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Full text of "Year book - Carnegie Institution of Washington"

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CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



OF 



WASHINGTON 



YEAR BOOK No. 20 

1921 




PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTION 
WASHINGTON, FEBRUARY 1922 



Copies of this book 

were first issued 
1922 



FEB 



23 



PRESS OF GIBSON BROS., INC., 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Organization, Plan, and Scope x 

Articles of Incorporation xi-xiii 

By-Laws of the Institution xiv-xvii 

Minutes of the Twenty-second Meeting of the Board of Trustees xxi 

Report of the President of the Institution 1-17 

Bibliography of Publications relating to work of Investigators, Associates, and 

Collaborators 18-27 

Report of the Executive Committee 29-40 

Aggregate Receipts and Disbursements 33 

Report of Auditors and Financial Statement 34-40 

Reports on Investigations and Projects: 

Department of Botanical Research 43-76 

Department of Embryology 77-99 

Department of Genetics 101-156 

Geophysical Laboratory 157-174 

Preliminary Report of Advisory Committee in Seismology 175-178 

Department of Historical Research 179-190 

Department of Marine Biology 191-205 

Department of Meridian Astrometry 207-213 

Mount Wilson Observatory 215-294 

Nutrition Laboratory 295-306 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 307-357 

Other Investigations : 
Archaeology : 

Morley, Sylvanus G 359-368 

Van Deman, Esther B 369 

Bibliography : 

Garrison, Fielding H 370 

Biology : 

Castle, W. E 371 

Holmes, S. J 371 

Mann, Albert 372-374 

Morgan, T. H 375-380 

Botany : 

Britton, N. L., and J. X. Rose 381-382 

Chemistry: 

Noyes, Arthur A 383-384 

Richards, Theodore W 384-386 

Sherman, H. C 386-388 

Smith, Edgar F 388 

Ecology' : 

Clements, F. E 389-411 

Geology : 

Chamberiin, T. C 412-425 

History of Science: 

Sarton, George 426-427 

Literature : 

Bergen, Henry 428-429 



I u 5 \5r 



IV CONTENTS. 

Other Investigations — continued. 

Mathematics: page. 

Morley, Frank 430 

Meteorology: 

Bjerknes, V 430-431 

Nutrition: 

Osborne, Thomas B., and L. B. Mendel 432-441 

Palaeography; 

Loew, E. A 442 

Palaeontology: 

Case, E. C 443-445 

Hay, Oliver P 445-446 

Merriam, John C 447-450 

Wieland, G. R 452-457 

Physics : 

Barus, Carl 458-460 

Hayford, JohnF 460-462 

Nichols, Edward L 462-464 

Index 465-475 



President oj the Institution. 
John C. Merriam. 



Robert S. Brookings. 
John J. Carty. 
Cleveland H. Dodge. 
Charles P. Fenner. 
W. Cameron Forbes. 
Myron T. Herrick. 
Herbert Hoover. 
Charles L. Hutchinson. 



Trti^tees. 

Elihu Root, Chairman. 

Charles D. Walcott, Vice-Chair man. 

Cleveland H. Dodge, Secretary. 



Henry Cabot Lodge. 
Andrew J. Montague. 
WiLLi.vNi W. Morrow. 
James Parmelee. 
\Vm. Barclay Parsons. 
Stewart Paton. 
Henry S. Pritchett. 
Elihu Root. 



Martin A. Ryerson. 
Theob.\ld Smith. 
Charles D. Walcott. 
Henry P. Walcott. 
William H. Welch. 
Henry White. 
George W. Wickersham. 
Robert S. Woodward. 



*Cleveland H. Dodge. 
*JoHN C. Merriam. 
Wm. Barclay Parsons. 



Executive Committee. 
Charles D. Walcott, Chairman. 
Stewart Paton. *Elihu Root. 

Henry S. Pritchett. Henry White. 



Finance Committee. 

Cleveland H. Dodge, Chairman. 

Henry S. Pritchett. George W. Wickersham. 



Auditing Committee. 

R. S. Brookings, Chairman. 

Charles L. Hutchinson. George W. Y\'ickersh.'vm. 

*Ex-officio member. 



LIST OF PRESENT AND FORMER TRUSTEES. 



*Alexander Agassiz, 
*JoHN S. Billings, 

Robert S. Brookings, 
*JoHN L. Cadwalader, 

John J. Carti-, 

Cleveland II. Dodge, 
*WiLLiAM E. Dodge, 

Charles P. Fenner, 

Simon Flexner, 

W. Cameron Forbes, 
*William N. Frew, 

Lyman J. Gage, 
*Danii:l C. Oilman, 
*JoHN Hay, 

Myron T. Herrick, 
*Abram S. Hewitt, 
*Henry L. Higginson, 
*Ethan a. Hitchcock, 
*Henry Hitchcock, 

Herbert Hoover, 
*William Wirt Howe, 

Charles Ij. Hutchinson, 
*Samuel p. Langley, 
*William Lindsay, 

Henry Cabot Lodge, 



1904-05 


*Seth Low, 


1902-16 


1902-13 


*Wayne MacVeagh, 


1902-07 


1910- 


*D. 0. Mills, 


1902-09 


1903-14 


*S. Weir Mitchell, 


1902-14 


1916- 


Andrew J. Montague, 


1907- 


1903- 


William W. Morrow, 


1902- 


1902-03 


James Parmelee, 


1917- 


1914- 


Wm. Barclay Parsons, 


1907- 


1910-14 


Stewart Paton, 


1915- 


1920- 


George W. Pepper, 


1914-20 


1902-15 


Henry S. Pritchett, 


1906- 


1902-12 


Elihu Root, 


1902- 


1902-08 


Martin A. Ryerson, 


1908- 


1902-05 


Theobald Smith, 


1914- 


1915- 


*JoHN C. Spooner, 


1902-07 


1902-03 


William H. Taft, 


1906-15 


1902-19 


Charles D. Walcott, 


1902- 


1902-09 


Henry P. Walcott, 


1910- 


1902-02 


William H. Welch, 


1906- 


1920- 


* Andrew D. White, 


1902-16 


1903-09 


*Edward D. White, 


1902-03 


1902- 


Henry White, 


1913- 


1904-06 


George W. W^ickershaji, 


1909- 


1902-09 


Robert S. Woodward, 


1905- 


1914- 


*Carroll D. Wright, 


1902-08 


*Deceased. 





Besides the names enumerated above, the following were ex-officio mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees under the original charter, from the date of 
organization until April 28, 1904: 

The President of the United States. 

The President of the Senate. 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The President of the National Academy of Sciences. 



STAFF OF INVESTIGATORS FOR YEAR 1921. 



Department of Botanical Research: 

Daniel T. MacDougal, Director. 
William A. Caxnon. 
J. M. McGee. 

Department of Embryology: 

George L. Streeter, Director. 
Chester H. Heuser. 
Margaret R. Lewis. 

Department of Genetics: 

Charles B. Davenport, Director. 

H. H. Laughlin, Assistant Director. 

C. C. Little, Assistant Director. 

E. G. Anderson. 

H. J. Banker. 

A. M. Banta. 

John Belling (temporary). 

A. F. Blakeslee. 

A. H. Estabrook. 

Geophysical Laboratory: 
Arthur L. Day, Director. 
L. H. Ad.'UIS. 
ErGENE T. Allen. 
M. Arousseau. 
N. L. Bowen. 
Pentte Escola. 
C. N. Fenner. 
R. H. Lombard. 
H. E. Merwin. 

G. W. MOREY. 

Etjgen Posnjak. 

Department of Historical Research: 
J. Franklin Jameson, Director. 
Edmund C. Burnett. 
Frances G. Davenport. 
Shirley Farr. 

Department of Marine Biology: 
Alfred G. Mayor, Director. 

Investigators connected u'ith this Department during the year. 

Paul Bartsch (U. S. National Museum). A. L. Treadwell (Vassar College). 

Ulric Dahlgren (Princeton University). William H.LoNGLEY(Goucher College). 

John H. Gerould (Dartmouth College). Asa A. Schaeffer (University of Ten- 
E. N. Harvey (Princeton University). nessee). 

Department of Meridian Astrometry: 

Benjamin Boss, Director. Harry Raymond. 

Sebastian Albrecht. W. B. Varnum. 

Sherwood B. Grant. Ralph E. Wilson. 

Heroy Jenkins. 



Forrest Shreve. 
H. A. Spoehr. 
Godfrey Sykes. 



W. H. Lewis. 
A. H. Schultz. 



M. E. Farnham. 

J. A. Harris. 

E. C. MacDowell. 

C. W. Metz. 

Elizabeth B. Muncey. 

Louise A. Nelson. 

Oscar Riddle. 

E. R. Rose (temporary). 

F. W. Saunders (temporary). 



H. S. Roberts. 

E. S. Shepherd. 

F. Hastings Smyth. 
Robert B. Sosman. 
H. S. Washington. 
Walter P. White. 
E. D. Williamson. 
Fred E. Wright. 
R. W. G. Wyckoff. 
E. G. ZiES. 



Waldo G. Leland. 
Charles O. Paullin. 
Leo F. Stock. 



VIII 



STAFF OF INVESTIGATORS FOR YEAR 1921. 



Staff of Investigators for Year 1921 — Continued. 



Mount Wilson Observatory: 
George E. Hale, Director. 
Walter S. Adams, Assistant Director. 
Alfred H. Joy, Secretary. 
F. H. Seares, Supt. Computing Division. 
A. S. King, Supt. Physical Laboratory. 
J. A. Anderson. 
Harold D. Babcock. 
J. C. Duncan. 
Ferdinand Ellerman. 
Edwin P. Hubble. 

Nutrition Laboratory: 

Francis G. Benedict, Director. 
Marion L. Baker. 
T. M. Carpenter. 

E. L. Fox. 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism: 

Louis A. Bauer, Director. 
J. P. Ault. 
S. J. Barnett. 

F. Brown. 

D. G. Coleman. 

C. R. DUVALL. 

H. M. W. Edmonds. 
C. C. Ennis. 
H. W. FiSK. 
J. A. Fleming. 

R. H. GODDARD. 

Ecological Research: 

Frederic E. Clements, Associate. 

G. W. Goldsmith. 
H. M. Hall. 

Middle American Archoeology: 
Stlvanus G. Morley, Associate. 

Physiological Chemistry: 

T. B. Osborne, Research Associate (Con- 
necticut Agric. Exper. Station). 

L. B. Mendel, Research Associate (Yale 
University). 

Biology: 

T. H. Morgan, Research Associate (Colum- 
bia University). 



Paul W. Merrill. 
Seth B. Nicholson. 
Francis G. Pease. 
Edison Pettit. 
R. F. Sanford. 

GUSTAF StROMBERQ. 

Harlow Shapley. 
Charles E. St. John. 
A. VAN Maanen. 



Mary F. Hendry. 
Alice Johnson. 
W. R. Miles. 
E. S. Mills. 



H. R. Grummann. 

J. E. Ives (temporary). 

H. F. Johnston. 

S. J. Mauchly. 

R. R. Mills. 

W. C. Parkinson. 

W. J. Peters. 

J. Shearer. 

A. Thomson. 

G. R. Wait. 

W. F. Wallis. 



Frances L. Long. 
G. V. Loftfield. 



Carl E. Guthe, Research Associate. 



A. J. Wakeman. 

C. S. Leavenworth. 

Helen Cannon. 



B. Bridges. 
H. Sturtevant. 



Other Investigators Primarily Connected with Institution: 

Henry Bergen, Research Associate in Early English Literature. 
Oliver P. Hay, Associate in Palaeontology. 
Elias a. Lowe, Associate in Palaeography. 
Albert Mann, Research Associate in Biology. 
George Sarton, Associate in the History of Science. 
Esther B. Van Deman, Associate in Roman Archaeology. 
George R. Wieland, Associate in Palaeontology. 
Harry O. Wood, Research Associate in Seismology. 



STAFF OF INVESTIGATORS FOR YEAR 1921. IX 

Additional Research Associates connected with other Institutions: 

Carl Barus (Brown University), Physics. 
John S. Bassett (Smith College), History. 
V. Bjerknes (University of Bergen, Norway), Meteorology. 

E. C. Case (University of Michigan), Paleontology. 
W. E. Castle (Harvard University), Biology. 

T. C. Chamberlin (University of Chicago), Geology. 
B. M. DuGGAR (Missouri Botanical Garden), Botany. 
H. D. Fish (University of Pittsburgh), Zoology. 
J. W. E. Glattfeld (University of Chicago), Botany. 
John F. Hayford (Northwestern University), Physics. 
J. C. Kapteyn (University of Groningen), Astronomy. 
B. E. Livingston (Johns Hopkins University), Botanj-. 
A. A. MiCHELSON (University of Chicago), Astronomy. 
Frank Morley (Johns Hopkins University), Mathematics. 

F. R. MouLTON (University of Chicago), Mathematical Physics. 
E. L. Nichols (Cornell University), Physics. 

A. A. Noyes (California Institute of Technology), Chemistry. 

T. W. Richards (Harvard University), Chemistry. 

J. N. Rose (U. S. National Museum), Botany. 

Henry N. Russell (Princeton University), Astronomy. 

H. C. Sherman (Columbia University), Chemistry. 

Edgar F. Smith (University of Pennsylvania), Chemistry. 

John S. P. Tatlock (Leland Stanford Junior University), Literature. 




ORGANIZATION. PLAN AND SCOPE. 

The Carnegie Institution of Washington was founded by Mr. Andrew- 
Carnegie, January 28, 1902, when he gave to a board of trustees an endow- 
ment of registered bonds of the par value of ten miUion dollars. To this 
fund an addition of two million dollars was made by Mr. Carnegie on 
December 10, 1907, and a further addition of ten million dollars was made 
by him January 19, 1911; so that the present endowment of the Institution 
has a par value of twenty-two million dollars. The Institution was origi- 
nally organized under the laws of the District of Columbia and incorporated 
as the Carnegie Institution, articles of incorporation having been executed 
on January 4, 1902. The Institution was reincorporated, however, by an 
act of the Congress of the United States, approved April 28, 1904, under the 
title of The Carnegie Institution of Washington. (See existing Articles of 
Incorporation on the following pages.) 

Organization under the new Articles of Incorporation was effected May 
18, 1904, and the Institution was placed under the control of a board of 
twenty-four trustees, all of whom had been members of the original corpora- 
tion. The trustees meet annually in December to consider the affairs of 
the Institution in general, the progress of work already undertaken, the 
initiation of new projects, and to make the necessary appropriations for the 
ensuing year. During the intervals between the meetings of the Trustees 
the affairs of the Institution are conducted by an Executive Committee 
chosen by and from the Board of Trustees and acting through the President 
of the Institution as chief executive officer. 

The Articles of Incorporation of the Institution declare in general "that 
the objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the broadest and most 
liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application 
of knowledge to the improvement of mankind." Three principal agencies 
to forward these objects have been developed. The first of these involves 
the establishment of departments of research within the Institution itself, 
to attack larger problems requiring the collaboration of several investigators, 
special equipment, and continuous effort. The second provides means 
whereby individuals may undertake and carry to completion investigations 
not less important but requiring less collaboration and less special equip- 
ment. The third agency, namely, a division devoted to editing and to print- 
ing books, aims to provide adequate publication of the results of research 
coming from the first two agencies and to a limited extent also for worthy 
works not likely to be published under other auspices. 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION. 



PuBUC No. 260. — An Act To incorporate the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington. 

Be in enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the persons following, being 
persons who are now trustees of the Carnegie Institution, namely, Alexander 
Agassiz, John S. BilUngs, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William 
N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Oilman, John Hay, Henry L.Higginson, 
William Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William 
Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius O. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, 
William W. Morrow, Ethan A. Hitchcock, Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, 
Andrew D. White, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. Wright, their associates 
and successors, duly chosen, are hereby incorporated and declared to be a 
bodj' corporate by the name of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and 
by that name shall be known and have perpetual succession, with the powers, 
limitations, and restrictions herein contained. 

Sec. 2. That the objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the 
broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, 
and the apphcation of knowledge to the improvement of mankind ; and in 
particular — 

(a) To conduct, endow, and assist investigation in any department of 
science, literature, or art, and to this end to cooperate with governments, 
imiversities, colleges, technical schools, learned societies, and individuals. 

(b) To appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research. 

(c) To publish and distribute documents. 

(d) To conduct lectures, hold meetings and acquire and maintain a library. 

(e) To purchase such property, real or personal, and construct such build- 
ing or buildings as may be necessary to carry on the work of the corporation. 

(f) In general, to do and perform all things necessary to promote the 
objects of the institution, with full power, however, to the trustees herein- 
after appointed and their successors from time to time to modify the con- 
ditions and regulations under which the work shall be carried on, so as to 
secure the application of the funds in the manner best adapted to the con- 
ditions of the time, provided that the objects of the corporation shall at all 
times be among the foregoing or kindred thereto. ' 

Sec. 3. That the direction and management of the affairs of the corpora- 
tion and the control and disposal of its property and funds shall be vested 
in a board of trustees, twenty-two in number, to be composed of the follow- 
ing individuals: Alexander Agassiz, John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, 
Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, 
John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, 
Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth Low, W^ayne MacVeagh, Darius 
0. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, Wilham W^ Morrow, Ethan A. Hitchcock,' Elihu 
Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. 



XII ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION. 

Wright, who shall constitute the first board of trustees. The board of trus- 
tees shall have power from time to time to increase its membership' to not 
more than twenty-seven members. Vacancies occasioned by death, resigna- 
tion, or otherwise shall be filled by the remaining trustees in such manner as 
the by-laws shall prescribe; and the persons so elected shall thereupon 
become trustees and also members of the said corporation. The principal 
place of business of the said corporation shall be the city of Washington, in 
the District of Columbia. 

Sec. 4. That such board of trustees shall be entitled to take, hold and 
administer the securities, funds, and property so transferred by said Andrew 
Carnegie to the trustees of the Carnegie Institution and such other funds 
or property as may at any time be given, devised, or bequeathed to them, 
or to such corporation, for the purposes of the trust; and with full power 
from time to time to adopt a common seal, to appoint such officers, members 
of the board of trustees or otherwise, and such employees as may be deemed 
necessary in carrying on the business of the corporation, at such salaries or 
wath such remuneration as they may deem proper; and with full power to 
adopt by-laws from time to time and such rules or regulations as may be 
necessary to secure the safe and convenient transaction of the business of 
the corporation; and with full power and discretion to deal with and expend 
the income of the corporation in such manner as in their judgment will best 
promote the objects herein set forth and in general to have and use all powers 
and authority necessary to promote such objects and carry out the purposes 
of the donor. The said trustees shall have further power from time to time 
to hold as investments the securities hereinabove referred to so transferred 
by Andrew Carnegie, and any property which has been or may be transferred 
to them or such corporation by Andrew Carnegie or by any other person, 
persons, or corporation, and to invest any sums or amounts from time to 
time in such securities and in such form and manner as are permitted to 
trustees or to charitable or literary corporations for investment, according 
to the laws of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, or Massachusetts, or 
in such securities as are authorized for investment by the said deed of trust 
so executed by Andrew Carnegie, or by any deed of gift or last will and 
testament to be hereafter made or executed. 

Sec. 5. That the said corporation may take and hold any additional dona- 
tions, grants, devises, or bequests which may be made in further support of 
the purposes of the said corporation, and may include in the expenses thereof 
the personal expenses which the trustees may incur in attending meetings or 
otherwise in carrying out the business of the trust, but the services of the 
trustees as such shall be gratuitous. 

Sec. 6. That as soon as may be possible after the passage of this Act a 
meeting of the trustees hereinbefore named shall be called by Daniel C. Gil- 
man, John S. Billings, Charles D. Walcott, S. Weir Mitchell, John Hay, 
Elihu Root, and Carroll D. Wright, or any four of them, at the city of Wash- 
ington, in the District of Columbia, by notice served in person or by mail 
addressed to each trustee at his place of residence ; and the said trustees, or a 
majority thereof, being assembled, shall organize and proceed to adopt by- 
laws, to elect officers and appoint committees, and generally to organize the 
said corporation; and said trustees herein named, on behalf of the corpora- 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION. XIII 

tion hereby incorporated, shall thereupon receive, take over, and enter into 
possession, custody, and management of all property, real or personal, of the 
corporation heretofore knowTi as the Carnegie Institution, incorporated, as 
hereinbefore set forth under "An Act to establish a Code of Law for the 
District of Columbia, January fourth, nineteen hundred and two," and to all 
its rights, contracts, claims, and property of any kind or nature; and the 
several officers of such corporation, or any other person having charge of 
any of the securities, funds, real or personal, books or property thereof, shall, 
on demand, dehver the same to the said trustees appointed by this Act or 
to the persons appointed by them to receive the same; and the trustees of 
the existing corporation and the trustees herein named shall and may take 
such other steps as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. 

Sec. 7. That the rights of the creditors of the said existing corporation 
known as the Carnegie Institution shall not in any manner be impaired by 
the passage of this Act, or the transfer of the property hereinbefore men- 
tioned, nor shall any liability or obligation for the payment of any sums due 
or to become due, or any claim or demand, in any manner or for any cause 
existing against the said existing corporation, be released or impaired ; but 
such corporation hereby incorporated is declared to succeed to the obliga- 
tions and liabilities and to be held liable to pay and discharge all of the debts, 
liabilities, and contracts of the said corporation so existing to the same effect 
as if such new corporation had itself incurred the obligation or hability to 
pay such debt or damages, and no such action or proceeding before any court 
or tribunal shall be deemed to have abated or been discontinued by reason 
of the passage of this Act. 

Sec. 8. That Congress may from time to time alter, repeal, or modify this 
Act of incorporation, but no contract or individual right made or acquired 
shall thereby be divested or impaired. 

Sec. 9. That this Act shall take effect immediately. 

Approved, April 28, 1904. ^- 



\e. 



BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION. 

Adopted December 13, 1904. Amended December 13, 1910, and December 13, 1912. 



Article I. 

THE TRUSTEES. 



1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-four members, with 
power to increase its membership to not more than twenty-seven members. 
The Trustees shall hold office continuously and not for a stated term. 

2. In case any Trustee shall fail to attend three successive annual meet- 
ings of the Board he shall thereupon cease to be a Trustee. 

3. No Trustee shall receive any compensation for his services as such. 

4. All vacancies in the Board of Trustees shall be filled by the Trustees 
by ballot. Sixty days prior to an annual or a special meeting of the Board, 
the President shall notify the Trustees by mail of the vacancies to be filled 
and each Trustee may submit nominations for such vacancies. A list of the 
persons so nominated, with the names of the proposers, shall be mailed to the 
Trustees thirty days before the meeting, and no other nominations shall be 
received at the meeting except with the unanimous consent of the Trustees 
present. Vacancies shall be filled from the persons thus nominated, but no 
person shall be declared elected unless he receives the votes of two-thirds of 
the Trustees present. 

Article II. 

MEETINGS. 

1. The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees shall be held in the City 
of Washington, in the District of Columbia, on the first Friday following the 
second Thursday of December in each year. 

2. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Executive Com- 
mittee by notice served personally upon, or mailed to the usual address of, 
each Trustee twenty days prior to the meeting. 

3. Special meetings shall, moreover, be called in the same manner by the 
Chairman upon the written request of seven members of the Board. 

Article III. 
officers of the board. 

1. The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman of the Board, a Vice- 
Chairman, and a Secretary, who shall be elected by the Trustees, from the 
members of the Board, by ballot to serve for a term of three years. All 
vacancies shall be filled by the Board for the unexpired term; provided, how- 
ever, that the Executive Committee shall have power to fill a vacancy in the 
office of Secretary to serve until the next meeting of the Board of Trustees. 



BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION. XV 

2. The Chairman shall preside at all meetings and shall have the usual 
powers of a presiding officer. 

3. The Vice-Chairman, in the absence or disability of the Chairman, shall 
perform his duties. 

4. The Secretary shall issue notices of meetings of the Board, record its 
transactions, and conduct that part of the correspondence relating to the 
Board and to his duties. He shall execute all deeds, contracts or other 
instruments on behalf of the corporation, when duly authorized. 

Article IV. 

EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION. 

The President. 

1. There shall be a President who shall be elected by ballot by, and hold 
office during the pleasure of, the Board, who shall be the chief executive 
officer of the Institution. The President, sub j ect to the control of the Board 
and the Executive Committee, shall have general charge of all matters of 
administration and supervision of all arrangements for research and other 
work undertaken by the Institution or with its funds. He shall devote his 
entire time to the affairs of the Institution. He shall prepare and submit to 
the Board of Trustees and to the Executive Committee plans and sug- 
gestions for the work of the Institution, shall conduct its general corre- 
spondence and the correspondence with applicants for grants and with the 
special advisers of the Committee, and shall present his recommendations 
in each case to the Executive Committee for decision. All proposals and 
requests for grants shall be referred to the President for consideration and 
report. He shall have power to remove and appoint subordinate employees 
and shall be ex officio a member of the Executive Committee. 

2. He shall be the legal custodian of the seal and of all property of the 
Institution whose custody is not otherwise provided for. He shall affix the 
seal of the corporation whenever authorized to do so by the Board of Trus- 
tees or by the Executive Committee or by the Finance Committee. He 
shall be responsible for the expenditure and disbursement of all funds of the 
Institution in accordance with the directions of the Board and of the 
Executive Committee, and shall keep accurate accounts of all receipts and 
disbursements. He shall submit to the Board of Trustees at least one 
month before its annual meeting in December a -WTitten report of the opera- 
tions and business of the Institution for the preceding fiscal year with his 
recommendations for work and appropriations for the succeeding fiscal year, 
which shall be forthwith transmitted to each member of the Board. 

3. He shall attend all meetings of the Board of Trustees. 

Article V. 

COMMITTi ES. 

1. There shall be the following standi ag Committees, viz., an Executive 
Committee, a Finance Committee, and an Auditing Conunittee. 



XVI BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION. 

2. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Chairman and Secretary 
of the Board of Trustees and the President of the Institution ex officio and, 
in addition, five trustees to be elected by the Board by ballot for a term of 
three years, who shall be eligible for re-election. Any member elected to fill 
a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of his predecessor's term: Provided, 
however, that of the Executive Committee first elected after the adoption of 
these by-laws two shall serve for one year, two shall serve for two years, and 
one shall serve for three years; and such Committee shall determine their 
respective terms by lot. 

3. The Executive Committee shall, when the Board is not in session and 
has not given specific directions, have general control of the administration 
of the affairs of the corporation and general supervision of all arrangements 
for administration, research, and other matters undertaken or promoted by 
the Institution; shall appoint advisory committees for specific duties; shall 
determine all payments and salaries; and keep a written record of all trans- 
actions and expenditures and submit the same to the Board of Trustees at 
each meeting, and it shall also submit to the Board of Trustees a printed or 
typewritten report of each of its meetings, and at the annual meeting shall 
submit to the Board a report for publication. 

4. The Executive Committee shall have general charge and control of all 
appropriations made by the Board. 

5. The Finance Committee shall consist of three members to be elected by 
the Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years. 

6. The Finance Committee shall have custody of the securities of the cor- 
poration and general charge of its investments and invested funds, and shall 
care for and dispose of the same subject to the directions of the Board of 
Trustees. It shall consider and recommend to the Board from time to time 
such measures as in its opinion will promote the financial interests of the 
Institution, and shall make a report at each meeting of the Board. 

7. The Auditing Com.mittee shall consist of three members to be elected 
by the Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years. 

8. The Auditing Committee shall, before each annual meeting of the 
Board of Trustees, examine the accounts of business transacted under the 
Finance Committee and the Executive Committee. They may avail them- 
selves at vnW of the services ar d examination of the Auditor appointed by 
the Board of Trustees. They shall report to the Board upon the collection 
of moneys to which the Institution is entitled, upon the investment and 
reinvestment of principal, upon the conformity of expenditures to appro- 
priations, and upon the system of bookkeeping, the sufficiency of the 
accounts, and the safety and economy of the business methods and safe- 
guards employed. 

9. All vacancies occurring in the Executive Committee and the Finance 
Committee shall be filled by the Trustees at the next regular meeting. In 
case of vacancy in the Finance Committee or the Auditing Committee, upon 
request of the remaining members of such committee, the Executive Com- 
mittee may fill such vacancy by appointment until the next meeting of the 
Board of Trustees. 

10. The terms of all officers and of all members of committees shall con- 
tinue until their successors are elected or appointed. 



BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION. XVII 

Article VI, 

FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

1. No expenditure shall be authorized or made except in pursuance of a 
previous appropriation by the Board of Trustees. 

2. The fiscal year of the Institution shall commence on the first day of 
November in each year. 

3. The Executive Conunittee, at least one month prior to the annual 
meeting in each year, shall cause the accounts of the Institution to be audited 
by a skilled accountant, to be appointed by the Board of Trustees, and shall 
submit to the annual meeting of the Board a full statement of the finances 
and work of the Institution and a detailed estimate of the expenditures for 
the succeeding year. 

4. The Board of Trustees, at the annual meeting in each year, shall make 
general appropriations for the ensuing fiscal year; but nothing contained 
herein shall prevent the Board of Trustees from making special appropria- 
tions at any meeting. 

5. The securities of the Institution and evidences of property, and funds 
invested and to be invested, shall be deposited in such safe depository or in 
the custody of such trust company and under such safeguards as the Trus- 
tees and Finance Committee shall designate; and the income available for 
expenditure of the Institution shall be deposited in such banks or deposi- 
tories as may from time to time be designated by the Executive Committee. 

6. Any trust company entrusted with the custody of securities by the 
Finance Committee may, by resolution of the Board of Trustees, be made 
Fiscal Agent of the Institution, upon an agreed compensation, for the trans- 
action of the business coming within the authority of the Finance Conmiittee. 

Article VII. 

AMENDMENT OF BY-LA-WS. 

1. These by-laws may be amended at any annual or special meeting of the 
Board of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided 
wTitten notice of the proposed amendment shall have been served personally 
upon, or mailed to the usual address of, each member of the Board twenty 
days prior to the meeting. 



MINUTES 

OF THE 

TWENTY-SECOND MEETING OF THE BOAKD OF 

TEUSTEES 



ABSTRACT OF MINUTES OF THE TWENTY-SECOND MEETING OF 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 



The meeting was held in Washington in the Board Room of 
the Administration Building, on Friday, December 9, 1921, and 
was called to order at 10 a. m. by the Chairman, Mr. Root. 

Upon roll-call the following Trustees responded: Robert S. 
Brookings, John J. Carty, Cleveland H. Dodge, Charles P. 
Fenner, W. Cameron Forbes, Charles L. Hutchinson, Andrew J. 
Montague, James Parmelee, Wm. Barclay Parsons, Stewart 
Baton, Henry S. Pritchett, Elihu Root, Charles D. Walcott, 
Henry P. Walcott, William H. Welch, Henry White, George W. 
Wickersham, Robert S. Woodward. The President of the 
Institution, Dr. John C. Merriam, was also present. 

The minutes of the twenty-first meeting were approved as 
printed and submitted to the members of the Board. 

Reports of the President, the Executive Committee, the 
Auditor, the Finance Committee, the Auditing Conamittee, and 
of Directors of Departments, Associates, and Research Associates 
of the Institution were presented and considered. 

The following resolutions were passed: 

Resolved, That the income of the Colburn Fiind which will accrue on and after January 1 
1922, shall be regarded as available for appropriation. 

Resolved, That appropriations on account of the Insurance Fund shall be continued, 
beginning with the year 1922, in such amounts as may be sufficient, together with the 
estimated income on this Fund to total $25,000 annually, said total to be added to the 
principal of the Fund until otherwise ordered. 

The following appropriations for the year 1922 Avere authorized : 

Insurance Fund $11 ,000 

Pension Fund 40,000 

Administration 60,000 

PubUcation (including Division of Pubhcations) 94 , 500 

Departments of Research 960 , 624 

Middle American Archaeology 19 ,000 

Associates of Institution 18,600 

Minor Grants 156,900 

Index Medicus 17 ,500 

General Contingent Fund 45 ,000 

Total $1 ,423,124 

XXI 



XXII CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

The following officers of the Board and the following members 
of committees were reelected for a period of three years: 

Officers of the Board: Chairman, Mr. Root; Vice-Chairman, Mr. Charles 
D. Walcott; Secretary, Mr. Dodge. 

Members of the Executive Committee: Messrs. Parsons, Paton, and 
Pritchett. 

Members of the Finance Committee : Mr. Dodge (chairman) and Messrs. 
Pritchett and Wickersham. 

Members of the Auditing Committee: Mr. Brookings (chairman) and 
Messrs. Hutchinson and Wickersham. 

The meeting adjourned at one o'clock. 







REPORT OF THE PRESIDEiNT 

OF THE 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

FOR THE YEAK ENDING OCTOBER 31. 1921 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 

OF THE 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



In conformity with Article IV, section 2, of the By-Laws of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the President has the 
honor to submit the following report on the work of the Institution 
for the fiscal year ending October 31, 1921, along with provisional 
recommendation of appropriations for the ensuing year. 

This report marks completion of the twentieth year of 
organized research conducted by the Institution. The original 
aim of the Founder was to give encouragement 
AnSverstry. ^^^ support to investigations or to constructive 

thought in any department of science, litera- 
ture, or art. It is gratifying to make record of the fact 
that at the end of this second decade the function of research 
as an activity indispensable to civilization and as a necessary 
prerequisite of progress seems to have come into fuller recog- 
nition than at any previous time in history. Industrial and 
governmental agencies, as well as academic interests, have given 
to fundamental investigation a high place in the list of elements 
essential for advance. To-day one may say with confidence 
that no investment of funds or of personal effort can find a work 
of greater dignity and worth, or one which offers a future giving 
clearer evidence of abundant and continuing reward, than 
is open in the field of research. This was the vision of the 
Founder, and its realization will continue in growing measure 
as the complex problems of future years require added emphasis 
upon constructive thought. 

It is with sincere sorrow that record is made 

emoriam. ^^ ^^^ death of Edward Douglass White, Chief 

Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Mr, Justice 

3 



4 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

White was named as a member of the original Board of Trustees 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in Mr. Carnegie's Deed 
of Trust. He was absent from the first session of the Board on 
January 29, 1902, but attended the session on the day follow- 
ing. His resignation as a member of the Board was dated 
November 6, 1903, and was presented and accepted at the 
third meeting on December 8, 1903. 

Mr. White took a vigorous part in discussion of the affairs 
of the Institution. He favored restricting initial commitments 
of the Institution for support of investigation to periods not 
exceeding five years, and was a strong supporter of the plan 
to establish the reserve fund which has become so important to 
the Institution in the past year. 

The only adequate review of progress in the work of the In- 
stitution during the past year must comprise a complete state- 
„ , ^ ment of researches conducted by our depart- 

Reference to , ... 

Accomplishments meuts and Associates and a list of contributions 
to knowledge through publications or through 
other expression of results made available to the public. The 
reports of departments and of Associates forming the major 
part of the Year Book of the Institution cover the interesting 
and important researches of the year. The statement of work 
completed is also given in part through the list of volumes 
issued by the Institution and by the bibliography of papers 
published through other channels. 

The work of the Institution touches in one way or another 
upon nearly all of the principal fields of research. The investi- 
gations have been very fruitful. They have not merely pro- 
duced contributions to knowledge, but are also the basis 
for much research of application which goes immediately into 
human use. 

It seems neither necessary nor desirable in this preliminary 
statement to do more than call attention to some of the most 
significant results which have signalized certain phases of our 
work in the past year. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 5 

It is doubtful whether any recent discovery in the physical 

sciences has attracted wider interest or has contributed more to 

. ^ , , . the ultimate possibilities of astronomical and 

An Epoch-making , , ^ 

Discovery in physical scienco than the measurement of 
s ronomy. (iiameter of a fixed star carried out at Mount 
Wilson Observatory three daj^s subsequent to the annual 
meeting of the Institution last year. This long-desired result 
was made possible by many years of development of plant and 
technique, together with the extraordinary skill of Dr. Michelson 
and his associates and the clear \^sion of Dr. Hale in bringing 
together all of the elements required for this particular task. 
Measurement of the diameter of the star Betelgeuse once accom- 
plished, the dimensions of other stars foUowed quickly. More 
recently, by refinement of the original method, Dr. Michelson 
has opened the way for corresponding observations on a group 
of stars which seemed to be entirely out of range in the first 
use of the interferometer on the 100-inch telescope. The 
results already accomplished give confirmation of much impor- 
tant work done by other astronomers and furnish a new starting- 
point for a great variety of investigations concerning the nature 
of the universe. In consideration of the critical problems which 
are now at the front for discussion, provision has been made for 
securing assistance and cooperation of other investigators. The 
work of Dr. H. N. Russell, of Princeton University, which has 
added much to an understanding of the evolution of the stars, 
is fortunately now associated with that of Dr. Michelson and 
others in helping to solve the special problems to which Mount 
Wilson Observatory has given attention. 

A significant event in the operations of the Institution is the 
completion within this year of a survey of the seas of the world 

Com letion of ^^ ^^^ noii-magnetic ship Carnegie. Launched 
major work of the in 1909, this unique vessel has vo3^aged nearly 

s ip araegie. 3QQ QQQ niiles, covering the principal areas of the 
great oceans and securing previously unavailable data on mag- 
netic conditions which, with those obtained by concurrent studies 
on land, give a map of magnetic variations not heretofore possible. 



b CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

With completion of the year's cruise by the Carnegie, and the 
summing up of its results, attention may be directed more partic- 
ularly to land observations, to critical studies of terrestrial and 
atmospheric electricity, to experimental studies bearing upon the 
nature of magnetism, and to assembling and interpreting the great 
mass of data made available from all sources through many years 
of field work. 

Beginning with the year 1921, the Department of Experi- 
mental Evolution and the Eugenics Record Office have come to 

Department of fuuctiou as an administrative unit known as the 
^Xn3S,ng?ess' Department of Genetics. This change brings 

of Eugenics. ^j^g biological studies of inheritance, based upon 
investigation of many groups of plants and animals, to bear 
more directly on studies of human genetics conducted through 
the Eugenics Record Office. Important as knowledge of 
heredity is in its application to development of the animals 
and plants which contribute to meet our needs, there is no 
group of questions more significant in the complicated organi- 
zation of human society than those concerning the meaning and 
the possibility of direction or control of inheritance in man. 
Without full understanding of the biological factors concerned, 
it might appear that intelligence and social organization have 
brought relatively large opportunity for degeneration. On the 
other hand, adequate understanding of the principles governing 
the course of descent may give to mankind opportunity for more 
rapid and more advantageous development than has been known 
in the past lines of evolution of other organisms. 

In the course of the last year the International Congress of 
Eugenics held in New York City contributed much toward bet- 
terment of our understanding of these problems. The Director 
and many members of the staff of the Department of Genetics 
gave much time and effort to support of the program of contribu- 
tions covered by the International Congress, and, reciprocally, 
the Congress has assisted materially in furnishing a better basis 
for future stages in the work of this department. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 7 

In the past year a modest chemical laboratory has been erected 

for the Department of Botanical Research at Carmel, California. 

^^ . , This Department has carried its work farther 

New Cnenucal . i c • i 

Laboratory for into the field of physical and chemical research 

Botanical Research. • .-, ne , _, • p j- 

m the effort to secure more information con- 
cerning the basis of plant activities. The new laboratory 
offers improved opportunity for fundamental work on photo- 
synthesis or the chemistry of compounds arising under the 
influence of light. It is hoped that with present facilities a 
nearer approach to the solution of this difficult but funda- 
mental problem in the physiology of plants may be obtained. 

An important project in the purely humanistic field is that 

concerning the ancient Maya civilization of Central America. 

rox-j- The expedition of 1921, led into this region by 

Advance of Studies r-^ r ^ ^ o ./ 

on Ancient Maya Dr. S. G. Morley, has secured most significant 

Civilization. . • i • > -i /• ^i • i 

new materials m study of the ancient monu- 
ments and in excavation of building sites. The story of 
this people contributes much that may become critical or 
determinative in our interpretation of early American history, 
and we know that the great bulk of this record still remains 
unread. In the past year the Institution has had the benefit of 
effective cooperation in this work by Mr. William Gates, whose 
study of both modern and ancient Maya language involves sig- 
nificant lines of investigation which should relate themselves 
closely to the archseological studies. Mr. Gates has made avail- 
able to the Institution his large collection of Maya manuscripts 
and of general literature on Middle American work, and the data 
contained therein will be of much value for future researches. 

In addition to important results secured through investiga- 
tions organized and supported by the Institution, it has been our 
privilege to help in the advance of much significant work con- 
,. ,. ducted by distinguished investigators connected 

Investigations • -i i • • 

by Research with Other orgamzations. In the course of the 

past year the Institution has cooperated in this 

manner with Dr. T. H. Morgan, of Columbia University, in the 



8 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

forwarding of his epoch-making studies in experimental evolu- 
tion. We have cooperated also with Dr. Thomas B. Osborne, of 
the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, and Dr. L. B. 
Mendel, of Yale University, in their exceedingly important inves- 
tigations of the vitamins, which are [playing so significant a 
role in fundamental biological research and in investigations of 
nutrition. 

Similar arrangements with Dr. A. A. Michelson, of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, and Dr. H. N. Russell, of Princeton Univer- 
sity, have brought into association with the staff of Mount 
Wilson Observatory investigators whose recent contributions 
rank among the foremost results in the phj^sical sciences. 

In still another field of separate research lies the work of Dr. 
John F. Hayford, of Northwestern University, whose studies 
upon the physical factors determining the water-level of the Great 
Lakes have taken high rank among researches advanced toward 
completion within the past year. 

The formulation of results of the Institution's work is repre- 
sented in part by the series of Carnegie Institution publications, 
„ ,,. ,. , but in a large measure the work of the Depart- 

Publication and ^ , . . 

Distribution of meuts and Associates is issued through many 
other publications established for needs of inves- 
tigators in special subjects. A survey of the list of works 
issued by the Institution presented on page 17, compared 
with the bibliography of the members of the staff on pages 18 
to 27, will indicate that certain of the departments ver}^ largely 
use channels other than our own publications. This dif- 
ference in distribution occurs bj^ reason of the fact that the 
results in some subjects may be expressed in such form as to fit 
easily into special journals, whereas other types of work are 
presented more effectively in the form of monographic volumes. 
Thus, for example, the papers of the Geophysical Laboratory 
appear largely through the American Journal of Science, the pub- 
lications of Mount Wilson Observatory are issued in considerable 
part in the Astrophysical Journal, while many of the results com- 
ing from the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism are printed 
in the journal Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Elec- 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 9 

tricity. Although the Institution is proud of its own publica- 
tions, the same gratification in accomplishment is justified by the 
papers, large and small, which go from the Institution to the 
pubUc through other series. 

Distribution of volumes issued directly under the auspices of 
the Institution has been extended this year to reach agencies 
doing important research only in limited or special fields. With 
the purpose of bringing the results of our work into effective use 
as quickly as possible, the distribution to individual investigators 
of reputation has also been increased. At the same time arrange- 
ment has been made for material reduction in the sale price of 
the more expensive works to be issued in the future. 

In the past year special effort has been made to handle a con- 
siderable accumulation of publications awaiting their turn at the 
press. During the war, and up to this year, cost of printing 
increased very rapidly and limited the output of volumes. In 
1920 a considerable part of the appropriation was required to 
pay for pubHcation of books authorized prior to the great 
increase in cost of printing, and only eight new contributions 
were accepted. Nearly all the older manuscripts have now 
been published and we are attempting to keep the date of issue 
of all new papers reasonably close to the period of acceptance. 
Such an arrangement means much gain through early use of 
results obtained in our researches. In the past year, in addition 
to the regular appropriation, a sum of $10,000 was added 
to the publication fund and recommendations for the coming 
year include a corresponding increase of $10,000. 

Although it may be diflScult to define precisely the function 
of the Institution in general or at any particular moment, it is 
clearly the duty of this organization to lend its aid, wherever 
„ ^ „ possible, to advance fundamental knowledge in 

Researches on New '■ ' i i xi. 

Problems Con- fields which are not normally covered by the 
sidered. efforts of other agencies, or in which other 
research bodies may find diflaculty in initiation of projects. It 
is evident that as a part of its purpose the Institution must look 
forward to giving its support in putting into operation researches 
upon some of these more diflScult subjects. We could be 



10 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

helpful in cases of this nature through use of our organization 
as an initiating mechanism, although the ultimate conduct of 
the investigations might be under other auspices. 

Problems which promise large return for such future investi- 
gation are found in the field of seismology or earthquake study 
and in the general region of human behavior considered in the 
widest sense and recognized as a problem of strictly biological or 
physical research rather than as a question of sociology. In the 
course of the year the Institution has been interested in studies 
in these fields. 

In seismology, an advisory committee has been organized 
under the chairmanship of Dr. Arthur L. Day, Director of the 
Geophysical Laboratory. Seven of the leading students of 
geological science and of physics have accepted membership 
in the committee and have done much to bring into close and 
active cooperation the various agencies of the country con- 
cerned with earthquake studies. Within the short time in which 
this committee has been in operation it has gone far to place 
seismological research in a position to make material advance 
in our understanding of movements of the earth's crust, and 
thereby ultimately to contribute much toward maintenance 
of the security and happiness of people inhabiting earthquake 
regions. 

An investigation into the problems of human behavior, con- 
stitutmg the second subject to be examined, has been given only 
brief consideration. It represents one of the most difficult of all 
researches, but is not second to any other question in the 
possibilities offered. Without reference to immediate practical 
use of knowledge of human behavior in control of our affairs, 
research in this field offers an exceptional opportunity for work 
on the biological or physical basis of human behavior and on the 
significance of individual and group differences. In the present 
status of this question the study concerns mainly the nature of 
present knowledge and the approaches to research which seem 
to offer the largest possibilities for securing new points of view 
or new combinations of effort that may open aspects of the 
work not previously considered. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 11 

In addition to new problems for which the Institution has con- 
tributed only the mechanism for preliminary or initial studies, 
attention should be called to the fact that certain 
teSrof Depart- of the departments now in existence may with 
ment Activities. pj.Q£^ extend their investigations into other stages 
promising large results based upon the work already accom- 
pUshed. Mention may be made here of the work of the Geo- 
physical Laboratory, a unique institution devoting itself to funda- 
mental questions of physics and chemistry relating to the com- 
position and structure of the earth's crust. The work already 
completed has not only set science forward to a relatively advanced 
position in knowledge of problems originally fixed as the goal, but 
it is further to the credit of the Institution that the fundamental 
researches, conducted without reference to application, have 
contributed much to an understanding of certain critical ques- 
tions in the field of applied physics and chemistry. 

A review of the present situation indicates that advance of 
investigations in the Geophysical Laboratory in such a manner as 
to take full advantage of results already secured makes it desir- 
able to extend the facilities required for high-pressure research. 
For the conduct of this work it would be desirable to have a 
small building erected as a unit separate from the present labo- 
ratory. New apparatus specially adapted for high-pressure work 
would be a requisite for the further researches proposed, and the 
reorganization incident to carrying forward these studies should 
be supported by addition of several speciahsts and assistants to 
the staff. 

The extraordinary advances made in researches conducted at 
Mount Wilson Observatory since the war have opened up entirely 
new possibihties, not only in the field of observational astronomy 
but in the combination of physics with astronomy so ably and 
effectively organized in the work of the laboratory. A large 
measure of the success of the Observatory is due to combination 
of physical and astronomical studies. In addition to opening 
great opportunities for observation by use of exceptional tele- 
scopes, the Observatory has aimed to check, interpret, and extend 



12 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



its results by physical investigations conducted in the laboratory. 
Thus it has been possible to secure the information needed to 
give adequate understanding of the temperature of the sun-spots. 
Many of the most recent discoveries serve to emphasize the need 
for further development of laboratory studies to supplement and 
interpret the data secured by use of the great telescope. While 
the apparatus available promises large contributions in the near 
future, there is reason for considering the extension of laboratory 
facilities in order that the remarkable materials being secured 
through observational work may attain their fullest value by com- 
parison with results of laboratory experiments. 

A further need, which is real though not urgent, involves 
the proposal made some years ago to secure a special building for 
the Department of Embryology in order that quarters for the 
conduct of this exceptional work may be secured in close asso- 
ciation with the Department of Anatomy of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. 

Financial The sources of fuuds available for expenditure 

for Fiscal Year during the past fiscal year, the allotments for the 

1920-1921. year, the revertments made during the year, and 

the balances unallotted at the end of the year are shown in detail 

in the following statement: 

Financial slalement for fiscal year 1920-1921. 



Object of appro- 
priation. 



Balances 

unallotted 

Oct. .31, 

1920. 



Appropri- 
ation 
Dec. 12, 
1920. 



Revert- 
ment.s 
Nov. 1, 
1920, to 
Oct. 31, 
1921. 



Totals 

for fiscal 

j'ear. 



Aggregates of 

allotments 
and amounts 
transferred. 



Balances 

unallotted 

Oct. 31, 

1921. 



Large Grants . . 
Pvlinor Grants. . 
Publications. . . 
Administration . 
Insurance Fund 
Pension Fund . . 



$11,520.95 
5,149.00 



.'$966,162.00 
265,820.-53 
85,000.00 
55,000.00 
25,000.00 
40,000.00 



«49,774.49 

45 , 892 . 87 

18,382.23 

1,800.00 



81,015,936.49 

323,234.35 

108,521.23 

56,800.00 

25,000.00 

40,000.00 



§1,015,936.49 
318,348.56 
99,199.91 
56,800.00 
25,000.00 
40,000.00 



$4,885.79 
9,331.32 



Total . 



16,699.95 



1,436,982.53 



115,849.-59 



1,569,502.07 



1,555,284.96 



14,217.11 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 



13 



The aggregates of receipts from interest on endowment, from 
interest on bond investments and bank deposits, from sales of 
Receipts and publications, from refunds on grants, and from 
^hrinstitSfon^ miscellaneous sources, for each year since the foun- 
to Date. dation of the Institution, are shown by the fol- 

lowing table; the grand total of these to date is $20,486,013.89. 

Aggregates of financial receipts. 



Year 




Interest 










Interest on 


on bonds 


Sales of 


Refund on 


Miscellaneous 


Total. 


Oct.31. 


endowment. 


and bank 


publications. 


grants. 


items. 




deposits. 










1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 


$250,000.00 
500,000.00 
500,000.00 
500,000.00 


S9.70 

5,867.10 

33,004.26 

25,698.59 






§1,825.52 
101.57 


$251,835.22 

508,2.54.83 
536,439.36 
529,088.48 


S2,286.16 
2,4.36.07 
3,038.95 




S999.03 
200.94 


150.00 


1906 


500,000.00 


27,304.47 


4,349.68 


2,395.25 


19.44 


534,068 84 


1907 


500,000.00 


22,934.05 


6,026.10 


2, 708.. 56 


15.22 


531,683.93 


1908 


550,000.00 


17,761.55 


7,877.51 


25.68 


48.034.14 


623,698.88 


1909 


600,000.00 


14,707.67 


11,182.07 


2,351.48 


103,564.92 


731,806.14 


1910 


600,000.00 


10,422.78 


10,470.25 


1,319.29 


54,732.45 


676,944.73 


1911 


975,000.00 


14,517.63 


10,892.26 


4,236.87 


923.16 


1,005,569.97 


1912 


1,100,000.00 


31,118.41 


11,496.13 


1,658.88 


96,035.01 


1,240,308.42 


1913 


1,103,355.00 


46,315.60 


12,208.66 


3,227.53 


345,769.95 


1,510,876.74 


1914 


1,105,084.17 


59,298.63 


11,402.40 


7,819.70 


577,305.77 


1,760,910.67 


1915 


1,100,375.00 


67,888.31 


10,297.79 


8,322.87 


28,162.79 


1,215,046.76 


1916 


1,100,375.00 


83,626.38 


12,544.16 


1,450.12 


153,204.40 


1,351,200.06 


1917 


1,100,408.75 


100,702.60 


11,921.35 


32,950.22 


179,611.97 


1,425,594.89 


1918 


1,110,427.45 


120,464.02 


9,921.00 


39,833.23 


255,354.60 


1,536,000.30 


1919 


1,112,441.25 


138,700.73 


12,837.58 


53,549.98 


214,498.99 


1,. 532, 028. 53 


1920 


1,112,441.25 


159,559.03 


18,393.79 


4,088.63 


176,249.81 


1,470,732.51 


1921 
Total 


1,112,441.25 


170,211.22 


16,684.51 


4,068.69 


210,518.96 


1,513,924.63 


16,532,349.12 


1,150,112.73 


186,266.42 


171,208.95 


*2, 446, 078. 67 


20,486,013.89 



*0f this amount, Sl,444,335 came from the sale of bonds in 190S, 1909, 1910. 1912, 1913. 1914, 
1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, and 1921; 851,265.74 from the Colburn Estate in 1916; and $900,000 
from the Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, and 1921. 

The following list shows the departments and divisions for 
which appropriations have been made by the Trustees and the 
amounts allotted by the Executive Committee during 1921: 

Department of Botanical Research $69 , 550 . 00 

Ecological Research 31 ,442.00 

Department of Embryology 44, 140.00 

Department of Genetics 125,974.03 

Geophysical Laboratory 137,736.00 

Department of Historical Research r-. 45,250.00 

Department of Marine Biology 33 , 400 . 00 

Department of Meridian Astrometry 40,512.00 

Nutrition Laboratory 47,098.00 

Mount Wilson Observatory 209 ,209 .41 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 231,625.05 

Aggregate for Minor Grants 150,908.33 

Aggregate for Publications 99 , 199 .91 

Total 1,266,044.73 



14 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



The purposes for which funds have been appropriated by the 
Board of Trustees of the Institution may be summarily classified 
under five heads: (1) Investments in bonds; (2) large projects; (3) 
minor and special projects; (4) publications; (5) administration. 
The following table shows the actual expenditures under these 
heads for each year since the foundation of the Institution: 

Purposes for which funds have been appropriated. 



Year 
end- 
ing 
Oct. 
31. 


Investments 
in bonds. 


Large 
projects. 


Minor and 

special 

projects. 


Publica- 
tions. 


Adminis- 
tration. 


Total. 


1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 

Total 






$4,500.00 

137,564.17 

217,383.73 

149,843.55 

93,176.26 

90,176.14 

61,282.11 

70,813.69 

83,464.63 

72,048.80 

103,241.73 

110,083.06 

107,507.55 

109,569.37 

99,401.26 

100,746.13 

170,470.74 

203,810.84 

159,633.49 

171,895.22 




$27,513.00 
43,627.66 
36,967.15 
37,208.92 
42,621.89 
46,005.25 
48,274.90 
45,292.21 
44,011.61 
45,455.80 
43,791.13 
43,552.89 
44,159.54 
48,224.04 
49,454.08 
48,766.29 
49,118.76 
55,742.83 
68,739.90 
58,730.11 


$32,013.00 

282,605.36 

511,949.88 

530,753.73 

623,216.80 

702,534.39 

676,163.01 

769,460.94 

662,373.79 

661,616.31 

1,147,037.63 

1,571,572.60 

1,876,096.39 

1,181,183.76 

1,334,572.83 

1,410,464.15 

1,486,329.88 

1,612,602.01 

1,665,023.34 

1,402,590.37 


$100,475.00 

196,159.72 

51,937.50 

63,015.09 

2,000.00 

68,209.80 

116,756.26 

57,889.15 

51,921.79 

436,276.03 

666,428.03 

861,864.23 

206,203.21 

473,702.70 

502,254.05 

528,565.55 

438,960.29 

464,279.57 

109,390.25 




$938.53 
11,590.82 
21,822.97 
42", 43 1.19 
63,804.42 
49,991.55 
41,577.48 
49,067.00 
37,580.17 
44,054.80 
53,171.59 
44,670.55 
46,698.56 
73,733.38 
62,884.61 
44,394.83 
68,964.23 
95,933.10 
81,388.33 


$49,848.46 
269,940.79 
381,972.37 
500,548.58 
448,404.65 
495,021.30 
427,941.49 
454,609.75 
519,673.94 
698,337.03 
817,894.52 
770,488.58 
638,281.41 
695,813.07 
693,780.00 
845,123.82 
876,437.28 
981,186.46 


5,396,288.22 


10,565,303.41 


2,316,612.47 


934,698.11 


927,257.96 


20,140,160.17 



Investments in 
Property. 



On account of site for and construction of the Administration 
Building of the Institution, and on account of real 
estate, buildings, and equipments of departmental 
establishments, the sum of $3,129,908.83 has been expended since 
the foundation of the Institution. A schedule of real estate 
and equipment is given under the report of the Auditor on 
page 40. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 



15 



, „ ^,. The following table shows the amounts received 

Sales of Pubhca- . . . ixit%tt r 

tions and Value of froHi Subscriptions to the index Medicus, from 

sales of Year Books, and from sales of all other 

publications for each year since the foundation of the Institution : 

Table showing sales of puhlicalions. 



Year. 


Index 


Year 


Miscellaneous 


Medicus. 


Book. 


books. 


1903 


$2,256.91 


$29.25 




1904 


2,370.47 


52.85 


$12.75 


1905 


2,562.76 


44.75 


431.44 


1906 


2,970.56 


37.60 


1,341.52 


1907 


3,676.71 


56.50 


2,292.89 


1908 


3,406.19 


99.65 


4,371.67 


1909 


4,821.85 


73.01 


6,287.21 


1910 


4,470.50 


100.70 


5,899.05 


1911 


4,440.21 


85.50 


6,366.55 


1912 


4,652.14 


61.65 


6,782.34 


1913 


4,992.02 


75.95 


7,140.69 


1914 


5,079.16 


49.65 


6,273.59 


1915 


5,010.21 


47.60 


5,239.98 


1916 


4,382.19 


46.60 


8,115.37 


1917 


4,616.21 


51.55 


7,253.59 


1918 


4,324.29 


21.10 


5,575.61 


1919 


4,267.95 


93.30 


8,476.33 


1920 


5,451.86 


40.50 


12,901.43 


1921 

Total . . . 


6,277.32 


50.55 


10,356.64 


80,029.51 


1,118.26 


105,118.65 





>'J:'''^'^K^' 



At the end of the fiscal year there are on hand 93,333 volumes 
of miscellaneous publications and Year Books, having a sale 
value of $284,281.75; also 34,777 numbers of the Index Medicus, 
having a sale value of $20,089.25. The total sale value of pub- 
lications on hand is therefore $304,371. It is fitting to add 
that since the foundation of the Institution there have been 
distributed, chiefly by gifts to libraries and to authors, but to a 
noteworthy extent also by sales, a total of 226,039 volumes of 
publications of the Institution. 



16 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



.,. ^-n . . The data furnished in the following table are of 

Growth and Extent ... . 

of Institution's statistical interest m respect to the work of publi- 
cation of the Institution. 



Publications. 



442 volumes, embracing 
a total of 124,161 pages of printed matter, have thus far been 
issued by the Institution. 

Table shoiving numher of volumes, number of pages {octavo and quarto), and totals of 
pages of publications issued by the Institution for each year and for the 
twenty years from 1902 to 1921. 



Year. 


Number of 
volumes 
issued. 


Number of 
octavo 
pages. 


Number of 
quarto 
pages. 


Total 

number of 

pages. 


1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

Total. . . 


3 
3 
11 
21 
19 
38 
28 
19 
29 
30 
23 
29 
23 
23 
35 
21 
17 
29 
23 
18 


46 
1,667 
2,843 
3,783 
3,166 
6,284 
4,843 
3,695 
3,274 
5,062 
3,981 
6,605 
4,978 
4,686 
9,478 
4,464 
3,073 
5,834 
3,962 
4,068 




46 
1,667 
2,877 
5,228 
4,454 
9,712 
7,328 
4,907 
8,105 
6,732 
6,025 
9,357 
6,912 
6,152 
11,908 
7 , 155 
4,193 
8,265 
7,672 
5,466 




34 
1,445 
1,288 
3,428 
2,485 
1,212 
4,831 
1,670 
2,044 
2,752 
1,934 
1,466 
2,430 
2,691 
1,269 
2,431 
3,710 
1,398 


442 


85,792 


38,369 


124,161 



The publication of 23 volumes has been authorized by the 
Executive Committee during the year, at an aggregate estimated 
« u,- .. A .u cost of $61,300. The following list gives the 

Publications Author- ' *^ .... 

ized and Issued titles and names of authors of the publications 
uring e ear. jgg^^^ during the year; it includes 18 volumes, 
with an aggregate of 4,068 octavo pages and 1,398 quarto pages. 
Twenty additional volumes are now in press. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 17 

List of publications issued during the year. 

Year Book, No. 19, 1920. Octavo, xxi4-424 pages, 2 platea, 5 figures. 
Index Medicus, Second Series, Vol. 18, 1920. Octavo, 1,131 pages. 

Ninth edition of an illustrated pamphlet on the Scope and Organization of the Carnegie Insti- 
tution of Washington. Octavo, 59 pages, 1 plate, 1 map, 29 figures. 
No. 185, Hasse, Adelaide R. Index to United States Documents relating to Foreign Affairs, 

1828-1861. In three parts. Quarto, Part III, R to Z, 647 pages. 
No. 214. Clark, H. L. The Echinoderm Fauna of Torres Strait: Its Composition and its 
Origin. (Paper from Department of Marine Biology of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington. Vol. X.) Quarto, viii+233 pages, 40 plates. 
No. 258. Rowe, L. S. Federal System of the Argentine Republic. Octavo, vii+ 161 pages. 
No. 275. Contributions to Embryology, No. 56. Vol. XII. Quarto, 364 pp, 24 pis., 6 figs. 
Mall, F. P., and A. W. Meyer. Studies on Abortuses: A Survey of the Pathologic 
Ova in the Carnegie Embryological Collection. 
No. 276. Contributions to Embrj'ology, Nos. 57 to 64. Vol. XIII. Quarto, 146 pages, 15 
plates, 25 figures, 1 chart. 
Cash, James R. Lymphatics in the Stomach of the Embryo Pig. (Contribution 

No. 57.) 3 plates, 3 figure?, 
Reichert, F. L. On the Fate of the Primary Lymph-Sacs in the Abdominal Region of 
the Pig, and the Development of Lymph-Channels in the Abdominal and Pelvic 
Regions. (Contribution No. 58.) 5 figures. 
Jenkins, George B. Relative Weight and Volume of the Component Parts of the 
Brain of the Human Embryo at Different Stages of Development. (Contri- 
bution No. 59.) 12 figures, 1 chart. 
Corner, George W. Abnormalities of the Mammalian Embryo occurring before 

Implantation. (Contribution No. 60.) 2 plates, 1 figure. 
Spaulding, M. H. Development of the External Genitalia in the Human Embryo. 

(Contribution No. 61.) 4 plates, 2 figures. 
Wislocki, George B. Further Experimental Studies on Fetal Absorption. (Con- 
tribution No. 62.) 

III. Behavior of the Fetal Membranes and Placenta of the Guinea-Pig toward 
Trypan-BIue injected into the Maternal Blood-Stream. 

IV. Behavior of the Placenta and Fetal Membranes of the Rabbit toward 
Tr>'pan-Blue injected into the Maternal Blood-Stream. 1 plate. 

Wislocki, George B., and J. A. Key. Distribution of Mitochondria in the Placenta. 

(Contribution No. 63.) 1 plate. 
Corner, G. W. Cyclic Changes in the Ovaries and Uterus of the Sow, and Their 

Relation to Mechanism of Implantation. (Contribution No. 64.) 4 plates, 

2 figures. 
No. 284. Livingston, Burton E., and Forrest Shreve. Distribution of Vegetation in the United 

States as related to Climatic Conditions. Octavo, xvi+590 pages, 73 plates, 

74 figures, 152 tables. 
No. 299. Burnett, E. C. Letters of Members of the Continental Congress. Vol. 1: August 29, 

1774, to July 4, 1776. Octavo, lxvi+572 pages. 
No. 300. Ivens, Walter G. A Grammar and Dictionary of the Lau Language. Octavo, 64 

pages, 3 plates. 
No. 301. Sturtevant, A. H. The North American Species of Drosophila. Octavo, iv-{-150 

pages, 3 plates, 49 figures. 
No. 302. Benedict, F. G., and F. B. Talbot. Metabolism and Growth from Birth to Puberty. 

Octavo, VI-H213 pages, 55 figures. 
No. 303. Carpenter, Thome M. Tables, Factors, and Formulas for computing Respiratory 

Exchange and Biological Transformations of Energy. Octavo, 123 pages, 33 

tables. 
No. 305. Banta, Arthur M. Selection in Cladocera on the Basis of a Physiological Character. 

Octavo, 170 pages, 19 figures. 
No. 307. MacDougal, D. T. Growth in Trees. Octavo, 41 pages, 16 figures. 
No. 313. Hall, Harvey M., and Frances L. Long. Rubber-content of North American Plants. 

Octavo, 65 pages, 3 plates. 
No. 315. Clements, F. E. Aeration and Air-Content: The Role of Oxygen in Root Activity. 

Octavo, 183 pages. 



18 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

APPENDIX. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO WORK OF INVESTIGATORS. 
ASSOCIATES, AND COLLABORATORS. 

Under this heading it is sought to include titles of all publications proceeding from work done 
under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, exclusive of the regular publica- 
tions. A list of the latter which have appeared during the year will be found in the President's 
Report (p. 17). 
Adams, L. H. The compressibility of diamond. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 11, 45-50 (1921). 

. Note on the measurement of the density of minerals. Amer. Mineral., vol. 6, 11-12 

(1921). 

and E. D. Williamson. The annealing of glass. (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 32.) 



Jour. Franklin Inst., vol. 190. 597-631; 835-870 (1920">. 
Adams, Walter S., and Alfred H. Jot. The spectrum of Nova Cygni, 1920. Pubs. A. S. P., 

vol. 32, 276-278 (1920). 
, . The spectrum of o Ceti near minimum of light. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 107- 

110 (1921). 
, . Spectroscopic observations of the distant companion of Capella. Pubs. 

A. S. P., vol. 33, 112 (1921). 
, . The spectrum of the companion to a Scorpii. Read at the Berkeley meeting, 

A. S. P. (1921); Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 206 (1921). 
, . Evidence regarding the giant and dwarf division of stars afforded by recent 

Mount Wilson parallaxes. Read at Chicago meeting, Amer. Astron. Soc. (1920); Pubs. 

Amer. Astron. Soc, 25th meeting, 201-202; Pop. Astron., vol. 29, 141-143 (1921). 
, . Note on the comparison of spectral types determined at Harvard and Mount 

Wilson. Read at Chicago meeting, Amer. Astron. Soc. (1920); Pubs. Amer. Astron. Soc, 

25th meeting, 202-203; Pop. Astron., vol. 29, 143-144 (1921). 
■ , . GusTAF Stromberg, and Cora G. Burwell. The parallaxes of 1646 stars 

derived by the spectroscopic method. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 53, 13-94 (1921); Mt. Wilson 

Contr., No. 199. 
, and Frederick H. Seares. Comparative tests of the 100-inch and 60-inch reflectors. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 31-34 (1921). 
-, and GusTAF Stromberg, and Alfred H. Joy. The relationship of absolute magnitude to 



space-velocity. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 54, 9-27 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 210. 
AlbrechT, Sebastian. Personality in the estimation of tenths. Astron. Jour., No. 781 (Dec. 

1920). 
. Additional evidence on changes of wave-length which are progressive with stellar type. 

(Abstract) Pop. Astron., vol. 29 (Mar. 1921). 
AuLT, J. p. Preliminary results of ocean magnetic observations on the Carnegie from Colombo, 

Ceylon, to Fremantle, Western Australia, and Lyttelton, New Zealand, July to October, 

1920. Terr. Mag., vol. 25. No. 4. 167-172 (Dec. 1920). 
. Results of ocean magnetic observations on the Carnegie from Lyttelton to Tahiti, 

Fanning Island, San Francisco, and Honolulu, November, 1920, to April, 1921. Terr. Mag., 

vol. 26, Nos. 1-2, 15-24 (Mar.-June 1921). 

Preliminary results of ocean magnetic observations on the Carnegie from Honolulu to 



Pago Pago, April to June, 1921. Terr. Mag., vol. 26, No. 3, 91-95 (Sept. 1921). 
Babcock, Harold D. See St. John, Charles E. 
Baker, Marion L. See Benedict, F. G. 
Banta, a. M. Selection in Cladocera. Anat. Rec, vol. 20, 212 (Jan. 1921). 

. Flat-fish with unusual pigmented areas. Anat. Rec, vol. 20, 214-215 (Jan.1921). 

. An eyeless daphnid, with remarks on the possible origin of eyeless cave animals. 

Science, n. s., vol. 53, 462-463 (May 13, 1921). 
. A convenient culture medium for daphnids. Science, n. s., vol. 53, 557-558 (June 17, 

1921). 
Barnett, L. J. H. See Barnett, S. J. 
Barnett, S. J. Molecular and cosmical magnetism. Nature, vol. 107, No. 2679, 8-9 (Mar. 3, 

1921). 
. The electron theory of magnetism. Science, n. s., vol. 53, No. 1377, 465-475 (May 20, 

1921). 
-, and L. J. H. Barnett. Additional experiments on the nature of the magnetic molecule. 



(Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 17, No. 3, 404-405 (Mar. 1921). 
Bauer, L. A. Some of the chief problems in terrestrial magnetism and electricity. Proc. 

Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 6, No. 10, 572-580 (Oct. 1920), 
. On vertical electric currents and the relation between terrestrial magnetism and 

atmospheric electricity, Terr. Mag., vol. 25, No. 4, 145-162 (Dec. 1920). 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 19 

Bauer, L. A. Measures of the electric and magnetic activity of the Sun and the Earth, and 
interrelations. Terr. Mag., vol. 26, Nos. 1-2, 33-68 (Mar.-June 1921). 

. Note regarding the "Earth-effect" on solar activity and relation with terrestrial 

magnetism. Terr. Mag., vol. 26, No. 3. 113-115 (Sept. 1921). 

Behre, E. H. See Riddls. O. 

Belling, John. See Blakeslee, A. F. 

Benedict, Cornelia Golay, and F. G. Benedict. The energy content of extra food.^ (sand- 
wiches). Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., vol. 184, 43d (1921). 

Benedict, Francis G., The mea*urement and standards of basal metabolism. Jour. Amer. 
Med. Assoc, vol. 77, 247 (1921). 

, and Warren E. Collins. A clinical apparatus for measuring basal metabolism. 

Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., vol. 183, 449 (1920). 

, Edward L. Fox, and Marion L. Baker. The surface temperature of the elephant, 

rhinoceros, and hippopotamus. Amer. Jour. Physiol., vol. 56, 464 (1921). 

, and Mary F. Hendry. The energy requirements of girls from 12 to 17 years of age, 

Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., vol. 184, pp. 217, 257, 282. 297, and 329 (1921). 

, , and M.VRioN L. Baker. The basal metabolism of girls 12 to 17 years of age. 



Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, 10 (1921). 
— . See Harris, Arthur J. 



V. BicEiowsKY, F. R., and H. E. Meuwin. Silica-glass prism for refractometry of liquids at 

elevated temperatures. Jour. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 5, 441-443 (1921). 
Bjerknes, J., and H. Solberg. Meteorological conditions for the formation of rain. Geofys- 

iske Publik., No. 3, vol. 2 (1921). 
Bjerknes, V. On the dynamics of the circular vortex, with applications to the atmosphere and 

atmospheric vortex and wave motion. Geofysiske Publik., No. 4, vol. 2 (1921). 
Blakeslee, A. F. A dwarf mutation in Portulaca, showing vegetative reversions. Genetics, 

vol. 5, 419-433 (July 1920). 
. Mutations in mucors. Jour. Hered., vol. 11, 278-284, figs. 26-28 (July-Aug. 1920; 

Feb. 5, 1921). 
. A graft-infectious disease of Datura resembling a vegetative mutation. Jour. Genet., 

vol. 11, 17-36, pis. ii-vi. figs. 1-12 (Apr. 1921). 
. A chemical method of distinguishing genetic types of yellow cones in Rudbeckia. 

Zeit. induk. Abst. und Vererb., vol. 25, 211-221, pi. 9 (1921). 
. The globe mutant in the jimson weed {Datura stramonium). Genetics, vol. 6, 241-264 

(May 1921). 
. Types of mutations and their possible significance in evoluticm. Amer. Nat., vol. 55, 

254-267 (May-June 1921). 
, with John Belling and M. E. Farnham. Chromosomal duplication and Mendelian 

phenomena in Datura mutants. Science, n. 3., vol. 52, 38S-390 (Oct. 22, 1920). 
See Harris, J. Arthur. 



Bowen, N. L. Tridyniite crystals in glass. Amer. Mineral., vol. 4, 65-66 (1919). 

. Abnormal birefringence of torbernitc. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 48, 19,5-198 (1919). 

. Cacoclosite from Wakefield, Quebec. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 48, 44G-442 (1919). 

. Crystallization-differentiation in igneous magmas. Jour. Gool., vol. 27, 393-430 (1919). 

. Echellite, a new mineral. Amer. Mineral., vol. 5, 1-2 (1920). 

. Differentiation by deformation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 6, 159-162 (1920). 

. Diffusion in silicate mells. Jour. Geol., vol. 29, 295-317 (1921). 

. Preliminary note on monticeilite alnoite from Isle Cadieux, Quebec. Jour. Wash. 

Acad. Sci., vol. 11, 278-281 (1921). 

Bowman, H. H. M. Histological variations in Rhiiophora mangle. 22d Report Mich. Acad. 
Sci.. 129-1.34, pis. 9-12 (1920). 

BoYER, Sylvester. See Richards, Theodore W. 

Br.\ckett, Frederick S. An examination of the infra-red spectrum of the sun, \8900-9900. 
Astrophys. Jour., vol. 53, 121-132 (1920); Mc. Wilson Contr., No. 197. 

Burwell, Cora G. See Ad.\.ms, W.^.LTER S. 

Caldwell, M. L. See Sherman, H. C. 

Card, L. E. See Harris, J. Arthur. 

Carver, Emmett K. See Richards, Theodore W. 

Castle, W. E. A new type of inheritance. Science, n. s., vol. 53, 339-342 (Apr. 8, 1921). 

. Genetics of the "Chinchilla" rabbit. Science, u. ?., vol. 53, 387-388 (Apr. 22, 1921). 

. On a method of estimating the number of genetic factors concerned in cases oi blend- 
ing inheritance. Science, n. s., vol. 54, 9.3-96 (July 29, 1921). 

An improved method of estimating the number of genetic factors concerned in cases 



of blending inheritance. Science, n. s., vol. 54, 223 (Sept. 9, 1921). 
Chamberlin, Thomas C. Groundwork of the Earth's diastrophism. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 

vol. 32, 197-210 (June 30, 1921). 

. The greater Earth. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 32, 211-226 (June 30, 1921). 

. Diastrophism and the formation processes: XIV. Groundwork for the study of 

megadiastrophism. Jour. Geol., vol. 29, No. 5, 391-425 (July-Aug. 1921). 



20 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Coble, A. B. Multiple binary forms with the closure property. Amer. Jour. Math., vol. 43, 

1-19 (Jan. 1921). 
Collins, Warren E. See Benedict, F. G. 
Corner, George W. Internal migration of the ovum. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., vol. 

32. 78-83 (Mar. 1921). 

. The ovarian cycle in swine. Science, n. s., vol. 53, 420-421 (1921). 

. Cyclic changes in the ovaries and uterus of the sow, and their relation to the mechanism 

of implantation of the embryos. Anat. Rec, vol. 21, 52 (1921), 
Cunningham, R. G. Studies in placental permeability: I. The differential resistance to cer- 
tain solutions offered by the placenta in the cat. Amer. Jour. Physiol., vol. 53, 439-456 

(1920). 
. Studies on absorption from serous cavities: III. The effect of dextrose upon the 

peritoneal mesothelium. Amer. Jour. Physiol., vol. 53, 488-494 (1920). 
Cushman, J. A. Foraminifera from the north coast of Jamaica. Proc. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, 

47-82, pis. 11-19 (1921). 
Davenport, C. B. The best index of build. Quart. Pub. Amer. Statis. Asso., 342-344 (Sept. 

1920). 
■ . Height-weight index of build. Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 3, No. 4, 467-475 

(1920). 

Heredity of constitutional mental disorders. Psychol. Bull., vol. 17, No. 9, 300- 



310 (Sept. 1920). 
Davis, Harold S. See Richards, Theodore W. 
Davis, Helen. See Shapley, Harlow. 
Duncan, John C. The spectroscopic orbit of the Cepheid variable X Cygni. Astrophys. 

Jour., vol. 53, 95-98 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 196. 
. Bright and dark nebula; near f Orionis photographed with the 100-inch Hooker tele- 
scope. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 53, 392-396 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 209. 

. 'Novas in the Andromeda nebula. Pubs. A. S. P.. vol. 33, 56-57 (1921). 

. Two new variable stars in the Trifid nebula. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 207-208 (1921). 

Durham, G. B. See Harris, J. Arthur. 

Ellerman, Ferdinand. A few remarks on "dark lightning." Pop. Astron., vol. 29, 139-141 

(1921). 

. See Hale, George E. 

Farnham, M. E. See Blakeskee, A. F. 

Fleming, J. A. Latest annual values of the magnetic elements at observatories. Terr. Mag., 

vol. 25, No. 4, 179-181 (Dec. 1920). 
Fox, Edward L. See Benedict, F. G. 
Gibbons, Marion. See Little, C. C. 
Gortner, R. a., and J. Arthur Harris. Note on the occurrence of Gammarus limnwus in 

a saline habitat. Science, n. s., vol. 53, 460-462 (1921). 

. See Harris, J. Arthur. 

Greene, C. H. See Shipley, P. G. 

Greenhill, J. P. A histological study of fetus and implantation site in a case of missed abor- 
tion. Amer. Jour. Obst. and Gyn., vol. 2, 188-194 (1921). 
Hale, George E. A summary of the year's work at Mount Wilson. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 

18-30 (1921). 
. Note on the combined effect of electric and magnetic fields on the hydrogen spectrum. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 114-110 (1921). 
. One-hundred-inch telescope of the Mount Wilson Observatory. London Times 

(July 26, 1921). 

. The angular diameter of a Orionis. Monthly Notices, vol. 81, 166-167 (1921). 

. Some tests of the 100-inch Hooker telescope. Nature, vol. 105. 266-268 (1920). 

. Chapters from "The New World of Science," Introduction, Science and War, War 

Services of the National Research Council; The possibilities of co-operation in research; 

The international organization of research. (1920) 

. The new heavens. Scribner's Mag., vol. 6S, 387-402 (1920). 

. Giant stars. Scribner's Mag., vol. 70, 3-15 (1921). 

, and Ferdinand Ellerman. The Mount Wilson photographic map of the sun-spot 

spectrum. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 32, 272-273 (1920). 
-, and Seth B. Nicholson. The great sun-spot of May, 1921. Re.ad at Berkeley meeting, 



A. S. P. (1921); (Abstract) Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 208 (1921). 

Hanke, M. C. See Riddle, O. 

Harris. J. Arthur. Decrease in stature: Note on the statures of the medico-actuarial investi- 
gations. Quart. Pub. Amer. Statis. Asso., vol. 17, 219-221 (1920). 

. Formula; for the determination of the correlations of size and growth increments in the 

developing organism. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18, 4-5 (1920). 

Tissue weight and water content in a tetracotyledonous race of Phaseolus vulgaris. 



Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18, 207-209 (1921). 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 21 

Hahrt3, J. Arthur. Leaf-tissue production and water content in a mutant race of Phaseolus 

vulgaris. Bot. Gaz., vol. 72, 151-161 (1921). 
, and F. G. Benedict. Besoins vitaux types d'6nergie pour la nutrition humaine. Bull. 

Soc. Sci. d'hygiene alimentaire de I'homme, vol. 8, 434;-454 (1920). 
, , The variation and the statistical constants of basal metabolism in man. Jour. 

Biol. Chem., vol. 46, 257-279 (1921). 
, R. A. GoRTXER, W. F. Hoffman, and A. T. Valentine. Maximum values of osmotic 

concentration in plant-tissue fluids. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18, 106-109 

(1921). 
, , and J. V. Lawrence. On the differentiation of the leaf- tissue fluids of ligneous 

and herbaceous plants with respect to osmotic concentration and electrical conductivity. 

Jour. Gen. Phys., vol. 3, 343-345 (1921). 

The osmotic concentration and electrical conductivity of the tissue 



fluids of ligneous and herbaceous plants. Jour. Phys. Chem., vol. 25, 122-146 (1921). 
, , . On the relationship between freezing-point lowering, A, and speciflc 

electrical conductivity, k, of plant-tissue fluids. Science, n. s., vol. 52, 494-495 (1920). 
, W. F. Kirkpatrick, A. F. Blakeslee, D. E. Warner, and L. E. Card. The egg 

records of limited periods as criteria for predicting the egg production of the White Leghorn 

fowl. Genetics, vol. 6, 265-309 (1921). 
, and Harry R. Lewis. The second-year record of birds which did and which did not 

lay during individual months of the pullet year. Science, n. s., vol. 54, 224-226 (1921). 
, and H. S. Reed. Inter-periodic correlation in the analysis of growth. Biol. Bull., 

vol. 40, 243-258 (1921). 
, and C. S. Scofield. Permanence of differences in the plots of an experimental field. 

Jour. Agric. Res., vol. 20, 335-356 (1920). 
, and Edmund W. Sinnott. The vascular anatomy of normal and variant seedlings of 

Phaseolus vulgaris. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, 35-41 (1921). 
, , John Y. Pennypacker, and G. B. Durham. The vascular anatomy of dimerous 

and trimerous seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 8, 63-102 (1921). ^ 
, , , . Correlations between anatomical characters in the seedling 

of Phaseolus vulgaris. Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 8, 339-365 (1921). 

and A. T. Valentine. The specific electrical conductivity of the tissue fluids of desert 



Loranthacese. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18, 95-97 (1920). 
See Gortner, R. A. 



Hay, Oliver P. Description of species of Pleistocene Vertebrata, types or specimens of most of 

which are preserved in the United States National Museum. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 

59, 599-642, pis. 116-124 (Oct. 13, 1921). 
Hendry, Mary F., and Alice Johnson. Carbon-dioxid content of barn air. Jour. Agri. 

Research, vol. 20, 405 (1920). 

. See Benedict, Francis G. 

Heuser, C. H. The early establishment of the intestinal nutrition in the opossum. The 

digestive system just before and just after birth. Amer. Jour. Anat., vol. 28, 341-369 (1921). 

. Development of the innominate artery in the pig. Anat. Rec, vol. 21, 67 (1921). 

Hoffman, W. F. See Harris, J. Arthur. 

Hoge, Wendell P. The Mount Wilson Observatory. Santa Fe Mag., vol. 15, 21-27 (1921). 

Hopper, F. L. See Merrill, Paul W. 

How-Es, H. L. The spectral structure of the luninescence excited by the hydrogen flame. Phys. 

Rev. (2), vol. 17, 469 (1921). 
Hubble, Edwin P. Twelve new planetary nebuliB. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 174-175 (1921). 
HuFFER, C. M. See Wilson, Ralph W. 
HuGHsoN, Walter. See Weed, L. H. 

HuMASON, Milton L. Two new planetary nebulse. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 175 (1921). 
, and Paul W. Merrill. Ten stars of class B having the Ha line bright. Second list. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 112-114 (1921). 
See Merrill, Paul W. 



Jameson, J. Franklin. John Clark of the Mayflower. Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, vol. 14, 61-76 

(1921). 

. The arrival of the Pilgrims. Brown Univ., 40 pages (1921). 

. American Council of Learned Societies. Amer. Hist. Review, vol. 25, 440-446 (1921). 

. Meeting of the American Historical Association at Washington. Amer. Hist. Rev., 

vol. 26, 413-439 (1921). 
Johnson, Alice. See Hendry, Mary F. 
Johnson. F. P. The later development of the urethra in the male. Jour. Urol., vol. 4, 447-501 

(1920). 
Joy, Alfred H, See Adams, Walter S. 
Keith, Clyde R. See Merrill, Paul W. 
KiDSON, Edward. Records of earthquakes at Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, Terr. Mag., 

vol. 25, No. 4, 174 (Dec. 1920). 



22 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

King, Arthur S. Experiments on the possible influence of potential difference on the radiation 
of the tube-resistance furnace. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 52, 187-197 (1920) ; Mt. Wilson Contr., 
No. 19.3. 

. Intensity differences in furnace and arc among the component series in band spectra. 

Astrophys. Jour., vol. 53, 161-164 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 194. 

. The variation with temperature of the electric-furnace spectrum of manganese. Astro- 
phys. Jour., vol. 5.3, 133-143 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 198. 

. The electric furnace spectrum of scandium. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 54, 28-44 (1921); 

Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 211. 

. Experiments with the tube-resistance furnace on the effect of potential difference. 

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 6, 701-702 (1920); Mt. WiLson Communications, No. 71. 

. The silicon line X3906 in the electric-furnace spectrum. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 106-107 

(1921). 

. The leading features of the electric-furnace spectrum of scandium. Pubs. A. S. P., 

vol. .33, 175-177 (1921). 

. Further observations on the furnace absorption-spectrum of iron. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 

33, 177-178 (1921). 

Recent observations of absorption spectra. Read at Berkeley meeting, Amer. Phys. 



Soc. (1921); (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 18, 3-35, 336 (1921). 
King, C. V. See Riddle, O. 
KiRKPATRtCK, W. F. See Harris, J. Arthur. 
Krepelka, Henry. See Richards, Theodore W. 
KuNTz, Albert. The development of the sympathetic nervous system in man. Jour. Comp. 

Neurol., vol. .32, 173-229 (1920). 
Lauqhlin, H. H. Biological aspects of immigration. Hearings before the committee on im- 
migration and naturalization. House of Rep., 66th Cong., 2d Sess., Wash., Apr. 16-17, 

1920; 1-26, Govt. Print. Office (1921). 
. Race assimilation by the pure-sire method. Jour. Hered., vol. 11, No. 6, 259-263 

(July-Aug. 1920). 
. Calculating ancestral influence in man: A mathematical measure of the facts of 

bisexual heredity. Jour. Genet., vol. 5, 43.5-458 (Sept. 1920). 

. Eugenical sterilization in United States. Soc. Hyg., vol. 6, No. 4, 499-532 (Oct. 1920). 

. Eugenics in Germany. Eugenics Rev., vol. 12, No. 4, 304-307 (Jan. 1921). 

. The socially inadequate: How shall we designate and sort them? Amer. Jour. Soc, 

vol. 27, No. 1, 54-70 (July 192n. 

Dice-casting and pedigree selection. Experiments which picture mathematically 



close analogies between dice-casting and certain breeding phenomena. Jour. Genet., 

vol. 6, 384-398 (July 1921). 
I-awrence, J. V. See Harris, J. Arthur. 
Leavenworth, Charles S. See Osborne, T. B. 
Leland, Waldo G. The International Union of Academies and the American Council of 

Learned Societies, International Conciliation, pages 442-457 (Sept. 1920). 
. The organization of the International Union of Academies and of the American 

Council of Learned Societies. Bull. A. C. L. S., 1-7 (1921). 
Lewis, H. R. See Harris, J. Arthur. 
Lewis, M. R. Granules in the cells of chick embryos produced by egg albumin in the medium 

of tissue cultures. Jour. Exper. Med., vol. 33, 485-493 (1921). 
. The formation of vacuoles in tissue cultures owing to the lack of dextrose in the media. 

Anat. Rec, vol. 21, 71 (1921). 
Lewis, W. H. The effect of potassium permanganate on the mesenchyme cells of tissue-cul- 
tures. Amer. Jour. Anat., vol. 28, 431-445 (1921). 
. The characteristics of the various types of cells found in tissue-cultures from chick 

embryos. Anat. Rec, vol. 21, 71 (192n. 

. Smooth muscle and endothelium in tissue-cultures. Anat. Rec, vol. 21, 72 (1921). 

, and L. T. Webster. Migration of lymphocytes in plasma cultures of human lymph 

nodes. Jour. Exper. Med., vol. 33, 261-209 (192i). 

Giant cells in cultures from human lymph nodes. Jour. Exper. Med., vol. 



33, 349-.360 (1921). 
Lindblad, Bertil. N&gra intryck fr&n Mount Wilson Observatoriet. Pop. Astron. Tidskrift, 

vol. 1 (1921). 
LiNEBACK, P. E. A case of unilateral polydactylj' in a 22-mm. embryo. Anat. Rec, vol. 20, 

313-319 (1920). 
Little, C. C. Factors influencing the growth of a transplantable tumor in mice. Jour. Exper. 

Zool., vol. 31, 307-326 (1920). 
. Note on the occurrence of a probable sex-linked lethal factor in mammals. Amer. 

Nat., vol. 54, 457-400 (1920). 
. Is the fertile tortoise-shell tom cat a modified female? Jour. Genet., vol. 10, 301- 



302 (1920). 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 23 

Little, C. C. Non-disjunction of the fourth chromoaome of Drosophila. Science, n. s., vol. 53, 167 

(1921). 
, and Marion Gibbons. Evidence for sex-linked lethal factors in man. Proc. Soc. 

Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18, 111-115 (1921). 
See Strong, L. C. 



Lowe, E. A. The oldest extant manuscript of the Abstrusa and Abolita glossaries. Class. 

Quart., vol. 15, 189 et seq. (1921). 
. Review of Collectanea Hispanica by C. U. Clark. English Hist. Rev., vol. 36, 463 

(July 1921). 

Die Haupt-Handschriften des Apicius. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift, vol. 



40, 1174 etseq. (1920). 
Lynch, R. S. The cultivation in vitro of liver cells from the chick embryo. Amer. Jour. Anat., 

vol. 29, 281-308 (1921). 
MacDougal, D. T. Growth in trees. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 60, 7-14 (1921). 
. Effects of age and of the inclusion of salts on the heterotropic action of colloidal bodies 

of cytological interest. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18, 244-246 (1921). 

. The reactions of plants to new habitats. Ecology, vol. 2, 1-20 (1921). 

. Water deficit and the action of vitamines, amino-compounds, and salts on hydration. 

Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 8, 296-302 (1921). 
. The action of bases and salts on biocoUoids and cell-masses. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 

vol. 60, 15-30 (1921). 

. A new high-temperature record for growth. Science, n. s., vol. 53, 370-372 (1921). 

, and Earl B. Working. Another high-temperature record for growth and endurance. 

Science, n. s., vol. 54, 152-153 (1921). 
MacDowell, E. C, and E. M. Vicari. Alcoholism and the behavior of white rats: I. The 

influence of alcoholic grandparents upon maze-behavior. Jour. Exper. Zool., vol. 33, 

209-291 (May 1921). 
Mauchly, S. J. Note on the diurnal variation of the atmospheric-electric potential-gradient. 

Phys. Rev., vol. 18, No. 2, 161-162 (Aug. 1921). 
Mendel, Lafayette B. The fat-soluble vitamine. N. Y. State Jour. Med., vol. 20, 212- 

217 (July 1920). 

. See Osborne, T. B. 

Merrill, Paul W. Characteristic behavior of the bright lines in stellar spectra of class Md. 

Astrophys. Jour., vol. 53, 185-200 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 200. 
. Observations of the nebular lines in the spectrum of the long-period variable star 

R Aquarii. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 53, 375-379 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 206. 

. A special field of usefulness for small telescopes. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 32, 318-321 (1920) . 

. Note on the spectrum of R Cygni. Read at Berkeley meeting, A. S. P. (1921); 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 206-207 (1921). 
. Interferometer observations of double stars. Read at Berkeley meeting, A. S. P. 

(1921); (Abstract) Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 209 (1921). 

F. L. Hopper, and Clyde R. Keith. Identification of air lines in spark spectra 



from X5927 to X8683. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 54, 76-77 (1921) ; Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 207. 
— , and Milton L. Humason. Ten stars of class B having the Ha line bright. Pubs. 
A. S. P., vol. 32, 336-337 (1920). 
See Humason, Milton L. 



Merwin, H. E. See v. Bichowsky,F.R.; Washington, H. S. 

Metz, Ciiarle.s W. a simple method of handling small objects in making microscopic prep- 
arations. Anat. Rec, vol. 21, No. 4, 373-374 (July 1921). 

■ , and Jose F. Nonidez. Spermatogenesis in the flv Asilus sericeus Say. Jour. Exper. 

Zool., vol. 23, No. 1, 165-185 (Jan. 1921). 

Meyer, A. W. The frequency and cause of abortion. Amer. Jour. Obst. and Gyn., vol. 2, 
138-156 (1921). 

Michelson, a. a. On the application of interference methods to astronomical measurements. 
Read at Chicago meeting, Amer. Phys. Soc. (1921) ; (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 17, 405- 
406 (1921). 

, and Francis G. Pease. Measurement of the diameter of a Orionis with the inter- 
ferometer. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 53, 249-259 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 203. 

Miles, W. R. A pursuitmeter. Psychol. Bull., vol. 18, 102 (1920); Jour. Exp. Psychol., 
vol. 4, 77 (1921). 

. The quantitative measurement of static control in standing. Amer. Jour. Physiol., 

vol. 55, 309 (1921). 

Miller, C. H. Demonstration of the cartilaginous skeleton in mammalian fetuses. Anat. Rec, 
vol. 20, 415-419 (1921). 

Nichols, E. L., and D. T. Wilber. The luminescence of certain oxides sublimed in the electric 
arc Phys. Rev. (2), vol. 17, 707 (1921). 

, . Flame excitation of luminescence. Phys. Rev. (2), vol. 17, 453 (1921). 

, . Luminescence at high temperatures. Proc Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 6, 693 (Dec, 

1920). 



24 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Nicholson, Seth B. Sun-spot activity during 1920. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 54-56 (1921). 

. See Hale, George E. ; St. John, Charles E. 

Nolan, Owen L. See Osborne, T. B. 

NoNiDEZ, Jos^ F. See Metz, Charles W. 

Ogawa, Chikanosuke. Experiments on the orientation of the ear vesicle in amphibian larvae. 
Jour. Exper. Zool., vol. 34, 17-43, (1921). 

Osborne, Thomas B. The waier-soluble vitamine. N. Y. Stale Jour. Med., vol. 20, 217-222 
(July 1920). 

, and Charles S. Leavenworth. The effect of alkali on the efficiency of the water- 
soluble vitamine B. Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 45, 423-426 (Feb. 1921). 

, and Lafayette B. Mendell. The occurrence of water-soluble vitamine in some com- 
mon fruits. Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 42, 465-489 (July 1920). 

• , . Skimmed milk as a supplement to corn in feeding. Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 44, 

1-4 (Oct. 1920). 

, . Growthon diets poor in truefats. Jour.Biol. Chem., vol. 45, 145-152 (Dec. 1920). 

, . A critique of experiments with diets free from fat-soluble vitamine. Jour. 

Biol. Chem.. vol. 45, 277-288 (Jan. 1921). 

, . Does growth require preformed carbohydrate in the diet? Proc. Soc. Exper. 

Biol, and Med., vol. 18. 136-137 (Mar. 1921). 

, . Growth on diets containing more than 90 per cent of protein. Proc. Soc. 

Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18. 167-168 (Mar. 1921). 

, . Ophthalmia and diet. Jour. Amer. Med. Asso., vol. 76, 905-908 (Apr. 2, 1921). 

, . La oftalmia y el regimen. Jour. Amer. Med. Asso., Edicioii Espanol, vol. 5, 

503-506 (Apr. 15, 1921). 

, and Owen L. Nolan. Does gliadin contain amide nilrogen? Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 43, 

311-316 (Sept. 1920). 

Park, E. A., and G. F. Powers. Acrocephaly and scaphocephaly with symmetrically distrib- 
uted malformations of the extremities. Amer. Jour. Dis. Child., vol. 20, 235-315 (1920). 

Parkinson, W. C. The magnetic storm of May 13-17, 1921, at Watheroo Observatory, Aus- 
tralia. Terr. Map., vol. 26, Nos. 1-2, 26-28 (Mar.-June 1921). 

Pease, Francis G. The planetary disks of Nova Aquilse No. 3. Pubs. A. S. P.. vol. 32, 334- 
335 (1920). 

. The angular diameter of a Bootis by the interferometer. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 

171-173 (1921). 

. The diameter of a Scorpii by the interferometer method. Read at Berkeley meeting, 

A. S. P. (1921); Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 204-205 (1921). 

. The diameter of a Orionis by Michelson's interferometer method. Read at Chicago 

meeting, Amer. Astron. Soc. (1920); Pubs. Amer. Astron. Soc, 25th meeting, 225-226; 
Pop. Astron., vol. 29, 225-226 (1921). 

. Measurement of star diameters by the interferometer method. Read at April meeting, 

Amer. Philos. Soc. (1921); Proc. Amer. PhU. Soc, vol. 60 (1921). 

. The 100-inch Hooker reflecting telescope of the Mount Wilson Observatory, Armoxu 

Engineer, vol. 11, 307-316 (1920). 
See Michelson, A. A. 



Pear-son, J. W. See Shipley, P. G. 

Pennypacker, J, Y. See Harris, J. Arthur. 

Pettit, Edison. Micrometric measures of double stars, made with the 12-inch refractor at the 

Washburn College OI)servatory. Astron. Jour., vol. 33. 150-153 (1921). 
Powers, G. F. See Park, E. A. 
Prioosen, R. E. The formation of vacuoles and neutral red granules in connective-tissue cells 

and blood-cells observed under abnormal conditions. Johns Hopkins Ho.sp. Bull., vol. 32, 

206-211 (1921). 
Reed, H. S. See Harris, J. Arthur. 
Richards, Theodore W. Nobel lecture on atomic weights. Les Prix Nobel en 1914-1918, 

Stockholm, Imprimerie Royale (1921) 
, and Sylvester Boyer. Further studies concerning gallium. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, 

vol. 43, 274 (Feb. 1921). 
• , and E.MMETT K. Carver. A critical study of the capillary rise method of determining 

surface tension, with data for water, benzene, toluene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 

ether, and dimethyl aniline. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 43, 827 (Apr. 1921). 
, and Harold S. Davis. The heats of combustion of benzene, toluene, aliphatic alcohols, 

cyclophexanol, and other carbon compounds. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 42, 1599 (Aug. 

1920). 
, and Henry Krepelka. A revision of the atomic weight of aluminum. The analysis of 

aluminum bromide. Preliminary paper. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 42, 2221 (Nov. 1920). 
, and Allan W. Rowe. An indirect method of determining the specific heat of dilute 

solutions, with preliminary data concerning hydrochloric acid. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 

42, 1621 (Aug. 1920). 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 25 

Richards, Theodore W., and Ali^n W. Rowe. The heats of dilution and the specific heats of 

dilute solutions of nitric acid and of hydroxides and chlorides and nitrates of lithium, sodium, 

potassium, and cesium. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 43, 770 (Apr. 1921). 
Riddle, O. Calorimetric determinations of the energy in yolk-protein and yolk-fat of doves and 

pigeons. Science, n. s., vol. 51, 350 (1920). 
. Differential survival of male and female embryos in increased and decreased pressures of 

oxygen. Proc. Soc Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18, 88-91 (1920). 
. General effects of increased and decreased pressures of oxygen on dove embryos. Proc. 

Soc. Exper. Biol, and Med., vol. 18, 102-105 (1921). 
. Inadequate egg shells and the early death of embryos in the egg. Amer. Jour. Phys., 

vol. 57, 250-263 (1921). 
, and E. H. Behre. On the relation of stale sperm to fertility and sex in ring-doves. 

Amer. Jour. Phys., vol. 57, 228-249 (1921). 
, and M. C. Hanke. Effects of feeding soluble calcium salts upon reproductive secretions 

and upon the total inorganic constituents of the egg shell. Amer. Jour. Phys., vol. 57, 

264-274 (1921). 

and C. V. King. The relation of nerve stimuli to oviducal secretions as indicated by 



effects of atropine and other alkaloids. Amer. Jour. Phys., vol. 57, 275-290 (1921). 
Ritchie, Mary. See Shapley, Harlow. 
Roberts, H. S., and F. Hastings Smyth. The system copper : cupric oxide : oxygen. Jour. 

Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 43, 1061-1079 (1921), 

. See Smyth, F. Hastings. 

RowE, Allan W. See Richards, Theodore W, 

Russell, Henry Norris. Rubidium in the sun. Read at Berkeley meeting, A. S. P. (1921); 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 202-204 (1921). 
Sarin, F. R. Healing of end-to-end intestinal anastomoses, with special reference to the re- 
generation of blood-vessels. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., vol. 31. 289-300 (1920). 
Sanford, Roscoe F. The orbits of seven spectroscopic binaries. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 

53, 201-223 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 201. 
. Two stars of spectral class R with large radial velocities. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 32, 

278-279 (1920). 

. Note on the spectroscopic binary p Velorum. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 173-174 (1921). 

Saeton, George. Synthetic bibliography with special reference to the history of science. 

Isi.s, vol. 3, 159-170 (1920). 
. Herbert Spencer (with bibliographical and iconographical notes). Isis, vol. 3, 

375-390, portrait (1921). 
. Eighth critical bibliography of the history, philosophy, and organization of science 



and of the history of civilization (to April 1920). Isis, vol. 3, 316-371 (1920). 

. Ninth critical bibliography, etc. (to August 1920). Isis, vol. 4, 451-503 (1921). 

. Science and fetyle. Scribner's Mag., vol. 69, 755-759 (June 1921). 

. Isis: International review devoted to the history of science and civilization (editor). 

Vol.3, 157-570 (1920-1). 
ScHULTZ, A. H. Rassenunterschiede in der Entwicklung der Nase und in den Nasenkorpeln. 

Actes de la Soc. Helvetique des Sci. Natur. Neuch^tel (1920). 

. Observations on Colobus fetuses. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1921). 

. Sternal gland in orang-utan. Jour. Mammalogy (1921). 

. Observations on the Guiana howling monkey. Zoologica (1921). 

Scofield, C. S. See Harris, J. Arthur. 

Seares, Frederick H. Comparative tests of the 100-inch and 60-inch reflectors. Read at 

Chicago meeting, Amer. Astron. Soc. (1920); Pubs. Amer. Astron. Soc, 25th meeting, 

229-230; Pop. Astron., vol. 29, 229-271 (1921). 

. See Adams, Walter S. 

Shapley, Harlow. The scale of the universe. William Ellery Hale lecture, annual meeting, 

Nat. Acad. Sci. (1920); Bull. Nat. Research Council, No. 11 (1921). 

. Novae and variable stars. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 185-194 (1921). 

. Note on changes in the period and light-curve of the cluster variable SW An- 

dromedse. Monthly Notices, vol. 81, 208-213 (1921). 
, and Helen Davis. Studies of magnitude in star clusters: XII. Summary of a photo- 
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486-489 (1920); Mt, WUson Communications, No. 70. 

and Mary Ritchie. Studies based on the colors and magnitudes in stellar clusters. 



18th paper: The periods and light-curves of 26 Cepheid variables in Messier 72. Astro- 
phys. Jour., vol. 52, 232-247 (1920); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 195. 
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vol. 21, 81 (1921). 



26 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Shepherd, E. S. Kilauea gases, 1919. Bull. Hawaiian Volcano Observ., vol. 9, 83-88 (1921). 

Sherman, H. C, and M. L. Caldwell. A study of the influence of arginine, histidine, tryp- 
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Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 43 (Sept. 1921). 

, and F. Walker. The influence of certain amino acids upon the enzymic hydrolysis 

of starch. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 43 (Sept. 1921). 

, and M. Wayman. Effect of certain anti.septics upon the activity of amylases. Jour. 

Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 43 (Sept. 1921). 

Shipley, P. G., J. W. Pearson, A. A. Weech, and C. H. Greene. X-ray pictures of the 
bones in the diagnosis of syphilis in the fetus and in young infants. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 
Bull., vol. 32, 75-77 (1921). 

Sinnott, E. W. See Harris, J. Arthur. 

Smith, D. T. The pigmented ephithelium of the embryo chick's eye studied in vivo and in 
vitro. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., vol. 31, 239-246 (1920). 

. The ingestion of melanin pigment granules by tissue-culture cells grown from the em- 
bryo chick in Locke-Lewis solution. Anat. Rec, vol. 21, 82 (1920). 

The ingestion of melanin pigment granules by tissue-cultures. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 



Bull., vol. 32, 240-244 (1921). 
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oxygen. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. 42, 2582-2607 (1920). 

. See Roberts, H. S. 

Solberg, H. See Bjerknes, J. 

Sosman, Robert B. An outline of geophysical-chemical problems. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 

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Wilson Contr., No. 202. 

and Seth B. Nicholson. On systematic displacements of lines in spectra of Venus. 



Astrophys. Jour., vol. 53, 380-391 (1921); Mt. Wilson Contr., No. 208. 
, . Determination of the solar parallax from spectroscopic observations of Venus. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 32, 332-334 (1920). 
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at Berkeley meeting, A. S. P. (1921); Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33. 208-209 (1921). 
Streeter, George L. Migration of the ear vesicle in the tadpole duiing normal develop- 
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Nordisk Astronomisk Tidsskrift, vol. 1, 122-125 (1920). 

. See Adams, Walter S. 

Strong, L. C, and C. C. Little. Tests for physiological differences in transplantable tumors. 

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Sci., vol. 7, 1-5 (1921); Mt. Wilson Communications, No. 71. 

. Parallaxes of two Cepheids. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 32, 335 (1920). 

. Parallax of a faint star with large proper motion. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 32, 335 (1920). 

. The parallax of N. G. C. 226. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 33, 110-111 (1921). 

. Internal motion in four spiral nebula;. Read at Berkeley meeting, A. S. P., vol. 33, 

200-202 (1921); read at Middletown meeting, Amer. Astron. Soc. (1921). 

. Bewegung in den Spiral-nebel M33 Triang\ili. Physica, vol. 1, 125-127 (1921). 

The parallaxes of two long-period variables. Pubs. A. S. P.. vol. 33, 111 (1921). 



Varnum, William B. On differential horizontal refraction. Astron. Jour., No. 787 (May 1921). 
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Walker, F. See Sherman, H. C. 
Wayman, M. See Sherman, H. C- 
Warner, D. E. See Harris, J. Arthur. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1921. 27 

Washington, H. S. Le rioliti di Lipari. BoU. Soc. Geol. Ital., vol. 39, 141-159 (1920). 
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(Reprinted, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 1921). 

. A meteor fall in the Atlantic. Science, n. s., vol. 53, 90-91 (1921). 

. The problems of volcanology. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 6, 583-591 (1920). 

. Note on crucibles used in rock analysis. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 11, 9-13 (1921). 

. Aphthitalite from Kilauea. Amer. Mineral., vol. 6, 121-125 (1921). 

, and H. E. Merwin. Note on augite from Vesuvius and Etna. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 

1, 20-30 (1921). 
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Weech, a. a. See Shipley, P. G. 
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, and Walter Hughson. The skull as a closed box. Anat. Rec, vol. 21, p. 88 (1921). 

Wesson, M. B. Anatomical, embryological, and physiological studies of the trigone and neck 

of the bladder. Jour. Urol., vol. 4, 279-315 (1920). 

. See Young, H. H. 

White, W. P. Unification of symbols and diagrams. Science, n. s., vol. 51, 414-417 (1920). 
. The latent heats of fusion of nickel and monel metal. Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 

25, 17-21 (1921). 
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. Monocarpy and pseudomonocarpy in the Cycadeoids. Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 8, 218- 

230, pis. ix-xii (Apr. 1921). 
. Paleobotany as viewed by two geologists. Science, n. s., vol. 53, 437-439 (May 6, 

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Two new North American Cycadeoids. Can. Geol. Survey, Bull. No. 33, 79-85, pis. 



ix-xii (Sept. 14, 1921). 
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Williams, J. W. A critical analj'sis of twenty-one years' experience with Caesarean section. 

Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. vol. 32, 173-184 (1921). 
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Wilson, Ralph W. Orbit of /3 Doradus. (Abstract) Pop. Astron., vol. 29 (Feb. 1921). 
. On the period eccentricity relation in binary systems. Astron. Jour., No. 786 (May 

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, and C. M. Huffer. Orbit of 1 Carina. (Abstract) Pop. Astron. vol. 29 (Feb. 1921). 

Orbit of e Sagittarii. (.\bstract) Pop. Astron., vol. 29 (Feb. 1921). 



WiSLOCKi, G. B. The fate of true solutions (phenolsulphonephthalein) and colloids (trypan blue) 
injected into the mammalian embryo. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., vol. 32, 93-96 (1921). 

. Experimental observations on bone-marrow. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., vol. 32, 

132-134 (1921). 

Observations upon the behavior of carbon granules injected into pregnant animals. 



Anat. Rec, vol. 21, 29-33 (1921). 
Wright, Fred. E. War-time production of optical munitions. (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 

33.) Army Ordnance, vol. 1, 247-251 (1921). 
. The angular deflections produced on transmitted light rays by slightly incorrect inter- 
facial angles of reflection prisms. (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 34.) Jour. Opt. Soc. Amer., 

vol. 5, 193-204 (1921). 
. Cords and surface-markings in glassware. (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 35.) Jour. 

Amer. Ceram. Soc, vol. 4, C55-661 (1921). 
. Note on the determination of the relative expansion of glasses. (Papers on Optical 

Glass, No. 36.) Jour. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 5. 453-460 (1921). 
. On tracing rays of light through a reflecting prism with the aid of a meridian projection 

plot. (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 37.) Jour. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 5, 410-419 (1921). 

. Dispersion in optical glasses: III. (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 38.) Jour. Opt. 

Soc Amer., vol. 5, 389-397 (1921). 

The manufacture of optical glass and of optical systems: A war-time problem. 



(Papers on Optical Glass, No. 40.) Ordnance Dept. Doc. No. 2037, 309, 94 illus. (1921). 
Wyckoff, Ralph W. G. An outline of the application of the theory of space groups to the study 

of the structure of crystals. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 1, 127-137 (1921). 

. The crystal structure of magnesium oxide. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 1, 138-152 (1921). 

. The determination of the structure of crystals. Jour. Franklin Inst., vol. 191, 199-230 

(1921). Reprinted, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. (1921). 

. The wave-lengths of X-rays. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 11, 366-373 (1921). 

The crystal structure of alabandite (MnS). Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 2, 239-249 (1921). 



Young, H. H., and M. B. Wesson. The anatomy and surgery of the trigon. Arch. Surg., vol. 
3, 1-37 (1921). 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



29 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



To the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution of Washington: 

Gentlemen: Article V, Section 3, of the By-Laws provides that the 
Executive Committee shall submit, at the annual meeting of the Board 
of Trustees, a report for publication; and Article VI, Section 3, pro- 
vides that the Executive Committee shall also submit, at the same time, 
a full statement of the finances and work of the Institution and a 
detailed estimate of the expenditures for the succeeding year. In 
accordance with these provisions, the Executive Committee herewith 
respectfully submits its report for the fiscal year ending October 31, 
1921. 

During this year the Executive Committee held nine meetings, 
printed reports of which have been mailed to each Trustee. 

Upon adjournment of the meeting of the Board of Trustees of De- 
cember 10, 1920, the members of the Executive Committee met and 
organized by the re-election of Mr. Walcott as Chairman for 1921, and 
by voting that the Administrative Secretary of the Institution act as 
secretary of the Committee for the same period. 

The President's report gives in detail the results of the work of the 
Institution for the fiscal year 1920-1921, together with itemized 
financial statements for the same period and a summary of receipts and 
expenditures of the Institution to date. The President also submits a 
report and an outline of suggested appropriations for the year 1922. 
The Executive Committee hereby approves the report and recommenda- 
tions of the President, upon the basis of which additional recommenda- 
tions respecting appropriations for the year 1922 were authorized by 
the Committee at its meetings of November. 

The Board of Trustees, at its meeting of December 10, 1920, ap- 
pointed Messrs. Price, Waterhouse & Co., of New York, to audit the 
accounts of the Institution for the fiscal year ending October 31, 1921. 
The report of the auditor, including a balance-sheet showing the assets 
and liabiUties of the Institution on October 31, 1921, is herewith sub- 
mitted as a part of the report of the Executive Committee. 

There is also submitted a statement of receipts and disbursements 
since the organization of the Institution on January 28, 1902. 

It is reported that Messrs. Howe, Swayze and Bradley, of Washing- 
ton, D. C, have been appointed local attorneys of the Institution, 
under the general direction of Messrs. Cadwalader, Wickersham and 
Taft, Counsel of the Institution, for the submission of opinion on 
questions which it may not be essential to refer to counsel. 

31 



32 REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The Executive Committee begs to recommend, with concurrence of 
the Chairman of the Finance Committee, that the American Audit 
Company be appointed to audit the accounts of the Institution for the 
fiscal year ending October 31, 1922. 

At the meeting of the Executive Committee of May 13, 1921, the 
following resolutions were passed, and these recommendations have been 
effective in the preparation of a budget of the Institution for 1922: 

Resolved, That the income of the Colburn Fund which may accrue 
on and after January 1, 1922, shall be regarded as available for appro- 
priation. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee recommend to the Board of 
Trustees, at its annual meeting in December 1921, that appropriations 
on account of the Insurance Fund be continued, beginning with the 
year 1922, in such amounts as may be sufficient, together with the 
estimated income on this Fund, to total $25,000 annually, said total to 
be added to the principal of the Fund until otherwise ordered. 

It may be noted especially that the Executive Committee considers 
it desirable that special designation of the source of income shall be 
given in connection with any future allotments which may be made on 
account of the income of the Colburn Fund. 

No vacancies exist in the membership of the Board of Trustees. The 
tenure of service of the following officers of the Board of Trustees will 
expire at the annual meeting on December 9 : Mr. Root as Chairman 
of the Board; Mr. Walcott as Vice-Chairman ; Mr. Dodge as Secretary; 
Messrs. Parsons, Baton, and Pritchett as members of the Executive 
Committee; Messrs. Dodge, Pritchett, and Wickersham as members 
of the Finance Committee; and Messrs. Brookings, Hutchinson, and 
Wickersham as members of the Auditing Committee. 

Charles D. Walcott, Chairman. 
Cleveland H. Dodge. 
John C. Merriam. 
Wm. Barclay Parsons. 
Stewart Paton. 
Henry S. Pritchett. 
Elihu Root. 
Henry White. 
November 15, 1921. 



REPORT OP THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



33 



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REPORT OF AUDITORS. 

New York, November 19, 1921. 
To THE Board of Trustees, 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sirs : We beg to report that we have audited the accounts of 
the Institution for the year ended October 31, 1921. 

The securities representing the investments have been exhibited to 
us, and we have ascertained that the income therefrom has been duly 
accounted for. We counted the cash on hand and verified the cash in 
bank with certificates from the depositaries. 

Cancelled checks have been exhibited to us for all payments made 
during the period by the administrative office at Washington, and we 
have tested these payments with properly approved vouchers. 

The books of the various departments were not audited by us, as 
these departments are audited by the bursar under authority of the 
Executive Committee. 

The appropriations and allotments were checked with certified copies 
of the minutes of the Trustees and of the Executive Committee. 

In accordance with the established practice of the Institution, real 
estate and equipment are carried at the original outlay, and all publi- 
cations on hand at their selling value, and both the unexpended ap- 
propriations and the balance of income receivable for the calendar 
year are taken up in the balance sheet of October 31, 1921. Securities 
owned are carried at original valuation or cost. 

Subject to the foregoing explanation, we certify that the statements 
printed on pages 35 to 40 of the Year Book for 1921 are in accordance 
with the books of the Institution and are correct. 

We found the books to be accurately and carefully kept, and every 
facility was afforded us during the course of our audit. 
Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Price, Waterhouse & Co. 



REPORT OF AUDITORS. 



35 



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REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



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REPORT OF AUDITORS. 37 

Schedule of Securities. 
Par Value. SECURITIES. Investment Value. Total. 

Endowment. 

$21,200,000 U. S. Steel Corporation, Registered 50-year 
5% Gold Bonds, Series A, B, C, D. E, F, 
due April 1, 1951 $21,200,000.00 

175,000 Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Railway 
Company, First Mortgage 4% Gold Bonds, 

due January 1, 1949 159,268.00 

14,000 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
Company, General Mortgage 4J^% Gold 
Bonds, due May 1, 1989 13,953.75 

325 ,000 Lehigh & Lake Erie Railroad Company, First 
Mortgage 4i^% 50-year Gold Bonds, due 
March 1, 1957 331,568.30 

237,000 New York City 43^% Registered Bond.s, due 

March 1, 1963 253,557.50 

150,000 South & North Alabama Railroad Company, 
Consolidated Mortgage 5% Bonds, due 

August 1, 1936 160,875.00 

500 United States of America Third I-iberty 

Loan 500 . 00 

$22,119,722.55 



Colburn Fund. 

20,000 Acker, Merrall and Condit Company, De- 
benture 6% Bonds 13,600.00 

4,000 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
Company, General Mortgage, 4i^% 
Bonds, due 1989 4,070.00 

8,000 Park and Tilford Company, Sinking Fund, 

Debenture 6% Bonds 6,400.00 

50,000 Pennsylvania Railroad Co., General Mort- 
gage, 41^% Bonds, due June 1, 1965 51,062.50 

42,000 Pittsburg, Shawmut & Northern Railroad, 
First Mortgage, 4% Bonds, due February 

1, 1952 4,200.00 

10,650 United States of America Second Liberty 

Loan Converted i}4s 9,922.67 

5,500 United States of America Third Liberty 

Loan of 1918 5,291.16 

3,100 United States of America Fourth Liberty 

Loan of 1918 3,036.64 

2,600 United States of America Victory Liberty 

Loan of 1919 2,600.00 



100,182.97 



Harriman Fund. 

100,000 Southern Pacific Company, San Francisco 
Terminal, First Mortgage 4% Bonds, due 
1950 100,000.00 

200,000 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Co., 

Illinois Division, 4% Bonds, due 1949 200 , 000 . 00 



300,000.00 



22,547,350 Carried forward 22,519,905.52 



38 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



Schedule of Securities — continued. 

Par Value. SECURITIES. Investment Value. Total. 

$22,547,350 Brought forward $22,519,905.52 



28,000 
50,000 

25,000 
30,000 

1,000 

21,000 
21,000 

24,000 

26,700 

63,500 

3,000 

32,400 



60,000 



96,000 

100,000 

50,000 



150,000 



15,000 



120,000 

155,000 
48,000 



100,000 
280,000 



Insurance Fund. 

American Telephone & Telegraph Company, 

4M% Convertible Bonds $28,978.00 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Com- 
panv, General Mortgage, 100-year, 4% 
Registered Gold Bonds, due 1995 50 , 056 . 25 

Bell Telephone Company of Canada, Deben- 
ture 5% Bonds, due April 1, 1925 24,760.00 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad 
Company, General Mortgage, 4% Bonds, 
due March 1, 1958 28,237.50 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
Company, General Mortgage 41^% Gold 
Bonds, due May 1, 1989 995.00 

Great Northern Railway First and Refunding 

4K'% Bonds, due 1961 20,944.00 

Illinois Central Railroad Company, Refund- 
ing Mortgage 4% Bonds, due November 1, 
1955 19,008.75 

Pennsylvania Railroad Company, Consoli- 
dated Mortgage, 43^% Bonds, due Aug. 1, 
I960 25,095.01 

United States of America Second Liberty 

Loan Converted 4j^s 23,722.33 

United States of America Third Liberty 

Loan of 1918 61,128.90 

United States of America Fourth Liberty 

Loan of 1918 3,000.00 

United States of America Victory Liberty 

Loan of 1919 32,400.00 



Reserve Fund. 

American Telephone & Telegraph Company, 

Collateral Trust 4% Bonds, due 1929 $45 , 500 . 00 

American Telephone & Telegraph Company, 

4M% Convertible Bonds 99,456.25 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company, Gen- 
eral and Refunding 5%, Bonds, due 1995 . . 102 , 375 . 00 

Central Pacific Railway Companj', First Re- 
funding Mortgage 4% Registered Gold 
Bonds, due 1949 48,250.00 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Com- 
panv. General Mortgage, 4% Bonds, due 
March 1st, 1958 141,263.75 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
Company, General Mortgage 43^% Gold 
Bonds, due May 1, 1989 14,925.00 

Chicago and North-Western General Mort- 
gage 3M% Bonds, due November 1 , 1987 . . 100 , 300 . 00 

General Electric, 5% Gold Debenture Bonds 158,213.47 

Great Northern Railway Company, First and 
Refunding Mortgage 4^% Bonds, due 
1961 48,109.25 

Illinois Central Railroad Companj', Refund- 
ing 4% Bonds, due 1955 89,668.75 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, First 

Refunding Mortgage 5% Bonds, due 1966 276,701 .00 



318,325.74 



24,036,950 Carried forward. 



1,124,762.47 22,838,231.26 



REPORT OF AUDITORS. 39 

Schedule of Securities — continued. 

Par Value. SECURITIES. Investment Value. Total. 

$24,036,950 Brought forward $1,124,762.47 $22,838,231.26 

Reserve Fund — continued. 

50,000 Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway 
Company, Registered 25-year 4% Gold 

Bonds, due September 1, 1928 47,000.00 

50,000 Long Island Railroad Company, Refunding 

Mortgage 4% Bonds, due 1949 48,285.00 

50,000 New York, Westchester & Boston Railway 
Company, First Mortgage 4i^% Bonds, 

due 1946 49,187.50 

50,000 Northern Pacific-Great Northern, Convert- 
ible 6^% Bonds, due 1936 48,250.00 

50,000 Northern Pacific Railway Co., General Lien 
Railway and Land Grant 3% Bonds, due 

Jan. 1,2047 33,101.25 

50,000 Oregon- Washington Railroad & Navigation 
Company, First and Refunding 4% Mort- 
gage Bonds, due 1961 46,375.00 

30,000 Pennsylvania Railroad Company, General 

Mortgage 4H% Bonds, due June 1, 1965. . 29,837.50 

101,000 Pennsylvania Railroad Company, Consoli- 
dated Mortgage, 4i^% Bonds, due Aug. 1, 
1960 105,608. 12 

100,000 Southern Pacific Railroad First Refunding 

Mortgage, 4% Bonds, due 1955 92 , 148 . 75 

140,000 Union Pacific Railroad Co. First Lien and 

Refunding 4% Bonds, due June 1 , 2008 ... 128 , 722 . 50 

112,500 United States Liberty Loan — 1st Converted 

4K'3, due 1947 112,500.00 

384,300 United States of America Liberty Loan of 

1917— 2nd Converted 349,286.85 

419,500 United States of America Third Liberty 

Loan of 1918 404,728.20 

364,000 United States of America Fourth Liberty 

Loan of 1918 357,181.30 

120,800 United States of America Victory Liberty 

Loan of 1919 120,800.00 

3,097,774.44 

Pension Fund. 

50,000 United States of America Victory Liberty 

Loan of 1919 50,000.00 

61,350 United States of America Second Liberty 

Loan Converted 4>^s 53,532.41 

103,532.41 



26,220,400 26,039,5.38.11 



40 REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Real Estate and Equipment, Original Cost. 

Administration: 

Building, site, and equipment $339,001 .47 

Department of Botanical Research (September 30, 1921): 

Buildings and grounds $52,173.37 

Laboratory and library 24 , 321 . 43 

Operating appliances 11, 970 . 81 

88,465.61 

Department of Embryology {September 30, 1921): 

Laboratory and office 11,982.95 

Department of Genetics (September 30, 1921): 

Buildings, grounds, field 264,901 .36 

Operating 11,024.98 

Laboratory apparatus 12 , 710 . 62 

Library 20,098.98 

Archives 45 , 835 . 67 

354,571.61 

Geophysical Laboratory (September SO, 1921): 

Building, library, operating appliances 181 ,589. 18 

Laboratory apparatus 82 , 927 . 04 

Shop equipment 10 , 948 . 36 

275,464.58 

Department of Historical Research (September 30, 1921): 

Office 2,790.02 

Library 4,158.00 

6,948.02 

Department of Marine Biology (September 30, 1921): 

Vessels 30,930.43 

Buildings, docks, furniture, and library 12,130.86 

Apparatus and instruments 9 , 122 . 55 

52,183.84 

Department of Meridian Astrometry (September 30, 1921): 

Apparatus and instruments 2,723.91 

Operating 3,862.69 

6,586.60 

Nutrition Laboratory (September 30, 1921): 

Building, office, and shop 121 ,859.32 

Laboratory apparatus 25 ,593 . 80 

147,453.12 

Mount Wilson Observatory (Avgttst 31, 1921): 

Buildings, grounds, road, and telephone line 191 ,874.12 

Shop equipment 39 , 182 . 89 

Instruments 462,351.14 

Furniture and operating appliances 138 , 845 . 16 

Hooker 100-inch reflector 572 ,263.91 

1,404,517.22 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (September 30, 1921): 

Building, site, and office 194,982.89 

Vessel and survey equipment 155,262.86 

Instruments, laboratory, and shop equipment 92,488.06 

442,733.81 



3,129,908.83 



REPORTS ON INVESTIGATIONS AND PROJECTS 



The following reports and abstracts of reports show the 
progress of investigations carried on during the year, including 
not only those authorized for 1921, but others on which work 
has been continued from prior years. Reports of Directors of 
Departments are given first, followed by reports of recipients 
of grants for other investigations, the latter arranged according 
to subjects. 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH.^ 

D. T. MacDoitgal, Director. 

The investigations carried on by this Department have been con- 
fined to the main fields of research, to which attention has been 
devoted for several years. 

The study of growth has led to a consideration of the phenomena 
of imbibition and osmosis in protoplasm. The detailed action of 
biocolloidal mixtures, living and dead cell-masses, and the changes 
in volume of living plants of various types have been measured with 
great accuracy by newly designed apparatuses, including the auxo- 
graph, the dendrograph, and a new type of colloidal cell. 

The study of photosynthesis in the green cells of living plants and 
carbohydrate metabolism in general has made such progress as is 
possible in this complex and difficult subject. A small laboratory 
especially designed for this work has been completed within the year 
at Carmel, California. The equable temperatures of the region and 
the constant-temperature chambers provided in this structure are 
features of great value in such investigations. 

Researches on nutrition and metabolism have been devoted to the 
phase of the subject in which sources of nitrogen, acidity, and balance 
of the nutrient salts have been considered, while some attention has 
been devoted to the sources of the vitamins and their action in the 
organisms in which they originate. 

Studies in the development of root-systems have been carried 
through to extensive, detailed, and accurate measurement of the 
effect of soil-atmospheres upon the growth of roots. The rarer ele- 
ments of the atmosphere, hehum and argon, have been used for the 
first time as the neutral element in mixtures of atmospheric gases in 
the place of nitrogen. 

The composition and behavior of the elements of the flora in a 
desert area have been found to depend largely upon such soil condi- 
tions as salt-content, course of temperature, and mechanical texture 
of the soil. 

The examination of the vegetation of the more arid regions, as 
part of the original purpose of the Desert Laboratory, has already 
included field work in western America, Mexico, South Australia, and 
northern Africa, and a party is now carrying out field work in South 
Africa in cooperation with the Division of Botany of the Union of 
South Africa. 

^Situated at Tucson, Arizona, and Carmel, California. 

43 



44 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

GROWTH AND HYDRATION. 

Growth in Trees, by D. T. MacDougal. 

The changes in volume of trunks of diverse types of trees, deciduous 
and evergreen coniferous types native to the Atlantic seaboard, the 
Mississippi Valley, various elevations in the Rocky Mountains, the 
plateau, mountain slopes, and desert valleys of Arizona, the plains of 
southern California, and the coastal region at Carmel, have been 
measured for several years as a part of a comprehensive research upon 
the fundamental physical factors in growth. An improved type of 
the newly designed dendrograph described in Publication No. 307 has 
been used and the following generalizations upon the basis of informa- 
tion acquired have been established : 

1. The period in which enlargement of trunks takes place is com- 
paratively brief, even in places in which the season is of indeterminate 
duration. 

2. Growth is an activity of an embryogenic tract of tissue, which 
depends upon environmental conditions, and no part of the observa- 
tions suggested a seasonal rhythmic action. The Chihuahua pine, 
which exhibits growth of the trunk with that of the branches on the 
dry mountain slopes in the advance of the temperatures in May and 
June, is brought to rest coincident with the desiccation of the soil in 
the dry fore-summer. Reawakening ensues consequent upon the 
summer rains and enlargement continues until checked by the de- 
creasing temperatures and increased soil desiccation in the autumn. 
The Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) shows beginning growth of the 
trunks with the advance of temperatures, Januarj^ to April, and comes 
to rest in July with the desiccation of the soil. Quercus agrifolia in 
the same region begins earlier and ceases to grow in June or July. 
Both may be awakened in July or August by deep irrigation of the 
soil. 

3. The trunks of all the trees measured show a daily variation in 
size, by which the maximum is reached shortly after sunrise and the 
minimum at a time after noon dependent upon external agencies. 
These variations appear to depend upon the water-balance in the 
woody cylinder, are greatest in the seasons in which water-loss from 
the crown is greatest, are least in the seasons of lower temperatures 
and high humidities, and are to be detected in the records even in 
the period of most rapid enlargement of the trunk. 

4. Measurement of variations in the woody cylinder were taken by 
arranging the contact rods of the dendrograph to bear on the wood 
formed by the tree two years previously. Thus in 1920, holes were 
bored through the wood of that year and of 1919 and contacts made 
at the bottom of the cavities. 

5. In general, the awakening and growth of the teiTninal buds, 
with resultant elongation of leaders and branches, begin in many 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 45 

trees some time before enlargement of the trunk takes place. The 
period separating the two may be no more than a week in Quercus 
agrifolia and has been seen to be as much as 10 or 12 weeks in Pinus 
radiata. Observations on the Parry spruce and Douglas fir show 
that the trunks of these trees are enlarging at a time when the buds 
are in a very early stage of enlargement. 

6. In the single case in which dendrographs were attached to a 
pine tree 1 meter and 8 meters above the ground, growth began coin- 
cidentally at the two places in 1920. In the following year, how- 
ever, the dendrograph at the higher point on the trunk recorded 
enlargement a few days before any action near the ground was made 
visible. In February 1921 an auxograph was brought into bearing 
on the internode of a pine tree 5 or 6 years old which had been formed 
in 1919. The buds had made a growth of 4 or 5 cm., but no action 
had begun in the internode. A second instrument was brought into 
bearing on the middle of the internode formed in 1920 on another 
young tree. Steady enlargement was in progress. 

7. The embrj^onic layer of a tree is in the form of an inclosing 
sheath terminating in the cones of the growing points. Activation of 
this tract is generally initiated in the growing points. Swelling in 
the cambium layer may be practically coincident with this awakening 
in some trees. Cases are recorded in which weeks elapsed between 
the awakening of the buds and the enlargement of the base of the trunk. 
Activation of the growing cells may be taken to depend upon the 
localized food-supply, temperature, moisture, or other factors. 

8. Estimates of the range of daily equalizing variations in a Mon- 
terey pine, taken from bearings on a thin layer of cork external to the 
bast of a trunk which had ceased to grow for the season, show that 
the diameter might vary 1 part in 1,750. That a large share of this 
variation is due to changes in the hj^dration of the living cells is proved 
by the fact that when bearings are taken on the woody cylinder of 
the trunk internal to the growing layer the variation drops to 1 part 
in 8,750 of the diameter. The actual change in volume, in the first 
instance calculated on the basis of a conical trunk 18 meters high and 
35 cm. in diameter at the base, would amount to about 400 cu. cm., 
of which not more than one-fifth is attributable to variations in the 
wood. It is to be noted, however, that the change in the volume of 
the wood may by no means be taken to represent the water-deficit in 
the wood. The woody mass is made up of box-like cells, which may 
include a bubble of gas, the water forming no more than a thin film on 
the wall of the cell and inclosing the gas bubble in the condition of 
extreme water-deficit. The withdrawal of water through the walls of 
the cells, which are semi-rigid, increases the surface tension of the gas 
bubble, which results in a slight lessening of volume of the whole 
mass, but in an amount that would constitute no more than a small 



46 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

fraction of the total of the water-loss. The trunk of a tree may be 
compared to the supply-hose of a fire-engine coupled to a hydrant. 
When the pressure from the mains is enough to supply water faster 
than it can be pumped out, the hose is distended. When the engine 
takes water faster than it can be delivered by the system, the hose 
collapses. 

9. The greatest daily equalizing variations were shown by Fraxinus, 
Pinus, Picea, Pseudotsuga, and Juglans, and lesser variations were 
displayed by Populus, Platanus, Fagus, Quercus, and Citrus. No 
available facts furnish the basis of an adequate explanation of such 
differences. 

10. Of 15 trees which were under dendrographic measurement in 
1920, one each of Pinus scopulorum, Citrus aurantica, and Parkinsonia 
microphylla made no enlargement during the year. Such occurrences 
are to be taken into account in estimations of the ages of trees from 
the annual layers. Of the 12 trees under observation in 1921, only 
one, a small Monterey pine, showed no enlargement under the dendro- 
graph. 

11. The final effect of rainfall shown within a few hours is to acceler- 
ate growth, but it has been repeatedly observed that actual shrinkage 
may take place while the rain is falling. This action can not be 
traced to any instrumental error. 

12. Irrigation of the soil which had a moisture-content of less than 
6 per cent around the roots of a Monterey pine was followed within 24 
hours by progressive enlargement, constituting growth at the base of 
the tree and at a point 8 meters higher. The distance from the 
absorbing surfaces of the roots through which the added water-supply 
must enter could not be less than 3 meters from the lower instrument, 
and within the day the influence of the added supply was felt at the 
upper instrument, 11 meters from the absorbing surfaces. It does 
not seem possible that water could have been conducted through the 
tracheids this distance within the given length of time. 

13. An irrigation test similar to the above was made with a small 
California live oak (Quercus agrifoUa). The results were even more 
startling than those described for the pine. Within 2 hours the den- 
dfograph, which had its contacts with the tree at least 3 meters from 
the absorbing surfaces, showed some enlargement, an action which 
may be directly connected with the fact that the vessels in this oak 
are numerous and large. 

14. The irrigation experhnents might be held to simulate the effects 
of stream overflow, which if due to melting snows would not be accom- 
panied by any marked higher humidity. It was seen to result in the 
formation of a tapering shell of wood, which was as thick as the seasonal 
formation at the base of the trunk, but which had only half this thick- 
ness 8 meters higher up on the trunk. The layer of normal formation 
was of practically identical thickness at the two places. 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 47 

A New High-Temperature Record for Growth, by D. T. MacDougal and 

Earl B. Working. 

A record of growth of young joints of a prickly pear (Opuntia) at 
50° C. and 51.5° C. and of the active elongation of etiolated stems of 
the same plant growing at 49° C. was published in 1917 by MacDougal. 
Dr. J. M. McGee had found previously that the mature joints of the 
same Opuntia might reach temperatures of 55° C. in the open without 
damage, which was a record for endurance of the higher plants in air 
at the Desert Laboratory. In the repetition of the growth measure- 
ments at the Desert Laboratory late in March and April 1921, young 
joints which might reach temperatures of 49° C. in the sun in an 
un ventilated glass house were heated further by the use of electric 
grills. Temperatures were taken by mercurial thermometers with 
bulbs of the clinical type thrust into joints within a few centi- 
meters of the one being measured, but which had equivalent exposure. 
These and previously published measurements establish the following 
points : 

Growth in Opuntia may begin at 9° C. and extend to 58° C. 

Growth of young joints of Opuntia, the temperature of which rose to 
62° C. (144° F.) in an air temperature of 63° C. (146°F.), stopped and 
some shrinkage ensued, but growth or enlargement was resumed 
when their temperature fell to 50° C. 

A new high record of 58° C. (137° F.) for growth in Opuntia and for 
the higher plants has been established by these experiments. 

The maximum rate of growth of Opuntia occurs between 37° C. and 
about 47° to 49° C, under which conditions a biocolloid consisting 
of 9 parts agar and 1 part protein undergoes maximum swelling in 
water. 

The cell colloids of Opuntia include a large proportion of pentosans 
or mucilages, the colloidal condition of which is in general less affected 
by the temperatures used tlian albuminous substances. It is to be 
noted, however, that bacterial cells, which are highly albuminous, 
may withstand high temperatures such as those of boiling water. 

The young joints which were subjected to these temperatures were 
about 15 to 20 mm. in width and 25 mm. in length, and after being 
held at or near the record temperatures for an hour or more, which was 
repeated in one case, they carried forward normal development, 
reaching maturity at a normal average of 100 mm. in width and 130 
mm. in length. 

It is to be noted that data from observations in which temperatures 
were taken from the air or from water in which the roots or aerial 
parts of plants were immersed have but little value in any estimation 
of the working temperature of active protoplasm by reason of the ab- 
normal hydration and transpiration conditions introduced. These 



48 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

conditions, as well as the proportions and state of the main colloidal 
components, must determine the temperature effects. 

The salts of the common bases are known to increase the coagulating 
effects of temperature on protoplasm according to their speed in per- 
meating the plasma. It would appear that of the conmion bases 
or kations, potassium would exert the least effect, sodium and 
calcium more, and magnesium most, while the nitrates have a lesser 
effect than the chlorides, with the greatest effects in the citrates and 
sulphates. (See Kahho, Hugo : Ueber die Hitzekoagulation des Proto- 
plasmas durch Neutralsalze. Biochem. Zeitschrift, 117, p. 87. 1921.) 
Capacity for endurance of high temperatures would suggest the pres- 
ence of low proportions of salts, giving decreased coagulation effects. 

Physical and Chemical Factors in the Growth of Asparagus, hy Earl B. Working. 

The great mass of chemical information on plant materials concerns 
seeds, tubers, and other storage tissues, and is therefore unavailable 
for a study of the chemical factors of active growth. As it is the young 
shoots of asparagus which are of economic importance, perhaps more 
is known of their chemistry than of the chemistry of any other plant in 
comparable rapid-growing regions. 

As a preliminary survey, the hydration capacities of the asparagus 
in a large variety of solutions were tested by means of the auxograph, 
and growth and temperature records were made both in the light and 
in darkness. Both seedlings and young shoots from established roots 
were tested in each type of experiment. 

In the physical field, both temperature effects and light effects offer 
promising opportunities for further investigation. From the chemical 
side, the action of sodium and that of balanced solutions, such as 
sodium and calcium, seem to offer the most attractive field for detailed 
study. There has long been a common belief that the application of 
common salt to asparagus is advantageous. This has been both 
affirmed and questioned by investigators. 

The commercial asparagus fields of the San Joaquin Valley and of 
the Sacramento Islands were given considerable study. The islands 
of the Sacramento River comprise probably the largest fields of 
asparagus in the world and are an especially interesting study, because 
in the lower end of the asparagus region the waters become decidedly 
brackish when the river is low. 

Root-Growth in Relation to a Deficiency of Oxygen or an Excess of Carbon 
Dioxid in the Soil, hy W. A. Cannon. 

The leading results of studies on the relation of root-growth to the 
aeration conditions of the soil, and which have been referred to from 
time to time in the Year Book, may be formally presented as follows: 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 49 

1 . The reaction of roots to a deficiency of oxygen or to an excess of 
carbon dioxid in the soil was investigated in thirty species of plants 
and observed to a certain extent in several more. The habitats from 
which the species were derived or the cultural conditions under which 
they are growing are extremely varied, ranging, in the case of the 
former, from swamps on the one hand to the arid mesa of southern 
Arizona on the other. 

2. All of the species studied appear able to maintain root-growth 
in an atmosphere containing 2 per cent oxygen, provided the amount 
of carbon dioxid present is not as great as 30 to 50 per cent. 

3. Several species, including Baccharis vimines, Citrus sinensis, 
Juncus effusus var. hrunneus, Potentilla anserina, and others, are able 
to continue root-growth, although at a relatively slow rate, for more 
or less extended periods in a soil-atmosphere containing 5 per cent 
oxygen, the remainder nitrogen, and in relatively large amounts of 
carbon dioxid, as in 50 per cent, provided the oxygen partial pressure 
is normal or not far below. 

4. When oxygen is entirely removed from the soil-atmosphere, no 
root-growth in any species takes place. 

5. The species mentioned in paragraph 3 occur naturally m sub- 
strata saturated all or most of the time. It does not follow, however, 
that all species growing in water have similar oxygen relations. For 
example. Nasturtium officinale appears to require as high a percentage 
of oxygen for root-growth as many plants from well-aerated soils. 
A good condition of aeration in the case of Nasturtium is possibly 
provided by active water movements. 

6. The studied species of Avena, Hordeum, Oryza, Phalaris, Triti- 
cum, and Zea can maintain root-growth, although at a slow rate, 
in a soil-atmosphere containing as little as 0.5 per cent oxygen, re- 
mainder nitrogen. These species, however, appear not to hold equal 
relations to a deficiency of oxygen. Thus, Zea is dependent on a fairly 
good oxygen-supply. 

7. Species from well-aerated soils may have unlike oxygen relations. 
Thus, in the sandy soil at Carmel may be found Mesembryanthemum 
and Erigonum, which are relatively insensible to oxygen deprivation, 
and also Stachys, which, on the other hand, requires a good oxygen- 
supply. The soil of this habitat is never puddled. Opuntia, Fou- 
quieria, and Covillea, which are relatively intolerant of poor conditions 
of soil-aeration, occur on the bajada slopes near Tucson. The bajada 
soil is coarse and is well aerated most of the year, but it is puddled 
during the short rainy seasons, at which time gaseous exchange is 
slow. On the flood-plain of the Santa Cruz River at Tucson, Prosopis 
velutina occurs under somewhat similar conditions and Medicago 
sativa is cultivated. The soil of the flood-plain is of fine texture and 
puddles easily. Indeed, in former times the flood-waters spread as a 



50 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

shallow sheet, covering this plain. In the case of the cultivated spe- 
cies, flooding takes place at fairly frequent intervals through irrigation. 
Under both conditions, therefore, owing mainly to slow percolation, 
poor aeration of the soil may occur. Both of the species referred to 
are relatively but not highly tolerant of poor conditions of soil-aeration, 
and root-growth may or may not continue in a soil-atmosphere con- 
taining 0.5 per cent oxygen, remainder nitrogen. It is to be noted 
that so far as concerns Prosopis the soil may be well aerated during 
the long dry seasons. 

8. When the amount of oxygen in the soil is diminished to the point 
where root-growth may or may not take place, the growth of the roots 
may continue, provided the gaseous mixture is caused to stream slowly 
through the soil. It is the rate of supply and not the partial pressure 
of the gas that is of moment. In Stachys, for example, root-growth 
ceases in a static soil-air containing 0.5 per cent oxygen, while growth 
will continue if the same gaseous mixture is slowly streaming. A 
similar condition was observed in several other species. 

9. A deficiency of oxygen may be said, in general, to exist when the 
oxygen comprises 10 per cent or less of the soil-air, with the remainder 
nitrogen ; and an excess of carbon dioxid can be said to be 50 per cent, 
more or less, of the soil-atmosphere when there is normal oxygen partial 
pressure, and probably less than 50 per cent when the amount of oxy- 
gen is low. 

10. There is in some species, if not in all, a direct relation between 
tolerance to a deficient oxygen-supply and the temperature of the 
soil. In Prosopis, for example, it was observed that when the tem- 
perature of the soil was about 10° C. below the optimum, growth 
stopped upon the administration of a gaseous mixture poor in oxygen, 
but it was renewed with the same soil-air when the temperature was 
raised to optimum. 

11. Vigorous seedlings are most resistant to deficiency of oxygen. 

12. The size of the cotyledons in Prosopis apparently holds a direct 
relation to the amount of oxygen in the soil-air. The cotyledons are 
relatively small when the oxygen partial pressure is low. 

13. The hypocotyls of Prosopis appear to be insensible to a depriva- 
tion of oxygen. 

14. In certain species, for instance Opuntia, Pisum, and Zea, 
there may be a differential response to a condition of poor soil-aera- 
tion by the roots in one and the same plant. Thus, in the case of the 
two species first named the main roots are less tolerant to poor aera- 
tion than are the laterals, roots of smaller size or of lower rank, while 
the opposite appears to be the case in Opuntia. So far as Opwitia 
is concerned, it is possible that the reaction is in a direction looking 
toward a superficial placing of the lateral roots, which is a characteris- 
tic of the mature plant. 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 51 

15. In Zea mays the geotropic response of the roots appears to be 
much weaker in a soil-atmosphere containing 2 per cent oxygen than 
in normal air. 

16. The first observable morphological effect of poor aeration in 
Pisum sativum is a shrinking of the meristematic tissue of the root- 
tip. If this alteration proceeds beyond a certain stage, recovery 
upon the admission of air does not take place; if, however, the reaction 
has not progressed far, recovery is possible. In the last event the 
effects of the reaction to a condition of poor aeration may persist for a 
period as a constriction of the growing root. 

The Action of Vitamins, Amino-Co7npounds, and Salts on Hydration, 
by D. T. MacDougal. 

The assertion was made in an earlier report that the salts of the com- 
mon metals which enter into nutritive solutions, as potassium, mag- 
nesium, sodium, and calcium, might find their chief importance in 
restricting, limiting, or defining hydration. Such an action is exerted 
by these bases in the form of hydroxides when tested at O.OOIn. 
MacDougal and Spoehr found later that the hydroxides of the strong 
metallic bases limit the hydration of agar according to their position 
in the electromotive series, the least swelling taking place under the 
action of the strongest base at concentrations of 0.01 n, with the ap- 
parent exception of rubidium. Beginning with the strongest, the 
series runs K, (Rb), Na, Li. The various effects of barium, calcium, 
and strontium are not so clearly determined, and the quantitati\'e 
relations of these metals are not known definitely. Hydration values 
of agar at O.OIn were Sr (OH)o = 815, Ca(OH)2 = 860, Ba(OH)2 = 000. 
These concentrations are far beyond the actual range of condi- 
tions in the cell, however, and when reduced concentrations were 
used it was seen that the hydration of agar in calcium hydroxide ex- 
ceeds that in water at O.OOOIn of the hydroxide, and this effect is 
also produced at O.OOOOIn. There was increase of hydration beyond 
that of water by dilute solutions of hydroxides of calcium, potassium, 
rubidium, sodium, and lithium, and excess values for aniline and am- 
monium hydroxides were obtained. It was also seen that the strongest 
of the bases, potassium, in the form of hydroxide would increase the 
swelling of agar-albumin mixtures to a point beyond that taking place 
in water alone. 

The next logical step was to test the effects of salts of the common 
metals on swelling of the biocolloidal components. Here again the in- 
teresting fact was found that as chlorides sodium and potassium at 
O.OOIm caused greater hydration of agar than water, the swelling being 
greater in the potassium. At O.OOOIm, sodium, potassium, magnesium, 
and calcium chlorides caused greater swelling than in water, the maxi- 
mum swelling being in sodium, the next in potassium, and the least in 
calcium. 



52 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



When chlorides of sodium and potassium were tested, it was found 
that pentosan-albumin mixtures simulating protoplasm showed in- 
creased hydration in the potassium chloride only as indicated in the 
tables. 

Up to this point colloids including only two of the supposed main 
elements in protoplasm have been used. An agar-gelatine mixture 
was now made, to which was added a thousandth part of a soap which 
is probably nearly all sodium stearate. The results of the hydration 
swellings are given below : 

Hydration of plates of agar 3, gelatine 2, Ivory soap 0.005 g. at 15° C. Swellings given in 

thickness and volume. 





O.OlM. 


0.0002m. 


O.OOOlM. 


Th. 


Vol. 


Th. 


Vol. 


Th. 


Vol. 


NaCl 


890 

810 

850 

970 

1,280 


9,020 

842 

920 

1,050 

1,460 






2,3.30 

2,460 
2,600 
2,750 
1,200 
1,500 


2,600 

2,660 
2,940 
2,050 
1,250 
1,700 


Balanced solution 

(Na 50:Ca 1)... 
CaCl2 






1,?00 


1,374 


KCl 


HCI 


1,130 


1,270 


Water 













This biocolloid, representing more nearly the colloidal constitution 
of living matter, was seen to have higher hydration capacity in all 
salt solutions and to have such capacity lessened in even the very 
dilute acid. A similar preparation, in which the soap was pure 
potassium oleate, gave results less marked as to the action of the salts,, 
but the increase in the balanced solution was proportionately much 
greater and the retarding effect in acids much greater. Ample justi- 
fication exists, therefore, for a correction of the earlier statement as to 
the effect of salts of the common metals on biocolloids, which have 
been found to offer many profitable analogies to living material. The 
correction implies that we may confidently look to these salts as accel- 
erators of hydration and growth or as increasing the water-deficit of 
living matter. 

I have previously pointed out, in many papers, that the commoner 
amino-acids (glycocoll, alanine, phenylalanine, asparagine, and histi- 
dine) which have been proved to promote growth also accelerate 
hydration in biocolloids. 

As an additional step in this work, the effect of the water-soluble 
B-yeast vitamin on biocolloids and living and dead cell-masses was 
measured. Solutions of this material at 0.1 per cent, having an acidity 
of Ph = 5.25 as determined by the colorimeter method, were used, 
and measurements were taken by the auxograph. The vitamin was 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 53 

seen to increase the hydration swelling, water-capacity, or water-deficit 
of agar, agar-soap, agar-gelatine, agar-gelatine salts, and gelatine, 
but to lessen hydration in some biocoUoids containing soaps which 
would be sensitive to the free hydrogen ions of the vitamin solution. 
Parallel action in living and dead cells is implied, although it is to be 
noted that such cells may ah-eady include a certain amount of their 
characteristic vitamins and that the added vitamin could exert no 
additional effect except tha,t of reducmg hydration capacity. The 
theory as to the constitution of living matter by which plant proto- 
plasm is taken to be a pentosan-albumin-soap colloidal mixture has 
been found adequate in such experiments. 

The metals which form the bases of nutrient salts of plants, as 
chlorides and nitrates, are found to increase the hydration capacity 
or the water-deficit of the principal components of biocolloids and of 
biocolloids of certain composition. 

Biocolloids containing soaps show a high degree of sensitiveness to 
hydrogen ions or acidity. Such biocolloids show marked action in 
balanced solutions of sodium and calcium, as shown by data too de- 
tailed to be given in this paper. 

Water-soluble B-yeast vitamin in a solution sHghtly acid increases 
the sYv^elling, hydration, or water-deficit in some living and dead plant 
cell-masses and lessens it in others. Similar diverse action on biocol- 
loids was found. 

All of the substances tested which are known to facilitate growth in 
plants are found to increase hydration capacity or water-deficit in some 
of the test objects. The list includes chlorides and nitrates of sodium, 
potassium, magnesium, and calcium in various concentrations between 
O.OOIn and O.OOOIn, glycocoU, alanine, phenylalanine, histidine, and 
water-soluble B-yeast vitamin. Hydroxides of sodium, potassium, 
lithium, rubidium, calcium, ammonium, and aniline also increase 
hydration values in some components of living matter. 

The Action of Bases and Salts on Biocolloids and Cell-Masses, by 
D. T. MacDougal. 

The suggestion was made in an earlier paper that the common metals 
which enter into nutrient solutions might find their chief importance 
in restricting, limiting, or defining hydration of the cell-colloids. 
MacDougal and Spoehr carried out a series of tests upon this matter 
and found that the strong metallic bases when used at concentrations 
of O.OIn do limit or restrict the hydration of agar according to their 
place in the electromotive series, the least swelling taking place under 
the action of the strongest base, with rubidium unplaced. Beginning 
with the strongest, the series runs K, (Rb), Na, Li, and if calcium were 
added to the series the swelling under its action was less than tliat in 
potassium. When the concentrations were reduced, however, to 



54 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

O.OOIn it was found that hydroxides of all of the metals increased the 
hydration capacity of agar. This was of importance, as a review of all 
available data seems to show that the range of the H"*" — 0H~ 
balance in the plant-cell lies between the values expressed by Phs and 
Phu, or between about 0.01m aspartic, succinic, or propionic acid and 
under O.OOIn KOH. 

The reversal of effects at great attenuations in the hydroxides led 
to the extension of auxographic measurements upon the effects of low 
concentrations of the salts which are of such interest and importance 
in cultures, and the action of chlorides, nitrates, and sulphates of potas- 
sium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium upon agar, gelatine, and mix- 
tures was made at Carmel in the summer of 1920. The action of these 
reagents upon living and dead cell-masses was also tested late in the 
summer of the same year. The principal results of the entire series 
of experiments may be summarized as follows: 

The strong metallic bases, which were found to lessen the swelling 
of agar to a degree corresponding to their relative positions in the elec- 
tromotive series when used as hydroxides, give the same relative action 
when used as chlorides. The series runs Ca, K, Na, the greatest 
retardation being affected bj^ the calcium and the least by sodium when 
used at concentrations of 0.01m. 

Reversed effects by which hydration of agar is increased are shown 
by the hydroxides at O.OOIn, as described in a previous contribution, 
but no well-defined differences among the bases used could be made out. 
Similar reversed effects were exhibited by the chlorides of calcium, 
magnesium, potassium, and sodium at 0.0001m and by potassium and 
sodium in concentrations as great as 0.001m. 

Purified agar used in the experiments has a Ph value of 6.5, also 
swells more in HCl at a Ph value of 4.2 than in water, a statement 
be applied in correction of various conclusions in previous papers. 

Purified agar shows exaggerated swellings in a series of acid, salt, 
and hydroxide solutions in which the hydrogen-ion concentration ranges 
from Ph 4.2 to 11. 

Purified agar also shows exaggerated swellings in sodium and potas- 
sium nitrates at 0.0001m, but not in the sulphates. 

Of the chlorides of calcium and potassium and hydrochloric acid at 
concentrations from 0.01m to 0.0001m only KCl at 0.001m and 0.0001m 
increase the swelling of an agar-gelatine mixture. In a similar series 
only KCl at 0.0001m increases swelling in a gelatine-agar mixture. 

Agar plates with included chlorides at concentrations increasing 
swelling, when applied as hydrating solutions, showed exaggerated 
swelling in HCl, NaCl, KCl at 0.0001m, but a lessened swelling in 
CaCl2 and MgCl2 at this concentration. 

Gelatine plates, with incorporated salts as above, showed swelling 
in HCl increasing with the concentration beginning with the 0.001m 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 55 

solution, in reverse of the action of the CaCU sokition, which was 
greatest but still less than in water until at 0.0001m. Swelling in 
KCl did not exceed that in water until a concentration of 0.01m was 
reached. 

The maximum swelling of a gelatine (3 parts) -agar (2 parts) plate 
is greatest in HCl O.OIn, KCl 0.001m, and CaCla at 0.0001m. 

Different ecological types of roots of maize show different hydra- 
tion reactions to the solutions used in hydration tests of colloids, as 
noted in the foregoing paragraphs. 

Roots of strawberry show differing hydration reactions when 
grown in saline soils and in sand. 

Roots of orange seedlings show lessened hydration in acid solutions, 
and their hydration was lessened in all solutions except balanced solu- 
tions of sea-water and of sodium and calcium chloride. 

Swellings of sections of joints of Opuntia were greatest in KOH at 
O.OlN, HCl at O.OOlN, and KCl at 0.0001m, all producing effects in 
excess of the swelling in water. 

The changes in volume of living cell-masses in hydrating solutions 
include osmotic-plasmolytic effects in the alterations of the volume 
of the included cells. The hydration of dead cell-masses includes 
possible osmotic action of cell-walls. 

The hydration reactions described in this paper may include coagu- 
lation effects when the higher concentrations were applied to the bio- 
colloids, similar to those of the plasmatic colloids. Actual effects of 
balanced solutions are clearly defined in the hj'dration of agar, and 
some suggestions of similar action in the biocolloids arise from the 
measurements of swelling of the biocolloids described. 

Effects of Age and of the Inclusion of Salts on the Heterotropic Action of Col- 
loidal Bodies of Cytological Interest, by D. T. MacDougal. 

Auxographic measurements of the swelling of sections of dried 
plates of agar and of gelatine previously described show that the 
relative enlargement of a colloidal body in its different axes will be 
determined largely by the unequal stresses which may be set up, as, 
for example, when liquid agar or gelatine is poured on glass and dried 
without shrinking in area. It was pointed out that sections from 
such plates of agar increased only 3 or 4 per cent in length while swell- 
ing 3,000 or even 4,000 per cent in thickness, and tliat sections of gela- 
tine increased 8 to 40 per cent in length while swelling from 500 to 
2,000 per cent under the auxograph. 

Tests of sections of plates of pure agar freshly made and a year old 
have been made. Plates which swelled 2,000 per cent in water when 
freshly made August 1, 1919, increased but 1,600 per cent July 1, 1920. 
Plates swelling 3,200 per cent when young, increased but 2,000 per cent 
when nine months old. This total decrease was accompanied by 



56 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



lessened swelling in thickness and increased swelling parallel to the 
broad surfaces of the plates. The relative increase in length and 
width of sections of old plates was double that in the same plates 
when newly made and swelled in water. Similar increases occurred 
when old plates were hydrated in chlorides of K, Na, Mg, and Ca at 
O.OOOlM. 

The effects of age on gelatine plates are not so marked, but the 
areal swelling increases with age. The differential effects of the 
various solutions on such areal or linear increases were very marked 
and noticeable. Thus, strips 30 to 50 mm. in length cut from a 
single plate when placed in the solutions gave increases in thickness 
and length as below : 





0.01m. 


O.OOlM. 


O.OOOlM. 


Th. 


L. 


Th. 


L. 


Th. 


L. 




p. ct. 


p. ct. 


p. ct. 


p. ct. 


p. Cl. 


p. ct. 


KCl 


1090 


38 


800 


33 


640 


35 


CaCl 


600 


6 


1350 


8 


830 


10 


HCl 


1620 


70 


1600 


20 


925 


8 


Water 










780 


8 













The areal increase in the potassium solution varied but little in 
the different concentrations, being much greater than in the calcium, 
which was near that in water. The greatest disproportion, however, 
between increase in thickness and in length was in the acid. 

Agar was made into plates with an inclusion of minute proportions 
of chlorides of calcium, potassium, and magnesium which would 
represent possibilities in the plant-cell. When such salted plates 
were hydrated in solutions of KCl, NaCl, and HCl at 0.0001m, the 
swelling in length amounted to 12 to 14 per cent, as compared with 
increases of 3 to 4 per cent which might be shown by pure agar. 

Equally interesting results were obtained with salted gelatine. 
Among the more important effects it is to be seen that the increase in 
length of therotropic plates is lessened by the incorporation of salts 
when swelled in KCl. The presence of incorporated salts accelerates 
increases in length in CaCU in an uncertain manner, but exercises 
such an effect rising with the concentration in acid. The presence of 
incorporated salts lessens the increase in length in KCl, does not 
modify it greatly in HCl, but exaggerates the increase in CaCl2 at 
0.01m. 

The significance of the above data lies in the fact that living matter 
and the structures in the cell, to which so much importance in heredity 
and physiology is attributed, are bodies in a similar colloidal state. 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 57 

Their changes in form, increase or decrease, division, etc., are inevi- 
tably affected by the factors described. No conception of matter 
free from fundamental physical laws can be entertained or success- 
fully maintained. 

Biocolloids as Membranes; a New Colloidal Cell, by D. T. MacDougal. 

My earlier investigations upon the fundamental mechanism of 
enlargement of cells and the growth of organs were concerned chiefly 
with the increases which the solid mass of the protoplasm undergoes 
by swelling as influenced by the nutrient salts, acids, hydroxides, 
amino-compounds, and vitamins. The information gained, which 
has been published in numerous papers, may be taken to apply chiefly 
to cells in the earliest stage of their development. 

The cell or protoplast of the plant is at first a microscopic mass of 
a gel in which are included denser bodies or organs, such as the nucleus 
and plastids. As the protoplast enlarges by swelling or hydration and 
by the addition of more material, cavities or spaces are formed within 
it by the process known to the physicist as syneresis, and these cavities 
persist as vacuoles. The water which fills these clear spaces con- 
tains solutions of acids, salts, sugars, and amino-compounds of the 
cell in varying concentrations. While these internal cavities are 
developing, a dense and tough outer wall of ''cellulose" has been 
formed around the protoplasm, and these two changes convert the 
cell into an osmotic machine which pulls liquids into the interior of 
the cell or loses solutions out through its walls in accordance with 
the osmotic activity of the various substances concerned and the per- 
meability of the membranes. The way in which this passage of 
solutions occurs is largely determined by the character of the firm 
outer wall of the cell, by the plasmatic layer which lies against it, and 
by the special membrane or layer which is formed at the surfaces of 
the wall and protoplasm in contact. These may show widely varying 
qualities as to permeability. 

In the earlier experiments it was found that a mixture of agar, 
gelatine, and soaps and lipins in hydration and swelling afforded many 
profitable parallels with the beliavior of living and dead cell-masses, 
and as living matter may be safely taken to be made up chiefly of 
carbohydrates, albuminous substances, and soaps or combinations of 
the fatty acids with calcium, potassium, or sodium, the experiments 
were extended to include a study of the influence of a mixture of these 
colloids on osmosis under conditions similar to those prevailing in the 
plant cell. 

In carrying out this purpose a new form of artificial cell or osmotic 
apparatus was devised, which has yielded some results of value in the 
consideration of the action of the living cell. The living cell has a 
firm outer wall, which is permeable to the solutions of the salts of the 



58 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

common metals found in the soil and which are important in nutrition, 
but it may not permit more complex substances to pass readily. 
These features are represented in the new colloidal cell by the cylin- 
drical clay cup used in the Livingston atmometer, which has a length 
of about 12 cm. and an internal diameter of 2 cm., is closed at one end, 
and has a capacity of from 35 to 40 c. c. The walls of the cup have a 
thickness of about 2 mm., and when it is closed with a stopper with 
suitable fixtures it may be used directly in osmotic tests of great in- 
terest. Tests show that the solutions of the soil salts pass through 
the clay walls almost as readily as water, while sugar and other organic 
compounds are retarded, so that when such substances are used to fill 
the cell a positive osmotic pressure may be set up. 

The plasmatic or living layer of the cell is represented in this cell 
by a lining layer of a gel consisting of two parts of agar, one of gelatine, 
and one-thousandth part of calcium or potassium oleate and an 
equivalent amount of some lipin. A sufficient quantity of such a 
mixture is poured into the cup while warm, so that when the cup is 
closed by an osmometer head and the cup slowly rotated in the hand 
the colloids set as a gel 3 mm. in diameter over the entire interior 
surface. 

The osmometer head is fitted with a separatory funnel, by which 
solutions representing the cell contents may be introduced, while a 
second delivery or exit tube conducts out any excess which may accrue 
from the positive action of the cell, and this is collected in a graduated 
test-tube. When it is stated that the lining colloidal layer forms a 
special layer where it comes in contact with the cell-wall, simulating 
the plasmatic membrane of the living cell, the principal features of the 
colloidal cell have been enumerated. 

Chief interest in the cell in the present connection centers in the 
action by which it absorbs solutions from the soil or water in which 
the plant may be growing. The most important experiments with the 
new cell, therefore, were those in which it was given a sap or content 
of varying character and placed in solutions of known composition 
to test its action. The first illustration of the fact that the new cell 
is not a simple osmometer consists in the difference in results when it is 
filled with a sodium solution as contrasted with the effect of a potas- 
sium solution of equimolecular concentration. The cell with the 
potassium (chloride) sap and potassium soap in the plasma absorbs 
about twice as much water as the sodium cell and ten times as much as 
a calcium or magnesium cell with a sap of identical molecular concen- 
tration. Furthermore, some of the effects of balanced solutions of 
sodium and calcium are to be seen in the action of the new cell. 

Among the more interesting features of the action of this device are 
the operations which parallel those of plasmolysis and of adaptive 
adjustments of the living cell. Furthermore, as may be seen by the 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 



59 




Cfay or ^ 

wooden wall 



following paragraph, much important information may be gained as 
to the time relation in osmosis. Osmosis has been chiefly studied 
from a thermodynamic viewpoint, consideration being given to equi- 
libria rather than to rate of action, although the speed of penetration 

of membranes and the duration of 

the processes have always been up- 
permost in the mind of the physiol- 
ogist. Some of the possibilities in 
this field are suggested by the ac- 
tion of a colloidal cell filled with 
water and immersed in water. 

In the beginning the action must 
consist partly of hydration or swell- 
ing of the plasmatic layer by water 
taken up from the cell-contents 
and drawn in through the clay 
wall. At the same time some of 
the colloidal electrolytes of the 
plasma are passing into solution in 
the cell-sap, with a resultant os- 
motic action of the dissociated 
material. The endosmosis taking 
place increases the contents, the 
surplus passing out through the de- 
livery tube at a rate which increases 
for 4 to 7 days, after which a grad- 
ual lessening of the rate takes place 
which, however, may allow as much 
action on the fortieth day as on the 
first, which would be about one- 
third of the maximum shown on 
the fifth or sixth dsij. The plot- 
ting of the varying rates results in 
a graph of the type of the "bio- 
logical curve," by which the activ- 
ities of a cell or organism may be 
expressed during its lifetime. The 
action of the cell depends chiefly 
on the fact that the material of 
the gel or "plasma" of the cell, 
which has an approximate dry 
weight of 1 gram, passes slowly into solution, and, being composed of 
colloidal electrolytes, osmotic activity ensues, which causes water to 
enter the cell, with the expulsion of an equivalent amount. The loss 
of water in this manner implies a loss of dissolved material and is 
ghly suggestive of certain forms of secretion in plant organs. 



-^4 



Section of an artificial cell arranged to 
show contlniiing osmotic action of col- 
loidal layers as in a living cell. Such 
cells filled with water showed positive 
osmose for periods of two or three 
months at a rate varying in a "biolog- 
ical curve." 



60 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

The differential action of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, 
etc., may be taken to be due to the specific action which the salts of 
these substances exert on the solution of the colloidal material and 
on colloidal aggregation. 

Some features of plasmolysis and of adaptive reactions of living 
cells are suggested by the reactions of the colloidal cells filled with 
water when immersed in a series of salt solutions ranging from 0.001m 
to 0.008m. The cells in the weaker solutions begin to operate posi- 
tively and to deliver liquid through the exit tube soon after setting 
up. Those in the stronger solutions show exosmosis or loss of liquid 
through the outer wall for the first day, when a reversal takes place 
and absorption or intake of liquid results from solutions as concen- 
trated as that indicated by the higher figure given above. A col- 
loidal cell, which at first shows negative action, then reverses its action 
and absorbs from the immersion fluid at a certain concentration, 
may be stepped up to a higher concentration in which it would show 
loss only if placed in this liquid initially. 

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. RESPIRATION, AND NUTRITION. 

Carbohydrate- Amino- Acid Relation in the Respiration of Leaves, by II. A, 

Spoehr and J. M. McGee. 

In order to pursue the investigations on the carbohydrate economy 
and respiration of chlorophyllous leaves with greater accuracy and 
more economy of time, the experimental procedure was modified so 
as to employ largely electrical methods. The carbon dioxid emitted 
by the plants was absorbed in solutions of barium hydroxide, and titra- 
tions were replaced by the determinations of the electrical conductivity. 
It was necessary to determine the electrical constants of the barium- 
hydroxide solutions which give the maximum change of resistance per 
unit change of concentration consistent with the use of such solutions 
sufficiently concentrated to completely absorb the carbon dioxid in 
the air-stream. The experimental conditions were so adjusted that 
concentrations of 0.08 to 0.17 normal barium hydroxide were used. 
By the employment of suitable devices for the sedimentation of the 
barium carbonate and special conductivity cells very accurate and 
rapid determinations of the respiration rates were accomplished. 

The stimulating effect of the amino-acids on the respiratory activity 
and carbohydrate consumption of leaves has been repeatedly sub- 
stantiated. Glycocoll, alanine, and asparagin vary in this effect, 
apparently according to the ease of penetrability. When glucose is 
given the leaves as the carbohydrate food material this stimulating 
effect is most marked. With saccharose the effect is also noticeable. 
With mannose no such reaction could be observed. The experiments 
with fructose indicate that amino-acids have actually a depressing 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 61 

action on the rate of respiration. No satisfactory explanation of these 
results has thus far been obtained. Experunents conducted to reveal 
a possible isomerizing action of the amino-acids on these various sugars 
in vitro as well as in the leaf yielded only negative results. Efforts 
are now being directed to determine the enzymatic relations in the 
leaves and how these are influenced by the various nutritive condi- 
tions. Herein special attention is given to the catalase and peroxidase 
activities. These are of importance not only to the respiration of the 
leaf but also to the photosynthetic activity, and it now seems highly 
probable that herein lies the link which so intimately binds these two 
processes. 

The analytical determination of amino-acids in plants ranging from 
germinating seeds to mature plants has been continued in connection 
with their respiratory activity and carbohydrate content. It has 
become evident that in these relationships the chlorophyllous leaves 
are quite differentiated from other parts of the plant. These inves- 
tigations are now being extended to include a study of the circum- 
stances which make for the synthesis of proteins and their break- 
down into simpler compounds. 

The Internal Factor in Photosynthesis, hy H. A. Spoehr. 

The only reliable methods which have thus far been developed for 
the study of photosynthesis in land plants are those based upon gas 
analysis. In attempting to improve further the apparatus used in 
these studies, various other methods were tried out which made 
use of various different principles other than the differential determi- 
nation of the carbon dioxid in the air-stream passing over the illumi- 
nated leaf. None of these proved as accurate nor as convenient as the 
latter. Methods were therefore devised which made use of the elec- 
trolytic determination of carbon dioxid by means of absorption in 
solutions of barium hydroxide, as had been done in the investigations 
on respiration. Suitable absorption tubes and sedimentation vessels 
of glass were constructed, which permit of complete absorption of the 
carbon dioxid. By means of a special electrolytic cell of high resis- 
tance the electrical conductivity of the barium-hydroxide solutions 
can be measured with both great accuracj^ and rapidity. 

Since these investigations were started a mass of evidence has accu- 
mulated which supports the dictum that an essential role in the photo- 
synthetic process must be ascribed to the protoplasmic activity of the 
colorless components of the chloroplasts. The existence of an essential 
internal factor can be concluded not only from the failure of all 
attempts v/hich have been made to reproduce photosjmthesis outside 
of the living cell but also from direct experunents with living leaves. 
That this factor is not to be sought in the chlorophyll components or in 
such physical conditions as the degree of dispersion of the chlorophyll 



62 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

pigments follows from the great and irregular disproportion which 
has been found to exist between the chlorophyll-content and photo- 
synthetic activity. The experiments on this subject have shown that 
the relation between photosynthesis and respiration is an intimate 
one, and that this relationship holds both on an ascending and on a 
descending rate of either process. The experiments are now being 
directed to determine whether this relation is actually on an energetic 
basis or whether it is of a chemical nature, i. e., dependent upon 
certain components of the protoplasm, which vary in amount or with 
the metabolic activity. Whether the former state exists can be de- 
termined by a study of the temperature coefficient of photosynthesis 
under varying conditions of carbohydrate-content and respiratory 
activity. The possible chemical dependency may perhaps be de- 
termined by a study of the enzymatic relations, more especially of those 
enzymes which are active in the respiratory activity, catalase, and 
peroxidase, and which, from the data thus far obtained, also function 
as a step in the photosynthetic process. Both of these lines of investi- 
gation are being pursued, for which the constant-temperature rooms of 
the new laboratory at Carmel offer excellent facilities. 

Reduction of Pentose Sugars, by H. A. Spoehr and J. W. E. Glattfeld. 

For the continuation of these investigations (Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Year Book 1920, pp. 64-66), Dr. J. W. E. Glattfeld, of the University 
of Chicago, again spent January, February, and March as a Research 
Associate at the Desert Laboratory. In order to simplify the usual 
cumbersome and time-consuming procedure of carrying out reducing 
reactions with large quantities of sodium amalgam, a rotary agitator 
was devised. This contrivance, driven at a very high speed, accom- 
plished the mixing of several kilograms of sodium amalgam witJi the 
aqueous sugar-solution to a thick colloidal mass. With the agitator 
and by means of suitable cooling and the control of acidity of the 
mixture, the time of the reaction was diminished to half of that ordi- 
narily required, and the amount of amalgam necessary to reduce a 
given quantity of sugar w^as also diminished. By this means sev- 
eral hundred grams of pure xylit were obtained. All attempts at 
getting the xylit to crystallize have failed, however, nor has it been 
possible to obtain a quantitative reduction of the sugar; there is 
always formed a small quantity of sugar gum. This does not reduce 
Fehling's solution, but on treating with hydrochloric acid gives a 
decided reduction. The composition of this gum has not yet been 
established. The xylit was dehydrated by means of anhydrous for- 
mic acid. This mixture was distilled, and besides gaseous products, 
water, and formic acid, it yielded a volatile oil which on account of 
its ease of polymerization it has not been possible to identify. 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 63 

The New Chemical Laboratory at Carmel, by H. A. Spoehr. 

In March of 1921 work was begun on the construction of the new 
laboratory at Carmel. The apparatus and equipment of the chemical 
laboratory at Tucson was packed and shipped to Carmel and in 
August the new laboratory was ready for occupancy. This building 
is a single-story structure, 42 bj^ 32 feet, built of brick, with partitions 
of the same material and a concrete basement. The latter is entirely 
below ground and contains two constant-temperature rooms to the 
construction of which special attention was devoted in order to secure 
perfect insulation. Floors, inside partitions, and doors are insulated 
by means of hair-matting, a dead-air space, and mineral wool. The 
upper floor contains a chemical laboratory 23 by 18 feet, a room for 
physiological work, with water thermostats, etc., 20 by 15 feet, an 
office 16 by 13 feet, and a machine and store room 21 bj^ 11 feet. A 
glass-inclosed porch 12 by 12 feet provides excellent outside working 
space. The entire building is equipped with water, gas, vacuum, 
compressed air, and numerous receptacles for 110 and 220 volt alter- 
nating-current electricity. A 3.5 k. w. motor generator set provides 
direct current. The gas is produced by a de Laitte gas-machine of 
320 cubic feet per hour capacity^ placed in a separate small building. 

Anaerobic Experiments with Argon, by W. A. Cannon and E. E. Free. 

In the annual reports of this Department for 1919 and 1920 there 
were described experiments in which helium was used, instead of the 
more usual nitrogen, as the diluting gas in experiments with the growth 
of roots and other plant parts under partial anaerobic conditions. 
It was discovered that nitrogen and helium did not behave exactly 
alike, the amount of oxygen necessary for growth being somewhat 
greater when the diluting gas was nitrogen than when this was helium. 
It was suggested that the explanation of these effects might lie in 
the greater rapidity of diffusion of oxygen through helium than through 
nitrogen. 

In order to test this diffusional hypothesis, experiments have now 
been made in which argon was used as the diluting gas; the results 
are the same as those with nitrogen. The same concentration of 
oxygen is necessary in each case for a given plant activity. It is 
believed that this result furnishes strong confirmation of the diffu- 
sional hjTDothesis, the rate of diffusion of oxygen through argon being 
practically the same as through nitrogen, while the argon is as free 
from suspicion of direct chemical activity as is helium. 

Tests in which hydrogen was used as the diluting gas indicate that 
this gas behaves almost the same as does helium. This fact is also 
confirmatory of the diffusional hypothesis, but the tests with hydrogen 
are not sufficiently numerous to constitute important evidence. 



64 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Some Aspects of Metabolism in the Fungi, by B. M. Duggar. 

Much valuable knowledge has been added to the literature bearing 
upon the metabolism of the fungi. Nevertheless, the nutrition of 
these organisms still offers a variety of problems which may throw 
light upon the phenomena of metabolism in general, and may serve, 
further, to indicate the causes of diversity or to relate these to condi- 
tions of growth. 

For the most part the organisms which have been studied in the 
past are the familiar saprophytic species of the laboratory, such as 
Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus, together wuth forms of techni- 
cal and industrial interest, including the yeasts. In the study which 
the writer has undertaken it is proposed ultimately to include forms 
w^hich are diverse both in taxonomic relationship and in habitat or in 
effects. So far the organisms employed have been chiefly those in- 
ducing disease in plants or decay in timber, and they include 19 species 
belonging to the following genera: Aspergillus, Botrytis, Fusarium, 
Giber ella, Glomerella, Helminthosporium, Penicillium, Polyporus, Sclero- 
tinia, and Sphceropsis. 

Following some experiments carried out during the preceding year 
at the Missouri Botanical Garden, it seemed desirable at the outset to 
simplify the media employed as far as possible, using relatively few 
sources of carbon and nitrogen. As mineral constituents of the 
nutrient solutions, there have been employed concentrations of mag- 
nesium sulphate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate to give in the 
cultures 0.02m and 0.05m, respectively. Ferric chloride has been used 
to give a concentration of only 0.00004. As a source of carbon, 
0.25m glucose or 11 per cent peptone has been employed, and either 
potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or peptone as a source of 
nitrogen. The nitrates were used in a concentration of 0.2m, and the 
peptone was made of such strength as to contain the same amount 
of nitrogen in the concentration of potassium nitrate used. The cul- 
tures were arranged in Erlenmxcyer flasks, and in the series here reported 
they were grown at 58° F. and at 61° F. The amount of grow^th was 
measured by the dry weight of the fungus mat. 

It is recognized, of course, that any form of carbon as a source of 
energy must ultimately yield carbon dioxid, but it does not follow that 
the course of metabolism, especially with relation to the by-products 
produced, would be the same in all the organisms, nor would it be 
necessarily the same under the influence of different sources of nitrogen. 
In any case, it was desirable to determine, first of all, the relation of 
the source of nitrogen to the growth of the various organisms employed. 
The results so far achieved are referred to in this section of the report. 
In the following section the changes in H-ion concentration will be 
brieflj^ considered. 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 65 

In every instance except one (a species of Fusarium) the maximum 
yield was in the combination of glucose and peptone as sources of 
carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The organism which gave the 
highest growth-quantity in this medium was Botrytis cinerea. On 
the other hand, peptone as a source of both carbon and nitrogen gave 
the lowest yield in every instance except one, which fact is significant, 
and the work is being developed in this direction. Comparing potas- 
sium nitrate and ammonium nitrate as sources of nitrogen, the ad- 
vantage is more frequently with potassium nitrate, though there are 
some peculiar and striking adjustments which may not be specifically 
discussed here. It appears, too, that these relations are more or 
less influenced by temperature and by the concentration of the 
nutrients. 

Another phase of the work upon which investigation has been well 
initiated is the influence of commercial vitamin products on the car- 
bon and nitrogen metabolism of these organisms. The experiments 
now in progress are to determine, first of all, whether the vitamins 
supplied are in any way important in the nutrition of these organisms. 

Effects of Certain Sources of Carbon and Nitrogen on the Production of Acid 

by Fungi, by B. M. Duggar. 

After the growth of the organisms in the cultures referred to in the 
previous section, the H-ion concentration of the remaining culture 
media, (the filtrates from the fungus mats) was examined colorimetri- 
cally with a view to the utilization of such data in pointing out, if 
nothing more, at least the direction of metabolism in respect to acidity 
or alkalinity of the bj^-products. 

^^Tien peptone alone served as a source of both carbon and nitrogen, 
the H-ion concentration was shifted (by every organism except Asper- 
gillus niger) toward alkalinity and generally beyond the neutral point. 
When peptone and glucose were combined, 8 organisms increased the 
acidity of the medium, 5 developed an alkaline reaction, and the re- 
mainder produced very slight, if any, change. With potassium nitrate 
and glucose, all the organisms used shifted the reaction in the direction 
of alkalinity at a temperature of 58° to 61° F. except Aspergillus niger 
and Botrytis cinerea. With ammonium nitrate as a source of nitrogen, 
11 organisms produced a change towards alkalinity and 6 toward 
greater acidity. 

It is notable that such diversity as referred to above exists in the 
cultures of these organisms, and the problems involved are doubtless 
complex. Changes in hydrogen-ion concentration may or may not be 
significant, and it is early to make any specific assumptions, much less 
to deduce any general rules; but it is certain that the relative concentra- 
tion of nitrogen and carbon sources, partial exhaustion of the media, 
temperature, and other factors are important in determining the reac- 
tion of the medium. 



66 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Vitamin Notes, by H. W. Fenner. 

The investigations of Eykmann, Funk, and others which resulted 
in the discovery of an unknown essential factor in our food playing a 
very important role in metabolism, and in 1911 named "vitamin" 
by Funk, have so changed our ideas of the relative value of many of our 
foods that the subject has become one of great interest, not only to 
the investigator but to the general public, by reason of its apparent 
importance both to health and to economic considerations, 

AH vitamins are derived, either directly or indirectly, from plant 
life, and up to the present time our inability to easily determine the 
value in vitamins of the various vegetables and plants, to extract, 
analyze, and preserve these vitamins, and to determine exactly what 
they are and their role in metabolism has, in our daily routine of work, 
constantly brought before us questions that seem to be correlated 
with that of vitamins. 

In May of this year, in an attempt to aid in elucidating some of 
these questions, a series of experiments was started, using albino rats 
as subjects, investigating particularly the vitamin content of some of 
the commoner food vegetables, such as tomatoes, carrots, sweet 
potatoes, etc., and sprouted seeds of wheat and beans. These inves- 
tigations are still under way. 

Many difficulties have been met in arriving at some means of con- 
centrating and preserving the B and C vitamins. At present no 
procedure has been worked out that is entirely satisfactory, but our 
records are commencing to show some comparative values in vitamin 
content and general nutritional value, these values appearing to be con- 
siderably at variance with many of our accepted conclusions. However, 
the time is all too short and the results too indefinite to warrant our 
making a full repbrt at this time. Undoubtedly, considerable time 
will be required to form any conclusions that may be considered 
authentic. 

PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY. 
Vegetation of a Desert Valley, by Forrest Shreve. 

Work on the vegetation and physical conditions of the Avra Valley 
and adjacent areas has been chiefly directed, during the past year, to a 
study of the several soils which the area presents. Additional me- 
chanical analyses have been made in order to secure a more precise 
knowledge of the distribution of the soil types, particularly in areas 
where previously determined relations between soils and vegetation 
did not seem to hold true. The march of soil-moisture was followed 
in the various soils through the arid fore-summer of 1921, which was 
characterized by very low percentages as a result of the deficient rain- 
fall of the winter 1920-21, the moisture in sandy outwash having 
fallen to 1.5 per cent at 15 cm. by February 1. Measurements of the 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 67 

rate of evaporation from soils in place were made, with results that are 
in conformity with the physical textures of the soils in question. The 
temperature of the lightest soil in the area (sandy outwash) and of 
the heaviest (flood-plain) was followed for two months by soil-ther- 
mograph readings at 3 inches. The latter soil showed higher maxima 
and minima than the former, but in few cases was there more than 5° 
difference between the stations, located at approximately the same 
elevation. 

Laboratory work was carried on with samples of outwash, sandy 
outwash, flood-plain, and playa soils, with particular reference to 
determining their penetrability, the capillary rise of water in them, 
and the rates of evaporation under laboratory conditions. The 
results are in conformity with the physical textures of the soils, except 
in the case of the flood-plain type. This is an adobe soil in which 
from 22 to 51 per cent, by weight, consists of particles less than 0.01 
inch in diameter. Although the mechanical analysis of these soils 
has not been carried to further refinement, there is doubtless a con- 
siderable portion of the finest material that is less than 0.001 inch in 
diameter, resulting in a very slow rate of penetration and a low rate of 
evaporation as compared with the other much coarser types of soil. 
In cans of soil of the four types, which were saturated and allowed to 
evaporate for 36 days, the graphs representing their behavior ran 
closely parallel for the outwash, sandy outwash, and playa soils, but 
the rate of fall was much slower for the flood-plain, and at the end of 
the period it still contained 6 per cent of the original saturation content. 

Determinations were also made of the amount of salts readily dis- 
solved from soil samples by hot water, covering the four types of soil 
just mentioned and also the coarse outwash, a tj'pe which encircles 
all of the larger hills. The results show the highest percentages of 
soluble matter for the coarse outwash and the flood-plain — the soils 
which stand at the two ends of the erosion c^^cle. The lowest per- 
centages were found in certain samples of outwash, in which there 
appears to be only one-tenth as much readily soluble matter as in the 
flood-plain. Special determinations were made on samples from 
areas in which the vegetation is not in conformity with the texture of 
the soil, as is so generally the case over the entire area under investi- 
gation. In these cases the amount of soluble salts appears to be the 
determining factor and explains the exceptional vegetation. In view 
of these results further investigation will be made of areas in which 
the vegetation differs from that in adjacent locations appearing to have 
identical soil conditions. 

In order to secure a more precise record of the differences in vegeta- 
tion on the several soils in the Avra Valley and adjacent areas, a census 
was begun of the plant population on typical areas 10,000 square 
meters in size. The poorest vegetation, both in the number of species 



68 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

and of individuals, is found on the playa soil, where the average of two 
areas showed 223 plants of only 4 species. Each plant on this soil 
has an average space of slightly less than 50 square meters. The 
richest vegetation, in both species and individuals, is found on the 
coarse outwash, where there is a total of 1,494 individuals of 16 species. 
Each plant in this habitat has slightly more than 6 square meters of 
space. Other areas enumerated showed populations intermediate in 
size and variety between the playa and coarse-outwash soils. In an 
outwash area dominated by covillea, this plant was found to form 87 
per cent of the population, whereas in the coarse-outwash area three 
of the commonest species formed over 15 per cent each and two others 
over 10 per cent. These statistics have been confined to the perennial 
woody plants. 

Relation of Slope Exposure to Soil Temperature, by Forrest Shreve. 

The universality of the influence of slope exposure in modifying 
the character of the vegetation, outside of tropical latitudes, indicates 
that the angle of incidence of the sun's rays is the fundamental deter- 
minant of the environmental differe.ices between opposed slopes 
which face north and south. It would appear that the temperature 
of the soil is the immediate factor by which differences of insolation 
affect the other aspects of the environment, such as the rate of water- 
loss, the warming of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, and the length- 
ening or shortening of the growing season. During April and May 
1921 a series of readings at a depth of 3 inches was taken by the soil 
thermograph on north and south slopes at 3,000, 4,000, and 5,000 
feet in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains, near Tucson. 
The soil was a closely similar granitic loam in all cases, and the slopes 
were approximately 15° from the horizontal in each mse. Toward 
the end of the period of observation the maximum soil-temperatures 
increased with altitude, which confirms similar observations made in 
former years with soil thermometers. Throughout the period the 
maximum readings for south-facing slopes were slightly lower than 
those for north-facing slopes. This result appears to have its only 
possible explanation in the fact that the late afternoon sun falls on 
the north-facing slop»e more directly than on the south-facing slope 
a ad, in the absence of a plant covering, causes the already warmed 
soil to attain a slightly higher temperature in the late afternoon, an 
explanation which is confirmed on some of the records by the later 
occurrence of the maximum on the north-facing slopes. 

In order to compare the influence of slope exposure on soil-tempera- 
ture under dissimilar climatic conditions, two soil thermographs were 
installed on north-facing and south-facing slopes near the sea at a 
point about 5 miles south of Carmel, California. In order to compare 
the soil-temperature conditions outside of the fog belt with those 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 69 

close to the sea, a second pair of instruments was installed in the Car- 
mel Valley, 7 miles from the ocean. During June, July, and August 
the maximum on the coast was 4.1° higher on the south-facing than 
on the north-facmg slope, with a smaller difference in the minima. 
In the Carmel Valley the maximum was 5.8° higher on the south 
than on the north slope. These figures indicate that the results 
secured at Tucson are at least not of universal validity, if, indeed, 
they are true of steeper slopes in that region. 

A comparison of the soil-temperatures on the coast and in the in- 
terior at Carmel shows that the maximum during the clear days of 
June was 11.5° higher at the Carmel Valley station and the minimum 
11.1° higher, while during the foggy weeks of July the corresponding 
figures were 17.7° and 14.6°. In both periods the maxima were from 
6° to 8° higher on the north slope in the interior than they were on 
the south slope on the coast, which is a striking index of the difference 
between the environmental conditions inside and outside of the 
coastal fog belt. 

.4 Method for Measurement of Evaporation from Soils in Place, by 

Forrest Shreve. 

In order to determine the amount of water lost by different types 
of soil and by the same soil at different times, under the natural con- 
ditions of surface, wetting, and penetration, a method has been de- 
veloped and used in connection with field work at Tucson. This is 
an adaptation of the polymeter method for measuring the transpira- 
tion of plants in their natural setting. It consists, essentially, in 
placing a large bell-jar over a spot which is free from plants, placing 
under the jar a polymeter calibrated for the range of humidities to be 
encountered, and reading the initial and final humidities and tem- 
peratures over an accurately measured period of time, which should 
be varied with the speed of the rise in humidity. From the initial 
and final vapor pressures the amount of water may be calculated 
which has resulted from evaporation during the period of the observa- 
tion. Reductions may be made easily into terms of water lost per 
square meter per hour. 

At the relatively low humidities under which the method has been 
employed (15 to 25 per cent) it is found better to observe the time 
required for a rise of 10 per cent in humidity, although it is possible 
to observe the humidity attained at the end of a definite period of 
time. The principal limitations of the method are the necessity of 
shading the bell-jar in order to prevent too rapid a rise of temperature, 
and the inevitable stoppage of any air movement that may be acting 
at the time to increase evaporation. As all readings are taken under 
identical conditions in these respects, they serve to compare the 
evaporation in different soils and at different times in a much more 



70 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

satisfactory manner than the weighing of pans of saturated soil under 
laboratory conditions and with unnatural surface. 

In connection with the work on the physical properties of soils in 
the Tucson region, determinations have been made on four of the 
soil types under different conditions of moisture. On April 6, follow- 
ing a rain of 0.56 inch, the following averages were secured, in 
grams per square meter per hour: flood-plains 0.08, sandy outwashO.06, 
outwash 0.05, playa 0.04. Another series of determinations made in 
the same localities one week later found the flood-plain soil so dry that 
no rise of the polymeter was registered in 20 minutes. The losses from 
the other soils were: sandy outwash 0.02, outwash 0.03, playa 0.01. 

With accurate precipitation data, and with the determinations of 
soil-moisture taken in connection with the readings of evaporation, 
it becomes possible to follow with greater accuracy the history of the 
water which falls on desert and other soils. The extreme difficulty 
and uncertainty of measuring the run-off and also the amount of 
water penetrating the soil to considerable depth makes it important 
to be able to measure the remaining source of loss by physical agencies, 
especially since this is the only one of the agencies that it is possible 
to control in the agricultural management of soils. 

History of Groicth in a Monterey Pine as read from the Longitudinal Section 
of the Trunk of a Full-grown Tree, by D. T. MacDougal, H. von Schrenk, 
and Forrest Shreve. 

Early in July 1921, a tree of Pinus radiata, selected for size, age, 
and location, of mature height but still showing excurrent growth, 
was felled and the trunk cut away on one side of the central axis by a 
skilled woodsman, so as to expose the pith in a median longitudinal 
section of the entire trunk. The half log was then cut transversely 
at intervals of 2 meters. With this material a detailed study has 
been begun of all the geometrical features of growth in length and 
diameter, of the relation between growth in diameter at various 
levels from base to top, of the correlation between growth in height 
and increase in diameter, of the features accompanying the attain- 
ment of mature height, and of the relation between growth and the 
local climatic conditions. The ease with which all measurements 
and observations on the cross-sections can be checked and supple- 
mented by reference to the longiloudinal surface gives an exceptional 
opportunity to determine features of growth-behavior which are 
usually inferred or interpolated from incomplete material. 

The tree was 20 meters in height and 40 years old, if a liberal allow- 
ance of two years is made for the attainment of the stump height of 
10 cm. After felling and determining the age of the tree, it was 
found that the relation between its age and diameter is such as to 
place it almost precisely in the mean of a curve of age-diameter rela- 



BEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 



71 



Height of 

measurement, 

meters. 


Age, 
years. 


Diameter 
(cm.). 


Stump 

2 


38 
35 
32 
31 
30 
28 
26 
24 
19 
15 


43.5 
36.2 
29.0 
27.3 
27.3 
22.5 
19.6 
17.7 
12.2 
7.5 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 



tionship which was previously determined from 200 trees by Dr. Shreve. 
In the last 15 years the tree had grown in height 1.9 meters, and in 
the last 5 years 34 cm., indicating that it was rapidly approaching 
the period when a mature flat -topped crown is formed. 

In the accompanying table are given the ages and diameters of the 
trunk at intervals of 2 meters from the stump. 

It will be seen from these figures that 
between the heights of 4 and 8 meters the 
tree was growing at the rate of 2 meters 
per year, and between the heights of 8 and 
14 meters at the rate of 1 meter per year. 
The diameter growth of the last 5 years, like 
that in height, has been greatly reduced, 
while the thickest rings of growth were 
made in the years which also witnessed the 
greatest growth in height. 

The trunk of this pine was found to ex- 
hibit to a marked extent the alternation 
of thick and thin rings, or ''double rings," 
which is frequently observed in this and other species of pines and 
presents a serious obstacle to the accurate determination of age by 
ring count. During the 40 years in which this tree has been grow- 
ing there had been 14 years in which a small accessory ring was 
formed toward the close of the season's growth. The nature of the 
latest of these accessory rings is established with certainty through 
dendrograph measurements made by MacDougal It occurred in the 
fall of 1918, following a three-day rain of 5 inches in mid-September, 
and has been detected in several trees by use of the increment borer 
and in a large number of stumps. 

Carbon-Dioxide-Supplying Power of the Air, by Burton E. Livingston. 

It is generally regarded as proved that ordinary land plants receive 
their carbon from the air in the form of carbon-dioxide. If this be 
true, as it surely must be, at least in all cases where the transpiration 
rate is very low, it is at once suggested that the ability of the sur- 
rounding air to deliver carbon-dioxide to plant foliage may some- 
times, or generally, limit the rate of carbohydrate photosynthesis 
during strongly sunlit periods. Students of this process have been 
led to the idea that the carbon-dioxide-supplying power of the air is 
always of sufficient magnitude to surpass the maximum photosyn- 
thetizing power of green leaves, but several studies point to the con- 
clusion that this is not generally true. It is at least highly probable 
that many kinds of plants might absorb and fix carbon at a more 
rapid rate if the carbon-dioxide-supplying power of the air were 
greater than it is. Before this question can be adequately studied it 



72 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

will of course be necessary that we have some quantitative measure 
of the environmental feature here emphasized, and that we secure 
some knowledge as to just how this supplying power varies from 
time to time and how it differs from place to place in nature. Also, 
whenever it shall have become possible to study ordinary plants under 
artificially controlled conditions, so that true experimentation with 
these can finally begin, it will be essential to measure and control the 
carbon-dioxide-supplying power of the air in the culture chambers and 
to know how this compares with natural conditions. 

With such considerations as these in mind, some preliminary deter- 
minations of this dynamic condition of plant environment were made 
at Tucson in the summer of 1921. The method employed was very 
simple, following the principles on which the evaporating power of 
the air, the water-supplying power of the soil, etc., have been studied. 
A carbon-dioxide-absorbing surface with adequate absorbing power is 
exposed to the air, and the amount of the gas actually absorbed is 
taken as a measure of the average supplying power for the period of 
exposure. Small glass cylinders exposing about 24 sq. cm. of absorb- 
ing surface (of a solution of sodium hydroxide) were used, the alka- 
linity of the absorber solution being determined by titrations before 
and after each exposure. The results, which are to be regarded as 
only preliminary, indicate that the carbon-dioxide-supplying power of 
the air has values ranging from a minimum of about 1.4 grams to a 
maximum of about 1.4 grams of carbon dioxide per hour and per square 
meter of absorbing surface. The minimum represents a day-time 
exposure on the soil surface under tall, dense grass in the experiment 
grounds of the Desert Laboratory. The maximum represents a night 
exposure indoors, wioh rotating table and electric fan. 

As in the case of the evaporating power of the air, the carbon-dioxide- 
supplying power depends upon two component conditions; the par- 
tial pressure of the gas (corresponding to the vapor-pressure deficit 
for evaporation) and the velocity of air-movement over the standard 
surface. With low average wind velocities the supplying-power 
values are generally low, while periods of high wind give relatively 
high values. 

Comparative Rates oj Water Evaporation from Different Kinds of Surfaces, by 

Burton E. Livirigston. 

Earlier studies in atmometry and measurements of plant transpira- 
tion have made it empirically clear, as it was already clear on a priori 
grounds, that the rate at which water is vaporized and removed from a 
surface of liquid water (whether free or held in a solid matrix, such as 
porous porcelain, cellulose, etc.) is influenced as much by the kind 
of surface as by the conditions of the surroundings. As has been 
emphasized in a previous report, the power of the aerial surroundings, 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 73 

at an3'- point, to remove water by evaporation from a liquid surface 
may be studied quantitatively by means of any form of atmometer 
that is able to supply new liquid wate/ to the exposed surface as rapidly 
as drying occurs through evaporation. But the measurements must 
always be considered as related to the particular form of atmometer 
used. It is not possible, for example, to calculate evaporation from an 
open pan of water by means of readings secured with a porous-cup 
atmometer, etc. This feature makes the study of evaporation as a 
climatic feature very complex and somewhat more difficult than is the 
corresponding study of rainfall. To gain more informaMon on this 
subject, pans of water were employed with several forms of porous-cup 
and other atmometers in a series of observations made at Tucson in the 
summer of 1921. The results support the conclusions previously 
reached, and the white-porcelain sphere remains the most satisfactorj'' 
form of atmometer for the careful study of the evaporating power of 
the air, at least aside from the influence of sunshine. For less detailed 
and less precise studies, open pans of liquid water and non-spherical 
porous cups have their places, and the Bates cloth-wick atmometer 
(which was included in the tests here considered) appears to be satis- 
factory for roughly general comparisons when the evaporating power 
of the air does not exceed the capacity of the instrument to deliver 
liquid to the evaporating surfaces as these are exposed through the 
perforations in the lower plate. The last-named instrument appears 
to be suitable, as far as its readings are concerned, for the ecological 
and forestry work for which it was devised. 

Plant transpiration is evaporation from water-imbibed cell-walls, 
and the imbibed water contains significant amounts of dissolved 
material. It has often been suggested that the rate of plant trans- 
piration may be considerably retarded by high solute concentration in 
the cell solution, this suggestion being deduced from the fact that 
such high concentration of a solution is accompanied by high osmotic 
potential and by lowered vapor tension. It has been pointed out, 
however, that such concentrations as generally occur in plant tissues, 
while they may sometimes give osmotic values as high as 20 or 30 
atmospheres, can produce only a slight lowering of the vapor pressure 
of the solutions as compared with water. Although this matter seems 
quite clear from the physical view-point, some tests with pans of water 
and of molecular cane-sugar solution were made at Tucson in 1921, 
to determine the relative evaporation rates of these two Uquids when 
similarly exposed. From these tests it appears that, in the absence of 
direct sunshine, the sugar solution evaporated at a rate less than 10 per 
cent lower than the rate at which water evaporated under the same 
conditions. This is in accord with physical theory. But another 
point was brought out, namely, that when both the pans were exposed 
to direct sunshine the sugar solution evaporated considerably more 



74 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

rapidly than did water. This was doubtless due to an action of the 
dissolved sugar resulting in the absorption of more radiation than was 
absorbed by pure water. The dissolved sugar appears to act somewhat 
like particles of carbon held in suspension. Like a suspension of car- 
bon, the sugar solution becomes warmer than water similarly exposed 
when both are in sunshine, and evaporation is markedly less rapid from 
the water. Whether these points are important in the consideration 
of foliar transpiration as related to sunshine remains to be determined, 
but they do not seem to have been mentioned in the literature. 

In connection with the studies mentioned above, the investigation of 
the principles concerning the influence of solar radiation on evapora- 
tion was continued by means of blackened and white porous-cup 
atmometers of several forms (radio-atmometers), pans of water, 
sugar solution, carbon suspension, etc. Sunshine has long been known 
to be a very important feature in the control of plant transpiration, 
but its influence on this plant process has never been adequately 
studied. The investigation just mentioned is directed toward a 
quantitative knowledge of the influence of solar radiation on the rate 
of loss of water vapor from plants. A somewhat thorough discussion 
of this whole problem is planned for the near future. 

Inheritance of Teratoid Flowers in Diplacus glulinosiis, by Francis E. Lloyd. 

A single plant of the perennial shrub Diplacus glutinosus with 
teratoid flowers was found growing a short distance from the Coastal 
Laboratory in 1915. The character of the abnormalities is as follows: 

The sepals were very numerous, and varied from minute subulate 
bladeless members to narrowly ovate, apiculate, and sometimes 
downwardly ascidiate and petiolate free sepals; ascending the sup- 
porting axis they became more and more united to form partial or 
entire calices, usually split longitudinally, 3- to (and more usually) 
6-merous. The calices numbered 3 to 4, arranged cone-in-cone 
fashion, the uppermost usually more or less petaloid. Above these 
there were generally two corollas, entire or split longitudinally, or 
instead there was frequently a spiral series involving as many as 
18 to 21 members, the lowermost being sepaloid, the uppermost 
petaloid, the whole showing more or less strepsis. Concrescence 
might also occur between the spiral series and other members, arising 
either in axillary positions or within, toward the apex of the axis. 

The stamens were usually absent (only one case in 36 afforded two 
perfectly formed anthers but with almost sterile pollen), and those 
present were either variously fasciated or displayed partial or com- 
plete petalody, free or concrescent with the corolla or corolla-spiral; 
or, again, some degree of pistillody was observed. The pistil was 
either single and normal or nearly normal, or it might show duplica- 
tion, with quadrilocular ovary, or it might be monocarpellary, v/ith 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANICAL RESEARCH. 75 

two placentae. When supernumerary pistils were present, usually 
two in number, the ovaries were open and distorted, displaying the 
more or less imperfect ovules along the margins. In extreme cases 
the androecium and gyncEcium were entirely abated, and the axis, 
w^ith branches from the axils of the corolla lobes, might be proliferate, 
bearing foliage in whorls, followed by other abnormal flowers. These 
in all cases were paler in color, more or less virescent, and always 
notably shorter than normal flowers with respect to the constituent 
members. The degree of abnormality was less when the plants were 
young, as would be expected, and earlier in the season than later. 

Successful pollinations with pollen from normal plants were made 
in three instances, in which the pistils were normal. The seed (Fi) 
was grown at the University of California. The seedlings w^ere trans- 
planted in September 1916 into a bed prepared in an isolated position 
at the upper end of the Coastal Laboratory garden. Here in 1917 
they flowered. These plants were entirely normal. The seed from 
these interpoUinated plants w^as also grown at Berkeley, and previous 
to September 1920 had yielded 155 plants, which had flowered. Of 
these, 122 were normal and 33 abnormal, which produced teratoids 
of the same character as those observed on the ovulate Pi plant. 

The ratio obtained in F2 (4 normal to 1 abnormal) may have re- 
sulted from the condition of spontaneous pollination permitted, 
although it was thought that the plants were fairly well isolated. 
It is sufficiently close, hov/ever, to indicate the character of the in- 
heritance. 

The culture and observing of the plants at the University of Cali- 
fornia was possible through the very kind cooperation of Professor 
E. B. Babcock and Dr. J. L. Coflins. The culture is still available 
there. 







TaI 







■^ ♦- 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY.* 

George L. Streeter, Director. 
CYTOLOGY. 

It may be well to explain that in tissue-cultures individual growing 
cells from a bit of explanted embryonic tissue, in making their way 
into the surrounding medium of clear fluid, stretch themselves out 
flat and very thin on the lower surface of the glass cover-slip, under 
which conditions they can be readily examined in the living state 
with high magnification. This method, which has been perfected in 
large part by Professor W. H. Lewis and Mrs. M. R. Lewis, of this 
laboratory, has enabled us to study the cytoplasm and finer anatomy 
of the cell more intimately than was before possible, and at the same 
time to introduce experimental procedures and observe the behavior 
of cells in altered environments and under the influence of various 
stains and reagents. It is quite likely that the essential structure 
of a growing cell in tissue-culture is the same as that of similar cells 
growing normally in the embryo, but the shape of the cell, owing to 
the flattening-out tendency, usually departs considerably from its 
natural outlines. On this account we have had much difficulty in 
identifying the unfamiliar forms exhibited by the cells in cultures. 
Sufficient progress, however, has now been made in the study of their 
appearance and behavior to make possible a description of the charac- 
teristics of the primary cell types, as seen under these conditions. 

Characteristics of Cell-Types in TissuE-CuLTrRES. 

It has been found by Professor Lewis that each cell which migrates 
out of the explant onto the coverslip does so in a manner peculiar to 
its type. The blood-cells and clasmatocytes pursue very irregular 
paths, the individual cells retaining their complete independence and 
rarely adhering together to form a definite pattern. On the other 
hand, ectodermal and endodermal cells, which always migrate out in 
the form of a membrane, adhere to their neighbors in more or less 
even lines. Intermediate between these two extremes are the mesen- 
chymal, endothelial, and smooth-muscle tissues, in which the cells 
tend to adhere to one another by their processes rather than b}^ their 
borders, thus forming loose reticuli, the pattern in each case being 
characteristic for the respective cell-type. Differing from all of these 
are the characteristic outgrowths of long, multinucleated strands 
from striated muscle and the long, slender nerve-fibers from the sym- 
pathetic and central nervous systems. Both the muscle-strands and 
the nerve-fibers have a tendency to form anastomising plexuses, 
those of the nerve-fibers being elaborate and complicated. Once 

♦Address; Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland. 

77 



78 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

attained, the characteristics of the individual cells and of the cell 
colonies remain stationary until degeneration of the culture takes 
place; there is no further differentiation except cell division, which 
is frequent. There is an interesting resemblance between the re- 
ticulum of smooth muscle and that of endothelium, in that under 
conditions of fixation they both exhibit fibrillse. This indicates the 
presence of a considerable amount of contractile substance in endo- 
thelium and provides an anatomical basis for the contraction of 
capillaries. 

The completed study of Dr. Ruth S. Lynch, on the cultivation 
in vitro of liver cells of chick embryos, has been published since our 
last report and constitutes a description of another distinct cell-type. 
Dr. Lynch succeeded in obtaining membrane-like outgrowths of liver 
cells up to 27 micra wide. In her publication she has carefully de- 
scribed and illustrated the histological character of these cultures and 
the manner of growth and degeneration of the liver cells and the 
associated tissues. 

Cytoplasmic Granules. 

Living protoplasm is characterized by the presence of a variety of 
cytoplasmic granulations concerning whose composition and function 
we know very little; that some of them play a fundamental part in 
the activity of the cell, however, there can be no doubt. There are 
(1) the specific granules normally present in and characteristic for 
certain cells, such as the granules of leucocytes, the large granules of 
eosinophile cells, secretion granules, and, widely differing from these, 
the specific pigment granules of the pigmented cells and the fat glob- 
ules and granules of fat cells; (2) the mitochondrial granular or rod- 
shaped bodies which are present in all protoplasm and which are 
apparently concerned with some fundamental process common to all 
cells; (3) a newly recognized group of granules found in cultures 
grown in media containing white of egg, to which reference will be 
made later; (4) a group of granules and associated vacuoles which 
stain selectively with neutral red. 

In the Year Book for 1919 I referred to a study by Professor Lewis, 
in which he described the occurrence and behavior of neutral-red 
granules and vacuoles in degenerating fibroblasts, reaching the con- 
clusion that they constitute a part of the process of cell degeneration. 
During the past year an additional study on the origin and functional 
activity of these neutral-red granules and vacuoles has been published 
by Miss R. E. Prigosen. Miss Prigosen adopted the method of 
making film preparations of living subcutaneous connective tissue of 
8 to 17 day chick embryos and placing them under abnormal con- 
ditions, such as in media to which neutral red had been added or 
from which oxygen was excluded. The cells were then studied until 
their ultimate death. These experiments fully confirmed the previous 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 79 

observations of Dr. Lewis. Neutral-red granules and vacuoles accu- 
mulated in the cytoplasm of the fibroblasts in proportion to the degree 
of degeneration of the cell. It has been maintained by some that 
these bodies correspond to food vacuoles. Miss Prigosen rules out 
any question of phagocytosis or simple intracellular accumulation of 
dye, and finds the staining reaction of these vacuoles (yellow or brick- 
red) to be quite different from that exhibited by the food vacuoles 
(rose tint). 

Another method of producing degeneration vacuoles has been 
found by Mrs. Margaret R. Lewis. Advantage was taken of the fact 
that dextrose is an essential part of the medium for tissue culture and 
that its absence results in a disturbance in the normal metabolism 
of the cell. Mrs. Lewis was thus able to produce degeneration vacuoles 
by decreasing the dextrose in the culture medium. In media lacking 
dextrose the cells showed numerous vacuoles in 24 to 48 hours; in 
media containing 0.25 per cent dextrose, vacuolization, degeneration, 
and death of the cells were retarded several days; while in media 
containing from 0.5 to 1 per cent dextrose the cells continued in an 
apparently healthy condition for as long as two or three weeks without 
the appearance of vacuoles. 

From a study of the effects of egg white introduced into the medium 
of a culture of connective tissue, Mrs. Lewis has been able to dif- 
ferentiate a type of cell granule which she terms the "al" granule, 
mention of which was made in a preceding paragraph. These granules 
are large, rounded, somewhat refractive bodies formed within the 
cytoplasm of connective-tissue cells. When stained with eosin they 
resemble the colloid or hyaline droplets seen in renal epithelium under 
pathological conditions, and when stained with iron hematoxylin 
the cells containing them resemble cells undergoing active secretion. 
The al granules, both in living and fixed material, are easily dis- 
tinguishable from neutral-red granules, with which they may exist 
side by side in degenerating cultures. They differ also from pigment 
granules and certain secretion granules, in that they are less frequently 
found collected around the centrosphere. The processes of the cells 
are always free from these al granules. Cells were found to divide by 
mitosis even when full of the granules, whereas mitotic division is 
rarely seen in the presence of degeneration vacuoles. There is some 
variation in their size, but in most cases they are much larger than 
either mitochondrial bodies or neutral-red granules. They are not 
readily stained by vital dyes, although they show a slight reaction to 
neutral red. In fixed preparations stained with iron hematoxylin 
they appear in various shades, from dense black to gray. When em- 
bryonic connective tissue was placed in egg albumin, the cells grew out 
in the medium much as in normal cultures, and at the end of 16 hours 
they contained many of the al granules, the maximum number being 



80 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

reached at 24 hours. Owing to the toxicity of the medium, few of these 
cultures survived more than five days, as contrasted with normal cul- 
tures, which live for two weeks or more. When diluted albumin was 
used the phenomenon was retarded. When cultures were started in 
Locke-Lewis solution and transferred to egg albumin, the al granules 
did not appear for several hours, but after 20 hours these bodies were 
about as abundant and as large as those in cells of cultures explanted 
directly into egg albumin. In using the term "aV granules, Mrs. 
Lewis does not mean to signify that they consist of albumin, but only 
that they are the invariable result of the presence of albumin in the 
environment of the cells. As for the factors concerned in the formation 
of the al granules, Mrs. Lewis points out that there must be egg albu- 
min in the medium in which the tissue is growing; a solution of peptone 
will not suffice. Furthermore, it is evident that the phenomenon is 
associated with conditions that are unfavorable to the life of the cell. 
Whether it is a process of phagocytic nature or due to some change in 
the cell membrane which permits the entrance of some material 
normally excluded or prevents certain substances from passing out of 
the cell, remains to be determined. 

Pigment-Producing and Pigment-Carrying Cells. 

Heretofore the pathologist has had no adequate criteria for deter- 
mining whether, in a given pigmented cell, the pigment was formed 
within it or had been ingested. The importance of obtaining some 
means of distinguishing between the pigment-producing cell and pig- 
ment-carrying cell will be appreciated when it is recalled that the 
presence of the former in a new growth is an indication of a malignant 
process, whereas the latter may mean nothing more than the phago- 
cytosis of broken-down blood-elements. By means of tissue-culture 
methods, Mr. David T. Smith has obtained criteria which apparently 
enable one to accurately distinguish between these two varieties of 
pigment granules. In the first place, he made careful observations on 
the origin and development of melanin pigment in the retina of the 
embryo chick, studied in vivo and in vitro. In cultures, the pigment 
cells migrate out in the form of a thin membrane, thus offering an 
excellent opportunity to observe the behavior of the cytoplasmic 
granules in the living state. From such preparations it was found that 
pigment granules are neither extrusions from the nucleus nor converted 
mitochondria, as has been frequently maintained, but arise in the cyto- 
plasm of the cell as small, colorless or gray granules, which appear at 
about 42 hours' incubation. They gradually increase in size, number, 
and depth of color until, at 17 days, the cell is filled with black rod- 
shaped granules of uniform size. There is thus the stage of colorless 
chromogen, followed by the stage of color production in the chromogen. 
When formed, the pigment granules are very stable and are not de- 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 81 

stroyed by strong acids. They move about the cell with a character- 
istic swift, jerky motion and remain discrete, showing no tendency to 
clump together in vacuoles. 

Having ascertained the appearance and behavior of the granules of 
the true pigment cell, Mr. Smith then studied the phenomenon of in- 
gestion of pigment granules by the cells of various embryonic chick 
tissues grown in Locke-Lewis solution. It was found that melanin 
pigment obtained from the retina of the chick, pig, dog, and new-born 
child is readily ingested in tissue-cultures of chick embryos by clasmat- 
ocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, white blood-cells, and cells from 
the lung, liver, kidney, intestine, and amnion. On the other hand, it 
is not ingested by the peripheral-nerve cells, striated-muscle cells, or 
red blood-cells. When free in the culture fluid, the pigment granules, 
in addition to progressing from place to place, exhibit a characteristic 
Brownian movement; when attached to the cell-wall they become 
motionless; after passing into the cytoplasm they exhibit the same 
jerky motion noted in pigment granules in their native cells, until 
finally a vacuole is developed about them, whereupon they revert to 
Brownian motion. The manner in which the granules are ingested is 
of interest. They are not engulfed by the throwing out of pseudo- 
podia, as has been described for the amoeba. When the granule comes 
in contact with the cell-wall, it is simply drawn into the interior 
as if by capillary attraction, the result apparently of a local modifica- 
tion of the cell-membrane. It is of interest also to note that the pig- 
ment granule, on entering a cell, is not taken into a preformed vacuole, 
nor does a vacuole immediately form about it; only after it has been 
in the cytoplasm for some time is the vacuole formed. Once within 
the vacuole the granule swells, breaks up into fragments, and is ulti- 
mately reduced to minute particles of debris. It is the clumping 
together of the granules into masses of irregular size and shape, their 
inclosure in vacuoles, and their degeneration into debris that dis- 
tinguish the ingested pigment from that contained in true pigment- 
producing cells. 

The phenomenon of phagocytosis has also been studied by Dr. 
G. B. Wislocki. Taking advantage of the fact that the endothehal 
and reticular cells in bone-marrow tend to phagocytize and retain 
soUd particles brought to them by the circulating blood. Dr. Wislocki 
succeeded, by means of the thick deposit of pigment that can be thus 
produced in the marrow, in demonstrating the distribution of the 
marrow throughout the skeletons of new-born and adult rabbits, a 
detailed description of which is given in his paper. His method con- 
sisted of the injection of carbon particles (dilute india-ink) into the 
blood-stream and a few days later sacrificing the animal, removing 
the viscera, and rendering the remaining tissues of the body trans- 
parent by the Spalteholz clearing method. After this procedure the 



82 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

blackened bone-marrow could be seen ever5rvvhere accurately de- 
lineated from the surrounding structures. This method should prove 
of value in studies of bone development, both normal and where 
disturbances of development and growth of bone are produced experi- 
mentally. Dr. Wislocki found that differences exist in bone-marrow 
cells of the different mammalia as regards their ability to phagocytize 
and store particles of carbon. In the cat and dog the phagocytosed 
carbon is confined to the liver, spleen, and lungs; in the guinea-pig 
the bone-marrow also takes up some of it; while in the rabbit it is 
found distributed equally between the liver, lungs, spleen, and bone- 
marrow. 

Cultures of Human Lymph-Glands. 

Dr. Lewis and Dr. li. T. Webster have made a series of successful 
plasma cultures from normal and pathological lymph-nodes obtained 
by operation at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Autoplasma and homo- 
plasma were used as media, the outgrowths in the two being about the 
same, except that migration took place slightly earlier in autoplasma. 
The investigators were able to demonstrate in this way that in tissue 
cultures maintained at body temperature the lymphocytes of both 
normal and pathological lymph-nodes are actively amoeboid and 
migrate in a definite and characteristic manner for several days. 
The establishment of this point is of considerable chnical importance, 
in that it offers an explanation for the local accumulation of lymphoid 
cells such as occurs in lymphatic leukaemia. Furthermore, it seems 
probable that lympho-sarcoma is not a neoplasm, but a response on 
the part of the lymphocytes to a localized chemotactic disease-causing 
agent. 

The migration of the lymphocytes precedes that of the larger 
wandering cells and giant cells, beginning within an hour or two after 
the culture has been placed in the warm box. This migration con- 
tinues for two or more days until all the living lymphocytes have left 
the explant. They migrate out into the plasma clot more readily 
than along the cover-slip and at a maximum rate of 0.03 mm. per 
minute. The path of migration is irregular, but in general it is away 
from the explant. The cells may be deflected from their course by 
coming in contact with other cells or with fibrous threads. The 
migration may be interrupted by rest periods, during which the lym- 
phocytes assume a rounded form. While moving they are elongated, 
with the nucleus at or near the forward-moving end. The nucleus, 
though plastic and continually changing shape, forms the broadest 
part of the cell. The scant amoeboid cytoplasm in front of it is homo- 
geneous and free of granules. The bulk of the cytoplasm is behind 
the nucleus and forms a finger-shaped process containing mitochon- 
dria and granules. The striking polarity exhibited by the moving 
cell may be recognized also in the more rounded resting-stage. 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 83 

In connection with their observations on the migration of lym- 
phocytes, Lewis and Webster noted in these cultures the presence of 
large giant cells closely resembling those found in tuberculous nodes. 
They appeared to form within the explant and to migrate out into 
the plasma clot afterward. In structure and appearance they were 
practically identical with the large wandering cells that were present 
in great abundance in nearly all of the cultures, differing only in their 
larger size and greater number of nuclei. They usually appeared 
about the second or third day, after the lymphocytes, polymorpho- 
nuclear leucocytes, and wandering cells had left the explant. They 
migrated out from explants from normal and tuberculous nodes, 
nodes from acute and chronic lymphadenitis, from Hodgkin's disease, 
and from a metastatic sarcoma. They were most abundant, however, 
in cultures from tuberculous nodes. These giant cells were conspic- 
uous for their large accumulation of bright-green fat globules and for 
their numerous nuclei, which ranged in number from 2 to 60, the usual 
number being 10 to 20. Their movements were slow and deliberate, 
but there was some shifting, both of the cells themselves and of the 
nuclei. When flattened out on the cover-glass, each cell was seen to 
contain a central granular area which stained avidly with neutral red 
in the culture and with eosin in the fixed material. Since neutral red 
is probably taken up only by the non-living cytoplasmic inclusions, 
this central area must be considered as non-living, probably partly 
digested food and waste products, or perhaps segregated foreign 
substances. 

Surrounding this central area there was a zone of fat-globules in 
which were embedded the nuclei. Scattered about this zone, or 
mingling with the peripheral fat-globules, were the thread-like mito- 
chondria, the whole being surrounded by a clear, more or less homo- 
geneous ectoplasm. Within the central area there could sometimes 
be observed what appeared to be a centrosphere, but no centriole 
could be made out in any of the cells, in either the living or fixed 
material. The nuclei exhibited a peculiar and significant horseshoe- 
like arrangement about the equator of the central area, which can 
be best explained on the hypothesis that giant ceils arise from large 
wandering cells by amitotic division of the nuclei without division 
of the cytoplasm. Only one clear case was seen, however, of amitotic 
nuclear division. On the other hand, there was no evidence that 
these giant cells arise by fusion of large mononuclear cells. 

Effect of Potassium Permanganate on Mesenchyme Cells. 

It has been found by Dr. Lewis that, by using the strong oxidizing 
reagent potassium permanganate, certain reactions can be produced in 
mesenchyme cells of tissue-cultures which closely resemble some of the 
features of mitosis, and apparently the two processes have something 
in common. Weak solutions (1 : 40,000 and 1 : 80,000) of the reagent 



84 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

were used so that the changes could be followed, death of the cell 
resulting in about half an hour. In the nucleus the chromatin material 
was contracted into a dense, deeply staining mass and the nuclear sap 
was expelled in the form of clear fluid vacuoles, the process resembling 
the segregation of chromatin material and nuclear sap in mitosis. In 
both potassium experiments and mitosis the mitochondria became 
broken up into rods and granules and transformed into vesicles. In 
both, also, there was condensation of the cytoplasm. It was found that 
the centrosphere was not affected; this, together with the fact that the 
centrosphere enlarges in cell degeneration, may be taken as evidence 
that this structure is not the dynamic center of the cell, as has been 
previously maintained, but is rather to be looked upon as a degenerat- 
ing area. 

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND SPECIAL SENSE-ORGANS. 
The Fetal Brain. 

During the winter of 1920, spent in this laboratory as a guest, Pro- 
fessor George B. Jenkins utilized our embrj^ological collection and 
records for determining the relative weight and volume of the compo- 
nent parts of the brain of the human embryo as found at different 
stages of development. Dr. Jenkins's work has now been completed 
and published. To represent the first half of intrauterine life he 
selected 8 specimens (the youngest being 4.3 mm. long) which had been 
prepared in serial sections. Models of the brains were made with wax 
plates and these were subdivided into 11 component parts and the 
weight and volume and the subdivisions determined. During the 
second half of pregnancy the relative volume of the different parts 
remains more constant, so that 2 specimens were sufficient to cover 
this period and the brains were large enough to dissect into parts 
corresponding to the younger specimens. The weight and volume of 
each part could therefore be determined directly without resort to 
serial sections and modeling. In this manner Dr. Jenkins was able to 
trace the original predominance of the primary centers and their 
gradual loss in relative volume coincident with the growth of the 
secondary centers. It is of interest to note that in a 4-mm. embryo 
the cerebrum constitutes only 7 per cent of the volume of the brain, 
whereas in the later fetal stages it forms nearly 90 per cent. In the 
younger stages about one-half of the brain volume is accounted for 
by the nuclei of origin of the cranial nerves and their associated fibers. 

Rudimentary Head Cavity. 

In studying some of our younger human embryos. Dr. Joseph L. 
Shellshear, of the University College, London, succeeded in identifying, 
in the neighborhood of the glossopharyngeal ganglion, a cavity of 
the axial mesoderm which appears to be homologous with the head 
cavities that give origin to the muscles of the eye. Arising from the 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 85 

cavity is a clump of spindle-shaped cells, continuous with and similar 
to the group mesial and posterior to the vagus nerve, which Dr. 
Shellshear interprets as the migrating elements of the hypoglossal 
musculature. Through the aid of the Rockefeller Foundation, it was 
possible for Dr. Shellshear to spend several months of the past win- 
ter wuth us as a guest. 

Subarachnoid Spaces. 

The series of studies carried out during the past few years by Pro- 
fessor Lewis H. Weed and other workers associated with him has given 
us a more definite and concise conception of the morphology and 
behavior of the cells lining the subarachnoid space, which were pre- 
viously little understood. In a shorter account, referred to in the last 
Year Book, Dr. Weed described the changes which these cells undergo 
with increasing age of the animal, exhibiting in young adult and old cats 
characteristic proliferations. It will also be recalled that in his mono- 
graph on the histogenesis of the subarachnoid space he described the 
development of these cells in the embryo pig. During the past year his 
observations have been extended and brought together into a complete 
account, in which he assembles all his previous results. This important 
paper presents, in the first place, the normal form and disposition of the 
subarachnoid cells, both in the embryo and in the adult. Dr. Weed 
follows this with a description of the changes in form which they 
undergo under physiological activity in response to exposure to various 
stimulating and destructive substances, including infective processes. 
Like the mesothelial cells of the peritoneum, in the normal state they 
spread out in a thin and usually single layer, lining more or less com- 
pletely the arachnoid membrane and its trabeculse. Under the stimu- 
lus of injected matter, however, the cells enlarge, become phagocytic, 
and may break away from their attachments and move about freely 
as macrophages in the subarachnoid space. Localized proliferations 
of arachnoid cells, both in man and in laboratory animals, had been 
previously observed without being understood. As a result of Dr. 
Weed's observations, it is now clear that they are conditioned by age. 
They are absent in the young, are usually present in the adult, and 
increase with advancing age. In tracing their ultimate fate, it is 
found that they reach a limited size, after which they either persist or 
undergo degeneration with subsequent infiltration of calcareous 
material. Occasionally^ they apparently become converted into true 
endotheliomata. 

Dr. Weed and Dr. Hughson have been able to demonstrate ex- 
perimentally that the cranium and vertebral canal, within which 
the central nervous System lies, are so constituted as to form a closed 
and unyielding chamber and thus, by the administration of hypotonic 
solutions, it is possible to produce a negative pressure in the cere- 
brospinal fluid. A preliminary account of these experiments has 
been given and the complete report is in process of publication. 



86 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Membranous Labyrinth. 

In the course of some experiments carried out several years ago 
with amphibian larva?, I discovered that the cells constituting the 
ear-vesicle are specialized very early and that, when transplanted to 
an abnormal environment, they continue to differentiate in the usual 
way into a recognizable labyrinth. Even fragments were found to 
develop independently of the rest of the vesicle, and an individual 
part, such as the endolymphatic appendage, might be quite normal 
in cases where the remainder of the labyrinth was very abnormal. 
It was further found that the developmental independence of the 
vesicles extends to differences existing between a right-sided and a 
left-sided organ. The dextral or sinistral character of the ear-vesicle 
is not controlled by its environment but by the intrinsic character of 
its own constituent cells, and a left ear-vesicle, when transplanted to 
the right side, develops into a labyrinth having all the characteristics 
of a left-sided organ. It was found, however, that the ear-vesicle, 
though capable of this marked power of self-differentiation, was 
not in all respects independent of the surrounding structures. The 
posture of the fully developed labyrinth and the position of its canals 
were found to be controlled by the environment. Deliberate rotation 
of the ear-vesicle into abnormal positions, and even its transplantation 
to the opposite side of the body, resulted in a labyrinth possessing a 
normal attitude with reference to the brain, ganglion masses, and the 
surface of the body. Regardless of the manner of its displacement 
at the time of the operation, the labyrinth seemed always to correct 
its position, even to the extent of complete rotation. The existence 
of a postural influence of this kind introduces a new factor in organo- 
genesis, concerning the nature of which we know very little. It 
forces the conclusion that the labyrinth does not develop inertly in 
the position in which its rudiment first lies, subject only to mechanical 
stresses of the adjacent structures, but that we must also take into 
consideration an autostatic tendency inherent in the vesicle itself, by 
virtue of which it maintains and accurately adjusts its position during 
the course of development. 

In substantiation of the above conclusion, I have been able to show 
during the past year, from a study of normal material, that not only 
does this adjustment of position occur under artificial conditions of 
experiment, but that in the ordinary course of development the ear- 
vesicle undergoes a recognizable migration or change of position, 
moving from the point of its original attachment to the skin to a more 
median and dorsal location, where it adjusts itself closely against the 
side of the brain in a definite attitude. 

Other experiments on the ear-vesicle of amphibian larvse were made 
by Professor C. Ogawa, while a guest of this laboratory, in order to 
determine, if possible, how soon the ear-vesicle rights itself after an 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 87 

experimental displacement; whether it slips back into its normal 
position immediately after the operation or later, after the wound is 
healed. His observations indicate the latter to be the case. There 
was no evidence of rotation during the first 3 hours, at the end of 
which time the wound had entirely healed. Specimens examined 
between 16 and 34 hours after operation, when the labyrinth is still 
a simple oval sac without canals, showed that rotation had occurred. 
Dr. Ogawa also demonstrated that an ear-vesicle may be transplanted 
from one species to another {Amhlystovia to Rana or vice versa) and 
that, when placed in an inverted position, it rotates into the normal 
posture by the end of the second week. The environmental influence 
in the determination of posture is therefore effective even for the ear- 
vesicles of species of a different order. 

In my own experiments, and in earlier ones of Dr. Ogawa, the 
inversion of the vesicle at the time of operation was obtained by 
rotation about the vertical axis, with the result that the lateral con- 
cave surface was placed toward the brain. In his recent observations 
Dr. Ogawa found that when the vesicle was rotated about the trans- 
verse axis, recovery of position failed to take place in nearly half of 
the cases, although the technique was otherwise the same as previously 
employed. He does not regard this decreased tendency to rotation as 
due to the difference in inversion axis, but more probably to the fact 
that where the rotation is about the transverse axis the open side of 
the vesicle is left in contact with the heahng wound, with which it may 
become sufficiently adherent to interfere with rotation. 

DIGESTIVE TRACT AXD VASCULAR SYSTEM. 

The interest' ng development of the gastro-intestinal tract of the 
opossum has been studied by Dr. C. H. Heuser. In this non-placental 
animal the intrauterine period lasts only 13 days; 5 days after the 
beginning of segmentation the immature animal is expelled from the 
uterus and, by its own efforts, secures attachment to a teat in the 
maternal pouch, where its development is completed. Nutrition is 
made possible by the precocious growth and differentiation of the 
gastro-intestinal tract, particularly the upper part of the small intes- 
tine. By means of models and the study of sections. Dr. Heuser has 
been able to trace the phenomenal alterations which this system 
undergoes in the few days preceding birth and the first few days in 
the pouch, whereby the rudimentary foregut, hindgut, and midgut 
become converted into a series of structures capable of assimilating 
milk. Only those portions of the body that play an accessory role, 
such as the sucking mechanism and the forward extremities, take 
part in this precocious growth. 

In our report of last year reference was made to the observations 
of Dr. R. S. Cunningham on the striking morphological changes and 



88 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

phagocytic activity shown by the peritoneal mesothelium in response 
to intraperitoneal injections of granular suspensions and laked blood. 
The clinical importance of being able to use the peritoneal cavity as 
a route for the administration of therapeutic agents has led Dr. Cun- 
ningham to continue his studies on peritoneal mesothelium, with the 
view of determining particularly the degree to which such injections 
are injurious or harmless to the peritoneum. From experiments 
carried out with solutions of dextrose, he finds that this particular 
substance can be injected without injury to the mesothelium. The 
changes which occur over the diaphragm, spleen, and omentum are 
in the nature of a stimulated proliferation; the swollen cells either 
return to normal or are replaced by other cells within a few days. 

The more conspicuous morphological changes by which the bran- 
chial vascular arches are converted into the permanent vessels of the 
adult are already known, but before the factors that bring them about 
can be understood a knowledge of the detailed development becomes 
necessary. Our large collection of embryos and the associated facilities 
of the Department have made it possible to undertake a more careful 
study of these vascular transformations. Dr. E. G. Congdon, of 
Leland Stanford University, is at present engaged in preparing a series 
of reconstructions of the aortic arches as they are found in the human 
embryo. Dr. Heuser has studied the same structures in the embryo 
pig and, by using injection and clearing methods, has been able to 
make important observations. A preliminary account of these has 
already been published and the complete description is now in course 
of preparation. 

Using some of the improved methods of injecting blood-vessels, 
Professor F. R. Sabin has made a histological study of the process of 
repair in end-to-end intestinal anastomoses. In addition to making 
observations on the healing of the mucosa and the changes in the 
smooth muscle, she was able to follow the regeneration of the blood- 
vessels, a process which has a direct bearing on the fundamental 
problem of the origin and differentiation of angioblasts. Dr. Sabin 
has found that the regeneration of vessels is limited to specific areas 
and that the growth of new vessels is preceded by a change in the endo- 
thelium of the old vessels in the nature of a return to the original 
angioblastic type, with a great multiplication of endothelial nuclei. 
From such transformed vessels solid masses of angioblasts grow out, 
acquire a lumen through liquefaction of their cytoplasm, and, after 
passing through a capillary stage, become arteries and veins. The 
picture corresponds closely to the origin of blood-vessels, described by 
Dr. Sabin in the living blastoderm of the chick. 

UROGENITAL SYSTEM. 

The development of the external genitalia in the human embryo has 
been studied by Professor M. H. Spaulding, who succeeded in finding 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 89 

criteria, based on the morphology of these structures, by which one can 
recognize sex at an earher period than has heretofore been possible. 
He finds no evidence of the existence of an indifferent period through 
which all embryos were supposed to pass before assuming definite male 
or female characteristics. The younger embryos show constant differ- 
ences in the form of the phallus and from the earliest differentiation of 
the genital tubercle they can be divided into two groups. This 
division is based upon the marked difference in the length of the urethral 
groove. This seems to be quite constant and without intergradations ; 
it can be traced backward from the older fetuses, in which the sex 
can be clearly recognized, to the younger stages, which heretofore 
have been included in the so-called ''indifferent" period. In one 
group the urethral groove extends from the base of the phallus 
nearly to the apex of the glans; these embryos are regarded by Mr. 
Spaulding as males. Those of the second group, in which the groove 
is shorter and terminates proximal to the region of the glans, are con- 
sidered by him to be females. Mr, Spaulding's finished paper is ac- 
companied by drawings of models and photographs of actual specimens 
which represent clearly the morphological changes exhibited by the 
phallus at each stage of its development. These illustrations should 
prove of great practical value to those who have occasion to determine 
the sex of embryos at early periods. 

Investigations concerning the morphology of the urinary organs in 
man have been made by Dr. F. P. Johnson and Dr. M. B. Wesson, of 
the Brady Urological Institute. The former has studied the develop- 
ment of the urethra and its associated glands, the latter has investi- 
gated the embryology of the sphincter muscles at the neck and base 
of the bladder. The determination of the finer anatomy of these 
structures has proved to be a matter of considerable clinical im- 
portance, and these investigators, by carefully working out the archi- 
tecture of the early and simpler stages, have provided the necessary 
groundwork for the understanding of the anatomy in the adult. 

Dr. Johnson's study begins with embryos of 55 mm. crown-rump 
length and follows the development of the urethra to term. Models 
were made from serial sections of selected stages. By comparing the 
models with the serial sections, it was possible to determine the 
number and distribution of the small urethral glands and the formation 
and consistency of the mucosal folds. Observations were also made on 
the development of the prostatic glands and Cowper's glands, and upon 
the formation of the prepuce. In the cleavage of its epithelium, the 
latter presents an interesting problem which still remains to be solved. 

It is shown by Dr. Wesson's study that there does not exist at the 
vesicle orifice a simple sphincter muscle, as had been generally sup- 
posed. Instead, we are dealing with loops of muscular fibers which 
arise from and are closely connected with the longitudinal and circular 



90 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

muscle-coats of the bladder and, extending down, partially encircle 
the upper end of the urethra. As regards the trigonal muscle, Dr. 
Wesson shows that its origin and nervous control are different from 
those of the rest of the bladder musculature and that it is probably 
independent in its contraction and relaxation. Embryologically, it is 
of mesodermal origin, whereas the fundus is of ectodermal origin. 
Certain definable muscular structures about the neck of the bladder, 
which have hitherto not been recognized, such as the external and 
internal arcuate muscles of the vesicle orifice, are described by Dr. 
Wesson. With anatomical data of this character we may expect to 
arrive at a satisfactory explanation for the various phenomena of 
micturition. 

Cyclic Changes in Ovary and Uterus. 

An important contribution to our knowledge regarding the changes 
in the mammalian ovary and uterus during the successive events of 
the reproductive cycle has been made by Dr. G. W. Corner. Through 
the cooperation of the manager of a large piggery, operated as a garbage 
disposal plant for the City of Baltimore, Dr. Corner was able to obtain 
the internal genitalia of pregnant and non-pregnant pigs in which the 
oestrous period had been observed at all stages of the cycle. From a 
histological study of this material he has correlated the anatomical 
changes in the uterus and ovary that underlie ovulation and the 
mechanism of implantation. Of the various domestic mammals, the 
pig possesses certain advantages for the study of the reproductive 
cycle and reduces the problem to the simplest possible terms. The 
oestrus is periodic, frequent, and conspicuous; ovulation is spontaneous; 
the litters are large; the ovaries are uncomplicated as compared with 
those of rodents; and finally, the uterine mucosa is of the nondeciduate 
type, with a simple, diffuse placenta. Dr. Corner's observations have 
been published in three separate communications, from one of which I 
am reproducing a diagram showing the periodic growth of the ovarian 
follicles and the consequent formation and regression of the corpora 
lutea. (See fig. 1.) 

It will be seen that the cycle is 21 days in length and that ovulation 
occurs during oestrus. It is also of interest to note that the corpus 
luteum remains in full development from the seventh to the fifteenth 
day, long enough to cover the period of attachment of the embryos. 
If no embryos are present, the corpora lutea degenerate at about the 
fifteenth day. It has been found by Dr. Corner that during the growth 
period of the corpus luteum the uterus undergoes histological changes 
which culminate, at the eighth to tenth day, in marked epithehal 
activity, with the appearance of an active serous secretion. At this 
time the embryos, in case the ova are fertilized, are still unattached 
and are being shifted into position for implantation. From the tenth 
to the fifteenth day (the period of implantation) further changes in 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 



91 



the cells take place, by which the epithelium assumes the state charac- 
teristic of pregnancy at the implantation stage. If no embryos are 
present the same changes occur, but they subside after the fifteenth 
day, the uterine mucosa undergoing a slow reversion to the oestrous 
tj^pe. These histological changes undoubtedly have a functional 
value which readily suggests itself, but which remains to be established. 
It is clear, however, that in the sow the uterine cycle includes an 
upbuilding of the mucosa, presumably under control of the corpora 
lutea, which is favorable to successful implantation. Each act of 
ovulation is thus accompanied and followed by uterine changes 
which either go on to placenta formation or (in the absence of em- 




PREGNANCV 




Fig. 1. — Diagram prepared by Dr. Comer showing the cyclic changes in the ovary of the 

pregnant and non-pregnant sow. 

bryos) subside, as do the corpora lutea, in preparation for a new 
ovulation. 

Working on an allied investigation. Dr. Corner has found clear 
evidence that the ovum of the pig, in passing from the ovary to the 
site of implantation, very frequently migrates through the uterine 
horn of its own side and the connecting body of the uterus to the 
opposite horn, where it becomes definitely implanted. This study 
was made possible through the cooperation of the Station for Experi- 
mental Evolution, where facilities were provided for the examination 
of a large number of uteri and ovaries from recently slaughtered sows. 
If one records the number of corpora lutea in a large series of pregnant 
animals, it will be found that very commonly there are more in one 



92 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

ovary than in the other, whereas in the same animal the embryos tend 
to be evenly distributed in the two uterine horns. A tabulation of 
500 pregnant sows indicates that in about one- third of them there 
must have occurred a migration of one or more ova across the midline. 
On the other hand, in sows that had recently ovulated (within three 
days), and where the ova were en route through the Fallopian tubes, 
it was found that in at least 96 per cent of the cases there were the 
same number of ova in the tube as there were discharged follicles on 
that side, indicating that ova pass directly into the homolateral tube 
and that external migration to the tube of the opposite side is rare or 
non-existent. These findings make it clearly evident that internal 
migration of the fertilized ovum is of common occurrence in the sow. 

Permeability of the Placenta. 

The placenta may be spoken of as a cellular membrane separating 
the circulation of the mother from that of the fetus, and its permea- 
bility constitutes one of the main factors in fetal metabolism. The 
problem of placental permeability is as complicated as it is funda- 
mental; it extends from the general problem of the permeability of 
the cell and the resistance of membranes to the question of the specific 
ability of the placenta as an organ to select, change, and perhaps 
S3mthesize materials needed for the nourishment of the fetus. As a 
restricted phase of this problem. Dr. R. S. Cunningham has investi- 
gated the fluid and salt interchanges between mother and fetus. 
Selecting cats in the later stages of pregnancy, he injected into the 
venous system balanced solutions of potassium ferrocyanide and 
iron ammonium citrate. Owing to the fact that these salts can be 
precipitated as Prussian blue, they possess the advantage of being 
easily followed, both in the route traversed and their ultimate location. 
It was found that the maternal endothelium is easily permeable to 
both salts, as is also the fetal endothelium. The fetal ectoderm, 
however, reacts differently to the two salts, in terms of both per- 
meability and length of time required. In experiments of short 
duration no trace of either sodium ferrocyanide or iron ammonium 
citrate was present in the amniotic fluid, fetal urine, or tissue extract. 
In those of longer duration sodium ferrocyanide was found in the 
fetal urine and amniotic fluid, but in none of the experiments could the 
slightest trace of iron ammonium citrate be demonstrated in the fetal 
tissues. Examined histologically, the placenta in the shorter experi- 
ments showed Prussian blue in the maternal endothelium, but none 
within the ectoderm. In the experiments of longer duration blue 
granules had partially penetrated the ectodermal layer but were not 
present in the fetal endothelium. In other words, sodium ferro- 
cyanide penetrates through the entire placenta and is soon detected 
in the fetal urine, whereas iron ammonium citrate is arrested in the 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 93 

ectodermal laj^er and never reaches the fetal capillaries. There are 
several reasons to suppose that this selective behavior on the part 
of the placental ectoderm is based on other factors than osmosis and 
diffusion, thus suggesting further lines of investigation. 

The problem of placental permeability has been approached in 
a somewhat different way by Dr. G. B. Wislocki, namxeh^, by the 
injection of colloidal dyes into the venous system of pregnant cats, 
guinea-pigs, and rabbits, and into the amniotic cavities of the fetuses, 
the fate of the dye being subsequently determined by a histological 
study of the maternal and fetal parts of the various animals. It 
was found that, when trypan blue or pjTrol blue are injected intra- 
venously into the pregnant animal, they reach the placenta and are 
absorbed and stored in the form of granules in the chorionic ectoderm. 
In the guinea-pig and rabbit, traces of the colloid may pass into the 
amniotic fluid, as has been described for the mouse and rat, and may 
even slightly stain the fetus. In the cat, however, these substances 
are not transmitted, even in traces, to the amniotic fluid or to the 
fetus. This difference in behavior is explained by Dr. Wislocki on 
comparative anatomical grounds, differences of architecture making 
the placenta of the carnivore less permeable than that of the rodent. 
It was found that vital dyes are also absorbed and concentrated in 
granules in the cytoplasm of the cells of the vitelline membrane, 
which in rodents forms the outermost fetal covering. 

'\^'Tien colloidal dyes are injected into the amniotic cavity of the 
guinea-pig and cat during the second half of pregnancy, they are 
absorbed in three ways: (1) through the gastro-intestinal tract, (2) 
through the respiratory tract, and (3) by diffusion through the amni- 
otic membrane. The fetus becomes vitally stained, but none of the 
colloidal material passes from the fetal into the maternal circulation. 
The chief depositories of the dye in the fetus and membranes are the 
endothelial cells lining the hepatic sinuses, the epithelium of the renal 
convoluted tubules, the amniotic epithelium, and the endothelial cells 
of the placental capillaries. The endodermal cells of the yolk-sac 
are also extremely phagocytic toward vital dj^es. 

The behavior of the placenta toward a particulate substance, such 
as carbon granules of India ink, injected into the maternal circulation, 
is quite different from its behavior toward colloids. Dr. Wislocki 
administered intravenously a filtered solution of india ink into a 
series of pregnant dogs, cats, rabbits, and guinea-pigs, and found that 
neither the chorionic epithelium nor the placental endothelium appears 
to have the power of absorbing or phagocytizing granules as coarse 
as this. The limit of size of the particles which they are capable of 
taking up seems to lie somewhere between that of a coarse suspension, 
such as india ink, and an ultramicroscopic dispersion, such as trypan 
blue. The placenta and fetal membranes in these experiments 



94 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

remained entirely unstained, whereas the cells of the liver, spleen, 
bone-marrow, and lungs were laden with the phagocytosed particles. 

In another series of experiments Dr. Wislocki introduced solutions 
of different degrees of diffusibility into the peritoneal cavity of fetal 
cats and guinea-pigs. When phenolsulphonephthalein, an easily 
diffusible true solution, is so injected, it is absorbed by the fetal blood- 
stream and conveyed to the placenta, through which it slowly diffuses 
into the maternal circulation and is excreted by the maternal kidneys. 
It is also excreted by the fetal kidneys, being found in the fetal bladder 
in every instance in which sufficient urine could be collected to test 
for its presence. When trypan blue, a less diffusible colloidal dye, is 
injected into the fetal peritoneal cavity, it is absorbed, vitally stains 
the fetus, and is excreted by the fetal kidneys. It is not, however, 
transmitted through the placenta to the maternal tissues. 

Mitochondria in the Placenta. 

Inasmuch as the character and distribution of the mitochondria 
are thought by some to be an index of the metabolic activity of a cell, 
it is of interest to know the relative distribution of these structures 
in the maternal and fetal parts of the placenta. With this in mind, 
a survey has been made by Dr. Wislocki and Dr. J. A. Key of mature 
placentae from a variety of mammals which were appropriately pre- 
pared for the demonstration of mitochondria. It was found that, 
while mitochondria are present in all of the fetal and maternal tissues 
of the placenta, they are particularly abundant in the cells of the 
epithelial membrane constituting the barrier between the two circu- 
lations. They are also abundant in the endothelium lining the 
maternal blood-channels and in the glands of the uterine mucosa. 
The functional activity of a given type of cell apparently is the deter- 
minative factor in the distribution of the mitochondria, rather than 
any inherent difference between the fetal and adult state. The 
placentae studied included: (1) the pig, in which the chorion is merely 
apposed to the folds of the uterine mucosa; (2) the cat, in which a more 
intimate union results from the invasion of the mucosa by the chorion ; 
(3) the guinea-pig, in which a still more intimate fusion of the chorion 
with the uterine wall occurs, including erosion of the maternal vessels 
and the disappearance of their endothelium, leaving a single layer of 
chorionic epithelium between the two blood-streams; and (4) the 
human, in which the conditions are much like those of the guinea-pig. 
In their final paper, these investigators have carefully described and 
illustrated the finer histology of these different types and the associated 
modifications in the distribution of mitochondria. 

PATHOLOGY OF THE FETUS. 

Several papers, based wholly or in part upon the pathological speci- 
mens and records in our collection, have appeared during the year. 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 95 

Dr. J. P. Greenhill has published a description of the histological 
changes in the tissues of the fetus in an advanced case of missed 
abortion. Professor P. E. Lineback has reported the occurrence of 
Polydactyly in a 22-mm. embryo, which apparently is the youngest 
case thus far known. Drs. E. A. Park and G. F. Powers, of the 
Department of Pediatrics of the Johns Hopkins University, have 
completed a study of congenital malformations of the head with 
coincident symmetrical malformations of the extremities. Although 
their conclusions are to be considered tentative, Park and Powers 
express the view that defects of this character originate in the germ- 
plasm itself, and they point out cases of oxycephaly and scapocephaly 
in which there is a known history of familial incidence. Their con- 
clusion is in harmony with Dr. G. W. Corner's observations on the 
frequent occurrence of degenerative changes and abnormalities of 
growth in young pig embryos before the time of their implantation, 
mention of which was made in the last Year Book. Dr. Corner's 
work has now been published in its completed form. It is of con- 
siderable clinical significance that his observations make it probable 
that, to a large extent, we are to find the cause of pathological human 
embryos in primary germinal defects rather than in abnormalities of 
the implanation site. 

Syphilis in the Fetus. 

Of the normal-appearing specimens that come to this laboratory, 
a considerable number, we are aware, are probably syphilitic. We 
have, however, heretofore lacked any satisfactory method for the 
definite recognition of the presence of this disease in the fetus and 
have been entirely unable to determine the extent to which syphilis 
is responsible for intrauterine death. At one time it was thought 
that the Wassermann test might serve as an indicator, but the experi- 
ence of Professor Williams, in the Johns Hopkins Hospital, has shown 
that a positive reaction is rarely obtained — so rarely, in fact, that the 
examination of the blood from the cord of the new-born has been dis- 
continued as a routine procedure. In view of this, the successful 
experience of Dr. P. G. Shipley and his collaborators in the recognition 
of bone changes by the use of the X-ray is particularly welcome. 
Skeletal X-ray plates were made of 300 white fetuses ranging in age 
from the twenty-fourth week of intrauterine life to term. All of 
these fetuses, on the basis of the external form, had been classified 
in our collection as normal. Of 100 selected plates, 25 per cent 
showed distinct syphilitic involvement of the bones. The sites most 
often and most severely affected were the ends of the long bones of 
the extremities. No bones, however, were exempt; even the bodies 
of the vertebrae and the bones of the skull did not always escape. 
The shadow of the syphilitic fetal bone differs from that of the normal 
as a result of the irregularities in the calcification of the provisional 



9G CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

cartilage and the consequent abnormal arrangement and distribution 
of osseous tissue. Experience may teach us that every syphilitic 
does not show these bone lesions, but in the use of the X-ray we 
evidently have a method which has the advantage of rapidity and 
ease of application and which will yield valuable diagnostic data and 
insure recognition of the presence of syphilis in a large number of 
cases that would otherwise escape detection. 

Survey of Pathological Specimens. 

In 1917 the late Professor Mall had begun the preparation of an 
analytical survey of all of the pathological specimens in the Carnegie 
Embryological Collection. In this undertaking he had obtained the 
cooperation of Professor Arthur W. Meyer, and at the time of Dr. 
Mall's death the plan of the study had been mapped out and the work 
advanced to a stage where it could be taken over by Dr. Meyer and 
carried through to a conclusion. Owing to the comprehensive charac- 
ter of the study, it has taken over three years for its completion and 
publication. The work has now been issued as Volume XII of the 
Contributions to Embryology and constitutes a reference book that 
promises to be of great service to this laboratory as well as to other 
workers concerned with the pathology of the antenatal period. 

The monograph is divided into chapters which cover studies on 
different topics. The earlier chapters were written by Dr. Mall and 
deal with the origin of the collection, the storage, classification, and 
methods of study of the material, together with the protocols of all 
the pathological specimens among the first 1,200 accessions. These 
protocols have been entirely gone over by Dr. Meyer and in part re- 
written. The succeeding chapters include a series of studies by Dr. 
Meyer, covering special features relating to the pathology of the 
embryo and the cause of abortion. Five of the chapters refer es- 
pecially to the villi, the frequent occurrence of the hydatiform type 
of degeneration, and the significance of the Hofbauer cell, reference 
to which has been made in previous reports. Two chapters are 
devoted to intrauterine post-mortem changes in the fetus and to the 
problem of resorption of the conceptus. Other chapters review the 
structural changes in the fetus and placenta associated with syphilis, 
the correlation between the size of the chorion and the contained 
embrj'o in the normal and pathological specimen, and the probable 
non-occurrence of superfetation. The final chapter contains a general 
discussion of the frequency and cause of abortion. There is a chapter 
on localized anomalies, written by Dr. Mall, and a chapter on ovarian 
pregnancy, written jointly by the two authors. 

Sex-Incidence. 

Mention should be made of the study of sex-incidence in abortions 
by Dr. A. H. Schultz, which is embodied as one of the chapters in the 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 97 

monograph of Mall and Meyer, just referred to. This study is an 
extension of an earlier work on sex-ratio, an account of which was 
given in a previous report. Dr. Schultz points out that the primary 
or true sex-ratio, being conditioned upon sex-determination, must 
always remain more or less speculative. The secondary sex-ratio, 
that is, the proportion of males to every 100 females among the living- 
born, obviously would not be the same as the primary unless the num- 
ber of males and the number of females that die in utero were exactly 
the same. This secondary sex-ratio has been estimated by Dr. 
Schultz, on the basis of numerous statistics gathered from the litera- 
ture, to be 105.5. The tertiary, or adult, sex-ratio decreases with 
age, owing to the high rate of postnatal mortality am.ong males. In 
order to compute the primary from the secondary sex-ratio, two 
factors are taken into account: the sex incidence among aborted 
fetuses and the relative frequency of abortions to full-term births. 
No data regarding sex incidence in abortions during the first three 
months of pregnancy are available, since sex-difTerentiation at this 
period is difficult or impossible. Deductions were drawn, however, 
from material from the third month to term. Dr. Schultz's more 
recent investigations, covering a larger number of specimens, tend to 
confirm his earlier findings, and also agree in the main with those of a 
number of other observers. From approximate averages he estimates 
that there are 28 abortions and still-births to every 100 living-born, 
and that the sex-ratio of these 128 fertihzed ova is 108.74, as compared 
with his first estimate of 108.47. By careful studies on an ever- 
increasing number of specimens, and by the improved methods of sex 
recognition described by Spaulding, we may hope in time to reach a 
fairly satisfactory conclusion regarding this interesting question. 

From 1899 to 1920, 183 Csesarean sections were done in the ob- 
stetrical service of Professor J. Whitridge Williams at the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital. In a recent study of this experience. Dr. Williams 
found that in 99 operations, in which observations were made upon 
the ovaries, no corpus luteum was discoverable in one-third of the 
cases, while it was present in the other two-thirds, occurring in the 
right ovary 36 times and in the left 28 times. Wliere the corpus 
luteum was present in the right ovary 23 boys and 13 girls were noted, 
and where it was situated in the left ovary there were 16 boys and 12 
girls; that is, the distribution was not correlated with the sex. Con- 
clusive evidence is thus furnished of the fallacy of the old theory that 
boys are derived from one and girls from the other ovary. 

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON PRIMATE FETUSES. 

During the past few years Dr. A. H. Schultz has been engaged in 
an anthropological study of fetal growth in whites and negroes. 
Recently, through the generous cooperation of other laboratories and 



98 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



museums, he has been able to make similar studies on a number of 
other primate fetuses. A list of this rare material follows: 



No. of 
fetuses. 


Species. 


Source. 


6 
1 
1 
3 
3 
1 
3 
3 
1 
6 
5 
1 


Guiana howling monkey 

Celius monkey 


W. Beebe, N. Y. Zool. Society. 

Do. 
G. Miller, U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
H. Lang, Am. Mus. Nat. Hiiit., N. Y. 
W. Felix, Univ. of Zurich, Switzerland. 

Do. 
G. Miller, U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

Do. 
G. S. Huntington, Columbia University. 


do 


Presbvtis monkey 


Nasalis monkey 


Colobus monkey 


do 

Baboon 


Gibbon 

do 


Oranp-utan 


Chimpanzee 





Three papers by Dr. Schultz, based on the study of this material, 
are now in press. One of these concerns his observations on the 
proportions of three colobus fetuses, as compared with those of the 
human. He finds the trunk to be much longer and slenderer than 
that of the human fetus, the chest narrower, and the position of the 
nipples and umbilicus relatively higher. The extremities are rela- 
tively shorter and the hands and feet more slender. The head is 
smaller, but the face, in proportion to the brain part of the head, is 
larger than in the human fetus. In general, ossification in these 
colobus fetuses corresponds very closely to that of human fetuses of 
corresponding stages of development. In both colobus and man the 
head grows more slowly than the trunk, and the lower extremities 
faster than the upper ones, growth being more rapid in the distal 
than in the proximal parts. In both, also, the relative length of the 
cervical and thoracic portions of the spine decreases during growth, 
while that of the lumbar portion increases. In the colobus the thumb 
is rudimentary, but still retains a short metacarpus and one phalanx. 
The degree of reduction of the thumb and the age at which it disap- 
pears completely from the surface of the hand vary in different species. 
A fact of special interest is that in all of the colobus fetuses several 
sinus hairs were present on the inner side of the forearm, proximal to 
the carpus. These were more conspicuous and of relatively greater 
length in the youngest fetus than in the two older ones. In the adult 
colobus no trace of these hairs can be seen. They correspond to the 
vibrissse found in all prosimiae and have heretofore been believed to 
be missing in all monkeys. Their discovery in the fetus, therefore, 
in which they develop apparently only to disappear later, furnishes 
further proof of a close relationship between lemurs and monkeys. 

In another paper Dr. Schultz gives the results of a metric and 
osteological study of fetal and adult specimens of the Guiana howling 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY. 99 

monkey, which, besides placing this new and rare material on record, 
throws additional light on the laws of growth in primates. On com- 
paring the two alouatta fetuses with human fetuses of corresponding 
stages of development, it is found that they differ in the following 
points: In the alouatta the trunk is more slender, the shoulders, 
nipples, and umbilicus are situated higher, the upper extremities are 
relatively longer, the hand and foot very much longer, and the thumb 
and great toe shorter; the brain part of the head is smaller, especially 
in height, the nose is hgher, and the ear larger. During development 
the forearm of the alouatta grows faster than either the upper arm or 
the hand; likewise the lower leg has a greater rate of growth than the 
thigh or foot. As a whole, the lower extremity grows more rapidly 
than the upper one. The relative length of the fingers and toes 
remains unchanged during development. The relative size of the 
brain part of the head decreases, whereas, that of the face part re- 
mains constant during growth. As regards the different portions of 
the spinal column, the relative length of the thoracic region decreases, 
while that of the lumbar, sacral, and caudal regions increases. Of 
special interest in the skeleton of the alouatta is the forking of the 
manubrium sterni into two diverging processes, due to the enormous 
development of the hyoid, a condition which is pronounced even in 
the fetus. The foramen zygomatico-temporale, a remnant of the 
former complete communication between orbital and temporal fossae, 
is of considerable size in the fetal skull. 

The rare circumstance that the two alouatta fetuses were single- 
ovum twins afforded an opportunity to test the frequently asserted 
"identity" in such twins. It was found that on an average a given 
measurement differed in the two fetuses 4.81 per cent. 

In a third paper Dr. Schultz describes the occurrence of a sternal 
gland in the fetal and adult male orang-utan. In the middle of the 
chest, at the level of the nipples, is a pit-hke depression in the skin, 
which is the outlet for numerous unusually large sebaceous glands 
conglobated beneath. This sternal gland occurs in but a small per- 
centage of female orang-utans and is relatively larger and more 
conspicuous in male fetuses than in the old animals. The pit may 
reach a diameter of 2.5 mm. and a depth of even 3.5 mm. At times 
it is surrounded by a low circular wall or, especially in later life, by a 
dark brown pigmented zone. This gland in primates seems to be 
restricted to orang-utan; an analogous gland, however, has been 
observed in some chiroptera and marsupials. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS.* 

C. B. Davenport, Director. 

GENERAL STATEMENT. 

The organization of the Department of Genetics consoHdates and 
unifies the work of eugenics and experimental evolution and places 
an institution for the study of human heredity and reproduction in 
the same organization with one for the experimental breeding of other 
mammals, animals, and plants. It is believed that the combination 
will be peculiarly advantageous for fruitful research; a profound 
biological investigation of mankind and his biotypes, their variations 
of form and behavior and their genetical significance, has not hitherto 
been carried out. 

Of the work of this Department during the past year, may first be 
mentioned the researches that are demonstrating the close relationship 
between variations in chromosome number and specific variations in 
the form and other qualities of the body. The work on Datura 
stramonium is offering remarkable explanations of the complexities of 
de Vriesian mutation, a form of mutation of possibly not less general 
significance than Mendelian mutation. While research has not yet 
put "the mind into the chromosome," it seems not improbable that 
some mental ''sports" in man, that deviate widely from the typical 
condition, may some day be found due to such abnormalities in the 
chromosome complex as are now known to characterize striking forms 
of Datura. Attention is called to the discovery (page 132) that the 
hybrids between two forms of domestic mice (one active and the other 
slow) are on the average more active, sturdy, and intelligent than 
either parental race. This is a quantitative result based on painstak- 
ing measurement of nearly 300 individuals. 

Another matter of great theoretical as well as practical importance 
is the demonstration that in mice there are hereditary physiological 
factors that render certain strains and their hybrid descendants sus- 
ceptible to the growth of tumors. In the absence of these factors 
inoculated tumors will not grow. Moreover, the genetic nature of 
these factors of susceptibility varies in different strains. Hitherto 
our strains of mice have shown a complex genetic constitution, in that 
probably four factors were required to determine susceptibility. Dur- 
ing the current year it has been demonstrated that in one strain of mice 
the combination of two factors, merely, is required for susceptibility. 
In this strain the Mendelian nature of inheritance of susceptibility 
to inoculated cancer is so simple as to be easily demonstrated to the 
most skeptical. The discovery of the hereditary factors in inoculable 
cancers constitutes obviously one of the most important advances in 
cancer research. 

*Situated at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York. 

101 



102 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Other matters of interest are cited below. 

(1) The demonstration that the sex-determiner apparently does not 
lie in similar chromosomes in closely related species of Drosophila. 
This opens up new and interesting difficulties in the study of the homol- 
ogy of the chromosomes. 

(2) Evidence that male and female embryos of pigeons are different 
in their metabolism. 

(3) Success in controlling the sex-ratio in certain aquatic entomo- 
straca by varying the number of mothers in a unit of water. 

(4) A study of mammalian spermatozoa, showing that, unlike those 
of some insects, they do not fall into two types in respect to size. 

(5) The demonstration of the possibility, in one strain of the sex- 
intergrade Daphnia, of changing the degree of intergradeness by 
selection. 

(6) The observation that a form of parasitism in Daphnia induces 
sex-intergradism. 

(7) Age of mice greatly influences their susceptibility toward in- 
oculated tumors; the reactions of a non-susceptible race to tumors is 
to a remarkable degree related to the activity of the gonad. 

(8) Evidence has been secured that capacity for successful trans- 
plantation of tissue (spleen) from one individual to another of the same 
race depends upon the genetic uniformity of the race. 

(9) Evidence that in white cats the gametes carry lethal factors, 
which operate even in the simplex condition. 

(10) The inauguration of a method of testing quantitatively the 
instincts and intelligence of dogs. 

(11) The clear evidence that timidity has an inherited basis in dogs. 

(12) A demonstration that etherized non-waltzing mice fall into the 
same three groups of dextral, sinistral, and neutral whirlers that are 
found in Japanese waltzing mice. 

(13) The conclusion that in mating (of flies) where a close approxi- 
mation to a 1 : 1 Mendelian ratio is expected, selection can isolate lines 
in which the zygotic ratio departs widely in the desired direction from 
the expected. 

(14) Evidence of non-disjunction in the fourth chromosome of 
Drosophila. 

(15) A confirmation by statistical analysis of Schuster and Elder- 
ton's conclusion as to the degree of inheritance of scholastic ability 
between fathers and sons. 

(16) Clear statistical evidence of the existence of human cancerous 
families. 

(17) The completion of a first quantitative study of inheritance of 
musical ability, bringing evidence of its Mendelian behavior. 

(18) The development of formulas for calculating ancestral inheri- 
tance. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 103 

(19) The publication, in cooperation with the Army, of the results 
of anthropometric measurements of recruits and veterans; with ref- 
erence to habitat, occupation, race, and associated diseases. 

(20) Evidence that abnormalities in development of pigeon embryos 
are often due to endocrine disfunctioning of the mothers. 

(21) The elaboration of tables for predicting probable future egg- 
production in the fowl from its fecundity at any time. 

(22) Evidence that alcohol tends to reduce the average size of litters 
and the number of litters. But in later generations from alcoholized 
rats the normal number of litters per rat may reappear, and may 
even be exceeded, probably due to selective elimination by alcohol of 
the weaker strains. 

(23) Alcoholized rats grow more slowly than the controls; but 
their offspring grow more rapidly than the offspring of the controls. 

(24) Proof that (in swine at least) the migration of ova from one 
ovary through the body-cavity to the opposite tube is rare. On the 
other hand, there is a migration of ova within the uterus which 
tends to secure a uniform distribution of embryos and to prevent 
crowding. 

DETAILED REPORTS ON INVESTIGATIONS IN PROGRESS. 
INTERCHROMOSOMAL MUTATION. 

The modern work on mutation dates from the publication of De 
Vries's classic monograph, "Die Mutation theorie," 1901-03. This 
study was based on the evening primrose {Oenothera lamarckiana) . 
When De Vries gave the opening address at the Station for Experi- 
mental Evolution in 1904, he expressed the hope and expectation that 
his Oenothera work would be continued by this department (third Year 
Book of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, pp. 48, 49). We 
tried for some years to do this through the work of Dr. G. H. ShuU and 
Miss Anne M. Lutz. Many others took up the work and, with the 
departure of Dr. Shull, it was for a time abandoned here. With the 
coming of Dr. A. F. Blakeslee the search for genetically simpler mutat- 
ing plant material has been continued, and has now been rewarded by 
finding it in Datura stramonium. This species has only 12 pairs of chro- 
mosomes, and its habit of growth is rather definite. In ease of guard- 
ing the pollination it leaves little to be desired. The outstanding 
feature of the species is that it, like Oenothera, is undergoing a 
variation in its chromosome-complex; and with every variation in 
its chromosome-complex goes a special somatic form. This depart- 
ment is now fully launched on a program of work with this valuable 
form, and we trust that with appropriate support the analysis of 
De Vriesian mutation can be carried beyond anything hitherto 
accomplished. 



104 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

This work requires the cooperation of many sorts of workers: (1) 
The analyst who makes the matings and coordinates the results; this 
part of the work is in the hands of Dr. Blakeslee. (2) The cytologist, 
who studies the chromosomal complex (number and form) associated 
with each somatic variant and the distribution of chromosomes in 
hybrids and their progeny. (3) The student of pollen and pollen- 
tube growth, to test on the one hand pollen sterility and on the other 
that of differential growth, and, hence, differential fertilization. (4) 
The analyst of the elements of somatic form. (5) The chemist, who 
should study the chemical differences associated with differences in 
form. 

General Account of the Datura Mutants. 

A preliminary report on the jimson weed (Datura) was made by 
Blakeslee, Belling, and Farnham in Science, October 22, 1920, under the 
title "Chromosomal duplication and Mendelian phenomena in Datura 
mutants." In this paper it is pointed out that just as there are 12 
chromosomes (A, B . . . . K, L) in the gametes so there are 12 
mutants from the normal form, in each of which 1 extra chromosome 
is present; and evidence is presented that in each of the 12 mutants 
the extra chromosome is a different one; i. e., in one there is an extra A, 
in another an extra B, and so on. Of the pollen grains of these mutants, 
half have 12 chromosomes and half have 13; and evidently the same is 
the case in the egg cells; but apparently the pollen with 13 nuclei is 
non-functional. The authors announce also the discovery of triplets 
in place of pairs of every kind of chromosome; and also a case of 
quadrupled (tetraploid) chromosomes. 

Dr. Blakeslee reports that the field records of the present season are 
not yet complete, but the data so far obtained warrant a classification 
of the known mutant types according to their chromosomal constitu- 
tion as shown in table 1 and diagrams (fig. 1). 

Dr. Blakeslee proceeds: 

"The classification adopted was suggested in a recent paper in the Amer- 
ican Naturalist. 

"Of the unbalanced types, the first mutants discovered were simple tri- 
somic diploids due to an extra chromosome in a single set. Last year we had 
gained evidence which indicated that Poinsettia is the mutant that has the extra 
chromosome in the s( t carrying the factors for purple and white flower color. 
This evidence, from tlie peculiar ratios obtained when these Mendelian char- 
acters are transmitted, has been increased by further data acquired this year. 
By similar breeding evidence it is rendered highly probable that Cocklebur 
is the mutant with an extra chromosome in the set carrying factors for spini- 
ness of capsules. 

"Triploids have been secured by crossing tetraploids with normals. 

"The double trisomic diploids have been secured in the offspring from 
triploids. Since in the latter each set has 3 chromosomes, the gametes will 
receive from each set either 1 or 2 chromosomes at reduction division. In 
consequence, the types of gametes produced by triploids by the theory of 
chance should correspond to a binomial expansion and we should have in 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 



105 



different offspring all possible combinations of sets with 2 and with 3 chromo- 
somes. Apparently differential viability and other factors prevent a close 
approximation to the laws of chance and we are getting in our triploid off- 
spring many diploids, the common simple trisomic mutants and a considera- 



Balanced types 



Unbalanced types 



Diploid 

-vv— 



Modified diploids 



y-^- 



II -> 



Simple tetrasomic 



^/ 



II 



S^ 



Simple tnsomic 



— vvJ 

/ 

Double trisomic. 



Triploid 




^iii<^ 



Tetraploid 

#1111.^ 

•# iiir^ 



Modified tetraploids 



Simple hexasomic 



# Itil % 

Simple pentasomic 



^'•'14* 



# 111'! '^• 

Simple trisomic 



Fig. 1. 

Table 1. — Chromosomal types of mutants in the jimson weed (Datura stramonium). 

The somatic number of chromosomes is given in parentheses after each type. 

B.\LANCED Types (12n): Diploids (Normal) (24); Triploids (36); Tetraploids (48). 
Unbalanced Types (12n+a;): 
Modified diploids (24 +a;). 

A. Simple trisomic (24+x): 1, Globe; 2, Poinsettia; 2a, P. var. Wiry; 3, Cocklebur; 

4, Ilex; 5, Mutilated; 6, Sugar-loaf; 7, Rolled; 8, Reduced; 9, Buckling; 10, Glossy; 
11, Microcarpic; 12, Spinach. 

B. Simple tetrasomic (24+2, the 2 extras in the same set): 1, Round-leaf Globe. 

C. Double trisomic (24+1 + 1, one extra in each of 2 different sets): 1, Ilex-Buck- 

ling (?) and a number of other double mutants not yet analyzed by breeding tests. 
Modified tetraploids (48 +x). 

A. Simple pentasomic (48 + 1) : 1, Globe; 2, Poinsettia; 3, Cocklebur; 4, Ilex; 5, Rolled; 

6, Reduced; 7, Glossy; 8, Microcarpic. 

B. Simple hexasomic (48+2, the 2 extras in the same set): 1, Globe. 

C. Simple trisomic (48-1, a single deficiency in one set). 



106 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

ble number of double trisomic mutants with 2 sets each having an extra 
chromosome. 

"This year we are finding chromxosomal mutants in considerable numbers 
among our tetraploid pedigrees and before the season is over hope to identify 
a large majority of the simple pentasomic tetraploids corresponding to the 
simple trisomic diploids earlier discovered. Judging from appearances, we 
doubtless have double pentasomic forms in our pedigrees, but their classifi- 
cation must wait for cytological confirmation. 

"A single case of a deficiency in chromosome number associated with 
semisterility of pollen has been found in a small trial pedigree from the cross 
triploidX tetraploid. Probably a considerable number of simple and double 
deficiencies maj^ be expected from the sowing of a larger number of seed of 
this cross, which waits an opportunity of planting. 

"The interest in the daturas does not lie chiefly in an accumulation of 
chromosomal types. The value of the work will lie, it is believed, rather in 
a possible closer insight into the nature of the chromosomes and processes of 
inheritance. The unbalanced mutants give us an opportunity of analyzing 
the contribution of each chromosome to the final structure and physiology of 
the plant. 

'The four different Globe mutants will best illustrate the effect of the 
unbalanced condition. The simple tetrasomic Globe is a diploid, unbalanced 
by 2 extra chromosomes in the Globe set. The 2 extra chromosomes are 
more or less antagonistic to 1 1 sets with 2 members each, giving an unbalance 
of 2 to 22. In comparison with the simple trisomic Globes where the un- 
balance is 1 to 22, all the Globe characters in the tetrasomic Globe are 
increased in expression. The simple pentasomic Globe tetraploid has an 
unbalance of only 1 to 44 and, as one would expect, the Globe characters are 
less distinct than in the simple trisomic Globes with an unbalance of 1 to 22. 
With this relation in mind, simple hexasomic Globes were sought for in 
which the unbalance should be 2 to 44 or 1 to 22, the same unbalance found 
in trisomic diploid Globes. They were identified in offspring of pentasomic 
Globes and their classification confirmed by chromosomal counts. Approxi- 
mately half the pollen grains of simple trisomic Globes have an extra chromo- 
some and their gametophytes therefore are unbalanced by 1 to 11. In 
consequence, very few male gametes are effective in fertilization, the tri- 
somic character being transmitted to only about 2 per cent of the offspring. 
In the gametophytes of pentasomic Globe tetraploids the unbalance is less 
(1 to 22), so apparently we find that pentasomic Globes transmit the extra 
chromosome through the pollen to a much higher percentage of their offspring 
(about 15 per cent in this year's planting). 

"The unbalanced condition gives us an opportunity, never before realized, 
of analyzing the influence of individual chromosomes without waiting for the 
appearance of gene mutations. Heretofore, the number of factors determined 
in the chromosomes has been dependent upon the number of mutated genes 
available for crossing with the normal type. In the jimsons, however, we 
may study the sum total of all the factors in individual chromosomes by the 
unbalancing effect upon the structure and physiology of the plant when a 
single specific chromosomal set has 1 or 2 extra chromosomes." 

While the advance of knowledge of influence of single entire chro- 
mosomes on the developing plant-body has been great during the past 
12 months, yet the number of new problems in this field has increased 
in the same ratio. The need for additional workers with this extra- 
ordinarily valuable material is great. For the most part, the addi- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 107 

tional workers will find it advantageous to work at the Station for 
Experimental Evolution; but some of them may be able to carry on 
parts of the work elsewhere. 

The Cytology of Datura Mutants. 

Especially valuable has been the assistance in this work given by 
Mr. John Belling. He has perfected a new method for the examina- 
tion of chromosomes in pollen-mother cells which avoids the tedious 
method of cutting paraffine sections, and apparently renders possible 
more accurate results than have hitherto been possible in counting 
chromosomes. This method consists of the rapid fixing and staining 
of the pollen-mother cells (freshly squeezed from the anthers) with 
iron-aceto-carmine. These cells are caused to separate and then to 
flatten out, by the aid of gentle pressure, after they have been for 24 
hours in the reagent. This method has proved eminently suitable for 
the purpose of counting and estimating the size of the chromosomes in 
the second metaphases of chromosomal division. This method reveals 
also the grouping of homologous chromosomes in the late prophases. 
Mr. Belling finds, indeed, that in Datura the total number and assort- 
ment of chromosomes in the mother plant are ascertained with greater 
certainty bj^ counting both second metaphase plates in the same cell 
than by counting the somatic chromosomes in the body tissue, say the 
root-tip. By combining size estimations in the late first prophase and 
in the second metaphase it is possible to recognize the particular chro- 
mosome or chromosomes whose excess number characterizes the various 
mutants. 

This specificity of the different chromosomes of Datura is a matter 
of great importance for the analysis of the unbalanced chromosome 
types. Though these 12 chromosomes look alike to the casual ob- 
server, prolonged study shows that they fall into six grades of size: 
1 largest, 4 large, 3 large medium, 2 small medium, 1 small, and 1 small- 
est. In triploid Daturas the 36 chromosomes are in 12 groups of 3 
each. In tetraploid Daturas the 48 chromosomes are in 12 groups of 
4 each, each group forming a figure 8. In triploid and tetraploid all 
of the 3 or 4 chromosomes in each group are of the same size. In 
simple trisomic plants there are 11 ordinary paired chromosomes and 
1 trivalent, like the trivalents of the triploid plant. In the mutant 
Globe all three chromosomes are small. In the mutant Mutilated 
all three are large. 

In triploid plants, at the early anaphase of the first division, 2 
chromosomes of each trivalent go toward 1 plate and 1 chromosome 
toward the other. In the normal diploid Datura, non-disjunction 
occasionally gives rise to an assortment of 11: 13 in the second meta- 
phase stage. This non-disjunction was seen once in 100 cells observed. 
In the higher "balanced types" of excess chromosomes, the metaphase 



108 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

plates tend to have an equal number, but inequality is not uncommon^ 
and the rarer the greater the inequality. It also appears that homolo- 
gous chromosomes are attracted, even if each group has an abnormal 
number, like 3 or 4. 

When triploid is crossed by normal diploid the offspring are peculiar 
in respect to assortment in the metaphase of pollen-mother cell. Thus 
in 24 plants the chromosomes separated as 12:12; in 31 plants as 
12 : 13; in 10 plants as 12 : 14 or 13 : 13. Since one might expect the 
chromosomes to separate as 15 : 15, it is clear that many chromosomes 
must have been eliminated somewhere in the process of hybridization. 
Such eliminated chromosomes are found in the pollen-mother cells 
and form micronuclei, which come to lie in microcytes. Of the few 
progeny of the numerous crosses of tetraploid by normal where the 
assortment 18 : 18 is to be expected, in five cases it was 12 : 12; once 
12 : 13, and in three cases it ranged from 12 : 24 to 18 : 18. Here 
again chromosomes must have become lost. There is a strong ten- 
dency to restore the normal chromosome number. The progeny of 
triploid by tetraploid mutants were few. Three plants assorted 
24 : 24 or 23 : 25; one plant gave 23 : 24. The expected 21 : 21 was 
not found. Here again internal adjusting factors are present. 

An attempt has been made to arrange mutants in order of size of 
the trisomic group upon which each mutant depends. The result is 
tentative and is as follows: Mutilated (largest), Glossy, Buckling, Cock- 
lebur, Sugarloaf, Spinach, Microcarpic, Ilex, Wiry, Poinsettia, Globe, 
Reduced. Rolled and Elongated have not yet been included. 

A beginning has been made in the determination, in trisomic mu- 
tants, of the average numbers of microcytes with eliminated chromo- 
somes; and also the numbers of double-sized pollen-grains with a 
double number of chromosomes. Also, the difference in nature of 
the extra chromosome in the simple trisomies is being correlated with 
the range of variation in size of the mature pollen-grains, with normal 
diploids, triploids, or tetraploids; the volume of the pollen-mother 
cells, or of the pollen-grains, has been shown to be proportional to the 
number of chromosomes; but it has not yet been shown that this rule 
holds when only one chromosome is doubled. Of the 12 possible 
pentasomic tetraploids, only a few have been as yet studied cyto- 
logically. Of the 12 possible simple tetrasomic diploids only one has 
as yet been identified, and only 1 of the possible 12 hexasomic tetra- 
ploids. The simple trisomic tetraploid is of especial scientific interest, 
because of the effect of the loss of one chromosome, which causes the 
abortion of half of the pollen. 

It may be added that Mr. Belling's analysis, given above, of the 
cytological conditions accompanying Datura hybrids has been of the 
greatest possible assistance in the interpretation of the originally 
baffling phenomenon of mutation in Datura. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 109 

Cooperative Work on Datura Mutants. 

The Datura work is of such great theoretical importance that it 
deserves all the cooperation that can be secured for it. We have 
been very fortunate in getting such assistance, largely by volunteers 
who have offered their cooperation without pay. Among these 
collaborating are the following: 

Dr. E. W. Sinnott, of Connecticut Agricultural College, is studying 
the differences in gross morphology and in histology between chromoso- 
mal types. 

Dr. John W. Buchholz, of the University of Arkansas, has perfected 
a rapid method of isolating pollen-tubes and of studying their growth 
without the aid of parafhne sections. He is investigating the be- 
havior of pollen and egg cells in the different chromosomal types which 
may throw light upon incompatibilities between races and species. 

Dr. J. Arthur Harris, of this Department, is investigating the in- 
fluence of the extra chromosomes upon the sap concentration by means 
of determinations of freezing-point and of electrical conductivity. 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Director of the Botanic Garden, Brooklyn In- 
stitute of Arts and Sciences, is investigating the possible effect of radium 
emanations upon gene and chromosomal mutations. 

Mr. J. L. Cartledge, of the University of Pennsylvania, worked at 
Cold Spring Harbor during the past summer upon the question of 
pollen sterility. 

It is hoped that further cooperation can be secured in the coming 
months. Especially profitable is the arrangement by which professors, 
freed of other duties, can spend their vacations at so agreeable a spot 
as Cold Spring Harbor at a time when the Daturas are actively grow- 
ing and flowering. 

Non-disjunction of the Fourth Chromosome of Drosophila. 

In the course of a selection experiment with Drosophila melanogaster 
peculiar behavior of the characters "normal eye" (N) and "eyeless" 
(n) has been observed and studied by Dr. Little. Although no 
cytological supporting evidence has been obtained, the genetic results 
are best explained on the supposition that triploidy and tetraploidy 
of the fourth chromosome have taken place. Certain additional 
hypotheses also appear to be necessary, as follows: The reduction 
during gametogenesis of Nnn flies is usually (although not exclusively) 
of the Nn-n type; that of the NnNn type is random. The somatic 
appearance of the Nnn, NnNn, and Nnnn flies is sometimes normal 
and sometimes eyeless. The proportion of these forms which appear 
in any given mating seems to be influenced by modifying factors. 

This suggests that the somatic appearance of these types as well as 
the nature of the reduction division may be different in different lines. 
As the whole matter involves detailed analysis of the genetics of the 



110 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

case on the basis of the numerous other genes, already known and 
daily being added to in Drosophila, no effort will be made to carry on 
the experiment further at this station, since it arose as a side issue in an 
entirely different line of work. The results obtained are almost ready 
for publication. 

CAUSES OF STERILITY; ABORTION OF POLLEN GRAINS. 

In the study of Datura it is highly important to recognize that many 
mutants produce pollen of which nearly half is sterile. This sterility 
is probably due to an abnormal number of chromosomes in the pollen. 
It is especially apt to occur in hybrids between mutants. Mr. John 
Belling has spent some time during the past year on this topic. He 
finds that, in the Orchidaceae, which he was able to study through the 
courtesy of the Missouri Botanical Garden, the hybrid pollen fre- 
quently is normally formed. The pollen-mother cell divides regularly 
into 4 cells, forming tetrads, just like those of a wild species. Accord- 
ingly, microcytes were very rare. In the genus Papheopedilum, 
on the other hand, where each tetrad divides into 4 pollen-grains, the 
species hybrids show a large percentage of aborted pollen. The 
following types of abortion of pollen-grains have been found : 

(1) Chance abortion of a fraction of the grains, altering slightly or greatly 
with environmental changes; and probably due to the somatic constitution 
of the plant, and not to constitutional differences among the pollen-grains 
themselves. This was found in some Canna clones; and, superposed on 
types (2) or (4), in Stizolobium and Rhododendron. 

(2) Abortion of a Mendelian fraction of the pollen-grains due to the ab- 
sence of vital genes through a mutation or as a result of crossing. This 
was found in Stizolobium and apparently in Rhododendron, sometimes with 
type (1) superposed. 

(3) Abortion similar to type (1), but due to the presence of an extra chro- 
mosome. Found in some of the simple trisomic daturas; and more accentu- 
ated in the double trisomies and in the simple tetrasomic. 

(4) Abortion, like type (2), but due to the absence of one chromosome of a 
set. Found in the Datura with 47 chromosomes assorting 23 to 24. Appar- 
ently all the 23 chromosome pollen-grains abort. Since some tetraploids 
produce much 23-chromosome pollen, the same cause may be at work in them. 
Possibly this is also the cause of abortion of half the grains in some partially 
triploid Canna clones with one or more missing chromosomes. 

(5) Abortion due apparently to frequent non-disjunction, and varying 
with environment from 38 to 100 per cent. This was found in one nearly 
sterile Canna clone. 

(6) Abortion probably due to the absence of proper pairing among the 18 
chromosomes, so that the assortment 9:9 is absent or rare. This was 
found in one sterile Canna clone. 

Mendelian abortion among the pollen-grains is well illustrated in a 
certain presumably hybrid Rhododendron. These plants are known to 
have their mature pollen-grains firmly adherent in sets of four. In 
most clones examined, and in one named hybrid kindly given by the 
Arnold Arboretum, there were varying numbers of empty grains, but 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. Ill 

the abortion showed no relation to the arrangement in fours. In one 
clone, however, which differs from the others in its flowers, no tetrad 
was found in any flower in which two of the grains were not empty of 
cytoplasm. 

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE CHROMOSOME GROUPS IN DIPTERA. 

This study is in charge of Dr. C. W. Metz, who has had associated 
with him Dr. E. G. Anderson and Airs. Rebecca C. Lancefield and has 
been assisted by Miss Mildred S. Moses, and, temporarily, by Mr. 
S. H. Emerson. The work undertaken comprises the comparative 
study of the genetical content of the germ-plasms of Drosophila 
melanog aster, D. ivilUstoni, and D. virilis; the survey of the Diptera for 
the most favorable genetical material; and the initiation of work on a 
fly (rather distantly related to Drosophila), Leria pedinata. 

Drosophila willistoni. 

The combined genetical and cytological study of Drosophila irillis- 
toni, in which Dr. Metz and Mrs. Lancefield cooperated, has yielded 
surprising results. Dr. Metz states: 

"Drosophila wUlistoni resembles D. melanogaster sufficiently to suggest 
that it is fairly closely related to this species, and the normal chromosome 
groups of the two are superficially almost alike. These are shown in figure 2, 
A and B. Owing to these resemblances it was supposed, at first, that the 
pairs of chromosomes in one species corresponded respectively to the similar 
pairs in the other (aside from the minute pair which seems to be absent in 
willistoni). But a study of 'non-disjunction' flies (flies with an extra sex 
chromosome) has shown that the sex chromosomes in the two species do not 
correspond. In D. melanogaster the rod-like pair is the sex-chromosome 
pair (Stevens, Bridges), whereas in D. willistoni we have found that one of 
the large V-shaped pairs is the sex-chromosome pair. This relationship is 
indicated in figures a and b, where the sex chromosomes are shown in solid 
black. The results are in press. 

"Comparing the chromosomes of melanogaster and icillistoni (fig. 2, a 
and b) it might be assumed that the corresponding pairs are essentially similar 
in their genetic make-up. In this case it must be assumed that the sex- 
differentiator (gene?) has been transferred from the rod-like pair {melano- 
gaster) to one of the large V-shaped pairs (willistoni) or vice versa. If this 
is the case, then it might be expected that the sex-linked group of mutant 
characters in willistoni would correspond to one of the non-sex-linked groups 
in melanogaster, providing it resembled any group in this species. 

"On the other hand, it might be imagined that the rod-like sex chromosome 
of melanogaster is represented by one arm of the V-shaped sex chromosome of 
wiUistoni and that the rem.ainder of the V is not present in melanogaster or 
is included in one of its autosomes. In this case the sex-linked mutant char- 
acters in icillistoni might correspond to the sex-linked ones in melanogaster 
plus an additional series. 

"Other hypotheses are possible, among them the hj'pothesis of a radical 
chromosomal reorganization such that the chromosomal resemblances in 
the two species are purely incidental. It is hoped that the breeding work 
will give a clue to the correct explanation. Up to the present there is little 





112 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

indication of resemblance between the sex-linked group of characters in 
willistoni and any of the groups in melanogaster , so it will be necessary to 
secure many more mutants before this feature can be cleared up." 

The conclusion that can be drawn from the foregoing data is that 

the cytological resemblance of 
chromosome groups may not safely 
be taken as a basis for conclusions 
concerning genetical relationships. 
It follows, also, that the tracing of 
T^ „ . " ' , ^ T^ .,,' . - chromosome evolution in the genus 

D. melanogaster 9 D. wdlistom 9. i , , , ? 

T^_ o T^- r u , Drosophila will probably be found 

riG. z. — iJiagrams of chromosome-complex. ..^j, . 

Sex chromosomes are shown in solid black. more dirhcult than waS at OnO 

time hoped. 
The breeding experiments with Drosophila willistoni (carried on 
largely by Mrs. Lancefield) have included the analysis of 27 sex-linked 
characters and a smaller number of non-sex-linked characters The 
data on the sex-linked characters have been prepared for publication. 
In addition to the special points mentioned above, they indicate that 
the phenomena of crossing over in willistoni are similar in general to 
those in melanogaster. The genes for the 27 characters fall into a 
inear series, based on cross-over percentages, giving a "map" approxi- 
mately 86 units long. 

Leria pectinata. 

Work with Leria pectinata has been started by Dr. Anderson and 
the species has proved favorable for study. Isolations have been 
made of new types appearing either as mutations or as segregates from 
heterozygous flies found in the pigeon-houses. In a few cases the 
"ofT-type" flies have been collected or reared from collected larvae. 
Several mutant races have been established or are being isolated. 
Some of these are of little value, because of low viability or great 
variability of the characters. The present need is for more characters 
that are sufficiently simple and clear-cut to be used as tools in the 
analysis of the more complex and less clearly expressed ones. The 
main objective of the present work is to accumulate as many of such as 
possible and to standardize cultural conditions. 

EXPERIMENTAL MODIFICATION OF THE GERM-PLASM. 
The Treatment of Mice with X-Rays Before Mating. 

Dr. C. C. Little, in collaboration with Dr. Halsey T. Bagg, research 
fellow in biology of the Huntington Fund for Cancer Research, has 
been studying the efifects of exposing mice to very small doses of 
X-rays. The experiment was begun in the autumn of 1920. A 
closely inbred strain of colored mice was used and the treatments were 
made before mating. Five consecutive daily treatments were given 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 113 

in doses that varied from 12 seconds to 360 seconds in exposure time. 
A 2.5-inch spark-gap was used, 10 milHamperes, and 12-inch distance. 
129 mice were X-rayed. Several of the mice treated with the smaller 
doses mated and produced apparently normal young in the first 
generation. These were again inbred, and two young mice were found 
with apparently very abnormal eye conditions. These animals were 
found in the first and second litters of a single Fi female. The de- 
velopmental condition of the eye is apparently an index of disturbance 
in mammalian development in general, and the presence of these eye 
disturbances, occurring in a strain of animals which otherwise rarely 
show such malformations, is an interesting observation in itself; 
it is strongly suggestive of the possibility of altering the genetic con- 
stitution of these animals in still further ways. Recently some of the 
apparently normal Fi animals were autopsied, and certain of the skulls 
have shown a peculiarly abnormally rounded dorsal convexity, asso- 
ciated with a slight asymmetry of the entire skull. Detailed his- 
tological study of these abnormal structures is being made at the time 
of writing. Further experiments are planned for the treatment of 
successive generations of mice with small doses of X-rays. The treat- 
ments were made by Dr. Bagg at the Memorial Hospital, New York 
City, while the actual breeding experiments and the detailed care of 
the animals were carried on at Cold Spring Harbor. 

MODIFIABILITY OF THE GeRM-PlaSM BY AlCOHOL. 

Under this heading, or a similar one, there has been given in the 
Year Book since 1914, an account of an experiment on the effect upon 
the descendants of alcoholization of the ascendants. The account of 
the results obtained this year are accordinglyplaced here again. Mean- 
while, it must be admitted that a large part of the clear results obtained 
are probably due to a selective elimination of certain genotypes through 
a direct physiological effect of alcoholization upon the mother, although 
it is still probable that some modification of germinal material has 
taken place. Dr. MacDowell reports: 

"Behavior in multiple-choice apparatus: In the Year Book, 1920, pages 
118-122, appeared a description of the operation of this apparatus. The 
summarization of the data from the children of treated rats can now be 
reported. The general features of the curves of correct and wrong choices 
for this generation are very like those formerly presented for the generation 
of the grandparents. 

"The data for the offspring of treated rats (81 tests and 80 controls) came 
from two series of experiments: a first series in which the parents were 
given relatively light doses of alcohol, and a second series in which the parents 
were given alcohol fumes each day until the state of complete stupor was 
produced. All interpretation is dependent upon the significance attached to 
the performance in the preliminary trials, which differed from the regular 
trials in that the rats were fed in the first compartment chosen by them in 
those trials. Is the difference between the tests and controls (manifest in 



114 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

the preliminary trials) constant through the training or is it modified by the 
training? When the controls were grouped according to their preliminary 
performance, the averages for the successive sets of 20 trials (2 days) showed 
very slight relationship to the preliminary records. When the tests are simi- 
larly grouped, their preliminary performance is so closely related to the sub- 
sequent trials that a good prediction of the later behavior can be made from 
the preliminary performance. The statistical study of this point shows 
that the preliminary performance of the controls is very slightly correlated 
with the average of each successive set of 20 trials, whereas comparable 
correlation coefficients for the tests are high. This study has revealed the 
most striking difference between the tests and controls that has been brought 
out by the multiple-choice apparatus. The reactions of the controls are 
ahnost entirely changed by the introduction of the training, while the reac- 
tions of the tests remain about the same as in the preliminary trials. This 
may be a difference in responsiveness to changes in the situation, the tests 
being less responsive to the changed circumstances than the controls. In 
view of the above, the least objectionable way of making the final compari- 
sons of averages of tests and controls appears to be to eliminate all rats with 
preliminary records beyond certain limits (for instance, with more than 12 
or less than 3 correct trials in the preliminary trials). This removes the 
difference in the averages for the preliminary trials. When this is done the 
graphs of the averages show the tests making fewer correct choices in each 
set of 20 trials after the first one. As the differences increase they become 
statistically significant. 

"Behavior in maze: In the Year Book for 1920 the maze-behavior of the 
children and grandchildren of alcoholized rats was reported. The children, 
at that time, subject to correction, have been rechecked through the co- 
operation of Dr. Harris. The great mass of the statistical work herein 
reported, however, has been carried out in this department with the assist- 
ance of Mr. L. H. Snyder and Miss Vicari. 

"The behavior data for the original treated rats and treated rats from 
treated parents have been tabulated and the summaries are ready for pub- 
lication. 71 original treated rats (with 67 controls) and 8 treated rats from 
treated parents (with 20 controls) were given their trials in the maze each 
day before the alcohol treatment. 

"In general, the tests took more time than the controls; the offspring of 
treated rats show less difference than any other generation. The other 
three generations (1, treated; 2, treated from treated parents; and 3, un- 
treated from untreated parents and treated grandparents) show more or less 
the same general differences between the tests and controls. In other words, 
this difference is neither dependent upon the presence of alcohol itself, nor 
is it intensified by the treatment of two successive generations. This result 
is similar to that given by the size of the litters produced in the different 
generations." 

THE SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTROL OF SEX. 
The Fundamental Nature of Sex. 

The phenomenon of two sexes runs through the world of organisms 
with a constancy that is hardly found in any other phenomenon, 
yet with sporadic apparent exceptions which have attracted the atten- 
tion of biologists from an early time. A phenomenon of such univer- 
sality among organisms, and yet not recognized outside of organisms, 
must have some deep biological significance. Though in the past 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 115 

half-century great advances have been made in our knowledge of the 
details of sexual reproduction, we have not advanced far in our knowl- 
edge of the essential nature of that protoplasmic dimorphism which is 
sex. 

About the nature of that essence of sex one can only frame hypo- 
theses. One thinks of the double nature of matter — positively charged 
and negatively charged. One thinks of the dimorphism of certain 
organic materials, such as dextrose and levulose. Other hypotheses 
could be framed and doubtless have been. But material adequate for 
testing these hypotheses has hitherto been lacking. The ordinary 
animal or plant is a nutritive, growing, perhaps moving and sensory 
organism, besides being a sexual organism, and the sexes differ greatly 
in their other functions and in their form. The Carnegie Institution 
is in a peculiarly favorable position, since it possesses an organism 
supposed by some to be sexless until Dr. Blakeslee discovered that 
it was practically all sexual. Since this discovery Dr. Blakeslee has 
preserved and carried on these sex-strains for 20 years and has brought 
them with him to this department. This organism is the bread mold — 
Rhizopus. It consists of a mass of threads which under certain condi- 
tions may unite to form reproductive bodies. There is no difference 
in form between the male masses and the female masses. Apparently 
one mass of threads, which may be increased to any desired amount, 
is all male throughout its whole extent; another mass of threads is 
all female throughout its whole extent. The male and the female 
masses are alike; the only way of telling which is which is by bringing 
two masses into contact. If they react by forming sexual bodies they 
are of different sex; if they fail to react they are of the same sex. 

Now, this organism presents in its simplest form material upon 
which to study the fundamental nature of sex. This Institution has 
the unique opportunity to utilize this material and if successful in 
its search, it would have to its credit one of the greatest discoveries 
in biology. Dr. Blakeslee is still maintaining his strain of mucors. 
He has during the past year accumulated additional data, especially 
from the "imperfect hybridization" reaction, which increases the evi- 
dence of a strict sexual dimorphism in this group. 

The Nature and Metabolic Basis of Sex in Pigeons. 

During the year Dr. Riddle has completed his study of the differen- 
tial survival of male and female dove embryos, subjected to increased 
and decreased pressures of oxygen. A summary of the results is given 
in tables 4 and 5, described by Dr. Riddle as follows : 

"Table 2 shows that the treatment with high concentrations of oxygen 
killed a lower percentage of males, a higher percentage of males survived, 
and the total number of males obtained is disproportionately high. Treat- 
ment with reduced pressures of oxygen killed a higher percentage of males, a 
lower percentage of males survived, and fewer males than females were ob- 



116 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



Table 2. — Summary of data from experiments with altered oxygen pressures and low 

temperatures. 



Nature of 
treatment. 


No. of 
emliryos 
tested. 


Embryos. 


Sexes. 


Killed. 


Survived. 


Killed. 


Survived. 


Total. 


Increased O2: 

Totals 

Per cent. . . 


865 


349 
40.3 

348 
44.5 

222 

48.4 


516 
59.7 

434 
55.5 

226 
51.6 


6 

16 
5.6 

34 
15.2 

34 
24.3 


9 

14 
6.3 

22 
9.7 

21 
15.7 


6 9 

271 209 
94 .4 93 . 7 

190 240 
84.8 90.3 

106 113 
75 .7 84 . 3 


6 9 

287 223 
128.7 100 

224 226 
99.1 100 

140 134 
104.5 100 


Decreased O2: 

Totals 

Per cent . . . 


782 


Cooling: 

Totals 

Per cent. . . 


438 







tained from the treated eggs. The data obtained from the subjection of 
embryos to low temperatures are in most respects similar to those obtained 
from reduced oxygen pressures, but the resulting sex-ratio certainly departs 
less from the normal and fewer and less significant numbers are available. 
Since embryos of known sex were killed in only about half of the experiments, 
it is statistically more correct to calculate percentages for 'killed' and 'sur- 
vivors' upon the numbers of males and females found in these experiments 
alone. This calculation is supplied in table 3, where the order or nature of 
none of the comparisons made above is changed by the second method of 
calculation. 

"These experiments, therefore, afford some evidence (hitherto entirely 
lacking) that a metabolic sexual difference characterizes male and female 
dove embryos. And the resulting metabolic difference here indicated for 
the embryos is in complete accord with the metabolic difference which our 
previous work with pigeons has shown to characterize the ova and the adults." 

Table 3. — Summary excluding experiments in which no "sexed" embryos were killed. 



Nature of 


No. of 

embryos 

tested. 


Embryos. 


Sexes. 


treatment. 


Killed. 


Survived. 


Killed. 


Survived. 


Total. 


Increased O2: 

Totals 

Per cent. . . 


448 


238 
53.1 

225 
51.1 

187 
56 . 2 


210 
46.9 

215 

48.9 

146 

43.8 


6 9 

16 14 

13.0 15.1 

34 22 

29.1 16.8 

34 21 
33.0 22.6 


6 9 

107 79 
87.0 84.9 

83 109 
70 . 9 83 . 2 

69 73 
67.0 79.5 


6 9 

123 93 
132.3 100 

117 131 
89.3 100 

103 93 
110.8 100 


Decreased Oj: 

Totals 

Per cent. . . 


440 


Cooling: 

Totals 

Per cent. . 


333 







Control of the Sex-Ratio. 



Very significant departures from the typical 50-50 sex ratio are 
frequently found, and more rarely the extreme case of 100-0 appears 
either in nature or in experiments conducted in the laboratory. When 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 



117 



the latter ratio can be regularly produced, sex-ratio is said to be 
controlled. Control of the sex-ratio offers an interesting field for 
experimental research, the importance of whose applications to man 
are obvious. 

Cladocera.— In the Year Books for 1917 (p. 119) and 1918 (p. 107) 
have been described Dr. Banta's attempts to control the sex-ratios in 
these small crustaceans. This year further progress has been made and 
all species or strains which were adequately tested yielded greater or 
less evidence of sex-control, or at least an influencing of the sex-ratio. 
While in 1917 the addition of acid yielded "all male" broods, this year 
the method used was that of crowding the mothers by placing 10 or 
more in a bottle containing approximately 75 c. c. of culture water. 
Such crowded mothers produced from a small percentage to over 90 per 
cent males in individual bottles. The species used were Daphnia 
pulex, Simocephalus exspinosus, and Moina inacrocopa. Oidinarily in 
nature they produce few or no males. 

Table 4. — Summarized data of some Cladocera sex-control experiments. Number of off- 
spring of each sex, and percentage of male offspring. 



No. of mothers, 
per bottle. 


2 


10 


20 


Species. 


Xo. of 

9 9 


No. of 


P. ct. 


No. of 

9 9 


No. of 


P. ct. 


No. of 

9 9 


No. of 


P. ct. 


Daphnia pulex 
S. exspinosus 
Moina macrocopa 

All three species 


245 
149 
476 






57 


00.0 
00.0 
10. 7 


3So 

42 

643 


176 

42 
688 


31.4 
50.0 
51.7 


276 

41 

1,021 


19 

88 
964 


6.4 

682 
48.6 


870 


57 


6.1 


1,070 


906 


45.8 


1,338 


1,071 


44.5 



From table 4 it appears plain that the proportion of males increased 
enormously in the bottles with 10 or 20 females, as compared with those 
containing only 2 females. The most probable explanation seems to 
be that crowding, probably by influencing the quality of the water, 
induces male production. Dr. Banta reports further: 

"The different species and lines vary in their susceptibility to the sex- 
control measures. The above are representative data of the sex-control 
experiments. Moina macrocopa is perhaps the most responsive of the species 
used, though the two experiments with S. exspinosus gave sUghtty higher 
male percentages. Daphnia pulex is the least responsive species so far 
sufficiently tested and different lines of this species vary in their suscepti- 
bility to the influence of crowding. 

"One line of Daphnia pulex, when subjected to crowding, has so far pro- 
duced sexual eggs (ephippa) rather than males. This is again suggestive of 
differences in susceptibility of the different lines to the same influence. The 
influence calling forth the production of males is obviously related to the 
production of ephippial eggs, else the whole mechanism of sexual repro- 



118 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

duction in Cladocera must miscarry. Yet the same influence may in one 
case call forth males and in another case sexual eggs. Since males and not 
ephippial eggs appear in most of our cases and ephippial eggs and not males 
in the other case, evidently somewhat different conditions must be obtained 
to produce ephippial eggs where males are now obtained and males where 
ephippial eggs have been obtained." 

Differential viability of "male^^ and "female'' sperm. — As noted in 
previous Year Books (1919, p. 135, 136; 1920, p. 124-127), Dr. Little 
has been carrying out researches in this field. 

"In last year's report the suggestion was made that a differential viability 
of the male-forming and female-forming sperms might underlie the various 
departures from an equality sex-ratio which are commonly met with and 
which are especially marked in first litters or first births and in first-genera- 
tion hybrids between various strains and races of laboratory mammals and 
different nationalities in man. During the summer Mr. Fehx Saunders, 
Miss Isabelle Graves, and Miss Vera Goddard have been working under 
Dr. Little's direction on methods and technique of obtaining the hydrogen- 
ion concentration of the seminal fluid, vaginal secretions, and uterine secre- 
tions in rats and dogs. For this purpose female rats of known stage in the 
cestrous cycle are obtainable by a daily analysis of the laboratory colony, 
by the methods used and described by Long and Evans. The Bovie self- 
recording potentiometer is being used for the determination of the hydrogen- 
ion concentration and special methods have been devised by which it is 
hoped that readings may be obtained from secretions while they are still 
within the vagina or the uterus of the female." 

Differences in size between "male'' and "female" sperm. — It is known 
that in mammals and some insects the sex of offspring is determined by 
the one of two unlike types of sperms that fertilizes the eggs. The 
two types differ in the number of chromosomes. Some years ago 
C. Zeleny, Faust, and Senay (1915) showed that certain spermatozoa 
differ also in size and fall into two overlapping groups of head- 
length. It was important to know if the same is true of mammalian 
sperm. Under Dr. Little's direction, Miss Graves and Miss Goddard 
have measured and tabulated the head-length of over 1,300 unstained 
dog sperm, all obtained from the same animal. A magnification of 
2,000 times was used. To secure accuracy, camera-lucida projections 
were drawn and then measured. 

When tabulation of the results was made by division into classes 
of 0.25ju, the bimodal curve is not obtained which one expects if there 
are two size-types. If two modes are actually present they are masked 
by being so close together that the methods available for measuring 
sperm fresh from the animal are not accurate enough to establish their 
existence beyond doubt. The personal error introduced by the ob- 
server would probably be fully as great as the distance between the 
modes. The difference between the two types of sperm in dogs is not 
sufficiently large to measure in material as nearly as possible in the 
actual condition of its entrance into the female reproductive tract. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 



119 



It is probable, therefore, that explanations for departure from an 
equality sex-ratio which are based on mechanical advantages of one or 
the other type of sperm because of its size are not well founded. 

The effect of stateness of sperm on the sex-ratio. — Students of Amphibia 
have laid stress upon staleness of gametes as a factor in the production 
of an excess of males. It has been suggested that stale sperm might 
affect the sex-ratio in man. To test this matter, Miss Jane Hubbard, 
working under Dr. Little's direction, is using the northern squash 
beetle, Epilachna borealis. In this species copulation occurs only 
once, while such a female lays its eggs throughout the summer season. 
At the end of the season the eggs laid must have been fertilized by 
sperm that has been retained by the female for months. The work is 
not finished. Table 5 gives the totals of observations made to the 
date of report. 

Table .5. — Numbers of female beetle?. {Epilachna borealis) confined during 1921, number of 
eggs laid, n umber of larvcB, of pupoe, and of imagines resulting from them. 



The data are given for the experimental lines 


and for 3 control lines. 






No. of 
beetles. 


No. of 
eggs. 


No. of 
larvee. 


No. of 
pupae. 


No. of 
imagines. 


Experimental lines 


43 
15 
18 
30 


3,811 

1,036 

762 

1,165 


1,385 
403 
222 

825 


86 

23 

1 

192 


10 

15 



136 


Control lines (males retained) . . . 
Control lines (males changed) . . . 
Control lines (general) 





The work is being continued; it is too early to announce results. 
The heavy mortality of the experimental lines is striking. 

Selection of Sex-Intergrades in Daphnia. 

Dr. A. M. Banta has, with the assistance of Mr. L. A. Brown, 
continued changing the proportional degree of sex-intergradation in his 
interesting biotype of Daphnia longispina (see Year Book 1920, p. 12). 
He reports the main results of the year in this topic : 

''An effect of selection has been obtained wherever attempted with inter- 
grades of Daphnia longispina. With strains I and III, originating from 
sisters, the effect of selection appeared after six generations of selections, 
during which the stock was reared under uniform conditions. The curves 
for the two strains fluctuate considerably, but the divergence between them 
is never eliminated. (Really the selection is only in the low strain. III, 
since the high strains can not be maintained too high because of consequent 
low productivity and ultimate sterility.) Return selection has also been 
effective in every one of the 10 cases in which it has been carried out, though 
it has not been effective with equal promptness or to an equal degree with 
the different strains. Strains X and XXII are returns to high from low. 
Strain XXII is less successful as a return selection than strain X, but it 
materially diverged from strain XII, from which it was derived. We have 
obtained through selection a divergence between two selected strains; a 



120 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

return from high to low and back to high again, and a return from low to 
high and back to low again. 

"The question arose as to whether these strains really possessed genetic 
differences or whether their differences were merely of a cytoplasmic nature. 
To test this, several high mothers from strain I were simultaneously given 
the same treatment as an equal number of mothers of the same grade 
from low strain III. The offspring of each set of mothers were carefully 
graded. The result was as follows: the mothers of low strain III with a 
weighted average grade of 24.9 produced young averaging grade 7.7, while 
the mothers from high strain I, with a weighted average grade of 26.0, pro- 
duced 3^oung averaging grade 25.3. Hence, while the mothers were of as 
nearly equal grade as could readily be obtained, the offspring from the 
mothers belonging to the low strain graded only one-third as high as offspring 
from the high strain. This would seem to indicate clear genetic differences 
between the two strains, and all the other evidence supports this conclusion. 

Another question that arose concerned the possibility of separate genetic 
factors being involved in the development of the different secondary sex- 
characters. This was tested by selecting different strains for different indi- 
vidual secondary sex-characters. For example, in strain XVI individuals 
were selected which had the most male-like antennules, while in respect to 
other secondary sex-characters they were only moderately intergrade. The 
result of selection on this basis for 10 generations and with 3 strains was 
entirely negative. The secondary sex-characters are obviously transmitted 
as a whole and not by separate factors for character of individual secondary 
sex-characters — antennules, breast margins, etc. 

"Environmental influences affect the degree of intergradeness of secondary 
sex-characters in sex-intergrade stock. At certain times all the stock is 
relatively highly intergrade ; at other times it is all relatively less intergrade. 
For example, in the 31st and 42d generations of selection are general uplifts 
in the curves of intergradeness indicating increased degree of intergradeness 
during those generations. In the 53d generation a general dip in the curves 
followed by a rise in the next generation indicates lessened followed by 
increased degree of intergradeness. These simultaneous fluctuations are 
reflections of environmental factors." 

Sex-Intergrades Induced by Parasitism. 

Sex-intergrades are found in Crustacea that are parasitized and 
rendered sterile. Such parasitized Crustacea have been described 
by Giard (188G-88) in the case of several higher Crustacea and by 
GeofTrey Smith (1910) in the spider crab Inachus, parasitized by Sac- 
culina. During this year this phenomenon has been found by Dr. 
Banta in the "new form" of Daphnia pulex obtained near Cold Spring 
Harbor. He reports: 

"The secondary sex-characters in D. pulex are very similar to those of D. 
longispina, which are figured in Year Book No. 16 for 1917, page 123. In 
these parasitized individuals Dr. Banta found that the sex-intergrade con- 
dition varied from only slightly intergrade to rather highly intergrade in 
character. If a larger series could have been secured it seems probable 
that most of the features of the D. longispina intergrade stock would have 
appeared. Enough was seen to make it clear that (1) in the characters 
affected, (2) the range of degree of intergradeness in difTerent individual 
intergrades, and (3) the lack of uniformity in degree of intergradeness in the 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 121 

different characters in the same individual, the parasitized D. pulex inter- 
grades closely resembled the intergrade D. longispina. All of the D. pulex 
intergrades that could be found were carefully cared for, but all were para- 
sitized and died within a few days. A few other individuals of the same 
material were also parasitized and yet possessed normal secondary sex- 
character. The infection may have reached these individuals too late in 
hfe to affect their secondary sex-characters. Inasmuch as all the intergrades 
were parasitized, it is beUeved that the intergrade condition was the result 
of parasitism. This has considerable theoretical interest. It is a case of an 
apparently purely somatic effect which most strikingly resembles the effect 
of genetic factors in other similar material. The general resemblance of the 
parasitically produced intergrades of D. pulex and the genetically produced 
intergrades of D. longispina is so striking that except for the species-character 
differences and the presence of parasites in the former it is doubtful if we 
could distinguish intergrades of the two classes." 

INHERITANCE OF SPECIAL TRAITS. 
Flowering Plants. 

Rudbeckia. — Dr. Blakeslee has published "A chemical method of 
distinguishing genetic types of yellow cones in Rudbeckia,' ' in the 
Zeitschrift fiir induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre. He de- 
scribes his discovery of the two strains of "yellow daisy" with a yellow 
instead of a purple cone. These were indistinguishable in the field, 
but dipped in alkali the flow^ers of one race turn black, the other red. 
When black-yellow is self-pollinated, only black-yellow is produced; 
when it is pollinated with ordinary purple heads all progeny are 
purples in Fi, and in F2 purple and yellow appear in the proportion 
of 3 : 1. The red-yellow^ behaves similarly. WTien the black-yellow 
and red-3^ellow^ are crossed, the offspring are all purple in Fi, and 
purple, red-yellow, and black-yellow^ again in F2. This work is prob- 
ably the first wdiere a sharp cheixdcal distinction has been possible 
between the genetic groups within one phenotype. 

Portulaca. — The development of the experiments with Datura has 
made it necessary to reduce w^ork on Portulaca. Dr. Blakeslee has, 
notwithstanding, secured important additional data regarding the 
inheritance of color types in the flowxrs, and has found that dark 
stigmas are dominant to light ones and dark pollen to light. The 
frequent "somatic mutations" are, however, the chief point of interest. 
Rather unexpectedly, nearly all of these mutations have arisen in 
dominants that have arisen from reversion, and hence appeared first in 
the heterozygous condition. Dr. Blakeslee reports that: 

"The possibihty of such mutations being reversible has been investigated. 
For this purpose a pedigree was chosen showing a 1:2 :1 ratio for .yellow 
and white petals, with the heterozygotes distinguishable from the homo- 
zygous yellows by a less intense pigmentation. The parent of this pedigree 
had arisen the previous year as a perichnal chimera from an inbred white 
hne which shows frequent mutative striping with yellow. Of over 5,000 
heterozygous yellow flowers examined. Miss Bergner, assisting Dr. Blakeslee, 



122 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

found 3 which showed white flecks and 1 which showed a dark yellow fleck 
which was presumably homozygous for yellow. The evidence seems con- 
clusive, therefore, that the somatic mutations occur in both directions, to 
dominants and to recessives. It is impossible to give reliable figures for the 
relative frequency of mutation in the two directions, since, although yellow 
flecking on whites seems relatively common (89 yellow-flecked flowers out of 
over 2,500 examined), white flecks on yellows are less readily discernible." 

Sap Properties of Egyptian and Upland Cotton and of their Fi Hybrids. 

Preliminary observations at Sacaton, Arizona, in 1920 indicated that 
Egyptian and Upland cotton differ in their sap properties (Year Book, 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. 1920, p. 143). Careful plantings were made 
at the Cooperative Testing Station at Sacaton, through the courtesy 
of Dr. T. H. Kearney, for the purpose of a more exact comparison of 
Meade and Acala Upland Cotton with Pima Egyptian cotton, and of 
the Fi hybrid between Pima and Meade with the two parent species. 
The work on the sap properties of these four series of plants occupied 
the attention of Dr. Harris, with the assistance of J. V. Lawrence, W. F. 
Hoffman, A. T. Valentine, and Mrs. J. V. Lawrence during the month 
of August. 

Susceptibility to Inoculable Cancer. 

Heredity of susceptibility. — In the last annual report, evidence was 
offered by Dr. Little to show that in all probability from three to five 
Mendelizing factors were involved in determining the susceptibility 
and non-susceptibility of hybrids between Japanese mice and albinos 
to a sarcoma J. W. B. of the Japanese mice. 

During the past year adeno-carcinomas dbrA and dbrB have both 
been used by him in a series of genetic experiments involving a cross 
between the susceptible dilute brown race and a non-susceptible 
albino race. Both parent races were inbred — the dilute brown race 
especially so. Fi hybrids between dilute brown and albinos grew 
both the A and the B tumors in every case. The tumors were implanted 
subcutaneously on the opposite sides (axillary regions) of the animals 
used. The result given by the Fi mice was expected and predicted, 
since the degree of inbreeding of the dilute brown race was so great 
that the gametes contributed by various individuals from it to the Fi 
hybrids were essentially alike. They each presumably contained in a 
simplex condition the genetic factors which together form the "dilute 
brown" complex and which, therefore, bring about the favorable treat- 
ment of implants of the dbrA and dbrB tumors. 

In the experiments involving the Japanese mice and albinos, the 
parent stocks were so widely divergent from one another biologically 
that it is not at all surprising that the number of Mendelian factors 
underlying the difference was found to be large. (In the case of the 
epithelial tumor, carcinoma J. W. A., it was estimated at 12 to 14.) 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 123 

In crosses between albinos and dilute browns, however, the differ- 
ence should not be nearly so great, and the number of factors should 
therefore be distinctly smaller. 

The behavior of the F2 hybrid generation which has been raised and 
observed by Dr. L. C. Strong is in complete accord with this expecta- 
tion. The B tumor gives a total of 108+ to 89 — . If a two-factor 
difference is involved, a 9 : 7 ratio is expected. This, in the number of 
mice involved, would mean 110.7+ to 86.3 — . The dbrA tumor is 
the same which, by extensive tests with non-susceptible wild house- 
mice. Dr. Strong found showed significantly fewer indications of growth 
than did tumor dbrB. The genetic behavior of this tumor gives an 
interesting clue to the nature and extent of its divergence from tumor 
B. 88 animals of F2 are plus to tumor A and 110 are minus. On a 
three-factor basis of 27:37, the numbers expected are 83.5+ to 
115.5-. 

The back-cross of Fi by albino produced corroboratory evidence in 
each case. Thus, in this generation, tumor B gives 10+ and 44 — , 
the expectation on a two-factor basis being in this case 13.5+ to 40.5 — . 
Tumor A gives a total of 8+ to 46 — , the expectation being 6.75 to 
47.25. The conclusion can, therefore, be drawn that in the inheritance 
of susceptibility and non-susceptibility to the B tumor, a ^u'o-factor 
difference between the dilute brown and albino race is involved, while 
for the A tumor three factors are concerned. This drives the work 
with inoculable tumors a point nearer to the isolation of animals and 
strains differing in a single Mendelian factor. 

Miss Helen Bloomer and Miss Marie Poland have assisted in the 
genetic work during the summer. More than 200 hybrids other than 
those recorded have been inoculated and are awaiting observation, 
while a total of more than 1,200 hybrids are now available for breeding. 

Dr. Strong, who has practically completed the work on inoculation 
of wild mice with tumors dbrA and dbrB, reports as follows : 

"Several points of genetic interest appear to be brought out by this experi- 
ment. Among these is the fact of which preliminaiy mention was made 
last year that physiological tests are more delicate than histological ones 
in that they record slight differences in the tissue of two tumors, which were 
histologically indistinguishable . 

"The experiment is a continuation of the one mentioned in the previous 
report. At present the data relative to tliis point are as follows : 

Total dbrB 876. Negative:80=fc5.68 reactions or 9.23 per cent ±0.66. reactions 
Total dbrA 705. Negative: 15='=2. 55 reactions or 2.08 per cent =1=0.35. reactions 

Difference 7.15 per cent ±0.74 

The difference is thus 9.66 times its probable error. 

"The susceptibility curve during the full age-cycle for gonadectomized 
individuals is quite distinct from that of the unoperated controls. 

"Susceptibility is influenced by several general factors, among which age 
is one of the most important. The present experunent confirms a similar 
one carried out by Dr. Little with sarcoma J. W. B. It, however, goes further 



124 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

in that it includes individuals from all age classes. In animals of a non- 
susceptible race, the maximum reactive potentiality against a tumor is attained 
by a gradual process at the period of sexual maturity. AVith advancing old 
age non-susceptibility decreased somewhat. These data have a direct 
bearing upon the nature of the individuality of the organism. The age- 
cycle susceptibility curve for gonadectomized individuals is, as may be ex- 
pected, the direct reverse of that for the normals. 

"Another point of minor importance is the fact that there is no differential 
effect of gonadectomy upon the two sexes, thus indicating that the gonads 
are a determining factor in the process of differentiation for both sexes. 

"The conclusions to be drawn from the complete experiment naturally 
group themselves under two headings: {A) the activity of the tumor cell; 
{B) the reaction of the host. 

"(A) The activity of the tumor cell. (1) There is, in some cases at least, 
a uniform reaction, providing the tumor is transplanted into individuals of 
the same age and sex of a relatively homogeneous series of hosts. In other 
words, no rhythms of tumor growth are encountered. (2) A transplanted 
tumor grows progressively (within limits) at a fairly uniform rate of develop- 
ment if placed into definitely proven homogeneous mice (dBr stock and Fi 
hybrids). Sudden fluctuations in growth activity may sporadically occur, 
due to a process analogous to mutation. 

"(B) The reaction of the host. (1) Race is the primary factor that de- 
termines whether or not a given individual shall or shall not grow the tumor 
mass progressively. Susceptibihty and non-susceptibility are manifestations 
of the genetic constitution of the individual. (2) Several secondary physio- 
logical factors, among which age is the most important, function in determin- 
ing the outcome of a given reaction. These may be called contributory or 
accessory factors. (3) The age factor is an expression of the degree of the 
process of the assumption of tissue specificity controlled to some extent by 
the activity of the gonads. (4) The age-susceptibility curve towards trans- 
plantable tumors for normal individuals of a non-susceptible race bears a 
remarkable simiUarity to the curve of activity of the gonads. (5) The sex 
factor (encountered especially with young mice in development) depends 
upon at least two primary causes: (a) the age factor, and (6) the difference 
in physiological activity between the sexes at the different age-periods of 
life. (6) Removal of the gonads does not change the massed percentage 
reactions for individuals of a non-susceptible race. This bears out the previous 
conclusions that the number of percentage reactions in a given strain depends 
upon the genetic constitution of the individuals. (7) Gonadectomy produces, 
in the stock emploj^ed, a significant increase in percentage reactions in mice 
attaining sexual maturity (age class 3). (8) Gonadectomy causes an approach 
towards a neutral type (loss of characteristic differences between sexes) in 
the percentage of reactions towards both tumors used, just as it does in the 
case of morphological characteristics (Hatai and others). (9) By the removal 
of the gonads, the individuality of the tissues and the normal functioning of 
the age factor can be interfered with. (10) A severe shock, caused by such 
an operation as gonadectomy, produces, in some cases at least, a resistant 
state to transplantable tumors that is at its maximum from 5 to 10 days 
after operation." 

Receipt of sarcoma 180 from the Crocker Research Fund. — During 
the early summer, mice with implants of Crocker Fund sarcoma 
180 were received by this Department, through the kindness of Dr. 
F. C. Wood, the director of the Crocker Research Fund. Preliminary 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 



125 



experiments by Dr. Strong have shown that this tumor grows in a very- 
high percentage of mice inoculated. A few wild mice which are non- 
susceptible have been obtained and experiments will at once be started 
to determine the genetics of susceptibility and non-susceptibility of 
this tumor. 

Inoculation of mice of the genera Peromyscus and Microtus. — Miss 
Pearl Anderson and Miss B. W. Johnson have, under Dr. Little's 
direction, trapped and inoculated with tumors a number of mice, both 
Peromyscus novenihoracensis and Microtus pennsylvanicus. The tumors 
used have been adenocarcinoma dbrA, dbrB, and sarcoma 180. None 
of the mice grew any of the tumors progressively, but certain of them 
showed indications of a mass at the site of inoculation. Table 6 
shows the percentage of indications ( + ) for the two genera and the 
three tumors. There was no evidence of stimulation of the host tis- 
sue to neoplastic growth. 

Table 6. — The absolute number of field mice of each of two genera in which an indication of 
the inoculated tumor remained (-(-) and in which no indication remained ( — ); also the 
percentage of persisting indications. 





dbrA 


dbrB 


Sarcoma ISO. 


+ 


- 


P. ct. + 


+ 


- 


P. ct. + 


+ 




P. ct. + 


Peromyscus 


1 

7 


51 
33 


1.92 
17.50 


2 


20 


9.09 


6 

4 


37 
52 


13.9 
9.13 











Preliminary work on the isolation of single tumor cells and on the 
mechanics of metastasis. — During the summer, Mr. George 0. Gey, of 
the University of Pittsburgh, has worked in Dr. Little's laboratory 
on the isolation and implantation of minute particles of tumor tissue, 
with a view to isolating single tumor-cells if possible. The prehminary 
phases of the technique have been thoroughly gone into and the work 
will be continued throughout the year at Pittsburgh by Mr. Gey. 
Miss Margaret Schneider has also assisted in this work. 

An interesting piece of evidence as to the mechanics of metastases 
was obtained by Mr. Gey in the course of his w^ork. He reports 
somewhat as follows : 

"Tumor emulsion filtered through fine gauze was inoculated through an 
hypodermic syringe into the liver of 5 mice. The dosage ranged from 0.2 c.c. 
to 0.3 c.c. of filtered emulsion. Great care was taken throughout the opera- 
tion to maintain as aseptic conditions as possible. In every case the mice 
were killed 14 days after inoculation. All showed abnormal appearances of 
liver, kidneys, and spleen. The two controls which remained available for 
observation had been inoculated subcutaneously and both showed tumors. 

"In the experimental animals histological examination showed that the 
sarcoma has definitely invaded, through the medium of the blood, the liver, kid- 



126 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

ney, and spleen. Nodules of tumor cells occurred in these organs surrounded 
by normal tissue. In some cases it could clearly be seen that the tumor 
cells surrounded or lay close to a blood-vessel." 

In these cases, therefore, it seems clear that a transfer of minute 
groups of cells or of single cells has taken place through the blood- 
system. An interesting line of investigation concerning the course 
and mechanics of metastasis is thus suggested. 

Spleen implants in mice of different strains. — A series of experiments 
has been conducted by Dr. Little and Miss B. W. Johnson to investi- 
gate the method of inheritance of favorable or unfavorable reaction to 
subcutaneous implants of spleen tissue. The material used for this 
consisted of two races of mice. The first of these was a strain of Japa- 
nese waltzing mice which had been subjected to the closest inbreeding 
for approximately 15 years. This is the Lambert strain already de- 
scribed in connection with work on inheritance of susceptibility to 
transplantable tumors. 

These animals are, as a result of the long-continued inbreeding, 
remarkably uniform genetically. It is a well-established fact that if a 
piece of the spleen of a mouse be transplanted subcutaneously in the 
same animal (autoplastic implant), the implant will persist and a blood- 
supply will be established. In other words, the animal does not treat 
the implant as a foreign body, but attempts to nourish it even in an 
unaccustomed position. 

If a piece of the spleen of another unrelated animal of the same spe- 
cies is placed beneath the skin (homioplastic implant), the host usually 
reacts unfavorably to the implant, treating it as a foreign body, and by 
leucocytic action or invasion of connective tissue succeeds in eliminat- 
ing the implant. 

Theoretically, when animals have been inbred for a considerable 
period they become, as above stated, remarkably homogeneous genet- 
ically. This should mean that when a homioplastic implant is made 
between two such genetically similar individuals the conditions will 
approximate or be equivalent to those of an autoplastic implant. 
Work already reported by Little and Tyzzer on the transplantable 
tumors J. W. A. and J. W. B. shows that the Japanese waltzing mice 
of the Lambert strain fulfill the requirements of genetic uniformity 
to a marked degree by growing subcutaneously implants of the tumors 
which originated in animals of that race. 

When the Japanese tumors were transplanted into individuals of an 
unrelated race of albino mice, an occasional individual supported the 
implant for a short time, but the final result was in every case negative. 

If the Japanese mice are essentially homogeneous genetically, the 
hereditary factors carried in their gametes should be essentially the 
same. Implants of Japanese-mouse tumor in first-generation hybrids 
between Japanese and albino mice grew in all cases. This showed 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 127 

that the genetic factors received in the gamete from the Japanese 
parent were sufficient to cause the Fi hybrids to react favorably to 
Japanese-mouse tissue. 

The same situation should be found to exist with reference to splenic 
implants. The Fi hybrids between Japanese mice and albinos should 
grow implants of the Japanese-mouse spleen quite as successfully as 
they grow their own. On the other hand, the Japanese mice should 
grow implants of their own spleens, but should eliminate those from 
Fi mice, since they contain none of the complex of genetic factors which 
characterize the albino race, and which are in some degree present in 
the Fi animals. 

Actually, this is found to be the case. 33 Fi mice inoculated simul- 
taneously with their own and with Japanese waltzing-mouse spleen 
grew both implants successfully, as expected; 23 Japanese mice, 20 days 
after inoculation, were growing the implants of their own spleen, but 
had eliminated or were eliminating the implants of Fi spleen. 

This completes satisfactorily the first experiment of a series designed 
to obtain evidence concerning the nature and method of inheritance 
of the genetic factors underlying the physiological differences between 
individual mammals. L. Loeb has recently advanced an hypothesis of 
"auto-syngenesio-, homoio-, and species-individuality differentials" 
to explain somewhat similar cases. The work here reported indicates 
strongly that a simpler and more consistent explanation exists. 

Histological preparations confirmatory of the macroscopic observa- 
tions of the transplanted tissues have been obtained by Mr. W. F. 
Windle, of Denison University, working during the summer with Dr. 
Little. Three papers covering this series of experiments from genetic, 
medical, and histological viewpoints are now in preparation. 

Genetic Studies in Cats. 

In 1920, Doncaster suggested that the occurrence of tortoise-shell 
males in cats and their usual sterility might be due to a process of 
hormone action somewhat similar to that involved in the production 
of free martins in cattle. During the past year, through the courtesy 
of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in New York 
City, it has been possible for Miss E. E. Jones to examine the uteri 
of 140 pregnant female cats. In a total of 589 embryos, no sign of 
anastomosis of the circulatory systems supplying the fetuses has been 
discerned. The work provides a considerable body of negative evi- 
dence against the correctness of Doncaster's hypothesis. 

White coat color in cats has for some time been recognized as a 
probable Mendelian dominant representing an extreme form of spotting. 
Since a factor with somewhat the same function in mice has been 
found by Little (1915) to behave as a lethal when present in a duplex 
condition, it was thought to be worth while to determine whether there 



128 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

was a significantly higher proportion of degenerating fetuses in preg- 
nant white females than in non-whites. White cats are not common, 
and the chance of obtaining pregnant animals is, therefore, not great. 
Nevertheless, 84 embryos have been observed in such females, and of 
these 10, or 10.64± 1.86 per cent were degenerating. In 505 embryos 
of non-white females, 18, or 3.44=^0.51 per cent were degenerating. 
The difference is 4.02 times its probable error. The conclusion is war- 
ranted that a significantly greater number of degenerating embryos are 
found in white than in non-white female cats. Since the sires of these 
litters were probably, in the great majority of cases, non-white, it is 
likely that, in some ivhite females at least, a lethal action of some sort is 
operative when the factor for white is present even in a simplex condition. 

Eyelessness in Cladocera. 

Many cave animals are eyeless. The most satisfactory explanation 
of this relation is that an eyeless mutation occurred in such species 
before they became cave inhabitants; that the eyeless descendants of 
such mutations were able to take advantage of caves and survive in 
them. Cases of eyeless sports are, accordingly, of special interest to 
us. In 1919 an eyeless Simocephalus exspinosus was observed from 
one of Dr. Banta's cultures, but she had, unfortunately, already been 
killed. This year two eyeless Moina rectirostris appeared in the cul- 
tures, lacking the optic ganglion as well as the ommatidia, and having a 
head-form that was changed accordingly. Many young were obtained 
from each of these individuals and all possessed fully developed optic 
structures. Likewise, more than 5,000 sibs and descendants of the 
eyeless individuals were examined. All possessed eyes. Obviously 
these two cases were merely accidents in development. Since, how- 
ever, eyelessness is inherited in Drosophila, it seems justifiable to con- 
tinue the search for eyeless Cladocera. 

Clones in Cladocera. 

A study b}^ Dr. Banta, as yet uncompleted, seems to indicate that 
the obviously different forms of Simocephalus serrulatus which he has 
found in different parts of the United States may be further differen- 
tiated into clones differing by more minute physiological or morpho- 
logical characters. This matter has been more fully worked out for 
strains of Daphnia pulex, in which at least three distinct clones, for- 
merly unsuspected, were differentiated from our laboratory stock. 
The recognition of additional clones in this material probably depends 
merely upon a further refinement of our measurement and observations 
of the different strains. This work is to be carried further. 

Genetic Basis of Animal Behavior. 

Heredity of behavior in dogs. — As stated in the last report of this 
Department (Year Book, 1920, p. 137), we have undertaken a study 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 129 

of the factor of heredity in the behavior of dogs. This study is being 
conducted by Dr. E. C. MacDowell. He reports progress as follows: 

In attempting to discover the laws controlling the inheritance of a tendency 
to specific behavior by following the course of such tendency through crosses 
and successive generations, the first and most difficult problem is to find suita- 
ble methods of recognizing the specific behavior when manifest. Once such 
methods are formulated, the work can proceed with certainty to a successful 
conclusion, however long and tedious may be the road. In discovering 
suitable methods distinct progress has been made at this Station, The first 
apparatus designed to measure the behavior and educability of dogs has been 
in operation since the beginning of the year. Its main object has been to 
provide a simple method of testing the responsiveness of different individuals, 
and, more especially, different breeds, to various types of signals. So far the 
work has been restricted to one breed of dogs, namel}^, dachshunds. Instead 
of learning to follow a certain path, the dogs were given the problem of learning 
to choose between alternative paths according to signals, that is, to form the 
association between a certain signal and their food. An important feature 
of the apparatus (see figure 3) is the arrangement which permits the dogs to 
leave their kennels and go through 10 or more trials a day without seeing the 
observer. The observer remains in the closet 0, where the records are made 
and from which all doors and signals are operated. By means of mirrors, 
electric signals, peep-holes, and the sounds made by the dogs themselves, the 
course of the animals can be followed. The kennels are provided with sliding 
doors which are opened by long cords. Released from his kennel, the dog 
to be trained passes over the gangway to the house through the opened door 
F, which is closed behind him, on to door M, which is also open. When he 
reaches the end of the central alley the signal is given at the right or left side 
of the house. If the association has been formed the dog will turn towards 
the signal and continue around to the side alley (doors PI and Pr always being 
open); by stepping on the board L or 72 a light signal is given in for the 
observer to open the next door {Sl or Sr) into the food compartment. Door S 
is immediately lowered again, a morsel of food dropped into the food com- 
partment by a device operated from 0, and, after eating, the dog leaves this 
compartment by door E and thence to M and through the apparatus again. 
This is continued until the desired number of trials has been run (10 per day), 
when the dog finds M closed and leaves the house. If a wrong choice is made 
in the trials, that is, if a dog turns away from the signal, the door S on that 
side will not be opened and the dog must correct himself by going to the 
opposite side. In order to prove that a real association, and not merely a 
rhythm, has been formed, the signals are given on one side or the other accord- 
ing to the order of the red and black spots in two well-shuffied packs of playing 
cards. It is obvious that half the choices will be correct by chance even if no 
association at all is formed. The long series of daily trials is given to obtain a 
more reliable measure of the proportion of correct choices. 

The first signals used were electric lights, located at the ends of the trans- 
verse alley, visible when the dog reached the end of the central alley. Although 
the house was not completely dark, the transverse alley was sufficiently in 
shadow to make a great contrast between the illuminated end and the opposite 
one. The first litter to be trained in this apparatus included 5 one-year-old 
dachshunds (ex Cocoa by Engadin); they adjusted themselves immediately 
to the routine of the apparatus. The mother. Cocoa, was trained at the same 
time and showed the same adaptability to the apparatus. Some of these 
learned to return to their kennels when they found door M closed after their 



130 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



last trials ; others had to be ordered back. But the association with the light 
signal was not clearly formed in any case, although the trials were continued 
for over 2 months. 

A second type of signal has been used. A common electric buzzer was 
placed close to each door, Sl and Sr. No attempt was made to have these even 
approximately similar in sound. Although a tendency to turn away from the 
buzzers appeared at first, it was only a short time before the association was 
started in most cases. Without presenting any exact data, it seems clear 
from the above that these dachshunds respond to sound more readily than to 
light signals. 



Diagram of the association ap- 
paratus. The kennels arc arranged 
so the dogs can be released and ap- 
proach the apparatus in the house 
without seeing the operator. Dot- 
ted lines represent doors; O, obser- 
vers' closet, from which all doors 
are operated; M, entrance to ap- 
paratus; Pl and Pr, punishment 
doors normally raised ; L and R, 
boards making electric contacts when 
touched to give a signal in O for 
opening the doors Sl or Sr which 
lead into the food compartments; El 
and Er exit doors. The problem con- 
Fists in learning to turn at the end of 
the middle alky towards a signal 
which ib given at random on the 
right or left side. Light and sound 
signals have been used. 



p. 




■Pf> 









HOUSE 



YARD 




A second litter from the same mother (ex Cocoa by Prince) and one pup from 
a different mother and the same father (ex Betty by Prince) have been intro- 
duced to this apparatus. These dogs have been under the charge of Mr, 
Snyder during the summer. Their father. Prince, is an exceedingly sensitive 
dog, seemingly timid and with little aggression. For a week the attempt was 
continued to get him to go through the apparatus, but in this time he showed 
no signs of modifying his fear of the apparatus or of the movement of the 
doors. He is an older dog and his necessarily different experiences in life 
keep him from being directly comparable with the first set trained, so the 
behavior of his offspring is of especial interest in interpreting his reactions. 
The preliminary training of accustoming these pups to go to the house for 
food went along successfully, but just as soon as the doors of the apparatus 
were moved and the buzz signal was given, they were all much bothered. Not 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS, 131 

until after 3 weeks of daily training were the dogs in this litter going through 
the apparatus anywhere near the required 10 times per day. The litter as a 
whole showed the same type of sensitiveness and fear as shown by the father. 
There were variations: e. g., one was markedly less sensitive than the others, 
making as many as 9 trials on the sixteenth day ; and one was markedly more 
full of fear, after 40 days still refusing to go through the apparatus at all. 

In comparison with these results the behavior of another litter (five pups 
of the same age), trained at the same time, from a different mother and the 
same father as the first litter trained (ex Psych by Engadin), serves as an 
excellent control. The dogs in this litter went through the apparatus at once, 
with none of the demonstrations of fear shown by the offspring of Prince at 
the movement of the doors or at the buzzers. In 6 days all but one of this 
litter were making 10 trials a day. The one exception acquired a fear complex 
after 2 days in connection with the side doors Sl and Sr. The dog would enter 
the apparatus freely and was not bothered by the buzzers or the movement of 
other doors, although the course of the trials was upset. This is quite dif- 
ferent from the general fear shown by the offspring of Prince. The one 
surviving pup in a litter ex Psych by Prince, although not yet introduced to 
the association apparatus, shows strikingly certain peculiar characteristics of 
general behavior shown by the other pups from Prince. 

It looks very strongly as though even in these very first experiments the 
inheritance of a dominant disposition or temperament is seen. This suggests 
the results of Davenport's study of periodic outbreaks of violent temper in 
man, which was shown to be a dominant trait. Temperament and the action 
of internally secreting glands are believed to be closely related, so that it is 
possible that the heritable material at the basis of this behavior in the dogs 
may be both glandular rather and nervous. 

While the reactions just discussed are controlled mainly by temperament, 
the formation of the associations as measured by the proportion of correct 
turns is more of an index of intelhgence. So far no very marked differences 
have appeared in this regard between the dogs trained ; but as these have all 
been dachshunds, this does not preclude the appearance of marked differences 
when another breed is studied. 

The behavior of dogs in the presence of other animals forms a rich field for 
the identification of characteristics of behavior. Individual differences between 
dogs in the same situation appear with clearness, but the evaluation of these 
differences, however obvious they may be, is a matter of considerable diffi- 
culty, and so far has not been successfully accomplished. Notes upon 
barking offer possibilities, since barking consists of a series of unit explosions 
that may be counted. Certain animals, when presented safely caged to the 
dogs, call forth constant barking, others no sound at all. Some dogs will 
always bark at certain animals, while others never bark at the same animals. 
Most characteristic of certain dogs are the intensities of the interest reactions, 
and these can be classified only in the most unsatisfactory and rough manner. 
There has been no difficulty in recognizing the extremes, even in the one 
breed; the same characteristics remain at different ages and appear under 
different circumstances. The dog that paid no attention to a mouse when a 
young pup, at a year shows no interest in mice, rats, or guinea-pigs; he fears 
the association apparatus. The bitch that most violently killed mice when a 
young pup, at a year fights furiously to catch any caged animal and has not the 
slightest fear of the association apparatus. All except one pup in the litter ex 
Cocoa by Prince showed fear at the presence of a guinea-pig in the kennel, 
and this was the one that soonest lost his fear of the association apparatus. 



132 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

These general remarks will serve to show the lines along which further 
progress may be expected from the reactions of the dogs in the presence of 
other animals. They also serve to indicate that the differences observed are 
probably not due to mere irregularities of environment or experience, since 
they tend to persist and appear in various situations 

Heredity of behavior in mice. — Two races of mice have been used for 
this investigation, which was carried on by Miss Emilia Vicari. They 
were a uniform race of Japanese waltzers that had been rendered very 
homozygous by over 100 generations of inbreeding, and a race of albinos 
continuously inbred since 1912 from the stock of Dr. H. Bagg, of the 
Memorial Hospital. This long history assured a purity that made 
this material of unusual value from a genetic standpoint. Miss 
Vicari reports: 

Of the two races, the Japs are deaf and have the waltzing habit, with 
characteristic agitated, nervous movements when not whirling around; 
they lack vigor and are small in size; they require care in regard to feeding 
and nesting, and are liable to gastro-intestinal disturbances. The albinos, 
on the other hand, hear. Not being waltzers, they are normal in their move- 
ments, and they are larger and more vigorous than the Japs; they are fully 
tame, with no fear of unusual noises or shadows. The immediate problem 
was to discover what racial differences in behavior might be demonstrated 
by their reactions in a simple maze, and then to trace such differences through 
the generations following the crossing of these races. The maze used (see 
fig. 4) consists of two successive compartments with right and left exit doors. 
To reach the food at the end of a trial the mouse has to take the left-hand 
door in the first compartment and the right-hand door in the second, the 
other doors being blocked with glass slides. To prevent the formation of 
scent trails, fresh paper was spread on the floor for each trial and all other 
precautions required in such experiments, such as uniformity of surround- 
ings, of age, etc., were taken. The results are based on the number of perfect 
trials, the number of successive perfect trials, and the average time per trial. 
The following numbers of mice have been trained: 45 Japs, 75 albinos, 110 
Fi hybrids, and 40 in the second filial generation. 

The behavior of the parent races as measured by the reactions in this maze 
shows that the Japs and albinos are very similar when compared on the basis 
of the number of perfect trials and on the basis of the number of con- 
secutive perfect trials ; on the basis of time per trial the averages of the albi- 
nos tend to be lower than those of the Japs. So, in spite of the manifest dif- 
ferences between the races, it appears that their behavior in the maze is 
practically identical, although the Japs do not move as rapidly as the albinos. 
Turning to the Fi hybrids, a surprising result is found: 10 per cent of the 
mice in this generation made more perfect trials than any parent in either 
parent race; some individuals excel all those in the parent races in the num- 
ber of consecutive perfect trials; and the time averages, instead of being in- 
termediate between those of the parent races, are considerably lower, lower 
even than the averages for the albinos. This last result is given when each 
family is considered by itself. The general behavior of these mice distinguished 
them unmistakably; they were hard to pick up because of their rapid, darting 
leaps, and scurrying to cover, like wild mice; they were responsive to every 
little sound, shadow, or motion. Obviously, like the albinos, they could 
hear, yet they were more sensitive. Physically they are sturdier than either 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 



133 



G 




O-^- 


^ N 


G 




1-2 \ 




/ / 




3 


^ " 


— >— - 


^y 


G 




l; \ 




1 ^^ 






V \ 










c \ 




-1 






^^ 








""" 












E 







parent race and thrive well under all sorts of conditions, with any sort of 
food. It seems as though some phenomenon of heterosis is involved. Per- 
haps there has occurred a combination of factors that worked for greater 
vigor in the hybrids, and to this greater vigor is due the lowered time average. 
This same vigor probably does not account for the superiority in the number 
of perfect trials, for perfect trials are not 
closely correlated with time. This is shown 
by the pure races, which are alike in the 
-matter of perfect trials, although the more 
vigorous albinos make better time. 

Among the hybrids are not only those that 
make an unusually high number of perfect 
trials, but also a large percentage that make 
no perfect trials. When they once learn the 
way, the hybrids are more apt to make re- 
peated perfect trials than either parent race, 
but they also are less apt to make a single 
perfect trial. This may be supposed to be 
due to the greater sensitiveness of the hy- 
brids, appearing as fear; once this fear is 
overcome they show their greater ability to 
form and retain the habit. 

Whatever interpretations may be made, 
the facts are clear that the mice of the first 
filial generation are neither intermediate be- 
tween the parents nor like either parent. 
Rather do they show a greater capacity for 
learning accurately, when they learn at all, 
and on the average they take less time per 
trial. This demonstrates that the phenomenon of heterosis, so often 
shown in physical characters, may also be found in behavior. With the 
indications of the phenomenon of dominance in the dogs, and heterosis in 
the mice, as applied to traits of behavior, two steps towards the analysis of 
the genetic basis of behavior have been made. 

Heredity in Sheep. 

The experiments on heredity of twinning in sheep were continued. 
The triplet ram of last year was continued as the sire of the flock and 
the fiock was fed heavily, even on grain, during September and Octo- 
ber. But despite this precaution the average number of lambs per 
fertile ewe was 1.43, the lowest rate for many years. Also the still- 
birth rate was exceptionally high, being 30 per cent of all lambs born. 
For next season's lambs a sturdy single lamb of twin stock is to be used. 



Fig. \.—Maze used for training mice. — • 
E indicates the entrance to the maze; 
Ri and Li indicate right and left exits 
of the first compartment; R2 and L2 
indicate right and left exits of the 
second compartment; G indicates 
glass slide used in closing pathway; 
F indicates food; C indicates correct 
pathway through maze. 



GERMINAL AND SOMATIC VARIATIONS. 

Studies on the Vascular Anatomy of Normal and Teratological Seedlings of 

Phaseolus vulgaris. 

These investigations have been continued by Dr. Harris along lines 
indicated in previous reports (Year Book Carnegie Inst. Wash. 19 : 139) . 
Harris, Sinnott, Pennypacker, and Durham have published the results 
for variation in the vascular structure of dimerous and trimerous 



134 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

plants (Amer. Jour. Bot., 7: 62-102, 1921). They find the struc- 
ture of the trimerous seedhngs fundamentally different from that of the 
dimerous seedlings, the former being on a plan of 6 instead of 4. But 
when a large number of seedhngs is examined there is found a wide 
range of variation in the number and in the combinations of primary 
double bundles. The plants which are externally dimerous and tri- 
merous are thus clearly differentiated in internal morphology; but 
these internal characters are transgressive. It is possible, though rare, 
to get a trimerous seedling (with 3 cotyledons) that has only 4 vascular 
bundles in the hypocotyl instead of 6. Papers on the correlation of the 
number of vascular elements in different regions of the seedling and 
on the vascular anatomy of hemitrimerous plants are now in press. 

Direction of Whirlinp, in Waltzing Mice. 

Yerkes, in his work with Japanese waltzing mice, has noticed that 
these animals as a group are divisible into (a) those that made a vast 
preponderance of their turns in a right-handed or a clockwise direc- 
tion, (6) those that made a great preponderance of their turns in a left- 
handed or counter-clockwise direction, and (c) those that were mixed, 
turning either to the right or to the left with approximately equal 
frequency. 

In the Lambert strain of Japanese waltzers used by Dr. Little in this 
Department the same is also true. These mice are directly descended 
from a single pair of Dr. Yerkes's mice, isolated in 1906. They have 
been intensively inbred. It is therefore quite striking to note that 
there exist the three types of waltzers, none having been eliminated 
by inbreeding. 

A study of the distribution of frequencies of clockwise-turns out of 
all-turns, based on hundreds of measurements, reveals a trimodal condi- 
tion, proving that prevailingly clockwise and prevailingly anti-clock- 
wise individuals are not merely the rare extremes of a variable series, 
but, on the contrary, constitute types as real as the mixed type. 

It was also found that normal, non-waltzing mice, when recovering 
from anesthesia with ether, instead of progressing as they normally do 
in a straight line, ran or turned in circles. Although the proportions of 
the clockwise, counter-clockwise, and mixed types in this group difTer 
from those in the Japanese group, there is evidence of the existence 
of the three types of reaction. In this experiment Dr. Little has had 
the assistance of Miss D. M. Newman as observer. 

ALTERATION OF THE AVERAGE OF A POPULATION BY SOMATIC 

SELECTION. 

Mechanical Devices for Analyzing Selection. 

The study of mechanical contrivances which possess certain bio- 
logical analogies was continued by Dr. Laughlin during the year. 
In the July 1921 number of Genetics there was published an article on 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 135 

"Dice-casting and pedigree selection," in which it was shown that 
practically all of the mathematical and statistical phenomena of 
schemes of selection can be demonstrated by dice-casting. Specific 
examples were worked out in the case of regression, pure-line selection, 
and selection on the somatic basis. 

Selectiox of a Physiological Character in Cladocera. 

Dr. Banta's complete paper on this subject appeared as publication 
No. 305 of the Institution. Three species of Cladocera were used: 
two of the genus Daphnia and one Simocephalus. All were tested for 
their reactiveness to a constant light placed at one end of a long tank 
of water in which the Cladocera swam. All variations in reactiveness 
due to environmental conditions were considered and their effects, 
as far as possible, eliminated. For many generations the Cladocera 
that were the most responsive to light were selected and bred from to 
form the plus strain; the least responsive to light were similarly se- 
lected and bred from to form the minus strain. In most strains (13) 
the continued selection of more and less reactive individuals for gen- 
erations did not cause the two lines to diverge in reactiveness. One 
strain (No. 757) showed a clear effect of selection. The lines diverged 
and the divergence was permanent (hereditary) . The results indicate 
that selection alone was impotent to create diverging lines unless favora- 
ble mutations were occurring, and these apparently did occur in strain 
No. 757. 

Modification of a Mendelian Ratio by Selection. 

During the past year Dr. Little and Miss E. E. Jones have carried on 
an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster to determine whether or 
not the customary 1 : 1 Mendelian ratio in back-crosses of a single 
pair of characters can be modified by the isolation of different genetic 
strains incident with selection. 

A pair of fourth-chromosome characters, normal-eyed and eyeless, 
was chosen. A control series showed that there was normally a slight 
deviation from the 1 : 1 ratio in back-crosses between normals carrying 
eyeless and eyeless flies. The observed ratio, which was 1.44±0.02 
normals to 1 eyeless, is the result of a differential viability of the sort 
frequently found in cases where a recessive mutation appears to be at a 
slight disadvantage when compared with the normal type. 

Eight selection lines were started, two of which died too early to give 
conclusive results. Four lines were selected for an excess of normal- 
eyed and four for an excess of eyeless. The former are known as the 
high selection lines, the latter as the low selection lines. A detailed 
description of the experiment is almost ready for press. 



136 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



STUDIES ON HUMAN GENETICS. 
Heredity in Aristogenic Families. 

Dr. Howard J. Banker has made a preliminary study on heredity of 
general intellectual ability as measured by collegiate standing. He 
reports as follows: 

"The material consisted of the scholarship records of approximately 1,000 
students of Harvard College, covering a period of 66 years. These individual 
records were selected primarily with reference to the relationship of father 
and son and incidentally also with reference to fraternal relationship. As 
the records covered a long period during which the methods of recording a 
student's scholarship standing had undergone great changes, it became 
necessary, for the purpose of comparison, to reduce the gradings to a uniform 
system. It was a question, therefore, whether from the original records 
themselves, or in the transformation of these records to a uniform system, 
there had been introduced such irregularities as to make the records incom- 
parable. 

"The first test was to plot a frequency distribution of the average grade of 
each student on a scale of 5 divided into tenths, making 40 classes, with 1 as 
the highest grade and 5 as the lowest. The distribution was determined, 
first, for the entire period of 66 years, also for three subperiods of 22 years 
each, and finally for two subperiods of 40 and 25 years respectively, the for- 
mer covering the period of chiefly paternal grades and the latter the period of 
chiefly filial grades, the object being to compare these different periods for 
any marked variations. 

"The resulting curves showed close approximation in one-third of the 
highest grades and in one-seventh of the lowest. In the intermediate one-half 
they diverged considerably, but in such uniform fashion as to indicate the 
operation of some fundamental law and not as the expression of any hap- 
hazard irregularity. Table 7 gives the principal constants for the curves 
for the three subperiods of 22 years. 

"These results encouraged further statistical use of the data and a study 
was made of the correlation between fathers and children^ as to their general 
averages in all subjects. Various methods were employed, as the object 
was chiefly to test the value of the data in statistical work. Table 8 fur- 
nishes an interesting comparison with a study made by Schuster and Elderton 
on Oxford students."^ 



Table 7. 



-Constants of polygon of frequency of scholarship grades at Harvard College for the 
given periods, a, Standard deviation. 



Period. 


Mode. 


Mean. 


<T 


1850-1871 
1872-1893 
1894-1915 


3.9 ? 

3.4 

3.0 


3.02 ±0.056 
2.97 ± .031 
2.83 ± .021 


0.9365 ±0.0396 
.7438 ± .0218 
.6707 ± .0146 



"The Oxford material, which included 2,459 sons, was classified by Schuster 
and Elderton into six groups according to standing at graduation, as follows: 
first, second, third, and fourth honors, passed, and no degree. The Harvard 

^A very few girls were included in the data. 

^Schuster and Elderton. The inheritance of ability, being a statistical study of the Oxford 
class lists and the school lists of Harrow and Charterhouse. Eugenics Laboratory Memoirs, I. 
London, 1907. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 



137 



material, which included only 404 children, was grouped into four classes of 
equal grade intervals. These constituted the 'full table.' For the sake of 
comparison, r was computed for both the Oxford and Harvard tables on the 
assumption that the classes in each were of equal value. As a further test of 
the results, a correlation table of the Harvard data, called the 'expanded' 
table, was constructed on the grades divided to tenths. In all three cases r 
was computed by Pearson's 'product-moment' method. 

Table 8. — Coefficient of contingency and correlation in ability between fathers and children. 



Date. 


Authority. 


Full table. 


Four-fold table. 


Ci 


Ci 


r 


r 


Oxford, 1860-1S92 

Harvard. 1850-1915.... 
Harvard expanded 


S.&E.... 

B 

B 

B 


0.26 
'0.256 
10.307 


0.29 
=0.291 
'0.366 




0.29 
30.289 
30.408 

*0.398 ± .0027 
'0.397 


20.226 ±0.013 
20.247 =1= .0315 


B 






20.302 =t .0304 









Ci = mean square contingency coefficient. 

C2 = mean contingency coefficient. 

r = coefficient of correlation or association. 

'Pearson's "Theory of contingency." Drapers' Co. Research Mem.; Biom. Series I., Math. 
Contrib. to the Theory of Evolution XIII, 1904, as cited by Schuster and Elderton, op. cit., 7. 

^Pearson's "Product-moment" method, after West: Introduction to Math. Statistics, 83-84, 

'Pearson's "Correlation of characters not quantitatively measurable,'' Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. 
of London, Series A. 195: 1-47, 1900, as cited by Schuster and Elderton, op. cit., 7. 



Whipple, Manual of Mental and Physical Tests, 1 :50,. 



*By Yule's formula; Q (or r) =cos 

'By "Method of unlike signs." 
3d ed., 1914. 

"A further comparison of the percentage of children in different grades 
whose fathers were of first or second grade gave a difference in the parallelism 
of the fitted straight lines of the Harvard and Oxford data of only 4' of. arc, 
i. e., a divergence of about 1 mm. in 1.75 meters. Various other statistical 
values were computed which need not be discussed here. 

"The conclusion drawn was that the data, on the whole, were sufficiently 
reliable to give significant indications. Although scholarship grades may be 
considered a crude measure of intellectual ability and far from ideal for 
scientific purposes, they are at present the best that we have covering a period 
of more than one generation. In view of the results obtained and the lack of 
any more reliable data, it seems very desirable to utilize such material in 
further investigations. 

"One serious fault in both the Harvard and Oxford material as a basis for 
studies in hereditj^ is the utter lack of data concerning the females. This is 
especially unfortunate as pertaining to consorts, since it deprives us of data as 
to the type of matings. Naturally, the suggestion was to secure the records of 
coeducational schools, but the fact that coeducation in this countiy is of very 
recent growth, as well as other considerations, discouraged the attempt to 
obtain these records. The result of the Harvard studies, however, stimu- 
lated the desire to see what might be available. 

"Inquiries were addressed to some 280 coeducational institutions all over 
the United States, including about 200 colleges, as to the extent and character 



138 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



of their records. Replies were received from 184. Of these, 73 were at once 
rejected because of insufficient records, 70 appeared to give promise of material 
of some value, and 41 were uncertain. Several surprises appeared in these 
answers. First, that coeducation and the preservation of complete records 
often covered a longer period than was expected ; second, that in a number of 
cases the schools were in a sense family institutions, having from 25 to 60 per 
cent of their present students the children of former students. One institu- 
tion has a Second Generation Club; others have grandchildren of former 
students in attendance, and one claims "four or five generations." A number 
of coeducational colleges date back 50 to 70 years, and several have records 
complete from the beginning. High-grade secondary schools have even a 
longer coeducational record, one claiming over a hundred years, and several 
have preserved their records complete for more than 70 years. 

"Eager to test the quality of this material, as soon as I was relieved of office 
duties I spent a month abstracting the records of one college. Though a small 
institution, having an annual registration of about 500, and the records dating 
only from 1872, 1 obtained the scholarship grades of both parents and from 1 to 
5 children in 26 famiUes. There has not been time to systematize this material 
and properly to compute the averages. A rough approximation was, however, 
made as a means of estimating the value of the data and table 9 compiled. 

"The results shown by table 9 are too crudely computed to be worth serious 
discussion as bearing on facts of heredity, but they are of value as indicating 
that the original data in all probability possess significance and are of value 
for research purposes. A definite relation of some sort between type of children 
and type of parental mating seems evident. 

"It is needless to call attention to the fact that the data from one such 
institution are manifestly inadequate to yield the most reliable results in 
statistical work. They encourage and emphasize, however, the need of 
securing additional material from other institutions. In spite of the criticism 
that may be passed as to the inaccuracy of scholarship records as a measure of 
intellectual ability, it seems quite evident that we have in these schools the 
most valuable data now in existence for the quantitative study of intellectual 
heredit}', and there is no prospect for many years to come of any better 
material. It is to be hoped that opportunity and facihties for obtaining such 
records will be afforded." 

Table 9. — Distribution of intelledual ability in children of particular 

7nalings. 



Tj-pe of 
parental 
mating. 


No. of 
families. 


No. of children 
of each type. 


Average grade. 


L. 


M. 


H. 


Parents. 


Children. 


LXL 


2 
1 
2 

5 
9 

7 


3 

4 
4 
1 


3 
1 
6 
6 

4 

7 


1 

4 
6 


73.1 

75.6 
79.0 
80.9 
84.5 

8S.4 


73.5 

76.2 
80.5 
77.4 
79.5 
84.4 


LXM 

LXH 

MXM 

MXH 

HXH 

Total 


26 


12 


27 


11 


83.4 


79.8 



L = grades less than 75 per cent. 

M = grades between 75 and 85 per cent inclusive. 

H = grades more than 85 per cent. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 139 

Heredity in Cacogenic Families. 

Dr. A. H. Estabrook has continued his researches on the "Ishmael- 
ites" of the central States. His work this year has been mainly the 
finishing of the history of the families that had been previously studied 
and the compilation of hospital and other official and private records in 
Indianapolis and the counties \Yhere Ishmaels are found. In the latter 
work, which involved much travel, he was assisted by Miss Corinne 
S. Eddy, of Indianapolis. Dr. Estabrook's investigations were some- 
what disturbed by the migrations that occurred during the recent war 
and which had an economic basis. He reports that his final report on 
the Tribe of Ishmael is approaching completion. 

In collaboration with two workers from the State university, a mental 
survey was made of the children in two white orphans' homes in 
Indianapolis. Mental age determinations were made for each child 
over the age of 5; about 200 children were studied, some of these 
being Ishmaels. A brief report of this work was read at the December 
meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science and is being published in 
the proceedings, December 1920. 

A few days were spent by Dr. Estabrook in visiting the Indiana 
Hospital for Insane Criminals and the Indiana Colony for the Feeble- 
minded at Butlerville to make a brief study of all the feeble-minded 
men convicted of crime in these institutions, for the purpose, with 
what family history was available, of making recommendations as to 
whether or not these men should be placed in colony care as feeble- 
minded. This was done at the request of the Committee on Mental 
Defectives. 

Since December 1920, on each Monday morning of the past year, at 
11a. m., a conference has been held in Indianapolis of representatives 
of all social agencies dealing with mental cases. Mental cases have 
been presented by such agencies for discussion and suggestions for 
treatment and follow-up work. Dr. Estabrook served as chairman 
here because of his knowledge of the State, its institutions, and its 
laws concerning the defective classes. This conference has been of 
value to him in his researches. 

At each meeting of the Indiana Committee on Mental Defectives, 
Dr. Estabrook has been asked to meet with them in the consideration 
of their problems, and has done so. 

Inheritance of a Tendency to "Cancer" in Man. 

The question as to the inheritance of a tendency to the formation 
of malignant tumors has long been an open one. Medical men have 
held divided opinions, and statisticians have reached contradictory 
or inconclusive results. The work of Murray, Tyzzer, and Slye 
appears to have established independently the fact of inheritance of 
a tendency or tendencies to ''cancer" formation in mice. The method 



140 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



of inheritance of such tendencies is still largely a matter of conjecture 
and needs further research before definite conclusions can be drawn. 

A bulletin of this Office has shown a strong familial tendency to the 
formation of multiple neurofibromatoses, and it is naturally of great 
interest to attempt an analysis of the available material on the more 
malignant forms of the neoplasms in humans, to determine if possible 
whether or not they show the influence of heredity. 

For this purpose the very numerous family histories at the Eugenics 
Record Office have been studied, and a careful tabulation of families 
showing cancer has been made by Dr. Little, with the help of Miss 
Charlotte Gower, Miss C. W. Oilman, and Miss D. M. Newman. 
As a control, the table given by Hoffman (Mortality from cancer 
throughout the world) on the number of deaths from cancer per 
100,000 inhabitants in the United States Registration Area (1903-1912) 
has been used. These data are divided by sex and age groups as 
shown in table 10, from which the chance that any individual will 
die of "cancer" can be directly calculated. In our tabulation (table 
11) individuals still alive have all been recorded as negative and have 
been given their individual values according to their respective age- 
groups and their sex. They represent unfulfilled chances for the pro- 
duction of cancer. In addition, the deaths from causes other than 
"cancer" have been added, thus deliberately increasing greatly the 
difficulty of demonstrating an heredity influence. 

Table 10. — Absolute number and rate per 100,000 of population of deaths from cancer at 

each age and for each sex. 

(From F. L. Hoffman.) 



Ages at death. 


Males. 


Females. 


Deaths 

from 

cancer. 


Rate per 

100,000 

population. 


Deaths 

from 

cancer. 


Rate per 

100,000 

population. 


Under 10 

10 to 24 


1,170 
2,028 
3,757 
10,750 
24,431 
35,327 
33,745 
18,381 


2.5 

3.1 

9.0 

32.3 

105.4 

257.4 

452.8 

620.2 


984 
1,844 
7,891 
26,779 
46,669 
50,393 
43,010 
24,601 


2.2 

2.8 
20.6 
89.0 
222.9 
386.4 
565.7 
734.1 


25 to 34 


35 to 44 


45 to 54 




65 to 74 


75 and over 



The first group (A) to be considered is composed of fraternities 
whose father was cancerous and whose mother was normal. 

In each sex and the total the excess of cancerous individuals among 
he progeny of cancerous fathers and normal mothers is striking. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 
Table 11. 



141 



Groups. 


Sex. 


Total 
non- 
can- 
cerous. 


Total 
can- 
cerous. 


Can- 
cerous 
indi- 
vid- 
uals 
expec- 
ted. 


Excess 
of ob- 
served 

over 

ex- 
pected. 


Odds against excess 
being due to chance 
alone. 


A. Children of mat- 
ing, father can- 
cerous, mother 
non-cancerous. . . 

Total 


Males. . 
Females . 


939 

778 


14 
10 


±2.50 
±2.12 


0.85 
1.05 


13.15 

8.95 


More than 1,350 to 1. 
215 to 1. 

More than 100.000 to 1. 

520 to 1. 

Over 500,000 to 1. 

Over 1,500,000 to 1. 
Far over 1,500,000 to 1. 




1,717 

553 

477 


24 

12 
27 


±3.27 

±2.33 
±3.40 


1.90 

1.19 
1.59 


22.10 

10.81 
25.41 


B. Children of 
mating, fathei 
non-cancerous, 
mother cancer- 
ous 


Males. . . 
Females . 


Total 


1,030 
2,016 


39 

48 


±4.13 

±4.61 


2.78 
5.80 


36.22 
42.20 


C. Sibs of a can- 
cerous individ- 
ual 









A similar result is observed in group B, in which a tabulation of the 
immediate progeny of cancerous mothers and non-cancerous fathers 
is made. 

Finally in group C is included fraternities in which at least one can- 
cerous individual appears. If chance alone is operative, there is no 
reason why the sibs of such cancerous individuals should be cancerous 
any more frequently than is the population at large. Actually, how- 
ever, a great excess is obtained. 

From the above three lines of evidence we may conclude that there 
exist in man one or more heredity tendencies to the formation of malignant 
neoplasms. Further, we may state that in so far as present evidence is 
concerned the method of inheritance follows no simple Mendelian be- 
havior. This does not preclude the possibility that Mendelian in- 
heritance involving multiple factors and the action of modifiers will be 
found to apply when more suitable material is available for analysis. 

Musical Families. 

Miss Hazel M. Stanton made a quantitative study of inheritance of 
specific musical capacities during the winter of 1919-20. She meas- 
ured as many as possible of the members of 6 family groups having one 
or more musical members, with respect to sense of pitch, sense of in- 
tensity, sense of time, and tonal memory, all made quantitatively 
by the method elaborated by Professor C. E. Seashore, of the State 
University of Iowa. She obtained also supplementary descriptive 



142 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

data on a number of matters relating to their musical environment and 
history. The results will appear both in the ''Studies" of the Univer- 
sity of Iowa and the Bulletin of the Eugenics Record Office. The 
original pedigree charts and copies of all records are deposited at the 
Office. Altogether, 85 persons were measured by the Seashore tests, 
and data were obtained concerning 446 other persons. Miss Stanton 
concludes that the four factors studied are inherited independently. 
As a first approximation, the evidence suggests that superior capacity 
dominates over average and poor capacities, rather than the reverse. 
The study is perhaps the first quantitative study of the inheritance of a 
special capacity. 

Calculating Ancestral Influence. 

Studies on formulae for calculating ancestral influence have been 
continued by Dr. Laughlin. A more complete statement (than that 
which appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 
for May 1920) of formulae and their explanations was published in 
Genetics for September 1920. To the 24 original formulae, which 
measure specific contributions of ancestral chromosomes, one more 
rule of pedigree analysis was added. This rule is : In a species in which 
the female sex-chromosome formula is X+X, the minimum number of 
ancestors in a given ancestral generation, among whom will be found all 
of the possible contributors of the sex-chromosomes to the Fi female 
zygote, is equal to the Fibonacci serial term p + 3, in which p is the 
number of the given ancestral generation (for parents p = 1, for grand- 
parents p = 2, etc.) . In a species in which the sex-chromosome formula 
for the male is X+Y, the minimum number of ancestors in a given 
ancestral generation, among whom will be found all of the possible 
contributors of the sex-chromosomes to the Fi male zygote, is equal to 
Fibonacci term (p+2) 4-1. 

Eugenics in Germany. 

An analysis was made by Dr. Laughlin of the Constitution of the 
new German Republic, in which it was found that many provisions 
were made by the German people for the maintenance of racial vigor 
and fecundity of the German stock. A short account of this study 
appeared in the Eugenics Review for January 1921. 

STUDIES ON THE RACIAL CONSTITUTION OF AMERICAN POPULATION. 

Army Anthropology. 

The Director was requested by the Surgeon General of the Army, 
on July 7, 1919, to supervise the measurement of 100,000 soldiers at 
demobilization. It was directed that white and colored should be 
distinguished, also the nationality of those born abroad or of parents 
born abroad. The Director spent part time in Washington for about 
3 months in the summer and autumn of 1919 and supervised the tabula- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 143 

tion of the results and wrote the text of the report during 1920. The 
completed report was issued from the Government Printing Office in 
December 1920. 

The report comprises 635 pages. It discusses stature, weight, chest 
circumference, and build for 1,000,000 draft recruits and 19 other meas- 
ures for 100,000 veterans. The report indicates that the average sta- 
ture of the population of the United States has diminished about half 
an inch during the past 50 years (doubtless due to excess immigration 
of short races) ; that men from Texas were the tallest and those from 
Connecticut shortest ; that of any "section" the "Southern highlanders" 
are the tallest, and next the men of the Ozark mountains; while Rhode 
Island and the eastern manufacturing cities contain expremely short 
people, each due to the racial stock formed there. The average stature 
of negroes was practically the same as of whites. 

Weight proved to be greatest in Alaska and the northern tier of 
States; the French Canadian sections showed the least average weight. 
In chest circumference the tall Southerners of Scotch origin were 
least, and the stocky Finns and agricultural Russians greatest. In 
general, the Nordic races in America have relatively longer legs and 
shorter trunks than the Mediterraneans. The Nordics have broad, 
shallow chests; the Mediterraneans narrow but deep chests. The ne- 
groes, of the same average stature as whites, have longer arms, longer 
legs, narrower pelvis, higher thoracic index (relatively broader chest), 
larger, shorter necks, and greater weight than the whites. Varia- 
bility of dimensions was calculated for all races, and correlation of 
parts. Eye and skin pigmentation deepens from the northern tier of 
states to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Physical dimensions were studied in relation to disease. Tall men 
are especially prone to have varicose veins, variocele, pulmonarj^ tuber- 
culosis, cardiac disorders, and goiter, both simple and exophthalmic. 
Short men have especiall}^ high incidence of defective teeth and re- 
fractive errors of the eye (characteristics of short races). Heavj'- men 
have an excess of varicose veins and flat feet; men of hght weight have 
an excess of tuberculosis and heart disease. Chest circumference is 
large in men with asthma. High variability in any group results 
when it combines two or more dissimilar classes, e. g., the short racial 
group of myopics (largely Russian Jews) and others of average stature; 
chest circumference of asthmatics who are far advanced in the disease 
and those who are not. \\Tiere size and defect are intimately bound 
together as cause and effect, variability is low. Weight and lung 
tuberculosis, weight and mitral stinosis, varicose veins and stature are 
thus connected. Thus variability of a group of dimensions associated 
with a disease is inversely related to their interdependence as cause 
and effect. 



144 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Immigration. 

On April 16-17, 1920, Dr. H. H. Laughlin made a statement before 
the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the House of 
Representatives, which was printed by the Government Printing Office 
during the current year, under the title, ''The biological aspects of 
immigration." As a result of the evidence presented at this hearing, 
this committee desired further first-hand analytical studies along the 
same line. In order to secure the desired facts, the Committee on 
Immigration and Naturalization and the Assistant Director of the 
Eugenics Record Office are conducting a cooperative study which has 
for its purpose the determination of the extent and specific type of 
social inadequacy among foreign-born and native stock found in the 
several State and Federal institutions. Also, the same correlations 
between race and specific defect will be determined in stock descended 
from recent immigrants and from immigrants of more remote years. 
For the purpose of this study, institutions for the socially inadequate 
are grouped as follows: (1) the feeble-minded (including the mentally 
backward) ; (2) the insane (including the psychopathic and neurotic) ; 
(3) the criminalistic (including the delinquent and wayward) ; (4) the 
epileptic; (5) the inebriate (including drug habitues); (6) the diseased 
(including the tuberculous, syphilitic, and leprous) ; (7) the blind 
(including those with greatly impaired vision) ; (8) the deaf (including 
those with greatly impaired hearing) ; (9) the deformed (including rup- 
tured and crippled); and (10) the dependent (including orphans, sol- 
diers, and old folks in "homes"). 

At the present time there are 720 such institutions in the United 
States. The study is well under way. Preliminary reports have been 
received from 370 institutions in 48 States, and pledges of cooperation 
have been received from many more. If all goes well, this study 
should be completed before July 1, 1922. It is expected that an 
analysis of these data will measure, more accurately than has been 
done heretofore, the relative stabilities and specific inborn social 
values and handicaps of recent immigrants of various nationalities 
compared with the older American stocks. 

An examination of the preliminary data supplied by the first 370 
institutions which responded to the requests for data gave the nativity 
ratios as shown in table 12. 

The Socially iNAOECiUATE. 

A survey of actual State administrative and institutional practice 
and needs in reference to the classifications of the socially inadequate 
classes has been made by Dr. Laughlin and published in the American 
Journal of Sociology for July 1921. It was found that a systematic 
classification of the socially inadequate classes is as necessary in the 
scientific study of society as the scheme of classification usually followed 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 145 

Table 12. — Nativity ratios in the po'pulation {1910) and in institutions. 



1. Native, both parents native 

2. Native, one parent native-born, one parent 

foreign-born 

3. Native, both parents foreign-born 

Total native born (1, 2, and 3) 

4. Foreign-born 

Total foreign stock (2, 3, and 4) 



Total 

population 

of United 

States, 

1910. 



p. ct. 
64.47 

6.60 
14.23 



85.30 



14.70 
35.53 



In 81 State 
institutions, 
Jan. 1, 1921. 



p. ct. 
56.50 

8.23 
15.29 



80.04 



19.90 
43.49 



Ratio institu- 
tion quotas to 
institution 
findings. 



100 : 87.63 



100 : 124.69 
100 : 107.44 



100 : 93.83 



100 : 135.37 
100 : 122.40 



is convenient in botany and zoology. It was found also that the 
older schemes of classifying human handicap are being discarded, and 
that as yet no new satisfactory systems have been evolved. The study 
of this problem is being continued. 

Race Mixture. 

First-hand pedigree studies were made by Dr. Laughhn of the 
family distribution of personal traits in a Hawaiian-Chinese-Irish 
family of California. The traits considered were business thrift versus 
thriftlessness, musical sense versus lack of musical appreciation, love of 
the sea versus its lack, sound judgment versus its lack, quick temper 
versus emotional control, enthusiasm versus its lack. It was found 
that these traits (many of them racial) segregated and recombined 
in a quite clean-cut manner. 

PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT. 
Influence of Endocrine Glands of Mother on Variability of Offspring in Birds. 

Results obtained by Dr. Oscar Riddle during the present year 
demonstrate in a striking manner the indispensable need for the asso- 
ciation of studies on the physiology of reproduction with investigations 
in genetics. First among these results is the discovery, made in col- 
laboration with Mr. Embree R. Rose, of the physiological basis of a 
series of reproductive abnormalities involving the early elimination by 
death of numerous bird embryos. It has been definitely shown that 
at least many of these reproductive abnormalities and embryonic 
deaths are due to temporary or permanent insufficiency of the endo- 
crine glands, particularly the thymus and parathyroids. Or, stated 
in terms more accurately descriptive of the present state of this 
investigation, the administration per os of the desiccated tissue of 
these glands, either alone or in combination, is specific for the restora- 



146 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

tion to narmal fuactioning of most of these birds which produce egg 
abnormalities and embryos characterized by early deaths. Further 
investigation of this general problem is in progress. 

A comprehensive study of the possible relation of nutritional 
deficiency to the above-mentioned reproductive abnormalities and 
embryonic deaths has been nearly completed during the year. The 
results lead to two conclusions of importance: (a) Few, if any, of the 
reproductive abnormalities and embryonic deaths referred to above 
are caused by insufficiency of vitamines A, B, or C; nor are they 
caused by lack of Ca, K, P, Na, CI, S, Fe, Mn, As, or Si; nor by a de- 
ficiency of a long series of amino acids. These results, together with 
additional negative tests made with other glandular tissue and the 
positive results obtained with thymus and parathyroids, permit the 
conclusion concerning the specific deficiency of the two last-named 
organs. (6) This practical demonstration of the freedom of our 
present material from nutritional deficiency, at the only time such 
deficiency has been suspected, affords ample and most desirable evi- 
dence that in our earlier prolonged quantitative study of one or another 
aspect of the metabolism of these doves there has been little or no 
complication of the results traceable to nutritional deficiency. 

Transplantation of xVdrenai.s and Gonads into Dovrs. 

Dr. Riddle is making, in collaboration with Dr. Tadachika Minoura, 
a guest of the Department, a study of the possibilities and effects of 
repeated adrenal transplantation upon young and maturing ring- 
doves. Certain associations of the adrenals and the gonads make it 
desirable to learn as much as possible of the special relations which 
may exist between these as well as other endocrine glands on the one 
hand and the various aspects of sex-development and of reproduction 
on the other. 

Dr. Minoura has utilized a specially suitable part of our material 
during much of the past year for the transplantation of testis or ovary 
upon the growing embryo or upon the very young dove. It has been 
found advisable to rear most of these operated embryos and young to 
or beyond the period of maturity. 

In addition to the studies noted above. Dr. Minoura is utilizing a 
group of birds in our collection, and a part of the weight records earlier 
obtained by Dr. Riddle, for the construction of the normal growth- 
curve of the ring-dove. In this connection he is particularly seeking to 
identify the exact time of the rather sudden enlargement of the gonads 
(which occurs at maturity in the dove) with a definite and unusual 
feature of the dove's growth-curve. 

The Origin and Interpkkt^tion of One-Yolk Twins in Doves. 

Dr. Riddle has long been looking for one-yolk twins in pigeons, 
since the material is highly advantageous for the study of this phenom- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 



147 



enon, for the embryo is accessible throughout the period of its embry- 
onic development, and, because of the transparency of the shell, 
twins can be early and definitely identified. Moreover, when the egg- 
weights have been carefully kept, the prospective sex of the embryo is 
often known. It appears that one-yolk twins, of the female sex at 
least, can develop fully within the eggs. The chief difficulty in the 
study is the rarity of this form of twinning; only 7 cases have occurred 
in from 15,000 to 25,000 eggs examined. Of these seven, 2 produced 
in 1915 and 1916 have been already described. This year 2 new 
cases have been found; and the occasion is taken to give data con- 
cerning all 7 cases in table 13. 



Table 13. 



—Summary indicating the abnormal size of 7 eggs from which arose 7 pairs of 
identical twins and the origin of female twins from ova of largest size. 

The weights of twin-bearing eggs are set in Italic type. 



No. of 
female 
parent. 


o 

O 


Data on eggs of twin-bparing clutch. 


Average weight 
of 5 eggs laid 

by same female 
immediately •} 


Maximum and mini- 
mum weights for 
other than twin- 
bearing eggs (same 
year). 


Date. 


Weight 
(grams). 


Per 

cent of 

diff. 


Sex (or 
stage). 


Before. 


After. 


Max. 


Mini. 


Total. 


A248| 

60 1 

V492 1 

P450 1 

K465| 
K465 

P843 1 


Kl 
K2 
Fl 
F2 
Dl 
D2 
Dl 
D2 
El 
E2 
K 

CI 
C2 


Apr. 7 
Apr. 9 
Mar. 5 
Mar. 7 
Oct. 16 
Oct. 18 
May 30 
June 1 
Mar. 4 
Mar. 6 
May 14 

Mar. 15 
Mar. 17 


7.43 

10.63 
8.07 

10.08 
215.77 

20.60 
8.92 

10.39 
8. CO 
8.05 
8.47 

6.40 
6.64 


+43.1 
+24.9 
+30.6 
+ 16.5 
+ 0.6 

- 3.7 


9 9 

9 9 

9 9 

& 

4 to 5 d. 

1 to 2 d. 

2.5 d. 

4.5 d. 

3.0 d. 
2.0 d. 


7.62 
8.75 
8.21 
8.13 
14.80 
15.33 
8.76 
8.90 
7.59 
8.24 
7.95 
8.50 
7.51 
7.10 


8.11 
8.92 
7.58 
7.84 
17.05 
18.06 
9.02 
9.17 
7.95 
8.50 
8.18 
8.64 
7.04 
6.90 


8.22 
9.17 
8.68 
8.65 
17.40 
18.23 
9.21 
9.75 
8.87 
9.29 
8.87 
9.29 


7.10 
8.46 
6.72 
6.15 
14.80 
15.33 
7.82 
8.12 
6.87 
7.82 
6.87 
7.82 


23 

22 

22 

21 

8 

7 

17 

14 

17 

13 

17 

13 

2 

3 











^The upper number in each pair below is the average of 5 first eggs of the clutch, the lower 
number of 5 second eggs. 
^Common pigeon; all other groups are ring-doves. 



An inspection of table 13 shows that in the case of the first 4, the 
twin-producing eggs were distinctly larger than any other eggs pro- 
duced by the prospective parent during the year. In all cases (3) 
where the twins developed to an age at which sex could be determined 
the sex was female. Dr. Riddle points out that the large size of these 
female twin-producing eggs harmonizes, in so far, with his earlier ob- 
servations that females arise from eggs (yolks) of high storage metab- 
olism, hence large eggs. It is noteworthy, also, that the small eggs 



148 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

that produced twins died; possibly because of inability of small 
yolks to meet the needs of twin embryos. 

The Prediction' of Future Egg Production in the Fowl from its Fecundity 

AT A Particular Time. 

With the development of more intensive agriculture and animal 
husbandry, there must be an increasing stringency of selection of the 
individual organisms upon which production depends. For the past 
several years Dr. Harris, with a number of collaborators, has been 
working on the problem of the prediction of the future egg-production 
of the fowl. It is upon the possibility of such prediction that the 
elimination of poorer birds from the flock, with a consequent increase 
in average production, depends. In a memoir recently published 
(Genetics, 6 : 265-309, 1920) he has shown that for a flock as a whole 
the average annual egg-record may be predicted vv'ith a relatively 
high degree of accuracy from the egg-production of any individual 
month. These studies pertain to the records of White Leghorn birds, 
trap-nested for a period of 7 years at the Storrs International Egg- 
Laying Contest. Studies on White Leghorn birds at other localities, 
as well as the fundamental biometric determinations on other breeds, 
are now under way. 

The foregoing investigations have been limited to first-year pro- 
duction. The opportunity for an investigation of the relationship 
between first and second year production is presented by the splendid 
records of the Vineland Internationl Egg-Laying and Breeding 
Contest. Dr. Harris is analyzing these data in cooperation with 
Professor H. R. Lewis, of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment 
Station. The results so far obtained show that, contrary to the state- 
ments of some of the earlier students of poultry genetics, there is a 
material degree of correlation between the records of the first and the 
second laying year. Thus, it is possible to extend the practice of 
culling to the betterment of second-year production. The results 
show, furthermore, that in the White Leghorn the highest correlation 
between the yields of individual months are not found in the months 
of the so-called 'Svinter cycle," but in the autumn months. This is 
contrary to what would be expected if high annual egg-production 
were due primarily to a superimposed Mendelian factor for high winter 
production. A detailed account of a portion of this work is now in 
press. 

Effect of Alcohol on the Fertility and Growth of Rats. 

Fertility. — In the course of Dr. MacDowell's work with rats and 
alcohol, data upon fertility and growth have been accumulated. 
From year to year references have been made to this material as it 
was being collected (Year Book 1917, p. 116; 1918, p. 113). During 
the present year all the data on these subjects have been analyzed 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 149 

and the results have been presented in two papers: 'The influence of 
alcohol on the fertility of white rats" and ''Alcohol and the growth of 
white rats" (to appear in Genetics). Dr. ^^lacDowell reports on his 
results as follows : 

"The data on fertihty include: (1) the numbers of rats per litter; (2) the 
numbers of Utters produced by the tests and controls in the same time. The 
summaries are based on 177 pairs of rats, which produced in all 1,755 off- 
spring. In all the experiments dealing with alcohoUsm, this is probably the 
first time that the fertility of treated animals has been tested by comparisons 
with full brother and sister controls. The first series of experiments, those 
with the light dosage, shows an average reduction of 11.5 per cent in the 
size of the litters produced by the treated females by treated males, as com- 
pared with the average litter-size of the controls; in the second series of 
experiments, those given the maximum dosage, the corresponding difference 
is about the same, namely, a reduction of 10 per cent in the size of the litters 
produced by the treated parents. The treated children of the treated rats 
produced fitters that were 10.3 per cent smaller than the corresponding con- 
trols. So it appears that treating the parents as well as the rats themselves 
does not intensify the reduction in the size of the litters produced. The 
untreated children of treated parents produced litters that were 11.2 per cent 
smaller than the controls, and the untreated grandchildren from untreated 
parents and treated grandparents produced litters that averaged 13.1 per 
cent smaller than the controls. Although these differences in each genera- 
tion by itself are not based on large enough numbers to make them statis- 
tically significant, when the litters in all the generations are taken together, 
the probable error is reduced so that the difference is fully significant (3.6 
times its probable error). 

"Given equal time, the treated rats produced 0.72 litter per pair, while 
the controls produced 2.07 fitters per pair. This is a reduction of 64.86 per 
cent ±3.37 in the number of litters, and, as it is 19.2 times its probable error, 
it is significant beyond all question. The first fitters produced by the treated 
rats were slower in appearing than the controls, although the treated and 
control pairs were mated at the same age. So, besides giving fewer litters, 
the treated pairs were slower in producing the litters that were born. Turn- 
ing to the numbers of litters produced in the later generations, the treated 
rats from treated parents also produced fewer litters than the controls, but 
instead of a greater reduction than in the previous generation, this second 
treated generation produced relatively more litters. The reduction was 
35.45 per cent ± 6.91 of the controls. Coming to the rats not directly treated, 
untreated rats from treated parents gave 33.30 per cent ±8.20 more fitters 
than their controls, and the untreated rats from untreated parents and treated 
grandparents produced 55.60 per cent±8.40 viore litters than the controls in 
the same generation. All of these differences are fully significant. 

"From the above statements, it is clear that the factors that condition 
the size of fitters are not identical with those for the numbers of fitters. 
The effect of alcohol upon the size of litters in all generations studied is 
relatively constant, whether the parents themselves were treated or only the 
grandparents, or great-grandparents; but the number of litters is strongly 
reduced when the parents themselves are treated, though when the alcohol 
is more remote the reduction vanishes; the later descendants of the treated 
rats produce more litters than the controls. To explain the reduction in 
the number of fitters in the presence of alcohol along purely physiological 
fines would be a simple matter, but a genetic explanation is required when it 



150 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

comes to the increase over the controls in the numbers of Utters produced 
by the untreated descendants of the alcohoUzed animals. It seems necessary 
to assume that there are genetic factors influencing the number of Utters 
that are produced; the alcohol prevents the reproduction of such females 
as carry, genetically, a lower reproductive capacity, so that the litters pro- 
duced come alone from females carrying higher Utter-producing capacity 
and they in turn produce larger numbers of Utters than the unselected con- 
trols. When these offspring of treated rats were themselves treated, they 
produced fewer instead of more litters than the controls, but the genetic 
superiority is shown by the fact that the alcohol reduced the numbers of 
their litters by only 35 per cent, while it reduced the numbers in the earlier, 
unselected generation by 65 per cent. This selective action of the alcohol 
will account for the results from the number of litters, but not those from 
litter-size; if this is correct, it indicates that the number of litters is influenced 
by genetic factors that do not influence Utter-size. This is not difficult to 
believe, since Utter-size is largely dependent upon the number and constitu- 
tion of the germ-cells, while the somatic conditions of the parents play a 
large part in determining whether or not a Utter will be produced. This 
distinction between the effects upon the numbers of litters and upon their 
size has not been made by previous investigators. The results from litter- 
size agree strikingly with those of Stockard from similar studies with guinea- 
pigs; the results from numbers of litters agree with Pearl's on fowl in so far 
as both results demand the assumption of a selective action of alcohol. In 
the fowl the alcohol appears to select between germ-cells, in the rats it 
appears to select between females. 

'^Weight.— The weight data form an extensive series, consisting of weekly 
weighings of practically all the rats raised in the various generations in the 
second series of experiments (those with the heavy dosage, started in 1916). 
The weights used in the summaries were read from the individual growth- 
curves at certain ages. This procedure was necessary, since the weighings 
for all rats were made on the same day each week, when the rats naturally 
were of different ages. The results are based primarily on the males, since 
the pregnancies of the females make their data less reliable. In the summaries, 
the pregnancies have been arbitrarily smoothed out. Each of the four 
strains shows that treated rats tend to grow more slowly than the controls. 
This is an influence felt by the population as a whole, although there are some 
males that remain as heavy as the heaviest controls. The females show a 
similar retardation in growth, but this is not so marked as in the males. 
The offspring of the treated rats tend to grow 7nore rapidly than the controls. 
This result is not so clear as the opposite result in the preceding generation; 
the differences are not so large and all strains do not show this in equal 
measure. In comparison with the results from the numbers of litters this 
shows a marked similarity, which is further borne out by the results from 
treated rats from treated parents. Instead of causing still further reduction 
in weight, the treatment of the offspring that came from treated parents 
appears to leave the animals about equal to the controls. Just as upon the 
numbers of litters alcohol works as a selective agent eliminating the Utters 
that bear the genetic determiners for slower growth, so the offspring from 
treated parents grow faster than the controls, and when they themselves are 
treated the reducing effect of the alcohol makes them about equal the con- 
trols instead of growing markedly slower, as did their parents. Very little 
can be concluded from the weights of the grandchildren of treated animals. 
The numbers are too small to determine whether or not the expected con- 
tinued superiority of the tests is realized. Two of the strains show the tests 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 151 

heavier and one of them shows the tests hghter, but the averages for all 
strains together show the averages for the tests heavier at all points." 

Internal Migration of Ova in Relation to Multipi,e Births. 

In connection with the problem of plura] births in man, Dr. 
George W. Corner investigated at Cold Spring Harbor during the 
summer of 1920 the problem of lost embryos in swine. As a first 
step he was able to demonstrate that practically all of the ova that 
have recently been ovulated can be recovered from the Fallopian 
tubes and agree in number with the corpora lutea of the ovary next to 
the tube. There has been no external migration, e. g., from the right 
ovary into the fimbriated end of the left tube. At later stages a 
migration occurs in the horns of the uterus such that an approximately 
equal number of embryos comes to develop in each side. 

OTHER INVESTIGATIONS. 
Tubercular Infection of Pigeons in the Sexes and in Hybrids. 

Several years ago Dr. Riddle noted that either advanced tuberculosis 
in some of the organs of the pigeon, or the presence in quantity of the 
worm Ascaridia maculosa Rudolphi in the pigeon intestine, is capable 
of preventing the growth of the testis; and, further, if the testis has 
first attained its full size, the later occurrence of either of these condi- 
tions will cause its nearly complete atrophy. Dr. Riddle now reports : 

"Since the size of the two gonads in relation to one another was early 
found to be of some importance in the comprehensive study of sex in pigeons 
now in progress, we have made rather careful necropsies upon practically all 
the birds that have died of disease or have been killed in presumably healthy 
state during the past 10 years. During the last 7 years of this period the 
data thus obtained for tuberculosis was so recorded as to indicate not only 
the frequency of infection in the various organs, but the relative extent or 
degree to which the organs of the body (exclusive of head and neck) were 
invaded by tubercles. The data of this 7-year period have recently been 
summarized and are now in process of pubhcation. The following con- 
clusions are drawn from the study : 

"Statistical data are given for the relative extent to which the various 
organs of 940 Columbidse were infected with tuberculosis or with a macro- 
scopicallj' similar infection. Bacteriological examinations of these infections 
were not made, but there can be little doubt that most of these were cases 
of infection by avian tuberculosis bacilli. 

"Four of the five groups examined show the spleen, liver, and lungs in- 
fected in this relative order; the spleen and liver alone include about two- 
thirds of the total number of the obviously infected organs of the bod3^ 

"The common pigeons present a similar yet appreciably different ranking 
of infected organs, since the relative order for this group is: liver, spleen, 
joints, and lungs. 

"The organs most often infected are apparently also the most intensively 
or extensively infected organs. 

"It is suggested that since the order of infection of organs in common 
pigeons is essentially the same as the order in which the organs of these birds 
remove intravenously injected bacteria, as shown by Kyes, there is some 
sort of causal connection between the two facts. 



152 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

"Results recently obtained by other investigators on the distribution of 
injected manganese dioxide in the fowl also seem to invite the suggestion 
that, in pigeons, the organs which probably remove most of such finely 
divided non-living particles and most infecting bacteria from the blood- 
stream are the organs most often infected by tuberculosis. 

"The ovary is probably more often infected than is the testis in most 
groups of pigeons; in domestic or common pigeons the data indicate an equal 
susceptibility of ovary and testis to this infection. 

"The organs of hybrid birds derived from different genera are probably 
not changed in their relative susceptibility to tubercular infection by the 
mere fact that these organs are of hybrid origin. 

"In addition to a possible contribution to our information concerning the 
localization of the attack of the tuberculosis bacillus, and also to our con- 
ception of phagocytosis, two points of more immediate relation to my own 
field are indicated by this study. First, the probability that the ovary is 
more susceptible than the testis to tuberculous infection in pigeons other 
than common pigeons, but equally susceptible in the latter forms, may prove 
to be of significance in the theory of sex. Second, the present incomplete 
story of the effects of hybridization is perhaps none the more incomplete 
because of the observation that the organs of hybrid birds derived from 
different genera are probably not changed in their relative susceptibility to 
tubercular infection by the mere fact that these organs are of hybrid origin." 

Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of Vegetable Saps. 

The problem of the adjustment of parasitic plants to the conditions 
presented by the host. — Dr. Harris has continued the investigations on 
the evolution of loranthaceous parasites, which have been under way 
for the past several years. Harris and Valentine have shown (Proc. 
Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 18 : 95-97) that the specific electrical conductiv- 
ity of the tissue fluids of the parasite are higher than those of the host. 
Harris, Lawrence, Hoffman, Valentine, and Mrs. Lawrence are now en- 
gaged on further studies of the electrical conductivity and hydrogen- 
ion concentration of the tissue fluids of Phoradendron and its hosts 
in the Gila River Valley, Arizona. 

Physico-chemical properties of the tissue fluids of alpine and sub- 
alpine vegetation. — Through the courtesy of Professor F. E. Clements, 
Associate in Ecology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, it 
has been possible for Dr. Harris to extend the work on the physico- 
chemical properties of plant-tissue fluids in relation to environmental 
factors and geographic distribution to include the alpine and subalpine 
vegetation of the Pike's Peak region of Colorado. Mr. and Mrs. 
John V. Lawrence devoted some weeks to measurements of osmotic 
concentration, specific electrical conductivity, and hydrogen-ion con- 
centration at Professor Clement's Alpine laboratory during the sum- 
mer of 1921. 

Physico-chemical properties of coastal vegetation. — For the past 
several years studies of the sap properties of coastal vegetation in 
their relation to the adjustment of the species to various salinities 
have been under way. Extensive series of determinations have been 
made in the neighborhood of Cold Spring Harbor (Long Island), 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 153 

Miami (Florida), and on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. 
In 1917 work by boat was carried out from Miami to Fernandina, 
Florida. In 1919, Dr. Harris, accompanied by Mr. John V. Lawrence 
and Mr. M. C. E. Hanke, covered the territory between Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia, and Miami, Florida. In 1921, one month was devoted to work, 
on a small yacht placed at Dr. Harris's disposal by a friend, on the 
vegetation between Charleston, South Carolina, and Miami, Florida. 
Messrs. A. T. Valentine and C. W. Crane assisted in these field opera- 
tions, in which particular attention has been given to the changes 
in typical halophytes as they extend up the fresh-water courses, and 
to typical fresh-water species as they reach the hmits of their distri- 
bution seaward. Reports on the results are waiting the completion 
of analyses. 

These investigations have been facilitated by the cooperation of the 
Department of Botanical Research. 

Studies on the physico-chemical properties of the tissue fluids of cereals 
under irrigation and under dry-farm conditions. — Work on the changes 
in the properties of the tissue fluids of the small grains during the 
march of the season, carried out by Dr. Harris incidental to studies on 
the native vegetation of the Bonneville Basin in 1920 (Year Book, 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., 1920, p. 143), indicated the desirabihty of more 
detailed studies. These were made possible by cooperative operations 
with the United States Department of Agriculture and the Utah 
Agricultural Experiment Station in 1921. Mr. W. F. Hoffman and 
Mr. A. T. Valentine, field assistants, went to Utah early in June to 
take up these studies, and Dr. Harris went to the field July 1. The 
problem is essentially one of the capacity of the organism for adjust- 
ment to environmental changes. Through the kindness of Professor 
George Stewart and Mr. A. D. Allen, of the Utah Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, it was possible to institute comparisons between irri- 
gated and dry-farm cereals. The problems under consideration are: 

1. Comparison of capacity for change in osmotic concentrations in 
different cereal species in relation to the problem of survival and pro- 
ductiveness under desert conditions. 

2. Comparison between different varieties within the same species to 
determine whether growth and yield under desert conditions are related 
to sap properties. 

Statistical Theory of Plot Tests. 

These investigations have been continued along hues indicated in 
previous Year Books by Dr. Harris. An exhaustive study of the 
permanence of differences between the plots of an experimental field 
has been published by Harris and Scofield (Jour. Agr. Res., 20 : 335- 
356, 1920), who have treated the data of 9 years' continuous cropping 
at the Huntley, Montana, field station of the Office of Western Irriga- 
tion Agriculture. 



154 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Tolerance of Salinity in Gammarus limn,'eus. 

Gortner and Harris (Science, n. s., 53 : 460-462, 1921) have noted 
the occurrence of Gammarus limnceus in the sahne water of the Terrace 
Crater of the Sevier Desert, an occurrence showing the wide tolerance 
of this normally fresh-water species. 

Cooperative Studies on Human Basal Metabolism. 

Dr. Harris, in cooperation with Dr. F. G. Benedict, Director of the 
Nutrition Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, has 
completed a study of the variation of the basal metabolism in the 
individual subject (Jour. Biol. Chem., 46:257-279, 1921). This 
supplements the investigation of the variation of basal metabolism from 
subject to subject published as an Institution volume two years ago. 

Biometfic Methods. 

Dr. Harris has, as heretofore, devoted some time to biometric 
methodology. Formulae for the determination of the correlation of 
size and of growth increments in the developing organism have been 
given by Harris (Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 18 : 4-5, 1921) and applied 
by Harris and Reed (Biol. Bull., 40 : 243-288, 1921). 

Culture Methods. 

Dr. A. M. Banta has published in Science the results of more than 
five years' experience in rearing Cladocera. He recommends a cul- 
ture solution in which the bacteria that form the principal food of the 
Cladocera will multiply at the required rate. 

ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD. 
ARCHIVES OF THE EUGENICS RECORD OFFICE. 

The care of the archives remained in the hands of Miss Louise A. 
Nelson until June 1, 1921. Thereafter it was assumed by Dr. Elizabeth 
B. Muncey. Miss Helen Bowen and Miss Helen Brown were indexers. 

On September 1, 1921, it was estimated that there was a total of 
818,851 cards in the Sextuple Index and 12,000 in the Persons Index. 
The total number of books in the archives was 1,363. The field re- 
ports (F) number 50,854 sheets; the Special Traits file (A) amount to 
22,039 sheets; of the Records of Family Traits (R), and M files there are 
3,752 numbers; and of the Family Distribution of Personal Traits 
(D), 1,711 sheets. 

During the summer we were able to make use of the assistance of a 
number of college students in the preparation of material for the 
archives and in the analysis of records. Misses Laura Craytor, Bess 
Lloyd, and Henrietta Yates assisted in collecting standards of mor- 
bidity rates for 10,000 individuals from the R files, and in collating 
eye and hair color data. Misses Elizabeth Austin and Isabelle M. 
Whitefield mounted clippings of biographies, genealogies, and special 
traits. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 155 

COLLABORATORS. 

The Eugenics Record Office has come to rely a great deal upon the 
assistance of collaborators who have furnished large amounts of manu- 
script material. Among those who have contributed this year are 
the following: Whittier State School (California), Dr. F. C. Nelles, 
superintendent, and Bureau of Juvenile Research at Whittier, Dr. 
J. H. WilHams, director; Dr. David F. Weeks, superintendent Skill- 
man State Village for Epileptics; Dr. F. C. Haviland, superintendent 
State Hospital, Middletown, Connecticut; Professor W. S. Monroe, 
State Normal School, Montclair, New Jersey; Professor E. Whittaker, 
Elmira College; Professor L. S. Ross, Des Moines; Professor F. S. 
Chapin, Smith College; Dr. L. W. Rapeer, Washington, D. C; Miss 
Rosemary F. Mullen, Washington Irving High School, New York; 
Professor J. E. Peabody, Morris High School, New York; Dr. R. C. 
Benedict, Stuyvesant High School; Dr. Elizabeth F. Byrnes, Girls' 
High School; Professor W. M. Barrows, Ohio State University; Pro- 
fessor A. J. Goldfarb, College of the City of New York. 

TRAINING CLASS. 

In the training class for eugenical field workers 10 young women 
completed their training. Of these 5 were from New York State and 
4 of these took the State examination for admission to the civil-service 
list as an entrance to State hospital service, as field worker. They 
have all received appointments. Of the others, two are already 
appointed at Letchworth Village, New York, one at Spring City, 
Pennsylvania, and one at Washington University Medical School. One 
is awaiting an expected appointment. The remaining one has married. 

The following clinics were attended : At the State hospitals for the 
insane at Kings Park, Central Islip,and Ward's Island; at institutions 
for the feeble-minded at Letchworth Village, Randall's Island, and 
Brunswick Home, Amityville, Long Island; at the Manhattan Eye 
and Ear Hospital; at the Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled, New 
York; at the State Hospital for Crippled Children at West Haverstraw, 
New York; and at the House of Refuge, New York. The medical 
examinations at Ellis Island were visited. Actual field-work was 
done at Commack, Long Island; and with the families of inmates of 
the Kings Park Hospital. Professor H. H. Wilder, of Smith College, 
and Dr. Frederick L. Reichert, of Johns Hopkins University Medical 
School, collaborated in the training of this class. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS. 

In accordance with the recommendation of the Executive Committee 
of the Institution at its meeting of October 15, 1920, the Board of 
Trustees of the Institution at its meeting of December 10, 1920, voted 
that a Department of Genetics should be organized by the consolida- 
tion of the Department of Experimental Evolution and the Eugenics 
Record Office, and that "the Department of Experimental Evolution 



156 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

and the Eugenics Record Office be hereafter designated as 

the Sections of Experimental Evolution and the Eugenics Record 
Office respectively, of the Department of Genetics." Also, "that the 
proposed Department be placed officially, as it has already been in 
fact, under the administration of Dr. Charles B. Davenport, with the 
title Director of the Department of Genetics." Since the sections are 
physically separated and since the methods of work in the sections 
is quite different, the following assistant directors were appointed: 
Dr. C. C. Little, of the section of Experimental Evolut on, and Dr. 
H. H. Laughlin, of the Eugenics Record Office, of which he had been 
superintendent from its foundation. 

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES OF AND CHANGES IN STAFF. 

Assistant Director Laughlin entered upon his new duties June 1, 
1920, at the expiration of his leave of absence. During the summer he 
had charge of the training class, assisted by Dr. F. L. Reichert, of 
Johns Hopkins University. Assistant Director Little has acted as 
secretary-general of the Second International Congress. During the 
summer he had the cooperation in his researches of a considerable 
number of temporary collaborators and assistants, who were, for the 
most part, engaged on the genetics of cancer. Dr. A. F. Blakeslee has 
similarly organized a temporary corps of investigators which has 
assisted in the work on Datura. Dr. J. A. Harris, besides maintaining 
here his biometric laboratory, has made field studies in Florida and in 
the Great Desert, especially Utah and Arizona, where he has had a 
number of temporary associates. Dr. O. Riddle has continued his 
work on the physiology of reproduction in pigeons. Dr. A. M. Banta 
has continued his investigations into the origin and characters of the 
fauna of caves, while maintaining strains of Entomostraca now in 
between the second and third hundredth generation. Dr. C. W. Metz 
continued his cytological studies on genetics of Diptera; during the 
summer he took a vacation enforced by eye-strain. Dr. E. G. Ander- 
son has been associated with Dr. Metz and has undertaken especially 
a systematic analysis of the foundations of the theories of linkage, 
crossing over, non-disjunction, factorial interaction, mutation, and 
gene constitution. Dr. Banker has continued his work on aristogenic 
families. This study made necessary a trip to study the records of 
certain eastern colleges. Dr. A. H. Estabrook has continued his 
work on the Ishmaelites of Indiana and has devoted some time to the 
direction of other social investigations in that state. Dr. Elizabeth B. 
Muncey is in charge of the archives of the Eugenics Record Office in 
place of Miss L. A. Nelson, who has been engaged in field-work in New 
York City, especially on bone abnormalities, in which she was aided 
by the cooperation of Dr. F. W. Taylor. With the organization of the 
Department of Genetics, Mr. G. H. Claflin was made chief clerk and 
Mr. George Macarthur superintendent of buildings and grounds. 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY.^ 

Arthur L. Day, Director. 

This report, the fifteenth in annual succession since the founding of 
the Geophysical Laboratory, may properly take note of a gradual 
change in the outlook over our field of research as time goes on and 
experience increases. When it was first proposed to study quanti- 
tatively, in the laboratory, the manner of formation of the igneous 
rocks, the questions which arose in the minds of those interested were 
mainly questions of practicability and not of desirability or of the scope 
of the task. This had long been deemed to be not only a desirable but 
an indispensable chapter in the history of the earth, which had hitherto 
to be viewed from a distance, with the telescope of speculation, as it 
were, because of the physical difficulties of near approach. Neither 
was any attempt made to define its proper scope. A telescopic view 
of a new field of activity does not at once reveal boundaries nor sug- 
gest limitations. Even the prefix supplied to create the names 
''Geophysics" or "Geochemistry" suggests no limitation upon the 
ordinary use of the terms physics and chemistry such as is implied in 
''Astrophysics." 

The real difficulty which presented itself persistently in the early 
consideration of the project was one of practicability. Could such a 
field of research, which in the minds of geologists comprehended the 
most majestic of terrestrial phenomena, be brought into the laboratory 
with hope of finding successful elucidation there? Could an attack 
from the experimental side yield quantitative relations, or would it 
provide no more than feebler imitations of natural phenomena, power- 
less alike for analysis or prediction? Would it be possible to make a 
competent study of all the processes of rock formation, even with all the 
available resources of physics and chemistry? 

The reactions in igneous rocks might be expected to occur almost 
exclusively in a region of temperatures so high that even their measure- 
ment could not then be regarded as certain. Would it, then, prove 
practicable to detect and measure transfers or transformations of 
energy at those high temperatures, to segregate for purposes of identi- 
fication the participating components in any transfer of energy in a 
silicate solution, to determine the heat of fusion, the degree of viscosity, 
the power of convection, the separation of the products of early 
crystallization within the magma under the action of gravity or tem- 
perature change or of mobile volatile components, or, indeed, to de- 
termine when a condition of equilibrium capable of precise definition 
had been reached? Unless it should prove practicable to establish 
and recognize a state of equilibrium, there was little hope of definition 

^Situated in Washington, District of Columbia. 

157 



158 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

of anything in such a field as this, for it is plain that mere observation of 
a process of change without being able to determine the points between 
which the change was occurring would rarely permit of reproduction, 
still less of definition. Without the power of reproduction, or of 
definition in terms of the state of the participating materials, or the 
magnitude of the participating forces, anything approaching a science 
of rock formation or of mineral chemistry is little more than a concept — 
a desideratum without tangible reality. 

To-day the telescopic picture is quite different. The field has been 
brought nearer and many details of it are now in plain view. Tem- 
peratures appropriate to the rock-forming processes can be provided 
without difficulty and measured with but little more uncertainty than 
the temperatures of every-day life. Pressures adequate to insure the 
participation of the more volatile ingredients of rock formation are also 
available and properly subject to control and measurement. Criteria 
have not been found lacking through which to recognize and define 
equilibrium, together with the magnitude and direction of its dis- 
placement with changes in the reacting forces. Heat changes are 
determinable both in quantity and direction. Latterly, even the 
atomic composition and structure of the participating crystalline 
minerals are becoming capable of photographic record. In short, there 
is abundant experience now available through which we may assure 
ourselves that the relations between minerals participating in rock 
formation are orderly and subject to precisely the same laws as 
similar relations in solutions in more conventional physical chemistry. 

In consequence of these assurances, obtained after the expenditure 
of much effort and ingenuity, the character of the program of geo- 
physical research from year to year may be seen to change very 
appreciably both in this Laboratory and elsewhere. It is not so much 
a matter for discussion now as formerly, whether this or that method 
of temperature measurement is competent in a temperature region 
which is difficult of access, or whether the moment of change of state 
is revealed by the appearance of a melting mineral or solution. The 
competence of observations of this kind is now capable of precise 
appraisal and many modes of verification are available. In con- 
sequence of such progress the agenda-list in any recent year will be 
found to contain progressively more of the application of recognized 
methods to current geologic problems, while less attention is given to 
the elaboration of the methods themselves. In terms of the whole 
effort expended, the major portion of the task hitherto has been con- 
cerned with the demonstration of the effectiveness of certain lines of 
study and of the scope and trustworthiness of the available methods 
of attack. So far as these efforts have been successful, hitherto inac- 
cessible problems in the earth's formation now lie open for study and 
are being attacked with increasing success. 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY. 159 

To illustrate from the work of the current year: 

Comparatively little work has been done in the investigation of those 
geophysical problems in which one of the components is volatile, such, 
for example, as the formation of carbonates, hydrates, sulphates, and 
the oxides of certain metals. Though the foundations for the 
theoretical groundwork were laid years ago by Willard Gibbs, the 
experimental side of the problem has been neglected in the past, chiefly 
because of the difficulty of attaining equilibrium within the limited 
time available for a single laboratory experiment and because of the 
complexity of the systems encountered. 

A recent investigation of the system copper-oxygen, undertaken 
here, has furnished data for extending the equations of Gibbs to apply 
to a particular case, has formed a basis for estimating the behavior of 
other similar systems, and has been the means of developing the 
necessary technique for the investigation of more complex systems. 

The investigation itself disclosed as solid phases in this system only 
copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide, all three of which occur as 
natural minerals, and gave no evidence whatever of solid solution in the 
system. Measurements were successfully made of pressure and com- 
position throughout the temperature range between 900° and 1235° C. 
at oxygen pressures varying from 0.02 millimeter of mercury to 55 
atmospheres. The data were applied to the calculation of the energy 
changes involved in the dissociation and to the calculation of the 
melting-point of cuprous oxide. There is still some work to be done 
in that part of the system lying between copper and cuprous oxide, 
but in a field which is of chief importance to the metallurgist. 

Having regard for the potential application of such methods and 
criteria in the analysis and study of geological problems, it is especially 
interesting to consider the composition of the igneous rocks as pre- 
sented in a correlation of chemical analyses by Dr. Washington of this 
Laboratory in association with Dr. F. W. Clarke of the Geological 
Survey. For a number of years the effort has been made to apply the 
data derived from the chemical analysis of igneous rocks to the study 
of some of the broader aspects of petrology, and more especially of the 
relation of the elements in igneous rocks and their distribution over the 
earth. A preliminary statement of some of the results of this study 
was presented before the Franklin Institute in December 1920, under 
the title "The chemistry of the earth's crust." Certain particular 
features of the subject, especially the chemical composition of the 
average igneous rock of the earth's crust and the relations of the 
chemical elements in minerals and igneous rocks, are set forth in a 
forthcoming Professional Paper of the U. S. Geological Survey, after 
which the general results of the study will appear in book form. 

A new average of the igneous rocks of the earth has been calculated 
which is based upon 5,159 good analyses of rocks from all parts of the 



160 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

earth, which were brought together and classified in Professional 
Paper 99 of the Geological Survey (1917). In its main features this 
resembles other averages made previously, but as it is based on the 
largest number of good analyses yet available it is the most authorita- 
tive. Included in it are estimates of the percentages of several of the 
rarer elements, such as zirconium, barium, strontium, chromium, 
vanadium, and nickel. 

It appears that 12 elements (oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, cal- 
cium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, titanium, phosphorus, hydrogen, 
and manganese) constitute about 99.6 per cent of the earth's crust, 
leaving only about 0.4 per cent for all the other elements (about 80 in 
number) . It is noteworthy that (with the exception of iron, aluminum, 
nickel, and manganese) the common and "e very-day" metals neces- 
sary for our civilization (such as copper, silver, gold, zinc, tin, lead, 
mercury, platinum, antimony, and bismuth) are either not present in 
igneous rocks or are present in scarcely detectable amounts. 

Study of the chemical relations of the elements found in minerals 
and rocks shows that they are divisible into two groups. The ''petro- 
genic" group comprises all of the most abundant elements, which 
compose the igneous rocks, the oceanic waters, and the atmosphere, 
together with some rarer ones. These petrogenic elements occur typi- 
cally as oxides, simple silicates, alumino-silicates and other complex 
silicates, aluminates, fluorides, chlorides, and sulphides. They do not 
normally form mineral arsenides, antimonides, selenides, tellurides, 
bromides, or iodides, nor do most of them occur in nature uncombined. 
The "metallogenic" elements are not found in igneous rocks (except 
rarely in traces), but they occur as ores. Most of them occur fre- 
quently as native metals, and their typical mineral compounds are sul- 
phides, selenides, tellurides, arsenides, antimonides, sulpharsenites and 
other sulpho-salts, bromides, and iodides. They do not occur normally 
as primary oxides, silicates, aluminates, fluorides, or chlorides. With 
the metallogenic elements are included the metals (copper, silver, gold, 
etc.) mentioned above. 

The distinction is well brought out in the periodic classification of 
the elements, in which the two groups are sharply separated and occupy 
the two opposite sides of the table, with the "triad" elements (such 
as iron, cobalt, and nickel) transitional between them. It is probable 
that the sharp separation of the two groups is significant of important 
differences in the relations of the elements to the structure and the 
evolution of the earth. There is reason to believe that, while the outer 
part of the earth (the "crust") is composed almost wholly of petro- 
genic elements, the central core is probably composed of metallogenic 
elements, with an intermediate zone of iron-nickel-cobalt, probably 
associated with borides, carbides, phosphides, and sulphides. A 
similar distribution is believed to obtain in the sun, and there may 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY. 161 

be analogous distributions in the stars and nebulae, as indicated by the 
spectroscope. 

The study of the average chemical composition of the igneous rock of 
different areas brings out many interesting facts. While the several 
continents resemble each other in general chemical composition, yet 
there are notable differences among them; also, the averages of 
different countries and parts of continents differ among themselves 
still more widely. The averages of the United States and of Europe 
(which are best known) most nearly resemble the general earth average. 
The average composition of the rocks of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean 
floors is very different from those of the continents and of most of the 
larger land areas. 

From the average chemical composition of the igneous rocks of any 
given area it is possible to calculate the density of this portion of the 
earth's crust. This has been done for the continents, for the floors of 
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and for many countries and larger 
land areas. The average densities are found to vary within rather wide 
limits. Thus, the average density of the earth's crust is 2.77, that of 
Asia is 2.72, while that of the floor of the Pacific is about 3.00. 

There is an interesting and significant inverse relation between the 
average density and the mean elevation above sea-level : the lower the 
density (or the lighter the average rock) the higher the mean elevation. 
This is generally true all over the earth and is most strikingly shown 
along a zone around the earth in about latitude 45° north, which 
crosses the United States, Europe, Asia, and the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans. The curves of rock density and land elevation vary in 
opposite sense with scarcely an exception. 

The establishment of this relation, which is based on a very large 
number of data derived from many and widely scattered portions of the 
earth, is of special interest in connection with the theory of isostasy; 
namely, that the lighter portions of the crust tend to rise, while the 
heavier tend to sink, so that the various portions of the crust maintain 
a state of balanced equilibrium and are not sustained primarily by the 
principle of the arch. Gravity observations with the pendulum or 
plumb-bob suggested this concept of the crustal conditions, and this 
most recent evidence is confirmatory of the theory, although the 
subject is approached from such an apparently unrelated starting- 
point as the chemical analysis of igneous rocks. 

Another feature of this year's program has been to bring together, 
in convenient and accessible form, the considerable body of information 
about silica and the silicates which has accumulated as the result of 
experimental work during the last twenty years, but is still rather in- 
conveniently scattered through the scientific periodicals. The need 
for such a work has been felt by several groups, each interested in the 
silicates from a different point of view. 



162 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

The needs of the group of scientific investigators are easiest to meet. 
A simple collection of the principal facts, accompanied by a thorough 
bibliography, will satisfy them, for they are already familiar with much 
of the material. But a thorough bibliography is worse than useless to 
some of the groups concerned. The petrologists, for example, desire 
the new physical and chemical facts about silicates, not in the form in 
which they were originally discovered, but interpreted in terms of the 
forms with which a petrologist works, namely, the natural minerals and 
rocks. The ceramic chemists and engineers, on the other hand, desire 
the same facts freed from their burden of experimental and theoretical 
proofs, just as in the case of the petrologist, but interpreted this time in 
terms of technical products — porcelain and glaze, bricks and pottery, 
refractories, and manufacturable glass. Last, and most important, 
is the group made up of students in colleges and technical schools, 
whose interest is in the future rather than in the present, and whose 
needs are therefore the hardest of all to meet. They want all the 
facts, for if history furnishes any guidance it is probable that the im- 
portant facts and relations of the future will be drawn in part from the 
unimportant facts of to-day. 

The effort has therefore been made to provide a reference book on 
the facts and theories of the silicates which may find application alike 
to the needs of the student of ceramics, of mineralogy, of petrology, 
or of inorganic chemistry. 

The classification of the subject-matter cuts right across some of the 
standard groupings of mineralogy, but is expected fully to justify itself 
by its elasticity and by the new relations which can thus be brought 
out. Silicate theory during the past fifty years has been too dependent 
upon the analogies of organic chemistry, and sufficient use has not yet 
been made, in silicate research, of the principles developed in recent 
years by investigators in the field of physical chemistry. In the long 
step forward now being taken in our knowledge of molecular and atomic 
structure, investigators should draw very considerable aid from the 
large body of facts already assembled by the mineralogists and other 
students of silicate chemistry. 

It may be of interest to record the fact that with the forthcoming 
publication by the War Department of Colonel Wright's book, "The 
manufacture of optical glass and of optical systems" (reviewed on 
page 174), the numbered publications on optical glass resulting from 
the war activities of this Laboratory will reach forty. 

Brief reviews of the papers published by members of the Laboratory 
staff during the current year will be found on the following pages: 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY. 163 

PUBLICATIONS. 

(386) Tridymite crystals in glass. N. L. Bowen. Am. Mineralogist, 4, 65-66 C1919). 

Crystals of tridymite similar to those described by Le Chatelier in a French 
glass were found in a specimen of light flint glass. Question is raised regarding 
Le Chatelier's conclusion that tridymite is the only form of sihca stable at 
temperatures above the stability range of quartz. Cristobalite forms freely 
and persists indefinitely above 1470° in glasses capable of precipitating sihca 
at such temperatures and is therefore the stable phase above 1470°. 

(387) Abnormal birefringence of torbernite. N. L. Bowen. Am. J. Sci., 48, 195-198 (1919). 
Torbernite from Cornwall was found to have totally different optical prop- 
erties from those ordinarily assigned to it. Torbernite is usually described 
as uniaxial and negative with indices 1.592 and 1.582. The present tor- 
bernite was found to have a mean index of about 1.62 and to give very 
abnormal interference colors, which are always red, blue, or purple, whatever 
the thickness of the section. Measurement of the indices co and e for various 
wave-lengths showed that the mineral has very weak positive birefringence 
for the red end of the spectrum but is negative for the blue end. For green 
light of 515/i wave-length it is isotropic. This form of torbernite is the hepta- 
hydrate or the first stage in desiccation from the dodecahydrate, which 
desiccation may take place spontaneously. 

(388) Cacoclasite from Wakefield, Quebec. N. L. Bowen. Am. J. Sci., 48,440-442 f 1919). 
Chemical, microscopic, and crystallographic evidence all points to the fact 

that cacoclasite is a pseudomorph (essentially a paramorph) of grossularite 
after sarcohte with calcite and apatite filling the voids produced by the re- 
duction of volume involved in the change. 

(389) Crystallization-differentiation in igneous magmas. N. L. Bowen. J. Geol., 27, 

393-430 (1919). 

In this paper some of the objections which have been raised against the 
theory of crj^stallization-differentiation are considered; and its adequacy to 
explain certain phenomena, for which it has been considered to fail, is pointed 
out. The supposed advantages of liquid immiscibility in explaining discon- 
tinuous variations are considered, and reasons are given for believing that no 
such advantages exist. On the basis of crystalhzation, explanations are 
suggested for discontinuous variations, particularly those noted in the asso- 
ciation gabbro-granophyre. A suggestion is made as to the origin of primary 
banding with particular reference to the Duluth lopohth. 

(390) Echellite, a new mineral. N. L. Bowen. Am. Mineralogist, 5, 1-2 (1920). 
Small spheroidal masses of a radiating fibrous mineral occurring in a basic 

intrusive from Sextant Portage, Abitibi River, Northern Ontario, are found 
to be made up of a new mineral. The optical properties are a = 1.530; 
i3= 1.533; 7 = 1.545±.001; -{-; 2V = 50±5. The elongation is /3 and the 
crystallization probably orthorhombic. Chemical analysis gave the formula 
(Ca, Na2)0.2Al2O3.3SiO2.4H.iO. The name echellite is proposed for this new 
mineral in allusion to the stepped (1, 2, 3, 4) ratios. 

(391) Differentiation by deformation. N. L. Bowen. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 6, 159-162 (1920). 
An examination into the tendency of deformation of a partly crystalUzed 

igneous magma toward the separation of hquid from crystals and the conse- 
quent production of a differentiated mass. An effect of this kind is beheved 
to be a factor of importance in the production of discontinuous differentiation, 
of monomineralic types, of complementary dikes, and of primary banding. 



164 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

(393a) Le rioliti di Lipari. Henry S.Washington. Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., 39, 141-159 (1920). 

This is a translation into Italian of the paper reviewed on page 173 of the 
Annual Report for 1920 (The rhyolites of Lipari, Am. J. Sci., 50, 446-462). 

(396) The annealing of glass. Jy. H. Adams and E. D. Williamson. J. Franklin Inst., 190, 
597-631 ; 835-870 (1920). (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 32.) 

The annealing of glass was one of the numerous problems encountered dur- 
ing the participation of the Geophysical Laboratory in the development and 
manufacture of optical glass. When molten glass is cooled it usually acquires 
internal stresses and is then said to be "strained." Excessive stresses can not 
be tolerated in any kind of glass, since they render the glass 1 iable to break 
when handled or heated again, and in the case of optical glass even a moderate 
amount of strain causes troublesome warping of finished lenses and prisms. 
The prevention of internal stresses in glass (and its removal when present) 
is a problem which requires for its complete solution a knowledge of various 
thermal, optical, and elastic constants of the relations between such factors 
as rate of heating, temperature gradient, and stress distribution in terms of the 
above-mentioned constants. It is shown that the process of annealing glass 
can best be carried out if we know, for the various glasses and for the various 
temperatures, the rate of release of the internal stresses. The results of such 
measurements for nine kinds of glass are here presented. The release of 
stress at constant temperature was found to proceed usually according to the 

equation p — Tr= At, in which F is the stress at any time t, Fo is the initial 

t to 

stress, and A is a constant for the particular glass at a particular temperature 
and is a measure of the rate at which stresses are relieved. The variation of 
this rate with temperature follows the equation log A = Mid — M2, in which 
Ml and M^ are constants for a particular glass. 

At any temperature a glass requires a certain annealing-time. This is 
arbitrarily defined as the time required to reduce the stress (in optical units) 
from 50 to 2.5/x)u per centimeter. For convenience of reference, the 150° 
interval lying immediately below the temperature at which the annealing- 
time is two minutes is called (also quite arbitrarily) the annealing-range. At 
temperatures below the anneaUng-range as thus defined very little permanent 
stress can be introduced. 

Concrete directions are given for anneaUng optical glass. The procedure 
to be followed for other kinds of glass, such as plate-glass, bottles, chemical 
glassware, etc., is also indicated. Mathematical analysis of the problem 
shows that the best method for annealing requires that the glass be held at 
constant temperature (below the customary annealing-point) for the appro- 
priate time and then cooled at an increasing rate. It is ofi nterest to note 
that the larger the piece of glass the lower the annealing temperature. Finally, 
there are presented several equations which are convenient for calculating 
the internal stresses due to heating or cooling solids of various shapes. 

While the original object of this investigation was to put on a quantitative 
basis the operations connected with the annealing of glass, it was found that 
many of the results have an important bearing on certain problems of geo- 
physics. For example, the relief of internal stresses in glass probably belongs 
in the category of elastico-viscous flow and is thus connected with such proc- 
esses as the tidal deformation of the earth's crust. Moreover, the formulae 
expressing the relation between temperature differences and stress distribu- 
tion are directly applicable to the phenomenon of the "jointing" of rocks. 

Note: — Certain phases of the subject have already been covered in previous publica- 
tions from this Laboratory, as, for example: Temperature distribution in solids during 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY. 165 

heating or cooling, by E. D. Williamson and L. H. Adams, Phys. Rev., 14, 99-114 (1919); 
The coohng of optical glass melts, by H. S. Roberts, J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 2, 543-56-3 (1919); 
The relations between birefringence and stress in various types of glass, by L. H. Adams 
and E. D. Williamson, J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 9, 609-623 (1919); Strains due to temperature 
gradients, with special reference to optical glass, by E. D. Williamson, J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 
9, 209-217 (1919) . In the present paper anneaUng of glass is treated as a whole. 

(397) The chemistrj' of the earth's crust. Henry S. Washington. J. FrankUnlnst., 190, 

757-815 (1920). (Reprinted, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 1921.) 

After brief consideration of the interior of the earth, the general character 
of igneous rocks is discussed, and the presence of water-vapor and other gases 
in the magma is pointed out. In the discussion of the mineral character of 
rocks, stress is laid on the fact that the number of essential rock-forming 
minerals is very small. These are mostly silicates of aluminum, iron, mag- 
nesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium. Any two or more of these minerals 
(with two exceptions) may occur together and in all proportions. 

The chemical character of igneous rocks is summarized and the ranges 
and maxima of the various constituents are given. The average igneous rock 
is considered and, after some discussion of the sources of error involved in the 
calculation, a new average (based on 5,159 analyses) is given. The average 
rock is shown to be approximately a granodiorite. 

The average composition of the earth's crust in terms of elements is given. 
Twelve elements (oxj^gen, sihcon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potas- 
sium, magnesium, titanium, hydrogen, phosphorus, and manganese) make 
up 99.61 per cent of the crust. 

The elements are referred to two main groups in the periodic table: (1) the 
"petrogenic" elements, characteristic of and most abundant in igneous rocks, 
of low atomic weight and occurring normally as oxides, sihcates, chlorides, 
and fluorides; (2) the "metallogenic" elements, rare or absent in igneous rocks 
but occurring as ores, of high atomic weight, and forming in nature metals, 
sulphides, arsenides, etc., but not oxides or silicates. The suggestion is made 
that beneath the silicate crust of petrogenic elements is a zone essentially of 
nickel-iron, and beneath this a central core of the metallogenic elements. 
This vertical distribution is in accord with Abbot's views as to the dis- 
tribution of the elements in the sun. 

In igneous rocks and minerals the elements show a correlation, in that 
certain of them are prone to occur with others, and a similar Umited correla- 
tion is apparently true of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 

The idea of "comagmatic regions," that is, the distribution of igneous rocks 
in regions of chemically related magmas, is discussed and some are briefly 
described. 

The calculation of rock densities from their chemical composition is dis- 
cussed, and the average chemical compositions and densities of the conti- 
nental masses and oceanic floors are given. It is shown by these that the 
average densities of the continents, ocean floors, and various smaller regions of 
the earth stand in inverse relation to their elevations. The bearing of this 
relation of average density and elevation on the theory of isostasy is pointed 
out, and it is shown that the data presented are confirmative of the theory. 

(398) The system cupric oxide, cuprous oxide, oxygen. F. Hastings Smyth and H. S. 

Roberts. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 42, 2582-2607 (1920). 

It has been shown that solid solution of cuprous oxide in cupric oxide does 
not take place in the temperature range where both oxides remain soUd. 
Previous results indicating such solution may probably be explained by lack 
of careful temperature control, and by possible adsorption of nitrogen in solid 



166 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

cupric oxide, giving high initial pressures. Results below the eutectic points 
are in agreement with those of Foote and Smith. 

The pressure-temperature equilibrium curves for the system cupric oxide, 
cuprous oxide, oxygen have been estabUshed over the range (1) in which the 
oxides remain solid below the eutectic point, and (2) above the eutectic point, 
where cupric oxide remains the soUd phase up to 1233° C. 

The pressure and temperature of the quadruple (eutectic) point for the sys- 
tem have been established from the intersection of these two curves. The 
quadruple point lies at 1080.2" C. and 390 mm. pressure. 

The general direction of the equiUbrium curve for the system when cuprous 
oxide remains the only solid phase has been indicated, and it has been proved 
that, in accordance with theory, the equiUbrium pressure drops in this case 
with rise in temperature. It has been shown that pure cupric oxide does not 
melt without dissociation below 1233° C. 

(399) The problems of volcanology. Henry S. Washington. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 6, 

583-591 (1920). 

The general and most important problems presented by volcanology are 
briefly discussed. They include both the problems pertaining to volcanology 
proper and those related to other sciences, especially the sciences represented 
by sections in the Geophysical Union. Some recommendations for lines of 
work are made. 

In volcanology proper are suggested the need of a general catalogue of volca- 
noes; a record of all eruptions and the study of their phenomena, and hence 
the advisability of notification of impending or sudden eruptions so that they 
may be studied from the beginning by volcanologists ; the investigation of 
little-known volcanoes, especially of the Pacific ; the need of continuous study 
of volcanoes, and hence the need of several volcano stations (such as those on 
Kilauea and Vesuvius), where systematic and continuous records and obser- 
vations may be made; the study of thermal gradients by borings at volcanoes 
and also in non-volcanic localities. 

Various problems of volcanology are discussed as related to geodesy; 
seismology (continuous study of volcanic earthquakes and tremors and changes 
of level); meteorology (relation of eruptions to weather, barometer, etc., 
also dust and "blue suns"); terrestrial magnetism (observations of electrical 
and magnetic phenomena during eruptions) ; physical oceanography (sub- 
marine eruptions, collection of volcanic data from ships' logs, study of deep- 
sea deposits) ; geophysical-chemistry (formation, chemistry, and petrography 
of lavas, study of volcanic gases and fumarole salts, etc.); effect of volcanic 
gases and ashes on vegetation and reclamation; investigation of character 
of lunar lavas (?) by study of their refractive indices by angle of polarization. 

(400) An outline of geophysical-chemical problems. Robert B. Sosman. Proc. Nat. 

Acad. Sci., 6, 592-601 (1920). 

This paper constitutes one of seven reports prepared for the American Geo- 
physical Union and covering various phases of geophysics as distributed among 
the seven sections of the Union. 

The subject-matter of geophysical chemistry may be defined as "the physi- 
cal properties and chemical reactions of the substances and aggregates that 
make up the earth." It may therefore be roughly divided into two parts: 

(A) properties and reactions of materials accessible at the earth's surface; 

(B) properties and reactions of materials in the earth's interior. Each of these 
may again be subdivided as follows: (1) properties and reactions of individual 
chemical substances, for example, the sihcate minerals; (2) properties and 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY. 167 

reactions of aggregates, for example, oceanic water, silicate rocks; (3) prop- 
erties and reactions of larger units of matter, for example, glaciers, batholiths. 
The lines of research now being followed in these various branches of the 
subject are briefly summarized or commented upon. 

(401) Unification of symbols and diagrams. W. P. White. Science, 51, 414-417 (1920). 
A widespread effort has been made to unify the symbols used in physical 

and chemical formulae. This movement has been mainly directed to quanti- 
ties of wide and general use, such as time, temperature, volume, expansion. 
It is suggested in this paper that the movement might well be extended to 
special subjects, treating each partly by itself. Thus, in calorimetry, there 
are several temperatures to be dealt with which might better be distinguished 
in the same way by different writers; in the study of heat engines, still other 
temperatures, needing a different designation. It is also suggested that the 
labor of all these details might be largely thrown on the writers in the various 
subjects, with a committee to act as referee but not to take the burden of 
prescribing for the whole field. If no such authoritative committee can be 
obtained, writers themselves can accomplish much by cooperation, or even 
by following the rule of not wantonly changing a notation already in use. 
The same suggestions apply to the lettering of diagrams. 

(402) Note on augite from Vesuvias and Etna. H. S. Washington and H. E. Merwin 

Am. J. Sci., 1, 20-30 (1921). 

In this paper are given a description and analysis of the crystals of augite 
collected by Dr. Washington at the bottom of the crater of Vesuvius in 1914, 
with crystallographic determination by Dr. Merwin. The fact that the 
chemical composition of the crystals is almost identical with that of pyrox- 
enites of Monte Somma, described by Lacroix, is mentioned, and the relative 
merits of the gravitative adjustment and fractional crystaUization theoriea 
of certain forms of differentiation are discussed. 

Crystals of augite from Monti Rossi, of the eruption of 1669 at Etna, are 
also described, with a new analysis and optical determinations. It is pointed 
out that no good analyses of the augites of either Vesuvius or Etna are to 
be found in the Uterature. The early work of Spallanzani (circa 1790) is 
described briefly, and it is shown that he was the first to determine 
the relative melting-points of the feldspars and augite and to measure their 
relative magnetic susceptibility, and that therefore he is to be regarded as the 
first experimental geophysicist. There is also given a comparison of the 
chemical compositions of various ItaUan augites with the lavas that contain 
them. 

(403) Note on crucibles used in rock analysis. Henry S. Washington. J. Wash. Acad. 

Sci., 11, 9-13 (1921). 

An experience in rock analysis with a palau and an iridium-platinum crucible 
is described. It was found that, for the fusion with sodium carbonate, the 
cold cake frees itself much more readily from palau (not a case of its adhering 
having been noted during many fusions) than from iridium-platinum, and 
still more readily than from pure platinum. Two series of weighings showed 
that after 47 fusions the palau crucible lost, on an average, 0.2 milUgram per 
fusion, while the iridium-platinum crucible lost, on an average, 0.47 milUgram. 
The greater loss of the latter is probably to be ascribed in part to loss of iridium 
by volatihzation. 

(404) A meteor fall in the Atlantic. Henry S. Washington. Science, 53, 90-91 (1921). 
A note putting on record the newspaper report of the fall of a meteorite 

m the Atlantic Ocean in October 1906. 



168 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

(405) An outline of the application of the theory of space groups to the study of the struc- 

ture of crystals. Ralph W. G. Wyckoff. Am. J. Sci., 1, 127-137 (1921). 
The crystal structure of magnesium oxide. Ibid., pp. 138-152. 

In the first paper are briefly considered such details of the theory of space 
groups as are of importance in the apphcation of this theory to the determina- 
tion of the structure of crystals. Point groups, space lattices, and space groups 
are illustrated by simple examples. A discussion is given of the relations 
between space groups and crystals and of those modifications in the results 
of the theory of space groups which are required in order that it may serve as 
the basis for a general method for the study of the structure of crystals. 

In the second paper the method of studying the structure of crystals which 
arises from the point of view outhned above is applied to a relatively simple 
case in the discussion of the structure of magnesium oxide. 

An attempt has been made, using Laue photographs and X-ray spectrum 
measurements, to get a unique solution for the crystal structure of magnesium 
oxide. If it possesses holohedral symmetry, then the only simple structure 
which is possible is the "sodium-chloride arrangement." 

Certain cases of grouping showing tetartohedral symmetry, and two more 
complicated holohedral arrangements, each with 32 molecules associated 
with the unit, are in agreement with the existing experiments. These other 
possibilities, however, differ but slightly from the "sodium-chloride arrange- 
ment," and can not be positively treated by the experimental faciUties now 
available. 

(406) The determination of the structure of crystals. Ralph W. G. Wyckoff. J. Franklin 

Inst., 191, 199-230 (1921). (Reprinted, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 1921.) 

This discussion aims to give a brief survey of the field of the determination 
of the structure of crystals as it exists at the present time. The most essen- 
tial events in the development of this work are mentioned, the existing means 
of experimentation are outlined, and some of its present limitations are dis- 
cussed, together with some of the kinds of problems to which a knowledge of 
the arrangement of the atoms in crystals has contributed and may be expected 
to contribute. 

(407) The compressibility of diamond. Leason H. Adams. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11, 

45-50 (1921). 

By the use of pressures up to 10,000 megabars, the compressibility of clear 
colorless diamond was measured and found to be 0.16 X 10~® per megabar. 
This is a remarkably low value; indeed, of all substances whose elastic behavior 
is known, diamond is by far the most incompressible. Its nearest rival, 
tungsten, is nearly twice as compressible. 

From a consideration of certain formulae connecting various physical prop- 
erties of solids it is shown that the low compressibility of diamond might be 
predicted from its high melting-point, its low expansion coefficient, and its 
high atomic frequency. 

(408) The distribution of scientific information in the United States. Robert B. Sosman. 

J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11, 69-99 (1921). 

The production of new information in the United States is much better 
organized than its distribution. It is distributed through five main channels : 

(1) by personal communication or through the "informational middleman;" 

(2) by public lectures; (3) by the museum and public exhibition; (4) by the 
printed page — books, scientific and technical periodicals, bulletins, general 
periodicals, newspapers, and separates; (5) by the cinematograph. Ineffec- 
tive distribution results from disinchnation to use new knowledge, a cause not 
discussed in this paper, and from the inaccessibility of scientific information 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY. 169 

arising from the bulky form in which it comes from the producer, its hetero- 
geneous character, and the arithmetical or psychological limitations peculiar 
to each method of distribution. The bearing of these various factors on ex- 
isting methods of distribution, both to producers of information and to the 
general pubUc, is touched upon, and desirable or probable future develop- 
ments are briefly discussed. 

(409) Note on the measurement of the density of minerals. L. H. Adams. Am. Mineral- 

ogist, 6, 11-12 (1921). 

The striking variations shown in different determinations of even the most 
simple and definite minerals indicate that there is room for improvement in 
the technic of density-measurement. In this note attention is called to the 
advantages of the "flat-top" pycnometer for measuring the density (or specific 
gravity) of minerals and other granular or powdered soUds. With this 
pycnometer an accuracy of about 0.0001 can be obtained. 

(410) War-time production of optical munitions. Fred. E. Wrie;ht. Army Ordnance, 1, 

247-251 (1921). (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 33.) 

In this paper a general statement is given of the development of the optical 
glass and instrument situation during the recent war. Some of the difficulties 
which arose and the measures taken to overcome them are described briefly. 
The records show that the methods for the manufacture of optical glass had 
first to be developed and placed on a routine basis ; factory f acihties had greatly 
to be increased; raw materials of adequate purity had to be obtained and 
transported ; a personnel competent to handle the different phases of the prob- 
lems had to be organized and trained to the several tasks. Methods for the 
adequate inspection of optical glass had to be adopted and a force of inspectors 
trained in their use. The manufacturing capacity of the country for optical 
instruments had to be increased greatly; new operators had to be trained, 
and the entire optical industry organized and coordinated. The roles played 
in this connection by the manufacturers, the Geophysical Laboratory, the 
War Industries Board, and the War and Navy Departments are noted briefly. 
The significance of the optical industry in war time is emphasized, and means 
are suggested for the development during peace-time of a skeleton organiza- 
tion of optical engineers who, in the case of an emergency, might render effec- 
tive aid in building up the optical industry to meet the needs of the field 
forces. 

(411) The angular deflections produced on transmitted light rays by slightly incorrect 

interfacial angles of reflection prisms. Fred. E. Wright. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 
5, 193-204 (1921). (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 34.) 

The interfacial angles of a reflecting prism of any given type may be meas- 
ured directly on a goniometer or a spectrometer, or by means of dehcate gages 
or specially mounted test plates such as the optical square. They may also 
be measured by the deflections produced by the prism on transmitted rays of 
light. A prism of the prescribed shape deflects the transmitted rays along 
a prescribed path. A prism of slightly incorrect interfacial prism angles de- 
flects transmitted Ught rays so that these emerge along a direction sUghtly 
different from that prescribed ; from this deviation it is possible to determine 
the degree of exactness of the interfacial prism angles. Methods of test 
based on this principle enable the observer at the same time to draw conclu- 
sions regarding the quality of glass in the prism and the degree of flatness of 
the prism faces; in short, to judge of the fitness of the prism as a component 
of any given optical system. In the present paper prisms of different types 
are considered, and sets of curves are shown in diagrams illustrating the devia- 



170 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

tions caused by slightly incorrect interfacial prism angles. From these curves 
the sensitiveness of the several optical methods which have been proposed for 
testing the accuracy of prism angles by the use of transmitted light rays can 
be detected directly and the suitability of each method thereby ascertained. 

(412) The system copper: cupric oxide: oxygen. H. S. Roberts and F. Hastings Smyth. 

J. Am. Chem. Soc, 43, 1061-1079 (1921). 

At temperatures below 1060° CuO dissociates with the formation of solid 
CujO and O2 gas, and CU2O with the formation of solid Cu and O2 gas; solid 
solution, if it occurs at all, is so limited in extent as to be without apprecia- 
ble effect on the dissociation pressures. Thus the system as a whole is of a 
very simple type. 

Pure Cu melts at 1082.8"; CU2O at 1235° under an oxygen pressure of 0.6 
mm. of mercury. Because of the high pressure necessary to prevent dissocia- 
tion, the melting-point of CuO could not be determined; it probably lies 
above 1260° with a dissociation pressure of, perhaps, several thousand atmos- 
pheres. There is a eutectic at 1062°, about 0.013 mm. of mercury, 3.4 per 
cent CU2O and 96.6 per cent Cu by weight; a eutectic at 1080.2°, 402.3 mm. 
of mercury, 29.5 per cent CuO and 70.5 per cent CugO by weight; another 
quadruple point at 1195° and about 0.66 mm. of mercury where sohd CU2O 
is in equihbrium with gas and with two immiscible liquids whose composition 
lies between Cu and CU2O. 

At 900° the dissociation pressure, i. e., the oxygen pressure under which 
CuO and CU2O may coexist, is 12.6 mm. oif mercury; as the temperature rises, 
this pressure increases to 402.3 mm. at the eutectic temperature. At still 
higher temperatures the two oxides and oxygen can no longer exist in equi- 
librium, and one or the other disappears, giving place to a liquid whose com- 
position is intermediate between CuO and CU2O. Where CuO remains as the 
sohd phase, the equilibrium pressure increases with rising temperature, more 
and more rapidly, reaching 44,700 mm. of mercury at 1232.5°, the highest 
temperature investigated. Where CujO remains, the equihbrium pressure 
decreases with rising temperature until it reaches 0.6 mm. of mercury at 1235°, 
the melting-point of CU2O. 

We succeeded in determining only one of the P-T curves between Cu and 
CU2O : the dissociation pressure curve between the CU-CU2O eutectic and the 
quadruple point at 1195°. From the latter point the dissociation pressures 
follow a curve, which finally joins and becomes continuous at the melting- 
point of CU2O with the P-T curve for Cu20-Liquid-02 described in the pre- 
vious paragraph. 

Since the system is not compUcated, it was thought worth while to present a 
mathematical discussion of the various curves and to calculate, from the data, 
the heat of dissociation and the free energy changes of CuO at 1000°, as well 
as the heat of fusion of CujO. 

(413) Diffusion in sihcate melts. N. L. Bowen. J. Geo!., 29, 295-317 (1921). 

The rate of diffusion in certain silicate melts has been determined experi- 
mentally by permitting diffusion against gravity of a heavy liquid into a lighter 
liquid. The concentration curves found are not coincident with any theoreti- 
cal curve calculated on the basis of a constant value of the diffusivity, but 
can be interpreted on the assumption that the diffusivity varies with concen- 
tration and is less for concentrations corresponding to more viscous liquids 
than for those corresponding to less viscous liquids. Taking as representa- 
tive of the "average diffusivity" the amount of material which penetrates into 
the upper layer, the following values of the average diffusivity (k) were found : 
for diopside into Ab2Ani, A; = 0.015; for diopside into AbiAni, A; = 0.14 to 0.3, 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY. 171 

depending on the proportions; and for diopside into AbiAn2, k = 0.2, all in 
square centimeters per second. 

The value 0.25 (close to the maximum experimental value) is taken as 
probably representing a fair estimate of diffusivity in magmas, and with this 
as a basis it is shown that such phenomena as the formation of border phases 
about large bodies of igneous rock by diffusion can not be considered possible 
in the time available for such action in a coohng magma. On the other hand, 
the formation of reaction rims about inclusions may be attributed to diffusion, 
though for very wide rims a considerable period of time will be required. 

(414) Cords and surface-markings in glassware. F. E. Wright. J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 4, 

655-661 (1921). (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 35.) 

In all glass-melting and glass-forming operations there are a number of fac- 
tors to consider, and the greater the number of definite facts the glass-maker or 
glass-worker has at hand regarding his particular type of glass, the better is 
he able to control the operations and the more uniformly excellent is the 
quahty of the final product. Two of the disturbing phenomena which mar the 
appearance of glassware are surface markings and cords. In many instances 
surface markings are wrongty designated as cords, and the wrong remedy is 
apphed by the glass-maker, who then tries one thing after another, thereby 
wasting time and money. Fortunately, methods are available for distin- 
guishing between surface markings and cords, and also for determining the 
refringence of a cord relative to the glass surrounding it. The glass article is 
immersed in a tank of liquid of the same refractive index and viewed through 
the plate-glass sides of the tank, the line of sight being directed toward a 
distant source of Ught. Under these conditions surface markings disappear 
altogether, whereas cords and strise are more clearly seen than before. The 
relative refringence of a cord compared with that of the adjacent glass can 
also be determined at the same time. For ordinary crown glasses chloro- 
benzol is suggested as an immersion hquid. To lower its refractive index, 
add benzol; to raise it, add carbon bisulphide or halowax oil. 

(415) Preliminary note on monticellite ainoite from Isle Cadieux, Quebec. N. L. Bowen. 

J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11, 278-281 (1921). 

In this paper monticelUte ainoite from Isle Cadieux, Quebec, is described. 
The rock shows the two olivines, chrysoUte and monticellite, the latter usually 
in greater amount. The chrysoUte, together with augite, occurs in early- 
formed crystals; the monticelUte, as well as melilite and biotite, as groundmass 
minerals that have attacked and resorbed the chrysoUte and augite. Monti- 
celUte often forms reaction rims around chrj'solite that are in optical continuity 
with it. 

MonticelUte ainoite is a newly recognized but not a new rock type, for some 
of the ainoite of the original locaUty is found to hold monticelUte showing the 
same relationships. 

A fuUer discussion will appear later in the American Journal of Science. 

(418) Note on the determination of the relative expansions of glasses. F. E.Wright. 
J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 5, 453-460 (1921). (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 36.) 

In this paper attention is called to the appUcation of the methods of polar- 
ized Ught to the study of the relative expansion of two glasses. The polarized 
Ught employed for this purpose is produced either by reflection from a poUshed 
opaque piece of glass at the polarizing angle or by a polarizing prism. The 
plate under test is examined through a sensitive tint plate and an analyzer 
sighted toward the polarizer. From the observed change in interference colors 
the state of radial compression or of radial tension of the glass sample can be 



172 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

inferred, and with it the relative expansion coefficients of the two pieces of 
glass, or of a piece of glass and an included fragment of glass, of crystallized 
material, such as a stone, or of a metal wire. The disturbing effects of irregu- 
lar boundary surfaces can be largely eliminated by immersion of the glass, 
samples in a liquid of the same refractivity. 

(419) On tracing rays of light through a reflecting prism with the aid of a meridian projec- 

tion plot. F. E. Wright. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 5, 410-419 (1921). (Papers 
on Optical Glass, No. 37.) 

Prisms are used in optical instruments to change the courses of the paths of 
transmitted rays of light ; prisms are of different shapes and sizes and are used 
either singly or in combination. In many prisms it is difficult to visualize 
the paths followed by the rays on transmission without graphical aid of some 
kind. In the present paper the angle meridian projection plot is suggested aa 
suitable for the purpose. Its apphcation to the study of prisms is illustrated 
by a series of examples from the more common types of reflecting prisms. 

(420) The latent heats of fusion of nickel and monel metal. Walter P. White. Chem. and 

Met. Eng., 25, 17-21 (1921). 

By the common method of dropping from a furnace into a calorimeter, the 
latent heats of nickel and of monel metal have been determined and their 
specific heats for the intervals to 1360° and 1260°, respectively. The metals 
were protected against appreciable oxidation by sealing into siUca-glass 
containers. Some improvements were made in the technic of dropping the 
materials from the furnace into the calorimeter. The precision of the tem- 
perature measurement was studied and the results indicate a final accuracy of 
better than 1 per cent. This indication tends to be confirmed by the agree- 
ment of all the determinations but one, which was 1.3 per cent divergent. 
Several determinations were made by pouring directly into the calorimeter 
nickel just ready to sohdify, giving agreement to about 2 per cent with the 
furnace results. The latent heat of nickel, 73 calories per gram, is 17 calories 
greater than the recent determination of Wiist. The latent heat of monel, 
68 calories, is in excellent agreement with that of nickel. 

(421) Aphthitalite from Kilauea. H. S. Washington and H. E. Merwin. Am. Mineral- 

ogist, 6, 121-125 (1921). 

This paper describes aphthitalite collected in September 1920 from a hot 
crack in a recent lava flow of the eruption of 1919-20 of Kilauea. The mineral 
is uniaxial and rhombohedral, and is compared with occurrences at Etna, 
Searle's Lake, and elsewhere. Chemical analysis shows that the ratio K2SO4: 
Na2S04 is about 1 : 1.5, like that at Etna, while the ratio at Vesuvius and 
Searle's Lake is about 3:1. It is shown that there is an isodimorphous series 
from arcanite (K2SO4) to thenardite (Na2S04), both crystallographically and 
optically. The presence of CUSO4 in the mineral is discussed, and the iso- 
morphism of this is indicated. The mode of origin of the mineral is suggested 
as the oxidation of vaporized sulphides of the alkalies and copper. 

(422) Dispersion in optical glasses: III. F. E. Wright. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 5, 389-397 

(1921). (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 38.) 

In this paper a reference table of dispersions in optical glasses is given; also 
a table of differences between the values in the reference table and the corre- 
sponding values of the glasses listed by Parra Mantois. The data prove that 
the chief optical differences in glasses are not differences in the character of 
the dispersion, but lie in the fact that two glasses may have the same disper- 
sion relations and yet have appreciably different refractive indices. In the 
dispersion formula both refringence and dispersion should be specifically 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY. 173 

recognized, the first as a constant establishing a datum level for the refrin- 
gence and the second as a function of one or more terms expressing the course of 
dispersion throughout the visible spectrum. These conclusions follow directly 
from the analysis of the hnear relations which have been shown to exist be- 
tween the partial dispersions of a series of optical glasses. They prove that a 
rise in the partial dispersion at any part of the spectrum is accompanied by 
a corresponding rise in partial dispersion over the entire visible spectrum. 

(423) The wave-lensths of X-rays. Ralph W. G. Wyckoff. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11, 

366-373 (1921). 

It is shown in this paper that, taking the case of sodium chloride as typical, 
there are other structures beside the commonly accepted "sodium-chloride 
arrangement" which are in agreement with the present experimental data. 
As a result of this lack of definiteness, it is more logical to consider the value 
of the wave-lengths of X-rays as based upon the quantum hypothesis. 

(424) Silica-glass prism for refractometry of liquids at elevated temperatures. F. R. 

V. Bichowsky and H. E. Merwin. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 5, 441-443 (1921). 

Optically prepared plates of silica-glass were beveled together to form a 
prism having angles of 45°, 60°, and 75°. The plates were held together in a 
graphite holder and united by fusing the edges in an oxj^-gas flame. The 
prism was used in an electrically heated goniometer furnace, and the dis- 
persions of sulphuric acid, acetic acid, chloronaphthalene, and sulphur deter- 
mined at suitable temperatures between 25° and 350°. 

(425) Kilauea gases, 1919. E. S. Shepherd. Bull. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, 9, 

83-88 (1921). 

Twenty-five samples of gas collected at Kilauea between 1912 and 1919 have 
been analj'zed. The results to date permit the following generaUzations : 

The major emanation from this volcano is water (H2O), the average of water 
in all analyses being about 70 per cent of the total gas evolved. Second in 
order of magnitude comes carbon dioxide (CO2), with sulphur dioxide (SO2) 
following in third place. Sulphur trioxide (SO3) occurs in variable amounts, 
in one instance rising to 5 per cent, whereas in the two samples from Mauna 
Loa it reached the high value of 8 per cent. Sulphur, while usually small in 
quantity, sometimes rises as high as 8 per cent. 

In general, the 1917 collection, obtained by Shepherd from floating crusts 
at the lake edge, contains higher amounts of hydrogen (H2) and carbon mon- 
oxide (CO) than the gases of 1918-19 obtained from a variety of sources by 
Dr. Jaggar. The general inference is, however, that quite regardless of the 
source from which the gas is obtained, it reaches the surface almost completely 
burned, or else is actively burning in the surface layer of the lake. Probably 
both mechanisms obtain. 

The ratio of argon to nitrogen is about three times as great as in atmospheric 
nitrogen. Helium and neon have been positively identified, though the 
amounts were not notablj' larger than in residues from air. Chlorine occurs, 
but in relatively small amount. Whether fluorine is present could not be 
satisfactorily tested in such volumes of gas as we here dealt with, but there 
was evidence in the 1912 collection that it w^as present in about twice the 
amount of chlorine. Hydrocarbons are apparently absent, or else present in 
inappreciable quantity. 

The water present may well be partly due to oxidation of evolved hydrogen, 
but such oxidation must occur in the body of the lava lake, presumably near 
the surface. It does not seem probable that this combination could occur at 
the actual surface, since any such quantities of hydrogen as would be implied 



174 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

would certainly show marked explosion phenomena. Certainly the highly 
oxidized condition of these gases, taken as they are from all sorts of promising 
sources, argues strongly for some such hypothesis as that of Dr. Jaggar, of 
combustion at or near the lava surface. 

(426) The manufacture of optical glass and of optical systems. A war-time problem. F. E. 

Wright, Lt. Col. Ord. R. C. Ordnance Department Document No. 2037, 
pp. 309, 94 illustrations (1921). (Papers on Optical Glass, No. 40.) 

In this publication, prepared at the request of the War Department, a 
general account is given of the processes of manufacture of optical glass which 
were developed in this country during the war. The experience and knowl- 
edge necessary to produce optical glass were gained at very considerable 
expense and largely through the efforts of the Geophysical Laboratory in 
cooperation with certain manufacturers. The purpose of this report is to 
make available a small part of the information thus obtained. 

The book is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 outUnes the general 
situation prior to the war, and includes a brief statement of the war-time pro- 
duction of optical glass. In chapter 2 is given a detailed treatment of the 
characteristics of optical glass. In chapter 3 the manufacturing processes 
are considered in detail. Chapter 4 treats of the inspection of optical glass; 
chapter 5, of the manufacture of lenses and prisms; chapter 6, of the inspection 
of finished optical parts and of optical systems. Chapter 7 outUnes the optical 
situation during the war; in it a summarized statement is made of the difficul- 
ties encountered and of the measures taken to overcome those difficulties. 
The several factors underlying the general problem of the production of optical 
munitions during peace and war times are presented in detail, and inferences 
are drawn regarding suitable methods for meeting the situation adequately. 

(427) The crystal structure of alabandite (MnS). Ralph W. G. Wyckoff. Am. J. Sci., 

2, 239-249 (1921). 

By a combination of a reflection spectrum from a known crystal face with a 
powder reflection, and employing the general method based upon the theory 
of space groups, it is shown that the arrangement of the atoms in alabandite 
is either that of the "sodium-chloride grouping" or is a grouping approaching 
very close to this arrangement. 



PRELIMINARY REPORT OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE IN 

SEISMOLOGY. 

The proposal of the Carnegie Institution of Washington to enter the 
field of seismology has the approval of the Advisory Committee in 
Seismology for several important and, in the opinion of the committee, 
opportune reasons. 

(1) This countrj^ has not hitherto taken an active part in seismologic 
research when compared, for example, with England, Germany, or 
Japan. 

(2) In the State of California there is probably a more favorable 
opportunity for the study of crustal movements in great variety than 
in any other region, save possibly Japan. Furthermore, if the land- 
slips there are due in whole or in part to accumulating stresses caused 
by crustal drift or otherwise, then the present is a more opportune time 
for their study than the period immediately following a release of these 
stresses (earthquake). 

(3) As research is organized in the United States, a reasonably com- 
prehensive study of California earth movements would require the 
participation of several agencies which would probably not undertake 
the task independently, but which have indicated a desire to cooperate 
with the Carnegie Institution in such a study. It is of interest to note 
that, since the action of the Institution became known, resolutions of 
indorsement and support have been passed by the San Francisco sec- 
tion of the American Institute of Mining Engineers (May 17), by the 
Board of Directors of the Seismological Society of America (May 25), 
by the Executive Committee of the American Geophysical Union 
(September 17), and by the Commonwealth Club of San Francisco 
(November 17). 

(4) Studies of local movements as opposed to teleseismic observa- 
tions have not been systematically undertaken hitherto (except to some 
extent in Japan) . They appear to offer a fertile field of research and to 
promise information of considerable economic value, particularly to 
the West Coast region of the United States. 

There is already in existence a rather carefully prepared plan^ for 
the study of earth movements in California, which has had the approval 
and indorsement of the American Geophysical Union and of the Divi- 
sion of Geology and Geography of the National Research Council. It 
has been published and has received some favorable individual com- 
ment. 

Assuming that the Institution is favorably disposed toward taking 
the initiative in such an undertaking, your committee is of the opinion 
that there are five different projects which might profitably receive 
attention together. These will be stated briefly in succession : 

'H. O. Wood: "The earthquake problem in the western United States," Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 
VI, 4, Dec. 1916. 

175 



176 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

1. Study of Geological Formation along the California Fault-Lines. 

This problem has received consideration, both before and since the 
great San Francisco earthquake in 1906, but for various reasons our 
knowledge is still inadequate in the fault zones. It will be most effec- 
tively performed by the United States Geological Survey with the co- 
operation of the Departments of Geology at the California universities. 
The plan should include a detailed map of the line of the San Andreas 
rift with measured displacements, as well as special geologic examina- 
tions and maps of other significant localities. 

In carrying out this plan the attempt should be made to determine 
not only the surface formations in which effects of displacement are 
visible but, in so far as there are available exposures, to ascertain the 
character of the formations at considerable depths. The recent field 
observations undertaken by the Geological Department of Stanford 
University will contribute to this latter purpose, and it is understood 
that these studies will be continued as opportunity may offer. 

2. Surface Displacements. 

Following the great San Francisco earthquake in 1906, the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey reoccupied its earlier stations in the 
vicinity of the San Andreas fault and determined, by reference to the 
Mocho-Diablo base-line, a number of displacements on both sides of 
the rift. No determination was made of the stability of the base-line 
itself, although it lies within the zone of movement. 

More recently, both the Ukiah and Lick Observatories have reported 
indications of a northward drift of those stations. The order of magni- 
tude of this drift as reported by Ukiah amounts to 0.3 meter per year. 
The latitude of Mount Hamilton as determined from meridian-circle 
observations for the accurate positions of stars showed a northerly 
drift in the period 1893-1915, but with a strong set-back at about the 
time of the severe earthquake of August 3, 1903. The Mocho-Diablo 
line lies substantially between these two stations. 

It should also be noted in this connection that the observations of the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey made in 1907 establish positions as of the 
period immediately following the earthquake, i. e., after the accumu- 
lated strains which may have caused the slip had been released. 
Similarly, the earlier triangulation measurements were affected in a 
manner not now determinable, by the earthquake of 1868. It is very 
likely, therefore, that the comparative measurements of record, thus 
far, yield incomplete information concerning either the direction or mag- 
nitude of crustal strains to which these slips were due, although the 
magnitude of the slips themselves has been measured in several localities. 

In the opinion of the Committee, therefore, it is a matter of con- 
siderable importance to invite the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey to continue these measurements and, if practicable, to extend 
them before another considerable slip occurs. It is also of the first 



REPORT OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE IN SEISMOLOGY. 177 

importance to carry the system of primary triangulation and precise 
levels across the mountains to a region of unquestioned stability. 
This organization alone possesses the requisite equipment and trained 
personnel for this work. 

3. Southern California. 

We have in southern California a region of intricate faulting, in 
which many of the faults are still active. Nevertheless, there is no prim- 
ary triangulation in this region through which the magnitude and 
displacement of the land-slips which occur there can be determined. 

The plan prepared by Mr. H. 0. Wood and printed in the Journal of 
Seismology, to which reference has been made above, is concerned 
primarily with studies in this region and the opportunity here open for 
the systematic study of seismic disturbances has been adequately 
emphasized. The reasons for selecting this region for detailed study 
need not be repeated here. Mr. Wood's plan is elaborate beyond any 
resources now available for its prosecution, but your Committee rec- 
ommends that, as soon as suitable instruments are available, a be- 
ginning be made of continuous seismologic observations at selected 
points in this region for the study of local earth movements, both tre- 
mors and displacements. 

4. Development of Instruments. 

It happens that no instrument appropriate for recording local earth- 
quakes of short period and locating of their sources has yet been 
developed, although instruments for recording of shocks of distant 
origin have been in continuous operation at many stations for a 
number of years. It also happens that one of the necessities of war 
promoted the development of a receiving instrument for vibrations of 
extremely short period through water (the supersonic experiments). 
Somewhere between these two systems there is required an instrument 
of considerable elasticity through which to record local vibrations of 
intermediate period, such as are found in the California region and in 
the countries where volcanism is active. 

Your committee is of the opinion that for the study of local earth 
movements it is indispensable that appropriate agencies be invited to 
take up this instrument problem as soon as practicable. It also ap- 
pears desirable that more than one type of instrument be considered in 
view of the considerable variety in the character of the shocks to be 
studied and the great variation in amplitude to be expected. 

5. Isostast. 

Your committee is of the opinion that the gravity observations of 
the Coast Survey should be continued in connection with the observa- 
tions of crustal displacement, particularly in view of the immense 
differences in land elevation in California and also of density between 
the mountains and the foot of the deep-sea fault off the West Coast. 
The changes in elevation are so abrupt and the densities hitherto meas- 



178 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

ured (both by laboratory determination and by the field pendulum) 
so variable as to furnish a remarkable opportunity for application of the 
theory of isostatic adjustment. 

These five studies together constitute a comprehensive approach to 
a discussion of crustal movement of a magnitude and scope beyond 
anything hitherto attempted, and for which California offers an un- 
paralleled opportunity. To carry out a plan of this magnitude no 
single agency is adequate. 

It is, therefore, recommended that the Carnegie Institution invite: 

(1) The cooperation of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to 
undertake : 

(a) A system of primary triangulation and precise levels, (1) in the San 
Francisco region connecting with a permanent base east of the moun- 
tains (Reno), (2) southward along the fault zone to include the region 
of complex faulting in the vicinity of Los Angeles, (3) thence eastward to 
connect with an appropriate zone of no movement east of the mountains. 

(6) The establishment at suitable localities of new lines of monuments at 
right angles to the San Andreas fault, the San Jacinto fault, and per- 
haps others, for the purpose of measuring displacements there. 

(c) To continue its pendulum and plumb-line observations in close co- 
operation with the work above outlined. 
*{d) To make a series of deep-sea soundings north and south from Mon- 
terey Bay to determine the direction and height of the fault scarp 
forming the termination of the continental shelf in that region. 

(2) The cooperation of the United States Geological Survey to 
determine geological relations in the California fault areas. 

(3) The cooperation of the California Institute of Technology, the 
Mount Wilson Observatory, and other agencies, if necessary, in the devel- 
opment of seismometric recording apparatus for study of local tremors. 

(4) The cooperation of the Lick Observatory and the Ukiah Ob- 
servatory for the continuation of their observations of crustal drift. 
At the Lick Observatory it is particularly recommended that a suitable 
special instrument be provided for this purpose. 

It is recommended further that the present Research Associate of 
the Institution, Mr. H. O. Wood, be continued in the field in southern 
California to gather such information from local sources as will facilitate 
the location of the instruments referred to in paragraph 3 above and 
the appropriate triangulation stations for the discovery of displace- 
ments in the fault zone in that region. 

ANDERSON, J. A.. 

ARNOLD. RALPH, 

CAMPBELL, W. W., 

DAY, ARTHUR L. (Chairman), 

LAWSON, A. C, 

MILLIKAN, R. A., 

REID, HARRY FIELDING, 

WILLIS, BAILEY, 

Advisory Committee in Seismology. 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

October 1921. 
*Willis dissenting. 



DEPARTMENT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH.^ 

J. Franklin Jameson, Director. 

The following report, the sixteenth annual report submitted by 
the present Director, covers the period of eleven months extending 
from October 1, 1920, to August 31, 1921. 

In the staff of the Department there was, at the beginning of the 
year reported upon, a vacancy due to the resignation, in the preced- 
ing August, of Miss Esther Galbraith. In January that vacancy was 
filled by the accession of Miss Shirley Farr, formerly an instructor 
in the University of Chicago. Miss Louisa F. Washington, who 
since the autumn of 1918 had been the stenographer of the Depart- 
ment, resigned that position at the beginning of April, after nearly 
three years of most faithful and efficient service. During April, 
May, and the first half of June, Mr, Jesse A. Langley occupied that 
position. In view of the absence of the Director in Europe, it was 
not thought necessary to fill it during the summer. From November 
on, it will be filled by Mrs. Louise F. Pierce. 

On June 24 the Director sailed for England, upon an absence which 
continued till the end of the year reported upon and of which the 
chief object was the collecting of materials and the making of arrange- 
ments for the proposed volumes of the Correspondence of the British 
Ministers in Washington, an undertaking described at a later point 
in this report. There were also subsidiary objects, which led to a 
brief visit, at the end of July and in the early days of August, to 
several towns and persons in Belgium and the Netherlands, and will 
cause journeys to Paris and to the three chief archives of Spain, 
those of Simancas, Madrid, and Seville, before the return to America. 
From July 11 to July 16, the Director was occupied with attendance 
upon the sessions of an Anglo-American Conference of Professors of 
History, called by the University of London upon the occasion of the 
opening of its new Institute of Historical Research, and intended for 
the consideration of problems of historical research and publication 
rather than of class-room instruction. He also attended, as a corre- 
sponding member, sessions of the British Academy and of the Classe 
des Lettres in the Academic Royale de Belgique. 

Several persons outside the regular staff of the Department have 
during the year given important and valued assistance to its work. 
In November and December Professor Marcus W. Jernegan, of the 
University of Chicago, known as an authoritative student of the 
earlier history of education and religion in America, devoted some 
weeks to the intricate and difficult work of preparing, in concert with 
Dr. PauUin, those maps in the Atlas of the Historical Geography of the 
United States which will illustrate educational and religious history by 
exhibiting the situation of colleges and churches at different periods. 

^Address No. 1140 V\'oodward Building, Washington, D. C. 

179 



180 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Professor John S. Bassett, of Smith College, in continuation of his 
work, described in the last report of the Department, upon the Cor- 
respondence of Andrew Jackson, was able to devote some time to 
that collection during the academic year, and the short vacations, 
and the whole of August (and, to anticipate, most of September). 
At the end of July he made a thorough search of the Nashville region 
for additional materials, and then came to Washington for several 
weeks of work in the arranging and annotation of the letters already 
copied in the Jackson Collection possessed by the Library of Congress. 
Miss Jane Boyd continued the work of transcription from Novem- 
ber to July, and Professor W. J. Seelye assisted in collation. 

Others outside the regular staff who assisted the work of the De- 
partment during the year were Miss Elizabeth Donnan, formerly a 
member of the Department, but now assistant professor in Wellesley 
College; Mrs. N. M. Miller Surrey, of New York City; Professor 
Herbert C. Bell, of Bowdoin College; Mr. Abel Doysie, of Paris; Mrs. 
R. C. H. Catterall; and Mr. David M. Matteson, of Cambridge. 
The work done by each is described in its appropriate place below. 

As in previous years, acknowledgment is cordially made of the 
favors constantly shown to the Department, with the greatest liber- 
ality, by the officials of the Library of Congress, and especially by 
Dr. Herbert Putnam, the librarian; by Mr. A. P. C. Griffin, chief 
assistant librarian; by Mr. Charles Moore, chief of the Manuscripts 
Division; and by Mr. P. Lee Phillips, chief of the Map Division. 
Grateful recognition is also made of the courtesy shown by the New 
York Public Library in facilitating the work of Mrs. Surrey. The 
Director wishes also to express his thanks to the authorities of the 
British Museum and the Public Record Office, especially Dr. Hubert 
Hall, and to librarians and archivists in Ghent, the Hague, and 
Middelburg. At the same time, no American student of history is 
likely to return without a heightened appreciation of the advantages 
he enjoys in the Library of Congress and other American libraries by 
reason of the longer hours, the greater freedom, and the excellent 
mechanical facilities. 

REPORTS. AIDS. AND GUIDES. 

The ''Guide to Materials for American History in Paris Archives," 
upon which Mr. Leland has long been engaged, has been considerably 
advanced during the year and has been brought to the point where he 
can profitably go again to Paris, in the next spring, to bring it to 
completion. All gaps left in his notes when his work there was 
interrupted by the advent of war in 1914 have been noted and arrange- 
ments made for their systematic filling. In course of this preparation, 
Mr. Leland has partly gone through the Stevens Catalogue in the 
Library of Congress, Stevens's Facsimiles, and the groups of papers 
there known as the Peace Transcripts and the French Alliance Tran- 
scripts. He hopes to complete whatever examination of them neces- 



DEPARTMENT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH. 181 

sary for his purpose before sailing, so as to have his notes on the Foreign 
Office material for the period from 1765 to 1783 in their final form. 

Meanwhile Mr. Doysie, from September 1, 1920, to July 15, 1921, 
has examined about 450 volumes, cartons, or portfolios in the French 
archives. In the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the 
series "Spain" has been completed and the series ''England" nearly 
completed. These two series are, apart from the various series 
devoted specifically to America, the most important for our purposes 
in the Foreign Office because of the American material which is to be 
found in nearly every volume. Their examxination has, therefore, 
been made with great care and in considerable detail. In the Depot 
des Cartes et Plans de la Marine (Hydrographic Service) the series of 
volumes and cartons in the "Grandes Archives" has been completed 
and the examination of the series of portfolios containing maps has 
been carried well toward conclusion. A large number of American 
documents and maps, many of them of capital importance, have 
been found in this depository, which had never before been examined 
from the point of view of American history. A notable illustration 
is furnished by the journal of a French emissary sent to traverse the 
British colonies in 1765 to observe their state of mind, their spirit of 
opposition to British measures of control, and their defenses. The 
journal is of especial interest because it contains the only contempo- 
rary account by an eye-witness of Patrick Henry's famous speech on 
the Stamp Act, in the House of Burgesses, May 30, 1765. The 
journal has been printed in the American Historical Review for July 
and October, 1921. 

In the archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, now deposited in 
the Archives Nationales, some twenty or thirty volumes of the "Cor- 
respondance Generale, St. Domingue" (series C 9), have been re- 
examined. In the archives of the Ministry of Marine, in the same 
place of deposit, a substantial beginning has been made in the exami- 
nation of the most important series of the ''Modern Archives" (those 
for the period since 1789), series BB 4, "Campagnes," a series which 
consists mainly of reports, despatches, etc., from officers on board 
ships of war. It has been examined through volume 273 (1808). 
Many documents have been described, relating to combats between 
French and British vessels in American waters, to combats between 
French and American vessels in 1800, to naval operations generally 
in American waters, to convoys and supplies from the United States, 
to the slave-trade, to the French expedition to retake possession of 
Louisiana, and like topics. 

Mr. Leland's plan is, after arriving in Paris, to devote all his time 
to completing the manuscript of the first of the three volumes of 
which the Guide will be composed, the volume relating to manuscripts 
in the libraries of Paris; then to complete the second volume, relating 
chiefly to the Archives Nationales; and finally the third, relating to 



182 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

the archives of those ministries which have not yet deposited their 
papers in the Archives Nationales. 

The work upon which Mrs. Surrey has been engaged, the making 
of a catalogue of Documents in Paris Archives relating to the History 
of the Mississippi Valley, is in practice an adjunct to the work of Mr. 
Leland and Mr. Doysi^ reported upon in the preceding paragraphs, 
though it has a separate history and origin. That history has been 
recounted in previous reports, but needs to be borne in mind, since 
only in the light of that history can one explain the reasons for select- 
ing, for fuller treatment by way of catalogue, one portion of the larger 
field covered by the researches in Paris of Mr. Leland and Mr. Doysi^. 
During the year Mrs. Surrey has written 4,047 cards from the notes 
taken by those gentlemen, making a total, thus far, of 24,308 cards. 
She has now dealt with all the material in the archives of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs and with most of that in the Ministries of the 
Marine and of the Colonies. This leaves, as yet to be done, the lesser 
groups of documents in the Bibliotheque Nationale and the minor 
libraries, in the Ministry of War, and in the Archives Nationales. 
Mrs. Surrey spent about a month in Washington in the spring, going 
over with Mr. Leland the notes which she has not yet dealt with, 
and will be able to proceed with these in his absence, and with those 
which he or Mr. Doysi6 may in addition make during the coming 
year. Meantime it is not impossible for historical scholars to make 
some use of the catalogue, though still in process of compilation, and 
this has been done, in two important instances, during the past year. 

Mr. Van Laer's state of health, and the engrossing duties of his 
position as archivist of the State of New York, have not permitted 
him to finish the manuscript of his report on the materials for Ameri- 
can history in the archives of the Netherlands, for which the needful 
notes were taken during the expedition which he made to those 
archives, on behalf of the Institution, in the spring of 1919. Some 
progress has, however, been made, and more is likely to be made in 
the month immediately succeeding the date of this report. 

Professor Bell, spending the summer in London, has resumed the 
work in the Public Record Office upon which he spent the summer of 
1919, the work, namely, of preparing a fuller description than has 
heretofore been given of the West Indian section of the Colonial 
Office Papers, to be combined later with a full inventory of the ar- 
chives of the West Indian Islands themselves, these two classes of 
papers being mutually complementary and both alike necessary to 
a proper understanding of the history of that British colonial empire 
of which the Thirteen Colonies formed only a part. 

Mr. Bell, during that portion of the summer which he spent in the 
work of the Department, completed all branches of his survey of the 
West Indian papers to the year 1775. From that point on, the inven- 
tory, which it is proposed to carry to 1815, should properly take on a 
different character, calling for a somewhat different procedure. The 



DEPARTMENT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH. 183 

reasons for making a guide to the West Indian papers of the period 
before 1775 are two: First, a proper understanding of the British 
colonial empire of that period requires that it, or at any rate its 
American portion, be studied as a whole, both as regards the imperial 
administration, acting on all colonies alike, and as regards the con- 
stitutional history of the colonies themselves, in whose forms and 
methods of government types prevailed which can not be rightly 
understood without taking into consideration all representatives or 
instances of those types. In the second place, the colonies of the 
mainland had constant relations with the island colonies, especially 
in the way of commerce; indeed, in the commercial history of the 
continental colonies there is hardly any chapter more important 
than that of their West Indian trade. Now, from the beginning of 
American independence the first of these reasons, on the whole, falls 
away. The United States enter upon a constitutional evolution, in 
federal and state forms, in which the West Indian colonies of Great 
Britain have no share and on which they exert no appreciable in- 
fluence. The interest of the West Indian papers of the period from 
1775 to 1815 lies in the contacts — military, naval, and commercial — 
between the United States, or American citizens, and the colonies of 
a foreign power, with which the United States was involved in two 
wars during the period named, one occupying the first eight of these 
years, the other the last two, while the years between, 1783-1812, 
were full of commercial conflict and friction, owing to the policy 
maintained by Great Britain in the matter of commerce with her 
colonies. For the years 1775 to 1815, accordingly, the compiler of 
this inventory is expected to take note of those papers only which 
have a relation to the United States or its citizens — documents re- 
lating to military measures, naval operations or vessels, privateers 
and prizes, seizures, impressments, customs, matters of commerce 
and navigation, and the like. 

Mr. Bell, unable to devote the whole summer to work for the 
Department, and obliged in any case to return in September for the 
academic year at Bowdoin College, has spent the latter part of his 
London time in instructing a successor in the treatment of the docu- 
ments of this later period and in supervising the beginnings of her 
work. Miss Lillian Penson, of the University of London, already an 
accomplished student of West Indian history, has been engaged to 
perform this service for the Department. When this search is com- 
pleted, the proposed volume — since reports on the archives of Jamaica, 
Bermuda, and the Bahamas are already in hand — will lack only the 
examination of such archives as are preserved in the Lesser British 
Antilles. 

Mr. Bell has also been able to make for the Department, in Dublin, 
a summary report upon the materials for American history which are 
to be found in the Public Record Office of Ireland. The amount of 
such material to be found there is, as the Director of the Department 



184 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

was convinced by a hasty reconnaissance in 1913, not great. It is 
mostly commercial; on the important subject of Irish emigration to 
the American colonies and the United States little light is cast. It 
is expected that Mr. Bell's brief report will be amplified on at least 
one side, that of prize and other admiralty records, by searches made 
at more leisure by a worker resident in Dublin. In the archives of 
Edinburgh, Miss Sibyl Norman has found a certain number of docu- 
ments of interest to students of American history. She has not yet 
been able to carry out the search systematically or thoroughly, but 
it is not believed that many such documents are to be found. 

In the work upon the "Atlas of the Historical Geography of the 
United States," Dr. Paullin has made progress along five lines. First 
he has completed the series "Lands," which as finished consists of 61 
maps and 30 pages of text; the principal matters illustrated are: 
divisions of the land, disposition of the land by the government, and 
varieties of land-holding. Secondly, in the series illustrating trans- 
portation, for which the later maps had already been made by Dr. 
Paullin and Professor Whitbeck, the former has now completed four 
maps showing the main stage-coach roads and the public post-roads 
of 1774, the main post-roads of 1804 and 1834, and the railroads of 
1870. Thirdly, he has completed five maps illustrating colleges, at 
various periods from 1775 to 1890, and nineteen maps illustrating 
churches in 1860 and 1890, and has assisted Professor Jernegan in 
preparations for the series illustrating the churches in 1775. Fourthly, 
he has begun work on three maps designed to show the routes of 
French, Spanish, and American explorers in the Mississippi and trans- 
Mississippi regions. Finally, he has begun the work of bringing 
certain series up to date by the addition of maps for which materials 
have, by the lapse of time, become now available. These include 
maps showing the geographical distribution of votes in Congress on 
the war resolution of 1917 and of popular votes in the presidential 
election of 1920, and various maps resting on the data collected in the 
census of 1920, and completing series resting on earlier censuses. 
For all maps that have been completed, the letterpress has also been 
prepared. In the execution of the maps Dr. Paullin has had, as usual, 
the aid of Mr. J. B. Bronson as draftsman. 

Mr. Matteson's work on the items respecting manuscripts relating 
to American history which are to be found in the printed catalogues 
of manuscripts put forth by European libraries, or otherwise pub- 
lished, was continued during the last three months of 1920, but not 
during 1921. His searches, in the portion of time which he gave to 
our work, covered the catalogue material to be found in the New York 
Public Library and the libraries of Columbia University and Yale 
University, from which some additions were made to the titles he 
had accumulated by the work pursued hitherto in the libraries of 
Cambridge and Boston. 



DEPARTMENT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH. 185 

TEXTUAL PUBLICATIONS OF DOCUMENTS. 

Miss Davenport has made ready for publication six more treaties, 
1670-1675, for the second volume of her ''European Treaties bearing 
on the history of the United States." She has also worked on the 
next group, the treaties of 1678-1680, but these are so connected one 
with another, and in general the diplomatic history of the negotiations 
against and with Louis XIV is so intricate, that it is difficult to regard 
work upon any one of the group as finished until all are finished. 

Dr. Burnett has continued work upon the annotation of the later 
volumes of his ''Letters of Members of the Continental Congress," 
while seeing volume I through the press. The latter process was 
delayed by the Director's decision that there ought to be prefixed to 
each volume an exhibit, as complete as could be made, of the elections 
to membership in the Congress by the respective States and of the 
dates of attendance of the individual members. The state of the 
existing materials for such a conspectus made the composition of it a 
slow process, but it will unquestionably be helpful to readers. The 
making of a full preface to volume I, intended as a preface to the 
whole series, and the making of the index, which was prepared by 
Mr. Matteson, also took time, but the volume was published in 
August. It is a book of 638 pages, embracing 762 letters, or relevant 
parts of letters, written by members of the Continental Congress 
from the seat of its sessions, from its commencement in September 
1774 to July 4, 1776, inclusive. A few later letters and documents 
casting light on mooted questions respecting the signing of the Decla- 
ration of Independence are added as an appendix. 

The plan of this work was described in a previous report, several 
years ago. It may here suffice to mention that, since the Continental 
Congress sat with closed doors, no formal or official record of its de- 
bates exists, nor any formal record of its proceedings except the official 
journal kept by its secretary, Charles Thomson, which was not written 
with the fulness demanded in our time of a legislative journal. There- 
fore, for the debates and for many transactions our only sources of 
information, aside from the few diaries which members kept, chiefly 
in the earliest days of the Congress, are the letters which they wrote 
during the time of their attendance upon Congress to the governors 
or other chief authorities of their States, or to relatives and friends 
at home, and in which, in spite of their collective votes of secrecy, 
they individually conveyed a great amount of information as to what 
was going on. The extent of that information was not suspected 
when the work began. Its collection was a labor of some years, 
in the course of which all the capitals and chief historical societies of 
the thirteen original States were visited and copies were secured of all 
letters falling within the scheme of the proposed publication. Also, 
many private possessors of letters generously permitted their use, or 
the use of the parts desired — for it should be remarked that, volu- 



186 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

minous as the work is, it includes only those parts of letters (or diaries 
or notes) which give actual information about the doings of Congress 
additional to that which is contained in the published Journals. 
The Library of Congress is reprinting those journals, or rather print- 
ing them completely for the first time; Dr. Burnett's work is in the 
strictest sense complementary to that of the Library. At the same 
time, it should also be remarked that he has not omitted letters because 
they have been printed before, for the value and usefulness of his 
compilation depend largely upon the cumulative effect obtained by 
L ' mging together all the material, written by delegates of whatever 
State or from whatever point of view, that illustrates the transactions 
of a body having so little homogeneity as the Continental Congress. 
Indeed, the first volume is mainly made up of letters which have been 
printed before, but in widely scattered and sometimes uncommon 
books, and now printed with more exactitude of text and brought 
together into mutual illustration and support. It is chiefly for this 
earlier period (from September 1774 to July 4, 1776) that letters of 
members have been already printed, for the attention of historical 
inquirers has been much concentrated on those months; later volumes 
will consist mainly of material hitherto unknown. 

The manuscript of volume II of this work was ready to be presented 
to the Institution at the date with which this report is concluded. 
The third and fourth volumes are nearly ready, and the fifth and sixth, 
completing the series, can be made ready without great delay, for, 
from the method of procedure necessarily followed in the gathering of 
the material, the texts for all six were in hand before the process of 
annotation was begun. As new occasions, such as auction sales or 
fresh accessions by historical societies, bring to light additional letters 
whose dates fall within the limits of the earlier volumes, they are 
copied and the copies preserved against the issue of the sixth volume, 
in which they will be included in an appendix. 

In the series which is being prepared by Dr. Stock, "Proceedings 
and Debates of Parliament respecting North America," the work at 
present going on is that of annotating the texts, gathered together long 
since. During the year Dr. Stock has carried this work of annotation 
from 1645 to 1667. The first volume, therefore, which will end either 
with the year 1689 or with 1700, is nearing completion. Meanwhile, 
the Director's sojourn in London is giving some opportunities for 
the obtaining of additional material, in the way of records of debates 
in the eighteenth century. It should be remarked that the scope 
of the publication embraces the Scottish and Irish parliaments, as 
well as those of Great Britain. 

Miss Donnan, returning temporarily to the work of the Department, 
has devoted the summer to investigations intended to complete the 
work on which she was engaged when she resigned from the staff, the 
making of a collection of documents and narratives illustrating the 



DEPARTMENT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH. 187 

history of the African slave-trade and the importation of slaves into 
English America, primarily the importation into the mainland colo- 
nies. The main lack, when the work was interrupted, was the in- 
spection of the manuscript materials in England. She has spent 
the past summer in London in that research, chiefly at the Public 
Record Office, but partly in the British Museum. At the end of her 
stay in England a visit was made to Bristol, where in the eighteenth 
century many merchants were engaged in the trade and where a con- 
siderable amount of material respecting it still exists. In the Public 
Record Office the main collection to be examined was the papers of the 
Royal African Company. It is a collection of enormous extent (some 
2,000 volumes), and its examination would have been almost hopeless 
but for the fact that the Department some years ago had secured a 
systematic report upon its subdivisions and contents from the compe- 
tent hands of Mr. A. Percival Newton, now professor of imperial and 
colonial history in the University of London, and who, together with 
some of his special students, was most helpful on the present occasion. 
Out of these various sources, but especially from this last-named col- 
lection, which extends from 1662 to 1822, Miss Donnan secured a rich 
store of documents for her volumes. 

Mrs. Catterall, resuming work upon restoration of health, has carried 
her examination of judicial reports of slave cases, condensation of judi- 
cial opinions, and excerpting of narratives, through the reports of 
South Carolina and Kentucky, and some way into the series of Vir- 
ginia Reports. 

The Correspondence of Andrew Jackson, under the editorial care of 
Professor Bassett, has been all copied and collated down to the fol- 
lowing dates : the letters of Jackson from 1788 to 1845 (the whole mass) , 
and the letters to Jackson, of which a smaller number are to be printed, 
from 1788 to March 4, 1829, representing about two-thirds of the whole. 

The Director's main object in going to England for the summer was 
to prepare the way for still another documentary publication which he 
hopes in time to achieve, a series of volumes of the Correspondence of 
the British Ministers in Washington. It is thought certain that, in 
the next series of years, American historical scholars will devote in- 
creased attention to the diplomatic history of the United States, in 
which our relations with Great Britain must always have the foremost 
place. It is conceived, moreover, that such a publication as is pro- 
posed may well be productive of much good outside the limited ranks of 
the historical profession. Without exaggerating in the least the extent 
to which volumes of documents are read by the general public, or filter 
to it through the minds of historians, it is quite possible to believe that a 
full publication of the instructions which British Secretaries for 
Foreign Affairs sent to the representatives of their government in 
Washington, and of the answering despatches in which the ministers 
conveyed the information on which in large part those instructions 



188 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

were based, may do a salutary work in substituting in the public mind, 
or at the least some part of it, a real knowledge of the actual nature 
and course of British policy toward the United States, for surmise and 
suspicion as to the ''deep and dark designs" of Downing Street. 
Whether British policy toward the United States in earlier times were 
good or evil, or a mixture of both, knowledge and actual fact are better 
than imagination and legend, and the substitution, so far as it can be 
effected, may do something to clarify future relations. Moreover, 
such a publication as is proposed is not likely to be undertaken by any 
one else. The correspondence which passed between the American 
Secretary of State and the American minister in London, and also that 
which passed between the latter and the British Foreign Secretary and 
that which passed between the American Secretary of State and the 
British minister in Washington, are matters which the United States 
government may appropriately publish, and of which, indeed, it has 
in past times published a large part; but it would not be within its 
proper functions to print the correspondence of the British minister 
with his chief in London or with the governor-general of Canada or 
other British subjects, and the British government is known to have 
no intention of doing so. Mr. Balfour, however, when Foreign Secre- 
tary, expressed entire willingness that the volumes of correspondence 
preserved among the Foreign Office Papers at the Public Record Office 
should be used for the purpose indicated, and it is not apprehended 
that any subsequent secretary would be likely to take a different view. 

The American series in the Foreign Office Papers will undoubtedly 
supply the main substance of the proposed publication, and will pre- 
sent no other difficulties than such as arise from their great extent, 
which must be provided against by suitable compression. But in 
many cases, and sometimes systematically, ministers wrote private 
letters to their chief, in which they often expressed themselves more 
freely and more interestingly than in the official series of despatches. 
These letters did not usually go into the official files of the Foreign Of- 
fice, but remained in the possession of the Secretary, who took them 
with him when he went out of office — though several groups of them 
have in modern times come back into the possession of the public and 
are now in the Public Record Office. Since such correspondence, when 
it can be found, or that which ministers maintained with friends or 
relatives in Great Britain, is often more illuminating than the official 
despatches, it seemed a duty to hunt for it, and secure copies of what 
might be available. 

The results of the expedition in this particular respect, up to the date 
at which this report ends, have been meager. Everyone has been 
most obliging, but it does not appear that, with one important ex- 
ception, much correspondence of the earlier ministers in Washington 
is extant in private hands. That exception consists of the abundant 
papers of Sir Charles Bagot, who admirably represented Great Britain 



DEPARTMENT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH. 189 

in Washington from 1816 to 1819, and, as the first minister after the 
war of 1812, did much to smooth over ruffled surfaces and prepare 
the \vay for permanent peace. Copies of many of his papers of that 
period, and some originals, are in Ottawa, in the Public Archives of 
Canada, and the Director had the opportunity to examine them there 
in November, through the kindness of Dr. Arthur G. Doughty, 
C. M. G., public archivist, and of Mr. David M. Parker, keeper of the 
manuscript room, formerly a member of the staff of this Department. 
But the main store of the originals, outside the Public Record Office, 
is in the possession of Sir Charles Bagot's heir, Richard Bagot esq., 
of Levens Hall, by whose kindness the Director was offered the fullest 
opportunity to make use of these interesting manuscripts. 

Besides collections in the hands of descendants of diplomatic minis- 
ters, other sources would be those which have come down from 
foreign secretaries of the time — the period before 1830 — to which the 
present search was limited. During the greater number of the years 
from 1791, when the first minister to the United States was appointed, 
to 1830, three men occupied that position — Lord Grenville, George 
Canning, and Lord Castlereagh. Grenville's very numerous papers, 
now in the possession of Mr. J. B. Fortescue of Dropmore, have mostly 
been printed by the Historical Manuscripts Commission, and though 
Mr. Fortescue very obligingly sent to the Public Record Office, for 
the Director's use, the portfolios thought to be relevant, they con- 
tained no letters of British ministers in Washington or Philadelphia 
additional to those printed by the commission named. Lord Lascelles 
kindly gave permission to examine at Chesterfield House such papers 
of Canning as are in the possession of the family. That collection, 
which the Director was apparently the first historical scholar to 
examine, is but the surviving portion, though an important and valu- 
able one, of the whole mass of Canning's papers; it contains only a 
few letters germane to the present purpose, but those (letters from 
Canning's intimate friend Charles Bagot and from his cousin Strat- 
ford Canning) are interesting. 

Lord Londonderry has expressed similar willingness to aid, in the 
matter of Castlereagh' s papers, but his duties as a member of the 
Cabinet of Ulster, exacting duties at the present time, have up to 
the date of this report prevented action on his part. Correspondence, 
of the sort desired, coming down from those who held the office of 
Foreign Secretary during briefer portions of the period contemplated, 
seems not to be extant, except that some of Wellesley's is in the 
manuscript department of the British Museum. 

On the other hand, two important collections of the private papers 
of men who were British ministers in Washington have been presented 
by their heirs to the Public Record Office and are rich in material for 
our purpose. They are those of Francis James Jackson, minister 
from 1807 to 1809, and of Stratford Canning, minister from 1820 to 



190 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

1823, afterward Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, the famous ambassador 
in Constantinople. Only a few letters from these collections have 
been printed. Finally, the numerous papers of Sir Charles R. 
Vaughan, minister 1825-1835, are in the library of All Souls Col- 
lege, Oxford, where by the kindness of the Warden and the librarian, 
Professor (Sir) Charles Oman, M. P., a beginning of their examination 
has been made. It will be seen that the main source of material will 
be the Public Record Office. 

MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONS. 

As heretofore, the editing of the American Historical Review has been 
carried on in the office of the Department and by its staff. The 
American Historical Association and various other historical organi- 
zations have received such aid as could appropriately be rendered in 
respect to investigations in Washington and other services, and many 
queries from individuals have been answered, or transcripts of docu- 
ments procured for them. Mr. Leland and the Director have done 
what they could to promote the measure for the erection in Washing- 
ton of a suitable National Archive Building, for which an appropria- 
tion was so nearly secured in the last session of Congress. All the 
staff exerted themselves, in various ways, to make successful the 
annual meeting of the American Historical Association in December, 
which this year was held in Washington. 

The Director has served as one of the two representatives of that 
association in the American Council of Learned Societies, and as a 
member of the committee of ways and means in that council. Mr. 
Leland has served the Council in the preparation and issue of its 
periodical Bulletin, and the Association in a wide variety of ways, 
and has continued to direct the work of transcribing documents in 
Parisian archives for the Library of Congress. He has written a brief 
history of the work of the National Board for Historical Service, for 
insertion in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 
and is preparing, for Professor Shotwell's series of volumes on the 
economic and social history of the Great War — a series conducted 
under the auspices of the Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace — a monograph on the war archives of the United States. Dr. 
Stock has given courses of historical instruction in the Catholic 
University of America. 

As to the Bandelier collection of documents obtained in Spain and 
relating to the Pueblo Indians and the history of the Rio Grande 
region. Professor Charles W. Hackett, of the University of Texas, to 
whom the editing of that material has been confided, reports that he 
has spent the whole summer in the work and has nearly completed 
the manuscript of the first volume. This volume — Spanish texts and 
accompanying English translations, introductions, and annotations — 
will apparently be received from him this winter. It will make a 
notable contribution to our knowledge of the field involved. 



DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY. ' 

Alfred G. Mayor, Director. 

In February 1921, Professor E. Newton Harvey returned from an 
expedition to the island of Banda, Dutch East Indies, whither he had 
gone to study the chemical and physiological nature of the light 
emitted from the dorsal region of the head in two species of fish. This 
light is so brilliant that fishermen use these fishes as a lure when 
fishing at night. Professor Harvey found that this light is due to the 
presence of symbiotic bacteria which live in a large gland in the head 
of the fish, and is not caused by a reaction between luciferin and 
luciferase. He hoped to discover a source from which large supplies 
of luciferin and luciferase might be obtained for analysis, but at present 
the minute Cypridina hilgendorfi of Japan remains the most available 
known source of these substances among marine animals. 

During the winter chemical analyses of samples of the ancient barrier 
reef of Tutuila, Samoa, were made for the Director by Professor 
Alexander H. Phillips. The top of this dead reef is now submerged 
about 180 feet below present sea-level, thus too deep for the growth 
of reef corals. Fragments of this old reef which once encircled Tutuila 
have, however, been tossed up and embedded in the tuff cone of Aunuu 
Island, which lies off the southeast shore of Tutuila and also in the tuff 
crater at Fagulua, near Stepps Point, on the south shore of Tutuila. 
In these specimens the CaCOa ranged from 97.2 to 98.3 per cent and 
the MgCOa from 1.06 to 1.65, thus being comparable in these respects 
with reef rock, and showing no evidence of dolomitization, such as was 
suddenly encountered in the boring at Funafuti at depths below 637 
feet. This discovery of an ancient dolomitized mass of limestone at 
depths below 637 feet at Funafuti has, of course, no general bearing, 
for no attempts have been made to bore into the atolls of groups other 
than the Ellice Islands, but such borings might easily be made in the 
Paumotus, Marshall, and Fiji groups, and they might throw much 
light on the problem of the relationship between modern and ancient 
coral reefs in the Pacific. Such borings will of course never be made for 
commercial purposes and must be carried out purely for their scientific 
interest. 

As was previously reported, on September 9-10, 1919, serious 
damage was done to the Tortugas laboratory by one of the most 
severe hurricanes recorded from the Florida region. The wind blew 
up great masses of sand from the beaches, and this sand was even 
driven in through the broken panes of glass at the top of the light- 
house, 158 feet above sea-level; it scoured the paint off our wooden 

^Situated at Tortugas, Florida. 

191 



192 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

buildings, while fragments of wood and trees were driven through 
half-inch planks in a number of places. Our windmill and one labora- 
tory building were wholly destroyed, as were also the lower part of the 
kitchen and dining-room, where the waves dashed through them, and 
minor damage was done to the dock and other structures. Due to the 
high cost of materials and labor, and the practical impossibility of 
obtaining an adequate supply of building materials, it was decided to 
defer making permanent repairs until this year. 

Due to the necessity of keeping our men at work on these repairs 
to the laboratory, it was deemed inadvisable to invite many investi- 
gators to study at Tortugas this summer, and accordingly only a few 
who had been there in past years and whose researches required 
extension or completion came to Tortugas. Our force, thus freed 
from other duties, was enabled to complete the restoration of the 
laboratory, aquarium, windmill, and dock-houses; so the station will be 
in as good form as ever for the reception of investigators in 1922. 

Perhaps the most serious damage done by the hurricane was the 
destruction of a considerable length of the brick sea-wall of the moat 
surrounding Fort Jefferson. This moat, with its semi-stagnant water, 
was the source of our supply of Cassiopea and other animals used so 
extensively in our physiological researches, and when the wall was 
destroyed pure sea-water entered the moat and these creatures have, 
in consequence, disappeared. This loss, should it be permanent, would 
probably force us to abandon the laboratory. The fort has been wholly 
abandoned by the Navy, and we therefore undertook to repair the 
breach in the moat-wall in the hope that Cassiopea and other forms 
may reappear in the moat by 1922. 

The total abandonment of Fort Jefferson by the Navy, with the 
abolition of the trips which the naval tug used to make between Key 
West and Tortugas, puts us to the expense of making every trip for 
supplies to Key West in our own vessels, the distance being 68 miles. 
The Tortugas have thus become the most isolated islands off the coast 
of the United States. 

After the hurricane of 1910, many echini, such as Toxopneustes 
and Hipponoe, developed upon the reef-flats of the Tortugas, but 
the hurricane of 1919 seems to have been destructive in this respect, 
for these forms, so important for work in experimental embryology, 
are at present very rare at Tortugas. In fact, it is the opinion of 
naturalists who have collected in the Florida- West Indian region that 
within recent years the shallow-water animals have progressively 
become more and more rare; nor can this be attributed altogether to 
partial extermination by man, for many forms untouched by the 
fishermen are thus affected. 

It is of course well known that in Oligocene times many species of 
corals were found in both the Atlantic and Pacific and have since 



DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY. 193 

become extinct in the Atlantic. We do not venture to assert that some 
such dying out of species may still be progressing in the tropical 
Atlantic, but some general cause seems to be producing a decline in the 
shoal-water fauna over the whole West Indian, Bahaman, and Florida 
region. Possibly the decided reduction in the numbers of fishes, etc., 
of commercial use may have had an indirect effect in causing the 
reduction of other forms. 

When the Director first visited the Tortugas in 1897, on practically 
every night during the breeding-season from May until August at least 
one female Loggerhead turtle crawled up upon the sands to lay its eggs; 
but in 1921 not a single turtle crawled upon Loggerhead Key. Fisher- 
men living in 1897 told me that in about 1860 as many as 40 turtles 
would sometimes crawl and be turned over upon this island in a single 
night, and that after turning them it was the custom to let them all die 
in the hot sun. In common with all other valuable commercial 
resources of Florida, the extermination of the sea-turtles has been 
phenomenal and quite in keeping with the ruin of the sponge fisheries, 
once the chief source of revenue for Key West, as well as the extermi- 
nation of the most beautiful forms of bird life, such as the flamingo, 
roseate spoonbill, and crested egret. 

The destruction of the littoral element of marine life will probably 
be hastened appreciably by the coming of the oil-burning steamer. 
Only three j^ears ago the harbor water of Key West was remarkably 
pure, due to the absence of city sewage ; and the piling of the docks was 
a source of an abundant marine life. Now everything between tides 
is thickly covered with a mass of black crude oil and the marine life 
between tides has disappeared. Even the remote beaches of the 
Tortugas are beginning to be flecked with this oil. 

These conditions indicate that marine laboratories for research 
should be regarded as temporary establishments. Indeed, it has been 
the history of every laboratory that the progressive contamination of 
water in its neighborhood has been a source of constantly increasing 
embarrassment. Such contamination forced the abandonment of 
Professor A. Agassiz's once prosperous laboratory at Newport. The 
Naples laboratory was obliged to construct a branch station at Ischia 
in order to give opportunity for phj'siological work such as could no 
longer be performed in the sewage-laden water in the neighborhood of 
Naples. The great English laboratory at Plymouth and our own 
laboratory at Woods Hole are now forced to go far afield for many 
forms once abundant in the immediate neighborhood. In other words, 
the Department of Marine Biology should be looked upon as an agency 
for the study of problems of the oceans rather than as a fixed station 
at Tortugas, Florida. In fact, studies commenced at Tortugas have 
frequently led us to the Pacific for their logical continuance. 



194 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

The following investigators studied under the auspices of the 
Department during the year: 

Dr. Paul Bartsch, May 15 to June 20, Andros Island, Bahamas, and Tortugas, Florida. 
Heredity of characters in hybrids between Bahama and Florida cerions. 

Professor Ulric Dahlgren. Histology of luminous organs of fishes, Provincetown, Massa- 
chusetts, and Bar Harbor, Maine. 

Professor John H. Gerould. Heredity of characters in Pieridse. 

Professor E. Newton Harvey. Chemistry of animal luminescence. 

Professor WiUiam H. Longlej', Tortugas, June 3 to Sept. 1. Coloration of reef fishes with 
reference to evolution and environment. 

Alfred G. Mayor, Tortugas, June 1 to July 25. Reactions of ants. 

Professor Asa A. Schaeffer, Tortugas, June 13 to July 25. Marine amoebae. 

Professor A. L. Treadwell, Montego Bay, Jamaica, June 21 to July 25. Eunicidse. 

Accompanied by our chief engineer Mr. John Mills, Doctor Bartsch 
visited Andros Island, Bahamas, taking with him the small glass- 
bottomed launch Bull Pup. He was thus enabled to make a large 
collection of the young snails of the glans type of cerion from the region 
of Golding Cay, which he hopes to cross with the incanum form of the 
genus from Florida. The wire cages in which he was conducting these 
experiments upon Tortugas having been destroyed by the hurricane of 
September 9, 1919, they were rebuilt by Mr. Mills this summer in 
such manner that it is hoped they may withstand a hurricane without 
material damage. Doctor Bartsch was thus enabled to restart his 
breeding experiments upon Loggerhead Key, Tortugas, which it will 
take about 10 years to complete. In addition to these studies of 
cerions. Dr. Bartsch made observations upon the birds of the Bahamas 
and Florida. 

In 1915, Professor John H. Gerould accompanied our expedition to 
Porto Rico and made a study of the Pieridse of this island. This 
research has been continued upon American forms and interesting 
factors in Mendelian inheritance have been brought to light. 

Professor E. Newton Harvey had a large collection of Cypridina 
made for him in Japan in order to endeavor to obtain a sufficient 
amount of luciferase and luciferin for a more definite chemical analysis 
of these substances. He also studied luminous organisms at Woods 
Hole and at Bar Harbor during the summer, while Professor Dahlgren 
gathered material for a study of the histology of luminous organs in 
fishes. 

Professor William H. Longley continued at Tortugas the study he 
has pursued for many years upon the selective value of habits and en- 
vironment in developing the color and patterns of reef fishes. He 
pursues the direct method of going under water in a diving-hood and 
observing the fishes in their natural condition. He is provided with 
a submarine camera, which enables him to obtain photographic records 
of many occurrences having a bearing upon the problem of his research. 



DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY. 195 

The exceptional calms of June 1921 gave him a remarkable oppor- 
tunity to extend his observations and obtain new photographs. 

Alfred G. Mayor studied the reactions of the small red ant so abund- 
ant at Tortugas. It appears that when an ant finds some food (such 
as a dead fly) it goes toward the nest and on the way meets others, 
which become much excited and in turn communicate the excitement 
to others. Then the original ant conducts her associates back toward 
the dead fly. Contrary to the observation of Bethe, these Tortugas 
ants do not follow the path of the original ant, but must be delib- 
erately led by her back to the fly. An ant with abdomen sUt or 
cut off appears to behave normally and goes from a fly it has found 
towards its fellows of the nest, but these are not excited by it and do 
not follow it back to the fly. The "finder" ant apparently has not 
only a fair sense of the general direction back to the fly, but of the 
distance as well, and having gone the right distance the swarm sud- 
denly breaks up and reconnoiters in all directions, some of them find- 
ing the fly, while many go astray. 

Professor Asa A. Schaeffer continued his study of marine amoebae at 
Tortugas, very little being known of these minute forms, which are 
exceedingly difficult to discover. He developed a number of cultures, 
however, which provided him with a good supply of material, as appears 
in his report. 

Professor A. L. Treadwell went to Montego Bay, Jamaica, in order 
to extend his knowledge of the distribution of the Eunicidae for a 
monograph upon these worms. In this study he has now visited 
Tortugas, Bermuda, Porto Rico, Tobago, and Jamaica. 

The following papers have been presented during the year for pub- 
lication by the Carnegie Institution. 

C. F. Silvester and H. W. Fowler on Samoan fishes. 

A. L. Treadwell. Annelids of Puget Sound. 

A. H. Phillips. Precipitation of metals in sea-water. 

E. N. Harvey. Luminous fishes from Banda. 

R. T. Chamberlin. Geology of the reefs of Tutuila. 

A. G. Mayor. Rose Atoll, Samoa. 

R. C. Wells. Carbon dioxide of Tortugas sea-water. 

Joseph A. Cushman. Foraminifera of Tortugas. 

The publication of papers has been delayed by various causes, but 
the following, representing work performed wholly or in part under the 
auspices of the Department of Marine Biologj'', were published: 

Bowman, H. H. M. 1920. Histological variations in Rhizophora mangli. 22d Report 

Michigan Academy of Sciences, pp. 129-134, pis. 9-12. 
Cushman, J. A. 1921. Foraminifera from the north coast of Jamaica. Proc. National 

Museum, vol. 59, pp. 47-82, pis. 11-19. 
Vaughan, T. W. 1919. Corals and the formation of coral reefs. Smithsonian Report 

for 1917, pp. 189-276, -37 pis. 



L96 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

REPORTS OF INVESTIGATORS. 

Luminosity in Marine Animals, by Ulric Dahlgren. 

The writer has been engaged in researches into the hghting powers of 
animals. One paper is nearly ready on the luminous powers of Cypridina 
hilgendorfi and a number of allied ostracods, mostly marine. The luminous 
organs are shown to consist of an enlargement and specialization of the dermal 
glands so characteristic of the group, and especially those on the upper lip, 
which in many forms have had the more primitive function of salivary glands. 
In Cypridina an interesting fact, hitherto unnoticed, is that one lobe of the 
gland on each side extends far past the middle of the animal's body, thus 
invalidating certain physiological work in which the cutting of the animal's 
body in two halves was supposed to divide it into a luciferin-bearing and a 
non-luciferin-bearing portion. In another light-bearing Pyrocypris, from the 
East Indies, a more primitive but efficient organ has been described. 

Further work on fishes confirms Harvey's discovery that in some fishes 
luminous bacteria in the light organ are the principal source of the light. 
Measures to secure a number of deep-sea luminous fishes have been under- 
taken, but the time is not yet ripe for results. 

Further Studies on Bioluminesccnce, by E. Newton Harvey. 

During the autumn and winter of 1920 the author continued his studies on 
light production in the animal kingdom with two objects in view: first a 
search for new sources of luciferin, the material oxidized by luminous animals 
in the presence of a catalyst, lucif erase; second, a study of the specificity of 
luciferin and luciferase. A trip was made to the Banda Islands of the Dutch 
East Indian Archipelago, where two fishes with very large luminous organs 
are found. Studies were also made at the Puget Sound Biological Laboratory 
at Friday Harbor, Washington; on the Dutch fisheries steamer Brak, off 
Batavia, Java; and at the Musee Oceanographique, Monaco. It gives me 
pleasure to acknowledge the kindness of Professor T. C. Frye, director of the 
Puget Sound laboratory. Dr. A. L. J. Svmier, director of the Batavia Fisheries 
Station, and Dr. J. Richard, director of the Mus^e Oceanographique, Monaco, 
during my stay at these places. 

Many luminous forms new to the author were obtained, including Polynoe, 
Tomopteris, Odontosyllis, various medusse and ctenophores, Pyrocypris, 
Geophilus, Pyrosoma, and two fishes. Some of these forms were rare, but 
others occurred in sufficient numbers to determine whether the luciferin of one 
species would luminesce with the luciferase of another, and vice versa. This 
study on specificity is still being continued and a preliminary paper will 
appear shortly. It will suffice to say now that the lucif erin-lucif erase reaction 
appears to be specific to a high degree. Only if the luciferin and luciferase 
come from closely related forms will they luminesce when mixed. Odonto- 
syllis promises well as a source of material and Tomopteris will give the answer 
to some interesting problems in connection with the color of the light, if it 
can be obtained in sufficient quantity. 

The marine fishes Anomalops and Photoblepharon of the Banda Islands were 
obtained in large numbers and physiological studies were made. Although 
not suited for the preparation of large quantities of luminous material, the 
organ of these forms turns out to be of extraordinary interest for a quite un- 
looked-for reason. Despite the general appearance of an organ of external 
secretion, no luminous material is excreted to the sea-water by the living fish. 
If the organ is tested in sea-water and examined under the microscope, 



DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY. 197 

innumerable motile, rod-shaped bacteria, sometimes forming spirilla-like 
chains, can be seen. Smears of the organ which I obtained in Banda have 
been very kindly stained for me by Professor Dahlgren, of Princeton Uni- 
versity, and show the bacteria nicely. 

In chemical respects an emulsion of the organ behaves just as an emulsion 
of luminous bacteria and differs in one or another way from extracts of other 
luminous animals. These various characteristics may be summarized as 
follows : 

1. The light organ is extraordinarily suppUed with blood-vessels, and the 
emulsion is fully as sensitive to lack of oxygen as are luminous bacteria. 
Light ceases very quickly in the absence of oxygen. 

2. If dried, the organ will give only a faint light when again moistened 
with water. This is characteristic of luminous bacteria. The luminous 
organs of most other forms can be dried without much loss of photogenic 
power. 

3. Luciferin and lucif erase can not be demonstrated. This is also true of 
luminous bacteria. 

4. The light is extinguished without a preliminary flash by fresh water and 
other cytolytic (bacteriolytic) agents, characteristic also of luminous bacteria. 

5. Sodium fluoride of 1 to 0.5 per cent concentration extinguishes readily 
the light of an emulsion of the gland. 

6. Potassium cyanide has an inhibitive effect on light production in about 
the same concentration as with luminous bacteria. 

To these observations must be added the very suggestive fact that the 
light of Photohlepharon and Anomalops continues night and day without 
ceasing and quite independently of stimulation. This is characteristic of 
Imninous bacteria and fungi alone among organisms, and very strongly sug- 
gests that the hght is actually due to sjinbiotic luminous bacteria. The 
organ thus appears to be an incubator for the growth and nourishment of 
these forms. 

Actual proof that the bacteria found in the organ are luminous can only 
come when these are grown artificially. My attempts in this direction have 
failed. Good growths of bacteria were obtained on pepton agar, but they pro- 
duced no light. One might expect that a symbiotic form would require rather 
definite food materials to produce light, and it is perhaps not surprising that 
culture experiments have failed. Certainly, the ocular and chemical evidence, 
if not the cultural evidence, supports the view that the Hght of these living 
fish is bacterial in origin. A complete account of the fish will appear shortly 
in the Carnegie Institution publications. 

An account of luminescence among coelenterates, so abundant in Puget 
Sound, will appear in the Biological Bulletin. Work on specificity and chem- 
ical character of luciferin is being continued. 

Report on the Polychcete Annelids of Montego Bay, Jamaica, hy A. L. Treadwell. 

From June 28 to July 21 was spent in Montego Bay, Jamaica, completing 
data on the species of the West Indian Leodicidse for a pubHcation on this 
family now in press ; little attention was paid to members of other polychsete 
famihes. Montego Bay proved to be rather poor in annelids, as there are 
few mud flats and the dead, porous coral rock which affords such favorable 
hiding-places for these animals is largely absent from the splendid coral reefs 
of this bay. The area covered was from White House, about a mile east of 
the harbor entrance, along the shore of the bay as far as Unity Hall, on the 



198 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

southern shore; the coral reefs of the harbor, so far as these could be reached 
from a boat; and in the mud about the mangrove patches of the Bogue 
Islands, so far as these were practicable. In most cases the margin of the 
mangrove extends into water too deep for collecting, the best exception 
being the mud flat outside the outermost Bogue, which is, however, rather 
poor in annelids. 

Leodice fucata, the "Atlantic palolo," occurs in Montego Bslv, and I was 
especially anxious to secure data concerning its swarming. It will be remem- 
bered that in the Dry Tortugas this swarms within three daj^s of the last quarter 
of the June-Julj'- moon, this date occurring this year on June 28. My first 
collecting was done on June 29, and in the coral incrusting the beach rock 
directly in front of the residence of Mr. Henry Doubledaj'^ I found both sexes 
of L. fucata apparently read}' for swarming, as the bodies were much distended 
with sex products. I visited this locality early on the mornings of June 30 
and July 1, but saw no swarming. This negative evidence is of little impor- 
tance, as the area under observation was extremely small and the few annelids 
in it might have swarmed and been carried away by currents before daylight. 
Specimens collected at this time had lost their posterior ends and one indi- 
vidual collected at Unity Hall on July 14 had regenerated a posterior end 
about an inch long. On July 6 Mr. Edward Wallace, who has been employed 
as a collector for several scientific expeditions to Montego Bay, stated that 
he had seen worms swimming at the surface, but that it occurs very rarely; 
he had not seen it this year, but others had told him that it came "last week;" 
that it is seen along the shore (indicating the locality above mentioned where 
I had collected the palolo) ; that the worms swim very early in the morning, 
and that as "the sun gets hot they all fade away." This seemed to me evi- 
dence sufficient to justify the assumption that probably the palolo swiarmed in 
Montego Bay some time in the week ending July 2. 

Leodice fucata, L. caribcea, L. mutilata, and Nicidion kmhergii are common 
in the incrusting coral lying on the hard beach rock along the shore. Leodice 
culehra and Lysidice sulcata occur in the same localities, but are rarer. Leodice 
unifrons was very widely distributed, living in tubes on the bottoms of stones 
or in sandy mud in all parts of the bay. Drilonereis attenuata occurs rarely 
and a few specimens of Lumhrinereis cingulata were found. The only other 
lumbrinereid was Arabella setosa, collected at Reading Landing. Marphysa 
regalis was found near White House, and M. nohilis was collected in the mud 
near the outer Bogue. It is evidently rare, as three days digging failed to 
bring up more than the one incomplete individual found on the first day. 
In sponges near Sandy Point I collected a new species of Leodice, to be de- 
scribed under the name of L. spongicola. It is evidently allied to L. denti- 
culata Webster ( = Eunice conglomerans Ehlers), but is much smaller and of an 
entirely different color. 

Report of the Cerion-Br ceding Experiments, by Paul Bartsch. 

The reported loss of the Tortugas colonies of the Bahama cerions, which 
were said to have been wiped out b}^ the hurricane, made it necessary to re- 
visit the Bahamas to secure additional breeding material for our heredity 
experiments. The desired adolescent specimens of Cerion viaregis were 
obtained along King's Road, Bastian Point, South Bight, Andros, with con- 
siderable difficult}^, because the local population has shifted its agricultural 
efforts to the ground occupied by the Cerion colonies in our 1912 visit. The 
colony of Cerion viaregis, in its native habitat, is therefore less flourishing 
to-day than it was nine years ago. 



DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY. 199 

The same state of affairs, only in a still more exaggerated form, obtains in 
the Cerion casahlancce colony, for sheep and pigs have been introduced in the 
region occupied by this species. The larger vegetation has been cut down 
with the ax in order to improve the habitat for grass culture, and the smaller 
vegetation, grasses and shrubs, are being rapidly eliminated by the grazing 
sheep, while the mollusks themselves are sought by the pigs. If this state 
of affairs continues this colony will probably disappear altogether, extensive 
as it was in 1912. The necessary specimens for our experiments, however, 
were secured by a dihgent and exhaustive search. In addition to the breed- 
ing material, we also secured a set of adults of both Cerion viaregis and Cerion 
casahlancoe for comparison with the material gathered in 1912. 

During our trip to the Bahamas, gatherings of cerions were made from every 
colony discovered along the east-central shore of Andros and the banks of 
South and Middle Bights. While waiting for transportation to Miami from 
Nassau, we put in use the Bull Pup, a small motor-launch that we carried 
to the Bahamas with us, and thoroughly explored all the cays lying off 
southwestern New Providence for cerions, and we believe that we charted 
every colony on those islands and the adjacent shores of the mainland. 
These gatherings, embracing more than 20,000 specimens, may serve as a 
check series with which future gatherings from the same colonies may be 
compared. 

We returned to Miami June 3; on the 4th we sailed south for the Tortugas, 
our first stop being on the First Ragged Key north of Sands Key, which by 
filUng in with dredges has been rendered many times its former size, and the 
region occupied by our cerion colony has been completely covered with 
dredged-up ocean bottom, so that this colony, we may say, is completely 
buried. 

The Second Ragged Key north of Sands Key appears to have been pretty 
well swept over by the high water occasioned by the hurricane, and only a 
few specimens of our cerion colony were observed. However, an exhaustive 
search was not made, as we wished merely to establish at this time the approxi- 
mate state of the colony. The mosquitoes, too, this year were about the worst 
that we have encountered on the east coast. 

The planting on the east side of Sands Key was again visited, but no speci- 
mens were observed in the rank vegetation which covers the place. 

The Indian Key colony seems to have been saved by the rank growth of 
sisal and other vegetation, but no specimens were seen on Tea Table Key. 

I was unable to find any cerions on Duck Key. 

On Bahia Honda Key the hurricane has made decided changes. The ditch 
along which our planting was made now separates the outer portion of the key 
almost into a distinct island. A lake of considerable size occupies the place 
where our planting was located and none of the introduced cerions was seen. 

The hybrid colony on Newfound Harbor Key, in which our greatest interest 
centered, strangely enough seems to have suffered less than any other. Not- 
withstanding the location of this colony was rather low, it was not destroyed, 
as was feared. Evidently the rain preceding the hurricane had caused 
the cerions to take to the ground, as they usually do for foraging purposes 
under such conditions, and the dense mats of grass here had kept them from 
being swept away by the floods that must have passed over them; yet many 
dead specimens were found, which were taken for record purposes. 

At Key West a gathering of adolescent Cerion incanum was made near the 
aquarium site for our breeding experiments. 

The colony at Boca Grande has suffered much through fire and storm, yet 
specimens could be easily seen. 



200 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



At the Tortugas, the colonies on Loggerhead Key were in better condition 
than I have seen them on any previous visit. In fact, I beheve more of 
Cerion viaregis and Cerion casahlancce exist on Loggerhead Key to-day than 
in their native habitat. The only effect that the hurricane has apparently 
had upon our colonies at the Tortugas is that the water carried some of the 
specimens a considerable distance from the place where they were planted, 
so that it is quite possible that in the future there may be considerable inter- 
minghng of the animals in various parts of the islands. 

The colony of Cerion iwa is just beginning to show adult specimens. This 
shows a much longer developmental period than is the case in the Bahaman 
species. Of the latter, as stated before, we were able to obtain mature genera- 
tions in three years, while the Cerion uva colony was planted in May 1916, 
which indicates five years as a developmental period. 

In the report "Experiments in the breeding of cerions," Department of 
Marine Biology, Carnegie Institution, vol. xiv, 1920, we gave on page 46 
detailed measurements of 100 specimens representing the check series of 
Cerion crassilabris from Balena Point, near Guanica Bay, Porto Rico, which 
were planted on Loggerhead Key in 1915. These were figured on plates 
48 to 50. On page 47 we gave measurements, and on plate 51 figures of 36 
adult shells of the first Florida-grown generation gathered in January 1919. 
This year we found a much larger series of first-generation material, and the 
following table gives a summary of measurements of 200 of such specimens: 

Comparison of measurements of Florida-grown Cerion crassilabris with the check series. 





No. of whorls. 


Altitude. 


Greatest diameter. 


Check 
series. 


First 
generation. 


Check 
series. 


First 
generation. 


Check 
series. 


First 
generation. 


Average 


mm. 
9.55 
10.5 

8.5 


mm. 

9.13 
10.4 

8.6 


mm. 
22.13 
27.5 
19.0 


mm. 
22.36 
25.7 
19.6 


mm. 
12.41 
13.9 
10.6 


mm. 
11.89 
12.2 
10.4 


Greatest diameter. . . 
Least diameter 



It is interesting, therefore, to note that the first generation of this Porto 
Rican cerion is in complete agreement with the facts adduced from the two 
Bahaman species. 

The hurricane of 1919 destroyed the cages in which we had placed a speci- 
men of each of two species, in order to determine their ability to hybridize 
and to note the results of such crosses as might be observed from such selected 
individuals. A new set of cages was therefore prepared. Eleven groups of 
these cages consist of four compartments each, a cubic yard in size. The septa 
between compartments are double wire walls to prevent possible mating through 
the meshes of the fine Monel metal-wire screen. In each of these cages we 
placed a HymenocalUs plant, some grass and dead-wood rubbish, in other 
words, habitat conditions which we found favored by cerions at the Tortugas. 
Then two half-grown specimens, one of Cerion viaregis and one of Cerion 
incanum from Key West, were placed in each of the 44 compartments. These 
cages are securely anchored, and every precaution has been taken to make 
sure that the mollusks will be confined within them, and that no extraneous 
individuals can find entrance. 



DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY. 201 

Cages No. 45 and No. 46 are of the same size as those last mentioned. 
In cage 45 we placed 183 young of Cerion incanum from Key West, in order to 
determine what percentage of these will reach maturity. In cage 46 we placed 
an abnormal specimen of Cerion viaregis. This had a spiral keel, which may 
be the result of an injury, although I was unable to discover any sign of it. 
With it I also placed a normal specimen of Cerion viaregis in order to determine 
if this character might be transmitted to offspring. 

In addition to these, five groups of cages were made which have the same 
size as the four unit cages, but they have only one partition in the middle, 
thus making them 3 by 6 feet and 3 feet high. In these we placed the fol- 
lowing combinations : 

No. 47. 25 each of Cerion incanum and Cerion viaregis. 

No. 48. 25 each of Cerion incanum and Cerion casablanccp.. 

No. 49. 25 each of Cerion incanum and Cerion uva. 

No. 50. 25 each of Cerion incanum and Cerion crassilabris. 

No. 51. 25 each of Cerion viaregis and Cerion uva. 

No. 52. 25 each of Cerion viaregis and Cerion crasbilabris. 

No. 53. 25 each of Cerion casablancoe and Cerion uva. 

No. 54. 25 each of Cerion casablancce and Cerion crassilabris 

No. 55. 25 each of Cerion uva and Cerion crassilabris. 

In cage 56 I placed 203 young of various sizes of the huge new form collected 
in Middle Bight, Andros, which I have called Cerion mayori. 

Two additional species were introduced this year on Loggerhead Key, 
one Cerion mayori, as above stated, and the second, Cerion incanum, as also 
stated above, but of this species we also placed a large colony about the water 
tower at the northern end of the island, in order to have additional material 
if we should need it for breeding purposes in the future. 

Investigation on Marine Amoebas at Tortugas, Florida, by Asa A. Schaeffer. 

The work on amoebas during June and July 1921, at Tortugas, Florida, was 
a continuation of work begun there in 1919. The greater part of the time was 
devoted to a system-atic study of marine amcebas. All the species discovered 
in this locality in 1919 were found again this year, and 16 new species were 
discovered and described. Several more species were found whose descrip- 
tions, for one reason or another, remain incomplete. More species have been 
reported from this station than from all other marine stations together. 
The observations on the systematics and distribution of marine amcebas have 
advanced far enough to warrant the following tentative conclusions : 

(1) The sea is probably richer in species of amoebas than fresh water. 
The number of species in existence is very much larger than is commonly 
thought. Judging bj^ the number reported from time to time in both fresh 
and salt water, amoebas seem to be as numerous in species as, for example, the 
Foraminifera. 

(2) Marine amcebas are distinct from fresh-water species. No species has 
yet been found living and reproducing in both fresh and salt water. 

(3) The average size of fresh-water amoebas is larger than that of marine 
amcebas. 

(4) The most important factor affecting the distribution of amoebas is the 
food-supply, A few species live on bacteria, but the majority live on diatoms 
and other algse. It follows, therefore, that the largest number of species 
and individuals are found where diatoms abound. 

(5) Other important conditions affect distribution, for some species occur 
in great numbers in natural and artificial cultures, while comparatively few 



202 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON, 

individuals of other species are found in cultures at the time of their maximum 
concentration. 

The method of treating amoebas with varying dilutions and concentrations 
of sea-water for the purpose of detecting specific differences, which was dis- 
covered in 1919, has been applied to all the new species discovered this season, 
with even better results than had been hoped for. Some species very similar 
in general appearance are found to react in a strikingly different manner to 
diluted sea-water. Tliis test has proved to be one of the most important for 
the quick and accurate determination of species. 

After the season at the Tortugas Laboratoiy was over, a few weeks were 
devoted to examining amoebas found at Cold Spring Harbor, New York, to 
obtain evidence on geographical distribution. Of the 20 species reported 
from Tortugas, 5 were found at Cold Spring Harbor; 5 new amcebas were 
also found, 2 of them being very common, while the other 3 were relatively 
rare. Several other new species were observed, but they could not be de- 
scribed adequately for want of time. The indications are, therefore, that 
amcebas are subject in their geographical distribution to general principles, 
similar to those that govern the distribution of many other groups of animals. 

Studies on the Pieridce, New Mutations in Colias philodice, by John H. 

Gerould. 

In August 1920 about 45 conspicuous blue-green caterpillars developed in 
three cultures of the common sulphur butterfly, Colias philodice, that had 
been inbred for two generations in the study of the inheritance dimorphism 
(white wing-color) in the female. 

The normal grass-green color of the caterpillars of this species is due to the 
pigments in the hemolymph derived directly from chlorophyl of the food- 
plant (clover). The hemolymph of the mutant caterpillars, however, as 
well as the hypodermis, is blue-green. The pupa is Hkewise bluish, instead of 
yellowish grass-green. The eye-color of the adult also is bluish green, not 
yellow-green; the hemolymph color of the butterfly is identical with that of 
the mutant caterpillar, blue-green. The pigments of the hemolymph cor- 
respond in both the mutant and normal butterfly to the (hypodermal) color 
of the compound eye. 

The egg laid by a female with blue-green hemolymph is of a brilliant pure 
white, not the normal cream-white. The cocoon color of braconid larvae that 
have parasitized the blue-green caterpillar, fed upon the blue-green blood, 
and emerged to spin upon the surface of the dying caterpillar, is pure white, 
lacking the bright yellow color of the normal cocoon. 

Blue-green hemolymph thus lacks a yellow pigment, probably derived nor- 
mally from xanthophyl. This is not the yellow pigment of the wing-color, 
which is known to be a derivative of uric acid deposited in the scales upon the 
wing, for the wing-color of butterflies having the blue-green hemolymph is 
of the normal yellow color, unaffected by this mutation. 

Blue-green hemolymph is a simple non-sex-hnked Mendelian recessive. 
Originally produced by two generations of inbreeding from a female presum- 
ably heterozygous for it, blue-green individuals thus far have proved nearly 
sterile. When fertile, they breed true. They are vigorous as caterpillars 
and adults, but they lack almost completely the instinct for mating. 

The blue-green caterpillars that hibernated in 1920-21 produced butter- 
flies that failed to mate, but fortunately several females of the same stock 
survived from a pair of grass-green parents of which the male was known to 
be heterozygous for blue-green. To save the race, these surviving females, of 
which presumably one-half were heterozygous for the blue-green, were mated 



DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY. 203 

early in the season (before adult butterflies of this species had appeared in 
New Hampshire) with wild males from a more southern locality (Annandale- 
on-Hudson, New York). 

The four families of grass-green larvae produced by back-crossing with wild 
stock came to maturity in June. By good fortune, the largest of these families 
contained heterozygotes for blue-green, for, when inbred in July-August, 
3 out of the 9 matings gave 25 per cent of blue-green larvae. In addition to 
the blue-green, a new recessive mutant, olive-green, occurred in two of these 
three families, one giving a clear-cut 2:1:1 ratio, viz, 95 grass-green : 46 
olive: 44 blue-green; another 9 : 3 : 4, i. e., 40 grass-green: 17 olive: 29 blue- 
green. The third mating producing blue-green gave simply 31 grass-green, 
10 blue-green, with 1 olive, probably a waif from another culture. 

Ohve-green mutant caterpillars also appeared, in company with normal 
grass-green and in the simple 1 : 3 ratio, in 4 more of these 9 inbred families. 
The total numbers in these 4 families were 128 olive, 314 grass-green. 

Ohve-green caterpillars have grass-green hemolymph, in which I am unable 
to detect any color difference from the normal. The color is hypodermal 
rather than cuticular, and is probably due to a physico-chemical change in 
the hemolymph, for the scale-pigments of the under side of the hind wing and 
of the tip of the fore wing, parts most exposed to the action of the hemoljonph 
in the pupal wing-bud, take on an orange-yellow hue ("lemon chrome," 21, 
0-YY Ridgway, in the male; "empire yellow," in the yellow female; buff, 
or "m.ustard yellow," in the white female). 

Moreover, the eye of the adult butterfly from an olive-green caterpillar is 
also olive-green, a color corresponding to that of the caterpillar, but a shade 
lighter. 

The general conclusions are as follows : 

(1) The (hypodermal) eye-color of the normal adult Colias philodice and 
of each of these two mutants corresponds in each case to the (hypodermal) 
color of its caterpillar. In both the normal and in the blue-green this color 
is identical with that of the underlying hemolymph. 

(2) The hemolymph supplies both the compound eye and the larval hypo- 
dermis with the normal grass-green, or with the blue-green, pigment. 

(3) The pigments of the hemolymph are derived from chlorophyl of 
the food-plant, and a yellow element, probably derived from xanthophyl, is 
suppressed in the hemolymph of the blue-green caterpillar (i. e., blue-green- 
blooded butterfly). 

(4) Absence of yellow pigment in the blue-green hemolymph changes the 
silk spun by the parasitic larva Uving in it from yellow to pure white, and 
similarly yellow-free blue-green hemolymph produces a blue-green hypo- 
dermis both in the skin of the larva and in the compound eye, though it is 
probable that — 

(5) the primary reaction of the hereditary factor for blue-green acts 
from the nuclei of the intestinal epithelium directly upon dissolving chloro- 
phyl during digestion, destroying xanthophyl. 

(6) That the hemol>^nph of the oUve caterpillar, though apparently nor- 
mal in color, directly determines the hypodermal color of the caterpillar and 
compound eye is substantiated by the orange effect produced upon the wing- 
scales on those portions of the under surfaces of the developing wings that are 
most exposed during development to the physico-chemical action of the hemo- 
lymph. 

(7) The immediate physical basis of these and other hereditary characters 
in Colias is not chromosomes but substances dissolved in the hemolymph. 
Upon this substratum, genes, probably chromosomes or parts of chromo- 



204 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

somes, act as catalysts to inhibit, modify, and in rarer cases to promote 
development. The nature of genes should be sought in physico-chemical 
investigations of blood and lymph in pedigree cultures; for, if chromosomes 
are the vehicle of genes, blood and lymph are the media through which 
they act in the control of development. In such studies the spectroscope 
is likely to be found most useful. 

Preliminary experiments are being made in breeding Colias interior Scudder, 
a subarctic species found in northern and north-central Canada and also in 
the White Mountains only 50 miles north of the site of Dartmouth College 
(Hanover, New Hampshire). 

Habits and Local Distribution of Tortugas Fishes, by W. H. Longley. 

Study of the habits and local distribution of fishes occurring at Tortugas 
was continued with satisfactory results from June 7 till August 25, 1921. 
During this time photographs were secured recording the appearance, alter- 
native color-phases, or interesting activities of 25 species. 

In the course of more intensive effort than had been made hitherto to de- 
termine with accuracy the distribution of local species in the shallow waters 
of the atoll, nearly 30 were discovered with which the writer had no previous 
acquaintance. Of these, 4 or 5 are perhaps new to science. The finding of 
others at Tortugas greatly extends their range. Such is the case, for example, 
with Prionodes baldwini (Evermann and Marsh), otherwise known only from 
Porto Rico. loglossus calliurus (Bean), known hitherto only from the Pensa- 
cola snapper-banks, where it has been found in the stomachs of other fishes, 
belongs in the same class. It is rather common at Tortugas on a certain sort 
of bottom covered with small fragments of dead coral. It is small, alert, in- 
conspicuous in coloration, and never appears to go far from its burrow. It 
is, therefore, well adapted to escape observation and capture by ordinary 
methods. The adults commonly occur in pairs sharing the same burrow, 
as do also sometimes as many as 7 or 8 small ones. The young have a 
symmetrical bilobed caudal quite vmlike the lance-shaped fin of the adult. 

There is uncertainty at present regarding the relation to one another of the 
different species of Eupomacentrus to be found in the West Indian region and 
adjacent waters. The difficulty in classification appears to be due largely to 
the fact that their coloration changes greatly with age, and also that they 
possess (in common with perhaps the greater number of tropical reef-fishes) 
powers of instantaneous reversible color-change. 

At Tortugas 4 species occur, or 5 if E. leucostidus (Muller and Troschel) 
and E. analis (Poey) be not one, as observation indicates they are. The 
others are E. fuscus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), E. planifrons (C. and V.), 
and a black and white or dark brown and pale yellow species, which is ap- 
parently E. partitus (Poey). The very young E. partitus has not been taken 
at Tortugas; but while very small specimens of E. fuscus are rather rare during 
the summer months, E. planifrons a centimeter or two in length is not un- 
common, and E. leucostictus of the same size is abundant. The young E. 
fuscus is brick-red antero-dorsally, otherwise dusk}^ except for a large ocellus on 
the soft dorsal fin and another upon the dorsal surface of the caudal peduncle. 
The young E. planifrons is yellow, with an ocellus on the soft dorsal, corre- 
sponding to that of E. fuscus, and a conspicuous black spot on the dorsal 
side of caudal peduncle, E. leucostictus is purple antero-dorsall}^, otherwise 
yellow. It has a dorsal ocellus, and may or may not develop a spot upon the 
caudal peduncle. 

A goby of the genus Gobiosoma almost invariably shares the burrow of a 
species of shrimp which the latter makes in fine sand or mud. The fishes 



DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY. 205 

are very abundant in large, deep holes in the reef flats. Two fishes and 
two shrimps have been seen living together, but usually only one of each ap- 
pears to share the burrow. 

Species of Gnathypops and Opisthognathus dig and occupy holes in a sandy 
or stony bottom, and are able to line vertical shafts and prevent their collapse. 
They have been seen working in the bottom of funnel-shaped depressions, 
whether excavated by themselves or not is uncertain. About the mouth of a 
shallow pit in the bottom of such a hole they arrange a circle of stone or bits of 
shell not too large to be carried in their mouths, and support these externally 
by banked sand brought up from the burrow or carried in from outside. From 
time to time additional stones are laid in place, additional sand is brought, 
and their building is carried up until it reaches the level of the surrounding 
bottom, or even rises above it. The plumbness and fit of the shaft are assured 
by the fact that when the fish returns with a coral fragment in its mouth it 
goes down into its hole tail first and lays its burden accurately in position, 
or moves it repeatedly until it is fitly adjusted. Opisthognathus macrognathum 
(Poey) may build in this way a retreat a foot or more in depth, with a shaft 
an inch or more in diameter, and with a terminal chamber of a pint capacity. 
The fish usually stands in its burrow with its head scarcely rising above the 
general surface, and when it retires it may draw in and block the opening 
with a piece of coral relatively huge in proportion to its own size and weight. 

Thalassoma nitidum (Gunther), which the writer has perhaps incorrectly 
considered the young of T. hifasciatus (Bloch), is apparently an active gleaner 
of ectoparasites from the bodies of other fishes. It may commonly be seen 
pecking at their sides and fins. Carangids, tangs, and others come singly 
or in groups again and again to the point where the Thalassoma is temporarily 
located, one might almost say with the specific intention of submitting them- 
selves to its inspection. A chub, K. sectatrix (Linnaeus), has been observed 
to drive away others repeatedly to a distance of 20 feet or more and to return 
promptly and permit the interrupted grooming to be resumed. 

It is interesting to discover a blenny, apparently an undescribed species 
very like T. nitidum in color, very rare, found sometimes in its company. 
The relation between the two species seems comparable to that between 
Batesian mimics and their models in the case of Lepidoptera. It will be 
interesting to learn whether T. nitidum, on account of its beneficent ministra- 
tions, or for other reasons, enjoys immunity from attack which the unnamed 
species might share on account of its similarity in appearance. 

Epinephelus morio (C. and V.), E. striatus (Bloch) Kyphosus sedtarix 
(Linnaeus), and several species of Eupomacentrus show more or less distinc- 
tive color-phases when in pursuit of other individuals of their respective species 
which may have entered their private preserves, or otherwise provoked attack. 
These changes in color are examples of those to which Mr. Charles H. Town- 
send has called attention as a result of his observations on fishes in the New 
York aquarium. In some degree at least they appear to differ in cause and 
significance from other color-changes occurring in these and other species. 
For it remains true in general that the evidence indicates that the chief func- 
tion of fixed or changeable coloration in tropical reef fishes is to render them 
inconspicuous under the conditions in which they live. 



DEPARTMENT OF MERIDIAN ASTROMETRY.^ 

Benjamin Boss, Director. 

As in previous years, the work of the Department has been mainly 
divided between computation in preparation of the observations 
taken at San Luis and at Albany for catalogue form, preparations for 
the derivation of proper-motions and star places for the general cata- 
logue, and a number of researches in various astronomical fields. 

The operations necessary to the completion of the observations 
and of the general catalogue, while numerous and requiring long- 
continued effort, are of little general interest in the main. Conse- 
quently, only those steps which have more than a general interest 
are reported, though they form but a small fraction of the total output 
of effort. 

ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE. 

In addition to the conclusions drawn in the last report of the De- 
partment regarding absolute magnitudes, some other deductions of 
interest have been made. For the material used there is a steady 
progression in the size of the proper-motion with progression in the 
size of the absolute magnitude, indicating increasing velocity of the 
stars with decrease in absolute magnitude, though the effect is en- 
hanced because the increase in the proper-motions is partly due to 
decrease in distance. The same general effect of increase in velocity 
with decrease in brightness is also shown through the treatment of the 
radial velocities. There is a sharp increase in the velocity between 
3.5 and 4.5 absolute magnitudes. The distribution of the absolute 
magnitudes is fairly well represented by a probable-error curve, with 
a maximum at +3.3 absolute magnitude and a probable error of ± 2.0. 
Two velocity curves, one for giant stars and the other for dwarfs, 
would probably fit the observed data more closely. There are some 
marked deviations from the curve, especially that occurring between 
+0.8 and +1.2 absolute magnitudes. A division of the absolute 
magnitudes of the giant stars according to galactic latitude shovved no 
appreciable change. 

SPACE MOTIONS. 

A further investigation of space motions has been undertaken, 
employing the corrections for parallax which were previously deter- 
mined. The radial velocities used were those determined at the Lick 
and Mount Wilson Observatories, and the proper-motions were taken 
from the Prehminary General Catalogue. Only those stars were used 
where the material was sufficiently trustworthy, and even then com- 
paratively small changes in the observed data would in many cases 

'Address: Dudley Observatory, Albany, N. Y. 



208 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

change considerably the location of the apices of motion of some of 
the stars employed; but for general statistical considerations the data 
furnish a very fair representation of the distribution of the motions 
of these stars. Dividing the material according to velocity into two 
groups of stars, the first consisting of 446 stars whose velocity does not 
exceed 80 km. per second, and the second including 71 stars of velocity 
ranging from 80 to 500 km., the apex of solar motion was found to be 
at right-ascension 270°, declination +28° from a solution of the first 
group, with a velocity of 21 km. per second for the sun. 

The apex of solar motion derived from the high-velocity group placed 
the apex at 298° right-ascension and +47° declination, with a solar 
velocity of 89 km. The high velocity for solar motion as derived from 
this latter group, and the location of the apex, is ascribed partly to 
the peculiar distribution of the velocities of the rapidly moving stars. 
The peculiarity in the motion of these stars was noted in the report of 
the Department in the Year Book for 1918. The stars are found to be 
moving approximately in a region of the Galaxy extending from galactic 
longitude 130° to 340°. The fact that no stars of high velocity are 
moving toward points opposite this region renders it probable that we 
are dealing with a physical group and certainly accounts for the high 
velocity of the solar motion derived from such data. 

It is also very probable that the increase in the declination of the 
apex of solar motion with decrease in apparent magnitude, found when 
the stars have been divided according to apparent magnitude, is 
attributable to the same cause, for in general the stars of fainter magni- 
tude employed in the investigations are those with high-space veloci- 
ties. The group of high-velocity stars is not similar to such groups as 
the Taurus cluster, for it fans out, but the motions of these stars are 
entirely at variance with general motions and demand further investi- 
gation to determine the cause of the phenomenon. 

As a matter of interest, partly to test the effect of a change in the 
value of the parallax upon the computed elements, a space velocity of 
100 km. per second was assumed for 63 members of the group and the 
parallax of each star was computed on this basis. It was generally 
found that the computed parallax differed by a small amount from the 
observed parallax. This suggests the bare possibility that the space 
velocities of at least many of these stars may be similar in size. A 
division of the material into giant and dwarf classifications placed 
the solar apex at 269° right-ascension, +18° declination for the giant 
stars, with a solar velocity of 20 kilometers, and at right-ascension 
275°, declination +36° for the dwarf stars, with a solar velocity of 
25 kilometers per second. It seems probable from the material treated 
that the sun's velocity in space is somewhat greater, therefore, than 
the generally accepted value. The A and B type stars were not used 



DEPARTMENT OF MERIDIAN ASTROMETRY. 



209 



in the division into giant and dwarf classifications because of the 
difficulty in assigning a star of these types to either group. A separate 
solution of the 72 stars of these types placed the solar apex at right- 
ascension 262°, declination +35°, and furnished a value of 14 km. for 
the solar velocity. 

The determination of the principal axes of the velocity figure for 
the different divisions is given in the table. 





AK 


Di. 


A2. 


Uo. 


A3. 


u. 


Giant 


101° 
89 
98 
92 

84 


+ 5° 

+ 27 
+ 14 
+20 

+ 48 


5° 
273 

1 
316 
291 


+49° 
+63 
+ 28 
+ 12 
+38 


196° 

180 

212 

188 

190 


+41° 
+ 2 
+ 59 
+ 16 
+ 14 


Dwarf 


A and B 

V<80 

V 80-500 



The velocity figure for the giant stars is less flattened at the pole 
toward the pole of the Galaxy than that of the dwarf stars. The same 
difference also exists between the stars of smaller space velocity com- 
pared with the stars of large velocity. The position of the vertex of 
preferential motion for the large-velocity stars, taken with the peculiar 
distribution of the motions of these stars, accounts for the shift in the 
position of the sun's apex as derived from them. The velocity figure 
of the A and B stars proved not only exceedingly flat in the direction 
of the pole of the Galaxy, but the secondary axis is also small, being 
but half the size of the principal axis. 

Grouping the stars according to type and separating the t>T)es in 
turn into giant and dwarf classifications, it is found that the space 
velocity both for giants and dwarfs increases with progression in type 
from B to M types. The increase of the velocity with progression in 
type was unexpected in the case of the giant stars and is somewhat hard 
to explain according to the more generally accepted theories regarding 
stellar evolution. When the stars were grouped according to divisions 
in absolute magnitude it developed that the velocity increased with 
decreasing intrinsic brightness of the star. The space veloci'^^y of the 
star seems to be a linear function of its absolute magnitude. 

Five possible groups of stars were picked out, two of them the known 
ones of Taurus and Ursa Major. The apex of the Taurus group was 
placed at right-ascension 96°, declination +33°, with a group velocity 
of 29 km. The apex of the Ursa Major group was placed at right- 
ascension 282°, dechnation +2°, with a group velocity of 32 km. 
A very real-appearing group was located with an apex at right-ascen- 
sion 100°, declination +22°, and a group velocity of 30 km. Two 
other possible groups were found, the first with an apex at right ascen- 
sion 97°, declination +12°, with a group velocity of 73 km., and the 



210 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

second with its apex at 268° right ascension, +28° decUnation, and a 
group velocity of 17 km. Mr. Raymond and Mr. Wilson have been 
associated with the Director in this investigation. 

DIURNAL TERM IN CLOCK-RATE. 

In the last report of the Department, Year Book 1920, attention 
was called to a diurnal term in the right ascensions determined at 
Albany, Greenwich, Cape of Good Hope, and Pulkova. Mr. Varnum 
has continued his investigation of this phenomenon, employing various 
tests to determine the nature of the disturbing element causing the 
phenomenon. The fact that clocks of different makes, those running 
free, and those under barometric and temperature control, exhibit 
the same phenomenon seemed sufficient to discredit the idea that the 
irregularities lay in the clock itself. It did seem very reasonable that 
light passing through miles of an atmosphere which is subject to chang- 
ing conditions might appreciably affect the observations. The greatest 
ca.'e was exerted to free the observations from all known sources of 
error. This was more readily effected because the observations had 
been planned in a manner to thoroughly discuss any peculiarities which 
might be outstanding in them. The residual errors of separate series 
of observations were then tested on the assumption that changing 
conditions of the atmosphere produced a varied refractional effect. 

It is reasonable to suppose that the heating and cooling effects of 
the atmosphere due to the position of the sun might produce effects 
in the atmosphere which would introduce a diurnal term in the ob- 
servations. In order to inspire confidence such a term should improve 
the observational data. It was found that the introduction of such 
a term in the right-ascensions greatly reduced the systematic correc- 
tions in right-ascension depending upon right-ascension and declina- 
tion. A like improvement was also noted in the effect east minus 
west and in upper minus lower. In addition, it was noted that series 
of observations which appeared to be inharmonious proved to be those 
series where the refractional effect is most pronounced, so that appar- 
ently discordant results are harmonized. If the phenomenon is a 
natural one due to variation in refraction, then it should affect the 
zenith distances as well as the right-ascensions. 

The work upon this phase of the problem has barely started, but for 
the few series treated it has yielded interesting results. It has appar- 
ently demonstrated that the observations taken at any particular 
time are subject to a systematic shift. WTien the refractional term is 
introduced, the individual star positions, with very few exceptions, are 
brought into greater accordance. Considerable work is yet to be 
undertaken upon the investigation, but it seems eminently worth 
while, as the results promise to correct the positions of the poles and 
the equator; thus, to a large extent, observations taken north and south 



DEPARTMENT OF MERIDIAN ASTROMETRY. 211 

of the equator will be harmonized. In this way it is hoped that we may- 
be able to b'ing about a better standardization of star positions 
from pole to pole. 

STELLAR WAVE-LENGTHS. 

Mr. Albrecht has continued his study of stellar wave-lengths. 
Wave-lengths have been computed for all measures M^hich were deemed 
suitable in Publications of the Lick Observatory, Vol. IX, Part II. 
The immediate use for these wave-lengths was twofold: (1) to test, 
for the measures of Dr. Palmer and Professor Wright, the variations 
of wave-length as a function of stellar type which had previously been 
published, and (2) to discuss these variations with special reference 
to the distinction between the giant and the dwarf stars. 

For the first test the results are quite definite, the measures of Dr. 
Palmer and of Professor Wright for certain lines showing variations 
of wave-length with type which are very similar to those previously 
found, principally for the measures of Albrecht. The second test 
could be only partially completed at this time, due to the fact that for 
the present only an inadequate separation of the stars in this list into 
the giant and dwarf classes is possible. However, Vv'^ith the aid of 
Russell's rule for the individual assignment of stars to the giant and 
dwarf classes on the basis of stellar proper-motions, it was shown 
that the published curves of variation of wave-length with type per- 
tain to the giants, being based overwhelmingly on giants. Only a 
moderate amount of revision will be required for these. For the de- 
termination of the curves for the dwarfs there will be required (a) 
additional stellar parallaxes for the stars in the above list, and (b) a 
detailed study of the spectra of a specially selected list of known 
dwarfs. At Professor Frost's suggestion the published measures on the 
standard velocity stars were also tried. However, it w^as found that 
the dwarf stars are not at all represented in this list. Preliminary 
reports on the above investigation have been made at the last two 
meetings of the American Astronomical Society. 

SYSTEMATIC CORRECTIONS TO THE PRELIMINARY GENERAL CATALOGUE. 

Mr. Roy, assisted mainly by Mr. Jenkins and Miss Buffum, has 
discussed the systematic corrections for most of the catalogues issued 
since the publication of the Preliminary General Catalogue and has 
determined their weights. The results, which are now in press, will 
furnish those who desire proper-motions in advance of their definitive 
determination and publication with the material from which they 
may derive approximate results. The systematic corrections derived 
from those catalogues, of a more or less fundamental nature, indicate 
a definite correction to the system of the Preliminary General Cata- 
logue, as was anticipated, though the agreement among the catalogues 
is not wholly satisfactory. 



212 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

REDUCTION OF OBSERVATIONS. 

The reduction of the San Luis zenith-distance observations, under 
the supervision of Mr. Roy, is now practically completed. The pre- 
cessions in both right-ascension and declination are computed and 
checked and the declinations are reduced to the mean epoch 1910.0. 
Means of the observations in declination are being formed and a 
further scrutiny of discordant results is being made. The secular 
variations also have been largely duplicated. 

With the near completion of the San Luis zenith-distance reductions, 
Mr. Roy has been able to make greater progress in the reduction of the 
Albany zenith distances. The first discussion undertaken was of the 
observations made by each observer of stars, both above and below 
pole, to ascertain a system representing the Albany instrument and 
observers. The first results obtained, the latitude and the correction 
to the Pulkova refractions, are as follows: 

A. J. Roy +42° 39' 12r78 -OTOSG tan Z. D. 

W. B. Varnum +42° 39' 12':85 -0':i74 tan Z. D. 

It is to be noted that after Mr. Varnum has obtained definitive 
results for the effect of irregular refraction upon the observations, 
it will become necessary to rediscuss the observations in order that this 
term may be introduced in the final results. The promised gain in the 
harmonizing of the observations fully justifies this step being taken. 

MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATIONS. 

Mr. Wilson continued his work on the selection of standard stars 
for a photographic survey until April 1921, when the project was 
postponed. The material gathered will be furnished to anyone de- 
siring to use it. 

Mr. Wilson also investigated the relation between period and eccen- 
tricity in binary systems. Treating 235 systems, he found an apparent 
rapid increase in eccentricity depending upon the period in systems 
with a period less than 100 days, followed by a minimum for the 
systems with a period of from 100 days to 50 years. When the material 
was divided into giant and dwarf classifications, the relatively rapid 
increase in eccentricity in the shorter-period binaries seemed to be 
largely due to the predominance of giant systems in these groups. 
An increase in the number of dwarf systems would tend to flatten the 
curve. The minimum referred to is partially due to the systematically 
low eccentricities of the dwarf stars in these groups and partially to the 
greater probability of the discovery of the less eccentric orbits among 
the long-period spectroscopic binaries. As more spectroscopic binaries 
with long periods are added it is probable that most of the discordances 
from a uniform mean period-eccentricity curve will be removed. 



DEPARTMENT OF MERIDIAN ASTROMETRY. 213 

Mr. Wilson has computed the orbits of three spectroscopic binaries 
I Carinse (interesting because of its being a Cepheid with a period of 
35.5 days), ,8 Doradus, and 6 Sagittarii. 

The Director, accompanied by ]Mr. Wilson, left in August 1920 
for the southwest to test observing conditions in that region. Mount 
Wilson, Mount Hamilton, and the region around San Diego were 
visited in California; Tucson, Prescott, and Flagstaff, in Arizona; 
and Albuquerque and Santa Fe in New Mexico. The tests were car- 
ried on by means of star trails taken with a 5-inch photographic 
doublet of 13 feet focal length, the same instrument used in an ex- 
ploration of the South Atlantic States. 

It might be stated in general that the seeing conditions in the south- 
west furnish no appreciable advantage over the conditions in the favor- 
able region of the southeast described in the last annual report of this 
Department. A distinct advantage, however, results for most classes 
of observation through the greater number of clear nights per year 
and, in the case of the desert regions, through the greater transparency 
of the atmosphere. 

STAFF. 

The Director has been engaged on special researches. He under- 
took an extensive investigation of the obser\dng conditions in the 
southwestern States during the first thi'ee months of the j^ear. Dr. 
Sebastian Albrecht continued his researches on standards of wave- 
length. Mr. Sherwood B. Grant has been engaged on a number of 
the processes of reduction in the formation of the catalogues. Mr. 
Heroy Jenkins continued his work on the derivation of systematic 
corrections to star catalogues. Mr. Harry RajTnond has assisted 
the Director in the determination of the stellar space velocities and 
has been also engaged with, many departments of the work. Mr. 
Arthur J. Roy was in charge of the Department during the absence 
of the Director. He has continued his supervision of the reduction 
of the zenith-distances and has also supervised the computations for 
the systematic corrections to star catalogues. Mr. William B. Varnimi 
has devoted his energies toward a solution of the problem of the 
diurnal variation in clock-rate. Dr. Ralph E. Wilson accompanied 
the Director on his expedition to the southwest to observe climatic 
conditions. He has also assisted the Director upon special investi- 
gations and has undertaken a number of personal investigations. 
Miss Alice M. Fuller has continued as secretary of the Department. 

As usual, the computing staff has been engaged on the various com- 
putations involved in the reduction of observations and in the inves- 
tigation of various problems. It has consisted of Miss Marion F. 
Benjamin, Mrs. Lillian F. Blanchard, Miss Grace I. Buffum, Mrs. 
Livia C. Clark, Miss Mary M. Kampf, Miss Isabella Lange, Miss 
Marie Lange, and Miss Frances L. MacNeill, together with four 
miscellaneous computers employed temporarily upon the work. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. ' 

George E. Hale, Director. 
SUMMARY OF THE YEAR'S WORK. 

Three outstanding events, combined with vigorous and successful 
work in all departments of research, render the past year a memor- 
able one in the history of the Observatory. The first of these is the 
publication by Dr. Adams and his associates of the absolute mag- 
nitudes and parallaxes of 1,646 stars, and the deduction from these 
results of the impK)rtant generalizations outlined in this report. The 
second advance of great significance is the successful application of 
the interferometer by Messrs. Michelson and Pease to the measure- 
ment of star diameters. No less important in its future possibili- 
ties is the establishment in Pasadena of the Norman Bridge Physical 
Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology and the accep- 
tance by Dr. R. A. Millikan of its directorship. It will be advantage- 
ous to consider the bearing of these events on the progress of the 
Observatory before summarizing the other activities of the year. 

The two first-named advances, and in a different sense the third, 
illustrate the value in research of the development of new instruments 
and methods. Prior to 1900, only 60 stellar parallaxes had been meas- 
ured by the laborious methods, for the most part visual, applied up 
to that time. The work of Dr. Schlesinger with the 40-inch Yerkes 
refractor initiated a school of parallax measurers, whose efficient use 
of photographic methods added new and more precise determinations 
at such a rapid rate that the total number of trigonometric parallaxes 
is now about 1,400. In 1915, Dr. Adams began systematic application 
with the 60-inch reflector of an entirely new method, which gives a 
parallax mea'sure, of high precision, from the simple comparison of the 
relative intensities of two lines on a stellar spectrum photograph. In 
five years 2,000 stellar parallaxes have been determined at Mount 
Wilson by this beautiful process, which has been applied with the 
100-inch reflector to stars as faint as the 9th magnitude, and could be 
pushed to much fainter objects. Thus, while the value of trigono- 
metric parallaxes is by no means diminished, but rather increased, 
by the introduction of the spectroscopic method, the range of action 
and the rate of progress have been advanced in very high decree. 

The best evidence of this advance is afforded by the conclusions 
based on the new measures. In complete confirmation of the earlier 
work of Adams and Joy, these establish beyond doubt the validity of 
Russell's views on giant and dwarf stars. In their early oi giant stage 
the stars are immensely inflated gaseous masses, so tenuous that their 
density may be as low as one-thousandth that of atmospheric air. 
As they condense, their temperature rises and their reddish color 

^ Situated on Mount Wilson, California. Address, Pasadena, California. 

215 



216 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

changes to yellow and then to white. A critical point is reached when 
the increasing pressure carries the mass beyond the state of a perfect 
gas and into the period of declining stellar life. Beyond this stage lie 
the denser and smaller stars known as "dwarfs," of which our sun, 
1.4 times as dense as water, is one. As the shrinkage goes on, the colors 
that mark the giant state return, first yellow and then through deepen- 
ing shades of red as the star approaches final extinction. 

Knowledge of the distances of these stars, and of their motions across 
and parallel to the line of sight, has rendered possible the determina- 
tion of their actual motions in space. It has thus been found that the 
space velocities of the yellow and red stars, especially the giants, de- 
pend upon their absolute luminosities, the fainter stars moving more 
rapidly than the brighter ones. A decrease in brightness of one magni- 
tude is found to correspond to an increase of about 3 km. per second 
in the average velocity in space. While the bearing of this result is not 
yet certain, it probably means that stars of small mass move more 
rapidly, on the average, than those of large mass. Of the many other 
important conclusions of this investigation given in the body of the 
report, one of the most significant is that the stars with large veloci- 
ties, most of which are of the dwarf class, are moving toward the center 
of the galactic system. Thus this extensive mvestigation is leading 
to conclusions of the most fundamental significance, which are rapidly 
advancing our knowledge of the structure and evolution of the stellar 
universe. 

In the last annual report the successful application of the inter- 
ferometer, in the form due to Dr. Anderson, to the measurement with 
extiaordinar}^ precision of the close double star Capella, was fully ex- 
plained. Dr. Merrill has since continued the measurement of Capella 
and other doubles, and Professor Aitken has undertaken to apply this 
method to many of his closest pairs with the 36-inch Lick refractor. 
Reference was also made to a special interfeiometer 20 feet in length, 
built for use on the tube of the 100-inch telescope, which had given 
sharp fringes when tested by Professor Michelson at its full aperture 
on certain stars. With this instrument remarkable results have since 
been obtained by Mr. Pease. 

On the night of December 13, 1920, when observing Betelgeuse, he 
found that the sharpness ("visibility") of the fringes steadily decreased 
as the interferometer mirrors were separated, until they finally disap- 
peared completely when the mirrors were 10 feet apart. Assuming the 
mean wave-length of the light of Betelgeuse to be X5750, the angular 
diameter is at once found to be 0^047, corresponding to a linear 
diameter of about 215,000,000 miles. ^ Since that time Mr. Pease has 
found that the fringes of Arcturus and Antares disappear at mirror 

'These linear diameters may be considerably in error, chiefly because of uncertainty regard- 
ing the exact value of the parallaxes of these stars. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 217 

separations of about 20 feet and 12 feet, respectively, corresponding 
to angular diameters of 0!022 and 0''040, and linear diameters of about 
21,000,000 and 400,000,000 miles. In the case of several other stars, 
evea when the angular diameter is much smaller, distinct decrease in 
visibility has been observed when the mirrors were separated. In fact. 
Professor Michelson has made very precise estimates of decreasing 
visibility for white stars, and has devised a simple auxiliary appa- 
ratus for producing comparison fringes of knowai visibility. Thus, 
if uncertainties due to variations in seeing can be allowed for, which 
is still uncertain, it may become possible with the 20-foot inter- 
ferometer to obtain approximate measures of stars of very small 
angular diameter. 

The importance of this investigation is obvious, as it has already 
given beautiful confirmation of Russell's theory, proving the existence 
of giant stars of enormous size and of mean density about one- 
thousandth that of atmospheric air. The new method will be developed 
to the fullest possible extent and applied to all the stars that come 
within its range. 

The third very exceptional event in the progress of the year dates, 
in its inception, from the origin of the Observatory. At Kenwood on a 
small scale and at the Yerkes Observatory on a larger one, the writer 
had utilized laboratory experiments as the necessary means of inter- 
preting astrophysical phenomena. In this respect he simply had 
followed the example of Huggins, Lockyer, and others, gradually in- 
creasing the scale of the instrumental equipment as need and experience 
developed. A physical laboratory naturally formed part of the original 
Mount Wilson equipment, and this has proved so necessary to the inter- 
pretation of solar and stellar phenomena that it is now being advanced 
from a secondary to a primary place in the scheme of the Observatory. 
The importance of taking this step was mentioned in the last two an- 
nual reports, and progress has already been made, as the present 
report indicates, in building up the equipment on the necessary scale. 

From the outset this equipment has been planned with special 
reference to the practical problem of interpreting astronomical phe- 
nomena. While it has not been thought wise to limit our physical in- 
vestigations to such needs, it has seemed equally inadvisable to expand 
very far into the domain of the investigator who deals primarily with 
the fundamental laws of physics and chemistry. Thus, in our work on 
the Zeeman effect, begim for the express purpose of interpreting sun- 
spot phenomena, it has seemed best not to limit our laboratory studies 
simply to the lines affected in spots, but also to include other lines and 
to extend the range of wave-length well into the ultra-violet, beyond 
the termination of the characteristic spot spectrum. Similarly, in the 
Stark effect and now in the combined effect of electric and magnetic 
fields on radiation, we have not adhered narrowly to the viewpoint of 



218 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

the astronomer, but have attacked our problems with the general 
interests of research in mind, without endeavoring to draw any boun- 
dary line between astronomy and physics. 

Attractive as the fundamental physical aspects of these problems 
may be, it is nevertheless plain that their unlimited pursuit by the 
Observatory staff would result in a scattering of effort and in too great 
a departure from the paths leading to our primary objectives. It is 
opportune to consider in the present connection the nature of these 
objectives and the best means of developing the work of the Obser- 
vatory in its broader aspect. 

At the outset, as the original name of the Observatory indicated, 
our plan was to base a general study of stellar evolution on an intensive 
investigation of the sun, the results of which were expected to guide our 
attack on other celestial objects. The belief that increased knowledge 
of our nearest neighbor among the stars would aid in the comprehen- 
sion of remote stellar objects has not been disappointed, as previous 
reports have shown. But in one important respect it has become 
necessary to enlarge the scope of our plan. The relationship between 
physical development, defining the successive stages in stellar life, 
and the various elements that determine a star's place in the struc- 
ture of the universe has proved to be much more intimate than the 
knowledge then available had led us to recognize. Moreover, the 
various data, such as radial velocity, parallax, absolute luminosity, 
etc., thus rendered necessary for the interpretation of stellar spectra, 
were at hand only in the case of a few of the brighter stars. As our 
work progressed outward toward the remote stars, the importance of 
including in our scheme an investigation of the structure of the stellar 
universe, involving observations of stellar parallaxes, radial velocities, 
etc., became manifest. The results described in the present report 
are sufficient evidence of the necessity of this policy. 

Two great problems of astronomy— the evolution of stars and the 
structure of the universe— have thus been attacked, but an equally 
important one has hitherto played only a minor part in the scheme of 
the Observatory. This is the constitution of matter, which in many 
cases may be approached even more effectively by the astrophysicist 
than by the physicist or chemist. Helium, rare on the earth but con- 
spicuous in the solar atmosphere, was first detected there in 1868 and 
found in a terrestrial source in 1896. The influence of a magnetic 
field on radiation was visible forty years ago in the spectra of sun- 
spots, where a great physical experiment, open to observation with the 
best instruments of that time, was in progress in every spot. Faraday's 
last experiment, frustrated by inadequate instrumental means, was an 
attempt to detect the very effect that the magnetic field in spots shows 
so plainly. To go farther back, the complete Balmer series of hydrogen 
lines, known in the laboratory only through its four less refrangible mem- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 219 

bers, was photographed by Huggins in the sixties in the spectra of white 
stars and reproduced with difficulty in the laboratory some years later. 
To-day we know that nebulium exists in the nebulse and in at least one 
star, but no one has succeeded in isolating or even detecting this gas on 
earth. Scores of other illustrations might be advanced to indicate 
how often the clue to fundamental phj^sical and chemical problems 
may be found in the stars, but one will suffice — the remarkable rela- 
tionship between ionization potentials and certain characteristic phe- 
nomena of solar and stellar spectra, pointed out by Saha and already 
applied by Russell in the case of sun-spots (p. 238). 

It is clear, therefore, that the constitution of matter, so richly and 
abundantly illustrated under the extreme ranges of pressure, of tem- 
perature, and of electrical excitation exhibited by the sun and stars, 
should be raised from a minor to a major position in the astronomer's 
scheme of research. The equipment of the Mount Wilson Observa- 
tory is peculiarly adapted for this purpose; but one essential aid was 
lacking — the close cooperation of great physical and chemical labora- 
tories, manned, equipped, and endowed with this chief end in view. 
As already suggested, such laboratories, dealing with the study of the 
constitution of matter and not primarily with the interpretation of 
astronomical phenomena, could not properly form a part of the Obser- 
vatory establishment. They would be equally useful, however, in a 
neighboring institution sufficiently close at hand to permit intimate 
daily cooperation. Fortunately, they are now available through the 
successful activities of the California Institute of Technology, which 
has been equally appreciative of the possibilities of combined action 
and has been engaged for years in the development of a general policy 
in which the present move plays a vital part. 

The history of this institution may be of interest here. Established 
in 1891 as the result of a gift of $50,000 from Amos G. Throop, it was 
in 1904 a school of nearly 500 pupils, chiefly of elementary, grammar- 
school, and high-school grades, though two or three were receiving 
more advanced instruction. Under the presidency of Dr. James A. B. 
Scherer, appointed in 1908, it gradually altered its policy, gave up its 
work below college grade, and in 1910 began again, in a new building, 
with only 31 students, all of them pursuing the courses of a techno- 
logical school of small size but of high standards. The total assets 
of the Institute were still very limited, amounting, all told (buildings, 
site, equipment, and endo-wment), to approximately $580,000. The 
plans in view, however, were clear and definite : high standards, more 
and better humanistic courses than technological schools generally 
offer, and adequate provision for scientific research, to be ultimately 
the leading feature of the school. In 1916 a gift of $200,000 was re- 
ceived as an endowment for research in chemistry, and Messrs. Charles 
W. and P. G. Gates provided a building for a chemical laboratory. 



220 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Dr. Arthur A. Noyes, Director of the Research Laboratory of Physical 
Chemistry and for two years Acting President of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, was appointed Director of Chemical Research. 
For several years Dr. Noyes spent three months annually in Pasadena, 
but in 1919 he resigned from the Massachusetts Institute and removed 
permanently to California. In that year a further gift of $200,000 
was received as an endowment fund to initiate research in physics, 
and Dr. Robert A. Millikan, Professor of Physics in the University of 
Chicago, was engaged as Director of Physical Research, spending three 
months of each year in Pasadena. During the past year several gifts 
to the Institute, includmg large additions to the endowTnent fund and 
$500,000 from Dr. Norman Bridge for a physical laboratory and 
library, have permitted the trustees to carry out their original plans. 
Dr. Millikan lias accepted permanent appointment as Director of the 
Norman Bridge Physical Laboratory and, beginning this autumn, will 
spend all of his time in Pasadena. As his chief object is to continue 
his investigations on a larger scale and to build up an important cen- 
ter of research, he prefers not to accept the position of president, 
left vacant in 1920 by the resignation of Dr. Scherer because of ill 
health. He will, however, be Chairman of the Executive Council, 
which will have charge of the administration of the Institute. This 
will consist of three members of the Board of Trustees, Mr. Arthur H. 
Fleming, Mr. Henry M. Robinson, and the writer, and three members 
of the faculty, Messrs. Millikan, Noyes, and Barrett (secretary of 
the Institute). 

These details are given because of the close relationship which will 
hereafter exist between the Mount Wilson Observatory and the Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology. As during the past year, the members 
of the Observatory staff will meet weekly with the investigators of 
the Bridge and Gates Laboratories to hear reports on current research 
and discuss problems of common interest. They will also be invited 
to attend the courses of lectures to be given at the Institute by eminent 
men of science, who will include for the coming year Professor H. A. 
Lorentz of Haarlem, and Professor Paul Epstein, formerly of Leiden and 
now a member of the faculty of the Institute. Furthermore, a joint 
study of the constitution of matter and the nature of radiation will be 
organized, in which the astronomical, physical, and chemical aspects 
of these problems will be attacked by the members of the three groups 
immediately concerned. 

In assembling the powerful instrumental equipment required for this 
work, the three laboratories will act in close cooperation. Thus the 
provision, by the Southern California Edison Company, of a high- 
tension laboratory on the campus of the Institute, to contain a 
1,000-kw. transformer, giving approximately 1,000,000 volts, will ren- 
der the acquisition of similar apparatus by the Observatory unneces- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 221 

sary. Needless to say, this plant will be of great service in pushing to 
the highest attainable limit some of the investigations described in this 
report and others of similar character. The Observatory will also be 
aided materially by having access to the powerful X-ray apparatus and 
the large physical library to be installed in the Bridge Laboratory. 
More important still, constant stimulus and enlightenment will be 
derived from close association with Dr. Millikan's researches on atomic 
structure and Dr. Noyes's chemical investigations of problems bearing 
directly on astronomy. The new step is therefore an epoch-making 
one in the progress of the Observatory. 

Turning to other aspects of the year's work, we may first mention 
those which bear directly upon this closer alliance with physics and 
chemistry. For many years certain peculiarities of solar and stellar 
spectra have baffled all attempts at solution. As an example, it has 
been impossible to understand why the H and K lines, which certainly 
belong to calcium, an element of comparatively high atomic weight, 
nevertheless extend to the highest levels in the solar atmosphere, 
far outreaching the lines of sodium, magnesium, and other lighter 
elements. Dr. Megh Nad Saha, Assistant Professor of Physics in the 
University of Calcutta, has recently offered an explanation which 
appears to be generally applicable to the interpretation of many of 
the most puzzling phenomena of solar and stellar spectra. According 
to this view, the H and K lines are the enhanced lines of a calcium atom 
which has lost one electron, whereas the fundamental line of neutral 
calcium is X4227. In the higher levels of the chromosphere, where the 
ionization, which is only partial at the higher pressures of lower levels, 
becomes complete, neutral calcium and hence the X4227 Ime disap- 
pears, while H and K, representing the ionized atoms, remain as con- 
spicuous lines. The D and b lines of sodium and magnesium are due 
to the neutral atoms, which are not present at high levels, and the lines 
corresponding to the ionized atoms of these and other elements fail to 
appear because they lie in the extreme ultra-violet, with the possible 
exception of X4481 of magnesium. Space is lacking to give further 
details, but Dr. Saha has already pointed out many possible applica- 
tions of his theory, and others will rapidly develop. In evidence of 
this, attention is called to the important results obtained by Dr. 
Henry Norris Russell, Research Associate of the Observatory, who has 
extended the theory to the case where atoms of several kinds are pres- 
ent, and tested it in a preliminary study of the spectra of sun-spots 
(p. 240). Among the interesting results of this work is the discovery 
in the sun of rubidium, shown by the presence in the spot spectrum 
of two lines in the infra-red, as predicted by Saha. A general attack 
on solar, stellar, and laboratory spectra from this point of view, in 
which Dr. Russell and other members of the staff will take part, is 
being organized. In this connection it is expected that the determina- 



222 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

tion of certain ionizing potentials and the study of many other funda- 
mental aspects of the question will be undertaken at the California 
Institute. 

Another problem calling for the joint activity of the Institute and 
the Observatory is that which involves the combined effect of electric 
and magnetic fields on radiation. The nature of this effect has been 
sought by the writer because of his desire to decide conclusively 
whether the existence of electric fields can be detected in sun-spots or 
other solar phenomena, and also because of the important bearing of 
the effect on the structure of the atom. If an electric field exists in a 
sun-spot, the radiating particles within it must be subjected simulta- 
neously to the influence both of the electric field and the magnetic 
field of the spot. No evidence of the Stark effect has been detected in 
sun-spot spectra, and the weakening of the enlianced lines and other 
evidences of low ionization seem to indicate that a strong electric 
field can not be present. It has nevertheless been thought advisable 
to undertake in our laboratory an investigation of the effect of the 
combined fields, the preliminary results of which are given in this 
report (p. 288). In this work, done with the efficient aid of Mr. Sin- 
clair Smith, we have fortunately had the use of the powerful coreless 
magnet designed by Dr. Aaderson (p. 288), which gives a field of 
33,000 gausses with a current of 4,000 amperes, and is admirably 
adapted for the insertion of our special quartz vacuum-tubes within 
the uniform magnetic field. This magnet is also especially adapted 
for the study of the inverse Zeeman effect with the aid of an electric 
furnace designed by Dr. King for this purpose (p. 286). 

Dr. King's regular investigations of furnace spectra have dealt for 
the most part with the emission lines of manganese, scandium, cad- 
mium, yttrium, neodymium, and zirconium, and the absorption spectra 
of iron and the alkali metals. Between X2795 and X6605, 270 manga- 
nese lines have been classified on the basis of their temperature varia- 
tions between 1,560° and 2,400° C; 307 scandium lines have also been 
classified, and the characteristics of the enhanced lines and of those 
strengthened at low temperatures have been determined. As the en- 
hanced lines are the only ones that are strong in the solar spectrum, it 
is of interest to learn that these are produced in the furnace at moderate 
temperatures, in some cases as low as 2,250° C. The low-temperature 
lines, absent for the most part from the solar spectrum, are naturally 
strengthened in spots. In the work on absorption spectra it has been 
found possible at the highest temperatures (3,200° C.) to reverse prac- 
tically all the iron lines as far as X6700. Such high temperatures have 
also rendered it possible to photograph the subordinate series of so- 
dium, potassium, and calcium in absorption, giving improved wave- 
lengths and better values of the series constants. 

Dr. Anderson's work on the absorption spectra of electrically ex- 
ploded iron wires has been continued with high dispersion over the 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 223 

range X2600 to X6600. The spectra show great wealth of detail and 
indicate that all of the absorption lines are displaced toward the violet 
because of the motion of the absorbing vapor toward the observer. 
This displacement is, in general, greater for high-temperature than for 
low-temperature lines, and for this and other reasons it is evident that 
the special form of condenser needed for the development and exten- 
sion of this work should be provided as soon as possible (p. 291). The 
results of the work of Messrs. Anderson and Smith on the discharge 
of the present large condenser through vacuum-tubes are also very 
promising (p. 291). 

The publication of the wave-lengths of 1,026 iron-arc lines by Messrs. 
St. John and Babcock marks an important advance in high-precision 
spectroscopy. Instrumental errors have been largely eliminated by 
the comparison of photographs taken wdth five different gratings and 
with four pairs of interferometer plates, and the agreement indicates 
that for most of the lines the mean wave-length is accurate to 0.001 a. 
The results show the serious displacement produced in the standard 
arc by pole effect, and the consequent necessity of taking exceptional 
precautions in the comparison of solar and terrestrial wave-lengths 
(p. 289). 

How essential such considerations are is well illustrated by the re- 
cent history of the attempts of various spectroscopists to detect the 
shift of solar lines predicted by Einstein. Several investigators, after 
making arbitrary assumptions and applying various corrections for 
pressure shift and motion in the solar atmosphere, have each con- 
firmed Einstein's value. As a matter of fact, no final conclusion 
seems to be warranted that is not based upon an exhaustive study 
of pressure shifts, variations with temperature, pole effect, motions 
in the solar atmosphere, and other phenomena under investigation 
by Messrs. St. John, Babcock, King, and other members of the 
Observatory staff (p. 242). Of prime importance in this work is the 
series of interferometer observations of the wave-lengths of lines at 
the center of the sun, made by Messrs. Babcock and St. John with 
the Snow telescope. The lines selected for measurement cover a 
range of 2,500 a, and are chosen with reference to elements of 
chief interest in the sun, atomic weight, line intensity, probable level 
in the solar atmosphere, absence of close companions, etc. (p. 245). 
In conjunction with this investigation Mr. Babcock's interferometer 
study of the pressure displacements of selected iron lines under a small 
range of pressure is of great importance. A differential method of 
observation and the precautions taken to eliminate pole effect have led 
to results of the highest precision (p. 292). 

Several of the most important additions to the equipment of our 
Pasadena laboratory have already been mentioned. Messrs. Nicholson 
and Pettit have also made an extended investigation of various forms 
of thermo-couples for laboratory and astrophysical uses. The most sue- 



224 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

cessful of these is a tellurium-silver couple, used in vacuo, which has 
given excellent preliminary results. Further studies will soon deter- 
mine the best arrangement of this apparatus for the purposes in view 
(p. 286). 

Closely connected with these problems is the question of the con- 
stancy in position of the telluric lines, often used as standards in the 
solar spectrum. A long series of very careful measures of oxygen and 
water- vapor lines by Dr. St. John and Mr. Babcock has failed to con- 
firm the large changes in wave-length found by Perot. They conclude 
that these lines are practically constant in position, and are thus of 
great value as standards (p. 245). Messrs. St. John and Nicholson, 
using a dispersion of 3 angstroms per millimeter, have been able to 
prove beyond question that both oxygen and water-vapor lines are 
absent from the spectrum of Venus. With the high dispersion em- 
ployed, the relative velocity of Venus and the earth was sufficient to 
separate completely from the telluric lines any corresponding lines 
originating in the atmosphere of Venus. The absence of oxygen 
and water-vapor lines raises the question whether equal dispersion 
would show them in the spectra of other planets (p. 248). Professor 
Russell points out that St. John's proof of the absence of oxygen in 
the atmosphere of Venus is in harmony with the slight indications of 
oxygen in sun-spots, and the abundance of unoxidized material in 
volcanic gases and in the earth's crust. A planet, if formed from the 
outer layers of the sun, would contain little oxygen. This suggests 
that the oxygen in the earth's atmosphere may be a product of vegeta- 
tion in geological times (p. 241). 

From a discussion of 56 spectrograms of Venus and 41 of the sky, 
Mr. Nicholson finds that the discrepancies between the wave-lengths of 
Venus and sky lines may be attributed to the effect of atmospheric 
refraction (p. 247). 

Another piece of related work is the investigation of the spectrum 
of an iron arc on Mount Wilson by Dr. Anderson and Mr. Babcock, 
as observed from the Pasadena laboratory at a distance of 7 miles, 
equivalent to 1 .4 atmospheres. Under poor conditions of observation 
the spectrum has been photographed as far as X2740, although the solar 
spectrum ends at X2890. The work will be continued under better 
atmospheric conditions (p. 292) . In this connection reference may also 
be made to the identification by Dr. Merrill of additional air-lines in 
the spark spectrum in pure oxygen (p. 292). 

The effective wave-length of sunlight has been determined with high 
precision at Pasadena and on Mount Wilson by Mr. Anderson, with 
results indicating that it is practically constant from the zenith down 
to an altitude of 30°. By using this value it becomes possible to calcu- 
late with sufficient accuracy from color indices the effective wave- 
length of the light of any given star, as required in the reduction of 
interferometer measures of its angular diameter (p. 245). 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 225 

Mr. St. John's spectroscopic investigations of the solar rotation, 
which have now been continued for some years, give a mean linear 
velocity at the equator of 1.93 km. per second, with slight irregular 
fluctuations. He sees no reason to believe in a progressive change 
from year to year, and is inclined to attribute differences between 
observers to systematic errors (p. 241). 

Daily observations of the magnetic polarities and field-strengths of 
all sun-spots have been made, as in previous years, with the 150-foot 
tower telescope by Messrs. Ellerman, Nicholson, Pettit, Hoge, and 
Benioff. Special mention should be made of the great spot of last 
]May, which was notable for its size, its position exactly on the equator, 
its eruptive activity, its mixed polarity, and its connection with the 
brilliant auroras and violent magnetic storms which occurred while 
the spot was crossing the disk. All of the evidence favors the view that 
the terrestrial phenomena were due to the eniptions which took place 
repeatedly in the area surrounding the spot. Although appearmg to 
the eye as an ordinarj^ bipolar group, the spot was shown by our 
observations of the Zeeman effect to comprise two large areas of oppo- 
site polarity in each of its chief membere. As any direct magnetic 
effect at a distance would thus be largely annulled, the evidence against 
appreciable influence on the earth, already sufficiently^ conclusive, is 
still further strengthehed by this interesting case (p. 235). 

The writer's study of the nature of sun-spots has included the 
further examination of the three spot hjiDotheses outlined in the last 
report; the search for an electric field, now almost conclusively settled 
in the negative (p. 288) ; and the detailed investigation of the Zeeman 
effect in the spot spectrum. jVIuch evidence may be assembled (p. 237) 
in support of the deep penetration of the spot-vortex, which would rule 
out the shallow vortex called for by the second hj^Dothesis. The 
requirement that the length of the vortex shall be of the same order 
as the diameter of the spot, which was deduced by Stormer from his 
theoretical investigation of the direction of the lines of force, is strongly 
opposed to this hypothesis. Dr. Russell has also shown that to account 
for the low temperature of spots by expansion, the ascending gases 
must have come from depths where the temperature ranges from 
10,000° to 20,000° C. (p. 240). Detailed investigation of the Zeeman 
effect in the spot spectrum has involved the measurement, by Dr. H. C. 
Wilson and Miss Mayberry, of displacements on photographs taken 
with Nicol and quarter-wave plate of about 6,500 lines in the regions 
X3900 to X4700 and X5200 to X5300. The vrork is being continued 
by Miss Mayberry and the writer toward the red, about 700 lines 
beyond X6100 having been measured thus far. The peculiar displace- 
ments of the p-components of spot triplets mentioned in previous 
reports may be due in part, if not exclusively' , to the mutual influence of 
closely adjoining lines rather than to some abnormality of the Zeeman 
effect; but this question is not yet settled (p. 237). 



226 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Mr. Hubble's investigations have dealt especially with the galactic 
nebulae and the involved stars, and with non-galactic "globular 
nebulae, " which are very numerous. These latter objects resemble spiral 
nebulae in spectrum and radial velocity, but even the largest of them 
offer no evidence of spiral structure. The smaller representatives are 
often indistinguishable from small spirals, but the globular type illus- 
trated by M 87 apparently constitutes a distinct class, which is 
receiving special study. Many galactic nebulae and nebulous stars 
have also been photographed with the 60-inch and 100-inch telescopes. 
These nebulae apparently obscure in part the stars beyond or within 
them, and suggest by their forms the action of repulsive forces emanat- 
ing from associated stars. 

Extended nebulae and "dark" or obscuring nebulae are found to 
cluster about two planes — the galactic circle and the belt of bright 
helium stars— thus supporting the h^iDothesis of a local cluster re- 
sembling the clouds of the Milky Way (p. 251). 

Mr. Hubble's studies of variable nebulae have been continued with 
interesting results. Small changes in Hind's variable nebula can 
apparently be attributed to variations in absorption affecting luminous 
regions beyond, and the same may be said of N. G. C. 2261, though in 
this case the involved star appears to exercise some influence in its 
immediate neighborhood. N. G. C. 7629 showed marked changes, 
while the involved star R Coronae Australis was brightening rapidly. 
Between the nights of August 14 and 16, 1920, a bright envelope, which 
expanded in three days from 4" to 12" in diameter, developed about the 
star. The highest observed rate of 4" per day, assumed to represent 
a wave of illumination traveling outward with the velocity of light, 
corresponds to a distance of about 290 light years, which is in good 
agreement with the distance as deduced by two other methods (p. 252). 

Mr. Hubble's spectroscopic survey has doubled the number of known 
gaseous extended nebulae and more than tripled that of extended 
nebulae (p. 253) showing continuous spectra. Reference is made below 
to his studies of the spectra of nebulous stars and their relationship 
to those of other stars and nebulae. 

In harmony with previous results for M 33, Mr. van Maanen has 
obtained definite evidence of outward motion along the arms of the 
spiral nebulae M 51 and 81. As possible sources of error now seem to 
have been excluded, this interesting result may be considered as 
substantial support for Jean's theory, which indicates tlmt matter 
should be thrown off from two points of a nebula after it has been 
reduced by rotation to a lenticular form (p. 255). 

Mr. Duncan has photographed a considerable number of nebulae 
and star-clusters, and has detected large internal motions in M 1 
(Crab nebula), confirming the results of Lampland. These motions 
are generally outward from the center, and show a maximuim displace- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 227 

ment of 2T5 in the 11>^ years' interval between the plates. Three new 
novae in the Andronieda nebula and two new variable stars in the Trifid 
nebula have been found on these photographs (p. 258). 

The investigation of the spectra and colors of nebulous stars by Mr. 
Seares and Mr. Hubble has been completed for most of the known 
objects brighter than the 13th magnitude. Their exceptional color 
is strikingly illustrated by 17 faint stars involved in nebulosity near 
o Persei, which show an average color excess of over half a magnitude 
(p. 259). In contradistinction to this effect, probably a scattering by 
the surrounding lumirious nebulosity, Mr. Seares has found no positive 
evidence that the obscured areas, or "dark nebulse," in Perseus and 
Taurus, produce any increased redness of the neighboring stars. Mr. 
Hubble has photographed an abnormally high percentage of late- 
type stars in these regions, but most of these are presumably dwarfs 
lying in front of the obscuring clouds, which are comparatively near us 
and cut off completely the light of the more distant stars (p. 262). 

Mr. Seares and Mr. Hubble have also made an extensive study of 
the correlation of stellar luminosity with spectral tj^pe and color. By 
plotting absolute magnitudes against specti'al types or equivalent 
color-indices some interesting relationships appear. The curve of modal 
values for the helium stars runs smoothly into that of the dv/arfs. The 
Cepheids and pseudo-Cepheids of our own system present, in the 
mean, a correlation of color with luminosity similar to that of the 
Cepheids and the giant stars in globular clusters. From a corresponding 
correlation it is also inferred that the stars in the galactic clouds are 
similar in luminosity to these classes of stars. The frequency curve 
for stars of all tj^ies is in good general agreement with the luminosity 
and density functions of Kapteyn and van Rhijn (p. 277). 

With the aid of data bearing on absolute magnitude, Mr. Seares has 
determined the mean total masses of visual binaries of the various 
spectral types. These show the following remarkable correlation with 
spectral type: 

BO, mass = 18; B5, 14; AO, 10; A5, 7; FO, 4.4; F5, 2.7; 
GO, 1.7; G5, 1.3; KO, 1.2; K5, 1.1; M, 1.0. 

From FO on the masses in this summary are those of the dwarfs 
(p. 276). Further reference to this important investigation will be 
mads after the completion of studies still in progress. 

Photometric observations by Messrs. Seares, Shapley, Hubble, 
Humason, and Lindblad have covered a wide range. Mr. Hubble has 
nearly completed the determination of the photovisual and photo- 
graphic magnitudes of 250 stars associated with nebulae and nebulous 
clusters (p. 259). Mr. Seares has given special attention to the deter- 
mination of the colors of nebulous stars and the stars in galactic clouds 
and special fields (p. 263) . His color-comparisons of the Selected Areas 
in the +30° zone with the North Pole is half completed, and the com- 



228 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

bination of his photographic magnitudes with those of Kapteyn and 
van Rhijn, made with the assistance of Miss Joyner and Miss Rich- 
mond, are practically complete for areas 1 to 67 (p. 261) . Mr. Shapley, 
assisted by Miss Richmond, has finished a survey of the photographic 
and photovisual magnitudes of about 850 stars in the Pleiades between 
magnitudes 10 and 15.5. Within this range the members of the clus- 
ter are dwarfs of absolute magnitude 5 to 10.5 (p. 261) . In connection 
with the work of the International Committee on Magnitudes, Mr. 
Scares, as chairman, has made a series of tests of the Mount Wilson 
photometric scale. These confirm earlier tests and show perfect agree- 
ment with Hertzsprung's measures for the interval between magnitudes 
6 and 13 (p. 262). A study of the colors of 60 stars in the Pleiades by 
Mr. Scares has afforded a useful check on the method of reduction 
and confirmed two anomalous results suspected from other evidence 
(p. 263). 

Reference has already been made to Mr. Seares's investigations of 
stars in the Galaxy. From these he has derived provisional estimates 
for the distance of the galactic clouds, which range from 20,000 to 
50,000 light-years for the blue stars of apparent magnitude 14 to 15.5. 
These are minimum values, indicating a scale for our stellar system in 
harmony wi^h that derived by Mr. Shapley from his studies of globular 
clusters (p. 263). 

Mr. Shapley has continued his work on globular clusters and related 
problems. The distance of the cluster N. G. C. 7006, previously found 
to be 220,000 light-years, has been confirmed by a study of its variable 
stars (p. 265). He has also extended his investigation of the distribu- 
tion of the stars with reference to the plane of the local cluster and the 
galactic plane, and finds that the brighter B stars belong to the star- 
cloud immediately surrounding the sun, while the fainter B stars do 
not (p. 263). 

A relationship discovered by Mr. Shapley between the light-curves 
of Nova? and certain irregular variable stars suggests that the outburst 
and variation of Nov2e may result from causes such as are active in 
these variables (p. 265). He has also examined the question whether 
the changes m geological climates may be due to causes analogous to 
those that produce the ii-regular Orion variables, where motion through 
nebulosity seems to be the source of variation (p. 266). The eclipsing 
binary SX Cassiopeise, studied in association with Mrs. Shapley, is of 
exceptional interest, because its mean density is of the order of 0.0005 
that of the sun. This system actually consists of a very close pair of 
giant stars, each having a linear diameter comparable with that of 
Arcturus (p. 266). 

The faintest and most distant known variables are 19th magnitude 
stars in the globulai cluster N. G. C. 7006. From an investigation by 
Mr. Shapley and Miss Mayberry, these objects appear to be typical 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 229 

short-period Cepheids, some of which undergo marked light variations 
in a few hours (p. 266). 

The velocity in space of blue and yellow light, as shown by Mr. 
Shapley's comparative study of certain variable stars, seems to differ 
less than one part in a billion (p. 265). 

Hugo Benioff has made preliminary tests on stars of a thalofide cell, 
with direct-current audion amplifier. The following deflections were 
observed with the 60-inch reflector: /3 Pegasi (vis. mag. 2.2 to 2.7, 
type Ma), 52 mm.; Pegasi (vis. mag. 5.2, type Ma), 4 mm; a Andro- 
medse (vis. mag. 2.2, type AOp), 5 mm. The deflections seemed to be 
reliable, and the work is being continued with the expectation of 
reaching fainter stars (p. 266). 

Aided by a new stereocomparator, built in our instrument shop for 
differential measures of high precision, Mr. van Maanen has continued 
his trigonometric determinations of parallaxes and proper motions. 
The total number of parallaxes completed to date is 144. New meas- 
ures of the parallaxes of five long-period variables, combined with a 
previously known value for o Ceti, give mean absolute magnitudes of 
+ 1.5 and +6.5 at maximum and minimum, respectively. Theories 
of variability must therefore recognize the giant character of such stars 
at maximum (p. 258). A negative parallax was derived for the vari- 
able nebula N. G. C. 2261, in harmony with Mr. Bubble's view that 
its rapid apparent changes must be due to progressive variations of 
illumination rather than actual motion of matter (p. 252). 

Some of the most important of the stellar spectroscopic results of 
the year have already been mentioned, but much more has been 
accomplished in this vigorous and successful branch of the Observa- 
tory's work. The radial velocities of 253 stars have been measured by 
Messrs. Adams and Joy and Miss Burwell and Miss Brayton. Twenty 
spectroscopic binaries have been discovered, and the elements of the 
orbits of 8 spectroscopic binaries have been completed, 7 by Mr. 
Sanford and 1 by Mr. Duncan (p. 269). 

Much attention has been devoted to variable stars of various types. 
Ten cluster variables give values from +70 to —180 km. for the "ve- 
locity of the system," without apparent relationship with distance 
from the Galaxy. Mr. Joy has determined the orbit of the variable 
S Antliae which proves to be of the Algol type. The orbit of the 
Cepheid variable X Cygni has been investigated by Mr. Duncan on 
the basis of the binary hypothesis. The dark and bright lines of the 
Cepheid variable W Virginis show marked differences in the radial 
velocities (p. 268). Remarkable changes in the spectrum of o Ceti 
were observed near minimum, including a curious asymmetry of the 
hydrogen lines, such as would result from an angular separation of 
0''2 in the sources producing them. Peculiar changes were observed 
in the spectrum of R Scuti. Eight long-period variables with Cepheid 



230 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

characteristics were found to have bright Hnes (p. 274). The spectra 
of the companions of Capella, Antares, and Sirius have been photo- 
graphed, and much miscellaneous spectroscopic work has been done 
(p. 274). 

Mr. Merrill has now determined 101 radial velocities of long-period 
variables, 91 of which resemble o Ceti, while 10 have spectra of a new 
type. 83 of these stars, of the Md (o Ceti) type, give from their 
bright lines the following values for the solar motion: V = 56 km., 
A =274°, D=+44°. The average residual velocity of 31 km. is the 
greatest known for stars of any spectral type (p. 269). Several addi- 
tional nebular lines have been found in R Aquarii; the displacements 
of the nebular and stellar lines are being studied. The prominent 
bright lines of the Md stars have been observed after maximum in 
the spectrum of R Cygni, a variable with very different absorption 
spectrum. Humason and Merrill have discovered during the year 
more than 50 stars with bright Ha line (p. 275). 

The radial velocities of 28 R-type stars have been found by Mr. 
Sanford to range from +60 to —400 km. The algebraic mean freed 
from solar motion is —17 km. (p. 269). 

Mr. Hubble has photographed the spectra of about 150 nebulous 
stars between 10.5 and 14.0 magnitude. Bright-line stars in extended 
nebulae are nearly all of types Oe5 and BO, while those giving an absorp- 
tion spectrum are Bl or later, averaging about B4. The central stars 
in six large planetary nebulae have spectra intermediate between the 
Wolf-Rayet and Oe5 types. Combining these results with those of 
Wright on smaller planetaries, we have the following sequence of types 
for stars involved in galactic nebulae: small planetaries, probably 
Wolf-Rayet ; large planetaries, between Wolf-Rayet and Oe5 ; extended 
bright-line nebulae, Oe5 to BO; extended nebulae with absorption 
spectrum, Bl to A3. This suggests the possibility that only the earli- 
est and hottest stars may be capable of exciting bright-line emission in 
surrounding nebulosity. Near a critical tj-pe, about Bl, the bright 
lines fade rapidly and an absorption spectrum soon predominates, 
perhaps representing the reflected light of the star, as indicated by Sli- 
pher. This tentative suggestion is being thoroughly tested (p. 254). 

The study of spectra of Novae, old and recent, has been continued by 
Messrs. Adams and Joy. Except for decreased brightness of the ring 
relatively to the central star, the extraordinary spectrum of Nova 
Aquilae 1918 has changed but little during the year. Nova Cygni 
1920 showed important changes within two weeks, both in type and 
velocity. T Coronae, the Nova of 1866, was found to have an absorp- 
tion spectrum closely resembling that of a typical giant Ma star, 
with bright hydrogen and X4686 lines (p. 274). 

Kapteyn has developed during the year a theory of the arrangement 
and motion of the entire stellar system. From his results on the dis- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 231 

tribution of stars, he deriv.es the attraction of all the stars on any point 
within the system, expressed in terms of the attraction of a star of 
average mass. Systematic motion of the stars is necessary to produce 
equilibrium. Such motion, parallel to the plane of the Milky Way, is 
actually observed in the star-streams. A rotatory motion around the 
axis toward the pole of the Milky Way is therefore assumed (p. 283). 

The formula derived from the kinetic theory of gases for the baro- 
metric determination of altitudes is then applied to the stars lying 
along the rotation axis, on the assumption that their velocities are 
approximately distributed according to Maxwell's law. This leads 
to values of the average effective mass of a star ranging from 2.2 at 
198 parsecs to 1.4 at 1,660 parsecs. 

The centrifugal forces in the plane of the Milky Way are so deter- 
mined as to give the same average effective mass for regions of equal 
star density in this plane and on the rotation axis. The linear tan- 
gential velocities corresponding to these forces vary but little with the 
distance. For the greater part of the system they are practically 
constant and equal to 19.5 km. The direction of rotation is indeter- 
minate. If two groups are assumed to be moving in opposite direc- 
tions, their relative velocity is 39 km., which agrees closely with the 
observed relative velocity of these two star streams. 

Although admittedly speculative in many particulars, the value of a 
theory of star-streaming, giving results in harmony with observation, 
is obvious. Both the weak and strong points of the theory are fully 
discussed in a Contribution soon to be published by this Observatory. 

Professor Russell has extended Saha's theory of ionization in solar 
and stellar atmospheres to the case where atoms of several kinds are 
present. He finds that the proportions of ionized atoms for different 
elements depend only upon the temperature, though the elements of 
lower ionization potential are always most highly ionized, those that 
have lost one electron giving ordinary enhanced lines, and those that 
have lost two electrons giving ''super-enhanced" lines, such as certain 
silicon and oxygen lines studied by Fowler (p. 238). 

Professor Russell has also found Majorana's theory of the absorption 
of gravitation by matter to be untenable when tested by the motions of 
the moon and planets and the phenomena of the tides. Majorana's 
experimental results, if confirmed, may be explained as a change of 
mass caused by the mutual influence of two bodies (p. 285). 

Dr. Bertil Lindblad, of the University of Upteala, who has spent 
nearly a year at the Observatory, has made an important extension of 
the method of determining the absolute magnitude of a star from its 
spectrum. The continuous spectrum of A and B stars between X3895 
and X3907, when compared with the adjoining region toward the red, 
is less intense in stars of low luminosity than in brighter stars. By 
finding the exposure ratio necessary to give equal photographic im- 



232 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON, 

pressions for these regions the absolute magnitude is obtained. The 
method has been applied to the stars of several moving clusters, with 
results for parallax in good agreement with previous determinations. 

The "cyanogen" bands have also been found to show marked in- 
crease of absorption in the more luminous stars, thus affording another 
measure of absolute magnitude. The effect is greatest for stars of 
types G5 — K2 and decreases considerably toward GO and Ma. Giants 
and dwarfs as faint as apparent magnitude 13.5 may be distinguished 
on slitless spectrograms by this method (p. 271). 

Mention should be made of two important pieces of work, not done 
under the direct auspices of the Observatory. One of these is the repe- 
tition on Mount Wilson of the Michelson-Morley experiment by Pro- 
fessor Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science. This 
fundamental investigation, which should show whether increase in 
altitude above sea-level has any appreciable effect on the perception 
of possible relative motion of the earth and the ether, is still in the pre- 
liminary stage and will be continued by Professor Miller. The second 
is the initiation by Dr. H. 0. Wood of the seismological work in 
Southern California which is being organized by the Carnegie Insti- 
tution of Washington. In both cases the Observatory has been able to 
assist in various ways. 

For many years visitors have been admitted daily to the Observatory 
museum of astronomical and physical photographs on Mount Wilson, 
and certain of the instruments have been shown by ]\Ir. W. P. Hoge, 
the assistant in charge. During the past year about 10,000 visitors 
have seen the 100-inch telescope. We have long hoped to arrange 
for an open night, on which celestial objects could be shown to the 
public with one of the large telescopes. In view of the great height 
and small capacity of the observing platforms of the 100-inch telescope 
it is clearly unsafe to permit their use b^^ the public. The Cassegrain 
focus of the 60-inch telescope is easily accessible, however, and this 
instrument has accordingly been arranged for use by the public on 
Friday evenings. Tickets are issued without charge to those who send 
their requests to the office of the Observatory in Pasadena. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 233 

STAFF. 
The Director has devoted much time to the project of developing 
research in physics at the California Institute of Technology in coop- 
eration with the Observatory. He has also undertaken an mvestiga- 
tion of the combined effect of electric and magnetic fields on radiation 
and continued his solar researches. Dr. Walter S. Adams, Assistant 
Director, has given most of his attention to his investigations in stel- 
lar spectroscopy. Professor Frederick H. Scares, superintendent of 
the Computing Division and editor of the Observatory publications, 
has advanced his stellar researches in various directions. Dr. Arthur 
S. King, superintendent of the Physical Laboratory, has pursued 
his work with the electric furnace. Dr. Charles E. St. John has con- 
tinued his studies on the solar rotation, the spectrum of Venus, and 
the wave-lengths of solar and terrestrial lines. Dr. J. A. Anderson 
has investigated the effective wave-length of sunlight and starlight, 
and the spectra of explosive discharges, and continued his tests of the 
ruling machine with Mr. Jacomini. Dr. Harlow Shapley, who has 
gone on with his work on variable stars and globular clusters, left for 
the Harvard College Observatory in March on a year's appointment. 
Mr. Harold D. Babcock has given most o^ his time to the comparison 
of solar and laboratory wave-lengths and the measurement of pressure 
shifts. Mr. Francis G. Pease, in addition to his work on instrument 
design, has measured star diameters with the 20-foot interferometer. 
Dr. Paul W. jNIerrill has continued his investigations on long-period 
variable stars and the spark spectrum of air. Mr. Ferdinand Ellerman 
has made regular solar observations and served as Observatory 
photographer. Dr. Adriaan van Maanen has continued his investi- 
gations on trigonometric parallaxes and on proper motions of stars 
and motions in spiral nebulse. Professor Alfred H. Joy, secretary of the 
Observatory, has taken part in the stellar spectroscopic work. Dr. 
John C. Duncan, who has spent a year at the Observatory, has made 
photographs of nebulse and joined in stellar spectroscopic observa- 
tions. Dr. Seth B. Nicholson has continued his observations of the sun 
and Venus, and has begun laboratory experiments with thermopiles. 
Dr. Gustav Stromberg has continued his work in stellar spectroscopy, 
with particular reference to theoretical investigations. Dr. R. F. 
Sanford has also taken part in the stellar spectroscopic work. Mr. 
Edwin P. Hubble has been engaged in the photographic and spectro- 
scopic study of nebulse and nebulous stars. Dr. Bertil Lindblad, of 
the University of Upsala, has been at the Observatory as volunteer 
assistant since October and has carried on investigations dealing with 
the determination of the absolute magnitudes of faint stars by spec- 
troscopic methods. Dr. H. C. Wilson, of Carleton College, spent the 
months between September and June at the Observ^atory and devoted 
his time to the measurement of Unes in the sun-spot spectrum and 
a number of stellar spectra. Mr. Edison Pettit, who joined the staff 



234 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

on September 1, has taken part in the solar observations and in the 
work with thermopiles. Mr. W. P. Hoge, night assistant with the 
60-inch telescope, has joined in the stellar spectroscopic observations. 
Mr. Milton Humason, night assistant, has made photographic and 
stellar spectroscopic obsei-vations with the 10-inch telescope and other 
instruments. Mr. Edison Hoge has taken part in the solar observa- 
tions and served as assistant photographer. Mr. Hugo Benioff assisted 
during the summer in the solar observations and continued his experi- 
ments with the thalofide cell. Mr. Sinclair Smith has been part time 
assistant in the Pasadena laboratory throughout the year. 

Professor J. C. Kapteyn, now of the Leiden Observatory, Research 
Associate of this Observatory, has continued his stellar investigations 
in Holland. Professor A. A. Michelson, of the University of Chicago, 
Research Associate, has continued at Mount Wilson his researches with 
the interferometer and on the velocity of light, and has undertaken 
there a study of the relative motion of the earth and the ether by a new 
method. Professor Henry Norris Russell, of Princeton University, 
recently appointed Research Associate, spent two months at the 
Observatory, where he carried on a variety of studies dealing with the 
Majorana gravitation effect, Saha's ionization theory, oxygen in plan- 
etary atmospheres, and other subjects. 

Professor Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science, 
repeated the Michelson-Morley experiment on Mount Wilson in the 
spring. Dr. Harry 0. Wood, Research Associate of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, began his seismological investigations in 
Southern California with temporary headquarters at the Pasadena 
office of the Observatory. 

Of the Computing Division, Miss Ware and Miss Miller have con- 
tinued to assist Dr. St. John. Miss Burwell, Miss Brayton, Miss 
MacCreadie, and Miss Shu m way have been engaged with the investi- 
gations in stellar spectroscopy. Miss Richmond, Miss Joyner, and 
Miss Mayberry have assisted Mr. Seares and Mr. Shapley in photo- 
metric measures and reductions. Mrs. Marsh has assisted Mr. van 
Maanen with trigonometric parallaxes and reductions of measures on 
spiral nebulae, while Miss Keener has given her time to the work of 
the Physical Laboratory. Miss Mayberry has also assisted the Direc- 
tor, and Miss Brayton has given some time to the measurement of 
laboratory spectrograms. Miss Connor has remained in charge of the 
library and has aided with the editorial work. 

Mrs. Harlow Shapley, volunteer assistant, continued her work in 
collaboration with Dr. Shapley. Messrs. Clyde R. Keith and F. L. 
Hopper, of the California Institute of Technology, assisted Dr. Merrill 
in his Laboratory studies during part of the year. Dr. K. S. Gibson, 
of the U. S. Bureau of Standards, worked for a few weeks with the 
Koch apparatus. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 235 

INVESTIGATIONS IN PROGRESS. 

SOLAR RESEARCH. 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Except for some minor improvements of the interferometer and spec- 
trograph used with the Snow telescope, and the development of the 
thermopiles for sola^ research described in connection with the work 
of the laboratory, no important changes have been made in the equip- 
ment for solar observ^ations. 

SOLAR PHOTOGRAPHY. 

During the year ending August 31, 1921, the following solar photo- 
graphs were taken with the 60-foot tower telescope by Messrs. Eller- 
mann, Nicholson, Pettit, E. R. Hoge, and Benioff. 

Photoheliograms of 6.5-inch image, 319 on 308 days. 

Spectroheliograms with 5-foot spectroheliograph (Ha, entire 6.5-inch disk), 184 on 184 days. 

Spectrohehograms with 13-foot spectrohehograph (K and Ha, 2-inch disk and prominences; 

portions of 6.5-inch disk with Ha and with monochromatic hght from continuous 

spectrum), 1,087 on 297 days. 

Photographic observations with the Snow a'nd 150-foot tower 
telescopes are included in the following statements. 

SUN-SPOT ACTIVITY. 

A total number of 168 groups was observed during the calendar year 
1920 as against 295 during 1919. There were 8 days in 1920 on which 
no sun-spots were visible at the time of observation, 2 in April, 2 in 
August, and 4 in September. The 4 in September were consecutive 
days, making the longest quiescent interval since 1915. There was, 
no doubt, considerable activity on the visible part of the sun even on 
these days, because an active period immediately followed this calm 
period. The accompanying table gives the average number of groups 
observed per day each month: 



Month. 


DaUy 
number. 


Month. 


Daily 
number. 


January 

February 

March 

April 


3.0 
4.4 
3.7 
2.0 
3.2 
3.5 


July 


3.1 
2.1 
2.1 
4.2 
2.3 
3.4 


August 

September .... 

October 

November 

December. . . . 


May 


June 





The average latitude of all groups observed during the year was 11°, 
1° degree less than the average for 1920. 

SUN-SPOT POLARITIES. 

Daily drawings of the solar image given by the 150-foot tower 
telescope, showing the approximate positions, polarities, and field- 



236 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



strengths of sun-spots, have been made as in previous years by Messrs. 
EUerman, Nicholson, Pettit, E. R.Hoge, and Benioff. Photographs of 
spot spectra have also been taken, and special attention has been 
given by Mr. Nicholson to a study of the direction of the lines of force in 
different portions of the spots. The following table, prepared by Mr. 
Nicholson, gives the polarities of all spots observed in the northern and 
southern hemispheres of the sun during the calendar year 1920: 



Hemisphere. 


Polarity. 


Regular. 


Irregular. 


Undetermined. 


North 


79 

73 

152 


5 

1 
6 


4 

6 

10 


South 


Whole sun 



GREAT SUN-SPOT OF MAY 1921. 

The sun-spot which appeared at the east limb on May 8, while not 
of the very largest size, was a very exceptional group, especially during 
the time of reduced solar activity. The sun's equator passed longi- 
tudinally through the spot, and intermittent eruptions near its prin- 
cipa;l members were photographed throughout the period of observa- 
tion. A violent terrestrial magnetic storm, accompanied by brilliant 
auroras, began just when the preceding edge of the calcium flocculi 
Burrdunding the group reached the central meridian and continued 
with fluctuating intensity for several days. The very active eruptive 
region following the largest umbra was on the meridian when the third 
or most intense phase of the magnetic storm began. On May 16, at 
4^ lO"* G. M. T., there was a gi-eat outburst in this region, coinciding 
very closely with a sudden break in the terrestrial magnetic record, 
which rose to a maximum 30 minutes later, when &n Ha spectro- 
heliogram showed the eruption to cover an enormous area. 

In the Director's first paper (1908) on the existence of magnetic 
fields in sun-spots, he pointed out the improbability of any direct 
influence of these fields on the earth. Subsequently, Schuster, assum- 
ing an extreme spotted area, the same polarity for all spots, and a 
length of vortex (separation of poles) equal to an entire solar diameter, 
calculated that their collective magnetic effect at the earth could not 
exceed 0.1 mm. displacement on the Greenwich scale. When actual 
areas, mixed polarities, and short vortices are taken into account, 
the probability of any appreciable influence is still further reduced. 
In the present case the mixed polarities of the two principal components 
of the group, which superficially resembled a typical bipolar spot^ 
would be an important factor. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 237 

SUN-SPOT HYPOTHESES. 

Such curiously mixed polarities as those of the large JVIay spot must 
be carefully considered in the elaboration of any hypothesis of bipolar 
spots. Each major member of the group was divided into two parts, 
of opposite polarity, so that in a sense the entire spot might be regarded 
as a combination of two bipolar groups. Important abnormalities 
remain, however, and these will afford much opportunity for study. 
The polarity rule holds with very few exceptions in both hemispheres 
of the sun, but it is not surprising that it should be departed from ex- 
actly on the equator, especially in a region remarkable as a seat of 
violent eruptions. 

The origin of spots at considerable depths below the surface of the 
photosphere is indicated by (1) the prior appearance of eruptions, 
which probably originate in viscous regions far beneath the surface; 
(2) the law of the spot variation in latitude during the sun-spot cycle 
and the variable length of the period ; (3) the reversal of the magnetic 
polarity of spots at the minimum; (4) the reappearance of spots in 
the same region; (5) the 27-day magnetic period, possibly indicating 
the presence of invisible spots; (6) the increase in strength of the mag- 
netic field with decreasing level; (7) the observed inclination of the lines 
of force in the umbra and penumbra; (8) the existence of small spots 
with fields more intense than their area would warrant, perhaps con- 
nected with a large vortex below; (9) the irregular form of the penum- 
bra, indicating that it is at a considerable distance above the spot 
vortex. If a single spot represents a long columnar vortex, its lower 
extremity, especially if deflected toward the east by a lower velocity 
of solar rotation within the photosphere, may turn up to the surface of 
the photosphere, thus forming a spot which should follow (on the east) 
the primary spot in most cases. A bipolar group, in which the fol- 
lowing member appears and disappears, may represent such a case. 
It should be noted in this connection that a magnetic field, of the 
expected polarity, is sometimes observed in such a group when the 
second spot is not visible. In many bipolar groups, however, it is 
hardly conceivable that the two principal members, especially when 
large in diameter and close together, can represent the opposite 
extremities of a semicircular vortex-ring. The difficulty is increased 
in cases of mixed polarity, such as that presented by the May spot. 

SUN-SPOT SPECTRUM. 

The study of the Zeenoan effect in the sun-spot spectrum is a long 
and diflBcult task, partly because of the large number of lines involved 
(over 5,000), and also because of the incomplete separation of the vast 
majority and the lack of sufficient laboratory data for those that are 
clearly resolved. The measures made by Dr. H. C. Wilson, during a 
residence of several months at the Observatory, and by Miss Mayberry 



238 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

and the writer, who are continuing the work, therefore relate for the 
most part to the displacements of unresolved lines on adjoining strips 
of the compound quarter-wave pkte, used with a Nicol prism when the 
spectra v;ere photographed in the second order of the 75-foot spectro- 
graph of the 150-foot tower telescope. At the violet end, where the 
measures were begun, these displacements are small, but they increase 
greatly toward the red. WTien the mean of a considerable number of 
lines in each region is taken, it is interesting to observe the increase 
of shift with wave-length, both for mixed lines and for the more 
homogeneous material afforded by single elements, though these are 
complicated by the effects of level and the varying laboratory separa- 
tions corresponding to individual lines. 

Abnormal lines offer another interesting and important subject of 
study, which is also being pursued by the writer and his associates. 
As Mr. St. John Ims pointed out, the peculiar displacements of the 
p-components in certain spot triplets may result partially (perhaps 
even exclusively) from such mutual influences of closely adjoining 
lines as he has observed in his studies of the solar spectrum. This ques- 
tion is being attacked from several different points of view with the 
hope of clearing it up completely. 

The results of a further attempt to determine whether measurable 
electric fields exist in sun-spots are described below (p. 291). 

EXPANSION IN SUN-SPOT VORTEX. 

To account for the low temperatures of sun-spots by expansion of 
the ascending gases in the vortex, Mr. Russell finds that it is neces- 
sary to assume that the latter come from a depth at which the tempera- 
ture is at least 10,000° C. It is probable that the temperature at the 
bottom of the ascending part of the vortex is at least 20,000° C, and 
that the expansion in volume on rising to the surface is more thaa 
forty-fold. 

IONIZATION IN SOLAR AND STELLAR ATMOSPHERES. 

The theory of ionization in solar and stellar atmospheres, developed 
by Dr. M.N. Saha, has been extended by Professor Russell to the case 
where atoms of several kinds are present. Taking into accouot the 
existence of a common dissociation product (electrons) it is found 
that— 

(1) If in any stellar atmosphere the ratio of the number of atoms 
which are ionized to those which are not is formed for different elements, 
these ratios will bear proportions to one another which depend only 
upon the temperature and not upon the pressure or the relative 
abundance of the different elements. 

(2) The elements of lower ionization potential are always most 
highly ionized. The range of temperature and pressure within which 
both ionized and non-ionized atoms can coexist in sensible proportions 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 239 

is extended by the presence of other elements in the case of an element 
of easy ionization, but diminished in the case of an element harder than 
the average to ionize. 

(3) When multiple ionization takes place, by the successive removal 
of two (or more) electro as from the atom, the number of successive 
stages of ionization in which a sensible proportion of atoms can 
simultaneously exist is only two (at least under any conditions which 
are likely to be met with). 

The ordinary (flame or arc) lines are absorbed by non-ionized atoms, 
the enhanced lines by ionized atoms, and certain "super-enhanced" 
lines by double ionized atoms. Many facts connected with the spec- 
tral sequence among the stars are explainable u'pon these principles. 
For epcample, the fact that the arc lines disappear in class B before the 
"super-enhanced" lines appeajr is a direct consequence of (3). 

The following results have been obtained by a test of the theory in 
sun-spot spectrum: 

The principal lines of rubidium, XX7800.29 and 7947.64, which are 
absent in the solar spectrum, appear in the spot spectrum as diffuse 
lines of intensity 1 and 0, respectively, show strong Zeeman effect, 
and are very similar in character to the lithium line at X6708. 

The lines of the principal series of potassium are much strengthened 
in the spot spectrum. The infra-red pair of sodium at XX8183, 8194 is 
also much strengthened. 

The lines of the subordinate series of potassium, lithium, and rubi- 
dium appear neither in the sun nor in spots. 

All these phenomena are in excellent accordance with the theory of 
Saha^ who predicted most of them. Rubidium appears to be so com- 
pletely ionized in the sun that there are not enough neutral atoms left 
to absorb the ordinary lines, except at the lower temperature of the 
spots. Lithium, however, should be less ionized than sodium, and the 
absence of its lines in the spectrum of the sun can be explained only on 
the assumption that very little of the element is present. 

The alkaline earths show a similar behavior. Barium, which is 
the most easily ionized, appears in the solar spectrum mainly by its 
enhanced lines ; and the presence of even the most prominent line due 
to the neutral atom (X5535) appears to be doubtful both in sun and 
spots. The lines of zinc, which have a high ionization potential, are 
much weakened in spots. 

IONIZATION OVER FACUL^. 

On the Bohr theory of atomic structure, radiation of the normal 
type occurs only when an electron falls from one orbit to another of 
lower potential energy. The ordinary enhanced lines of an element 
are thought to be produced when the atom is ionized, that is, when one 
electron has been removed completely. Saha has developed an ex- 
pression for the relative proportion of ionized to un-ionized atoms as a 



240 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



function of temperature and pressure, the proportion increasing with 
rise of temperature and decrease of pressure. For elements whose 
ionization potentials are known, he deduces the state of ionization in 
the solar atmosphere for assumed values of the temperature and pres- 
sure. He suggests that over the faculas, which are considered to be 
regions at temperatures higher than that of the photosphere, the spec- 
trum, owing to the increased temperature, should become similar to 
the spectrum of a star at a temperature higher than that of the sun. 
This would be shown by an increase in the intensity of the enhanced 
lines, proportional to the increase in the number of ionized nuclei. 
Some preliminary spectrograms of faculae obtained by Mr. St. 
John show changes in the intensity of the enhanced lines in agreement 
with these deductions, the spectral typ'e changing in the direction 
GO to F, as indicated by the accompanying table. 

Behavior over faculae. 



Wave-length. 
Rowland. 


Element. 


Intensity. 


Class. 


EEFect. 


4306.078 


Ti 


4 


Flame. 


No change. 


4443.976 


Ti 


5 


Enhanced, 


Strengthened. 


4468.663 

4501.445 


Ti 
Ti 




Enhanced. 
Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 
Strengthened. 


5 


4518.198 


Ti 


3 


Flame. 


No change. 


4527.490 


Ti 


3 


Flame. 


No change. 


4572.156 


Ti 


6 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4215.703 


Sr 


5 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4607.510 


Sr 


1 


Flame. 


Weakened. 


4246.996 


So 


5 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4325.152 


Sc 


4 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4400 .555 


Sc 


3 


Enhanced. 


strengthened. 


4352.083 


Mg 


5 


Flame. 


Weakened. 


4481.298 


Mg 





Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4481.515 


Mg 





Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4571.275 


Mg 


6 


Flame. 


Weakened. 


4491.570 


Fe 


2 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4508.455 


Fe 


4 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4520.397 


Fe 


3 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4522.802 


Fe 


2 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 


4554.211 


Ba 

1 


8 


Enhanced. 


Strengthened. 



It is evident that in ionization phenomena we have a new means of 
attacking solar problems. On the other hand, solar observations will 
supplement laboratory methods. Little is known of the ionizing poten- 
ials of elements outside the first and second columns of the periodic 
table. For other elements, such as iron and titanium, a promising 
approach to the question is through their behavior in regions of widely 
different solar temperatures and pressure as compared with that of ele- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 241 

ments whose ionization potentials can be investigated under laboratory 
conditions. For any element the changes depend upon the degree 
of ionization over the photosphere and the susceptibility to excitation, 
and these, moreover, vary for the different lines. 

The identification of the enhanced line of magnesium, X4481, 
in the solar spectrum seems to be definitely settled. King discovered 
its duplicity in the tube-arc spectrum, and Fowler has accurately de- 
termined the wave-lengths of the components. The two weak solar 
lines are much strengthened over faculse and weakened in spots. They 
are therefore enhanced lines. Solar spectrograms of high dispersion 
yield the same separation and relative intensity as the best laboratory 
plates. The solar wave-lengths are 0.007 a longer than the terrestrial 
wave-lengths. The identification is as certain as for any other solar 
line. 

OXYGEN IN PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. 

The absence of any evidence that oxygen is present in the atmosphere 
of Venus seems surprising, in view of the abundance of oxygen in the 
earth's atmosphere, but it falls into line with several other facts pointed 
out b}^ Russell. 

(1) The oxygen triplet at X7772-75 is practically extinguished in 
the spot-spectrum, though the lines of titanium and the bands of tita- 
nium oxide are strong in spots. 

(2) The igneous rocks of the earth's crust contain so much ferrous 
oxide that the whole of the free oxygen of the atmosphere would not 
nearly suffice to convert it into ferric oxide. 

(3) Volcanic gases appear, on the whole, to contain a good deal of 
unoxidized material (carbon monoxide, free sulphur, etc.). 

All these facts can be explained on the assumption that the outer 
layers of the sun (from which it now appears probable that the planets 
were formed by eruptions at some remote period) do not contain enough 
ox3^gen to combine with all the metallic elements present. A planet 
in its initial state would then have an incompletely oxidized surface 
and an atmosphere devoid of free oxygen. 

The oxygen of the earth's atmosphere may be an organic product, 
given off by vegetation during geological time, and balanced by an 
accumulation of carbonaceous organic residues in the sedunentary 
rocks. The latter would correspond to a layer of coal covering the 
earth's surface about 2 feet thick, which does not appear to be an im- 
possible amount. 

SOLAR ROTATION. 

The observations by Mr. St. John now cover 7 years. The mean 
value of the linear velocity at the equator is 1.93 km. per second, with 
small and irregular variations from year to year. For the year of spot 
maximum, 1917, the value is about 1.5 per cent above the mean. Lit- 
tle significance, however, can be attributed to this small deviation for 



242 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

the 7-year mean until the observations at higher latitudes are fully 
taken into account. WTien spots are plentiful and forming rapidly, 
there is greater liability to local and superficial disturbances. The 
significance of the higher value as indicative of a change in the period 
of rotation is also lessened by the fact that the values for the years 
immediately preceding and following are slightly below the average for 
the 7 years, though in both years spots were numerous. 

The discrepancies between the earlier measures of Duner, Halm, 
and Adams and the results from this long series are an outstanding 
feature of the problem of solar rotation. The mean of their values 
is 2.06 km. per second (1900-1908); the mean for Plaskett and 
Schlesinger is 2.01 (1911-1913); the mean for the present Mount 
Wilson series is 1.93 (1914-1920). Evidence that we are not observing 
an actual change in the period of the sun's rotation may be stated as 
follows : 

1. There is no progressive change in 7 years when observing con- 
ditions remain uniform. 

2. The internal agreement for each observer is good. The results 
for two series by Adams are 2.06 and 2.05 km. per second; for three 
series by J. S. Plaskett they are 2.01, 2.02, and 2.01. For the current 
7-year series the mean deviation per year is less than 1 per cent. 
This raises the question of systematic effects depending upon the 
observing conditions. 

3. A continuous retardation of the order indicated for the 20 
years during which spectrographic observations have been applied 
to the problem appears unacceptable from any point of view. 

The present program contemplates the continuance of the observa- 
tions through a complete sun-spot cycle, the gathering of material for 
a detailed study of rotation in the northern and southern hemispheres, 
and the simultaneous use of duplicate instrumental equipment for 
separating the influences of personal equation from those depending 
upon the instruments. 

For the present, observations are in the main confined to the region 
of X6300, in which atmospheric lines are available for eliminating in- 
strumental disturbances, for avoiding faulty illumination of the grating 
by the different prisms, and for studying the occurrence and influence 
of local disturbances in the reversing layer. 

DISPLACEMENT OF SOLAR LINES AND RELATIVITY. 

Because of numerous fragmentary attacks upon' this question, the 
situation is becoming more and more involved and unsatisfactory, as the 
following brief summary by Mr. St. John shows: 

The Cyanogen Lines. 

From the line X4197, the unsymmetrical head of the second band, 
P4rot (C. R., July 26, 1920, 229), after applying a correction for an 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 243 

assumed downward movement in the solar atmosphere and for a nega- 
tive pressure shitt of the cyanogen-band lines, the latter approxi- 
mately equal in magnitude to the shift required by relativity, finds 
that the sun-arc displacement is that predicted by the theory. On the 
other hand. Dr. Birge, after applying a correction for an upward 
movement and assuming no pressure shift for the band lines, finds, 
from the published data for 2 lines in the X3883 band, lines which he 
considers free from superposed lines of other series, that the sun-arc 
displacement for these lines is approximately that required by the 
relativity hypothesis. Though from the series \iew these lines are 
suitable, their character in the solar spectrum is such that the measures 
are unreliable. Grebe and Bachem assumed no radial movement of 
the solar vapors and no pressure shift for the band lines, but applied a 
correction for a supposed asymmetry of the arc-lines, and found 
approximately the Einstein effect (Phys. Gesell. Verh. 21, 1919). 

Investigations on the lines of the cj^anogen band made in our labora- 
tory by Mr. Babcock do not confirm the displacement to the red in 
passing from atmospheric pressure to vacuum, as found by P^rot, 
but indicate a normal displacement with pressure of perhaps 0.0001 a 
per atmosphere. Mr. King finds that the lines of the cyanogen band 
belonging to different series vary in relative intensity with change in 
furnace temperature. In a recent article (Science, Apr. 15, 1921), 
Dr. Birge calls attention to the extensive overlapping of lines of the 
different series. In view of this superposition of lines, of the changes 
in relative intensity with temperature, and of the line-density in the 
solar spectrum, it appears that the cyanogen band is not well adapted 
for a definitive test of the theory. 

Other Elements. 

From the magnesium liae X5172, P^rot (C. R., Apr. 25, 1921), 
after correcting his observed shift between the arc and the sun's 
center for a centripetal movement in the solar atmosphere of 1.57 km. 
per second and reducing the arc wave-lengths to zero pressure, finds 
a difference between sun and arc in approximate agreement with the 
Einstein requirement. The lines of the mag lesium triplet in the green 
are, however, subject to a marked pole-effect and three independent 
investigations at Mount Wilson by Messrs. Adams, Joy, and St. 
John, fail to show the centripetal motion of the solar vapors used in 
Perot's reduction of his observations. Fabry and Buisson find (C. R., 
Apr. 25, 1921) that the differences between the arc wave-lengths of 
iron reduced to vacuum and the wave-lengths at the sun's center are 
of the order of the Einstein effect. They conclude that the differences, 
sun minus arc, are perfectly interpreted by assuming the Einstein 
effect to be the sole cause of the displacement of the Fraunhofer lines. 
They assume zero pressure in the solar atmosphere, but disregard the 



244 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

limb-center shifts, which they formerly referred to aa increase in pres- 
sure of 7 atmospheres in passing from the center to the limb and which, 
if taken into account, would give displacements in excess of the Ein- 
stein requirement. P6rot applies a large correction, 0.027a, for centri- 
petal motion, and finds the difference between the wave-length at the 
limh and the ate in vacuum to agree with the Einstein effect. Fabry 
and Buisson apply no correction for radial movement of the solar 
vapors and find the differences between the wave-lengths at the 
center and the arc in vacuum to agree with the Einstein requirejnent, 
but not the differences between the wave-lengths at the limb and 
the arc. 

Owing to the different and eveti inconsistent corrections applied to 
the observed sun-arc displacements, the resulting approximate agree- 
ment with the deductions from the Einstein theory fails to carry con- 
viction. In view of the situation in which this important question 
now stands, it appears necessary, in order to reach a definitive 
conclusion, to carry out an extensive program on sun-arc displace- 
ments, including observations at center and limb and covering the 
widest possible range in wave-length and line-intensity; to obtain, 
in short, a reliable body of data as a basis for statistical discussions. 
The problem must be envisaged as a whole and not in detached portions 
and a consistent and probable role found for the gravitational effect 
if the theory of relativity is to find confirmation in the displacement of 
Fraunhofer lines. 

In addition to data for disentangling the causes involved in the dis- 
placement of the solar lines, the progra^m includes a study of the rela- 
tive consistency of the solar wave-lengths at the center a^nd limb, the 
determination of a series of solar standards in the international sys- 
tem, and observations on a limited spectral region in conmion with the 
Kodaikanal Observatory. 

WAVE-LENGTHS OF LINES AT THE CENTER OF THE SUN. 

The determination of wave-lengths at the center of the sun in terms 
of iron-arc standards has been continued by Messrs. St. John and 
Babcock with the interferometer in conjunction with the Snow tele- 
scope. Further experience in the use of this equipment has resulted 
in such minor improvements and changes of technique as the limita- 
tions of the instruments have required, and has confirmed previous 
judgment of its usefulness. Observations covering the range X4000 
to X6500 have been made at intervals throughout the year. The 
reduction of the plates, though incomplete, confirms as heretofore the 
values of the solar wave-lengths found with grating spectrographs. 
A list of lines has been carefully selected for measurement upon these 
photographs, special reference being given to (1) elements of paramount 
interest in the sun; (2) range of atomic weight; (3) individual line 
intensity; (4) probable vertical distribution in the solar atmosphere; 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 245 

(5) freedom from close companion lines; and, finally, to other considera- 
tions, such as their usefulness in forming a framework for a new table 
of solar wave-lengths. For economy of time it is planned to confine the 
measurements for the present to this restricted list of lines, leaving a 
large amount of material available for future study. 

EFFECTIVE WAVE-LENGTH OF SUNLIGHT. 

In astronomical applications of the interferometer, the results of a 
measurement will always be given in the form a = KxX, where a is 
an angular distance, K a quantity determined by the constants of the 
instrument used, x the setting made, and X the mean or effective 
wave-length of the light of the body studied. K can always be deter- 
mined with great accuracy; experience up to date indicates that x 
can be determined to 1 per cent or less. In order to utilize the fuU 
efficiency of the instrument, we must therefore know X to a few tenths 
of 1 per cent. 

Given certain data, such as the spectral-energy distribution of the 
object under investigation, the transmission of the atmosphere for 
different wave-lengths, the sensitiveness of the eye to different colors, 
and a number of optical constants of the instrument employed (diffi- 
cult to determine), the effective wave-length X can be calculated. 
At present such a calculation is possible only for the sun, and even 
here an experimental check is highly desirable on account of the 
number of constants entering into the calculation. 

An experimental determination of the value X for sunlight after 
reflection from two clean silver surfaces has been made by Mr. Ander- 
son, both in Pasadena and on Mount Wilson. The observations on 
Mount Wilson show that the changes in the effective wave-length 
between zenith distance 0° and 60° are practically negligible, amount- 
ing to only 0.3 per cent. Under ordinary observing conditions on 
Mount Wilson, the wave-length may therefore be regarded as a con- 
stant for a given object, provided its zenith distance does not exceed 
60°. The accuracy of the experimental determinations of X for the 
sun appears to be of the order of 0.1 per cent. 

A method of determining the value of X for any star was also de- 
vised and tested, but was found to have a probable error of roughly 
2 per cent, due principally to the effects of seeing. It is unnecessary, 
however, to employ this method, for since we now know the value 
of X for the sun, the correction for a given star may be computed with 
sufficient accuracy from its color-index or from its temperature as 
given by Wilsing. 

STABILITY OF ATMOSPHERIC LINES. 

The observations of P^rot (C. R. 160, 549, 1915) raised the ques- 
tion of the constancy of the wave-lengths of the atmospheric lines. 
He deduced from his observations on a line in the B band of oxygen 



246 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



that the wave-length increased from morning to noon and decreased 
from noon to evening, and referred this apparent change in wave- 
length to a recession of the absorbing centers from the earth with a 
velocity of 3.15 km. per second. Owing to the importance of atmos- 
phere lines as standards in the solar spectrum, an extended series of 
observations has been carried on by Messrs. St. John and Babcock 
at Mount Wilson. 

On the B Band at X6800. 

Grating spectrograms of the sun's center were taken in February 
1919 at sunrise, noon, and sunset, on which 8 oxygen lines were meas- 
ured with the Rowland wave-length of the solar lines as standards. 
After corrections for the motions of the earth, the mean, noon minus 
morning and evening, is +0.002 a. To correspond with Perot's 
results, the changes from morning and evening to noon should have 
been +0.043 and +0.039 a. 

In June 1919, 28 lines of the B group were measured with the inter- 
ferometer, using international wave-lengths of the solar lines as stan- 
dards. The deviations from the mean for all observations are as 
follows: 



Time. 


Altitude. 


Deviation. 


kr. min. 

9 8.. 
10 32.. 
12 36.. 

3 40.. 

6 11.. 


50° 35' 
67 17 
75 38 
41 14 
22 25 


-0.0005a 
+0.0010 
-0.0013 
+0.0001 
+ 0.0010 



Within the limits of error, the wave-lengths from these observations 
of the 28 lines are independent of the altitude of the sun. To agree 
with Perot's observations, the noon wave-lengths should exceed those 
at 5 o'clock by +0.043 a. 

On the a Band at X6300. 

Grating spectrograms of the sun's center, with international solar 
wave-lengths as standards, give for the mean of 8 lines in the a band: 



Date. 


Time. 


Altitude. 


X6291 + 


Aug. 3,1911... 


6 a. m. 


9° 


50' 


.213a 


June 7,1919... 


6 a. m. 


12 


30 


.214 


Feb. 26,1919... 


12 m. 


46 


45 


.215 


Mar. 8,1919... 


12 m. 


60 


35 


.212 


June 9,1919... 


12 m. 


78 


38 


.216 


Aug. 3,1919... 


6 p. m. 


9 


54 


.213 


June 9,1919... 


6 p. m. 


12 


38 


.217 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 



247 



The mean of noon measures is X6291.2147, and of the morning and 
evening measures X6291.2142. To confirm Perot's observations, the 
noon measures should have exceeded the low-sun measures by 0.043 a. 
This result was checked by a direct comparison between the iron-arc 
and the oxygen lines on May 27, 1920, in the Pasadena Laboratory, 
and on June 16, 1920, on Mount Wilson. 

On the Water-Vapor Lines at X5900. 

In 1921, 12 lines of water-vapor were measured with high and low 
sun. Because of their weakness at times of high sun on Mount 
Wilson the measures were difficult. The solar lines were used as 
standards. The deviations from the mean for high and low sun are: 



Time. 


Date. 


Altitude. 


Deviation. 


Morning. . 
Noon. . . . 
Evening. . 


1921. Mar. 3. 

1921. Mai. 2-Mar. 24. 

1921. Mar. 1-June 24. 


16° 

61 20' 

13 


-O.OOlA 
+0.001 
0.000 



For recession, as found by P^rot for the oxygen line, the morning 
and evening measures shoiild have been 0.038 and 0.041a less than 
for the high sua. 

In these observations oxygen lines of the a band have been referred 
directly to iron-arc lines by both grating and interferometer, and indi- 
rectly through solar standards obtained by direct comparison. From 
the agreement the following conclusions seem to be justified: 

1. The wave-lengths of the atmospheric lines are practically con- 
stant. 

2. In view of possible convection currents, the wave-lengths of the 
solar lines at the center of the sun are also remarkably constant. 

3. The international wave-lengths of the solar standards used are 
determined to a high precision. 

WAVE-LENGTH OF SKYLIGHT AND OF SUNLIGHT REFLECTED FROM VENUS. 

From the discussion of 56 spectrograms of Venus and 41 of the sky, 
Messrs. St. John and Nicholson find that after all known corrections 
for velocity have been applied, the observed differences between the 
wave-lengths in skylight and in sunHght reflected from Venus at 
various phases can be well represented by the empirical formula 

cot h 
aX103 = 1.3-8.5— ^ 

where D is the semidiameter of the planet in seconds of arc and h its 
altitude at the time of observation. The formula is derived from the 
following considerations : A correlation with altitude is shown by spec- 
trograms taken at both high and low altitudes on the same night, 
the plates at the lower altitude giving the shorter wave-lengths. A 



248 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

variation with altitude suggests atmospheric refraction, and hence 
cot h is used as one of the independent variables. Dispersive refrac- 
tion at altitudes of 5° and 10° displaces the photographic image 
relatively to the visual image very appreciably. This leads to un- 
symmetrical illumination of the slit, the degree of asymmetry depend- 
ing upon the diameter of the image relative to the width of the slit. 
Twenty-nine plates were secured at the last elongation of Venus 
with a blue ray-filter in the guiding telescope and more are being taken 
at the present elongation. Measures of these plates indicate that when 
the photographic image is symmetrically placed on the slit the dis- 
crepancies in wave-length disappear. 

When the observations are corrected for the above systematic dis- 
placements the differences between morning and evening series are 
less than their probable errors. Consequently they give no indica- 
tion of a correction to the assumed parallax, 8 ''80, or of a rate of rotation 
more rapid than that found by Slipher. The high declinations of 
Venus at the present elongation offer exceptionally favorable condi- 
tions for further investigations on rotation, as it will be feasible to 
obtain plates in the red, with the advantages of working with longer 
wave-lengths and of using the fixed oxygen lines as standards of ref- 
erence. 

ABSENCE OF OXYGEN AND WATER-VAPOR LINES FROM THE SPECTRUM OF 

VENUS. 

Investigations on the presence of water-vapor and oxygen in plan- 
etary atmospheres have in the past been made with a dispersion so 
low that the lines of the atmospheric bands were integrated. Fur- 
ther, the observations were confined to changes of intensity. The 
spectrum of Venus on a scale of 3 a per mm. has now been compared 
by Messrs, St. John and Nicholson with the sky spectrum from 
X3900 to X6900. These observations were made when the relative 
velocity of Venus and the earth was so large that lines originating in 
the atmosphere of Venus should have been completely separated from 
the lines due to the earth's atmosphere, the relative displacement 
being 0.25 a. Solar lines of intensity 00 and 000 are present in the 
spectrograms, but among the lines originating in the atmosphere of 
Venus there is no trace of the water- vapor lines at X5900 or of the oxy- 
gen lines in the a and B bands at X6300 and X6900. The only water- 
vapor and oxygen lines present are those of the terrestrial atmospheric 
lines. These definitely negative results in the case of Venus will 
make it of interest to obtain spectrograms of Mars and Jupiter on 
the same scale. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 



249 



RESEARCHES ON STARS AND NEBUL/E. 
OBSERVING CONDITIONS. 

Records compiled by Mr. Hoge, showing the working time of the 
60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson for the past 9 years, indicate that 
the available observing weather for the year ending August 31, 1921, 
was slightly above the normal amount. 

Observations were carried on during all of 192 nights and a part of 
99 nights. On 74 nights no observations could be made on account 
of the weather. The telescope was in use 65 per cent of the total 
night time. The tables give statistics for each month, the conditions 
of seeing (on a scale of 10), and the wind velocity. 



Seeing. 


Wind. 


Scale. 


No. of nights. 


Velocity. 


No. of nights. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 


65 
43 
65 
67 
50 
18 
4 


High 


17 
20 

58 
128 
120 


Brisk 


Moderate 

Light 


Calm 













Meteorological records kept at the Observatory show a total pre- 
cipitation for the year of 34.09 inches, which is about normal. Total 

Observing record of 60-inch reflector. 



Month. 


Hours of 
darkness. 


Hours 
clear. 


Hours 
cloudy. 


Hours lost 

silvering 

and repairs. 


Hours 

exposiire 

time. 


Observations. 


All 
night. 


Part of 
night. 


None. 


1920. 

September 

October 


295 
336 
330 
346 

346 
308 
324 
286 
266 
230 
255 
269 


248 
232 
214 
180 

151 
144 
172 
189 
118 
212 
235 
244 


47 
104 
116 
166 

195 

164 

152 

97 

148 

18 

20 

25 


10 

1 


166 

178 
160 
127 

112 
144 
126 
127 
68 
130 
135 
169 


21 

20 

17 

9 

7 
14 

9 
13 

9 
24 
24 
25 


6 

6 

5 

15 

13 
8 
14 
12 
9 
3 
6 
2 


3 
5 

8 

7 

11 
6 
8 
5 

13 
3 
1 
4 


November 

December 

1921. 

January 

February 

March 










April 




May 




June 

July 


8 


August 

Totals 

Mean for 9 
years 






3,591 


2,339 
.2,309 


1,252 
1,277 


19 


1,645 
1,632 


192 
193 


99 
91 


74 
81 











250 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

snowfall 48 inches. Mean temperature 54°; maximum 94°, July 7. 
Minimum 14°, February 15. Average wind velocity, 10.4 miles per 
hour; maximum velocity, 60 miles per hour, February 22. 

RESEARCHES ON NEBULA. 

Mr. Bubble's chief subject of study during the year has been the 
galactic nebulae and the stars involved therein. Since the Milky 
Way is not always in position for observation, a particular class of 
non-galactic nebulse has also been chosen for investigation. Four- 
hundred and ninety-two plates were taken during the year, represent- 
ing 500 hours of actual exposure on 122 separate nights. The longest 
exposure was 19 hours on the p Ophiuchi region, made on four nights 
with the 15° objective prism on the 10-inch Cooke lens. 

The non-galactic objects, which have been designated as "globular 
nebulae," are more numerous than those of any other class. The 
brightest and largest of them, such as M 49, 60, and 87, show no trace 
of spiral structure, although their spectra and radial velocities are of 
the same character as those of the spirals. M 87, at least, has a large 
number of faint stars, none brighter than about the 19th magnitude, 
clustering around its borders. The appearance is not that of a typical 
star-cluster, although it approximates this more closely than it does 
the appearance of a spiral. 

The smaller members of the class become more numerous with de- 
creasing size and brightness until they fade into the general mass of 
faint blotches on the photographs, which can hardly be distinguished 
from star images. Many of these will undoubtedly prove to be spirals 
when greater magnification can be employed, and some will become 
spindles when longer exposures bring out the ansae. An uncertain 
percentage, however, should remain in the class of M 87, for the 
sequence in size is complete to the limits of the telescope. 

To gather information on this subject, certain rich fields of small 
non-galactic nebulae have been selected, and these are being photo- 
graphed with the 10-inch, 60-inch, and 100-inch telescopes with com- 
parable focal ratios and exposure times. Classification of nebulae 
appearing on these plates should give some indication as to the rela- 
tion between class and scale. Photographs are also being made with 
a single telescope and different exposure times, in an effort to correlate 
class with density of the image. On nights of the finest definition, 
plates of long and short exposures are made with the 100-inch reflector 
to study the minute structure of the largest and brightest globular 
nebulae. Those photographed to date are: 

M 49, 00, 84, 86, and 87. 

N. G. C. 524, 4278, 4742, and 5826. 

The investigation is proving of considerable interest, but conclusions 
are not yet definitive. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 251 

Direct photographs of the following galactic nebulse and nebulous 
stars have been made with the two reflectors: 







100-Inch. 












Planetaries. 


B. D. 


+ 30°540 


Uncatalogued nebula: 


N. G. C. 


246 


I. C. 


348 


a 6^ 3", 5-|-18°42' 


N. G. C. 


2818 


Uncatalogued nebula: 


B. D. -t-23°1.301 


N. G. C. 


6720 


o 4^ 14"', 


5+2S°5' 


N. G. C. 2261 


C. D. 


-32°14673 


N. G. C. 


1555 


N. G. C. 6334 


N. G. C. 


7009 


B. D. 


+i°iooi 


I. C. 4601 


N. G. C. 


7662 


B. D. 


+ 1°1005 


N. G. C. 6523 






N. G. C. 


2045 


N. G. C. 6726-7 
N. G. C. 6729 

60-Inch. 






B. D. 


+64°13 


N. G. C. 2023 


N. G. C. 


2261 


N. G. C. 


281 


I. C. 345 


B. D. 


+ 1°1503 


B. D. 


+50°596 


Comet nebula: 


N. G. C. 


6914 


B. D. 


+29°565 


a 6'' S"", 5+18° 42' 


N. G. C. 


7129 


B. D. 


+31°597 


N. G. C. 2175 


B. D. 


+57°2309 


N. G. C. 


1624 


B. D. -6°1415 




+67°1332 


I. C. 


2087 


N. G. C. 2183-5 


N. G. C. 


7365 


B. D. 


+28°645 


B. D. - 23°5285 


S Cephei (no 
detected) . 


nebxilosity 



These galactic nebulse usually show a marked obscuration of stars 
lying within or beyond them. Another general impression gained from 
inspection of these plates and others is that the forms and structure 
of galactic nebulse are influenced largely, if not chiefly, by repulsive 
forces emanating from involved or associated stars ; at least, the forms 
are interpreted more readily on a basis of repulsion than on one of 
attraction. 

The 10-inch Cooke astrographic lens and the small cameras have 
been used to study the distribution of extended nebulae and areas of 
obscuration. A double distribution of these objects has definitely been 
established. They condense about two planes — the galactic circle 
and the belt of bright helium stars. This fact supports the hypothesis 
of a local cluster and emphasizes its similarity with the Milky Way 
clouds. 

Three small patches of obscuration have been located in galactic 
latitudes as high as 30° to 37°. Additional evidence confirms Mr. 
Hubble's former conclusion that the division in the Milky Way in the 
Aquila-Ophiuchus region is due to great clouds of dark nebulosity. 

Polarization tests have been made on several nebulse with the appa- 
ratus employed by Mr. Babcock in his work on the polarization of the 
night sky. Positive indications were obtained in the case of the 
Merope nebulosity, but certain questionable points make it desirable 
to repeat the observations with a new grating in front of the calcite 
crystal before final conclusions are formulated. 

A neodymium-chloride filter prepared by Mr. Anderson has given 
promising preliminary results with objective prism spectra. This 



252 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

work is being carried on in the hope of using such a filter for radial 
velocities of the approximately stellar nuclei of certain non-galactic 
nebulse. 

Variable Nebula. 

N. G. C. 1555. — Mr. Hubble has obtained three long, two moderate, 
and three short exposures of Hind's Variable Nebula with the 100-inch 
telescope. The long exposures show a wealth of detail, both of illu- 
mination and absorption, within a circular area 3 minutes of arc in 
diameter, about T Tauri as a center. Very small changes in relative 
brightness have occurred, mostly in the brightest portion south fol- 
lowing the star, which can be attributed to areas of absorption cutting 
out luminous detail. The short exposures show at least three small 
flares jutting out from T Tauri, south preceding, south following, and 
to the north. The first is the brightest and registers in 15 seconds on 
Seed 30 plates. No change has been detected in these details, although 
it must be understood that definite conclusions can be drawn only from 
plates made with unusually good seeing. There was no great change in 
brightness of T Tauri itself during the period covered by Mr. Hubble's 
plates. The exterior nebulosity showed marked changes as compared 
with a plate made by Mr. Pease with the 60-inch in 1913. 

iV. G. C. 2261. — Ten photographs were made during the year, but 
observing conditions were not always good. Obvious changes oc- 
curred, but not on so large a scale as those of the previous year. All 
observed changes can be accounted for by obscuring clouds wandering 
over a permanent background of luminous nebular detail, together 
with an occasional brightening and fading of the nebulosity close 
about the star at the apex — R Monocerotis. R itself did not vary 
appreciably during the year. 

N. G. C. 6729. — Forty spectrograms on 25 nights were made with 
the 100-inch reflector during the year. Two runs of several succes- 
sive nights each were secured, one when the star R Coronse Australis 
was brightening rapidly, and the other when the variable was practi- 
cally stationary at the top of its curve. Only minor changes were 
noted during the latter run. Rapid changes, however, occurred while 
the star was increasing in brightness; and these, as in the case of 
N. G. C. 2261, can be interpreted as the temporary obscuration of a 
permanent background of luminous detail, together with an intense 
brightening of nebulosity in the immediate neighborhood of the star. 
Obvious changes within 24 hours were observed. 

Between the nights of August 14 and August 16, 1920, a bright 
envelope developed around R Coronae Australis that looked reddish 
to the eye. Its diameter increased as follows: Aug. 13, 4"; Aug. 14, 
6"; Aug. 15, 8"; Aug. 16, 12"; Aug. 17, 12"; Aug. 18, 11"; Aug. 19, 10". 
The measurements are rough and subject to uncertainties due to vary- 
ing atmospheric conditions at the great zenith distance at which the 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 253 

object culminates. Assuming the phenomenon to be a wave of 
illumination moving with the velocity of light, the most rapid radial 
growth, about 2" per day, would correspond to a distance of about 
290 light-years. The probable absolute magnitudes of four nebulous 
stars in the same dark area as the variable nebula indicate a distance 
of 300 light-years. Distances of this order would require that the 
moving area of obscuration referred to above travel with the velocity 
of light. This velocity would correspond to a maximum possible 
distance of 330 light-years. 

Plates made in June 1921 show changes in brightness of faint lumi- 
nous details, some 90" preceding the nucleus, a region not obviously 
connected with the variable nebula. The spectrum of R Coronse 
Australis seems not to be of the nova type, as suggested by Slipher 
(Lowell Bull., No. 81), but is rather like that of T Tauri, except that 
the bright lines of hydrogen and iron are reversed as^Tnmetrically, 
and no bright H and K lines have been found. There is, however, a 
strong bright Ha line. 

N. G. C. 3550 and I. C. 48. — These nebulae have been suspected of 
variability, the latter on the authority of Barnard. Both prove to be 
spirals. N. G. C. 3550 has a faint star close to the nucleus. If the 
observed changes in brightness are real, they might be accounted for 
on the assumption that novse appeared in the nebulae. 

N. G. C. 7662. — Barnard announced the variability of the nucleus 
of this planetary some years ago. Photographic and photovisual 
observations made here give no indications of variability during the 
year. 

Spectra of Nebula. 

Long exposures by Mr. Hubble with objective prisms on the 10-inch 
Cooke lens and with the smaller cameras have added to the list of ob- 
jects whose spectra were known 13 planetaries, 13 extended nebulae with 
emission spectra, and 25 extended nebulae with continuous spectra. 
Of these objects, 3 planetaries, 6 emission and 5 continuous-spectrum 
nebulae were listed in last year's report. The survey has doubled the 
number of gaseous extended nebulae previously known, and more than 
tripled that of extended nebulae showing continuous spectra. 

The planetaries are 



I. C. 289 


C. D. 


-32° 14673 


I. C. 2003 


N. G. C. 


7048 


N. G. C. 2818 


I.e. 


1470 


N. G. C. 6072 


N. G. C. 


7635 


C. D. -29°13998 






^ed objects 






a=17K37.0« 


«=-24°39' 


(1920) 


17 50.4 


-21 44 




19 0.0 


-33 17 




23 22.0 


-1-57 46 





254 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Extended nebulae with emission spectra are 

N. G. C. 281 N. G. C. 2024 

I. C. 59. 63 N. G. C. 2237 

N. G. C. 1491 N. G. C. 2359 

N. G. C. 1499 N. G. C. 5128 

N. G. C. 1624 N. G. C. 6357 

I. C. 405 N. G. C. 7635 

I. C. 423 

N. G. C. 7635 appears to be a planetary involved in an extended 
nebula. There is some suggestion that this is a case of actual collision. 
I. C. 434, the Bay Nebula south of f Orionis, gives an emission spec- 
trum. This fact was previously determined by Max Wolf (Astro- 
nomische Nachrichten, v. 180, 152), who unfortunately concealed the 
matter by giving a wrong catalogue number — N. G. C. 2023, a nebula 
which has a continuous spectrum. 

The extended nebulae giving continuous spectra are 

N. G. C. 1333 N. G. C. 2247 

I. C. 348 I. C. 4592 

N. G. C. 1579 I. C. 4601 

I. C. 2087 I. C. 4603 

N. G. C. 1788 I. C. 4605 

I. C. 2118 N. G. C. 6726-7 

N. G. C. 2023 N. G. C. 6914 

N. G. C. 2183 N. G. C. 7129 

I. C. 448 I. C. 5146 

I. C. 447 

and the uncatalogued objects 

= 4'' H"- 6 = +28° 2' (1920) 

4 22.1 +24 32 

6 45.5 + 1 Brightest part of the great "spiral" in Orion. 

6 3.1 +18 42 

Nebulosity about B. D. -12° 1771 
Nebulosity about n- Scorpii. 

The spectroscopic observations of stars involved in nebulosity re- 
ferred to on page 273 establish a sequence in the types of the stars 
in galactic nebulae as follows: 

1. Small planetaries Stars involved, probably Wolf-Rayet. 

2. Large planetaries Stars involved, between Wolf-Rayet and Oe5. 

3. Extended emission nebulae Stars involved, OeS and BO. 

4. Extended continuous-spectrum nebulae. . . .Stars involved, Bl to A3. 

The overlap between groups is extremely small and is confined to 
nebulae showing peculiar spectra. 

The intimate relation between the types of nebular spectra and of 
the stars involved demands that one be considered a consequence of 
the other, or that both be due to a common cause. It suggests that 
one source of nebular luminosity may be found in some influence 
emanating from associated stars that fall within certain ranges of 
spectral type, and hence probably of effective temperature. On this 
basis the earliest and hottest starts alone would excise bright-line 
nebular luminosity. 

Near a critical type, Bl or a fractional subdivision earlier, the bright 
lines fade rapidly and a continuous or absorption spectrum quickly 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 255 

predominates. Slipher has shown that the absorption spectra of 
several extended nebulae agree with the spectra of the stars involved, 
and this suggests that the luminosity of extended nebulse having ab- 
sorption spectra is due Largely to reflection of starlight. The fact that 
bright lines fade so smoothly into a brightening continuous spectrum 
as the stellar type advances, and that nebulosity around the few known 
cases of late-type nebulous stars averages considerably fainter than that 
around stars of earlier types, further suggests the possibility of an 
excitation which produces continuous spectrum, decreasing with the 
temperature of the involved stars, superposed on the reflected illumi- 
nation of the nebulae. This question can be studied through color- 
indices of the nebulae, and attempts are being made to gain the neces- 
sary information. 

Nebulous Stars. 

The investigation of the spectra and colors of nebulous stars by 
Mr. Seares and Mr. Hubble has been continued, and results for most 
of the known objects brighter than the 13th magnitude are complete. 
An excess of color over that corresponding to the spectrum of the star 
is almost always present, though to a varying degree. The most 
remarkable case is that of the fainter stars near o Persei, many of 
which are involved in the nebulosity I. C. 1985 or its outlying masses. 
The average color excess for 17 stars is over half a magnitude, and for 
several of them it amounts to 0.8 or 0.9 mag. Broadly speaking, 
those closest to the center of the nebula show the largest excess of 
color. As usual, the stars are of early type, mostly B's with a few 
A's. Assigning absolute magnitudes in accordance with the luminosity 
curves of Professor KaptejTi, we have for the mean parallax of the 
group 0^0045=1=0 ''0003. The spectroscopic parallax of the nearby 
nebulous star B. D. +31°597 is 0':005. I. C. 1985 and the luminous 
nebulosity surrounding B. D. +31°597are presumably associated with 
the obscuring material that fills this part of the sky, and it is there- 
fore probably not accidental that the two parallaxes are the same. 

Intern.\l Motions in Spiral Nebul.e. 

In the last report mention was made of the measures of the spiral 
nebula M 33 by Mr. van Maanen. The results were derived from a 
pair of plates taken with a 10-year interv^al at the 25-foot focus of the 
60-inch reflector. The earlier plate was secured by IMr. Ritchey, the 
new one by Mr. Duncan. Measures by Mr. van Maanen of two photo- 
graphs of the same object taken by him at the 80-foot focus with an 
interval of 5 years have given strong corroboration of the earlier results. 

A new stereocomparator was built during the year, in which consid- 
erable improvements have been effected as compared with the Zeiss 
instrument. After testing, it was put into regular use in April 1921; 
the results are very satisfactory. With this instrument Mr. van 
Maanen has measured two other spiral nebulae, M 51 and M 81. For 



256 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

each object the plates covered intervals of 11 years. The older plates 
were taken by Mr. Ritchey, the later ones by Mr. Duncan. 

These two nebulae show results analogous to those found for M 101 
in 1916 and for M 33 in 1920. The displacements in all cases seem to 
correspond better with a motion along the arms of the spirals than 
with a rotation. The radial components, in the mean, are 39 per cent 
of the rotational components, while the total displacements agree in 
direction, within the limits of the measurement, with the arms of the 
spirals. 

The results now available practically exclude the possibility that 
they are due to any source of error in the telescope or the measuring 
instrument, for the photographs were taken partly at the 25-foot 
focus and partly at the 80-foot focus of the 60-inch reflector, and partly 
with the Crossley reflector of the Lick Observatory; and, further, 
they have been measured partly with the old and partly with the new 
stereocomparator, while some measures have also been made with an 
ordinary measuring machine, all of which give similar results. 

Accepting the measured displacements as real motions, we find the 
best explanation of the results in Jeans' s theory, matter being thrown 
off from two points of a nebula after it has attained a lenticular form. 

Miscellaneous Photographs op Nebulae and Clusters. 

During the year Mr. Duncan has obtained 134 photographs of the 
following nebulae, clusters, and miscellaneous objects: 

N. C. G. 224, M 31 Andromeda nebula. N. C. G. 4254, M 99 Virginis, spiral. 

N. C. G. 598, M 33 Trianguli, spiral. N. C. G. 4736. M 94 Canum. Ven., spiral. 

N. C. G. 869, h Persei, open cluster. N. C. G. 4872 etc., Comse. Many small nebulae. 

N. C. G. 884, X Persei, open cluster. N. C. G. 5194, M 51 Canum. Ven., large spiral. 

N. C. G. 891, Andromedse, spiral on edge. N. C. G. 5457, 101 Ursse Majoris, large spiral. 

N. C. G. 1952, M 1 Tauri, Crab nebula. N. C. G. 6218, M 12 0phiuchi, globular cluster. 

I. C. 418 Leporia, planetary nebula. N. C. G. 6514, M 20 Sagittarii, Trifid nebula. 

I. C. 423 Orionis, octopus-like nebula. N. C. G. 6523, M 8 Sagittarii. 

N. C. G. 1976, M 42, Orion nebula. N. C. G. 6705, Mil Scuti, open cluster. 

N. C. G. 1977, nebula around c Orionis. N. C. G. 6720, M 57 Lyrse, ring nebula. 

N. C. G. I 434 etc., south of f Orionis. N. C. G. 6822 etc., remarkable group in Sagit- 

N. C. G. 2024, following f Orionis. tarius. 

N. C. G. 2068, M 78 Orionis. N. C. G. 6853, M 27 Vulpeculse, dumb-bell ne- 

N. C. G. 2043, Camelopardalis, pinwheel spiral. bula. 

N. C. G. 2841, Ursae Majoris, spiral. N. C. G. 6946 Cephei, pinwheel spiral. 

N. C. G. 3031, M 81 Ursae Majoris, spiral. N. C. G. 6960 Cygni, network nebula. 

N. C. G. 3184, Ursae Majoris, spiral. N, C. G. 7006 Delphini, globular cluster. 

N. C. G. 3184, Ursffi Majoris, spiral. N. C. G. 7078, M 15 Pegasi, globular cluster. 

N. C. G. 3226-7 Leonis, double spiral. N. C. G. 7293 Aquarii, Harding's helical neb- 

N. C. G. 3242 Hydra;, planetary. ula. 

N. C. G. 3550 Ursae Majoris, many small ne- N. C. G. 7492 Aquarii, globular cluster. 

bulae. N. C. G. 7662 Andromedae, planetary. 
N. C. G. 4038-9 Crateris, remarkable spiral. 

Dark Markings: Miscellaneous: 

Barnard 72 Ophiuchi, S-shape. The Pleiades. Nova LjTse. 

Barnard 86 Sagittarii. Neptune. Nova Cygni (1920). 

Barnard 92 Sagittarii. Nova Persei No. 2 (1901). 

Barnard 133 Aquilae. Nova Aquilae No. 3 (1918). 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 257 

The photographs of M 31 (Andromeda Nebula) include 17 plates 
of about 1 hour's exposure taken primarily for detecting novse. This 
purpose was also held in view in photographing the other spirals. 
A 9-hour exposure on M 31 with the 100-inch telescope was made 
to show as accurately as possible the form of the nebula and to serve 
for a future study of internal motion. 

Plates of N. G. C. 1952 (M 1), 2403, 3031 (M 81), 4254 (M 99), 4736 
(M 94), 5194 (M 51), 5457 (M 101), 6514 (M 20, Trifid), and 6946 were 
taken for the purpose of studying possible internal changes by com- 
parison with earlier plates. An hour's exposure on the Ring nebula 
with the 100-inch telescope shows certain details which do not seem 
to appear on other photographs, notably a radial structure in the 
winding streamers. 

The following objects were found to possess special interest: 

(1) The bright and dark nebulae near f Orionis. The photograph of 
I.e. 434 brings out with great prominence the dark cloud, Barnard 33. 
There is evidence of four distinct types of nebulosity in the region. 

(2) N. G. C. 4038-9. A small bright spiral of extraordinary form, 
already noticed by Mr. Hubble on a plate made by hun with the 10- 
inch Cooke lens. Photographs with the 100-inch telescope show the 
central part in detail, and, in addition, two faint curved streamers of a 
length four or five times the diameter of the bright part of the nebula. 

(3) N. G. C. 1977. A well-known nebula whose details are well 
shown on a plate taken with the 100-inch reflector. 

(4) A region in Coma Berenices with N. G. C. 4872 central, in which 
Curtis has counted 249 small nebulae in an area 38' by 39' on a plate 
made with the Crossley reflector. On a plate of 4 hours' exposure 
with the large reflector Mr. Duncan has counted, within a circle 30' 
in diameter, 319 nebulae, 115 stars, and 206 faint objects of unde- 
termined character. 

(5) The dark markings, Nos. 72, 86, 92, and 133 of Barnard's cata- 
logue, as well as No. 33 near f Orionis, afford striking evidence of the 
obscuration of stars by intervening masses. It is hoped that the 
photographs of these objects may be of future use for detecting motion 
in the obscuring masses or in the stars near their edges by the disap- 
pearance or emergence of some of the stars. 

(6) N. G. C. 6822. This appears to be a remarkable group of stars 
and small nebulae, with probably some diffuse nebulosity. Two of the 
small nebulae resemble comets with bifurcated tails. The longer of 
two exposures was made under poor conditions and the images are 
not good. A still longer exposure, wdth good seeing, is needed. 

From a study of the above photographs, Mr. Duncan has obtained 
the following results: 

1. Three novae, Nos. 18, 19, and 20, were discovered in the Andro- 
meda nebula. 



258 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

2. Two new variable stars were discovered in the Trifid nebula. 

3. A variable star in M 33, discovered in the summer of 1920, was 
found to be redder than its neighbors and probably of long period. 

4. Two stars of noticeable proper motion were discovered in the 
globular cluster M 15. 

5. Lampland's discovery of changes in the Crab nebula (M 1) was 
confirmed by comparison of a plate made with the 60-inch telescope 
by Ritchey in 1910 with one made by Duncan in 1921 ; the motions of 
12 nebulous condensations with respect to 13 comparison stars were 
measured. The displacement of the nebulous points was in general 
away from the center of the nebula. The maximum displacement in 
the 11| years interval was about 2 ''5. 

6. The evidence afforded by comparing the photographs of M 9^ 
with two plates taken by Mr. Seares in 1916 is insufficient either to 
confirm or disprove the changes announced by Lampland. 

MISCELLANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHS. 

A few photographs of the moon, Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus have 
been made by Mr. Pease with the 100-inch telescope. 

Photographic observations of the positions of the Eighth and Ninth 
Satellites of Jupiter were made by Mr. Nicholson with the 60-incb 
telescope. No ephemeris for either satellite was available. Approxi- 
mate positions were computed and the satellites searched for until 
found. 

TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES AND PROPER MOTIONS. 

During the year Mr. van Maanen has secured 370 plates at the 80- 
foot focus of the 60-inch reflector with 614 exposures. Of these, 
455 exposures were for the determination of parallaxes, 139 for proper 
motions, and 20 for photometric determinations. For 22 fields the 
necessary plates were secured for the determination of parallaxes, 
thus giving a total of 144 fields finished to date. Several of the results 
require comment. 

a. Parallaxes were derived for 5 long-period variables: T Cassiopeiae, 
R Trianguli, R Virginis, R Canum Venaticorum, and X Ophiuchi. 
Including, also, the parallax of o Ceti determined by other observers, 
mean absolute magnitudes for these objects were found to be as fol- 
lows: maximum about +1-5; minimum -|-6.5; at maximum these stars 
are therefore giants. Any theory of their variability must keep this 
fact in view. 

6. For two Cepheids, RX Aurigse and RR Lyrse, the parallaxes 
found are — 0''001 and +0''006, respectively, thus confirming pre- 
vious determinations of the absolute brightness of stars of this type. 

c. The parallax found for R Monocerotis (N. G. C. 2261), the well- 
known variable nebula, is negative. The true parallax must therefore 
be very small, probably less than -t-0''005. To explain the extraordi- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 259 

nary changes in the nebula observed by Mr. Hubble, it seems necessary 
to conclude that the necessary motions are an effect of illumination 
and do not represent a real motion of nebulous matter. 

d. A parallax of +0''10 was derived for the faint star of magnitude 
13.2, proper motion 0''38, discovered by Mr. van Maanen while meas- 
uring the parallax of Boss 1182. This indicates an absolute magni- 
tude of +8.2 and a velocity at right angles to the line of sight of about 
180 km. per sec. 

A series of parallax plates has been started at the 42-foot focus of 
the 100-inch reflector; the program includes objects which are too 
faint or too far south to be dealt with at the 80-foot focus of the 60-inch 
telescope. Among these are some of the largest planetary nebulae, 
a few early novse, and some faint stars of large proper motion. 

Two pairs of plates of 5-years' interval, of the region around 
a Tauri, have been measured for proper motion. Of 65 stars down to 
magnitude 15, not one appears to be a member of the Taurus group; 
the percentage of faint stars belonging to the cluster must therefore 
be extremely small. 

Mrs. Marsh has assisted in the computations relating to parallax 
and proper motion and has also measured ten fields for the determina- 
tion of proper motions of stars of about the twelfth magnitude. For 
this purpose several plates originally taken for the determination of 
parallax were duplicated, the interval being five or six years. 

STELLAR PHOTOMETRY. 

Several hundred photographs have been made for photometric 
purposes with the 10-inch refractor and the reflectors by Messrs. 
Seares, Shapley, Hubble, Humason, and LindbLad of a variety of 
objects. Besides the determination of photographic and photo- 
visual magnitudes in the special fields referred to below, a series of 
66 photographs of the cluster M 5 has been made, at the request of 
Professor Turner, by Mr. Seares and Mr. Lindblad, for the determina- 
tion of the magnitudes of comparison star k of Bailey's variable No. 
33. Star k is a variable of short period and small amplitude. 

An object of unusual interest, called to our attention by Professor 
von Zeipel, is a very red star of about the thirteenth photo visual 
magnitude in the edge of the cluster M 37. The star is a variable of 
unknown period and amplitude. Its color-index seems to be of the 
order of five magnitudes. Polar comparisons have been made for the 
determination of its brightness and color, but ths photographs have 
not yet been reduced. 

Mr. Hubble has used the 10-inch Cooke refractor to determine by 
polar comparisons the photovisual magnitudes of 250 stars involved 
in or neighboring on nebulae and nebulous clusters. Photographic 
magnitudes have been determined for 160 of these stars. Ordinary 
photographic magnitudes obtained with this instrument are much 



260 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

less precise than photovisual. The color curve of the lens is so steep 
that, when focused for H-y (best focus for faintest images), the ultra- 
violet light is out of focus and produces diffuse images for all but the 
faintest stars. A potassium-chromate filter, prepared by Mr. Ander- 
son, finally solved the difficulty by cutting off the light above X4150. 
Sharp images are now obtained, entirely comparable with those given 
by a visual color filter, over a range of at least five magnitudes. The 
color equation for photographic magnitudes is considerably increased, 
but this is more than offset by the greater accuracy with which the 
images can be measured. Another advantage of the filter is that, when 
used with a Seed process plate, bright-line nebulosity is much reduced 
in intensity, and involved stars can be measured undisturbed by a 
nebulous background. Thus the trapezium stars in Orion give well- 
separated images, free from nebulosity and easily measurable, in spite 
of the short focus of 45 inches and the large focal ratio F 4.5. 

The systematic observation of colors by Mr. Seares has centered 
mainly on nebulous stars, galactic clouds, and special fields in some of 
the obscured regions of the sky for the purpose of obtaining evidence 
bearing on certain investigations undertaken by him jointly with Mr. 
Hubble. The program of nebulous stars, with a few exceptions, is 
complete. The results are described on page 255. The galactic clouds 
and obscured areas are discussed below. 

A series of the color comparisons of the Selected Areas in the +30° 
zone with the North Pole is half finished. The results will serve a 
threefold purpose: provide secondary standards of color, useful for 
the determination of the plate constants for exposure-ratio photo- 
graphs of fields south of the zenith, permit a study of color as a func- 
tion of galactic latitude, and afford a valuable control oa the zero- 
point determinations of the photographic and photovisual scales es- 
tablished for the Selected Areas. Much work has also been done on a 
standardization of the relations between exposure ratio, color-index, 
and spectral type. 

Most observations hitherto made by the method of exposure ratios 
have been of individual and rather bright stars. For such objects it 
is easy to arrange the observations so that gradation differences in the 
photographic plate for blue and yellow light are eliminated. When 
bright and faint stars are observed simultaneously, however, the prob- 
lem is much more difficult. The matter has been given much atten- 
tion, and results seem to justify the belief that the method of observing 
and reduction now used is free from this objection. 

Mr. Humason has made photographs of M 22 in a search for variable 
stars, and of the Andromeda nebula for the detection of possible 
novae. He has also taken about 100 plates of special fields, many of 
which have been compared with the pole. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 261 

Photographic and Photovisual Magnitudes in the Selected Areas. 

The combination of results obtained by Professors Kapteyn and 
van Rhijn with those derived by Mr, Seares with the assistance of 
Miss Joyner and Miss Richmond has continued. Some 25,000 or 
30,000 stars measured at Mount Wilson fall outside the limits of the 
Groningen measures. These are in process of transfer to cards for 
arrangement in catalogue form. The results, including the checking 
of the coordinates, are practically complete for Areas 1 to 67. 

The observing program for photovisual magnitudes in 42 of the 
Selected Areas has been finished. With the exception of a small num- 
ber of plates, the measures are complete; the reductions are well 
advanced, although little has been done during the year because of 
concentration of effort in other directions. 

Photometric Survey of the Pleiades. 

With the assistance of Miss Richmond, Mr. Shapley has finished a 
survey of the photographic and photovisual magnitudes of about 850 
faint stars in the Pleiades, many of which are certainly members of 
the physical system. The magnitudes were determined by comparison 
with the North Polar Standards, and will be of importance for statis- 
tical discussions and for comparisons of the Mount Wilson photo- 
metric system with that of other observers. The interval covered is 
from magnitude 10 to 15.5. Within this interval the members of the 
cluster are dwarfs, of absolute magnitudes 5 to 10.5. Beyond the 
eleventh magnitude the mean color index of cluster and background 
stars is sensibly constant and equal to about 0.7 mag. 

North Polar Standards of Magnitude. 

In connection with the work of the International Commiittee on 
Magnitudes, of which Mr. Seares is chairman, several tests of the 
Mount Wilson photometric scale have been undertaken. These con- 
cern mainly the relation of the standards below the tenth magnitude 
to those near the sixth magnitude, which define the international 
zero-point. To obtain evidence involving the use of an instrument 
other than the 60-inch reflector, with which the standards were es- 
tablished, Mr. Humason has begun a series of observations with the 
10-inch refractor. 

A second test is based on a comparison of the results described in 
the preceding paragraph with a long series of photographic magni- 
tudes and color-indices of stars in the Pleiades, placed at our dis- 
posal by Professor Hertzsprung. The scale for the latter series was 
established by means of an objective grating attached to the 80-cm. 
refractor of the Potsdam Observatory and is referred to the zero-point 
of the Gottingen Aktinometrie. The color indices depend on measures 
of effective wave-length on photographs taken some years ago by 



262 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



Professor Hertzsprung with the 60-inch reflector. The relation of the 
zero-point of the Aktinometrie to that of the Mount Wilson system 
and the color equation of the instrument are known. A comparison 
can therefore be made with the Mount Wilson system as transferred 
to the Pleiades by Mr. Shapley's observations. For the well-deter- 
mined interval of the scale the differences, in hundredths of a mag- 
nitude, are in the accompanying table. 

The mean difference for the photographic magnitudes is -1-0.02 mag. 



Photographic 
magnitude. 


Mt. Wilson-Hertzsprung. 


Average 
No. 

stars. 


Photogr. 


Photov. 


C.I. 


11.5-12.0 

12.0-12.5 

12.5-13.0 

13.0-13.5 

13.5-14.0 

14.0-14.5 

Mean 


+ 12 
+ 6 
- 2 
+ 3 
+ 3 
-10 


+ 2 
+ 3 

- 5 

- 3 

- 6 
-13 


+ 10 
+ 3 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 6 
+ 2 


32 
42 
59 
72 
135 
112 


+ 2 


- 4 


+ 5 







The correction for zero-point difference is —0.06, and for reduction 
of Hertzsprung's results to the color system of the reflector, -|-0.04. 
Hence, the final difference for the photographic scale is 0.00 mag. 
In other words. Professor Hertzsprung's measurement of the interval 
between the sixth and thirteenth magnitudes is the same as that made 
at Mount Wilson. The small systematic difference of 0.05 mag. in 
the color-indices is within the uncertainty of the determmation. The 
same difference reappears in the photovisual magnitudes with the 
reversed sign, since Hertzsprung's results for these were obtained by 
combining his photographic magnitudes and color-indices. 

A third test, which concerns the Mount Wilson color-indices, is an 
amplification of one described in Proceedings of the National Academy 
of Sciences, vol. 3, 29, 1917. The method of detennining colors by expo- 
sure ratios, which is entirely independent of scales of magnitudes, was 
calibrated on the bright stars among the Polar Standards and then used 
to determine the color indices of the standards fainter than the tenth 
magnitude. A comparison of these results with the values of the color 
derived from the photographic and photovisual magnitudes gave no 
evidence of any systematic difference as far as magnitude 15.5. The 
comparison has now been greatly strengthened and extended to a 
little below the sixteenth magnitude, with results that are equally 
accordant. 

Color of the Brighter Stars in the Pleiades. 

Mr. Seares has reduced a series of 15 exposure-ratio photographs 
of the Pleiades for the determination of the colors of the bright stars 
and of some of the fainter objects as far as the twelfth magnitude, 
mainly as a test of the method of reduction. Color-indices were ob- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 263 

tained for 60 stars. The agreement with Professor Hertzsprung's 
results referred to above is excellent, only two of the differences for 
individual stars exceeding a tenth of a magnitude. The mean syste- 
matic difference ranges from —0.02 mag. for the brightest stars to 
+0.02 mag. for those near the twelfth magnitude. This close agree- 
ment over an interval of 8 magnitudes is good evidence that the dis- 
turbing influence of gradation has been well eliminated. 

The measures confirm two anomalous results which had been sus- 
pected from other evidence. The color-indices of the 14 AO stars 
which are members of the cluster increase with increasing magnitude, 
the change amounting to about 0.2 mag. in an interval of two magni- 
tudes. Further, the color-indices of the F and G stars are about 
one-third the values usually found for these types. For the A stars, 
at least, the result is probably to be attributed to systematic errors 
in the spectral classification. 

Galactic Clouds and Obscured Regions. 

The colors of stars in rich galactic fields in Perseus and Taurus have 
been compared with those in several closely adjacent areas within and 
on the boundaries of regions showing great obscuration. In addition, 
measures of color have been made in a number of Selected Areas, 
especially Nos. 63, 64, 88, 109, 110, 111, and in several rich fields in the 
Scorpius-Sagittarius region. Area 110 is on the equator, between the 
two branches of the Milky Way, and is notable because of the low-star 
density, which is comparable with that in high galactic latitudes. As 
far as the reductions are complete, they indicate the following results : 

The galactic fields show a correlation of color with apparent magni- 
tude which is the inverse of that previously found for extra-galactic 
regions, but similar to that occurring among the most luminous stars 
in globular clusters and the Cepheids and pseudo-Cepheids of our own 
system. On the average, the stars in the galactic clouds become bluer 
with increasing magnitude. There are exceptions, as might be ex- 
pected, for although there is reason to believe that the correlation 
exists among the more luminous stars in a galactic aggregation which 
are at the same distance from the observer, there are two factors which 
tend to prevent its detection : the presence of any considerable number 
of apparently bright blue stars, and, second, exceptional thickness of 
the cloud in the line of sight. These will decrease the average color 
of the apparently brighter stars and increase that of the fainter ob- 
jects. The very distant red giants, say of absolute magnitude —4, 
in the remote regions of the cloud, will have the same apparent magni- 
tude as nearer and intrinsically fainter blue stars. The result will be 
the presence of stars of all colors in every interval of apparent magni- 
tude, and an average color that changes little with decreasing bright- 
ness. The nearby dwarfs, which are all reddish, can have little in- 
fluence because of their small number. 



264 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

The immediate importance of the phenomenon lies in its applica- 
bility to a determination of the distances of the cloud-forms of the 
Milky Way. When the correlation is clearly defined, the method 
should give excellent results, for the relation between mean color and 
luminosity is well established by the spectroscopic parallaxes of the 
Cepheids and pseudo-Cepheids, and especially by the extensive 
determination of colors and absolute magnitudes in globular clusters 
by Mr. Shapley. Even when the relation is more or less completely 
obscured, valuable indications of distance — minimum distances, at 
least — should be possible. A survey of the evidence bearing on corre- 
lations of luminosity with spectral type and color (p. 275) indicates 
that the blue stars in the galactic clouds are approximately of zero 
absolute magnitude. The adoption of this value gives at once an 
approximation for the distance, which can only be increased by the 
assumption that the clouds, like the loose aggregations of B stars in 
our own system, also contain blue stars of much higher luminosity. 

Very provisional results for four regions are: 

Selected Area 88 14000 parsecs. 

Scutum Sobieski 7000 

4h 2m -f 33° 15' Perseus 8000 

4 16 +26 3 Taurus 7000 

At a minimum, therefore, the distances of the blue stars in these 
fields, of apparent magnitudes 14 to 15.5, seem to be of the order of 
20,000 to 50,000 light-years. 

The obscured areas for which results are complete are in Perseus 
and Taurus. The stars are predominantly red, but thus far no evi- 
dence of an excess of color over that to be inferred from spectral type 
has been found which can certainly be attributed to the obscuring 
material. Mr. Hubble has made long exposures of the regions in ques- 
tion with objective prisms on the 10-inch refractor. As far as the 
spectral classification can be pushed, it indicates an abnormally high 
percentage of late types, many of which, according to Mr. Lindblad, 
are certainly dwarfs, agreeing closely with the colors measured by 
exposure ratios and checked by polar comparisons. The inference 
is that the obscuring material is comparatively near and obstructs, with- 
out perceptible scattering, the light of the more distant stars. On this 
hypothesis, the stars seen within the boundaries of these areas would 
lie between the observer and the obscuring cloud and include a large 
percentage of dwarfs, which in the nature of the case are of high color. 
Thus in one of the fields in Taurus, at 4*^ 15"", -|-28° 10', the types of 
7 well-determined stars within the boundaries of obscuration (m = 8.5 
to 12.2) are all G or later; 6 of the 7 stars are dwarfs. The brightest 
is a KO giant. The measures show a small color excess, less in amount, 
however, than the uncertainty affecting it. Assigning to the dwarfs 
mean absolute magnitudes corresponding to their types, we have 5.5 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 265 

for the mean value oim—M, with an average deviation of ±0.3 mag, 
for individual stars. The corresponding mean parallax is 0''008. 
The obscuring material can scarcely be nearer, and probably is not 
more than three or four times the distance indicated by this value. 
A possible exception to the statement that stars in obscured areas 
do not show mu3h, if any, excess of color occurs among the faint stars 
near o Persei, which are in a region of marked obscuration. The de- 
tails are discussed in connection with nebulous stars on page 255. 
Here it need only be remarked that the certain instances of excess 
color thus far found anywhere are those of stars surrounded by lumi- 
nous nebulosity. Although o Persei is in an obscured region, it is 
near the nebula I. C. 1985, which involves nearly all, if not all, of the 
objects showing an excess of color. 

Star Clusters and the Galactic System. 

The investigation of the star clusters and their bearing on the struc- 
ture of the Galaxy has been continued by Mr. Shapley as in the past, 
a large number of plates having been made with the reflecting tele- 
scopes for both photometric and spectroscopic studies. Slitless spec- 
trograms of globular clusters have confirmed the earlier conclusion 
that the brightest stars are giants. 

The distribution of stars and the character of the variables in the 
condensed type of globular cluster have been examined in order to 
determine the distances more accurately and to find in what impor- 
tant respect these few objects differ from typical globular systems. 
An examination of many thousands of the fainter stars in the bright- 
est globular clusters has been made by Miss Mayberry without find- 
ing any conspicuous cases of variation. 

The distance of N. G. C. 7006 has again been determined, this time 
by means of its newly discovered variable stars; the earlier value of 
220,000 light-years is confirmed, with much higher weight than was 
possible before. The dimensions of this most distant cluster and of the 
relatively near cluster M 13 are essentially the same. 

The distribution of the stars with respect to the plane of the local 
cluster and the galactic plane has been further investigated with the 
aid of the data contained in the unpublished volumes of the Henry 
Draper Catalogue. The brighter stars of spectral type B show clearly 
the phenomenon of a secondary Milky Way; the famter B stars, how- 
ever, show a symmetrical distribution with respect to the plane of the 
Galaxy and evidently are not members of the star-cloud immediately 
surrounding the sun. 

Variable Stars. 

A contribution to the problem of the velocity of light is made by 
Mr. Shapley' s comparative study in blue and yellow light of the vari- 
able stars in M 5 ; the investigation is still in progress. The close coin- 
cidence of the maxima of the cluster-type variables for different colors 



266 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

shows that the velocity of light in space is the same for blue and yellow 
light within one part in a billion. That is, the radiation, which differs 
in wave-length by approximately a thousand angstroms, differs in 
velocity by less than one foot a second. 

From a study of the light curves of Novse and variable stars, Mr. 
Shapley has established with some certainty the existence of a con- 
tinuous gradation from the so-called typical Nova light-curve, such 
as that of Nova Aquilse No. 3, to the curves for a certain type of irregu- 
lar variable star of small variation, similar to those in the Orion Nebula. 
Spectroscopic results, so far as they go, confirm the relation of the two 
types, and it is suggested that the cause of variation of Novse and of 
these variable stars differs in degree rather than in character. Un- 
published photometric and spectroscopic results from the Harvard 
College Observatory were of much value in this study. 

The close relationship of the spectra and light curves of Novse and 
certain variable stars like T Py^idis has been noted by previous ob- 
servers. 

Mr. Shapley has examined the question of changes in geological 
climates from the standpoint of recent observations on the move- 
ment of stars in nebulosity. The peculiar and difficult variables in the 
Orion Nebula apparently owe their light variations to friction with the 
surrounding nebulosity, and the prevalence of similar nebulosity 
throughout the solar neighborhood raises the question of its possible 
effect in the past on solar radiation and terrestrial temperatures. 

The computational work on eclipsing binaries has been continued by 
Mrs. Shapley. One of the variables studied, SX Cassiopeise, is of 
special interest because its mean density is of the order of 0.0005 of 
the solar density. The variable is, in fact, a very close pair of giant 
stars, each with a linear diameter comparable with that measured for 
Arcturus with the interferometer. 

Mr. Shapley and Miss Mayberry have completed an investigation 
of the 19th magnitude variables of the globular cluster N. G. C. 
7006 — the faintest and most distant variable stars on record. Seven 
of the eleven found on the Mount Wilson plates show conspicuous 
variation in the course of one night, and the other four appear also to 
be short-period variables. In magnitude and range they are very 
much alike; and in this cluster, as in M 3,M 5, and other systems, the 
variables are between one and two magnitudes fainter than the bright- 
est stars. They are, no doubt, typical short-period Cepheids. 

Preliminary Experiments on Stellar Photometry in the Infra-Red. 

Last summer experiments were begun to determine the possibilities 
of the new thalofide cells for the measurement of stellar radiation. 
These cells behave similarly to selenium upon exposure to light, except 
that their spectral sensitivity lies between 6,000 a and 12,000 a, with a 
maximum at 10,000a. It was found that cell No. 7 underwent a 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 



267 



5 per cent change of resistance upon exposure to the light of Arcturus 
at the focus of the 60-inch telescope. The high resistance of the cell 
(300 megohms) made it unsatisfactory, however, for use in series with a 
galvanometer directly. It was therefore decided to attempt the use 
of a thermionic vacuum tube for amplifying the galvanometer de- 
flections. After some difficulty an electrostatic audion voltmeter was 
perfected which was capable of measuring voltages as low as 10~^ volts. 
The method of operation then consisted in connecting the thalofide 
cell in series with a battery and a resistance the value of which was 
the same as that of the cell. Changes in the resistance of the cell due 
to exposure to light caused changes in the potential across the series 
resistance. These potential variations were then measured with the 
thermionic voltmeter. The first test of the device with the 60-inch 
reflector gave the following results: 



star. 


Spectrum. 


Magnitude 
(visual). 


Galvanometer 

deflection 

in mm. 


/3 Pegasi 
Pegasi 
a Andromedse 


Ma 

Ma 
AOp 


2.2-2.7 
5.2 
2.2 


52.0 
4.0 
5.0 



Experiments are being carried on with a cell of smaller surface area, 
with which it is hoped to reach much fainter stars. 

STELLAR SPECTROSCOPY. 

The stellar spectroscopic work of the year has been carried on by a 
considerable number of observers, and their investigations have dealt 
with a wide variety of problems. The following summary indicates 
the principal divisions of the work: 

General program of radial velocities and determinations of absolute magnitude: Adams, 

Joy, Stromberg, Hoge. 
Variables of type Md and stars with bright lines: Merrill, Humason. 
Spectroscopic binaries and R-type stars: Sanford, Duncan. 
Nebulous stars: Hubble. 
Investigations of absolute magnitude for B and A stars: Lindblad. 

The two slit spectrographs have been in regular use at the Casse- 
grain focus of the large reflectors, and a small spectrograph of short 
focal length has been employed occasionally at the primary focus, both 
with and without a slit. In addition, a considerable number of photo- 
graphs have been obtained by Mr. Hubble, Mr. Humason, and Mr. 
Lindblad with the 10-inch refractor and an objective prism. Most of 
the spectrograms taken at the Cassegrain focus have been made with 
a dispersion of one prism and a camera of 45 cm. focal length. The 
18-cm. camera has proved most valuable, however, in the case of the 
fainter variables which have been investigated. 

During the year, 1,549 spectrograms have been obtained with the 
Cassegrain spectrographs, 634 with the 100-inch telescope, and 915 



268 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



with the 60-inch. The 100-inch telescope has been used ahnost ex- 
clusively for faint stars and for a few selected objects south of —30° 
declination which are beyond the reach of the 60-inch reflector. 
The observing list for the latter instrument consists to a large extent 
of stars for which determinations of absolute magnitude are being 
made and includes stars with a wide range in apparent brightness. 
The following table shows the number of stars of the various magni- 
tudes observed with the two reflectors at the Cassegrain focus: 





100-inch. 


60-inch. 


Brighter than 5.0 visually 

5.0 to 5.9 


43 

31 

39 

142 

207 

172 


99 
267 
324 
170 

50 
5 


6.0 to 6.9 


7.0 to 7.9 


8.0 to 8.9 


9.0 or fainter 





Radial Velocities. 

The principal results obtained during the year are as follows: 

(1) The radial velocities of 253 stars in addition to those of types 
Md and R have been determined from three or more spectrograms, and 
these stars have been transferred to the list of objects with constant 
velocities. 

(2) About 20 spectroscopic binaries have been discovered, for several 
of which the orbits are now under investigation. 

(3) The elements of the orbits of 7 spectroscopic binaries have been 
computed and published by Mr. Sanford. These include the com- 
panion of a Herculis with a period of 51.6 days, and two dwarf stars 
of type K, Lalande 29330 and Lalande 46867, the latter of which has 
bright H and K lines. Preliminary elements of three other binaries. 
Boss 2227, Boss 2447, and A. Oe 12584, have been derived. Four of 
these ten binaries show the lines of both components. The large ve- 
locities of the center of mass of Lalande 29330 and A. Oe 12584 are 
noteworthy, amounting to —60 and — 98± km. per sec. respectively 

(4) The Cepheid variable X Cygni has been investigated by Mr. 
Duncan, and the elements of its orbit have been determined on the 
assumption that this type of variable is actually binary in character. 

(5) The variable star S Antlise, usually classed as a Cepheid variable, 
has proved to be of the Algol type and shows two spectra. The orbit 
has been calculated by Mr. Joy, and the results will be published soon. 

(6) Observations of the cluster-type variables RS Bootis, XZ 
Cygni, and RV Ursse Ma j oris indicate a somewhat larger range of 
velocity for these stars than for the normal Cepheid variables. The 
'Velocity of the system" in the case of ten cluster- type variables has 
been found to have values ranging from +70 to —180 km. but no 
relationship with distance from the Galaxy is apparent. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 269 

(7) Marked differences are shown in the radial velocities given by 
the dark and bright lines of the Cepheid variable W Virginis. 

(8) Radial velocities have now been determined by Mr. Merrill for 
101 long-period variables. Of these, 91 have spectra similar to that 
of o Ceti, while the remaining 10 are classed as peculiar. 

(9) A least-squares solution by Mr. Merrill for the solar motion from 
the bright lines of 83 variables of the Md (o Ceti) type yields the values 
V= — 56km.,A = 274°,D = +44°. The average residual radial velocity 
is 31 km., the greatest motion so far observed for a group of stars 
selected on the basis of spectral tj^^e. The high value of the solar 
motion is in agreement with the result found from statistical investi- 
gations by Adams, Joy, and Stromberg, that stars of high velocity 
have a strong preferential motion in a direction nearly opposite to 
that of the sun. 

(10) The radial velocities of 28 stars of type R have now been 
determined by Mr. Sanford. The velocities show the extraordinarily 
high dispersion of from —400 to +70 km. The algebraic mean when 
freed from the effect of the solar motion is —17 km. and the numeri- 
cal mean is 50 km. 

Spectroscopic Determinations of Luminosity and Parallax. 

The absolute magnitudes and parallaxes of 1,646 stars derived by 
the spectroscopic method are contained in Contribution No. 199, pub- 
lished by the Observatory in January 1921. The contents of this 
paper may be summarized as follows: 

1. Derivation of the reduction tables with the aid of trigonometric parallaxes, paral- 

lactic motion, and peculiar motion. 

2. Illustrations of the use of the reduction tables. 

3. Derivation of the probable errors. These are found to be of the order of ±0.4 

in the absolute magnitude and about 20 per cent in the parallaxes themselves. 

4. Comparisons with trigonometric parallaxes and with spectroscopic parallaxes derived 

previouslj\ 

5. Methods employed in the determination of the relative intensities of the lines used 

for the various types of spectra. 

6. Catalogue of the results for 1,646 stars. 

The spectroscopic method of determining absolute magnitude has 
now been applied to about 350 stars in addition to those for which 
results have been published, so that a total of 2,000 parallaxes derived 
in this way is now available. 

One of the most direct applications of these results is to the giant 
and dwarf theory of stellar development. If the stars are divided 
according to spectral type and the numbers of stars of each absolute 
magnitude are counted it is found at once that the A and F type stars 
(excluding the Cepheids and pseudo-Cepheids) show a single maxi- 
mum of frequency, the former around absolute magnitude +2, the 
latter around +3.5. The G and KO to K 3 stars show two maxima, 
the first at +0.5 and +5.5, the second at +0.5 and +6.2, with com- 



270 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

B A F G K M 



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Distribution of about 2,100 stars with respect to spectral type (abscissae) and absolute magnitude 
J (ordinate.3). The points and circles represent individual stars. The B stars are those in the 
Orion (circles) and the Scorpius-Centaurus (points) regions investigated by Kapteyn. The 
remainder are stars whose absolute magnitudes have been derived spectroscopically by Adams 
and his associates. For types A to M the circles indicate Cepheid variables and psoiido 
Cepheidb. 

paratively few stars of intermediate magnitude in either case; and, 
finally, the K4 to K9 and M stars show two maxinm completely 
isolated from each other, the first type at +0.7 and +7.0 and the 
second at +0.2 and about + 10.5. The separation of the two branches 
of J the curve of development is shown clearly by these results. 

A graphical representation of the results for the 1,646 stars and for 
the helium stars whose parallaxes were determined by Professor 
Kapteyn is given in the accompanying diagram prepared by Mr. 
Hubble. The absolute magnitudes are plotted against spectral types, 
the Cepheids and the stars of the Orion group among the helium stars 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 271 

being indicated by circles. The nature of the giant and dwarf 
division is shown clearly, as well as the marked grouping of the stars 
with the Cepheid characteristics of spectrum. The extraordinary 
condensation of stars around Kl to K5 is due in part to the Har- 
vard system of classification, which requires modification to include 
spectral types between K5 and Ma. 

An investigation by Mr. Lindblad of the influence of the effect of 
absolute magnitude on the spectrum of stars of types B and A has led 
to the discovery that the portion of the continuous spectrum between 
X3895 and X3907, when compared with the adjoining region toward 
longer wave-lengths, is less intense in stars of low luminosity than in the 
brighter stars. The effect appears to be due to a widening of the wings 
of H^ in the fainter stars and to increased width and intensity of the 
arc lines of iron and the silicon line at X3906. The method of compari- 
son is to determine the exposure-ratio necessary to secure equal 
photographic impressions for the two spectral regions X3895-X3907 
and X3907-X3925. Between absolute magnitudes and +3 the rate 
of change in exposure ratio is found to be 0.15 mag. for one unit 
in absolute magnitude, with a probable error of about 0.10 mag. 
for a single plate having from 3 to 8 measured images. The effect 
appears to be most prominent in stars of types B8 to A5,and to become 
less for stars with types on either side in the spectral sequence. 

The principal applications of the method have been to stars in mov- 
ing clusters such as the Ursa Major group, the Hyades, Pleiades, 
and Praesepe, and to the B-type stars of the Orion and Scorpius- 
Centaurus groups. In all these cases the parallaxes as determined 
by this spectroscopic method are in good agreement with those derived 
from group motion or by other means. 

Mr. Lindblad has also investigated the cause of the sharp falling off 
in intensity of the continuous spectrum beyond X3889, which from his 
own work at Upsala and that of Kapteyn is known to be correlated 
with absolute magnitude. The effect is found to be due to increased 
absorption of the "cyanogen" band X3883 in the more luminous stars. 
The same result, but in less degree, exists for the bands at X4216 and 
X3950. The most sensitive point in the band at X3883 appears to lie 
between the two heads at X3883 and X3871, where the effect seems to 
be marked even among the giant stars of the same spectral type. 

The exposure-ratio method already referred to has been used for 
measuring the amount of the change of intensity between the two 
regions to be compared, as, for example, X4144-X4184 and X4227-X4272. 
The amount of the effect appears to be greatest for stars of tji^es 
G5-K2 and decreases considerably toward GO and Ma. Slitless 
spectrograms of stars as faint as apparent magnitude 13.5 indicate 
that the method can be applied with success to distinguish between 
giant and dwarf stars of this brightness. 



272 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Space-Velocity and Absolute Magnitude. 

The determination of the distances and absolute magnitudes of stars 
has made it possible, through combination with proper motion and 
radial velocity, to derive space-motions and to study their relationship 
to absolute magnitude. An investigation of this character, based 
upon the results for the 1,646 stars to which reference has been made, 
leads to results of considerable interest, 

1. The average space- velocities of stars of types F, G, K, and M 
vary with absolute magnitude to a marked degree, the fainter stars 
moving more rapidly than the brighter ones. The giant stars show 
an especially regular increase of velocity with decreasing brightness. 
The increase in average space-velocity is about 3 km. for a decrease 
in brightness of one magnitude. 

2. The tangential and radial velocities show results in harmony 
with the space- velocities. 

3. The average space-velocity of the giant stars is very nearly twice 
the average radial velocity, a result which would follow strictly if 
equal numbers of stars moved in all directions. 

4. The variation of velocity with spectral type is well marked among 
the giant stars, but less certain among the dwarfs. The latter show a 
very wide dispersion of motions and are much less homogeneous as a 
class than the giants. 

5. The frequency of the space-velocities can not be represented by a 
distribution according to Maxwell's law, there being a large excess of 
high velocities. The assumption of a normal error-distribution of the 
logarithms of the velocities instead of the velocities themselves satis- 
fies the observations much better. 

Systematic Motions of Stars Based upon Space-Velocities. 

An extensive investigation by Mr. Stromberg of the systematic mo- 
tions of stars with parallaxes derived by the spectroscopic method is 
now in progress. Brief reference may be made to a few of the results. 

1. Solutions of the solar motions based separately upon 800 giant 
stars and 415 dwarf stars give values for the velocity for the sun of 
19.1 km. and 32.4 km., respectively. The difference is found to be 
due to systematic motions on the part of the dwarf stars. 

2. A similar solution, using groups of stars divided according to the 
amount of space-velocity, shows that the stars with space-velocities 
between and 60 km. yield a value of the solar motion in close agree- 
ment with that commonly adopted, V = 20 km., with the apex at 
A = 270°, D=-|-30°. The stars with higher velocities give system- 
atically larger values for A and D and a great increase in the apparent 
value of V. 

3. The conclusion from these results is that the motions of the stars 
with large velocities, the great majority of which are of the F type and 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 273 

of the dwarf class, are not distributed in the same way as the stars of 
normal speed, but show a very asymmetrical distribution, their cen- 
troid moving towards a point in the galaxy of galactic longitude about 
250°. The same result was found previously by Adams and Joy 
from a smaller number of stars of large radial velocity. 

Spectra of Nebulous Stars. 

The investigation of the spectra of stars involved in nebulosity has 
been carried on by Mr. Hubble with the aid of the Cassegrain spec- 
trographs and a small slitless instrument which may be used at the 
primary focus of either of the telescopes. With the latter instrument 
the spectra of about 150 stars ranging in magnitude from 10.5 to 14.0 
have been classified. 

The spectra of 85 stars have been photographed with the Casse- 
grain spectrographs. The stars involved in extended nebulae giving 
an emission spectrum are nearly all of tyipes OeS and BO. Those 
in extended nebulse giving an absorption spectrum are Bl or later, 
averaging about B4. The following six stars of types later than A3 
are found to be involved in nebulosity: 

B. D. +31° 597 K2 giant 

4h i4m^ ^28° 5' (1920) K8 dwarf 

T Tauri Gp with bright lines 

B. D. +28° 645 F8 

B. D. -19° 4357 G5 giant 

R Coronse Australia Gp with bright lines 

The central stars of all the large planetary nebulse so far observed, 
N. G. C. 246, 1514, 3587, 6853, 7293, and 7635, with mean diameters 
exceeding 2', have spectra intermediate between the Wolf-Rayet 
type and Oe5. 

The bearing of these results on the nature of the spectra of the 
nebulse with which the stars are connected is discussed in another sec- 
tion of this report (p. 254). 

Miscellaneous Investigations. 

1. Observations of o Ceti were continued as far as its minimum of 
light, and show a repetition of the remarkable changes in its spectrum 
which were first seen at the preceding minimum. A curious longitu- 
dinal asymmetry in the bright hydrogen lines and the bright regions 
adjoining the heads of the titanium-oxide bands was observed. The 
components of the hydrogen lines were displaced with reference to 
each other by an amount which would correspond to an angular dis- 
tance of 0''2 in the sources producing the lines. 

2. The spectrum of R Scuti was observed on April 17 to have strong 
M-type bands which disappeared by May 24. The spectrum was 
estimated as G5 on June 11. Strong, sharp enhanced lines are very 
prominent in the spectrum. No bright lines were found. 



274 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



3. The following variables of long period belonging to the Algol and 
Cepheid classes have been found to have bright lines. In most cases 
the strength and appearance of bright lines vary with the light varia- 
tion. The spectra of all of these stars show Cepheid characteristics 
strongly, and there seems to be no means of determining the type of 
variation from their spectra. Only one component is visible, but all 
except RT Serpentis and RZ Ophiuchi show a considerable range in 
velocity : 





Mag. 


Period. 


Spec. 


Class. 


RT Serpentia 


9.6-15 


Several years. 


A8p 


■> 


RZ Ophiuchi 


9.7-10.5 


262 days 


GOp 


Algol 


TT Ophiuchi 


8.9-11.0 


61 days 


GOp 


Algol 


SX Cassiopeise. . . 


8.7- 9.7 


36 days 


A6p 


Algol 


RX Cassiopeiae . . 


8.7- 9.4 


32 days 


G2p 


Algol 


RU Camelop .... 


8.5- 9.8 


22 days 


R 


Cepheid 


W Virginis 


8.7-10.4 


17 days 


GOp 


Cepheid 


W Serpentis 


8.5- 9.6 


14 days 


F9p 


Cepheid 



4. The spectrum of Nova Aquilse 1918 and its surrounding ring has 
changed but slightly in the last year. The ring has decreased in bright- 
ness relatively to the central star, but the same twisted features re- 
main in the nebular bands, Ni and N2. The bright extremities or 
"knobs" of these bands and the band at X4686 are the only breaks in 
the strong continuous spectrum of the nucleus. 

5. The spectrum of Nova Cygni 1920 was observed from August 22 
to September 4, 1920. The early plates showed a spectrum similar to 
that of a Cygni. Bright bands were prominent on August 25. Two 
absorption components of the hj^drogen lines were measured on Sep- 
tember 4. The displacement of the absorption lines other than hydro- 
gen increased from — 6 a on August 22 to — 14 a on August 27. The 
velocity of the star as determined from the sharp H and K lines 
is —18 km. 

6. The spectrum of T Coronse, the Nova of 1866, is found to be of 
type M with a very strong bright H/3 and a less pronounced bright Hy. 
A bright line at X4686 is a marked feature of the spectrum. The 
absorption lines agree closely in character and intensity with those of a 
typical giant star of tj^'pe Ma. 

7. A few slitless spectrograms of Novse have been obtained by Mr. 
Pease at the primary and Cassegrain foci of the 60-inch and 100-inch 
reflectors. Those of Nova Aquilse 1918 show images of the ring in 
light from the Ha and Ni and N2 lines. 

8. Fiirujhelm's distant companion to Capella was found to be an 
Ma dwarf star with the same parallax and radial velocity as Capella 
itself. The close companion of Antares is of spectral type B3 with wide 
hazy lines. An excellent photograph of the spectrum of the faint com- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 275 

panion of Sirius, secured with the 100-inch telescope, confirms in 
general the previous results obtained some years ago with the 60- 
inch reflector. The spectral type is somewhat more advanced than 
that of Sirius, but can hardly be later than F. The line X4481 appears 
to be abnormally weak. 

9. A continuation of the study of the spectrum of R Aquarii by 
Mr. Merrill shows the presence of several nebular lines in addition to 
Ni, N2, and X4363 superposed upon a spectrum of type Md. The 
displacement lines of the nebular spectrum seem to be the same 
(within the lunits of error of measurement), with the exception of 
X4363, which, relatively to the others, appears to be displaced about 
2a to the violet. 

10. A study has been made by ]\Ir. JNIerrill of the behavior of the 
more prominent bright lines of certain Md stars and their relative 
intensities at different phases of light. The same hues are found to be 
present after maximum in the spectrum of the long-period variable 
R Cygni, a star with a very different type of absorption spectrum from 
that of the Md variables. 

11. Mr. Humason and Mr. Merrill have discovered during the year, 
on photographs taken with the 10-inch refractor and objective prism, 
more than 50 stars •with the Ha line bright. This makes a total of 
about 65 such stars found at Mount Wilson. Several of these stars 
show spectra of the P Cygni tj^pe, the structure being qualitatively 
similar to that of Novse. 

Peculiar Class A Stars. 

The stars of class A, noted bj- Miss Cannon as having peculiar spec- 
tra, in which the silicon lines X4128 and X4131 are strong, have a mean 
absolute magnitude of about —0.2 and are decidedly brighter than the 
general run of A stars. Those in whose spectra the strontium line 
X4078 is strong are of about the same luminosity. 

Classification of Stellar Spectra. 

Suggestions have been prepared by Professor Russell, in collabora- 
tion with Mr. Adams, Cliairman of the Committee on Spectral Class- 
ification of the International Astronomical Union, and Messrs. 
Merrill, Joy, and Hubble for an extension of the present notation for the 
classification of stellar spectra, which should enable most of the 
''peculiarities" at present recognized to be represented in a simple 
fashion, leaving very few cases out of reckoning. These suggestions 
will be submitted to the members of the committee for action previous 
to the next meeting of the Union. 

CORRELATION OF LUMINOSITY WITH SPECTRUxM AND COLOR. 

The evidence bearing on the relations of absolute magnitude to 
spectral type and color index now available has been examined by 
Mr. Scares and Mr. Hubble in a search for criteria applicable to the 



276 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

determination of the distances of groups of stars involved in nebulosity. 
The data used were the spectroscopic parallaxes of Mr. Adams and his 
associates (1,646 stars), the helium stars of Professor Kapteyn (434), 
the visual binaries investigated by Jackson and Furner (556), the 
Cepheid variables with Mr. Shapley's determinations of absolute 
magnitude, and his results for more than a thousand giant stars in 
globular clusters. The chart illustrating the results for the first two 
of these groups is reproduced on page 270. Such groups as the 
Hj^ades, the Pleiades, and the Ursa Major stream were also considered; 
and finally correlations of color wdth apparent magnitude were ex- 
amined for several clusters of unknowai or uncertam distance and for a 
number of rich galactic fields. So far as the original purpose is con- 
cerned, the results are not wholly conclusive, but a number of inter- 
esting details were brought to light by plotting absolute magnitudes 
against spectral types, or their equivalent color indices, in the manner 
of the well-known diagram of Professor Russell. The curve of modal 
values for the helium stars runs smoothly into that of the dwarfs. 
The corresponding curve for the visual binaries has a different slope 
from that defined by the helium stars and the stars of the spectroscopic 
list, because of the use of a constant mass for the calculation of the 
hypothetical parallaxes of the binaries. The Cepheids and pseudo- 
Cepheids of our own system, in spite of high dispersion, present a 
correlation of mean color with luminosity similar to that shown by the 
Cepheids when absolute magnitudes are assigned in accordance with 
the period luminosity' relation, and to that of the giant stars in globular 
clusters. Further, in certain rich galactic fields there is a parallel 
correlation of mean color with apparent magnitude (p. 265). The 
inference is that the stars in the galactic clouds are similar in luminosity 
to the Cepheids and pseudo-Cepheids of our own system and the most 
luminous stars in the globular clusters. Other details will be discussed 
in a forthcoming Contribution. 

The complicated character of the diagram, en page 273 raises a ques- 
tion as to how the frequency curve for all tj^^es together would agree 
with the luminosity and density functions determined by Professors 
Kapteyn and van Rhijn. Mr. Scares has derived from these functions 
an expression for the frequency curve of the absolute magnitudes of all 
the stars brighter than any limit of apparent magnitude, which can be 
compared directly with the results of observation. All things con- 
sidered, the agreement is excellent. The only irregularity of impor- 
tance arises from an exceptional congestion of K stars between M = 
andM=+2. 

MASSES OF VISUAL BINARY STARS. 

The examination of the data bearing on absolute magnitude has led 
Mr. Seares to a determination of the mean masses of visual binaries of 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 



277 



It is easily shown that the total mass of 



the various spectral types. 
the system ix is given by 

logM =0.3-0.6 {M-M,) 

where M is the true absolute magnitude and M^ the value correspond- 
ing to the hypothetical parallax ttc, calculated in the usual manner with 
an assumed value /x=2. The results of Jackson and Fumer (Monthly 
Notices, R. A. S., vol. 81, 2, 1920) provide values of M^ for more than 
550 systems. The individual values of M are mostly unknown. But 
the mean absolute magnitudes for a group of binary systems will be 
the same, presumably, as that of a similarly selected group of non- 
binaries. Abundant material for the latter is available in the cata- 
logue of spectroscopic parallaxes and the lists of helium stars whose 
luminosities were derived by Professor Kaptejoi. 

The results for the geometrical mean masses and the mean absolute 
magnitudes to which they correspond are in the accompanying table. 
The values for types earlier than A5 and for type M are affected by 
considerable uncertainty. 



Spectrum. 


Mean 
mass. 


Mean M. 


Spectrum. 


Mean 
mass. 


Mean M. 


BO 
Bo 
AO 
A5 

FO 
F5 


18 
14 
10 

7 

4.4 

2.7 


-1.6 
-0.2 

+0.7 
+ 1.5 
+2.4 
+3.3 


GO 
G5 
KO 
K5 
Ma 


1.7 
1.3 
1.2 
1.1 
1.0 


+4.3 
+5.2 
+5.9 

+7.1 
+9.8 









For the later spectral types the masses are those of the dwarfs. 
About a hundred of the binaries occur in the list of spectroscopic 
parallaxes, and these fully confirm the rate of variation of mass with 
type for the interval FO to K5. 

STELLAR INTERFEROMETER. 
Interferometer Measures of St.\r Diameters. 

In the last annual report a 20-foot interferometer, designed and built 
for use with the 100-inch telescope, was briefly described. The pre- 
liminary tests and adjustments of this instrument were completed 
in September by Messrs. IVIichelson and Pease. After Professor 
Michelson's return to the University of Chicago, Mr. Pease continued 
to make systematic observations, and on December 13 he succeeded 
in measuring the angular diameter of a Orionis. The fringes were 
found to vanish at a mirror separation of 10 feet, and, subsequently, 
corresponding determinations for a Bootis and a Scorpii were found 
at 21 and 12 feet, respectively. Assuming the mean wave-lengths for 



278 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

a Orionis and a Scorpii to be 5.75X10"^ cm., and for a Bootis to be 
5.6X10"^ cm., the resulting angular diameters are: 

a Orionis 0':047, a Scorpii 0':040, a Bootis 0r022. 

A definite decrease in visibility, without complete disappearance of 
the fringes, has been observed for a Ceti, a Tauri, /S Geminorum, 
7 Draconis, and /? Pegasi. /3 Persei, /3 Orionis, y Orionis, a Leonis, 
jS Leonis, a Lyrae, a Ophiuchi, a Aquilse, a Cygni, and a Pegasi have been 
used as check stars, and in all cases show high visibilities with "^-he 
maximum separation of the mirrors (19.6 feet). 

At first all mirror settings were made by hand and much time was 
consumed in making the adjustments, but the subsequent installation 
of motor-driven screws, which move the outer mirrors simultaneously, 
has facilitated gi-eatly the operation of the instrument. Larger mir- 
rors are now being made for the interferometer, which will extend 
the range of observation to stars as faint as magnitude 3.5, and also 
insure more accurate settings on stars brighter than the present limit 
of 2.5 magnitudes. 

Four important points should be mentioned in connection with the 
measurement of star diameters: 

1. Adjustment of the instrument. — If fringes are observed on a closely 
neighboring check star, equality of path in the two pencils is certain; 
but if the check star is too far away (30° or more), flexure of the instru- 
ment may alter the adjustment in moving from one star to the other, 
and the equality of paths is no longer certain. For isolated stars a 
series of visibility measures is made on the star whose diameter is to be 
dete.niined, beginning with the mirrors close together and increasing 
their distance, step by step, until the fringes vanish, and then returning 
a step or two until they reappear. The alterations in adjustment in 
this case are relatively small and the method is often used. 

2. Seeing. — For final measures it is essential that the seeing be very 
good, as poor seeing leads to a disappearance of the fringes for sep- 
arations of the mirrors less that corresponding to the true diameter of 
the star. On nights of bad and variable seeing, the visibility of the 
fringes may vary as much as 50 per cent or more in the course of a 
few minutes; and perfectly definite disappearances will be obtained 
on one night at mirror separations quite different from those determined 
on other nights, even when the decrease in visibility on each night is 
uniform. 

3. Light. — Experiments with variable apertures show that for faint 
stars the fringes vanish for mirror separations that are systematically 
too small. 

4. Fringes. — If the fringe pattern is too fine the fringes disappear, 
with increasing separation, sooner than when the fringes are wider. 

Mention should be made of the patient and helpful assistance given 
by Mr. John Kimple in the troublesome adjustment of the mirrors. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 279 

Calibration of Visibiuty of Fringes. 

In the hope of extending the possibilities of the stellar interferometer 
to stars whose angular diameter is too small to admit of observing the 
disappearance of the interference fringes, Professor Michelson, with 
the assistance of Mr. Pease, has made use of the device to which brief 
reference was made by him in his description of the instrument. For 
this purpose it is necessary, in the case of stars having a diameter 
sufficient to cause a distinct diminution in the visibility, to measure 
the visibility as a function of the distance between the outer mirrors. 
The diameter may then be calculated with an order of accuracy pro- 
portional to the accuracy of this measurement. 

The method consists in the use of an auxiliary' interferometer with a 
small fixed distance between the outer mirrors. A comparison system 
of fringes then appears in the focal plane of the observing telescope, 
in the present case the 100-inch reflector, and the visibility of these 
fringes may be altered in known ratio by altering the relative areas of 
the two apertures through which the auxiliary pencils of light from the 
star pass. If r is the ratio of the a 'eas of these apertures, the visibility 
of the frmges is given by the expression 

r-f- 
r 

After the two systems of fringes have been brought to equality, the 
stellar diameter can be calculated from the formula already given by 
Professor Michelson. 

In the first trial of this method the apertures were squares 4.75 
inches on a side, whoie effective areas were varied by a sliding screen 
which covered oae aperture as the other was uncovered. The ratio of 

effective areas accordingly is proportional to — , s being the 

4.75 — s 

width of one of the apertures. A number of observations showed 
the practicability of this plan, but presented the difficulty that when 
one of the apertures is nearly closed the light is drawn out by dif- 
fraction into a band which disturbs proper estimates of visibility. 
The use of a number of apertures was next tried, thus leaving the 
total intensity constant without altering the dimensions of the central 
image. A number of measurements was made in this way, but the 
total intensity of the light in the comparison fringes was found to be 
too small for work upon any but the very brightest stars. Accord- 
ingly it was decided to return to the original plan, but at the sugges- 
tion of Mr. Pease the modification was introduced of varying the 
area of only one aperture and keeping its form the same, whether 
square or circular. 

With this arrangement the total intensity is not constant, but is 
greater than with the preceding forms of aperture. A series of obser- 



280 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

vations on the stars a Lyrae, /3 Pe-^asi, and a Tauri showed that the 
method is capable of giving results with average errors of the order of 
10 per ceat or less if the seeing is good. The character of the seeing, 
however, affects the results materially. In the case of a Lyrae, at a 
time when the seeing was fair, an extrapolation of the visibility curve 
showed that this should cut the axis at a distance of 75 to 100 feet, 
while on another occasion, with poor seeing, the intersection fell at 
50 feet. This shows the importance of a careful study of the effects of 
seeing on the vanishing point of the fringes. The following method is 
suggested for making measurements of the seeing, which to a great 
extent should be independent of the personal element. 

Let a diaphragm be placed at a convenient distance within the focus 
and the aperture reduced until the diffraction rings appear. A pro- 
visional formula connecting the seeing S with the aperture d is 

^=10 (l-e-"0 
where a is a constant to be determined by observation. 

With the seeing measured in this v/ay, the vanishing-point of the 
interference fringes, and hence the stellar diameter, can be corrected 
by application of the factor ^ ^ 

l+alog — 

The constant a is found by observation, preferably, on a star of no 
appreciable diameter. 

Another plan, which may prove even more serviceable is to observe 
the point of disappearance of the fringes in the auxiliary system at 
every measurement. In this case the factor may be represented con- 
veniently by 

1—a log cos TT- 
2 

in which r is the ratio of the areas of the apertures in the auxiliary 

system when the fringes vanish, and a a constant to be determined by 

observation. 

Interferometer Measures of Double Stars. 

The rotating type of stellar interferometer devised by Mr. Anderson 
has been used by Mr. Merrill to measure the position angle and separa- 
tion of two double stars, Capella and k Ursse Majoris. 

The orbital elements of Capella derived by Mr. Anderson give a fair 
representation of Mr. Merrill's later observations on ten nights, thus 
showing that only small corrections to the elements will be required. 
The residuals in distance run up to 0''0035, but the definitive orbit, 
which Vv^ill be computed when an accurate value of the period has 
become available from radial velocity observations, should give devia- 
tions for a night not exceeding 0''0005. Residuals of one degree may 
be expected in the position angles. 

The duplicity of the known double k Ursae Majoris (A 1585) was 
independently detected by Messrs. Anderson and Merrill on March 1, 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 281 

1921. The measured position angle was then 251 ?9, the distance 
0''0836. Subsequent measures during March and April showed the 
distance to be decreasing at the rate of 0''003 per month, and the posi- 
tion angle about one degree per month. Thus it appears that the com- 
ponents will approach much closer in the near future. 

About 80 other stars have been examined for change of visibility 
with position angle of the slits. These include spectroscopic binaries, 
variable stars, stars with composite spectra, and some bright stars 
chosen at random. For two or three of these objects probable varia- 
tions were noted, but for nearly all no change in visibility could be 
detected. 

VELOCITY OF LIGHT. 

In the autumn of 1920 Mr. Pease and Mr. Ellerman carried out some 
tests of the apparatus described in last year's report, using the 
Mount Wilson station and one located on the hills near Whittier. 
Although the return beam was observed, it became clear that more light 
was necessary and that the adjustment of the distant mirror was 
inadequate. It was also evident that the site selected for the distant 
station was unsuitable on account of the dust and haze prevalent 
over the San Gabriel Valley at low elevations. 

As a means of avoiding the difficulty of frequent readjustments in 
securing a return of the light from the distant station, the following 
modification was devised by Professor Michelson. The light, instead 
of being returned directly by the distant mirror, which in the earlier 
plan had a radius equal approximately to the distance between the 
stations, is brought to a focus by a concave mirror 22 inches in diameter 
and 30 feet in focal length. The focal image is formed at the surface 
of a small concave mirror of 30-feet focus, whence the light retraces 
its path and an unage is formed which would coincide with the slit 
source where it could be observed by the aid of a half-silvered plane 
parallel plate. In order, however, to avoid direct illumination of this 
plate and the revolving mirror, the return beam is received on another 
plane mirror, which allows it to be reflected from the opposite face of 
the revolving mirror. 

This apparatus has been tested in a preliminary way between 
stations at the Pasadena laboratory and in the foothills at Altadena, a 
distance of 3 miles. As a second station to be used in connection 
with that on IMount Wilson for measurements of the velocity of light, 
a point has been selected on the San Antonio ridge near a lookout 
maintained by the Forest Service. The elevation of this station is 
6,800 feet, its distance from Mount Wilson 22 miles, and atmospheric 
conditions appear to be exceptionally favorable. 

THE RELATIVE MOTION OF THE ETHER. 

If a pencil of fight is divided into two parts by a half-silvered plate 
of glass and these are brought back to the starting-point by suitably 



282 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

placed mirrors, interference fringes are produced when the beams are 
reunited after having traversed very nearly equal paths in opposite 
directions. At the pole of the earth, and to a less degree at any other 
latitude, in consequence of the earth's rotation, the time interval for 
one of the pencils will be less than that for the other by an amount 
depending on the area included within the circuit. At a latitude of 
35° the retardation in light-waves, and therefore the displacement of 
the fringes, will be of the order of one fringe per square kilometer 
of area. This result follows from the general theory of relativity as 
well as from the hypothesis of an ether fixed in space. 

Should the result of the experiment show such a displacement, no 
decision could be reached. If, however, the displacement should be 
zero, or appreciably less than the calculated amount, it would show 
that the basis of the theory of relativity is incorrect and would prove 
the existence of a medium (ether) which is not stationary but is dragged 
along by the earth in its rotation either partially or completely. 

The first requirement of such an experiment is that the fringes be 
visible over a very long path of light. With the apparatus set up on 
Mount Wilson at distances up to 700 meters, Professor Michelson 
found the fringes readily visible and measurable to within a few one- 
hundredths of a fringe. With a considerably larger circuit, about 
3,000 meters, the fringes could not be seen. The investigation will be 
continued at the longest distances at which the fringes are visible. 

Assisting Professor Michelson in this experiment were Messrs. 
Smith, Benioff, Richard Scares, and Drummond. 

MAJORANA'S ABSORPTION OF GRAVITATION. 

Majorana's theory of the absorption of gravitation in passing 
through matter leads to consequences with regard to the motions of 
the planets and the moon which are glaringly inconsistent with obser- 
vation, unless it is assumed that the inertial mass, as well as the 
gravitational force, is diminished by the "screening" influence, and 
both in the same ratio. The phenomena of the tides show that, even 
on this assumption, any absorption of the sun's gravitational force 
within the body of the earth must be less than one five-thousandth 
as great as Majorana supposes. 

Majorana's experiment (if the reality of the effect which he has 
observed is confirmed) may be explained on the assumption that the 
mass of a body (both inertial and gravitational) is diminished when 
another large body is brought near it; but direct interposition between 
the earth and the first body can not be essential for this effect. 

ACCURACY OF PARALLAX DETERMINATIONS. 

Formulae have been developed by Professor Russell showing the 
accuracy with which the mean parallax of a group of stars can be found 
from their parallactic and peculiar motions. If the mean peculiar 
radial velocity of the stars is less than 14 km. sec, the parallactic 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 



283 



Tactions give the more accurate result; if it is greater, the peculiar 
motions are more reliable. 

Unless vitiated by some form of observational selection, the mean 
parallax derived from 10 stars should have a probable error of less than 
25 per cent of its own value, and be significant. These conclusions 
Bre confirmed by a study of random groups of 10 stars of class B, 
taken from Campbell's list. 

INVESTIGATIONS BY PROFESSOR KAPTEYN. 

The last of Professor Kapteyn's investigations mentioned in the 
Year Book for 1920, p. 255, have been completed. The results, which 
deviate somewhat from those previously considered probable, are per- 
haps best appreciated from the accompanying table, which, though 
confessedly crude, is believed to represent fairly what at present can 
be learned about the arrangement of stars in distance. 

Limits in 'par sees within which the structure of the stellar system can be found. 



Method. 



Galactic latitude. 



0°-20'' 40°-90° 0°-90 



1. Direct parallax detennination 

2. Parallactic motion, now well known for stars to m = 10. 

3. The same, to m = 13 

4. Parallactic motion, stars to m=10 and ;u = 0T01 

5. The same, together with N^ (the latter to m= 14) 

6. The same, Nm to m = 17 

7. Extension according to Point IV, Nm to 7n= 14 

8. The same, N„ to m = 17 



320 
(830) 
400 
1600 
(4000) 
3000 
(8000) 



240 

(610) 

320 

800 

(1600) 

1000 

1700 



50 

300 

(720) 

360 

1200 

(2800) 

2000 



In another investigation, which has also been completed, a first 
attempt is made at a complete theory of the arrangement and motion of 
the whole stellar system. It was found that if, for the equidensity 
surfaces derived in Contribution No. 188, we substitute a series of 
concentric similar rotation ellipsoids, similarly situated, the observa- 
tions are still tolerably well represented. This property makes it 
highly probable that the total attraction of that part of the system 
which lies outside ellipsoid X (major semiaxis = 8,465 parsecs; minor 
semiaxis= 1,660 parsecs) on any point inside must be very small. 
Since the distribution of the stars within this ellipsoid is known, we 
can obtain a good approximation for the total attraction of the whole 
system on any point inside elUpsoid X, expressed in terms of the 
attraction of a star of average mass. 

It is then shown that the system, if at rest, can not be in equilibrium. 
In order that the system may be in a steady state we must therefore 
assume that the stars have a systematic motion. Observation shows 
that such motion really exists and that it is parallel to the plane of the 
Milky Way. It is the motion of the star-streams. We are thus led to 



284 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



assume for the system a rotatory motion of some sort around the axis 
toward the pole of the Milky Way. 

On this assumption the stars in the immediate neighborhood of the 
rotation axis have no systematic motion, and observation shows that 
the peculiar velocities are at least approximately distributed according 
to Maxwell's law. These stars are, therefore, in much the same cir- 
cumstance as the particles of air in our own atmosphere, with the total 
attraction of the whole system in place of that of the earth. Further^ 
the encounters of the separate stars must be relatively very scarce as 
compared with those of the molecules of the air. 

Though such differences make it seem doubtful whether we are justi- 
fied in applying to the stellar system the formula furnished by the 
kinetic theory of gases for barometric determination of altitudes, 
Professor Kapteyn has ventured to make such an application to the 
stars lying along the rotation axis. In this way he has been led to a 
determination of the following values of the average effective mass of a 
star: 



Distance from center. 


Average effective mass. 


198 parsecs. 

413 

717 
1114 
1660 


2.2 X sun's mass. 

2.0 

1.7 

1.5 

1.4 



Since the attractive force which enters into the formula includes the 
attraction of any existing dark matter, and since the above masses 
represent total mass divided by total number of luminous stars, they 
have been called average effective masses. The good agreement of 
their values with what has been found for the masses from binary stars 
proves that the total dark mass in the system must be small as compared 
with the luminous mass. 

In applying similar reasoning to the stars in the plane of the Milky 
Way the centrifugal forces must be taken into account. These forces 
have been determined in such a way that for regions of equal star- 
density on the rotation axis and in the plane of the Milky Way we are 
led to the same average effective mass. Once the centrifugal forces 
are known, the radial and linear velocities can be determined. The- 
results for the latter are as follows : 

Linear velocity in plane of Milky Way. 



Dist. from center. 


Linear velocity. 


1010 parsecs 

2106 

3657 

5675 

8465 


13.0 km. per sec. 

19.5 

20.1 

19.4 

18.6 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 285 

For stars of intermediate galactic latitudes similar results are obtained 
in a somewhat different way. 

It appears that for the greater part of the system the linear velocity 
is practically constant and equal to about 19.5 km. per sec. The 
direction of the rotation is indeterminate. If we assume that part of 
the system moves one way and the rest in the opposite direction, the 
relative velocity of the two groups, for the bulk of the stars, is 39 km. 
per second. 

We are thus led, in a perfectly natural way, to a complete theory 
of the phenomenon of star-streaming, which agrees qualitatively and 
quantitatively with what we know about these streams. That the 
theoretical stream-lines are curved, whereas Professor Kapteyn has 
thus far supposed them to be rectilinear, offers no difficulty, if it turn 
out, as in all probability it will, that the sun is not very near the center 
of the system. For in this case the curvature of the stream-lines, 
within the domain of the stars which have served for the derivation of 
the star-streams, must be inappreciable. 

Further consequences of the theory as well as a number of defects of 
this very provisional solution are outlined in a forthcoming Contribu- 
tion. 

PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 
INSTRUMENTS. 

The solenoid nrngnet for high fields, described last year as under 
construction, was assembled during the winter and tested. The 
cooling system proved to be adequate, the magnet carrying its full 
load of 4,000 amperes. Rough measurements indicated a field-strength 
of 33,000 gausses in the tubular space of 5 cm. diameter within the 
solenoid. After experiments, described later on, had been made with 
a vacuum furnace and then with a Stark-effect tube in the solenoid, 
the latter was dismantled, rewound, and considerable time spent in 
improving the kerosene-circulation system to guard against the accu- 
mulation of water, which tended to produce electrolysis, and sedi- 
ment, which obstructed the flow. These changes having been made, 
the apparatus is again ready for service. 

In order to study the effect of a magnetic field at different angles 
to the lines of force with reference to sun-spot phenomena, a second 
solenoid was constructed of copper tubing, water-cooled, the coil 
having an internal cavity of sufficient size to permit the rotation 
of a small furnace up to an angle of 60° to the lines of force. This 
solenoid, excited with 1,200 amperes, gives a field of about 8,000 
gausses, and is especially adapted for the observation of absorption 
spectra. 

The furnace with water-cooled contacts, constructed last year, hav- 
ing proved very effective for high-temperature w^ork, a chamber was 
constructed so that it may be used as a vacuum furnace. This con- 



286 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

sists of a base-plate through which the current conductors and tubes 
for the water-cooling system are passed, and an iron hood which is 
lowered into position when all parts of the apparatus have been fully 
adjusted. With this furnace, tube temperatures above 3,000° can 
be maintained for long periods, and many phenomena, especially of 
absorption spectra, can be studied more effectively than heretofore. 

The two high-tension transformers, producing voltages up to 60,000 
and 100,000, respectively, have been completely overhauled. The 
100,000-volt transformer has been provided with a new tank for oil 
insulation. 

Messrs. Nicholson and Pettit have devoted some time to the design 
and construction of thermopiles and vacuum cells for use in labora- 
tory, solar, planetary, and stellar problems. Special attention was 
paid to tellurium, which has given excellent results in vacuo when used 
in combination with silver and other metals. A preliminary study of 
the change of sensitivity with pressure gives similar effects in hydrogen, 
oxygen, and air, indicating that the entire change takes place between 
1 mm. and 0.01 mm. pressure. Further studies will be made at lower 
pressures. Tests of the couples for the observation of the total energy 
curve across the sun's disk with improvised photometric apparatus 
have given satisfactory records. 

ELECTRIC-FURNACE INVESTIGATIONS. 

The following studies of electric furnace spectra were carried out 
during the year by Mr. King. 

Manganese. 

The material previously collected was supplemented by some addi- 
tional spectrograms and prepared for publication. In the interval 
X2795 to X6605, 270 manganese lines were classified according to their 
changes, with temperatures varying from 1560° to 2400° C. The 
search for manganese furnace-lines was extended as far as X8200. 
Besides the usual classification, the special features exhibited by note- 
worthy lines at different temperatures were described. 

Scandium. 

The acquisition of a small quantity of the rare element scandium 
in the oxide form made possible the study of the furnace spectrum of 
this element, which was highly desirable on account of the prominence 
of scandium in the sun. Furnace spectrograms were made at 2000°, 
2250°, and 2600° C. for the interval X3000 to X6600; 307 lines were 
classified according to intensity at the three furnace temperatures 
and in the arc. Special interest attaches to the enhanced lines and to 
those strengthened at low temperatures. In the sun, only the en- 
hanced Imes of scandium are well marked in the disk spectrum, the 
arc lines in general being very faint. Though usually absent from the 
solar disk, the low-temperature lines are strong in the spot spectrum. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 287 

The furnace experiments show the enhanced lines to be of a type inter- 
mediate between those of titanium and the H and K lines of calcium, 
requiring only moderate excitation, some of them showing in the fur- 
nace at 2250°. This was indicated by Fowler's work, but the furnace 
experiments have yielded much additional information, as many lines 
of this type are faint in the arc and can be advantageously observed 
only with the furnace. The band spectrum of scandium was found 
to be due probably to the oxide. 

The low-temperature lines undergo a wide magnetic separation in 
sun-spots, so that when laboratory data are available these lines will 
be useful in the study of spot fields. 

Absorption Spectra. 

The use of the furnace as a source for absorption spectra, the in- 
candescent background being given by a plug at the center of the tube, 
has been continued. The main objects were the production of ab- 
sorption spectra comparable in richness with the emission spectrum, 
and the observation of the relative reversibility of different classes 
of lines. Higher temperatures were employed than formerly, plug 
temperatures above 3200° C. sometimes being used. With iron, 
practically the whole furnace spectrum was thus obtained in absorp- 
tion as far as X6700. The iron lines to the red of X5500 are difficult to 
reverse in laboratory sources. Hitherto they have been obtained as 
absorption lines only in the explosion spectrum. 

A detailed comparison was made of the iron spectrum in emission 
and absorption at different temperatures. \^Tien supplemented by 
experiments now in preparation, these results will show clearly the 
connection between the susceptibility of a certain type of line to re- 
versal and its general laboratory behavior. The high temperatures 
which may now be used permit the study of lines in absorption which 
in the usual sources show no tendency to reverse. The development 
in absorption of the high-temperature ar? lines (Class III) is of special 
interest. An extension into the ultra-violet has also been obtained, 
the absorption spectrum of iron having been carried to X2448. 

Absorption spectra of the alkali metals, including the subordinate 
series of sodium, potassium, and caesium, have also been produced in 
the furnace. The principal series lines of these substances had pre- 
viously been observed in absorption, but not those of the subordinate 
series. The furnace shows, however, there is no difficulty in producing 
these series beyond that of using a sufficiently high temperature in 
vacuum. 

The sliarpness of these furnace absorption lines, as compared with 
their diffuse and often very unsynmietrical structure in the arc, 
showed that unproved wave-lengths could be secured and, conse- 
quently, that the values of the series constants could be improved 



288 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

accordingly. Spectrograms for this purpose with iron-arc comparison 
were made and measured. 

Ultra-Violet Spectrtjm of Ikon. 

Approximately 1,000 liaes of wave-lengths shorter than X3885, the 
limit of the list previously published, and extending to X2448, have been 
identified in the furnace spectrum of iron and classified according to 
intensity at different temperatures and in the arc. In spite of the 
complexity of the iron spectrum, certain types of lines are very defi- 
nitely selected in this way, and the similarity can be used as a basis 
in studying the structure of the spectrum. The arc spectrum in the 
ultra-violet was also studied with regard to the variation from pole to 
pole of different types of lines. Their behavior is definitely connected 
with their appearance in the furnace. 

Miscellaneous. 

Furnace spectrograms for yttrium, neodymium, and zirconium have 
been made to supplement former material on the rare-earth spectra. 
The cadmium spectrum also has been photographed at different tem- 
peratures. The silicon line X3906, important in stellar spectra, was 
examined and found to show about the same response to temperature 
change as the iron lines of Class III. 

Observations of the Zeeman Effect. 

Both the solenoid magnets with their respective furnaces were given 
preliminary trials by Mr. King to test the action of the apparatus. 
The solenoid of w^ater-cooled tubing was used with the contained fur- 
nace at various angles to the lines of force. Most of the tests were on 
absorption spectra, the spectrograph being provided with Nicol and 
compound quarter-wave plate. The effect of variable inclination of 
magnetic field in sun-spots could thus be imitated. 

The solenoid for high fields was used with vacuum furnace. Only a 
few trials were made before the magnet was adapted to the Stark- 
effect experiments, but some promising spectrograms were obtained, 
the vacuum furnace giving a temperature of 2400° C. without exces- 
sive heating of the parts. The magnet and furnace thus seem well 
adapted to the study, under high fields, of the lines given with special 
strength by the furnace. 

COMBINED EFFECT OF ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ON RADIATION. 

Reference has been made in previous reports to our inability to de- 
tect any evidence of the Stark effect in the sun-spot spectrum. During 
the past year Mr. Hale, assisted by Mr. Sinclair Smith, has under- 
taken an investigation of the combined effect of electric and magnetic 
fields on radiation. If, in spite of present indications, an electric 
field exists in sun-spots, its influence on the light emitted will be exer- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 289 

cised simultaneously with that of the magnetic field. For this reason, 
and in view of the important bearing of the combined effect on theories 
of the structure of the atom, an extensive study of this problem seems 
to be warranted. 

A powerful solenoid magnet, designed by Mr. Anderson for use with 
currents up to 4,000 amperes, offered within its hollow core precisely 
such conditions as our needs demanded. In the uniform field of 33,000 
gausses a vacuum, tube of pjTex glass, giving a strong electric field 
just in front of the cathode, within the limits of the Crookes dark 
space, was inserted. The discharge was produced in hydrogen by a 
small transformer, used in conjunction with a mechanical rectifier, 
which gave a high-voltage current sufficiently steady for preliminary 
purposes. Under these conditions (lines of electric and magnetic 
force parallel) the appearance of the Hy line was nearlj^ the same in 
the electric field as in the combined field, though in the latter case the 
components were more diffuse. It remains to be seen whether the 
components will show further resolution under higher dispersion and 
in a steadier electric field. Some of the lines of the secondarj^ spectrum 
indicate distinct differences in intensity in the electric and the com- 
bined fields. The investigation is being continued with a special form 
of quartz tube, designed for heavy discharges. Improved apparatus 
for high-potential direct current has also been provided. 

Another mode of approach to the problem of electric fields in sun- 
spots is afforded by Saha's ionization theory, which should permit an 
upper limit to be set for any field that may be present. Available 
data, such as the weakening of the enhanced lines, indicate that if an 
electric field exists there it must be weak. 

WAVE-LENGTHS OF IRON-ARC LINES FROM X3370 TO X6759 MEASURED WITH 
GRATING AND INTERFEROMETER. 

A list of 1,026 iron-arc lines has been published by Messrs. St. John 
and Babcock, of which 976 were measured on from 1 to 62 grating 
spectrograms and 576 on from 1 to 39 interferometer plates. The 
agreement shown indicates that for most of the lines the weighted 
mean wave-length is accurate to 0.001 a. To avoid errors due to 
pole effect and to obtain sharp lines, a 12-nmi., 5-ampere Pfund arc 
was used. To eliminate instrumental errors, spectrograms were made 
with two Michelson and three Anderson gratings and with four pairs 
of interferometer plates. 

In the case of stable lines the agreement with the results obtained at 
the Bureau of Standards is good, but for Imes of groups c5 and dl the 
Bureau of Standards measurements are systematically greater. The 
mean difference for 46 lines is +0.007 a, due to the large pole effect in 
the center of the 6-mm., 6-amp. arc. Of 78 International Secondary 
Standards measured with the interferometer, the 62 stable lines came 



290 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

out as follows: 53 within ±0.001 a, 8 within =t 0.002a, 2 within 
±0.003 A, and one within 0.004a of the adopted values, while in the 
case of the 16 standards belonging to groups c5 and d, the international 
values are systematically greater in the mean by 0.007 a, due to the 
large pole effect in the arc used in the original determination. Though 
the wave-lengths given by the 6-mm. 6-ampere arc may be employed 
as standards in cases where the highest accuracy is not required, neither 
these nor the standard wave-lengths of similar lines can be used for 
determining the differences between their solar and terrestrial wave- 
lengths when both are expressed in the international system, since solar 
lines are produced under conditions in which pole-effect is not involved. 
With the exception of further work in the violet and red, and 
determinations for certain iron lines corresponding to faint solar lines, 
the program on iron-arc wave-lengths has been concluded. A wide 
range in wave-length and in line-intensity is necessary for our investi- 
gation of the Einstein effect and for separating the causes contributing 
to the shift of solar lines. 

PRESSURE DISPLACEMENTS OF IRON LINES. 

The investigation of the pressure effect for certain iron lines by 
Mr. Babcock promises results of considerable interest. Previous 
studies of this subject have been concerned for the most part with 
large differences of pressure and have yielded data of great value. But 
the influence of pole-effect on such observations and the fact that with 
increasing pressure the spectral lines are not only displaced but are 
widened make it highly desirable to attack the problem anew, using a 
small difference of pressure and taking care to avoid the presence of 
pole effect as far as possible. The minuteness of the change in wave- 
length to be observed under these conditions requires a method quite 
free from the effects of thermal and mechanical disturbances. The 
Fabry-Perot interferometer has been found to meet these exact- 
ing requirements when used by what may be called the differ- 
ential method. Simultaneously with each exposure to the iron 
arc the light from a Cooper-Hewitt mercury lamp is passed through 
the interferometer and photographed upon the same plate. The 
optical arrangements are chosen so that full illumination is secured 
for from 15 to 30 interference rings upon each spectral line. For two 
plates taken at different pressures the difference in wave-length for 
any spectral line is given by each pair of homologous rings, the rings 
on a single mercury line serving to eliminate all instrumental changes. 
On account of the large number of rings available on each line, a single 
exposure acquires very high weight. The accuracy of the method is 
well illustrated by numerous groups of observations taken in sets of 
three instead of in pairs. When the three photographs of such a set 
are intercompared, three differences of wave-length are obtained 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 291 

corresponding to the three differences of pressure employed. The 
sum of two of the differences should equal the remaining difference, 
and in practice this is found to be so within 0.0001 a. Representative 
lines belonging to various groups in the Mount Wilson classification 
are under observation, the range of wave-length being X3900 to X6500. 
The pressures are read on a mercurial manometer held constant within 
1 cm. during an exposure; the values chosen include points at frequent 
intervals within the range from zero to one atmosphere. At present 
the observations are not complete enough to admit of satisfactory dis- 
cussion, but there is no doubt that for the sensitive lines of groups 
c and d the values of the pressure displacement obtained in this way 
are markedly lower than those of former observers. The difference may 
be ascribed to the lessened influence of pole-effect in our method of 
observing. The program includes an examination of the effect of 
change of atomic weight of the surrounding gas, using hydrogen and 
helium instead of air, the study of modifications in the sources, and the 
possible application of other types of interference spectroscopes to the 
measurement of these minute displacements. 

ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ELECTRICALLY EXPLODED WIRES, 

The work on absorption spectra by the method of electrically ex- 
ploded wires has been continued by Mr. Anderson with the assistance 
of Mr. Sinclair Smith. High-dispersion spectrograms of the iron 
spectrum from X2600 to X6600 have been made with the 15-foot con- 
cave grating. These show a wealth of detail, and complete study of 
them will require some time. Perhaps one of the most interesting 
facts brought to light is that the motion toward the observer of the 
absorbing vapors surrounding the explosion causes all the absorption 
lines to be displaced toward the violet, but by different amounts for 
different classes of lines. In general the displacement is greater for 
high than for low-temperature lines. 

For the further development and extension of the work, it is desirable 
to have a condenser suitable for voltages up to 100,000 or more. Con- 
densers of this type are not available at present, except by series con- 
nection of low-voltage units. Investigation shows, however, that a 
condenser of the required capacity made up of series units would be 
exceedingly costly, and experience indicates very positively that it 
would not function satisfactorily. Units capable of working at 100,000 
volts therefore appear to be a necessity. A good deal of study has 
been given to this problem, and it is hoped that a satisfactory solution 
is in sight. 

MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATIONS. 

Messrs. Anderson and Smith have done some work on the effect of 
passing the discharge of the large condenser through vacuum tubes. 
This promises to be a powerful method of developing the enhanced 



292 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

lines of the gas in the tube, and it also brings out the enhanced lines 
of the electrodes. Interesting preliminary results have been obtained 
for oxygen, nitrogen, and iron. Through the courtesy of Admiral 
Griffin a quantity of helium has been obtained from the Bureau of 
Steam Engineering of the U. S. Na\^, and a study of helium, hydro- 
gen, and perhaps other gases will be undertaken. 

Messrs. Anderson and Babcock have commenced a study of the 
transmission of the atmosphere for short wave-lengths. The spectrum 
of an iron arc burning on Mount Wilson is photographed by means of a 
quartz spectrograph in Pasadena. The air-path lias a length of 7 
miles and is equivalent to 1.4 atmospheres. The trials so far made 
have been under poor conditions, due to the prevalence of very thick 
haze. Nevertheless, X2740 has been recorded with an exposure of one 
hour, although, as is well known, the solar spectrum ends at X2890. 

The chemical identification of the air-lines in spark spectra in the 
region X5927 to X8683 have been made more complete by additional 
experiments involving exposures to the spark in pure oxygen. The 
photographs were secured by Messrs. Clyde R. Keith and F. L 
Hopper under the direction of Mr. Merrill. The work confirmed the 
preliminary results from this laboratory, as well as those obtained by 
other observers using vacuimi tubes, and added some identifications 
not previously available, 

CONSTRUCTION DIVISION. 

DRAFTING AND DESIGN. 

The work of drafting and design has covered a wide range, as new 
instruments and appliances are frequently needed in all branches of the 
Observatory's activities. The following attachments were designed 
for the 100-inch telescope: extra-focal interferometer, Cassegrain 
spectrograph VI, Cassegrain spectrograph VII (for red end of spec- 
trum), motor drive for mirrors of 20-foot interferometer, diaphragm 
for end of tube, focusing apparatus for Newtonian plate holder, minor 
improvements of dome and mounting, silvering appliances, instru- 
ment cabinets, etc. Work for the 60-inch telescope included designs 
for intensifier lens, modification of quartz spectrograph, finder mount- 
ing, wind-screen motor mounting, and changes in counterweights. 
Alterations of the Snow telescope involved improvements in the con- 
cave-mirror mounting and speed reduction of the windlass. A new 
focal-plane shutter and a plate-holder for the 13-foot spectrohelio- 
graph were designed for the 60-foot tower telescope. Work for the 
laboratory included improvements of the large solenoid magnet and 
attachment, a vacuum furnace and hood, photographic recording 
apparatus, and quartz tubes for the Stark effect. Other designs 
were for a stereo-comparator micrometer, mirror mountings for the 
velocity of light apparatus, and various mmor appliances. One drafts- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY. 293 

man's time during about ten days per month is required for illustra- 
tions of Observatory publications. The work has been done by 
Messrs. Pease, Nichols, and Kinney. 

Optical Shop. 

The work of the optical shop has included the grinding and figuring 
of the following mirrors: two 7.25 by 9 inch, plane; three 12-inch 
diameter, plane; two 8-inch diameter, plane; one 4.5-inch diameter, 
plane; one 14-inch concave mirror of 15 feet radius; also one 2-inch 
quartz concave lens; optical parts for eight binocular eyepieces; quartz 
disk for double-star interferometer; speculum-metal plates for gratings; 
many small prisms and lenses. The following machines were designed 
and partly completed: 6 spindle machines for lens work, small edge 
grinder, optical testing apparatus. The work was done by Messrs. 
Kinney and Dalton. 

Glass-Blowixg Shop. 

A small shop for making blown glass and quartz apparatus for spec- 
troscopic and other purposes was equipped in July. Mr. D.J. Pompeo, 
formerly with the Cooper-Hewitt Company, will devote part of his 
time to this work. He is now making quartz tubes for use in the study 
of the combined effect of magnetic and electric fields on radiation. 

Instrument Shop. 

The chief work of the instrument shop (Mr. Ayres, foreman) includes : 
stereocomparator, large and small solenoid magnets, velocity of light 
apparatus, 20-foot interferometer changes, extra focal interferometer, 
vacuum chamber for large electric furnace, photographic recording 
apparatus, glass-blowing equipment, spectrograph and concave-mirror 
mounting of Snow telescope, 8 by 10-inch plate-holder for 60-inch 
telescope, attachments for 10-inch refractor, binocular eyepieces; 
and the following attaclmaents of the 100-inch telescope: Newtonian 
mirror mounting, Cassegrain spectrograph VI, plate-holder, cage 
clamp, declination slow-motion, traveling crane, observing platforms, 
dome shutter, silvering equipment, instrument cabinets. Much 
miscellaneous work was done on instrument repairs, construction for 
the laboratory and optical shop, building repairs, and various minor 
items. 

Ruling Machine. 

The accidental errors causing false spectra in the gratings ruled last 
year were found to be due to the spacing mechanism. A new mechan- 
ism designed and built by Mr. Jacomini this year has proved to work 
perfectly, and the accidental errors appear to be completely removed. 
The ruling carriage has been rebuilt and made very much lighter, 
thus adding materially to the smoothness of operation of the machine. 

There remains nov/ a small and quite regular periodic error due to 
slight residual eccentricities in the spacing wheel and the screw pivots. 



294 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

The actual size of this error is ^^oVt) o inch, and it could be removed by a 
correcting mechanism. It has been decided, however, to attempt its 
removal by correcting the eccentricities directly, a method which, 
if successful, will make the adjustment more permanent than if a 
correcting mechanism is employed. 

Buildings and Miscellaneous Construction. 

The only two buildings erected on Mount Wilson during the year 
were an underground concrete cliamber for constant temperature 
conditions in sensitizing plates for the red and infra-red and a tempo- 
rary pier and shelter used by Professor D. C. Miller for his experiments 
on ether drift. The work of repair included painting the 150-foot 
tower telescope tube, several of the cottages, and the woodwork of 
the Monastery, laboratory, and power house. Brick chimneys have 
been built in three of the smaller cottages in order to reduce the risk 
of fire. 



NUTRITION LABORATORY.^ 

Francis G. Benedict, Director. 

When the Nutrition Laboratory was estabhshed there already- 
existed several well-endowed, adequately manned, and highly pro- 
ductive organizations for medical and pathological research. It was 
accordingly felt that the efforts of the new Laboratory would best 
be directed toward studies of pure physiology, particularly human 
physiology, for it was the consensus of opinion that human physiology, 
especially studies of heat-production and gaseous transformations 
in the body, had such significance in its relation to general physiology 
that it should no longer be relatively neglected. 

Shortly after the opening of the Laboratory a pronounced departure 
from this general thesis was made by instituting a research on dia- 
betes, in collaboration with Dr. Elliott P. Joslin, of Boston. This 
procedure has been fully justified by the extraordinary degree of 
cooperation given to it by Dr. Joslin, not only in the scientific conduct 
of the investigation, but in the actual financing of the undertaking, 
as well as in the preparation of reports. The selection of this special 
topic for investigation was particularly appropriate, since diabetes, 
like almost no other disease, is amenable to treatment and control only 
through dietetic measures. The two monographs already printed by 
the Institution have been supplemented by several medical papers 
and two books by Dr. Joslin, and a third monograph in the series is 
now in preparation. 

In addition to these positive contributions to the field of medicine, 
there has been in recent years a utilization by the medical profession of 
much of the abstract physiological data accumulated by the Laboratory 
staff and by a large number of volunteer workers at the Nutrition 
Laboratory during the past 14 years. As the resultant of all internal 
glandular and muscular activities incidental to the maintenance of life 
is heat, its measurement gives the best expression of the intensity of 
vital activity. Accordingly, the Laboratory early entered upon a sur- 
vey of the heat-production of the quiet, normal human body from birth 
to old age. This was undertaken primarily as a study in pure physi- 
ology and proceeded to such an extent as to provide material for a 
somewhat elaborate biometric treatment by Dr. J. Arthur Harris, which 
has been published by the Institution. These data have been exten- 
sively used by physicians as standards for comparison with pathological 
measurements. 

The techniques employed in the study referred to were somewhat 
complicated. Since in certain diseases, notably those involving the 
thyroid gland, there are marked changes in the level of heat-production, 
the physician requires some relatively simple method for measuring 

'Situated in Boston, Massachusetts. 

295 



296 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

the output of heat. A technique has recently been developed in the 
Laborator}^ by which it is possible to compute heat-production with 
great accuracy by the relatively simple measurement of the oxygen 
consumption in respiratory processes during periods as short as 10 to 
15 minutes. This apparatus, which for obvious reasons has not been 
patented and hence can be freely manufactured by any one, is now 
being supplied in large numbers by several manufacturers to hospitals 
and clinicians. 

The whole subject of the measurement of heat-production under 
standard conditions, that is, the determination of the so-called "basal 
metabohsm," has awakened great interest, this being evidenced by 
the fact that at the meeting of the American Medical Association in 
Boston (June 1921) a symposium on the subject was attended by over 
1,200 physicians. It is most gratifjdng to all workers in the field of 
pure physiology to feel that these efforts, undertaken with no imme- 
diate thought of practical application, are meeting the needs of the 
physician. 

ADDITIONS TO EQUIPMENT. 

Dreyer stadiometer. — An apparatus similar to that devised by Pro- 
fessor Georges Dreyer, of Oxford, England, has been constructed by 
Dr. Miles for measuring with the greatest degree of accuracy the sitting 
and standing heights. These two factors are assuming great impor- 
tance in determining the normality of individuals. 

HaJdane portable gas-analysis apparatus. — For the increased number 
of gas analyses needed in his extensive researches, Dr. Carpenter has 
installed a motor-driven arrangement of levers for raising and lowering 
mercury levehng bulbs, so that it is now possible to conduct analyses 
with seven Haldane apparatus at one time. 

Respiration apparatus for small laboratory animals. — In connection 
with a projected research upon the basal metabolism of the white rat, 
an apparatus was designed and constructed giving accurate measure- 
ments of the carbon-dioxide production and oxygen consumption of 
the white rat. This employs the well-known closed-circuit principle 
so long in use in this Laboratory. The apparatus has been subjected 
to the severest tests, entirely reconstructed, and is now ready for in- 
stallation in the Department of Nutrition of the School of Practical 
Arts, Teachers College, Columbia University, where a cooperative 
research is planned for the coming year. 

An emission calorimeter for humans. — By employing the same type 
of compensation device used for the study of the energy transformations 
of geese during the conversion of carbohydrate to fat, two large cham- 
bers, each of a size suitable for observations on man, have been devel- 
oped, with the view of using this type of calorimeter for observations 
on adults. The construction and testing of the apparatus are rapidly 
progressing. 



NUTRITION LABORATORY, 297 

Minor apparatus. — The static control recorder of Dr. Miles, briefly 
described in the annual report for 1920, has been duplicated. 

Extensive experience with the new portable respiration apparatus 
devised in conjunction with Air. Warren E. Collins, former mechani- 
cian of the Laboratory, has shown during the past winter the most 
advantageous use of a kj^mograph for writing the character of the 
respirations. Likewise a simple though extraordinarily efficient 
method has been developed for testing for a leak — an ever-present 
possibility in the use of all respiration apparatus. 

A simple, home-made respiration apparatus was devised and ex- 
hibited at the Harvard jMedical School. 

COOPERATING AND VISITING INVESTIGATORS. 

Dr. Elliott P. Joslin, with a number of his personal assistants and 
members of the Laboratory editorial and computing staff, is preparing 
a final report on diabetic metabolism with varjdng diets. 

Dr. Howard F. Root, associated with Dr. Joslin, has actively co- 
operated with Dr. Miles in certain physiological and psychological 
tests on diabetic patients, as well as in taking blood samples for several 
subjects used in the research on the effect of alcoholic beverages. 

Dr. Paul Roth, at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Michi- 
gan, has continued his tests of the new portable respiration apparatus 
and has contributed one or more medical papers on this subject. 

Dr. H. Takahira, of the new Nutrition Institute of Japan, in Tokyo, 
made a visit of several weeks to the Laboratory for the study of the 
clinical chamber apparatus devised in the Laboratory and constructed 
by Mr. Collins. The study was made in anticipation of the instal- 
lation of this apparatus in the Japan institute. 

Professor E. G. Ritzman has continued the studies on the energy 
requirements of large animals with the new respiration apparatus in 
the Agricultural Experiment Station at Durham, New Hampshire. 
Frequent conferences with Professor Ritzman and Director John C. 
Kendall have resulted in the most active continuation of experimental 
work in this field. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C, became much interested in studying the problem 
of radiation from the nude human body, and spent a week at the 
Laboratory with a honeycomb pyranometer, making a series of 
observations. 

Among numerous foreign visitors, especial mention should be made 
of the stimulating conferences with Professor F. Gowland Hopkins, 
of Cambridge, England, Dr. G. von Wendt, of Helsingfors, and Pro- 
fessor T. Thunberg, of Lund. 



298 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

STAFF NOTES. 

Following the usual custom, Dr. Miles prepared an extensive confi- 
dential report of his foreign trip of 1920, which represents the eighth 
volume of this series of reports. Inasmuch as these volumes are illus- 
trated by many photographs and give the results of personal surveys 
of the several scientific laboratories, the series forms an unusual record 
of development in laboratory construction, technique, and output. 

After many years of successful and profitable assistance in the 
Laboratory, particularly in observations on the metabolism of children 
and in the making of delicate gas analyses, Miss Alice Johnson re- 
signed from the Laboratory staff in the spring of 192L 

INVESTIGATIONS IN PROGRESS. 

Breathing, gaseous exchange, and metabolism asleep and awake. — In 
a previous research upon the metabolism in rectal feeding, it was 
found that when the subjects fell asleep during the periods of observa- 
tion there was a marked change in the volume of lung ventilation and 
in the relation between the volumes of carbon dioxide and oxygen. 
During the past year a systematic attempt has been made by Dr. T. M. 
Carpenter to study the character of the breathing, the quantitative 
relationship in the gaseous exchange and the metabolism, with medical 
students and other individuals as subjects. The experiments were con- 
ducted in all cases with the subject in the post-absorptive condition 
and between the hours of 9 a. m. and 1 p. m. Usually the length of 
the observation was about two hours, divided into from 12 to 15 
periods. Most of the 26 subjects were drowsy or asleep at least part of 
the time. The respiratory exchange was determined by the gasometer 
method, the expired air being collected in continuously succeeding 
periods by means of two 100-liter Tissot spirometers and analyzed 
by means of the Haldane portable gas-analysis apparatus. Periodic 
heart-rate counts were made and continuous records of the respira- 
tion-rate and absence of activity were obtained. A graphic control 
of the drowsiness and sleep was sectired. Mr. W. M. Konikov assisted 
in the experiments. The investigation is being continued. 

Composition of urine as affected hy ingestion of 2.76 per cent alcohol. — In 
the research conducted by Professor W. R. Miles upon the physio- 
logical effect of the ingestion of 2.75 per cent alcohol, the urine was 
regularly collected in periods of 15 to 30 minutes from immediately 
preceding the ingestion of the liquid until at least 2 hours after this 
time. Dr. Carpenter took advantage of this fact to determine the 
influence, if any, of this dilution of alcohol upon the elimination of 
chlorides, nitrogen, and total sulphur by the kidneys. The urines of 
14 days with alcohol and those of 10 control days were analyzed. The 
chlorides were determined in nearly all of the samples, the nitrogen in 
the majority of them, and the total sulphur in a smaller number. 



NUTRITION LABORATORY. 299 

The results are of value in showing the possible changes in the urinary 
elimination of chlorides, nitrogen, and total sulphur in very short 
periods under normal conditions, also the effect of 2.75 per cent alcohol 
upon the excretion of these substances. The investigation is being 
continued. The analyses were made by Mr. W. M. Konikov, assisted 
by Mrs. H. Konikov. 

Comparison of basal-metabolism apparatus. — Continuing his extensive 
series of comparison tests, Dr. Carpenter made several comparisons 
between the portable respiration apparatus, the gasometer method of 
determining respiratory exchange, and the Jones metabolimeter, with 
reference to the accuracy of the oxygen-absorption measurements 
by these methods. 

The effect of alcoholic beverages containing 2.75 per cent alcohol by 
weight. — In continuation of the work interrupted by Dr. Miles's 
foreign trip in 1920, a further series of experiments has been made 
on the subject who served previously, to find whether these later 
results would confirm those already obtained, or whether there was a 
measurable influence from practice and tolerance, and also to compare 
the effect of different beverages. Afterwards the same routine was 
carried out with five young men during a 6-day series of experimental 
sessions. On the first two days alcohol was taken, but these tests 
were only for practice. Of the last four days, two were normal and two 
alcohol days. In all the experiments urine samples were collected, 
usually at 30-minute and occasionally at 15-minute intervals; these 
were later analyzed for alcohol concentration by the Widmark-Nicloux 
method. Dr. Miles was assisted in the neuro-muscular tests by Mr. 
E. S. Mills and in the chemical analyses by Miss Jane L. Finn, Mr. 
W. M. Konikov, and Miss E. L. Frutkoff. 

Comparison of the percentage of alcohol in venous blood and in urine. — 
But little literature has appeared with regard to the relationships 
between the percentages of alcohol in venous blood and in urine. In 
connection with several of the observations on the effect of alcohol, 
Dr. Miles has made determinations of the alcohol present in both 
fluids. Usually four blood-samples were taken from arm veins within 
2 hours after alcohol was taken. Urine was passed about every 15 
minutes and certain of the urine samples were coincident with the blood 
samples. Dr. Howard F. Root assisted Dr. Miles in taking the samples, 
and the analyses were made with the assistance of Miss E. L. Frutkoff 
and with the help and criticism of Dr. T. M. Carpenter and Mr. 
W. M. Konikov. 

The physiological and psychological fitness of diabetic patients. — The 
emphasis by Professor Georges Dreyer, of Oxford, on the use of 
four measurements, i. e., weight, chest-girth, sitting-height, and vital 
capacity, as indices of physical fitness has led to the adoption of these 
measurements by Dr. Root and Dr. Miles in determining the physical 



300 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

fitness of a series of diabetics at the Deaconess Hospital. Accompany- 
ing these measurements were a number of psychological observations 
in which the subjects were tested both in groups and individually, 
for diabetics frequently complain of loss of memory and inability to 
concentrate attention. The results are compared with like measure- 
ments of normal subjects and also with those for the group of young 
men in the large undernutrition study conducted by the Nutrition 
Laboratory in 1917-18. 

Changes of muscle tonus with exposure to cold. — The changes in oxygen 
consumption noted under different conditions of temperature environ- 
ment might be accounted for by variations in muscle tonus. Dr. 
Miles has cooperated in this phase of a research on temperature 
environment and, by using the patellar reflex and certain other means, 
has objectively recorded the changes in muscle tonus which occur when 
the subject disrobes and sits in a cool room for 2 hours or so, during 
which time measurements are made on the portable respiration appa- 
ratus. 

The metabolism of young girls. — The series of observations on Girl 
Scouts, referred to in previous reports, has been supplemented during 
the past year by a study of two groups of Girl Scouts, one of 14 years 
and one of 18 years of age. Special arrangements were made for secur- 
ing the pulse-rate throughout the entire night by the attachment of a 
stethoscope over the apex of the heart of each subject. The insensible 
perspiration was most carefully recorded, as well as the basal metabo- 
lism. This study supplements admirably the former year's work with 
younger children. The research was carried out with the cooperation 
of Miss Mary F. Hendry and Miss Marion L. Baker, and the extra- 
ordinary cooperative spirit of the Massachusetts Girl Scouts made the 
selection of groups of girls of these ages most satisfactory. 

Temperature of the skin. — One of the factors contributing to loss of 
heat from the body is the relation of the temperature of the skin to the 
environmental temperature. Studies on this subject were continued 
with the special technique developed at the Laboratory, attention 
being given primarily to observations in which a nude subject was 
exposed to blasts of air from an electric fan at different velocities and 
different environmental temperatures. The details of the measure- 
ments were chiefly in the hands of Miss Alice Johnson and Miss 
Marion L. Baker. 

Influence of environmental temperature upon metabolism. — This 
research, which has been in progress for several years, was continued 
with the same subject, special emphasis being laid upon the heat-losses 
and the metabolism under different conditions of environmental 
temperature and wind velocity. 

Radiation from the human body. — The great changes in skin-tempera- 
ture with exposure to low environmental temperatures and the great 



NUTRITION LABORATORY. 301 

difference in skin-temperature at different parts of the body make a 
study of the radiation from the body desirable. Thanks to the coopera- 
tion of Dr. C. G. Abbot, a large number of observations of the direct 
radiations from the nude human body at different temperatures and 
at different parts of the body were made in the spring of 1921. 

Influence of food upon metaholism. — The selection of a light though 
satisfying meal, that can be given hospital patients and even normal 
subjects, which would eliminate the 12-hour fasting period commonly 
required for metabolism measurements, is greatly to be desired. 
Taking advantage of the quite unusual degree of repose of the artist's 
model used in many of our other respiration experiments and studies, 
we have been making studies upon light diets, and noting their influ- 
ence upon metabolism. These studies were made with the cooperation 
of Miss Marion L. Baker. 

Conversion of carbohydrate to fat in the animal body. — This particular 
phase of nutrition has been studied for several years, and the extra- 
ordinarily high respiratory quotients observed have been tested by 
two entirely independent methods. The calorimeter for direct mea- 
surements of heat under these conditions has been further improved, 
and, as has been previously stated, the general principle is shortly to 
be applied to human calorimetry. Miss Alice Johnson assisted in 
this study. 

Metabolism during mental effort. — A renewed interest in the effects of 
mental work upon physical condition, which have been so universally 
noted, has led to the institution of a research upon the relation between 
mental effort and metabolism. New technique, with graphic regis- 
tration of respiratory depth and rhythm, promises most interesting 
results. 

Metabolism of farm animals during growth. — In cooperation with 
Professor E. G. Ritzman, of the New Hampshire Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Durham, New Hampshire, and using the large respira- 
tion chamber installed in Durham by the Nutrition Laboratory, an 
extensive series of investigations has been under way during the entire 
year, in which observations have been made of the growth changes of 
calves and particularly of sheep. Several groups of ewes before and 
during pregnancy have also been studied. The work is still in prog- 
ress. Professor Ritzman is assisted by Miss Helen L. Hilton. 

Metabolism of birds. — This research, which has been conducted at 
the New York Zoological Park, through the cordial cooperative spirit 
of Director W. T. Hornaday and Mr. L. S. Crandall, the curator of 
birds, has been completed and the apparatus returned to the Nutrition 
Laboratory. The observations were in the hands of Mr. E. L. Fox. 

Metabolism of snakes. — A review of the earlier observations made at 
the New York Zoological Park on the metabolism of snakes, particu- 
larly during the digestive cycles and with differences in environmental 



302 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

temperatures, showed several important points which needed further 
experimental evidence, and advantage was taken of the installation 
at the New York Zoological Park of supplementing the earlier data. 
These observations were made by Mr. E. L. Fox during the academic 
year 1920-21. The entire apparatus has now been removed and it is 
with regret that we announce the conclusion of this most ideal coopera- 
tive investigation. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The following publications have been issued during the present year : 

(1) Metabolism and growth from birth to puberty. Francis G. Benedict and Fritz B. 

Talbot. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. No. 302 (1920). 

From 200 to 300 children of both sexes were studied at the Massachusetts 
Wet-Nurse Directory and at the New England Home for Little Wanderers, 
with carefully tested and approved apparatus. In this report of the results 
considerable stress is laid upon the normality of these children, as indicated 
by the weight-to-age, height-to-age, and weight-to-height ratios. For com- 
parison a large number of boys and girls in private schools were also measured. 
These comparisons throw most interesting light upon school life as affecting 
the growth factors. Pulse-rate and rectal temperature were secured for most 
of our intensively studied children and form the basis of a consideration of 
normal values. Naturally, the major part of the research dealt with the 
measured basal metabolism as affected by growth and age. Special treat- 
ment is given the relationship between the heat-production per unit of weight 
and that per unit of surface-area. The influence of sex, especially in the 
prepubescent stage, is considered. Finally, several methods for the predic- 
tion of the basal metabolism of children are discussed, and estimates given as 
to the probable total 24-hour requirements. Of general interest is the con- 
clusion that, aside from digestive derangements, it is practically impossible 
to overfeed the growing child. 

(2) A clinical apparatus for measuring basal metabolism. Francis G. Benedict and Warren 

E. ColUns. Boston Med. and Surg. Journ., vol. 183, p. 449 (1920). 

The great obstacle to studies of respiratory exchange has been the necessity 
for a complete equipment for gas analysis. To avoid this, a respiration appa- 
ratus was designed in the Nutrition Laboratory, by means of which, without 
gas analysis, the oxygen consumption could be read directly from the contrac- 
tion in the volume of a spirometer bell, and the carbon-dioxide production 
could be obtained by weighing certain bottles. This apparatus, while designed 
to be portable, proved rather cumbersome and, to fill urgent clinical needs 
for a strictly portable type, the original form of the portable respiration appa- 
ratus has been somewhat modified, being reduced in weight, provided with 
support and stand, and all parts adjusted so as to be more or less collapsi- 
ble and thus occupy minimum space and facilitate transportation. With this 
apparatus the oxygen consumption of patients may be studied in the cus- 
tomary 10 to 15 minute periods with an accuracy fully equal to other stand- 
ard methods of studying respiratory exchange. A simple method of timing 
the readings of the position of the spirometer bell eliminates the use of stop- 
watches. To compare the metabolism as measured on the new portable 
apparatus with that measured on the old, three series of tests were made on 
two different subjects with widely varying basal oxygen requirements, and 
the comparison showed a most satisfactory agreement between the two forms 
of apparatus. 



NUTRITION LABORATORY. 303 

(3) Carbon-dioxid content of barn air. Mary F. Hendry and Alice Johnson. Journ. 

Agric. Research, vol. 20, p. 405 (1920). 

The construction of a large respiration chamber in the dairy barn of the 
Agricultural Experiment Station at Durham, New Hampshire, led to an 
investigation of the carbon-dioxide content of the air and its probable in- 
fluence upon respiration experiments in case such air should inadvertently 
leak into the chamber. A series of analyses extending over all hours of the 
day and night showed a percentage of carbon dioxide ranging between 0.089 
and 0.228. It is clear that there is a large percentage of carbon dioxide in the 
air of this modern barn, but its presence has had no apparent influence upon 
the health of the animals during the two decades that the building has been 
occupied. This fact is not without significance in the question of the venti- 
lation of rooms occupied by humans. 

(4) Tables, factors, and formulas for computing respiratory exchange and biological trans- 

formations of energy. Thorne M. Carpeiiter. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. No. 303 
(1921). 

This pubUcation is a compilation of tables, factors, and formulas which have 
been found to be of service in the calculation of results from data obtained 
with the various forms of respiration apparatus used with men and animals. 
A description of the tables is followed by a group of tables useful in the re- 
duction to 0° C. dry and 760 mm. mercury-pressure of gas-volumes, either 
partially saturated with water-vapor as in a chamber, or completely saturated 
as is expired air collected in a spirometer. The various reUable factors and 
formulas for obtaining body-surface of man are given, followed by the stand- 
ards (tables and formulas) for predicting the basal heat-production per 
24 hours of all ages of both sexes, available up to the time of publication 
(Harris and Benedict, Benedict and collaborators, Aub and Du Bois, and 
Dreyer) . The compilation concludes with a series of tables giving the factors 
for converting various units of work, energy, and measures into one another. 

(5) The variation and the statistical constants of basal metabolism in men. J. Arthur 

Harris and F. G. Benedict. Journ. Biol. Chem., vol. 46, p. 257 (1921). 

In all special investigations in human calorimetry some standard constant 
measuring the metabolism of the normal individual must be used as a basis 
of comparison. The selection of this constant presents a problem of some 
difficulty, as consideration should be given to the physiological conditions 
under which the measurements were made, the unit in which the caloric 
output shall be expressed, and the method by which the statistical constants 
for the standard series shall be obtained. It may be reasonably assumed 
that the results of the several periods of measurement on a given day stand 
in the relation of duplicate, tripUcate, etc., analyses. The special purpose 
of this paper has been to investigate the variability in the basal metabolism 
of the normal individual and the method of determining a population mean 
from a series of individual constants. The average of daily periods of ob- 
servation for individual men who have been studied from 20 to 53 days shows 
that the variabiUty is measured by coefficients of variation of about 4 per 
cent of the average metabolism. The correlations between range of observa- 
tions and variations in metabolism are greater for narrow ranges of observa- 
tion than for the longer ranges, thus indicating that the greater part of the 
physiological variations in metaboUsm will be reahzed in relatively short 
periods of time. It is evident, therefore, that the metaboHsm of the normal 
subject is not constant, even with practically constant body-mass, but is to 
some extent in a state of flux. The results of this study also show that the 
population constant derived from individual means is less modified by weight- 



304 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

ing than that deduced from the individual minima. Probably weighting 
with the square root of the number of days rather than with the number of 
days would be the course recommended by most statisticians. 

(6) The quantitative measurement of static control in standing. W. R. Miles. Am. 

Journ. Physiol., vol. 55, p. 309 (1921). 

An abstract published in the Proceedings of the American Physiological 
Society, describing the static-control recorder, together with some results 
obtained by its use. 

(7) The energy requirements of girls from 12 to 17 years of age. Francis G. Benedict and 

Mary F. Hendry. Boston Med. and Surg. Journ., vol. 184, pp.»217, 257, 282, 297, 
and 329 (1921). 

Almost no evidence has hitherto been available regarding the energy 
requirements of girls of 12 to 17 years of age. With the cooperation of the 
Mavssachusetts Girl Scouts, nine groups of girls, usually 12 in a group, were 
studied on different nights inside of a large respiration chamber at the Nutri- 
tion Laboratory. The pulse-rate, insensible perspiration, and particularly 
the carbon-dioxide production throughout the entire night were determined 
frequently in 30-minute periods. The minimum values found throughout 
any given night have been taken as the basal requirement. This varies con- 
siderably in the different groups, although the total heat-production of the 
average girl remains strikingly uniform, irrespective of age or weight. Since 
the older girls are heavier than the younger ones, it is clear that the heat- 
production per unit of mass, i. e., per kilogram, is greater with the younger 
girls. The average, minimum, resting pulse-rate per minute of these girls 
from 12 to 17 years of age was found to be 81 at 12 years, 77 at 13 years, 77 at 
14 years, 83 at 15 years, 71 at 16 years, and 74 at 17 years. The insensible 
perspiration per kilogram of body-weight per hour was 0.72 gram at 13 years, 
0.71 gram at 14 years, and 0.77 gram at 15 years. The respiratory quotients 
of these groups of girls, about 7 to 8 hours after a light meal, were 0.81, 0.81, 
0.78, and 0.79. The caloric requirement during 10 hours of "bed rest" 
was, on the average, 55.0 calories per individual per hour. The average 
24-hour basal heat-production was 1,250 calories per individual, irrespective 
of age. The heat-production per kilogram of body-weight per 24 hours 
decreases regularly with increasing age, from 29.9 calorics at 12 years 2 months 
to 21.7 calories at 17 years. The curve indicating the general metabolic 
trend is throughout its entire length materially below the few scattered ob- 
servations of earlier writers. The heat-production per square meter of body- 
surface per 24 hours likewise decreases, but not so regularly, with increasing 
age, ranging from 928 calories at 14 years to 745 calories at 16 years. The 
metabolism of groups of young girls can be predicted from the general curve 
indicating the heat-prod action per kilogram of body- weight referred to age 
to within an average error of ±3.1 per cent. The prediction for the heat- 
production per unit of body-weight is somewhat better than that per unit of 
surface-area. The curves representing the heat-production per Idlogram of 
body-weight referred to weight and per square meter of body-surface referred 
to weight for these groups of girls from 12 to 17 years of age blend with re- 
markable uniformity with similar curves based upon the measurement of a 
large number of normal girls from birth to 12 years of age. No influence of 
puberty or the prepubescent stage is clearly proved in any of the results. 

(8) The basal metabolism of girls 12 to 17 years of age. Francis G. Benedict, Mary F. 

Hendry, and Marion L. Baker. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, p. 10 (1921). 

An abbreviated presentation of the material in the foregoing article. 



NUTRITION LABORATORY. 305 

(9) The energy content of extra foods. (Sandwiches.) Cornelia Golay Benedict and 

F. G. Benedict. Boston Aled. and Surg. Journ., vol. 184, p. 436 (1921). 

This paper is a continuation of the first two communications on the subject 
of the energy-content of "extra foods." It presents the results secured with 
the ready-prepared sandwiches which may be obtained at the ordinary lunch- 
counter and drug-store. Although the prices during the period of observa- 
tion (the spring of 1920) were somewhat higher than at present, it would seem 
that the Frankfurt sandwich at 5 cents was a most economical source of energy. 
On the other hand, the sliced-chicken sandwiches, frequently sold for 25 to 
35 cents, represented an actual cost to the consumer of shced chicken corre- 
sponding to approximately S5 or $7 a pound. The important role of sand- 
wiches in the lunch or supplementary meal as affecting obesity, on the one 
hand, and on the other hand as a legitimate factor in any of the three meals 
of the day, is emphasized. The special purpose of these papers has been to 
point out that very considerable energy is obtained in these extra foods, 
i. e., candies, soda-fountain products, doughnuts, and sandwiches. Their 
influence in cases of obesity is obvious. 

(10) The surface temperature of the elephant, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus. Francis G. 

Benedict, Edward L. Fox, and Marion L. Baker. Am. Journ. Physiol., vol. 56, 
p. 464 (1921). 

Primarily for purposes of comparison wdth surface temperatures obtained 
on nude humans, measurements were made of the skin-temperature of a 
group of large, captive, hairless animals, namely, two elephants, a rhinoceros, 
and a hippopotamus, which had for years been subjected to the same routine 
of hfe in the New York Zoological Park. The average environmental tem- 
perature was 19.5° C. With the two elephants the average temperature of 
the skin was 25.5° C. Very pronounced temperature gradients were noted on 
various parts of the ears and extraordinary temperature differences were found 
at the tips of the right and left ears, both on the front and back of the ears 
and on different days. With the rhinoceros the average skin-temperature 
was 26.2° C, while in the semi-inclosed places, such as the groin and axilla 
and between the folds of the skin temperatures as high as 33.4° C. were 
found. The hippopotamus, by reason of its moist skin and amphibious 
nature, has a very widely varying skin-temperature. The skin is considerably 
colder on the back than on the belly. A rough average value shows the skin- 
temperature of the hippopotamus is not far from 25° C. All these animals, 
therefore, may be said in general to have the same skin-temperature, averag- 
ing about 25.5° C, or about 6 degrees above the environmental temperature. 

(11) The measurement and standards of basal metabolism. Francis G. Benedict. Journ. 

Am. Med. Assoc, vol. 77, p. 247 (1921). 

At a largely attended symposium on basal metabolism in cUnical medicine 
during the Seventy-Second Annual Session of the American Medical Associa- 
tion at Boston in June 1921, occasion was taken to point out certain experi- 
ences of the Nutrition Laboratory in the measurement of basal metaboUsm 
and in the application of standards. The newest technique, with certain 
modifications, particularly as to testing, was presented. Stress was laid upon 
the difficulty of interpreting results and the standards for comparison, with 
special emphasis upon the normal variations from standard and particularly 
the influence of undernutrition. Practitioners were cautioned to familiarize 
themselves thoroughly with the fundamentals of gaseous metabohsm and its 
significance, for the interpretation of results in gaseous metabolism measure- 
ments now far exceeds in complexity the actual laboratory technique. 



306 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

(12) A pursuitmeter. W. R. Miles. Journ. Exp. Psychol., vol. 4, p. 77 (1921). 

This paper describes a new apparatus for measuring the adequacy of eye- 
hand coordination which is probably one of the most important forms of 
human behavior to measure in connection with nutritional factors, fatigue, 
industrial conditions, and the hke. The subject under test observes a watt- 
meter with zero center scale, and by the manipulation of a rheostat tries to 
maintain continually a balance between two opposing electrical circuits. 
The task is fairly uniform in nature, but so varied as to the direction, amph- 
tude, rapidity of fluctuations, and rate of change in the current strength of one 
circuit as to require constant attention from the reactor. The "disturber 
mechanism" can be regulated to provide tasks of varying difficulty. The 
errors of compensation are integrated in two meters, from which the score 
may be directly read at the end of a test. Obviously the score combines both 
quickness and accuracy, and the smaller the meter-reading the better the per- 
formance. Test results with children and adults may be directly compared. 
The use of the apparatus is illustrated by some data on the influence of small 
amounts of alcohol. 

(13) A pursuitmeter. W. R. Miles. Psychol. Bull., vol. 18, p. 102 (1920). 

An abstract of the above-mentioned paper, published in the Proceedings of 
the American Psychological Association. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM.' 

Lofis A. Bauer, Director. 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

The notable disturbances of the Earth's magnetism, brilliant polar- 
light displays, and severe earth-currents of May 13 to 16, 1921, which 
accompanied the remarkable sun-spot activity at the time, drew 
renewed attention to the relationships between these four classes of 
natural phenomena. The earth-currents generated within the Earth 
during the period of disturbances were of such a nature and magnitude 
as to cause on several days unusually serious interruption of tele- 
graphic transmission, and disturbance of various other electric instal- 
lations. In consequence, further information as to the precise causes 
and modes of action of disturbances in the Earth's magnetic and 
electric conditions is being zealously sought, both on theoretical and 
on purely practical grounds. 

Telegraph companies have requested observers of sun-spots to keep 
them informed of notable solar phenomena in the hope that they might 
take whatever advance steps repeated experiences would show prac- 
ticable for the prevention of serious interruptions from this source in 
telegraphic transmission. So, likewise, these organizations and in- 
terested persons are soliciting information regarding disturbances of 
the electric currents continually flowing in the Earth's crust and re- 
garding deflections of the compass needle and the Earth's magnetism 
in general. Requests for such information are quite general. Thus, 
for example, the Telegraphs Branch of the Commonwealth Postal 
Department of Western Australia has requested of our observer-in- 
charge at the Watheroo Magnetic Observatory that he keep it in- 
formed of any abnormal magnetic conditions. 

The Earth's magnetic changes are being continually recorded at 
about 50 stations, which, unfortunately, are not distributed over the 
Earth with the desired uniformity; the great majority are in Europe 
and only about 20 per cent are located in the Southern Hemisphere. 
But matters are still worse as regards earth-currents, since they are 
continuously recorded at less than 10 per cent of the total number of 
magnetic observatories. On the North American continent, Hawaii 
and Porto Rico, there are in operation 7 magnetic observatories, but at 
none of these, owing to various reasons, are there installations for 
earth-current observations. Accordingly, desired specific informa- 
tion can not at present be supplied to our telegraph companies and 
those interested in electric disturbances. 

'Address, Thirtj'-sixth Street and Broad Branch Road, Washington, D. C. 

307 



308 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Now that the general magnetic survey of the ocean areas and un- 
explored regions, assigned to the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 
as one of its initial great tasks, is coming to a conclusion as regards its 
first main purpose, efforts are being made to assist in meeting the 
needs referred to in previous paragraphs. Among the problems 
specifically mentioned in the plan^ of work of the Department was 
that relating to observations of the manifold variations in the mag- 
netic and electric conditions of the Earth, inclusive of its atmosphere, 
and their correlations with solar and allied phenomena. To this end 
a magnetic observatory was built at Watheroo, Western Australia, 
about 120 miles north of Perth, where, since January 1, 1919, con- 
tinuous observations of the Earth's magnetic changes have been 
recorded by photographic means; these observations will be supple- 
mented in the near future by others pertaining to atmospheric elec- 
tricity and earth-currents. 

The location of the Watheroo Magnetic Observatory is almost 
diametrically opposite to that of the magnetic observatory of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey at Cheltenham, Maryland. 
The comparison of the magnetic variations and disturbances as re- 
corded at the two stations on opposite sides of the Earth is proving 
of exceptional interest. During the period May 13 to 16, 1921, there 
were observed at the Watheroo Magnetic Observatory in the Southern 
Hemisphere, magnetic disturbances, polar lights (aurora australis), 
and earth-currents corresponding to those observed in the Northern 
Hemisphere, as for example, in the United States. 

The second magnetic observatory of the Department, located at 
Huancayo, Peru, at an altitude of about 11,000 feet and about 125 
miles east of Lima, is now nearing completion; it is hoped that the 
magnetic observations may be begun before the end of the year, and 
that electric observations may be undertaken some time in 1922. In 
addition, it is hoped that arrangements may soon be made for sys- 
tematic observations pertaining to atmospheric electricity and earth- 
currents at other suitable stations in regions for which data are much 
needed. Among especially desirable regions at present may be 
mentioned: Northern part of North America, United States, Mid- 
Pacific Ocean, and South Atlantic Ocean or Africa. 

Various studies concerning the relationships between solar activity 
and the Earth's magnetic and electric phenomena are in progress. 
These studies show once more the complexities of the relations. It 
is not possible always to correlate the intensity of sun-spot activity 
definitely with magnetic effects. There are well-established cases of 
severe magnetic storms during complete absences of visual evidence 
of sun-spots; at times these storms may be related to some other solar 

'Published in the Year Book of the Carnegie Institution of Washington for 1903, pp. 203-212. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 309 

phenomenon, such as prominences. The central position of the sun- 
spots of May 14 to 15 last, the character of their formation, and the 
time of the year, were favorable to the production of a magnetic dis- 
turbance on the Earth. In these studies various measures of solar 
activity are being tried out (see pp. 348-351). 

Besides the relationships referred to in the first paragraph, it has 
been found that there is another geophysical phenomenon — atmos- 
pheric electricity — between which and solar activity a definite re- 
lationship exists, as described on page 350. The electric potential 
gradient of the air, on days free from disturbing influences, and also 
the range of its daily fluctuation, are found to increase, in general, 
with increased solar activity. 

It further results from our preliminary studies that the Earth and 
probably the other planets are apparently sending out into space or 
returning, by a sort of reflex action, a portion of the electrified par- 
ticles continually received from the Sun; as a result the Earth exerts, 
apparently, upon sun-spot activity, a small but observable electric 
effect of a double-wave character during the year. On the average, 
the maximum Earth-effects occur at the times of the year, near the 
equinoctial months, when magnetic disturbances and polar lights are 
most frequent, and the minimum Earth-effects occur near the sol- 
stitial months, when magnetic disturbances and polar lights are least 
frequent (see p. 351). It would appear more and more that besides 
those of gravitation, there are other bonds of union — electrical in 
their nature — between the Earth, the sister planets, and our parent 
Sun, by means of which the cosmic forces responsible for electric and 
magnetic effects, such as we observe, are conveyed. 

OCEAN WORK. 

The Carnegie's present world cruise (No. VI) of total length 64,044 
nautical miles, begun at Washington on October 9, 1919, was com- 
pleted at the same port on November 10, 1921. The success attend- 
ant upon this cruise, referred to in the report of 1920, has continued 
throughout the current year. The commander, J. P. Ault, and his able 
staff, deserve much credit for the successful management of the vessel 
and for their persistence under difficulties as well as for the quaUty 
and quantity of the observational data obtained. The prompt trans- 
mittal of the observed data to the office at Washington has made it 
possible to continue supplying promptly to the leading hydrographic 
establishments the data required for correction of the magnetic charts 
used by mariners. The steady improvement in these charts since 1905, 
when our ocean magnetic work was begun, is very gratifying (see 
table 1, p. 342). 

The present cruise up to the arrival of the Carnegie at Washington, 
November 10, 1921, is shown delineated on the accompanying map. 



310 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

The ports and dates of arrival indicate, in a general way, the portion of 
the cruise from October 1920 to its conclusion: Lyttelton, New Zea- 
land, October 21, 1920; Papeete, Tahiti, December 23, 1920; Fanning 
Island, January 14, 1921; Laysan Island was passed at a distance less 
than one mile on January 25; San Francisco, February 19; Honolulu, 
April 12; stops of a few hours' duration for obtaining some food supplies 
were made at Penrhyn Island, June 12, and at Manihiki Island on June 
15 ; Pago Pago, Tutuila, June 20 ; Apia, Samoa, June 29 ; a brief stop was 
made at Rarotonga, August 15, in order to land the ship's surgeon, who 
was suffering from an infected arm; Balboa, Canal Zone, October 7; 
Washington, November 10, 1921. The Director joined the Carnegie 
at Balboa on October 12 and continued with her up to her arrival 
at Washington. For further account of the cruise and the work ref- 
erence must be made to pages 317-323. 

The aggregate length of the Carnegie's cruises, 1909-1921, is 
253,220 nautical miles, or 291,595 statute miles, which, combined 
with the cruises of the first vessel (the chartered Galilee, 1905-1908, 
63,834 nautical miles), gives a total of our ocean cruises, August 1905 to 
November 1921, of 317,054 nautical miles, or 365,103 statute miles, 
which is nearly 15 times the Earth's circumference. Counting out the 
times when the vessel was not in commission, on account of repairs 
and of the Great War, more than a complete passage around the Earth 
has been made for each 12 months of operation. 

Besides the magnetic work, the work in atmospheric electricity has 
been regularly continued and important results have been obtained, 
especially as pertains to the electric potential gradient of the atmos- 
phere (see pp. 354-356. The additional observations made aboard the 
Carnegie relate to atmospheric refraction, meteorology, hydrography, 
and geography. Rock specimens have also been collected at ports of 
call in cooperation with the Geophysical Laboratory for facilitating 
Dr. Washington's investigations. 

LAND MAGNETICSURVEY WORK AND SPECIAL EXPEDITIONS. 

It has not yet been possible, because of expense and lack of person- 
nel, to resume the land work with pre-war intensiveness. It would 
seem necessary to place the Carnegie temporarily out of commission in 
order that the requisite funds and observers for the land work may 
become available. 

Mr. Frederick Brown carried out field work continuously throughout 
the year; the general regions of the work were Eastern Africa and 
Madagascar. A fairly detailed magnetic survey of Madagascar has 
been completed, and Mr. Brown further obtained valuable data 
regarding the secular changes in the Earth's magnetism. (For further 
account of his work, see pp. 323-325.) 

In May 1921, Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds and Observer D. G. Coleman 
were sent to Apia, Samoa, where they arrived about the middle of June. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 311 

Starting out from Apia as a base-station, Mr. Coleman proceeded, 
under Dr. Edmonds's direction, to make magnetic observations on 
various islands in the Pacific Ocean. Mr. Coleman was especially 
charged with the reoccupation of certain stations at which Department 
observers had made observations some years ago in order that he might 
obtain the requisite data for determining the changes — known as 
secular changes — which the Earth's magnetic state has undergone 
since the dates of the earlier observations (see p. 326). 

At all ports of call of the Carnegie as planned. Captain Ault's party 
has made valuable magnetic observations. 

The Department has cooperated with two polar expeditions — the 
"Maud Expedition," under the leadership of Captain Roald Amundsen, 
and the "Baffin Land Expedition," under the command of Dr. Donald 
B. MacMillan. Important magnetic data have been obtained already 
from both expeditions (see pp. 325-326 and 327). 

OBSERVATORY WORK. 

Some general statements concerning the present observatory work 
have already been made in the "Introductory Remarks." The 
work performed during the year may be summarized as follows : 

Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, Western Australia. — Captain E. 
Kidson was observer-in-charge during the period November 1, 1920, 
to January 31, 1921, when he resigned, to our great regret, in order 
to accept the appointment of supervising meteorologist in the Cen- 
tral Weather Bureau at Melbourne. He was succeeded by Mr. 
W. C. Parkinson, who with the assistance of Assistant Observer J. 
Shearer has successfully continued the activities of the observatory. 
Dr. G. R. Wait left San Francisco in September for the Watheroo 
Magnetic Observatory to install there the initial units of what is 
ultimately to be a comprehensive equipment for atmospheric-electric 
work. This equipment was constructed in the Department's instru- 
ment shop. Dr. Wait will take full charge of the observatory work at 
the end of 1921 to relieve Mr. Parkinson. Owing to circumstances 
arising from the war it was necessary, unfortunately, for Mr. Parkinson 
to remain continuously on duty at the isolated observatory site for a 
period of about five years. High praise must be accorded him for his 
unflagging devotion and zeal and for the conscientious and painstaking 
manner in which he has performed his duties. (For an account of the 
observatory's work during the year, see pp. 328-329). 

Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, Peru. — Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds 
continued in charge of the construction of this observatory until 
March 31, 1921, when he was relieved and assigned to the Pacific 
Ocean work described below and on page 326. He was succeeded by 
Mr. W. F. Wallis, who is an experienced magnetician and an architect. 
It will be seen from pages 329-330 that Mr. Wallis has made excellent 



312 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

progress in the completion of the various buildings. The photographic 
instruments for the magnetic work were installed and it was expected 
that continuous magnetic observations would be begun the latter part 
of the year. (For details and account of some preliminary observa- 
tions, see page 330.) 

Apia Observatory, Samoa. — After various negotiations, the New Zea- 
land Government decided to continue at its expense the magnetic and 
seismic work of the Apia Observatory, which was established in 1902 
under the auspices of the Gottingen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 
and of the German Government. The activities of the observatory 
were maintained in full throughout the Great War under the direction 
of the German observer-in-charge. Dr. G. Angenheister, who returned 
to his native country in July. Mr. C. J. Westland, of New Zealand, 
is the present observer-in-charge. The Apia Observatory was origi- 
nally established with the view of cooperation with the German 
Antarctic Expedition of 1902-1904; the German Government continued 
it later and thus cooperated with the Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism in the Pacific Ocean work. The magnetic data obtained at the 
Apia Observatory are required for the satisfactory reduction of our 
ocean magnetic work. Similarly, continuous observations in atmos- 
pheric electricity at the Apia Observatory are desirable in connection 
with the reduction of our ocean electric work. Unfortunately, however, 
the New Zealand Government was unable to provide for the expense 
of maintenance of the atmospheric-electric work after Dr. Angen- 
heister's departure. In order to maintain the continuity of this work 
the Department, in cooperation with the New Zealand Government, 
has stationed Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds at Apia for the purpose of con- 
tinuing, as well as possible with the available means, the atmospheric- 
electric observations, pending other arrangements. The New Zealand 
Government has courteously furnished Dr. Edmonds with living 
quarters. As stated on page 326, Dr. Edmonds, while stationed at 
Apia, also has charge of the Department's magnetic-survey work of 
the Pacific Islands. 

MacMillan Baffin Land Expedition. — In cooperation with this expe- 
dition, instruments, plans, and directions were furnished for temporary 
observatory work in the polar regions, 1921 to 1922, and instruction 
was given to the observers. The observations to be undertaken, if 
conditions permit, will pertain to terrestrial magnetism, atmospheric 
electricity, and polar lights (see pp. 327 and 334). 

Washington, District of Columbia. — Numerous comparisons and 
standardizations of magnetic instruments have been made in the 
course of the year in the Standardizing Magnetic Observatory. The 
most interesting of these instrumental comparisons have been those 
between the Department's standard magnetometer and its sine 
galvanometer, with which the horizontal component of the intensity of 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 313 

the Earth's magnetic field is measured by electric means. Our 
standard magnetometer has been compared at various times during 
the past 15 years with magnetometers in use at most of the magnetic 
observatories and in most of the magnetic services throughout the 
world. The comparisons made between it and the sine galvanometer 
have shown that the adopted standard for horizontal intensity may 
be regarded as an absolute one well within theoretical and practical 
requirements (see pp. 338 and 346). 

For an account of the atmospheric-electric work in the deck observa- 
tory, see page 333 

Miscellaneous. — Various plans were prepared for the structural and 
observational work at the observatories; requisite instruments were 
also designed and constructed in the instrument shop. Considerable 
time was devoted to the development of observatory buildings, instru- 
ments, and equipment for standardized practice, particularly as pertains 
to atmospheric-electric methods and records. (See pp. 333 and 337.) 

RESEARCH WORK IN WASHINGTON. 
TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISISL 

The manuscript was completed for Volume IV of "Researches of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism," bearing the title ''Land 
Magnetic Observations 1914-1920, and Special Reports" by L. A. 
Bauer, J. A. Fleming, H. W. Fisk, W. J. Peters, and S. J. Barnett; this 
volume is now passing through the press. The special reports are as 
follows : 

Construction of Non-Magnetic Experiment Building of the Department of Terrestrial 

Magnetism, by J. A. Fleming. 
Dip-Needle Errors Arising from Minute Pivot-Defects, by H. W. Fisk. 
A Sine Galvanometer for Determining in Absolute Measure the Horizontal Intensity of 

the Earth's Magnetic Field, by S. J. Barnett. 
Results of Comparisons of Magnetic Standards 1915-1921, by J. A. Fleming. 

When Volume IV has been issued, the observational data resulting 
from our land magnetic surveys from 1905 to 1920 inclusive will have 
appeared in print. The ocean magnetic data, 1905-1916, were pub- 
lished in Volume III, and preliminary results for the period 1917-1921 
have been pubHshed promptly in the various issues of the journal 
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. In addition and 
upon request, magnetic-survey data, not already in print, were fur- 
nished to interested institutions and investigators. 

Preparatory to the reduction to common epoch of the accumulated 
data and the construction of new world magnetic charts, a variety of 
investigations were undertaken; some of these have been completed 
and others are in progress. Thus, for example, it is of importance to 
have some idea at least, before making a new analysis of the Earth's 
magnetic field, as to what extent the magnetic forces observed on the 
Earth's surface may be caused, possibly, by a system of electric cur- 



314 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

rents passing perpendicularly through the Earth's surface. Students 
of terrestrial magnetism regard this as one of the outstanding questions 
of the present time, the definite solution of which has an important 
bearing on theories of some of the Earth's magnetic and electric 
phenomena. A preliminary investigation on the basis of the most 
complete data available appears to lead to some positive results and 
to indicate that possibly 2 to 3 per cent of the Earth's total magnetic 
field is caused by a system of vertical currents of the kind described 
(see p. 348). In the planning of the various cruises of the Galilee and 
of the Carnegie, special consideration was given to obtaining compre- 
hensive tests of this interesting question in various parts of the Earth. 
Some further results of these preparatory studies were previously 
mentioned under "Introductory Remarks." For fuller accounts of 
these studies see pages 332-333 and 347-351. 

MAGNETISM IN GENERAL. 

Improvements in appliances and methods have resulted in obtaining 
greater precision in the experiments on magnetization by rotation con- 
ducted by Dr. S. J. Barnett in the Department's non-magnetic experi- 
ment building, the completion of which was reported upon last year. 
The results of the two independent methods (the method of electro- 
magnetic induction and the magnetometer method) have been brought 
into better agreement than they were before. Dr. Barnett states 
(see p. 341) that the present results confirm the result first obtained by 
the method of electromagnetic induction, namely: Either negative 
magnetons with a value of the ratio of angular momentum to mag- 
netic moment, different from that ordinarily accepted for electron 
rings, are responsible for magnetism, or else positive electrons or 
magnetons are also involved. The experiments are being continued. 
It has not yet been possible to go further with the experiments on 
rotation by magnetization. 

For further details reference may be made to Dr. Barnett's report on 
pages 340-341 and to the abstracts of his papers and communications 
to scientific societies on pages 345-346. 

TERRESTRIAL ELECTRICITY. 

The section of Terrestrial Electricity has continued under the charge 
of Dr. S. J. Mauchly, whose report on pages 333-335 may be consulted 
as to details. 

The principal activities of the section may be summarized as follows : 
Reduction of atmospheric-electric observations made aboard the 
Carnegie and at Washington in the temporary observatory on the deck 
of the main laboratory of the Department ; studies and improvements 
of observational methods ; designs of instruments for the atmospheric- 
electric work at the Department's observatories and for the MacMillan 
Baffin Land Expedition; study of methods and equipment for polar- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 315 

light observations; investigations based on the accumulated results in 
atmospheric electricity. 

A statement of some of the important results derived from electric 
observations made aboard the Carnegie, which have a significant 
bearing upon theories of atmospheric electricity, will be found on pages 
354-356. 

Through its extensive ocean work the Department is not only 
obtaining the chief data pertaining to the geographic distribution of 
the atmospheric-electric elements, but is also enabled to contribute 
important data respecting the diurnal and annual variations of these 
elements. 

It is still true that the Department's station at Washington is the only 
one in the United States where continuous records of the changes in the 
electric condition of the atmosphere are being obtained. These records 
are being consulted by various outside investigators, especially by 
those who are making studies of the atmospheric disturbances en- 
countered in wireless transmission. 

STANDARDIZATION AND INSTRUMENT WORK. 

As in previous years, the investigations and work under this head 
have been conducted in the Magnetic Survey Division, in charge of 
Mr. J. A. Fleming, to whose report on pages 337-340 reference may be 
made concerning details. 

Reference has already been made on page 312 respecting interesting 
results obtained from the comparisons of instruments of various types, 
these results having important bearings upon methods of observation. 
(See also p. 337.) 

The construction of sine galvanometer No. 1, as designed by Dr. Bar- 
nett, for determining in absolute measure the horizontal intensity of the 
Earth's magnetic field, was completed. It has already been stated on 
page 313 that comparisons made under Mr. Fleming's direction between 
the sine galvanometer and the Department's standard magnetometer 
showed a very satisfactory agreement. 

It will be seen from Mr. Fleming's report (pp. 337-340) that an un- 
usual amount of construction work in the instrument shop was com- 
pleted during the year. Aluch of this work was in connection with 
the designs of instruments of high grade for the varied work of the 
Department at Washington, in the field, and at its observatories, or in 
connection with special expeditions. 

Owing to the heavy pressure upon our shop for the appliances re- 
quired by the Department in its own work and because of the con- 
tinued scarcity of skilled instrument-makers and high costs of con- 
struction, it has not been possible to meet in any respect the requests 
we continue to receive from foreign institutions for instruments of our 
design. 



316 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS. 

Site at Washington. — In the early part of 1921 an additional strip of 
land of about 75,000 square feet was purchased in order to protect the 
work performed in the Experiment Building and in the Standardizing 
Observatory from possible disturbing influences. The total area of 
the site at Washington is at present about 8f acres, and it is now 
bounded on all sides by streets, already constructed or contemplated. 

American Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity. — The 
following papers were presented by members of the Department at the 
annual meeting on April 18, 1921, before the Section of Terrestrial 
Magnetism and Electricity of the American Geophysical Union : 

S. J. Barnett: A sine galvanometer for determining in absolute measure the horizontal 
intensity of the Earth's magnetic field. 

L. A. Bauer: On measures of the Earth's magnetic and electric activity and correlation 
with solar activity. 

S. J. Mauchly : Recent results derived from the diurnal- variation observations of the atmos- 
pheric-electric potential gradient aboard the Carnegie. 

The officers of the section, as in the case of last year, are: Louis A. 
Bauer, chairman (also vice-chairman of the American Geophysical 
Union) ; W. F. G. Swann, vice-chairman, and J. A. Fleming, secretary. 

Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity of the International 
Geodetic and Geophysical Union. — The Director has continued through- 
out the year his duties as secretary of the International Section and as 
director of the central bureau. Arrangements for the triennial meet- 
ing of the Section and of the Union at Rome in April 1922 are under 
way. 

National Research Council. — Various duties have been performed by 
Messrs. Barnett, Bauer, Fleming, Mauchly, and Peters, in connection 
with committees of the Council. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 317 

DETAILS OF OBSERVATIONAL WORK. 
OCEAN-SURVEY WORK.i 

The Carnegie continued the ocean-survey work throughout the 
year. On November 1, 1920, she was at Lyttelton, New Zealand. 
The series of comparisons between the standard instruments of the 
Christchurch Observatory and those of the Carnegie were satisfactorily 
completed early in November; Mr. H. F. Skey, director of the Observa- 
tory, extended every courtesy and facility for this work and took an 
active part in the observations. The Carnegie was towed out to sea 
November 19 and proceeded under her own power until after clearing 
Banks Peninsula, when all sails were set. For 3 days the wind blew 
from the north, then shifted to the west and remained westerly for 4 
days. The 180th meridian of longitude was crossed on November 22, 
and the date November 22 was repeated. 

No heavy storms were met, but moderate gales blew on November 
22, November 27, December 1, and December 5. From December 1 to 
December 10 the wind blew steadily from the northwest, driving the 
vessel about 600 miles east of her course. On December 14, on enter- 
ing the southeast trade-wind, course was set for Papeete, which was 
reached November 23. 

The total distance sailed from Port Lyttelton to Papeete was 4,262 
miles, which gives a daily average of 122 miles for the 35 days at sea. 
Magnetic observations were obtained at 54 stations for declination 
and at 33 stations for inclination and horizontal intensity. Complete 
determinations of the 5 atmospheric-electric elements (potential 
gradient, conductivity, ionic numbers, penetrating radiation, and radio- 
active content) were made on 9 days; 4 elements were observed on 13 
days; and three 24-hour series of diurnal-variation observations for 
the first three elements named were made. 

Shore observations to obtain secular-variation data were made at 
the Department's station of 1916 at Point Fareute. Some special 
work was also done in connection with the atmospheric-electric instru- 
ments. 

The Carnegie left Papeete Harbor on the afternoon of January 3, 
1921, in the midst of a heavy tropical rain squall. Fortunately, the 
wind held more from the east than from the north during the entire run 
from Papeete, so that Fanning Island was sighted at 10 o'clock on the 
morning of January 14 from a good bearing, after being hove to 60 
miles east of the island during the previous night. The vessel arrived 
off Whaler's Anchorage at 1^ 25°^ p. m., and after tacking back and 
forth for 2% hours, during which time cablegrams were despatched, 
departure was taken for San Francisco. The old Galilee station is no 
longer available on account of the extension of buildings and electric 

^From Commander J. P. Ault's reports. 



318 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

wiring; observations could not be made ashore, owing to the necessity 
of sailing that evening. 

As the vessel was now leaking more than usual, it was considered 
advisable to proceed to San Francisco to dock for examination. The 
course was kept somewhat eastward of the one planned, so that it 
passed through the western Hawaiian Islands at Laysan Island instead 
of beyond the Midway Islands. From Fanning Island to Laysan 
there was no calm belt and no evidence of a proper northeast trade- 
wind. The easterly wind blowing at Fanning Island continued until 
after passing Laysan Island, often blowing from south of east. Laysan 
Island was passed at a distance of 1 mile on January 25. The position 
of the landing-place near the group of buildings, from the observations 
made on board the Carnegie, is: latitude, 25° 46 '1 north; longitude, 
171° 42! 7 west of Greenwich. This position depends upon a latitude 
observation on Venus simultaneous with a longitude observation on the 
Sun in the afternoon 2\ hours before passing the island, and upon 
latitude and longitude observations from stars 3 hours later, taken 10 
minutes after the last bearing was obtained on the island, at a distance 
of about 1^ miles. There was no evidence of a northerly or southerly 
current, and only 0.1 knot per hour westerly set between the 2 observed 
positions. The longitude has been corrected for chronometer error 
determined after arrival at San Francisco. The position as given on 
the chart is 25° 42(2 north, 171° 44! 1 west for the lighthouse, which 
should be near the landing-place as above. This shows the island to 
be 3.9 miles north of its charted position and 1.3 miles east. Soundings 
of 8 and 8| fathoms were obtained 1 mile off the southern end of the 
island, where, also, numerous dark patches were noticed which seemed 
to indicate shallower water. 

On January 28, in latitude 32° north, a northwesterly gale began 
which continued for 4 days and prevented making the desired northing. 
From February 1 to February 1 1 southerly winds and gales continued 
without interruption. Rough seas and consequent increase in leaking 
made it necessary to proceed under greatly reduced sail. Fine weather 
prevailed February 17, 18, and 19. A good landfall was made at 1 
p. m., February 19, by bearings on Point Reyes and the Farallon 
Islands, and the anchorage in San Francisco Bay was reached at 10 
o'clock the same evening. 

Declination observations were made daily with the exception of two 
days. Unusually good weather was found near the California coast, 
so that declinations were obtained where previous cruises had failed to 
get them on account of clouds and fog. 

The Carnegie arrived at San Francisco after 47.3 days at sea. The 
average daily run was 128.9 miles for the 6,099 miles traversed. Mag- 
netic observations were obtained at 81 stations for declination and at 
44 stations for inclination and horizontal intensity. Because of in- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 319 

strumental difficulties, the radioactive content was measured on 3 days 
only. The other four atmospheric-electric elements were observed on 
21 days, and diurnal- variation observations were attempted on 6 days, 
on 3 of which weather conditions prevented a complete series. 

At San Francisco the vessel was dry-docked, and such general repairs 
as found necessary on examination were made. Because of the short 
cruise planned before the return to Washington, when the vessel 
probably will have to be opened up for careful examination and 
possibly extensive repairs before going out again, it was decided to 
copper-paint instead of resheathing the hull. The electric generator 
was replaced by a 2-kilowatt generator, in order to make more ade- 
quate provision for the experimental work. 

Advantage was taken of the delay occasioned by the repair work 
to obtain complete standardizations of the ship's magnetic instruments 
at a new station. Fort Scott; the old station on Goat Island was found 
no longer suitable. Complete intercomparisons between substandard 
magnetometer-inductor No. 26, which had been brought especially 
for this work from Washington by Mr. Fleming, and the ship's 
standard land-instruments were also made at Fort Scott. The results 
showed that the corrections for the ship's equipment had remained 
nearly constant. 

Dr. J. C. Merriam, President of the Institution, made a personal 
inspection of the Carnegie on March 24. 

The chief of the Magnetic Survey Division (Mr. Fleming), represent- 
ing the Director, made an inspection of the vessel during February 24 
to March 7, while she was in San Francisco, and took up various urgent 
matters with Captain Ault relating to instruments, equipment, and 
future work. 

Upon the completion of the other shore work capacity determinations 
were made for the conductivity apparatus, the radioactive content 
apparatus, the ionic-content apparatus, and the penetrating-radiation 
apparatus. 

The repair work and other business matters being completed, the 
Carnegie left the dock at 4 p. m. on March 28 and sailed direct for 
Honolulu. During the entire passage observing conditions were good 
and permitted dechnation observations twice every day, except on 
April 1, when cloudy weather prevented them. Winds were moderate 
to fresh and favorable all the way. As the Hawaiian Islands were 
approached, the wind became quite strong and a very heavy current 
from the south was found in Kaiwi Channel, between Molokai and Oahu 
islands. The vessel arrived off Honolulu Harbor early on April 12 
and was alongside the dock at 8^ 40™. 

The distance traversed was 2,222 miles, giving an average of 151 
miles per day for the 14.7 days of the trip. Magnetic observations were 
obtained at 27 stations for declination and at 14 stations for inclination 



320 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

and horizontal intensity. Atmospheric-electric observations of the 
five elements were carried out on 3 days and of all elements except the 
radioactive content on 7 other days; 24-hour series diurnal-variation 
observations were made on 3 days. 

The marked changes and improvements in the methods, instruments, 
and equipment provided for ocean observations since the cruise of the 
Galilee 16 years ago are extremely gratifying. The Galilee made the 
passage from San Diego to Honolulu in 12 days during the year 1905, 
covering much the same region as the Carnegie covered this time. 
Thirteen stations were occupied then, as contrasted to 41 on the 
Carnegie^ s trip. 

During the stay at Honolulu, a complete series was obtained of 
comparisons between the magnetic standards aboard the Carnegie 
and those at the Honolulu Magnetic Observatory of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. Additional capacity determinations 
were made for the ion counter, the radioactive apparatus, and the 
conductivity apparatus. 

After completion of the comparisons at the Honolulu Magnetic 
Observatory, the Carnegie sailed on April 28, and upon rounding the 
island of Oahu ran into the northeast trade-wind, which held until 
parallel of 34° north latitude. Westerly and northerly winds generally 
prevailed as the vessel sailed eastward along this parallel. On May 
13 the northeast trade-wind was picked up again and then a south- 
easterly course was steered until May 21, when it was changed to a 
southwesterly one direct for the Samoan Islands. The Carnegie 
entered the region of the ''doldrums" on May 27 and left it on May 29 
with a light southeast wind which continued with variable force all the 
way to Pago Pago, but grew quite strong two days before the port was 
reached. 

On June 12 a stop of a few hours was made at Penrhyn Island, 
which is a typical coral atoll The brief visit ashore was a welcome 
relaxation and enabled the party to secure some coconuts and Raro- 
tonga oranges. A stop of a few hours was also made at Manihiki 
Island on June 15, and fresh fish, eggs, and coconuts obtained. 

The Manua Islands were sighted early on June 20, and by 6'' 20'" on 
the same evening the vessel was moored to the buoy in Pago Pago 
Harbor. After setting up the rigging and replenishing stores, the 
Carnegie left Pago Pago in the afternoon of June 28 and arrived off 
Apia the following morning. The total distance to Apia was 5,980 
miles, which makes an average of 110.7 miles per day for the 54 days 
of sailing. 

Winds were usually quite favorable throughout the passage, though 
never very strong; no storms were encountered and observing conditions 
were excellent. Declination observations were made on every day 
but one, usually twice a day. The total number of stations was 96; 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 321 

inclination and horizontal-intensity observations were made at 48 
stations. On May 31 the vessel was swning for declination observa- 
tions under fairly good conditions, the maximum rolling being 5° to 
starboard and 8° to port, and the ranges in the results were no larger 
than the indicated error of observation, 5' in the collimator results and 
9' in the deflector. 

After official calls on the American consul and on the governor, 
arrangements were made for the work to be undertaken at the Samoa 
Observatory. The comparison of standards at the Observatory with 
those of the Carnegie was begun on June 30, after consultation with 
Mr. C. J. Westland, at present in charge of the Observatory, and with 
the former director, Dr. Angenheister, who left Apia on July 2 to 
return to his native country. Plans regarding continuance of the work 
in atmospheric electricity and regarding the past work and methods 
were discussed with Dr. Angenheister and Mr. Westland. Upon 
cabled authority from the Office, and since some of the observatory 
apparatus was in poor condition, certain appliances for atmospheric- 
electric work were transferred from the ship to Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds 
for use at the Apia Observatory while he is stationed there (see p. 312). 
A magnetometer, typewriter, and other equipment were also left at 
the Observatory for Dr. Edmonds's use, as may be found necessary. 

For facilitating the comparisons at the Apia Observatory, two new 
outside stations were established, as the outside pier heretofore used 
for intercomparison work was found to be constructed of magnetic 
material. All ship instruments were also standardized. With the 
cordial and effective cooperation of Mr. Westland and of Dr. Edmonds, 
the large amount of observational work was satisfactorily completed 
and the Carnegie sailed for the Canal Zone on July 25. 

It was necessary to depart from the track originally planned in 
order to land Dr. Pemberton for medical treatment at Avarua, Raro- 
tonga Island, and allow him to return home. The vessel left Raro- 
tonga on August 15 and arrived at Balboa October 7. The Carnegie 
tracks of earlier cruises were crossed 12 times and the Galilee track of 
1908 was crossed once. These intersections will yield important 
secular-variation data. A reversal of the usual currents was noted in 
the Gulf of Panama, the set being toward the south instead of to the 
north. Excellent results were obtained during the frequent observa- 
tions of diurnal variation in atmospheric electricity. The average 
daily run was 123 miles for the 72 days between Apia and Balboa. 

Secular-variation observations were made at Colon, and after 
drydocking at Balboa the Carnegie proceeded through the Canal and 
set sail on October 20 for Washington on the last passage of Cruise VI. 

A favorable southeast wind enabled her to make excellent headway 
towards Windward Passage, through which she ran on October 25 
and 26 in a calm. Gales, or strong winds, then prevailed to Novem- 



322 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

ber 6, when Cape Henry was sighted early in the morning. At 
11a. m., November 6, the Carnegie put in at Old Point Comfort and 
about an hour later proceeded up Chesapeake Bay to ''swing ship" 
the following day at the same place as in 1909. ''Swing observations" 
were made for the magnetic elements on November 7, and the re- 
duction factor for potential gradient was determined off Solomons 
Island the next day. The results of the "swing magnetic observa- 
tions" verified the absence of any appreciable "deviation-corrections" 
at the observing places aboard the Carnegie. On November 9 the 
Carnegie left for Washington, came up the Potomac with engine run- 
ning, and docked at Smith's wharf at 5^ 30'" p. m., November 10. 
The total distance at sea was 1,975 miles, which was made in 17 days 
at an average daily speed of 115 miles. 

The Director joined the vessel at Balboa on October 12 for in- 
spection of the work, and accompanied her on the return cruise to 
Washington. Mr. R. R. Mills returned to the United States from the 
Canal Zone to resume his university studies. Dr. F. A. Franke was 
assigned to the ship's personnel at Balboa to take the place made 
vacant because of the illness of Dr. Pemberton. 

The engine has been run very satisfactorily on many occasions 
throughout Cruise VI. 

The total number of declination stations obtained during the cruise 
from Port Lyttelton to Washington was 407, and the total number of 
horizontal-intensity and inclination stations was 222 for each ele- 
ment. The total distance covered was 29,384 nautical miles in 240 days 
at sea, making an average daily travel of 122 nautical miles. The ave- 
rage distribution of stations along the track of the cruise is very satisfac- 
tory, namely, one declination station for every 72 nautical miles and one 
horizontal-intensity and inclination station for every 133 nautical 
miles. In addition to the magnetic work, atmospheric-electric obser- 
vations have been carried out regularly for 4 or 5 atmospheric-electric 
elements on each of 148 days, while diurnal-variation observations in 
atmospheric electricity were made on 27 days. In addition, pitch- 
and-roll records of ship's motion have been obtained frequently, 
and daily meteorological observations and various observations for 
determining geographic position have been made. Considerable time 
has been devoted to obtaining further data regarding performance of 
galvanometer and of earth-inductor on board ship, as shown by the 
inductor observations, using the string galvanometer and the marine 
d'Arsonval galvanometer on alternate days; the work with the string 
galvanometer is not yet altogether satisfactory. Rock specimens were 
collected at ports of call for Dr. H. S. Washington's investigations at 
the Geophysical Laboratory. 

The ship's personnel has been as follows: J. P. Ault, chief of the 
Section of Ocean Work, in command; H. F. Johnston, magnetician, 
second in command; Russell Pemberton, surgeon; A. Thomson, H. R. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 323 

Grummann, and R. R. Mills (until October 12), observers; F. A. Franks, 
surgeon (from October 12); A. Erickson, first watch-officer; C. E. 
Leyer, engineer; L. Larsen, second watch-officer; N. C. Jorgensen, 
third watch-officer; 2 cooks; 1 mechanic; 8 seamen; 2 cabin-boys; in 
all, 23 men. In addition, the Director was aboard from Balboa to 
Washington, October 12 to November 10. 

The continued success of the ocean-survey work has been made 
possible in no small measure by the privileges and many courtesies 
extended the Carnegie and her staff by governmental and harbor 
authorities, as well as by men of science, at every port of call. 

Concerning the preliminary results of ocean magnetic observations 
on the Carnegie for Cruise VI from Lyttelton, New Zealand, to 
Washington, November 1920 to November 1921, see abstracts and 
tables on pages 342-345. 

LAND-SURVEY WORK. 

The demands upon personnel and funds, as referred to on page 310, 
have restricted the amount of land-survey work. An excellent series 
of observations at new and secular-variation stations has been obtained 
in Africa, and a fairly detailed magnetic-survey of Madagascar has 
been completed. Valuable magnetic data have also resulted from 
the land observations at ports of call of the Carnegie and on some of the 
islands of the Pacific Ocean by a special land party. In addition, some 
magnetic results have been obtained by cooperation with two polar 
expeditions. 

AFRICA. 

Mr. Frederick Brown, who began work in Africa in April 1919, had 
completed his work in Cameroun by the end of that year and was 
engaged throughout the greater part of 1920 in making a trans- 
continental trip across Angola, Rhodesia, and Mozambique. On 
August 4, 1920, he arrived at Feira on the eastern boundary of 
Northern Rhodesia and crossed over into Portuguese East Africa. 
Chinde was reached September 21, 1920. Mr. Brown proceeded 
thence down the coast about 150 miles to Beira, where plans were made 
for the work in Madagascar. 

From March 14, 1920, the date of arrival at Lobito on the west coast 
of Angola, to October 1, the date of departure from Beira on the east 
coast of Portuguese East Africa, 54 stations had been occupied at an 
average rate of less than 4 days for each station, while a distance of 
nearly 3,200 miles had been traversed, making the average distance 
between the stations approximately 60 miles. About 1,800 miles had 
been covered on foot with carriers and about 400 miles by canoe. The 
average field-expense for each station was a little less than $20. 
Eleven of the 54 stations had been occupied previously by other 
observers of the Department; 4 of these were near the west coast, 5 
were in central Africa, and 2 were near the east coast. 



324 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

After the conclusion of the work in Africa in October 1920, Mr. 
Brown proceeded to Madagascar, going from Beira by way of Porto 
Ameha to Majunga on the northwest coast of the island, making use of 
the opportunity en route to secure observations at the 1909 station at 
Mozambique. He went directly from Majunga to the capital, Tanan- 
arive, where he was cordially received by the Governor-General and 
accorded every facility for carrying out the proposed program of work 
in the island. Instructions were telegraphed to the various adminis- 
trators of the several districts to be traversed to cooperate as occasion 
required, with the result that there was scarcely any delay in prose- 
cuting the work which occupied the following 8 months. An inter- 
comparison of instruments was made at the Tananarive Observatory 
with the effective cooperation of Father Colin, S. J., the director. 
Because of excessive magnetic disturbances in the region about Tanan- 
arive, a large number of auxiliary stations was occupied, particularly 
along the route from Majunga to Tananarive. Elsewhere in the island 
there was less necessity for such multiplicity of stations. 

Leaving Tananarive on November 25, Mr. Brown traveled south- 
westward with carriers along the high ridge in the east-central portion 
of the island as far as Betroka, whence he turned westward and 
followed the Onilahy River downward to the coast at Tulear. Leaving 
that point on January 9, 1921, for Fort Dauphin, he took a route along 
the coast, intending to follow the shore as far as Cap Sainte Marie. 
The region was poorly supplied with water and there was suffering 
among his men before he reached Androka; marching along the sea- 
sand was intolerable during the middle of the day. From Androka to 
Fort Dauphin conditions were not favorable, as there had been a three- 
year drought and famine conditions prevailed, making the question of 
food-supply for the men a serious one. Many carriers gave up from 
exhaustion; nevertheless, Mr. Brown reached Cap Sainte Marie on 
January 25, a point seldom visited by white men on account of the 
scarcity of water. The return northward could not be made by sea, 
as had been hoped, without an extended delay waiting for steamer 
service, the season of prevailing northeasterly winds and bad weather 
preventing the use of small sailing-craft or canoes. An overland 
route paralleling the eastern coast was therefore taken; Mr. Brown 
arrived once more in Tananarive on March 22. Setting out again on 
April 9 and proceeding northward with carriers, he followed the high 
plateau as far as Mandritsara, whence he turned eastward to the 
coast, following it to the northern extremity of the island at Diego 
Suarez. Here he joined a coastal steamer that was making the trip 
along the west coast. Stops of sufficient length to allow time for obser- 
vations were made at Hellville and Ananalava. He remained with the 
steamer as far south as Ambohibe, about 200 km. north of Tulear, and 
traveled thence northward overland a distance of about 500 km. to 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 325 

Maintirano, where he arranged to cover the remaining distance back 
to Majunga by sailing cutter, arriving there on June 28. 

Ninety-four stations were occupied in Madagascar; 11 were more or 
less precise reoccupations of previous stations by the French Hydro- 
graphic Service or by Father Colin, and 11 were auxiliary stations 
established for testing for the existence of local disturbance or to secure 
a more favorable location after occupying a previous station in the 
same general region. The station at Majunga was occupied at the 
beginning of the work and again at the close. Of the 6,000 kilometers' 
travel necessary to reach these stations, all but about 1,600 were made 
on foot with carriers. A line of stations was secured along almost the 
entire length of the eastern coast, another roughly parallel along the 
high plateau east of the central axis of the island, and a line of stations 
more widely spaced along the western coast, thus completing a very 
satisfactory distribution of stations. 

Mr. Brown returned to Africa after the completion of the Mada- 
gascar program to make observations at selected repeat stations, par- 
ticularly those of 1909 by Professors Beattie and Morrison. He 
arrived at Zanzibar July 8, and at Dar-es-Salaam, July 11. After a 
railway journey inland to Ujiji, Lake Tanganyika, he next went to 
Mombasa, Kenya Colony,'>nd inland by railway to Kisumu (Port 
Florence) on Lake Victoria. During these two trips he reoccupied 
11 stations of 1920 besides other selected stations along the railway 
lines. Leaving Mombasa on August 24, he arrived at Aden, Arabia, 
on August 29, and sailed for Jibuti, French Somaliland, which was 
reached on September 3. From this point he traveled inland to 
Addis Abeba, Abyssinia, where he reoccupied Mr. WaUis's station of 
1914, and Mr. Sawyer's station of 1918, and on his return two inter- 
mediate repeat stations along the railway. The data for secular- 
varition thus secured along the east coast of Africa are especially 
valuable and well distributed. 

In order to close satisfactorily the work and to control the instru- 
mental constants as required after so severe and long a campaign, Mr. 
Brown proceeded by way of Aden, Arabia, and Colombo, Ceylon, to 
the Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, in Western Australia, and 
secured a comparison of standards while still in the southern magnetic 
hemisphere. After having obtained these comparisons, Mr. Brown 
completed his field work, which has extended over a continuous 
period of 2| years and will return to Washington by way of Singa- 
pore and Canton. 

ASIA. 

The work of the "Maud Expedition," under the command of Captain 
Roald Amundsen, with whom the Department is cooperating, was 
continued into 1921, but it was suspended temporarily later in the year 
because of return of the expedition to Seattle for repairs of vessel. 



326 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

During the winter of 1920-1921, observations were made at the winter 
quarters of the Maud at north latitude 66° 53' and west longitude 171° 
39' on Chukchen Peninsula in eastern Siberia. A sledge journey 
was undertaken in February to April around the coast south and west 
as far as Holy Cross Bay, and inclination and intensity observations 
with a Dover dip circle were made at 11 stations; approximate declina- 
tions were also secured when conditions were favorable. An attempt 
on the return to cross the peninsula from the Gulf of Anadyr on the 
south to Kolyuchin Bay on the north was unsuccessful on account of 
the deep snow. In April, observations were made at Pitlekai, where 
Nordenskjold wintered in 1878-1879. The suspension of the work of 
the expedition in order to permit necessary alterations and repairs to 
be made to the vessel allowed an opportunity for Dr. H. U. Sverdrup, 
who with Mr. O. Wisting had made a great part of the magnetic obser- 
vations, to come to Washington. He arrived on October 25 with the 
magnetic instruments, which he will compare with the standards of 
the Department. 

On his journey from the eastern coast of Africa to Watheroo, Western 
Australia, Observer F. Brown visited the Department's secular-varia- 
tion station at Aden, Arabia, making observations there early in Sep- 
tember, and later in the month at the Admiralty station of 1909 
situated across the harbor. Leaving Aden on September 26, he pro- 
ceeded to Colombo, Ceylon, where the station at that point was again 
reoccupied. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Absolute observations, as well as continuous photographic registra- 
tions, have been made throughout the year at the Watheroo Magnetic 
Observatory (see page 328). On October 23 Observer Brown arrived 
at Watheroo after the completion of his work in Africa and compared 
his instruments with the observatory standards. At the end of the 
month he was engaged with Assistant Observer J. Shearer in reoccupy- 
ing a few of the Department's stations in Western Australia. Obser- 
ver D. G. Coleman arrived at Sydney from Fiji Islands on October 14, 
and reoccupied the stations at Red Hill and East Maitland. 

ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN. 

Mr. Coleman, as a member of Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds's party, after 
the completion of the Carnegie's observations at Apia. Samoan Islands, 
in July 1921, began the reoccupation of a series of stations occupied in 
1906 and 1915 among the islands of the South Pacific Ocean, and by 
the middle of October had occupied 9 stations in the Ellice, 3 in the 
Tokelau, 2 in the Tonga, and 2 in the Fiji islands. From Fiji he went 
to Sydney, Australia, to arrange for further work among the Solomon 
Islands. 

The Carnegie made observations at Christchurch, New Zealand, in 
the latter part of October and early November at two of the stations 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 327 

previously occupied, comparing standards of the Department with 
those of the Christchurch Observatory. The station at Point Fareute, 
Tahiti, was reoccupied in December 1920. Valuable series of observa- 
tory intercomparisons were obtained in April 1921 at the Honolulu 
Magnetic Observatory, and in June and July 1921 at the Samoa 
Observatory. Lack of satisfactory anchorage at Fanning Island 
unfortunately made it inadvisable to delay vessel for observations there. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Absolute magnetic observations were made at the Huancayo Obser- 
vatory by Magnetician W. F. WalUs, assisted until September by 
Observer W. H. Wood. The complete program of magnetic-variation 
observations at the Observatory was to be begun in January 1922. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

In cooperation with the MacMillan Arctic Association, the Depart- 
ment provided the MacMillan Baffin Land Expedition with equipment 
for making magnetic, atmospheric-electric, and polar-light observa- 
tions. Mr. G. Dawson Howell jr., a member of the expedition, was 
given at Washington the necessary training for field and observatory 
work. He, with the aid of Mr. Richard H. Goddard, of the Depart- 
ment staff, will set up a complete magnetograph outfit in a temporary 
observatory to be erected near the expedition's winter-quarters; it is 
hoped that the observatory work may be continued for at least 8 to 10 
months. During the winter (1921-22) it is planned to make magnetic 
exploration trips starting out from the winter-quarters, which will 
probably be in the vicinity of Fury and Hecla Strait. The expedition's 
vessel, the Bowdoin, sailed from Wiscasset, Maine, on July 16, and from 
East Booth Bay, Maine, on July 18. Observations were made at 
Sydney, Nova Scotia, and at Battle Harbor, Labrador, from which 
point the expedition proceeded north early in August. Important 
secular-variation data will be obtained at stations en route to the 
winter-quarters. 

During the Carnegie's stay at San Francisco, California, in February 
and March 1921, observations were made at Fort Scott and at the 
repeat station, San Rafael. At Fort Scott also comparisons were made 
of the ship standard instruments with the Department's sub-standard 
magnetometer-inductor No. 26 which Mr. Fleming had brought to San 
Francisco on his inspection trip to the vessel. On Mr. Fleming's 
return to Washington, magnetometer-inductor No. 26 was compared 
with the Department's standards, thus insuring effective control of the 
corrections for the Carnegie instruments and for the valuable series 
of observatory intercomparisons obtained during the vessel's calls 
at Christchurch, Honolulu, and Apia. 



328 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

OBSERVATORY WORK. 
WATHEROO MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. 

Magnetician E. Kidson, having accepted the appointment of super- 
vising meteorologist in the Central Weather Bureau, at Melbourne, 
resigned from the Department on January 31, 1921, and his duties as 
observer-in-charge at Watheroo were taken over by Observer W. C. 
Parkinson, previously chief assistant. On December 7, 1920, Mr. J. 
Shearer reported for duty at the Observatory as assistant observer. 
The following summary of the work during the year is taken from Mr. 
Parkinson's report: 

The magnetographs have been in continuous operation throughout 
the year. Daily meteorological observations, weekly determinations 
of absolute magnetic elements, weekly time observations until the 
installation of the wireless apparatus, and monthly scale-value deter- 
minations for the variometers were made. All prehminary reductions 
of the traces, computations of observations, with necessary check- 
ings, together with the necessary routine work, have been carried 
out and the records and tabulations despatched to Washington month 
by month. A notable magnetic disturbance was recorded on May 13 to 
17, 1921, and was accompanied by an auroral display observed at 
Watheroo on the evening of May 16. 

Meteorological data have been regularly supplied, as in previous 
years, to the Commonwealth Weather Bureau, and information regard- 
ing abnormal magnetic conditions has been furnished from time to 
time to the telegraphs branch of the Commonwealth Postal Depart- 
ment. 

Special determinations of the latitude of the Observatory have been 
made and reduced. The adopted latitude is 30° 19' 05."3 south; the 
longitude, previously adopted, is 115° 52' 38" east of Greenwich. 

During the year, in addition to the various routine, repair, and 
maintenance work on buildings and site, the following improvements 
have been effected: 

(1) The additions to the observers' quarters, begun in October 1920, have 
been completed, the attic space has been floored, and the roof covered with 
asbestos tiles. 

(2) All the buildings have been repainted. 

(3) An underground cistern, of about 2,000 gallons capacity, has been 
constructed at the auxiliary quarters to provide additional storage of rain- 
water for use during the dry summer months. 

(4) A well, 20 feet deep, has been sunk near the observers' quarters and an 
elevated tank and a windmill erected above it. (The water from this well 
was afterwards condemned by the Government Bacteriologist for drinking 
purposes, but the water will be of great service for use in the garden and orchard 
during the summer, while the elevated tank and windmill are now used to 
send a supply of rain-water from the underground cistern running through the 
quarters.) 

(5) A wireless receiving outfit has been put into operation, and time signals 
from Perth Observatory are recorded regularly. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 329 

(6) The roofs of the variation and absolute observatories and the auxiUary 
quarters have been painted with Malthoid Red Coating, which, while pre- 
serving the felt roofing, has greatly improved the quality of the rain-water 
obtained thereform. 

(7) An area of 37 acres around the buildings has been completely cleared of 
native scrub and planted with wheat, oats, and barley. 

(8) A 1,250-watt electric-generator and storage-battery equipment for use 
in connection with proposed atmospheric-electric work was installed in the 
auxiliary quarters, one room of that building having been suitably altered and 
arranged for mounting of the plant. Electric wiring for lighting of buildings 
was completed and electric fixtures installed in observers' quarters and office ; 
all electric leads in the office and variation observatory were twisted to elimi- 
nate any disturbance that might otherwise be caused by them. 

(9) The central atmospheric-electric and earth-current instrument-house 
was begun in accordance with the plans prepared at Washington. 

Dr. G. R. Wait, assistant physicist, left San Francisco on September 
6 for Watheroo, where he arrived about October 15. He took with 
him a large part of the standard atmospheric-electric equipment for 
installation at the Observatory and the carefully standardized mag- 
netometer-inductor No. 27. Meanwhile, Mr. Parkinson proceeded 
with the construction of the special double-wall, concrete atmospheric- 
electric house for installation of the apparatus. As soon as Dr. 
Wait has become thoroughly familiar with the observatory work he 
will relieve Mr. Parkinson, who will return to Washington via Africa, 
Spain, France, Holland, and England, securing en route secular- 
variation observations at a few stations in Africa and comparisons of 
observatory standards at the chief observatories in Europe, using 
magnetometer-inductor No. 27. Respecting Mr. Parkinson's services, 
see page 313. 

The crown grants and deeds for the site, some 200 acres, and vesting 
orders for the two 10-mile earth-current strips, generously donated for 
the use of the Observatory by the government of Western Australia, 
were completed and filed during the year. It is a pleasure to record 
the continued interest shown in the Observatory by the government 
officials and men of science. 

HUANACAYO MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. 

The construction of buildings was continued under the charge of 
Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds, magnetician, until March 31, when he left 
for San Francisco, California, for a brief vacation before assignment 
to the Pacific work. His successor at Huancayo, Mr. W. F. Wallis, 
joined him in Peru on January 24, 1921, and continued in charge from 
April 1 throughout the year. Mr. W. H. Wood, observer, assisted Mr. 
Wallis from May 28 to September 5, 1921. Mr. Wood brought to 
the Observatory the carefully standardized magnetometer-inductor 
No. 28 for use in comparisons at Huancayo and for possible field work 
later. Mr. A. Smith, foreman carpenter, returned to duty at Washing- 
ton February 10. 



330 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Thanks to the energy shown by Mr. WalHs, the progress of the con- 
struction work, which had been well advanced by Dr. Edmonds during 
his assignment to Huancayo of over two years, was very satisfactory, 
despite delayed deliveries of materials and supplies. The party took 
up residence at the Observatory site on May 3, using the absolute 
observatory as quarters pending the completion of the bungalow 
intended for observers' quarters. The trimming out and finishing of 
buildings were done by Peruvian carpenters, Mr. Wallis having obtained 
the services of first-class mechanics from Lima and from Chupaca. 
Efforts were concentrated upon the completion of the variation observa- 
tory, and the magnetograph was installed and in operation by October. 
Absolute magnetic observations were made weekly beginning in June, 
and monthly scale-value determinations for the variometers were 
begun in October. Daily meteorological observations were obtained 
throughout the year. Time observations were made at irregular 
intervals until the beginning of the magnetograph work, since which 
time they were made weekly. 

The first attempt to get water by a well had to be given up after 
digging to a depth of 46 meters. A second well was started in August 
at what seems to be a more favorable location on the site, and it is 
hoped that water may be found within a depth of 45 meters. Mean- 
while, water for living purposes and for construction work during the 
dry season must be carried by burros from the Chupaca River, about a 
mile distant. 

A small electric generator and storage-battery equipment were pur- 
chased for use in connection with atmospheric-electric registrations, to 
be undertaken later, and for lighting buildings and instrument regis- 
ters. This plant is to be installed in a room of the small 4-room 
concrete building, which was built near the quarters for laundry, 
servants' quarters, and storage. Materials were purchased and con- 
struction begun on the central atmospheric-electric and earth-current 
instrument-house, which is similar to that being built at Watheroo. 
A corral was built for the horses, the corners of the site were marked 
by concrete monuments, paths between buildings were completed, and 
fencing and improvement of site were begun. 

As in past years, the Peruvian Government extended every facility 
to Dr. Edmonds and to Mr. Wallis and granted the privilege of free 
entry for all materials and apparatus. Numerous courtesies and 
valuable assistance were also received from the American Am- 
bassador at Lima. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATORY WORK. 

Atmospheric-electric observations at Washington, District of Co- 
lumbia.— See page 333. 

Atmospheric-electric observations at Apia, Samoa. — See statements on 
pages 312 and 333. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 331 

Comparisons of magnetic observatory standards. — An extensive series 
of such comparisons with the Department's standards was obtained 
at various places and will be found mentioned in the respective field 
reports. Furthermore, Dr. Otto Klotz, director of the Dominion 
Observatory of Canada, kindly communicated the results of com- 
parisons made at different times during 1915 to 1920 between the 
Dominion Observatory magnetometer No. 20 of the C. I. W. universal 
type^ and the standards of the Agincourt Magnetic Observatory. 
At Dr. Klotz's request, comparisons were made during May and June 
1921 at Washington between Dominion Observatory magnetometer 
No. 20 and the Department standard magnometer No. 3. Accordingly, 
indirect comparisons between the adopted Agincourt standards and 
those of the Department were also obtained. 

Observatory Work of MacMillan Baffin Land Expedition. — The plans 
were completed for proposed temporary observatory work at the 
winter-quarters of the MacMillan Baffin Land Expedition (see pp. 
327 and 334). A small non-magnetic building for the installation 
of magnetograph and of potential-gradient apparatus was designed 
and the necessary materials and instrumental accessories were pur- 
chased and constructed. The magnetograph to be used is of the 
Eschenhagen type and includes variometers for decUnation, hori- 
zontal intensity, and vertical intensity; the latter variometer was 
courteously loaned by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The 
potential-gradient apparatus was designed and constructed in the 
Department. 

'See "Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism," Vol. II, 7-9, 1915. 



332 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

DETAILS OF INVESTIGATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK. 

DIVISION OF RESEARCH !N TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY. 

This division has continued under the immediate charge of the 
Director and its work consists of investigations bearing upon the 
phenomena and causes of the Earth's magnetic field and of its electric 
field and of their variations (secular, annual, diurnal, and spasmodic). 

Magnetic observations during solar eclipse of May 29, 1919. — Some 
further progress was made with the analysis of the magnetic effects 
observed during the solar eclipse of May 29, 1919. The analysis 
could not be wholly completed, pending the receipt of additional data 
from cooperating observatories. A first summary of results was 
published in full in the September 1920 issue of Terrestrial Magnetism 
and Atmospheric Electricity, and an abstract was given in the annual 
report of last year. It is hoped that a second summary may soon be 
published. 

Volume IV oj Researches of Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. — 
Various assistance was rendered by members of the division in the 
preparation of the manuscripts of this volume. 

Vertical electric currents and the relations between terrestrial magnet- 
ism and electricity. — A brief statement of the bearing of this problem 
upon the theory and composition of the Earth's magnetic and electric 
fields will be found on page 314. Preliminary results of the computa- 
tions were published in Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric 
Electricity for December 1920 (see abstract on pages 347-348). 

Magnetic and allied effects, May 13-16, 1921. — The striking geo- 
physical effects which accompanied the remarkable sun-spot activity 
during the middle of May 1921 were briefly described on pages 307 
and 309. In view of the general interest shown, data are being col- 
lected from various sources and an analysis is to be undertaken. 

Measures of the electric and magnetic activity of the Sun and the Earth, 
and interrelations. — Various results of this comprehensive investigation 
have been presented before the April meeting of the section of Terres- 
trial Magnetism and Electricity of the American Geophysical Union, 
the general meeting of the American Philosophical Society at Phila- 
delphia in April, and before the Philosophical Society of Washington 
in May. The paper as published in the March-June issue of Terrestrial 
Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity comprises the following 
topics: I: General considerations and remarks; II: Measure of the Sun's 
activity; III: Measure of the Earth's magnetic activity; IV: Relations 
between solar activity and the Earth's magnetic and electric activity 
(see abstract on pages 348-351). A second paper is in preparation. 

New measures of solar activity and the "Earth-effect."- — Brief reference 
was made to this investigation on page 309, A paper was presented 
before the Astronomical Society in August (see abstract on pages 
350-351). 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 333 

The following persons have taken chief part in the work described: 
L. A. Bauer, W. J. Peters, J. A. Fleming, H. W. Fisk, S. J. Mauchly, 
C. R. Duvall, C. C. Ennis. Assistance was also received throughout 
the year from Mr. H. D. Harradon and Miss Emma L. Tibbetts, and 
likewise during the summer of 1921 from Dr. James E. Ives, while 
temporarily associated with the Department, and from Mr. G. H. 
Keulegan, assistant physicist, November to December, 1920. 

SECTION OF TERRESTRIAL ELECTRICITY.i 

The principal activities during the year under review have been as 
follows : 

1. Reduction of atmospheric-electric observations. — The reduction of 
ocean atmospheric-electric observations, referred to in the report of 
last year, has been continued, with preliminary reports from time to 
time on various phases of the diurnal variation of atmospheric-electric 
elements as derived from observations made aboard the Carnegie. (See 
abstract, pp. 354-356.) The full publication of data and discussion 
of results will be deferred until after the completion of the Carnegie's 
present cruise. Considerable headway has also been made in the 
reduction of the continuous records of potential gradient and conduc- 
tivity obtained in the atmospheric-electric observatory at Washington. 

2. Ocean atmospheric-electric observations. — The current reports from 
the Carnegie regarding ocean atmospheric-electric work have been 
studied in detail and various modifications and additions to the original 
instructions for the present cruise have been prepared. 

3. Observatory work at Washington. — The observatory maintained 
on the deck of the Laboratory at Washington, primarily for experi- 
mental purposes in connection with the development of equipment for 
the geophysical observatories of the Department, has been continued 
throughout the year, except for short periods when prevented by special 
tests in the course of development work and by the training of ob- 
servers. In addition to the regular work of operating the observatory, 
standardizing observations were carried out which have made it 
possible to proceed with an approximate reduction (mentioned above) 
of the records thus far obtained. 

4. Observatory work at Apia, Samoa. — While Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds 
was stationed at Apia in charge of the secular-variation work in ter- 
restrial magnetism pertaining to the islands of the Pacific Ocean, he 
also made observations of the potential-gradient and allied meteoro- 
logical observations at the Apia Observatory in accordance with 
cooperative arrangements between the Department and the New 
Zealand government (see p. 312). 

5. Design of equipment for atmospheric-electric observatories. — In 
conjunction with the chief of the magnetic-survey division, designs 

^Report of the chief of the section, S. J. Mauchly. 



334 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

were prepared and detailed attention given to the preparation of the 
drawings for apparatus of observatory type for securing continuous 
photographic records of positive conductivity (X+), negative conduc- 
tivity (X_), and potential gradient. The conductivity apparatus is a 
duplex system, consisting of one unit for (X+) and one for X_. Each of 
these units is a modification of the ordinary Gerdien conductivity 
apparatus similar in general to that described by Swann,^ but includ- 
ing various modifications and improvements which have resulted from 
several years' experience with the above-mentioned apparatus in the 
deck observatory at Washington. 

For recording the potential gradient, an ionium collector and quad- 
rant electrometer are employed in the customary manner. All com- 
plex mechanism has been avoided in both of the above designs and 
especial care has been taken to secure accessibility and easy removal of 
all parts requiring occasional inspection and cleaning. Furthermore, 
all parts are of standardized dimensions, in order to facilitate any 
repairs or replacements which may become necessary. 

6. Work in connection with the MacMillan Bajffin Land Expedition. — 
After a study of the conditions likely to be encountered, it seemed 
feasible to attempt to secure continuous potential-gradient records at 
the expedition's winter-quarters during the winter of 1921-22. 
Because of the climatic conditions peculiar to the polar regions, it was 
necessary to provide, in the instrument shop of the Department, 
practically all of the required equipment, either by the modification of 
existing apparatus or by new construction. The special designs 
prepared for this work provide for the continuous photographic 
registration of the potential gradient in a manner similar to that 
described above. Mr. G. Dawson Howell jr., of the Expedition, who 
will have direct charge of the atmospheric-electric work, was given 
training and instruction therein. 

In addition to the potential-gradient observations, provision has 
been made to secure various meteorological data. While these are 
desired primarily for use in connection with the reduction and inter- 
pretation of the potential-gradient observations, they will doubtless 
also be of considerable value to general meteorology; the meteoro- 
logical equipment and forms were supplied by the United States 
Weather Bureau. 

Considerable attention was also given to the program of work and 
preparation of equipment for the auroral observations to be carried 
out by the Expedition. Especial attention was given to the photo- 
graphic equipment and to the problem of securing suitable means of 
communication between the two stations at which it is desired to secure 
simultaneous photographs of the aurora. The field telephone equip- 

iSee Annual Report of the Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Year Book 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington for 1917, p. 279. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 335 

ment carried by the expedition was supplied by the United States 
Signal Corps. 

One of the vital problems in connection with atmospheric-electric 
and telephonic work in polar regions is the securing of suitable batteries 
for operation at low temperatures. Much valuable assistance was 
rendered in this connection by the Bureau of Standards, which sup- 
plied a large amount of the data upon which final selection was based. ^ 

7. Miscellaneous. — The Department has continued to cooperate 
with the Radio Laboratory of the Bureau of Standards in its study of 
the ''swinging" of radio signals on short wave-lengths, especially by 
making it possible for the Bureau to secure copies of all available 
atmospheric-electric records suitable for the work in hand. 

The chief of the section, in accordance with instructions from the 
Director, assumed charge of the instrument shop for portions of 
February, March, and July, during temporary absences of Mr. 
Fleming on official business. 

For publication work see abstract, pages 354-356. 

Valuable assistance has been rendered in the work of the section by 
Dr. G. R. Wait, assistant physicist, and Mr. C. M. Little, assistant 
observer. Dr. Wait was transferred to the Magnetic Survey Division 
on July 18, preparatory to his departure to assume charge of the 
Department's observatory at Watheroo, Western Australia, where he 
will make the initial installation of the observatory atmospheric- 
electric equipment referred to on page 333. During the months of 
February, March, and April, approximately half of Dr. Wait's time 
was devoted to work on the sine galvanometer under Dr. Barnett. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION.^ 

Line integrals of the magnetic force. — Line integrals of the Earth's 
magnetic force along various parallels of latitude on the surface of the 
Earth were computed in connection with the Director's investigations 
concerning vertical currents (see pp. 347 and 348) . Material assistance 
in this work was given by IVIr. G. H. Keulegan, temporarily engaged as 
assistant physicist to December 31, 1920. The line integral of the 
magnetic force along the sub-antarctic track of the Carnegie, December 
6, 1915, to April 1, 1916, was also computed, with the assistance of Mr. 
C. R. Duvall, based entirely upon the Carnegie results. The com- 
putation along the ship's track was somewhat complicated by the 
number of magnetic stations made during a day, which necessitated 
deducing the course and distance between stations selected, one for 
each day (preferably the daily dip and intensity station), and then 
reducing the various declination results of the day to these stations; 

^The investigations made by the Bureau are described in a paper on "The Electromotive 
Force of Cells at Low Temperatures," by G. W. Vinal and F. W. Altrup. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 
V. 12, 1922. 

^From the report of Vv. J. Peters, in charge of the di%'ision. 



336 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

the average parallel was about 52° S. Declinations had been observed 
aboard the Carnegie generally twice a day throughout the passage of 
118 days, and horizontal intensities and inclinations were observed 
once a day. The preliminary computations gave a total resultant 
negative current passing from the air perpendicularly through the 
surface of the zone, from the South Pole to the circuit, of 80 times 10* 
amperes, which corresponds to an average current-density of 0.016 
ampere per square kilometer. 

Average diurnal changes. — Preliminary values of the average annual 
changes in the magnetic elements over the Indian Ocean were deduced 
from the Carnegie results obtained in 1911, 1916, and 1920. The work 
was begun by the commander of the Carnegie, J. P. Ault, while at sea 
on Cruise VI, and has been amplified subsequently in the office. Two 
methods were used, based upon the assumption that differential cor- 
rections to the results for small differences in the geographic coordi- 
nates may be computed with sufficient accuracy from data derived 
from the most recent magnetic charts. These two methods are some- 
what shorter than those described in Volume III (pp. 431-432) of the 
"Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism," but the 
latter methods have the advantage of being entirely independent of 
the approximative data required and obtainable at present only from 
the charts. 

Standardizing instruments. — The resumption of field activity, not 
only by the Department, but also by other organizations interested in 
magnetic work, both American and foreign, placed unusual demands 
upon the Department's facilities for the standardizing of field instru- 
ments. The chief of the division accordingly assisted the Magnetic 
Survey Division in this work by making comparison observations 
simultaneously with Mr. H. W. Fisk between May 25 and July 8, 1921. 

Field reports. — Considerable time was given to editing the reports 
by field parties. These reports by different observers, written in re- 
mote parts of the world under most varied and trying conditions, con- 
tain a large amount of valuable and interesting material, all of which, 
however, is too voluminous to publish. With the help and advice of 
the Magnetic Survey Division, the material was carefully condensed 
and prepared for publication in Volume IV of the ''Researches of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism." 

The table of magnetic results for Volume IV was completed by Miss 
Tibbetts under the supervision of the Magnetic Survey Division. 
Blue prints and manuscript forms for various investigations and reports 
have been made from time to time by Mr. Dixon. Memoranda for the 
determination of the height of the aurora were prepared for the use of 
the MacMillan Baffin Land Expedition. The first audit of the 
monthly disbursements made by the various divisions, expeditions, and 
observatories, involving in many cases problems of fluctuating foreign 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 337 

■exchange, have been carefully made by M. B. Smith, who also pre- 
pared all financial statements. 

The personnel of the division during the year included W. J. Peters, 
chief; C. R. Duvall, expert computer, to January 1, 1921, when he 
was transferred to the Division of Research in Terrestrial Magnet- 
ism and Electricity; M. B. Smith, chief clerk and cashier; Miss 
Emma L. Tibbetts, stenographer and computer; A. J. S. Dixon, mes- 
senger clerk. 

MAGNETIC SURVEY DIVISION.i 

Mr. J. A. Fleming continued as chief of the Division throughout the 
year, with the effective cooperation of Mr. H. W. Fisk as chief of the 
Section of Land Work. Captain J. P. Ault was chief of the Section of 
Ocean Work and was in command aboard the Carnegie throughout the 
year (for report see pp. 317-323) . Mr. Fleming was on an inspection trip 
to the Carnegie during February 20 to March 13 while she was at San 
Francisco, and again during July 13 to 18 to the Bowdoin of the Mac- 
Millan Baffin Land Expedition at Wiscasset, Maine. In his absence, 
Mr. Fisk was acting chief of the Division. 

Reduction of magnetic results. — The comparisons and revisions of 
observations and compilation of resulting data obtained during 1920 
at land stations were completed and included in the manuscript for 
Volume IV of the Department's "Researches." The reductions of the 
field observations made during 1921 were kept current. Good progress 
was also made in the reductions of the observations obtained during 
November 1918 to July 1920 by the ''Maud Expedition," under the 
leadership of Captain Roald Amundsen (see p. 325) ; Mr. Duvall did 
most of this work. 

Instrumental constants and standardizations. — An extension of the 
discussion of constants for standard magnetometer No. 3, to include 
the years 1920 and 1921 (to September), was made; the series of 
observations with this instrument now covers a period of 15 years from 
1907. The results of the discussion indicate that only a small correction 
will be necessary to values of horizontal intensity based on the con- 
stants originally adopted. To reduce the labor of computation for 
distribution cooefficients of magnetometer constants, Mr. Fisk de- 
veloped a simplified form of the well-known formulae already in use. 
Further extension was also made of the investigation undertaken by 
Mr. Fisk on dip-needle errors arising from minute pivot-defects. 
Extensive comparisons with the Department's standard magnet- 
ometer No. 3 and earth-inductor No. 48 were made for instruments 
used or to be used in the field to determine their corrections. All 
comparisons were made by the method of simultaneous observation 
with exchange of station. Some trouble was experienced because of 
increasing disturbance caused by leakage from electric-car circuits 

^From the report of J. A. Fleming, in charge. 



338 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

about five-eighths mile to the west. Strict simultaneity of com- 
parison observations eliminated any harmful effects from this source. 
Observations were made to determine the moments of inertia for the 
long-magnet systems of magnetometers Nos. 3, 16, 20 (2 series), 24, 
26, 27, and 28. While no change was found in the case of No. 3, the 
gradual change with time for magnets of the type used for the other 
instruments reported in last year's report^ was confirmed. The 
results of the comparisons of instruments were very satisfactory; Mr. 
Fisk made all the observations with the standard instruments, while 
Mr. Peters did a large part of the work required for the other instru- 
ments; Messrs. Duvall and Ennis have assisted in the reductions. 

Correlation of magnetic standards. — This investigation was continued, 
utilizing the additional observatory comparisons obtained by field 
parties during the interval 1914 to 1921. The general conclusions 
resulting from the discussion of earlier comparisons (see pp. 211 to 278, 
Vol. II of the Department's ''Researches") are further confirmed. 

Absolute standard in horizontal intensity. — Upon the completion of 
sine galvanometer No. 1, constructed according to the design by Dr. 
Barnett, an investigation as to an absolute standard in horizontal 
intensity was begun by Messrs. Fleming, Fisk, and Ives. Extended 
comparisons were made between the sine galvanometer and Depart- 
ment standard magnetometer No. 3, and a preliminary report was 
prepared on the results. The agreement between the instruments is 
satisfactory and indicates that an absolute accuracy of 0.0002/f , where 
H is the horizontal intensity, can be readily secured with well-designed 
magnetometers. The sine galvanometer functioned well, the limita- 
tions as to precision of results depending upon the accuracy with which 
the electrical current could be measured with the accessory apparatus; 
there appears little reason to doubt that, even with the somewhat 
experimental apparatus for current measurements used in this pre- 
liminary work, a precision of 0.0001//" is readilj^ obtainable. It is 
planned to extend the work later by using different methods for measure- 
ment of current and to make improvements in switch-and-circuit 
arrangements, as well as to provide small, portable-type storage- 
batteries for current. 

Instructions and development of field work. — The resumption of greater 
activity in field work since April and necessary preparation of instruc- 
tions and training of new observers consumed much time. 

Miscellaneous work. — Assistance in making drawings for various 
purposes was given by Mr. Ennis. The greater part of the miscellane- 
ous, clerical, and stenographic work in the Division was efficiently 
done by Mr. J. J. Capello, property and shipping clerk. 

'C/. Annual Report of the Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism for the year 
1920, Year Book of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, p. 302. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 339 

INSTRUMENT WORK. 

The classification of work done in the instrument shop during the 
year was about as follows: equipment, 54 per cent; experimental, 28 
per cent; improvements and repairs of instruments and buildings, 10 
per cent; miscellaneous and stock, 8 per cent. 

The principal new work was the preparation of designs and drawings 
for standardized atmospheric-electric conductivity apparatus (both 
positive and negative) and potential-gradient apparatus, with photo- 
graphic registration, together with panel boards and special appurten- 
ances for observatory use. About 20 detail and assembly tracings 
showing this equipment were made by Mr. Huff and work on 3 duplex 
conductivity and 3 potential-gradient apparatuses was started. The 
conductivity apparatus for use at the Watheroo Magnetic Observa- 
tory was completed and assembled for test in the laboratory; it was 
packed and forwarded to Watheroo in August 1921. 

Other new work included construction of 4 ionization chambers for 
observatory use, completion of sine galvanometer No. 1 (instrumental 
work completed March 25), and preparation of special equipment, 
including potential-gradient apparatus for continuous photographic 
registration, for use in cooperation with the MacMillan Baffin Land 
Expedition. This special equipment included also 3-ply and 5-ply 
wooden piers and pier-tops for temporary observatory building, 
and electric-lamp housings for magnetograph and potential-gradient 
photographic registers. A compass attachment for dip-circle was also 
designed and constructed for use during sledge trips by the expedition; 
the sights are so arranged that azimuths of celestial bodies at altitudes 
not exceeding 20° may be observed. Thus the dip circle, in connection 
with a sextant and artificial horizon for time work, becomes a universal 
instrument for complete determination of the magnetic elements, 
declination, inclination, and total intensity. 

Non-magnetic castings required for instruments were made, as here- 
tofore, in our own foundry under the direction of Mr. C. Huff. About 
1,000 pounds of non-magnetic brass, bronze, bell-metal, and 'lumen" 
were cast during the year. The excellent character of the metals cast 
in our foundry is evidenced by the severe tests made of the metal 
parts used in the construction of the sine galvanometer; thus the 
copper damping-box casting for this instrument was shown by Dr. 
Barnett's delicate tests to be slightly diamagnetic. The brass castings 
for the new standard atmospheric-electric equipment in construction, 
which totaled about 950 pounds and which were not required to be 
non-magnetic, were cast by a local brass-founder. 

The shop personnel consisted of Messrs. C. Huff, G. H. Jung, W. F. 
Steiner, instrument-makers; A. Smith, carpenter and pattern-maker 
(from February 10 after his return from observatory field-duty); and 



340 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

J. G. Lorz, mechanician. Mr. Huff has been engaged chiefly on design 
and construction of the standard observatory atmospheric-electric 
apparatus, under Dr. Mauchly's immediate direction, and in making 
drawings for atmospheric-electric instrument-house at our observa- 
tories; he was also engaged in special foundry work and in preparing 
special equipment for the MacMillan Baffin Land Expedition. Mr. 
Jung has worked chiefly on completion of the sine galvanometer, 
under Dr. Barnett's direction, and upon construction of standard 
atmospheric-electric apparatus. Mr. Steiner has been responsible for 
the greater part of the new and repair work on magnetic instruments 
and the preparation of field equipments. Mr. Smith has worked 
chiefly on special mill-work for the Huancayo Observatory, on cabinet 
and pattern work, and on packing of equipment for shipment. Mr. 
Lorz, in addition to looking after numerous miscellaneous duties, has 
worked chiefly on repair work and construction of atmospheric- 
electric apparatus parts. 

BUILDING AND SITE WORK IN WASHINGTON. 

Numerous details in connection with the purchase, concluded in 
April 1921, of additional ground to the north of the original site were 
looked after. The net addition totalled 75,077 square feet. The site 
now totals 8.76 acres, and is bounded on all sides by existing streets and 
roads or by lines of proposed streets according to the permanent plan 
of highways by the District of Columbia. A topographic survey of the 
extension was made, and various improvements on the site were made. 

Terra-cotta drains were provided to care for rain-water from roof of 
the Standardizing Magnetic Observatory. An extension, 10 feet by 
20 feet, was made at the north end of the stable for housing of tools. 
Three 20-inch, all-copper ventilators were installed on the roof of the 
Experiment Building, and suitable non-magnetic ducts leading to them 
were built. Several non-magnetic piers were built in the Experiment 
Building, as also non-magnetic mounts for galvanometers and acces- 
sory apparatus were provided in the Standardizing Observatory. 

In conclusion, especial mention must be made of the zealous interest 
and initiative shown by every member of the Department's personnel 
who has had any part in the work of the Magnetic Survey Division. 

DIVISION OF EXPERIMENTAL WORK.i 

Throughout the year Dr. Barnett has continued to work chiefly on 
the investigations which were in progress in 1920, those on magnetiza- 
tion and rotation and the sine galvanometer. 

Sine galvanometer No. 1 has been completed and installed in the 
Standardizing Observatory, and all the tests have indicated that it is 
entirely satisfactory. The manuscript on the instrument is now in 

'From the report of the chief of the division, S. J. Barnett. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 341 

course of publication. A paper on the instrument was presented to 
the American Geophysical Union on April 18, 1921 (see abstract, pp. 
346-347). 

Magnetization and rotation. — No further work on rotation by mag- 
netization has yet been practicable and in the work on magnetization 
by rotation only a slight amount of progress has been made in further 
preparation for the experiments on large rods by the method of electro- 
magnetic induction. A great deal of work, however, has been done 
by the magnetometer method; and much progress has been made in 
the elimination of systematic errors. The possible error due to non- 
uniformity of speeds has been removed or reduced by the substitution 
of gear drive for belt drive. The effects of torsion have been studied 
more thoroughly and have been more completely eliminated. Eddy- 
current effects have been further studied by superposing on the residual 
field in which the rotor moves cross-fields and longitudinal fields; and 
they have been further eliminated by reversing the magnetometer 
system and by transferring the rotating apparatus to a new compensat- 
ing frame which produces a much more nearly uniform magnetic field 
than that of the frame used before. Experiments have been made with 
four positions of the magnetometer. Other improvements are in 
progress. An account of this work up to December 1920 was presented 
by S. J. and L. J. H. Barnett at the Chicago meeting of the American 
Physical Society. (See Physical Review, 17, 1921, p. 404.) 

In connection with the magnetic tests on the materials of the sine 
galvanometer, a little attention has been devoted to the general 
problem of measuring small susceptibilities with astatic magnetometers. 

At the joint meeting of the American Physical Society, and the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Section B, in 
December, Dr. Barnett presented, by invitation, an extended paper on 
"The Electron Theory of Magnetism," an abstract of which will be 
found on pages 345-346. The complete paper is published in >Sa- 
ence, n. s. vol. 53, 1921, p. 465. 

In Nature, March 3, 1921, he published a brief paper on "Molecular 
and Cosmical Magnetism," an abstract of which is given on page 345. 

He has continued to serve on the National Research Council com- 
mittees on "Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" and "Theories of 
Magnetism." 

Mr. Kotterman has continued his valuable services in instrumental 
work, laboratory assistance, photographic work, and clerical work. 

From this division, Mr. Huff, after finishing two excellent gear 
boxes for use in the fundamental work in magnetism, was transferred 
to work on the sine galvanometer, and later to work under Dr. 
Mauchly's supervision; Dr. Wait and Dr. Ives have rendered important 
services in connection with the linear measurements upon the coils of 
the sine galvanometer; and Mr. Jung has done the chief instrumental 
work on this instrument. 



342 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



ABSTRACTS OF PUBLICATIONS AND INVESTIGATIONS. 

Preliminary results of ocean magnetic observations on the Carnegie from Colombo, Ceylon, 
to Fremantle, Western Australia, and Lyttelton, New Zealand, July to Octo- 
ber 1920. J. P. Ault. Terr. Mag., vol. 25, 145-162 (December 1920). 

Preliminary results of ocean magnetic observations on the Carnegie from Lyttelton to Tahiti, 
Fanning Island, San Francisco, and Honolulu, November 1920 to April 1921. 
J. P. Ault. Terr. Mag., vol. 26, 15-24 (March-June 1921). 

Preliminary results of ocean magnetic observations on the Carnegie from Honolulu to Pago 
Pago, April to June, 1921. J. P. Ault. Terr. Mag., vol. 26, 91-95 (Septem- 
ber 1921). 

These three papers give the preliminary results of the magnetic observa- 
tions on the Carnegie during the present cruise (No. VI) during July 1920 to 
June 1921. Notes on the various passages are given; in addition to the general 
details of the passages, they include pertinent remarks regarding auxiliary 
observations, determinations of currents, and corrections determined for 
geographical positions of islands in the Pacific which were visited. 

Table 1 will serve to show for the period, October 1920 to October 1921, 
the magnitudes of the chart differences as determined from a comparison of the 
Carnegie observed values of the magnetic elements with values scaled from the 
most recent magnetic charts: For declination, U. S. Hydrographic Office 
No. 2406 for 1920 and British Admiralty Nos. 3776 and 3777 for 1917; for 
inclination, U. S. Hydrographic Office No. 1700 for 1920; and for horizontal 
intensity, U. S. Hydrographic Office No. 1701 for 1920. The new material 
for these charts was supplied almost entirely by the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism. Secular variation corrections were applied to the magnetic 
declinations scaled from the charts. 

In order to explain the significance of the letters E, W, N, S as affecting the 
apphcation of the chart differences, it may be stated that E and N have been 
treated as being plus, W and S as minus, the chart difference being equal to 
the Carnegie value minus the chart value. The horizontal intensity is always 
regarded as positive, and the signs, plus and minus, have their usual signifi- 
cance. 



i 



Table 1. — Range in chart differences, October 1920 to November 1921. 




Cruise VI. 


Date. 


Declination. 


Inclination. 


Horizontal 
intensity.^ 




1920-1921. 


British. 


u. s. 


U. S. 


U. S. 


Premantle-Lyttelton . . . 

Lyttelton-Tahiti 

Tahiti-San Francisco . . . 
San Francisco-Honolulu 

Honolulu-Apia 

Apia-Balboa. . . . 


Oct. 1-Oct. 20 
Nov. 19-Dec. 22 
Jan. 4-Feb. 19 
Mar. 29-Apr. 11 
Apr. 29-Jun. 29 
Jul. 26-Oct. 7 
Oct. 20-Nov. 10 


0?5Wtol?5E 
0.5Wtol.2E 
0.5Wto0.8E 
. 8 W to . 1 E 
l.OWtol.lE 
0.5Wto0.9E 
O.eWto 1.2E 


0?7Wtol?6E 
0.7W^tol.2E 
0.4 Wto0.9E 
. 7 W to . 2 E 
. 8 W to 1 . E 
. 5 W to . 7 E 
0.6Wto0.8E 


0?4 N to 0?8 S 
1 . N to 1 . 1 S 
0.6 N to 1.5 S 
0.1 Ntol.l S 
. 3 N to 1 . 5 S 
1 . 8 N to . 7 S 
l.SNtoO.lN 


4-4 to —5 
-f-Sto —9 
-i-3 to -6 
to —3 
to —6 
4-9 to -1 
4-7 to -2 


Balboa- Washington . . 



'Units of third decimal C. G. S. 

Preliminary average annual changes of the magnetic elements in the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans, 1905 to 1920. J. P. Ault. 

The average annual changes in the values of the magnetic elements given in 
tables 2 and 3 were obtained by using the results of observations made on the 
Carnegie and the Galilee in the vicinity of the intersections of their various 
tracks. The magnitude of the change in declination over the southern part 
of the Indian Ocean is especially worthy of attention. The method employed 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 



343 



in computing the tables is the same as that used in discussing the average 
annual changes for the southern Atlantic. ^ The charts referred to are U. S. 
H. 0. No. 2406 for 1920 and B. A. No. 2598 for 1917. 





Table 2. — Preliminary average annual changes for the Indian Ocean. 




Lat. 


Long. 

east 

of Gr. 


Approximate 
dates showing 
time-intervals. 


Average annual 
changes. 


No. of 

values 
utilized. 


Annual change in declination. 


Chart 
values. 


Chart 
corrections. 


D 


I 


HI 


U.S. 


B. A. 


U. S. 


B. A. 


o 

11. 6N 

11. 2N 

11. 6N 

11.0 N 

9.6 N 

9.4 N 

7.8N 

6.9 N 

5. ON 

5. ON 

2.4 N 

2.3 N 

24.3 S 

24.3 S 
26.7 S 

27.0 S 
33.5 S 
33.9 S 
35.5 S 

36.1 S 

36.2 S 
36.2 S 
39.2 S 

39 . 4 S 


58.9 
58.8 
62.9 
66.0 
71.0 
71.3 
75.6 
79.9 
80.3 
80.6 
85.2 
85.2 
65.7 
66.2 
77.4 
77.2 
77.7 
77.8 
92.7 
97.4 
97.4 
97.4 
29.1 
28.8 


1911.7-1920.5 
1911.7-1920.5 
1911.7-1920.5 
1911.7-1920.5 
1911.7-1920.5 
1911.7-1920.5 
1911.7-1920.5 
1911.5-1920.5 
1911.5-1920.6 
1911.5-1920.6 
1911.5-1920.6 
1911.5-1920.6 
1911.6-1920.4 
1911.6-1920.4 
1911.4-1920.6 
1911.4-1920.6 
1911.4-1920.6 
1911.4-1920.6 
1911.9-1916.1 
1916.1-1920.6 
1911.9-1916.1 
1916.1-1920.6 
1911.3-1920.4 
1911.3-1920.4 


1 W 

3 W 
3 W 
5 W 

5 W 

5 W 

6 W 

14 W 

17 W 

21 W 

13 W 
13 W 

12 E 


' 




3 and 6 
2 and 2 

2 and 2 

3 and 2 

4 and 4 
2 and 2 

2 and 2 
AtColombo 

4 and 4 

3 and 2 
8 and 3 
7 and 2 
2 and 3 
2 and 2 
2 and 7 

2 and 3 

3 and 4 
2 and 2 

2 and 3 

5 and 2 

3 and 3 
3 and 2 

2 and 3 

3 and 4 


/ 
1 E 


1 
2 E 


2 W 


3 W 


1 N 


+ 


4 


2 W 
2 W 
4 W 


1 W 

2 W 
4 W 


1 W 
1 W 
1 W 


2 W 
1 W 
1 W 










6 N 
2 N 
3S 


+ 
+ 
+ 


6 
6 
4 










7 W 

7 W 


7 W 
7 W 


2E 
2E 


2E 

2E 





+ 


4 


7 W 


8 W 


1 E 


2E 


3S 


+ 


5 


6 W 


7 W 


8 W 


7 W 


1 N 


- 


1 


12 W 


12 W 


5 W 


5 W 


3S 


- 


4 


13 W 


14 W 


8 W 


7 W 








14 W 
11 W 


13 W 

low 


1 E 

2 W 



3 W 






1 S 
3 S 
3S 


- 


8 
3 

8 


















9E 


11 E 


3E 


1 E 







^Units of fourth decimal C. G. S. 



*See Annual Report of the Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Year Book 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington for the year 1920, pp. 310-312. 



344 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

Table 3. — Preliminary average annual change.^ for the Pacific Ocean. 



Lat. 


Long. 

east 

of G. 


Approximate 
dates showing 
time-intervals. 


Average annual 
changes. 


No. of 
values 
utilized. 


Annual change 


in declination. 


Chart 
values. 


Chart 
corrections. 1 


D 


I 


HI 


U.S. 


B. A. 


U.S. 


B. A. 




39.6 N 

39.3 N 
39.1 N 

39.1 N 
38.9 N 

38.6 N 

38.5 N 

38.4 N 

38.2 N 
38.1 N 
35.4 N 

34.8 N 

34.7 N 

34.6 N 
33.4 N 

33.4 N 
33.0 N 

32.7 N 

29.3 N 
29.0 N 

29.0 N 

28.9 N 
28.9 N 

28.8 N 
28.7 N 

28.6 N 

28.5 N 
28.5 N 

28.1 N 

27.7 N 

27.3 N 

27.2 N 

26.5 N 

26.4 N 
26.0 N 

25.8 N 

25.6 N 
25.6 N 
25.4 N 

25.3 N 

25.0 N 

24.8 N 

23.9 N 
23.6 N 
23.2 N 
22.2 N 
22.2 N 

22.1 N 
22.0 N 
22.0 N 


o 

231.2 

231.1 

230.7 

231.1 

231.6 

232.0 

194.8 

195.1 

222.6 

223.3 

235.7 

235.5 

236.2 

236.2 

217.2 

217.4 

198.7 

198.8 

223.8 

197.7 

197.9 

198.3 

224.8 

198.2 

197.1 

223.0 

197.3 

223.8 

224.3 

224.2 

224.4 

223.3 

224.8 

224.9 

222.6 

224.0 

217.1 

217.1 

199.3 

199.9 

199.4 

223.3 

192.1 

192.0 

209.7 

202.7 

202.8 

202.6 

202.0 

202.7 


1906.8-1916.7 

1906.8-1916.7 

1916.7-1921.1 

1906.8-1921.1 

1916.7-1921.1 

1906.8-1921.1 

1915.5-1921.1 

1915.5-1921.1 

1907.6-1921.1 

1907.6-1921.1 

1916.8-1921.2 

1905.9-1921.2 

1905.9-1916.8 

1905.9-1916.8 

1907.6-1921.4 

1907.6-1921.4 

1915.5-1921.3 

1915.5-1921.3 

1908.4-1921.2 

1905.9-1915.5 

1905.9-1915.5 

1915.5-1921.3 

1908.4-1921.2 

1915.5-1921.3 

1905.9-1921.3 

1908.4-1921.4 

1905.9-1921.3 

1905.7-1908.4 

1906.2-1908.4 

1905.7-1921.2 

1906.2-1908.4 

1908.4-1921.4 

1906.2-1921.1 

1906.2-1921.2 

1905.7-1921.4 

1906.2-1921.4 

1905.7-1921.3 

1905.7-1921.3 

1915.5-1921.3 

1905.8-1915.5 

1905.8-1921.3 

1906.2-1921.4 

1905.8-1921.1 

1905.8-1921.1 

1905.7-1921.3 

1907.7-1921.3 

1905.8-1921.3 

1907.7-1921.3 

1905.8-1907.7 

1905.8-1921.3 


' 3 E 
2 W 

"2E' 

4 W 

' 2 E ' 
2W 
3E 
5E 

"l JE 

■ 3 E ' 
4E 

"2e' 
2E 

"3 E 
2E 

"3 E 


/ 
1 S 


- 1 


2 and 3 
2 and 2 
2 and 6 

2 and 4 

3 and 4 
2 and 6 
2 and 2 
2 and 5 
2 and 5 
2 and 8 

4 and 5 
2 and 4 

2 and 5 

3 and 3 
3 and 6 

3 and 3 
2 and 2 
2 and 4 
2 and 6 

2 and 2 

4 and 5 

5 and 4 

3 and 4 
2 and 2 
2 and 2 

2 and 5 

4 and 4 

3 and 3 
3 and 2 
3 and 3 
3 and 3 
3 and 4 
3 and 4 
3 and 5 
3 and 4 
3 and 5 
3 and 5 
2 and 2 

2 and 2 

3 and 2 
3 and 2 
3 and 4 
3 and 2 
7 and 4 

2 and 5 

3 and 3 

6 and 3 
3 and 5 
6 and 3 

10 and 5 


' 


' 


/ 


/ 


2E 

2E 


4E 
4E 


1 E 
4 W 


1 W 
6 W 






1 S 
2S 




+ 1 










2E 


4E 





2 W 


3N 


- 4 


1 W 


1 W 


3 W 


3 W 


1 N 


- 2 


IE 
2E 
2E 
2E 


3E 
4E 
4E 
4E 


IE 
4W 
1 E 
3E 


1 W 

6 W 
1 W 
IE 














2S 


- 3 


2E 


3E 


1 W 


2W 


1 S 
3N 


- 4 

- 6 










1 E 
2E 


IE 
4E 


2E 
2E 


2E 







3S 


- 1 


2E 
2E 


IE 
1 E 






IE 
IE 






IS 
IN 
IS 


- 2 

- 1 

- 1 


















2E 
2E 


4E 
IE 


IE 



1 W 
IE 






1 S 


- 1 


2E 


4E 


1 E 


1 W 


1 S 


- 2 

- 2 

- 4 

- 2 










' 4 E 

"31:' 
3E 

"3 E 

2E 
2E 

"4e' 
2E 

' 2 E ' 
' '3 E ' 


1 N 

2N 


















2E 


4E 


2E 





IN 


- 3 


2E 

2E 


4E 

4E 


IE 
1 E 


1 W 
1 W 






2S 


- 2 


2E 
2E 
2E 


1 E 
1 E 
IE 


IE 






2E 
1 E 
1 E 










3N 

6S 


- 3 

- 1 











2E 



3E 


4E 



4E 
1 W 






4S 
5S 


- 2 

- 1 










2E 


2E 








7S 


+ 3 


2E 


2E 


1 E 


1 E 







DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 345 

Table 3. — Preliminary average annual changes for the Pacific Ocean — Continued. 



Lat. 



22.0 N 

22.0 N 
21.8 N 
21. 8N 

21.8 N 
21. 6N 

17.9 N 
17.8 N 

4.0 N 
3.9 N 
16.8 S 
27.8 S 
27.8 S 
27.8 S 
27.8 S 

37.1 S 

37.2 S 
38.4 S 

43.3 S 
44.8 S 
45.1 S 
45.1 S 
47.1 S 

47.7 S 

47.8 S 

47.9 S 


Long, 
east 
of G. 


Approximate 
dates showing 
tinae-intervals. 








No. of 

values 

utilized. 


Annual change in declination. 


changes. 


Chart 
values. 


Chart 
corrections. 


D 


I 


HI 


U.S. 


B. A. 


U.S. 


B. A. 


o 

203.3 
203.4 
202.5 
202.6 
202.7 
202.7 
226.4 
226.4 
201.4 
201.6 
210.6 
222.9 
222.9 
222.9 
223.2 
224.6 
224.0 
221.0 
212.9 
126.2 
172.1 
172.2 
131.2 
167.0 
166.8 
132.4 


1915.4-1921.3 
1915.4-1921.3 
1905.8-1915.4 
1907.7-1915.4 
1907.7-1915.4 
1905.8-1915.4 
1915.4-1921.4 
1915.4-1921.4 
1906.0-1921.0 
1906.0-1921.0 
1912.7-1921.0 
1912.6-1917.0 
1917.0-1921.0 
1912.6-1921.0 
1912.6-1921.0 
1912.8-1920.9 
1912.8-1920.9 
1917.1-1920.9 
1908.1-1920.9 
1916.2-1920.8 
1916.2-1920.8 
1916.2-1920.8 
1916.2-1920.8 
1916.2-1920.8 
1916.2-1920.8 
1916.2-1920.8 


2E 

2 E 
4E 

1 E 

2E 

"3 E 
4E 

2 W 
2E 

4E 
1 W 

' '2 E 
13 W 
"5 E ' 


/ 




8 and 5 

4 and 3 
6 and 4 
3 and 4 
3 and 8 

10 and 8 

6 and 6 

3 and 3 

9 and 6 

7 and 3 

5 and 3 

4 and 3 

3 and 5 

4 and 5 
4 and 2 
2 and 2 

4 and 4 

5 and 2 
2 and 3 

4 and 2 

5 and 4 
2 and 2 
5 and 2 
2 and 2 
4 and 5 
2 and 2 


1 
2E 


2E 








5S 
5S 

4S 


- 2 

- 1 

- 1 


















2E 
2E 
3E 


2E 
2E 

4E 




2E 
2 W 




2E 
3 W 










1 S 


- 5 


2E 


2E 








6S 


- 2 


4E 
3E 
3E 
3E 


4E 

4E 
4E 
4E 


1 W 
IE 
5 W 
1 W 


1 W 


6 W 

2 W 














3 N 

2N 


- 1 

- 1 










3E 
3E 


4E 
4E 


IE 
4 W 



5 W 






2S 
6 N 


-0' 










1 E 


IE 


1 E 


1 E 


1 N 


- 4 


2W 


5 W 


11 W 


8 W 


1 N 


+ 1 


1 E 


4E 


5E 


3N 












^Units of fourth decimal C. G. S. 



Molecular and cosmical magnetism. S. J. Barnett. Nature, vol. 107, pp. 8-9 (Mar. 3, 1921). 

This article, written in reply to one by S. Chapman, shows that the theory 
proposed by him of the magnetic effects produced by rotation is essentially 
identical with that of the author; it extends this theory to some particular 
cases, and discusses the application of the theory to cosmical magnetism. 

The electron theorj- of magnetism. S. J. Barnstt. Science, n. s., vol. 53, pp. 465-475 
(May 20, 1921). 

This is a general account of the electron theory of magnetism, developed by 
W. Weber and numerous followers from the theory of Ampere proposed a 
century ago. Weber's theory of diamagnetism, as originated in 1852 and 
as slightly modified by Langevin in 1905, is given in some detail. Other 
theories of diamagnetism proposed by J. J. Thomson, Voigt, Lorentz, and 

^Abstract of a paper read as a part of the symposium on "Recent Progress in Magnetism," 
held at the joint meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Section 
B. and the American Physical Society, Dec. 1920. 



346 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 

others are then discussed. Langevin's theory of paramagnetism, which, 
while not an electron theory, is of great importance in connection with such 
theories, is given in some detail; and the work of Voigt and J. J. Thomson 
on the diamagnetic and paramagnetic effects of free electron orbits are dis- 
cussed. The work of Voigt and others on the behavior in a magnetic field 
of magnetic elements, or magnetons, consisting of homogeneous charged 
solids or symmetrical electron systems in rotation, is taken up, and some of 
the most important results of Voigt are given in detail. Considerable space 
is given to a general theory recently proposed by Gans to account for both 
diamagnetism and paramagnetism at both ordinary and extreme tempera- 
tures, and in both weak and strong magnetic fields; and mention is made, 
with critical comments, of a general theory proposed by Honda and Okubo, 
and of various attempts to apply the quantum theory to paramagnetism. 
The paper next deals with the recent direct experimental evidence obtained 
by the author and Mrs. Barnett, and later and to a more limited extent by 
Einstein and deHaas, J. Q. Stewart, and E. Beck, on the nature of the mag- 
neton. The theory involved in this work is briefly given, together with its 
application to cosmical magnetism. 

A sine galvanometer for determining in absolute measure the horizontal intensity of the 
Earth's magnetic field.^ S. J. Barnett. 

After a brief historical statement with reference to the measurement of the 
horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field by electrical methods, and a 
general description of sine and tangent galvanometers, with the suggestion 
of an improvement in the latter, a detailed description is given of a new sine 
galvanometer, constructed, except for certain details, in the instrument shop 
of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

The base of the instrument, including the tripod, circles, etc., was taken 
from one of Wild's theodohtes, constructed by Edelmann, and was much 
improved by the substitution of non-magnetic parts for parts too magnetic, 
and by the substitution of electrical illumination of the precision circle for 
daylight illumination by mirrors. 

The magnetometer-box is of pure copper, the damping being chiefly electro- 
magnetic. The magnet-mirror is a fine disk of chrome steel with optically 
flat and parallel surfaces, being in fact one of the gages made by the Bureau 
of Standards. The torsion tube and head are similar to those of the C. I. W. 
magnetometers designed and constructed by the Department. A suspension 
of phosphor-bronze strip with torsional constant 0.001 is generally used. The 
telescope, which is small but powerful, and the scale, ruled to thirds of milli- 
meter, on white pyrahn, are provided with all necessary adjustments. The 
period of the magnet and the damping, which is adjustable, are such that 
readings require only a few seconds. 

The arrangement of coils is approximately that due to Helmholtz. The 
spool was machined from white Carara marble impregnated with paraffin 
at a temperature near its boihng-point. The coils were wound under tension 
in a single layer in spiral grooves cut with a carbon diamond tool. The wire 
is pure copper, especially prepared by the Research Laboratory of the General 
Electric Company. Each coil is wound in two halves and contains 10 turns 
with a diameter of approximately 30 cm. and a pitch of approximately 2 mm. 
The two halves start from the same horizontal plane, 180 degrees apart, so 
that the distance between centers of adjacent wires is approximately 1 mm. 

^Abstract of a paper to be published in full as a special report in Vol. IV, Researches of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 
175, Vol. IV, 1921. A preliminary report was presented before the section of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism and Electricity of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C, April 18, 1921. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 347 

The axial distance between the centers of the two coils, or the distance be- 
tween corresponding turns of the spirals, is approximately 15 cm. The insu- 
lation resistance between adjacent wires is very high. 

The method of measuring the diameters and axial distance of the spiral is 
described and the results given in tables and curves. The magnetic tests, 
of three kinds, proving the materials to be satisfactoiy, are also described. 

The theory of the instrument, the method of using it, and the calculation of 
the error in the constant of the coils due to the construction, as well as of the 
other errors introduced in the measurement of the horizontal intensity, are 
given in sufficient detail. 

It is shown that the errors in reading the circle and the telescope scale when 
sufficiently large angles are used, and the error in the constant of the coil, are 
quite negligible; and that the only other error necessary to consider, viz, that 
introduced in the measurement of the current traversing the coils, can also 
be made entirely negligible. In consequence, the horizontal intensity of the 
Earth's magnetic field can be determined with an error less than 1 part in 
10,000, which is all that can be desired. 

The instrumental work done in the shop of the Department, chiefly by 
Mr. G. H. Jung, instrument-maker, is highly satisfactory. 

The paper gives a brief statement of the results obtained in two series of 
simultaneous determinations of the horizontal intensity with the sine gal- 
vanometer and standard C. I. W. magnetometer No. 3, Messrs, Fleming, 
Fisk, Peters, and the author participating in the first series, and Messrs. Flem- 
ing, Fisk, and Ives in the second and much more extensive series. The per- 
formance of the galvanometer and the agreement between the results obtained 
with the two instruments have been entirely satisfactory. 

On vertical electric currents and the relation between terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric 
electricity. Louis A. Bauer. Terr. Mag., vol. 25, 145-162 (Dec. 1920). 

To what extent the magnetic forces as observed on the surface of the Earth 
can be referred to a potential is a subject of paramount interest. The 
solution of the problem is of great importance, both as regards the constitu- 
tion of the so-called permanent magnetic field of the Earth and the systems 
giving rise to the manifold variations to which the terrestrial magnetic field 
is continually subject. 

Any electric currents circulating above or below the Earth's surface in 
concentric layers, i. e., parallel to the surface, will give rise to magnetic forces 
which may be represented by a potential. Electric currents, on the other 
hand, cutting the Earth's surface, produce, in general, a mixed magnetic 
system; the horizontal components of such currents give rise to a magnetic 
potential, whereas the vertical components cause magnetic forces which can 
not be referred to a potential. As is well known, the test of the existence of a 
potential is the vanishing of the line-integral of the magnetic force taken 
around a closed curve, or circuit, on the Earth's surface. If the hne-integral 
does not vanish and its departure from zero can not be explained by error of 
observation, or local magnetic disturbances in the region of the circuit, then 
the existence of a non-potential is revealed; from the magnitude and sign of 
the integral we may then determine the strength and direction of the electric 
currents passing perpendicularly through the surface of the region inclosed by 
the circuit. 

It was deemed desirable to make first a reconnaissance and repeat the 
author's former computations of line-integrals along latitudinal circuits, 
using this time magnetic charts, which while not representative of all the 
available data of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism are close approxi- 
mations thereto. Line integrals were also computed for various circuits in 



348 CARNEGIE