this Creed is in sympathy with many fea* 
tures of all these systems and ministers of nearly every denomina- 
tion are welcomed in Congregational pulpits and pastorates. It 
affirms the great principles of the sovereignty of God, the sinfulness 
of man, redemption through Christ as mediator, the indwelling of the 
Spirit, the observance of the sacraments, the life of love and service, 
and the future of joy and sorrow. It leaves room, however, for diver- 
sity of statement of these great principles, and even for diversity 
of opinion, especially in the case of topics that are subjects of 
scholarly investigation. 


The polity of the Congregational churches represents adaptation 
to conditions rather than accord to a theory of church government. 
The local church is the unit, and every church member, regardless of 
age, sex, or position, has an equal voice in its conduct, and is equally 
subject to its control. For orderly worship and effective administra- 
tion certain persons are set apart or ordained to particular services, 
but such ordination or appointment carries with it no ecclesiastical 
authority. The church officers are the pastor, a board of deacons, 
usually a board of trustees, and heads of various departments of 
church work. In most cases there is a church committee which con- 
siders various topics relating to the conduct of the church, meets 
persons desiring to unite with it, and presents these matters in defi- 
nite form of action by the church as a whole. Early in Congrega- 
tional history there was a distinction between elders and deacons cor- 
responding very closely to that in the Presbyterian Church. That dis- 
tinction has disappeared, and the offices of elders, or spiritual guides, 
and of deacons, or persons having charge of the temporalities of the 
church, have been united in the diaconate. 

For fellowship and mutual assistance the churches gather in 
local associations or conferences, and in state conferences, in which 
each church is represented by pastor and lay delegates. Memberdiip 
in the national council includes ministerial and lay delegates elected 
by the state conferences, and also delegates from the local associa- 
tions. Membership in an association is generally regarded as essen- 
tial to good and regular standing in the denomination, although any 
church may claim its right of independence and still be a Congrega- 
tional church. No association or conference, or national council, how- 
ever, has any ecclesiastical authority. That is vested solely in the 
council called by the local church for a specific case, whose existence 
terminates with the accomplishment of its immediate purpose. The 
result is that there is no appeal from one court to another, although 
an aggrieved party may call a new council, which, however, has no 
more authority than its predecessor. The Lord's Supper is free to ail 

Directory of Religious Bodies 75 

followers of Chirst. Infant baptism is customary, and the form is 
optional, although sprinkling is the form commonly used. 


International Convention, meets annually in October. 
There are also annual conventions in most of the states. 
Officers: Pres.f Rev. Stephen E. Fisher, Champaign, 111.; 
Sec, Rev. Robert Graham Frank, Dallas, Tex. 

United Christian Missionary Society. Continuing the work of 
the American Christian Missionary Society, Board of Church Exten- 
sion, Board of Ministerial Relief, Christian Woman's Board of Mis- 
sions, Foreign Christian Missionary Society and the National Benevo- 
lent Association. Headquarters, 1501 Locust Street, St. Louis, Mis- 
souri. Officers: Pres,, Rev. F. W. Burnham; Vice-Pres,, Mrs. Anna 
R. Atwater; Vtce-Pres., Rev. Stephen J. Corey; Recorder^ Lela E. 
Taylor; Treas,, C. W. Plopper. Adnunistrative Division: Rev. Grant 
K. Lewis, Mrs. Effie L. Cunningham, W. F. Turner, Mrs. Anna At- 
water (Advisory), G. W. Muckley (Advisory), F. E. Smith (Ad- 
visory), Jesse M. Bader, Supt. of Evangelism. 

American Temperance Board, 821 Occidental Bldg., Indianapolis, 
Ind. Pres., Edward Jackson; Sec, Alva W. Taylor; Sec., Milo J. 

Board of Education, Indianapolis, Ind. Pres., R. H. Crossfield, 
Lexington, Ky.; Sec, H. 0. Pritchard, Indianapolis, Ind. 

National Board of Christian Endeavor. Pre^., Rev. J. E. 
Davis, Kansas City, Mo. ; See., Rev. John D. Zimmerman, 703 Jackson 
St., Topeka, Kans. 

Christian Board of Publication, St. Louis, Mo. Gen. Mgr., 
William P. Shelton. 

Association for Promotion of Christian Unity, Seminary 
House, Baltimore, Md. Pres., Rev. Peter Ainslie; See., Rev. H. C. 

Men and Millions Movement, 1501 Locust St., St Louis, Mo.; 
See., A. E. Cory; Asso. Sec, Henry G. Bowden; Trea^., J. W. Allen. 

Colleges, Universities and Schools 

President, Deem, or 
Name Location FrincipcU 

Atlanta Christian College Wilson, N. C H. S. Hilley. 

Bethany College Bethany, W. Va. Cloyd Goodnight. 

The Bible College at Missouri Columbia, Mo Granville D. Edwards. 

Drury School of the Bible Springfield, Mo W. J. Lhamon. 

Butler College Indianapolis. Ind. Robert J. Aley. 

California School of Christianity. . .Los Angeles, Calif F. M. Rogers. 

Car-Burdette College Sherman, Texas Cephus Shelbume. 

Christian College Columbia, Mo 

Culv^-Stockton College Canton, Mo John H. Wood. 

College of Missions Indianapolis, Ind Charles T. Paul. 

Cotner College Bethany, Neb A. D. Harmon. 

Disciples* Divinity House of the 

University of Chicago Chicago, 111 W. E. Garrison. 

Drake University Des Moines, Iowa Arthur Holmes. 

Eugene Bible University Eugene, Ore Eugene C. Sanderson. 

Eureka College Eureka, III L. O. Lehman. 

Hiram College Hiram, Ohio Miner Lee Bates. 

Indiana School of Rdigion Bloomington, Ind Joe. C. Todd. 

Johnson Bible College Kimberlin Hgts., Tenn Ashley S. Johnson. 

Lynchburg College Lynchburg, Va. J. J. T. Hundley. 

Midland College Midland, Texas J. T. McKissick. 

Milligan College Milligan College, Tenn H. J. Derthick. . 

Missouri Christian College Camden Point, Mo R. L. Thorp. 

PhUlips University Enid, Okla I. N. McCash. 

Southern Christian College West Point, Miss A. R. Moore. 

Spokane University Spokane, Wash A. M. Meldrum. 

Texas Christian University Fort Worth, Texas K. M. Waits. 

Transylvania College Lexington, Ky T. B. Macartney. 

The College of the Bible Lexington, Ky T. B. Macartney. 

WUliam Woods College Fulton, Mo 

76 Year Book of the Churches 


World Call, Indianapolis, Ind., Editors, W. R. Warren and Mrs. 
EfRe L. Cunningham; Christian News, Des Moines, la., Editor, 
Charles Blanchard; Christian Worker, Des Moines, la.. Editor, W. A. 
ShuUenberger ; Christian Union Qiuirterly, Baltimore, Md., Editor, 
Peter Ainslie; Gospel Plea, Edwards, Miss., Editor, J. B. Lehman; 
Christian Evangelist (weekly), St. Louis, Mo., Editor, B. A. Abbott; 
Front Rank, St. Louis, Mo., Editor, Richard Heilbron; Christian 
Standard, Cincinnati, O., Editor, G. P. Rutledge; Lookout, Cincinnati, 
O., Editor, E. J. Meacham; Christian Courier, Dallas, Tex., Editor, 
W. M. Williams. 


The Churches of Christ (Disciples) trace their origin to the re- 
vival movement in the early part of the nineteenth century, when a 
number of leaders arose who pleaded for Christian Union and the 
Bible alone, without human addition in the form of creeds and for- 
mulas. They emphasized particularly the independence of the local 
church, with reference to any ecclesiastical system. They sought to 
restore the union of the , churches through a "return, in doctrine, 
ordinance, and life, to the religion definitely outlined in the New 

In 1807 the Rev. Thomas Campbell, a member of the Secession 
branch of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, came to the United 
States, was received cordially, and found employment in western 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Campbell was censured by his presbytery on ac- 
count of informalities in his proceedings and finally it became evident 
that his views were widely different from those of his presbytery. He 
formally withdrew. In 1809 he was joined by his son Alexander 
Campbell and they formed an organization called "Christian Asso- 
ciation of Washington, Pennsylvania," issuing an address that became 
historic. Its main purpose as expressed was to set forth the essen- 
tial unity of the Church of Christ. The Campbells did not appear to 
have desired to develop their association into a distinct denomina- 
tion. Overtures were made for joining with the Presbyterian Synod 
of Pittsburg. This, however, could not be adjusted. The same diffi- 
culty was found in relation to Baptist Associations. An organization 
was made with a part of other forces under Barton W, Stone at Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, in 1832. When the question arose as to the name to 
be adopted^ Mr. Stone favored Christians, while Mr. Campbell and his 
friends preferred the name Disciples. The result was that no definite 
action was taken and both names were used, resulting still in some 
confusion. The international Convention has, however, adopted the 
name "Disciples of Christ." The growth of the new organization has 
been very rapid, especially in the Middle West. Throughout Ohio, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri it gathered numerous congrega- 
tions, though there was evident a strong objection to any such asso- 
ciation, even for fellowship, as would appear to involve ecclesiastical 
organization. This manifested itself in various ways, especially in 
opposition to the use of societies for carrying on missionary work. 
The use of instrumental music in the churches also occasioned dis- 

During the Civil War the movement suffered from the general 
disorganization of the sections in which it had gained in strength, and 
the death of Alexander Campbell in 1866 was a severe blow. From 
the effect of these discouragements, however, it soon recovered, and 
the period since the war has been one of rapid expansion. (It appears 
that dating from the same origin there has come to be two parties, 
one known as "Progressives," the other as "Conservatives." The 
"Progressives" are those set forth here, "Disciples of Christ," while 

Directory of Religious Bodies 77 

the "Conservatives" are included under the head of the "Churches of 
Christ." The line of demarcation between the two bodies, however, 
is not always clear. 


In addition to beliefs, in which they are in general accord with 
other Protestant churches, the Disciples hold certain positions which 
they regard as distinctive: 

1. Feeling that "to believe and to do none other things than those 
enjoined by our Lord and His Apostles must be infallibly safe," they 
aim "to restore inr faith and spirit and practice the Christianity of 
Christ and His Apostles as found in the pages of the New Testar 

2. Affirming that "the sacred Scriptures as given of God answer 
all purposes of a rule of faith and practice, and a law for the gov- 
ernment of the church, and that human creeds and confessions of 
faitii spring out of controversy and, instead of being bonds of union, 
tend to division and strife," they reject all such creeds and con- 

3. They place especial emphasis upon "the Divine Sonship of 
Jesus, as the fundamental fact of Holy Scripture, the essential creed 
of Christianity, and one article of faith in order to baptism and 
church membership." 

4. Believing that in the Scriptures "a clear distinction is made 
between the law and the gospel," they "do not regard the Old and 
New Testament as of equally binding authority upon Christians," but 
that "the New Testament is as perfect a constitution for the worship, 
government, and discipline of the New Testament church as the Old 
was for the Old Testament church." 

5. While claiming for themselves the New Testament names of 
"Christians," or "Disciples," "they do not deny that others are Chris- 
tians or that other churches are Churches of Christ." 

6. Accepting the divine personality of the Holy Spirit, through 
whose agency regeneration is begun, they hold that man "must hear, 
believe, repent, and obey the gospel to be saved." 

7. Repudiating any doctrine of "baptismal regeneration," and in- 
sisting that there is no other prerequisite to regeneration than con- 
fession of faith with the whole heart in the personal living Christ, 
they regard baptism by immersion "as one of the items of the original 
divine system," and a^ "commanded in order to the remission of 

8. Following the apostolic model, the Disciples celebrate thtt 
Lord's Supper on each Lord's Day "not as a sacrament, but as a 
memorial feast," from which no sincere follower of Christ of whatever 
creed or church connection is excluded. 

9. The Lord's Day with the Disciples is not the Sabbath, but a 
New Testament Institution, consecrated by apostolic example. 

10. The Church of Christ is a divine institution; sects are un- 
scriptural and unapostolic, and the sect name, spirit, and life should 
fdve place to the union and cooperation that distingruish the church of 
the New Testament. 


In polity the Disciples churches are congregational. The officers 
of the diurch are the pastor, elders, and deacons. The elders have 
special care of the spiritual interests of ttie congregation, and the 
deacons of its financial affairs and benevolences, allSiough this dis- 
tinction between elders and deacons is not always observed. Appli- 
cants for the ministry are ordained by authority of the local church. 
The minister is a member of the church where he is located, whether 
as pastor or as evangelist, and is amenable to its discipline. 

78 Year Book of the Churches 

There is an "International Convention of Disciples of Christ/' 
composed of individual members of the churches. The convention as 
sudi has no authority over the action of the churches, which are at 
liberty to accept or reject its recommendations. 

In accordance with the principles that have been emphasized in 
their history, the Disciples of Christ, individually, in their local 
church organization, in their organized societies, and in their denomi- 
national relations, have constantly sought to overcome denominational 
distinction, and to secure the unity of the church in its broadest sense. 



The Eastern Orthodox Churches, known historically as the 
"Eastern Church," and in modern times as the "Greek Orthodox 
Church," the "Eastern Catholic Church," the "Holy Orthodox Catholic 
Apostolic Eastern Church," and popularly as the "Greek Church," are 
the modem representatives of the Church of the Byzantine Empire. 
As a distinction between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires 
developed, there also grew up a distinction between the Eastern and 
Western Churches, appearing both in their ritual and in their doc- 
trinal position. Toward the ninth centuiy this became still more evi- 
dent, and culminated in 1054 in complete separation between the 
patriarch or bishop of Rome and the four Eastern patriarchs. The 
Eastern Church at that time included four ecclesiastical divisions, the 
Patriarchates of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, 
cocnrdinate in authority, though honorary precedence was accorded to 
the patriarch of Constantinople. 

With the development of different nationalities and metropolitan 
sees there has been the establishment of independent organizations 
bearing national names. 

These different organizations, although independent of each other 
ecclesiastically, agree in doctrine and, essentially, in form of worship, 
and together constitute what are called the "Eastern ^Orthodox 

Of these churches, seven are represented in the United States 
by regular church organizations. These are the Russian Orthodox, 
the Greek Orthodox (Hellenic), the Serbian Orthodox, the Syrian Or- 
thodox, the Albanian Orthodox, the Bulgarian Orthodox, and the Ru- 
manian Orthodox. Only one of these, the Russian Orthodox Church, 
has a general ecclesiastical organization. The Greek Orthodox (Hel- 
lenic) churches are looking forward to such an organization, but it 
is not as yet completed, and the situation in regard to the Bulgarian 
Orthodox churches is essentially the same. The Serbian, Syrian, Al- 
banian, and Rumanian Orthodox churches are imder the general su- 
pervision of the Russian Orthodox Church, although reported sep- 


The Eastern Orthodox Churches found their doctrine on the Holy 
Scriptures, the Holy Traditions, and the Niceo-Constantinopolitan 
Creed in its original wording, without the "Filioque" and hold that the 
Holy Scriptures should be interpreted strictly in accordance with the 
teachings of the seven Ecumenical Councils and the Holy Fathers. 
Recognizing Christ as the only head of the earthly as well as of the' 
heavenly church, they do not accept the dogma of the Pope as visible 
head of His earthly church. According to their teaching, infallibility 
belongs alone to the whole assembly of true believers, to the "Ec- 
clesia" or the Church, represented by their council legally called to- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 79 

They believe in the procession of the Btoly Ghost from the Father 
alone; honor Mary as the Mother of God, and honor the Nine Orders 
of Angels and the Saints; do not accept the doctrine of the Immacu- 
late Conception of the Virgin Mary, and reject the doctrine of the 
surplus merits of saints and the doctrine of indulgences. They respect 
relics of the saints, pictures of holy subjects, and the cross, but forbid 
the use of carved images. They accept seven sacraments — ^baptism, 
anointing (confirmatibn or chrismation) , communion, penance, holy 
orders, marriage, and holy unction. Baptism, of infants or adults, is 
by threefold immersion. The sacrament of anointing is administered 
at the same time as that of baptism, with "Chrism" or holy oil. 

The doctrine of transubstantiation is accepted. In the Eucharist, 
leavened bread is used, being soaked in wine and offered, after con- 
fession and absolution, to all members of the Eastern Orthodox 
Churches. Children under 7 years of age, however, receive the sac- 
rament without confession. Holy unction is administered to the sick, 
and not alone to those in danger of death. The church rejects the 
doctrine of purgatory, but believes in the beneficial effect of prayer 
for the dead by the living, and for the living by the dead. It rejects 
the doctrine of predestination, and considers that for justification both 
faith and works are necessary. 


There are three orders of the ministry — deacons, priests, and 
bishops. The deacons assist in the work of the parish and in the serv- 
ice of the sacraments. Priests and deacons are of two orders, secular 
and monastic. Marriage is allowed to candidates for the diaconate 
and the priesthood, but is forbidden after ordination. The espisco- 
nate is, as a rule, confined to members of the monastic order. A 
married priest, should his wife die or enter a convent, may enter a 
monastery and take monastic vows, and then be eligible to the episco- 
pate. The parishes are, as a rule, in the care of the secular priests. 

Monks are gathered in monasteries; in some of these they live 
in communities, while in others they lead a secluded, hermitical life, 
each in his own cell. There is but one order, and the vows for all are 
the same, obedience, chastity, prayer, fasting, and poverty. 

The organization for the general government of the different 
Eastern Orthodox Churches varies in different countries. In general, 
there is a council at the head of which, as president, is a bishop 
elected usually by the people. Historically, and at present in some 
cases, this presiding bishop is called patriarch, and has special col- 
legiates and officers for the purpose of governing his flock. The 
largest or most important of the bishoprics connected with the patri- 
archate or synod are called "metropolitan sees," though the title 
carries with it no special ecclesiastical authority. In early times, both 
the clergy and the laity of the local churches had a voice in the elec- 
tion of bishops, priests, and deacons, but of late that right has been 
much restricted, and at present the priests and deacons are usutdly 
appointed by the bishops, and the bishops are subject to the approval 
of the civil authorities. 

The service of the Eastern Orthodox Churches is solemn and 
elaborate. It is essentially that of the earlier centuries of Christi- 
anity, and is most fully and completely observed in the monasteries. 
The most important service is the liturgy, the chief part of which is 
the celebration of the Eucharist. There are three liturgies, those of 
St. John Chrysostom, St. Basil the Great, and St. Gregory, the last 
called the liturgy of the "presanctified gifts," for which the holy 
firifts or emblems are prepared at a preceding service, generally that 
of St. Basil. There are no so-called "silent liturgies," and two litur- 
cries are not allowed to be performed in the same church simulta- 
neously, nor can a liturgy be performed by the same priest, or on the 

80 Year Book of the Churches 

same table, twice a day. A "corporal," otherwise known as "anti- 
mins," a table cover with a particle of the holy remains of some saint 
sewn into it, and especially blessed by a bishop for every church, is 
necessary to the performance of the liturgy. Moreover, a priest may 
nerform it only when he is fasting. Besides the liturgy, the church 
has vespers, vigils, matins, hours, and special prayers for various 
occasions and needs. The several services named consist of reading 
from the Old and New Testaments, supplicatory prayers, thanks- 
giving, glorifyincr. hymns, etc. 


Address Rev. Peter I. Popoff, 15 B. 97th St., New York City. 


The churches of this communion represent in America what is 
held to be the oldest existing race in Europe, the descendants of the 
Macedonians, lUyrians, and Epirotes, who were the offspring of the 
Pelasgians. The varied invasions by Romans, Goths, Huns, Serbs, 
Bulgars, Normans, and Turks have made little change in social cus- 
toms, language, or traditions, and the present day Albanians repre- 
sent their early ancestors more exactly, probably, than does any 
nation in Europe. 

The early religion of the Albanians had many features older even 
than the earliest traces of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Christi- 
anity reached them in the first century, but made little progress until 
the fourth. 

Albanian emigration to America is of recent origin, but it is 
estimated that there are about 100,000 in the United States who have 
come from Albania, aside from those of Albanian orig^ who have 
come from the settlements in Greece and Italy. 


Address Rev. N. Pavloff, 226 N. Blackford St., Indianapolis, 



Prior to the Macedonian insurrection of 1903 there was very 
little Bulgarian immigration to the United States. Those who did 
come, however, sent back such attractive stories of the situation and 
the opportunities in this countrj^ that, when the conditions in Mace- 
donia became intolerable, large numbers from that section found 
homes in the United States. These in turn were followed by consid- 
erable immigration from Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia. No figuztes 
are available, as the immigration report gives all these as coming 
from European Turkey, but it has been claimed that as many as 
20,000 a year came over, until the total exceeded 100,000. For some 
time there was very little done for their spiritual or ecclesiastical 
care, but a few churches have been organized, with priests from Bul- 
garia belonging to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. 


(Hellenic Eastern Christian Orthodox Church) 

Bishop: Rt. Rev. Alexander, Bishop of Rodostolou, Bishop of 
the Hellenic Orthodox Diocese of America, 140 E. 72nd St., New 
York City. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 81 


Church Herald, 140 E. 26th St., New York City, Editor, Constan- 
tine Routlandos. 


Since the census of 1890 the number of Greeks immigrating to 
the United States has increased greatly. Some have come from 
Greece, some from the Greek islands of the Aegean, and others from 
Constantinople, Smyrna, and other parts of Asia Minor. They have 
been largely unmarried men, or, if married, they have left their fam- 
ilies behind them and have scattered over the country, those from the 
same section usually keeping together. As they have become to a 
certain extent permanent residents, and especially as they have been 
joined by their families, they have felt the need of religious services, 
particularly in case of marriage, or sickness and death. Accordingly, 
application has been made by tiie communities to the ecclesiastical au- 
thorities of their own sections, and priests have been sent to this 
country, sometimes by the Holy Synod of Greece and sometimes by 
the Patriarchate of Constantinople. These priests have formed 
churches in the larger centers and also congregations in places within 
easy reach, which they visit more or less regularly as convenient. 

As in the case of the early Russian churches, there has been no 
central organization, each priest holding his ecclesiastical relation 
with the synod or patriarchate which sent him to this country. The 
Patriarchate of Constantinople has resigned its ecclesiastical rela- 
tions to the Greeks in America in favor of the Holy Synod of Greece, 
so that now all Greek (Hellenic) priests are under the ecclesiastical 
supervision of that synod, which has decided to send to America a 
Greek (Hellenic) bishop. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Greek churches are in entire accord with other 
Eastern Orthodox Churches. Their polity and worship, however, while 
in principle the same, vary somewhat in form to meet the pecu- 
liar needs. With a more complete organization these divergencies 
will either disappear or be definitely established. 


Archimandrite, Rev. Prof. Lazar Gherman, 206 E. 18th St., 
New York City. 


The great majority of the people of Roumania belong to the Rou- 
manian Orthodox Church, in communion with the Greek, Russian, 
Serbian, and other Eastern Orthodox Churches. Until the compara- 
tively recent political disturbances there was very little immigration 
to this country from that section of the Balkan Peninsula, but of late 
a number of communities have been gathered into churches under the 
general supervision of the Russian Orthodox Church, through its 
headquarters in New York City. 


North American Ecclesiastical Consistory. Sec, Rev. Peter 
A. Kukulevsky, 15 E. 97th St., New York City. 

Six districts, including 1 in Canada and 1 in Alaska. 
Bishop: Most Rev. Archbishop Alexander, 15 E. 97th St., 

82 Year Book of the Churches 

New York City ; Rt. Rev. Bishop Stephen, 231 B. 17th St., New 
York City. > 

Theological Seminary : Tenafly, N. J. 


Russia first came into definite relations with Christianity on the 
visit of; Princess Olga to Constantinople, where she was baptized 
about A. D. 957. Subsequently her grandson, Vladimir the Great, sent 
emissaries to the different churches, Eastern and Western, to learn 
of their doctrines and rituals, with a view of adopting those which 
they liked best. The emissaries returned and reported in favor of the 
Greek Church, whose ceremonial in the Cathedral of St. Sophia at 
Constantinople seemed to them to excel all others. Thereupon Vladi- 
mir was baptized, and the Greek Church became the Church of State. 
From the time of the Holy Council in Moscow, 1917-18, the Rus- 
sian Church is governed again by the Patriarch (Tikhon) as the head, 
assisted by the Sacred Synod and Supreme Church Council. The 
jurisdiction of the Russian church is expanding in proportion to the 
expansion of the Russian state. As fast as new territories are added 
to the state the church sends missionaries, builds schools and temples, 
spreads religious books, etc. The orthodox Christians in the eastern 
part of Europe, in Siberia, in Caucasus, and in middle Asia all belong 
to the Russian church. 

The Russian Church has undertaken foreign missionary enter- 
prise. It has developed quite a mission in Japan, but its gxe&t work 
has been the care of the churches in America. This was first through 
missionary work in Alaska, and the final transfer, in 1872, of the 
headquarters of such work from Sitka to San Francisco. 

With the more recent development of immigration, large num- 
bers have come from Austria-Hungary, especially from Galicia and 
Poland, who belong to what are known as the Uniat churches. When 
those sections, once a part of Russian territory, came under the con- 
trol of Poland, and later of Austria-Hungary, and thus under the 
(general influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an arrangement was 
effected, called the Unia, by which those recognizing the supremacy 
of the Pope, were permitted to retain most of their liturgy and have 
their own special bishops. These provisions, however, did not hold 
outside of Austria-Hungary, and on coming to America the mem- 
bers of these churches found themselves compelled to use the liturgy 
of the Roman Catholic Church and be under the jurisdiction of local 
bishops, who, in general, either knew nothing about the Unia or did 
not take it into account. 

In seeking relief from this position, one of the Uniat parishes in 
Minneapolis became aware of the existence in the United States of 
a see of the Russian Orthodox Church, and in 1891, under the lead- 
ership of the Rev. Alexis G. Toth, petitioned the Russian Bishop 
Vladimir to take them all under his jurisdiction within the pale of 
the Russian Church. Bishop Vladimir willingly complied with the 
request and, during the time of Bishop Nicholas, who succeeded him, 
the example of the parish in Minneapolis was followed by a mmiber 
of Uniat parishes. 

About the same time the immigration from Russia proper in- 
creased, and soon purely Russian parishes were formed in New York 
and Chicago, althoi;gh in the former city there was an Orthodox Rus- 
sian church in existence as far back as 1876. In 1905 the episcopal 
see was transferred from San Francisco to New York City. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The general doctrine and polity of the Russian Orthodox Church 
have already been fully stated. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 83 


Archimandrite, Rt. Rev. Sebastian Daboviteh, 348 W. 20th 

St., New York City. 


The churches of this body represent the immigration into the 
United States, not merely from Serbia proper, but from Macedonia 
and the Slavic communities of the Balkan Peninsula antecedent to 
the coming of the Bulgarians; and from the southern part of Aus- 
tria-Hungary. They use the Slavic liturgy in their services, and are 
*under the general supervision of the archbishop of the Russian Ortho- 
dox Church in the United States. In doctrine and polity they are in 
harmony with the Russian Orthodox Church, and their history is in- 
cluded in that of the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Russian 
Orthodox Church. ^ , 


Bishop: Aftimios Ofeish; Archpriest: Basil M. Kerbawy, 
Dean; Assistant: Rev. Theodore Yanni; 124 Pacific St., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 


The churches of this body represent the immigration into the 
United States of communities from Syria connected with the Orthodox 
^ Patriarchates of Antioch or Jerusalem. They all have priests of 
their own, but as a body they are under the general supervision of a 
coadjutor bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church. In doctrine and 
polity they are in harmony with the Russian Orthodox Church, and 
their history is included in that of the Eastern Orthodox Churches 
and the Russian Orthodox Church. . 


General Conference, quadrennial ; next session first Thursday 
in October, 1923. 

Twenty-seven annual conferences, 23 in America. 

Sec. Oen. Conf,, Rev. T. C. Meckel, 1903 Woodland Ave., 

Cleveland, Ohio. 


Thomas Bowman (retired), 734 Turner St., Allentown, Pa. 

S. C. Breyfogel, 836 Center Ave., Reading, Pa. 

G. Heinmiller, 2184 E. 82nd St., Cleyeland, Ohio. 

L. H. Seager, 104 Sleight St., Naperville, 111. 

Samuel P. Spreng, 106 Columbia Ave., Naperville, 111. 

BoABD OF Publication and Church Extension, 1903 Woodland 
Ave. S. E., Cleveland, Ohio. Pres,, Bishop S. C. Breyfogel; Sec, 
Rev. E. M. Spreng. 

Missionary Society, 1903 Woodland Ave. S. E., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Pres., Rev. T. C. Meckel; Treas., George E. Epp; Field See., B. R. 

Woman's Missionary Society, 9502 Wamelink Ave., Cleveland, 
Ohio. Pres., Mrs. E. M. Spreng; Cor. Sec., Mrs. W. L. Naumann; 
Treas., Miss Ella Horn; 5ec. Young Woman's Work, Mrs. L. H. 
Seager; Sec. Message Bearers, Mrs. H. J. Niebaum; Sec. Little Her- 
ald*, Mrs. M. F. Gabel 

84 Year Book of the Churches 

Board of Administration of the Superannuation Fund. Fre^., 
Ezra F. Kimmel; Gen, Sec, Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, Reading, Pa.; 
Rec, Sec, Bishop G. Heinmmiller; Treas,, Rev. J. R. Niargarth. 

Young People's Alliance. Pres,, Rev. W. C. Hallwachs, 1903 
Woodland Ave. S. E., Cleveland, Ohio.; Gen Sec, Rev. E. W. Prae- 
torius; Treas, I. D. Zachman; Missionary Sec, Rev. George E. Epp; 
Junior Supt., Mrs. Edith Winter. 

Board of Sunday Schools, 1903 Woodland Ave. S. E., Cleveland, 
Ohio. Pres,, Rev. Chr. Staebler, Cleveland, Ohio; Vice-Pres., Bishop 
G. Heinmiller; Sec, A. L. Breithaupt; Treas,, C. Hauser. 

Sunday School and Tract Union, 1903 Woodland Ave. S. £.,♦ 
Cleveland, Ohio. Officers same as those of Board of Sunday Schools. 

Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio. Pres., Bishop S. C. Brey- 

Commission on National Service. Chmn,, Bishop S. C. Brey- 
fogel; Reading, Pa.; Sec, Rev. F. C. Berger, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Colleges and Theological Semina/ries 

Name Location Director 

Evangelical College by Correspondence Reading, Pa S. C. Breyfogel. 

Evangelical Theological Seminary Naperville, 111 G. B. Kimmel. 

Northwestern College Naperville, 111 E. E. Rail. 

Preachers* Seminary Reutlingen, Germany Dr. E. Prick. 

Schuylkill Seminary Reading, Pa W. F. Teel. 

Evangelical School of Theology Reading, Pa S. C. Breyfogel. 


Evangelical Messenger (weekly), Cleveland, Ohio, Editor, E. G. 
Frye; Evangelical Herald (weekly), and Stmday School Messenger, ^ 
Cleveland, Ohio, Editor, W. C. Hallwachs; Missionary Messenger 
(monthly), Naperville, 111., Editor, Mrs. S. J. Gamertsf elder; Evan- 
qelical Sunday School Teacher (monthly). Editor, W. C. Hallwachs. 

Christliche Botschafter (weekly). Editor, T. C. Meckel; Evanr 
qelische Missionbote (monthly), Editor, T. C. Meckel; Evangelische 
Magazin (monthly), and Christliche Kinder freund, Editor, Chr. 

C. Hauser, Publishing Agent, 1903 Woodland Ave. S. E., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 


The Evangelical Association traces its origin to the great religious 
awakening which took place in the United States at the close of 
the eighteenth century. 

Jacob Albright, bom in 1759, died in 1808, confirmed in the 
Lutheran communion, converted later under the influence of a Re- 
formed minister, but coming finally into connection with the Meth- 
odists, directed his attention and preaching more and more toward 
the German speaking people. The leaders of the Methodist Church 
were not then in favor of distinctively German work, believing that 
the German language in the United States would soon become ex- 
tinct. Albright devoted himself particularly to work among the Ger- 
mans in their own language with gratifying results. It was not his 
purpose to found a new church, but the langauge conditions and the 
opposition manifested made a separate organization necessary. There 
was no schism, but simply the development of a movement for the 
reliiarious and spiritual awakening of the German community in Penn- 
svlvania. In 1803 an ecclesiastical organization was effected and 
Mr. Albright set apart as a minister of the gospel and ordained as 
an elder. The organization was modeled largely after the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. The first annual conference was held in Lebanon 
County, Pennsylvania, in November, 1807. Albright was elected 
Bishop. The first general conference convened in Buffalo Valley, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 85 

Center County, Pennsylvania, in October, 1816, at which time the 
denomination took its present name. 

Although in the beginning the activities of the Church were car- 
ried on in the German language only, the scope was soon widened 
by taking up work in the English language also; and of late years 
English has become the dominant language, practically displacing 
the German. The denomination spread into the Central states, and 
throughout the Northern and Western states from New England to 
the Pacific Coast, and north into Canada. 

A division in 1891 resulted in the organization of the United 
Evangelical Church. Effort is being made to bring about a reunion 
between the Evangelical Association and the United Evangelical 


In doctrine the Evangelical Association is Arminian, and its 
articles of faith correspond very closely to those of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. They emphasize the divinity, as well as perfect 
humanity of the Son of God, and the true divinity of the Holy Ghost; 
and hold that the canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments reveal the will of God, so far as is necessary for salvation. 
Christian perfection is defined as "a state of grace in which we are 
so firmly rooted in God that we have instant victory over every 
temptation the moment it presents itself, without yielding in any 
degree; in which our rest, peace, and joy in God are not inter- 
rupted by the vicissitudes of life; in which, in short, sin has lost its 
power over us, and we rule over the flesh, the^world, and Satan, yet 
in watchfulness." Entire sanctification is the basis of this perfec- 
tion, which, however, constantly admits of a fuller participation in 
divine power and a constant expansion in spiritual capacity. 


The polity of the Evangelical Association is connectional in form. 
Bishops are elected by the General Conference for a term of four 
years, but are not ordained or consecrated as such. They are eligible 
for reelection, and are general overseers of the work of the church. 
They preside at annual conferences and, as a board, decide all ques- 
tions of law in the interval between General Conference sessions. 
The General Conference, which meets quadrennially, has been, since 
1839. a delegated body. Previous to that time all elders of the 
church were members. The annual and quarterly conferences cor- 
respond to the similar bodies in the Methodist Episcopal Church; the 
annual conferences consisting of the ministers within certain terri- 
torial bounds and a limited number of laymen and the quarterly con- 
ferences consistine of the officers of the local congregations. Pre- 
siding elders are elected for four years by the annual conference. 
Pastors are appointed annually, on the itinerant system, the time 
limit being seven consecutive years in any field, except a mission- 
ary conference. The property of local congregations is controlled 
and managed by trustees for the use of the ministry and mem- 
bership, and subject to the doctrine and polity of the denomination. 



Annual meeting, in the spring. 
Two districts. 

Ofl&cial Board: Pres,, Rev. H. Haupt; Sec, Rev. C. G. Wag- 
ner; Treas,, Rev. A. Nemenz; Adviser, Henry Brockhoflf. 

86 Year Book of the Churches 

Sabbath School Publication Board. Rev. Hans Haupt, Rev. 
Carl F. 0. Schmidt. 


Sunday School Leaflets, Cincinnati, Ohio; Kirchenzeitung, Pitts- 
burfifh, Pa.; Year Book and Calendar, Newport, Ky. 


This denomination was formed in Cincinnati in the year 1911 
bv consolidating the German Evangelical Protestant Ministers' As- 
sociation and the German Evangelical Ministers' " Conference, which 
were composed of ministers of independent German-American con- 
gregations of liberal faith. A year later the majority of the congre- 
firations joined their ministers and identified themselves with this 
organization, which seeks to promote sympathetic and united action 
on the part of its members without interfering with their independ- 
ence or local activities. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The church accepts as the foundation of faith and life the Gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ, protesting against any compulsion in matters of 
faith and conscience. It grants to every one the privilege of indi- 
vidual examination and research. The principle aim of the church is 
to spread practical Christianity and to promote religious sentiment 
and moral endeavor according to the example and teaching of Jesus. 


Synod, quadrennial; next session, 1925. 

Seventeen district conferences and 2 mission districts. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. John Baltzer, 3129 N. Grand Ave., St. 
Louis, Mo. ; Vice-Pres,, Rev. A. H. Becker ; Gen. Sec, Rev. Gus- 
tave Fischer, 671 Madison St., Milwaukee, Wis.; Gen, Treas,, 
Rev. Henry Bode, 1740 N. Euclid Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Board of Foreign Missions. Chmn,, R. F. C. Locher, Washing- 
ton, D. C; Sec, Rev. S. Lindenmeyer, Portsmouth, Ohio; Treas,, Rev. 
T. Lehmann; Ex, Sec, Rev. Paul A. Menzel, Washington, D. C. 

Central Board for Home Missions Chmn,, Rev. F. G. Ludwig, 
851 Fourth St., Milwaukee, Wis.; Exec. Sec, and Treas., Rev. W. L. 
Bretz, Columbus, Ohio. 

Sunday School Board. Chmn,, Rev. Paul Pfeiffer, 228 W. Co-. 
lumbia St., Springfield, Ohio, Exec, Sec, Rev. Theodore Mayer, 1718 
Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo.; Treas,, Rev. L. Suedmyer, 903 Jef- 
ferson Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Evangelical League. Pres., Rev. Paul G. Moritz, 117 W. Net- 
tleton Ave., Independence, Mo.; Sec, Miss Anna Rahe, 548 E. Drive, 
Woodruff PL, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Treas., Chas. Ittle, 1212 Termon PL, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; Cor Sec, Rev. Paul M. Schroeder, 930 Marengo St., 
New Orleans, La. 

Evangelical Brotherhood. Pres., E. A. R. Torsch, 714 Starks 
Bldg., Louisville, Ky.; Sec, Mr. W. A. EUersick, 2228 Warren St., 
St. Louis, Mo.; Treas., John Drexel, Louisville, Ky. 

Immigrant Mission. Chmn., Rev. W. Batz, Baltimore, Md.; Sec, 
Rev. F. H. Klemme, 421 W. Henrietta St., Baltimore, Md.; Treas., 
E. Kreiling, Baltimore, Md. 

Church Extension. Pres., Rev. F. J. Buschmann, R. R. 4, Ed- 
wardsville, 111.; Sec, Rev. Theodore Brann, 1511 College Ave., St. 
Louis, Mo.; Treas., H. Running, 3921 N. 19th St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 87 

Board op Charitable Institutions. Chmn., Rev. John Goebel, 
13^3 State St., Chicago, 111.; Rev. H. Leemhuis, Quincy, 111.; Rev. R. 
Hintze, Boonville, Mo. 

Commission for Christian Social Service. Chmn,, Rev. W. F. 
Werkeim, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Sec, Rev. Theo. Schmale, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; 
Treas,, Rev. Aug. Rasche, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Board of Pubucations, Eden Publishing House, 1716 Chouteau 
Ave.. St. Louis. Mo. Chmn,, Rev. Theo. Oberhellmann. Sec, and 
ireas.. Otto Baltzer; Mgr. St, Louis, Joseph P. Hennings, St. Louis, 
Mo.: Mgr. Chicago Branch, J. Linder. 

Literary Commission. English Chnnn,, Rev. S. D. Press, Eden 
Seminary, St. Louis, Mo. ; Gemvan Chmn., Rev. F. Mayer, Eden Semi- 
narv. St. Louis, Mo. 

Board for Ministerial Pension and Relief. Chmn., Rev. J. 
Abele, Cook, Nebr.; Sec, Rev. A. Drusicke, Freeburg, 111.; Treas., 
Rev. I. Th. Seybold, Blue Springs, Mo. 

Seminary Board. Chmn., Rev. D. Bruning, Baltimore, Md. ; Sec, 
ReV. G. A. Neumann, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Treas., Rev. Jul. Kircher, 
Chicago, 111. 

College and Seifninary 

Name Location President 

Eden Seminary St. Louis, Mo S. D. Press. 

Elmhurst College Elmhurst, 111 H. G. Schick. 


Der Friedensbote (weekly), St. Louis, Mo., Editor, Rev. Wm. 
Th. Jungk; Evangelical Herald (weekly), St. Louis, Mo., Editor, Rev. 
J. H. Horstmann; Evangelical Tidings (weekly), St. Louis, Mo., Edi- 
tor, Rev. A. Ruecker; Evangelical Companion, St. Louis, Mo., Editor, 
Rev. A. Ruecker; Magazin fuer Theologie tmd Kirche, Cleveland, 
Ohio, Editor, Rev. H. Kamphausen; Jugendfreund and Christliche 
Kinderzeitung, St. Louis, Mo., Editor, Rev. K. Kissling. 


The Evangelical Synod of North America traces its origin to six 
ministers of the State Church of Prussia, representing the union of 
the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, who met and organized a 
svnod at Gravois Settlement, Missouri, in 1840. Four of these were 
missionaries — two sent by the Rhenish Missionary Society and two by 
the Missionary Society of Basel; while two were independent — one 
coming from Bremen and one from Strassburg. During subsequent 
years several similar organizations were effected, including the United 
Jiivangelical Synod of North America, the German Evangelical So- 
ciety of Ohio, the United Evangelical Society of the East, and others; 
and in 1877 these organizations, holding, as they did, the same doc- 
trine and governed by the same ecclesiastical principles, united in the 
present organization, known first as the "German Evangelical Synod 
of North America," now as the Evangelical Synod of North America. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The Synod accepts the Bible as the only rule of faith and prac- 
tice, and as correct intemretations of its uses the Augsburg Con- 
fession, Luther's Catechism, and the Heidelberg Catechism. Wherever 
these symbols do not agree, liberty is allowed in the interpretation 
of the Scripture passages in question. 

The church is divided into districts, 19 in number, which corre- 
spond closely to the self-governing states in the Federal government, 
and there is a general conference meeting once every four years, 
which represents the whole church. This conference is composed of 
the presidents of the districts, clerical delegates in the proportion of 

88 Year Book of the Churches 

one for every twelve ministers, and lay delegates in the proportion of 
one for every twelve churches. 



Under this head are included various associations of churches 
which are more or less completely organized and have one gen- 
eral characteristic, namely, the conduct of evangelistic or mis- 
sionary work. In a few cases they are practically denomina- 
tions, but for the most part, while distinct from other religious 
bodies, they are dominated by the evangelistic conception rather 
than by doctrinal or ecclesiastical distinctions. None of them is 
large, and some are very small and local in their character. 

The following bodies are included in the Evangelistic As- 
sociations : 

Apostolic Church, Apostolic Christian Church, Apostolic 
Faith Movement, Christian Congregation, Church of Daniel's 
Band, Church of God as Organized by Christ, Church Tran- 
scendent, Hephzibah Faith Missionary Association, Lumber 
River Mission, Metropolitan Church Association, Missionary 
Church Association, Peniel Missions, Pentecost Bands of the 
World, Pillar of Fire, Voluntary Missionary Society in America. 


No address obtainable. 


Council of Elders, meets irregularly^ 
■Sec, Barthol Rapp, Morton, 111. 


Address, Rev. W. 0. Barden, 2415 Riverside Ave., Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 


Conference, annual. 

Officers : Bishop, J. L. Puckett ; Dist, Supt., Rev. Howard 
Dorsey, Kokomo, Ind. ; Pres,, Rev. Susie Magner; Vice-Pres,, 
Rev. Mary Whortner; Sec, Mrs. Edward McEndaw, Anderson, 
Ind. ; Treas., Mrs. Ella Swusher, Kokomo, Ind. 


Annual Conference ; next meeting Marine City, Mich., 1922. 
Officers: Pres., Rev. Geo. Hoggard, Midland, Mich.; Vice- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 89 

Pres,, Rev. E. Booth, Marine City, Mich. ; Sec. and Treas., Rev. 
F. J. Reivere, Bay City, Mich. 

General Conference Executive Committee. Pres,, F. J. Re- 
viere, Bay City, Mich. ; Sec, and Treas., A. F. Beebe, Bay City, Mich. ; 
Elim Booth, Georp^e Havers, Horace Heath, D. W. Maxson. 



The Gospel Teacher (monthly), Wakarusa, Ind., Editor, P. J. 


Address Sec. Harry R. Marlow, 31^^ Street, Warren, Ohio. 


Camp Meeting and Convention ; meet annually in August. 

Headquarters: Tabor, la. 

Trustees and Directors : Pres., Elder L. W. Worcester ; Vice- 
Pres., Elder J. M. Zook ; Sec, Mrs. A. M. Dye ; Treas., Elder D. 
S. Devore ; Mrs. L. B. Worcester, Elder O. W. Adams. 

General Missionary Board. Pres., Elder J. M. Zook; Sec, 
Elder D. S. Devore. 


y^ame Location President 

MiBsionary Bible School Tabor, Iowa Elder L. B. Worcester. 


Good Tidings (semi-monthly). Editors, L. B. Worcester and D. 
S. Devore; John Three-Sixteen (weekly). Editor, L. B, Worcester. 


No report obtainable. 


Headquarters: Waukesha, Wis. 

Officers and Trustees; Pres., Edwin L. Harvey; Sec. and 
Treas., G. F. Harvey ; J. H. Barnes, Aaron Carlson, H. L. Har- 

Theological Seminary 

Nttme Location Dean 

Metropolitan Bible School Waukesha, Wis Henry L. Harvey. 


The Burning Bush (weekly) , Editors, Edwin L. Harvey, Wm. T. 
Pettengill, J. Towward Barnes. 


Address Rev. B. F. Leightner, 543 Organ Ave., Fort Wayne, 

90 Year Book of the Churches 


Headquarters: 227 S. Main St., Los Angeles, Calif. 
Trustees: Rev. T. P. Ferguson, Mrs. M. P. Ferguson. 

Pe^iel Herald (monthly), Editors, T. P. and M. P. Ferguson. 


Annual conference. 

Headquarters: Room 14, Pembroke Arcade, Indianapolis, 

Officers: Pres,, G. E. Bula; Vice-Pres. and Sec. and Treas., 
A. S. Crowley ; Div. Leader, 0. H. Nater. 

Board of Foreign Missions. Officers as above. No schools. 


The Herald of Light (weekly), Indianapolis, Ind., Editor, G. E. 

PILLAR OF FIRE (The Pentecostal Union) 

Annual Conference, Eastern Division, August, 1922, at 
Zarephath, N. J. 

Annual Conference, Western Division, July, 1922, at 1845, 
Champa St., Denver, Colo. 

Headquarters: Zarephath, N. J. 

Officers: Pres,, Rev. Alma White; Vice-Pres., Rev. A. K. 
White; Treas,, Rev. A. L. Wolfram. 


Alma White, Zarephath, N. J. 

Charles W. Bridwell, 1845 Champa St., Denver, Colo. 


Name Location President or Dean 

Alma College Zarephath, N. J Alma White. 

Zarephath Bible Institute Zarephath, N. J Ray B. White. 

Zarephath Academy Zarephath, N. J A. K. White. 

Westminster College Denver, Colo. Ray B. Whiter. 

Pillar of Fire; The Good Citizen; Rocky Mountain Pillar of Fire; 
London Pillar of Fvre; The British Sentinel; The Occidental Pillar of 
Fire; all edited by Rev. Alma White; Pilla/r of Fire, Jr., Editors, Rev. 
Ray B. White and Rev. L. S. Noblitt, 


No report obtainable. 



General Assembly, annual meeting, McAlmont, Ark., 1922. 
Officers: Rev. W. M. Benson, Presiding Bishop, No. Little 
Rock, Ark. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 91 


E. D. Brown, No. Little Rock, Ark. 

W. M. Benson, No. Little Rock, Ark. 

M. E. Early, Peace, Ark. 

General Board. Sec, Rev. G. W. Anderson, Conway, Ark, R. 2; 
L. L. Grippen, Rixey, Ark; W. M. Parritt, New Madrida, Mo. 

General Zion Board. Chadrman, Mrs. M. R. Kingsby, Magnolia, 
Ark.; Sec, Mrs. Dollia Henderson, Springdail, Tex.; Treas,, Mrs. 
M. A. Jackson, Douglassville, Tex. 

General Sunday School Board. Gen. Supt., C. B. Richardson, 
Queen City, Tex; Sam Petterson, Linden, Tex. 

General Trustex:s Board. Chmn., Bishop E. D. Brown; Sec, 
Bishop W. M. Benaon, No. Little Rock, Ark.; L. Kingsby, No. Little 
Rock, Ark. . 

General Missionary Board. Chmn., Mrs. A. L. Benson, No. Lit- 
tle Rock, Ark.; Tim Dixon, Douglassville, Texias; M. H. L. Black- 
well, No. Little Rock Ark. 

Union Comfort, Editor, Bishop E. D. Brown. 


The Free Christian Zion Church of Christ was organized on July 
10, 1905, at Redemption, Arkansas, by a small company of negro 
ministers. The immediate occasion was a protest against any at- 
tempt to tax members of the church for the support of an ecclesi- 
astical system, and a feeling that the church itself should care for 
its poor and needy. The founder, E. D. Brown, was a conference 
missionary of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. Others 
associated with him represented the Methodist Episcopal Church, the 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and Negro Baptist churches. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine and polity the church is in general accord with the 
Methodist bodies, except that it has chiefs or superintendents in place 
of bishops, and pastors and deacons are the officers in the local 
church. A chief pastor is chosen to preside over the whole denomi- 
nation, and all appointments to offices in the church, as well as to 
pastorates, are made by him. The laity has from the beginning had 
a share in the conduct of the local church, and also in the general 



The diffei:ent bodies of Friends in the United States may be 
classified as follows: The Society of Friends (Orthodox) consist- 
ing of the thirteen Yearly Meetings joined together in the Five 
Years Meeting and two other Yearly Meetings loosely affiliated 
with them, this group foiming the larger body of Friends; the 
religious Society of Friends (Hicksite or Liberal) ; the Society 
of Friends (Orthodox Conservative or Wilburite) ; and Friends 
(Primitive). The general history of these different bodies is 
presented in the statement for the larger body. 


92 Year Book of the Churches 


Five Years' Meeting, quinquennial, composed of delegates 
from twelve of the fourteen yearly meetings in the United States 
and one in Canada. Next meeting, Richmond, Ind., September, 

Officers : Presiding Clerk, Robert E. Pretlow, 2315 E. Spruce 
St., Seattle, Wash. ; Gen. Sec, Walter C. Woodward, 101 South 
8th St., Richmond, Ind. ; Treas,, Edwin G. Crawford, Richmond, 
Ind.; Chmn of Exec. Com., Allen D. Hole, Earlham College, 
Richmond, Ind. 

Finance Board. Chmn., Miles White, Jr., 607,Keyser Bldg., 
Baltimore, Md. 

American Friends Board of Foreign Missions. Acting Gen. 
SeCf B. Willis Beede, Richmond, Ind. 

Board on Home Missions. Chmn., Ellison R. Purdy, 2440 
Stevens Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Board on Education. Chmn., David M. Edwards, Earlham, Ind. 

Board on Prohibition op the Liquor Traffic. Chmn., S. Edgar 
Nicholson, Richmond, Ind. 

Bible School Board. Chmn., Wilbur K. Thomas, 20 S. 12th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Young Friends Board. Sec, Clarence E. Pickett, Richmond, 

American Friends Service Committee. Chmn., Rufus M. Jones, 
Haverford, Pa. 

Peace Board. Chmn., Allen D. Hole, Richmond, Ind. 

Committee on Indian Affairs. Chmn., Walter Smedley, 1226 
Stephen Girard Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Name Location President 

Nebraska Central College Central City, Neb Ora W. Carrell. 

Earlham College Richmond, Ind. David M. Edwards. 

Friends University Wichita, Kans William O. Mendenball. 

Guilford College Guilford College, N. C Raymond Binford. 

Haverford College Haverford, Pa William W. Comfort 

Pacific College Newberg, Ore. Levi T. Pennington. 

Penn College Oskaloosa, Iowa Edwin McGrew. 

Whittier College Whittier, Calif Harry N. Wright. 

Wilmington College Wilmington, Ohio J. Edwin Jay. 


American Friend (weekly), Richmond, Ind., Editor, Walter C. 
Woodward; Messenger of Peace (monthly), Richmond, Ind., Editor, 
Allen D. Hole; Friend's Missionary Advocate (monthly). Blooming- 
dale, Ind., Editor, Lenora N. Hobbs; Bible School Qiua/rterHes, Rich- 
mond, Ind., Editor, Wilbur K. Thomas. 


George Fox, bom 1624, was the founder of the Friends, at first 
called "Children of Truth" or "Children of Light," also "Friends of 
Truth." Finally the name given them was the "Religious Society 
of Friends," to which was frequently added "commonly called 
Quakers." This last name was applied to them by a justice in re- 
sponse to an address, in which George Fox called on him to "tremble 
at the Word of the Lord." They increased in numbers, until by the 
close of the seventeenth century, they were one of the most important 
bodies of dissenters in England. With the cessation of persecution, 
about the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Friends relaxed 

Directory of Religious Bodies 93 

their missionary zeal, paid more attention to the discipline of their 
members, and gradually settled down into a comparatively quiet ex- 
istence. About the middle of the nineteenth century a new movement 
began, and since that time the great majority of the Friends have 
either dropped or modified many of the old customs and external 

The first recorded visit- of any Quakers to America was that of 
two women, Ann Austin and Mar^^ Fisher, who arrived in Massa- 
chusetts from Barbados in 1656. They were immediately put under 
arrest, subjected to a brutal examination to see whether they were 
witches, and finally shipped back to Barbados. Two days after their 
departure a vessel arrived with eight more Quakers, and these were 
forcibly returned to England. Severe laws were enacted and heavy 
penalties provided for those who knowingly brought into the com- 
munity that ''cursed sect of heretics lately risen u^ in the world which 
are commonly called 'Quakers.' " Nothwitstanding these laws, the 
Quakers continued to come, and at last the situation improved, al- 
tiiough it was not until 1724 that their appeals to the Royal Privy 
Council in England were susained. A few years later laws were 
enacted in their favor. 

The Friends had almost as trying an experience in Virginia as 
in Massachusetts, and they suffered certain persecutions in Connecti- 
cut. In Rhode Island, however, they were received more cordially and 
were held in high regard, several of the early governors being mem- 
bers of the society. In New York, New Jersey and Maryland there 
were many Friends. The culmination of their influence was reached 
in Pennsylvania, under the charter given to William Penn in return 
for a debt due by the crown to his father, Admiral Penn. 

The early part of the nineteenth century was marked by divi- 
sions on doctrinal points, resulting in separation more or less seri- 
ous. The most important of these was that popularly known as 
"Hicksite" in 1827-28. This was followed by the "Wilburite" in 1845 
and the "Primitive" a little later. 

During the decade, chiefly as a result of the Five Years Meet- 
ing there has been a strong tendency toward greater unity of ef- 
fort in the fields of home and foreign missions, Bible schools, educa- 
tion, evangelistic work, philanthropy, and social reform. This is true 
of aJl branches of the society. The relations to other bodies of Chris- 
tians have become closer. In the World War the Friends simply re- 
affirmed their historic position in regard to all war, a position recog- 
nized by Congress in the selective-draft act, which provided for the 
assignment of those Friends^ drafted to noncombatant service. All 
branches of Friends united in the American Friends Service Com- 
mittee for the. purpose of carrying on reconstruction work in France. 
Several hundred thousand dollars were contributed for this purpose. 
From 1919 to 1921 an important work was carried on by this com- 
mittee in child feeding in Germany and more recently an important 
service is being rendered in relief work in the famine districts of 


The Orthodox Friends, who are by far the most numerous 
branch, have never adopted a formal creed. Their doctrine agrees 
in all essential points with the doctrine of the great body of the 
Christian Church, but they differ from other denominations in the 
following important respects: (1) The great importance attached to 
the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or "Light With- 
in," or "Inner Light"; (2) the absence of all outward ordinances, in- 
cluding baptism and the Lord's Supper, on the ground that they are 
not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend 
to draw the soul away from the essential to the nonessential and 


94j Year Book of the Churches 

formal; (3) the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; 
(4) the doctrine of peace or nonresistance, in accordance with which 
no Friend can fight or directly support war. 


The orj^anization of the Society of Friends includes monthly, 
quarterly and yearly meetings, each being a purely business organi- 
zation. The monthly meeting is either a single congregation or in- 
cludes two or more congn^egations called variously, weekly, local, or 
preparative meetings. The monthly meetings in a certain district 
combine to form a quarterly meeting, and the quarterly meetings in 
a wider territory constitute a yearly meeting. 

Thirteen of the Yearly Meetings have united in forming the 
Five Years Meetings. These Yearly Meetings have a uniform book 
of discipline. Official delegates from these Yearly Meetings meet 
every five years for the transaction of such business as is of com- 
mon interest. Provision is made for carrying on the work of the 
denominational boards on missionary, philanthropic and educational 
lines. Woman is in a position of absolute equality with man in 
Friends' polity. 

The worship of a Friends' meetings is distinctly nonliturgical. 
Since the Friends believe that worship involves a direct communion 
of the soul with God it can be carried on with or without a minister. 
Meetings for worship can be held partly or even wholly in silence, 
and without any prearrangement of service, though some prearrange- 
ment is more common than formerly. There is no stated length for 
any sermon, prayer or exhortation, and often several persons, not 
necessarily ministers take part during the same meeting. 


General Conference, biennial; next meeting in 1922. 

Seven Yearly Meetings. 

Officers: Chmn., Arthur C. Jackson, 6445 Greene St., Ger- 
mantown, Pa.; Gen. Sec, J. Barnard Walton, 140 N. 15th St., 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Rec. /Sec, Mrs. Rachel T. Thorn, 6315 Con- 
necticut Ave., Chevy Chase, Md. ; Treas., Harry A. Hawkins, 57 
Pierrepont Ave., W., Rutherford, N. J. 

Sunday School Committee, Central Bureau of Philadelphia 
Yearly Meeting. 154 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Sec, Miss Jane 
P. Rushmore. 


Name Location Director 

Friends* School for Religious and Social 

Education Swarthmore, Pa Elbert Russell. 


Friends* Intelligencer (weekly), 140 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, 
Pa.. Editor, Walter H. Abell. 


Kansas Yearly Meeting held at Emporia, Kans. 
Address Alva J. Smith, 619 E. 6th St., Emporia, Kans. 

FRIENDS (Primitive) 
Address John C. Maule, Bristol, Pa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 95 


Assembly, semi-annual; San Dimas, Calif., April 2, 1922. 

Headquarters: Los Angeles, Calif. 

Officers: Pres., L. A. Clark, Los Angeles, Calif.; Vice-Pres., 
J. F. Washburn, 844 Monterey Road, South Pasadena, Calif.; 
Recorder, Gladys L. Clark, 106 North Hidalgo Ave., Alhambra, 
Calif. ; Treas.y T. A. Smith, Azusa, Calif. 

Missionary Board. Treaa., J. R. Adams, 2638 Eagle St., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

Pentecost Printing House, 131 N. Chicago St., Los Angeles, 


The Pentecost, 131 N. Chicago St., Los Angeles, -Calif ., Editors, 
G. E. Ramige, Hattie H. Ramige. 


About 1880 as a result of the preaching of ministers of the 
Methodist Episcopal and Free Methodist Church in Southern Cali- 
fornia and Arizona numerous bands were formed under the name 
"Holiness Band," the members retaininp:, however, their member- 
ship or identity with the churches of which they were already mem- 
bers. With the development of these bands and the acquisition of 
certain property for the conduct of their worship, certain legal 
difficulties arose and in 1896 they became incorporated under the 
laws of the state of California. From California the work extended 
into other states and was especially prominent in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. The churches in Tennessee constitute a district assembly of 
the entire body, but the churches in Kentucky are included in the 
corporate body of California. 


The doctrine of the Holiness Church is Methodist or Wesleyan, 
following the principles laid down by John Wesley. It teaches re- 
repentance, restitution, confession, and the forsaking of sin as the 
part for the sinner; and the forgiveness of sin and the divine light 
received by the repentant sinner, as the part from God. The church 
teaches that it is the privilege, as well as the duty, of every believer 
to consecrate himself to God without reserve and that the result of 
such consecration will be sanctification, meaning by the term freedom 
from the "carnal mind" and the tendency to sin. Specific conditions 
of church membershin are sanctification and baptism by water. The 
mode of baptism being settled by the candidate, although immer- 
sion is for the most part practiced ; and the. belief in the second 
coming of the Lord, and in divine healing by faith. The church also 
emphasizes belief in prohibition, abstinence from drugs and tobacco, 
and from all poisons that are "asrainst the best for Gwi." Divorce is 
allowed but for one cause, adultery; membership in secret societies 
is disapproved and forbidden; and plain dress, avoiding extravagance 
and jewelry, especially for show, is inculcated. 


A president is elected annually and acts as chairman of all gen- 
eral assemblies and of the Board of Elders. He also superintends the 
work in general. Local churches are self-directing, but there is a 
board of 12 elders who care for the spiritual welfare of the church 
and serve between the meetings of the assembly. There is, in addi- 

96 Year Book of the Churches 

tion, a board of 9 trustees, whose office it is to look after the property 
of the church and who hold that property subject to the Generid 
Assembly, composed of representatives from the churches. District 
assemblies are formed under the care of superintendents who are 
members of the board of elders of the General Assembly. Ministers 
are selected on their qualifications of aptness to preach or teach the 
word. No fixed salaries are paid. Free will offerings are made for 
support of the work. Tithing is practiced. 


No directory. 


Under this head are included single churches which are not identi- 
fied with any ecclesiastical body and have not even such affiliation 
as would entitle them to inclusion under a special name. Certain dis- 
tinct types appear. There are churches which were originally mis- 
sions or Sunday schools established in newly settled or outlying 
districts by Christian workers representing different denominations, 
and which have grown gradually into a definite church life. There 
are also churches variously called union, federated, community, etc., 
which represent the movement toward denominational fellowship, the 
elimination of weak churches, and the consolidation of church life 
for the purpose of securing more effective church work. The num- 
ber of churches reporting themeslves as union churches is quite large, 
but, not infrequently, it is not clear just what is represented by the 
term. The federated and the community church is of recent growth. 
There is a third class, including churches which use a denomina- 
tional name, but for one reason or another are not included in de- 
nominational lists and are not reported by the denominational of- 
ficers. A fourth class includes churches which were organized by 
individuals independent of any denominational status, some that 
originally had denominational connection, and some which are the 
result of Holiness or evangelistic movements. 

Doctrine and Polity 

No special features of doctrine or polity can be definitely stated 
for these independent churches. Each organization included under 
this head draws up its own creed, adopts its own form of organiza- 
tion, chooses its own officers, makes it own conditions of membership, 
and conducts its own worship as it chooses, and no general statement 
is practicable, except that the union and federated churches accord 
more or less closelv to the customs of the denominations represented 
in their organizations. 


(Formerly International Apostolic Holiness Church) 

General Assembly, quadrennial; next meeting 1923. 

Officers: Gen, Supt., Rev. G. B. Kulp, 41 University Ave., 
Battle Creek, Mich.; Asst. Supts., Rev. W. R. Cox, Greensboro, 
N. C, and Rev. C. C. Brown, Kingswood, Ky. ; Sec. and Treas., 
Jay E. Strong, Battle Creek, Mich., R. D. No. 1. 

General Missionary Board. Chmn,, Rev. G. B. Kulp; Treas., 
Rev. M. G. Standley, 1810 Young St., Cincinnati, Ohio; Sec, Rev. 
Henry Oleson, Trappe, Maryland. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 97 


Name Location President 

Bible Holiness Seminary Owosso, Mich C. G. Taylor. 

Kingswood C<rflege Kingswood, Ky H. P. Thomas. 

Beulali Holiness Academy Shacklesford, Va 

Apostcdic Holiness University Greensboro, N. C W. R. Cox. 

Holiness Seminary Allentown, Pa 


International Holiness Advocate, Kingswood, Ky., Editor, Rev. 
C. G. Taylor. 


Organized in 1897, at Cincinnati, Ohio, by the Rev. Martin W. 
Knapp, previously a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 


The doctrine of the organization emphasizes the sanctification of 
believers as a definite second work of grace instantaneously received 
by faith, the healing of the sick through faith in Christ, the pre- 
millennial reign of Christ on earth, and the evangelization of the 
world as a step in hastening the coming of the Lord. 

The Lord's Supper, to which admission is general, is observed 
as often as the congregation deems proper. The mode of baptism is 
left wholly to individual option. 


The government corresponds closely to that of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. The local union has as its ecclesiastical authority 
an advisory board, consisting of a superintendent, an assistant super- 
intendent, a secretary, a treasurer, and three other members. The 
governing officers of a local church are the pastor, assistant pastor, 
licensed preachers, secretary, treasurer, five elders, and five deacons. 

There is a state organization which meets annually and a Gen- 
eral Assembly, which meets quadrennially and, in addition to. its 
own officers, elects a general superintendent, an assistant superin- 
tendent, a general secretary, a treasurer, and three others, who act 
with the officers as a general council, to which all disputed questions 
of government and discipline may be referred for final decision. 

The Churches choose their own pastors. Pastors are supported 
by freewill offerings, and very few have any regular salary. The 
elders have special care for the spiritual interests of the church. 
The deacons receive the offerinprs, prepare the sacraments and care 
for the poor. Deaconesses may be ordained for special missionary 
work, and the admission of women to the ministry has been recom- 

Camp meetings under the charge of the state and district organi- 
zations are held annually, during the summer season in the Nortti 
and during the winter season in the South. 

JEWISH (Representative National Organizations) 

Union op American Hebrew Congregations. Twenty-seventh 
Council held in Buffalo, May, 1921. Pres,, J. Walter Freiberg; 
Sec, Rabbi George Zepin, 62 Duttenhofer Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

United Synagogue of America (1913), 531 W. 123d St., New 
York City. Pres., Elias L. Soloman; Vice-Pres., Louis Ginzberg; 
Cor. Sec, Charles L Hoffman, 334 Belmont Ave., Newark, N. J.; 
Treas., Harry Krulewitch, New York City. 

Union op Orthodox Jewish Congregations op America. Pres., 
Julius J. Dukas; Sec, Albert Lucas, 56 W. 105th St., New York City. 

Central Confejrence of American Rabbis. Pres., Edward N. 

98 Year Book of the Churches 

Calisch, Richmond, Va.; Rec, Sec, Felix A. Levy, Chicago; Cor. Sec, 
Isaac E. Marcusan, Macon, Ga.; Treas,, Louis Wolsey, Cleveland, 

United Orthodox Rabbis of United States and Canada Prea., 
M. S. Margolies, 1225 Madison Ave., New York City. 

American Jewish Committee (1906), 171 Madison Ave., New 
York City. Pres., Louis Marshall; Asst. Sec, Harry Schneiderman ; 
Treas., Isaac W. Bernheim; Chmn. Exec Com., Cyrus Adler. 

Council of Jewish Women (1893), 305 W. 98th St., New York 
City. Prea,, Mrs. Rose Brenner; Exec Sec, Mrs. Harry Stemberger; 
Rec Sec, Mrs. L. A. Hecht; Treas,, Mrs. Alvin L. Bauman. 

National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods. Pres,, Mrs. Jo- 
seph Wiesenfeld, 2333 Eutaw PL, Baltimore, Md.; Sec, Mrs. Ben 
Lowenstein, 62 Duttenhofer Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

American Jewish Historical Society (1892) 531 W. 123d St., 
New York City. Prea., Abraham S. W. Rosenbach; Cor, Sec, Albert 
M. Friedenberg, 38 Park Row, New York City. 

Jewish Publication Society of America, Girard Ave. and Broad 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Simon Miller; Sec, I. George Dobsevage; 
Treas,, Henry Fernberger. 

Jewish Chautauqua Society (1893), 1305 Stephen Girard Bldg., 
Philadelphia, Pa. Chancellor, Henry Berkowitz; Vice-Chancellor, 
Wiliam Rosenau; Sec, Jeanette M. Goldberg; Treas., Emil Selig. 

Zionist Organization of America (1918), 55 Fifth Ave., New 
York City. Gen, Sec, Louis Lipsky; Treas., Peter J. Schweitzer. 

Jewish Welfare Board (1917), 149 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Pres., Irving Lehman; Vice-Pres., Felix M. Warburg; Treas,, Felix 
Fuld; Sec, Joseph Rosenzweig. 

Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (1888), 425 
Lafayette Ave., New York City. Pres., John L. Bernstein; Treas., 
Harry Fischel; Gen, Mgr,, Jacob R. Fain. 

National Conference of Jewish Soclil Service (1899), 114 
Fifth Ave., New York City. Pres., Solomon Lowenstein; Sec, Samuel 
A. Croldsmith; Treas., Morris Kind. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate 
Learning Philadelphia, Pa. . . . Cyrus Adler. 

Jewish Theological Seminary of America. . New York City Cyrus Adler, acting. 

Hebrew Union College Cincinnati Kaufmann Kohler. 

Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Semi- 
nary New York City B. Revel. 


A few Jewish individuals settled in Maryland about 1650, but th« 
records of the Jewish community in the United States may be said 
to date from 1654, when a company of Jews from Brazil or the 
West Indies attempted to land at New Asterdam. The persistent op- 
position of the governor, Peter Stuyvesant, delayed them for nearly 
a year, but on April 26, 1655, they were admitted by order of the 
Dutch West India Company. Although accorded permission to live 
and trade in New Netherland, they were yet denied the privilege of 
building a synagogue and of acquiring a site for burial purposes. 
This, however, did not prevent them from meeting for private wor- 
ship, and soon afterwards they formed a congregation, the Shearith 
Israel, which is still in existence in New York City. The burial 
ground order was rescinded as early as July 14, 1656, and in 1682, 
under English rule, the congregation occupied a rented building on 
Mill (or Beaver) Street, and, in 1730, erected on Mill Street the first 
synagogue ever built in the United States. 

• Directory of Religious Bodies 99 

From time to time other Jewish communities were formed in 
New York; in Philadelphia, where the first regular congregation, 
Mikve Israel, was instituted in 1740; in Newport, R. I. (1658); in 
Baltimore, Md. (about 1790) ; in Savannah, Ga.; in Charleston, S. C; 
in Richmond, Va.; and in other of the older cities of the United 
States. From these foci communities from time to time radiated to 
smaller places, until there was, a century ago, a Jewish community 
in almost every good-sized town in the country. 

Up to the beginning of the nineteenth century the great majority 
of the Jewish settlers in this country were of the Sephardic branch 
of the race, i. e,, descendants of those who had come directly or in- 
directly from Spain or Portugal, and in 1800 there were about 2,600 
Jews in the United States, of whom 700 resided in New York City. 
In 1850 the number had grown to about 50,000, nearly one-fourth 
of them being residents in that city. The increase, in so far as it 
was due to immigration, consisted principally of Jews of the Ash- 
kenazic division, t. e., those originating in Germany, Austria and cer- 
tain sections of Poland. During the next generation (1850-1880), 
the Jewish population of the country, through natural increase and 
through immigration, again mainly from Central Europe, doubled and 
redoubled, so that in 1880 it was estimated at about 225,000 souls, 
scattered through the principal commercial centers of the nation, 
New York City probably containing 60,000. By that time the Ger- 
man and the Sephardic Jews had formed their congregations, and 
they have established very few since. In 1880-81 began the 
large accessions from Russia, Galicia, Moldavia, Rumania and Hun- 
gary; and it is mainly these newcomers from Russia, Austria and 
Rumania who have set up and who are still evolving new congrega- 
tions. In 1920 the total Jewish population was estimated at 3,300,000. 

In the religious life of the Jews in the United States, there 
has developed a line of cleavage, which is not very well defined, 
indicated by the terms "orthodox" and "reform." These words, bor- 
rowed from the terminologry of the Christian denominations are, how- 
ever, likely to be misleading, if "reform" is taken to imply an ex- 
plicit doctrinal disagreement with "orthodoxy," or a return to an 
earlier or purer form of the faith compared with which the present 
stage is considered an aberration. The "reform" movement in 
Judaism primarily concerns itself with synagogue ritual, which 
readily admits of changes by reason of the autonomous character of 
the Jewish congregation, and it is actuated by a desire to modify the 
forms of worship somewhat in accordance with the demands of the 
times. Broadly speaking, then, the so-called orthodox Jew is distin- 
guished from the so-called reform Jew by a more rigid observance 
of the "ceremonial" prescriptions, as that observance has developed 
traditionally; and historically considered, the divergence between 
"orthodoxy" and "reform" has arisen as increasing numbers of Jews, 
no longer hampered by civil and political restrictions, have entered 
the many (for them) novel walks of life, and under the influence of 
new secular pursuits and associations, have become less insistent in 
their observance of the ceremonies in point. The Jewish faith 
practically coincides with the Jewish race, and every Jew is con- 
sidered a Jew until he definitely adopts the tenets of another creed. 

Jewish tradition discourages efforts at convert-making. On the 
other hand, a man or woman who has become convinced of the truth 
of Judaism, and desires to enter the Jewish communion, may do so 
after submitting to the prescribed ceremonials. Examples of this 
kind are, however, quite rare, though not unknown. 


The term "doctrine" as descriptive of certain phases or depart- 
ments of church life has not the same significance in the Jewish 

100 Year Book of the Churches • 

congregations as in Christian denominations. There is no specific 
creSi to be subscribed, diverjrence from which involves separation 
from a particular synagogue or organization, whether local or gen- 
eral. The religious life of the Jews centers about certain ceremonials 
and liturgies, rather than about expression of faith oi* belief. The 
"law" is a law of observances rather than a creed. 

At the same time, there is a general system of doctrine accepted 
in the main by all Jews, including the unity of God, the inspiration 
of the Old Testament, and especially of the law as set forth in the 
Pentateuch, the system of holidays, and general worship of tfee syna- 

With regard to inspiration, Jews generally believe that the spirit 
and teachings of the Old Testament are of divine inspiration, but 
in the specific statement of this belief there are widely divergent ex- 
pressions, some holding that every word and letter of every part of 
the book, especially of the Pentateuch, is of divine inspiration, others 
claiming that there is nothing more divine about uie writings in 
question than there is in any exalted human production of genius. 
Whatever detailed statement is made, however, one who professes 
to be a Jew in any proper sense of the word, believes, or believes in, 
the moral and theological doctrine contained in the writing^s of the 
Old Testament. The canon of this Old Testament comprises 24 books, 
namely, the 5 of the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the Minor Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs, Job, 
Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, 
Ezra, and Chronicles. 

As to the New Testament, which, of course, formed no part of 
the basis of Judaism, there are Jews who believe it to be historically 
correct, while others question its chronological accuracy. In so far 
as it runs counter to the teachings of the Old Testament, or as it 
seems to Jewish authorities to so run, the New Testament is not 
to be followed and its teachings are to be considered the reverse of 
the truth. There are Jews who would prohibit its perusal utterly, but 
others do not deny it a due and proper place as literature. 

Jews' High Holidays proper comprise only New Year's Day and 
the Day of Atonement. New Year's Day commemorates the creation 
of the world; the Day of Atonement is a day of humiliation and 
repentance. The Passover belongs to the cycle of three Festivals — 
Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles — each of which is imbued with 
historic associations, besides retaining in the ritual and ceremonial 
observances, reminiscenses of their ancient agricultural character. 
The giving out of the divine law is associated with the Festival of 
Pentecost. New Year's Day usually occurs some time in the month 
of September, occasionally in October. The Day of Atonement fol- 
lows on the tenth day from the New Year's Day. The Passover oc- 
curs in March or April. The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) is 
the last day of the penitential days, and on the afternoon preceding 
the day proper an evening meal is generally eaten, the day itself 
being observed by fasting. On the Day of Atonement there are cer- 
tain peculiar ceremonies, and every Jew is expected to attend tiie 
synagogue even if on other holidays he absents himself from it. 

Sjmagogue services vary greatly in the different synagogues, and 
in some cases they closely resemble services in Protestant churches. 
In others they consist of hardly more than a hurried recital of prayers. 
The essence of religious service is prayer to God, and in some con- 
gregations the main essential is that the communicants shall go into 
the place of worship and there repeat, as they come in, often stand- 
ing, the essential prayers as formalized, so that there is at times no 
unity in those observances. The public or congregational prayers can 
not be begun until ten men are present, a boy of thirteen who has 

Directory of Religious Bodies 101 

been confirmed counting as a man. Especially in the United States 
there has been a tendency to approximate divine service to modem 
conditions and patterns, including, in a few instances, their observ- 
ance on Sunday instead of Saturday. The formal service lasts on 
an average of about two hours, part of that time being given to the 
sermon, sometimes doctrinal, sometimes not; while the prayers, 
chants, and music, vocal and instrumental, precede or succeed the 
address of the rabbi and constitute the balance of the divine service. 
In some cases the prayers are recited in Hebrew (classical, not 
Yiddish), in others the vernacular of the land is employed. In most 
congregations at least one prayer for the dead, known as the ''Kad- 
dish" is repeated in Aramic. 


The outstanding fact in organized Jewish religious life is the in- 
dependence of the synagogue or local church organization. Among 
Jews there is no such thing as a controlling ecclesiastical organiza- 
tion. Every congn^egation the world over, is a law unto itself; each 
one is responsible to itself alone for the interpretation put upon the 
sacred law, and upon sacred traditions. 

Broadly speaking, all persons of Jewish birth are also Jews 
in the religious sense. Hence, the membership of the Jewish congre- 
srations bears a close relation to the Jewish population and member- 
ship in a Jewish synagogue is on an essentially different basis from 
that in a Christian church, but methods vary, some synagogues counts 
ing the heads of families, others only incorporators or pew holders. 
The Jewish ministry includes primarily the rabbis, but also often the 
reader or cantor. The rabbi decides questions of law and ritual, 
performs the office of preacher and religious functionary, is the or- 
ganizer and teacher of religious schools and, in general, represents 
the church community. 


General Conference, annual ; Salt Lake City. 

Eighty-two stakes in the U. S., two in Canada, and one in 
Mexico. A stake is composed of a number of wards, the ward 
being the unit in church government. There are nine hun- 
dred and twenty-eight wards and independent branches. 

Officers: Pres., Heber J. Grant; Counselors, Anthony W. 
Ivins and Charles W. Penrose; Presiding Patriarch, Hyrum G. 

Foreign Missions. Under the direction of the Presidency of the 
Church, assisted by the Council of the Twelve Apostles: Pres,, Rudger 

Sabbath School Work. Supt, David 0. McKay; Gen. Sec., 
A.. H. Reiser, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association. Supt., An- 
thony W. Ivins; Gen. Sec, Moroni Snow. 

Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association. Pres., Mrs. 
Martha H. Tingey; Sec., Clarissa A. Beesley. 

Primary Assocla.tion. Pres., Mrs. Louise B. Felt; Gen. Sec, 
Frances K. Thomassen. 

Woman"s Relief Society. Pres., Mrs. Clarrissa S. Williams; 
Gen. Sec, Amy B. Lyman. 

Reugious Class. Supt., Rudger Clawson; 5ec., Wm. A, Morton, 

102 Year Book of the Churches 


Name Location Pres. or Prin, 

B. Y. University Provo, Utah F. S. Harris. 

B. Y. College Logan, Utah W. W. Henderson. 

L. D. S. University Salt Lake City. Utah Guy C. Wilson. 

Snow Normal College Ephraim, Utah Wayne B. Hales. 

Dixie Normal College St. George, Utah Jos. K. Nicholes. 

Weber Normal College Ogden, Utah Joel E. Ricks. 

Gila Normal Collie Thatcher, Ariz L. H. Creer. 

Ricks Normal College Rexburg, Idalio George S. Romney. 


Big Horn Academy Cowley, Wyo Guy V. Cutler. 

Emery Academy Castle Dale, Utah Victor C. Anderson. 

Fielding Academy Paris, Idaho Roy A. Wrfker. 

Murdock Academy Beaver, Utah J. Howard Maughao. 

Millard Academy Hinckley, Utah Lorenzo Hatch. 

Oneida Academy Preston, Idaho Thos. C. Romney. 

Snowflake Academy Snowflake, Ariz Silas L. Fish. 

Uintah Academy Vernal, Utah E. A. Jaccbsen. 

Juarez Academy Col. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mex . . . Lucian Mecham, Jr. 

San Luis Academy Manassa, Colo F. Y. Gates. 

Periodicals (All published in Salt Lake City) 

Juvenile Instructor, Editors, Heber J. Grant and George D. 
Pyper; Children's Friend, Editor, Miss May Anderson; Young Wom- 
an's Journal, Editor, Miss Mary ConoUy; improvement Era, Editors, 
Heber J. Grant and Edward H. Anderson; Relief Society Magazine, 
Editor, Mrs. Susa Y. Gates; Desert News, Editor, John Q. Cannon. 


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was founded 
by Joseph Smith, a native of Vermont, in 1830, at Fayette, Seneca 
County, N. Y. He states that while in the woods near his father's 
home he "had a vision of great light, and two glorious personages 
appeared before him and commanded him *to join none of the re- 
ligious sects, for the Lord was about to restore the gospel, which 
was not represented in its fulness by any of the existing churches.' " 
Other visions followed, and in one he received directions enabling him 
to obtain "the sacred records, an abridgment of the history kept by 
the ancient inhabitants of America" which "were engraved on plates 
which had the appearance of gold." These records, constituting the 
"Book of Mormon," he translated, dictating the translation to Oliver 
Cowdery and others, who wrote it down. Oliver Cowdery, with David 
Whitmer and Martin Harris, after the completion of the work, gave 
their testimony that they had actually seen the plates. Two years 
later, in 1829, Smith and Cowdery stated that "an angel appeared 
to them and conferred upon them the priesthood of Aaron and in- 
structed them to baptize each other by immersion." This was fol- 
lowed, in April, 1830, by the organization of the church at Fayette, 
N. Y., and "the declaration that the ancient gospel had been restored 
with all its gifts and powers." 

Missionaries were sent out and numerous churches were organ- 
ized in different states. In 1831, headquarters were established at 
Kirtland, Ohio. From the first, the policy of segregating the con- 
verts from the "gentiles" was followed, and in 1831 a colony of be- 
lievers was settled in Jackson County, Mo. Here they met violent op- 
position from neighbors, which culminated in 1833 in their being 
driven from the county by mob violence. They then scattered into 
other counties, although retaining their organization at Kirtland, 
Ohio; and in 1838 Joseph Smith, with other leaders, removed to Cald- 
well County, Mo., which was settled almost exclusively by his fol- 
lowers. Here again there was friction between them and the earlier 
settlers of the adjoining counties, which resulted in 1839 in their ex- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 103 

pulsion from the state. Then followed the settlement at Nauvoo, 
Hancock County, 111., which developed rapidly, and at one time was 
said to be the largest city in the state. In a few years, however, 
the people of the surrounding counties became hostile, and Joseph 
Smith and his brother, Hyrum, were killed by a mob at Carthage, 
111., on the 27th of June, 1844. After the death of Joseph Smith, 
Brigham Young, as president of the Council of Twelve, was chosen 
president of the church. A number, however, refused his leadership, 
and there followed a period of confusion, several organizations being 
formed, one of which is known today as the "Reorganized Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints." 

After the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young be- 
came president of the church, and two years later led a general 
mijcration of believers from Illinois to the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, the 
present headquarters of the branch known as the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints. From this point as a center, the church 
has extended until it is represented in a large proportion of the 
states of the Union. 

The comparative isolation of the new location gave less occa- 
sion for such disturbances, as had hitherto accompanied the his- 
tory of the church, and permitted a more normal development of the 
community life. Active proselyting was carried on, and the number 
of converts increased rapidly. Brigham Young died in 1877 and 
was succeeded by John Taylor, who held the office of president for 
ten years. His successors in office have been Wilford Woodruff, 
Lorenzo Snow, and Joseph F. Smith. 


The doctrines of the Latter Day Saints as set forth bv the first 
president, Joseph Smith, and accepted by both bodies, may be sum- 
marized as follows: 

They hold in the main the body of Christian doctrine commonly 
accepted. Peculiar or special beliefs may be noted, as that the same 
organization that existed in the primitive church continues today — 
apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, etc.; there is also 
the same grift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions, healing, in- 
terpretation of tongues, etc.; the Bible, so far as it is translated cor- 
rectly, and the Book of Mormon, are both regarded as the Word of 
God; there have been, and will be, many revelations of great and 
important things pertaining to the Kingdom of God; there will be 
a literal gathering of Israel and the restoration of the Ten Tribes; 
Zion will be built on this continent; Christ will reign personally upon 
the earth, which will be renewed and receive its paradisaical glory. 


The ecclesiastical organization is based upon the priesthood, 
which is "the power delegated to man by virtue of which he has 
authority to act or officiate in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ as 
His representative." Its two grand divisions are the Melchizedek, or 
higher priesthood; and the Aaronic, or lesser priesthood. The Mel- 
chis^edek priesthood is so called after Melchizedek, the king of Salem. 
It holds the power of presidency and the right of authority over 
all the offices of the church. Its officers are apostles, patriarchs, high 
priests, seventies, and elders. The Aaronic priesthood holds the keys 
of authority in the temporal affairs of the church, and its officers 
are bishops, priests, teachers, and deacons. 

The chief or presiding council (quorum) of the church is the 
first presidency, which consists of three high priests — a president and 
two counselors or advisers — its jurisdiction and authority are uni- 
versal, extending over all the affairs of the church in both temporal 

104 Year Book of the Churches 

and spiritual things. The president of the church is regarded as 
the mouthpiece of God to the church, and as alone receiving the law 
for the church through revelation. The first presidency is also the 
presidency of the high priesthood, and has the right to officiate in 
all the offices of ihe church. 

The second council (quorum) of the church, standing next to 
the first presidency, is composed of the twelve apostles. It is their 
duty, under the direction of the first presidency, to supervise the work 
of the church in all the world, and especially the missionary labors, 
to ordain evangelical ministers, and to act as special witnesses to 
the world of the divine mission of the Saviour Jesus Christ. 

The patriarchs are evangelists who hold the right to bless the 
members of the church with the blessings of prophecy, as was done by 
Abr^am, Isaac, and Jacob, and the early patriarchs. They are un- 
der the direction of the first presidency and are presided over by the 
patriarch of the church. The high priests hold the power of presi- 
dency in the stakes of Zion (or districts), under the direction of the 
first presidency in their respective stakes and congregations (par- 
ishes) in administering in spiritual things. The seventies are the 
missionaries of the church and labor in the world under the direc- 
tion of the twelve apostles. They are organized into companies of 
70 each, under 7 presidents who preside over all the companies. The 
elders assist the high priests in their duties in the stakes. All the 
members of the Melchizedek priesthood have authority under the di- 
rection of the first presidency to officiate in all the ordinances of the 
gospel. The labors of the twelve apostles and of the seventies are 
principally in the world outside the regular church organization, 
while the labors of the patriarchs, high priests, and elders are con- 
fined principally to their respective stakes and congregations. 

The presiding council (quorum) of the Aaronic priesthood is the 
presiding bishopric, consisting of three bishops, who have jurisdiction 
over all the offices of the Aaronic priesthood in temporal affairs and 
under the directicto of the first presidency. 

The general authorities are those presiding officers who have gen- 
eral direction of the whole church or of any general division. Thus 
the first presidency is the presiding council (quorum) over the whole 
church. The apostles have jurisdiction over the whole church under 
the direction of the first presidency, but more especially over the mis- 
sionary enterprises. The presiding patriarch presides over all the 
patriarchs. The seven presidents preside over all seventies. The 
presiding bishopric presides over all the lesser priesthood of the 



General Conference, biennial. 

Headquarters, Independence, Missouri. 

Pour stakes, 74 state or district conferences in the United 
States, and 25 district conferences in foreign countries. 

General Officers : Pres., Frederick M. Smith ; First Counselor, 
Elbert A. Smith; Pres, of Quorum of Twelve Apostles, G. T. 
GriflSths; Pres, Bishop, Benjamin R. McGuire; Sec, R. S. Sal- 
yards ; Recorder, F. A. Russell ; Historian, Walter W. Smith. 

General Sunday School Association. Supt., A, M. Carmichael, 
Lamoni, la.; Sec, E. D. Moore, Independence, Mo. 

Religio-Literary Society. Supt,, T. W. Williams, Independence, 
Mo.; Sec, Miss H. W. Harder, Independence, Mo. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 105 

Woman's Auxiliary for Social Service. Director General, 
Mrs. Frederick M. Smith, Kansas City, Mo.; Supt,, Mrs. Audentia 
Anderson, Omaha, Nebr. 


Name Location President 

Graceland College Lamoni, Iowa G. N. Briggs. 

Independence Institute of Arts and 
Sciences Independence, Mo Walter W. Smith. 


Saints* Herald (weekly), Independence, Mo.; Zion*8 Ensign 
(weekly). Independence, Mo.; Autumn Leaves (monthly), Independ- 
ence, Mo.; Journal of History (quarterly). Independence, Mo. 


The death of Joseph Smith in 1844 was followed by the devel- 
opment of several factions amon^ the Latter Day Saints, one of the 
strongest of which, led by Brigham Young, drew to itself a portion 
of the orisrinal church membership, and settled in Salt Lake City, 
Utah, other organizations held for a time, but the great majority 
of the members were scattered, and their descendants still remain 
throughout the Mississippi Valley. Some of these scattered members, 
together with some congregations that had preserved their identify, 
effected a partial reorganization in Wisconsin in 1852, which was 
afterwards completed under the name, "Reorganized Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints," and which claims to be the true and 
lawful continuation of and successor to the original Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints. A few years later, 1860, they were 
joined by Joseph Smith, the son of the prophet, who identified him- 
self with this organization, and was presiding officer until his death 
in 1914, when he was succeeded by his son. Subsequently the head- 
quarters were removed to Independence, Mo., where ttiey are at 

Doctrine a/nd Polity 

The general doctrine and polity of the Beorganized Church is set 
forth in the preliminary statement of Latter Day Saints. 

The Reorganized Church repudiates the revelation of plural mar- 
miage and maintains "that ma.rriage is ordained of God ; that the law 
of (xod provides for but one companion in wedlock for either man 
or woman, except in cases of death or where the contract is broken 
by transgression; consequently, that the doctrines of plurality and 
community of wives are heresies and are opposed to the law of Grod." 


Address, Kt. Rev. S. B. Mickiew'pz, Westville, 111. 


The Lithuanian National Catholic Church of America was or- 
ganized by the Rt. Rev. S. B. Mickiewiez, and is in connection, though 
not ecclesiastically, with the Old Roman Catholic Church. It repre- 
sents the immigration to the United States from the Baltic Prov- 
inces — ^Lithuanian, Polish and Slavic — and includes a number of 
communities in general sympathy with the movement of the Old 
Catholic churches against the dogma of papal infallibility. In com- 
mon with the Old Catholic churches, the Lithuanian Church accepts 
the first seven general councils and uses the Niceno-Constantinopol- 
itan creed. The liturgy is Latin, but the services are conducted for 
each race in its own language. The supreme ecclesiastical authority 
is vested in a synod. It maintains a seminary which prepares stu- 
dents for the priesthood of the church. 

106 Year Book of the Churches 




Shortly after the Reformation there were Lutheran settlements 
in Florida and South America. Lutherans with the French colonies 
under General Ribaut and Rene de Laudonniere came to Florida in 
1562 and 1564, establishing the forts on the St. John's River. These 
were attacked in 1565 by Pedro Menendez, General of the fleet of 
the King of Spain, who stated that he had come to this country "to 
hang and behead all Lutherans.'' Asking the colonists the question: 
"Are you Catholics or Lutherans?" He received the answer, "Luth- 
erans of the New Religion." Menendez succeeded in destroying the 
fort of the colonists, hanging his prisoners on trees. He placed over 
them the inscription, "I do this not as to Frenchmen but as to 

It appears that the first Lutheran pastor to come to America 
and the first to die here was Rasmus Jensen, a Dane. He came on 
the ill-fated Jens Monk Expedition to discover the Northwest Pas- 
sage. He set sail on May 16, 1619, and entered the Hudson Bay 
about July 1st of that year. He died February 23, 1620, after having 
regularly conducted Lutheran services from September, 1619, until 
January, 1620. 

The earliest Lutherans to settle permanently in North America 
came from Holland to Manhattan Island in 1623. For years they 
had great difficulty in establishing their own forms of worship be- 
cause of instructions issued by the authorities of Holland to the 
Governor of New Amsterdam "to encourage no other doctrine in 
New Netherlands than the true Reformed." The Dutch and German 
Lutherans organized a congregation in 1648, and 1653 requested l^e 
authorities to grant them permission to call a Lutheran pastor, but 
they received a curt refusal from Governor Peter Stuyvesant. But 
the Lutherans were not intimidated. When Stuyvesant denied their 
request for a Lutheran pastor, they appealed to the authorities over- 
seas. The Lutherans persisted in their demand and held religious 
services in houses, without a minister. February 1, 1656, Stuyvesant's 
"Ordinance against Conventicles" was posted, imposing penalties of 
£100 Flemish for the preaching, and £25 for every attendant at the 
service. As a result, a number were cast into prison. Because of the 
edict and all his harsh treatment of the Lutherans, Stuyvesant was 
rebuked by the authorities in Holland. This resulted in an appeal to 
the Lutheran Consistory of Amsterdam for a minister. In July, 
1657, Rev. John Ernest Gutwasser arrived to minister to the two con- 
gregations in New York and Albany. Governor Stuyvesant ordered 
him not to preach even in a private house. Gutwasser, however, be- 
gan to preach, although he was not allowed to assume charge of the 
congregations, and was finally compelled to yield and to return to 
Holland in 1659. 

The second Lutheran pastor to arrive on Manhattan Island while 
the Dutch were in power was Abelius Zetskom, whom Stuyvesant di- 
rected to the Dutch settlement of New Amstel (New Castle on the 
Delaware). When the Dutch, however, were called upon to sur- 
render Manhattan to the English, in 1664, according to the procla- 
mation of the Duke of York, the Lutherans were granted religious 
liberty along with the Reformed. In 1669 Jacob Fabricius was sent 
over by the Lutheran Consistory of Amsterdam to minister to the 
Lutherans of New York and Albany. In 1671, Arensius was sent 
over and served the Lutherans of New York and Albany until 1691, 
the time of his death. In 1702, Pastor Rudman, a Swede from Penn- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 107 

sylvania, cared for these congregations. He was succeeded by Jus- 
tice Falkner, who was the first Lutheran minister ordained in Amer- 
ica, November 24, 1703, in the Swedish Gloria Dei Lutheran Church 
of Wicaco. Pastors Rudman, Bioerck and Sandel participated in this 
first Luthem ordination in America. 

Rev. Joshua Kocherthal arrived with 51 Palatinates December, 
1708, or the beginning of January, 1709. They formed the first Ger- 
man Lutheran congregations in the State of New York. After 
spending the winter in New York City, they settled on the right 
bank of the Hudson, where Newburgh is now located. Kocherthal 
returned to London July, 1709, and came back to America in Jan- 
uary, 1710, with a multitude of immigrants in eleven ships, 2,200 
Palatinates being thus settled on the Hudson at East and West Camp. 

The first independent colonies of Lutherans were established on 
the Delaware in 1638 by the Swedes. 

Pastor Reorus Torkillus was the first Lutheran minister to set- 
tle in the territory of the United States. He arrived in 1639 and 
held services in Fort Christina. He served this Lutheran Colony in 
America until the time of his death, December 7, 1643. His work 
was continued by John Campanius, who arrived in America Feb- 
ruary 16, 1643. Three years later, 1646, he dedicated the first Luth- 
eran Church in America at Christina (Wilmington). Here he trans- 
lated "Luther's Small Cathechism" into the language of the Dela- 
ware Indian (Lutheri Catechismus "Ofwersatt pa American- Vir- 
giniske Spraket." Stockholm Tryekt uthi thet af Kongl. Maytt 
privelig, Burchardi Tryckeri, af J. J. Genath/f Anno MDCXCVI, p. 
160) some years before the appearance of Eliot's Indian Bible. 
Campanius returned to Sweden in 1648, leaving his church of 200 
people in charge of Lars Lock, who was succeeded by Jacob Fabricius. 

Campanius learned the language of the red men and became 
the first Protestant missionary among the North American Indians. 
The Indian Catechism of Campanius antedated Eliot's Indian Bible 
in practical use. Eliot's Bible was not printed until 1661, and Cam- 
panius' was not put into print until 1696; however written copies 
were used up to that time. 

In the South, the Lutheran Church was planted in Georgia by a 
colony pf 1,200 Saltzburgers who landed at Savannah, March 10, 1734. 
This colony was led by Pastor John Martin Bolzius and Israel Chris- 
tian Gronau. Governor Oglethorpe led the immigrants 23 miles 
northwest of Savannah, where they erected a monument of stones 
where now stands the Ebenezer Church. Seven years later, 1741, the 
Church of Jerusalem was built. The descendants of these Saltz- 
burgers still maintain flourishing churches in Effingham County, 

Various congregations were organized in and around Philadel- 
phia, with here and there an organization in New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Delaware and Maryland from 1643 to 1710. The earliest min- 
isters that visited the Germans in Pennsylvania were the Swedish 
pastors on the Delaware. The first Lutheran service held in Penn- 
svlvania was held in Germantown in 1694. Among the Pioneer 
German ministers working in Pennsylvania was Daniel Falker. He 
labored in Pennsylvania from 1700 to 1708, organizing the oldest 
German Lutheran congregation in America in 1703 at New Han- 
over, Pa., this being undoubtedly the first point where permanent 
organization was formed among the German Lutherans in Pennsyl- 
vania. Another pioneer in Pennsylvania was Anthony Jacob Henkel 
(known as Gerhardt) who came to America in 1717, serving the con- 
frregation at New Hanover from 1717 to 1720, and then again from 
1723 to 1728. He is supposed to have traveled on horseback to the 

108 Year Book of the Churches 

Germans in Virginia and also to have visited all the German Luth- 
eran settlements near his home in New Hanover. 

Pastor Henkel was succeeded by John Casper Stoever, Sr., and 
John Casper Stoever, Jr. Most of the missionary work is attributed 
to John Casper Stoever, Jr. Wherever the Germans settled he held 
services for them and encouraged them to build regular churches. He 
was in America fourteen years before Muhlenberg came. 

John Christian Schultz arrived in America in 173^ and showed 
his organizing ability and business-like method in doing his work. In 
some respects he did more to prepare the way for Muhlenberg than 
any one else. As the result of letters written by congregations of 
Philadelphia, New Providence and New Hanover, Pastor Henry 
Melchior Muhlenberg was called to America, arriving September 23, 
1742. He landed at Charleston and visited Bolzius and the Saltz- 
burgers at Ebenezer and arrived in Philadelphia November 25, 1742. 
His name is linked forever with the bc^nning of organized Lutheran- 
ism in America. He became the patriarch of the Luthem Church in 
America, his work being to bring the primitive congregations into 
order, to infuse into them a strong piety and true church life, to 
provide them with good pastors, to introduce schools for the education 
of children, and to establish and preserve the Christian home. 
Muhlenberg's activities included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania 
and Maryland. By the middle of the 18th century Pennsylvania con- 
tained about 30,000 Lutherans, four-fifths being German and one- 
fifth Swedes. On August 26, 1748, Muhlenberg, with six other min- 
isters and lay-delegates of free congregations, organized the Synod of 
Pennsylvania, the first Lutheran Synod in this country. This was the 
most important event in the history of the American Lutheran Church 
in the 18th century. It was followed by the organization of the New 
York Synod in 1786, the Synod of North Carolina in 1803, the Synod 
of Ohio in 1818. The General Synod was formed at Hagerstown, Md. 

The extraordinary growth of the Lutheran Church in America 
was due primarily to Lutheran immigration, and to the activity on 
the part of the different Synods to reach all new immigrants. Dur- 
ing the 19th century these immigrants, in large numbers, came to 
America, establishing German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, 
Finnish and other language settlements, largely in the central, north- 
western and western parts of America. At the same time they estab- 
lished their churches and schools for religious instruction. A number 
of independent Synods were formed, each adapted to the peculiar con- 
dition of language, previous ecclesiastical relation, and geographic 
location. However, as the churches came into closer fellowship, the 
distinctive features tended to fade out and the small Synods became 
absorbed in others. The movements for union have resulted in the 
organization of the Synodical Conference, the Norwegian Lutheran 
Church in America, the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Wisconsin 
and other States, and the United Lutheran Church in America. In 
addition, in 1918 there was formed the National Lutheran Council, 
which is not a Synod or a church body, but an association of church 
bodies or Synods through their duly appointed representatives. 

The Lutherans of the United States believe firmly in the separa- 
tion of Church and State, in keeping the Church out of politics, and, 
in loyalty to the government. This is in harmony with the funda- 
mental confession of the Lutheran Church — The Augsburg of 1530. 


The Lutherans of the United States and Canada accept the 
Canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the inspired 
Word of God and as the only infallible rule and standard of faith 
and practice. They accept and confess the three ecumenical creeds: 

Directory of Religious Bodies 109 

namely, the Apostles, the Nicene, and the Athanasian. They accept 
and hold the unaltered Augsburg Confession as the correct exhibition 
of the faith and doctrine of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, founded 
upon the Word of God. None reject any of the other Symbolical 
Books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, namely, the Apology of 
the Augsburg Confession, the Smalcald Articles, the Large and Small 
Catechisms of Luther, and the Formula of Concord. Many accept 
all of these. All accept and use Luther's Small Catechism. 


In form of worship the Lutheran Church in the United States and 
Canada is liturgical. Religious education is emphasized. Thorough 
catechetical instruction is given preparatory to confirmation. 

In the Lutheran Church the Congregation is the unit of organi- 
zation. The internal affairs of the Congregation are administered by 
the church council and the pastor. The council is elected by, and 
accountable to, the congregation. The pastor is called by the Con- 
gregation and is usually ordained by the Synod. 

Congregations representatively, through the pastors and the 
elected lay delegates, constitute the constituent synods, districts or 
conferences. These congregational representatives convene in the 
synod, district or conference and have, within the constitutional limi- 
tations, the powers of the congregations themselves. 

The general synodical bodies are in turn composed of representa- 
tives elected by the constituent synods, districts or conferences, usually 
upon the basis of one delegate for ten congregations. The general 
synodical body, therefore, represents not only the constituent synod, 
district or conference, but also the congregations . The authority of 
the congregation is thus preeminent and the judgments of the gen- 
eral synodical bodies become the judgments of the Church. 

The constituent synods, districts or conferences meet annually. 
The general bodies meet annually, biennially or triennially. 


This is not a Synod or a Church Body, but an association of 
Church Bodies through their duly appointed representatives. It 
is an agency through which general Bodies or Synods of the 
Lutheran Church cooperate under regulations guaranteeing to 
each the rights, privileges, and immunities of a free Church 
Body. **It is the right of the Bodies themselves to determine the 
extent of cooperation. ' ' Its most important work, since its or- 
ganization in 1918, has been that done in behalf of European 
relief, for statistics, publicity, and representation. A full ac- 
count of the organization may be found in The Lutheran World 
Al/manac and Annual Encyclopedia for 1921 (pp. 493-503), 
published by authority of the Council. The Bodies cooperating 
in the Council are indicated by an asterisk (*). 

Annual meeting, November 1922. 

OflScers : Pres., Rev. Lauritz Larsen, 437 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City; Vice-Pres,, Rev. C. H. L. Schuette, 62 Wilson Ave., 
Columbus, Ohio; Treas., Hon. E. F. Eilert, 437 Fifth Ave., N. 
Y. C. ; Sec, Rev. Peter Peterson, 1434 Raseher Ave., Chicago, 

110 Year Book of the Churches 

Executive Committee: Chr., Rev. Lauritz Larsen; Rev. Peter 
Peterson, Rev. C. H. L. Schuette, Hon. E. F. Eilert, Rev. G. A. Bran- 
delle. Rev. I. Gertsen, Prof. Chas. M. Jacobs, Rev. H. G. Stub and Rev. 
H. A. Weller. 

Committee on Statistics and Almanac: Chr,, Prof. O. M. 
Norlie, Luther College, Decorah, Iowa ; Statistician, Rev. G. L. Kieff er, 
437 Fifth Ave., N. Y. C. 

Committee for Lutheran Bureau, 437 Fifth Avenue, New York 
City; Chr.y Rev. Lauritz Larsen; Mr. George D. Boschen; Mr. Charles 
H. Dahmer; Sec. and Dir,, Rev. Howard R. Gold; Librarian, Prof. 

0. M. Norlie; Reference Librarian, Rev. G. L. Kieffer. 


The United Lutheran Church in America is the consumma- 
tion of the historic development of Lutheran churches of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For a full century the 
churches were without synodical organization. The beginning 
was made in this direction in 1748, when, under the leadership of 
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, the Ministerium (S5aiod) of Penn- 
sylvania was organized. Three general bodies of Lutherans 
which grew out of the churches of the colonial period came to- 
gether in 1918 in the City of New York and merged into **The 
United Lutheran Church in America. ' ' These were The General 
Synod, The General Council and The United Synod in the South. 

The body is composed of thirty-eight constituent synods, 
thirty-four of which are in the United States and four in Can- 
ada. It conducts missions in India, Africa, Japan, South Amer- 
ica and the West India Islands. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. F. H. Knubel, 437 Fifth Ave., New York 
City ; Sec, Rev. M. G. G. Scherer, 437 Fifth Ave., New York 
City; Treas., Mr. E. Clarence Miller, 410 Chestnut Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Executive Board (also Trustees). The officers with twelve 
other members elected by the Convention. 

Commission of Adjudication. Pres., Rev. H. E. Jacobs, Mt. 
Airy, Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Rev. Holmes Dysinger, 737 E. Military 
Ave., Fremont, Nebr. 

Board of Foreign Missions. Pres., Rev. E. K. Bell, 821 W. Lan- 
vale St., Baltimore, Md.; Gen, Sees., Rev. L. B. Wolf, 601 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore, Md., Rev. C. L. Brown, 601 Cathedral St., Baltimore, 
Md.; Rev. George Drach, 601 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

Board of Home Missions and Church Extension. Pres., Rev. 
J. E. Whitteker, 1630 S. 11th Ave., Maywood, 111.; Gen. Sec.-Treas., 
Rev. H. H. Weber, Security Bldg., York, Pa.; Ed. Sec, Rev. A. S. 
Hartman, 914 N. CarroUton Ave., Baltimore, Md.; Dis. Supts., Rev. 

1. C. Hoffman, 3501 N. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa., Rev. J. F. Seibert, 
159 N. State St., Chicago, 111., Rev. A. D. R. Hancher, 1639A, West 
Grace St., Richmond, Va. 

Board of Northwestern Missions. Pres., Rev. Emil C. J. 
Kraeling, 132 Henry St., Brooklyn, N. Y.; Sec, Rev. G. A. Benze, 
118 W. 23 St., Erie Pa.; Treas., Rev. H. D. E. Siebott, 2502 N. 27th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Immigrants Mission Board. Pres., Rev. W. M. Rehrig, 321 
South St., Mauch Chunk, Pa.; Sec, Rev. Frank E. Jensen, 2115 N. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 111 

3rd St., Harrisburg, Pa.; Treas,, Mr. H. E. Young, Keystone and 
Glendale Aves., Bethlehem, Pa.; Supt, Rev. A. L. Ramer, 30 S. Jef- 
ferson St., Allen town, Pa. 

West Indies Mission Board. Pres,, Rev. H. W. A. Hanson, 807 
Sixth St., Harrisburg, Pa.; Sec, Mr. H. F. Heuer, 115 Gowen Ave., 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Mr. S. F. Telleen, Chase Natl. Bank, New 
York City; Ex. Sec, Rev. Zenan M. Corbe, 3120 N. Park Ave., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Committee on Jewish Missions. Pres., Rev. F. O. Evers, 228 N. 
Franklin St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Rev. Arthur C. Carty, 256 S. 
Farragut Terrace, Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Mr. Charles J. Fite, 234 
Bakewell Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Board of Education. Pres., Alonzo J. Turkle, Stock Ave. and 
Arch St., Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Rec. Sec, Rev. H. R. Gold, 437 Fifth Ave., 
New York City; Treas,, Mr. J. M. Snyder, Elkins Park, Pa.; Ex. 
Sec, Rev. F. G. Gotwald, 47 E. Market St., York, Pa. 

Inner Mission Board. Pres., Rev. E. F. Bachmann, 2100 S. 
College Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec and Treas., Rev. Wm. Freas, 437 
Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Board of Publication. Pres,, Prof. S. P. Sadtler, 210 S. 13th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Rev. N. R. Melhorn, 4720 Warrington 
Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Mr. E. G. Hoover, Harrisburg, Pa.; 
Business Mgr., Mr. Grant Hultberg, S. E.fcor. Ninth and Sansom 
Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board of Ministerial Relief. Pres., Rev. A. Pohlman, 5143 
Race St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Executive Sec, Rev. E. G. Miller, 701 
N. W. cor. 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas,, Mr. J. H. 
Brandt, 1131 S. 46th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Parish and Church School Board. Pres., Rev. C. P. Wiles, 
Ninth and Sansom Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Rev. W. L. Hunton, 
Ninth and Sansom Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., H. M. M. Rich- 
ards, Esq., Lebanon, Pa.; Field Sec, Rev. D. Burt Smith, 6086 Ches- 
ter Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board of Deaconess Work. Pres., Rev. L. M. Zimmerman, 421 
Hanover St., Baltimore, Md.; Sec, Rev. C. E. Hay, 2500 W. North 
Ave., Baltimore, Md.; Treas., F. J. Singley, Esq., 2429 W. North 
Ave., Batlimore, Md. 

National Lutheran Home for the Aged. Pres., Rev. John 
Weidley, 233 Second St. S. E., Washington, D. C; Rec Sec, Rev. 
J. T. Huddle, 738 Eleventh St. N. W., Washington, D. C; Cor. Sec, 
Mr. W. H. Finckel, 918 F St. N. W., Washington, D. C; Treas,, 
Mr. H. T. Domer, 727 Fifteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Committee on Church Papers. Chmn., Rev. J. A. Singmaster, 
Gettysburg, Pa.; Sec, Rev. J. E. Whitteker, 1630 S. Eleventh Ave., 
Maywood, 111. 

Executive Committee of the Laymen's Missionary Movement. 
Chmn., Mr. J. L. Clark, Ashland, Ohio; Sec, Mr. A. D. Chiquoine, 
1524 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Statistical and Church Year Book. Chmn,, Rev. E. B. Bur- 
gess, 23 Chestnut St., Crafton, Pa.; Statis. Sec of the United Luth- 
eran Church, Rev. G. L. Kieffer, 437 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Committee on Common Service Book. Chmn., Rev. J. A. Sing- 
master, Gettyburg, Pa.; Sec, Rev. L. D. Reed, 7132 Chew St., Mt. 
Airy, Pa. 

Committee on Church Music. Chmn., Rev. J. F. Ohl, 826 S. 
St. Bernard St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec and Treas., Rev. E. Fischer, 
7300 Boyer St., Mt. Airy, Pa. 

Committee of Conference on Special Linguistic Interests. 
Chmn., Rev. E. C. J. Kraeling, 132 Henry St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

112 Year Book of the Churches 


Kapp, 1208 Race St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Committee on Women's Work. Chmn., Rev. W. D. C. Keiter, 
1416 South Penn Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Committee on Associations op Young People. Chmru, E. A. 
Miller, Esq., 375 E. Gowen Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Committee on Work Among Boys. Chmn., Rev. C. P. Harry, 
301 E. Gravers Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Committee on Moral and Social Welpare. Chmn., Rev. E. P. 
Pfatteidier, 527 Washington St., Reading, Pa. 

Committee on Evangelism. Chmn., Rev. J. C. Seegers, Mt. 
Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Committee on Church Architecture. Chmn., Rev. J. F. Ohl, 
826 S. St. Bernard St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Committee on Publicity. Chmn., Rev. H. R. Gold, 437 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. 

Committee on Necrology. Chmn., Rev. W. E. Stahler, Lebanon, 

Committee on Transportation. Chmn., Mr. Harvey C. Mil- 
ler, 3214 N. Board St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Archivist. Rev. L. D. Reed, 7132 Chew St., Mt. Airy, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Committee on Aiy^Y and Navy Chaplains. Chnvru, Rev. C. 
M. Jacobs, 7333 Germantown Ave., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa.; Rev. 
H. A. Weller, Rev. G. H. Bechtold, Rev. E. F. Krauss, Rev. F .H. 
Knubel, Rev. C. F. Steck, Rev. I. D. Worman, Hon. E. F. Eilert. 

Commissioners to the National Lutheran Council. Chmn., 
Rev. H. A. Weller, 1416 South Penn Square, Philadelphia, Pa.; Rev. 
C. M. Jacobs, Rev. C. J. Smith, Rev. F. H. Knubel, Rev. V. G. A. 
Tressler, Rev. C. A. Freed, Hon. E. F. Eilert, G. F. Greiner, Esq. 

Representative on the Advisory Committee op the American 
Bible Socity. Rev. H. C. Alleman, Gettysburg, Pa. 

Women's Missionary Society. Pres., Mrs. J. G. Traver, Hart- 
wick Seminary, New York; Rec. Sec, Mrs. F. W. Morehead, Salem, 
Va.; Statis. Sec, Mrs. F. E. Jensen, 2115 N. 3d St., Harrisburg, Pa.; 
Treas., Mrs. N. C. Weier, 227 Amherst Drive, Harvard Terrace, To- 
ledo, Ohio. 

Luther League of America. Pres., Mr. C. T. A. Anderson, 35 
S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111.; Gen. Sec, Mr. Harry Hodges, 427 
Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Mr. P. Walter Banker, 427 
Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Lutheran Brotherhood. Pres., Mr. Charles J. Driever, 
40 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111.; Sec, Mr. J. H. Homrighous, Chi- 
cago, 111.; Treas., Mr. J. W. Howe, Chicago, 111. 

Parent Education Society. Pres., Rev. A. R. Wentz, Gettys- 
burg, Pa. 

Lutheran Historical Society. Pres., Rev. F. P. Manhart, 
Selinsgrove, Pa. 

Lutheran Church Book and Litesiature Society. Pres,, Rev. 
J. F. Ohl, 826 S. St. Bernard St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


(For men) 

Name Location President or Director 

Pennsylvania Gettysburg, Pa W. A. Granville. 

Wittenberg Springfield, Ohio R. E. Tulloss. 

Roanoke Salem, Va C. J. Smith. 

Newberry Newberry, S. C S. J. Denick. 

Susquehanna University Selinsgrove, Pa C. T. Aikens. 

• Muhlenberg Allentown, Pa J. A. W. Haas. 

Thiel Greenville, Pa E. P. Ritter (Acting)- 

Carthage Carthage, 111. H. D. Hoover. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 113 

Name Location President or Dean 

Wagner Memorial Staten Island, N. Y A. H. Holthusen. 

M dland Fremont, Neb E. E. Stauffer. 

Lenoir Hickory, N. C J. C Peery. 

WeMner Institute Mulberry, Ind W. C. Davis. 

Lutheran Saskatoon, Sask., Can H. W. Harms. 

Waterloo Waterloo, Ont., Can E. Hoffman. 

(For w(Mnen) 

Mont. Amoena Seminary Mt. Pleasant, N. C J. H. C. Fisher. 

Marion College Marion, Va C. B. Cox. 

Lankenau Sdiool Philadelphia, Pa. E. P. Bachmann. 

Elizabeth College Salem, Va. P. Sieg. 

bummerland College Leesville, S. C P. E. Monroe. 

Theological Seminaries 

Hartwick Seminary Hartwick Seminary, N. Y.. A. E. Delti. 

Theological Seminary Gettysburg, Pa J. A. Singmaster. 

Southern Lutheran Theological 

Seminary Columbia, S. C A. O. Voigt. 

Hamma Divinity School Springfield, Ohio D. H. Bauslin. 

School of Theology .• Selinsgrove, Pa F. P. Manhart. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary. .. Philadelphia, Pa. H. E. Ja€»^. 

Chicago Lutheran Theological 

Seminary Maywood, 111 J. B. Whitteker. 

Western Seminary Fremont, Neb H. Dysinger. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary Waterloo, Ont., Can C. H. Little. 

Paofflc Theological Seminary Seattle, Wash J. C. Kunzman. 

Mnrtin Luther Seminary Lincoln, Neb P. Wupper. 

Northwestern Lutheran Theological 

Seminary Fargo, N. D J. Stump. 


The Lutheran (weekly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. G. W. 
Sandt; Der Deutsche Lutheraner (weekly), Philadelphia, Pa., Edi- 
tor, Rev. G. C. Berkemeier; Lutherischer Zions-Bote (semi-monthly), 
Burlington, la.. Editor, Rev. W. Rosenstengel ; The Camada Luth- 
eran (monthly), Kingston, Ont., Canada, Editor, Rev. J. F. Bermon; 
The Foreign Missionary (monthly), Baltimore, Md., Editor, Rev. G. 
Drach; Lutheran Church Review (quarterly), Philadelphia, Pa., Edi- 
tor, Seminary Faculty; Lutheran Church Year Book (annually), 
Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. W. M. Kopenhaver; Der Lutherische 
Kalender (annually), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. R. Neumann; 
The Young Lutheran (monthly), Greenville, Pa., Editor, Rev. T. B. 
Roth; The Lutheran Quarterly, Gettysburg, Pa., Editor, Rev. J. A. 
Singmaster; Orphans* Home Echoes (monthly), Loysville, Pa., Edi- 
tor, Mr. C. A. Widle; Orphans^ Home Paper (monthly), Topton, Pa., 
Editor, Rev. J. O. Henry; Chicago Luthera/n Advocate (monliily), 
Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. J.- M. Bramkamp; Lutheran Wom/in's 
Work (monthly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Mrs. J. F. Seebach; 
Luther League Review (monthly). New York City, Editor, Mr. 
Harry Hodges; Publications for Bible School (quarterly), Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Editors, Rev. C. P. Wiles and Rev. W. L. Hunton; The 
Messenger (Orphans' Home) (monthly), Salem, Va., Editor, Prof. 
J. T. Crabtree. , 


Organized at Somerset, Ohio, September, 1818. Now com- 
posed of twelve districts — ten in the United States, one in Can- 
ada and one in Australia. 

Synod, biennial; next meeting, Detroit, Michigan, August, 

Officers: Pres., Rev. C. H. L. Schuette, 62 Wilson Ave., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio; First Vice-Pres., Rev. C. C. Hein, 404 S. Third 

114 Year Book of the Churches 

St., Columbus, Ohio; Second Vice-Pres,, Rev. M. P. F. Doer- 
mann. Blue Island, 111.; German Sec, Rev. W. D. Ahl, 530 
Ninth St., Oshkosh, Wis.; Gen, Treas., George L. Conrad, 55 
Bast Main St., Columbus, Ohio. 

Mission Board. Executive Officer, Rev. E. F. W. Stellhom, 595 
College Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

Publication Board. Chmn,, Rev. J. Sheatsley, 960 Bryden 
Road, Columbus, Ohio; Sec, Rev. C. C. Hein, 404 S. Third St., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio; Btis, Mngr,, Rev. A. H. Dombirer, 55-57 E. Main St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Statistician, Prof. Carl Ackerman, Capital University, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. 

Board op Wernle Orphans' Home. Pre8., Rev. A. L. Nicklas; 
Rev. M. L. Baum, Mr. G. Hagelberger, Mr. L. Rogge, Mr. G. A. Cut- 
ter; Mr. George Deuker, Sec. 

Board op Old Folks' Home and Orphai^s' Home, Mars, Penn- 
sylvania. Pres., Rev. G. D. Simen; Sec, Rev. C. F. W. Brecht; Mr. 
Adolf Ebert, Mr. C. E. Cronenwett, Hon. N. Hogue, Mr. Walter 

Board op Old Folks' Home, Springfield, Minn. Pres., Rev. P. 
H. Haupt; Sec, Rev. W. Striepe; Rev. H. Pfeiffer, Mr. Ferd. Kettner, 
Mr. E. Bauch. 

Board op Aids. Pres., Rev. J. M. Johanssen; Sec, Prof. C. 
Vogel; Rev. C. Bez, Rev. C. H Althoff, Mr J. Michelf elder, Mr. J. E. 
Niemann, Teacher F. Wiechert. 

Board op Foreign Missions, 57 East Main St., Columbus, Ohio. 
Pres., Prof. E. Pfeiffer; Sec, Rev. J. H. Schneider. 

Educational Institutions 

Name Location President 

Capital University Columbus, Ohio Otto Mees. 

Luther Seminary : .... St. Paul, Minn K. Hemminghaus. 

Woodville Normal School Woodville, Ohio C. Vogel. 

Hebron Academy Hebron, Neb W. L. Young, acting. 

Theological Seminary Columbus, Ohio Otto Mees. 

Luther Theological Seminary St. Paul, Minn H. Ernst, Dean. 


Lutheran Standard (weekly). Editor, Rev. J. Sheatsley; Lutk- 
erische Kirchen-Zeitung (weekly). Editor, Prof. R. C. H. Lenski; 
Lutheran Youth (weekly). Editor, Prof. C. B. Gohdes. All Lutheran 
Book Concern, 57 E. Main St., Columbus, Ohio. 


Organized 1854. 

General Synod, meets triennially; next meeting, Waverly, 
la., August, 1920. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. F. Richter, Clinton, la.; Vice-Pres., 
Rev. G. A. Fandrey, Chicago, 111. ; Sec, Rev. F. Braun Hosmer, 
S. Dak.; Treas., Rev. J. Haefner, Muscatine, la. 

Home Mission Board. Pres., Rev. L. Seehase, Eureka, S. D. 

Board op Publication. Pres., C. H. Graening, Waverly, la. 

Luther League and Sunday School Board. Pres., Rev. M. 
Reu, Dubuque, la. 

Foreign Mission Board. Pres., G. J. Fritschel, Dubuque, la. 

Church Extension Board. Pres., Rev. H. Fritschel, Milwau- 
kee, Wis. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 115 

Board op Education. Pres., Rev. M. Reu, Dubuque, la. 
Finance Board. Pres.j Rev. F. Richter, Clinton, la. 

Colleges and Theological Semina/ries 

Name Location President 

Wartburg Theological Seminary Dubuque, Iowa M. Fritschel. 

Wartburg College Clinton, Iowa A. Proc*J. 

Wartburg Teachers' S^ninary and Pro- 
seminary Waverly, Iowa A. Engelbrecht. 

Luther College Eureka, S. D G. Sondrack. 

Lutheran College Seguin, Tex C. Weeber. 


Kirchliche Zeitschrift, Editor, Rev. M. Reu; Kirchenblatt, Edi- 
tor, Rev. F. Richter; Lutheran Herald (b-weekly) Editor, Rev. E. 
H. Rausch; Jugendblatt, Editor, Rev. G. Weng; Die Missionsstunde 
(monthly), Editor, Rev. C. Taubert; The Lutheran Missiona/ry 
(monthly), Editor, Prof. G. J. Zeilinger, Dubuque, la.; AnstaXtshote 
(monthly). Editor, Rev. H. Foeisch; Lutherischer Weisenfreund, Edi- 
tors, Rev. F. Henkelmann, Rev. E. W. Matzner; Wartburg KaXenr 
dwr (annually). Editor, Rev. A. Pilger. (All published at Wav- 
erly, la.) 


Organized 1845. 

Officers: Pres,, Rev. E. Nemeschy, 1661 Cleveland Ave., 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. ; German Sec, Prof. Rudolph Grabau, 154 
Maple St., Buffalo, N. Y.; English Sec, Rev. H. C. Leupold, 
41 Schreck St., Buffalo, N. Y. ; Treas., John H. Paasch, 184 
Goodell St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Martin Luther Seminary Buffalo, N. Y R. F. W. Grabau. 


Wachende /^irc/ie (semi-monthly), Pittsburgh, Pa., Editor, Rev. 
K. A. Hoessel, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Organized 1885. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. J. Frederick, Melbourne, Ky. ; Sec, 
Rev. C. Schoenwandt, 915 E. 3d St., Cincinnati, Ohio; Treas., 
Rev. Gustav Firgan, Plaza, N. D. 


Organized 1893. 

Annual meeting. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Wilhelm Hartwig, R. 2, No. 279 High- 
land Park, Mich. ; Vice-Pres and Sec, Rev. H. Wicke, Flat 
Rock, Mich.; Treas., Rev. H. Rehn, 6926 Theodore Ave., De- 
troit, Mich. 

116 Year Book of the Churches 


Organized 1860. 

Synod, annual. 

Twelve conferences, 3 mission districts. 

Officers: Pres,, Kev. G. A. Brandelle; Vice-Pres., Rev. P. A. 
Mattson; Sec, Rev. Jos. A. Anderson, Boxholm, la.; Treas., 
K. T. Anderson, Rock Island, 111. 

Home Mission Board. Chmm., Rev. G. A. Brandelle; Treas., 
C. A. Larsen, Rock Island, 111.; English Field Sec., Rev. C. M. dan- 
der, Duluth, Minn.; Treas, for Foreign Work, Prof. C. W. Foss, 
Rock Island, 111. 

China Mission Board. Chmn,, Rev. 0. J. Johnson; Treas., 
Rev. A. P. Fors, 6206 Peoria St., Chicago, 111.; Field See., Rev. F. 
W. Wyman, Minneapolis, Minn. 

■ IMMANUEL Deaconess Institute, Omaha, Nebr. Supt, Rev. 
E. G. Chinlund, Omaha; Sec. of the Boa/rd, Rev. C. F. Sandahl, 

Ministeral Pension and Aid Fund. Sec. and Treas., Rev. S. 
A. Lindholm, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Society. Sec, Miss 
May Mellander, 6253 Greenview Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Augustana Book Concern, Rock Island, 111. Treas.-Mgr., A. 
G. Anderson. 

Colleges and Theological Semina/ries 

Name Location President 

Augustana College and . Theological 

Seminary Rock Island, 111 G. A. ' Andreen. 

Gustavus Adolphus College St. Peter, Minn O. J. Johnson. 

Bethany College Lindsborg, Kans E. P. Pihlbbad. 

Luther College Wahoo, Neb A. T. Seashore. 

Upsala College Kenilworth, N. J C. G. Ericson. 

Northwestern College Fergus Fall, Minn 

Minnesota College Minneapolis, Minn. ^ . . . . Prank Nelson. 

Trinity College Round Rock, Tex Hugo B. Haterius. 

North Star College Warren, Minn C. E. SJoestrand, acting. 


Augustana (weekly). Editor, Rev. L. G. Abrahamson; The Luth- 
eran Companion (weekly), Editor, Rev. C. J. Bengston. Both pub- 
lished by Augustana Book Concern, Rock Island, 111. 


The general movement in the Lutheran bodies toward union 
of different Synods resulted in the organization of the Nor- 
wegian Lutheran Church, 1917. This movement was initiated 
in 1905 by Hauge's Synod taking up the matter with other Nor- 
wegian Lutheran bodies. Four bodies form this union, namely, 
Hauge's Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 1846; the 
Synod of the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church of Amer- 
ica, 1853; the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America, 
1890; and the Norwegian Lutheran Church, 1843. 
Airnual meeting; next session, June, 1922. 
. OflScers : Pres., Rev. H. G. Stub, 425 4th St. S., Minneapolis, 
Minn.; Sec, Rev. N. J. Lohre, Mayville, N. D. ; Treas., Erik 
Waldeland, 425 Fourth St. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 117 

Church Council: Pres., Rev. H. G. Stub; Sec, Rev. H. C. 
Holm, Eagle Grove, la. 

Board of Education. Pres., Rev. H. G. Stub; Sec, Prof. L. A. 
Vigness, 425 Fourth St. S., Muineapolis, Minn. 

Board op Home Missions and Church Extension. Prea,, Rev. 
C. S. B. Hoel, 425 Fourth St. S., Minneapolis, Minn. ; Sec, Rev. J. A. 
Quello, Forest City, Iowa; Treaa,, Rev. Peter Tangjerd, 425 Fourth 
St. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Board of Foreign Missions. Pres,, Rev. J. N. Sandven, Ro- 
land, Iowa; Rcc, Sec, J. R. Birkelund, 425 Fourth St. S., Minne- 
apolis, Minn.; Cor, Sec, Rev. M. Saterlie, 425 Fourth St. S., Minne- 
apolis, Minn.; Trecvs,, Rev. Peter Tangjerd. 

Board of Charities. Pres,, Rev. H. G. Stub; Sec, C. M. Wes- 
wig, Como and Pierce Sts., St. Paul, Minn.; Gen, Sec and Supt. of 
Home Finding, Rev. H. B. Kildahl, 425 Fourth St. S., Minneapolis, 

Board op Trustees. Pres,, 0, 0, Erling, South Side State Bank, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; Sec J. 0. Estrem, 425 Fourth St. S., Minne- 
apolis, Minn.; Treas,, Erik Waldeland. 

Board op Publications. Pres,, 0. 0. Erling; Sec, Rev. K. A. 
Kasberg, Grantsburg, Wis. 

Board of Pensions. Pres,, Prof . L. W. Boe, Northfield, Minn.; 
Sec, Rev. E. J. Strom, Watson, Minn.; Treas,, Erik Waldeland. 

Colleges and Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Augustana College and Normal School Sioux Falls, S. D C. O. Solbetrg. 

Concordia College Moorhead, Minn .J. A. Aasgaard. 

Luther College Decorah, Iowa Oscar L. Olson. 

Red Wing Seminary Red Wing, Minn H. E. Jorgenson. 

Lutheran Normal School Madison, Minn E. R. Rorem. 

Luther Seminary St. Paul, Minn M. O. Bockman. 

St. Olaf College Northfield, Minn L. W. Boe. 

Canton Lutheran Normal Canton, S. D J. N. Brown. 

Jewell Lutheran College Jewell, Iowa H. A. Okdale. 

Spokane Lutheran College Spokane, Wash H. P. Olson. 

Camrose Lutheran College Camrose, AJta A. H. Solheim. 

Gale College Galesville, Wis H. T. - Swanson. 

Pleasant View Luther College Ottawa, 111 A. O. Mortvedt. 

Central Wisconsin College Scandinavia, Wis A. O. B. Molldrem. 

Waldorf College Forest City, Iowa C. B. Helgen. 

Park Region Luther College Fergus Falls, Minn E. Wulfsberg. 

Clifton College Clifton, Tex C. Tyssen. 

Luther Academy Albert Lea, Minn K. J. Jacobson. 

Outlook College Outlook, Sask H. O. Gronlid. 

Pacific Lutheran College Parkland, Wash O. J. Ordal. 


Lutheraneren (weekly), Editor, Rev. J. M. Sundheim; Lutheran 
Church Herald (weekly). Editor, Rev. G. T. Lee; Teologisk Tids- 
skrift. Editor, Rev. R. Malmin; Bamevennen, Editor, Rev. K. 
Kvamme; Children's Friend, Editor, H. Jorgensen. All, 425 Fourth 
St. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 


Organized 1897. 

Next meeting (annual), Minneapolis, Minn., June, 1922. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. 0. H. Sletten, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Sec, 
Rev. P. O. Laurhammer, Fairdale, N. Dak. ; Treas,, Miss Ragna 
Sverdrup, Minneapolis, Minn. 

118 Year Book of the Churches 

Board op Foreign Missions. Pres,, Rev. E. E. Gynild, Wilmar, 
Minn.; Sec, Rev. Johan Mattson, Minneapolis, Minn.; Treas,, J. H. 
Blegen, Augsburg Seminary, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Board op Home Missions. Pres,, Rev. Christian Vtrehus; 5ec., 
Rev. H. C. Caspersen, Churches Ferry, N. Dak.; Trema,, Rev. Elias 
Pederson, Fergus Falls, Minn. 

Colleges and Semina/ries 

Name Location President 

Augsburg College Minneapolis, Minn George Sverdrup, Jr. 

Bethany College Everett, Wash L. B. Saetem. 

Oak Grove Seminary Fargo, N. Dak J. Fossum. 

Theological Seminary Minneapolis, Minn George Sverdrup, Jr. 

Periodicals (weekly) 

Folkebladet, Editor, Rev. S. Rislov; Bamcts Ven, Editor, J. 
Nydahl; Lutheran Free Chturch Messenger, Editor, Rev. Claus Mor- 
gen. All, Minneapolis, Minn. 


Organized 1846. 

OflScers: Pres., Rev. S. M. Stenby, Clear Lake, Iowa; Sec, 
Rev. A. L. Wiek, 2726 18th Ave. S., Minneapolis, Minn. ; Treds., 
Leonard Peterson, Centreville, S. Dak. 

Board of Trustees. Chmn., T. A. Thompson, Lodi, Wis.; P. T. 
Havreberg, Minneapolis, Minn.; P. 0. Peterson, Centerville, S. Dak.; 
0. A. Larson, Fairchild, Wis.; Hans Stoll, Jackson, Minn.; Ole Jacob- 
son, Disco, Wis.; P. J. Peterson, Clear Lake, Iowa. 

Board of Home Missions. Pres,, N. F. Jacobson, Dawson, 
Minn.; Sec, I. T. Erickson, 4529 Blasedell Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.; 
Treas,, T. P. Thompson, Dawson, Minn. 

Board of Church Council. Chmn., Rev. S. M. Stenby, Clear 
Lake, la.; Sec, J. O. Blaness; Treas., A. L. Wiek, 2726 18th Ave. 
S., Minneapolis, Minn.; P. J. Peterson, I. T. Erickson. 

Board op Indian Missions. Pres,, S. O. Overby, Taylor, Wis.; 
Vice^Pres,, Reier Skutley, Taylor, Wis.; Treas,, N. T. Petersen, Tay- 
lor, Wis. 

Board op Publication. Chmn., Rev. S. M. Stenby, Clear Lake, 
la.; Sec, Rev. J. O. Blaness, S. Haven, Minn.; Treas., Rev. A. L. 
Wiek, 2726 18th Ave. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 


Name Location Principal 

Lutheran Bible School Minneapolis, Minn A. L. Wiek. 


Den Kristelige Laegmand (monthly), Minneapolis, Minn., Edi- 
tor, Rev. A. L. Wiek, 2726 18th Ave. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 


Organized 1900. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. E. H. Gunhus, 3135 18th Ave. S., Min- 
neapolis, Minn.; Vice-Pres., Rev. E. M. Sletta, Cooperstown, N. 
Dak. ; Sec, Rev. G. Stenoien, Fergus Falls, Minn. ; Treas., Otto 
Reed, 417 E. Hennepin Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Board of Missions, Home and Foreign. Officers same as above. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 119 

TheolofficcU Seminary 

Name Location President 

Lutheran Bible School Grand Forks, N. D E. M. Broen. 


Broderbaandet (semi-monthly), Minneapolis, Minn., Editor, E. 
M. Broen. 


Organized 1896. 

Last meeting, Blair, Nebr., June, 1921. 

Officers : Pres,, Rev. M. N. Andreasen, Cedar Falls, la. ; Vice- 
Pres., N. C, Carlsen, Royal, la. ; Sec, Rev. A. W. Lund, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. ; Treas., Otto Hansen, Blair, Nebr. 

Committee op Japan Mission. Chmn., Rev. V. W. Bondo, 
Racine, Wis. 

Educational Boabd. Pres,, Rev. H. Bondo, Albert Lea., Minn. 

Danish Lutheran Publishing House, Blair, Nebr. Mgr,, Rev. 
J. C. Pedersen. 


Name Location President 

Dana College Blair, Neb C. X. Hansen. 

Trinity Theological Seminary Blair, Neb P. S. Vig. 

Elk Horn Folk High School and College Elk Horn, Iowa Kr. Auker. 

Brorson Folk High School Kenmare, N. D James Lund. 


Luthersk Ugehlad (weekly). Editor, Rev. J. C. Pedersen; The 
Little Lutheran (weekly). Editor, Rev. Ing. M. Anderson; Bome- 
bladet (weekly). Editor, Rev. J. C. Carlsen. 



Organized 1872. 

Synod, annual. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. N. P. Gravengaard, Grand View Col- 
lege, Des Moines, Iowa.; Sec, Rev. J. C. Aaberg, Dwight, 111.; 
Treas., H. P. Rasmussen, 327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

Board op Foreign Missions. Pres., Rev. A. Dan, 510 E. 64th 
St., Chicago, 111.; Sec, Rev. J. C. Aaberg, Dwight, 111. 


Nam^ Location President 

Ashland College Grant, Mich P. Rasmussen. 

Atterdag College Solvang, Calif B. Nordentoft. 

Grand View College Des Moines, Iowa C. P. Hojberg. 

t'annebod College Tyler, Minn T. Knudsen. 

Nysted College Nysted, Neb Aage Moller. 


Bomevennen, Cedar Falls, la.. Editor, Rev. M. Hoist; Danne- 

virke, Cedar Falls, la.. Editor, Rev. M. Hoist; Kirkelig Samler, 

Askov, Minn., Editor, Rev. Ewald Chrestens; Ungdom, Omaha, 
Nebr., Editor, 0. C. Olsen. 

120 Year Book of the Churches 


Organized at Mountain, N. Dak., in 1885. 

Meets annually; next session at Mountain, N. Dak., June, 

OflScers: Pres., Rev. N. S. Thorlaksson, Selkirk, Manitoba, 
Qan. ; Sec, Rev. F. Hallgrimsson, Baldur, Manitoba, Can.; 
Treas,, F. Johnson, Winnipeg, Can. 

Executive Board. Chmn., ex officio, The President. 


Name Location PreHdent 

Jon Bjamason Academy Winnipeg, Can R. Marteinson. 


So/meiningin (monthly), Winnipeg, Manitoba, Can., Editor, Rev. 
6. B. Jonsson. 


Organized at Calumet, Mich., 1890. 

OflScers: Pres., Rev. Alvar Rautalahti, 215 Maple St., Ish- 
peming, Mich. ; Sec., V. Knusisto, Box 823, Crystall Falls, Mich. ; 
Treas,, Isaac Wargelin, Hancock, Mich. 


Name Location President 

Syomi College Hancock, Mich John Wargelin. 

' Periodicals 

(Published by Finnish Lutheran Book Concern, Hancock, Mich.) 
Amerikan Suometa/r ( tri- weekly ) , Editor, Emil Saastamoinen ; 
Aura (monthly), farmers' paper; Lasten Lekti (monthly), chil- 
dren's paper; Ntwrten Ystava (monthly), The Young People's 
Friend, Editor, Rev. E. Maatala; Paimen Sanomia (weekly). Edi- 
tor, Rev. J. Wargelin; Suomi Opiston Juklajukkaiaut (quarterly). 



Organized at Ironwood, Mich., October, 1900. 

Convention, annual; next meeting, New York Mills, Minn., 
June, 1922. 

OflScers: Pres., Rev. Arne Wasunta, Ironwood, Mich.; Vice- 
Pres., Rev. M. Wiskari ; Sec, Rev. P. Miettuen, New York Mills, 
Minn. ; Treas., Erick Kangas, Ironwood, Mich. 

Board of Directors. The officers. 
Japan Mission Committee. Chmn., Rev. M. Wiskari, Calumet, 

Committee op Financial Affairs. Chmn., Erick Kangas, Iron- 
wood, Mich. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location PresiderU 

Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Seminary Ironwood, Mich K. E. Salonen. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 121 


Auttaja (weekly), Ironwood, Mich., Editor, Ame Wasunta; 
The Children's Friend (monthly), Ironwood, Mich., Editor* Mrs. A. 


Organized 1872. 

Convention, annual; next meeting, Hockinson, Wash., June 
8, 1922. 

Address, Rev. Charles Ojala, Astoria, Ore. 

Christian Monthly, Astoria, Ore., Editor, Matt Mattson. 



In the early part of the nineteenth century an effort was made 
by King Frederick William III of Prussia to unite the Lutheran and 
Reformed Churches. To him it seemed an easy matter to combine 
"the two slightly divergent confessions," but with the study of the 
sources of confessional divergence which naturally followed, and 
particularly in the attempt to furnish a uniform liturgy for both 
bodies, old convictions were intensified, and lines of demarcation 
which had been gradually fading out of sight were revived. Many 
of the Lutherans refused absolutely to recognize the union, formed 
separate Congregations, and carried on an active controversy 
against what they believed to be a gross form of ecclesiastical 

During the following twenty years the situation grew more 
strained and as Lutheran immigration to the United States began, 
several of these communities removed to this country. The first com- 
pany, under the leadership of the Rev. F. C. D. Wyneken, landed in Bal- 
timore in 1838, and settled in Fort Wayne, Ind. A second, under the 
leadership of the Rev. Martin Stephan, of Dresden, landed at New 
Orleans in 1839, and soon after established themselves in Missouri. 
A third, under the leadership of the Rev. J. A. A. Grabau, of Erfurt, 
settled at or near Buffalo, N. Y., in 1839. 

One of the six clergymen who came over with the Missouri colony, 
the Rev. C. F. W. Walther, proved as effective a leader in the West 
as Muhlenberg had earlier proved in the East. One of his first steps 
was the establishment of Concordia Seminary at Altanburg, Mo. 
In 1844 he began to publish a religious periodical, the Lutheraner, 
which became the exponent of the stricter interpretation of Luth- 
eran doctrine and ritual. 

In 1847 12 congregations, 22 ministers and 2 candidates for the 
ministry united in forming the "German Evangelical Lutheran 
Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States." Under the constitu- 
tion adopted, only those ministers whose congregations had entered 
into membership with the Synod, and the lay delegates representing 
those congregations, were entitled to suffrage. All the symbolical 
books were regarded as "the pure and uncorrupted explanation and 
statement of the Divine Word." All mingling of Churches and 
fdiths was disapproved. Purely Lutheran books were to be used in 
Churches and schools. A permanent, not a temporary or licensed, 
ministry was affirmed, and at the same time freedom of the indi- 
vidual Church was recognized, the Synod having no authority 
over it. 

122 Year Book of the Churches 

Under the leadership of Walther, the Missouri doctrine gained 
acceptance, and as one Synod after another was formed on the same 
general basis, it seemed advantageous to effect some form of union. 
At the time of the organization of the General Council in 1866, sev- 
eral of these Synods were invited to participate, but those who held 
the stricter doctrine could not accept the position taken by the new 
body. The next few years emphasized anew the advantage of union, 
and in 1872, in Milwaukee, Wis., the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical 
Conference of America was formed. Representatives of the Synod 
of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States, the Synod of Ohio, the Synod 
of Wisconsin, the Synod of Minnesota, the Synod of Illinois, and 
the Norwegian Synod were present and effected the organization. 
The Synod of Illinois was later absorbed by the Missouri Synod; 
the Synod of Ohio and the Norwegian Synod withdrew in 1881^ be- 
cause of doctrinal differences; but other Synods were added, so that 
at present the Synodical Conference comprises the. Synod of Mis- 
souri, Ohio and Other States — ^by far the largest and strongest of 
the conference — the Syn<Mis of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and 
Nebraska; and a new organization, the Slovak Synod of Pennsyl- 
vania, which has been recently admitted. Each one of these Synods 
conducts its own Synodical and Church work independently of the 
others. Their basis of union is not so much a matter of a common 
ecclesiastical organization as of a common Church life, and particu- 
larly of doctrinal purity. 


In doctrine the Conference recognizes but one standard, to which 
there must be absolute accord, namely, the Holy Scriptures as inter- 
preted by the Formula of Concord of 1580, including a text and com- 
mentary upon the three ecumenical creeds — ^the Apostles', the Nicene 
and the Athanasian — and upon the five Lutheran Confessions — ^the 
Augsburg Confession, the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, the 
Smalcald Articles, and the Larger and Smaller Catechisms. This un- 
wavering confessionalism is the most treasured possession of the 
Conference, and to its faithful adherence to this policy it attributes 
its remarkable growth. 


In polity the Synodical Conference is pronouncedly Congrega- 
tional; the central representative body not bieing intended primarily 
fur purposes of government. It concerns itself distinctively with the 
establishment and maintenance of colleges, normal schools, and char- 
itable institutions and with the administration of missions. Its fore- 
most duty is, however, the preservation of the Word of God in its 


Includes the four synods mentioned below. 

Synodical Conference, biennial; last session, August, 1920. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. C. Gausewitz, 620 Broadway, Milwau- 
kee, Wis.; Vice-Pres., Prof. L. Fuerbringer, Concordia Semi- 
nary, St. Louis, Mo.; Sec, Rev. H. M. Zorn, S. Euclid, Ohio; 
Treas., Albert Gruett, Merrill, Wis. 

Board op Colored Missions, St. Louis, Mo. Pres., Rev. C. F. 
Drewes, 3723 Vista Place, Pine Lawn Station, St. Louis, Mo.; Treaa,, 
Ewald Schuettner, 323 Merchants-Laclede Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. This 
is the only general board under the direction of the synodical con- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 123 


Lutheraner (bi-weekly), St. Louis, Mo.; Lehre u. Wekre 
monthly), St. Louis, Mo.; Magazin fur Evangelical Lutheran Homile- 
tik (monthly), St. Louis, Mo.; Theological Monthly, St. Louis, Mo.; 
Lutheran Witness (bi-weekly), St. Louis, Mo.; Southern Lutheran, 
Publisher, J. H. Schoenhardt, 124 S. Jefferson Davis Parkway, New 
Orleans, La.; Ev. Luth. Gemeinde-Blatt (bi-weekly), Milwaukee, Wis., 
Editor, Rev. H. Bergmann; Northwestern Lutheran (bi-weekly). 
Editor, Rev. J. Jenny, Milwaukee, Wis.; Theologische Quartalschrift 
(quarterly), Milwaukee, Wis.; Ev, Luth, SchuXhlatt (monthly), St. 
Louis, Mo.; Die Missionstaube (monthly), St. Louis, Mo.; The Luth- 
eran Pioneer (monthly), St. Louis, Mo.; The Deaf Lutheran, (month- 
ly), St. Paul, Minn., Editor, Rev. J. L. Salvner; Svedok (bi-weekly), 
Akron, Ohio; Die Ev, Luth, Freikirche (bi-weekly). Saxony, Ger- 
many; The Australian Lutheran (bi-weekly). 


Organized 1847. 

Officers: Pres,, Rev., F. Pfotenhauer; See., R. D. Bieder- 
mann; Treas., E. Seuel, St. Louis, Mo. 

Home Missions in Foreign Countries. Rev. Karl Schmidt, 
2123 Fremont St., Chicago, 111. 

Home Missions in North America. Rev. C. F. Dietz, 1122 
Garfield Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Foreign Missions. Supt,, Rev. R. Kretzchmar, 2243 S. Jef- 
ferson Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Deaf-Mute Missions. Rev. H. A. Kuntz, St. Paul, Minn. 

Missions to People of Foreign Tongues in America. Rev. 
J. D. Matthius, 510 E. Ohio St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Jewish Missions. Rev. H. .C. Steup, 229 E. 124th St., New 
York City. 

Indian Missions. Rev. H. Maack, Jr., Clintonville, Wis. 

Immigrant Missions. Rev. A. Beyer, 197 Maujer St., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Relief of Invalid Professors, Pastors, Teachers, and Their 
Indigent Widows and Orphans. Rev. F. G. Kuehnert, Crystal 
Lake, III. 

Church Extension Board. Rev. F. W. Weidmann, 812 La 
Fayette Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Bethany Lexlies College Mankato, Minn 

California Concordia College East Oakland, Calif Th. Brohm, Jr. 

Concordia College Bronxville, N. Y G. A. Romoser. 

Concordia College Conover. N. C A. Haentzschel. 

Concordia College Fort Wayne, Ind M. Luecke. 

Concordia College Milwaukee, Wis M. J. F. Albrecht. 

Concordia College Portland, Ore F. Sylwester. 

Concordia College Porto Alegre, Brazil .... J. Kunstmann. 

Concordia College St. Paul, Minn Th. Guenger. 

Concordia Teachers' College River Forest, 111 W. C. Kohn. 

St. John's Lutheran College Winfleld, Kans A. W. Meyer. 

St. Paul's College Concordia, Mo J. H. C. Kaeppel. 

Lutheran Seminary (Normal) Seward, Neb. .. F. W. C. Jesse. 

Walther College , . St. Louis, Mo ..... . . E. Harms. 

Concordia Theological Seminary St. Louis, Mo F. Pieper. 

Concordia Theological Seminary Springfield, 111 L. Wessel, 

124 Year Book of the Churches 


Organized 1850. 

Next convention, August, 1922. 

OflScers: Pres,, Rev. G. E. Bergemann, Fond du lac, Wis.; 
Sec, Rev. G. Hinnenthal, R. 1, Goodhue, Minn.; Treas,, W. 
H. Gracbner, 356 11th Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Joint Mission Board. Chmn., Rev. J. Gauss; Sec, Rev. J. 
W. F. Pieper, 519 Pine St., Stillwater, Minn.; TrecM., Rev. F. 

Executive Committee for Indian Mission. Cfunrman, Rev. 
J. Gauss; See., Rev. J. W. F. Pieper, 519 Pine St., Stillwater, Minn.; 
Treas., Rev. F. Schroeder. 

Executive Committee for Home Mission. (Officers not yet 

Board of Relief for Invalid Pastors, Professors, Teachers, 
AND Their Indigient Widows and Orphans. Address Rev. H. 
Bergmann, 921 Greenfield Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Theological Seminary Wauwatosa, Wis J. Schaller. 

Teachers* Seminary and Dr. Martin Luther 

College New Ulm, Minn J. Meyer. 

Northwestern College Watertown, Wis A. F. Ernst. 

Michigan Lutheran Seminary Saginaw, Mich O. J. R. Hoenecke. 


Organized 1902. 

OflScers: Pres., Rev. Jan Pelikan, Pleasant City, Ohio; Vice- 
Pres., Rev* Jos Kucharik, 130 Middlebury Ave., Akron, Ohio; 
Sec., Rev. J. Vojtko, 419 Ontario St. S. B., Minneapolis, Minn. ; 
Treas., George S. Kovae, Box 290, Raritan, N. J. 

Board op Home Missions. Rev. D. Bella, Delevan Ave., Port 
Chester, N. J.; Rev. T. Bakalyar, 2826 W. Fulton St., Chicago, 111.; 
Rev. J. Vojtko, 419 Ontario St., S. E., Minneapolis, Minn. 


Organized 1877. 



Organized 1919. 

Ofllcers: Pres., Rev. B. Harstad, Parkland, Wash.; Sec, 

Rev. L. P. Jensen, Marshfield, Ore. ; Treas., Rev. A. J. Torger- 

son, Northwood, la. 


Evang. Luth. Tidende (weekly), Chicago, Editors, Rev. G. A. 
Gullixson, J. A. Moldstad, G. R. Preus, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 125 


(Not Affiliated With Any Synod) 

Besides the Congregations in the Synods, there are a number 
of independent Lutheran Congregations which do not belong 
to any Synod. In most cases the reason is not doctrinal, but 
simply a love of independence. Not infrequently the pastor of 
an independent church is himself a member of some Synod. 

The Lutheran Church Year Book for 1921 gives 54 Inde- 
pendent Congregations served by 42 pastors, with a confirmed 
membership of 7,495. 



The origin of the denomination classed under the head of 
Mennonite bodies is traced by them to an early period in the history 
of the Christian Church. They represented a general protest against 
ecclesiastical rule and a rigid liturgy, and an appeal for the sim- 
pler organization, worship and faith of the Apostolic Age. The name 
"Mennonite" dates from 1550, but would scarcely be recognized in 
Holland, where the usual name is "Doopsgezinde" or "Dooper," the 
Dutch equivalent for the English "Baptist." Early in the seven- 
teenth century the first repi^esentatives of the Mennonites came to 
America seeking freedom from persecution. William Peiin offered 
homes to the Mennonites, and through help from the Society of 
Friends in England large numbers from Holland, Switzerland and 
Germany were enabled to come to America. Individual families set- 
tled in New York and New Jersey as early as 1640, but the first 
Mennonite colony was formed at Germantown, Pa., in 1683. As 
these early settlers came in contact with the Indians, they often 
found that their non-resistant principles served as a better protec- 
tion than rifies. 

There are sixteen different Mennonite bodies, namely, Mennonite 
Church, Hutterian Brethren, Conservative Amish Mennonite Church, 
Old Order Amish Mennonite Church, Church of God in Christ (Men- 
nonite), Old Order Mennonite Church (Wisler), Reformed Men- 
nonite Church, General Conference of Mennonites of North America, 
Defenseless Mennonites, Mennonite Brethren in Christ, Mennonite 
Brethren Church of North America, Krimmer Brueder-Gemeinde, 
Kleine Gemeinde, Central Conference of Mennonites, Conference of 
the Defenseless Mennonites of North America, Stauffer Mennonites. 

The Mennonite Church, with a membership of approximately 
thirty-five thousand, and the General Conference of Mennonites of 
North America, with a membership of approximately fifteen thou- 
sand, are the chief bodies, others varying in membership from 171 
to 5,000. All have practically the same doctrine and polity. 



At a general conference of the Mennonites in the Netherlands 
and Germany held in Dort, Holland, in 1632, a compilation of the 
previous confessions of faith was made and called "A Declaration of 
the Chief Articles of Our Common Christian Faith.^' This confession, 
containing 18 articles, is accepted by the great majority of the Men- 
nonite churches today. In addition to doctrines common to Chris- 
tianity, some of the distinctive beliefs are that the washing of the 
saints' feet is an ordinance instituted, and its perpetual observance 

126 Year Book of the Churches 

commanded, by Christ; the state of matrimony is honorable between 
those spiritually kindred, and such alone can marry "in the Lord"; 
the civil government is a part of God's ministry, and members are 
not permitted to despise, blaspheme or resist the government, but 
must be subject to it in all things and obedient to all its commands 
that do not militate against the will and law of God, and should 
pray earnestly for the government and its welfare, and in behalf of 
their country; Christ has forbidden His followers the use of carnal 
force in resisting evil and the seeking of revenge for evil treatment; 
love for enemies can not be shown by acts of hatred and revenge, 
but by deeds of love and good will; the use of all oaths is for- 
bidden, as contrary to God's will, though simple affirmation is al- 
lowed. In nearly all the Mennonite bodies, baptism is by pouring. 


With two exceptions the form of church government in the 
diff-erent bodies of the Mennonites is the same. The local church is 
autonomous, deciding all matters affecting itself. District or state 
conferences are established, in most cases, to which appeals may 
be made; otherwise the authority of the congregation or of a com- 
mittee appointed by the coixgregation is final. All decisions of state 
or district conferences are presented to the individual congp'egations 
for ratification. The divinely appointed offices of the Church of 
Christ are held to be those of Bishop (sometimes called elder and 
sometimes presbyter), minister (pastor or evangelist), and almoner 
f deacon). The ministers are generally self-supporting, sharing the 
farm life of most of the Mennonite communities. 


General Conference, biennial; next session, 1923. 
Officers : Mod,, S. C. Yoder, Kalona, la. ; Sec, J. S. Hartzler, 
Goshen, Ind. 

Board op Missions and Charities. Prea., D. D. Miller, Mid- 
dlebury, Ind.; Sec, S. C. Yoder, Kalona, Iowa; Treas., V. E. Reiff, 
Elkhart, Ind. 

Board op Education. Pres,, Sanford C. Yoder, Kalona, la.; Sec, 
A. E. Kreider, Sterling, 111.; Treas,, S. R. Good, Sterling, 111. 

Publication Board, Scottdale, Pa. Pres,, J. S . Shoemaker, 
Dakota, 111.; Sec, S. H. Miller, Shanesville, Ohio; Treas,, Sylvanus 
Yoder, Middlebury, Ind. 

Sunday School Committee. Chmn,, Vernon J. Smucker, Scott- 
dale, Pa.; Sec, I. W. Royer, Orrville, Ohio. 


Name Location President 

Goshen College Goshen, Ind I. R. Detweiler, Act- 
ing President. 
Hesston College and Bible School > Hesston, Kans D. H. Bender. 


Gospel Herald (official) (weekly). Christian Monitor (monthly). 
Youth's Christian Companion (weekly). Words of Cheer (weekly) 
Beams of Light (weekly) , Mennonitische Rundschau (weekly) , Christ- 
liche Jugenfreund (weekly). All, Scottdale, Pa. 


A communistic brotherhood of the followers of Jacob Hutter. 
Address Elias Walter, MacLeod, Alberta, Can. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 127 


Annual conference. 

Officers: Mod,y Gideon A. Yoder, Wellman, Iowa; SeCy 
Jonas B. Miller, Grantsville, Md. 


Herold der Wahrheit (semi-monthly), Editors, S. D. Guengerich, 
Wellman, la., J. B. Miller, Grantsville, Md. 


No annual conference, general officers, church buildings, 
schools, or publications. The older forms of worship, usually in 
German, are strictly adhered to. 



Address Rev. D. H. Dyck, Hillsboro, Kans. 

Messenger of Truth, Editor, F. C. Fricke, Ithaca, Mich. 


A conservative body, using generally the German. They 
have no general conference, schools, or organizations. 
Address Frank W. Hurst, East Earl, Pa. 


Conference meets on occasion as needed. 


Jacob S. Lehman, Chambersburg, Pa. 

John I. Miller, Camp Hill, Pa. 

Elias H. Hershey, Lancaster, Pa. 

John Kohr, Lancaster, Pa. 

David P. Basinger, Bluffton, Ohio. 

John S. Snearly, Williamsville, N. Y. 

Wilmer E. Steele, Humberstone, Ont., Can. 



General Conference, triennial ; next session, Marion, or Free- 
man, South Dakota, fall of 1923. 

Five district conferences in United States and one in Canada. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. H. J. Krehbiel, Reedley, Calif.; Vice- 
Pres., Rev. P. P. Wedel, Moundridge, Kans.; Sec, Dr. J. R. 
Thierstein, Newton, Kans.; Treas,, F. C. Claassen, Newton, 

128 Year Book of the Churches 

Board of Foreign Missions. Prea,, Rev. J. W. Kliewer, New- 
ton, Kans. ; Vice-Chmn,, Rev. H. D. Penner, Beatrice, Nebr. ; Sec.^ 
Rev. P. H. Richert, Goessel, Kans.; Trecbs., Rev. Gustav Harder, 
Whitewater, Kans. 

Board of Home Missions. Pres,, Rev. W. S. Gottshall, Bluff- 
ton, Ohio; Sec, Rev. David Toews, Rosthem, Saskatchewan; TrecLS., 
J. E. Amstutz, Trenton, Ohio. 

Board of Pubucation. Pres,, Rev. N. B. Grubb, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Sec, Rev. W. J. Ewert, Hillsboro, Kans.; Bus. Mgr., J. F. Leh- 
man, Berne, Ind. 

Board of Education. Pres., Dr. S. K. Mosiman, Bluffton, Ohio; 
Sec, Rev. J. H. Langenwalter, Newton, Kans. ; Treas., D. H. Rickert, 
Newton, Kans. 

Emergency Relief Committee. Pres., Rev. John Lichti, Med- 
ford, Okla.; Sec, Rev. John C. Mueller, Freeman, S. Dak.; Tresis., 
Mr. C. F. Claassen, Newton, Kans. 

ExFCUTiVE Committee. Pres., Rev. H. J. Krehbiel, Reedley, 
Calif.; Sec, Dr. J. R. Thierstein, Newton, Kans.; VieePres., Rev. 
P. P. Wedel, Newton, Kans.; Treas., Mr. C. F. Claassen, Newton, 
Kans.; Rev. J. W. Kliewer, Newton, Kans.; Dr. S. K. Mosiman, 
Bluffton, Ohio; Rev. W. S. Gottshall, Bluffton, Ohio; Rev. N. B. 
Grubb, Philadelphia, Pa.; Rev. John Lichti, Medford, Okla.; Rev. 
G. N. Harms, Whitewater, Kans. 

Statistician, Rev. Franz Albrecht, Beatrice, Nebr. 

Colleges and Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Bethel Colege Newton, Kans. J. W. Kliewer. 

Bluffton College and Mennonite Theologi- 
cal Seminary Bluffton, Ohio S. K. Mosiman. 


Mennonite (weekly), Berne, Ind., Editor, Rev. S. M. Grubb; 
Christlicher Bundesbote (weekly), Berne, Ind., Editor, Rev. C. H. 
Van der Smissen. 


Annual conference, meeting in September. 

Sec. of Conference, E. E. Rupp, Archbald, Ohio. 

Address the City Missionary, J. K. Grerig, 248 Root St., 

Chicago, 111. 

College and Theological Sendna/ry 

Name Location President 

Bluffton College and Theological Seminary Bluffton, Ohio. S. K. Mosiman. 


General Conference; meets at Brown City, Michigan, Oct., 

Five district conferences in United States and two in 

Officers of the Gen. Conf. : Pres., Rev. A. B. Yoder, 727 Wolf 
Ave., Elkhart, Ind.; Sec, Rev. J. A. Huffman, Bluffton, Ohio; 
Editor of Sunday School Literature, Rev. J. A. Huffman, Bluff- 
Ion, Ohio. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 129 

Executive Board. Pres., Rev. S. Gondie; Sec, Rev. I. Pike, 
Bethesda, Ont. 

Publication Headquarters: Gospel Banner Office, New Car- 
lisle, Ohio, and the Bethel Publishing Co., New Carlisle, Ohio. 

Gospel Banner, New Carlisle, Ohio, Editor, J. A. Huffman. 



Meets triennially; next meeting, Reedley, Cal., Nov. 20-24, 

Three district conferences in United States and one in 

OflBcers: Mod., Rev. H. W. Lorenz, Hillsboro, Kans. ; Clerk, 
Rev. J. F. Duerksen, Corn, Okla, 

Board of Foreign Missions. Chmn,, Rev. H. W. Lorenz; Sec, 
Rev. N. N. Hiebert, Mountain Lake, Minn.; Treas,, J. W. Wiens, 
Hillsboro, Kans. 

General Secretary op Home Missions, Rev. W. J. Bestvater, 
533 Magnus Ave., Winnipeg, Man., Can. 


Name Location President 
Tabor College Hillsboro, Kans 

Zion's Bote, Hillsboro, Kans., Editor, J. D. Fast. 


Annual conference. 

Officers: Mod., D. E. Harder, Hillsboro, Kans.; Sec, D. J. 
Mendel, Freeman, S. Dak.; Treas., J. J. Glanzer, Bridgewater, 
S. Dak. 

Committee for Foreign Missions. Prea., J. M. Tschetter, Car- 
penter, S. Dak.; Sec, D. M. Hofer, 2812 Lincoln Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Committee po« Home Missions. Chmn,, D. E. Harder; Sec, 
J. M. Tschetter, Carpenter, S. Dak. 

Committee for Publication. Chmn., D. M. Hofer; Sec, A. J. 
Neufeld, Inman, Kans. 


Name Location President 

Tabor Collegre Hillsboro, Kans H. W. Lorenz. 


Zoar Academy Inman, Kans C. Thiessen. 


Der Wahrheitsfreund (weekly). Editor, D. M. Hofer, 2812 Lin- 
coln Ave., Chicago, 111. 

180 Year Book of the Churches 


Address Abraham I. Friesen, Meade, Kans. 


Conference, annual; meets in September. 
OflScers : Mod,, Rev. Allan H. Miller, Pekin, 111. ; Sec, M. P. 
Lantz, Carlock, 111. 

Mission Board. Pres,, Rev. Allan H. Miller, Pekin, 111.; Sec, 
Greorge I. Gundy, Washington, 111. 

Joint Board op Foreign Missions. Prea,, Val Strubhar, Wash- 
ington, 111.; Vice-Pres., C. R. Egle; Sec, Rev. Emanuel Troyer, Nor- 
mal, 111.; Cor, Sec and Treas,, D. N. Claudon, Meadows, lU. 

College and Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

DIufflon College Bluffton, Ohio E. X. Mosiman. 

Witmarsum Seminary Bluffton, Ohio ^ J. E. Hartzler. 

The Christian Evangel, Danvers, 111., Editor, Rev. L. B. Haigh. 



(Formerly Minnesota and Nebraska Mennonite Conference.) 
Annual conference. 

Address the City Missionary, A. F. Wiens, 4215 Rockwell 
St., Chicago, 111. 


Address Michael A. Weaver, New Holland, Pa^ 




The Methodist Churches generally trace a common origin to a 
movement started in Oxford University in 1729 when John and 
Charles Wesley, George Whitefield, and others began to meet for 
religious exercises. The little company Was derisively called "The 
Holy Club," "Bible Bigots," "Methodists," etc. The movement soon 
became widely known as the "Methodist Movement," and took more 
definite shape in 1739 "when," as Mr. Wesley himself describes it, 
"eight or ten persons came to him in London and desired that he 
should spend time with them in prayer and advise them how to flee 
from the wrath to come." 

As converts were received they were organized into societies 
for worship, and 'as the work expanded class meetings were formed 
for the religious care and training of members. The circuit system 
was established by which several congregations were grouped under 
the care of one lay preacher. The itinerancy came into existence 
as the lay preachers were transferred from one appointment to an- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 131 

other for greater efficiency, and finally in 1744 the Annual Con- 
ference was instituted. 

The beginnings of Methodism in America were in the state of 
Georgia, in 1735, when upon the invitation of General Oglethorpe, 
John and Charles Wesley were invited to come as spiritual advisers 
to his colony. Both accepted the invitation and John Wesley re- 
mained until 1738. 

In 1760, Philip Embury, a Wesleyan local preacher from Ire- 
land, landed in New York and six years later gathered for regular 
worship a company of Methodists who, in 1768, erected and dedicated 
a chapel, since known as the "John Street Church." 

Robert Strawbridge, also an Irish Wesleyan preacher, assem- 
bled a small company of Methodists in Frederick County, Md. Sub- 
sequently itinerant preachers were sent over by John Wesley, among 
them Thomas Rankin and Francis Asbury, and in 1773 the first 
annual Conference in America was held in the city of Philadelphia. 

American Methodism was set apart independently at what is 
known as the "Christmas Conference," in Baltimore, Maryland, De- 
cember" 24, 1784. In authorizing this organization, Mr. Wesley ap- 
pointed Dr. Coke and Mr. Asbufy as joint superintendents in North 
America, and stated that as **our American brethren are now totally 
disentangled both from the state and the English hierarchy, we dare 
not entangle them again, either with the one or with the other. 
They are now at full liberty simply to follow the Scriptures and 
the Primitive Church." The conference then proceeded to form a 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and elected both Coke and Asbury 
superintendents, or bishops. 


In theology the Methodist Churches are Arminian and their 
doctrines are set forth in the articles of Religion formulated largely 
from the thirty-nine articles of the Church of England, Wesley's 
published sermons and his Notes on the New Testament. These em- 
phasize belief in the Trinity, the fall of man, his need of repentance, 
freedom of the will, saiictification, future rewards and punishments, 
and a sufficiency of the Scriptures for salvation. 

Two sacrements are recognized — Baptism and the Lord's Supper. 
Baptism is administered both to infants and adults. As to mode, 
sprinkling is preferred, though in the case of adults choice of sprink- 
linsTi pouring or immersion is given. 


The form of church government, while following the general 
rules laid down by Wesley, is somewhat different in England and 
in America. In England the conference remains supreme and the 
superintendency is not emphasized ; in America the leading Metho- 
dist bodies are Episcopal in their form of government. This Epis- 
copal form of government, while not corresponding exactly to that 
of the Episcopacy of the Church of England, is a decided factor in 
church life. The Wesleyan Methodist connection in England and 
the Episcopal Methodisms in the United States are the strongest 
representatives of the Methodist movement initiated in Oxford nearly 
two centuries ago. 

As originally organized in America, Methodism was Episcopal 
in its form of government and recognized two orders in the min- 
istry — Deacons and Elders. It was divided first into annual confer- 
ences and later a system of church, quarterly, district and annual 
conferences was developed, with the general conference meeting 
quadrennially, since 1812, as a delegated body having the law-mak- 
ing power under certain restrictive rules. Administration was prac- 
tically in the hands of the clergy and there was at first no lay rep- 

132 Year Book of the Churches 

resentatives either in the Annual or General Conferences. Through 
protests and dissatisfaction, various modifications were made from 
time to time and organizations independently set up with a modified 
form of Government varying from non-Episcopal, but retaining all 
other features common to Methodist government, to a distinct form 
of Congregationalism. 


Decennial; last session, London, England, 1921. 

Ecumenical Methodist Commission represents the conference 
ad interim. 

Eastern Section: Sec, Rev. J. E. Wakerly, Central Bldg., 
Westminster, London, S. W. Includes Methodist bodies in 
Great Britain, Europe, and Australasia. 

Western Section : Pres,, Bishop J. W. Hamilton ; Sec, Rev. 
H. K. Carroll, Plainfield, N. J. Includes Methodist bodies in the 
United States and Canada. 


General Conference, quadrennial. 

Annual Conferences and Missions at home and abroad, 159. 
Officers: Sec, Edmund M. Mills, 101 Comstock Place, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. ; Treas., Oscar P. Miller, Rock Rapids, la. 


Earl Cranston (Retired), 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
John W. Hamilton (Retired), American University, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Joseph F. Berry, 1701 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
William F. McDowell, 1509 16th St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 
William Burt, 455 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Luther B. Wilson, 150 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Thomas B. Neely (Retired), Philadelphia, Pa. 
William F. Anderson, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
John L. Nuelsen, Zurich, Switzerland. 
William A. Quayle, St. Louis, Mo. 
Wilson S. Lewis, Peking, China. 
Edwin H. Hughes, 235 Summer St., Maiden, Mass. 
Frank M. Britsol, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Homer C. Stuntz, Omaha, Nebr. 

Theodore S. Henderson, 34 Elizabeth St. East, Detroit, Mich. 
William O. Shepard, Portland, Ore. 
Francis J. McConnell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Frederick D. Leete, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Richard J. Cooke (Retired), Athens, Tenn. 
Wilbur P. Thirkield, Mexico City, Mexico. 
Herbert Welch, Seoul, Korea. 

Thomas Nicholson, 58 East Washington St., Chicago, 111. 
Adna W. Leonard, 3 City Hall Ave., San Francisco, Calif. 
William F. Oldham, Buenos Ayres, Argentine, South America. 
Charles B. Mitchell, St. Paul, Minn. 
Francis W. Warne, Lucknow, India. 
John W. Robinson, Colaba, Bombay, India. 
Eben S. Johnson, Capetown, South Africa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 133 

Lauress J. Bimey, Shanghai, China. 

Frederick B. Fisher, Calcutta, India. 

Ernest L. Waldorf, Wichita, Kans. 

Charles E. Locke, Manila, Philippine Islands. 

Ernest G. Richardson, Atlanta, Ga. 

Charles W. Bums, Helena, Mont. 

Anton Bast, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Edgar Blake, Paris, France. 

George H. Bickley, Singapore, Straits Settlement. 

Frederick T. Kenney, Foochow, China. 

H. Lester Smith, Bangalore, India. 

Charles L. Mead, Denver, Colo. 

Robert E. Jones, New Orleans, La. 

Matthew W. Clair, Monrovia, Africa. 

Retired Missiona/ry Bishops 

James M. Thoburn, Meadville, Pa. 

Joseph C. Hartzell, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

IsaisJi B. Scott, 125 Fourteenth Ave. N., Nashville, Tenn. 

Merriman C. Harris, Tokyo, Japan. 

The Methodist Book Concern. Publishing Agents: New York, 
Edwin R. Graham, 150 Fifth Ave. (deceased) ; Cincinnati, John H. 
Race, 420 Plum St.; Chicago, Robert H. Hughes, 740 Rush St.; 
George P. Mains, emeritus, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York; Henry C. 
Jennings, emeritus. Route 3, Aurora, Ore. 

Book Editor, David G. Downey, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City, 
and 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Depositories: 581 Boylston St., Boston, Mass.; 105 Fifth Ave., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. ; 28 East Elizabeth St., Detroit, Mich. ; 740 Rush St., 
Chicago, 111.; 1121 McGee St., Kansas City, Mo.; 7 City Hall Ave., 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Board op Foreign Missions, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
Pres.f Bishop Luther B. Wilson; Honorary Vice-Pres,, W. V. Kelley; 
Vice-Pres,, Frank A. Home; Cor, Sees,, Frank Mason North, Titus 
Lowe; Trees., George M. Fowles. 

Board of Home Missions and Church Extension, Arck.and 
Seventeenth Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Bishop Joseph F. Berry; 
Cor, Sec, David D. Forsyth. 

Board of Education for Negroes, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Pres, William F. Anderson; Treas,, John H. Race; Cor. Sees./ 
Patrick J. Maveety, I. Garland Penn. • . 

Board of Education, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York. Pres., 
Bishop Wm. F. McDowell ; Cor. Sec, Abram W. Harris ; Bee- Sec, 
Ezra S. Tipple; Treas., Omar Powell. 

Board of Sunday Schools, 58 East Washington St., ChicBiero, 
111. Pres,, Bishop Thomas Nicholson; Cor. Sec, W. S. Bovard; 
Treas., W. C. Hanson. '"''■': 

Board of Conference Claimants, 820 Garland Buildihi.*;C!hiT 
cago. 111. Pres., Bishop Charles Bayard Mitchell; Cor, Sec, Joseph 
B. Hingeley; Trees,, Robert W. Campbell. 

Board of the Epworth League, 740 Rush St., Chici^o, 111, 
Pres., Bishop Adna W. Leonard; Gen. Sec, Charles E. Guthrie; Edir 
tor Epworth Herald, Dan B. Brummitt. 

Board of Temperance, Prohibition, and Public Mqrals, cor- 
ner 1st and Maryland Ave. N. E., Washin^n, D. C. Pres., Bishop 
William F. McDowell; Treas., William T. Galliher; Gen. Sec, Clar- 
ence True Wilson. 

General Deaconess Board, 675-677 EUicott Square, Buffalo, N. 
Y. Pres., Bishop Wm. S. Burt; Cor. Sec, Daniel W. Howell; Treas., 
L. M. Potter. 

184 Year Book of the Churches 

Board of Hospitals and Homes. Pres.y Bishop W. O. Shepard; 
Cor, SeCf Rev. N. E. Davis, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111.; Treas,, 
J. T. Bradley, 740 Rush Street, Chicago, 111. 

Council op Boards op Benevolence. Prea., Bishop F. D. L«ete; 
Cor, Sec, Corrumittee on Conservation and Advance, Raymond J. 
Wade, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111.; Treas., M. W. Ehnes, 740 Rush 
St., Chicago, 111. 

Trustees op Chartered Fund, 129 South Fourth St., Philadel- 

?hia. Pa. Prea,^ Avery D. Harrington; Sec, Edgar J. Pershing; 
'reas,, Franklin I. Bodine. 

Trustixis op the Methodist Episcopal .Church, 420 Plum St., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Pres,, James N. Gamble; Sec, C. E. Schenk; 
Treas,, H. A. Winans. 

Commission op Twenty-pive on Unipication : Bishops W. F. 
McDowell, W. F. Anderson, E. H. Hughes, F. J. McConnell, W. P. 
Thirkield; Abram W. Harris, East Maine; D. G. Downey, New York, 
East; W. A. Elliott, Erie; Archibald Moore, West Virginia; Ernest 
H. Cherrington, Ohio; J. M. Melear, Holston; P. W. Kinchen, Louis- 
iana; J. W. Abel, Oldahoma; A. N. Jarvis, Iowa; J. W. Van Cleve, 
Illinois; Loren D. Dickinson, Michigan; E. D. Kohlstedt, Wisconsin; 
Charles E. AUinger, Central German; E. P. Dennett, California; C. 
H. White, Idaho; at large, F. M. North, J. H. Race, D. D. Forsyth, 
Alex Simpson, Jr., I. Garland Penn. 

Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. Prea,, Mrs. Thos. 
Nicholson, 4618 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, 111. ; Sec, Mrs. Charles Spaetti, 
Madison, N. J.; Treaa., Miss Florence Hooper, 10 South St., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Methodist Federation por Social Se»vice. Prea,, Bishop F. J. 
McConnell, Denver, Colo.; Sec, Rev. Harry F. Ward, 150 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York City. 

Collegea and Univeraitiea 

Institution Location Chief OfUcer 

Albion College Albion, Mich John W. Laird, President. 

Allegheny College Meadville, Pa Fred W. Hixon, President. 

Baker University Baldwin, Kans Samuel A. Lough, President. 

Baldwin-Wallace College. Berea, Ohio A. B. Storms, President. 

Boston University Boston, Mass L. H. Murlin, President. 

Central Wesleyan Col- 
lege Warrenton, Mo O. E. Kriege, President. 

College of Puget Sound. Tacoma, Wash... B. H. Todd, President. 

College of the Pacific. . , .San Jose, Calif Tully C. Knoles, President. 

Cornell College Mt. Vernon, Iowa Charles W. Flint, President. 

Dakota Wesleyan Univ.. Mitchell, S. D W. D. Schermerhorn, President. 

De Pauw University Greencastle, Ind Geo. R. Grose, President. 

Dickinson College Carlisle, Pa. James H. Morgan, President 

Goucher College ^ Baltimore, Md William W. Guth, President. 

Hamline University St. Paul, Minn S^^muel F. Kerfoot, President. 

Hedding College Abingdon, 111 Clarence Wilson Greene, President. 

Illinois Wesleyan Univ. .Bloomington, 111 Theodore Kemp, President. 

Illinois Woman's College Jacksonville, 111 Joseph R. Marker, President. 

Iowa Wesleyan College. Mt. Pleasant, la.. Ulysses S. Smith, President. 

Kansas Wesleyan Univ.Salina, Kans L. B. Bowers, President. 

Lawrence College Appleton, Wis. Samuel PHntz, President. 

McKendree College Lebanon, 111 Geo. EL McCammon. President. 

Mo. Wesleyan College... Cameron, Mo Cameron Harmon, President. 

Mornineside College Sioux City. Iowa Frank E. Mossman, President. 

Mount Union CoUeire Alliance, Ohio William H. McMaster. President. 

Neb. Wesleyan Univ Univ. Place. Neb I. B. Schreckengast, Chancellor. 

Northwestern Univ Evanston, IP Walter Dill Scott, President. 

Dhio Wesleyan Univ Delaware, Ohio. John W. .Hoffman, President. 

Simpson College Indianola, Iowa Tohn L. Hillman, President. 

Southwestern College . . .Winfleld, Kans A. E. Kirk, President. 

Svracu.Me University Syracuse, N. Y. . . 

Univ. of Chattanooga Chattanoo«ra. Tn Arlo A. Brown. President. 

University of Denver Univ. Park, Colo W. D. Engle, Acting Chancellor. 

Univ. of Southern Calif.. I^os Angeles. Cal. Rufus B. von Kleinsmid, President. 

Unper Iow». Univ '. . . Fay«»tte, Iowa Rev. J. P. Van Horn, President. 

Wesleyan University Middletown, Ct Will'am A. Shanklin, President. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 135 

Institutum Location Chief Officer 

W. Va. Wesleyan Col-Buckhannon, W. . , ^ 

lege Va Wallace B. Flemingr. President. 

WUlamette University... Salem. Oreg Carl G. Dooey. President. 

Evansville College .....EvansvUle, Ind Alfred F. Hughes, President. 

Gooding College Gooding, Idaho Charles W. Tenney. President. 

Mont. Wedeyan College Helena, Mont Charles M. Donaldson, President. 

Ohio Northern Unlv Ada, Ohio Albert E. Smith, President. 

Okla. City College Okla. City, Okla. E. G. Green, President. 

Wesley CoUege University, N. D. E. P. Robertson, President. 

Theological SewdnoHea 

Boston Univ. Schocd of . « ^ ,x 

Theology Boston, Mass Rev, James A. Beebe, Dean. 

Central \v Aslcvan Theo* 
logical Seminary Warrenton. Mo Rev. B. S. Havighorst, Dean. 

Drew Theological Semi- . , ^ * 

nary Madison, N. J... Rev. E. S. Tipple, President. _ 

Garrett Bible Institute.. Evanston, III Rev. CM. Stuart, President. 

Kimball School of Theol- . ^ ^ 

ogy Salem, Oreg Rev. E. C. Hickman* President. 

Maclay Ccdiege of Theol- 
ogy C/o Univ. South- 
ern Calif., Lo§ ^ 
_,.,„. Angeles, Calif Rev. John F. Fisher, Dean. 

Nast Theological Seaki- 
nary Berea, Ohio Rev. Fredericlc Cramer, D^n. 

Norwegian-Danish Theo- 
logical Seminary Evanston, 111 Rev. Otmann Firing, Dean. 

Swedish Theological Sem- „ ^ 

inary Evanston, 111 ....Rev. F. A. Lundberg, Dean. 

The Iliff School of Thecrf- _ ^ , ^ ^^ ^ 

ogy ..., .. Denver, Colo. Rev. Edwin W. Dunlavy, President. 

Schools for f^egroea 

Claflin College Orangeburg, S. C L. M. Dunton, President. 

Clark University Atlanta, Ga Harry A, King, President. 

Morgan College Baltimore, Md J. O. Spencer, President. 

New Orleans College New Orleans, La. Qiarles M. Mdden, President. 

Philander Smith College. Little Rock, Ark. James M. Cox, President. 

Rust College Holly Springs, 

Miss M. S. Davage, President. 

Walden University Nashville, Tenh. J. H. Lovell, President. 

Wiley College Marshall, Tex M. W. Dogan, President. 

Professional Schools 

Gammon Theological 

Seminary .Atlanta, Ga Philip M, Watters, President. 

Meharry Medical Colege. Nashville, Tenn John J. Mullowney, President. 

Official Periodicals 

Methodist Review (bi-monthly), 150 Fifth Avenue,- New York 
City, Editor, George Elliott. 

English (Weekly) 

California Christian Advocate^ 7 City Hall Avenue, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., Editor, F^ M. Larkin; Central Christian Advocate, 
1121 McGee St., Kansas City, Mo., Editor, C. B. Spencer, 
Christian Advocate, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City, Editor, James 
R. Joy; Epdvorth Herald, 740 Rush Street, Chicago, 111., Editor, 
Dan B. Brummitt; Methodist Advocate- J ovAmal, Athens, Tenn., 
Editor, J. M. Melear; Nm^thwestem Christian Advocate, 740 
Rush Street, Chicago, 111., Editor, E. Robb Zaring; Pacific Christian 
Advocate, 304-313 Artisans Bldg., Portland, Ore., Editor, Edward 
Laird Mills; Pittsburgh Christian Advocate, 524 Penn Avene, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Editor, J. J. Wallace; Southwestern Christian Advocate, 
631 Baronne St., New Orleans, La., Editor, Lucius H. King; Western 
Christian Advocate, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio, Editor, Ernest C. 

136 Year Book of the Churches 


Der Christliche Apologete (weekly), Hans und Herd (monthly), 
Editor, Rev. A. J. Bucher, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 


The Methodist Episcopal Church, through various evolutions, re- 
tains the original forms of doctrine set forth in the articles of re- 
ligion — ^Wesley's sermons and notes on the New Testament. 


The constitution of the« Methodist Episcopal Church, as adopted 
by the General Conference in 1900 and approved by the Annual Con- 
ferences, has three divisions — articles of religion, general rules arid 
•articles of organization and government. The articles of Religion 
are those drawn up by John Wesley based upon the thirty-nine 
articles of the Church of England, with the exception of the twenty- 
third which has reference to allegiance to the Government of the 
United States. The general rules deal specifically with the conduct 
of the church members and the duties of certain church officers, 
particularly the class leaders. The articles of organization and gov- 
ernment lay down the general principles of the organization and 
conduct of churches and Conferences. The general form of Church 
government may be described as connectional. The ecclesiastical or- 
ganization includes the local church, the ministry and a system of 

The system of conferences includes quarterly, district, mission, 
annual and general conferences. 

The quarterly conference is identical in membership with the 
official board in each pastoral charge, and is the highest authority in 
the station or circuit for ttie purpose of local administration. 

The district conference, while not an integral part of the Con- 
ference system, is made up of the traveling and local preachers of 
a district, the district stewards and other representatives. It meets 
once or twice a year under the presidency of a bishop or district 
superintendent and its duties are nearly identical with those of the 
quarterly conference. 

The annual conference is an administrative and not a legislative 
body. Its membership is confined to traveling ministers. It receives 
repoits from pastors, district superintendents and statisticians. The 
Bishop ordains candidates for deacon's or elder's orders, and appoints 
ministers tp their charges; ministerial delegates are elected to the 
General Conference and questions of discipline are decided. A lay 
electoral conference, composed of one lay delegate ,f rom each pastoral 
charge within its boimds, meets in connection with the annual con- 
ference, just preceding the General Conference, in order to elect lay 
delegates to that conference. 

The General Conference is the highest body in the church and is 
the general legislative and judicial body, first held in 1784, it was 
established as a delegated body in 1812. It convenes quadrennially 
and is composed of ministerial and lay delegates in equal numbers. 
The General Conference and the Annual Conference are incorporated 
with boards of trustees. 

The ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church includes two 
' orders, deacons and elders. Deacons have authority to solemnize 
matrimony, administer Baptism and assist in the administration of 
the Lord's Supper. Elders have in addition to these powers the 
power to consecrate the elements of the Lord's Supper and are eligible 
to appointment as district superintendents or election to any of the 
offices of the Church or to the Episcopacy. Originally, pastors, or 

Directory of Religious Bodies 137 

itinerants, as they were termed, moved every six months, then every 
year. In 1804 the maximum length of pastorate was fixed at two 
years; in 1864 at three; 1888 at five, and in 1900 the time limit was 
removed entirely. 


General Conference, quadrennial; last session May 2, 1918. 
Thirty-eight Annual Conferences. 


William N. Ainsworth, Macon, Ga. 

James Atkins, Waynesville, N. C. 

Warren Akin Candler, Atlanta, Ga. 

James Cannon, Jr., Birmingham, Ala. 

Urban V. W. Darlington, Huntington, W. Va. 

Collins Denny, Richmond, Va. 

Horace M. Du Bose, Berkeley, Calif. 

Eugene Russell Hendrix^ Kansas City, Mo. 

John Carlisle Kilgo, Charlotte, N. C. 

William F. McMurry, Louisville, Ky. 

John M. Moore, Nashville, Tenn., and Brazil, S. A. 

Edwin Du Bose Mouzon, Tulsa, Okla. 

William Belton Murrah, Memphis, Tenn. 

Richard Green Waterhouse (retired), Emory, Va. 

Board of Missions, 810 Broadway, Nashville, Tenn. Gen. See., 
Rev. W. W. Pinson; Sees. Foreign Dept, Rev. E. H. Rawlings, Rev. 
W. B. Beauchamp; Sees, Foreign Dept. (for women), Miss Mahel 
Howell, Miss Esther Case; Sec. Home Dept., Rev. 0. E. Goddard; 
Sees. Home Dept. (for women), Mrs. J. W. Downs, Mrs. J. H. 
McCoy; Educational Sec, Rev. C. G. Hounshell; Educational Sec. (for 
women), Mrs. Hume R. Steele; Treas., J. D. Hamilton. 

Board op Church Extension, Louisville, Ky. Sec., Rev. S* U, 
C. Burgin, Louisville, Ky. 

Board of Education, Nashville, Tenn. Sec, Rev. Stonewadl 
Anderson; Assistant, W. E. Hogan. 

Epworth League, Nashville, Tenn. Sec, Rev. F. S. Parker; 
Asst., Rev. R. E. Nollner. 

Sunday School Boaiu), Nashville, Tenn. Cor. Sec, Rev. C. D. 

Laymen's Missionary Movement, Nashville, Tenn. Sec, Rev. 
W. B. Beauchamp. 

Department op Ministerial Supply and Training, Nashville, 
Tenn. Sec, Rev. R. H. Bennett. 

Board of Finance. Sec, Rev. Luther E. Todd, St. Louis, Mo. 

Publishing House, Nashville, Tenn., 810 Broadway. Publishing 
Agents, D. M. Smith and Rev. A. J. Lamar; Book Editor, Rev. G. T. 

Sunday School Board, Nashville, Tenn. Sunday School Editor, 
Rev. E. B. Chappell. Supt. Sunday School Training Work, Rev. J. W. 
Shackford; Primary Asst., Miss Minnie Kennedy. 


Name Location President or Dean 

Emory University Atlanta, Ga*. Bishop W. A. Candler. 

Southern Methodist Univer- 
sity Dallas. Tex H. A. Boaz. 

188 Year Book of the Churches 


Name Location President or Dean 

Central College Fayette, Mo. P. H. Linn. 

Hendrix College Conway, Ark J. H. Rejmolds. 

Kentucky Wesleyan Winchester, Ky W. B. Campbell. 

Millsaps College Jackson, Miss A. F. Watkins. 

Randolph-Macon College Ashland, Va R. E. Blackwell. 

Southwestern University Georgetown, Tex C. M. Bishop. 

Trinity College Durham, N. C W. P. Few. 

Wofford College Spartanburg, S. C. ...'. H. N. Snyder. 

Athens College Athens, Ala B. B. Glasgow. 

Columbia College Columbia, S. C. J. C Guilds. 

Greensboro College for Wo- 
men Greensboro, N. C S. B. Turrentine. 

Lander College Greenwood, S. C John O. Willson. 

Randolph-Macon Woman's Col- 
lege Lynchburg, Va D. R. Anderson. 

Texas Woman's College Fort Worth, Tex H. E. Stout. 

Wesleyan College Macon, Ga. W. F. Ouillian. 

Woman's College of Alabama. Montgfomery, Ala M. W. Swartc. 

Birmingham-Southern College. Birmingham, Ala. Guy E. Suavely. 

Emory and Henry College. . . E^ory, Va J. Stuart French. 

Galloway College Searcy, Ark. J. M. Williams. 

Grenada College Grenada, Miss J. R. Countiss. 

Henderson-Brown College ..Arkadelphia, Ark .J. M. Workman. 

Lagrange College Lagrange, Ga. W. E. Thompson. 

Martha Washington College. .Abingdon, Va. J. Stuart French. 

Southern College Lakeland, Fla R. H. Alderman. 

Whitworth College Brookhaven, Miss ,.l, W. Cooper. 

Carolina College Maxton, N. C R. B. John. 

Port Gibson College Port Gibson, Miss Rolfe Hunt. 

Centenary College of Louisi- 
ana Shreveport, La George S. Sexton. 

Junior Colleges 

Alexander College Jacksonville, Tex R. G. Roger. 

Andrew College Cuthbert, Ga. P. G. Branch. 

Blackstone College for Girls . Blackstone, Va W. A. Christian. 

Centenary Qyllege (Conserva- 
tory) •/ Cleveland, Tenn J. W. Malone. 

Central Collie for Womep. .Lexington, Mo Z. M. Williams. 

Clarendon (Allege Qarendon, Tex George S. Slover. 

Davenport College Lenoir, N. C. James B. Craven. 

Hiwassee College Madisonville, Tenn James E. Lowry. 

Howard-Payne College Fayette, Mo W. L. Halberstadt. 

Kidd-Key College Sherman, Tex Edwin Kidd. 

Logan College Russellville, Ky A. P. Lyon. 

Louisburg College Louisburg, N. C L. S. Massey. 

Mansfield College Mansfield, La. R. B. Bobbitt. 

Martin College Pulaski, Tenn G. A. Morgan. 

Marvin Collesre Fredericktown, Mo B. W. Loomis. 

Meridian College .Meridian, Tex J. H. Bowman. 

Morris Harvey College Barboursville, W. Va R. T. Webb. 

Reinhardt College Waleska, Ga T. M. Sullivan. 

Rutherford College Rutherford College, K. C M. T. Hinshaw. 

Sparks College Soarks, Ga. Leland Moore. 

South Georgia College McRae, Ga J. D. Smith. 

Weaver Oillege Weaverville, N. C A. M. Norton. 

Wesley College Greenvflle, Tex O. F. Winfleld. 

Westmoreland College' San Antonio, Tex Felix R. Hill, .Tr. 

Woman's College Jackson, T^nn J. W. Blackard." 

Young L. G. Harris College. Young Harris, Ga J. L. Hall. 

Bible and Missionary Training School 

Scarritt Bible and Training 
Schocd Kansas City, Mo 


Brevard Institute Brevard, N. C C. H. Trowbridge. 

Carlisle School Bamberg, S. C W. C. Duncan. 

Cherokee Junior College Cherokee, Tex Charles Nixon. 

Columbia Junior College. . . .Milton, Oreg H. S. Shangle. 

Downing Industrial School . . Brewton, Ala J. M. Shof ner. 

Emory University School .... Oxford, Ga J. A. Sharp. 

Holding Institute Laredo, Tex J. M. Skinner. 

Morton-Elliott College Elkton, Ky Richard A. Foster. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 139 

NamA Location Prttident or Dean 

John . C. C. Mayo College Paintsville, Ky M. G. Sowards. 

Lindsay Wilson Training 
School . : Columbia, Ky R. V. Bennett. 

Marvin University School .... Clinton, Ky W. M. Cooper. 

McFerrin School Martin, Tenn G. L. Morelock. 

McTyeire School McKenzie, Tenn .James A. Robins. 

Mississippi Conf. Training 
Scho(^ Montrose, Miss E. L. Alford. ^,. 

Randolph-Macon Academy. . . Bedford City, Va B. Sumter Smith. 

Randolph-Macon Academy. . . Front Rojrai, Va Charles L. Melton. 

Randolph-Macon Institute. .. .Danville, Va. Charles G. Evans. 

Seashore Camp Ground 
School Biloxi, Miss H. W. Van Hook. 

Sloan-Hendrix AcsAemy Imboden, Ark J. C Eaton. 

Sue Bennett Memorial School . London, Ky. A. W. Mohn. 

Thomas Industrial Institute. .DeFuniak Springs, Fla. C. H. Motley. 

Trinity Park School Durham, N. C F. S. Aldridge. 

W<$atherford College Train- 
ing School Weatherford, Tex F. G. Rand. 

Wofford College F H 1 1 i n g 
Schocd Spartanburg, S. C W. C. Herbert. 

Mission Schools 

Femira Training School Ferrum, Va. B. M. Beckham. 

Flat Rock High School Flat Rock. Ala. G. W. Floyd. 

Horry Industrial School Aynor, S. C S. C. Morris. 

Jefferson School Jefferson, N. C W. L. Scott. 

Scarritt-Morrisville College. ..Morrisville, Mo. J. J. Copeland. 

Textile Industrial Institute. .Spartanburg, S. C .D. E. Camak. 

Vaahti Industrial Institute. .Thomasville, Ga. ■. Charlotte Dye. 

Weddington Industrial Insti- 
tute Matthews, N. C R. E. Hinshaw. 


Christian Advocate, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. Thomas N. 
Ivey; Methodist Qua/rterly Review, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. 
G. T. Rowe; Epworth Era, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. F. S. 
Parker; Missionary Voice, Nashville, Tenn., Mana^^g Editor, R. B. 
Eleazer; Alabama Christian Advocate, Birmingham, Ala., Editor, Rev. 
L. C. Branscomb; Richmond Christian Advocate, Richmond, Va., Edi- 
tor, Rev. J. M. Rowland; Baltimore Southern Methodist, Baltimore, 
Md., Editor, Rev. Carlton D. Harris; Central Methodist, Louisville, 
Ky., Editor, Rev. W. E. Arnold; Missions Freund, San Antonio, Tex., 
Editor, Rev. John A. G. Rabe; Florida Christian Advocate, Lakeland, 
Fla., Editor, Rev. J. Edgar Wilson; Methodist Advocate Herald, Point 
Pleasant, W. Va., Editor, Rev. R. P. Bell; Midland Methodist, Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. J. A. Burrow; New Orleans Christian, Advc^ 
cate. New Orleans, La., Editor, Rev. H. T. Carley; North Carolina 
Christian Advocate, Greenboro, N. C, Editor, Rev. Alva W. Plyler; 
PaMfic Methodist Advocate, San Francisco, Cal., Editor, Rev. W. H. 
Nelson; St, Louis Christian Advocate, St. Louis, Mo., Editor, Rev. 
G. B. Winton; Southern Christian Advocate, Columbia, S. C, Editor, 
Rev. R. E. Stackhouse; Texa^ Christian Advocate, Dallas, Tex., Edi- 
tor, Rev. A. J. Weeks; Wesleyan Christian Advocate, Atlanta, Ga., 
Editor, Rev. W. P. King; Arkansas Methodist, Little Rock, Ark., 
Editor, Rev. A. C. Millar. 

History \ 

In the early history and development of Methodism in America, 
the territory included both slave holding and non-slave holding states^ 
The development prior to 1844 was largely in the slave holding areas 
and six out of the nine bishops elected previous to 1844 had been 
natives of slaveholding states. Nevertheless, the Methodist preadiers 
of the time were, with practical unanimity, opposed to human bondage. 

The Christmas Conference of 1784, whidi qrganized the scattei^ 
congregations into the Methodist Episcopal Church, enacted a specific 
rule which required all slaveholding members, under penalty of ex- 

140 Year Book of the Churches 


pulsion for non-compliance, to emancipate their slaves. This rule, 
however, was suspended within less than six months and after various 
conflicting measures had been adopted, the General Conference of 
1808 provided that thereafter each annual conference should deal 
with the whole matter according to its own judgment. The General 
Conference of 1816 modified this by another statute which remained 
in force until 1844, to the effect that no slaveholder should be ap- 
pointed to any official position in the church, if the state in which he 
lived made it possible for him to liberate his slaves. 

Bishop James 0. Andrew, of Georgia, one of the Bishops of the 
Church, became by inheritance and marriage a nominal slaveholder. 
Under the laws of Georgia it was not possible for him or his wife to 
free their slaves. The General Conference of 1844 called attention to 
the embarrassment which would result from this connection with 
slavery by a Bishop in the exercise of his office and declared it ''The 
sense of this General Conference that he desist from the exercise of 
his office so long as this impediment remains.'' The Southern dele- 
gates resented this action. They contended that the episcopacy was 
not a mere office subject to the control of any General Conference or 
church government. The outgrowth of this controversy was the 
drawing up of a provisional plan of separation, to become effective 
whenever the Southern conferences deem it necessary. A convention 
of Southern delegates was held in Louisville, Ky., and on May 17, 
1845, the plan of separation was approved and the Annual Confer- 
ences in the slaveholding states were erected into a distinct eccle- 
siastical connection, separate from the jurisdiction of the General 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The new body added 
the word "South" to the name of the Methodist Episcopal Church to 
distinguish it from the other organization. Its first General Confer- 
ence was held in Petersburg, Va., in 1846. The M. E. Church, South, 
began with two Bishops and sixteen annual conferences. In. 1846 
there were 1,519 traveling preachers, 2,833 local preachers, 327,284 
white members, 124,961 Negro members, and 2,972 Indian members, 
or a total of 459,569. The growth of the Church was rapid and when 
the wat between the states began the membership had increased to 
757,205, including 207,776 Negroes. The war wrought havoc in the 
Church. During the war the annual conferences met irregularly or 
in fragments, the General Conference of 1862 was not held, and th€ 
whole order of the itinerancy was interrupted. The missionaries in 
China were cut off from their home boards and would have suffered 
much but the M. E. Church endorsed the drafts for their support. 
There. was a reduction during the period of the war of one-third of 
the total membership. The Negro members either joined the African 
Methodist Church or the Methodist Episcopal Church. The remainder 
of the Negroes formed, in 1870, an independent organization known 
as the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. Following the war the 
work of reconstruction went forward rapidly. The General Confer- 
ence of ^1866 made changes in regard to lay representation in annual 
and general conferences, followed by a period of rapid grovrth. 


In doctrine, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, is in agree- 
ment with other branches of Methodism throughout the World and 
e puts special emphasis upon the universality of the atonement, the wit- 

ness of the Spirit, and the possibility of holiness in heart and^life. 

— !> . »^. 


In its polity it is in close accord with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, e^iphasizing the episcopacy, which was one of the conten- 
tioiui resulting in the separation of 1844. The Methodist Episcopal 

Directory of Religious Bodies 141 

Church, South, bishops hold office for life, unless removed by due 
process of law for personal or official misconduct and have a limited 
veto on constitutional questions over the acts of the General Confer- 
ence. There. is equal clerical and lay representation in the General 
Conference, and effective lay representation in the annual conferences. 
The itinerancy is still maintained, but the four year's limit of pas- 
torate was modified by the General Conference of 1918. Action taken 
by that Conference, while not abolishing the four-year, rule, gives the 
Bishop in charge power to appoint a minister to a charge from year 
to year after four years' service when there is unanimous request by 
the Quarterly Conference of the Church for his return. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next meeting in May, 

Twenty-nine Annual Conferences and eight Mission Confer- 

Officers : Fres.y Rev. Thomas H. Lewis, 2844 Wisconsin Ave., 
Washington, D. C. ; Sec, Rev. Charles H. Beck, 613 W. Dia- 
mond St. N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Treas,, Mr. H. C. Staley, 1025 
Calvert Bldg., Baltimore, Md. 

Board op Foreign Missions, Baltimore, Md. Pres., Rev. J. C. 
Broomfield, D. D., Fairmont, W. Va.; Sec, Rev. F. C. Klein, 316 N. 
Charles St., Baltimore, Md. 

Board of Home Missions, Pittsburgh, Pa. Pres., Mr. H. A. 
Sicker, West Lafayette, Ohio; Sec, Rev. Charles H. Beck, 613 W. 
Diamond St., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Board of Education, Pittsburgh, Pa. Pres,, J. W. Knott; Sec, 
Rev. George H. Miller, 613 W. Diamond St., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Board of Publication. Agents, Charles Reiner, Jr., 316 N. 
Charles St., Baltimore, Md., and Mr. L. A. Neiplin, 613 W. Diamond 
St., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Board of Young People's Work, Pittsburgh, Pa. Prea., Rev. 
E. A. Sexsmith, 1620 W. North Ave., Baltimore, Md.; Sec, Rev. A. G. 
Dixon, 3919 Carlisle Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

FoiRWARD Movement Committee, Pittsburgh, Pa. Prea., Rev. 
Thomas H. Lewis, 2844 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, D. C. ; Sec, Rev. 
Crates S. Johnson, St. Joe, Indiana. 

Woman's Board of Foreign Missions. Pres,, Mrs. Henry Hup- 
field, Catonsville, Md.; Sec, Mrs. Wm. M. Sturgeon, 315 Hastings St., 
Pittsburgh. Organ: Woman* 8 Missionary Record. 

Woman's Home Missionary Society. Pres,, Mrs. A. G. Dixon, 
3919 Carlisle Ave., Baltimore, Md.; Sec, Mrs. Jane A. Gordon, 248 
N. Dithridge St., Pittsburgh, Pa, 


Ifame Location President . 

Adrian Collegre Adrian, Mich Harlan L. Feeman. 

Kansas City University Kansas City, Kans J. C. Williams. 

Western Maryland College Westminster, Md. A. Norman Ward. 

Westminster College Tehuacana, Tex .A. L. Reynolds. 

,^[^^.^' Theological Seminary . 

Westminster Theol. Semindry Westminster, Md H. L. Elderdice. 


. Methodist Protestant, Baltimore, Md., Editor, Rev. Frank T. 
Benson; .Methodist Re^.order, Pittsburgh, 'Pa., Editor, Rev. Lyman E. 

142 Year Book of the Churches 

Davis; Sunday School publications, Pittsburgh, Pa., Editor, Rev. 
C. E. Wilbur. 


The Methodist Protestant Church was organized in Baltimore in 
1830 as a protest against the general practice of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church investing legislative, executive, and judicial power in 
the ministry to the exclusion of lay members. At the time of organi- 
zation 83 ministers were enrolled and some 5,000 members. 

In 1858 there was a division of the Church growing out of the 
Question of suffrage and eligibility to office of negroes, but after ihe 
settlement of the slavery question the two branches of the Methodist 
Protestant Church were reunited in 1877. 


The doctrines of the Methodist Protestant Church are those coni- 
mon to Methodists generally. An Arminian theology with emphasis 
on repentence, faith and holiness. 


In polity the Methodist Protestant Church differs radically from 
other forms of Methodism in the United States. It has no Bishops or 
Presiding Elders and no life officers of any kind. Ministers and laymen 
are equal in number and in power in all the legislative bodies of the 
Church. The general organization includes a system of quarterly, 
annual and general conferences similar to those of Episcopal Method- 
ism. The Annual Conference elects a President as does the General 
Conference. The President of the Annual Conference appoints the 
preachers to their charges, each minister having the right to be heard 
and also the right of appeal. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next session, 1923. annual conferences. 

Headquarters, 1132 Washingtoii- Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

OflBcers of the Trustees of the General Conference: Pres,, 
Bishop Walter A. Sellew ; Sec, Itev. Mendal B. Miller, 1131 Elk 
St., Franklin, Pa.; Treas,, Rev. N. W. Fink, 1132 Washington 
Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 


William H. Clark. 412 William St., Rome, N'.Y. 
William Pearce, 4532 Chestnut St.,. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Walter A. Sellew, 68 Falconer St., Jamestown, New York. 
David S. Warner, Glen Ellyn, 111. 

Board op . Education. Pres., Bishop D. S. Warner; Gen. Sec, 
Rev. L. G. Lewis, 1132 Washington Boulevig*d, Chicago, 111. ^* 

General Missionary Board. Pres., Bishop W. Pearce riSfec., 
Rev. W. B. Olmstead, 1132 Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. Pres., Mrs. Mary L. 
Coleman, Champaign, 111.; Cor. Sec, Mrs. Charlotte T. BoUes, Oneida, 
N. Y.; Treas., Mrs. Lillian C. Jensen, 1132 Washington Boulevard, 
Chicago, 111. 

Church Extension Society. Pres., Bishop W. H. Clark; Sec, 
Bishop D. S. Warner. 

General Sunday School Board. Pr^a., Rev. W. B. Olmstead; 
Sec, Rev. J. B. Lutz, 1132 Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 143 

Board of Charities and Benevolences. Pres^t Bishop W. H. 
Clark; Sec, Rev. W. B. Olmstead. 

Board op Conference Claimants. Pres., Bishop D. S. Warner; 
See,, E. A. Holtwick, Greenville, 111. 


Name Location President 

Greenville College Oreenville, 111 Eldon O. Bunritt. 

Central Academy and College McPherson, Kans C. A. Stoll. 

EyansviUe Seminary and Junior Col- 
lege Evansville, Wis S. E. Cooper. 

Seattle Paeiflc College Seattle, Wash O. E. Tiffany. 

Wessington Springs Junior College. ...Wessington Springs, S. D..B. J. Vincent. 


Free Methodist, Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. Jacob T. Logan; Light 
and Life Evangel, Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. George W. Griffith; Sunr 
day School Worker, Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. J. B. Lutz; Missionary 
Tidings, .Chicago, 111., Editor, Miss Adella P. Carpenter. 


The Free Methodist Church had its orign in the Genesee Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 1850, in the state of 
New York. The movement for this organization was led by min- 
isters who felt strongly that the Methodism of their time had de- 
parted in no small degree from its primitive standards of faith, ex- 
perience and practice. The publication of articles by these leaders 
led to the arraignment of their leader who was declared guilty and 
expelled from the church on the charge of contumacy. Other prose- 
cutions and expulsions, on similar grounds, followed in quick ' suc- 
cession, resulting in appeals and controversies which finally resulted 
in the organization at Pekin, N. Y., in 1860, of the Free Methodist 


The standards of doctrine of this Church are embodied in the 
Articles of Faith held by the Methodist Episcopal Church with two 
additions,— one, on entire sanctification, whi6h is defined as being 
saved from all inward sin, and as a work which takes place subse- 
quently to justification and is wrought instantaneously upon the con- 
secrated, believing soul; and the other, on future rewards and pun- 
ishments, embodying the stricter view as to a general judgment and 
the future condition of the righteous and the wicked. 


The general organization of the church is that common to 
Methodism with the exception that on credentials of proper election, 
laymen, including women, are admitted to the district, annual, and 
general conferences in equal numbers and on the same basis as 

In place of the episcopacy, general superintendents are elected 
to supervise the work at large, preside at the conferences, etc. These 
general superintendents are elected for four years at a time, but may 
be reelected until death or failing powers terminate their term of 
service. District elders are appointed over the conference districts. 
The probationary system and the class meeting are emphasized and 
regarded as an important part of the church's economy. 

The aim of the organization is to maintain and exemplify regu- 
lations and usages of Methodism as originally organized. Its general 
rules are those formulated by John Wesley arid still subscribed to by 
Methodist Churches generally in addition to one against slavery and 
one forbidding the production, use, or sale of narcotics. It insists 

144 Year Book of the Churches 

upon a practical observance of the general rules by all its members, 
including simplicity and plainness of attire, abstinence from worldly 
amusements, and separateness from all secret societies. It also ex- 
cludes instrumental music and choir singing from public worship and 
requires that the seats be free in all its churches. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next session, June, 1923. 

Annual conferences, 23, with a mission conference in India 
and in Africa. 

Headquarters : 330 E. Onondaga St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Officers: Pres,, E. 6. Dietrich; Sec, Rev. E. D. Carpenter; 
Treas., Dr. J. S. Willett. 

Officers of General Conference : Pres., Rev. B. Teter, Sheri- 
dan, Ind. ; Sec, Rev. E. F. McCarty, 222 S. Clemens Ave., 
Lansing, Mich. 

The Book Committee is the Board of Managers of all the con- 
nectional societies: Publishing, Missionary, Superannuated, Educa- 
tional and Sunday School. 

Missionary Society. Gen. Sec., Rev. T. P. Baker, Sheridan, Ind.; 
Field Sec. of Foreign Missions, Rev. E. F. McCarty, Lansing, Mich. 

Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society. Pres., Mrs. 
W. L. Northam, Sheridan, Ind.; Cor. Sec, Mrs. Mabel Perrine, 
Brighton, Mich. 


Name Location President 

Central College Central, S. C L. B. Smitii. 

Houghton College Houghton, N. Y J. S. Luckey. 

Marion College ; Marion, Ind H. C. Bedford. 

Miltonvale College Miltonvale, Kans H. W. McDowell. 


The Wesleyan Methodist (weekly) , Syracuse, N. Y., Editor, F. A. 
Butterfield. Sunday School Sec, I. F. McLeister, Canandaigua, New 


The Wesleyan Methodist Connection of. America was organized 
May 31, 1843, at Utica, New York. It was the outgrowth of con- 
troversy over what was termed "liberty of testimony and freedom of 
discussion" and was also a protest against the exercise of ecclesiasti- 
cal authority. The purpose of the new organization in Methodism 
was the organization of a Church that should be anti-slavery and 
non-Episcopal. About 6,000 members, most of them in New York 
state, united in this organization. They chose what they called a 
republican form of government in which the majority shaU rule and 
the laity have equal rights with the ministry. Three restrictions 
were emphasized: first, all connection with slavery was prohibited, 
and any person who in any sense believed in slavery was debarred 
from membership; second, the use or manufacture of intoxicants, or 
aiding or abetting the same, either directly or indirectly, was pro- 
hibited; third, membership in secret societies was prohibited. 


In doctrine the Cfiurch is in accord with the Methodist bodies 
generally throughout the world. It holds that man is not only jus- 
tified by faith in Christ, but also sanctified by faith, and tiiat all who 

Directory of Religious Bodies 145 

accept Him as Saviour ajid Lord will be so delivered from sin and its 
consequences that they will enter upon the eternal state without 
impairment either in body, soul, or spirit. 


The ecclesiastical orpranization of the Church is essentially that 
of the other-branches except in respect to the episcopacy and the par- 
ticipation of the laity in church government. Before being ordained, 
ministers must be recommended by the laity and the ministry and 
srovemment of ihe church are just what the laity make them. 


General Conference, quadrennial ; next meeting, Kewanee, 
111., last Wednesday in September, 1925. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. N. W. Matthews, Lowell, Mass.; Sec, 
Rev. C. H. KershaXv, New* Bedford, Mass. ; Treas., Rev. W. B. 

Taylor, Loiisdale, R. I. 

Board of Foreign Missions. Pres,, N. W. Matthews, Lowell, 
Mass.; Sec, Rev. J. Iley, Tamaqua, Pa.- 

•Board op Education. Pre»., Rev. J. Proude, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
Sec, Rev. S. T. Nichols, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Primitive Methodist Journal (semi-monthly), Editor, Rev. E. 
HumphHes, Billerica Center, Mass. 


The organization of the Primitive Methodist Church appears to 
have grown out of a protest against camp meetings. Camp meetings 
figured prominently in America. The first camp meeting appears to 
have been conducted in eastern Kentucky in 1800 by a union of 
Methodists and Presbyterians. The Presbyterians, however, with- 
drew from these meetings and the camp meeting became a special 
feature of Methodist revival work throughout the West and Soutii. 

Certain leaders of the Wesleyan movement in England, hearing 
of the great results of American Camp meetings, were instrumental 
in having a camp meeting at Mow Cop, Staffordshire, England, in 
1807. The Wesleyan connection, however, firmly protested against 
these camp meetings and declined to receive converts from them 
unless they would pledge themselves to break off all connection with 
such meetings. As a result, the first society of an independent 
character was organized in March, 1810, at Standley, and was com- 
posed of 10 converts, none of whom belonged to any other church. 
The name "Primitive" was officially assumed at a meeting held in 
February, 1812. The subsequent emigration of considerable num- 
bers of members to America led to the formation of societies in 
various parts pf the United States and Canada, the first mission- 
aries arriving in the United States in 1829. As the work extended, 
three conferences were formed — the Western, the Pennsylvania and 
the Eastern. 


The doctrine of the Primitive Methodist Church is essentially 
that of other branches of Methodism. 


In polity the church is in general accord with other forms of 
Methodism. It has a quadrennial General Conference and annual 

146 Year Book of the Churches 

and quarterly conferences and general and district committees of the 
annual conferences conduct the work between sessions. There are 
no Bishops or Presiding Elders, and no time limit for the pastorate. 
Each church is supplied largely by invitation. When an invitation is 
accepted by a minister, the annual conference simply ratifies the agpree- 
ment, except for grave reasons. All uninvited ministers are sta- 
tioned by the annual conference, and no candidates for the ministry 
are received unless there are churches for them. 


General Conference, quadrennial. 
Thirteen state conferences. 

Officers of the General Conference: Pres., Rev. N. B. Pair; 
Sec, John Phinazee, Jackson, Ga. 

EdxJCATIONAL BOARt). Chmn., T. W. Collins, EUisville, Miss. 
Board of Publication, Laurel, Miss. Chmn., G. W. Blacklidge, 
Laurel, Miss.; Sec.-Treas,, C. C. Pearson. 

Periodical , 

Messenger (semi-monthly), EUisville, Miss., Editor, Rev. G. C. 


The Congregational Methodist Church was organized at Forsyth, 
Georgia, in May, 1852, as a protest against certain features of the 
episcopacy and itinerancy. The organization was formed for the 
purpose as expressed of securing a more democratic form of Church 
government. The Congregational form of government was adopted, 
although modified by a degree of connectionalism. The movement 
extended into Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi and at 
present churches are to be found in most of the Southern and some 
of the Northern states. 

In 1887 and 1888 nearly one-third of the churches of this organi- 
zation joined tne Congregationalists. Later a number of these re- 
turned and the church gained in strength for a while, but within 
the past decade has suffered heavy losses. 

The doctrinal position of the church is distinctly Methodistic. 


Its polity is congregational, constituting the chief distinction be- 
tween it and other Methodists. 


Address Kev. W. A. Thompson, Stockton, Ga. 


The New Congregational Methodist Church was organized in the 
state of Georgia as a protest against the action of the Board of Mis- 
sions of the Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, in 1881, consolidating a number of the smaller churches in 
the southern part of the state, without consultation with the Churches 
interested. The New Congregational Methodist Church resulted 
through a movement of these churches, thus consolidated, without 

Directory of Religious Bodies 147 

Doctrine and Polity 

A new constitution was adopted with a congregational polity 
and the Methodist system of doctrine, emphasizing the parity of the 
ministry, the right of the local church to elect its own officers an- 
nually, the rejection of the principle of assessments, all offerings to 
be absolutely freewill, and permission for those who desired it to ob- 
serve the ceremony of foot-washing in connection with the admin- 
istration of the Lord's Supper. 
The form of Church government is congregational. 


General Conference, quadrennial. 

Sec, Rev. William D. Johnson, Plains, Ga. 


William W. Beckett, 378 Cumberland St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William D. Chappelle, 1208 Harden St., Columbia, S. C. 

James M. Conner, 1519 Pulaski St., Little Rock, Ark. 

Levi Jenkins Coppin, 1013 Bainbridge St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joseph Simeon Flipper, 401 Houston St., Atlanta, Ga. 

William Henry Heard, 1426 Rockland St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Hurst, 1808 McCulloh St., Baltimore, Md. 

J. Albert Johnson, 1412 N. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joshua H. Jones, Wilberforce, Ohio. 

Benjamin Franklin Lee, Wilberforce, Ohio. 

Henry Blanton Parks, 3312 Calumet St., Chicago, 111. 

Isaac N. Ross, 1616 Fifteenth St., N. W., Washington, D. C, 
and Monrovia, West Africa. 

Charles Spencer Smith, 87 E. Alexandrine Ave., Detroili Miclu 

Benjamin Tucker Tanner (retired), 2908 Diamond St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

William D. Johnson, Plains, Georgia. 

A. J. Carey, 3428 Vernon Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

W, Sampson Brooks, 1406 Argyle Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

William T. Vernon, 27th and Parkway, Kansas City, Kans. 

William A. Fountain, 418 Houston St., Atlanta, Ga. 

Board of Missions, 61 Bible House, New York City. Sec, Rev. 
J. W. Rankin. 

Board of Education, Waco, Tex. Sec,, A. S. Jackson. 

Society of Church Extensioj^, 1536 Fourteenth St. N. W., 
Washington, D. C. Sed.y Rev. B. F. Watson. 

Sunday School Union, 8th and Lea Aves., Nashville, Tcnn. 
Sec, Ira T. Bryant, 

Alu:n Christian Endeavor Society, 8th and Lea Aves., Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Sec, Rev. S. S. Morris, 705 St. Paul St,^ Norfolk, Va. 

Board of Finance, 1541 Fourteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. 
C. Sec, J. R. Hawkins. 

Publication BoaS^, A. M. E. Book Concern, 631 Pine St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Gen. BvM Mgr,, Rev. R. R. Wright, Jr. it 

Women's Pahej^t Mite Missionary Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pres,, Mr. Mary F. Handy, 1341 N. Carey St., Baltimore, Md. 

Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Society, Charleston, 
S. C. Pres., Mrs. S. G. Simmons. 

Colleges and Universities 

Name Location President 

AHen University ..Columbia, S. C R. W. Mance. 

Campbell College Jackson, Miss. A. H. Attaway. 

14i8 Year Book of the Churches 

Name Location Prtsident 

Edward Waters College Jacksonville, Fla J. A. Gregg. 

Kittrel College Kittrel, N. C G. A. Edwards. 

Lampton College Alexandria, La 

Morris Brown University Atlanta, Ga W. A. Fountain. 

Pajme University Selma, Ala H. E. Archer. 

Paul Quinn College Waco, Tex J. K. Williams. 

Shorter College- Argenta, Ark J. N. Campbell. 

Turner College - Shelbyville, Tenn. J. H. Johnson. 

Wayman Institute \ Harrodsburg, Ky T. H. Boone. 

Western University Quinsdare, Kans F. J. Peck. 

Wilberforce University Wilberforce, Ohio W. S. Scarborough. 

Theological Semindriea 


Theological Department, Allen Univer- 
sity Columbia, S. C R. W. Mance. 

Payne Theological Seminary Wilberforce, Ohio O. F. Woodson. 

Turner Theological Seminary Atlanta, Ga D. W. Greathardt. 

Tanner Theological Seminary Jacksonville, Fla. L. C. Fisher. 


Christian Recorder (weekly) , Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. R. 
R. Wright, Jr.; African Methodist Episcopal Review (quarterly), 
Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. R. C. Ransom; Southern Christian 
Recorder (weekly), Columbus, Ga., Editor, Rev. G. W. Allen; Voice 
of Missions (monthly). New York City, Editor, Rev. J. W. Rankin; 
The Allenite, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. J. C. Caldwell; Woman's 
Christian Recorder, Columbia, S. C, Editress, Mrs. R. C. Chappelle; 
Woman's Missionary Recorder, Charleston, S. C. 


As early as 1787 a company of Negro Methodists in Philadel- 
phia, dissatisfied with conditions and hoping to secure larger privi- 
leges and more freedom of action than they believed possible in as- 
sociation^ with their white brethren, withdrew, built a chapel and 
obtained a Negro preacher through ordination by Bishop White of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

In 1793, Bishop Asbury dedicated, in Philadelphia, the Bethel 
Church, built by Richard Allen, a well-to-do Negro, and the platform 
adopted by the congregation prohibited their white brethren from 
electing or being elected to an office among them save that of preacher 
or public speaker. Similar societies were organized throughout New 
Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, all under the general supervision 
however, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, until 1814, when it was 
announced that the white preachers could no longer retain pastoral 
responsibility for the Bethel congregation. Then, in 1816, the vari- 
ous Negro congregations in this territory met in convention and or- 
ganized a Church, under the title of the African Methodi&t Episcopal 

Previous to the War Between the States, the development of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church was chiefly confined to Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, New ISngland states. New 
York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky, the church 
having organized only in one Southern state and that thfe city of 
New Orleans, La. After the war the Church expanded rapidly 
throughout the South and today it is represented in each of the orig- 
inal slave holding states, while its Northern field includes the North- 
ern states from the Atlantic to the Pacific and Otitario in Candxla. 

Richard Allen, wha had built the first distinctiyel^TiNegro church 
in Philadelphia, was elected Bishop and consecrated oy" five regularly 
ordained ministers, one of whom was a priest of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. 

Among the points emphasized in the first conference at which 
the org^ijization was given shape were the duty of loyalty and obedi- 


Directory of Religious Bodies 149 

jence to civil government and the parity of the ministry on such basis 
that any minister coming from another denomination should be re- 
ceived in the same official standing that he held in the church from 
which he came. 


The 'African Methodist Episcopal Church is in substantial agree- 
ment with Methodist bodies generally in doctrine. 


In polity the chief difference between the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church and other bodies of Methodism is that in QtJher 
Episcopal bodies the. Bishops are itinerant, traveling at large through- 
out the denomination, while in the African Church the territory is 
divided into Episcopal districts, over each of which a Bishop is ap- 
pointed and for which he is wholly responsible. 


General Conference, quadrennial. 


Jv W. Alstork, 231 Cleveland Ave., Montgomery, Ala. 

G. L. Blackwell, 420 S. 11th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

R. B. Bruce, 203 S. Brevard St., Charl6tte, N. C. 

J. S. Caldw«ll, 420 S. 11th St.> Philadelphia, Pa. 

G. C. Clement. 1425 W. Wklh^t St., Louisville, Ky. 

G. W. Clinton, 415 N. Myers St., Charlotte, N. C. 

J. W. Hood (retired), 446 Ramsey St., Fayettevillej N. C. 

L. W. Kyles, 4301 W. Bell Place, St. Louis, Mo. • 

W. L. Lee, 450 Quincy St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A. J. Warner, 220 E. Boundary St., Charlotte, N. C. 

Church Extension, 420 S. 11th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., 
Bishop W. L. Lee; Cor, Sec-Treas,, J. C. Dancy. 

Education, 613 N'. Garrison Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Pres,, Bishop 
G. L. Blackwell; Cor, Sec.-Treas,, J. W. Martin. 

Finance, 420 S. 11th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Bishop J. S. 
Caldwell; Cor, Scc-Treas,, Rev. W. H. Goler. 

Foreign Missions, 1046 Traub Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. Pres., 
Rev. J. H. McMuUen; Cor, Sec-Treas,, J. W. Wood. 

Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Society, 624 S. 16th 
St. Philadelphia, Pa. Pres,, Mrs. Florence Randolph; Cor. Sec, Mrs. 
A. W. Blackwell. 

Publication, Second and Brevard Sts., Charlotte, N. C. Pres., 
Bishop G. W. Clinton; Mgr., J. W. Crockett; Treas,, Rev. J. Harvey 

Superannuated Ministers, Widows and Orphans, 420 S. 11th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres,, Bishop A. J. Warner; Cor. Sec, Rev. 
C. W. Winfield; Treas,, Rev. A. P. Petly. 

Sunday School Union, Charlotte, N. C. Pres,, Bishop R. B. 
Bruce; Cor. SecrTreas., J. W. Eichelberger, Jr. 

Ministerial Brotherhood, 276 Division St.; New Hsfven, Conn, 
•Pre5., ;fiishop L. W. Kyles; Cor, Sec-Treas,, R^v. C. S. Whitted. . 

EviftjGELiSM, 1425 W. Walnut St., Louisville, Ky. Pres,, Bishop 
G. C. Clement; Sec, E. L. Watkins; Treas,, Rev." J. H. McMullen. . 

Varick Christian Endeavor Union, Pensacola, Fla. Pres., 
Rev. J. W. Brown; Cor, Sec, Aaron Brown; 2Veas./Rev. G. M. Oliver. 

Legion of Financiers, Yonkers, N. Y. Pres., Rev. W. D. Clin- 
ton; Sec, Rev. J. J. Smyer. 

150 Year Book of the Churches 

Connection AL Trustee- Board. Pres., Rev. W. C. Brown; Sec, 
Rev. J. H. Moseley; Treaa., Rev. C. W; P. Mitchell. 


Name Location President or Dean 

Atkinson College Madisonville, Ky J. W. Muir. 

Qinton Institute Rock Hill, S. C R. J. Boulwore. 

I ^nwiddie A. and I. Scho(4 Dinwiddle, Va W. E. Woodyard. 

Eastern North Carolina Industrial 

School New Bern, N. C W. M. Sutton. 

Bdenton Notmal and IndustrifU School. Edenton, N. C W. F. Gaines. 

Greenville College Greenville, Tenn Arthur A. Madison. 

Hood Theological Seminary Salisbury, N. C W. 0. Carrington. 

Lancaster High Scho(4 Lancaster, S. C M. D. Lee. 

Livingstone College Salisbury, N. C D. C. Suggs. 

lAiraax-Hannon High School Greenville, Ala J. R. Wingfield. 

Macon Industrial School Macon, Ga B. J. Bridges. 

Walters Institute Warren, Ark i .... J. W. Eichelberger. 


Star of Zion (weekly), Charlotte, N. C, Editor., Rev. J. Har- 
vey Anderson; Western Star of Zion (weekly), E. St. Louis, 111., 
E(&tor, Rev. T. W. Wallace; Quarterly Review, New Rochelle, N. Y., 
Editor, Rev. C. C. Alleyne; Missionary Seer (monthly), Indianapolis, 
Ind., Editor, Rev. J. W. Wood. 


Among the early independent Negro Methodist congregations of 
this country was one organized in New York City in 1796 from mem- 
bers of the old John Street Methodist Church. This independent or- 
ganization was prompted by the desire that "they might have oppor- 
tunity to exercise their spiritual gifts among themselves and thereby 
be more useful to one another" and was occasioned largely hy the 
''caste prejudice which forbade their taking the sacrament until the 
white members were all served" and by the desire of other church 
privileges denied them and by the conviction that it would assist in 
the development of a ministry adapted to their needs. The first 
Church was built in the year 1800 and was called "Zion." The next 
year it was incorporated as the African Methodist Episcopal Zion 

Under articles of agreement, this Church was supplied with 
preachers by the Methodist Episcopal Church until 1820, when the 
congregation formally withdrew from the supervision of white pas- 
tors and entered with their congregations into a separate and inde- 
pendent organization. This organization confined its activities to 
the Northern area until 1863, since which times it has had rapid de- 
velopment and has organized generally throughout the South. 


In doctrine, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church is in 
accord with the general doctrines of Methodism. 


In polity it is in substantial agreement with the Methodist Epis- 
copal Chur)6h» having the same system of conferences, quarterly, an- 
nual and getieral. The itinerancy is maintained throughout all ranks 
of ministers. 


General Conference ; quadrennial ; next session at St. Louis, 
Mo., May, 1922. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 151 

Sec, of Oen, Conf., Rev. M. F. Brinson, Box 301, Fort Val- 
ley, Ga. 


R. A. Carter, 4408 Vincennes Ave., Chicago, 111. 
N. C. Cleaves, 4145 Enright St., St. Louis, Mo. 
E. Cottrell, Holly Springs, Miss. 
Isaac Lane (retired), 422 Laconte St., Jackson, Tenn. 
C. H. Phillips, 123 Fourteenth Ave., Nashville, Tenn. 
R. S. Williams, 912 Fifteenth St., Augusta, Ga. 

Board of Missions. Pres., Bishop N. C. Cleaves; Sec, Rev. J. 
H. Moore, Holly Springs, Miss. 

BoAiU) OP Education. Pres., Bishop R. A. Carter; Sec., Rev. J. 
A. Bray, Birmingham, Ala. 

Board op Church Extension. Pres., Bishop R. A. Carter; Sec, 
Rev. R. R. Stout, Louisville, Ky. 

Epworth League. Pres., Bishop E. Cottrell; Gen. Sec, Rev. A. 
R. CaUioun, Pine Bluff, Ark. 

Board of Publication. Pres., Bishop C. H. Phillips; Sec, Rev. 
J. C. Martin, 109 Shannon St., Jackson, Tenn. 

Sunday School Board. Pres,, Bishop R. S. Williams; Sec, Rev. 
J. W. Gilbert, Augusta, Ga. 

. Board op Superannuated Preachers, Widows, and Orphans. 
Pres,, Bishop N. C. Cleaves; Sec, Rev. T. H. Copeland, Hopkinsville, 


Name Location President 

Arkansas Industrial CoH^e Pine Bluffs, Ark 

Hdena B. Cobb Institute Bamesville, Ga Helena B. Cobb. 

Holsey Industrial College. Cordele, Ga 

Lane College Jackson, Tenn G. P. Lane. 

Miles Memorial College Birmingham, Ala. . .R. T. Brofwn. 

Mississippi Industrial College Holly Springs, Miss. .G. R. Ramsey. 

Oklahoma Normal and Industrial Insti- 
tute Boley, Okla. A. M. D. Wangrum. 

Paine College Augusta, Ga. 

Texas College . . Tyler, Tex W. R. Banks. 

Periodicals (weekly) 

Christian Index, Jackson, Tenn., Editor, J. A. Hamlett; Western 
Index, Dallas, Tex., Editor, 7. R. Starks; Christian Herald, Augusta, 
Ga., Editor, Rev. J. A. Walker. 


At the close of the War Between the States the large number 
of Negro members formerly connected with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, generally joined the various distinctively Negro bodies 
or transferred their membership to the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Some seventy-five thousand or more of these Negro Methodists, how- 
ever, adhered to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

The General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, held in 1866, appointed a Committee on the Religious Inter- 
est of the Negroes and approved a plan for the organization of the 
Negroes into separate congregations and conferences where desired. 
Four years later. May, 1870, it was foimd that in accordance with 
their plan five annual conferences had been organized among the 
Negro members and that it was the unanimous desire of these bodies 
that they be set apart as a distinct ecclesiastical body. This was 
approved by the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
and steps taken for the organization of the General Conference of 
the Negro members. This was effected on December 1, 1870, at Jack- 

152 Year Book of the Churches 

son, Tennessee, and the new body organized under the name of Col- 
ored Methodist Episcopal Church. 


In doctrine, the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church is in com- 
plete harmony with the doctrines of Episcopal Methodism. 


In polity this organization is essentially the same with only 
such variations as the conditions seem to require with the polity of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The General Conference 
consiste of the Bishops, who, however, have no right to vote, and .of 
delegates elected from the annual conferences, both ministers; and 
laymen. The itinerant system is retained; the time limit for preachr 
ers to remain in one church has been removed. Presiding elders are 
permitted to remain in their districts not more than six years .and 
Bishops are permitted to remain in one district not more than four 
years. . . , 


No report. 

History r 

The Colored Methodist Protestant Church was organized in 1S40 
at Elkton, in Maryland, on essentially the same principles on which 
the Methodist Protestant Church had. been organized some few years 


The doctrines of this Church are in accord with the doctrines of 
Methodism generally. 


The polity of the Church is substantially that of the Methodist 
Protestant Church, having no episcopacy and recognizing only one 
order, that of elders, among the ministers. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next meeting at Camden, 
N. J., 1922. 

Officers: jSec, H. T. RydcTj Summer St., Village View, 
Media, Pa. 


Philip A. Boulden, 1932 Carpenter St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Jacob F. Ramsey, 1319 S. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Benjamin T. Ruley, 19 W. 12th St., Wilmington, Del. 

Foreign Missions. Sec, Rev. 0. S. Watts, 766 Line St., Cam- 
den, N. J. 

Church Extension. Sec, Rev. W. L. Castelle, 420 N. Olive St., 
Media, Pa. 

Education. Sec, Rev. 0. S. Watts, Camden, N. J. 

Spencer's Young People's , League. Sec, Rev. J. G. Ryder, 109 
W. 131st St., New York City. ' 


Name Location Dean or Prin, 

Union Industrial School Wilmington, Del S. P, Shepherd. 

Spencer's Training School Camden, N. J ..P. A. Boulden. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 153 


Union Recorder and Messenger, Camden, N. J., Editor, Eev. O. 
S. Watts; Southern Pioneer, Mobile, Ala., Editor, Rev. W. H. King; 
Union Herald, Chester, Pa., Editor, Rev. H. T. Ryder. 


The Union American Methodist Episcopal Church was formed by 
Negro members of the Methodist Church who were dissatisfied with 
the treatment accorded them, September, 1813. 


They are in accord with the doctrines of Methodism generally^ 
candidates for membership, however, being required to assent only 
to the Apostles' Creed. 


The chief difference in polity between this Church and the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church is in the provision for a general convention 
as a constitutional law-making body, such convention to be called 
only when a change in polity or name is tmder consideration. 


General Conference, last meeting, Elkton, Md., September 
18, 1918. 

Officers : Pr 65., Rt. Rev. D. J. Russell; /Sec, Rev. G. A. Cole- 
man, Viola, Del. 

Board op Home Missions and Church Extension. Cor, Sec., 
Rev. J. H. Johnson, 4086 Warren St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sabbath School and Young People's Work, Sec,, Prof. W. 
H. Loper, Jr., Felton, Del. 

Board of Ministerial Relief. Chmn,, Rev. Simon Hines; See,, 
Rev. J. H. Johnson, Philadelphia,. Pa. 

African Union M. P. PubLiSHiNG House, 131 N. Felton St, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Gen, Mgr., Rt. Rev. D. J. RusselL 

College and Semina/ry 

Name Location President 

Spencer's African Union Methodigt Protes- 
.tant College and Seminary Viola, Del O. A. Coleman. 

The Union Star, Editor, D. J. Russell. 


This. body is a union of two distinct organizations of the African 
Union Church and the First Colored Methodist Protestant Church. 
This union was effected in 1866. 


The doctrines of the Church are identical with those of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 


In polity this organization differs considerably from the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, being formed rather after that of the Metho- 
dist Protestant Church. It accords equal rights to ministers and lay- 
men, has lay delegates in the annual conference and the General Con- 
ference, no bishops, and no higher office than that of elder. 

154 Year Book of the Churches 



General Conference, quadrennial ; next meeting at La Crosse, 
Va., August, 1922. 

Officers: Pres,, Rt. Rev. G. W. Taylor, Jumbo, Va. ; Sec, J, 
R. Talley, Invermay, Va. ; Treas., Alex. Baskerville, Joyce- 
ville, Va. 

Church Extension Board. Treas., J. A. Hicks, Jumbo, Va. 

Sunday School Convention. Pres., D. H. Hendricks, Basker- 
ville, Va.; See., Mrs. A. S. Hicks, Meredithville, Va. 

Woman's Auxiliary. Prea., Mrs. Sallie Winfield, Meredithville, 

Board op Education. Chmn., Rev. F. Watson, La Crosse, Va.; 
Gen. See., Rev. J. E. Hines, Lawrenceville, Va. 

Home Mission and Educational Convention. Prea., Mrs. R. 
A. Vance, Harperville, Va.; See., Mrs. Annie B. Hill, Warfield, Va. 

Sunday School Union Workers and C. L. W. Assocution. 
Prea., J. A. Hicks, Jumbo, Va.; Sec., Mrs. A. V. Peebles, Jumbo, Va. 


Name Location Principal 

Afro-American Normal and Industrial 
Institute La Crosse* Va F. Watson. 


The Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church was organized as a 
result of dissatisfaction among the Negro Methodists of Southeast- 
em Virginia, foUowinj? the War Between the States. It was for- 
mally organized in 1869. Disorganization soon resulted in its com- 
plete disruption, but in 1881 it was reorganized. 


The doctrines of the Church are those common to the Methodist 


There is the same general system of organization, including the 
episcopacy and the series of conferences. The General Conference 
meets annually. 


General Conference, 1924. 

Address, Bishop T. A. Walker, 402 N. 31st St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Bible Training School Association. Pres., Bishop T. A. Walker. 
Church Extension and Mission Board. Pres., Bishop T. A. 
Walker; Vice-Prvs. and Treas., Rev. W. A. Brown. 

Organized in Baltimore in 1873. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The general organization follows that of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Churdi and the articles of religfion are essentially the same. 

Directpry of Religious Bodies 155 



General Conference, quadrennial. One state conference in 
two divisions. 

General officers: Bishop, Rt. Rev. E. R. Middleton, Sumter, 
S. C; Financial Sec, Rev. J. M. Seabrook; Sec. of Education, 
Rev. F. C. Keels, Greeleyville, S. C. ; Sunday School Sec, H. W. 
Washington, Wedgefield, S. C. ; Missionary Sec, Rev. James S. 
Green, 540 Congress St., Savannah, Ga. ; Mgr. of Publication, 
Rev. A. S. Boston, R. F. D. No. 1, Box 65, Remini, S. C. ; Sec. 
of Book Concern, Rev. P. R. Young, 117 President St., Charles- 
ton, S. C. 


In 1884 a number of ministers and members of the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church withdrew from that body, and in 1885 
a convention of delegates representing churches in South Carolina 
and Georgia was held, and the Independent Methodist Church or- 
ganized. At first, the organization was non-episcopal, but in 1896 
it was (decided to make a change and create an episcopacy and the 
name Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal Church was adopted. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The doctrine and polity of this church are substantially the same 
as those of Episcopal Methodism generally. 

MORAVIAN CHURCH (Unitas Fratmm) 

Two coordinate Provinces of the Unity in America; the 
Northern, with a Provincial Synod meeting every five years; the 
Southern, with a Provincial Synod meeting every three years. 
The next Synod of the Northern Province will meet in 1925. 

Biahopa (Address Rt. Rev.) 

J. Taylor Hamilton, 424 Avenue C, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Clement Hoyler, 9857 84th Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, Can. 

Charles L.. Moench, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Karl A. Mueller, Watertown, Wis. 

Clement L. Reinke (retired) , Gnadenhutton, Ohio. 

Edward Rondthaler, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

The Provincial Elders' Conference (Exec. Board) of the 
Northern Province, 67 W. Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. Prea., Bishop 
C. L. Moench; Vice-Pres. and Treas., Rev. Paul de Schweinitz; Sec, 
Rev. John S. Romig; Western Vice-Pres., Bishop Karl A. Mueller. 

The Provincial Elders' Conference (Exec. Board) of the 
Southern Province, Winston-Salem, N. C. Pres., Bishop Edward 
Rondthaler; Sees., Rev. James E. Hall, J. Kenneth Pfohl, John W. 
Fries, Agnew L. Bahnson; Treas., E. H. Stockton. 

Board of Church Extension, 67 W. Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
Pres., Rev. Paul de Schweinitz; Sec, Bishop C. L. Moench; Treas., 
Emil J. Bishop. 

Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gos- 
pel Among the Heathen, 67 W. Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. Pres., 

156 • Year Book of the Churches 

Bishop C^ L. Moench; Sec, Rev. John S. Romig; Viee-Pres. and Treas,, 
Rev. Paul de Schweinitz. 

Colleges and Serrmva/ries 

Name Location President 

Linden Hall Lititz. Pa F. W. Stengel. 

Moravian College and Theological 

Seminary Bethlehem, Pa J. Taylor Hamilton. 

Moravian Seminary and College 

for Women Bethlehem, Pa J. H. Clewell. 

Nazareth Hall ' Nazareth, Pa A. D. Thaeler. 

Salem Academy ' and College for 

Women Winston-Salem, N. C H. E. Rondthaler. 


The Moraviam (weekly), Bethlehem, Pa., Editor, C. D. Kreider; 
The Moravian Missionary (monthly). West New Brighton, Staten 
Island, N. Y., Editor, F. R. Nitzschke; Der Brueder-Botschafter 
(weekly), Watertown, Wis., Editor, Bishop Karl A. Mueller. 


From the time of the first propagation of the gospel among them 
by Cyril and Methodius, the Bohemians and Moravians have stood 
for freedom in religrious as in national life, and under the leadership 
of John Huss and Jerome of Prague they offered a firm resistance 
to the rule of both the Austrian Empire and the Roman Catholic 
Church. For several years after the martyrdom of Huss in 1415, 
and of Jerome in 1416, their followers had no special organization, 
but in 1457, near Kunwald, in Bohemia, an association was formed 
to foster pure Scriptural teaching and apostolic discipline. 

In spite of continued persecution the union grew steadily, so that, 
taking the lowest estimate, it appears that at the beginning of the 
Reformation the brethren had, in Bohemia and Moravia, more than 
400 churches and a membership of at least 150,000, and probably 
200,000 souls. Most cordial relations were maintained with Luther 
and Calvin, though no formal union with the German and Swiss 
diurches was ever reached, and the Moravian Confession of Faith, 
published in 1535, had the cordial assent of Luther. After the 
Schmalcald War a branch of the Union was established in Poland. 
In its organization the church was episcopal, having a supreme judge 
to preside in the assembly and a synod to decide matters of faith 
and discipline. Priests, living at first in celibacy, were ordained after 
the apostolic example, and pursued grades for their support. The 
administration of the congregation was in the hands of elected elders 
who had supervision over the church members,, the promotion of the 
religious life of the women being in care of matrons. 

The union proved to be strongest in the fields of education and 
literature. In nearly every large town they had schools and a print- 
ing house. Their greatest achievement, however, was the l^anslatioh' 
of the Bible into the Bohemian from the original tongues (com-* 
pleted in 1593) and a revision of the Polish Bible was published in 
1632. Hymnals were issued in Bohemian, in German and in Polish. 

Meanwhile, the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church Jhad 
increased, and the Thirty Years' War devastated the country. At 
its commencement Bohemia and Moravia were overwhelmingly evan- 
gelical. At its close, in 1648, the evangelical churches of Bohemia and 
Moravia had been practically destroyed. Large numbers of mem- 
bers had been put to the sword and others had fled into Hungary, 
Saxony, Holland, and Poland, in which countries, as well as in Bo- 
hemia and Moravia, they continued- in -scattered communities. The 

Directory of Religious Bodies 157' 

last well-known bishop of. the United Church, the famous educator, 
John Amos Comenius, ^ied at Amsterdam in 1670. 

In 1722 a small company from Moravia, followed latier by others 
who cherished the traditions of their ancestral churchy were per^ 
mitted to settle on an estate of Nicholas Louis, Coimt of Zinzendorf, 
in Saxony, where the village of Herrnhut arose. Colonists came from 
Germany also, and an association was formed in which the religious 
plans of Zinzendorf and those of the Moravians were combined. The 
Protestant confession of the realm was accepted, and a distinct order 
and discipline, perpetuating elements of the old Moravian Church, 
was established under royal concessions. In 1735 the historic Mo- 
ravian episcopate was transferred to the association by two. surviving, 
bishops of the old line who were filling state church positions in Ger- 
many, and the Unitas Fratrum, or Church of the Brethren, known at 
the present time in England and America as the Moravian Church, 
was established. 

The chief puropse of the church was to carry on evangelistic 
work in Christian and heathen lands. In accordance with this pur- 
pose, the first Moravian missionary came to Pennsylvania in 1734, 
and in the same year an attempt was made at colonization and mis- 
sionary work in Georgia. David Nitschmann, the first Moravian 
bishop in America, who, in 1731, had helped to foimd the first Mo- 
ravian mission among the heathen in the West Indies, came to 
Georgia in 1736. Political disturbances ruined the work in Georgia, 
and in 1740 the colony moved to Pennsylvania. In 1741 Bishop 
Nitschmann and his associates founded the town of Bethlehem, and 
a little later the neighboring domain belonging to the evangelist, 
George Whitefield, which he had named Nazareth, was purchased. 
A cooperative union to develop the settlements and support mis- 
sionary work was formed by the colonists, and was maintained until 
1762. All labored for a common cause and received sustenance from 
a common stock, b^t there was no surrender of private property or 
of personal liberty, nor any individual claim on the common estate. 
Missionary work was begun among the Indians and also among the 
white settlers, 

In 1749 an act of Parliiament recognized the Moravian Church 
as "an ancient Protestant Episcopal Church." This gave it standing 
and privileges in all British dominions; but its policy of doing unde- 
nominational leavening work, with the hope of furthering evangelical 
alliance, caused it to remain a comparatively small body. In subse- 
quent years it was mainly active in cooperating with the European 
branches of the church in the conduct of missions among the heathen. 

Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, in Pennsylvania, and Bethabara 
and Salem, in North Carolina, were organized in colonial times as 
exclusive Moravian villages, after the model of the Moravian com- 
munities in Germany, England, and Holland. During the years be- 
tween 1844 and 1856 this exclusive system was abolished, and the 
organization of the church was remodeled to suit modem conditions. 
At the same time home missionary work was revived, and since then 
membership of the church in the United States has been quadrupled. 


The Moravian Church has no doctrine peculiar to itself. It is 
simply and broadly evangelical, in harmony with Protestants gen- 
erally on the essentials of Christian teaching. 


In polity the Moravian Church is a modified episcopacy. Every 
congregation has a council composed of communicant members who 

158 Year Book of the Churches 

have attained the af^e of 21 years, and haye subscribed to the rules 
and regulations of the congregation. 

The general supervision of the congregation rests with the gen- 
eral and provincial synods. The American branch of the church, 
composed of a northern and a southern province, and the European 
branches are federated in a "Unity," with a general synod, which is 
an international representative body meeting at least once in a 

There are three orders of the ministry — ^bishops, presbyters, and 

The church has an established liturgy, with a litany for Sunday 
morning and a variety of services for different church seasons, the 
general order of the ancient church, year being observed. 



No report obtfiinable. 


The scattered bands of Bohemian and Moravian Christians, after 
the general dispersion consequent upon the Thirty Years' War, re- 
tained their religious life through the persecutions which broke out 
from time to time. 

The first considerable immigration to America of adherents of 
this Union came after the revolutionary period of 1848. Those from 
Bohemia and western Moravia settled chiefly in the Northern states; 
while those from eastern Moravia almost without exception turned 
to Texas. The first Bohemian evangelical sermon in Texas was 
preached in 1855. The first congregation was organized in 1864 at 
Wesley, Texas. 

The next step was the calling of an assembly of delegates of all 
the congregations to meet at Granger, Texas, in 1903. 

At a second synodal assembly at Taylor, Texas, in 1904, a general 
constitution was prepared and accepted and a state charter secured. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The basis of doctrine of the Evangelical Union of Bohemian and 
Moravian Brethren is the "Confessio Fratrum Bohemorum," of the 
Confession of Faith of the Union of the Bohemian Brethren, pre- 
sented to Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria, by the Lords and Knights 
of the Union in 1608. Other doctrinal symbols, as the Helvetic, or 
Reformed, and the Augsburg, or Lutheran confessions, are accepted 
in so far as they agree with the Bible, which is with the Brethren 
the only rule of faith, intercourse, and life. 

The legislative and executive authority is intrusted to a synod, 
which meets annually on the 6th of July in commemoration of the 
burning at the stake of John Huss. 



Address Rev. Francis Pokorny, R. D. 3, Cedar Rapids, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 159 


In 1858 a group of 6 families, formerly members of the Re- 
formed Church of Bohemia, under the leadership of Rev. Francis 
Kun, organized the First Bohemian and Moravian Church, in Col- 
lege Township, Linn Coimty, Iowa. 

While claiming the same origin as the Moravian Church (Unitas 
Fratrum) and the Evangelical Union of Bohemian and Moravian 
Brethren, these churches are not ecclesiastically connected with 
either of these bodies. They hold friendly relations with the Pres- 
byterian. Reformed, and Bohemian churches of the Northwest and 
East, and enter into accord with them in movements for education 
and missionary work, in these respects affiliating especially with the 
Central West (Bohemian) Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of America. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The Independent Bohemian and Moravian churches recognize the 
Helvetic and Westminster confessions of faith and use the Heidel- 
berg and Westminster catechisms. They administer baptism to the 
children of believers, and to adults on profession of faith. The 
Lord's Supper is celebrated four times a year, according to the usage 
of the Reformed Church of Bohemia. In polity these churches are 


Annual convention. 

Twenty-four state associations. 

Officers : Pres,, Dr. George B. Warne, Chicago, 111. ; Sec, Rev. 
George W. Kates, Washington, D. C. ; Treas., Cassius L. Ste- 
vens, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Progressive Lyceums (Simday Schools). National Supt, Mrs. 
Anna L. Gillespie, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bureau of Phenomenal Evkence. Cv/rator, Mark A. Bar- 
wise, Bangor, Maine. 

Publicity Bureau. Chmn,, Geo. B. Warne, Chicago, 111. 


Name Location Dea» 

Morris Pratt Institute Whitewater, Wis A. J. Weaver. 


Progressive Thinker (weekly), Chicago, 111., Editor, Mrs. M. E. 
Cadwallader; Banner of Life (weekly), Boston, Mass., Editor, H. 
C. Berry; Reason (monthly), Los Angeles, Calif., Editor, Dr. B. F. 
Austin; The National Spiritualist (monthly), Chicago, 111., Editor, 
Dr. George B. Warne. 


This organization traces its origin tp the writings of Andrew 
Jackson Davis, published in 1845. 

In the first half of the nineteenth century almost no religious 
denomination taught or believed in the possibility of communion 
with those who had passed to the spirit world. Very little emphasis 

1 60 Year Book of the Churches 

was raid upon the universal fatherhood of God and brotherhood of 
man. Furthermore, the idea of progression after death was enter- 
tained by very few. In view of these and other facts, Mr. Davis and 
his followers, representinp* nearly every religious denomination, as 
well as the Materialists, felt that it was necessary to go outside of 
the accepted orders of thought and establish an entirely new move- 

From 1850 to 1872 local organizations sprang up throughout the 
United States, but no attempt was made to organize a national asso- 
ciation until 1863. In 1863 the National Spiritualists' Association of 
the United States of America was organized. 


Special emphasis is laid on right living here upon earth, be- 
lieving that their condition in the spirit life depends entirely upon 
what they do while in mortal form. 

The Declaration of Principles contains the following: 

We believe in Infinite Intelligence; and that the phenomena of 
nature, physical and' spiritual, are the expressions' of Iiltfiiiite Intel- 

We affirm that a correct understanding of such expressions, and 
living in accordance with them, constitute the true religion ; that the 
existence and personal identity of the individual continue after the 
change called ''death," and that communication with the so-called 
"dead" is a fact scientifically proven by the phenomena of Spirit- 

We believe that the highest morality is contained in the Golden 
Rule: "Whatsoever ye would that others should- do - unto you, do ye 
also unto them." 

We affirm the moral responsibility of the individual, and that 
he makes his own happiness or unhappiness as he obeys or dis- 
obeys Nature's psychic laws. 

We affirm that the doorway to reformation is never closed against 
any human soul, here or hereafter. 

Spiritualists believe that the spirit world is a counterpart of the 
visible world, only more beautiful and perfect, and that those who 
enter it must be free from the impress of evil wrought while in the 
body. They are almost unanimous in their belief in progression after 
the death of the body, and in the final restoration of all souls to a 
state of happiness; and they hold that those who die in childhood 
grow to maturity in spirit life. They further believe that punish- 
ment for wrongdoing continues beyond the grave until every vestige 
of it has been cleared away thrpugh honest effort. They are opposed 
to war, to capital punishment, to restrictive medical laws, and to 
every form of tyranny, political or religious. They declare there is 
no forgiveness for sin and assert that every man must work out his 
own destiny. Their views with regard to God are widely divergent, 
but the great majority of them accept Theism, using the word in the 
broadest possible sense, as the foundation of their philosophy. 

The organization of the Spiritualists is congregational. 


Office : 4324 Vincennes Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Officers : Supreme Pastor, Rev. G. V. Cordingley ; Sec, Rev. 
F. R. McNabb ; Treas., Rev. E. J. Donnelly. 
Seminary: Lake Villa, 111. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 161 


The Progressive Spiritualist Church was established to embrace 
the rapidly increasing number of individuals who had come to regard 
spirit communication not only as a scientifically demonstrated fact, but 
as a revelation no less divine in its origin than those recorded in 
tiie Holy Scriptures; and who believed ttiat God did not cease His 
revelations 2,000 years ago, but that the increased facility of spirit 
communication of the present day is but a logical development in the 
spiritual evolution of the human race. 

It was founded by Rev. G. V. Cordingley. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The doctrine of this church is, in general, that of conventional 
Christianity, modified by later divine revelations received in spirit 


Sec, Paul E. Reinick, 588 Seneca Ave., Ridgewood, N. Y. 


The New Apostolic Church claims the same historical origin as 
the Catholic Apostolic Church. 

The Rev. Edward Mierau is the head of the churches in the United 
States, under the head apostle in Europe, the Rev. Herman Niehaus, 
who resides in Steinhagen, near Bielefeld, Westphalia, Germany, and 
who has under his general supervision all New Apostolic churches 
throughout the world. 


The New Apostolic Church accepts the Apostles' Creed, and em- 
phasizes the inspiration and authority of the Bible, the sacramental 
nature of baptism and the Lord's Supper, the restoration of the ordi- 
nance of the laying on of hands by the apostles, the necessity of the 
gifts of the Spirit, the payment of the tithe, and the belief in the 
speedy personal premillennial coming of Christ. 


Each apostle is placed in charge of a particular district, known 
as an "apostle district." These apostle districts are subdivided into 
local districts, which are made up of groups of local churches, the 
leader of each of which is a bishop or elder. Each church has, ac- 
cording to its size, one or more priests, one of whom is the bead. 
All the ministers are selected by the apostleship according to their 
ability, knowledge, and inspiration of God. Candidates ' for admis- 
sion to the church are required first to make application to the 
bishop or apostle. 


Headquarters: Boston, Mass. Address, Charles A. Rowe, P. 

0. Box 2662, Boston, Mass. 

No organization or regular membership, no church buildings 

or paid ministry. 


The Echoes of the Stumbling Stone, Boston, Mass., Editor, 
Charles A. Rowe. 

162 Year Book of the Churches 

History ' 

The Non-Sectarian Churches of Bible Faith, founded by Lyman 
H. Johnson, 1868, protest against the generally accepted concep- 
tion of church organization. The basic principle lies in the interpre- 
tation of the term church. "This word," they say, "as traditionized, 
is made to mean a society organized by man like secular corpora- 
tions, except for religious purposes; a joint interest and agreement 
of several Christians under covenants and laws they have adopted is 
essential to the meaning of the word "church," as generally under- 
stood." This interpretation, in their view, classes "with infidels and 
the irreligious" those Christians outside of church organizations and 
"is an injustice to such Christians and contrary to the Bible mean- 
ing of the word." The truth as they recognize it, is that churches 
of Christ have always existed outside of sectarian systems. They say 
that the Greek word "ecclesia," which is translated "church" in Eng- 
lish, has the meaning "called out" — that is, "converted out of the 
world by a change of heart into the assembly of Christians on 
earth"^-and they hold that the church exists where one person is 
thus called out from the world. The idea of the assembly thus con- 
stituted has no reference to locality or organization, and the church 
is the "body of Christ," including "all who are in Christ regardless of 
locality." They find no account in the Bible of any Christian joining 
the church; he is already a member by faith in Christ, and every de- 
scription of the church in any city or house of the New Testament is 
simply of one or more Christians living there. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the churches agree substantially with the so-called 
"orthodox or evangelical churches." They hold the Bible to be the 
divinely, inspired rule of faith and practice and reject all creeds and 
disciplines not contained in it. They believe in the Trinity, the 
vicarious atonement of Christ, the baptism of the Holy Spirit as the 
the antitype of water baptism, a final judgment, and an eternal 
heaven and hell. ^ 

There is no p«neral ecclesiastical organization. No head over 
individual members is recognized but Christ, and though there are 
elders in each community or church, they are reg:arded simply as 
teachers, hieiving no ecclesiastical authority. In their view, the only 
authoritv is "the authority of the truth," which is the authority of 
God to all who are convinced of the truth of the Bible. The minis- 
ters receive no salary, and the necessary expenses connected with 
the preaching services are met by voluntary contributions. 


SjTiod of Bishops, annual ; next meeting at Chicago, October 
4, 1922. 

Officers ; Archbishop, Most Eev. W. H. Francis, 120 E. Wal 
ton PL, Chicago ; Bishop, Et. Eev. Antonio Eodrigues, New Bed- 
ford, Mass.; Vicar-Qeneral, Very Eev. J. 0. Erpenstein, Lodi, 
Calif.; Lithuanian National Catholic Bishop, Et. Eev. S. B. 
Mickiewicz, Westville, 111. 


Following the development of the Old Catholic movement 
in Europe, consequent upon the Council of the Vatican in 1870, 
which declared the infallibility of the Pope, there grew up in 

Directory of Religious Bodies 163 

the Catholic communities of this country, especially in the Bel- 
(^an communities of Wisconsin, a revulsion against the Roman 
Catholic Church. This movement as finally organized bears the 
name **01d Catholic Church in America/' 

At the time of the visit to this country of Father Hyacinthe 
Loyson, of Paris, who was closely associated with the Old Cath- 
olic movement in Europe, an effort was made to reach these 
Belgian communities, and the French priest, Father J. Rene 
Villatte, visited them with the purpose of developing church 
life. Relations with the Protestant Episcopal Church were con- 
sidered, but did not materialize, nor did a suggestion that they 
come under the care of Bishop Vladimir, of the Russian Ortho- 
dox Church. 

In doctrine it is in full accord with the Old Catholic Churches 
of Europe, and accepts the seven ecumenical synods of the uni- 
versal and undivided church prior to 1054, rejecting the filioque, 
papal supremacy and infallibility, and all union of church and 


General Conference, quadrennial; next meeting. May, 1925; 
place unknown. 

Ten conferences. 

Headquarters: Franklin Springs, Royston, Ga. A Literary 
and Bible School and printing plant is conducted at Franklin 
Springs, Ga. 

Officers: Oen, Supt,, Rev. J. H*. King, Royston, Ga. ; Asst 
Oen, Supts,, E. D. Reeves, 503 Salem Ave., Roanoke, Va. ; S. A. 
Bishop, 2429 37th Ave., Birmingham, Ala.; 6en. Sec, L. R. 
Graham, 652 East Trigg Ave., Memphis, Tenn. ; Qen, Treas,, 
Rev. G. F. Taylor, Royston, Ga. 

Committee to complete Official Board : A. H. Butler, Falcon, 
N. C. ; P. F. Beacham, 254 Briggs Ave., Greenville, S. C. ; F. M. 
Britton, Royston, Ga. ; Ralph Taylor, Route No. 3, Anderson, 
S. C; F. M. Bramblett, McCormick, S. C; R. B. Beall, 916 
North Kellham, Oklahoma City, Okla. 


Pentecostal Holiness Advocate (weekly), Royston, Ga., Editor, 
Rev. G. F. Taylor. 


The Pentecostal Holiness Church, as it now exists, is a union 
of three or more former organizations. The two principal organiza- 
tions that came together to form said church were the Fire-Baptized 
Holiness Church and the Pentecostal Holiness Church. The former 
was organized at Anderson, S. C, in 1898, and the latter at Clinton, 
N. C, in 1899. The union of these two organizations under the name 
of the Pentecostal Holiness Church was effected at Falcon, N. C, in 
January, 1911. There are ten annual conferences, spread out over 

164 Year Book of the Churches 

the territory embraced within lines drawn from Maryland to Florida 
and from the Atlantic Ocean to Oklahoma. It has a mehibership of 
7,000, including 469 ministers in America and more than five hun- 
dred in foreign lands. Fourteen missionaries and a dozen native 
workers are supported in South Africa, South China, and in India. 


Accepts the Apostles' Creed; believes that the Bible is the true 
and full revelation of God to man; that regeneration and justifica- 
tion are by faith alone; sanctification as a second definite work of 
grace to be received subsequent to regeneration; the Baptism of the 
Holy Spirit to be received subsequent to sanctification and evidenced 
by speaking in other tongues as the Spirit gives utterance; divine 
healing as in the Atonement; that there is eternal peace for the 
righteous and never-ending torment for the wicked; the personal, 
pre-millennial second coming of Jesus. 


The form of government is episcopal but the majority vote rules. 
Each local church is entitled to a lay representative at the session 
of the annual conference. Each annual conference is entitled to lay 
representation at the General Conference. The General Conference 
enacts all laws of discipline^ and elects a Greneral Board who have 
oversight of the work. Each annual conference has an Official 
Board elected by the conference who -have oversight of the work of 
the conference. The chief ofiicer of the annual conference is called 
Conference Superintendent, and the chief officer of the whole church 
is called General Superintendent. 


General Synod, decennial; next session, 1930. 

Provincial Synods, biennial. 

Four provinces: Eastern, Central, Western and Northern. 

Bishops (Address Rt. Rev.) 

Francis Bonczak, 592 Hayes Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Francis Hodur, 529 Locust St., Scranton, Pa. 
Valentine Gawrychowski, 182 Sobieski St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location Principal 

Theologrical Seminary Scranton, Pa Francis Hodur. 

Straz (Guard) (weekly), Scranton, Pa. 


With the increasing immigration from Poland and the establish- 
ment of large Polish Roman Catholic churches in a number of Amer- 
ican cities, misunderstandings and disputes developed between the 
ecclesiastical authorities and the lay members of the Polish parishes. 
These were occasioned chiefly by dissatisfaction on the part of the 
layihen with the "absolute religious, political, and social power over 
the parishioners," given by the Council of Baltimore in 1883 to the 
Roman Catholic priesthood; and by the rather free exercise of that 
power on the part of certain Polish Roman Catholic Priests. The 
situation was aggravated, in some cases, by the placing of other 

Directory of Religious Bodies 165 

than Polish priests in charge of Polish churches. The result was 
that disturbances arose, which developed, at times, into riots. In 
Buffalo, N. Y., a popular Polish priest was removed, and a protest 
made against the installation of his successor resulted in a general 
decree of excommunication. The congregation laid claim to the 
church property, but the claim was disallowed by the courts. The 
congregation then purchased ground, put up a new edifice of its 
own, and declared itself absolutely independent of the former eccle- 
siastical leaders. 

In Chicago, 111., there was a revolt against the Polish Order of 
Resurrectionists, and especially against a certain Polish priest; and 
in Cleveland, Ohio; in Scranton and Shamokin, Pa., and elsewhere, 
similar troubles occurred. 

A convention of independent congregations was held at Scran- 
ton in September, 1904, and was attended by 147 clerical and lay 
delegates, who represented about 20,000 adherents in 5 states. As a 
result, these churches in northeastern Pennsylvania, together with 
others in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Maryland, 
combined to form the Polish National Church, the Rev. Francis 
Hodur being elected as its head, with the title of bishop. He was 
subsequently consecrated by the National Catholic bishops of the 
Netherlands. A constitution was adopted, and the Latin books of 
Holy Church Rites were ordered to be translated into the Polish 
language. Resolutions were adopted expressing a desire for fra- 
ternal and sympathetic cooperation with other Christian churches, 
and repudiating the claim of the Roman Catholic Church to be the 
sole exponent of the true doctrines of Christ. 

This convention, or synod, was the first gathering of its kind 
held by Polish people since the Reformation movement in Poland was 
crushed in the seventeenth century. At a special session of the synod, 
held in Scranton two years later, the various church charters were 
unified, the church constitution was amended, and two new feasts 
were instituted, the Feasts of Botherly Love and Union of the Poli^ 
People in America, to be observed on the second Sunday in Septem- 
ber of each year, and the Feast of the Poor Shepherds, to be ob* 
served on the first Sunday after Christmas. At the following synod 
three more feasts were added: The Fpast of the Institution of the 
Polish National Church, to be observed on the second Sunday in 
March ; the Feast of the Memory of the Martyrs of the Polish Nation, 
to be observed on the second Sunday in May; the Feast of tiie Chris- 
tian Family, to be observed on the second Sunday in October, of 
each year. 

The controlling motive of the conventions was both a desire for 
freedom in religious institutions corresponding to that in other de- 
partments of American life, and a protest against the placing by the 
Roman Catholic Church of all power, administrative as well as spirit- 
ual, in the hands of the ecclesiastics. This freedom included in their 
view the right of the congregations to own and control their church 
edifices, schools, orphanages, etc.; the right of the individual to read 
and study the Bible for himself ; and the corresponding right to work 
out his own salvation, not through ceremonies, but through a better 
understanding of the doctrines of Christ in their application to pri- 
vate and to public life. 

One or two churches in Chicago, Illinois, together with churches 
in Indiana and Wisconsin, and several in the East, organized another 
independent diocese, known as the Polish Independent Catholic 
Church, of which the Rev. Anton Kozlowski was eventually made 
bishop. Subsequently these two organizations united to form the 
Polish National Catholic Church of America, which includes all 

166 Year Book of the Churches 

the Independent Polish Catholic churches of the United States, ex- 
cept one at Buffalo, N. Y. 


The doctrine of the Polish National Catholic Church of Amer- 
ica is based upon the Bible, and especially upon the New Testament, 
as expounded oy the apostles and the first four Ecumenical councils, 
and as further interpreted by the synod of the church. It is also 
held that the hearing of the Word of God preached in the National 
Church is a sacrament, for it has ''the power to pour in the soul 
the Divine Grace," leading to the knowledge of truth, spiritual regen- 
eration, and union with God. The church rejects the doctrine of the 
infallibility of the Pope in matters of f&ith and morals, and be- 
lieves that all men have the right to interpret the Word of God 
according to their convictions and the dictates of their conscience. 

It believes the "man, by following the Supreme Being, is in this 
life capable of attaining a certain degree of the happiness and of 
the perfection whidi is possessed of God in an infinite degree"; that 
"faith is helpful to man toward his salvation, though not absolutely 
necessary," which is especially true of "blind faith." Good deeds, 
however, it holds "bring us nearer to God, and to His Mediator, Jesus 
Christ, and make us worthy of being His followers and brothers, and of 
being children of the Heavenly Father." It rejects the doctrine of 
eternal punishment and believes that "even sinful man, after imder- 
going an intrinsic metamorphosis through contrition, penance, and 
noble deeds, may have a chance to regain the grace of God." Sin Is 
regarded as a "lack of perfection in the essence of man, and as 
mankind progresses in this knowledge of the causes of life and the 
nature of God, and comes nearer and nearer to Him, sin will grad- 
ually grow less and less until it vanishes entirely. Then man will be- 
come the true image and child of God, and the kingdom of God will 
prevail upon earth." 


The constitution vests the highest authority of the church in 
the synod. This convenes in regular session every five years, although 
a special session may be called at the request of one-third of the 
members of the church at any time when the bishop deems it neces- 
sary. Each congregation is governed by a board of trustees, elected 
by the members, and working in harmony with the priests assigned to 
it. The question of the celibacy of the clergy has been discussed, 
but action was postponed. 

The administrative power is centralized in the bishop and the 
grand council, which is composed of three clerical and three lay 
members, who are elected at each regular session of the synod. 



As the Lutheran churches represent those features of the 
Reformation emphasized by Luther, so the Presbyterian and Re- 
formed churches represent those emphasized by Zwingli and 
Calvin. The doctrinal and ecclesiastical system developed at 
Zurich and Geneva, modified somewhat in Holland and in 
France, and transferred to Scotland, became solidified there 
largely under the influence of John Knox in 1560, and found 
a practical and thoroughly logical presentation in the Westmin- 
ster Assembly, London, England, 1643-1649 . This was not a 

Directory of Religious Bodies 167 

distinctively Presbyterian body. Called by act of Parliament 
to consider tiie state of the entire country, in matters of re- 
ligion, it represented in its membership all English-speaking 
Christians, altliough the Anglicans took practically no part in its 
deliberations. It had no ecclesiastical authority, yet its deliv- 
erances on doctrine have furnished the basis both for Presby- 
terian and many non-Presbyterian bodies, and the form of eccle- 
siastical government it recommended has gone far beyond the 
country where it was formulated, and has had a marked influ- 
ence not only on church life, but in civil and national develop- 
ment. In England it led to the development of the Independ- 
ents who afterwards became the Congregationalists. In Scot- 
land, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it resulted in 
the development of several Presbyterian bodies, and one of its 
strongholds was the north of Ireland, where so many Scotch 
found a more congenial home for the time being, until they 
should cross the Atlantic. 

The distinctively Presbyterian churches of the United S^tes 
trace their origin chiefly to Great Britain. Whatever of English 
and Welsh Presbyterianism there was in the colonies, together 
with the few French Protestant or Huguenot, churches, com- 
bined at an early date with the Scotch and Scotch-Irish ele^ 
ments to form the Presbyterian Church in the Utiited States of 
America, from which the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States afterwards sepa- 
rated. The Calvinistic Methodists of Wales are represented by 
the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church. Five Presbyterian de- 
nominations are directly connected with the Secession and Re- 
lief movements of the church in Scotland in the eighteenth cen- 
tury; the United Presbyterian Church of North America; the 
Associate Synod of North America, known also as the Associate 
Presbyterian Church; the Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, formerly the Associate Reformed Synod of the South; 
thei Synod and the General Synod of the Reformed Pf esbyterian 

In close harmony with these distinctively Presbyterian 
churches are the Reformed churches traceable to the influence 
of immigration from the continent of Europe; particularly, the 
Reformed Church in America and the Christian Reformed 
Church, both of which originated in Holland ; and the Reformed 
Church in the United States, whose beginnings were in Switzer- 
land and Germany. All of these, Presbyterian and Reformed, 
substantially agree in government, and all maintain similar prin- 
ciples of the Calvinistic system, whether expressed in the West- 
minster Confession of Faith, the Canons of the Synod of Dort, 
or the Heidelberg Catechism. The Alliance of Reformed 
Churches throughout the world holding the Presbyterian system, 
whose special purpose is to secure cooperation by the different 
denominations in general church work, has grown out of this 

168 Year Book of the Churches 

concord, as has also the Council of the Reformed Churches in 
the United States, holding the Presbyterian system, organized 
for the same general purpose. 

Presbyterianism as a doctrinal system has as its fundamental 
principles the undivided sovereignty of God in his universe, 
the sovereignty of Christ in salvation, the sovereignty of the 
Scriptures in faith and conduct, and the sovereignty of the in- 
dividual conscience in the interpretation of the Word of God. 
As a polity it recognizes Christ as the only head of the church 
and source of all power, and the people of Christ as entitled 
under their Lord to participation in the government and admin- 
istration of the church. As polity and as doctrine it maintains 
the right of private judgment in matters of religion, the mem- 
bership in the Church Universal of all who profess the true re- 
ligion, the validity of church organization, and the power of 
each association of organizations to prescribe its own terms of 
communion. It further holds that ministers are peers one of 
anot^her, and that church authority is positively vested, not in 
individuals, such as bishops or presbyters, but in representative 
courts, including the session, the presbytery, and the synod ; and 
in the case of some bodies, especially the larger ones, the general 
assembly. This principle of coordinate representative authority, 
by which the individual member of the church has his own 
share in the conduct of that church, while, at the same time, he 
recognizes not merely the headship of Christ, but the fellowship 
in Christ, has given to the system a peculiar hold wherever there 
has been representative government, and has exerted a strong 
influence modifying both individualistic and hierarchial tend- 
encies. Its advocates call attention to the resemblance between 
its polity and the political constitution of the United States, in 
which country it has had its strongest influence; its courts cor- 
responding in a measure to the local,^ state, and national organi- 



The Presbyterian and Reformed Churches throughout the 
world, having essentially the same creedal basis and similar 
ecclesiastical organization, for purposes of fellowship and con- 
ference have organized a World Alliance. There is a General 
Council in which all are represented and which meets every 
four years. There are also an Eastern and a Western Section 
which meet separately at the convenience of their constituent 

General Council. 

OflScers: Pres,, Rev. William Park, Belfast, Ireland; Acting 

Directory of Religious Bodies 169 

Gen, Sec, Rev. J. R. Fleming; American Sec, pro tern., Rev. 
Henry B. Master. 

Eastern Section: Includes Presbyterian and Reformed 
Churches in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australasia. The Re- 
formed Church in Hungary is a member of the Eastern Section. 

Western Section: Includes Presbyterian and Reformed 
Churches in the U. S., Canada, and South America. Office, 515 
Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. J. Ritchie Smith; Sec, pro tem.y Rev. 
Henry B. Master ; Treas., Philip E. Howard. 


Officers: Pres., Prof. George L. Omwake, Ph. D. ; Stated 
Clerk, Rev. William P. Fulton, Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Rev. 
David F. McGill, Ben Avon, Pa. 



General Assembly, d,nnual; next meeting in Des Moines, 
Iowa, May 18, 1922. 

Forty-six synods, 302 presbyteries. 

Officers of the General Assembly: Mod., Rev. Henry C. 
Swearingen, D. D., St. Paul, Minn. ; Stated Clerk, Rev. Lewis S. 
Mudge, 515 Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Trustees of the General Assembly, 1319 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Pres., George Stevenson; Rec. Sec, H. P. Ford; 
Treas., The Land Title and Trust Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Executive* Commission of the General Assembly, Wither- 
spoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. Chmn., Rev. Henry C. Swearingen; 
Sec, Rev. Lewis S. Mudge. 

Board op Home Missions, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. Pres., 
Rev. Wilton Merle-Smith; Gen, Sec, Rev. John A. Marquis; Sees,, 
Rev. B. P. Fullerton, Rev. John McDowell, Rev. W. R. King; Aast. 
Treas., Varian Banks. 

Board op Foreign Missions, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Pres., Rev. George Alexander; Cor, Sees., Robert E. Speer, Rev. Ar- 
thur J. Brown, Rev. Stanley White; Treas,, Dwight H. Day. Organ: 
All the World. 

Board op Publication and Sabbath School Work, Wither- 
spoon Bldg., 1319 Walnut St, Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Franklin L. 
Sheppard; Sec, Rev. Harold McAfee Robinson; Editor, Rev. John T. 
Faris; Supt. of Missions, John M. Somemdike; Business SupU, F. 
M. Braselman; Treas., Marshall S. Collingwood; Manufacturer, 
Henry F. Sheetz. 

Board op Church Erection, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Pres., Rev. Ford C. Ottman; Rec Sec, W. K. Gilchrist; Gen, Sec, 
Rev. David G. Wylie; Field Sec, Rev. Jesse C. Bruce; Treas,, Rev. 
George R. Bauer. 

Board op Ministerial Relief and Sustentation, 423-429 With- 
erspoon Bldg., 1319 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Rev. George 

170 Year Book of the Churches 

F. Greene; Gen, Sec, Rev. Henry B. Master; Asso. Sec, Rev. Robert 
Hunter; Treas., Rev. William W. Heberton. 

Board of Missions for Freedmen, Bessemer Bldg., Sixth St., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Pres., Rev. Samuel J. Fisher; Gen, Sec and Treas,, 
Rev. John M. Gaston* 

General Board of Education, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City, 
Pres,, Rev. Hugh T. Kerr; Gen, Sec, Edgar P. Hill; Treas,, Edward 
R. Sterrett. 

Board of Temperance, Columbia Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pres,, Rev. Thomas Watters; Gen, Sec, Prof. Charles Scanlon. 

Permanent Committee on Evangelism, 825 Witherspoon Bldg., 
Philadelphia, Pa. Chmn,, Charles L. Huston; Sec and Treas,, Rev. 
George G. Mahy. 

Permanent Committee on Men's Work. Chmn., Rev. John 
Timothy Stone; Gen. Sec, Rev. W. F. Weir, 17 North State St., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Permanent Committee on Vacancy and Supply. Chmn,, Rev. 
George N. Luccock; Sec, Rev. Walter H. Houston, Commercial Bldg., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

New Era Expansion Committee, 156 Fifth Ave., New York 
City. Chmn., J. T. Manson; Gen, Sec, Rev. Wm. H. Foulkes; Treas,, 
A. R. Nichol. 

Woman's Board of Home Missions, 156 Fifth Ave., New York 
City. Prea,, Miss Margaret E. Hodge; Gen. Sec, Mrs. Charles K. 
Roys. Organ: Home Missions Monthly. 

Colleges and Universities 

Nams Location President or Dean 

Albany College Albany, Oreg Wallace H. Lee. 

Alma College Alma, Mich H. M. Crooks. 

Arkansas Cumberland College QarksTUle, Ark. . . . H. S. Lyle. 

Bellevue College Bellevue, Neb David R. Kerr. 

Biddle University Charlotte, N. C n. L. McCrorey. 

Blackburn College Carlinville, 111 William M. Hudson. 

Bloomfleld Seminary (College Dept.) Bloomfleld, N. J Harry E. Richards. 

Buena Vista College Storm Lake, Iowa. . .Stanton Olinger. 

Carroll College Waukesha, Wis H. P. Houghton. 

Centre College of Kentucky Danville, Ky W. A. Ganfleld. 

Coe College Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Cumberland University Lebanon, Tenn E. P. Childs. 

Davis and Elkins College Elkins, W. Va James E. Allen. 

Dubuque German College and Seminary. . Dubuque, Iowa C. M. Steffens. 

Blmira College Elmira, N. Y Frederick Lent, 

Emporia, College of Emporia, Kans 

Geneseo Collegiate Institute Geneseo, 111 N. W. Thornton. 

Grove City CoHlege Grove City, Pa Weir C. Ketler. 

Hanover College , Hanover, Ind William A. Millis. 

Hastings College Hastings, N^ R. B. Crone. 

Henry Kendall College Tulsa, Okla. Arthur Lee Odell. 

Highland College Highland, Kans W. Gilbert James. 

Highland Park College Des Moines, Iowa. . . 

Huron College Huron, S. D H. M. Gage. 

Idaho, Ccdiege of Caldwell, Idaho . . . . W. J. Boone. 

Illinois College Jacksonville, III C. H. Rammelkajnp. 

James Milliken University Decatur, 111 A. R. Taylor, Enter, 

Jamestown College Jamestown, N. D B. H. Kroeze. 

Kentucky CcAlege for Women Danville, Ky M. M. Allen. 

Lafayette College Easton, Pa John H. McCracken. 

Lake Forest College Lake Forest, Iowa. . . 

Lenox College Hopkinton, Iowa A. St. C. Mackenzie. 

Lincoln College Lincoln, 111 A. E. Turner. 

Lincoln University Lincoln Univ., Pa. . . .John B. Rendall. 

Lindenwood College St. Charles, Mo John L Roemer. 

Macalester CoU^re St. Paul, Minn Elmer A. Bess. 

Maryville College Manrville, Tenn S. T. Wilson. 

Missouri Valley College Marshall, Mo W. H. Black. 

New York University New York City Elmer E. Brown. 

Oswego Coll^re Oswego, Kans I. F. Mather. 

Occidental College Los Angeles, Calif. . . Silas Evans. 

Park College Parkville, Mo F. W. Hawley. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 171 

Name Location President or Deem 

Parsons Oollege Fairfield, Iowa R. Ames Montgomery. 

Plkeville College , . . Pikeville, Ky J. F. Record. 

Rollins College Winter Park, Fla. ..Calvin H. French. 

Trinity University Waxahachie, Tex. . .Samuel L. Hombeak. 

Tusculimi College OreenvUle, Tenn. ...C O. Gray. 

Wabash College CrawfordsvUle, Ind..G. L. Mackintosh. 

Washington and Jefferson College Washington, Pa. . . . 

Waynefiburg College Waynesburg, Pa. ...J. W. McKay. 

Western College for Women Oxford, Ohio William W. Boyd. 

Westminster College Fulton, Mo E. E. Reed. 

Westminster College SaJt Lake City, Utah. H. W. Heherd. 

Whitworth College Spokane, Wash B. S. Bates. 

Wilson College for Women Chambersburg, Pa. . . B. D. Warfleld. 

Wooster, Cc^lege of Wooster, Ohio 

Theological Seminaries 

Auburn Theological Seminary Auburn, N. Y George Bl Stewart. 

Biddle University Theological Department. Charlotte, N. C H. L. McCrorey. 

Bloomfleld Theolojrical Seminary.. Blocnnfleld, N. J H. E. Richards. 

Dubuque German CaHlege and Seminary. .Dubuque, Iowa Cornelius M. Steffeni. 

Lane Theological Seminary Cincinnati, Ohio . . . . WUliam McKibbin. 

Lincoln University Theological Dept Lincoln Univ., Pa... John B. Rendall. 

McCormick Theological Seminary Chicago, 111 James G. K. McOure. 

Omaha Theological Seminary Omaha, Neb A. B. Marshall. 

Princeton Theological Seminary Princeton, N. J J. Ross Stevenson. 

San Francisco Theological Seminary San Anselmo, Calif. .Warren H. Landoo. 

Theological Seminary of Kentucky Louisville, Ky Wm. A. Ganfleld. 

Western Theological Seminary Pittsburgh, Pa ..James A. Kelsa 


Southold Academy Southold, N. Y Bertha R. Stoddard. 

Western Reserve Academy Hudson, Ohio H. O. Sluss. ' 

W. Nottingham Academy Cblora, Md J. B. Leuthner. 


The Presbyterian Magazine (monthly),, organ of the Mission 
Boards, New York, Editor, Rev. James M. Snowden; Business 
Mgr., H. P. Camden; Presbyterian Advance, Nashville, T«nn.; Con- 
tinent (weekly). New York City and Chicago, 111.; Presbyterian 
(weekly), Philadelphia, Pa.; Presbyterkm Banner, Pittsburgh, Pa^; 
Herald and Presbyter (weekly), Cincinnati, Ohio; Woman's Work, 
New York City, Editor, Mrs. Henry Elliott. . 


The earliest American Presbyterian churches were established in 
Virginia, New England, Maiyland, the Carolinas, and New York, and 
were chiefly of English origin, their pastors being mostly Church of 
England ministers holding Presbyterian views. In Virginia the Rev. 
Alexander Whitaker was installed, about 1614, as pastor of a church 
which was governed by himself and a few of the most religious men, 
and in 1630 the Rev. Richard Denton located in Wethersfield, Conn., 
removed in 1641 to Stamford, Conn., and in 1644 to Hempstead, L. I. 
Between 1642 and 1649 many of the Virginia Puritans were driven 
out of that colony and found refuge in Maryland and North Caro- 
lina; while Denton and his associates found New Amsterdam more 
friendly than New England. The English Presbyterian element in 
Maryland and the colonies to the northward was strengthened by 
the arrival, from 1670 to 1690, of a considerable number of Scotch 
colonists, the beginnings of a great immimgration. There were many 
Presbyterians among the early settlers of New England, and the 
church foimded at Plymouth in 1620, and other churches in that 
region had ruling elders as officers. Several synods were also held, 
one of which, in 1649, adopted the Westminster Standards for doc* 
trine. English-speakinc: Presbyterians were first found in New York 
City in 1643, with the Rev. Francis Doughty as their minister, though 
no church was organized there until 1717. Presbyterian churches of 

172 Year Book of the Churches 

English origin, however, were established earlier on Long Island, 
among which are to be noted Southold (1640) and Jamaica (1656). 
The founders of the earliest churches in New Jersey — Newark (1667), 
Elizabeth (1668), Woodbridge (1680), and Fairfield (1680)— were 
from Connecticut and Long Island. The first church in Pennsylvania 
was that founded by Welsh colonists at Great Valley about 1690, 
while the church in Philadelphia dates from 1698. In 1683 the Pres- 
bytery of Laggan, Ireland, in response to a letter from William 
Stevens, a member of the Council of the Colony of Maryland, sent 
to this country the Rev. Francis Makemie, who became the apostle of 
American Presbyterianism. He gave himself to the work of eccle- 
siastical organization, and at last succeeded in bringing into organic 
unity some of the scattered Presbyterian churches throughout the 

In the spring of 1706, 7 ministers, representing about 22 congre- 
gations, not including the Presbyterians of New England, Virginia, 
the Carolinas, and Georgia, met at Philadelphia and organized a 
presbytery, which in 1717 was transformed into a synod. 

The synod in 1729 passed what is called the "adopting act," by 
which it was agreed that all the ministers under its jurisdiction 
should "declare their agreement in, and approbation of, the Confes- 
sion of Faith, with the Larger and Shorter Cathechisms of the As- 
sembly of Divines at Westminster, as being, in all essential and neces- 
sary articles, good forms of sound words, and systems of Christian 
doctrine,'' and also "adopt the said Confession and Catechisms as the 
confession of their faith.'' At the same time the synod also denied to 
the civil magistrate power over the church and power to persecute 
any for their religion. 

The general religious movement which characterized the early 
part of the eighteenth century, and manifested itself in Germany in 
Pietism, in England in Methodism, and in the American colonies in 
The Great Awakening, deeply affected the Presbyterian Church. When 
Whitefield came to the country in 1739, he foimd most congenial fel- 
low-workers in Gilbert Tennent, William Tennent, Jr., and their as- 
sociates of the Log College. They, however, became so severe in 
their denunication of "unconverted ministers" as to arouse bitter op- 
position; and the result was a division, one party, the "New Side," 
endorsing the revival and insisting that less stress should be laid on 
college training, and more on the evidence that the candidate was a 
regenerate man, and called by the Holy Ghost to the ministry; the 
other, the "Old Side," opposing revivals and disposed to insist that 
none but graduates of British universities or New England colleges 
should be accepted as candidates for the ministry. There was also 
divergence of views with regard to the interpretation of the Stand- 
ards, but in 1758 the bodies reunited upon the basis of the West- 
minster Standards pure and simple. At that date the church con- 
sisted of 98 ministers, about 200 congregations, and some 10,000 com- 

It was during the period of this division that the New Side 
established, in 1746, the College of New Jersey, later Princeton Uni- 
versity, for the purpose of securing an educated ministry. In 1768, 
the College called John Witherspoon from Scotland and installed him 
as president and professor of divinity. 

Ecclesiastical forces were among the powerful influences operat- 
ing to secure the separation of the colonies from Great Britain, and 
the opening of the Revolutionary War found the Presbyterian Church 
on the colonial side. The general synod called upon the churches to 
uphold flrmly the resolutions of Congress and to let it be seen that 
they were "able to bring o\it the whole strength of this vast country 
to carry them into execution." At the close of the war the synod con- 
gratulated the churches on the "general and almost universal attach- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 173 

ment of the Presbyterian body to the cause of liberty and the rights 
of mankind." 

With the restoration of peace in 1783 the Presbyterian Church 
gradually recovered from the evils wrought by war, and the need of 
further organization was deeply felt. It had always been ecclesi- 
astically independent, having no organic connection with European 
or British churches of like faith; but the independence of the United 
States had created new conditions for the Christian churches as well 
as for the American peoole. All denominations were no longer merely 
tolerated, but were entitled to full civil and religious rights in all 
the states. In view of these new conditions, the synod, in May, 1788, 
adopted, as the constitution of the church, the Westminster Confes- 
sion of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, the Form of Gov- 
ernment and Discipline, and the Directory for the Worship of God. 
Certain changes were made in the Confession, the Catechisms, and 
the Directory, in behalf of liberty in worship, and in prayer, and, 
above all, of freedom from control by the state. The Form of Gov- 
ernment was altogether a new document and established the General 
Assembly as the governing body in the church. The first General 
Assembly met in 1789 in Philadelphia. 

The first important movement in the church after the adoption 
of the constitution was the formulation of a Plan of Union with the 
Congregational associations of New England. It began with corre- 
spondence in 1792, and reached its consummation in the agreements 
made from 1801 to 1810 between the General Assembly and the 
associations of Connecticut and of other states. This plan allowed 
Congregational ministers to serve Presbyterian churches, and vice 
versa; and also allowed to churches composed of members of both 
denominations the right of representation in either presbytery or coun- 
cil. It remained in force until 1837, and was useful to both denomina- 
tions in securing the results of the great revivals of religion through- 
out the country, and also in furthering the causes of home and 
foreign missions, but, on the other hand, it introduced administrative 
peculiarities and doctrinal tendencies that gave rise to serious ap- 
prehensions among many Presbyterians. 

What is known ^s the Cumberland separation took place dupng 
this period. The Presbytery of Cumberland ordained to the min- 
istry persons who, in the judgment of the Synod of Kentucky, were 
not qualified for the office, either by learning or by soimd doctrine. 
The controversies between the two judicatories resulted in the dis- 
solution of the presbytery by the synod in 1806, and finally, in 1810, 
in arrangements for the organization of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. 

The membership of the church during this period, 1790 to 1837, 
increased fropi 18,000 to 220,557, due mainly to a revival of religion, 
of which camp meetings were one of the main features in western 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. In this period also the first 
theological seminary of the church was founded at Princeton, N. J. 
(1812), and most of the missionary and benevolent boards were es- 

The Presbyterian Church has always maintained the rights of 
women in the church in connection with administrative affairs. Wom- 
en members have ordinarily voted for pastor^ and other spiritual 
church officers. Women's foreign missionary societies were organized 
as early as 1870, and women's work in home missions in 1879. There is 
also a woman's department of the Freedmen's Board. The last 
step taken by the church in connection with the Christian service 
of women was the adoption, in 1915, of a provision in the form of 
government authorizing the election and setting apart of deaconesses 
in each of the churches, these officers being under the direction of 
the session. 

174 Year Book of the Churches 

The official publications of the church are the records of the 
General Presbytery, 1706-1716; of the General Synod, 1717--1788, and 
of the General Assembly, 1789-1921, each in printed form. They 
are the most complete ecclesiastical records in the United States of 
America. Both the minutes of the General Assembly and the reports 
of the boards are now issued annually. 

The standards of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America are twofold — the standards of doctrine and the standards 
of government, discipline, and worship. These last are contained 
in documents known as the "form of government," the "book of 
discipline," and the "directory for worship," and, taken together, form 
tJie constitution of the church. They were first adopted in 1788, and 
amendments and additions have been made from time to time, the 
book of discipline being entirely reconstructed in 1884-85. 


The standards of doctrine of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of America are the Westminster Confession of Faith 
and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms. These were first adopted in 
1729. In 1788 certain amendments to the Confession and Larger 
Catechism were approved by the General Synod, giving expression 
to the American doctrine of the independence of the church and of 
religious opinion from control by the state. In 1886 the clause for- 
bidding marriage with a deceased wife's sister was stricken out, and 
in 1902 certain alterations were again made, and there were added 
two chapters, "Of the Holy Spirit," and "Of the Love of God and 
Missions." A declaratory statement was also adopted setting forth 
the universality of the gospel offer of salvation, declaring that sin- 
ners are condemned only on the ground of their sin, and affirming 
that all persons dying in infancy are elect and therefore saved. As 
a whole, these staiidards are distinctly Calvinistic. They emphasize 
the sovereignty of God in Christ in the salvation of the individual; 
affirm that each believer's salvation is a part of the eternal divine 
plan; that salvation is not a reward for faith, but that both faith 
and salavtion are gifts of God; that man is utterly unable to save 
himself; that regeneration is an act of God and of God alone; and 
that he who is once actually saved is always saved. 

Discipline is defined in the book of discipline as "the exercise of 
that authority, and the application of that system of laws, which the 
Lord Jesus Christ has appointed in His church." In practice it is 
controlled by a policy of guidance and regulation, rather than one 
of restriction and punishment. Christian liberty is regarded as con- 
sistent with the wise administration of Christian law. 

The Directory for Worship makes no restriction as to place or 
form. The church insists upon the supreme importance of the spirit- 
ual element, and leaves both ministers and people at full liberty to 
worship God in accordance with the dictates of their own consciences. 
The sacraments are administered by ministers only, and ordinarily 
only ministers and licentiates are authorized to teach officially. A 
book of common worship was approved by the General Assembly 
in 1906 for optional use by pastors and congregations. 


The organization of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America is set forth in the Form of Government. It has 
as its two principal factors the ministers as representatives of 
Christ and the ruling elders as representatives of the people; and 
these two classes constitute the four judicatories which form the ad- 
ministrative system. These are the session, which governs the con- 
gregation; the presbytery, which governs a number of congrega- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 175 

tions within a limited j^eographic district; the synod, which governs 
the congregations within a larger geographic district; and the gen- 
eral assembly, which is the supreme judicatory. All of these courts 
are vested with legislative, executive, and judicial powers. 

Applicants for church membership are examined by the session 
as to their Christian life and belief, but are not required to assent 
to the creed of the church. The usual form of baptism is sprinkling, 
both for infants and unbaptized adults on confession of faith. The 
invitation to the Lord's Supper is usuallv general for all evangelical 

The General Assembly is the highest judicatory of the Presby- 
terian Church. It is composed of an equal number of clerical and 
lay commissioners. 

Its officers are a moderator and a stated clerk. The term of the 
stated clerk is five years and he may be elected to succeed himself. 
The moderator serves for one year and with the stated clerk acts as 
the representative of the church during the interim between the 
meetings of the General Assembly. The General Assembly decides all 
controversies respecting doctrine and discipline, erects new synods, 
appoints the various boards and commissions, receives and issues all 
appeals, etc. Its decision is final, except in all cases affecting the 
constitution of the church. It meets annually on the third Thurs- 
day in May. 

The General Assembly has appointed permanent executive and 
judicial commissions with carefully regulated and restricted powers. 
Membership on these bodies is ordinarily limited to three years. Of 
the executive commission the moderator is the chairman and the 
stated clerk the secretary. 



General Assembly, annual; next meeting, Charleston, W. Va., 
May 18, 1922. 

Seventeen synods; 88 presbyteries. 

OflScers of the General Assembly: Mod., Rev. A. B. Curry, 
Memphis, Tenn. ; Stated Clerk and Treas., Rev. Thomas 
H. Law, Spartanburg, S. C. ; Permanent Clerk, Rev. J. D. Les- 
lie, Cisco, Tex. 

Executive Committee op Foreign Missions, 156 Fifth Ave. N., 
Nashville, Tenn. Exec. Sec, Rev. Egbert W. Smith; See, Foreign 
Ccrrespondence and Editor, Rev. S. H. Chester; Associate Field and 
Foreign Sec, Rev. J. O. Reavis; Treas., Edwin F. Willis. 

Executive Committee op Home Missions, 1522 Hurt Bldg.. At- 
lanta, Ga. Exec Sec, Rev. S. L. Morris; Sec, Rev. Homer McMillan; 
Treas., A. N. Sharp. 

Executive Committee op Christian Education and Ministerial 
Reliep, 410 Urban Bldg., Louisville, Ky. Exec Sec, Rev. Henry H. 
Sweets; Trees., John Stites. 

Executive Committee op Publication and Sabbath School 
Work, Publishing House, 6 and 8 N. Sixth St., Richmond, Va. Exec 
Sec and Treas., R. E. Magill. 

Permanent Committee on Bible Society. Chmn,, Rev. Rus- 
sell Cecil, Richmond, Va. 

Permanent Committee on Stewarpship. Gen. Sec, Rev. M. E. 
Melvin, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Permanent Committee on the Sabbath and Family Religion. 
Chmn., Rev. Robert Hill, Tyler, Tex. 

176 Year Book of the Churches 

Supt. Sunday Schools and Young People's Societies, Rev. Gilbert 
Glass, Richmond, Va. 

Woman's Auxiliary, Field Bldg., Taylor and Olive Sts., St. 
Louis, Mo. See., Mrs. W. C. Winsborough. 

Colleges and Schools 

Name Location President or JOean 

Assembly's Training School Richmond, Va W. L. Lingrle. 

Agnes Scott Collie Decatur, Ga. P. H. Gaines. 

Alabama Presbyterian College for Men . . Anniston, Ala. David Park. 

Arkansas College Batesvile, Ark. W. S. Lacy. 

Austin College Sherman, Tex T. S. Qyce. 

Belhaven College Jackson, Miss 

Chicora College for Women Columbia, S. C S. C. Byrd. 

Daniel Baker CcUege Brownwood, Tex. . . . S. E. Chandler. 

Davidson College Davidson, N. C William J. MartiD. 

Davis and Elkins College Elkins, W. Va James E. Allen. 

Flora Macdonald Cc^lege Red Springs, N. C. . .C. G. Vardell. 

Hampden-Sidney College Hampden-Sidney, Va J. D. Eggleston. 

Isbell Presbyterian College for Girls Talladega, Ala. ..... .C. Gerard White. 

King College Bristol, Tenn Tilden Scherer. 

Lewisburg Seminary Lewlsburg, W. Va. . John I. Armstrong. 

Mary Baldwin Seminary Staunton, Va. Miss M. P. Higgins. 

Mississippi Synodical College Holly Springs, Miss . . R. T. Cooper. 

Mitchell College Statesville, N. C J. M. Moore. 

Oklahoma Presbjrterian College for Girls. .Durant, Okla E. H. Lyle. 

Palmer College and Academy De Funiak Spgs., Fla. W. M. Kemper. 

Peace Institute Raleigh, N. C Miss M. O. Graham. 

Presbyterian College of S. C Ointon, S. C D M. Douglas. 

Queens College Charlotte, N. C 

Sayre College Lexington, Ky A. S. VenaWe. 

SUliman College Clinton, La. U. B. Currie. 

Southwestern Presb3rterian University Clarksville, Tenn. ..Chas. Edward Diehl. 

Stonewall Jackson College Abingdon, Va F W. Alexander. 

Sjmodical College Fulton, Mo. Tohn Jnjnes. 

Texas Presbyterian College Milford, Tex French W. Thompson. 

Westminster College Fulton, Mo E. E. Reed. 

Theological SeminaHes 

Austin Theological Seminary Austin, Tex Thomas W. Currie. 

Columbia Seminary ...Columbia, S. C Melton Qark. 

Presbjrterian Theological Seminary of Ky. .Louisville, Ky J. M. Vander Meulea 

Stillman Institute (colored) Tuscaloosa, Ala. . . . R. K. Timmons. 

Union Theological Seminary Richmond, Va. W. W. Moore. 


Christian Observer, Louisville, Ky., Editor, Rev. David M. 
Sweets; Presbyterian Standa/rd, Charlotte, N. C, Editor, Rev. J. R. 
Bridges; Presbyterian of the South, Richmond, Va., Editor, Rev. W. 
S. Campbell; Missioruiry Survey, Edited by the Board Sees., Rev. S. 
H. Chester, Rev. S. L. Morris, Rev. Henry H. Sweets, R E. Magill 
and Mrs. W. C. Winsborough. 


When the Civil War broke out, in 1861, the Old School General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, in session in Philadelphia, 
through what were known as the "Spring resolutions," pledged its 
whole constituency to the support of the Federal Government in the 
contest which was then beginning. The Southern churches which 
were connected with the assembly took the ground that this action 
violated the constitution of the church, in that it assumed to decide 
a disputed political question, and would inevitably introduce the 
strife and rancor of political discussion into the church courts. There 
was also a deep-seated conviction that the difference of opinion as to 
the status of slavery was radical and irreconcilable. The great ma- 
jority of the Northern churches, whether or not they gave formal 
expression to their belief, regarded slavery as sinful. The Sou then? 
churches refused absolutely to "make slaveholdlng a sin or non- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 177 

slaveholding a term (condition) of communion." Accordingly 47 pres- 
byteries formally withdrew from connection with the Old School 
General Assembly, and their commissioners met in Augusta, Ga., 
December 4, 1861, and organized the General Assembly of the Pres- 
byterian Church in the Confederate States of America. 

In 1864 the United Synod and the General Assembly of the Con- 
federate States came together, and in the following year adopted the 
name, "The Presbyterian Church in the United States." This united 
church was further enlarged by the accession of several bodies which 
had proclaimed themselves independent of the Northern Assembly, 
in protest against any political action by an ecclesiastical body. Of 
these, the largest were the Synod of Kentucky, which joined in 1869, 
and the Synod of Missouri, which joined in 1874. 

As the discussions connected with the Civil War subsided, fra- 
ternal relations were established with the Northern churches in 1882, 
and in 1888 the two General Assemblies held a joint meeting in 
Philadelphia in celebration of the centenary of the adoption of the 
constitution of the church. In 1897 each assembly celebrated the 
two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the Westminster Assembly, 
which formulated the Confession of Faith and Catechism of the 

Various efforts have been made to bring together these two great 
sections of the Presbyterian Church. As yet, however, they have not 
been successful, owing partly to differences in doctrinal emphasis 
and church conduct, but chiefly to diversity in community and church 
life. The Northern churches make no distinction between white and 
Negro; the Southern churches have adopted a policy of separation, 
being moved thereto by the conviction that the best development of 
the Negroes would be secured by the increased responsibility thus 
laid upon them, and by apprehension that social embarrassment might 
result from ecclesiastical relations. So far as may be, the Negro 
members are organized into separate congregations, and these into 
separate presbyteries, with reference to an ultimate colored Pres<- 
byterian Church. An independent synod was thus set off by the 
assembly in 1897, but two presbyteries, composed exclusively of ne- 
groes, owing to remoteness, remained as constituent parts of the 
synods in whose bounds they are located. However, in 1916, the 
General Assembly constituted these and two other Negro presbyteries 
existing within its territory into a synod composed exclusively of 
Negro ministers and members, yet being a constituent part of the 
Presbtyerian Church in the United States. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrinal matters the church is strictly Calvinistic, adheres 
closely to the standards, and, while allowing liberty of dissent in 
minor matters, requires strict creed subscription from all its* min- 
isters and office bearers. It particularly excludes from its courts all 
discussion of political questions, holds to the plenary inspiration of 
the Bible, and has not abated faith in its inerrancy. It claims that 
the Scriptures forbid women the public expounding of God's Word, or 
other functions pertaining to an ordained minister, but admits their 
services in other lines of Christian work. 

In polity the principal distinctive feature is the recognition of 
ruling elders as entitled to deliver the charge in the installation of a 
pastor and to serve as moderators of any of the higher courts. 


General Assembly, annual; next meeting at Greenville, 
Tenn. May 18-24, 1922. 

178 Year Book of the Churches 

Twelve synods and 70 presbyteries. 

Officers : Afod.7"Judge John B. Tally, Scottsboro, Ala.; Stated 
Clerk and Treas., Rev. D. W. Fooks, Nashville, Tenn. 

BoAKD OF Missions and Church Erection. Pres,, Rev. A. M. 
Buchanan, Moberly, Mo.; Treas,, Rev. J. W. Duvall. 

Board of Education. Pres., A. C. Biddle, Clarksville, Tenn.; 
Cor, Sec. and Treas,, Rev. W. B. Cunningham, Union City, Tenn. 

Board of Publication, Sunday School and Young People's 
Work, Nashville, Tenn. Pres,, Rev. J. M. Cook, Loudon, Tenn.; Sec, 
and Treas,, Rev. Charles R. Matlock, Cleveland, Tenn. 

Board of Ministerial Relief. Pres,, Rev. C. A. Galloway, Jack- 
son, Tenn.; Cor, Sec, and Treas,, Rev. John A. McLane, Bethany, 111. 

Committee on Prohibition. Ckmn,, Rev. J. B. Eshman, Spring- 
field, Mo. 

Tithing Board. Evangelist, Rev. Hugh McCord, Marshall, Mo.; 
Treas., Mrs. Vint N. Bray Freeman, Mansfield, Mo. 


Name Location Dean 

Bethel College McKenzie, Tenn. 

Cumberland College (temporarily sus- 
pended) Leonard, Tex 

Theological Seminary 

Cumberland Presbyterian Theologrical Sem- 
inary McKenzie, Tenn P. F. Johnson. 


Cumberland Presbyterian, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. J. W. 


The opening years of the nineteenth century witnessed a re- 
markable religious awakening in various parts of the United States. 
Revivals were numerous and in certain sections were accompanied 
by strange "bodily exercises." As the revival work progressed, 
physical manifestations became so marked as to create an unfavor- 
able reaction, and some Presbyterian ministers set themselves against 
the entire movement. Others favored it, on the ground that various 
communities in which it was carried on were indeed transformed. 
The division in sentiment resulted finally in two distinct parties, re- 
vival and antirevival; the one inclined to regard the bodily exercises 
as a sign of divine approval; the other unable to see any good in 
the work because of the extravagances. 

At the first meeting of the Synod of Kentucky in 1802 the south- 
western portion of the Presbytery of Transsylvania, including the 
Cumberland country, was constituted the Presbytery of Cumberland. 
As the revival, which had 'started in the Transsylvania Presbytery, 
spread to the various small settlements in this section, the demand for 
ministers became greater than the supply, and the revival party, 
which controlled the new presbytery, believed that the emergency, as 
well as precedent, justified them in introducing into the ministry 
men who had not had the usual academic and theological training. A 
few such were inducted into the ministry ,and ottiers were set apart 
as "exhorters." In addition to this, those thus inducted into the min- 
istry were permitted, if they so desired, to adopt the Westminster 
Confession "as far as they deemed it agreeable to the Word of God," 
the reservation having special reference to "the idea of fatality, 
which," as they later expressed it, "seems to be taught under the 
mysterious doctrine of predestination." 

Directory of Religious Bodies 179 

The antirevival party objected both to the admission into the min- 
istry of men who were not up to the usual literary and theological 
standard, and to the permission of this reservation in regard to doc- 

The result after much controversy was the organization of a new 
independent presbytery February 4, 1810. The organization grew 
rapidly, and in the course of a few years it became apparent that 
a new denomination had entered upon its career. At first it was 
referred to as "the members of the Cumberland Presbytery." As the 
denominational idea became more apparent, it was called the "Cum- 
berland Presbyterian," the next step being to call it the "Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church." 

In October, 1813, the Presbytery of Cumberland, or General 
Presbytery, was divided into 3 presbyteries, and a general synod was 
constituted. This continued to be the supreme judicatory until 1828, 
when there was a reorganization. In place of the general synod, 4 
synods were constituted and a general assembly, which met in 1829. 

After the War Between the States a mutual agreement for the 
establishment of the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church was 
reached, as affording to the Negroes the opportunities they needed 
most for church development. 


In doctrine the Cumberland Presbyterian Church is essentially 
Calvinistic of the more moderate type; that is, it has uniformly pro- 
tested against the doctrine of reprobation; but recognizes fully the 
sovereignty of God and the doctrine of the perseverance of the 
saints. The Westminster Confession continued to be the creed of 
the church until 1814, when a revision was made which was de- 
signed to be a. popular statement of doctrine emphasizing human 
responsibility, and this was again revised along much the same 
lines in 1883. 

So far as church membership is concerned, no subscription to 
the confession is required. Those who are ordained to the ministry, 
eldership, and diaconate, are required to subscribe to the Confession 
of Faith. 


In polity the Cumberland Presbyterian Church has always been 
thoroughly presbyterian, its government being exercised by the vari- 
ous covirts — session, presbytery, synod, and general assembly. The 
principle of delegated authority is supreme, and the conditions of 
church membership include a pledge to abide by and support the rules 
and regulations of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 


General Assembly, annual; next session, Cambridge, Ohio, 
May 24, 1922. 

Seventy presbyteries. 

Officers of the General Assembly: Mod., Rev. A. F. Kirk- 
patrick, Burlington, Washington; Stated Clerk, Rev. David P. 
McGill, Bellevue, Pa. 

Board of Foreign Missions, Philadelphia, Pa. Cor, Sec, Rev. 
W. B. Anderson, 200 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treus., Robert 
L. Latimer, 24 N. Front St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board of Home Missions, 703 Publication Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Cor, Sec, Rev. R. A. Hutchison ; Treas,, J. Allison Reed. 

180 Year Book of the Churches 

Board of Freedmen's Missions, 608 Publication Bld^., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Cor, Sec, and Treas,, Rev. R. W. McGranahan. 

Board of Church Extension, 701 Publication Bldg., Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Cor. Sec, J, J, Porter, 209 Ninth St., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Treas,, 
George C. Arnold, Monongahela National Bank, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Board of Education, 1344 E. 63d St., Chicago, 111. 0!or, Sec, 
Rev. John E. Bradford; Treas, of Income Funds, Hugh R. Moffett, 
Monmouth, 111.; Treas. of Permanent Funds, R. L. Wray, Monmouth, 

Board of Publication, Publication Bldg., 209 Ninth St., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Business Mgr,, Rev. E. M. Milligan; Cor, Sec, Rev. John 
McNaugher; Editor of Sabbath School Periodicals, Rev. R. J. Miller; 
Chmn, of Sabbath School Committee, T. J. Gillespie; Treas,, George 
C. Arnold. 

Board of Ministerial Relief, Philadelphia, Pa. Cor, Sec, Rev. 
J. C. Scouller, 200 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas,, W. J. Gra- 
ham, 201 Bulletin Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Women's Board, Publication Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Sec, Miss 
Jennie Wallace; Treas,, Mrs. J. B. Hill, 1531 Denniston Ave., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Organ: Woman's Missionary Magazine, 

Young People's Work. Gen. Sec, Rev. J. A. Cosby, Elwood 
City, Pa. 

Missionary and Efficiency Committee, Pittsburgh, Pa. Chmn,, 
Rev. W. I. Wishart, 2333 Perrysville Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
Exec Sec, Rev. J. H. White, 209 Ninth St., Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Treas,, 
J. Allison Reed. 


Nam4 Location President 

Cooper Memorial CtAege Sterling, Kans Ross T. Campbell. 

Knoxville College Knoxville, Tenn J. Kelley Giffen. 

Monmouth College Monmouth, 111 Thomas H. McMichael. 

Muskingum College New Concord, Ohio J. Knox MontgcMnery. 

Tarkio College • Tarkio, Mo Jos. Addison Thompson. 

Westminster College New Wilmington, Pa W. C Wallace. 

Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.. Pittsburgh, Pa John McNaughter. 

Xenia Theological Seminary St. Louis, Mo Jos^h Kyle. 


United Presbyterian (weekly) , Pittsburgh, Pa., Editor, .Rev. W. 
J. Reid; Christian Union HeraJd (weekly), Pittsburgh, Pa., Editor, 
Rev. R. J. Miller. 


The most successful attempt at union of the different Presby- 
terian bodies in the United States which represent the Covenanter 
and Secession movements in Scotland, was that accomplished in 1858, 
when the greater part of the Associate Synod (Secession) and the 
Associate Reformed Synod (Secession and Covenanter) were brought 
togetJier in the United Presbyterian Church of North America, in the 
city of Pittsburgh. Whatever was distinctive in the views and usages 
of the two branches of the church, together with their colleges, semi- 
naries, missionary enterprises, traditions, and records, became the 
inheritance of the United Church. 


The United Presbyterian Church accepts the Westminster Con- 
fession of Faith and Catechisms as its doctrinal standards, modifying 
somewhat the chapters on the power of civil magistrates. Accom- 
panying these standards, as a part of the basis of the union, was a 

Directory of Religious Bodies 181 

"judicial testimony," declaring the sense in which these symbols were 
received. This testimony, consisting of eighteen articles, contains 
the declarations of doctrine and order on which the United Presby- 
terian Church justifies its separation from other Presbyterian 

These eighteen articles affirm: The plenary inspiration of the 
Scriptures; the eternal sonship of Christ; the fall of man in Adam's 
transgression; man's present inability to secure salvation; atonement 
through the satisfaction of the justiqe of God by the sacrifice of 
Christ, who thereby placed himself in the room of a definite number 
chosen before the foundation of the world; the imputation of Christ's 
righteousness to the believer; the free and unconditional offer of sal- 
vation to all who hear it; the necessity of appropriation and persua- 
sion, as well as of intellectual assent to the gospel, in order to saving 
faith; repentance as a fruit of justifying faith, not a ground of the 
sinner's pardon; obedience to the moral law as a perpetual obliga- 
tion, but not a condition of salvation; the quickening, regenerating, 
sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit; the headship of Christ, involv- 
ing His dominion over the church and over all created things; the 
supremacy, in authority and obligations, of the law of God; that 
slaveholding is a violation of that law; that secret societies are incon- 
sistent with the letter and spirit of Christianity; that the observance 
and offer of church communion should be limited to those keeping the 
ordinances; that public Social covenanting is a moral duty; that the 
songs contained in the Book of Psalms should be used in public and 
private worship, to the exclusion of the devotional compositions of 
uninspired men. 


In organization and government the church is in accord with 
other Presbyterian bodies, having the same courts — session, presby- 
tery, synod, and general assembly — and observing the same general 
methods of baptism, admission to church membership, ordination to 
the ministry, etc. 


General Assembly, annual. 

Seventeen presbyteries and 4 synods. 

Officers: Mod., Rev. H. M. Bishop, Martin, Tenn. ; Stated 
Clerk, Rev. James Edwards, Huntingdon, Tenn.; Treas., Elder 
F. L. Mc Williams, Athens, Ala. 

Executive Committee. Chmn., J. M. W. DeShong, Milan, Tenn.; 
Vice-Chmn., Rev. Wm. Fowlks; Treas., Rev. E. J. Simpson, Provi- 
dence, Ky.; Sec, Elder J. J. Jenkins, Elkwood, Ala. 

Board op Missions. Pres., J. M. W. DeShong, Fayetteville, Tenn.; 
Vice-Pres., Rev. E. E. Jones; Rec. Sec, Rev. Wm. Fowlks; Fin. Sec, 
W. D. Edington, London, Tenn.; Treas., C. H. Dozier, Elkwood, Ala. 

Board of Publication. Pres., Rev. C. H. Jordan; Sec, G. W. 
Sadler, Waco, Texas. 

Board op Education. Pres., Elder P. H. Hill, Nashville, Tenn. 

Board of Ministerial Relief. Pres., Rev. John Page; Sec, 
Rev. R. H. Goodloe, Dyersburg, Tenn.; Treas., Elder D. W. Beadle, 
Madison, Ala. 

Woman's Board of Missions. Pres., Mrs. Bettie Todd-Bonner, 
Chicago, 111. 


Name Location Prineiptd 

MUan Industrial and Bible Institute Milan, Tenn Miss Phoebe Mitchum. 

182 Year Book of the Churches 


The Colored Cumberland (semi-monthly), Gen. Mgr., J. M. W. 
DeShong, Milan, Tenn. 


Before the Civil War it was estimated that there were about 
20,009 Negro members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. They 
belonged to the same congregations as the white people, and sat 
under the same pastors, though they had preachers of their own 
race, and often held separate meetings. These preachers, however, 
were not fully ordained and were practically little more than ex- 
horters. With the close of the war and the changed conditions, these 
Negro members organized separate churches, and later sought a sepa- 
rate ecclesiastical organization. They were legally set apart by the 
General Assembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, at Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn., in May, 1869, each synod being instructed to order 
the presbyteries in its bounds to ordain the Negro ministers under 
their charge and .organize them into presbyteries of their own. Ac- 
cordingly, in the fall of that year, three presbyteries, all in Tennes- 
see, were set apart. The first synod organized was the Tennessee 
Synod, in 1871, at Fayetteville; and the first General Assembly was 
organized in 1874 at Nashville. The discussion and final action in 
regard to union with the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America has not materially affected tnis body, which remains 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church ac- 
cepts in general the Westminster Confession of Faith, but emphasizes 
the following points: (1) There are no eternal reprobates; (2) Christ 
died not for a part only, but for all mankind; (3) all persons dying 
in infancy are saved through Christ and the sanctification of the 
Spirit; (4) the Spirit of God operates in the world coextensively with 
Christ's atonement, in such a manner as to leave all men inexcusable. 

In polity the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church is in ac- 
cord with other Presbyterian bodies, having the usual courts — ses- 
sion, presbytery, synod, and general assembly — and, as officers, 
bishops or pastors, ruling elders, and deacons. 


(Calvinistic Methodist) 

This body has recently united with the Presbyterian Church, 
U. S. A. 


Synod, annual ; last meeting, Richland, Tenn., May 5-8, 1921. 
Seven presbyteries, 1 in Mexico, and 1 in India. 
Officers of Synod : Mod., Rev. W. A. M. Plaxco, Kannapolis, 
N. C. ; Principal Clerk, Rev. A. S. Rogers, Rock Hill, S. C. 

Board op Foreign Missions, Due West, S. C. Ckmn,, Rev. F. Y. 
Pressly; Sec, Rev. G. G. Parkinson; Treas., P. L. Grier. 

Board of Home Missions and Church Extension. Chmn,, Rev. 
J. C. Galloway, Gastonia, N. C; Cor. Sec, Rev. R. G. Miller, Char- 
lotte, N. C, R. F. D. 1; Treas., Rev. G. R. White, Charlotte, N. C, 
R. F. D. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 183 

Sabbath School and Young People's Work. Gen. Sec, Rev. 
J. W. Carson, Newberry, S. C. 

Junior Christian Work. Gen, Sec, Mrs. W. B. Lindsay, Char- 
lotte. N. C. 

Woman's Work. Gen, Sec, Mrs. J. R. Miller, Rock Hill, S. C. 

Board op Ministerial Relief. Sec, Rev* R. W. Carson, Bruns- 
wick, Tenti. 


Name Location President or Dean 

Bry»on Collegre Fayetteville, Tenn H. B. Blakely. 

Brskine College Due West, S. C R. C. Grier. 

Woman's College Due West, S. C Richard L. RobliiMm. 

Theological Semincury 
Theological Seminary Due West, S. C F. Y. Prcssly. 


Associate Reformed Presbyterian, Due West, S. C, Editor, Rev. 
R. M. Stevenson. 


The union in 1782 of the Reformed Presbytery, representing: the 
old Scotch Covenanters, and the Associate Presbytery, representing: 
the Associate Synod, Anti-Burgher, of Scotland, in the Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church, was. followed by a steady increase in 
the streng:th of that body, until it included four synods which were 
organized under a general synod. One of these synods, the Synod of 
the Carolinas, became somewhat doubtful of the loyalty of the gen- 
eral synod to the distinctive principles of the Scotch churches, and 
withdrew in 1821, becoming in the next year an independent body — 
the Associate Reformed Synod of the South, so called to distinguish 
it from other Associate Reformed synods in the North. By the 
union of 1858, which formed the United Presbyterian Church, there 
ceased to be any other Associate Reformed synods in the North or 
elsewhere, and there being no longer need of the distinction, the synod, 
in 1913, dropped the phrase "of the South," and adopted the name 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the synod is thoroughly Calvinistic, having the same 
symbols of faith as the other Reformed Presbyterian churches. In 
polity it is presbyterian, in close accord with other, similar bodies. 
Its distinctive feature, it claims, is the exclusive use of the Psalms 
in praise. 


(Old School) 

Synods finnual; next meeting at Olathe, Kansas, May 17, 

Officeis: Mod., T. M. Slater, D. D., Seattle, Wash.; Clerk, 
Rev. D. C). Mathews, New Alexandria, Pa.; Stated Clerk and 
Treas,, James S. Tibby, 408 Penn Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Board of Trustees. Pres., George A. McKee, Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
Sec-Treas., James S. Tibby, 408 Penn Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Foreign Mission Board. Pres,, R. J. Bole, New York, N. Y.; 
Sec, Rev. F. M. Wilson, 2410 N. Marshall St., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Treas., Jos. M. Steele, 1600 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

184 Year Book of the Churches 

Home Mission Boakd. Pres,, Rev. Robert Park, Parnassus, Pa.; 
Sec-Treas., James S. Tibby, 408 Penn Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Jewish Mission Board. Sec, Rev. M. M. Pearce, 315 Bucking- 
ham Place, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Treas., Jos. M. Steele, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board of Church Erection. Pres., R. J. Bole, New York City; 
Sec.f Rev. R. C. Montgomery, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Treas,, Jos. M. Steele, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board op Relief. Pres,, A. F. Reid, Morning Sun, Iowa; Sec, 
Rev. H. 6. Patterson, Morning Sun, Iowa; Treas,, James S. Tibby, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Secretary of the Forward Movement, Rev. D. H. Elliott, 1101 W. 
10th St., Topeka, Kans. 

College . 

Name Location Pregidewt 

Geneva College Beaver Falls, Pa. A. A. Johnston. 

Theological Seminary 
Theologrical Seminary N. S., Pittsburgh. Pa R. C. Wylie. 


Christian Nation (weekly) , New York City, Editor, J. W. Pritch- 
ard, 1105 Tribune Building; Olive Trees (monthly), Philadelphia, 
Pa., Editor, M. M. Pearce. 


The Presbyterian Church of Scotland was organized by John 
Knox on his return from a conference with Calvin at Geneva, in 
1560. As it became evident that the Stuart dynasty was bitterly op- 
posed to the organization, because of its asserted independence of 
state control, a movement was started in 1580, though apparently 
not fully organized, for covenanting together in defense of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and this movement secured a quasi indorsement 
from James VI. On the 28th of February, 1638, in Grayfriars 
Church, Edinburgh, the Covenant, with important additions, to adapt 
it to the times, was renewed. 

Anticipating hostile action from the king, the Covenanters pre- 
pared for war, and the following years were signalized by constant 
hostilities, which continued until 1640, when an agreement was signed 
for commissioners to settle the points in dispute, and the ''Solemn 
League and Covenant" was received by "the English Parliament 
and the Assembly of Divines in 1643." This covenant consisted in an 
oath to be subscribed by all sorts of persons in both kingdoms, where- 
by they bound themselves to preserve the Reformed religion in the 
Church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government 
* * * according to the Word of God and practice of the best Re- 
formed churches and to endeavor to bring the churches of Crod in 
the three kingdoms to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in 
religion, confession of faith, form of church government, directory 
for worship, and catechising; to "endeavor, without respect of per- 
sons, the extirpation of popery, prelacy (that is, church government 
by archbishops and all other ecclesiastical officers depending on that 
hierarchy), and whatsoever should be found contrary to sound doc- 
trine and the power of godliness"; to "preserve the rights and privi- 
leges of the parliaments, the liberties of the kingdom, and the king's 
majesty'", person and authority in the preservation and defense of 
the true religion and liberties of the kingdom"; to "endeavor the 
discovery of incendiaries and malignants hindering the reformation 
of religion and dividing the king from his people, that they may be 
brought to trial and receive condign punishment"; finally, to "as- 
sist and defend all those that enter into this covenant and not suffer 
ourselves to be divided or to be withdrawn from this blessed union, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 185 

whether to make defection or to give ourselves to a detestable in- 
difference or neutrality in this cause." 

It was signed by members of both Houses and by civil and mili- 
tary officers, and, very reluctantly, by Charles II, in 1650, when he 
was hoping to recover the English throne. After his restoration, a 
majority in the House of Commons in 1661, ordered it to be burned 
by the common hangman. In the same year the Scottish Parliament 
renounced the covenant and declared the king supreme. The Cove- 
nanters protested against these wrongs, and, under the name of "Con- 
venticlers" and sometimes "Hamiltonians," were subjected to a fierce 
and cruel persecution. Without having any special ecclesiastical or- 
ganization, they formed societies for wor&hip, meeting often m nouses, 
oarns, ana caves, and continued to do this even after the accession 
of William and Mary in 1689. At that time there was established 
what was known as the revolution settlement, which again made the 
Presbyterian Church the state church of Scotland. Some, however, 
believing that in this settlement Reformation principles had been 
seriously compromised, refused to recognize any longer the authority 
of the General Assembly, and identified themselves with the Cove- 
nanters of the previous years; but it was not until 1743 that they 
perfected an organization called the Reformed Presbytery of Scotland. 

The first minister of this body came to this coimtry from Scot- 
land in 1752. As others joined him they constituted, in 1774, the 
Reformed Presbytery. Eight years later, 1782, this Presbytery united 
with the Associate Presbytery in the Associate Reformed Presby- 
terian Church. As in the case of the Associate Presbytery, there 
were some that were dissatisfied, and in 1798 the Reformed Pres- 
bytery was reorganized. At the' meeting of the Presbytery held 
in 1800 it was stated that in some of the congregations there were 
members who owned slaves, and it was resolved that no slaveholder 
should be retained in their communion. This action was enforced, 
and accounts for the fact that at the time of the Civil War there 
were only three Reformed Presbyterian congregations south of Mason 
and Dixon's line, and these were in the border states. 

By 1809 the presbytery had grown so that a synod was consti- 
tuted. Somewhat later, there arose a difference of opinion as to the 
practical relation of the members to the Government of the United 
States, which culminated in 1833 in a division of the church. One 
party, the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Old Light), 
refused to allow its members to vote or hold office under the present 
constitution. The other, the General Synod of the Reformed Pres- 
byterian Church (New Light), imposed no such restrictions on its 
members. The discussion resulted in the framing of a new covenant 
embodying the engagements of the National Covenant of Scotland and 
of the Solemn League and Covenant, so far as applicable in this land, 
and, in 1871, in Pittsburgh, Pa., the synod engaged for the first time 
in the act of covenanting. 


The synod maintains that God is the source of all legitimate 
power; that He has instituted civil government for His own glory 
and the good of men; that He has appointed His Son, the Mediator, 
to headship over the nations; and that the Bible is the supreme law 
and rule in national as well as in all other things. Its members 
pledge themselves to "promote the interests of public order and jus- 
tice; to support cheerfully whatever is for the good of the common- 
wealth in which they dwell;" and to "pray and labor for the peace 
and welfare of the country, and for its reformation by a constitu- 
tional recognition of God as the source of all power, of Jesus Christ 
as the Ruler of Nations, of the Holy Scriptures as the supreme 
rule, and of the true Christian religion." They, however, "refuse to 

186 Year Book of the Churches 

incorporate by any act with the political body until this blessed refor- 
mation has been secured/' and explain thus their refusal to vote or 
hold office. 

The Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are accepted as 
the very Word of God, and as the supreme standard in all matters 
relating to faith and practice. Their teachings with reference to doc- 
trine are summarized in the subordinate standards, the Westminster 
Confession and Catechisms, and the Reformed Presbyterian Testi- 
mony; and their teachings with reference to order and worship are 
summarized, in substance, in the Westminster Form of Church Gov- 
ernment and Directory for Worship. The covenant of 1871 is recog- 
nized as binding on those who took it, and on those they represented. 

Only members in regular standing are admitted to the Lord's 
Supper. The children of church members only are admitted to the 
ordinance of baptism. The metrical version of the Psalms alone is 
used in the service of praise. Instruments of music are not allowed 
in worship. Connection with secret societies is prohibited. 


Presbyterianism is considered as the "only divinely instituted 
form of government in the Christian Church." The church courts are 
the session, the presbytery, and the synod, there being no general 
assembly. The officers are of two classes, elders and deacons. Elders 
include both those who rule and those who also teach; the deacons 
care for the poor, and are usually intrusted with the temporalities. 
To the latter office women are eligible. In the church courts the 
ruling elders and the minister are on an equality. 



General Synod, annual; next session, Philadelphia, Pa., May 
17, 1922. 

Officers: Mod,, Rev. James L. Chesnut, 838 Winsor Square, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; StUted Clerk and Treas., Rev. L. A. Benson, 
Clay Center, Kans. ; Asst, Clerk, Rev. R. W. Chesnut, Delanson, 
N. Y. 

Board op Foreign Missions. Pres., Rev. John Parks, 5923 Wash- 
ington Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Rev. R. W. Chesnut, Delanson, 
N. Y.; Treas., A. B. McMillan, Sparta, 111. 

Board op Home Missions. Pres,, Rev. Alex. Savage, New Gali- 
lee, Pa.; Sec., Rev. R. N. Coleman, R. F. D. Industry, Pa.; Trcow., 
W. J. Imbrie, New Galilee, Pa. 

Board op Education. Chmm,, Prof. F. A. Jurkat, Oedarville, 

Board op Church Extension. Pres,, Rev. Thos. Whythe, 1759 
N. Marshall St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Rev. John Parks, 5923 Wash- 
ington Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas,, W. J. Imbrie, New Galilee, Pa. 

Sustentation Fund. Treas,, W. J, Imbrie, New Gallilee, Pa. 

Disabled Ministers' Fund. Treas., Rev. F. A. Jurkat, Cedar- 
ville, Ohio. 


Name Locatiwi President 

Cedarville College Cedarville, Ohio W. R. McChesney. 

Theological Seminary 

Reformed Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary Cedarville, Ohio W. R. McChesney. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 187 


Reformed Presbyterian Advocate (mpnthly), Ddanson, N. Y., 
Editor, Rev. R. W. Chesnut. 


The Reformed Presbyterian (Covenanter) Church, which was 
reorganized in 1798 and developed into a synod in 1809, was divided 
in 1833 on the question of the relation of its members to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States. One party objected to any participa- 
tion in public affairs, and the other leaving the decision with the 
individual. The former was called the "Synod" and the latter the 
"General Synod." 

The Greneral Synod holds equally with the Synod to the West- 
minster Standards, to the headship of Christ over nations, to the doc- 
trine of "public social covenanting," to the exclusive use of l^e 
Psalms in singing, to restricted communion in the use of the sacra- 
ments, and to the principle of "dissent from all immoral civil insti- 
tution"; but allows its members to decide for themselves whether 
the Government of this country should be regarded as an immoral 
institution, and thus determine what duties of citizenship devolve 
upon them. They may, therefore, exercise the franchise and hold 
office, provided they do not in these civil acts violate the principle 
that forbids connection with immoral institutions. Many of them do 
participate in elections. Negotiations for the union of the General 
Synod and the Synod failed in 1890, because the latter would not 
agree to a basis which interpreted the phrase "incorporate with ttie 
political body" as meaning "such incorporation as involves sinful com- 
pliance with the religious defects of the written constitution as it now 
stands, either in holding such offices as require an oath to support 
the constitution, or in voting for men to administer such offices." 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine and polity this church is in general accord with other 
Presbyterian bodies. 


(Associate Presbyterian Church) 

Synod, annual; next meeting, Eau Claire, Pa. 

Three presbyteries. 

Officers : il/od., Rev. William Porter, Blanchard, Iowa; Clerk, 
Rev. A. M. Malcolm, 210 S. Second St., Albia, Iowa; Treas., 
Rev. D. J. Masson, 729 S. Marion Ave., Washington, Iowa. 

Board op Missions. Chmn,, A. J. Dawson; Sec, Rev. A. M. 
Malcolm, Albia, Iowa; Treas., Dr. W. J. Masson, Washington, Iowa; 
Rev. Wm. Porter, Rev. R. K. Atchison. 

Board of Freedmen. Rev. W. P. Gilkey, Rev. Wm. Porter, Rev. 
A. M. Malcolm. 

Board op Relief. Pres., Rev. A. M. Malcolm; Sec, Rev. W. P. 
Gilkey; Treas., A. J. Dawson, Washington, Iowa. 

Board op Publication. Chmn,, Rev. A. M. Malcolm, 210 S. Sec- 
ond St., Albia, Iowa; Bus. Mgr. and Treas., Rev. R. K. Atchison, 
Rimersburg, Pa.; Rev. H. S. Atchison, Mr. A. J. Dawson. 

Board op Education. Treas., Dr. W. J. Masson, Washington, 


Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Theological Seminary Beaver Falls, Pa H. S. Atchison. 

188 Year Book of the Churches 


Asacciate' Presbyterian Magazine (monthly), Washington, Iowa, 
Editor, Rev. R. K. Atchison, Rimersburg, Pa.; Associate Editor, Miss 
Anna Dawson, Washington, Iowa. 


The Associate Synod of North America, generally known as the 
Associate Presbyterian Church, is the direct descendant of the first 
secession from the Established Church of Scotland in November, 
1733. At that time four ministers — Ebenezer Erskine, William Wil- 
son, Alexander Moncrieff, and James Fisher — withdrew from the state 
church, holding that the law of patronage, which deprived the people 
of any voice in the choice of a pastor, was contrary to the spirit and 
principles of Presbyterianism. They formed, on December 6, an As- 
sociate Presbytery, but did not act judicially as a presbytery until 
1736. In 1737 four other ministers joined them. The movement 
became popular and developed into the Secession Synod of Edinburgh. 

To meet the needs of the families which emigrated to this coun- 
try, this synod sent two missionaries in the fall of 1753, who were 
reinforced from time to time by others who came out from the mother 
church, and in 1754 organized the Associate Presbytery. Meanwhile 
representatives of the Old Covenanter Church had also come, form- 
ing in 1774 what was known as the Reformed Presbytery. In 1782 
the two bodies, the Associate Presbytery and the Reformed Pres- 
bytery, united, taking the name of Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
Church. Two ministers and three ruling elders declined to .enter 
this union. Other presbyteries were organized, and in 1801 they de- 
veloped into the Associate Synod of North America. In 1858 this 
Associate Synod and the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church ef- 
fected a union, under the name of the United Presbyterian Church of 
North America. Eleven ministers refused to enter this union and 
continued the Associate Presbyterian Church, which is the Associate 
Synod of North America. 


In doctrine the church is Calvinistic, adhering to the Westmin- 
ster Confession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, and 
has a published testimony (the Associate Testimony) explaining its 
position on many doctrinal noints more fully than does the West- 
minster Confession. It encourages public solemn convenanting, pro- 
vides against occasional communion, opposes secret societies, and pre- 
scribes the exclusive use of the Psalms in praise services. 


In polity or government this branch of the church differs in no 
essential element from other Presbyterian churches. 


General Convention, triennial; next session, Portland, Ore., 
September, 1922. 

Ninety dioceses and missionary districts in the United States 
and 11 missionary districts abroad. 

Presiding Bishop: Rt. Rev. Daniel S. Tuttle, Bishop of 
Missouri, 74 Vandeventer Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

OflScers: Chmn., House of Bishops, Rt. Rev. T. F. Gailor, 
Bishop of Tennessee; Sec, Rev. George P. Nelson, 416 Lafayette 

Directory of Religious Bodies 189 

St., New York City; Pres,, House of Deputies, Rev. Alexander 
Mann; Sec, Rev. Henry Anstice, 281 Fourth Ave., New York 
City; Treas, of the Convention, William W. Skiddy, 347 Madi- 
son Ave., New York City. 

The Presiding Bishop and Council. OflSeers : Pres,, Rt. Rev. 
Thomas F. Gailor; Sec, Rev. Franklin J. Clark; Treas., L. B. 
Franklin, 281 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Departments of the Council 

Department of Missions and Church Extension. Exee. See. 

and For, Sec, Dr. John W. Wood; Domestic Sec,, ; 

Sec. for Work in Latin-America, Rev. Arthur R. Gray; Ed. Sec, Dr. 
William C. Sturgis; Sec for Foreign-Bom Americans, Rev. Thomas 
Burgess; Field Director for Work Among Foreign-Bom Americans, 
Rev. William C. Emhart; Gen. Missioner for Work Among Welsh, 
Rev. Hugh D. Jones. 

Department of Religious Education. Exec. Sec, Rev. W. E. 


Department op Finance. Treas., L. B. Franklin. 

Department of Publicity. 

Bishops (Address Rt. Rev.) 
(Dioceses in paretheses) (M. B.=Missionary Bishop) 

Charles M. Beckwith (Alabama), Montgomery, Ala. 

Peter T. Rowe (M. B., Alaska), 418 Mutual Life Bldg., Seattle, 

Richard H. Nelson (Albany), 25 Elk St., Albany, N. Y. 

Julius W. Atwood (M. B., Arizona), Phoenix, Ariz. 

James R. Winchester (Arkansas), 1222 Scott St., Little Rock, 

Edwin Warren Saphore (Suffragan, Arkansas), Little Rock, Ark. 

Edward T. Demby (Suffragan, Arkansas), Little Rock, Ark. 

Junius M. Homer (M. B., Asheville), Asheville, N. C. 

Henry J. Mikell (Atlanta), Atlanta, Ga. 

Ethelbert Talbot (Bethlehem), South Bethlehem, Pa. 

William F. Nichols (California), 1215 Sacramento St., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

Edward Lambe Parsons (Coadjutor, California), San Francisco, 
• Calif. 

Charles T. Olmsted (Central New York), 1101 Park Ave., Utica, 
N. Y. 

Charles Fiske (Coadjutor, Central New York), 903 James Street, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Charles P. Anderson (Chicago), 1612 Prairie Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Sheldon Munson Griswold (Suffragan, Chicago), 1314 Hinman 
Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Irving J. Johnson (Colorado), 819 E. 8th Ave., Denver, Colo. 

Frederick Ingley (Coadjutor, Colorado), Denver, Colo. 

Chauncey B. Brewster (Connecticut), 98 Woodland St., Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Edward C. Acheson (Suffragan, Connecticut), Middletown, Conn. 

Alexander C. Garrett (Dallas), Dallas, Tex. 

Harry T. Moore (Coadjutor, Dallas), Dallas, Texas. 

Philip Cook (Delaware), Bishopstead, Wilmington, Del. 

James D. Morrison (Duluth), 2131 E. Superior St., Duluth, Minn. 

Granville Gaylord Bennett (Coadjutor, Duluth), Duluth, Minn. 

Thomas C. Darst (East Carolina), Wilmington, N. C. 

190 Year Book of the Churches 

Robert L. Paddock (M. B., Eastern Oregon), Hood River, Ore. 

George William Davenport (Easton), Easton, Md. 

John Chamberlain Ward, Bishop-elect (Erie), Erie, Pa. 

Edwin G. Weed- (Florida), Jacksonville, Fla. 

Reginald H. Weller (Fond du Lac), Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Frederick F. Reese (Georgia), 2425 Bull St., Savannah, Ga. 

James H. Darlington (Harrisburg), 321 North Front St., Har- 
risburg, Pa. 

John Dominique La Mothe (M. B., Honolulu) , Honolulu, T. H. 

Frank H. Touret (M. B., Idaho), Boise, Idaho. 

Joseph M. Francis (Indianapolis), 1559 Central Ave., Indian- 
apolis. Ind. 

Theodore N. Morrison (Iowa), Davenport, Iowa. 

Harry Sherman Longley (Coadjutor, Iowa), 4200 Grand Aver 
nue, Des Moines, Iowa. 

James Wise (Kansas), Topeka, Kans. 

Charles E. Woodcock (Kentucky), 1129 3d St., Louisville, Ky. 

Lewis W. Burton (Lexington), 436 W. 6th St., Lexington, Ky. 

Frederick Burgess (Long Island) , Garden City, L. I., N. Y. 

Joseph H. Johnson (Los Angeles), 523 S. Olive St., Los Angeles, 

William Bertrand Stevens (Coadjutor, Los Angeles), Los An- 
geles, Calif. 

Davis Sesaums (Louisiana), 2919 St. Charles Ave., New Or- 
leans, La. 

Benjamin Brewster (Maine), 143 State St., Portland, Me. 

Robert LeRoy Harris (Marquette), Marquette, Mich. 

John G. Murray (Maryland), 1110 Madison Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

William Lawrence (Massachusetts), 122 Commonwealth Ave., 
Boston, Mass. 

Samuel Gavitt Babcock (Suffragan, Massachusetts), 62 Chestnut 
Street, Boston, Mass. 

Charles D. Williams (Michigan), St. Paul's Cathedral, Detroit, 

William W. Webb (Milwaukee), 222 Juneau Ave., Milwaukee, 

Frank A. McElwain (Minnesota), 2624 Portland Ave., Minne- 
apolis. Minn. 

Theodore DuB. Bratton (Mississinpi), Battle Hill, Jackson, Miss. 

William M. Green (Coadjutor, Misissippi), Jackson, Miss. 

Daniel S. Tuttle (Missouri), 74 Vandeventer Place, St. Louis, Mo., 
Presiding Bishop. 

Frederick Foote Johnson (Coadjutor, Missouri), 5338-C Enright 
Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

William F. Faber (Montana), Helena, Mont. 

Herbert H. H. Fox (Suffragan, Montana), Helena, Mont. 

Ernest V. Shayler (Nebraska), 1716 Dodge St., Omaha, Nebr. 

George C. Hunting (Nevada), 505 Ridge St., Reno, Nev. 

Edwin S. Lines (Newark), 21 Washington St., Newark, N. J. 

Wilson Reiff Stearley (Coadjutor, Newark), 49 Halsey Street, 
Newark, N. J. 

Edward M. Parker (New Hampshire), Concord, N. H. 

Paul Matthews (New Jersey), 107 Greenwood Ave., Trenton, 
N. J. 

Frederick B. Howden (M. B., New Mexico), Albuquerque, N. M. 

William T. Manning (New York), Amsterdam Ave. and 110th 
St., New York City. 

Arthur S. Lloyd (Suffragan, New York), Synod House, Amster- 
dam Ave. and 110th St., New York. 

Herbert Shipman (Suffragan Bishop-elect, New York). 

Joseph B. Cheshire (North Carolina), Raleigh, N. C. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 191 

Henry B. Delany (Suffragan North Carolina), Raleigh, N. C. 

John P. Tyler (M. B., North Dakota), Fargo, N. D. 

John H. White (Northern Indiana), 319 West Colfax Av€., South 
Bend, Ind. 

Edward A. Temple (M. B., North Texas), Amarillo, Texas. 

William A. Leonard (Ohio), 840 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Frank Du Moulin (Coadjutor, Ohio), The Griswold, 3844 Euclid 
Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Theodore P. Thurston (M. B., Oklahoma), Muskogee, Okla. 

Frederic W. Keator (Olympia), Tacoma, Wash. 

Walter T. Sumner (Oregon), 574 Elm St., Portland, Ore. 

Philip M. Rhinelaiider (Pennsylvania), 251 S. 22d St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Thomas James Garland (Suffragan, Pennsylvania), 7020 Chew 
Street, Mt. Airy, Pa. 

Gouvemeur F. Mosher (Philippine Islands), Manila. 

Cortlandt Whitehead (Pittsburgh), 4868 Ellsworth Ave., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

Charles B. Colmore (M. B., Porto Rico), Box 1115, San Juan, 
P. R. 

M. Edward Fawcett (Quincy), 1661 Jersey St., Quincy, 111. 

James De W. Perry, Jr. (Rhode Island), 10 Brown St., Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

William H. Moreland (Sacramento), 2600 Capitol Ave., Sacra- 
mento, Calif. 

Robert Herbert Mize (M. B., Salina), Salina, Kans. 

Louis C. Sanford (M. B., San Joaquin), 743 Peralta Way, 
Fresno, Calif. 

William A. Guerry (South Carolina), Charleston, S. C. 

Kirkman G. Finlay (Coadjutor, South Carolina), Columbia, S. C. 

Lucien L. Kinsolving (M. B., Southern Brazil), Porto Alegre, 

Hugh L. Burleson (M. B., South Dakota), Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

William P. Remington (Suffragan, South Dakota), Rapid City, 
S. Dak. 

Cameron Mann (M. B., Southern Florida), Orlando, Fla. 

Boyd Vincent (Southern Ohio), 223 W. Seventh St., Cincinnati, 

Thomas Irving Reese (Coadjutor, Southern Ohio), 205 New First 
National Bank Bldg., Columbus, Ohio. 

Beverly D. Tucker (Southern Virginia), 709 Stockley Gardens, 
Norfolk, Va. 

Arthur Conover Thomson (Coadjutor, Southern Virginia), Ports- 
mouth, Va. 

Robert Carter Jett (Southwestern Virginia), Roanoke, Va. 

Herman Page (M. B., District of Spokane), 2303 First Ave., 
Spokane, Wash. 

Granville H. Sherwood (Springfield), 627 S. Walnut St., Spring- 
field, 111. 

Thomas F. Gailor (Tennessee), 281 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Troy Beatty (Coadjutor, Tennessee), 607 Oak Street, Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

George H. Kinsolving (Texas), Austin, Tex. 

Clinton Simon Quin (Coadjutor, Texas), 3708 Fannin St., Hous- 
ton Texas. 

' Arthur W. Moulton (M. B., Utah), Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Arthur C. A. Hall (Vermont), Burlington, Vt. 

George Yemens Bliss (Coadjutor, Vermont), Burlington, Vt. 

William C. Brown (Virginia), 916 Park Ave., Richmond, Va. 

Alfred Harding (Washington), Cathedral Close, Washington, 
D. C. 

192 Year Book of the Churches 

Thomas F. Davies (Western Massachusetts), Springfield, Mass. 

John N. McCormick (Western Michigan), 43 Lafayette Ave. S. 
E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Sidney C. Partridge (West Missouri), 14 West Armour Blvd., 
Kansas City, Mo. 

George A. Beecher (M. B., Western Nebraska), Hastings, Nebr. 

Charles H. Brent (Western New York), 662 Ellicott Sq., Buf- 
falo, N. Y. . 

David Lincoln Ferris (Suffragan, Western New York), Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

William T. Gapers (West Texas), 106 W. French Place, San An- 
tonio, Texas. 

William L. Gravatt (West Virginia), Charleston, W. Va. 

Nathaniel S. Thomas (M. B., Wyoming), Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Frederick R. Graves (M. B., Shanghai), Shanghai, China. 

Logan H. Roots (M. B., Hankow), Hankow, China. 

Daniel T. Huntington (M. B.,^Anking), Anking, China. 

John McKim (M. B., Tokyo), Tokyo, Japan. 

Henry St. G. Tucker (M. B., Kyoto), Kyoto, Japan. 

Hiram R. Hulse (M. B., Cuba), Havana, Cuba. 

Henry D. Aves (M. B., Mexico), Apartado, 151 Guadalajara, 
Jal., Mexico. 

James C. Morris (M. B., Canal Zone), Ancon, Canal Zone. 

Walter H. Overs (Liberia), Cape Palmas Liberia, West Africa. 

Theo. Momolu Gardiner (Suffragan, Liberia), Cape Palmas, 
Liberia, West Africa. 

Resigned Bishops 

James S. Johnston (West Texas), San Antonio, Texas. 

Anson R. Graves (Kearney), Sonora, Calif. 

Lemuel H. Wells (Spokane), Tacoma, Wash. 

William M. Brown (Arkansas), Gallon, Ohio. 

Edward W. Osborne (Springfield), 723 Maupas Ave., Savannah, 

Albion W. Knight (Cuba), Sewanee, Tenn. 

Paul Jones (Utah), 118 E. 28th St., New York City. 

Henry B. Restarick (Honolulu), Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

G. Mott Williams (Marquette), 9 Southgate Ave., Annapolis, Md. 

Woman's Auxiliary to the Presiding Bishop and Council, 281 
Fourth Ave., New York City. Sec, Miss M. G. Lindley. 

The Junior Auxiuary and the Church School Service 
League. Under the Department of Religious Education. Exec, Sec, 
Miss Frances H. Withers, 281 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

American Church Buiilding Fund Commission, 281 Fourth 
Ave., New York City. Treas., Charles A. Tompkins; Cor. Sec., Rev. 
Charles L. Pardee. 

Brotherhood of St. Andrew, Church House, 12th and Walnut 
Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Edward H. Bonsall; Gen. Sec. and 
Editor, St. Andrew's Cross' (official organ), Geo. H. Randall; Exec. 
Sec, Franklin H. Spencer; Treas., Warren H. Turner. 

Society for the Increase of the Ministry. Pres., Rt. Rev. C. 
B. Brewster; Cor. Sec, Rev. F. D. Hoskins, 86 Buckingham St., Hart- 
ford, Conn.; Treas., Elijah C. Johnson. 

Clergyman's Retiring Fund Society, 281 Fourth Ave., New 
York City. Pres., Rt. Rev. Frederick Burgess; Sec, J, Van Vechten 
Olcott; Treas. arid Financial Sec, Rev. Henry Anstice. 

Clergyman's Mutual Insurance League. Sec. and Treas., Rev. 
Edwin B. Rioe, 281 Fourth Ave., New York City, N. Y. 

Clerical Union for the Maintenance and Defese of Catholic 
Principles. Pres., Rt Rev. R. H. Weller; Sec, Rev. William H. A. 
Hall, 311 W. 49th St., New York City. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 193 

Abierican Church Union. Pres., Clinton R. Woodruff; Cor, 
Sec, Rev. Elliot White, 1625 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas,, 
Rev. E. S. Lane, 51 Rex Ave., Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

New York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society. Pres., 
Rt. Rev. C. S. Burch; Sec, Edwin S. Gorham, 11 W. 45th St., New 
York City; Treas., Frank B. Warburton. 

Association for Promoting the Interests op Church Schools, 
Colleges, and Seminaries. Pres., Rev. Lawrence T. Cole; Sec, 

; Treas,, George Zabriskie. 

Church Association for the Advancement op the Interests 

OP Labor, 416 Fafayette St., New York City. Pres. ; 

Exec Sec, Miss Harriette A. Keyser; Treas,, H. B. Livingston. 

Church Socdu^ist League in America. National Sec, Rev. A. 
L. Byron-Curtiss, 11 Liberty St., Utica, N. Y. 

Church Temperance Society, Suite 88, St. Nicholas Ave., New 
York City. Pres,, Rev. James V. Chalmers; Gen, Sec, Rev. James 
Empringham; Trea^,, Wm. J. Schiefflien. 

Christian Unity Foundation, 143 E. 37th St., New York City. 
Pres,, Rev. James V. Chalmers; Chmn,, Exec Com,, Hon. Lawson 
Purdy; Chmn, Com, on Research, Rev. Rockland T. Homans; Treas,, 
Origen S. Sevmour, 54 William S., New York City. 

Church Unity Society. Acting Pres,, Rt. Rev. Ethelbert Tal- 
bot; Gen. Sec, Rev. G. Woolsey Hodge, Philadelphia; Rec Sec, David 
Goodbread; Treas,, William J. Dickson. 

Association FOR the Promotion op the Unity op Christendom. 
Gen, Sec, for the United States, Rev. Galbraith Bourn Perry, Cam- 
bridge, N. Y. 

ANGLICAN and Eastern-Orthodox CHURCHES (International). 
Amei^ican Branch: Pres,, Rt. Rev. F. M. Parker and Rev. Demetrius 

Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament op the Body and 
Blood op Christ. Superior Gen,, Rt. Rev. R. H. Weller; Sec. Gen., 
Rev. C. P. A. Burnett. 14 E. 109th St., New York City; Treas. Gen., 
Rev. John H. Hopkins, 5550 Blackstone Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Church Congress in the United States . Gen. Chmn., Rev. C. 
L. Slattery; Gen. Sec, Rev. G. A. Carstensen, 455 Ft. Washinurton 
Ave., New York City; Treas., Rev. John M. Erickson, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Church Endowment Society. Pres. Boa/rd of Trustees., Rt. 
Rev. W. F. Adams; Sec. Gen., Rev. E. W. Hunter, Rector of St. Ann's 
Church, New Orleans, La. 

Free and Open Church Association, 2353 East Cumberland St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. Pres,, R. Francis Wood; Gen, Sec, Rev. J. A. 
Goodfellow, 2353 East Cumberland St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., 
George Hall. 

Society of Mission Priests op St. John the Evangelist. Svr 
verier. Rev. F. C. Powell 33 Bowdoin St., Boston, Mass. 

Order of the Holy Cross. Father Superior, 0, H. C, West 
Park, N. Y. 

Congregation of the Companions op the Holy Saviour. Mas- 
ter, Rev. F. D. Ward, 1606 Mifflin St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

S. Barnabas' Brotherhood, Gibsonia, Pa. Visitor, Rt. Rev. C, 

Order of Deaconesses Central Committees. Chmn,, Henri- 
etta R. Goodwin; Sec, Anna G. Newell, Christ Church Cathedral, 
St^ Louis, Mo. 

Girls' Friendly Society, 15 East 40th St, New York City. 
Pres,, Miss Frances W. Sibley; Sec, Miss Mary M. McGuire; Treas,, 
Miss Mary B. Anthony. An organization of the young women of the 
Church with branches in every diocese. 

Daughters of the King, Bible House, New York City. Pres., 

194 Year Book of the Churches 

Mrs. Adam Denmead; Gen. Sec, Miss E. E. Behlendorff; Treds,, Mrs. 

C. H. Arndt, 

Church Periodical Club, 2 W. 47th St., New York City. Prea,, 
Mrs. Otto Heinigke;^a;ec. Sec, Miss Mary E. Thomas; Treaa., Mrs. 

D. G. Luckett. 

Schools of Aria and Sciences 

Name Location President or Dean 

Racine College Racine, Wis 

St.- Stephen's College Annandale, N. Y B. I. Bell. 

Non-Sectarian Colleges 

Hobart College Geneva, N. Y Murray A. Bartlett. 

Trinity College Hartford, Conn. Henry A. Perkins. 

Theological Seminariea 

Berkeley Divinity School Middletown, Conn W. P. Ladd. 

Bishop Payne Divinity School. Petersburg, Va C. B. Bryan. 

Church Divinity School of the Pa- 
cific San Francisco, Calif W. F. Nichols. 

DeL.incey Divinity School Geneva, N. Y Thomas B. Berry. 

Divinity School of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church PhUadelphia, TA George G. Bartlett. 

Episcopal Theological School Cambridge, Mass 

General Theological Seminary New York City Hughell E. W. Fosbroke. 

Nashotah House Nashotah', Wis E. A. Larrabee. 

Seabury Divinity School Faribault, Minn F. A. McElwain. 

Theological Seminary in Virginia. .Alexandria, Va ferryman Green. 

Western Theological Seminary Chicago, 111 WiUiam C. DeWitt. 

College of St. John the Evangelist. . Greeley, Colo I. P. Johnson. 

Schools of Arts and Theology 

Name Location President or Dean 

Kenyon College Gambler, Ohio William F. Peirce. 

University of the South Sewanee, Tenn Cleveland K. Benedict. 


General (all weekly) : Churchman, New York City; Living 
Church, Milwaukee, Wis., Editor, F. C. Morehouse; The Witness, Ho- 
bart, Ind., Editor, Rt. Rev. Irving P. Johnson; The Chronicle 
(monthly), Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Southern Churchman, Richmond, 

Diocesan: Church Record, Montgomery, Ala.; Alsakan Church' 
man, Fairbanks, Alaska; Bethlehem Churchman, Box 291, Reading, 
Pia.; Pacific Churchman, San Francisco, Calif.; Gospel Messenger, 
Utica, N. Y.; Diocese of Chicago, Chicago, lU.; Colorcudo Churchman, 
Fort Collins, Colo.; Connecticut Churchman, Hartford, Conn.; Mis- 
sion Hendd, Kinston, N. C; Eastern Oklahoma, Muskogee, Okla.; 
Church HeriUd, Pensacola, Fla. ; Church Outlook, Antigo, Wis. ; Mis- 
sions in Georgia, Americus, Ga.; Harrisburg Churchma/n, Harrisburg, 
Pa.; Hawaiian Church Chronicle, Honolulu, Hawaii; Indianapolis 
Churchman, Indianapolis, Ind.; Iowa Churchman, Ottumwa, Iowa; 
Kansas Churchman, Topeka, Kans. ; Bishop's Letter, Louisville, Ky. ; 
Diocesan News, Lexington, Ky.; Los Angeles Churchman, Santa 
Monica, Calif.; Diocese of Louisiana, New Orleans, La.; North-East, 
Portland, Maine ; Maryland Churchman, Baltimore, Md. ; Church Mili- 
tant, Boston, Mass.; Michigan Chiurchman, Detroit, Mich.; Church 
Times (Diocese of Milwaukee), Delavan, Wis.; Church Record, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; Church News, Yazoo City, Miss.; Church News, 
St. Louis, Mo.; Montana Churchman, Helena, Mont.; Crczier, Omaha, 
Nebr.; Newark Churchman, Newark, N. J.; Church Fly Leaf, Con- 
cord, N. H. ; Diocese of New Jersey, Trenton, N. J. ; Carolina Church- 
man, Charlotte, N. C. ; North Dakota Sheaf, Fargo, N. Dak. ; Mis- 
sion Churchman, Amarillo, Texas; Church Life, Cleveland, Ohio; 
Oreqon Churchman, Portland, Ore.; Church News, Philadelphia, Pa.; 

Directory of Religious Bodies 195 

Church News, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Light, Macomb, 111.; Diocesan Record, 
Providence, R. I.; Sacramento Missionary, Sacramento, Calif.; South 
Dakota Cfmrchman, Mitchell, S. Dak. ; Anpoo Kin, Cheyenne Agency, 
S. Dak.; Palm Branch, Orlando, Fla.; Chu/rch Messenger, Cincinnati, 
Ohio; Diocesan Jov/mal, Portsmouth, Va.; Cathedral Chimes, Spo- 
kane, WsLsh.; Springfield Churchman, Springfield, 111.; Mountain Echo, 
Brandon, Vt.; Western Colorado Evangel, Durango, Colo.; Pastoral 
Staff, Westfield, Mass.; Church Helper, Grand Rapids, Mich.; West- 
ern Nebraska Churchrrvan, Kearney, Nebr.; Church News, San An- 
tonio, Texas; Church News, Wheeling, W. Va.; Wyoming Church- 
man, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Periodicals Devoted to Special Interests 

American Church S. 5. Magazine, Sunday Schools, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Church Advocate, Colored Work, Baltimore, Md.; Cross, Italian 
Work, Port Richmond, L. I.; St. Andrew's Cross, Brotherhood of St. 
Andrew, Philadelphia, Pa.; Spirit of Missions (monthly), 281 Fourth 
Ave., New York City; Shepherd's Arms, Sunday Schools ( 1801 Fond 
du Lac Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. ; Silent Chwrchman, Deaf Mutes, Chi- 
cago, 111.; Young Churchw/m, Sunday Schools, Milwaukee, Wis. 


The earliest known services of the Church of England in the 
American colonies were conducted by the chaplains carried with the 
fleets of Frobisber in 1578 in New England and Drake in 1579 on 
a headland overlooking the present Bay of San Francisco. But not 
until 1607 was that church permanently established, when the Rev. 
Robert Hunt celebrated the Holy Communion on May 21 on the banks 
of the James River, Virginia. 

The churches in the colonies were under the jurisdiction of the 
Bishop of London, who, in 1685, sent out to Virginia as his Com- 
missary the Rev. Dr. James Blair, through whose efforts a royal 
charter was obtained for the College of William and Mary, Williams- 
burg, Va. 

In New England there was a church at Portsmouth, N. H., prior 
to 1642 and the same year the Rev. Richard Gibson was arrested by 
the Puritan authorities for marrying and baptizing in the Isle of 
Shoals, and there is evidence of the ministerial work of the Rev. 
Robert Jordan in Maine as early as 1640. After the revocation of the 
charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Church of England, serv- 
ices were established in Boston by the Rev. Robert Ratcliffe, who ar- 
rived on May 15, 1686, and preached in the Town House. King's 
Chapel, Boston, was opened June 30, 1689; Trinity Church, Newport, 
R. I., in 1702, and the Naragansett Church five years later. In 1664 
the churchmen of Connecticut petitioned, without success, the Gen- 
eral Assembly for tiie right to hold church services, but on Septem- 
ber 13, 1702, the Rev. John Talbot conducted the first Chuixh of 
England service in that Colony. 

The first English church was opened in Philadelphia in 1685 and 
three years later the Rev. Thomas Clayton, described by the Quakers 
as "a minister of the doctrine of devils," was appointed rector. The 
Rev. Charles Wolley, chaplain to the royal forces, ministered in the 
Chapel within the Fort, New York, in 1678, and in 1697 the charter 
for Trinity church was granted by the royal governor. The colon- 
ists from Virginia who attempted a settlement at Port Royal, S. C, 
in 1660, were ministered to by the Rev. Morgan Jones and the first 
church at Charleston was erected about 1681. The Rev. Dr. Henry 
Herbert accompanied the first band of settlers in Georgia in 1733 and 
three years later was succeeded by the Rev. John Wesley, who was 
accompanied by his brother, Charles, and later followed by George 

196 Year Book of the Churches 

Whitefield, all ministers of the Church of England. Prior to 1675 
there were "three Protestant ministers of the Church of England" 
in Maryland, and early in the reign of William and Mary it became 
Uie established relig^ion in the Colony. 

The formation in England of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts led to a marked growth of the church 
in the American Colonies. Its founder was the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Bray, who was sent to Maryland as Commissary of the Bishop of 
London in 1700. The first missionaries of the S. P. G. were the 
Revs. George Keith and Patrick Gordon, who were later joined by the 
Rev. John Talbot. Mr. Gordon died soon after his arrival; Talbot 
settled in New Jersey and Keith traveled through the len^i^h and 
breadth of the Colonies. From 1702 till the outbreak of the War of 
the Revolution the S. P. G. supplied the missionaries save in Virginia 
and Maryland, where the church was established by law. Dean 
Berkeley, later Bishop of Cloyne, came to Newport, R, I., with the 
intention of founding a college. Although this project failed, he was 
one of the earliest supporters of Yale College and, on his return to 
Great Britian, had much to do with securing the charters for King's 
College (now Columbia), New York, and for the Academy and Col- 
lege of Philadelphia, now the University of Pennsylvania. 

The Church in America, prior to the Revolution, was seriously 
handicapped by the lack of a .bishop. Candidates for ordination were 
obliged to take the long and dangerous journey to England and the 
Bishop of London was unable to exercise the discipline, both of 
clergy and laity, which was at times greatly needed. Repeated ap- 
peals were made for the consecration of a bishop for the Colonies, 
but the plan was blocked partly through political considerations and 
partly by reason of the Puritan fear of an established church. 

During the War of the Revolution many of the churches were 
closed and the loyalist clergy fled to England and Canada. On the 
other hand, some of the clergy steadfastly adhered to the American 
cause. A notable example was Dr. William White, chaplain to the 
Continental Congress and a trusted adviser of George Washington. 

The declaration of peace in 1783 found the Episcopal Church dis- 
organized and threatened with extinction. In Virginia and Mary- 
land the church was automatically disestablished and in some of the 
other Colonies deplorably weak. The church in each state jealously 
preserved its independence and there was no bond of unity. 

The first step to creating such a bond was the publication in 
1783 of a pamphlet entitled, "The Case of the Episcopal Churches 
in the United States Considered," by William White. Published 
before peace was declared, it urged measures for the perpetuation 
of the ministry without waiting for the Episcopate, and outlined a 
general plan for the organization of the church in the United States. 
The moment the British authorities suggested peace, the pamphlet 
was withdrawn. 

The same year the Maryland clergy met and adopted a Declara- 
tion of Fundamental Rights and Liberties in which the title, Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church, was used publicly for the first time. At an 
informal meeting held at New Brunswick, N. J., on May 11, 1784, 
further steps were taken towards organization, and thirteen days 
later a conference of clergy and laity was held in Philadelphia, this 
being the first time that laymen were admitted to the councils of the 
Church. A further gathering was held in New York in October at 
which the following fundamental principles were adopted: 

1. There shall be a general convention of the Episcopal Church 
in the United States of America. 

2. That the Episcopal Church in each state send d^uties to the 
convention, consisting of clergy and laity. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 197 

3. That associated congregations in two or more states may send 
deputies jointly. 

4. That the said church shall maintain the doctrines of the gospel 
as now held by the Church of England and shall adhere to the liturgy 
of said church, as far as shall be consistent with the American Revo- 
lution and the Constitution of the respective states. 

5. That in every state where there shall be a bishop duly conse- 
crated and settled he shall be considered as a member of the conven- 
tion ex officio. 

6. That the clergy and laity assembled in convention shall deliber- 
ate in one body, but shall vote separately, and the concurrence of both 
shall be necessary to give validity to any measure. 

7. That the first meeting of the convention shall be at Phila- 
delphia the Tuesday before the Feast of St. Michael next, to which 
it is hoped and earnestly desired that the Episcopal churches in the 
respective states will send their -clerical and lay deputies duly in- 
structed and authorized to proceed on the necessary business herein 
proposed for their deliberation. 

In- accordance therewith the first General Convention met in 
Philadelphia, September 27, 1785, with clerical and lay delegates pres- 
ent from the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. A constitution was 
adopted, the Liturgy revised and an address to the Church of Eng- 
land adopted asking for the consecration of Bishops for America. 
Samuel Seabury, who had been consecrated Bishop of Connecticut by 
the Scotch non-juring bishops in 1784, was not present at the Con- 
vention, nor were the New Ehigland churches represented owing to 
acute differences of opinion as to some clauses of the Constitution. 
The English bishops were unwilling to consecrate a bishop for Amer- 
ica owing to some of the changes which had been made in the Prayer 
Book: notably, the omission of the Nicene Creed. The Convention of 
1786 complied with their requests, save in the case of the restoration 
of the Athanasian Creed, and in 1787 William White and Samuel 
Provoost were consecrated Bishops of Pennsylvania and New York 
respectively, in the Chapel of Lambeth Palace, London. Dr. David 
Griffith, who had been elected Bishop of Virginia, was unable to find 
means for the journey and the election of Dr. Willam Smith as 
Bishop of Maryland failed to win the approval of the General Con- 
vention. A little later Dr. James Madison was chosen Bishop of 
Virginia and consecrated in London. 

In 1789 the Constitution of the Church and the Prayer Book 
were revised, resulting in the union of hitherto divergent views, and 
Bishop Seabury took his seat in the Convention and in 1792 united 
with the other three bishops in the consecration of Dr. Thomas John 
Claggett as Bishop of Maryland, this being the first episcopal conse- 
cration in the United States. 

The first twenty years of the nineteenth century are known as 
the period of painfully slow growth. Religious emotionalism ran riot; 
the Liturgy was regarded as formal; the sermons were more moral 
than Christian, and the Church was still regarded as British. The 
new birth of aggression began in 1811 with the consecration of two 
bishops — John Henry Hobart for New York, and Richard Channing 
Moore for Virginia. From this period sprang the beg^innings of mis- 
sionary work in the West to which emigrants were going in crowds. 
The consecration in 1819 of Philander Chase as Bishop of Ohio was 
the first effort to recognize the claims of the regions oeyond to the 
Episcopate. Two years later the Chu-rch formally organized her 
missionary work by the creation of the Domestic and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society, and in 1835 Jackson Kemper was elected the first 
missionary bishop with the whole of the Northwest for his juris- 

198 Year Book of the Churches 

The Tractarian Movement profoundly influenced the Church in 
America, and for several years controversy was acute. On the high- 
church side George Washington Doane was the recognized leader and 
among the Evangelicals Bishop Alexander Veits Griswold, followed 
by Bishop Mcllvaine of Ohio. For several years the controversy was 
doctrinal and pamphlets were sown broadcast. The great storm burst 
when doctrine began to express itself in advancSl ritual. Then 
came the period known as "the ritualistic controversy." In an en- 
deavor to quiet the stomi it was declared by a large group of Bishops 
that the word "regenerate" in the office of Baptism did not signify 
a moral change, and the General Convention passed a canon limiting 
ritual observance. Efforts to conciliate the more extreme Evangel- 
icals failed, and in 1873 Bishop George D. Cummins of Kentucky, 
withdrew and organized the Reformed Episcopal Church. The con- 
troversy died down and the ritual canon was repealed in 1904. During 
the Civil War the southern churchmen organized the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the Confederate States. It held but one general 
convention and in 1865 the Church in the North and South was re- 
united. Brief mention should be made of the work of Foreign Mis- 
sions, the first of which was established in Greece and Liberia. China . 
followed in 1835 and Japan was added as soon as that country was 
thrown open to foreigners. Later came the missions to Brazil and 
Cuba and at the close of the Spanish-American War the Philippine 
Islands, Porto Rico and Mexico were provided with bishops. Alaska, 
Honolulu and the Virgin Islands are also missionary districts. 

Under the leadership of Bishop William Lawrence the sum of 
nine million dollars has been raised to provide pensions for aged 
clergy and the widows and orphans of clergy. Parishes are required 
to contribute annually a percentage on the salaries paid to the 
clergyman and this amount, together with invested funds, will in a 
few years provide an adequate pension to those retiring at the age 
of 68. 

The doctrinal symbol of the Protestant Episcopal Church, so far 
as the laity are concerned, is the Apostles' Creed. The Thirty-nine 
Articles of the Church of England are, with some modifications, 
printed at the end of the American Prayer Book, but subscription to 
them is not required. The Church expects of her members loyalty 
to her doctrine, discipline and worship, but allows considerable lati- 
tude in the interpretation of the Creeds. She recognizes all lawfully 
baptized into the name of the Holy Trinity as members of the Church, 
and requires that all who have been baptized shall be brought to the 
bishop for confirmation after they have been adequately instructed 
in the Catechism. By a strict interpretation of an ancient rubric 
only those who have been confirmed can come to the Holy Commun- 
ion, but a more liberal view prevails in practice. Two Sacraments 
only are recognized — Baptism and the Supper of our Lord. 

The Episcopal Church recognizes three orders in the ministry- 
Bishops, Priests and Deacons. Deacons must have reached the age of 
twenty-one. They can not administer the Holy Communion and their 
special duty is to care for the sick and poor of the parish and preach 
only when licensed by the bishop. No one can be ordained priest until 
he has been one year a deacon and is twenty-four years old. Botii 
deacons and priests are required before ordination to sign the fol- 
lowing declaration: 

"I do believe the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments to be the Word of God, and to contain all things necessary to 
salvation; and I do solemnly engage to conform to the doctrine, 
discipline and worship of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States of America." 

Diocesan bishops are elected by the clerical and lay members of 

Directory of Religious Bodies 199 

the convention of the diocese, a majority of whom must sign the 
necessary testimonials. If the election takes place within three 
months of the meeting of the General Convention the consent of the 
House of Deputies and the House of Bishops is required before tho 
consecration. At any other time the consent of a majority of all the 
Standing Committees of the dioceses and a majority of the bishops 
having jurisdiction in the United States must be obtained. Three 
bishops are necessary to a valid consecration. Provision is made for 
the election of a coadjutor bishop for a diocese who, on the death of 
the diocesan, has the right of succession, and also for the election of 
suffragan-bishops without the right of succession. Missionary 
bishops are elected by the House of Bishops subject to the approval 
of the House of Deputies when the General Convention is In session. 
After five years, missionary bishops are eligible for election as dio- 
cesan, coadjutor or suffragans in any diocese. 

The canonical duty of a bishop is to ordain priests and deacons, 
assist at liie consecration of bishops, to preside over the diocesan con- 
vention, to accept candidates for holy orders, to institute rectors of 
parishes, confirm and to visit every parish in his diocese at least once 
in three years. 

Rectors of parishes are usually elected by the Vestry, though in 
some states the election must be ratified by the congregation and in 
all Cases the assent of the bishop to the election must be obtained. 
The rector has sole charge of the spiritual concerns of the parish 
subject to the godly counsel of the bishop and he is entitled to the use 
ai.d control of the church and parish buildings. He is required to 
instruct children in the Catechism, to prepare candidates for confirma- 
tion, to record in the Parish Register all baptisms, confirmations, 
marriages and burials and to administer the Communion alms for the 
benefit of the sick and the poor. All lay readers must be licensed by 
the bishop. A rector can not resign without the consent of the 
vestry, nor can he be removed against his will except for misconduct, 
and that only after due trial and conviction. 

The method of the incorporation of a parish varies with the laws 
of the different states, but its usual legal title is, "The Rector, 
Wardens and Vestrymen of * * * Church." All requirements of 
the civil law must be met before a parish can be received into union 
with the convention of the diocese and conformity to the doctrine, 
discipline and worship must be promised. The government of a 
parish rests with the rector, wardens and vestrymen. The wardens 
and vestrymen are elected by members of the congregation whose 
qualifications to vote are set forth in law. In some dioceses women 
are now permitted to vote for the vestry. Wardens are specifically 
charged with the duty of seeing that the church is kept sweet and 
clean and, with the vestrymen, are responsible for the finances of the 
parish. The vestry is a trustee for the property of the corporation. 

Next to the parish comes the diocese which is made up of the 
bishop or bishops, the clergy within the diocese and laymen elected 
by the parishes and missions of the diocese. The diocese is empowered 
to make assessments for the support of the episcopate, for diocesan 
missions, religious education, social service and any other work of 
which it may approve. Each diocese has a Standing Committee which 
may also act as a council of advice to the bishop when requested. 
Under certain circumstances the Standing Committee becomes the 
ecclesiastical authority of the diocese, notably during a vacancy in the 
episcopate. Missionary districts are those parts of states and terri- 
tories which are not. for the time being, capable of self-support. The 
stipends of all missionary bishops are paid by the central authority. 

The United States are now divided into eight provinces in each 
of which there is a synod consisting of a House of Bishops, composed 
of all the bishops within the province, and a House of Clerical and 

200 Year Book of the Churches 

Lay Deputies elected by the dioceses and missionary districts within 
the province. The synod has authority to create provincial Boards 
of Missions, Religious Education and Social Service; also to elect 
judges of the Court of Review. 

The supreme legislative body of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
is the General Convention which meets once in three years. It con- 
sists of two bodies — the House of Bishops and the House of Clerical 
and Lay Deputies. Each House sits separately ; either may originate 
legislation, but there must be on all matters concurrent action. 

The House of Bishops is composed of all the bishops having 
jurisdiction, and every bishop, who through infirmity or age, has 
resigned his jurisdiction. Suffragan bishops have a seat, but no 
vote, although legislation is now pending which will relieve them of 
this disability. The House of Bishops elects its own presiding officer 
and now throws open its doors to the public except when seated in 

The House of Deputies consists of clerical and lay representa- 
tives elected by each diocese admitted to union with the convention. 
The number of such deputies must not exceed four from each diocese 
in each order. Missionary districts within the boundaries of the 
United States elect one clerical and one lay deputy. Missionary 
districts in foreign lands have the same privilege save the right to 
vote when the vote is taken by orders. Ordinarily the vote of a 
majority of deputies suffices, but either the clerical or lay represen- 
tative of a diocese may call for a vote by orders. In such case the 
two orders vote separately, each diooese having one clerical and one 
lay vote, and the deputies from the domestic missionary districts one- 
fourth of a vote. No change in the Constitution nor in the Book of 
Common Prayer can be made unless first proposed in one General 
Convention, then sent to each diocesan convention and finallv adopted 
at the next General Convention by a majority of the whole number 
of bishops entitled to vote, and by a majority of the clerical and lay 
deputies voting by orders. 

At the last General Convention (1919) a radical departure was 
taken in the organization of the Presiding Bishop and Council 
charged with the duty of carrying on the missionary, educational and 
social work of the Church. The Council consists of sixteen elected 
by the General Convention — four bishops, four clergymen and four 
laymen; one elected by each of the eight provincial synods, and a 
Vice-President and Treasurer. Pending the election of a Presiding 
Bishop the General Convention elects a bishop as President of the 
Council. The Council has organized the following departments: 

Missions and Church Extension. 

Religious Education. 

Christian Social Service. 



Nation Wide Campaign. 

The budget of the Council for 1922 is $4,036,361. 

The subject of Christian Unity has been to the fore in the Epis- 
copal Church since the General Convention, which met in Chicago, 
adopted as a basis of reunion four articles which were in turn adopted 
by the Lambeth Conference of 1888, and have since been known as 
"The Lambeth Quadrilateral." They are as follows: 

(a) The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as 
"containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule 
and ultimate standard of faith. 

(6) The Apostles' Creed as the baptismal symbol, and the Nicene 
Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. 

(c) The two Sacraments ordained by Christ himself — ^baptism 

Directory of Religious Bodies 201 

and the Supper of the Lord — ^ministered with unfailing use of Christ's 
words of institution and of the elements ordained by Him. 

(d) The historic episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its 
administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called 
of God into the unity of His Church. 

At the General Convention of 1910 there was appointed a Joint 
Commission on the Faith and Order of the Catholic Church with the 
intent to promote a world conference looking towards the "visible 
unity of the Body of Christ on earth." The advent of the great war 
arrested the arrangements for the conference, but the effort is now 
being renewed with every prospect of success: the more so because 
similar commissions have been appointed in England both by the 
Anglicans and Nonconformists. 

A further step was taken in 1919 when the General Convention 
appointed a commission on the suggested Concordat with the Congre- 
gational Church in the United States. A further report on the mat- 
ter will be laid before the General Convention in. the fall of 1922. 

These efforts towards unity have been greatly stimulated by the 
action of the Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops throughout the 
world held in London in 1920. 

In a fine Appeal to All Christian People the bishops urge the 
need of that fellowship which shall express itself in the visible unity 
of Christ's flock. They express the belief that the visible unity of 
the Church will be found to involve the whole-hearted acceptance of 
the Holy Scriptures, as the record of God's revelation of Him- 
self te man, and as the rule and ultimate standard of faith; and the 
Creed commonly called Nicene, as the sufficient statement of the 
Christian faith, and either it or the Apostles' Creed as the baptismal 
confession of belief; 

The divinely instituted Sacraments of Baptism and the Holy 
Communion, as expressing for all the corporate life of the whole 
fellowship in and with Christ; 

A ministry acknowledged by every part of the Church as pos- 
sessing not only the inward call of the spirit^ but also the commission 
of Christ and the authority of the whole body. 


General Council, triennial; next session, New York, N. Y., 
December, 1923 (Jubilee Council). 

Three synods, including 1 in Canada, and 3 missionary 

Officers of General Council: Pres. and Presiding Bishop, 
Samuel Fallows, 1618 W. Adams St., Chicago, 111.; Sec, Rev. 
William A. Freemantle, D. D., 1617 Oxford St., Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Treas., George W. Wagner, 4418 Pine St., Philadelphia, Ta. 


Willard Brewing, 491 Euclid Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Can. 

Samuel Fallows, 1618 W. Adams St., Chicajco, 111. 

Arthur L. Pengelly Summerville, S. C. 

Robert L. Rudolph, 103 S. 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board of Foreign Missions. Free., Bishop Robert L. Rudolph; 
Sec, H. H. Sinnamon, West End Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board op Home Missions. Sec, Rev. Wm. Eareckson, Jr., 2750 
S. Cleveland Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Committee on Sunday Schools. Sec, Rev. William Tracy, 4401 
Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

202 Year Book of the Churches 

Committee on Education and Publication. Chmn,, Rev. W. T. 
Way, D. D., 1611 N. Caroline St., Baltimore, Md. 

SusTENTATiON FuND. Pres, Trustees, Frederick 0. Foxcroft, 13 
Carteret St., Newark, N. J.; Treas,, The Provident Life and Trust 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Women's Auxiliary to Board op Foreign Missions. Pres., Mrs. 
R. L. Rudolph, 103 S. 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Cor. Sec, Mrs. 
Samuel B. Ray, 442 W. School Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Woman's Auxiliary to Board of Home Missions. Pres,, Mrs. 
Charles F. Hendricks, West End Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location Freaident 

Theological Seminary Philadelphia, Pa Joseph D. Wilson. 


Episcopal Recorder, Philadelphia, Pa.; Reformed Episcopalian, 
Toronto, Canada* 


At the sixth conference of the Evangelical Alliance in New York, 
in October, 1873, a communion service was held in the Fifth Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, in which Dr. Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury, 
and Bishop George David Cummins, of Kentucky, participated. This 
was at the time of the intense discussion in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church concerning ritual, and Dean Smith and Bishop Cummins were 
subjected to some very severe and unfriendly criticisms for partici- 
pating in this union communion service. Bishop Cummins had for 
some time felt disturbed at the apparently ritualistic tendencies of 
his church, and the loss — as he thought — of true catholicity, and so 
keenly did he feel these criticisms as new evidence of these tendencies 
that, on November 10, he withdrew. A number of others shared his 
opinions, and on a call from him 7 clergymen and 20 laymen met in 
New York City on December 2, and organized the Reformed Episcopal 
Church. Bishop Cummins was chosen as presiding bishop, and the 
Rev. Dr. Charles Edwards Cheney was elected a bi^op and was 
subsequently consecrated in Chicago. 

The name Reformed Episcopal was chosen because of the belief 
of the founders of the new movement that the same principles were 
adopted which were the basis of the Anglican Church at the Reforma- 
tion — ^which is known in law as the "Reformed Church of England" — 
and also of the Protestant Episcopal Church when fully organized 
after the American Revolution. 


In doctrine the Reformed Episcopal Church declares its belief in 
the Scriptures as the Word of God, and the sole rule of faith and 
practice; and accepts the Apostles' Creed, the divine institution of 
the Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and the doctrines 
of grace, substantially as set forth in the Thirty-nine Articles of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. It rejects the doctrine that the Lord's 
table is an altar on which the oblation of the body and blood of Christ 
is offered anew to the Father; that the presence of Christ in the 
Lord's Supper is a presence in the elements of bread and wine; and 
that regeneration is inseparabluy connected with baptism. 


The polity accords with that of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
except that it looks upon episcopacy as an ancient and desirable form 
of church government rather than as of divine right. It rejects, as 
erroneous doctrine and contrary to God's Word, the position that the 

Directory of Religious Bodies 208 

Church of Christ consists of only one order of ecclesiastical polity, 
and that Christian ministers are priests in any other sense than that 
in which all other believers are "a royal priesthood." 

The Reformed Episcopal Church recognizes the Christian char- 
acter of members of other branches of Christ's Church and receives 
them on letters dimissory. It does not demand the reordination of 
clergymen, duly ordained in other communions, who enter its ranks. 
It holds, however, that, through its bishops, who alone have the right 
to confirm and ordain, it has preserved intact the historic succession 
of the ministry. Unlike the General Convention of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, the bishops do not constitute a separate house in 
the General Council. They preside over synods or jurisdictions which 
correspond to dioceses and jurisdictions of the Protestant Episcopal 

For worship the church accepts the Book of Common Prayer as 
revised by the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in 1785, but holds that no liturgy should be imperative Or 
repressive of freedom in prayer, and reserves full liberty to alter, 
abridge, enlarge, and amend the same, as may seem best, "provided 
that the subs^nce of the faith be kept entire." 


The churches, aside from the Lutheran, that were the direct 
outcome of the Protestant Reformation, trace their ecclesiastical 
origin to republican Switzerland, and those leaders in the cause of 
representative government, Swingli, Calvin, and Melanchthon. Of 
these the Swiss, Dutch and some German churches came to be known 
as Reformed ; the Scotch and English as Presbyterian, and the French 
as Huguenot; while those in Bohemia and Hungary preserved t^eir 
national names. 

In the early colonization of America, Dutch and Germans, as well 
as Scotch and English, were prominent, and as a result there are now 
three Reformed Churches, two tracing their origin to Holland, one to 
the German Palatinate, The Hungarian Reformed Church has ceased 
to exist as a separate body in America, its membership having joined 
the Reformed Church in the United States, or made a concordat with 
the Protestant Episcopal Church. The first church in New Amster- 
dam was organized by the Dutch in 1628, and for a considerable time 
the Hollanders were practically limited to that neighborhood. Some- 
what later a German colony, driven from the Palatinate by the ruth- 
less persecution of Louis XIV, settled in upper New York and Penn- 
sylvania, and, as it grew, spread westward. Another Dutch immign^a- 
tion, which established its headquarters in Michigan, identified itself 
with the New York branch, but afterwards a nunor part formed its 
own ecclesiastical organization. The New York branch, known at 
first as the "Reformed Dutch Church," later adopted the title "Re- 
formed Church in America," similarly, the German Reform^ Church 
became the Reformed Church in the United States. The ttiird body is 
known as the Christian Reformed Church, while the fourth is styled 
the Hungarian (Magyar) Reformed Church. There are also a num- 
ber of churches, called Netherlands Dutch Church or True Reformed 
Dutch Church, which have no general ecclesiastical organization and 
are included under the head of "Independent Churches." 

In its earlier history each body clung to its ancestral lang^uage, . 
a practice which not infrequently checked a natural growth, al^ough 
it had the advantage of giving to the newcomers a congenial church 
life, to which is largely due the fact that these communities have 
grown up loyal to the best interest both of their mother church and of 
their new country. As conditions changed the use of English was 

204 Year Book of the Churches 

accepted, and the older churches blended with the general interests 
of the community. 

In their doctrine, polity, and general public life, the Reformed 
churches remain conservative. New ideas, simply because novel, have 
not had ready acceptance; yet new forms of organization, such as the 
various societies for young people and similar enterprises, have found 
a cordial welcome. In interdenominational relations they, have always 
been friendly, are members of the Alliance of Reformed Churches, and 
early inaugurated foreign mission work. They have stood for high 
standards in education and scholarship and have furnished many 
men prominent in public life. 

In doctrine they are generally Calvinistic. Their Heidelberg 
Catechism emphasizes the general comfort of redemption in Christ, 
while the Westminster Catechism teaches the same and emphasizes 
ttie sovereignty of Grod. The polity is Presbyterian, differing from 
that of the Presbyterian churches only in the names of church offices 
and some minor details. They have a consistory instead of a session, 
a classis instead of a presbytery, and a general synod instead of a 
general assembly. The denominations grouped under the name 
"Reformed Bodies" are as follows: 

Reformed Church in America. 
Reformed Church in the United States. 
. Christian Reformed Church. 


General Synod, annual; next session, Fella, Iowa, June 8, 

Five particular synods; 40 classes. 

Headquarters: 25 E. 22d St., New York City. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. Thomas H. Mackenzie, Flushing, L. I. ; 
Stated Clerk, Rev. Henry Lockwood, East Millstone, N. J.; 
Treas,, Frank R. Van Nest. 

Board of Fobeign Missions and The Arabian Mission. Prea,, 
Rev. Henry E. Cobb; Cor, Sec, Rev. W. I. Chamberlain; Aaso, Sec- 
Treds., F. M. Potter; District Sec, Rev. W. J. Van Kersen. Organ, 
Mission Field. 

Woman's Board op Foreign Missions. Pres., Mrs. De Witt 
Knox; Cor. Sec, Miss Eliza P. Cobb; TrecLs., Miss K. Van Nest. Or- 
gan: Mission Field. 

Board of Domestic Missions. Pres., Rev. James S. Kittell, 
Sec, William T. Demarest; Treas., Charles W. Osborne; Field Sec, 
Rev. S. Van der W^rf. 

Women's Board op Domestic Missions. Pres., Mrs. John S. 
Bussing; Cor. Sec, Mrs. John S. Allen; Treas., Miss Mary M. Green- 

Board op Publication and Bible School Work. Pres., Rev. 
F. S. Wilson ; Cor. Sec, Rev. Isaac W. Gowen ; Treas., John F. Cham- 
bers; Business Agent, Lucius W. Hine; Educational Sec, Rev. Abram 

Board op Education. Pres., Rev. A. T. Brock; Cor. Sec, Rev. 
Willard D. Brown, Treas., John F. Berry. 

Disabled Ministers' Fund and Widows' Fund. Treas., F. R. 
Van Nest. 


Name Location President 

Central College Fella, Iowa M. J. Hoffman. 

Hoi>e College Holland, Mich Edward B. Dimnent. 

liutgers College (non-sect*n) . . . New Brunswick, N. J W. H. S. Demarest. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 205 

Theological Seminaries 

Theological Seminary New Brunswick, N. J J. Preston Searle. 

Western Theoloerical Seminary. . Holland, Mich J. P. Zwemer. 


Christian Intelligencer (weekly), New York City, Editor, Rev. 
William Paterson Bruce; Leader, Holland, Mich., Editor, Rev. James 
F. Zwemer; De Hope, Holland, Mich., Editor, Rev. James F. Zwemer; 
Der Mitarbeiter (monthly), German Valley, 111. 


In 1626 Manhattan Island was purchased from the Indians, and 
in that year two "comforters of the sick" came over and read the 
Scriptures and creeds to the people every Sunday. The first min- 
ister, Jonas Michaelius arrived in 1628, the same year that Endicott 
came to Salem, Massachusetts, and a church was organized with at 
least 50 communicants, both Walloons and Dutch. As immig^rants 
settled along the Hudson, on Long Island, and in New Jersey, other 
congregations were gathered. Some of these churches are still in ex- 
istence, and are more than two centuries old. The first church build- 
ing was erected in New Amsterdam in 1633. 

In 1747 a coetus was formed, under the care of the Classis of 
Amsterdam, to which the Synod of North Holland had committed the 
American churches, which were no longer under the care of the West 
India Co. This coetus, however, was merely advisory, and was in 
entire subordination to the classis, which reserved all power to itself. 

In 1755 a minority of the coetus, dissatisfied with the assumption 
by that body of large powers, formed a "conference." This was the 
beginning of a sharp controversy, which ended in 1771 in the union 
of the two bodies in a self-governing organization which held, how- 
ever, a close relation to the Classis of Amsterdam. With the close 
of the Revolutionary War and the development of the independent 
republic, and with the growth of self-government, the ecclesiastical 
autonomy of all denominations was further developed, and in 1792 
the present ecclesiastical government of the Reformed Churches in 
America was perfected. 

The stream of Dutch immigration ceased in the latter half of the 
seventeenth century. About 1800 the Dutch language ceased gen- 
erally to be the language of worship and in 1867 the word "Dutch" 
was eliminated from the title of the church, and the present title was 
adopted. In consequence of a considerable immigration from Holland 
in the middle of the nineteenth century, the greater part of which has 
settled in Michigan, Iowa and other sections of the West, many con- 
gregations have been founded there and a few in the East, in which 
the Dutch language is again used. 


The Reformed Church in America accepts as its doctrinal sym- 
bols the Apostles, the Nicene, and the Athanasian creeds, the Belgic 
Confession, and the Canons of the Synod of Dort, the Heidelberg 
Cathechism, and is a distinctively Calvinistic body. It has a liturgy, 
for optional use in public worship with forms of prayer. Some parts 
of the liturgy, as those for the administration of baptism and the 
Lord's Supper, for the ordination of ministers, elders, and deacons, are 
obligatory; the forms of prayer, the marriage service, etc., are not ob- 
ligatory. Children are "baptized as heirs of the kingdom of God and 
of His covenant"; adults are baptized on profession of repentance for 
sin and faith in Christ. All baptized persons are considered members 
of the church, are under its care, and are subject to its government 

206 Year Book of the Churches 

and discipline. No subscription to specific form of words being re- 
quired, admission to communion and full membership is on confession 
of faith before the elders and minister. 

Ministers, on being ordained, are required to subscribe to the 
standards and polity of the church. 


The polity of the Reformed Church is Presbyterian. The govern- 
ment of file local church is under the control of a consistory which is 
composed of the minister, elders, and deacons, who are elected by the 
members of the church over 18 years of age. The minister and elders 
have particular care of the spiritual interests, and the deacons of the 
collection of alms and relief of the poor and distressed. The Colle- 
giate Church (College of Churches) is a collection of worshiping 
congregations under the general management of one consistory. Each 
congregation, however, has its own special consistory. 

The classis, which has immediate supervision of the churches and 
the ministry, consists of all the ministers within a certain district, 
and an elder from each consistory with that district, collegiate 
diurches being entitled to an elder for each worshiping assembly. The 
classes of a certain district are combined in a particular synod, com- 
posed of four ministers and four elders from every classis within its 
bounds, which acts as an intermediate court in certain cases, but has 
special supervision of church activities within its borders. The high- 
est court of the church is the General Synod. It consists of ministers 
and elders from each classis nominated by the classes to the particu- 
lar synods, which have power to appoint them as delegates to the 
General Synod. In default of nomination by a classis the particular 
synod makes appointments. Classes meet semiannually in the spring 
and fall; the particular synods, annually in May; the General Synod, 
annually in June. 

The Reformed Church in America is a member of the Alliance of 
Reformed Churches throughout the world holding the Presbyterian 
System, and of the Council of Reformed Churches holding the Presby- 
terian System, and has approved the Constitution of the Council of 
Reformed Churches holding the Presbyterian System. These articles, 
approved by the constituent bodies, while leaving each church's judic- 
atories independent in action, secure through a council mutual con- 
ference and cooperation in church activities. 


General Synod, triennial; next session, Hickory, N. C, May 
23, 1923. 

Nine district synods, 61 classes. 

Officers: Pres., Kev. George W. Richards, Lancaster, Pa.; 
Stated Clerk, Rev. J. Ranch Stein, 499 S. Franklin St., 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.; Treas,, Milton Warner, 2232 N. 15th St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board of Home Missions, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pres., Rev. C. E. Miller; Gen. Sec, Rev. C. E. Schaeffer; Rec. Sec, 
Rev. J. H. Mickley; Treas., Joseph S. Wise. 

Board of Foreign Missions, 15th and Race Sts.^ Philadelphia, 
Pa. Pres., Rev. J. I. Good; Sec, Rev. A. R. Bartholomew; Treaa., 
Rev. A. S. Bromer. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Rev. C. Gleyer; Gen. Sec, Rev. R. W. Miller; 
Treas., C. O. Althouse. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 207 

Board op Ministerial Relief. Prea,^ Dr. Philip VoUmer; See,, 
Dr. J. W. Meminger; Treas., Rpv. E. L. McLean. 

Society for the Support op Indigent Ministers and Teachers. 
Pres., Rev. C. J. Walenta; Sec, Rev. A. Muehlmeier, Monticello, Wis.; 
Treas., Rev. H. T. Vriesen. 

Central Publishing House, 2969 W* 25th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Pres., Prof. Frank Grether; gee, Rev. f". W. Leich, Gallon, Ohio; 
Btiainess Mgr,, Peter Wetzel, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Women's Missionary Society of General Synod. Prea,, Mrs. 
B. B. Krammes, Tiffin, Ohio ; Statistical Sec, Mrs. Anna L. Miller, 
Canton, Ohio; Treas,, Mrs. Anns^ L. Anewalt, 814 Walnut St., Allen- 
town, Pa.; Rec Sec, Miss Helen Bareis, Canal Winchester, Ohio. 


Name Location President or Principal 

Catawt>a College Newton, N. C A. D. Wcdflnger. 

College for Women AUentown, Pa William P. Curtis. 

Franklin and Marshall College Lancaster, Pa Edwin M. Hartman. 

Heidelberg University Tiffin, Ohio Charles B. MUler. 

Hood College Frederick, Md Joseph H. Apple. 

Massanutten Academy Woodstock, Va Howard J. Benchoff. 

Mercersbursr Academy Mercersburg, Pa William Mann Irvine. 

Ur^inus College Collegeville, Pa. George Leslie Omwake. 

Theological Seminaries 

Central Theological Seminary Dayton, Ohio Henry J. Christman. 

Mission House Theological Seminary 

and College Academy Plsmnouth, Wis F. Orether. 

Theological Seminary Lancaster, Pa George W. Richards. 


English: Reforined Church Messenger (weekly), Philadelphia, 
Pa., Editor, Rev. Paul S. Leinbach; Christian World (weekly), Cleve- 
land, 0., Editor, Rev. Henry Gefceler; Reformed Church Review (quar- 
terly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. Theo. F. Herman; Reformed 
Church Record (weekly), Reading, Ta., Editor, Rev. I. M. Beaver; 
Reformed Church Herald (weekly), Lisbon, la.; Reformed Church 
Standard (semi-monthly). Crescent, N. C, Editors, Rev. J. M. L. 
Lyerly and W. W. Rowe ; Heidelberg Teacher (monthly) , Editor, Rev. 
Rufus W. Miller; Way (weekly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. R. L. 
Gerhart; Leaves of Light (weekly), Philadelphia; Pa., Editor, R. L. 
Gerhart; Sunshine (weekly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, R. L. Gerhart; 
Outlook of Missions (monthly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editors, A. R. 
Bartholomew, C. E. Schaeflfer, Mrs. E. W. Lentz. 

German (all weekly) : Reformierte Kirchenzeitung, Cleveland, O., 
Editor, G. Dolch; Hungarian-American Reformed Sentinel, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Editor, Alexander Harsanyi. 


The Reformed Church in the United States — ^for many years 
known as the "German Reformed Church" — traces its origin chiefly 
to the German, Swiss, and French people y^o settled in America 
early in the eighteenth century. Among its founders it includes 
Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin, of Switzerland, while the fact that 
so many of its early members came from the German Palatinate, 
gives it close relation to Philip Melanchthon. The Heidelberg Cate- 
chism, compiled under Frederick III, Elector of the Palatinate in 
1563, by Zacharias Ursinus, a pupil of Melanchthon, and Caspar 
Olevianus, a pupil of Calvin, is still the Reformed Church's standard 
in teaching the Scriptures. 

Pastorius with a little company of Mystics came to Pennsylvania 
in 1683, at tihe invitation of William Penn, and founded Germantown; 
but it was not until 1709 that these immigrants became at all numer- 

208 Year Book of the Churches 

ous. About that time more than 30,000 from the Palatinate, who had 
found their way to England, encamped near London, clamoring for 
transportation. Some thousands of them were placed on unoccu- 
pied lands in Ireland and elsewhere, while large numbers were 
brought to America where they established settlements in the South, 
in New York, and in Pennsylvania. These pioneers were almost in- 
variably thoroughly religious in charactier, and made provision for 
churches and parochial schools. No regular method of securing ordi- 
nation in this country existed, although Boehm was ordained by the 
Dutch Reformed ministers of New York with the assent of the Classis 
of Amsterdam. Meanwhile the ecclesiastical authorities of the 
Palatinate, appreciating their own inability to do much for the Amer- 
ican churches, made application to the Classis of Amsterdam, and 
that classis commissioned Michael Schlatter as a missionary evangel- 
ist. He arrived in August, 1746, and soon after he had a conference 
with the pastors who were already in the churches. As a consequence, 
a coetus or synod was organized l}ie next year. Some opposition arose 
to connection with the Holland Church, which, in its turn, w;as some- 
what discouraged by the reports from America and also by the death 
in 1749 of Boehm, whose influence had been great. 

In 1751 Schlatter made a visit to Europe, and so interested the 
people of Holland in the churches of Pennsylvania that he returned 
the next year with six ministers and a sum estimated at $60,000. 
This general assistance, however, was so conditioned upon subordina- 
tion to l^e Classis of Amsterdam as to occasion a great deal of fric- 
tion, manifested especially in the development of two distinct parties 
in the Coetus itself, differing in their views of polity and resembling 
in a general way the "Old Side" and "New Side" in the Presbyterian 
Church; the former emphasizing doctrinal regularity, the latter being 
more in accord with the evangelistic and Pietistic developments of the 
time. Among the most prominent leaders in the latter company was 
Philip William Otterbein, later identified with the organization of the 
United Brethren in Christ. A number of independent ministers de- 
clined to identify themselves with the Coetus, among whom one of 
the most prominent was John J. Zubly, pastor of a church in Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, and for a time a member of the Continental 

The first sjrnod of the German Reformed Church met at Lancas- 
ter, Pennsylvania, April 27, 1793, and reported 178 congregations and 
15,000 communicants. Of the congregations at least 55 had no min- 
isters. The churches were scattered through New York, northern 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, with several 
congregations west of the AUeghenies. 

With the development of tiie Protestant Episcopal Church some 
congregations joined that body and others joined in the organization 
of the United Brethren. Various movements sprang up for union 
with other bodies, such as the Dutch Reformed Church, and especially 
the Lutheran, at the time of the organization of the first Lutheran 
Ministerium. This latter union was especially encouraged by the 
union in 1817 of the Lutheran and Reformed churches of Prussia. It 
did not, however, materialize. 

Then followed the revival period, in which two opposing influ- 
ences were developed — the liberal and the conservative. The conser- 
vative party was anxious to preserve the faith, and the liberal party 
laid greater stress on fellowship. Another complication arose from 
the fact that the younger element preferred to use the English lan- 
guage in church services, while the older element preferred the Ger- 
man. As the diflSculty of securing trained leaders became more ap- 
parent, a theological seminary was founded. During the discussions 
that followed, a number of churches withdrew and formed, in 1822, 
the "Synod of the Free German Reformed Congregations of Penn- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 209 

sylvania," later known as the "German Reformed Synod of Pennsyl- 
vania and Adjacent States." These 'churches returned in 1837, and 
evientually the discussion resulted in the establishment of a theologi- 
cal seminary at Mercersburg, Pa. 

Meanwhile the church had been developing westward, but the 
difficulties of intercommunication made the mutual relations uncertain 
and the western classis soon developed into the Western Synod, which, 
while holding generally fraternal relations with the Eastern Synod, 
was not identified with it. As graduates of Mercersburpr' found their 
way into the distant sections, the two synods came into more inti- 
mate relations, and in 1844 a convention was called in which the 
Dutch Reformed Church and the two German Reformed synods were 
represented. Although the convention was purely advisory, it pre- 
pared the w,ay for later union. The western congregations mean- 
while had met the same difficulty as those in the East in securing 
ministers, and had established their own educational institutions, one 
of which, Heidelberg College, at Tiffin, Ohio,, was founded in 1850. 

During this period the church developed its general activities. 
The earliest German church papers were the result of private enter- 
prise, but in 1840 the Synod founded a printing establishment at 
Chambersburg, Pa., which was removed to Philadelphia after the de- 
struction of Chambersburg during the Civil War. 

As early as 1755 the Synod of Pennsylvania had organized a 
society for the relief of ministers and their widows. In 1833 the 
fund was transferred to the Synod and the society placed on a more 
substantial basis. In 1826 a Board of Domestic Missions was or- 
ganized, and in 1838 a Board of Foreign Missions, working in rela- 
tion with the American Board. In all departments of Christian ac- 
tivity there appeared indications of renewed life. The three-hun- 
dredth anniversary of the formation and adoption of the Heidelberg 
Catechism was celebrated by the Reformed Church in 1863, by the 
union of the two synods in a General Synod. With the organization 
of the General Synod began the rapid extension of the work of home 
missions; the German work in the West rapidly assumed unexpected 
proportions and the English-speaking portion increased also; as a re- 
sult, separate district synods and specific classes were organized — 
the latest being the Hungarian Classis — ^to meet the needs of the 
Reformed Hungarian churches. 

Through these experiences the church has developed strength, and 
at the same time has entered into the most cordial relations with 
other bodies. It is a member of the Alliance of Reformed Churches 
throughout the world holding the Presbyterian System, and of the 
American Coimcil of those churches. It has given cordial welcome 
to consideration of closer union, both with the Reformed Church in 
America and with the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 

Doctrine and Polity 

Both in doctrine and polity the Reformed Church in the United 
States is in hearty accord with the other Reformed and Presbyterian 
churches. The Heidelberg Catechism is in universal use in the 
churches, and the system of church courts corresponds to that of the 
Reformed Church in America, except that they do not speak of the 
particular synod," but of the "synod." 



Synod, biennial; next meeting, Orange. City, Iowa, June 21, 

Thirteen classes, 

210 Year Book of the Churches 

Synodical Com., Rev. W. P. Van Wijk, Rev. R. L. Haan, Rev. 
J. Holwerds ; Stated Clerk, Rev. Henry Beets, 737 Madison Ave. 
S. B., Grand Rapids, Mich.; Treds., Rev. J. Noordewier, 617 
Bates St. S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Home Mission Committee. Pres., Rev. K. Poppen; See, and 
Treas., Rev. I. Van Dellen, 1804 S. Emerson St., Denver, Colo. 

Church Erection Committee. Sec. and Treas., Rev. J. Manni, 
525 Superior Ave., Sheboygan, Wis. 

Home Mission Committee in the East. Pres.^ Rev. J. A. 
Westervelt, 66 Haledon Ave., Paterson, N. J.; Immigration Work 
at Ellis Island and Hoboken, Rev. T. Jongbloed, 310 Hudson St., Ho- 
boken, N. J. 

Immigration Committee in the West. Pres., Rev. H. J. Hey- 
nen. Orange City, Iowa, R. F. D. No. 1. 

Jewish Mission Committee. Sec.-Treas., Rev. J. L. Van Tielen, 
Muskegon, Mich. 

Board op Heathen Missions. Pres., Rev. R. Bolt, Holland, 
Mich. ; Sec., Rev. Henry Beets, 737 Madison Ave., S. E., Grand Rapids, 
Mich.; Treas., Rev. J. Dolfin, 155 Terrace St., Muskegon, Mich. 

Board of Ministerial Relief. Sec. and Treas., Rev. J. Smitter, 
Lansing, 111. 

Board of Publication. Pres., Rev. J. Manni; Sec, Rev. E. J. 
Tanis, Bates St. and Henry Ave., S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location Prin. or Rector 

Calvin College Grand Rapids, Mich J. J. Hiemenga. 

Theological Seminary Grand Rapida, Mich W. Heyns. 

Grundy College Grundy Center, Iowa W. Bode (Pres.). 


The Banner (weekly). Grand Rapids, Mich., Editor, Rev. Henry 
Beets; De Wa^hter (weekly). Grand Rapids, Mich., Editor, B. K. 
Kuiper; Der Reformierte Bote (monthly), Kanawha, la., Editor, Rev. 
G. L. Hoefker. 

History, Doctrine and Polity 

The Christian Reformed Church belongs to the Calvinistic group 
of churches which hold the Presbyterian System of church govern- 
ment. Its doctrinal standards are: The Heidelberg Catechism, the 
Belgic or Netherland Confession of Faith and the Five Canons of 
Dordrecht. As suggested by the name of the second standard men- 
tioned, the Christian Reformed Church is of Holland extraction, nearly 
exclusively. Its oldest part, the present Classis of Hackensack, for- 
merly known as the True Protestant Dutch Reformed Church, in 
1822, under leadership of Dr. S. Froeligh, seceded from the Reformed 
Church in America, alleging that the parent body had departed seri- 
ously from the Reformed standards and Reformed discipline. 

The main part of the denomination is composed of people whose 
ancestors in 1S34 and following years left the "Hervormde" (Re- 
formed) Church of the Netherlands to become known as Christian 
Reformed Church. Persecuted in Holland for the sake of their re- 
ligion, they went to the United States, the pioneer bands arriving 
here in 1846 and 1847, and settling in central Iowa under leadership 
of the Rev. H. P. Scholte and in western Michigan under Dr. A. C. 
Van Raalte as its leader. In 1848 the Michigan Hollanders consented 
to join the Reformed Church in America on condition that they would 
have the greatest possible liberty if they at any time considered the 
ecclesiastical connection to be contrary to their religious pros- 
perity or enjoyment, to bid the Reformed Church a fraternal adieu 

Directory of Religious Bodies 211 

and be by themselves. In the course of the next few years a number 
of the Dutch immi^ants, led by G. Haan and Rev. K. Vanden Bosch, 
began to entertain the idea that it would promote their prosperity 
and joy to form a separate body, and consequently four Michigan 
churches withdrew from the Reformed Church and organized what 
became later known as the Christian Reformed Church. The new 
denomination at first had a hard struggle for existence, but as the 
immigration of Reformed Hollanders from the Netherlands from 1880 
to 1890 was quite strong, ttiey increased considerably, strengthened 
the more in 1882 by the joining of several churches, led by the Rev. 
L. J. Hulst, which from 1880 to 1881 had withdrawn from the Re- 
formed Church on account of the stand its General Synod took re- 
garding Free Masonry. In 1890 the Classis of Hackensack named 
above, joined the Christian Reformed Church. 

When the pioneer Hollanders came here during the middle of the 
19th century, they stated that their obejct in coming was not alone 
to obtain material prosperity, but also to provide their children with 
a Christian education and to have a share in the coming of the King- 
dom of God among the heathen, things they were unable to obtain 
because of economic pressure at the time and persecution for their 
principle's sake. The Christian Reformed have tried to carry out the 
twofold program named. Everywhere they opened free Christian 
primary schools, at first parochial institutions, but later on supported 
by separate organizations composed of their church people. In half 
a dozen places they are maintaining Christian high schools or acad- 
emies. Grand Rapids, Mich., is the seat of their Calvin College and 
Theological School, opened in 1876 and at present having an enroll- 
ment of about 300 students. In central Iowa the Grund College is 
maintained largely by the German element of the denomination. This 
element is descended from people living in parts of Germany, con- 
tiguous to the Netherlands and drawn into the secession movement of 
1834 and following years. 

The monthly or^an of the German Christian Reformed Churches 
is Der Reformierte Bote, The Holland speaking churches, still the 
most numerous, although rapidly Americanizing, have as their weekly, 
De Wachter. The American churches, steadily increasing, are served 
by the weekly. The Banner, dating from 1866. 

Home Mission work is carried on among the scattered Hollanders 
and Germans in America. In a few places Rescue Mission work has 
been taken up. In Paterson and Chicago, Jewish mission work is 
being done. Five mission posts are maintained in the Soutiiwest 
among the Navaho and Zuni Indians. This work was begun in 1896. 
In 1920 a pioneer party of three missionaries and their wives was 
sent to China. 

The Christian Reformed Church is very conservative doctrinally. 
A portion of the Heidelberg Catechism is explained in sermons, dur- 
ing one of the Sabbath services, throughout the year. A great deal 
of emphasis is placed on catechetical instruction. A series of cate- 
chism books, from primary grades up to more advanced work for 
adults, is used regularly in well attended weekday classes taught by 
pastors and elders. In most congregations Sunday Schools are main- 
tained and all kinds of societies of a religious educational character 
for young people and married men and. women. In some of the Hol- 
land churches three preaching services are held each Sabbath, in 
others two, and in a few as many as four, two of them employing the 
Dutch as language of worship and two the English. 

The Psalms are used as the chief manual of praise, the American 
churches employing the United Presbyterian Psalter published in 1914. 

The Liturgy of the Reformed churches of the Netherlands, dat- 
ing from Reformation times, is in regular obligatory use in so far as 

212 Year Book of the Churches 

the forms for the administration of Baptism and Communion, ordina- 
tion of office bearers and of discipline are concerned. 

The Church Order, containing^ rules for church government, is a 
revision of what was promulgated in 1618-19 by the Synod of 

The Christian Reformed denomination occupies in the Reformed 
family of churches very much the place taken by the United Presby- 
terians of the United States in the Presbyterian family. Some years 
ago an attempt was made to form a union between the two but the 
movement was barren of results. 

Ecclesiastical correspondence is carried on with various denomi- 
nations in America and the Reformed Church of South Africa, while 
a few struggling Holland churches in the Argentine Republic are not 
alone corresponded with but also supported financially. But contact 
with the Reformed Churches of the Netherlands is the closest of all 
and their leaders have considerably influenced the religious thought 
of the American denomination. The Christian Reformed Church in 
1918 applied for membersip in the Federal Council. In 1913 its 
Board of Missions joined the Home Missions Council. The Foreign 
Missions Conference was joined in 1920. 


Apostolic Delegate to the United States, His Excellency, Most 
Rev. John Bonzano, 1811 Biltmore St., Washington, D. C. 


His Eminence, Michael, Cardinal Curley (Baltimore), 408 N. 
Charles St., Baltimore, Md. 

Rt. Rev. Owen B. Corrigan, Auxiliary Bishop, 1611 Baker St., 
Baltimore, Md. 

His Eminence, William, Cardinal O'Connell (Boston), 217 Bay 
State Road, Boston, Mass. 

Rt. Rev. Jos. G. Anderson, Auxiliary Bishop, 309 Bowdoin St., 
Dorchester, Mass. 

Most Rev. George Mundelein (Chicago), 1555 N. State St., 
Chicago, 111. 

Rt. Rev. Alexander J. McGavick, Auxiliary Bishop, 607 Oakwood 
Blvd., Chicago, 111. 

Most Rev. Henry Moeller (Cincinnati), 5418 Moeller Ave., Nor- 
wood, Ohio. 

Most Rev. James John Keane (Dubuque), Locust and 11th Sts., 
Dubuque, la. 

Most Rev. Sebastian G. Messmer (Milwaukee), 2000 Grand Ave., 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Most Rev. John W. Shaw (New Orleans), 1205 Esplanade Ave., 
New Orleans, La. 

Most Rev. Patrick J. Hayes (New York), 452 Madison Ave., 
New York City. 

Rt. Rev. John J. Dunn, Auxiliary Bishop, 452 Madison Ave., New 
York City. 

Most Rev. Alexander Christie (Oregon City), 62 N. 16th St., 
Portland, Ore. 

His^ Eminence, Denis, Cardinal Dougherty (Philadelphia), 1723 
Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Most Rev. John J. Glennon (St. Louis), 3810 Lindell Blvd., St. 
Louis, Mo. ' 

Most Rev. Austin Dowling (St. Paul), 226 Summit Ave., St. Paul, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 213 

Most Rev. Edw. J. Hanna (San Francisco), 1000 Fulton St., San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Most Rev. Albert A. Daeger, 0. F. M. (Santa Fe), Cathedral, 
Santa Fe, N. M., P. O. Box 02. 

Dioceses (address Rt. Rev.) 

Edmund F. Gibbons (Albany), 225 Madison Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

Cornelius Van de Ven (Alexandria), 1805 Jackson Ave., Alex- 
andria, La. 

James Ryan (Alton), Cathedral, Alton, 111. 

John J. McCort (Altoona), 1211 13th St., Altoona, Pa. 

Joseph F. McGrath (Baker City), Baker, Ore. 

Henry Althoff (Belleville), 222 S. Third St., Belleville, 111. 

Vincent Wehrle, O. S. B. (Bismarck), Bismarck, N. D. 

Daniel M. Gorman (Boise), 804 N. Ninth St., Boise, Idaho. 

Thomas E. Molloy (Brooklyn), 367 Clermont Ave., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

William Turner (Buffalo), 1035 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Jos. J. Rice (Burlington), 52 WiUiam St., Burlington, Vt. 

William T. Russell (Charleston), 114 Broad St., Charleston, S. C. 

Patrick A. McGovem (Cheyenne), St. Mary's Cathedral, Chey- 
enne, Wyo. 

Joseph Schrembs (Cleveland), 1007 Superior Ave. N. E., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

James J. Hartley (Columbus),. 198 E. Broad St., Columbus, Ohio. 

Francis J. Tief ((Concordia), 307 East 5th St., Concordia, Kans. 

E, B. Ledvina (Corpus Christi), 804 Antelope St., Corpus Chfisti, 

Ferdinand Brossart (Covington), 1140 Madison Ave., Covington, 

Timothy Corbett (Crookston), Crookston, Minn., Cathedral. 

Jos. P. Lynch (Dallas), 4946 Swiss Ave., Dallas, Tex. 

James Davis (Davenport), 15th and Brady Sts., Davenport, la. 

J. Henry Tihen (Denver), 1536 Logan St., Denver, Colo. 

Thomas W. Drumm (Des Moines), 2000 Grand Ave., Des Moines, 

M. J. Gallagher (Detroit), 1223 Washington Blvd., Detroit, Mich. 

John T. McNcholas, O. P. (Duluth), 211 W. Fourth St., Duluth, 

Anthony J. Schuler, S. J. (El Paso), 1014 Mesa Ave., El Pasr, 

John M. Gannon (Erie), 205 W. 9th Street, Erie, Pa. 

Daniel F. Feehan (Fall River), 394 Highland Ave., Fall River, 

James O'Reilly (Fargo), Fargo, N. D. 

Herman Jos. Alerding (Fort Wayne), 1140 Clinton St., Ft. 
Wayne, Ind. 

C. E. Byrne (Galveston), Galveston, Tex., St. Mary's Cathedral. 

James Albert Duffy (Grand Island), 204 E. Second St., Grand 
Island, Neb. 

Edward D. Kelly (Grand Rapids), 1225 Lake Drive S. E., Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

Mathias C. Lenihan (Great Falls), 215 16th St.. N., Great Falls, 

Paul P. Rhode (Green Bay), R. F. D. No. 6, Green Bay, Wis. 

Philip R. McDevitt (Harrisburg), 111 State St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

John J. Nilan (Hartford), 140 Farmington Ave., Hai:tford, Conn. 

John P. Carroll (Helena), 720 Madison Ave., Helena, Mont. 
Joseph Chartrand (Indianapolis), 1347 N. Meridian St., Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

214 Year Book of the Churches 

Thomas F. Lillis (Kansas City), 301 E. Armour Blvd., Kansas 
City, Mo. 

James Schwebach (La Crosse), 608 S. 11th St., La Crosse, Wis. 

Jules B. Jeanmard (Lafayette), Lafayette, La., Bishop's House. 

John J. Lawler (Lead), Lead, S. D. 

John Ward (Leavenworth), 1228 Sandusky Ave., Kansas City, 

C. J. O'Reilly (Lincoln), Lincoln, Neb., Bishop's House. 

John B. Morris (Little Rock), St. Andrew's Cathedral, Little 
Rock, Ark. 

Denis O'Donaghue (Louisville) , 809 Brook St., Louisville, Ky. 

George A. Guertin (Manchester), 151 Walnut St., Manchester, 
N. H. 

Frederick Eis (Sault Sainte ^arie and Marquette), Cathedral, 
Marquette, Mich. 

Edw. P. Allen (Mobile), Cathedral, Mobile, Ala. 

John J. Cantwell (Monterey-Los Angeles), 717 S. Burlington 
Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Thomas S. Byrne (Nashville), 2001 W. End Ave., Nashville, 

John E. Gunn (Natchez), Bishop's House, Natchez, Miss. 

John J. O'Connor (Newark), 552 South Orange Ave., South 
Orange, N. J. 

Jos. H. Conroy, Auxiliary Bishop, Cathedral, Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

Theophile Meerschaert (Oklahoma), 1905 W. 19th St., Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

Jeremiah Harty (Omaha), 808 N. 36th St., Omaha, Neb. 

Edmund M. Dimne (Peoria), 740 Glen Oak Ave., Peoria, 111. 

Hugh C. Boyle (Pittsl)urgh), 116 Dithridge St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Louis S. Walsh (Portland), 307 Congress St., Portland, Me. 

Matthew Harkins (Providence), 30 Fenner St., Providence, R. I. 

William A. Hickey, Coadjutor Bishop, 30 Fenner St., Providence, 
R. I. 

Denis J. O'Connell (Richmond), 800 Cathedral PL, Richmond, Va. 

Thomas F. Hickey (Rochester), 947 East Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

Peter J. Muldoon (Rockford), 1704 National Avenue, Rockford, 

Thomas Grace (Sacramento), Cathedral, Sacramento, Cal. 

Michael J. Curley (St. Augustine), Cathedral, St. Augustine, Fla. 

Jos. F. Busch (St. Cloud), St. Cloud, Minn. 

Maurice F. Burke (St. Joseph), 718 N. Seventh St., St. Joseph, 

Joseph S. Glass, C. M. (Salt Lake), Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Arthur J. Drossaerts (San Antonio), 310 Dwyer Ave., San An- 
tonio, Tex. 

Benjamin J. Keily (Savannah), 222 E. Harris St., Savannah Ga. 

Michael J. Hoban (Scranton), 315 Wyoming Ave., Scranton, Pa. 

Edward J. O'Dea (Seattle), 1104 Spring St., Seattle, Wash. 

Thomas O 'Gorman (Sioux Falls), Sioux Falls, S. D., Bishop's 

Augustin F. Schinner (Spokane), 238 East 13th St., Spokane, 

E. M. O'Leary (Springfield), 68 Elliott St., Springfield, Mass. 

John Grimes (Syracuse), 257 E. Onondaga St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Samuel A. Stritch (Toledo), 525 Islington St., Toledo, Ohio. 

Thomas J. Walsh (Trenton), 153 N. Warren St., Trenton, N. J. 

Henry Granjon (Tucson), Cathedral, Tucson, Ariz. 

Patrick J. Donahue (Wheeling), cor. 13th and Byron Sts., Wheel- 
ing, W. Va. 

Augustus J. Schwertner (Wichita), 320 East Central Ave., 
Wichita, Kans. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 215 

John James Monaghan (Wilmington) » 1301 Delaware Ave., Wil- 
mington, Del. 

Patrick R. Heffron (Winona), Terrace Heights, Winona, Minn. 

Vicariate of North Carolina and Belmont Abbey, Rt. Rev. Leo 
Haid, O. S. B., Belmont Abbey, N. C, Belmont Cathedral Annex. 

Vica/Hate-Apo8tolic of Alaska, Rt. Rev. Jos. Raphael Crimont, 
S. J., Juneau, Alaska. 

Tittda/r Bishops 

Rt. Rev. Bonaventure F. Broderick (Titular Bishop of Juliopo- 
lis), Saugerties, N. Y. 

Rt. Rev. Thomas J. Shahan (Titular Bishop of Crermanicopolis) , 
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 

« Catholic Church Extension Society, 180 North Wabash Ave., 
Chicago, 111. Director, Very Rev. Francis C. Kelley. 

Catholic Missionary Union, Brookland Station, Washington, 

D. C. Director, Rev. Lewis J. O'Hem, C. S. P. 

Bureau op Catholic Indian Missions, 2021 H St., N. W, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Director, Rev. William Quinn. 

Catholic Board for Mission Work among Colored People, 1 
Madison Ave., New York City. Director, Rt. Rev. Mgr., John E. 

St. Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, St. Joseph's Semi- 
nary, Baltimore, Md., Director, Very Rev. Louis B. Pastorelli. 

Society for the Propagation op the Faith, 343 Lexington Ave., 
New York City. Gen. Director, Rt. Rev. Joseph Freri. 

National Catholic Welfare Council, 1312 Massachusetts Ave., 
N. W., Washington, D. C; Gen. Sec, Rev. John J. Burke, C. S. P. 

Chaplaincy Bureau, Washington, D. C, Rev. Lewis J. O'Hem, 
C. S. P. 

Colleges, Seminaries and Monasteries 

There are 373 of these institutions under the control of the 
Roman Catholic Church. The full list will be found in the Official 
Catholic Directory. 


Ecclesiastical Review (monthly), 1305 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Ave Maria (weekly), Notre Dame, Ind.; Rosary (monthly), 871 Lex- 
ington Ava, New York City; Catholic World (monthly), 120 W. 60th 
St., New York City, Rev. John J. Burke, C. S. P., Editor; Catholic 
University Bulletin (bi-monthly), Washington, D. C; The Magnifi- 
cat' (monfiily) , Editor, Sr. M. Ignatia, Manchester, N. H. ; The Exten- 
sion (monthly). Editor, Rev. Francis Kelley, 750 McCormick Bldg., 
Chicago, 111.; Messenger of the Sacred Heart (monthly). Rev. Jolm 
Corbett, 801 E. 81st St., New York City; Franciscan Herald, 1484 W. 
5l8t St., Chicago, 111. ; Christian Family, Techny, 111. ; Beniger's Magcr- 
zine (monthly), 86 Barclay St., New York City; The Lamp 
(monthly) , Garrison, N. Y. ; The Field Afar, MaryknoU, Ossining, 
N. Y.; America (weekly), Editor, Rev. R, H. Tiemey, S. J., 59 

E. 83d St., New York City; St. Anthony* s Messenger, Beaumont, 
Texas; Homiletic Monthly, New York City; Truth Magazine 
(monthly). New York City; The Good Work, New York City; Annals 
of Propagation of the Faith, New York City; Holy Nams Journal 
(monthly). New York City; The Catholic Convert (bi-monthly), 117 
W. 61st St., New York City; The Catholic Historical Review (quar- 
terly). Catholic University, Washington, D. C; The American Catho- 
lic Quarterly, Philadelphia, Pa.; The Queen's Work (monthly), St. 
Louis, Mo.; The Missionary (monthly), Brookland, D. C, Editor, Rev. 
Lewis J. O'Hem, C. S. P. 

Note. — Roman Catholic data furnished by Frederick B. Eddy, 
Editor, Official Catholic Directory. 

216 Year Book of the Churches 


The Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church, more generally 
known as the ''Roman Catholic Church/' includes that portion of the 
Christian Church which recognizes the Bishop of Rome as Pope, 
the Vicar of Christ on earth, and the Visible Head of the Church. 
It dates its origin from the selection by Jesus Christ of the Apostle 
Peter as "chief of the Apostles," and it traces its history through his 
successors in the bishopric of Rome. 

Until the tenth century practically the entire Christian Church 
was recognized as one. Divergent views on various matters, particu- 
larly the doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Ghost and the pri- 
macy of the Bishop of Rome, culminated in the eleventh century in 
a separation between the Western and Eastern sections. 

The first Catholic congregation in the territory now constituting 
the United States was founded at St. Augustine, Fla., in 1565, al- 
though Catholic services had been held on the soil of Florida long 
before that date. 

Missionaries in connection with Coronado's exploring expedition 
in 1540 preached among the Indians of New Mexico, but they soon 
perished. After the founding of Santa Fe, the second oldest town 
in the United States, missionary work was more successful and 
many tribes of Indians accepted the Catholic faith. On the Pacific 
coast Franciscans accompanied the expeditions to California about 
1600, and on the Atlantic coast French priests held worship on Neu- 
tral Island, on the coast of Maine, in 1609, and three years later 
on Mount Desert Island. Jesuit missions, begun on the upper Ken- 
nebec in 1646, were more successful and permanent, many Indian 
converts being among their fruits. In 1665 Catholics sought to con- 
vert the Onondagas and other tribes in New York, while similar at- 
tempts among the Indians on the Great Lakes had been made as 
early as 1641. 

The history of the Catholic Church among the English colonists 
began with the immigration of English and Irish Catholics to Mary- 
land in 1634, and the founding of the town of Sjb. Mary's in that year. 
Religious toleration was from the beginning the law of the colony; 
but in later years the Catholics were restricted and even disfran- 
chised, and the restrictions were not entirely removed until after the 
War of the Revolution. 

Religious equality, however, became universal and complete only 
after the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, in which the present Con- 
stitution of the United States was adopted. During the discussion of 
the Constitution a memorial was presented by the Rev. John Carroll, 
recently appointed (1784) superior of the missions in the United 
States, which undoubtedly contributed to the adoption of the pro- 
vision of the sixth article which abolishes reli^ous tests as a qualifica- 
tion for any office or public trust, and of that portion of the first 
amendment which says: ''Congress shall make no law respecting an 
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." 

The Revolutionary War left the Catholic Church in America 
without any immediate hierarchical superior. The vicar apostolic of 
London held no intercourse with the church in America and refused 
to exercise jurisdiction in the United States. After considerable in- 
vestigation and delay the propaganda proposed the name of John 
Carroll as the superior or prefect apostolic of the church in the 
thirteen original states, with the power to administer confirmation. 
This nomination was confirmed and was followed by a decree making 
the church in the United States a distinct body from that in England. 

Mention should be made of what are known as the ''Uniat 
churches," some of which were formerly connected with the Eastern 
or Oriental Churches, particularly in southeastern Europe and the 

Directory of Religious Bodies 217 

Levant. They recognize the authority of the Pope, and teach the 
same doctrine and have the same polity as the Roman Catholic 
Church, but differ from it in some matters of discipline, and use 
their own languages, as Greek, Syriac, Slavonic, Armenian, etc., in 
the liturgy. Among them are the Maronite, the Greek Catholic or 
United Greek, and Slavonic Catholic Churches, all of which are 
branches of the Roman Catholic Church and are included in its 

The growth of the church is indicated by the increase in its 
membership, the development of its dioceses, and its councils and 

In 1807 about 80 churches were reported, and a Catholic popu- 
lation of 150,000. Since that date a number of estimates have been 
made by different historians, some of them differing very widely. 
Thus Prof. A. J. Schemm gives the total Roman Catholic population 
in 1860 as 4,500,000, while John Gilmary Shea estimates it at 3,000,- 
000. The 1916 U. S. census gives 15,721,815 as Roman Catholic 

The first diocese was that of Baltimore, erected in 1789, fol- 
lowed by New Orleans in 1793. In 1808 Baltimore was made an 
archdiocese, and the dioceses of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia 
were erected. Others followed: Charleston, S. C, 1820; Cincinnati 
and Richmond, 1821; St. Louis, 1826; Mobile, 1829; Detroit, 1833; 
Indianapolis, 1834; Dubuque, Nashville and Natchez, 1837; Chicago, 
Hartford, Little Rock, Milwaukee, and Pittsburgh, 1843; Oregon City, 
1846. In 1847 St. Louis, in turn, became an archdiocese, and three 
years later Cincinnati, New York, New Orleans, and Oregon City 
were elevated into provinces, while other dioceses were formed — Al- 
bany, Buffalo, Cleveland, and Galveston in 1847, antt St. Paul, Santa 
Fe, Monterey and Los Angeles, Nesqually (Seattle), Savannah, and 
Wheeling, in 1850. In 1853 San Francisco was established as an 
archdiocese, and in 1875 the diocese of Philadelphia, Santa Fe, Bos- 
ton, and Milwaukee became archdioceses. Among other archdioceses 
formed have been those of Chicago in 1880, St. Paul in 1888, and 
Dubuque in 1893. 

Three plenary or national councils have been held in Baltimore, 
in 1852, in 1866, and in 1884. The Catholic laymen have held two 
congresses, one in Baltimore in 1889, in conjunction with the cen- 
tennial of the establishment of the hierarchy in the United States, 
and another in Chicago in 1893. Other items of interest are the 
promotion to the cardinalate of Archbishop McCloskey of New York, 
in 1875, and of Archbishop Gibbons of Baltimore, in 1886; the estab- 
lishment of the Catholic University of America at Washington, D. 
C, by the decree of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884), 
and the establishment of the apostolic delegation at Washington, hi 


The Roman Catholic Church bases its doctrines upon the Canon- 
ical Books of the Sacred Scriptures, explaining and supplementing 
them by tradition expressed in written documents, the more impor- 
tant of which are the dogmatic definitions issued either by an Ecu- 
menical or General Council, or by the Pope speaking "ex Cathedra,'* 
or as Head of the Church. Such definitions are not considered as 
constituting or establishing new doctrines, but only as official state- 
ments that the particular doctrine was revealed by God, and is con- 
tained in the "Depositum Fidei," or Sacred Depository of Faith of 
the Church. 

The Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed 
are regarded as containing the essential truths accepted by the church.- 
A general formula of doctrine is presented in the "profession of 

218 Year Book of the Churches 

faith,"^ to which assent must be given by those who join the church. 
It includes the rejection of all such doctrines as have been declared 
by the church to be wrong, a promise of obedience to the church's 
authority in matters of faith, and acceptance of the following state- 
ment of belief: 

One only God, in three divine Persons, distinct form, and equal 
to each other — ^that is to say, the Father, the Son, and the Holy 

The Catholic doctrine of the Incarnation, Passion, Death, and 
Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ; and the personal union of 
the two Natures, the divine and the human; the divine Maternity of 
the most holy Mary, together with her most spotless Virginity; 

The true, real, and substantial presence of the Body and Blood, 
together with the Soul and Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the 
most holy Sacrament of the Eucharist; 

The seven Sacraments instituted by Jesus Christ for the salva- 
tion of mankind; that is to say. Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, 
Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, Matrimony; 

Purgatory, the Resurrection of the Dead, Everlasting Life; 

The Primacy, not only of honor, but also of jurisdiction, of the 
Roman Pontiff, successor of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, Vicar 
of Jesus Christ; the veneration of the Saints and of their images; 
the authority of the Apostolic and Ecclesiastical Traditions, and of 
the Holy Scriptures, which we must interpret, and understand, only 
in the sense which our holy mother the Catholic Church has held, and 
does hold; and everything else that has been defined, and declared 
by the sacred Canons, and by the General Councils, and particularly 
by the holy Council of Trent, and delivered, defined, and declared by 
the General Council of the Vatican especially concerning the Primacy 
of the Roman Pontiff, and his infallible teaching authority. 

The sacrament of baptism is administered to infants or adults 
by pouring, and ''cleanses from original sin." Confirmation is the 
sacrament through which "the Holy Spirit is received" by the laying 
on of hands of the bishop, and the anointing with the holy chrism 
in the form of a cross. The Eucharist is "the sacrament which con- 
tains the body and blood, soul and divinity, of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
under the appearance of bread and wine." It is usually to be re- 
ceived fasting, and is given to the laity only in one kind, the form 
of bread. Penance is a sacrament in which the sins committed after 
baptism are forgiven. Extreme unction is a sacrament in which the 
sick who are in danger of death receive spiritual succor by the anoint^ 
ing with holy oil and the prayers of the priest. The sacrament of 
orders, or holy orders, is that by which bishops, priests, and other 
ministers of the church are ordained and receive power and graqe 
to perform their sacred duties. The sacrament of matrimony is tiie 
sacrament which unites a Christian man and woman in lawful mar- 
riage, and such marriage "can not be dissolved by any human power." 

The chief commandments of the church are: To hear mass on 
Sundays and holy days of obligation; to fast and abstain from meat 
on the days appointed; to confess at least once a year; to receive the 
Holy Eucharist during Easter time; to contribute toward the sup- 
port of pastors, and to observe the regulations in regard to marriage. 


The organization of the Roman Catholic Church centers in the 
Bishop of Rome as Pope, and his authority is supreme in matters 
of faith and in the conduct of the affairs of the church. Next to 
the Pope is the College of Cardinals, who act as his advisers and as 
heads or members of various commissions call^ Congregations, which 
are charged with the general administration of the (£urdi. These 

Directory of Religious Bodies 219 

never exceed 70 in number, and are of three orders : Cardinal deacons, 
cardinal priests, and cardinal bishops. These terms do not indicate 
their jurisdictional standing, but only their position in the cardinalate. 
With few exceptions the cardinal priests are archbishops or bishops, 
and the cardinal deacons are sfenerally priests. In case of the death 
of the Pope the cardinals elect his successor, authority meanwhile 
being vested in the body of cardinals. Most of the cardinals reside 
in Rome, and their active duties are chiefly in connection with the 
various congregations or commissions which have the care of the 
different departments of church activity. 


National Headquarters: 122 W. 14th St., New York City. 
Commander United States Forces, Miss Evangeline C. Booth; 
Nat, Sec, Colonel Walter F. Jenkins; NatL Auditor and Fin, 
Sec, Colonel G. S. Reinhardsen ; Natl, Spiritual Special, Colonel 
Samuel L.' Brengle. 

Eastern Territory : 122 W. 14th St., New York City. 

The Territorial Headquarters Staff: Commissioner, Thomas 
Estill; Chief Sec, Colonel Richard E. Holz; Field Sec, Colonel 
Alex. M. Damon ; Fin, Sec, Major Wm. C. Arnold ; Prop, Sec, 
Major V. R. PcTst; Editor-in-Chief, Lieut-Colonel Robert Sand- 
all; Young People's Sec, Major Wm. F. Palmer; Campaign Sec, 
Lieut.-Colonel Albert Kimball ; Bureau of Information, Statistics 
and Inspection, Colonel John E. Margetts; Principal of the 
Training College, Colonel Charles Miles ; Trade Sec, Major Sam- 
son Hodges; Men's Social Sec, Colonel Edward J. Parker; 
Women's Social Sec, Colonel Margaret Bovill. 

Central Territory: 108-114 N. Dearborn St., Chiccgo, 111. 

The Territorial Headquarters Staff: Commissioner, William 
Peart ; Chief Sec, Colonel Sidney Gauntlett ; Field Sec, Lieut.- 
Colonel John T. Fynn; Fin, Sec, Brig. Frank K. Robertson; 
Pro, Sec, Brig. John R. Wiseman; Young People's Sec, Major 
Walter Peacock; Editor-in-Chief, Lieut-Col. Fletcher Agnew; 
Publicity and Special Efforts Dept,, StaflE Captain A. E. Mar- 
purg; Territorial Traveling SpeciaZ, Lieut.-Colonel J. C. Addie; 
Central Prisons and Charity, Brig. David Miller; Women's So- 
cial Dept,, Lieut.-Colonel Mary Stillwell ; Principal of the Trav- 
eling College, Colonel Alfred A. Chandler. 

Western Territory : 115 Valencia St., San Francisco, Calif. 
The Territorial Headquarters Staff: Lieut, Commissioner, 
Adam Gifford ; Chief Sec, Colonel W. J. Barnard Turner ; Field 
Sec, Major William Guard ; Fin, Sec, Lieut.-Colonel William J. 
Dart; Auditor, Major Albert Widgery; Territorial Young Peo- 
ple's Sec, Colonel J. W. Cousins; Prop, and Campaign Sec, 
Lieut.-Colonel T. Scott; Editor, Lieut.-Colonel A. B. Pebbles; 
Revivalist, Lieut.-Colonel George H. Davis; Staff Records and 
Statistics, Major Bessie Smith ; Sec, for Trade Dept,, Staff Capt. 
Arthur Armstrong; Men's Social Sec, Lieut.-Colonel Emil Mar- 

220 Year Book of the Churches 

cussen ; Women's Social Sec, Lieut.-Colonel Flora Lee ; Principal 
of the Western Training College, Lieut.-Colonel Andrew Craw- 

Training Schools 

Name LocatUm Principal 

Training: College New York City Colonel Charles Miles. 

(Men and Women) 
Training College Chicago, HI Colonel Alfred A. Chandler. 

(Men and Women) 
Training College ..San Francisco, CaJif Lt.-C<^. Andrew Crawford. 

(Men and Women) 


Eastern Territory — War Cry (weekly) ; Strids Ropet (weekly) ; 
Young Soldier (weekly) ; Social News (monthly) ; Local Officers' 
Counsellor (monthly), 120 W. 14th St., New York, Editor, Lieut- 
Col. Robert Sandall. 

Central Territory — War Cry (weekly), 108 North Dearborn St., 
Chicago, 111., Editor, Lieut.-Col. Fletcher Agnew. 

Western Territory — War Cry (weekly), 115 Valencia St., San 
Francisco, Calif., Editor, Lieut.-Col. A. B. Pebbles. 



William Booth, a minister of the English body known as the 
"New Connexion Methodists," was from his earliest preaching, which 
began when he Vas 16 years of age, deeply impressed with the 
fact that ah important percentage of the crowds which filled the 
towns and cities of England lay outside .the influence of the churches. 
In an effort to reach these people, he inaugurated a series of open- 
air meetings in London, holding the first on July 5, 1865. As the 
attendance increased, the meetings were held in a tent, and after- 
wards in a theater. The movement became known as the East End 
Mission, and later as the Christian Mission. For 13 years little 
attention was drawn to it, but a far-reaching revival took place, 
and as a result the crowds increased, the interest extended, and evan- 
gelists were sent out in different directions. One of these evangelists, 
working in a seaport, was spoken of as "Captain," in order to at- 
tract the sailors who had come into port. On the coming of Mr. 
Booth, a visit was announced as from the "General." The secretary 
in preparing the annual report wrote, "The Christian Mission Is a 
Volunteer Army." Mr. Booth glanced over the secretary's shoulder, 
took up the pen, erased the word "volunteer" and wrote in "salva- 
tion." The title "Salvation Army" was at once accepted as the most 
appropriate that could be devised for the special undertaking, which, 
as they phrased it, was an effort "to destroy the fortresses of sin in 
the various communities." In the early years of the work General 
Booth, with whom his wife, Catherine Booth, was always most inti- 
mately associated, looked upon the army as primarily supplementary 
to the churches, but as it enlarged it developed into a distinctive 
movement with a people of its own. 

From the beginning, efforts were made to care for the physical 
needs of the destitute, soup kitchens being the first institutions es- 
tablished for relief. Experiments of various kinds were made, and 
out of these grew the scheme developed in "Darkest England and ttie 
Way out," which outlined a plan of social redemption for what came 
to. be known as the "Submerged Tenth," under three divisions : City 
colonies, land colonies, and oversea colonies. In the carrying out of 
its schemes, however, the army has always been elastic, expansive, 
and progressive, adapting itself easily to new conditions, and enter- 
ing new fields as need was manifest. 

Although the movement originated in England, it extended rap- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 221 

idly into other countries, not so much through the plans of its found- 
ers as through circumstances. English converts, finding homes in the 
United States, Canada, Australia, and other distant lands, began 
work according to the methods of the army and followed their efforts 
by urging the General to send them trained leaders from the inter- 
national headquarters in London. The first country thus entered 
was France, followed by the United States, in 1881. Notwithstand- 
ing considerable opposition, the movement spread rapidly all over 
the country, until it has become one of the most prominent forces in 
work of this character. 


The Salvation Army has a creed, but gives little attention to the 
discussion of doctrinal differences. It is in general strongly Arminian 
rather than Calvinistic. The* special features emphasized are: Be- 
lief in the ruinous effects of sin, and the ample provision made for 
entire deliverance from its power by the salvation of God. In its 
attitude toward the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper 
it is neutral, acting in harmony with the followers of George Fox 
in regarding the sacraments that save as spiritual. Admission to 
its membership is not founded upon any acceptance of creed alone, but 
is based upon the most solemn pledges to Christian and humane con- 
duct, including total abstinence from intoxicating liquors and all 
harmful drugs. The pledges are known as the "Articles of War," 
and must be signed by every soldier. 


The go'/ernment of the Salvation Army is military in charac- 
ter, but sufficiently democratic to include within its ranks persons 
of every social grade. Its lower officers may be promoted to high 
commands, and thus it is believed the usual dangers which threaten 
a hierarchy are avoided. The ideal of its founder was the parental 
and patriarchal model, namely, that the officer of higher rank should 
regard those beneath him as a father regards his children, and thus 
protect and guide their lives. This spirit controls in general. The 
commanding Officer is assisted by local officers who act in the capacity 
of an advisory board; in addition to these, he is aided, when neces- 
sary, by officers of various grades and ranks. These officers are com- 
missioned, after successfully passing through the training given in 
schools or giving evidence of ability sufficient to qualify l£em for 
any work. Mental qualifications are not ignored, although an edu- 
cational test is not emphasized, and the applicant is urged to improve 
himself mentally and socially as well as religiously. Soldiers are 
chiefly persons pursuing their usual avocations during the day and 
giving their services during the evening, and are not paid. Officers 
receive their support, but no more, and each corps is expected to 
meet its own expenses. 

The form of worship is elastic, the desire being that, so far as 
possible, the services be spontaneous, and great liberty is encouraged, 
although extravagances are frowned upon, and if regarded as dan- 
gerous are suppressed. These services include open-air meetings, 
salvation meetings for the conversion of the impenitent, holiness 
meetings for the deepening of the spiritual life among the soldiers 
and adherents, junior meetings, and Sunday schools for the conver- 
sion and training of children. 

The international headquarters of the army are in London, but 
each country has its own organization under the direction of a Com- 
missioner, who is assisted by responsible officers for provinces and 
divisions. The local corps is usually commanded by a captain and 
a lieutenant, assisted by local officers, as a sergeant-major, treasurer, 
secretary, etc. 

222 Year Book of the Churches 



The movement away from the State Churches in Sweden, 
Norway, and Denmark has found expression in the United 
States in the foimation of three bodies: The Swedish Evan- 
gelical Mission Covenant of America, the Swedish Evangelical 
Free Church (formerly the Free Mission), and the Norwegian - 
Danish Free Church. 


General Conference, annual; last session, Seattle, Wash., 
June, 1921. 

Headquarters : 136 West Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

Officers: Pres. of Exec, Board, Rev. E. G. Hjerpe; Vice-Pres., 
Rev. E. A. Skogsberg, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Sec, Rev, C. V. Bow- 
man ; Vice-Sec, E. Wallin. 

College and Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

North Park College and Theological Semi- 
nary Chicago, m D. Nyvall. 


Covenant Weekly, Editors, D. Marcelius, Andrew Johnson; 5ittn- 
day School Friend, Editor, Miss Rosa Sahestrom. 


The great body of the Swedish immigrants were in their own 
country connected with' the State Church of Sweden, and on com- 
ing to this country identified themselves with the Swedish Augustana 
Synod in connection with the Lutheran General Council. There are, 
however, quite a number of churches which represent the results of 
the great spiritual awakening which visited Sweden in the middle 
of the nineteenth century, and which corresponded very closely to 
kindred awakenings in Norway, and to the Pietist movement in Ger- 
many. The ordained state clergy seemed to some unable to satisfy 
the deep spiritual needs of the communities, and services were con- 
ducted by uneducated laymen. This procedure was followed by perse- 
cution by the State Church, but without avail. Congregations were 
organized, edifices erected, and a strong spiritual life developed. 
These congregations were represented, to a considerable degree, in the 
Swedish immigration to this country and, as the necessity of or- 
ganization became apparent, two synods were formed, the Ansgarii 
Synod and the Mission Synod. These were afterwards dissolved, and 
in their place the Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant of America 
was formed in 1885. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Covenant is strictly evangelical, accepting the 
Bible as the inspired Word of God unto men, the only infallible guide 
in matters of faith, doctrine, and practice, and His message regard- 
ing both this life and the life that is to come. 

In government, the church is purely congregational. The local 
churches are associated in state conferences, and in an annual con- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 223 

ference in which all matters of common interest are considered by 
the delegates assembled, and important business, such as making ap- 
propriations for missions and receiving sister churches into fellow- 
ship, is transacted. This conference has been incorporated in the 
state of Illinois. 



Pres.y Rev. N. W. Nelson, 578 Prospect Ave., Brooklyn, N. 

Y. ; Sec.y Rev. 0. Thompsen, 420 W. Sarnia St., Winona, Minn. 

Foreign Mission : ** Scandinavian Missionary Alliance. * * 
Trea8,, F. Risberg, 44 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Name Location President 

Bible Institute and Academy S. Minneapolis, Minn L. J. Pedersen. 


Evangelisten (weekly), The Children Evangelist (weekly), 3525 
Fullerton Ave., Chicago, Editor, H. F. Josephson. 


The Norwegian and Danish Free Church movement traces its 
origin to the spiritual awakening that swept over Norway in the 
early part of the nineteenth century, and to the conditions which 
made it necessary for those who were brought under the influence of 
the movement later to separate from the State Church and organize 
what were called Free Churches. Similar movements were spreading 
in other countries, with which the movement from Norway and 
iJenmark has found bonds of fellowship, especially that earlier move- 
ment in England, which resulted in the founding of the Congrega- 
tional denomination. 

In the latter part of the nineteenth century there was a suflicient 
number of Norwegian and Danish Free Churches in the United 
States to organize into two associations, one in the Eastern states . 
and one in the Middle West. These associations, as well as each 
church, held bonds of fellowship with the Congregational denomina^ 

In the year 1910 representatives of the two associations met in 
Chicago and organized the Norwegian and Danish Evangelical Free 
Church Association of North America, still maintaining the Eastern 
and Western associations as district organizations to look after local 
>vork. In the national organization all the churches, represented by 
delegates, and with their pastors and teachers, meet annually for 
conference and business. 

In doctrine, the association is strictly evangelical, believing the 
Bible to be the inspired Word of God, and accepting without ques^ 
tion its authority in all things. The local churches have the con- 
gregational form of government. 


Address Rev. Erik A. Halleen, 1417 Seventh St., S., Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 


At the time of the union of the Swedish Ansgarii Synod and the 
Mission Synod in 1885, forming the Swedish Evangelical Mission 

224 Year Book of the Churches 

Covenant of America, a number of congregations did not share in 
the consolidation, but united in an organization known as the Swed- 
ish Evangelical Free Mission, more recently known as the Swedish 
Evangelical Free Church. The first general conference was held at 
Boone, Iowa, at which plans were made for work, particularly in 

The Swedish Evangelical Free Church has no written confession 
of faith, but accepts the Bible as the Word of God and the only 
perfect rule of faith and practice. Regarding doctrinal questions, 
such as the atonement, baptism, and the holy communion, ministers 
are at liberty to believe according to their convictions. The qualifica- 
tions for membership are conversion and a Christian life. 

The local congregations are self-governing. An annual confer- 
ence is held, to which the local congregations send delegates, and at 
which regulations are made concerning charitable institutions, schools, 
etc.; but these regulations are advisory in character, and the congre- 
gations are privileged either to accept or to reject them. In addi- 
tion to the conference there is a society of ministers and mission- 
aries, organized in 1894, which has for its object the supervision of 
doctrine and conduct, the reception of worthy candidates, and the 
rejection of those who are unworthy. 


General Conference, semi-annual; meets third Saturday of 
May and October. 

Headquarters : Norristown, Pa. 

Officers : Mod., John H. Schultz, Norristown, Pa. ; Sec, S. 
K. Brecht, Eagle Road, Manoa, Pa.; Treas., Amos S. Anders, 
Norristown, Pa. 

, Board op Publication. Pres., Edwin K. Schultz, Boyertown, Pa.; 
Sec, Rev. O. S. Kriebel, Pennsburg, Pa. 

Board of Home and Foreign Missions. Pres., John H. Schultz, 
Norristown, Pa.; Sec, Rev. H. K. Heebner, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Board op Managers op the Charity Fund. Pres., William H. 
Anders, Lansdale, Pa., R. D.; Sec, Wayne C. Meschter, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 


Name Location Principal 

Perkiomen School Pennsburg, Pa O. S. Kriebel. 


The Schwenkfeldian (monthly), Editor, S. K. Brecht, Eagle 
Road, Manoa, Pa. 


Among the early enthusiastic advocates of the Reformation was 
Kaspar von Schwenkfeld, a councilor at the court of the Duke of 
Liegnitz in Silesia. At the time of Luther's manifesto he was a 
young man, 25 years of age, and threw himself into the new move- 
ment with energy. Although never ordained as a clergyman, he took 
a prominent part in religious work, and it was mainly through his 
efforts that the Reformation gained a stronghold in Silesia. He was, 
however, independent in his thinking, and developed certain lines of 
belief which were not acceptable to other reformers. 

Strongly opposed to the formation of a church, he did no more 
than gather congregations, and was compelled to flee from one place 
to another to escape persecution, until he died in Ulm in 1561. After 
his death, under the conditions of the times, any ecclesiastical organi- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 225 

zation of his followers was impracticable, although meetings and 
occasional conferences were held in Silesia, Switzerland, and Italy. 

Early in the eighteenth century the question arose of emigration 
to America, and in September, 1734, about 200 persons landed at 
Philadelphia. Allegiance to the civil authorities having been pledged 
on September 23, they devoted the next day to thanksgiving for their 
deliverance from oppression, and they have continued to celebrate it 
as a memorial day ever since. Unable to secure land as they desired 
for a*distinct community, they obtained homes in Montgomery, Bucks, 
Berks, and Lehigh Counties, Pa., where the greater number of their 
descendants are now to be found. The character of their early life 
in this country is indicated by their literary and doctrinal activities, 
the adoption of a school system in 1764, and the establishment of a 
charity fund in 1774, through which they have since cared for the 
unfortunate members of the community. 

Toward the close of the Revolutionary War it became evident 
that a closer church organization was necessary, and one was formed 
and a constitution adopted in 1782. In common with the Quakers, 
Mennonites, and other kindred bodies, they gave their testimony 
against war, secret societies, and the taking of oaths. More recently 
a responsiveness to modem influences, has taken the place of their 
early clannish exclusiveness ; all rules and regulations against secret 
societies have been dropped; the participation in war has been left 
to the individual conscience; and, in the war with Germany, not only 
was no exemption asked on the ground of religious belief but a con- 
siderable number of the young men entered the national service. 

The establishment of the Perkiomen School has had a marked 
effect in increasing the number of college graduates in the churches 
and the general interest in higher education. As a result, they have 
gained in strength and in numbers. 


The church holds that theology should be constructed from the 
Bible alone, but affirms that the Scriptures are dead without the 
indwelling Word. Christ's divinity, it is held, was progressive, His 
human nature partaking more and more of the divine nature with- 
out losing its identity. They believe that an absolute change through 
faith and regeneration, and subsequent spiritual growth, are primary 
essentials to salvation, but that justification by faith should not ob- 
scure the positive righteousness imparted by Christ, imitation of 
whom is the fundamental feature of the Christian life. The Lord's 
Supper, symbolic of both His humanity and His divinity, is regarded 
as a means of spiritual nourishment without any change in the ele- 
ments, such as is implied in consubstantiation or transubstantiation. 
They look upon infant baptism as not apostolic, and the mode of 
baptism as of no consequence. 

The Christian Church is 'held to be unity, whose discipline should 
be rigorous, and whose members should be those who give experi- 
mental evidence of regeneration, and who pass a satisfactory exam- 
ination in the doctrines and customs of the church. The activity of 
the liaity is considered to fulfill the doctrine of the Christian Spriest- 
hood. The right of the state to force the conscience of the citizen is 


The only officers are ministers, deacons, and trustees, who are 
elected and ordained by the local churches; the ministers for an un- 
limited period, the deacons for a term of three years, or until their 
successors are chosen, and the trustees annually. The public worship 
is simple and flexible as to time and manner. 

The members of the local churches meet in a district confer- 

226 Year Book of the Churches 

fence at least once a -year. The district conferences are members of 
the General Conference, in which all church members have equal 
rights and privileges without distinction of sex. The General Con- 
ference has original and appellate jurisdiction in all matters relating 
to the Schwenkf elder Church. It elects the members of the mission 
board, the trustees of Perkiomen School, and the members of the 
board of publication. 


Address Rev. F. P. Wilson, Eldorado, 111. 

History, Doctrine and Polity 

At the close of the Civil War a number of persons who had be- 
come dissatisfied with certain teachings and practices in the denomi- 
nations to which they belonged, gathered some congregations in Illi- 
nois. For about 20 years they continued under a somewhat loose 
organization, but in 1887 adopted a discipline containing a statement 
of doctrine and rules for the government of the churches and for the 
ordination of ministers. 

The Confession of Faith, consisting of 10 articles, pronounces 
against political preaching, declares the right of all lay members to 
free speech and free suffrage, and recognizes 3 modes of baptism as 
the applicant may prefer. It rejects infant baptism, however, and 
accepts only believers as candidates for that rite. 

Annual associations are held, composed of ministers and lay dele- 
gates, and a biennial general assembly, whose membership includes 
ordained ministers, licensed preachers and exhorters, the general 
superintendent of Sunday schools, and lay delegates from each as- 

The churches conduct no special mission work, home or foreign, 
and have no denominational schools or philanthropic institutions. 


(The American Ethical Union) 

Office: 2 W. 64tli St., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn. of Exec. Com., Robert D. Kohn; Sec. and 
Editor, David S. Ilanchett ; Treas., Alexander M. Bing. 


Name Location Superintendent 

F.lhical Culture School New York City Franklin C. Lewis. 

The Standard, Central Park and 64th St., New York City. 

Component Societies 

New York Society for Ethical Culture, 2 W. 64th St., New York. 

Philadelphia Society for Ethical Culture, 1324 Spruce St., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Brooklyn Society for Ethical Culture, 176 South Oxford St., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Chicago Ethical Society. 616 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

St. Louis Ethical Society, 3648 Washington Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 


The New York Society for Ethical Culture was founded by Prof. 
Felix Adler in 1876. Four similar societies — in Chicago, Philadelphia^ 

Directory of Religious Bodies 227 

St. Louis and Brooklyn — ^have since been formed ; and in 1886 the 
American Ethical Union was organized, including the societies at that 
time in existence. The movement has since extended to England, 
Germany, and other countries, including Japan, and in 1896 the In- 
ternational Ethical Union was organized, with temporary headquar 
ters in Berlin. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The Ethical societies have no formal expression of doctrine. 
Their purpose, as expressed in the Constitution of the International 
Union, is • to assert the supreme import of the ethical factor in alL 
the relations of life — personal, social, national, and international— 
apart from all theological and metaphysical considerations." 

Each society is autonomous in government. 

TEMPLE SOCIETY (Friends of the Temple) 

Address Emil 0. Sorg, 535 East Utica Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 


The Temple Society, also known as "Friends of the Temple," 
was founded in Wurttemberg, Germany j in 1853, by the Rev. Christo- 
pher Hoffman. Adherents of the society emigrated to America s^ 
few years later, and within 10 years an organization was effected. 
At present there are 2 local congregations, while a number of sym- 
pathizers, mostly members of other churches, are scattered over the 

The Society has no ecclesiastical forms or doctrine. It holds 
that the sum and substance of the New Testament is the teaching 
of the Kingdom of God, the essence of which is contained in the 
words of Jesus, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God * * * and 
thy neighbor as thyself," and emphasizes the spiritual development 
of the kingdjom. 

Accepting in full the prophecies of the Old Testament in regard to 
the future of the Holy Land, one great aim of the organization is 
the establishment bf Christian colonies in the Holy Land. Its ef- 
forts have resulted in six colonies in Palestine. 

The Society in Jerusalem is regarded as the chief organization, 
and its president exercises general supervision over the branches in 
Germany and America. In the American branch, a general commit- 
tee, with a presiding elder, keeps up the connection with Jerusalem. 
The individual churches have preachers and elders, and hold Sun- 
day preaching services and Sunday schools. 



The original Theosophical Society was founded in New York in 
i876, under the name "Theosophical Society and Universal Brother- 
hood," with Col. Henry S. Olcott as its life president. 

There are four of these societies now in this country — ^the orig- 
inal Theosophical Society, American Section; the primary offshoot, 
the Theosophical Society in America; and the offshoot from that, the 
Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical Society — and an independent 
organization called the Theosophical Society of New York. 

These societies, while varying somewhat in particulars, unite in 
emphasizing as their principal object the universal brotherhood of 
humanity, and require sympathy with this object as a condition of 
admission to membership. 

228 Year Book of the Churches 

In order to secure a full comprehension of what is meant by the 
"brotherhood of humanity," it is deemed essential that there should 
be a study of the ancient and modem religious philosophies and sci- 
ences; also an investigation of unexplained laws of nature and the 
powers latent in man. Hence all these societies are more or less 
investigative in their character. The Universal Brotherhood and 
Theosophical Society emphasies the practiczal application of the re- 
sults of this investigation to existent conditions; and the American 
Section seeks to infuse its principles into the practical affairs of life, 
especially through its Bureau for Social Reconstruction. 


A summary of doctrine as accepted by most members of the 
Theosophical societies follows: 

Grod is infinite and absolute, therefore not to be limited by 
thought, attribute, or description. Evolution is accepted, but it is 
only half a law — ^the other half being involution. Humanity is one 
great family; all souls are the same in essence, though they differ 
in degrees of development. Man is essentially a spiritual intelli- 
gence inhabiting a soul and a body. By purification and training of 
the body, the emotions, and the mind, the latent divine powers will 
develop and become active. Man is composed of seven principles 
which are grouped as a lower or mortal nature — constituting his per- 
sonality — and a higher or immortal nature. Death is the dissolution 
of the mortal principles and the absorption of their experiences by 
the higher or universal principles. Heaven is the state of bliss and 
rest attained by the threefold higher nature of spirit, intuition, and 
mind. Reincarnation is the return of the hip^her nature to physical 
life, after having enjoyed its rest; it must not be confused with the 
ignorant and impossible idea of the transmigration of human souls 
into animal bodies. Karma is the action and interaction between de- 
sire and mind, the law of balance, of action and reaction, of effect 
inevitably connected with preceding cause; applied to man, it is a 
moral law of unerring justice, to which all other laws, physical or 
otherwise, are subservient. Karma is inseparable from reincarna- 
tion; Karma is the cause, reincarnation the mode* of accomplishing 
the effect. 


The original organization, 1875. 
Annual Convention; meets last Saturday in April. 
Sec, Miss Isabel B. Perkins, P. 0. Box 64, Station 0, New 
York City. 


Theosophical Quarterly, P. 0. Box 64, Station 0, New York City. 


Organized 1895. 

Annual Convention ; next meeting at Kansas City, Mo., July, 

Headquarters: 645 Wrightwood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Officers: National Pres., L. W. Rogers; National Sec, Miss 
H. Pearl Martin. 

Order op the Star in the East. In preparation of the coming 
of the Christ. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 229 


Name Location Dean or PrinciptU 

Krotona Institute of Philosophy.. . lios Angeles, Calif P. F. Strong. 

School of the Open Gate Los Angeles, Calif Julia K. Sommer, B. Sc. 

The Messenger, Mount Morris, 111. 



Organized 1898. 

International headquarters: Point Loma, Calif. 

Officers : Leader, Katherine Tingley ; Sec, Joseph H. Pussell. 

University and School 

Name Location Secretary 

Theosophical University Point Loma, Calif Clark Thurston. 

Raja Yoga College Point Loma, Calif Gertrude W. Van Pelt 


Theosophical Path (monthly), Editor, Katherine Tingley; The 
Raja Yoga Messenger (bi-monthly) ; The New Way (monthly). 


Organized 1899. Independent. 

Officers: Pres., Harold W. Percival, 1580 Amsterdam Ave., 
New York City ; Sec, Benoni B. Gattell, 46 Cedar St., New York 


General Conference of Unitarian and other Christian 
Churches; meets biennially. 

Officers : Pres., Hon. William H. Taft ; Gen, Sec, Rev. PaL 
frey Perkins, Weston, Mass.; Treas,, Percy A. Atherton, 30 
State St., Boston, Mass. 

The American Unitarian Association is the executive organiza- 
tion; Unitarian Bldg., 25 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. Pres., Rev. Sam- 
uel A. Eliot; Sec.^Rev. Louis C. Cornish; Treas., Henry M. Williams. 
Asst. Sec. and Publication Agent, W. Forbes Robertson. 

Department op Church Extension. Sec, Rev. Minot Simons; 
Field Sees., Rev. W. Channing Brown, Carl B. Wetherell, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif.; Rev. Walter R. Hunt, New York City. 

alliance op Unitarian and Other Liberal Christian Women. 
Pres., Miss Lucy Lowell; Cor, Sec, Mrs. Mary B. Davis, 25 Beacon 
St., Boston, Mass.; Rec Sec, Mrs. C. S. Atherton; Treas., Mrs. Lucia 
Clapp Noyes. 

Young People's Religious Union. Pres. of Exec Board, Ches- 
ter R. Allen; Sec, Miss Adeline Pfleghaar, 25 Beacon St., Boston,. 
Mass.; Tre<is., Albert Pollard. 

Unitarian Laymen's League. Pres., Charles H. Strong; Sec, 
Wm. L. Barnard, 7 Park Square, Boston, Mass.; Treas., Wm. Endi- 

Unitarian Historical Society. Pres., Rev. Henry W. Foote; 
Sec, Rev. Edward D. Johnson, Salem, Mass.; Librarian, Julius H. 


230 Year Book of the Churches 

Unitarian Temperance Society. Pres,y Rev. William L. Walsh; 
Sec, Rev. L. V. Rutledge; Treas,, Seymour H. Stone. 

Social Service Council of Unitarian Women. Prea,, Mrs. 
George H. Root; Sec, Mrs. Edward M. Hayes, Medford, Mass.; 
Treas,, Mrs. Arthur G. Robbins. 

Society for Ministerial Relief. Pres., Prof. F. G. Peabody; 
Sec, Rev. Roderick Stebbins, Milton, Mass.; Treas., Stephen W. 

Society for Promoting Theological Education. Pres., Rev. 
Howard N. Brown; Sec, Rev. Fred R. Lewis, North Easton, Mass.; 
Treas., George R. Blinn. 

Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians and 
Others in North America. Pres., Rev. James H. Ropes; Vioe-Pres., 
Prof. F. G. Peabody; Sec, Rev. Charles E. Park, Boston, Mass.; 
Treas,, Henry H. Edes. 

Unitarian Service Pension Society. Pres., Hon. James P. Par- 
menter; Sec, Rev. Robert S. Loring, Milwaukee, Wis.; Treas,, Rev. 
H. G. Arnold. 

Tlieological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Divinity School ot Harvard Uni- 
versity Cambridge, Mass Abbott Lawrence Lowell. 

The Meadville Theological School .. Meadville, Pa. Franklin C. Southworth. 

Pacific Unitarian School for the 
Ministry Berkeley, Calif Earl M. Wilbur. 


Christian Register (weekly), Boston, Mass., Editor, Rev. A. C. 
Dieffenbach; The Beacon (weekly), children's paper, Boston, Mass.; 
The Pacific Unita/rian (monthly), San Francisco, Calif., Editor, 
Charles A. Murdock; Unitarian Word and Work (monthly), Boston, 


Unitarianism may be defined in the most general terms as the 
religious doctrine of those holding belief in one God in one person 
(as distinguished from the Trinitarian belief in one Grod in three 
persons) and the related belief in the strict humanity of Jesus (as 
contrasted with the belief in His Deity) . While Unitarians assert that 
these beliefs were held in the first Christian centuries, before ever the 
Trinitarian dogmas were developed, yet the Unitarianism of today 
originated historically in the first half century of the Protestant 
Reformation. In one form or another it was espoused in the six- 
teenth century by a number of Anabaptist leaders and by numerous 
independent thinkers in Italy or Switzerland. Its^most influential 
leaders on the Continent, where it was variously known as Arianism, 
Socinianism, or Unitarianism, were Michael Servetus in Switzerland, 
Faustus Socinus in Poland, and Francis Davis in Transylvania. 

In England Unitarianism gradually developed during the eight- 
eenth century, largely under Socinian influences, and chiefly among 
the Presbyterian churches, though there were also important acces- 
sions from other religious bodies. While such men as Newton, Locke, 
Milton, and Penn in the seventeenth century are known to have held 
Unitarian views, no movement toward a distinct denomination began 
till late in the eighteenth century; and the most distinguished leaders 
of Unitarianism since its separate organization have been Joseph 
Priestly, Theophilus Lindsey, and James Martineau. 

In America Unitarianism developed out of New England Congre- 
gationalism, whose churches had as a rule unwittingly left the way 
open for doctrinal changes, by requiring members upon joining the 
church simply to join in a covenant, rather than to subscribe to a 
creed. Thus many of the Congregational churches of eastern Massa- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 231 

chusetts, including most of the oldest and most important ones, grad- 
ually moved far toward Unitarian beliefs in the seeond half of the 
eighteenth century, though the first church distinctly to avow such 
beliefs was the Episcopal King's Chapel at Boston, in 1785. These 
churches preferred to call themselves simply Liberal Christians, and 
the name Unitarian was only slowly and reluctantly accepted. The 
formation of a new denomination out of the liberal wing of th^ 
Congregational Church was a gradual process, which went on in one 
congregation after another. The cleavage was hastened by the elec- 
tion of Henry Ware, a liberal, as Professor of Theology at Harvard 
University in 1805, in spite of orthodox protests, and by the fastening 
of the name Unitarian upon the liberals by the conservatives in 1815, 
after which the former were more and more refused religious fellow- 
ship by the latter, who desired thus to exclude them from the denom- 
ination. At length, in 1819, William EUery Channing, of Boston, 
acknowledged leader of the liberals, preached at Baltimore an ordina- 
tion sermon which defined and defended the views held by Unitarians 
and was thenceforth accepted by them as their platform. 

In 1825 the Amercan Unitarian Association was • formed to do 
aggressive missionary work and to promote the interests of the 
churches concerned, and thus the new denomination became organ- 
ized separately. The Unitarians of this period were much averse to 
fostering sectarian spirit. They\had been only loosely welded to- 
gether, and their own fundamental principles were not clearly set- 
tled; so that for nearly 40 years the denomination was stagnant and 
was divided and weakened by internal controversy centering mainly 
about the question of miracles. But by the end of the Civil War this 
controversy had been largely outgrown; a national conference was 
organized in 1865, and a period of rapid extension and of aggressive 
denominational life ensued, which has continued to the present time. 
For a generation past emphasis has been laid much less upon doc- 
trinal points than upon personal religion, moral advancement, and 
civic and social reform. 


The Unitarians have never adopted a creed and do not require 
of members or ministers profession of a particular doctrine. 

The constitution of the General Conference states simply that 
''These churches accept the religion of Jesus, holding in accordance 
with His teaching that practical religion is summed up in love to 
God and love to man." The declared object of the American Uni- 
tarian Association is "to diffuse the knowledge and promote Hie in- 
terests of pure Christianity." And the covenant most generally used 
in local churches reads: ''In the love of truth and in the spirit of 
Jesus, we unite for the worship of God and the service of man." 

The most distinguishing marks of Unitarianism today ai>e its in- 
sistence upon absolute freedom in belief, its reliance upon the su- 
preme guidance of reason, its tolerance of difference in religious 
opinion, its devotion to education and philanthropy, and its em- 
phasis upon character, as the principles of fundamental importance 
in religion. There is, however, a general consensus upon the uniper- 
sonality of God, the strict humanity of Jesus, the essential dignity 
and perfectibility of human nature, the natural character of the 
Bible, and the hope for the ultimate salvation of all souls in distinc- 
tion from the views traditionally taught on these points. 


The Unitarians are congregational in polity, each congregation 
being entirely independent of all the others. But for purposes of 
fellowship, mutual counsel, and the promotion of common ends, they 
unite in local or state conferences, in a General Conference meeting 

232 Year Book of the Churches 

biennially, and in an international congress formed "to open com- 
munication with those in all lands who are striving to unite pure 
religion and perfect liberty, and to increase fellowship and coopera- 
tion among them." Besides the national missionary organization, 
the American Unitarian Association, with headquarters at Boston, 
and offices at New York, Chicago, and San Francisco, other national 
organizations include the Alliance of Unitarian Women, the Uni- 
tarian Sunday School Society, the Young People's Religious Union, 
the Laymen's League, the Unitarian Temperance Society, etc. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next session, 1925. 
Annual conferences. 

Headquarters: United Brethren Bldg., Dayton, Ohio. 
Officers : Pres., Board of Administration y Bishop William M. 
Bell ; Exec. Sec, S. S. Hough ; Oen, Treas., L. 0. Miller. 


W. M. Bell, 1509 State St., Harrisburg, Pa. 
N. Castle (emeritus), Philomath, Ore. 

H. H. Fout, 945 Middle Drive, Woodruff PL, Indianapolis, Ind. 
C. J. Kephart, 3936 Harrison Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 
W. H. Washinger, 686 E. Taylor St., Portland, Ore. 
W. M. Weekley (emeritus), 1038 Murdock Ave., Parkersburg, 
W. Va. 

A. R. Clippinger, 1602 Grand Avenue, Dayton, Ohio. 

Foreign Missionary Society. Pres,, Bishop W. M. Bell; Gen, 
Sec, Rev. S. G. Ziegler; Treas,, L. O. Miller; Special Support Sec, 
Mrs. J. Hal Smith. 

Home Missionairy Society. Pres,, Bishop H. H. Fout; Gen, Sec, 
Rev. P. M. Camp; Sec. of Ed, Dept,, Miss L. B. Wiggin; Treas,, L. 
O. Miller. 

Church Erection Society. Sec, Rev. A. C. Siddall. 

Woman's Missionary Association. Pres,, Mrs. L. R. Harford, 
1550 Georgia Ave., Omaha, Nebr.; Gen, Sec and Treas,, Miss Alice 

Board op Control op Sunday School, Brotherhood, and 
Young People's Work. Pres,, Bishop A. R. Clippinger; Gen, Sec 
Sunday School and Brotherhood Work, Rev. Charles W. Brewbaker; 
Sec (emeritus). Col. Robert Cowden; Supt, Elementary Division, 
Miss Ida M. Koontz; Gen, Sec Young People's Work, Rev^ O. T. 

Sunday School and Brotherhood Executive Committee. 
Chmn,, Rev. W. 0. Fries; Sec, Rev. C. W. Brewbaker. 

Commission on Evangelism. Pres,, Bishop H. H. Fout; Gen, 
Sec, Rev. J. E. Shannon. 

Christian Endeavor Executive Committee. Chmn., Rev. H. F. 
Shupe; Sec, Rev. 0. T. Deever. 

Board op Education. Pres,, Bishop C. J. Kephart; Gen. Sec, 
Rev. William E. Schell; Treas,, L. 0. Miller. 

Publishing House. Agt, Rev. W. R. Funk. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 233 


Name Location President or Dean 

Indiana Central University University Heights, Ind I. J. Good. 

Kansas City University Kansas City, Kans J. C. Williams. 

Lebanon Valley College Annville, Pa. G. D. Gossard 

Otterbein University Westerville, Ohio W. G. Qippinger. 

Philomath College Philomath, Oreg Lloyd L. Epley. 

York College York, Neb H. U. Roop. 

Shenandoah Institute Dayton, Va J. H. Reubush. 

Theological Seminary 
Bonebrake Theological Seminary. Dajiion, Ohio A. T. Howard. 


Religious Telescope, Editors, Rev. J. M. Phillippi, Rev. W. E. 
Snyder; Watchword, Editor, Rev. H. F. Shupe; Friend of Boys and 
Girls, Editors, Rev. W. 0. Fries and Rev. J. W. Owen; Evangel, Edi- 
tor, Miss Alice Bell. 


Among the serious conditions facing the German Reformed 
churches in America in the early part of the eighteenth century were 
the lack of organization and especially the dearth of ministers. There 
were as yet no training schools in this country, and they were com- 
pelled to look to the Old World for their ministerial supply. The re- 
sult was that they were not always provided for, and it was difficult 
to secure ministers of the best type. The Methodist movement in 
England and the Pietist movement in Germany were becoming prom- 
inent, but had not extended to any great degree through the churches, 
and the tone of spiritual life was low. 

There were indeed earnest workers, but the general condition 
was deplorable. Appeals were made to the churches of the Palati- 
nate, but they recognized their inability to meet the need and applied 
to the Classis of Amsterdam, which had already given assistance to 
the Dutch Reformed churches in New York. In accordance with this 
appeal, in 1746, the Rev. Michael Schlatter, a Swiss by birth, was sent 
as a missionary to the German Reformed churches in Pennsylvania, 
although under the general direction of the Synod of Holland. In 
1751 he returned to Europe to present an appeal for further aid and 
additional missionaries. Six young men responded to his presenta- 
tion of the need in the new colonies. Among them was Philip William 
Otterbein, who was born in the duchy of Nassau, Germany, in 1726, 
and who had already had some experience in pastoral work. The 
company arrived in New York in July, 1752, and Otterbein soon found 
a field of labor with the congregation at Lancaster, Pa., at that time 
the second in importance among the German Reformed churches of 
the colonies. 

A peculiar personal experience, in which he found himself unable 
to respond to an earnest appeal from one seeking spiritual counsel, 
led him to a prolonged struggle for a fuller witness to the regener- 
ating power of the gospel in his personal life. The result was a 
spiritual transformation, and an insistence upon the necessity of a 
deeper inward spirituality on the part of his people. This was not 
always acceptable at that period, barren as it was in spiritual life. 

About the same time he came into personal relations with Martin 
Boehm, a member of the Mennonite community, who had passed 
through a similar religious experience, and together they conducted 
evangelistic work among the scattered settlers in Pennsylvania. This 
again was deemed irregular by Otterbein's fellow ministers, and of- 
fended the synod to such a degree and aroused such opposition to 
him that in 1774 he accepted a call to the Baltimore, Md., congrega- 
tion on an independent basis. For the next fifteen years Otterbein 

234 Year Book of the Churches 

continued his evangelistic labors among the German speaking com- 
munities, going into the surrounding country and holding two-day 
"great meetings," in which he became more closely associated with 
ministers of kindred spirit in other denominations. Under their 
preaching converts rapidly multiplied, but church organizations were 
not yet formed, many of the converts imiting with English speaking 

In 1789 a meeting of these revivalist preachers was held in Bal- 
timore, and a confession of faith and rules of discipline were adopted 
based upon the rules adopted four years before for the government of 
Otterbein's independent church in Baltimore. During the next decade 
similar councils were called at irregular intervals, which culminated 
at a conference held in Frederick County, Md., in 1800, in the forma- 
tion of a distinct ecclesiastical body under the name of "United 
Brethren in Christ." Thirteen preachers were in attendance, and Ot- 
terbein and Boehm were elected bishops, in which office they remained 
until the death of Boehm in 1812, and of Otterbein in 1813. This new 
organization was in no sense a schism from any other body, but a 
natural development on the part of the German-speaking congrega- 
tions of that section which were desirous of a fuller evangelistic life. 

Bishop Ashbury, of the Methodist Church, and Bishop Otterbein, 
of the United Brethren, came into close relations and were warm 
friends, but as the Methodist Church was at that time unwilling to 
accede to the wishes of the German-speaking communities, and en- 
courage German-speaking churches, the two bodies remained distinct, 
and no specific effort to unite the forces was ever made. 

The fact that those who joined in the new organization repre- 
sented different forms of church life necessitated mutual conference 
and some concessions. Of the 14 ministers at the conference of 1789, 
9 were of German Reformed antecedents and 5 were Mennonites. The 
church members, however, were more widely distributed. The Re- 
formed churches practiced infant baptism, but not f oot- washing ; the 
Mennonites practiced foot-washing and regarded believers' baptism 
by immersion as the only correct form. The result was that each 
generously conceded to the other freedom to follow personal convic- 
tions as to the form of baptism, the age of persons baptized and the 
observance of foot-washing. 

During the first years of the nineteenth century the movement 
continued to grow, and many preaching places were *established in 
Ohio and Indiana, and some in Kentucky, but the center of greatest 
activity was the Miami Valley in Ohio. 

The first General Conference was held in 1815, 4 conferences 
being represented by 14 delegates. This conference arranged and 
adopted a book of discipline, accepting in general the system agreed 
upon in the first conference of 1789. The same conference was also 
significant for its recognition of a change that had been gradually 
taking place in the use of the English language in the churches. 
Until this time, almost all the churches had used German in their 
services, but as they came into closer contact with other religious 
bodies, the use of English increased, and although many continued 
their German preaching, English-speaking churches became numer- 
ous. This change was further recognized by the conference held in 
1817, which ordered the confession of faith and the book of discipline 
to be printed in both German and English. 

The church has taken a radical attitude on questions of moral 
reform, and early placed in its book of discipline a decided declara- 
tion in condemnation of slavery, which was followed in 1821 by strong 
prohibitive legislation. In 1841 the distilling, vending, and use of 
ardent spirits as a beverage was forbidden, as also, the renting or 
leasing of property for the manufacture or sale of such drinks, the 
signing of petitions for granting license, or entering as bondsmen for 

Directory of Religious Bodies 235 

persons engaged in the traffic. On the subject of secret societies, the 
church has held radical ground, which was expressed both in its con- 
stitution and in general legislation. 

As the churches came into contact with other religious bodies and 
the English-speaking element increased, a desire developed for certain 
changes in the constituti6n. The General Conference of 1885 created 
a commission to revise the' confession of faith and the constitution, 
expressing at the same time its opinion that two clauses in the ex- 
isting constitution, one forbidding the changing or abrogation of the 
confession, and the other likewise forbidding any change in the con- 
stitution, except upon request of two-thirds of the whole society, were 
"extraordinary and impracticable as articles of constitutional law." 
The act creating this commission was regarded by certain members 
of the conference as unconstitutional and revolutionary, and they 
entered their formal protest against it. The commission, however, 
completed its work and submitted a revised confession and constitu- 
tion. Among the changes were two of special importance, one ad- 
mitting laymen to the General Conference, the other modifying the 
section in regard to secret societies. The old constitution said: 
"There shall be no connection with secret combinations." This was 
modified by providing that all secret combinations which infringe 
upon the rights of others and whose principles are injurious to the 
Christian character of their members are contrary to the Word of 
God, and Christians should have no connection with them. The Gen- 
eral Conference was also empowered to enact rules of discipline con- 
cerning such combinations. 

The report of the commission was made to the conference of 
1889, and those who had previously protested against its appointment 
refused to vote on it, insisting that the matter was not legally before 
the church, and basing their opposition on a claim that it was con- 
trary to the constitution as amended and adopted in 1841. On the 
other hand, the majority claimed that that constitution had never 
been submitted to the members of the conferences, but had been 
adopted only by the General Conference, and was therefore subject 
to action by the General Conference. The changes were adopted by 
a vote of 111 to 21, but Bishop Milton Wright and 11 delegates entered 
formal protest, and, with about 20,000 members, organized a separate 
conference which they insisted was the legal body known as the 
"United Brethren in Christ." The result was considerable litigation 
in regard to property, and cases came up before the courts which, 
in 1899, were finally decided by the United States Court of Appeals. 
The last fifteen years have been characterized by the develop- 
ment of departments of church activity, as education, home and for- 
eign missions, church erection, budget and finance ; and by the adop- 
tion of a four-year program which involves the endowment of all the 
educational institutions of the church, together with commensurate 
achievements in (evangelism and other lines of church life. The 
church has participated in two efforts at merger with similar reli- 
gious bodies. In the firM effort the denominations involve^ were the 
Congregationalists, Methodist Protestants, and the United JBrethren in 
Christ; in the second the effort was between the two last-named 
bodies. Neither effort was successful, though much favorable senti- 
ment still exists and the efforts may be resumed later. 


In doctrine the church is Arminian. Its confession of faith con- 
sisting of thirteen brief articles, sets forth the generally accepted 
view of the Trinity, the authority of the Scriptures, justification and 
regeneration, the Christian Sabbath, and the future state. Concern- 
ing the Sacraments, it holds that baptism and the Lord's Supper 

236 Year Book of the Churches 

should be observed by all Christians, but the mode of baptism, the 
manner of celebrating the Lord's Supper, and the practice of foot- 
washing should be left to the judgment of each individual. The ques- 
tion of the baptism of children is left to the choice of parents. Em- 
phasis is laid upon sanctification, which is described as ''the work of 
God's grace through the Word and the Spirit, by which those who 
have been bom again are separated in their acts, words, and thoughts, 
from sin, and are enabled to live unto God." 


The polity of the United Brethren is similar to that of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. Although not historically a Methodist 
branch, they affiliate with Methodist churches, send delegates to the 
ecumenical Methodist conferences, and also fraternize with other de- 
nominations. They have classes and class leaders, stewards, exhort- 
ers, local and itinerant preachers, presiding eldera, circuits, and 
quarterly conferences. The annual conferences are composed of the 
local and itinerant preachers and of lay delegates representing tJie 
churches. The General Conference is composed of ministerial and lay 
delegates elected by the churches in the respective conferences, and 
meete once in four years. It has full authority under certain consti- 
tutional restrictions, to legislate for the whole church and to hear 
and decide appeals. There is but one order among the ordained 
preachers, that of elder. Since 1899 it has been lawful to license and 
ordain women. Bishops are elected by the General Conference for a 
quadrennium, and are eligible to reelection. They preside over annual 
conferences and, in conjunction with a committee of presiding elders 
and preachers, fix the appointments of the preachers for the ensuing 
year. Since 1893 the pastoral term is unlimited, so that a preacher 
may be reassigned annually to the same charge for any number of 


(Old Constitution) 

General Conference, quadrennial. 

Twenty-three annual conferences, including one in Canada. 


O. G. Alwood, Hillsdale, Mich. 
F. L. Hoskins, Julietta, Idaho. 
C. L. Wood, Alma, Mich. 
C. A. Mummart, Ubee, Ind. 
H. C. Mason, Hillsdale, Mich. 

Domestic Frontier and Foreign Missionary Society. Pres., 
F. L. Hoskins; Gen. Sec, Rev. J. Howe, Huntington, Ind. 

Sunday Schools. Gen, Sec, J. W. Burton, Ubee, Ind. 

United Brethren Christian Endeavor Society. Pres,, C. A. 
Mummart; Treas,, Miss Effie Hodgeboom. 

Woman's Missionary Association. Cor, Sec, Mrs. F. A. Loew, 
Huntington, Ind. 

Publishing Board, Huntington, Ind., Agt,, J. W. Burton. 

Board -OF Education, Pres,, 0. G. Alwood; Sec, D. R. EUabarger, 
Ubee, Ind. 

General Preachers' Aid Board. Pres,, F. L. Hoskins, Sec, Rev. 
J. L. Buckwalter; Treas,, Rev. J. W. Burton. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 237 


Name Location President 

Albion College Albion, Wash F. L. Hoskins. 

Central College Huntington, Ind C. W. H. Bangs. 

Philomath College Philomath, Oreg 


Christian Conservator (weekly), Editor, Rev. O. G. Alwood, 
Huntington, Ind.; Missionary Monthly, Editor, Parent Board Depart- 
ment, Rev. J. Howe, Huntington, Ind.; Editor, Woman's Missionary 
Association Department, Mrs. F. A. Loew, Huntington, Ind.; Sunday 
School Publications, Rev. A. B. Bowman, Editor, Huntington, Ind. 


With the growth of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ 
as in other denominations, two parties developed — one which held 
closely to the original constitution, another which sought to change 
it to meet what they considered the necessity of changed conditions. 
At the General Conference of 1841, when final steps were taken 
toward adopting the full constitution, four points were emphasized, 
which later became objects of special discussion ; the slavery question, 
secret societies, changes in the confession of faith, and changes in the 
constitution. The slavery question disappeared after the Civil War, 
but the others came to the front and the last two became specially 
prominent. In 1885 the General Conference set aside the constitu- 
tional provisions for change by pronouncing them impracticable, and 
arranged for another constitution, under the name of amending the 
constitution. The minority recorded a protest, but the majority pro- 
ceeded to appoint a commission, which drafted an amended constitu- 
tion, and presented it for adoption by the society in such a manner as, 
in the opinion of the minority, insured indorsement, by the indifferent 
and youthful members. Although less than one-half of the whole 
society voted, the General Conference of 1889 accepted the results and 
pronounced the revised constitution in force. The minority chose to 
remain upon the unamended constitution, holding that the constitu- 
tion of 1841 was still in force, and that they were the true United 
Brethren Church, and as such entitled to the church property. In 
some cases decisions were given by the courts, in others by vote of the 
congregations, while occasionally property awarded to one body was 
purchased by the other. Those days of legal contentions and occa- 
sional bitter personalities have passed, and a spirit of Christian 
courtesy now prevails. 


In doctrine the church holds to the Trinity, the Deity and hu- 
manity of Jesus Christ, and an atonement unlimited as to the pos- 
sibility of its application. Upon repentance, faith appropriates the 
benefits of the atonement to the salvation of the soul, and in this 
salvation the soul is spiritually baptized into Christ, and becomes a 
new creature — i, e., is born again — ^the doctrine upon which the early 
life of the church was based. A spiritually directed life is held to be a 
necessity to the maintenance of the regenerate state, and the ordi- 
nances of baptism and the Lord's Supper are to be observed by all of 
God's spiritual children, by each in the manner which he deems scrip- 
turally correct. ' On moral questions the church holds to the strict 
interpretation of the early laws oh temperance, connection with secret 
combinations, and participation in aggressive warfare. 


In polity the church is Methodistic, having quarterly, annual, and 
general conferences on the same general basis as. that of the Metho- 

238 Year Book of the Churches 

dist Episcopal Church. The pastorate is made up of one or more 
local societies, and the quarterly conference, its governing body, con- 
sists of the presiding-elder, pastor, and local officials, and has only 
administrative powers. The membership of the annual conference 
includes the licensed and ordained preachers and the lay delegates: 
elected by each pastorate. The General Conference, which is made 
up of ministerial delegates elected, pro rata, by the annual confer- 
ences, convenes every four years and is vested with legislative and 
judicial power, being restricted only by the constitution. As a judi- 
cial body, it is composed of the bishops of the past quadrennium and 
of the eiders among its members who have stood in the ordained re- 
lation at least three years. 

Candidates for the ministry, recommended by the local church, 
may be licensed annually by the quarterly conference, and after a 
year's trial may be received into the annuar conference, where, upon 
complecting a prescribed course of study, they become eligible to ordi- 
nation as elders, the only ordination practiced by the church. No 
distinction is made as to sex. Official distinctions in the ministry are 
elective, and for a limited term only. Pastors are appointed by the 
annual conference for a term of one year, and are eligible for reap- 
pointment to the same station for five successive terms, and for ad- 
ditional successive terms only by consent of the annual conference. 
Presiding elders are elected by the annual conference for a term of 
one year, and are eligible to unlimited reelection. Bishops are elected 
by the General Conference for the term of four years, and are eligible 
to reelection. 


» . - * 

General Conference, quadrennial; next meeting October, 

Ten annual conferences. . . . 


W. F. Heil, AUentown, Pa. 

M. T. Maze, LeMars, la. 

General Statistical Sec, Rev. A. A. Couser, Des Moines, la. 

Publishing House, Third and Reily Sts., Harrisburg, Pa. Pub- 
Usher, J. J. Nungesser; Asst. Publisher, Roy H. Stetler; Pres, Board 
of Publication, Rev. J. W. Thompson, Lock Haven> Pa.; 5ec., Rev. 
J. H. Shirey, Philadelphia, Pa. ' 

Board of Missions. Pres, ; Vice-President, Rev. S. L. 

Wiest, Penbrook, Pa.; Cor. Sec, Rev. B. H. Niebel, Harrisbi;rg, Pa.; 
Treas., W. H. Hendel, Reading, Pa. 

Board of Church Extension. Pres,, Rev. W. M. Stanford, Har- 
risburg, Pa.; Cor. Sec, Rev. B. H. Niebel, Harrisburg, P&.; fa^^ds., 
A. P. Schnader, Lancaster, Pa. . ,?. . 

Board OF Education. Pres., Rev. S. F. Schlegel, Lancasteiv'ra.; 
Vice-Pres., Rev. C. A. Mock, LeMars, la.; iSec, Rev. H. H, j'l'hpren, 
Chicago, 111.; Treas., Rev. A. E. Gobble, Myerstown, Pia. ! // 

Managing Board, Sunday School and Keystone J^eague op 
Christian ' Endeavo^i. Pres., Rev. J. Q. A. Curry; Gen, Sec,, Rev. 
W. E. Peffley, Harrisburg, Pa. ; Treas., R. G. Munday, G)>)^^9, HI. 

Charitable Society. Pres., Rev. A. E. Gobble, ifow^^W Pa. ; 
Sec, Rev. H. D. Kreidler, Philadelphia, Pa.; Trea^., I^l>;j8?;., Flatter, 
Reading, Pa. 

Permanent Temperance Committee. Pres., Rev. H. F. Schlegel, 
Lancaster, Pa.; Sec, Rev. J. W. Thompson, ljO(X'l^ixyexL\l^feqA., E. S. 
Woodring, AUentown, Pa. ''■■''''■' -^ ir^^'W- ^.n:,- 

Church Federation and Church Union. Pres./ Bishop M."T. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 239 

Maze ; Sec, Bishop W. F. Heil ; Treas,, W. M. Hoppes, Mahanoy City, 

Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society. Pres, Mrs. 
W. J. Gruhler, Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec, Mrs. Emma Divan, Ottawa, 
111.; Treas., Mrs. J. G. Finkbeiner, Aurora, 111. 



Name Location President 

Albright College Myerstown, Pa L. Clarence Hunt. 

Oregon Bible Training School CorvaJlis, Greg Chester P. Gates. 

Western Union College. LeMars, Iowa Charles A. Mock. 


Evangelical (weekly) , Harrisburg,- Pa., Editor, Rev. A. E. Han- 
gen; Associate Editor, Rev. W. H. Fouke; Editor of Sunday School 
and K, L. C. E, Literature, Rev. W. M. Stanford; Associate Editor, 
Rev. W. E. Peffley; Missionary Tidings and Missionary Gem, Editor, 
Miss Emma Messinger; Baby's Mother, Editor, Mrs. W. E. Peffley. 


The United Evangelical Church, as a separate ecclesiastical body, 
dates from the year 1894. Previous to that time its members consti- 
tuted a part of the Evangelical Association organized under the 
evangelistic labors of Jacob Albright, in eastern Pennsylvania, in the 
year 1800. The division which resulted in the formation of the new 
church was due to differences of opinion as to what were considered 
fundamental principles of church polity, and official acts affecting the 
claims of a large minority of the ministers and members of the asso- 
ciation. Seven annual conferences, with from 60,000 to 70,000 mem- 
bers, who were designated the. "minority," entered a protest against 
what they regarded as "abuse of the powers conferred by the disci- 
pline, and usurpation of powers in violation of the discipline." This 
protest availed nothing, and in due time a separate organization was 
effected, with articles of faith and a discipline in strict accord with 
the doctrine, spirit, and purpose of the original church. On October 
10, 1894, the former members of the East Pennsylvania Conference 
met in convention and organized as the "East Pennsylvania Confer- 
ence and the United Evangelical Church," and called a general con- 
ference to meet in Naperville, 111., November 29, 1894. Other con- 
ferences joined in the call, and on the designated day the conference 
met, and on the following day declared itself to be the first General 
Conference of the United Evanglical Church. 

There has been a movement toward reunion with the Evangelical 
Association, and though definite steps have not been taken there is a 
general sentiment in both bodies for such action. 


In doctrine the United Evangelical Church may be characterized 
as Arminian. Its confession of faith, formulated in twenty-five 
articles varies but little from the teachings of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The church emphasizes the principle of voluntary giving not 
only for the support of the ministry, but also for the maintenance 
of all the religious and benevolent enterprises of the church; "volun- 
tary abstinence from all intoxicants, as the true ground of personal 
temperance, and complete legal prohibition of the traffic in alcoholic 
drinks, as the duty of civil givernment"; the exercise of strict dis- 
cipline for safety, purity, and power of the church; the integrity of 
the Bible,* as given by inspiration of God; and the fellowship of all 
followers of Christ. 

240 Year Book of the Churches 


In polity the church resembles the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The local congregations are self-governing in their temporal affairs. 
There is equal cl^cal and lay representation in the annual confer- 
ences, as well as in the General Conference. The itinerant system of 
ministerial supply and service prevails, the appointments of ministers 
being made at each annual conference, by a committee consisting of a 
presiding bishop and presiding elders, for one year, with the privilege 
of reappointment to the limit of five years' term. 


General Convention, biennial. 

Twenty-eight state conventions, 8 state conferences. 

Officers: Pres., Roger S. Galer, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa; Vice- 
Pres,, Harry Childs, New Rochelle, N. Y. ; Sec, Rev. Roger P. 
Etz, 359 Boylston St., Boston, Mass.; Treas,, Joseph B. Hor- 
ton ; Gen. Supt., Rev. J. S. Lowe, 359 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 

Board op Foreign Missions. Chmn., Rev. T. E. Potterton; Sec, 
Rev. Roger F. Etz. 

General Sunday School Association. Prea,, Rev. George E. 
Huntley; Sec, Carl A. Hemple, N. Attleboro, Mass. 

Women's National Missionary Association. Pres,, Mrs. Mari- 
etta B. Wilkins, Salem, Mass.; Sec Mrs. I. V. Lobdell, Columbus, 
Ohio; Treaa,, Mrs. Emma L. Bush. 

Commission on Public Welfare. Chmn., Rev. Frank Oliver 

Commission on Foreign Relations. Chmn., Rev. F. A. Bisbee, 
359 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 

National Y. P. C. U. Pres., Charles Taylor, 1820 So. 7th Ave., 
Maywood, 111. Nat. Sec-Treas., Louis F. Meslin, 338 Franklin Ave., 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Director of Young People's Work, Rev. Stanley 
Manning, 359 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 

Universalist Comrades. Pres., Ralph W. E. Hunt, Portland, 

Universalist Publishing House, 359 Boylston St., Boston, 
Mass.; 3011 Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111. Gen Agt., Harold Marshall. 


Name Location Dean or President 

Lombard College Galesburg, 111 Joseph M. Tilden. 

St. Lawrence University ainton, N. Y Richard E. Sykes. 

Tufts College Tufts College, Mass J. A. Cousens. 

Theological Seminaries 

Canton Theological Seminary. . .Canton. N. Y J. Murray Atwood. 

Crane Divinity School Tufts College, Mass Lee S. McCollester. 

Ryder Divinity School Chicago, 111 Lewis B. Fisher. 


Dean Academy Franklin, Mass Arthur W. Pierce. 

Goddard Seminary Barre, Vt R. L. Danson. 

Westbrook Seminary Portland, Me Orlando K. HoUister. 


Universalist Leader (weekly), Boston, Mass., Editor, Frederick 
A. Bisbee; Universalist Herald, Atlanta, Ga., Editor, Rev. J. W. Row- 
lett; Universalist, Watertown, N. Y., Editor, Rev. G. D. Walker; 
Onward (weekly), Editor, Granville Hicks. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 241 


A distinction should be made between Universalism and the Uni- 
versalist denomination. 

Universalism has been defined as the doctrine of belief that it is 
the purpose of God through the grace revealed in our Lord Jesus 
Christ to save every member of the human race from sin. In a more 
general way, it has been described as the belief that what ought to be 
will be; that in a sane and beneficent universe the primacy belongs 
to Truth, Right, Love — ^the supreme powers; that the logic of this 
conception of the natural and moral order imperiously compels the 
conclusion that although all things are not yet under the sway of 
The Prince of Peace, the definite plan set forth in Him is evident, and 
the consummation which he embodies and predicts can not be doubted. 

Universalism, thus, it is claimed, is as old as Christianity; was 
taught in the schools of the second and third centuries at Alexandria, 
Nisibis, Edessa, and Antioch ; and was accepted by many of the apos- 
tolic and church fathers, as Clement of Alexandria, Gregory of 
Nyssa, Origen, and probably Chrysostom and Jerome. 

Those members of the Christian family in whom this thought has 
become predominant and who hold to the idea that there is a divine 
order and that it contemplates the final triumph of good over evil in 
human society, as a whole, and in the history of each individual, are 
considered Universalists. 

The Universalist denomination, however, is of modern origin, is 
confined mostly to the American continent, and embraces but a por- 
tion of those who hold the Universalist belief. It dates from the 
arrival of the Rev. John Murray, of London, in Good Luck, N. J., in 
September, 1770, although there were some preachers of the doctrine 
in the country before that time. Mr. Murray preached at various 
places in New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts, and societies 
sprang up in all these states as a result of his ministry. His first 
regular settlement was at Gloucester, Mass., where a church was 
built in 1780, but he afterwards removed to Boston. 

The earliest movement for denominational organization was made 
at Oxford, Massachusetts, in 1785, but accomplished little more than 
to emphasize the need and value of fellowship, although it approved 
of the name selected by the Universalists of Gloucester for their 
church, "The Independent Christian Society, commonly called "Uni- 
versalists," and approved also the Charter of Compact as the form 
of organization for all societies. The second convention, held at Phil- 
adelphia in 1790, drew up and published the first Universalist profes- 
sion of faith, consisting: of five articles, outlined a plan of church or- 
ganization, and declared itself to be in favor of the congregational 
form of polity. Another convention, at Oxford, in 1793, subsequently 
developed into the Convention of the New England states, then into 
the Convention of New England and New York, and finally into the 
present organization, the General Convention. 

Among the younger men at the second Oxford convention was 
Hosea Ballou, who soon became the recognized leader of the move- 
ment, and for half a century was its most honored and influential ex- 
ponent. During his ministry, extending from 1796 to 1852, the 20 or 
30 churches increased to 500 distributed over New England, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, although the greater 
part were found in New England. It was, however, the era of the 
propagation of the doctrine, and of the controversies to which that 
gave rise, and little attention was paid to organization. 

About 1869 agitation began for a more coherent organization and 
a polity better correlated than the spontaneous Congregationalism 
which had developed during the earlier period, and the result was that 
at the centennial convention of 1870 a plan of organization and a 

242 Year Book of the Churches 

manual of administration were adopted under which the denomination 
has since been conducted. 


The historic doctrinal symbol of the Universalist denomination 
is the Winchester Profession, adopted at the annual meeting of the 
General Convention held in Winchester, N. H., in September, 1803. 

At the session of the General Convention in Boston, October, 
1899, a brief Statement of Essential Principles was adopted and 
made the condition of fellowship, in the following terms: "The Uni- 
versal Fatherhood of God; the spiritual authority and leadership of 
His Son, Jesus Christ; the trustworthiness of the Bible as containing 
a revelation from God; the certainty of just retribution for sin; the 
final harmony of all souls with God." 

The theology of Universalism, while setting forth the predicates 
of its conclusion, that all souls are included in the gracious purpose 
of God to make at last a complete moral harmony, discriminates be- 
tween belief in a result, and faith in the forces by which the result 
is to be achieved. It points out and emphasizes the fact that effec- 
tive faith in final universal salvation must rest on implicit belief in 
the value and potency of truth, righteousness, and love, witnessed by 
the free and steadfast use of these great and only means to the de- 
sired end. The teaching of Jesus, with which His life and works 
accord, is interpreted as a distinct revelation of these facts and prin- 
ciples, to wit, that God is the Father of all men; that all men are 
brethren ; that life at the root is spiritual and therefore eternal ; that 
the law of life is righteousness and its motive force is love; that 
human society, properly conceived, is a natural social and moral unity, 
or kingdom of heaven; that this life is "the suburb of the life ely- 
sian"; and that physical death is the necessary prelude to immortal 
life. Universalism avers that the sinner — ^**and no man liveth that 
sinneth not"— can not escape punishment; which is remedial and is 
meant to vindicate the inflexible righteousness of God and to induce 
repentance and reformation in His wayward children. 

Universalists are not Trinitarians. The position taken by the 
Unitarians of Channing's day, and held for a generation or more sub- 
sequently, would fairly represent the view that has been consistently 
set forth in Universalist literature and teaching. That view is that 
Jesus (the Christ) had the same essential spiritual and human n^ature 
as other men; but that he was chosen of God to sustain a certain 
unique relation on the one hand toward God and on the other toward 
men, by virtue of which he was a revelation of the divine will and 
character and a sample of the perfected or "full-grown" man. There 
is, therefore, propriety and accuracy in describing this unique man as 
a God-man, a divine Son of God, the mediator, or way, between God 
and meii. 

Universalists, as a body, are now practically Unitarians, so far 
as the person, nature, and work of Christ are concerned. 

As to the mode of baptism, both immersion and sprinkling are 

practiced, but usually in Universalist churches the candidate, whether 

adult or infant, is baptised by the minister placing his hand, which 

has been previously dipped in the font, on the Read of the candidate, 

and repeating the baptismal formula. In Universalist parishes where 

a church has been organized the Lord's Supper is regularly observed 

usually four times a year and all members are expected to participate ; 

but all others who would like thus to show their loyalty to their 

Master and cultivate Christian graces are cordially invited to join in 

the memorial. „ ,. 


The local parish or society is independent in the management of 
its own temporal affairs and worship,, in the choice of officers or of 

Directory of Religious Bodies 243 

ministers, and in the details of administration. The different parishes 
within a state are organized into a state convention, consisting of 
delegates elected by the parishes. Representatives, duly elected by 
the several state conventions, constitute the General Convention. The 
state conventions meet annually; the General Convention, biennially. 

In order to remain in the fellowship of its own state convention 
and of the General Convention, the local church must be organized 
on the common profession of faith, employ a minister in the fellow- 
ship of the convention, and promise obedience to the laws of the 
convention. The state conventions have complete control of matters 
of common interest to the local societies in their territory, but they 
must administer these affairs according to the laws made by the 
General Convention, which is the supreme legislative body of the de- 

In the interval between sessions of the General Convention a 
board of trustees, consisting of 11 members, and including the secre- 
tary of the Convention, who is its chief administrative officer, adminis- 
ters the affairs of the denomination, except those which are reserved 
to the state conventions and the general membership. 

In 1898 a system of supervision, including a general superin- 
tendent and local superintendents in most of the states, was adopted 
and met with general approval. Recently the Sunday school was put 
under the care of the General Convention, and a salaried superinten- 
dent was appointed. Arrangements were also made for placing the 
headquarters of the denomination in Boston. 

State conventions have committees of fellowship who grant let- 
ters of license; examine candidates for ordination; authorize their or- 
dination or refuse it, as the case may be; give full fellowship; trans- 
fer fellowship from one state to another; receive clergymen who are 
transferred from another state; and under the laws of the General 
Convention have full supervision of questions of fellowship and of 
discipline of ministers within their territory. Only ordained minis- 
ters are permitted to baptize or administer the Lord's Suuper in the 
churches, and there are laws and standards of conduct which minis- 
ters must observe in order to maintain themselves in the fellowship 
of the state and general conventions. 

Owing to the peculiar early organization of UniversaHsts into 
societies, rather than churches, the term "comunicant" or "church 
member" does not accurately apply in this body. In a considerable 
number of societies there are as yet no church organizations, and con- 
sequently no "communicants," and in any society or parish the num- 
ber of registered church members falls far short of the whole number 
of Universalists. Where there is church membership, the method of 
admission is not the same in all churches. There is, however, a \mi- 
form custom of requiring subscription to the Winchester Profession 
or the later Statement of Essential Principles. Most churches have 
a form of covenant also, in which the members join, but a large 
freedom of personal preference as to form of profession and covenant 
is favored. 


Headquarters : 34 W. 28th St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Gen. Ballington Booth; Vice-Pres,, Maj.-6en. 
Edward Fielding; Sec, Col. J. W. Merrill; Treas., Col. W. J. 

Chief departments of work: evangelical, helping-hand, 
prison, home, hospital. 

244 Year Book of the Churches 


In response to the call of a number of persons deeply interested, 
many of them actively engaged, in evangelistic and philanthropic 
work, Mr. and Mrs. Ballington Booth, already well known as evan- 
gelists, were induced, in the spring of 1896, to form an organization 
for the uplift of the unchurched and the needy. The first public 
meetings were held in March of that year, and almost immediately the 
society, under the name of Volunteers of America, became active in 
many parts of the country. In the following summer the Volunteer 
Prison League Bi*anch was organized by Mrs. Booth, with signal suc- 
cess, and in November, 1896, the organization was incorporated under 
the laws of the state of New York. 

From the beginning the organization has been declared to be an 
auxiliary of the church, and converts have been advised to unite with 
churches of their preferance, so that a large growth in membership 
has neither been expected nor realized. It has also endeavored con- 
tinually to work along lines that do not conflict with any other re« 
ligious military society. 


In doctrine the Volunteers are in harmony with the evangelical 
churches on all essential points. Their principles are stated in a Book 
of Rules, issued by order of the Grand Field Council, and those who 
make application to join as oflicers subscribe to these doctrines, out- 
lined in brief on an application form. They include belief in one 
Supreme Triune God; in the Bible as given by inspiration of God, 
and the divine rule of all true godly faith and Christian practice; in 
Jesus Christ as truly man and yet as truly God; in the temptation 
and fall of our first parents, whereby all men have become sinful by 
propensity. They believe that Jesus Christ, by sacrifice of His life, 
made atonement for all men; that in order to obtain salvation it is 
necessary to repent toward God, believe in Jesus Christ, and become 
regenerated through the Holy Spirit; that the Holy Spirit gives to 
each person inward witness of acceptance ; that it is possible for those 
who have been accepted by God to fall from grace, and except as re- 
stored, to be eternally lost; that it is possible for Christians to be so 
cleansed in heart as to serve God without fear, in holiness and right- 
eousness throughout life ; that the soul is immortal ; and that the pun- 
ishment of the wicked and the reward of the righteous are eternal. 

The Volunteers believe in the Sacraments of baptism and tiie Lord's 
Supper, and give opportunity for the observance of these rites at the 
various stations. They also ordain their officers to the gospel min- 
istry after due preparation and a satisfactory examination upon the 
prescribed course of study. 


The government of the Volunteers of America is democratic. The 
term "military," appearing in thie Manual, is applied only in the be- 
stowing of titles, the wearing of uniforms, and the movements of of- 
ficers. As a corporate society the government is vested in the Grand 
Field Council, which is composed of the officers of, or above, the rank 
of major. This council elects the directors, 11 in number, who are the 
responsible financial officers, and who act as trustees and custodians 
of the property. 

The commander in chief, or. general, is elected for a term of five 
years. The officials forming his cabinet or staff are the vice-president, 
with title of major general; the secretary, with the title of colonel; 
the treasurer, with title of colonel; and the regimental officers. The 
departments or territories are usually under the command of an of- 
ficer of the rank of brigadier general. They comprise two or more 

Directory of Religious Bodies 245 

ref^iments, each under the command of a colonel, who may have 20 or 
more stations under his control. 

A post consists of an officer in charge, assistants, secretary, treas- 
urer, trustees,* sergeants, corporals, and soldiers. There is no limit 
to the membership of the post in point of numbers. The commissions 
are issued by the commander-in-chief and countersigned by the head 
of the division or department. 


Headquarters: 117 W. 72d St., New York City. 
Officers: Pres,, Martin Krudop; Vice-Pres., W. N. Good- 
year; Treas., Mrs. A. S. Burke; Sec, Miss E. Robinson. 


The Vedanta Society, as a religious or philosophical factor in 
American life, dates from the Parliament of Religions at the World's 
Fair in 1893. At that time the various Hindus who were present at- 
tracted much attention, and one of them, Swami Vivekananda, who 
came as a delegate, gave a series of lectures on Vedanta philosophy 
in New York in 1894. He made no attempt at an organization, but 
three years later Swami Abhedananda arrived in that city to carry 
on the work started by Swami Vivekananda, and organized the Ve- 
danta Society, which was incorporated in October, 1898. Slowly but 
steadily the work grew^ and finally the society became strong enough 
to have a permanent center in New York .City, with other centers in 
San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Boston. Some of these centers have 
country places where schools are held in the summer. 

The term "Vedanta" is the name of an ancient philosophy of 
India, and as interpreted by the society it means literally "end of all 
wisdom." The Vedanta philosophy explains what the end of wisdom 
is and how it is attained, and claims to harmonize with the ultimate 
conclusions of modem science, and to give to religion a scientific and 
philosophic basis. The society has, however, no purpose of forming 
a new sect or creed, but by explaining through logic and reason the 
spiritual laws that govern life, it seeks to harmonize all systems. 

The society has six trustees who, with three other officials, form 
the executive board. Members residing elsewhere than in New York 
City are given lessons and instruction by correspondence. The society 
has published a large number of works on its religious philosophy, 
most of which were written by Swami Vivekananda, and his succes- 
sors and followers. Following the custom of the Hindu priesthood, 
the Swamis do not accept a salary or any remuneration for their 
services, but freely devote their time and energy to the spiritual 
growth and unfoldment of all men and women without regarding their 
* caste, creed or nationality. 






With Affiliated, Cooperative and Consultative Bodies 


National Offices 

Robert E. Speer, President. 

Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, Rev. Samuel M. Cavert, General Sec- 

Alfred R. Kimball, Treasurer; 612 United Charities Building, 105 
East 22nd Street, New York. 

Washington Office 

Bishop William F. McDowell, Chairman. 

Rev. E. O. Watson, Secretary, 937 Woodward Building, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Western Office 

Dean Shailer Mathews, Chairman. 

Rev. Herbert L. Willett, Secretary, 19 South LaSalle Street, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. 



The Federal Council is an organization officially representing most 
of the Protestant denominations of the United States. Information 
regarding its various departments and commissions is brought to- 
gether in this section. 

The Council held its first meeting at Philadelphia in 1908 and was 
largely the culmination of previous voluntary federative movements, 
the chief of which had been the Evangelical Alliance and the National 
Federation of Churches and Christian Workers. The important 
preliminary work leading up to the organization was accomplished 
by the Inter-Church Conference on Federation held in Carnegie Hall, 
New York City, in 1905, a body composed of official delegates from 
thirty denominations convened through the initiative of the National 
Federation of Churches and Christian Workers. This conference 
adopted the Constitution of the Federal Council and transmitted it 
to the various denominations with the understanding that approval 
by two-thirds of them would give it full effect. This approval was 
secured early in 1908. 

Created for the purpose of enabling the churches to do tog^ether 
what they could not hope to do alone, the aims of .the Council, as 
then defined in its constitution, and as now pursued, are as follows: 

I. To express the fellowship and catholic unity of the 
Christian Church. 

II. To bring the Christian bodies of America into 
united service for Christ and the world. 

III. To encourage devotional fellowship and mutual 
counsel concerning the spiritual life and religious activi- 
ties of the churches. 

IV. To secure a larger combined influence for the 
churches of Christ in all matters affecting the moral 
and social condition of the people, so as to promote the 
application of the law of Christ in every relation of 
human life. 

V. To assist in the organization of local branches of 
the Federal Council to promote its aims in their com- 

The work of the Council, it is not too much to say, is by far the 
most powerful influence today in enlarging the spirit of unity within 
the Church. 


Year Book of the Churches 

The difference between the Federal Council and the previous move- 
ments is that it is not an individual or voluntary agency, or simply 
an interdenominational fellowship^ but is an officially and ecclesias- 
tically constituted body. 

It is differentiated from most other general movements for the 
manifestation of Christian unity in the fact that it is the coopera- 
tion of the various denominations for service rather than an attempt 
to unite them upon definitions of theology and polity. 

It does not interfere with the autonomy of these bodies and its 
Constitution specifically states that ''The Federal Council shall have 
no authority over the constituent bodies adhering to it; but its 
province shall be limited to the expression of its counsel and the 
recommending of a course of action in matters of common interest 
to the churches, local councils, atid individual Christians. It has no 
authority to draw up a common creed or form of government or of 
worship, or in any way limit the full autonomy of the Christian 
bodies adhering to it." 

The Federal Council is thus constituted by thirty-one Protestant 
evangelical denominations, to express their common voice and unite 
them in cooperative activities. 

It includes 143,367 local churches, with 20,052,781 members. Its 
constituent bodies, with statistics, are as follows: 

Statistics of the Constituent Bodies of the Federal Council for 1921 

Figures furnished by some official, usually the statistician, of each body. 


Northern Baptist Conv 

Nafl Bapt. Conv. (Col.) 

Seventh Day Baptist 

Free Baptist 

Christian Ch. (Am. Chr. Conv.) 

Churches of Qod In N. A. (Genwal 

Congregational Churches 

Disciples of Christ 

Evangelical Association 

Evan. Synod of N. A 

Society of Friends (Orthodox) 

*Unlted Lutheran Church 

Methodist Episcopal 

Methodist Episcopal. South 

Methodist Protestant 

Primitive Methodist. U. 8. A 

African Methodist Episcopal 

African Meth. Epls. Zlon 

Colored M. E. in America 

Moravian (Unitas Fratnun) 

Presbyterian. tJ. 8. A 

Presbyterian. U. 8 

United Presby* Ch. of N. A 

Reformed Presby. Ch. In N. A.. 

General Synod 

tProtestant Episcopal Church. 

Reformed Episcopal Chiutdi 

Reformed Church in America 

Reformed Church in the U. 8 

Christian RefcHined 

Church of the United Breth. in Chr. 

United Evangelical Chiireh 

Total— 1921 












00 0) 


1.253,878 7.162 984.011 
3.116.325 20.099 1.305,087 
8.0441 72 6.377 

Statistics Included in Northern Convention 






152. 196 








203. 147 



























































































































197, 7;» 



























327. 500.400 

* Consultative body. 

t Represented through Commissions on Christian Unity and Social Service. 

Directory of Federal Council 251 

Associated with the Federal Council are affiliated, cooperating and 
consultative bodies. 


Home Mission Council. See- Directory of Organizations, p. 305. 

Council of Women for Home Missions. See Directory of Organi- 
zations, p. 304. 

Federation of Woman's Boards of Foreign Missions. See Directory 
of Organizations, p. 29^1; 

Sunday School Council of Evangelical Denominations. See Direc- 
tory of Organizations, p. 285. 

Council of Church Boards of Education. See Directory of Organi- 
zations, p. 282. 


American Bible Society. See Directory of Organizations, p. 273. 

National Board of Young Women's Christian Associations. See Di- 
rectory of Organizations, p. 334. 

International Conmiittee of Young Men's Christian Associations. 
See Directory of Organizations, p. 310. 


Committee of Reference and Counsel of the Foreign Missions Con- 
ference of North America. See Directory of Organizations, p. 

Committee on Cooperation in Latin America. See Directory of 
Organizations, p. 290. 

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions. See Directory 
of Organizations, p. 292. 

The Council itself consists of about 400 members, elected by the 
denominations, and it convenes every four years. The Executive 
Committee, consisting of official representatives of the constituent 
bodies, meets once a year. The Administrative Committee meets 
obce a month. 

The national offices for general administration and for the Com- 
missions are at 105 £. 22nd St., New York City. Offices are also 
maintained at Washington, D. C, and Chicago, 111. 

The Council has local correspondents all over the United States, 
and has foreign correspondents connected with the Protestant 
diur^hes of all countries. 

In addition to the meetings of its own Committees and Commis>- 
sions, the Council calls frequent representative conferences upon mat- 
ters of common interest to all the churches. 

At the office in Washington, D. C, affairs of national religious 
concern are considered by a resident committee, the work including 
such matters as chaplains in the Army and Navy, federation in t^e 
Southern field, missionary affairs of national and international con- 
cern, cooperation with the Government Departments and Agencies, 
the gathering of religious statistics for the Nation, the publication 
of the Year Book of the Churches, and a general church service 

The Council is incorporated under the laws of the District of 



(State and Local) 

Chairman Fred B. Smith 

Executive Secretary Rev. Roy B. Guild 

252 Year Book of the Churches 

This Commission seeks, in every community having two or more 
churches, the development of some form of organization b^ which 
these churches can cooperate in doing for the religious, social, and 
civic welfare of the community what they cannot do by working 
independently of each other. 

It plans to do this by personal visitation, correspondence, and 
literature. It seeks to help construct the machinery in the com- 
munity through which the churches can work with one another and 
with other organizations and through which, the Commissions of the 
Federal Council can function. 

There are now fifty local federations or councils of churches with 
employed executive secretaries. 

During the year 1917 this Commission held a conference at Pitts- 
burgh for the purpose of standardizing certain methods of work 
which have become successful features in the programs of many 
federations, or are in the period of testing. The eight reports care- 
fully prepared by eight sub-commissions are now published in "The 
Manual of Inter-Church Work." 


Chairman Prea. J, Ross Stevenson 

Executive Secretary Rev, Charles L. GoodeU 

This Commission is organized to cooperate with the pastors and 
leaders of the churches in developing and maintaining an effective 
evangelistic movement throughout the nation. Where there are church 
federations, it renders assistance in making effective their federated 
evangelistic work. It brings together the evangelistic agencies in the 
several denominations for united action. In denominations where 
there are no organized evangelistic commissions it will be glad to 
give aid in the forming of such commissions and to supply such 
literature as may be helpful in the development of this work. 

The Commission has an aggressive evangelistic program and will 
furnish literature and methods wherever desired. It acts a? a 
clearing house for the work of all the denominations and keeps each 
informed of the methods and results in other fields. Its most in^ 
portant work is in developing a program -of united evangelism in 
the larger cities, with the aim of enabling the churches to reach 
the whole community at one time and with the ideal of their pastors 
as their own evangelists. The secretaries in the various denomina- 
tions are brought together under the leadership of the Federal Coun- 
cil and unite in holding conferences throughout the country, as- 
sembling all the pastors of a community and assisting them to 
organize their forces for simultaneous action. 

As a result, a new and better type of evangelism is arising. The 
last year showed a record of the largest number of accessions to 
church membership of any single year in the history of the American 
churches. Conspicuous is the fact that the largest gains are reported 
in the cities which have adopted this united approach to their evan- 
gelistic task. 

Increasing attention is now being given to the theolog^ical semi- 
naries in the interest of bringing home to the teachers of ministers 
and to prospective ministers the possibilities of pastoral evangelism. 


Chairman Rev. William Adams Brown 

In the field of Christian Education the Council endeavors to serve 
all the denominations as well as the several Commissions of the 

Directory of Federal Council 253 

Council itself. Its special field is that of correlating the work of 
the various educational agencies of the churches and of promoting 
cooperation in a common program of religious education. 

At a conference called by the Federal Council last year, repre- 
sentatives of all the Sunday School agencies, the Missionary Educa- 
tion Movement, the agencies dealing with Christian education in the 
college and university, the young people's societies, the Youn^ Men's 
and Young Women's Christian Associations, and other organizations 
studied the educational task from the standpoint of the whole Church, 
with a view to discovering how each of the existing organizations 
could best cooperate with the others in meeting the whole responsi- 

In addition to carrying on this task of coordination, the Council 
is directing its attention to the groups largely unreached by any 
of the educational forces, especially by interpreting to the general 
public the significance of the Christian Gospel for the life of men 
in their industrial, racial and international relations. 


Vice-Chairman Shelby Af. Harrison 

Executive Secretary Rev. Worth M, Tippy 

Research Secretary Rev, F. Ernest Johnson 

The purpose of the Commission is to cooperate with similar church 
organizations in the study and improvement of social conditions; to 
encourage the organization of departments or conmiissions of social 
service in denominations not so organized; to cooperate with the 
denominational agencies in organizing local churches for neighbor- 
hood and community service; to assist departments of social service 
in community federations of churches; to cooperate in public welfare 
effort with national social movements and agencies, and with depart- 
ments of the national and state governments; to labor to establish 
social justice, and a Christian social order. 

The following denominations have social service organizations 
for which the Federal Council's Commission is the central coordinat- 
ing body : 

Baptist, North : American Baptist Home Mission Society, Department 
of Social Service and Rural Community Work, Rev. Rolvix Harlan, 
Secretary, 23 East 26th St., New York, N. Y.; American Baptist 
Publication Society, Department Social Service Education, Rev. 
' Samuel Z. Batten, Secretary, 1701 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Baptist Social Service Federation, Rev. J. Foster Wilcox, 
Joint General Director, 23 East 26th St., New York, N. Y. 
Congrregational : Social Service Commission, Rev. Arthur E. Holt, 

Secretary, 14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 
Disciples of Christ: Commission on Social Service and the Country 
Church, Prof. Alva W. Taylor, Secretary, Occidental Bldg., In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 
Methodist Episcopal: Federation for Social Service, Rev. Harry F. 

Ward, Secretary, 150 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Board of Home Missions and Church Extension, Rev. M. P. Bums, 

17th and Arch Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Presbyterian, U. S. A.: Social Service Department, New Era Move- 
ment, Rev. John McDowell, Department Head, 156 Fifth Ave., 
New York, N. Y.; Board of Temperance and Moral Welfare, 
Prof. Chas. Scanlon, Columbia National Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, 
Protestant Episcopal: Department of Christian Social Service, Very 

Rev- Charles N. Lathrop, 281 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Seventh Day Baptist: Rev. J. L. Skaggs, Plainfield, N. J. 

254 Year B(X)k of the Churches 

Reformed in the U. S.: Board of Home Missions, Rev. James M. 
Mullan, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Research Department gathers information concerning social, 
economic and industrial conditions and movements in their moral 
aspect and with especial reference to the work of the churches. The 
material gathered by the Department is made available to the relig- 
ious press and to individual subscribers through a semi-monthly 
Information Service^ a monthly Book Review Service, research bulle- 
tins on industrial problems, study courses and occasional other publi- 
cations. The Department also conducts an extensive correspondence 
with persons studying social problems. 

Educational literature on social questions for the use of study 
groups and Bible classes is being prepared every year for the use 
of churches of every faith. 


Chairman. ^ „ Hon, Carl E, Milliken 

Acting Exec, Sec ~ Rev, Charles 5. Macfarland 

This Commission, united with the National Temperance Society, 
the oldest American temperance society, works with the denomina- 
tional and other agencies, to promote personal abstinence from intoxi- 
cating beverages, by research, exhibits, photoplays, lantern slides, 
literature, and the creation of public sentiment to ensure proper 

An active part was taken in securing Congressional action favor- 
ing the Constitutional Prohibition Amendment. 

The following periodicals covering temperance interests are pub- 
lished : 

The National Advocate: A comprehensive temperance paper, de- 
signed primarily for use in churches and Sunday schools. Published 
monthly. Price, $1.00 per year; special rates to pastors, clubs, and 
Sunday school classes. 

The Youth's Temperance Banner: A "Youth's Companion" devoted 
to temperance stories and articles. Published monthly. Price, 30 
cents per year; in clubs of ten or more to one address, 15 cents. 

The Water Lily: A four-page monthly containing stories attrac- 
tively illustrated; suited to children between five and ten years. 
Price, 15 cents per year; in clubs of ten or more to one address, 8 

Chairman John J, Eagan 

Executive Secretaries George E, Haynes 

Rev. W, W. Alexander 

In a day when the problem of the relations of the white and the 
Negro races is challenging America as never before, the recent es- 
tablishment of the Commission on the Church and Race Relations 
is of great significance. It means that the churches are definitely 
setting themselves to a solution of the problem on the Christian basis 
of brotherhood. 

Under the wise guidance of Southern leaders, both black and white, 
the united influence of the churches is being brought to bear to 
promote the active cooperation of the two races in a program for 
racial justice and goodwill. They are helping to create inter-racial 
conunittees in local communities for the purpose of cooperative 
activities in securing to the negro fuller opportunity for self -develop- 
ment, in preventing mob violence and lynching; and in developing 
a Christian public opinion on the racial question. 

Directory of Federal Council 255 

Especial attention is given to working closely with the voluntary 
organization, known as the Commission on Inter-Racial Cooperation, 
which has done so much for racial goodwill in the South. 



Chairman Dr. John H, Firdey 

Executive Secretary Rev. Sidney L. Gulick 

Chairman of Convmittee on Relations with the Orient, 

Rev. James H. Franklin 

The world-wide interest in disarmament and in international co- 
operation has set the work of this Commission into bold relief. Long 
a united agency for the churches in their concern for peace, the 
Council has now become, even in the judgment of the outside world, 
one of the most effective agents in the world in securing a better 
day in the relations of nations to one another. 

The merest indication of what the Council has done in connection 
with the movement fpr limitation of armament will show how far- 
reaching its influence has been. 

On a designated Sunday in June, 1921, pulpits all over the nation 
responded to a call of the Federal Council to observe disarmament 
Sunday and to urge an international conference. Through the asr 
sistance of the Church Peace Union the cooperation of Roman Catho- 
lics and Hebrews was also secured, and a joint memorial presented 
to President Harding. When, soon after, he issued the historic 
invitation to the nations, the Commission set out at once to mobilize 
the churches in helping to create the public opinion that made possible 
what the Conference has achieved. 

Through its educational literature, such as "The Church and a 
Warless World," "Working Toward a Warless World," "Problems 
of the Pacific and the Far East" and "The Achievements of the Con- 
ference" over three hundred thousand of which were circulated, the 
one hundred and fifty thousand churches of the country were as- 
sisted to become centers of public education on the necessity for 
reduction of armament. Local federations of churches in all parts 
of the country were stimulated to hold mass meetings on the sub- 
ject. A great campaign of educational publicity was carried on 
through the daily press. 

Throughout the Conference a representative of the Federal Coun- 
cil in behalf of the churches was constantly in Washing^ton. Con- 
ferences were held with all the foreign delegations. 

In all its program the Federal Council is engaged not in a spas- 
modic effort but in a persistent campaign. It is now carrying on 
its activities unabated to secure the participation of the United 
States in permanent organized cooperation for world peace and 
human welfare. It is definitely committed to continuing an unre- 
mitting activity until a peace system takes the place of competitive 
armament and recurring war. 

Through the helpful cooperation of the World Alliance for Pro- 
moting International Relationship through the Churches contacts 
are secured with Christians in all parts of the world. 

Special attention has long been directed to relations with the 
Orient. The Council seeks to interpret the best in each to the other 
and to reinforce the work of foreign missions by removing national 
misunderstandings and unchristian policies which would imperil the 
success of Christian missions in the Far East. 


Since international goodwill is best expressed not in words but 
in deeds of serving love, the Council has offered itself as a servant 

256 Year Book of the Churches 

of the churches in answering calls of suffering humanity. For 
several years it has been of assistance to the Near East Relief. 
In the European Relief Council, organized by Mr. Hoover to save 
the children of Central Europe, the Council was responsible for the 
church activities and drew from Mr. Hoover the tribute that if the 
Council had not been in existence he would have found it necessary 
to build up something like it. 

The imperative need for such a central agency is most clearly pre^ 
sented by the starving millions of Russia. A special committee on 
relief has therefore been appointed by the Commission on Interna- 
tional Justice and Goodwill. It is the one interdenominational agency 
that is giving attention to this overwhelming need, — seeking to appeal 
to the generosity of all the churches. By distributing its funds through 
the American Relief Administration and the American Friends Serv- 
ice Committee (Quaker) it avoids duplication of existing machinery. 



Chairman William Sloane Coffln 

Secretary Rev, Charles S. Macfarland 

This Commission conducts relief and reconstruction work in France 
and Belgium in cooperative relationship with the corresponding or- 
ganizations in those countries and assists them in their church and 
institutional work. It is made up of Protestant denominational 
bodies and cooperating agencies having work or related work in 
France and Belgium and works through a corresponding organiza- 
tion, the Comite d'Union Protestante pour les Secours de Guerre en 
France et en Belgique, representing the Federation Protestante de 
France and the following Protestant bodies of those countries: 

Comite Protestante Francaise 

Comite Protestante d'Entr'Aide 

Union Nationale des Eglises Reformees Evangeliques 

Union Nationale des Englises Reformees 

Eglise Evangelique Luther ienne de France 

Union des Eglises Evangeliques Libres 

Eglise Evangelique Methodiste 

Union des Eglises Baptistes 

Mission Francaise Eglise Methodiste Episcopale 

Societe Centrale Evangelique 

Union des Englises Protestantes Evangeliques de Belgique 

Eglise Chretienne Missionaire Beige 

Mission Populaire Evangelique (McAll) 

Society des Missions Evangeliques 

Nearly a million and a half dollars have been contributed by the 
American Churches to the devastated churches of France and Bel- 
gium through this agency. 



Chairman Bishop James Cann.on, Jr. 

Secretary Rev. Charles S. Macfarland 

This Commission seeks to strengthen fraternal relations between 
the churches of the United States and of the various nations of 
Europe; to aid the European churches in the betterment of ecclesiasr- 
tical conditions; and to assist them in securing physical relief, par- 
ticularly through cooperation with the organizations for this pur- 
pose already existing in the United States. 

Directory of Federal Council 257 


As a result a conscious unity of spirit and purpose among the 
Protestant churches throughout the world is being developed. A 
large number of leaders in the American churches who are going 
to Eur(^>e are delegated by the Council to represent not simply one 
denomination but the evangelical forces as a whole. Friendly visitors 
from the churches abroad are constantly received by the Council. 
Largely as a result of this fellowship, federations of churches are 
being developed in Switzerland, France, Germany, and other Euro- 
pean countries, and related to this movement for Christian coopera- 
tion in our own land. 

The increasing cooperation among the churches of all lands is to 
come to a head in the proposed Universal Conference of the Church 
of Christ on Life and Work, to be held in 1924, to consider how the 
churches of the world can bring about a fuller application of the 
Christian Gospel in modern life. In the initiation of the conference 
the Federal Council had a large part and in the preparation for 
it assistance is generously given. 


Chairman Bishop William F, McDowell 

Secretary Rev. E. O. Watson 

937 Woodward Building, Washington, D, C. 

Represents the various denominations in the selection of Protestant 
chaplains for the Army and Navy, and in furthering the work of 
the chaplains. 


Chairman Rev, Ernest C. Wareing 

Acting Secretary Rev. Howard B. Grose 

An organization of editors of Protestant publications for considera- 
tion of common interests. 


Office: 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., Rev. Wm. D. Mackenzie, Hartford, Conn.; Vice- 
Chmn. and Chmn, Exec, Com,, Dr. James H. Franklin, New York 
City; Sec, Rev. Henry A. Atkinson. 

This is a joint committee of The Church Peace Union, the World 
Alliance and the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, 
functioning through The Church Peace Union. 

Established by the General Wartime Commission of the Churches, 
and representative of the Protestant Churches in America through 
the Federal Council. 


Chairman E, E, Olcott 

Secretary Rev, Roy B, Guild 

A central agency through which the Churches of the United States 
assist in building and maintaining the union churches in the Canal 

258 Year Book of the Churches 



Chairman Rev. William Adams Brown 

Vice-Chairman Rev. Charles W. Gilkey 

Secretary Rev. S. M. Cavert 

Has studied thoroughly some of the more important problems in 
the religious life of America and brought out its results in a series 
of widely known reports. 


QUADRENNIUM 1920-1924 

President Robert E. Speer 

Honorary Secretary Rev. Elias B. Sanford 

Recording Secretary Rev. Rivington D. Lord 

Treasurer Alfred R. Kimball 


Baptist Churches, North 

Pres. C. A. Barbour, 151 Saratoga Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
National Baptist Convention 

Rev. W. G. Parks, 1909 Bainbridge St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Free Baptist Churches 

Pres. Joseph W. Mauck, Hillsdale, Mich. 
Christian Church 

Rev. Frank G. Coffin, Albany, Mo. 
Christian Reformed Church in N. A. 

Churches of God in N. A. (General Eldership) 

Rev. Wm. Harris Guyer, Findlay, 0. 
Congregational Churches 

Rev. William Horace Day, 25 Court St., Bridgeport, Conn. 
Disciples of Christ 

Rev. Finis S. Idleman, 142 West 81st St., N. Y. C. 

Hon. Herbert Hoover, Commerce Department, Washington, D. C. 
Evangelical Synod of North America 

Rev. J. U. Schneider, Evansville, Indiana. 
Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop Luther B. Wilson, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

Bishop Edwin D. Mouzon, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 
African Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop C. S. Smith, 87 Alexandrine Ave., E. Detroit, Mich. 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 

Bishop L. W. Kyles, 4013 West Belle Place, St. Louis, Mo. 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in America 

Bishop C. H. Phillips, 123 14th Ave., North, Nashville, Tenn. 
Methodist Protestant Church 

Rev. Thomas H. Lewis, 2844 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, D. C. 
Primitive Methodist Church 

Rev. John Hardcastle, Kewanee, Illinois. 
Moravian Church 

Rt. Rev. C. L. Moench, 45 West Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 

Rev. J.' Ross Stevenson, Princeton, N. J. 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. 

Rev. George Summey, 2644 Barracks St., New Orleans, La. 

Directory of Federal Council 259 

Protestant Episcopal Commissions on Christian Unity and Social 

Very Rev. H. E. W. Fosbroke, Gen. Theo. Seminary, New York 
Reformed Church in America 

Rev. John E7 Kuizenga, 4 East 14th St., Holland, Mich. 
Reformed Church in the U. S. 

Rev. J. M. G. Darms, AUentown, Pa. 
Reformed Episcopal Church 

Rev. Joseph D. Wilson, 210 South 41st St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Reformed Presbyterian Church, General Synod 

Seventh Day Baptist Churches 

Rev. A. L. Davis, Ashaway, R. I. 
United Brethren Church 

Bishop W. H. Washinger, 686 East Taylor St., Portland, Oregon. 
United Evangelical Church 

Bishop W. M. Stanford, 226 Riley St., Harrisbnrg, Pa. 
United Presbyterian Church 

Rev. W. I. Wishart, 2333 Perryville Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Chairman Rev, F, W. Bumham 


Bishop John M, Moore 

Prof, John R, Hawkins 

Rev, Rufus W, Miller 

Recording Secretary Rev. Rivington D. Lord 

Members by Virtue of Article 9, Section C, of the Constitution 

Bishop E. R. Hendrix Dean Shailer Mathews 

Alfred R. Kimball Rev. Frank Mason North 

Rev. Rivington D. Lord Robert E. Speer 

Denominational Members 

Baptist Churches, North 

Rev. Robert A. Ashworth, 95 Radford St., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Rev. Arthur T. Fowler, North Orange, N. J. 

Mrs. W. A. Montgomery, 144 Dartmouth St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Rev. Howard B. Grose, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Rev. Albert G. Lawson, 2041 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Prof. William H. Allison, 65 Langdon St., Cambridge 38, Mass. 

Rev. G. N. Brink, 1701 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. C. W. Petty, 150 E. 188th St., New York City 

Rev. Clifton D. Gray, Bates College, Lewiston, Me. 

Rev. D. B. McQueen, Bridg^eport, Conn. 
National Baptist Convention 

H. W. HoUoway, Helena, Ark. 

Rev. 1. A. Thomas, Evanston, 111. 

Rev. W. H. Jernagin, 1341 Third St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. L. G. Jordan, 701 S. 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. S. E. J. Watson, 560 E. 36th St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. J. H. Henderson, 328 Patton St., Knoxville, Tenn. 

Rev. R. T. Pollard, Selma, Alabama 

Prof. J. D. Crenshaw, Nashville, Tenn. 



260 Year Book of the Churches 


Rev. C. A. Ward, 33 Waumbeck St., Roxbury, Mass. 

Rev. J. F. Robinson, 69 Portland St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Rev. D. S. Klugh, 43 Rutland Square, Boston, Mass. 

Rev. M. W. D. Norman, 1933 13th St., N. W., Washington, D. C, 

Rev. J. E. Echols, Buffalo, New York 

Rev. E. W. Johnson, 1302 N. 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Thomas H. White, Clifton Forge^ Va. 

Rev. J. C. Jackson, 3837 Germantown St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Free Baptist Churches 
PriixcxTia Is 

Rev. Alfred Wms. Anthony, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Hon. Carl E. Milliken, Augusta, Maine 

Hon. Lindley M. Webb, 396 Cong^ress St., Portland, Maine 

Rev. Thomas H. Stacy, Sandwich Center, N. H. 
Christian Church 

Rev. Martyn Summerbell, Lakemont, N. Y. 

Riflr J. O. Atkinson, Elon College, N. C. 

Rev. J. F. Burnett, Dayton, Ohio 

Rev. Alva Martin Kerr, Dayton, Ohio 
Christian Reformed Church 

Rev. J. Timmerman, 129 4th Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Rev. John Dolfin, 155 Terrace St., Muskegon, Mich. 
Churches of God in N. A, {General Eldership) 

Rev. H. Dickson Boughter, Decatur, 111. 

Rev. John W. Whisler, McMechen, W. Va. 

Rev. S. Fulmer, Mt. Pleasant, Pa. 

Rev. H. R. Lobb, Shippensburg, Pa. 
Congregational Churches 

Rev. Charles F. Carter, 270 Laurel St., Hartford, Conn. 

Norton M. Little, 1502 Decatur St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. R. W. McLoughlin, 253 Garfield Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. . 

Pres. Henry Churchill King, Oberlin, Ohio 

Rev. H. F.' Holton, 14 Oakland Ave., Brockton, Mass. 

Rev. George P. Eastman, 48 Highland Ave., Orange, N. J. 

Rev. Edward D. Eaton, Wellesley, Mass. 

Arthur J. Lockwood, Glen Ridge, N. J. 
Disciples of Christ 

Rev. Peter Ainslie, 504 N. Fulton Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. Robert Graham Frank, Dallas, Tex. 

Rev. F. W. Burnham, 15th and Locust Sts., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. A. E. Cory, 1501 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. J. H. Goldner, Cleveland, Ohio 

Rev. John R. Ewers, 1313 Denniston Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. B. A. Abbott, 2712 Pine St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Irving S. Chenoweth, 10th St. and Roosevelt Blvd., Phila., Pa, 

Albert G. Shepard, 25 Virginia Ave., Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Dr. Walter C. Woodward, Richmond, Ind. 

Directory of Federal Council 261 


Miss Mary S. Paige, 50 E. Chatham St., East Lynn, Mass. 

Mrs. Mary Doane Hole, 615 National Road, West, Richmond, Ind. 
Evangelical Synod of North America 

Rev. Paul A. Menzel, 2951 Tildon St., Washington, D. G. 

Rev. R. Niebuhr, 878 Lothrop St., Detroit, Mich. 

Rev. F. E. G. Haas, Amsterdam, N. Y. 

Rev. G. W. Locher, 1920 G St., Washington, D. G. 
Evangelical Association 

Bishop G. S. Breyfogel, 836 Genter Ave., Reading, Pa. 

F. W. Ramsey, 2501 Arlington Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Rev. T. G. Meckel, 1903 Woodland Ave., S. E., Cleveland, Ohio 

Bishop G. Heinmiller, 2184 E. 82nd St., Cleveland, Ohio 
Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop W. t\ McDowell, 15U9 16th :st., Washington, D. C. 

Bishop Thomas Nicholson, 58 East Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

Bishop G. B. Mitchell, 157 North Lexington Blvd., St. Paul, Minn. 

Rev. William I. Haven, Bible House, Astor Place, New York City 

Rev. C. F. Rice, Medford, Mass. 

Dr. A. W. Harris, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. A. B. Storms, Berea, Ohio 

Dr. John R. Mott, 347 Madison Ave., New York City 

Dr. James R. Joy, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City 

E. L. Kidney, Berger Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Bishop T. S. Henderson, 34 E. Elizabeth St., Detroit, Mich. 

Bishop E. H. Hughes, Maiden, Mass. 

Bishop E. G. Richardson, Atlanta, Georg^ia 

Bishop W. F. Conner, "The King Edward," Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. D. D. Forsyth, 1701 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. H. Cherrington, Westerville, Ohio 

W. E. Massey, Ocean City, N. J. 

L. Wilbur Messer, 19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

T. F. Holgate, Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

Bishop John M. Moore, 810 Broadway, Nashville, Tenn. 

Bishop James Gannon, Jr., Birmingham, Alabama. 

Rev. W. W. Pinson, 810 Broadway, Nashville, Tenn. 

Dean W. F. Tillett, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. 

T. S. Southgate, Norfolk, Virginia 

Mrs. H. R. Steele, 810 Broadway, Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. Charles D. Bulla, 1416 Scenic Ave., Berkeley, Calif. 

H. A. Boaz, Dallas, Texas 

T. McN. Simpson, Lynchburg, Virginia 

Rev. L. G. Branscombe, Jefferson Go. Bank Bldg., Birmingham, 

H. N. Snyder, Spartansburg, S. G. 
African Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop J. H. Jones, Wilberforce, Ohio 

Bishop J. M. Conner, Little Rock, Ark. 

Prof. A. S. Jackson, Waco, Texas 

Rev. R. C. Ransom, Oceanport, N. J. 

262 Year Book of the Churches 

Rev. J. Q. Johnson, Memphis, Tenn. 
Rev. C. P. Cole, 50 Putnam Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 

Bishop George C. Clement, 1425 West Walnut St., Louisville, Ky. 
Prof. S. G. Atkins, Winston-Salem, N. C. 
Rev. Henry J. Callis, 619 M St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. James E. Mason, 249 Columbia Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
S. M. Dudley, Washington, D. C. 

Rev. John W. Martin, 4428 W. Belle Place, St. Louis, Mo. 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in America 

Bishop N. C. Cleaves, 4145 Enright Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
Rev. J. A. Hamlett, 112 Shannon St., Jackson, Tenn. 
Rev. William Y. Bell, 218 W. 130th St., New York City 

Rev. G. L. Word, Milledgeville, Ga. 
Prof. G. F. Porter, Jackson, Tenn. 
Rev. J. R. Starks, Dallas, Texas 
Methodist Protestant Church 

Rev. Lyman E. Davis, 613 West Diamond, N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Moravian Church 

Rev. Paul de Schweinitz, 67 West Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
A. W. Stephens, 244 Madison Ave., New York City 
Presbyterian Church in the U, S. A, 

Rev. C. L. Thompson, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Rev. Joseph A. Vance, Detroit, Michigan 
Rev. George Reynolds, 33 Pintard Ave., New Rochelle, N. Y. 
James M. Speers, care James McCutcheon & Co., New York City 
H. M. Voorhees, Trenton, N. J. 
A. Ltsvnates 

Rev. E. P. Hill, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Rev. C. R. Erdman, Princeton, N. J. 
Rev. W. H. Black, Marshall, Mo. 
C. D. Hilles, 25 Liberty St., New York City 
Spencer L Marsh, Madison, N. J. 
Presbyterian Church in the U, S. 

Rev. James I. Vance, Nashville, Tenn. 
Rev. J. B. Hutton, Jackson, Miss. 

Rev. H. W. DuBose, Danville, Va. 
Rev. Ernest Thompson, Charleston, Virginia 
Primitive Methodist Church 

Rev. Elijah Humphries, Billerica Center, Mass. 
Edwin H. Thatcher, 590 Flatbush Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rev. S. T. Nicholls, 2609 West Leigh Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
W. T. Perkins, Plymouth, Pa. 
Protestant Episcopal Comnvission on Christian Unity and Social 

Rt. Rev. Ethelbert Talbot, South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Rt. Rev. G. A. Beecher, Hastings, Nebr. 
Robert H. Gardiner, 174 Water St., Gardiner, Maine 
John M. Glenn, 130 E. 22nd St., New York City 

Directory of Federal Council 263 

Reformed Church in America 

Rev. Albertus T. Broek, Newark, N. J. 

Rev. Isaac W. Gowen, North Bergen, N. J. 

Rev. Oscar M. Voorhees, 350 E. 146th St., New York City 

Rev. Ame Vennema, 11 Reid Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
Reformed Church in the U, S, 

Rev. Charles E. Schaeffer, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. H. J. Christman, 257 Linden Ave., Dayton, Ohio 

Rev. Rufus W. Miller, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. T. F. Herman, 556 West James St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Franklin P. Brown, 614 West Lexington Ave., Dayton, Ohio 

Rev. H. H. Apple, Lancaster, Pa. 
Reformed Episcopal Church 

Bishop Samuel Fallows, 2344 Monroe St., Chicago, 111. 

Bishop Robert L. Rudolph, 103 South 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Robert W. Peach, 271 Parker St., Newark, N. J. 

Rev. William A. Freemantle, 1617 Oxford St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Reformed Presbyterian Church (General Synod) 

Rev. John Parks, 5923 Washington Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Thomas Whyte, 1759 North Marshall St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Seventh Day Baptist Churches 

Rev. Arthur E. Main, Alfred, New York 

Rev. A. J. C. Bond, Woodhill Manse, Salem, W. Va. 

Pres. Boothe C. Davis, Alfred, New York 

Prof. Alfred E. Whitford, Milton, Wisconsin 
United Brethren in Christ 

L. 0. Miller, 418 Otterbein Press Bldg., Dayton, Ohio 

Rev. S. S. Hough, 415 Otterbein Press Bldg., Dayton, Ohio 

Bishop William M. Bell, 1509 State St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Hon. A. S. Krieder, Annville, Pa. 

Bishop C. J. Kephart, 3936 Harrison St., Kansas City, Mo. 

E. L. Shuey, 204 Central Ave., Dayton, Ohio 
United Evangelical Church 

H. V. Summers, Louisville, Stark Co., Ohio 

A. E. Hangen, Corner 3rd and Riley Sts., Harrisburg, Pa. 

E. S. Woodring, 2461 Reel St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

E. S. Hengst, York, Pa. 
United Presbyterian Church 

Rev. R. A. Hutchison, 703 Publication Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. D. F. McGill, 317 Home Ave., Bellevue, Pa. 

Hon. M. Clyde Kelly, House Office Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. A. H. Baldinger, 209 East Jefferson St., Butler, Pa. 

264 Year Book of the Churches 


Chairman Rev, John M. Moore 

Viee'Chairman Rev. Rufus W, Miller 

Recording Secretary Rev. Rivington D. Lord 


Denominational Representatives 

Bishop William M. Bell (United Brethren in Christ) 

Rev. William Y. Bell (Colored Methodist Episcopal Church) 

Rev. William E. Bourquin (Evangelical Synod of N. A.) 

Bishop C. S. Breyfogel (Evangelical Association) 

Rev. Willard D. Burdick (Seventh Day Baptist Churches) 

Bishop James Cannon, Jr. (Methodist Episcopal Church, South) 

Charles' S. Crosman (Friends) 

John M. Glenn (Protestant Episcopal Commissions on Christian 

Unity and Social Service) 
Rev. I. W. Gowen (Reformed Church in America) 
Rev. R. C. Helfenstein (Christian Church) 
Rev. E. Humphries (Primitive Methodist Church) 
Rev. R. A. Hutchison (United Presbyterian Church) 
Rev. Finis S. Idleman (Disciples of Christ) 

Rev. Albert G. Lawson — Rev. Robert A. Ashworth, Alternate — (Bap- 
tist Churches, North) 
Bishop W. L. Lee (African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church) 
Rev. Thomas H. Lewis (Methodist Protestant Church) 
Rev. Rivington D. Lord (Free Baptist Churches) 
Rev. John A. Marquis (Presbyterian Church in the TJ. S. A.) 
Rev. Harry R. Miles (Congregational Churches) 
Rev. Robert Westly Peach (Reformed Episcopal Church) 
Rev. Harry E. Stocker (Moravian Church) 
Rev. George Summey — Rev. J. M. Wells, Alternate — (Presbyterian 

Church in the U. S.) 
Rev. J. Timmerman (Christian Reformed Church) 
Rev. Ezra S. Tipple (Methodist Episcopal Church) 
A. Hice Watterson (Reformed Presbyterian Church — General Synod) 
Rev. S. G. Yahn (Churches of God — General Eldership) 

Representatives of Affiliated, Cooperating and Consultative Bodies 

Rev. Charles L. Thompson (Home Missions Council) 

Mrs. Fred S. Bennett (Council of Women for Home Missions) 

Mrs. DeWitt Knox (Federation of Women's Boards of Foreign 

Dr. Robert L. Kelly (Council of Church Boards of Education) 

Rev. G. T. Webb (Sunday School Council of Evangelical Denomina- 

Rev. William I. Haven (American Bible Society) 

E. T. Colton (International Committee Young Men's Christian As- 

Mabel Cratty (National Board Young Women's Christian Asso- 

Fennell P. Turner (Committee of Reference and Counsel of the 
Foreign Missions Conference of N. A.) 

Rev. S. G. Inman (Committee on Cooperation in Latin America) 

Robert P. Wilder (Student Volunteer Movement) 

Chairmen and Secretaries of the Council and Commissions 

Rev. W. W. Alexander J. J. Eagan 

Rev. William Adams Brown Dr. John H. Finley 

Rev. Samuel McCrea Cavert Rev. Charles L. Goodell 

William Sloane Coffin Rev. Roy B. Guild 

Rev. R. H. Crossfield Rev. Sidney L. Gulick 


Directory of Federal Council 265 

Dr. George E. Haynes Fred B. Smith 

Rev. Ernest F. Johnson Rev. J. Ross Stevenson 

Bishop William F. McDowell Rev. Worth M. Tippy 

Rev. Charles S. Macfarland Rev. E. C. Wareing 

Hon. Carl E. Milliken Rev. E. O. Watson 

Rev. Herbert L. Willett 

Members at Large 

Rev. Alfred Williams Anthony Rev. Frederick Lynch 

Rev. Charles E. Burton Dr. John R. Mott 

Rev. William L Chamberlain Robert E. Speer 

Rev. Howard B. Grose James M. Speers 

Prof. John R. Hawkins Rev. George U. Wenner 

Dr. James R. Joy Rev. Charles L. White 

Alfred R. Kimball Bishop Luther B. Wilson 

Former Presidents of the Council 

Bishop E. R. Hendrix 
Dean Shailer Mathews 
Rev. Frank Mason North 

Washington Conmiittee 

Chairman Bishop William F. McDowell 

Vice-Chairman Rev. Charles Wood 

Secretary Rev. E. O. Watson 

937 Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Andrew R. Bird Rev. Paul Langhorne 

A. A. Chapin Norton M. Little 

Rev. Lucius C. Clark James T. Lloyd 

William Knowles Cooper Rev. George A. Miller 

W. W. Everett Rev. J. S. Montgomery 

Rev. James E. Freeman Rev. Walter A. Morgan 

Rev. Charles E. Fultz Rev. Wallace Radcliffe 

Rt. Rev. Alfred Harding Rev. H. H. Ranck 

Irving W. Hitchcock Rev. Charles F. Steck 

Rev. W. H. Jernagin Rev. J. Howard Wells 

James L. Wilmeth 

Western Committee 

Chairman Dean Shailer Mathews 

Secretary Rev. Herbert L. Willett 

19 South LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

Clifford W. Barnes Bishop Thomas Nicholson 

Hon. Thomas E. D. Bradley Rev. Perry J. Rice 

Rev. William Chalmers Covert Prof. Graham Taylor 

Rev. Howard Agnew Johnston Oliver R. Williamson 

Executive Officers 

Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, General Secretary. 

Rev. Samuel McCrea Cavert, General Secretary. 

Caroline W. Chase, Assistant Secretary. 

Rev. Roy B. Guild, Commission on Councils of Churches 

Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, Secretary, Commission on International Jus- 
tice and Good-Will. 

Rev. Worth M. Tippy, Secretary, Commission on the Church and 
Social Service. 

Rev. Charles L. Goodell, Secretary, Commission on Evangelism and 
Life Service. 

266 Year Book of the Churches 

Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, Research Secretary, Commission on the 

Church and Social Service. 
Rev. E. O. Watson, Secretary, Washington Committee. 
Rev. Herbert L. Willett, Secretary, Western Committee.. 
Rev. R. H. Crossfield, Secretary, Board of Finance. 
Dr. George E. Haynes, Secretary, Commission on the Church and 

Race Relations. 
Rev. W. W. Alexander, Secretary, Commission on the Church and 

Race Relations. 

The above, together with the President of the Council and the 
Chairman of the Administrative Committee, constitute the Secretarial 



Los Angeles, Rev. J. C. Pinkerton, 435 Van Nuys Bldg. 

Hartford, Rev. Morris E. Ailing, 27 Lewis Street. 

Indianapolis, State Federation of Churches, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Boston, Rev. E. T. Root, 6 Beacon Street. 

Columbus, Rev. B. F. Lamb, Exec, See., 406 Gasco Bldg.j Rev. 
A. B. Eby, Associate Sec; Mr. Vinton McVicker, Publicity. 

Chambersburg, ♦Rev. Wm. L. Mudge (P), 267 No. Main Street. 


Wayne Co., ♦Mr. Roy L. Babylon, Richmond, Ind. 


Fresno, ♦Mr. A. W. Louch, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
Sacramento, Mrs. M. F. Harbaugh, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
San Francisco, Rev. Homer K. Pitman, 23d and Capp Sts. 
Los Angeles, Rev. S. T. Montgomery, 435 Van Nuys Bldg. 

Bridgeport, The Council of Churches, c/o Bridgeport Christian 

Union, 786 Main Street. 
Hartford, Rev. Morris E. Ailing, 27 Lewis Street. 
District of Columbia 

Washington, Rev. Lucius C. Clark, 300-301 Bond Bldg., 14th and 
New York Avenue. 

Atlanta, James Morton, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Chicago, Walter R. Mee, Exec. Sec, 19 S. LaSalle St.; Emerson 
O. Bradshaw, Gen. Sec, Committee on Public Institutions; 
Mrs. C. L. Holtzman, Pres., Woman* s Department; Mr. Georg^. 
F. Witt, Pres., Young People* s Department. 

Indianapolis, Rev. C. H. Winders, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Wichita, Rev. Ross W. Sanderson, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Louisville, ♦Rev. M. P. Hunt (P), 401 Norton Bldg. 

Directory of Federal Council 267 


Portland, Miss Rachel F. Metcalf, 56 Y. M. G. A. Bldg. 

Baltimore, Rev. L. W. McCreary, 1531 Munsey Bldg. 

Boston, Rev. Doremus Scudder, 6 Beacon St., Room 426. 
Worcester, Federation of Churches, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. (attention 

Mr. R. L. Moore). 

Detroit, Rev. Morton C. Pearson, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. ; Rev. Edward 

R. Bartlett, Supt., Religious Education; Rev. Wm. H. Hoffman, 

Hospital Pastor; Rev. H. C. Robinson, Municipal Court Proba- 
tion Worker; Miss Dolly Milne, Juvenile Court Worker. 

Duluth, W. L. Smithies, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

St. Paul, Rev. Arthur F. Wittenberger, Acting Sec, .514 Peoples 

Bank Bldg.; Miss Ruth D. Rolling, Juvenile Sec. 

Kansas City, Rev. Ralph C. McAfee, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

St. Louis, Rev. Arthur H. Armstrong, Federal Reserve Bank 

Bldg.; Rev. Howard Billman, Associate Sec; Rev. C. P. Kirk- 

endoU, Industrial Sec; Rev. A. C. Ernst, 204 E. Lockwood 

Ave., Webster Grove, Police Court Worker. 

Lincoln, Rev. Ralph W. Orr, Acting Sec, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
New Jersey 

Moorestown, Mrs. Margaret T. Chickering, 36 E. Main Street. 
Newark, Rev. J. R. Wood, Room 1100 Ordway Bldg., 207 Market 

Passaic, Mr. F. P. Quick, 169 Prospect St., P. 0. Box 292. 
Paterson, Rev. Hugh B. MacCauley, 328-A Ellison Street. 
New York 

Brooklyn, *Rev. F. M. Gordon (C), 69 Schermerhorn Street. 
Buffalo, Rev. Lewis G. Rogers, Acting Exec Sec, Franklin and 

Mohawk Streets. 
New York City, Rev. Wm. B. Millar, Gen. Sec, 1 Madison Ave.; 

Rev. Herbert F. LaFlamme, Sec; Mr. George L. Leonard, 

Assistant Treas. 
Rochester, Rev. Orlo J. Price, 423 Cutler Bldg. 

Akron, Federation of Churches, 713 Second National Bank Bldg. 
Cincinnati, Rev. Henry Pearce Atkins, 516-517 Union Central 

Bldg.; Miss Edith Condit, Court Representative; Miss Bertha 

Masters, Court Representative, 
Cleveland, Rev. E. R. Wright, 801-805 Hippodrome Bldg.; Miss 

Mary E. Panhorst, Assistant Sec 
Columbus, Church Federation of Columbus, Mr. C. L. Dickey, 

Pres., Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
Dayton, Rev. Irvin E. Deer, 425-26 Dayton Savings & Trust 

Bldg.; Mrs. J. C. Meyers, Court Sec. 
Toledo, Rev. C. McLeod Smith, 423 Nicholas Bldg. 
Youngstown, *Rev. G. L. Ford (P), Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Portland, Rev. Ray E. Close, 420-421 Piatt Bldg. 

AUentown, *Rev. H. C. Lilly CY), Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
Erie, *Mr. Hermon Eldredge (Y), Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
Harrisburg, *Rev. Harvey Klaer (P), 202 No. Third Street. 
Philadelphia, Rev. E. A. E. Palmquist, 1420 Chestnut Street. 
Pittsburgh, Rev. Charles R. Zahniser, 245 Fourth Avenue. 

268 Year Book of the Churches 


Chattanooga, Rev. H. H. Pitzer, 202 First National Bank Bldg. 

Norfolk, Rev. James A. Grain, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Seattle, Rev. H. I. Ghatterton', Burke Bldg. 

Milwaukee, Rev. Frederick G. Behner, Y. M. G. A. Bldg. 




Belgian Protestant Committee of Union 

(Gomite d'Union Protestante Belgre) 

Constituent Bodies: Union of Protestant Evangelical Churches of 
Belgium, Belgian Christian Missionary Church. 

Officers: I^on. General Secretary, M. Kennedy Anet, 11 rue de 
Dublin, Brussels; Secretary General, M. Aloys Gautier, 11 rue de 
Dublin, Brussels. 


National Council of the Evangelical Free Churches 

Constituent Bodies: Baptist Churches, Congregational Churches, 
Methodist Churches, Presbyterian Church, Free Episcopal Churches, 
Society of Friends. 

Office: Memorial Hall, Farringdon St., London, E. G. 4, England. 

Officers: Pres,, Rev. R. C. Gillie, M. A.; Pres.-Eleet, Rev. S. Chad- 
wick; Han. Sec8,, Rev. J. S. Lidgett, Rev. Thomas Nightingale; 
Treas,, George Gadbury. 

Federal Council of the Evangelical Free Churches 

Constituent Bodies: Baptist Church, Presbjrterian Church, Con- 
gregational Church, Primitive Methodist Church, Wesleyan Reform 
Union, Independent Methodist Church, Moravian Church, Countess 
of Huntingdon Connexion, United Methodist Church, Wesleyan Meth- 
odist Church. 

Officers: Moderator, .Rev. J, D. Jones, M.A., St. Stephen's 
Road, Bournemouth; Sees,, Rev. W. L. Robertson, 7 E. India Ave., 
London, E. G. 3, Rev. Walter H. Armstrong, 49 Cily Road, London, 
E. C. 1, and Rev. J. H. Shakespeare, M.A., 4 Southampton Row, 
London, W. C. 1; Treaa,, Sir Walter Essex, Dixcot, North Drive, 
Streatham Park, London, S. W. 16, and William Mallison, 130 Hack- 
ney Rd., London, E. 2. 


Protestant Federation of France 

(Federation Protestante de France) 

Constituent Bodies: National Union of Reformed Evangelical 
Churches, National Union of Reformed Churches, Evangelical Lu- 
theran Church, Union of Evangelical Free Churches, Evangelical 
Methodist Church, Union of Baptist Churches of Northern France, 
Reformed Churches and Churches of the Augsburg Confession 
(Lutheran) of Alsace and Lorraine. 

(*)/Llndicate8 secretary employed part of the time as (P). 
(S>, Sunday School Association. 
(Y) Y. M. C. A. Secretary. 
(C) Bureau of Charities. 

Directory of Federal Council 269 

Executive Body: Council of the Federation. 

Officers of the Council: Pres,, Ed. Gruner; Vice-Pres., M. Junc- 
ker, Rev. M. Roberty; Sec, Rev. Elie Bonnet, 8 rue de la Victoire, 
Paris; Asst, Sec, Rev. M. Vincent; Treas,, Rev. M. Morel. 

United Protestant Committee for War Aid in France and Belgium 

(Comite d'Union Protestante pour le Secours de Guerre en France 

et Belgique) 

Officers of the Committee: Prea,, M. Edouard Gruner; Sec- 
Treaa,, M. Andre Monod, 8 rue de la Victoire, Paris. 

French Protestant Committee 

(Comite Protestante Franqais) 
Officers of the Committee: Pres,, M. Paul Fuzier; Director, M. 
Andre Monod, 8 rue de la Victoire, Paris. 

Federation of German Evangelical Churches 

(Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchenbund) 

Constituent Bodies: These have not yet beeen listed, and perma- 
nent organization has not been completed. 

Officers: Publicity Secretary, Dr. A. W. Schreiber, Humbold- 
strasse 14, 1, Berlin- Steglitz, Germany; Sec, Rev. Henry Schaedel, 
Mommeiistrasse 49-A, Berlin- Steglitz. 

Federated Churches of Japan, Tokyo, Japan 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Kakujiro Ishikawa; Sec, Rev. Kikutaro Mat- 
sumo, 234 Shimo Shibuya, Tokyo. 

The Conference of Federated Missions in Japan 

Officers: Chmn., Rev. A. K. Reischauer; Sec, Rev. G. W. Fulton. 
Office: Methodist Publishing House, Ginza, Tokyo. 

Union of Swiss Reformed Churches 

(Verband Schweizerischer Reformierter Kirchen) 

Constituent Bodies: Includes now all Reformed Churches of 
Switzerland (reformed and free). 

Officers: Pres,, Rev. D. Herold, Winterthur; Sec, Rev. Adolf 
Keller, 43 Carmenstrasse, Zurich; Treas,, Prof, Ammann, Zofingen. 




Social Service 



This Directory, in addition to Interchurch agencies, lists the major 
organizations which are National or International in scope organized 
to serve on lines in accord with the spirit and purpose of Christ. 
While by no means complete it lists the major organizations of gen- 
eral public service, and is greatly enlargred as compared with pre- 
vious editions of the Year. Book. We call especial attention to the 
government agencies listed in this section; also to organizations for 
international friendship through practical service. 

For information concerning distinctly denominational agrencies in 
all the lines of service here listed, see Directory of Churches, under 
the several denominations. Sec. I. 


American Bible Society 

Office : Bible House, New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Churchill H. Cutting; Pres. Emeritibs, 
James Wood ; Gen. Sees., Rev. William I. Haven, Frank H. 
Mann; Rec. Sec, Rev. Lewis B. Chamberlain; Treas., Gil- 
bert Darlington. 

Purpose: To secure the translation, publication, and circulation of 
the Holy Scriptures, without note or comment, in all languages and 
in all lands. 

Home Agencies: Colored people. South, Sec, Rev. J. P. Wragg, 
Bible House, Astor Place, New York; Northwestern, Sec, Rev. S. H. 
Kirkbride, Merchants Building, Washington and La Salle Sts., 
Chicago, 111.; 5. Atlantic, Sec, Rev. M. B. Porter, 313a E. Grace St., 
Richmond, Va. ; Western, Sec, Rev. A. F. Ragatz, 808 Railroad Build- 
ing, Denver, Colo.; Pacific, Sec, Rev. A. W. Mell, 122 McAllister St., 
San Francisco, Cal.; Southwestern, Sec, Rev. J. J. Morgan, 1304 
Commerce St., Dallas, Tex.; Eastern, Sec, Rev. Samuel C. Benson, 
137 Montague St., Brooklyn, N. Y.; Central, Sec, Rev. Frank Mars- 
ton, 424 Elm St., Cincinnati, O.; Atlantic, Sec, Rev. F. P. Parkin, 701 
Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Foreign Agencies: Levant Agency, Rev. Arthur C. Ryan, Bible 
House, Constantinople, Turkey,. Rev. J. Oscar Boyd, Cairo, Egypt; 
La Plata Agency, Rev. Francis G. Penzotti, Cacilla de Correo, 
304, Calle Parana, 481 Buenos Ayres, Argentina; Japan Agency, 
Rev. Karl E. Aurell, Bible House, Ginza Street, Tokyo, Japan; China 
Agency, Rev. Carleton Lacy, 73 Szechuen Road, Shanghai, China; 
Brazil Agency, Rev. H. C. Tucker, Caixa do Correio, 454, Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil; Mexico Agency, Rev. A. H. Mellen, Apartado 1373, 

274 Year Book of the Churches 

Mexico City, Mexico; West Indies Agency, Jose Marchial-Dorado, 
Ph.D., San Juan. Porto Rico; Siam Agency, Rev. Robert Irwin, 
Bangkok, Siam; Caribbean Agency, Rev. W. F. Jordan, Bible House, 
Cristobal, Canal Zone; Philippines Agency, Rev. G. B. Cameron, Box 
755, Manila, P. I.; Upper Andes Agency, Rev. R. R. Gregory, Bible 
House, Cristobal, Canal Zone. 

Periodical: Bible Society Record. 

American Tract Society 

Office : 101 Park Ave., Cor. 40th St., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., William Phillips Hall; Act. Gen. Sec, 
Rev. Edwin Noah Hardy ; Treas., Louis Tag. 

Purpose: To diffuse a knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ by print- 
ing and circulating the gospel message in many languages, dialects, 
and characters throughout the world. 

Periodical: American Messenger, Editor, Rev. Henry Lewis. 

Chicago Tract Society 

Officers : Pres., Rev. Geo. L. Robinson ; Vice-Pres., Rev. 
Wm. R. Wedderspoon ; Sec, Rev. G. K. Flack, 440 S. Dear- 
born St., Chicago, 111.; Treas., William T. Vickery, Conti- 
nental and Commercial National Bank, Chicago, 111. 

Puift»0SE : To carry the gospel to the poor and neglected by personal 
testimony and the printed page; to supply to missionaries suitable 
literature in all languages; to employ missionary colporteurs, espe- 
cially among those of foreign speech. 

Commission on Evangelism and Life Service (Federal 

See p. 252. 

Family Altar League 

Office : 538-541 Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. W. E. Biederwolf; Vice-Pres., 
H. P. Crowell; Treas., Thos. J. Bolger; Gen. Sec, Rev. 
William Matthew Holderby. 

Purpose: To promote family worship and Bible study. 
Periodical: The Family Altar (monthly). Editor, Rev. William 
Matthew Holderby. 

Gideons (The Christian Commercial Travelers' Association 
of America) 

Office: 140 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Officers: Pi^es., J. Harry Humphreys; Vice-Pres., W. D. 
Gillespie; Sec, A. B. T. Moore; Treas., W. W. Crissinger; 
Chaplain, J. F. Cousart. 

Purpose : To band together the Christian travelers of America, and 
through them to win the commercial travelers of America for the 
glory of God; to supply every hotel in America with a Bible for eadi 

iDirectory of tnter-Chiirch 275 

guest room; to prepare the hearts of travelers for th6 acceptance 
of salvation. 

Periodical: The Gideon, Editor, A. B. T. Moore. 

Interdenominational Evangelistic Association 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Bob Jones; Gen. Sec. and Treas., 
Rev. Parley E. Zartmann, Winona Lake, Ind. 

Purpose: To elevate the standard of evangelistic work, to promote 
evangelism, to secure mutual fellowship, cooperation and protection 
of those engaged exclusively in evangelistic work; also to provide a 
bureau of information for churches desiring leaders or helpers for 
evangelistic meetings. 

National Testament and Tract League 

Office : 200 Kellogg Bldg., Washington, D. C. 
Address the Gen. Sec. and Treas., W. P. Cooke. 

Object: To promote the interest of evangelical religion by the free 
distribution of the gospel in printed form, and by conducting evan- 
gelistic meetings. 

Pocket Testament League 

Headquarters : 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Founder: Mrs. Charles M. Alexander; Hon. Pres., Dr. 
R. A. Torrey; Pres. Board of Directors, Alwyn Ball, Jr.; 
General Sec, Mrs. B. McAnlis; Extension Sec, Mr. S. Le- 
roy Smith; Chmn. BtLsiness Men's Council, Joseph Steele, 
520 Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Purpose: Personal evangelism through the distribution of Testa- 
ments or Bibles to all who will carry them and read at least one 
chapter daily. 

Scripture Gift Mission, American Branch 

Office: 119 S. Fourth St., Philadelphia, Pa. Chief office 
and depository, 14 Bedford St., London, Eng. 

Officers: Sec, Robert B. Haines, Jr.; Treas., Asa S. 

Purpose: To distribute the Gospels free throughout the world, 
among soldiers and sailors and in neglected and thinly settled por- 
tions of our country. 


American Council on Education 

(Organized 1918) 

Office : 818 Connecticut Ave. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Pres., L. D. Coffman, University of Minn.; 
Director, Samuel P. Capen; Sec, Dean Virginia Gilder- 
sleeve, Barnhard College, Columbia University. 

Purpose: To promote and carry out cooperative action in educa- 

276 Year Book of the Churches 

tional matters of common interest and to act as a central clearing 
house of the national educational associations that comprise its mem- 

Association of American Colleges 

Officers: Pres., Charles A. Richmond; Exec. Sec, 
Robert L. Kelly, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Bureau of Vocational Information 

(Organized 1919) 

Office : 2 West 43d Street, New York City. . 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. Wendell T. Bush; Treas., Mrs. 
Frederick H. Cone; Sec, Miss Mabel Foote Weeks; Direc- 
tor, Miss Emma P. Hirth. 

Purpose: A clearing house of vocational information for women. 
Cooperates with trained and experienced women in all professions 
and in business and in the collection of occupational information. 
Cooperates with colleges and schools in the distribution of this infor- 
mation among students and prospective workers. Publishes voca- 
tional bulletin. 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

Headquarters : 522 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Officers: Chmn., Elihu Root; Vice-Chmn., Robert A. 
Franks; Treas., Robert A. Franks; Sec., James Bertram. 

Purpose: To promote the advancement of knowledg^e and under- 
standing by aiding schools, libraries, research, hero funds, useful 
publications, and other agencies. 

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 

(Incorporated 1906) 

Office : 522 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., Henry S. Pritchett; Treas., Robert A. 
Franks ; Sec, Clyde Furst. 

Purpose: To provide retiring allowances and pensions for teachers 
and, in general, to encourage, uphold, and dignify the profession of 
the teacher and the cause of higher education. 

Chautauqua Institution 
Office: Chautauqua, N. Y. 

Assembly July and August, including lectures, concerts, etc. 

Summer Schools, July and August. Languages, science, mathe- 
matics, pedagogy, arts and crafts, music, etc. 

Home Reading Department, a four years' course of systematized 
home readings, aims to give a general increase of knowledge and of 

Community Motion Picture Bureau 

Office : 46 West 24th Street, New York City. 
Officer: Pres., Warren Dunham Foster. 

Purpose: Organized to supply educational and recreational motion- 
picture service for conmiunity development. 

Directory of Inter-Church 277 

General Education Board 

Office : 61 Broadway, New York City. 

Officers : Pres., Wallace Buttrick ; Secs.^ Abraham Flex- 
ner, Trevot Arnett; AssL Sec, E. C. Sage; Treas., L. 6. 
Myers ; Asst. Treas., L. M. Dashiell. 

Purpose: The promotion of education in the United States, by 
means of surveys, research, the promotion of modern technical edu- 
cation, and financial aid. 

National Committee for Teaching Citizenship 

(Organized 1919) 

Office: 3421 Lowell St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Purpose: To encourage the education of boys and girls of the 
United States concerning the origin and development of liberty, co- 
operation, and democracy; the economic, political, and social prob- 
lems confronting democracy today; the responsibility of citizens in 
a democracy, and the needs and values of living. 

National Education Association 

Office : 1201 Sixteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Officers: Pres., Miss Charl Ormond Williams; Sec, 
J. W. Crabtree; Treas., Miss Cornelia S. Adair. 

Purpose: To elevate the character and advance the interests of 
the profession of teaching and to promote the cause of education in 
the United States. 

National Federation of College Women 

(Organized 1912; in process of inc.) 

Officer: Sec, Mrs. Flora Warren Seymour, 5547 Dor- 
chester Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Purpose: To bring into communication with one another all college 
women, in order to secure unity of purpose and action, thereby con- 
serving the power of college women for rendering effective service. 

National League of Teachers' Associations 

(Organized 1912) 

Officer : Pres,, Nina Buchanan, Hotel Wintonia, Seattle, 

Purpose: For the advancement of education and the interests of 
classroom teachers. 

National Story Tellers' League 

(Organized 1903) 

Officer: Pres., Miss Mary E. Hargreaves, 1602 Mailers 
Bldg., 5 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Purpose: To encourage the art of story telling among men, women, 
and children in the United States and Canada. 

Rockefeller Foundation 

(Organized 1913) 

j Office: 61 Broad way ,i New York City. 

Officers : Chmn. BocvH of Trustees, John D. Rockefeller, 
Jr.; Pres., Geo. E. Vincent; Sec, Edwin Rogers Embree; 
Treas., L. G. Myers. 

278 Year Book of the Churches 

Purpose: To promote the well-being of mankind throughout the 
world. Has so devoted its resources to programs of public health and 
medical education throughout the world that these have come to be 
regarded definitely as its fields. 

The Southern Cooperative League for Education and Social 

Office : 937 Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Pres,, Philander P. Claxton; Vice-Pres., 
Bishop Theodore D. Bratton; Gov. C. H. Brough; Sec, 
J. E. McCulloch ; Treas., Richard T. Wyche. 

Ex. Com.: Chmn., J. P. McConnell; Sec, Richard T. 
Wyche; E. O. Watson, P. P. Claxton, J. O. Spencer. 

Purpose: To enlist the citizenship of the South in reinforcing the 
existing agencies for education and social service. 

Support: It is supported by membership fees and donations. 

Negro Education 

Association of Colleges for Negro Youth 

(Organized 1913) 

Officer : Pres., J. L. Peacock, Shaw University, Raleigh, 
N. C. 

Holds an annual meeting for discussion of all phases of college 
work, including curriculum as well as administration. Admits to 
membership only institutions maintaining work of college grade and 
of a standard approved by the Association. Supported by annual 
dues of its members and contributions from philanthropic boards. 

Purpose: To extend and develop institutions for the higher edu- 
cation of negroes. 

Association for the Study of Negro Life and History 

(Organized and Incorporated 1915) 

Address: Dir., C. G. Woodson, 1216 You Street N. W., 
Washington, D. C. 

Purpose: To collect and publish sociological and historical docu- 
ments and to promote studies bearing on Negro life and history. 
Endeavors to bring about harmony between the races by interpreting 
one to the other. 

Holds an annual meeting, open to the public. 

Commission on the Church and Race Relations (Federal 

See p. 254. 

Commission on Inter-Racial Cooperation 

Office: Palmer Building, Atlanta, Ga. 
Officers: Chmn., John J. Eagan; Treas., E. Darden 
Borders ; Director, Will W. Alexander. 

Purpose: Seeks to promote good- will and cooperation between 
white and Negro races. 

Julius Rosenwald Fund (Rural School Buildings) /. 

(Organized 1914) 

Officers: Genl. Field Agent of Rural Schools, S. L. 
Smith, Commercial Club, Nashville. Tenn. 

Directory of Inter-Church 279 

Purpose: Extends aid to southern communities desiring to provide 
modern rural school houses for Negroes. 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

Office : 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Moorfield Storey; Chmn. Board of Di- 
rectors, Miss Mary White Ovington; Sec, James W. John- 
son; Treas., J. E. Spingarn. 

Purpose: To secure to colored Americans the common rights of 
American citizenship, and to advance their interests generally. The 
Association carries on an active educational and publicity campaign 
against lynching and mob violence. 

Periodical: Crisis, Editor, W. E. Burghardt Du Bois. 

National Association of Colored Women 

Organized 1896 — Incorporated 1904) 

Officers: Pres., Miss Hallie Q. Brown, Wilberforce 
Univ., Xenia, Ohio; Sec, Mrs. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, 
Sidalia, N. C. 

Has affiliated State and city federations and local clubs of colored 
women in more than half the States of the Union. National organ- 
izer stimulates and assists in the formation of federations and clubs. 
Community requesting this service usually pays expenses. National 
Association holds biennial meetings, open to the public, at which are 
discussed civic and social questions and any matters relating to the 
welfare of the colored race. Proceedings are published; available 
on request until supply is exhausted. Work is carried on throughout 
the year by standing committees on Education, Suffrage, Civil Rights, 
Social Service, Music and other topics. Committees make reports at 
biennial meetings. The more important of these reports are included 
in the Proceedings. 

National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools 

(Organized 1903) 

Officers: Sec, Silas X. Floyd, 1025 Twelfth St., Au- 
gusta, Ga. ; Exec Sec, Prof. R. S. Grossley, 446 W. Pearl 
St., Jackson, Miss. 

Purpose: For the promotion of education and the betterment of 
teachers in colored schools. 

Has organized State associations throughout the South. Holds an 
annual meeting, open to the public, for the discussion of problems. 

National Urban League (for Social Service among Negroes) 

(Established 1911) 

Office : 127 East 23d Street, New York City. 

Officers : Chmn., L. Hollingsworth Wood ; Treas., A. S. 
Frissell; Sec, William H. Baldwin; Exec Sec, Eugene 
Kinckle Jones. 

Purpose: To bring about coordination of social agencies working 
with Negroes and to develop such agencies and organizations where 
necessary; to secure and train Negro social workers; to investigate 
conditions of city life as a basis for practical work. 

Negro National Educational Congress 

(Organized and Incorporated 1900) 

Officers: Pres., J. Silas Harris, 1611 Forest Avenue, 
Kansas City, Mo. 

280 Year Book of the Churches 

Purpose: To lift the Negro to a higher and more useful plane of 
American citizenship. 

Negro Rural School Fund, Anna T. Jeannes Foundation 

(Organized 1907) 

President and Director, James H. Dillard. 
Address : Box 418, Charlottesville, Va. 

Purpose: To assist remote country schools for Negro children. 

Phelps Stokes Fund 

(Organized 1910, Incorporated 1911) 

Address : 100 William St., New York City. 

Purpose: To originate, stimulate, and encourage activities for 
social betterment. Works especially to further the education of 
Negroes and Indians; also assists needy and deserving white students. 

Slater Fund, John F. 

(Organized 1882) 

Office : 61 Broadway, New York City. 
President and Director, James H. Dillard, Charlottes- 
ville, Va. 

Purpose: For the improvement and extension of schools for colored 
children in the South. Contributes to teacher training or industrial 
work in a number of colleges and private secondary schools. Has 
established many county training schools, which provide industrial 
training as well as the usual academic courses, and include some 
special preparation for teaching. 

University Commission on Southern Race Questions 

(Organized 1912) 

Officer: Josiah Morse, University of South Carolina, 
Columbia, S. C. 

Holds an annual meeting, and publishes occasionally ''Open Letters 
to the College Students of the South." Is composed of representa- 
tives of a number of southern State universities. 

Purpose: Organized for the purpose of studying questions con- 
nected with the relation of the races and the needs and conditions 
of the Negroes in the southern States. 


American Sunday School Union 

Office: 1816 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Officers: Pres., Martin L. Finckel; Rec. Sec, William 
H. Hirst; Treas., John E. Stevenson. 

Purpose : To establish and maintain Sunday schools, and to publish 
and circulate moral and religious publications. 

Periodical: The Sunday School World, Editor, James McConaughy. 

Bible Teachers' Training School 


Office: 541 Lexington Ave. cor. 49th St., New York 

Directory of Inter-Church 281 

Officers: Pres., Wilbert W. White; Vice-Pres., J. Camp- 
bell White; Treas., Orrin R. Judd; Sec, Leslie J. Tomkins. 

Purpose: For the preparation of ministers and Christian workers 
for service in all lands. 

Commission on Christian Education (Federal Council) 

See p. 252. 

Committee on Friendly Relations among Foreign Students 

Office : 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Officers : Gen, Sec., Charles D. Hurrey ; Asso. Gen. Sec,, 
Elmer Yelton; Treas., B. H. Fancher. 

Purpose: To welcome foreign students in America; to assist them 
in all advantages to a good education, to make them acquainted with 
one another, and to give them a correct understanding of Christianity. 

Periodicals: Christian China (quarterly) ; Japan Review (month- 
ly) ; El Estudiante Latino-Americano (monthly) ; The Philippine 
Herald (monthly); Hindustan Christian Student (monthly). 

Committee on the War and the Religious Outlook (Ap- 
pointed by Federal Council) 

Office: 105 E. 22d St., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., Rev. William Adams Brown; Vice- 
Chmn., Rev. Charles W. Gilkey; Sec, Rev. Samuel McCrea 

Purpose: To consider the state of religion as affected by the war, 
with special reference to the duty and opportunity of the churches, 
anS to submit its findings to the churches. 

The Committee has thus far issued the following volumes: 

"Religion Among American Men, as Revealed by a Study of Con- 
ditions in the Army." 

"The Missionary Outlook in the Light of War." 

"The Church and Industrial Reconstruction." 

"Christian Unity; Its Principles and Possibilities." 

"The Teaching Work of the Church." 

In addition to these reports, the Committee has also published a 
comprehensive bibliography on the war and religion and a series 
of pamphlets dealing with some of the more important questions 
confronting the Church. 

Conference of Church Workers in Universities 

Address: 54 15th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio. 

Officers: Pres., William Houston, Columbus, Ohio; 
Vice-Pres., N. D. Goehring, Lawrence, Kansas; Sec and 
Treas., Vernon S. Phillips, Columbus, Ohio. 

The Conference of Church Workers in Universities holds only one 
meeting a year, usually in January in Chicago. 

Purpose: The purpose of the organization is to study the best 
method for the Church to approach the religious and moral problems 
of the students who are attending the universities. It is to counsel 
and organize curricula for volunteer study, also to advise plans for 
the organization and promotion of schools of religion, to present the 
result of the study of student problems to groups of men who are 
doing similar work, and to unify the Christian forces that are at 
work in universities. 

282 Year Book of the Churches 

Conference of Theological Seminaries in the United States 
and Canada 

(Organized August, 1918, at Harvard University) 

The Conference is under the direction of a Continuation 
Committee of thirty men representing different seminaries. 

The third biennial meeting will be held in Toronto, June 
27-29, 1922. A draft of a Constitution will be considered 
for adoption at this meeting. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. Wm. Douglas Mackenzie, Hartford 
Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn.; Sec, Rev. Henry 
Wilder Foote, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, 

Executive Committee: Chmn., Rev. Wm. Douglas Mac- 
kenzie; Gen. Sec. and Treas., Rev. George W. Richards, 
Lancaster Theological Seminary, Lancaster, Pa. 

Purpose: To promote cooperation among theological schools, not 
by executive action but by conference and council, on all matters of 
common interest and mutual benefit. Through the Continuation 
Committee the following matters have been considered and brought 
to the attention of the theological schools: The adjustment of the 
theological curriculum to the requirements of our times; the prepa- 
ration of a pre-seminary course of study to be given by universities 
and colleges to candidates for the ministry; the recruiting of men 
for the ministry, laying stress upon the necessity of maintaining the 
highest possible standard of qualifications for the ministry of today; 
an investigation of the various types of theological training in this 
country and in Canada; to provide guidance through annual circu- 
lars containing necessary information both for American students 
who desire to continue their theological studies in Europe and for 
European students who desire to study in America. This includes 
also the encouragement of interchanging theological professors be- 
tween Europe and Amercia; to discuss, at the biennial conferences, 
the religious and theological questions which claim the attention of 
the Church; to cooperate, so far as the scope of the Conference 
permits, with other agencies of Christian education for the advance- 
ment of the Kingdom of God; to cultivate fellowship and the sense 
of a common purpose among theological teachers of different 
churches, which will doubtless have profound influence upon the 
closer relations of the churches themselves. 

Council of Church Boards of Education 

Office: 111 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Paul Micou, New York, N. Y.; 
Vice-Pres., Dr. H. 0. Pritchard, Indianapolis, Ind.; Rec. 
Sec, Dr. 0. D. Foster, New York, N. Y. ; Treas., Dr. E. P. 
Hill, New York, N. Y.; Exec Sec, Dr. Robert L. Kelly; 
Research Sec, Miss Lura Beam; University and Seminary 
Sec, Dr. 0. D. Foster. 

Most of the organized Protestant Boards of Education, represent- 
ing some twenty leading denominations, are members of the Council. 

Purpose: To gain a mutual knowledge and cooperation that .will 
promote the interests of Christian education in both denominational 
and tax- supported institutions. 

Periodical: Christian Education. 

Directory of Inter-Church 283 

International Association of Daily Vacation Bible Schools 

Office : 90 Bible House, New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Russell Colgate; Director, Rev. Robert 
G. Boville; Metropolitan Director, Walter M. Howley; 
Treas., Waldron P. Belknap. 

Purpose: To bring together in every community and in every 
communion idle children, idle churches, idle students and idle vaca- 
tions in unsectarian daily vacation Bible schools, combining worship, 
work, play, and patriotism. 

Publication: Facts, 

International Sunday School Association 

Office: 1516 Mailers Bldg., 5 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago. 
Officers : Pres., W. O. Thompson, Columbus, Ohio ; Gen. 
Sec, Marion Lawrance; Treas., F. A. Wells. 

Purpose: To promote religious education in the local church 
schools and in the communities throughout its territory. 

Periodical: The International Searchlight, Editor, Marion Law- 

By merger agreed upon February 15-16, 1922, with the Sunday 
School Council of Evangelical Denominations, becomes the Interna- 
tional Sunday School Council of Religious Education. 

International Sunday School Council of Religious Educa- 

February 15-16, 1922, at Chicago, the Sunday School Council of 
Evangelical Denominations and the International Sunday School 
Association held their annual meetings. The business of prime imr 
portance to both organizations was the plan of merger which was 
presented by their Joint Committee on Reference and Counsel. This 
plan was the culmination of four years of negotiations between the 
two bodies, the purpose of which was to effect some form of organi- 
zation through which cooperative Sunday school work might be done 
in the United States and Canada. 

The Sunday School Council is an organization comprised of edi- 
tors, publishers, general secretaries, educational secretaries, and field 
workers of over thirty denominations of the United States and 
Canada. Members of this organization are directly responsible for 
the Sunday school work of their denominations. The International 
Sunday School Association, on the other hand, is a voluntary organi- 
zation of Christian laymen interested in the Sunday school. Its 
leadership is drawn from the rank and file, while the Sunday School 
Council leadership is made up of ofiicial representatives of Sunday 
school boards. One is popular in its character and contacts; the 
other ofiicial. Both organizations, however, have had the same field; 
that is, the Sunday school and its week-day and community afiilia- 
tions. Naturally, as the denominations accepted more fully their 
responsibility for the leadership of the young life of their churches, 
ti?ere arose duplication of program and effort, involving misunder- 
standing and friction. 

The need of a common policy and program for the common tasks 
in interdenominational work is the real need which has brought 
these organizations together in the merger which has just been so 
happily and unanimously adopted by both the Council and Associa- 

By the terms of this merger the reorganized executive committee 
of the International Sunday School Association becomes the merged 
organization, while the Sunday School Council as an organization is 
discontinued. Provision, however, is made for its essential functions 
by the organization of groups of professional workers, such as chil- 

284 Year Book of the Churches 

dren's workers, young people's workers, adult workers, directors of 
religious education, denominational editors, denominational publish- 
ers, etc., each group having affiliation through its chairman with the 
International Sunday School Council of Religious Education. The 
name of the new organization is henceforth the International Sunday 
School Council of Religious Education, and the charter is to be 
amended by changing the name from International Sunday School 
Association to International Sunday School Council of Religious 
Education. A committee on education made up of leading specialists 
in the field of religious education in the United States and Canada is 
appointed by the new organization and will formulate its educational 
policies and prog^rams. It will be seen that in this very simple form 
of organization provision is made for the administrative ta^, the 
educational function and the deliberative element. 

Fifty years ago the International Uniform Lessons were first 
issued and the active life of the International Sunday School Asso- 
ciation began. Next June at Kansas City is to be held the quad- 
rennial convention of this association, which marks the beginning of 
a new epoch of progress in religious education through the merger 
of Protestant Christian forces in the International Sunday School 
Council of Religious Education. It is contemplated that at that time 
a new general secretary will have been elected and a change of head- 
quarters to the national capital effected. 

The same officers of the Sunday School Council were re-elected to 
continue until its affairs are closed up, and the new merged associa- 
tion is in active operation. 

With the formation of this new organization the denominations 
will have a common medium through which to do their cooperative 
Sunday school work; in it both official and lay elements will work 
harmoniou'sly together in the interests of the childhood of America. 
The influence of a common program backed by these united Protes- 
tant denominations will be felt in every State, district and community 
in the two nations. 

The plan for this merger presented by the Committee of Reference 
and Counsel and adopted by the two bodies concerned is as follows: 

1. The reorganized Executive Committee of the International Sun- 
day School Association, based on the agreement of cooperation and 
Exhibit "A" (January-February, 1920), is the merged body of terri- 
torial and denominational forces as formerly represented by the 
International Sunday School Association and the Sunday School 
Counci' of Evangelical Denominations. 

2. This merged body shall be called the International Sunday 
School Council of Religious Education. 

3. The International Sunday School Council of Religious Educa- 
tion shall appoint a Committee on Education composed of not more 
than sixty members. 

4. The International Sunday School Council of Religious Educa- 
tion shall set up groups of professional workers, the chairman of 
each of which shall be a consulting member of the International 
Sunday School Council of Religious Education. 

These groups shall be such as Children's Workers, Young People's 
Workers, Adult Workers, Field Workers, Directors of Religious 
Education, Denominational Editors, Denominational Publishers, etc. 

5. We recommend that in harmony with this plan of merger the 
Executive Committee of the International Sunday School Association 
request the Congress of the United States to amend the charter by 
changing the name "The International Sunday School Association" 
to "The International Sunday School Council of Religious Education." 

6. Pending the change of the legal name of the organization by 
congressional action, we recommend the business of the organization 
shall be conducted under the new name. 

Directory of Inter-Chureh 283 

7. We recommend that the International Executive Committee be 
requested to revise its by-laws in harmony with the foregoing pro- 

International Sunday School Lesson Committee 

Office: 1516 Mailers Bldg., Wabash and Madison St., 
Chicago, 111. 

Officers: Chmn., Prof. John R. Sampey; Vice-Chmn,, 
Prof. L. A. Weigle; Sec, Prof. Ira M. Price; Treas., Rev. 
W. 0. Fries. 

Purpose: To prepare lists of lessons for Sunday school use on the 
basis of the best established principles of religious pedagogy. 

Magna Charta Day Association 

Home Office: 147 Kent Street, St. Paul, Minn. 
Officers: Pres., Rev. William J. Johnstone; Exec. Sec, 
Mr. J. W. Hamilton. 

Purpose: The Association seeks to arouse interest in plans to have 
the churches and Sunday schools of the English-speaking world 
recognize the third Sunday in June as Magna Charta Sunday, If only 
by a prayer that God will continue to bless the relations between 
England and America, the press to comment on the greatness of this 
day, on every June 15. Circulars upon request. 

Missionary Education Movement 

Office: 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., Rev. William P. Schell; Vice-Chmn., 
Mr. George F. Sutherland ; Rec. Sec, Dr. Harry S. Myers ; 
Treas., Mr. Philip S. Suff ern ; Educational Sec, Mr. Frank- 
lin D. Cogswell ; Buaineaa Mgr., Mr. Herbert L. Hill. 

Purpose: An agency, in which many denominations cooperate, for 
the publishing of interdenominational graded missionary education 
literature and the conducting of interdenominational summer con- 
ferences and institutions. 

;iou8 Eklucation Association 

Office: 1440 E. 57th St., Chicago, 111. 

Officers: Prea., Prof. Theo. G. Scares, Chicago, 111.; 
First Vice-Pres., Sir Robert A. Falconer, Toronto; Sec, 
Henry F. Cope ; Rec Sec, Herbert W. Gat€^ ; Treas., David 
R. Forgan. 

A cooperative organization of the leaden in religious, educational, 
eultnral, and social organizations, and a clearing house for religion 
and education. 

Pukpobe: To promote moral and religious training in existing 
agencies, in homes, and through the press. 

ICethqds of Work: Bureau of information, public reference li- 
Inrary, investigations, publications, conventions, traveling exhibits, 
cacpertments, and local conferences. 

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign 
See p. 292, 

Sunday School Council of Evangelical Denominations 
Office: 99 Dundas St. East, Toronto, Canada. 

286 Year Book of the Churches 

Officers: Pres., Dr. Sidney A. Weston, Boston, Mass.; 
Sec.y Rev. George T. Webb, 99 Dundas St. East, Toronto, 
Canada; Treas., R. E. Magill, Richmond, Va. 

Purpose: To advance Sunday school interests in the cooperating 

1. By conferring on matters of common interest; 

2. By giving expression to common views and decisions; 

3. By cooperative action on matters concerning educational, edi- 
torial, missionary and publishing activities. 

By merger agreed upon February 15-16, 1922, ceases as an organi- 
zation, though provision is made for its essential functions by the 
organization of groups of professional workers, each group having 
affiliation through its chairman with the new organization resulting 
from the merger, the International Sunday School Council of Re- 
ligious Education. See p. 283. 

United Society of Christian Endeavor 

Office: Christian Endeavor Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

Western Office: 405 Association Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Francis E. Clark; Asso, Pres., 
Daniel A. Poling; Gen. Sec, E. P. Gates; Editorial Sec, 
Rev. R. P. Anderson; Treas. and Publication Mgr., A. J. 
Shartle; Extension Sec, Rev. Ira Landrith; Southwestern 
Federation Sec, W. Roy Breg; Southern Sec, Charles F. 
Evans; Pacific Coast Sec, Paul C. Brown; Alumni Supt., 
Stanley B. Vandersall; Army and Navy Supt, Rev. S. C. 
Ramsden ; Mgr. Western Office, R. A. Walker. 

Christian Endeavor Fundamental Principles: Confession of 
Christ; service for Christ; loyalty to Christ's Church; fellowship 
with Christ's people. 

Comrades of the Quiet Hour. — Members covenant to spend a defi- 
nite portion of each day in communion with God. 

Tenth Legion. — Members make the tenth their minimum gift for 
the work of the kingdom. 

Life Work Recruits. — Young people who have covenanted to give 
themselves to full time service in the Christian ministry or in mis- 
sionary work. 

Christian Endeavor Experts. — Members pass a definite examina- 
tion in Christian Endeavor methods and principles. 

Periodical: The Christian Endeavor World (weekly). Editor, 
Amos R. Wells, Boston, Mass. 

World Brotherhood Federation 

Headquarters: Trafalgar Buildings, 1, Charing Cross, 
S. W. 1, London, Eng. 

Office of the World Commissioner: 405 Kent Bldg., 
Toronto, Canada. 

Officers: Hon. Pres., Rev. John Clifford, London, Eng.; 
Pres., Wm. Ward, London, Eng.; Vice-Pres., Gen. Jan C. 
Smuts, Cape Tov^n, S. Af ., Rev. T. A. Moore, Toronto, Can., 
Rt. Hon. Arthur Henderson, M. P., London, Eng.; Asso. 
Treas., Wm. Heal, London, Eng.; Commissioner for Eu- 
rope, Tom Sykes, London, Eng.; Commissioner for N. 
America, James Foster Wilcox; Commissioner and Sec, 
Thomas Howell. 

Directory of Inter-Church 287 

The objects of the Federation are: 

1. To promote the organization of brotherhoods and kindred socle* 
ties in all countries. 

2. To promote the universal observance of a Brotherhood Sunday. 

3. To interpret and exemplify brotherhood in the light of the liie 
and principles of Jesus. 

4. To make such a spirit and interpretation of brotherhood domi- 
nant in all life, personal, social, economic and political. 

World's Student Christian Federation 

(Organized, 1896, at Vadstena Castle, Sweden) 

Office : 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Officer: Chmn., John R. Mott. 

Composed of the following Christian Student Movements: Austral- 
asia, China, The Netherlands and Switzerland, France and Italy, 
Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, India and Ceylon, Japan. Den- 
mark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, Russia, South Africa, United 
States and Canada, and other lands. 

World's Sunday School Association 

Office: 1 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Hon. John Wanamaker, Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; Chmn., James W. Kinnear, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Gen. Sec, 
Frank L. Brown ; Treas., Paul Sturtevant, New York. 

Primarily a missionary organization and directly represents the 
mission and Sunday school boards. 

Young Men's Christian Association 
See Men and Boys, p. 310. 

Young Women's Christian Association 
See Women and Girls, p. 334. 


Ad Interim Committee on Organic Union 

Officers: Chmn., Rev. Joseph A. Vance, 21 Edmund 
Place, Detroit, Mich. ; See., Rev. Ruf us W. Miller, 15th and 
Race StB., Philadelphia, Pa.; TreM., E. H. Bonsall, Esq., 
Land Title and Trust Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pobpose: To arrange a conference of representattvef of evangeli- 
cal den^ninations to consider the question of ^Closer Relatknu and 
Union of the Churches.^ 

Association for the Promotion of Christian Unity 

OFncESS: Pres., Peter Ainslie, 504 N. Fulton Avenue, 
Baltimore, Md« ; See., Henry C. Armstrong, 

An arganiration of the Disciples of Christ for pr<Aiiotin|^ the tmity 
of the Chnrch and cooperation among Cliristiaiu, by eoicx^traginjS 
JatcffttfMOJ'jr prayer, the hMinf of interdenominatiotial ovcfdreiices, 
eeneral mnd U0cil^ and the pobucaticm and distributum of ChristiMU 
nmtj literatm^ lis work natchem the leaders of rarions tminm^ 
nioos thrvnsfiiont the world and eoordiiuites witb the ipeoeral moye* 
nenta for xmiXj and ocK^^eration. Menbendbip is open to all ii4io 
denre ^he vakn of Christians and vbo ^ootrioote V^M annoalijr. 

288 Year Book of the Churches 

Christian Unity Foundation 

Office: 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Hon. Pres., Bishop Lines, Newark, N. J.;* 
Pres., Rev. Nehemiah Boynton, New York City; Sec, Rev. 
W. C. Emhardt, Newton, Pa. ; Treas., 0. S. Seymour. 

Purpose : To promote Christian unity at • home and throughout 
the world. 

Commission on Councils of Churches, State and Local 
(Federal Council) 
See p. 251. 

The Continuation Committee of the World Conference on 
Faith and Order 

Officers: Chmn., Rt. Rev. Charles H. Brent, Bishop of 
Western New York ; Treas,, George Zabriskie, 49 Wall St., 
New York City ; Sec, Robert H. Gardiner, 174 Water St., 
Gardiner, Maine. 

Purpose: The consideration of questions pertaining to the faith 
and order of the Church of Christ in the hope of preparing the way 
for that visible unity of Christ's disciples for which He prayed as 
the only evidence potent to convince and convert the world. 

Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America 

See p. 249. 

National Federation of Religious Liberals 

Office: 813 Barristers' Hall, Boston, Mass. 

Officers: Pres., Prof. J. H. Holmes. Swarthmore Col- 
lege, Pa.; Chmn. Exec Com., Charles W. Wendte, Berke- 
ley, Calif.; Sec and Treas., Frank H. Burt. 

Purpose: To promote the religious life by united testimony for 
sincerity, freedom and progress in religion, by social service, and a 
fellowship of the spirit beyond the lines of sect and creed. 

Universal Conference of the Church of Christ on Life and 

(Note: This takes the place of the Ecumenical Conference.) 

Chmn., Archbishop Nathan Soderblom, Upsala, Sweden; 
General Sees., Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 105 E. 22d St., 
New York, Rev. Frederick Lynch, 70 Fifth. Ave., New 

The preliminary conference to arrange for the Universal Confer- 
ence on Life and Work was called at Geneva, in the summer of 1920 
by the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. It is 
proposed to hold a conference representative of all communions of 
the Church of Christ, to concentrate the thought of Christendom on 
the mind of Christ as revealed in the gospels towards those gn^eat 
social questions, industrial and international, which are so acutely 
urgent in eyery country, and to discover how best His message may 
be applied to the problems with which, since the war, every nation 
has been confronted. The entire Conference will be composed of 
officially appointed representatives of the churches. 

A committee has been formed in three sections, representing many 
Christian communions in Continental Europe, the British Empire, 

Directory of Inter-Church 280 

and the United States. On this committee are leaders from the 
Church of England, the Church of Scotland, the Free Churches of 
Great Britain, and most of the communions in Europe and America. 
Regional and sectional conferences have already been held in Scandi- 
navia, England and the United States. The American section is 
organized as follows: 

Officers: Rev. Arthur J. Brown, Chmn.; Bishop Luther B. Wilson, 
Vice-Chmn, and Chmn, of the Exec. Com.; Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, 
Gen. Sec. 


The Church and Federated and Cooperative Effort — Chmn., Rev. 
Frank Mason North; Sees., Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, Rev. Roy B. 

The Church and Evangelism — Chmn., Rev. J. Ross Stevenson; Sec, 
Rev. Charles L. Goodell. 

The Church and Social Service — Chmn., Robert H. Gardiner; Sec, 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy. 

The Church and International Relations — Chmn., Rt. Rev. Charles 
H.. Brent; Sec, Rev. Nehemiah Boynton. 

The Church and Education — Chmn., Pres. Ellen F. Pendleton; 
Sec, Rev. Samuel McCrea Cavert. 

The Church and Domestic Missions — Chmn., Rev. F. W. Burnham; 
Sec, Rev. Alfred W. Anthony. 

The Church and World Evangelism — Chmn., Rev. James I. Vance; 
Sec, Fennell P. Turner. 

The Church and Moral Reform — Chmn., Rev. James H. Franklin. 


Africa Inland Mission, American Council 

Office: 356. Bridge St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Officers: Gen. Director, Rev. Charles E. Hurlburt; 
Home Director, Rev. Orson R. Palmer; Gen. Sec; Rev. 
Oliver M. Fletcher. 

Purpose: To conduct work among unreached tribes in the African 

Periodical: Inland Africa, Editor, Walter F. Clowes. 

American Mission to Lepers, Inc. 

Office : 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Officers : Pres., William J. Schieff elin ; Gen. Sec, W. M. 
Banner ; Treas., Fleming H. Revell. 

Purpose: To preach the gospel to lepers, to relieve their dreadful 
sufferings, to supply their simple wants, and in time, to rid the 
world of leprosy. 

Periodical: Without the Camp (quarterly). Editor, W. H. P. 

Note: This organization is the American representative of The 
Mission to Lepers (London). 

Central American Mission 

Office : 33 Grand Ave., Paris, Texas. 

Officers: Chmn., Rev. Luther Rees, Paris, Texas; Sec, 
Thos. J. Jones, 804 Sumpter Bldg., Dallas, Texas; Treas., 
D. H. Scott, Paris, Texas. 

Purpose: To preach the gospel to every creature in Central 

290 Year Book of the Churches 

Periodical: Central American Bulletin, Paris, Tex., Editor, D. fl. 

China Inland Mission 

Officers: Director for North America, Rev. Henry W. 
Frost, Princeton, N. J.; American Sec.-Treas., Roger 
B. Whittlesey, 235-7 W. School Lane, Germantown, Pa.; 
Canadian Sec, Rev. E. R. Brownlee; Canadian Trea^,, Rev. 
Robert Wallace; Publication and Prayer Union Sec, F. F. 
Helmer, 507 Church St., Toronto, Ont. 

PuRPOSiE: To evangelize the inland provinces of China. 

Committee on Cooperation in Latin America 

Officers: Chmn., Robert E. Speer; Exec Sec, Rev. S. G. 
Inman, 25 Madison Ave., New York City; Editor of Span- 
ish PulUcations, Rev. Juan Orts Gonzalez, New York City; 
Educational Sec, Rev. W. E. Browning, Calle Ghana 2126, 
Montevideo, Uruguay; Treas., James H. Post, 129 Front 
St., New York City. 

The Committee on Cooperation in Latin America acts as a clearing 
house and board of strategy for thirty American and Canadian 
Mission Boards working in Latin America, being officially represen- 
tative of the Mission Boards themselves, and serves as a Continuation 
Committee of the Panama Congress on Christian Work in Latin 
America where its organization was enlarged and reconstituted. It 
is composed of one representative of each missionary agency in its 
membership and a number of co-opted members, not exceeding one- 
half of the number of regularly appointed representatives of the 
various Plission Boards. Its functions are consultative and advisory. 
The wor): of the committee has gradually grown to the point where 
it is imi ossible in a brief statement to trace its numerous activities 
and infii ences. 

It bri igs the mission boards around a common council table to 
discuss i 11 the problems connected with their work in Latin America. 
It keeps a constant circle of helpful contacts and good-will going 
through ihe Mission Boards. It pushes cooperative enterprises which 
would otierwise languish. It maintains helpful and broadening con- 
tacts wivh missionaries on the field. It saves the boards much 
money by doing for all of them work which individual boards would 
otherwise have to undertake. It represents the Evangelical Church 
in many Pan-American movements which might otherwise overlook 
the importance of the Christian forces. It gives out a large amount 
of information to the press, schools, business concerns, and indi- 
viduals concerning Latin America, keeping missionary work in these 
countries in the public mind. It arranges addresses and conducts 
classes on Latin-American topics in churches, conferences, conven- 
tions and educational institutions. It is developing an ever- widening 
acquaintance with the intellectual leaders in Latin America and 
undertakes to interpret to them the spirit and purpose of American 

Commission on International Justice and Good- Will (Fed- 
eral Council) 

See p. 255. 

Commission on Relations with the Orient (Federal Council) 
See p. 255. 

Directory of Inter-Church 291 

Committee on Religious Work in the Canal Zone (Federa/ 
See p. 257. 

Continuation Committee of the World Missionary Confer- 

See International Missionary Council, p. 291. 

Federation of Woman's Boards of Foreign Missions of 
North America 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. William Boyd, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Vice-Pres., Mrs. De Witt Knox; Sec, .Miss Vernon Halli- 
day; Treas., Mrs. J. C. Henley. 

Purpose: To promote unity, Christian fellowship, and cooperation 
among woman's boards; to engage and disseminate the best methods 
of work; and to plead unitedly for the outpouring of the Spirit of 
God upon the Church of Christ. 

Foreign Missions Conference of North America 

Office: 25 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., Rev. Ezra K. Bell; Vice-Chmn., Mrs. 
Henry W. Peabody, Rev. R. P. Mackay and Rev. Enoch F. 
Bell; Sec, F. P. Turner; Hon. Sec, W. Henry Grant; Treas., 
Alfred E. Marling. 

Purpose: To hold an annual conference of North American foreign 
boards, to provide for the study of missionary problems, to promote 
a true science of missions, and to do work in the interest of the 

Committee op Reference and Counsel: Chmn,, Rev. Paul de 
Schweinitz; Vice-Chmn,, Robert E. Speer; Rec, Sec, Rev. Joseph C. 
Robbins; Sees,, Pennell P. Turner, Rev. Frank W. Bible; Treas,, 
Alfred E. Marling. 

Board op Missionary Preparation: Pres,, Rev. W. Douglas Mac- 
kenzie; Vice-Chmn,, Rev. William I. Chamberlain; Sec, Fennell P. 
Turner; Director, Rev. Frank K. Sanders. 

For Statistical Report, see Religious Statistics, Sec. V, p. 364. 

Grenfell Association of America (Inc.) 

Office: 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., D. Bryson Delavan; Treas., Henry C. 
Holt; Sec, Edmund O. Hovey. 

Purpose: Promotes work of Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfell among fisher- 
men in North Newfoundland and Labrador. 

International Missionary Council 

(Formerly the Continuation Committee of the World Missionary 


Officers : Chmn., John R. Mott, 347 Madison Ave., New 
York City; Joint Sees., J. H. Oldham, A. L. Warnshuis, 
Edinburgh House, 2 Eaton Gate, London, S. W. 1, England. 

Constitution: The Council is constituted by the national mission- 
ary organizations in the different countries, and is composed of about 
seventy members. In countries where there is no representative 
organization, a committee of the Council shall determine the method, 
Qf representation. 

292 Year Book of the Churches 

Functions: To stimulate thinking and investigation on missionary 
questions and to make results available for all missionary societies 
and missions; to help coordinate activities of the national missionary 
organizations of different countries; to help unite Christian public 
opinion to support freedom of conscience, of religion and of mis- 
sionary literature; to help unite the Christian forces of the world in 
seeking justice in international and inter-racial relations; to publish 
the International Review of Missions and other missionary litera- 
ture; to call a World Missionary Conference if and when this should 
be deemed desirable. 

Laymen's Missionary Movement of the United States and 

Office: 1 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., James M. Speers; Vice-Chmn., Lt.- 
Col. E. W. Halford; Treas., Eben E. Olcott; Gen. Sec, Wil- 
liam B. Millar. 

Purpose: To enlist laymen for the world-wide extension of Christ's 
kingdom, and promote the best methods of missionary education and 
of church and missionary finance. 

Lebanon Hospital for Mental Diseases 

(Beirut, Syria) 

Office: American Committee, 119 South Fourth Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Officers: Chmn,, Joel Cadbury; Treas., Asa S. Wing; 
Sec, R. B. Haines, Jr. 

Institution in the Near East providing scientific care for mental 

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions 

Office : 25 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Officers: Chmn., Joseph C. Robbins; Gen. Sec, Robert 
P. Wilder; Treas., James M. Speers. 

Purpose: To awaken and maintain among all Christian students 
of the United States and Canada intelligent and active interest in 
foreign missions; to enroll a sufficient number of properly qualified 
student volunteers to meet the successive demands of the various 
missionary boards of North America; to help all such intending 
missionaries to prepare for their life-work and to enlist their co- 
operation in developing the missionary life of home churches; to lay 
an equal burden of responsibility on all students who are to remain 
as ministers and lay workers at home, that they may actively pro- 
mote the missionary enterprise by their intelligent advocacy, by their 
gifts and by their prayers. 

Periodical: Student Volunteer Movement Bulletin (quarterly). 

Sudan United Mission, American Council 

Office : Littell Building, Summit, N. J. 
Officer: Gen. Sec, H. K. W. Kumm, Ph. D. 

Purpose: To establish and conduct missions in the Sudan. 
Periodical: Newsletter, Editor, Ada L. Woodruff. 

Woman's Union Missionary Society of America 

Office : 67 Bible House, New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. Samuel J. Broadwell; Cor. Sec, 

Directory of Inter-Church 293 

Mrs. S. T. Dauchy; Rec. Sec, Miss Adele Masters; Treas., 
James H. Prentice. 

Object: The salvation and elevation of Eastern women. 

Yale Foreign Missionary Society 


Office: 5 White Hall, New Haven, Conn. 

Officers: Pres., Clarence H. Kelsey; Chmn. Board of 
Trustees, F. Wells Williams; Gen. Sec., Dr. Edward H. 
Hume; Exec. Sec. and Treas., Herbert H. Vreeland, Jr.; 
Asst. Sec. and Asst. Treas., Rachel A. Dowd. 

Object: The support and development of the College of Yale-in- 
China and the Hunan- Yale College of Medicine and Hospital at 
Changsha, Hunan, China. 

Periodical: The Yale Quarterly. 


The White House 

Warren G. Harding, President. 

George B. Christian, Jr., Secretary to the President. 

Address : "The White House," Washington, D. C. 


The Senate : 

Calvin Coolidge, President of the Senate. 
Edward T. Clark, Secretary to the President of the 
Senate. . 

Rev. J. J. Muir, Chaplain of the Senate. 

The House of Representatives : 

Frederick H. Gillett, The Speaker of the House. 
Charles H. Parkman, Secretary to the Speaker. 
Rev. James Shea Montgomery, Chaplain of the Hottse. 
Address : "The Capitol," Washington, D. C. 

Department of State 

Charles Evans Hughes, Secretary of State. 
William H. Beck, Private Secretary to the Secretary of 
Address : State, War and Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Secretary of State is charged, under the 
direction of the President, with the duties appertaining to corre- 
spondence with the public ministers and the consuls of the United 
States, and with the representatives of foreign powers accredited to 
the United States; and to negotiations of whatever character relating 
to the foreign affairs of the United States. He is also the medium 
of correspondence between the President and the chief executives of 
the several States of the United States; he has the custody of the 
C^xisat seal of the United States, and countersigns and affixes such 
seal to all executive proclamations, to various commissions, and to 
warrants for the extradition of fugitives from justice. He is re- 
garded as the first in rank among the members of the Cabinet. He 
is also the custodian of the treaties made with foreign states, and 

294 Year Book of the Churches 

of the laws of the United States. He grants and issues passports, 
and exequators to foreign consuls in the United States are issued 
through his office. He publishes the laws and resolutions of Con- 
gn^ess, amendments to the Constitution, and proclamations declaring 
the admission of new States into the Union. 

Department of the Treasury 

Andrew W. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury, 
John Kieley, Private Secretary to the Secretary of the 
Address: Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Secretary of the Treasury is charged by 
law with the management of the national finances. He prepares 
plans for the improvement of the revenue and for the support of the 
public credit; superintends the collection of revenue, and directs the 
forms of keeping and rendering public accounts and of making 
returns; grants warrants for all moneys drawn from the Treasury 
in pursuance of appropriations made by law, and for the payment of 
moneys into the Treasury ; and annually submits to Congress esti- 
mates of the probable revenues and disbursements of the Government. 
He controls the construction and maintenance of public buildings; 
the coinage and printing of money; the administration of the Coast 
Guard and the Public Health branches of the public service, and 
furnishes generally such information as may be required by either 
branch of Congress on all matters pertaining to the foregoing. 

Bureau op Internal Revenue : 

D. H. Blair, Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 

Dan C. Vaughan, Chief Clerk. 

Address : Treasury Department Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Commissioner of Internal Revenue has gen- 
eral superintendence of the collection of all internal revenue taxes; 
the enforcement of internal revenue laws and the national prohibi- 
tion act; recommendation for appointment of internal revenue em- 
ployees; compensation and duties of inspectors, agents, and other 
subordinate officers; the preparation and distribution of instructions, 
regulations, stamps, forms, blanks, hydrometers, stationery, etc. 

Bureau of Public Health Service : 

Hugh S. Cumming, Surgeon General. 
Daniel Masterson, Chief Clerk. 

Address: Surgeon General's Office, 3d and B Sts. S. E., 
Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Bureau of Public Health Service comprises 
seven divisions and the chief clerk's office, the operations of which 
are coordinated and are under the immediate supervision of the 
Surgeon General. 

1. The Division of Scientific Research conducts the scientific in- 
vestigations of the service. 

2. The Division of Foreign and Insular Quarantine and Immigra- 
tion, through the Surgeon General, enforces the national quarantine 
laws and prepares the regulations relating thereto. 

3. The Division of Domestic Quarantine of the Public Health Ser- 
vice carries out measures to suppress epidemics, such as plague and 
typhus fever, and measures to prevent the spread of epidemic dis- 
eases in the United States. 

4. The Division of Sanitary Reports and Statistics collects and 
publishes information regarding the prevalence and geographic dis- 

Directory of Inter-Church 295 

tribution of diseases dangerous to the public health in the United 
States and foreign countries. 

5. Through the Division of Marine Hospitals and Relief, hospital 
care and treatment is provided for beneficiaries at 20 marine hos- 
pitals and 46 Public Health Service hospitals, including 13 for the 
treatment of tuberculosis patients, 10 for mental and nervous dis- 
eases, and 1 for lepers. 

6. The Division of Personnel and Accounts transacts all bureau 
matters relating to the appointment, promotion, transfer, resigna- 
tion, or other change in status of service personnel. 

7. The Division of Venereal Diseases cooperates with State boards 
or departments of health for the prevention and control of such 

Department of War 

John Wingate Weeks, Secretary of War. 
John W. Martyn, Private Secretary to the Secretary of 
Address : State, War and Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Secretary of War is head of the War De- 
partment, and performs such duties as are required of him by law 
or may be enjoined upon him by the President concerning the military 

War Department General Staff : ^ ^ 

General John J. Pershing, Chief of Staff. 

Address : State, War and Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Chief of Staff is the immediate adviser of 
the Secretary of War on all matters relating to the military estab- 
lishment and is charged by the Secretary of War with the planning, 
development, and execution of the Army program. 

Office of the Chief of Chaplains : 

Chaplain John T. Axton, Chief Chaplain of the Army. 
Chaplain Julian E. Yates and Chaplain John J. Campbell, 

Augustus S. Bonanno, Chief Clerk. 

Address: State, War and Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Chief of Chaplains coordinates and super- 
vises the work of chaplains and develops plans for the moral and 
spiritual betterment of the Army. He exercises direct supervision 
over the Chaplains' Service School and such projects for the instruc- 
tion of chaplains as may be considered necessary to secure a properly 
trained personnel. He investigates the qualifications of all candi- 
dates for appointment as chaplains. 

Bureau of Insular Affairs : 

Maj. Gen. Frank Mclntyre, Chief of Bureau. 

L. V. Carmack, Chief Clerk. 

Address : 18th and E Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Bureau of Insular Affairs is assigned all 
matters pertaining to civil government in the island possessions of 
the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the War Department, 
the Philippine Islands arid Porto Rico being the ones so subject at 
the present time. 

Philippine Government: Governor General, Leonard Wood, Head- 
quarters, Manila. 

296 Year Book of the Churches 

Porto Rico Government: Governor, E. Mont Riley, Headquarters, 
San Juan. 

Dominican Customs Receivership: General Receiver of Customs, 
William E. Pulliam, Headquarters, Santo Domingo. 

Haitian Customs Receivership: General Receiver of Customs, 
A. J. Maumus, Headquarters, Port-au-Prince. 

Department of Justice 

Harry M. Daugherty, The Attorney General. 

W. Frank Gibbs, Private Secretary and Assistant to the 
Attorney General. 

Address: Vermont Ave. and 15th St. N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Attorney General is the head of the Depart- 
nient of Justice and the chief law officer of the Government. 

Post-Office Department 

Hubert Work, Postmaster General. 
George W. Perkins, Jr., Private Secretary to Postmaster 
Address: Post-Office Department, Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Postmaster General is the executive head of 
the Federal Postal Service. He appoints all officers and employees 
of the Post-Office Department, except the four Assistant Postmasters 
General and the purchasing agent, who are presidential appointees. 

Department of the Navy 

Edwin Denby, Secretary of the Navy. 
Joseph A. Careyj Private Secretary to the Secretary of 
the Navy. 
Address: Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Secretary of the Navy performs such duties 
as the President of the United States, who is Commander-in-Chief, 
may assign him, and has the general superintendence of construction, 
manning, armament, equipment, and employment of vessels of war. 

Bureau op Navigation : 

Rear Admiral Thomas Washington, Chief of the Bureau. 
Edward Henkel, Chief Clerk. 

Address : Room 3057, Navy Department Bldg., 18th and 
B Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 


Official Duties: The duties of the Bureau of Navigation com- 
prise the issue, record and enforcement of the orders of the Secretary 
to the individual officers of the Navy; the training and education 
of line officers and of enlisted men at schools and stations and in 
vessels maintained for that purpose; the upkeep and operation of 
the Naval Academy, of technical schools for line officers, of the 
apprentice-seaman establishments, of schools for the technical edu- 
cation of enlisted men, and of the naval home at Philadelphia, Pa.; 
the upkeep and the payment of the operating expenses of the Naval 
War College; the enlistment, assignment to duty, and discharge of 
all enlisted persons. 

Chaplain Division: Captain Evan W. Scott, head of the Chap- 
lains' Division. 

Directory of Inter-Church 297 

Address: Room 3502-4 Navy Department Building, 18th and D 
Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: This office functions by special appointment un- 
der the Bureau of Navigation for the selection, appointment and 
assignment of chaplains and the promotion of religious work in the 
Navy, and has general supervision over the Chaplains' Corps, per- 
sonnel and affairs. 

Hydrographic Office: Capt. L. R. deSteigner, Hydrographer, 
Room 1026 Navy Department Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Hydrographic Office is charged with marine 
surveys in foreign waters and with the collection and dissemination 
of hydrographic and navigational data; the preparation and printing 
of maps and charts relating to and required in navigation; the fur- 
nishing of the foregoing to the Navy and their sale to the mercantile 
marine and the public at the cost of printing and paper. 

Naval Medical School : 

Capt. C. S. J. Butler, Medical Corps, United States Navy, 
23d and E Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Naval Hospital : 

Capt. Middleton S. Elliott, Medical Corps, United States 
Address : Foot of 24th St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Department of the Interior 

Albert Bacon Fall, Secretary of the Interior. 

Harry G. Clunn, Private Secretary to the Secretary. 

Address: Interior Department Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Secretary of the Interior is charged with 
the supervision of public business relating to the General Land 
Office, Reclamation Service, Geological Survey, Bureau of Mines, 
Office of Indian Affairs, Patent Office, Bureau of Pensions, Bureau 
of Education, National Park Service, Capitol Building and Grounds, 
and certain hospitals and eleemosynary institutions in the District 
of Columbia. 

Office of Indian Affairs : 

Charles H. Burke, Commissioner. 

Lem Towers, Jr., Private Secretary to the Commissioner. 

Address: Interior Department Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs has charge 
of the Indian tribes of the United States (exclusive of Alaska), their 
education, lands, moneys, schools, purchase of supplies, and general 

Bureau of Pensions : 

Washington Gardner, Commissioner. 

Lemuel J. Stanton, Acting Private Secretary to the Com- 

Address: Pension Bldg., Judiciary Square, Washington, 
D. C. 

Official Duties: The Commissioner of Pensions supervises the 
examination and adjudication of all claims arising under laws passed 
by Congress granting pensions on account of service in the Army or 


298 Year Book of the Churches 


Navy rendered wholly prior to October 6, 1917; claims for reimburse- 
ment for the expenses of the last sickness and burial of deceased 
pensioners ; claims for bounty-land warrants based upon military or 
naval service rendered prior to March 3, 1855, and claims for annui- 
ties, refunds, and allowances, arising under the act of May 22, 1920, 
providing for the retirement of employees in the classified civil 

Bureau of Education: 

John J. Tigert, Commissioner of Education. 
Theo. Honour, Secretary to the Commissioner. 
Address: Pension Office Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Commissioner of Education has charge of 
the Bureau of Education, which collects statistics and general infor- 
mation showing the condition and progress of education in the 
United States and all foreign countries. 

Board of Indian Commissioners: 

George Vaux, Jr., Chairman. 

Malcolm McDowell, Secretary. 

Address: Interior Department Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Board of Indian Commissioners, created in 
1869, is a body of unpaid citizens, appointed by the President, who 
maintain an office in Washington, for the expenses of which and of 
travel Congress appropriates. The board is not a bureau or division 
of any department, but is purposely kept reasonably independent and 
afforded opportunities for investigation in order that it may freely 
express an intelligent and impartial opinion concerning Indian legis- 
lation and administration. Its legal duties are to visit and inspect 
branches of the Indian Service, to cooperate with the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs in the purchase and inspection of Indian supplies, 
and to report to the Secretary of the Interior, to whom and to the 
President the board acts in an advisory capacity, with respect to 
plans of civilizing or dealing with the Indians. 

Department of Agriculture 

Henry Cantwell Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture. 

H. M. Bain, Private Secretary to the Secretary of Agri- 

Address : The Agricultural Department Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C. . 

Official Duties: The Secretary of Agriculture is charged with the 
work of promoting agriculture in its broadest sense. 

Office of Farm Management and Farm Economics: 

G. W. Forster, Acting Chief. 

Raymond Evans, Assistant to the Chief. 

Address : Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: This office studies the farmers' economic prob- 
lems with a view to reducing costs and increasing profits through a 
better organization of the farm and a better adjustment of produc- 
tion to the demands of the market. 

States Relation Service: 

A. C. True, Director. 

Eugene Merritt, Assistant to the Director. 

Directory of Inter-Church 299 

Address : Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The States Relations Service represents the 
Secretary of Agriculture in his relations with the State agricultural 
colleges and experiment stations, under the acts of Congress granting 
funds to these institutions for agricultural experiment stations and 
cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, and 
in carrying out the provisions of acts of Congress making appropria- 
tions to this department for farmers' cooperative demonstration work 
investigations relating to agricultural schools, farmers' institutes, 
and home economics, and the maintenance of agricultural experiment 
stations in Alaska, Hawaii, Porto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. 

Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates : 

Henry C. Taylor, Chief. 

Leon M. Estabrook, Associate Chief. 

Address: Department of Agriculture. 

Official Duties: The Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates ac- 
quires and disseminates information regarding the marketing and 
distributing of farm and non-manufactured food products, and col- 
lects, compiles, summarizes, interprets, and makes public statistical 
data relating to agricultural production. 

Department of Commerce 

Herbert Clark Hoover, Secretary of Commerce. 

Alfred E. Wild, Private Secretary to the Secretary of 

Address: Nineteenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Secretary of Commerce is charged with the 
work of promoting the commerce of the United States and its mining, 
manufacturing, shipping, fishery, and transportation interests. 

Bureau of Census : 

William M. Steuart, Director. 
Arthur J. Hirsch, Assistant Director. 
Address: Building D, 4^/^ Street and Missouri Avenue 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The taking of the decennial census, which covers 
the subjects of population, agriculture, manufactures, mines and 
quarries < including oil and gas wells), and forestry and forest prod- 
ucts, is the chief function of the bureau. A religious census is also 
taken decennially, five years after the general census. 

Department of Labor 

Jamei3 John Davis, Secretary of Labor. 
Arthur E. Cook, Private Secretary to the Secretary of 

Address : Department of Labor Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Secretary of Labor is charged with the duty 
of fostering, promoting and developing the welfare of the wage 
earners of the United States, improving their working conditions, 
and advancing their opportunities for profitable employment. He 
has power under the law to act as mediator and to appoint commis- 
sioners of conciliation in labor disputes whenever in his judgment 
the. interests of industrial peace may require it to be done. 

300 Year Book of the Churches 

Bureau of Labor Statistics : 

Ethelbert Stewart, Commissioner of Labor Statistics. 

Charles E. Baldwin, Chief Statistician. 

Address : 1712 G St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Bureau of Labor Statistics is charged with 
the duty of acquiring and diffusing among the people of the United 
States useful information on subjects connected with labor in the 
most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and especially 
upon its relations to capital, the hours of labor, the earnings of 
laboring men and women, and the means of promoting their material, 
social, intellectual, and moral prosperity. 

Children's Bureau: 

Grace Abbott, Chief. 

Address : Twentieth and D Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The act establishing the bureau provides that it 
shall investigate and report upon all matters pertaining to the wel- 
fare of children and child life among all classes of our people, and 
shall especially investigate the questions of infant mortality, the 
birth rate, orphanage, juvenile courts, desertion, dangerous occupa- 
tions, accidents, and disease of children, employment, and legislation 
affecting children in the several States and Territories. 

Women's Bureau : 

Mary Anderson, Director. 

Agnes L. Peterson, Assistant Director. 

Address : Twentieth and D Sts. N. W., Washinjgton, D. C. 

Official Duties: The functions of the Bureau are to formulate 
standards and policies to promote the welfare of wage-earning 
women, to improve their working conditions, increase their efficiency 
and advance opportunity for profitable employment. The Bureau 
has authority to investigate and report to the Department upon all 
matters pertaining to the welfare of women in industry. 

United States Employment Service: 

Francis I. Jones, Director General. 

Wade H. Skinner, Assistant Director General. 

Address : Twentieth and D Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The purpose of the United States Employment 
Service is to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage 
earners of the United States by so conserving and distributing their 
industrial activities as to improve their working conditions and ad- 
vance their opportunities for profitable employment, in harmony 
with the general good, with the necessities of war, with the just 
interests of employers, and with the development in practice of the 
recognized principle of a common responsibility for production and 
a common interest in distribution. 

miscellaneous governmental agencies 

Smithsonian Institution 

Charles D. Walcott, Secretary. 

H. W. Dorsey, Chief Clerk. 

Address : The Mall, Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Smithsonian Institution was created by act 
of Congress in 1846, under the terms of the will of James Smithson, 

Directory of Inter-Church 301 

an Englishman, who in 1826 bequeathed his fortune to the United 
States to found, at Washington, under the name of the "Smithsonian 
Institution/' an establishment for the "increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." The Institution is legally an establishment, 
and is governed by a Board of Regents. Government bureaus com- 
ing under direction of the Smithsonian Institution are: National 
Museum, National Gallery of Art, Bureau of American Ethnology, 
International Exchanges, National Zoological Park, Astrophysical 
Observatory, Regional Bureau for the United States. 
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature: 
The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature publishes an 
I ftnual classified index to the literature of science. The organization 
consists of a central bureau in London and 33 regional bureaus 
established in, and supported by, the principal countries of the world. 
That for the United States is supported by an annual appropriation 
from Congress, administered by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Pan-American Union 

L. S. Rowe, Director General. 
C. M. Litteljohn, Secretary to Director General. 
Address: Seventeenth between C and B Sts. N. W., 
Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Pan-American Union is the official inter- 
national organization of all the republics of the Western Hemisphere, 
founded and maintained by them for the purpose of exchanging 
mutually useful information and fostering commerce, intercourse, 
friendship, and peace. It is supported through their joint contri- 
butions, each nation annually paying that part of the budget of 
expenses which its population bears to the total population of all 
the republics. 

Interstate Commerce Commission 

Charles C. McChord, Chairman of Commissioners. 
George B. McGinty, Secretary. 

Address : Interstate Commerce Commission Bldg., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The act to regulate commerce requires all rates 
to be just and reasonable and prohibits unjust discrimination and 
undue or unreasonable preference or advantage in transportation 
rates or facilities; prohibits the charging of a higher rate for a 
shorter than for a longer haul over the same line in the same direc- 
tion, the shorter being included within the longer haul, or the charg- 
ing of any greater compensation as a through route than the aggre- 
gate of the intermediate rates subject to the act. The Commission 
is authorized to require carriers to establish through routes and 
joint rates. By various amendatory and supplementary enactments 
the powers of the Commission have been increased and the scope of 
the regulating statute materially widened. 

United States Railroad Labor Board 
R. M. Barton, Chairman, Public Group. 
Albert Phillips, Chairman, Labor Group. 
C. P. Carrithers, Secretary. 
Address : 5 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Official Duties: The Labor Board shall hear, and as soon as 
practicable and with due diligence decide, any dispute involving 


ii02 Year JBook of the Churches 

grievances, rules, or working conditions, in respect to which any 
adjustment board certifies to the Labor Board that in its opinion the 
adjustment board has failed or will fail to reach a decision within a 
reasonable time, or in respect to which the Labor Board determines 
that any adjustment board has failed or is not using due diligence in 
its consideration thereof. All the decisions of the Labor Board in 
respect to wages and salaries and of the Labor Board or an adjust^ 
ment board in respect to working conditions of employees or sub- 
ordinate officials of carriers shall establish rates of wages and sala- 
ries and standards of working conditions which in the opinion of the 
Board are just and reasonable. 

Civil Service Commission 

John H. Bartlett, President of Commissioners. 

John T. Doyle, Secretary. 

Address : 1724 F St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The purpose of the civil service act, as declared 
in its title, is "to regulate and improve the civil service of the United 

United States Veterans' Bureau 

C. R. Forbes, Director. 

Leon Fraser, Executive Officer. 

Address: Arlington Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The United States Veterans' Bureau was created 
by an act of Congress approved August 9, 1921, by which act the 
Bureau was established as an independent bureau under the Presi- 
dent. The Bureau of War Risk Insurance was abolished by said act 
and the powers and duties pertaining to the Director of the War 
Risk Insurance under the Treasury Department were transferred 
to the Veterans' Bureau, together with the functions, powers, and 
duties conferred upon the Federal Board for Vocational Education 
by the act of June 27, 1918, known as the vocational rehabilitation 
act, and all personnel, properties, etc., of the United States Public 
Health Service as prescribed and provided in a written order to the 
Secretary of the Treasury on April 19, 1921, designated "Order rela- 
tive to the transfer of certain activities of the United States Public 
Health Service, relating to the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, in- 
cluding the trainees of the Rehabilitation Division of the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education." 

The Bureau of War Risk Insurance was created by act of Congress 
approved September 2, 1914, to insure American vessels and their 
cargoes against the risks of war. By an act approved June 12, 1917, 
Congress added the duty of insuring the lives of masters and crews 
of American vessels. On October 6, 1917, the most important pro- 
visions of the war risk act were added. These provided for payment 
of allotments and allowances to the dependent families of niembers 
of the military forces of the United States, payment of compensation 
for death or disability, and the writing of term policies of insurance 
by the Federal Government against death or total disability. Several 
amendments to the act have been made since, notably the amend- 
ment approved December 24, 1919, which provided for an optional 
payment in lump sum of the converted forms of insurance and sub- 
stantia) increases in the amount of compensation payable on account 
of death or disability, and the amendment of August 9, 1921, which 
greatly decreases the restrictions on reinstatement of lapsed insur- 
ance by disabled ex-service men and the furnishing of hospital and 
other medical treatment for disabled members of the military and 
naval forces, and transfers the duty of furnishing vocational training 

Directory of Inter-Church 303 

to disabled members of the military and naval forces from the Fed- 
eral Board for Vocational Education to the Veterans' Bureau. 

Federal Board for Vocational Education 

James J. Davis, Chairman (The Secretary of Labor). 

E. Joseph Aronoff, Secr^ry and Chief Clerk. 

Address : 200 New Jersey Ave. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The Federal Board for Vocational Education was 
created by act of Congress approved February 23^ 1917. This act 
makes appropriations to be used in cooperation with the States in 
the promotion of vocational education. For the fiscal year 1917-18 
the amount appropriated was $1,860,000, but the appropriation in- 
creases each year until in 1925-26 it reaches $7,367,000, which sum 
is provided annually thereafter. The money appropriated is to be 
given to the various States for the purpose of inaugurating or 
stimulating vocational education in agriculture and the trades and 
industries and in the preparation of teadiers of vocational subjects. 
Its allotment is upon condition that for each dollar of Federal money 
expended the State or local community, or both, in which schools 
are established shall expend an equal amount for the same purpose. 

By the passage of the Federal vocational rehabilitation act, ap- 
proved June 27, 1918, and the amendment thereto of July 11, 1919, 
the board was charged with the duty of furnishing vocational re- 
habilitation to every member of the military or naval forces of the 
United States discharged with a disability incurred, increased, or 
aggravated while a member of such forces or traceable to service 
therein, needing vocational rehabilitation to overcome the handicap 
of such disability. In furnishing training under the act no limita- 
tions were imposed by the board with respect to the courses to be 
pursued, and all careers were opened to the disabled men, much of 
it being given directly in the trades and industries. The board 
carried out this work of training the disabled soldiers, sailors, and 
marines and placing them in employment in their particular line of 
endeavor until the passage of the bill on August 9, 1921, creating 
the Veterans' Bureau, which consolidated all the figencies dealing 
with the disabled soldiers, sailors, and marines. 

American National Red Cross 

ViTarren G. Harding, President. 
W. Frank Persons, in charge of domestic operations. 
Address: Seventeenth Street between D and E Streets 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

United States Board of Mediation and Conciliation 

William L. Chambers, Commissioner. 

Whitehead Kluttz, Asst. Commissioner and Secretary. 

Address: 920-926 Southern Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Official Duties: The purpose for which the Board of Mediation 
and Conciliation was established is to settle by mediation, concilia- 
tion, and arbitration controversies concerning wages, hours of labor, 
or conditions of employment that may arise between common carriers 
engaged in interstate transportation and their employees engaged in 
train operation or train service. 

National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers 

Col. C. W. Wadsworth, General Treasurer. 
Col. James A. Mattison, Chief Surgeon. 
Address : National Military Home, Dayton, Ohio. 

a()4 Year Book of the Churehes 

United States Soldiers' Home 

Maj. Gen. Tasker H. Bliss, Governor of the Home. 
Col. William T. Wood, Secretary of the Board. 
Address: U. S. Soldiers' Home, Washington, D. C. 

Columbia Institution for the D^t 

Percival Hall, President. 

Rev. Ulysses G. B. Pierce, Secretary. 

Address: Kendall Green, Washington, D. C. 

International Sanitary Bureau 

Surg. Gen. Hugh S. Gumming, Director. 
W. P. Montgomery, Executive Clerk. 
Address: Pan-American Bldg., Seventeenth between B 
and C Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 


There are many Home Mission agencies differing in 
character. Among these are: 

1. Denominational Boards and Societies listed under de- 
nominational headings in Section I, Directory of Churches. 
See pp. 9-248. 

2. Interdenominational agencies composed of church 
members but not under church control. In most cases 
these agencies perform functions other than those dis- 
tinctly pretaining to Home Missions. They are listed under 
appropriate headings in Section III, of which Home Mis- 
sions is a subheading (or listing). 

3. There are many organizations commonly thought of 
as secular, but religious in spirit, which are supplementing 
the Home Mission work of the Church in charities, civic 
betterment, education, philanthropies and social service 
generally. Notable among these are governmental agen- 
cies of the Nation, the State, and the municipality. All 
these cannot be listed in this volume, but many of them are 
under appropriate headings in Section III. National gov- 
ernmental agencies functioning especially for uplift and 
social betterment are included, for the first time, under the 
heading "Governmental Agencies." 

American Missionary Association (Inc.) 

Office : 287 Fourth Ave., New York City. 
Officers : Pres., Rev. Nehemiah Boynton ; Treas., Irving 
C. Gaylord ; Cor. Sec, George L. Cady. 

Purpose: Establishing missionary churches and schools throughout 
the United States for the benefit of Negroes, Indians, Eskimos, etc. 

Council of Women for Home Missions (Affiliated Body with 
the Federal Council) 

(Organized 1908) 

Office : 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. Fred S. Bennett; Vice-Pres., Mrs. 

Directory of Inter-Church 305 

EfRe L. Cunningham; Exec. Sec, Miss Florence E. Quin- 
lan ; Rec. Sec, Mrs. Philip M. Rossman ; Treas., Mrs. Orrin 
R. Judd. 

Eighteen constituent boards, two consulting boards, seventeen 
affiliated schools of missions. 

Purpose: To unify the efforts of the national women's home mis- 
sion boards and societies by consultation and by cooperation in action. 

Principal Activities: Publishes Home Mission study books for 
adults, young people and children; prepares program for Day of 
Prayer for Missions; cooperates with interdenominational Schools 
of Missions; promotes formation of State and local Women's Church 
and Missionary Federations; cooperates in interdenominational plans 
for the various racial and geographical groups. 

Periodical: WomarCs Home Mission Bulletin, Editor, Miss Flor- 
ence E. Quinlan. 

For Home Mission Societies, see Sec. V, '^Religious Statistics," 
p. 377. 

Home Missions Council 

(Cooperative Body with the Federal Council) 

Office: 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Charles L. Thompson; Exec Sec, 
Rev. Alfred Williams Anthony ; Asso. Sec, Rev. Rodney 
W.' Roundy; Sec, Ralph Welles Keeler; Treas., Samuel 

Includes 43 home missionary organizations, representing 23 de- 

Purpose: To promote fellowship, conference, and cooperation 
among Christian organizations doing missionary work in the United 
States and its dependencies. 

For detailed statistical report, see Sec. V, "Religious Statistics," 
p. 377. 

Joint Committees of the Home Missions Council and the 
Council of Women for Home Missions 

Address the representative named, care Home Missions 
Council, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Joint Administration : Chmn., Charles L. Thompson. 

Alaska: Chmn., Paul de Schweinitz; Rec. Sec, Alfred Williams 

Church Building: Chmn,, Joseph S. Wise. 

Cities and Urban Industrial Relations: Chmn,, John McDowell. 

Comity and Cooperation: Chmn., Lemuel Call Barnes. 

Hebrews: Chnvn,, John A. Marquis. 

Indian Missions: Chmn., Elmer E. Higley. 

Migrant Groups: Chmn., Mrs. Mary Leonard Woodruff. 

Mormonism: Chmn., Frank L. Moore. 

Negro Americans: Chmn., George R. Hovey. 

New Americans: Chmn., Mrs. D. E. Waid. 

Orientals and Hawaiians : Chmn., George L. Cady. 

Publicity: Chmn., Ralph Welles Keeler. 

Recruiting the Home Mission Force: Chmn., William S. Beard. 

Spanish-Speaking Peoples in the United States: Chmn., Mrs. 
J. W. Downs. 

Town and Country: Chmn., David D. Forsyth. 

West Indies: Chmn., Mrs. Fred S. Bennett. 

Editorial Council of the Missionary Review of the World: 


iiOG Year IJook of the Churches 

Chmn., Charles L. White; Alfred Williams Anthony, Ralph Welles 

Home Mission Study Books for 1921-22 (published jointly by 
Council of Women for Home Missions and Missionary Education 
Movement) : 

Theme— '"Facing Our Unfinished Task in America." 

For Adults — "From Survey to Service," by Harlan Paul Douglass. 

For Young People — "Playing Square with Tomorrow," by Fred 

For Children — "Stay-at-Home Journeys," by Agnes Wilson Os- 

Home Mission Statistics. For statement in detail of appropria- 
tions and amounts raised by the several denominations, see Sec. V, 
"Religious Statistics," pp. . Summary only is given here. 

Total appropriations, $23,135,601.14. Raised and appropriated 
outside of Board, $3,170,600.46. Missionaries fully supported by 
boards, 4,473. Missionaries partly supported by boards, 12,716. Na- 
tive workers, 1,226. Funds distributed as follows: Church sustenta- 
tion (support of weak churches), $4,784,854.06; church and parson- 
age building, $6,023,130.34; general evangelism, $265,879.50; Amer- 
ican Indians, $496,481.48; immigrants, $523,414.65; mountaineers, 
$582,206.66; Negroes, $2,158,374.71; Orientals in America, $161,- 
782.48; Spanish Americans, $394,579.04; other dependent people, 
$304,288.79; Alaska, $223,660.17; Hawaii, $66,711.17; Philippines, 
$73,999.00; Cuba,- $213,750.62; Mexico, $186,004.06; Porto Rico, 
$294,128.45; Sunday Schools, $91,341.66; education (maintenance of 
mission schools), $873,722.46; publication and information, periodi- 
cals, etc., $570,990.33; administration, $1,074,887.19; specials, $2,- 

Laymen's Missionary Movement 
See p. 292. 


American Committee for Devastated France 

Office: 16 East 39th St., New York City. 
Officers: Pres,, Hon. Myron T. Herrick; Chmn., Miss 
Anne Morgan; Treas., Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys. 

PuRPOfE: To assist the inhabitants of the devastated villages to 
become again self-supporting by supplying implements of trade and 
to feed and educate the children who have suffered the horrors of 
war for five years. 

American Friends Service Committee 

Office: 20 South 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Officers: Chmn,, Rufus M. Jones; Treas., Charles F. 
Jenkins ; Exec. Sec, Wilbur K. Thomas. 

Purpose: Completing reconstruction work. in France. Relief work 
in Austria, Germany, Poland and Russia. 

American and Foreign Christian Union 

Office: 104 E. 39th St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres,, Rev. George Alexander; Vice-Pres., 
Rev. Frank Mason North; Sec, S. W. Thurber; Treas., 
Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., New York. 

Purpose: To diffuse and promote the principles of religious liberty 
and evangelical Christianity at home and abroad; especially to aid 
in the maintenance of the American Church in Paris.* 

Directory of Inter-Church 307 

American McAll Association 

Office: 1710 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. Frank B. Kelley; First Vice-Pres., 
Mrs. Geo. E. Dimock; Gen. Sec, Miss Helen Bishop Strong; 
Field Sec, Rev. Geo. T. Berry; Cor. Sec, Mrs. H. L. Way- 
land ; Treas., Mrs. Abraham R. Perkins. 

Auxiliary to La Mission Populaire Evangelique de 
France, founded in 1872 by R. W. McAll. 

Periodical: American McAll Record, Editor, Miss Harriett Harvey. 

American Relief Administration (Inc.) 

Office : 42 Broadway, New York City. 
Officers: Chmn., Herbert Hoover; Treas,, Gates W. 
McGarragh; Director, Edgar Rickard. 

Purpose: Receives and distributes relief for children of Austria, 
Poland and Russia. Conducting medical and general relief in Russia 
on behalf of cooperating organizations. 

American Relief Committee for Hungarian Sufferers 

Office: Hotel McAlpin, New York City. 
Officers: Chmn., Bartalan Barna; Treas., Rudolph 
Oblatt; Sec, Dr. Frank I. Horn. 

Purpose: Raises funds to supply supplementary meals for Hun- 
garian children in cooperation with American Relief Administration 
European Children's Fund. 

American Red Cross 

National Headquarters : Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Pres., Warren G. Harding; Vice-Pres., Wm. 
Howard Taft and Robert W. DeForest; Treas., John Skel- 
ton Williams; Counselor, James M. Beck; Sec, Mabel T. 
Boardman; Exec. Com.: Chmn., Livingston Farrand; Vice- 
Chmn., W. Frank Persons, Albert Ross Hill; Mrs. August 
Belmont, Mabel T. Boardman, Merritte W. Ireland, George 
E. Scott, Edward R. Stitt, Eliot Wadsworth. 

Much of the work is now handled by the Divisions. Ad- 
dress Division Mgr., Boston, New York City, Atlanta, 
Cleveland, Chicago, Seattle, San Francisco, or St. Louis. 

Purpose: The Red Cross is the reserve emergency organization of 
the American people for community relief in time of disaster, and 
for relief of wounded and distressed in time of war. 

Publication: Red Cross Bulletin (weekly), Washington, D. C. 

League of Red Cross Societies 

Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland. 

Includes the Red Cross societies of Argentina, Australia, 
Belgrium, Brazil, Canada, China, Cuba, Denmark, France, 
Great Britain, Greece, Holland, India, Italy, Japan, New 
Zealand, Norway, Peru, Portugal, Roumania, Serbia, South 
Africa, Spain, Sweden, United States, Venezuela. 

308 Year Book of the Churches 

American Waldensian Aid Society 

Office: 520 West End Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., ; Hon. Vice-Pres., Rev. D. 

Stuart Dodge, Rev. Henry A. Stimson; Vice-Pres., Rev. 
Henry Evertson Cobb, Rev. William Pierson Merrill, Very 
Rev. Howard C. Robbins, Rev. John Kelman; Treas., 
Mrs. Archibald C. Kains; Rec. Sec, Mrs. Frank Gard- 
ner Moore; Cor. Sec, Miss Cornelia L. Clarkson; Field 
Sees., Mrs. Charles H. Seymour, Mrs. E. W. Schauffler, 
3640 Lake Park Ave., Chicago, 111. ; Gen. Sec, Miss Leonora 
Kelso; Foreign Field Sec, Rev. Henry C. Sartorio, 5 Via 
Maria Cristina, Rome, Italy; Chmn. Exec Com., Mr. Gilbert 
Colgate ; Bureau of Immigration, Miss Aimee Jalla. 

Depositories: Messrs. Brown Brothers & Co., United 
States Mortgage & Trust Co. 

Purpose: To help the religious, educational and relief work of the 
Waldensian Church of Italy. 

Periodical: The Sempre Avanti, Editor, Miss Annette Fiske. 

Armenia America Society 

Office : 289 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Walter George Smith; Director, Rev. 
George R. Montgomery. 

Purpose: The purpose of the Society is to work toward securing 
such conditions in the settlement of the Near East problems that 
the Armenians may be given security and an opportunity to re- 
establish themselves in their historic home as a nation. The Society 
is supported by voluntary contributions. 

Commission on Relations with France and Belgium (Fed- 
eral Council) 
See p. 256. 

Commission on Relations with Religious Bodies in Europe 
(Federal Council) 

See p. 256. 

Committee on Mercy and Relief: Relief for Children of 
Russia (Federal Council) 

See p. 255. 

Near East Relief 

Office : 151 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., Dr. James L. Barton; Vice-Chmn., 
Hon. John H. Finley; Gen. Sec, Charles V. Vickrey; Asso. 
Gen. Sees., John R. Voris, W. E. Doughty, Barclay Ache- 
son; Treas., Cleveland H. Dodge. 

Purpose: To administer relief in the form of food, clothing, medi- 


Directory of Inter-Chiiroh ' 8i>^> 

cal attendance, orphanages, industrial work, to the needy Armenians 
Syrians, Greeks and other destitute peoples in the Near East without 
regard to race or creed. 

Special Societies 

American Friends of Poland, Inc.: Hon. Pre^., Her- 
bert Hoover, Prince Casimir Lubomirski ; Sec, Clarence A, 

American-Scandinavian Foundation: Pres., Board of 
Trustees, Hamilton Holt ; Sec, James Creese, 25 West 46th 
Street, New York. 

China Society op America: Pres,, William S. Carey; 
Sec, William Nelson Searles, 13 Astor Place, New York, 

English-Speaking Union: Pres., John W* Davis; Sec 
and Treas., Charles C. Goodrich; Exec Sec, John Daniels, 
6 East 45th Street, New York. 

France-America Society: Pres., Nicholas Murray But- 
ler; Sec, Snowden A. Fahnestock, 40 Wall St., New York. 

Friends of Belgium: In process of organization. 

Italy-America Society: Pres., Paul D. Cravath; Sec, 
Francis Hartman Markoe, 23 West 43d St., New York. 

Japan Society : Pres., Frank A. Vanderlip ; Sec, Eugene 
C. Worden, 23 West 43d St., New York. 

Netherlands-America Foundation: Hon. Pres., Dr. 
J. A. C- Everwyn; Pres., Edward W. Bok; Sec pro tern., 
Mrs. Hanna White Catlin, 311 Sixth Ave., New York. 

The Society of Friends op Roumania, Inc.: Pres., 
William Nelson Cromwell, LL.D.; Gen, Sec, John Foster 
Dulles, 450 Madison Ave., New York. 


Big Brother Movement, Inc. 

Office : 200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Franklin Chase Hoyt; Sec, Charles A. 
Taussig; Treas., Francis J. Danforth; Chmn. Exec Com., 
Ernest K. Coulter (founder) ; Gen. Sec, Rowland C. 

Purpose: To ascertain the cause of boys' troubles, and to build 
up within the boy a sense of honor and good citizenship. 

A Federation of the Big Brother and Big Sister Movement was 
formed in 1904, inc. 1909. Offices, 200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Boy Scouts of America 

Office : 200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Hon. Pres., Warren G. Harding; Pres., Colin 
H. Livingstone; Chief Scout Exec, James E. West; Treas., 
George D. Pratt; National Scout Commissioner, Daniel 
Carter Beard; Special Field Scout Commissioner, Rev. 
Charles S. Macfarland. 

310 Year Book of the Churches 

^^ ft 

Purpose: Supplementing existing agencies — ^the home, church, 
school — to develop character, good citizenship, initiative, and re- 
sourcefulness in boys by cultivating their interest in activities of 
practical every-day value through their interest in the fascinating 
outdoor activities of the Scout leisure-time program, under carefully 
selected leadership. 

Periodicals: Scouting (monthly), bulletin for men in the field; 
Boys* Life (monthly), for boys. 

Boys' Club Federation 

Office: 110 W. 40th St., New York City. * 
Address the Exec. Sec, C. J. Atkinson. 

Purpose: To organize clubs, supply superintendents, suggest pro- 
grams, conduct conferences, organize educational courses for workers 
with boys, provide speakers on boy problems for a great variety of 
occasions, and cooperate in local surveys and campaigns. 

Periodical: Boys* Workers* Round Table, 

Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip 

Office: 200 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Officer: Hon. Pres., Rev. Rufus W. Miller. 

A Denominational and Interdenominational Men's Organization. 
Purpose: To advocate prayer and service and the spread of 
Christ's Kingdom among men. 

Committee on Boy Scout Work (Federal Council) 

International Order of the Knights of King Arthur 

(Organized 1893) 

Officer: Pres., William Byron Forbush, Dreamelden, 
Route 3, Media, Pa. 

Purpose: To adapt to the use of American boys the ancient ideals 
of chivalry. Organizes boys' fraternities, or "Castles," which are 
self-governing and under the control of a local church. 

Laymen's Missionary Movement 

See p. 292. 

Young Men's Christian Associations, International Com- 

Office : 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., Alfred E. Marling; First Vice-Chmn., 
James M. Speers, Wm. D. Murray; Second Vice-Chmn., 
Roger H. Williams, Abner Kingman; Gen. Sec, John R. 
Mott; Asso. Gen. Sec, F. S. Brockman; Treas.^ B. H. 

Purpose: To promote the spiritual, intellectual, physical and social 
well-being of young men and establish Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations in any country. 

Periodical: Association Men (monthly). 

For detailed report and statistics, see Sec. V, ''Religious Statistics/' 
p. 383. 

Directory of Inter-Church 311 


Allied Loyalty League 

Office: 57 West 58th St., New York City. 
Officers: Chmn. Exec. Com., William M. Sullivan; 
Treas., Harris A. Dunn ; Asst. Sec, Margaret H. Lawson. 

Purpose: Promotes friendly understanding between the allied coun- 
tries, and a high type of Americanism, and combats anti-American 

American Association for International Conciliation 

(Established 1906, Incorporated 1908) 

Officers: Pres., Nicholas Murray Butler, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York City; Sec, H. S. Haskell, 407 West 117th 
St., New York City; Treas., Robert A. Franks, 522 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. 

Purpose: To promote in all practicable ways mutual understand- 
ing and good feeling between nations. 

American Legion 

(Organized and Incorporated 1919) 

Office: Meridian Life Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Holds an annual convention. 

Purpose: A patriotic society organized to promote the welfare of 
all ex-service men of the World War and to cooperate in rendering 
service to the community, State, and Nation; to uphold the Consti- 
tution of the United States; to maintain law and order; to foster 
and perpetuate Americanism; to preserve the memories and incidents 
of the war. 

American Patriotic League 

(Incorporated 1891) 

Office: Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Purpose: To create a popular demand for moral and civic train- 
ing; to secure legislation for its introduction and supervision in all 
schools- at home and abroad. Drafts and assists in the enactment of 
State laws requiring school training in the duties of citizenship. 
Organizes schools into school republics in which children have legis- 
lative, executive, and judicial powers under the instruction of the 

American Peace Society (Inc.) 

(Organized 1828, Incorporated 1848) 

Office: 612 Colorado Bldg., Washington, D. C. 
Officers: Pres., Andrew J. Montague; Treas., Geo. W. 
White; Sec, Arthur Deerin Call. 

Purpose: To promote permanent international peace. Seeks to 
arouse and organize public opinion in opposition to war as a means 
of settling international differences, and to advance the general use 
of conciliation, judicial methods, and other peaceable means of avoid- 
ing and adjusting such differences. 

American School Citizenship League 

(Established 1908) 

Office: 405 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 


312 Year Book of the Chuehes 

Officers: Pres., Randall J. Condon (Supt. of Schools, 
Cincinnati) ; Sec, Mrs. Fannie Fern Andrews. 

Purpose: The American School Citizenship League aims to develop 
an American citizenship which will promote a responsible world 
democracy and a real cooperation among the nations. 

Carnegie Endowment of International Peace 

(Organized 1910) 

Office : 2-4-6 Jackson Place N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Board of Trustees, Pres., Elihu Root; Vice- 
Pres., Geo. Gray; Sec. and Administrative Officer, James 
Brown Scott; Treas., Charlemagne Tower. 

Purpose: To promote the cause of peace among the nations, to 
hasten the abolition of international war, and to encourage peaceful 
settlement of international differences. 

Church Peace Union 

Office : 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. William P. Merrill; Sec, Rev. 
Henry A. Atkinson; Sec. Ed. Dept., Rev. Frederick Lynch; 
Treas,, George A. Plimpton. Trustees: Rev. Peter Ainslie, 
Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, Rt. Rev. C. H. Brent, Rev. Arthur 
J. Brown, Rev. Francis E. Clark, Pres. W. H. P. Faunce, 
Robert H. Gardiner, Most Rev. J. J. Glennon, Rev. Frank 

0. Hall, Bishop E. R. Hendrix, Hamilton Holt, Prof. Wm. 

1. Hull, Rev. C. E. Jefferson, Henry Churchill King, Rev. 
Frederick Lynch, Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, Marcus M. 
Marks, Dean Shailer Mathews, Rev. Wm. P. Merrill, John 
R. Mott, George A. Plimpton, Rev. J. B. Remensnyder, 
Henry Wade Rogers, Robert E. Speer, Wm. H. Taft, James 
J. Walsh, Bishop Luther B. Wilson. 

Purpofie: The promotin of ,a Christian international order. 

Comnciiission on International Justice and Good- Will (Fed- 
eral Council) 

See p. 255. 

Committee for Treaty Ratification 

Offkjers: Chmn., George W. Wickersham; Vice-Pres., 
Samuel Gompers ; Vice-Pres., James Byrne ; Sec, Charles S. 

Offkje of Secretary: Room 612, 105 East 22d Street, 
New York City. 

Purpoj;e: To work for the ratification of the treaties resulting 
from the Limitation of Arms Conference and forward good-will be- 
tween th'3 nations. 

Foreign Policy Association 

Offkje : 3 West 29th St., New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., James G. McDonald; Treas., Robert H. 

Directory of Inter-Church 313 

Gardiner; Exec. Sec, Christina Merriman. 

Purpose: Stands for "a liberal and constructive American foreign 
policy." Concentrating on progressive reduction of armaments by 
internati(mal agreement. 

General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains (Federal 

See p. 257. 

Joint Committee on American Responsibility in Haiti and 
Santo Domingo 

Officers : Sec., Rev. Sidney L. GuUck, 105 East 22d St., 
New York City. 

(Federal Council, Home Missions Council, Committee on 
Cooperation in Latin America.) 

League to Enforce Peace 

Office : 1540 Broadway, New York City. 
Officers: Chmn., A. Lawrence Lowell; Treas., Herbert 
S. Houston ; Sec, William H. Short. 

Purpose: "Organized to promote an effective League of Nations 
with the United States as a member." 

League of Free Nations Association 

Office : 3 West 29th St., New York City. 
Officers : Chmn., James G. McDonald ; Treas., Robert H. 
Gardiner; Exec. Sec, Christina Merriman. 

Purpose: Working for a liberal and constructive American foreigrn 

National American Council 

(Organized May, 1921) 

Office: 55 W. 44th St., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., David Jayne Hill; Treas., Allan T. 
Burns; Sec, James E. West. 

Purpose: Americanization. 

National Committee on American Japanese Relations 

Officers: Chmn., George W. Wickersham; Sec, Rev. 
Sidney L. Gulick, 105 E. 22d St., New York City. 

National Committee for Constructive Immigration . Legis- 

Office: 105 E. 22d St., New York City. 
Officers : Chmn., Henry W. Jessup ; Sec, Sidney L. Gu- 
lick; Treas., Albert G. Lawson. 

Purpose: To secure legislation which will provide a simple, work- 
able, comprehensive and effective immigration system, which will ad- 
mit, annually, without racial discrimination, from each country only 
so many immigrants as we can wholesomely Americanize and employ. 

814 Year Book of the Churches 

and which will raise the standards of naturalization, and give the 
privileges of citizenship to every <5ne who qualifies. 

National Council for Reduction of Armaments 

Headquarters : 532 Seventeenth St. N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

Officers: Chmn., — ; Exec. Sec, Frederick J. 

Libby; Treas., Milton E. Ailes. 

The National Council for Reduction of Armaments was organized 
in Washington on October 20, 1921. It comprises 29 national organi- 
zations, with 14 cooperating organizations, totaling a membership of 
over 20,000,000, all of which have adopted as their common purpose 
the substitution of law for war. 

Purpose: The purpose of the Council is to prevent duplication in 
the work of these organizations and by coordinating their efforts to 
make them more effective. 

National Society of Children of the American Revolution 

(Organized and Incorporated 1895) 

Office : Memorial Continental Hall, Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Natl Pres., Mrs. Frank W. Mondell, 2110 
St. N. W., Washington, D. C. ; Treas,, Mrs. Violet B. J^^in, 
12 Lafayette Square, Washington, D. C. ; Rec. Sec, Mrs. 
Frank Ray, The New Berne Apartments, Washington* 
D. C. ; Cor Sec, Miss Aimee Powell, 12 Lafayette Square, 
Washington, D. C. 

National Society of the Daughters of the American Revo- 

(Organized 1890, Incorporated 1896) 

Office: Memorial Continental Hall, Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Pres. Genl., Mrs. George Maynard Minor, 
Waterford, Conn.; Treas., Mrs. Livingston L. Hunter, 
Pidioute, Pa.; Sec, Mrs. John Francis Yawger, Prince 
George Hotel, New York City. 

Purpose: To perpetuate the memory and spirit of the men and 
women who achieved American Independence. Acquires and protects 
historical spots and erects fitting memorials. Encourages research 
and publishes results of historical study in relation to the Revolution. 
Preserves documents and relics and records of individual services of 
Revolutionary soldiers and patriots. Promotes celebrations of pa- 
triotic anniversaries. Assists in the extension of public education, 
through its Americanization and Patriotic Education Committee. 
Seeks to maintain and extend institutions of American freedom and 
to foster patriotism and love of country. 

Sulgrave Institution 

(Organized 1914, Incorporated 1917) 

Office: Suite 3903 Woolworth Bldg., New York, N. Y. 
Officers: Chancellor, Alton B. Parker; Treas., Gordon 
Hammersley; Sec, Andrew B. Humphrey. 

Purpose: American-British organization for furthering friendship 
and preventing misunderstanding between English-speaking peoples. 

Directory of Inter-Church 315 

Women's Peace Society 

Officers: Chmn., Mrs. Henry Villard, 525 Park Ave., 
New York City; Treas., Miss Mary Abbott, 29 E. 29th St., 
New York City. 

The urder lying principle of this society is a belief in the sacredness 
and inviolability of human life under all circumstances. 

World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship 
Through the Churches 

Office American Council: 70 Fifth Ave., New York 

Officers American Council: Chmn., William P. Mer- 
rill; Gen. Sec, Rev. Henry A. Atkinson; Treas., Rev. 
George A. Plimpton. Exec. Com., Officers, Members ex- 
Officio, and Rev. Peter Ainslie, Mrs. John S. Allen, Rev. 
Nehemiah Boynton, Rev. Arthur J. Brown, Rev. Francis 
E. Clark, Ida W. Harrison, Hamilton Holt, Rev. Lauritz 
Larsen, Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, John R. Mott, Fred B. 
Smith, Fennell P. Turner, Bishop Luther B. Wilson, Mrs. 
John F. Yawger, Mrs. F. F. Williams. 

Offices International Council: 41 Parliament Street, 
London, S. W. 1, and 10 J. P. Coenstraat, The Hague. 

Officers International Committee: Pres., The Most 
Reverend the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury ; Chmn., The 
Rev. Nehemiah Boynton; Rev. Frederick Lynch, 70 
Fifth Avenue, New York City; M. Jacques Dumas, 5 bis 
Rue de Beauvau, Versailles; Pastor F. Siegmund-Schultze, 
Berlin, 0. 17, Fruchtstr. 64; Dr. Knut B. Westman, 
Sysslomansgatan 19, Upsala, Sweden; Professor Eugene 
Choisy, Ave. Calas 4, Champel, Geneva. 

National Councils in Norway, Holland, Hungary, Turkey, Japan, 
Italy, Finland, Germany, Russia, Poland, Belgium, Great Britain, 
Roumania, Sweden, Esthonia, Bulgaria, Denmark, Switzerland, 
France, Greece, Spain, Austria, Czecho - Slovakia, Jugo - Slavia, 

Purpose: To unite all Christians and churches in promoting inter- 
national friendship; to secure such a League of Nations as can settle 
international difficulties by judicial and other processes rather than 
by war; to provide American laws for the adequate protection of 
aliens; and to promote right relations with Japan and China, Mexico 
and Latin America. 

This organization is interested solely in the task of promoting 
international friendship through the "churches. There are Councils 
in 25 nations, and an international committee composed of represen- 
tatives of each of these countries. Holds annual world conferences; 
supports an International Secretary; publishes eight magazines, and 
is widely extending its work throughout America and the world. 

Joint body with the Commission on International Justice and Good- 
Will, Federal Council of Churches. 

World Peace Foundation 

(Organized 1909 as the International School of Peace, Inc., 1910) 

Office : 40 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass. 

316 Year liook of the Churches 

Purpose: To educate the people of all nations to a full knowledge 
of the waste and destructiveness of war, and by every practical 
means to promote international peace, justice, and good-will. 


Church Advertising Department 

(Associated Advertising Clubs of the World) 

Offices : 701 W. 177th St., New York City. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. Christian F. Reisner, 701 W. 177th 
St., New York City; Vice-Pres., W. F. McClure, 701 W. 
177th St., New York City, Rev. H. A. Porter, Atlanta, Ga., 
George W. Coleman, 701 W. 177th St., New York City, 
Rev. Roy L. Smith, Minneapolis, Minn., Father H. K. Pick- 
ert, St. Louis, Mo.; Rec. Sec, Elmer T. Clark, Nashville, 
Tenn.; Asst. Cor. Sec, E. A. Hungerford, New York City 
Y. M. C. A. Publicity Director ; Treas., John Clyde Oswald, 
Publisher, "The American Printer," New York City. ' 

Purpose: To be a clearing house for all the denominations, and 
other religious bodies. 

Editorial Council of the Religious Press (Federal Council) 

Representative Non-Sectarian Religious Periodicals 

Advocate of Peace, Washington, D. C. 

American Journal of Theology, quarterly, Chicago, 111. 

Association Men, quarterly, New York City. 

Association Monthly, monthly. New York City. 

Bible Society Record, monthly. New York City. 

Biblical Review, monthly. New York City. 

Biblical World, monthly, Chicago, 111. 

Bibliotheca Sacra, quarterly, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Christian Endeavor World, weekly, Boston, Mass. 

Christian Herald, weekly, New York City. 

Christian Statesman, monthly, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Christian Union Quarterly, Baltimore, Md. 

Christian Work and Evangelist, weekly. New York City. 

Christian Workers Magazine, monthly, Chicago, 111. 

Constructive Quarterly, quarterly, New York City. 

Everyland, monthly, New York City. 

Expositor, monthly, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Federal Council Bulletin, monthly, New York City. 

Gideon, monthly, Chicago, 111. 

Gospel of the Kingdom, monthly, New York City. 

Harvard Theological Review, quarterly, Cambridge, Mass. 

Hibbert Journal, quarterly, Boston, Mass. 

Homiletic Review, monthly. New York City. 

International Review of Missions, quarterly, Edinburgh. 

La Neuva Democracia, monthly, New York City. 

Missionary Review of the World, monthly, New York City. 

National Advocate, monthly. New York City. 

New World, weekly. New York City. 

North American Student, monthly. New York City. 

Princeton Theological Review, quarterly, Princeton, N. J. 

Record of Christian Work, monthly. East Northfield, Mass. 

Religious Digest, monthly, New York City. 

Religious Education, bi-monthly, Chicago, 111. 

Directory of Inter-Church 317 

Rural Manhood, monthly, New York City. 

Sunday School Times, weekly, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Survey, weekly. New York City. 

Student World, monthly. New York City. 

Union Seminary Review, weekly, Richmond, Va. 

World Outlook, monthly. New York City. 

Word and Works, monthly, St. Louis, Mo. 

Witness, weekly. New York City. 

Yale Divinity Quarterly, New Haven, Conn. 


Lord's Day Alliance of the United States 

Office: 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers : Pres., James Yereance ; Gen, Sec, Rev. Harry 
L. Bowlby ; Field Sec, Rev. John H. Willey ; Treas., George 
M. Thomson. 

Officially represents 16 leading Christian denominations. 

Purpose: To defend and preserve the Lord's Day as a day of 
rest and worship, to secure a weekly rest day for the toiler and to 
promote constructive Sunday legislation and law enforcement. 

Publication: Lord's Day Leader (bi-monthly), Editor, H. L. 

New York Sabbath Committee 

Office : 31 Bible House, New York City. 

Officers: Chmn., Theodore Gilman; Vice-Chmn., Chas. 
F. Darlington ; Treas., E. F. Hyde ; Gen. Sec, Rev. Duncan 
J. McMillan ; Rec Sec, Rev. W. S. Hubbell. 

Purpose: To maintain an orderly and restful Sabbath, upon which 
the life of the Church, the welfare of the community, the comfort of 
the family, and the efficiency and health of the toiling masses depend. 

Periodical: The Bulletin, Editor, Duncan J. McMillan. 

Woman's National Sabbath Alliance 

OFFICE : 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. Stephen Yerkes MacNair; Cor. 
Sec, Miss Catherine Murray; Field Sec, Mrs. Robert B. 
Hull; Treas., Mrs. Frank R. Van Nest. 

Purpose: To promote the sanctity of the American Sabbath. 


American Association for Organizing Family Social Work 

Office: 130 E. 22d St., New York City. 
Officers : Field Director, Francis H. McLean ; Exec Di- 
rector, David H. Holbrook. 

Purpose: To extend and develop family social work (formerly 
known as organized charity work). 

Publication: The Family, a magazine for those interested in case 

818 Year Book of the Churehes 

American Association of Hospital Social Workers 

(Organized 1918) 

.Office: 17th and E Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Officers: Pres., Ida M. Cannon; Treas., N. F. Cum- 
mings; Sec, Ruth V. Emerson. 

Purpose: Works toward improvement and development of stand- 
ards of social work in hospitals and dispensaries. 

American Association for Labor Legislation (I9O6) 


Office: 131 E. 23d St., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., T. L. Chadbourne; Treas., Adolph 
Lewisohn; Sec, John B. Andrews. 

Purpose: To investigate conditions underlying labor legislation 
and to collect and disseminate information leading to the enactment 
and efficient enforcement of laws for the promotion of the comfort, 
health, and safety of employees. 

American Child Hygiene Association 

(Organized 1909) 

Office: 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 
Officers: Pres., Henry L. K. Shaw; Treas., Austin 
McLanahan ; Gen. Dir., Richard A. Bolt. 

Purpose: Disseminates information, stimulates and encouracges 
effective methods to promote health of mothers and children. 

American Civic Association 

(Organized 1904) 

Office: 914 Union Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C. 
Officers: Pres., J. Horace McFarland ;. Treas., F. A. 
Vanderlip; Sec, Harlean James. 

Purpose: For the cultivation of higher ideals of civic heauty in 
America; the promotion of town and neighborhood improvement; 
the preservation of landscape, and the advancement of outdoor art. 

American Country Life Association 

(Organized 1918) 

Office: 232 So. Seventh St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Officers: Pres., Kenyon L. Butterfield; Ac^in^ Trea^., 
Charles F. Jenkins; Exec Sec, Charles J. Galpin. 

Purpose: Seeks to better rural conditions through conferences, 
publicity and coordination of rural social agencies. 

American Federation of Labor 

(Organized 1881) 

Office : American Federation of Labor Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Officers: Pres., Samuel Gompers; Treas., Daniel J^ 
Tobin; Sec, Frank Morrison, 

Directory of Inter-Church 319 

Purpose: Non-secret federation of trade and labor unions for the 
organization of labor and for the improvement of social and indus- 
trial conditions. 

Publications: The American Federationist, monthly; History 
Encyclopedia, Reference Book; Weekly News Letter, 

American Home Economics Association 

(Organized 1908, Incorporated 1909) 

Office: 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 
Officers: Pres., Mary E. Sweeny; Treas., H. Gale Tur- 
pin; OjBice Sec, Keturah E. Baldwin. 

Purpose: Seeks to improve conditions of living in the home, the 
institutional household, and the community. 

American Jewish Committee (Inc.) 

Office: 171 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Officers : Pres., Louis Marshall ; Treas,, Isaac W. Bern- 
heim; Asst. Sec, Harry Schneiderman. 

Pubpose: Works to protect and prevent the infraction of civil and 
religious rights of Jews throughout the world. 

American Prison Association 

(Incorporated 1871) 

Office: 135 E. 15th St., New York City. 
Officer: 0. F. Lewis, Gen. Sec. 

Purpose: To improve the laws in relation to public offences and 
offenders and the mode of procedure by which such laws are en- 
forced; improvement of penal, correctional and reformatory institu- 
tions throughout the country, and of the government, management 
and discipline thereof; care of providing employment for discharged 

American Seamen's Friend Society 

Office: 76 Wall St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. John B. Calvert; Vice-Pres., Rev. 
Nehemiah Boynton; Sec, Rev. George Sidney Webster; 
Treas., Clarence C. Pinneo. 

Purpose: To maintain a Sailors' Home and Institute in New York 
and chaplains in other ports, and to place loan libraries on vessels 
that make long voyages from New York. 

Periodical: The Sailors* Magazine, Editor, Rev. George Sidney 

American Social Hygiene Association 

Office: 370 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Hermann M. Biggs, M.D., 39 W. 56th 
St., New York City ; Treas., Jerome D. Greene, 43 Exchange 
Place, New York City; Sec, Donald R. Hooker, M.D., Up- 
land, Roland Park, Md. 

Purpose: To promote such measures as protect the family and 
•lead to high standards of conduct on the part of the individual. 

320 Year Book of the Churches 

Army Relief Society (Inc.) 

Office : 120 E. 36th St., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., Mrs. Henry L. Stimson; Treas.y Cor- 
nelius R. Agnew. 

Purpose: Raises funds, chiefly at Army posts, for relief and care 
of dependent orphans and widows of officers and enlisted men of the 
United States Army. 

Blue Anchor Society 

(Organized 1880, Incorporated 1882, Reincorporated 1909) 

Office : Room 422, United Charities Building, 105 East 
22d St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres,, Mrs. Frederic T. Hume, 116 West 85th 
St., New York City; Treas., Mrs. E. Louise Young, 215 
Manhattan Ave., New York City. 

Purpose : To supply the coast guard stations throughout the United 
States with clothing, etc., for the shipwrecked, under requisition 
from the Coast Guard Headquarters, Washington, D. C. 

Central Howard Association (Inc.) 

Office : 608 South Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 
Officers: Pres., George W. Dixon; Treas., Charles E. 
Coleman; Supt., F. Emory Lyon. 

Purpose: Aids prisoners and seeks to promote prison reform in 
Central States. 

Commission on the Church and Country Life (Federal 

Commission on the Church and Social Service (Federal 

See p. 253. 

Commonwealth Fund 

(Incorporated 1918) 

Office : 1 East 57th St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Edward S. Harkness; Treas., Otto T. 
Bannard; Gen. Director, Max Farrand; Asst. Director, 
Samuel C. Fairley. 

Purpose: The particular objects for which the corporation is 
formed are the application to charitable purposes of the income or 
the principal of such property as from time to time the corporation 
shall possess, including the giving of income or of principal to any 
other charitable corporation or corporations. 

Community Service 

(Organized and Incorporated 1919) 

Office: 1 Madison Ave., N6w York, N. Y. 
Officer: Sec. H. S. Braucher. 

Directory of Inter-Church 321 

Purpose: To help people of American communities to organize for 
the employment of their leisure time t othe best advantage for recre* 
ation and good citizenship. 

Federation of Child Study 

Office: 2 West 64th St., New York City. 
Officers : Pres., Mrs. Howard S. Gans ; Treas., Jesse W. 

Purpose: Studies child problems and acts as clearing house of 

Indian Rights Association 

Office : 995 Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Officers: Hon. Pres,, Moorfield Storey; Pres., Herbert 
Welsh; Sec, Matthew K. Sniff en; Treas., Charles J. 
Rhoads; Agt, S. M. Brosius, McGill Bldg., Washington, 
D. C. 

Purpose: ^on-political, non-sectarian. To secure to the Indians 
of the United States the political and civil rights already guaranteed 
to them by treaty and statutes of the United States, and such as 
their civilization and circumstances may justify. 

Institute for Crippled and Disabled Men 

(Organized by Red Cross, 1917; Incorporated 1920) 

Office : 101 East 23d St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Samuel M. Greer; Treas., Jeremiah 
Millbank ; Sec, Douglas C. McMurtrie ; Director, John Cul- 
bert Faries. 

Purpose: To discover and provide suitable means to enable men, 
and boys of work age, with a physical disability impairing the use 
of their limbs, to earn their living; to promote general interest in 
the problem of the rehabilitation of the disabled; to offer counsel and 
advice to individuals and organizations seeking help for crippled and 
disabled men. 

International Reform Bureau 

Office : 206 Pennsylvania Ave. S. E., Washington, D. C. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. Robert Watson ; Sec, Rev. Lucius 
C. Clark; Supt. and Treas., Rev. Wilbur F. Crafts; Asst 
Supt., Rev. Henry N. Pringle. 

Purpose: To repress intemperance, impurity. Sabbath-breaking, 
gambling and kindred evils; to substitute wholesome recreations; to 
promote Bible reading in schools^ and arbitration and conciliation 
instead of industrial and international war. 

Periodical: Twentieth Century Quarterly , Editor, Rev. Wilbur F. 

Jewish Welfare Board 

Office: 149 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., Irving Lehman; Act. Treas., Edward 
S. Steinam ; Ex. Direc, Harry L. Gulcksman. 

322 Year Book of the Churches 

Purpose: Assists men in Army and Navy. Through consolidation 
with Young Men's Hebrew Association is promoting Jewish com- 
munity centers. 

Joint Committee on Utilizing Surveys 

(Federal Council, Home Missions Council, and the Council of 

Women for Home Missions) 

Headquarters : 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Officers : Chmn., Rev. L. C. Barnes ; Sec, Rev. Rodney 
W. Roundy. 

Joint Distribution Committee of the American Funds for 
Jewish War Sufferers 

Office : 20 Exchange Place, New York City. 
Officers: Chmn., Felix M. Warburg; Treas., Paul Baer- 
wald ; Sec, Albert Lucas. Address the Secretary. 

Represents the American Jewish Relief Committee, the Central 
Relief Committee, and the Jewish People's Relief Committee. 

Mariners' Family Asylum 

(Established and Incorporated 1843) 

119 Tompkins Ave., Stapleton, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Officers: Treas., Elmer W. Durkin, 142 Manor Rd., 
West New Brighton, S. I., N. Y.; Cor. Sec, Mrs. Henry 
Cattermole, 18 Pommer Ave., Tompkinsville, S. I., N. Y.; 
Rec Sec, Mrs. G. D. Pine, 25 So. Elliott PL, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A home for aged and destitute widows, wives, mothers, sisters and 
daughters of seamen who have sailed from the port of New York. 

National Association of Travelers' Aid Societies 

Office: 25 W. 43d St., New York. City. 

Officers: Pres., Mr. Rush Taggart; Vice-Pres., Mr. 
John Wesley Brown; Treas., Mrs. Robert L. Dickinson; 
Gen. Sec, Mr. Virgil V. Johnson; Extension Sec, Miss 
Clara Louise Rowe. 

Purpose: To serve as a medium for the cooperation of non-com- 
mercial protective agencies which have to do with the assistance of 
travelers, especially women and girls; also to aid in the development, 
improvement and unification of the work of such agencies. 

Periodical : National Travelers* Aid Bulletin. 

National Board of Review of Motion Pictures 

(Established, 1909, by Peoples' Institute) 

Office : 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers : Chmn., Everett Dean Martin ; Trea^., Sam A. 
Lewisohn; Ex. Sec, W. D. McGuire; Cor. Sec, Alice B. 

Purpose: An extra-legal volunteer organization reflecting public 
sentiment and cooperating nationally with producers and city offi- 
cials in the review and regulation of motion pictures on the basis 
of minimum standards, and with numerous organizations, individuals, 

Directory of Inter-Church 323 

groups, etc., in the extension of the use of worth-while motion pic- 
tures, both inside the theaters and without. 

National Child Health Council 

(Organized 1920) 

Office : 17th and D Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Purpose: Acts as a clearing house for the literature, plans, pro- 
grams and itineraries of its constituent organizations so far as they 
deal with child health. Is a council of national organizations, which, 
through conferences, reports, and field experimentation, aims to de- 
velop methods of coordinating all child health efforts of the con- 
stituent organizations, in relation to each other, to other national 
organizations and public departments, and to State and local 

National Child Labor Committee 

Office: 105 E. 22d St., New York City. 
Officers: Chmn,, Hon. David Franklin Houston; Gen. 
Sec, Owen R. Lovejoy. 

Purpose: To provide a normal childhood for all American children. 
Periodical: The American Child (quarterly). 

National Child Welfare Association 

(Established, 1912; Incorporated, 1914) 

Office : 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., Judge William H. Wadhams; Trens., 
Amos H. Prescott; Gen. Sec, Charles F. Powlison. 

Purpose: Originates and publishes exhibit material visualizing 
conditions affecting the physical, mental and moral development of 

National Christian League for the Promotion of Purity 

Office : 5 E. Twelfth St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Elizabeth B. Grannis; Cor. Sec, J. D. 
McClelland; Rec Sec, Charlotte WooUey, M.D.; Treas., 
Wm. W. Hall. 

Purpose: The spread of the claims of morality and the assistance 
of Christian efforts for purity. 

National Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor 

Office: 2 Rector St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Adolph Lewisohn; Chmn. Exec Coun- 
cil, E. Stagg Whitin; Treas., Perley Morse; Sec, J. K. 

Purpose: To study the problem of labor in prisons and correc- 
tional institutions, with a view to securing legislation for such em- 
ployment of prisoners as will promote their welfare and at the same 
time reimburse the institutions for expense of maintenance, while 
preventing unfair competition between prison-made goods and the 
products of free labor, and securing to their dependent families a 
fair proportion of the rightful earnings of prisoners. 

324 Year Book of the Churches 

National Community Board 

(Organized and Incorporated 1920) 

Office: 1516 H St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Pres., Henry E. Jackson, Chatham Courts, 
Washington, D. C. ; Treas., B. W. Law, Collins, N. Y. ; Sec, 
Major Oliver P. Newman, 2700 Connecticut Ave., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Plans to transfer its work to Congress and the States within a 
period of 25 years. 

Purpose: Acts as a promoting center and service station; first, to 
assist local communities to organize themselves on the hasis of 
citizenship; second, to aid community service agencies, both govern- 
mental and volunteer, in functioning more effectively and in elimi- 
nating waste of money, energy, and good-will due to needless dupli- 

National Conference of Catholic Charities 

(Organized 1910) 

Sec, Rev. John O'Grady, Catholic University, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Purpose: To bring about the exchange of information between 
Roman Catholics engaged in Catholic charities and for the improve- 
ment of standards in Catholic work. Encourages further develop- 
ment of literature in which the religious and social ideals of charity 
shall find dignified expression. 

Publication : Catholic Charities Review (monthly, except July and 

National Conference of Jewish Social Service 

(Organized 1899) 

114 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Louis H. Levin, Baltimore, Md.; Treas., 
Sidney E. Pritz, Cincinnati, 0.; Sec, Boris D. Bogen; Asso. 
Sec, Frances L. Goldsmith. 

Purpose: To promote the organization of communities along the 
lines of Jewish social service; to stimulate Jewish philanthropic en- 
deavor; to coordinate the work of existing agencies and federations; 
and to establish uniform national standards in the various phases of 
Jewish social service. 

Publications: Social Workers* Exchange; Contributors* Ex- 
change; Central Registration Bureau for Transient Applicants. 

National Conference of Social Work 

Office : 25 East 9th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Officers: Pres., Robert W. Kelso, Boston, Mass.; Gen. 
Sec, William Hammond Parker, Cincinnati, Ohio; Treas., 
Charles W. Folds, Chicago, 111. 

Purpose: To facilitate discussion of the problems and methods of 
practical human improvement, to increase the efficiency of the agen- 
cies and institutions devoted to this cause, and to disseminate infor- 

Periodical: The Conference Bulletin, 

Directory of Inter-Church 325 

National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teachers Asso- 

(Organized, 1897; Incorporated, 1900) 

Office : 1201 Sixteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Pres,, Mrs. Milton T. Higgins, 228 West St., 
Worcester, Mass.; Sec, Mrs. Acker C. Watkins, 1201 16th 
St., Washington, D. C; Natl. Treas., Mrs. Hubert N. 
Rowell, 3158 College Ave., Berkeley, Calif. 

Purpose: To promote child welfare in the home, school, church, 
and State; to develop wiser, better trained parenthood; to organize 
local groups of parents and teachers, and to assist local groups 
already formed. 

National Federation of Settlements 

(Organized 1911) 

Sec, Robert A. Woods, 20 Union Park, Boston, Mass. 

Purpose: To reinforce the various phases of federated action 
among neighborhood agencies; to assemble information regarding 
settlement experience throughout the country; to secure capable re- 
cruits for settlement work; to urge measures of State and national 
legislation suggested by settlement experience; to promote the better 
organization of neighborhood life generally. 

National Florence Crittenton Mission 

Office: 218 Third St., Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. Kate Waller Barrett, M.D., 408 
Duke St., Alexandria, Va. ; Vice-Pres., Honorable Jas. T. 
Petty, Washington, D. C; Sec, John B. Barrett, Clifton 
Station, Va. ; Treas., F. B. Waterman, Room 910, 108 Ful- 
ton St., New York City. 

Periodical: Girls. 

National Health Council 

(Organized 1920) 

Offices: 411 Eighteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C, 

and Penn Terminal Bldg., 370 Seventh Ave., New York, 

N. Y. 

Purpose : Aims to serve as a clearing house and coordinating center 
for the independent, autonomous agencies represented in its member- 
ship. Plans to maintain information, legislative, and statistical bu- 
reaus and to hold periodic joint conferences for the coordination of 
health activities and the development of educational health material. 

National Indian Association 

Office : 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., Mrs. Otto Heinigke; Exec Sec, John 
W. Clark ; Treas., Mrs. Anna B. Clark. 

Religious Work: Direct undenominational teaching of religious 
truths in places where no Christian instruction is given by any other 

Educational, Humanitarian, Medical and Industrl/il Work: 
Gathering of Indian children into schools; providing hospitals and 

326 Year Book of the Churches 

dispensaries, and homes for aged Indian women and for Indian 
orphans. Introduction of industries among various tribes to help 
the Indian to a position of self-support. 

Policy: The policy of the Association is to give its missions, when 
well established, together with the property attached, to the perma- 
nent care of denominational mission boards asking for them. The 
Association has done this pioneer missionary work in fifty-three 
tribes and separated parts of tribes. 

Buildings Erected: About sixty buildings have been erected. 
These include twenty-three mission cottages, five model cottages *in 
Alaska (which led to the noted "Model Cottage Settlement" at Sitka), 
nine churches and chapels, six school houses, three homes for the 
aged Indian women and orphans, two hospitals, one hospital cottage, 
a "fresh air" room, and other buildings connected with the work at 
various mission stations. 

National Information Bureau 

Headquarters: 1 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Gustavus D. Pope, Detroit, Mich.; Vice- 
Pres. and Treas., Paul L. Feiss, Cleveland, 0. ; Second Vice- 
Pres,, Lawson Purdy, New York City ; Sec, Owen R. Love- 
joy, New York City; Act Director, Geddes Smith, 1 Madi- 
son Ave., New York City. 

Purpose: To standardize national social, civic and philanthropic 
work and protect the contributing public. 

National Lend-a-Hand Society 

(Organized, 1914; Incorporated, 1915) 

Office : 106 Park Row, New York City. 
Officer: Exec. Sec, George Sanderson. 

Purpose: To "lend a hand, temporally, morally and spiritually, to 
discharged prisoners." Assists them, irrespective of race, creed or 
sex, to secure positions of honest employment. Receives prisoners 
paroled to its custodial care, assists them to procure employment, 
and advises and supervises them until they are discharged from 
custody. Executive Secretary makes periodical visits to prisons in 
many States, addresses prisoners in their prison chapels, holds per^ 
sonal interviews with them, and arranges to assist them to obtain 
employment when they are discharged. Membership is open to inter- 
ested persons. 

National Plant, Flower and Fruit Guild 

• (Organized, 1896; Incorporated, J906) 

Office: 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

National Officers: Founder and Pres., Mrs. John 
Wood Stewart; Hon. Pres., John Burroughs; Treas., Vir- 
ginia D. H. Furman; Sec, Ellen Eddy Shaw; Exec Sec, 
Mrs. Frank V. Anderson. 

Purpose : To give to the sick poor in hospitals and tenements sym- 
pathy and cheer through the distribution of plants, cut flowers, fruit 
and jelly. To establish garden clubs, children's community gardens 
in cities and towns, and supply flowering boxes for congested tene- 
ment districts. Supported by subscription and donations. 

Directory of Inter-Church 327 

National Probation Association 

(Organized 1907) 

132 State St., Albany, N. Y. 

Pitrpose: To study, establish, extend, and standardize adult and 
juvenile probation, juvenile courts, domestic relations or family 
courts, and other specialized courts using the probation system. Sup- 
ports efforts to prevent or reduce delinquency, and to promote rational 
and humane treatment of crime and delinquency. 

National Reform Association 

(Organized, 1863; Incorporated, 1890) 

Office : 209 Ninth St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Officers: Pres., Thomas D. Edgar, Wilkensburg, Pa.; 
Treas., James S. Tibby, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Rec. Sec, Rev. 
James F. Cosby, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Cor. Sec, Rev. J. C. Nick- 
olas, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Gen. Supt., Dr. James S. Martin, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Purpose: Non-denominational organization seeking to maintain 
existing Christian features in government, and to promote moral 

Neighbors' League of America 


Office : Roorh 1007, 23 East 26th St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Dr. J. F. Wilcox; Sec, Mrs. Lemuel Call 
Barnes; Treas., Mr. E. F. Perry; Registrar, Miss Lilly 

Purpose: The promotion of neighborly relations between foreign- 
born and native Americans through mutual acquaintance and coopera- 
tion. Teaching the language and the Christian ideals of America to 
non-English speaking residents is an important part of the Neigh- 
bors' League program. 

New York Foundation 

(Incorporated 1909) 

Office : 87 Nassau St., New York City. 

Officers: Trttstees, Alfred M. Heinsheimer, Pres.; 
Mortimer L. Schiff, Felix M. Warburg, Lee F. Frankel, 
Herbert H. Lehman, Sam A. Lewisohn, David M. Heyman, 
Treas.; William F. Fuerst, Sec 

Administers funds for the encouragement of charitable and other 
philanthropic efforts. 

Permanent Blind War Relief Fund 

Office : 590 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Board of Directors: James M. Beck, William Nelson 
Cromwell, John Foster Dulles, Samuel W. Fairchild, James 
W. Gerard, Otto H. Kahn, Miss Helen Keller, Mrs. Cora 
Parsons Kessler, Alvin W. Krech, Rev. Charles S. Macfar- 
land, Julius M. Mayer, Morgan^Jo^rien, Sir Arthur Pear- 

{128 Year Book of the Churches 

son, Bt., Samuel Robert, L. Livingston Seaman, Rev. Ernest 
M. Stires. 

Purpose: Permanent reconstruction work for soldiers and sailors 
blinded in the war. 

Playground and Recreation Association of America 

Office: 1 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Officers: Pres,, Joseph Lee; Sec, H. S. Braucher; 
Treds,, Gustavus T. Kirby. 

Purpose: The promotion of normal wholesome play and public 
recreation. At the request of the War Department, the Association 
established War Camp Community Service to organize the social and 
recreational life of the communities near the training camps for the 
benefit of the men in their free time. Out of this work has devjeloped 
Community Service (Incorporated), through which communities are 
being helped to develop a richer recreational and social life for the 
individual and the community. 

Periodical: The Playground (monthly). Editor, H. S. Braucher. 

Playground and Recreation Association, National Physical 
Education Service 

(Organized 1918) 

Office : 309 Homer Bldg., 13th and F Sts. N. W., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Purpose: Works to secure Federal legislation for physical educa- 
tion; universal physical education in the schools of all States; an 
effective municipal program of public recreation and physical educa- 
tion. Seeks to stimulate popular opinion which would assure both 
legislation and its effective operation. Sends representatives to 
States planning physical education legislation; these field workers 
organize local and State campaigns, address meetings, and otherwise 
aid in bringing about the enactment of such laws. 

Protestant Protective Unity League 

Office: 500 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres,, Mrs. Robert W. Barrington; Treas., 
William C. Kronmeyer; Sec, Mrs. Guy Beaver King; Exec 
Sec, Elle H. Shaw. 

Purpose: To organize and direct a body of Protestant men and 
women whose purpose shall be to interest themselves in the welfare 
and improvement of children and others, especially those who have 
been brought before children's courts, and to aid prisoners and help 
them when discharged. 

Research Department Commission on the Church and Social 
Service (Federal Council) 

See p. 254. 

Russell Sage Foundation 

Office: 130 E. 22d St., New York City. 

Officers: Board of Trustees, Pres., Robert W. de For- 
est ; Vice-Pres., Mrs. William B. Rice ; Sec and Gen. Direc- 
tor, John M. Glenn ; Treas., Charles D. Norton. 

Directory of Inter-Church 329 

Purpose: The improvement of social and living conditions. The 
following departments are maintained: Charity Organization, Direc- 
tor , Mary E. Richmond; Child-Helping, Director, Hastings H. Hart; 
Recreation, Director , Lee F. Hanmer; Remedial Loans, Sec, Caro D. 
Coombs; Statistics, Director, Ralph G. Hurlin; Surveys and Exhibits, 
Director, Shelby M. Harrison; Industrial Studies, Director, Mary 
Van Kleeck; Library, Librarian, Frederick W. Jenkins. 

Sailors' Snug Harbor 

(Founded, 1801; Incorporated, 1806) 

New Brighton, Staten Island. 

City Office : 262 Green St., New York City. 

Officers: Governor, George E. Beckwith; Pres., Darwin 
P. Kingsley; Comptroller, James Henry; Deputy Comp., 
W. A. Guenther; Edward H. Cole, Application Agent, to 
whom apply. 

A home for aged, decrepit and wornout sailors. 

Society for the Friendless 

Massachusetts Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 
Officers: Pres., T. F. Carver; Treas., W. H. Barnard; 
Natl. Supt., Rev. James Parsons. 

Operates as general directing organization for State societies for 
the friendless, engaged in prisoners' aid work and prison reform. 

Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 

(Incorporated 1866) 

Office : Madison Ave. and 26th St., New York City. 
Officers : Pres., Alfred Wagstaff ; Treas., Henry Bergh ; 
Sec, Richard Welling; Gen. Mgr., W. K. Horton. 

PimPOSE: For the purpose indicated in the title. Open day and 
night, also Sundays. Has ambulances for the removal of disabled 
animals and maintains free dispensaries and hospitals for animals, 
and shelters for dogs and cats. Supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions. Applications and complaints should be made at the above 

Southern Cooperative League 

See p. 278. 

World's Purity Federation 

Office : La Crosse, Wis. 

Officers: Pres., B. S. Steadwell; First Vice-Pres., Rev. 
T. Albert Moore; Second Vice-Pres., Mrs. Kate Waller Bar- 
rett; Sec, L. E. Brownell, Winnipeg, Man., Can.; Treas., 
B. C. Howell. 

Purpose: To eradicate white slave traffic and public vice, to secure 
a single standard of morals, and safe and sane instruction of the 
young in social hygiene. 

Periodical: The Light, La Crosse, Wis., Editor, B. S. Steadwell. 

330 Year Book of the Churches 


Allied Citizens of America 

(Incorporated 1919) 

906 Broadway, New York City. 

Supplements, but does not supplant, the Anti- Saloon Lea^e. Pro- 
motes the enforcement of the 18th amendment to the Constitution 
and aids in the enactment and enforcement of State and Federal 
legislation furthering health, morality, and general welfare. Seeks 
to spread Americanism through encouraging, by written and spoken 
words, belief in and enthusiasm for the Constitution. Flans to organ- 
ize in each town, village or city, and in each county or State, without 
regard to party or creed, a body of citizens, both men and women, 
for effective cooperation for the accomplishment of these purposes, 
and for the supporting of public officials to make local government 
effective and responsive to public opinion. Non-partisan and non- 
sectarian. Membership open to all persons who are able to read, and 
who sign and agree to the covenant upholding the Constitution and 
American ideals. No dues, assessments or initiation fees. Supported 
by contributions. 

Anti-Saloon League of America 

Offices: Westerville, 0., and Bliss Bldg., Washington, 
D. C. 

Officers: Pres,, Bishop Luther B. Wilson; Gen. Supt, 
Rev. P. A. Baker; Asst. Gen. Supty and Acting Financial 
Sec, Rev. E. J. Moore; Asso. Supt., Howard H. Russell; 
Sec. Board of Directors, S. E. Nicholson; Treas., Foster 
Copeland, Columbus, 0.; Gen. Mgr. Dept. of Publication 
Interests, Ernest H. Cherrington ; Sec. Lincoln-Lee Legion, 
Rev. Howard H. Russell ; National Attorney and LegisUitive , 
Supt, Wayne B. Wheeler. 

Purpose: To federate the temperance forces of the United States 
in an organized opposition to the beverage liquor traffic. 

Flying Squadron Foundation 

Office: 1200 Peoples Bank Bldg., 134 E. Market Street, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Officers: Pres., Oliver W. Stewart; Vice-Pres., Dan R. ' 
Sheen; Sec, Jeanette Zweier; Treas., Miss Hallie McNeill. 

Purpose: Prohibition of the alcoholic liquor traffic, law enforce- 
ment, civic righteousness, social and industrial justice. 

Intercollegiate Prohibition Association 

Office: Suite 610, 14 West Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

Officers: Pres., Dr. Ira Landrith, 14 West Washington 
St., Chicago, 111.; First Vice-Pres., Miss Anna A. Gordon; 
Second Vice-Pres., Dr. Howard H. Russell; Third Vice- 
Pres., Dr. Daniel A. Poling; Sec-Treas., Harry S. Wartter, 
14 West Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

Publication: Intercollegiate Statesman (monthly). 

Directory of Inter-Church 331 


International Order of Good Templars 

Offices: Beverly, Mass. (supplies and general corre- 
spondence) ; Munsey Bldg., Washington, D. C. (legislative 

Officers: N. C. T., Dr. C. A. Carlson, Youngstown, 0.; 
N. E. S., Rev. E. C. Dinwiddie, Washington, D. C; N. S. 
J. W., Mrs. M. W. Wright, Schuylerville, N. Y.; N. Sec, 
W. 0. Wylie, Beverly, Mass.; N. Treas., A. E. Thulander, 
E. Orange, N. J. ; N. S. T. E., Miss Laura R. Church, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; P. N. C. T., Ben D. Wright, Lqckport, N. Y. ; 
N. Court., A. E. Shoemaker, Washington, D. C. ; N. V. T., 
Mrs. W. H. Frazier, Madison, Wis. ; N. Chap., Hugo Thorne, 
Richmond Hill, N. Y. ; N. Mar., W. E. Sarles, Butte, Mont. ; 
N. A. Sec, C. Wilmer King, Washington, D. C. ; N. D. Mar., 
Mrs. Marguerite Sarles, Butte, Mont. ; N. Guard, Mrs. Ma- 
tilda Brodin, N. Britain, Conn. ; N. Sent., C. W. E. Wallin, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. ; N. Mess., H. H. Moe, Munroe, Wis. 

Purpose: To promote total abstinence for the individual and 
prohibition for the State. 

Periodical: N. Y. and NaVl Templar, Beverly, Mass., Editor, 
W. O. Wylie. 

National Temperance Society and Commission on Temper- 
ance (Federal Council) 
Se« p. 254. 

Prohibition National Committee 

Office : 6 South Fifth Ave., La Grange, 111. 

Officers: Chmn., Virgil G. Hinshaw; Vice-Chmn., Mrs. 
Ida B. W. Smith; Sec, Mrs. Frances Beauchamp; Treas., 
H. P. Faris. 

Purpose: To secure enforcement of the 18th amendment by legis- 
lation and by the election of a political party pledged to its enforce- 

Periodical: California Voice, Los Angeles, Calif., Editor, W. J. 

Scientific Temperance Federation 

Office : 73 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 

Officers: Hon. Pres., Prof. Irving Fisher; Pres., Ernest 
H. Cherrington; Vice-Pres., A. J. Davis; Exec Sec, Cora 
Frances Stoddard; Treas., Ernest L. Miller. 

Purpose: Popular education in the scientific and social facts of the 
alcohol question through lectures, books, pamphlets, posters and 
slides. A bureau of information on the alcohol question. 

Sons of Temperance (National Division of North America) 

Officers: M. W. Patriarch, E. L. G. Hohenthal, 476 
Centre St., S. Manchester, Goain.; M. W.^Associate, Rev. 
A. A. McLeod, McKees Millia, New BruTiswick; M. W. 

Ii32 Year Book of the Churches 

Scribe, T. N. Willmot, Orillia, Ontario; M. W. Treas., Wm. 
C. Acken, Metuchen, N. J. 

Purpose: To teach and practice total abstinence. 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union 

Headquarters: Evanston, 111. 

Officers: Pres., Miss Anna A. Gordon; Vice-Pres.-aU 
Large, Mrs. E. A. Boole; Cor. Sec, Mrs. Frances P. Parks; 
Rec, Sec, Mrs. E. P. Anderson; Treas., Mrs. Margaret C. 


Purpose: Organized for the protection of the home, the abolition 
of the liquor traffic, and the triumph of Christ's Golden Rule in cusf 
tom and in law. 

The World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union. — This is com- 
posed of national units in over fifty countries. These organizations 
are neither partisan nor sectarian. Its motto, ''For God and Home 
and Every Land," suggests the scope of its work and the breadth of 
its patriotism. 

Young People's Branch, — A social organization of young men and 
women for temperance and prohibition. 

World Prohibition Federation 

American Headquarters: Columbia Bank Bldg., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

(In process of organization.) 

Officers of American Branch : Pres., Rev. Chas. Scan- 
Ion, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; First Vice-Pres., Gov. Carl E. Milli- 
ken; Second Vice-Pres., Rev. Clarence True Wilson; Third 
Vice-Pres., Rev. Samuel Z. Batten; Sec, Rev. Stanley A. 
Hunter, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Treas., Hon. Charles H. Randall, 
Washington, D. C. 

Purpose: To secure the abolition of intoxicants and habit-forming 
drugs throughout the world. 

Bethany Girls 

Office : 504 Masonic Temple, Chicago, 111. 

Officers: Pres., Wm. A. Peterson; Vice-Pres., Dr. H. H. 
Everett; Founder and Leader, Mrs. Carrie Stewart Bess- 
erer ; Sec, Mrs. Wm. A. Peterson. 

Purpose: To make every girl a spiritual center radiating the Mas- 
ter's purpose in her home, daily life and church. A two-acre summer 
camp is maintained at Winona Lake, Ind. 

Big Sisters 

Office : 164 Lexington Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. Willard Parker, Jr.; Sec, Mrs. 
Edward Livingston Smith; Treas., Mrs. Willard Parker, 
Jr. ; Exec Sec, Miss Ida M. Merritt. 

Purpose: To promote the welfare of children — ^white and colored. 
Girls under sixteen and boys under ten years who have been brought 

Directory of Inter-Church 333 

before the Children's Court, and others who have suffered because 
of bad environment. Volunteers are enlisted who will take a friendly 
interest in such children and aid them to become better citizens. 

The character of the work is protective, preventive and recon- 
structive. A Big Sister Home is maintained where the mildly delin- 
quent girls may go instead of being committed to an institution. 

Bureau of Vocational Information 
See p. 276. 

Camp Fire Girls 

Office: 31 East 17th St., New York City. 

Officers: Hon. Pres., Hon. Warren G. Harding; Hon. 
Vice-Pres., Hon. William Howard Taft; Pres., Mrs. Oliver 
Harriman; Sec. and Nat'l Exec, Lester F. Scott; Treas., 
Dr. Myron T. Scudder. 

Purpose: An organized effort to find romance, beauty and adven- 
ture in every-day life. It insists that every member consider her 
health as a sacred thing. It emphasizes each point of the Camp Fire 
Law — "See Beauty, Give Service, Pursue Knowledge, Be Trustworthy, 
Hold on to Health, Glorify Work, Be Happy" — through division of 
the lives of the girls into the following seven crafts: Home Craft, 
Health Craft, Camp Craft, Hand Craft, Nature Lore, Business, 

Official Publication: EverygirVs Magazine, 31 East 17th St., 
New York City; Editor, Miss Rowe Wright. 

Council of Jewish Women (Inc.) 

Office: 305 West 98th St., New York City. 
Officers: Pres., Rose Brenner; Treas., Mrs, Alvin L. 
Bauman ; Exec. Sec, Mrs. Harry Sternberger. 

Purpose: Unites Jewish women to work along philanthropic edu- 
cational and religious lines. Conducts many special activities. 

Girl Scouts, Inc. 

National Headquarters: 189 Lexington Ave., New 
York City. 

Officers: Hon. Pres., Mrs. Warren G. Harding; Pres., 
Mrs. Arthur O. Choate; Founder, Mrs. Juliette Low; First 
Vice-Pres., Mrs. James J. Storrow; Chmn. Exec. Bd., Mrs. 
V. Everit Macy; Treas., Mrs. Nicholas F. Brady; Director, 
Mrs. Jane Deeter Rippin. 

Purpose: To bring all girls the opportunity for group experience, 
outdoor life, and community service. Its activities center about the 
three main interests of Home-making, Health and Citizenship. 

Publications: OfRcial Handbook, Scouting for Girls; Camping 
Manual, Campward Ho; Organization and Rules, Blue Book of Rules 
for Girl Scout Captains; Magazine, The American Girl. 

Girls' Friendly Society in America. 

(Established, 1877; Incorporated, 1895) 

Central Office : 15 East 40th St., New York City. 

334 Year liook of the Churches 

Officers : Pres., Miss F. W. Sibley, 410 Jefferson Ave., 
Detroit, Mich.; Treas., Miss M. B. Anthony, 72 Manning 
St., Providence, R. I. ; Sec, Miss Mary M. McGuire, 15 East 
40th St., New York City. 

Purpose: 1. To band together in one society Church women as 
Associates, and girls and young women as Members, for mutual help 
(religious and secular), for sympathy and prayer. 

2. To encourage purity of life, dutifulness to parents, faithfulness 
in work, and thrift. 

3. To provide the privilege of the Society for its Members, wher- 
ever they may be, by giving them an introduction from one Branch 
to another. The Society has branches in nearly every country in the 

King's Daughters and Sons (International Order) 

General Convention, biennial; next meeting, May, 1922. 

Office : 280 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres,, Mrs. Robert J. Reed, Wheeling, W. Va.; 
Gen, Sec, Mrs. Charles A. Menet ; Treas,, Mrs. K. M. Farns- 

Purpose: The development of spiritual life and the stimulation of 
Christian activities. Members* cooperate in all lines of religious, 
educational, and philanthropic work. 

Periodical: The Silver Cross, Editor, Mrs. Elwin L. Page. 

Young Women's Christian Associations of the United 
States of America 

Office: 600 Lexington Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Mrs. Robert E. Speer; Chmn. Exec 

Com., Mrs. John French; First Vice-Pres., ; 

Second Vice-Pres., Mrs. Williams W. Rossiter; Sec, Mrs. 
Lewis H. Lapham ; Treas., Mrs. Samuel J. Broadwell ; Gen. 
Sec, Miss Mabel Cratty. 

The National Board of the Y. W. C. A. interests itself in the city, 
student, town and country Associations throughout the United States 
and its territories. Through its Foreign and Overseas Department, 
it works with the World's Committee of the Association in extending 
its work with girls and women throughout the world. 

Purpose: The purpose of the local Association is to advance the 
physical, social, intellectual, moral, and spiritual inflerests of young 
women ; to bring young women to a knowledge of Jesus Christ as 
Saviour and Lord, to fullness of life and development of character. 

School : National Training School, New Yotk City. 

PerioiiICAL: The Association Monthly, Editor, Miss Rhoda McCul- 

For detailed report and statistics, see Sec. V, ''Religious Statistics," 

See p. 385. 

. 4 -'.rrV- • 









Office: 937 Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 

Officers: Chmn., Bishop William F. McDowell; Viee-Chmn,, Rev. Wallace Rad- 
cliffe; Sec, Rev. E. O. Watson. 


Chaplain John T. Axton 
Rev. Peter Ainslie 
Rev. Wm. McF. Alexander 
Rev. Samuel Z. Batten 
Chap. G. Livingston Bayard 
Rev. C. H. Beck 
Bishop WiUiam M. Bell 
Bishop Joseph F. Berry 
Rev. A. C. Biddle 
Rev. Andrew R. Bird 
Dean G. C. F. Bratenahl 
Rt Rev. C. H. Brent 
Rev. Gilbert N. Brink 
Rev. J. F. Burnett 
Bishop J. S. Caldwell 
Rev. J. Alvin Campbell 
Rev. Wm. I. Chamberlain 
Bishop G. C. Clement 
Rev. W. Stuart Cramer 
Rev. Lyman E. Davis 
Rev. John R. Edwards 
Rt. Rev. Samuel Fallows 
Bishop H. H. Fout 
Chap. John B. Frazier 
Prof. John W. Gilbert 
Rev. B. D. Gray 
Rev. W. C. Hallwachs 

Prof. John R. Hawkins 
Rt. Rev. Alfred Harding 
Pres. W. A. Harper 
Rev. Charles M. Jacobs 
Rev. W. H. Jernagin 
Rev. F. Paul Langhorne 
Rev. Lauritz Larsen 
Rev. George A. Miller 
Rev. Walter A. Morgan 
Rev. R. Niebuhr 
Rev. Thomas C. Pollock 
Rev. Forest J. Prett3rman 
Rev. H. H. Ranck 
Rev. Chas. E. Schaeffer 
Rev. H. Franklin Schlegel 
Chap. Evan W. Scott 
Mr. F. A. Seagle 
Rev. Walter F. Smith 
Rev. Charles F. Steck 
Rev. J. G. Stewart 
Rev. O. S. Thomas 
Rev. James L Vance 
Mr. R. Van Noord 
Rev. J. F. Wenchel 
Rev. Gaylord S. White 
Rev. €. E. Wilbur 
Bishop Luther B. Wilson 
Rev. Charles Wood 

Executive Committee 

Bishop William F. McDowell 
Rev. Wallace Radcliffe 
Rev. E. O. Watson 
Rev. F. Paul Langhorne 
Rt. Rev. Alfred Harding 
Rev. Charles F. Steck 

Committee on Legislation 

Rev. E. O. Watson 
Rev. Andrew R. Bird 
Rev. John R. Edwards 
Rev. George A. Miller 
Rev. Walter F. Smith 

Committee on Chaplains for Hospitals 
(U. S. Veterans' Bureau) 

Bishop William F. McDowell Rev. E. O. Watson 

Rt. Rev. Alfred Harding 

The General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains was formed 
March, 1917, for the purpose of assisting the Secretary of War and 
the Secretary of the Navy in matters relating to religious work in 
the Army and Navy. Its membership is composed of representatives 
of the constituent bodies of the Federal Council and other bodies 
affiliated or consultative with the Federal Council and bodies which 
do not directly affiliate with the Federal Council as a whole, but co- 
operate with the General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains. 

The Committee seeks to promote the spiritual welfare of the men 
in the Army and Navy through the development of interest on the 
part of the churches in the work of chaplains. It aids in the selection 
of chaplains, making recommendation as to their qualifications from 
the standpoint of the churches, is in constant cooperation with the 

338 Year Book of the Churches 

office of the Chief Chaplain and seeks in every way possible to pro- 
mote religious work in both branches of the service. 

Its responsibilities and services rendered are not only for resrular 
Army Chaplains but also for the Reserve Corps. 


Office of the Chief Chaplain: State, War and Navy Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Personnel: Col. John T. Axton, Lt. John J. Campbell, Maj. Julian 
E. Yates. 

The office of the Chief of Chaplains, established under act of 
Congress approved June 4, 1920, is administered by the Chief of 
Chaplains, Chaplain John T. Axton; a chaplain as Executive Officer. 
Chaplain John J. Campbell; and one chaplain who devotes himself 
to the program of instruction. Chaplain Julian E. Yates. The chap- 
lains assigned to this duty at the present time are of the Congre- 
gational, Roman Catholic and Baptist churches, respectively. 

The specific function of the office of the Chief of Chaplains, under 
the supervision of the Chief of Staff, is to select, instruct, distribute 
and supervise the chaplain personnel of the Army of the United 
States. It is the duty of the Chief of Chaplains to prepare and 
submit for approval the necessary regulations governing the exami- 
nation of candidates for appointment as chaplains and to investigate 
the qualifications of all applicants for such appointment; to make 
recommendations for the assignment of chaplains to organizations 
and stations; to make recommendations concerning the equipment 
and supplies for the work of chaplains; to exercise direct supervision 
and control of the special service school for chaplains; to submit 
plans looking to a properly trained chaplain personnel by means of 
the Chaplains' Service School, by conferences of chaplains, and by 
the circulation of pamphlets of instruction; and to keep in personal 
touch with the chaplains by correspondence and personal contact. All 
of this Serves to promote the moral and spiritual welfare and con- 
tentment of the Army. 


Section 15 of the Act of Congress approved June 4, 1920, provides: 
"There shall be one chaplain for every twelve hundred officers and 
enlisted men of the Regular Army, exclusive of the Philippine Scouts 
and the unassigned recruits, authorized from time to time in accord- 
ance with law and within the peace strength permitted by this Act. 
Chaplains shall hereafter have rank, pay, and allowances according 
to length of active commissioned service in the Army, or, since April 
6, 1917, in the National Guard while in active service under a call by 
the President, as follows: Less than five years, first lieutenant; five 
to fourteen years, captain; fourteen to twenty years, major; over 
twenty years, lieutenant colonel. One chaplain, of rank not below 
that of major, may be appointed by the President, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate, to be chief of chaplains. He shall 
serve as such for four years, and shall have the rank, pay and allow- 
ances of colonel while so serving. His duties shall include investiga- 
tion into the qualifications of candidates for appointment as chaplain, 
and -general coordination and supervision of the work of chaplains. 
Of the vacancies existing on July 1, 1920, such number as the Presi- 
dent may direct shall be filled by appointment on that date of persons 
under the age of fifty-eight years, other than chaplains of the Regu- 
lar Army, who served as chaplains in the Army at some time between 
April 6, 1917, and the date of the passage of this Act. Such ap- 
pointments may be made in grades above the lowest under the same 
restrictions as to age and rank as are hereinafter preacrlbod tot 

Directory of Chaplains 339 

original appointments in other branches of the service, and in accord- 
ance with the recommendation of the board of officers provided for 
in section 24. For purpose of future promotion, persons so appointed 
shall be considered as having had, on the date of appointment, suffi- 
cient prior service to bring them to their respective grades under the 
rules of promotion established in this section." 

''Sec. 24. Filling of vacancies: Not less than one-half of the total 
number of vacancies caused by this act, exclusive of those in the 
Medical Department and among chaplains, shall be filled by appoint- 
ment, to date from July 1, 1920, and subject to such examination as 
the President may prescribe, of persons other than officers of the 
Regular Army who served aa officers of the United States Army at 
any time between April 6, 1917, and the date of the passage of this 
act. A suitable number of such officers shall be appointed in each 
of the grades below that of brigadier general, according to their 
qualifications for such grade as may be determined by the board of 
general officers provided for in the section. No such person above 
the age of 50 years shall be appointed in a combatant branch, or 
above the age of 58 in a noncombatant branch. No such person 
below the age of 48 years shall be appointed in the grade of colonel, 
or below the age of 45 yeats in the grade of lieutenant colonel, or 
below the age of 36 years in the grade of major. 

"Sec. 24e. Appointment of officers: Appointments as chaplains 
shall be made from among persons duly accredited by some religious 
denomination or organization, and of good standing therein, between 
the ages of 23 and 45 years. Former officers of the Regular Army 
and retired officers may be reappointed to the active list if found 
competent for active duty." 

A subsequent Act of Congress has fixed the enlisted strength of 
the Army at 150,000, with 14,000 officers, and therefore the quota 
of chaplains is one hundred and thirty-six. The present plan of the 
War Department, unless Congress intervenes, is to gradually absorb 
the excess of forty-three chaplains by retirements, resignations and 
other casualties. It will be seen from this that several years may 
elapse before there will be vacancies for the appointment of chaplains 
in the Regular Army. 


The basis for apportionment of chaplains among the various de- 
nominations was fixed by the Secretary of War to allow seventy per 
cent to the Protestant Churches, twenty-five per cent to the Roman 
Catholic Church, with five per cent for adjustments. When appoint- 
ments of chaplains were being made in accordance with the Abt of 
June 4, 1920, there were a sufficient number of qualified candidates 
from some denominations to completely fill their respective quotsis 
according to the approved plan of distribution. Those denominations 
that presented less than their allotment of applicants, notably the 
Roman Catholic and Lutheran Churches, expected later to fill vacan- 
cies that had been reserved for them. The recent reduction in the 
enlisted strength of the Army caused the further appointment of 
chaplains to be suspended. The disproportionate number of chap- 
lains of certain faiths, which resulted, may be adjusted gradually as 
vacancies occur through retirements, resignations, or other casualties. 


There are in service at present one hundred and seventy-eight 
chaplains, distributed over the various grades as follows: 

Colonel 1 ; ' 

Lt. Colonel 10 . ^ 

Major ^ 6 ;• 

Captain . * 43 

First Lieutenant 118 

340 Year Book of the Churches 

List of Regular Army Chaplains, Their Stations* Rank and 


John T. Axton, Chief of Chaplains, Washington, D. C. ; Col. (Congl.), Maj. 

William A. Aiken, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas; Capt. (CongL) 

Garrett L. Allen, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. ; Lt. (Bap., S.) 

Frank C. Armstrons:, Ft. Williams, Maine; Lt. (Epis.) 

William R. Arnold, Ft. Hancock, N. Y. ; Capt (R. C.) 

John V. Axton, Office of Chief of Chaplains; Capt. (Congl.) 

Julius J. Babst, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas; Lt. (R. C.) 

William P. Baird, Camp Knox, Ky. ; Lt (M. E., S.) 

Harlan J. Ballentine, Ft. Benjamin Harrison, Indiana; Lt (Bap., N.) 

Milton O. Beebe, Hawaiian Dept. Honolulu, H. T. ; Capt (M. E.. N.) 

Joel R. Benjamin, 68th Inf., Ft. Missoula, Mont; Capt (Disc.) 

Ivan L. Bennett, Tanks, Camp Meade, Md. ; Lt. (Bap., S.) 

Frederick J. Bergs, Camp Dix, N. J.; Lt. (R. C). 

James L. Blakeney, 3d Med. Regt., Camp Lewis, Wash. ; Lt. (Bap., S.) 

Henry N. Blanchard, Key West Barracks, Fla. ; Lt. (Bap., N.) 

John K. Bodel, 86th Inf., Schofield Barracks, H. T. ; Lt (Epis.) 

Frank B. Bonner, 6th F. A., Camp Brags:, N. C. ; Lt (Pres., N.) 

Reuben E. Boyd, Langley Field, Va. ; Lt (M. E., N.) 

William R. Bradley, 8d F. A., Camp Knox, Ky. ; Lt (Prcs.. N.) 

Edward L. Branham, 88th Inf., Camp Lewis, Wash. ; Capt (Disc.) 

Alva J. Brasted, 4th F. A., Camp Stanley, Texas; Capt (Bap., N.) 

Berton F. Bronson, Vancouver Barracks, Wash.; Lt (Bap., N.) 

Edwin Burling, Ft. Lawton, Wash.; Lt. (M. £., N.) 

John J. Byrne, 82d F. A., Ft. Bliss, Texas; Lt (R. C.) 

John J. Campbell, Office of Chief of Chaplains, Washington, D. C. ; Lt (R. C.) 

Louis A. Carter, 26th Inf., Nogales, Arizona; Capt (Bap., CoL) 

Monroe S. Caver, 9tib Cav., Camp Stotsenburg, P. I.; Lt. (Bap., CoL) 

John F. Chenoweth, 1st Cav. Div., Ft Bliss, Texas; Capt (M. E., N.) 

John E. Chester, Ft. Randolph, Canal Zone; Lt (Luth.) 

Orville I. Clampitt. 8th F. A., Schofield Barracks, H. T. ; Capt (Bap., S.) 

William D. Cleary, 60th Inf. A. F. G., Coblenz, Germany; Lt (R. C.) 

Ora J. Cohee, Chaplains' Service School, Camp Knox, Ky. ; Lt (Disc.) 

Philip F. Coholan, Ft Kamehameha. H. T. ; Lt. (R. C.) 

Thomas G. Conboy, 12th Inf., Camp Meade, Md. ; Capt (R. C.) 

Joseph F. Conway, 47th Inf., Camp Lewis, Wash.; Lt (R. C.) 

Cornelius A. Corcoran, Camp Bragg, N. C. ; Lt (R. C.) 

Samuel E. Crosby, 9th Inf., Camp Travis, Texas; Lt (Pres., S.) 

John T. Debardeleben, 18th F. A., Schofield Barracks, H. T. ; Capt (M. E.. S.) 

Ralph C. Deibert, 7th F. A., Camp Dix, N. J.; Lt (Unit. Evang.) 

Thomas J. Dickson, Ist F. A., Ft. Sill, Okla. ; L. C. (Disc.) 

Aloysius C. Dineen, 22d Inf., Governors Island, N. Y. ; Lt (R. C.) 

Francis F. Donnelly, 63d Inf., Ft. D. A. Russell, Wyo. ; Lt (R. C.) 

Walter J. Donoghue, 6th Inf., A. F. G., Coblenz, Germany; Lt (R. C.) 

James E. Duffy, Panama Canal Dept, Quarry Hts., Balboa Hts., C. Z. ; Lt (R. 0.) 

Edmund P. Easterbrook, Senior Chap., A. F. G., Coblenz, Germany; L. G. (M. B., N.) 

John R. Edwards, Fitzsimmons General Hosp., Denver, Colo.; Lt (M. £., N.) 

Albert L. Evans, 6th Engrs., Camp Lewis, Wash. ; Lt (Pres., N.) 

Ignatius Fealy, 2d Engrs., Camp Travis, Texas; CJapt (R. C.) 

Horace R. Fell, 6th Inf., Jefferson Barracks, Mo.; Capt (Episc.) 

Orville E. Fisher, 16th Inf., Tientsin, China; Capt (Dutch Ref.) 

William L. Fisher, 1st Inf., Camp Travis, Texas; Capt (Disc.) 

George B. Ford, Chaplains' Service School, Camp Knox, Ky. ; Lt (R. C.) 

William H. Fowle, Ft. Logan, Colo.; Lt. (Bap., S.) 

Raymond F. Fox, 31st Inf., Manila, P. I.; Lt (R. C.) 

Harry C. Fraser, Ft. Warren, Mass.; Lt. (M. E., N.) 

Charles W. Freeland, 6th Cav., Ft. Oglethorpe, Ga. ; L. C. (Episc.) 

Clifford P. Futcher, Camp Benning, Ga. ; Capt (M. E., N.) 

Joseph G. Garrison, 18th Cav., Ft. Clark, Texas; Lt (Unita.) 

Henry J. Geiger, Chanute Field, 111.; Lt. (Episc.) 

Charles F. Graeser, Letterman Gen'l Hosp., San Francisco, Calif.; Capt (M. E., N.) 

Joseph A. Gray, Camp Benning, Ga. ; Lt (M. E., S.) 

James L. Griffes, Ft Sheridan, 111.; L. C. (Pres., N.) 

Edmond J. Griffin, U. S. D. B., Alcatraz, Calif.; Capt. (R. C.) 

John Hall, Station Hospital, A. F. G., Coblenz, Germany; Lt. (Luth.) 

Claude S. Harkey, Corozal, C. Z. ; Lt (M. E., S.) 

Thomas A. Harkins, Ross Field, Calif.; Lt. (M. E., S.) 

Frank B. Hart, Ft. Douglas, Utah; Lt (Bap., S.) 

Frank H. Hayes, Station Hospital, Ft Sam Houston, Texas; Capt. (Bap., N.) 

Hal C. Head. Ft. Ethan Allen, Vt ; Lt (Bap., N.) 

Charles W. B. HiU, 26th Inf., Camp Dix, N. J.; Lt (Episc.) 

Jacob D. Hockman, 84th Inf., Ft Ontario, N. Y. ; Lt (M. E., N.) 

James F. Houlihan, Ft. Slocum, N. Y. ; Capt (R. C.) 

Willis T. Howard, Mitchel Field, Long Island, N. Y.; Lt (M. E., S.) 

Joseph L. Hunter, Dir. Chaplains' Service School, Camp Knox, Ky. ; L. C. (Pres., N.) 

Elmer A. Huset, 7th Inf., Camp Lewis, Wash.; Lt (Luth.) 

Jefferson F. Isbell, Brooks Field, Texas; Capt (M. E., S.) 

Nathaniel A. Jones, Ft. Brady, Mich.; Lt (Disc.) 

Francis P. Joyce, Camp Knox, Ky. ; Maj. (R. C.) 

Directory of Chaplains 341 

William J. Keane, Ft. Davis. C. Z. ; Lt. (R. C.) 

Thomas L. KeUey, Mather Field. Calif.; Capt. (Unit.) 

John T. KendaU. 44th Inf., Schofield Barracks, H. T. ; Lt. (M. E., N.) 

Peter J. Kilkenny, 27th Inf., Schofield Barracks, H. T. ; Capt. (R. C.) 

Samuel B. Knowles, Camp Dix, N. J.; Lt. (M. E., S.) 

Archibald A. Lancaster, 6th Corps Area Tr. Center, Camp Knox, Ky. ; Lt. (CongL) 

Edward E. Lane, Ft. George Wright, Wash.; Lt. (Disc.) 

Thomas J. Lennan, Ft. Benninsr, Ga. ; Lt. (R. C.) 

Pierre H. Levesque, 6th F. A., Camp Dix, N. J.; Lt. (R. C.) 

John O. Lindquist, 43d Inf., Manila, P. I.; Lt. (Luth.) 

Walter K. Lloyd, Prov. Mach. Gun Bn., A. F. G., Coblenz, Germany; Capt (Epise.) 

Marinius M. Londahl, Ft. Winfield Scott, Calif.; Capt. (Luth.) 

George R. Longbrake, Ft Flagler, Wash.; Lt (Univ.) 

Frank P. MacKenzie, ScoU Field, III.; Lt. (Pres., N.) 

C. Arthur MacLeod, Philippine Dept, Manila, P. I.; Lt. (R. G.) 

John MacWilliams, 8th Cav., Ft. Bliss, Texas; Lt (Pres., S.) 

James L. McBride, Ft Riley, Kan.; Lt (Pres., N.) 

Thomas L. McKenna, Walter Reed General Hosp., Washington, D. C. ; Lt (R. C.) 

George J. McMurray, 7th Cav., Ft Bliss, Texas; Lt. (Bap., S.) 

Edward T. McNally, 8th Inf., A. F. G., Coblenz, Germany; Lt (R. C.) 

Cornelius A. Maher, Camp Ft Brown, Brownsville, Texas (R. C.) 

James A. Manley, Ft Barrancas, Fla. ; Lt. (R. C.) 

Ivan G. Martin, Raritan Arsenal, Metuchen, N. J.; Lt. (Pres., N.) 

Albert K. Mathews, Ft. MacArthur, Calif.; Lt (Disc.) 

Mylon D. Merchant, Ft Adams, R. I.; Lt (Congl.) 

Charles C. Merrill, 4th Inf., Camp Lewis, Wash.; Lt (M. E., N.) 

Clifford L. Miller, Ft Dcs Moines, Iowa; Capt (Univ.) 

Frank L. Miller, Ft. Sherman, C. Z. ; Lt (Pres., N.) 

Luther D. Miller, Camp Jesup, Ga. ; Lt. (Luth.) 

Samuel J. Miller, Camp Travis, Texas; Capt. (M. E., N.) 

John F. Monahan, Ft Seward, Alaska; Lt. (R. C.) 

Faye A. Moon, Philippine Dept, Manila, P. I.; Lt (M. E., N.) 

James T. Moore, Ft. Thomas, Ky. ; Lt. (M. E., S.) 

John M. Moose, 11th Cav., Presidio of Monterey, Calif.; L. C. (M. E., S.) 

Alfred C. Oliver, 8d Inf., Ft. Snelling, Minn. ; Lt (M. E., N.) 

Roy H. Parker, 28d Inf., Camp Travis, Texas; Lt. (Bap., S.) 

Jesse S. Pearce, 16th F. A., Camp Travis, Texas; Lt (Bap., S.) 

Barton W. Perry, Ft Hamilton, N. Y. ; L. C. (Pres., N.) 

Louis H. Phaneuf, Camp Eustis, Va. ; Capt (R. C.) 

Washington C. Pinson, Ft Sill, Okla. ; Lt (Bap., N.) 

James H. Pollard, Camp Holabird, Md. ; Lt (Episc.) 

Charles O. Purdy, Ft Niagara, N. Y. ; Lt (Disc.) 

Peter J. Quinn, Presidio of San Francisco, Calif.; Lt. (R. C.) 

Charles S. Rahn, 2d Inf., Ft Sheridan, 111.; Lt (Luth.) 

Stanley C. Ramsdcn, Ft DuPont, Del.; Capt. (Bap., N.) 

John A. Randolph, Ft. McPherson, Ga. ; L. C. (M. E., S.) 

Francis C. Renier, Philippine Dept, Manila, P. L; Lt (R. C.) 

Maurice W. Reynolds. Carlstrom Field, Fla.; Lt. (Congl.) 

Oscar W. Reynolds, Ellington Field, Texas; Lt (M. E., N.) 

Clarence R. Rice, 46th Inf., Ft Wm. McKinley. P. L; Lt (M. E., N.) 

Frank C. Rideout, Vt. Leavenworth, Kan.; Lt. (Bap., S.) 

Herbert A. Rinard, 28th Inf., Camp Dix, N. J.; Lt. (Luth.) 

George F. Rlxey, 64th Inf., Ft Washington. Md. ; Lt (M. E.. S.) 

Ralph W. Rogers, Ft Ringgold, Texas; Lt (M. E., N.) 

Theodore F. Rudisill, Walter Reed General Hosp., Washington, D. C. ; Lt (M. E.) 

Paul B. Rupp, 18th Inf., Camp Dix. N. J.; Lt (Ref. U. S.) 

William J. Ryan, Fitzsimmons General Hosp., Denver, Colo.; Lt (R. C.) 

Frederick C. Sager, 12th F. A., Camp Travis, Texas; Lt. (M. E., N.) 

Samuel J. Smith, Ft. Monroe, Va. ; Maj. (M. E., N.) 

Adolph J. Schlicsser, 1st Cav., Camp Jones, Douglas, Ariz.; Capt (Luth.) 

Oscar J. W. Scott, 10th Cav., Ft Huachuca, Ariz.; Maj. (M. E., Col.) 

William R. Scott, Washington Barracks, D. C. ; Capt (Episc.) 

Aristeo V. Simoni, 42d Inf., Camp Gaillard, C. Z. ; Capt (R. C.) 

Edmund O. Sliney, 18th Inf., Fort Andrews, Mass.; Lt. (R. C.) 

Herbert S. Smith, 2d Brig., A. F. G., Coblenz, Germany; Maj. (Episc.) 

Harry D. Southard, 1st Engrs., Camp Dix, N. J.; Lt (M. E., K.) 

Edward L. Spaulding, Schofield Barracks, H. T. ; Lt (Bap., N.) 

Jodie G. Stewart, 76th F. A., Camp Lewis, Wash.; Lt. (Cumb. Pres.) 

Earle M. Stigers, Ft Rugar, H. T. ; Lt (Bap., N.) 

Gynther Storaasli, 81st Brig., C. A. C. Manila, P. I.; Lt (Luth.) 

Thomas E. Swan, Ft. Totten, N. Y. ; Capt (Episc.) 

Ralph H. Tibbals, Carlisle, Pa.; Lt (Bap., N.) 

Alexander D. Sutherland, Columbus Barracks, Ohio; Capt. (Pres., N.) 

Emerson E. Swanson, Philippine Dept, Manila. P. I. ; Capt (M. E., S.) 

Benjamin J. Tarskey, Philippine Dept, Manila, P. I.; Lt. (R. C.) 

Alexander W. Thomas, 24th Inf., Camp Furlong, Columbus, N. M. ; Lt. (M. E., CoL) 

Frank M. Thompson, 5th Cav., Marfa, Texas; Lt. (M. E., N.) 

E<igar N. Thorn, 30th Inf., Camp Lewis. Wash.; Lt. (Bap., N.) 

Dudley R. Tierney, Chaplains' Service School, Camp Knox, Ky. ; Lt (R. C.) 

ICdward L. Trett, 20th Inf., Camp Travis, Texas; Lt. (Pres., N.) 

Mariajio Vassallo, 66th Inf., San Juan, Porto Rico; Lt (R. C.) 


Year Book of the Churches 

Albert F. Vau^han, Ft. Sam Houston, Texas; Lt. (M. E., S.) 

Zachary T. Vincent, Camp Normoyle, Texas ; Lt. ( Episc. ) 

Stephen R. Wood, Fort Benning, Ga. ; Capt. (Con^l.) 

Emil W. Weber, 64th Inf.. Ft. Wayne, Mich.; Lt. (Luth.) 

C. R. Watkins, Gamp Eustis, Va. ; Lt. (Gonial.) 

Wallace H. Watts, Madison Barracks, New York; Gipt. (Episc.) 

Jam s M. Webb, Ft. McDowell, Galif . ; Capt. (Pres., N.) 

J. Murt Webster, Plattsburgr Barracks, N. Y. ; Lt. (Bap., S.) 

Earl H. Weed, 16th Inf., Gamp Dix, N. J.; Capt. (Gonsrl.) 

Henry R. Westcott, Kelly Field, Texas; Lt. (Bap., N.) 

Robb White, Jr., Fort Benninsr, Gi. ; Lt. (Episc.) 

Perry O. Wilcox, Gamp Humphreys, Va. ; Lt. (M. E.) 

Haywood L. Winter, Gamp Vail, N. J.; Capt. (Episc.) 

Ernest W. Wood, Ft. Rosecrans, Calif.; Capt. (Episc.) 

John R. Wrisrht; 80th Inf., Camp Lewis, Wash.; Lt. (M. E.) 

Samuel O. Wright, 4th Cav., Ft. Brown, Texas; Lt. (M. E., S.) 

Julian E. Yates, Office of Chief Chaplain, War Dept., Wash.. D. G. : Maj. (&ap., N.) 

Walter B. Zimmerman, Ft. Bliss, Texas; Lt. (Disc.) 



During the period of the war, April 6, 1917, to November 11, 1918, 
there were two thousand three hundred and three chaplains serving 
under commissions in the Army. Following is the list showing total 
for each denomination and whether commissioned in the Regular 
Army, National Army or National Guard: 


Baptist, Colored 

Baptist, Imanuel 

Baptist, North , 

Baptist, South 

Baptist, United 

Baptist, Regular 


Christian Science 

Church of the Brethren , 


Congregational, Colored 



Evangelical, United 


Latter Day Saints 

Lutheran Bodies 

Methodist Episcopal, African . . 
Methodist Episcopal, North . . . 
Methodist Episcopal, South . . . , 

Methodist Protestant 


New Jerusalem 

Presbyterian, Colored. 

Presbyterian, Cumberland 

Presbyterian, North 

Presb3rterian, South 

Presbjrterian, United 

Protestant Episcopal 

Protestant Episcopal, Colored. . 
Protestant Episcopal, Reformed 

Reformed, American 

Reformed, Christian 

Reformed, Dutch 

Reformed, U. S 

Roman Catholic. 

Salvation Army 

Seventh Day Adventist 


United Brethren 

Universalist ; 

■ ^ 









• 1 









186 . 









































34*- r 




286 V. 








1 : 




































• 12 






















11 . 




1 2808 


Directory of Chaplains 




The Honor Roll of Chaplains is one which awakens solemn pride 
in the heart of everyone. Five chaplains were killed in action. Six 
died of wounds received on the field of honor. Eleven died from 
disease and accident. At least twenty-seven chaplains were wounded. 
Five chaplains were awarded the Distinguished Service Medal and 
twenty-three received the Distinguished Service Cross. Fifty-seven 
were decorated hy foreigrn nations. The chaplains who were killed in 
action or died of wounds number eleven, as follows: 






T^ulla. TKon^iuf "M 



Roman Catholic 

Cum. Pres'terian 




Roman Catholic 









9- 8-18 

10- 7-18 

10- 1-18 




Ist Lt. 
Ist Lt. 
1st Lt. 
1st Lt. 
1st Lt. 
1st Lt. 
Ist Lt. 
1st Lt. 
1st Lt. 
1st Lt. 

116th Infantry 

Danker. Walton L 

104th Infantry 

Davitt. William F 

125th Infantnr 

DffftVflr. John A , . , , . ' 

61st Infantry 

Deiman. Harry 

354th Infantry 

Keith. Michae'l W 

111th Infantry 

Marsh, Arthur H 

18th Infant 

O'Flaberty. Colman E 

Priest. Charles D 

28th Infantry 
358th Infantry 

Sewell. Wilbur S 

30th Infantry 

Bmait, Daniel 

328th Infantry 

Those who died of other causes number 11, as follows: 


Bell, Albert D 

Boone, John G 

Breden, John G 

Chooinard, Horace A 
Cornish, William B . . 

Doyle, Herbert P 

Howard, Aurenus T . 

Kerr, John C 

McCarthy. John F. . 
Murphy, Timothy A . 
WiUby. WiUiam H. J 




United Brethren 



Roman Catholic 



Roman Catholic 

Roman Catholic 





1st Lt. 


1st Lt. 


1st Lt. 

9- 2-18 

1st Lt. 


Ist Lt. 

10- 5-18 

1st Lt. 

11- 5-18 

1st Lt. 


Ist Lt. 

10- 5-18 

1st Lt. 


1st Lt. 

10- 4-18 

1st Lt. 


307th Infantry 
124th Infantry 
Coast Art'y Corps 
Corps of Engrs. 
151st Depot Brig. 
Hqrs. 90th Division 
148th Infantry 
71st Infantry 
128th M.-G. B'n 
544th Engineers 


Chaplains are commissioned in the Officers' Reserve Corps subject 
to the rules and regulations providing for the establishment oit such 
corps. Clergymen between the ages of twenty-one and sixty years 
are eligible for appointment. Commissions are issued for a period 
of five years. Reserve Corps chaplains may be called upon for ser- 
vice for not more than fifteen days in any one year during peace 
time. Additional voluntary service may be rendered. It is hoped 
that Reserve Corps chaplains will serve as a connecting link between 
the churches and the Army in peace time and especially that they 
may render service in connection with Citizens' Military Training 

Two types of men are desired, namely, those who are outstanding 
leaders of their denomination, and young men eminently qualified to 
become chaplains in the Regular Army when vacancies may occur. 

There are 587 chaplains now commissioned in the Officers' Reserve 
Corps. Among them are bishops, college presidents, priests, rabbis 
and clergymen of outstanding reputation. Most of these chaplains 
rendi^red service during the World War. 

For administrative purposes a group of chaplains of the Officers' 
Reservre Corps has been assigned to duty with the War Department, 

344 Year Book of the Churches 

Washington, D. C, to act in conjunction with the Office of the Chief 
of Chaplains in an advisory capacity on those affairs which relate 
to the religious work of the Army. This Branch Assignment Group 
functions under the General Staff. 

Advisory Reserve Corps Chaplains 

Major John J. Allen, Salvation Army, New York City. 
Rt. Rev. Charles H. Brent, 662 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Rev. Leonard L. Burkhalter, Waco, Texas. 
Rev. John F. Conoley, Gainesville, Fla. 

Rev. Hugh A. Dalton, College of St. Francis Xavier, New York. 
Rabbi Morris S. Lazaron, Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. Chas. S. Macfarland, General Secretary, Federal Council of 
Churches, New York City. 

Rev. Remsen B. Ogilby, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 

Rev. Jason Noble Pierce, Washington, D. C. 

Rev. John M. Thomas, Pennsylvania State College, Pa. 


All matters pertaining to War Risk Insurance, Reinstatement for 
War Risk Insurance, Government Compensation for Disability, Re- 
habilitation and Vocational Training are now under the direction of 
the United States Veterans' Bureau, Arlington Building, Vermont 
Avenue and H St. N. W., Washington, D. C. Compensation and 
Vocational Training are handled in the following fourteen areas into 
which the country is divided: 

District No. 1: Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island. Office: 101 Milk 
Street, Boston, Mass. 

District No. 2: Connecticut, New York and New Jersey. Office: 
23 West 43d Street, New York City. 

District No. 3: Pennsylvania and Delaware. Office: 140 North 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

District No. 4 : District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia and West 
Virginia. Office: 450 Lexington Bldg., Baltimore, Md. 

District No. 5: North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 
and Tennessee. Office: 823 Forsythe Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 

District No. 6: Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Office: 412- 
432 Maison Blanche Annex, New Orleans, La. 

District No. 7 : Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky. Office : Denton 
Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

District No. 8: Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Office: 14 East 
Congress St., Chicago, 111. 

District No. 9: Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri. Office: 
6801 Delmar Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

District No. 10: Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and 
Montana. Office: Room 600, Keith- Plaza Bldg., 1700 Hennepin Ave., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

District No. 11: Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. 
Office: 400 Mercantile Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

District No. 12: California, Nevada, and Arizona. Offjice: 644 
Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. 

District No. 13: Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Office: Arcade 
Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 

District No. 14: Arkansas, Oklahoma j and Texas. Office: Dallas 
Club Bldg., Dallas, Texas. 


Office of the Head of the Chaplains' Division: Bureau of 
Navigation, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 
Head of the Division: Capt. Evan W. Scott. 

Directory of Chaplains 


There is no definite provision of law for a Chief of the Chaplains' 
Corps of the Navy. For the past five years one of the senior chap- 
lains has been detailed to duty in the Bureau of Navigation, Navy 
Department, to supervise the work of the Corps. As such, he is the 
Head of the Chaplains' Division, Bureau of Navigation, but without 
any specific title as obtains with the other corps. 

Chaplains in the United States Navy, March 21, 1922 

It will be noted that there are eighty-six chaplains on the active 
list, with one chaplain on the retired list, and one Naval Reserve 
chaplain on duty, making a total of eighty-eight. This is sixty-five 
short of the complement as allowed by law, and twenty-three short 
of complement based on the actual strength of the Navy and Marine 
Corps, one chaplain to every twelve hundred and fifty ofiieers and 
enlisted men. The situation may be stated in another way to the 
effect that the combined present enlisted strength of the Navy and 
Marine Corps might be reduced twenty- six thousand, and even then 
the present number of chaplains would not be in excess of the proper 
complement. As the Navy is organized at present, there are at least 
fifteen billets where chaplains are much needed. It is hoped that 
permission will soon be given to appoint more chaplains. 


March 21, 1922 

Northern Baptist Convention 

Southern Baptist Convention 


Methodist Episcopal 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South . 

Presbjrterian, U. S. A 

Presbsrterian, U. S 

Presbyterian, United 

Presbyterian, Cumberland 

Protestant Episcopal 






United Brethren 

Christian Science 






















W. O. Isaacs 

J. B. Frazier 

C. H. Dickins 

B. R. Patrick 

E. E. McDonald 

A. W.Stone 

M. C. Gleeson 

E. W. Scott 

Methodist South 
Methodist South 


Baptist North 


Baptist North 

Receiving Ship, New York 

Naval Training Station, Naval Operating 

Base, Hampton RoadJs, Va. 
Fleet Chaplain, Atlantic Fleet, U. S. S. 

Fleet Chaplain, Atlantic Fleet 
Navy Yard, Boston, Mass. 
Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif. 
Naval Hospital and Navy Yard, New 

York • 
Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department, 

Washington, D. C. 
Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

S. K. Evans 

G. E. T. Stevenson*. . 

Waiting Orders 

^Passed professional examination for Captain, but held up physically. Examined March 
8th for retirement. 

84d Year Book of the Churclies 

CH A PLAINS— Cont'd 

I Molhodiil Norl 

I. J. BoulfBrd 

T^ p; ^^ . '. 

U. H. Patidld. . 

C. V. Ellta 

B. D. Bhyl^tni, 


J- P. Dndanrood. . . 

T.L. Kirkjatrick.. 
H. M. PflUnon 


S. W. Shnun . 
C. A. Neynun. 

J. S. Day 

W. P. WilliBma, 

B. P. Hmke 

H. E. Rauntrw. ... 

Methndiit Nonb 

Bapdit goutl 

rtamouth. N. H. 

D. S. S. Maryland 
Navy Yard, f-hiladrfphia. Pa. 
Naval Station, Cavite, P. I. 
Naval Prdvipv Ground, IndUn Hec 
U. S.B. NewMesim 


ig SuUon, Hampton Roada. 

h Regiment Marlaea, i 

Naval Training SUIJon. Hampton Roads, 

Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. 
Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Mariae Barracks, Parria iHland, S. C. 
Naval TralninE Station, Naval Operatlni 

Base. Hampton Roads, Va. 
U. S. S. Miasisrippi 
Naval Training Station, San Fraacisco, 

Naval HospiUl, Nnrtolk, Va. 

0. S. S. Oklahoma 

Torpedo Station and Naval Hoapital. 

U. S. 3. Utah 
Naval TraiDinc 
U. 8. S. North 1 

ml SUCion, Tutuila, Samoa 
L>a! Station, St. Thumas, V. I. 

^ Yard. Charleston, S. C. 

^. S. Idaho 

3. S. Connecticut 

Directory of Chaplains 




T. L. Wood. 

J. H. S. Putnam. 

J. H. Bouon 

W. L. Thompaon . 
L. D. GottBchall. 

J. M. Heater 


R. M. Pea 

A. deG. Vogler . 


A. E. stone 

T. C. Miller 

G. G. Murdock.... 
J. H. BrookB 

S. W. Salisbury. 
H. R. &mbom . 

Davis H. Tribou. 


Ciunberland Presbjrterian 

christian Scientist 
Disciples of Christ 
United Brethren 
Baptist South 

Presbyterian North 


Ordered U. S. S. Birmingham, Special 

Service Squadron 
Submarine Base, Coco Solo, C. Z. 
U. S. S. Bridgeport 
Naval Station, Guam 
U. S. S. Denebola 
U. S. S. Wright 
U. S. S. Mercy 
2nd Prov. Brigade, U. S. M. C, San 

Domingo, D. R. 
Ist Prov. Brigade, U. S. M. C, Cape 

Haitien, Haiti 


Baptist North 
Methodist South 

Presbyterian, U. S. A. 

Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif. 

U. S. S. Camden 

U. S. S. MelviUe 

Submarine Division 5, Hampton Roads, 

U. S.'S. Black Hawk 
U. S. S. Eagle No. 11, San Pedro, Calif. 


Methodist North 

Naval Home, Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. B. Niver Episcopal i Marine Barracks, Quantico, Va. 


A brief outline of the duties performed by Navy chaplains during 
the war clearly shows, in a general way, the caliber of man needed 
in the Navy Chaplains' Corps. While the work in time of peace is 
not so strenuous as during the war, the duties are as varied and call 
in addition for work along educational lines and phases that had to 
be neglected under the stress of war. This outline shows that the 
need is for A-1 men and no others. 

1. A general supervision over Morale and Welfare work within 
the station, camp or yard, including that work done by Civilian Wel- 
fare Organizations, Y. M. C. A., K. of C, Red Cross, etc., to the end 
that their work be correlated and coordinated so as to give the 
greatest total results. 

2. The Commandant's liaison representative affiliating with the 
various civilian organizations and officials in all activities without 
the station, insofar as they touched or affected the enlisted personnel 
of the Navy and Marine Corps, and aiding them in every way 

3. General supervision of all religious services within the reser- 
vation, conducting those he could, but utilizing the best speakers and 
other assistance that could be secured from without. 

4. Organizing and supervising entertainments, whether furnished 
by local or outside talent. 

5. In charge of moving pictures. 

6. Aiding, and often in general charge of athletics. 

7. Hospital visiting, correspondence for sick, etc. 

8. Meeting with new recruits. Addressing them on the possibili- 
ties and dangers in their service career. 


Year Book of the Churches 

9. Bureau of information for the men of the station on matters 
pertaining to ratings, proper procedure, advice in trouble, etc. 

10. Personal and family correspondence. 

11. Advising and directing new chaplains sent for brief period of 
instruction before assig^iment to independent duty. 

12. In charge of or contributing to station publications. 

13. In charge of libraries, except where there were representatives 
of the American Library Association. 

14. Putting before the men the wisdom and value of War Risk 
Insurance, and often supervising the actual work in connection with 
insurance, except that specifically required by the regulations to be 
done by the Supply Department. 

15. Advising in matters pertaining to volunteer family allotments 
and Government family allowances. 

16. Aiding or directing Liberty and Victory Loan Campaigns. 

17. General utility, in so far as not mentioned above. 

18. The work on transports and naval vessels at sea was along 
these same general lines, although more restricted in some details by 
crowded conditions, limited space, and precautions necessary for 
safety in danger zones. On the other hand, the chaplain at sea 
usually lacked the assistance to be had on shore, with the logical 
result that more details and all the religious work usually devolved 
upon him. 



Following are lists of chaplains who served in the Regular Navy 
during the World War and those who served in the Naval Reserve 
force. For practical reasons the Reserves are grouped together. 
These lists will show the rank attained and held during the latter 
period of the war. 



Northern Baptist Convention 

Southern Baptist Convention 


Methodist Episcopal 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South , 

Presbyterian, U. S. A 

Presbyterian, U. S 

United Presbyterian 

Cumberland Presbyterian 

Protestant Episcopal 






United Brethren 

Christian Science 









Directory of Chaplains 

UetbodM Sooth 

Uatbodlst North 
BaptiM North 


BapUn North 
BaptlM North 
HethodM South 
HsthodM North 

MetbodM North 
- ■ - ■ North 

nbytertui N 

Freabyteriu North 
DlKdplB ol Chrtit 
BoptBt South 


MTt NovtoD PaA, Jr. 

Joa. Cartton Short 

Chaa. BtBir HHtlnc*. . 
Tbomu Fnudi Re^n, 
Arthur Frederick Tonai 

Fnnk Honr I^ih . . 
Emil Birtnli Oroth . 
Vm. TUeoi^del... 

Joiiih Luther NtS 

UBtoii Hubnt Petxold. . 
Qnttmaii Fiandi Berkley. 
Gcorn WnUnftai Fol^ 
Pud Joe. Aothonr I'duc. 
Wm. AocnMo llati ' 
Goo. SmielT Rent!.... 
Henry Gn^ Gatlin. . . 
JoL Thaddena Casey. . . 

Robert EdviDUtRer'.!! 

Jdo. Henry TatcB 

Jdo. Haary Stonita Pnttiam. 
Hanii Anthooy Dareba . . . , 
Edmmid EmaniKl Savaieau . 

FroBdi l«o McFaddeo 

OIlbenSterUsK Bancroft Darlington. 
Gao. Uarle WUtmore 

Arthur Rorall Cay 

AUrad Jamea Hahiea. . 
Daild Goldbers. . 

Jeutenant ij 

■ ■ lint (juniot 

lant (junior 

.leutenant (junior 

Jeutenant (janiar 

Jeutenant (junior gnde 


Preabyterlu North 
CathoUe . 

Presbyterian North 
Metbodbt North 

Metbodirt North 

Jeutenant (junior gradej 


MethodiBt South 


United Preubytfrian 

Methodist North 



MethodiMt North 


Hetbodiet North 

Presbyterian North 
. Prabyterian North 

Baptist North 

Baptist North 

; hlethadln South 

Year Book of the Churches 




Perry Louis Mitchell. . . 
Joe. Francis Underwood . .. 

Morris Mills Leonard 

Craaay Clement Wheeler 

Jno. William Decker.' .'. 




Ueu tenant 














Lieutenant ( 


or grade 
or grade 
or grade 


or grade